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Full text of "John Paul Jones commemoration at Annapolis, April 24, 1906"

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COMMEMORATION 



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BERNARD ALBERT SINN 

COLLECTION 

NAVAL HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY 

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Cornell University Library 
E207.J7 U5 

John Paul Jones <»"!,li;e™2SSw 




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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924032764940 



JOHN PAUL JONES 

COMMEMORATION 



The illustrations in this volume are published 
by permission of the owners of the originals. 
Many of them are protected by copyright, and 
are not to be reproduced without permission. 




JOHN PAUL JONES. 
From the terra cotta colored bust, by Houdou, now in the National Academy of Design, New York. 




JOHN PAUL JONES. 
From the terra cotta colored bust, bj- Houdon, now in the National Acatleniy of Design, New York. 



JOHN PAUL JONES 

COMMEMORATION AT ANNAPOLIS 
APRIL 24, 1906 



/(. . S, 1o'i-i<r;re^ss. 



COMPILED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE JOINT 
COMMITTEE ON PRINTING BY CHARLES W. STEWART 
SUPERINTENDENT LIBRARY AND NAVAL WAR RECORDS 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1907 



Jtt. 



RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS 

CONCURRENTLY ADOPTED JUNE 29, 1906 

Til eaalvei bij llj* ^auBt nf SjprrBftrtattWB (tlje ftfttat* rnnnjrnttg) , That 
>« there be printed and bound 11,000 copies of the addresses delivered 
at the exercises commemorative of John Paul Jones, at the Naval 
Academy, Annapolis, Md., April 24, 1906, together with other papers 
and illustrations germane thereto, to be compiled and published under 
the direction of the Joint Committee on Printing; 7,000 for the use of 
the House of Representatives, 3,000 for the use of the Senate, and 1,000 
for distribution by the Secretary of the Navy. 

4 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 9 

I. Addresses at Annapolis, April 24, 1906: 

Address of President Roosevelt 15 

Address of Ambassador Jusserand 21 

Address of General Porter 25 

Address of Governor Warfield 35 

Prayer of Chaplain Clark 41 

II. Papers and reports. Discovery, identification, and transfer of remains of 
John Paul Jones: 

Message from the President ^ 43 

Report of General Porter 49 

Address of General Porter in Paris 73 

Official certification by the American Embassy and Consulate of 

the identification of the body 76 

Report of Doctor Capitan 81 

Report of Doctor Papillault 87 

Report of Professor Cornil 93 

Report of Engineer Weiss 95 

Report of Rear-Admiral Sigsbee, U. S. Navy 10 1 

III. Letters of John Paul Jones: 

Petition for admission as a Mason 115 

Letter to Joseph Hewes 1 1 7 

Letter to Robert Morris 121 

Letter to the Countess of Selkirk 123 

Letter from Lord Selkirk 1 27 

Letter from Lord Selkirk. Acknowledgment of return of silver 

taken April 23, 1778 131 

Report of John Paul Jones. Cruise of U. S. ship Ranger and capture 

of H. B. M. ship Drake 133 

Report of John Paul Jones. Cruise of U. S. shiy Bonhomme Richard 

and squadron, and capture of H. B. JI. ships Serapis and Countess 

of Scarborough 139 

Certificate of Messrs. Van Berckel and Dumas 151 

Letter to Robert ilorris 155 

Letter to Mrs. Belches 164 

IV. Chronology 165 

Appendix: 

Letter from U. S. Consul-General Gowdy to Representative Landis 195 

French officers and officials who took part in the ceremonies at Paris .... 1 96 

Address of Junior Special Ambassador Loomis in Paris igS 

Address of Rear-Admiral Sigsbee, U. S. Navy, in Paris 201 

Address of Vice-Admiral Besson, French navy, at Cherbourg, Jul v 8, 1905 . 202 

Ceremonies at U. S. Naval Academy, July 24, 1905 203 

Order of Rear-Admiral Sands, U. S. Navy 204 

Order of Captain Colvocoresses, U. S. Navy 205 

List of commanding officers in the French and American naval forces 

assembled at Annapolis, April 24, 1906 206 

Description of swords 208 

List of recipients of casts of the bust in National Academy of Design 209 

Notes regarding John Paul Jones 210 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Facing page 
Profile and three-quarters face of Houdon bust in National Academy of 

Design, New York Frontispiece 

Speakers' stand and casket 14 

Dress sword presented by Louis XVI. to John Paul Jones 20 

Profile and front view of bust from De Biron collection 24 

View of armory from center of N\V. gallery 34 

Portrait by Miss Beaux, 1906 40 

Portrait from engraving by Moreau 42 

Trocadero plaster bust 48 

Head of John Paul Jones 48 

Composite print of Trocadero plaster bust and human head 48 

Scene of the search 54 

Plan of the cemetery of St. Louis in 1792 56 

Plan of buildings covering cemetery in 1905 56 

Cross section of the cemetery 56 

Plan of the shafts and galleries 56 

The first shaft 60 

Refilling the galleries 68 

House in Paris in which John Paul Jones died 72 

Portrait from frontispiece of "Memoires de Paul Jones," 179S 80 

Portrait from sketch by unknown artist at Amsterdam Theater, 1779 So 

Naval Academy miniature 85 

Portrait from engraving by Henri Toussaint, 1906 92 

Microphotographs of sections of kidneys, lungs, and liver of John Paul Jones. 

(See note, p. 94.) 

View of the yard over the cemetery 94 

Place where the body was found 94 

French artillery caisson bearing the cofiin 100 

American sailors crossing the bridge of Alexander III loo 

Petition of John Paul for admission as a Mason 114 

Portrait in British Museum 120 

Facsimile of first and last pages of letter to Countess of Selkirk from the 

original at St. Mary's Isle 122 

Facsimile of gold medal 138 

Sword said to have been carried by John Paul Jones during the American 

Revolution 138 

Facsimile of letter to Mrs. Belches 164 

Wax medallion 164 

Facsimile of invitation 2o5 

Facsimile of programme cover 206 

Plan of armory 206 



INTRODUCTION 



THIS volume has been compiled in the office of I,ibrary and Naval 
War Records, Navy Department, under authorization of the Joint 
Committee on Printing. It includes : 

The addresses delivered at the United States Naval Academy, April 
24, 1906, printed from copy furnished by the distinguished speakers of 
the day; 

The ofiicial report of General Horace Porter to the State Department, 
with inclosures and illustrations which set forth the search for, dis- 
cover}^ and identification of the body of John Paul Jones; 

An extract from the report of Rear- Admiral Sigsbee describing the 
most important ceremonies connected with the John Paul Jones expe- 
dition, including the transfer in Paris of the bod}' from First Special 
Ambassador Porter to Junior Special Ambassador Loomis, and from the 
latter to Rear- Admiral Sigsbee, and its transportation from Paris to the 
United States Naval Academy and deposit in the now historic brick 
vault, where it lay under guard for the nine months preceding April 24, 
1906; 

Letters and illustrations selected from authentic correspondence and 
portraiture for the purpose of showing the character and personal appear- 
ance of our first great sea fighter; 

The chronology, prepared mainly from carded data collected in searches 
for information in answer to inquiries. 

General Porter's report includes plans and illustrations which show in 
part the dangers and diflSculties which he encountered and overcame. 
The reports of the oflScial engineer who supervised the excavations and 
of the physicians and microscopist who examined the bod}' establish the 
thoroughness of the explorations of the cemetery and the pathological 
conditions that existed within the body at the time of death. The illus- 
tration by means of microphotographs of vital organs of a man born in 
1747 is unique. These reports are an important part of the testimony 
that establishes the identity of the body. 

The report of Rear- Admiral Sigsbee is a part of the history of France 
and of the United States of America. 



In troduction 



The facsimiles of Jones's writing, dated 1770, 1778, and 1786, having 
the characteristic signatures Jno. Paul, Jno. P. Jones, and J. Paul Jones 
(or Paul Jones) have been prepared from the originals now preserved 
in Scotland. The portraits here reproduced (except those by Henri 
Toussaint and Miss Beaux) were probably made during the life of John 
Paul Jones. 

It is not possible to determine that every statement in the chronology 
is accurate, but a reference for every item is given in convenient form, 
and statements known to be incorrect generally have been omitted. 



SUMMARY 

THE 24th of April, 1906, was chosen for the commemorative exer- 
cises in honor of John Paul Jones by President Roosevelt because 
it was the anniversary of Jones's famous capture of the British 
ship of war Drake, off Carrickfergus, in 1778. This date occurred 
during the session of Congress, the academic year at the United States 
Naval Academy, and the convention of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution in Washington. 

The Secretary of the Navy, Hon. Charles J. Bonaparte, issued the 
invitations. The admirable arrangements at the United States Naval 
Academy were made by Rear-Admiral Sands, U. S. Navy, Superin- 
tendent. Invitations were sent to the President; the ambassador and 
embassy of France; the principal officers of the Government, legisla- 
tive, executive, and judicial; the Navy; the Army; governors of States; 
the militia; patriotic societies, and distinguished men and women of 
America. Cards of admission were mailed, as acceptances were received, 
by the Secretary of the Navy. Special trains were provided for the 
Presidential and Congressional parties from Washington and the regu- 
lar train service was increased from New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
and Washington to Annapolis. 

April 24 was clear and cool with a fresh northwesterly breeze. The 
Presidential train arrived at Annapolis at 12:45 P- m- and was met by 
the Superintendent of the Naval Academy and the academic board with 
automobiles. A national salute was fired from the U. S. S. Hartford, 
the famous old flagship of Farragut at New Orleans and Mobile Bay. 
Two companies of the Thirteenth U. S. Cavalry, under Col. Charles 
A. P. Hatfield, U. S. Army, furnished an escort to the Superintend- 
ent's house, where luncheon was served. The President and party, in 
motor cars, were then escorted by a battalion of midshipmen to the 
armory, through lines of midshipmen, French sailors. United States 
sailors, marines, troopers, and thousands of cheering spectators. The 
President, with the speakers of the day, escorted by the Secretary of 
the Navy and the Superintendent, entered the armory at 2.24 p. m. 
and mounted the speakers' stand. The audience rose and remained 
standing while the Baltimore Oratorio Society sang the ' ' Star-Spangled 
Banner. ' ' 



In tr odu ction 



The casket containing the body of John Paul Jones rested upon tres- 
tles before the stand, under a guard composed of petty officers of the 
navies of France and the United States. The casket was draped with 
the Union Jack, and upon it lay a wreath of laurel, a spray of palm, 
and the gold-mounted sword presented by Louis XVI of France to the 
conqueror of the Serapis. The armory and speakers' stand were deco- 
rated with the colors of France and the United States of America. 
Facing the stand and casket were Admiral George Dewey, U. S. Navy; 
Rear- Admiral Campion, commanding the French squadron ; Rear- 
Admirals Charles H. Davis and Royal B. Bradford, U. S. Navy, com- 
manding United States squadrons. Behind these flag-officers were 
seated their aids, the visiting officers of France, and the heads of 
departments of the Academy. Seats on each side of this central section 
faced toward the center of the armory. Sections of seats were reserved 
for Senators and Members of Congress and other special parties. The 
audience was representative of the patriotism and traditions of the 
nation. The Senate, the House, the Cabinet, every branch of the Gov- 
ernment, and national patriotic societies were represented. 

The silence that followed the singing of the ' ' Star-Spangled Banner ' ' 
was broken by the clear, incisive voice of Hon. Charles J. Bonaparte, 
Secretary of the Navy, presenting the President. 

The President spoke for thirty minutes and was frequently interrupted 
by applause. Every speaker was presented by the Secretary of the Navy 
and each received close attention and warm approval. The official 
programme was executed without variation. 

The exercises in the armory closed at 4.38 p. m. with the rendering 
of "How Sleep the Brave." The audience stood in silence and the 
casket was taken to the space beneath the stairs in Bancroft Hall, where, 
in the presence of the distinguished officials, Chaplain Clark, U. S. Navy, 
offered a simple prayer, the last rite of the official programme. The 
casket, draped with the Union Jack, was left under the care of a marine 
guard, where it will remain until transferred to the crypt in the Naval 
Academy chapel. 

The President of the United States sent to the President of France 
the following telegram : 

[Cablegram.] 

The White House, 

Washington, April 24, 1^06. 
To the President op France: 

On the occasion of the formal reception at Annapolis of the body of John Paul 
Jones I wish to thank you and, through you, the great French nation for its distin- 
guished courtesy in connection with this event — a courtesy of a kind which serves 
to keep even more vividly before us the invaluable aid rendered by France to this 
country at what was well-nigh the most critical period of its history. France holds 
a peculiar place in the heart of the American people, and on behalf of that people 
I wish all success, prosperity, and happiness to the mighty Republic over which 
you preside. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 13 



Thus ended the formal official ceremonies relating to the homecoming 
of John Paul Jones. There is no event in our history attended with 
such pomp and circumstance of glor\', magnificence, and patriotic fervor. 

Events other than commemorative ceremonies were as follows: 

April 21, 1906: French squadron of armored cruisers, Amiral Aube, 
CondS, and Marseillaise, under Rear- Admiral Campion, arrived at 
Annapolis. 

April 23: Rear- Admiral Campion and ranking French naval officers 
visited Washington; at 2 p. m., reception at the White House, followed 
by receptions at Navy Department and War Department. In the even- 
ing a dinner, followed by a reception, at the White House. 

April 24: At Annapolis, luncheon to Presidential party by the Super- 
intendent. Receptions by Governor Warfield and Mrs. Warfield and 
officers of the Naval Academy. 

April 25: At 1.30 p. m. luncheon given to French officers by the Sec- 
retary of the Navy at the New Willard Hotel. In evening a dinner, 
followed by a reception, at the embassy of France. 

April 26: Assistant Secretary of the Na^'y Newberry entertained 
French naval officers aboard the U. S. S. Dolphin on a visit to Mount 
Vernon. The ambassador of France and Rear-Admiral Campion 
attended at Annapolis the laj'ing of the corner stone of the monument 
to French sailors and soldiers who died in the American Revolution. 

April 27: The French squadron sailed from Annapolis Roads. 

The collection of data presented in this volume has been made possible 
by the assistance of many persons. Gen. Horace Porter; Capt. John S. 
Barnes; D. Appleton & Co.; Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan; Mr. Herbert Put- 
nam, Librarian of Congress, Mrs. A. H. Eastman; Capt. John Hope, 
R. N.; Rear-Admiral C. H. Stockton, U. S. Navy; Capt. G. P. Colvo- 
coresses, U. S. Navy; Prof. Philip R. Alger, U. S. Navy; Pay Director 
Joseph Foster, U. S. Navy; Mr. Robert W. Neeser; Mr. H. C. Gauss; 
Mr. J. G. Wood, of Edenton, N. C, and many others have furnished 
information, illustrations, or correspondence. Their courtesy, consid- 
eration, and interest are gratefully acknowledged. 

Charles W Stewart, 
Superi7itendent Library and Naval War Records, Compiler. 




SPEAKERS' STAND AND CASKET IN ARMORY OF UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY, APRIL 24, 1906. 

View from center of northeast gallen-. From stereograph, copyright, 1906, by Underwood & 

Underwood, New York. 



I. ADDRESSES AT ANNAPOLIS 
APRIL 24, 1906 

ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT 

Secretary of the navy chari^es j. bonaparte introduced 

the President in the following words: Fellow-Countrymen: We have 
met to honor the memory of that man who gave our Nav^' its earliest 
traditions of heroism and victory. The Commander in Chief of the Navy 
is of right the first to speak of such a man at such a time. You will hear 
the President. 

ON BEHALF of the American people I wish to thank our ancient 
ally, the great French nation, that proud and gallant nation to 
whose help we once owed it that John Paul Jones was able to 
win for the Stars and Stripes the victory that has given him deathless 
fame, and to whose courtesy we now owe it that the body of the long- 
dead hero has been sent hither, and that to commemorate the reception 
of the illustrious dead a squadron of French war ships has come to our 
shores. 

The annals of the French navy are filled with the names of brave 
and able seamen, each of whom courted death as a mistress when the 
honor of his flag was at stake ; and among the figures of these brave 
men there loom the larger shapes of those who, like Tourville, Duquesne, 
and the Bailli de SufEren, won high renown as fleet admirals, inferior 
to none of any navy of their day in martial prowess. 

In addition to welcoming the diplomatic and ofiicial representatives 
of France here present, let me also express my heartiest acknowledg- 
ments to our former ambassador to Paris, Gen. Horace Porter, to whose 
zealous devotion we particularly owe it that the body of John Paul 
Jones has been brought to our shores. 

When the body was thus brought over the representatives of many 
different cities wrote to me, each asking that it should find its last 

15 



i6 A d dr e s s e s 



resting place in his city. But I feel that the place of all others in 
which the memory of the dead hero will most surely be a living force 
is here in Annapolis, where year by year we turn out the midshipmen 
who are to oflScer in the future the Navy, among whose founders the 
dead man stands first. Moreover, the future naval officers, who live 
within these walls, will find in the career of the man whose life we this 
day celebrate, not merely a subject for admiration and respect, but an 
object lesson to be taken into their innermost hearts. Every officer in 
our Navy should know by heart the deeds of John Paul Jones. Every 
officer in our Navy should feel in each fiber of his being an eager desire 
to emulate the energy, the professional capacity, the indomitable deter- 
mination and dauntless scorn of death which marked John Paul Jones 
above all his fellows. 

The history of our Navy, like the history of our nation, extends over 
a period of only a century and a quarter ; yet we already have many 
memories of pride to thrill us as we read and hear of what has been 
done by our fighting men of the sea, from Perry and Macdonough to 
Farragut and Dewey." These memories include brilliant victories, and 
also, now and then, defeats only less honorable than the victories them- 
selves; but the only defeats to which this praise can be given are those 
where, against heavy odds, men have stood to the death in hopeless 
battle. It is well for every American officer to remember that while 
a surrender may or may not be defensible, the man who refuses to 
surrender need never make a defense. The one fact must always be 
explained; the other needs no explanation. Moreover, he who would 
win glory and honor for the nation and for himself, must not too closely 
count the odds ; if he does, he will never see such a day as that when 
Gushing sank the Albemarle. 

In his fight with the Serapis Jones's ship was so badly mauled that 
his opponent hailed him, saying "Has your ship struck?" to which 
Jones answered, "I have not yet begun to fight." The spirit which 
inspired that answer upbore the man who gave it and the crew who 
served under him through the fury of the battle, which finall}^ ended 

a The President's mention of the name of Admiral Dewey brought forth hearty 
applause. 

The President, looking directl}- at the Admiral, said in his kindliest manner: 
"Presidents are all well enough in their way, but it's worth while in life to have 
had a First of May." 

The audience again applauded and Rear-Admiral Campion heartily shook the 
hand of Admiral Dewey. — ComphER. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 17 

in their triumph. It was the same spirit which marked the com- 
manders of the Cumberland and the Congress, when they met an equally 
glorious though less fortunate fate. The Ctimberland sank, her flag 
flying, and her guns firing with the decks awash, while, when sum- 
moned to surrender, Morris replied, "Never! I'll sink alongside!" 
and made his words good. Immediately after the Cumberland was 
sunk the Congress was attacked, and her commander, I,ieut. Joe Smith, 
was kiUed. After fighting until she was helpless, and being unable 
to bring her guns to bear, the ship was surrendered ; but when Smith's 
father, old Commodore Joe Smith, who was -on duty at Washington, 
saw by the dispatches from Fort Monroe that the Congress had hoisted 
the white flag, he said quietly, "Then Joe's dead!" Surely no father 
could wish to feel a prouder certainty of his boy's behavior than the 
old commodore showed he possessed when he thus spoke ; and no 
naval officer could hope to win a finer epitaph. 

We have met to-day to do honor to the mighty dead. Remember 
that our words of admiration are but as sounding brass and tinkling 
cj-mbals if we do not by steady preparation and by the cultivation of 
soul and mind and body fit ourselves so that in time of need we shall 
be prepared to emulate their deeds. Let every midshipman who passes 
through this institution remember, as he looks upon the tomb of John 
Paul Jones, that while no courage can atone for the lack of that 
efficiency which comes only through careful preparation in advance, 
through careful training of the men, and careful fitting out of the 
engines of war, yet that none of these things can avail unless in the 
moment of crisis the heart rises level with the crisis. The navy whose 
captains will not surrender is sure in the long run to whip the navy 
whose captains will surrender, unless the inequality of skill or force is 
prodigious. The courage which never yields can not take the place of 
the possession of good ships and good weapons and the ability skillfully 
to use these ships and these weapons. 

I wish that our people as a whole, and especially those among us 
who occupy high legislative or administrative positions, would study 
the history of our nation, not merely for the purpose of national self- 
gratification, but with the desire to learn the lessons that history 
teaches. Let the men who talk lightly about its being unnecessarj' 
for us now to have an army and navy adequate for the work of this 
nation in the world remember that such utterances are not merely 
7257-07 2 



A d dr e s s e s 



foolish, for in their effects they may at any time be fraught with 
disaster and disgrace to the nation's honor as well as disadvantage 
to its interest. L,et them take to heart some of the lessons which 
should be learned by the study of the War of 1812. 

As a people we are too apt to remember only that some of our 
ships did well in that war. We had a few ships — a very few ships — 
and they did so well as to show the utter folly of not having enough 
of them. Thanks to our folly as a nation, thanks to the folly that 
found expression in the views of those at the seat of government, 
not a ship of any importance had been built within a dozen years 
before the war began, and the Navy was so small that, when once 
the war was on, our opponents were able to establish a close blockade 
throughout the length of our coast, so that not a ship could go from 
one port to another, and all traffic had to go by land. Our parsi- 
mony in not preparing an adequate navy (which would have prevented 
the war) cost in the end literally thousands of dollars for every 
one dollar we thus foolishly saved. After two years of that war an 
utterly inconsiderable British force of about four thousand men was 
landed here in the bay, defeated with ease a larger body of raw 
troops put against it, and took Washington. 

I am sorry to say that those of our countrymen who now speak 
of the deed usually confine themselves to denouncing the British for 
having burned certain buildings in Washington. They had better 
spare their breath. The sin of the invaders in burning the build- 
ings is trivial compared with the sin of our own people in failing to 
make ready an adequate force to defeat the attempt. This nation 
was guilty of such shortsightedness, of such folly, of such lack of 
preparation that it was forced supinely to submit to the insult and 
was impotent to avenge it; and it was only the good fortune of hav- 
ing in Andrew Jackson a great natural soldier that prevented a repe- 
tition of the disaster at New Orleans. I<et us remember our own 
shortcomings, and see to it that the men in public life to-day are 
not permitted to bring about a state of things b>' which we should 
in effect invite a repetition of such a humiliation. 

We can afford as a people to differ on the ordinary party ques- 
tions; but if we are both farsighted and patriotic we can not afford 
to differ on the all-important question of keeping the national defenses 
as they should be kept; of not alone keeping up, but of going on 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 19 



with building up of the United States Navy, and of keeping our 
small Army at least at its present size and making it the most 
efficient for its size that there is on the globe. Remember, you here 
who are listening to me, that to applaud patriotic sentiments and to 
turn out to do honor to the dead heroes who by land or by sea won 
honor for our flag is only worth while if we are prepared to show 
that our energies do not exhaust themselves in words; if we are 
prepared to show that we intend to take to heart the lessons of the 
past and make things ready so that if ever, which heaven forbid, 
the need should arise, our fighting men on sea and ashore shall be 
able to rise to the standard established by their predecessors in our 
services of the past. 

Those of you who are in public life have a moral right to be here 
at this celebration to-day only if you are prepared to do your part 
in building up the Navy of the present; for otherwise you have no 
right to claim lot or part in the glory and honor and renown of the 
Navy's past. 

So much for what we in civil life outside of public office and within 
it are to do for you, and must do for you, in the Navy. I,et you in 
the Navy remember that you must do your part. You will be worth- 
less in war if you have not prepared yourselves for it in peace. You 
will be utterly unable to rise to the needs of the crisis if you have not 
by long years of steady and patient work fitted yourselves to get the 
last ounce of work out of every man, every gun, and every ship in the 
fleet; if you have not practiced steadily on the high seas until each 
ship can do its best, can show at its best, alone or in conjunction with 
others in fleet formation. Remember that no courage can ever atone 
for lack of that preparedness which makes the courage valuable ; and 
yet if the courage is there, if the dauntless heart is there, its presence 
will sometimes make up for other shortcomings ; while if with it are 
combined the other military qualities the fortunate owner becomes liter- 
ally invincible. 




DRESS SWORD PRESENTED BY LOUIS XVI. TO JOHN PAUL JONES. 

From plates furnished by the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadel- 
phia and published by permission of the owner of the sword,' Mr. Richard 
Dale. For description see Appendix, 



\ 



ADDRESS OF AMBASSADOR JUSSERAND 

Secretary of the navy charges j. bonaparte introduced 

the ambassador in the following words; In those exploits which made 
Paul Jones famous, French sailors were his comrades in arms. In the 
long and bloody war which gave us national life France was our generous 
ally. This day were incomplete without a ivord from France. I ask you 
to hear her ambassador. 

THE PIOUS action and unconquerable energy of a son of America, 
one who served her in war as a general, in peace as an ambas- 
sador, has brought back to these shores the ashes of the 
famous sailor who first made known to the world that the new 
nation just born beyond the seas was meant to be a great nation; 
that is, great on land and great on sea. In his search for the sacred 
relics of John Paul Jones, General Porter had no help but his patriot- 
ism. For a good citizen this is help enough. 

The burial which is now awarded to the naval hero is such as he 
deserved and it fits the circumstances of his life. This life, as the life 
of many other defenders of American independence, offers this char- 
acteristic trait : that a French element is, in some way or other, mixed 
with it. It is difficult to name Washington without remembering 
l,a Fayette and to name Franklin without thinking of his r61e in Paris. 
It is the same with Paul Jones, and at this day, when supreme honors 
are rendered to his memory, when the Chief of the State has praised 
him in words the value of which is immensely enhanced by the char- 
acter and personal fame of the orator, it is a fitting circumstance that 
French sailors who crossed the ocean for this purpose be now seen 
mounting guard round his body. 

Paul Jones's connection with things and men of France began early, 
and, as most events in his short and brilliant career, was quaint and 
romantic. It is a pleasant memory to recall that little scene at a road- 
side inn by Alexandria — near the empty plains where the national capi- 
tal was one day to rise — that little scene between two young men, one 
of foreign appearance, in great trouble to make himself understood and 



22 Addresses 



get horses to continue his journey, which was toward the Congress 
sitting then at Philadelphia; the other "a slender, black-haired, black- 
eyed, swarthy gentleman, in a naval uniform and of most martial and 
distinguished bearing ' ' (as his chance companion described him later) . 
The naval officer proiJered his help, made the innkeeper understand, 
and enabled the foreigner to proceed on his journey. The foreigner 
was young I<a Fayette, just arrived from France, the other was Paul 
Jones. On that day began between them a friendship meant to last as 
long as lives which, unknown to either, were to be for both so glorious. 

Begun under such auspices, Paul Jones's career continued, more and 
more connected with France. In 1777 he crossed the ocean on his 
famous Ranger in time to receive the first salute offered by anj^ navy to 
the Stars and Stripes. And it is a satisfaction to think that, while the 
American ship was commanded by no less a man than Paul Jones, who 
was to take the Serapis, the French squadron which returned the salute 
was commanded by no less a man than I,a Motte Piquet, who was to 
gather his first laurels when fighting for American independence. 

During the greatest and most heroical part of his career Paul Jones's 
main quarters were in France. There he found not only ships and sup- 
plies, but friendship and admiration. French sailors and soldiers were 
eager to fight under such a chief, in company with Americans. The 
recruiting of these last, owing to the distance, was not always easj-, but 
of Frenchmen he naturally had an abundance. On board the Bon- 
homme Richard, he said in the last year of his life, "part of the voices 
sounded in my native tongue, but more in the language of France." 
And the temper of both crews was the same. Concerning his French 
volunteers he said on the same occasion : "In case of battle I simply 
let my Frenchmen fight their battle out," which is exactly the method 
ever followed by American chiefs with American soldiers or sailors. 

After each of his campaigns he returned to Paris more and more pop- 
ular at court, in society, and among officers, the good will toward him 
almost equaling that which everyone there bore to Franklin. 

When independence was proclaimed, and that treat j' was signed at 
Versailles, which increased by one the number of free nations, the best 
days of Paul Jones were over. His fate resembled in this that of his 
French brethren of the sea. The sacred cause of independence had 
been for most of them the occasion of their life's best work, and fickle 
fortune had stood, for once, on the side of the good cause. The work 



John Paul Jones C o vi ?n e m o r a t i o n 23 

done, fortune abandoned them all; she abandoned to a more or less 
unhappy fate d'Estaing, de Grasse, Suffren, and Paul Jones himself. 
He died in France, who had proved for him another motherland, and 
who honored him dead as she had alive. 

But he had done his life's work, and that work consisted not only in 
playing splendidly his part in the struggle for freedom, but also in 
showing the young Republic the importance of having a navy of her 
own. " This is the best means," he wrote as early as 1775, " to create a 
great and most desirable sentiment and respect toward us," and he did 
not conceal that his dream was to be one of ' ' the pioneers of a new 
power on the sea with untold prospect of development." 

His dream, or, rather, his prophecy, has been fulfilled. He was one 
of those pioneers, and the new power on the sea which he helped to 
raise has proved to have indeed an " untold prospect of development." 

To no nation can such a development be more welcome than to the 
one who first applauded the birth of the incipient American Kavy, and 
it is for France a souvenir to be proud of, to remember that the earliest 
of those ships meant to carry the thirteen stripes and the ' ' thirteen 
stars in a blue field, representing a new constellation," as reads the 
resolution of Congress passed in 1777, was the Alliance, an appropriate 
name, built exactly on the model of the French frigate La Terpsichore, 
the plan of which had been given to Jones by the Duke de Chartres out 
of sympathy for America. 

Now the smoke of the fights of those heroical days has vanished; per- 
ennial independence has been secured and peace has been established — 
real peace, fecund peace, the one which sweeps away, or at least allows 
the dying out of former animosities and hatred. And such a peace now 
reigns and has long and shall long reign, I hope, between the nations 
who met then as enemies on land and on sea. 

Paul Jones will sleep his last sleep at the place most congenial to his 
valiant soul, by the shores of that Chesapeake Bay at the entrance of 
which the combined action of Washington, Rochambeau, and de Grasse 
ended the war; in that town of Annapolis, where, year after year, are 
formed generations of officers who continue their ancestors' traditions on 
board the more and more numerous and more and more powerful 
American Navy. 

In this same town of Annapolis, ever noted for its patriotism, when 
the news came that the war was over and independence secured, thirteen 



24 Addresses 



toasts were drunk, each accompanied with thirteen cannon, and the first 
three of those toasts were: 

1. "The third of February, 1783, in perpetual memory, on which 
day a virtuous war was concluded by an honorable peace." 

2. " The United States. May their confederacy endure forever. " 

3. ' ' Friendship with France. ' ' 

In such wishes, after so many years, concur the hearts of all French- 
men and all Americans. In such wishes would surely concur the great 
heart of the sailor whom we honor on this day. 




PROFILE OF BUST FROM DE BIRON COLLECTION. 
Published by permission of llie uwner, Mr. J. ricrpont Morgan. 




FRONT VlEVy OF BUST FROM DE BIRON COLLECTION. 
Published by permissiou of Ihe owner, Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan. 



"\ 



ADDRESS OF GENERAL PORTER 

Secretary of the navy chari,es j. bonaparte introduced 

the General in the following words: For more than a century the mortal 
remains of our first great sailor lay in an unknown grave, lost to his countrj^ 
and the world. The generosity and patriotism of a distinguished citizen, 
already noted for eminent public service in war and peace, have freed us 
from this national reproach. I introduce to you General Horace Porter. 

THIS day America reclaims her illustrious dead. We gather here 
in the presence of the Chief Magistrate of the nation and of this 
vast concourse of representative citizens of the Old World and the 
New to pay our homage to the leading historic figure in the early annals 
of the American Navy, to testify that his name is not a dead memory, 
but a living reality, to quicken our sense of appreciation, and to give 
assurance that the transfer of his remains to the land upon whose arms 
he shed so much luster is not lacking in distinction by reason of the 
long delay. 

The history of John Paul Jones reads more like romance than reality. 
It is more like a fabled tale of ancient days than the story of an Ameri- 
can sailor of only a century and a quarter ago. As light and shade 
produce the most attractive effects in a picture, so the singular contrasts, 
the strange vicissitudes of his eventful life, surround him with an inter- 
est that attaches to few of the world's celebrities. His rise from the 
humble master's apprentice to the command of conquering squadrons; 
his transition from the low-born peasant boy to the favorite of impe- 
rial courts; crouching at times within the shadow of obscuritj'', at 
other times standing on the highest pinnacle of fame — these are some 
of the features of his marvelous career that appeal to the imagination, 
excite men's wonder, and fascinate the minds of all who make a study 
of his life. 

The two distinct natures he possessed lend a peculiar interest to his 
personality. He displayed the fierce temerity of the ancient sea kings 
combined with the knightly courtesy of mediaeval chivalry. At one 
time we find him aboard the Bonhomme Richard, the frail merchantman 

25 



26 A ddresses 



lie had hurriedly converted into a man-of-war, equipped with con- 
demned guns, whose explosion early decimated his crew, attacking 
the Serapis, a superior British ship, just off her own shores, his vessel 
soon a wreck and sinking, most of his guns disabled, half of his motley 
crew of Americans and French lying about him dead or dying, the 
scuppers running with human blood, his ship a charnel house, over 200 
prisoners confined in the hold rushing up from their prison and attack- 
ing the remnant of his exhausted crew, his own consort even, with her 
treacherous captain, raking his vessel with her fire, flame and smoke 
issuing from the lower deck filled with splinters, the mad carnage 
raging till it seemed that hell itself had usurped the place of earth, the 
undaunted commander in the very thickest of the combat, hatless and 
begrimed with powder, the very incarnation of battle, preparing to lead 
a boarding party and try this one desperate chance of success, and when 
asked by his antagonist, who saw his desperate condition, whether he 
had struck his flag, replying, "I've just begun to fight!" Then, by 
the inspiration of his example, forging weaklings into giants, capturing 
his opponent, snatching victory from defeat, and transferring his crew 
to his prize just in time to see his own ship sink beneath the waves 
with the flag still floating defiantly from the mast. 

