Skip to main content

Full text of "A short history of engraving & etching for the use of collectors and students, with full bibliography, classified list and index of engravers"

See other formats


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 











S V . ■ ' / ^ ( 




I OWE a word of apology for augmenting the already extensive 
bibliography of engraving, and some explanation of the scope of 
my work may serve to supply it. 

It aims, in the first place, at presenting a descriptive survey of 
the history of engraving on metal throughout the various centuries 
and schools, considerable space being devoted to the more important 
engravers, the names of lesser account being cited just so far as they 
contribute towards a connected view of the whole development, and 
a balanced estimate of relative artistic values. It is especially in 
this relation that I feel the importance of the inclusion of a chapter 
on modern etchers and engravers, who, in books of this kind, have 
seldom been treated in their natural place beside the older masters. 
While recognising the greater dangers of personal bias in expressing 
opinion on the work of living artists, I am strongly opposed to the 
idea that modern art demands a different and separate treatment. 

I have attempted throughout to give references to original 
sources and best authorities, so that, both for lesser and greater 
artists, the student may find a sign-post when space precludes direct 

The General Bibliography, and the Individual Bibliography 
attached to the Index of Engravers, present a much larger collection 
of authorities than has been attempted in any similar publication. 
The technical introduction merely aims at describing the various 
processes in sufficient detail to help the student, who has made no 
practice of the art, to a clear comprehension of cause and effect. 

A somewhat new feature is formed by the Classified List of 
Engravers, which has gradually assumed its present shape during 
the course of my work. Many names of second-rate engravers 
appear in this section, which would have merely overburdened the 
text. It is the common fate of compendious lists to be both 
cryptic and complicated. I cannot think that mine will form an 


exception, and I am convinced that they will need from time to 
time both correction and augmentation ; but I trust that the system, 
which has been a gradual development into the simplest form I 
could devise, may serve as a scientific basis, and find sufficient uses 
to justify the labour entailed. I have considerable hopes that 
amateurs and students in many fields of research beside that of 
engraving may find here the names without which they have no key 
to the illustration of their particular subject or period. Moreover, 
a list of engravers, carefully placed in their natural groups, will often 
lead to the solution of problems of authorship when a dictionary 
would offer no starting-point. I have included various countries in 
the Classified List {e.g. America, Sweden, Norway, and Russia) 
which have hitherto received scant attention in general works on 
the subject. 

In comparison with painting and sculpture, engraving is a 
cosmopolitan art, the immediate inter-relation of different countries 
being facilitated by the portable nature of its creations. This 
consideration is perhaps the strongest argument for the adoption of 
the great epochs and phases of development as the most logical 
order for the descriptive survey, though it occasionally entails shght 
recapitulations. The Classified List of Engravers, being arranged 
to give a continuous survey under the headings of the different 
countries, forms in this respect a natural supplement to the order 
of the historical section. 

The Index, which includes over 2500 names, covering all the 
engravers and etchers cited in the text and classified list, presents, 
in the most condensed form, dates, places of activity, and individual 
bibliography, wherever such are known. This section may seem to 
encroach somewhat on the domain of a dictionary of engravers, but 
the student who knows the multitude of sources from which reliable 
information is to be culled, and the difficulty of computing a balance 
of authority, even after his sources have been consulted, may find 
some practical utility in the collection. Moreover, many names of 
living artists are included which are not to be found in any of the 
dictionaries, the biographical details having been obtained, in many 
instances, at first hand from the etchers themselves. 

The bibliography will show that my indebtedness to the literature 
of the subject almost precludes specification. Two books, however, 
I would mention as most nearly allied in scope to the historical 
portion of my work, i.e. Lippmann's KiipfersHch, and Kristeller's 
Kupferstich wid Hohschnitt in vier Jahrhunderten. My debt to 


the former may be unconsciously even greater than I suppose, as it 
formed my eariiest introduction to a subject on which it is one of 
the soundest guides. On the technical side I would merely cite 
Singer and Strang's Etching, Engraving, and the other Methods of 
Printing Pictures, which, with its excellent bibliography of pro- 
cesses,^ was of great assistance to me in my introductory chapter. 
Books such as these liave naturally been my constant guides, but a 
continued study of the original prints, in which detailed research on 
one or two schools has been seconded by a systematic examination 
of masses of work of every period, forms the real basis both for my 
Classified List of Engravers and for the opinions expressed in the 

In respect of personal help, my greatest debt of gratitude is to 
Mr. Campbell Dodgson. He most kindly read through the text in 
manuscript, and the classified lists in proof, giving me numerous 
suggestions, which his deep and minute knowledge of the subject 
renders an invaluable service. I would also record the invariable 
sympathy and suggestion which have been afforded a new member 
of his own department by Mr. Sidney Colvin. My sincere thanks 
are also due to Mr. Laurence Binyon for having suggested to me 
the inception of a most congenial task, and for frequent counsel 
during the work's progress ; to Mr. Alfred Whitman for constant 
assistance in the field of mezzotint, on which he is an acknow- 
ledged authority ; to Mr. Frank Short for very kindly reading and 
criticising my technical introduction in manuscript; and to my 
brother for reading the proofs of the text. 

I am indebted to many other friends and acquaintances in 
England and abroad, both for personal help in study in other print 
collections, and foir much correspondence in answer to repeated 
queries : among others, to Geheimrath Lehrs of Berlin and Dresden, 
to Prof Singer of Dresden (to both of whom I owe a personal 
debt for ■ something of my initiation in the subject, while studying 
in Germany some six years ago), to Drs. Weixlgartner and Dorn- 
hoffer of Vienna, to Graf. Piickler-Limpurg and Dr. Pallmann of 
Munich, to Dr. Kristeller of Berlin, to Dr. John Kruse of Stock- 
holm (for many details on Scandinavian engravers), to Monsieur 
Frangois Courboin of Paris, to Professor Henri Hymans of Brussels, 
to Mr. A. W. Pollard and Mr. Arundell Esdaile (for repeated assist- 
ance on matters of bibliography), to Mr. F. M. O'Donoghue 

1 To which Professor Singer has for years been making additions, intending at 
some future date to publish a comprehensive bibliography. 


(particularly in relation to portrait), to Mr. Basil Soulsby, to Mr. R. 
Nisbet Bain (for advice on the orthography of Russian names); to 
Mr. Barclay Squire and Mr. Alfred H. Littleton (for matters con- 
nected with the engraving of music), to Mr. Martin Hardie, to Mr. 
T. W. Jackson of Oxford, and to Mr. Charles Sayle of Cambridge. 

The illustrations have been made, for the most part, from 
impressions in the British Museum, one being from Amsterdam 
(Fig. 4), another from South Kensington (Fig. no), and the two 
examples of Legros being taken from Mr. Dodgson's collection. 
Three alone were taken from other reproductions — i.e. Fig. 2 from 
the Chalcographical Society's publication of 1887; Fig. 3 from 
Lehrs, Die dltesten deutschen Spielkarten \ and Fig. 1 3 from 
G. W. Reid, Reproduction of the Salamanca Collection, London, 1869. 
The facsimile plate used for the frontispiece has been kindly lent 
me by the Diirer Society. The plate of engravers' tools was 
designed by Mr. S. W. Littlejohn, who has also given me constant 
and ready help on many technical matters. 

It is my intention, if the reception of the present work is at all 
favourable, and if my leisure during the next five or six years can 
compass an even more laborious task than the present, to attempt a 
companion book on Woodcut, Lithography, and Relief-cuts and 
Plane-prints in general. 

A. M. H. 

June, 1908. 


The corrections and additions are for the most part limited to details 
of date and bibliography. The pages in which they occur are the 
following:— 5, 8, 13, 14, 42, 46, 48, 51, 52, 66, 70, 80, 141, 145, 148, 
165, 169, 172, 177, i8i, 201, 213, 217, 222, 223, 230, 255, 282, 
287, 295, 316, 357, 360, 382, 386, 391, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 
398, 399, 400, 404, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 
416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 430, 431, 
432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 44°, 441, 442, 444, 445, 
449, 450, 451, 452, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 
464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 470, 471, 472, 473. 

These references are the best indication I can give of the character 
of the revision. 

A. M. H. 

September 191 1. 


Introduction. Processes and Materials 


The Earliest Engravers. (The Fifteenth Century) . 19 


The Great Masters of Engraving : their Contemporaries and 

immediate Followers. (About 1495-1550) .... 71 


The Beginnings of Etching and its Progress during the Sixteenth 

Century ........ 105 


The Decline of Original Engraving. The Print-sellers — the great 
reproductive Engravers of the School of Rubens — the first Century of 
Engraving in England. (About 1 540- 1650) . . . .118 


The Great Portrait Engravers (about 1600-1750), with some 
Account of the Place of Portrait in the whole History of Engraving 
and Etching ........ 140 


The Masters of Etching. Van Dyck and Rembrandt — their imme- 
diate Predecessors, and their Following in the Seventeenth Century. 
(About 1590-1700) ....... 156 




The Later Development and Decay of Line-Engraving. (From 

about 1650) ....... 197 


Etching in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries. 
The great Italian Etchers — the Archaisers and Amateurs — the 
Satirists — Goya ....... 225 


The Tone Processes . . . . 257 

1. Mezzotint . . 258 

2. The Crayon Manner and Stipple . . 287 

3. Aquatint . . 300 

4. Colour-Prints . . 305 


Modern Etching . . , . 312 


Classified List of Engravers .... 343 

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and German Switzerland 345 

The Netherlands . . 351 

Italy . . 360 

France and French Switzerland . . 366 

Spain and Portugal . . . . . 376 

The British Isles . . 3;; 

America (the United States and Canada) . . 3S7 

Denmark ... . . . ^Sg 

Sweden and Norway . . , jgg 

Russia and Finland . . jqo 


General Bibliography . 

1. Bibliographies 

2. Processes, Materials, etc. . 

3. Dictionaries and General History 

4. Various Countries . 

5. Various Subjects . 




Collections — 

A. Public .... . . 406 

B. Private (including Sale Catalogues) .... 4°S 
Catalogues of Prints after a few of the more important Painters . 410 
Reproductions . . . . . . 411 


Index of Engravers and Individual Bibliography . . 412 

1. Engravers whose names are known . . 412 

2. Engravers known by their Monograms, Initials, etc. 47 1 

3. Engravers known by their Marks ..... 472 

4. Engravers known by their Dates . . . . -472 

5. Engravers known by the Subject or Locality of their principal 

Works . .... .472 



gravure . 

St. George on Horseback. 

Facsimile plate in photo- 

1. The Tools used in the various Methods of Engraving and Etching 

2. The Master of the Year 1446. Christ crowned with Thorns 

3. The Master of the Playing Cards. Cyclamen Queen . 

4. The Master of the Gardens of Love. St. EUgius, Patron of 

Goldsmiths. [115x185] ..... 

5. The Master of the Mount of Calvary. Knight in Armour, 

[161x78] . 

The Master E.S. Virgin and Child with St. Margaret and St. 

Catherine in a Garden. [217 x 160] 
Martin Schongauer. Goldsmith Prentices fighting 
Martin Schongauer. Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene. 

[158x158] ■ 

The Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet. Woman with the 

Escutcheon. [121 x 82] . 
IsRAHEL van Meckenem. Ornament with grotesque figures. [112 x 


Anon, early Florentine Engraver. The Resurrection. [275 x 

201] ... .... 

Maso Finigderra. The Planet Mercury (part). [198 x I62] 
Maso Finiguerra, or a Niellist of his School. Two Cupids blowing 

Trumpets . . . • 

Peregrino da Cesena (?) Neptune .... 
Anon, early Florentine Engraver. The Tiburtine Sibyl (in the 

Fine Manner). [178 x 108] ..... 
16. Anon, early Florentine Engraver. Design for a Plate or Lid 

(from the Otto series). [151] ..... 
Anon, early Florentine Engraver (School of Finiguerra). The 

Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne (left half). [205 x 276] . 
Do. do. do. (right half). [192 x 276] 

Anon, early Florentine Engraver in the Broad Manner. The 

Triumph of Love. [261 x 173] ..... 


























20. Antonio POLLAIUOLO. Battle of the Nudes. [(415-400) x 595] . 50 

21. Cristoforo Robetta. Ceres. [165 x 135] . . . .52 

22. Anon, early Italian Engraver. Clio (from the E series of the 

so-called " Tarocchi " Cards). [179x100]. . . S3 

23. Andrea Mantegna. The Virgin and Child. [246 x 207] . . 56 

24. Zoan Andrea. Panel of arabesque ornament (part). [274 x 83] , 58 

25. Jacopo de' Barbari. The Three Prisoners. [160x100] . . 63 

26. GIULIO Campagnola. Christ and the Woman of Samaria (part). . 65 

27. DoMENico Campagnola. Young Shepherd and aged Warrior. 

[133x96] ........ 67 

28. Benedeti'O Montagna. The Shepherd. [100x77] . 69 

29. Albrecht Durer. St. Anthony before the Town. [98 x 142] 76 

30. Albrecht Durer. Portrait of Albrecht of Brandenburg . 78 

31. Albrecht DiJRER. St. Jerome in the Wilderness. [209x180] . 79 

32. Albrecht Altdorfer. Pyramus and Thisbe . 82 

33. Hans Sebald Beham. The Prodigal Son . . 84 

34. Heinrich Algegrever. Panel of Ornament . 85 

35. Lucas van Leyden. The Milkmaid. [116x157] . . 88 

36. Lucas VAN Leyden. David playing before Saul. [254x184] 89 

37. Marcantonio Raimondi. Portrait of Philotheo Achillini. [185 x 

135] . . . . • • 93 

38. Marcantonio Raimondi. The Death of Lucretia. [213x131] . 95 

39. Giorgio Ghisi. Fortune. [242 x 132] . 100 

40. Jean Duvet. The Angel showing John the River of the Water of 

Life (part of a plate from the Apocalypse series). [193 x 210] . 102 

41. ^tienne Delaune. Arabesque .... 103 

42. Albrecht Durer. The Cannon. [216 x 207] . . 106 

43. Augustin Hirschvogel. Landscape. [63 x 167] . . 107 

44. Francesco Mazzuoli (Parmigiano). Woman seated on the 

Ground (St. Thais ?). [130x115] . . . . .111 

45. Anon. Etcher after Tintoretto. Portrait of the Doge Pasquale 

Cicogna. [243x211] ...... 112 

46. DIRICK Vellert. Drummer and Boy with a Hoop . . n^ 

47. Hendrik Goltzius. The Standard-bearer. [285x192] . 121 

48. Jan WiERlx. Unidentified portrait . . 12 ^ 

49. Michel Le Blon. Design for goldsmith's ornament . . 125 

50. Lucas Vorsterman. Susannah and the Elders, after Rubens (part) 127 

51. Jonas Suyderhoef. Portrait of Ren^ Descartes, after Frans Hals. 

[315x222] 130 

52. William Rogers. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth. [262x220] 1--7 

53. Claude Mellan. Portrait of Michel de MaroUes (part) . 14- 

54. Jean Morin. Portrait of C.irdinal Bentivoglio, after \'an Dyck. 

[295x235] . ... 145 

55. Robert Nanteuil. Portrait of C^sar D'Estr^es. [322 x 247] . i^y 

56. Pierre Drevet. Portrait of Hyacinthe Rigaud, after Rigaud (part). 

[290x212] ......._ 

57. CORNELIS \'AN Dalen the younger. Portrait of Charles H., after 

P. Nason (unfinished plate). [307 x 200] . . . . 1 1; i 

58. William Faitiiorne. Portrait of William Sanderson, after Gerard 

Soest. [250x168] ....._ j^ 

59. Jacques Callot. Plate from the smaller set of the Miseries of JVar 160 

60. Wenzel Hollar. The Abbey of Groenendael (part). [117x122]. \(,^ 




6i. Claude LoRRAlN. Peasants dancing under the Trees (part) . . 164 

62. Sir Anthony Van Dyck. Portrait of Pieter Brueghel the younger. 

[242x155] 167 

63. Rembrandt. Portrait of himself. Unfinished state, touched by the 

artist. [131x119] ..... . 171 

64. Rembrandt. Portrait of Arnold Tholinx. [198x149] . 178 

65. Rembrandt. The Blind Fiddler. . . . . .179 

66. Rembrandt. Christ between his Parents, returning from the Temple. 

[94 X 144] • . . ... 180 

67. Rembrandt. Woman at the Bath. [157x128] . . 182 

68. Rembrandt. Landscape with a Hay-Barn and Flock of Sheep. 

[83x174] . . . . .183 

69. Jan Lievens. Portrait Study. [164x144] . . .184 

70. Rembrandt. The first "Oriental Head." [150x124] 185 

71. Ferdinand BoL. Philosopher meditating. [230x181] . . 187 

72. Adriaen van OsTADE. Saying Grace. [150x125]. . . 189 

73. Allart van Everdingen. Landscape. [94 x 149] . . .191 

74. Jacob van Ruysdael. Landscape with three large Oaks. [128 x 

146] ......... 192 

75. Reynier Nooms (Zeeman). Porte St. Bernard, Paris. [136 x 249] 193 

76. Paul Potter. Head of a Cow . . . . . 194 

77. Nicolaes Berchem. Title (before letters) to a set of eight prints of 

animals. [105x113] ... . . 195 

78. William Sharp. Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, after Van 

Dyck. Unfinished plate (part) ..... 206 

79. William Sharp. Do. Finished plate (part) . . 207 

80. William Woollett. Judah and Thamar, after Annibale Carracci 

(part). ........ Z08 

81. P. P. Choffard. Spring. Head-piece to Z^j- 5azi-o»y, Amsterdam, 

1769 ......... Z15 

82. Noel Le Mire, after J. M. Moreau. The Quarrel (an illustration 

to J. J. Rousseau's /z^/ze). [183 x 135] . . . 216 

83. William Blake. The Door of Death, from the America. [113 x 

174] • • 221 

84. Daniel Chodowiecki. The Marriage, from the Leben eines Liider- 

lichen ........ 224 

85. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Nymph, with Satyr Child and Goats. 

[141 X 175] ... . .226 

86. Antonio Canale (Canaletto). La Torre di Malghera (part). 

[170x131] .... ... 228 

87. Giovanni Battista Piranesi. Plate from the Careen. [546 x 415] 231 

88. Thomas Rowlandson. Copper-plate Printers at Work. [132x173] 236 

89. John Crome. Study of Trees. [206 x 164] ... 241 

90. Andrew Geddes. Portrait of his Mother. [156x123] . . 243 

91. J. M. W. Turner. Junction of the Severn and the Wye, from the 

ZHer Siudioram {piooi staXe). [180x260] . . . 245 

92. Francois Boucher. Study of a Woman's Head, after Watteau. 

[227 X 169] ...... . 249 

93. Francisco Goya. Plate from the Caprichos. [205 x 136] . . 254 

94. LUDWIG von Siegen. Portrait of Elizabeth of Bohemia (?) [520 x 

420] ......... 260 

95. Prince Rupert. Portrait of himself. [203 x 162] . . . 264 



g6. George White. Portrait of Abel Roper, after H. Hysing . . 269 

97. John Jones. Portrait of Lady Caroline Price, after Reynolds. 

[378x276] 278 

98. John Raphael Smith. Mrs. Carwardine and Child, after Romney. 

[377x277] . . . . 280 

99. David Lucas. Mill near Brighton, after Constable . . . 286 
100. J. C. FRAN90IS. Portrait of Sir Isaac Newton . . . 289 
loi. Francesco Bartolozzi. Venus chiding Cupid, after Reynolds. 

[238 X 201] . ... 292 

102. William Ward. Louisa. [253 x 200] . . . 298 

103. J. B. Le Prince. La Menagere ..... 300 

104. Charles Jacque. The Swine-herd . . . 314 

105. J. F. Millet. Woman sewing. [106x74] . . 315 

106. Alphonse Legros. The Prodigal Son. [177x125] . . 317 

107. Alphonse Legros. Portrait of Auguste Rodin. [252x175] 318 

108. Charles Meryon. Rue des Toiles, Bourges. [215x117] . 320 

109. J. A. McN. Whistler. Turkeys (from the " Twenty-six Etchings "). 

[207 X 130] ... . . 326 

iio. Sir Francis Seymour Haden. Shepperton. [120x140] 328 

The following abbreviations to the various catalogues are most frequently used 
in the text : — 

r> =Bartsch, Le Peintre-graveur. 

P =Passavant, Le Peintre-graveur. 

R-D = Robert-Dumesnil, Le Peintre-graveur Francais. 

A =Andresen, Der deutsche Peintre-graveur. 

D =Dutuit, Manuel de I'Amateur d'Estampes. 

C.S. =Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotinto Portraits. 

For others, reference to the Index and Individual Bibliography will give the 



Engraving may be broadly defined as the art of drawing or writing Engraving : 
on any substance by means of an incised line. By a natural ^ definition. 
transference from the abstract to the concrete, the term may be 
referred to the work so performed, and by a further transference, Engraving in 
illogical, but stereotyped by usage, it is applied to an impression }^^ ^^"^.^ °^ 
taken on paper or some allied material, from the original engraved or print. 

The present historical study is almost exclusively concerned 
with engraving in the last signification, and with the engraved work 
itself only in so far as it serves as a basis for impressions or prints. 
The work of the goldsmith, and in fact all engraving pursued as an 
end in itself, fall outside its scope. 

Engraving may be divided into two main classes : — Two main 

I. Ensraving in intaglio. classes of 

TT Z7 ■ • 1- s engraving: 

11. Engraving in relief. I. intaglio. 

In I. the line or space engraved possesses a positive value, and H- Relief. 
stands for the design itself. In II. the lines or spaces are engraved 
merely as negatives to leave the design in relief A different 
method of taking impressions is needed for each class, which, by Two methods 
illogical transference, may be termed respectively intaglio and re/ie/°^ P"'^^"^^' 
printing. In the latter method, which is called more accurately 
surface printing, the ink is merely transferred from the part left in 
relief (as in printing from type), while in the former the ink is ex- 
tracted by dint of great pressure from the engraved lines themselves. 

Class II. is chiefly concerned with work on wood, which in its Class II. 
early history is more strictly called wood-cutting than wood-engrav- "."i"'!^^^" 
ing. With this our study has nothing to do. Metal cuts are also 
omitted as belonging essentially to the same category as wood- 
cuts. Then the branch of engraving on metal where the lines 
are incised merely to print as white on a black ground, which is 
called in French the maniere criblee} intermixed as it generally is 
with dotted work {geschrotene Arbeit), is also left out of our study, on 

^ For a sound exposition of tlie principles of this process see S. R. Koehler, 
"White Line Engraving for Relief Printing in the 15th and i6th Centuries," Report 
of the National Museum, 1890, pp. 385-94. Washington, 1892. 


Fk;. I. — The Tools used in the various Methods of l-'ngraving and IClehing 
(Key oil p, 18. ) 


the ground that the method of printing these engravings in relief 
brings the art nearer in principle to wood-cut than to line-engraving. ^ 

Our subject then is limited to the type of engraving on metal in The subject 
intaglio, where the lines or spaces engraved serve as the design, !™''^^ '° 
which, except in occasional instances,^ figures as black on white, or engfat'ings 
at least as a darker on a lighter tone. Gravure en taille-douce it is on metal. 
called in French, a term perhaps implying the joy of the craftsiiian 
in engraving the line which is to be the design in itself, rather than 
a mere negative value to be laboriously removed. 

For a true appreciation of prints, which form the chief material 
for our study, it is essential to understand the main principles of the 
various processes by which plates may be engraved. A description 
of these processes, in just sufiScient detail to enable the student of 
the history of engraving to obtain a proper comprehension of cause 
and effect, is the aim of the present chapter. 

The essential element of the graver or burin (i),^ the chief Line- 
instrument of the line-engraver, is a small steel rod some four or five engraving. 
inches long, the shape of whose section is either square or lozenge (or burin). 
(i, a and b), with cutting point and edges gained by sharpening the 
head in an oblique section. The most usual form of handle is as 
in I, but it is not infrequently shaped as in 2. The plates used in The plate. 
engraving are generally of copper, well beaten and of highly polished 
surface. Zinc, iron,* silver,^ steel,^ brass,'' and even pewter^ plates 
have occasionally been used, iron and zinc less frequently for line- 
engraving than for etching, where the artist may choose these 
materials to achieve a rougher result. Steel was largely used in the 
second quarter of the last century for line-engraving, etching, and 
mezzotint. The more recently applied method of steel-facing by Steel-facing. 
electrolysis, which imparts an equal durability to the copper, has 
almost entirely superseded the use of plates of a metal whose 
toughness presents greater difficulties to the engraver. Steel-facing 

^ Blake's etchings in relief form an exception to this principle of exclusion. 

^ E,g. an impression of The Virgin and Child with a Bird, by E. S. , reproduced 
F. lAppmsxm, KuffersHche und Hohschnitie alter Meister, Berlin, x. (1900), r. Cf. 
M. Lehrs, Hepertorium, xii. 273. 

' The numbers in brackets throughout this chapter refer to the plate illustrating 
tools used in engraving (Fig. i). 

■• See Durer, pp. 80, 105-6 ; Hopfer, etc. , p. 109. 

^ See Nielli, p. 42 ; Goltzius (footnote, p. 120). 

^ See Chap. V. p. 150, note 2 ; Chap. VII. pp. 211, 223 ; Chap. IX. p. 284. 

' There are two or three original brass plates in the British Museum ; an unde- 
scrlbed Italian plate of the fifteenth century (a Nativity), and two good early copies 
after J. Matham (B 157 and 158). The use of the word "brass" by Harington in 
the introduction to his edition of Ariosto's Orlando Furioso (1591) is perhaps merely 
a vague use of the term, which would include copper. 

^ Cf. Meldolla, p. iii, and note. The chief application of pewter in engraving 
has been for the printing of music, one of the earliest examples of a practice 
common in the eighteenth century being Handel's Giulio Cesare, published by Cluer, 
London, 1724. Some of the pewter plates used by Cluer's contemporary, Walsh, 
are still in the possession of Messrs. Novello. For the general history of music 
printing and engraving see F. Chrysander, Musical Times, 1877. 


Method of 


The scraper. 


Scorper (or 


Dot and flick 

is now frequently used wlien a large number of impressions are to 
be taken for some commercial purpose, but most artist-engravers 
and etchers prefer to limit their editions to the number that can be 
taken from the copper. Whether the purity of the line is more 
than microscopically impaired by the process is a matter on which 
opinions are divided. 

The engraver grasps the blade of the graver between the thumb 
and first or second finger (in the latter case letting the first finger 
fall along the top of blade, as shown in the illustrations in Bosse's 
treatise 1), holding the round part of the handle against the palm. 
He then presses the point of the graver into the surface of the plate, 
which is laid on a pad to facilitate its turning, being careful to keep 
the two under sides of the graver at equal angles to the plate's 
surface. The resultant incised line will exhibit a curl at either side 
(if regularly engraved) as in 3a, but this will be very slight if the 
graver is perfectly sharpened. This roughness, called burr, is 
removed by the scraper (18: an instrument with triple and fluted 
blade, very finely sharpened), leaving a clean furrow as in t,1> or 3^ 
according to the shape of graver used {la or i^). Another tool 
similar to the ordinary graver, but with a triangular section (though 
sometimes slightly curved on the upper side) called the tint-tool (2, 
2a), is more especially a wood-engraver's instrument, used for cutting 
series of fine lines so as to get the tone or " tint " from which it 
derives its name. Sharpened with a square or round belly {2b and 
2c), after the manner of what is termed a scorper (or scooper), it 
may serve the metal engraver for his broader lines. The ordinary 
lozenge graver is also sometimes sharpened in a similar way (if and 
id). Except in its flattest shape, that of the gouge, which is used 
to scoop out parts of the plate to be erased, these " scorper " forms 
are much less used by the artist-engraver than by the heraldic and 
letter engraver. More particularly a craftsman's instrument again 
is the threading-tool {zd). A shape similar to the tint-tool, with 
broad flat belly, is threaded on its lower surface to facilitate the 
engraving of a series of parallel lines. 

Throughout our description of the various tools it must be 
remembered that while, as far as possible, the conventional forms are 
given, many other variations of shape may occur according to the 
discretion of each engraver. 

To make a line of thickness varying in its own length, the 
engraver either deepens his cutting, or leans the graver on one side ; 
the latter only if the swelling required be slight, as otherwise the 
irregular furrow with a sloping side thus formed would fail to hold 
the ink adequately. If greater variation in breadth is required, 
he must cut further lines alongside his original furrow. In close 
shading dots made by the point of the graver and short lines, called 
flicks, are often used, either by themselves for the lighter portions of 

1 See General Bibliography, II. Processes, 1645. 


the shading, or within the interstices of the cross-hatchings. The 
flicks are frequently made with the curved graver such as is used 
in stipple work (7). 

For the correction of work on the plate the method is as follows : Corrections 
The part of the surface wrongly engraved is removed by means of on the plate. 
the scraper, or, if the lines are shallow, rubbed down with the 
burnisher, an instrument having an oval section and a rounded and Burnisher, 
highly polished edge ( 1 9). By means of the callipers (shaped as in Callipers. 
21a or 27^) the exactly corresponding part of the other side of the 
plate is located, and the indentation caused by the erasure is then 
knocked up from behind with a hammer (26), or if only a very Hammer, 
limited space is to be corrected, with an oxAvaaxy Jlat punch (25a) Flat- and 
and hammer. Occasionally, more particularly in the case of thick cocking- 
steel plates, a punch with a rounded head (called the cocking-punch) P'^^'^hes. 
is used in conjunction with the hammer on the face of the plate, in 
such a manner as to beat down the sides of the engraved lines and 
close the cavity. The surface, being levelled with charcoal and 
polished with the burnisher, can be engraved as before. Light lines 
can also be worn down by rubbing with the oil-rubber (a roll of oil-rubber. 
woollen cloth bound with string, which is generally used merely with 
oil to clean and polish the plates, see 28) in conjunction with the 
finest emery (commonly called flour emery) or other polishing 
powder (e.g. fine crocus, or rotten stone), emery being more suit- 
able for steel, the two latter powders for copper. 

In ETCHING, as the name implies, the line is obtained by corrod- Etching, 
ing or " eating " the plate with some acid or mordant. 

The plate, after being polished with the oil-rubber and sedulously 
cleaned with chalk or whitening, is covered with a thin layer of 
etching-ground, made by the mixture, in varying quantities, of different 
waxes, gums, and resins. A harder ground, used largely by earlier 
etchers (if it is right to infer as much from the prominence given to 
it in Bosse's treatise of 1645), but now quite discarded, contained 
similar ingredients (with the important exception of the virgin wax), 
combined with nut-oil. 

The most common way of laying the ground is as follows : — a Laying the 
ball of solid ground, brought into contact with the heated plate, ground 
melts and oozes through the porous silk in which it is kept wrapped. 
The substance thus melted is spread evenly over the plate by a 
succession of short sharp blows with the dabber (30), a pad of some by the dabber, 
two or three inches in diameter covered with silk or kid. The 
grounded plate is then held over some lighted tapers, whose smoke 
is absorbed by the melted ground, making it black, a practice merely 
to aid the etcher to see the lines he is opening. With the idea of 
avoiding the negative nature of the design, which would thus 
appear as bright copper red on a black ground, some etchers use 
means to cover the ground with white, so that their design will 
resemble red chalk on white paper. 


by the roller, Two Other methods of laying the ground may be mentioned. 

First by means of the roller (29). A mixture, of the consistency of 
a paste, of ordinary ground with oil of spike, is laid on a piece of 
plate glass. Over this the roller is passed, and covered with a 
uniform coating of the paste, which is then evenly rolled over the 
plate. The application of heat soon drives away most of the oil, 
but for complete evaporation several days are necessary, 
by solution in By a third method the ground is dissolved in chloroform. The 

chloroform. solution is poured over the plate, and the superfluous liquid run off. 

The chloroform dries very quickly, leaving the solid ground. 

Transferring The artist-etcher will often work without the aid of any design 

the design, j^^j^j ^^ jj^^g surface of the ground. But if design is needed it can 

easily be transferred by covering the back of the thin paper, which 

contains the drawing, with red or other chalk, and pressing the design 

through on to the blackened ground. There are, of course, various 

other means, a pencil drawing on thin paper laid against the grounded 

plate and passed through the press being an expeditious method. 

Etching- To open up the lines the instrument used is what is called the 

needle. etcMng-needk, which is generally set in a simple holder as in 14. 

The needles, of course, vary in thickness, and are more or less 

The oval point sharply pointed according to need. Sometimes for thicker lines a 

[ot ichoppe). broader needle, sharpened in an oval section (15) is used, though 

much less now than at the time of Callot and Bosse, and variation 

in width in the course of the line could be made by holding the point 

at varying angles, or by cutting more or less into the surface of the 

plate through the ground.^ Even the square and lozenge graver 

shapes (16) are also occasionally used by the etcher. The modern 

artist-etcher keeps, however, almost entirely to the simple form of 

needles, regarding the swelling and diminishing line, achieved by 

the oval point, as more suited to the less fluent art of line engraving. 

Mordants. There are three mordants in general use : dilute Nitric or 

Nitrous'^ acid, dilute Hydrochloric acid mixed with Chlorate of 

Potash, i.e., what is called the Dutch Bath, and a solution of Per- 

chloride of Iron. The last is least used by the artist-engraver, 

partly, no doubt, because of the difificulty of gauging its strength and 

action. It has been recently much employed for making process 


Nitric acid, which is the oldest mordant, works quicklyand strongly, 
and has a tendency (which may be moderated by the admixture of 
sal-ammoniac) to attack each side of the line, forming a rounded 
cavity as in 5rt. The presence of bubbles facilitates the calculation 
of the time to be allowed for biting. The Dutch Bath (which is 
often used in conjunction with the preceding mordant to bite the 
more delicate lines) acts slowly and more directly downwards (biting 
a cavity as in 51^). No bubbles are visible in the action, so that its 

' This, of course, being a mi.wd method, for which see below, p. 9. 
- This unstable acid is only occasionally used for delicate bitings. 


effect can only be judged by careful timing according to known 
strength of acid. 

Perhaps the oldest method of applying the mordant was to The biting. 
build up a little wall of wax round the edge of the plate within 
which the acid could be poured as in a bath. This " damming " 
process must have been long in use among the goldsmiths. 

Another early method described by Bosse (1645) is the arrange- 
ment of a large dish banked on three sides, and set at an angle so 
that the acid which is poured over the plate (previously protected at 
the back and edges by a coating of varnish) would constantly drain 
into a receptacle below. Except in a modified form introducing a 
spray, recently applied to the etching of process plates, this mode 
has quite fallen out of use. The process now generally adopted 
does not seem to have been introduced until the end of the 17 th 
century,! and probably found little favour until the beginning of the 
last century. The plate is protected at the back and edges with a 
coating of Brunswick black (or some other stopping-out varnish), 
and then put into a bath of acid. 

When the lightest lines are sufficiently bitten (the time required 
may vary from a few minutes to a few hours), the plate is taken out. 
If certain lines need to be etched more deeply, the others must now Stopping-out. 
be covered with stopping-out varnish and the plate again immersed, 
a process which can be repeated any number of times according to 
the gradations required. Biting in certain portions of the plate Feathering. 
can also be effected by means of placing some drops of acid with 
feather or brush on the part to be bitten. 

A method of attaining the required gradations without stopping- 
out is as follows. The lines which are to be darkest are first 
opened with the needle, and the plate exposed to the acid. Then, 
after a certain length of biting the plate is removed from the bath, 
and other lines, which are to be lighter, uncovered, and the plate 
returned to the bath. The same process is repeated as many 
times as needed, the lines first opened getting, of course, most 
bitings. In its most expeditious form this method can be carried 
out by etching the whole design beneath the acid, beginning with 
the darkest lines. 

If the ground is removed from the plate before the work is 
complete, for the sake of taking proof impressions, the second 
ground must be transparent, and is best laid with the roller. The 
ground thus laid will leave uncovered all but the very faintest lines, Rebiting. 
and the work can thus be rebitten without further use of the 
etching-needle. For the equality of the work, which often suffers 
in a careless rebiting, it may be necessary to use the needle to 
uncover the lighter lines as well. 

Further lines can also, of course, be added, and in this case the 
ground is driven well into the old lines to prevent their rebiting. 
' Possibly by Sebastien Leclerc. See Bosse, Gravure, ed. 1701. 


of etched and 
engraved lines. 

Glass prints. 



It is found that the nearer the lines are laid together the greater 
the- heat engendered by the acid and the quicker the biting. This 
fact, on which Lalanne ^ laid great emphasis, makes it essential for 
the etcher to lay his darker lines at a comparatively greater distance 
from each other than the lighter ones, or confusion would result. 

The distinction between an etched and an engraved line in a 
print seldom presents difficulty. Apart from the greater freedom 
of character, consequent on the ease with which the needle is 
directed, the etched line nearly always has rectangular extremities, 
while the line cut with the graver tapers to a point. An engraved 
line with blunt extremities is, however, sometimes needed, and is 
achieved by " cutting back.'' 

Before passing on I may just refer to another method of 
obtaining prints, which to the cursory observer look deceivingly 
like etchings. I mean the glass prints produced by some modern 
etchers,^ which in reality are not etchings or engravings at all. 
The process is one of obtaining a print on sensitised paper exposed 
to the light behind a glass plate which has been prepared by the 
artist to play the part of a photographic negative, transparencies being 
left where lines are needed in the print. The essential character 
of the process puts it quite out of the range of our subject.^ 

The aim of soft-ground etching (which is said to have been 
first used, if not invented, by Dietrich Meyer) is the imitation of 
the texture of a pencil or . chalk drawing. Ordinary ground is 
mixed with about an equal proportion of tallow, and laid on the 
plate. Thin paper is stretched evenly over the surface of the 
ground, and the design firmly drawn upon this with a lead-pencil, 
The paper being removed, the ground is found to adhere where 
the lines have been drawn in a manner corresponding to the grain 
of the paper and to the quality of the pencil. The biting is effected 
by the same method as in ordinary etching. 

J. H. Tischbein, the younger, invented another method similar 
in its results to soft-ground. Powdered crystaUine tartaric acid 
was dusted over the grounded plate before the ground, to which it 
was to adhere, was hardened. The lines were drawn with a blunt 
point, which forced the particles through the ground on to the 
plate. The acid being applied these particles would be dissolved, 
and so leave way for the biting of an irregular grain. The process 
has apparently been little used. 

Generally regarded as a part of etching, but essentially more 
allied to line engraving, is the method called dry-point. A taper- 
ing point (often a solid piece of steel sharpened at either end, as in 
17, and of much greater strength than the etching-needle) is drawn 

' See General Bibliography, II. i865. 
More particularly Daubigny, Millet, Rousseau, and Corot, about 1855-60. 


' For a discussion of the process see G. H^diard, Gazette Jes Beaiix-Aits 


firmly across the copper, scratching its Hne, and causing a burr 
(as in 6a or 6b according to the inclination of the point), which is 
much more distinct than that raised by a properly sharpened graver. 
If, as is generally the case, the burr is left untouched, each line 
will print with a half-luminous ridge of tone at one or both sides, 
giving a richness of effect quite foreign to the pure etched line. 
Very few printings suffice to wear away the burr, which seldom 
lasts out more than fifteen to twenty-five good impressions. Some- 
times, though this is seldom done, the burr is scraped away. There 
is still something in the delicate sensitiveness of the dry-pointed 
line which is quite characteristic apart from the tone given by the 

The three, processes of line-engraving, etching, and dry-point Mixed 
are frequently intermingled on one plate. Dry-point is constantly "i«*ods. 
used in combination with etching, to complete a lightly bitten plate, 
or add tone to an etched design. Then both etching and dry-point 
serve as aids to the line-engraver, and the etcher ^ likewise has occa- 
sional recourse to the graver. It is still possible strictly to define - 
an etching from a line-engraving according as the one method 
subserves or dominates the other.^ The earliest line-engravers used 
the one method alone, but in the eighteenth century it was the 
convention of the line-engraver to start his plate by a light etching 
of the general features of the design.^ He then finished with the 
graver, often alternating engraved lines with the lighter ones first 
etched. Dry-point * has also been used by other line-engravers in 
place of the preliminary etching. 

By tone -processes we mean those methods whose aim is the Tone- 
attainment of surfaces of tone comparable to a wash of colour, processes. 
Sometimes the engraver may wish to display the analysed elements 
of his work, but more generally he aims at an accomplishment 
which almost hides his method from the casual observer. 

We will first describe the crayon (or chalk) manner, taking, as it The crayon 
does, a place midway between the line and tone processes. Its "^^.nner. 
aim is the imitation of the surface texture of the strokes of a chalk 
drawing. The plate is covered with the etching ground, and this is 
perforated with various kinds of needles (with one or more points) 
with the roulette, and other tools of the same genus, and with the 
mace-head {mattoir), an instrument with a butt-end provided with 
irregular points (13).^ The roulette genus includes tools of various 
forms with a common feature in a revolving circular head. In its 
simplest form it presents a single serrated edge (10); or the cutting 
surface of the wheel may be broader, and dotted or lined in a 

1 See, e.g. Dorigny, Callot, Bosse, J. and E. van de Velde, etc., Chap. VI. 
pp. 160, 163, 168. 

'^ See Chap. VII. pp. 197, 213, 221-2. 

' See Strange, Sharp, Woollett, etc. , Chap. VII. pp. 204-6 ; Hogarth, p. 234. 

* E.g. Morghen, see Chap. VII. p. 209. 

^ See plates 14 and 15 in " 1758 " ed. of Bosse's Gravure. 


The Pastel 


Work with 
the punch 
[gravure au 

variety of manners (the form, with an irregular grain, being some- 
times called the chalk-roll (ii), because of its common use in this 
process); while in a third type, called the matting-wheel (12), the 
head revolves at right angles to the handle. 

After etching, the work is often strengthened with the graver, 
the dry-point, or with the same tools that were used in the etching 
(roulette, etc.), directly on to the plate. The oval-point is often 
used for the broader lines. The process is sometimes applied in 
combination with soft-ground etching, whose aim is analogous. 

What is termed the pastel manner is essentially the same 
process as crayon, only a succession of plates ^ is used to print 
the various colours in imitation of pastel. 

The stipple method is closely allied to the crayon manner, but 
its imitation of broad surfaces of tone denotes a tone process 
without qualification. The essential element of stippling is the 
rendering of tone by a conglomeration of dots and short strokes 
(or flicks). As in the crayon method, both etching and engraving 
are brought into play, but a new element in stipple is the use of a 
graver curved as in 7. 

The conventional method is to lightly etch the outline and 
chief contours, piercing the ground in small holes with the etching- 
needle (sometimes with two bound together), or with the simple 
roulette (10). Then the main part of the work is achieved by 
dotting or flicking with the point of the curved stipple graver, or 
the dry-point. The simple roulette may also be used directly 
on the plate, without intervention of the etching ground, as may 
also the other instruments of the roulette genus which have been 
already described. Line, is of course, frequently mixed with the 
dotted work. 

With less claim to a separate entity as a branch of engraving 
than the two preceding, but used in conjunction with others, is the 
method of dotting, directly on the plate, by means of the hand- 
punch, or the putich and hammer. It was a traditional method of 
the goldsmith long before the birth of engraving in our sense, and 
a considerable number of impressions exist taken at later periods 
from early goldsmiths' plates engraved in the dotted manner, 
originally intended only for ornament and not for printing.^ The 
dotting-punch with the single point (8a), or with a second point 
merely used as a gauge, is usually set in a handle and worked by 
the hand alone (it is the traditional tool of the map and chart 
engraver). Sometimes the head is flattened, and lined and hatched 
in the manner of a file {maftiiigpinich, 9) ; this form, and other 
shapes with two or more heads, are always used with the hammer. 

' Fov further discussion cf. Cliap. IX. pp. 288, 299, 307. 

^ The opus hili-rmsile and opus fvnctiU used by mediajval goldsmiths are described 
by Theophilus, Div. Arl. Schedula, Bk. III. capp. 72, 73 {ed. Hendrie). Cf. Chap. 
IX. p. 290. 


The ring-punch {8d), with a hollow circular head, is a common 
goldsmith's tool, and was often used by the niellists. The punch- 
method is seldom used alone by the engraver, but is not infre- 
quently found in conjunction with " crayon " or " stipple." 

By mezzotint results are obtained in exactly the reverse direction Mezzotint. 
to that of all the other processes of engraving. The artist, having 
prepared a plate which would print quite dark, proceeds in a 
negative manner to work out his lighter portions. 

The instrument most generally used to prepare the plate is The rocker, 
called the rocker (20). Its main element is a curved serrated edge 
with thread smaller or larger (some 50-100 teeth to the inch), 
according to the quality of texture required. The rocker is held 
with its blade at right angles to the plate, and the curved edge 
rocked regularly over the whole surface at many angles, causing a 
uniformly indented surface with a burr to each indentation. A 
proof taken from this would print black, much of the rich quality 
of the tone coming from the burr. Then with the scraper (23, with 
two cutting edges, a different shape from the ordinary scraper) the 
engraver removes those portions of the burr where the lights are to 
appear, working from dark to light. The more of the surface of 
the grain that is scraped away, the less will the ink be retained 
by what remains, and if the scraping and burnishing be con- 
tinued quite to the bottom of the indentations, a smooth surface 
will be left, which will hold no ink, and print white. During the 
last century mezzotint engravers have lessened the arduous labour 
of preparing the ground by attaching the rocker to a long pole- The pole. 
handle, which can oscillate freely from a moving pivot in any 
direction. Indications are not wanting, however, to show that 
some such contrivance of pole and pivot had been known from the 
very beginning of the art.^ 

An earlier method of preparing the plate seems to have been 
by means of the roulette, and other tools of the same genus, especi- 
ally the large barrel form with rim, lined and hatched, called the 
engine (21). The method of the earliest mezzotinters differed very 
essentially in the fact that it was largely a positive process. They 
roughened the plate where they required their darks, left the parts 
which were to appear white untouched by the roulette or " engine," 
and so scarcely needed to use the scraper at all. 

Engraving,^ etching,^ and dry-point * are sometimes used in Mixed 
combination with mezzotint, and stipple ^ and aquatint ^ are also '"f^zzotint. 
occasionally added to vary the grain. Such combinations with 

^ See Chap. IX. on Prince Rupert, p. 263. 
^ E.g. Prince Rupert. 

^ E.g. Jan Thomas, George White, R. Earlom, J. M. W. Turner, S. W. 

* E.g. Fiirstenberg, John Dixon, etc. 
5 E.g. S. Cousins, W. Walker. 
8 E.g. Charles Turner. 



Laying the 

The dust 

The spirit 



Sulphur tint. 

Acid tint. 

Other processes, and with other aids, like that of machine ruling,^ 
constitute a mixed mezzotint. 

Tone effects, similar to those obtained by mezzotint, but of even 
more regular though less rich texture, are achieved by the aquatint 
process. Its essential principle is etching through a porous ground 
formed of sand or of some powdered resinous substance. 

There are various methods of laying the ground. The earliest 
and perhaps the most usually employed is this. Some powdered 
asphaltum, or resin, is put in a box ; this is blown into a cloud with 
the bellows (or with a fly-wheel worked from without), the plate 
placed on the floor of the box, and the door shut. The dust settles 
evenly over the surface, and is fixed to the plate for the biting by 
the application of heat. Another "dust" method is to shake the 
powder over the plate from a muslin bag. A very different process 
is to dissolve the resin in spirits of wine. If this solution is spread 
over the plate the spirit will evaporate, leaving the dry grain on the 

Another method of obtaining a perforated ground was invented 
and described by Stapart (Paris, 1773), but it has been little used.^ 
He sifted sea salt on to a thin coating of ordinary etching ground, 
which was kept fluid by heat. The grains of salt sink on to the 
surface of the plate, and, when the ground is hardened, these 
may be dissolved by application of water, leaving a porous ground 
ready for the etching. 

If any part of the plate is to be completely white this must be 
protected with the stopping-out varnish. The plate is then put in 
the acid and left to bite just as deeply as is required for the lightest 
portions. It is then removed ; the parts which are now bitten to 
the required depth, are covered with varnish, and the plate is returned 
to the bath. The process is repeated as often as needed, the por- 
tions that are to print darkest naturally having most bitings. 

Similar effects to ordinary aquatint can be obtained by various 
other methods, such as that of passing the grounded plate through 
the press in conjunction with sand-paper.^ This causes a slight burr 
on the plate, but the main effect is attained by biting through the 
etching ground which has been pierced in the process. In work 
with these methods the scraper may have to be brought into play. 

The grain on the plate may also be corroded by means of 
sulphur. The plate is spread with oil, and powdered sulphur is 
dusted on to this. The particles will slowly eat away a very delicate 
grain. Then a delicate grain may be achieved by merely leaving 
the acid on the surface, or on parts of the surface of the plate, where 
required, either by means of feathering or by immersion. Examples 
of this may be noted quite early in our history, e.g. in two plates 

1 Cf. p. 13. 

'^ t have not identified any print by Stapart. 

^ E.g. Legros, La Moit dti Vagabond. 


of Daniel Hopfer (B. 16 and 90), and recent etchers have not 
infrequently applied the same practice. 

Since the end of the eighteenth century machine ruling has been Mechanical 
very largely used in one form or another by commercial engravers, methods. 
Many of the line engravers ^ of the latter part of the eighteenth and 
beginning of the last century used it largely for their skies, and for 
other regular surfaces in the shMing. By complicated ruling 
machines the grains of mezzotint,^ of aquatint, and of the various 
tone processes can be closely imitated. 

A common practice, or fad, which dates from the end of the Glass coloured 
seventeenth century may just be mentioned. I mean that of laying prints. 
specially treated paper impressions (of either mezzotint, stipple, or 
what not) on glass, rubbing away the paper behind, leaving just the 
slightest film with the print, and then colouring at the back by hand. 
Seen in frames and in a bad light, glass coloured prints of this 
description often belie their real nature and pass as paintings.^ 

Edward Orme* had a special method of using varnishes which 
rendered the paper transparent wherever applied, avoiding the 
delicate process of rubbing away the paper. Charles Turner pro- 
duced many prints to be treated in this manner. 

Some recent engravers have used a process by which a print Monotypes. 
taken from a metal plate has something of the appearance of a 
mezzotint or aquatint, though the plate has not in reality been 
engraved at all. The method involves painting the subject in oils 
on the surface of the plate, either directly or by the reverse process 
of first covering completely, and then rubbing out the light by 
finger or brushes, etc. An impression is pulled from this either by 
hand pressure or in the printing press, and as only one impression 
can be taken they have been called monotypes} The process chiefly 
belongs to the last twenty years, but its essential element, that of 
painting transferred in the press, had been occasionally used by 
earlier engravers, e.g. by Castiglione and William Blake. Sir 
Hubert von Herkomer^ has developed the same idea further, 
making a metallic mould or electrotype from a plate similarly 
painted and dusted with powder to add a certain granulation to 
the surface. Impressions can be taken from this electrotype just as 
from an ordinary engraving. It is a method of reproducing what is 
really a painting without the aid of photography, as in photogravure 
and the other mechanical processes. 

As the artist-engraver is quite often his own printer, we will Printing. 

1 See Chap. VII. p. 211. ^ See Unterberger, p. 273. 

^ For an early description of the process see J. Barrow, DicHonariu-m Poly- 
graphicum, 1735 (under " Mezzotint "). Cf. a "transparency" method of "back 
painting" described in J. Smith, Art of Painting in Oyl, 1687. 

'' See his Essay on Transparent Prints, 1807. 

^ For further information see S, R. Koehler, Chronik iv, (i8gi); E. Ertz, 
Studio, Aug. 1902 ; A. H. Fullwood, Studio, July 1904. 

" ?s^^\i\i Etching and Mezzotint Engraving, 1892. 




The copper- 
plate press. 

Printing by 


briefly state the elements of a process which can be finessed into a 
real art, and one on which the successful realisation of the engraver's 
idea depends in a large degree. 

Some printer's ink is first laid on the plate and pressed into the 
lines by means of a dabber, similar in principle to that used for 
laying the etching ground. The superfluous ink is then rubbed 
from the surface of the plate By printing muslin, and the rubbing 
generally finished with the palm of the hand (coated with a thin 
layer of whitening). The plate is either rubbed quite clean, or 
more or less ink may be left on the surface, just where the engraver 
wishes to add a tint. A certain softness of effect is gained by what 
is called retroussage. Some fine muslin is passed lightly over the 
plate, just touching the surface. In this motion the stuff catches 
a portion of the ink, and, drawing it slightly upwards, leaves a certain 
quantity on the edges of the lines, which consequently lose the 
harshness of definition in the printing. By the same means ink 
may be drawn out of the lines, and spread as an even tint over the 
whole plate. 

A sliding board which passes between two rollers is the essential 
feature of the copper-plate press. The paper is placed damp against 
the plate, and pulled through the press underneath layers of special 
blankets. In the case of wood-cuts and all relief-blocks the ink is 
merely taken from the surface, and the ordinary printing press with 
its perpendicular motion is sufficient for the comparatively small 
pressure required. In copper-plate printing, on the other hand, the 
pressure must be strong enough to force the paper into the hollows, 
and so pull out the ink. 

From the presence of hole marks in impressions of not a few early 
prints — more especially Italian — it seems that at the earliest period 
of engraving, before the full development of the copper-plate press, 
the plate may have been sometimes pinned to a block, just as we 
know was done in the case of metal cuts.^ In other cases, when 
early impressions are known without the holes, we may assume that 
these were made at some period to fix the plate to some article of 
furniture or decoration to serve as ornament. 

It must be remembered that it is the common practice of the 
goldsmith to obtain test impressions by hand. These would be 
best taken by rubbing with the burnisher, or with some similarly 
shaped instrument,^ a layer of smooth paper being generally sufficient 
cover to protect the damp paper on the plate. The thin and 
unequal quality of certain of the earliest prints may perhaps be 
sometimes explained by the assumption of printing by hand pressure. 

The plate has to be refilled with ink between each impression. 
Sometimes the last vestiges of ink are pulled out by taking another 

1 Cf. Chap. I. p. 37. 

- The term "hand-roller" sometimes occm-s in books on engraving, bin this 
would scarcely give the pressure required in intaglio printing. 


impression, of course perfectly valueless in itself, which goes by the 
name of maculature. 

Occasionally a proof is taken, not from the plate itself, but from an Counterproof. 
impression on paper while the ink is still damp. Such counterproofs, 
which of necessity look weak and thin, and have no artistic value, 
are taken with the idea of having a print where the work appears in 
the same direction as on the plate itself, either for the sake of mere 
comparison with the latter, or as an aid to the engraver in making 
corrections or additions on the copper. 

For the various methods of printing in colour we would reserve 
our remarks to a special section in Chapter IX. 

It goes without saying that the work on the plate is gradually Number of 
worn down through the printing. The number of good impressions impressions. 
which can be taken is a very uncertain quantity, varying in accord- 
ance with the quality of the engraving. Both dry-point and mezzo- 
tint, depending as they do for their quality on the delicate burr, 
yield few brilliant impressions, often not more than some fifteen to 
twenty-five. We have noticed the fact that steel-facing is frequently 
used to-day to harden the surface. But even with this protection, 
in the case of delicate work like mezzotint, good impressions would 
still be limited to a hundred or so. From a line-plate, however, 
under the same condition, two or three thousand might be taken 
without great apparent deterioration. Without steel-facing, copper- 
plates of line-engravings and pure etchings might be made to yield 
one, two, or even three thousand impressions, but the deterioration 
is constant, and the last prints would be mere ghosts of the original 

The amateur should bear in mind that an impression on which Plate-line, 
the plate-line {i.e. the limit of the impress caused by the printing) 
has been cut away (what is called " clipped ") does not possess the 
value which attaches to a perfect print. One must remember, 
however, before branding a print as a clipped impression, that paper 
of a certain quality never retains the marks of the impress. The 
presence of the plate-line is also a sure test to distinguish an 
engraving from a woodcut or a lithograph, a matter which in 
occasional instances is not without difiSculty. 

The word state is applied to the separate stages through which States. 
a print passes when new work is added on the plate itself. The 
immense differences which can be made by printing with more or 
less ink on the surface never constitute a state, merely a variant 
impression. Besides definite changes in the work on the plate, the 
addition of the engraver's or designer's signature, address of pub- 
lisher, and of the title (either scratched, or in clear engraved 
lettering), are all regarded as elements constituting states. The 
practice of remarque proofs, constituted by the presence of the 
"remarque" (as the subsidiary sketch in the margin is termed), 
largely emanates from the printseller of reproductive engravings and 

1 6. 


Forms of in- 
scription used 
by engraver, 
and printer. 


etchings of the last century, and is as inartistic in idea as it is com- 
mercial in spirit. A late impression need not be even a second state 
if no change has been made on the copper itself, while a compara- 
tively early impression might quite well be a late state (say fifth or 
sixth) if the engraver has taken only one or two proofs from the 
plate in its earlier states, to guide him towards the development of 
his idea. Thus later states may be just as good from an aesthetic 
standpoint as early proofs, which from their very rarity command 
much higher prices. 

The work of the engraver is generally indicated by one of the 
Latin words sculp{sit), caelavit or incidit ; and of the etcher by 
f\ec{ii)\ \aqua forti\ The student must be wary, however, in his 
inferences, as there are examples, more particularly in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, where the line-engraver v&&% fecit and the 
etcher sculpsit. The confusing mixture of processes in the line 
work of artists such as Callot, Bosse, J. van de Velde, etc., may 
account in some instances for the looseness of application. Pinx{tt) 
and delin(eavit) are the usual predicatives of the painter and 
draughtsman respectively, inven{tt) and composuit being also used in 
reference to the author of the design. Figuravit generally refers to 
a drawing having been made as the immediate basis for the print 
(often by the engraver himself), after the original composition of 
another artist. If the publisher's or printseller's name is given, it is 
generally followed by exc(udit)} divulgavit, ot formis, the printer's by 
imp., though this seldom occurs except in manuscript. 

In estimating the age of an impression, some knowledge of the 
various qualities of paper is of service, but it must be combined 
with the qualifying recognition that old hand-made paper (possibly 
as much as two or three centuries old) has always been much 
sought after and used for its quality by many modern engravers and 
etchers. The earliest engravers most commonly used ordinary 
linen-rag paper with a regular grain, not too opaque in quality. 

Towards the beginning of the seventeenth century Indian and 
Japanese papers were beginning to be imported into Europe. The 
former, usually thin in texture, is of a white though dull surface, 
and prints much more cleanly than the latter. The Japanese paper 
is far more absorbent, and needs in consequence to be printed from 
a plate not too fully charged with ink. With its rich yellow tone 
and silky surface, it is an excellent paper where a delicate surface 
tint without sharp definition of line is required. Rembrandt used 
it largely, as have most etchers since his day. The paper used in 
the first half of the nineteenth century is generally the worst of all : 
it frequently displays its bad quality by turning colour in spots. 
This spotty discoloration of the paper — " foxing," as it is called— 

1 For a contemporary explanation of the term in the school of \\Moiix. sec a letter 
of B. Moretus quoted by Max Rooses in his Chrhlophe Plaritiii, 2nd ed., Antwerp 
i8q6, p. 279. Literall)-, botli cxc. and foniiis would imply the printer. 


is as varied in its character as in its causes. It may be of animal 
or of vegetable growth, or even of mineral origin, arising from the 
composition of the paper, the nature of the ink, the dampness and 
impurities of the surrounding atmosphere, and a host of other 
causes. While the commoner forms may be removed by the 
simplest remedies, great care, as well as considerable scientific 
knowledge, is required by the restorer who is effectively to check 
each kind of growth. A thick card-like paper was also first used at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, often a good sign of a more 
modern impression from an eighteenth century mezzotint. Vellum, 
whose manufacture goes back many centuries before that of paper, 
has been occasionally used at all periods. For large prints its rich 
quality is extremely powerful and effective. The manner in which 
it shrinks sometimes renders the identity of a vellum impression a 
puzzling matter. Even the great iconographer Baitsch did not 
avoid the pitfall, giving a separate description in his catalogue of 
Rembrandt to a shrunk vellum impression of a plate described in 
another number.'- 

Paper- marks, indicating a standard quality, or less often a Water-marks. 
particular factory, may be of occasional service in locating the origin 
and limiting the date of early prints, but the manner in which 
paper must have been transferred from one country to another, 
and the uncertainty of interval between manufacture and use, 
necessitate many reservations and qualifications in accepting this 
type of evidence. 

It may be added that impressions are sometimes taken on other impressions 
materials besides paper and vellum, e.g. on satin or silk. In the °" ^'^^ ^"'^ 
eighteenth century this is by no means uncommon,^ but it is 
difficult to set any limits to the period of the practice of printing 
on textiles, which, in the case, of wood-blocks, was undoubtedly in 
use in Europe as early as the twelfth century.' 

1 B. 301, being described from a contracted impression (Amsterdam) of B. 300 
(part of B. 366). 

^ One might instance Worlidge's Gems, 1768, of which some copies of the 
earliest edition were printed on satin. Of earlier work a satin impression of Diirer's 
Frederick the Wise (B. 104) in the British Museum may be noted. It is not likely, 
however, that it was printed before the seventeenth century. 

' Cf. Chap. I. p. 19, note i. 



1. The graver or burin, set in the handle of most usual shape, a and b, sections 

of the same ; a, square ; b, lozenge ; and c and d, sections of the same 
sharpened with a flat (c), or round {d) lower edge, to act as a scorper (or 

2. Showing another shape of graver handle. The blade is here sharpened in a 

triangular section (the two cutting edges forming a smaller angle than in 
the lozenge), in the form called the tint tool. On the basis of this shape 
are sharpened scorpers (or scoopers) as in b and c, the threading tool id). 

3. Sections of the plate, showing the line as cut by the graver : u, with the burr ; 

b and c, the line as cut by square {b), or lozenge graver (c), with the burr 
scraped away ; (/and e, the line as cut by a scorper (flat and round). 

4. Section of a scraped mezzotinted plate. 

5. Sections of the plate, showing the etched line : u, bitten with nitric acid ; b, 

bitten in the Dutch bath (hydrochloric acid). 

6. Sections of the plate as cut by the dry-point, with the burr on one, or both 

sides, according as the point is held. 

7. Stipple graver. 

8. a, Dotting-punch ; b, ring-punch, 
g. Matting-punch. 

10, II, 12. Various forms of roulettes — 

10. The simple roulette. 

11. The chalk-roll. 

12. The matting- wheel. 

13. The mace-head (mattoir). 

14. Etching needle. 

15. The oval point [ichoppe), and its sections, a and b. 

16. The square and lozenge graver shapes (occasionally used in etching). 

17. The dry-point. 

18. The scraper, and section («). 

19. Tlie burnisher, and section (a). 

20. The mezzotint rocker. 20 a. Another view of the same. 

21. The engine (a large type of roulette used by the early mezzotinters). 

22. Mezzotint burnisher. 

23. Mezzotint scraper, and section {a). 

24. The gouge (or scooper). 

25. «, Ordinary flat punch ; i5, cocking punch. 

26. Engraver's hammer. 

27. Callipers, two types {a and b). 
2S. Oil rubber. 

29. The roller (for laying the ground in etching). 

30. The dabber (also for laying the ground). 


the earliest engravers 
(the fifteenth century) 

Engraving, in its broadest signification, is no discovery of the Origin and 
modern world. Goldsmith and metal-chaser have flourished amongst ^""i^'ty of 

, ,,,... ^ , , engraving. 

almost every cultured people of antiquity of whom we have any 
knowledge, and the engraved line is one of the simplest and most 
universal modes of ornamentation in their craft. But there is no 
evidence that the art was used as a basis for taking impressions on 
paper before the fifteenth century of the present era, and our study 
has little to do with engraving apart from its application to this end. 

Printing from relief-blocks had already been practised for several 
centuries for impressing patterns on textiles,^ but no paper impres- 
sions of wood-cuts are preserved which can be dated before the 
latter part 'of the fourteenth century. In fact paper itself can hardly 
have been procurable in sufficient quantity 'much before about 1400. 
It is by no means astonishing that the idea of printing from a plate 
engraved in intaglio should have been devised later than the sister 
process, where the transference of the ink from the surface of the 
block would entail comparatively little pressure. 

The two processes of printing are so entirely different that one The compara- 
can hardly say that the line engraver owed more to the wood-cutter ''™ position 

01 wood-cut 

than the mere suggestion of the possibility of duplicating his designs and intaglio 
through the medium of the press. The popularity of religious cuts engraving. 
and pictures of saints, produced in the convents, and sold at the 
various shrines to the pilgrims in which the age abounded, must 
have opened the eyes of the goldsmith to the chance of profit, which 
hitherto had been largely in the hands of the monks and scribes 
turned wood-cutters. Another incentive to the reproductive arts, of 

^ Tlie known examples of such impressions on stuff ( Zeugdrucke) seem all to belong 
to the period between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. The method of printing is 
described by Cennino Cennini in his Trattato della Pittura (probably written before 
1437), ch. 173 (Ed. Milanesi, Florence, 1859 ; tr. Mrs. Merrifield, London, 1844 ; 
A. Ilg, Vienna, 1871). For the development of early wood-cut printing, which the 
student of the origins of intaglio engraving cannot afford to forget, I would merely 
refer to two most valuable essays — (i. ) F. Lippmann, Ueter die Anfdnge der Form- 
schneidekunst und des Bilddruckes, Repertorium, i. 215 ; (ii. ) C. Dodgson, Intro- 
duction to Catalogue of Early German and Flemish Wood-cuts in the British Museum^ 
vol, i. (1903). 



The original 



graveur) as 

opposed to the 



Germany ; 
earliest group. 
The Master of 
the Year 1446. 

The Master of 
the Playing 

which the wood-cutter must have early taken advantage,' was the 
introduction of playing cards in Europe. 

From their very beginnings the two arts were widely separated, 
that of line engraving having all the advantage in respect of artistic 
entourage. The cutter of pattern-blocks {Formenschneider) would 
be ranked in a class with the wood-carvers and joiners ; the monk, 
duplicating his missionary pamphlets in the most popular form, 
might have been a brilliant scribe, but not often beyond a mere 
amateur in art ; and, finally, the professioflal cutter, who was called 
into being by the increased demand towards the second half of the 
fifteenth century, was seldom more than a designer's shadow or a 
publisher's drudge. The goldsmith, on the other hand, generally 
started with a more thorough artistic training, and from the very 
nature of his material was more able than the cutter to preserve his 
independence in face of the publishers, who could not so easily 
apply his work to book illustration in conjunction with type.^ More- 
over, the individual value of the process would appeal to the painter 
and to the more cultured exponent of art more directly than the 
other medium, which often does no more than merely duplicate the 
quality of the original design. So quite early in the history of our 
art we meet \!pl& painter-engraver, i.e., as Bartsch understood the title 
of his monumental work, the painter who himself engraves his 
original designs, in contradistinction to the reproductive engraver 
who merely translates the designs of others. "Artist-engraver" has 
been recently suggested as an English rendering of peintre-graveur, 
but the term is hardly more happy than painter-engraver, for what 
reproductive engraver will not also claim to come beneath its cloak ? 
As a term at once most comprehensive and exclusive, we would 
prefer to use original engraver (or etcher), for we have to deal with 
an artist like Meryon, who from natural deficiency (colour blindness) 
could not be a painter at all. 

The earliest date known on any intaglio engraving is 1446, and 
occurs on the Flagellation of a Passion series in the Berlin Print 
Room (for another of the series see Fig. 2). There is direct evi- 
dence that others preceded this at least by a few years, and the 
priority of one master may reasonably be extended to a decade, 
or even more. Copies in illuminated manuscripts point to the 
existence of prints by the engraver, called from his most extensive 
work the Master of the Playing Cards, as early as 1446.^ 
This engraver forms the chief centre of influence on the technical 
character of the first decade of engraving in the North. From 
stylistic connexion with Stephan Lochner, he has been generally 
localised near Cologne, but recent recognition of Hans Multscher 

' In 1441 theSignoriaof Venice forbade the importation of foreign printed pictures 
and cards {carte e figure slampide), which points to wood-cut cards being in exist- 
ence at this period, though no extant pack can be dated with any certainty before 
1460 (i.e. later than the earliest known cards in line-engraving). 

2 Cf. Chap. IV. p. 119, and note i. 3 See Lehrs, Jahrbuch, ix. 239, xi. 5:5. 


and Conrad Witz inclines Lehrs to place him in the neighbourhood 
of Basle, citing the South German origin of Lochner as an apology 
for the older, position. His manner of shading, which suggests the 
painter rather than the goldsmith, is of a simple order, consisting 
of parallel lines laid generally in a vertical direction, and seldom 
elaborated with cross-hatching. His playing cards (most of which 

Fig. 2. — The Master of the Year 1446. Christ crowned with Thorns. 

are in Paris or Dresden) present an example of the branch of 
activity which, alongside with the making of small devotional prints; 
formed one of the chief uses to which early wood-cutting and 
engraving were applied (see Fig. 3). As a draughtsman he possesses 
an incisive and individual manner, and, in his representations of 
animals, he is no unworthy contemporary of Pisanello. The flat and 
decorative convention of his drawing of bird and beast shows a 
certain kinship with the genius of Japanese art. 

Among the craftsmen who show the clearest evidence of his 
influence is the Master of the Year 1446, which gives consider- 


able weight to the assumption that the Master of the Playing Cards 

l''li;, 3. — 'I'Ik- Maslor of Ihc Playing Cards. CvL-lanien Queen. 

was working some years before this date. With less artistic power 
and a more timid execution, the same scheme of parallel shading is 


followed, though varied with a more liberal admixture of short 
strokes and flicks. 

Another engraver, who emanates from the same school — of small The Master of 
original power, but of some interest as a copyist on account of com- ^^^ ^^^'^ ^'*^4- 
positions preserved us by his plagiarisms — is the Master of the 
Year 1464 (so called from the date which appears on the first letter 
of a grotesque alphabet which he copied from a wood-cut series now 
in Basle). From the recurrence of ribbon scrolls with inscriptions 
on his prints, he also goes by the name of the Master of the 
Banderoles. In certain instances, e.g. the Alphabet, and a Fight for 
the Hose (Munich), the latter from a print of the Finiguerra School 
(Berlin),^ the sources of his plagiarisms have been identified. Others, 
like the Judgment of Paris (Munich), possess greater value as 
probable copies from lost Italian originals. As an artist he is of 
little account. Clumsy draughtsmanship is combined with slender 
powers of modelling, often still further enfeebled by the weak print- 
ing commoner in Italian than in German work of this period. It 
is not unlikely that he may have worked at some period of his life 
in Italy itself 

A follower of the Master of the Playing Cards, who has been The Master of 
more generally located in Upper Germany, is the Master of the "^^ ^^'^ ^'^^^■ 
Year 1462, the date which is written on the impression of his JTo/y 
Trinity in the Royal Library at Munich. In his simple system of 
parallel lines of shading he comes very close to his model. 

Most of the earliest German engravers are now thought to belong The Nether- 
to the Upper Rhine. Quite contemporary with these is another group lands and 
which bears undoubted signs of Flemish or Burgundian origin. earliest group 

The Master of the Death of Mary (so named from P. II. 227, The Master of 
117, and of great interest for a large Battle piece) is perhaps only one "''^ Death of 
among other slightly older contemporaries of the engraver called from ^"^' 
his most important plates the Master of the Gardens of- Love. 

In this engraver, some of whose prints must have been in The Master of 
existence in 1 448, by reason of copies in a manuscript of that year, "'^ Gardens of 
the Netherlands exhibit an earlier development of a certain grade of 
technical excellence than Germany, a fact which possibly points to 
the earlier introduction of the art in the former region. Besides 
the two Gardens of Love (Berlin and Brussels), which are of such 
importance for the view they give of the Burgundian gallant society 
of the middle of the century, considerable interest attaches to a 
St. Eligius, the patron saint of goldsmiths (P. II. 253, 2, Amsterdam). 
It is one of the earliest pictures of a workshop of the craft from 
which the art of engraving was emanating (Fig. 4). 

Of about the same period, and either belonging to the Nether- The Master of 
lands or to the neighbouring region of Burgundy and France, is the "^<^ Mount of 

^ See Lippmann, Jahrtuch, vii. 73. Dr. Warburg, on the other hand, holds that 
the original source from which both were taken was Northern (see Sitzungsberickte 
der Kunstgeschichflichen Gesellschaft, Berlin, Feb. 1905). 



Gkrmaxv ; 

second group. 
E, S. 

engraver known by a print in Dresden (P. II. 32, 54) as the Master 
OF THE Mount of Calvary. His St George and the Dragon (British 
Museum), with its strong outline and with its figures put sharply in 
relief, is almost certainly the work of a goldsmith. Still keeping to 
the simple scheme of parallel shading, he exhibits a sense of style 
in the dignity of his design uncommon among the engravers of the 
time. His Knight in ^/'/«(w/- (Willshire, vol. ii. p. 483, G. 131*)' ^^ 
which the British Museum possesses a unique impression (Fig. 5),^ 
is noteworthy for the curious type of armour and accoutrement, 
which seems to be nearer that in use in the region of Burgundy 
or the Jura than anything in Germany or the Netherlands. - 

The Master, known by his initials, E. S. (or sometimes by the 
dates 1466 and 1467 which appear on certain of his plates), un- 

KlG. 4. — The MaslLT of the Gardens of Love. St. Eligius, Patron of Lioldsiniths. 

questionably owes much to the Master of the Playing Cards in the 
formation of his style.^ It is a fact easily forgotten, considering the 
distance which separates the bulk of liis work from the earlier 
efforts which were once regarded as the product of a different 
engraver, christened from the most important j)late in this manner 
the " Master of the Sibyl." The plate of Ai/giisfiis an,/ /he Sil^vi 
(P. II. 68, i) has all the timidity of youth, and is executed with less 
cross-hatching and a more liberal use of short flicks than most of 
the signed work of E. S. ; yet it already possesses the salient 

1 In a vokinie of costume prints in the King's Library, 140. i. 10 (fol. 80). 

'^ Cf. H. Houchot, I'll ainitir ,ic 1,1 gr,}vniT sill- Ms, Paris, 1902, p. q6. 

■' Cf. Cf;. the fii-giii wi/li Ihc Snake (Padua, Bibl. del Seniinario), tlie niaster- 
pieee of the engraver of the Plaving Cards, with L. 8. 's small }'irgiti cii ,1 Cn-icnt 
(P. 11. 55, 142). 



characteristics of form which mark the latter, the most prominent 
feature being the heavy nose. The master may have only begun to 
date his prints in quite the last years of his life, and this early work 
may reasonably be placed as far back as 1450. 

The Master E. S. seems to have been a native of Strassburg, or 
some neighbouring town, 
and nothing is more likely 
than that he served his 
apprenticeship at Basle, or 
at whatever place on the 
Upper Rhine the Master 
of the Playing Cards had 
his school. The influence 
of Van Eyck has often been 
emphasised, but increasing 
knowledge of the indigen- 
ous schools of early Ger- 
man painting tends to dim- 
inish the probability of any 
definite point of contact 
with Flanders. E. S. does 
not rank high as an artist, 
but on the technical side 
he was one of the greatest 
influences in the progress 
of the art of engraving. 
Starting no doubt as a 
goldsmith, he gradually 
freed himself from the 
limitations of the craft, and 
developed a solid system 
of engraving, with a regular 
scheme of cross-hatching, 
which laid the foundation 
for the perfection of the 
art in Albrecht Diirer. 
As one would expect from 
a goldsmith, the secondary 
parts of composition, the 
ornaments, and conven- 
tional plants, etc., are de- 
signed with exceeding care. And it one regards separate faces and 
figures alone, he shows considerable power of expression, but in the 
larger problems of composition he is seldom quite successful. His 
most ambitious attempt in a composition of many figures is his large 
Madonna of Etnsiedeln, dated 1466 (B. 35). In that year the Feast 
of the Consecration of the Swiss cloister by angels was celebrated 


-The Master of the Mount of Calvary. 
Knight in Armour. 



with considerable pomp, and the print was no doubt sold as a 
memorial to the pilgrims who attended the commemoration. Apart 

Fig, 6. — Thu Master K. 8, X'irgin and Child with St. Margaret and 
St. Catherine in a Garden. 

from its subject the plate itself has a historical interest. It passed 
into- Italy, and with the original lines erased and the surface 
burnished, but still showing some traces of the old composition, 


served an anonymous Umbrian engraver before the end of the 
century for a figure of the famous warrior Guerino Meschino. This 
would hardly have been done unless the plate in its original state 
had been quite worn out, so we may assume that the number of 
impressions taken from the plate must have been considerable. 

Althougli E. S. is a constant interpreter of the forms of Gothic 
architecture, he nevertheless seldom fails to commit the most 
evident errors in perspective. An egregious example is the Annun- 
ciation with the Round Arch (P. II. 69, 3), which Israhel van 
Meckenem easily corrects in his copy, just as the author of the 
wood-cuts in the Blockbook of the " Ars Moriendi " corrected other 
similar errors in the originals of E. S. from which he borrowed. 

E. S. is a perfect representative of the Gothic elements in the art 
of design which pervaded nearly all German work of the fifteenth 
century, elements that were gradually transfigured by the more 
universal art of Diirer, and finally ejected before the middle of the 
next century by the overwhelming stream of the Renaissance from 
Italy. Apart from the predominance of Gothic forms of architecture 
in the prints of this early German school, there is a responsive note 
in all the other elements of its drawing. It is, as it were, a trans- 
ference of the spirit that inspires the lofty pointed arch and sinuous 
tracery, which is the basis of the long forms, the thin fingers, and 
the angular folds, that so generally characterise the work of this 
school. A noteworthy characteristic of the old Gothic architects 
and sculptors was their affection for the grotesque. It is one of 
those elements of design in which the German engraver of the 
fifteenth century remains supreme. The Grotesque Alphabet of the 
Master E. S. (B. 98, etc.) with its incisive humour is an excellent 
example of this quality. 

The technical advance from the simple scheme of the Master of Martin 
the Playing Cards which was chiefly promoted by E. S. and his Schongauer. 
prolific work, was carried even further, and united with much higher 
artistic endowments in Martin Schongauer. He is the first of the 
German engravers whom we definitely know to have been more a 
painter than a goldsmith, and this fact will largely account for the 
character of the advance which he achieved in the art. Living 
almost all his life in Colmar, where he was probably born about 
1445, nothing is more likely than that he learnt his engraving in 
the workshop of E. S., which, as has been remarked, was probably 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of Strassburg. 

Both the technical manner and the types used in his early work, 
such as the Virgin and Child on the Crescent Moon (B. 31), betray 
a close affinity to that master. There is still small capacity for 
modelling in perspective ; the child is as it were silhouetted against 
the Virgin's breast with little attempt at foreshortening. Moreover, 
in this early period all the essential features of the Gothic pervade 
Schongauer's style. There are the long figures, the sharp folds, the 



slender fingers with exaggerated l^nuckles, the lined and knotted 
faces. It is the spirit which is seen to perfection in one of his best 
and largest prints of this period, the Death of Mary (B. 33). 
Another comparatively early plate, the March to Calvary (B. 21), is 
again one of the largest, as so often happens with the young and 
ambitious artist. The strength of his genius for composition is 
here fully developed, but there is still a certain provincialism of 
characteristic both in types and technique which he almost 
completely loses later. The St. Michael and the Dragon (B. 53) is 
another plate essentially in the early style, but almost at its turning 
point, so fine and skilful is its engraving. His power of fantasy, 
akin to the grotesque in Gothic, is wonderfully exemplified in the 
St. Anthony tempted by Devils (B. 47), which Vasari tells us the 

Fig. 7. — Martin Schongauer. Goldsmith Prentices fighting. 

young Michelangelo was inspired to copy. Combined with his 
imaginative power, are a sense of humour and powers of observation 
which place his Goldsmith Prentices fighting {'Q. 91, Fig. 7), and the 
Feasants going to Market (B. 88) among the best pieces of genre 
produced in the fifteenth century. 

Little by little Schongauer rises above the Gothic limitations 
both of setting and of type. Ornament and architecture are 
simplified, and everything is concentrated on the expression of the 
central idea. For the nobler characters he represents, he comes to 
discard the ill-favoured, one might say provincial types from which 
E. S., and in fact most German engravers of the fifteenth century, 
never swerved, and actualises an idea of beauty which in its nearer 
approach to more absolute ideals appeals to a far more universal 
appreciation. In the Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene {E. 26, 
Fig. 8), and Christ and Mary on a Throne (B. 71) the full blossom of 



his art is seen. The concentration of interest on the central theme 
is noteworthy. In the former the distant landscape is mere outHne, 
the tree is bare, the grass is without the varied and distracting 
collection of goldsmiths' plants, while in the latter there is no 
ornament to divert the attention in the simple architecture whose 
graceful lines merely serve to balance a beautiful composition. 

Fig. 8. — Martin Schongauer. Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene. 

If our suppositions are correct, the chain of development from Chain of 
the beginning of the art in Germany passed from the Master of the development 
Playing Cards to E. S., and from the latter to Schongauer. And the encravin-'. 
last of these, whose talent only just fell short of the height of a 
master great in the universal sense, was the link to join the former 
to Diirer, who in 1491, the year of Schongauer's death, was just 
beginning his work. 

Until the end of the century Schongauer's influence remained 
paramount among German engravers, and, like that of E. S., was 
felt in no inconsiderable degree as far abroad as Italy. 





B M. 


A. G. 



The Master 
of the 

At least one other member of Schongauer's family, Martin's 
brother Ludwig, was an engraver, if, as is most likely, this is the 
right interpretation of the monogram L(*-8- Tradition has also 
identified a certain Barthel Schongauer with the engraver who uses 
the signature b«8) but it is probable the monogram is rightly read 
BG, and not BS. He copied several of Schongauer's plates, but his 
original work is in reality more closely allied to that of the Master 
of the Amsterdam Cabinet (see below). 

A master whose style was closely formed on that of Schongauer 
is the monogrammist B M. His engraving is somewhat crude and 
his drawing irregular, but his large plate of the Judgment of Solomon 
shows no lack of dramatic force. 

An engraver of much greater originality, who also to some extent 
shows the influence of Schongauer, is the master known by his signa- 
ture LQij- There are elements in his work, e.g. the landscape and 
architecture, which point to the Netherlands, and it seems attractive 
to regard the z of his monogram as the Dutch ending -zoon, but on 
the whole evidence inclines to locate him in Upper Germany. His 
Temptation of Christ exhibits a likeness to Schongauer in the type 
of face, but the composition as a whole is quite original and full of 
fantasy, and the manner of engraving, if somewhat thin in line, has 
no little charm. 

The more delicate elements of Schongauer's style were perhaps 
most aptly continued in the master of the monogram A. G. (who on 
insufificient grounds has been called Albrecht Glockenton, one of a 
family of Nuremberg miniature painters). His work and that of 
another anonymous master, W/vH (who has been called Wolf 
Hammer) possess a special interest as being found printed directly 
on the page of text in certain missals and breviaries published by 
Georg Reyser at Wiirzburg and Eichstadt between 1479 and 1491. 
They are among the rare examples during the fifteenth century in 
the North 1 of a practice which was hardly used at all until a 
hundred years later. 

In Lower Germany, Schongauer finds his closest followers in 
the engravers with the monograms B i« R and PM. The latter has 
hardly a rival among these early masters in the power of modelling 
the nude, which is notably good in his Crucifixion with the t7c'o 
Thieves (Frankfurt). 

The only other engraver before Diirer besides E. S., who can 
claim a place at all comparable to that of Schongauer, is the 
anonymous artist called from the Print Room which contains the 
largest collection of his works (amounting in all to some eighty 
pieces) the Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet. From a book 
of drawings by the same hand preserved at A\'olfegg, somewhat 
vaguely called the Haiisbiich, which illustrates the Planets and their 
influences, and the various arts and occupations of men, he has 

1 Cf. pp. 33, 47, 65, 70, 96, 119. 


also been called the Master of the Hausbuch, while a date which 
Duchesne asserted to have been written on one of the prints (though 
this is not at present known) gave him the further title of the Master 
OF 1480. As yet none of the many suggestions as to his personality, 
one of which identified him with Holbein the Elder, has been con- 
vincing. It is now generally assumed, however, that he must be 
looked for somewhere on tlie middle Rhine, perhaps near Frankfurt 
or Mayence. 

He is an artist with a freedom of draughtsmanship quite remark- 
able at this epoch.. If his manner of engraving has something of 
the irregularity of an amateur, his power of expression is vigorous 
and masterly. With certain brilliant characteristics, which by their 
very modernity may attract us even more than Schongauer, he never- 
theless stands well behind the latter in artistic conscience and power 
of composition. His plate of Solomon's Idolatry (Lehrs 7) is a 
wonderful example of the meaning he can put into his faces, while it 
is characteristic in another particular, the presence of a little curly 
dog who is looking on with an interested expression, a piece of side- 
play which almost foreshadows Rembrandt. His plate of a Dog 
scratching his Neck (Lehrs 78) shows how directly he studied nature. 
He is one of the first of the German engravers to attempt unafifected 
portrait directly from the life, e.g. in his Study of two Heads (Lehrs 
77). It has generally been asserted that hardly any outside influence 
makes itself felt in this engraver's work. But his St. Martin and 
the Beggar (Lehrs 38) and St. Michael and the Dragon (Lehrs 39, 
cf. Schongauer, B. 53) could hardly have originated without some 
suggestion from the corresponding subjects in Schongauer's work, 
while his Woman with the Escutcheon (Lehrs 86, Fig. 9) recalls 
analogous compositions of the same master (e.g. B. 97), at least in 
the type of face. But these, and a single reminiscence of E. S. (in 
the St. Mary Magdalene, Lehrs 50), are isolated instances, and his 
achievement is almost perplexing in its originality. His technical 
manner also stands quite apart from other work of the period. 
With its burr the result is like that of dry-point, which was so 
little used before the seventeenth century. Whether he scratched 
the plate with a proper dry-point, or with the graver, matters little. 
The burr was not scraped away, and the essential virtue of the dry- 
point process was already realised. 

Allied in style to the Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet, at W$B- 
least in his irregularity of manner as an engraver, and in a natural 
power of rendering facial expression, is the master of the monogram 
W$B- Only some four prints of his are known, but they are re- 
markable among the earliest attempts at lifelike portrait engraving 
in Germany. 

It was not long before the achievement of the Master E. S., which Nethkr- 
technically so far outstripped that of any of his contemporaries, made lands : 
itself felt as a most potent influence beyond the German borders. ^^™" s™"?- 



Master of tlie 



The second generation of engravers in tiie Low Countries profited 
far more from the advance made by the German master than from 
the work of immediate predecessors of their own nationahty. 

Of dated work at this time there is Httle besides that of the 

Fui. g. — Tlic Master of llie Am^ Cabinet. Woman witli [he Eseiiteheon. 

Master of the Boccaccio Illustrations, /.(■. the author of a 
series of prints which appeared in a French translation of Boccaccio's 
Dc Casitnis vironiiu ct focmiiianDii illustritiiii, published by Colard 
Mansion at Bruges in 1476. The drawing is crude and ungainly, 
but there is considerable vivacity in the figure composition, and a 
refreshing truth in the simple architectural backgrounds of some 
of the plates. \\'\\.\\ this engraver shading is quite secondary to 


outline. In one of the very rare copies of the book (belonging 
to the Marquis of Lothian, Newbattle) the plates ^ are coloured by a 
miniature painter of the time, and the engraver probably fashioned 
his style with a view to this possibility. There are many other 
examples, notably among such work as the numerous small devotional 
plates of the German Master of the St. Erasmus, where prints 
have served as an outhne basis for the illuminators of manuscripts. 

We may mention in this place another print which has particular 
interest as being found in the Chatsworth copy of the earliest book 
printed in English, i.e. Caxton's Recuyell of the Histories of Troye. 
It represents Caxton presenting a Copy of his Work to Margaret of 
York (the wife of Charles the Bold), and though not known in 
any other copy, and here only inlaid in the first blank leaf and 
perhaps inserted at a much later date than the first publication, 
must nevertheless have been originally designed to illustrate the 
book.^ The ^tfCKj'^// was printed in Bruges some two years before 
the Boccaccio, and the plate is certainly by an engraver of the same 
school as the Boccaccio illustrator, if not by the same hand. ^^ 

A sounder and more prolific craftsman than the Boccaccio W^ 
master was the engraver who used the signature "VT""^- -l^" ^^'^ ^^^^ 
the dependence on E. S. is sufficient to support the assumption, 
that he may at some time have studied under the German master. 
This may account for his possession of some of the plates of E. S., 
which were reworked in his studio, and provided with his signature. 
It has been recently suggested that the rework was really due to 
Israhel van Meckenem, who on this hypothesis must have served an 
apprenticeship with the Netherlandish master.^ By far the most 
interesting work of W"*^ consists in his engravings of Gothic 
architecture and reliquaries. His system of shading is sound, and 
by a good command of light and shade he succeeds well in giving 
the idea of depth to his constructions. His understanding of 
perspective is quite remarkable among the engravers of the fifteenth 

An early Dutch engraver of pronounced individuality is the I A M of 
master who uses the monogram I A M, sometimes adding the sign of 
a weaver's shuttle, and the word Zwoll (which was no doubt the 
place of his activity). In style he is a close follower of the contem- 
porary school of painting in Holland, of whom Albert Ouwater and 
Geertgen tot St. Jans are the best known representatives. Such prints 
as the Christ in the Garden (B. 3) and the Taking of Christ (B. 4) 
are characteristic of the realism of his manner and the exaggerated 

^ Pasted in. The only other copy known with plates is at Gbttingen. Cf. pp. 
30, 47, 96, 119 for the practice of printing directly on the page of text. See also 
pp. 65, 70. 

2 See S. M. Peartree, Burl. Mag. August 1905, and A. W. Pollard, The Library, 
Oct. 1905. 

' See M. Geisberg, Meisier der Berliner Passion und I. v. Meckenem, 1903, p. 91. 





Allart du 

F V B. 

Germany : 
the close of 
the century. 
Israhel van 

expression he gives to his coarse and heavy-featured types. His 
most successful plate, both in the avoidance of exaggeration, and in 
the engraving, which is less crude and harsh than usual, is the 
Adoration of the Kings (B. i). 

Working quite near the end of the fifteenth, if not at the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century, is the architect and engraver Allart 
DU Hameel, who interests us chiefly as preserving the designs of 
that master of fantastic satire, Jerome Bosch. The word " Bosche " 
which occurs on several of his plates may refer to the painter, or 
perhaps merely to the town which was common to both painter and 
engraver. Allart du Hameel uses the simplest technical means. 
His shading, which is fine and delicate, is little in evidence, and he 
relies almost wholly on an outline which, in his Battle-piece (B. 4) 
and the Last Judgment (B. 2), must very closely reproduce the 
delicate and incisive line of his model. 

Another engraver whose work betrays the influence of the Dutch 
school, and of Dierick Bouts in particular, is known merely by his 
monogram F V B. In spirit he comes nearer than any engraver 
of the time to the Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet and to 
Schongauer. His Samson and the Lion has much of the vivacity of 
the former master, while technical analogies in the use of dry-point, 
though more sparingly applied, may be noted in his greatest plate the 
Judgment of Solomon (B. 2). Like both the engravers with whom 
we have compared him, he is an excellent engraver of genre, and 
his Two Peasants quarrelling (B. 35) is one of the most entertaining 
plates in this field produced in the fifteenth century. Old tradition 
calls him Franz von Bocholt, but as yet no foundation has been 
found for the identification. 

In Israhel van Meckenem we meet an engraver who is known to 
have worked towards the end of the century at Bocholt, where he 
died in 1503. As we have noted in relation to W"'^! there is 
evidence that Israhel's stylistic connexion with the Netherlands may 
be referred in a particular degree to a possible apprenticeship with 
this master. Like most of the early engravers he was a goldsmith, 
and never in fact much more than a clever craftsman. He was a 
prolific producer: his work amounts in all to some 570 plates, but a 
large proportion are copies from E. S., Schongauer, the young Diirer, 
and others. He was one of the first engravers to apply to any extent 
the idea of reworking his plates after they were worn with manv 
printings. Nor did he Hmit this practice to his own engravings, but 
reworked numerous plates of others, e.g. of E. S. and F V B and 
more than all of the Master of the Berlin Passion, who has been 
recently identified with Meckenem's father.^ One of the faculties 
of the goldsmith, that of ornament, he possessed in a high det^ree 

1 See Incli\iclual Bibliography (Geisberg). The student should beware of con- 
fusing him with the Master of the Year 1446, who is also known from his Passion 
Scries in Berlin. 



and bis prints of Gothic grotesque and scroll work are among the 
most excellent of their kind (see Fig. lo). 

Another engraver of the Lower Rhine (probably of Cologne), the p. w. 
master of the monogram P. W., produced one of the most ambitious 
series of prints of the time, six large illustrations of the Swiss War of 
1499. There is considerable freedom and vigour in his figures, not 
unlike that of the Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet, but the land- 
scape, seen almost as a bird's eye view, is quite elementary in 
character. His most pleasing work is a set of small round playing- 
cards of extremely delicate engraving. 

Among the engravings produced in Upper Germany at the close Upper 
of the century, a small group signed F. S. possesses added interest Germany. 
from the attribution to the Nuremberg sculptor Veit Stoss. They Veit Stoss. 
are evidently the work of an artist unpractised in the process, but 
















lo. — Israhel van Meckenem. Ornament with grotesque figures. 

his Madonna with the Apple (B. 3), Raising of Lazarus (B. i), and 
Pietii (B. 2), despite some exaggeration in the treatment of the 
minutise of form, e.g. the veins of the leg in the Pieta, possess a 
distinct charm of their own. 

One engraving, a design for a baptismal font, has been attributed Jorg Syrlin. 
to another sculptor, Jorg Syrlin of Ulm. The elder sculptor of 
that name, who seems to have died in 1491, has generally been 
reputed its author, but the evidence is so slight that it might almost 
as well be by the son, who lived well into the sixteenth century. 

The group of engravings signed Mair, if rightly assigned to Mair of 
NicoLAUs Alexander Mair, a painter who was working at Land- Landshut. 
shut between 1491 and 1541, are distinctly archaic in stamp for 
the time of their execution. The line-work is simple, the shading 
is in broad surfaces with little detail, the architecture is that of 
doll's-houses. In one respect he seems to have anticipated the 
idea of the chiaroscuro cuts which Cranach and Burgkmair made 
popular in Germany. He often printed on grey or green prepared 



M. Z. 

paper, and heightened the ground with white {e.g. the Nativity, 
signed and dated 1499 in the British Museum), so that his system 
of light shading was no doubt followed with this purpose in view. 

Another engraver, also probably belonging to Bavaria, is the 
master of the monogram M. Z., who has been generally called 
Matthaus Zasinger, though on little foundation. His largest 
works are two prints, dated 1500, illustrating festivities — a tourna- 
ment and a court-ball — at Munich. But his special charm as an 
engraver of genre, who has mastered the finer elements of his 
process, is better seen in a print like the Youth and Girl embracing 
in a Room (B. 15), which, though poor in draughtsmanship, displays 
an extremely delicate handling of the medium. Working, like Mair, 
at a time of transition, he stands in sharp contrast to the latter as 
already betraying the influence of Diirer, and anticipating, more 
particularly in his landscape, the freer style of the etchers of the 
Regensburg school. 


Italian and 
schools of 

Many words have been wasted by the belligerent critics who 
have championed the respective claims of Germany, the Nether- 
lands, or Italy for the award of priority in the practice of the art 
of engraving. Vasari's story that its invention was due to the 
Florentine niellist and goldsmith, Maso Finiguerra, about 1460, 
must, of course, be discarded in view of our present knowledge of 
the origins of the art in the North, if not also by the existence in 
Italy itself of engravings which must precede any that can be 
attributed to Finiguerra by a decade, or even more. 

But without entering any profitless discussion on a matter whose 
aspect may at any time be changed by new discoveries, it must be 
confessed that the relatively higher technical development of the 
art in the North by about the year 1460 inclines one to regard 
Germany or the Netherlands as the first home of engraving, as it was 
of printing. But unhke printing, which was pioneered in Italy about 
1465 almost entirely by the immigrant Northerners, the art of engrav- 
ing, even if in some degree suggested by foreign work, developed 
quite as a native plant, and was practically untouched by the influ- 
ence of the Northern engraver until several decades after its inception. 

The early Italian engravers may not possess the technical 
proficiency of their Northern contemporaries, but they have a much 
finer feeling for the beautiful, if not an absolutely higher artistic 
sense. The' output of the century was much smaller in the South, 
but in some respects far wider in its scope. In the North we have 
found the art largely used for little devotional prints, for whose 
artistic worth those who scattered them cared httle. In Italy, on 
the other hand, the tide of the Renaissance had opened up broader 
channels of thought, and in a country with an awakened sense of 
beauty, where art was already recognised as having self-contained 
ideals apart from the matter it dealt with, the artist commanded a 


more liberal range of subject combined with a greater reluctance to 
let out his work cheaply to merely missionary uses. If engraving 
in Italy had a practical cause to serve, it was essentially an artist's 
motive, the desire to multiply designs which might serve as models 
in the workshops of sculptor, goldsmith, potter, and craftsmen of 
every type. 

One of the signs which point to the later introduction of 
engraving in Italy than in the North is the later development of the 
art of good printing of copper-plates. Quite the majority of the 
contemporary impressions of Italian prints up till about 1470 are 
printed so poorly (not to take into account the common light 
greyish green colour of the ink used), that one is led to surmise that 
many must have been taken either by hand (with burnisher or 
some similar instrument), or by a printing-press with none of the 
equality of pressure provided by the double roller. A lack of 
definition, and a line of broken or dotted character are often good 
signs of an early impression of a print of this school. 

A problem of some difficulty in relation to early plate-printing 
is the presence of rivet-holes in many of the fifteenth century Italian 
engravings, which, as they occur in many instances on even the 
earliest impressions, cannot always merely indicate the application 
of the plate itself, like a niello, to decorative purposes. Such rivet- 
holes are found to occur in many examples of the early prints in 
the maniere criblk, white line metal-cuts which would be printed 
like wood-cuts, and so would have to be fixed on to a block for the 
press. It is not unlikely that the early Italian printer of copper- 
plates, for some reasons dependent on the type of press in use, 
found a similar convenience necessary in the case of ordinary 
intaglio engravings. 

As a craft, engraving in Italy tended more quickly than in the 
North to yield itself to the service of some great painter or school 
of painting, and so developed earlier a style which the more inde- 
pendent German goldsmith engraver was longer in seeking. For 
the average artistic quality of work in the beginnings this tendency 
was no doubt a benefit, and the readiness of the engraver to sink 
his personality probably explains why the Italian painter, with pliable 
interpreters to hand, took to engraving less often than the German. 
In the end the blessing proved a bane, and produced a host of 
secondary engravers, while in Germany the best artists were still 
devoting their personal energies to original engraving. 

Although there is no certain evidence as in the case of The early 
Germany, the earliest Italian engravings seem by reason of style to group, 
date at least a few years before the middle of the fifteenth century. 
They are probably for the most part the production of Florence, 
which was then, as it remains to-day, the centre of the goldsmiths' 
craft in Italy. An important place in this early group is taken by 
two series of plates in the Albertina, Vienna, the Larger Passion 



The Master (B. xiii. p. 77, 1 6-25) and the TriuinpJis of Petrarch (B. xiii. p. 116, 
of the larger 12-17). They are rough and crude in cutting, and suffer from an 
Passion. exaggeration both in the dehneation of bulging muscles and in the 


I''u;. II. — .Aiiiin. early Morentine Engraver. Tlie Resurrection. 

overladen ornament which is the mark of the goldsmith engraver. 
Another plate, probably by the engraver who is responsible ttir the 
above series, is a Resurrection in the British Museum (Fig. n), 


which shows the Medici badge ^ on the shield of one of the soldiers. 
Here the predominant influences seem to be those of Masaccio and 
Era Angelico, though it is somewhat closely reminiscent of a relief 
by- Luca della Robbia over one of the Sacristy doors in the Duomo 
at Florence, which was commissioned in 1443. Of other prints 
of the period which amount in all to a very small number, Virgil 
the Enchanter (Dresden) shows close relations to the style of 
cassone painting common in Florence about the middle of the 
century, and the St. Peter Martyr (British Museum and Rome) 
something of the realism of Castagno, but the greater part point 
to the sculptors like Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, and Luca della Robbia 
as the strongest factors in Florentine art at this time. 

A Profile Portrait of a young Woman (Berlin)^ is one of the finest 
examples of the early period, owing its success in no small measure 
to the avoidance of problems of light and shade which the Italian 
engraver had not yet learnt to cope with. It is a mere outline, 
the head-dress and bust richly bedizened in embroidery and jewels, 
of a type seen in a group of pictures which has been variously 
attributed to Domenico Veneziano, Piero della Francesca, Verrocchio, 
and Pollaiuolo. It is not altogether impossible that such a work 
as this head might have emanated from the workshop of the young 
goldsmith-painter Pollaiuolo. 

Some sort of limit to the work of this early period is furnished 
by the Resurrection with the Table for finding Easter (British 
Museum) which must have been executed by 1461, as this is the 
first year cited. As an engraving it is of a secondary order, corre- 
sponding to a Smaller Passion Series (B. xiii. p. 74, 2-15), and a copy 
on one plate of the six Triumphs mentioned above (B. xiii. 423, 60) 
(both in the Albertina), but it is of the greatest importance, giving, 
as it does, the earliest date found on any Italian print. 

The distinct advance made in the art between about 1455 and The second 
1480, which we may call the second period of Italian engraving, period. 
is perhaps due in large measure to Maso Finiguerra, who by no pj^Lerra 
means deserves the glamour of unreality which modern critics, in 
the heat of their reaction against Vasari's exaggerated claims, have 
allowed to gather round him. The main facts of his life are well 
attested. Born in 1426, the son of a goldsmith, and brought up 
in his father's craft, Maso Finiguerra is known to have been work- 
ing in niello in 1449. In 1452 he received payment for a niellated 
pax * done for the Baptistery of St. John ; five years later he is 
found in partnership with Piero di Bartolomraeo di Sali, and in the 
early sixties, if not before, he is closely associated with Pollaiuolo, 
who is also known to have worked with Sail. In 1463 there is 

1 Three feathers encircled by a ring. ^ Jahrb. I. p. 11. 

' Probably a Crucifixion with the City Walls in the Background, and not the 
Coronation of the Virgin (a work of the school of Filippo Lippi, perhaps by Matteo 
Dei), which Gori [Thesaurus Diptychorum, 1759) was the first to christen Finiguerra. 
Both are in the Bargello, Florence. 


evidence that he supplied designs for some of the intarsia panels in 
the Sacristy of the Duomo (the subjects certainly by his hand being 
Sf. Zenobio between two Deacons^ and the Annunciation). His 
burial is recorded in 1464. 

Besides these designs for intarsia, which are his best authenticated 
works, there is every reason to accept the old attribution of a series 
of drawings in the Ufifizi, which was admitted by Vasari and Baldi- 
nucci, and is supported by the presence of the master's name in a 
contemporary hand on several of the series. With these may be 
ranged a set of drawings in the British Museum, forming a sort of 
Chronicle of the World, which, if showing more than one hand, 
must emanate from the same workshop as the above. Then there 
is an important group of nielli (of which Baron Edmond de Roths- 
child has the largest collection ^), and their correspondence in style 
with the intarsia panels and the drawings points to the same author, 
leading to the very reasonable conclusion that they are by the most 
famous Florentine niellist of the period. 

Finally, we have a group of engravings, closely agreeing in style with 
all the above, which Mr. Sidney Colvin has reclaimed to the master's 
honour. Vasari's reference in his life of Pollaiuolo to Finiguerra 
as a " master of engraving and niello ^ unsurpassed in the number of 
figures he could efficiently group together whether in small or large 
spaces " (a passage in which he seems not to have thought of the 
claims which he makes later in the chapter devoted to Marcan- 
tonio and other engravers for Finiguerra as the inventor of the art) 
added to the evidence which we have summarised above, seems to 
raise the attribution of some at least of these engravings to the 
famous niellist out of the realm of conjecture into the certainty of 
an established fact. 

The engravings to which we refer, as most certainly by the hand 
of Finiguerra, are the Planets (a series of seven plates), the Jioad to 
Calvary and the Crucifixion, the Fight for the Hose, and \!n& Judgment 
Hall of Filate. It is a likely assumption that Finiguerra only turned 
to the new art during the last few years of his life, and possibly 
none of these prints date before about 1460. The Planets series, 
with its summary of astrological lore, must have been very popular 
at the time, if we may judge by the existence of a set of copies 
which appeared very soon after the original publication (in conjunc- 
tion with a calendar starting with the year 1465). The Mercury is 
of special interest to the student of engraving, as it depicts the shop 
of a goldsmith such as we may picture Finiguerra's to have been 
(Fig. 12). In all these engravings there is a considerable technical 
advance upon the coarse cutting of the earlier group, but the line 
still lacks clearness of definition, though this may be due in part 

' Now in the Opera del Duomo. Baldovinelti also supplied designs for the panels. 
^ Fovmerly the Salamanca Collection. Reproduced ; G. W. Reid, London, 1869. 
^ Per lavot'are di bitlino cfare di niello. 



to imperfect printing. The main characteristics of style in dress 
are still the long trailing skirt, and the two-peaked hat with heavy 
veil borrowed from the costume of Burgundian society,^ which figures 

Fig. 12. — Maso Finiguerra. The Planet Mercury (part). 

so prominently in Florentine cassone paintings between about 1440 
and 1460. 

In Italy for half a century or more after 1450 the art of niello 
was a popular branch of the goldsmith's craft (far more so than in 

^ Cf. in Northern art the work of the Master of the Gardens of Love. 



the North), and its close connexion with the development of engrav- 
ing will warrant a slight digression. 
Niello. Niello may be described as the method of treating an engraved 

silver (or gold) plate by filling the furrows with a black substance 
{tiigellum) formed by the fusion of copper, silver, lead, and sulphur, 
which gives the art its name. Powdered niello was laid on the 
surface of the plate, melted by the application of heat, and so run 
into the lines. The substance being allowed to cool and harden, 
the surface of the plate was burnished, and the design would appear 
in black on a bright ground. The art was no doubt known to 
goldsmiths several centuries before the introduction of engraving,^ 
but it was little practised until quite the middle of the fifteenth 
century, when it suddenly became popular, only to fall almost com- 
pletely out of use some sixty or seventy years later. Outside Italy 
it never greatly flourished. The mark of a good niello-plate in 

general is distinctness and clearness 
of cutting, but there is large vari- 
ation in different schools in the 
depth of the engraving, in the inter- 
vals between the lines, and in the 
greater or lesser use of cross-hatch- 
ing. Thus in the Florentine school 
the background is generally cut in 
clear lines, laid in two parallel series 
crossing nearly at right angles, while 
the delicate modelling is done by a 
systemof much more lightlv engraved 
lines carefully cross-hatched. Of 
this the niello-print which we re- 
produce in Fig. 13 (which is one 
the of the group attril)uted to Finiguerra) is an excellent example. The 

Boiognese. Bolognese school, on the other hand, of which Fr.\ncesco Rairolini 
(Franci.\) was the head, aimed at a velvety tone, both in modelling 
and background, which was achieved by the closest cross-hatchings, 
in which the effect of single lines was lost (cf pp. 69, 70, and Fig. 14). 
Now the characteristic of the clear cut line noticed in the backgrounds 
of the Florentine nielli is already seen to some extent in several 
plates of the earliest group (<•.,!,•■. the Rtsunwiioii with the Media 
Badi::e (Fig. 11) and the St. Peter Martyr, H. xiii. 88, 6), but the 

The Two 
Schools ; 

Fio. 13. — Maso Finiguerra, or a Niellist 
of his Scliool. Two Cupids blowing 

1 A type of niello was practised among the Romans, and also by the Pagan 
Saxons in F:ngland (about the si.\th century). A descripiion of the process is given 
in Theophilus (also called Rugerus), Divcrsanim Artiuiii Sc/icJi//,! (lib. iii. c^app. 
28, 29, 32, 41), which was probably written at the beginning of the Iwclfth century. 
In tlie preface to lib. i., in referring to ihc ScheduUf, he adds ,/;/<;«; si di/i!;,-ii/i'iis 
pcrscriileris illlc inveiiies i/iiicpiid . . . vigclli I'liriclnlc inn'it 7'i/schi. llr. llg (who 
edited the .Schedula, Vienna, 1871) held that Theophilus was a tierman monk of 
Hclniershauscn. In any case the mention of Tuscany as the chief home of the art of 
niello is significant, though the reading 7^iisdc! has not passed unchallenged. 



second factor, the close modelling, does not begin to make itself 
felt before the engraved work of Finiguerra himself and the beginning 
of what is called the " Fine " Manner. In the development of this 
" Fine " Manner the niello technique is of definite moment, though 
engraving in its beginnings must be regarded as originating from the 
goldsmith's art in general rather than from this special branch. 

To judge from the niello prints in existence (of which scarcely 
any go back as early as 1450), the idea of taking impressions of 
nielli on paper would hardly have been the beginning of engraving 
in Italy ; much more probably it was the niellist who took the 
suggestion from the already existing practice of engravers. A 
common method for the niello engraver to test his work was to 
take a sulphur cast of the plate and rub the lines with black, which 
would give an effect far truer to the original than any impression on 
paper, as may be seen by several examples of these rare " sulphurs " 

Fig. 14. — Peregrine da Cesena (?) Neptune. 

which are preserved in the Print Room of the British Museum. It 
seems that in most instances of early impressions from real nielli 
the proof was taken from the sulphur ; but the sulphur being an 
exact replica of the plate in form, and the impression being the 
reverse of the original, whether taken from the plate or from the 
sulphur, certainty on this point is not always attainable. 

Soon the niello-worker felt in his turn the influence of the Engravings 
engraver. Plates quite in the niello manner were done with the '" ''^'^ ""^"° 

. . . niQiiner 

express purpose of taking mipressions. Sometimes it is extremely 
difficult to make an absolute line of distinction between the two 
classes of work ; certain signs, however, if present, such as rivet- 
holes or inscription in reverse, declare for the niello proper, and 
impressions of these, which were taken merely to show the craftsman 
the progress of the work, are of course extremely rare. Of the 
second category, niello-like engravings, the majority issued from the 
Bolognese school of Francia, of which we reproduce an example by 
its most prolific exponent, to whose personality we shall recur at 


the end of the chapter (Fig. 14). These niello-like engravings may 





EbEN;^^RA iaeva /aam filicie 


Fiii. 15.— Anon, curly Kloivnlini' Engraver. The TiburtineSibyHin the Fine Manner). 

have been produced in many cases for the purpose of proxiding 
prints to be used as models for the worker in niello. 



Somewhat later than the Planets, but almost certainly within five The Finiguerra 
to ten years after Finiguerra's death, come the companion series of School. 
the Prophets and the Sibyls in the Fine Manner (see Fig. 15). In 
their theatrical costume they seem to be an illustration of some 
Sacra Rappresentazione of the "Annunciation," and verses below 
each print correspond closely to such a play by Feo Belcari, of which 
the first editions, though undated, must go back as early as 1480.^ 

Fig. 16. — Anon, early Florentine Engraver. Design for a Plate or Lid 
(from the Otto series). 

These, lil^e the prints attributed to Finiguerra, belong to what The two styles 
has been called the Fine Manner group. Their engraving is °^ Florentine 

cnpTa-vin? ■ 

characterised by fine lines laid closely together, and by a consider- xhe Fine and 
able use of somewhat irregular cross-hatching, and the result, if not Broad 
their aim, is an imitation of the tone of a washed drawing. Another banners. 
Completely distinct method, termed the Broad Manner, appeared 
in Florentine art about 1470-75, no doubt emanating from a com- 
pletely distinct workshop. It is a system composed of simple broad 

^ Alessandro d'Ancona, Sacre Rappreseniazioni dei sec. xiv. xv. e xvi. , Florence, 
1872, vol. i. p. 167. See also E. Male, Gazette, 1906, p. 89. 



The P'ine 

lines of parallel shading, after the manner of a pen drawing. The 
characteristics of the two manners may be well studied by a com- 
parison of the two sets of the Prophets and Sibyls, the Fine Manner 
series having been copied with considerable variations in the Broad 
Manner. The engraver who was responsible for this second version 
changed the characters of the figures into something far nearer 
Botticelli's style than the earlier series. As some evidence of the 
commerce in German prints at this period, it is of interest to note 
that nine of the Prophets and Sibyls were adapted from originals by 
the Master E. S.^ Then Schongauer's Pilate (B. 14) is copied in the 
Prophet Daniel, and his St. Sebastian (B. 59) may have suggested 

^ ^ 


Fig, 17. — Anon. Florentine Engraver (Seliool of Finiguena). 
Tile Trinmph of Bacchus and Ariadne (left half). 

the Albertina version of the Cliastisenicnt of CiipiJ, one of the set of 
The Otto prints called the " Otto " series, from the name of the eighteenth 
priiits. century collector, who possessed twenty-four of the type (now tor the 

most part in the liritisli Museum) {e.g. Fig. 16). They arc prints of 
round or oval form, mostly having an escutcheon or a blank space 
left for inscription, and no doubt intended to decorate the spice- 
boxes such as the Florentine gallant used to present to his mistress. 
In one case, that of the Voi/th and Girl holding np a Sphere (B. 17, 
Paris), [irobable connexion has been established with an amour of 
the young Lorenzo de' Medici and Lucretia Donati, which took place 

' .See I. ehrs, ,/,)/;/■/'«, 7;, xii. 125. l''or an example of an original plate of li. S. 
usetl for an ^'ngr.wing see .iI)o\e, pp. 26, 27. 



between about 1465 and 1467.^ In many of these prints, and in 
the beautiful Bacchus and Ariadne {set Figs. 17 and 18), we find 
the artificiahties of Burgundian fashion being discarded in favour of 
the simple classical costume ; and there is a grace and harmony in 
the design which suggests the growing influence of Botticelli. It 
is not at all unlikely that most of the prints in the Fine Manner 
which we have mentioned, showing as they frequently do repetitions 
of Finiguerra designs, also emanated from the same engraver's studio. 
Maso's father, Antonio, who died in 1464, soon after his famous 
son, left his sons Francesco and Stefano (who are mentioned in 
1457 as working in Venice and Rome respectively), and Maso's 

1 -^r-J.-, ».l**^ SsL"is<i?>P 

Fig. 18. — Anon. Florentine Engraver (School of Finiguerra). 
The Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne (right half). 

son Pierantonio, the heirs of his workshop. Francesco is known to 

have been carrying on the same goldsmith's shop in 1466.^ AliTiost Engravings 

the last prints in the manner of this school, and distinctly inferior '" books : 

, ... ... 1 .,1 . A ■ Monte Sancio 

to the precedmg m technical power, are the illustrations to Antonio ,^1 j^^g^ j .__ . 
Bettini's Monte Sancto di Dio, 1477, ^^^ Landino's Dante of 1481, Landino's 
both of which were published by Nicolas Laurentii. The former Dante, 1481. 
is one of the earliest instances known where the copper-plates used 
for book illustration were printed directly on to the page of text.^ Of 
thtDante illustrations, which were engraved after designs by Botticelli,* 

^ See A. Warburg, I^iv. d' Arte, iii. (1905), July. - Again in 1498 

he is mentioned as renting a goldsmith's shop with Tommaso and Antonio (sons 
of his late brother Stefano). Cf. H. P. Home, Botticelli^ 1908 (pp. 77-86). 

■^ Cf. pp. 30, 33, 65, 70, 96, 119. ^ Either adapted from those at 

Berlin and in the Vatican, or more probably based on an earlier series now lost. 


and never completed (they embrace the first nineteen cantos of the 

'^i. T ' -•» ft-w- 



L i:jiiUui] iti .ti Wi $ I' m mil i maii^j! 

Q ueA'o t Co lurch*! niondo E i nftccjucctodo/S/dilafciuiaKumana.' 

Amafochomr ufdifl^Ufdr.ii'mcji^iio "Numtocli pcnfierdola SuToflui' 

pViftndo fia tuo/chomcno{>ro Cignofr. Y^cuy {\^T\or(/Aio da-gcntc nana 

ViC. 19. — Anon, early l''loi\-minc l\np-avcr in the Broad Manner. 
The Tiiuniph of Love. 