At another time we see him arrayed in the height of fashion, display- 
ing an easy manner and marked elegance in the brilliant salons of the 
most polite courts of Europe, replying gracefully to the compliments of 
kings and princes in fluent English, French, and Spanish, showing that 
he could tread the polished floor of a royal palace as becomingly as the 
blood-stained deck of a man-of-war. 

He was a many-sided man. On the water he was the wizard of the 
sea ; on the land he showed himself an adept in the realms of diplomacy. 
While his exploits as a sailor eclipsed by their brilliancy his triumphs 
as a diplomat, he often proved himself a master both of the science of 
state craft and the subtleties of diplomacy. He early urged upon the 
Government the policy of weakening the blockade so disastrous to the 
colonies, which were essentially commercial, by sending war ships into 
Great Britain's home waters, attacking her vast commerce on the sea, 
compelling her to keep fleets at home to protect it, raiding her coasts, 
and bringing to her people an awakening sense of the realities of war 
in order that they might tire of it. He aimed to save his prizes, so that 
he could exhibit captured British war ships in French ports, show the 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 27 

people the hopefulness of the cause of the colonies, stimulate the gov- 
ernment of that power, and encourage it to send armies and fleets to our 
relief. 

His chief diplomatic triumph was when he took the captured Serapis 
and Countess oj Scarborough into the principal harbor of Holland for the 
express purpose of raising irritating questions regarding the rights of 
belligerent vessels in neutral ports and embroiling Bngland in a war with 
Holland. He undertook this mission of his own initiative and against 
the advice of such experienced diplomatists as De Vauguyon, the French 
ambassador to Holland, and Dumas, the eminent international lawyer. 
By his ingenuity and the signal ability of his correspondence he suc- 
ceeded perfectly in his undertaking, and IJngland soon had another foe 
arrayed against her. By a rare tact he escaped giving offense to 
Holland and at the same time avoided wounding the susceptibilities 
of France. 

So much was our Government impressed by this and other exhibitions 
of his rare diplomatic skill that it intrusted him with the delicate and 
difl&cult mission of collecting international claims. 

Washington said of him, in a letter addressed to Congressman Hewes: 

Mr. Jones is clearly not only a master mariner within the scope of the art of 
navigation, but he also holds a strong and profound sense of the political and 
military weight of conunand at sea. 

Jefferson, by direction of Washington, intrusted him with a diplomatic 
mission to Holland to see whether that State could be induced to join 
us in an expedition against the pirates of the Barbary coast, and made 
known that it was the President's desire to give him command of a 
squadron for such a pturpose. But his death intervened before the 
necessary ships could be furnished. 

Paul Jones had written in French an exceedingly able pamphlet 
entitled "Treatise on the Existing State of the French Navy," which 
produced a profound impression. Napoleon, when first consul, was so 
struck by it that he had it reprinted, and the title-page bore the inscrip- 
tion ' ' Written by the great American and Russian Admiral. ' ' 

When Paul Jones took his prizes into the ports of Holland the English 
minister there distinguished himself by constantly alluding in official 
correspondence to the conqueror of the Serapis as " a certain Paul Jones, 
a pirate." Next to the Admiral's able and complete refutation of this 
unfounded characterization, made to the Dutch States-General and 



28 Addresses 



accepted by them, perhaps his best answer was the explanation he 
wittily gave sometime afterwards in a conversation. 

Having been alluded to as a pirate [said he] , I looked up the authoritative defini- 
tions of that epithet, and found among them ' ' Pirate — one who is at war with man- 
kind. ' ' I am holding a regular commission as a naval officer in an honorable service 
and making war only upon the armed enemies of my country. England is at war 
with America, France, Holland, and Spain, and engaged in provoking war in several 
colonies, and it seems to me that she is the pirate, not I. 

When he landed a force in England and his sailors carried off a 
quantity of silver plate from Lord Selkirk's estate, Paul Jones purchased 
it from the crew, who then owned it and counted its value as prize 
money, paying for it $700 out of his own pocket, a large sum in those 
days, and as soon as he could procure the means of communicating, 
returned it and received a handsome acknowledgment from Lord Selkirk. 
Lord Dunmore, on the contrary, heading a party of British and Tories, 
completely ravaged the plantation on which Paul Jones had established 
himself in Virginia, burned to the ground his houses and mill, destroyed 
his wharf, killed his cattle, and carried off his able-bodied slaves of both 
sexes to be sold in Jamaica. If piracy there was, the record stamps not 
Paul Jones, but Lord Dunmore, as the pirate. 

One of the most conspicuous traits in the character of our illustrious 
sailor was his pronounced and enthusiastic loyalty to America. In a 
letter to Jefferson in 1788 he said: 

I can never renounce the glorious title of a citizen of the United States. 

At another time he wrote : 

I do not wish to engage in privateering. My object is not that of private gain, 
but to serve the public in a way that may reflect credit on our infant Navy and give 
prestige to our country on the sea. 

And yet this is the man whom calumny has called a privateersman. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution, after he had presented to Con- 
gress, by request, his celebrated suggestions for the organization of an 
efficient navy — a plan as applicable fundamentally to the service to-day 
as then — he wrote: 

As this is to be the foundation, or, I may say, the first keel timber of a new navy, 
which all patriots must hope shall become the foremost of the world * * *. 

And, again: 

If by exceedingly desperate fighting one of our ships shall conquer one of theirs 
of markedly superior force, we shall be hailed as the pioneers of a new power on 
the sea with untold prospects of development. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 29 

Prophetic words from the man who was destined to fight just such 
a battle. 

Paul Jones never sailed in a man-of-war whose quarter-deck was 
worthy of being trodden by his feet. His battles were won not by his 
ships, but by his genius. Employing the feeble vessels given him or 
which he himself procured, he sailed forth boldly to strike the enemies 
of his country's liberty wherever he could find them and paused not 
till he dipped the fringes of his banners in the home waters of the 
mistress of the seas. He captured some sixty vessels from the foremost 
of naval powers, made four bold descents upon the land, seized large 
quantities of arms and military stores, destroyed more than a million 
dollars' worth of property on the sea, and took hundreds of prisoners 
whose capture was used to force an exchange and release our men, who 
were being slowly tortured to death in the loathsome, pestilential prison 
hulks in Brooklyn. Congress afterwards thanked him by resolution 
for "his bold and successful enterprises to redeem from captivity the 
citizens of these States who had fallen under the power of the enemy." 

He was the very personification of valor. He ranked courage as the 
manliest of human attributes. He loved brave men ; he loathed cow- 
ards. He believed that there was scarcely a sin for which courage 
could not atone. He showed this trait in all the aphorisms he uttered, 
such as: "Boldness, not caution, wins"; "Men mean more than guns 
in the rating of ships " ; "I am not calculating risks, but estimating the 
chances of success " ; " The sources of success are quick resolve and 
swift stroke " ; " Bravery is that cheerful kind of spirit that makes a 
man unable to believe that there is any such word as ' danger ' in the 
dictionary, or, if so, not able to see why it should be there." 

As long as manly courage is talked of or heroic deeds are honored 
there will remain green in the hearts of brave men the talismanic name 
of Paul Jones. 

The admiral had that tenderness of heart which is usually coupled 
with true courage. While he could resort to stern measures in enfor- 
cing discipline and suppressing mutiny, he governed his crew more by 
attaching them to him by kind acts and just treatment than by corporal 
punishment. Referring to his command of the Providence, he wrote : 

There was no cat-o'-nine tails aboard, because I threw the only one we had in 
the sea the first day out. 

Again, he said: 

I wish all my men to be contented and happy. 



30 Addresses 



He was as generous as the sun itself. For a long time he bore all 
his personal expenses and abstained from presenting demands for pay 
to our poverty-stricken Government. When, in foreign seas, he found 
that the Government regulations did not authorize the pay the hand- 
bills of overzealous recruiting of&cers had promised to his sailors, he 
paid the diflEerence out of his own pocket, so that his gallant crew 
should not feel that they were victims of a deception. 

For one who lived in an age of loose morals and spent his youthful 
years amidst the temptations which then beset a seafaring man in the 
merchant service, he was singularly free from every form of dissipation. 
He had no fondness for revelry, jolly cofEee-house dinners, or drinking 
bouts, which formed the principal amusements in foreign ports. While 
others were carousing ashore he was studying in his cabin, perfecting 
himself in history and languages, pondering upon the maneuvering of 
ships and the grand strategy of naval warfare, and paving the way for 
his future victories, which were won first with the brain, then with the 
sword. 

Among his closest friends and most ardent admirers were Wash- 
ington, Jefferson, Franklin, La Fayette, Hamilton, Wayne, Livingston, 
the two Morrises, and other eminent Americans. Not bad companion- 
ship for a "pirate." 

Notwithstanding the gravity of his nature, he at times displayed a 
wit that could cut the sting from the keenest criticism and gild dis- 
appointment with a pleasantry. 

He fashioned epigrams in prose and poetry. 

Mrs. Livingston, in speaking of him in her diary as a conversa- 
tionalist, said: 

He by turns delighted, amazed, and mystified us. 

The Dutchess de Chartres wrote: 

Not Bayard or Charles le T^m^raire could have laid his helmet at a lady's feet 
with such knightly dignity. 

The Marquis de Vaudreuil, the French admiral with whom Paul Jones 
once made a voyage, said: 

His talents are so wonderful and of such diversity that each day he brings 
forth some new proof of cleverness. 

Franklin spoke of the "strange magnetism of his presence, the 
indescribable charm of his manner." 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 31 

His criticisms and retorts were at times so caustic that they made 
him enemies. When Mr. Adams, at a reception in Philadelphia, 
attempted to relate an anecdote of Fontenelle in French, Paul Jones, 
upon being asked by some friends what he thought of Mr. Adams's 
French, replied, without reflecting that the remark might be repeated: 

If the political sentiments of Mr. Adams were as English as his French, he 
would be easily the greatest Tory in the land. 

This came to the ears of Mr. Adams, and it was long before he 
forgave the Admiral for the criticism. 

But his heart was not often attuned to mirth; its chords were 
frequently set to strains of sadness. For years he was engaged in a 
struggle against insubordination, treachery, jealousy, neglect at home, 
and abuse abroad. The people against whom he fought opened their 
floodgates of calumny. No misrepresentation of his acts was too gross, 
no distortion of history too monstrous. These well-concerted attacks 
of the pen were intended to set him before the Old World in an aspect 
that was a vicious caricature of his true nature, and they even gave so 
erroneous an impression of him in this country that it has required a 
century of time to correct it. 

He was too actively engaged in making current history to spare much 
time in reading it, but he was once moved to write of his enemies: 

One may often correctly gauge one's merits by the virulence of their abuse. 

He had to learn that ' ' Reproach is a concomitant to greatness, as 
satire and invective were an essential part of a Roman triumph," and 
that in public life all arrows wound, the last one kills. He lived to 
realize that success is like sunshine, it brings out the vipers, and that 
the laurel is a narcotic that prevents others from sleeping. 

Worn out with the fatigues of arduous service, at the untimely age 
of 45, alone in a foreign land, he surrendered to death, the only foe to 
whom he ever lowered his colors. By some strange and unaccountable 
fatality he was covered immediately with the mantle of forgetfulness. 
In all the annals of history there is not another case in which death has 
caused the memory of so conspicuous a man to drop at once from the 
height of prominence to the depth of oblivion. 

He had been counted as one of the rarest contributions to earth's con- 
tingent of master spirits. He enjoyed the unique distinction of being 



32 A d dr e s s e s 



the first to hoist the present form of our flag upon an American man-of- 
war, the first to receive a salute to it from a foreign power, the first to 
raise it upon a hostile war ship of superior strength captured in battle, 
and under his command that banner was never once dethroned from its 
proud supremacy. He is the only commander in history who ever 
landed an American force upon a European coast. 

Congress complimented him by a resolution, voted him a medal to 
commemorate his greatest victory, and awarded him the privilege of the 
floor of both Houses ; he received a similar favor from the Constitutional 
Convention ; the people of this and other lands organized public demon- 
strations in his honor; France knighted him, Louis XVI presented him 
with a gold-mounted sword, Denmark pensioned him, Catharine of 
Russia created him an admiral, conferred upon him imperial decorations, 
and loaded him with marks of distinction. If he had lived a little 
longer, he would in all probability have been named admiral of France. 
The rugged sailor had compelled the recognition of genius ; the Scottish 
peasant boy had broken down the barriers of caste. 

In life he was perhaps the most conspicuous personage on two con- 
tinents, and yet the moment he was placed beneath the ground some 
strange fate seemed to decree that he was to be snatched from history 
and relegated to fiction. No inscription was engraved upon his coffin, 
no statue was erected in his honor, no ship was given his name, no 
public building was called after him. It required six years of 
research to find the apartment in which he had lived in Paris and 
held his brilliant salons, which were attended by the foremost celebrities 
of the period, and as long a time to discover his unmarked and 
forgotten grave. 

When finally his exact place of burial had been definitely located by 
authentic documents and other positive evidence, the ground exhibited 
so repulsive an appearance that the aspect was painful beyond expres- 
sion. There was presented the spectacle of a hero who had once been 
the idol of the American people lying for more than a century, like an 
obscure outcast, in an abandoned cemetery which had been covered later 
by a dump pile to a height of 15 feet, where dogs and horses had been 
buried, and the soil was soaked with polluted waters from undrained 
laundries. As busy feet tramped over the ground, the spirit of the hero 
who lay beneath might well have been moved to cry, in the words of the 
motto on his first flag, not in defiance, but in supplication then, "Don't 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 33 

tread on me." No American citizen, upon contemplating on the spot 
those painful circumstances, could have shrunk from an attempt to secure 
for his remains a more deserving sepulcher. 

When the body was exhumed, it was fortunately found perfectly pre- 
served, with all the flesh intact, in consequence of having been buried 
in a leaden cof&n filled with alcohol — the usual method of embalming in 
those days. There were only five leaden coflBns in the entire cemetery, 
four of which were identified as those of strangers. While the features 
of the body in the fifth cofl&n were easily recognizable when compared 
with the accurate busts and medals of Paul Jones, while his initials were 
found upon the linen and the identity was convincing from the first, 
yet it was deemed prudent, on account of the importance of the subject, 
to submit the body to a thorough scientific examination by the most 
competent experts in the profession of anthropology, in order that the 
proofs might be authoritatively established and ofiicially placed on record. 
The most eminent scientists of France, to whom we owe a lasting debt of 
gratitude, contributed their efforts to this task in the presence of the 
members of the American embassy and the consulate and the highest 
officials of the municipality of Paris. 

The identification was rendered easy and was established with abso- 
lute certainty by reason of the authentic busts and medals obtainable 
for making the comparative measurements, the abundance of accurate 
information in existence descriptive of the dead, and the excellent 
state of preservation of the body, due to the alcohol, which enabled 
the scientists to perform an autopsy that verified in every particular 
the disease of which it was known the subject had died. 

Twelve American or French persons took part in the identification, 
and after six days passed in the application of every conceivable test, 
their affirmative verdict was positive and unanimous and was formally 
certified to under the official seals of their respective departments, as 
may be seen from their reports filed with the Government, both in 
Washington and in Paris. 

All that is mortal of the conqueror of the Serapis lies in yonder 
coffin. He bore the standard of his country for the first time to 
France; he returned with it draped upon his bier. That generous land, 
our traditional friend and former ally, now sends a squadron of her 
noble war ships to unite in doing honor to the memory of an illustrious 
brother sailor. 

7257—07 3 



34 Addresses 



When Congress adopted the present form of the American flag, it 
embodied in the same resolution the appointment of Capt. John Paul 
Jones to command the ship Ranger. When he received the news 
history attributes to him this remark: "The flag and I are twins; born 
the same hour, from the same womb of destiny, we can not be parted 
in life or in death." Alas! they were parted during a hundred and 
thirteen years, but, happily, they are now reunited. 

It was deemed well to bring back his body, in the belief that it would 
bring back his memory. Time has shed a clearer light upon his acts ; 
distance has brought him into the proper focus to be viewed. A tree is 
best measured when it is down. His honored remains will be laid to 
rest in this historic spot in a mausoleum befitting his fame, but his 
true sepulcher will be the hearts of his countrymen. Generations yet 
to come will pause to read the inscription on his tomb, and its mute 
eloquence will plead for equal sacrifice should war again threaten the 
nation's life. 

He was a lesson to his contemporaries; he will ever be an inspiration 
to his successors, for example teaches more than precept and patterns 
are better followed than rules. 

He was taken all too soon from the living here to join the other living, 
commonly called the dead. When he passed the portals of eternity, 
earth mourned one hero less. We shall not meet him till he stands 
forth to answer to his name at roll call when the great of earth are 
summoned on the morning of the last great reveille. Till then, fare- 
well, noblest of all spirits, bravest of all hearts. The simplicity of the 
rugged sailor was mingled with the heroic grandeur of your nature. 
Wherever blows fell thickest, your crest was in their midst. The 
story of your life rises to the sublimity of an epic. Untitled knight of 
the blue waters, "Wrathful Achilles of the Ocean," conqueror of the 
conquerors of the sea, the recollection of your deeds will never cease 
to thrill men with the splendor of events and inspire them with the 
majesty of achievement. You honored the generation in which you 
lived, and future ages will be illumined by the brightness of your glory. 



ADDRESS OP GOVERNOR WARFIELD 

Secretary of the navy CHARI,ES J. BONAPARTE introduced the 
Governor in the following words: Paul Jones was an immigrant; a na- 
tive of none of our States; his glory belongs to them all. To speak for the 
thirteen he served and for the thirty-two since admitted to share the bless- 
ings of our national liberty and national greatness, we call upon that one 
which has given the nation its seat of rule and his remains their resting 
place. I present to you the Governor of Maryland. 

AFTER the clear and striking portrayals of the character and genius 
of John Paul Jones, to which we have just listened with so much 
pleasure and profit, it would be superfluous to dwell further 
upon his personal traits or his wonderful naval achievements. 

Whatever else may be said of him, there can be no doubt that the 
love of liberty was the master passion of his soul, and that he longed 
to have his name and fame associated with his adopted country, 
America. 

What a remarkable fulfillment of that longing is this unique event, 
this splendid inspiring audience. 

If "Honor's voice could provoke the silent dust, and flattery soothe 
the dull, cold ear of Death," then would this dead hero have heard 
the tribute, paid him one hundred and fourteen j^ears after his death, 
by the patriotic President of the Republic which he helped to found — 
a Republic which has grown from a confederation of thirteen feeble 
struggling colonies to a mighty Union of forty-five sovereign States, 
with eighty millions of people. 

When the news was flashed across the Atlantic just one year ago 

that Ambassador Porter's five years of weary searching had been 

crowned with success, that he had found and identified the remains of 

John Paul Jones, I at once, as governor of this State, urged through 

the public press that his body should be brought here for final 

entombment, upon the historic soil of Maryland, in yonder beautiful 

memorial chapel, which is destined to be the Westminster Abbey for 

our naval heroes. 

35 



36 A ddr e s s c s 



Upon what more hallowed or appropriate ground could the ashes of 
this brilliant sea fighter rest? Would he not himself have selected 
this in 'preference to all other places? 

Maryland is the birthplace, the nursery, of the American Navy. 
Here are trained the men whose duty it is to maintain the prestige and 
the power of our country upon the seas of the world. 

In the beginning of our national history Maryland fitted out to 
support the patriot cause, at her own expense, a dozen war vessels. 
They were small, yet they did splendid service. 

Joshua Barney, a Marylander, the first commodore of our Navy, the 
hero of two wars, commanded one of these vessels, and flung to the 
breeze in Maryland the first continental flag. 

A Marylander, Samuel Nicholson, was a lieutenant under John Paul 
Jones on the Bonhomme Richard in the battle with the Serapis, and 
was later the first commander of the historic Constitution. 

A Marylander, Stephen Decatur, in the war with Tripoli, with eighty 
men, cut out the Philadelphia, manned by fivefold his own force, and 
surrounded by hostile batteries and war vessels. 

You, Mr. President, in your admirable and exhaustive History of 
the Naval War of 181 2, pronounce this one of the boldest expeditions 
of the kind on record, and Lord Nelson declared it to be the most 
daring act of the age. 

A Marylander, Midshipman Joseph Israel, was one of the officers who 
perished on the night of September 14, 1804, in the harbor of Tripoli, 
in the attempt to destroy the Tripolitan fleet. 

A Marylander, Jesse Duncan Elliott, performed a feat on Lake 
Erie similar to that of Decatur in Tripoli, when he captured the Detroit 
and the Caledonia. 

A Marylander, Commodore John Rodgers, fired the first gun in the 
brilliant naval war of 181 2. 

During that war Maryland furnished forty-six officers — one-fifth of 
the total number — more than were furnished by any other State, and 
more than by all New England combined. 

In the number of privateers fitted out Maryland again heads the list, 
and you, Mr. President, estimate that she furnished at least one-eighth 
of all the sailors in that war. 

In the war with Mexico, Maryland was equally prominent in the 
Navy, and it was a son of Maryland, Capt. W. A. T. Maddox, of the 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 2i7 

Marine Corps, who first raised the Stars and Stripes over that portion 
of our land which Hes along the Pacific. 

I will not dwell upon Maryland's naval record in the civil war. She 
furnished many gallant men who wore the blue and many equally 
gallant men who wore the gray in that unfortunate contest. 

Maryland's record in the Spanish war is fresh in our memories. The 
list of her sons who fought in that war is a long one, and I have not 
time to mention them all. 

But one name stands out conspicuously — the name of whom all Mary- 
landers are justly proud — Winfield Scott Schley. 

This Academj', the alma mater of many distinguished naval officers, 
renowned in peace no less than in war, who have upheld the glory of 
our flag, was organized by a son of Maryland — the gallant Admiral 
Franklin Buchanan, its first superintendent. 

The present head of this institution, Admiral Sands, under whose 
direction such excellent work is being done to-day, is of Maryland 
stock, and it is a pleasing coincidence that our able and accomplished 
Secretary of the Navy, who is presiding over these ceremonies, is also a 
native of our State. 

Paul Jones, on the Ranger, flew the flag of our country on the high 
seas which was first saluted by a foreign power. He loved that flag, 
and often exclaimed: "The flag and I are twins, born the same hour 
and from the same womb of destiny'." 

A Mary lander immortalized in verse that ' ' Star-Spangled Banner. ' ' 
How fitting, then, that the ashes of Francis Scott Key and John Paul 
Jones should forever rest upon the soil of Maryland. 

This is sacred ground upon which we stand. Here, on October 19, 
1774, the first overt act against the authority of the King of England 
took place. 

Anthony Stewart had, in violation of the nonimportation act, brought 
into this harbor a cargo of tea in his brig Peggy Stewart. 

This open defiance of the colonists aroused their indignation and 
stirred their spirit of vengeance. 

Stewart, realizing his peril, abjectly apologized for his act and offered 
to destroy the tea. This did not satisfy the aroused patriots and Sons 
of I,iberty. 

Down from the back hills and up from the lowlands of Maryland 
the young patriots, led by men of bold and determined spirit and bearing 



38 Addresses 



aloft a banner upon which was inscribed "lyiberty, or death in pursuit 
of it," rode to Annapolis. 

Assembling in front of yonder old brick house, their leader, address- 
ing Stewart, said: "You must burn your ship and its cargo of tea or 
hang. ' ' 

Stewart chose not to hang, and forthwith, accompanied by the chief 
of the band of patriots, boarded his brig and applied the torch; and she, 
with her cargo, was burned to the water's edge. 

For this act these young Sons of lyiberty were called by the loyalists 
"Mohocks." For capturing the Drake and the Serapis John Paul 
Jones was characterized by the British a pirate and freebooter. 

The tea burning at Boston is renowned as an act of unexampled 
daring at that day in the defense of American liberty; but this 
tea burning at Annapolis far surpassed it in utter carelessness of 
concealment. 

It was an instance of the most open and determined opposition to 
the oppressive measures of the British Government. 

This ancient city has always been animated by a spirit of patriotism. 

In that old statehouse the colonists met in July, 1775, a year before 
the Declaration of Independence, resolved to throw ofi the British 
yoke, and for that purpose formed the Association of Freemen of 
Maryland. 

It was in the senate chamber in that venerable building that George 
Washington, on the 23d day of December, 1783, handed back to Con- 
gress his commission to command the Revolutionary forces. 

In that same chamber, on January 14, 1784, the treatj- of peace 
between Great Britain and the colonies was ratified by the Conti- 
nental Congress. 

In that same room, in September, 1786, there was held, at the sug- 
gestion of George Washington, a convention composed of representa- 
tives from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, 
and Maryland. 

Its deliberations resulted in the calling of a convention, out of which 
grew that sublime instrument, the charter of our liberties, the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. 

Where, then, Mr. President, could you have found a more appro- 
priate spot for the final resting place for the body of John Paul 
Jones? 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 39 

Here it will repose amid the associations and the memorials con- 
nected with the history of our Navy, an ever-present inspiration to the 
young men who are here trained for service upon the sea. 

As illustrating the value of an example of fighting qualities, I am 
reminded of an incident told by Admiral Dewey when he laid the 
corner stone of the memorial chapel here. 

He said that a friend had asked him what thoughts were uppermost 
in his mind as he entered Manila Bay on May i, 1898, when he 
destroyed the Spanish fleet and won that glorious victory. 

Replying, he said : "I was thinking of what Farragut would do if 
he were here." 

The American nation owes you. General Porter, a debt of gratitude 
for the patriotic work you did in searching for these remains. 

At 3'our own expense, with unflagging determination and devotion, 
you undertook and carried through to success what was declared by 
many to be a hopeless quest. 

Your achievement is a source of great pride to your compatriots of 
the patriotic societies of our country and has aroused anew their enthu- 
siasm in carrying out the purposes of their respective organizations. 

Especially is this true of the society of the Sons of the American 
Revolution, over which at one time you presided as president- general. 

All Americans, and especially we of Maryland, will ever hold you 
an unselfish patriot — one who loves his country and her splendid 
traditions. 

The people of the United States can never forget the aid that France 
rendered our patriot fathers when they were struggling for freedom 
from British rule. Her generous services made the independence of 
the colonies possible. So, sir, the gratitude of the American people 
to France will continue forever. 

La Fayette occupies a place in our hearts second only to that of 
Washington, and a monument stands on our Capitol Hill to De Kalb, 
who fell while leading Maryland troops in the hard-fought battle of 
Camden. 

The French troops under command of La Fayette and Rochambeau 
encamped here in 1781 on the way to York town, and again in 1782 on 
their return after the surrender of Cornwallis. 

Their presence here, in March, 1781, saved our city from sack and 
the capitol from destruction by the British fleet, then in the Chesa- 
peake Bay. 



40 Addresses 



So, Mr. Ambassador Jusserand, you can understand the pleasure I 
feel, as chief executive of Maryland, in extending to you and the 
oflScers and sailors of the fleet of your nation a heartfelt welcome to 
the shores of our old Commonwealth — a Commonwealth that has been 
associated so closely with your own country through the services of so 
many of your distinguished patriots and brave sailors and soldiers. 

May the friendship founded on these services, and cemented by the 
blood of the two nations, last through all the years to come. 




JOHN PAUL JONES. 
From pa.nt„,g by M,ss Beaux, P--m^ed ^ tt^ciass of :SS: to United States Naval 



PRAYER OF CHAPLAIN CLARK 

U. S. NAVY 

Our Heavenly Father : We thank Thee for the memory of the one 
whom we honor to-day ; for the insight and bravery which he carried 
to the crowning act of his life, the act that so inspired and strengthened 
the hearts of the people in their great struggle for nationality. We 
thank Thee for the sympathy and the material support so freely given 
him by the great nation beyond the sea. And now may there come to 
our whole people a quickejied perception of how great a thing it is to 
be citizens of this land ; to be possessors of such a material inheritance ; 
to have national ideals that may be pursued with utmost Christian 
earnestness, perseverance, and devotion. And may all have an ever- 
deepening sense of dependence upon Thee for the gifts that are our 
distinction and joy as a nation. And Thy name shall have the glor}'. 
Amen. 

41 



M^ i ji ii - i ii Limi . i M » pu.i^Miiiij. » j« ii ii.i,..v,ji4iB^|l l i ) iBpjMjj l BJH i [jyVj l ^^^ ' " *»! 




' '^t9//// -^r///y -yoz/rj 



T^-I.s hi)mnu ■=. r.irttnoni \\' pcuvi.'nl |.i|i.(tnk-r , 



Prom engraving by Jean-Michel Moreau le Jeune, Paris, 17S1, original in possession of tlie 

Bostonian Society. 



II. PAPERS AND REPORTS 



DISCOVERY, IDENTIFICATION, AND TRANSFER OF 
REMAINS OF JOHN PAUL JONES 

MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT 

To the Senate and House of Represejitatives : 

For a number of years efforts have been made to confirm the his- 
torical statement that the remains of Admiral John Paul Jones were 
interred in a certain piece of ground in the city of Paris then owned 
by the Government and used at the time as a burial place for foreign 
Protestants. These efforts have at last resulted in documentary proof 
that John Paul Jones was buried on July 20, 1792, between 8 and 9 
o'clock p. m., in the now abandoned cemetery of St. Louis, in the 
northeastern section of Paris. About 500 bodies were interred there, 
and the body of the admiral was probably among the last hundred 
buried. It was incased in a leaden co£5n, calculated to withstand the 
ravages of time. 

The cemetery was about 130 feet long by 120 feet wide. Since its 
disuse as a burial place the soil has been filled to a level and covered 
almost completely by buildings, most of them of an inferior class. 

The American ambassador in Paris, being satisfied that it is practicable 
to discover and identify the remains of John Paul Jones, has, after pro- 
longed negotiations with the present holders of the property and the 
tenants thereof, secured from them options in writing which give him 
the right to dig in all parts of the property during a period of three 
months for the purpose of making the necessary excavations and 
searches, upon condition of a stated compensation for the damage and 
annoyance caused by the work. The actual search is to be conducted 
by the chief engineer of the municipal department of Paris having 
charge of subterranean works at a cost which has been carefully esti- 
mated. The ambassador gives the entire cost of the work, including the 
options, compensation, cost of excavating, and caring for the remains, 
as not exceeding 180,000 francs, or $35,000, on the supposition that 

43 



44 Papers and Reports 



the body may not be found until the whole area has been searched. 
If earlier discovered, the expense would be proportionately less. 

The great interest which our people feel in the story of Paul Jones's 
life, the national sense of gratitude for the great service done by him 
toward the achievement of independence, and the sentiment of min- 
gled distress and regret felt because the body of one of our greatest 
heroes lies forgotten and unmarked in foreign soil, lead me to approve 
the ambassador's suggestion that Congress should take advantage of 
this unexpected opportunity to do proper honor to the memory of Paul 
Jones, and appropriate the sum of $35,000, or so much thereof as may 
be necessary, for the purposes above described, to be expended under 
the direction of the Secretary of State. 

The report of Ambassador Porter, with the plans and photograph of 
the property, is annexed hereto. 

In addition to the foregoing recommendation, I urge that Congress 
emphasize the value set by our people upon the achievements of the 
naval commanders in our war of independence by providing for the 
erection of appropriate monuments to the memory of two, at least, of 
those who now lie in undistinguished graves — John Paul Jones and John 
Barry. These two men hold unique positions in the history of the 
birth of our Navy. Their services were of the highest moment to 
the young Republic in the days when it remained to be determined 
whether or not she should win out in her struggle for independence. 
It is eminently fitting that these services should now be commemorated 
in suitable manner. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

The White House, February 13, 1905. 



AMBASSADOR PORTER TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 
[Telegram.] 

Paris, April 14., 1905. 
My six years' search for remains of Paul Jones has resulted in success. 
Having explored the old St. Louis cemetery, where Admiral was buried 
in leaden coffin, and where I had verified the facts that all the dead 
remained entirely undisturbed, I found only four coffins of lead. The 
first three bore plates giving names and dates of burial, the fourth was 
in solidity of construction and workmanship much superior to the 
others. Like them was similar in shape to mummy coffins, widening 
from feet to shoulders with small round top to fit head, like all coffins 
of that period. No plate could be found; one may have been put on 
outer wooden coffin, few vestiges of which are left. Another corpse 
had been buried immediately on top. Appearances indicate that in 
digging that grave wooden coffin had been partly stripped off. Plate 



Jo h 71 Pa ul J on e s Commemoration 45 



may then have been carried away. On opening coffin body fortunately 
found quite well preserved, coffin having been filled with alcohol, but 
which had evaporated, and body carefully packed in straw. As I 
predicted in a former report, coffin contained neither uniform, sword, 
nor decorations. It was discovered in one of the spots where I 
expected to find it. I took it to the School of Medicine, where Doctors 
Capitan and Papillault, the distinguished professors of the School of 
Anthropology, well known for their large experience in such matters, 
were charged with removing the body from the coffin and making 
minute examination for purposes of identification. They were fur- 
nished with medallions, portraits, Houdon's two busts, authentic 
measurements, description of color of hair, and all the mass of infor- 
mation which had been collected regarding Paul Jones's appearance. 
The following facts were fully substantiated: Length of body, 5 feet 7 
inches, Paul Jones's exact height; head in size and shape identical with 
head of Paul Jones, hair on head and body dark brown, same as that of 
Paul Jones, in places slightly gray, indicating person of his age, 45 
years; high forehead, hair long, combed back, reaching below his 
shoulders gathered in a clasp at back of neck, curled in two rolls on 
temples; face clean shaven, corresponding exactly with descriptions, 
portraits, and busts of the Admiral. Buried in shirt and wrapped in 
sheet; linen in good condition, bearing a small initial worked with 
thread, either a "J " or, if read upside down, a "P." Coffin very solid. 
Body carefully preserved and packed. Limbs wrapped with tin foil, 
evidently for purpose of sea transportation a long distance, as indicated 
in an authentic letter of his particular friend and pallbearer, Colonel 
Blackden, which says: " His body was put into a leaden coffin on the 
20th that in case the United States, which he had so essentially served 
and with so much honor, should claim his remains they might be more 
easily removed. ' ' Autopsy showed distinct proofs of disease of which 
Admiral is known to have died. Identification complete in every par- 
ticular. Detailed reports of all facts duly certified by participants and 
witnesses will go by mail. Will have remains put in suitable casket 
and deposited in receiving vault of American Church till decision 
reached as to most appropriate means of transportation to America. 