Injcnio), only the first two, or at most three, are ever found printed 


on the page of text. The others, when they occur, are generally 
printed on a separate piece of paper and pasted in, an evidence of 
the difficulties which the printer experienced with the other process. 
Besides these two publications there is hardly any book of impor- other engrav- 
tance illustrated with metal engravings until the end of the next '"gs in fifteenth 
century, when the practice was revived with success. Three engrav- '^^" "^^ 
ings (two tables of affinity and the Virgin's Crown with a small 
Annunciation) are found in Fra Pacifico di Novara's Sumula di 
Pacifica Conscientia, printed in Milan by Philip de Lavagna in 1479. 
Another engraving of the Virgin's Crown was given in the earliest 
issues of Savonarola's Compendio di Revelazione (Florence, 1495), 
and these make the sum of copper engravings used for book illustra- 
tion in Italy during the fifteenth century, with the exception of the 
maps engraved for the editions of Ptolemy (Rome, 1479, ^nd 
Bologna, 1482) and Berlinghieri (Florence, about 1481, from the 
same press as the Dante). A few of Marcantonio's engravings were 
designed for books, but with such occasional exceptions,^ wood-cut 
commanded the field of book illustration throughout the first three 
quarters of the sixteenth century. 

Most of the prints in the Broad Manner, notably the two series. The Broad 
the Life of the Virgin and of Christ and the Triumphs of Petrarch MannerGroup. 
(see Fig. 19), range themselves near to the influence of Pesellino, 
Filippo Lippi, and Alessio Baldovinetti. Three large plates — 
Moses on Mount Sinai (P. V. 39, 93), David and Goliath (P. V. 39, 
94), and the Adoration of the Magi (P. V. 40, 96) — are notable 
examples, while in another of the group, the Deluge ■{&. xiii. 71, 3), 
the suggestion was undoubtedly taken from Uccello's fresco in 
S. Maria Novella. The large Assumption with Rome in the back- 
ground (B. xiii. 86, 4), is perhaps as near as any of the Florentine 
engravings of the time to Botticelli in design, and the Madonna with 
St. Michael and St. Helena (P. V. 108, 33) presents kindred elements 
of style, somewhat more freely translated.^ 

How far Baccio Baldini, who, according to Vasari, worked Baccio Baldini. 
almost wholly after Botticelli's designs, is responsible for any of the 
anonymous plates we have mentioned is still an unsolved problem. 
He may have been among those who carried on the tradition of the 
Finiguerra school in the Monte Sancto and Dante engravings, but 
his separate entity as an engraver would incline one to look for him 
as the representative of the Broad Manner group which, as we have 
seen, contains examples almost as certainly derived from Botticelli 
as the Dante prints in the Fine Manner. 

The same principle of technique that is found in the Broad Antonio 
Manner, the imitation of the character of pen drawing, is also seen Pol'amolo. 
in the only engraving which is unquestionably by the hand of the 
painter and goldsmith Antonio Pollaiuolo, the large Battle of the 
Nudes (Fig. 20). . In the power of its design and the nervous grip of 
1 See, e.g., Mocetto, p. 65. ^ Cf. Home, Botticelli, 1908, pp. 288-91. 



its drawing, it is one of the greatest achievements in the engraving of 

tiie fifteenth century. In teclinical character, with the open parallel 
lines interlaid (at a small angle) with lighter lines of shadini;, it 
resembles Mantegna, who may owe something of his style to^'he 


suggestion of the Florentine, though it is dangerous to be dogmatic 
in regard to the interchange of influence of these contemporaries. 
Despite the largeness of the line-work, there is still something in its 
character, e.g. the close deep lines of shading of the background 
casting the whole into relief, which reveals the goldsmith who has 
worked in niello. Of the nielli which Pollaiuolo must have done 
it is difficult to speak with any certainty. The style of Finiguerra, 
who was probably the more prolific craftsman in this medium, is so 
near to his, that a definite distinction of their work presents consider- 
able difficulty. The Hercules and the Hydra (Dut. 338, British 
Museum) must depend directly on his design, although its close 
technique shows a certain affinity to the school of Bologna. Of all 
the Florentine nielli the Fortitudo (Dut. 425, Rothschild), which 
is essentially in the same technical manner as those attributed to 
Finiguerra, most nearly reflects Pollaiuolo's style, even if it be not 
by his hand. 

An attractive engraver, though scarcely an accomplished crafts- Robetta. 
man, is Cristofano Robetta, about whose personality Vasari tells 
us nothing except that he belonged to a certain dining society of 
twelve, called the " Kettle " (of whom Andrea del Sarto was perhaps 
the most distinguished member) which met at the house of the 
sculptor G. F. Rustici.^ He is a typical master of a period of 
transition, having lost the conviction of the primitive without 
succeeding to the developed modes of expression. Three 
of his prints are adaptations from Filippino Lippi (i.e. the 
Madonna appearing to St. Bernard, from the picture in the Badia, 
Music and Philosophy, from a grisaille in S. Maria Novella, and the 
Adoration from the Uffizi picture). The variations introduced in 
the latter, e.g'. the addition of a graceful group of singing angels, 
show that he was no servile copyist, but possessed of a real sense 
for composition. Pollaiuolo provides him with two models in the 
Hercules and Antceus and Hercules and the Hydra,''' while Robetta's 
facility in adaptation is seen in the fragments of background 
taken from Diirer, a source of plagiarism which was just beginning 
to become popular in Italy. Some of his various nude and 
subject studies, e.g. the Allegory of Envy (B. 24), may be inspired 
by Signorelli, but no definite connexion can be traced. How 
pleasing Robetta can be, when to all appearance original, is well 
illustrated in his Allegory of Abundance (B. 1 8) and in his Ceres 
(Fig. 21). The irregularity of the scheme of shading, with its un- 
restful curvature, fails to detract from their charm. 

Of later Florentine engravers, who, like Robetta, worked at the 

^ In any case before 1512, which is the date given by Vasari for another society 
{the ' ' Trowel ") which, in point of time, succeeded the ' ' Kettle. " 

2 The small panels in the UfBzi which are in reverse to the prints, were probably 
the immediate originals. The complete change in the landscape to something per- 
fectly characteristic of Robetta, and other variations in posture, scarcely justify the 
assumption that they reproduce the lost pictures of the Medici Palace. 




end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century, we 
know only the miniature painter Gherardo, and Lucantonio degli 
Uberti. Tlie former is Httle but a name except for his work in 
illumination {e./^: in the Museo Nazionale, Florence), but he may be 
responsible for some of the rough Italian copies after Schongauer 

Fig. 21. — Cristoforo Rolx-lt.i. L'orcs. 

Lucaniniiio and other northern originals at this epoch. Lucantonio must 
degh uIkui. ^^^^ y^^ confounded with the Lucantonio da Giunta, a Florentine 
who was settled as a publisher in \'enice, although our engraver also 
worked in Venice, and himself turned printer at Verona hi 150^4. 
His engravings are roughly and irregularly cut, and have no artistic 
merit. Perhaps the most important is a large print after the much 



discussed Last Supper in St. Onofrio in Florence (P. V. p. 194, 

Fig. 22. — Anon, early Italian Engraver. 
Clio (from the E series of the so-called " Tarocchi " Cards). 

Turning to the north of Italy we are confronted at the outset 



The North 
Itahan set of 

called the 
' * Tarocchi 
cards of 
Mantegna "). 

Two versions 
The E series. 
The S series. 

with problems of authorship as difficult and obscure as in the case 
of the school of Florence. The "Tarocchi cards of Mantegna," 
as they have been called, are no more Tarocchi than they are by 
or after Mantegna, but seem to form a sort of instructive game 
for youth, if not a mere picture-book of popular designs, the 
subjects represented in the fifty cards of five suits comprising the 
sorts and conditions of men, Apollo and the Muses, the arts and 
sciences, the genii and the virtues, the planets and spheres. There 
: are two different sets of prints, the one engraved with much greater 
precision and finish, in which Nos. I.-X. are lettered E (B. xiii. p. 131, 
" Copies "), the other to a large extent in reverse and executed in 
a more careless technique, with Nos. I.-X. lettered S (B. xiii. p. 120, 
" originals "). There has been much difference of opinion as to 
which is the original series, some again thinking that both may go 
back independently to the same set of designs. Many elements, 
however, point to the " E " series (Bartsch's copies) being the earlier 
set, if not the original from which the other was adapted. -"^ If the 
author of the E series had known S, or S's originals, he would 
scarcely have replaced the easy posture of the legs in the Imperator 
(9) and Musica (26) with his own awkward versions. On the other 
hand, it would be most natural for the later engraver to correct 
such errors of a predecessor. Absurd mistakes such as occur in the 
Talia (16), who in the S series bows the viol with her left arm and 
fingers with her right, cannot be taken as arguments on one side or 
the other, as the earlier engraver would be just as likely to reverse 
an original drawing as the copyist an engraving. With all his 
clumsiness in detail — e.g. the feet in the Spemnsa (39), the figure of 
the Cosmico (33), the hmbs and folds of Clio (19) — the S engraver 
possesses a freedom and realism in his draughtsmanship which 
scarcely supports its priority in face of the precise and archaic manner 
of the E series. 

In character of design, in the rounded forms and bulging folds, 
the latter series has a close kinship to the Ferrarese school of 
Cosimo Tura, and Cossa. There are, at the same time, reminis- 
cences of Mantegna, e.g. The Merchant (4), while other elements 
{e.g. the spelling " Doxe " for Doge and the recurrence of the 
lagoons in the background) point to a Venetian production, or at 
least a Venetian market. The assumption that the E series is the 
work of a Venetian engraver is strongly supported by the correspond- 
ence of its technical manner, the clear cutting, and the regular 

1 There are two important pieces of evidence which fix the date of the E series as 
before 1468 : — 

(i) Five of tlie prints are pasted in a MS. (a German translation of Fiordi Virtu) 
which was finished 28th Nov. 1468 (S. Gallen Library, Cod. Vad. 484). The 
scribe has written round the prints, and has in some cases let his lines pass over their 
margins, proving that they were not inserted later. 

(ii) Miniature copies (of the Hmpcror and Pope, and the throne from the .l/<;;-t) 
in a MS. of 1467, Consti/ii-Joni dc/lo Studio Bolognese, in the Archivio di Stato 
Bologna (see M.alaguzzi, Arc/iivio Storico, vii. p. i6 and tav. 5). ^ ' 


system of shading, with a print so certainly Venetian as the political 
Allegory of Pope and Emperor (Ottley, Facsimiles, 1826, No. 24, 
cf. P. V. 190, 106).^ Nevertheless, while placing the engraving in 
Venice, we would still look to the Ferrarese school for the origin of 
the designs. 

With all his shortcomings, the author of the S series shows a 
greater feeling for beauty of form, and a truer appreciation for the 
value of space in composition. This consideration, as well as the 
affinity of its less regular system of engraving to the prints of the 
■Fine Manner group, lends some support to the suggestion that its 
author belonged to the Florentine school. 

Closely akin to the E series of the cards are two Fountains 
of Love (P. V. 189, 99 and 100) in the British Museum, and the 
Death of Orpheus in Hamburg (P. V. 47, 120), while a Virgin 
adoring the Child (Burlington House, and Trivulzio collection, 
Milan) seems directly inspired by a drawing in the Uffizi attributed 
to Marco Zoppo. A few engravings of Ships {e.g. P. V. 192, no, Venetian 
Brit. Museum) are not far removed in style, and, like the Allegory engravings. 
of Pope and Emperor, almost certainly Venetian. Of a somewhat 
different character is a print of a Madonna with Saitits and Angels, 
pasted on the cover of a book printed in 1496, in the Biblioteca 
Marciana, Venice. It is somewhat earlier than any of the preceding, 
and is more nearly akin to the school of Bartolommeo and Alvise 

A real pack of Tarocchi cards (P. V. p. 127, etc.), which ■ is The Ferrarese 
complete in the collection of the Conte Sola, Milan (the British school. 
Museum and the Albertina possessing certain numbers), corresponds 
much more absolutely than the so-called "Tarocchi" with the style 
of Cosimo Tura, and may be definitely regarded as Ferrarese. A few 
other prints quite in the same style are known, e.g. a St. Sebastian 
and a St. Anthony in the Royal Library at Vienna (P. V. 186, gi, 
and P. V. IIS, 80). 

In Florence the engravers, with the exception of Pollaiuolo, Mantegna. 
have all been artists of second or third rank. The North of Italy, 
on the other hand, can boast one of her great painters, and, in fact, 
one of the greatest masters of modern art, i.e. Andrea Mantegna, 
among her earliest engravers. Born at Vicenza in 1431, trained in 
the classical school of Squarcione at Padua, he settled about 1459 
in Mantua, remaining there in the service of its Marquesses 
until his death in 1506. The character of his engraving is a 
close imitation of the style of his pen drawings — open parallel lines 
of shading with lighter lines obliquely laid between them. Possibly 
the first idea that suggested engraving of this type was the popularity 

^ Probably dating about 1470, and ■ referring to the meeting of Paul II. and 
Frederick III, which took place just before that date. The engraving described by 
Bartsch (xiii. no, 8), bearing the date 1495, is a repetition of the subject, which is 
also found earlier in several wood-cuts. 



of his drawings as designs in other studios, and the profit that would 
accrue through the multiplication of impressions. 

In all, some twenty-five plates have been attributed to Mantegna, 
but it is very doubtful whether the master himself engraved more 
than the seven or eight, which so far excel the rest in quality. 

M. — vViulrea MaiUfi;n;i. i'lic \'iri;in and L'hiKl. 

These plates are the riri^i/i and Child (B. 8, Fig. 23), The 
two Bacchanals (B. 19 and 20), the Battle of the Tritons and 
Sea-Gods^ (two plates, B. 17 and 18), tht Entond'mcnt (horizontal 
plate, B. 3), and the Risen Christ /vtieven St. Andfnv and St. 
Lcnginus (B. 6). In these the line exhibits all the characteristics 
of Mantegna's pen-work. The outline is firm and broad, but the 

' Clirislcncd by K. VCiX^^t^x F.nvy among the Ichthioph.igcs {.lahrb. xxiii. 20^). 


cross-lines of shading seem to have been but lightly scratched on 
the plate, and were consequently worn away in a very few printings, 
leaving most of the late impressions (which are not uncommon) 
mere ghosts of the composition in its original state. Generally, too, 
6ne early impressions show the broken line, which possibly implies 
an undeveloped roller-press and lack of pressure in the printing. 

With one possible exception (the Elephants, from the Triumph 
of Caesar, B. 12) none of the other plates attributed to the master 
exhibit any of the nervous power and delicacy of modelling seen in 
the prints we have mentioned. The Flagellation (B. i) and the 
Christ in Limbo (B. 5) stand in particular contrast to the above in 
their hard outhnes and shading, and crude modelling. They are 
engraved directly after Mantegna and after designs belonging to the 
period of the Eremitani frescoes (which were painted some time 
between 1448 and 1455). The earliest of the undoubted engravings 
(the Virgin and Child) can hardly be earlier than 1470-1480, but 
even this interval of time can hardly account for the enormous 
difference in quality, between what must be called the " school " 
and the " authentic " groups. 

The vertical Entombment (of which there are two plates ; one, 
perhaps the better, given by Bartsch to G. A. da Brescia) and the 
Descent from the Cross (B. 4) have something more of the 
technical character of the authentic group, but are too weak to 
bear comparison, while the Virgin in th^ Grotto (B. 9) and the 
three plates after drawings for the Triumph of Caesar^ have lately 
been rejected on the principle that the artist-engraver does not 
repeat his painted work in engraving.^ Probably the latter reason is 
a nicety of feeling which did not occur to the great masters, whose 
practice created convention, but in any case the Elephants is the only 
plate of the three which possesses any of the best characteristics of 
Mantegna's engravings, and even this one fails to carry conviction. 

From documentary evidence it is known that two engravers, Simone di 
ZoAN Andrea and Simone di Ardizone, were working in Mantua Ardizone and 
in 1475, and from the alleged hostility of Mantegna, which once 
went to the length of assaulting the two engravers and leaving them 
for dead in the street, it seems probable that they were making 
free use of the master's designs. And the very fact that Mantegna 
had made offers to Ardizone on his arrival in Mantua, seems to 
show that the great painter already had the idea of getting his designs 
engraved, although he may not yet have taken up the graver himself. 
Both Simone di Ardizone, to whom hitherto no prints have been 
attributed, and Zoan Andrea, may be responsible for some of the 
anonymous school engravings. Only a- small proportion of the prints Zoan Andrea, 
signed by the latter (e.g. the Hercules and Deianeira, B. 9) are in the 
essentially Mantegnesque manner. Many are copies from Diirer, while 

^ The series of nine large canvases is now in Hampton Court. 
'•* Cf. Chapter VI. on Rembrandt, p. 174 and note i. 



(i, A. (1,1 

I'll;. -4, --/u.iii Aiuhi-a, 
I'aiK-l of arabcsiiue ornament (part). 

Others are so near the style of 
the miniaturist of the Sforza 
Book of Hours {e.g. three ^ of 
the series of upright ai-abesques, 
B. 21-32, see Fig. 24), that Zoan 
Andrea may be assumed to have 
settled in Milan after leaving 
Mantua. Moreover, two of his 
later engravings (a Virgin and 
Ciiiid, B. 6,* and the Dragon 
and tJie Lion, B. 20) are un- 
doubtedly after designs by Leon- 
ardo da Vinci. In his later 
works (e.g. the Two Lovers, P. 
43) the engraver has discarded 
the Mantegnesque system for a 
much more meagre treatment of 
line. He must not be con- 
founded with the woodcutter 
Zoan Andrea ^'avassore who 
was working in Venice as late as 

G I o \" A N N I Antonio d .\ 
Brescia probably came into con- 
nexion with Mantegna later than 
Zoan Andrea, but he has left 
more signed engravings than the 
latter directly after designs by 
the master, of which the LLereiiles 
and ilic Lion (B. 11) and Hercules 
and Antaeus (B. 14) are good 
examples. Three of his prints 
bear dates : two copies from 
1 )virer, the Great Horse and the 
Satyr Family, belonging respect- 
ively to 1505 and 1507, and a 
Luge Flagellation (P. 29) being 
dated 1509. In the last he is 
still working in the Mantegnesque 
manner, but a suggestion of 
Pollaiuolo in the figures, and of 
the Roman school in the archi- 
tectural setting, suggests that he 
may have lately arrived in Rome 
after journeying South through 

C'l". below, p. Oi, foi- the attribution of the reniainini 
- ;\fler a stLid\' for the Madonna Litta. 


Florence. A print based on a newly-found statue of Venus (P. 42) 
and a free version of the Belvedere Torso (B. 5) are also probaky 
early works of this period, showing the transition to a style which 
was never more than a most crude assimilation of the Roman 
engraver's manner. He must have been working here in any case 
up to 1517, if not considerably later, as his print of Abram and 
Melchizedek (P. 26) is based on one of the Vatican Loggie frescoes 
(which were painted between 1517 and 1519). 

Another engraver of the same local extraction, Giovanni Maria G. m. da 
DA Brescia, a member of the Carmelite Order, who worked at the Brescia. 
beginning of the sixteenth century (the dates 1502 and 15 12 occur- 
ring on two of the four prints by his hand), is an utterly poor 
craftsman, but interesting from one print, the Triumph of Trajan, 
which almost certainly preserves a lost original by Vincenzo Foppa. 

NicoLETTO RosEX (Rossi or Rosa ?) of Modena is another North Nicoletto da 
Italian engraver who in his earlier works came under the influence ^°^^'^^' 
of Mantegna's style, though he only directly copied that master's 
designs in a very few instances, e.g. Hercules and Antaeus (after 
Mantegna [school], B. 16), and Neptune (after a figure in Man- 
tegna's Bacchanal with the Tub). The St. Cecilia (P. 85),. the 
Victory (P. loi), and the Two Nude Children holding a Cross} are 
good examples of this early phase. He soon developed the use of 
cross-hatching, and many prints of a second phase (which may be 
contemporary with certain other prints still in the Mantegnesque 
manner) are designed on a darkly-shaded ground somewhat after the 
conventions of the niellist. One or two small prints in the manner 
of nielli bear his initials (e.g. Galichon, Gazette, 2"= pdr. IX. p. 167, 
No. 7), but whether he worked as a goldsmith and ever produced 
nielli proper is quite uncertain. The development Of his engraving 
at this period may have been partly due to Schongauer (from whom 
he made several copies), but a far greater change seems to have 
been effected by his study of Diirer (which must have been about 
1500, the date of a copy of the Four Naked Wo77ien). But the 
change in his manner of shading, and his adoption of a more deli- 
cate system of cross-hatching was not all. He developed about the 
same time a style of composition quite his own among engravers of 
the time, nearly always surrounding his saint or allegorical figure 
in a fantastic setting of classical ruin. That Mantegna first 
inspired him to this treatment we might gather from the large 
St. Sebastian in the British Museum (Chalc. Soc. 1891, No. 29), 
which seems suggested by some picture, such as the Aigueperse or 

^ B. xiii. 297, 5, as Zoan Andrea, who is more probably the author of Bartsch's 
copy (i. ). The connexion with this engraver suggests that Nicoletto might have 
learnt his ' ' Mantegnesque " under Zoan Andrea in Milan, a possibility not unsup- 
ported by the style or architecture seen in the Nativity (P. 70). We would also 
tentatively suggest that Nicoletto might be the engraver of Bramante's large design 
of an Interior. The Vulcan and Cupid (B. 52), St. Cecilia (P. 85), and St. Sebas- 
tian (Chalc. Soc. 1891, 29) are closely related to it in style of cutting. 



Vienna versions of the subject. Then something of the charm of 
his landscape may have been inspired by the anonymous master 
I B, whose work we are about to mention. In one case Nicoletto 
actually reworked a plate by this engraver {Leda, P. 9), and re- 
placed the original signature with his own monogram. ^ This late 
phase of his work seems to follow closely after the Diirer copies, 
and extends at least until 1512, the date on a St. Anthony within 
a Colonnade. 

The Apelles (P. 104), borrowed from a figure in Filippino 
Lippi's fresco of the Triumph of St. Thomas (in S. Maria sopra 
Minerva), and the engravings of the statues of Marcus Aurelius 
(B. 64) and of the Apollo Belvedere (B. 50) suggest the probability of 
a sojourn in Rome. His plates of arabesque ornament, which form 
a considerable part of his work, are a mixture of the purely North 
Italian elements seen in the arabesques of Zoan Andrea, with the 
style of the Raphael school as seen in the prints of Giovanni Antonio 
da Brescia and Agostino Veneziano. 
I B (with the An engraver who uses the signature I B (accompanied by the de- 

vice of a bird ^) was identified by Zani, perhaps somewhat rashly, with 
a Giovanni Battista del Porto, to whom Vedriani, in his work on the 
artists of Modena, devotes a short paragraph.' Neither Tiraboschi * 
nor Venturi ^ has been able to find documentary evidence even of 
the existence of Vedriani's engraver, the only member of the Modenese 
family cited by Venturi who might be identical being a certain 
Battista del Porto, who was working as a goldsmith and die-cutter in 
Modena between 1529 and 1537. It is not impossible that the 
engraver was working as late as this, but general elements of style, 
and the print commemorating the monstrous twins born at Rome in 
1503, point to the earlier years of the century. His small allegorical 
figure of Foresight (P. 8), with its niello-like technique in the 
background, suggests a goldsmith's education. Influenced by Man- 
tegna (more particularly in his wood cuts), and to some extent by 
Nicoletto da Modena (whom he inspired in his turn), copying and 
borrowing from Diirer, and showing some characteristics in common 
with the Bolognese school (to which he has recently been assigned 
by Dr. Kristeller), it seems rash to dogmatise on the locality of so 
eclectic a spirit. 

1 For similai- practices cf. above W Y and Meckenem. Of the early Italian 
school wc may refer to a print of Montagna ( Virgin and Child, E. 7), which in one 
state bears the signature of G. A. da Brescia (lOAN. BX), though whether this 
engraver added it himself seems open to question. 

- One thinks of Passeri or Uccello as possible surnames, but no artist of either 
name is known who can be identified with I B. 

^ L, Vedriani, Raao!/,! di-' pi/fori scultori cl architetti Modonesi. Modena, 
1662 (p. 45, immediately following the article on Nicoletto da Modena). Zani, unfor- 
tunately, never published the material which he seems to liave possessed in support of 
his identification (see ^[airriali, p. 134). 

■■ G. Tiraboschi, NoHue de Pitlori, etc. . . . di Modena. Modena, 1786. 

» A. X'enturi, gli Orafi da Porto. Archivio Storico Italiaiw, 1887, p.' 205. 


Until nearly the end of the century hardly any engravings seem The Milanese 
to have been produced at Milan. There are the three prints School. 
already mentioned/ which appeared in Fra Pacifico di Novaro's 
Sumula di Pacifica Conscientia of 1479, ^^d a few isolated examples 
which seem to bear the impress of the school, such as an Annuncia- 
tion (P. V. 67, 61) and a Crucifixion (P. v. 68, 65a) (both in the 
Albertina), may certainly be referred to a date prior to 1490. Then Master of the 
about this period follows an interesting group of engravings, which Sforza Book 
stands in the closest relation to the Milanese school of illumination, ('^ntonio da 
as seen in the Sforza Book of Hours ^ and in the Grenville copy of Monza?) 
Simonetta's Historia delle cose facte dallo . . . Francesco Sforza, 
Milan, r49o (both in the British Museum), and in two miniatures ^ in 
the collection of M. Leopold Goldschmidt in Paris. The prints we 
refer to include among others a Virgin and Child with Playing 
Angels (B. xiii. 85, 3), a Pieth (Albertina), and a little Allegory on 
Death (P. V. 21, 35). Quite near in style again are the large upright 
arabesques by Zoan Andrea, while the thinner line work and cross- 
hatching of nine of the same series mark them as by our Milanese 
Anonimo (B. xiii. 306, 21-32). Another of the prints of the same 
engraver (B. xiii. 83, 28) reproduces the Last Supper of Leonardo 
da Vinci, which was finished in 1498, so that his activity must 
extend till quite the last years of the century. Every element of 
style and every mannerism of this Milanese engraver corresponds 
so absolutely with that of the Master of the Sforza Book of Hours 
that it seems more than probable that miniaturist and engraver 
are identical. It is at least rare to find an engraver -of the 
fifteenth century who so completely merges his individuality in 
the artist, by whose designs he is inspired. The further point; 
that the author '' of these illuminations is Antonio da Monza,^ Of 
whom there is only one signed miniature (the Descent of the 
Holy Spirit, in the Albertina, Vienna), is supported by good 
authorities, but scarcely proved by a convincing correspondence 
in style. 

Several engravings have been attributed to Leonardo himself, and Did Leonardo 
it is natural to imagine that among his numerous interests he at ^'^ ^'"'^' 
some time made attempts in this medium. Only one of the prints 
in question possesses anything of the character of Leonardo's 
authentic work, i.e. the Profile Bust of a Young Woman in the British 
Museum (P. V. 180, 1). The slipped stroke on the forehead be- 
trays the hand of a tiro in the medium, but the sensitive quality 
of the outline, and the exquisite significance of the drawing, show 

1 See p. 49. 

2 See G. F. Warner, London, 1894. 

^ Reproduced, Venturi, L Arte, i. p. 154. One of them is signed an ma. 

** Le.t the master illuminator. The difference in quality between many of the 
illuminations points to several assistants working out his designs. 

* An artist of the name was working in Padua in 1456 (see G. A. Moschini, 
Pittura in. Padava, 1826). 




Jacopo de' 

a veritable master of style. The other profile bust, a Young Woman 
with a Garland of Ivy (P. V. i8o, 2), is much coarser in engraving, 
and might be the work of the same hand that is responsible for the 
six patterns of interlaced cord {"knots," as Diirer called his wood- 
cut copies), which also bear the inscription academia leonardi.^ 
The three Ifeads of Horses (B. xiii. 331, 24) might have been done 
by a Zoan Andrea, or G. A. da Brescia, and the same may be said 
of the three Heads of Old Men (B. " Mantegna," 2 1-23), which seem 
to be inspired by some Leonardesque design. The sheet of studies 
for the Sforza equestrian monument (British Museum) shows a far 
greater freedom of handling, but its draughtsmanship lacks articula- 
tion and unity, and marks it as a mere contemporary reproduction 
of his drawings.^ 

A large engraving of an interior signed Bramantus fecit in Mlo ^ 
is generally accepted as the original work of the great architect, who 
was working in Milan from before 1477 until 1499. There is no 
question about the authenticity of the design, which is reminiscent 
of elements in the sacristy of S. Satiro * in Milan, but the engraving 
seems to be rather the work of a dull but fairly equipped craftsman ^ 
than the unique attempt of a genius in a strange medium. The use 
of the ■voxA fecit is unusual at this epoch in reference to engraving, 
and it may simply refer to the author of the design. 

The first personality to issue from the cloud of uncertainty 
which envelops the early history of the art in Venice is the engraver 
who uses as his signature the " Caduceus," or wand of Mercury, i.e. 
Jacopo de' Barbari. Born about 1450 (or somewhat earlier),^ 
working as a painter in Venice and the neighbourhood in the latter 
part of the century, appointed portrait and miniature painter to the 
Emperor in Augsburg in 1500, painting at Wittenberg and various 
parts of Saxony in the service of Frederick the ^^'ise between 1503 
and 1505, visiting Nuremberg in 1505, if not also at other times, with 
Joachim I. of Brandenburg at Frankfurt-a-0 in 1508, working for 
Count Philip of Burgundy in his castle at Zuytborch in company 
with Mabuse, and finally pensioned and dying in the service of the 

1 The inscription, which probably means no more than "academical exercise," 
has given rise to wild conjectures about a regular teaching Academy under Leonar-do's 
direction in Milan. 

'^ Cf. drawings in Windsor ; in particular one reproduced by J. P. Richter, 
Literary Remains, Plate Ixv. 

5 Two impressions are known : (i) British Museum (with inscription in ink) ; (ii) 
in the Casa Perego, Milan (where the inscription is said to be engraved). 

^ Completed some time between 1480 and 1488, 

" Cf. note I, p. S9. where Nicoletto da Modena's name has been suggested 
in connexion. 

» In the grant of a pension in 1511 he is mentioned as " old and infirm." The 
double portrait of Luca Pacioli and the artist (signed iaco-bar.vigennis.p.i495), 
recently acquired for the Naples Museum, would upset this theory if rightly interpreted 
as Jacopo de' Barbari painted in his twentieth year. . . . Documentary evidence is 
so strong on the other side that the authorship of this interesting picture must be 
still regarded as a problem (see N'enturi, L'Arte, vi. 95 ; Ricci, Jiassegna d'Artc, 
iii. 75 ; Gronau, Jfassegna d'.lrte, 1905, p. 28). 



Archduchess Margaret, Regent of the Netherlands — these are a 
wealth of biographical detail possessed in the case of (ew other 
Italian engravers of the period. In Nuremberg he was known as 
Jacob Walch, i.e. Jacob the "foreigner" — the Italian, and the 
error which long placed him among Northern engravers is easily 

Fig. 25. — Jacopo de' Barbari. The Three Prisoners. 

understood. Nevertheless throughout this engraved work (which 
contains some thirty numbers) he shows himself essentially Italian 
in spirit, owing something to the Vivarini, but thoroughly individual 
in his development. Nor was his system of engraving greatly in- 
fluenced by Northern models. 

Barbari handles the graver with a light touch, and his line, with 
the burr incompletely removed, possesses something of the character 


of dry-point. He never developed the regularity of cutting, which 
gives engraving its special quality in rendering tonic values, and his 
prints possess the appearance of pen drawings transferred to copper. 
In his earlier work (to judge from the Judith, B. i, and the St. 
Catherine, B. 8, with their long sinuous folds, clinging draperies, and 
sentimental pose) he follows roughly in the wake of the Mantegna 
school in his parallel shading, though an essential difference may 
be remarked in the curving lines which follow the contours. 
Later he developed a closer system of cross-hatching, which may 
have found its inspiration in Diirer,^ but never approached the 
master at all closely. To Barbari in this later phase, of which the 
St. Sebastian (P. 27) is perhaps the finest example, Lucas van Leyden 
seems to be in some degree indebted. Prints like the Three 
Prisoners (B. 17, Fig. 25) and the Apollo and Diana (B. 14), we 
would place midway in his development, probably somewhat before 
than after 1500. This, however, is a dangerous point, and touches 
another problem of great uncertainty, i.e. the order of relationship in 
which the Apollo and Diana stands to Diirer's print of the same 
subject. To us it seems that the most natural explanation is to 
assume the priority of Barbari's print, to regard this as one^ source 
of suggestion for Diirer's Apollo drawing in the British Museum 
(Lippmann, 233), and for the engraving of about 1505, while admit- 
ting that the transformation of the subject leaves great room for very 
different speculations.^ 
Mocetto. Both as craftsman and artist Girolamo Mocetto stands on a 

lower plane than Jacopo de' Barbari. His careless method of 
shading seems less like the work of a practised engraver than the 
occasional attempt of the painter. But even in the latter capacity, 
in which he may have acted as assistant to Bellini, his works are 
few and poor. According to Vasari he came from Verona, but the 
greater part of his work is completely Venetian in character, and 
produced in Venice under the influence of Alvise Alvarini, Giovanni 
Bellini, and Cima. Some of his prints, probably earlier examples 
dating in the last decade of the fifteenth century, are after designs 
by Mantegna or his school, e.g. Judith, and the Calumny of Ape lies, 
the latter being based on a drawing attributed to Mantegna in the 
British Museum. The setting of the Calumny in a background 
suggested by the Place of SS. Giovanni e Paolo shows that the 
engraver was already working in Venice. The ]'irgin and Child 
enthroned (B. 4) and the large Mrgin and Child 7c<ith Saints and 
Angels (P. 10) reflect the style of Alvise Vivarini ; the Baptistn of 
Christ is directly inspired by a picture by Giovanni Bellini in 
S. Corona, Vicenza, though certain elements may have been sug- 

1 The nearest analogies are seen in Diirer's work about 1500, e.g. the nude in the 
Rape of Amymone. 

^ The other being tlie Apollo Belvedere. 

^ For other points of relation to Dtirer, of. Chap. II. pp. 74, 75. 



gested by Cima's Baptism in S. Giovanni in Bragora, Venice. In 
his lineal manner, and in the angular character of fold and contour 
(comparable to the Vicentine school), Mocetto stands in even closer 
relationship to Vivarini and Cima than to Bellini. 

Some unimportant topographical plates were engraved by Mocetto 
to illustrate Ambrogio Leone's De Nola Opusadum (Venice, 15 14), 

Fig, 26. — Giulio Canipagnola. Christ and the Woman of Samaria (part). 

but this is the only certain date afforded by his prints of an activity 
which is known to have continued until after 1530. 

Giulio Campagnola is an interesting artist whose only recog- Giulio 
nised monument consists in his engravings, which scarcely amount Campagnola. 
to a score in number. According to contemporary accounts he 
was a youth of wonderful versatility and promise, and while still 
under seventeen reaped much praise for his skill in the various arts 
of painter, miniaturist, engraver, and musician, no less than for his 
knowledge of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. One of his prints is a 



direct copy from Diirer (the Penance of St. John Ckrysostom, P.K. 4), 
and several of his plates show adaptations from Diirer's landscape 
backgrounds, but the style of his engraving was far less dependent 
on the German master than that of most of his contemporaries. 
The inspiration of his art, seen in plates like the Young Shepherd 
(P.K. 8), Christ and the Woman of Samaria (P.K. 2, Fig. 26), 
and the Astrologer (P. K. 11), is clearly that of Giorgione, and the 
special character of his technique, a system of graver flicks so 
delicate that they approximate to dots made with the point, is 
directed to rendering the soft gradations of chiaroscuro affected by 
his model. Two of his prints, i.e. the Young Shepherd and the 
Astrologer, are known in two states, — the first in pure line, the 
second with the spaces between the lines filled up with the flick 
work; while in others, e.g. Naked Child with three Cats (P.K. 7), 
the Woman Sleeping (P.K. 13), and the noble St. John the Baptist 
(P.K. 3), the shading is achieved almost wholly by the most delicate 
flick work. The latter shows him, like Mocetto in a print of the 
same composition, borrowing the figure probably from some design 
by Mantegna, of which the existing versions (e.g. Ambrosiana) seem 
only school copies. One of his plates, the Shepherds in a Landscape 
(P.K. 9), was left unfinished, the foreground and figures being added 
later by Domenico Campagnola. It is natural to infer that Giulio's 
activity did not extend long after the latest mention we possess of 
his existence.! 
5J. In the special character of his technique, the completion of 

a skeleton lineal design by close graver flicks, Giulio Campagnola 
finds his closest imitator in the engraver who uses the signature $J . 
He has been identified, partly on the basis of the monogram, with 
Martino da Udine (called also Pellegrino da S. Daniele), 
but the distinctly Ferrarese character of his few prints, e.g. the 
Pieta (P. 2), and the Triumph of the Moon (P. 4), has still to be 
explained if this identification be correct.- 
Marcello Marceli.g Fogolino, a painter who was working between 1 5 1 9 

Fogolino. g^j^jj 1548, chiefly in Vicenza, has also signed a few engravings whose 
flick- work shading takes its suggestion from Giulio Campagnola {e.g. 
the Nude Woman and Child, P. 3). Other prints, e.g. the Presenta- 
tion of the Virgin (P. 2), are engraved almost wholly in line, but with 
a softness of tone which seems to indicate the use of the dry-point. 

Another small group of engravings,^ which has been generally 
assigned to the Milanese school, seems to be nearer in style of 

1 In the will of Aldo Manuzio (Jan. 1515), who charges his executor to get certain 
cursive type cut by G. C. (see A, Baschet, Aldo M. , Lettres et Documents. Venice, 
1867, p. 47). Another famous artist of the period, who is known to have cut type" 
for Aldo, is Francesco Francia (see A. Panizzi, Chi era Franeesco da Bologna f 
London, 1858 and 1873). 

^ Martino worked in Ferrara at various times between 1504 and 1512, but there 
is no evidence of a transformation of style sufficient to support the hypothesis. 

5 For the attribution to Cesare da Sesto, see Passavant, Deiitsches Kunstbl. i, 364. 



composition to the school of Campagnola, and in technical manner Master of the 
finds its closest analogy in Marcello Fogolino. The Allegory with ^^^'^^^ °^ 


Fig. 27. — Domenico Campagnola. Young Shepherd and aged Warrior. 

a Nude and various Animals (attributed by Bartsch to Duvet), the 
Beheading of John the Baptist, and studies of a Stag and a Doe 
(P. " G. Campagnola" 16 and 17) form the group in question. 
The fact that the Allegory is based on a drawing by Leonardo (in the 





Francia and 
the School of 

Louvre) seems to be the only real connexion with Milan, while the 
close analogies, both in technical manner and in the landscape 
background to Fogolino, the suggestion of Giorgione in the Behead- 
ing of John the Baptist, and of Campagnola in the two animal 
studies, seem greatly to favour the assumption that the artist 
belonged to one of the provinces in the north-eastern corner of 

The work of Domenico Campagnola may be mentioned here, 
though, like several of the engravers just referred to, it falls wholly 
within the sixteenth century. None of his engravings are dated 
except in the years 151 7-18, but there seems little reason to doubt 
his identity with the painter who assisted Titian in 1 5 1 1 and 
continued working in Padua until after 1563,^ and to suspect two 
personalities of the same name. Whether he was a Venetian or a 
Paduan by birth is not certainly established, but the assumption 
that he was a pupil and the artistic heir, if not a family connexion,- 
of Giulio Campagnola is strongly supported by his completion of 
the Shepherds in a Landscape, to which we alluded above. He did 
not, however, follow Giulio's stipple-method, and as an engraver 
handles the line with a somewhat loose, though picturesque touch. 
The Young Shepherd and aged Warrior (B. 8, Fig. 27) is a delight- 
ful plate, with a romantic atmosphere and a method of design 
which almost anticipate Salvator Rosa. 

Near to the Venetian school is Benedetto Montagna of 
Vicenza, whose work centres in the first three decades of the six- 
teenth century. His style was formed on that of his father, 
Bartolommeo Montagna, and prints like the Sacrifice of Abraham 
(B. i) and the St. Benedict with four Saints (B. 10), strong and 
simple, if somewhat stiff in design, belonging perhaps to the last 
decade of the fifteenth century, show him in this early phase. His 
later plates, mostly of allegorical and classical subjects (several 
taken from Ovid ^) show him to have possessed the qualities of a 
graceful illustrator, a delicate technique, and a real sense for the 
possibilities of the small space he generally chose to use. Like 
most of his contemporaries in Italy he occasionally copied and 
borrowed from Diirer {e.g. the Nativity, P. 35), and may have 
received from the same source the suggestion for his Peasants 
quarrelling (B. 30), an unusually realistic piece of genre for Italian 
art of the period. 

We have alluded above* to the school of niello, which found 
its inspiration in the studio of the goldsmith and painter, Francesco 

' See G. A. Moschini, Piltura in Pmiova, 1826 (pp. 61, 70, .ind 76). 

" J. Morelli's Anonimo refers to paintings in the Palazzo Cornaro, Padu;i, as 
by Domenico I'l'nesiano allevalo da Julio Campagnola, and there seems good reason 
to regard this artist as D.C. (Ed. Frizzoni, 1884, p. 22). 

' Several similar designs are found in the cuts in the 1497 \'enice edition of the 
Metamorphoses, and it seems probable that Montagna rather than the wood-cutter 
was the plagiarist. i See pp. 42, 43. 


Raibolini (Francia). Besides two niello plates in the Bologna 
gallery, a few prints from nielli, e.g. the Profile Head (of a Bentivoglio ?) 
Duch. 350 (Brit. Mus.), can certainly be attributed to the master, 
but it is more than doubtful whether we know any real engravings 
by his hand.i 

Among the many anonymous nielli and niello-like prints which ? (Peregrino 
come from his school, there is a group by an engraver who generally ^^ Cesena?) 

Fig. 28. — Benedetto Montagna. The Shepherd. 

uses the signature f, less frequently ^ or 0.f DC. A print of the 
Resurrection (Duchesne 122) is inscribed Opus Pcregrini de Ces,'^ 
but comparison with indubitably genuine works by the master 

^ Cf. below, Marcantonio, p. 92. 

- Impressions with this inscription in the British Museum, Berlin, and Paris (Bibl. 
Nat.). An impression in the collection of Baron Edmond de Rothschild signed Opus 
Peregrino is described by Dutuit as an earlier state. 1'he same composition is 
seen in a silver plate in the British Museum, which is a far more egregious modern 



{e.g. the Story of AbrahMii, D. 9-14, Mars and Venus, D. 220, 
Orpheus, D. 255, and Mudus Scaevola, D. 263) inclines me to re- 
gard the work as an eighteenth or early nineteenth century fabrica- 
tion, while admitting that the inscription may go back to some 
authentic source. One of his best engravings in the niello manner, 
the Neptune in his Car, is reproduced (Fig. 14). This sort of print 
may have been largely used as model composition in goldsmiths' and 
engravers' studios, and in this instance there are at least two other 
versions of the subject known, — one a niello even nearer Francia's 
own manner (Gutekunst sale, Stuttgart, 1899, No. 864), and the 
other a print which has been attributed to Marcahtonio.^ 



Scarcely any engraving was produced in the North of Europe 
during the fifteenth century outside Germany, the Netherlands,^ 
and Italy. 

In a French translation of Breydenbach's Travels, published at 
Lyons in 1488, there appeared engraved copies of the large wood- 
cuts of the original Mayence edition of i486, but apart from this, 
there are only isolated instances of engravings which can be 
definitely regarded as French. One of these (dating probably 
about 1460), a Lion-King from a set of cards (Dresden),^ is 
evidently suggested by the work of the early Master of the Playing 
Cards. In technical style it is similar to the French wood-cut of the 
period, with a characteristic meagreness of line. 

Spain has even less to show than France in engraving during the 
fifteenth century. Three playing cards in the Berlin Print Room, 
with Valenzia inscribed on medals (with coats of arms) which are 
supported by the figures, are perhaps the best examples. They 
are poor productions, and of an even lower order than the work 
of the Master of the Year 1464, standing in style midway between 
the work of that master and the early Florentine engravings in the 
Fine manner. Among certain crude engravings in the National 
Library at Madrid, such as the Beato Carlo de Viana in a Gothic 
Niche, and a Wheel of Fortune, is a modern impression from an old 
plate with Scenes from the Life of Christ and St. Eulalia, patron 
saint of Barcelona. The last example, which bears the signature 
Fr. Domenech 1488, is the only Spanish print of the period with 
indication of date and authorship. 

^ See below, p. 91. 

'^ From the close connexion of Burgundy and Flanders in the 15th century, we 
have chosen to classify certain engravers, who might « ith equal justice be claimed 
for the honour of France, with the Netherlandish school. Cf. pp. 23, 24. 

" Lehrs, Chronik. ii. 2, 23. Another impression in E. de Rothschild collection, 



(About 1495-15 50) 

Among the engravings of the fifteenth century there is much that 
possesses great interest and charm, but Httle which can be regarded 
as the work of artists of supreme genius. Of that little is the work 
of Mantegna, while in the north Schongauer is almost the only 
engraver who at all closely approaches the level of a great master, 
and he is still too trammelled by Gothic conventions to rise to the 
height of a great personality. The close of the century heralds the The great 
activity of three engravers, Diirer, Lucas van Leyden, and Marcantonio, "■'"'"virate. 
in each of whom technical mastery was united to a high measure of 
artistic genius. The first of these, Albrecht Diirer, can be pro- 
nounced almost without qualification as the greatest of all line- 
engravers — a man who had found in this phase of art a means of 
expression perfectly at one with his genius. An artist of the most 
solid conviction and concentration, he is none the less by far the 
most versatile genius of the triumvirate. Far from being merely 
the engraver, it is difficult to say whether he excelled most in this 
field, as a designer for wood-cut, or as a painter, while an inquiring 
spirit led him, like Leonardo in Italy, to probe many theories that 
lay about and even beyond his art. Lucas van Leyden is an artist 
of a frailer calibre than Diirer, and prone to lose himself in imitation 
of stronger men, each of his great contemporaries in turn dominating 
his style. Nevertheless he had no lack of original power, and, when 
most himself, achieved work which fully justifies his place in the trio 
of the master engravers. In Marcantonio a stronger spirit than 
Lucas van Leyden's yields itself voluntarily to the interpretation of 
the ideas of others. He was essentially a specialist ; in fact, no 
work of his in any other medium than engraving ^ is certainly 
authenticated, though no doubt some of his studies may be hidden 

^ Besides the line-engravings his only authenticated work is a wood-cut of the 
Incredulity of Thomas, which appeared in the Epistole et Evangeli, printed by N. and 
D. dal Gesi, Venice, 1512 (printer's error for 1522?), (see Lippmann, Jahri. i. 270), 
but he is probably only the author of the design and not the cutter. 




in the mass of unattributed, or wrongly attributed, drawings of the 
Raphael school. Taking Diirer as his model, he simplified and re- 
fined until he attained a system which, regarded simply from the 
technical point of view, is without a rival. But the chief tenour of 
his work, the reproduction of alien composition, though done in the 
reverse to a servile spirit, puts him immediately on a different plane 
from Diirer, and it was the harbinger of the host of servile repro- 
ducers who formed the greater part of the line-engravers during the 
next two centuries. 
Germany. Albrecht Durer was born in Nuremberg in 1471, the son of a 

goldsmith who had migrated some fifteen years earlier from Hungary. 
His first education in art must have been in his father's craft, but his 
real apprenticeship was passed under the painter Michel Wolgemuth, 
who is perhaps most widely known for his wood-cut illustrations to 
Hartmann Schedel's Clironick of the World (Nuremberg, 1493). 
If the early training in his father's shop gave Diirer the required 
facility in handling the graver, it is certainly to Wolgemuth that he 
owed the inspiration to design the wood-cuts which form, perhaps, 
the most powerful achievement of his life. Diirer could hardly 
have found a master more essentially Gothic in his style than 
Wolgemuth, whose work, though extending well into the sixteenth 
century, is characterised throughout by all the stiffness of line and 
uncouthness of figure which Germany was capable of displaying in 
the fifteenth century. But though Diirer himself retained till the 
end some of the limitations of the Gothic tradition, he was from the 
first evidently struggling towards a more universal ideal of beauty 
which scarcely a single German artist before his time, with the 
exception of Schongauer, had in any degree realised. Diirer's 
earliest enthusiasm not unnaturally centred in the painter of 
Colmar, and here too he found the model on which he formed his 
style and system as a line-engraver. Leaving Nuremberg in 1490 
for some years of travel and study, he may have come into touch 
with Schongauer while in the neighbourhood of Basle, but there is 
evidence that he never met the master face to face. Though long 
a matter of dispute, an early visit to Venice about 1495 seems 
now to be almost an established fact, but hitherto no uncontested 
allusion to it has been found in Diirer's writings.^ Apart from 

' It is at least the most natural explanation of the passages vnd das Ding, das mir 
vor eilf Johrcn so viol hatgefallen, doss g,f,illt mir ils niit mehr'm a letter from Diirer 
to Pirkheimer, dated Venice, 7th Feb. 1506 (see K. Lange, D's Schriftl. Xachlass, 
1893, p. 22 ; Thausing, D's Briefe, 1872, p. 6). An earlier visit seems also to be 
assumed by C. Scheurl in his Libellus de laudibus Gennanie (Leipzig, 1508), 
who refers to DUrer's journey of 1505-7, cum tniper in Italiam rediisscf. Two 
other pieces of evidence may be cited: (i) the landscape in the engraving of the 
Large Fortune (B. 77) of about 1502-3 is undoubtedly suggested by Klausen, a 
little town between Brixen and Botzen on Diirer's route towards Trent via the 
Brenner Pass. See Haendcke, Chronologie der Landschaften Diirer's, Strassburg, 
1899. (ii) Every characteristic of the early water-colours of the Tyrol points to 
their production on an earlier journey than that of 1505-7. 


these early years of wandering, a second visit to Venice in 1505- 
1507 (partly undertaken to protest to the Venetian Senate against 
Marcantonio's imitations of his prints), one or two visits to Wittenberg,^ 
and a journey to the Netherlands in 1520-21, of which he has 
left a diary, the master was working almost entirely in Nuremberg 
until his death in 1528. 

The earliest date found on any of Diirer's engravings is that 
on the Four Nude Women of 1497. He has not yet learnt to 
render the human form with any subtlety of modelling, and his 
engraving has hardly attained the solidity of structure seen in the 
best of Schongauer's prints. But this realistic study of the nude is 
a fresh factor in German art, and perhaps the only means by which 
he could surmount the limitations of his predecessors, and escape 
from the entanglement of ill-placed drapery, which only succeeded 
in hiding or distorting all the essentials of the human frame. 
Several other plates, to judge from their very closeness to the older 
traditions, as well as their undeveloped power of drawing, must 
certainly precede this work of 1497 by some two years at least. 
Most elementary of all, both in faulty foreshorten ing(«._f. the child 
flat against its mother and the squash figure of Joseph behind the 
bank), and in the abundance of angular folds, is the Holy Family 
with the Dragon-fly (B. 44). The Offer of Love (B. 93) and the St. 
Jerome (B. 61) are others of a similar type, still loose in draughts- 
manship, and somewhat incoherent in landscape. Quite the noblest 
of this early group is the Prodigal Son (B. 28), where the back- 
ground of simple sheds and gabled houses offers the young engraver 
forms which he can perfectly master. The kneeling figure of the 
Prodigal presents problems which still baffle the artist, though 
the power of human expression is already wonderfully developed. 
After the turn of the century there is a remarkable advance 
both in technical skill and in the comprehension of form. As a 
display of agility in engraving, in the perfect realisation of the 
slightest shades, e.g. in the surface texture of the helmet, as well as in 
its harmony and balance as a composition, the Coat-of-Arms with the 
Skull oi 1503 (B. 10 1) is a masterpiece. In the field of formal 
composition and in brilliance of engraving there is nothing which 
surpasses it in Durer's work, if it be not the Coat-of-Arms with the 
Cock of some nine years later. The reality of Durer's progress in 
every direction may be estimated by a comparison of the Adam and 
Eve''- of 1504 (B. i) with the earlier nude study we have already 

^ In the service of Friedrich the Wise. There is evidence of visits in 1494-95 
and in 1503. For art at Friedrich's court see R. Bruck, Friedrich der Weise als 
Fbrderer der Kunst, Strassburg, 1903, Bruck considers that the earlier visit ex- 
cludes the early journey to Italy, — not, I think, a necessary conclusion. Weisbach 
{Der J-unge Durer) admits the necessity of Bruck's conclusion if his premises are 
correct, but doubts whether the Albrecht in question be really Durer. 

^ Two trial proof states of this engraving are known (British Museum and 
Albertina) which are of great value as showing Durer's method of work. He first 
lightly engraved the outlines, and then finished piece by piece separately, leaving 

Durer and 
Jacopo de' 


referred to. A system of cross-hatching of the most regular 
and deUcate order, seconded by a perfect mastery of clear cutting, 
now correctly expresses the minutiae of modelling ; while in the 
earlier prints an imperfect knowledge of form was combined with 
an irregular and undeveloped lineal system. Moreover, in his ideal 
of human form the change is remarkable. From the exaggerated 
ugliness of the earlier nude he has arrived at a feeling for classical 
beauty, which can only have come from the study of Italian models, 
and in this plate it is the influence of Jacopo de' Barbari that 
speaks so clearly. This artist, who was in sundry parts of 
Germany between 1500 and 1508, is known to have been in Nurem- 
berg in 1505, while in 1503 he must have met Diirer at Wittenberg 
where both were working for the Elector of Saxony. But the 
assumption of an early journey to Venice, to which we have already 
referred, places the first meeting of the two engravers probably as 
far back as 1495.^ Whether at this early period or not,^ it must 
have been at least no later than 1500-1501 that Diirer saw the 
study of a " man and woman, drawn according to a canon of propor- 
tions " (aus der Mass), which he himself admits ^ was the first 
suggestion to his own studies in the proportion of the human 
figure. But it was a mere suggestion, as Barbari evinced unwilling- 
ness to explain the subject,* and Diirer started to develop his own 
theories on the basis of Vitruvius and his own speculations. He 
seems to have modified his treatment after his second visit to Italy, 
possibly through further knowledge gained from Luca Pacioli,^ 
whom he may have met in Bologna. The Adam and Eve, in whose 
style Barbari's influence has already been remarked, is the best 
example among the engravings of figures constructed according to 
canon, several original studies " being witness of Diirer's develop- 
ment of the subject. 

A general connexion of ideas may be noted in several of the 
prints of Diirer and Barbari, e.g. in their Satyr Families, as well as 
correspondence in various details {e.g. the head of Neptune in 

the completion of the figures to the last. The Hercules (B. 73) is the only other 
print of which a proof state of similar interest is known (Berlin, Albertina), though 
slight differences of state have been noted on some sixteen other prints. 

^ See passage quoted in note i, p. 72. WYieXhev das Ding is Barbari himself 
or a mere phase of art, such as the X'ivarinesqvie, is a much debated question. 

^ A" proportion ' ' drawing of a reclining woman (closely related to the A mymone of 
the engraving) in the Albertina is dated 1501. The date 1500 on a standing female 
figure in the British Museum has been disputed (cf. Justi, Coinlniirte Figuren in den 
Werken A.D's., Leipzig, 1902,) 

•* In an unpublished sketch in the British Museum for the preface of his Propor- 
tionslehre (see Sir W. M, Conway, Lileraiy Remains of A. £>., 1889, pp. 165, 
253-54: K. Lange, D.'s Schriftlicher Ahichlass, 1893, p. 340). 

■* No writing on the subject and no " proportion " drawing by Bai-bari is known, 
nor do his own engraved figures evince .any deep study of such theories. 

' The author of the Divina Proportione, Venice, 1509 (with wood-cuts after 
designs by Leonardo). He owed much of his system to Piero della Francesca and 

" li.g. in the Albertina (Vienna), and Lanna collection (Prague). 


Durer's Rape of Amymone ^ with that of the Triton in Barbari's 
Triton and Nereid), but their respective plates of Apollo and Diana 
form the rnost striking instance of their artistic relation. In 
describing Barbari's work, we have expressed the opinion that 
Diirer probably owes to 'the former the suggestion for his engraving, 
though the final correspondence in treatment is inconsiderable. 

An even more powerful influence than Barbari on the develop- Durer and 
ment of Durer's style was that of Mantegna. There are two Mantegna. 
drawings by Diirer in the Albertina (dated 1494), after this 
engraver's Battle of the Tritons and Bacchanal with Silenus, 
and he embodied the same ideals in several of his plates, most 
evidently perhaps in the Rape of Amymofie (B. 71), and in the 
allegory which is generally called the Hercules^ (B. 73), both 
belonging to about 1500. The latter plate is a most curious medley 
of plagiarisms : the reclining woman is from Mantegna, the woman 
with the club is directly copied from an anonymous North Italian 
engraving of the Death of Orpheus (P. V. 47, 120, in Hamburg), 
while a figure used in the standing Hercules (a study for a Rape of 
the Sabines, in the Bonnat collection), seems to be borrowed from 
some lost drawing by Pollaiuolo. Diirer is as candid and free in 
his adaptation as Rembrandt, and, in fact, as all the greatest original 
creators are wont to be.^ 

Very soon after the return from Venice he must have started The Copper- 
the series of sixteen prints which constitute the Copper-plate Passion. P'^'^ Passion. 
T\\& Descent from the Cross (B. 14), is dated 1507 ; two plates belong 
to 1508, one to 1509, the majority to 1512, while last in order (if 
indeed it strictly belongs to the series at all) is the Peter and John 
healing the Cripple, of 1513. From problems of proportion in 
designing single figures, Diirer had come to treat proportion in its 
relation to composition as a whole, and the Passion plates form 
the chief attempt in his engraved work in dealing with many figures 
in limited space. If some of the earlier examples are lacking in 
balance, e.g. the Descent from the Cross, the later plates, in particular 
the Christ bearing the Cross and the Peter and John, are wonderful 
in their concentrated significance, the last, most of all : a darkly 
shaded background, such as Diirer affected more and more in his 
later work, and the expression in the two foremost actors tlirown 
into prominence by the light which falls across Peter's shoulder 
into the face of the cripple, are but two elements which help to 
induce the concentration of idea which Diirer was the first of 
Germans to accomplish. 

Several isolated compositions, nearly all of the same small 
dimensions, fall into the same period as the Passion series. We may 

' Also called the Sea-Monster. 

^ Other titles are the Effects of Jealousy, and the Great Satyr. 

^ Before leaving the question of DUrer's copies from Southern originals we may 
refer to his drawings after the so-called "Tarocchi Cards" (British Museum and 
Paris ; see Diirer Society, 1906). 



mention the Three Genii with Hehnet and Shield (B. 66), where the 
putto motive might have been suggested by some Florentine niello 
(like that reproduced in Fig. 13), and the two plates of St. George, 
one of which is given in our frontispiece. 

If advance in technical power was possible after such achieve- 
ments as the Coat of Arms with the Skull, it was directed to 
simplification rather than further finish. While in the latter and the 
Adam and Eve, the lines of shading are almost lost in the subtlety 
of the shading, in most of the plates of the Passion series the use 
of line is economised and individualised (if we may so refer to the 
part played by each stroke) in a manner far more in keeping with 
the general maxim that the artist should never belie his medium, 

Fig. 29. — Albrecht Uiirer. St. .\inhoiiv before the Town. 

or so handle it as to attain an end which could be better realised 
by some other method. 

From about the same period Uiirer begins a series of simpler 
studies, where merely geometrical problems of construction become 
completely secondary to that of human e.xpression. Mewed in this 
light, the Adam and Eve, great as it is, barely exists as a work of 
art, while of the little plates of the J'irgin and Child (there are nine 
between 151 1 and 1520), one is only more perfect than another. 
Most remarkable, perhaps, in beauty of composition and engraving is 
the Virgin />y the Town-wall of 15 14 (B. 40), while in ""intimate- 
ness" of feeling Diirer touches us most nearly in the /'//-i,-/;/ 
nursing the Child of 1519 (B. 36). The introduction of the walls 
of his native town which gives so perfect a background to the /7/-t,7'« 


and Child (B. 40) seems no less inseparable from the St. Anthony 
reading oi 1519 (Fig. 29), so wonderfully is the whole combined. 
It may be noted here that the town, or the background in this case, 
though suggested partly by elements of the Burg at Nuremberg, is 
more particularly taken from a drawing Diirer made of Trent (now 
in Bremen). 

Three of the most ambitious, if not the most successful plates 
that Diirer produced, fall in the years 15 13-14: the Knight, 
Death, and the Devil (B. 98), the St. Jerome in his Study (B. 60), 
and the Melancholia. If the beauty of the last is somewhat 
impaired by its crowded and obscure symbolism, the Knight, Death, 
and the Devil, though less brilliant than the Melancholia in 
engraving, drives home all the more for the directness and force of its 
intention. With Death staring him in the face, and the Devil 
ready to catch him if he trips or turns, the Knight rides on with 
foreboding of danger, yet firm resolve marked in every line of his 
face, too intent even to cast a glance at the distant city which 
is his goal. As a draughtsman of animals, which figure in all 
the three prints, Diirer never escapes a stiffness which is not merely 
that of convention, but a lack of practice or of the particular 
aptitude of the realist in representing these most restless of 

Diirer is one of the earliest of all the portrait 'engravers, the few The portraits. 
before him in Germany who attempted anything in this field (e.g. 
the Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet and W^B^) leaving mere 
isolated examples of no great value ; while in the south, if one 
excepts an early Florentine profile of a lady^ and a few heads 
engraved in the style of Leonardo, there is scarcely anything until 
the Pietro Aretino of Marcantonio, which was perhaps not done 
until after the latest of Diirer's portraits. Earliest in date and 
finest in execution is the smaller Albrecht of Brandenburg of 1519 
(B. 102), -which is reproduced (Fig. 30). In the three larger portraits 
of 1523-24, \!a& Albrecht of Brandenburg in profile (B. 103), Fried- 
rich the Wise, Elector of Saxony (B. 104), and Wilibald Pirkheimer 
(B. 106), there is greater breadth of line and a certain monumental 
power. But, it must be confessed, they are not the work of the born 
engraver, for despite the wonderful delineation of all the intricacies 
and undulations of feature, they lack in the expression of real in- 
dividuality. Even one of the latest, the Erasmus of 1526, tells us 
little of the man himself, though we seem to know every 
particle of his features ; it is first and foremost a composition of 
still life, of wonderful design and brilliance of technique.^ If in any 

1 See p. 31. ^ See p. 39. 

^ The plate was based on some drawing taken from the life in the Netherlands, 
1520-21. Erasmus's own words in relation to the likeness are cold, courteous, and 
worth quoting : si minus respondet effigies mirum non est. Non enim sum is qui fui 
ante annos quinque (letter of 30th July, 1526). 


of his portrait engravings the decorative factor yields to the expres- 




Anno > ETATiA\'A^vE ^^xxi xj 

Fig. 30. — AlbrcclU Diirci-. rortrail of Albrecht of Urandcnburg. 

sion of personality, it is in the Melaiuthoyi (1526), which is the 
simplest of all in its technical structure and secondary ornament. 
Besides his line-engravings, Diirer has left us a few dry-points 

dUrer's dry-points 


and etchings. Of the three ^ dry-points two are dated, both in 1 5 1 2 The dry- 
— a Man of Sorrows (B. 21) and the magnificent St. Jerome (B. 59, po'"'^. 
Fig. 31). A large Holy Family (B. 43), not dated, but certainly 
belonging to the same period, is less successful. In the St. Jero»ie 
the value of the burr of dry-point is so completely realised that one 

Fig. 31. — Albrecht Dlirer. St. Jerome in the Wilderness. 

wonders that Diirer did not recur to the method later. The most 
practical explanation might be the right one, that the few good 
impressions that could be taken would not repay him for his labour, 
at a time when a single impression of an engraving was probably 
sold for a small price, and before the public had realised the special 

^ There are good reasons to think that the httle St. Veronica (B. 64), dated 1510 
(of which the only impressions are in Dresden and the Albertina), is a later fabrication. 



The etchings. 

General char- 
acteristics of 
Diirer's art. 

artistic value and the limitations of the new method. After Diirer 
we find dry-point practised very little, and never with any apprecia- 
tion of its possibilities, until the time of Rembrandt. 

Diirer was one of the pioneers of the art of etching. A plate by 
Urs Graf is dated 15 13, i.e. two years before any of Diirer's etched 
plates ; but this is an interval of small account, and the extraordinary 
power of two, at least, of the six plates etched by Diirer immediately 
places them in the van of the progress of the art, and indeed in the 
foremost rank of all etchings. They all occur between 15 15 and 
15 18. The Man of Sorrows of 15 15 (B. 22) is hardly successful 
as a print, differing too little in its quality from that of penwork ; 
but the same year sees the creation of the Agony m the Garden 
(B. 19), which is among the most wonderful of all his compositions. 
In the next year fall the Angel displaying the Sudarium (B. 26) and 
the Pluto and Proserpine (B. 72). Then there is a curious plate 
sometimes called the Man in Despair (B. 70), which seems to be 
little more than a study of various figures and faces, and is perhaps 
as early as any of the rest. In his last plate, the Cannon, B. 99 
(part of which is reproduced, Fig. 42), the line is handled with 
much greater vigour, and the biting is completely successful. In 
the treatment of landscape it must have done much to give the 
particular direction to the early German school of landscape etchers, 
to whom we shall refer in our next chapter. All these etchings are 
on iron, and all have the rough characteristics arising from the fact 
that the material, of less uniform texture than copper, would be 
bitten with less regularity. It could hardly be the lack of know- 
ledge of a proper mordant for copper which kept Diirer to the use 
of iron, though this reason has often been suggested ; far more 
probably it was the feeling, shared by soine modern artists, that the 
very roughness of the metal is more in keeping with the less precise 
character of the etched line. 

But Diirer's genius was not by nature most adapted to the 
vagaries of line, by which all the greatest etchers seem to obtain 
significance almost subconsciously. He was above all others the 
artist whose every line is laid with conscious thought. He is the 
most perfect representative of that factor in the style of the " Old 
Master " which stands in such contrast to the less formal elements 
of design which are more strictly " modern " in feeling. In his 
painting, as well as in his engraving on wood and metal, the part 
played by each stroke is so considered, the harmony of each factor 
with the whole so absolute, that it would seem impossible to take 
away, add, or alter the slightest element without altogether impairing 
the effect of the whole composition. Such were the conditions 
which, according to the architect Leon Battista Alberti, constituted 
" beauty " ; and we may allow at least that they constitute a certain 
" formal dignity," which is no small element in the former. Beauty, 

' See Chap. III. p. 105. 


in the secondary sense of " grace " of form and feature, we cannot 
admit that Diirer often expresses, but he is no whit the smaller 
artist for the lack of it. Despite all he learnt from Italy, 
he remained essentially a true German, and a noble type of the 
national character. He was solid, scientific, conscious in all his 
creating. Learning his art from masters who were still in the youth 
of artistic development, his whole work shows a progress towards an 
ideal which the trammels of Gotliic tradition never left him free to 
attain without a struggle. By the very energy spent in its realisa- 
tion, his accomplishment is all the more intense in its expression. 
He recognised the truest limits of the medium in which he worked, 
never allowed technical virtuosity to have the better of the central 
aim of significant composition, and established a balanced style 
which remains the most perfect model of the line-engraver's art. 

Before approaching the more immediate school of Diirer, we 
may just refer to two engravers who owed much to him in their 
development, but probably found their earliest inspiration like Diirer 
in Schongauer. Our chief interest in the Swiss artist Urs Gr.4F Urs Graf. 
centres in his two etchings, one of which is the earhest dated etching 
known (1513).^ Besides these he has left little more than half-a- 
dozen engraved plates (among which are two copies from Schon- 
gauer and one after Diirer), but in none of them does he express 
himself so well as in his wood-cuts. Hans Baldung, a German of Hans Baldung. 
the vicinity of Switzerland, came under similar influences, and, like 
Urs Graf, was far more prolific as a designer for wood-cuts than as a 
line-engraver. A genial adaptation of Diirer's treatment of form 
characterises the style of his few line-engravings {e.g. the Horse and 
Squire), as well as his work in other fields. 

During the sixteenth century Diirer's influence was paramount 
in Germany, and found a multitude of imitators and copyists in the 
Netherlands and in Italy. But in Germany an even more powerful 
influence was the renaissance of feeling for classical form which 
began to find so many adherents North of the Alps. Towards the 
end of the century the Italianisation of German artists and their 
complete desertion of Diirer's ideal left an art as empty as it was 
unnatural and aifected. But for some two or three decades after 
Diirer's death a group of artists, who, from the small dimensions of 
most of their plates have been called the Little Masters, managed The Little 
to steer midway between the two currents, and produced a host of Masters. 
tiny plates as graceful as they are excellent in engraving. 

Albrecht Altdorfer, who was the oldest artist in the group, Albrecht 
was the least dependent on Diirer in the formation of his style. Altdorfer. 
He was born in 1480, and most of his life was spent in Regensburg, 
where he died in 1538. The earliest of his engravings are dated 
1506, but a plate like the Fortune on a Globe with a Genius, of 
1 5 II, still shows him undeveloped in the use of the burin. Archi- 

1 Cf. Ch. III. p. 105. 




Till' nchains. 

tect as he was, he may at first have given rather the amateur's 
attention to painting and engraving. If his technical power is in 
consequence of secondary merit, the intimate personal touch which 
he gives to the expression of each small composition secures him 
almost the highest place as an artist among the Little Masters. 
His characteristic flat drawing of a child's face is forgotten in the 
atmosphere of human feeling which distinguishes plates like his 
large Virgin and Child (B. 17). Perhaps his greatest distinction 
among the Little Masters is his feeling for landscape, and as a 
landscape etcher he was the inspirer of a large following (e.g. Hirsch- 
vogel, Lautensack, and Wolf Huber — the latter, however, not an 

engraver in metal), which from its 
fountain-head is not inaptly termed 
the Regensburg school.-' In pure 
landscape his work is almost entirely 
in etching, but none of his contem- 
poraries knew better than he how to 
give a romantic colour to his subjects 
by the background of woods and hills. 
The Pyramus and Thishe (B. 44, Fig. 
32) and a St. Christopher (B. 19) are 
good examples, while his power of 
expression is perhaps at its highest in 
the Cn/cifixion (B. 8). He ma\- owe 
something of his style to Lucas 
Cr.axach the elder (a Bavarian, born 
in Cronach, near Bayreuth, in 1472), 
who, in his early paintings, and the 
one engraving of this period (a 
Penance of St. John Chrvsostom), 
shows just those elements of land- 
scape, steep hills, pines, and larches 
which are the characteristics of the 

P'lG. 32.— AllirfclU AUdorfei". 
I^yramus and Thisbe. 

with their droo 

ping foliag 

Regensburg school. Cranach's work was far more that of a painter 
and designer for wood-cuts, and mostly done in Wittenberg, wiiere 
he settled as painter to the Saxon court about 1504. Exxept for 
the St. John Chrvsostom, Cranach's eight engraved plates consist 
of portraits: three of Friedrich the \Vise (oCi-^o() and 15 10, the 
latter with John the Constant, and another undated in which he is 
adoring St. Bartholomew), three of Luther (1520-20, and a copv of 
Diner's .It/jreeht of Branden/>//rg. 

The most eminent of the Little Masters as vntuosi of delicate 
engraving are unquestionably the brothers Barthel and Hans 
SiiriALD Beham, and GicoRi; Pkncz. They were all Nuremberg 
masters and came closely under Diirer's influence, though there is 
no defmite proof that any of them were Diirer's pupils, unless Pencz 

' C(. Ch. 111. pp. 106, 107. 


be the assistant (Knecht) "Jorg," who married the master's maid in 
1524. In their early days they formed a trio of freethinkers, and 
in this period of reformation, when lukewarmness in religious 
matters was eyed askance, this was enough to cause the banishment 
from their native city, which occurred in 1525. Apparently the 
ban did not last long, although the bad feeling may have caused 
Sebald Beham's later settlement in Frankfurt. 

Barthel Beham, though the younger of the brothers by two Baithel 
years (he was born in 1502), seems to have been the more pre- ^*^'"- 
cocious (his dated work begins in 1520), and in the compara- 
tively small number of his prints he certainly exhibits a depth of 
expression quite unknown to his elder brother. His Cleopatra of 
1524 (B. 12) shows a feeling for classical beauty which is almost 
unequalled in German engraving of the period, while prints such as 
the Mother and Child ivith a Death's Head (B. 5), and the Virgin 
and Child at the Window (B. 8) are as full of true sentiment as 
they are masterly in engraving. Barthel is thought to have visited 
Italy, and he also worked for some time in Munich for Duke 
Wilhelm IV. of Bavaria, probably not returning to Nuremberg 
after the banishment. 

If Barthel was the more talented artist, Hans Sebald Beham, Hans Sebaid 
who was probably of a stronger nature or constitution, and able to Beham. 
give more assiduous practice to his craft, attained to a greater 
virtuosity in engraving, and left a far more prolific work. On his 
earlier prints he used a monogram composed of the letters HSP, 
while later, from about 1531, i.e. about the time of his settlement in 
Frankfurt, he changed the signature to HSB. Whether he came 
back to Nuremberg for any period before moving to Frankfurt is 
uncertain ; but he managed to get into difficulties again in that 
quarter, this time on a charge of appropriating Diirer's unpublished 
material for the Proportionslehre. In his earliest plates {e.g. the Bust of 
a Girl, dated 15x8) he is a close imitator of Diirer, who was also the 
immediate inspirer of his etchings, some of which are dated in the years 
1 5 19 and T520. Towards the end of the twenties his technique 
reached its highest point, and in most of the prints between 1525 and 
1540 the lineal system is significant and strong, that of a Marcan- 
tonio on a tiny scale. The larger Prodigal Son of 1 538 (Fig. 33) is one 
of the most perfect examples, while the natural bent of his genius is 
seen at its best in the sets of genre produced about the same period, 
e.g. the twelve plates to the Peasants' Festival oi 1537 (Pauli 155- 
1 66). In the last ten years of his life his virtuosity even increased, his 
technique becoming more delicate as it lost some of its vitality. So 
finely engraved as they were, his plates could not last out many 
printings, and much of the last part of his life was spent in reworking 
his own plates as well as those left by his brother, to which he even 
added his ovrn signature. These reworked plates often belie recogni- 
tion, and form one of the great difficulties in the study of his work. 

Georg Pencz. 



Unfortunately, he did not return often enough in these later years 
to his real sphere, that of genre, but played to the public taste in 
supplying classical pieces which were often adaptations from Italian 
engravers, if not mere repetitions of his own earlier work. In 
ornament, however, in which he is one of the great masters, some 
of his finest plates belong to this last decade. 

The fifty years of Georg Pencz's life, i5oo-r55o, exactly cover 
those of his early boon companions, Barthel and Sebald Beham. 
Even if he be not Diirer's assistant, as has been suggested, he at 
least derived his style directly from the master, but nevertheless 
developed a manner which has distinctly individual character both 
in draughtsmanship and technique. Somewhat less finished and 


-Hans ScliaUl IV-hani. The Prodiijal Son. 

less careful of surface texture than the Behams, he generally uses a 
multitude of dots in helping out the lighter portion of his shading. 
Nearly all his life was spent in Nuremberg, except for the short 
term of banishment, and possibly for certain visits to Italy. He 
succeeded better than most of his contemporaries in combining 
something of the largeness of classical Italian painters with a style 
which is still essentially German. Though he did some excellent Bible 
studies — e.j^: the Gcni/ Samari/aii (B. 68), and the Storv of Tobit (H. 
13-19), both of I 543 — he was most at home with subjects of allegory 
or antiquity, and in view of the circumstances of his life it is hardly 
surprising that he engraved not a single plate of the Virgin and 
Child. Pencz has left a considerable number of portrait paintings, 
but the plate of Friedrich the IJ'isf (of 1543) is apparently his only 
engraved portrait 



In the same group as the Behams and Pencz is an anonymous I B. 
engraver who signs his plates with the initials IB, and whose works 
seem to fall almost entirely within the years 1525 and 1530. He 
is an excellent engraver, thoroughly imbued with the spirit of 
Renaissance art, so delightfully shown in his frieze of the Children's 
Bacchanal of 1 5 2 9, and in many a plate 
of ornament. In his studies of genre 
and peasant life he stands near to 
H. S. Beham, with whom some have 
attempted to identify him. Quite 
recently, again, it has been suggested ^ 
that IB is none other than Georg 
Pencz, whose name in the Nuremberg 
vernacular might have been Jorg Bens. 
It is certainly true that nearly all 
Pencz's work signed G.P. is later than 
1530, and a visit to Italy might have 
induced him to adopt the Latinised 
form Georgius Pencius for the basis 
of his signature. I think reasons of 
style are not sufficient to clinch either 
identification, and prefer to consider 
the problem of his identity as still 

Outside the Nuremberg circle the 
most interesting member of the group 
of Little Masters is Heinrich Alde- 
GREVER, a goldsmith and engraver 
of Soest in Westphalia, whose activity 
corresponds in time nearly to that of 
Pencz (1502-1555). He no doubt 
came into closer contact with the art 
of the Netherlands than his Nurem- 
berg contemporaries, and the manner- 
ism of his figure drawing, with its 
exaggerated length of body and limb, 
may probably be traced to Italian 
mannerists, like Pontormo and Rosso, 
through the medium of Bernaert van 
Orley, or some such Italianised Flem- 
ing. He has a curious affection for small shining folds of drapery 
which are dazzling in brilliance of execution, but damning to the grace 
and significance of his coriceptions {e.g. the Annunciation, B. 38). 
He engraved several good portraits, but his real fame rests on his 
prints of ornament. In this department he was the real professional 
of the Little Masters (see Fig. 34). 

1 Friedliinder, Repertoritim, xx. 130. 

Is I B to be 
witli Georg 
Pencz ? 


Fig. 34. — Heinrich Aldegrever. 
Panel of ornament. 



Jacob Binck. 


Virgil Solis. 

Two other names almost complete the group of Little Masters, 
Jacob Binck of Cologne (d. about 1569), and Hans Brosamer, 
who was working in Erfurt between about 1537 and 1555. The 
former is an artist of little original power, a large part of his work 
consisting in copies from the Behams, Marcantonio, and the like. Most 
interest attaches to his portraits, e.g. the Christian III. of Denmark, 
in whose service he spent part of his life. Hans Brosamer is an 
engraver of even smaller technical power. He is an imitator of 
Barthel and H. S. Beham and their compeers, but the precision of 
the true Little Masters is already gone. 

The work of Virgil Solis of Nuremberg heralds a new epoch in 
German engraving. He started on the basis of the Little Masters, 
but developed a much lighter system of engraving which has far 
more in common with careful etched work of the French ornamentist 
Ducerceau. He worked at a time when the demand for engravings 
and etchings for all manner of illustration was enormously increas- 
ing. Several hundreds of plates issued with his signature from his 
workshop, many, without a doubt, the work of assistants. Popular 
allegories, plates of costume and genre, medallion portraits, and 
ornaments of all kind, make up a motley array of prints, possessing 
little artistic value, but of considerable interest to the student of the 
history of culture. Solis was an etcher as well as engraver, but the 
precise character of his etched line is still that of the engraver, and 
seldom exhibits any of the strength of Amman, who represents the 
same artistic tendencies in the medium of etching.^ 

The Nether 


Lucas van 

The artistic pedigree of Lucas van Leyden as an engraver is 
shrouded in far greater mystery than that of Diirer or Marcantonio. 
The son of a painter Huygen Jacobsz, of whom almost nothing is 
known, a pupil of the painter Cornells Engelbrechtsz, Lucas 
Huygensz van Leyden meets us in his fourteenth year (if we may 
trust the tradition that puts his birth in 1494), all but fully equipped 
as a master-engraver. We know of no engraver in Leyden before 
him, and of the few engravers of the fifteenth century whose activities 
are placed with probability in the Netherlands our knowledge is of 
the vaguest. But engraving is a cosmopolitan art, and prints of the 
better-known German masters, such as E. S., Schongauer, and 
van Meckenem, must have been familiar enough to the young 
Lucas van Leyden to give a sound basis for his technique, though 
their style is httle reflected in his work. Nearer to him in localitj', 
and seemingly a greater influence on his style, is the engraver I A of 
Zwolle, whose large clumsy forms are continued, though greatly 
refined, in some of Lucas's earlier plates {e.g. the Round Passion of 

The large engraving of Mahomet and the Monk Sergius bears 
the earliest date on any of his works (1508), and he is already an 
1 Cf. Chap. III. p. 109. 


accomplished master of a sound technical system. More than this. 
Its excellence as a composition wins no small praise from the fact 
that Marcantonio did not disdain to appropriate its background 
two years later for his rendering of Michelangelo's Bathers. Several 
other prints show a less developed knowledge of form and a looser 
handling of line, and were probably executed even earlier : one might 
instance the Raising of Lazarus and the Samson and Delilah, both 
exhibiting the ill-achieved foreshortening which mars much of his 
work. A small plate of Adam and Eve seated (B. 7) exemplifies the 
minuteness of his early method of modelling, for which he soon 
substituted a somewhat bolder system in which cross-hatching plays 
a secondary part to the use of parallel lines. The development of 
his power in composition may be traced through the St. George, in 
its human and original aspect with the knight comforting the 
distressed princess, the Conversion of St. Paul (1509), and the 
magnificent Ecce Homo (1510), to the later Crucifixion (1517), 
and the Magdalene returning to the Pleasures of the World (1519). 
Certain figures in tlie Ecce Homo (man, woman, and child in front) 
show that he had already assimilated something of the character 
of Diirer's work, but these large subject pieces display a genius 
quite different from the German master. 

The Pound Passion of 1509 shows another side of his activity. As 
the name implies they are circular in form, and the general character 
of their composition with the decorative border seems to justify the 
assumption that they were intended as designs for windows. They 
might be compared in this respect with numerous drawings by 
Dirick Vellert for a similar purpose, and with a wood-cut passion 
by Jacob Cornelisz (van Oostzaanen), an artist who was directly 
influenced by Lucas van Leyden. 

In the study of humanity in its most varying moods and in its 
simplest dress, Lucas strikes the key-note of his country's art. It 
is deplorable that he lacked the strength to resist the current of 
classicism and to continue in the vein which makes his early print 
of the Cowherd and Milkmaid (Fig. 35) so striking an anticipation of 
the best Dutch work of the next century, and, as a study of animals, 
almost unequalled. 

The early David playing before Saul (Fig. 36), and the Mabuse- 
like Christ and the Magdalene of 1519, a work of his most 
mature period, well exemplify his peculiar power of expressing 
human emotion, linked with a certain deficiency, which he never 
wholly escaped, in the rendering of human form. 

From about 1520 the stronger style of Diirer begins to quash 
the originality of the more yielding nature, and personal contact 
with the master must have greatly served to strengthen the influ- 
ence. In spite of their excellence, such prints as the Meeting of 
Joachim and Anna (1520), the Passion Series of 1521, the Lamech 
and Cain and the Musicians of 1524 (cf. the fat forms in Diirer's 


Dancers of 15 14), possess none of the persuasive freshness of the 
earlier work. Even in technique nothing was really to be gained 
after such achievements in brilliance of tone as the Temptation 
of 1518. 

But the next transformation is more disastrous. Dutch art has 
never been able to bear the outward idealism of Italian aims, and 
Lucas van Leyden, like Mabuse and Bernaert van Orley, joined the 
mass of his contemporaries in )ielding to the seductions of the 
South. From 1528 not only does he completely change his tech- 
nique to the simpler system of Marcantonio, but entirely declares in 
favour of a less human and sympathetic treatment of scriptural and 

I'"k;. 35. — Lucas van Lu>deii. The Milkii 

allegorical subjects (c.v. the scries of the seven I'lrti/ci). The latest 
of his productions, the large AJam ami E:\; and the Lot a/ui /lis 
Daughters (1530), suffice to show how greatly ins individuality 
suffers beneath this classical bombast. 
Ills etchings. Like 1 )urer, Lucas made a few attempts in etching, and at least 

succeeded in producing a more delicate line than the Nuremberg 
master. The Fool and tlie Girl and tiie David in Frav.r (is 20") 
are examples in pure etching, while the Portrait of Jfaxiwilia'n of 
the same year shows a successful medley of the two processes, 
the face being entirely done with the graver, while most of the 
secontlary work is etched. 

Lucas van Leyden was not the founder of a school. That even 
he should have veered rounil from the front that might have made 



one, is witness to the overwhelming tide in the classical direction 
which for a century successfully hindered the natural development of 
art in the Netherlands. 

Fig. 36. — Lucas van Le3'dcn. David playing before Saul. 

His closest follower was perhaps Dirick Vellert of Antwerp. Dirick Veiiert. 
But though an engraver too, his constant use of etching, either alone 
or in combination with the burin work, justifies his place in the 
chapter that follows. 



Jan Gossaert 

Bernaert van 

The Master 
of the 

The Master S. 

AUart Claesz. 




More potent leaders of style in the first half of the century were the 
painters Quentin Matsys, Jan Gossaert (Mabuse), and Bernaert van 
Orley. To Mabuse, with whose manner Lucas van Leyden had much 
in common, have been attributed three engravings (two Madonnas 
signed IMS, one dated 1522, and, with even less certainty, a Mock- 
ing of Christ, in Paris); and Bernaert van Orley has sometimes been 
held responsible for a roughly executed etching of 1531, with an 
epitaph on Margaret of Austria. But these attributions are too pre- 
carious, and it is as inspirers of engraving rather than as engravers 
that these artists are of interest in our study. 

Closely dependent on the style of Quentin Matsys, and influ- 
enced in some degree by Lucas van Leyden (note the long forms in 
the Execution of the Baptist^ stands the engraver who uses a Crayfish 
as his signature. He has been identified with a c&x\.z\n Frans Crabbe 
(or Crabeth) of Mechlin, but the hypothesis is a mere conjecture. 
He varies the lineal system of his predecessors by a very liberal use 
of dotted work {e.g. Death of Lucretia, B. 23), and also combines 
with his engraving a delicately etched line. Some of his plates {e.g. 
the Execution of John the Baptist, P. 28) seem entirely composed 
of bitten work, and the influence of Dirick Vellert's technique is 
unmistakable. y 

Under similar "influences comes a prolific engraver known only 
by the initial S. He has been generally called Master S of Brussels, 
but tradition seems to be the only foundation for this localisation. 
Some critics regard the Lower Rhine as the more probable centre of 
his activity. Certain of his plates, executed in the manner of nielli, 
suggest that we have here to do with a goldsmith, and it may be 
with a circle of craftsmen in his employ. 

Allart Claesz (of Utrecht ?) ^ stands as an artist on a some- 
what higher plane, and is the chief representative in the Low 
Countries of the tendency of the German Little Masters. He 
borrows much from the latter, combining with their manner a much 
coarser adaptation of the Italian style than is seen in the Behams 
and Pencz. 

The influence of the Little Masters is seen also in Cornelis 
Matsys (a son of Quentin Matsys). He betrays a lighter touch 
than his German models, partly by dint of combining his engraving 
with the etched line, and his style seems inspired less by the Roman 
school than by Parinigiano. 

As an engraver of the transition we may just mention in this 
place Lambert Suavius (who worked in Lifege about 1540-59), 
although he belongs more strictly to the group of Italianised 
Flemings of whom we shall speak in Chapter IV. Suavius still, 
however, preserves more than most of that group something of the 
indigenous element of Lucas van Leyden's style, although, like his 

' VTRICH appears on his Woman ivi/h a Dragon, and \'TRICHT on the 
Nativity in Oxford. 


father-in-law, Lambert Lombard, he was already imbued with the 
Italian spirit. In his design and engraving he shows more par- 
ticularly the influence of Jacopo de' Barbari, but he could hardly 
have met the Venetian, who ended his days in Flanders before 
1 5 16. Suavius has just the same tendency as the latter to long 
and narrow folds continued in parallel curves from top to bottom of 
his draperies. He is a graceful artist, with considerable power in 
dealing with light and shade {e.g. in the Entombment), and is given 
to few of the exaggerated mannerisms of his contemporaries. 

Compared with Albrecht Diirer, Marcantonio is unquestionably a Italy. 
genius of a Hmited scope, if not of a secondary order, but he has none Marcantomo. 
the less exercised an unparalleled influence, and inspired the largest 
following of any engraver who has ever lived. Diirer stands as a master 
who infused the noblest feeling into forms which, in the hands of empty 
imitators, are in danger of becoming merely expressive of ill-favour. 
On the other hand, the art of Marcantonio, though lacking the inner 
power possessed by Diirer, spoke through a medium which retains 
a certain formal beauty even in feebler hands, and so attracted a host 
of imitators from one end of Europe to the other. 

Marcantonio Raimondi was born in Bologna about the year 
1480, and served his apprenticeship under the famous painter 
and goldsmith of his native town, Francesco Francia, whom we 
have already mentioned for his work in niello.^ He may at first 
have followed his master's activity, and produced some plates in this 
method, but there is no certain evidence of the fact. The only 
prints which show any likeness to the method at all, in respect of 
the dark shading in the background. The Three Maries (D.^ 54-56) 
and the St. Catherine, St. Lucy and St. Barbara (D. 57-59), even if 
by his hand, are quite in his later manner ; while the Neptune in his 
Car i^. 282), a copy from the niello-like engraving of "Peregrino 
da Cesena" (Duchesne 214, reproduced. Fig. 14), or from an even 
better niello print of the same school (reproduced, Gutekunst sale 
Catalogue, 1899, No. 864), is attributed with even less certainty than 
the former. The earliest date occurring on any of Marcantonio's 
prints, is that of 1505 on the Pyramus and Thisbe. There are several, 
however, which must precede this, and one group in particular, where 
somewhat tentative and elementary drawing is combined with 
a simple manner of shading, parallel lines in the background 
being generally formed into an arch of shadow behind the figures. 
These characteristics are exemplified in the Youth extracting a 
Thorn from his Foot (B. 465),^ and in the Woman and Man with 
an Axe Head (B. 380). The latter, especially, shows the inex- 

^ See pp. 42, 68. 

2 =Delaborde. See Index and Individual Bibliography. 

' Perhaps copied from a Bolognese niello (Duchesne 316) which, in its turn, is 
an adaptation of the celebrated bronze in the Capitol Museum at Rome. 



Was Francia 
an engraver? 

His debt to 

perienced hand in the pentiraento along the outlines of the man's 
left leg. 

Still about the same time, but more ambitious in composition, 
and nearer to the Pyramus and Thisbe in the close and more 
goldsmith-like shading, should be placed the Judgment of Paris 
(B. 339), the Allegory with Bologna and its leaning towers in the 
background (B. 399), and the Orpheus (B. 314), where the same 
delicate manner is carried to even greater finesse. How far 
Marcantonio's engraving is definitely due to Francia's teaching it is 
impossible to say. Some four engravings have been attributed to 
the master (i.e. a Baptism of Christ, a Virgin enthroned and tivo 
saints, a St. Catherine and St. Lucy, and a Judgment of Paris, see 
P. V. p. 201), but they differ hardly at all from the work of the 
young Marcantonio, and lacking stronger evidence are more safely 
assigned to the latter. We may mention in passing that the last 
letter of Marcantonio's usual signature M A F seems to have 
reference to the name de^ Franci, which Vasari tells us he acquired, 
like so many other Italian artists, from his master. 

In a somewhat later stage of his development, but still during 
his Bologna period, Marcantonio makes a far more liberal use of 
dots, and lays greater, perhaps exaggerated, emphasis on the darker 
parts of shading, showing in the latter respect a peculiar mannerism 
in edging his masses of trees with bands of dark foliage. The 
Three Cupids Playing (of 1506), an Allegory with two female figures 
(B. 377), and a Woman watering a Plant (B. 383), are typical 
examples of this phase. As early as 1504 the praises of the young 
engraver were sung by the Bolognese theologian, jurisconsult, 
litterateur, and musician, Giovanni Philotheo Achillini, in his 
Viridario (though the book remained unpublished until 1513), 
and one of the most attractive of Marcantonio's early plates, the 
Guitar Player (B. 469, Fig. 37), is almost certainly a portrait of the 
artist's panegyrist. 

In the trees and landscape of his compositions he soon began to 
borrow largely from Diirer, whose work was at this time beginning to 
be widely known and copied in Italy. Of these copyists Marcantonio 
was the most prolific and not the most scrupulous in his appropria- 
tions. Besides many of Diirer's line engravings, he copied the large 
wood-cut series the Life of Mary on copper, in a manner closely 
imitating the original, and signed them with the Northern master's 
signature. This was in 1506, and Diirer, who visited Italy in that 
year, had this immediate incentive for his bitter complaints to the 
Venetian Senate of his young rival's action. Happily this sufficed 
to induce Marcantonio, whose previous offence had no doubt been 
less his own than that of unscrupulous dealers, to add his own 
signature to the copies which he subsequently made of Diirer's 
smaller Wood-cut Passion. 

It is almost impossible to overestimate the influence of the 



Nuremberg master on Marcantonio's development. The latter, 
however, was always original in his assimilation of another's 
methods, and though learning much from Diirer in respect of a 

Fig. 37. — Marcantonio Raiinondi. Portrait of Philotheo AchiUini. 

regular method of cross-hatching, he ended by simplifying the same 
to a system which possesses a strength and character of its own, by 
no means inferior to the technical style of his Northern rival. 

For an uncertain period between 1505 and 1509 Marcantonio 



from Lucas 
van Leyden. 




His connexion 
with Raphael. 

was working in Venice, and in this centre of artistic commerce he no 
doubt had greater opportunity for seeing Diirer's prints, even if we are 
not to accept Vasari's story that it was here that he first made their 
acquaintance. An interesting relic of his sojourn in this city is the print 
which, at least since the middle of the eighteenth century, has borne 
the inexplicable title RaphaeFs Dream (B. 359). Giorgione may have 
inspired this, as he did at least one other print of the period, i.e. the 
St. Jerome (B. 102), though the latter is probably more immediately 
suggested by the style of Giorgione's interpreter, Giulio Campagnola. 

Marcantonio left Venice for Rome about 1509-10, visiting Florence 
on his way, and making drawings from Michelangelo's lost cartoon 
of the Bathers., which he used in an engraving dated in this year. 
His treatment of the subject has an added interest from the compli- 
ment he paid to the young Lucas van Leyden (who, if tradition is 
correct, was still only some sixteen years old) by copying the land- 
scape from the latter's Mahomet and the Monk Sergius. He seems 
to have adapted his background from the same master again in his 
Adam and Eve, another of the prints of the early Roman period. 
In mitigating the sternness of the Diirer convention the Dutch 
master's work was certainly not without influence on Marcantonio.^ 

Another mellowing influence in the formation of the engraver's 
style at the epoch of his arrival in Rome was that of Baldassare 
Peruzzi, whose drawings in several cases seem to have been the 
basis for Marcantonio's plates. This is established in the case of 
the print representing an Allegory on the Third Punic War (B. 213) 
(and so rather the Triumph of Scipio than the Triumph of 
Titus, as it has been called), which is based on a drawing by 
Peruzzi in the Louvre (perhaps a study for a projected continuation 
of the frescoes in the Capitol Museum, Rome), while there are 
others, like the Orpheus and Eurydice (B. 295), which one has every 
reason to suppose were inspired by the same master. It has been 
suggested that the Death of Lucretia (B. 192, Fig. 38) is also after 
Peruzzi, but Vasari was probably justified in his ascription of the 
design to Raphael, and in his statement that it was this magnificent 
print which induced the great painter to acquire the co-operation 
of Marcantonio, which lasted till the death of the former in 1520. 

Of the drawings furnished by Raphael to his engraver very few 
are authenticated, but these are sufficient to show how much was left 
to Marcantonio to elaborate and develop, and it is exactly in his 
wonderful sympathy and power in adaptation that his chief strength 
lies. A study for the Picti\ (B. 37) in Oxford, and another for the 
Massacre of the Innocents (B. 18 and 20) in the British Museum 
(where the original chalk is possibly covered by work of another 
hand) are almost the only examples beyond dispute.^ 

1 A copy of I.. \'. Leyden's Pilgrims (B. 149) is also attributed to M;ircaatonio 
with plausibility (K. XIV. 462). 

i* Sec O. Fischel, Raphael' s /.eichiiungen, Strassburg, T898 (Nos. 100 and 380). 



The prints of the first two or three years in Rome are, as a 
group, perhaps the most charming of all Marcantonio's work, the 

Fig. 38. — Marcantonio Raimondi. The Death of Lucretia. 

Death of Dido (B. 187) and the Poetry (B. 382) (the latter after the 
fresco by Raphael in the Camera della Segnatura) being unsurpassed 


for grace of design and delicacy of workmanship. Marcantonio's 
cutting is now perfectly clean, and the tendency to exaggerated 
depth of tone in the darker portions has quite disappeared. We 
may probably be right also in placing in this period the two 
attractive portrait studies (B. 445 and 496) which, with the perpen- 
dicular shading and in the method of treating the figure, may have 
suggested to Parmigiano the etching of Si. Thais (B. 12, Fig. 44). 
The second of the two studies is of great interest if tradition is right 
in calling it a portrait of Raphael. 

The same subtlety of shading which has been remarked in the 
earliest works of the Roman period, added to an even greater power, 
is seen in large plates like \^q Judgment of Paris (B. 245), Apollo 
Repetitions by and the Muses, and the Massacre of the Innocents. Of the last- 
the master or _^ named there are two versions (B. 18 and 20), one of which (18) is 
often distinguished by the small fir tree in the right corner, which 
does not appear in B. 20. There is little difference in artistic value 
between the two versions, and it is possible that Marcantonio him- 
self repeated the composition. There are several similar repetitions 
of other compositions, e.g. Christ lamented by his Mother (B. 34 and 
35). If, as is generally held, Marco da Ravenna (or some other 
pupil) is responsible in such cases for one of the plates, it is great 
testimony to the efficacy of the immediate direction of a master like 
His later Finally Marcantonio turns to a far bolder and more open manner 

engravings. gf engraving, perhaps gaining in strength, by the simplification of 
his system of shading, but sometimes sacrificing far more virtue than 
he gained in his attempt at a summary method. Good examples 
of this later style are the three prints of the story of Cupid and 
Psyche (B. 342-44), after the Farnesina frescoe.*, and an allegorical 
figure of Strength (B. 375). A certain number of the prints after 
Raphael were no doubt executed after the painter's death in 1520 ; 
and prints in the later manner, after Raphael and other masters 
(such as the large Martyrdom of St. Lanraice after Bandinelli), show 
a deterioration, which may be partly due to the lack of the personal 
direction which had meant so much to the engraver. The most 
attractive part of the work of the later years are the numerous small 
prints (perhaps inspired by the work of the German Little Masters) 
which, in certain cases at least, were used for book illustrations (e.g. the 
Ainadeiis, B. 355, for a dialogue of Amadeo Berruti on Friendship, 
1 5 1 7). This and the suppressed illustrations after Giulio Romano to 
Aretino's Sonetti, which caused Marcantonio's temporary banishment 
from Rome, are examples of a practice we have noticed in reference 
to the Monte Sancto of 1477,^ which was not revived with any suc- 
cess till the end of the sixteenth century. The engraver's connexion 
with Aretino, the notorious blackmailer and satirist, is more 
worthily represented in the portrait which, if after a picture by 

' Sco p. 47. Cf. also pp. 30, 33, 65, 70, 119. 


Titian,! can hardly date before the sack of Rome, as Aretino's arrival 
in Venice and his first relation with Titian did not occur till about 
1527. The engraving, which is of great richness of tone, but some- 
what stolid portraiture, does not convincingly point to Titian, and 
Vasari may be right in calling it a study from the life made by 
Marcantonio while Aretino was in Rome, i.e. sometime between 
1517 and 1524. At the sack of Rome in 1527, Marcantonio is 
said to have returned to Bologna, and in 1534 he is spoken of as 
dead. Apart from this nothing is known, and the last phase of his 
life is still wrapped in obscurity. 

Raphael was the first of the great painters to realise the market Reproductive 
value of popularity by pressing an engraver of first rank entirely into engraving. 
his service. His factotum, Baviera, who seems among other things 
to have mixed the master's paints, turned to printing, and was 
among the earliest of the profession of printseller, which was to 
become so lucrative a calling during the course of the century. For 
the dignity of engraving, it is easy to regret the submission of the 
art to the mere reproduction of the ideas of others. The introduc- 
tion of photography and the photo-mechanical processes has com- 
pletely changed the state of the case, and present conditions have 
practically ousted the engraver from the possibility of profiting by 
reproduction. We may rejoice at the change, but it is not for us 
to lament that, before this change came about, one of the greatest 
of all engravers was ready to lend his powers to the expression of 
another's genius. We should rejoice that it was he, and no other, 
who laid the foundations of tradition in a branch of work for which 
there was bound to be an increasing demand. 

From the mass of anonymous engravers who must have worked 
in the school, or directly under Marcantonio's influence, three are 
known by name and a few more by their monograms alone. Of the 
former, Jacopo Francia, the son of the great painter and goldsmith Jacopo 
Francesco Francia, was probably a fellow-pupil of Marcantonio under F™"'^'^- 
his father, but his work nearly all betrays the influence of his more 
powerful contemporary. The Death of Lucretia (B. 4) shows him 
an artist of graceful talent, but with a characteristic tendency to a 
fulness of form and feature which lacks the grip of Marcantonio. 
The assumption that he worked at some time in Rome is probable 
but quite uncertain, gaining no real support from the fact that some 
of the later prints which bear his monogram are direct copies from 
Marcantonio, e.g. the Christ in the House of Simon of 1530 (P. S, 
after B. xiv. 23). 

More certainly in the immediate entourage of Marcantonio, Marco Dente 
probably an assistant if not a pupil, is Marco Dente da Ravenna, ^^ Ravenna. 
who generally uses a monogram composed of R and S, and on one 
of his prints (the large Laocoon) has signed in full M(a)rcus 

^ As is asserted by Hollar in the little etching which may be nothing more than a 
copy of Marcantonio. 



Ravenas. Beyond his name and his work, and the probabih'ty that 
his life met a tragic and premature conclusion in the sack of 
Rome in 1527, nothing is known about the engraver's history. In 
a certain richness of texture and tone he comes nearest of all the 
school to the master's technique in engraving, though as a draughts- 
man his powers are by no means great. His shading, with large 
flat surfaces of tone, is simple and not unpleasing, but not sufficient 
to really express the modelling or structure of the human form. 
One of the best examples of his manner of figure engraving is the 
Boxing Match of Entellus and Dares (B. 195). His prints after 
sculpture are good, e.g. the equestrian statue of Marcus Aureltus, 
and in certain cases {e.g. the Laocoon) of great interest as showing 
the sculpture before later restorations. 
%. A somewhat later master who used a very similar monogram 

9^ {e.g. in his Assembly of Savants, B. 479) should not be confused 
with Marco da Ravenna. His work is characterised by a much 
harder system of line than the latter's. 
Agostino xhe most prolific of the engravers in the school of Marcantonio, 

de'^MusT° ^""^ ^''^^ Marco da Ravenna, almost certainly one of the master's 
assistants, is Agostino de' Musi (Veneziano, as he was called 
from his birthplace). His practice of not only signing his prints 
(either with his name in full, or with the initials AY), but also 
adding the date, gives us ample material for tracing the develop- 
ment of his work. In his earliest plates we find him copying his 
compatriots Jacopo de' Barbari and Giulio Campagnola, while the 
earliest date on any of his works (1514) occurs on a plate of the 
Last Supper, copied from Diirer's larger Hood-cut Passion. He seems 
most of all to have been influenced by Giulio Campagnola, and not 
only copied, but imitated his work. His Man with a Flute (B. 454) 
is a mere travesty of the former's Shepherd, while his St. Margaret 
(B. 119), the Nude woman reclining asleep (B. 412), and the 
Diogenes (B. 197) are quite in the same master's manner. 

In 151 7 he is probably settled in Rome, for the Christ carrying 
the Cross (B. 28), after Raphael, belongs to this year, while a print 
after Andrea del Sarto, dated 1516 (a Fieta), no doubt points to a 
visit to Florence on his journey South. 

Like Marco da Ravenna he repeated a considerable number of 
the compositions which Marcantonio himself engraved, generally 
making his copy in reverse. He seldom attains the former engraver's 
richness of tone, but his draughtsmanship possesses greater clearness 
and definition in line. In his later prints, many of which are 
designed by Giulio Romano, he shows an aff'ection for rendering 
artificial light, e.g the lYativity of 1531 (B. 17), and the Infant 
Hercules strangling a Snake of 1532 (B. 315). Another similar 
efi'ort, representing the sculptor Bandinelli with his Pupils in his 
Studio, working by Candle-light, of 1531 (B. 418), has a special 
mterest on account of its subject. Towards the end of his career 


Agostino engraved a few portraits, that of Hieronymus Alexatider, 
Archbishop of Brindisi (1536), being the best in a sphere in which 
his achievement is of small merit. 

Among the immediate followers of Marcantonio must be The Master ' 
mentioned the engraver who signed his plate with the initials B. V., ™* '^^ ^'^ 
or more generally with a die marked with the letter B alone. He has verini?) 
been identified perhaps rightly with Benedetto Verini, a natural 
son of the master. His plates (certain of which bear the dates 1532 
and 1533) show Httle originality of manner, but a close assimila- 
tion of his master's style. 

One other school of engraving, that of Mantua, deserves The Mantuan 
mention here, as preserving strong individuality, at a time when school, 
nearly all the engravers in Italy were dominated by Marcantonio. 
At the head of the school stands Giovanni Battista Sculptor g. b. Sculptor, 
(born 1503), but its great master was Giorgio Ghisi, while a son Adamo and 
and a daughter of the former, Adamo and Diana Sculptor, were gcu^ptor 
close imitators of both. 

Like Marcantonio they were to a large extent reproductive Giorgio Ghisl. 
engravers, but were less happy than the Roman master, in having 
for their model the large emptiness of Giulio Romano, who spent 
the last years of his life decorating the Palazzo del Tfe in Mantua. 
The peculiar characteristic of their style of engraving is most 
noticeable in the rich blackness of their shadows, which is partly 
obtained by a liberal use of dots between the lines, and in certain 
instances by an admixture of thick etched lines with graver work. 
These characteristics are already present in Giovanni Battista 
Sculptor's Virgin and Child on the Crescent (B. 4), but they are 
seen at their best in the works of Giorgio Ghisi, such as the large 
Nativity of 1553-54 after Bronzino. In this emphasis on dark 
shading, which is well exemplified in the allegorical figure of 
Victory Q) (B. 34, Fig. 39), Ghisi stands nearer to Marcantonio 
in his Bolognese manner. The strongly emphasised depth of tone 
is still present in his most monumental achievement, the prints after 
Michelangelo's Sixtine Ceiling and Last Judgment (the latter alone 
being engraved on eleven separate plates), but a greater breadth 
of line seems in this case to show the influence of Marcantonio's 
later work. 

In the history of the development of engraving Ghisi is of special 
interest, as forming a link between the South and North in the visit 
he paid Antwerp in 1550, where several of his plates {e.g. the Last 
Supper after Lambert Lombard, and, in its second state of 1554, 
the Nativity, mentioned above) were published by Hieronymus Cock. 
As we shall see in a later chapter, the printsellers from the Nether- 
lands were soon to do as much to turn Italian engraving into a 
mere commerce as the Italians from their side debased the natural 
growth of art in the North. 


The French The French school, which was almost barren in the fifteenth 


''"'■ 39- — CJiornio Ghisi. I'orluno. 

century, produced no great engraver in the succeedinc; epoch. 
Scarcely anything was done until after the second decad'e of the 


century, and, not possessing a tradition of their own, the French 
engravers yielded to the Itahan influence even more completely 
than their Northern neighbours. 

Among the earliest who practised the art in France, Jean Jean Duvet. 
Duvet, born at Langres in 1480, evidently formed his style on 
Italian models, though he is not known to have studied in 
Italy. Rough copies of Mantegna's horizontal Entombment and 
Marcantonio's Virgin in the Clouds are evidences of the direction 
of his early application. Michelangelo was another of his 
models, but unhappily for the beauty of his art, he seems, like 
most of his fellow-countrymen at the time, to have leaned rather 
to the exaggerated bigness of Michelangelesque forms, as seen in 
Pontormo and Rosso. He never mastered the elements of draw- 
ing, and never got beyond a heavy and overcharged manner of 
engraving, in which an irregular shading is outlined with thick 
strokes often carelessly doubled and doubled again to add to their 
breadth. Nevertheless, as an interpreter, he is not without a certain 
charm analogous to that of William Blake. He often shows a real 
power of graceful composition, though he too often mars it with 
faulty drawing, or overcrowds his space with figures. His greatest 
work, showing his tendency to mysticism, is the set of illustrations to 
the Apocalypse, from which we reproduce the lower part of the 
Angel showing John the River of the Water of Life (Fig. 40). Here 
and there he did a plate in a cleaner and more precise technique, 
e.g. the Body of Christ borne by Soldiers (dated 1528), but most of 
his work is in the same heavy manner as the Apocalypse. An 
allegorical plate representing the Glory of 'Henri II. shows him at 
his strongest. His devotion to allegory may be noted again in the 
series of plates which are said to refer to the amour of Henry II. 
and Diana of Poitiers, where the recurrence of the unicorn suggested 
the name given him by some early iconographers, the " Mattre k la 

The only other early French engraver who did much work on a Nicolas 
large scale in, imitation of models like Michelangelo, was Nicolas Beatrizet. 
Beatrizet of Luneville ; and he almost belongs to the Italian 
school, working as he did so much of his life in Rome, and assimi- 
lating the Italian manner. Apart from the historical interest of a 
few dull portraits and the value of some engravings of antiquities 
to the archaeologist, his work possesses little importance. 

Most of the French engravers of the period followed the Italians, 
but qualified this influence with a distant imitation of the ideals of 
the Little Masters of Germany. 

The engraver who directly copied most from the Germans is Noel Gamier. 
Noel Garnier, but his work (dating between about 1520 and 1540) 
is of little worth. 

In Jean Gourmont we meet the best representative of the Jean 
spirit of the Little Masters transplanted to France, and treated Gourmont. 


with considerable originality. He appears as a printer in Paris as 
early as 1506, but his engravings seem to belong to some two 
decades later, when he was working in Lyons. In making adapta- 
tions from Italian models (e.^^. from the niello-print of T/ure JVomen 
Dancittg, Duch. 287, and from some prints of the Laocoon) he knows 
well how to set his subject amid the simple renaissance architecture, 
with little or no decoration, which characterises his school. His 
little Nativity (B. 2), a small roundel like so many of these early 
French prints, though possessing none of the finesse of the best of 

Conicillc (?) 

F]i;. 40. --Jean Duvet, I'ari of a IMatc iVoni the Apoealvpse series. 

the German Little Masters, is a good example of the sound and 
simple method of shading he adopted. He also engraved a feu- 
portraits somewhat in the manner of Martino Rota. 

Another Lyons artist working on similar lines to Gourmont is 
the engraver who uses the monogram CC, which almost certainly 
indicates some member of the Corneille family, if not a "Claude." 
His work has none of the sound technical qualities of the former, 
and his draughtsmanship is distinctly inferior. A series of rortraits 
of tJie Kiiiy;s of Fi-aiia; published in 1546 by Balthasar Arnoullet 
{Epitomes di-s Roys de France), has at least an historical interest. 


To the same school of Lyons belongs also Georges Reverdy, Georges 
" Ce. Reverdinus," as he Latinised his name, to the confusion of all Reverdy. 
but quite recent iconographers. His early work about 1531 was 
probably done in Italy, and chiefly shows the influence of the 
Mantuan school of the Sculptors and Ghisi, from whom he made 
some copies. Prints like the two Adorations (of the Kings and 
Shepherds), both roundels, have all the characteristics of the Lyons 
group of engravers, and almost certainly belong to his later period, 
i.e. after his return to France. 

By far the greatest achievement of the early French school of Orn.^ment. 
engraving was in ornament and architectural prints. Etienne Etienne 
Delaune, who worked in Strassburg and Augsburg as well as Paris, Relaune. 
is without qualification one of the finest of all ornament engravers. 
The character of his designs largely issued from the style which 


Fig. 41. — Etienne Delaune. Arabesque. 

originated in Raphael's decoration of the Vatican Loggie, which 
with its slender foliage and grotesques stands in such contrast to 
the bolder scroll ornament, still half Gothic in form, which survived 
in Germany well into the latter part of the same century. The 
sinuous lines, the wasp-like forms, show to better advantage in 
Delaune's extraordinarily fine engraving than as they were painted 
by Giovanni da Udine in the Vatican. 

The other great ornament designer of the early French school, J. Androuet 
Jacques Androuet Ducerce.'vu, may just be mentioned here, Ducerceau. 
but as he worked almost entirely in etching, he will find his place 
in the following chapter. 

Another engraver of ornament, inferior in power to either of the Pierre 
preceding, is Pierre Woeiriot. His chief interest for us, how- Woeinot. 
ever, lies in the multitude of small portraits which he produced 
somewhat in the manner of the Wierixes, though, like Jean Rabel, 


possessing none of their microscopic finish. A series of consider- 
able historical importance is that of the Kings of France, pub- 
lished at Cologne in both Latin and French in 159 1 (Clement 
de Treille's Austrasiae Reges et Duces ; the French version by 
F. Guibaudet). 



The genius of etching is the very antithesis of the formality of line- 
engraving. The needle is drawn through the ground against the 
slightest resistance, and the artist who uses this process can in con- 
sequence command a spontaneity of expression almost eqaal to that 
in drawing with the pen or pencil. It is this very lack of convention 
which gives the method so much closer an affinity with the spirit of 
modern art, which in a sense begins with Rembrandt, than with the 
classical tendencies and more rigid systems of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. Until the seventeenth century etchings of any 
importance are only occasional performances, and even in these the 
specific quality of the etched line is scarcely ever realised. 

The process of etching, in its widest signification, was practised 
by the goldsmith, metal-chaser, and more particularly by the 
armourer and gunmaker, long before it was used for the production 
of prints. It is perhaps impossible to date any weapons with etched 
decoration before the last three decades of the fifteenth century, but 
instructions for etching on iron are found in a MS. of the earlier 
part of the century,^ and there is every reason to suspect that the 
method was known well before the fifteenth century, if not in 

The practice of taking impressions on paper from etched plates 
may possibly go back to the last few years of the fifteenth century, 
but no date can be assigned to any etching earlier than 15 13, the 
year given on Urs Graf's Girl bathing her Feet, of which the only Urs Graf, 
impression known is in Basle. Then there are some five etchings 
by DuRER, which we mentioned in the last chapter, dating between Durer's 
1515 and 1518. The Gethsemane and the Cannon (Fig. 42) are ^'*'"S^' 
most powerful works, but Diirer was probably ill content with the 
coarseness of line attainable on iron, which remained for a consider- 

1 By Jehan le Begue, MS. (written about 1431) Bibl. Nat., Paris (see Mrs, 
Merrifield, Original Treatises on the Arts of Painting, London, 1849, vol. i. p. 76). 
For tlie whole subject consult in particular E. Harzeii, Archiv v. 119, and S. R. 
Koehler, Zeitschrift, 2nd ser. ix. 30. 



H. S. Beham. 


able time the common material for etching in Germany. ^ The use 
of iron may have been determined rather by the conventions of an 
art which was chiefly applied in the armourer's workshop, than from 
any lack of knowledge of a suitable mordant for copper. The 
etched plates of Diirer's follower, Hans Sebald Beham, amount 

l'"lG. 42. — Albrecht Dilrcr. The Cannon. 

to less than twenty in all, and, as in the case of Diirer, are the occa- 
sional work of an artist chiefly devoted to line-engraving.^ 
Aitdorfer and Albrecht Altdorfer, whose memorial etching of the Regens- 

landscape burg Synagogue destroyed by fire in 15 19 gives some indication 
etching. qC |.[.||, ^,^jg Qj- ].|jg .^yQf]^ i,i jiijg niedium, was a more successful 

and prolific etcher than Beham, and is of considerable importance 
as one of the earliest interpreters of landscape for its own sake. 

' The Kioaler pait are dated in 1519 and 1520, /.f. ahiiost immediately after 
Diirer's attempts (e.g. .S7. Jerome ■li'riling, Pauh 63, ]'irgin luilh the Ap/'!e, P. 20, 
T/ie SI(Uidanl-l>eiurr, V. 205). The date 1540 occurs on another ( Woman oiuf Foo/, 
P. 14Q), and about six arc mulated. 


His style in landscape etching is simply the transference to metal of 
the manner of his pen drawing. The study of the forms of trees 
and of other things in nature is still in its infancy, but the quaint 
conventions and the characteristic German curves in the landscapes 
of this school possess a distinct charm of their own. 