Porter. 



THE ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE TO AMBASSADOR PORTER 

[Telegram.] 

Department of State, 
Washington, April 75, /poj. 
The Department has great pleasure in sending cordial congratulations 
upon your success in finding body of Paul Jones. 

LOOMIS. 



4-6 Papers and Reports 

THE ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE TO AMBASSADOR PORTER 

[Telegram.] 

Department of State, 
Washington, April ij, 1905. 
The Government will send a naval squadron to bring back the remains 
of Jones. Some time in June is suggested as convenient period. 

I^OOMIS. 



AMBASSADOR PORTER TO THE SECRETARY OP STATE 
[Telegram.] 

American Embassy, 

Paris, April 20, 1905. 
Thanks for congratulations. Any time month of June would be good 
season for arrival of fleet. Deposited remains to-day in vault American 
church incased in original cof&n, a leaden casket and oak coflSn covered 
with American flag. 

Porter. 



THE SECRETARY OP STATE TO GENERAD PORTER 
[Telegram.] 

Department of State, 
Washington, June 20, igo^. 
Obtain permission to land military force under arms from Rear- 
Admiral Sigsbee's squadron as escort for body Paul Jones. 

Hay. 



LETTER FROM THE ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE TO GENERAI, 

PORTER 

Department of State, 
Washington , June 27, igo§. 

Sir: I have to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 
the 2d instant, transmitting a memorandum of the exact method pur- 
sued in recoffining the body of John Paul Jones for transporation to the 
United States. 

I have caused a copy of your communication to be sent to the Navy 
Department for the completion of its files in connection with the 
subject. 

As this memorandum completes your most interesting and valuable 
report, I beg leave to tender the Department's hearty congratulations 



John Paul Jones Comtnemoration 47 



on the successful termination of your patriotic and zealous efforts, which 
have brought about an occurrence of not only historic but of scientific 
importance. 

I am, etc., Herbert H. D. Peirce. 



THK ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE TO AMBASSADOR McCORMICK 

[Telegram.] 

Department of State, 
Washington , June jo, ipo§. 
General Porter has been appointed by the President special ambas- 
sador, and from his late position will be considered as the senior of the 
two special ambassadors to arrange on behalf of the United States for 
the reception of the body of Paul Jones. In the actual delivery of the 
body General Porter, as special ambassador, will deliver it to Special 
Ambassador I^oomis. This * * * is designed by this Government 
to recognize General Porter's great ser\'ices, and at the same time to 
show the keen interest of the Government by having sent over a special 
ambassador to assist at the function. 

Peirce. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE FOIyLOWING ILLUSTRA- 
TIONS 

THE LIFE SIZE HOUDON BUST OF PAUL JONES — VIEWED FROM THE 
SAME ANGLE AS THE HEAD ON THE SECOND FOLLOWING PAGE AND 
REPRODUCED ON THE SAME SCALE 

[From plaster cast in the Trocadero, Paris.] 

In the comparison attention should be paid especially to the contour of the brow; 
the arch of the eyebrows; the width between the eyes; the high cheek bones; the 
muscles of the face; and the distances between the hair and the root of the nose, 
between the subnasal point and the lips, and between the lips and the point of the 
chin. The peculiar shape of the lobe of the ear in the bust is the exact counterpart 
of that observed in the body, but is lost in shadow in the photograph on the second 
following page. — H. P. 

THE HEAD OF THE RECOVERED BODY OF JOHN PAUL JONES 

This photograph, taken after the examination of Paul Jones's body for identifica- 
tion, is interesting as showing the well-preserved condition of the flesh. The carti- 
laginous portion of the nose had been bent over to the right, pressed down, and 
entirely distorted. This disfigurement was clearly due to the fact that when the body 
was put in the coffin an excess of the hay-and-straw packing had been placed under 
the head and the mass of long hair had been gathered into the linen cap at the back. 
This raised the face so high that the coffin lid pressed upon it. This pressure had 
been so great that the head itself was found turned a little to the right. The angle 
at which the photograph was taken causes the disfigured nose to look as if it were 
Roman in shape, the end being bent over and depressed, giving the bridge an unnat- 
ural prominence. The bony part of the nose is pronounced by the scientists as 
entirely compatible with the undulating outline seen on the authentic busts. The 
other features conform strictly to those of the busts, as proved by the anthropometric 
measurements. The general expression of the face is not as good as if it had been 
taken immediately after opening the coffin. The skin has shrunk and the lips have 
contracted by exposure to the air, showing the edges of the teeth, which were not 
visible at first. The hair, which was found neatly dressed, is in disorder, and could 
not be rearranged, as an attempt to comb it revealed a danger of pulling it out. The 
oblique lines on the face were made by creases in the winding sheet, and the right 
shoulder bears marks caused by the force used in packing the body firmly with hay 
and straw. — H. P. 

THE COMPOSITE PRINT OF THE BUST AND FACE OF JOHN PAUL JONES 

This composite print in a light-colored ink shows the agreement of the two fol- 
lowing prints of the plaster bust and the human head. 
48 




HOUDON BUST OF JOHN PAUL JONES, 
From plaster cast in the Trocadero Museum, I'aris. 




THE HEAD OF JOHN PAUL JONES. 




OOMPuSlTE OF THE TWO PRECEDING PRINTS, SHOWING THE REMARKABLE AGREEMENT 
BETWEEN THE PLASTER BUST AND THE HUMAN HEAD 



A 



REPORT OF GENERAL PORTER 

UPON assuming charge of our embassy in Paris and finding myself 
among the old landmarks, which are still honored there as recall- 
ing the many historic incidents in the sojourn of Paul Jones in 
that brilliant capital, I felt a deep sense of humiliation as an American 
citizen in realizing that our first and most fascinating naval hero had 
been hdng for more than a century in an unknown and forgotten grave, 
and that no serious attempt had ever been made to recover his remains 
and give them appropriate sepulture in the land upon whose history 
he had shed so much luster. 

Knowing that he had been buried in Paris, I resolved to undertake 
personally a systematic and exhaustive search for the body. 

The investigation began in June, 1899. The first step was to study 
all the writings obtainable relating to him, including official documents. 
The certificate of his burial had been registered, but the register had 
been placed with other archives of the city of Paris in an annex of the 
Hotel de Ville, situated on Victoria avenue, and had been destroyed 
with other important records when the Government buildings were 
burned by the Commune in May, 1871. Fortunately, in 1859, Mr. 
Charles Read, an archseologist, investigator, and writer of note, had 
made a transcript of the register in which this certificate was recorded, 
and I finally succeeded in securing a correct copy. The following is an 
English translation of this interesting document: 

To-day, July 20, 1792, year IV of Liberty, at 8 o'clock in the evening, conformably 
to the decree of the National Assembly of yesterday, in presence of the delegation of 
the said assembly, composed of Messrs. Brun, president of the delegation of the said 
assembly; Bravet, Cambon, Rouyer, Brival, Deydier; Gay \'ernon, bishop of the 
Department of Haute- Vienne; Chabot, Episcopal vicar of the Department of Loir-et- 
Cher; Carlier, Petit, Le Josnes, Robouame; and of a deputation of the consistory of 
the Protestants of Paris, composed of Messrs. Marron the pastor, Perreaux, Benard, 
Marquis Mouquin, and Umpaytaz, anciens, was buried in the cemetery for foreign 
Protestants, Jean Paul Jones, native of England and citizen of the United States of 
America, senior naval oflScer in the service of the said States, aged 45 3'ears, died 
the i8th of this month at his residence situated at No. 42 Rue de Tournon, from 
dropsy of the chest, in the faith of the Protestant religion. The said burial was 
made in our presence by Pierre Francois Simonneau, commissary of the King for 
this section and commissary of police for the Ponceau section, in presence of M. 
Samuel Blackden, colonel of dragoons in the service of the State of North Carolina 
and a citizen of the United States of America; J. C. Mountfiorence, formerly major 
in the service of the United States; Marie Jean Baptiste Benoist Beaupoil, formerly 
a French officer, residing in Paris at No. 7 Passage des Petits Peres; and of Louis 
7257—07 4 49 



50 Papers and Reports 



Nicolas Villeminot, the officer commanding the detachment of the grenadiers of the 
gendarmerie which escorted the delegation of the assembly; and others who have 
signed with us. 

Brun; Gay Vernon, bishop and deputy; Deydier, deputy from the department of 
Ain; Rouyer; Benard; Francois Chabot; J. C. Mountflorence; Petit; Cambon fils 
ain^; Bravet; Beaupoil; P. H. Carlier; Durvosque; Lafontaine; Simonneau; Jacques 
Brival; Villeminot; Robouame; deputy; Marron; Perreaux; Mouquin; Empaytaz; 
R. Ghiselin, of Maryland; S. Blackden; Griffith, of Philadelphia. 

Historians had differed as to the date of the death; the above-quoted 
certificate of burial fixes it definitely on July i8, 1792. 

The best description of Paul Jones's last moments is given in a letter 
received a month after the funeral by his elder sister, Mrs. Jenny 
Taylor (sometimes spelled in the official documents Jeanne, Janet, and 
Janette), in Scotland, written by his intimate friend, a witness of his 
will and a pallbearer at his funeral, Col. Samuel Blackden, a planter 
from North Carolina, who had served with distinction in the American 
Revolution, and was in Paris on business at the time of Paul Jones's 
last illness and death. The following is an extract from his letter: 

But for two months past he began to lose his appetite, grew yellow, and showed 
symptoms of jaundice. For this he took medical treatment and for a short time 
seemed to grow better. A few days before his death his legs began to swell, which 
proceeded upward to his body, so that for two days before his decease he could 
not button his waistcoat and had great difficulty in breathing. 

I visited him every day, and, beginning to be apprehensive of his danger, desired 
him to settle his affairs; but he would not take that view of it, and put off the mak- 
ing of his will until the afternoon of July 18, when he was prevailed upon to send 
for a notary and made his will. M. Beaupoil and myself witnessed it and left him 
sitting in a chair in his parlor. A few minutes after we retired he walked into his 
chamber and laid himself upon his face on the bedside, with his feet on the floor. 
The Queen's physician, who was attending him, came soon after, and on entering 
the apartment found him in that position, and on trying to lift him up found that 
he had expired. His disorder had terminated in dropsy of the heart. His body 
was put into a leaden coffin on the 20th, that, in case the United States, which he 
had so essentially served and with so much honor, should claim his remains they 
might be more easily removed. 

M. Beaupoil, whom he mentioned, was a major in the French army 
and an aid-de-camp to La Fayette, with whom he had served in the 
American Revolution. 

I had been misled for some time by having been furnished with an 
alleged copy of the certificate of bui'ial published in the ' ' Bulletin of 
the Society of the History of Protestantism," in which there had been 
omitted after the word ' ' anciens, ' ' doubtless through an error of the 
copyist, the following all-important phrase: " Was buried in the ceme- 
tery for foreign Protestants." Besides this, eight words of minor 
significance had been omitted. The fact that the French construction 
was defective without some additional words led to another search, and 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale was at last found a magazine called the 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 51 



' ' Correspondance Litteraire, ' ' containing an article by Charles Read, giv- 
ing the correct copy of the certificate of burial, which he had made from 
the register referred to and of which the above is a translation. The 
article expressed the conviction of Mr. Read that the cemetery for 
foreign Protestants was the long-since abandoned and almost forgotten 
cemetery of Saint Louis, situated upon a street formerly called 
L'Hopital Saint lyouis, at present Grange-aux-Belles. 

As some writers had expressed, however vaguely, different opinions, 
I instituted a long and exhaustive search to verify the grounds upon 
which Mr. Read had based his belief. 

Public records were found showing that in 1720 the Government, at 
the instigation of Holland, had set aside a lot for the burial of foreign 
Protestants near the Porte Saint Martin, called the "Saint Martin 
Cemetery," but which was closed in 1762. The Saint Louis Cemetery 
for foreign Protestants was opened about that time and ofiicially closed 
in January, 1793, six months after Paul Jones's decease, although some 
interments were made thereafter. 

The custodian in charge of each of these cemeteries was named 
' ' Corro}^ ' ' and it was ascertained from certain old documents discov- 
ered that the position had descended from father to son, which was 
evidence tending to show that the Saint Louis was the immediate suc- 
cessor of the Porte Saint Martin Cemetery. A copy was afterwards 
found of a decree regarding the burial of foreign Protestants, issued 
May 26, 1781, officially confirming this fact, and approved by De Ver- 
gennes, minister of foreign affairs under Louis XVI. From this decree 
have been taken the following extracts : 

By an order of council of June 20, 1720, it was decreed that there should be desig- 
nated a place for the burial of the bodies of foreign Protestants. The ground which 
was chosen was situated near the Porte Saint Martin. * ■« * 

In the year 1762 the cemetery was transferred behind the Saint Louis Hospital. 

This description clearly designated the Saint Louis Cemetery. To 
endeavor to obtain some authentic information as to whether there were 
any other cemeteries for foreign Protestants in existence at the time, 
and whether any further corroborative evidence could be found regard- 
ing the burial place of the Admiral, an examination requiring several 
months was made of all the journals and periodicals obtainable of about 
the date of the funeral, which took place July 20, 1792. Access was 
had to more than a hundred publications, which were found in the pos- 
session of libraries, societies, and individuals. 

The Mo?iiteur,ToTs\e: XIII, page 192, published a report of the pro- 
ceedings of the National Assembly, session of July 19, 1792, the day 
after Paul Jones's death, which contained the following statement : 

A letter was read from Colonel Blackden, a friend of Commodore Paul Jones, 
which announced that his friend having died in Paris, application was made to 



52 Papers and Reports 



M. Simonneau, commissary of the section, to have him buried without charge in 
accordance with a formality still existing in regard to Protestants. M. Simonneau 
was indignant and replied that if the expenses were not provided he would pay them 
himself. [Applause.] 

The "formality" mentioned referred to a decree by which M. Simon- 
neau, who was also "commissary of the King," was charged with the 
burial of all foreign Protestants. The letter of Colonel Blackden was 
published in the Boston Journal of that year, and is as follows : 

Mr. President : I announce to you that Admiral Paul Jones died last evening in 
Paris ; that the American minister has ordered the person at whose house the 
Admiral lodged to cause him to be interred in the most private manner and at the 
least possible expense ! ! ! This person, on account of the formalities still existing 
relative to Protestants, found it necessary to apply to a commissary. He has done 
it, and M. Simonneau, the commissary, expresses his astonishment at the order 
given by the minister, and says that a man who has rendered such signal services to 
France and America ought to have a public burial. He adds that if America will 
not pay the expense he will pay it himself. The friends of the Admiral wait the 
orders of the Assembly respecting the mode of interment. 

S. Bl,ACKDEN, 

Late Colonel in the Service of tlie United States. 

In order to ascertain, if possible, whether M. Simonneau had actually 
paid the funeral expenses out of his own means, or whether some other 
provision had been made, I instituted a search in the various depart- 
ments of the Government in the hope of finding some record of the action 
taken. Fortunately a letter was finally found in the national archives 
written by the then minister of justice, M. Dejolj'', dated July 22, 1792, 
two days after the funeral, from which the following is an extract : 

To THE NaTionai, Assembi<y : M. Simonneau has furnished the cost of the inter- 
ment of Admiral Paul Jones, of which the bill amounts to 462 francs. This is an 
homage which he has rendered to the remains of this celebrated man, and this act of 
good citizenship is worthy of M. Simonneau, brother of the mayor of fltampes, 
who died in executing the law. 

This brought to light for the first time the mortifying fact that the 
hero who had once been the idol of the American people had been buried 
by charity, and that the payment of his funeral expenses was the timely 
and generous act of a foreign admirer. 

I made a search to see whether any needy lineal descendants of 
M. Pierre Franjois Simonneau, the generous commissary, could be 
found, with view to paying to them the amount, with interest, expended 
by their worthy ancestor, as a tardy recognition of his noble act. Six 
persons of that name were discovered and communicated with, but no 
proof could be obtained that anyone of them was a descendant. 

Our minister to France at that time, Gouverneur Morris, who was 
on terms of close intimacy with Paul Jones and who superintended the 
drawing up of the schedule of his property the afternoon before his 



Jo h n Pate I Jo ne s C o vim e m o r at i o n 53 



death, says in a letter dated April 19, 1793, published in his "Diary 
and I^etters," \'olume II, page 46, and addressed to Robert Morris: 

Before I quit Paul Jones I must tell you that some people here who like rare 
shows wished him to have a pompous funeral, and I was applied to on the subject ; 
but as I had no right to spend money on such follies, either the money of his heirs 
or that of the United States, I desired that he might be buried in a private and 
economical manner. I have since had reason to be glad that I did not agree to 
waste money, of which he had no great abundance and for which his relatives 
entertained a tender regard. 

The impression as to the Admiral's having no great abundance of 
means proved later to be erroneous. When his effects were sold, stocks 
converted into cash, and arrears of pay collected, the sum procured 
amounted to about $30,000, and much more was realized afterwards, 
which went to his heirs. And yet there seemed to be no ready money 
available at his death to provide for his funeral. 

After finding the living successor to the notary who made the settle- 
ment of the estate and who was in possession of all the original papers 
in French, I had the detailed account examined, and ascertained that 
M. Simonneau had not been reimbursed for the money he expended. 
The inventory found among these papers and made after Paul Jones's 
death enumerates among the articles left by him 7 uniforms, 1 2 decora- 
tions, and 4 swords. It was natural to suppose that this large number 
included all such articles as he possessed, and as in those days they 
were regarded as valuable relics to be bequeathed to heirs, and as it was 
not customary to clothe the dead but to bury them in winding sheets, 
it seemed quite probable that no uniform, sword, or decoration would 
be found in the Admiral's coffin. Buell said of Paul Jones (page 366, 
Vol. II, first ed.): "He was buried in a shroud, without uniform or 
trappings of any kind. ' ' In the settlement of the estate all the above- 
named articles were sold except the sword presented to him by lyouis 
XVI in recognition of his heroic achievement in capturing the Serapis. 
This the Admiral disposed of orally just before his death, bequeathing 
it to Richard Dale, his first lieutenant when he captured the Serapis^ 
saying : ' ' My good old Dick is better entitled to it than anyone else, 
because he did more than any other to help me win it." 

M. Simonneau, having taken so much interest in Paul Jones and 
being in sole charge of the burial of foreign Protestants in Paris, would 
have naturally interred him in the officially designated and most prom- 
inent burial ground devoted to that purpose, if there were more than 
one in existence. The Saint Louis Cemetery was well known and 
officially designated, and as no mention could be found of any other in 
Paris for foreign Protestants at the time, the natural inference was that 
the burial had taken place there. 

M. Hop, ambassador of Holland to France, had succeeded in securing 
the cemetery granted by decree in 1720, which was opened in 1724 for 



54 Papers and Reports 

foreign Protestants, and in that cemetery, as well as in its successors, 
all the burials of such persons could be made only upon certificates 
issued by the Dutch embassy. 

With a view to ascertaining some information from that source, a 
search was made, at my request, of the records of the Dutch legation in 
Paris and in the foreign oflSce at The Hague, but it was found that 
while some useful information was obtained, no copies of such certifi- 
cates had been preserved. 

The person who delivered Paul Jones's funeral oration was M. Paul 
Henri Marron, who had come from Holland and was pastor of a Prot- 
estant house of worship in Paris called the ' ' Church of Saint L,ouis. ' ' 
The following is a copy of his rather florid address: 

Legislators ! Citizens ! Soldiers ! Friends ! Brethren ! and Frenchmen ! We 
have just returned to the earth the remains of an illustrious stranger, one of the 
first champions of American liberty — of that liberty which so gloriously ushered in 
our own. The Semiramis of the North had drawn him under her standard, but Paul 
Jones could not long breathe the pestilential air of despotism ; he preferred the 
sweets of a private life in France, now free, to the ^clat of titles and of honors which, 
from an usurped throne, were lavished upon him bj' Catherine. The fame of the 
brave outlives him, his portion is immortality. What more flattering homage could 
we pay to the remains of Paul Jones than to swear on his tomb to live and die free? 
It is the vow, it is the watchword of every Frenchman — let never tyrants nor their 
satellites pollute this sacred earth! May the ashes of the great man, too soon lost to 
humanity, and eager to be free, enjoy here an undisturbed repose! Let his example 
teach posterity the efforts which noble souls are capable of making when stimulated 
by hatred of oppression. Friends and brethren, a noble emulation brightens in your 
looks ; your time is precious — the country is in danger! Who among us would not 
shed the last drop of his blood to save it ? Associate yourselves with the glory of 
Paul Jones, in imitating him in his contempt of danger, in his devotedness to his 
country, in his noble patriotism, which, after having astonished the present age, 
will continue to be the imperishable object of the veneration of future generations ! 

It is not a little singular that, notwithstanding the radical sentiments 
expressed by this pastor, he was several times arrested by the revolu- 
tionists and was once or twice in great peril of his life. 

I found the book containing the minutes of the meetings of the con- 
sistory of M. Marron's church, but just at the date of Paul Jones's death 
four pages had been torn out. This was one of the many disappoint- 
ments encountered during the researches. I then set to work upon 
the task of trying to trace the lost leaves. The name of a M. Coquerel, 
a former pastor of the church, was mentioned in a publication as 
an enthusiastic collector of papers relating to Protestantism in Paris. 
My search in junk shops and antiquarian stores revealed the fact that 
M. Coquerel' s heirs had sold some old papers which had afterwards 
been purchased by the Society of the History of Protestantism, and in 
its library were finally found the four lost pages. 

I now ascertained positively that M. Marron buried his parishioners 
in the Saint L,ouis Cemetery, and the fact that he had delivered the 



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John Paul Jones Commemoration 55 



funeral oration of Paul Jones would be an indication that he had also 
buried him there. 

While all the proofs thus far distinctly designated this cemetery as 
the Admiral's place of burial, still it was deemed prudent to investigate 
the source of various rumors to the contrary, however improbable. 
The elder Dumas in his romance of ' ' The Pioneer ' ' represents Paul 
Jones as having been buried in Pere Lachaise. Notwithstanding the 
fact that this celebrated cemetery had not been opened till thirteen years 
after the Admiral was buried, yet to be sure that his body had not been 
transferred there in later years, a thorough examination was made of 
the registers in which the records of burials have been carefully kept. 
The only male persons found upon the registers bearing the family name 
of Jones were George Jones, but spelled "Jones" on the gravestone, 
died in 1820; John Quereau Jones, in 1822; James Jones, in 1827; Charles 
Jones, in 1829; Edouard Thomas Jones, in 1833. It was therefore cer- 
tain that the Admiral's remains were not in Pere Lachaise. 

There was another fanciful story that he had been interred in Picpus 
Cemetery, where L,a Fayette was buried; but as Paul Jones, as recorded 
in his certificate of burial, was of the Protestant faith, his interment in 
any cemetery of the established church would have been prohibited. 
Still, a search was made and it disproved the rumor. 

A letter came to me from a person who had lived in Scotland when a 
child, many years ago, saying Paul Jones had been buried in Kirkbean 
churchyard, near Dumfries, Scotland : that his tomb was there with his 
name inscribed on it, etc. I referred the letter to the rector of the church, 
the Rev. D. W. MacKenzie, who replied that it was the tomb of Paul 
Jones's father, saying : 

The inscription on it is as follows : "In memory of John Paul, senior, who died 
at Arbigland, the 24th of October, 1767, universally esteemed." At the bottom of 
the tomb appears the inscription : "Erected by John Paul, junior." John Paul, of 
course, is the original name of John Paul Jones, the Admiral. I take great interest 
in the history of the Admiral, and local traditions or printed documents suggest 
nothing at variance with the accepted opinion that he died in Paris and was buried 
in the Protestant cemetery there. 

After further researches in every possible quarter that could furnish 
information on the subject, the fact was clearly and incontestably estab- 
lished that the Saint Louis Cemetery was the only burial ground in Paris 
for foreign Protestants at the time of Paul Jones's death ; that he was 
not interred in any other cemetery ; and that Charles Read was perfectly 
correct in his opinion that the Admiral had positively been buried in 
the cemetery of Saint Louis. It should be remembered, also, that the 
act of burial says, " The cemetery for foreign Protestants," language 
indicating that there was only one in existence devoted to that purpose. 

All doubt having been removed as to the place of burial, the next 
step was to make a personal inspection of the ground beneath which 



56 Papers and Reports 



the long-since abandoned cemetery was located, and to endeavor to 
ascertain its history and its condition at the time of Paul Jones's death. 

It is situated in an uninviting section of the northeastern quarter of 
Paris, at the corner of two streets now known as ' ' Rue Grange-aux- 
Belles" and "Rue des Elcluses Saint Martin," and covered with build- 
ings, principally of an inferior class. The property at the time of the 
Admiral's burial belonged to the Government, and was sold to M. Phal- 
ipeaux, a building contractor, in 1796. This quarter of the city was 
known as "le Combat," and the present station of the underground 
railroad, close to the propertj% is called " Combat." This name was not 
chosen, however, on account of the burial there of the most combative 
of men, but history attributes the term to the fact that this section of 
Paris was long ago the scene of all the fights in which animals figured — 
bulls, cocks, dogs, asses, etc. 

A street which leads directly to the property and ends' there is 
named Vicq d'Azyr, after Marie Antoinette's physician, a friend of 
Paul Jones, who attended him and who accompanied Gouverneur Mor- 
ris on his visit to the Admiral's house when he lay on his deathbed the 
evening of July 18, 1792. When a person's name is given to a street 
in Paris, it is generally in a quarter connected with events in his career. 
It is possible that the distinguished physician's name was given to the 
street because of its leading to the place which held the remains of his 
illustrious friend and patient. 

Two old maps of the property were finally discovered, one made bj^ 
M. Jaillot in 1773 and one by M. Verniquet in 1794, showing that the 
ground consisted of a courtyard with a frontage of about 130 feet upon 
Rue des Ecluses Saint Martin, with an entrance on that street, and 
a depth of about 90 feet along Rue Grange-aux-Belles. There was a 
garden in the rear with a frontage of 120 feet on Rue Grange-aux 
Belles and a depth of 130 feet. The surface of the garden was about 8 
feet lower than that of the courtyard, the descent to which was made 
by a flight of steps. Thirty years later the grade of the street had been 
changed and the garden had been leveled up even with the courtyard, 
and the fact seemed to have been lost sight of that there had ever been 
a cemetery beneath. There were two cross-walks dividing the garden 
into four squares. The whole property was surrounded by a wall 
between 6 and 9 feet high. There was a house in the courtyard and a 
shed, but no buildings in the garden. 

By a decree of the Government the garden was devoted exclusively 
to the burial of foreign Protestants. On the 30th of September, 1777, 
a decree was issued permitting native Protestants to be buried there- 
after in the courtyard. This cemetery, as hereinbefore mentioned, was 
legally closed in January, 1793, but the former custodian, who had 
become the lessee, and the subsequent owners, who had purchased the 




Stts do I'H^iCal- Scloids 

7«« ^# ia ^fsnga 0teg 



7 



! ^e £a Qfange enx Se/^oi. 



PLAN OF THE CEMETERY OF SAINT LOUIS IN 1792. 

The obloug mark shows the position of the cofiBn 
of Paul Jones relative to the cross walk. 



PLAN OF THE BUILDINGS COVERING THE CEMETERY OF 
SAINT LOUIS IN I905. 

The space from A to B is the street front of the abandoned 
cemetery. 








I I Substratum of gypsum 






CROSS SECTION OF THE CEMETERY ON THE LINES INDICATED IN THE MAP ON THE FOLLOWING PAGE BY 

THE LETTERS U, V, W, X, Y, Z. 
The short dark line at the left indicates the position of the coffin of John Paul Jones. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 57 



property from the Government, were allowed to make some burials for 
eleven 5-ears thereafter. 

I found in the tenth arrondissement (then the fifth), a copy of a 
letter written by the mayor, dated May 26, 1804, directing Citizen 
Richer to inspect the Protestant cemetery. After a long search I dis- 
covered in another quarter of the city his report, dated June 8 of that 
year. It was in much detail and was entirely in accordance with the 
maps heretofore mentioned in describing the Saint Louis Cemetery. 
Its accuracy was verified in every particular when this cemetery was 
afterwards explored. 

The next question was whether the dead had ever been removed 
from this abandoned cemeterj', as had been the case in some others. 
Satisfactory proof was readily obtained that such an act had not taken 
place before 1803 or after 1830. A search of the registers of the Cata- 
combs, where all the dead that are removed from abandoned cemeteries 
are deposited, showed no record of any bodies having been received 
from the Saint Louis Cemetery between the above dates or at any other 
time, and there could be found no information in any of the public 
departments showing that any removal had ever been made from that 
burial ground except of the remains of Lady Alexander Grant, whose 
body had been exhumed for transportation to England by formal per- 
mission of the city authorities, duly recorded May 2, 1803. There was 
registered at the Catacombs the receipt of leaden coffins from other 
abandoned cemeteries, and the removal there of a hand stretcher load 
of human bones from No. 39 Rue Grange-aux-Belles, and another from 
No. 4 Rue des E^cluses Saint Martin. These lots had once been used as 
a kind of potter's field. They were near to, but entirely outside of, 
the Saint Louis Cemetery. 

Having established the impossibilitj' of the leaden coffin having been 
removed by legitimate means, the only remaining doubt that could exist 
was based upon the suggestion that it might have been unearthed by 
the revolutionary armies to convert it into bullets. This unfounded 
surmise did not make much of an impression after a study of all the cir- 
cumstances and talks with the "oldest inhabitants," by whom traditions 
of a former age are often handed down. The French have a pro- 
found respect for the dead and the sacredness of places of burial; the 
humblest citizen uncovers reverently when a funeral passes; graves are 
tenderly cared for and kept decked with flowers, and their desecration 
is a rare crime. 

At the time of the Revolution there were statues and busts of lead in 
exposed places and extensive lead piping to carry the water from the 
Seine to Versailles, etc. , none of which was disturbed. Moreover, the 
metal contained in the few leaden coffins to be found at that date in a 
Paris cemetery would not have repaid the digging or furnished bullets 
for a single battalion. 



58 Papers and Reports 



If the Admiral had been buried in a wooden cofiSn hardly a vestige 
of it would have been in existence and only the mere skeleton of the 
body would have been found. Fortunately, however, the authentic letter 
written to Mrs. Janet Taylor, Paul Jones's eldest sister, by Colonel 
Blackden, and hereinbefore quoted, contained the following valuable 
information: 

His body was put into a leaden coffin on the 2otli, that in case the United States, 
which he had so essentially served and with so much honor, should claim his 
remains they might be more easily removed. 

The bill of 462 francs paid by M. Simonneau for the funeral expenses 
was corroborative of this fact, inasmuch as the cost of an ordinary 
funeral in those days, as ascertained from the records, was 128 francs, 
while that of a hospital patient cost as little as 89 francs, distributed as 
follows: Coffin 10 francs, choristers 10, sexton 15, commissary 48, his 
clerk 6. The payment therefor of 462 francs, more than three times 
the value of that sum at the present day , would have provided for an 
unusually large expenditure, and would have amply covered the cost of 
a substantial leaden coffin, a thorough preparation of the body to insure 
its preservation, and an elaborate system of packing, with a view to its 
transportation by sea. 

There had now been fully established by authentic documents and 
convincing corroborative evidence the fact that the Saint Louis Cemetery 
was the actual burial place of Paul Jones; that he had been buried in a 
leaden coffin; that the body had been prepared for transportation to the 
United States; that the coffin had never been removed by legitimate 
means, and that there was no probability that it had been carried away 
by stealth or had been stolen. 

After having studied the manner and place of his burial and contem- 
plated the circumstances connected with the strange neglect of his grave, 
one could not help feeling pained beyond expression and overcome by a 
sense of profound mortification. Here was presented the spectacle of a 
hero whose fame once covered two continents, and whose name is still 
an inspiration to a world-famed navy, lying for more than a century in 
a forgotten grave, like an obscure outcast, relegated to oblivion in a 
squalid quarter of a distant foreign city, buried in ground once conse- 
crated, but since desecrated by having been used at times as a garden, 
with the moldering bodies of the dead fertilizing its market vegetables, 
by having been covered later by a common dump pile, where dogs and 
horses had been buried, and the soil was still soaked with polluted 
waters from undrained laundries, and, as a culmination of degradation, 
by having been occupied by a contractor for removing night soil. 

It recalls the remark once made by a gallant naval officer: "When we 
give up our lives in the service of our couutrj' we do not ask that our 
graves be kept green, but should like to have them kept clean." 



John Paul Jones Commemoration ^g 



Having collected all the facts necessary to justif}' an immediate 
attempt to remove the remains from such offensive surroundings, and 
secure for them appropriate sepulture in America, I was about to open 
negotiations quietly with the proprietors and tenants who occupied the 
property with a view to purchasing the right to enter upon the premises 
and make the necessary excavations in order to explore thoroughly the 
cemetery, when unfortunately the news of this intention became pub- 
licly known through the indiscretion of persons who had been consulted 
on the subject. Self -constituted agents immediately began to busy 
themselves with circulating fantastic stories regarding the fabulous 
prices that were to be paid for the property, the whole of which it was 
said was going to be bought by a rich government, at any cost, as the 
only means of getting access to the cemetery and making the excava- 
tions necessary to find the body of its great admiral. Such representa- 
tions naturally created intense excitement, raised false hopes in the 
minds of those interested in the propertj-, and rendered negotiations on 
a practicable basis entirel}' impossible. This was altogether the most 
discouraging episode in the history of the undertaking. 

There was then but one course to pursue, however reluctantly, which 
was to drop the matter entirely for a couple of years, in order to let the 
excitement subside. 

At the end of that time negotiations were quietly opened upon the 
basis of purchasing the right to explore the abandoned cemetery by 
means of subterranean galleries, provided that all damages to houses 
should be repaired, any victims of disease caused by foul emanations 
from the disturbed soil indemnified , and the property afterwards restored 
to its former condition. After a series of prolonged and tedious nego- 
tiations, appeals to the public spirit of the occupants of the property, 
and an assurance that the United States Government had made no 
appropriation or taken any action in the matter, and that the work was 
simply an individual undertaking, I at last succeeded in procuring 
options in writing from all concerned granting the right for three 
months to enter upon the premises and make the necessary excavations. 

President Roosevelt, upon learning of the undertaking, had asked for 
information regarding it, and upon receiving my reply, giving an 
account of the project, sent an urgent message to Congress in February, 
1905, recommending an appropriation of $35,000, the estimated cost of 
carrying out the work. It was late in the short session, and no action 
was taken. It would not have been altogether unnatural, however, to 
regard the scheme as too Utopian in its nature to receive serious con- 
sideration, the remains of the Admiral having been long since relegated 
to the realms of mystery and given up as lost beyond recovery. 

As no promise could be secured as to how long the options obtained 
would be allowed to hold good, and as it was quite certain that if they 



6o Papers and Reports 



lapsed they could never be renewed upon any such terms, if at all, on 
account of changes among the tenants, the adverse disposition of some of 
the occupants, the publicity which had now been given the matter, etc., 
I deemed it a duty to pay at once the sums demanded in advance to bind 
the options, and to proceed with the work. 

The prefect of the Seine kindly permitted M. Paul Weiss of the serv- 
ice of the carrieres (quarries) of the city of Paris to direct the work, 
which was begun on Friday, February 3, 1905. This experienced and 
accomplished mining engineer displayed a professional skill of the very 
highest order, and by his ability, zeal, and devotion to the work greatly 
facilitated the task. The project presented serious difficulties from the 
fact that the filling of earth above the cemetery was composed of the 
dumpings of loose soil not compact enough to stand alone, and the shafts 
and galleries had to be solidly lined and shored up with heavy timbers as 
the excavations proceeded. The drainage was bad in places and there 
was trouble from the water. The walls of one of the buildings were 
considerably damaged. Slime, mud, and mephitic odors were encoun- 
tered, and long red worms appeared in abundance. 

The first shaft was opened in one of the yards to a depth of 18 feet. 
It proved clearly that the dead had never been disturbed. This fact 
was most satisfactory as disproving the predictions so often made to the 
contrary. The skeletons were found lying about a foot apart, generally 
in two layers, one above the other, and in some places there were three. 
This was a verification of the report of Citizen Richer, hereinbefore 
mentioned, saying that the dead were buried in a fosse (trench), which 
indicated that they were not interred in separate graves and were of a 
poor class. This led to the conclusion that there would' be very few 
leaden coffins found, as they could be afforded only by persons in easy 
circumstances. But few vestiges were left of the wooden coffins. 

Two more large shafts were sunk in the yards and two in the Rue 
Grange-aux-Belles, making five in all. Day and night gangs of work- 
men were employed, and active progress was made. Galleries were 
pushed in every direction and ' ' soundings ' ' were made between them 
with long iron tools adapted to this purpose, so that no leaden cofiin 
could possibly be missed. 

The first of the four squares explored was the one on the right of the 
original entrance to the cemetery. Here the excavators encountered a 
mass of skeletons, in three layers, superposed. They were placed irreg- 
ularly, some lying face down and others on their sides, in one la^-er piled 
lengthwise and in the one above crosswise, just as one would pile cord 
wood, the bodies being so close together that they could not have been 
buried in coffins. No explanation of the peculiar condition of things in 
this portion of the cemetery suggested itself until one day I came across 
a copy of a drawing by Bericourt representing the corpses of the Swiss 



fohn Paul Jones Commemoration 6i 



Guard killed in defending the Tuileries being hurriedly thrown into 
carts to be hauled away for burial. As it is known that most of them 
were Protestants, it is altogether likely that they were interred in the 
Saint Louis Cemetery in the confused manner indicated by the position 
of the skeletons found there. This slaughter occurred August lo, 1792, 
twenty-one days after Paul Jones's burial. If the above inference be 
correct, it furnishes another proof that although the cemetery was closed 
soon after his death there was plenty of room left for his coffin at the 
time of his burial, for the reason that so many bodies were interred 
there afterwards. 

I had given orders that if not present when a leaden coffin was dis- 
covered I should be sent for at once, as I was desirous of superintending 
personally the search for an inscription plate and any other indications 
that might aid in the identification. 

On February 22 the first leaden coffin was discovered. The round 
projecting end containing the head had been broken off and the skull 
was detached from the body. The remains of a water barrel were found 
near by. As the cemetery, after being closed, had been used as a market 
garden, the barrel had evidently been sunk in this spot to catch the 
water drained from the courtyard, and in excavating for it the head of 
the coffin had been knocked off. The outer wooden coffin had nearly 
disappeared, and the inscription plate it bore had fallen on the lid of the 
leaden coffin. This plate was of copper, and had become so brittle that 
when lifted it broke and a portion of it crumbled to pieces. It was so 
corroded and incrusted that no portion of the inscription could be read. 
Handling it with great care, I proceeded with it in person to Messrs. 
Andre & Son, the well-known decipherers and restorers of ancient 
enamels and art objects, who promised to apply all their skill to the task 
of reading it. 

By the next day the Messrs. Andre had cleansed the coffin plate 
sufficiently to be able to read distinctly the following portion of the 
inscription : 

"* * * ME Anglois, 20 de May 1790 Ans. " The French word 
Mai was spelled in old style with a j'. No further attention was there- 
fore paid to this coffin, and the search, which had not been interrupted, 
continued. 

On March 23 a second leaden coffin was discovered, with a plate 
easily read, bearing the words "Richard Hay, esq., died in Paris the 
29th January, 1785." 

On March 31 a third leaden coffin was unearthed. This, like the 
others, was of a shape resembling that of the mummy coffins, a form 
quite common then, gradually widening from the feet to the shoulders, 
with a round projection at the upper end, which contained the head. 
It was much superior in solidity and workmanship to the others. A 



SuiAOiuaj ni pn-e 'pAoqs siq pai^ddB pBq '3DnB;sqns pjuq b ^[Dnjjs pi3q 5[DTd 
suj ;bi{J Suipuy 'aABjS aaddn sii; jo jaSSip aq; ;Bq; sq Abiu u -pooM. 
JO ngjOD B JO saSpsaA aiuos 3a3A\ nigoo napBaj aqi Saipnnojjng ■5[3xd 
B Aq ji SB paojajd uaaq pBq ipujA\ jo pq aq; jo aippua aqi 'nigoD napBaj 
aqi JO do4 no XpiBiparaiui paunq iiaaq pBq asdjOD y ■3;B|d nopduosiu 
UB JO aonasqB aq; aoj jnnooDB o} saApsniaqj pajsaSSns sauoaq; oavj^ 

•qDJBas 
2uoi aq; jo joaCqo aq; — pBap snouisn^i aq; jo aanasaad aq; ui SuipuB;s 
ajaM Aaq; ;Bq; Suqaaj 's;Bq .ixaq; paAoraai nqjoa aq; ;noqB p3jaq;BS 
ajaAV oqAV asoqj we pnB ,,isauof piBj,, 'pararepxa XpAponpsni aA\ 
— aanBjqniasaj jo s;niod jaq;o pnB 's;Tqj;o aAa paqojB jCj;naniino-id 'sauoq 
5[aaqD qSiq 'JiBq aq; jo aonBJBaddB 'Mojq jo jnojnoa 'pBaqajoj pBOjq 
aq; — soi;sua;DBJBqa jBipoad aq; SuizinSooaj pnB sajn;Baj jaq;o aq; 
SupBdraoo 'aoBj aq; jiBaii iBpaui b SnpB^d uodj^ 'nigoo aq; jo pT{ aq; o; 
Ajiraixojd asop oo; s;i Aq painSgsip puB 'uMop passajd 'apis ;qSu aq; 
pjBMo; jaAo ;uaq naaq pBq ason aq; jo no;;jod snoniSBjpjBO aq; ;Bq; 
;da3xa 'aouBjBaddB ^BJn;Ba b a;mb pa;nasajd aoBj aqj^ •;sioiu aaaA\ uanq 
aq; pnB Xpoq aq; jo aoBjjns aqj, uopo db; jo uMOjq qsi/CBj3 b jo pnB 
'na^iaiuqs XpqSqs XaaA ';DB;nt SniniBoiaj: qsag aq; \[e 'paAjasaad ^aAV 
X^snopAjBni SBM. Apoq aq; 'asudans asna;ni xxio oj^ 'aoBj aq; Snreodxa 
';saqa pnB pBaq aq; uiojj paAomaj sbm ;aaqs SnipniM aq; pnB 'ntjjoa 
aq; jo pBaq aq; jBan paaB'[d ajaM sa^pnBD nazop b j^bjj •;! raojj ijonajs 
sajdoD JO jaqninn b pBq pBq pnB apBui sbav ^Bpani siq; qoiqM niojj aip 
aq; ;nTni sijB(J aq; nt pnnoj pBq j 'aigojd ni ;snq siq SniMoqs ppani 
^BnoissajSnoQ s jBjirapy aq; jo saidoo q;TAi ajojaq ami; auios paqsrninj 
naaq peq 3[J0a\ aq; nodn paSB3na asoqj^ 'sanof \nv^ jo ;q3pq aq; 
pa;B3ipni ;naraajnsBaui qSnoj y •mbj;s pnB XBq q;iM. paifOBd Xjiuji; 
pnB ;aaqs SnipniM b q;iAV pajaAOD SBAi Xpoq aqj^ -Mois X^Snipaaaxa 
naaq ssapqnop pBq noi;B-iodBAa jo ssaaojd aq; ;Bq; os 'pqoo^B SnidBosa 
aq; jo notjoB aq; Aq pa;Bjnpni amoaaq XpnapiAa SnTABq '3[DB|q pnB pjBq 
SBM sapq asaq; pajaAOO qoiqAi q;aBa aq; 'jaAaMojj 'Xbmb pa;;oj pBq 
nigoo napooA\ aq; ja;jB qjjBa aq; jo ainssajd aq; Aq pasnBO ;ooj aq; jBan 
nigoo aq; jo aSpa aq; ni 5[dbjo b pnB 'paqposap ja;jBnpj:aq sb '^loid b Aq 
pq aq; nx apBtn apq b qSnojq; ssapqnop 'pa;BJodBAa ;jBd ;BaaS ni pBq 
paAjasajd naaq ApnapiAa pBq Apoq aq; qoxqM ni pqoop aq; ;nq 'jopo 
Dx^oqoD^B Snoj;s b sbav ajaqj^ •A;i;n3igxp a^qBjapxsnoo q;iAV paAoraaa 
SBM ;x ;Bq; pajapps A^nug os sbav px^ aqj^ -jpsAxn pnB 'naxuJiJOAV 
{BjaAas 'uBinajoj aq; '3[joav aq; jo ;ixapna;nuadns ';anxnaQ 'j^ 'ssp^yv 
"H 'pjBqonB^g qoQ jo aonasajd nx pauado sbm nxgoa aq; I lud-Y nQ 

uxB JO ;najjnD 
B ;xinpB o; sb os 'Xja^BS jaq;onB q;xAv apBxn aq ppoo uox;oanuoo b ii;xxn 
panod;sod sbm nox;BnxinBxa aq; 'Ai3\\BS pa;B][i;naAnn aq; ixx a[qB;jod 
-dnsnx ;som^B ajaM sjopo aq; sb ;nq iuxgoa siq; nado o; pappap sbm ;j 
■pnnoj aq p^noa ajB^d nopduasnx on ;nq 'apBxn sbm qajBas qSnojoq; 



s } J. o 43 '^ puv s u y if V J zq 



John Paul Jo 71 es C o vi m e in o r a t i o n 63 



the decayed remains of the wooden coffin found a plate and carried it 
off as a relic, or, if of silver, for its intrinsic value. Or, as the death 
of Paul Jones occurred when the violence of the French Revolution was 
at its height and the streets were filled with idlers and excited crowds of 
workmen, it is likely that no engravers could be found at work to pre- 
pare a fitting inscription in the two da>'s intervening between the death 
and burial. The latter theory seems rather more plausible. 

For the purpose of submitting the body to a thorough scientific exam- 
ination by competent experts for the purpose of complete identification, 
it was taken quietly at night, on April 8, to the Paris School of Medi- 
cine (Ecole de Medecine) and placed in the hands of the well-known 
professors of anthropology. Doctor Capitan and Doctor Papillault and 
their associates, who had been highly recomm.ended as the most accom- 
plished scientists and most experienced experts that could be selected 
for a service of this kind. I of course knew these eminent professors 
by reputation, but I had never met them. 

While the professional examinations for identifying the body were 
taking place, directions were given to let the workmen continue the 
excavations in order to explore the rest of the cemetery, as there was a 
small portion that had not yet been reached. On April 11 a fourth 
leaden coffin was found with a plate bearing the inscription : ' ' Cygit 
Georges Maidison, Gentilhomme Anglais et Secretaire de I'Ambassade 
de Sa Majeste britannique aupr^s de Sa Majeste tres Chretienne — 
decede a Paris le 27 Aout 1783 — age de 36 ans." 

On April 18 the fifth and last leaden coffin was discovered. It was 
without an inscription plate and of unusual length. Upon opening it 
there was found the skeleton of a man considerably over 6 feet in 
height. 

In excavating the cemetery the exploration had corroborated the 
facts inferred from the hereinbefore-mentioned report indicating that the 
main body of the four squares divided by the cross walks had been 
reserved for burying the ordinary dead in common trenches, and that 
personages important enough to be placed in leaden coffins were buried 
in separate graves near the walls. The Admiral's coffin was found in 
one of such spots. 

All the coffins except the one containing the remains of the Admiral 
were left undisturbed in the places where they had been discovered, and, 
the cemetery having been fully explored, the shafts and galleries were 
refilled and the property restored. There had been excavated 80 feet in 
length of shafts, 800 feet of galleries, and about 600 feet of soundings. 
The excavated earth had to be carted to a distance of 2 miles to find a 
dumping ground and afterwards hauled back. In refilling the galleries 
it was necessary in places to use stones and blocks of indurated clay to 
give proper stability. 



64 Papers and Reports 



There were discovered in all five leaden coffins in the cemetery. 
Four having been easily identified, reasoning upon the principle of elim- 
ination led to the conclusion that the other must be the coffin sought. 
However, the scientists were identifying the body by more positive 
means. 

When the remains arrived at the School of Medicine the lid of the 
coffin, which had been replaced and the edges of which had been sealed 
with a coating of plaster, was again removed and the hay and straw 
surrounding the body were taken out. They were so firmly packed, 
evidently to prevent injury to the body from shocks caused by the roll- 
ing of the ship upon the contemplated transfer by sea, that in removing 
them pincers had to be used. It was noticed that there had been a hole 
three-quarters of an inch in diameter in the lid of the coffin just over 
the face, and that it had been closed by a screw and soldered over. It 
is supposed that the alcohol used to preserve the remains had been 
poured in through this aperture after the coffin had been closed. This 
immersion in alcohol was doubtless another reason why no uniform or 
object of value was placed in the coffin. 

In order not to disturb the body or change in any way its position in 
removing it from the coffin a vertical cut was made in the lead at each 
end, which enabled the sides to be pressed apart. The body was then 
carefully placed upon a large dissecting table. Its state of preservation 
was such that it bore its own weight in handling it. The remains, with 
all the flesh intact, looked like the anatomical specimens preserved in 
jars of alcohol such as one sees in medical museums. It was learned 
that a century ago this method of preserving the dead was frequently 
employed — that the bodies of Necker and his wife, buried at Coppet, 
in Switzerland, for instance, were so treated and are still perfectly 
preserved. 

The joints were somewhat flexible. In taking the right hand in mine 
I found that the knuckle joints could be easily bent. 

The following is a list of the principal persons who participated in 
verifying the identification of the body: The American ambassador; 
Henry Vignaud, first secretary of the American embassy, commander 
of the Legion of Honor, and a distinguished writer; John K. Gowdy, 
American consul-general; Col. A. Bailly-Blanchard, second secretary of 
the American embassy, ex-aid-de-camp to the governor of Louisiana, 
officer of the Legion of Honor, officer of public instruction; M. Justin 
de Selves, prefect of the Seine, grand officer of the Legion of Honor; 
M. Louis Lepine, prefect of police, ex-govenior-general of Algiers, 
grand officer of the Legion of Honor; Dr. J. Capitan, professor in the 
School of Anthropology, member of the committee of historic and scien- 
tific works (ministry of public instruction), member of the municipal 
commission of Old Paris, member of the Society of Megalithic Monu- 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 65 



ments, member of a number of foreign scientific societies, ex-president 
of the Society of Anthropology of Paris ofBcer of public instruction, 
author of more than 250 monographs, memoirs, etc., on medical and 
other scientific subjects; Dr. Georges Papillault, assistant director of the 
laboratory of anthropology in the School for Advanced Studies, pro- 
fessor in the School of Anthropology, officer or member of several 
learned societies at home and abroad, and author of numerous scientific 
articles, a scientist of rare experience in the examination and identifica- 
tion of human bodies; Dr. George Herv6, professor in the School of 
Anthropology, ex-president of the Societ}- of Anthropology of Paris, 
and author of man}' monographs and volumes on this subject; Dr. A. 
Javal, physician to the ministry of public instruction, laureate of the 
School of Medicine; M. J. Pray, chief architect of. the prefecture of 
police, officer of public instruction; M. Paul W'eiss, engineer of the 
quarries of the Seine, doctor of laws. 

In addition to the above, the sendees were secured of Dr. V. Cornil, 
the eminent microscopist, professor of pathologic anatom}- of the Paris 
School of Medicine. 

The above scientists were not emplo}'ed experts ; they cheerfully gave 
their services gratuitousl)-, purely in the interest of science and as an 
act of comitj' between two friendly nations in solving an important 
historical problem. 

There now took place one of the most scientific, painstaking, and con- 
scientious examinations conceivable for the purpose of verifying beyond 
all doubt the identification of the body submitted for this purpose. 

The official and professional responsibility of those engaged in the 
task, their disinterestedness, and the fact that their established reputa- 
tions were at stake gave abundant guarantee that the labor would be 
faithfully and impartially performed. Twelve American or French per- 
sons officially took part in or witnessed the work of identification, and 
their affirmative verdict, after six days passed in the application of every 
possible test, was positive and unanimous and was formally certified to 
under the official seals of their respecti^-e departments, as will be seen 
from their reports printed in the appendix. 

The remains had been wrapped in a winding sheet of linen, the ends 
of which had been torn off, probably to make it fit the length of the 
body. On this was observed a small figure 2 worked in thread. Upon 
the removal of the sheet there was found upon the body but one gar- 
ment, a linen shirt of very fine workmanship with plaits and ruffies, 
which corresponds with the Admiral's fondness for dress. "He is a 
master of the arts of dress and personal adornment, and it is a common 
remark * * * that he never fails to be the best dressed man at any 
dinner or fete he may honor by attending. " (' ' Anecdotes of the Court 
of I^ouis XVI.") The long hair, measuring about thirty inches in 
7257—07 5 



66 Papers and Reports 



length, had been carefully dressed and gathered into a linen cap at the 
back of the head. On this was found a small initial worked in thread. 
When the cap was right side up, the letter was a "J," with the loop 
well rounded; when reversed, it formed a "P." A careful search dis- 
closed no other article in the coffin. On the hands, feet, and legs were 
found portions of tin foil, as if they had been wrapped with it. 

Two circumstances combined to render the identification of the re- 
mains comparativel)^ easy — the remarkable state of preservation of the 
body due to the alcohol and the abundance of accurate information in 
existence descriptive of the dead. 

To furnish the anthropologists with the required data there was 
obtained, upon personal application, permission to make all the desired 
measurements of the Houdon bust of Paul Jones, a little more than 
three-quarter size, owned by the Marquis de Biron, a very artistic work 
representing the Admiral in court dress with the hair curled in rolls 
upon the temples. These rolls were identical with those found on the 
body. 

There was procured, through the courtesy of the director of the Tro- 
cadero Museum, a copy of the other well-known bust of Paul Jones by 
Houdon, one of the most accurate works of the famous sculptor, who 
was also an admirer of his subject. It represents him in the uniform of 
an admiral, and was found more useful for the purpose of making the 
comparative measurements on account of its being life-size. James 
Madison, in a letter dated April 28, 1825, says: "His bust by Houdon 
is an exact likeness, portraying well the characteristic features. ' ' Sher- 
burne, in his biography, says : ' ' His bust by Houdon, of which several 
copies remain in this country, is believed to be the best representation 
of his features ever made."" Besides these there were submitted a 
copy of the medal given by Congress — showing a profile of the face — 
and a mass of authentic information regarding the Admiral's chief 
characteristics, appearance, size, color of hair, age, etc. 

Doctor Papillault, with his delicate instruments, made all the neces- 
sary anthropometric measurements of the head, features, length of body, 
etc., and found them so entirely exact as to be convinced that the busts 
were made from the subject before him, and that the length of the body, 
5 feet 7 inches, was the same as the height of the Admiral. All of the 
comparative measurements are set forth in detail in his report, the 

«Mr. Frank D. Millet made several casts from the Houdon bust of John Paul 
Jones in the National Academy of Design, in New York City, and sent a plaster cast 
to the Trocadiiro Museum, in Paris, where it was used by the Anthropologists in 
comparing its measurements with those of Paul Jones's recovered body. A rumor 
gained circulation in Paris that the New York bust was a copy of the replica in 
Philadelphia and the bust in the Trocad(^ro Museum was often spoken of as the 
"Philadelphia bust," which accounts for its having been thus erroneously desig- 
nated in some of the reports. — H. P. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 67 



greatest difference between any of them being only 2 millimeters, about 
seven-hundredths of an inch. 

As said before, the cartilaginous portion of the nose had been bent 
over to the right side, pressed down, and distorted. This disfigurement 
was clearly due to the fact that when the body was put in the cof&n an 
excess of the hay and straw packing had been placed under the head 
and across the face, and the mass of hair had been gathered into the 
linen cap at the back. This raised the face so high that the nose was 
pressed upon by the coffin lid. This pressure had been so great that 
the head itself was found turned a little to the right. 

Professor Papillault says on this subject: "The bridge of the nose is 
rather thin, the root somewhat narrow. Seen in profile, the nose is of 
an undulating form on the bust ; now this form depends a great deal on 
the cartilage. The bony part of the nose is quite compatible with it." 
The professional anthropologists pay little attention to the cartilages, as 
these are liable to change, and confine their measurements to the solid 
or bony structures. 

Professor Capitan, after the examinations, had a photograph made of 
the head, but at the angle at which it was taken the disfigured nose is 
made to look as if it were Roman in shape, the end being bent over and 
depressed, and in consequence giving the bridge an unnatural prominence. 

The expression of the face is not nearly so good as if the photograph 
had been taken immediately after opening the coffin. The skin had 
shrunk and the lips had contracted b}- exposure to the air and show the 
edges of the teeth, which were not visible at first. This gives the face 
a rather ghastly appearance. The hair, which was found neatly dressed, 
is in disorder and could not be rearranged, as an attempt to comb it 
revealed a danger of pulling it out. The photograph is herein repro- 
duced, and is interesting for the reason that it shows the well-preser\'ed 
condition of the flesh. The nose presented the only disfigurement. 
When the bust was placed beside the bodj' the resemblance of the other 
features was remarkably striking. Professor Her\-e called attention to 
a peculiar shape of the lobe of the ear, which he said was, according to 
his experience, something very rarely seen. Its exact copy was observed 
upon the bust. 

The hair was dark brown, slightly streaked with gray and thin above 
the temples, agreeing fully with the historical descriptions. The teeth 
were long and somewhat worn. The appearance of both hair and teeth 
was compatible with the Admiral's age at the time of his death — 45 
years. 

Doctor Papillault, in his report setting forth the details of his inves- 
tigations, remarks: 

The dimensions of the bust, life-size, by Houdon, are exactly those of the body; 
the comparison is therefore easier than if the bust had been of a reduced size. Thus 
all the measurements offer an approximation truly extraordinary. Two experienced 



68 Papers and Reports 



anthropologists measuring the same subject would often make as great differences. 
Thus I could not hope to find between a bust and its model a similar identity. I 
recollect having measured, some years ago, a cast of the head of Blanqui, and the 
statue which Dalou made from that same cast. Dalou was a very precise and con- 
scientious artist, using and even abusing, as his colleagues said, the caliper compass. 
I found differences greater than in this case. 

He concludes his report in the following words: 

Without forgetting that doubt is the first quality of all investigators and that the 
most extreme circumspection should be observed in such matters, I am obliged to 
conclude that all the observations which I have been able to make plead in favor of 
the following opinion : The body examined is that of Admiral John Paul Jones. 

Then came one of the most interesting features of the verification — 
the autopsy, doubtless the only one in history ever made upon a body 
that had been buried for a hundred and thirteen years. In order not 
to alter in any way the appearance of the corpse. Doctor Capitan and 
his assistants laid the body upon its face and made the opening in the 
back to explore the thorax and the viscera contained therein. A quan- 
tity of alcohol ran out, the internal organs being thoroughly saturated 
with it. This accounted for their excellent state of preservation. The 
left lung showed a spot which was clearly the result of an attack of 
pneumonia or broncho-pneumonia. It had healed, but remained sur- 
rounded by fibrous tissue. Mr. Buell, in his "Paul Jones" (Vol. II, 
p. 235), says: "During this inspection [of the Russian fleet] , which 
consumed about fifteen days, the Admiral contracted a heavy cold, 
which almost the very day of his return to St. Petersburg developed 
into pneumonia. * * * Both the eminent physicians who attended 
him pronounced his lungs permanently affected and told him he could 
never hope to endure again the rigors of a Russian winter. ' ' This was 
in June, 1789. In May, 1790, two years before the Admiral's death, 
he returned to Paris. The same author says of him (Vol. II, p. 267), 
' ' The doctors declared that his left lung was more or less permanently 
affected." 

Doctor Capitan and Professor Cornil found nothing particularly char- 
acteristic in the heart, which was still quite flexible- It was contracted, 
and the cardiac walls exhibited muscular fibers striated lengthwise and 
crosswise. An abundance of small crystals and bacteria was noticed. 
The liver was of a yellowish-brown color, somewhat contracted, and its 
tissues were rather dense and compact. There were found in the hepatic 
cells numerous varieties of crystals and microbes. The masses of tyro- 
sin, appearing to the naked eye like white opaque granules, were less 
numerous than in the lungs. The cells of this organ were not so well 
preserved, and according to Doctor Capitan a positive opinion could not 
be given as to symptoms caused by its condition. The gall bladder was 
healthy and contained a pale yellowish-brown bile of a pasty consistency. 
The stomach was contracted and very small. The spleen appeared 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 69 



comparatively larger than it ought to have been, considering the marked 
contraction of all the viscera. Its tissues appeared rather firm ; it 
showed no anatomic lesions. The kidneys were well preserved in form 
and presented very clearly under the microscope the evidences of inter- 
stitial nephritis, commonly called "Bright's disease." Doctor Capitan, 
in speaking of these organs, in his report says : 

The vessels at several points had their walls thickened and invaded by sclerosis. 
A number of glomeruli were completely transformed into fibrous tissue and appeared 
in the form of small spheres, strongly colored by the microscopic reactions. This 
verification was of the highest importance. It gave the key to the various patholog- 
ical symptoms presented by Paul Jones at the close of his life — emaciation, consump- 
tive condition, and especially so much swelling, which from the feet gained com- 
pletely the nether limbs, then the abdomen, where it even produced ascites (exsudat 
intra abdominal). All these affections are often observed at the close of chronic 
interstitial nephritis. It can therefore be said that we possess microscopic proof that 
Paul Jones died of a chronic renal affection, of which he had shown symptoms 
toward the close of his life. In a word, like my colleague, Papillault, and by differ- 
ent means, relying solely upon the appearance of the subject, on the comparison of 
his head with the Houdon bust, and besides considering that the observations made 
upon his viscera agree absolutely with his clinical history, I reach this very clear and 
well-grounded conclusion, namely, that the corpse of which we have made a study 
is that of Paul Jones. 

I will even add, always with Papillault, that, being given this convergence of 
exceedingly numerous, very diversified, and always agreeing facts, it would be nec- 
essary to have a concurrence of circumstances absolutely exceptional and improbable 
in order that the corpse here concerned be not that of Paul Jones. 

Professor Cornil concludes the report of his microscopic examinations 
as follows : ' ' We believe that the case in point is interstitial nephritis 
with fibrous degeneracy of the glomeruli of Malpighi, which quite 
agrees with the symptoms observed during life. ' ' 

To show how perfectly the revelations of the autopsy agree with the 
symptoms of the malady which terminated the life of Paul Jones, in 
addition to the affection of the left lung described by his historians and 
hereinbefore mentioned, I give the following citations from authentic 
documents: Buell, in his "Paul Jones" (Vol. II, page 308), after men- 
tioning that a week before his death it was proposed that he should be 
called to the bar of the French National Assembly to answer such ques- 
tions as might be asked of him concerning the needs of the navy and to 
give his own ideas as to how those needs might best be met, says : " He 
asked to be excused on the ground that his articulation was not strong 
and he feared that an effort to make himself heard throughout the vast 
chamber would so strain his vocal organs as to bring on a fit of convul- 
sive coughing." That night Paul Jones attended a supper at the Cafe 
Timon. Capelle, a French writer, describes the affair and gives the 
Admiral's speech, in which he said in conclusion : " My friends, I would 
love to pursue this theme, but, as j'ou see, my voice is failing and my 
lower limbs become swollen when I stand up too long. ' ' 



70 Papers and Reports 



Benoit-Andr6, who published a memoir of Paul Jones six years after 
his death, says: " The day after the Admiral had been at supper at the 
Cafe Timon he did not rise until nearly noon. His lower limbs began 
to swell prodigiously, his stomach soon began to expand, and he had 
much difficulty at times in breathing; all the time afflicted with an 
exhausting cough and much raising of mucus." 

Colonel Blackden's letter to Mrs. Janet Taylor, describing the drop- 
sical condition of the patient, has already been quoted. 

The official certificate of burial says he died of dropsy of the chest 
( ' ' hydropisie de poitrine " ) . 

The complete verification of all these symptoms by means of an 
autopsy made upon a corpse a hundred and thirteen years after death 
must be regarded as a notable triumph of anthropologic science, of deep 
interest to the medical profession, and a service of signal importance in 
the present instance. 

No mark of a wound was discovered on the body. Paul Jones was 
never wounded. History is in abundant possession of the most detailed 
records of every fight in which he was engaged, and the}' make nowhere 
a single mention of his ever having received a wound. Buell finds no 
record of a wound. Sherburne, in his well-known "L,ife and Character 
of Paul Jones," page 362, says: "Commodore John Paul Jones on the 
ocean during the American Revolution was as General Washington on 
the land — never known to be defeated in battle, and neither ever receiv- 
ing a wound." Sherburne's first edition was published while Richard 
Dale and other officers who had served with Paul Jones were still living 
and they never challenged this statement. Sands, in his "l,ife and 
Correspondence of Paul Jones," a work which presents a strange inter- 
mingling of official facts and uncorroborated assertions, says that it was 
known, as he was assured, that the Admiral was once wounded in the 
head, but admits further on that "he never chronicled his wounds in 
any letter or journal." The same writer asserts that the Admiral, four 
months before his death in 1792, wrote a draft of a letter, but which was 
never sent, addressed to the French minister of marine, complaining 
that his predecessor in that office, M. de Sartine, gave him (Jones) and 
our minister, who accompanied him, an icy reception, saying: "He did 
not say to me a single word, nor ask me if mj' health had not suffered 
from my wounds and the uncommon fatigue I had undergone. ' ' Even 
if the Admiral had ever made such a draft it would doubtless have been 
written, according to his custom, in French, and in the original might 
very well have meant simply that the minister did not take the trouble 
to ask him whether his health had suffered from wounds and fatigues, 
occurrences which might naturally be supposed to have happened to so 
combative a sailor; but as M. de Sartine had left the ministry of marine 
December i, 1780, more than eleven years before, the statement does 
not carry any weight. 



72 Papers and Reports 



second secretary; Mr. Gowdy, consul-general; and M. Weiss, engineer 
in charge of the excavations. 

The coffin, covered with the American flag, was placed in the receiv- 
ing vault; the rector of the church, the Rev. Doctor Morgan, oilered 
a prayer, and the remains were left there to await the completion of 
arrangements for their transfer to the United States. 