One of the landscape etchings of Albrecht Altdorfer's immediate Erhard 
entourage is signed E.A. (British Museum), and is almost certainly ^'"^"'^'^'^ ' 
the work of a brother, Erhard Altdorfer. An engraving which 
bears the same initials is dated 1506 {i.e. the same year in which 
Albrecht's first plates in line were produced), so that it is possible 
they started their artistic life in close contact. Later, however, 
Erhard seems to have settled in Mecklenburg, where he is known 
to have been living as late as 1570. He does not appear to have 
left many plates ; his chief work is in wood-cut. 

Altdorfer's closest followers in landscape are Augustin Hirsch- Hirschvogel. 
voGEL and Hans Sebald Lautensack. Hirschvogel, born 

Fig. 43. — .Augustin Hirschvogel. Landscape. 

in Nuremberg about 1503, and living long in Vienna, was a versa- 
tile genius, adding to glass-painting (the profession of his father) 
the crafts of etching, enamel - painting, and even engineering. 
His manner of etching landscape was even simpler than that of 
Altdorfer : he seldom attempts more than a bare outline sketch, 
perfectly suggestive as an etching should be. Lautensack, some Lautensack. 
twenty years Hirschvogel's junior, also seems to have migrated from 
Nuremberg and settled in Vienna a few years before his death in 
1563. His landscape etchings are the most important part of his 
work. In design they are quite similar to Hirschvogel and 
Altdorfer, but the usual charm of this school of landscape is in 
Lautensack somewhat marred by the overcrowding of detail, and in 
the attempt at working more in a painter's manner the value of line 
is lost. In his portraits he frequently combines etching and 
engraving (e.g. that of his father, the painter Paul Lautensack). 
Like Lucas van Leyden, he models the face with the graver, adding 
dress and accessories in etching. 



The Hopfers 
of Augsburg. 

and Lambert 

Another interesting group of etchers at this period is that of the 
Hopfers of Augsburg. Daniel Hopfer, who was already working in 
Augsburg in 1493, was certainly one of the first, if not the earliest, of 
the German artists to practise etching in our sense of the word. He 
used it, like many another before him, for ornamenting armour and 
guns, and the majority of his rough etchings were intended as little 
more than patterns for the goldsmith or sculptor. Of native artistic 
instinct there seems little in the family. A few of his plates, e.g. 
Christ and the Adulteress (B. 7), may be his own invention, but most 
of his subject prints (such as the Christ before Pilate, with its depend- 
ence on Mantegna's fresco of St. James in the Eremitani) seem 
suggested by the designs of others. He shows a strong predilection 
for the heavily ornamented renaissance forms which were beginning 
to exert so much influence on the Northern art of this period. 

External evidence seems to place at least one of Hopfer's plates 
well before the first essay of Urs Graf, i.e. the portrait which has 
been identified with Konrad von der Rosen, the jester-adviser of 
Maximilian I. (B. 87). ^ There is another version of the same 
portrait engraved in North Italy (probably Venice) during the early 
years of the sixteenth century, which from the inscription undoubt- 
edly served as a portrait of Gonsalvo of Cordova, the general of the 
forces of Ferdinand V. of Castile in Italy (P. V. 191, 109).^ Now 
Gonsalvo was serving in Italy between 1494 and 1504, and it is far 
more probable that the print was issued about 1503-4, when his fame 
was at its height, than after his fall from favour in 1504, or even as a 
memorial print on his death in 1 5 1 5. Although the common practice 
of the Hopfers would incline one to suspect them of using an Italian 
original rather than of supplying the Italian with a model, in this case 
the lack of anything more than a typical resemblance to Gonsalvo 
(enough for the hero-worshipping public) is so striking, the whole 
costume of the sitter so essentially Northern, and the identity with 
Rosen so plausible, that the reverse seems to be the true position. 
If this portrait, which is one of Daniel Hopfer's best prints, be 
accepted then as probably before 1503-4 it may be assumed that 
not a few of his other prints date at this period of his activity, an 
inference of considerable importance in the history of etching. 

His brothers Hieronymus and Lambert Hopfer,' who worked 
in the same style, have even less originality than Daniel. Hiero- 
nymus was a most prolific copyist, not only from Diirer and the 

1 In Fugger's MS, History of Austria (vol. ii. fol. 311 ; Hofb., Vienna) there is 
a water-colour portrait of Rosen which is almost certainly copied from Hopfer's 
print. Fugger was generally trustworthy, so that this is great support to the identifi- 
cation. Rosen also appears in the large wood-cut Triumph of Maximilian, as well 
as in drawings by the elder Holbein in Berlin. 

'^ A third version (P. V. 191, 109, copy A) does not touch the question at issue, as 
it is a mere reversed copy of the P. V. 191, 109. The inscription in this copy, 
el gran Capitaiiio . , . retrato rial vivo, malics too bold a claim to originality. 

^ It may be mentioned that there are three of the original iron plates of Lambert 
Hopfer in the British Museum (B. viii. 531, 28-30). 


German school, but from Mantegna, Jacopo de' Barbari, Nicoletto 

da Modena, and many of the early Italian engravers. Lambert 

Hopfer, and the anonymous etcher who signs with the initials CB c B (with the 

accompanied by the device of the little tree, which is used by the Tree). 

three other members of this group, are of even smaller importance. 

The influence of the great Augsburg painter, Hans Burgkmair, is Hans Burgk- 

manifest throughout the work of this school, and he is himself prob- ™^"^ ^- ^"^ '^• 

ably responsible for one etching, the Mercury and Venus (B. vii. 

199, i), of which the British Museum possesses the original iron 

plate. His son, of the same name, seems to have been joint author 

with Heinrich Vogtherr, the younger, of a series of full-length Heinrich 

figures with escutcheons for the arms of Augsburg citizens, which Vogtherr II. 

was first pubhshed in 1545. 

All the etching of the Hopfer family, if not also most of that 
of Hirschvogel and Lautensack, seems to have been on iron. This 
metal is bitten more irregularly than copper, with the result that 
certain parts hold the ink much better than others, causing the 
somewhat patchy contrasts of dark and light, which characterise 
and sometimes disfigure the work of the school. 

The only etcher of real note who worked in Germany in the jost Amman, 
second half of the sixteenth century was a Swiss settler in Nuremberg, 
Jost Amman, and he too, like the engraver Virgil Solis, sacrificed 
much of his talent to merely commercial uses. A large proportion 
of his production consists of ornament and heraldic prints, title-pages, 
and miscellaneous book illustration. But, happily, he found more 
opportunity than Solis for doing artistic work less subject to these 
secondary aims. His portraits in particular, e.g. of Nuremberg 
worthies such as Neudorffer, Hans Sachs, and the goldsmith Wenzel 
Jamnitzer (of whom one etching is known, an Arch of Triumph 
in Berlin), show him as something more than an ordinary craftsman. 
So, too, do many less pretentious pieces of genre and simple studies 
like the series of animals (A. 194-2 11). 

The German etchers of the latter part of the sixteenth century 
may be dismissed in a few words. Their work for the most part 
served some practical purpose, and possessed little artistic value. 
Thus Matthias Zundt is chiefly of note for his etchings of ornament m. Zundt. 
intended to serve as patterns to the goldsmiths. A series of vases, 
dated 1551, are probably by his hand. The author of these designs 
was long known as the Master of the Kraterographie, but there 
seems every reason to discard the awkward anonymity in favour of the 
identification with Ziindt. Besides a few portraits Ziindt also etched 
some views of towns. Witness- to the growing popularity of illus- 
trated books of topography and travel are the large Cologne pub- 
lications of Georg Braun {Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1572, etc.), which 
were illustrated by the Flemish engraver and etcher, Franz Hogen- f. Hogenberg. 
berg, and the Collectiones Peregrinationum, started by the de Brys The de Brys. 
in 1590, and only brought to completion by Matthaus Merian, m. Merian i. 








the elder, in 1634. As the better part of this work is not etched, but 
engraved, it is noticed in more detail in the succeeding chapter.^ 

A large heraldic publication by Hans Sibmacher (Nuremberg, 
1605, 16 1 2) and a book of ornament for architect, cabinet-maker, 
and sculptor by Wendelin Dietterlin, of Strassburg (1593-99), 
are among the more prominent examples of the practical uses of 
etching at this period. 

The first attempts at etching in Italy stand in sharp contrast to 
the rough etching on iron of the early German engravers. Fran- 
cesco Mazzuoli of Parma (Parmigiano), whose earliest etching can 
scarcely date before 1520, is the first of the Italians to make a 
regular practice of the art, and there are only one or two Italian 
plates before his time where the use of acid can be even suspected. 
The character of his work is typical of the distinction of Italian work 
in general from the earliest German etchings. The line is thin and 
scratchy, the shading is irregular, the plates are for the most part 
lightly bitten. All the characteristics of his swift and summary 
pen drawings reappear in his prints, with too little significance to 
be forcible as etching. Nevertheless, with all their mannerism, 
Mazzuoli's plates possess a graceful charm, and found numerous 
imitators. The St. Thais (B. 4, Fig. 44) is one of the most pleasing 
of his prints, and in the simple perpendicular shading which he 
affected there is quite a modern touch. The treat^nent of this 
subject may perhaps have been suggested by two small portrait 
studies by Marcantonio (B. 445 and 496, one of which has been 
called a portrait of Raphael). 

A group of etchings nearly in Mazzuoli's manner, but possessing 
none of his swift and significant touch, and none of the gradation of 
colour that the master puts into his line, are signed F. P. The 
initials are less probably those of the anonymous etcher than of 
Mazzuoli himself (Francescus Parmesanus), who is without doubt 
the inspirer of the designs. 

Another follower of Mazzuoli, Andrea Schiavone (Meldolla), 
was once held in honour as the inventor of the art of etching. If, 
as seems almost beyond a doubt, he is identical with the painter, 
the pupil of Titian, he could hardly have started etching till some 
twenty years later than Mazzuoli. His etchings display all the 
mannerisms of his model in an exaggerated form, and have little 
of the excellence of draughtsmanship which Parmigiano possessed. 
The bad drawing of the hands, with their sharply pointed fingers, 
immediately distinguishes his work from Mazzuoli's, while the char- 
acter of his etching is far more scratchy and irregular. He makes 
considerable use of the dry-point, though not realising the value of 
the burr to any extent {e.g. Minerva and the Muses, B. 79). Uith 
all their faults his plates, like his paintings, possess a certain 

^ See p. 124. 


spontaneity and verve. He not infrequently tinted his impressions, 
probably to get effects similar to the chiaroscuro cuts which were so 
popular at this period. 

Meldolla is said to have worked on pewter, but I must admit 
that comparison with the surface quality of certain English music 
of the eighteenth century said to be printed from pewter, and with 

Fig. 44. — Francesco Mazzuoli. Woman seated on the Ground (St. Thais? 

an impression from a pewter plate by William Strang, has led to no 
definite conviction. ^ Pewter was so largely used for other things 
in Italy at the period that the experiment might well have been 
made in etching, and the softness of the metal would account for 
the rarity of good impressions. 

^ After an examination of the prints, Mr. Strang, whose occasional use of pewter 
in etching adds great weight to his opinion, declared against the probabihty of the 
tradition, which does not seem to date earlier than Bartsch. Cf. Introduction, p. 3. 


The Venetian 

A considerable amount of etching was inspired by the work of 
Titian, but it has far less artistic value than the magnificent wood- 
cuts that were being done by Boldrini and others, after designs of the 
master and of followers, such as Domenico Campagnola. One of the 
best etchings of the class, the Landscape with squire and horse (B. 8, 
Titian), bears the contemporary inscription Titianus manu propria, but 


-Anon, etcher after Tintoretto. 
Pasqiiale Cieogna. 

I'onrait of tlie Doto 

it has none of the grip and certainty of draughtsmanship in t^round 
and trees which characterise the master's authentic work. A portrait 
plate, which has been attributed to Tintoretto, that of the Do^e 
Pasqualc Cicogna^ (B. xvi. 105, i, see Fig. 45), can hardly be mot-e 

' There are pietures of Cieogna (IXige, 1585-95! attributed to 1 intoretto in Inn*- 
l.ruek, and m tile eolleetions of the Maiquis of Stafford and .Nhin|uis of l^ute, but I 
have not verified any ininiediale eonne.xion with the print. 


than a school adaptation of some picture by the master, but will serve 

as an excellent example of the breadth of handling characteristic of 

this group. All the etchers of the school have a broad touch, but 

there is nothing which can stand as etching beside Mazzuoli. We 

may mention a few without quoting from their works : Giovanni g. b. Franco. 

Battista Franco, among the first, though a good part of his early B. d'Angeli del 

work was line-engraving in the spirit of Marcantonio ; then four artists Moro. 

originally of Verona — Battista d' Angeli del Moro, Giovanni qJuijo^" 

Battista and Giulio Fontana, and Paolo Farinati, and, finally, Fontana. 

a somewhat more original spirit in Tacopo Palma the younger of P- Farinati. 

Venice. ^' ^^'"^ "' 

Nearly all the central Italian work of the century was done in 
line-engraving. Towards the end of the century, when Marcantonio's 
influence was lessening, a revival, chiefly due to Agostino Carracci, 
continued to militate against the progress of etching. The two 
brothers of the latter, Lodovico and Annibale Carracci, produced Lodovico and 
a few etchings and dry-points in the last decade of the sixteenth Anmbale 
century and the first of the next : they are the work of hands quite 
unskilled in the art, and altogether without importance. The only 
artist of any real feeling for the true character of etching was Federigo Baroccio. 
Baroccio (born 1528 in Urbino, working at intervals in Rome, 
where he died in 161 2). Unhappily he has left only some four 
original etchings, but the large Annunciation and the Virgin and 
Child in the Clouds show him the master of a very delicate and 
individual method. By the liberal use of dotted work both by 
itself and between the lines, he attains the same effect of soft, misty 
gradations of tone which characterises his paintings. 

We have noted in our last chapter that Lucas van Leyden, The Nether 
like Diirer, made a few attempts in etching. In date they probably lands. 
belong to 1520 or thereabouts, i.e. two years after Diirer's last Leyden. 
etching. It was just the period that Lucas was falling so completely 
captive to Diirer's style, so that it is almost beyond a doubt that the 
idea of etching came from the same quarter. In one respect there 
is a notable difference. Lucas van Leyden certainly used copper, 
and succeeded, in consequence, in obtaining a far more delicate line. 
In such studies in pure etching as the Foal and the Girl and the 
David in Prayer, this refinement is not so marked as in the great 
portrait of Maximilian I., where the face is engraved, but the 
costume and setting are entirely etched. 

In this combination of etching with engraving, Lucas van Leyden Dirick Vellen. 
• has a follower in an Antwerp artist whose identity has only recently 
been established, Dirick Jacobszoon Vellert ' (" Dirick van 

' index and Individual Bibl. (Gliick). An attempt has recently been made (Beets, 
Oud Holland, 1906) to identify the master ffi , whose monogram figures on some 
prints of ornaments (reading, as if reversed in printing, D I, and not G I as is gener- 
ally accepted) with Vellert. 




Star" as he had been called, from his signature D*V). This point 
of contact, their close connexion in style, and the fact that Vellert's 
earliest etchings are dated in 1522, when Lucas was in Antwerp, 
seem to show that Vellert was inspired if not instructed in this sphere 
of art by Lucas van Leyden himself. As a designer of glass windows 
Vellert had been at work in Antwerp for a decade before he turned 
to engraving. Although the design of one of his plates (the Temp- 
tation of 1523) corresponds to a known study for a glass painting 
(in the Ducal Museum, W'eimar), the type and form are completely 

Fli;. 46. — Dirick Wlleit. nruiiinKr ami Boy with a Hoop. 

alteretl, and none of his prints absolutely reflects (;is the Round 
J\ission of Lucas van Leyden seems to have done) his activity in 
the other field. On the dating of his prints (which fall between 
1522 and 1526, one only, T/n- Flood, coming later, in 1544) we 
arc curiously well informed, for it was his practice to inscribe the 
day and month as well as the year on his plates. They are for the 
most part lightly and precisely etched in the principal lines, and 
then fmishcd in the finer parts of shading with the graver, "only 
a smaller number are done in pure etching, c.^'-. the ^Bnnnmcr and 
Boy with a Hoop of 1523 (Fig. 46), and the ^Drunken WarHor of 


1525, plates in which the distinctively Flemish character of his work 
is unalloyed in its broad humour. Except for the Flood, his prints 
are chiefly of small dimensions, and he is strictly one of the Flemish 
Little Masters. While of modest power and reflecting now 
Lucas van Leyden, now Matsys, now Bernaert van Orley, plates like 
the Christ and the Woman of Samaria (1523), the little Virgin 
and Child with St. Anne, the Eve showing Cain the Apple (1522), 
and the St. Luke painting the Madonna (1526), have a distinctly 
individual charm of manner. 

After Lucas van Leyden and Dirick Vellert there is almost 
less etching of interest to record during the sixteenth century in 
the Netherlands than we have found in either Germany or Italy. 
The Master of the Crayfish cannot, however, be forgotten. The Master 
Influenced by both the preceding artists, his etched plates form °^ ""^ Crayfish. 
a considerable proportion of his work, which we have already 
noticed in the second chapter.^ Among Dutch artists Jan Jan Vermeyen. 
Vermeyen may be mentioned as one of the earliest to work in 
the Ughter and more open manner of the Italian etchers. At 
the invitation of Charles V. he settled about 1534 for some time 
in Spain (where he was nicknamed " El Mayo," i.e. long beard), 
and in his travels no doubt saw more of the work of the etchers of 
North Italy and of Fontainebleau, to whom his technical style 
has some resemblance. His plate of Venus and Cupid (P. 2) 
and some portraits {e.g. Philip of Spain of 1555) are by no means 
without talent, and have a certain modernity of touch. 

Among the Italianisers of the Netherlands, most preferred to Frans Fioris. 
follow the Marcantonio tradition of line-engraving, though there ^- ^i^ddes van 
were a few, like Frans Floris (de Vriendt), Pieter Feddes van g spranger. 
Harlingen, and Bartolomaus Spranger, who used the other Hieronymus 
process. The only certain work of Hieronymus Cock himself, '-■°'=''- 
the great publisher of Antwerp, who did so much to spread the 
commerce of reproductive line-engraving, is in etching (chiefly of 
landscape, between about 1551 and 1563), though he must be 
responsible for some of the unsigned line-engravings of the school 
as well. 

Far more truly national in character are the few plates of Pieter Pieter 
Brueghel the elder, but they hardly betray the power that pro- Brueghel i. 
duced such masterpieces among Flemish paintings of peasant life as 
the pictures in Vienna. Pieter's son, Jan Brueghel the elder, was, Jan Brueghel i. 
like his father, for some time in Italy, -but he too preserved the 
national characteristics, though he cared more for mythological 
staffage in his landscape than for the realistic figures of " Peasant " 
Brueghel, as his father is sometimes called. There are only two or 
three etchings with his signature, but they have all the curious and 
delicate quality of his paintings. 

Nearly akin to Jan Brueghel is Hans Bol, with his landscapes Hans Bol. 

1 Cf. p. 90. 



Paul Bril. 




The school of 

A. Fantuzzi. 
G. Ruggieri. 
Domenico del 
Leonard Tiry. 

Jean Cousin. 

crowded with figures, while Paul Bril, who passed the greater 
part of his Ufa in Rome, is perhaps the strongest of this group of 
landscape etchers. Their work is scarcely ever true to nature, 
always bizarre in character and meagre in line, yet much of it 
possesses a certain fairyland charm of its own. 

The Flemish tradition of Pieter Brueghel the elder was ably 
carried on at the turn of the century by David Vinckboons of 
Mechlin, who worked chiefly in Amsterdam. One or two of his 
etchings of genre are exceedingly good, but his work is represented 
far more fully in the many engravings which were done after his 

Except in the sphere of ornament, we have found that little 
line-engraving of importance was produced in France during the 
sixteenth century, and this litde was largely an offshoot of Italian 
art. In etching there is even less to recount. In the front rank 
is again an artist largely devoted to ornament,- the etcher and 
architect Jacques Androuet Ducerceau. Although his manner 
of etching is wonderfully precise and delicate, it must nevertheless 
take second rank to the finely engraved work of Delaune, at least 
in the sphere of small ornament prints. He left, besides, many 
hundreds of etchings of palaces, gates, bridges, and plans of all 
sorts, and it is in these contributions to the history of architecture 
that his real importance lies. 

The event of greatest moment to French art in the sixteenth 
century was the invitation given about 1530 by Francis I. to several 
Italian painters, under the leadership of Rosso Rossi of Florence 
and Francesco Primaticcio of Bologna, to take part in the decora- 
tion of the Palace of Fontainebleau. The greater part of the 
frescoes they executed have disappeared, either destroyed by fire or 
removed in later restoration and rebuilding, so that it is a happy 
circumstance that so many of the painters of the school left etchings, 
which were either directly copied from the printed works or 
suggested by the studies of the greater masters of their group. 
Among the mass of anonymous work, are signed prints by the 
Italians Antonio Fantuzzi, Guido Ruggieri, and Domenico del 
Barbiere, while among native artists etched work is attributed 
to Geoffroy Dumonstier, and signed by Leonard Limosin, the 
famous enamel painter, and by Lkonard Tiry of Deventer. As 
etching there is nothing of note. The light touch seen in JNIazzuoli's 
work reappears, but has lost most of its virtue in combination with 
the sprawling figures and grandiose compositions of Rosso and 

One of the few French artists of the period who rises to some- 
thing of a personality in spite of a close dependence on Michelangelo 
is Jean Cousin. Painter of pictures and of windows, sculptor, wood- 
cutter, and writer on portrait and perspective, he is also generally 


regarded as the author of some four or five etchings, two of which, 
an Annunciation and a Pieth, bear the master's name. Somewhat 
heavy in their line, which is partly helped out with the graver, their 
importance lies chiefly in their attribution and their rarity. 

Beyond this there is almost nothing of note to recount. The The 
historian of the Huguenot wars may perhaps take a curious interest ^^"""-^"^^ 

/° yrr Remarquaoles 

in the series of Evenements Reinarquables, executed partly in wood- of perrissin 
cut and partly in the coarsest of etching by Jacques Perrissin and Tortorei. 
and Jean Tortorel between 1559 and 1570, but the student of 
art will miss little if he does not know them. 



The print- 
seller and 


The Galles. 
The Passes. 


The Sadelers. 




(About 1 540-1650) 

The middle of the sixteenth century was nowhere a time of ^eat 
achievement in engraving, and, unhappily for the student, the 
deficiency in quality was far from being accompanied by a paucity 
of production. There has never, perhaps, been a period more 
prolific in prints of all sorts. The traveller — and this was the great 
era of discoveries — must have his engravings of topography, the 
annalist his series of portraits, the political agitator his broadsides. 
Moreover, at this epoch of religious upheaval the value of engrav- 
ings as a subsidiary to propagandism, was being realised by the 
religious orders, and illustrations of Scripture stories and small 
devotional prints were disseminated broadcast. The enormous 
increase in the demand for engravings greatly changed the con- 
ditions of their production. With the prospect of sound business 
the middle-man of necessity enters, and there gradually grew up 
the new and soon flourishing profession of print-seller. 

The Netherlands, with its great houses of Cock, Galle, and 
Passe, was the home of such enterprise in Europe, and we find 
members of Dutch and Flemish families the pioneers of their pro- 
fession all over Europe. Dominicus Custos of Antwerp settled 
in Augsburg ; the Sadeler family, of Brussels and Antwerp, had 
members in Prague and Venice, and the Utrecht firm of Crispin 
VAN de Passe was represented by some who at various times were 
settled in Paris, London, and Denmark. Italy was hardly behind 
in the race, but here, too, enterprise was often in the hands of the 
foreign settlers. The name of Antonio Salamanca, which is seen so 
often on later and bad impressions of the engravings of Marcantonio 
and his school, is hardly less ubiquitous than that of Cock, while 
Antonio Lafrerv is the publisher of a monument of archteological 
reproduction, for which classical students will always be grateful. ^ 

' Speailiiin Romance Magiiijiccii/iir, published in its completed form with 118 
plates in 1575. 



One of the chief causes for the need of an intermediary pro- 
fession was the growing demand for engraved book -illustrations. 
Hitherto wood-cuts, which can be printed far more conveniently in 
conjunction with type, had been almost universally used for the 
purpose of illustration,^ and the publisher would seldom be without 
some cutter constantly working in his service. The engraver on 
metal, on the other hand, has generally a larger field than the wood- 
cutter outside book illustration, and when required for such a 
purpose, he would naturally preserve a greater independence. An 
important publishing house, like that of Christophe Plantin at 
Antwerp, would of course have some engravers, e.g. P. van der 
BoRCHT, more or less under its wing, but it would constantly need 
to go farther afield, as we may gather from the business connexions 
it had with the engraver print-sellers, Hieronymus Cock and 
Philippe Galle. 

The print-seller of this period has no real counterpart in the 
print-dealer of to-day. Far more frequently than is now the case, 
he acquired the original plate, and would be ready to print impres- 
sions as they were called for to almost any number, no doubt getting 
his hack engravers to rework the lines as soon as they were worn, a 
custom most dangerous to any artist's reputation. It is no mis- 
fortune, perhaps, that the identity of the engraver for whom he 
cared just enough to give a commission is often entirely lost ; for 
we may generally regard a print inscribed by a name followed by 
the predicate excudit, as executed by some anonymous hand in 
the publisher's service. 

Hieronymus Cock probably engraved a considerable number of Hieronymus 
the plates which appeared anonymously from his own house, but his Cock. 
signature occurs on scarcely any prints except some sets of landscape 
etchings with scriptural or mythological staffage (1551, 1557-1558, 
1562-1563, some after P. Brueghel and Mathys Cock). He is of 
far greater importance as one of the movers in the inter-communica- 
tion between Italy and Flanders,^ which was of such disastrous moment 
to the Northern school. But alongside the innumerable engravings 
which he published after the paintings of Italianised Flemings like 
Martin van Heemskerk, Jan van der Straet (Stradanus), Frans 
Floris,^ Bartolomaus Spranger,* and Otto van Veen, it must 
be put to his credit that he did not forget thg more purely native 
genius of Pieter Brueghel, the elder. 

Cock's most vital influence in the development of the art of Cornells Cort. 
engraving was exercised in the person of a pupil, Cornelis Cort, 
who migrated to Italy, and about 157 1 formed a school of 

^ For the few exceptions, see pp. 30, 33, 47, 65, 70, 96. 

^ A definite example may be noted in his publication of work by Giorgio Ghisi, 
who visited Antwerp about 1550. Cf. p. 99. 
^ Executed a few original etchings. 
** Etched some six plates. 



ing and tonic 

Jan Muller. 
Jacob Matham 

engraving in Rome. In the use of a more open system of lines, 
contrasting with the closer hatching of Marcantonio and his 
followers, Cort was perhaps the pioneer in Italy, and the immediate 
inspirer of Agostino Carracci. 

Among his own countrymen Cort's breadth of style was best 
appreciated and developed to its highest pitch by Hendrik 
Goltzius, who came under the influence of his school in Rome. 
Unfortunately, like most of his contemporaries, he suffered from the 
mannerisms of his models — Spranger, Stradanus, and the host of 
pseudo-classicists — but he was happier than the majority in his 
assimilation of some of the true character of classical art. His 
large Massacre of the Innocents (an unfinished plate) reveals some 
real sympathy for the ideals of Michelangelo. The delight he takes 
in rendering sweUing curves, be they as bombastic as they will, is 
irresistible. The Standard-bearer (B. 125, Fig. 47) is a magnificent 
example. The pose was evidently a favourite one, for it is repeated 
in the nude figure of the Dawn (1588), a print in his broader 
manner. He has complete command of the whole gamut of 
technical expression. His portraits range in character from prints of 
the most minute hatching,^ e.g. \he JVtcguet (B. 177), to others of 
the greatest breadth of line-work, well exemplified in a poi-trait of 
himself {B. 172). There is no little bravado in his telling imitations 
of the characteristics of other masters, e.g. in the Circumcision (Diirer 
manner), the Adoration (Lucas v. Leyden), and in the Passion series 
of 1596-98, which is a medley in the styles of both. 

Goltzius was perhaps the first adequately to realise the capabilities 
of the graver in expressing tone and surface qualities. Much 
was done , by an increased command of the graver in swelling 
or diminishing the breadth of each individual line in its own 
length, much again by the intermixture of lines of different thick- 
ness, a brilliant surface being often achieved by the alternation 
of thick and thin, while a calculated variation of the intervals 
between the lines of shading required to suit the various parts of 
the design is a third factor of scarcely less importance. Despite 
the efficacy of these means to render the most varied tone, 
the yielding folds of cloth, the shimmer of silk, the glister of 
steel, the whole tendency is a questionable encroachment on the 
domain of painting, which Diirer, Marcantonio, and the greatest 
masters of line had, perhaps consciously, avoided. But, for good or 
for ill, there are few rivals of Goltzius and his pupils, Jan Muller, 
Jacob Matham, and Jan Saenredam, as virtuosi of the burin. 
Particularly powerful are some large portraits by Jan Muller {e.g. the 

' Of these a certain number are strictly silver plaques or medallions (e.^. the 
Robert Earl of Leicester, B. 175), from which impressions happen to have been\aken 
(the inscription appearing, of course, in reverse). Simon van de Passe was another 
engraver who did a good many works of the kind, more particularly of the members 
of the court of James I. and Charles I. They were mostly on silver, sometimes 
on gold. 

yff'ii^ ifW/fn^cf atu'ffias, d cmia muij/hvj 


Fig. 47. — Hendrik Goltzius. The Standard-bearer. 



His influence 
on the French 

The brothers 

The Van de 
Passe family. 

Archduke Albert, after Rubens), with remarkable backgrounds of 
dark horizontal shading, interspersed with streaks of light. 

The broad manner of engraving practised in the school of 
Goltzius was continued in a somewhat mollified form by Cornelis 
Bloemaert (b. 1603).! He followed Mellan in a tendency to a 
light tonic scheme, and probably owed to the same source his simple 
method of shading. He worked for some time in Paris (after 1630), 
afterwards migrating to Italy, where he seems to have passed the 
rest of his life. Many French engravers appear to have been his 
pupils or come under his influence in Rome (e.g. Charles Audran, 
Etienne Baudet, and Etienne Picart), and he holds thereby a more 
important place in the history than the intrinsic virtue of his work 

In marked contrast to the bold style of Cort and Goltzius is the 
work of two families of engravers, the Wierixes and the Van de 

The productiveness of the three brothers, Jan, Jerome, and 
Anthonie Wierix, whose activity centred in Antwerp, is enormous. 
In Alvin's catalogue some 2000 prints are described, and the list 
might be considerably augmented. The character of the great mass 
of their work was determined by the Jesuits, who seem at this time 
to have realised in Flanders more than anywhere else the use of 
small devotional prints to combat the new principles of the Reforma- 
tion. Two, at least, of the brothers, Jan and Jerome, are astonish- 
ingly skilful masters of the minutest manner of engraving, but as 
artists their production is comparatively insignificant. In much of 
their work are reflected paintings of the earlier Flemish masters, such 
as Patenier and Mabuse, and of contemporaries like Martin de Vos 
and Stradanus, but to a large extent they engraved their own com- 
positions. Their precocity is remarkable. From their twelfth year 
Jan and Jerome began to date copies, chiefly after Diirer, proudly 
recording their age even when they omitted their signature. Jan's 
copies of Marcantonio's Venus and Cupid (set. 1 4), of Diirer's Adam 
and Eve (set. 16), and his IzXzx Melancholia (1603), and Jerome's 
plates after Durer, the St. George, the Satyr Family (set. 12), and the 
St. Jerome in the Study (ast. 13), are among the best copies after 
these masters that exist. The brothers are also responsible for a 
large number of portraits, nearly all executed on a small scale in the 
delicate manner which Goltzius sometimes affected (see Fig. 48). 

Of special interest from their connexion with English engraving, 
and hardly less prolific as publishers than the Wierixes, were the 
numerous engravers of the Van de Passe family. At their head 

1 His father, ABRAHAM BLOEMAERT, engraved little ; he left a few plates, 
landscape and figure etchings in a broad, open style. His designs were etched in a 
similar manner by his son Frederik Bloemaert, who also collaborated with the 
father in his "Drawing Book" (etching plates w hich were used in certain cases in 
combination with chiaroscuro wood-blocks, cf. Chapter IX. p. 310). 



stands Crispin, the Elder, whose early activity centres in Cologne, 
whither he had migrated from Holland not later than 1594. By 
1 61 2 he was settled in Utrecht, remaining there till his death in 
1637. Of his children, Simon, Madeleine, Crispin II., and 
WiLLEM followed their father's profession, and there is also a 
Crispin III., who is probably a son of Willem. Simon and Willem 

Fig. 48. — Jan Wierix. Unidentified portrait 

worked in England: the former between about 16 16 and 1621 
(after which date he was appointed royal engraver to Christian IV. 
of Denmark) ; the latter succeeding him and staying in London till 
his death, about 1637. Crispin, the younger, represented his 
father's house in Paris, where he seems to have been settled at least 
from 1617 to 1627. His position as professor of art in the Maneige 
Academic led to his illustration of A. de Pluvinel's Maneii^e Royal, 

The map and 




1623 (later entitled Instruction du Roi a Vexercice de monter a 
chevat), which forms perhaps the best achievement of any member 
of the family. In some of his earher work, Crispin, the elder, 
attempted the broader manner of Goltzius (who, like himself, had 
been a pupil of D. Volkertsz Coornhaert), but the bulk of his 
production, and that of his sons, which included portraits, title-pages, 
and the most multifarious subject-prints, reflects the same tendency 
to minuteness of hatching seen in the Wierixes. 

We may mention a few of the great commercial undertakings of 
the engravers of the time. First, those of the famous geographers, 
Abraham Ortelius {Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Anlvier^, 157°, whose 
maps were mostly engraved by Franz Hogenberg),^ and of Gerard 
Mercator (whose collected works first appeared posthumously in 
\.\ie Atlas Major oi 1596). Unlike Ortelius, Gerard Mercator was 
to a great extent his own engraver. His influence was carried into 
England, and his work supplemented by Jodocus Hondius, who 
bought the original plates after the edition of 1596.^ Some of 
the latest work of the latter was for one of the greatest English 
atlases of the period : John Speed's Theatre of the Empire of Great 
Britain, of 161 1. Then in a field with more artistic scope, the great 
record of discovery and travel forming the Collectiones Peregrina- 
tionum in Indiam Orientalem et Occidentalem, holds an important 
place among the publications of the time. Commenced in 1590 in 
The de Brys. Frankfurt by Theodor de Bry, a settler from Lifege, and his sons, 
JOHANN Theodor and Johann Israel, it was only brought to con- 
clusion by Matthaus Merian the elder, in 1634. The inspiration 
of the whole work came from England, where, through Hakluyt's 
mediation, Theodor de Bry acquired a series of drawings ^ which John 
White made in Virginia, 1585-1586, on an expedition sent out at 
Sir Walter Raleigh's expense. It was in England, too, that he 
obtained the sketches of Florida, made in the Laudonnibre expedi- 
tion, 1563-1565, by Jacques Le Moyne, which formed the second 
part of the Collectiones. 

Theodor de Bry is of considerable interest also for his ornament 
prints. In the excellence and delicacy of their engraving they 
are no unworthy successors to the work of Aldegrever and the 
Little Masters. Of course the style of ornament has greatly changed. 
It is no longer scroll and leaf, but strap-work which forms the basis 
of the design, — seldom the pure strap-work of the Venetian school, 
but curiously intermingled with the grotesque figures which formed 
the feature of the decoration of the Vatican Loggie by Raphael and 
Giovanni da Udine."* De Bry, however, is freer than most of his 

' Cf. Chap. III. p. 109. 

" The new supplemented edition appeared in 1606, 

' Now in British Museum. 

■* The combination seems to have been first fully developed by such designers as 
I'ieter Coeck of Most [e.g. the wood-cuts in C. Scribonius Grapheus, Spectaculoiun 
in Sustcptione Phi/ippi, Antwerp, 1550). 

Prints of 



contemporaries from the conveniion of strap and grotesque, and 
developed an individual style ^ which combines the naturalist spirit 
of early sixteenth-century illumination, in its representation of bird, 
beast, insect, and flowers of all sorts, with the classical feeling of 
Delaune,- whom he no doubt met in Strassburg, where he w-as living 
between 1568 and 1590. 

The goldsmith, Michel Le Blon (b. 1587) is another Fleming Michel Le 
of the period famous for his ornament engravings. The son of a 
Flemish settler in Frankfurt (Christiaan Le Blon, the author of 
the title-page to the 1628 edition of Burton's Aiia/o?ny of Melandioly) 
he must have come under the influence of the younger de Brys, 
though he probably left quite early in the seventeenth century.^ 
He settled in Amsterdam, and developed a style of ornament en- 


Fig. 49. — Michel Le Blon. Design for goldsmiths ornament. 

graving, largely white relief on dark ground, graceful and original in 
design, and of wonderful precision in the cutting. 

The soundest elements of the system of engraving which had The reprodnc- 
been developed to such virtuosity by Goltzius, were carried forward t<je engravers 
with undiminished accomplishment by the school of engravers which ^f Rubens and 
gathered round the foremost Flemish painters of this, and, in fact. Van Dyck. 
of all time, Rubens and Van Dyck. 

^ A good example is the Emblemata nobilitatl et vulgo scitit digna, Frankfurt, 


^ Apparently for a considerable period in Strassburg, from about T573 or 1576. 
Like so many of the emigrating French and Plemish artists of the day, he was a 
Protestant refugee. 

•* A set of his engravings, dated 1610, was published in Rotterdam ; another of 
1611 has a Dutch title. See C. Dodgson, Burlington Mag., November 1905, for an 
early set dated 1605-6, probably belonging to the Frankfurt period.. His style may 
have been somewhat indebted to D. Mignot, Corvinian Saur, and Hans Hensel, 
three German goldsmith engravers who were working in the last decade of the 
sk-cteenth century. The last named was w'orking in Nuremberg in 1599, but is said 
to have settled later in Frankfurt. 


The Rubens 

C. Galle I. 




P. van 
Jacob Louys. 
W. de Leeuw. 


Like Raphael with the school of Marcantonio in Italy, Rubens 
was in the closest touch with engravers who devoted themselves to 
reproducing his works, and his success as a painter enabled him 
to secure and almost monopolise the best strength in engraving of the 
time. In certain cases the engraver no doubt worked in the master's 
studio, and though there is no proof that Rubens,^ any more than 
Raphael, himself handled the burin, the care with which he super- 
vised the production of the plates finds witness in numerous proof 
impressions which exist with the master's own corrections.^ 

CoRNELis Galle the elder, Willem Swanenburg (a pupil 
of Saenredam), and several engravers of the school of Goltzius 
were reproducing paintings of Rubens in the latter part of their 
careers, but the earliest engravers to owe their artistic training to 
the master were Soutman, Vorsterman, and Paul Pontius. 

Pieter Soutman, of Haarlem, was a pupil of Rubens, a painter 
and a draughtsman who frequently supplied designs after paintings 
to serve as the immediate basis for the reproductive engravers. He 
was in Antwerp working after Rubens in 1619 if not earlier; in 
1628 he is noticed as filling the position of court painter to the 
King of Poland,^ but was already settled in Haarlem again by 1630. 
Among the Rubens engravers he has quite a manner of his own, 
which has less of strength than variety. His lines are thin and in- 
decisive, sometimes etched, and interspersed with much flick-work, 
a style in which he was closely followed by his pupils, Pieter van 
Sompelen, Jacob Louys, and Willem de Leeuw. Sompelen's por- 
traits of the German Emperors may be taken as typical examples of 
the group. Large plates, light in tone, generally ovals set in an even 
more lightly engraved or etched border with somewhat exuberant 
design of flower, fruit, and putti, are the prominent characteristics. 

Vorsterman and Pontius are far more closely linked with the 
name of Rubens, far more allied to him in the monumental character 
of their work, than almost any of the school, with the possible ex- 
ception of the Bolswerts. 

Like Soutman, Lucas Vorsterman entered Rubens's studio to 
study painting, but was diverted quite early in his career to the 
practice of engraving. His work, which is well illustrated in such 
plates as the Descent frotn the Cross, the Resurrection, and the Susannah 
and the Elders (pi which a part is given in Fig. 50), shows a thorough 
assimilation of the master's style and a brilliance of technique which 
never errs in exaggeration. But Vorsterman's connexion with 
Rubens was short : by the time he was about twenty-seven, i.e. in 
1622, it seems to have been rudely severed, and, if we are to believe 
report, not without attempted violence on the part of the enraged 
pupil, for what reason we know not. Then between 1624 and 1630 

' See Chapter VI. pp. 164-5, for etchinss attributed to him, 

- I-:.g. in the Bibliothfeque Nationale, Paris. 

" S, Ampsing, Beschryving van Haarlem, 1628, p. 372. 


we find him working in England, brought thither perhaps by the 
persuasion of the great collector, the Earl of Arundel, for whom he 
did several drawings and engravings. The enormous difference in 
his work after the break with Rubens, shows how much he owed to 
the master's direction. Most of his English prints have a certain 
surcharge of black shadow, and an unrestful persistence of dot and 
flick work, and the sure hand and style did not return to him until 

Fig. 50. — Lucas ^ ostei mi Susamah and the Elders ^ttei RuV ens (part). 

he came under the guidance of another master, Van Dyck, in his 
work for the Iconography. 

Paul Pontius, Vorsterman's pupil and junior by some eight Paul Pontius. 
years, began to engrave for Rubens in the early 'twenties. His 
technique is even bolder than his master's, and he makes less use 
of short cross-lines, dots, and flicks, to aid the principal lines of 
shading. The noble simplicity and breadth of handling of his style 
are well exemplified in his Assumption (1624) and the large March 
to Calvary (i 632). As with Vorsterman, some of his best work was 
done for Van Dyck. 


The Boiswerts. The two brothers BoETius and Schelte a Bolswert were 

some years senior to either of the preceding, and though not trained 

in the school of Rubens, were among the most powerful and prolific 

of his interpreters. Both are inclined to a somewhat heavy use of 

line, and often over-emphasise the contrasts of light and shade on their 

plates. Schelte is of particular interest in landscape, of which he 

is the most fertile engraver after Rubens. By the use of lines of 

varying breadth, unaided by intermediate dot-work or cross-hatching, 

he obtains some extremely powerful results. 

The Icono- Rubens's famous pupil. Van Dyck, is of scarcely less importance 

gi'^phy of Van than his master as an inspirer of reproductive engravers. As a 

^ ■ portrait etcher he holds a unique position, ^ but he is of particular 

interest to us in the present chapter for the noble collection of 

engraved portraits of famous men of his time, which were executed 

under his directfon. For the Iconography^ as the collection is 

generally called, he etched eighteen plates, but for the majority of 

the portraits he merely made drawings in chalk or grisaille.^ The 

task of finishing the etchings in line, or engraving the grisailles, 

fell to several of the same artists already mentioned as Avork- 

ing after Rubens. Vorsterman, Pontius, the Bolswerts, and 

PiETER DE JoDE the younger, are the most distinguished. The 

scheme was probably initiated by Van Dyck soon after his return 

The editions from Italy to Antwerp in 1626. Whether the whole series, or only 

ofMartinus portions of the work, had been published before 1645 (when it 

andGillis" ™ was issued by Gillis Hendricx) is uncertain. It is more than 

Hendricx. probable that Martinus van den Enden,'' whose name appears on 

the plates before they got into Hendricx's hands, was merely the 

printer commissioned by Van Dyck to issue the plates separately as 

the work proceeded. 

From the great legion of reproductive engravers who continued 
in the direction promoted by Rubens and Van Dyck, there are no 
others that we care to single out for special mention. The interest 
of their work centres chiefly in portrait, and their share in the 
development of the great French school will be followed in the next 
chapter. But there are two engravers of the early seventeenth 

' See Chapter \'I. pp. 165-8. 

° The title to Hendricx's edition reads: hones Principum Mroiim doctonim 
Pictorum Chalcographorum Statunriorum net tioii amatonnn pic/orict artis numero 
icnfum ab Antonio van Dyck phforo ad I'ivuni (xpressce eittsque sumpiibns irri 
incintp. Aiitverpia, Gillis Hendricx t-xi-ndif. Anno 1645. The "centum" in- 
chided fifteen of the original etchings (not the Contelissen, Tnisf or IVavt^rius), the 
eighty engraved plates (the Iconography proper), and five other newly engraved 
plates after Van Dyck. To later editions (e.g. Wrdussen) many more plates were 

^ Some excellent examples of those in chalk are in the collection of the Duke of 
Devonshire, Chatsworth. Many of the grisailles (of which there is a considerable 
number in the Alte Pinakotek, Munich) seem to have been made bv assistants, or bv 
the engravers themselves after the master's less elaborated studies, to serve as the 
immediate originals for the prints. 

■* His name appears in the books of the Guild of St. Luke in 1630. 


century in Holland who kept dearer than the rest from the over- 
whelming tide, and produced some individual work of interest, Jonas 
SuYDERHOEF and Cornelis Visscher, both of Haarlem. 

SuYDERHOEF is One of the most expert of all interpreters of the Jonas 
character of a painter's work in line. He is the engraver par excel- Suyderhoef, 
lence of Frans Hals, and in his prints the brilliant brush-work of 
the master seems to live again. He was a true pupil of Soutman, 
but quite surpassed his master and any of his master's immediate 
following in the certainty and significance of his handling. 

Cornelis Visscher was a prolific engraver of portrait and all Cornells 
manner of subject. His prints after Ostade and Brouwer, and original Visscher. 
works, like the large Rat-killer, whose character is suggested by those 
painters of genre, form his most individual title to fame. His en- 
graving has much of the solidity of the best Rubens engravers, but the 
frequent intermixture of etching places it in a category of its own. 

Engraving in France at the end of the sixteenth and beginning France. 
of the seventeenth centuries, can be passed over almost in silence. 

In the delicate manner encouraged by the Wierixes, small portraits, T. de Leu. 
title-pages, and illustrations were numerous enough in Paris at the L. Gauitier. 
turn of the century, but the best of these were done by two crafts- 
men who were foreigners by birth, Thomas de Leu from Flanders, 
and LEONARD Gaultier of Mayence. Balthasar Moncornet Moncornet. 
may be mentioned as one of the most prolific print publishers of 
the period, the number of portraits bearing his address being enor- 
mous. Before the middle of the century there were already some 
reproductive engravers in the larger style of the school of Rubens 
{e.g. Jean Boulanger and Gilles Rousselet), but the best crafts- J- Boulanger. 
men amongst them were chiefly engaged on portrait, and will find *^' ^°"^^^'^'- 
their place in the next chapter. The real French school of classical 
engraving does not start till the second part of the century, and this 
we reserve for a still later chapter.^ 

Line-engraving in Germany during the early seventeenth century Germany. 
has hardly more claim than that of France to any national feature ; 
it is little but a poor repetition of Flemish work of the period. The 
style of the Wierixes finds its followers in such as Peter Isselburg Peter 
of Cologne, and Peter Aubry of Strassburg, whose second-rate if^^^''"'^^; 
portraits are sufificiently numerous, while an even greater influence 
was exerted by the Sadelers. 

Raphael Sadeler, the elder, had worked for some time in The Sadelers. 
Munich, while his nephew, Gilles Sadeler, the best craftsman 
of the family, was long settled in Prague, doing many prints of 
portraits, pageants, and the like. 

The most prosperous school centred in Augsburg under the 

' Chapter VII. pp. 197-8. 


Dominicus leadership of Dominicus Gustos '^ of Antwerp, who married the 
Ciistos. widow of a goldsmith, Bartliolomiius Kilian. His stepsons and 

atNATUS DESCAKTKS.N0,,,L.S0ALUJ5,r,;R.RON.0ONMM.S..rMM„,, >,,.T„>:M..r,a^ .. ,■„„..,.,•«„ 
- i.A line l)jm -^itLjU), m J.-'uj i„ .....v "/■«,>. 

Luca.'s iiiul 

I'IG. SI.— |oii;is Sii\ di-rlKX-f. IViiliail of krnc IVsciiR-s. 

pupils, Lucas and Woi.fganc. Kilian, are members of a numerous 

' TlK- namenr Cuslos w,is apparently assumed ; he^^as a son of Uie enoruer 
and painter PiEiKK Hai.tkns. tii^.avci 


family which carried on his tradition, rivalling the de Brys of Frank- 
furt in the mass of their published portraits. Both the brothers 
studied in Italy and left a considerable number of engravings after Phiiipp and 
Italian masters. Wolfgang's sons, Philipp and Bartholomaus, are Barthoiomaus 
chiefly known by their portraits, and the latter, who studied under ' "'"' 
F. de Poilly in Paris, was the one member of the family who 
attained any real distinction in style. He stands in Germany as 
a representative of the transition from the colourless portraits of 
Gustos and his compeers to the more developed system of tone and 
modelling which had already reached its height in France in the 
person of Nanteuil. The growth of the French influence is seen 
also in the brothers Elias and Johann Hainzelmann of Augsburg, Eiias and 
both of whom studied in Paris. Their work is less that of portrait Johann 
than the reproduction of classical subject painting. ^'"''^ mann. 

Of other German engravers of the time there is none we care to joachim 
notice but Joachim Sandrart, and he interests us far more as the Sandrart. 
art historian, the author of the Teutsche Academie der edlen Bau- Bild- 
und Malerey Kunste (Nuremberg, 1675-79), to which his wide culture, 
his many travels, his personal acquaintance with so many artists, lend 
so great an importance. His plates are not numerous (only a few 
engraved portraits and some classical etchings), but he afforded liberal 
encouragement to engraving for the illustration of his publications on 
art in the fields of painting, sculpture, antiquities, and topography.^ 

His nephew, Jacob Sandrart (portraits, etc.), the latter's son, Jacob 
Johann Jacob (e.g. topographical and architectural etchings and Sandrart. 
engravings), Philipp Kilian (portraits), and Richard Collin of ^ {^j^,f|"'^'^^'^'' 
Antwerp (chiefly statues, in a broad, open style), were his chief 
collaborators in his various works. Another engraver, who did a few 
prints for his Teutsche Academie, J. J. Thourneysser of Basle, is Thourneysser. 
notable as a successful imitator of Mellan's treatment of line. 

The debasement of Italian engraving was already foreshadowed Italy. 
when Raphael evinced the commercial sagacity of making a market 
for reproductions of his works, and turned his factotum, Baviera, to 
printing, and perhaps print-selling. The essential difference, how- 
ever, between the character of reproduction here and that of the 
school of Rubens of a century later must be clearly understood. 
Marcantonio and his followers seldom had more than a slight 
study from the master's hand as basis of their engraving : the 
Flemish engravers more generally worked directly after a picture, 
with considerable attention to accuracy of detail. It is evident 
that there was more hope for the display of individuality of 
interpretation under the former conditions, and while Marcantonio 
was living, the genius was not lacking. 

* E.g. Iconologia Deorum, 1680 ; Sculpturce veteris admiranda, 1680 ; Romm 
antiquiz et novcB Tkeatrum, 1684 ; Insignium RomcB Templorum prospectus, 1690? 
Palatiorum Romanorum . 1694 (all published in Nuremberg). 


Enea \'ico. 



But we have found no talent in Marcantonio's immediate 
followers to resist the subduing force of the master painter, and 
with the ever-increasing demand for his works they became the 
mere hacks of publishers — of Antonio Salamanca, Duchetti, 
Lafrery (two Italianised French emigrants), Barlacchi, and the 
like. Above all things let the collector remember that the presence 
of the address of any of these print-sellers on works of Marcantonio 
condemns them as late impressions. 

Outside Rome there were still a few engravers who preserved 
something of their individuality, the Ghisi so far above the rest 
that they have been placed among the master engravers of the 
previous chapter. 

Enea Vice of Parma (fl. 1541-67) was little more than a 
distant echo of the Roman school, in which he had studied under 
the engraver print-seller Barlacchi, who published many of his plates. 
There is much among his prolific work to interest the archasologist — 
prints of reliefs, statues, gems, vases, and the like — but, except for 
one or two portraits and a subject such as that of Bandinelli' s 
Academy (B. 49), there is little to inspire the artist. A certain 
meagreness of line, in comparison with the Marcantonio manner, 
may perhaps be due to the influence of the growing school of lightly 
bitten etching in the North of Italy. 

Another engraver of Parma,i somewhat senior to Vico, Jacopo 
Caraglio (born about 1500), was an artist of much more powerful 
character. Trained, perhaps, in the school of Marcantonio, he 
developed a mastery of light and shade which only just fails to 
attain the brilliance of Giorgio Ghisi. His method, which is charac- 
terised by the use of thin lines of clear and close shading, interspersed 
with short and delicate flick-work, is seen at its best in plates like 
the Annunciation after Titian (B. 3) and the Diogenes (B. 61). No 
doubt the manner of Parmigiano and Primaticcio, which, in com- 
parison with the harder definition of Giulio Romano and of the 
immediate offspring of Raphael, seems to live in mists of intangible 
texture, tended to this softening of the decisive lineal style of 
Marcantonio. Caraglio's personality as an engraver was perhaps saved 
by his other interests from the complete obsession of the publisher. 
He was a medallist ^ and die-cutter, and, for a considerable period 
after 1539, served Sigismund I. of Poland both in these capacities 
and as architect, apparently only returning in his old age to die 
in Italy. His engraving may possibly all precede his departure to 

With all his softness of tonality in line, Giulio Bonasone, 
a Bolognese by birth, kept nearer than either Vico or Caraglio to 

' He .ilso lived in ^■el■ona. He signs both " l^irniensis " and '■ Veronensis." 

'^ A medal of Alessandro I'csenti by Caraglio is in the British Museum. He 

must have done others of Sigismund and his wife Bona Sforza, but they seem to be 



the Marcantonio tradition. He has an even greater feeling than 
Marco da Ravenna for the effect of flat surfaces of simple shading 
in single tones ; but the occasional charm of this manner does not 
counterbalance his lack of draughtsmanship. His work, which 
numbers about 350 plates (some original designs, others after 
Michelangelo, Raphael, Parmigiano, and most of the great masters 
of the time), seems to have been done entirely in Rome between 
about 1531 and 1574. 

By the end of the third quarter of the sixteenth century the 
average production in Italy had sunk so low that even the pseudo- 
classicists of the North availed somewhat to encourage its temporary 

We have already noticed the presence of Cornells Cort in Rome Agostino 
from about 1 5 7 1 . Though apparently never Cort's pupil, it seems Carracci. 
to have been to this master that Agostino Carracci owed the 
impulse to the open system of line which characterises his engraving. 
He recurred to the strong elements of the later manner of Marc- 
antonio, adding little but a more constant use of cross-hatching and a 
more regular method of flick-work within the interstices of the lines, 
and scrupulously avoided striving after the effects of tone and texture, 
on which Goltzius (who was one year his junior) laid such emphasis. 
The best of Carracci's work is original, but he also reproduced con- 
siderably from painters like Correggio, Titian, and Paul Veronese. 

Francesco Villamena is the one other engraver to whom we Francesco 
might compare him. Apparently a pupil of Cort in Rome in the Villamena. 
early 'eighties, he did not attain to the full breadth of his style until 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. His earliest engravings 
date in 1586 {i.e. about six years after Agostino Carracci's), and the 
comparison of the two masters at that period is almost solicited by 
the fact that both reproduced Correggio's Holy Family (Parma) in 
that year. Carracci is already master of his style ; Villamena is 
consciously aiming at the same goal, but still shows the indecision 
from which he only emerged, and then only in occasional works, 
some twenty years later. When he does emerge, his treatment of 
the swelling line is such as may have been a force of real inspiration 
to Claude Mellan. 

Until the reaction of the last half-century, the influence of The influence 
Agostino Carracci, both as painter and engraver, as well as that of his of the Carracci. 
brother Annibale and their cousin Lodovico, remained among the most 
vital factors in art history. His immediate influence as an engraver, 
in which he had sound, dull followers, such as Cherubino Alberti Cherubino 
and Francesco Brizio, was far less than might have been expected. :^'t)^'""- 

. . . rrancesco 

The trend of development was now all in favour of etching, and it Brizio. 

was in this field, through the immediate example of Guido Reni (for 

the few etchings of Lodovico and Annibale can be left almost out of 

account), that the tradition of the Carracci was rnpst worthily continued. 


The earliest 
engravers in 

Byrthe of 


It is significant that we turn to our first discussion of engraving 
in England in a chapter which explicitly deals with a period of 
decline. There is, in fact, only the scantiest indication of engraving 
on English soil until nearly a century after the earliest date found 
on foreign work.i Without branding the English of the period as 
an essentially inartistic people, it must be confessed that their artistic 
aims were of the practical order. In many branches of the applied 
arts, especially those used in church ornament and architecture, 
they were by no means deficient — witness the "opus anglicanum " 
in embroidery, which was eagerly sought, and is still treasured in 
many a convent throughout Europe. But in painting, which is 
generally the predecessor of engraving, England was comparatively 
barren, and continued to be so until it received the inspiration of 
foreigners like Mabuse and the younger Holbein. 

From what has been said of the state of the art of engraving in 
the middle of the sixteenth century, it will be seen that the period 
was by no means an auspicious one for the formation of a new 
school. The style of the three great master engravers, who had all 
been dead, roughly speaking, a decade before the first appearance of 
a copper-plate in England, was almost lost in the sloughs of com- 
mercial enterprise and dull reproduction. Nor was it more fortunate 
that England's geographical position should have rendered Flanders, 
with its hybrid Italianised art, the source of its earliest education. 

We have said that the earliest engraving in England was a 
century behind the introduction of the art on the continent of 
Europe. Engraving in England, be it observed ; for English en- 
graving can scarcely boast an existence for another half century, 
nearly all the engravers of this period, and many of the succeed- 
ing fifty years, being visitors or Protestant refugees from the Low 

Except for some unimportant anonymous plates in the Byrthe of 
Mankinde, a book on midwifery published by Thomas Raynald in 
1540, the earliest prints published in England appeared in an 
edition of Vesalius' Anatomy by Thomas Geminus, a Flemish ^ 

■ For a Bruges engraving found in Caxton's first English book, see p. 33. Of 
another engraving which has been claimed as English work of the early years of the 
sixteenth century I cannot speak definitely, as I find no earlier or later trace of it than 
the impression from the original plate, which Joseph Strutt published in his Dictionaiy 
of Engravers (1785). It consists of a series of devotional verses engraved in Gothic 
characters. The initial letters contain sevei-al figures : these, and a Virgin and Child 
above, and a kneeling monk below, make up the artistic part of the work. The 
words De Syon in large letters to the right of the monk below, and the direct references 
to St. Bridget, make it almost certain that it was produced for the large Brigittine 
convent which existed in Syon House (the present seat of the Duke of Northumber- 
land) until the time of the Reformation. In style it is not unlike second-rate devotional 
prints of the Low Countries of the beginning of the sixteenth century, and the un- 
English character of the Gothic lettering, and the fact that so lai-ge a proportion of 
the English prayer-books of the period were printed in Flanders, make it more 
probable that it is a Flemish importation, and not native work. 

^ He is called Flander in an entry in the Annals of the Royal College of Phj-sicians, 


surgeon in court employment, in 1545. The engraved title-page, Thomas 
which is inscribed Compendiosa totius Anatomie delineatio aere Geminus. 
exarata : per Thomam Geminum, Londini, is clearly cut and in little 
but outline, and of interest as one of the earliest examples of the mix- 
ture of strap-work and grotesque which became so popular all over 
Europe, especially in the Netherlands,^ in the latter half of the 
century. Geniinus is probably ^ also responsible for the anatomical 
plates throughout the work, which had been pirated and, as Vesalius 
indignantly complained, not too correctly copied from the splendid 
wood-cuts by Titian's pupil Hans Stephan van Calcar of the original 
Basle edition (1543). 

The edition" of 1559 has added interest in the bust of Elizabeth Portraits of 
which replaced the royal arms on the title-page, the earliest of all ^"''™ 
the portraits of the Queen produced in England, and perhaps any- 
where. The only other work by Geminus known is a second and 
much more ambitious portrait of Elizabeth, dating sometime in the 
'sixties (the last figure of the date is lost), of which the only im- 
pression at present known is in the Storer Granger at Eton. 

Next in date to Geminus comes the work of an Englishman, John Shute. 
John Shute, i.e. if he was, in fact, more than the designer of the 
plates in his First and Chief Groundes of Architecture, 1563. The 
other native engravers of the next few years, Humfray Cole, The chart 
Richard Lyne, Augustine Ryther,^ are little more than engravers engravers. 
of maps and topography, a field in which Christopher Saxton,* John 
Norden,^ and John Speed ^ were the leading surveyors and draughts- 
men. When work of some claim to artistic interest was required, 
the foreigner had still to be sought. 

The brothers Franz and Remigius Hogenberg were probably The Hogen- 
both working in the employ of Archbishop Parker, who is known to '"^'^g^ ?"'i 
have invited foreign craftsmen to assist in the various works in which p^fj^g^^ °^ 
he was interested (e.g. the Bishops' Bible, 1568). The work of 
Franz has already been noted.^ Remigius did much less, and the 
majority of this apparently in England, a small portrait of Matthew 

iSSS- What is meant by the word Lysiensis, which he attaches to his name at end 
of dedication in the Anatomy, is obscure. Lys-Ies-Lannoy (near Lille) has been 
suggested, while it might imply any town situated on the river Lys. 

^ Cf. p. 124, note 4. 

^ A dogmatic statement even with regard to the title-page is curbed by the vague 
phrase per Thomam Geminum, which might be taken. to imply that he commissioned 
another to do the engraving. But in view of the Storer portrait of Elizabeth signed 
simply Thomas II. 1^6-, this interpretation is rendered improbable. 

^ Historically famous are his Armada plates, showing the position of the fleets on 
various days, after drawings by Robert Adams, published in 1589. 

* Survey of England, 1579 (maps engraved by Ryther, R. Hogenberg, and a few 
other insignificant craftsmen). 

" Designed a complete Speculum Britannice, but only published two parts : 
Middlesex, 1593 (en., P. van den Keere), and Hartfordshire, 1598 (en., W. Kip). 

' Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain, Sudbury and Humble, 161 1 (en., 
J. Hondius). 

' See pp. 109, 1Z4. 

Gheraerts I. 

Theodor de 

J. Hondius. 



Parker (1572), two of Queen Elizabeth, and some maps and plans 
for Saxton's Survey (1579) being the most important. 

Of historical interest are two pageant prints of the period : 
that of the Procession of the Knights of the Garter, on nine plates, 
by Marcus Gheraerts the elder (1576-78),! and the Funeral 
Procession of Sir Philip Sidney by Theodor de Bry (1587-88), a 
large work extending over thirty plates. The important outcome of 
de Bry's visits to England in 1586-87, 1588-89, has been noticed 
earlier in the chapter. With Jodocus Hondius, the greatest and 
last of the chart engravers of this early period, we can take leave of 
the foreigners who helped most to create the school of engraving in 
England in the sixteenth century. He seems to have been settled 
for some ten years in London, chiefly engaged on works of carto- 
graphy,^ leaving it finally in 1594 for Amsterdam. His great work 
for John Speed's Theatre of the Empire of 161 1, the year before his 
death, was probably done abroad. 

The first English engraver of any importance, and the most 
typical of the Elizabethans, is William Rogers. A goldsmith, 
whose craft is betrayed by prints overloaded with ornament in high 
relief, he cannot be said to have mastered even the elements of 
portraiture. Despite the stiffness of delineation, and the emphasis 
on detail of vein and wrinkle, a plate like his full-length of Queen 
Elizabeth^ (dating about 15 95-1 600) is of enormous value for what 
it tells of Tudor costume, if not of Tudor character. Even more 
attractive are his two earlier portraits of the Queen, the fantastic 
Eliza Triumphans^ of 1589 (probably commemorative of the 
Armada; reproduced Fig. 52), and the Rosa Electa,^ with its 
charming floral border, of some three or four years later. Of 
the books he illustrated we may mention Sir William Segar's 
Honour Military and Civill, 1602, the eight portraits (full-length 
beneath arch) being less redolent of the goldsmith's shop than the 
rest, and showing considerable dignity of composition. In one 
instance, that of the portrait of the Earl of Essex, Rogers is found 
borrowing decorative elements and allegorical figures from foreign 
work (a portrait of Martin de Vos by Gilles Sadeler), but for the 
most part his work seems original, though the influence of such 

^ Strictly an etching, slightly strengthened with the gi"aver. The only perfect 
copy known is in the British Museum. Another English work, attributed with 
certainty to Marcus Gheraerts L, is seen in the etched plates to Jan v. d. Noot's 
Theatre (John Day, London, 1568), published the year in which he settled in 

- l\.g. with Ryther and de Bry in W'agenaer's Marhicrs Miriour, 1588 ; sepai'ate 
maps, such as the " Christian Knight " map of the world (1596), and another designed 
to illustrate the voyages of Drake and Cavendish, 

^ Unique in this state, British Museum ; later cut down to three-quarter length. 
'I'here is a very similar portrait by Crispin van de Passe (1603), after a drawing by 
Isaac Oliver, now in Windsor. Perhaps the Rogers and the Oliver drawing both 
go liack to a lost painting. 

■* Two impressions known, Brit. Mus. and Paris. 

' Bodleian, unique impression. 



engravers as the Collaerts, de Bruyns, and de Brys is not to be 
gainsaid. One of the latest plates that are known from his hand, the 
large Henry VIII. and his progeny, after Lucas d'Heere "^ (about 1603- 

FlG. 52. — U'illiani Rogers. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth. 

1604) is among the earliest prints to be published by Sudbury and The print 
Humble, whose names figure so frequently on engravings for the P"'?!'^'^'^'"^ ■ 
next twenty years.^ Sudbury and Humble soon had a rival publisher Humble.' 
in Compton Holland ' (a son of the famous translator Philemon Compton 
Holland) and may perhaps have been succeeded by William Peake,* ?^°|'i^"'^'' 
whose name appears on many of the late states of the prints which 

^ Picture at Sudeley Castle. 
^ From about 1612. 

^ Humble alone, until about 1630. 
* Cf. Chapter V. p. 152, note 2. 



T. Jenner. 
J. and T. 

Peter Stent. 
J. Overton. 


J. and M. 

Simon and 
Willem ■ 
van de Passe. 






Van Dyck's 

they had issued. In judging prints of the first two decades of the 
seventeenth century the presence of the addresses of later publishers, 
such as Thomas Jenner, John and Thomas Hind, Peter Stent, and 
his successor John Overton, should be taken as implying late 

In the early years of the seventeenth century, line-engraving was 
coming more and more into use in England for the embellishment 
of books, and the print-seller must have had a thriving trade in 
supplying the publishers with the engraved portraits to figure as 
frontispieces, or by selling the same separately to any comer. 

Renold Elstrack,! Francis Delaram, and William Hole 
(the first, and probably the second, of Flemish extraction) were the 
busiest of the engravers of the reign of James I. and the early part 
of Charles I., who were ready to supply, in their modest but sound 
manner, any demands the publishers might make. 

John and Martin Droeshout are two more engravers of Flemish 
extraction who may be mentioned for anything but their excellence. 
The latter, in particular, has won fame by his portrait of Shakespeare 
which was prefixed to the First Folio, 1623, a dull performance, 
not deserving Ben Jonson's eulogium, but probably faithful to likeness 
of feature. 

Of a similar character to that of Elstrack and Delaram is the 
production of two members of the Utrecht family of engravers, 
Simon ^ and Willem van de Passe. The former (who worked in 
England certainly between 1615 and 1622) was by far the more 
prolific, but seldom attained the breadth of such a plate as his 
brother's equestrian portrait of George Villiers, Duke of Bucking- 
ham (1625). Willem had taken up residence in London, on 
Simon's removal to Denmark, and remained there till his death in 

For the greater part of the century the unambitious style of 
these engravers found its imitators, Cecill, Payne, and Marshall 
occasionally doing plates of moderate distinction in their class amid 
a mass of the dullest work, Vaughan and Cross never rising above 
the lowest level of publisher's hacks. In the embellishment of 
many of the greatest books of the time, and in portraits of the 
famous men, the student of literature or history will find much to 
interest him from Rogers to Cross, but to the single-hearted amateur 
of engraving the prints of this period will make small appeal. 

The real event of moment during the reign of Charles I. was 
the visit of Van Dyck and engravers of his school, like Lucas Vor- 
sterman (in England about 1624-30), and Robert van Voerst 

' He engraved most of the plates of the Dasiliuilogia . . . the true and lively 
Effigies of all our English Kings . . . (printed for H. Holland . . . sold by Comp'. 
Holland, 1618), which may be cited as a standard of much of the smaller portrait 
worlc of the period. Delaram and Simon van de Passe also contributed to the 

^ For his silver plaques see note to Goltiius, p. 120. 


(about 1628-35), "^^o afforded a real impulse towards a broader 

Payne was not untouched by the new current, but George George Glover. 
Glover was the first Englishman to show a grain of brilliance in 
his accomplishment. His larger portrait of Sir Edward Dering 
(1640) shows that he had a true appreciation of the style of Mellan. 
This artist, who forms as it were a bridge between the styles of the 
Passes and Faithorne (whom we reserve for the following chapter), 
fitly closes our account of the first century of English engraving. 



(About 1 600- 1 7 50) 


The Fifteenth 

The Sixteenth 

As a preface to our study of the French line-engravers of the seven- 
teenth and early eighteenth centuries, who form the central theme of 
this chapter, we may take the opportunity of summarising the de- 
velopment of portrait during the periods we have passed, and in 
relation to the other processes with which our history is concerned. 

In describing Nanteuil and his school as the great portrait 
engravers, we do not thereby imply that their portraits take a higher 
position as such than what has been produced in the same field in 
etching or mezzotint. In fact, the very greatest of all portrait plates 
are unquestionably to be found among the etchings of Rembrandt 
and Van Dyck, while the mezzotints of the best English masters of 
the art stand at least on a level with the production of the French 
school of line. But Van Dyck's work is not numerous, Rembrandt 
was as great in other spheres, and so also, though far more con- 
sistently devoted to portrait than subject, were the great mezzotint- 
engravers. The fame of Nanteuil and his following, on the other 
hand, stands so exclusively on portrait as to justify our title, and a 
separate treatment of the development of portrait engraving with 
this school as the central point. 

In the fifteenth century portrait engraving scarcely exists. An 
anonymous Florentine profile in Berlin (of about 1450),^ a few 
heads and bust portraits of the North Italian schools (some in the 
neighbourhood of Leonardo), the slightest of studies from the 
Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet, three or four portraits 
by his follower of the monogram W^B., and Israhel van 
Meckenem's portrait of himself and /t/s wife Ida, almost make 
up the sum of fifteenth-century production. 

DOrer is, in fact, the first engraver to devote real effort to this 
field of art, and both his great contemporaries, Lucas van Leyden 

' Jahrbuch, i, 

, p. II. 


and Marcantonio, are responsible for one or two portrait plates 
produced within a few years of Diirer's work. But in spite of their 
wonderful power as engravers, Diirer, Lucas, and Marcantonio all 
lack the essential qualities that make for true portrait, and the same 
must be confessed of all the engraved portraits of the first half of 
the sixteenth century, represented at its best by Barthel Beham 
and Aldegrever. 

Towards the end of the century, with the revival of the practice 
of illustrating books with prints from copper-plates, the demand for 
engraved portraits increased at enormous bounds. But there were 
few engravers of more than average talent to respond. 

In the Netherlands, which was the centre of the publishing The 
trade at this period, the best work was done by Goltzius, the Netherlands. 
WiERiXES, and the Passes, while many of their imitators and rivals, 
such as the de Brys and Dominicus Gustos, found their oppor- 
tunity in emigration, starting similar projects abroad. 

From the same centre, the Low Countries, issued the chief England, 
inspiration of the early English schools, where Rogers in particular 
held his own alongside the average production of the Continent. 
Before the middle of the seventeenth century, portrait prints in 
England are legion : the earlier group modest and well cut, with 
foreigners like the Passes as their models, the later group already 
feeling the broadening influence of the school of Rubens and Van 

Among the followers of Marcantonio in Italy little was done of Italy. 
any note in portrait. Enea Vice of Parma and two Frenchmen of 
the Roman school, Beatrizet and Niccolo della Casa, produced 
some pretentious plates, but empty of any power of characterisation. 
The engravers of little portraits are best represented by Martino 
Rota and Ottavio Leqni, the latter of whom is of considerable 
interest for the use of dotted work in the modelling, which achieves 
results practically the same as stipple (without the preliminary 
etching used by the stipple engravers of the eighteenth century). 

Except for Beatrizet and della Casa, French portrait in the six- France. 
teenth century was little but a reflection of the art in the Nether- 
lands. Of her earliest workers, Pierre Woeiriot and Jean Rabel 
had a certain distinctiveness of manner in their meagreness of line 
and tone, but their more accomplished successors of the next 
generation, with settlers like Gaultier and Thomas de Leu (who 
lived so long in Paris that their foreign origin may be forgotten), 
are mere dependants of the Wierixes and other Netherlanders. 

While the last embers of the Wierix influence were burning Van Dyck and 
themselves out in France, Van Dyck was producing the plates which Rembrandt. 
are perhaps the most perfect models of portrait etching in existence. 
Except in some of his earlier prints, and the exceptional Clement 
de Jonghe, Rembrandt, Van Dyck's contemporary in Holland, can- 
not claim similar praise. The Dutchman's manner, the nervous 






Michel Lasne. 


elaboration of modelling with delicate hatching, which gives us an 
insight into the depth and complexities of each sitter's character, is 
even more wonderful in its penetrating genius than the work of Van 
Dyck ; only it is essentially inimitable, and has perhaps never 
succeeded except in the hands of the master himself. Van Dyck, 
on the other hand, has remained the pattern to the best of modern 
portrait etchers. By the economy of their line, and by concentra- 
tion on some outstanding feature of face or character, his plates 
make a far more immediate and direct appeal than the more com- 
plex (and possibly thereby more human) studies of Rembrandt. 

In spite of the astonishing power of Van Dyck's etchings, we 
have seen that the public demand was for the more finished work, 
and it was the elaborated engravings of the Iconography ^ that formed 
the pre-eminent factor in fixing a standard for future engravers of 

But before ^ny of the Iconography plates were engraved,^ there 
were already two engravers in France whose work heralded the 
existence of a really national school, Michel Lasne of Caen and 
Claude Mellan of Abbeville. 

Some of the early plates of the former are after Rubens, and it 
is probable that he was in Antwerp, and perhaps Brussels, between 
about 1 61 7 and 1620. He was, in fact, one of the first of all the 
engravers employed by the master, though his work in this connexion 
is slight. After his return to France he produced a large number of 
portraits (both original and reproductive), sometimes using an open 
system of line with little cross-hatching, which he probably owed to 

Claude Mellan is some two years Lasne's junior, and a far 
more notable etcher, with a style which he brought to such per- 
fection that it passes for his own. He seems to have been a pupil 
of that accomplished master of little portrait, Leonard Gaultier ; 
but he soon abandoned the miniature style for the bolder and more 
open manner which appears to have originated in Cort, and to have 
been continued in the Low Countries by Goltzius, and in Italy by 
Agostino Carracci and Villamena. If Mljamena was the most 
unequal of these three craftsmen, it is by him that Mellan seems to 
have been most immediately inspired, if not instructed, when in 
Rome about 1624. In Rome, too, he must have come under the 
influence of Simon Vouet (who was settled here about 1624-27), 
after whom he produced some engravings in the more conventional 
manner. His boldest and most characteristic work was done after 
his return to Paris (about 1637), where he lived to the age of ninety. 
AVith the development of his style, cross-hatching is entirely dis- 
carded in favour of shading with parallels ; variation of tone is 

' See p. 128, 

- It is unliltely that any were produced before about 1626, the date of \'an Dyck's 
return to Antwerp from Italy. 



achieved by swelling or diminishing the thickness of the principal 
lines in their own length, and outline is generally abandoned. The 
climax of his mannerism is reached when he shades a whole face 
{e.g. the Napkin of St. Veronica, of 1649) with a continuous spiral, 
with the nose for centre ! Quite apart from such mere pranks, the 

P"IG. 53. — Claude Mellan. Portrait of Michel de Marolles {part 

elements of the style, even when unexaggerated, produce an unrestful 
surface fatal to the concentration which is the virtue of good portrait. 
On the other hand, a similar treatment of line on a smaller scale is 
a real virtue with Callot and his many figures. 

The portrait reproduced (Fig. 53) oi Michel de AlaroUes (1648) 
is a sound example of Mellan's less exaggerated work, and of par- 



Etienne Picart, 





imitators : 



M. Pitteri. 

Jean Morin. 

Louis Elle. 
Claude Le 


ticular interest as representing the great connoisseur whose collec- 
tions form the rich. basis of the Cabinet des Estampes in the Biblio- 
thfeque Nationale, Paris. Besides portraits, Mellan produced a 
number of scriptural and other subjects, many of original design, 
and a set of the statues from the Tuileries (1669-71). 

Somewhat in the same direction followed Etienne Picart and 
FRAN501S Spierre (though they did fewer portrait than subject 
plates) ; but few French portrait engravers perpetuated the character- 
istic elements of Mellan's style more effectively than the Italians 
G. A. FaldonIj F. Polanzani, and Marco Pitteri of the eighteenth 
century. Pitteri even outdoes his model in mannerism. His lines 
are a continued series of alternate thick and thin spots, and the 
resultant textile-like surface is a curious travesty of the Mellanesque 
ideal (e.g. portrait of himself, after Piazzetta). 

Mellan's contemporary, Jean Morin, is another engraver of the 
earlier part of the seventeenth century in France, who fills a dis- 
tinct and distinguished place in our history. He is one of the few 
French portraitists who stand in nearer relation to Soutman and 
the Haarlem school than the more rigid school of Vorsterman and 
Pontius. Like Soutman, van Sompelen, and Suyderhoef (of whom 
the two latter are among the most interesting of the Dutch portrait 
engravers), he constantly combines engraving with etched dot and 
line, and achieves thereby a subtlety of tone of which the Beniivoglio 
after Van Dyck (Fig. 54) is a brilliant example. 

On the border line between engraving and etching, and verging 
rather to the latter territory, is the work of Louis Elle and 
Claude Le Febure. EUe's production is of similar character to 
Hollar,! ■^\^\^ a technique too restrained and precise for true 
etching, and too irregular and unsystematised to be good engraving. 
Claude Le Febure, on the other hand, in his few portraits shows 
a real appreciation of the character of etching, and his work, 
though modest, quite bears comparison with Elevens. 

In Robert Nanteuil we return to a master of pure engraving, 
and the undisputed head of the French school of portrait. His 
fame stands on the most solid foundation. We can well believe 
the testimony of his contemporaries to the excellence of his 
plates, which to a large extent are from his own drawings,- 
in point of likeness. At its best his work possesses a noble 
directness of expression and a complete freedom from all the 
attractive mannerisms by which a spurious reputation is so lightly 

In the setting of his portraits he followed the lead of Van 
Dyck's engravers. For the most part he adopted a simple oval 
framework resting on an architectural plinth, and produced in this 

' Sre Chapter VI. p. 161. 

" He also did portrait drawings and pastels for tlieir own sake, 
collection of such is in the Louvre. 

The best 



form his most perfect and balanced portraits, e.g. the Basile Foiiquet 
(1658), and the Char D'Estrees of 1660 (Fig. 55). Occasionally 
the oval is encircled in a wreath tied at the head with ribbons {e.g. 
the Queen Christina of Sweden of 1654), while in his latest work 

Fig. 54. — Jean Morin. Portrait of Cardinal Bentivoglio, after Van Dj'ck. 

{i.e. from about 1670) he tends to disregard the plinth entirely {e.g. 
Simon Arnanld de Pomponne of 1675 and Guillaume de Lamoignon 
of 1676), and not seldom spoils the balance of the print by the 
undue size of the head in relation to the space to be filled. 

On a sound basis of convention, with a fund of real genius 
to aid him, Nanteuil gradually built up the structure of his style. 



His early 1 work (in Paris from about 1648)^ shows Mellan to have 
been his model, and his pupillage in Paris under another exponent 
of the same Hneal manner, Abraham Bosse, no doubt strengthened 
the tendency, which is seen at its best just before he discarded it 
for good (e.g. in the Louis Hesselin of 1658). His later develop- 
ment (which is beginning to appear as early as 1654, e.g. Queen 
Christina) was an original combination of the strength of the school 
of Vorstermann and Pontius with the subtlety of Soutman and 
Suyderhoef. In the delicate modelling of the face in particular 
he adopted a system of short strokes, carefully and closely laid, 
which came to form the most distinct element in the French school 
of portrait. 

As portrait engraver to Louis XIV., of whom he has left eleven 
prints, nearly all the great personages of the court appear in his 
work, which amounts in all to some 234 numbers (about 216 por-, 
traits). The very year of his royal appointment (1659) he rendered 
a public service to his art in raising the academical status of the 
engraver. It was at his solicitation that the king passed the edict 
of St. Jean-de-Luz, elevating engraving from the number of the 
Industrial Arts to the rank and privileges of one of the " Liberal 
Flemish Before the commencement of Nanteuil's activity several Flemish 

FrancIT '" engravers of portrait had been settled in Paris, e.g, Melchior 
M. Tavernier. Tavernier and JACOB DE BiE,^ but their work was not of the 
Jacob de Bie. order to have done much in the propagation of the style of the 
Schupp™n° Rubens school in France. Pieter van Schuppen* (b. 1623?) 
Nicolas Pitau I. and NicoLAS PiTAU the elder (b. 1633 ?)* did more in this direc- 
tion, but they were already the influenced party, forming their style 
on Nanteuil and the de Poilly. 
Gerard Gerard Edelinck (b. Antwerp 1 640) is the great intermediary 

Edelinclt. f^^^sg between Flanders and France at this period. He was a pupil 

of Cornells Galle in Antwerp, but the development of his style 
owes more to the instruction of Francois de Poilly and to the 
inspiration of Nanteuil after his removal to Paris in 1665. Both 
Francois de Poilly and his younger brother Nicolas were clever 
and prolific craftsmen both in portrait and classical subjects, but 
they were surpassed in strength by Edelinck, who, with Nanteuil 

1 The date of his birth is much disputed : 1623 has the greatest claim to 
correctness, but 1625, 1630, even 1618, have been put forward. 

2 Some prints date three or four years earlier, while he was still studying for the 
law in the Jesuit College at Rheims. Nicolas Regnesson of Rheims was his first 
master in engraving. 

•" His work was chiefly medallic illustration for La France Mitallique, with the 
Vrau Portraits des Rots ,ie France, Paris, 1634. According to Kramm the second 
edition (1636) co.ntains a biographical notice which calls him " le maitre des plus 
c^lfebres graveurs de Rubens. " Except for the fact that he undoubtedly had relations 
with Rubens in 161 1, there is nothing in his life or work to support so'great a claim. 
He was a pupil of Adriaen Collaert. 

■• It is doubtful whether either was in Paris before 165:;. 


and Masson, forms the great triumvirate of the best period of French 
portrait. Edehnck did less original work than Nanteuil, and largely 

Fig. 55. — Robert Nanteuil. Portrait of C&ar D'Estrtes. 

reproduced paintings of Le Brun, Philippe de Champaigne, and 

Of his portraits one might particularly mention the Robert 
Nanteuil (after the master's own drawing), the Philippe de Cham- 
(of 1676), the Dryden (after Kneller), and Charles Le Btvu 




The Drevets. 

(after Largillifere). Always brilliant and seldom dry in manner, he 
just fails of that contained and calm forcefulness which makes 
Nanteuil's work so convincingly great. 

He did more subject plates (after the old masters, Lebrun, etc.) 
than most of the portraitists, but the somewhat overdrawn sentiment 
of Lebrun (whom he largely reproduced) contributes much to divert 
the interest of the modern amateur from the sound work of the 

Antoine Masson (b. 1636) is by far the least prolific of the 
great triumvirate, but in the quality of his work, which is almost 
entirely portrait, he is the more serious rival of Nanteuil's fame. 
He started as an armourer, and perhaps never completely escaped 
a certain metallic stiffness in the handling of detail {e.g. the hair). 
Plates like the Guillaume de Brisacier of 1664, and the Henri 
d'Harcourt (both after Mignard), are as brilliant as anything of 
Nanteuil, but the vigour of the portrait is somewhat lost in the 
equality of the finish. Absolutely free from a similar reproach, and 
only slightly removed from Nanteuil at his strongest, are the magni- 
ficent prints of Pierre Dupuis (1663, after Mignard) and Olivier Le 
Fevre D'Ormesson (1665). 

On the purely technical side, the next generation of portrait 
engravers in France, as represented in the Drevet family, by no 
means fell short of the skill of the great triumvirate. In their 
command of the graver for the expression of surface texture they 
show an even greater virtuosity, but with it they lost much of the 
vigour of their predecessors as portraitists. 

In the setting of their figures they followed the painters in intro- 
ducing greater variety. But where the painter, by his command 
of colour, escapes the attendant dangers, the engraver who elaborates 
to the very corners of his plate cannot fail to destroy the concentra- 
tion of the portrait. How much more significance is possessed 
by an engraved portrait where subsidiary detail is unelaborated, 
may be seen by comparing the unfinished state of CorneHs van 
Dalen's Charles II?- (Fig. 57), with the later state, with its brilliantly 
realistic armour which puts even the penetrating visage of Charles 
into the shade. 

Of the Drevets (Pierre, his son Pierre Imbert, and nephew 
Claude) Pierre, the father, was by far the most powerful. His 
portrait oi Rigaud, whose work he largely reproduced (see Fig. 56), 
is one of his most vigorous plates, while the Boileau Despreaiix (of 
1706) may be cited as a typical instance of his brilliance in render- 
ing the tonic values of different colours and stuffs. In this latter 
quality he was even surpassed by his son, Pierre Imbert, but amid 
all the glister of silk and almost tangible softness of the fur in his 

1 The student should examine early states of a work like this (of which the British 
Museum has several impressions) as an example of the quality of the engraved line 
before the burr has been scraped away. 



Cardinal Dubois (1724), there is a deadness and triviality in tlie 
essentials that sounds the knell of true portrait engraving. 

Fig. 56. — Pierre Drevet. Portrait of Hyacinttie Rigaud (part). 

The development of an exaggerated fineness of technique led 



The engravers logically to a corresponding reduction in the size of the plates as a 
of miniature whole, and this, combined with the growing practice of illustration in 
£"^Ficquet small books, led to the school of miniature portrait engravers of which 
P. Savart. Etienne Ficquet ^ (b. 1 7 1 9), PiERRE Savart, and Grateloup,^ 
J.B.Grateloup. were the chief exponents. With them the art of portrait engraving 
wheeled back, with the added adornment of eighteenth century taste- 
fulness in small things, to the ground which had been trodden by 
the Wierixes nearly two centuries before. 

Germany. The great French engravers of the best period were not without 

worthy rivals in other countries. Among the Germans, Jeremias 

jeremiasFalck. Falck (b. 1 609), a pupil of William Hondius, who had settled in 
Falck's native town of Danzig, was one of the earliest to gain dis- 
tinction. He probably came immediately under the influence of 
Nanteuil and the de Poilly in Paris, but he never attained any of 
their brilliance in execution, preserving some of the breadth of 
Mellan's style with nothing of its variety. He was a prolific worker, 
and in a life spent in many places, notably in the service of Queen 
Christina of Sweden, his portraits cover a wide and interesting field. 

Bartholomaus The Only Other German portrait engraver whom we would refer to 

Kiiian. ggj^jjj jg Bartholomaus Kilian (b. 1630). He had studied under 

the de Poilly in Paris, and is one of the few German engravers who 
reflected at all adequately the brilliance of the French school. 


Cornells van 
Dalen 11. 

In the Netherlands, which had led the way in the first half of 
the seventeenth century with engravers such as Vorsterman, Pontius, 
and Suyderhoef, the art remained on a higher level than it ever 
reached in Germany. 

Of the generation contemporary with the greatest French 
portraitists, one of the most brilliant was Cornelis van Dalen the 
younger, of Amsterdam. His Charles II? after P. Nason (Fig. 57) 
is perhaps the finest engraving of the king that exists, and one of 
the most powerful portraits of the time. Two other portraits of 
English royalties {Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and James, Duke of 
York) point to a possible visit to England soon after the Restoration, 
but there is no certain evidence in the matter. A set of noble 
engravings after Venetian paintings (the so-called portraits of 

' His system of engraving is absolutely that of the Brevets almost microscopically 
reduced. His portraits include many f.\mous men of letters (e.g. La Fontaine, \'oltaire, 
Rousseau, CorneiUe). 

2 His marvellously delicate prints (in all only nine or ten, executed between about 
1765 and 1771, e.g. Dryden after Kneller, and /. B. Bossuet after Rigaud show 
curiously mixed methods. The best part of his work seems to be achieved by dotting 
with the needle, and perhaps with a very fine roulette through the etching' ground, 
strengthening thisafter biting by dotting w ith the dry-point and getting some of the higli 
lights by scraping. His grain looks deceivingly like aquatint, so regular is its surface, 
but I doubt if he used this process. He is said to have engraved on steel plates (see 
Bibliography), the earliest example of the practice known, if the tradition is correct 

•' See back, p. 148. 


Giorgione, Sebastiano del Piombo, Aretino, and Boccaccio i) is also 

Fig. 57. — Cornells van Dalen the younger. Portrait of Charles II. (unfinished plate). 

probably the work of Van Dalen the younger ; but his father of the 
same name, who worked in England between 1632 and 1638, occa- 

^ This is the Titian at Hampton Court. 




Gerard Valck. 

sionally did such capable work {e.g. his Jehan Polyander de 
Kerckhoven of 1645) that a dogmatic attribution of the series to 
the one or the other is dangerous. 

Van Dalen, the younger, produced comparatively little, but his 
best work is on just as high a level as that of his more famous 
pupil Abraham Blooteling (b. 1640). The latter, however, is of 
far greater importance for the part he took in the development of 
mezzotint, so that we need do no more here than mention his por- 
trait work in line. The same excuse may hold good for Gerard 
Valck, apparently Blooteling's pupil, though considerably his senior, 
who accompanied the latter to England in 1673. 




It is noteworthy how the first great English portrait engraver, 
William Faithorne (b. about 16 16), who was some years Nanteuil's 
senior, passed through analogous stages of development. At the 
beginning of his career, possibly to some extent inspired by Glover,^ 
he closely followed the open style of Mellan. His earliest portraits, 
such as the Calthorpe of 1642, are much coarser than the French 
master's work, but the best in this early manner (e.g. Sir Thomas 
Fairfax), though heavier in line, are scarcely second to Mellan in 
vigour of presentation. 

During the Civil War Faithorne showed his loyalty to the king 
by serving under Robert Peake,^ the earliest publisher of his prints, at 
Basing House. On its capture he was for some time held a prisoner 
by the Parliament, but continued his activity in engraving, which 
has left us portraits of both Royalist and Roundhead leaders. 
Towards the end of the 'forties he obtained leave to emigrate for 
a while, and his stay in Paris, under the patronage of Michel de 
Marolles and with the inspiration of Nanteuil, was a momentous 
event in his life. Nanteuil was still in his Mellanesque period at 
the time of Faithorne's visit (1649-50), so that Faithorne may have 
got the real suggestion of his later style several years after his return, 
i.e., if this took place, as is supposed, as early as 1650-5 i. The Sir 
William Sanderson (Fig. 58), the author of a book on drawing 
(Graphice, 1658), to which the portrait served as frontispiece, is one 
of the earlier in the more complex manner, in whose development 
Faithorne seemed to keep level with Nanteuil rather than to follow 
his leadership. In the next year come the splendid portraits of Sir 
William and Lady Paston, showing him at the height of his power, 
which was seen at its best in the first decade after the Restoration. 
Several portraits of Charles II., one of the king's mistress Barbara 
Lady Castlcmaine (of 1666), and the Thomas Killigrew (prefixed to 

1 See Chapter IV. p. 138. 

'^ This Robert (later Sir Robert) Peake, a brother of \\"ilUam, who was also a 
print-seller, seems to be the son of a Robert Peake, who was serjeant-painter to 
James I. in 1612. According to Bagford's MS. life (see Brit. Mus., Bagford, Colltc- 
tanea Typographical Pt. iv, Harl. 5910, fol. 135) the last-named was Faithorne's 
first master. Cf p. 137. 


the 1664 edition of his plays), are brilliant examples. Faithorne 

Fig. 58. — William Faithorne. Portrait of William Sanderson. 

seldom elaborated the modelling of his faces with the minute flick- 
work which gives so subtle a tone to Nanteuil's heads, but his 
power as a portraitist is scarcely less convincing. Even in technical 


excellence there are few of the great portrait engravers but Nanteuil, 
whom he does not equal at least in virility. He suffers, however, 
more than Nanteuil and most of his school if he is to be judged 
by the hack-work of which he produced not a little. In the latter 
part of his life in particular, a certain falling off in power of engrav- 
ing is noticeable, unless we are to regard such portraits as the Henry 
Moore (1675) as partly the work of some pupil. 
David Loggan. An immigrant from Danzig,^ David Loggan was a much closer 
imitator of French models than Faithorne, and he comes, perhaps, 
nearer to them in his brilliant portrait of Sir Thomas Isham (1676) 
than in many of his other plates, which are very unequal in quality. 
He holds a far more distinct place in the art of engraving in 
England for the excellent architectural prints of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge Colleges, in the Oxonia Illustrata (1675), t^^ Cantabrigia 
Illustrata (1690). 
Robert White. With Loggan's pupil Robert White, who produced a few 
sound plates and a multitude of poor ones, we come nearly to the 
end of English portrait engraving in line. At the beginning of the 
George Vertue eighteenth century George Vertue - was engraving portraits in a 
and Jacob similar style to those of the Dutchman, Jacob Houbraken,^ with 
whom he collaborated in Thomas Birch's Heads of Illustrious 
Persons of Great Britain (2 vols. London, 1743-52), but they both 
showed a smallness of handling which takes all but historical interest 
from their work. 
Line-engraving During the last few decades of the seventeenth century line- 
superseded by engraving in England was gradually yielding place in popularity to 
pomlaritV" mezzotint ; and when the mere reproduction of a painting is con- 
cerned, it must be confessed that the younger art possesses many 
qualities in its favour. Robert White himself published, but 
George White, apparently never produced mezzotints. The changing fashion is 
William significantly exemplified in his son George White, and in the 

Faithorne II. yQu^ger Faithorne, both of whom entirely discarded line-engraving 
for the new process. 

By the latter half of the eighteenth century the engraving of 
portrait in England was largely in the hands of the mezzotint 
engravers, though occasional works of almost equal merit were 
achieved in the lighter art of stipple. The revival of the classical 
manner of line-engraving led by Strange and Sharp in England, 
by WiLLE and Schmidt in France and Germany, and by Raphael 
Morghen in Italy resulted in the production of many portraits, but 
the dull perfection of their system seldom afforded anything but 
pieces of metallic brilliance which may be disregarded in the history 
of great portraiture. 

' He was working in Kngland certainly in 1658, perhaps as early as 1653. 

'^ Of greater interest as an antiquary, engraver of antiquities, and as the biographer 
of English artists. 

^ He engraved the plates to the Groote Sclmiihirgh di-r >i,-J,r/atiifscie A'onst- 
schildeis en schihfercsscii (1718-21) by his father, Arnold Houbraken. 


The eighteenth century is sufficiently barren in portrait etching 
of any freedom and vigour of execution, and almost the best is to 
be found in that of Jonathan Richardson the elder, Worlidge, 
and Benjamin Wilson in England. But their etched work is 
pervaded with the spirit of dilettantism, and it is not until the last 
century that we meet any renewed conviction in the value of etched 
portraits as a serious artistic asset to bear comparison with portraits 
elaborately finished in mezzotint or line. There is a real life in the 
dry-points of Geddes, but the great achievement to be recorded 
lies in the second half of the nineteenth century, and belongs, in 
fact, to this day, for the four artists I would mention with especial 
praise are still living. On the continent of Europe the most 
interesting personalities in portrait etching are Albert Besnard 
and Anders Zorn. But in spite of the originality and vigour of 
their style and the brilliance of their powers of execution, they 
possess a certain Whistlerian remoteness from human emotion in 
favour of mere decorative ideals, which militates against the 
creation of portraits of the first rank. In England there is 
Alphonse Legros, who has just laid aside the etching needle, but 
happily not without having inspired a pupil of almost equal 
technical ability in William Strang. Legros's etched portraits are 
the greatest modern tribute to the noble style initiated by Van 
Dyck, and one of the chief glories of the art of the nineteenth 




(About 1 590-1 700) 

The century, which saw the beginning of etching, was somewhat 
barren of work in which the distinctive qualities of the art are 
realised. There is a charm in the landscape etchers of the Regens- 
burg school, with all their curious affectation, but their style was little 
more than pen-drawing reproduced on copper. Nor did Parmi- 
giano in his graceful and spontaneous work advance much farther 
in the understanding of the qualities of the etched line as distinct 
from mere penmanship. But in MeldoUa and in the following 
of Titian there is a certain large energy and freedom of handling 
which show that some, at least, of the elements of good etching had 
been grasped more truly in Italy than by the Northern artists. 

It was in Italy, moreover, that etching seemed most worthily 
represented, whether by native artist or foreign settler, until, with 
the third decade of the sixteenth century, the two great masters of 
etching suddenly spring into being, full-grown, as it were, from the 
head of Zeus, so inexplicable is their genius for the art, when one 
considers the slender foundation on which they built. In the two 
etchers to whom we refer, Rembrandt and Van Dyck, the present 
chapter finds its climax. Meanwhile we will glance at some of 
their immediate predecessors in Italy and in France, and at a few 
Southern contemporaries who went on their own way, occasionally 
imitating, but seldom really influenced by the achievements of the 
great Northern masters. 

Italy. The influence of the Carracci and their academic art tended 

rather to the revival of line-engraving than to encourage the less 
systematised art of etching. Both Annibale and Lodovico Carracci 

Guido Reni. etched a few plates, but they are quite unimportant.^ Guido Reni, 
the most famous of the pupils of the Carracci, formed the real centre 

' .See Chap. III. p. 113. 


of inspiration for the etchers of the Bolognese school. Forming 
his style on Baroccio, in its combination of light line and dot, he 
produced many delicately etched plates which not only found many 
imitators in Italy, but remained the standard of style among French 
etchers for the best part of the century. There is a note of grace- 
fulness in his work, and in that of his followers, Simone Cantarini, Simone 
and Giovanni Andrea and Eusabeta Sirani, which fits the some- Cantanm. 

.... . /. 1 ■ 1 , , , . G. A. Sirani. 

what femmme sentiment of their art better than the largeness of an Eiisabeta 
academic painting. It is the spirit which, at the end of the Sirani. 
eighteenth century, in the followers of Angelica Kauffmann and 
her peers, found its most apt expression in the superficial charm 
of stipple. 

Most of the Bolognese painters produced some etchings, and of Guercino. 
the occasional executants Guercino is perhaps the most brilliant. 
But his two or three plates are nothing more than a repetition of 
the style of his drawing, with its sweeping line and its characteristic 
insistence on local emphasis in colour in the shading. 

Another etcher, Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi, may be men- G. f. Grimaidi. 
tioned as the most prolific interpreter of the landscape of the 
Bolognese painters. 

The same type of work that characterised the followers of Reni Carlo Maratta. 
in Bologna was continued in Rome until the early years of the 
eighteenth century by Carlo Maratta. Here, too, we meet the 
style of the pen draughtsman transferred to copper, with no real 
appreciation of the latent qualities of the etched line. 

The most individually interesting etchers in Italy during the Ribera. 
seventeenth century are without a doubt the Neapolitans, Jose de 
Ribera and Salvator Rosa. The former, a Spaniard by birth 
("Lo Spagnoletto" he is called), studied in Rome under Caravaggio,^ 
the inspirer of the naturalistic school, from whom as a painter he 
no doubt acquired the tendency towards crude colouring and harsh 
contrasts of light and shade, to the chiaroscuro, which was so much 
more nobly developed by Rembrandt in the north. These less 
pleasing qualities do not, however, show in his etchings, which are 
done in pure line interspersed with dot work (as in Baroccio), and 
exhibit real excellence of draughtsmanship, with a considerably 
greater appreciation of tonic values, whether in the higher or lower 
gamut, than is shown by his Bolognese contemporaries. The best 
of his plates, the St. Jerome (i62i),the Flaying of Antceus (1624), 
and most brilliant of all, the Satyr and Silenus (1628), were done 
by the year in which Rembrandt dated his earliest etching, and 
in the twenty years that followed Ribera remained apparently little 
afiFected by the Northern master's work. 

Of the versatile talent of Salvator Rosa — poet, actor, musician, Salvator Rosa. 

^ A few etchings are attributed to Caravaggio [e.g. Three Men in Conversation, 
1603), just as bold and rough in manner as those attributed to his best Northern 


painter — we must not expect to find work of academic correctness 
of draughtsmanship. But with all their carelessness of drawing, his 
etchings possess a vital energy and an insight into life which gives 
them irresistible charm and real value. His youthful adventures 
with the banditti, and a natural sympathy with the rough and ready 
life of soldier and peasant, were the inspiration for the most numerous 
type of his etchings, his studies of soldiery and camp life. He pro- 
duced a considerable number of large mythological and historical 
compositions, like the Crucifixion of Polycrates of Samos (B. lo), 
and various etchings of the Philosophers of Antiquity, but in 
such ambitious plates his art suffers from the scenic and sensational 
tendency characteristic of the South Italian school. 
Benedetto The most outspoken imitator of Northern etchers in Italy was 

Castigiione. (Jig Genoese Benedetto Castiglione, who was born the year 
after Salvator Rosa (1616). Probably Van Dyck's work was the 
immediate influence that gave the direction to his art, but he could 
hardly have come into personal touch with the master.^ In some 
of his studies of heads CastigHone shows that he knew his 
Rembrandt, but the technical character of his plates has more real 
affinity with the attractive but conscience-less scrawl of the looser 
work of Lievens ^ than with the style of the master. 

Of greater interest than any native artists are two French 
etchers, Callot and Claude, who both did much of their work on 
Italian soil. 
Jacques Caiiot, Jacques Callot, of Nancy (b. 1592), happily knew his mind 
better and earlier than his parents, who had intended him for the 
Church. Twice the boy ran away from home, fired, perhaps, by 
reports from his friend Israel Henriet,^ who was then studying 
in Rome, and each time he arrived in Italy before being caught. 
The first time he cast in his lot with a band of gipsies, and so 
contrived to reach Florence (1604). Here he seems to have 
aroused the interest and patronage of Cantagallina, but was too 
impatient to join his friend Henriet to stay in Florence many 
months. But his arrival in Rome soon led to discovery by some 
merchants from Nancy, and an enforced return was the result. 
His second truancy was less successful : he had only just crossed 

1 Van Dyck was in Genoa, with certain intermissions, in the period between 
1621-22 and 1625-26. 

'^ Cf. e,g. the Resunxction of Lazarus as interpreted by either etcher. 

^ So according to Meaume, who places Henriet's birth about 1590. If the date 
of liis birth, as given in Bellier and Chavignerie's Dictionary, is correct (1608), the 
story must be discredited. Henriet settled before 1629 in Paris, .and became 
a prosperous print-seller. On Callot's visit to Paris (1629-30) he seems to have 
obtained the right of printing and selling impressions from Callot's plates. On 
Callot's death he must have had or come into possession of a large stock, from 
which he published impressions for many years, sometimes adding his name in full 
— generally, however, merely Israel exc. on the plate. On his decease in 1661, his 
nephew, Israel Silvestre, another and far more prolific imitator of Callot, inherited 
his stock, which also included much of Stefano della Bella. 


the Italian border in the neighbourhood of Turin when an elder 
brother overtook him and turned him back. No parental 
prejudice could withstand this determination, and he was sent 
a few years later (1608-9) 'o study art in Rome. 

He may have joined Henriet and Claude Deruet (another 
slightly older contemporary from Nancy, who later came under his 
influence) and studied under Antonio Tempesta in Rome. At 
least the particular direction of his art owes something to the 
multifarious subject-plates of that prolific but poorly-gifted engraver 
and etcher. Most of his time, however, in Rome (1609-11) 
seems to have been passed in a sort of working apprenticeship 
with his fellow-countryman Philippe Thomassin. In 16 12 he 
moved to Florence and found more congenial inspiration in the 
studio of GiULio Parigi, an architect of P'rench extraction, and 
the moderator of Medicean fStes, to whom he was, perhaps, 
introduced by his old protector Remigio Cantagallina. Both 
Parigi and Cantagallina were etchers,^ and the centre of a 
group of artists who were at once purveyors to the pleasures 
of the court, and the illustrators of all sorts of ducal and 
popular festivities and pageants. Callot worked in this sphere 
until 162 1, when he returned to Nancy, and, except for a short 
interval spent in Paris (1629-30), was settled here until his death 
in 1635. 

His early adventures with the gipsies (whose memory he 
perpetuated by four plates done some eight years after the event, 
i.e. in 1622), may have sharpened the genius for caricature and 
grotesque, which always characterised his mode of expression. 
His plates, mostly small, are very numerous, amounting to some 
1000 in all. He treats the widest range of subject, but he is 
most himself when depicting small figures in all sorts of garbs 
and poses (as in the Capricci di varie figure''' and the Fantaisies of 
1634, M. 868-881), in his studies of Italian Vagabonds (M. 685- 
709), and in plates crowded with figures in spirited action, like the 
Miseries of War.^ His topographical prints with military staffage 
are among the most important of their type, and of real artistic 
value. In the history of etching his work is a notable landmark, 
as it is among the earliest* in which the practice of a second 
(or further repeated) biting was used to any extent. The 
varied tone of line achieved by this method opens possibilities of 

^ Giulio Parigi etched fewer plates than his son Alfonso. 

^ Meaume, 768-867. There are two sets of fifty plates. In the earlier, which 
was done in Florence about 1617, and is more prized by collectors, the prints were 
never numbered. He repeated the subjects in a second set after his return to 
Nancy in 1623. Impressions from the two sets are often found inaccurately 

^ Two sets : Les petiies Misires (Meaume, 557-563) of 1632 [see Fig. 59), and 
the larger plates, Les grandes Misires (Meaume, 564-581) of 1633. 

■* He may have found his suggestion for the practice in the school of Parigi 
(e.g. in Cantagallina's work). 



treating atmosphere and distance, which few even of the greatest 
etchers have fully realised. 

In one other respect the technical character of Callot's plates 
demands notice, i.e. in the combination of graver work with 
etching. Like Mellan ^ in line-engraving, Callot is the special 
exponent of the sweUing line in etching. In part he achieves his 
variation in breadth by holding the echoppe at varying angles as 
he opens the ground, but this would be seconded by cutting 
through the ground into the copper before biting. Moreover, after 
the biting, the lines are frequently strengthened with the graver. 
Abraham Bosse, the author of one of the earliest treatises on the 
art of engraving," follows the same ideal in a middle course between 
etching and engraving. Bosse used etching to a considerable ex- 
tent, but his plates are far more truly in the engraver's manner than 

Strfaiio dull 

Fig. 59. — Jacques Callot. From the smaller set of the Miseries of W'tir. 

Callot's. The practice of assimilating an etching to the character 
of an engraving was by no means uncommon at the period, and 
found its chief representative in the Netherlands in J.^n and 
ESAIA.S VAN DE Velde. The whole justification for their use of 
etching would seem to be the saving of time rather than the suit- 
ability of the process. 

The most individual artist among the imitators of Callot was 
Stefano della Bella (b. 1610), an Italian, who lived some ten 
years of his life in Paris (1640 50). Scriptural subjects, pageants, 
topography, hunting scenes, studies of figures and heads, are a few 
of the subjects which make up a work which is as numerous as 
that of Callot. His style is more essentially that o{ the etcher, 
his delicate line having less regularity, and being seldom strengthened 
by the graver. While imitating Callot in his treatment of subject, 
he tempers his techniijue with something of the lighter manner of 
the school of Guido Reni. 

^ Who was six years CalK)l's junior. 

- Pari; 



Before leaving the group of " Little Etchers," as we might term Wenzel Hollar. 
Callot and his following, we cannot omit notice of another, born the 
year after Rembrandt and outliving him by some eight years, who 
nevertheless seems entirely to have escaped the influences of the 
great master. Wenzel Hollar (born 1607, in Prague, whence he 
was driven in 1627 during the troubles of the Thirty Years' War), 
studied in Frankfurt (between 1627 and 1629) under Matthaus 
Merian the elder, the prolific etcher of topography,^ who had suc- 
ceeded soon after 1623 to the great publishing house of the de Brys. 

For a few years (1629-36) Hollar is found in Strassburg and 
Cologne. Then Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, the famous 
collector of works of art and importer of foreign artists, persuaded 
him to join him on his embassy to Vienna and return in his employ 
to England. Except for eight years passed at Antwerp during the 
troubles of the Civil War (1644-52), he spent the rest of his life 
in England, and died here in 1677. An artist of modest genius, 
the master of an extremely delicate technique, we have to thank his 
sane recognition of his own artistic limitations and his unrivalled 
industry for a work of over 2500 plates, embracing topography, 
architecture,^ costume, portrait, in fact every conceivable subject of 
interest to the student of the seventeenth century, whether he be 
artist, antiquary, or historian. His work is almost entirely in pure 
etching, but it is etching executed with the close and careful finish 
that is more properly the part of the graver. In spite of the 
laborious tasks he set himself and was compelled to follow, much of 
his miniature landscape work has a wonderful charm, and in prints 
of figure and costume like the Four Seasons of 1643-44 (Parthey, 
606-609), the Ornatus Muliebris (P. 17 78-1 803), the Aula Veneris 
(P. 1804-1907), and the series of Muffs (P. 1945-52), he shows a 
command of the needle for the expression of variety of surface value, 
which has hardly been surpassed even by Bracquemond. 

The second of our Italianised Frenchmen, the famous painter Claude 
Claude Gelli^e (Lorrain), is a very different genius from Callot, Lorram. 
but it was probably from the latter that he received his first impulse 
towards etching. The faculty of rendering aerial effect is their 
closest point of contact, but one at least of Claude's earlier plates, 
the Canipo Vacchio (of 1636), reflects as well much of Callot's 
manner in the treatment of figure. 

Claude, who was born of humble parentage at Chamagne on the 
Moselle in 1600, seems to have started life as apprentice to a 
pastry-cook, and in Rome, whither he had come as a youth, he 
apparently profited of these credentials to enter the household of the 
landscape painter, Agostino Tassi.^ But his talent did not fail to 

^ E.g. in Martin Zeiler's Topographia, Frankfurt, 1642, etc. (in which his sons 
Matthaus and Caspar also tooli part). 

2 E.g. Dugdale'-s History of St. Pauls, 1658. 
* A pupil of Paul Bril. 




find its opportunity, and the servant soon became the pupil 
With all his genius as a painter of landscape, he never developed 
that refinement of feeling which sees the greatness in common 
sights, but was for ever seeking Nature in her larger views and 
more magnificent moments, whose expression few achieve without 
theatricality and pose. His etchings, however, which number 
between forty and fifty, are the least theatrical of his productions. 

V\c,. Co.— WVn.vl, The Alil.ry of t irocncmlacl (pan), 

and though by no means the work of a hand practised in the 
process, possess qualities of rare artistic value. Ihcy are even more 
essentially etcher's etchings than those of Callot with the firm, 
graver-like touch. Possibly in tlie delicate character of his etched 
line and in the irregular mesh of his shading, he may owe something 
to Ai.AM Imsiiki.mi.rI (a Clerman painter 'settled in Rome during 

J Aw 

/,,■. if Ihr r 




^'-s. 4-0) arc lightly atuihulcd to. A. E. Anolhoi- pVint, 

;//, „ //,./■..,■, IS hamllrd hiU, much sivalc-r breadth aiul more nearly in the 

I'"l>lu'inn-i- i-tcheil considerablv 

I'ii'UT \au I. 

n- pl.ius ihau tlir l™ uhicli arc altnbutrd. for jcchuu vo„ .Sandrnvt (who live 


the first two decades of the seventeenth century), whose influence in 
the development of chiaroscuro in painting was so much greater than 
his apparent achievement. 

The dates on Claude's plates are limited to two periods of his 
life — 1630-37 and 1651-63. Very probably he had not etched at 
all before his return to Rome from a visit to Lorraine (between 
1625 and 1627), where he may have met Callot. 

Several of the etchings are spoilt by bad biting {e.g. the Country 
Dance, Duplessis 24), and it is seldom that really well-printed 
impressions are found. But in spite of these, the imperfections of an 
amateur in this branch of art, his best plates are incomparable 
works imbued with a feeling for the romance of rural life seen amid 
the classic associations of the Campagna. His wonderful power in 
the expression of atmosphere is seen perhaps at its best in the 
Cow-herd of 1636 (D. 8). By the delicate interlacement of line and 
subtle use of scraping,^ one is made to feel the warm mists that are 
rising at sundown, where the herd is standing knee-deep in the pool. 
In other plates, such as the Sunrise of 1634 (D. 15), Claude 
treats a more ambitious theme with almost equal success. His least 
pleasing etchings are those like the Cattle Drinking, where the bold 
and open lines of the drawing show up the faults of figure drawing, 
which he never lost. 

Many of the painters influenced by Claude and Poussin, e.g. Caspar 
Caspar Dughet and Francois Millet, etched a considerable Dughet. 
number of plates, but they are essentially in the manner of the Miiiet. 
pen-draughtsmen, and have little real distinction as etchings 

Nor was the work produced in the, school of Simon Vouet, who Simon Vouet. 
himself etched a few plates, of greater interest. Michel Dorigny, Michel 
one of the several son-in-law-pupils of the master, may be taken as i^°''g"y- 
typical of a dull school. His manner of etching is suggested to 
some extent by the school of Bologna, but lacks the graceful spon- 
taneity of Reni's touch. 

Just as the French engravers of the period transformed the 
character of their work by a liberal mixture of etching, so Dorigny 
and his followers seemed, on their side, bent on endowing the etched 
line with a regularity which should more properly belong to the 
character of line-engraving. 

In the school of Rubens, where the master's aim was the The Rubens 
marketable and magnificent reproduction of his own works,^ little School. 

from 1629 to 1635 in Rome, and is lilcely to have had sound basis for his notice in 
the Teutsche Academie) makes more of his etched work than is warranted by what 
is known. Elsheimer's chief interpreters in etching and engraving are Jan van de 
Velde and Hendrik Goudt. 

' Perhaps, as Seymour Haden [About Etching] suggested, he may in places have 
roughened the plate with pumice-stone and scraped out the lines of light (in essentials 
a rough attempt at mezzotint), 

^ See Chap. IV. pp. 126-8. 



encouragement was given to etching. A few etchings are attributed 
to Rubens himself, three with some show of reason, a S( Catherine 

Fig. 61. — t'l.uule Lonain. reasaiUs dancint;- under tlir TrcL's (part). 

ill till- Clouds, an Old ]\'o}iiaii and a Boy udth Candles, and a Bust 
I'f Seneca. 

The first, which is the most powerful work of the three, is signed 
in its second state F. Paul Jii/l>ens fecit. In composition it corre- 
sponds to one of the ceiling paintings done by Rubens for the 


Jesuits' church at Antwerp in 1620,^ a fact not entirely favourable 
to the originality of the etching. In respect of the second,^ even if 
there is the etching of the master at the base, it is concealed in the 
dry elaboration of another hand. The bust of Seneca, which in 
its early etched state (before Vorsterman's elaboration) is only known 
to exist in the British Museum, is by no means a brilliant piece of 
work, but is at least sufficiently near to Rubens's draughtsmanship _ 
to render definite rejection unwarranted.^ 

A small number of etchings (some dated 1652) have been Jacob 
attributed to Rubens's younger contemporary, Jacob Jordaens, but J°''daens. 
as his name only appears as inventor, there is no more certainty than 
there is honour in the attribution of plates which possess none of 
the buoyant vigour of his paintings. 

Works of a similar type, combining breadth of style with a light Cornells Schut. 
and open manner of etching, are best represented in Rubens's pupil, 
CoRNELis Schut (b. 1597). A somewhat younger pupil, Theodor Theodor van 
VAN Thulden (b. 1606), followed a similar path, reproducing and '^'h"''^'^'^- 
imitating the master chiefly in subjects relating to Scripture history 
and mythology, but he treated his plates with a heavier hand, and not 
infrequently intermixed graver-work with his etching. 

The landscape of Rubens and the Antwerp school found a Lucas van 
modest but unaffected interpreter in Lucas van Uden (b. 1595), Uden. 
who lived till some three years after the death of Rembrandt, his 
junior by more than a decade. His timidly etched plates are 
monotonous, diffuse, and lacking in significance, but they at least 
deserve honour for their complete freedom from all traces of the 
fantastic affectation which disfigured such of his predecessors as 
Hans Bol and Paul Bril. 

Quite in Uden's manner, and generally found with the address Lodewyk de 
of Frans van den Wyngaerde (who pubhshed many of Uden's prints), Vadder. 
are some plates by Lodewyk de Vadder of Brussels. Unless his 
plates fall quite in the latest years of his life, it is possible that he 
rather than Uden was the inspirer.* 

Sir Anthgnv van Dyck (i 599-1 641) stands out as the solitary Van Dyck. 
great etcher of the school. Portrait etching had scarcely had an 
existence before his time, and in his work it suddenly appears at 
the highest point ever reached in the art. As we have seen in our 

' No longer in existence. The whole series engraved by J. Punt after drawings 
{preserved, almost complete, in Lord Rendlesham's collection) by J. deWit. 

^ Based on a picture in Lord Feversham's collection (Rooses, 862). The 
signature on later state of print merely claims the design for Rubens [Pet. Paul. 
Rubenius invenit et excud. ). A contemporary signature with pen on Paris im- 
pression, and an old tradition, ascribe the engraving to Pontius. 

^ The original drawing for the etching (after an antique bust, probably in the 
master's coll. , on which the picture in Munich was no doubt also modelled) is in the 
British Museum, I am not at all certain that the old attribution of the etching to 
Van Dyck has not. much in its favour ; what more likely than that the pupil should 
try his hand in reproducing a drawing of this kind by his master ? 

^ I,e. if the dates given in our index are approximately correct. 1605-55 '^ given 
as the period of Vadder's life in certain dictionaries, but seems to have less authority. 


description of the Iconography,^ Van Dyck's influence seemed, like 
that of Rubens, entirely directed to the promotion of line-engraving, 
whether he would or not ; only, for that very collection of portraits, 
he etched some eighteen of the plates in a manner so fresh and 
personal, as to be entirely unappreciated by his contemporaries, and 
to find scarcely an imitator until the nineteenth century. Probably 
Van Dyck felt as keenly as we do now the greater significance of 
the pure etching to the elaboration of his engravers. But the public 
did not see it, and with all his artistic conscience A"an Dyck was the 
artist for success, not struggle. So in the gradual development of his 
great scheme of a collection of contemporary portraits, the project 
of etching his plates was probably the earlier idea, which lack of 
appreciation inclined him to discard in favour of merely supplying 
the drawing to be reproduced by the line-engraver. 

Five of the etchings {Pieter Brueghel the younger, Erasmus, 
J. de Momper, J. Snellinx, J. Sustermans) entirely escaped the 
engraver's hand, except for rework in the later editions. Six more 
{Jan Brueghel, Frans Francken, A. van Noort, P. Pontius, Lucas 
Vorslerman, J. B. de IFael) remained unelaborated except for an 
engraved background which was added for the edition of Gillis 
Hendricx (1645), if ^°^ before. Seven alone were elaborated 
throughout with the graver. To judge from the extreme rarity of 
the early etched states, three of these {A. Cornelissen, Antoine Triest, 
J. Waverius ^) were almost certainly engraved earlier than the rest, 
and perhaps under Van Dyck's supervision.^ The remaining four 
heads {Van Dyck,^ F. Snyders,^ P. de J'os,^ and It', de I'os^) were 
not finished until the edition of Gillis Hendricx, the portrait of 
Van Dyck being used for the title.^ 

Van Dyck's settlement in London in 1632 and his position 
of court painter to Charles I. has made him seem almost a member 
of the English school, but the etchings were probably all, or nearly 
all, done in the six years immediately following his return from 
Italy to Antwerp in 1626,'^ so that their glory is entirely for Flanders. 

' See Chap. 1\'. p. 128. 

^ Engraved respective!)- by \'orstern\an, P. de Jode, and Pontius. These three 
plates were apparently not published in any of the regular editions of the Iconography. 

^ Note, however, a MS. date 1643 on an impression of the first state of the 
Waverius touched w ith the brush indicating the completion of the plate (coll. of 
Baron de Rothschild, P.Tris ; reproduced, H. W. Singer. Etchings by T'lin Dyck, 
London, 1905), which counsels caution. Each of the three engraved states had the 
address of M. \-an den Enden. 

■■ Engi-a\'ed by J. Neeffs. 

" Engraved by S. a Bolswert. 

" The portrait of Philippe Baron Ixroy does not seem to have ever been issued as 
part of the Iconography. This with two other plates, the Reed offered to Christ (Le 
Christ au Roseau) and Titian and his Daughter, make the sum of \'an Dyck's etching. 
It may be mentioned that the original plates of the greater part of the Iconography 
were acquired by the Chalcographie du Louvre in 1851, and some impressions have 
been taken from them since that time. 

' After leaving Rubens's studio he had spent a few months in England (1621-22) 
in court employ ; the next three or four j'ears were passed in Italy, chiefly in Genoa. 



Fig. 62. — Sir Anthony van Dyck. Portrait of Pieter Brueghel the younger. 



of Van Dyck 


His plates stand in marked contrast to most of Rembrandt's 
portrait work, where so much of the effect depends on close 
hatching. Van Dyck's choice of open line liberally aided in the 
modelling of the face with bold dotted work, but with never an 
attempt at more than suggesting what a painter would elaborate 
by surface tone and chiaroscuro, seems even more suited to the 
medium of etching than Rembrandt's subtly modelled figures. 
We say figures, because it may justly be advanced against the 
latter that sometimes the intensity of the portrait is lost in the 
side interest of the setting. Van Dyck carries the principles of 
suggestion and concentration to their furthest issues, and if the 
resulting portraits lack some of the complexness that counts 
for much of the real humanity in Rembrandt's work, they are 
at least unrivalled in their presentation of the central character- 
istic which constitutes the whole man in the eyes of the 
world. The chiaroscuro method presents such difficulties to 
the etcher and so many chances of failure in the biting, that 
little less than the astounding technical skill of a Rembrandt 
is needed to ensure its success. Even from this consider- 
ation alone it is by no means astonishing that the modern artist 
has for the most part preferred to follow in the path of Van 

Even less etching of value had been done in Holland during 
the sixteenth century than in Flanders, and the few who handled 
their plates with any freedom of touch (e.^. Vermeyen) had little 
else to recommend their work. It was well into the seventeenth 
century before the true etcher's style was at all widely realised 
and developed. 

Two of the more interesting names among Dutch etchers during 
the first quarter of the seventeenth century, Esaias and Jan \'AN 
DE Velde, represent in Holland the technical position held by 
Bosse in France. Their work is of a most varied description, 
ranging from Scripture and allegory to landscape and scenes of 
everyday life. Their figures are largely engraved, but their land- 
scapes, more particularly when they serve as mere backgrounds 
to a subject, are often in etching stiff enough in treatment, but 
scarcely touched by the graver. 

They were the first of the national school of landscape etching 
in Holland, finding few real followers in their manner of work, 
but taking a true lead in their appreciation of the virtue of their 
own country and its people for the inspiration of their art. 

Landscape etching in a similar graver-like manner was being 
done in Flanders by Adriaen van Stalbent, while one of the 
few Dutchmen to work in the same style as the Van de Veldes 
Pieter Molyn I. was PiETER MoLYN the elder, of Haarlem. In the latter, in 
particular, is manifest the feeling for surfaces of white light, which 
is an anticipation of the spirit of Tiepolo. 

Esaias and Jan 
van de Velde. 

Adriaen van 


More as an engraver ^ than etcher, Jan van de Velde stands jan van de 
as one of the chief interpreters of the art of Elsheimer. Count Veide and 
Hendrik Goudt, an amateur of Utrecht, who worked for some ^^j^terpreters' 
time in Rome, and engraved many of Elsheimer's compositions, of Elsheimer. 
was probably Van de Velde's immediate inspiration, and in fact 
one of the first of Dutchmen to broach the problem of chiaroscuro. 

Many of the prints by the Van de Veldes, e.g. Jan's series of the 
Elements of 1622 (Earth, Air, Fire, Water), reproduce designs by 
WiLLEM BuYTEWECH, who was, in his turn, another of the more Willem 
interesting of Rembrandt's immediate predecessors in etching. Buytewech. 
In spite of stiffness and formalism there is considerable spirit 
in Buytewech's figure subjects, and a certain decorative element in 
his little landscapes strikes a peculiarly modern note. 

Another etcher closely contemporary with the Van de Veldes Hercules 
and Buytewech, Hercules Seghers (b. about 1590), is far more ^^shers- 
original in his treatment of landscape, and quite remarkable for the 
freedom with which he handles the etched line, but he has not 
entirely escaped the mannerisms which characterised the work of 
Hans Bol and Paul Bril. Perhaps his tendency towards mountain- 
ous foregrounds and the panoramic elements in landscape comes 
from this source, but this factor deserved to survive, and formed a 
great inspiration to much of the landscape painting in Rembrandt's 
school, to Philips Koninck in particular. Rembrandt himself must 
have appreciated Seghers's work, for, as we shall notice later, he 
turned one of his plates to his own use, leaving the landscape almost 
entire as a background for his new subject. With all its charm, his 
style of etching is scratchy and lacking in concentration, short curving 
strokes being given a somewhat unmeaning and monotonous pre- 
dominance. With such characteristics it is natural that he achieves 

1 As an engraver, too, Jan van de Velde did numerous small portraits in a careful 
manner, which betrays the influence of Goltzius. In several of these {e.g. J. 
Torrentius, and that of his father, Jan van ds Velde, the writing-master) he makes 
use of a kind of stipple for modelling the face. Attributed to him is a large portrait 
of Christina of Sweden, which is executed partly with the roulette, partly in line, and 
partly in rough and irregular dotted work, which might be caused by roughening the 
plate with an irregular file, in a manner which finds its nearest analogy in Sherwin's 
Charles II. Franken regarded the print as more likely to be by a certain goldsmith 
and map engraver of the same name, who is mentioned in documents as at Haarlem 
in 1642. It has been called a mezzotint, and as we accept the term in denomination 
of Siegen's roulette manner, the classification may be allowed. The only ordinary 
mezzotint I find bearing his name is a portrait of Dr. John Owen (C.S. p. 1668), 
but this only has his name as printer or publisher, /. van de Velde exc. Finally, 
a large portrait of Oliver Cromwell, signed Velde sculp. , has been attributed to 
him. It is executed in line, with the roulette, and in a kind of stipple for the face, 
but is most remarkable for the aquatint background, occurring, as it seems, a 
hundred years before the process is supposed to have been discovered ! Kramra 
has suggested that it is by a certain Jacob van de Velde, who is said to have done 
plates in the manner of Ploos van Anistel towards the end of the eighteenth century. 
But the inscription, Romtout van den Hoeye exc. , which appears on both this print 
and the Queen. Christina, is that of a publisher of the middle of the seventeenth 
century, and a strong argument against Kramm's assumption. We leave these 
attributions and their problems to the reader unsolved. 


the greater effect in smaller plates, such as the Hilly Landscape with 
a winding Eoad {rt^rodnc^d, /ahrbuck, xxiv. p. 190). As a crafts- 
man he holds a unique position in being one of the first, if not 
actually the first, to make experiments in the combination of colour 
with prints from a copper-plate. He never seems to have printed, 
however, with more than one colour from the plate. He obtained 
his other tints by hand colouring the paper or the canvas, which he 
often substituted, either before or after the impression.'^ 

The work of the Dutch etchers we have just described falls 
largely into the decade preceding the beginning of Rembrandt's 
activity. Belonging to the same time one might mention a few 
other painters, like Pieter Lastman (Rembrandt's master), Pieter de 
Grebber, and Leonard Bramer, who have left just a few etchings, 
but their work in this field is almost negligible, and even then, to a 
certain degree, perhaps due to the influence of the younger master. 
Other etchers of landscape, animal subjects, and genre, such as 
Roghman, Pieter van Laer, and Simon de Vlieger, are again so 
little Rembrandt's senior that their work will best be treated later in 
conjunction with the younger artists of their own following and style. 

If we except Van Dyck, whose etched work can only claim 
priority by one or two years, it must be confessed that Rembrandt 
received no great legacy in the conventions of etching, and the 
attempt to trace the origin of his remarkable comprehension of 
the varied capabilities of the medium amid the work of his pre- 
decessors finds little satisfaction. 
Rembrandt. In the whole history of art Rembrandt stands out as one of the 

solitary and unapproachable personalities who have struck their 
own style, and stamped their influence, for good or for bad, on 
posterity. In his etched work his unique position is realised to 
even greater advantage than in painting ; for in the latter sphere 
Frans Hals, his senior by a few years, was not far behind in 
briUiance of brush and incisive delineation. But among contem- 
porary etchers there was no one who combined the same mastery 
of medium with a tithe of his significance of expression. In fact, 
no worthy rival in this field can be found before the last century, 
and then in whom but Whistler ? But in the range of his genius 
Rembrandt still stands alone. Let him handle the most moment- 
ous scene from Scripture, a landscape, a piece of genre, the slightest 
study of still life — all alike are illumined by a power which never 
fails to pierce to the heart of things. 

Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn, born the 15th July 1606,^ was 
the son of a well-to-do miller of Leyden, Harmen Gerritsz van Rijn. 

' For the strict definition of colour-print and Segliers's position, see pp. 305-6. 

- According to a contemporary authority, 0\\er& {Beschrijvingt: van Leiden, 1641, 
p. 341), he was born on 15th July 1606; but an official entry in relation to his 
marriage in 1634 gives his age at the time as 26, which inclined his biographer, 
Vosmaer, to accept 1607 as more likely to be correct. An inscription in the artist's 



His first master was Jacob van Swanenburgh, of his own town, 
under whom he is said to have worked some three years. Later 
(about 1623-24?) he studied under Lastman in Amsterdam, accord- 
ing to Orlers for the short space of six months, — a fact by no means 

Fig. 63. — Rembrandt. Portrait of himself. Unfinished state, touched by 
the artist. 

improbable in view of the striking independence of Rembrandt as 
an artist, and of the small trace of outside influences even in his 
earliest work. At what time Rembrandt actually started practice 
as a master in Leyden is uncertain, but he was already dating his 
pictures in 1627, and by 1628 Gerard Dou, who was destined to 

own hand, Aet. 24 Anno 163 1, on an impression in the British Museum of the 
fortrait of himself in a cocked hat (B. 7, second unfinished state; Fig. 63) is, of 
course, consistent with either date. Houbraken gives 15th June 1606. 


become famous, is known to have been his pupiL It is significant 
of Rembrandt's individual genius that, in an age when every young 
artist was supposed to visit Italy, a pupil of the classicist, Lastraan, 
• despised the conventional tour, convinced that the true realisation 
of his own and of his country's art lay in the limited outlook of the 
Dutch interior, and amid the quiet beauty of uneventful land- 
scape. Throughout his whole work he made a scruple of being 
content with the types that lay to his hand. He never sought the 
external ideal of beauty through which the voice that touches 
humanity often loses its distinctness, appreciating a truth which has 
placed him at once among the perfect exponents of character and 
among the most powerful of religious artists, that physical realism 
is less a hindrance than an aid to the rendering of spiritual signifi- 
cance in art. 

Rembrandt's etched work may be profitably considered in three 
periods, each of which possesses a predominant characteristic. 
The first In the first period (1628- 1639), the pure etched line is the 

period. commonest medium, and there is a certain carefulness and even 

timidity in the draughtsmanship with which the younger artist is 
The second wont to belie exuberant passion. By 1640 work with the dry- 
period. point, which was beginning to be seen towards the end of the 

'thirties, becomes a significant factor in his style, and its use in 
heightening the effect of light and shade is little by little more 
adequately realised. Attention to the tone of the whole composi- 
tion, apart from the mere design, is characteristic of Rembrandt's 
developing power, tliough this end is still gained largely by means 
The third of close lines of shading. In the third period (from 1651 onwards) 
period. there is a remarkable increase in the vigour and breadth of the 

handling. The lines of shading are more open, the forms less con- 
ventional, and the touch truer, more spontaneous and less evidently 
conscious. Dry-point is now the prevalent medium, and for the 
rendering of chiaroscuro, which is now of first moment, a more 
summary method is applied, .leaving the matter almost entirely to 
the variations that can be achieved by means of a tint of ink left on 
the surface of the plate in the printing. 

During the last thirty years Rembrandt's collected etchings have 
passed through the fire of the severest criticism, which has resulted 
in a far stricter definition between the authentic work of the master 
and that of pupils or assistants. One of our most distinguished 
amateurs and etchers. Sir Francis Seymour Haden, led the attack on 
tradition, and the attempt at a chronological arrangement,^ which he 
practically promoted in the 1877 exhibition at the Burlington Fine 
Arts Club, has no doubt facilitated juster comparison. 

Although Bartsch's list (which includes 375 plates) has tradition 
on its side, it must be remembered that the earliest catalogue, that 

1 Initiated by \'osmaer (1868). The British Museum is still alone among the 
large collections of Rembrandt in its practical conversion to this principle. 


of Gersaint, containing 341 "authentic" numbers, was compiled by The 
a dealer whose capabilities as an auctioneer meet peculiar praise in catalogues 
the preface from the publishers Helle and Glomy, both of the same question of 
profession, who themselves made considerable asterisked additions, authenticity. 
Houbraken's collection, which was Gersaint's basis, had all the 
authority of direct descent from Rembrandt's friend, Jan Six, but it 
is only natural that it should include much unsigned work done 
in the master's studio, a certain temptation to the not unbiased 
iconographical pioneer. 

Middleton, with his 329 plates,^ is possibly still too generous, 
while Legros, the leader of the extreme left in the destructive ranks, 
who has left us a paltry 7 1, seems in his reliance on a personal 
feeling for technical excellence to have thrown aside the whole 
weight of history.2 On the principle of admitting all plates which 
show any trace of original etching by the master {i.e. including those 
in which the original work is disfigured by superadded etching, and 
those in which the secondary parts are by assistants), we are inclined 
to accept some 293 plates, i.e. about thirty more than Seidlitz allows 
as authentic. 

The etchings, whose authenticity has been most debated, are 
the rough studies (largely beggar-men and women, and portraits) 
executed in or about 1631. The signature on certain of these, 
(Ri in stiff letters, is quite unlike the lightly written 6^,^ which 
Rembrandt uses in this early period ; but in spite of this difficulty 
which can only be explained in certain instances as the addition of 
a later or pupil's hand who reworked and disfigured a plate lightly 
etched by the master, I still incline to a somewhat conservative view. 

Though executed in an unusually broad and coarse manner {e.g. 
the Lazarus Klap, B. 171), certain of them, such as the Tobit 
(B. 153), have the real spirit of Rembrandt's best work, and with all 
the coarseness of its line, the Two Beggars Tramping (B. 154) dis- 
plays a sense of motion and a swing quite beyond any of the possible 
collaborators of the master. The consideration that one of the 
Five Studies of Metis Heads on one plate (B. 366) could not have 
escaped rejection, were not the others so characteristically Rem- 
brandt's, will help to check the over-confident critic. Rightly esti- 
mated, certain of them may be mere trials in technical methods, 
which by no means imply a retrogression on the delicate workman- 
ship of the earliest dated etchings. The large portrait of himself 

^ Dutuit and Rovinski take, roughly, about the same position. 

^ See Gonse, Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2,^ p6r. xxxii. 508. For a slightly less 
extreme view, which stands in principle for Legros' attitude, admitting about twice 
the number, see H. W. Singer, R.'s Radierungen. Stuttgart, 1906. 

' Probably R(embrandt) H(armensz) L(eidensis). After 1632 the use of the mono- 
gram is discarded in favour of the signature Reml3ran{d)i [van Rijn being added on two 
plates, the large Raising of Lazarus ot aboxA 1631-32, and the Joseph's Coat brought to 
Jacob of about 1633), The date on the portrait of a Man in a wide-brimmed Hat 
and Ruff 1^. 311), which bears the monogram, has been read by Seidlitz as 1638, 
but the old reading of 1630 is probably correct. 


(B. 338), the earlier Peter and John at the Gate of the Temple 
(B. 95), and at least one of the Umall Lion Hunts (B. 116) may 
reasonably be put in the same category. 

The earliest dated etchings to which allusion has just been 
made are the two ^nxs^iS. portraits of his mother (dated 1628), with 
which his career as an etcher most aptly opens. The presence of 
an already accomplished, if timid, technique need not be cause 
for wonder, for few self-respecting artists would not destroy their 
merely juvenile efforts. Possibly, however, some of the rough 
studies which are generally classed as belonging to about 1631, and 
one -^OMlX^lxA portrait of himself (B. 27), may precede 1628 though 
solid evidence is wanting. 
Correspond- One of the etchings of his mother of 1628 (the head full-face, 

ence of certain g^ 31:2) is very nearly akin to a picture in Mr. Sanderson's collec- 

of Rembrandt s . ,-J , \ tr ,1 r •,• ..,.. 

etchings with '1°" (Bode 2i). If not actually a matter of artistic principle, it is 
his pictures. the rarest thing for the true artist to finish a work in more than one 
medium.^ It is only fair, however, to note the few cases which at 
least seem to form notable exceptions. The etching of Rembrandt s 
"'■ father" in full face (B. 304) is in the closest connexion with a 
picture in Dr. Bredius's coll., the Hague, though of course each may 
be taken independently from a sketch done at the same sitting. 
Then the Diana Bathing (fi. 201) corresponds almost exactly with a 
picture in M. Warneck's coll., Paris (Bode 47) ; and the latest of the 
etched portraits, the Large Coppe?iol (B. 283), is identical, even in 
size, with a painting in Lord Ashburton's coll. (Bode 456), and it is 
in the reverse direction, a fact which favours the theory that the 
picture was the basis for the etching. Two others, the large 
Descent from the Cross of 1633 (B. 81) and the Good Samaritan of 
the same year (B. 90), are also nearly allied and in reverse to paint- 
ings in Munich and in the Wallace collection respectively. The 
two last-named subjects, however, do not need the same excuse 
that the others demanded, partly because of the further question 
involved as to how far they are the work of pupils or assistants. 
Thequesiionof Much of the work in the Good Samaritan seems too feeble for 
the collabora- jj^g master ; his expressive touch could hardly have perpetrated the 
o°assistjmts.^ meaningless head at the window. That the chief variation from the 
picture, i.e. the addition of the dog in the foreground, is not in good 
taste seems to me little argument. There is nothing more char 
acteristic of Rembrandt than the introduction of animals, dogs in 
particular, in grotesque attitudes in the foreground of some of his 
most serious scriptural plates, and our English sense of decorum 
may wrongly bias our judgment. Of the large Descent from the 

' Cf. Chap. I. [re filantegna), p. 57. The practice of a good modern etcher 
lilce Sir Charles Holroyd, who often xises the same composition for both painting and 
etching, inclines one to take the more practical view. Except where inspiration 
means almost boundless power of creation and invention, as in the case of Rembrandt, 
the principle of economy cannot be forgotten. 


Cross there exist two plates : one, of which only three impressions 
are known (Amsterdam, Brit. Mus., Paris), so completely fouled in 
the biting as to be almost beyond criticism ; the second,^ though 
sound and strong in its technique, betraying, at least in much of 
the minor work, a lesser hand than the master's. 

Two other large etchings have generally been regarded by recent 
criticism as studio productions, the large Raising of Lazarus of 
about 1631-32 (B. 73), and the Christ before Pilate (B. 77), for 
which a grisaille in the National Gallery is the original study. The 
former plate displays great breadth and freedom of execution, and 
apart from the coarse shading and rework in the later states, the 
master may well be responsible for the whole. In the early state of 
the Christ before Pilate (dated 1635, only in Amsterdam and the 
Brit. Museum), the central group round Christ is curiously left 
white, and it is just this part, added later (the date being changed 
to 1636), which is the best work on the plate. No artist would be 
likely to proceed in the above manner ^ if the whole of the work 
were his own. The most reasonable explanation is that he placed 
the design and the plate in some assistant's hands, and then added 
the most important figures and harmonised the whole himself. But 
who were the assistants or pupils who helped him in the cases we 
have mentioned ? Houbraken has left us a vivid picture of Rem- 
brandt's "warehouse " full of students in the early days at Amsterdam, 
but fails to shed any light on the problem at issue. Bol has been 
suggested for the Good Samaritan, but against this attribution has 
been recently urged,^ that as his earliest signed and dated etchings 
belong to the year 1642, he could not have entered Rembrandt's 
studio much before 1640, an inference which is not perfectly con- 
vincing. A different hand, with a sturdier but far less sympathetic 
and yielding touch, is to be remarked both in the second version 
of the Descent from the Cross and in the Christ before Pilate. Even 
if we were rash enough to disregard the traditional account ■* that 
Lievens was in England about 1630-34 (and he was already settled 
in Antwerp by 1635), there is nothing in the picturesque waviness 
of his line-work which would suggest his participation, while in 
Van Vliet's signed engravings after Rembrandt's early pictures 
(mostly dating between 1631 and 1635) there is just the hard manner 
seen in these two studio plates. Vliet was quite probably a pupil 
of Rembrandt in Leyden, and possibly an assistant to the master, 

^ The only plate in his work which bears the address of a contemporary print- 
seller (Hendrik van Ulenberg, a relative of Rembrandt's wife, an art dealer with 
whom the master had dealings before leaving Leyden, and with whom he seems to 
have lived on his first arrival in Amsterdam). 

2 Cf Diirer, Chap. II. p. 73, note 2, remembering that the conventions of the 
line-engraver and the etcher are on different planes. 

^ Roever and de Vries, Catalogue of the Picture Gallery, Utrecht. 

" Given by Houbraken and Walpole. Haden questioned the tradition on the 
grounds of the strange lack of work known to have been done in England. 


engaged perhaps chiefly in engraving, during the early Amsterdam 
period/ when Rembrandt's success was the greatest reason for 
reproduction, and the best excuse for the dangerous policy of 
entrusting a growing reputation to the hands of assistants. 
Portraits. The artist's etchings of himself are very numerous in the years 

1 630-3 r. He poses in the most manifold garbs, and in all manner 
of expressions. Oriental costume and accoutrements always had 
a fascination for him. One of the finest examples of Rembrandt 
in such fancy attire is the etching of 1634 (B. 23),^ where we find 
him standing in plumed hat, sabre in hand, represented with certain 
variations from his actual countenance, which mark it as a study 
rather than a portrait. 

Beside the portraits of his mother and himself, there are five 
heads of 1630 and 1631 (B. 292, 294, 304, 321, 263), as well as 
a slighter sketch on a sheet of studies (B. 374), which, according 
to Michel's identification with his father, Harmen Gerritsz van Rijn,* 
reflects his leisure in these early years in the home circle at Leyden. 
The identification fails, however, to carry absolute conviction, and 
we incline to regard the sitter as a mere studio model.* 

Of the happiness of his work in these early years we have proof 
in the studies of his first wife, Saskia. A small head nearly in 
profile (B. 547), dated 1634, the year of his marriage, is one of the 
most charming, exquisitely executed in pure etching. In 1636 and 
1637 there are several slighter sketches, and it is possibly Saskia 
who is taken as the model for the two studies called the Great 
and Little Jewish Brides (B. 340, 342), the latter being strictly a 
St. Catherine. Soon, alas I the beginnings of Rembrandt's troubles 
are heralded by a sketch of Saskia ill in Bed (B. 369). The artist's 
foreboding depicted in the study dated 1639, Death appearing to a 
Wedded Couple (B. 109), was too truly realised. One of the most 
touching of all his portrait studies, the small Head of a Sick Woman 
(B. 359), is no doubt that of Saskia during her last illness in 1642. 

Apart from the studies of himself and of his family, Rembrandt 
did few portraits in etching in this early period, a contrast to their 
abundance in his work in oils. The portrait of Saskia's kinsman 
and guardian, Ja7i Sylvius of 1634 (B. 266), is the earliest, and 
certainly the least powerful. Comparison with the posthumous 
portrait of the same sitter (B. 280) will show the advance Rembrandt 
had made by 1646, how much greater the sympathy and expression 
he now commands in the dehneation of character. The whole 
figure is alive with the nervous intensity of the preacher. Three 
of his very finest portraits were executed about the same time as the 
second portrait of Sylvius, Ephmirn Bonus (B. 21%), Jan Asselyn 

1 Cf. , however, p. 184, footnote. 

' First state, ttiree-quarter length, rare : later cut down to a bust in oval. 

■* He died April 27, 1630. 

■* For further criticism, see A. M. Hind, Burlington Magazine, March 1906. 


(B. 277) axidjan Six (B. 285). In each of these the power of 
dry-point and etching to express the subtlest gradations of tone is 
realised to the full. Rembrandt, perhaps, never surpassed these 
masterpieces in the balanced power they exhibit. In the Clement 
de Jonghe of 165 1 (B. 272) he essayed a much more open style in 
pure etching, possibly suggested by Van Dyck's manner ; but it 
is an exception, and henceforward he keeps consistently to the 
chiaroscuro treatment and the net-work of close line. The Jan 
Antonides van der Linden (B. 264), of 1665, and the Jacob 
Haaring (B. 274, about 1655?), warden of the debtors' prison at 
Amsterdam (a pathetic token of Rembrandt's happy intercourse in 
the midst of his difficulties), have all the balance of the best work 
of the middle period, while an even added expressiveness and 
vigour is seen in the Arnold Tholinx (B. 284, Fig. 64), the brilliance 
of the burr in the extremely rare early impressions enforcing a 
wonderful significance. 

Analogous development may be traced in all the multifarious Subject : 
subjects that Rembrandt handles. Apart from the exceptionally 8™"^^ ^'^^ 
broad studies of 1631, his early etchings of genre are executed with ^'^^ 
an exquisitely delicate needle. The Blind Fiddler (B. 138, see 
Fig. 65) is a charming example: the dog bristles with life, and is 
less grotesquely curled than usual with Rembrandt. It is a style 
which culminates in such work as the Quacksalver oi 1635 (B. 129), 
while even before that date a bolder manner is appearing, e.g. in the 
Rat-Killer oi 162,2 (B. 121). 

Leaving out of account the large studio-plates, his early scriptural 
subjects show just the same characteristic delicacy of execution. 
Comparison of the Christ disputing with the Doctors of 1630 (B. 66) 
with his etchings of the same subject of 1652 and 1654 (B. 65 and 
64) will serve to emphasise the particular properties of both periods. 
In the middle of the 'thirties we see a tendency to greater breadth, 
through the scriptural series of 1634-35, with their reflection of 
types used by Rubens, to the large manner of the Death of the 
Virgin of 1639 (B. 99), a work in which dry-point is beginning to 
be used with effect. At the outset of the second period Rembrandt 
returned to plates of more modest compass ; but how much 
power is gained by economy and concentration of line may be 
remarked in the small Raising of Lazarus of 1642 (B. 72), one 
of his most perfect compositions. The slightly later Entombment 
(B. 84) discloses a growing freedom of design, and the intimate 
force of the artist's sympathy touches here the calmer depths of 
grief, which appeal to the Northerner so much more truly than the 
harrowing and theatrical distress of so many Italian entombments. 

Meanwhile tone is becoming a factor of increasing import. But 
in the subject etchings of the middle period (as in his portraits up 
till the last), it is still achieved by the use of closely hatched lines 
of shading. The method is well exemplified in the shaded 




portions of the unfinished plate of Rembrandt drawing from a 
Model'^ (B. 192), though these very portions of this interesting 
etching may be a pupil's addition to the master's preliminary sketch. 
The treatment is still essentially the same in the culminating work 

t'lo. 64. — KemliraiuU. IVmu.iu uf AinoUl Tliolinx. 

of the period, if not the crown of his maturest activitx', the 
C/irisi with flic .S>V/' around J/im, rcu-iviiiii little Cliildrcn (li 74),- 

' Tlir orijjiniil ilra«iiis for this plad- is in the Hrilisli Museum. 

" I'oninuiiily known as " Tliu lluudreil Guilder Print," alreadv its recognised 
title early in the eiglueenlli eeiuury, apparently originating in the pi iee it onee 
realised in an avietion (see C'. H. de Groot, Vikiiiidcn, No. 390). 



Criticism is almost impertinent in the face of a masterpiece that 
must make a lasting impression on all who know it. Suffice it 
to say that it embodies the whole range of Rembrandt's human 
sympathy, his appreciation of the manifold phases of human 
character and emotion, from the mother with the child that first 
elicits the divine help, to the group of curious onlookers lolling and 
chatting on the left. Of the first state of the plate, before certain 
cross lines on the ass's neck, only nine impressions are known, 
and the price, some ^1750, which was recently paid for an 
impression is scarcely an exaggeration of its comparative artistic 
value. Late in the eight- 
eenth century an English 
amateur. Captain Baillie, 
acquired the plate and 
restored it from a debili- 
tated condition to a degree 
of likeness to its early state 
that is no little testimony 
to his deftness.! From the 
standpoint of etching as an 
art, it must be confessed 
that the tendency which 
has here its embodied ideal 
has found fewer followers 
than the phase into which 
Rembrandt was about to 
enter. No small praise 
for the bulk of modern 
etching is implied in the 
expression of our belief, 
that in this latter develop- 
ment Rembrandt was real- 
ising more truly than ever 
the capabilities and limita- 
tions of the etcher's art. A 
few significant lines may often express what would be sacrificed by 
more. This bolder style is seen in its purest form in the Ch?-:st 
appearing to his Disciples of 1650 (B. 89), and with the warmer 
effect added by dry-point, in the CJirist between his Parents, return- 
ing from t/ie Temple of 1654 (B. 60, Fig. 66), where every element 
of the scene, from the leaping dog to the cattle watering at the 
stream, lends a vividness to the whole. But it is seldom in this 
period that the pure line is left to accomplish its own effect, being 

^ Impressions from this resurrected state of the plate are not uncommon. The 
plate was afterwards divided, and prints taken from the different pieces. One of the 
best copies of the original work is that of Thomas Worlidge (signed T. W. in the 
right lower corner). 

f'iG. 65. — Rembrandt. The Blind Fiddler. 



generally wrapt in a mysterious covering of chiaroscuro, which 
changes with each impression. Rembrandt has come to realise the 
wonderful quality and liquid purity of the surface tones which can 
be gained by leaving ink on the surface of the plate. The method 
is attended by much uncertainty, and in so far is less satisfactory as 
an element in etching or engraving ; but the variety of effect open to 
the etcher, who so to speak paints his plate, offers an undeniable 
fascination to the artist who prints his own plates. 

The most magnificent e.xample of these " chiaroscuro " plates is 
the Large Crucifixion ("The Three Crosses") dated 1653 (B. 78), 
where the introduction of an equestrian figure from a Pisanello 
medal, one of the most startling changes ever made in the progress 

FlO. 66. — RemliraiHU. L'lirist bcLwecn bis r.iveiUs, ix-uu iiiiii^ iVoni liie Temple 

of \'arious states, is a characteristic exam[)le of Rembrandt's 
receptivity and readiness in adapting an alien idea to his own 
personal expression.^ Similar to it in execution, apart from the 
tinting, is its nearly contemporary companion, the Christ presenkd 
to till- People of 1655 (B. 76). The enormous differences of effect 
to be gained by the mere printing can be seen most pertinently in 

1 For (Ulier e\.iiii|iles of his power of adaptation note : I'hrisl dri:'hii;- llic .^foiicv- 
Cliiui^m fiviii tlir J't-mpli- ( H. 69), ligure of Christ from a Hiirer cut ( H. 23); 7'lic 
tioN-Ihiiils (H. 114-116), suggested by Rubens ; \.\\i: Oriental //iWi/.t (B. 2S6-289), 
after I.icvens; SI . Jertniie reading (B. 104), the landscape after Titian or Cam- 
l.agnola; I'irgin and Child with the Cat (B. 63), adapted from Mantegna"s 
I'irgin and Child, see Fig. 23; Abraham entertaining the Angels (B. 29), based 
on one of the drawings from Mohammedan-Indian miniatures, which is now in the 
British Museum ; and, linally, the very appropriation of a plate by Seghers (see 
p. 182). 


the various impressions that exist of the Descent from the Cross by 
Torchlight of 1654 (B. 83), and the Entombment (B. 86). The rude 
treatment of form exhibited in these works, embodying a certain 
primeval sirapUcity and largeness of emotion, is one of the phases 
of Rembrandt's style which has most appealed to the modern artist, 
above all to that school of etching of which Legros has been the 
leading spirit. This tendency to the grotesque in form contrasts 
strongly with the assumption that the nude is the best vehicle for 
the expression of human emotion in art, an assumption to which 
Rembrandt showed little leaning. Nevertheless, from first to last, 
he was a consistent, if a somewhat dispassionate, student of the 
nude : witness in his etchings the true but unpleasing studies of 
1 63 1, three other plates of the middle of the 'forties, etched in 
strong pure line, and, finally, some of his latest prints, and the very 
last etching that he dated (the Woman with the Arrow of 1661, 
B. 202). One of these, from a far more pleasing model than he 
had used in the early studies, is reproduced (Fig. 67); it discloses ' 

his mastery in a sphere he did not affect. 

Rembrandt's landscape work, which was almost entirely pro- Landscape, 
duced during the twelve or thirteen years subsequent to 1640, is 
by no means numerous, but is in some respects his most fertile 
artistic legacy. There is some contrast here to the progress of his 
other work, most of the earlier landscape etchings (1640-45), from 
the oblong Cottage and Hay-Barn (B. 225) and the Windmill 
(233) of 1641 to the Omval (B. 209) of 1645, and that master- 
sketch of Six's Bridge (B. 208) being handled in bold open lines 
with little shading. The Three Trees oi 1643 (B. 212) is one of 
the rare examples in which Rembrandt attempted a positive 
rendering of cloud and atmosphere, a problem in which some 
modern etchers have been more successful, and it stands apart from 
his other landscape plates in its fulness of detail and pictorial 
character. The by-play of the lovers amid the bushes (which also 
occurs in the Omval) is a characteristic touch, and in no sense an 
indication, as has been suggested, of earlier work on the plate. 
Rembrandt's keen eye for the living things about him, and his 
delight in the grotesque, is happily exemplified in the Hay-Barn 
and Flock of Sheep of 1650 (B. 224, Fig. 68), where early im- 
pressions full of burr show up a horse kicking on its back in the 
field. About the same date come a considerable number of other 
landscape plates, such as the Canal with an Angler and Two 
Swans (B. 235), and the Canal with a large Boat and Bridge 
(B. 236). They are mostly smaller and of closer workmanship 
than the earlier groups, but have an added richness in the burr 
from dry-point. The most perfect example of a similar method, 
somewhat bolder in touch, is the landscape of 1651 that goes by 
the name of the Gold-Weigher' s Field (B. 234) (i.e. the country seat 
of the Receiver-general Uytenbogaert, whose portrait Rembrandt 


etched in 1639). Of course the traditional identification of this 
locahty, as of several of the other landscapes, is not beyond 
question. Within two or three years from this date Rembrandt 
has ceased to do landscape as an end in itself, a fact that no 

IMC. 07, — Ki-iiiliniiuU. W'unian a: the lialli 

doubt speaks of his rctiicd life in Amsterdam in these latter years. 
His latest and broadest manner may be exemplified in the lar£;e 
/''//X/i/ into Ri^yf^t of about 165,:; (H. 56). The plate lias a curious 
hisloi-)-, having been originally etched by Hercules Seghers with 
figures representing Tobias and the Angel. In most ot^ the land- 
scape the unique manner of Seghers with the multifarious small 



curving lines is still unaltered, but the additions in the clump of 
trees to the right are in Rembrandt's strongest style. 

Before leaving Rembrandt we would take the opportunity of Quality of 
emphasising the differences of value which depend on the quality impression. 
or date of an impression. A genuine print from an original plate 
may be artistically and marketably worthless, when a good early 
impression may be realising its tens of pounds, and a rare early 
state its hundreds. A considerable number of the original copper- 
plates are still in existence, and in unscrupulous hands are both 
a reproach to the master and a danger to the less critical public. 
Impressions from a series of eighty-five of the plates — in many 
cases much reworked — were published about 1785 by the Paris 
engraver and dealer P. F. Basan, and near the middle of the last 
century in still worse dilapidation by Michel Bernard. Seventy-nine 

Fig. 68. — Rembrandt. Landscape with a Hay-Barn and Floclc of Sheep. 

plates of this series recently came to light again in Paris in the old 

stock of Bernard's successor. A portfolio of impressions was 

issued in 1906 by Alvin-Beaumont and Bernard, but except for 

a few of the etchings in open line, which are more amenable to 

rework, the result was heartrending. A clear appreciation of 

quality must always be one of the aims of the student, but unless 

he have facility for constant comparison of impressions, he will 

find that certainty of judgment is a slow and sometimes an 

expensive acquisition. 

Among the etchers who came under Rembrandt's immediate Etchers of 

influence, Van Vliet, Elevens, and Bol maybe specially noticed, 'i**^ ^J:'^°°l °* 
' ,,• ■ , r , ■ \ ^ Rembrandt, 

forming, so to speak, the mner circle of his school. 

J. G. VAN Vliet, though an artist of little merit, is the J- G. van Vliet. 

closest follower of the master's early manner. Whether he was 

a pupil of Rembrandt in Leyden, and, as has been suggested 

above, an assistant to the master during the early Amsterdam 



period, are matters of mere conjecture, but neither are improbable.^ 
His series of beggars and peasants of 1632 and 1635 are coarse 
productions, but they are the nearest assimilation of Rembrandt's 
early work possible to this rude imitator. Between 1631 and 1634 
Vliet engraved a considerable number of Rembrandt's pictures, 
certain of these plates {e.g. Lot and his Daughters, B. i) being of 

l''ii;. 69. — Jan Licveiis. I'oilrait Studv. 

value as the only surviving trace of certain lost works of the master. 

Jan iJcvens. ]^^ LiEVEN.s, who was jjrobably never a pupil, must have come 

into contact with Rembrandt before 1631 in Leyden, even if they 

did not meet as fellow-students under Eastman in Amsterdam. 

1 For arRumeiits .against the latter possibility sec de tlroot, Reperloniim. \i\ 
382. I'lic two towns are so closely connected that there is little reason why 
Vhet, even if he lived for the most part in I.evden, should not have been in 
constant connexion with Renibramli in Amsterdam. 



From 1 63 1 tradition places him for a few years in England — his 
portrait of James Gaultier, a musician at the Court of Charles I., 
being perhaps an indication of the visit, — and it was here that he 
seems to have first come under Van Dyck's influence. 

In 1635 he settled in Antwerp, and developed a completely 
Flemish style. A few large portraits which belong to this period, 

Fig. 70. — Rembrandt, The first " Oriental Head. 

e.g. those of the poet Vondel and of Daniel Ueinsius, are excellent 
works on the Van Dyck model, though with somewhat greater 
elaboration. They were published by Van den Enden, and are 
sometimes found inserted in later editions of the Iconography. 
Excluding the portraits, to which he must have devoted more care, 
the plates of his Flemish period disclose a distinct decline in 
artistic power, and are too often characterised by clumsy drawing 
and negligent craftsmanship. 


The most interesting and problematical point of Lievens's 
connexion with Rembrandt is seen in his four portrait studies 
(B. 2 1,1 20, 18, 26), which correspond in reverse to "Rembrandt's" 
four Oriental Heads of 1635 (B- 286-289). The method of treat- 
ing the background in both series (especially in the first head, 
reproduced in Fig. 69) with meaningless wriggling scrawls, is so 
distinct a characteristic of Lievens that the most reasonable 
solution seems to be that the "Rembrandt" etchings are school 
copies of Lievens's plates, retouched by the master's hand, as the 
inscription Rembrandt geretuckeert seems to imply. Only in one 
case (B. 289) does the conjectured copy surpass the original, and 
even here the R may not be more than a mere studio signature, 
though it must be confessed that the work is worthy of Rembrandt. 
In early work, such as the Raising of Lazarus, Lievens exhibits 
a true feeling for Rembrandt's ideals, and considerable technical 

Ferdinand Bol, The earliest signed etchings of Ferdinand Bol, who was born 
at Dordrecht in 16 16, are dated 1642, and it is natural to suppose 
that he had not been Rembrandt's pupil many years previously. 
The manner he at first adopts is closely formed on Rembrandt's 
style of the middle of the 'thirties, e.g. the Bust of an Old Man of 
1642 (B. 9) is comparable to Rembrandt's study of himself 
with raised sabre of 1634 (B. 18), while Bol's Hour of Death 
(B. "Rembrandt," 108) has just the same hght, sinuous touch as 
the master's Death appearing to a Wedded Couple of 1639, and 
for his Sacrifice of Gideon (B. 2) Bol directly borrows from the 
figure of the kneeling Tobias in Rembrandt's etching of 1641. 
Moreover, Bol's assisting hand has with reason been suspected in 
work of the late 'thirties, such as the portrait of Uytenbogaeri, the 
Gold-Weigher, of 1639. Some of Bol's portrait etchings about 
1640-55, e.g. a Philosopher meditating'^ of 1653 (Fig. 71), display 
a delicate touch and charm of manner, — praise which cannot be 
meted to much of his later work in oils. 

CareldeMoor. Before leaving the school of Rembrandt, we would just refer 
to a considerably later etcher, Carel de Moor, of Leyden 
(1656-1738), a pupil of Dou, whose few etched portraits possess 
a real distinction of manner. Technically, they stand midway 
between the work of Rembrandt and that of Lievens and Van 
Dyck. The portrait of Jan van Goyen is a good example of his 
happy combination of delicate etched line with dot and roulette 

The etchers of In Rembrandt the eye for the real things of life had been 

genre. tinged with idealism. His constant aim was to make the scenes 

of Scripture, which touch the whole gamut of human emotion at 

1 After a Rembrandt picture in M. Wasserman's coll., Paris, which Bode 
(No. 25) calls H.'s Fa/her, and dates about 1630. 

"^ Etched in reverse after a picture of 1652 in the National Gallery (No. 679). 



its deepest, live again in the light of his own experience, setting 
them in the surroundings of his own day. The perfect mingling 
of these two elements places him among the artists who may be 
said to belong to no country, but to the world. The one side of 

Fig. 71. — Ferdinand liol. Philosopher meditating 

his art which is more essentially Dutch than any other, down- 
right realism and unaffected truth to nature, is followed up 
almost without a single side issue in the school of genre, with 
Ostade at its head, which gives us with unfaltering touch a full 
picture of the coarse and lusty peasant life in Holland during the 


seventeenth century. The other half of the picture — life among 
the richer classes, which is reflected in the canvases of Ter Borch 
and Pieter de Hoogh — finds scarcely a representative in etching. 
Ostade. Adriaen VAN OsTADE, of Haarlem, was far more a painter than 

an etcher, but the plates which he has left all show a true apprecia- 
tion of the character of his medium. It is probable that, like many 
painters, he set too low a value on his etchings, not troubling to put 
them much into commerce during his lifetime.^ This view would 
at least account for the rarity of early impressions, and it is only in 
these that their true virtue can be seen, as nearly all the plates have 
been many times heavily reworked. 

His etchings bear dates covering the years 1647-71,^ but the 
earliest of these dates shows him already at his strongest. Probably 
some of the small studies of heads and single figures of peasants and 
the like may go back several years earlier. The very best of these 
single figures, the Man with the Hurdy-Gurdy (Dutuit 8), is dated 
1647. It^ this, and in most of what we would consider his early 
work, Ostade bases his style on the delicate manner of Rembrandt's 
earliest period. Like Rembrandt, he must have felt Callot's 
influence in his treatment of single figures, though neither master 
imitated the Frenchman's manner of line.^ 

Ostade seems as much at home in representing scenes in the 
open street as in his subtly lighted interiors. The Barn of 1647 
(D. 23) and the Anglers on a Bridge (D. 26) are almost the only 
plates in which the interest does not centre in the figures ; and in 
the latter he shows a mastery of landscape, an appreciation of 
distance and light, as true as anything in Ruysdael. 

Of his street scenes we may specially mention the Fiddler and 
the Boy with a Hurdy-Gurdy (D. 45) and the Fete under a Large 
Tree (D. 48), where he combines his groups of peasants chatting, 
drinking, and dancing, before the inn and in the distance, with 
wonderful skill. On the whole his strongest work is seen in his 
interiors and smaller family groups. A charming example of the 
latter class is the Doll {D. 16), while he never did stronger line- 
work than the Paterfamilias of 1648 (D. 33), the Schoolmaster 
(D. 17) and Saying Grace of 1653 (D. 34, Fig. 72). The last 
mentioned is characteristic of his manner of strengthening his 
etched outlines with rather coarse dry-point work. 

Two of Ostade's pupils, Bega and Dusart, followed their master 
in etching, but neither shared much of his strength either of 
draughtsmanship or characterisation. 
Bega. CoRNELis Bega is distinctly the stronger of the two as an 

' One or two, probably the more popular plates [e.g. Ostade in his Studio), are 
signed in the later reworked states, A. v. Ostade fecit et c.xcudit. 

^ The Doll (Dutuit 16) may be later in the 'seventies ; the last figure is illegible. 

' A much closLT imitator of Callot's lineal manner in this school of genre is 
Pieter Jansz Quast of Amsterdam. 


etcher, but Ostade's vigorous line is changed for a dehcate manner 
of etching which scarcely fits the coarseness of his subjects. He 
inclines towards square-cut, angular figures, whose peculiarity is 
emphasised by the clear definition of his light and shade. Never- 
theless, a plate like the Company in a Tavern (D. 35) shows that 

Fig. 72. — Adriaen van Ostade. Saying Grace. 

his understanding of chiaroscuro in etching was such as would not 
put even Goya to shame. 

CoRNELis DusART is hardly so sound a draughtsman as Bega, Uusart, 
and his deficiencies are more evident in the delicate line of his 
etchings than in his numerous mezzotints. 

In genre painting Ostade had a brilliant but short-lived rival in Brouwer. 



Adriaen Brouwer of Antwerp (1605-38). It is probable, how- 
ever, that the few plates which bear his name are not original works, 
but etched by others after his compositions. In any case, they have 
little of the vigour or spirit one would expect from the painter. 
Teniers the The same may be said of a large number of the plates with the 

younger. name or monogram of David Teniers the younger.^ I do not 

think there is sufficient reason to doubt the plates definitely signed 
D. Teniers fee, e.g. the Festival (D. i), where the coarseness, so 
often remarked, is largely the fault of later rework, without which 
they are so seldom seen. On the other hand, many of the plates 
signed D. Teniers in. et excud., or with the monogram alone (a T 
within a D), are unquestionably etchings by other hands after his 
work. Some of them, indeed, have other signatures besides the 
above, clearly indicating another engraver (e.g. I. L. Krafft F and 
an unknown IS ^ occur). 

We may return now to the school of landscape, which includes 
so large a portion of the best work done by Dutchmen, both in 
Holland and in Italy during the seventeenth century. 

Midway between the sterner manner of the Van de Veldes and 
of Molyn and the errant line of Ruysdael stand Jan van Goyen * 
with the five or six landscape etchings which bear his name, 
Herman Saftleven, the draughtsman of the Rhine country, and 
Allart van Everdingen of Alkmaar. The etchings of Everdingen, 
chiefly of Norwegian scenery, are among the most charming 
productions of the lime. There is a purity in the line, an economy 
and significance in the drawing and anatomy of trees and foliage, 
and a feeling for tonic values, which is a rare combination at this 
period. A considerable number of his plates (more especially the 
illustrations to Reineke Vos) have received a kind of mezzotint 
grain on later states, probably added by Everdingen himself. It 
is an irregular grain which seems to be achieved in places by 
roughening the surface by something in the nature of a rat-tail file,* 
while in other cases the tone may be due to mere surface etching. 
Two or three plates — e.g. the Three Monks (B. 105), a really excellent 
print — may strictly be regarded as mezzotint.^ 
Roeland Working in a manner less precise than the three preceding 

Roghman. etchers, RoELAND RoGHMAN of Amsterdam is a noteworthy fore- 
runner of Ruysdael. Apart from his landscapes, his series of plates 
illustrating the mail service between Holland and the East Indies 


Jan van Goyen. 

Allart van 

' .\ valuable work of Teniers in connexion with engraving is the Theatre des 
I'ciiiliircs de D.T. . . . tiiiquel sont representis les dessciiis tracts de sa main ct 'ravi's 
en cuivre par ses soiiis, sur les originaux Italieiis que le ser"" Arc/iiduc a asscmbU en 
son Cabinet de la Cour de Britxelles. Brussels, 1660, fol. The engravings were 
mostly done by J. Troyen, L. \'orsterman II., \'an Hoy, Coryn Boel, and T. v. 
Kessel. The pictures are now for the most pai't in the Imperial Gallery, \'ienna. 

2 D. 33-36. 

■^ For some time a pupil of Esaias van de \^elde. 

■• Others have suggested that the roulette was used. •> Cf. Chap. IX. p. 267. 



has a certain historical interest. His line -work, especially in 
the drawing of foliage, is sometimes coarsely interspersed with 
heavy dots ; nevertheless he shows a finer feeling for nature than 
a more immediate predecessor of Ruysdael, i.e. Anthonie Anthonie 
Waterloo, who was held in such high esteem a century ago. Waterloo. 

Though Jacob van Ruysdael was some twenty years and more Jacob van 
junior to both Waterloo and Roghman, his influence, at least on Ruysdael. 
the latter, may have been even greater than the debt he owed 
to them. He evolved a far finer sense of the delicacy of foliage 
and the structure of trees, revelling in the dwarfed and knotted 
oaks that cover the edge of the dunes near his native town of 
Haarlem, dunes whose serrated edge against the sky was all the 
inspiration needed for his pictures of mountain scenery. 

Fig. 73. — AUart van Everdingen. Landscape. 

His etched work, which does not reach a dozen numbers, is 
insignificant in extent beside the endless landscapes that he painted, 
but happily all his plates are in his least affected style, being for the 
most part studies of trees. They are remarkable no less for their 
grasp of masses of light and shade than for truth of line ; but let 
the student weigh his appreciation by comparing Ruysdael's 
Landscape with three large Oaks of 1649 (F'g- 74)j which is the 
very best of his work, with any landscape etching by Rembrandt 
between 1640 and 1645. The enormous strength and balance 
of the latter come out with renewed brilliance in the comparison. 

Ruysdael had many contemporary followers, such as Naiwynx Naiwynx. 
and Verboom, but none who appreciated his special ideals so truly Verboom. 
as Croine and Theodore Rousseau in the nineteenth century. 

In the field of seascapes there are few etchers who display any 




real freedom of style beside Reynier Nooms (Zeeman as he is 
called). His delicate etchings, which amount to a considerable 
number, are by no means all above a somewhat dull average level, 
but they attain from time to time a brilliance in the rendering of 
sea, sky, and cloud that has been rarely equalled before the 
nineteenth century. 

Besides marines, he did many architectural plates, and his views 
in Amsterdam and Paris are among the best etchings of their kind, 
as simply and significantly drawn as Canaletto. One of the Paris 
plates, the Aiicieiuie Porte St. Bernard (D. 62), is reproduced 

Jan van dcr 
Hey den. 


74. — Jacob van Rii\sd.icl. Tiic ttirec largo Oaks. 

(Fig. 75), and will sufitice to justify the appreciation of Meryon, 
who dedicated his Paris set to this " painter of sailors.'' 

Another Dutch artist, who excels in the painting of street 
scenes, Jan van der Heydkn, is disappointing as an etcher. 
As a painter he anticipates Canaletto in his perfect drawing of 
architectural detail in the clearly defined outline and in the limpid 
skies, so unusual in the Northern artist, but there is little of the 
same exquisite power in his somewhat heavy plates. They have 
a curious interest in their unusual subject, being mostly streets seen 
in conflagration with fire-engines at work. 

Simon de Vi.iecer, who, as a painter, is best known for his 



marine subjects, shows a different side of iiis talent in his prints. Etchers of 
He etched a few landscapes with as free a touch as Ruysdael, but animals. 
his chief work in the medium are his studies of animals, which are viieo^er 
among the earliest etchings of their kind in Dutch art. The hand- 
ling of the needle is loose, but his drawing never lacks in life and 

Aelbert Cuyp's etched work is very slight, only eight prints (all Aelbert Cuyp. 
sketches of cows) being known. His plates are of the smallest 
dimensions, and dashed off in the most summary outline, but they 
are full of vigour and significance. 

Paul Potter gave far more attention to etching than Cuyp, Paul Potter. 
and his plates are executed with infinitely more pains, but for all 
that they can hardly be regarded as of greater artistic value. If his 

Fig. 75. — Reynier Nooms (Zeeraan). Porte St. Bernard, Paris. 

animals seem to lack in mobility, and verge on the statuesque, there 
are solidity, decision, and truth in his drawing which give him an in- 
contestably high position among animal draughtsmen of all schools. 
His noble plate of the dappled grey horse set against a background 
of a dark sky shows, moreover, a fine feeling for colour in black and 

Adriaen van de Velde, of Amsterdam, takes a scarcely lower Adriaen van 
place than Potter as an etcher of animals. His touch is lighter, '^'^ Velde. 
sometimes more sympathetic, but lacks the other's strength. 
Though Adriaen is not known to have visited Italy, his art is infused 
with the same Southern atmosphere that distinguishes Berchem's 

Hardly less important a branch of the school of Dutch animal Dutch etchers 
etchers is the group settled in Rome in the first half of the seven- '" I'"')'- 
teenth century. Pieter van Laer (" Bamboccio," as he was called), ■ ■ 




Pieter van 

no doubt drawn to Rome by the fame of Elsheimer and his school, 
was with de Vheger among the pioneers of animal etching. He 
stands, moreover, at the head of the half-Dutch, half-Italian school 
of genre, which took the peasant life in the Campagna for its back- 
ground. In the character of its production the school hovers 
midway between landscape and genre, seldom giving a really deter- 
mining emphasis on one side or the other. 

The activity of Elsheimer, Claude, and Poussin at Rome in the 


KiG. 76. — Paul Potter. Head of a Cow. 

early part of the century drew a host of young painters to the Southern 
capital. Their special achievement, the development of the ex- 
pression of light and atmosphere, was followed with considerable 
success by two Dutch etchers, Nicol.\es Berchem and J.\n Both. 
The work of the former was centred in the peasants of the Campagna 
and their flocks, while the latter uses these as quite unimportant 
staffage in his ambitious and idealised landscape compositions. 

Berchem studied painting in Holland under Pieter de Grebber 
and Jan van Goyen, but it is doubtful whether any of his etchings 



(of which between fifty and sixty are known ^) are earlier than his 
visit to Italy (which probably fell in the few years immediately 
preceding 1649, when he seems to have been back in Holland). 
Such plates as the Shepherd piping, seen from the back (B. 6), and 
the Bag - piper and the Horsemaii (B. 4, sometimes called le 
Diamant) are good examples of his more delicate etching, prob- 
ably the earlier manner, where the subtle gradations of aerial tones 
are most skilfully rendered. Somewhat more broadly handled are 
plates like the Shepherd seated piping by a Fountain of 1652 (B. 8), 

.v^, V, 

F,G. 77. — Nicolaes Berchem. Title (before letters) to a set of eight prints of animals. 

and Cattle fording a Stream (B. 9), which show a Tiepolesque 
feeling for white light. Most powerful of all in line is the large 
print, the Cow standing in the Water (B. i), but his latest ^ manner, 
as seen in this plate, is scarcely as pleasing as the first. 

Jan Both was far more closely influenced by Claude, and in Jan Both, 
his few etchings aims even more definitely than Berchem at envelop- 
ing the whole landscape in suffused sunshine. 

1 Their dates cover the years 1644-1655. 

2 The reading 1680 for the indistinctly engraved date seems corroborated by the 
original drawing dated 1679 in the Dutuit collection. 



Carel du 

The Italianised 
school of 

Audries Both. 
Thomas Wijck. 


The decline. 

Jan Glauber. 

A pupil of Berchem, Carel du Jardin, was a closer follower of 
Paul Potter than of his master both in manner and in his choice of 
subject, which was almost entirely limited to animals in landscape 
background. The Italian sunlit atmosphere is there, the impress of 
Berchem, and of his early visit to Italy, but the etchings may all, 
or nearly all, have been done after his return to Holland. The 
dates they bear cover the years 165 2-1 660, and he was certainly 
back at the Hague by 1656, settling at Amsterdam in 1659. 
He returned to Italy about 1675, and died in Venice some 
three years later. Du Jardin is a pleasing etcher, but looser and 
less convincing in technique than either Potter or Berchem. 

The spirit of Pieter van Laer on the side of genre was continued 
to a certain degree in Andries Both, the elder brother of the land- 
scape etcher. Like Thomas Wijck, whose art also reflects the same 
influences in Italy, he had assimilated something of the spirit of 
Ostade and Brouwer, but was completely without their distinction 
of drawing. Thomas Wijck, who is found painting in London just 
before the great fire, may in some measure have felt the style of 
Salvator Rosa and the Neapohtan school of genre. 

Some of the best elements of the school of Elsheimer and 
Claude in pure landscape are seen in Bartholomeus Breenbergh, 
who is known to have been in Rome between 1620 and 1627. 
His master was Paul Bril, from whom he no doubt learnt the same 
clean and delicately bitten line that is found in Herman Saftleven 
and Everdingen. His small landscapes, with ruined architecture, 
chiefly taken from the neighbourhood of Rome, show a fine sense 
of light and shade, and are masterpieces in their limited way. His 
one large subject etching, probably a later work, Joseph selling the 
Corn in Time of Famine (printed from two plates), is handled with 
greater breadth, but hardly possesses sufficient strength of line for 
its compass. 

Later in the century the combined influence of Poussin, Claude, 
and the Carracci became conventionalised in a school of composi- 
tion which did not make for the true life of landscape art. Etchers 
like Abraham Genoels and Jan Glauber did solid work with an 
open etched line, and showed considerable taste. As in the case 
of Grimaldi, whose influence they must have felt, there is great 
facility combined with a sad want of natural and spontaneous 
expression. The art of the Netherlands, whose virtue lay above all 
in its realism and unaffected truth to nature, did not long survive 
the mingling with Italian ideals, and a certain superficial efifect 
accomplished by eclecticism soon failed to cover its real decay. 



(From about 1650) 

In the eighteenth century, which forms the centre of this chapter Mixed methods 
and the next, pure etching and pure engraving are rarer than at any of engraving 
other period in our history. There are times when the combination ^"^ '°^' 
of the two processes makes definition difficult ; but it is seldom that 
one element is not subservient to the other, and we are still, on the 
whole, justified in our classification. In the Turner school of " line- 
engravers " we shall find etching quite the predominant medium, 
but even here a reason may be found to support the traditional 
designation. The same excuse will not hold good for the presence 
of the etcher Chodowiecki, but a section devoted to the subject of 
book-illustration will serve as apology for his inclusion in the present 

It has been remarked that the etching of Michel Dorigny and the 
school of Simon Vouet tended, in its character, and, to some extent, 
in its mixed constitution, to encroach on the domain of line-engraving. 
On the other side there developed,' at the same time, a school of 
engravers which made use of etching in conjunction with the 
engraved line, without, however, sacrificing the essential character of 

First seen in Holland in Pieter Soutman and his following in Pieter 
Haarlem, the practice was introduced in France by the portraitist Soutman. 
Jean Morin (d. 1650), while in the field of classical j-^production jean Morin. 
it found little response before Gerard Audran (b. 1 640), whose Gerard 
work lies entirely in the latter part of the seventeenth century. In Audran. 
some degree Audran's more immediate predecessor in France, Jean jean Pesne. 
Pesne (b. 1623), who did both subject plates and portraits (e.g. one 
of -Pousstn, of whose work he is one of the principal engravers), 
forms a connecting link between Audran and Jean Morin. 

In Audran's plates the etched line stands on its own merit Comparison of 
alongside the engraved lines, giving variety to the tone and surface. Audran's tech- 
With etchers like Callot, Jan van de Velde, and Bosse, we have "ha^ofCailot, 
found the etched line to a large extent covered beneath, rework 

197 ■ 



J. van de 
Velde, Bosse, 
and C. 

G. Chasteau. 
i. Baudet. 
C Simonneau. 

The period of 
Louis XIV. 

Cabinet du 

du Louvre. 

La Regia 



with the graver along the same furrows ; and the same may be said 
of the work of the engraver Cornelis Bloemaert, though here pre- 
liminary etching is a much smaller feature. In contradistinction to 
what might be termed the indissoluble compound of the latter group, 
Audran's work is a mixture whose parts can easily be separated by 
the eye. 

Few of Audran's contemporaries in France followed his mixed 
style of engraving very closely. Guillaume Chasteau, Etienne 
Baudet, and Charles Simonneau were far more influenced by 
Cornelis Bloemaert, who had worked in Paris in 1630, and had 
many French pupils later, when settled in Rome. Theirs is the 
style of the great engravers of the Rubens school, somewhat simpli- 
fied in its scheme of shading by the influence of Mellan, and 
characterised by a tendency to a higher scheme of tone, more in 
keeping with the lighter grace of the French school of painting. 

Lebrun and Vouet inspired a great part of the reproductive 
engraving of Audran and his contemporaries, but neither formed in 
any sense a school of engraving as Rubens had done in Antwerp. 
Almost all the French engravers of the seventeenth century worked 
as largely after Raphael, the Carracci, Domenichino, and Reni, as 
after the native painters. 

The great prosperity of France under Louis XIV., the brilliance 
of the Court, and a renewed activity in great projects of building 
and decoration, did much to promote the arts of painting and 
architecture, and by a side issue largely increased the demand for 
engraving. Louis XIV., who by his purchase, in 1660, of the 
collection of the great connoisseur, Michel de Marolles, laid the 
foundation of the present Cabinet des Estampes in the Bibhothfeque 
Nationale, conceived about 1670 the idea of putting on record, by 
the medium of engraving, the monuments of his country, his 
gardens, his palaces and the art treasures they contained, in a collec- 
tion to be entitled the " Cabinet du Roi." The definite project of 
a complete record was never accomplished, but the scheme was 
continued, and survives to the present day in the Chalcographie du 
Louvre, where impressions can still be had from many of the old 

A similar institution, La Regia Calcografia} was instituted in 
Rome in 1738 by Pope Clement XII., who purchased the stock 
of the de' Rossi (a family who had been print-dealers for several 
generations in Rome) as a nucleus. Its original scope was the 
same as the Paris Chalcographie, i.e. the reproduction of monuments 
of national art. In the plates of the Piranesi, in particular, it 

'See Timarchi, Archivio Siorico dell' Arte, i. 224. Considering the essential 
aims of both the French and Italian institutions, it is to be regretted that the con- 
stitution of each, which seems to be restricted to the commission of engravings or 
etchings, has not been readjusted in relation to photography and photo-mechanical 


can boast a magnificent possession, though it had nothing to do 
with commissioning their work.^ 

While many of the greater classical engravers of the period, like Engravers of 
Edelinck and Audran, were commissioned to reproduce pictures for oraament ■md 
the Cabinet du Roi, the greater impetus was given, perhaps, to the designs 
architect and goldsmith engravers who found encouragement to 
perpetuate in prints designs of the most multifarious description. 

Jean Marot and his son Daniel Marot are among the more jean and 
distinguished of the architect designers who engraved and etched Daniel Marot. 
their own designs, while work by the greatest French architect of iviichel 
the period, Jules Hardouin Mansart, is recorded in the prints of^^'^doum. 
Michel Hardouin and Others. 

In architectural ornament Jean Lepautre produced an enor- Jean Lepautre. 
mously extensive work, amounting to well over 2000 prints. His 
plates are largely etched, but ornament etching seldom possesses 
anything of the genius of its medium, and he finds a natural place 
in this group. A slightly younger contemporary, Jean Berain, Jean Berain. 
engraved and etched some of his own designs, for the most part 
based on the style of the Loggie in the Vatican. 

The art of the goldsmith is represented in G£d£on and Gilles G^d^on. 
L'Egar^. The latter was perhaps not an engraver himself, but L'^gar^ 
supplied many drawings to engravers, to L. Cossin in particular. 

Jean Baptiste Monnoyer, an assistant of Lebrun, and later ivionnoyer. 
of Kneller in London, and Jean Vauquer of Blois, hold a distinct Jean Vauquer. 
place for their delicate prints of vases and flowers. 

In the Italian school a similar secondary interest attaches to Pietro Santi 
work like that of Pietro Santi Bartoli and his son Francesco ^^ Francesco 
Bartoli, who are among the most prolific of all the engravers after 
antiquities in Rome. Antique reliefs in particular had always 
exerted a strong influence on the painters and engravers of the 
Renaissance. In the sixteenth century one is reminded more 
especially of the drawings of Polidoro Caldara da Caravaggio ; ^ 
designs of his were etched in the following century by Giovanni Gaiestruzzi. 
Battista Galestruzzi of Florence (b. 161 8). The modern archi- G. B. Faida. 
tecture of Rome was represented in the etchings and engravings of A. Specchi. 
Giovanni Battista Falda (1648-91) and Alessandro Specchi, 
while the attractive field of Italian gardens may be studied in the Venturini. 
etchings of G. F. Venturini of Rome and Bernardo Sgrilli of SgriUi. 

The logical development of Audran's system found its real issue The Watteau 
in the eighteenth century in the school of engravers inspired by ^'^^°°' °^ 
Watteau, Boucher, and Greuze, and by Watteau in particular. The 

' Cf. Chapter VIII. pp. 229-32. 

^ A set of some eighty prints of cups and vases has been attributed to Polidoro on 
the basis of a monogram composed of PCAL (Nagler, Monogrammisten, i. 2242). 
They are probably not even the work of an Italian engraver. In the Catalogue of 
the Kunstgewerbe Museum, Berlin (1894), it is suggested that they belong to the 
school of Ducerceau. 


The Watteau 

Audran I. 
Jean Audran. 

Nicolas Henri 

C. N. Cocliin I. 
Laurent Cars. 
M. Aubert. 
P. A. Aveline. 
B. Audran II. 


Jean de 
Jullienne and 
the reproduc- 
tion of 

sparkling play of light on costume, which characterises VVatteau's Fetes 
galantes, could only be rendered in its brilliance by the clear lines 
of engraving, while his landscape and the subtle varieties of tone on 
every moving form and figure needed the etcher's freer touch to 
interpret. The whole quality of his work has never been reproduced 
better than by the engravers who developed Audran's system of 
combined etching and engraving to its most delicate issue. They 
perhaps used more etching than engraving, but, for all that, the 
general character of the resultant work is essentially that of the 
line-engraver. Nephews of Gerard Audran, Benoit Audran the 
elder and Jean Audran, contributed largely to the development of 
the particular style of engraving which marks the school of Watteau. 
The former seems to have engraved little after Watteau himself, 
while Jean's work after the master is chiefly contained in the repro- 
duction of his drawings in JuUienne's edition. Another pupil of 
Gerard, Nicolas Henri Tardieu, engraved more of Watteau's 
paintings, and his Champs Elysies and the Embarcation for Cythera 
(Goncourt 128^) are among the most successful interpretations of 
the master's work. 

There are many more engravers of the school who worked in 
just the same spirit with more or less distinction. But their 
respective work has so few marks of the engraver's personality that 
we need hardly do more than mention C. N. Cochin the elder, 
Francois Joullain, Laurent Cars, Michel Aubert, and Pierre 
Alexandre Aveline as among the most skilful. BenoIt Audran 
the younger (a son of Jean) did far more than his father or uncle 
after Watteau. A particular class of ^Vatteau's work, the decorative 
panels with scenes galantes enclosed in dainty framework of scroll 
ornament, was, for the most part, engraved by J. G. Huquier, 
though a considerable number were also done by Jean Moyreau, 
Louis Cr^py, and Francois Boucher. 

Watteau's friend, the amateur Jean de Jullienne, did most to 
encourage the reproduction of the master's work. He had many 
engravings made after pictures in his own collection, and seems 
also to have obtained plates which may have been previously 
published by various dealers, to form a large collected edition of 
the master's work. This corpus, including two volumes of repro- 
ductions of drawings,^ appears to have been completed about 1734, 
and issued in 100 copies in four volumes, at an original price of 
500 livres.^ 

It is difficult to define exactly what the two larger volumes after 

' After the picture in the Imperial Palace, Berlin. 

- Cf. following chapter (p. 248), where one of the etchings by F. Boticher is 
reproduced (Fig. 92). 

" See a prospectus in the copy of tile work in the Bibl. Nat. , Paris. In 1739 an 
issue of the plates in 4 vols, was announced by the \\'idow of Franfois Chereau, for 
250 livres. 


the paintings contained, as all the bound copies^ that are known 
seem to show variations. Addition of later work, or the separa- 
tion of the various plates, is to be expected in a work of this kind. 

The miscellaneous engravers of the time who worked in much The reproduc- 
the same manner as the Watteau group are legion. Besides ^'°^ pig^^^s^ 
Greuze and Boucher, whose works found almost the same interpreters paintings. 
as Watteau, the Dutch and Flemish painters of the seventeenth 
century were beginning to find favour in France. 

Wouwermans and Wynants found their engravers respectively in J. Moyreau. 
Jean Moyreau and N. B. F. Dequevauviller, while J. P. Lebas, Lebas^^sllar 
Pierre Franjois Basan,^ J. J. Aliamet, P. Audouin are a few of j. j. Aiiamet. 
the miscellaneous reproducers of Dutch work. P- Audouin. 

Bernard L^picie, J. J. Flipart (e.g. after Greuze), and Jean B. L^pici^. 
Joseph Balechou (after the landscapes of Claude Joseph Vernet) J- J- ^Hp^^' 
may be mentioned as a few of the majority who kept somewhat 
more to the reproduction of the French school. 

The reproduction of classical paintings received an impetus from The gallery 
the popularity of the large gallery works ^ during the eighteenth ^°*^- 

^ It may be of use to specify the four bound volumes in the British Museum {of 
which I. and IV. belonged to John Barnard) : — 

(Vol. I.) L'CEuvre d' Antoine Watteau . . . gravi d' aprh ses tableaux et desseins 
originaux par les soins de M. de Jullienne, a Paris. Fixd a cent exemplaires des 
f" Epreuves. (Imp. Fol. ) Front, (i pi.): Prefatory Verses (i pi. ) : and 113 
plates : with addresses of the various publishers — F. Chereau, La Veuve Chereau, 
Gersaint, Duchange, Surugue, Huquier, Jeaurat. Including a series of 12 small 
plates [Figures de Modes) etched by Watteau himself,;&nd other plates numbered in 
separate series. 

(Vols. II. and III. ) Figures de diffirents caracttres de faysages et d'itudes desdnies 
d'apres nature . . Tome i*'. Tome 2""°. (fol. ). Title, prefatory matter, portrait, 
and 350 plates, by F. Boucher, J. Audran, B. Audran II. , Caylus, and possibly 
JuUienne and others. 

(Vol. IV.) CEuvre des Estampes gravies d'aprh les Tableaux et Desseins de feu 
Antoine Watteau. . . . i,' et derniire volume. A Paris chez Gersaint. (Imp. Fol.) 
Front, (i pi.) and 158 plates. Two of the plates in this volume are dated (E. 
Jeaurat, Pierrot content^ 1728, and C. Dupuis, Lefon d' Amour, 1734). Publishers' 
addresses various as in Vol. I. Though the two volumes of Figures de diff. caractires 
are distinct in size a,nd volume-numbering, it seems clear from the preface that they 
appeared between the first and fourth of the larger folios reproducing the paintings. 

2 One of the most prolific publishers of the period. Cf. Chap. VI. p. 183. Another 
publisher of the same time, and at once one of the most distinguished collectors, 
Pierre Jean Mariette, deserves mention. He came of a stock that had been 
engraver-printsellers since the middle of the seventeenth century. He reproduced a 
few drawings in etching, but practised the art very little. His father Jean (d. 1742, 
aged 82 ?), and Pierre Mariette (d. 1657), who was probably his great-grandfather, 
had also been printseller-engravers, the latter marrying the widow of FRAN901S 
Langlois (CiARTREs) and continuing his business (which had published much of 
della Bella). The majority of their collection was acquired after the death of P. J. M. 
for the Biblioth^que Nationale (1775-76), but there was also another sale of part of 
the collection in London (1776). It is remarkable how excellent are most of the 
impressions bearing the name or monogram of the Mariettes. 

3 We append here for convenience some of the other gallery publications, which 
occupied so many third-rate engravers at the end of the eighteenth and in the first 
half of the nineteenth century : — 

A. F. Gori, Museum Florentinum. Florence, 1731-66 (en. by C. Gregori, P. A. 
Pazzi, etc.). 


century. The Dresden Gallery publication (2 vols. 1753 and 
1757) and the Cabinet Briihl (Dresden, 1754) had given occu- 
pation to German, Italian, Dutch, and French engravers, while the 
two great French publication?, Crozat's Recueil d'estampes d^apres 
les plus beaux Tableaux et . . . dessins qui sont en France dans le 
Cabinet du Roy, dans celuy du Due d'Orleans et dans d'autres 
Cabinets, 2 vols. 1729 (sometimes called the "Cabinet Crozat"), 
and J. Couch^'s Galerie du Palais Royal (3 vols. 1786- 1808; 
modern ed. 1858), were even more extensive. As a record of 
collections since scattered, the two latter are of great value. 
Charles and In the earlier part of the eighteenth century a less mixed manner 

Nicolas of engraving, more hke that of the Drevets and the portraitists, 

"^"'^' was represented in Charles and Nicolas Dupuis. Both did a 

few portraits, and Charles some plates after A\^atteau, but their 
chief work was the reproduction of the classical painters. Their 
reputation at the time seems to have been greater than their achieve- 
ment : both were invited more than once to engrave pictures in 
England, and the fame of Nicolas seems to have been considerable 
M- S. in Spain. Two of the leading Spanish engravers of the century, 

p^™°Mol& Manuel Salvador Carmona and Pasqual Pedro Mol6s, poor 
enough artists it must be confessed, were his pupils in Paris. 
J. B. Palomino. Another somewhat older Spanish engraver, Juan Bernab!^ Palo- 
mino, deserves mention as the illustrator of the Museo Pittorico of 
his uncle, the Spanish Vasari, Antonio Palomino de Castro y Velasco 
(Madrid, 17x5, 1724), and as the first professor of engraving in the 
Academy of San Fernando, which was founded in 1 7 5 2 . He produced 
a copious work, chiefly of portrait and miscellaneous reproduction. 

J. B. P. Lebrun, GaUrie des Peintres Flajiiands, Hollandais, et Allemands. 201 
planches. Paris, 1792-96. 

C. P. Landon, Annales du Musde et de I Ecole Modeme des Beaux-Arts, 42 vols. 
Paris, 1801-24 (outline en. by C. Normand, etc. ) ; (cf. C. P. Landon, lie et CEuvres 
des Peintres les plus cdlebres. Paris, 1803-13). 

S. C. Croze-Magnan, Musie Fraiifais, Recueil complet des tableaux qui comfosent 
la collection nationale . . avec des discours historiques sur la feinture, la sculpture 
et la gravure. Paris, 1803-11. 

Caraffe, GaUrie du Musie NapoUon (Public par Filhol, graveur). Paris, 

R. Gironi, Pinacoteca di Milatio. Milan, 1812-33 (en- by M. Bisi, G. Gara- 
vaglia, etc.). 

Reale Galleria di Firoize illuslrata (publ. by G. Molini). Florence, 1817-33 
(outline en. by P. Lasinio). 

C. Haas, GaUrie Impiiiale . . . h Vicnne. Vienna, 1821-28. 

J. Duchesne, Must'e de Peintiirc et de Sculpture. Paris, 1829-34 (outline et 
by A. R^veil). 

F. Rosaspina, Pinacoteca . . . in Bologna. Bologna, 1830 (en. by Rosaspina, 
A. Marchi, etc. ). 

F. Zanotto, Pinacoteca . . . I'encla. X'enice, 1832 (en. by .-V. \'iviani, etc.). 

L, Bardi, Galleria Pitti. Florence, 1837-42 (en. by F. Rosaspina, A. Viviani, 
etc. ). 

R. d' Azeglio, Reale Galleria di Torino, Turin, 1838-46 (en. by M. Bisi, P. 
Lasinio, F. Rosaspina, P. Toschi, etc.). 

Galleria dell Accademia . . . di Fireuze. Florence, 1845 (^n- by D. Chiossone, 
A. Perfetti, etc.) 


The attempt to revive pure engraving of the classical style, with The classical 
an alloy of monotony in its new convention which heralded both RE:vivai. 
the decay of the art and an invigorating reaction in the century to 
follow, is the desert of Jean Georges Wille, a German engraver, Jean Georges 
who lived from his early youth in Paris. If he introduced any new ^'■^^^■ 
element into the system of engraving, it is less in its constitution 
than in the regularity with which cross-hatching is interspersed 
with flick and dot, in the alternation of thick and thin strokes, in 
the manifold lighter hatchings over a square pattern of thicker 
lines. A plate in his broadest style, the Death of Mark Antony 
(175 1, after Pompeo Battoni), of which there are four states in the 
British Museum, may be studied with advantage to show the 
method of his work. One of the proofs has a special interest in 
being a gift of the artist to Woollett. In particular it should be 
remarked that the entire work from beginning to end is pure 
engraving. Wille did a few landscape and miscellaneous etchings, 
but in his engravings there is in general little of the preliminary 
etching which was developed more particularly by the English 
school. An example of his more finished style, the Strolling 
Musicians after Dietrich (1764), is technically on much the same 
ground as the Mark Antony, but in its closer engraving there is 
no room for the regular dot work which had occurred in the latter 
in the triangular interstices. Some of the background, e.g. the 
foliage, is here bitten, but as a rule he leaves etching to such 
supplementary parts of the composition as the borders (e.g. La 
Tricoteuse Hollandaise after Mieris). 

A large portrait like that of the Conte de Saint Florentin (1751, 
after Tocque) shows him as brilliant with his gold brocade as 
Pierre Imbert Drevet, but the lack of any real artistic force is 
even more evident than it had been in the latter. And this was 
the master of the multitudes of line-engravers of the latter part of 
the century ! 

In the unbending regularity and monotonous science of his Bervic 
work Wille was perhaps surpassed by his pupil Charles Clement 
Bervic ("Jean Guillaume" as he is sometimes called from a 
mistake made at his christening). Bervic is almost without a 
rival too for the remarkably slow pace at which he worked, pro- 
ducing in his whole life only some fifteen plates. 

A slightly older contemporary of Wille who came in his com- Georg Fried- 
pany to Paris in 1736, Georg Friedrich Schmidt, has many "'^'^ ^'='™''^'- 
of Wille's faults and a very similar technical method, but he 
possessed at the same time a far greater portion of the real spirit 
of the great engravers, especially in portrait. Plates like the 
Comte d'Evreux (1739) and the. Jean Baptiste Silva (1742), both 
after Rigaud, already show a hand as skilful as that of Pierre 
Imbert Drevet (who died in 1739), and far more powerful. 

There is little wonder that his success in Paris was more 


immediate than that of Wille, who was not received into the 
Academy until lydi.'^ Schmidt was made a member as early as 
1 744, and the portrait he laid before the Academy on his reception, 
the Pierre Mignard (after Rigaud), shows good reason for the 
honour conferred. It is a most skilful piece of execution. The 
painter is seated in his silk robes of office as Director of the 
Academy of Arts (in which position he had succeeded Lebrun 
in 1 6 go, the year preceding the date of the picture), but the 
brilliance of the setting is not allowed to destroy the intensity of 
the character, which is rendered with a strength which had seldom 
been seen in French engraving since Masson and Nanteuil. 
Schmidt's stay in Paris was to be short. In the very year of the 
Mignard portrait, he was invited back to Berlin as engraver to the 
Court, and, except for a visit to St. Petersburg in 1 757-1762 
(undertaken to engrave a portrait of the Empress Elizabeth after 
Tocqud, and to help in the foundation of a school of engraving), 
he remained in his native town till his death in 1775. 

His work in Berlin between 1744 and 1757 was to a large extent 

the reproduction of Antoine Pesne, and perhaps the lack of inspiration 

in his model accounts for the dulness of most of these later 

engravings in comparison with his Paris prints. After his 

return from St. Petersburg he turned largely to etching, a 

medium in which he produced as many plates as in engraving 

(about 150). He took Rembrandt as his model, but saw him 

largely through the pictures of his German imitator Dietrich. A 

few of his etchings are original works, but they are not artist-etchings 

in the true sense, but produced in much the same manner in which 

he sought, with considerable success, to reproduce the quality of 

Rembrandt's paintings. 

Sir Robert The greatest English classical engraver, Sir Robert Strange 

Strange. ^^Q 1721), was Only a few years junior to Schmidt and Wille, and 

even if not an innovator in the matter of preliminary etching, was the 

first distinguished engraver to turn the practice into a convention. 

His career was an eventful one. 

Apprenticed to Richard Cooper in Edinburgh, he was practising 
engraving on his own account in that city at the time of the 
Rebellion of the Young Pretender. He joined the Jacobites, 
engraved a portrait of Prince Charles, is said to have fought at 
Culloden, and to have fled after the defeat to France. For some 
time he studied under Lebas in Paris, returning to England about 
1 75 I. His Cupid after Vanloo, which was probably done during 
his stay in France, and the Magdalene after Guido Reni (1753), 

1 The plate presented by Wille to the Academy on his reception was the portrait 
of the Marquis de MaHgny, after TocquS. Marigny, a brother of the Marquise de 
Pompadour, to whom he owed his position, was Direclcur giniral des Bitimenls. 
Jardins, Arts, Academies et Manufactures Royales between 1751 and 1773, and 
second 10 the Marquise the most influential patron of the period. 


both show the method from which he scarcely deviated in all his 
later work. He begins with a pure etching of the principal out- 
lines, and lighter tones of shading, and afterwards changes the 
character of the greater part of these lines by reworking them with 
the graver, adding other work with the graver, taking the etched 
foundation as his guide. In his early production in Edinburgh ^ 
(e.g. portrait of Dr. Archibald Pitcairn) there are no signs of this 
system ; he was at that period a somewhat less skilful White or 
Loggan. Possibly the style of the Watteau engravers suggested his 
method, but he did far more than merely adapt what others had 
practised before him. The fundamental distinction between his 
mixed method and the purer line-engraving of Wille and Schmidt 
should not be forgotten. 

On the accession of George HI. in 1760, Strange left England 
to pass a few years in Italy. Until the last years of his life he was 
never in favour at Court, and at this particular juncture his refusal 
to engrave the King's portrait may have advised a temporary 
retirement. He won great repute abroad, became a member of 
the Academies at Rome and Florence as well as at Paris, and his 
prints after the great masters must have exerted a very considerable 
influence on Italian engravers, like Volpato and his followers. 
Strange's most powerful and ambitious works were done in England 
during the last ten years of his life. One may mention in particular 
the Charles /., with James Marquis of Hamilton after Van Dyck 
(1782), the Henrietta Maria and two Children, adapted from 
Van Dyck (1784), and the Apotheosis of the Princes Alfred and 
Octavius (1786). He stands, as Faithorne had done among the 
great portraitists, rather for irreproachable soundness and strength, 
than for any of the qualities of the great artist in engraving. 

In brilliance of workmanship he was perhaps surpassed by William Sharp. 
William Sharp. On the purely technical side the latter is one 
of the most accomplished of all the reproductive line-engravers of 
the eighteenth century, and in his portraits, in particular, he showed 
a wonderful power of interpreting his originals. The reproduction 
of part of an early state (largely in etching) of the Thomas Howard, 
Earl of Arundel, after Van Dyck, placed opposite the same subject 
as finished with the graver, will show more clearly than words can 
do, the method of Sharp's work, which is built on essentially the 
same principles as that of Strange, with a somewhat freer use of 
dotted work in the earlier stages of the plate (Figs. 78 and 79). 
Portraits such as the Richard Hart Davis, John Hunter, Porson 
(1810), and Dr. Raine (1815) exhibit a command of gradations of 
tone seldom seen outside mezzotint. 

An even more unique position in the development of line- William 
engraving than can be claimed for Strange or Sharp, is held by Wooilett. 
William Woollett, though his large dull plates show how little 

^ Which includes also one mezzotint {portrait of the Kev. W. Harper). 



can really be achieved by the soundest system of engraving to 
render the true spirit of landscape. He carried the system of 
preliminary etching to further issues, often using a second or even 
a third biting before starting to finish with the graver. He first 
etches the broadest lines in parallel series of sinuous lines (" worm- 
lines," they have been called), and for the second biting adds thinner 
lines between these heavier strokes. To complete the plate, all 
except the heaviest lines are reworked with the graver, while the 

7a. — William Sh.^rp. Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundtl. 
Unfinished plate (part). 

most delicate parts, such as the faces, are entirely left to this instru- 
ment. The reproduction of a portion of one of his plates (Fig. 80) 
will more adequately demonstrate his methods. 

WooUett had formed the essentials of his system by 1755, the 
year in which were published his Fh-7c's of Oxford after John 
Donowell. It was not, however, until six years later that he pro- 
duced one of the large plates which have made his name, i.e. the 
Niflbe after Richard Wilson. Except for the two celebrated battle 
plates after West (the Deaf/i of Wolfe, 1776, and the Battle of La 



Hague, 1 781), most of Woollett's work consists of landscape after 

Claude and his English imitators, Wilson, George and John Smith 

of Chichester. Some of his plates were done in collaboration with F. Vivares. 

Francois Vivares, while his assistant, John Browne, and his J"]^" ^™™' 

., r ,. _ , . , •' William Ellis. 

pupil, William Ellis, took part in others. 

Besides Francois Vivares, another engraver of French ex- J. B. C. 
traction, also some years senior to Woollett, J. B. C. Chatelain, Chateiain. 
had done much to direct the English school of landscape along the 

Fig. 79. — William Sharp. Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. 
Finished plate (part). 

classical lines, leaving many drawings and prints inspired by the 
style of Claude. Thomas Major and James Peake come nearer t. Major. 
to AVoollett in the strength of the lineal system of their large land- James Peake. 
scape plates. 

With William Byrne and other engravers working largely after William Byrne. 
Thomas Hearne (who had been an apprentice to Woollett), land- 
scape developed into something little better than topography, and 
need not concern us until we approach the school of Turner. 



J. J. Frey. 

A leading role in line-engraving in Italy in the early part of the 
eighteenth century was takert by two foreign settlers, by Johann 
Jacob Frey (b. 1687, Lucerne) at Rome, and by Joseph Wagner 
(b. 1706, Munich) in Venice. They were not in any sense pioneers 
in technique, but continued a sound tradition that varied little from 
the French work of the seventeenth century, etching being only 
sparingly used as an aid. The majority of their contemporaries did 

A. and F. 

A. M. Zaiictli 

Fig. So.— Wi 

Jml.ili anil fhamar, aflcr Annibale Cavracd (parti. 

little more than reproduce classical paintings in prints of small dis- 
tinction. Many of the pictures in Venice were engraved by Andrea 
Zucchi,! ^i^^ another member of the same family, Francesco 
Zucchi, took part in the publications of the Dresden Gallery. 
Anton Maria Zanktti the younger also published many plates 
after pictures in Venice (1760), and helped his uncle of the same 

^ 1 Chiel-l)' for // ^V;"" T,'„//v di l'<-n,-:.ia ovvav K,UL-olht dclh- frindpaii ]'c-Juh- t- 
Pilliirc chc ill asa se coiileiigono. Published b\- D. Lo\'isa, Wniice [1720?] D. 
Rossetli was another engraver engaged in this work. 


name (who is more celebrated for his revival of chiaroscuro 
wood-cut) in a work on the antique sculpture of their native city 
(1740-43). The Florence galleries had similar interpreters in 
LoRENZiNi and Cosimo Mogalli, the famous series of portraits Lorenzini. 
of painters being mostly engraved by Mogalli's pupil, Antonio p°^^ '' 
Pazzi 1 (for A. F. Gori's Museum Florentinum, 1731-62). 

Wagner's pupils, Francesco Bartolozzi and Giovanni Volpato, Francesco 
came nearer to the trend of development which we have studied in Bartolozzi. 
Wille and Strange. Bartolozzi's work in line is among the best of 
its kind at this period, but his fame is so much more closely linked 
with the stipple manner, which he largely followed after his removal 
to England in 1764, that his work will be considered more in detail 
in this connexion. 

After leaving Wagner's studio, Volpato settled in Rome and Giovanni 
founded a school of engraving, of which he left token in a multitude ° P^'°' 
of pupils, and in a book on the Principles of Design {Prindpi del 
Disegno), with thirty-six plates after antique statues, engraved by 
himself and Morghen in 1786. In his combination of etching and 
engraving he may have felt the influence of Sir Robert Strange, who 
was in high repute at this time in Italy, but he never developed 
a system of preliminary etching to anything like the method 
of the English school. His draughtsmanship is often careless 
and lacking in decision, and his pure graver work is insignificant in 
consequence. He achieved considerable fame, however, with his 
series of plates after the frescoes in the Stanze and Loggie of the 

Volpato's pupil and son-in-law, Raphael Morghen, easily sur- Raphael 
passed his master in technical achievement, but even here his work ^^o^ghen. 
does not bear comparison with Schmidt or Sharp, while his power 
of expression and interpretation is on a considerably lower plane 
than theirs. The monotonous regularity of hatching, cross-hatching, 
dot and flick is rarely relieved by any spark of real life. Possibly 
for this very reason he personifies more adequately than any other 
the decadent engraving of the late eighteenth century, and " Morghen- 
esque " is an epithet full of meaning. His most celebrated print, 
after Leonardo's Last Supper, will suflSce to demonstrate at once the 
elaboration of his style and the lack of real insight into the spirit of 
his original. As in most work of the school, the varying charac- 
teristics of different originals are lost in the engraver's attachment 
to his conventional method. Morghen sometimes proceeds like 
Strange with a preliminary etching, but more often, especially in his 
portraits, uses the dry-point for indicating his outlines as a guide to 
his work with the graver. Like so many engravers of the time, he 
frequently finishes the background of his portraits before engraving 
the face. As professor at the Academy in Florence, Morghen had 

■ Pazzi's own collection of portraits of painters, engraved by himself as a supple- 
ment to Gori's Museum. Florentinum (1765-66), was purchased in 1768 for the Uffizi. 








J. B. Meunier. 
A. M. Danse. 

Austria and 


J. F. Bause. 

many pupils, who helped to carry on a dull tradition well into the 
nineteenth century. 

Among the other Italian engravers, a somewhat older contem- 
porary of Morghen, Vincenzo Vangelisti exercised considerable 
influence as head of the school of engraving in Milan. He had 
studied under Wille in Paris, and with C. A. Porporati (a pupil of 
Beauvarlet) he forms the principal direct link between the French 
and Italian schools of the time. He also practised to some extent 
in the stipple manner. Vangelisti was succeeded in his position at 
Milan by his pupil Giuseppe Longhi, who worked in etching and 
dry-point as well as with the burin, and was the author of a treatise 
on engraving. 

We may mention here the practice of outline engraving, which 
was so popular at the beginning of the nineteenth century. In Italy 
it is represented chiefly by Carlo Lasinio and his son Giovanni 
Paolo Lasinio (the latter executing the plates to the Florence 
Gallery publication of 1817-33 i" this manner), in France by C. 
NoRMAND (e.g. in C. P. Landon's A/males du Miisie, 1801-24), but 
in such cases it was merely applied as the most expeditious means 
of reproducing the composition of a picture. When used for the 
reproduction of the designs of severe linealists such as John Flaxman 
(e.g. ToMMASo PiROLi,! James Parker,^ and William Blake 3) 
and Bonaventura Genelli {e.g. by Hermann Schutz), the justifica- 
tion is more essentially artistic. 

One of the most influential of all the Italian engravers of this 
period was LuiGi Calamatta (b. 1802), who, Hke Bartolozzi, became 
the centre of a school abroad. From 1822 he was in Paris, engrav- 
ing portraits {e.g. George Sand and Faganini), and subjects more 
particularly after Ingres. In 1836 he accepted the directorship of 
the school of engraving in Brussels (later annexed to the Acaddmie 
Royale des Beaux-Arts). His return to Milan in 1861 was the 
signal for the dispersal of a school which kept the Morghenesque 
tradition alive longer in Belgium than in almost any other country. 
Two of Calaraatta's pupils, J. B. Meunier (who died in 1 900) and 
AuGUSTE Michel Danse "(b. 1829) bring us down to the present 

The style of ^^'ille and Schmidt was followed most closely in 
Austria and Germany, by Jacob Schmutzer and Johann Friedrich 

Schmutzkr of ^'ienna (b. 1733) was a pupil of Wille in Paris, 
and combined his master's style with something of the larger manner 
of the Rubens engravers. Bause (b. 1738), an even closer imitator, 
though not a pupil of Schmidt or \\'ille, is most noteworthy for his 
numerous portraits after Anton Graff. He also did work in stipple 
and aquatint. 

1 /?««(■«, 1793, and Jlia.f, 1793. - O./vssn; 1805. 

His platfs to Hcsiod, 1817, aie dotted outlines. 


Another pupil of Wille, Johann Gotthard von Muller of J. G. von 
Stuttgart, kept in the majority of his work somewhat nearer the '^"l'^"'- 
manner of the French portrait engravers of the late seventeenth 
century, only in his later work yielding sometimes to the more rigid 
system of Wille and Morghen. A son whom he survived, Friedrich 
WiLHELM MiJLLER (1782-1816), gavc himself far more completely F. W. MuUer' 
to the Morghenesque conventions, winning great repute in his day 
for one of the most accomplished performances of a monotonous 
method, his print after Raphael's Sistine Madonna. 

We take this opportunity of making passing reference to the very Bank-note 
apotheosis of the dull precision and exactness of the Morghenesque, engraving, 
which is revealed in bank-note engraving. Jacob Perkins, Asa 
Spencer, and Gideon Fairman are the names of three pioneers in 
the development of methods which placed the United States in the 
first rank of the craft. The steel plate seems to have been brought 
into use for this type of work as early as iSio.^ Unfortunately the 
prosperity of the trade in America induced many engravers, who 
might have done better work, to enter this narrow field, in which 
the only opportunity for the display of artistic feeling was in the 
small portraits with which the notes were frequently embellished. 
Sound artists like W. S. Leney,^ who had been a pupil of P. W. 
Tomkins in London, did little but bank-note work after settling in 
America, and even two of the most distinguished of American 
engravers, James Smillie (1807-85) and his son, the etcher, James 
D. Smillie, did not escape the mill. Machine ruling, which is a 
natural method in bank - note work, was very commonly used 
by reproductive engravers of all types at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century,^ in particular to obtain a regular tint in the 

For the sake of a national memory rather than for its importance The earliest 
in our history, we would add that a print of Increase Mather by ^^g^™'^^ '° 
Thomas Emmes, dated 1701, seems to be the first portrait and one t. Emnies. 
of the earliest plates of any artistic intention engraved in America. 
Until the Revolution the engravers, who were generally the local 
goldsmiths or silversmiths, ready to accept the few commissions that 
offered for artist-engraving, produced little but maps, book-plates, 
music, bill-heads, and bank-notes, and their occasional portraits 
possess small artistic value. Thomas Johnston and Nathaniel t. Johnston. 
HuRD are two of those whose work dates from the first half of the ^' ^"'''^• 
eighteenth century ; but from any other consideration they are of 
little interest, except perhaps to collectors of book-plates. 

Paul Revere will always be remembered as a patriot, but his Paul Revere. 
crude work in engraving would scarcely deserve mention, were it not 
a fair example of the average production of the period. The events 
of the Revolution greatly increased the demand for portraits and 

' Cf. pp. 3, 150 (note 2), 223, 284. ^ Cf. p. 219, note 3. 

^ Cf. Introduction, p. 13 ; Chap. IX. p. 273 (Unterberger). 


A. B. Durand. 
John and Seth 
Wells Cheney. 

Later develop- 
ment of line- 
engraving in 

C. F. Gaillard. 

The future of 

Pieter Dupont. 


historical and subject prints, and the result was a more professional 
class of copper-plate engravers, whether Englishmen, finding a new 
field for their enterprise in America, or Americans who could now 
risk the chances of more special application to their art by study 
abroad. In the nineteenth century a good deal of small portrait 
work and illustration was done in line, the best perhaps by Asher 
Brown Durand, and John and Seth Wells Cheney. David 
Edwin, Cornelius Tiebout, and J. B. Longacre were among the 
soundest craftsmen of the first half of the century, but the better 
part of their portrait work is in stipple. America's real distinction 
in our history lies rather in etching, of which something will be 
said in our last chapter. 

A noteworthy attempt to save the art of line-engraving from a 
deadening system was made by Henriquel-Dupont (b. 1797), who 
was Professor of Engraving at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris 
from 1863 until his death in 1892. In 1868 he was the prime 
mover in originating the Societe Francaise de Gravure, which did 
much to encourage the line - engravers by its annual commissions 
for plates. He discarded the regular convention, and introduced 
far greater freedom in the handling of his line and in the con- 
struction of his hatching, freely combining the etched line with 
graver work. His aims were carried even further by Claude 
Ferdinand Gaillard (1834-87), who achieved the subtlest 
gradations of tone by a supremely dehcate manner of cutting 
with the burin, and to some extent by etching. He is still strictly 
an engraver, though his results are surprisingly near some of 
Jacquemart's etched work. Some of his original portraits (e.g. the 
Popes Pius IX. and Leo XIII) are remarkable technical achieve- 

AVe do not think, however, that it is along the path opened by 
Henriquel-Dupont and Gaillard that any real revival of line-engraving 
will come. The whole essence of their method tends too much to 
hide the true character of the engraved line, in a tone which might 
be achieved equally as well, if not better, by some other process. 
We look rather to bold work such as is being done by Pieter 
Dupont, who gives his lines a part to play, much as they had in the 
work of Diirer. 

Then there is a recent departure in technical experiment which 
may do much to open a new vista of possibility before the line- 
engraver, i.e. the use of a burin (or instrument of similar shape), 
with cutting point turned back, or hooked, so that the tool is no 
longer pushed, but drawn through the metal. William Strang is, 
as far as I know, the only artist who is using this method, and he 
has still only produced a few portrait plates in this manner {e.g. 
Sir Charles Holroyd, 1908). The line, which possesses much of the 
decision and strength of ordinary engraving, can be controlled with 
even greater freedom than the dry-point, and the burr being both less 


powerful and more regular than in the latter process, a greater certainty 
of result is attainable. As a reproductive art there may be little 
place for line-engraving, or rather, little opportunity for practical 
success in face of the photo-mechanical processes ; but there would 
seem to be a fair field open to the artist who would return to the 
medium for original work, whether, like Dupont, he keeps to the old 
road, or, with Mr. Strang, broaches new methods whose history is still 
for the future. 

In its larger works the eighteenth century is one of the dullest in The 
history, but no period has shown a greater genius for refinement Illustrators. 
in the little things of art, and no country has produced artists whose 
graceful talent was more fitted to miniature creations than France. 
In engraving this is particularly the case. French art faded beneath 
the dull weight of the German invasion of Wille and Schmidt, but 
it found itself in its vignettistes, Augustin de St. Aubin and Moreau 
le jeune. 

In their capacity as illustrators, Moreau and his peers followed Fran9ois 
in the wake of FRAN901S Chauveau of Paris (1613-76), and of Chauveau. 
Jan and Casper Luyken of Amsterdam, who are all responsible jan and Casper 
for hosts of small and undistinguished plates. Further back still, Luyk^"- 
they may trace their pedigree to Callot, though only a small pro- 
portion of his plates seems to have been used for what they were so 
fitted, i.e. the embellishment of books. 

The greater part of the work of the French illustrators of the 
eighteenth century was done in etching, but it was seldom that the 
lines were not worked upon afterwards by the burin, which lent 
them all the precise character of line-engraving. One of the leaders, 
indeed, of the school, Claude Gillot, the master of Watteau, used Claude Giilot. 
pure etching in the charming plates he did for Houdart De la 
Motte's Fables of 1 7 1 9. His larger separate plates, however, such 
as the scenes in the Life of a Satyr, are in the usual delicate 
combination of engraving and etching. More in the manner that b. Picart. 
formed the convention of the vignettistes to follow are the engravings N- H. Tardieu. 
in the same book of 17 19 by Bernard Picart and Nicolas Henri 
Tardieu, the latter largely after Gillot and C. A. Coypel. 

An excellent example of somewhat larger illustration than became J. B. Oudry. 
the rule is seen in the folio edition of La Fontaine's Fables, 4 vols. 
(1755-59), ^ftsr designs by Jean Baptiste Oudry (who is also 
responsible for a few original etchings of still life and genre). Here 
the engravers are to some extent those known for their work after 
Watteau, Laurent Cars, 'P. A. Aveline, Pierre Francois 
T.-^rdieu, C. N. Cochin the younger, Nicolas Dupuis, and others. 

Comparatively little original engraving or etching, like the plates The Draughts- 
of Gillot, was done in this school of illustration. Draughtsmen like '"™' 
Gravelot, Eisen, and Moreau le jeune nearly always put their 
design in the hands of others to engrave, only very occasionally 


acting themselves in the double capacity. It is almost impossible 
in this connexion not to place the greater emphasis on the draughts- 
men, although our subject is strictly limited to the engravers. We 
can only attempt the most summary account of the vast legion of 
engraver-illustrators who embellished the books of this period, but 
the subject is simplified if approached from the side of the design, 
for the illustration of each work is usually in the hands of a single 

H. F. Gravelot. One of the earlier of these draughtsmen-engravers, Hubert 
FRANfois Gravelot (b. 1699), has a particular claim to our interest 
for the influence he exerted on book illustration in England,^ where 
he was settled for the greater part of the twenty years preceding 
1754. His work is very copious and, as might be expected, of 
very variable merit ; but his best plates, such as those to J. F. 
Marmontel's Conies Moraux, Paris, 1765 (engraved by Le Mire, 
DuCLOS, Longueil, Pasquier, etc.), are quite among the most 
excellent of their kind. It is especially in illustrations like these, 
which reflect the society and manners of the period, that the real 
value of the French illustrators consists. More often than not their 
very best work was done for books of the most evanescent interest 
as literature, while the greater writers of the time, like Voltaire, 
introduced them to foreign fields or to a glorified past, which they 
could not interpret without being formal or stilted. Happily the 
tendency of the illustrator was for' the most part in the direction of 
modern anachronisms, and he seldom had compunction in letting 
Molifere's characters live in an eighteenth century dress. 

Against this reflection of contemporary life, which was the 
natural sequel to Watteau, stands the following of Boucher, with its 
union of the classical and fantastic elements of art. To the inspira- 
tion of the latter we may perhaps trace the type of ornament which 
played so large a part in the embellishment of the books of the 

p. p. Choffard. time. Vignettes, and culs-de-lampe (head- and tail-pieces), with 
their medley of curtains and cupids, vases, rose-wreaths, and the rest, 
became almost a speciality with certain engravers, of whom Pierre 
Philippe Choffard was perhaps the most brilliant {e.g. in La 
Fontaine, Conies, 1762 ; and Ovid, Meinmorphoses, Paris, 1767-71). 

c. N. Cochin C. N. CocHiN the younger and Charles Eisen produced many 

^'' illustrations, the latter being occupied almost exclusively as a 

draughtsman. Cochin, on the other hand, engraved as much as he 
designed, and his revision of Bosse's Treatise on Engraving shows 
the study which he had devoted to his art. He is also responsible 
for a considerable number of portraits, mostly of the frontispiece 
size and order, but in this sphere he rarely supplied more than the 

' Of his English work, note Gay's Fables, 1727-1738 {en. by J. Scotin), Dryden's 
Dramatic Works, 1735, 12°, and Theobald's Shakespeare, 2nd ed. 1740, 12° (both 
en. by G. Van der Gucht), and Richardson's Pamela, 1742 (en. by Gravelot after his 
own designs and those of Hayman). 



drawing or preliminary etching. Eisen's plates to C. J. Dorat's Charles Eisen. 
Baisers (1770) prove him an impertinent Boucher, dallying, like so 
many of the French illustrators of the time, on the border-line of 
delicacy, but a graceful artist nevertheless. In the field of con- 
temporary life Clement Pierre Marillier was another fairly C. P. MaiiUier. 
excellent draughtsman and engraver. One might note in particular 
the plates he designed for French editions of Richardson's Sir 
Charles Grandison and Pamela (1784), and his illustrations to Le 
Sage's Gil Bias (1796). 

Jean Michel Moreau (Moreau le jeune, as he is generally Jean Michel 
called in distinction from his brother, the painter, Louis Gabriel Mo'''=a"- 
Moreau) was an artist with the keenest eye for the small superficiali- 
ties of society, and judged by his work illustrating contemporary life. 

Fig. 81. 

-P. P. Choffard. Spring. Head-piece to Les Saisons, Amsterdam, 1769. 

which forms the smaller part of his production, he is the most gifted 
illustrator of the school. His plates to the first volume of the 
Chansons (1773) of J. B. de Laborde (a valet de chambre of 
Marie Antoinette) are of historical importance for the truth with 
which they reflect the atmosphere of the Dauphine and her Court. 
A more ambitious task, and one of his most successful, was the 
illustration of J. J. Rousseau's CEuvres Complies. The best series 
of engravings after his designs for this work appeared in the 4to 
edition of 1774-83 (in 12 volumes), which was nominally pub- 
lished in London,'- and was the work of Noel Le Mire (see Fig. 
82), Nicolas Delaunay, J. B. Simonet, A. J. Duclos, P. P. 
Choffard, and others. It is a great rarity to find this edition of 
Rousseau with its engravings complete ; and the same may be said 

1 Actually, I believe, in Brussels, 
with false name of place. 

Like many other books of the time published 


of so many of the illustrated books of the period, which are too 

.'/<■.. H n / ]r „.■,/.-/. 

V'u;. 8j. — N'uL-l Lc \\\w MWv J, M. Morrau. 'I'lic Qu.incl \M\ illustr.uiua lo 
J. J. l\uu>scau's /////(■). 

often found mutilated of their plates. Tlie same designs were 
engraved much less well, and on a smaller scale, in the Svo editions 


of Rousseau {e.g. Poingot, Paris, 38 vols., 1788-93; and Didot, 
Paris, 1 80 1, 20 vols.). 

Unfortunately Moreau lived beyond the time to which he be- 
longed by nature. His was too delicate a talent not to yield before 
the new classicism of Jacques Louis David ; and in the reaction 
against the outward show of the old society, Moreau found himself 
the more than commonplace illustrator of J. P. Rabaut Saint-Etienne's 
Precis Historique de la Rivolution Frattgaise (1792). On this field of 
stern action he was as nothing compared to Jean Duplessi-Bertaux, Dupiessi- 
who in his myriad etchings illustrating the period of the Revolution ^ Bertaux. 
revived something of the spirit of Callot. 

One enterprise of Moreau must still be mentioned, i.e. the two 
Suites d'Estampes pour servir a I'Histoire des Modes et du Costume des 
Frangais dans le XVIIP siide, 1776 (1777) and 1783. ^ They form 
a supplement to a series of prints, issued under a similar title in 1774 
(i 77S)j after designs by Sigmund Freudenberger (a Swiss engraver Sigmund 
settled in Paris), which they easily surpass in their genius for express- F^euden- 
ing both letter and spirit of the life of the period. P. A. Martini, 
J. C. Baquoy, Nicolas Delaunay, and J. B. Simonet are among 
the engravers engaged on this work. 

From the mass of engravers, some of whom have been already Noel Le Mire. 
incidentally mentioned in reference to the draughtsmen, we would N. Delaunay. 
notice in particular Noel Le Mire, Nicolas Delaunay, and Joseph 
de Longueil for the excellent preciseness of their work. Another 
engraver of the school, FRAN901S Marie Isidore QuIverdo, is f, m. i. 
most to be remembered for the dainty almanac vignettes of his Q^^verdo. 
design and etching (a large number being finished in engraving by J. 
Dambrun ^). They are as rare as all such ephemeral illustration on 
stray sheets tends to become. 

Second only in distinction to J. M. Moreau, among the illus- Augustin de 
trators, stands Augustin de St. Aubin. His miscellaneous ^'' •'^"'^'°- 
engravings in books after other masters are very numerous, but his 
real forte was in the frontispiece portraits, which he executed with 
a point as delicate as Ficquet or Grateloup.* 

His elder brother, Gabriel de St. Aubin, an artist of even Gabriel de St. 
greater talent, did far less work in book illustration. He etched ^"bin. 
some forty-three plates, but his most remarkable accomplishment 
consists in his broadly-handled drawings of contemporary life. 

The national school of illustration in France did not long survive The decay of 
the Revolution. The writers of classical drama, like Voltaire, had F''^i>'='^ '""=- 


^ ^.%. Collection, compute des Tableaux historiques de la Revolution Fran^aise, 
Paris, 1798, etc. 

^ Later, the prints of the two series (24 in all), with two from the set by Freuden- 
berger, were issued with text by Restif de la Bretonne, under the title Monu-ment du 
Costiitne physique et moral . . . ou Tableaux de la Vie. Neuwied, 1789. 

^ Etrennes galantes des Promenades et Amusements de Paris, 1780 (12 pieces en 
18°) : Cris de Paris : Le Palais-Royal, etc. 

■> See Chap. VI. p. 150. 


always been its bane, but the classical painter Jacques Louis David 

was its death. We have found the new tendency reflected even in 

Moreau, while other draughtsmen-illustrators of the first few decades 

of the nineteenth century, such as A. J. Desenne and Achilla 

Devdria, are even more imbued with the new spirit, and negligible 

quantities in our history. Among the few illustrations of any dis- 

P. p. tinction at the turn of the century were those engraved after Pierre 

Prud'hon. Paul Prud'hon,! by such engravers as B. J. F. Roger, J. L. Copia, 

r L C ^°^^'^' ^nd the painter's own son Jean Prud'hon, in which the more 

Jean Prud'hon. delicate parts of the modelling are often done in stipple. Besides 

vignettes and the like, the same engravers did numerous larger plates 

after the master's paintings and designs. Prud'hon himself did the 

preliminary etching and part of the engraving of a really powerful 

illustration to P. J. Bernard's Phrosine et Melidore (ed. Didot),' 

and a few other etchings of less importance may also be from 

his hand. 

Book ilius- The English school of illustration in the late eighteenth and 

tration in early nineteenth century is of far less interest than the French. 

^ngan . Through Gravelot it received a certain impulse towards the more 

delicate manner of design characteristic of the French, but the 
majority of its engravers in the last quarter of the century were too 
influenced by the heavier manner of Woollett to attain much refine- 
ment in vignette. 
Thomas Apart from the unique work of William Blake, Thomas 

Stothard. Stothard (1755-1834) Stands as by far the most gifted and prolific 

of the English illustrators. He only etched a few plates himself,^ 
and his graceful work often suffers greatly through the clumsiness of 
his reproducers. Robert Smirke, William Hamilton, Richard and 
Henry Corbould,* E. F. Burney, and Richard Westall ^ all designed 
much for books, but with little of Stothard's charm. Their engravers 
are many and poor, and most are best passed over in silence. Apart 
j.andC.Heath. from those who worked in stipple, James and Charles Heath, 
&""?_^iS^"' James Mitan, William and Edward Finden are the best craftsmen 
of the class. 

There is no space to specify the work of these English illus- 

1 E.g. ill p. J. Bernard, CEuvres, ed. Didot, Paris, 1797 {L'Art d'aimer and 
Phrosine et Melidore) ; Lucien Bonaparte, La Trihu Indienne, Paris, 1799, and 
in Les Amours Pastorales de Daphnis et Chloe (ed. Didot), 1800. 

2 See previous note. The plate was finished by Roger for the later impressions 
of the book. 

" E.g. a few plates from drawings by W. Pars of the Parthenon Frieze (published 
by I. Taylor, i8io, and appearing in James Stuart's Antiquities of Athens, vol. iv. 
1816). There are also a few small vignettes in the British Museum said to have 
been intended for some edition of Joseph Ritson's English Songs. 

^ He made drawings iox \.\\&i,\x\iX\Q.2X\onQi^ Ancient Marbles in tlie BritishMuseum , 
which gave many engravers work for some thirty years (1812-42), He acted in a 
similar capacity to the Society of Dilettanti in several of its publications of prints and 

' He produced some original etchings (chiefly soft ground), and a few mezzotints. 