For several years a search had been pressed to find the house in 
which the Admiral died. No. 42 Rue de Tournon. There had been 
renumberings of the dwellings throughout the arrondissement, and it 
seemed impossible to trace them with sufficient accuracy to locate the 
house in which Paul Jones, as history states, occupied an "apartment 
on the first floor above the entresol." This furnished another instance 
of the mystery which pursued his memory. It was not until the first 
week in July, 1905, that the place was found, thanks to the untiring 
and important assistance rendered by M. Taxil, chief surveyor of the 
city of Paris. The house is now No. 19 of that street. It is the only 
one in the immediate localty which has a first floor over an entresol. 

The style of the ironwork on the balcony indicates an architecture of 
the period of the close of the reign of lyouis XV or the beginning of that 
of lyouis XVI. The street leads toward the entrance to the Senate, 
palace of the l^uxembourg. It was once a fashionable street, and at the 
present time several persons of distinction live there. On the ground 
floor of the house a sign bears the words ' ' L,essons in fencing, boxing, 
and the use of the singlestick. ' ' This proffered instruction in the sev- 
eral arts of fighting in the house in which Paul Jones resided, coupled 
with the fact that the underground station close to the cemetery where 
his body reposed is called "Combat," looks as if fate had determined 
that he should everywhere be identified with signs of conflict and strug- 
gle, whether in life or in death. 

I visited this house for the first time, accompanied by Colonel Blan- 
chard, July 4, 1905. Col. A. Bailly-Blanchard was my second secretary 
at the embassy, and it gives me peculiar pleasure to make conspicuous 
mention of his services. I assigned him to duty as my principal assist- 
ant, and he was constantly associated with me throughout the entire 
period of the researches. His rare accomplishments eminently fitted 
him for the service, and the ability and zeal displayed Vjy him entitled 
him to the most grateful consideration. 

Upon the receipt and examination of my detailed reports, the Govern- 
ment recognized the completeness of the identification of the Admiral's 
body, and President Roosevelt ordered a squadron of war vessels, com- 
posed of the Brooklyti, Tacoma, Chattanooga, and Galveston, commanded 
by Admiral Sigsbee, to proceed to Cherbourg and convey the remains 
of Paul Jones to the Naval Academy at Annapolis, where they are to 
receive permanent interment in the crypt of the new chapel now under 
construction. 




HOUSE IN PARIS IN WHICH JOHN PAUL JONES DIED. 

The Admiral died in his apartment, the third floor front of the biuldiiig at the 
left, No. 42 (now No. i'^;, Rue de Tournon. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 73 



In the meantime I had consuhed with the President of France, the 
minister of foreign affairs, president of the council, general of the army, 
admiral of the navy, and others, as to what part the French desired to 
take in the ceremonies attending the transfer of the remains. They all 
manifested an enthusiastic wish to pay every possible honor on that 
occasion to the memory of our illustrious sailor, and a programme was 
accordingly arranged which would best carry out this desire. Admiral 
Fournier, who represented the naval forces, told me that it was after 
reading the life of Paul Jones that he had resolved to become a sailor. 
So that it was the inspiration of our great sea fighter that gave to France 
an admiral who to-day commands the admiration of naval men of all 
countries. 

Our squadron was heartily welcomed at Cherbourg by a French fleet, 
the inhabitants of the city vying with the officials to pay every possible 
attention to our officers and men. In Paris a series of public dinners 
and receptions were tendered them, and they were f^ted in a manner 
rarely seen even in the brilliant and hospitable capital of France. 

On July 6, the anniversary of Paul Jones's birth, Admiral Sigsbee 
brought 500 blue jackets to Paris, and at 3.30 p. m. the ceremonies 
attending the transfer of the remains began in the beautiful American 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Avenue de I'Alma. 

In the morning I had had the coffin brought from the vault into the 
church, placed in front of the chancel, and covered with artistically 
arranged flowers. The church itself was tastefully dressed with floral 
decorations. The audience was one of the most distinguished that has 
ever been drawn together in Paris. The President of the Republic was 
represented by the chief of his household, who occupied a chair in front 
of the chancel. On the right of the middle aisle were seated the presi- 
dent of the council and minister of foreign affairs, the leading members 
of the cabinet, and the highest officers of the French army and nav}'; 
on the left the resident American ambassador, the two special ambas- 
sadors designated for the occasion, Admiral Sigsbee with his captains 
and staff officers, Senator Lodge, and the members of the diplomatic 
corps. Seated in the remaining pews and standing crowded in the aisles 
and doorways were distinguished persons from many countries. The 
elaborate uniforms, the exquisite flowers, the brilliant flags, enhanced 
the beauty of a scene which it is seldom one's fortune to witness and 
which will be memorable in history. 

After careful consultation, I concluded that it would be appropriate 
to avoid an ordinary funeral service, with dirges and requiems, as the 
occasion was not a funeral, but rather a glorification of the dead, so that 
anthems, patriotic airs, and marches glorieuses constituted the music. 
After a simple but most impressive service had been conducted by the 



74 Papers and Reports 



rector, I formally delivered the remains to the Government of the United 
States in the following words: 

This day America claims her illustrious dead. 

In the performance of a solemn duty I have the honor to deliver to the Govern- 
ment of the United States, through its designated representative, the remains of 
Admiral John Paul Jones, to be borne with appropriate marks of distinction to the 
country upon whose arms his heroic deeds shed so much luster. It is believed that 
their permanent interment in the land to whose independence his matchless victories 
so essentially contributed will not be lacking in significance by reason of its long 
delay. 

It is a matter of extreme gratification to feel that the body of this intrepid com- 
mander should be conveyed across the sea by the war vessels of a navy to whose 
sailors his name is still an inspiration, and that this high mission should be confided 
to so gallant an officer of the same noble profession as the distinguished Admiral 
who commands the escorting squadron. 

An earnest expression of recognition is due to the accomplished savants of France, 
whose acknowledged skill in anthropologic science confirmed in every particular, 
with entire accuracy and absolute certainty, the identification of the remains which 
were so marvelously preserved. 

We owe a cordial tribute of gratitude to the Government of the French Republic 
for the cheerful proffer of facilities during the search for the body, the sympathy so 
generously manifested upon its recovery, and the signal honors rendered upon this 
occasion to the memory of a hero who once covered two continents with his renown 
in battling for the cherished principles of political liberty and the rights of man, 
for which the two sister Republics have both so strenuously contended. 

All that is mortal of this illustrious organizer of victory on the sea lies in yonder 
coffin beneath the folds of our national standard. When Congress adopted the 
present form of the American flag, it embodied in the same resolution the appoint- 
ment of Capt. John Paul Jones to command the ship Ranger. When he received 
the news, history attributes to him the following remark: "The flag and I are twins; 
born the same hour, from the same womb of destiny. We can not be parted in life 
or in death." Alas! they were parted during a hundred and thirteen years, but 
happily they are now reunited. 

Mr. lyoomis. Assistant Secretary of State and junior special ambassa- 
dor, received the body, making an interesting address, in which he recited 
the most stirring events in the career of Paul Jones, and expressed the 
extreme gratification of the Government upon the recovery of the remains. 
He finished by delivering them to Admiral Sigsbee for transportation to 
the United States. Admiral Sigsbee, in accepting the high mission with 
which he had been charged, delivered a brief, appropriate, and eminently 
sailorlike address, which was warmly received. 

Eight American blue jackets now stepped forward and bore the cofiBn 
solemnly from the church. They had been selected for their manly 
bearing and their stature, each being over 6 feet in height. They 
commanded the admiration of all who saw them, and the Americans 
present were naturally delighted to hear the whispered comments of the 
French ladies: ' ' Quels beaux gardens ! ' ' 

The coflnn was placed upon a French artillery caisson tastefully 
adorned with flags. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 75 



The elaborate procession, which took up its march at 5 o'clock, was 
constituted as follows : A platoon of police, a regiment of French 
cuirassiers, 500 American sailors, the body of John Paul Jones, borne 
upon an artillery faisson, Admiral Sigsbee and staff, the American 
ambassadors and Senator L,odge, the personnel of the American embassy, 
the high officials of the French Government and of the diplomatic 
corps, delegations from the American Navy League and from the 
American Chamber of Commerce in Paris, members of the Society of 
the Cincinnati, Sons of the American Revolution, and other patriotic 
organizations, all on foot. Then came two batteries of French horse 
artillery, two companies of American marines, and two battalions of 
French infantry with their famous bands. 

The column moved down the brilliant avenue of the Champs Elysees 
and across the Seine bj' the stately bridge of Alexander III, which leads 
to the Invalides. When the body of John Paul Jones was seen moving 
solemnly toward the body of Napoleon, each having died in a distant 
land to be brought back after many years with every mark of honor to 
the country he had so eminently served, there was a sentiment aroused 
which deeply touched the hearts of all participating in the ceremony. 

When the wide Esplanade des Invalides was reached, the coffin was 
lifted from the caisson and placed upon a catafalque erected beneath a tent 
of superb construction, the material being a rich royal purple velvet, 
hung with gold fringe, the front ornamented with swords, shields, 
cuirasses, and other warlike devices. Here the troops filed by the 
remains and rendered the highest military honors to the illustrious dead. 
The coffin was then borne to the mortuary car prepared for it in the rail- 
way station close by, and a special train bore it to Cherbourg that night 
with its guard of honor composed of Americans and Frenchmen. 

Paris had that day witnessed a pageant entirely unique in its way 
and of surpassing beauty and solemnity. The weather was superb and 
the streets and houses were appropriately decorated. The vast crowds 
of spectators gazed upon the cortege with sympathy and respect. No 
cheers or other inappropriate demonstrations were indulged in. The 
onlookers simply unco\'ered reverently as the coffin passed. Their bear- 
ing in every respect was admirable. 

The next day, July 7, I went to Cherbourg to sail for home. A 
cordial invitation had been received from the Government and Admiral 
Sigsbee to take passage on board the flagship. While this was deeph- 
appreciated, it was declined, as I felt that it would be in better taste to 
return by the ordinary lines of travel, now that I had formall\- placed 
the subject of the mission in the hands of the Navy and could render 
no further useful service. 

The fleets of the two nations lay side by side in that picturesque mili- 
tary harbor, discharging their peaceful and sympathetic mission, our 



76 Papers and Reports 



phantom- colored vessels presenting an interesting contrast to the black 
hulls of the French war ships. There I took a last look at the coffin 
which contained all that is mortal of the hero, the search for whose 
remains had furnished a congenial task for the past six years. Upon 
sailing out of the harbor the squadron honored me with a parting 
ambassadorial salute, and I now felt that my mission in connection 
with the recovery of the body of our illustrious naval commander was 
definitely ended. 

Official Certification of the A'>nerican Embassy and Consulate of the Identification 
of the body of Adtniral John Paul Jones 

This is to certify that we, the undersigned, met at the School of Medicine (1,'Ecole 
de Medecine), in the city of Paris, at lo o'clock a. m. on the 14th day of April, 1905, 
for the purpose of verifying the identification of the remains recently found b}' the 
American ambassador in the old Saint Louis Cemetery for the burial of foreign 
Protestants, and believed to be those of Admiral John Paul Jones. 

The body was lying on a table, entirely uncovered, having been taken from the 
leaden coffin in which it had been found, and from which the linen had been 
removed and placed on another table. 

We had familiarized ourselves with the historical information regarding the age, 
size, color of hair, general appearance, manner of dress, etc., of John Paul Jones, 
and there were placed near the body the medal presented to him by Congress to 
commemorate his battle with the Serapis, showing his head in profile, and a copy of 
the well-known bust made from life by Houdon, which had been loaned for the 
purpose by the Trocad^ro Museum. The remains were those of a man, and were 
remarkably well preserved by having evidently been immersed in alcohol. The 
flesh seemed firm and the joints were somewhat flexible. There were bits of tin 
foil adhering to the hands, feet, and other parts of the body, as if they had been 
wrapped with it. The body was lying on its back , the hands were crossed over the 
abdomen, the left hand resting on the right. It was of a grayish brown or, rather, 
a tan color. The right eyelid was closed, the other was slightly open. The features 
presented quite a natural appearance, except that the cartilaginous portion of the 
nose was bent over to the right and pressed down as if by the too close proximity 
of the lid of the coffin, or by the excess of the hay and straw in packing the body. 
Several fine oblique lines were traceable upon the face, made by the folds of the 
winding sheet, which had left upon the skin an imprint of the texture of the fabric. 
The lips were a very little shrunken or contracted, exposing the extreme ends of the 
teeth. This slight contraction did not exist when the coffin was opened, and seemed 
to have been caused by exposure to the air. 

Doctor Papillault, professor of anthropology in the School of Anthropology, one 
of the scientists who had been highly recommended and selected to aid in the work 
of identifying the body on account of his valuable experience in such examinations, 
explained to us the methods he had adopted and showed us the elaborate compara- 
tive measurements he had made of all the important features of the body and of the 
Houdon bust. The agreement was singularly exact in every important particular, 
as will be shown in his report, which he read in our presence, explaining the details 
as he proceeded. The principal results were as follows: The word "identical" will 
be used to signify that the agreement between the corresponding dimensions of the 
body and of the Houdon bust is exact, and that the appearance conforms strictly to 
the authentic historical description of the Admiral. 

Length of body, 5 feet 7^ inches. Height of Paul Jones was 5 feet 7 inches. 
The three-eighths is the difference allowed by anthropologists between a person 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 77 



standing and the same person lying down. "Was 5 feet 7 inches tall, slender in 
build, of exquisitely symmetrical form, with noticeably perfect development of 
limbs." ("Anecdotes of the Court of I,ouis XVI.") Identical. 

Principal features of face and head. Identical. 

No beard. Identical. Face presented appearance of one who had not shaved for 
several days. 

Hair very dark brown, generally speaking, might be called black. The front hair 
upon opening the cofSn was found to be of an unnatural tan color, like the flesh, 
evidently discolored by the presence of the alcohol and straw. After taking some 
hair from the back of the head, where it had been protected by being gathered into 
a linen bag, and washing it its color was dark brown or black. "He was of the 
complexion usually united with dark hair and eyes, which were his." ("Memoirs 
of Paul Jones," Bdinburgh edition.) "His hair and eyebrows are black." ("Anec- 
dotes of the Court of Louis XVI.") See specimen of hair accompanying this report. 
Identical. 

The hair in a few places was slightly tinged with gray. This fact, together with 
the condition of the teeth, indicates a person between 40 and 50 years old. John 
Paul Jones was 45 at the time of his death. 

Doctor Capitan, professor of historic anthropology in the School of Anthropology, 
vice-president of the commission on megalithic monuments, member of the committee 
on historical and scientific works, and of the Society of Old Paris, etc. , then explained 
the course pursued by him in the identification and the autopsy effected by opening 
the back and removing and examining the internal organs, so singularly preserved, 
and gave convincing evidence that the deceased had died of the disease which ter- 
minated the life of John Paul Jones. (See Doctor Capitan's report.) In 1790 "the 
doctors declared that his left lung was more or less permanently affected. " (Buell's 
"History of Paul Jones.") " He died of dropsy of the chest. " (Official certificate 
of burial.) "For two months past he began to lose his appetite, grew yellow, and 
showed symptoms of jaundice." "A few days before his death his legs began to 
swell, which proceeded upward to his body, so that for two days before his decease 
he could not button his waistcoat and had great difficulty in breathing." (I^etter of 
Colonel Blackden. ) 

The linen taken from the coffin, all in exceedingly good condition, except stained 
in places a tan color, was then minutely examined. It consisted of a shirt of fine 
linen, handsomely made, with plaits and rufiles corresponding with the historical 
description of the Admiral's fondness for dress. "Pie is a master of the arts of dress 
and personal adornment, and it is a common remark that notwithstanding the fru- 
gality of his means he never fails to be the best dressed man at any dinner or fgte 
he may honor by attending." ("Anecdotes of the Court of Louis XVI.") "To his 
dress he was, or at least latterly became, so attentive as to have it remarked." 
("Memoirs of Paul Jones," Edinburgh edition.) Identical. 

A sheet on which was worked with thread the figure 2. A linen bag or cap neatly 
made, which had been found at the back of the head and into which the hair had 
been gathered. Upon this was a small initial worked with thread. When the bag 
was held right side up, the letter was a "J," with the loop nearly closed. When 
held in a reverse position, it was a "P." If a "J," it would be the initial of Jones, 
the name which he added to his family name. If a "P," it would be the initial of 
his original family name, Paul. It may be remarked that then, as now, the French 
often marked their linen with the initial of their Christian name. In Paris the 
Admiral was sometimes familiarly addressed as "Mon Paul" and "Monsieur Paul." 
He often signed his name Paul Jones, and sometimes J. Paul Jones, as shown by his 
correspondence. 

There were no other articles in the coffin, except the hay and straw with which the 
body had been carefully packed, and no inscription plate had been found. Taking 



78 Papers and Reports 



into careful consideration the convincing proofs of identification of the body by 
means of the measurements, the autopsy, etc., the marks upon the linen, the fact 
that the coffin was found in the cemetery in which it was proved to have been buried, 
that it was superior in solidity and workmanship to the others, that the body had 
been carefully preserved and packed as if to prepare it for a long voyage, " that, in 
case the United States, which he had so essentially served and with so much honor, 
should claim his remains, they might be more easily removed" (L,etter of Colonel 
Blackden, the Admiral's intimate friend, witness of his will, and pallbearer at his 
funeral, addressed to the eldest sister of Paul Jones, Mrs. Janet Taylor), and the 
further fact that in exploring the cemetery there was every evidence that the graves 
of the dead had never been disturbed; that only five leaden colEns were found, four 
of which were easily identified, three of them having inscription plates, giving dates 
and names of the deceased, and the fourth containing a skeleton measuring about 
six feet two inches in length, we regard the identification as completely verified in 
every particular and are fully convinced that the body discovered is that of Admiral 
John Paul Jones. 

(Signed) Horace Porter, 

[SEAiv OF THE AMERICAN EMBASSY AT PARIS.] American Ambassador. 

(Signed) Henry Vignaud, 

Secretary American Embassy. 

(Signed) John K. Gowdy, 

U. S. Consul-General . 

(Signed) A. Baili,y-Bi.anchard, 

Second Secretary American Embassy. 

[seal of the AMERICAN CONSUI,ATE AT PARIS.] 



Translation of the Official Certification of the Participants and Witnesses 

At the request of his excellency. Gen. Horace Porter, American ambassador, grand 
cross of the Legion of Honor, recipient of the Congressional medal of honor, I, Justin 
de Selves, prefect of the Seine, grand ofi&cer of the Legion of Honor, and I, Louis 
Lepine, prefect of police, grand officer of the Legion of Honor, went on Friday, the 
14th day of April, 1905, at 10 a. m,, to the School of Medicine, where a leaden coffin 
was deposited containing the presumed remains of John Paul Jones. 

The said coffin was discovered in the former cemetery for foreign Protestants under 
the conditions stated in the report drawn up by the service des carrieres (quarries) 
of the Department of the Seine and annexed to the present certificate. It was trans- 
ported to the School of Medicine through the care of M. Gdninet, a municipal 
superintendent of public works, on Saturday, April 8, 1905. 

In our presence and in the presence of the ambassador of the United States and in 
that of the following persons: Mr. Henry Vignaud, first secretary of the embassy of the 
United States, commander of the Legion of Honor; Col. A. Bailly-Blanchard, late 
aid-de-camp to the governor of Louisiana, second secretar}' of the embassy of the 
United States, officer of the Legion of Honor, officer of public instruction, etc.; John 
K. Gowdy, consul-general of the United States; Doctor Capitan, professor of the 
School of Anthropology, member of the committee of historic and scientific works 
(ministry of public education), member of the municipal commission of Old Paris, 
late president of the Society of Anthropology of Paris, etc.; Dr. G. Papillault, assist- 
ant director of the laboratory of anthropology of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, pro- 
fessor in the School of Anthropology; Doctor Hervd, doctor of medicine, professor 
in the School of Anthropology; Dr. A. Javal, doctor of medicine, physician of the 
ministry of the interior, laureate of the School of Medicine; Mr. J. Pray, architect in 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 79 



chief of the prefecture of police, officer of public eiiucatioii; M. Paul Weiss, mining 
engineer, inspector of the quarries of the Seine, doctor of laws, the examination of the 
coffin and body was proceeded with. General Porter, Colonel Bailly-Blanchard, and 
Mr. Weiss declared that they recognized the coffin and the body as being those found 
in the former cemetery for foreign Protestants and transmitted to the School of 
Medicine for the purpose of identification. 

Doctor Papillault read a detailed report and concluded that the body was that of 
John Paul Jones. 

By the side of the body were placed the bust of the Admiral by Houdon, a plaster 
cast, loaned by the Museum of the Trocad^ro, of the original bust in the Academy of 
Fine Arts at Philadelphia," also the medal signed Dupr^, which was struck in honor 
of Paul Jones by order of Congress to commemorate his famous battle with the 
Serapis and the Scarborough, which enabled one to verify the perfect resemblance 
existing between the reproduction of the features of the Admiral and the corpse. 

The shirt and winding sheet in which the body was wrapped were likewise exam- 
ined. On the cap which contained his hair those present noted the existence of an 
initial which in one direction is a capital "P" and in a contrary direction a "J," 
both letters constituting the initials of the Admiral. 

After these various examinations Doctor Capitan read his report upon the result of 
the autopsy which he had made upon the corpse and which revealed the symptoms 
of the disease of which it is known the Admiral died. Doctor Capitan and Doctor 
Papillault were both in accord in affirming as a scientific truth the identity of the 
deceased. 

In view of the perfect coincidence of all the facts relating to the burial and of the 
agreement of all the physical measurements, those present were unanimous in rec- 
ognizing the body as being that of Admiral John Paul Jones. 

Consequently, the body was replaced in the leaden coffin in which it was discov- 
ered, to be ultimately inclosed in a new triple coffin of pine, lead, and oak, sealed and 
transferred to the vault of the American church in the Avenue de I'Alma. 

In witness whereof we have drawn up and signed with all those in attendance the 
present certificate in triplicate, one of which will be sent through his excellency the 
minister of foreign affairs to his excellency the American ambassador for delivery to 
the Government of the United States and the two others filed in the archives of the 
prefecture of the Seine and the prefecture of police. 

Thus done and signed at Paris, the nineteenth day of May, 1905. 

(Signed) J. DE Sp;i,ves. 

(Signed) Louis Lepine. 

(Signed) Horace Porter 

(Signed) Henry Vignaud. 

(Signed) A. Bailly-Blanchard. 

(Signed) John K. Gowdy. 

(Signed) J. Capitan. 

(Signed) Dr. G. PapileaueT. 

(Signed) Geo. Herve. 

(Signed) A. Javae. 

(Signed) J. Pray. 

(Signed) Paue Weiss. 

[SE.^E OF The MUNICIPAEITY of PARIS.] 

" See footnote, p. 66. 








3 S,r 



z o = 



REPORT OF DOCTOR CAPITAN 

[Translation of report on autopsy.] 

THE yth of April, 1905, having been informed by Mr. Vallet, super- 
intendent of mines, by order of the engineer, Mr. Weiss, of the 
discovery in the explorations in Grange-aux-Belles street, No. 43, 
of a new leaden cofSn appearing to contain a corpse well preserved, I 
recommended that it should be immediately covered with plaster. 

The next day, April 8, I went to the place, and ascertaining that it 
was impossible in the gallery of the excavations to study the corpse, 
together with Mr. Weiss I had the necessary measures taken for the 
removing and transporting of the coffin and the corpse to the Medical 
School of Practice of the Faculty of Medicine. 

Thanks first to the extreme kindness of Mr. I,epine, prefect of police, 
whom I saw during the day and to whom I explained the facts, thanks 
also to the kind cooperation of Doctor Rieffel, chief of the anatomical 
service of the School of Medicine, and of Mr. Himbert, superintendent 
of material, the co£5n was removed the same evening, in entire secrecy, 
to the School of Practice, where the next morning it was opened. 

My colleague. Doctor Papillault, whom I had requested to be good 
enough to take charge of the anatomical descriptive branch and of the 
measurements, questions for which he has a very great capacity, made a 
very careful study of the corpse and drew up the report which has been 
read already. 

I will therefore confine myself solely to m}' personal observations 
relating either to the pathological anatomy of the subject or to the various 
manipulations to which the corpse had been submitted, and which we 
can verify, thanks to the traces that have been left upon the corpse. 

I must say also that at various times we have exchanged ideas, Doctor 
Papillault and I, and that we have always been of the same opinion, 
namely, an accumulation of proofs, all leading, often by very different 
ways, to this conclusion: That there can be here no other corpse in 
question but that of Paul Jones. 

The following observations will show some of the proofs which I have 
gathered on the subject: 

The opening of the coiSn took place April 9. I will not dwell upon 
the particulars, either as to the care exercised in putting it in the cofiin 
[the packing by means of straw and hay] or of the clothing [winding 
sheet, shirt, and cap], having specially to concern myself with the 
anatomical branch. 

7257—07 6 8i 



82 Papers and Reports 



The consistency of the tissues, their aspect, even their special odor 
(recalling the old anatomical specimens preserved in alcohol) enables 
one to afErm quite surely that the subject was preserved in alcohol or 
an aromatic alcoholic liquid without its having been subjected to any 
other preparation, for it presents no traces of any incision having served 
to inject any liquid whatever in the veins, according to the present 
process of embalming. Besides, as we shall see later on, the viscera are 
intact. We can thus determine the particularly careful means employed 
in the preparation of the corpse and agreeing fully with the idea which 
the friend of Paul Jones had at the time of his death to preserve it as 
long as possible, so as to be able to transport it in perfect security to 
America when the moment should arrive. 

In the first place, the corpse had been probably completely, and at all 
events surely over the hands and feet, covered with tin foil, carefully 
applied upon the tissues. We found it there. It is, besides, a process 
still in use at the present day. 

Once clothed in its shirt and wrapped in its winding sheet, the corpse 
was placed in a solid leaden coffin ; then the empty spaces were carefully 
stuffed with hay and straw, probably rendered aromatic. The whole 
must have been immersed in alcohol or an alcoholic mixture and the 
lid soldered, which could be easily done by soldering the edges of the lid 
turned over and hammered down. A small orifice of about 2 centimeters 
diameter had been made at the top of the lid, over the head. It might 
have served, also, to introduce alcohol, or at least to complete the supply 
introduced and to admit of the escape of air or gas after or at the time 
of closing the coffin. This small orifice was closed with solder at the 
time of burial. 

Under those conditions and according to the information which had 
been furnished by the employees of the amphitheater, accustomed to 
prepare corpses, a slow saturation takes place — of the muscles first, then 
of the viscera themselves, which causes their perfect preservation. 

The teguments, in fact, of a brownish gray, had retained their flexi- 
bility. They were notably contracted. The muscles were of a brownish 
gray also, strongly saturated with the preserving liquid. They had the 
odor of anatomic specimens long preserved in alcohol. The tendons 
and aponeuroses had retained all their solidity, and the subject could 
be lifted up bodily. 

Tuesday, April 11, my friend Mr. Monpillard, the very distinguished 
and very well-known microphotographer, was kind enough to take the 
very fine photographs of the subject, full size, and the head, annexed to 
this report. They give very accurately the appearance of the corpse. 

It was indispensable afterwards to make the autopsy. I did this on 
April 13. In order not to alter in any way the appearance of the corpse, 
I made the autopsy by opening the back. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 83 



Upon opening the thorax I was greatly astonished to find the viscera 
much contracted, but very well preserved. The lungs presented some 
adhesions to the pleural walls, especially in the upper lobe. When cut 
open, they show a brownish parenchyma. Upon the surface and in the 
interior of the pulmonary tissue there exist, especially at the level of 
the diaphragmatic edge of the lower lobe, small white hard masses, 
varying in volume from a grain of canary seed to a diameter of from 3 
to 4 millimeters, and having the appearance of calcified tubercles. But 
in view of the existence of concretions of an analogous appearance at 
the surface of the teguments of the lower limbs, this diagnosis can not 
be sustained. Besides, as will be seen in the annexed report of Pro- 
fessor Cornil, it is a question of a mass of tyrosin. 

The heart, small, contracted, the color of dead leaves, has its valves 
absolutely normal and still perfectly flexible; the walls of the two ven- 
tricles measure 5 to 6 millimeters in thickness. There is no hypertrophy 
of the left ventricle. On the surface of the right auricle there were 
observed some flat concretions sous-endocardiques and recalling the 
appearance of those of the lungs. 

The liver was of a yellowish brown. When cut open, it presented a 
tissue rather dense and compact, from which escaped the preserving 
liquid, with which it was deeply saturated. It was also rather contracted. 
The gall bladder was healthy and contained a pale yellowish brown 
bile, of a pasty consistency. 

The stomach was very small and contracted. The spleen appeared 
comparatively more voluminous than it ought to have been, considering 
the marked contraction of all the viscera. It measured from 6 to 7 
centimeters upon its greater axis. Its tissue appeared rather flrm. 

The two kidneys, on the contrary, small, hard, and contracted, 
appeared more reduced still in volume than they should have been. 

The intestines were completely contracted and empty. 

Considering the alteration of the appearance of the head, which alwa3'S 
results from the removal of the brain, I thought that there was no need 
to remove this viscus. Previous observations had, besides, shown me 
that the liquid on the outside could not penetrate the brain, which cer- 
tainly must have been completely deteriorated. 

Not wishing, out of respect to the distinguished personality of the sub- 
ject, to retain the viscera, I had them carefully replaced in the thorax, 
after having removed several small fragments intended for microscopic 
examination, which Professor Cornil, professor of pathological anatomy 
of the faculty of medicine of Paris, was good enough to make in person 
with his great ability. But before giving the result of this examination, 
the impression derived from this autopsy was, first, the astonishing 
preservation of the viscera, which had enabled one to make so very 
clear an autopsy one hundred and thirteen years after the death of the 
subject. Furthermore, it seemed evident that one had to deal with the 



84 Papers and Reports 



organs of a patient rather pronouncedly consumptive, with viscera ema- 
ciated and contracted. Thus the kidneys, on a simple microscopical 
examination, had the appearance of kidneys affected by interstitial 
nephritis. 

Besides, the microscopic examination, of which we can see a full 
account in the report hereto annexed of Professor Cornil, well corrob- 
orates these first verifications. 

I have been able to recognize very clearly on the fine microscopic 
preparations executed by Professor Cornil in person, and which he has 
been good enough to show to me, the following various peculiarities: 

The heart is normal, with streaks of some muscular fibers still very 
clearly visible. 

The liver seems likewise normal, with its anatomical disposition very 
clear. The cells of this organ were badly preserved. It was therefore 
not possible to see whether there had been such cellular lesions, more or 
less grave, as accompany the acute liver troubles analogous to symptoms 
of jaundice which Paul Jones presented at the end of his life. 

The lungs contain in sufficiently large number these white granula- 
tions, which seem to have, under the microscope, the appearance of 
masses formed by a felting of fine needles of tyrosin (product of the 
decomposition of azotized substances). This particularly curious cir- 
cumstance may be due to the fact (if it is admitted that the corpse had 
simply been immersed in alcohol) that before the alcohol could have 
penetrated all the viscera there took place a beginning of decomposition 
which brought on the production of these crystals. 

The microbes are equally abundant upon the sections of the lung. 
They are the ordinary microbes of putrefaction, in the form of round 
grains and small sticks. Professor Cornil tried in vain to discover the 
tuberculous bacilli. • 

Besides, the only lesions that one could locate were small rounded 
masses, hard and at times calcified in the lungs, which correspond to 
small patches of broncho-pneumonia partially cicatrized. This fact 
agrees well with what we know of the disease of Paul Jones, who, after 
his sojourn in Russia, coughed a great deal and to such an extent that 
he could not speak at the session of the National Assembly where he 
was received. 

As to the kidneys, the sections presented the appearance, very clearly, 
of chronic interstitial nephritis. 

The vessels at several points had their walls thickened and invaded 
by sclerosis. A number of glomeruli'' were completely transformed 
into fibrous tissue and appeared in the form of small spheres, strongly 
colored by the microscopic reactions. This verification was of the highest 

« These glomeruli are rounded masses of vessels surrounded by a capsule and 
are where the most important part of the urinary secretion takes place. — H. P. 



John Paul Jones Com me vi oration 85 



importance. It gave the key to the various pathological symptoms pre- 
sented by Paul Jones at the close of life — emaciation and consumptive 
condition, and especially a considerable swelling, which from the feet 
gained completely the nether limbs, then the abdomen, where it even 
produced ascites (exsudat intra-abdominal). All these affections are 
often observed at the close of chronic interstitial nephritis. It can 
therefore be said that we possess microscopic proof that Paul Jones 
died of a chronic renal affection, of which he had shown symptoms 
toward the close of his life. 

In a word, like my colleague Papillault, and by different means, rely- 
ing solely upon the appearance of the subject, on the comparison of his 
head with the Houdon bust, and besides considering that the observa- 
tions made upon his viscera absolutely agree with his clinical history, I 
reach this very clear and well-grounded conclusion, namely, that the 
corpse of which we have made a study is that of Paul Jones. 

I will even add, always with Papillault, that, being given this con- 
vergence of exceedingly numerous, very diversified, and always agree- 
ing facts, it would be necessary to have a concurrence of circumstances 
absolutely exceptional and improbable in order that the corpse here 
concerned be not that of Paul Jones. 

In closing I may be permitted to express, always with my colleague 
Papillault, the extreme satisfaction that we have had in bringing to the 
solution of this important problem that Gen. Horace Porter, ambassador 
of the United States, assisted by Colonel Bailly-Blanchard, secretary of 
the American embassy, has pursued with such remarkable and intelligent 
perseverance, the cooperation of our special qualifications, thanks to 
which the identification of the great American Admiral has been realized, 
when, without these means of investigation, it would have been impos- 
sible to arrive at the knowledge that at last the corpse of Paul Jones has 
been discovered, and that thus the honors which he has awaited for 
one hundred and thirteen years might at last be rendered him by his 
country. 