W. and E. 


trators. Much of it is to be found in such pubhcations as Harrison's A few of the 
Novelists' Magazine (1780-85), Bell's British Poets (1776-83) and '""^'J^'^'^ 
British Theatre (2nd ed. 1797), Taylor's Picturesque Beauties (t/^" "^ ' 
Shakespeare (1783-87), Cooke's Pocket Editions of Select Novels, 
Poets, SiX\A British Classics (ab. 17 96- 1803), Manley Wood's edition 
of Shakespeare (1806), various editions of Rogers' Poems ; in period- 
icals such as 'H.a.xns.on's Lady's Poetical Magazine {i'j?>i-?i2), Town 
and County Magazine (1769-93), Universal Magazine (1747-1814), 
the Lady's Magazine (1770-1818), European Magazine (1782-1826 ; 
for portraits in particular), and in the various annuals that are so 
common in the second quarter of the nineteenth century (e.g. The 
Keepsake, Friendship's Offering, and the like). 

A great impulse was given to the illustration of history, and of John Boydell. 
literature in the broader sense, without reference to use in books, by 
the engraver -pubhsher John Boydell (1719-1804). He issued 
many prints of all kinds — topography, '^ history, and reproduction of 
old masters — but his great undertaking was the Shakespeare Gallery. The Shake- 
Most of the best known painters ^ of the time were commissioned to speare Gallery. 
produce pictures, which he had engraved ^ in line and stipple, with 
the view of publication in a series. The idea was on foot soon after 
1787, but the collected edition of 100 plates did not appear until 
1805, published by John Boydell's nephew and successor, Josiah 
Boydell.* The result is no more inspiring to us than it was 
profitable to its originator (who lost so largely by the scheme as to 
be compelled in 1804 to hold a lottery to dispose of his stock of 
pictures and drawings), but it stands as a monument of the most 
ambitious engraving of the time. 

In the midst of the mass of reproductive engraving of the William Blake. 
period, William Blake stands out for an achievement which went 
far to restore the dignity of line-engraving as an original art. An 
apprentice of James Basire, he went through the drudgery of his 
art, and showed himself equal to any of his contemporaries in 
illustrations engraved in the conventional manner after Stothard 
and others. But these may be forgotten in face of his original 
work in line, of which an early plate entitled Morning or Glad 
Day (1780), forty-three plates illustrating Yomu^ 5 Night Thoughts 

^ His own work as engraver was chiefly topographical, comprising some 152 
views in England and Wales. 

"^ Including J. Banks, Barry, Beechey, Josiah Boydell, M. Browne, Downman, 
J. Durno, Farington, Fuseli, Graham, Hamilton, Hodges, Hoppner, Kauffmann, 
T. Kirk, Northcote, Opie, Rev. W. Peters, Ramberg, Reynolds, J. F. Rigaud, 
Romney, West, Westall, Wheatley, Wright (of Derby), Smirke. 

' By Bartolozzi, Burke, J. Caldwall, J. Collyer, Earlom, G. S. and 


Leney (cf. p. 211), J. B. Michel, S. Middiman, Ogborne, J. Parker, C. G. 
Playter, T. Ryder, L. Schiavonetti, E. Scriven, W. Sharp, J. P. Simon, 
W. Skelton, B. Smith, I. Taylor II., R. Thew, Caroline Watson, W. C. 


^ Besides paintings, he produced a few mezzotints (e.g. C. C. Anslo and a woman 
after Rembrandt, 1781, and two plates after Van Dyck for the Houghton Gallery). 


(1797), a large print of the Canterbury Pilgrims (18 10), and the 
Illustrations of the Book of Job (1825) form the most notable 
part. 'Y\\& Job is one of his latest works, and in the beauty and 
harmony of its design, and in the purity of its cutting, as free from 
convention as it is unimpeachable in method, it is one of the most 
remarkable works in the later history of line-engraving. He was 
engaged about the same time in engraving some larger designs to 
Dante, but only lived to complete seven plates. 

Blake's twelve wonderful designs to Robert Blair's Grave 
(1808) were etched by Schiavonetti, who also engraved the artist's 
portrait after T. Phillips as the frontispiece. 

It must be confessed that Blake's work suffers from the obsession 
of certain ill-formed types of humanity, with the cone-shaped heads, 
the strongly lined brows, the bull-necks, the exaggerated and often 
incorrect undulation of muscle. Possibly he may have developed 
some of these tendencies from the study of bad sixteenth-century 
prints after Michelangelo, Bandinelli, and Pontormo, and his con- 
temporary Fuseli may have added the rest. It is only in his quite 
early work that he shows anything of the gentler grace of Stothard. 
More particularly in his poetical books, which he transferred to 
metal, text and all, by his strange method of etching in relief,^ he 
shows an impassioned harmony which not infrequently verges on 
discord. His was a genius where human expression was lamed 
by an unnatural vividness of spiritual vision, and a ray of real 
truth is continually followed by the mutterings of the incom- 

His colour books strictly fall outside the range of this chapter, 
but we claim indulgence to avoid dividing the description of his 
work. It is no wonder that Blake found no publishers for the 
abstruse mysticism and allegory of his prophetic books, and he was 
no doubt led by mere circumstance into devising his own means 
of reproduction, i.e. the etching of text and design in relief. The 
plates were usually printed in one colour (his favourite tones 
besides black being yellow, blue, and green), the impressions being 
frequently tinted with water-colour by himself or by his wife. In 
other instances the impressions show an opaque colouring with a 
peculiar grain, which seems to have been achieved by a curious 
method of transfer. He would first paint a card, containing the 
design indicated in its proper register, in tempera, and then 
transfer that colour to the monochrome impression by means of 
rubbing. The reticulated nature of the grain might also have been 
emphasised by dusting dry colour over the surface of the wet 
impression. A considerable amount of colour, both in tempera and 
water-colour, must occasionally have been added with the brush. 

The Songs of Innocence and Experience (1789), and the Book 
of Thel i^iiZ^) are among his earliest books of the kind, showing 

1 The plates which are known are of zinc. 


something of Stothard's grace, and as yet nothing of the terribilita 
which pervades his later work. In the books of a few years later, 
the Visions of the Daughter of Albion (1793), Ameiica, a Prophecy 
(1793), and Europe, a Propliecy (1794), he is seen almost at his 
best. The America in particular (of which the British Museum 
copy is printed in black, without tinting) shows the strength of his 
design. The colour in the other two is for the most part given by 
hand tinting, but separate impressions from the different plates are 
also met with, treated in his special method of colour-printing. A 
comparison of variant impressions serves to convince us of the falsity 
of the latter method, which seldom fails to impair Blake's significance 
as a linealist. The Urizen (1794) and the Song of Los (1795) are 

Fig. 83. — William Blake. The Door of Death, from the America. 

generally found in opaque colour, while in the Milton, A Poem 
(1804), and in \he Jerusalem of the same year, he returns to the 
simpler method, black line being used in both, only relieved in the 
former by delicate transparent tints. 

Throughout his work he had made much use of the white line 
on a black ground (like Bewick and his followers in woodcut), and 
the Albion adoring Christ on the Cross from the " Jerusalem " is a 
most impressive example. 

English illustration found its most typical expression in land- The Turner 
scape, under the inspiration of Turner (1775-1851). Here we "^"^''T-^'ers. 
have no longer a second-rate version of a mere cosmopolitan art, 
but a school truly indigenous, both in its style and its technical 
means. In reahty it is not a school of line-engraving at all, as 
practically all the work was done by etching, the graver being used 







Coast, 1814- 


Views in 

Sussex, 1819. 



Tour of Italy, 


Rivers of 

France, 1837. 


Views in 

England and 

Wales, 1838. 

only to a comparatively small degree in giving sharpness to certain 
details, and occasionally in laying a series of delicate lines to 
achieve smooth surfaces of equal tone, such as the clear sky. 
Nor has it the claim of work like that of Bosse to be called engraving, 
on the ground of the assimilation of its etched line per se to the 
character of an engraved line. On the contrary, analysis of its 
constitution discloses a wriggling wormlike line which is absolutely 
opposed to all the reasonable possibilities and conventions of graver 
work. Nevertheless the general regularity of its system, so close in 
its work as to be lost in tone, stands in such contrast to the true 
ideals of the etcher's art, that we would still be content to call its 
exponents line-engravers rather than etchers. 

In its essential nature the system is a natural development 
from the methods of WooUett, with a much smaller percentage of 
rework with the graver. The worm-lines are laid closely together 
with scarcely any cross-hatching, and frequently interlaid with a 
series of dots, and the variety of tone is achieved to a large extent 
by numerous bitings. 

Turner nearly always supplied his engravers with drawings in 
water-colour, and it is wonderful how in the monochrome so much 
of the delicate shades of tone, which depends in the original largely 
on colour, is preserved. Of course, many instances of contrasting 
shades, which have no logical place in the engraving, and are only 
disconcerting, may be pointed out, and Turner's truer instinct as a 
designer for engraving is seen in his monochrome studies for the 
Liber Studiorum. The care, however, with which the painter 
supervised and annotated the proofs of his engravers, brought 
success where an unaided engraver would have certainly failed. 

In the earliest prints after Turner, e.g. in the Copper-plate 
Magazine (between 1794 and 1798), and in the Oxford Almanacks 
(1799-1811, engraved by James Basire), the real genius of the 
school is scarcely seen. It appears more developed in the Southern 
Coast (1814-26, engraved by W. B. Cooke, etc.), and in the Views 
in Sussex (J. Murray, 1819 ; engraved by AV. B. Cooke), and in full 
possession of its power over delicate shades of tone in Hakewill's 
Picturesque Tour of Italy (J. Murray, 1820 ; engraved by G. Cooke, 
John Pye, etc.). Most typical of all the engravings are perhaps 
those of the Rivi-rs of France (Longmans, 1837) and the Picturesque 
Views in England and Wales (Longmans, 1838), by W. Miller, 
R. Wallis, R. Brandard, W. Radclyffe.i J. T, Willmore, 
J. B. Allen, E. Goouall, and many others. Both series had 
been published in parts before the dates of the collected editions. 

A greater part of the engravings we have mentioned are " illustra- 
tions " only in so far as they were issued in book form with a text. 
It is the text, however, which is more truly the illustration than the 

' Assisted in the foundation of a School of Art in Birmingham (1814). Radclvffe's 
pupil, Willmore, and R. Brandard are other members of the Birmingham group' 


prints. Turner's work as an illustrator in the stricter signification is Rogers' Italy, 
important, and some of the most exquisite work of his engravers is and Poems, 
seen in his vignettes to Rogers' Italy (1830) and Poems (1834), and -^^l^i 18^4- 
Xo \ht. Prose ff^r/^.f <?/ fFa//«/- &(?// (Cadell, Edinburgh, 1834-36). 36. 

The enormous number of impressions which have been taken The use of 
from all the plates of this school is chiefly due to the use of steel,- steel. 
which largely took the place of copper between about 181 5 and 
1860.^ The introduction of the practice of steel-facing v^hich 
effectively protects the copper has rendered the use of steel, which 
of course presents greater resistance to the graver, superfluous even 
when large editions of a plate are to be printed. 

How great a part of the excellent results achieved by the Turner 
engravers is due to the master's direction may be estimated by com- 
paring the prints of the Turner Gallery (60 plates, with text by 
R. N. Wornum, 1859, etc.) with those done during Turner's lifetime. 
The engravers are for the most part the same (e.g. W. Miller, 
J. T. WiLLMORE, R. Brandard, J. B. Allen, J. Cousen, E. 
Goodall), and they show an even greater brilliance in their cutting, 
but all the subtler gradations of light, which Turner gained by 
repeated correction on the proofs, are wanting. 

This chapter cannot end without some description of the work Chodowiecki. 
of the famous German illustrator of the eighteenth century, Daniel 
CHODOvtfiECKi. His plates, which amount to over 2000 in number, 
are almost entirely etched (sometimes strengthened with the dry- 
point, seldom finished with the graver), but their manner is so essen- 
tially modelled on the French illustrators that it is impossible to 
speak of his work in any other connexion. He produced a large 
number of plates of all kinds, from landscape to Court pageants, in 
a freer manner of etching, but these mostly tend towards a lower 
estimate of the talent of an artist whose fame rests on his small book- 
illustrations. His charming etching, Le Cabinet (Tun Peintre(\ii\), 
representing the artist in the midst of his family circle, shows the man 
as he is, the lover of the homely citizen's life, in contrast to the 
courtly brilliance, which was the true atmosphere of the French 
illustrators. The one Frenchman whose spirit he most reflected was 
perhaps Jean Baptiste Chardin. Starting his career as a painter of 
enamels, he took up etching when he was about thirty (1756-57), 
backed by almost no academic study. Like Hollar he had a keen 
eye for the small things, which lend his little plates of costume a 
wonderful value. Nor did he lack a true power of expression of 
human feeling when depicting scenes from the phase of society 
which he knew. Imagination fails him when he tries less realistic 
themes, and a lack of sound draughtsmanship is evident when he 
attempts work on a larger scale. 

' Cf. above, p. 211, Chap. V. p. 150 (note 2), Chap. IX. p. 284, and Intro- 
duction, p. 3. 



The pocket almanacs, as popular in Berlin as in Paris at the end 
of the eighteenth century, in which much of the new literature was 
published, were happily of a size to need the smallest of illustrations, 
and it is in these that some of Chodowiecki's best work appeared. 
He would etch his various illustrations, perhaps a dozen together, on 
one plate, and impressions from these would be cut up for use in the 
calendar. It is almost as rare to find these calendars complete with 
their illustrations as it is to meet with complete impressions from 
the plate with its various subjects undivided. Most attractive of all 

Fig. 84, — Daniel Chodow iecki. 
Tlie Marriage, from the Lcbcn cincs LnJcr/uiicn. 

are perhaps the illustrations to Lessing's Minna 7V>i Barnhelm, which 
appeared in the Berliner Geneaiogisclwr Calender for the year 1770 
(the earliest of his calendar plates), while the print we reproduce 
from the Leben eines Liuierliehen (Fig. 84) appeared in the same 
calendar for the year 1774. Gessner's Idylls (1773), and Gellert's 
Fables {i-]-]^), are other works he illustrated for the same publication. 




The eighteenth century was a sophisticated age, and unfertile 
soil for an art which needs above all things natural and forceful 
expression. It was an age of critics, connoisseurs, and amateurs, 
which, while encouraging the arts in general, and reproductive 
engraving in particular, used original etching as its plaything. Great 
etchers were not absent, the greatest perhaps to be found among the 
satirists, whose aim seemed one with the spirit of the time in which 
■ they lived. But even here artists of first rank, like Goya, are 
isolated towers in the midst of barren levels, and Italy was alone as 
a nation to find her school of etching reach its highest development 
during this period. 

At the outset came the Tiepoli who, by the whiteness of their 
colour scheme, the true note of rococo art, and by the graceful 
and swinging pose of their groups of figures, contributed fresh 
elements of life to the art of fresco decoration. But while their 
achievement is in a truer sense rather a completion of the past 
ideals of their countrymen, of Veronese above all, we meet, in 
Canaletto, on the other hand, aims more basically fresh to Italian 
artists, i.e. the seeking of inanimate nature for its own sake, freed 
from all the side issues of subject or allegory. 

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, whose fame as a painter of g. B. Tiepoio. 
monumental frescoes brought him to Wiirzburg (1750-53) and 
Madrid (from 1762 until his death in 1770), was born in Venice in 
1696. As an etcher, he strove first and foremost to render the 
white scheme of his paintings by means of sparing use of lightly 
bitten lines, laid with little or no cross-hatching. In his delicate 
hanxiling of the needle, and to some extent in his treatment of com- 
position, he may have found suggestion in the work of Benedetto 
Castiglione, but he followed the latter in none of the meaningless 
scrawl of shading. His etchings, only some fifty in all, are no mere 

225 Q 


side-play in his work, but as true an expression of his genius as his 
paintings. The ten plates of the Capricci, from which we reproduce 
the Nymph, with Satyr Child and Goats (Fig. 85), may owe some- 
thing to Salvator Rosa, but there is a refinement of line and drawing 
which the latter never attained. More powerful in etching, with 
less cross-hatching, and a more developed system of tremulous 
parallel lines broken at regular intervals, are the larger plates of the 
Scherzi di Fantasia} whose character places them even more 
certainly than the Capricci in the Spanish period. These medleys 
of satyrs and nymphs, gipsies and goats, philosophers and cavaliers. 

Fig. S5. — Giovanni Hatiista TiL-polo. Xvnipli, h itli Satvr Cliilcl and Goats. 

G. D. Tiepoli 

snakes and owls, trophies and tombs, are meaningless enough to us 
in subject, but their balanced composition of triangular build, the 
lightness of touch and fancy, give a true idea of Tiepolo's genius for 
decorative combination. Tiepolo's manner of painting find's perhaps 
its closest translation in the large etching of the Adoration of the 
Magi (after his own picture done for the Convent of S. Aranjuez). 

Giovanni l)oi\iF,Nico Tikpoio (h. in Madrid 1726) inherited 
all his father's ideals but somewhat less of his refinement. His 
etchings arc more numerous than liattista's, and are to a large ex- 
tent reproductions of the latter's designs and paintings. In his set 

1 Tlierc are 24 Nos. in llic .set pul.lisll.'cl l.y IXimonico, hnt only -t seem to be 
by liatlisla. 


of twenty plates on the Story of the FHght into Egypt {Idee 
Pittorescfie sopra la Fugga in Egitto, 1753), he shows however a 
considerable turn for invention of his own. Earlier he had pub- 
lished another set, 14 plates illustrating the stations of the Cross 
( Via Cruets, 1749). A series of Character Heads, which are possibly 
after Battista's studies ^ (some based on Rembrandt, Leonardo, and 
other masters), come nearer to Castiglione than anything in the work 
of father or son. As an etcher Domenico is heavier in his line and 
shadow than his father, and not infrequently (as with certain of the 
Heads') darkens his tones by leaving ink on the surface of the plate 
in printing. His darker system conceals a comparatively poor 
draughtsmansh ip. 

In Venice during the first two decades of the eighteenth century The etchers of 
arose the school of architectural etchers, which finds its culmination '"'^'"^ ^""^ 

-^ , architecture. 

in Canaletto. 

Marco Ricci (b. 1679 ?), a nephew of Sebastiano Ricci who still Marco Ricci. 
etched in the older classical manner, was among the earliest of the 
later Venetians to turn from subject to landscape (of which he left 
some 20 plates), while a far more prolific etcher of views of Venice 
is found in Luca Carlevaris, who in his Fabriche e Vedute di Luca 
Venetia (104 plates, including title, Venice, 1703) shows a true feeling Carlevans. 
for the value of delicate line. 

Antonio Canale, Canaletto as he is called, is said to have Canaletto. 
been a pupil of Carlevaris, and must in any case have owed to him 
the direction of bis art. 

A short time spent in Rome (from about 17 19) may have 
brought him into touch with the painter G. P. Panini, who was 
slightly his senior, but he never yielded much to the influence of 
his style. Remaining a true Venetian, he always laid far less 
emphasis on foreground than on effects of distance. 

His etchings are few (thirty-one in all), but show the same 
command of aerial perspective that marks his painting. He uses 
the simplest system of shading in parallels, giving to his lines a 
slight but regular sinuosity which suffuses the atmosphere with a 
sense of misty heat. To the achievement of his aim of expressing 
buildings in bright sunshine, he sacrifices all idea of rendering the 
quality of material. His stone never loses its essential character, 
but in the purely landscape portions of his work the tendency is 
towards the fusion of varying elements. We imply no blame thereby; 
the single aim which he pursued has never been attained with more 
conviction than in these plates. The firm and simple manner in 
which he shades his solid structures, has much of the virtue which 
made Meryon so great. A portion of one of his larger prints, the 

1 And in some cases perhaps etched by Battista. The distinction of the work 
of father and son is not always quite certain. The catalogue iti the collected edition 
by the son (1775) is by no means illuminating. Domenico's younger brother, 
Lorenzo Tiepolo, also etched some plates after Battista. 


Torre di Malghera, which is reproduced (Fig. 86), shows his 

characteristic style at its strongest. . ^ . , u ^ 

Canaletto's work won especial appreciation in England, where 

he is found for a short period of uncertain length after 1746, and a 

Fig. 86. — ,\ntonio Canale. La Torre di Malghcr.i (part). 

graceful acknowledgment of his English connexion is the dedication 
of the collected edition of his etchings ( / 'idiifc alfre prese da i luoghi 
alfrc ideate) to Joseph Smith, ^ the British Consul at Venice (between 
1740 and 1760). One of the etchings hears the date 1741, and it is 
probable that the whole set appeared before Canale's visit to England. 

' His lil)rary was purcliased liy ticorge III. in 1765, and now Ibrms part of the 
King's Liljrary in tile liritisli Museum. 


Canale's nephew and pupil, Bernardo Belotto, is a close Bernardo 
follower of his uncle, adding perhaps in brilliance and precision Belotto. 
what he loses in freedom and freshness of handling. In his 
etchings, about forty in number, he follows a more pictorial aim 
than Canaletto. To balance the large size of his plates he adopts 
a heavier and more varied treatment of line, but keeps largely to the 
same simple scheme of parallel shading. Only a small number of 
his prints are of Italy, which he left early in his career. Some 
twenty-three are views of Dresden and the neighbourhood (where 
he was settled for a great part^ of the period between 1747 and 
1768), and a few again are of Warsaw (dated 1770 and 1772), where 
he ended his days as painter to the King of Poland. 

Another great architectural etcher was working at the same time G. B. Piranesi. 
as Belotto, i.e. Giovanni Battista Piranesi, a Venetian who 
settled in Rome. Educated as an architect, he devoted himself 
almost entirely to engraving the great monuments of Rome of 
Antiquity and the Renaissance, achieving a work of enormous 
magnitude, a triumph of diligence distinguished by real genius. 
The definite archaeological aim of his work is evidenced by the 
lengthy disquisitions which he added as letterpress to several of his 
publications, and by the explanatory text engraved on so many of 
his plates ; but he was throughout more artist than antiquarian, and 
a strong vein of invention may not recommend him to the stricter 
sort of archaeologist. The strength of his artistic power may be 
appreciated all the more if it is considered that it works in spite of 
the letters and numbers of reference, which one might expect to dis- 
figure an architectural plate. Of his various publications of pro- 
fessedly archaeological and topographical purport, the most important 
are Le Antichita Romane,^ 4 vols. (1756), Delia magnificenza ed archi- 
tettura de' Romani (1761), and the Vedute di Roma (engraved 
between 1748 and 1778, with additions by F. Piranesi, 1788). 
Considering the mass of his work, it is natural that the quality is 
variable. Occasional plates in the Vedute (e.g. Ponte Molle, Ponte 
Salario, Avanzi del Foro di Nerva) and in other publications {e.g. 
the magnifica sostruzione per render la via Appia piu commoda in the 
Antichita d' Alband) show a command of hght and of masses of 
architecture which is of the most imposing calibre, while other plates, 
especially those of the more modern buildings, are altogether lacking 
in artistic interest. 

Like Bernardo Belotto he did the majority of his work on a 
large scale, and developed a most powerful manner of etching, which 
justifies the " imperial " size of his prints. For his foreground he 
uses broad lines, sometimes strengthened with the graver, but never 

1 Visits were also paid in this period to Vienna (1758-60) and Warsaw. 

2 Not to be confused with another set with a similar title, Antichita Rotnane de' 
Tempi delta Republica (1748). This is a series of smaller oblong plates (of archi trion- 

fali, etc. ), perhaps the most pleasing of all his smaller prints. 


deadened thereby in vigour. Like Polanzani (who engraved his 
portrait ^ in 1750), and the imitators of Callot and Mellan in general, 
he makes great use of the swelling line, achieving bold contrasts of 
tone which can only be appreciated at their true value at a distance. 
His large compositions cannot, in fact, be examined in the hand, 
and gain immeasurably in force by being hung as pictures. Fore- 
ground is everything in his scheme of composition, which he may 
have owed to some extent to Panini — huge buildings rising to 
colossal proportions, towering as they do before the spectator in their 
immediate vicinity. 

The staffage of some of Piranesi's dullest subjects with their 
Callotesque figures discloses an irrepressible instinct for life as 
well as learning, but the spirit of genius could not but suffer from 
the drudgery of his toil. Some of his most attractive plates are 
the fanciful compositions in the Opae varie di Architeitura ; Pro- 
spettiva, Groteschi, Antichita (published in 1750, some plates dating 
as early as 1743), while his greatest power is seen when his inven- 
tion and gloomy fantasy is given the full play which is realised in 
the sixteen plates of the Careen (1750 ; see Fig. 87). In the latter 
series his etching is purer, and less artificially varied than in most 
of his plates, and the work gains thereby enormously in vigour. 
These imaginary constructions with their colossal scaffolding, cranes, 
wheels, and galleries, with their monstrous contrivances of torture, 
give scope in the management of masses of light and shade, which 
has been achieved in equal degree by no other engraver or etcher, 
if it be not a young artist of to-day, Muirhead Bone. 
Francesco and The work and projects of Giovanni Battista, who died in 1778, 
Pietro were continued by his sons, Francesco and Pietro Piranesi, 

aided, it is said, by a daughter, Laura.^ Francesco is by far the 
most important of these as an etcher ; but while inheriting the 
industry and some of the strength of his father, he is altogether 
inferior in draughtsmanship and artistic feeling. 

In 1799 the two brothers removed with their whole stock to 
Paris, receiving encouragement, if not official support in their estab- 
lishment, from Napoleon's Government. During the next ten years ^ 
they reissued the whole of their father's work with numerous 
additions of their own, including various series of prints after paint- 
ings and drawings by other engravers.'* The great corpus, amount- 

' Generally found prefi.xed to tlie Open- varie di Architettiira, 1750. 

- I have only seen one plate with her signature, and have not included her in the 
index, Pietro signed some of the plates in the Antiqniles de la grandc Grhe (which 
first appeared in Paris between 1804 and 1806), but seems to have been mainly 
occupied as publisher, 

5 Francesco is said to have died in Paris 18 10, Pietro seems to have returned 
to Italy earlier, as he published Piroli's Bassorclicvi ant'uhi di Roma in Rome, 1808. 
For contemporary reference to their Paris establishment see Magdiin Eruvclopt'diqiie, 
V. Tom, s, p, no; Tom, 6, p. 283; ix. Tom. 2, p, 238; and J. F, C. Blainvillain, 
Le Parist'inn, Paris, 1807-8, p, 208. 

■' K.g. Kaccolla di alaiui Disegiii del Barbieri (by Bartolozzi and others, the 



ing to twenty-seven ^ large folio volumes, was reprinted by Firmin 

Fig. 87. — G. B. Piranesi. Plate from the Carccri. 

Didot in Paris between 1835 ^^^ 1S39. Since that time the original 

original series having been issued in 1764) ; Gavin Hamilton's Schola Kalica Piciurac 
(engravings by D. Cunego, etc., originally published 1773) ; and three series of outline 
engravings by T. Piroli (who worked very largely in the Piranesi's employ), after paint- 
ings in the Sala Borgia, Villa Lante, Farnesina, and Villa Alioviti, by Raphael, etc. 
1 Sometimes described as twenty-nine ; but the three series by Piroli seemed to 
have formed one volume, as they do now in the R. Calcografia, Rome. 


plates have been acquired by the Regia Calcografia in Rome, and 
modern impressions of some ii8o plates are still to be purchased. 
Of course the intrinsic value of these modern impressions is as small 
as their actual price, but some of the stronger plates are by no 
means completely bereft of their original virtue. 
Luigi Rossini. The mantle of the Piranesi fell on Luigi Rossini, who engraved 
many large plates of the ancient architecture of Rome (mostly 
between 1817 and 1824). The greater part of his work appeared in 
a collected edition in seven imperial folio volumes in 1829. His 
plates have strength, especially in dealing with masses of dark 
masonry ; but they disclose far less of the powers of imagination 
that had given G. B. Piranesi's work so much more than a merely 
archaeological or topographical value. 

Satire. Italy has not produced the greatest caricaturists, but with 

Leonardo da Vinci she had taken the lead in the art of conscious 
grotesque in the treatment of feature and form. Gothic art, with its 
naive and unconscious grotesque, which persisted so much longer 
in the North than in the South of Europe, possibly militated against 
the early development of a true school of satire in Germany or 
the Netherlands. Amid the mass of broadsides and miscellaneous 
satirical prints which flooded Europe, particularly the Low Countries, 
during the seventeenth century, there is scarcely a single work of 
distinction. Everywhere it is the hack journalist turned designer, 
and seldom the artist yielding to a natural bent towards travesty and 

P. L. Ghezzi. In the early eighteenth century it is again an Italian artist who 

is in the van of the caricaturists, Pier Leone Ghezzi of Rome 
(1674-1755). Giuseppe Maria Mitelli of Bologna (1634-1718) 
may have suggested something of Ghezzi's style in his broad open 
manner, and bold drawing of large figures, nor was he without 
something of the sentiment of the satirist in his numerous prints of 
allegory and daily life. Ghezzi, however, strikes a new note in the 
outspoken personalities of his satire. The greater part of his cari- 
catures are only preserved in drawings (of which the British Museum 
possesses two most interesting volumes with manuscript elucida- 
tions by the artist), but some are engraved (e.g: by Matthias 
Oesterreich, Raccolta di XXIJ' Caricature, Dresden, 1750), 
while a few were etched by Ghezzi himself. They are almost 
entirely single figures and heads in profile, quite in the Leonardo 
tradition, not brilliantly incisive, but showing no lack of droll and 
harmless humour. 

English Satire. In the natural development of a school of satirical engravin<i 
England stands almost alone. In no other country has the cari- 
caturist been left such complete liberty, and in the eighteenth and 
early nineteenth centuries social and political satire opened a field 
which attracted the energies of some of the most talented English 


artists of the period. The genius among them, William Hogarth, 
was something more than a great satirist ; Thomas Rowlandson 
was scarcely less brilliant, and far more naturally facile, in his 
limited field ; while James Gillray, though on a lower plane than 
either of the preceding as an artist, holds a very individual place to 
every student of English politics and history. 

In point of a liberal artistic education Hogarth, who was Hogarth'. 
apprenticed to a silversmith, was the least favoured of the trio. 
Some study of drawing in the St. Martin's Lane Academy, apparently 
after the term of his apprenticeship, had given him sufficient facility 
to undertake work of a more ambitious character, and though in 
1720 (the year in which his first trade-card is engraved) he started 
a shop of his own in his master's craft, he was soon able to turn his 
back on mere silver-plate and heraldic engraving. 

From the very first Hogarth felt his gift and recognised his 
opportunity in satire. The display of prints on some topic of the 
day could not but arouse popular attention, and he was happy in 
finding a great subject in the earliest of his large engravings of the 
sort, the South Sea Bubble, 1721. The plate is for the most part 
engraved with the burin in the dull manner of the Van der Guchts. 
The drawing is poor, the composition somewhat confused and 
obscure ; but in spite of its faults there is a fertility of invention 
and imagination here that does not belie his best achievement. 

In the first print he published on his own account, the Masquerades 
and Operas of 1724, Hogarth found an equally telling subject in a 
diatribe against foreign favourites in music and on tlie stage. John 
Bull, his island and his creation against the World, will always capti- 
vate the English masses, and the sentiment never flourished more 
vigorously than in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, 
reaching its zenith in the prints of Gillray during the war with 
Napoleon and France. Hogarth is typically English in the didactic 
nature of his satire. He is essentially a preacher and moralist, but 
a preacher from the stage of life, with the spirit of the dramktist in 
the series of scenes with which he often addressed his audience. 
He is entirely responsible for both design and engraving of three 
of these "dramas," the Harlot's Progress (1733-34), the Hake's 
Progress (about 1735), ^""^i rnost powerful of all, the Industry and 
Idleness (1747), while another series, the Marriage a la Mode^ 
(1745), was left to other engravers to reproduce {i.e. to. G. Scotin, 
Ravenet,^ and B. Baron). Meanwhile Hogarth was devoting 
more time to painting, and in spite of lack of training, his persistent 
devotion to nature and life developed in him a power which is one 
of the most refreshing influences in English art of the period. He 
will always, however, be best known by his prints (which in many 

1 The original pictures are in the National Gallery. 

^ The plates signed respectively R. F. Ravenet and S. Ravenet ; but the R. F. 
is probably only an engraver's error, both being by S. F. Ravenet the elder. 


Hogarth, cases he engraved after his own paintings), and it is here that 

he could rely most on his early training. Of his large separate 
prints we might mention in particular the Southwark Fair (1733), 
the Midnight Modern Conversation (1733-34, a satire on heavy 
drinking), and the Morning, Noon, JVight, and Evening (pi 1738, 
the " Evening " engraved by B. Baron). In another of his best- 
known designs, the Roast Beef of Old England, or Calais Gate 
(1749), Hogarth was assisted in the engraving by Charles Mosley, 
while the engraving of the March to Finchley (1750), a record of 
the year 1745, is entirely by Luke Sullivan. 

Besides these larger works Hogarth is responsible for a con- 
siderable number of book illustrations, more especially in his early 
period. He is something of an eclectic in this branch of art, 
iifteen head-pieces to Beaver's ji?»z^a;^ Military Punishments (1725) 
being closely modelled on Callot, while the plates in an edition of 
Butler's Hudibras (printed for D. Browne, 1726) show him merely 
adapting the anonymous illustrations in an edition published by 
John Baker (1709-10). Nevertheless the latter series, his most 
extensive achievement in book illustration, which went through 
many editions, did much to extend Hogarth's name. 

Nearly all Hogarth's larger prints are strictly line-engravings, the 
foundation alone being laid in etching. Towards the latter part of 
his career, however, some of his more elaborated compositions were 
in etching, e.g. the two prints of France and England ox the Invasion 
(1756), and one of his most excellent plates, the Cock-pit Qi 1759, 
where only a small part is done with the graver. 

For several of his important works Hogarth executed small 
subscription plates entirely in etching, and some of these are far more 
incisive and convincing both in technical quality and in draughtsman- 
ship than the works they represent. The Laughing Audience of 
1733 (for the "Southwark Fair" and "Rake's Progress"), the 
Rehearsal of the Oratorio of Judith, of the same or following year, 
for the " Modern Midnight Conversation,'' and the Characters and 
Caricatures of 1 743, for the " Marriage k la Mode," are the most 
noteworthy of these etched subscription tickets. Hogarth also 
etched a few portraits in this broader and less elaborated manner, 
notably the Lord Lovat of 1746. In his engraved portraits Hogarth 
seldom did more than the more important parts, e.g. Garrick in the 
Character of Richard III. (1746, assisted by C. Grignion), and 
Hogarth painting the Comic Muse (1749). Many of his portrait 
paintings or designs were engraved by Bernard Baron (e.g. Dr. 
Thomas Herring, 1750). 

Hogarth was neither a great engraver nor a great etcher. His 
line-engravings do not possess the soundness of technique and 
certainty of draughtsmanship required by that art at its highest, 
and it is only the smaller number of his etchings (such as the 
Lord Lovat) which are done with the freedom of touch, without 


which an etching has little inherent virtue. But though Hogarth's 
achievement is only of secondary importance in the history of 
engraving and etching as such, he remains an artist whose special 
gift for dramatic situation and satire gives him a notable place 
in whatever medium he chose to express his genius. 

The genius and achievement of Thomas Rowlandson stands in Rowlandson. 
marked contrast to Hogarth's. Trained in the Academy schools 
and afterwards studying for two years in Paris, a natural facility of 
composition was seconded by an unerring draughtsmanship. For a 
few years after his return from Paris he was exhibiting painting 
(historical and portrait) in the Academy (1775-81) ; but his "love 
of irregular living led him to leave a field in which persistent effort 
was essential, and restrict himself to forms of art which were more 
compatible with his devotion to the gaming-house and tavern. 
We cannot imagine Rowlandson other than he is, and perhaps the 
very irregularity of his life is to be thanked for preserving the 
caricaturist of first water, where we might have had another portrait 
painter among so many. 

His earliest published caricatures date from 1774, and from the 
middle of the next decade there was a constant succession through- 
out his life. Most of his separate prints are good-humoured, if not 
always discreet, caricature of social hfe, designed with a full-blooded 
rotundity of form which with all its coarseness presents a constant 
charm of curve. He touched politics less than society, except when 
such a subject as the Duchesses at the Elections (1784) gave him a 
topic that could not but have its purely humorous appeal. Row- 
landson seldom did more than the line-etching of these works, most 
of which were published tinted by hand, sometimes over an aquatint 
foundation. In the caricatures issued by S. W. Fores of Piccadilly, 
and by Rudolf Ackermann, these secondary parts are generally 
added with considerable skill ; but we should beware of estimating 
Rowlandson's artistic power by the later prints published by Tegg of 
Cheapside, which are most lurid in colour, and often coarse in line 
and drawing. 

The irresponsible Rowlandson was happy in finding a taskmaster Ackermann's 
like Rudolf Ackermann, a German settler who opened an estab- P'^bhcations. 
lishment called the " Repository of the Arts '' in the Strand, and 
who, from 1808 until his death in 1834, was indefatigable in the 
publication of illustrated books. Much of Rowlandson's work was 
first produced in his magazines, the Repository of Arts (Jan. i8og- 
28) and the Poetical Magazine (May 1809-12), the publisher 
either supplying the artist from month to month the copy which 
he was to illustrate, or as it happened in the case of the Tour of Dr. 
Syntax, an even more irresponsible journalist-author, W. Combe, 
producing each month the verses to illustrate the artist's etchings. 
Rowlandson is seen in his happiest mood in the Tour of Dr. Syntax 
in Search of the Picturesque (31 plates, 181 2, 28 of which had 


appeared in the Poetical Magazine), with its supplements Dr. Syntax 
in Searcii of Consolation (24 plates, completed 1820), and Dr. 
Syntax in Search of a Wife (25 plates, 1821). 

His other important works for Ackermann with Combe's text are 
the Dance of Death (72 plates, 1816), the Dance of Life (26 plates, 
181 7), and a final good-bye to his congenial collaborator in the 
History of Johnny Quae Genus, the little Foundling of the late Dr. 
Syntax (1822). In the Vicar of Wakefield (24 plates, 181 7) he 
again had a congenial task, while most voluminous of his works are 
the Microcosm of London (completed in 3 vols., 1810 ; 105 plates 


-Thomas Rowlandsoii. CopixT-i->late Printers at Work. 

designed in collaboration with Pugin), and the ]]'orld in Minia- 
ture {.^z vols., between 1821 and 1S27; text by F. Shoberl). As in 
the case of the large caricatures, Rowlandson did nothing in these 
publications but the pure etching on the plate. These were then 
aquatinted by one of the many etchers^ in Ackermann's employ, 
a proof was coloured by Rowlandson and the published impres- 
sions were coloured by hand with this as copy, seldom more than 
two or three neutral tones being employed in the printing, and 
probably never more than the one plate. 

Jamk.s Gii.i.KAN' is a far poorer artist than either Hogarth or 
Rowlandson, but as political satire of almost incomparable licence 
his work has a considerable historic value. As a man he was even 

1 /■;.,<,'. 1. C. StadliT, J. Uliick, T. .Sutherland, and 1. Mill. 


less responsible than Rowlandson, intemperate habits inducing the 
imbecility by which the last four years of his life was darkened. 
Most of his work was issued by Miss Humphrey, the printseller of 
St. James Street/ who also afforded the artist lodging in her house. 
In his personalities Gillray showed more venom than any of his 
contemporary caricaturists {e.g. his Alderman Boydell, or a Peep into 
the Shakespeare Gallery, 1791), and, with his unbridled criticism 
of politicians in the stormy time of the French Revolution, it is no 
wonder that he sometimes provoked more than a passive hostility. 
Collected editions of impressions from his plates were published 
after his death, with descriptive text, in 1830 and 185 1 (including 
some 582 numbers). 

Among the more prolific of the draughtsmen of social caricature 
of the latter part of the eighteenth century one might mention H. 
W. Bunbury and Henry Wigstead, but as original etchers both 
may be left out of account. Bunbury was reproduced largely 
by James Bretherton, who also published numerous satirical James 
prints, in particular those of James Savers ^ (or Sayer, as it is Bretherton. 
sometimes written). Sayers's etchings are amateurish enough in ' 
drawing, but in the political struggle between Fox and Pitt they 
played no inconsiderable part in the history of the time. 

One of the best of the caricaturists of the period was Robert Robert 
DiGHTON. His numerous portrait etchings show delicate draughts- Dighton. 
manship, and an avoidance of excess in caricature, which was rare in 
his day. Unfortunately the man did not avoid excesses as a dealer 
and collector, having made a regular practice, between about 1795 
and 1806, of deftly abstracting some of the most valuable prints 
from the portfolios in the British Museum. Happily the majority 
of these, including many of the Cracherode Rembrandts, were 
recovered on his detection, all of which may now be recognised by 
the letter D on a palette, the collector's stamp with which Dighton 
was brazen enough to decorate his acquisitions. Strange to say 
his activity did not seem to suffer any interval after this lapse, and 
both he and his son Richard Dighton continued their caricatures Richard 
for several years later. Dighton. 

Henry Alken deserves mention among the social cartoonists Henry Aiken, 
as the chief purveyor of sporting prints. His power as a draughts- 
man is not brilliant, but the very subject of his prints naturally 
secures their popularity in the English market. The greater part 
of his work was reproduced by others in lithography, but he also 
etched (mostly in soft ground) a large number of his own designs, 

' She had also had addresses in the Strand, New and Old Bond Street. William 
Humphrey, the mezzotint engraver, was also a printseller (addresses 338 Strand, and 
Gerrard Street) and may have been a connexion. 

^ Not to be confused with a Robert Sayer, who published many caricatures 
(mostly anonymous, some by Robert Dighton) in 1792-93, after which he was 
succeeded by Laurie (the mezzotint engraver) and Whittle. This Robert Sayer was 
also a publisher of mezzotints, succeeding to P. Overton's stock in 1766. 



which were often coloured by hand. His prints were for the 
most part published by M'Lean of the "Repository of Wit and 
Humour" (26 Haymarket), as the establishment was christened 
after the model of Ackermann. One might mention, in particular, 
Humorous Specimens of Riding, 1821, the Symptoms of being Amused, 
1822, and A Touch at the Fitie Arts, 1824 (all in soft ground), 
while in the National Sports of Great Britain, 1821 (coloured 
aquatint), the design alone is by Aiken. Another of his more 
famous books, "Nimrod's" Life of a Sportsman (with 32 etchings), 
was published by Ackermann in 1842. 

Before leaving the field of caricature we would mention three 
more recent artists whose work finds a closer natural affinity with 
the traditions of the eighteenth century than with etching in its 
modern phase, i.e. Cruikshank, Leech, and Keene. 

George George Cruikshank (b. 1 792) was the son of a caricaturist 

of the type of Gillray, Isaac Cruikshank, and even before his 
twelfth year seems to have embarked on the career of etching in 
his father's vein. Both he and his elder and less -gifted brother 
Robert Cruikshank ^ (who later did more book illustration of a 
miscellaneous description) assisted their father in etching and in 
colouring impressions, and sometimes a satisfactory distinction of 
their several work is difficult.. George Cruikshank, however, 
developed a power of expression which has left the others com- 
pletely in the background. He was an enormously prolific worker, 
some 5265 numbers (about half being etchings, the rest lithographs 
and woodcuts) being noticed in Reid's Catalogue. He cannot be 
said to take rank as an etcher. In fact, few of the caricaturists we 
have mentioned turned to the process for the sake of its special 
virtue, but regarded it merely as the most practical way of multi- 
plying the designs of their pen or pencil. With all his astounding 
facility and preciseness of draughtsmanship, he seldom lacks the 
significant touch of the true artist and humorist Amid the 
masses of his work which, as he himself entitled a series of his 
prints, are for the most part mere scraps and sketches, often jumbled 
together many on one plate, it would be idle to attempt any special 
citation. His delicate talent for caricature, tinged with a vein of 
romantic feeling, combined with a high imaginative faculty, pro- 
duced in art an almost perfect embodiment of what Charles 
Dickens created in literature. 

'Phiz." Another etcher, much influenced by Cruikshank, in whom 

Dickens lives again, is Hablot Knight Browne, or " Phiz " as he 
signed himself. His work is too well known to need description. 

John Leech and Charles Keene are of household fame as 
illustrators of Punch. Exponents of the lighter sides of character 

' E.g. 68 aquatints in "Bernard Blackmantle's " (i.e. C. M. Westmacott's) 
English Spy, 1825, a regular mine of scandal of life at Eton, O.xford, and London. 
He worked with George in a similar book, Pierce Egan's Life in London, 1821, 


and life rather than caricaturists, essentially early Victorian in the John Leech 
harmless and unexceptionable nature of their subjects, they represent ^'^ Charles 
a healthy reaction from the excessive coarseness of eighteenth 
century wit. Most of their work was reproduced on wood, but 
both etched a considerable number of plates (e.g. Leech : Etchings 
and Sketchings, 1836, and both in Mr. Punch's Pocket-Book : Leech, 
1844-59; Keene, 1865-75). 

Keene set little store on the separate plates he etched during 
his lifetime, and comparatively few impressions had got abroad 
before a recent posthumous issue of twenty-one plates.^ Most of 
his plates (less than fifty, including the Punch prints) are single 
figures or studies from everyday life, but there are a few landscapes 
of exquisite feeling. 

Apart from Hogarth, Rowlandson, and Gillray the art of etch- 
ing in England during the eighteenth century is of little account. 
Here and there painters etched a few unimportant plates, while 
professional artists and amateurs alike reflected the general lack 
of original inspiration by their copies and imitations of the old 

Jonathan Richardson, the elder (i 665-1 745), a painter more Jonathan 
interested in his collections and his criticism than in the practice of R'^hardson I. 
his art, etched a few portrait plates which are not without interest. 
They are lightly executed with a delicate point, but in a fresh and 
open manner of line which has entirely broken with the Hollar 

Thomas Worlidge (1700-66) was a far more prolific etcher, Thomas 
but except for his portraits his work has small artistic value. As a Worhdge. 
portrait draughtsman he enjoyed considerable popularity in his day. 
He is one of the very few etchers of the period who used dry-point 
at all freely, but he possessed neither the boldness of touch nor 
the certainty of draughtsmanship, without which the process leads 
merely to woolly or unbalanced results. He made numerous 
copies from Rembrandt etchings, notably one of the Hundred 
Guilder Print, which bears his usual signature T.W. He is perhaps 
most generally known for the collection of etchings after Antique 
Gems (182 Nos.), which appeared in parts from about 1754, but 
was not published in its entirety until after his death, by his widow 
in 1768.2 

Three other English etchers of the eighteenth century whom we Benjamin 
would mention were also copyists of Rembrandt, Benjamin Wilson, ^'lf°°: „ 

_ -r, , , Tx -1 T^ T^ Richard Byron. 

and two amateurs, Capt. JBaillie and the Hon. and Rev. Richard 
Byron (a great -uncle of the poet). A few landscape plates by 
Wilson and Byron in Rembrandt's manner are clever imitations, 

1 Ed. M. H. Spielmann, 1903. The original copper-plates used in this edition 
are now in the British Museum. 

^ Copies are said to have been issued printed on satin. 


which have not infrequently deceived the collector. Wilson's best 
work in etching, as in painting, was in portrait, in which his style 
closely resembles Worlidge. 
Captain Baillie. Capt. WiLLiAM Baillie, an Irishman who had fought at 
Culloden, and served in various campaigns on the continent of 
Europe, retiring early to hold an appointment of Commissioner of 
Stamps, did more etching than either of the preceding. Besides 
making several copies from Rembrandt etchings (of which the 
Goldweigher and the Three Trees are most frequently met with), he 
achieved fame by his restoration of the original plate of the 
Hundred Guilder Print, which had come into his possession. 
Impressions from the whole plate as reworked by Capt. Baillie, and 
from the four pieces into which he afterwards divided it, are by 
no means uncommon. Most of his work,i which numbers over a 
hundred plates, was done between his retirement from the army 
(about 1 761) and 1787, but one or two of his more dilettantish 
performances date earlier, e.g. a portrait of Corporal Jones ( ? John 
Golding) of 1653. Comparatively little of his work is original, a 
great part in the crayon and stipple manners reproducing drawings 
in private collections (in particular that of the Earl of Bute). Con- 
sidering the lack of early artistic training, and the real excellence of 
some of his work, especially his crayon engravings and mezzotints, 
he must have possessed much of Prince Rupert's ingenuity for 
The repi-o- The reproduction of old master drawings by means of etching, 

duction of aquatint, line, and crayon engraving, was almost as popular in 
" ■ England as in France during the eighteenth century. We take this 

opportunity of referring in a note to a few works of the kind which 
are described in various sections of this book.^ 
The landscape The rise of an indigenous school of landscape painting in 
etchers. England at the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning 

of the nineteenth century was the herald of a return to the best 
The Norwich traditions of original landscape etching. In the hands of John 
scliool : Crome of Norwich (who did some 44 plates, bearing dates between 

1809 and i8i3)the accomplishment was modest, and the mere side- 
play of a painter, but it is sounder in principle than almost anything 
that had been produced in Europe for more than a century. He is 
most at home with the soft-ground process, which so many of the 
water-colourists,of the time used for the plates of their drawing- 
books.^ ^Vith the hard ground, his work is inclined to be thin 
and weak in its line, a fault not improved by poor biting and 
printing. Nevertheless his natural genius conquers the incom- 

1 A collected edition was published by Boydell in 1792 ; reissued 1803. 

2 A. Pond and C. Knapton (Chap. IX. p. 310), Earloni (Chap. IX. p. 275), 
Itartolozzi (Chap. IX. p. 291), W. W. Ryland and S. Watts in 'Rogas's Prints in 
Imitalioii of Druwings (Chap. IX. p. 293). 

" See Chap. IX. .4ijiiati/if, p. 303. Cf. also Cruyon, p. 289. 



pletely mastered medium, and in his landscapes and studies of 
oaks in particular he is scarcely second to Ruysdael or Rousseau. 
Crome himself, like many painters, did not much value his etch- 
ings, and the first public issue of any number did not occur until 


-John Crome. Study of Trees. 

after his death (i.e. Norfolk Picturesque Scenery, Norwich, 1834; 
3 1 plates). 

The second great artist of the Norwich school, John Sell j. s. 
CoTMAN, probably did some of his soft-ground studies about the 
same time that Crome was etching, but they were not published 
until 1838 in his Liber Stiidiorum. Besides these, Cotman pro- 
duced a large number of hard -ground etchings for various publica- 



tions^ of architecture and antiquities, chiefly between i8io and 
1820; but though excellent of their kind they seldom rise, like those 
of his professed model Piranesi, from the category of archaeological 
illustration into being real works of art. 

The work of two Scotchmen (Wilkie and Geddes) is of par- 
ticular interest for its revival of dry-point. 

Wilkie. Sir David Wilkie (whose etchings and dry-points, some thirteen 

in number, are dated between 1819-24) makes good use of the 
burr in plates like the Man seated at a Desk, but his etched work is 
of small importance in comparison with his painting. 

Geddes. With ANDREW Geddes, on the other hand, etching takes by no 

means a second place. Next to Raeburn he was one of the most 
prominent of the Scotch portrait painters in the earlier part of the 
nineteenth century, and it is chiefly in the field of portrait that he 
practised etching. The dry-point Portrait of his Mother (Fig. 90), 
which recalls Rembrandt's late work in the richness of its burr, 
reproduces a painting in the National Gallery of Scotland, and it is 
possible that Geddes repeated the subjects of his pictures in many 
of his other portrait plates. His few landscapes are again directly 
inspired by Rembrandt, and are quite remarkable at the period for 
their free and vigorous handling. His etchings (about forty in all) 
bear dates between 1822 and 1826, ten of them being issued by the 
artist in 1826. 

E. T. Daniell. A considerable number of landscapes in etching and dry-point, 
much in Geddes' manner, were done by a Norwich amateur, Rev. 
Edward Thomas Daniell, who must have enjoyed Crome's teach- 
ing in drawing while a boy at the Norwich grammar school. His 
prints, whose dates cover the years 1824-35, are excellent works, 
and anticipate far more nearly than anything of Crome or Cotman 
the modern revival of etching. 

D. c. Read. David Charles Read, who passed the best part of his life as 

a drawing-master in Salisbury, is far more prolific than Daniell as 
an etcher, but his style is much less sound. His work, which in- 
cludes some 237 numbers (done between 1826 and 1844) is almost 
entirely landscape. His interpretation of nature is strikingly un- 
affected for the time, but his drawing is often somewhat confused 
and meaningless, the tone being occasionally overloaded with 
roulette work (e.i^. the Stonehenge). His best plates are the dry- 
points in which he has refrained from elaboration, but he does not 
use the medium with the power of either Daniell or Geddes. 

}■ l^- ^'- Among the landscape etchers of the early nineteenth century 

urner. jj^gj.^ gjjjj ,.e,^ains the most distinguished artist of all, Joseph 

Mallord William Turner. His etching, done almost exclusively 

for his Liber Studioriim, dates from about 1807, i.e. two years before 

' '&.%. Architectural Etchings, 1811; Antiquities of Aorfolk, 1812-18; Sepulchral 
Brasses of Norfolk, 1814-19 ; Specimens of Norman and Gothic Architecture in Nor- 
folk, I8i6-i8 ; Dawson Turners Architectural Antiquities of Normandy, 1822. 



the earliest date on any plate of Crome, but we have reserved it 
for later description, as its style remained almost without influence 
on the etchers whose work we have just been describing. There is 

Fig. 90. — Andrew Geddes. Portrait of his Mother. 

good reason for this ; for his plates, in spite of their excellence, are 

not, in fact, true etcher's work. Turner merely used the etched 

line as the skeleton, so to speak, of a subject designed to be finished 

in mezzotint. The Liber Studiorum had been projected by Turner The Liber 

in direct rivalry with Claude's Liber Veritatis, which Earlom had Studiorum. 

engraved and published in 1777. Claude's idea had been to safe- 


guard himself against copyists by keeping a record on a small scale 
of the compositions of his pictures. Turner, on the other hand, aimed 
at an entirely original work, quite separate from his painting, which 
was to be a monument of the variety and strength of his genius for 
landscape composition. ^ 

He made the drawings ^ for the most part in sepia,^ etched the 
main outlines in vigorous line,* and then put the plate in the hands 
of some mezzotint engraver to finish the subject by the aid of his 
drawing and under his supervision. 

Turner originally intended to include loo plates in the 
work, but only 71 were published,^ some 20 more plates being 
engraved or partially finished. F. C. Lewis finished the first plate 
(R. 43) in aquatint, but this was his only plate, and Turner in- 
clined thenceforward to the use of mezzotint, though aquatint is not 
infrequently found in combination. The other engravers who con- 
tributed were Charles Turner (23 published plates, i unpublished), 
W. Say (ii published, 2 unpublished), Dunkarton (5 published 
plates), G. Clint (2 published plates), J. C. Easling (frontispiece, 
3 plates alone, and i in collaboration with Annis), W. T. Annis 
(i alone), S. W. Reynolds (2 published plates), T. Hodgetts (3 
published plates), H. Da we (4 published, and possibly several of 
the unpublished plates), T. Lupton ® (4 published, and 2 unpublished 
plates), and finally i o of the published plates and some of the un- 
published were mezzotinted by J. M. W. Turner himself. 

One of the most powerful of the plates entirely done by Turner, 
X\\& Junction of the Severn and the Wye (R. 28) is reproduced in its 
early etched state (showing signs of the mezzotint rocker in places) 
in Fig. 91. In a few instances {e.g. R. 40, 55, 70) the preliminary 
work was done in soft ground, while in others (R. 90 and 91) the 
plate never got beyond this stage. The Liber was issued in fourteen 
parts (each containing five plates) between 1807 and 1819, but was 
then relinquished for lack of success. Some of the drawings, which 
were not reproduced at the time, have been recently engraved with 

1 In the words of the prospectus issued in 1807 it was intended in this publica- 
tion to attempt a classificalio7i of the various styles of landscape, vis. the historic, 
mountainous, pastoral, marine, and architectural, 

^ The greater part are now in the National Gallery. 

^ Contrast Chap. VII. p. 222, 

* In certain numbers the inscription only claims the drawing for Turner. The 
majority are inscribed drawn and etched by/. .1/. U'. T., but even here Seymour 
Haden and Drake attempt a differentiation between those which they regard as 
entirely etched {i.e. bitten) by the master, and others in which the quality seems to 
show that he only opened the ground with the etching needle preparatory to biting 
It is only natural to suppose that the exact amount done by the m.ister, and the ex- 
tent of supervision given to his engr.ivers, would vary according to the circumstances 
of each plate in the course of so arge a work, 

» I.e. Frontispiece and 70 plates (Rawlinson's Catalogue, 1-71). In addition 
to the unpublished plates (R. 72-91), 8 drawings of other subjects for the work are 
known, which were not engraved at the time (R. 92-99). 

» He also engraved facsimiles of 17 of the plates of the iife/- between 18 cS and 
1864. Cf. p. 283. ^ 



no less power than is seen in the best of those by Turner's con- 
temporaries, by Frank Short. Mr. Short has also made copies of 
some of the plates, a considerable number being after those which 
were left unpublished in 1819. It may be added that another of 
the drawings {Mill near the Grande Chartretise, R. 5 4) was twice 
etched by Seymour Haden (Drake 49 and 50). 

The reworking of the plates as they became worn in the printing 
seems to have been done entirely by Turner himself, and the later 
impressions preserve a comparatively greater artistic value than they 
would do in the ordinary course, on that account. It is still, how- 

*- sif ,~~^-^ -^ 

Fig. gi. — J. M. W. Turner. Junction of the Severn and the Wye, 
from the Liber Studiorvm (proof state). 

ever, the early engraver's proofs, and only the earliest of the published 
states, which show the delicate mezzotint burr in all its richness. 

In the Netherlands the eighteenth century was as barren in The Nether- 
original etching as the preceding period had been rich. Her in- lands. 
spiration was exhausted with a splendid activity, and her artists 
were living in the past, copying and imitating with skill, but breaking 
no new paths, and expressing few fresh ideas. In the latter part of 
the century Hendrik Kobell caught something of the freshness of Hendrik 
the older masters in his landscapes and marines, while his son Jan ^^'"'i'- 
Kobell II. ,^ who was working in the first decade of the nineteenth jan Kobell II. 
century, showed himself an apt imitator of Paul Potter in his etchings 
of animals. 

1 H. and J. K. belonged originally to the same family (of Frankfurt extraction) 
which produced similar archaising etchers at the same period in Germany. 


John Chalon. 

Christian, and 
Pieter Janson. 

L. B. Coders. 

More exclusively mere imitators are John Chalon, who worked 
sometime in London and made numerous copies and imitations of 
Rembrandt and his school, and Johannes Janson of Leyden. The 
latter, and his sons Johannes Christian Janson and Pieter 
Janson, produced a considerable number of landscapes with 
animals, chiefly copied or imitated from A. van de Velde, Carel du 
Jardin, and the like. 

An etcher of greater originality, who used dry-point and soft 
ground as well as ordinary etching, is Louis Bernard Coolers. 
His style is comparable to that of Worlidge, and some of his plates 
of genre and portrait {e.g. one of Johannes Janson) are quite 
excellent and spirited in handhng. 

Germany. In our chapter on the "Masters of Etching" no word was 

spoken of German etchers, if we exclude Hollar from this category. 
Etching played so small a part in Germany during the seventeenth 
century, that we have reserved allusion to it in introducing the work 
of the succeeding period. 

Jonas Jonas Umbach (i 624-1 700) of Augsburg was one of the more 

Umbach. independent of the etchers of the time. He produced many small 

plates of landscape, and of Scripture illustration, but the most 
charming side of his talent is seen in his Bacchanals and other 
mythological subjects, in which he affects Guido Reni's delicate 
manner of etching. 

J. F. Beich. JoACHiin Franz Beich is another etcher at the turn of the 

century who was influenced by work produced in Italy. His land- 
scapes savour of Claude and the school of Poussin at Rome. A 
more powerful artist, whose inspiration also came from Italy, is 

C. B. Rode. Christian Bernhard Rode (1725-97) of Berlin. His numerous 
plates, many of large dimensions, illustrating history, Scripture, 
mythology, and various subjects, show an imitator of Tiepolo, 
though their diffuseness and lack of grip are more reminiscent of 

J. W. Baur. Followers of Northern models were the etchers Johann AVilhelm 

M. Scheits. Baur (i6oo?-i642) and Mathias Scheits of Hamburg (about 
1640-1700), the former closely influenced by Callot, the latter 
working in the manner of Ostade. Somewhat comparable to Baur 

J. u. Franck. is Johann Ulrich Franck of Augsburg, whose etchings of soldiers 
are rough, but full of life. 

J. H. Roos. During the latter part of the seventeenth century Germany had 

a capable representative of animal etching in Johann Heinrich 
Roos,i who had come under the influence of the Dutch etchers 
both in Amsterdam and Italy, before settling in Frankfurt. Animal 
etchers of much more indigenous character are the Augsburo- 
painters Georg Philipp Rugend.\s and his pupil Johann Elias 

' A Vienna etcher of the same surname, Joseph Roos, etched a few plates of 
animals in a very similar manner about a hundred years later. 


RiEDiNGER. The former worked as a battle-painter, but the G. P. 
etchings of both consist largely of animals and hunting scenes. ^"gs"<las- 
For the sportsman and the lover of game they may possess a certain Riedinger. 
interest, but their artistic value is a negligible quantity, so dull and 
lifeless is their draughtsmanship. Riedinger was a most prolific 
etcher, and both he and Rugendas also produced a considerable 
number of mezzotints. 

German etchers in the eighteenth century were for the most 
part without individual style, and were content to repeat badly what 
had been done greatly by the Dutch the century before. Christian 
WiLHELM Ernst Dietrich of Dresden was the leader of the c. w. E. 
archaisers alike in painting and in etching, and many a picture Dietrich. 
produced in his school has long passed under names such as 
Rembrandt and Ostade. His etchings are numerous, and, like 
those of the line-engraver G. F. Schmidt, are mostly modelled on 

Of the landscape archaisers and imitators, Franz Edmund f. E. 
Weirotter is most successful when he keeps to plates of the Weirotter. 
small dimensions, to which his delicate and clearly etched line is 
fitted. Only a small number of his prints are directly after Dutch 
originals ; but almost all his work, though strictly independent in 
composition, is reminiscent of the simpler type of Dutch landscape, 
such as that of Jan van Goyen and Pieter Molyn. 

Berchem finds a prolific imitator of his landscape in Ferdinand Ferdinand and 
Kobell^ of Mannheim, while the latter's son, Wilhelm Kobell, ^^J^^}"^ 
followed Berchem and Du Jardin in his plates of animals, which are 
slight but not without spirit. 

A modest, but nevertheless more individual place is held by the Salomon 
Zurich amateur and author Salomon Gessner. His etchings of *^^^^"^''- 
idyllic landscape are feeble enough in figure drawing, and scarcely 
pleasing in their dotted manner of rendering foliage (like Roghman), 
but they possess a genuine atmosphere of their own, which finds its 
nearest analogies in the sentiment of Blake, Calvert, and Samuel 
Palmer. Almost all his plates were done to illustrate his own 
writings, e.g. Contes Moraux, Zurich, 1773, Schrif ten, Z\:inc\i, iTTl-T?> 
(the first volume being the Contes Moraux), and numerous other 
editions. A considerable number of his small prints were also 
published in the Helvetischen Calendern of Zurich (between 
1780 and 1788). 

German and Austrian etching present little more of interest until 
the revival of the art in the nineteenth century, and the movement 
was felt considerably later here than in France or England. There 
is no lack of large, dull landscape work, in a stiff manner, on the 
borderland between etching and engraving, e.g. that of Jacob 
Philipp Hackert and J. L. E. Morgenstern, but almost all the 
work of the school is best consigned to oblivion. 
' Cf. above, p. 245, footnote. 


Adam von 

We cannot leave the German and Austrian etchers without 
some reference to Adam von Bartsch (1757-1821), who for some 
years before his death was Director of the Imperial Print Collection 
at Vienna. As an engraver, he is chiefly known for numerous 
plates in line, etching, and crayon after prints and drawings by old 
masters. His real fame, however, rests on his numerous catalogues 
of engravers, and above all on the great work, Le Peintre-Graveur, 
which appeared in 21 volumes between 1803 and 1821. Despite the 
absence of scientific criticism and of reference to locality of prints, 
and many lacunse which are explained by the limited basis of its 
material,! the work still forms the central foundation of iconography. 


Jean de 

J. Audran. 
B. Audran II. 
Count Caylus. 



Caylus, and the 
of drawings. 

Etching in France during the eighteenth century was to a large 
degree merely the transference of drawings to copper, in a manner 
imitating all the peculiar qualities of the pencil, pen, or chalk. We 
mentioned in the preceding chapter the great publication of Watteau's 
work by the amateur Jean de Jullienne.^ Two of the four 
volumes of this work (Figures de differents caraderes de paysages et 
d'^tudes dessinies d'apres nature) were entirely devoted to the re- 
production of the master's drawings. Pure etching is seldom 
used, the bitten line being almost always sharpened and reinforced 
with the graver. Of the 350 plates, some 125 are the work of the 
then young Francois Boucher, while Jean Audran, BENotx 
Audran II., Count Caylus, and several others beside Jean 
DE Jullienne himself, are responsible for the rest. 

One of Boucher's plates is reproduced (Fig. 92), and shows how 
excellently he preserved the quality of ^^'atteau's drawing. JuUienne's 
publication contains the greater part of Boucher's etched work, but 
there are some fifty or sixty more stray plates of figure and fancy 

Antoine Watteau himself etched a few figure studies in a 
similar manner, but they are of slight importance (e.g. Figures de 
modes dessinies et gravies h teau-forte par A. Jl'dtteai/ et termiiiies 
par Thomassin le fits. Chez Duchange. . . . Front, and 1 1 plates, 
occurring in the Watteau Corpus of the British Museum). 

In the reproduction of drawings the archaeologist * and amateur 
Count Caylus was by far the most prolific worker of the time. 
Some three thousand etchings and engravings after drawings in the 
Royal and private collections of France are from his hand, and though 
scarcely true enough in reproduction to satisfy the modern student, 
they at least form a most valuable record of scattered works. The 
etchings which he contributed to the Cabinet Crozat^ (1729) are 

' The collections of Vienna formed its chief groundwork, 
numerous German collections must have also contributed. 

'"^ See pp. 200-1, and notes. 

" His great work in this capacity is the Rccueil d'AntiqniUs, 7 vols., Paris, 
67 (the plates by himself). 

<■ Cf. Chap. VII. p. 202. 

though Paris and 




in many cases combined with tone printed from several wood-blocks 
in the chiaroscuro method by Nicolas Le Sueur.i Charles 

Two pupils of the painter Lemoyne, Charles Natoire and Natoire. 

Fig. 92. — Fran9ois Boucher. Study of a Woman's Head, after Watteau. 

Charles Hutin,- approach Boucher's light manner most nearly in Charles Hutin. 

1 Cf. Chap. IX. p. 310. A similar combination occurs in the title-page to Caylus's 
collection of etchings after Leonardo da Vinci (Recueil de Testes cle Caracth-es et de 
Charges, 1730). ^ C. H. settled in Dresden in the latter part of his hfe. 

J. H. 

The amateurs. 

Marquise de 

Vivant Denon. 


J. J. de 

J. P. Norblin. 

A. Manglard. 


their etchings of figure and fancy, while an even more exquisite 
refinement of Hght and line is seen in the slighter studies of 
Boucher's pupil Jean Honors Fragonard. Fragonard stands as 
the chief French representative of the rococo love for white lights, 
and in his etching follows the aims of Tiepolo, with a reminiscence 
of Baroccio's system of light line and dot. 

Unfortunately the best painters of the time, like Fragonard 
himself, treated etching more as a plaything than a serious branch 
of their art. It was the fashion with the artistic society of the 
period, set at Court by the Marquise de Pompadour, to dabble 
with the etching needle, and the result was a host of third-rate 
copyists and archaisers, and the minimum of serious production. 
The Marquise herself was a pupil of Boucher, and shows consider- 
able talent in her careful etchings of the vignette order, though she 
may have left a good deal in the hands of her able assistants {e.g. 
a frontispiece to Corneille's Rodogune, etched by the Marquise after 
a design by Boucher, and retouched by C. N. Cochin). -"^ 

Beside the Marquise de Pompadour and Count Caylus, the 
most distinguished French amateur etcher of the eighteenth and the 
early nineteenth centuries was Baron Dominique Vivant Denon, 
who, as General Director of the Paris Museums (until 1815), was 
entrusted by the Emperor Napoleon with the selection of the works 
of art which were collected from every conquered territory for the 
Musde Napoleon. His numerous etchings ^ are for the most part 
copies and imitations of drawings and etchings of all schools, a 
large number being based on Rembrandt. 

Work of a similar order, including numerous good copies of 
plates by Rembrandt and other prints of the Dutch school, was done 
by another amateur, J. J. de Claussin, the author of a catalogue 
oif Rembrandt's etchings. Another imitator, but one of considerable 
individuality in his method of expression, is Jean Pierre Norblin, 
a pupil of the Dresden Academy, who was settled for some years 
as Court painter in Warsaw before returning to his native country. 
The model for his style is the delicate etching of Rembrandt's little 
Christ among the Doctors, of 1630; and he combines an exquisite 
sense for line with a subtle understanding of the effect of chiaroscuro 
in plates of miniature dimensions. ' 

Of original landscape etching there is little of note at this period 
in France. Adrien Manglard (1695-1760), the author of some 
fifty plates of marines, and of landscape somewhat in the style of 
Adriaen van der Cabel, is of more interest as master of Claude 

' Basan published an edition of her plates in 1782. The greater number (fifty- 
two) are d'ii/*rds les pierres gravis de Guay {etched about 1750). 

"^ A few original etchings occur in his great work, I'ln'agi- dans la basse ft haute 
hsypte pendant les campagnes dii Gdndral Bonaparte (Paris, 1802), but the majority 
of the illustrations are engravings after his drawings. His Moiiumetits des Arts du 
Dessin (Paris, 1829), a noble record of his collection, is entirely illustrated in lithog- 


Joseph Vernet, the most famous of French painters of marines. Claude Joseph 
Vernet himself is of no importance in the field of etching, only a '^emet. 
few slight landscapes being attributed to him. 

The only French etcher of landscape to be reckoned with during J. J. de 
the eighteenth century is Jean Jacques de Boissieu of Lyons. Boissieu. 
He is one of the very rare French artists who, after studying in 
Paris, have rejoined their local school. A certain provincial dull- 
ness and a lack of brilliant characteristic in his work cannot be 
gainsaid. Most of his somewhat large landscapes are original, but 
all have the appearance, which probably does not belie the fact, of 
being etched after his own pictures. He was essentially an eclectic 
in this branch of art, imitating now Ruysdael, now Du Jardin, now 
Claude, after each of whom he also made some etchings. His 
most individual work lies in his plates of subject and genre, and 
in his studies of heads. In the larger Cellarers (1790), and in the 
Two Hermits (1797), he shows a powerful sense of chiaroscuro, 
using the somewhat unique method of crossing and interlacing his 
more heavily etched lines with fine dotted and roulette work, which 
adds force to the contrast of light and shade. Less elaborated 
than the two we have mentioned in its lineal method is the School- 
master {t.'j^o), but it is quite the most convincing of his subject 

Before leaving the French etchers, we would just mention the J. A. D. 
only etching known by the hand of the great classical painter, Jean ^'^s^^^- 
AuGusTE Dominique Ingres. It is a half-length portrait of 
Gabriel Cortois de Pressigny, French Ambassador at Rome, and 
later Bishop of ^esangon, and is dated 1 8 1 6 in Rome. In the 
rendering of figure and hands it is somewhat stiff, but the etching 
of the head shows a simplicity and conviction of draughtsmanship 
which form a true anticipation of the best work of Legros. 

Only one Spanish etcher has hitherto been noticed, i.e. Josd Spain. 
de Ribera, and his activity chiefly centred in Naples. In Spain 
itself there is little etching of importance during the seventeenth The seven- 
century, but what there is possesses a distinct character of its own, teenth century. 
showing for the most part a system of lineal shading intermingled 
with dot, which may to some extent be derived from Ribera. On 
the other hand, the Dutch and Flemish influence, which had been 
encouraged by the political relations between Spain and the Low 
Countries, is unmistakable. The mixed manner of Soutman, 
Suyderhoef, and Sompel is adapted by the Spanish etchers to some- 
thing of the lighter touch of the school of Reni, while there is an 
evident tendency to imitate the hazy softness of Murillo's style. The 
two great Spanish painters of the period, Velazquez and Murillo, do 
not appear to have left any etchings, nor were their works reproduced 
to any extent until the eighteenth century. Claudio Coello Coeiio. 
(1621-93) is responsible for at least one plate (the title-page to 


Augustin de San Ildefonso's Theologia Mystica Sciencia, 1683, but 
the best of the work of the seventeenth century, only enough to 
M. Arteaga. throw into relief the barrenness of the period, is that of Mathias 
J. de Vaides Arteaga (a few portraits and architectural plates), Juan de Valdes 
j'^Garcia ^"'^'^^ (architectural, etc.), Jos6 Garcia Hidalgo {e.g. illustrations 
Hidalgo. of anatomical proportions in his rare book on Painting, Principtos 

para estudiar la nobilissima arte de la Pintura, Madrid, 1691), and 
J. Martinez. Jos£ MARTINEZ {e.g. a good portrait of Mathias Piedra, dated 

The eighteenth During the early part of the eighteenth century the style of 
century. Michel Dorigny made itself felt in Spain, but it was only in line- 

engraving that French art exerted any lasting influence in Spain. 
With the advent of Tiepolo in Madrid in 1762, the Itahan school 
was again in the ascendant. 
J. B. Catenaro. As belonging to the former category one might mention J. B. 
Catenaro, who worked about 1700 in a light manner, midway 
between that of Reni and the French etchers of Dorigny's school, 
J. de Castillo, while the style of Tiepolo is already dominant in Josife de Castillo 
BayeuySubias. {e.g. after Luca Giordano) and in Ramon Baveu y Subias. The 
last named etched a few plates after Ribera and Guercino, but most 
of his work was either after his own paintings or those of his better- 
known brother, Francisco Bayeu, who was one of Mengs's chief 
collaborators in Madrid. 

But there is no Spanish etcher from the time of Ribera to the 
last quarter of the eighteenth century who deserves more than a 
Francisco passing notice. Then in Francisco Goya we meet one of the 
Goya. great names in the whole history of etching, as it is in that of 

painting. Like Bayeu, whose sister he married, Goya was inspired 
by Tiepolo, but except in his early works he owed little but the 
mere suggestion of his technical system to the Italian. He de- 
veloped a most striking independence of style, and with it attained 
to a more typical expression of the sentiment of his country than 
any other artist, before or since, not excluding Velazquez. He is 
the most cutting of all satirists, combining an almost animal fancy 
with a certain demoniacal blackness of malice against convention 
and authority, which is scarcely surprising in a country which had 
so long known the Inquisition ^ at its worst. In his later years this 
phase of his temperament may have been increased by the bitter 
isolation consequent on almost total deafness. 

Goya's plates are almost entirely bitten, dry-point occasionally 
being used to strengthen the etched lines. He constantly uses the 
combination of an aquatint grain with his line, and he still stands as 

' A plate with the Inquisition as its subject is cited by Piot, Cab. iff I' Amateur, 
1842, and by L. Matheron, Paris, 1858, but no impression is known to recent writers 
on Goya. The Inquisition seems to have been intent on suppressing the Caprichos, 
which gained immunity by being acquired by the State ; perhaps success attended its 
efforts in the case of the plate illustrating its own institution. 


one of the greatest virtuosi of an art which had only been introduced 
a few years before his work commenced.^ Of his earlier etchings 
only the smaller proportion were aquatinted in their later states. In 
his later work, on the other hand, it is the rarest thing to find early 
states before the addition of the aquatint grain. From the studies 
which exist for several of his plates we see that his work was from 
the first conceived in light and shade, and to this end he set himself 
to develop the possibilities of aquatint in expressing the subtlest 
gradations of tone, no doubt choosing this method rather than mezzo- 
tint for the transparent luminosity, through which all his lines might 
have full play. 

Among the earliest of Goya's etchings are the plates after 
Velazquez (about sixteen in all, e.g. Philip II. and /// and their 
Queens, Aesop, etc.), dated for the most part in 1778. In these, 
and in another subject of the same period, the Street Musician 
(Lef. 248 ^), his line is essentially in the manner of Tiepolo, and in 
the last-named plate the whole structure of the composition in the 
form of a triangle follows the same model. 

The earliest work in which Goya shows complete independence Caprichos. 
is the set of Caprichos, seventy-two of which were produced between 
1793 (94) and 1796 (97). In 1803 the plates, together with 240 
impressions of the series (by that time brought up to eighty in 
number), were acquired by the King for the Calcografia Nacional. 
It seems very questionable whether there was ever, strictly speaking, 
an edition of the seventy-two plates in 1796-97, as has till recently 
been supposed. Probably only separate impressions had got into 
commerce before 1803, so that the first collected edition may 
perhaps be regarded as belonging to this date. In 1806 another 
edition is said to have been made under the direction of the engraver 
Rafael Esteve, so that the 240 impressions received from Goya 
were apparently exhausted within the three years. Since that time 
there have been three fresh editions, in 1856,^ 1868, and in 1892, 
issued on a thin Japanese vellum, while the earlier editions had 
been printed on stouter and more opaque paper. Like every satirist 
before and since, Goya of course denied all intention of personalities, 
affirming that he merely chose subjects by which the prejudices, 
hypocrisies, and impostures consecrated by time might best be 
stigmatised and turned to ridicule.* Without giving him credit for 
being less human than his brother-satirists, we need not be detained 

1 See Chap. IX. p. 300. 

2 The composition corresponds to one of the cartoons for tapestry which Goya 
made in his early period. 

^ Without the portrait of Goya, which had been used in the 1855 edition of the 
Tauromaquia. It may be remarked that there are three unpublished plates of 
Caprichos, which were done for the Duchess of Alba, in the National Library, 

* The MS. once in Valentin Carderera's collection ; see Gazette des Beaux- Arts, 
XV. p. 240. 

by the commentaries of certain of Goya's contemporaries,^ which 

I*"ic; 93. — Fi;uicisco Goya. From ihc c~.?/r/V//('.^■ (Plate S3I. 

have fixed C.odoy, Prince de la Paix (f.g. Plate 37), Godoy's 

' Sfc Lefoi-l's t';UalogLiL- (1877), and Conde do la \'inaza, Madrid, 1887, p. 1:54. 


surgeon Galinsoya (Plate 40), his painter Carnicero (Plate 41), 
the Duchess of Alba (Goya's patroness and more than friend), and 
many other personages of the Court in the pillory. Goya's own 
commentary! unfortunately does little more than adduce further 
generalities. If there is one butt at which he is never tired of 
launching his shafts, it is ecclesiasticism. 

In the same vein of satire are the eighteen plates of the Proverbiof. 
Proverbios (or Suenos, " Dreams " as Goya called them), which were 
probably done for the most part between 18 10 and 1815, though 
they were first publicly issued in a series in 1864 (by the Academy 
of San Fernando). A small number of impressions had been taken 
from the plates (before the addition of the numbers) by their private 
owner in 1850, 

Later editions, of little artistic value, have been made in 
1 89 1 and 1902. Lefort was of opinion that the aquatint of this 
series was the addition of a later hand. But as he only knew 
impressions in pure etching of eight of the plates, and considering 
the similarity in quality in the aquatint to his other work, it is 
probable that he was mistaken. No commentary on this series is 
preserved, and for the most part the point of the satire is more 
obscure than in the Caprichos. 

Nothing in art reflects with more terrible emphasis the horrors Desastres de 
of war than the eighty-two plates of Goya's Desastres de la Guerra, '^ Guerra. 
which were etched at the time of the French occupation (the only 
three bearing dates belonging to 18 10), but not published until 
1863. The edition then published by the Academy of San 
Fernando (of which Goya had been Director) contained eighty 
plates, the remaining two, which were in Lefort's collection, never 
having been included. A second edition was issued in 1892 (in 
which the Academia de Nobles Artes of the title-page of the first 
edition now figures as Academia de Bellas Aries'), and unfortunately 
the Calcografia Nacional at Madrid seems still bent on publishing 
bad impressions from the much worn plates (e.g. editions in 1903 
and 1906). 

Aquatint is a less important factor in the Desastres than in any 
of the other series of Goya's plates, twenty-eight of the plates being 
in pure etching, sometimes slightly worked with dry-point. 

It is a strange situation, this of the intellectual rebel reaching 
the coveted position of chief painter to the Spanish Court in the 

1 Once in Carderera's collection (now in the Prado, Madrid). Only a French 
paraphrase of extracts from it has been published (see Lefort's Catalogue). 
For another, apparently later, commentary by the artist, see Yriarte, L'Art, ii. (1877) 
p. 37. As an example of the Lefort's paraphrase I cite an extract referring to the 
plate reproduced (Fig. 93) : Ceci ressemble quelque peu aux reunions acad4miques. 
Qui salt si ce perroquet ne parte pas mMecinef Que Von n'aille pas toutefois ten 
croire sur parole. Ilyaiel midecin qui quand it parte, parted' or et lorsqu' it dcrit 
une ordonnance est quetque chose de plus qu'un Hdrode. II discourt admirablement 
des maladies, mais ne les guirit pas. Enjln, s'it ifbaubit son malade, it peupte en 
revanche les cimetikres de cadavres. 


very face of the Caprichos, which disclose a man who did not shrink 
even from the satire of Royalty. But the time of Charles IV. was 
analogous in its reaction against the severity of the reign that 
preceded it, to that of Charles II. of England, and the satirist is 
seldom silenced in a period of moral licence. Goya did not 
scruple to retain his position at the sacrifice of his loyalty to his 
king, and on the success of Napoleon's invasion, yielded allegiance 
to Joseph Bonaparte (1808). On the restoration of 1814, Goya 
still adroitly kept his seat, and though branded by Ferdinand VII. 
as worthy of the garrotte, he was none the less allowed to retain the 
position of Court painter. It was not until some ten years later 
(1824) that Goya thought fit to solicit the king's consent to retire 
from Madrid, spending most of the last four years of his life in 
Tauromaquia. The last series of etchings we have to mention is the 

Tauromdguia, thirty-three plates illustrating the Spanish national 
sport. Here Goya was on safe ground, and himself made a public 
issue in a small number of impressions about 1815, with the title 
Treinta y tres estampas que representan diferentes suertes y 
aditudes del arte de lidiar los Toros. In the second edition, pub- 
lished by the Calcografia Nacional in 1855, with the portrait of 
Goya from the Caprichos, the title runs, Coleccion de las diferentes 
suertes, etc. About 1876 they reappeared, with seven additional 
plates, in a Paris edition {La Tauromachie, recueil de 40 estampes, 
etc. : Loizelet, Paris, n.d.), the first two plates showing rework 
with the roulette to restore the worn aquatint grain. 

The series we have described, with the prints after Velazquez, 
almost complete Goya's etched work. Some half-dozen separate 
subjects are of no great importance, and contribute nothing to the 
formation of an estimate of his genius. 

As a satirist he may be misanthropic and bitter, completely 
lacking in the bonhomie which takes all evil taste from the work of 
so much of the coarsest of English caricature, but in the unflinching 
courage with which he probes right to the heart of social rottenness 
he proves himself the true satirist who battles with abuses, not the 
mere degenerate social historian such as one will meet later in Rops. 

In the Tauromdquia satire is left on one side, and it is in these 
plates that Goya's individual genius in the art of composition pure 
and simple can best be studied. Plates such as No. 16 {Martincho 
vuelca un toro en la plaza de Madrid) show a brilliance in concentra- 
tion, a command of spacing, an unfailing grasp of the mysterious 
power of a veil of light and shade, that place them at once among 
the greatest triumphs of art. 



The term Tone Processes may be fairly applied to denote all 
those methods of engraving which aim at the achievement of a 
surface of tone corresponding either to washes of colour, or to the 
surface texture obtained by chalk, pencil, or similar means. 
Although engraving, etching, and dry-point do occasionally attempt 
the same problem, it may be taken as a general principle that they 
should not aim at hiding the line, which is the essential factor that 
rules their conventions. The etcher, moreover, will often leave ink. 
on the surface of the plate to add tone to his impressions ; but this, 
of course, is rather an accident than a property of the method. It 
is, perhaps, no mere coincidence that, just at the time when Rem- 
brandt was begintling to turn to the problems of chiaroscuro in 
etching {e.g. in his St. Jerome of 1642), which he realised most 
wonderfully in the Descent from the Cross of 1654, and several other 
plates of the same period, an amateur living in Amsterdam dis- 
covered the process which stands at the head of all the methods of 
chiaroscuro engraving, that of mezzotint. 

The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries had seen little accomplished 
with the same end in view, except in the form of the "chiaroscuro " 
cuts, which were printed from several wood-blocks in ink of various 
shades. There are isolated engravers like Giulio Campagnola and 
Ottavio Leoni, who obtained their delicate modelling by short 
flicks and dots, in a manner anticipating that of stipple ; there are, 
again, goldsmiths such as the Kellerdallers of Dresden, who at the 
end of the sixteenth and in the early seventeenth century achieved 
similar ends by the use of punches ; but there was no sustained 
effort along these lines until the invention of mezzotint engraving. 
Later developments, all working towards similar ends, are the pro- 
cesses of AQUATINT and STIPPLE, while the crayon-manner may be 
allowed to come within the field of our definition, as the aim is still 
the imitation of surface texture, although to some extent limited to 
the texture of^lines of various breadth. 

After reviewing the history of each process, we shall conclude 

257 s 


with a summary of the development of colour printing, which has 
been chiefly applied to these methods. 

I. Mezzotint 

John Evelyn, who is the first writer to refer to mezzotint, has 
unfortunately done little but cast a veil of mystery over the early 
history of the art. The spirit of the courtier is perhaps responsible 
for the flattery which made him head his notice, Of the New way of 
engraving, or Mezzo Tinio, invented and communicated by his High- 
nesse Prince Rupert, without a mention in what follows of its real 
author, Ludwig von Siegen.i The notice itself is tantalising in 
what it conceals. After relating how his Highness had communi- 
cated to him the art,^ causing the instruments to be expressly fitted to 
shew m^ with his own hands, how to manage and conduct them on the 
plate, in spite of having obtained the Prince's permission to publish 
the whole matter, he did not think it necessary that an art so curious 
and (as yet) so little vulgar . . . was to be prostituted at so cheap a 
rate as the mere naked describing of it here would too soon have expos' d 
it to, and so chose to leave it aenigmatical. Finally, he expresses 
readiness to demonstrate the entire art to gratify any curious,^ if 
what I am preparing to be reserved in the Archives of the Royal 
Society concerning it, be not sufficiently instructive. 

Apparently no memorandum of the kind reached the Royal 
Society : renewed search has at least failed to bring the same to 
light.* But a reference to a similar manuscript, probably the one in 
question, as being in private hands between 1734 and 1741,^ which 

1 Sculptura, 1662, p. 145. W. Vaillant's portrait of the Prince, inscribed Prins 
Robbert^ vinder van de Swarte Pretit Konst, may also have something to do with the 
error, continued by Walpole, which Heineclcen [Idi'c G^nh-ale, 1771., pp. 208 and 233) 
was the first to refute. Sandrart, who was in Amsterdam 1637-44 (45li a^nd may have 
known Siegen personally, knew the true f.rcts of the case, except that he gives 1648 
instead of 1642-43 as the date of the Amelia Elizabeth (see Teutsche Academic, 
Nuremberg, 1675, Pt. I. p. loi). 

Sir Christopher Wren is another for whom the honour of the invention 
has been claimed (see S. Wren, Pareiitalia, 1750, p. 214). In the passage in the 
Parentalia a print of a Moor's Head is mentioned as his work. The claim may be 
merely a mistaken inference from an eniry m Journal of the Royal Society, Oct. i, 
1662 (quoted by Birch, Hist, of the R.S.), but there is no reason why he should not 
have made essays in the new art, possibly seen in the two Xcgro Heads in the British 
Museum. Chelsum (p. 15) states that the passage in the Parentalia is extracted from 
preface of Dr. Hooke's Micrograpliia. But I fail to find anything of the sort in either 
the 1665 or 1667 editions of that book. 

"^ Cf. Evelyn's Diary for Feb. 21 and March 13, i66i, 

•^ One of these "curious" was I'cpys, who in his Diary, Xov. 5, 1665, notes: 
Mr. Evelyn shoioed mc . . . the whole secret of nieisotinto and the manner of 

it, which is ve>y pretty, and good things done -with it. 

•> See Evelyn's Sculptura, ed. C. F. Bell, Oxford, 1906, Introduction to Pt. II. 
p. vi. 

i> Bayle's General Dictionary, Eng. Transl. by Bernard, Birch, and Loekman, 
1734-41, vol. v. p. 131 (under Evelyn) ; 

"We have now in our hands, communicated to us by the very learned Richard 


definitely assigns the discovery to von Siegen, proves that Evelyn 
knew enough of the true facts to render his public account something 
of a perversion. 

Unfortunately the only quotation from this memorandum which 
has been preserved refers merely to the fact and fable of the inven- 
tion : the use of tools called the hatcher and style ^ being the only 
definite excerpt from his description of the method itself. So, in 
treating the early development of the process, which is in many 
respects obscure, we are left almost entirely to a careful examination 
of the plates themselves. 

In our introductory chapter the essentials of the developed 
process have been described as one in which the engraver works 
from dark_ to light, i.e. in the exactly opposite course to most 
engraving and etching. By means of the rocker he first obtains a 
regular grain on the surface of the plate, which by the virtue of its 
burr would yield a rich black impression. Then by the aid of scraper 
and burnisher he removes the burr, and polishes the surface in varying 
degrees in the parts where he wishes to have his lights. 

Now the earliest mezzotinters, Ludwig von Siegen, Prince 
Rupert, and to some extent their immediate successors, proceeded 
in an entirely different manner, working positively from light to dark, 
leaving those parts of the plate which were to appear white untouched, 
and so depending on the scraper for occasional correction rather than 
as an indispensable adjunct in their process. Their chief instrument 

Middleton Massey, M. D. and F. R.S. , an original MS. written by Mr. Evelyn, and 
designed for the R.S. , and entitled Prince Rupert's New Way of Engraving, communi- 
cated by his Highness to Mr. Evelyn. In the margin is this note : This I prepared to 
be registred in the R.S. , but I have not yet given it in. so as it still continues a secret. 
In this MS. he first describes the two instruments employed . viz. the Halclier 

and the Style, and then proceeds to explain the method of using it. He concludes 
with the following words : This invention . . was the result of chance, and improved 
by a Gerfnan soldier, who, espying some scrape on the barrill of his musquet, and being 
of an ingenious spirit, refined upon it, till it produced the effect you have scene. . . 
I have had the honour to be tJie first of the English to whom it has bin yet com.m.uni" 
cated . . but I have esteemed it a thing so curious, that I thought it would be to 
profane it, before I had first offered it to this illustrious Society. There is another 
way of engraving by rowelling a plate with an instrument made like that, which our 
Scriveners and Clearks use to direct their rulers by on parchment ; only the poynts are 
thicker sett into the rffwell. And when the plate is sufficiently freckled with the 
frequent reciprocation of it upon the polish d surface as to render the ground dark 
enough, it is to be abated with the Style, and treated as we have already described. 
Of this sort I have seen a head of the Queen Christina, grav'd (if I mistake not] as 
big as the life, but not comparable to the mezzotinto of Prince Rupert so deservedly 
celebrated by J. Evelyn." 

The story about the rusted musket barrel, which may be taken for what it is 
worth, is given with enhanced picturesqueness by Walpole (Anecdotes, ed. Dallaway 
and Womum, 1862, p. 922), whose account Vertue is stated to have received at 
second hand from Evelyn. 

The portrait of Queen Christina, alluded to, is the large plate attributed to Jan van 
de Velde (see Chap. VI. p. 169, note). 

1 The style is probably the scraper or burnisher. The hatcher might be the 
engine, or even the rocker, though the latter is not generally supposed to have been 
in use before Blooteling. 



seems to have been the roulette in various shapes and sizes, which 
in the broader barrel form was called the " engine." ^ 

l''li;. 94. — J.udwig vun Sii,',s;rn. IVrliail of Kli/.iliclh of Hobemia (?l. 

The obscurity which still shadows the early development of niezzo- 

' Tlie r;iiiiL-st |)lale known illnstmtinf; Uic moz/olintei's toofs is in Dorman 
Newman's l''xcfllfin-y of llie J'rti and Feiuil, London, i688, wlicrc the "engine," a 
•' biirnislier," and tlie " several serapcrs " are given. For a note and reproduction. 
see A. VVIiitnian, I'lint (\>/lfctor's N,iiiif/'Oi>i\ 3rd ed. 1903. Cf. also note ^, p. 2^8. 


tint, and the comparative lack of real artistic interest in the work 
of its early exponents, will excuse a somewhat technical treatment 
of the art as it was practised in its first two or three decades. 

LuDWiG VON SiEGEN, bom at Utrecht in 1609, is rightly regarded Ludwig von 
as the inventor of the art of mezzotint.^ Part of his early educa- Siegen. 
tionwas in the Rittercollegium at Cassel (1621-26), where he also 
passed some two or three years at a later period in the service of the 
Landgravine Amelia Elizabeth, and in particular attendance as 
Kammerjunker on the young Landgrave William VL (1639-41). 

For some three or four years after 1641 he was settled in 
Amsterdam, and a few years of retirement from active service spent 
here, at the time when Rembrandt's fame had reached its zenith, 
may have been the most momentous influence in his life. He is 
known to have worked both as a portrait painter and medallist, but 
up to the present none of his pictures have been identified. 

After 1644 his life was passed in a variety of circumstances as a 
military officer : serving first in the armies of the Bishop of Hildes- 
heim and the Archbishop of Cologne, he is known to have been in 
the service of the Elector of Mayence before 1654. It was possibly 
considerably later that he entered the service of the Duke of 
Wolfenbiittel. The latter end of his life is obscure : we know 
almost nothing, except that he was still living in 1676. 

His earliest dated essay in the art of mezzotint, the portrait of 
the Landgravine Amelia Elizabeth, followed soon after his return 
from Cassel to Amsterdam. With the print, which he dedicated to 
the Landgrave, he sent a letter (dated August 1642) in which he 
definitely claims the invention as his own. After referring to the 
other methods of engraving, he vaguely describes the new process 
as one essentially differing from the others in being made up, not of 
lines, but of dots.^ 

Siegen's dot work was largely achieved by means of the roulette, 
but he must also have made considerable use of the graver in the 
stipple manner. 

In all only some seven plates by Siegen are known, the Amelia 
Elizabeth (1642, later state 1643), then three large portraits after 
Honthorst, Elizabeth of Bohemia (?),^ 1643 (Fig. 94), William II. of 

^ The glory of his discovery is sufficiently cosmopolitan : his father was German, 
liis mother (the widow of a Dutchman) of Spanish origin. 

^ Diese arth ist deren keine, wie wohl auch tauter kleine puncktlin und kein 
einziger strich oder 'Augh daran ist, wan es schon an etlichen orthen strichweise 
scheinet, so ist 's dock all pUTictirt. 

^ Laborde was the first to entitle this portrait Eleonora Gonzaga, wife of Ferdinand 
III. , an identification condemned by both date and likeness. Seidel's suggestion of 
the elder Eleonora Gonzaga, wife of Ferdinand 11. , was admittedly a makeshift and 
no whit more convincing except from point of date. The title given above, found in 
the catalogue of the Sutherland College, Oxford (1837), and in H. W. Diamond, 
Earliest Specimens of Mezzotinto (1838), has every circumstance in its favour, and is 
at least plausible (though not unquestionable) on the side of portrait. 


Orange and his wife Henrietta Maria (1644); ten years later, the 
Emperor Ferdinand III. and the St. Bruno in a Grotto (1654); 
and last of all a Holy Family, after An. Carracci, dated 1657. The 
early work of 1642-44 is certainly the most powerful; possibly it was 
done more at leisure. Except for the backgrounds of the William 
II. and his Wife, which are engraved in line, Siegen's portraits are 
almost entirely done with the roulette, with occasional aid of the 
graver or point in dotted work. Though much fainter in tone than 
the rest, he never showed greater skill in using his instrument than 
in the Amelia Elizabeth. 

The Holy Family is somewhat distinct from the rest in technical 
character, showing the work of a roulette of much less regular grain, 
or even the use of a rough file. In this plate, and in some of the 
others (e.g. William II.), it seems quite possible that some of the 
peculiar quality may have been attained by biting with acid. 
Prince Rupert. Prince Rupert, son of the unfortunate Frederick V. and 
Elizabeth of Bohemia and a nephew of Charles I., whom he served 
so brilliantly in the Civil War, passed most of his youth with the 
exiled family in Holland. Before he was twenty (1638) he had 
made a few essays in etching (figures and landscape, suggested 
by Callot, and by Rembrandt's early manner), which possess 
considerable spirit. Though no longer regarded as the inventor 
of mezzotint, he did much, both by the encouragement he gave to 
others and by his own work, to develop the technical possibilities 
of the process, and he deserves honour for raising a somewhat dull 
craft into a real art. 

It is possible that Rupert learnt the art from Siegen in 
Germany, but tradition puts the momentous meeting in Brussels in 
1654,1 which is probably correct as being the more unlikely place. 
The only dates figuring on Prince Rupert's plates, which number 
about twelve in all, are 1657, 1658, and 1659 {i.e. within the period 
in which he was settled in Germany). Scarcely any of his work 
seems more tentative than the small Head of Titian^ (British 
Museum, inscribed Anno 1657 JJ'ie/i); but if the date given for 
his meeting with Siegen be correct, there were probably some earlier 
essays than this. After settling in England in 1660, he is known to 
have done the replica of the Headoft/ie Executioner as an illustration 
for Evelyn's Sculptitra, but it is impossible to say whether other 
plates belong to this period. 

In its essentials, Rupert's work does not differ from von 

^ That it could not have occurred before this date finds witness in a letter known 
in two copies (Staats-A'rchiv. Berlin and Dresden), which von Siegen sent from 
Regensburg (January and February 1654), togetlier with his portrait of Ferdinand III, , 
to various princes through their ambassadors, announcing a large project of Royal 
portraiture in the method, which he declared was still unknown to any other engraver. 
The project itself was never carried out. 

'^ The same head (corresponding to the picture once in the Uffel Coll., Antwerp, 
reproduced in Van Dyck's etching Titian and his Daughter] was mezzotinted by- 
Jan Thomas, 1661. 


Siegen's ; 'it is mostly done with the roulette, working from light to 
dark, and traces of the use of the scraper can only be noted in 
occasional instances {e.g. in the Magdalene of 1659, and the Portrait 
of Himself, Fig. 95). 

The appearance of some of his plates, and the reference in 
Evelyn to the Prince "causing the instruments to be expressly 
iitted," leads one to conjecture that he occasionally used some con- 
trivance of pole and pivot ^ to attain the long sweeping curve which 
characterises such plates as the Great Executioner (dated Frankfurt, 
1658), the Magdalene (1659), and \he. Bust of an Old Man (C.S. 4). 
It is probable that his roulette was formed with a regular series of 
teeth, although the effect of unbroken lines is attained in the darker 
parts of the work 

None of Rupert's other plates equal the Great Executioner 
(based on a picture by Ribera in Munich) in brilliance and energy ; 
even the strongly marked curves of the ground fail to spoil the general 
effect in a work on this large scale. In the Standard- Bearer (after 
Giorgione (?), also of 1658) a good deal of the tone, especially in 
the face, is attained by irregular dotted work, as well as by the 
roulette, and some of the outlines (hair, etc.) are added with the 
graver or dry-point. The Fo?-trait of Himself (Fig. 95) is one of 
the smoothest of all in tone, the roulette grain almost disappearing 
in the softness of the tone. 

Another amateur, Theodor Caspar von Furstenberg, a T. c. von 
Canon of Mayence, must have received his instruction in mezzo- Furstenberg. 
tint directly from von Siegen, and one of his few plates, the portrait 
of Leopold William, Archduke of Austria, is dated in 1656, i.e. a 
year before the first accredited date on Rupert's work. In this print 
he followed Siegen in shading the background with engraved lines, 
and in his method of using the roulette he stands on much the same 
ground. His Man of Sorrows, however, shows a grain more like 
that of Rupert's Small Executioner, and may have been done by 
means of pole and pivot. In the Daughter of Herodias he combines 
a dry-point outline with the grain. A curious type of aureole, with 
a sort of spiral of light issuing from the centre, has been sometimes 
used as an argument to attribute unsigned plates to Furstenberg, but 
it is used just as frequently by Jan Thomas. 

Jan Thomas, a painter, born at Ypres in 161 7, who had studied jan Thomas, 
under Rubens, did far more powerful work than Furstenberg. He 
was master in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1639-40, but 
soon left the Low Countries for Italy and Germany, and by the year 
1652 is found settled in Vienna as Court painter to the Emperor. 

' Others have thought that the engine, worked backwards and forwards with the 
wheel at right angles to the resulting curve, and gradually brought round in a circle 
from the elbow, would give the same regular sweep. I doubt if the perfect curve 
could be achieved unless the wheel were rolled in the direction of the curve itself, i. e. 
set at right angles to the pole. 



In 1658 he must have met Rupert at the coronation of Leopold I. 
at Frankfurt, and his earhest dated plate, Pro Deo et Patria (1658), 
which belongs by subject almost certainly to the immediate time of 
the coronation, is executed in absolutely the same manner as the 
Prince's Great Executioner of the same place and date. There 

Fiu. 95. — IMiiiCL' Uu|>crt. ronr.iii of Hiiiisolf. 

can scarcely be a doubt as to his instructor. Except for this plate 
however, his work, especially the portraits, seems more influenced 
hy the style of von Siegen. ]5ut he attained much greater depth 
of tone than the latter, without any essential advance in technical 
means, the engine or roulette laying the foundation, and the scnper 
being still quite sparingly used. Like many of the earlier mezzo 


tinters he combined the etched line, e.g. in his Achilles Disguised 
(1659). His Girl at the Window, after Dou (1661), and the 
Feasants Drinking of 1664 (after Andreas Both (?)), are quite the 
most excellent plates which had been produced up to this time, and 
show a skilful management of light and shade. 

Far more a professional mezzotint engraver than Thomas (who W. Vaillant. 
only produced 12 to 15 plates) is Wallerant Vaillant, a French- 
man who studied in Flanders and settled later in Amsterdam. 
Prince Rupert is said to have divulged the secret to him, and to 
have used him as an assistant. They probably met at Frankfurt in 
1658, at the coronation of Leopold I., where Vaillant is known to 
have painted a portrait of the Emperor ;i and if not before, it was 
possibly here that Vaillant learnt the art, and not, as has been 
supposed, after settling in Amsterdam in 1662.^ Vaillant did 
several portraits of the Prince, one of them (W. 55) a copy of 
Rupert's portrait of himself (see Fig. 95), which we have already 
referred to as bearing an inscription (in its second state) describing 
the Prince as the inventor of mezzotint. Another, a half-length 
of Prince Rupert in Armour (W. 56), is possibly again one of 
Vaillant's earliest plates, produced as it is in a rough manner closely 
resembling Rupert's work. 

Vaillant engraved in all over 200 plates, the larger number being 
subjects after painters of the Dutch and Italian schools, though 
these are of less interest in themselves than the portraits (of which 
nearly seventy are catalogued). He probably worked, like his 
master, chiefly with roulettes, but the regular grain and rich tone of 
certain of his plates incline one to surmise that the use of the 
rocker was not unknown to him. There are considerable signs of 
scraping, but, as a general rule, he does, not seem to have started 
the work by completely grounding the plate. 

Wallerant's younger brother, Bernard Vaillant, did far less b. Vaillant. 
work, but a portrait like that of J. Lingelbach shows his capability 
to have been almost as great. 

The introduction of the rocker ^ as the grounding tool, whose A. Blooteling. 
use we have thought might not have been unknown to Wallerant 
Vaillant, is generally ascribed to Abraham Blooteling. Whether 
he was the first or not to make use of the instrument, now generally 

^ Several studies by Vaillant of the Princes at the Coronation are in Dresden. 

^ I.e. at a time when Prince Rupert was in England. 

5 Cf. above, p. 259, note 1. Another quite unknown name is given as the inventor 
of the instrument in a passage in Rees's edition Chambers's Cyclopcedia, 1778-88, 
which we quote in full for the further details it gives of the development in the use of 
tools, vol. iii. (178 1 ), under Mezzotinto. . . . The Prince had laid his grounds on 
the plate with a channelled roller ; but one Sherwin, about the same time, laid his 
grounds with a half-round Jile, which was pressed down with a heavy piece of lead. 
Both these grounding tools have been laid aside for many years ; and a hand tool, 
resembling a shoemaker's cutting board-knife, with a fine crenelling on the edge, was 
introduced by one Edial, a smith by trade, who afterwards became a mezzotinto 



Gerard Valck. 

Jan Verkolje. 


Jan and Paul 
van Somer. 


used, may never be decided, but at any rate there is a far greater 
regularity ^ in the ways of his grain than in the best plates of Vaillant, 
and he was certainly the first to use the scraper systematically to 
attain a desired brilliance and variety of effect. 

Blooteling's earliest work is no doubt in line-engraving (in which 
he produced about as many plates as in mezzotint), but he must have 
started mezzotint by 1671, the year in which he dated two small 
portraits of Erasmus and Frobenius after Holbein. Vaillant had 
engraved the same portrait of Erasmus, and also one of Frobenius, 
and it was probably under his direction that Blooteling did these 
early mezzotints. He came to England about 1672-73, staying 
until 1676, and worked in mezzotint for the most part after pictures 
by Lely. Most splendid of all his plates after Lely is perhaps the 
large portrait ol James, Duke of Monmouth. 

He had a capable follower in Gerard Valck, who accompanied 
him to England, doing numerous mezzotints after Lely. Like 
Blooteling, he also worked in line-engraving. Another Dutch 
engraver who felt Blooteling's influence in the development of a 
smoother tone is Jan Verkolje. Several of his prints are after 
Lely and other English masters (e.g. the Duchesse de Mazarin after 
Lely, 1680, and the Duchess of Grafton after Wissing,- dated 
1683), and seem to have been issued in England, but there is no 
evidence that he ever visited the country. Two of his plates are 
dated in 1670. His son Nicolaas Verkolje, whose work belongs 
almost entirely to the first part of the eighteenth century, even 
surpasses his father in the smoothness of his technique. He was 
a fit interpreter of the elaboration and light effects of Dou and 
Schalcken, but like his models his work is often spiritless and 
metallic in its finish. 

The brothers Jan and Paul van Somer stand in technical 
quality nearer to Wallerant Vaillant than to the Verkoljes. Their 
artistic power, however, is considerably lower than Vaillant's. Jan, 
the more prolific mezzotinter, whose plates date from 1668,^ seems 
to have worked entirely in Amsterdam, while the younger brother 
was settled in the latter part of his life (from about 1674 to 1675) 
in London. 

Cornelis Dusart's etchings have already been noticed, but 
his mezzotints are both more numerous and better in quality. For 
the most part they are original studies of peasant life, an agreeable 
relief in the history of an art which has been too exclusively devoted 
to reproduction 

' In Walpole's notice on Luttrell, it is stated that a certain Blois used to lay 
grounds for Blooteling. In spite of Laborde's assertion to the contrary, I think it 
likely that this is the Abraham de Blois who did several portraits in mezzotint and 
line-engraving of personages of Charles II. 's Court (e.g. Nell Gwjmn, the Duchesses 
of Mazarin and Portsmouth in mezzotint, and Queen Catherine in line). 

'■^ On a first state it is described in error as after P. Lely. 

■' The Ferdinand Maximilian of Baden belongs to this year. 


Far more problematical are the few plates by the earlier etcher AUart van 
Allart van Everdingen, to which we have already alluded.^ We Everdingen. 
would merely repeat here, that although the majority of his plates to 
Reineke Vos, which have received a ground in the later states, are only 
on the borderland of mezzotint, there are nevertheless a few plates 
(e.g. the TAree Monks, B. 105) which are unquestionably executed in 
this method, z'.e. if we accept as mezzotint plates on which a burr 
has been raised by rolling with a rat-tail iile or by some other rough 
process, similar to that achieved by the rocker or roulette. 

Though Evelyn's published notice explained nothing, it is 
probable that the very mystery which enveloped the process may 
have encouraged experiment and " set many artists to work," as the 
author says in his own Diary. Possibly William Sherwin himself, William 
to whom belongs the honour of the earliest mezzotint dated by an Sherwm. 
Englishman, may have made essays with methods of his own devising 
before he was instructed by Prince Rupert, to whom his marriage 
with the grand-niece of the Duke of Albemarle might easily have 
obtained him introduction. 

The very rough grain of the large plate of Catherine of Braganza,^ 
which shows a curiously heavy and irregular dotted surface, would 
incline one to accept the tradition ^ that Sherwin sometimes used 
some sort of file, pressed heavily on to the plate, to get his ground. 
Rees describes the method as a " half-round file, pressed down with 
a piece of lead"; but similar results might be obtained by rolling a 
rat-tail file by means of a piece of wood. The more delicate parts 
of the modelling, however, seem to be done by some sort of roulette 
or engine, as in fact does almost the whole of the companion-plate 
of Charles II. (dated 1669). Though both are dedicated to Prince 
Rupert, it seems to me quite possible that it was only after these 
experimental plates that Sherwin put into practice the Prince's 
regular method of working with the roulette, which he seems to have 
used in plates such as those of the Duke and Duchess of Albemarle. 

The few mezzotints of Francis Place, an amateur engraver Francis Place. 
whose work is among the earliest produced in England, form a strong 
contrast in quality to those of Sherwin. They are characterised by 
a peculiar smoothness of tone, but some, e.g. the portrait of Richard 
Tompson the printseller, are by no means lacking in strength. Place 
was also an etcher, an art in which he may have been instructed by 
his friend Hollar. 

Edward Luttrell, an Irishman who settled in London, E. Luttreii. 
Isaac Beckett, and R. Williams are the most interesting of the ^ ■?f*?"' 

. ' „ , ,., ^ , . ° . R. Williams. 

same generation — Beckett, like so many of the mezzotinters, acting 

1 Cf. Chap. VI. p. 190. 

" In technical character, cf. the print of Queen Christina of Sweden, attributed to 
Jan V. d. Velde (see Chap. VI. p. 169, note). 

^ See Granger, Biographical History of England, 1769, Charles II., Class X., 
under Princk Rupert, and Rees's edition of Chambers's Cyclopcedia, Mezzotinto, 
1781, quoted above, p. 265, note 3. 


also in the capacity of printseller. Luttrell's Charles 11. (after 
Lely) and Francis Le Piper show vigorous handhng of a rough 
ground ; but they do not bear comparison with the best of Beckett, 
who at times could be as brilliant as Blooteling. Beckett's portraits 
of Lely and Kneller (after paintings of themselves) deserve special 
praise for a combination of sensitive modelling and vigour of treat- 
ment, which can stand by John Smith's finest work. More often, 
however, Beckett suffers from a monotonous smoothness, and a 
lack of modelling which gives a flat appearance to his plates, e.g. the 
bust of Robert Wissing (C.S. 37). He is particularly 
skilful in rendering the soft and glossy texture of the wigs of the 
period. The plates of Robert (or Roger) Williams (his Christian 
name is uncertain), which were produced between 1680 and 1704, 
exhibit some richness of tone, but they lack Beckett's incisive 

A considerable number of mezzotints of the last three decades 
of the seventeenth century bear the names of Richard Tompson 
and Alexander Browne,^ but as they are never accompanied by 
anything but the word exc(udit)^ it is doubtful whether they were 
ever more than the printers and publishers. 

William Faithorne the younger and George White (both 
sons of distinguished line-engravers) represent the change of artistic 
fashion, by completely giving up line in favour of the new process. 
Faithorne's real capability is well represented in his portrait of 
Charles XII. of Sweden (after Ehrenstrahl). More usually his work 
possesses the weakness one might expect, if the tradition of a 
dissipated life be true. 
Geoige White. George White, on the Other hand (whose work falls mostly 
in the first quarter of the eighteenth century), is one of the first of 
the real artists among the mezzotinters. The broad touches of tone 
which characterise his portraits of Jl'illiatn Dobson (after Dobson), 
Dryden (after Kneller), and Pope (after Kneller), wonderfully repro- 
duce the character of brush work in oil. Sometimes he mixes the 
etched line with rocked work (a practice we noticed among the 
earliest mezzotinters), and in certain cases, e.g. the Abel Roper 
(Fig. 96), he starts his work with a preliminary skeleton etching. 
His portrait of Bishop George Hooper (after Hill) shows a combina- 

R. Tompson. 
A. Browne. 

Faithorne II 

1 The author of the Ars Picloria, 1675, where he wrote a short note on the process, 
on the Manner or Way of Mezotinto, speaking of the iiivers shapes of the ennn, 
without describing them. The year 1669 has been given as the date of the 'first 
edition of the .4rs Picloria. That of 1675 is described on tlie title-page as a second 
edition ; but until I find a copy dated 1669 (which is not in the British Museum, nor 
mentioned by Hazlitt or Lowndes), I shall be inelinerl to regard his Whole Art of 
Drawing, Painting, Limning a 71 d Etching, published by Peter Stent, 1660 (in which 
the article on etcliing exactly corresponds to the Ars Pictoria), as the earlier edition 
alluded to. 

'^ Granger [Biogr. Hist. , Charles II. , Class X. , artists), notes a plate of Charles II. 
signed ,4. Brvtune fecit, but it is not at present known, and the citation may have 
been incorrect. 



tion of etching in modelling the face which adds remarkably to the 
expression of character. 

Fig. 96. — George White. Portrait of Abel Roper. 

John Smith is nearly twenty years White's senior, and he John Smith, 
survived the latter by a decade, and in his long life there was room 



for large variation in character and quality of work. In fact, his work 
varies from something by no means above the average level of his 
contemporaries to occasional masterpieces, which have scarcely been 
surpassed even by the more famous of the mezzotinters after Reynolds. 
As always with mezzotints, much of the effect depends on the fresh- 
ness of the impressions (for the burr is worn with few printings), 
and one needs to see a superb series of Smith's works, such as the 
two volumes in the Duke of Devonshire's collection, to fully appreciate 
his power. 

To a large 'degree the skill of the earlier mezzotint engravers 
seems less, for no other reason than the inanity of the paintings 
they reproduced. Closterman, Wissing, Dahl, and Van der Vaart 
are not inspiring models, and even Lely and Kneller, in their female 
portraits, seldom avoid an affectation of pose, which drives us for 
the most part to the portraits of men, to obtain a just appreciation 
of the mezzotint portraits of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth 
centuries. A very large proportion of Smith's work is after Kneller, 
and the Portrait of the Painter (C.S. 150) will serve as one of the 
most brilliant examples. Smith's Portrait of Himself (after Kneller i), 
of the engraver Beckett, of the composer Corelli (after H. Howard), 
are excellent plates, while the First Marquess of Annandale (C.S. 
13) and the First Earl of Seafield {C.S. 228) (both after Kneller) 
may be cited as rare instances where the ornamental border enclos- 
ing the oval is entirely engraved in line. He also produced a large 
number of subject plates after Titian, Correggio, Heemskerk, Laroon, 
and others. John Smith was a printseller as well as engraver, 
publishing, and sometimes not scrupling to sign, plates by other 
masters, which he had reworked. 

We may mention here a slightly younger contemporary of John 
Smith, Peter Pelham, for the honour of having introduced mezzo- 
tint in America. He migrated and settled in Boston in 1726, and 
his portrait of the Rev. Cotton Mather (of 1727) is probably the 
first mezzotint produced on American soil. In his more famous step- 
son, the painter John Singleton Copley, the direction of migration was 

Of the foreign engravers contemporary with Smith we may 
mention John Faber the elder, who was born at the Hague, 
and settled in London about 1690. He was a much weaker artist 
than any of the English engravers we have cited from Luttrell to 
Smith ; but his work, which comprises such series as the Founders 
of Oxford and Cambridge Colleges (45 plates, commenced 1712), 
John Faber 11. possesses Considerable historic interest. His son, John Faber the 
younger, who worked entirely in England, was a more skilful 
engraver than his father; but in spite of a certain freedom of 
manner, he produced nothing to equal the best work of John Smith. 
His plates after Kneller, Vanderbank, and Hudson are very numerous, 

' The original picture is now in the National Portrait Gallerv. 

Peter Pelham 
and mezzotint 
in America. 

John Faber I. 


and he is, besides, one of the few mezzotinters born in the seven- 
teenth century who lived to reproduce Hudson's more famous pupil 
Reynolds. He is best known for his two series after Kneller, the 
Kit-Cat Club (48 portraits on 47 plates, issued by a member of the 
club, Jacob Tonson, in 1735) and the Beauties of Hampton Court 
(12 full-length portraits). 

John Simon, a French Protestant refugee, who was settled in John Simon. 
London in the first half of the eighteenth century, produced a large 
number of mezzotints after Kneller, who is said to have used his 
services after falhng out with Smith. His best work, such as Lord 
Somers (after Kneller), and Sir Charles Wills (after Dahl), closely 
rivals John Smith, but he does not quite reach the latter at his 
strongest. He had had predecessors in the art in France, but he 
does not seem to have engraved except in line before coming to 
England. Besides reproducing Kneller, Dahl, Gibson and the 
like, he engraved a considerable number of plates after Mercier,^ a 
follower of Watteau, who was working for many years in England 
during the second quarter of the seventeenth century. 

Among the earliest of his French predecessors is Louis France. 
Bernard, who worked in Paris during the last two decades of the Louis Bernard, 
seventeenth century. His plates are curiously rough in surface, 
as if grounded with an " engine " of an irregular dotted grain, the 
scraper being sparingly used. Besides portraits (after F. de Troy, 
etc.), he produced some plates after Rembrandt (e.g. an Adoration 
of the Shepherds), in which his bold style achieved really effective 

His contemporaries S^bastien Barras and Andr£ Bouys S. Barras. 
mark an advance at least in technical methods, making far more Andrt Bouys. 
use of the scraper, and almost certainly laying their grounds with 
the rocker. Bouys, whose work extended well into the eighteenth 
century, left a few really excellent portraits after his master 
Francois de Troy. 

In our notice of the early French masters we have left Henri Henri Gascar. 
Gascar (b. 1635) to the end, although the plates which bear his 
name (chiefly notables of the Court of Charles II., to whom the 
Duchess of Portsmouth formed his introduction), were all done in 
England about 1670-80.^ None of them, however, bear further 
signature than H. Gascar pinxit, and the attribution of the 
engraving to him must, without further evidence, be considered as 
extremely doubtful. The works with this signature {e.g. the 
Duchess of Portsmouth, Nell Gwynn and her two sons, and Mrs. 
Middleton) are all of a rough character not far removed in style 
from the work of Prince Rupert. 

The German work of the period is of less interest than the Germany^ 
French. Fiirstenberg had a few followers in Mayence, e.g. Johann 

^ Mercier produced a few engravings and etchings, after Watteau and original. 
2 After the latter date Gascar is said to have worked in Italy. 



Mezzotint as 
the maniire 

The eighteenth 
and nineteenth 

AND Austria. 
G.P. Rugendas, 
J. E. Riedinger. 

The Haids of 

Jacob Mannl. 

Johann Jacobd 

Friedrich von Eltz and Jodocus Bickart, and before the end 
of the century a numerous school had sprung up in Nuremberg and 
Augsburg (e.g. G. and M. Fennitzer, G. A. Wolfgang, and 
Christoph Weigel), but none produced work of any distinction. 

The seventeenth century has shown a far greater number of foreign 
than Enghsh mezzotint engravers, and yet even at that time the art 
was commonly regarded as the "English manner." Why it should 
have taken such firm root in England as to almost seem an 
indigenous art, it is difficult to see. Perhaps Prince Rupert, 
though doing little himself at this time, may have helped to induce 
Charles and his painters Lely and Kneller to promote the new art, 
which in France found a more persistent and, in fact, victorious 
rival in line-engraving. In any case, England formed the centre of 
attraction for the best mezzotinters of the period, and it was work 
such as that of Blooteling which served most to discipline the 
English engravers in an art that from the beginning of the 
eighteenth century became their own by virtue of pre-eminent 

There are few foreign mezzotint engravers in the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries of any distinction, and we would complete our 
reference to these before approaching the great period of Reynolds 
in England. 

G. P. Rugendas and his pupil J. E. Riedinger,^ exercised 
a large influence on the mezzotint of the period in Augsburg," but 
their original work in the process is neither large nor excellent 
Nevertheless a few small plates of cavalry fights by the former, and 
the latter's sporting scenes and portraits, at least stand by them- 
selves in the history of the art. 

Their work was largely reproduced by members of the Haid 
family of Augsburg, who produced a large proportion of the 
German mezzotints of the eighteenth century. Johann Jacob 
Haid (b. 1704), his son Joh.\nn Elias Haid, and Johann Lorenz 
Haid (b. 1702), all did numerous plates, but the only member of 
the family who ever rises above a very dull average is Lorenz's 
brother, Johann Gottfried Haid (1710-76), who enjoyed the 
advantage of a visit to England. In the latter part of his life he 
setded in Vienna, which from the time of Jan Thomas was the best 
centre of the art on the continent of Europe. 

Quite early in the seventeenth century Jacob IM.vnnl produced 
some plates after pictures in the Imperial collections at Vienna, but 
his work is dull, and artistically no advance on that of Jan Thomas. 
The real maker of the school at Vienna was Johann Jacob^, 
who visited England about 1779-80, where he executed a few 
excellent plates after Reynolds (e.g. Mary Monckton, Countess of 
Cork, 1779, and Miss Meyer as " Hebe," 1780), and after Romney 

' Cf. p. 247. 


(e.g. William Hay ley, 1779). As professor in the Academie on 
his return to Vienna he exercised a large influence in spreading 
the art he had developed, if not acquired, in England. 

Three of his pupils, who all settled in Vienna, J. P. Pichler, J. P. Pichler. , 
Franz Wrenk, and Vincenz Georg Kininger, are technically the^-^J^."^- 
most accomplished of the German and Austrian mezzotinters, and 
carry the art through the first part of the nineteenth century. 

Pichler was the master of a very smooth manner, but his plates, 
which are largely subjects after Italian masters, are monotonous, and 
lacking in vigour. Wrenk's work has virtues and faults similar to 
Pichler's, and shows less individuality than that of Kininger, who 
is perhaps the most brilliant of the school. 

Before leaving Vienna we would mention another engraver, ignaz 
Ign.\z Unterberger (1748-97), rather for his vices than his virtue. Unterberger 
He seems to be one of the earliest engravers in Europe to attempt ^nezzotint 
the imitation of the mezzotint grain by mechanical means, i.e. by a 
complicated interlacement of lines achieved by a ruling machine. 
Mechanical mezzotint of this kind is found frequently in England 
in small portraits of the early nineteenth century, but I do not know 
any earlier instance than that of Unterberger. 

The second half of the eighteenth century, the great period of The Dublin 
English mezzotint, opens with a succession of artists from Dublin. S™"?- 
John Brooks and Thomas Frye were both engaged for part of John Brooks, 
their lives in the management of china factories in London, and- in Thomas Frye. 
the mezzotint work of the latter, in particular, an unpleasant porcelain- 
like surface betrays the worker in miniature and enamel. Frye did 
a series of life-sized portrait heads from his own design, but they are 
all smooth and dull in tone, and lack vigour in outline and signifi- 
cance in modelling. 

Brooks's chief glory is in his pupils McArdell and Houston. 

James M/^Ardell (b. about 1729) was one of the earliest en- McArdell. 
gravers to work to any considerable extent after Reynolds. Among 
the thirty- seven plates he produced after this painter one might 
mention for special praise the John Leslie, Earl of Rothes, and 
Mrs. Catherine Chambers, while some of his prints after older 
masters are no less brilUant. The true character of Lely's female 
portraiture is seen in McArdell's Elizabeth Hamilton, Comtesse de 
Grammont, far better than in the painter's contemporary engravers, 
and here, as in the Lords John and Bernard Stuart (after Van Dyck), 
the engraver shows masterful skill in rendering the texture of the 

Richard Houston, at his best, was as good an artist as Richard 
McArdell, but far less regular and prolific in the practice of his Houston, 
craft. His portrait of Richard Robinson, Bishop of Kildare, is a 
splendid example after Reynolds, and his plates after Rembrandt 
show almost a genius for interpretation. The character of the 
Dutch master's brush-work at two periods of his career has seldom 





been so magnificently rendered as in Houston's Syndics of 1774, 
and the Man with a Knife of 1757 (Bode, Rembrandt, No. 508). 

A somewhat younger pupil of Brooks, Richard Purcell, is a 
far less distinguished member of the Irish group. A large part of 
his work consists in copies after McArdell, which he did for Robert 
Sayer, one of the principal publishers of mezzotints at this period. '^ 

Two other members of the Irish group, Fisher and Dixon, 
stand little behind McArdell or Houston in the quality of their 

Edward Fisher, achievement. Edward Fisher, in particular, is the master of a 
powerful style, which anticipates John Jones in its use of broad 
surfaces of tone. His large bust of Lord George Seymour (as a 
boy) and his Laurence Sterne are among the most convincing of 
all mezzotints after Reynolds, while in the John Armstrong (after 
Reynolds) Fisher shows himself equally successful in rendering 
delicate tones in the higher gamut of colour. Of the prints after 
other painters one might mention the Paul Sandby (after Cotes), 
and Roger Long (after B. A\'ilson), the slight turn of expression 
being most skilfully caught in the latter. 

John Dixon. JoHN DixoN is an able engraver who has enjoyed a greater 

fame than Fisher, but his work seldom carries the same conviction 
of power. He not infrequently used the dry-point to finish his 
plates, e.g. on the fur and coat of the second Duke of Leinster (after 
Reynolds). Beside Reynolds, his prints find various models in 
Gainsborough, Pine, Stubbs, Zoffany and others. He lived till 
after 1800, but a wealthy marriage had induced him to give up the 
serious practice of his profession some twenty years earlier. 

James Watson. The last of Our Irish group, James AN'atson, who was probably 
a pupil of McArdell, was far more prolific than Fisher or Dixon. 
He is a skilled craftsman, with a mastery of smooth and delicate 
tones, but lacks the force of Fisher. For a certain largeness of 
manner and simplicity of surface, his portrait of L>r. Johnson (after 
Reynolds) is a striking achievement. A very large proportion of his 
plates are after Reynolds ; one might mention his Edmund Burke, 
the Lady Scarsdale, Caroline, Biuiiess of Marlborough, and the Ladv 
Stanhope. The last, a large full-length, is among the best of his 
female portraits, which are inclined to be flat in tone, and wanting 
in life. In one instance, that of Mrs. Bunbury (Goldsmith's " Little 
Comedy"), after Reynolds, the inevitable vitality of his subject 
saved the engraver from his common fault. 

Before approaching the famous group of English mezzotinters, 
the breath of whose life was Reynolds, we would mention two of 
their contemporaries who each hold a somewhat more individual 
position, William Pether and Richard Earlom. Neither are 
artists of first-rate skill, but even their imperfection is a relief amid 
a crowd of masters of technique who possessed so little artistic 

' Cf. Chap. \'III. p. 237, note 2. 


Like Houston, Pether did a considerable number of plates William 
after Rembrandt, but he was too true a disciple of Frye to be a Pether. 
good interpreter of the master. His Standard- Bearer (after Bode, 
370), Rembrandt with Sword and Breastplate (Bode, 348), and his 
larger plates of the Rabbi, dated 1764 (Bode, 199), are clever, but 
are too smooth in tone, and lack the grip and verve which Houston 
rendered so well. He comes nearer to the surface of the original 
in his plates after Rembrandt's English imitator, Wright of Derby 
(e.g. Artists drawing from a Statuette of a Gladiator, 1769). 

Earlom suffers, like Pether and Frye, from a certain flatness of Ricliard 
tone (unpleasantly noticeable in his portrait of McArdell), but in his Earlom. 
subject pieces it is relieved by his practice of combining the etched 
line with the mezzotint ground. He scraped a considerable number 
of plates for the Houghton Gallery} a large work of some 129 prints 
published by John Boydell (1787-88), reproducing pictures from the 
collection of Horace Walpole, Earl of Oxford, which had been 
acquired by Catherine II. of Russia for the Hermitage in 1779. 
A landscape after Hobbema, various plates "of still life after Snyders, 
and his Concert of Birds after Maria da' Fiori, and the Flower and 
Fruit Pieces after Van Huysum and Michelangelo Pace di Campi- 
doglio (all for the Houghton Gallery), break the monotony of an 
art traditionally devoted to portrait. Of his other subjects one might 
mention the six plates after Hogarth's Marriage a la Mode (1796), 
and the Life School at the Royal Academy of 1773 after Zoffany. 
His most interesting and successful work is undoubtedly the set of 
200 plates after Claude's Liber Veritatis,^ which was published in 
two volumes by Boydell in 1777.* Both in its artistic scope and in 
its technical manner (the combination of etched line with mezzo- 
tint tone) it formed the immediate inspiration to Turner's Liber 
Siudiorum. Besides the plates after Claude, Earlom produced a 
considerable number of other prints after drawings {e.g. a set of 5 1 
after Cipriani, published by Boydell, 1786-87), in line, etching, and 
in the crayon manner, and a few portraits in stipple (e.g. Cipriani 
after Rigaud 1789, Lord Heathfield a.ittx Reynolds 1788). 

We are now approaching the great classical group of English The great 
mezzotinters who were so largely devoted to the reproduction of ""ezzotiiiters of 
Reynolds. They are the contemporaries of many of the engravers Rg„nolds ° 
whose work has already been described or mentioned, but born for 
the most part after 1745, while the latter were all born before that 
date. The best period may perhaps be regarded as the last three 
decades of the eighteenth and the first ten years of the nineteenth 

^ Valentine Green did most of the other mezzotints in the publication, though 
Pether, Josiah Boydell, and J, Watson produced a few. Of the line and stipple 
engravers engaged we may mention John Browne, J. Peake, J. B. IVlichel, and P. C. 

^ The original drawings in the collection of the Duke of Devonshire. 

^ A third volume after Claude drawings in the R. P. Knight, Earl Spencer, and 
other collections, was pubUshed between 1802 and 1810 (78 numbers in B. M. copy). 






centuries, though until the middle of the latter century there was 
no lack of powerful work. Some dozen engravers were virtuosi in 
their craft, but it is striking how dependent they were as artists, and 
what poor work even the best of them could produce when left to 
their own devices. As artist and virtuoso combined, John Raphael 
Smith perhaps holds the first place, which is usurped in the early 
nineteenth century by his pupil William Ward, and by the latter's 
brother James Ward. 

John Finlayson (b. 1730) who, besides a few subject plates, 
engraved a score of portraits after Reynolds, Read, Zoffany, Hone 
and others, is only on the verge of this group. He is a fair 
craftsman, but by no means so convincing or vigorous an artist as 
his contemporary of the Irish group, Edward Fisher. To be done 
with our second-rate engravers of the great period, we would just 
allude to Robert Dunkarton, a pupil of Pether, who shows a 
harsh and unsympathetic manner, only at rare intervals producing 
anything as good as his Lord Lifford after Reynolds. 

In Valentine Green we meet one of the most famous of the 
Reynolds engravers, but one who seldom honestly deserves his 
great reputation. He can be brilliant on occasion, but even the 
most brilliant, e.g. the Mrs. Cosway (after herself) and the Ozias 
Humphry of 1772 (after Romney) are somewhat hard and 
metallic. His great name rests largely on the full-length portraits 
of ladies after Reynolds, of which we might instance the Duchess 
of Rutland and the Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, of 1780, the 
Countess of Salisbury of i78r, and the Lady Louisa Manners of 
1779, as among the most excellent. All these plates show an 
imposing solidity of tone, but unhappily a very large number 
of his full-lengths are empty in character as well as too smooth in 
tone to be effective on so large a scale. The Viscountess Townshend 
and Lady Jane Halliday after Reynolds are sufficiently glaring 
examples, while excursions into the reproduction of other painters 
find him scraping such unpardonable plates as the George Prince 
of Wales and Frederick Duke of York (after \\'est), the Earl of 
Leicester (after Zincke), and the Washington of 1785 after Peale. 
Nevertheless some of his strongest engravings, c.^t;-. the portrait of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds (after himself), and the beautiful plate after 
Reynolds's Ladies JValdegrave, are almost unequalled in the fine 
quality of their tone. 

Of his subject plates after old masters, which are numerous, we 
have already mentioned the most important, ie. his contribution to 
the LLoughton Gallery. He also did some twenty plates from 
pictures in the Diisseldorf Gallcn; which now forms part of the 
Alte Pinakotek at Munich. 

Both William Uici-linson and Thomas AVatson, who were for 
some time associated in a print-publishing business, did finer work 
than Valentine Green. 


Thomas Watson, who by the way was no connexion of the Thomas 
Irish mezzotinter James Watson, produced in a short life some of ^^'^°"- 
the most magnificent plates after Reynolds, as well as many after 
less well-known painters, such as Gardner and Willison. In a set 
of six plates of Windsor Beaufies of iTjg (e.g. Elizabeth Wriothesley, 
Countess of Northumberland), he reverts to Lely for his originals. 
His Lady Bampfylde is one of the most striking of all the full-length 
portraits after Reynolds, leaving those of his namesake James Watson 
far behind. There is great depth and power in the tone, and a sense 
of good draughtsmanship in the details of the figure which Green 
often lacked. Of his male portraits after Reynolds his bust of 
David Garrick is full of power, and the Resignation of 1772 (a 
portrait of George White, pavior and artist's model) is a wonderful 
study, if not quite free from a certain affectation for brilliant streaks 
of light (e.g. in the hair). Unfortunately Watson's promise was 
larger than his achievement, but even as it is, he is worthiest of all 
the mezzotinters before the Wards to stand next to J. R. Smith. 
He also left a few plates in stipple {e.g. Elizabeth Beauclerc as 
"Una," after Reynolds, published 1782). 

William Dickinson shows many common characteristics with wiiiiam 
his partner Thomas Watson. . In his Elizabeth Houghton, Lady Dickinson. 
Taylor after Reynolds, a particular resemblance in their styles may 
be remarked in the treatment of the foliage, with its scintillating 
qualities and its affectation of streaks of light. He is perhaps 
seen at his best in his portraits of men, e.g. Dr. Thomas Percy after 
Reynolds, and the impressive Sir John Fielding after Peters. Like 
Watson, Dickinson also produced some stipple plates, e.g. the 
Duchess of Devonshire and Viscountess Duncannon, 1782 (after 
A. Kauffmann). The latter part of his life was spent in Paris, 
where he died in 1823. 

John Jones is particularly successful in rendering the quality John Jones. 
of the painter's brush, and Romney with his broad touches of 
colour finds him an excellent interpreter. Mrs. Charlotte Davenport 
(1784) and Edmund Burke (1790) are two of his most convincing 
plates after that master. Scarcely less effective are his prints of 
Miss Kemble and the Lady Caroline Price (Fig. 97) after Reynolds, 
but his portraits do not always show a real master of drawing, e.g. 
the poor modelling of the hands and arms in the Hon. Mrs. 
Tollemache after Reynolds and in the Duchess of Marlborough after 
Romney. His large landscape. View from Richmond Hill after 
Reynolds, in which he uses the etched line in combination with 
mezzotint, shows how loose is this engraver's grasp of the structure 
of things in nature. As a portraitist he forms an exception among 
his contemporaries, in engraving far more men than women. 

By far the most original talent in the whole group is John John Raphael 
Raphael Smith, a son of the landscape painter Thomas Smith of Smith. 
Derby. He was himself by no means negligible as a portrait painter 



(e.g. the George Morland and Sir Nathaniel Dance both engraved 
by himself (1805); Home Tooke of 181 1 and William Cobbett ol 

J 1*1 tyj.i^. V^.^^fMi^-i '..^. 

Fio. 97.— John Joiius. Portrait of l.ady farolino I'rice, after Kevnolds. 

181 2 engraved by his pupil William Ward, and Charles James Fo.\ 
engraved by S. W. Reynolds in 1802). His position as a publisher 


of prints and his extreme facility with the brush contributed to 
render him a popular painter of political portraits. 

Another side of his original work was the society genre, in 
which he showed perhaps no great inspiration, but produced a 
good many paintings and drawings as well as prints of considerable 
spirit (e.g. a Lady in Waiting., 1780). But his original work counts 
almost for nothing beside his unequalled power in the interpreta- 
tion of Reynolds, Romney, and Gainsborough. His female portraits 
after Romney, e.g. Louisa, Viscountess Stormont, the Hon. Mrs. 
Henrietta North (1782), Mrs. Carwardine and Child oi 1781 (see 
Fig. 98), Mrs. Robinson (1781), and Emma, Lady Hamilton 
{1784), are among the most exquisite productions in the whole 
range of mezzotint. 

No less powerful and generally deeper in tone are the plates 
'after Reynolds, e.g. Richard Robinson, Archbishop of Armagh, Lord 
Richard Cavendish, Giovanni Bacelli (1783), Mrs. Payne-Galhvey 
and her son, and the Hon. Mrs. Stanhope, the last being one of the 
subtlest of all in its rendering of a soft moonlit atmosphere. In 
his larger full-length portraits after Reynolds he commands a 
variety of moods, seldom failing to avoid the flatness of Valentine 
Green, and the affectation of Thomas Watson. Among the most 
convincing of all in its broad touches of shading is the Mrs. Carnac 
{1778), while the Mrs. Musters (1779), if somewhat less vigorous, 
has added life in the exquisite variety of its surface. 

Two prints after Peters, Lady Elizabeth Compton (1780) and 
the Hon. Mrs. O Neill, may be instanced to show the delicacy of 
his rendering of the tones in the higher gamut, and the Hon. Mrs. 
Bouverie (after Hoppner) exemplifies the effect which he sometimes 
gained by a few broad touches with the rocker, after the scraping 
had been done. 

A considerable number of his subject plates were engraved after 
his friend, George Morland, who later found prolific interpreters 
in the Wards. 

John Dean inherited a certain command of delicate tones from John Dean 
his master Valentine Green, but though possessing an attractive 
lightness of touch, his work is conspicuously lacking in real vitality. 
A comparison of his Elizabeth, Countess of Derby of 1780 (after 
Romney), with a very similar plate by J. R. Smith after the same 
painter (Viscountess Stormont), will immediately show the gulf 
between their capabilities. Another of Green's pupils, James James Walker. 
Walker, developed into a far stronger engraver, quite equalling 
his master in the balance and solidity of his tone. A wise avoid- 
ance of elaboration helps greatly in increasing the effect of his 
larger portraits, e.g. the John Walter Tempest, and Sir Hyde Parker 
(1780) after Romney. After 1784 he spent some eighteen years 
in St. Petersburg as engraver to the Empress Catherine, scraping 
pictures from the Hermitage Gallery, as well as numerous portraits. 


C, H. Hodges. Charles Howard Hodges, a pupil of J. R. Smith, is another 

l''u;. g8. — John kaplKu-l ymith. Mrs. fi\i« ardino and tliild, after Romney. 

of the mezzotinters who settled abroad, living at Amsterdam from 
about 1794 to the time of his death in 1S37. 

His best work, e.i^. Mrs. Williams- Hope of 1788, and Mrs. 
Sophia Musters (as "Hebe") after Reynolds, and Williaiii 1\'. (as 


Duke of Clarence) after Hoppner, possesses the true flavour of the 
best period. The same can hardly be said of his late work in 
Amsterdam, but his plate of the Shipbuilder and his Wife after 
Rembrandt (1802), and the full-length of Rutger Hans Schimmel- 
penninck (1806), in which a preliminary etching is used with skill, 
at least betray no technical decline. 

There is a host of other mezzotinters working in the latter half 
of the eighteenth century, but nearly all are greatly inferior to those 
whose work has been described. William Doughty is a brilliant wiiuam 
exception. His work is exceedingly limited, but what there is doughty, 
is extremely powerful; his Dr. Johnson (1779), ^""^ '^'^ Hon. 
Augustus Keppel (1779), after Reynolds, being among the most 
convincing plates of the period. Of the rest we would just 
mention Jonathan Spilsbury, with his smooth and somewhat j. Spilsbury. 
lifeless plates after Reynolds and others ; John Murphy, for a j. Mm-phy. 
few plates, rather coarse in grain, showing an unpractised hand ; 
John Young, a pupil of J. R. Smith, brilliant, but superficial ; j. Young. 
GuiSEPPE Marchi, an assistant of Reynolds, whom he interpreted G. Marchi. 
in a few soft-toned mezzotints ; George Keating, whose Kemble g. Keating. 
as Richard III. (after Stuart), and Georgiana, Duchess of Devon- 
shire (1787, after Reynolds), show a fine mastery of his craft; 
Henry Hudson, for an attractive full-length of a certain Mrs. Curtis h. Hudson, 
with a large muff on a couch, and Gainsborough Dupont, for a Gainsborough 
considerable number of harsh and amateurish plates after his Dupont. 
famous uncle Thomas Gainsborough. 

In the early part of the nineteenth century the best traditions Nineteentli 
of the art were most worthily represented in William and James century. 
Ward, George Dawe, Charles Turner, and Samuel William 

William Ward, a pupil of J. R. Smith, stands little behind William Ward. 
his master in the power of his scraping. He will perhaps be 
remembered most for his plates of landscapes and animals after his 
brother-in-law, George Morland, which are not infrequently printed 
in colour. But his portraits alone would give him rank beside the 
strongest of his predecessors. Arthur Murphy (after Dance), 
George Morland (after R. Muller), James, Earl of Malmesbury (after 
Lawrence), Dr. G. H Baird and Sir David Wilkie (after Geddes), 
and the Misses Marianne and Amelia Frankland (after Hoppner), 
show him at his best. In the last of these plates, and in many 
others, he attained a pleasing variety of surface by a few open 
strokes with the rocker after the scraping. He was also one of the 
best of the engravers in stipple. 

His younger brother and pupil, James Ward, scarcely holds so James Ward, 
important a place as an engraver, but his works show an equal 
talent. His mezzotints were all produced in his early period, the 
latter part of a life of some ninety years being entirely devoted 
to painting, for the most part landscape and animal subjects in the 


George Dawe. 


manner of Morland. Besides his plates after that painter, he 
also scraped a considerable number of his own compositions {e.g. 
the Poultry Market, the Fern Burners, and the Lion and Tiger 

A few of his portraits, such as the Miss Frances Vane as 
" Miranda " (after Hoppner), are fully as sound as anything by his 
brother, but many others, e.g. Henry Erskine (after Raeburn), and 
Juvenile Retirement (the children of the Hon. John Douglas) after 
Hoppner, are neither free from affectation in the landscape, nor 
sound in draughtsmanship. James Ward himself, on abandoning 
the art of mezzotint in 1817, gave a most representative set of his 
prints to the British Museum, in some cases including as many as 
ten proofs in various stages from one plate. 

George Dawe kept more strictly than the Wards to the old 
traditions of portraiture. His freedom from the growing practice 
of preliminary etching, and the powerful simplicity of his deep tones 
and brilliant lights render him especially effective as an interpreter 
of Raeburn (e.g. Viscount Melville, Dr. James Gregory, and Charles 
Hope). The last ten years of his life were spent at St. Petersburg, 
painting a large number of portraits for the Emperor. 

An engraver of a greater compass of subjects is Charles 
Turner. Like Dawe he is an excellent translator of Raeburn 
(e.g. Dr. John Robison, Lord Newton, and Sir Walter Scott), but 
he produced a greater variety of portraits, engraving after Hoppner, 
Lawrence, Jackson, Beechey, Shee, and other contemporary 
painters, after old masters such as Rembrandt and Van Dyck, and 
also translating into mezzotint certain early English engraved 
portraits by Elstrack, Passe, and Delaram. The quality of his 
work is remarkable for the use of aquatint in combination with 
mezzotint. His large plate of the Shipwreck (after J. M. W. 
Turner) will illustrate this method, the aquatint adding a certain 
liquid and luminous character to the tone which can never be 
attained by mezzotint. His lighter use of etching, combined with 
mezzotint, shows a more artistic feeling than the more regular line 
seen in the plates of Samuel Reynolds. Plates like the Lady 
Louisa Manners and the Countess of Cholmondeley (after Hoppner) 
exemplify the freedom and dash of his style in this respect, but 
just fall short of being masterly in draughtsmanship or modelling. 

Besides his part in the Lihcr Stiuiionnn, which has already 
been mentioned, ^ he engraved five plates after Turner for the 
River Scenery or Rivers of England^ (1824-30). He also pro- 
duced about a score of plates in stipple, largely in the earlier part 

' See p. 244, where the otlier mezzotinters who contributed lo the \vork are 

'^ The other mezzotinters in the Kivcr Scoteiy or Rivers of England oMxx Turner 
and Girtin, are T. G. Lupton, G. H. Phillips, \V. Say, S. W', Reynolds, and 
John Bromley. The prints date from 1823 to 1830. 


of his career. Two subjects after Singleton, the Fairing and the 
Savoyard (both belonging to the year 1800), will suffice to 
represent his spirited work in a process which he never really 

The best part of the work of Samuel William Reynolds was s. W. 
done in the first decade of his activity (about 1 794-1804), and '^'^y"°''^^- 
his plates in pure mezzotint are comparable in depth and richness 
of tone to all but the greatest work of J. R. Smith and William Ward. 
His Duchess of Bedford of 1803 after Hoppner is a dignified pro- 
duction, and the Elizabeth, Marchioness of Exeter, of the same year, 
after Lawrence, may be mentioned with even greater praise for the 
simplicity of the tone surface, both in figure and background. It 
is the more remarkable, as the shimmering quality of Lawrence's 
painting seldom failed to lure the engraver to an exaggerated glossi- 
ness, tempting him to discard the purer convention of a less imitative 
texture, which should distinguish the mezzotint engraver from the 

Reynolds very largely uses an etched foundation for his mezzo- 
tint, and given a good proof, it is sometimes not ineffective (e.g. in 
his Countess of Oxford of 1799, and the Mrs. Arbuthnot of 1800 
after Hoppner). There is always, however, a dangerous tendency 
for the etching, if too heavy, to coarsen the effect, and render the 
tone a mere redundancy. This may be remarked in particular in 
the etched ground of the King Leopold (as Prince of Saxe-Coburg) 
after G. Dawe, while the repose and concentration of the Lady Hood 
(after Lawrence) is marred except on the darkest impressions by the 
heavy outlines of the dress. 

For some time after about 1826 Reynolds was in Paris, and 
produced numerous subject jjlates after G^ricault (e.g. the Wreck 
of the Medusa), Horace Vernet, Delaroche, A, C. H. Haudebourt- 
Lescot, Dubufe, and other French painters. 

During the six years previous to his removal he had been 
chiefly engaged in producing a series of 357 plates after Reynolds. 
He was greatly assisted in the work by his pupil (and later assistant) 
Samuel Cousins, who claimed to have entirely scraped some 
eighty-four of the plates. 

Of other mezzotinters of the first half of the last century we 
may just mention George Clint, an engraver of numerous George Clint. 
theatrical groups ; Henry Meyer,i faulty in draughtsmanship, but Henry Meyer. 
often powerful in tone ; Thomas Hodgetts, and Thomas Goff -j,' ^ °Lupton 
LuPTON. Besides a small part in the Liber Studiorum ^ and seven- 
teen facsimiles of the original series published between 1858 and 
1864, Lupton also engraved after Turner (mostly dating between 
1826 and 1828) the set oi Harbours of England, which was pub- 
lished with text by John Ruskin in 1856. Some seven plates of the 

' He worked largely in stipple. 
2 For full list of mezzotinters in this work, cf p. 244. 


River Scenery (or Rivers of England) by Turner and Girtin are also 
from his hand (1823-27). 
William Say. A more important place is held by William Say, one of the 

most prolific of the later mezzotinters. He produced much work 
of a second-rate order, but here and there a print like the Lady 
Mildmay and Child after Hoppner (1803), which in its tasteful 
combination of etching has very similar qualities to some of 
Charles Turner's plates. He is particularly successful in his busts 
after Hoppner (e.g. Rt. Hon. William Windham, 1803, and Sir 
George Beaumont, 1808) and Beechey (e.g. John Heaviside, 1803), 
knowing well how to use a full tone in the background to give an 
added emphasis and force to his figure. He not infrequently com- 
bines his light etching with delicate touches of roulette work. 
The use of the The claim put forward by his son,i that his smaller portrait of 
steel plate. Queen Caroline {\?>2o) was the first attempt to use steel plates in 
mezzotint is a questionable honour. 

The rich quality of a mezzotint impression depends largely on 
the burr caused by the rocker, and, as in the case of work with the 
dry - point, this is worn down after very few impressions. It 
naturally follows that the late impressions from mezzotints have an 
incomparably small value beside the early impressions, and the 
efforts, not only of the original engravers, but of the later possessors 
of the plates, to repair the tone by rework, render it a constant 
difficulty to decide whether certain impressions are from the original 
plate or from some copy. In most cases it matters little, for the 
original in a state of dilapidation has no more marketable value and 
often far less artistic value than a copy. 

The new development was an attempt to revive an art already 
in its decay, by using a metal which would place the mezzotints 
more on an equality in market rivalry with the more lasting work of 
the line engravers. For some ten years the use of steel was often 
paraded in the lettering as an attractive novelty. From about the 
same time there is a marked deterioration in the depth and richness 
of mezzotints in general. What proportion of this is due to the 
harder quality of impressions from steel, and what to the decay of 
real power in the engraver, it is difficult to decide. It would, 
perhaps, be the juster estimate to say that the second factor is by 
far the more important, while the general decline of the school of 
painting, on which the engravers relied for their models, except in 
the one field of landscape, should also be reckoned in the account. 
Samiiei In Samuel Cousins the deterioration of the quality is some- 

Coiisins. times lamentably evident. Like Turner and Reynolds he uses 

mixed methods, but his habitual foundation of a sort of mechanical 
stipple is of the dullest order, and the tone of his mezzotint far too 
often spoiled by inartistic imitations of the glossy tones of Lawrence 

1 MS. on M\ impression in the British Museum, which possesses an almost com- 
plete collection of his prints (some 335 Nos. ). 


and his early Victorian followers. The value of his work may be 
justly estimated by examination of the stipple proofs and the finished 
impressions of the Sir Robert Feel (after Lawrence), of which the 
British Museum possesses impressions. In most cases Cousins is 
probably responsible for the whole work on the plate, but there is 
one instance where collaboration is acknowledged, i.e. the Robert 
Burns of 1830 (after Nasmyth), where the stipple was executed 
by William Walker. 

Cousins stands as one of the most important of the engravers 
after Landseer, while his reproductions of Leighton, Millais, and 
James Sant bring us into a generation that has not yet entirely 
passed from us. 

William Walker is on the whole a far better artist. He also wiiiiam 
combines stipple with mezzotint, but it is the work of one of the Walker. 
best stipple-engravers,^ and of a far less mechanical order than that 
of Cousins (e.g. IV. E. Gladstone., after W. Bradley). His mixture 
of etching is also done with considerable skill, remarkable in the 
portrait oi James Abercromby (1835), a-fter Jackson. 

John Richardson Jackson (1819-77) is an engraver of a later j. r. Jackson, 
generation who has some of Walker's quality. He could be dull in 
his mixtures of mezzotint, stipple, and etching, combined with no 
great power of draughtsmanship (e.g. the Lord Hatherly), but he also 
produced a considerable number of sound plates, in particular after 
J. P. Knight (e.g. Lieut. Holman) and George Richmond (e.g. Earl 
of Leven and Mrs. Hook). Both Jackson and Walker generally 
avoided the thin, glossy surface which was the bane of the mezzotint 
workers in the second two quarters of the century. 

A unique position among the mezzotinters is filled by David David Lucas. 
Lucas, the interpreter of Constable. The son of a grazier, and 
working himself on the land till he was twenty, a mere chance dis- 
covered his talent to S. W. Reynolds, who made him his apprentice 
in 1823. Among his earliest dated works are a few portraits {e.g. 
Dr. Mayhew after J. Lonsdale, 1827, and the small plate of the 
Duke of Wellington after Lawrence, 1828), and there are a few 
others scattered throughout his work, but these and his subject 
plates are of the very slightest importance beside his landscape. 

The mass of his landscape work is after Constable. We may 
mention a few small but excellent plates after C. Tomkins {e.g. 
Dieppe, 1830), another after Bonington {Boulogne, 1836), two of 
1834 after Horace Vernet, two large and unsatisfactory repro- 
ductions of J. D. Harding {Corsair's Lsle, 1835, and the Grand 
Canal, Venice, 1838), the Return to Port ILonfleur after Isabey 
(1836), and a rare and most powerful plate oi Jerusalem after 
David Roberts (1846), and the tale of his work after other painters 
in this iield is almost told. At first Constable took the responsi- 
bilities of the reproduction, and it was he and Colnaghi who 

^ Cf. p. 299. 



published in 1833 the Various Subjects of Landscape. The 22 
plates of this set, including the frontispiece and " vignette," bear 

l''n;, 99. — David Lucas. Mill near Hiighton, al'ter L'oiislable. 

elates between 1828 and 1832, and show some of the engraver's best 
work. The Noon (1830), A Summcrland ( 1 83 i ), Summer Afternoon, 
Sunshine after a Shower (1831), may be cited for their brilliant 


and luminous rendering of Constable's atmospheric effects, while 
others, like the Glebe Farm (1832) and the Water Mill, Dedham, 
Essex (1832), exemplify the rougher grain which Lucas used when 
he had to deal with darker masses of foliage and heavier foregrounds. 

The New Series of Engravings of English Landscape after 
Constable (14 numbers), which appeared in 1846, was a venture of 
the engraver, and was commercially as complete a failure as the 
former set. Constable's appreciation unhappily brought Lucas no 
substantial success, and a disappointed life ended miserably in the 
Fulham Workhouse. 

Like his master and most of his contemporaries, Lucas frequently 
combined etching with mezzotint. The line-work is most in 
evidence in the Rainbow (the larger plate of Salisbury Cathedral 
from the Meadows), of 1837. In this instance the etching was 
done after the plate was nearly finished in pure mezzotint, and a 
comparison of the earlier with the finished impressions makes one 
regret his combination. The mixture of etching is far less emphatic, 
and the general effect more pleasing, in two other large plates, the 
Lock (1834) and the Cornfield (1835), but all these large pro- 
ductions are less perfectly fitted to their medium and size, and less 
convincing as works of art, than the smaller plates. 

The decay of mezzotint as a reproductive art has been largely 
due to the perfection of photogravure, which serves the student of 
painting so well by its faithful transcriptions of the quahty of painting. 
There are still, however, a few exponents of the art who are able to show 
how immeasurably the tone of mezzotint surpasses that of the best of J. B. Pratt, 
the mechanical processes. We refer in particular to J. B. Pratt, Nor- Norman Hirst. 
MAN Hirst, R. S. Clouston, Gerald Robinson, and Frank Short, q] Robinson" 

Besides his reproductive work after Turner,^ De Wint, and Frank Short. 
others, in which he commands a gamut of tone almost unrealised 
by the earlier mezzotinters, Mr. Short has also scraped a consider- 
able number of excellent original landscapes. 

The mezzotinters of the past have used their method too little Haden. 
for original expression. Recent work, like that of Seymour Haden, Fi^me. 
John Finnie, and Short in England, and of Richard Kaiser in 
Germany, makes one hope that an unworked field of real promise 
may yield a good harvest in the near future. 

II. The Crayon Manner and Stipple 

Three engravers claimed for themselves the honour of dis- j. c. Franpois.. 
covering the crayon method, Jean Charles Francois, Gilles 
Demarteau, and Louis Bonnet.^ Fran9ois himself stated ^ 

1 Cf. p. 245. 

2 The evidence I have seen has not perfectly convinced rae of his generally 
accepted identity with the Louis Marin, whose name figures on some of his plates 
{e.g. as inventor of printing in gold). The identity is accepted, however, by his 
contemporary, P. F. Basan [Diciionnaire, 1789). 

'' In a letter addressed to Savdrien, printed 1760. 


that he made experiments in the method in 1740, though he did 
not repeat his essays until 1753. Francois's work is by no means 
artistically important, but his own statement, and the fact that in 
1757 he attained recognition from the French Royal Academy, 
and in 1758 a pension from the king with the title of "graveur des 
dessins du Roi," point to an official acknowledgment of his dis- 
covery. His most considerable work consists of the plates which he 
engraved for Savdrien's Histoire des Philosophes Mode7-nes, 8 parts 
(4 vols.), Paris, 1760-69 (with 8 frontispieces and 67 portraits), of 
which we reproduce the portrait of Sir Isaac Newton (Fig. 100). 
Francois was a skilful craftsman, addicted to experiments in mani- 
fold methods, — one of his portraits, the Francois Quesnay, showing a 
combination of mezzotint, line, crayon, and aquatint in its various 

Demarteau. GiLLES Demarteau, of Lifege, who was working in Paris from 

about 1 746, must have taken up the new process very soon after 
Francois. His work is very copious, and more important than that 
of Francois, realising with greater success the absolute quality of 
the red chalk drawings which it constantly reproduces. Boucher 
supplied the greatest number of his originals, but he produced 
many prints after Cochin, Le Prince, Huet, Eisen, Fragonard, and 
others. He occasionally worked with two colours, seldom with 

Louis Bonnet. Though Bonnet's claim to the discovery of the whole method 

is out of the question,^ he at least seems to have been the first to 
imitate the quality of pastel by printing a crayon engraving in 
various colours, apparently using a plate for each tone. He is one 
of the few engravers (excepting the artists in chiaroscuro wood-cuts) 
who have used a white pigment in printing to give a light higher 
than the tone of the white paper. His pigment seems to have been 
comparatively permanent in colour. 

Bonnet was as prolific as Demarteau in his reproduction of 
drawings by Boucher, Lagrende, and the like, but the greater part 
of his work is of a much more commonplace order. He often 
descends to imitating a gilt frame to decorate his engraving ; in 
fact, he seems to have taken special pride in the power of compass- 
ing these difficult trifles by the art of printing. He also seems to 
have made experiments in processes like aquatint as early as Le 

Many other engravers during the latter half of the seventeenth 
century and the early part of the nineteenth did work in the crayon 
manner, but for the most part they are the same artists who worked 

' 1743 is gcneiciUy given as the date of his birth, but as it appears from the 17^8 
edition of Bosse (revised by Cochin) that he had alread\' produced successful plates 
in \.\\e/>astd manner, Basan's date, 1735, very probably has better authority behind it. 
Cf, however, A. M. Hind, Burl, Mag.,, Sept. 1907. 

2 Note, e.g., his title-page and two plates in the 1767 edition of Caylus's Rcciieil 
de Testes dc caracti: re et de i:harges desshi^es par Leonard da I'inci. 



in stipple, and their names will be reserved for our summary of that 

A completely different method, that of soft-ground etching,^ 
often effects results which are surprisingly like crayon prints, the aim 

Fig. 100. — J. C. Franpois. Portrait of Sir Isaac Newtor. 

of both methods being essentially similar. The student will often 
need care to discriminate between the two. 

In Holland a process standing midway between that of the J. J. Bylaert. 
crayon and stipple manners was practised by J. J. Bylaert, and 
described by him in a book published in 1772,^ the base idea of 

^ See Chap. VIII. pp. 240, 241, 244 ; Chap. IX., aquatint, p. 303 ; and Chap. 
X. pp. 313, 337. ^ See General Bibliography. 



which is the method of dotting with points {^^potnfons") of various 
sizes to obtain the texture, which Frangois achieved largely by the 
roulette. He refers to having done prints after Van Goyen and 
Saftleven in this manner. The aim he had in view was still the 
rendering of the texture of chalk, and I have met no prints of his 
which could be strictly classed with stipple. 
Pimch-engrav- The method of engraving entirely by dots,^ which, in combination 
'"S- with elements of the crayon manner, forms the basis of stipple, can 

be traced far back in the history of the art of the goldsmith in the 
opus interrasile and opus punctile of the Middle Ages.^ A consider- 
able number of impressions (for the most part comparatively 
modern) are in existence taken from plates dotted with the punch 
and hammer, which were originally intended only for ornament in 
themselves. One might mention an Annunciation by Buonincontro 
da Reggio,^ belonging to the second part of the fifteenth century, of 
which there is an impression in the British Museum. At a later 
date the Dresden goldsmith family of the Kellerdaller (late six- 
teenth and early seventeenth centuries) did similar work, not in- 
frequently with the idea of taking impressions. Two distinct classes 
of this type of work may be observed : (i.) where the dots are used 
positively to show the blacks {e.g. most of the plates of Johann 
Kellerdaller I. and II., which can therefore be printed with 
proper effect) ; (ii.) where the dots represent the whites, so that an 
impression is merely a negative from a plate designed as an orna- 
ment in itself {e.g. Buonincontro and Daniel Kellerdaller). 
Work of the former class was done, among others, by Franz 
AsPRUCK and Paul Flindt about 1600 Roulette work is also 
found combined with their punch-engraving, and was probably done 
for the most part with the matting-wheel, which is an old tool of the 

Some of the most successful work with the punch definitely 
intended for impression are the plates of Jan Lutma the younger. 
His portraits of Himself (dated 1681), of his Father (also a 
goldsmith),* of Vondel and Hooft show an astonishing command 
of the method in the delicate shades of tone achieved in the 

To return to the engraver in the narrower sense of the word. 
We have already noted dotted work in plates of Giulio Campagnola, 
of the engraver of the monogram $J, and of Marcello Fogolino 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and a century later in the 
work of Ottavio Leoni ; but this has all been done almost cer- 
tainly with the ordinary graver, and is thus merely a refinement and 

1 The French term, vianUre pointilUe, serves both in the general sense of dotted 
manner, and in the special signification of stipple. 

'■i Cf Introduction, p. 10. The mediceval processes are described in Theophilus 
Divirsarum ar/iuin schediihi, ed. Hendrie, 1847, lib. iii. capp. 72, 70 

^ See Zanetti, Cabinet Cicognara, 1837, p. 142. 

* The subject of one of Rembrandt's finest etched portraits. 


concentration of the short flicks so constantly used in conventional 
line-engraving at almost every period. 

Just as the limits of the various processes are often ill defined, 
so this practice of Campagnola may be regarded as an anticipation 
of stipple ; but in its strict signification, as it has been described in 
the introduction, stipple is a combination of the processes of etching 
and engraving, the graver used being specially curved to facilitate the 

At what precise date stipple came into use is uncertain, but in The introduc- 
any case it is the follower and not the predecessor of the crayon ''°" °f stipple. 
manner. Nor is it profitable to inquire whether it originated on the 
Continent or in England. It can, at least, be asserted that England 
was the first country in which it took root, and the only country in 
which it ever flourished. A great number of its masters, however, 
were foreign, very many Italian engravers being attracted to England 
by the success of one of its first exponents, Francesco Bartolozzi. 

Bartolozzi was born in Florence in 1728, and studying under Bartolozzi. 
Joseph Wagner at Venice, followed his master at the outset of his 
career in the practice of line-engraving. On the invitation of Dalton, 
librarian to George III., he came to England in 1764, where one 
of his earliest works was a series of pi'ints after drawings by Guercino} 

Just before leaving Italy he had been engaged, in collaboration 
with Giovanni Ottaviani and Giacomo Nevay, on a series of reproduc- 
tion of Guercino drawings from the collection of T. Jenkins, Joseph 
Smith, A. M. Zanetti, G. B. Tiepolo, and others, which was published 
by G. B. Piranesi at Rome in 1764.^ 

Except those after Guercino, the majority of the prints after 
drawings which Bartolozzi produced in England were in crayon 
or stipple. In particular may be mentioned the Imitations of original 
Drawings by Hans Holbein in the Collection of His Majesty (pub- 
lished by John Chamberlaine, 1792-1800),^ and his part in John 
Chamberlaine's series of prints after miscellaneous drawings in the 
Royal collection.* 

1 Boydell issued these with prints by other engravers under the title Collection of 
Prints engraved by Bartolozzi and others, after Guercino and others, froTn Original 
Pictures and Draiuings in the Collection of His Majesty, etc. (J. and J. Boydell, 
Catalogue, 1803.) G. Vitalba was among the other engravers. 

^ Raccolta di alcuni Disegni del Barbieri da Cento detto il Guercino. The title 
etched by Piranesi. In the Catalogue of the Piranesi, 1792, the collection is de- 
scribed as containing 28 plates with the frontispiece. This set, with many other prints 
of the kind {e.g. by A. Bartsch after Guercino ; by F. Rosaspina after the Carracci, 
Reni, etc. ), was the property of the Piranesi, and appeared' again in the large Paris 
edition of their works (Firmin-Didot, 1835-39). 

2 Including eighty prints by Bartolozzi, three by C. Metz, and one by C. Knight. 
In 1812 an edition appeared, based on the earlier edition, with smaller plates by 
various engravers {Knight, Facius, Minasi, Cardon, Cheesman, etc.), only two of 
Bartolozzi's plates (after miniatures) being repeated. 

^ Which appeared at various times between 1797 and 181 1, a collected edition being 
published in 1812. Bartolozzi contributed the largest number, but it also contains 
prints by F. C. and G. Lewis, P. W. Tomkins, B. Pastorini, L. Schiavonetti, and 
others. G. Lewis deserves mention for etchings in T. F. Dibdin's Tour (1821). 

Prints after 
Cipriani and 


He found the great opportunity for the practice of the delicate 
stipple method in the reproduction of drawings by his Florentine 
friend, G. B. Cipriani, who had settled in England for some years 
before his arrival. 

Nor was it less Cipriani's opportunity, for he was negligible as 
a painter of large canvases, and his drawings only attained real fame 

Fi(j. 101. — I'"r,"iiiccsco Bartolozzi, \'enus cliidins; Cupid, afler Reynolds. 

in their reproduction. Another foreign artist of similar talent for 
slight subjects of graceful fancy, Angelica Kauffm.xnn, who came 
to England the year after Bartolozzi, is scarcely less important as an 
inspirer of stipple, and there are few of the engravers in the method 
who did not use her designs. Both she and Cipriani left some 
etchings of fancy subject and portrait, etc., but they are of little 
interest. Few English draughtsmen hold a place in the history of 


stipple at all comparable to these, unless perhaps it be Richard 
Cosway. At some distance, but still very largely represented in 
the stipple engravings of the end of the eighteenth and beginning 
of the nineteenth centuries, are Stothard, Burney, Westall, Hamilton, 
Wheatley, Bigg, and Singleton. 

Besides the very numerous plates of fancy subjects serving Bartolozzi's 
manifold ends, from book illustrations to invitation cards and admis- porti^ai's- 
sion tickets, in many of which he may have been assisted by 
anonymous pupils, Bartolozzi produced a considerable number of 
prints of a more serious order after Reynolds and many other 
painters. Of his portraits one might mention in particular Georgiana, 
Duchess of Devonshire (after Lady Diana Beauclerc), Mrs. Crouch 
(after Romney), Angelica Kauffmann (1780), Lord Thurlow (1782), 
Dr. Burney (1784), Lady Smyth and her children (1789), Countess of 
Harrington and her family (1789), Lord Burghesh and Philip Yorke 
(as children, both dated 1788) after Reynolds, Lady Jane Dundas 
(after Hoppner), Kemble as Richard ILL. (after Hamilton, 1789-90), 
William Pitt (after Gainsborough Dupont, 1790-gi), Dr. Blair 
(after Raeburn, 1802), and the magnificent full-length oi Elizabeth 
Farren^ of 1791 (after Lawrence). 

In some of the larger plates (e.g. those of Kemble and Pitt, the 
etched line is largely used in combination with stipple, while in the 
Lord Thurlow the whole of the figure is etched in line, the face 
alone being dotted. 

At his best, e.g. in the excellent rendering of Hogarth's Shrimp 
Girl, Bartolozzi shows a remarkable command of the delicate shades 
of tone, but his reputation as a draughtsman inevitably suffers by 
the mass of inferior work which issued with his signature from his 
studio. His success in England was great, but apparently not 
sufficient for his manner of living, and it may have been monetary 
difficulties that induced him in 1802 to accept the position of 
Director of the Academy at Lisbon, where he spent the last eleven 
years of his -life. 

William Wynne Ryland was probably working in stipple as W. W. Ryland 
early as Bartolozzi. After serving an apprenticeship to S. F. 
Ravenet in England, he spent several years (about 1760) in Paris, 
where he is said to have studied under Boucher and Lebas. His 
interest in the crayon manner may have been personally inspired by 
Frangois or Demarteau. Some of his crayon engravings, published 
in Charles Rogers's Collection of Prints in imitation of Drawings'^ 
(2 vols. 1778), are dated in 1764, i.e. very soon after his return to 

^ This was only finished by Bartolozzi. The etching, the greater part of the 
work, is by Charles Knight. See Nash, Mag. of Art, i8S6, p. 143. 

^ The title-page inscribed, A Century of Prints from Drawings, is by Bartolozzi. 
Most of the other prints (in et. , en., and cr. ) are by SiMON Watts and J. Basire ; 
the latter and Charles Phillips (one p'ate) also used mezzotint. 


Impressions In his many prints of fancy subjects after Angelica Kauffmann 

in red. and Cipriani, nearly all of which were printed in red, a particular 

affectation of this school of engravers, he exhibits a delicacy of tone 
which even surpasses Bartolozzi ■ himself in smoothness. It is the 
brilliance of weakness, however, rather than strength, and when left 
to work out his own designs, he shows himself only a very second- 
rate artist. Of his work in line-engraving, in which he has none 
of the strengtli of Strange, and much of the somewhat finnicking 
quality of French portrait work of the period, the Earl of Bute 
(1763) and George III. after Romney, and the Queen Charlotte with 
the Princess Royal after Cotes (1770), may be mentioned as 
examples. They may have served to get him the position of 
engraver to George III., which he held throughout his life. Con- 
victed of a bank-note forgery, his career ended prematurely in 1783 
on the gallows, as young William Blake, when taken by his father 
as a prospective pupil to Ryland, had strangely prophesied. 
Thomas Burlte. THOMAS BuRKE makes up the trio of Angelica Kauffmann's 
chief interpreters. He inclines to a rougher surface than Ryland, 
and in general is more spirited in expression. He was a pupil of 
John Dixon, and also practised to some extent in mezzotint. 

Of Bartolozzi's pupils. Knight, Sherwin, Marcuard, Cheesman, 

\ and P. W. Tomkins are most worthy of notice. 

Charles Charles Knight did a brilliant piece of work in his etching of 

Knight. the Miss Farren, mentioned above, but this was probably produced 

immediately under Bartolozzi's direction, and he shows scarcely 

anything else of comparable brilliance. One might instance portraits 

of William Viscount Barrington (i 794-95), and the Duchess of York., 

1 80 1 (after Beechey), but they are rather crude in modelling, and 

lack the delicacy which is the chief distinction of stipple. 

J. K. Sherwin. JOHN Keyse Sherwin is One of the few of Bartolozzi's pupils 

who engraved more in line than in stipple. He did some brilliant 

work after subjects by the old masters, as well as after contemporary 

painters, but his original work on copper does not show any great 


Marcuard. R. S. Marcuard left some excellent work in stipple, one of his 

most powerful plates being a portrait of Bartolozzi after Reynolds 


Thomas * Bartolozzi had a close follower in Thomas Cheesman, more 

Cheesman. particularly in his system of combining the etched line with stipple 

in the darker tones. He did a considerable number of original plates, 

both fancy subjects and portraits, but few of the latter attain the 

excellence of his Lady Hamilton as the " Spinster " (after Romney). 

Of his plates after the old masters, a Venus with Cupid after Titian ^ 

may be cited as a good test of the value of stipple in modelling. 

In sheer craftsmanship the four engravers just mentioned cannot 

' Not exactly corresponding to any of the known pictures, though near to one in 
the Uffizi (catalogue 1905, No. 1108), 


rival LuiGi Schiavonetti, a native of Bassano, who came to Eng- L. Schiavon- 
land in 1790 to work under Bartolozzi. He is equally brilliant in ^"•• 
stipple, line, or etching, but in all these mediums he produced a 
mass of indifferently executed hack work for book illustration and 
miscellaneous commercial uses. He shows a wonderfully smooth 
and finished technique in his portraits (e.g. Luigi Marchesi of 1790, 
after Cosway, Joseph Haydn, 1792, after Guttenbrunn, and Lady 
Cawdor after Edridge^). His most popular work is undoubtedly 
contained in the series of the Cries of London after Wheatley 

Peltro William Tomkins, another of Bartolozzi's many p. w. 
pupils, is most noteworthy for several charming sets of little fancy Tomkins. 
subjects of children at play and the like (e.g. the Birth and Triumph 
of Cupid, fro?n papers cut by Lady Dashwood, 1795, and the. Birthday 
Gift, or the Joy of a New Doll, iT^6). 

His portraits (e.g. Mrs. Siddons after Downman) are often of 
delicate workmanship, but possess little real vigour. 

Charles Wilkin is the author of a considerable number of Charles 
portraits, combining stipple and etching, much in the manner of ^'"""• 
Bartolozzi, Engraved with considerable freedom and spirit are the 
ten prints of the Series of Portraits of Ladies of Rank and Fashion 
which were published in pairs in the years 1797, 1799, 1800, 1802, 
and 1803, and probably issued as a set in 1803 (the general wrapper 
is not dated). Three of the series are both drawn and engraved by 
Wilkin (Lady Gertrude Villiers, Lady Catherine Howard, Lady 
Gertrude Fitzpatrick), and the rest are after Hoppner (e.g. Lady 
Charlotte Campbell and the Duchess of Rutland). Of his prints 
after other masters, the Lady Cockburn (" Cornelia ") and her 
Children after Reynolds (1791), may be cited as one of the strongest, 
but it shows a weakness in modelling, an uncertainty in the use of 
lights, and a dulness of surface tone which he seldom surmounts. 

Caroline Watson, the daughter of the mezzotint engraver Caroline 
James Watson, is the miniaturist in style among the stipple Watson. 
engravers. Her surface is of the closest and finest texture (e.g. 
portraits of Benjamin West and William Woollett), and suffers from 
the excess of its quality, while her design lacks grip and robustness. 
She engraved much after Reynolds, and her portrait of the painter 
(after himself) is one of her most brilliant plates (1789). She 
engraved one plate for the Shakespeare Gallery,^ but subjects on 
this scale were too large for her delicate talent. One of her most 
vigorous plates, with nothing of her characteristic fault, is the Miranda 
after Romney (1809). 

While speaking of the miniaturist style as represented in 

' Original drawing in the British Museum. 

^ In which he had N. Schiavonetti, G. Vendraraini, A. Cardon, and T. Gaugain 
as collaborators. 

' For other engravers engaged in this work (in stipple and line), cf. Chap. VII. 
p. 219. 




John Cond^. 


]. P. Simon. 

G. S. and . 

Stipple, we may refer to John CoNDi; and Anthony Cardon, who 
will be remembered specially for their full-length portraits after 
Cosway. The delicately finished face and the slighter indications 
of the figure are most excellently rendered by a combination of 
stipple and the crayon manner. 

Anthony Cardon was a native of Brussels, but settled early in 
London, studying under Schiavonetti. Of his full lengths after 
Cosway, we may mention the Mrs. Merry and Major- General 
R. C. Ferguson (1810), of numerous portraits after Edridge, the 
George III. (1803), the Hon. John Smyth, and that of his master 
L. Schiavonetti (1811). He also engraved after his own drawings, e.g. 
a large portrait group of 1801, including the Marchioness of Donegall, 
Mrs. and Miss May, and the Earl of Belfast. A powerful stipple 
print, after Rembrandt's Ganymede (1795), is an exhilarating work 
amid the constant repetitions of fancy subjects affected by the school. 
Besides work in stipple and line, which he largely used in small 
book illustrations, he did a series of prints in etching and aquatint 
after drawings by Mrs. Cosway (published by Ackermann, 1800). 

John Cond£ is only known to have worked in London, though 
he is certainly of French or Flemish extraction. He knew even 
better than Cardon how to render the delicate tone of miniature 
(e.g. his full -lengths of Mrs. Tickell, 1791, and Mrs. Fitzherbert, 
1792, after Cosway), but in vigour of draughtsmanship he is much 
Cardon's inferior. 

Two other foreigners whose work centred in London are 
Thomas Gaugain and Jean Pierre Simon. The former, a native 
of Abbevile, is a prolific craftsman, and engraved many subjects 
and portraits after Hamilton, Northcote, Reynolds, Morland, Hoare, 
and others ; but he is a less interesting artist than J. P. Simon. 
A rather weak plate, PsycM Suppliante (after A. C. Fleury), was 
published in Paris, but does not help to fix the date of Simon's 
removal to London, which seems to have been quite early in his life. 
He is one of the few stipple engravers who had sufficient power to 
make some success in large subjects, like those of Boydell's Shake- 
speare Gallery, to which he contributed several plates. His print, 
after ^^^nQ\ii.%'% Heads of Angels {children of Lord William Gordon), 
in the National Gallery (1789), is one of the most attractive of all 
stippled plates. 

Of other foreigners who practised stipple in England we would 
mention the Facius and the Sintzenichs of Germany, and Elias Martin 
of Stockholm. 

Georg Sigmund and Johann Goti-lieb Facius did much work 
for Boydell, who is said to have invited them to England in 1766. 
For the most part they worked in common on their plates, which 
include numerous portraits (e.g. Prince Octavius, 1785, after West), 
and many subjects (e.g. after Reynolds's A'nc College Windows, and 
for Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery'). If their work is dull, and lacking 


in draughtsmanship, that of Heinrich and Peter Sintzenich shows Heinrich and 
an even dryer manner. Heinrich Sintzenich was probably in London P^ter Smt- 


to study under Bartolozzi (ab. 1775-79 ?), but soon returned to settle 
in Germany. The little work of Peter that is known seems to have 
been done in London about 1789. 

Elias Martin is of no great importance as an artist, but his Elias Martin, 
stipple engravings at least have a character of their own. In a series 
of fancy subjects and portraits published in 1778, he shows a light 
manner of using stipple, indicating dress and accessories with broad 
open dot and flick work, whose effect is somewhat reminiscent of a 
Watteau drawing. 

The best English engraving in crayon and stipple, the work of The mezzo- 
artists who have already been referred to in the capacity of mezzo- ""'srswho 

, worKccl in 

tinters, remains to be mentioned. The work of Earlom, Capt. stippie. 

Baillie, Thomas Watson, and William Dickinson in this field 

has already been noticed, and we can limit ourselves here to the great 

trio of John Jones, J. R. Smith, and William Ward. 

These three engravers realised better than any of the immediate The combina- 

imitators of Bartolozzi that the virtue of the smooth and shallow "°" °^ ""^ 

.,,,,, . , , crayon manner 

surface tones of pure stipple could only be appreciated to advantage and stipple. 
when relieved by an unelaborated setting in the lighter manner of 
crayon. Stipple tones carried consistently throughout the whole 
of a plate tend to monotony. They lack the depth required to give 
a powerful reproduction of painting. On the other hand, the crayon 
method of representing a chalk drawing is completely satisfying, 
and the finished stipple of the principal part of the design (most often 
the face of the portrait) serves well to concentrate the effect of the 
whole. Cosway had realised this, and some of the engravings by 
John Conde, Anthony Cardon, and others after his drawings show 
how effective the combination could be.' A lighter manner of draw- 
ing throughout his portraits, with nothing of Cosway's miniature 
handling of the face, is represented by John Downman. Such 
prints as Ba.rto\ozz['s DucAess of Devonshire (1797) and John Jones's 
Miss Kemble (1784) show how well his drawings appear in stipple 
and crayon, and they possess just that style which characterises the 
best original work by Jones, Smith, and Ward. 

Of John Jones we would mention in particular two plates after John Jones. 
Romney, Ztti/v 7yawz7/(7« (1785), and Serena (Miss Sneyd, 1790), 
as comparable to his Miss Kemble in lightness of touch. His 
more purely stippled work in the heavier manner, e.g. Robinetta 
(1787) after Reynolds, is less successful, and shows some of the 
faults of drawing and litde of the strength of his mezzotints. A 
large full length of the Duke of York, 1790 (Reynolds), will suffice 
to demonstrate the inefficiency of the stipple method to represent 
the tone of pictures on a large scale. 

John Raphael Smith did a considerable number of fancy portraits J- R- Smith. 
and original subject prints in the methods of stipple and crayon. 


Of the fancy portraits we may mention the Thoughts on a Single 

L O U I S A, 


Fill. 102— William Ward. Louisa. 

Life (1787), and the pair, Xareissa and Fliriilla (1787), as good 
examples of the hghter method, while his Widow (1791) is at least 


a brave attempt at rendering depth of tone by stipple. A portrait 
of Miss Hervey is of some interest, as it shows a curiously rough 
mixture of aquatint and etching with stipple. Besides original 
work, there are numerous stippled plates after Morland, e.g. Delia 
in Town and Delia in the Country (1788), and the Tavern Door 

Both Jones and Smith are surpassed by William Ward in the William Ward. 
sphere of stipple and crayon. His original fancy portraits are 
among the most attractive work that has been produced in the 
field. The Louisa of 1786 (Fig. 102) is perhaps the best of these, 
but many other charming plates might be mentioned, e.g. Lucy of 
Leinster, Alinda, The Cyprian Votary, The Soliloquy (1787), and 
the Musing Charmer {xiZ-j). Like J. R. Smith he did numerous 
stipple prints after Morland. 

A notable recurrence to the heavier manner and a bold attempt William 
to achieve something of the depth of mezzotint is seen in William Walker. 
Walker, whom we have already mentioned in our section on 
mezzotint. It must be confessed that in his particular aim he is a 
far more powerful artist than Bartolozzi or any of his followers, and 
he has the advantage of avoiding the affectation of printing in red. 
His Lord Brougham and Vaux (Lawrence), Lord Lyndhursi (Ross), 
and in particular several plates after Raeburn, e.g. Sir Walter Scott, 
show the best that has been done in stipple to render depth of tone 
while preserving significance of delineation. But despite the 
technical and artistic excellence of these plates, the principle is 
wrong, and the renewed attempt merely foreshadowed the decay of 
an art which only flourished with that lighter spirit of fancy which was 
heralded in England by Cipriani and Angelica Kauflmann. It has 
already been noted how the process of stipple was used by William 
Walker and Samuel Cousins as a mere adjunct to mezzotint, and 
by the latter and many others it was practised in a mechanical 
strain that merely offends. With the modern revival of the nobler 
art of original etching, and the more powerful method of mezzotint, 
there is no reason to deplore the almost total extinction of the art 
of stipple. 

Allusion has already been made to the colour prints of the Stipple and 
French crayon and pastel engravers. The majority of the English prayon engrav- 
crayon and stipple engravers also constantly printed in colour, but j^ colour.'^ 
they probably never followed the method practised by Bonnet and 
to some extent by Demarteau, of using a plate for each tone. 
The general practice seems to have been that of painting the plate 
between each printing with rag stumps (dollies), a la poupk, as it is 
called in French. The lighter kind of crayon and stipple prints, 
such as those of John Jones and William Ward, are eminently 
fitted for printing in this manner, but it is rare to find one of the 
pure stipple plates at all successfully rendered in any delicate 
scheme of colour. 



J. B. Le 

III. Aquatint 

Jean Baptists Le Prince (1734-81) is generally regarded as 
the inventor of aquatint. He was undoubtedly the first etclier to 
achieve consistent success in laying the porous ground, but in 
respect of the discovery it is dangerous to make any more definite 
assertion than that he was among the earliest to attempt to grain his 

I'Ui. 103. — I. 1>. Ia- rrincc. La Mcn.igc 

plates by means of this process. Stray examples of plates similarly 
treated may be cited considerably earlier than his time,i and among 
his contemporaries, IMoos van Amstcl, llonnet, and P. tr. Floding- 
had used mixed methods on the borderland of aquatint possibly 
for several years previous to Le Prince's first attempts. 

Le Prince obtained his ground by means of the dust-box and 
lly-wheel (or bellows), a method which is still used as much as any 

' /•'.;'. a porlniil nf I'lomwII aUrihiUod lo Ian \an dr Nclilc (cf. riiap. \'l. 
p. i6i|, U'lti-). - Scvrral plale-i ilalcd 1762, aq. niixrd wiili ruuk-llc Hoik, en., ot. 


other, though the fluid grounds have been found to give a more 
delicate grain. 

His etchings in Hne date from 1760, but none of his aquatint 
plates are dated before 1768, and twenty-nine of these were 
exhibited in the Salon of 1769 with a special, but cryptic, note on 
the new process.^ Except for a few rare prints after his master 
Boucher, all his work is original, a large part reproducing drawings 
which he had made of landscape and peasant life in Russia, where 
he seems to have spent several years between 1758 and 1763. 

It was his practice to issue his prints in sets of six, e.g. Divers 
Habillements des Femmes de Moscovie (pure etching, 1763-64), 
Habillements de Diverses Nations (^-mz &\.c\\\ng, 1765), 2^ Suite de 
Divers Cris de Marchands de Russie (^ide^, pure etching), 2= Suite 
d' Habillements de Diverses Nations (aquatint, 1768), i'^ Suite de 
Coiffures dessinks daprh nature (aquatint, 1768). His aquatint is 
always combined with a liberal use of line. 

One of the earliest imitators of Le Prince's manner is the L'Abb^ de 
gifted amateur Jean Claude Richard, Abbe de St. Non. He St. Non. 
did a considerable number of etchings and aquatints in mono- 
chrome after Le Prince, Robert, Fragonard, and others. 

Not many years elapsed after Le Prince's discovery, before the 
new process was applied to printing in colour. 

Francois Janinet seems to have introduced the practice in f. Janinet. 
France.^ He used a succession of plates (often seven or eight in 
number) for the different colours, and considered as true colour 
impressions, the results he obtained are excellent in their clearness. 
Like many of his school he frequently strengthened his aquatint 
ground with the roulette. 

Janinet's work is almost entirely reproductive,^ and embraces a 
multitude of subjects from landscape and genre to portrait. His 
larger portrait of Marie Antoinette, which is of great value in good 
impressions, is an accomplished technical production, but shows the 
same triviality of style that has been noted in Bonnet, a framework 
in imitation of gilt and marble being represented in the engraving. 
His method of colour was extremely successful in imitating Ostade's 
water-colours, with their clearly divided tints. 

Philibert Louis Debucourt is as sound a master of the Debucourt. 
process of colour-printing as Janinet, and a draughtsman of far 
more original talent. He keeps far more strictly to pure aquatint 
than Janinet, seldom combining work with the roulette, and his 
surfaces of colour gain wonderfully thereby in the transparent quality 
of their tone. In Society genre he is one of the most distinguished 
masters, and his Promenade de la Galerie du Palais Royal (1787) 

^ See J. J. Guiffrey, Collection des Livrets des anciennes Expositions, Feb. 1870. 
''■ One of his small plates, L'Opirateur, is inscribed : gravi a I' imitation du lavis 
en couteur par F. Janinet, le seul qui ait trouvi cette maniire. 

^ E.g. after Boucher, Lavreince, Caresme, Gravelot, St. Quentin, and H. Robert. 




P. M. Mix. 
A. F. Sergent- 

Ploos van 

His Imitations 
de Dessins. 

Christian Josi. 

J. Cootwyck. 

J. Kornlein. 

and la Promenade Publique (1792) are of the greatest interest in 
their spirited representation of manners in Paris at the time of 
the Revolution. 

One of Janinet's pupils, Charles Melchior Descourtis, 
stands as an artist on a far lower plane than Debucourt. His 
colouring is almost as good, but liis draughtsmanship is as weak as 
his sentiment. Six plates after F. J. Schall, illustrating Paul et 
Virginie, and L'Amant surpris after the same painter, are good 
examples of his work. 

Of the other French exponents of aquatint, P. M. Alix and 
A. F. Sergent-Marceau deserve mention more particularly for 
their portraits. 

CoRNELis Plods van Amstel was producing plates somewhat 
in the nature of aquatint ^ before Le Prince's earliest attempts, 
but it is difficult to date any of his pure aquatints ^ definitely 
before 1768. Throughout his work his methods are very mixed, 
and often elude satisfactory explanation. His aquatint was very 
largely combined with the use of the roulette, and tone seems some- 
times to have been achieved by etched lines so closely laid as to be 
almost imperceptible except in tone. 

In the use of several plates to attain colour impressions he 
anticipated Janinet, but his methods were far less strictly those of 
the true colour printer. In spite of a testimonial ^ signed by a 
committee appointed by the Haarlem Maatschappy der Weeten- 
schappen (printed, Amsterdam, 1768), careful examination of his 
prints seems to show that something was left to hand tinting. 

Ploos van Amstel was an amateur, and a great collector of 
drawings, and his various and individual methods were largely 
devoted to their reproduction. He issued forty-six of his facsimiles 
in various parts* between 1765 and 1787 (the earliest plates being 
dated 1758), but no further collected edition appeared until two 
decades after his death, when Christian Josi, who became 
possessed of his stock, published the Collection d' Imitations de 
Dessins (London, 1821). The hundred plates of this second series 
included all the original prints (except two after Ostade, which were 
replaced by two new plates by Josi), others by Juriaan Cootwyck 
(a goldsmith engraver who appears to have made independent 
experiments in similar methods as early as Ploos himself), crayon 
engravings by Johannes Kornlein (who had been Ploos's assistant, 

' E.g. Young Man leaning on a Door after Rembrandt, which is among his 
prints published in 1765. 

'^ E. g. Judgment of Solomon after L. v. Leyden. 

^ In relation to his processes of engraving and printing we may quote : dat hv 
de Fignnivn in %yne Plaalcn hrcngt, nog door en Graveeryser, nog door een Etsnaald, 
nog door een Pontsoen, maar alkcnlyk door sckcre grondvemissen, poeders en zv^/en ' 
dat hy de kleuren in zync Prinlcn geenssins afzet. maar alle, tot haare volkommenheid 
toe, op eene Pers driikt, en dat niet met watervcrf, maar met oiieverf. 

■" Each accompanied with some prefatory matter headed Bericht -.woens een Prent- 
inert volgens dc nieiiwe Uitjinding van den Heer Cornelis Ploos van Amstel. 


1765-67), and aquatints by Bernaert Schreuder and Cornelis b. Schreuder. 

BrOUWER. C. Brouwer. 

To these, which were all done befpre they came into his hands, 
Josi added a few engravings of his own, of a certain Di(e)trich,i and 
of C. C. Lewis, and had the flower pieces after Huysum hand 
coloured by a young painter, Jean de Bruin. 

In Germany the most interesting etchers in aquatint in the Germany. 
eighteenth century were Johann Gottlieb Prestel and his wife j. G. Prestel 
Maria Catharina Prestel. Their aquatints are for the most ^""^ ^- ^• 


part of a rough gram, but by no means ineffective. J. G. Prestel 
produced many prints in etching, aquatint, and in the crayon 
manner after drawings in various collections {e.g. Paul Praun, 1776 ? 
and G. J. Schmidt, 1779), in which he was also assisted by his 
wife. The latter was separated from him in 1786, and afterwards 
worked in London. 

Paul Sandby, the water- colourist, is said to have learnt the England. 
process from, the Hon. Charles Greville, who had purchased the ^^"^ Sandby. 
secret from Le Prince.^ Sandby, however, in an autograph pre- 
served in the British Museum ^ describes a mode of imitating draw- 
ings on copper plates discovered by P. Sandby, R.A., in the year 1776,* 
to which he gave the name of Aquatinta. He then proceeds to 
describe his method of laying the fluid ground (resin dissolved in 
spirits of wine), which Le Prince does not seem to have used at all. 
In this sense his method was new, and possibly nothing but the 
mere suggestion was due to Greville. 

A set of twelve Vietvs in Aquatinta from Drawings in South 
Wales (dedicated to the Hon. Charles Greville and Joseph Banks) 
of 177s, seems to have been his first venture in the process, and 
it was followed in the succeeding years by three further series of 
Welsh views. 

Aquatint found a natural response in the English school of Publication.s of 
water-colour, and it was frequently applied both in publications of ■"'^^^. ^""^ "^^ 
views, and in the drawing-books which were popular at this period, ^ooks 
Of these we may mention the works of David Cox (Treatise on 
Landscape Painting, 1814^), Samuel Prout^ (e.g. Rudiments of 
Landscape, 1813), John 'U.ASsmA. {Progressive Drawing-Book, 1820, 
The Camera, or Art of Drawing in Water- Colours, 1823, and 
numerous aquatint views''), and various publications of aquatint views 

^ Identity uncertain. He had been working in Amsterdam before 1814, when 
he returned to Germany. Having found no other work of this Dietrich or of C. C. 
Lewis (unless C. C. is an error of Josi for F. C. or C. G. ), I have not included either 
in the index. ^ See Library of the Fine Arts, ii. 344. 

3 MSS. Addenda, 36994, foil. 117, 118 (dating April 1801). 

^ Certainly an error for 1775. 

^ Contains soft-ground etchings by Cox, as well as aquatints after his drawings. 

^ Most of his works of this character, published by Ackermann, were executed by 
himself in soft-ground etching (e.g. Progressive Fragments, 1817 ; Views of Ancient 
Buildings, 1821). 

' E.g. in his Aqua Pictura, 1813 (after Payne, Francia, Cox, Girtin and others). 




Thomas and 




and aquatint. 

J. C. Stadler. 

J. Bluck. 

D. and R. 


T. Sutherland. 

J. Hill. 

F. C. Lewis. 

F. C. Lewis. 

after Rev. William Gilpin (the author of the Essay on Prints, 1768), 
Jolin Varley and others, most of which partook of the nature of 
books of instruction in the beauties and artistic rendering of land- 
scape. Many of the water-colourists made unimportant essays in 
aquatint and soft-ground etching, but the medium is seldom treated 
for its own sake, and only a few such names figure in our index. 

Landscape work in aquatirit of a more ambitious and inde- 
pendent order was done by Thomas Malton the younger, and 
Thomas and William Daniell. The former, who enjoys some 
fame as the master of J. M. W. Turner, published two large series 
of original aquatints, A Picturesque Tour through the Cities of London 
and Westminster (1792-1800) and Picturesque Views of the City of 
Oxford {^\2Ae:s dated 1802-3 and 1810). 

Of the work of Thomas Daniell and his nephew William, 
most interest attaches to their aquatints illustrating life and landscape 
in India,^ which they visited together about 1784-94. William 
Daniell, besides his Indian plates and numerous aquatint views of 
British scenery,^ also worked in stipple, and engraved a large series 
of excellent portraits in the crayon manner after George Dance, 
produced between 1808 and 1814 {e.g. J. Flaxman, Benjamin West, 
and Richard Cosway). 

We have already referred to Ackermann's method of reproduction 
by aquatint in speaking of Rowlandson. J. C. Siadler, J. Bluck, 
D. and R. Havell, T. Sutherland, J. Hill, and F. C. Lewis 
were among the more prolific of the craftsmen whom he employed. 
In general their work was printed from one plate in two or three neutral 
tones, the chief colouring being added by hand on the impressions. 
Apart from the work of Pugin and Rowlandson in the Microcosm 
of London (18 10), the most important publications are the Histories 
of the Universities of Oxford (1813) and Cambridge (181 4) with 
aquatints after drawings by Pugin, Westall, Mackenzie, Nash and 
others, and various Picturesque Tours (e.g. The Seine, 1821, after 
Pugin and Gendall ; English Lakes, 1821, after T. H. Fielding, J. 
Walton, and Westall; Piver Ganges, 1824, after Lieut.-Col. Forrest; 
River Thames, 1828, after Owen and Westall). 

F. C. Lewis may be mentioned in particular for his set of 
Lmitations of Drawings by Claude in the British Museum (1837). 
They do not, however, approach Earlom's Liber Veritatis in the 
strength of their reproduction. Lewis also worked in mezzotint and 
crayon (e.g. after portraits in chalk by Lawrence). 

The greatest of all the etchers in aquatint, Gova, has found a 
place in the preceding chapter, so that a mere reference to his work 

and in his Picturesque Rides and Walks round the British Metropolis, 1817-18 (the 
plates of tlie first volume entirely by Hassell ; most of the second volume aquatinted 
by D. Havell). 

1 E.g. Oriental Scenery (in 6 vols. ; completed 1808) ; Picturesque Voyage li> 
India, 1810. 

'^ E.g. A Voyage round Great Britain, with text by Richard .Xyton, 1814-25. 


in this connexion will suffice. Since his time there have been many 
others who might be specially mentioned, but the process has been, 
and is, so promiscuously used by etchers of all descriptions in com- 
bination with line, as to render it superfluous to treat of their aquatint 
work outside the chapter on Modern Etching. 

IV. Colour-Prints 

By colour-prints we would imply impressions printed in more A definition. 
than one colour. Impressions in a single colour stand on exactly 
the same technical grounds, whether they be printed in black, brown, 
red, or any other tone, and naturally fall outside our definition. 
Then, again, these single-colour impressions are frequently tinted by 
hand. These also are excluded from our category ; they might be 
called coloured prints, but not colour-prints. 

Having established this basis we would divide colour-prints into Classification 
two main groups — of colour- 

A. Those in which only one plate is used in the printing. ''"" ^' 

B. Those in which two or more plates are used. 
The second group may be subdivided into 

(i.) Impressions in which each colour used in the printing 

retains its original character unalloyed, 
(ii.) Impressions in which the original colours used are in- 
tended to combine to form compound tones (i.e. in 
the three-colour process, and its variants). 
Finally, we would just mention what is strictly beyond the 
border-line of our subject — 

C. Impressions from metal plates in which the tone or colour is 

printed from wood-blocks. 

A. Colour-Prints in which only one Plate is used 

This method implies painting the plate for each impression, so 
leaving the artist a perfectly free hand, while the other methods 
involve restrictions which keep variation from extending beyond 
certain limits. The very fact of the infinite possible variations 
renders it essentially an artist's process, but the antithesis to a true 
printer's method. Rag stumps (the " Dolly " or " Poupde ") would Printing d la 
be used in conjunction with dabbers of various sizes to fill the ^'"^t^^- 
plate, and the process would naturally be a lengthy one if delicate 
divisions of colour were required. 

We have already referred to the coloured etchings of Hercules Hercules 
Seghers.i They show one of the earliest attempts to give im- Seghers. 
pressions in colour, but they cannot in a strict sense be called 

^ Chap. VI. pp. 169-70. 



colour-prints. The line work is printed in a single colour (often 

varied in tone), and the other tones seem to have been obtained by 

tinting the paper (or canvas, which he frequently used instead) by 

hand, either before or after the impression. 

joannesTeyler. In the latter half of the seventeenth century Joannes Teyler 

took some true colour- impressions from his line-engravings. His 

work includes subject pieces of varied description, but by far the 

most effective in the process he uses are his plates of birds and 

flowers. There is an interesting bound volume of his prints in the 

British Museum, with an engraved title, which seems to show that 

he intended publishing a work to be entitled Opus Typochromaticufii} 

but it was probably never issued. 

Peter Schenck. Peter Schenck also printed a few line-engravings (chiefly floral 

pieces) in the same manner as Teyler, about 1700. In the work 

of both engravers the colour is wiped from the surface of the plate, 

and merely remains in the lines. 

J. Robert. A few anatomical plates ^ were produced in this manner, half a 

century later, by a certain J. Robert, who is said to have been a 

pupil of J. C. Le Blon, and to have assisted his master in the 

mezzotint of some of his Paris plates.^ 

Stipple and The method of printing a la poupee has been largely used in 

crayon prints, gtippig and crayon* engravings. ^Ve do not need here to do more 

than refer to the section devoted to these processes.* 
Mezzotints. Then the colour-prints from English mezzotints seem to be 

William and exclusively made from a single plate. The practice was most 
James Ward, common at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and 

T P Pichler 

F. Wrenk. then chiefly for subject prints like those of William and James 
Ward after Morland. A few of the foreign mezzotinters, such as 
J. P. Pichler and F. Wrenk, also occasionally printed in colour. 

William Blake. The methods used by William Blake in his coloured books 
have already been discussed." Neither of his processes can strictly 
be called colour-printing. The majority are merely tinted by hand 
in water-colour, while the prints in opaque colour (tempera) are 
obtained by a method of transfer from a card which partakes more 
of the nature of painting than printing. He frequently uses the 
colour so heavily as to almost hide the lineal design. In such cases 
the resultant impression might be a mere monotype, and all virtue 
in the combination is lost. Blake often applied this method of 
transfer quite apart from any etching, achieving a curiously mottled 
surface which could hardly be attained by direct painting with the 

1 See J. E. T. Graesse, Tn'sor Jc Livres rarcs ct pricicux, Dresden, i8<;q-6Q 
(in Supplement, 1869). ^' * 

2 In P. Tarin's ./i/i'tvj-nr/.; Anatomica, Paris, 1750. 

^ General Bibl. ii., Gautier de Montdorge, 1756, p. 128. 

* Cf. Section B (i. ) in reference to the French crayon engravers. 

" Cf. especially pp. 288, 299. 

" See Chap. VII. pp. 220-1. 


Modern colour-etchings, which for the greater part are printed Modern 
from single plates, will be discussed in the succeeding chapter.^ etchings. 

B. Colour-Prints in which two or more Plates are used 

The first division of the second method involves engraving on {i.)lmpressions 
a separate plate each part of the work which is to be printed in a '"which each 
separate colour. Great care is of course needed in the register, i.e. the printing 
the method of pinning the corners to secure absolute correspondence, retains its ori- 
when the paper is laid on each plate for its impression. Given the S'"^J character 
colour of the inks required, this method could be carried out with ""^ °^^ 
accurate repetition by the printer without the artist's supervision. It 
is essentially the true printer's process. 

This method has been chiefly used by the crayon and pastel Crayon and 
engravers and the etchers in aquatint, whose work has already been P^^'^^ prints. 
described.^ In the case of the French crayon engravers it is often Aquatints, 
difficult to say whether several plates have been used, or only one, 
inked a la poupie, as seems to have been the practice with almost 
all engravers outside France. 

A certain number of modern etchers (e.g. Camille Pissarro Modern 
and Jeanniot) have also used this process.^ etchings. 

The three-colour process is based on Newton's theory that the (ii.) The three- 
whole gamut of tonic values is composed of three cardinal colours — colour process 

, , ,, J J and Its variants. 

blue, yellow, and red. 

Jacob Christoph Le Blon seems to have been the first to j. c. Le Bion. 
use the theory in relation to colour-printing, his idea being to split 
the composition of the various tones of a coloured picture into the 
terms of the cardinal colours, and, on the basis of this analysis, to 
make three plates, which by superposition of impression should com- 
bine to give the true composite result. The theory was good, but in 
practice, with the imperfect means at his disposal, Le Blon's work 
is a lamentable failure. His plates are nearly always marred by 
garish streaks of disturbing colours which have failed to combine in 
the appointed manner. Considering how seldom the three-colour 
process-plates of to-day, with all the advantage of modern scientific 
methods, attain to any absolute combination of colour, it must be 
admitted that Le Blon's boldness and persistence in tackhng one of 
the most difficult problems in colour-printing constitute some real 
success. Le Blon frequently used a fourth plate for his blacks, and 
the same discrepancy between theory and practice is generally found 
in most modern mechanical applications of the process. 

J. C. Le Blon, like his namesake (and relative ?) the ornament 
engraver, Michel Le Blon, was born in Frankfurt, and settled early in 
Amsterdam. Here he seems first to have been engaged mostly in paint- 
ing miniature portraits, but before 1711 he was making essays in the 

^ Seepp. 322-3, 331, 338. ^ Cf. pp. 288, 301-2, 304. * SeeChap. X. pp. 322-4. 


new process, and from that time the varying fortunes of his life were 
inevitably bound up with the art of colour-printing. His first great 
venture was made in London, where he had settled, in 1720. He was 
granted a royal patent for his discovery, and a company was formed 
to work the method, with Le Blon as a salaried servant. In spite 
of considerable capital, the company had to declare bankrupt some 
three years later. It was probably soon after this failure that Le 
Blon issued his book Coloritto^ which purports to explain the process, 
but does little more than add to its obscurity. Later, Le Blon 
attempted the application of the method in tapestry weaving,, but 
about 1732 his new company had to face a more disastrous bank- 
ruptcy than the former, and Le Blon found it well to retire to 
Paris. Here he spent the rest of his days, and here first found a 
few followers to continue his attempts. 

About fifty plates by Le Blon are known, portraits being rather 
less numerous than the subjects after the old masters (largely of the 
school of Carracci, Domenichino, and Maratta). Only some three 
plates are signed Le Blon fecit, and it is very uncertain what definite 
part he took in the work. Quite possibly he left the mezzotinting 
and etching (for line is often intermixed) for the most part to 
others,^ supplying the three-colour designs and generally superintend- 
ing the work himself. Despite the fact that Le Blon's plates were 
printed in very large numbers, impressions are very rare in public 
museums. No doubt large numbers have been varnished, and pass 
as oil-paintings in many English houses. Of his portraits one might 
mention as among the most successful the George I. (signed /. C. 
Le Blon fee), Kneller's William LIL and Qzieen Mary, those of 
Van Dyck and Rubens by the painters themselves (the two latter from 
pictures in Windsor), Edmund Spenser, and Louis XV. 
L'Admiral ^" Holland he had a follower in J,\n L'Admiral, who signed 

a few anatomical plates, produced in a similar method, to illustrate 
books by B. S. Albini and F. Ruysch (published in Leyden, 1736- 
41). L'Admiral is said to have been a pupil of Le Blon in London, 
but on what evidence I cannot find. 
The Gautier In Paris Le Blon's method found imitators in the various 

famfly!'' members of the family of G.vutier d'Agoty, anatomists, botanists, 

and artists, whose work in science is as unsatisfactory and confusini; 
as their production in art. The head of the family, Jacques Fabien 
Gautier d'Agoty, claimed to have developed his process quite 
apart from Le Blon (with whom he worked for a short time about 
1738), but was certainly wrong in regarding the use of the fourth 

' Le Blon states in the preface that he was preparing some anatomical plates for 
Xatbamel St. Andr^, the khig's anatomiM, who was appointed to this office in 1723 
but lost the Royal fa\oiir after 1726. Perhaps the plates he prod\tced, which are not 
identihed, are to be found among those usually attributed to the Gautier d'.\gotvs 

2 In Paris he is said to have been assisted by P. F. Tardieu and J. Robert 
CJautier de Montdorge (Geiu-ml Bibl. ii. , 1756, p. 13^) refers to work bv these 
engravers, hut I have failed to identify any coloured mezzotint as their work. ' 


plate for the black as a new discovery of his own. He published 
numerous works on anatomy, as much for the plates (which could be 
purchased separately) as for the text, and it is difficult to differen- 
tiate in many cases between his engraving and that of his sons, of 
whom Louis Charles, Arnaud ^loi,^ and Edouard^ seem to 
have been his chief collaborators. 

His largest work, and one that contains most information in 
reference to his methods, is the Observations sur rUistoire Naturelle, 
sur la Physique et sur la Feinture"^ (Paris, 1753-57). Besides the 
colour mezzotints, a large number of the plates are executed in 
etching, some being coloured by hand. The tone is also sometimes 
achieved by dotting with the punch ^ or graver, as had occasionally 
been done by Le Blon. 

In 1770 Jacques d'Agoty, with one of his sons, started a publica- 
tion of portraits, the Galerie Fran^aise,^ ou Fortraits des Hommes et 
des Femmes cSllbres qui ont paru en France, but only two parts (1770, 
1772) appeared. The portrait of Voltaire (1772, after La Tour) is 
by Jacques, but a greater number (e.g. Frederick II. of Prussia, M. 
de Maupeoii, and Due de Lavrilliere^ are signed Gautier d'Agoty 
fits ami (which is in all probability Louis Charles). 

I^DOUARD Gautier d'Agoty, whose work holds a more indi- 
vidual place than that of Arnaud !fcloi, who seems to have kept to 
anatomy and natural history, engraved some twelve plates after 
pictures in the Orleans Gallery {e.g. after Titian, Paul Veronese, 
Correggio, Reni, Lebrun, etc.), as well as a few portraits (e.g. 
Madame Dubarry and Marie Antoinette). In the latter part of his 
life Edouard was settled in Italy, where he at least succeeded in 
inspiring one follower, the line-engraver and etcher Carlo Lasinio. 

Lasinio produced a portrait of Edouard d'Agoty in this manner. Carlo Lasinio. 
some subjects after old masters (e.g. St. Mark in a Niche after 
Fra Bartolommeo), and a series of small engravings of Portraits of 
Artists from the pictures in the Uffizi. There is a copy of these 
Ritratti de' Pittori bound in three volumes, and with a MS. title 
(with the date and place, Venice, 1789), in the Print Room of the 
British Museum, but I cannot find whether they were ever published 
as a set. 

With Le Blon, the Gautier d'Agotys, and Lasinio the history of 
the three-colour process in artist engraving is almost ended. The 
declared aim of the process is truth to the natural tones of colour, 

^ In the Cours Complet d Ajiatomie . . cxpliqu£ par AI. Jadelot, Nancy, 1773, 
A. E. G. d'A. , who designed and engraved most of the plates, is called the second son. 
One of the plates is signed by L. Gautier d'Agoty. According to Portalis and Beraldi 
(Graveurs du 18"" siecle, 1880-82), Edouard calls himself z^^Jils on a St. Francis 
after Van Dyck, 1780. Perhaps at that time he was the second surviving son. 

2 Title in 1756 and 1757 runs: Observations piriodiques sur la physique^ Vkistoire 
naturelle et les beatix-arts. 

^ E.g. in particular in the Collection des Plantes, Paris, 1767. 

* Galerie Universelle is inscribed on some of the plates. 


but the theory has never been found satisfactory in practice. 
Engraving is above all things not the art for imitative realism in 
colour, even though certain decorative colour-eifects may sometimes 
be appropriately rendered by one of the processes described in this 
chapter. Though occasional instances might be cited during the 
nineteenth century where engravers and etchers have made partial 
use of some elements in Le Blon's process of colour combination, 
it may be stated that the method practically finds no exponents 
outside the field of photo-mechanical reproduction. 

C. Impressions from Metal Plates in which the Tone or Colour is 
printed from Wood-Blocks 

Engravers, etchers, and mezzotinters have occasionally used the 

"chiaroscuro"^ method of getting surface colour by means of 

Hubert several wood-blocks in combination with their plate. Hubert 

Goitzius. GoLTZius,- ABRAHAM and Frederik Bloemaert were among the 

Abraham and earliest to use the engraved and etched line in this combination.^ 

Frederik x i , • , , • t i i , 

Bloemaert. I" the early eighteenth century we may note a considerable number 

P. P. A. of 'he etchings and engravings by P. P. A. Robert, Cavlus, and 

Robert. C. N. CocHiN I. for the Cabinet Crozat (1729*), where the tone is 

S^^'"!; , . , achieved in chiaroscuro blocks cut by Nicolas and Vincent Le 

C.N. Cochin I. „ ,,,, , , , , ^ , . 

Arthur Pond. Sueur. 1 he same method was used only a few years later in 
Charles England by ARTHUR PoND and Charles Knapton in their imita- 

Knapton. tions of drawings from the Richardson and other collections 

£li3jjj^ Elisha Kirkall had used the combination with mezzotint 

Kirkail. plates (in which engraved and etched lines also appear) in a series 

of twelve prints issued in 1722. 
George Baxter. I" the nineteenth century the combination of copper and wood- 
blocks was applied by George Baxter in a method of printing in 
oil colours, for which he obtained a patent in 1835. I" his use of 
a succession of wood-blocks for his various tints, he was followino- 
in the path of J. B. Jackson and William Savage, who developed the 
elements of chiaroscuro (which seldom went beyond four tints of 
a single colour), so as to command a much larger scale of colour. 
Baxter's variation on these predecessors, not in any sense a dis- 

' The pure " cliiaroscuro " method was chiefly practised in the sixteenth century. 
Its earliest exponents were probably Germans {e.g. Cranach (one print dated 1506). 
Burgkmair with J. de Negker, and \\echtlin), but the greatest production comes from 
Italians like Ugo da Carpi, .\ntonio Fantuzzi da Trento, Giuseppe Nicole Vicentino, 
and .Andrea Andreani. 

^ In his Impcratonim Imagines, Antwerp, 1557 (the wood-blocks cut by Jesse 

■1 There is an isolated example (a Pair of Lovers seated in a Landscape) by an 
anonymous artist of Upper Geiniany, dated 1538 (Gutekunst sale, Stuttgart, 1903, 
III. Teil, No. II, with reproduction ; acquired for the Kunsthalle, Hamburg). A 
single tone block is used in combination with an etched plate, which is reminiscent of 
the style of Lautensack and Huber, 

■* See Chap. \'I1. p. 202 ; Chap. VIII. pp. 248-9. 


covery, was the use of a copper or steel plate for the lines of the 
design, sometimes adding a neutral tone on the same plate by means 
of aquatint or stipple. 

According to his own description of the process,^ he sometimes 
used as many as twenty blocks, and even in the simplest colour- 
prints seldom less than ten. His work, which ranges from 1834 to 
i860 (when he retired from business), covers one of the dullest 
epochsin English painting, and the artistic value of the majority of 
his reproductions is correspondingly small. 

Up to about 1849 he did a considerable amount of book illus- 
tration (e.g. for Sir N. H. Nicolas's History of the Orders of Knight- 
hood, 4 vols., 1841-2), but throughout his life the majority of his 
work was in separate plates, including royal portraits, views of the 
Great Exhibition, prints after the old masters, and subjects of the 
most miscellaneous order. His colour surface is always unpleasant 
and glossy, and militates against any satisfactory result. 

From about 1849 Baxter sold the license of using his patented 
process to several printers. Abraham Le Blond was among the Abraham Le 
first to take advantage of the license, and at a later date reissued ^'°°'^'- 
impressions ^ from Baxter's original plates and blocks, which he had 
acquired about 1868.^ He seems, however, to have profited little 
from the venture, and his stock was sold in 1888 to Mr. Mockler,* 
and subsequently dispersed by public auction in Birmingham in 

^ See Baxter's Pictorial Album or Cabinet of Paintings, 1837. 

^ For the most part with the original signature erased. 

' From Vincent Brooks, the printer, who was in possession of most of the stock 
between i860 and 1868. George Baxter, jun., who worked with Brooks, retained 
some of the plates, and issued impressions on his own account. 

* Who made a systematic study of the plates and blocks, issued a folio of prints 
in black from the plates, and in 1895 helped in founding the Baxter Society, which 
just lived to publish three monthly numbers of a journal. 



century a 
barren period 
in original 

The revival. 

The eighteenth FoR the century and a half that followed the death of Rembrandt, 
the art of original etching was little practised and less understood. 
Italy, whose best etching was produced in the eighteenth century, 
affords the one brilliant exception ; elsewhere etchers, who worked 
in a spirit suited to the medium, stand in noteworthy isolation. By 
far the greatest bulk of etching during this period was produced in a 
dry graver-like manner, even when it was not actually combined on 
the same plate with graver work, a practice which had become the 
conventional method of the line-engraver from the middle of the 
eighteenth century. Then at the beginning of the last century, 
just at the time when line-engraving in reproductive work reached 
a subtle finesse of technique which almost concealed the use of 
line,^ came a reaction in favour of a freer handling, and a revival of 
original etching along the path of the best tradition ; a revival 
which has added to the art not a few elements which the older 
etchers had barely realised. 

Some of the etchers noted in the eighth chapter may have 
considerably contributed towards this revival (e.g. Turner, Crome, 
and Geddes), but they were isolated examples who left no real 
following in this direction. The most notable part in originating 
the new movement was undoubtedly played by the French landscape 
etchers, whose work commenced in the third and fourth decades of 
the century, while its perfection is due even more notably and 
directly to a few British and American artists, such as Haden and 
Whistler, whose work received its first impulse from etchers of the 
French school. 

Two artists of the earlier part of the nineteenth century, who as 
painters and draughtsmen are among the pioneers of modern art, 
Delacroix and Decamps, do not hold a place of at all comparable 
importance in their few etchings. 

Eugene Delacroix is the greatest of modern historical painters, 
the realist whose whole work was an assault on classicism, a citadel 
whose storming would have been easier, had not David found an 

' Ji.g. in the Turner school of engravers. 



even greater successor in Ingres. His etchings, opening about 1814 
with a sheet of studies with a profile of Napoleon, and numbering 
about twenty in all, are for the most part hasty studies (chiefly of 
figure subjects), lightly etched after the manner of pen drawing. 
Most modern and convincing is the sketch of a Nude Woman seen 
from the back (about 1833 ; Robaut 463), while his unfinished plate 
of a Blacksmith (R. 459) is an excellent example of his work in 
aquatint. Delacroix's etched work is scanty in amount and slight 
in character, but it never belies the energy of passion which makes 
his smallest work a living force. 

Alexandre Gabriel Decamps left about as many plates as Decamps. 
Delacroix, and from the technical point of view they are of the 
greater importance. There is still much of the pen draughtsman in 
his style of etching, e.g. in the Girl playing a Hurdy-Gurdy, said to 
be after a sketch by Jamar (Moreau 7), but other studies of a similar 
nature, like the Old Beggar Woman (M. 10), in which the etching 
has been strengthened by roulette and dry-point, show that he had 
realised the quality of true etching. 

He excelled in depicting animals and genre, but he also left 
several quite excellent landscape plates, some being etched in soft- 
ground (e.g. Environs de Smyrne, M. 12). Both Decamps and 
Delacroix did more work in the then new and popular process of 
lithography than on copper. 

One of the earliest of the landscape painters in France to Thfedore 
produce etchings with a true appreciation of the value of line and Rousseau. 
economy of method was Theodore Rousseau. To some extent 
he stands in a similar position to Crome, the advance made consisting 
in a return to the spirit of the old Dutch etchers, and, like Crome's 
work, his four etchings of forest landscape (which date between 
1836 and 1 861) are quite in Ruysdael's manner. With Ruysdael 
and Crome, too, he is a classic in the representation of the gnarled 
strength of the oak. 

He was among the first of the group of landscape painters (the The Barbkon 
school of "1830 ") who made Barbizon, a little village on the verge school. 
of the forest of Fontainebleau, the centre of their work. It was 
from this school that the best landscape etching of the time 
emanated, Jacque, Daubigny, and Millet accomplishing most in this 

Like so many artists of the time, Theodore Rousseau was a 
painter who did a few etchings rather than the professional etcher : 
only, in his case, the few plates produced count for much. First of 
the school to devote himself pre-eminently to etching was Charles Charles 
Jacque. In fact, he began his artistic career as a vignettiste, doing Jacque. 
much careful work in the late 'thirties, which scarcely betrays the 
power that was to come. His original etchings did not begin to 
appear until about 1841, and from that time, for several decades, in 
Paris, and at intervals at Barbizon, he continued a prolific activity. 



It was perhaps his early training in vignette that suggested to him 
the use of roulette work, which he frequently combines with the 
etched line to attain tone, e.^. in the Cow-herd (G. 94), and La 
bonne Compagnie (G. 120). The latter plate and many others 
show how much his feeling was in harmony with that of the early 
Dutch etchers of genre such as Ostade, whom he frequently copied 
in his youth. Imbued with the wide sympathy for all types of peasant 
life which characterises the school, he stands apart from the rest as 
the special devotee of the swine-herd, a subject which he repeated 
again and again (e.g. G. 153, Fig. 104). At his best — and the 
necessities of doing hack-work often show him at something much 

V\c.. 104. — l/hark-s Jarquu. 'I'lie Sw inc-licrd. 


J. V. Millet. 

lower — Jacque is among the great etchers in the significance of 
his expression as a linealist. 

Among the other etchers of the school C. F, D.vuiUGXV is 
most akin to Jacque in the character of his work, but it is only 
in a few of his best plates that he commands an equal strength of 
line {e.g. certain examples in the Cahicr d'Eaiix-foiies, published 
in 1851). He etched at various times between 1S38 and 1874. 

Far less prolific as an etcher than either Jacque or Daubigny, 
but in some res[)ects the noblest representative of the best elements 
of the Harbizon school, is Jk,\n Francois Mu.lkt. He only left 
twenty plates, and some half-dozen of the earliest of these are the 
slightest of studies, but the rest are the creations of a conscious 
power, which places them on a level with his paintings as perfect 



expressions of his genius. Like his paintings they are studies 
of peasant hfe, full of sympathy for the great elemental forces in 
nature and life, and pervaded with the sense, of power and mystery 
behind the relation between man and the soil, which encircles the 
humblest toil with a halo of dignity and romance. His earliest 
etchings, studies in which the roulette plays considerable part, 

Fig. 105. — J. F. Millet. Woman sewing. 

undoubtedly owe their inspiration to Jacque, in whose company 
Millet left Paris for Barbizon in 1S49. Then in the same year 
to which these first essays belong (1855), follow two or three plates 
of remarkable completeness as works of art {e.^. the Wo?nan 
cJuirning (Delteil 10, Leb. 11) and the Woman sewing (Leb. 10, 
De. 9, Fig. 105). In both strong line-work suffices to realise a fine 
treatment of light and shade, a problem which is still further 
developed in the Tivo Women sewing by Candlelight (De. 14). In 



Camille Corot, 

Paul Huet. 


his last etchings (and these fall less than ten years after his first 
attempts) there is a greater breadth of handling and little thought 
for chiaroscuro, the Shepherdess knitting oi 1862 (De. 18), where so 
much more care is given to the quality of the line than in the 
earlier plates, being followed in 1863 by one of the strongest of all, 
the Peasants going to Work (De. 19). 

Camille Corot, the other great individual genius of the 
Barbizon school (if we may include in the group one who never 
worked at all consecutively in the centre of Fontainebleau), also 
produced some fifteen etchings (between 1845 ^^d 1871). They 
have all the light shimmering quality of tone seen in his paintings, 
but as etchings are perhaps of less importance than interest as the 
occasional studies of a great painter. Similar in appearance to his 
etchings are the glass-prints to which allusion has been made in the 
Introduction. 1 The confusion is more easy in the case of Corot 
than of others of the school who produced works of this type (e.g. 
Millet and Daubigny) on account of the generally delicate character 
of his etched line. 

In strong contrast to the light studies of Corot stands the work 
of Paul Huet, one of the earliest of the modern French landscape 
painters. Some of his best plates were pubhshed in 1835, but 
though strikingly good, they are rather on the older lines, eminently 
in the finished painter's manner, and possess few of the broader 
characteristics which helped most towards the revival of the art of 

The discussion of the French masters of landscape and peasant 
life leads by a natural chain of connexion to the work of an etcher 
who has lived so long in England, and exerted so wide an influence 
on English art, that he almost seems to belong to the English 

Alphonse Legros, born at Dijon in 1837, disciplined in the 
humbler paths of a house painter, but of such brilliant promise as 
to be entrusted at the age of fourteen with the fresco decoration of 
a church at Lyons, commenced his real study of art at the Ecole 
des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1851. His first etchings appeared in 
1857, i.e. in the year before Whistler's public debut as an 
etcher, and at once announced the presence of a remarkable talent. 
There is Millet here, with his broad human touch, but it is the 
spirit of the Barbizon etcher enriched with an even deeper insight 
into the great factors of life and death and with an added forceful- 
ness of presentation. 

Several of Legros' earliest etchings are pictures of Spanish life 
(e.g. Les Chantrcs Espagnols, M. T. 59), and were the offspring of 
a visit to Spain about i860, the first of many to follow. One 
element at least in the modern art of Spain he has assimilated, the 
tendency towards the grotesque. If Goya in particular is the type 

' Sec p. 8. 


of this worship of the grotesque in form, we must not forget that it 

Fig. 106. — Alphonse Legros. The Prodigal Son. 

was Rembrandt who in his latest and most magnificent etchings 


initiated the spirit, which has found so many adherents among the 

ff, ■ 

J;, '■[ 'rt' 

Fig. 107. — Al|ilionso Legios. I'orlmit of Augusto Rodin. 

greatest of modern etchers. Among the noblest examples of his 
\)ower as an etcher of peasant life and of the life of the poor in 


general — and he is greater here than in pure landscape — may be 
mentioned the Death of the Vagabond, and various plates repre- 
senting woodcutters, notably the two allegories of Death and the 
Woodcutter. Nor is Legros less important in the sphere of portrait : 
the revival pf the noble simplicity of Van Dyck's ideal is more the 
merit of Legros than of any other. The Auguste Del&tre (the printer- 
etcher), the Cardinal Manning, and the profile head of Auguste 
Rodin (Fig. 107) are magnificent examples taken from various 
periods. Since 1866 Legros has been settled in London, first as 
master of engraving at South Kensington, then from 1876 to 1894 
in the Slade Professorship at University College, a position in which 
his influence was incalculable. It is sufficient to mention pupils 
like William Strang and Sir Charles Holroyd, to whose work we 
shall recur later in this chapter. 

If Barbizon was the centre of the revival, Paris formed the Meryon. 
inspiration of the work of the greatest of French etchers, Charles 
Meryon. Sadly handicapped in life, by the circumstances of his 
birth — he was the son of an English doctor and a French dancing- 
girl — his youth was by no means one of poverty, but set in sur- 
roundings which must have left the scars on an over-sensitive nature 
which helped to bring him to the mad-house at Charenton, where he 
died in 1868. An opening was found for him in the Navy, but he 
soon left the service to devote himself to art in Paris. His master 
was Eugfene Bldry,'- a landscape etcher quite of the older school of 
Boissieu, and Meryon could hardly have found here any of the 
formative influences on his style. From the dedication of the 
published set of Paris etchings (Delteil 17-40) to Reynier Zeeman, 
"painter of sailors," at least one of the forces that directed the 
character of his work is clear. 

Meryon's plates of the sea and ships, etched between 1850 and 
1866 (De. 63-74), are taken from early and amateurish drawings made 
during his voyage to New Zealand (which happened about 1842-46), 
and are quite unimportant, except as a biographical record ; but it 
was not here alone that the Dutch etcher of marines could inspire. 
Zeeman's views of Amsterdam and Paris (of which one is repro- 
duced, Fig. 75)^ are among the most charming etchings of archi- 
tecture that exist, and definitely prepared the way for the most 
remarkable of all of their type, those of Meryon. The Eaux-fortes 
sur Paris ■vi&re issneA m three livraisons between 1852 and 1854, 
some two years after he had left B16ry's studio, and most of his best 
plates of Paris, not included in this set, fall within the next two or 
three years. From 1858 the signs of the affliction which attacked 
him were already present, and the curious vagaries of imagination 
which disfigure certain states of some of his etchings {e.g. the 

1 Meryon is known to have etched a portrait of his master, but an impression is 
still to be found. 

2 Four of Zeeman's plates of the same order were copied by Meryon, De. 9-12. 



Toui-elle, Rue de F Ecole de Medecine, De. 41, and Le Pont au 
Change, Vit. 34) may here find their natural explanation. In his 

life he was haunted by suspicions even of his few friends, and the 
same spirit is embodied in his plates, where stone walls seem 


peopled with lurking eyes. His style, where the line has the 
highest measure of decision and strength, often tends less to a realistic 
interpretation of nature than to a decorative convention, which is well 
exemplified in the Rue des Toiles, Bourges (De. 55, Fig. 108). In 
his finest work, however, the merely decorative element is less pro- 
minent, from the forceful simplicity of the Rue des Mauvais Garfons 
(De. 27) to the magnificently elaborated plate LAbside de Notre 
Dame (De. 38). Perhaps both of these extremes yield in quality 
to plates like the St. Etienne du Mont (De. 30) and La Morgue 
(De. 36), where the powerful contrast of light and shade, which is 
characteristic of his work, is combined with his incisive draughts- 
manship at its best. 

A host of artists followed Meryon in etching views of Paris, and The etchers 
happily by 1870 his plates as well as theirs were sought after more °f P^"^- 
for their worth as etchings than as views, for as such Meryon's work 
had sold during his lifetime, and for the veriest pittance of a price. 

Maxime Lalanne, an artist of considerable talent, who did Lalanne. 
all that could be attained by technical ability and a good deal more, 
was among the foremost of the group. His contemporary Martial Martial. 
(Adolphe Martial Pot^mont) is a poorer artist but no less prolific 
as an etcher. The extreme popularity of etching in the 'sixties and 
early 'seventies was beginning to yield its fruit, both good and bad. 
Among other publishers, A. Cadart ^ did most to bring third-rate Cadart's 
work to the fore in the publications of the Societi des Aqua-fortistes publications : 
(1862-67), in nillustraiion Nouvelle (1868-73), and in numerous |°yf'_fj,^j^i3tg3 
sets of etchings illustrating Paris at the time of the Siege and Com- l' Illustration 
mune (Lalanne and Martial being the best producers of the latter). Nouvelle. 
Still, it must be remembered that as well as hack-work, he pub- 
lished much of the greatest engraving of the time, and his deserts 
are considerable in another direction, i.e. in giving an impulse to 
the younger art in America by founding the " French Etching Club " 
in New York in 1866. 

Amid all this demand for etched work, a great part was played The printer- 
by the printer -etcher, Auguste DelAtre,^ who for over half a etchers. 
century held a place of honour in his field only rivalled by Mr. ^ei^^^e^ 
Frederick Goulding to-day. The etcher will, of course, generally Frederick 
take many of his early proofs himself, and it goes without saying Goulding. 
that the opportunities afforded in the printing to obtain variety in 
the rendering of light and shade will be used by him with greater 
freedom than by the intermediary who dare not put too personal a 
touch into his craft. Nevertheless in plates where the line is the 
sole and absolute expression of the artist, and it is such work which 

• '■ I have only seen one plate etched by Cadart, and that a poor performance. 
^ He pulled a very large proportioi»of the impressions of plates by Jacque, Corot, 
Millet, Daubigny, Meryon, and Bracquemond, as well as numerous prints of Whistler, 
Haden, Rops, and, in fact, of most of the distinguished etchers of the century. His 
son, Eugfene Del4tre, now continues at his father's press, making a speciality of the 
etching and printing of colour impressions. 



in its inevitableness stands most on its own merits (e.g. the latest 
plates of Whistler), the etcher can hardly attain results to equal those 
of the professional printer. 
Jacquemart. Quite apart from the other etchers of the period stand Jules 

Bracquemond. Jacquemart and F^Lix Bracquemond, many of whose prints have 
appeared in Cadart's publications and in periodicals like the Gazette 
des Beaux-Arts. Their work is for the most part an attempt at pro- 
ducing, in one direction or another, surface texture, a problem which 
is really more fitted to the genius of line-engraving. As virtuosi of 
the most delicate etching they have remained almost unrivalled, and 
few etchers have trodden the same road if it be not the brothers 
Edward and Edward and Maurice Detmold, who in the last few years have 
Maurice produced a few plates (chiefly of birds, etc.) of the most astonish- 

ingly fine texture and of real decorative beauty. Jacquemart, who 
was the greater virtuoso of the earlier pair, devoted himself chiefly 
to the reproduction of works of decorative art, such as vases and 
gems (e.g. for the Louvre, 1865), but he also left a good many 
plates of flowers and animals. The latter field is Bracquemond's 
special glory ; but beside his etchings of animals, he did some land- 
scapes somewhat in the light spirit of Corot, and, like Jacquemart, 
did a great deal of reproductive work. 
Desboutin. Born the year after Meryon, Marcellin Desboutin is one of 

the most gifted artists in dry-point that France has produced. His 
work is almost entirely confined to portrait, and, with sitters like 
Zola, Manet, Lepic, Edmond de Goncourt, Jules Claretie, forms a 
notable gallery of literary and artistic celebrities throughout the 
second half of the nineteenth century. 
The It is hardly to be expected that the Impressionists with their 

Impressionists, central aim, the realistic rendering of contrasts of colour in the 
higher gamut and the momentary play of reflected light, would find 
in etching a medium that would preserve the essential character of 
C. Pissarro. their art. Camille Pissarro succeeded, however, in expressing a 
wonderful atmosphere in his little-known plates.' His line-work 
is as thin and sinuous as Corot's, and in his combinations of grey 
and darker tints, which form a large factor in his scheme, he relies 
considerably on stopping out and second biting. He made liberal 
use of aquatint, no doubt finding in its regular open grain a certain 
kinship with the " divisionism," or "pointillism," by which a certain 
vibrative quality is achieved in the rendering of light and atmosphere. 
He always aimed at the production of a plate whose tone should 
be entirely expressed in the bitten work, leaving the smallest mars^in 
for variation in the printing. In his few colour etchings, which 
are among the best that have been done of their kind, "a' similar 

1 A limited edition often of liis plates was made last autumn (1907), at the time 
of an exhibition at Durand Ruel in Paris. Of the other plates ver\- few impressions 
h.avc hitherto been taken. The plates are in the possession of' his son, Lucien 
Pissarro, himself an excellent painter and wood-engi-aver. 


feeling no doubt led him to choose the more certain method of 
using several plates rather than print from one plate a la poupie. 
Most of his etched work, which includes about 114 plates, was pro- 
duced subsequent to 1879, his earliest plate dating in 1864. 