J. Capitan, 
Professor in the Scliool of Anthropology, 
Member of the Municipal Commission of Old Paris. 




NAVAL ACADEMY MINIATURE OF JOHN PAUL JONES. 
Prcseutcrl tn I,icuL A. li. Pinkhain, U. 8. N., by Misb JuiitttL- Taylor, iiiccc of John Paul JmifS 




NAVAL ACADEMY MINIATURE OF JOHN PAUL JONES. 
LRevei-tL- J 



REPORT OF DOCTOR PAPILLAULT 

[Translation.] 

I.— FIRST EXAMINATION OF THE BODY 

li FTER very long researches, General Porter, believing he had found 
/ \ the remains of Admiral John Paul Jones, had them conveyed to 
J- -*- the faculty of medicine, where a first examination was made on 
April 9, 1905. There were present: Colonel Bailly-Blanchard, secretary 
of the embassy of the United States; M. Weiss, engineer of mines; 
Doctor Capitan, professor of the School of Anthropology, member of the 
Commission of Old Paris; Doctor Papillault, the undersigned, assistant 
director of the laboratory of anthropology at the Ecole des Hautes 
Etudes, professor in the School of Anthropology at Paris. 

The body was laid out at full length in a leaden coffin. Some hay 
and straw were packed in all the interstices in such a manner as to 
render the corpse completely immovable in its coffin, as though it were 
destined to be subsequently transported a long distance. A special odor 
led one to suppose that the body was immersed in alcohol. It was 
wrapped in a sheet torn at the two extremities to reduce it to the size of 
the body. 

The subject was of the masculine sex. It was not clothed and bore 
no insignia, neither arms nor jewelry, which is easily explained if the 
foregoing hypothesis is admitted that the body, destined to be trans- 
ported, had been carefully packed so as to render it immovable, but one 
could not think of dressing it and packing it afterwards ^^'ith straw. 
It is probable that arms and clothing were to have been put on him 
later on. 

A fine shirt, neatly made, constituted his sole garment. The back 
was closely stuck to the winding sheet with matter from the body and 
perhaps from substances employed in the embalming. 

The hair was gathered into a cap of coarse linen. It had been combed 
with care, in the fashion of the times, from the forehead toward the 
back, curled in rolls over the ears. At the back it was brought together 
in one mass, slightly twisted and falling naturally. Its length was 
remarkable; it attained 75 to 80 centimeters. 

The beard was shaven, leaving only a few days' growth. 

The body was perfectly preserved. The skin was tanned; all the 
soft parts were mummified, but were not yet completely dried. The 
tissues presented a certain elasticity on being pressed. 

87 



Papers and Reports 



The subject was laid on its back, the head turned to the right. The 
nose was pressed down in its cartilaginous parts. The hands were 
folded across the abdomen. The feet were forcibly extended. 

After the first examination the removal of the body was proceeded 
with. After having cut the coffin at its two extremities researches were 
immediately commenced to identify the subject. 

II.— RESEARCHES TENDING TO IDENTIFY THE CORPSE 

Documents of various kinds placed at our disposal and capable of being 
utilized: 

1 . Historical documents upon the probable place of burial which Gen- 
eral Porter followed with so much sagacity. 

2. Documents concerning the disea.se of which John Paul Jones died 
and' which my eminent colleague, Doctor Capitan, utilized in his 
researches with his well-known abilitj^ 

3. Documents concerning the physical charactenstics of the Admiral 
and which came from two entirely different sources: 

(a) Certain details related in memoirs of the time, which Colonel 
Bailly-Blanchard was good enough to communicate to me; 

(J)) Two busts attributed to Houdon. I will review them successively 
and compare them with the characteristics which could be discerned 
upon the body. 

A. WRITTEN DOCUMENTS 

1. Jones was about 45 years of age when he died. 

The features could furnish no information. The beard is strong, and 
appeared to belong to a man who had passed his youth. The hair, 
well washed, showed a few white hairs; the subject had thus evi- 
dently attained maturity. The state of his incisor teeth confirmed this 
approximation. 

2. Jones was of a dark complexion. 

The hair of the subject was dark. The hair on the body was some- 
what more red, as the case generally is, but belonged to a dark subject. 

3. Stature was 1.70 meters. 

It is probable that this is an approximative measure, and it is, besides, 
known that the stature varies more than a centimeter according to very 
diverse circumstances in the same day. 

The long sickness which carried off Paul Jones undoubtedly caused a 
settling down and diminished his stature. The bottom of his coffin not 
being absolutely flat, his stature on this account underwent a further 
.slight diminution. 

On the other hand, his stature of 1.70 meters was surely taken stand- 
ing. Now the corpse was lying, and its length increases in this position 
an average of i to 2 centimeters. 

Finally, the feet being forcibly extended, I had to take the distance 
comprised between the vertex and the inner ankle bone and add 8 ceuti- 



John Paul J on e s Commemoration 



meters, representing the rest of the stature— that is to say, the length 
which separates the point of the ankle bone from the sole of the foot- 
according to an average of loo corpses hitherto measured by me. 

Altogether I found 1.71 meters, a figure which enters absolutely into 
the quantities that one might expect to encounter. 

To summarize: The written data and my observations made upon the 
body compared in a very satisfactory manner. The question in point was 
that of a man having attained maturity, with brown hair, with a stature 
of about 1.70 meters taken in a standing position and about 1.71 meters 
in a Ijdng one. 

B. BUSTS BY HOUDON 

These busts are two in number. One belongs to the Marquis de 
Biron, the other to the museum at Philadelphia. « A replica of the 
latter exists in the Museum of Casts of the Trocadero. 

These two works, attributed to the great sculptor, appear to me to be 
of the same person. But they present, for various reasons, some consid- 
erable differences, which I am obliged to pass rapidly in review. 

They were surely made at times between which there was a rather 
long interval. The Paris bust has a thinner, more emaciated figure than 
the Philadelphia one. 

The modeling and the study given to it by the sculptor are likewise 
different. The Philadelphia" work represents the person in the attire of 
an admiral. The energetic face, the authoritative, even dominating, aspect, 
all recall the conqueror of the English fleets, the redoubtable privateer, 
whose indomitable courage sufficed for everything. But above all, one 
feels that the artist desired to be faithful; the modehng is life-hke and 
precise; the skin vibrates in the light; the least wrinkle is studied. It is a 
portrait full of life and assuredly resembling. 

On the contrary, in the terra-cotta bust of the Marquis de Biron the 
rough sailor has become a man of the court. His hair is no longer flat- 
tened down, but is combed with care and curled in elegant rolls. Hou- 
don attenuated the energy of his features; he diminished the robustness of 
the face, effaced the bumps of his forehead, and his touch, indifferent to 
truth, no longer made life throb beneath the infinitely varied modeling 
of the surface. It is a sketch full of grace and animation, but somewhat 
conventional. The artist wished to flatter the mania of the person who 
became ' ' so elegant in his dress as to have it remarked. ' ' 

We will simply make our comparisons with the Philadelphia bust, after 
having noted, nevertheless, that the arrangement of the hair on the 
corpse is exactly the same as that observed on the bust of the Marquis 
de Biron.* 



" See footnote, p. 66. 

i The Trocad&o bust is life size. The de Biron bust is three-quarters size. — COM- 
PILER. 



90 Papers and Reports 



A preliminary remark is here necessary. One can not expect to find 
in a work of art shapes exactly identical with the subject that has served 
as the model. The plaster represents living tissues swollen by the blood 
which animated them; we had nothing to compare therewith but a 
skeleton covered with a tanned skin and shrunken tissues. The bony 
structure itself is not always respected; the artist rarely takes many 
measures. Once the main points taken up, he lays the compass aside, 
and somewhat neglects proportions and applies himself to seizing the 
expression of the features. 

But nevertheless no resemblance can be obtained without the general 
form being respected; the fancies of the artist are thus confined within 
limits beyond which one can not pass with impunity. Moreover, certain 
proportions are quite expressive. No resemblance is obtained if rela- 
tions are not maintained of the forehead, the nose, the upper lip, the 
chin, etc. ; they can not be altered without the character of the face 
losing at the same time its personality. The experienced eye of a great 
artist thus imposes, for certain prominent proportions, quite narrow 
limits to any wanderings of the sculptor's chisel. 

Finally, it must not be forgotten that the variations of the human face 
and of its divers parts are enormous. For a head of a given size each 
of the parts of the face can vary about one-third. If, then, we do not 
find either in the descriptive characteristics which we are about to pass 
in review, or in the dimensions which we have taken up, an}' consider- 
able differences between the bust and the body; if these characteristics 
show, on the contrary, a constant analogy, we can proclaim the identity 
of the two with the more likelihood as the number of our observations 
shall be the greater. 

The comparisons I have been able to make are of two kinds — 
one bearing upon descriptive characteristics, the other upon measure- 
ments. 

C. DESCRIPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 

I have not been able to take up any characteristics the divergence of 
which was sufficiently marked to waive the identification of the bust 
and the body. On the contrary I note the following similarities: 

The implanting of the hair is the same. The temples are exposed 
by a beginning of baldness. 

The forehead is rather straight, the skull rounded, with pronounced 
frontal bumps. The superciliary arches are somewhat prominent, but 
the space between the eyebrows (the globella), on the contrary, is very 
little so. 

The cheek bones are prominent and massive. 

The root of the nose does not recede behind the frontal plane, as is 
often the case. The bridge of the nose is rather thin, the root some- 
what narrow. 



f hn Pa II, I Jones Comme7noratio7i 



91 



Seen in profile, the nose is of an undulating form on the bust. Now 
this form depends a great deal on the cartilage. The bony part of the 
nose, however, is quite compatible with it. 

The prognathism of the face is feeble; that of the upper lip equally 
so ; but the chin is so little prominent that the projection of the jaws is 
remarkable. The chin itself is solid, neither bifid nor pointed. 

The softer parts — eyes, mouth, lobes of the nose, etc. — are too much 
deformed for me to make a useful comparison. Bj' an excess of pru- 
dence I will not even insist upon a very peculiar characteristic of the 
cartilage of the ear pointed out to me by Professor Georges Herve, and 
which seemed entirely identical on the bust and on the body. However, 
I will add one remark ; ordinarily there exists between the face and the 
cranium a harmony which led me to suppose, on seeing the engraving of 
the bust long before any examination of the body, still in its cof&n, that 
the head had a tendency toward brachycephaly. I had pointed this out 
to Doctor Capitan, and I found a cephalic index of 82.6 ; consequently 
there was moderate brachycephaly. 

D. :\ip:asurement 



Length of face from root of hair to chin . ... 
Length from root of hair to subnasal point . 

Length from subnasal point to chin 

Length of upper hpa 

Length of lower lip & and of chin 

Minimum width of forehead 



cm 
19 



Body. 

cm. 
19-5 
9 
4 
5 
6 



a Taken on the body from the subnasal point to the edge of the superior incisors, 
b Taken on the body from the edge of the inferior incisors to the end of the chin 

The foregoing measurements are the only ones I was able to take with 
any certainty on the body and on the bust simultaneously. The bizy- 
gomatic width, so interesting to anthropologists, could not be taken on 
the bust on account of the hair which masks that region. The width of 
the cheek bones, frequently taken by artists, had no value whatever on 
the body, the tissues of which had shrunk and presented dimensions 
which are too weak. 

The length of the nose was likewise not comparable; a long, well- 
accentuated crease on the bust between the eyebrows does not admit of 
determining the beginning of the nose in a sufficiently approximate 
manner. There remain, then, only the measures to the number of six, 
which I set forth in the above table. 

It is to be remarked, first, that the dimensions of the bust are 
exactly those of the corpse; the comparison is therefore easier than if 
the bust had been of a reduced size. Thus all the measurements offer an 
approximation really extraordinary. Two experienced anthropologists 



92 Papers and Reports 



measuring a same subject would often make as great differences. Thus 
I could not hope to find between a bust and its model a similar identity. 
I recollect having measured, some years ago, a cast of the head of 
Blanqui and the statue which Dalou made from this same cast. Dalou 
was a very precise and conscientious artist, using and even abusing, as 
his colleagues said, the compass. I found differences greater than those 
in this case. 

Is it possible to admit of so extraordinary a coincidence, that of a 
subject, buried in the same place, having a high social position, of a 
stature very much the same, of nearly the same age, color of hair iden- 
tical, and representing the features of the face with resemblance enough 
to admit of the above comparisons we have made, and presenting, finally, 
the same proportions of the face? If the number of subjects compared 
included several millions, perhaps the probability of such a coincidence 
might be admitted ; but here it is a question of a very limited number of 
individuals interred in the same place. Now, of one hundred bodies 
taken by chance, I have found less than ten the stature of which could 
answer to that of John Paul Jones. With the variations of 2 centime- 
ters there remained no more than three of a dark color. Of these, no 
dimensions of the face coincided. By this sole example one can figure 
the amount of coincidences that would have to be put together to bring 
about the identity of the numerous characteristics taken into considera- 
tion as above. 

Finally, it must be further admitted that chance, after having chosen 
among the thousands an individual purposely made to deceive the experts, 
would have had to make him die of a malady destined to deceive 
Doctor Capitan in his autopsy, and then, as a last stratagem, to have 
marked the cap which contained his hair with an initial which in 
one direction is a capital P with a small loop, and looked at in contrarj- 
direction a J, the loop of which is closed, both letters constituting the 
initials of the Admiral. 

Will it not appear to any impartial reader that chance would have put 
itself to very great trouble in bringing to the same point so man}' coinci- 
dences, when it was so simple to lay Admiral John Paul Jones where he 
should be ? It is for this reason, without forgetting that doubt is the first 
quality of all investigators, and that the most extreme circumspection 
should be observed in such a matter, that I am obliged to conclude that 
all the observations which I have been able to make plead in fa^'or of 
the following opinion: The body examined is that of Admiral John 
Paul Jones. 

Done at Paris, April 14, 1905. 

Dr. G. Papili^ault, 
Assistant Director of the Laboratory of Anthropology 

of the Acole dcs Hautes Etudes, 
Professor at the School of Anthropology , j Quai Malaquais. 




JOHN PAUL JONES. 
From engravitig by Henri Toussaint, iq 



REPORT OF PROFESSOR CORNIL 

[Translation.] 

THE organs examined by me, the lungs, the heart, the Hver, the 
kidneys, were well enough preserved to be easily recognized by 
the naked eye and under the microscope. Their structure was pre- 
served; their fibrous structure and their general disposition, seen slightly 
magnified, clearly characterized each of these viscera; but with a higher 
magnifying power (from 200 to 500 diameters), the cellular elements 
were badly preserved, the nuclei were badly or not at all colored. The 
thin sections {coupes) were encumbered with salts, leucine, tyrosin, 
crystals of fat, etc., and bacteria. We conclude therefrom, viewing the 
matter from the state of preservation of the body, that it had been placed 
in alcohol a day or two after death had ensued, or that the alcohol had 
not been in sufficient quantity t(5 penetrate all the parts and that a partial 
decomposition had taken place in the deeply seated organs, the cells 
of which had been incompletely acted upon. It may be also that the 
alcohol had been spilt and had escaped before the action was complete. 
It is this which accounts for the presence of bacteria and salts and for 
the bad preservation of the cells. With these remarks we give the result 
of our analysis for each particular organ. 

Left lung. — On the surface of the lungs were whitish and opaque 
granules, from the size of a millet seed to a hemp seed. We cut thin 
sections of the lung surface comprising several of these granules. They 
were located in the pleura and in the lung itself. The fibrous structure 
of the pleura and the alveoli were perfectly preserved. The granules 
themselves were surrounded by the pleuropulmonary tissues which 
formed an envelope around them. They were composed entirely of 
voluminous clusters of fine crystals, acidulated with tyrosin, perfectly 
characteristic, in brush form and ^-ery long. These crystals resisted 
the action of acetic acid and even nitric acid diluted with water. My 
attention was attracted in this lung to a small grayish spot in the 
center and surrounded by a thick fibrous envelope. Upon the section 
the central part presented pulmonary alveoli distended by small round 
cells and an agglomeration of tyrosin crystals. 

I treated several of these preparations with Ziehl's coloring matter to 
search for the bacilli of tuberculosis. There were none. It was simply 
a former pneumonia or broncho-pneumonia spot healed and surrounded 
by a fibrous tissue. 

93 



94 Papers and Reports 



The heart. — The heart, which was small on account of being con- 
tracted by the alcohol, showed no lesions of the orifice. The aorta 
exhibited no signs of atheromatosis. Microscopic sections of the cardiac 
walls showed muscular fibers, streaked lengthwise and crosswise, sepa- 
rated by the normal conjunctive tissues. A like abundance of small 
crj'Stals and bacteria were noticed. 

The liver. — Sections of this gland, slightly magnified, resembled 
perfectly those of a normal liver; the lobes, the central veins of the 
lobes, the sinus of the veine-portc , the radiating bays of the hepatic cells 
are all well preserved. We can thus assure ourselves that the con- 
junctive perilobular tissue is not thickened. With a higher magnifying 
power the hepatic cells have no coloring nuclei, and there also exists 
there numerous varieties of crystals and microbes. The masses of 
tyrosin visible to the naked eye, like very fine white and opaque 
granules, are less numerous than in the lungs. 

The kidneys are well preserved in their form. Sections enabled one 
to establish the constituent elements, the fibrovascular structure, the 
tubuli, and glomeruli. Preparations colore' in two ways, with hema- 
toxyline, and, according to Van Giesen, revealed glomerulose lesions. 
A certain number of glomeruli, in fact, presented a fibrous formation, 
characterized by the red coloring due to the Van Giesen colorant. In 
the place of the vessels with thin walls and permeable by the blood, a 
uniform red tint is observed, due to the formation of the conjunctive 
tissue. It is a real interstitial glomerulitis far advanced on some of 
the glomeruli thus transformed into fibrous nodules. Moreover, the 
Bowmann capsules were at times much thickened. The arteries were 
likewise very thick and surrounded or filled with crystals of fat. 

These lesions indicate interstitial nephritis. The bad preservation of 
the cells do not prevent me from making a statement with reference to 
the lesions to which they were subjected. 

The spleen did not reveal any anatomical lesions. 

According to this examination, the only organs which were injured 
were the kidneys. As far as can be j udged b j^ the examination of the 
badly preserved viscera, we believe that the case in point is interstitial 
nephritis, with fibrous degeneracy of the glomeruli of Malpighi, which 
quite agrees with the symptoms observed during life. 

Paris, June i, 1905. 

V. CORNIL. 

Note. — Six illustrations, microphotographs of sections of kidneys, lungs, and 
liver of Jones's body have been made. They are an important part of the testimony 
which establishes the identity of the body. 

A limited number of these prints have been prepared, and any patriotic, medical, 
or other society or organization desiring to e.N:amine them and compare them with 
the printed reports regarding the diseases with which John Paul Jones suffered may 
obtain them from the Navy Department and insert them in its copy of this volume 
following the report of Professor Cornil. — Computer. 




VIEW OF THE YARD OVER THE BURIED SAINT LOUIS CEMETERY. 

Within the doorway at the left is the fifth shaft (marked E on the plan), near which the body of 
John Pa'ul Jnnes was found. Drawn by Jay Hanibrid.ti-e from photo^raph^^. 




PLACE WHERE THE BODY WAS FOUND, 



Gen. Horace Porter at the left, Second Secretary of Embassy A. Bailly-Blanchard, and Paul AVeiss, 
engineer. The workman holds the point of his pick over the spot where he had struck the leaden 
coffin. 



REPORT OF ENGINEER WEISS 

[Translation.] 

French Republic, 
Prefecture of the Department of the Seine, 

Paris, May p, ipo^. 

At the request of His Excellency Gen. Horace Porter, American 
ambassador to the French Republic, the service of the quarries of the 
Department of the Seine was charged hy the prefect of the Seine to 
proceed with the researches with a view of discovering the remains of 
Admiral John Paul Jones, who died in Paris in 1792 and was interred 
in the former cemetery for foreign Protestants, as it appears from the 
report of the burial transcribed by Mr. Charles Read. 

It was the long and patient researches of General Porter, assisted by 
Colonel Bailly-Blanchard, which determined with certainty the place of 
burial. 

They found in the archives, and particularly in the archives of the 
prefecture of the Seine, documents giving the exact plan and description 
of the cemetery. 

On the other hand, it appears from a letter of Colonel Blackden — an 
intimate friend of Admiral Jones — that the body had been put in a 
leaden coffin, so that it might be easilj' transported to America in case 
the United States, which he had served in such a brilliant manner and 
with so much honor, should claim his remains. 

The place and manner of burial were therefore perfectly well deter- 
mined and enabled one to limit the researches. It was a matter of con- 
cern in the first place to ascertain with precision the exact boundaries of 
the former cemetery for foreign Protestants. 

Now this cemetery figures very plainly upon the map of Paris, made 
by Verniquet in 1791. It consisted of a garden of large dimensions, 
bordering the rue Grange-aux- Belles and adjoining a dwelling house 
looking upon a courtyard, from which it was separated by a wall con- 
taining a gate. This gate opened upon a flight of steps giving access 
to the cemetery, the ground of which was lower than the courtyard. 
See plan " annexed to report. 

According to divers documents collected by Colonel Bailly-Blanchard, 
the garden forming the cemetery was planted with fruit trees and was 
traversed crosswise by two wide walks. 

<* Reproduced, p. 56. 

95 



96 Papers a 71 d Reports 



After 1805 burials ceased in the cemetery, and in the first half of the 
nineteenth century the garden was leveled up with all sorts of rubbish 
to a height of 3 or 4 meters, so that the ground of the garden came up 
to a level with the courtyard. Divers buildings were erected on this 
filled- up ground, notably a building used as a public laundry, two 
houses, stables, barns, etc. All these buildings were erected upon unsta- 
ble earth ; subsequent excavations showed that the foundations did not 
reach down to the level of the buried bodies, and that they did not rest 
upon the natural soil — consisting largely of gypsum, which forms the 
substratum of the region — but upon the made earth. 

The photographs, Nos. i to 9, inclusive, annexed to the present report, 
enable one to form an idea of the nature of the buildings erected on the 
site of the former cemetery and of the difficulties which the researchers 
were to encounter. 

The house on the courtyard now bearing the number 47, ot the rue 
Grange-aux-Belles, had already figured in the plan of Verniquet. Since 
then there had been added another building, serving the purpose of a 
hotel, having two windows on the rue Grange-aux-Belles. The sepa- 
rating wall of the courtyard and the cemetery is still visible and can 
be easily traced on the premises. 

On the side of the rue Grange-aux-Belles, the present wall, indicated 
by the numbers 43 and 45, formed the boundary of the cemetery, which 
was likewise inclosed on the opposite side by walls raised afterwards, 
which still exist in the old places. 

The limits of the old cemetery were therefore easy to determine, and 
no doubt could exist with regard to the extent of the area in which the 
researches were to be made. 

At the request of His Excellency General Porter, it was decided to 
begin the researches beneath the laundry. The excavations could not 
be undertaken by means of open cuts on account of the opposition made 
by the tenants, and recourse to subterranean work had to be resorted to. 
A shaft was sunk at A (see plan) under the shed belonging to Bassigny, 
a grain dealer. The first 2.70 meters passed through the filling, and 
after that a stratum of black vegetable earth, which formed the soil of 
the old cemetery. Below this bed of vegetable soil, of a thickness of i . 30 
meters, abed of black earthmixed with the debris of gypsum was traversed, 
when the natural soil formed of white marl and gypsum was reached. 

With the first blows of the pick boues were encountered, which fixed 
the exact level at which the dead had been interred. Nowhere were any 
vaults of masonry, analogous to those in cemeteries of the present day, 
discovered. All the bodies had been interred directly in the earth. 

At a depth of 5.50 meters the shaft was stopped, and on a level with the 
vegetable earth, a gallery was run penetrating beneath the laundry and 
carried as far as the old wall of separation of the cemetery for foreign 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 97 



Protestants and the courtyard of the adjacent dwelling houses. The old 
wall was encountered at the exact spot indicated on Verniquet's map. 
Directly after this discovery, which fixed definitively the site of the old 
cemetery, two longitudinal galleries were run, intended to explore the 
laundry. At the same time a shaft was sunk in the street by which two 
further galleries to meet the first two were run; moreover, to hasten 
the work, excavations were made in the cellars situated on the north 
side of the building (see photographs of works, Nos. i to 13, inclusive). 
Close to the site of the old flight of stairs, giving access to the garden, 
the gallery extending along the wall of separation encountered a leaden 
coffin, very much flattened, the head of which was wanting. On the 
center of the coffin a copper plate was discovered, in a very bad state, 
which was able to be partially deciphered by the care of M. Andre, a 
restorer of objects of art. The face was indecipherable, but on examin- 
ing the reverse side, an inscription was found indicating that the body 
was that of an Englishman who died May 20, 1790. 

The co£&n was therefore not that of Admiral Jones. 

Beneath the laundry, the area of which was fully explored, both by 
galleries and by soundings, no other leaden coifin was found, while many 
boDes were encountered. 

The work being particularly difficult in this place on account of the 
infiltrations of water, all the galleries were rapidly and carefully refilled 
and the work of exploring the property of the grain dealer begun. 
Three fresh shafts were sunk and the galleries extended in all directions 
(see plan). At the base of shaft B in the north gallerj' a second leaden 
cofiin, perfectly well preserved, was soon discovered. It bore a plate 
with the name of ' ' Richard Hay, Esquire, died in Paris the 29th Jan- 
uary, 1785." The researches were then continued and a few meters 
farther on another leaden coffin was unearthed. In immediate contact 
above it there had been interred, without precaution, another bodj-. 
The whole was taken out and the bones above removed. 

It was then established that the wooden coffin, which had contained 
the leaden coffin, and of which some fragments were still on the side, 
had been removed from the upper part except near the feet. No dis- 
tinctive mark or plate could be discovered. It is probable that at the 
moment of burying the second body the gravedigger had been led to 
remove the top of the wooden coffin and the plate at the same time. 

Under these conditions nothing remained but to open the coffin to 
identify the body. The opening of the coffin took place in the presence 
of His Excellency Gen. Horace Porter, Colonel Bailly-Blanchard, M. 
Weiss, inspector of quarries, and the agents charged with the conduct 
of the work. 

As soon as the lid was raised the minute precautions that had been 
taken when the body was placed in the coffin became apparent. The 
7257-07 7 



98 Papers and Reports 



body was packed in hay and straw and appeared ready to be transported 
to a long distance. Upon withdrawing some of the straw the winding 
sheet which enveloped the corpse became visible, and in raising this sheet 
the body was discovered to be in a marvelous state of preservation. 

The sole fact of the careful packing was a serious presumption leading 
to the supposition that one was in the presence of Admiral Jones. The 
letter of Colonel Blackden expressly mentions that the body had been 
arranged in such a manner that it could be easily transported. 

It was then decided to have the body examined by Doctor Capitan, 
professor in the School of Anthropology. Doctor Capitan came to 
visit the premises on Saturday, April 8, and asked that the coffin 
be conveyed to the School of Medicine in order to proceed with the 
anthropometric measurements necessary for the identification. 

After the prefect of police had been notified, the coffin was trans- 
ported, Saturday evening, to the School of Medicine, through the care 
of M. Geninet, municipal conductor. It was handed over to the super- 
intendent of materials and deposited in one of the dissecting rooms until 
the official identification could take place. 

While the anthropometric measurements were being proceeded with, 
the subterranean work was continued. 

Along the northern wall a fourth leaden coffin was found, bearing the 
name of "George Maidison, Gentilhomme anglais et Secretaire de I'Am- 
bassade de Sa Majeste Britannique aupres de Sa Majeste tres-chretienne, 
decede a Paris le 27 Aolit 1783, ige de 36 ans. " 

Along the western wall a well was discovered, which was mentioned 
in the old documents pertaining to the cemetery, and then a brick vault 
containing a wooden coffin without any indication of name, and, finally, 
a fifth leaden coffin. 

This anonymous coffin, 2.10 meters long, contained the remains of a 
man of very tall stature ; it was accompanied by a leaden rectangular- 
shaped box containing the viscera of the deceased and a leaden heart of 
large dimensions in which the heart of the deceased had evidently been 
inclosed. 

This coffin could not have been that of Admiral Jones, partly for the 
reason of the exceptional stature of the corpse, and partly on account of 
the special circumstances of the burial, which would certainly have been 
mentioned in the certificate of burial. 

In the meantime the anthropometric measurements established the 
identity of the body previously found. The measurements of the head, 
taken with care, coincided to within a millimeter with those of the bust 
of Admiral Jones, by Houdon, in possession of the Trocadero ; the ini- 
tial found upon the cap which contained the hair afforded, moreover, a 
fresh proof in support of the conclusions of the scientists. Excavations 
were consequently stopped on April 15, and the restoring of the premises 
to order begun. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 99 

Thus, as can be seen by an examination of the map, the old cemetery 
was almost entirely explored; 25 meters of shafts, 245 meters of gal- 
leries, 178 meters of soundings were excavated. 

To summarize: In the course of the excavations five leaden coffins 
onl}' were found. 

One alone, according to the circumstances, could be that of Admiral 
Jones. The body contained in this coffin was in such an extraordinary 
state of preser\^ation that it could be easily identified. 

The discovery of the remains of Admiral Jones is thus scientifically 
established, and the service of the quarries is happy to have contributed 
to bring again to the light of day the celebrated sailor who covered him- 
self with so much glory at the time when the arms of old France and 
the 3'oung American Republic of the United States fought shoulder to 
shoulder. 

Paris, the 19th day of Maj-, 1905. 

P. Weiss, 
The Engineer of Mines, Inspector of Quarries. 




FRENCH ARTILLERY CAISSON. BEARING THE COFFIN OF JOHN PAUL JONES, MOVING ALONG THE CHAMPS- 

ELYSEES, PARIS, JULY 6, 1905 

From a photograph. 




AMERICAN SAILORS CROSSING THE BRIDGE OF ALEXANDER III. AND PASSING BEFORE THE CATAFALQUE ON 
WHICH WAS PLACED THE COFFIN OF JOHN PAUL JONES, PARIS, JULY 6, 1905 

From a photo,grapli. 



REPORT OF REAR-ADMIRAL SIGSBEE 
U. S. NAVY 

[Hxtract.] 

Office of the Commander Second Squadron, 

North Atlantic Fi,eet, 
U. S. S. Brooklyn, Tompkinsville , N. Y.,July 26, 190^. 
Sir: In making my report relative to the John Paul Jones expedition, 
under .mj' command in chief, I shall divide the report into four parts, 
owing to the length of the report. The first part will embrace the 
passage from Tompkinsville, Staten Island, New York, to Cherbourg, 
France, including the proceedings immediately following the arrival at 
Cherbourg. The second part will embrace the matters relating to our 
visit to Cherbourg and Paris, including the ceremonies connected with 
the transfer and the embarkation of the remains of Paul Jones. The 
third part will embrace the return passage from Cherbourg to Annapolis, 
Md., and the fourth part will embrace matters connected with the trans- 
fer of the remains to the Naval Academy at Annapolis. 

PART I 

In obedience to the orders of the Navy Department, I took command 
in chief of the third division of the Second Squadron, detached tempo- 
rarily from the North Atlantic Fleet for the John Paul Jones expedition, 
on June 18, 1905. 

I got the squadron under way, at Tompkinsville, for Cherbourg, 
France, at i p. m. on Sunday, June 18. 

The squadron was composed of the Brooklyn, flag ship, Capt. John M. 
Hawley, U. S. Navy; the Tacoma, Commander Reginald F. Nicholson, 
U. S. Navy; the Galvesto?i, Commander William G. Cutler, U. S. Navy; 
and the Chattayiooga, Commander Alex. Sharp, U. S. Navy. 

Because of the recently reported icebergs and floes well to the south- 
ward of the Great Bank, I chose the most southerly steamship route for 
the passage. 

On June 26, late in the afternoon, the North German Lloyd steam- 
ship Deutschland passed in sight of the squadron, bound eastward, and 
the American Line steamship New York, bound westward, passed a few 
hours later. 

No stops were necessary because of derangement of the machinery or 
other mishaps. 



I02 Papers and Reports 



The light-house on Bishops Rock was sighted at about i p. m. on 
June 29. After that the weather thickened. Thereafter, until 9.30 
a. m. the following day, June 30, no landmarks were seen, nor any 
whistles heard, until we sighted the breakwater fort at the western 
entrance to Cherbourg, about 2 miles distant, and saw the pilot boats 
coming out. 

"We entered the harbor in column at about 9.30 a. m., and therefore 
on time, according to our schedule, notwithstanding the fog. The daj' 
before, when off to southward of the Lizard, I sent a wireless message 
broadcast, stating that the John Paul Jones squadron was in the channel 
and due at Cherbourg early on the 30th. We received a reply, not 
knowing whence at the time, asking if I desired telegrams to be sent. 
I replied, "Yes; to the American ambassador at Paris and the Ameri- 
can consul at Cherbourg." I afterwards found that telegrams had 
been sent and received accordingly, and, as it appeared, from the Lizard. 
It may as well be said here that for some days previously we had 
received from the station at Poldhu items of news, by wireless, daily. 
They reached us with more or less completeness when we were distant 
a thousand miles from Poldhu. 

"When inside of the breakwater I saluted the port with 21 guns. The 
salute was returned at once. During the day ofl&cial visits were made 
as follows by myself: To Vice-Admiral Besson; to Rear-Admiral de 
Marolles, the subprefet; and to M. Albert Mahieu, mayor of Cherbourg. 
These visits were returned while I was in Paris, my departure having 
been previously arranged for in conference with "Vice- Admiral Besson. 
In fact, throughout all the proceedings thereafter, Vice-Admiral Besson 
showed to myself the most delicate appreciation of the difficulties of my 
position, owing to the scant time at my disposal, in which many duties 
and operations were to be completed. 

At 9 a. m. on July i three French war vessels of the second division 
of the Squadron of the North, under Rear-Admiral S. Leygue, arrived 
in Cherbourg from Brest. These vessels had also encountered twelve 
hours of thick fog. The French vessels were the Bouvincs, Captain 
Lamson; the Henri IV, Captain Lephay, and Amiral Trchonart, Captain 
Schilling. The French vessels were painted black, and were assigned 
berths less favorable than ours for communication with the shore. 
Although Rear-Admiral Leygue was my senior, he saluted my flag 
immediately his flagship had reached the inside of the breakwater, 
thereby anticipating me, and evidently by intention; in fact, I so ascer- 
tained afterwards. I promptly made my visit to Admiral Leygue, and 
he promptly returned it, knowing that I desired to proceed to Paris on 
the evening of that day. He also directed his captains to visit me 
immediately, which they did. This was mereh- characteristic of the 
tact and consideration shown throughout by all French officers. 



John Paul Jo7ies Commemoration 



103 



At 5 p. m. on July i , I left Cherbourg for Paris with my personal 
staff, Lieut. Cassius B. Barnes, U. S. Navy, and Lieut. Edward McCau- 
ley, jr., U. S. Navy, and with an additional staff composed of the 
following officers: Capt. John M. Hawley, U. S. Navy, commanding 
Brooklyn, Commander Reginald F. Nicholson, U. S. Navy, command- 
ing Tacoma. Commander William G. Cutler, U. S. Navy, commanding 
Galveston; Commander Alexander Sharp, U. S. Navy, commanding 
Chattanooga; Lieut. Commander Frederic C. Bowers, U. S. Navy, fleet 
engineer; Surg. John M. Steele, XJ. S. Navy, fleet medical officer; Pay 
Inspector Samuel L. Heap, U. S. Navy, fleet paymaster; and Chaplain 
G. Livingston Bayard, U. S. Navy. 

I also ordered Mr. Henri Marion, professor of languages. United 
States Naval Academy, to Paris, as I required his services as interpreter 
and in translating official documents. Mr. Marion had been granted 
permission by the Navy Department to take passage on the flagship to 
Cherbourg and return. 

The train arrived in Paris a few moments after midnight. We pro- 
ceeded at once to the Hotel Brighton, 218 Rue de Rivoli, where quarters 
had previously been engaged for us. 



PART II 



On the night of July i, Mr. Francis B. Loomis, special ambassador of 
the United States in connection with the reception and transfer of the 
remains of John Paul Jones, arrived at Cherbourg on board the steamer 
Philadelphia. I had prepared for his reception on board the Brooklyn. 
Mr. Loomis was met on board the Philadelphia by an officer from the 
Brooklyn, and escorted to the Brooklyn, where he remained overnight 
in quarters already prepared for him. He left the following morning, 
July 2, for Paris, where he arrived at 3.30 p. m. 

On Sundaj' afternoon, July 2, with my whole escort of officers, I 
visited the American ambassador, Mr. Robert S. McCormick, at the 
embassy. He was very zealous for our convenience and entertainment, 
and, by his tact, courtesy, and knowledge of affairs, contributed greatly 
to the success which attended our visit to Paris. In social-official 
matters, Mrs. !McCormick gave us most kindly and helpful advice, in 
addition to dispensing gracefully the hospitalities of the embassy. 

On July 3, Monday, at 11.30 a. m., Mr. Loomis and m^-self, attended 
by Lieutenant- Commander Smith and Lieutenant J^IcCauley, visited b>- 
appointment the French prime minister, M. Rou\'ier. Afterwards I 
visited ]Mr. Thomson, the minister of marine, and his chief of staff. In 
the afternoon an informal reception was given at the house of the Amer- 
ican naval attache, Lieutenant-Commander Smith, which our whole 
party attended. That day I also made my visit to Gen. Horace Porter, 
first special ambassador of the United States in connection with the 
transfer of the remains of John Paul Jones. 



I04 Papers and Reports 



On Tuesdaj', the 4th of July, we received many visits in the morning 
from Americans living in Paris, and, both by telegram and letter, I 
received expressions of patriotism and felicitation on our national holi- 
day. The annual dinner of the American Chamber of Commerce, to 
which all had been invited, was abandoned in respect to the memory of 
the late Secretary of State, Mr. John Hay, whose remains were at that 
time lying in state. At 6 p. m. I proceeded with my staff, in company 
with Mr. lyoomis, to the American embassy, from which place we were 
conducted to the palace of the President, where we were received by the 
President of France, Mr. I,oubet. From the embassy the five carriages 
containing Mr. lyoomis, myself, and staff, were completely surrounded 
by a company of cuirassiers, forming the same escort which was given 
the King of Spain on his first visit to the President of France during the 
the preceding month. At the gate of the palace the escort parted 
and permitted the carriages to pass within, where several companies of 
infantry were drawn up. On our arrival, the troops presented arms 
and the band played the American national anthem. The President 
expressed the friendly feeling which the people of France held for the 
American people, and referred to the cause of this visit as another tie 
which served to bind the two peoples, the two great Republics, to a close 
friendship and a perfect understanding. We were conducted back to 
the embassy with the same honors as were given us in going to the 
palace. 

On the 5th, Mr. Loomis, myself, and staff were entertained at a state 
luncheon by the French prime minister and Mrs. Rouvier, and at a state 
dinner by the minister of marine and Mrs. Thomson. Both entertain- 
ments were attended by French officials of high rank, and were of a 
character to show that extreme compliment was intended. At the first, 
with the exception of the hostess, only gentlemen were present, while 
at the latter ladies were also present. After the luncheon with the 
prime minister on the 5th, the whole party was invited to visit the 
municipal council at the Hotel de Ville, where we were received on 
behalf of the people of Paris. We were accompanied by L,ieutenant 
Andre, ordnance officer of the minister of marine. We were received 
by M. Paul Brousse, president of the municipal council and of the gen- 
eral council; by M. Antrand, secretary-general of the prefecture of the 
Seine, and M. Laurent, secretary-general of the prefecture of police. 
Short addresses of welcome were made by the president of the municipal 
council, and by the secretary-general of the prefecture of the Seine, in 
behalf of his chief, the prefect of the Seine; also by the secretary- 
general of the prefecture of police, in the name of the prefect of police. 
Responses were made, first by Mr. Loomis, and then by myself. Cham- 
pagne was then served, and M. Paul Brousse proposed the health of 
President Roosevelt, and Mr. Loomis proposed the health of President 
Loubet. Following this entertainment, we were escorted by the various 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 105 



French gentlemen through the Hotel de Ville, after which we returned 
to our quarters. 

On the 6th, the day of the formal transfer of the remains of John 
Paul Jones at Paris, the landing parties of the \-arious ships were roused 
out at about 2 a. m. They took the train for Paris at Cherbourg at 
3.30 a. m. They arrived at the station at Paris at 11.40 a. m., where 
the party was met by French officials. As to this and subsequent events 
connected with the landing party at the transfer, and especially as giv- 
ing the names of the French officers and officials concerned, I invite 
attention to Inclosure C " of this second report, which inclosure was 
obtained for me by the American naval attache at my request. This 
memorandum, together with my further report, will serve to show the 
magnitude and splendor of our reception at Paris in honor of the United 
States and of the purposes of the expedition. 

On the 5th the ceremony of transferring the remains of John Paul 
Jones took place at 3.30 p. m., at the American Church of the Holy 
Trinity, at the avenue de I'Alma, where the casket containing the 
remains of John Paul Jones were lying in state, decorated with drapery, 
and with a profusion of floral emblems. Admission to the church was 
by special invitation and a presentation of cards at the door. Many 
could not find entrance. The American sailors and French soldiers were 
formed outside of the church, where an artillery caisson, ornamented 
with drapery and French and American flags, was also in waiting. As 
to the character of the French escort of troops and the officers command- 
ing, Inclosure C of this report, already cited, gives adequate informa- 
tion. On the right of the central aisle and next the chancel and facing 
the chancel were the American representatives; on the left were the 
French representatives. \'irtually the whole diplomatic corps was 
present, with Ambassador and Mrs. McCormick, General Porter, Mr. 
Loomis, United States Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, and myself on the 
front seat. There were also present General Dubois, representing the 
President of France; M. Rouvier, president of the council of ministers 
and minister of foreign affairs; M. Berteaux, minister of war; M. Gaston 
Thomson, minister of marine; M. Clementel, minister for the colonies; 
General Brugere, vice-president of the superior council of war; Vice- 
Admiral Fournier, French navy, member of the superior council of the 
navy, etc. 

A memorial service was conducted by the Rev. John B. Morgan, 
assisted by the Rev. M. Van Winkle, M. Mesny, and Doctor Tully. 
The services are described in more detail in Inclosure C. At the close 
of the church services Gen. Horace Porter made a short address,* trans- 
ferring the remains to the second special ambassador, Mr. Loomis. Mr. 



a Inclosures A and B omitted. For Inclosures C, D, E, and F, see Appendix.— 
Compiler. 
6 See p. 73. 



io6 Papers and Reports 

lyoomis then read an address of considerable length, ending by trans- 
ferring the remains formally to my charge. A copy of Mr. Loomis's 
address is hereto appended, marked " Inclosure D." Thereupon I read 
a short address, accepting the custody of the remains on behalf of the 
United States Navy Department and taking over further responsibility. 
A copy is appended, marked "Inclosure E." This ended the ceremony 
within the church. 

I had previously detailed as body bearers four petty oflScers from each 
ship of my command, each over 6 feet in stature. The body bearers 
placed the casket on a wheeled truck, conducted it to the street and 
there placed it on the caisson. The procession was then formed. With 
the exception of the artillery and cavalry, all were on foot ; that is to 
say, there were no carriages. The absence of carriages was intended as 
an additional mark of respect and courtesy. Even a few ladies, presum- 
ably the wives of dignitaries, were in the procession. There were no 
French sailors present. Therefore our blue jackets were put in com- 
parison with the flower of the French soldiery, and, as we always find, 
our men looked businesslike and bore themselves thoroughly well, 
although they had no opportunity to land at Cherbourg and have pre- 
liminary drills for the occasion. Moreover, they had landed from coal- 
ing ship, and had been almost without sleep, and with but scant oppor- 
tunity to prepare themselves immediately for the occasion. Many 
photographs have been taken of the procession. All show creditable 
performance on the part of the American blue jackets. The procession 
proceeded along the avenue de I'Alma and the avenue des Champs Elj- 
sees, thence through the Champs Elysees, across the Pont Alexandre 
III, through the Esplanade des Invalides to the Rue de Constantine, 
where, opposite the H6tel des Invalides, in which the remains of Napo- 
leon I repose, a highly decorated pavilion had been erected. In the 
central front of the pavilion was a bier. The casket was removed from 
the caisson by the American body bearers and placed on the bier. Dis- 
tinguished civilians and officers, French and American, took position in 
front of the pavilion, after which the whole military and naval proces- 
sion marched past, the American sailors leading and followed hy the 
French infantry, artillery, and cavalry, in the order named, the officers 
saluting as they passed the pavilion. The cavalry went past on the 
trot. It was a most beautiful and impressive sight, the most distin- 
guished, I was informed by M. Rouvier, that had been seen in Paris of 
recent years. After the march past, the French civilians and French 
officers took leave of the Americans at the pavilion, with much kindh- 
exchange of sentiment and good will. Then the casket was replaced on 
the caisson by the American body bearers and escorted to the railroad 
.station, only a few yards distant, where the casket was again taken from 
the caisson and conveyed to the car in waiting. The car was locked 



John Paul J o 7i e s Commemoration 107 

and sealed. A guard of American sailors was placed over the car, after 
which the American officers dispersed and proceeded to their quarters, 
and the blue jackets were marched again to the Ek;ole Militaire, where 
they were again most courteously received and provided with dinner. 
The oflScers accompanying the landing party were provided with meals 
at the Cercle Militaire. 

At 9. 10 p. m. the landing party of bluejackets left Paris in the same 
train with the remains of John Paul Jones. They arrived at Cherbourg 
the following morning. At Cherbourg a pavilion had been prepared 
and ornamented on the large commercial quay. Therein the remains of 
John Paul Jones were deposited, under a continuous guard of sixteen 
French sailors and sixteen American sailors, to await further ceremonies, 
all arrangements having been made by Vice- Admiral Besson, Rear- 
Admiral Leygue, and the Mayor of Cherbourg, with the assistance of 
interested and sympathizing citizens, and the chef de gare. I remained 
behind, at Paris, with Mr. Loomis and my full staff of officers. That 
evening, the 6th, our whole party was entertained at a great dinner, in 
conjunction with a distinguished party of French people, at the Ameri- 
can embassy, by Ambassador and Mrs. McCormick. On the 7th the 
whole party, together with the American ambassador and General 
Porter, lunched with President Loubet. The entertainment was of the 
same magnificent order as those which had been given by French offi- 
cials. Ladies, as well as gentlemen, were present. After the luncheon, 
we took final leave of President Loubet and the members of his minis- 
try, and others. That night I dined with Mr. Loomis and some mutual 
friends, and I left before the dinner was ended for the railroad station. 
The naval officers left for Cherbourg at 9.10 p. m., on the 7th. Mr. 
Loomis accompanied me to my carriage, and I think we were mutually 
gratified that every event had passed off without error worthy of men- 
tion, although we had been pressed to carry out all details precisely in 
the short period of time allowed us. 

General Porter had gone to Cherbourg on the 6th [7th] . In advance, 
I sent orders to the senior American naval officer present at Cherbourg 
to meet General Porter at the train, escort him to his steamer and give 
him the salute for an ambassador, and to show him all honors. I am 
informed that my instructions were carried out and were appreciated by 
General Porter. I had taken it upon myself to urge General Porter to 
return to the United States on board the Brooklyn, as my guest. General 
Porter, while expressing much pleasure at receiving the invitation, 
felt obliged to decline, to my great disappointment. I also invited 
Mr. Loomis to return to the United States on board the Brooklyn. Mr. 
Loomis also expressed his appreciation of my wish to take him as my 
guest, and explained that he was obliged to remain for some time longer 
in Europe. 



io8 Papers and Reports 



The party of American officers arrived back at Cherbourg at 6 a. m. 
on the morning of the 8th. At i o'clock on the 8th I sent a landing 
party ashore, under arms, where there were also assembled French sol- 
diers and sailors, under arms, at the pavilion on the commercial quay. 
The quay, all along its great length, was decorated with French and 
American flags in alternation. Alongside the quay was the French 
torpedo-boat Zouave. On the quay, and within the highly decorated 
pavilion, was the casket containing the remains of John Paul Jones. 
French and American flags were everywhere, and the Zouave was also 
specially prepared and dressed. At 1.30 p. m. I proceeded to the shore, 
where I met Vice- Admiral Besson and Rear- Admiral Leygue, with 
whom all arrangements had been made previously. The soldiers and 
sailors were drawn up in line near the pavilion, where the French and 
American officers were assembled. Vice- Admiral Besson then read a 
short address, a copy of which I append, marked " Inclosure F." I 
had intended to reply extemporaneously in the event that Admiral Bes- 
son made an address, but the admiral immediately gave the order to 
proceed with the ceremonies, so I withheld my response and contented 
myself with shaking hands with Admiral Besson and thanking him and 
his assistants for the many courtesies that we had received, especially 
for those under his immediate direction. I think the admiral was 
prompted by a desire to expedite the ceremonies in order to facilitate the 
close of my business affairs within the short period of time remaining 
to me. 

The casket was then carried to the Zouave by the American body 
bearers. The Zouave cast off from the quay and moved out slowly into 
the harbor. A column of French pulling boats formed on the port 
quarter of the Zouave and a column of American pulling boats on the 
starboard quarter of the Zouave. Each column was led by the barges of 
the admirals of the respective nationalities. The landing party left the 
quay later and proceeded to their ships. In the order stated, the Zoiiave 
proceeded slowly to the Brooklyn. It was a very beautiful and impress- 
ive sight. The quay was thronged with people and great interest was 
shown. The Zouave went alongside the starboard side of the Brooklyn. 
The rails of the various ships were manned, and all flags were at half- 
mast. When the Zouave left the quay, the flagship of Rear-Admiral 
lycygue began a salute of 15 minute guns. That number of guns was 
fired at my instance, because Mr. lyoomis in his address had named John 
Paul Jones as vice-admiral. The French salute at Paris had corre- 
sponded with that rank. When the French flagship Bouvines had 
finished her salute, and after a short interval, the Brookly7i also fired a 
salute of 15 minute guns. The French officers from the procession of 
boats came on board the Brooklyn over the port side. The casket was 
hoisted on board, prayers were read by Chaplain Bayard, of the Brooklyn, 



John Paul fones C o m m e m o r a t i o 7i 109 



and the casket was then lowered to the gun deck and deposited on the 
bier and under the canopy erected immediately outside of the entrance 
to the flag cabin. 

With fine tact, Admiral Besson and the French officers declined to 
proceed to my cabin, Admiral Besson stating that he knew the pressure 
upon me to close my business and get to sea at the time stated. After 
much exchange of courtesy on the part of the French officers — civil, 
railitarj', and naval — the French party took their leave. Near by was a 
French steamer, with passengers. Among the passengers was Admiral 
Besson' s daughter, who had interested herself deeply in the ceremonies 
and had presented a floral emblem and had also arranged the flowers 
with her own hands on the casket of John Paul Jones. 

Before proceeding further, I should state that while I was absent at 
Paris on the 4th of July Vice- Admiral Besson gave a garden party at the 
arsenal to the officers of the squadron. This was largely attended by 
civil, military, and naval officers and their families. One hundred and 
twenty of the enlisted men were entertained at a banquet and by a visit 
to the exposition by the mayor of Cherbourg. The warrant and chief 
petty officers of the French army and nav3^ through a committee, enter- 
tained at lunch the American warrant and chief petty officers of the 
squadron, and the enlisted men of the French army and navy entertained 
the enlisted men of the fleet at luncheon. 

On the Fourth of July the public buildings were decorated with French 
and American flags. The landing and esplanade were profusely deco- 
rated with French and American flags alternating. There was a brilliant 
electric illumination of the French and American ships, and a water 
carnival at night in honor of the American squadron. 

On the 6th instant Rear- Admiral Leygue entertained the senior offi- 
cer and one other officer from each of the American ships at luncheon. 
On the evening of the same day the senior officers of the American ships 
were entertained at dinner by Colonel de Grandprey, directeur de gdnie. 

On the 7th the wardroom officers of the Bouvines entertained the 
wardroom officers of the Brookly^i. 

Our consular agent, M. Henri Haineville, was unremitting in his 
efforts to assist in every way. 

By the courtesy of M. I^e Pont, the chapel where the body of John 
Paul Jones rested until it was transferred to the ship was constructed 
in his own building on the quay. Captains d'Andrezelle and CoUard, 
of Vice-Admiral Besson's staff, gave much time and attention to per- 
fecting times and arrangements on shore, while Admiral I^eygue and 
his aid were equally assiduous in arranging for those afloat. The chef 
de la gare at Cherbourg was conspicuously zealous in respect to all 
matters connected with the railroad and the transportation of the remains. 
Captain d'Abeville, director of the port, visited the Brooklyn and offered 



no Papers and Reports 



us the facilities of water lighters, etc. Through his good offices the 
squadron was furnished with all the water required. In celebrating 
the Fourth of July all the French officers — civil, military, and naval — 
left nothing undone to show their hearty good will. Owing to the 
limited stay of the squadron in port, together with the preparations for 
sea and the absence of officers and men, it was impossible to return the 
courtesies extended to the squadron excepting by verbal expression. A 
projected entertainment on board the Brooklyn was made impracticable 
by reason of the requirements of the Navy Department in connection with 
the death of Mr. Hay. Our limitations were thoroughly understood 
by the French authorities; but, nevertheless, it was a great regret to 
ourselves. 

At 5.30 p. m. on the 8th our squadron put to sea. When passing 
the division of French ships we manned the side and gave three hearty 
cheers, which were returned. I then repeated our national salute to the 
French flag, which was returned by the Bouvines. When we were in 
the offing the French fleet put to sea also and shaped its course for 
Brest. 

I close this part of my report by informing the Department that late 
on the afternoon of the 7th a representative of President I,oubet arrived 
at my hotel and presented to me, and to the four commanding officers 
of my ships, and to Lieutentant-Commander George, who commanded 
the landing party at Paris, the cross of the Legion of Honor. To me 
the President presented the cross of commander of the Legion of 
Honor and to the others the cross of officer of the Legion of Honor. 
Mr. Loomis had been presented with the cross of the Legion of Honor 
on a former visit to Paris. I accepted the decorations provisionally, 
and as tactfully as possible, and later will bring the matter formally and 
individually, before the Navy Department. 

Our reception in France was a most notable one, by reason of its com- 
pleteness and scope, as well as by its magnificence. It was the evident 
intention to strengthen the cordial relations between France and the 
United States by taking advantage of incidents in our joint histor>-, 
namely, the French- American exploits of John Paul Jones. It is grati- 
fying to me personally, as commander in chief of the naval expedition, 
that all vevents passed off with credit for the American side. I am 
informed that this is the only occasion when a large body of foreign 
armed men has been permitted to parade in the streets of Paris in time 
of peace — that is to say, when not active allies engaged in war. 

PART III 

My squadron took its departure from Cherbourg at 5.30 p. m. on the 
8th of July. A speed of 1 1 knots was set. Later, in heavy seas, the 
speed was reduced to 10 knots. It was afterwards restored to n knots 
in order to take every advantage of smooth weather. 



John Paul 1 71 e s Commemoration in 



We had considerable misty and foggy weather. When south of 
Georges Bank, we were unable to get in communication with the shore 
by wireless because of atmospheric conditions, and at one time because 
of a defect in our wires. When about 30 or 40 miles from Nantucket 
light-ship we tried for a long time to get in communication with the 
light-ship, but there was very much interference by other vessels. How- 
ever, I managed to get the following message to the Nantucket light-ship; 

Report to Navy Department Paul Jones Squadron is off Nantucket light-ship and 
is due at Chesapeake entrance early forenoon of Saturday. No stops needed on 
passage. All well. 

The Nantucket light-ship informed me that because of heavy inter- 
ference they could not get my message through to Newport, but they 
promised to put it through later, as promptly as possible. We were up 
to the light-ship and sighted it at 8.30 p. m. on the 20th. 

From Nantucket light-ship I shaped a straight course for a point 12 
miles east of Cape Charles light-ship. 

On the morning of the 21st we sighted the Maine, Rear- Admiral 
Evans's flagship, to the southward, and I was directed by Admiral Evans 
to form column on the Maine. This was done. Later one vessel after 
another of the first division of the North Atlantic Fleet joined, and the 
two divisions were formed into column, natural order, and proceeded on 
their course to Cape Henry. L,ate in the afternoon Rear- Admiral Davis 
joined with the second division of the North Atlantic Fleet. The second 
division joined the column astern of the third division ; that is to say, 
the division under my command. I informed Admiral Evans of the 
nature of my orders, and that I was expected by the Navy Department 
to arrive at the capes early on the forenoon of the 22d, Saturday. The 
speed was set at 1 1 knots ; distance, 300 yards. 

There were eleven vessels in column, and in the following order : 

First division — 

Maine; flag of the commander in chief. 

Missouri. 

Kentucky. 

Kearsarge. 
Third division — 

Broolilyn; flag of Rear-Admiral Sigsbee. 

Galveston. 

Taconia. 

Chattanooga. 
Second division — 

Alabama; flag of Rear-Admiral Davis. 

Illinois. 

Massachusetts. 

I informed Admiral Evans, by signal, that I had been instructed by 
the Navy Department to communicate at Cape Henry, and asked him 



112 Papers and Reports 

if he would communicate for me. Admiral Evans replied that he would 
communicate and that any messages that I had to send should be sent 
through him. The Iowa joined us off Cape Henry. 

Off the entrance to Chesapeake Bay the Mahie took a pilot and the 
column entered the bay. Inside Cape Henry the first division, under 
Admiral Evans, left the column and directed me to proceed to Annapolis 
with the second and third divisions. Admiral Evans stopped his divi- 
sion, and as the Brooklyn passed at slow speed each vessel of the first 
division fired a salute of 15 minute guns. When the salute was com- 
pleted, I re-formed my column, the second division leading, each division 
being in natural order. I directed Admiral Davis to lead and pilot up 
the bay, speed 10 knots, distance 300 yards. Admiral Evans's division 
proceeded to Hampton roads, and when my column was about 9 miles 
distant from Admiral Evans's column I half-masted the colors of my 
column, but, from the vessels of the third division only, hoisted the 
American national ensign at the fore and the French national ensign at 
the main. 

Although during the whole expedition I had in my division the virtu- 
ally untried Galveston, only recently commissioned, and the Tacoma and 
Chattanooga, also new vessels, we did not stop on the passage across 
nor on the return passage by reason of any defect of the engines or 
other mishap. I stopped the column once on the passage to Cherbourg, 
as already stated, to transfer some men from the Tacoma to the Brooklyn, 
and stopped once on reaching soundings southeast of Nantucket Shoals 
in order to get an up-and-down cast with the lead line and a sounding 
by wire and sounding tube, in order to compare the depth shown by the 
sounding tube with the actual depth shown by the line. 

PART IV 

On the afternoon of the 2 2d I formed the two divisions of vessels in 
double column, distance 400 yards, interval 500 yards, my division on 
the left and Rear- Admiral Davis's division on the right, and in this 
formation I anchored the squadron below Thomas Point light-house 
and out of sight of Annapolis, also distant from Annapolis about 7 miles, 
at 7 p. m. The next morning, at half past 8, the squadron was got 
under way, and we steamed to Annapolis roads in the same formation. 
There we anchored at 9 a. m. in the same formation. We found there 
the French cruiser, Jurien de la Gravitre, Captain Gervais. In order to 
distinguish my vessels as composing the division connected with the 
John Paul Jones expedition I had each of them fly the American ensign 
at the fore and the French ensign at the main. Visits were received 
and made between the French cruiser and our own vessels. 

The next morning, after arrangement with Rear-Admiral Sands, in 
which he most considerately provided that I should be in general 



John Paid [ones Commemoration 113 

command of the cortege on shore, the body of John Paul Jones was landed, 
but without great ceremony on the water. At 9 o'clock the Standish 
came alongside the Brooklyn. The casket was placed on board, and I 
myself, with an escort of officers, went on board the Standish. The 
landing party, which included Captain Gervais and a party of ofi&cers 
and 50 men from \\i& Jurien de la Graviere, had previously been landed. 
The Standish then passed up between the two columns of United States 
vessels, while all the vessels fired simultaneously a salute of 15 minute 
guns. The Standish then proceeded to the shore, where all arrange- 
ments had been made. Commander Nicholson, of the Tacoma, acting 
under my direction, arranged the cortege, a.ssisted by Lieutenant Magru- 
der, the flag lieutenant of Rear-Admiral Sands. I inclose herewith a 
copy of a memorandum provided me by Rear-Admiral Sands, marked 
" Inclosure G."" It will serve to show his own admirable arrangements. 
Lieutenant-Commander George commanded the landing party from my 
vessels. 

A temporarj^ pavilion had been erected on the sea wall inside of the 
artificial basin. The casket was placed in a hearse and the cortege 
moved to the open ground in front of Blake row, where the different 
parties of men were disposed as provided for by Admiral Sands. In the 
center of the grassy space on which Blake row fronts a temporary and verj' 
appropriate brick vault had been erected. The casket was removed 
from the hearse and placed in the vault. The vault was then locked up 
and a company of marines fired three volleys, and a bugler sounded 
taps. I then thanked Admiral Sands and said that my duties were 
ended so far as I knew and subject only to anj^ further orders he might 
have for me. Admiral Sands had no further orders to give me. The 
senior officers then proceeded to the residence of Rear-Admiral Sands, 
where luncheon was served. Other officers — and French officers were 
included in both cases — were entertained at the officers' mess. 

After thanking Admiral Davis for his services I informed him that 
he was free to rejoin the flag of the commander in chief at Hampton 
roads. We then returned to our ships in Annapolis roads. Admiral 
Davis got his division under way at 1.30 p. m. on the 24th, the day of 
the ceremonies, and proceeded to Hampton roads. 

That evening I entertained the captain and a delegation of officers 
from the Jurien de la Graviere at dinner on board my flagship. They 
returned to their ship at 10.45 P- "i- At 11. 15 p. m. I got the third 
division under way and proceeded down the bay for Tompkinsville. We 
passed out of the bay at about 9 a. m. , and soon thereafter set a speed 
of II knots for the third division. 

Perhaps I should mention that on the casket of John Paul Jones, when 
it was landed at Annapolis, I placed his sword, lent me for that purpose 

« Not printed. — CoMPHER. 
7257—07 8 



114 Papers and Reports 



by Commander Nicholson, of the Tacoma. The sword had been passed 
down through various channels until it finally reached Commander 
Nicholson's father, Commodore Nicholson, U. S. Navy, by whom it was 
passed down to Commander Nicholson himself. 

I beg to state that, notwithstanding various difficulties presented them- 
selves from time to time during the expedition, all events passed off 
with great smoothness and harmony. Officers and men bore themselves 
with high credit to the service. 

The third division anchored at Tompkinsville at 11.45 a. m. July 26. 
Very respectfully, 

C. D. SiGSBEE, 
Rear- Admiral, U. S. Navy, Co-niinander in Chief. 
The Secretary of the Navy, 

Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 



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III. LETTERS OF JOHN PAUL JONES 

PETITION FOR ADMISSION AS A MASON" 

[From the original at St. Mary's Isle.] 

To the WorshipfuU , the Master, Wardens & Permanent Brethren of free 
and accepted Masons of the Lodge of St. Bernard held at Kirkcud- 
bright. 

The Petition of John Paul, Commander of the John, of Kirkendal, 
Humbly Sheweth 

That your Petitioner, for a considerable time by-past, liaith enter- 
tained a strong and sincere Regaird for your most noble, Honourable, 
and Ancient Society of Free and Accepted Masons, but Hitherto not 
meeting with reasonable opportunity Do now most Humbly crave the 
benefit of Receiving and Admitting me Into your fraternity as an Entered 
apprentice, promising, assuring and engaidging to you That I shall on 
all Rules and Orders of your I,odge be most obsequient and observant. 
That I shall in all things Deport, behave, and act answerable to the 
Laws and Instructions of the lyodge, and in every thing to which I 
may be made lyable, promising faithful obedience. 

The complyance of your Right Worshipfull Wardens and rest of the 
Brethren will singularly oblidge and very much Honour, Right Worship- 
full, your most Humble Petitioner and most Humble servant. 

Jno. PAUt. 

I do attest the Petitioner to be a good man and a person whom I have 
no doubt will in due time become a worthy Brother. 

James Smith. 

oThis paper is not dated. It appears in the appended chronology that John Paul 
commanded VtKtJohn in 1770 and that he was entered as a Mason at Kirkcudbright 
November 27, 1770.— Compiler. 

"5 



LETTER TO JOSEPH HEWES 

[From autograph draft in the library of Congress.] 

[Alfred, New London, April z/, 1776. \ 
When I undertook to write you an account of our proceedings in 
the Fleet I did not imagine that I should have been so stinted in 
point of time — I owed j-ou a much earlier account but since our arrival 
here the repairs and Business of the ship has required my Constant 
attention — I will endeavour to be more punctual hereafter — in the mean- 
while hope you will excuse this omission 'till I can account for it per- 
sonally. I pass over what was prior to our arrival at the Capes of 
Delaware — where we were met by the Hornet sloop & Wasp schooner 
from ^^laryland. On the 17th of Feby the Fleet put to sea with a smart 
North East Wind, In the Night of the nineteenth (the Gale having 
Increased) we lost Company with the Hornet and Fly Tender. We 
steered to the Southward 's\'ithout seeing a single sail or meeting with 
anything remarkable 'till the first of Jvlarch, when we anchored at Abaco 
(one of the Bahamia Islands) having previously brought too a Couple of 
New Providence sloops to take pilots out of them. By these people we 
were informed that there was a large Quantity of Powder with a Num- 
ber of Cannon in the two Forts of New Providence. In Consequence of 
this Intelligence the Marines and Landsmen to the number of 300 and 
upwards under the comm"* of Capt° Nicholas were embarked in the two 
sloops. It was determined that they should keep below Deck 'till the 
sloops were got in Close to the Fort — and they were then to land 
Instantly & take possession before the Island could be alarmed. This, 
however, was rendered abortive, as the Forts Fired an alarm on the 
approach of our Fleet. We then ran in and anchored at a small Key 3 
leagues to windward of the Town and from thence the Commodore dis- 
patched the marines with the sloop Providence and schooner Wasp to 
Cover their Landing. They landed without opposition and soon took 
possession of the Eastern Garrison Ft. ^Montague which (after Firing a 
few shot) the Islanders abandoned. The Next morning the Marines 
marched for the Town and were met by a messenger from the Gov' who 
told Capt" Nicholas that "the western Garrison (Ft. Nassau) was ready 
for his reception and that he might march his Force in as soon as he 
pleased." This was effected without firing a gun on our Side — but the 
Gov"' had sent off 150 barrels of Powder the Night before. Inclosed you 
have an Inventory of the Cannon, stores &c which we found, took 

117 



ii8 Letters 



Possession of, and brought off in the Fleet. We Continued at N. Provi- 
dence till 17'" ulto and then bro't off the Gov"' and two more Gent" 
Prisoners. Our Course was now directed back for the Continent and 
after meeting with much bad weather on the 5"" Inst off Block Island 
we took one of Capt. Wallace's Tenders the Hawke schooner of 6 guns — 
and the Bomb Brig Bolton of 8 guns & 2 Howitzers &c the Next morn^ 
we fell in with the Glasgow man of war and a Hot Engagement Ensued — 
the particulars of which I cannot communicate better than by extracting 
the minutes which I entered in the Alfred' s I^og Book as Follows — 

At 2 A. M. cleared ship for Action. At J4 past do. the Cabot being 
between us and the Enemy, began to Engage and soon after we did 
the same, and maintained the Action 5 Glasses; at the third Glass the 
enemy bore away, and by crowding sail at length got a considerable way 
ahead made Signals for the rest of y° English Fleet at Rhoad Island to 
come to her Assistance & steered directly for the Harbour. The Com- 
modore then thought it Imprudent to Risque our Prizes &c by Pursuing 
further therefore to Prevent our being decoyed into their hands at J^ 
past 6 made the signal to leave off Chace & hauld by the Wind to Join 
our Prizes. The Cabott, Capt. Jno. Hopkins, was Disabled at the 2^ 
broadside. The Capt being dangerously Wounded; the Mate and sev- 
eral Men killed — the Enemy's whole Fire was then directed at us and 
an unlucky shot having carried away our Wheel Block & Ropes, the 
Ship broached too and this gave the Enemy opportunity of Raking us 
with several Broadsides before we were again in Condition to steer the 
Ship and Return the Fire. In the Action we Received several shot 
under Water which made the Ship very Eeaky. We had besides the 
Mainmast shot thro' and the Upperworks and Rigging very considerably 
damaged. Yett it is surprising that we only lost the 2d Eieut of 
Marines & 4 Men, one of whom, a Midshipman Prisoner ("Martin 
Gillinwater ' ' ) who was in the Cockpitt and had been taken in the Bomb 
Brig Bolton Yesterday. We had no more than three men dangerously 
& 4 slightly wounded. 