Degas is another of the impressionists who has produced Degas. 
occasional etchings, but their value in relation to his other artistic 
production is less than in the case of Pissarro. The two artists 
worked together in their first essays, getting technical advice from 
Bracquemond, and generally enjoying doing exactly what the ex- 
perienced etcher disadvised. 

Edouard Manet is on the border-line of the same school, but Manet. 
he is more accurately described as Realist than Impressionist. 
In his etchings he is for the most part the grotesque linealist, 
inspired of Goya. A certain aberration of undeniable genius is 
seen in his plates with even less alloy than in his paintings, where 
his mastery of colour induces one to overlook perverseness of 
draughtsmanship. If one may venture such a criticism with all John. 
respect, it is the same perverseness of draughtsmanship which 
characterises the etched work of Augustus John, one of the most 
remarkable of our younger artists. Some of Manet's plates (about 
fifty in all) date as early as 1861, but none was published before 
1874 (when a set of nine appeared), and no comprehensive issue of 
any considerable number had been made until recently.^ 

Among the contemporary French etchers of a younger genera- Contemporary 
tion, there are not a few names which might be noted : Albert French etchers. 
Besnard for his splendid portraits in the manner adopted by 
Anders Zorn ; L:6oN Lhermitte for his realistic studies of peasant 
life ; Auguste Lepere and Eugene B£jot, like Lalanne, for 
etchings of Paris ; Edgar Chahine (an Armenian by birth) for his 
broad studies of the Paris masses ; and Paul Helleu for his 
brilliant but empty plates (produced with the diamond point) of 
fashionably dressed ladies ; while to recur to the Olympians one 
can hardly omit the famous name of the sculptor, Auguste Rodin, 
who has done a few dry-points in the same swift cursive style as 
his pen drawings. 

From France also come most of the recent essays in etching Colour- 
printed in colour, an art as capricious and uncertain in its results as etchings. 
it is dubious in its convention. Richard Ranft of Geneva, 
Henri Gu^rard, P. G. Jeanniot, Louis Legrand, Camille 
Pissarro, J. F. Raffaelli, Charles Cottet, Alfred Muller, 
Manuel Robbe, and Allan Osterlind (of Stockholm) are a few 
of the etchers who have attempted most in this field. Ranft and 
Jeanniot represent two methods, the former printing from one plate 
only, the latter frequently using several plates for the various colours 
required. The second method, given the knowledge of the required 
colour for each plate, is a much more absolute and less variable 
1 Thirty plates published by A. Strolin, Paris, 1905. 


process, and far the sounder, unless the etcher is content to be the 
painter of each plate and printer of each impression. 

Rafiaelli's work is distinct from that of most of the other colour- 
etchers, in the avoidance of aquatint and the tone processes ; he 
keeps almost entirely to line, whether in dry-point or etching. 

We leave the French etchers only to return to French soil as 
the first real centre of inspiration to two of the master etchers of the 
Whistler. The former of these, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, is the 

greatest personality in the history of modern etching. Born in the 
United States, studying and working in Paris and Holland, living 
for the most part in London, Whistler, with all his cosmopolitanism, 
remained in sentiment a true American, fostering the ego, as every 
genius should, but to an extent which seems not infrequently to have 
overlooked the claims and conditions of society and friendship. It 
is fitting that from the New World should come almost all the 
essentially new elements which modern etching has added to the old 

\Vhistler, the son of a major in the American Army, was born at 
Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1834, and educated at the Military 
Academy, West Point College, in view of following his father's 
profession. For a few years he was in the Government service, 
and while working for the Coast Survey Department (1854-55) did 
the two plates whose subsidiary marginal sketches, which, of course, 
he was going to erase, so shocked his superiors that the unfinished 
plates were confiscated, and the resignation, which he must have 
desired, facilitated. 

Two years in Paris, under the painter Gleyre, transformed the 
rebellious young amateur into a master, who at once took a place 
among the soundest etchers of the time, though he did not at this 
early period disclose the individual characteristics which place him 
so apart even among the greater etchers. 

His first published series of thirteen plates (the " French set ") 
were printed by Auguste Delatre in 1858. In the frontispiece, 
which represents Whistler seated sketching surrounded by a ring of 
street children, we have a token of the sympathy for young life 
which lasted throughout all his work. If in comparison \vith a 
master like Rembrandt, Whistler seems cold and cynical, here at 
least he had a fund of genial warmth. 

Of the "French set," the Mire Gerard (W. 9) is a good 
example of the close and delicately elaborated shading which he used 
in his beginnings. The architectural subjects of the same series, in 
particular the Liverdun {W. 4), with its continuation of Meryon's 
ideal, and the Sfreei at Saver ne: a nocturne (W. n), are mag- 
nificently simple studies of light and shade. "^ 

Recent etchers (e.g. D. Y. Cameron) have been far more inclined 


to follow him in this phase than in the inimitable development of 
his later life. 

The Annie seated (W. 24) is another typical little study pf the 
early period ; it is astonishing how near it comes in its technical 
character to some of Jacque's work (in particular to Jacque's portrait 
of his little daughter, G. 155). 

Besides the "French set," there are. three other series which act 
as landmarks in his development: the "Thames set" (16 etchings, 
issued 187 1), the "Venice set" (12 etchings, Fine Art Society, 
1880), and the "Twenty-six Etchings" (Messrs. Dowdeswell, 1886). 

The etchings of the " Thames set," done at various times 
between 1859 (when Whistler settled in Chelsea) and 1871, show 
Whistler still working along the lines on which Meryon had achieved 
so much, with a mastery of his medium and a decision of draughts- 
manship which are unimpeachable. 

The real advance, however, in this period is seen in his dry- 
points : in portraits such as the Annie Haden and the Axenfeld 
(both of i860), the Leyland (W. 93), and in a subject plate like the 
Forge (W. 63), a wonderful study of reflected Ught. In his figure 
studies, e.g. The Boy (W. 109), Weary (W. 83), and the Model 
resting (W. 87), where a few summary lines suffice to present the 
essential movement of the covered form. Whistler is already mastering 
the art of omission. Economy of means, and absolute adaptation of 
these means to the size of his plates, were becoming more and more his 
ideals. Theline-workof his lateretchings has beenregarded as scratchy 
and thin,i and in certain instances (e.g. in the Turkeys, W. 165, from 
the "Twenty-six," Fig. 109) one may remark a certain lack of con- 
centration and significant emphasis. Whistler has, in fact, very 
little of the peculiar force of Rembrandt which fixes the attention 
to one predominant emotional element. His genius had little to do 
with humanity : it expressed itself far more in figure and design in 
its relation to schemes of tone and colour. If he had predecessors, 
it is rather in the Tiepoli and those masters of the Rococo, who 
played mostly in the higher keys, and constantly avoided the strong 
contrasts which disturb a delightful equanimity with their emphatic 
demands. No etcher has ever known better than Whistler what 
can be achieved by the unfilled space. He was immovably con- 
vinced in his opinion that only the etcher himself can print his own 
plate well, and in his wonderful manipulation of the ink on the 
surface and in his careful choice of old paper (for which he made 

^ For an entertaining selection of contemporary criticism on the "Venice" 
etchings, see the famous little exhibition catalogue of 1883 (Etchings and Dry-Points. 
Venice: second series: 51 Nos. ), which included, beside miscellaneous plates, both the 
Fine Art Society's set and the " Twenty-six etchings " published by Messrs. Dowdes- 
well three years later. To understand Whistler's own attitude, much enlightenment 
and no little entertainment maybe gleaned from the master's occasional writings (such 
as the lecture '' Ten o'Clock "), which were collected in the volume entitled The Gentle 
Art of making Enemies, in 1890. 


repeated search in Holland and elsewhere) he produced impressions 

1''1G. 109, — J. A. McN. Whistler, 'rurkevs. ( Krproduccd by pL'r)iiib.siou of 
Messrs. Dowdeswell and Dowdeswells. ) 

of a luminosity of tone and a quality of surface which are 


In dry-points of the middle period like the Price's Candle Works 
(W. 124) and Battersea: Dawn (W. 125) Whistler has all but 
realised his most individual expression, but he does not absolutely 
come into his own, if we may so put it, until the etchings of the 
"Venice set" and the "Twenty-six." Reversing the order of de- 
velopment as seen in Rembrandt, he recurs in this last phase to the 
pure etching of his early work, divesting his design of all the detail 
whose character was a mere continuation of the achievement of 
Jacque or Meryon. Plates like the Mairie, Loches (W. 259), Zaandam 
(W. 268), and those of the Naval Review series of 1887 (W. 237- 
245) are wonderful examples of his latest manner. Surface tone 
given by the printing seems to be falling somewhat out of account, 
and the nearer the end, the less did the master seem to depend on 
anything beyond the pure etched line. 

Senior to Whistler by some sixteen years and his predecessor in Seymour 
the practice of etching by more than a decade. Sir Francis Seymour Haden. 
Haden, the veteran President of the Society of Painter-Etchers, is, 
beside Legros, the most notable living representative of the art. A 
doctor, distinguished in his profession, his devotion to the practice 
of art has been of necessity intermittent, but the character of his 
work, as accomplished in technique as it is sound in style, has 
never betrayed the amateur's limitations. A great collector and 
connoisseur of Rembrandt's etchings, the pioneer of modern criticism 
of that master's work, he stands as an etcher of landscape for the 
continuation of old ideals, for soundness of style, rather than for 
any striking individuality of manner or method. 

, He studied medicine for some time at the Sorbonne in Paris, 
and at the time when Jacque was producing his earliest plates. It 
may well have been this etcher who inspired him to the first efforts 
which were made on journeyings in Italy in 1843-44. Impressions 
from these plates are as rare as they are unimportant, and they only 
give him a nominal priority to Whistler as an etcher. His real work 
did not start till about 1858-59, when the young Whistler — his 
brother-in-law — was already the really inspiring force. 

France, in the person of M. Philippe Burty, was the first to 
recognise his power, and it was in Paris ^ that his etchings were 
first published. Almost all his plates are of landscape, and in pure 
etching or dry-point. The greater part of his etched work was done 
before 1880, but since that date he has produced a considerable 
number of mezzotints, combined sometimes with the etched line, 
which surpass almost anything done in the medium during the 
century, if it be not by David Lucas and Frank Short. 

He uses line forcibly, but fully : attempting more than Whistler 
in the positive expression of aerial problems, and continuing in the 
lineal method for which Rembrandt's Three Trees is a starting-point. 

1 Etudes a T Eau-forte. Printed by Del^tre, Paris, 1865-66 (25 etchings, exclusive 
of head- and tail-pieces, with text by P. Burty). 



Out of my Study ]Vindow (1859) is one of the noblest of all 
achievements in the treatment of cloud in pure line, while the 
Shepperton (1864), which is reproduced (Fig. no), is a typical 
example of his simple manner of rendering nature, with one 
thoroughly characteristic note in the play of shadow on the water, 
showing the magical effect of his line with all its apparent uncon- 
sciousness of aim. 

Sir J, C. 

bti<ff"h«> £ WjO]'"! //».oli,1) 1?//; 

I-'IG. 110. — sir Francis Seyiiuuir ILulen. Slieppcrton. 

Much loss prolific, and much more of an amateur in the inequality 
of his work, Sir JdUN Chaui.ks Rohinson' has nevertheless etched a 
few plates (such as the Muf-Banow IXmwi and Xcniton Mauor) 
which in their successful treatment of atmospheric themes stand 
nearer to Haden's achievement than almost anything of the century. 

'I'hcre are few great English etchers belonging to the same 
generation as Haden and Robinson. The early Victorian cari- 


caturists, Cruikshank, Leech, and Keene, stand apart from the 
modern school of etching (if we except a few of Keene's plates), and 
have found a more congenial setting in a previous chapter.^ 

The formation of the " Etching Club " and of .the " Junior The Etching 
Etching Club " in the early years of the last reign showed the Clubs. 
beginning of a certain revival of interest in the art, but scarcely any 
of their publications (which included various illustrated works as 
well as sets of etchings, between the years 1841 and 1879) reveal 
anything of the true revival of etching. There were Richard 
Redgrave, J. C. Horsley, and C. W. Cope with their subjects, an 
occasional Millais and Keene, the modest landscape of Thomas 
Creswick in abundance ; but except for one or two plates by 
Haden (e.g. Etching Club, 1865) and two rather poor Whistlers 
(W. 68, 69, Modern English Poets, Junior Etching Club, 1862), 
nothing was published but works of little interest. 

Such publications as the Etcher (5 vols. 1879-83) and English 
Etchings (1881-91) have crossed the threshold of modern etching, 
but on the whole they show a much lower level than the similar 
enterprises of Cadart in Paris. 

Two artists of the period of transition who call for individual 
notice are Samuel Palmer (1805-81) and Edwin Edwards. 

As an etcher of landscape, the former is an artist of no great Samuel 
power, but his romantic idealism not unworthily carried on the Palmer. 
sentiment which inspired much of Blake and all of Calvert. 

Like Palmer, Edwards betrays a lack of significance and con- Edwin 
centrated emphasis in his compositions, the line work being generally Edwards, 
confused with overmuch meaningless cross-hatching. Nevertheless, 
his landscapes possess sincerity of expression, a quality by no means 
too common in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. 

In approaching the work of English etchers now in their prime, 
and of those still younger who have but recently entered on their 
career, it must be confessed that the danger of personal feeling 
encroaching on criticism greatly increases. Space, and possibly 
bias, may have forbidden the inclusion of names which may have 
an equally just claim to our appreciation as many that are 
mentioned. The appended lists of engravers may make up for 
some omissions, and help the student to seek out work of un- 
recorded genius, and so form for himself a judgment which may 
be as sound as it is different from our own. It is chiefly in dealing 
with the work of still rising men that true artistic discernment finds 
its exercise unhampered, and happily even those of modest means, 
if they discern before it is too late, can hope to acquire examples 
in this field of artistic production, which, as original works of art, 
stand on as high a level as the paintings and the sculpture which 
are so far beyond the reach of their purse. 

William Strang and Sir Charles Holroyd are the most 

' See pp. 238-9. 




Sir Charles 

Frank Short. 

Sir H. von 


powerful of the etchers trained in the school of Alphonse Legros. 
Both etch with the same strong open line, and both have preserved 
the best traditions of their master. 

Strang, less handicapped by official duties, is by far the more 
prolific, having already produced in a quarter of a century (his 
work dates from 1882) about six hundred plates.^ His power of 
invention is in nowise second to Legros. If sometimes he has 
carried the latter's characteristic grotesque to questionable limits, 
he never fails to strike the significant note. Perhaps his greatest 
distinction is in portrait, where the Seymour Haden (1883), Cosmo 
Monkhouse (1892), R. L. Stevenson (1893), Thomas Hardy (two 
plates, 1893 and 1894), Rudyard Kipling (two plates, 1897 and 
1898), and, most splendid of all, those of Frederick Goulding and 
Emery Walker, exhibited in the Academy of 1906 (the first year 
of his associateship), stand without qualification among the noblest 
classics in the whole history of etching. 

In Holroyd the rude strength of Legros and Strang appears 
mellowed by contact with Itahan art. His genius has an unforced 
kinship with the full growth of the renaissance art, which he knows 
so well. Both his landscapes and his studies of genre (especially 
those illustrating the convent life at Monte Oliveto and Monte 
Subasio) are excellent, but the most individual character of his 
work shows itself in plates like those of the Icarus set, where his 
feeling for beauty and rhythm of composition is seen at its best. 

As Director of the engraving class at South Kensington, Frank 
Short represents a distinct tendency from that initiated at the 
Slade School by Legros. In the certainty of his technique he is 
perhaps unequalled, and he gives far more encouragement to the 
calmer study of processes, to the scientific calculations of strength 
and character of bitings and the like, than ever did Legros, who 
might retort that any recurrence of technical failure is nothing to 
the possible loss of freshness and spontaneity. It may be mentioned 
too that one of the disputed tenets of his school is the practice of 
steel-facing the plate, which he declares makes no appreciable 
difference to the quality of the impression. 

Excellent in pure etching and in aquatint, Frank Short holds 
a unique place at the present day for his mezzotints, to which fuller 
allusion has been made in the preceding chapter.- 

Sir Hubert von Herkomer, who has produced a con- 
siderable work both in etching and mezzotint, may be mentioned 
with Short as one gifted in the invention of new processes. His 
method of duplicating original work by means of an electrotype 
mould (which is, of course, not strictly engraving at all) has been 
briefly described in the technical introduction.^ 

Few modern etchers have not at some time used aquatint as an 
aid, but the process stands far more on its own merits in the work 

' For his engraved work see pp. 212-13. 

See p. 287, 

See p. 13. 


of Hubert Schroeder. Analogous to aquatint in aims and w. Lee 
effects are the mixed methods of achieving a grain (by the pressure Hankey. 
of textiles through the ground and other similar means), which 
W. Lee Hankey has recently used with such success, showing a 
variety and vigour which pure aquatint does not always possess. 

There is no lack of etchers in England who have a true appre- 
ciation of the qualities and limitations of their art. Colonel Goff, 
Frank Newbolt, Fred Burridge, E. M. Synge, Mr. and Mrs. 
C. J. Watson, William Monk, Miss Constance Pott, and Miss 
Kemp- Welch are a few among many who are doing landscape and 
architectural work of a sound and interesting character, while 
another excellent artist was lost in 1897 by the death of Thomas 
Hope McLachlan. 

Quite recently Francis Dodd has exhibited a few portraits in 
dry-point (e.g. General Booth), which show great promise. 

We have called Whistler's latest style inimitable. It. must, Th&dore 
however, be confessed that Theodore Roussel, who has been Roussei. 
settled for some thirty years in London, has produced work which 
comes very near to the same mode of expression. Frank Laing F. Laing. 
had caught something of the spirit in his early plates, but with 
nothing of the living reflection seen in the former. More recently 
Roussel has developed methods of his own in printing aquatint, 
etching, and dry-point in colours, and in mounting his com- 
positions within passe-partouts printed from separate plates he 
has achieved some charmingly decorative results, whether the theme 
be landscape, figure study, or flower. '^ 

In dry-point. Whistler's mantle seems to have fallen in some Menpes. 
measure on Mortimer Menpes, while the earlier " Thames " style 
has remained the inspiration for a host of etchers. 

D. Y. Cameron's art may be traced back to this source, but it Cameron, 
possesses a style of its own, a richness of tone in the treatment of 
architecture, which is the achievement of great power and indi- 

Starting somewhat in the same direction as Cameron, a still Bone, 
younger Scotchman, Muirhead Bone, has already made for him- 
self a personal style which seems good, if we mistake not, to bring 
him nowhere but to the pinnacle of his profession. Few drawings 
have been seen to equal his since the time of Rembrandt, and in 
his studies of scaffold-covered buildings in the breaking or the 
making, he has followed an individual path, and shown a feeling for 
the great harmonies of line, which is beyond praise. He works 
largely in dry-point, a process in which his virtuosity is unrivalled. 

Very different in tendency to all that has been mentioned are Axel Haig. 
the architectural plates of Axel Haig, in which the true lineal 
character of etching plays a second part to pictorial effect. In 

^ E. g. Impressions in Colour from original etchings in aquaforte and dry-point, 
invented, engraved, and printed by Theodore Roussel, London, 1900. 




these days of photographic processes it must be confessed that 
much work done in this style, and by reproductive etchers who 
work on the same large scale, is a waste of powers, and a misuse of 
the special medium. 

Few would be inclined to agree with Whistler's unqualified 
condemnation of the large plate,^ but there are few who would not 
agree with him " that the space to be covered should always be in 
proper relation to the means used for covering it." His succeeding 
proposition ".that in etching the means used and instrument 
employed being the finest possible point, the space to be covered 
should be small in proportion," cannot stand in face of Rem- 
brandt's Three Crosses, and has quite recently been answered in 
noble fashion by Frank Brangwyn and Alfred East in their 
large plates powerfully etched with a broad point in perfect relation 
to the size of their compositions. The productions of the former, 
which only date during tlie last few years, are remarkable. 




R. F. Blum. 

J. D. Smillie. 

Though America's tradition in engraving goes back scarcely more 
than two centuries, she has already reason to be proud of the part 
she has taken in its history. Whistler once declared in a court of 
law that he was born in St. Petersburg, but none the less America 
may justly claim him as her rightful son. If his achievement puts 
that of almost all his fellow-countrymen into the shade, it should 
not be forgotten that some twenty-six years ago (in 1881) the 
etchings of a then young artist, Frank. Duveneck, seem to have 
been taken by two well-known connoisseurs (let him who wishes look 
at Whistler's Gentle Arf) as the production of the master himself. 
It is scarcely a matter of wonder that with so startling a power of 
assimilation, this etcher should not have arrived much further on 
his own merits. 

Among American followers of Whistler, Joseph Pennell, who 
has long worked in London, is by far the most clever craftsman, 
while R. F. Blum lias followed the master's later style with con- 
siderable success. 

America's veteran etcher is James D. Smillie. Son of the line- 
engraver James Smillie, and born in 1833, he suffered in the 
earlier part of his career the dull discipline of bank-note engraving, 
his country's pre-eminence in that craft claiming so many of her 
artists, and gilding the pathway of drudgery. 

From the late 'sixties — to some extent perhaps owing to the 
efforts of Cadart, the Paris publisher, who in 1866 organised the 
"French Etching Club" in New York — original etching began to 
take a more important position in the States. A sign of the new 
interest in the art was the foundation of the " New York Etching 
Club" (about 1877), in which Smillie was one of the principal 

1 See a series of "Propositions" which was issued witli the etchings of the 
" Venice set" of 1880 (reprinted in the Gentle Art of nuiking Enemies). 


movers. Since that time he has done much sound landscape work 
both in etching and mezzotint, and holds a high place among living 

Of the etchers of British birth who have settled in America, the Thomas and 
brothers Thomas and Peter Moran are perhaps the best known ; ?«'«=>■ Moran. 
but it is no mere gallantry that gives the laurels to the wife of the 
former, Mrs. M. NmMO Moran. Her landscape work is among the Mrs. m. 
best that America has produced, in the strength and significance of Nimmo 
its line ; its special character is most nearly suggested, perhaps, by '^°''^"- 
the work of Seymour Haden. 

Another lady etcher, Anna Lea Merritt, whose work is well Anna Lea 
known in England, where much of her life has been spent, is Merritt. 
worthy of note for her few portrait plates.^ 

Julian Alden Weir has done some striking and spontaneous J. A. Weir, 
dry-point studies (especially in portrait), but the irregularity of his 
work seems to disclose less opportunity of application to etching 
than one might wish for. 

Stephen Parrish has been well known for some years on both Stephen 
sides of the Atlantic for his landscapes; but a greater fame seems -^""^**' 
to be in store for a Canadian artist of a younger generation, D. S. 
Maclaughlan, who studied in Boston, and is now working in Paris. D. S. 
He is one of the few etchers of to-day whose architectural and land- Maclaughlan. 
scape etchings are comparable in a sense of style with those of 
Cameron and Bone, betraying the sure touch of the artist of con- 

One of the earliest of Dutch etchers of the last century to work Holland. 
with anything of the modern freedom and vigour, which with him 
was directly inspired by Rembrandt's style, was Remi van Haanen. Rami van 
He was a wanderer who worked in many places — Holland, Frank- Haanen. 
furt, St. Petersburg, London, finally settling in Vienna. His 
etchings, to a large extent landscapes in dry-point (dating for the 
most part about 1848-50), may lack concentration, but they are 
intensely alive. 

A much greater artist, but still one who in his few etchings Jongkind. 
(numbering in all only about twenty-two) is something of a dilettante, 
is Jongkind. A pupil of Isabey, he passed much of his life in 
France, and in landscape painting anticipated in a certain measure 
the development of the Impressionist school. His etchings (land- 
scapes and marines), slight in aim, and characterised by curious 
indecisions and vagaries of line, are none the less charming and 
effective in their light key. 

Charles Storm van 's Gravesande holds by far the highest Storm van 's 
place among living Dutch etchers. He started as an amateur, but Gravesande. 
under the inspiration and personal guidance of Rops in Brussels 

^ E.g. one of her husband, the late Henry Merritt, prefixed to his Art Criticism 
and Romance (London, 1879), for which A. L. M. also etched numerous other plates. 



Josef Israels. 


M. A. J. 

W. Witsen. 
W. de Zwart. 
Jan Veth. 
P. Dupont. 


F^licien Rops. 

Comtesse de 

(where he passed a considerable period of his life) he entirely gave 
up the law for etching, and since 187 1 has been a prolific creator 
in the art. His line-work, whether it be in pure etching or dry-point, 
is broad and open, and his treatment of simple landscape or sea 
studies is refreshingly virile. 

The etched work of two gre^t painters, Josef Israels and 
Matthys Maris, despite its occasional nature, cannot pass without 
mention. Israels' few plates of peasant life, strong in line, power- 
ful in chiaroscuro, rank directly with his paintings in the expression 
of the depths of human feeling, in which he is so worthy a successor 
of Rembrandt. The etchings of Matthys Maris, who has long 
been settled in London, are even less numerous. Except for a 
large print, after Millet's Sower, Maris's plates have been largely 
ideal figures of his own creating. His delicate etching, which often 
rivals the texture of aquatint, clothes them in the evasive and 
mysterious light which characterises his canvases. 

Some remarkably individual work has been done more recently 
by M. A. J. Bauer, who draws his subjects almost entirely from life 
in Turkey and the East. There is a wonderful sweep of line and 
curve in his large white plates ; it is the spirit that Renesse might 
have developed, had he been more than the amateur he was. 

In pure landscape, Willem Witsen and Willem de Zwart may 
be mentioned, while the brilliant painter and critic, Jan Veth, has 
done not a few excellent portraits. A younger artist, Pieter 
Dupont, who has worked much in Paris, has produced some good 
etchings of figure and landscape, but greater interest attaches to his 
resumption of the almost discarded graver as the medium for much 
of his work.^ 

Belgium, with all her line-engravers of the mid-century, perhaps 
because of the very predominance of that school, has until recently 
taken less part than Holland in the modern revival of etching. 
There is, however, one brilliant exception, that of Felicien Rops. 
An artist of wonderful gifts, a man of avowed licentiousness of tem- 
perament, his creation, of such scathing satire, goes so far beyond 
the normal limits of delicate suggestion, that the majority of his 
work must still remain a closed book to most amateurs. The 
magical power of his draughtsmanship only makes one regret the 
more that his almost exclusive subject was this satire of the demi- 
monde of Paris and Brussels. He excels in dry-point, and is one of 
the few recent etchers who have used soft-ground etching in any 
considerable degree. 

Active encouragement has been given to the art in Belgium by 
H.R.H. Comtesse de Flandre, who is herself an accomplished 
etcher. In 1875 the I'rincess figured with Rops among the founders 
of the "Socidt^ Internationale des Aquafortistes," and in 1887 was one 
of the promoters of the still existing " Socidt^ d' Aquafortistes Beiges." 

' Cf. pp. 212-13, 


Armand Rassenfosse of Lihge was, like Storm van 's Gravesande, A. Rassenfosse. 
diverted from another career by the inspiration of Rops, and guided 
by that master in his first attempts at etching. Though he only 
commenced to etch when he was twenty-seven, he has gained dis- 
tinction for his technical mastery of the various branches of the 
craft of engraving. 

Sound landscape plates have been produced by Wytsman, by Wytsman. 
FRAN901S Mar^chal. of Lifege, and by Albert Baertsoen of ^- Mar&hai. 
Ghent, while Eugene Laermans' plates of genre are remarkable for ^ Laermans. 
a vigorous breadth of handling, which finds its nearest counterpart 
in Kathe Kollwitz. 

In Germany and Austria the eighteenth century manner of Germany 
etching persisted longer than in England or France, and it is only ^^° Austria. 
within the last two decades that a real school of modern etching 
has come into being. 

Before the middle of the century Adrian Ludwig Richter A. L. Richter. 
and MoRiTZ von Schwind, who were the chief movers in the ^™''nd°" 
formation of a truly national school of popular illustration, had 
produced some etchings, of considerable charm from their very 
simplicity of aim. But the same may be said of them as of 
Cruikshank and Keene, that they are rather stragglers from the 
eighteenth century than forerunners of the modern spirit. One of 
the most justly honoured of German graphic artists, Adolf von Adolf von 
Menzel, started his work with the same modest outlook, and was '^^"^^^ 
greatly influenced by that popular school, but in a long life he 
spanned the bridge of connexion with the essentially modern. As 
a draughtsman, especially of figures and subjects from everyday 
life, he developed a wonderful power, but he is far better known for 
the very numerous woodcuts and lithographs after his drawings 
than for his comparatively few original etchings. 

Two artists, Carl Stauffer of Berne (or Stauffer-Bern as he is Stauffer-Bern. 
called) and Max Klinger, are of peculiar interest for their practice Max Klinger. 
of combining graver work with etching, not, as frequently occurs in 
seventeenth-century etchings, for emphasising the heavier shading, 
but in order to achieve the most delicate modelling. They have 
followed the path of Ferdinand Gaillard ^ in handling the graver 
almost like the dry-point for scratching the lightest lines on the 
plate, and have entirely disassociated their graver work from the 
dull regularity which had been the conventional mode for so long a 
period. It cannot be said that in either case the result is altogether 
satisfactory. When the close shading is carried to its utmost 
limits, lines lose their meaning, and the same effect might be gained 
more fittingly by aquatint. Happily, Klinger has realised this 
fact, and some of his finest work is in the combination of a delicate 
etched outhne, which is allowed its perfect play, with an aquatint 

1 Cf. p. 212. 



Peter Halm. 

J. L. Raab. 



Otto Fischer. 


The Worps- 
wede group. 



Otto (Jnmpeit 

ground. Klinger's work, which consists of many series of large 
allegorical and illustrative works (e.g. Rettungen Ovidischer Opfer, 
Eva und die Zukunft, Vom Tode, Brahms-phantasie), must always 
possess interest as the philosophy of a powerful thinker, even if his 
technical means do not find favour. 

Stauffer's best work is certainly seen in a few plates (more 
particularly portraits i) handled in a broader manner than his wont, 
which may be less individual examples of his style, but are never- 
theless truer in convention. It is noteworthy that both Stauffer 
and Klinger should have turned latterly more to sculpture. The 
former unhappily died in the beginning of his achievement in this 
field ; the latter has earned a name second only to that of Rodin, 
and by his attempt in polychrome sculpture has stepped boldly 
into the keenest fire of criticism. 

In the van of the sound conventions of modern landscape 
etching in Germany stand Peter Halm and Carl Theodor 
Meyer (or Meyer-Basel, as he is called from his birthplace). 

The former, following in the path of his master, J. L. Raab of 
Munich, and of Willl\m Unger of Vienna, has also been prolific 
in reproduction, while decorative subjects of various types {e.g. 
book-plates) have occupied him as well as portrait and original 
landscape etching. The large increase of public interest taken in 
the art is evidenced by the three " Vereine fiir Original-Radierung," in 
Berlin, Munich, and Karlsruhe, which have issued yearly portfolios, 
containing much excellent work, since 1886, 1892, and 1894 

Of the younger generation. Otto Fischer has most ably 
carried forward the aims of Meyer-Basel, and his art evinces a 
strength of style which places him almost at the head of modern 
German etchers, though Otto Ubbelohde and Otto Fikentscher 
are worthy rivals. 

One group of painter-etchers, that of 'W'orpswede, near Bremen, 
holds a place quite by itself as a sort of modern German Barbizon. 
Fritz Mackensen, Otto Modersohn, Fritz Overbeck, and 
Hans am Ende are all landscape artists of genuine feeling, while 
Heinrich Vogeler follows a more decorative aim, somewhat 
influenced by Klinger, in his e.xtremely beautiful etchings. The 
flower borders, in which Vogeler so often frames his compositions, 
show an exquisite and original feeling. 

Two other etchers deserve especial notice : K.\the 
Kollwitz for her powerful studies of the life of the people, of 
astounding virility of conception and treatment ; and Heinrich 
Wolff for his remarkable understanding of the roulette as a 
medium of expression in his dashing portrait studies. 

Aquatint has found a most successful interpreter, almost a 
German classic, in Otto Gampert, who has produced some most 

1 E.g. Mcn!!el(2 plates, 1885), P. Halm and G, Freytag {iSSj). 


effective landscapes. Aiming as he does at imparting tonality even to 
his line-work, he frequently uses the soft-ground method of etching. 

If any of the numerous German painters who have done Max 
occasional etchings should be mentioned, it must be Max Liebermann. 
LiEBERMANN. He has realised to the full the possibilities of 
varying grain in soft-ground etching, and has attained by this 
medium tone-pictures of remarkable individuality. 

Crossing the borders of Germany to Bohemia, a most interesting Emil Orlik. 
artist is met in the person of Emil Orlik of Prague. The especial 
virtue which makes his style, is the appreciation of the decorative 
possibilities of simple line and curve, and of flat surfaces of colour. 
The likeness of his ideals to those of the arts of China and Japan, 
which has been developed by a recent visit to those countries and a 
seripus study of their methods of engraving, makes one almost 
expect the natural expression of his art in woodcut. Nevertheless 
his achievement in aquatint and etching is almost equally remarkable. 

In Vienna excellent work, both in landscape and in dreams of r. jettmar. 
grim fantasy, is being done by Rudolf Jettmar, while Ferdinand f. Schmutzer. 
ScHMUTZER is proving himself a most capable artist in his large and 
powerful portraits (e.g. Dr. Joachini). 

Art in Scandinavia is still in its youth, but it can boast at least Scandinavia. 
one etcher of great individuality Anders Zorn. He is a Swede by Anders Zorn. 
birth, and was a student of the Academy at Stockholm, but his artistic 
inspiration was probably found more in Paris, between which centre 
and London and America much of his time has been passed. His 
initiation in the technique of etching he received from his fellow- 
countryman Haig, in London, about 1882, but no pupil could be 
more unlike his master. He practises a remarkably broad manner 
of etching, seldom shades in more than open parallel lines, and 
often leaves the outline to the imagination. Its suggestion is probably 
due to Besnard, but by constant reiteration of the same characteristic 
handling Zorn has made it recognised as his own. His plates 
(including over 150 numbers, produced since 1882) are nearly all 
figure subjects, portraits such as the Ernest Renan (1892) being 
among the best. If his prints sometimes just fail to convince, it is 
perhaps from a certain lack of repose and concentration rising from 
irregularly placed patches of parallel shading, e.g. in the Artist, with 
a Model, in his Studio (1899). Zorn is sculptor and painter as well 
as etcher, and it may be remarked that he is among the few who 
have no compunction in repeating the subjects of their pictures in 
their etchings. 

Carl Larsson is another Stockholm etcher who has worked i^arsson. 
at various periods in Paris. His etched work is somewhat in the 
nature of a Trdpepyov beside his production in water-colour, pastel, 
and oil, and less than 50 plates had been produced between 1875- 
1905. His general tendency is toward the decorative and illustrative 




Fritz Thaulow. 

side of art, but his etchings are for the most part figure studies and 
portraits. Only a few plates date before 1888-89, when increased 
success in other directions and a renewed sojourn in Paris encouraged 
him to return to the somewhat unremunerative medium of etching. 
Then in 1895-96 he received further impulse from Axel Tallberg,^ 
who, as head of the school of etching in the Academy of Arts at 
Stockholm, has exerted considerable influence on Swedish artists. 
A few mezzotints and soft-ground etchings, and two plates in colour, 
date about this period. 

Haig, who was born in the Isle of Gothland, has already found a 
place among English etchers, for it is in England that nearly all his 
life has been spent. 

Of Norwegian artists we may just refer to Fritz Thaulow, who 
was long settled in Dieppe. His large coloured etchings are as well 
known as any foreign work in England to-day. Despite their 
cleverness and occasional success in effect, we must confess to a 
slight unwillingness to admit the propriety of attempting colour 
through the medium of etching on the large scale of most of 
Thaulow's plates. 

Russia and 

Axel Gall(5n. 
Hilda Flodin. 

From Russia proper we have hitherto seen nothing that could 
be acclaimed as a solid addition to European art. Finland has 
already a landscape school of its own of no little interest. The 
chief inspirer has been Count Louis Sparre, a Swede by birth, but 
naturalised a Finn, Albert Edelfelt, some years his senior, having 
worked chiefly in Paris. Axel Gallin is another interesting artist, 
while recently some good plates have appeared from the hand of 
Hilda Flodin. 


Liica Beltianii 


For tuny. 

Perhaps it is the natural order of things that Italy who, if she was 
not in the van of technical development, was at least the greatest 
artistic force in the earlier part of our history, should now lag so 
painfully in the rear. As a nation of artistic sentiment, Italy is 
apparently content with her traditions, and the power of assimilating 
living ideals seems crushed by the weight of her past s^reatness! 
Nevertheless, she has been able to show a few etchers of delicate 
talent working in a modern spirit, such as I.uca Beltrami, widely 
known to the student of Milanese art by his numerous writings, and 
Ghiberto BoRROMto, while, in the path of the Impressto'nists 
ViTTORio Grubicy has recently produced landscape etchings of 
considerable individuality in the treatment of effects of licrht. ° 

Mariano Fortuny is the only Spanish artist of the second half 
of the last century whose etching demands attention, and even his 
plates are of the slightest in comparison with his painting. Rome was 

> Tallbcrg had resided for a considerable period in England, exhibiting at the 
Painter-Etchers between 1891 and 1895. ^ 


the centre of his activity, but the real making of his art was a visit 
to Morocco during the Spanish-Moroccan war of i860, which he 
was officially commissioned to record in his sketch-book. The 
white brilliance of the tropical atmosphere found in Fortuny its 
natural interpreter, and on a later visit he happily continued his 
studies of a people, which formed the subject for most of his 
delicately bitten plates. 

This short survey of recent etching may be enough to show that 
the present is by no means a period of decline, containing, as it does, 
various new factors, both in aims and in modes of expression, which 
are far from having realised their full growth. If modern artists 
still express themselves more readily in haphazard experiments and 
studies, rather than in rounded compositions, engraving and etching 
are the fittest vehicles by which more definite thought and conviction 
in artistic principle can be regained. A great work does not mean 
a large work, much less a work of technical elaboration in engraving, 
but it inevitably implies sureness of hand, and concentration and 
clearness of purpose. In general, the nineteenth century has not 
been distinguished for these latter qualities, and it is only by their 
presence that the occasional studies, which sometimes offer a more 
subtle attraction to the connoisseur than the finished work, will 
possess any lasting value. Engraving and etching have contributed 
far more than painting during the past century to preserve the artist 
from mere anarchy, and it is in these fields that one looks for the 
expression, in which the uncertain streams and tendencies of modern 
art may crystallize into conviction. 



The numbers in the first column indicate the date by half-centuries. Thus l8. I 
= 1700-1750; 15. 2 = 1450-1500. 

The period in which an artist is placed is, with slight qualifications, that within 
which the greater part of his work falls. An engraver born within the last twenty 
years of any half-century would naturally be placed in the following period. 
If his work overlaps in either direction beyond the period indicated in the first 
column, a note is added to that effect in brackets after his name. In certain cases 
an engraver may be placed in a period to which he does not strictly belong on 
the grounds of connexion of style with a particular group. 

The second column defines the medium used by the engravers in the third and 
fourth columns. 

The third columti defines the engravers of the fourth column — 

(i.) By the master under whose influence they fall (names in the fourth 
column being preceded by cf. when artistic relation rather than 
definite influence is implied), 
(ii. ) By the characteristic of their group, 
(iii. ) By their locality. 

(i.), (ii.), and (iii.) maybe combined to form a single class, the full stop defining 
in each case the composite or completed heading. 

The headings in the first and second columns hold good until they are super- 
seded by other entries in their own columns ; the headings or descriptions in the 
third column hold good until a full stop occurs in the fourth column. A semi- 
colon divides groups included under a principal heading. 

Within each group the order of date (of birth, or of the beginning of produc- 
tion) is as far as possible followed in citing the engravers' names. 

An engraver may be given in more than one connexion, sometimes in more 
than one country. When he is placed in the lists of a country to which he does 
not belong by birth, his nationality is noted in brackets. 

Painters who were not engravers, cited in the third column, are enclosed in 
square brackets. 





A. = American. F. 

ab. = about. FI. 

af. = after. fl. 

alleg. = allegorical. G. 

amat. = amateur. g. 

antiq. = antiquities. hist, 

aq. = aquatint. I. 

archit. = architectural. illustr. 

Br. = British. imit. 

b. =born. infl. 

bef. = before. 1. 

B. M. = British Museum. mezz. 

caric. = caricature. misc. 

cf.= compare. N. ^ 

class. = classical (referring largely orig. 

to the Italian work of orn : 

the 15th and i6th cen- p. = 

turies). R. = 

col. = printed in colours. S. = 

contr. = contrast. satir. = 

cop. = copyist (or copied). script. = 

cr. = crayon or chalk manner. s. = 

D.= Dutch. S. K. = 
d. =died. 

Da. = Danish. st. : 

en. = line engraving. Swe. 

esp. = especially. ,Swi. 

et.= etching (which may be 

taken in many cases to 

include the practice of 

= French. 

= Flemish. 

= floruit (flourished). 

= German. 

= genre, daily life. 

= historical. 

= Italian. 

= book illustrat -or, -ions. 

= imitator (or imitated). 

= influence. 

= landscape. 

= mezzotint. 

= miscellaneous. 

= Norwegian. 

= original. 

= ornament. 

= portrait. 

= Russian. 

= Spanish. 

= satirical. 

= scriptural. 

= subject. 

South Kensington (Nat. 
Art Library). 





1. Germany, Austria- Hungary, and German Switzerland. 

2. The Netherlands. 

3. Italy. 

4. France and French Switzerland. 

5. Spain and Portugal. 

6. The British Isles. 

7. America. 

8. Denmark. 

9. Sweden and Norway. 
10. Russia and Finland. 




Engravers influenced by the Masters in 



Master, Characteristic, or 

the previous column, or whose work 


is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

IS- '. 2 


Master of the Playing 

Master of 1446, Master of the 

Cards (Upper Germany). 

Nuremberg Passion, Master 
of the St. John the Baptist 
(so called from P. ii. 92, 49), 
Master of 1462, Master of 
1464, E.S. 

IS. 2 

Misc., Lower Germany. 

Master of the Berlin Passion, 
Master of the St. Erasmus, 
FVB {Fram von Bocholtl), 
I. van Meckenem, P.W. 

Martin Schongauer. 

Li-Z, B.M, B JLK., P.M., 

A.G. (Albrecht Glockentoni), 

b<x8, I.e. 

Master of the Amsterdam 

W$B, b«(8. 


Bavaria and Swabia. 

H.W. [Hans IVindsheim ?), 
Jbrg Syrlin, 

15. 2, 16. I 

Veil Stoss, M.Z. (AT. Zasingerl), 
N. A. Mair. 

15. 2 


LQ<, YI/^H {Wolf Hammer}), 


Wenzel von Olomucz. . 

15. 2, 16. I 


L. Krug, H. Schaufelein, L. 

Cranach, H. Baldung, Urs 

Graf, H. Leu, 

The "Little Masters." 

A. Altdorfer, B. and H. S. 
Beham, G. Pencz, I.B. {Georg 
Pencz i), G. K. Proger (orn^, 

16. I, 2 

H. Brosamer, F. Brun, 

16. 2 

P. Gottlandt {Roddehtet), A. 
Mair {also 17. i). 

16. I, 2 

Virgil Solis. 

N. Solis, A. Summer, B. Jenichen. 

Lower Germany. 

Telman van Wesel, H. Alde- 
grever, J. Binck. 


H. Ladenspelder, N.Wilborn. 

i6. 2 


Melchior Meyer. 

16. 2, 17. I 


Ornament, etc. 

J. Kellerdaller I. and II., cf 

D. Kellerdaller (17. i), M. 

Strobel, B. Zan, H. Bang, 

I.S., P. Flindt, F. Aspruck 

{FL], H. C. Laechlin. 

EN, ET ■ 


Hornick, Bang, Hensel, Mig- 
not, Saur, Birckenhultz, 
Hailler, Wechter. 

16. I 


Urs Graf 


H. S. Beham. 



Engravers influenced by the Masters in 


A^^fl mm 

Master, Characteristic, or 

the previous column, or whose work 



is characterised or localised by the 
remarks in the same place. 

l6. I, 2 


A. Altdorfer (chiefly 1.). 

E. Altdorfer {also en.), A. 
Hirschvogel, H. S. Lauten- 

i6. I 

D. Hopfer. 

H. and L. Hopfer, C.B., H. 
Vogtherr II., H. Burgkmair 
I. and II. 

l6. I, 2 


V. -Solis, W. Jamnitzer, J. 
Amman, L. Strauch. 

l6. 2 


C. Maurer, A. Slimmer, D. 
Meyer {also VJ. 1). 

l6. 2 


Misc. , om. , heraldry, 

M. Ziindt { = Master of the 

archit., etc. 

Kraterographie of 1551 ?) 
(orn. and topogr.), cf. P. 
Opel {shooting festivals), \V. 
Dietterlin,J. Guckeisen, H.J. 
Ebelman, Veit Eck, G. ICram- 
mer, A. Eisenhoit (Rome, 
antiq.), H. Sibmacher (lace). 

EN + ET 

Flemish ■ immigrants 

F. Hogenberg, T., J. I., and 

(topogr. and misc.). 

J. T. de Bry (also VJ. i). 

17. 1 


The Sadelers {Fl.), the- 

P. Isselburg, Jacob v. d. Hey- 


den, P. Aubry. 

17. 1, 2 

D. Custos {Fl.) (Augs- 

L.,W., P.,and B. Kilian (B.K. 


under French influence), 
Melchior "and Matthaus 
Kiisell, G. A. and A. Wolf- 
gang {cf J. G. Wolfgang, 
18. 1 }, C. N. Schurtz, Joachim 
Sandrart I. {also et.) and II., 
Jacob Sandrart, J. J. Sand- 

The de Poillys and the 

J. Falck, E. and J. Hainzel 

French portrait en- 



C. Mellan. 

f. I. Thourneyser (/. and s.). 

17. I 


M. and J. F. Greuter (in Rome), 
T. Krviger (Italy). 

17. 2 


W. H. V. Bommel {grotesque 
fgures of scroll work). 

17. 1 


Misc., infl. by Italian 

G. Pecham, H. Weiner (af C. 


Sihwarz, etc.), A Griemer, 
P. Uff'enbach. 


M. V. Uijtenbroeck {£>.), C. C. 
Moeyart (£>.). 

17- '. ■z 

Misc., Italian influence. 

F. Clem (,/. Jaiclian etchers), 
J. H. Schonfeld (cf Casti- 
glioiic), J. 0. Harms {Roman 
mills, theatre scenery), J. 
Umbach (cf Reni school), B. 

Italianising Netherlanders 

Cf]. F. Ermels(AVw;aH r;«/M\ 

(e.g. J. Both). 

J. r. LembUe, J. F. Beich 
(also 18. I). 

Netherlandish school. 

M. \\'illman \cf. Rembrandt and 

Cntij^lionA. M. Scheits (cf. 
Ostade). J, U. Roos {aiiiiiiais; 



Engravers influenced by the Masters in 



Master, Characteristic, or 

the previous column, or whose work 


is characterised or localised by the 
remarks in the same place. 

17. 1, 2 


( Continued). 

cf. Joseph lioos, 18. 2.), F. 
Ertinger [of. Rubens, Lafage, 
etc.; also topogr. of Brabant). 

J.W. Baur(infl.byCallot 

Cf. F. Brentel {Baur's master). 

and the Dutch school). 

J. U. Franck, Matth. and 
Melch. Kiisell, cf J. S. Kiisell. 

M. Merian I. 

M. Merian II., C. and M. S. 
Merian ; cf. Jacob v. d. 
Heyden, cf. C. Meyer (her- 
aldic), W. Hollar. 

17. 1, 2 


L. von Siegen. 

Prince Rupert, T. C. v. 
Furstenberg, J. Thomas 
{FL), J. K. V. Eltz, J. J. 
Kremer {the two preceding, 
sch. of Furstenberg), J. 
Bickart {sch. of Fiirsten- 
bergl), J. C Dooms {sch. of 


A. P. Multz, M. Dichtel, G. 
and M. Fennitzer, J. A. 
Boener {also 18. l). 


J. G. Bodenehr, H. H. Quiter 
{£>.), J. F. Leonart {Fl.), 
P. Schenck {also 18. 1 ; /. 
Amsterdam), B. Block. 

17. 2, 18. 1 


G. A Wolfgang, C. Weigel, 
E. C. Heiss. 

18. 1, 2 


Working in Italy. 

J. J. Frey, J. Wagner. 

G. F. Schmidt and J. G. 

Cf P. A. Kilian {e.g Dresden 


Gallery work, 1753 and 1757), 
C. and H. Guttenberg {cf. 
also French ilhtstr.), C. G. 
Schultze, J. M. Preisler {later 
in Copenhagen), J. G. Preisler 
{Copenhagen), C. W. Weis- 
brod, G. Camerata (I.), 

18. 2, 19. 1 

J. M. Schmutzer, I. S. Klauber 
{from 1796 in St. Petersburg), 
cf J. F. Bause, C. F. Stblzel, 
J. G. V. Mtiller, C. E. C. 
Hess, C. G. Rasp. 


A. Zingg, W. F. Gmelin 
{Rome, etc.). 

18. 1, 2 


Animals, hunting scenes, 

G. P. and J. C. Rugendas, J. 

battles, etc. 

E. Riedinger. 

Misc. , under foreign infl. , 

imitators, etc. : — 

(i. ) Chiefly Italian infl. 

J. F. Beich {infl. by Claude; 
cf. J. Both), J. A. Thiele 
(/.; infl. by Belotto), M. J. 
Schmidt {cf. Castiglione and 
Tiepolo) ; 

(ii.) Chiefly Dutch infl. 

C. W. E. Dietrich {imit. Rem- 
brandt, etc.), J. G. Traut- 
mann {imit. Rembrandt), J. 
A. B. Nothnagel {imit. Rem- 




l8. I, 2 



Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued), 

i8. 2, 19. 

.Misc. landscape. 

18. 2 

Idyllic landscape. 

18. 1, 19. 

Reproduction of drawings 

D. Chodowiecki. 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

brandf), J. C. Klengel {cf. 
Rembrandt), J. H. Tischbein 
II., J. H. W. Tischbein {g., 
s., and anitnah ; also 19. i), 
C. L. V. Hagedom (/.), F. 
E. Weirotter (/.), A. Zingg 
(/.; also en.), F. Kobell (/.), 
J. P. and G. A. Hackert (/.y 
cf. J. Both), P. J. Louther- 
bourg (/. , s., caric. ; cf. also 
Sahator Rosa ; fl. chiefly 
in London), Joseph Roos 
[animals ; cf. J. H. Roos), 
J. H. Menken (animals, cf. 
Berchem ; also 19. I), C. v. 
Vittinghoff [animals), W. 
Kobell [animals ; also 19. i ), 
cf. J. F. Morgenstern (19. i, 
af. Ruysdael, Roos, Dietrich, 

F. A. Brand, J. L. E. Morgen- 
stern, J. E. Zeissig, J. H. 
ileyer [Swiss views ; cf. S. 
Gessner), A. C. Dies [country 
near Rome), M. v. Molitor, 
J. G. Scliuniann [also in 
London, with Bynte), J. C. 
Reinhart [country near Rome ; 
also animals), J. G. v. Dillis 
[country near Munich). 

S. Gessner, K. W. Kolbe. 

C. M. Tuscher [costume and 
society; cf. C. Troost), M. 
Oesterreich [caric. af. Ghezzi 
and hiternari), J. H. Tisch- 
bein I. [mythoL, hist.), A. F. 
Maiilbertsch [s. and g.), C. 
B. Rode [s., cf. Castiglione 
and Tiepolo), A. F. Oeser 
[s.), F. Landerer [character 
heads), H. R. Fuessli [class.), 
Angelica Kauffinann [class., 
p. and fancy), J. W. v. 
Goethe [a few V. af. A. 
Thiclc, dc, ah. 1 70S), C. 
Gessner [animals, battle- 
scenes ; also 19. i). 

Charles, Prince de Lignc, C. M. 
Motz [in London : Jmitations 
of drawings in English col- 
lections, logplates, 1798 ; also 
19- i)> A. Bartsch [also 19. i). 

G. and W. Chodowiecki, D. 
Berger, J. F. Bolt, cf J. W. 
Meil [cf Chofard,and/-n;ieh 





i8. I, 


18. I 
18. 2, 19. I 

18. 2 

18. 2, 19. I 


19. I 


19. I, 

19. 2, 20. I 

19. I 


Master, Characteristic, or 
Locality. • 



Colour prints. 

Schmidt tradition. 

Landscape, etc. 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the .same place. 

G. P. Rugendas, J. E. Riedinger, 

S. and C. F. Blesendorf, B. 
Vogel {af. Kupezky), G. and 
M. Bodenehr, G. C. and P. 
A. Kilian, J. L. Haid, J. J. 
Haid, J. G. Haid {also in 
London), J. E. Haid, H. 
Sintzenich {also in London), 
J. J. Freidhoflf {also 19. i). 

J. Mannl, A. J. v. Prenner, J. 
Jacobe {also in London), J. 
P. Pichler, I. Unterberger 
{mixed mezz.),]. V. Kauperz, 
F. Wrenk {also 19. i), V. G. 
Kininger {also 19. i). 

J. C. Le Blon {three-colour 
process) ; 

J. P. Pichler, F. Wrenk. j 

J. G. Prestel, M. C. Prestel 
{also in London) {the two 
preceding also aq.), G. S. and 
J. G. 'Paciws {both in London), 
H. and P. Sintzenich {both 
in London), D. Chodowiecki 
{a few plates), 

D. Berger, C. F. Stolzel, C. E. 
C. Hess, J. K. Felsing, J. J. 
Freidhoff, F. John, K. H. 

J. F. W. Miiller, M. MiiUer 
(Steinla), C. Agricola {sin. 
class.), J. K. Felsing {topogr.), 
S. Amsler {cartoon and out- 
line manner), 

F. A. Kriiger, J. H. and G. 
J. Felsing, J. Caspar, E. 
Schaffer, L. Gruner {sch. of 
Longhi ; outlines, class.), J. 
C. Thaeter, H. Schiitz {out- 
lines af Genelli), A. Hoff- 
mann, E. Mandel {sch. of 
Henriquel - Dupont), J. v. 
Keller {sch. of Desnoyers), 
K. Geyer, E. Willmann (/.), 

J. Sonnenleiter, L. Jacoby, J. 
Burger, R. Stang, IC. Krautle, 
G; Eilers, E. Buchel, J. 
Lindner {original p. and 
reprod.), E. Mohn {cf. 
Mandel ; infl. by Gaillard), 
J. Klaus, A, Kriiger. 

C. Russ {also aq.; cf. Flaxman). 

J. A. Koch, H. J. Herterich, 
J. Gauermann, F. A. Dreyer, 
S. Bendixen, F. Rektorzik, 
J. C. Erhard, C. F. v. 




19. I 

19. I, 2 

19. 2 
19. I, 2 

19. 2, 20. I 



Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued). 


Popular illustration. 

Modern spirit ; for the 
most part original 
work : — 

(i.) Germany, and German 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

Rumohr, N. Bittner {stage 

G. E. Harzen, L. E. Grimm 

{p. studies), C. Wagner, E. C. 

Fechner {p.), C. E. B. Mor- 

genstern, A. F. VoUmer, J. 

and J. M. Gensler, L. Gur- 

litt, A. Achenbach. 
J. A. Klein, F. Gauermann, 

S. Habenschaden. 
A. L. Richter, M. v. Schwind, 

R. Reinick, J. B. W. A. 

Sonderland, E. Neureuther, 
W. Busch {hu7norous illusir.). 

A. Menzel, Frederike O'Connell 
{nie Miethe) {fl. Paris ; p. 
and reprod.), A. Brendel 
{animals, etc), 

L. Hartmann {animals, /.), H. 
Thoma, O. Gampert, W. 
Leibl (/.), B. Mannfeld, 
H. V. Herkomer {chiefly in 
England), W. Rohr {p., 
reprod., etc.), S. L. Wenban 
( U.S.A.), H. E. V. Berlepsch, 
M. Liebermann, G. Schbn- 
leber, E. Zimmermann {g.), 
P. Halm {also reprod.), C. 
T. Meyer (Meyer-Basel), C. 
J.Eecker-Gundahl,C. Stauffer 
(Stauffer-Bern) {partly en.), 
M. Klinger {partly en.), L. 
V. Kalckreuth, H. v. Volk- 
mann, H. v.Heyden{animals), 

E. M. Geyger {animals, etc.), 
A. AVelti {s., alleg. ; infl. by 
Boecklin), O. Fikentscher, 

F. Stuck, j\r. Dasio {cf. 
Klinger), E. Kirchner(j(7^jV.), 
W. Leistikow, H. am Ende, 
F. Mackensen, O. Moder- 
sohn,' F. Overbeck, H. 
Vogeler {the five preceding 

form the IVorpswede grotip), 
M. Pietschmann, W. Rudinoff, 
Kathe KoUwitz, O. Ubbe- 
lohde, O. Greiner {infl. by 
Klinger), J. Dietz {alleg.), 
O. Fischer {also aq.), O. Graf 
{also a,/.), Cecilia Graf {also 
a<j.), B. Pankok, F. Boehle 
{I., s., etc.; archaiser), J- 
Brockhoff, H. Neumann, R. 





Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

19. 2, 20. I 


( Continued) . 

(ii. ) Austria and Bohemia. 

19. I, 2 
19. 2, 20. I 


(iii, ) Hungary. 


Miiller (animals, I., etc.), H. 
Wolff (;*, ), H. Struck ; 
R. V. Alt [also 19. i), Hermine 
Laukota, W. Ziegler (e.g. 25 
Ori^naldrucke in verschie- 
denen Tiefdnicktechniken, 
1901), A. Roth, H. Seuffer- 
held, H. Jakesch, E. Orlik, 
F. Hegenbart, R. Jettmar, 

F. Schmutzer, A. Cossmann, 

G. 1. Kempf, A. Luntz (fi. 
Karkrulw), C. Myslbek, F. 
Gold, R. Lux ; 

L. Michalek {yl. Vienna), S. 
Landsinger (p., e.g. of his 
master Boecklin), L. Rauscher, 
V. Olgyai, A. Aranyossy, 
A. Szekely. 

H. Biirkner (also 19. i), J. L. 
Raab, W. Unger, J. Will- 
roider, W. Hecht, W. ICraus- 
kopf, K. Koepping, W. Rohr, 
W. Woernle, P. Halm, A. 
ICrtiger, L. Kiihn, F. 

C. Mayer (sch. of Kininger), 

R. Kaiser, B. Pankok. 


15. I, 2 


Working from about 

Master of the Gardens of Love, 


Master of the Mount of 
Calvary, Master of the 
Balaam (so called from a print 
in Dresden; see Lehrs, Re- 
pert, xvii. 352), Master of 
the Death of Mary [so called 
from P. ii. 227, 117, Berlin, 

15. 2 

Working from about 

Master of the Boccaccio Illus- 


trations, JAM (with the 
weaver's shuttle), of Zwolle, 

W ^, AUart du Hameel. 

16. I 

Lucas van Leyden. 

Cf. J. Gossaert (Mabuse), 
Master of the Crayfish (F. 
Crabbe?), N. H., L. Suavius 
(infl. also by Italians). 

German "Little Masters." 

A. Claesz, C. Matsys, S. , cf. 
also D. Vellert (en. and et.), 

^ (read D. I., and identi- 
fied with Vellert by Beets; 
orn. ). 




l6. I, 2 


i6. 2, 17. I 

16. 2, 17. I 

16. I, 2 

16. I 


Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers under Italian 
infl. , working largely 
for the publisher 
engraver Cock, af. 
designs by F. Floris, 
M. V. Heemskerk, J. 
V. d. Straet, M. de Vos, 
O. V. Veen, B. Spranger, 

Engravers and engraver- 
publishers who settled 

Engravers influencerl by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

The Wierixes. 

Crispin van de Passe and 
the Wierixes. 

Misc. portrait (cf. the 
Passe and the Wierix). 

Hendrik Goltzius. 


Natural History. 



A. CoUaert (I. and II. ?), H. 
CoUaert I. and II., C. v. 
Bos, J. Bos ("Belga"), D. 
V. Coornhaert, C. Cort, F. 
Huys {a/so p.), P. Huys, 
Petrus a Merica, P. Galle 
(cf. T. Galle and C. Galle I. 
and II., 17. I), G. de Jode II., 
J. V. Stalburch, G. v. Veen 
{also 17. I), N. Cloeck, H. 
MuUer {also 17. l). 

Jan Sadeler I. ( Venice), 
Raphael Sadeler I. ( Venice, 
M. Gheraerts I. {London; 
also el.), F. Hogenberg 
{London and Cologne), The 
van de Passes {various mem- 
bers of the family in London, 
Paris, Copenhagen), D. Custos 
{Augsburg), T., J. T., and 
J. I. de Bry {Frankfurt), C. 
Boel {London and Madrid), 
P. Perret {Madrid). 

A. and N. de Bruyn, C. v. 
Mallery; cf. T. v. Merlen 
(17. I, 2). 

Crispin II. and III., S.,W., and , 
M. Passe, C. v. Queboren, T. 
de Leu (yf. France). 

P. Baltens, H. Liefrink, F. ' 
Huys, contr. Hubert Goltzius I 
{tt. and chiaroscuro: " Im- ' 
peraloruin Imagines," 1557). 

J. Saenredam, J. MuUer, J. 
Matham, W. Swanenburg, 
T. de Gheyn I. and II., B. 
Dolendo, P. de Jode I., E. 
V. Panderen, N. Lastmann, 
(/ and contr. A., C, and F. 

G. Mercator, J. Hondius, F. - 

G. Hoefnagel, F. Hogenberg, 
the de Brys. 

J. Hoefnagel {insects, fruits, 
and flowers af G. Hoefnagel, 

C. Bos {strap and grotesque), 
H. CoUaert I. and II., M. 
Gheraerts I. {e.g. Passion of 
Christ, in ornamental strap- 
work setting ; also e/.). 

L. v. Leyden, Vellert, Master of 
the Crayfish, B. v. Orley (?), 
Vermeyen, Teunissen. 





l6. I, 2 

l6. 2, VJ. I 
l6. I, 2 

l6. 2, VJ. I 

17. 1 



17. I, 2 

Master, Characteristic, or 

Italian influence, and 


Misc. portrait, preceding 
or escaping the infl. of 
Rubens and Van Dyck. 

Rubens and Van Dyck : 
(i.) Engravers coming 

under their influence 

as formed artists. 

(ii.) Immediate school of 

(iii.) Miscellaneous. 

(iv. ) Engraver-publishers. 

Portrait : 

(i.) Misc., more or less 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

F. Floris, M. Gheraerts I. (s., 
illustr. ,etc.; also in England) , 
P. V. d. Borcht (jfre)*/. andg!), 

B. Spranger, P. Feddes v. 
Harlingen {s, and p.). 

L. Gassel, P. Brueghel I., cf. 

J. Brueghel I. {also VJ. i), 

H. Bol, H. Cock, 
P. Bril, R. Savery. 

C. and K. v. Sichem {and others 
of the family ?), W. J. Delfif 
{of. Mierevelt), H. Hondius 
II., J. V. d. Velde, S. Savery 
{also misc. reprod.). 

C. Galle I. and II., J. MuUer, 
J. Matham, W. Swanenburg, 
E. V. Panderen {cf. Goltzius 
school) ; 

P. Soutman, L. Vorsterman 
{also VJ. 2), P. Pontius, B. 
and S. a Bolswert ; 

P. de Jode II., J. Witdoek, 
M. Robin v. d. Goes, J. 
Neeffs, L. Vorsterman II. 
{also topogr. et. and plates in 
D. Tetziers' " Theatre des 
Peintures," 1660), {the four 
preceding, pupils of L. Vors- 
terman I. ), A. Stock, N. and 
C. Lauwers, N. Ryckemans, 
C. Waumans, P. de Bailliu, 
A. v. d. Does, J. v. Noordt, 
H. Snyers, C. v. Caukercken, 
M. Borrekens, J. Suyderhoef 
{chiefly of. Hals), P. v. 
Sompel, J. Louys, W. P. de 
Leeuw {the four preceding, 
sch. of. Soutman; cf. and 
contr. C. Visscher, a sch. of 
Sotitman who combined en. 
and et. , infl. by Ostade ; cf. 
also J. and L. Visscher), A. 
Lommelin, P. Clouwet, R. 
v. Voerst {also in England), 
R. Collin {" engrauer to the 
Kingof Spain " y en. antique 
statues for publications of 
Joachim Sandrart), A. de 
Jode {son of Pieter dej. II.), 
J. Pitau, F. Ragot {P.); 

M. V. d. Enden, G. Hendricx, 
J. Meyssens, F. v. d. Wyn- 

F., Caspar, Gerard and Phili- 
2 A 



17. I, 2 



17. I 
17. I, 2 



Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

under infl. of Van 

(ii.) [Frans Hals.] 

(iii. ) Engravers who later 

joined the French 


Genre (af. Vinckboons, 

A. V. d. Venne, etc.). 

Colour prints. 

Rubens school ; 
(i.) Largely subject. 

(ii.) Portrait (infl. of ^•an 

I (iii.) Landsc;i]x'. 

bert Bouttats, A. Clouwet, 
P. Philippe, R. v. Persyn, 
A. V. Zylvelt, J. Munnick- 
huysen, H. Bary, P. Holsteyn 
II., J. Barra, C. v. Dalen I. 
and II., A. Blooteling, G. 
Valck {a/so 18. i), L. 
Visscher, J. Blondeau, P. v. 
Gunst {also 18. i ) ; 

J. Suyderhoef; 

M. Tavernier ((/. Ais fatlier, 
G. Tavernier^ wlio had been 
settled as en.-piibl. in Paris 
from ah. 1573), J. de Bie 
{chiejly af. medals, e.g. *' la 
France Metalliqite^^ 1634), 
P. V. Schuppen, N. Pitau I. 
and II. , G. and J. Edelinck, 
C. Vermeulen I. 

P. Serwouter, J. v. Londerseel. 

C. Bloem aert ( /?. Italy), H . G cud t 
{af. Elsheimer), M. Natalis 
{infl. by Poitssin and school), 
J. V. Troyen, V. \. A. Steen, 
T. V. Kessel, N. ^ . Ho(e)y 
{llie four preceding in D. 
Teniers' " Theatre des 
Peintures,'' 1660), C. Le 
Blon {illustr.). 

]. Teyler. 

-M. Le Blon, H. Tanssen(s). 

F. Aspruck ( /?. 'Augsburg), J. 
Lutma II. 

J. Jordaens (?), A. v. Diepen- 
beeck (?), F. Snyders (?), 
C. Schut, T. V. Thulden, 
cf. R. Eynhoudts ; E. Quellin, 
H. Quellin {af A. Quellin's 
d,si!;i!s, interior of Town 
Hall..4ii!s/inAiin). G. Seghers, 
F. V. d. Wyngaevde, \V. 
Panneels (fl. Gcmuuiy'i, J. 
Thomas (also wee;. ,■ y/. 
J'/,iiihi), W. V. Valckert, 
L. V. d. Koogen, J- de 
Bisschop (,tho af. B. Breen- 
!>c/-g!.): if. R. V. Orley {also 
18. I) ; ,;>: J. de Wit (18. l). 

J. Lievens, P. Fruytiers (cf. 
Hollar), cf. in technical 
nimincr C. de Moor (also 
18. I). 

L. de Vadder, L. ,. Uden, 
I. V. d. Stock, cf. F. 





17. 1, 2 
17. 1 


ET + EN 


17. I, 2 


Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued). 

Immediate predecessors 
and earlier contempo- 
raries of Rembrandt : 

(i. ) Genre, subject, and 

(ii. ) Landscape : 
'{a) Jan van de Velde, 

{b) Misc. 
(iii.) Elsheimer {G). 

Rembrandt : 

(i. ) Immediate followers. 

(ii. ) Imitators, copyists 
(of later periods). 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks iir the same place. 

Wouters {also in England), 
cf. G. Neyts. 

J. B. and C. de Wael, D. 
Vinckboons, N. J. Visscher 
(a few plates in manner of. 
P. Brueghel I.'s paintings, 
etc.; chiefly worked as publ.), 
G. V. Scheyndel (cf. Callot), 
T. Rombouts, J. Bouchorst, 
P. Lastman, G. Bleker {cf. 
animal etchers), P. de Greb- 
ber, W. Buytewech {s. and I. ), 
L. Bramer, C. C. Moeyart, 
cf D. de Bray (17. 2), P. 
Nolpe, C. Mattue, G. Hon- 
thorst {cf. Caravaggio) ; 

Cf. A. Bloemaert, cf. A. v. 

Stalbent, P. Molyn I., E. v. 

d. Velde, W. O. Akersloot, 

R. V. d. Hoecke ; 
H. Seghers, W. Buytewech ; 
M. V. Uijtenbroeck, C. C. 

Moeyart, W. Basse, cf. H. 

Goudt {en.). 

J. Lievens, J. G. v. Vliet, F. 
Bol, S., J., and P. Koninck, 
P. de With, S. v. Hoog- 
straten, G. v. d. Eeckhout, 

E. Boursse, C. k Renesse, 
Rodermondt, A. de Haen, 
H. Heerschop, cf. J. Lutma 
II. {also punch-en.), cf. P. 
Angel, cf. P. C. Verbeecq, 
cf. J. A. Duck ; 

A. Overlaet, G. F. Schmidt 
{G.), C. W. E. Dietrich (G.), 

F. Novelli (/), Cumano (/.), 
Sardi (/.), C. H. Watelet 
{K), J. P. Norblin (K), A. 
Marcenay de Ghuy {F.), 
Sauveur Legros (/".), D. 
Vivant Denon (F.), J. J. de 
Claussin (i^), L. Flameng 
{Fl.), F. Vivares {F. ; fl. 
England), J. Chalon {D. ; 
in England), R. Cooper II. 
{Br.), R. Byron {Br.), B. 
Wilson {Br.), T. Worlidge 
{Br.), W. BaiUie {Br.), J. 
Hazard {Br.), J. Bretherton 
{Br.), D. Deuchar {Br.), 





17. 1, 2 


Master, Characteristic, or 


Ostade, Brouwer, D. 
Teniers II. (genre). 

Landscape : 

(i. ) Early, miscel- 

(ii.) Ruysdael. 

(iii.) H. Saftleven II. 
(Flemish character). 

(iv. ) Later miscellaneous. 

(v.) Architectural. 

Italianised landscape ; 
(i.) P. van Laer (land- 
scape and genre). 

(ii.) N.Berchem, J. Both. 

(iii.) Poussin, Claude, and 
the foreign school 
at Rome. 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose worlc 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

J. E. Beckett {Br.), AV. J. 
Smith {Br.), Lucy Bright- 
well {Br.). 
C. Bega, C. Dusart {also mezz. ), 
P. Quast {cf. Callot), N. v. 
Haeften, D. Ryckaert III., 
J. V. Nijpoort ; cf. M. 
Sweerts, J. il. Molenaer, 
T. Wijck, A. Both, Coryn 
Boel {af. Teniers ; also some 
class, reprod. for D. Teniers^ 
" Theatre des Peintures," 
1660), J. L. Kj-afft (18. I ; af. 
Teniers), J. Dassonville {F. ), 
M. Scheits(G.), cf M. Schoe- 
vaerdts, cf. Ploos v. Amstel 
(18. 2 ; col. af. Ostade, etc.). 

R. Roghman, G. Roghman 
{also g. ; cf. P. de Hooch), 
]. V. Goyen, A. v. Everdingen 
{cf. H. Saftleven II.); 

Cf. A. ■\Vaterlo(o), H. Nai- 
wynx {cf. also II. Saftleven 
II.), C. V. Beresteyn, A. 
Verboom ; 

J. V. Aken, C. Saftleven {also 
animals and g. ; cf. Callot 
and Ostade), J. Almeloveen ; 
cf. P. Bout, cf. A. F. Boude- 
vfyns, cf. A. F. Bargas ; 

J. Hackaert, A'. Lefebre {af. 
Titian, D, Campagnola and 
school) ; 

R. Nooms (Zeenian), Jan v. 
d. Heyden. 

J. Porcellis, R. Nooms (Zee- 
man), J. V. d. Cappelle, L. 
Backhuysen, A. Storck, B. 
Peeters, A. Silo {also mezz. ; 
fl. i8. I). 

T. AYijck {cf also Ost.ulc), J. 

Ossenbeeck, cf. J. Micle, cf. 

A. F. Bargas ; 
Cf. F. de Neue, W. de Heusch, 

A. Both (,/. also Osiatie), cf. 

H. Verschuring, cf. J. Sniees 

{also 18. I), cf. P. Rys- 

braeck {sch. of G. Dughet : 

also 18. l) ; 
\V. Nieuwlant, B. Breenberg(h) 

{the two f reading sch. of P. 

Bril), H. V. Swanevelt, D. 

V. d. Dyck, A. V. d. Cabel, 

A. Genoels {,i/so 18. i), J. 




17. I, 2 


2, 18. 


17. I, 






17. ^ 




Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued). 

Animals : 
(i.) Flemish, 
(ii.) Dutch: 

(a) P. V. Laer, 
S. deVUeger. 
{b) Cuyp, Potter, 
J. Both, Ber- 
chem, A. van 
de Velde. 

Still life. 

Topogr. and Hist. 
Hist., daily life, and 

misc. illustr. 
[P. Wouwerman] battle 

scenes, etc. 

[Dou and Mieris. 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

17. 2, 18. I 

18. I 

Glauber {also 18. i), J. F. v 
Bloemen {also 18. l), cf. G. 
de Lairesse, cf. G. v. Wittel 
(Vanvitelli) {views in Rome ; 
cf. Canale), cf. M. Natalis 
{en. ). 
J. Bronchorst. 

F. Snyders (?), J. Fyt, P. Boel ; 

P. V. Hillegaert, D. Stoop, J. 
Jonck Heer ; 

G. Bleker {cf Rembrandt), A. 
Begeyn, J. v. d. Hecke, C. 
du Jardin, J. v. d. Does, J. 
Le Ducq, M. de Bye, A. 
Hondius {also in England), 
J. V. d. Meer II., J. H. 
Roos (C), cf W. J. Troost- 
wyk (19. i). 

A. Flamen- {fishes, Jjirds), J. 

V. d. Hecke {flowers). 
Gaspar and Gerard Bouttats. 
A. 'S'\s.raen\.{alsoin Paris), R. de 

Hooghe, J. and C. Luyken. 
Cf. J. Martsen II., W. v. 

H. Verschuring, 
D. Maas, J. v. Huchtenburg 

{inf.. also by A. F. v. d. 

Meulen, whom he repro- 

G. Schalcken, C. de Moor {good 

p.; cf. Bronchorst and Lievens 

J. Thomas {fl. Vienna), W. 
and B. Vaillant, A. v. Ever- 
dingen (?), A. BlooteUng {also 
in England), G. Valck {also 
in England), H. H. Quiter 
{later in Germany), J. F. 
Leonart {later in Germany), 
P. V. Slingelandt, P. Schenck 
{G.; also 18. i), J. Van der 
Vaart {England ; also 18. l), 
J. V. Somer {also in England), 
"p. V. d. Berge, Jan Verkolje, 

J. V. d. Bruggen {worked in 
Paris), G. Hoedt (/.), J. v. 
Huchtenburg, A. v. Halen, 
L. Deyster, C. Dusart, J. 
Gole, A. de Blois {also in 
England}), J. de Later, N. 
V. Haeften, A. v. Westerhout, 
N. Verkolje, 

A. Silo {shipping), C. Troost, 



i8. I 

l8. I, 2 



Master, Characteristic, or 

l8. 2, 19. I 
18. I 

18. I, 2 

18. 2 

18. 2, 19. I 

18. 2, 19. I 


( Continued). 

Miscellaneous (largely 
class, reproduction). 



Archaisers (imitating 17th 
century etchers, etc. ). 

Reprod. drawings, etc. 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

P. V. Bleeck (also in En^and), 
J. L'Admiral (col.; cf. J. C. 
Le Blon), A. Schouman, 
P. Louw (of. Rembrandt, 
etc.), J. Stolker (af. Rem- 
brandt, etc.). 
R. V. Audenaerde (worked long 
in Rome; cf. G. Audran), 
A. V. Westerhout (/. Rome), 
T. Verkruys (reprod. Floretice 
Gallery ; cf. Lorenzini), J. 
F. Pilsen, J. Houbraken (chiefly 
p., e.g. in A. Hottbraken's 
" Groote Schouburgh" 1718- 
21 ; with G. Verttie in T. 
Birch's "Heads of Illustrious 
Persons of Great Britain" 
1743-52). J- Folkema (e.g. 
m Dresden Gallery work, 
'753. 1757), Tanj^, Fokke 
(iltustr.; also et.), J. Punt, 
A. Delfos, J. KobeU I., J. P. de 

A. Houbraken (also VJ. 2; s., 
infl. by Rubens tradition; 
sculpture, etc.), I. v .d. Vinne 
(/., niarines), I. de Mouche- 
ron (archit., gardens, I.), 
J. de Wit (cf. Rubens sc/iool), 
J. L. Kraflft (cf D. Ten- 
iers : see also J. L. K. 'j 
' ' Tr^sor de Fables,'' Brussels, 
A. Zeeman [sm. views), J. 
L'Admiral (p., in van 
.Vaiicjcrs " Leven der Schil- 
ders,'' ed.J. dejongh, Amster- 
<iam, 1764), P. C. La Fargue 
(large -■icu's), J. H. Prins (/. 
and g. ), H. v. Brussel (sm. 
I. ; also 19. I), L. B. Coders 
(g.,p. ; also 19. i). 
J. Chalon (cf. Rembrandt), 
]., J. C, and P. Janson (/., 
animals), C. Bisschop, 
H. Kobell, J, KobeU II., W. 
J. V. Troostwyk (animals), 
J. L. de Marne (/.), P. J. C. 
Franjois (Roman I., and 
archit. ). 
J. J. Bylaert (np/vd. drawings; 
cf Genera/ BiMiosT-apliy II., 
1772), J. Cootwyk, T. de 
Roode, C. Josi (also London), 
L. Claessens (sch. of Barto- 



Engravers influenced by the Masters in 



Master, Characteristic, or 

the previous column, or whose work 


is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 


2, 19. I 


( Continued). 

lozzi; also en. ) {cf. also British 
Isles, St.), A. Liernur. 



Reproduction of drawings. 

C. Ploos V. Amstel, B. Schreu- 
der, J. Kornlein, 


2, 19. I 


C. Brouwer ; 

C. Apostool {also in London). 

19. I 


Dutch : miscellaneous. 

P. Velyn {ilhistr.), J. P. Lange 
[illustr., sch. of Velyn), 

19. I, 2 


A. B. B. Taurel {K, settled in 
Amsterdam), J. W. Kaiser, 


I, 2, 20. I 

C. E. Taurel, W. Steelink, 


2, 20. I 

P. J. Arendzen {reprod. , en + et ; 
cf. Gaillard), P. Dupont. 

19. I, 2 


Dutch : 
(i.) Chiefly landscape. 

R. V. Haanen, J. B. Jongkind, 


2, 20. I 

J. Israels, A. Mauve; J. and M. 

Maris, C. Storm van 's Grave- 

sande, M. W. v. d. Valk, P. 

Zilcken, W. Witsen, W. de 

Zwart, H. J. v. d. Weele, J. 

! 1 

Veth [p.), M. A. J. Bauer 

{Eastern s.), J. M. Graadt v. 

Roggen {also reprod. ), W. O. 

J. Nieuwenkamp, P. Dupont 

{also en. ), J. Toorop, Barbara 

V. Houten ; 

(ii.) Reproductive. 

A. L. Koster, C. L. Dake, 
H. J. V. d. Weele {e.g. of. 
Mauve), J. M. Graadt v. 

19. I 


Belgian : 
(i.) Miscellaneous. 

L. A. Claessens {cf st.), H. W. 

19. I, ^ 

(ii.) Calamatta (/.). 

Erin Corr ; 

C. J. Bal, J. B. Meunier, J. 
Delbo^te, J. Franck, 


I, 2, 20. 1 

J. A. Demannez, A. M. Danse, 

L. Flameng {also et, Paris), 

G. Biot, J. B. Michiels, F. 

Lauwers, J. Nauwens, L. 


19. I, 2 


Belgian : 
(i.) Miscellaneous. 

(ii.) Subject, genre, illus- 

F. T. Faber (/., cattle, etc.), E. 

J. Verboeckhoven {animals) ; 
H. Leys, Ad. and Alb. Dillens, 

F. Hillemacher, E. J. C. 

Hamman, C. F. Bendorp II. 

{infl. by Rembrandt), W. 

Linnig I. and II., H. de 

Braekeleer ; 

19. 2 

(iii. ) Social satire. 

F. Rops; 


2, 20. I 

(iv.) Portrait and figure 

E. Smits, W. Linnig II., F. 
IChnopff, A. Rassenfosse ; 

19. I, 2 

(v.) Landscape. 

E. Linnig {sm. marines), M. 
Kuytenbrouwer {e.g. in V. 
Joly, " Les Ardennes," 1854), 





Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

19. I, 2 
19. 2, 20. I 


( Continued). 

W. Roelofs, J. P. F. Lamo- 
riniere, H. F. Schaefels (/., 
g., sea-fights), 
T. Verstraete, H. Cassiers, J. 
Guiette, G. den Duyts, F. 
Marechal, A. Rassenfosse, 
T. V. Rysselberghe, E. Laer- 
mans, H. Meunier, R. Wyts- 
man, A. Baertsoen, H.R.H. 
Marie, Comtesse de Flandre. 


15. I, 2 

15. 2, 16. I 


16. I 

16. I, 2 




North Italy, miscellaneous. 


Bologna, Ferrara. 
Marcantonio Raimondi. 

Rome ; misc.j less imme- 
diately vmder infl. of 

Master of the Larger Vienna 

T. Finiguerra, B. Baldini, A, 


C. Robetta (l6. I), Gherardo 
miniatore (?), Lucantonio 
degli Uberti. 

Z. Andrea, G. A da Brescia, 
Simone di Ardizone (?), N. 
Rosex (da Modena), cf. also 
Master of 15 15 (.g. 12, which 
gives the name, and at least 
B. 10 atid 13 are genuine; 
others aitrib., e.g. />. I, 3, 17, 
iS might be iS/h ccntiiiy imi- 

G. Mocetto, J. de' Barbari. 

B. Montagna", G. and D. Cani- 
pagnola, M-CA, JJ, M. 
Fogolino, FN, Master of the 
Beheading of John the Baptist, 
N. Rosex, F. A., G. M. da 
Brescia, Altobello Meloni (?), 

D. Bramante (?), Master of the 
.^foiva Book of Hours (A. da 
Monza?), Z. Andrea, Leo- 
nardo da Vinci (?). 

F. Raibolini (Francia), 

f {Peregritio da Cesenal), 
IB (with the Bird). 
J. Raibolini (Francia), G. A. 
da Brescia, Marco Dente (da 
Ravenna), A. de' Musi (,\'ene- 
ziano), B. Veiini, 9v. 

G. B. Franco (also I'aiia-, infl. 
of Titian. : also <■/. ), N. Be'at- 
rizet (/".), N. della Casa (/".), 




16. I, 2 



16. 2 

16. 2, 17. I 

16. I, 2 

16. I 

16. I, 2 


Master, Characteristic, or 


Printsellers and engraver- 
publishers (at Rome, 
except where otherwise 

Misc. engravers outside 
Rome, indirectly infl. 
by Marcantonio. 


Portrait : miscellaneous. 

C. Cort and Agostino 
Carracci (Rome and 

F. Mazzuoli (Parmigiano). 
School of Fontainebleau. 


[Titian, and the Venetian 
painters. ] 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

L. da Udine (vases ; cf. A. 
de'Masi), G. B. Cavalieri 
{antiq. ),cf. A. Eisenhoit ( G. ; 
statues), M. Lucchese, M. 
Cartaro, G.A. [archit.). 

Baviera, A. Salamanca, C. 
Duchetti {F.), A. Lafrery 
[F. ; antiq. : e.g. Speculum 
Romanm Magnific entice, 
1552, etc.), T. Barlacchi, 
N. V. Aelst {Fl.), M. Luc- 
chese, M. Labacco, P. de 
Nobilibus, P. P. Palombo, 
L. and F. Bertelli ( Venice), 
N. Nelli ( Venice). 

G. J. Caraglio {Parma), E. 
Vico {Parma), G. Bonasone 
{Bologna, Rome), H(HF)E 
{Bologna- Ferrara school? infl. 
of Caraglio in technique, and 
of Mazsolino in style, with 
reminiscences of J. de' Bar- 

G. B. Sculptor, A. and Diana 
Sculptor, G. Ghisi. 

A. de' Musi, N. Beatrizet 
{P.), N. della Casa {F.), E. 
Vico, N. Nelli, M. Rota, 
A. Caprioli {e.g. Cento illus- 
tri capitani, Rome, 1596), 
F. Valesio {e.g. Brefve 

cronicque des Roys de 

France, Venice 1597 ; <^l^o 
misc. s.), O. Leoni {also 
17. I). 

R. Guidi {scA. of Cort), D. 
Tibaldi {sch. of Cort), O. de 
Sanctis, A. Caprioli, P. 
Thomassin {P., sch. of Cort), 

F. Villamena {sch. of Cort), 
C. Alberli, G. A. Maglioli, 

G. L. Valesio, F. Brizio, 
Giacomo Franco {illustr. ), L. 
Ciamberlano, O. Gatti {sch. 
of Ag. Carracci and G. L. 
Valesio), C. Cesio {also 17. 2). 

A. Schiavone (Meldolla). 

A. Fantuzzi, D. del Barbiere, 

G. Ruggieri. 
D. Beccafumi. 
G. B. Franco, B. and M. d' Angeli 

del Moro, G. B. and G. 

Fontana, P. and O. Farinati, 

J. Palma II. {also 17. l), cf. 

C. Sacchi (17. i, 2), cf. V. 

Lefebre {PI. ; 17. 2). 



Engravers influenced by the Masters in 



Master, Characteristic, or 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

16. 2 


Bologna (infl. of the 

B. Passerotti, C. Procaccini, cf. 

Venetian school). 

B. Passed {fl.Rome), L. and 
An. Carracci. 

16. 2, 17. I 


V. Salimbeni, F. Vanni, V. 
Strada, R. Schiaminossi, cf. 
0. Borgiani. 

16. 2 


G. A. Brambilla {topogr., g., 
s ^ 

16. 2, 17. I 

Guide Reni and the Car- 

Cf. B. Schidone, cf. P. Faccini, 


cf. L. Lana [sch. of Guercino), 
S. Cantarini, 

17. I, 2 

G. A. and E. Sirani, L. LoUi, G. 
B. Bolognini I., P. F. Mola 
{sch. of Albani), G. B. Mola 


{sch. of Albani), L. Scara- 

muzza,D.M.Canuti,F. Torre, 


L. Pasinelli, G. Rossi I. {also 

en., and publ. ?), G. F. 

Grimaldi (/.), G. Scarselli, 

G. M. Viani, 

17. 2, 18. I 

D. M. Viani, G. M. Rolli, G. 
G. dal Sole, L. Mattioli, G. 
M. Crespi. 

17. I 


G. Caletti, G. B. Pasqualini. 

17. I, 2 

[Domenichino] (Bologna 

A. Camassei, F. Rosa, F. 

— Naples). 

Cozza, P. and T. del P6, cf. 
P. Testa {Rome). 

17. I 

Bologna — Venice. 

0. Fialetti, 

17. I, 2 

G. Caipioni, G. Diamantini 
{also 18. I). 

Bologna : misc. s., satir, 

A. Mitelli I. and II., G. M. 



17. I 


B. Capitelli [infl. also by 
Elshciiucr ?), G. v. Hon- 
thorst {£>.). 

Riberaf^'.) (the Neapoli- 

Cf. T. F. de Liagno {S.), F. 

tan school). 


17. I, 2 

A. Falcone, cf. L. Giordano, 
Salvator Rosa. 

16. 2, 17. I 

EN + ET 

A. Tempesta. 

0. Scarabelli. 

17. I, 2 


J. Callot (F.). 

G. B. Bracelli, G. Pericciuli, S. 
della Bella, M. Gerardini. 

C;. and A. Parigi. 

R. Cantagallina, E. Bazzi- 

caluva, cf. W Spada. 

17. 1, 2 

G. B. Castiglione. 

S. Castiglione, A. Travi, G. A. 
Podesta, B. Biscaino, F. 
Aniato, cf. G. David (18. 2). 

[Poussin,] Claude. 

G. Gimignani, C. Onofri, F. 

17. 2, 18. I 

C. Mai-atta. 

Chiari, cf. P. Anesi (18. i, 2). 
G. Ferroni, A. Procaccini {also 

ti. B. Vanni {af. C'r/Yggi,', 

17. I, 2 

Reprod., raise. 

etc.), M. Piccioni, G. Lan- 

franco {af. Raphael's Vatican 



S. Badalocchio {af. Raphaefs 




17. I, 2 




17. 2 

18. I. 2 


Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued). 
Class., misc. 


Architecture, antiquities, 
gardens, ornament, etc. 

Miscellaneous classical 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in| 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

Loggie, and af. Correggio), P. 
Aquila (af. Lanfranco, etc.). 

M. and J. F. Greuter {G.; fi. 
Roine)^ Girolamo de' Rossi 
I. {also et. ; cf. Reni school), 

G. B. de' Rossi (also 16. 2?), 
G. G. de' Rossi, D. de' Rossi 
(sticcessor of the preceding ; 
also 18, 1 ; publ. many prints of 
antiq.) (the Rossi stock was 
purchased to form a nucleus 
for the Re^ia Calcografia, 

G. Maggio (et.; archtt.), G, B. 

Mercati (et. ; archil. ; cf. 

Silvestre), G. B. Galestruzzi 

(et.; e.g. antique reliefs ; cf. 

S. delta Bella), 
P. S. Bartoli (en.; antiq.), F. 

Bartoli (antiq.; also 18. l), F. 

F. Aquila (also 18. I, e.g. in 
P. A. Maffei's Raccolta di 
Statue, 1704, in collaboration 
with C. Randon, J. B. de 
Poilly, N, Dorigny, and R. 
V. Audenaerde), G. B. Falda 
(et.; archit.; cf. Callot), G. F. 
Venturini (et.; gardens), A. 
Specchi (en.; gardens), cf. B. 
S. Sgrilli (et.; gardens, 18. 
i), cf C. Nolli (en.; Her- 
culaneum, etc., 18. I, 2). 

R. V. Audenaerde (Fl. ; also 
17. 2 ; in Rome about 1685- 
1722 ; af. Maratta, etc. ), A. v. 
Westerhout (FL), J. J. Frey 
(Swi.), J. Wagner (G.), G. G. 
Frezza (sch. of Westerhout), 
Girolamo de' Rossi 11. , F. F. 
Aquila (also af. antiq.), 

G. A. Lorenzini (e.g. Florence 
Gallery), C. Mogalli (Florence 
Gallery), T. Verkruys (D. ; 
Florence Gallery), D. Rossetti 
( Venice pictures),A.., F., and G. 
Zucchi ( Venice pictures ; A. Z. 
and D. Rossetti in D.LoviscCs 
Gran Teatro di Venezia 
[1720 ?]), A. M. Zanetti I. 
and II. ( Venice pictures), P. 
Monaco ( Venice pictures), 
G. D. Campiglia (chiefly 
working as a draughtsman, 
e.g. in A. F. Goris Museum 
Florentinum, 1731-66, but 
sometimes also en.), A. Pazzi 




18. I, 2 

18. 2 
18. 2, 19. I 

18. 2 

18. 2, 19. I 

19. I 

18. 2, 19. I 

19. I, 2 

18. I 

18. 2, 19. I 

18. 2, 19. I 


EN + ET 



Master, Characteristic, or 


C. Mellan {K). 

J. G. Wille(a)and the 
French school. 

G. Volpato. 

R. Morghen. 

G. Longhi (sch. of Van- 
gelisti ; infl. by Mov- 

Outline reproductions. 

Reprod., miscellaneous. 

F. Bartolozzi (y?. London , 
cf. British Isles). 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

{in Gori's Museum Floren- 
tinuni, e.g. portraits of 
painters from the Florence 
Gallery), C. Gregori {sch. of 
Frey), A. Capellan {sch. of 
Wagner), P. A. Martini {e.g. 
interiors of picture galleries ; 
also illustr., af J. M. 
Moreau, etc.). 

G. A. Faldoni, G. M. Pitteri 
{e.g. af. Piazzetta, Ribera, 
Tiepolo), F. Polanzani, G. 
Cattini {sch. of Faldoni ; af. 
ancient sculpture in Venice, 

Cf. G. Canale {fl. Dresden), V. 
Vangelisti {sch. of Wille), 

C. A. Porporatl {sch. of Beau- 
varlet), C. D. Melini {sch. of 
Beauvarlet), M. Gandolfi 
{sch. of Bervic, Sharp, and 
Bartolozzi), P. Toschi {sch. 
of Bei~c<ic ; af. Correggio). 

P. Campana, F. Cecchini, D. 
Cunego {e.g. in Gavin Hamil- 
ton, Sclwla Italica Pictures, 
Rome, 1773), cf. F. della 

Cf. G. Morghen, F. Morghen, 
T. Piroli {e.g. Flaxmati's 
Dante and Iliad), P. Fon- 
tana, F. Rosaspina, G. Folo, 
F. Ambrosi, 

Galgano Cipriani, D.Marchetti, 
C. Caiani, A. Perfetti, A. 
Viviani, D. Chiossone, I. 
Pavon, G. Bonaini, A. 
Marchi, L. Calamatta {sch. 
of Marchetti), P. Mercuri. 

P. Anderloni, M. Bisi, G. 

C. Lasinio, G. P. Lasinio {e.g. 
Florence Galleiy, 1817-33). 

A. Juvara, A. M. Gilli. 

G. A. Lorenzini {otie plate, af. 

^ Titian), A. Zucchi, 

G. Marchi {assistant of Rey- 
nolds), C. Lasinio {col. ; cf. 
J. C. Le Blon and the 

G. Bartolozzi, G. and M. Bene- 
detti, G. Mtalba {sch. cf 
U'agiicr), B. Pastorini, J. A. 
Minasi, M. Bovi, P. Bettelini, 
L. and N. Schiavonetti, G. 





18. 2, 19. I 

18. I, 2 
18. 2 

18. 2, 19. I 

18. I 
18. I, 2 

18. I 

18. 1, 2 

18. 2 


ET, EN, 



19. I 
18. I 

18. I, 2 

Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued). 

Reproduction of drawings. 

Ditto, and miscellaneous. 

Copyists of old master 
etchings (Rembrandt, 
etc. ). 

Class, reprod., etc. ; af. 
manner of earlier etchers, 

G. B. Tiepolo. 

Views of towns ; the im- 
mediate predecessors of 
Canale in Venice. 

G. A. Canale (Canaletto). 

G. B. Piranesi (Roman 
topogr., antiq., etc.). 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 


Vendramini, G. Testolini, C. 
Lasinio, cf. G. B. Cipriani 
{et. ; the fourteen preceding 
worked in London), V. Van- 
gelisti, G. Folo. 

G. Zocchi {e.g. af. Elsheimer), 
F. Bartolozzi, G. Nevay, G. 
Ottaviani {London). 

A. Scacciati, A. Cioci {the two 
preceding af. Gabbiani, Flor- 
ence, 1762), B. Bossi {e.g. af. 
Correggio and Farmigiano), 

P. Palmieri, F. Rosaspina, L. 
AdemoUo, C. Labruzzi. 

Sardi, Cumano, F. Novelli. 

S. Ricci {also 17. 2), A. Balestra 
{also 17. 2), J. Amiconi, 

C. Carloni {original s.), P. 
Rotari {of. his master, 

G. D., and L. Tiepolo, G. 
Leonardis {also infl. by 

M. Ricci, L. Carlevaris, G. 
Baroni, F. Vasconi {the two 
last in the Gran Teatro di 
Venezia ovvero Raccolta delle 
principali Vedute e Pitture 
cheinessasecontengono. Publ. 
by £>. Lovisa, Venice [ 1 7 20 ?]) . 

Cf G. V. Wittel (Vanvitelh), 
B. Belotto, M. Marieschi, 
G. F. Costa {views on the 
Brent a), G. Zocchi {views of 
Florence), A. Visentini {en. 
af. Canale), G. Brustoloni 
{en. af. Canale). 

Cf G. Piccini {fl. 1729), cf G. 
Vasi (also 18. i ; predecessor, 
and perhaps master of G. B. 
IHranesi), cf. A. Cioci {e.g. 
Vallombrosa), F. and P. 
Piranesi, cf. D. Montagu, P. 
Anesi {infl. also by Claude 
school), R. Pozzi, F. Barbazza 
{af F. Panini, etc.), 

cf. L. Rossini. 

P. L. Ghezzi(f/ en. af P.L.G. 
by F. Vasconi and M. Oester- 

F. Zuccarelli (e.g. af. A. del 
Sarto ; worked in London), 
A. Casali {s. ; also in 



Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

Master, Characteristic, or 

the previous column, or whose work 




is characterised or localised by the 
remarks in the same place. 

I8. 2 



B. Bossi {infl. by F. Boucher), 


F. Londonio [animals in I. ; 


cf. A. V. d. Velde), D. B. 

Zilotti [l. ; infl. by Claude 

tradition; cf. also the Pira- 

nesi), F. Casanova [battle 

scenes, and I.; worked in 


Paris, etc.). 

19. I 

B. Pinelli {hist., social life at 
Rome, etc.), C. E. Liverati 
[London, sch. of Reitmgle and 

Briggs ; cf. Worlidge and 


19. 2 

Genre, subject, and land- 

A. Piccinni, M. Fortuny I. [S.), 


T. Cremona, A. Fontanesi, 
T. Signorini. 

19. 2, 20. I 

Chiefly landscape and 

A. Beccaria, G. Fattori, F. 



Fastoris, M. Bianchi, G. de 
Nittis, L. Beltrami, G. Borro- 
meo, C. Chessa [illustr. and 
reprod.), C. Turletti [illustr. 
and reprod. ), L. Conconi, G. 

iliti-Zanetti (/. and g.), C. 

Biseo, G. Kienerk (dry-point 

studies), D. Savardo, V. 

Grubicy, P. Nomellini, M. 

Fortuny II., Motta [col.), G. 

Marchetti [col.; fl. Bruges, 

Paris?), F. Vitalini («/.). 


16. 1 


Italian influence : 

Jean Duvet ; 

Cf. the "Little Masters" 

". Gourmont, C. Corneille (?), 

of Germany. 

G. Reverdy, N. Garnier 
[cop. German engravings). 

16. 1, 2 

Classical (fl. Rome). 

N. Beatrizet, N. della Casa, 
P. Thomassin (e.g. antiq. ; 
also 17. i). 

Classical (cf. school of 

J. Provost (?), M. Duval, R. 




E. Delaune, P. Woeiriot, R. 
Boyvin [vases, etc.). 


C. Corneille (?), J. Provost (?), 
N. Beatrizet, N. della Casa, 

16. 2 

M. Duval, J. Rabel, 

16. 2, 17. I 

T. de Leu (Fl.), L. Gaultier 
(G.), J. de Fornazeris, P. 
Sablon, N. and L. Spirinx, 
J. Granthomme, J. Isac (FL), 
R. Boissard, cf. B. Mon- 
cornet (chiefly publ.). 



16. I, 



16. 2 

17. I 

17. I, 2 

17. I 

17. I, 2 

Master, CharacteristiCj or 


School of Fontainebleau. 

Ornament, archit. 


J. Callot (the work of his 
followers largely com- 
prising topography). 

Claude Gellee. 
[Poussin. ] 

Miscellaneous (fl. Rome). 

Baroccio (/.), Salimbeni 
G. B. Castiglione (/.). 
Simon Vouet. 

Miscellaneous (class, re- 
prod., etc.). 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

, remarks in the same place. 

Reproduction of drawings. 

J. Cousin {cf. school of Fon- 

L. Tiry, G. Dumonstier, L. 
Limosin, A. Fantuzzi (/.), 

D. del Barbiere (/.), G. Rug- 
gieri (/.). 

J. Androuet Ducerceau, G. 

J. Perrissin, J. Tortorel. 

F. Collignon, I. Silvestre, N. 
de Son, 

cf. A. Bosse {costume, s., etc.), 
N. Cochin, S. Leclerc, G. , 
N., and A. Perelle, P. Ave- 
line {cf the Perelles ; French 
Palaces, efi.; also 18. i), cf. 
C. Deruet {a few prints af. 
Callot, etc.), cf. I. Henriet 
{Callot'' s publ.), cf. G. V. 
Scheyndel {D. ?). 

H. Mauperche, D. Barriere. 

G. Dughet. F. Millet, Theo- 
dore, G. Focus. 

F. Barrier {antiq. , statues, etc. ), 
L. Rouhier {views), F. P. 
Duflos {views). 

C. Vignon, J. Bellange. 

S. Bourdon {cf also M. 

P. Brebiette, R. Vuibert, 
L. de La Hire, N. Chapron, 

F. Tortebat, M. Dorigny, 

E. Le Sueur {only one etch- 
ing?), O. Dauphin. 

J. Stella {s. , g. , infl. by Callot), 
C. B. Stella {af. J. Stella), 
A. B. Stella {af. G. Romano, 
etc.), Michel Corneille I. and 
H., J. B. Corneille, N. de La 
Fage, L. BouUongne L, A. 
Betou {af Primaticcio' s Fon- 
tainebleau frescoes), G. Cour- 
tois {af Tintoretto, etc.), N. 
Loir, Noel Coypel, A. Coypel 
{also 18. i), P. Parrocel {also 
18. I ; af. Subleyras, etc.). 

J. Pesne, J. B. Corneille, M. 
Corneille IL, C. Masse, 
Jacques Rousseau (the five 
preceding etched plates af. 
drawings by An. Carracci, 
Titian, Campagnola, etc., in 
the Jabach collection, about 
1666 ; most of Jabach' s draw- 




17. 1, 2 


17. 2 

17. I, 2 


17. 2 

17. 2, 18. I 

17. I, 2 

Master, Characteristic, or 


Publisher and etcher. 

Dutch school. 

J. Courtois (battle sub- 

Misc., class. (largely af. 
Lebrun, Raphael, the 
Carracci, etc.). 

EN + ET 

Portrait : 

(i.) J. Morin. 


(ii.) C. Mellan (the 
broader manner). 

(iii.) Nanteuil (sch. of 
N. Regnesson, P. 
de Champaigne 
and A. Bosse). 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

ings, which came in jnany 
instances from Charles T.'s 
collection, were purchased by 
Louis XIV. for the Royal 
museums in 1672 ; a later 
edition of 283 plates appeared 
in I7S4). 

F. Langlois (" Ciartres") {suc- 
ceeded in his btcsiiiess by the 
P. Marietie, who died in 

J. Dassonville {cf. Ostade), P. 

Giffart {af Potter; also hist.). 
J. and C. Parrocel, cf F. 

Casanova (/. ; 18. 2). 
C. Audran, J. Boulanger, G. 

Rousselet, J. Daret {also 

title-pages), F. Chauveau {sm. 

illustrations ; partly et.), J. 

Pesne {en. + et. ; cf. G. 

Audran), E. Picart {sch. of 

G. Rousselet; some p., infl. 

by Mellan), G. Vallet, F. 

Spierre {infl. by Mellan), 

F. Bignon {af Poussin, etc. ), 

G. Audran {largely af. Lebrun : 
en.-het.), G. Chasteau, C. 
and L. Simonneau {also 
18. I), E. Baudet {also 18. i ; 
af. Potissin, Domenichitio, 

G. Duchange {note his series 
illustrating tlie "crafts"), 
J. B. de Poilly {also antiq.), 
L. David {script, illustr., 

L. EUe {cf Hollar), cf. J. 
Pesne, C. Le Febure {cf J. 
Lievens), La Mare - Richart 
{also 18. I), M. van Platten- 
l^srg (/., marines, and p.), 
N. van Plattenberg, S. 
Vouillemont {cf P. van 
Sompel and Suyderhoef) ; 

Cf. M. Lasne, E. Picart {chiefly 
s.), F. Spierre {chiefly s.), 
J. J. Thourneyser {Stvi. ), P. 
Daret, cf. G. A. Faldoni 
(/.; 18. I, 2), cf M. Pitteri 
(/.; 18. I, 2), cf. F. Polanzani 
(/./ 18. I, 2) ; 

J. Lenfant {sch. of Mellan), 
F. de Poilly {sch. of C. 
Bloemaert .'), N. de Poilly, 
N. Pitau I. {b. Antwerp), 





Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

17. I, 2 


17. I, 2 
17. 2, 18. I 

17. I, 2 


( Continued). 


18. I, 2 
17. 2 

18. I, 2 

18. I 
18. I, 2 

18. 2, 19. I 
18. I, 2 

Ornament : 

(i.) Architectural. 

(ii.) Miscellaneous. 


ET A. Watteau, F. Boucher. 

Reprod. , af. French and 
Italian class, painters, 


A. Masson, J. Lubin, N. de 
Larmessin (the elder), P. 
Simon, G. Edelinck {6. 
Antwerp), J. Edelinck (*. 
Antwerp), F. Ragot, J. 
Langlois, A. Trouvain, J. L. 
RouUet, N. Pitau II., 
P., P. I., and C. Drevet, G. 

E. Petit, E. Desrochers, 
N. Edelinck, M. Dossier, 

F. Chereau, cf. J. Chereau 
{nearer style of J. G. Wille), 
J. Daulle. 

J. Lepautre, J. Marot, 

D. Marot {later in the Hague), 
P. Cottart, J. Berain {style of 
Vatican Loggie), J. Dolivar 
{S.; af. Berain), M. Har- 
douin {af. J. H. Mansart) ; 

A. Jacquard {cf. Delaune, 
Gedeon L'!lfegare, L. Cossin 
{af. Gilles VEgari), N. Loir 
{fan-leaves), A. Loir {also 
18. i), J. B. Monnoyer {et.; 
flowers, fruit, etc.; also in 
London), J. Vauquer {vases, 
flo^vers, etc.), P. Bourdon 
{cf. M. Le Blon), 

J. Bourguet {cf. P. Bourdon), J. 
Saly {vases). 

H. Gascar {also in England), 
S. Barras, A. Bouys {also 18. 
l), L. Bernard. {See also 
British Isles. ) 

Cf C. Gillot , {Watteau' s 
■master), C. Natoire, M. B. 
OUivier, J. B. M. Pierre, C. 
Hutin, F. Hutin {ancient 
hist., alleg.), L. F. De la 
Rue, P. Lelu {also some 
prints of old master draw- 
ings ; also 19. i), cf. J. H. 

J. Mariette {also en.,andpubl.), 
C. A. Coypel, P. Subleyras, 

P. I. Parrocel {also statues af. 
Bernini), C. A. Vanloo, L. J. 
Le Lorrain, 

J. M. Vien {prepares the way 
to J. L. David's classical 
revival), J. J. Lagren^e, J. 
F. P. Peyron. 

A. Manglard (my?, by A. v. d. 
Cabel ; cf. also early Piranesi 
school), C. J. Vernet (?) {a few 





Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

l8. I, 2 

i8. 2, 19. I 

18. I, 2 
18. I 

18. I, 2 
18. I 

i8. I, 2 





(i.) Chiefly af. Watteau 
and Greuze (the style 
of engraving being 
based on G. Audran). 

(ii.) Misc.,-af. Watteau 
school and dassical. 

18. 2, 19. 1 

prints attrib. ; sch. of Mang- 

lard), H. Robert, 
J. J. de Boissieu, B. A. Dunker 

{Swi.; sch. of J. P. Hackert ; 

also Siviss hist.). 
J. B. Oudry {still life and g.), 

J. Ducreux [character heads). 
J. Audran, N. H. Tardieu, N. 

de Larmessin (the younger) 

(also plates in the " Cabinet 

Crozat," 1729), C. N. Cochin 

I., P. Mercier, 
F. JouUain (also publ.), G. J. 

B. Scotin (also in Englatid ; 

af. Hogarth, etc.), L. Cars, 

B. Audran II., M. Aubert, 
P. A. Aveline, L. Cr^py, J. G. 
Huquier (decorative panels) ; 

B. Audran I., C. Duflos, J. B. 
Haussart, N. Edelinck, L. 
Desplaces, C. Dupuis, P. 
Simonneau, L. il. Cochin 
(nSe Hortemels) (wife of C. N. 

C. I. ; s., and p.), F. Hor- 
temels, S. H. Thomassin, 

L. and P. L. Surugue, J. Moy- 
reau (af. IVouwertnan), J. B. 
Masse, N. G. Dupuis (Dresden 
gallery, etc.), B. L^pici^, 
Bernard Baron (also in 
London; af. Hogarth, etc.), 
J. JI. and J. E. Liotard 
(Swi.), S. F. Ravenet I. 
(also in London ; af.Hogatih, 
etc.), S. F. Ravenet II. (af. 
Correggio, etc. ), J. P. Lebas 
(chiefly af. Dutch), P. F. 
Tardieu (af. Oudry, etc.), P. 
Chenu (af. Dutch, etc.), J. 
J. Balechou (af. C.J. }'enict, 
etc.), P. F. Basan {chicfir 
worked as publ.),]. ]. Flipart 
(af Greuze, Loiig/ii,'c/c. ; sch. 
of ll'iig,,,;- i„ ;V;«;r), J. T. 
Ali.imet (af. Bcnhcm, C.J. 
Venict, etc.), P. C. Levesque 
(af Boucher, etc.), L. S. 
Lempereur (af. Rubens, etc.), 
J. F. Beauvarlet, J. C. 
Levasseur, P. L. Parizeau 
(sch. of Wille; also et., aq.), 
N. B. F. Dequevauviller (af. 
ll'yiiaiits, etc.), P. C. Ingouf 
(sell, of J. J Flipart; af 
Grciizc, etc.), 

F. R. Ingouf (inf. of U'illc), 




i8. 2, 19. 

18. I, 2 

18. I 
l8> 1, :£ 

18. 2 

18. 2, 19. I 
18. I, 2 

18. 2 
18. 2, 19. I 



EN + ET 

Master, Characteristic, or 



The illustrators (largely 
af. designs by Gravelot, 
C. N. Cochin II., 
Eisen, J. M. Moreau, 
C. Monnet, C. P. 

E. Ficquet (miniature 
portraits for illustra- 
tion, etc.). 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

C. L. Ling6e, G. Malbeste 
(af. Rembrandt, misc. Dtitch, 
etc.), J. Couche (published 
" Galerie du Palais Royal," 
1768-1808, ivols. 3$Splates), 
J. Bouilliard (joint publ. with 
precedijtg of the Gal. du. Pal. 
Roy.), A. L. Romanet, J. L. 
Delignon, P. Triere (tlie three 
preceding en. for the " Palais 
Royal"), P. Audouin (af. 
Dutch genre, J. Steen, etc. ). 

J. Rigaud (Palaces, France and 
England), C. N. Cochin II. 
(French seaports). 

C. Gillot (et. ), B. Picart (also in 

P. Soubeyran (af. Cochin II., 
etc.), H, F. Gravelot (ffl/jo in 
England; chiefly draught s- 
man), C. N. Cochin II. (also 
topogr.), J. J. Pasquier, C. 
Eisen (chiefly draughtsman), 
J. C. Baquoy, N. Le Mire, G. 
de St. Aubin (less an illus- 
trator than A. de St. A.), 

A. de St. Aubin (many por- 
traits), P. P. Choffard (vig- 
nette ornament), J. de Lon- 
gueil, N. Delaunay, E. de 
Ghendt (.«.), C. P. Maril- 
lier, J. F. Rousseau, J. M. 
Moreau (le jeune), L. J. 
Masquelier (also af. Florence 
gallery, and Swiss pictures), 
A. J. Duclos, J. B. Simonet, 
I. S. Helman, A. Borel (also 
aq.), L. Binet, S. Freuden- 
berger, F. M. I. Qu^verdo, 
J. Dambrun (almanac prints, 
af. Quiverdo), 

R. Delvaux, N. Ponce. 

Cf C. N. Cochin II. (his et. 
frequently finished with the 
graver by others), 

J. B. Grateloup, P. Savart, A. 
de St. Aubin, L. J. Cathelin, 
C. E. Gaucher, 

G. L. Chretien, E. Quenedey, 
C. B. J. F. de St. Memin 
(the three preceding used the 
' physionotrace,' a mechanism 
for transferring profile to 
paper, invented by Chritien, 
as a basis for their engraving, 
which was partly do7ze in aq.). 




l8. I, 2 



19. I 

18. I 
18. I, 2 

18. 2 

19. I 

18. I, 2 
18. 2 




Master, Characteristic, or 

The Amateurs, archaisers, 
copyists, etc. : 
(i.) Largely reprod. of 

(ii.) Miscellaneous. 

(iii. ) Archaisers, copy- 

English influence. 

J. C.LeBlon(a) (colour 

Largely influenced by 
Bartolozzi and his 
school in England. 

Monochrome and colour. 

Engravers influenced Ijy the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised bj' the 

remarks in the same place. 

B. Picart («.^. in his Impos- 
tures injiocentes, Amsterdam^ 
1734). Comte de Caylus, J. 
de Tullienne, P. P. A. 
Robert, P. J. Marietta (col- 
lector and pul>l.), Comte de 
St. Morys {e.g. Disegni origi- 
nali. . . . iricisi ed imitati 
neW loro grandezza e collore, 
London, 1794), P. Lelu {also 

19- I); 

Marquise de Pompadour i^ig- 
juttes^ and af. J. Guaps 
gems). Abbe de St. Non {e.g. 
af. Fragonard, and antiq. ; 
also aq. ) ; 

C. H. Watelet, A. de Marcenay 
de Ghuy {closely hatched dry- 
point ; s., I., p., imit. Rem- 
brandt), J. P. Norblin {imit. 
Rembrandt, etc. ), Sauveur 
Legros {misc., l.,p., etc.; cop. 
Rembrandt, etc. ), J. Duplessi- 
Bertaux {infl. by Callot and 
Chodowiecki ; illustr. of the 
French Revolution), D. 
A'ivant Denon {af. Rem- 
brandt etchings, old master 
drawings, etc.), C. Echard 
(<-/ Potter and Ostade), 

J. J. de Claussin {af Rem- 
brandt etchings and draw- 
ings, etc.). 

J. Simon {fl. London ; af. 
Kiieller, Dahl, etc. ). 

J. F., L. C, A. E. and E. 
Gautier d'Agoty, I. Robert 
(?) {also en. in colours), P. F. 
Tardieu (?). 

G. Vidal, \-. M. Picot {also 
Loi!,/o>i\, N. F. Regnault 
{also aq. ), L. C. Ruotte {also 
London), J. Boillet, E. and 
P. J. Challiou, J. L. Julien, 
L. Legoux {also London ? ), 

A. Phelippeaux, J. Godefroy 

{sch. of J. p. Simon, 

London), Cazenave, Gr. 

. Maile. {Cf .also British Isles.) 

J. C. Francois, G. and G. A. 
Demarteau, L. Bonnet. 

J. B. Le Prince, Abbt^ de St. 




i8. 2, 19. 

18. 2, 19. I 

19. I 


AQ, CR, 




19. I. 2 

19. 2, 20. I 

Master, Characteristic, or 

Y. Janinet (monochrome 
and colour). 

J. G. Wille (G.) 
P. P. Prud'hon. 
Miscellaneous, reprod. 

Boucher Desnoyers. 
F. Forster. 


Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 
■ is characterised or localised by the 
remarks in the same place. 

C. M. Descourtis, P. L. Debu- 
court, A. F. Sergent-Mar- 
ceau, L. Guyot, P. M. Alix, 
L. j. Allais {AisL, etc.), 
J. A. Allais [also mixed 

F. Godefroy (sch. of Lebas), J. 
and J. B. R. U. Massard, 
C. C. Bervic, P. A. Tardieu. 

F. J. E. Beisson, J. L. Copia, 

B. J. F. Roger [sch. of Copia), 
J. Prud'hon. 

A. Girardet {af. ancient sculp- 
ture, etc.), C. P. J. Nor- 
' mand {outlines in Landotis 
" Annales du Musie," 1801- 
24 ; also in ' ' Recueil de de- 
corations int^rieures" 1812}, 
L. Croutelle {of. Velazquez), 
J. Godefroy (also St.), j. 
Mecou {p. of Russian Em- 
perors), E. F. Ijgnon, P. N. 
Bergeret {sch. off. L. David), 
A. B. B. Taurel {sch. of Bervic; 
af. 1828 settled in Amster- 
dam), A. R^veil {et. outlines 
for publications of Landon, 
J. Duchesne, Clarac, etc.). 

F. J. Dequevauviller, 

A. J. B. M., and A. T. M. 

J. F. Joubert {also in England), 
J. M. St. Eve, A. Fran9ois, 
F. E. A. Bridoux, J. M. R. L. 
Massard {individual manner, 
irregular hatching of short 
lines, nearer et. ; note sm. p. 
in J. Claret i^s " Peintj-es et 
sculptettrs contemporains^^ 
1882, 1884), G. Levy, G. N. 
Bertinot, J. B. Danguin, 
J. G. Levasseur, J. J. Sulpis 
{cf. his son, E. J. Sulpis, 
who uses more et.), 

J. P. M. Soumy, E. Rousseaux 
{esp. af. Ary Scheffer), J. A. 
Annedouche {also mezz. ), 
H. J. Dubouchet, C. F. Gail- 
lard {close shading; lightly 
engraved lines nearer et.), 

C. E. Thibault, A. Didier, 
A. J. Huot, J. Jacquet {e.g. 
af. Meissonier), E. Gaujean 
{en. + et. ; cf. Gaillard ; also 
«/.), J- Patricot. {Cf. repro- 
ductive etchers; the two 



10. 2, 20. I I EN 


i8. 2, 19. I ET 

19. I 


19. 2, 20. I 

Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued). 

Transitional : 
(i.) Miscellaneous. 

(ii.) Landscape. 

Modern spirit : 
{a) Born before 1840 — 
(i. ) Barbizon school. 

(ii. ) Miscellaneous land- 

(iii.) The etchers of 

(iv.) Subject, daily life. 

(v.) Impressionists, 
(vi.) Miscellaneous. 

Engravers influenced by the JVlasters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

(vii.) Illustrators, 
(viii.) Publishers and 


{/>) Born since 1840 — 

(i.) Miscellaneous. 

groups tend to approach each 
other closely in technique. ) 

Sauveur Legros, J. A. D. 

Ingres (/.); 
E. Delacroix (j. ), A. G. Decamps 

(X., /.) ; 
B. J. Baron, E. Blery (Meryoti's 

lister), A. Calame {Swi.), 

L. H. F. AUemand (nearer 

modem I. school). 

J. B. C. Corot, T. Rousseau, 
C. Jacque, J. F. Millet, K. 
Bodmer {Swi.) ; 

P. Huet, C. F. Daubigny, L. 
Gaucherel, A. Appian, L. A. 
Hervier, J. J. Veyrassat, 
A. E. Delauney, C. H. 
Toussaint, L. A. Bninet- 
Debaisnes (also reprod.), A. 
Taiee ; 

C. Meryon, M. Lalanne (also 
reprod.), A. Martial Pot^- 
mont, Gabrielle Niel (sch. 
of Meryon), A. Guillaumin; 

J. L. E. Meissonier (cf. reprod. 
etchers), T. Valerio (g. ; 
Eastern Europe), P. A. Jean- 
ron> J. J. Tissot (script., and 
misc. ) ; 

C. Pissarro, E. Manet (strictly 
"Healist"), H. G. E. Degas, 
cf. Mary Cassatt (A. ) ; 

M. G. Desboutin (/.), A. T. 
Ribot (g.), C. Chaplin (fancy 
s.), F. Chifflart (alleg), J. de 
Goncourt (p., s., etc.), A 
Queyroy (topogi:, and g.), A. 
Lanfon (animals, military 
audi.), L. N. Lepic (fl/% 
animals, t. , etc. ), F. Bracqire 
mond (also reprod. ), J. Jacque 
mart (also reprod.), A. Legros 
(fl. Englatid) ; 

A. Lalauze, P. Avril ; 

A. Cadart, A. DelStre ; 

A. Rodin, L. Lhermitte, P. 
Renouard, A. Forel (Swi.), 
H. Gu^rard, J. F. Raffaelli, 
F. Buhot, A. Besnard (/.), 
A. Lep^re, H. Paillard, 
P. G. Jeanniot, H. Boutet 




19. 2, 20. I 


Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued), 

(ii. ) Colour-prints, etc. 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 


19. I, 



[dry-point, studies of figures 
arid heads), L. M. Boutet de 
Monvel ifllustr.), F. Cour- 
boin, E. V. Muyden {Swi. ; 
fi. Paris ; animals), T. 
Roussel {fl. London), L. Le- 
grand, A. T. Steinlen, G. 
Leheutre, E. B^jot, E. Cha- 
hine, A. Dauchez, P. Helleu, 
T. Minartz, C. Houdard, C. 
Huard, P. M. Roy, L. Del- 
teil, J. P. V. Beurdeley ; 
H. Guerard, R. Ranft (orig., 
and af. J. M. W. Turner, 
etc.), M. Robbe, J. F. 
Raffaelli, P. G. Jeanniot, L. 
Legrand, A. Lepere, C. 
Houdard, T. Roussel, A. T. 
Steinlen, C. Cottet, E. De- 
latre, A. Miiller {also p.), G. 
Trilleau, J. Villon, C. Maurin, 

F. Jourdain, B. Boutet de 
Monvel, A. Brouet (af. 
Corot), A. Lafitte, L. Riche, 
R. Lorrain, M. Simonnet, 

G. de Latenay, G. Eychenne 
(animal and plant). 

J. Laurens, T. N. Chauvel, L. 
Flaraeng (Fl. ; also en.), M. 
Lalanne, F. Bracquemond, 
J. Jacquemart, B. Damman, 
J. Carre, E. M. Greux, 
P. A. Rajon, H. Guerard, 
E. Boilvin, C, L. Courtry, 
C. A. Waltner (sch. of Hen- 
riquel-Dupont) ; A. Mongin, 
P. E. Le Rat, L. Monzies 
(the three preceding, muchaf. 
Meissonier) ; E. A. Cham- 
pollion, F. A. Laguillermie, 
E. J. Sulpis, A. Mathey- 
Doret, F. Jazinski ( Polish), 

J. P. M. Jazet (also aq.), G. 
Maile (e.g, af, C. M, Dubufe; 
also St.), J. A. Annedouche 
(also en,), H. Guerard (a few 
in col. ). 






17. I 

17. X, 2 
17. 2 

18. 1, 2 


18. J., 19. I 
18. 2 

18. 2, 19. I 

19. I 

19. 2 

19. 2, 20. I 



Master, Characteristic, or 

Largely Italian influence : 
(i.) J. mbera. 
(ii.) Miscellaneous. 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 


French influence (cf. M. 
Dorigny, etc.). 

Italian etchers (cf. Tie- 

Italian influence. 

N. G. Dupuis.J. G.Wille, 
G. F. Schmidt, and 
the French school. 

R. Morghen, etc. 

Cf. T. F. de Liagno ; 

V. Carducho (/.), F. de 
Herrera I., P. Angelo (/., 
title-pages, etc.), 

J. Martinez (/.), C. Coello 
{title-page, 1683), 

M. Arteaga (arffoV. , /. ), J. de 
Valdes Leal {archit.), L. de 
Valdes [also 18. i ; devotional 
prints), J. Garcia Hidalgo 
{also 18. I ; cf. Reni school). 

J. B. Catenaro {fl. 1700?), 
M. S. Maella {also 19. i), 
N. Barsanti {of. L. Giordano), 
Juan Barcelon {af. L. Gior- 
dano, etc.). 

F. Vieira {infl. by Salvator 
Rosa), J. de Castillo {af. L. 
Giordano), R. Bayeu y 
Subias {af. Gitercino, Ribera, 
etc.), A. Carnicero {e.g. bull- 
fight ; also 19. i). 

Francisco Goya. 

J. A. S. Carmona. 

J. B. Palomino {also 18. i ; 
thefirst professor of engraving 
in the Academy of S. Fer- 
nando, foiiiidcd 1752 ; p. of 
Kings of Spain, 1774), J. da 
S. Carnerio {Portuguese, p., 
t'li. ), M. S. Carmona {also 19. 
I ; sch.ofjV. G. Dupuis), P. 
P. Mol^s {sch. of M. G. 
Dupuis), F. Selma {sch. of 
M. S. Cannona), L. F. 

T. L. Enguidanos, F. Mun- 
taner, J. Ballester, J. de la 
Cruz, G. Gil {en.? publ.), 
B. Vazquez {also St., af. Zur- 
baran, Mor, etc.). 

Bias Amettler {sch. of .1/ 5. 

M. E. de Sotomayor, G. F. 
de Queiroz {sch. of Bar- 
folozzi), R. Esteve. 

M. Fortuny I. {//. Italy), R. 
de Egusquiza (large /., s., \ 
etc.), C. de Haes (A), C.alvan ' 
(/., 'V<-.), 

C. Araujo (;•,/,-,),/. PraJo'], B. 





Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

19. 2, 20. I 


( Continued), 

M. Montaner (reprod.), R. 
de los Rios {reprod. and 
orig.), D. Vierge (a few 
plates), M. Fortuny II. {fl. 
Italy ?) 


16. 2 


The earliest line-engravers 

Gemiiius {FL), Shute (?), F. and 

working in England. 

R. Hogenberg {FL), M. Gher- 
aerts I. {FL; also et.), T. de 
Bry(i?/.), Rutlinger (.F/. .?) ; 

Chart engravers. 

H. Cole, R. Lyne, A. Ryther, 
B. Wright {also 17. i ; in 
Italy, etc.). 

16. 2, 17. I 

W. Rogers. 

R. Elstrack. 

Miscellaneous (p., title- 

T. Cockson, L. Johnson, W. 

pages, etc). 

Kip {maps). 

17. I 

F. Delaram, W. Hole. 

Foreigners in England. 

S. and W. v. d. Passe {D.), 
J. and M. Droeshout {FL), 
Cornells Boel {FL), J. Barra 
{FL), C. Le Blon {FL), L. 
Vorsterman {FL), R. v. 
Voerst {FL), C. v. Dalen I. 
(Z>.), P. Lombart(i^/.ori?..?). 

Native engravers (p. , title- 

W. Marshall, J. Payne, T. 

pages, illustr.). 

Cecill, G. Glover, 

17. I, 2 

R. Vaughan, T. Cross, A. 
Hertochs {D. ?). 

William Faithorne (chiefly 

D. Loggan {G.), R. White, cf. 


P. Lombart {FL or F. ?), cf. 
A. Blooteling {D.), P. Van 
der Bank {D. ?). 

17. 2, 18. I 

Small portraits, title- 

F. H. Van Hove, M. Burghers 

pages, etc. 

{Oxford Almanacks, etc.), 
M., G., and J. Van der 

Miscellaneous subjects. 

P. Tempest {e.g. ''Cries of 
London "af. Laroon /., 1688). 

Reprod., class., and misc. 

Sir N. Dorigny (i^y af. Raphael 
caj-toons), S. Gribelin {F. ; 

af. Raphael cartoons). 

17. I, 2 


W. Hollar {b. Prague). 

R. Gaywood, D. King {e.g. in 
Dugdale's "Monasticon"), F. 
Barlow {e.g. in Mrs. Behn's 

.lEsop, 1666), T. Dudley 

(in 2nd ed. of BehtHs ^sop, 



J. Evelyn (/.), 


J. Griffier {animals and insects 
af. Barlow, etc.; also mezz.). 



17. 2 

17. 2, 18. I 
17. 2 

17. I, 2 MEZZ 
17. 2 



18. I 

18. I, 2 

18. 2 


18. I, 2 

18. 2, 19. I 

Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued). 


Ludwig von Siegen (G.). 

Prince Rupert {G.) (the 
engravers following 
worked largely af. Lely, 
Kneller, Wissing, Dahl, 

Antiq., hist., portrait, 


W. WooUett {sck. of 

\V. Byrne. 

W. Hogarth. 


Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

F. Place {animals af. Bar- 
low, etc.; also mezz.) ; M. 
Laroon I. (cf. Ostade), 

L. Cheron {P.; reprod., class.; 
illustr. ). 

W. Lodge {also p. , en.), J. Kip 
{D. ; e.g. ' ' Britannia Illus- 
trata," 1707-8 ; Stow's Sur- 
vey, 1720 ; animals af. Bar- 
law ; also 18. 1). {For other 
topogr. prints, cf. 18. i, en. ) 

W. Sherwin, F. Place {also 
18. I), E. Luttrell {also 18. 
l). Sir C. Wren (?), A. 
Blooteling {D. ; England, 
1673-76), G. Valck {D.; also 
18. i), J. Van der Vaart {D.; 
also 18. I), P. van Somer 
{£>.), H. Gascar {F.), A. 
Browne {publ.; viezz. ?), R. 
Tompson {publ.; mezz.?), 
J. and I. Oliver {work by 
either father or son ; possibly 
by both), L Beckett {also 18. 
I), \V. Faithorne H. {also 
18. I), B. Lens {also 18. l), 
R. AVilliams, P. Coombes. 
R. Robinson, W. Vincent. 

G. Vertue {sch. of M. Van der 
Gucht; cf. his p. with J. 

J. Harris, 

S. Buck, E. Rooker, T. Bowles, 
T. Tinney {also mezz.). 

P. C. Canot {R; af Claude, 
and Dutch masters), J. B. C. 
Chatelain {F; infl. by Claude 
and Poussin), F. Vivares {F. ), 
T. Major {also p. and s.), 

J. Peake, J. Pye I. {sch. of T. 
Major) ; 

J. Browne, W. Ellis, T. Morris; 

S. Middinian {also 19. i), |. 

Landseer (also 19. i), cf. ']. 

G. Schumann (C; worked 'in 

G. J. B. Scotin IL (F.), Bernard 

Baron {F.), S. F. Ravenet \. 

{F.), L. Sullivan, C. Mosley, 

cf. L. P. Boitard, C. Grig- 

T. Cook (" Hogarth Restored," 

John and Josiah Boydell. 



Engravers influenced by the Masters in 



Master, Characteristic, or 

the previous column, or whose work 


is characterised or localised hy the 
remarks in the same place. 

l8. I, 2 


Calligraphic, and misc. 

G. Bickham (author of " Uni- 
versal Pemnan "). 


Richard Cooper I. {also mezz.). 

Classical, miscellaneous. 

18. I 

and reproductive. 

A. Lawrence [sch. of Lebas ; 
ceHain plates finished by T. 

18. 2 

Sir R. Strange {sch. of R. 
Cooper), T. Chambers {for 
Boydell, etc.), F. G. Aliamet 
{F.; worked under Strange), 

18. 2, 19. I 

R. Cooper II. {e.g. af. Rem- 
brandt; also et., and aq.), T. 
HoUoway {af Raphael car- 
toons), W. Sharp, A. Smith 
{also St. ; tnisc. illustr. ). 

Subject and historical 

J. Hall {e.g. af West), J. B. 

(for Boydell, etc.). 

Michel {F.; also st.), W. C. 
Wilson, F. Legat, G. Noble 
{e.g. for Bowyer's Hume, 
1806), W. Skelton {s., and 
p. ; also St. ) ; 

18. 2 

F. Bartolozzi. 

J. K. Sherwin {also st.) {N.B. 
most of the other st. engravers 
of the Bartolozzi school also 
engraved in line). 

18. 2, 19. I 

J. Summerfield, I. Taylor II. 

18. 2 

Illustration (af. Stothard, 

A. Walker {sch. of Tinney), W. 

Smirke, R. Westall, 

Walker (/. af. Sandby ; s., 

Burney, Hamilton, R. 

etc.), I. Taylor I., 

18. 2, 19. I 

Corbould, etc.). 

J. Collyer {also si.; sch. of A. 
Walker), J. Parker (ato j/.; 
partner of W. Blake in 1784), 
C. Warren. 


J. Basire I. and II., J. Fittler 
{e.g. " Scotia Depict a" ; also 
marines and misc. illustr.), 
J. Le Keux, H. Le Keux 
{also' misc. illustr.). 

19. I 

G. Cooke {some prints af. J. 
M. W. Turner), J. Coney 
{Europeati cathedrals, London 

19. I, 2 

J. W. Archer {e.g. London 
views), J. Basire III. {e.g. for 
Cough's "English Cathe- 
drals " ; also af. Turner, etc. ). 

18. 2 


T. Trotter {af early English 
paintings), J. Caldwall {also 
St.; a few I.), W. Bond {af 

i8. 2, 19. 1 


T. Bewick {only a few plates). 

Idealistic subjects. 

W. Blake {mixed methods), E. 
Calvert (/.). 

18. I 



P. Tillemans (/■/.; battle pieces), 
P. Casteels(i^/.; birds andp.). 





i8. I 

l8. I, 2 


i8. 2, 19. I 

18. I, 

l8. 2 

Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

i8. 2, 19. I 

18. I 


Etching in combination 
with ' chiaroscuro ' 




Miscellaneous (archaisers, 
copyists, etc.). 


John Smith (also 17. 2) 
(largely af. Kneller, 
Wissing, Van der 

Colour prints. 

Mezzotint combined with 
chiaroscuro blocks, et., 
and en. 

A. Pond, C. Knapton [cf. 17. 
I, mezz.f E. Kirkall, and 19. 
I, ««., Baxter). 

C. F. Zincke (C), G. and J. 
Smith {of Chichester), J. 
Goupy {prig. , and af. Claude, 
and S. Rosa). 

W. Hogarth (fl/m ««.■), T. Patch 
(imit. Ghezzi, etc.), 

J. Bretherton {e.g. af. Bun- 
bury), J. Sayers, T. Rowland- 
son, J. Gillray, Robert and 
liichard Dighton. 

J. Richardson I. (/.), T. Wor- 
lidge {p., gems, etc.) {cf. L. 
B. Coders), B. Wilson {p., 
and cop. Rembrandt etchings), 
W. Baillie (/., cof. Rem- 
brandt, etc. ; also cr. and 
mezz. ), 

R. Byron {imit. Rembratult), 
■Edward Edwards (/.), S. De 
Wilde {also 19. 1; p.; mezz. ? 
see Index, Paul), J. Hazard 
{cop. Rembrandt), J. Brether- 
ton {cop. Rembrandt, etc. ; 
also satir.), D. Deuchar {af 
D. and Fl. masters; cop. 
Rembrandt, Ostade, etc.), J. 
T. Smith {also 19. i ; /., 
beggars, etc.). 

J. Barry, J. H. Mortimer {inji. 
by S. Rosa), 

R. Pollard (af. Smirke, Wheat- 
Icy, etc.), R. Westall (e.g. 
s., in soft ground ; also 
mezz.), J. H. Ram berg (also 
plates on proport. of human 

G. White, J. Faber I. (D.), J. 
Faber II., G. Lumley, J. 
Simon (/^), P. Pelhara (af. 
1726 in U.S.A.), F. Kyte, 
P. van Bleeck (D.), W. 
Robins {e.g. Founders of Col- 
leges, Oxf. and Camb.), T. 
Beard, J. Brooks, T. Frye, 
A. Miller (the four preceding 
■worked in Dublin), T. Ryley, 
J. Tinney (also en.), Richard 
Cooper I. (also en.). 

J. C. Le Blon (G.; worked in 
London and Paris). 

E. Kirkall (cf. etchers, .4. Pond 
and C. Knapton). 





Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

18. 2 MEZZ Mostly portrait af. con- 
temporary masters (e.g. 
Reynolds, Ramsay, 
Gainsborough, Rom- 
ney), except where 
otherwise stated : 
(i.) The Irish group. 

(ii. ) Miscellaneous. 

(iii.) Foreigners who 

R. Houston {also af. Rem- 
brandt), J. McArdell {also af. 
Rembrandt and old masters), 
E. Fisher, J. Dixon, R. Pur- 
cell, James Watson ; • 

y. Finlayson, P. J. Tassaert 
{Fl.), D. Martin, C. PhiUips 
{also af. old masters), W. 
IPether {af. Rembrandt, etc.; 
also 19. i), V. Green, W. 
Humphrey {also af. Rem- 
brandt), P. Dawe {af. Mor- 
land, etc.), T. Johnson {also 
en.), J. Spilsbury {also s., af. 
Rembrandt, Murillo, etc.), 
T. Watson {also af. Rem- 
brandt), R. Earlom {also I., 
and s. af. Claude and Dutch, 
etc.; also 19. i), W. Baillie 
also et., and cr.), R. Dunkar- 
ton {also 19. I ), J. Jones, W. 
Dickinson {also 19. i ; in 
Paris), C. Townley, J. Green- 
wood {b. in U.S.A.), S. 
Okey {later in U.S.A.), R. 
Brookshaw {also in Paris), 
J. Murphy {also st.; and 19. 
I ; hist. af. Northcote, etc.), 
J. Walker {also in St. Peters- 
burg), T. Blackmore, S. Paul 
(De Wilde ?) {af. Steen and 
Vanloo), J. Watts, Ehzabeth 
Judkins, J. Saunders, C. 
Exshaw {e.g. af. Vanloo), W. 
Doughty, H. Kingsbury {also 
St.), J. Dean, J. R. Smith, 
R. Laurie {publ.; also 19. i), 
J. Young {also 19. i), G. T. 
Stubbs {animals ; also 19. i), 
T. Park {also 19. i), H. 
Hudson {dlso af. Rembrandt), 
E. Dayes, C. H. Hodges 
{also in Amsterdam ; and 19. 
l), G. Keating {also st.), J. 
Grozer {also st.), Gains- 
borough Dupont {af Gains- 
borough), Caroline Kirkley, 
H. Bryer {publ.) ; 

J. G. Haid(C.; also 18. l), J. 





l8. 2 

19. 1 


19. I, 2 

19. 2, 20. 

Master, Characteristic, or 

worked for some time 
in England. 

Largely af. Reynolds, 
Gainsborough, Hopp- 
ner, Morland, Law- 
rence, Beechey, North- 
cote (for the most part, 

18. 2 


(i.) In old tradition (re- 
prod., and chiefly por- 

(ii.) Original work (chiefly 

F. Bartolozzi (/.) fcf 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

Jacobe (G.), G. Marchi (/./ 
assistant of Reynolds), H. 
Sintzenich (G.; more St.). 
W. and J. Ward {also col.), 
W. J. Ward, T. Gosse, W. 
Say {steel plates), G. Clint, 
S. W. Reynolds I. and II. 
{tJie son also 19, 2), Eliza- 
beth Walker {nde Reynolds), 
C. Turner, J. C. Easling, 
W. T. Annis, William 
Barnard, T. Hodgetts, 
W. W. Barney, G. Dawe 
(e.g. af. Raeburn ; also in 
Russia), H. Meyer, H. 
Dawe, J. Martin {large 
script.), T. G. Lupton {e.g. 
Ttirnet's "Liber" ; also 19. 
2), W. Walker {e.g. af. Rae- 
burn; also St.), J. Linnell 
{en. and et. ; also 19. 2 ; Six- 
tine ceiling), J. C. Bromley, 
G. R. Ward {also 19. 2), J. 
Bromley, S. Cousins {mezz. 
-¥st. ; also 19. 2), D. Lucas 
(/. af. Constable ; also 19. 2), 
J. Lucas {also 19. 2), H. 
Cousins {also 19. 2), J. Scott, 
W. Giller, W. Brett, J. E. 
Coombs, G. H. Phillips ; 
W. H. Simmons, G. Zobel, 
{mixed tiiezz. ; af. Landseer, 
etc.), J. R. Jackson, J. Faed, 
C. A. and C. J. Tomkins ; 
R. Josey, C. W. Campbell, 
J. D. Miller, R. B. Parkes, 
J. B. Pratt, J. C. Webb, 
J. W. Chapman, G. Robin- 
son, H. S. Bridgwater, N. 
Hirst, R. S. Clouston, T. G. 
Appleton, E. G. and R. W. 
Hester, G. Every, (Miss) 
E. GuUand, (Mrs.) M. Cor- 
mack, A. J. Skrimshire ; 
Seymour Haden, J. Knight, J. 
Fmnie, F\ Short {also reprod. 
af. Turner, etc. ), W. Strang, 
A. C. Meyer, D. Waterson, 
W. Hyde. 
J. Ogborne, W. W. Ryland, 
R. Earlom {also 19. 1 ; and 
iiiesz.), V. Gxeen(also mezz.), 
H. Kingsbury {also mezz.), 
C. Knight {also 19. i), T. 
Watson {also mezz. ), J. Jones 





18. 2 

18. 2, 19, I 

19. I 

19. I, 2 

18. -^ 

18. 2, 19. I 

18. 2, 19. I 


Master, Characteristic, or 

( Continued). 


Foreigners who worked 
chiefly in England (cf. 
also Italy, Germany, 
France, Netherlands, 
Sweden, and Russia). 

Reproduction of drawings- 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

{also mezz.), T. Ryder {also 
19. i), J. Murphy {also 
mezz.), T. Burke (also mezz.; 
and 19. i), J. Strutt {s. of. 
Stothard ; misc. cop. of old 
prints ; en., et.), C. Wilkin 
(/. ; also 19. i), R. S. Mar- 
cuard, J. K. Sherwin {also 
en.), C. White {also en.), J. 
Hopwood I. {en. ; also ig. 
i), J. Chapman {et., en.; 
also 19. l), W. Nutter, J. R. 
Smith {mezz.; also 19. l), 
Anker Smith {also 19. i), J. 
Collyer {also en.), J. Parker 
{also en.), R. Thev/ {Boj/delfs 
" Shakespeare Gallery," etc.), 
F. Haward {also mezz.), G. 
Keating {also mezz.), T.. 
Kirk, J. Hogg, C. G. Playter, 

P. W. Tomkins (also et.), T. 
Cheesman, R. M. Meadows 
(BoydelVs" Shakespeare Gall." 
etc.), Caroline Watson, W. 
Ward, J. Godby, W. HoU I. 
{p., hist.), T. Hellyer, T. 

H. Meyer, C. Picart, T. 
Woolnoth {p., theatrical, 
etc.), B. Smith, Robert 
Cooper, J. Thomson (p., 
etc.), W. Walker (/. ; also 
mezz.), J. Hopwood H. {/.), 

F. HoU (also en. ), C. H. Jeens, 
J. Posselwhite. 

D. P. Pariset (F. ; sch. of De- 
marteau), T. Gaugain (F.), 
L. Sailliar (F. ; for Boydell, 
of. old masters, etc. ), 

J. P. Simon (F.), I. Van den 
Berghe {Fl. ?), J. M. Delatre 
(F. ; also en. illustr.), N. 
Colibert (F.), J. and P. 
Conde (F.l), B. A. Van 
Assen (D. ?), A. Cardon 
(Fl.) M. A. Bourlier (F.), 
C. Josi (D. ; also et. , reprod. 
drawings ; publ. ). 

F. Bartolozzi, W. W. Ryland, 
S. Watts, J. Basire I. (the four 
preceding in C. Rogers' " Coll. 
of Prints in Imitation of 
Drawings" 2 vols., 1778), 
W. Baillie, R. Earlom, F. C. 
Lewis {af. Lawrence; cf. aq.). 




18. 2 
18. 2, 19. I 

Master, Characteristic, or 


P. Sandby (chiefly land- 
scape and views, except 
whereotherwise stated). 

19. I 


19. 1,2 

19. I 

Miscellaneous (reprod. , 
hist., etc.). 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

Sir E. Landseer. 

Sporting prints, race- 
horses, etc. 

R. Cooper II. {views in Italy, 
1778-79), T. Malton II., 
Archibald Robertson, 

T. Daniell, AY. Daniell (also 
St.), C. Tomkins {e.g. Isle of 
Wight, 1796 ; British Volun- 
teers, 1799), R. Dodd {sea- 
fights), R. Pollard {s.), J. C. 
Stadler {C), J. Hassell, C. 
Apostool {D.), E. Scriven 
(/. ; also en.), S. Aiken (/., 
and sporting, 

H. Aiken {sporti7ig), T. H. A. 
Fielding {also St.), W. West- 
all {e.g. Yorkshire Caves, 
1818), S. Prout, D. and R. 
Havell, J. Eluck, T. Suther- 
land, J. Hill (later in 
America), F. C. Lewis (e.g. 
Iinit. of Claude Drawings in 
the B.M., 1837), G. R. Lewis. 

W. Bromley (e.g. B. M. 
Marbles), W. HoU I. (more 
St.), A. Raimbach (af. 1171- 
kie, etc.), J. Burnet (af. 
IVilkie, etc. ; also illustr. , 
et., mezz., etc., in his books 
on art), J. T. Wedgwood 
(hist., p., B. M. Marbles), J. 
Romney (B. M. Marbles; 
Ancient Buildings, Chester), 
W. H. Worthington (B. M. 
Marbles; af. Stothard, etc.), 
C. Rolls (e.g. in Finden's 
" Gallery of British Art"), 

J. Watt (s. af. Stothard, East- 
lake, etc.), G. Doo (alsoB. M. 
Marbles), F. Bacon (assistant 
of the Findens), H. Shenton 
(af MiilreadY,itc.),\\. Holl 
11. [s., af. Frith; p., and 
illustr.), "W. B. Scott (also 
ct. ami mczz. af. Blake, etc.), 
L. Stocks (e.g. in Finden's 
''Gallery"), E. Smith (g., 
and s., c.i^. in FindetCs 
" Galloy"), F. Holl (also 


T. Landseer, R. Graves, B. P. 
Gibbon (also mixed mezz.), 
C. G. Lewis (also mixed 
i/iczz. , and ct. ), cf G. Zobel 
(mixed mezz.), 

John Scott. 

J. Heath (also 18. 2 ; scA. of J. 



Engravers influenced by the Masters in 



Master, Characteristic, or 

the previous column, or whose work 


is characterised or localised by the 
remarks in the same place. 

19. I 


( Continued. ) 

Colly er J reworked Hogartli^s 
plates, ed. 1822), F. Engle- 
heart [sch. of Colly er ; assist- 
ant of math), J. Mitan, C. 
Armstrong, C. Heath, G. J. 
Corbould, W. and E. F. 
Finden (sch. of J. Mitan; 
chiefly I. ; also " Royal 
Gallery of British Art," 

19. I, 2 

J. H. Robinson {p., etc.). E. 
Radclyffe (also some et., af. 
D. Cox). 

Colour-prints (engraving 

G. Baxter (cf 18. \, et., Pond 

in combination with 

and Knapton), A. Le Blond 

wood bloclcs). 

(en. ? or only printer?) 

Landscapes af. J. M. W. 

W. B. Cooke, J. Pye IL, W. 

Turner, and misc. 

Radclyfife (founded school of 

(largely for book illus- 

engraving in Birmingham, 


1814), R. Walhs, E. Goodall, 
W._ Miller, J. T. Willmore 
(Birmingham school), J. B. 
Allen, J. Cousen, R. Brand- 
ard (sch. of E. Goodall), cf. 
J. D. Harding. 

19. 2 


C. W. Sherborn (also p., etc.), 
cf. A. Robertson (et.), cf. 
G. W. Eve(e^., en.). 

19. I 


Landscape (water-colour 

J. Laporte, W. F. Wells (with 

painters who did occa- 

Laporte, 1802, af. Gains- 

sional etchings, largely 

borough), F. L. T. Francia, 

in soft ground). 

T. Girtin (views of Paris, 
1802 ; the aq. by F. C. Lewis, 
etc.), J. M. W. Turner (,;/ 
en.), W. Delamotte, S. Prout 
(archil.), D. Cox, R. P. 

Norwich school (land- 

J. Crome, J. S. Cotman, G. 


Vincent (also combined et. 
with mezz. ; cf. Turner's 
''Liber"), J. Stannard, E. T. 


A. Geddes (p., I.), D. Wilkie 
(s.), W. Carpenter (p.). 

19. I, 2 

D. C. Read (/.), G. Hayter 
(/., s., etc.; cf. Geddes). 

Imitators, copyists. 

W. J. Smith (af Rembrandt), 
J. E. Beckett (af. Rem- 
brandt; also mezz.), Lucy 
Brightwell (af. Rembrandt). 

19. I 


G. Garrard, R. Hills, Sir J. 

Stuart (also military s.). 

19. I, 2 

Sir E. Landseer (cf. 19. i, 2, 
till \ 

Caricature and huinorous 

I. Cruikshank (also 18. 2), G. 


Cruikshank, I. R. Cruik- 

2 C 




19. I,' 2 



19. 2, 20. I 

Master, Characteristic, or 


Miscellaneous (contribu- 
tors to the " Etching 
Clubs," etc.). 

Modern spirit : 

(i.) Born before 1830. 

(ii.) J. A. McN. Whist- 
ler {A.). 

(iii.) A. Legros {F.). 

(iv. ) Born after 1829— 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

shank, H. K. Browne 
("Phiz"), J. Leech, C. S. 
Keene {also I. and s. ). 
R. Redgrave (j-.), C.W. Cope(.r.), 
J. C. Horsley (s.), S. Palmer 
(/.), T. Creswick (/.), Birket 
Foster (/. and s.), Sir J. E. 
Millais, W. Holman Hunt 
{e.^. in the " Germ," 1850). 

Sir F. Seymour Haden, Sir 
J. C. Robinson, Edwin Ed- 
wards, J. Finnic ; 

J. Pennell {A.), M. Menpes, 

F. Laing, T. Roussel {F. ; 
also col. ) ; 

W. Strang, Sir C. Holroyd, 
J. B. Clark ; 

D. Law, A. W. Bayes, P. G. 
Hamerton, A. H. Haig 
[Swe.), A. Evershed, R. C. 
Goff, E. George, W. H. 
May, H. R. Robertson (/., 
refrod.), J. P. Heseltine, G. 
Pilotell {F. ? English por- 
traits), R. S. Chattock, C. O. 
Murray {refrod.), T. H. 
McLachlan, AA'. B. Hole 
{sotne reprod.), F. and E. 
Slocombe, A. East, R. ^Y. 
Macbeth, Arthur Robertson 
{s., I., bookplates). Sir H. v. 
Herkomer (C), W. L. 
Wyllie (seascapes), G. Clau- 
sen, W. Ball, H. Paton, 

G. W. Rhead {Jii;-:ircs. fancy 
s., flowers, <A-.'),"g. A\''. Eve 
{bookplates), A. Hartley, O. 
Baker, G. P. Jacomb-Hood 
{s., illmtr.), F. Short, H. 
Fitton, E. W. Charlton, H. 
Macbeth - Raeburn, E. M. 
Synge, H. Dicksee, H. M. 
Livens {animals), G. Gas- 
coyne, \V. Monk, F. New- 
bolt, R. Bryden, D. Y. 
Cameron, C. J. Watson, S. 
Lee, F. Brangwyn, A. H. 
Fisher, H. Schroeder {aq.). 
C. J. Holmes, H. Percival 
{s., deer.), P. Robertson, F. 
Burridge, O. Hall, W. Lee 
Hankey {aq., and mixed 
methods), H. Railton, T. I. 
Dalgliesh, R. E. J. Bush, P. 1 
Thomas, H. B. Van Raalte, i 





Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

19. 2, 20. I 



(v.) Lady etchers, 
(vi.) Printer-etcher. 

W; and B. Sickert, A. E. John, 
R. Spence(j.),W. Rothenstein, 
M. Bone, F. Dodd {p.), L. 
Taylor (some refrod.), D. I. 
Smart, N. Sparks, J. R. G. 
Exley (animals), E. J. and 
M. Detmold (animals, decor., 
etc.), E. S. Lumsden, P. 
Pimlott, M. Hardie, J.Wright, 
M. Osborne, W. Walker, 
A. F. Affleck ; 

Catherine M. NichoUs, Adeline 
lUingworth, Constance M. 
Pott, Minna Bolingbroke, 
Amelia Bauerle (s.), Susan 
Crawford, Margaret Kemp- 
Welch, Mary Sloane, A. 
Galton, Mary E. Kershaw 
(animals, and I.), Ethel 
Stewart, Anna Airy (bird, 
beast, andflower; decor., col.); 

F. Goulding. 

(The United States and Canada) 

18. I, 2 
18. 2, 19. I 

19. I 

19. 1, 2 


Chiefly topogr., bill-heads, 
bank - notes, portraits, 
and bookplates. 

T. Emmes, F. Dewing, T. 
Johnston, N. Hurd, 

P. Revere, J. Smither, J. Cal- 
lender, J. Norman, A. Doo- 
little, P. Maverick, W. S. 
Leney (also St.; b. London, 
where most of his work was 
done), E. Savage, C. B. J. F. 
de St. Memim (F. ; p., by 
aid of Physionotrace ; cf. 
Chritien and Qu^nedey), A. 
Lawson (b. Scotland), 

B. Tanner (also st.), D. Edwin 
(chiefly St.; b. England), C. 
Tiebout (also St.), 

J. B. Longacre (also st.), A. B. 
Durand, J. and S. W. 
Cheney, J. Andrews, J. 
Smillie (b. Edinburgh), J. G. 
Chapman (en. + et. ; cf. Turner 
school), H. B. Hall I. (chiefly 
St.; b. London, where most 
of his work was done), J. 
Sartain (b. London), R. W. 




19. I, 2 
19. 2,-20. I 

18. 2, 19. I 
19. I 

19. I, 2 


Master, Characteristic, or 




Portraits, etc. 


18. 2, 19. 
19. I, 

19. 2, 20. 


19. I, 



19. 2, 20. I 

Older manner. 

Modern spirit (for the 
most part landscape). 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

Dodson, A. Jones {b. Liver- 
fool), A. H. Ritchie {b. 
Glasgow), C. K. Burt, 

H. B. Hall II. (e.g. p., and hist, 
illustr. Civil War), W. E. 
Marshall, E. D. French {book- 

A. Doolittle, W. RoUinson, W. 
S. Leney, J. Rubens Smith, 
R. Field, 

D. Edwin {the five preceding b. 
England), B. Tanner, C. 
Tiebout, T. Gimbrede {b. 
France), ** 

J. B. Longacre {e.g. in Nat. 
Portr. Gall, of distinguished 
Americans, 1834-39), E. Well- 
more, J. F. E. Prud'homme 
{cUso en. : misc. illustr. ), H. 
B. Hall I., T. B. Welch 
{also f/iczz., and en.). 

P. Pelham {b. London ; in 
U.S.A. af. 1726), 

J. Greenwood {Jl. England), 
S. Okey {b. England ; af. ab. 
1771 in U.S.A.?), 

C. W. Peale, E. Savage, 

J. G. Chapman, J. Sartain, T. 
B. Welch, A. H. Ritchie, 

J. D. Smillie, I. B. Forrest, 
D. A. Wehrschmidt. 

W. Charles (infi. by Roivland- 
son; satir. II'c7rofi8l2, etc.). 

S. F. B. Morse {figure s.; sch. 
of B. West in London; the 
inventor of Morse telegraphic 
sj'steiii), t. G. Chapman, G. 
L. Brown (/.). 

J. D. Smillie, T. A. McN. 
Whistler, J. Af. Falconer, 
Eliza Greatorex, H. Kruse- 
man \'an Elten {b. Holland), 
A. F. Bellows, S. Colman, 
S. J. Ferris {s.), J. F. Cole 
{af. Jacque), T. Rioran, Mrs. 
M. N. Moran, P. Moran (/., 
and catllf), (Mrs.) Anna Lea 
Merritt (/., illustr., etc.), 
Mary Cassatt (sch. of Degas 
in Pans), J. H. Hill {also 
a,/.: much af. J. .)/. ]]\ 
Turner), R. S. Giflford, s! 
L. Wenban {worked in 
Munich), F. S. Church, C. 
H. Miller, H. Farrer, T. C. 
Farrer, S. Parrish, F. 





Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

19. A, 20. I 



Duveneck, W. M. Chase, J. 
A. Weir {p., etc.), E. H. 
Garrett, R. C. Coxe, I. M. 
Gaugengigl, O. H. Bacher, 
R. F. Blum, J. Pennell {fl. 
London), C. W. Stetson, W. 
L. Lathrop, C. A. Piatt, A. A. 
Lewis, D. S. Maclaughlan, 
G. C. Aid, H. A. Webster, 
C. Gagnon, 0. Nordfelt(5'a;«.), 
(Miss) K. Kimball. 


17. 1 



H. Oldelandt (worked in Hol- 
land ; infi. by Rembrandt). 

17. i, 2 


Portrait and reprod. 

Albert Haelwegh. 

18. 1, 2 

J. G. Wille(G.). 

J. M. Preisler (C), O. H. de 

18. 2, 19. I 

J. G. Preisler, J. F. Clemens 
(C), J. M. and J. J. G. 
Haas {sch. of Delaunay), 

19. I, 2 

C. E. Sonne {sch. of Toschi), J. 



P. V. C. Kyhn, L. Frblich 

19. 2 


C. H. Bloch, 

19. 2, 20. I 

C. Locher [b. Flensburg ; sea- 
scapes, etc.), P. S. Kroyer 
(A), AxelHou (p.), H. N. 
Hansen (j.), F. Schwartz 
{s.), E. Krause (/., archit.), 
J. Liibschitz (/.), P. Monsted. 


18. 2 



J. Gillberg, P. G. Floding [cf 
French ilhtstr.; also mixed aj. ). 


2, 19. I 


Elias Martin {st.; in London), 
J. F. Martin [et. views of 
Stockholm, etc.). 

A. U. and J. B. Berndes. 

19. I 



W. M. Carpelan, C. F. Akrel. 



L. H. Roos. 

19. I, >2 


E. S. Lundgren {also orig.), L. 


2, 20. I 

R. Haglund {reprod. pidures in 
Stockholm ; also orig. I., etc.), 
J. Nordhagen {also orig. ). 





Master, Characteristic, or 

Engravers influenced by the Masters in 

the previous column, or whose work 

is characterised or localised by the 

remarks in the same place. 

19. 2, 20. I 


Original work. 

A. H. Haig (/. England), A. 
T. Gellerstedt, R. Norstedt 
(/.; also reprod.), G. v. Rosen 
\hist.), F. Thaulow (/., col.), 
V. 0. Peters, C. Larsson, F. 
Boberg, A. Tallberg {also in 
England), A. Zorn, A. Oster- 
lind {col.), E. Munch. 



2, 18. I 


L. Tarasevich. 

18. 1 

Foreign engravers in 

A. Schoonebeek {D.), P. 
Picart {b. Amsterdatn), C. 
A. Wortmann {G.). 

18. 1, 2 

Native engravers. 

I. Sokolov, E. Vinogradov, A. 

1 Grekov. 

18. 2 

Native and foreign; A. Radigues {F.), B. L. Henri- 
chiefly portrait (infl. by quez {F.), I. S. Klauber { G. ), 
the school of G. F. I. Vasil'ev, I. Chemesov, D. 
Schmidt and J. G. . Gerasimov, A. I. Kolpash- 


nikov, I. A. Bersen'ev {sch. 
of Bervic). 

18. 1 



A. Zubov {also el.), T. Stenglin 


18. 2 


G. Skorodumov {sch. of Bar- 

tolozzi in Loudon). 

19. 1, z 


Reproductive (portrait 
and misc. ). 

N. I. Utkin {sch. ofKlauber), 
N. Plakhov, C. L. Tolstoi 
{o-ullines ; cf. Lasinio), F. I. 
Jordan, A. Oleszczynski {e.g. 
P'arii'th Polonaises, Paris, 
1S33), A. Pishtshalkin, K. 
V. Athanas'ev, 

19. 2 

I. P. Pozhalostin. 

19. 1 



M. Plonski {sch. of J. P. Xcr- 
blin; imit. Rembrandt), I. 
Shishkin (/.), "\'. A. Bobrov 

Kr,prcd.,p.,s.), \ 


2, 20. 1 

N. S. Massalov {reprod.^, L. T. 
Dmitrijev-Kawkaski ( reprod. 
and orig., s. and p.), Marie 
Yakunciiikov {col.; aq.), I. 
Lopienski (/. ; reprod.; 
Poland), F. tazinski {class. 

1 reprod., Poland, Paris'^. 

19. 1 


Selimanov {sch. of J. ]\\ilkcr. 
■who was 111 St. Petersburg, 


2, 20. 1 



A. Edelfelt, L. Sparre, A. 
Gall<fn, Hilda Flodin. 


Periodicals quoted in the General and Special Bibliographies, 
AND THE Abbreviations used for the Same 

Amer. Art Rev. . 




Arnold's Library I 

Arnold's Mag. 
L'Art . . 
Art et Decor. 
Art et les Artistes 
V Arte 

Arte en Esp. 
Art Journal . 
L' Artiste . 
BoUettino . 

Burl. Mag. . 

Cab. de I'Amat. . 

Chalc. Soc. . 

Deutsch. Kunstbl. 
F. A. Quarterly . 
Gall. Naz. Ital. . 


Graph. Gesellsch. 
Graph. Kiinste . 
Jahrb. . 

Jahrb. (Vienna) . 

The American Art Review. Ed. by S. R. Koehler. Boston, 

U.S.A., 1880-81. 
Annals of the Fine Arts. 5 vols. London, 1817-20. 
Archief vor Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis . . . door Fr. D. O. 

Obreen. Amsterdam, 1877-90. 
Archiv fiir die zeichnenden Kiinste . . . herausgegeben von 

Dr. R. Naumann. Leipzig, 1855-70. 
Archivio Storico dell' Arte. Rome, 1889-97. {Qf. L'Arte.) 
The Library of the Fine Arts. 4 vols. London, 1831-32 ; 
Arnold's Library, i vol. London, 1833. 
Arnold's Magazine. 3 vols. London, 1833-34. 
L'Art. Paris, 1875-94 ; 1900, etc. (in progress). 
Art et Decoration. Paris, 1897, etc. (in progress). 
L'Art et les Artistes. Paris, 1905, etc. (in progress). 
L' Arte (gia Archivio Storico dell' Arte). Rome, 1898, etc. (in 

El Arte en Espaiia. Madrid, 1862-91. 

Art Union {/afer Alt) Journal. London, 1839, etc. (in progress). 
L' Artiste. Paris, 1831, 1839, etc. (in progress). 
BoUettino d' Arte del Ministero della P. Istruzione. Rome, 

1907, etc. (in progress). 
The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. London, 1903, etc. 

(in progress). 
Le Cabinet de I'Amateur; Ed. E. Plot. Paris, il 

nouvelle ser., 1861-63. 
International Chalcographical Society (Intern. Chalc. Gesell- 

schaft). Berlin, etc., 1886-97. 
Chronik fur vervielfaltigende Kunst. Vienna, 1888-91. 
The Connoisseur. London, 1901, etc. (in progress). 
Deutsches Kunstblatt. Leipzig, 1850-54. 
Fine Arts Quarterly Review. London, 1863-67. 
Le Gallerie Nazionali Italiane. Notizie e documente. Rome, 

5 vols., 1894-1902. 
Gazette des Beaux-Arts. Paris, 1859, etc. (in progress). 
Graphische Gesellschaft. Berlin, igo6, etc. (in progress). 
Die graphischen Kiinste. Vienna, 1879, etc. (in progress). 
Jahrbuch der kgl. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen. Berlin, 

1880, etc. (in progress). 
Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen der allerhbchsten 

Kaiserhauses. Vienna, 1883, etc. (in progress). 


42-46 ; 




Mag. of Art 


Navorscher . 
Onze Kunst . 

Oud Holland 

Rev. de I'Art Anc. 

et Mod. 
Rev. Univ. . 

Riv. d' Arte 


Studio . 
Vlaemsche School 

Zahn's Jahrb. 
Zeitschrift . 

Kunstchronik. Beilage der Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst. 

Leipzig, 1866, etc. (in progress). 
Kunstkronijk. The Hague, Leyden, 1840, etc. 
The Magazine of Art. London, 1878-1905. 
Meddelanden frJn Foreningen for Grafisk Konst. Stockholm, 

1888, 1892, 1896, 1904. 
Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft fiir vervielfaltigende Kunst. 
Beilage der graphischen Kunste. Vienna, 1901, etc. (in 

De Navorscher. Amsterdam, 1881, etc. 
Onze Kunst. Antwerp, Amsterdam, 1902, etc. (in progress). 

(Also in French as " L'Art Flamand et HoUandais," and in 
Oud Holland. Amsterdam, 1882, etc. (in progress). 
The Portfolio. Ed. P. G. Hamerton. London, 1870-95. 
Rassegna d' Arte. Milan, 1901, etc. (in progress). 
Repertorium fiir Kunstwissenschaft. Stuttgart, Berlin, 1876, etc. 

(in progress). 
Revue de I'Art Ancien et iloderne. Paris, 1897, etc. (in 

Revue Universelle des Arts, publi^e par P. Lacroix. Paris 

[Brussels], 1855-66. 
Rivista d' Arte. Florence, 1903, etc. (in progress. Anno I. with 

title Miscellanea d' Arte). 
Sitzungsberichte der Kunstgeschichtlichen Gesellschaft. Berlin, 

1887, etc. (in progress). 
The Studio. London, 1893, etc. (in progress). 
De Vlaemsche School. Tijdschrift voor Kunsten Letteren en 

Wetenschappen, uitgegeven door de St. Lucas-gilde. 

Antwerp, 1855, etc. 
Jahrbiicher fiir Kunstwissenschaft, herausgegeben von Dr. A. 

von Zahn. Leipzig, 1868-73. 
Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst. Leipzig, 1866, etc. (in progress). 

The general bibliography is divided into the following main sections, which are in their 
turn arranged under sub-headings :^ 

I. Bibliographies. 
H. Processes, Materials, etc. 
HL Dictionaries and General History. 
IV. Various Countries. 
V. Various Subjects. 

\'I. Collections: A, Public; B. Privai-e. 

Vn. Catalogues of Prints after a few of the more Important Painters. 
VIII. Reproductions. 

Murr, C. G. von. Biblioth^que de peinture et de gravure. Frankfurt 1770 
'"°n^e^^iica.^S.) • • '" '"' '' "" ^'"^' ''-'■ <^'^^ '^^'^'^ '^ "- 

Duchesne, J. Catalogue des livres. Paris, 1855 
DUPLESSIS, G. Bibl. de la gravure. Paris, 1862. 


Universal Catalogue of Books on Art (Science and Art Dept., S. Kensington). London, 

1869-70. (Suppl. 1875.) 
Paris, Ecole Nat. des Beaux-Arts. E. Vinet, Catalogue de la Bibliotheque. 1873. 
ViNET, E. Bibliographie des Beaux-Arts. Paris, 1874, 1877 (incomplete). 
Vienna, Akademie der bild. ICiinste. K. v. Liitzow, Katalog der Bibliothek. 1876. 
Wessely, J. E. Anleitung zur Kenntniss und zum Sammeln der Werke des Kunst- 

druckes. Leipzig, 1876. (6e« pp. 279-331.) 
London, Royal Academy of Arts. H. R. Tedder, Catalogue of Books, 1877. (Suppl. 

SOMEREN, J. F. van. Bibliographie de la peinture et gravure en Hollande et en 

Belgique. Amsterdam, 1882. 
Berlin, Kgl. Akademie der Kiinste. E. Dobbert, Katalog der Bibliotek. 1893. 
Singer, H. W., and Strang, W. Etching, Engraving. London, 1897. (Contains an 

excellent bibliogr. of processes. ) 
Internationale Bibliographie der Kunstwissenschaft. Ed. A. Jellinek. Berlin, 1902, etc. 

(in progress). 
BoURCARD, G. Graveurs et Gravures. Essai de Bibliographie, 1540-1910. Paris, 

Levis, H. C. Bibliography of American Books relating to Prints. Londod, 1910. 
See also VI. B. (iii.). 

Processes and Materials. 

Theophilus (also called Rugerus). Diversarum Artium Schedula [probably 

written early in the 12th century]. Ed. G. E. Lessing, Brunswick, 1781 ; 

Escalopier, Paris, 1843; R. Hendrie, London, 1847; A. Ilg, Vienna, 1871. 

(Describes niello, opus interrasile, and opus punctile.) 
BOSSE, A. Traicte des manieres de graver. Paris, 1645. Ed. 1701, augment^e de 

la nouvelle maniere dont se sert M. Leclerc. Ed. 1745, revised and enlarged 

by C. N. Cochin II. Ed. " 1758 " (af. 1769?), with further additions describing 

the Crayon manner, etc. {See A. M. Hind, Burl. Mag. Sept. 1907.) (German 

versions : G. A. Bbckler, 1652 ; Nitzsche, 1765 ; J. C. Guetle, 1795. Dutch : 

Amsterdam, 1662. English: W. Faithorne, 1662. Spanish : Ruida, 1761.) 
Browne, A. Whole Art of Drawing . . . and Etching. London, 1660. 

Ars Pictoria. 2nd ed. London, 1675. 
Faithorne, W. The Art of Graveing and Etching. London, 1662. (Cf. Bosse, 

Albert Durer Revived . . . Printed for J. Garrett. London, n.d. (about 1670?) 

(contains Hollar's directions for an etching ground). 
Salmon, William. Polygraphice. London, isl ed. 1672 (or 1670?) ; 8th ed. 1701. 
The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil. Printed for Dorman Newman. London, 

1688. (Contains description and plate of early mezzotint tools.) 
Le Blon, J. C. Coloritto ; or, the Harmony of Colouring in Painting reduced to 

mechanical practice under easy precepts and infallible rules (Enghsh and 

French). London, n.d. [between 1723-26 ?J. 
Hauckvvitz, J. Graveing and Copper-plate Printing. London, 1732. 
Barrow, J. Dictionarium Polygraphicum. London, 1735 (and 1758). {E.g. for 

glass-prints, under heading oi Mezzotint.) 
Sculptura Historico-Technica. (Extracted from Faithorne, etc.) London, 1747. 
Gautier d'Agoty, J. Lettre concernant le nouvel art d'imjjrimer les tableaux avec 

quatre couleurs. Paris, 1749. 
Deux lettres a I'auteur du Mercure. Paris, 1756. 
Extrait critique de "I'Art d'imprimer les tableaux." See his Observations 

P^riodiques, 1756, p. 240. 
Gautier de Montdorge, A. L'Art d'imprimer les tableaux. Traite d'apres 

les Merits, les operations, et les instructions verbales de J. C. Le Blon (French 

and English). Paris, 1756 (and 1768). 
The Handmaid to the Arts. [Ed. by Robert Dossie.] London, 1758 (and 1764). 

(Vol. ii., Engraving, etc.) 
Diderot, and D'Alembert. Encyclopedic. Paris (Neuchatel), 1751, etc. 

(Articles by Watelet and Montdorge under graver, gravure, etc., vol. vii. 1757 


(1767?), and Planches, vol. v. (1767). Jviprimerie en taille-douce, vol. viii., 

1765, and Planches, 1769.) 
Bonnet, Louis. Le Pastel en gravure invente et execute par L. B. Paris, 1769. 
Bylaert, J. J. Nieuwe Manier cm Plaet-tekeningen in 't Koper te brengen. 

Leyden, 1772. Also French ed., Leyden, 1772 ; German, 1773. (Describes J. 

C. Fran9ois' crayon manner, and J. J. B. 's variations. ) 
Stapart. L'Art de graver au pinceau. Paris, 1773. (German tr., Nuremberg, 

Le Prince, J. B. Decouverte du precede de gravure au lavis. Paris, 1700. 

Encyclopedic M^thodique. Paris, 1787, etc. (Articles by Levesque and Chereau 

xm&tx graver, etc., Beaux-Arts, vol. i. (1788); Planches (1805), mostly adapted 

from those in Diderot.) 
TISCHBEIN, J. H. Abhandlung liber die Aetzkunst. Cassel, 1790. 
GuETLE, J. C. Die Kunst in Kupfer zu stechen. Nuremberg, 1795. (Vol. i. 

partly a translation from Bosse. ) 
MiLiziA, Francesco. See III., Milizia, 1797. 
The Artist's Assistant. Birmingham (and London), 1801. (Also various other 

editions. ) 
Meynier, J. H. Aetzkunst besonders in Crayon und Tuschmanier. Hof, 1804. 
HoDSON, T., and Dougall, J. The Cabinet of the Arts. London, 1805. 
OuME, Edward. An Essay on Transparent Prints. London, 1807. 
HUBAND, W. Critical and Familiar Notices on the Art of Etching (with prints by 

the author). Dublin, 1810. 
Keller, K. U. Neue Art den Tusch in Kupfer nachzuahmen. Stuttgart, 1815. 
Partington, C. F. The Engraver's Complete Guide. London, 1825. 
LoNGHi, G. See III., Longhi, 1830. 

Deleschamps, p. Mordans, vernis et planches. Paris, 1836. 
Barth, C. Die Kupferstecherei (Pt. I. tr. of Longhi's Calcografia ; Pt. II. practical 

instructions). Hildburghausen, 1837. 
Fielding, T. H. Art of Engraving. London, 1841 (and 1844). 
Vallardi, F. S. Manuale del raccoglitore e del negoziante di stampe. Milan, 

Potemont, a. Martial ("Martial"). Lettre sur les ^Idments de la gravure a 

I'eau-forte. Paris, 1864. (Printed from four etched plates.) 
Nouveau traite de la gravure a I'eau-forte. Paris, 1873. 
Lalanne, ISL Gravure a I'eau-forte. Paris, i866. 2nd ed., iS/S. (Engl. tr. 

with additions, by S. R. Koehler. Boston, U.S.A., 1880.) 
Blanc, Charles. Grammaire des arts du dessin. Paris, 1867 (and Gazette XXI ). 

(Engl, tr., K. N. Doggett. Chicago, 1874.) 
Hamerton, p. G. Etcher's Handbook. London, 1871. 

Drawing and Engraving. London, 1892. 
LOSTALOT, A. de. Procld^s de la gravure. Paris, 18S2. 
DelAtre, A. Eau-forte, pointe-seche et vernis mou (lettre de Rops sur le vernis 

mou). Paris, 1887. 
Short, Frank. The Making of Etchings. London, 1888. 

Herkomer, (Sir) Hubert von. Etching and Mezzotint Engraving. London, 1892 
Koehler, S. R. Old and Modern Methods of Engraving. Boston, 1894. 
Villon, A. M. Manuel complet du graveur. (Encyclopedic Roret.) Paris, 1894 
Singer, H. W., and Strang, W. Etching, Engraving, etc. London, 1897 
Ziegler, \\'alther. Die Techniken des Tiefdruckes. Halle, 1901. 
Vitalini, F. L' Incisione su metallo. Rome, 1904. (Introduzione, L' Incisione 

ai giorni nostri da \'. Pica.) 
COURBOIN, F. L' eau-forte. Art et Ddcor. xix. (1906), 129. 
Nevvbolt, F. The Art of Printing Etchings. Studio, Nov. 1906. 
Gariazzo, p. A. La stampa incisa. Turin, 1907. 
Rosenberg, Marc. Gesch. der Goldschmiedekunst. Niello. Darmstadt, 1907. 

Reference may lie made to works by the following authors : 

J. HASSELL(cr., aq., et., 1811, 1824, 1826), Duchesne (1S28), A M Pfrrop 
(1830, 1844, 1865), M. Henrici (iSj4), Berthiaitd (printing, kS;;^ C. H 
Schmidt (1S38), F. A. W. Netto (1840), H. Alken (et., 1849), A Vshley 


(et., 1849, 185 1), S. E. Fuller (1879), H. R. Robertson (et., 1883), F. 
Roller (et., 1888), H. Paton (et., mezz., 1894). 

The Restoration of Prints. 

BoNNARDOT, A. Essai sur I'art de restaurer les estampes et les livres. Paris, 1846 

and 1858. 
SCHALL, J. F. Ausfiihrliche Anleitung zur Restoration vergelbter, fleclciger und 

beschadigter Kupferstiche. Archiv, ix. 109. 
(The amateur should beware of being guided by the scanty literature of a subject, 

which is only scientifically understood by a few practical restorers. ) 

Paper and Watermarks. 

Breitkopf, J. G. I. Versuch den Ursprung der Spielkarlen, die Einfuhrung des 

Linienpapiers . . . zu erforschen. Leipzig, 1784. 
Jansen, H. J. See III. Jansen, 1808. 
Herring, R. Paper and Paper-making. London, 1855. 

SoTHEBY, S. L. Principia Typographica. London, 1858. (Vol. iii. watermarks.) 
Vallet-de-Viriville, a. L'histoire du papier. Gazette, ii. (1859), iii., iv. 
MiDOUX, E., and Maiton, A. Filigranes des papiers employes en P'rance au 14^ 

et IS" siecles. Paris, 1868. 
Briquet, C. M. Papiers et filigranes des Archives de Genes 1154-1700. 

Geneva, 188S. 
De la valeur des filigranes . . . comme moyen de determiner I'age de documents. 

Geneva, 1892. 
Les Filigranes. Dictionnaire historique des marques de papier . . . jusqu'en 

1600. 4 vols. Paris, London, etc., 1907. 
Marmol, F. del. Dictionnaire des filigranes. Namur, igoo. 
Blanchet, a. Essai sur l'histoire du papier. Paris, 1901. 


BossE, A. Sentimens sur la distinction des diverses manieres de peinture, dessein, et 

graveure. Paris, 1649. 
Evelyn, J. Sculptura. London, 1662 (2nd ed. 1755 ; reprint. Oxford, 1906). 

(Contains the earliest published note on mezzotint, giving Prince Rupert as the 

inventor. ) 
Marolles, Michel de. Livre des peintres et graveurs. Paris (ab. 1677). 
Baldinucci, F. Cominciamento e progresso dell' arte dell' intagliare in rame. 

Florence, 1686 (ed. 2* . . . annotazioni di D. M. Manni, 1767). 
Le Comte, Florent. Cabinet de singularitez. Paris, 1699, 1700. 
Orlandi, p. a. Abecedario pittorico. Bologna, 1719 {cf. Mariette, 1851). 

Origine e progress! della stampa. Bologna, 1722. 
Repertorium sculptile-typicum. (Collection of marks and cyphers, from Orlandi.) 

London, 1730. 
Sculptura Historico-Technica, or the History and Art of Ingraving . . . extracted from 

Baldinucci, Florent Le Comte, Faithorne, Abecedario pittorico, etc. (Containing 

the Repertorium Sculp. -typ.) London, 1747. 
Humbert, A. von. Origine de la gravure. Berlin, 1752. 
Marcbnay de Ghuy, A. de. Idee de la gravure. Paris, 1764. 
Basan, p. F. Dictionnaire des graveurs. Paris, 1767 (including catalogues of Jordaens, 

C. Visscher, and Rubens). (2nd ed. 1789 contains numerous prints from old original 

plates in Basan's possession ; ed. 1809, with preface by P. P. Choffard). 
Gilpin, W. Essay on Prints. 1768 (4th ed. 1792). 
Heinecken, C. H. von. Nachrichten von Kilnstlern und Kunstsachen. 2 vols. 

Leipzig, 1768-69. (Vol. i. contains Vasari's life of Marcantonio, annotated ; and 

list of engravings af. Michelangelo ; vol. ii. , list of engravings af. Raphael. ) 
Id^e g^n^rale d'une collection d'estampes. Leipzig and Vienna, 1771. 
Dictionnaire des artistes dont nous avons des estampes. 4 vols. (Incomplete, 

A-Diz.) Leipzig, 1778-90. 
Neue Nachrichten. Leipzig, 1786. (Contains Entwurfeiner Kupferstichgeschichte.) 
A Chronological Series of Engravers. Cambridge, 1770. 
FuESSLi, J. C. Verzeichniss der vornehmsten Kupferstecher. Zurich, 1771. 


GORI Gandellini, G. Notizie degli intagliatori. 3 vols. Siena, 1771. (2nd ed. by 

L. de Angelis. 15 vols. Siena, 1808-16.) 
MuRR, C. G. von. Journal zur ICunstgeschichte. Nuremberg, I77S> ^'c. (Part ^11., 

1776, contains "Geschichte der Kupferstechkunst bis auf die Zeiten A. Diirer's.") 
Beytrage zu der Geschichte der altesten Kupferstiche. Augsburg, 1804. 
FUESSLI, J. R. (completed by H. H. Fuessli). Allgem. Kunstlerlexicon. Zurich, 

1779-1824 (earlier editions of parts, 1763, 1767-77, etc.). 
Strutt, J. Dictionary of Engravers. London, 1785-86. 
HUBER, M. Notices g^nerales des graveurs. Dresden, 1787. 
HuBER, M., RosT, C. C. H., and Martini, C. G. Manuel des curieux et des amateurs 

d'art. 9 vols. Zurich, 1797-1808 (German ed., Zurich, 1796-1808). 
Watelet, C. H., and Levesque, P. C. Dictionnaire.. 5 vols. Paris, 1792. _ 
MiLiziA, F. Delia incisione delle stampe. Bassano, 1797 (tratto dal suo "Dizionario 

delle Belle Arti"). 
Fuessli, H. R. Verzeichniss der besten . . . Kupferstiche. Zurich, i798-i8o6._ _ 
Zani, p. Materiali per servire alia storia dell' origine e de' progress! dell' incisione. 

Parma, 1802. 
Enciclopedia metodica delle Belle Arti. 28 vols. Parma, 1817-24. (Part I. 

contains a very extensive dictionary of engravers' names, with the briefest 

biographical details ; Part II. consists of a subject index.) 
Bartsch, Adam. Le Peintre-graveur. 21 vols. Vienna, 1803-21. (Suppl. par 

R. Weigel, Leipzig, 1843; Zusatze von J. Heller, Nuremberg, 1854.) 
Anleitung zur Kupferstichkunde. Vienna, 1821. (Note in Part II. list of " betriigliche 

Copieen," tr. and augmented by C. Le Blanc, Paris, 1849.) 
Baverel, J. P., and Malpez. Notice sur les graveurs. Besan9on, 1807-8. 
David, Emeric. Notice historique sur la gravure. Paris, 1808. (Also in the 

" Musee Fran9ais," vol. iii. ) 
Jansen, H. Essai sur I'origine de la gravure . . . suivi de recherches sur I'origine du 

papier, etc. Paris, 1808. 
Bryan, Michael. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. London, 1816. (Ed. 

Stanley, 1849, etc. ; R. E. Graves and W. Armstrong, 1886-89, and 1898 ; G. C. 

Williamson, 1903-5.) 
Ottley, W. Y. Inquiry into the Origin and Early History of Engraving. London, 1816. 

Notices of Engravers. London, 1831. 
DiBDiN, T. F. Bibliographical Decameron. London, 1817. 

Antiquarian . . . Tour. London, 1821. 
Joubert, J. E. Manuel de Tamateur d'estampes. Paris, 1821. 
Musseau, J. C. L. Manuel des amateurs. Paris, 1821. 
Heller, J. Praktisches Handbuch fiir Kupferstichsammler. Bamberg, 1823-25. 

(2*0 Aufl. Leipzig, 1850; cf. Andresen, 1870; Wessely, 1885). 
DoDD, Thomas. Connoisseur's Repertory, or a Biographical Histor)' of Painters, 

Engravers, etc. 6 vols. London [1824]. 
QuANDT, J. G. von. Enlwurf zu einer Geschichte der Kupferstechkunst. Leipzig, 1826, 
LoNGHl, G. Calcografia. Milan, 1S30. 
Ticozzi, S. Dizionario degli architetti, sculptori, pittori, intagliatori. 2 vols. Milan, 

CiCOGNARA, L. Memorie spettanti alia storia della calcografia. Prato, 183 1. 
Duchesne, J. Voyage d'un iconophile. Paris, 1S34. 
Nagler, G. K. Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexicon. 22 vols. Munich, 1835-52. (The 

most extensive of all the dictionaries of engravers ; of great value for the notices on 

the less generally known artists.) 
Die Monogrammisten. 5 vols. iMunich, 1858-79. 
Zanetti, a. Le premier siecle de la calcographie (ou Catalogue raisonn^ des estampes 

du Cabinet Cicognara). Venice, 1837. 
Maberle\', J. The Print Collector. London, 1844. (Another ed. by R. Hoe, con- 
taining part of Fielding's Treatise on Engraving. Now York, 1880.) 
Printsellcrs' Association. An Alphabetical List of Engravings declared at the Office of the 

P.A., London. Vol. i. 1847-91, London, 1892; vol. ii. 1S92-93, London, 

1894. Index of Painters and Engravers to vols. i. and ii., 1894. 
Passavani', J. D. Zur Kunde der altesten Kupferstecher. Deutsch. Knnstbl. I. (1850). 
Passavant, J. D. Lo Peintre-graveur. 6 vols. Leipzig, 1860-64. (Supplements 

Bartsch, on 15th and i6th century engravers.) 


LISCH, G. C. F. Messingschnitt and Kupferstich des Mittelalters. Detitsch. Kunstbl. 

II. 21. III. 366. 
Marieite, p. J. Abecedario (based on Orlandi). See P. de Chennevieres, Archives de 

I'art fran9ais. Paris, 1851-60. 
SoTZMANN, J. D. F. Einige Aufldarungen und Berichtigungen uber den Inhalt alter 

Kupferstiche. Deutsch. Kunstbl. II. (1851) 294, 302. 
Renouvier, J. Types et manieres des maitres graveurs. Montpellier, 1853-56. 
Le Blanc, C. Manuel de I'amateur d'estampcs. 4 vols. Paris, 1854-89. 
ScHUCHARDT, C. Gebuhrt die Ehre der Erfindung des Papierabdrucks von gravirten 

Metallplatten den Deutschen oder den Italienern? Archiv, iv. (1858), 47. 
Haezen, E. Ueber die Erfindung der Aetzkunst. Archiv, v. 119. 
Ottley, H. Dictionary of Recent and Living Painters and Engravers. London, 1866. 
Gay, Jules. Iconographie des estampes a sujets galants. Geneva, 1868. 
Hamerton, P. G. Etching and Etchers. London, 1868. (3rd ed. 1880.) 

The Graphic Arts. London, 1882. 
DUPLESSIS, G. Merveilles de la gravure. Paris, 1869. (Engl, tr., London, 1871 ; 
Spanish tr., Paris, 1873.) 
Histoire de la gravure. Paris, 1880. 
Andresbn, A. Handbuch ftir Kupferstichsammler (auf Grundlage der 2'™ Aufl. von 

Heller) (vol. ii. ed. by J. E. Wessely). Leipzig, 1870-73. {Cf. Wessely, 1885.) 
Meyer, Julius. Allgemeines Kiinstlerlexicon. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1872-85. (Incom- 
plete: A-BEZ.) 
Rose, J. A. Collection Illustrative of the History and Practice of Etching. (Cata- 
logues of Exhibitions, Liverpool, 1874, Birmingham, 1874, Southampton, 1875.) 
WlLLSHiRE, W. H. Introduction to the Collection and Study of Ancient Prints. 

London, 1874. 2nd ed., revised and enlarged, 1877. 
Baker, W. S. Origin and Antiquity of Engraving. Boston, 1875. 
Wessely, J. E. Anleitung zur Kenntniss und zum Sammeln der Werke des Kunst- 
druckes. Leipzig, 1876. 
Supplemente zu den Handbiichern des Kupferstichkunde. Repert., 1881, pp. 

120, 127. 
Enganzungsheft zu Andresen-Wessely's Handbuch (1870-73). Leipzig, 1885. 
Clement, C. E., and Hun'ON, L. Artists of the nineteenth century. Boston and 

London, 1879. 
Had EN, F. Seymour. About Etching. London (Fine Art. Soc), 1879. 

The Relative Claims of Etching and Engraving to Rank as Fine Arts. London (Society 

of Arts), 1883. 
The Art of the Painter-Etcher. First and second presidential addresses, Roy. Soc. 
Painter-Etchers. London, 1890-91. 
Apell, Aloys. Handbuch fur Kupferstichsammler (oder Lexicon der vorztiglichsten 

Stecher des XIX*™ Jahrhunderts). Leipzig, 1880. 
PORTALIS, R., and Beraldi, H. Les Graveurs du i8» siecle. Paris, 1880-82. 
DUTUIT, E. Manuel de I'amateur d'estampes. Paris, l88i-88. 
Delaborde, H. La Gravure. Paris [1882] (Engl, tr., 1886). 
Frantz, a. Geschichte des Kupferstichs. Magdeburg, 1883. 
Beraldi, H. Les Graveurs du 19^ siecle. 12 vols. Paris, 1885-92. 
KOEHLER, S. R. Etching. London, New York, 1885. 

Ueber die Erfindung der Aetzkunst. Zeitschrift, 2nd ser. ix. 30. 
MuNTZ, E. Histoire de I'art pendant la Renaissance. Paris, 1889. 
RusKIN, J. Ariadne Florentina. Six lectures on wood and metal engraving, delivered 

1872. London, 1890 (and 1907). 
LUTZOW, K. von. Der Kupferstich der Gegenwart in Europa. Vienna, 1 891. 
GRAtJL, R. Die Radierung der Gegenwart in Europa und Nord-America. Vienna, 

LiPPMANN, F. Der Kupferstich. Berlin, 1893. (3*" Aufl. 1905 ; Engl. tr. M. 

Hardie, 1907). 
Chapin, W. O. Masters and Masterpieces of Engraving. New York, 1894. 
MiiLLER, H. A., and Singer, H. W. Allgemeines Kilnstler-Lexicon. P'rankfurt, 1895- 

1901 (Nachtrage, 1906). 
Singer, H. W. Geschichte des Kupferstichs. Magdeburg, Leipzig, 1895. 

Der Kupferstich. Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1904. 
Tallberg, Axel. Modern Etsningskont. Meddelanden III (1896), 64. 


Wedmore, F. Fine prints. London, i8g6 (and 1905). 

Whitman, A. Print-Collector's Handbook. London, igoi (3rd ed. 1903). 

Modern Etching and Engraving. Studio, Summer Number. London, 1902. 

BouRCARD, G. A travers cinq siecles de gravures. Paris, 1903. 

Kristeller, P. Kupferstich und Holzschnitt in vier Jahrhunderten. Berlin, 1905. 

Delteil, Loys. Le peintre-graveur illustre, 19" et 20^ siecles. (Vol. i., J. F. Millet, 
T. Rousseau, J. Dupre, Jongkind ; vol. ii., Meryon ; iii., Ingres and Delacroix ; iv., 
Zorn ; v., Corot ; vi., Rude, Carpeaux, Barye, Rodin.) Paris, 1906-1910. 

Thieme, U., and Becker, F. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildender Kiinstler. Leipzig, 
1907, etc. (in progress). 

Weitenkampe, F. How to appreciate Prints. New York, 1908. 



Baker, W. S. American Engravers. Philadelphia, 1876. 
KOEHLER, S. R. American Etchers. Amer. Art. Rev., 1880-81. 

Original Etchings by American Artists. New York [1884]. 
Hitchcock, J. R. W. Etchings in America. New York, 1886. 
Stauffer, D. McN. American Engravers upon Copper and Steel. 2 vols. 

Grolier Club, New York, 1907. 
Grolier Club, New York. Catalogue of an Exhib. of early American eneravine 

(1727-1850). 1908. 


KuzMANY, K. M. Jungere osterreichische Graphiker. Graph. Kunste, xxx. 
63> 91- 


Dlabacz, G. J. Allgemeines . . . Kiinstler-Lexikon fiir Bohmen. Prague, 18 1 5. 

British Isles. 

Walpole, Horace. Anecdotes of Painting in England, . . . with a Catalo<nie of 

Engravers. Strawberry Hill, 1762-71. (Latest ed. 1849.) " 

Granger, J. Biographical History of England. London, 1769-74. {See Class 

X., Artists.) 
Pasquin, Anthony. Professors of Painting, etc., in Ireland [London, 1796]. 

Memoirs of the Royal Academicians. London, 1796. 
Sandby, W. History of the Royal Academy of Arts, with biogr. Notices of the 

Members. London, 1862. 
Redgrave, S. Dictionary of Artists of the English School. London 1874 

(Revised ed., 1878,) 
Fagan, L. Engraving in England, illustrated by 100 facsimiles. 3 vols. London 

\Vedmore, F. Etching in England. London, 1895. 
Lindsay, James Ludovic (Earl Crawford). English Broadsides iW^I-iSoy 

Aberdeen, 1898. ^ ^ ^'' 

Grolier Club, New York. Exhibition Catalogue . . . of Engraved Titles publ 

in England during the l6th and 17th centuries, 1898. • ■ • i^ 

CusT L Foreign Artists in London, 1560- 1660. (Vol. vii. of the Proceeding of 

the Huguenot Society of Loiuion, \<^T,.) ■' 

COLVIN, S. Early Engraving and Engravers in England (1545-1695). (With a list 

of works of engravers, 1545-1650, by A. M. Hind; also separately printed 1 

London, 1905. ' ^ '' 

Gosse, E. W. British Portrait- Painters and Engravers of the i8th Centurv Paris 

1905. •"■ *''"='> 

CoXHF.Aii, A. C. Thomas Stothard. London, 1906. 
Salaman, M. C. The Old Engravers of England. London 1906 
Sec cilso Dictionary of National Biography (1885-1901); MSS. of George ^-ertue 

(largely but not fully mcorporated in Waljiole's Anecdotes) ; MSS of Thomas 

Docld (the two preceding in the B.M.); \-. Colour-prints, Hardie, 1906; V. 

Portraits, British ; \ I. A., London, Victoria and .Vlbert Museum. 



Weilbach, p. Dansk Konstnerlexikon. Copenhagen, 1877-78. 
Bricka, G. F. Dansk Biografisk Lexikon. Copenhagen, 1887-1905. 
Krohn, F. C. Samlinger til en beskrivende Fortegnelse over Danske Kobberstik, 
Raderinger m.m. I. Copenhagen, 1889. 


Choffard, p. p. Notice historique sur la gravure en France. Paris, 1804 (also 

in Basan's DicUonnaire, ed. 1809). 
ROBERT-DUMESNIL, A. P. F. Le peintre-graveur fran9ais. Paris, 1835-71. 

(Continue par P. de Baudicour. Paris, 1861.) 
Bonnardot, a. La gravure en France. Paris, 1849. 
DUPLESSIS, G. La gravure en France. Paris, 1861. 

La gravure de portrait en France. Paris, 1875. 
Hamerton, p. G. Modern Etching in France. F. A. Quarterly, ii. (1864), 69. 
Brbban, Corrad de. Les graveurs troyens. Troyes, 1868. 
Goncourt, E. and J. de. Les vignettistes (Gravelot, Cochin, Eisen, Moreau). 

Paris, 1868. 
L'art du 18= siecle. Paris, 1873-74 (3^ ed. 1880-82). 
Guiffrey, J. J. Collections des livrets des anciennes expositions depuis 1673 

jusqu'en 1800. Paris, 1869-73. 
Bocher, E. Les gravures fran9aises du 18^ siecle. 6 vols. Paris, 1875-82. 
DiDOT, A. F. Les graveurs de portraits en France. Catalogue de la Coll. de 

A. F. D. Paris, 1875, 1877. 
Chavignerie, E. B. de la, and Auvrav, L. Dictionnaire general. Paris, 1882, 

:885 (Suppl. 1897). 
PiNSET, R., and D'AURIAC, J. Histoire du portrait. Paris, 1884. 
Bourcard, G. Les estampes du 18^ siecle. EcOle fran9aise. Paris, 18S5. 

Dessins, gouaches, estampes . . . du 18^ sitele. Paris, 1893. 
Jacquot, a. Les graveurs lorrains. Paris, 1889. 
Lehrs, M. Ein franzosischer Kupferstich des XV. Jahrhunderts. Chronik, ii. 

(1889) 2. 
Herbet, F. Les graveurs de I'ecole de Fontainebleau. 1896. 
RoNDOT, N. Graveurs d'estampes sur cuivre a Lyon au 17^ siecle. 1896. 
MoUREY, G. Coloured Etching in France. Studio, xxii. 3, 94. 
DiLKE (Lady). French Engravers of the i8th Century. London, 1902. 
BouCHOT, H. Einige Inkunabeln des Kupferstiches aus dem Gebiete von Douai. 

Zeitschrift, 2nd ser. xv. (1904), 58. 


Becker, C. Missalien des ehemaligen Hochstifts Wiirzburg. Archiv, ii. (1856), 

184 (re-engravings printed in books of the 15th century). 
Andresen, a. Der deutsche Peintre-graveur. 5 vols. Leipzig, 1864-78. 
Die deutschen Maler-Radirer des 19. Jahrhunderts. 5 vols. Leipzig, 1878. 

(Nachtrage ed. Puckler-Limpurg, Mitteil. vyyj, p. 39.) 
Stiassny, Robert. Die Kleinmeister und die italienische ICunst. Chronik, iii. 18, 

LiJTZOW, C. v. Geschichte des deutschen Kupferstiches. Berlin, 1891. 
Winkler, A. Die Gefass- und Punzenstecher der deutschen Hochrenaissance. 

Jahrb. xiii. (1892), 93. 
R6zycki, K. v. Die Kupferstecher Danzigs. Danzig, 1893. 
Kutschmann, T. Geschichte der deutschen Illustration. Goslar, 1900, etc. 
Schiefler, G. Verzeichnis des graphischen Werks neuerer Hamburgischer 

Kunstler bis 1904. Hamburg, 1905. 
Steinacker, K. Die graph. Kiinste in Braunschweig und Wolfenbuttel wahrend 

der letzten drei Jahrhunderte. Braunschweig. Jahrb. 1906. 
WUSTMANN, G. Der Leipziker Kupferstich im 16. 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. 

Leipzig, 1907. 
Singer, H. W. Die Kleinmeister. Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1908. 
Pauli, G. Inkunabeln der deutschen und niederlandischen Radierung. Graph. 

Gesellsch., Berlin, 1908. 


Germany, France, and the Netherlands. 

Lehrs, M. Die altesten deutschen Spielkarten. Dresden, 1885. 

Repert. ix. (1886) 2, xii. 21 (re-engravings printed in books of the 15th century). 

Deutsche und niederland. Kupferstiche des 15. Jahrh. in kleineren Sammlungen. 
Repert. 1888-94. ... 

Geschichte und kritischer Katalog des deutschen, niederliindischen und franzosischen 
Kupferstiches im 15. Jahrhundert. Vienna, 1908 (in progress). 
Geisberg, M. Beitrage. Repert. xxii. 188. 

Die Anfange des deutschen Kupferstiches und der Meister E.S. Leipzig, 1910. 
Springer, J. Gothic Alphabets. Chalc. Soc, 1897. 
See also VI. A. London, B. M., Willshire, and Nuremberg. 

Germany, the Netherlands, and Italy. 

Lehrs, M. Italienische Copien nach deutschen Kupferstichen des 15. Jahrhund. 

Jahrb. xii. (1891), 125. . 

Copie tedesche d' incisioni in rame italiane eseguite nel secolo 15. Archivio 

vi. (1893), 102. . . 

Hind, A. M. Italienische Stiche des 15. Jahrhunderts nach nordischen Onginalen. 

Mitteil. 1908, p. 1. 


Cdmberland, G. Essay on . . collecting the Works of the Ancient Engravers 

of the Italian School, accompanied by a Critical Catalogue. London, 1827. 
Palgrave, F. T. Essay on the First Century of Italian Engraving (appended to 

3rd English ed. of Kugler's Handbook of Painting. London, 1855). 
RuMOHR, C. F. von. Untersuchung der Griinde fiir die Annahme dass Maso di 

Finiguerra Erfinder . . Leipzig, 1841. 
Cerroti, F. Memorie per servire alia storia della incisione compilata nella 
descrizione e dichiarazione delle stampe . . nella biblioteca Corsiniana. 
Rome, 1858. 
Galichon, E. Giuoco di Tarocchi. Gazette, ix. 143. 

De quelques estampes . . . attribuees a Cesare da Sesto. Gazette, xviii. 546. 
DUPLESSIS, G. Memoires sur 45 estampes de la collection Otto. Mimoires des 
_ Antiquaires de France, ser. iv. vol. vi. (1873), 215. 

De quelques estampes de I'ancienne ^cole milanaise. Rev. Vniv. xv. 145. 
Campori, G. Gli intagliatori di stampe e gli estensi. Atti e Mem. delle R.R. Dep. 

di St. p. per le prov. delV Evi. vii. parte 2*, p. 70. 
KOLLOFF, E. See Baldini in Meyer's Kiinstler-Lexicon, 2'« Band, 1878 {see III.). 
Delaborde, H. Gravure en Italie avant Marcantoine. Paris, 1882. 
Reid, G. W. Italian Engravers of the 15th Century reproduced. London, 1884. 
Fisher, R. Introduction to a Catalogue of the Early Italian Prints in the British 

Museum. London, 1886. 
LiPPMANN, F., and Strzygowski, J. Die Handzeichnungen zu Dante. Berlin, 

G0BERNATIS, A. de. Dizionario degli artisti ital. recenti. Florence, 1889. 
Kristeller, p. Una incisione in rame sconosciuta del secolo xv. Arehivio \. 
(1892), 364. 
Origine dell' incisione in Italia. Aniuvio vi. (1893), 391. 
Italienische Niellodrucke und der Kupferstich. Jahrb. xv. 94. 
Der venezianische Kupferstich im 15, Jahrhundert. Mitteil. 1907, p. I. 
Florentinische Zierstucke in Kupferstich aus dem xv. Jahrhundert, Graph. 

Gesellsch. Berlin, 1909. 
Die Tarocchi. Graph. Gesellsch. Berlin, 1910. 
LiPPMANN, F. The Planets. Chalc. Soc, 1895. 
CoLViN, S. Florentine Picture Chronicle. London, 1898. 
Massi!;na, V. (Due de Rivoli, Prince d'Essling), and MiJNTZ, E. P(!trarque et son 

influence sur les artistes. Paris, 1902. 
Warburg, A. {Re Otto prints, etc.) Sitzuugsberichte. Berlin, Feb. 1905. 

Delle " Imprese Amorose" (Otto prints, etc.) Rii'. rf' Arte, iii. (1905), July. 
MALE, E. Une Influence des myst^res sur I'art italien du 15" si^cle. Gazette, 
1906, p. 89. 


Mesnil, J. Over enkele vijftiend' eeuwsche gravuren. Ome Kunst. Nov. 1906. 
Vesme, a. de. Peintre-graveur italien (suite a B&rtsch). Milan, 1906. 
See also VI. A. London, British Museum, Hind. 

The Netherlands. 

Kerrich, Tliomas. Catalogue of the Prints after Heemslterclc. Cambridge, 1829. 
Immerzeel, J. Levens en Werke der . . . Kunstschilders. Amsterdam, 1842-43. 

{Cf. Kramm, 1857.) 
Stappaerts, J. Gravure dans les Pays-Bas. 1852. 

Alvin, L. Commencements de la gravure aux Pays-Bas. Brussels, 1857. 
Kramm, C. Levens en Werke. (Supplement to Immerzeel.) Amsterdam, 1857-63. 
Renouvier, J. Gravure dans les Pays-Bas {t.'^^ siicle). Brussels, i860. 
Kellen, J. P. van der. Peintre-graveur hollandais et flamand. Utrecht, 1866. 

(Incomplete ; only one volvime appeared.) 
Hymans, H. Les images populaires flamandes au 16° siecle. Li^ge, 1869. 

Una page de I'histoire de la gravure anversoise au 16^ siecle. Lecture faite a 

I'Acad. d'archeologie de Belgique. Feb. 6, 1887. 
HiPPERT, T., and LiNNiG, J. Peintre-graveur . . . du ig" siecle. 3 vols. 

Brussels, 1874-79. 
DUTUIT, E. Manuel de I'amateur. Vols, iv.-vi. Paris, 1881-85 ("/■ HI-) Dutuit, 

Ter Bruggen, E. Histoire metallique et histoire de la gravure d'Anvers. 

Antwerp, 1875. 
Binyon, L. Dutch Etchers of the Seventeenth Century. London, 1895. . 
ZiLCKEN, P. Moderne HoUandsche Etsers. Amsterdam, 1897. 
WuRZBACH, A. von. Niederlandisches Kunstler-Lexikon. Leipzig, 1904, etc. (in 



Raczynski, a. Dictionnaire Historico-Artistique de Portugal. Paris, 1847. 

Russia and Finland. 

RoviNSKi, D. Histoire de I'iconographie en Russia. 1856. 

Russian Engravers and their Works, 1564-1758. Moscow, 1870. 

Materials for Russian Iconography. St. Petersburg, 1884-91. 

Review of Iconography in Russia to the End of the Eighteenth Century. 1903. 
Hasselblatt, J. Der Kupferstich in Russland wahrend der 17. und 18. 

Jahrhunderte. Chronikvi. (1891), 60. 
TiKKANEN, J. J. Die Kunst in Finland. Graph. Kiinste, xxix. 29. 


Palomino de Castro y Velasco, A. El museo pictorico (including the Vidas da 

los pintores . . . espaiioles). Madrid, 1715, 24. (Tr. of the Vidas: Engl., 

London, 1739; German, Dresden, 1781.) 
Zahn, a. von. Ein spanischer Kupferstich des 15. Jahrhunderts. Archiv, x. 

ROSSELL Y Torres, I. Estampa Espanola d. s. 15. Museo Esfanol de Antique- 

tados, ii. (1873), 445. 
Diccionario Enciclopedico Hispano-Americano da Literatura, Ciencias y Artes. 

25 vols. Barcelona, 1887-99. 

Sweden and Norway. 

Upmark, G. Stockholm, National Museum. Grafiska UtstiiUingen. Katalog, 
Moderne graphischa Kunst in Skandinavien. Die Radierer. Chronik iii. 25. 
Lamm, G. Sm'arre bidrag till en beskrifvande katalog ofver Svenska gravorers 

arbeten. Meddelanden II. (1892), 41. 
Nordisic Familjebok. Stockholm. 

Svenskt Portrattgalleri. Vol. xx. Architekter . . . Malarfe, Tecknare, Grafiker . . . 
(by John Kruse). Stockholm, 1901. 

2 D 



Brhn, C. Schweizerisches Kiinstler-Lexikon. Frauenfeld, 1905, etc. 

Book Illustration. 

Lacroix, p. Iconographie moli^resque. Nice, Turin, 1872 (and Paris, 1876). 

Lacroix, p. Bibl. et Iconographie de Restif de la Bretonne. Paris, 1875. 

SlEURiN, J. Manuel de Tamateur d'illustrations. Paris, 1875. 

Brivois, J. Bibliographie des ouvrages illustres du 191= siecle. Paris, 1883. 

Cohen, H. Livres a gravures du 18^ siecle. S" ^d. Paris, 1886. 

Bouchot, H. Livres ^vignettes, 15=- 1 9« siecles. Paris, 189 1. 

AsHBEE, H. S. An Iconography of Don Quixote. London, 1894 (also Bibl. Soc. 

Transactions, 1893). 
VOLKMANN, L. Iconografia Dantesca. Leipzig, 1897. 
Lewine, J. Bibliography of Eighteenth Century Art and Illustrated Books. 

London, 1898. 
KiTTON, F. G. Dickens and his Illustrators. London, 1899. 
See also IV. Germany, Kutschmann, 1900 ; Italy, Jlassena, 1902. 


Poulet-Malassis, a. Les ex-libris fran9ais. Paris, 1874. 

Warren, (Hon.) J. L. Guide to the Study. London, 1880. (Index by F. J. 

Thairlwall, Plymouth, 1894.) 
Franks, A. W. Enghsh dated Book-plates. London, 1887. 
Warnecke, F. Die deutschen Bucherzeichen. Berlin, 1890. 

Rare Book-plates of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. London, 1893. 

Ex-Libris der 15. imd 16. Jahrhunderte. Berlin, 1894. 
BoucHOT, H. Les ex-libris. Paris, 1891. 

Ex-Libris Zeitschrift (Ex-Libris-Verein, Berlin). Gorlitz, 1891, etc. 
Ex-Libris Journal. London (A. and C. Black), 1892, etc. (in progress). 
FiNCHAM, H. W., and Brown, J. R. Bibliography of Book-plates. Ex-Libris 

Journal, i. 91, 116, 126. 
Castle, Egerton. English Book-plates. London, 1893. 
Vicars, A. Book-plates. Plymouth, 1893. 

Archives de la Social fran9aise de coUectionneurs d'ex-libris. Paris, 1894, etc. 
Hamilton, W. French Book-plates. London, 1S94. 

Dated Book-plates. London, 1895. 
Allen, C. D. American Book-plates. London, 1895. 
Heinemann, O. von. Sammlung WolfenbUttel. Berlin, 1895. 
LABOUCHi;RE, Noma. Ladies' Book-plates. London, 1895. 
Seyler, G. a. lUustriertes Handbuch der Ex-I^ibris-Kunde. Berlin, 1895. 
[Burger, K.] Ex-Libris-Sammlung des Bbrsen-\'ereins der deutschen Buchhandler. 

Leipzig, 1897. 
FiNCHAM, H. W. Artists and Engravers of British and American Book-plates. 

London, 1897. 
Hardy, ^\'. J. Book-plates. London, 1897. 
Slater, J. H. Book-plates and their Value, London, 1S98. 
Leiningen-Westerdurg, K. E. (Graf) zu. German Book-plates. End. tr. 

London, 1901. 
Bertarelli, a., and Prior, D. H. Ex-libris itaUani. Milan, 1902. 
LiNNiG, B. Biblioth^ques et ex-libris d'amateurs beiges. Paris, 1906. 
See also VI. A. London, B.M., Howe, 1903. 

Collectors' Marks. 

Fagan, Louis. Collectors' Marks. London, 1883. 



PORTALIS, R. La gravure en couleurs. Gazette, 2^ per. xxxviii. (1888), 441. 
Vienna, Museum fiir Kunst und Industrie. Ausstellungs-Catalog, 1892. 
Frankau, Julia. Eighteenth-Century Colour-Prints. London, 1900 (and 1907). 
Plehn, a. J. Wie die farbige Graphik ihre Grenzen festsetzt. Mitteil. 1902, pp. 

Hardie, M. English Coloured Books. London, 1906. 
See also IL, Le Blon [1723-26?], Gautier d'Agoty, 1749, etc., Gautier de Montdorge, 


Emblems of Saints. 

HusENBETH, F. C. Emblems of Saints. London, 1850. 

Wessely, J. E. Iconographie Gottes und der Heiligen. Leipzig, 1874. 

Fans and Fan-Leaves. 

Blondel, S. Histoire des ^ventails. Paris, 1875. 

BoucHOT, H. L'hisloire par les ^ventails populaires, 1719-1804. Les Lettres et 

les Arts, Jan. and July 1888. 
SCHREIBER, (Lady) C. Fans and Fan-leaves collected and described by C. S. 

2 vols. London, 1888. 
Gust, L. Catalogue of the Collection . . . presented to the British Museum by 

Lady C. Schreiber. London, 1893. 

Historical Prints. 

MuLLER. F. Nederlandsche Historieplaten. Amsterdam, 1863-82. 

Dozy, C. M. Nalezing op F. MuUer's Cat. van Ned. Historieplaten. Archief, 

vii. I. 
Drugulin, W. Historical Atlas. Leipzig, 1867. 
British Museum. Catalogue of Prints and Drawings illustrating Ei^glish History 

(from Julius Ceejar to James II.) [1882 ; unrevised and unpublished ; a few bound 

copies in the B. M.]. 
Dayot, a. Napoleon racont^ par I'image. Paris, 1895. 
Stolk, a. van. Katalog der Historie, Spot en Zinneprenten betrekkelijk de 

Geschiedenis van Nederland. Amsterdam (F. MuUer), 1895, etc. 
Wheeler, H. F. B. and Broadi.ey, A. M. Napoleon and the Invasion of 

England. London, 1907. 
See also under Portraits, and VI. Paris, Bibl. Nat., Duplessis, 1877. 


Chelsum, J. History of Mezzotinto. Winchester, 1786. 

Diamond, H. W. Earliest Specimens of Mezzotinto Engraving. London, 1838 

{Archaeologia, xxvii. p. 405). 
Laborde, Leon de. Gravure en maniere noire. Paris, 1839. 
Chaloner-Smith, J. British Mezzotinto Portraits. 4 vols. London, 1878-83. 
Burlington Fine Arts Club. Catalogues to Exhibitions, 1881 (Introd. by J. 

Marshall), and 1902. 
Whitman, A. Masters of Mezzotint. London, 189S. 
Davenport, C. Mezzotints. London, 1904. 
British Museum. Exhibition, 1905 (Guide). 


Christ, J. F. Anzeige . . . der Monogrammatum. Leipzig, 1747. (French tr., 

G. Sellius. Paris, 1750.) 

Brulliot, F. Dictionnaire des monogrammes. Munich, 1817 (enlarged ed., 



Table g^n^rale des monogrammes. Munich, 1820. 
Stellwag, J. C. Monogrammenlexicon. Frankfurt, 1830. 
Hellek, J. Monogrammen-Lexikon. Bamberg, 1831. 
DUPLESSIS, G., and Bouchot, H. Dictionnaire des marques et monogrammes de 

graveurs. Paris, 1886. 
Ris-Paquot, O. E. Dictionnaire des monogrammes. Paris, 1893. 


Duchesne, J. Essai sur les nielles. Paris, 1826. 

CICOGNARA, L. Dell' origine dei nielli. Venice, 1827. {See also III. Cicognara, 

Memorie, 1831, Pt. I.) 
Alvin, L. Nielles de la Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique. Brussels, 1857. 
Reid, G. W. Salamanca Collection (reproductions). London, 1869. 
Milanesi, G. Les nielles de Finiguerra et de Dei. VArt, xxxii. 221 ; xxxvi. 66. 
DUTUIT, E. Manuel de I'amateur. Tome L 2" partie (Nielles), ed. G. Pawlowski. 

Paris, 1888 (cf. IIL Dutuit, 1881). 
Kristeller, p. Die italienischen Niellodrucke und der Kupferstich. Jahrb. xv. 

(1894), 94. 
Bologna, Pinacoteca. P. Kristeller, Nielli del Francia. Gall. Naz. Jtal. iii. 

(1897), 186. 

Ornament Engravings. 

The Ornamentist, with Essay by W. B. Scott. London, 1845. 

Reynard, O. Catalogue d'ornements des i5''-i8'' siecles du cabinet de JI. R. 

(Administration de 1' Alliance des Arts). Paris, 1846. 
Recueil d'ornements des anciens maitres du 15^ au l8« siecle. Paris, 1859. 
(Ditto, with text by G. Duplessis. Paris, 1873.) 
Marshall, Julian. Engravers of Ornament. London, 1869. 
Destailleur, H. Recueil d'estampes relatives a I'ornementation des appartements 

aux 16'=, 17^ et 18" siecles. 2 vols. Paris, 1871. 
Vienna, Museum fiir Kunst und Industrie. Ornamentstichsammlung. 187 1. 
Wessely, J. E. Das Ornament und die Kunstindustrie auf dem Gebiete des 

Kunstdruckes. Berlin, 1877-78. 
Guilmard, D. Les mattres ornemanistes. Paris, 1880-81. 
Amand-Durand. Livres ^ dentelles et dessins d'ornements reprod. et publ. par 

A. D. sous la direction de E. Bocher. Paris, 1882-83. 
LiCHTWARK, A. Ornamentstich der deutschen Friihrenaissance. Berlin, 1888. 
Berlin, Kunstgewerbe Museum. Ornamentstichsammlung. Catalog, Leipzig, 1894. 
Rosenthal, L. Catalog LXIX. (ornements). Munich. 
Brinckmann, a. Die praktische Bedeutung der Ornamentstiche fiir die deutsche 

Friihrenaissance. Strassburg, 1907. 
Hymans, H. Catalogue des Est. d'Ornement de la Bibl. Roy. de Belgique. 1907. 

Playing Cards. 

Singer, S. W. Researches in the History of Playing Cards. London, 1816. 
Jeux de cartes tarots et de cartes numiJrales du 14^ au 180 siecle. SocUU des 

Bibliophiles Fraiu a is. Paris, i S44. 
CllATTO, W. A. Facts and Speculations on the Origin of Playing Cards. London, 

1 848. 
Taylor, E. S. History of Playing Cards. London, 1865. 
Merlin, R. Origine des carlos h jouer. Paris, 1S69. 
Horr, Norton T. Bibliography. Cleveland, U.S.A., 1892. 
Schreiher, (Lady) C. Playing Cards. 3 vols. London, 1892-95. 
D'Allemagne, H. R. Les cartes i jouer du I4<i au 20" siecle. Paris, 1906. 
See also III. Cicognara, Momorie, 1831, Pt. II. ; W. Germany and the Netherlands 

Lehrs, 1885; VI. A., London, B. M., 1901. 


(i.) British. 

Ames, Joseph. Catalogue of English IHeads. London, 1748. 

Granger, J. Biographical History of England. London, 1769-74 (5th ed. 

1824). (Continuation by Mark Noble, 1806.) 
Richardson, W. Portraits illustrating Granger. London, 1792-99. 
Bromley, H. Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits. Ldndon, 1793. 
Caulfield, J. Calcographiana. London, 1814. Remarkable Persons, 

WOODBURN, S. W.'s Gallery of Rare Portraits (from original plates and 

facsimiles). 2 vols. London, 1816. 
RODD, T. andH. Collection ofPortraits to illustrate Granger. London, 1820. 
Lodge, E. Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great Britain engraved from 

authentic Pictures. 4 vols. London, 1821-34. (Other editions. 12 vols., 

1835; 8 vols. 1849-50; 5 vols. 1854.) 
Evans, Edward. Two Catalogues. London, n.d. [about 1830 and 1853]. 
Tiffin, W. F. Mezzotinto Portraits. Salisbury, 1883. 
Daniell, W. v. Catalogue. London, 1900. 
See IV. British Isles, Gosse, 1905 ; V. Mezzotint, Chaloner- Smith, 1878 ; VI. 

A., London, B.M., O'Donoghue, 1908; Oxford, Bodleian, 1837. 

(ii.) Dutch and Flemish. 

MuLLER, Frederik. Various Catalogues. Amsterdam, 1853, etc. 
SzwYKOWSKi, I. von. Historische Skizze uber die friihesten Sammelwerke 

altniederlandischer Maler-Portraits bei Hieronimus Cock und H. Hondius. 

Archiv, 1856, p. 13. 
SOMEREN, J. F. van. Catalogus van gegraveerde Portretten van Neder- 

landers. Amsterdam, 1881-91. 

(iii.) French. 

Lelong, p. Bibliotheque historique de la France. Vol. iv. Paris, 1809. 

Lieutaud, S. Listes de Portraits. Paris, 1844, 46, 54, etc. 

Granges db Surg^res, de, and Bourcard, G. Les Franjaises du i8« 

siecle. Portraits graves. Paris, 1887. 
Granges de Surgerbs, de. Iconographie bretonne. Paris, 1888-89. 
See also IV. France, Duplessis 1875, Didot 1875. 

(iv.) German. 

Panzer, E. W. Nurnbergischer Portraite. Nuremberg, 1790, 1801. 
Heitzmann, J. Portraits-Catalog. Munich, 1858. 

(v.) Russian. 

RoviNSKi, D. (Catalogue of Russian engraved portraits.) St. Petersburg, 1872. 
Vasii.'chikov, A. A. Liste alphab^tique de portraits russes. St. Petersburg, 

(vi.) General. 

Drugulin, W. E. (Catalogues.) Leipzig, 1854, 1860-61. 

Rose, J. A. Catalogue of Collection of Engraved Portraits (Exhib. 1872, 

Guildhall Library). London, 1874. (Also further selection with Introd. 

by G. Goodwin, 1894.) 
Sbidlitz, W. von. AUgemeines histoiisches Portratwerk. Munich, 1885-90. 
Harvey, Francis. Various Catalogues. London. 
See VI. A., London, V. and A. Museum, 1895 ; Paris, Duplessis, 1896; VIII. 

Srirling-Maxwell, 1872. 

(vii.) Cla.ssbs and Individuals. 

Printers (J. T. Bodel-Nyenhuis, Leyden, 1836-68) ; Milton (J. F. Marsh, 
i860) ; Shakespeare (J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps, 1868) ; Washington (W. 
S. Baker, 1880, and PI. L. Carson, Sale Catalogue, Philadelphia, 1904); 
Marie Antoinette (Lord R. Gower, Paris, 1883) ; Voltaire (G. 
Desnoisesterres, Paris, 1879) ; Queen Elizabeth (F. M. O'Donoghue, 
1894) ; Napoleon I. (A. Dayot, Paris, 1895) ; Lincoln (Exhib. 
Catalogue, Grolier Club, N.Y,, 1899). 


Sales and Sale-Prices. See VI. B. 
Satirical Prints. 

Fleury, J. ("Champfleury"). L'imagerie populaire. Paris, 1869. 

Caricature sous la R^publique, etc. Paris, 1874. . , . 

Buss, R. W. English Graphic Satire. London, 1874 (for private circulation;. 
Paston, G. Social caricature in the l8th century. London, 1905. 
SeeVl. A. London, B. M., Stephens, 1870. 

Sporting Prints. 

Slater, J. H. Illustrated Sporting Books. London, 1899. 


(i.) British Isles: R. Gough, British Topography, 1780. 

(ii.) London : J. G. Grace, Catalogue of Coll. of F. Grace (now in the British 

Museum). London, 1878. 
(iii.) Rome: F. Hermanin, Catalogo delle incisioni con vedute romane (Gabinetto 

delle Stampe, Roma). Gall. Naz. Ital., III. iii., IV. iii. 
(iv.) General. See F. MuUer's Catalogues, Amsterdam. • 


A. Public 
Amsterdam. Bijks Museum. 

Klinkhamer, H. a. Les estampes indecrites du Musee d' A. Supplement au 
I0« vol. de Bartsch. Brussels, 1857 (from the Rev. Univ.). 

Kaiser, J. W. Curiosites du Mus^e d'A. Facsimile d'estampes de maitres . 
du 15"= siecle. Utrecht, Leipzig, Paris [1866]. 

Boland, J. A. Choix d'estampes rares de maitres . . . du 15° siecle. Amster- 
dam, 1883 (same plates as in J. W. Kaiser, 1866). 

Bologna. Pinacotea. 

Raccolta d' incisioni. Gall. Naz. Ital. II. (1896), 162. 

Breslau. ScMesisches Museum. 

Kupferstichsammlung. Lehrs, _/«//;■*. iii. 210. 

Cambridge (U.S.A.). Harvard College. 

Gray Collection of Engravings. Catalogue by L. Thies, 1869. 


Rumour, C. F. von, and Thiele, J. M. Geschichte der Kupferstichsammlung. 

Leipzig, 1835, 
Bloch, E. Kgl. Kopperstiksaiiimling, iSSi. 


Frenzei., J. G. A. Ueberblick der Kupferstiche in der kgl. Kupferstichgallerie 
Dresden, 1838. 
Kupferstichsammlung Friedrich August II. Leipzig, 1854, 


Florence. Uffizi. 

Ferri, N. Catalogo delle stampe e disegni esposti. 1881. 

GOTHA. Herzogliche Kupferstichsammlung. 

Schneider, J. H. Deutsch. Kunstbl, IV. 214, 221. 

Hamburg. Kunsthalle. 

Kupferstichsammlung. Catalog, 1878. 


OvERVOORDB, J. C. Catalogus van de Prentverzameling der Gemeente L. 
Leyden, 1907. 

London. British Museum. 

Stephens, F. G. Political and Personal Satires. 1870-1S83. 

Fagan, L. Handbook. 1876. 

Willshire, W. H. Catalogue of Early Prints. German and Flemish schools. 

Reproductions of Prints. Parts i.-xiv. (1882-1905) (and in progress). 
COLVIN, S. Guide to an Historical Collection of Prints. 1890. 
Hind, A. M., ed. S. Colvin. Catalogue of Early Italian Engravings, 2 vols., 1910. 
Iridex of Artists. Dutch, Flemish, and German schools, 1893 ; French schools, 1896. 
O'DONOGHUE, F. M. Schreiber Collection of Playing Cards. 1901. 
O'DONOGHUE, F. M. Catalogue of British Engraved Portraits, vol. i. 1908. 
Howe, E. R. Gambler. Franks Collection of Book-plates. 1903-4. 
See also V. Fans, Cust, 1893 ; Historical, 1882 ; Mezzotint, 1905. 

Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Dyce Collection Catalogue. 1874. 

Catalogue of Engraved Portraits in the National Art Library. 1895. 
British Engraving and Etching. Exhibition Catalogue. 1903. 
Hardie, M. Catalogues of Modern Etchings. Foreign Schools, 1903 ; British 
and American Schools, 1906. 


Rolle, F. Bibliothique du Palais des Arts. Catalogue des estampes. Lyons, 

Madrid. Biblioteca Nacional. 

Rossel y Torres, I. Sala de estampas. Noticia del plan general . . . y breve 
catalogo. 1873. 

Munich. Alte Pinakotek, Graphische Sammlung. 

Brulliot, R. Copies photographiques des plus rares gravures. 1854. 
Schmidt, W. Die Inkunabeln des Kupferstiches im kgl. Kabinet zu M. 1887. 

Nuremberg. Germanisches Museum. 

Lehrs, M. Katalog der . . •. deutschen Kupferstiche des 15. Jahrhunderts. 1887. 

Oxford. Bodleian. 

Sutherland Collection. Catalogue. London, 1837. (Largely English portraits. ) 


Paris. Bibliotli6ciue Nationale. 

Duchesne, J. Notice des estampes exposees, etc. Various editions, 1819, 1823, 
1837, 1841, 1855. 
Observations sur les catalogues de la collection. i|47- 
Delaborde, H. Le d^partement des estampes. l875- , , . , France) 
DuPLESSis, G. Collection Hennin (d'estampes relatives a Ihistoire de !■ ranee). 

Catf/ogue'de la collection des portraits . . . continue par G. Riat. 1896, etc. 
(in progress). 
BOUCHOT, H. Le cabinet des estampes. 1895. -R^s.rvp 

COURBOIN, F. Catalogue sommaire des gravures . . . composant la Reserve. 

2 vols. Paris, 1900-1. n„^„^^r„1t. 

Miniatures . . . estampes a couleurs fran9aises et anglaises, 1750-1815. (catalogue. 

Exposition, 1906. 


ViLLOT, F. Catalogue des planches gravees composant le fonds de la calcographie. 
Paris, 1851 (i860, 1881, and 1901). 

Pavia. Museo Municipale (Coll. Malaspina). 
Catalogo . . . di stampe. 5 vols. Milan, 1824. 

Rome. E. Calcografia. 

Indice delle stampe. 1768. 
Catalogo. 1823, 1842, etc. 
DiDOT, F. Catalogue. Paris, 1841. 
TiMARCHi, I. Archivio, i. 224. 

Galleria Nazionale. 

Gabinetto delle stampe. See Gall. Naz. Ital. ii. (1896), 139. 
See also IV. Italy, Cerroti, 1858. 

Vienna. Hofbibliotek. 

Bartsch, F. von. Kupferstichsaramlung der k.k. Hofbibl. in Wien. 1854. 

Washington. Library of Congress. 

Parsons, A. J. Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hubbard Coll. of Engravings. 


Duchesne, J. \'oyage d'un iconophile. Revue des principaux cabinets d'estampes 
. . . d'AUemagne, de Hollande, et d'Angleterre. Paris, 1S34. 

B. Private 

(i.) Various Catalogues. 

Behaim, Paul, ^'erzeichniss allerley Kunst von alten . . Meistern in Kupfer und 
Holtz an Tag gegeben, coUegirt . . . durch P. B. juniorem, 161S (MS. in 
Berlin, Kupferstichkabinet ; sec]. E. Wesseley, Repert. vi. 54). 

Marolles, M. de. Catalogues. Paris, i656 and 1672 (the collection described in 
the earlier catalogue now in the Bibl. Nat.). 

DURAZZO, Jacopo. See B. Benincasa, Descrizione della raccolta . . . del Conte 
J. D. Parma, 1784. 

Frauenholz. \'erzeichniss. Nuremberg, 1793-95. 


Praun, Paul de. See C. G. v. Murr, Nuremberg, 1797. 

Denon, D. Vivant. See J. Duchesne, Paris, 1826. 

Wilson, T. London, 1828. 

ClCOGNARA, L. See III., Zanetti, 1837. 

QuANDT, J. G. VON. Verzeichniss. Leipzig, 1853. 

Marshall, Julian. See G. W. Reid, Catalogue, 1864. 

Morrison, Alfred. 1868. 

Rose, J. A. See III., Rose, 1874, and V., Portraits, General, 1874. 

DiDOT, A. F. Paris, 1875, 1877 {cf. IV., France, 1875.) 

Fisher, Riehard, 1879. 

Beraldi, H. Paris, 1884. 

Lanna Collection, Prague. See H. W. Singer, 1895. 

(ii.) List of a Few Important Sale Catalogues. 

(A great number published by the auctioneers and dealers : Sotheby, Wilkinson, and 
Hodge, London; Christie, Manson, and Woods,. London ; R. Weigel, Leipzig, 
1834-66 ; C. G. Boerner, Leipzig ; H. G. Gutekunst, Stuttgart ; Amsler 
und Ruthardt, BerUn.) 

Quentin de Lorangere (Paris, 1744), A. de Burgy (The Hague, .1755; for Rem- 
brandt), M. Folkes (London, 1756), P. J. Mariette (Paris, 1775 ; London, 1776), 
J. Barnard (London, 1787 and 1798), Brandes (Leipzig, 1793, 1794), Earl of 
Bute (London, 1794, 1801), P. F. Basan (Paris, 1798), Sir W. Musgrave 
(London, 1798, 1799, 1800), Ploos van Amstel (Amsterdam, 1800, 1810), 
W. Y. Ottley (various ; London, 1801-38), G. Winckler (M. Huber and J. G. 
Stimmel, Leipzig, 1801-10), Alibert (Paris, 1803), Paignon-Dijonval (Paris, 
1810), Regnault de Lalande (Paris, 1810), Delabere (London, 1811), R. Morse 
(London, 1816), T. Lloyd (various ; London, 1817-43), Rigal (Paris, 1817), 
E. Durand (Paris, 1819, 1821), W. Esdaile (various; London, 1819-40), Sir 
Mark Masterman Sykes (London, 1824), Vivant Denon (Paris, 1826), Maurice 
^de Fries (Vienna, 1824, 1828), Revil (Paris, 1830, 1838, 1839), Comtesse 
d'Einsiedel (Dresden, 1833, 1834), Buckingham (London, 1834), Robert 
Dumesnil (various ; Paris, 1835-62 ; London, 1-836), Sternberg-Manderscheid 
(Dresden, 1836, 1842), Rev. H. Wellesley (various ; London, 1833-66), L. 
Cicognara (Vienna, 1839; for detailed catalogue see III., Zanetti, 1837), C. v. 
Hulthem (Ghent, 1846; the coll. bought for the Bibl. Roy., Brussels), 
C. F. L. F. V. Rumohr (Dresden, 1846), Verstolk{V. Soelen (Amsterdam, 1847, 
1851), E. P. Otto (Leipzig, 1852), P. Visscher (Paris, 1852), H. Weber 
(Leipzig, 1855), A. Brentano (Frankfurt, 1870), J. Durazzo (Stuttgart, 1872, 
1873), E. Galichon (Paris, 1875), J- -A- Rose (London, 1876, etc.), A. F. 
Didot (Paris, 1877, 1879), W. E. Drugulin (Leipzig, 1879), R. Fisher (London, 
1892), L. Angiolini (Stuttgart, 1895), Goncourt (Paris, 1897), A. Straeter 
(Stuttgart, 1898), Waldburg-Wolfegg (Stuttgart, 1902), J. V. Novak and A. 
Artaria (Stuttgart, 1904), H. Grisebach (Stuttgart, 1905), Sir W. Lawson 
(London, 1907). 

(iii.) Bibliographies of Sale and Other Catalogues and Books on 
Sale Prices. 

WiLLiGEN, A. V. d. Naamlyst van Nederlandsche Kunst-catalogi van af 1731- 

i86i. -Haarlem, 1873. 
Duplessis, G. Les ventes, 1611-1800. Paris, 1874. 
London, National Art Library. List of Catalogues of Collections, etc. ; also Sale 

Catalogues. 1888 (a few copies printed, but not published). 
Redford, G. Art Sales, 1628-1888. London, 1888 (chiefly picture sales). 
SoULLlE, L. Les ventes au I9<' siecle. 1896. 
Roberts, W. Memorials of Christie's. London, 1897. 
Slater, J. H. Engravings and their Value. London, 1891 (3rd ed. 1900). Sale 

Prices of 1896-7. London, 1897-8. Art Sales of 1901-2. London, 1902-3. 
The Connoisseur. Monthly Supplement. 1901-3. 

Mireur, H. Dictionnaire des ventes, iS'' et 19= si^cles. 1901-2 (2 vols., A-D only). 
Pictures and their Value (1905-6). Eltham (Turner and Robinson), 1906.