I leave you to make the natural comments arising from this. 

I have the pleasure of assuring you that the Comm' in Chief is 
respected thro' the Fleet, and I verily believe that the officers and men 
in general would go any length to execute his orders. It is with pain 
that I Confine this plaudit to an individual — I should be happy in extend- 
ing it to every Captain and oflBcer in the service — Praise is certainl}- due 
to some — but alas! there are Exceptions: it is certainly for the Interest 
of the service that a cordial interchange of civilities should subsist 
between Superiour and Inferiour Officers — and therefore it is bad policy 
in Superiours to behave towards their inferiours indiscriminately as tho' 
they were of a lower species. Men of liberal Alinds who have been long 
accustomed to Command, can ill brook being thus set at nought by 



John Paul Jones Com?nemoration 119 



others who pretend to Claim the monopoly of com. sense. — the rude 
ungentle treatment which they experience creates such heartburnings as 
are no wise consonant with, that cheerful ardour and spirit which ought 
ever to be the characteristick of an OflScer, and therefore whoever thinks 
himself hearty in the ser^ace is vvidel}' mistaken when he adopts such a 
line of conduct in order to prove it — for to be well obeyed it is necessary 
to be esteemed. The Fleet having been reinforced with 200 men lent 
from the Army is now in condition for another Enterprize and we expect 
to embrace the first wind for Rhode Island when I hope we shall meet 
with better success as we understand that the Scarborough is now there — 
it is Proposed to clear the Ships at Rhode Island or Providence so that 
our detention there will admit of a return of letters from Philadelphia — 
meantime with a grateful sense of past favors I have the honor to be with 
much Esteem 

Sir Your very obliged most humble servant, 

[Jno. p. Jones. J 

[Endorsements.] 

B. Alfred, New Eondon, J. H[ewes] 14th April 1776. 

C. EV. Memorandum of the Engagement with the Glasgow. 
In pencil: "No. i The Glasgow." 

Jones. 




C.VPT 



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From orig:inal in British jMuseuta. 



LETTER TO ROBERT MORRIS 

[From autograph draft in the I^ibrary of Congress.] 

Providence, at Sea ^th Sepf,, 1776. 
Honoured Sir. I herewith inclose for your inspection all the letters 
and papers which I found in the Brigantine Sea Nymph — for the 
particulars of my Cruise hitherto I must beg leave to refer you to 
the within open letter to the Marine Board which please to lay before 
them. I purpose to stand to the southward in hopes of falling in with 
some ships which I understand are now on their Passage from Barbados — 
but at this late season my success is very uncertain — I will, however, 
ply about in this meridian as long as I think I have any chance and if I 
fail at last I can run to the northward and try for better success among 
the Fishermen which may answer no bad purpose by increasing the 
Number of our seamen — however my cruise may terminate. I forgot 
not the singular obligation I wrote to Mr. Morris who promoted it for 
my honor and advantage and I esteem the Honour done me by his 
accepting my Correspondence as the greatest favour I could have aspired 
to. I conclude that Mr. Hewes hath acquainted you with a ver\' great 
misfortune which befel me some years ago and which brought me into 
No. America, the best man may soon become equally or far more unfor- 
tunate, therefore you will spare me the pain of repeating it here. I am 
under no concern whatever that this or any past circumstance of my life 
will sink me in your opinion since human wisdom cannot secure us from 
accidents it is the greatest effort of Reason to bear them well. I will 
from time to time carefully communicate to you every intelligence in 
my Power — and now ' ' as the regulations of the Navy ' ' are of the utmost 
Consequence you will not think it presumptions if with the utmost diffi- 
dence I venture to communicate to )'ou such hints as in my judgment 
will promote its Honour and good Government — I could heartily wish 
that every Commission Officer were to be previously examined — for, to 
my certain knowledge there are persons who have already crept into 
Commission — without abilities or fit Qualification: I am myself far from 
deserving to be excused, — from my experience in Ours as well as from 
my former intimacy with many officers of note in the British Navy, I 
am convinced that the Parity of Rank between sea and laud or marine 
officers, is of more consequence to the harmony of the service than hath 
generally been imagined, in the British Establishment — an Admiral 
ranks with a Genl., a Vice Adml. with a Lieut. Genl., a Rear Admiral 
with a Major Genl., a Commodore with a Brigadier Genl., a Captain 
with a Colonel, a Master & Comdr with a Lieut. Colonel, a Lieut. 
Commanding with a Major, and a Lieutenant in the Navy ranks with a 



122 Letters 

Captain of Horse, Foot or Marines. I propose not our Enemies as an 
example for our Genl imitation, yet as their navy is the best regulated 
of any in the world we must in some degree imitate them and aim at 
such further improvement as may one day make ours Vie with and 
Exceed theirs. Were this Regulation to take place in our Navy it would 
prevent numberless disputes and duellings which otherwise will be una- 
voidable besides Sir you know very well that marine officers being utterly 
unacquainted with Maratime affairs and in those cases unfit persons to 
preside at or Compose half the member of a Court Martial. I beg 
pardon for this liberty. I thought that such hints might escape your 
memory in the Multiplicity of business. I have always understood that 
the sentence of a Court Martial when confirmed by a Commander in 
Chief is definitive and admitted of no appeal — So from this I must again 
recur to English authority in the Case of Eord George G. Sackville who 
for disobeying the orders of Prince Ferdinand at the Battle of Minden 
was by a Court Martial held at the Horse Guards rendered incapable of 
serving afterwards in any Military capacity although his great abilities 
were then well known and are generally acknowledged at this day. I 
am led into this subject by hearing with astonishment the application 
and complaint of the late Capt'' Hazard to the Marine Board after he 
had been found "unworthy of Bearing his Commission in the Navj'," 
by the undivided voice of a Court Martial where I had the honor to sit 
as a Member. If he was then U7iworthy of bearing his Commission I 
cannot see what new merit he can have acquired and even if he had 
merit it would not be sound policy to reverse the sentence. It would 
make officers stand less in awe and attend less punctually to their duty 
and it is not impossible that it might induce future court martials in 
some cases to inflict personal punishment from whence there is no appeal. 
There was a mistake made in the date of my Commission which unless 
you stand my friend will make a material difference when the Navy 
Rank is settled — I took command here the tenth day of May as appears 
by the order and appointment of the Comr. in Chief on the Back of my 
Commission as Eldest lieutenant of the Fleet, and ray Commission as 
Captain is not dated 'till the 8th day of August which you know is not 
fair as it would subject me to be superseded by Captain Roberson 
[Robinson] who was at first my junior officer by six — perhaps it might 
subject me to be superseded by others. If I have deserved so ill as to 
be superseded I am unworthy of bearing my Commission. I esteem it a 
greater disgrace and severer punishment than to be fairly broke and 
dismissed the service. I have ordered Mr Hopkins the prize master to 
deliver to you a Turtle which please to accept. I have the honor to be 
with Greatful Esteem and much respect, 

Honoured Sir your very obliged and very Obedient Humble Servt. 

J. P- J- 
The Honl. Robt. Morris, Esq. 



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Cliief IS definitive L.!i.J adHufi^-ia .■■- ;k- ^-pi"---^ ■•" ''"' ^;' ;; -";'^ ^-^ ' 
recur to Englisli authority :a th. Case of Lora co-.ge C. i>ackA ille who 
for disobev". tl.e orde, ., c-f Prn.e F.rd.naud at the Batt.e of- Mnjtej 
^.as by a Court Martial held at the Hor^e GuardiJ renc.ercl mcapabk of 
' ,ft.;rwurJs -in any Military capacilv aitlioi!«1i 1;> ^Tf^^at :xbi,K;is 
...^ -..nwell known aiul are generally a^-fcno^vledK' -i ->' .'m^. Hv,^ 1 

.:d into this subject by iieanng with asumisbiue 1. ^ ,-; 
' -ompiai"tof the late C.i?i" Hazard to uu^ \-.nnfc lv^s;.. 
,i ;«Pn found "unworlhy of ikiring his Co...ni=Mmi n, Uic 
- ihe ^n>u.^>d voi-c of ? Couix Martial wS;ere 1 had the iio; 
'' '-.^Ikt If he was iheti unworthy . '' bearing his Comn 
■ '-..A lee^-vdi.i new merit he can have acquired and even if he had 



/riCalv 


, ,^"I 


iftcr 


he 


Xuvy 


, " 


i.i to 


sit 


il^Sl jl 





V.'Oii 



.Id not be slmhi.! policy lo 



reverse the sentence. It Aould 







■ k-.- <>mcers stand less lu awe and attet.1 ley- puncy.ally to their duty 
,.J, ,t ;. not Impossible that it roiyin induce future romt martials m 
*me case, to' ^.flict pergonal p-nn^hmetd from .bence there ,s no appeal. 

T'.e, _ : ..uiyate made ui the date of my CoT«.nrssion ^vnich aii.es^ 

voii'frtqno tnv frten.' wHl make a material ditVcreno. vhen the ^avy 
p / iS v-Ued-I took coinmand here the tenth day of Al;.y as appears 
h.r ih/oider o.v,l appointment oi the Comr. in Chief co the Back of m>- 
Co,.^nysvo,. ,is JiMest neutcn£>ry d the Fleet, and my Com.iiss^oT, as 
r ' >tani is not dated tip the 8th d^.y of,;..igus1 which -on know is not 
fair as it wuuld subject me t^ . be sup. se.-ed by C.pto-^ V^oberson 



iinto! 

■lU'f- 
.1 Uil)'. 



[Robi:,soii] who was at first tnv 

subject aie to be 'lupers-'-^v >'>■' 

te KUpfrt«>vi<' t. I .■.'■' nr-^orth.v r,! ^ , 

greater difcgrac- ■^'-■s -'-Verer piiuiMJiu, ;- 

.y.nns^ed the .service 1 bave ordered I 

cieiiveT- to you a Turn- which please to ncc^pt 

with (ircatful iisteem and nutcb respect, 

Honoured ,Sir your ^■ery obhvcd and .erv Obedient Humb. - .^erv,-. 



.;., b', ■»! ; '■'•'<• - i* idvht 

I y,i. . av--e!V< y so il! ^- to 
'. (jcnijission, I esteem '^ -^ 
nan to l>e fairly broke :nn: 
Tbipkins the prize master tr, 
I have the hono! to be 



T 



The Honl. Robt. Mokius. i.sq. 



//,- /, * /^i ^/ yViT ?-^/i^ 'tun ofagy X^ f*- y*T^*7i^ ^ <x jm-/ / ■,;^ y^-r^- vV^ / ' 
^/f.-/ W/'/ >-•*/-"' ^^ /-x^'^-yi^ ^■VlJ-rff*.^,t^>^ ij /Vir ,./■/./ i^l 

f ', / / >r ^ 'C 6^^ ■7't ^ t^ /i^) //i-t f%^iL r^-tt^ - 









C ^Wie>^r<«--'-'?*^ ^^'C^C^i^l/' i-^^J r^'^e.^^ h ' /'^y //it ' |j5>)* £t,j^'J M^A^ 

FACSIMILE OF FIRST PAGE OF LETTER TO COUNTESS OF SELKIRK. 
(Scale, two-thirds of original.) 










f') 



FACSIMILE OF LAST PAGE OF LETTER TO COUNTESS OF SELKIRK. 
{Scale, two-thirds of original.) 



LETTER TO THE COUNTESS OF SELKIRK 

[From the original at St. Mary's Isle.] 

Ranger. Brest, 8th May, 1778. 

Madam. It cannot be too much lamented that in the profession of 
arms, the Officer of fine feelings, and of real Sensibility, should be 
under the necessity of winking at any Action of Persons under his 
command which his heart cannot approve: — but the reflection is doubly 
severe when he finds himself obliged in appearance to countenance such 
Action by his Authority. 

This hard case was mine, when on the 23rd of April last I landed on 
St. Mary's Isle. Knowing I,ord Selkirk's intrest with his King, and 
esteeming as I do his private Character, I wished to make him the happy 
Instrument of alleviating the horrors of hopeless captivity, when the 
brave are overpowered and made Prisoners of War. It was perhaps 
fortunate for you. Madam, that he was from home, for it was m)' inten- 
tion to have taken him on board the Ranger, and to have detained him 
until thro' his means, a general and fair Exchange of Prisoners as well 
in Europe as in America had been effected. When I was informed by 
some men whom I met at landing, that his Eordship was absent, I 
walked back to my Boat, determining to leave the Island: by the waj' 
however, some Officers who were with me, could not forbear expressing 
their discontent, observing that in America no delicacy was shewn by 
the English, who took away all sorts of movable property, setting Fire 
not only to Towns and to the houses of the rich, without distinction, 
but not even sparing the wretched hamlets and Milch cows of the poor 
and helpless at the approach of an inclement Winter. That party had 
been with me as Volunteers the same morning at Whitehaven; some 
complaisance therefore, was their due: — I had but a moment to think 
how I might gratify them, and at the same time do your Ladyship the 
least Injury. I charged the Two Officers to permit none of the Seamen 
to enter the House, or to hurt any thing about it. To treat you Madam, 
with the utmost Respect, to accept of the plate which was offered, and 
to come away without making a search or demanding anything else. I 
am induced to believe that I was punctually obeyed; since I am informed 
that the Plate which they brought away is far short of the quantity 
expressed in the inventory which accompanied it, I have gratified my 
Men; and when the Plate is sold, I shall become the Purchaser, and will 
gratify vty own feelifigs by restoring it to you, by such conveyance as 
you shall please to direct. 

123 



124 Letters 



Had the Earl been on board the Ranger the following Evening, he 
would have seen the awful Pomp and dreadful Carnage of a Sea Engage- 
ment: both affording ample subject for the Pencil, as well as melancholy 
reflection for the contemplative mind. Humanity starts back from such 
Scenes of Horror, and cannot but execrate the Vile Promotors of this 
detested War. 

For They, t'was They unsheath'd the ruthless blade, 
And Heav'n shall ask the'Havock it has made. 

The British Ship of War Drake, mounting 20 guns, with more than 
her full compliment of Officers and Men, besides a number of Volunteers, 
came out from Carrackfergus, in order to attack and take the American 
Continental Ship of War Ranger, of 18 Guns, and short of her compli- 
ment of Officers and Men. The Ships met, and the advantage was dis- 
puted with great Fortitude on each side for an Hour and Five minutes, 
when the Gallant Commander of the Drake fell, and Victory declared in 
favour of the Ranger. His aimiable Lieutenant lay mortally wounded, 
besides near Forty of the inferior Officers and Crew killed and wounded. 
A melancholy demonstration of the uncertainty of human prospects ; and 
of the sad reverse of Fortune which an Hour can produce. I buryed them 
in a spacious Grave, with the Honors due to the Memory of the Brave. 

Tho' I have drawn my Sword in the present generous Struggle for the 
rights of Men, yet I am not in Arms as an American, nor am I in pur- 
suit of Riches. My Fortune is liberal enough, having no Wife nor 
Family, and having lived long enough to Know that Riches cannot 
insure Happiness. I profess myself a Citizen of the World, totally 
unfettered by the little mean distinctions of Climate or of Country, which 
diminish the benevolence of the Heart and set bounds to Philantropy. 
Before this War began, I had, at an early time of L,ife, withdrawn from the 
Sea service, in favour of "calm contemplation and Poetic ease," I have 
sacrificed not only my favourite scheme of L,ife, but the softer Affections 
of the Heart, and my Prospects of Domestic Happiness, and I am ready 
to sacrifice my Life also with cheerfulness, if that forfeiture could restore 
Peace and good will among Mankind. 

As the feelings of your gentle Bosom cannot but be congenial with 
mine, let me entreat you Madam, to use your soft persuasive Arts with 
your Husband, to endeavour to stop this Cruel and destructive War, in 
which Britain never can succeed. Heaven can never countenance the 
barbarous and unmanly Practices of the Britons in America, which Sav- 
ages would blush at, and which if not discontinued will soon be retaliated 
in Britain by a justly enraged People. Should you fail in this, (for I am 
persuaded that you will attempt it ; and who can resist the power of 
such an Advocate?) Your endeavours to effect a general Exchange of 
Prisoners, will be an Act of Humanity, which will afford you Golden 
Feelings on a Death bed. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 125 



I hope this cruel contest will soon be closed ; but should it continue, 
I wage no War with the Fair. I acknowledge their Power, and bend 
before it with profound Submission ; let not therefore the Aimable 
Countess of Selkirk regard me as an Enemy ; I am ambitious of her 
Esteem and Friendship, and would do anything consistent with my duty 
to merit it. 

The honor of a Eine from your hand in answer to this will lay me 
under a very singular Obligation ; and if I can render you any accept- 
able service in France, or elsewhere, I hope you see into my character 
so far as to command me without the least grain of reserve. 

I wish to know exactly the behaviour of my People, as I determine to 
punish them if they have exceeded their Eiberty. 

I have the Honor to be with much esteem and with profound Respect, 
Madam. 

Your most obedient and most humble servant. 

Jno. p. Jones. 



LETTER FROM LORD SELKIRK" 

[From the original at St. Mary's Isle.] 

Monsieur J. P. Jones, 

Capitaine du Vaisseau Americain, Le Rartger, a Brest. 

Dumfries, June gth, 1778. 

Sir. The letter you wrote to Lady Selkirk of the 8th of May from 
Brest, and enclosed to Lord Le Despencer, he was so good as to for- 
ward, and it came to hand t'other day, as also it's duplicate by common 
post. It was matter of surprise both to my Wife and- to me, as no 
apology was expected for your landing from your Privateer at St. Mary's 
Isle on the 23rd of April, but as the letter is polite, and 5'ou seem very 
anxious for an answer, I shall therefore transmit this unsealed to Lord 
Le Despencer, who, as I have the honour to be well acquainted with 
him, will I hope excuse my giving him this trouble, and his Lordship, 
as Post Master General will judge whether or not it is proper to be 
forwarded to you, as a letter by common post would certainly be stopped 
at the London Office. Your lamenting the necessity of these things in 
the Profession of Arms, and of being obliged to gratify your Officers by 
permitting them to go to my house, and carry off some plate, and your 
expressing the great sensibility of your feelings at what your heart can- 
not approve, are things which we, who have no knowledge of you, nor 
your character but by report, can form no proper judgement of, but must 
leave to your own Conscience, and to the Almighty Judge of the real 
motives of all actions. You certainly are in the right, Sir, in saying 
that it was fortunate for Lady Selkirk, that I was from home, as you 
intended to carry me off and detain me prisoner, for had that happened, 
I dread what might have been its effect on my Wife, then well advanced 
in her pregnancy. I own I do not understand how a man of Sensibility 
to fine feelings could reconcile this to what his heart approved, espe- 
cially as the carrying me off could have no possible effect for the purpose 
you mention, which you say was, "knowing my interest with the King, 
your intention was to detain me, until through my means, a general and 
fair exchange of prisoners, as well in Europe as in America had been 
effected," Now Sir nothing can be more erroneous than these ideas, for 
I have no interest whatever with the King, and am scarce known to 
him, being very seldom in London, scarce six months in whole, during 
these last one and twenty years. With regard to the King's Ministers, 
I neither have nor can have any interest with them, as I have generally 

"This letter was inclosed to Lord Despencer and by him returned to Ivord 
Selkirk. — Compii<ER. 

127 



128 Letters 



disapproved of most of their measures, and in particular of almost their 
whole conduct in the unhappy and illjudged American War. And as to 
a general exchange of Prisoners being effected through my means, I am 
altogether at a loss how any man of sense could entertain such an Idea. 
I am neither a Military nor a Ministerial man. I neither have nor ever 
had a Ministerial Office, Imployment, or Pension, nor any connection 
with Administration, nor am I in Parliament, and except having the 
disadvantage of a useless Scotch Title, I am in all respects as much a 
Private Country Gentleman, as any one can be, living a retired life in 
the country, and engaging in no factions whatever. How then would 
it have been possible for such a man to effect a general exchange of 
Prisoners? when so many men of great Power and Influence in both 
Houses of Parliament have not been able to bring it about. You must 
therefore be sensible on reflection Sir, that you proceeded on a very 
improper and mistaken notion, and that had your attempt succeeded, 
it's only effect would have been to distress a family that never injured 
any person, and whose wishes have certainly been very friendly to the 
Constitutions and Just Liberties of America. You exclaim on the bar- 
barities committed in America, and say they will be retaliated in Britain 
if not discontinued, I have always been extremely sorry at the accounts 
of these things, no man can be a greater enemy to all ungenerous 
inhumanities in War than I am. God knows best which side began 
those things, and which has most to account for, but it is certainly the 
general opinion in Britain, that the Americans began the unusual and 
cruel practice complained of, and first against their own country men 
who adhered to the British Government. In your letter you profess 
yourself a Citizen of the World, and that j'ou have drawn your Sword " 
in support of the Rights of Man, yet you say you are not in arms as an 
American, nor in pursuit of Riches. If you are not in anas as an 
American, I do not understand in what character you act, and unless 
you have an American Commission, I doubt the L,aws of War and of 
Nations would not be very favourable to you as a citizen of the World, 
which however ought to be a very honourable character, and you will 
do well to endeavour to act up to the humanity and honour of it. Con- 
sider then Sir, the impropriety and danger to the common Interests, and 
happiness of Society, in your departing from the established and usual 
practice of Modern War. Nothing does more honour to Mankind, than 
the generous humanity and mildness introduced in War of late ages, 
through all the best civilized parts of Europe, and it's violation is always 
disapproved of and generally resented by the Ministers of every State. 
I am therefore pursuaded that neither the French Government nor the 
Congress would have countenanced your carrying me off, nor would 
have permitted me to be detained. Their own coasts are as much 
exposed to such enterprises as our's, and they will not wish to intro- 
duce such things into the practice of War, as can have no effect 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 129 



upon the great and general operations of it, but would only add to its 
calamities. It was certainly fortunate both for L,ady Selkirk and me, 
that I was from home, and it was also fortunate for yoVi Sir, that your 
Officers and Men behaved well, for had any of my family suffered out- 
rage, murder or violence, no quarter of the Globe should have secured 
you nor even some of those under whose commission you act, from my 
vengeance. But Sir, I am happy that their welfare enables me to inform 
you, that the Orders you mention in your letter were punctually obeyed 
by your two Officers and Men, who in every respect behaved as well as 
could be expected on such an occasion. All the men remained on the 
outside of the house, were civil, and did no injury, the two officers 
alone came within, and behaved with civility, and we were all sorry to 
hear afterwards that the younger officer in green uniform was killed in 
your engagement with the Drake, for he in particular showed so much 
civility, and so apparent a dislike at the bussiness he was then on, that 
it is surprising how he should have been one of the proposers of it. 
What you mention is certainly so, that some of the Plate was left, but 
that was contrary to L,ady Selkirk intention and to her orders, but 
happened partly by accident, confusion and hurry, and partly by the 
improper inclinations of some servants, for which they were severely 
reprimanded afterwards. So much was it countrary to Lady Selkirk's 
intentions, that she, having met a servant carrying some Plate out of 
the way, ordered it instantly to be taken back and given up, and indeed 
her giving the inventory along with it, tho' not asked for, proves that 
she meant it all to go, as the inventory would only serve to show, what 
she would not have inclined to be known, had she intended or beheved 
any was left, and indeed had your Officers taken time to examine it, 
they would have got all, by means of the inventory, but the only thing 
they observed wanting was a tea pot and coffee pot, and on mentioning 
it, the .ser^-ant immediately brought them. This circumstance however, 
proves also what I have pleasure in acknowledging, that your Officers 
obeyed your orders in making no search, for which Sir you are entitled 
to our thanks and I most wilhngly give them. Tho' you say nothing 
improper about what was left, nor can Lady Selkirk be thought at all 
accountable for it, yet she chuses these things to be mentioned, as she 
said to your Officers she believed it was all dehvered, and she would be 
sorry if any person whatever should believe her capable of deceit. The 
little Plate that was left, will seem greater by the inventory than it was 
in reality, for the six candle sticks left, two are of a very small old 
fashioned kind, that belonged to Lady Selkirk's Grandmother, and are 
not one third of the weight of those now in fashion, the other two are 
little flat trifles, made exceeding small, for the purpose of standing in a 
cabinet for the purpose of sealing letters, the tea spoons and also some 
spoons of an inferior make, used at the housekeeper's table, by not 
7257—07 9 



130 Letters 



being keeped in the Butler's Pantry were forgot, together with some 
other very small things of little value, all the large things left were of 
the Birmingham plated kind. Your genteel offer Sir, of returning the 
Plate is very polite but at the same time neither Lady Selkirk nor I can 
think of accepting of it, as you must purchase it you say for that pur- 
pose, but if your delicacy makes you unwilling to keep that share of its 
value which as Captain you are entitled to, without purchasing, I would 
in that case wish that part to be given to those private men who were on 
the party, as an encouragement for their good behaviour. You Sir, 
are intitled to what is more honorable, viz: The Praise of having your 
men under good discipline, which on all occasions I take care to make 
known. There is one thing not so agreeable, as it must put me to con- 
siderable inconvenience, it seems the people you sent away from the 
Ranger, after taking the Drake, have reported, that you have said, " You 
were still determined to take me Prisoner, and would do so within a few 
months." As to my own personal danger, I have no apprehension 
about it, but Justice to my Wife and Children makes it necessary to 
remove myself and family to a more inland situation. Thus your 
illjudged and useless intention whilst it can do no good to you, nor be 
of any service to those in captivity, serves only to deprive my family 
and me of our country residence. "Were there anything in my power 
for the procuring of an exchange of Prisoners, God knows I would 
most willingly do it, for I all along thought the refusing it both unjust 
and an impolitic measure, and which I still think will prove useless and 
will have to be departed from. Though your letter is wrote like a man 
who means well, and who wishes to be considered a man of honour, yet 
some people in this Country who say they know you, (tho' I do not 
think it certain you are the person they mean) laugh at j'our saying you 
are not in pursuit of Riches, and at your intention of taking me for the 
purpose of a general exchange of Prisoners. They sa}' your design 
must have been a Ransom, and that your offer of returning the Plate 
is only a snare, to put me off my guard. But as I chanced to be entirely 
ignorant of you and your character, till your enterprise on the 23rd of 
April, I have therefore nothing certain to judge by but 5^our behaviour, 
then, and since, and as that has in so far as regarded my Family, been 
genteel, and though your intention of taking me was certainly absurd, 
yet as it was so from mistake I therefore will not allow mj^self to think 
with those people, that a man who professes honorable sentiments, and 
is acting under an honorable commission for what he thinks is support- 
ing the Rights of Mankind, would for the sake of a pitiful Ransom 
degrade himself to the low and vile character of a Barbary Pirate, 
which would be the case if these people were right in the opinion they 
give, but I chuse to judge more favourably of you, and am Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

Selkirk. 



LETTER FROM LORD SELKIRK 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RETURN OF SILVER 

[From contemporary copy in I^ibrary of Congress.] 

London, /M August, 178^. 
Sir. I received the letter you wrote to me, at the time you sent off 
vay plate, in order for restoring it. Had I known where to direct a 
letter to you at the time it arrived in Scotland, I would have then 
wrote to you, but not knowing it, nor finding that any of my acquaint- 
ance at Edinburgh knew it, I was obliged to delay writing till I came 
here, when by means of a gentleman connected with America, I was told 
Mr Le Grand was your banker at Paris, and would take proper care of a 
letter for you, therefore I inclose this to him. Notwithstanding all the 
precautions you took for the easy and uninterrupted conveyance of the 
plate, yet it met with considerable delays, first at Calais, next at Dover, 
then at London. However it at last arrived at Dumfries, and I daresay 
quite safe, though as yet I have not seen it, being then at Edinburgh. 
I intended to have put an article in the newspapers about your having 
returned it, but before I was informed of its being arrived, some of your 
friends, I suppose, had put it in the Dumfries newspaper, whence it was 
immediately copied into the Edinburgh papers, and thence into the Lon- 
don ones. Since that time I have mentioned it to many people of fash- 
ion, and on all occasions, Sir, both now and formerly, I have done 3'ou 
the justice to tell, that 3'ou made an offer of returning the plate, very 
soon after your return to Brest, and although you, j'ourself was not at 
my house, but remaining at the shore with your boat, that yet )'ou had 
your officers and men in such extraordinary good discipline, that you 
having given them the strictest orders to behave well, to do no injury of 
any kind, to make no search, but only to bring off what plate was given 
them, that in reality they did exactly as ordered, and that not one man 
offered to stir from his post on the outside of the house, nor entered the 
doors, nor said an uncivil word, that the two officers stood not a quarter 
of an hour in the parlour and butler's pantrj', while the butler got the 
plate together, behaved politely, and asked for nothing but the plate, 
and instantly marched their men off in regular order, and that both 
officers and men behaved in all respects so well that it would have done 

131 



132 Letters 



credit to the best disciplined troops what ever. Some of the English, 
newspapers at that time having put in confused accounts of your expe- 
dition to Whitehaven, and Scotland, I ordered a proper one of what 
happened in Scotland, to be put in the London newspapers by a gentle- 
man who was then at my house, by which the good conduct and civil 
behaviour of your of&cers and men was done justice to, and attributed 
to your orders, and the good discipline you maintained over your people. 
I am. Sir, Your most humble servant, 

Selkirk. 



REPORT OF JOHN PAUL JONES 

CRUISE OF THE U. S. SHIP RANGER AND CAPTURE OF 
H. B. M. S. DRAKE 

l^From the original draft in John Paul Jones's letter-book at U. S. Naval Academy.] 

Brest, Jl/ov 2j, 1778. 

Gentlemen, I now fulfil the promise made in my last, by giving 
you an account of my late expedition. 

I sailed from Brest loth of April. My plan was extensive. I there- 
fore did not, at the beginning, wish to encumber myself with prisoners. 
On the 14th I took a brigantine between Scylla and Cape Clear, bound 
from Ostend with a cargo of flaxseed for Ireland, sunk her, and pro- 
ceeded into St. George's Channel. On the 17th I took the ship Lord 
Chatham, bound from London to Dubhn, with a cargo consisting of 
porter and a variety of merchandize, and almost within sight of her 
port; the ship I manned and ordered for Brest. Towards the evening 
of the day following, the weather had a promising appearance, and the 
winds being favorable, I stood over from the Isle of Man, with an inten- 
tion to make a descent at "Whitehaven. At 10 o'clock, I was off the 
harbor with a party of volunteers, and had everything in readiness to 
land, but, before eleven, the wind greatly increased, and shifted so as to 
blow directly upon the shore; the sea increased of course, and it became 
impossible to effect a landing. This obliged me to carry all possible 
sail, so as to clear the land, and to await a more favorable opportunit5^ 
On the 1 8th, in Glenbue Bay, on the south coast of Scotland, I met 
with a revenue wherry; it being the common practice of these vessels 
to board merchant ships, and the Ranger then having no external 
appearance of war, it was expected that this rover would have come 
alongside. I was, however, mistaken, for, though the men were at their 
quarters, yet this vessel outsailed the Ranger, and got clear, in spite of 
a severe cannonade. 

The next morning, off the Mull of Galloway, I found myself so near 
a Scotch coasting schooner, loaded with barley, that I could not avoid 
sinking her. Understanding that 10 or 12 sail of merchant ships, besides 
a tender brigantine with a number of impressed men on board, were at 
anchor in Eoughryan in Scotland, I thought this an enterprise worthy 
attention, but the wind, which at the first would have served equally 
well to sail in or out of the Eough, shifted in a hard squall so as to blow 
almost directly in, with an appearance of bad weather; I was therefore 
obliged to abandon my project. 

133 



134 Letti 



Seeing a cutter off the lee-bow steering for the Clyde, I gave chase in 
hopes of cutting her off; but finding my endeavors ineffectual, I pursued 
no farther than the rock of Ailsa. In the evening I fell in with a sloop 
from Dublin, which I sunk to prevent intelligence. 

The next day, the 21st, being near Carrickfergus, a fishing boat came 
off, which I detained. I saw a ship at anchor in the road, which I was 
informed by the fisherman, was the British ship-of-war Drake, of 20 
guns. I determined to attack her in the night. My plan was to over- 
lay her cable, and to fall upon her bow, so as to have all her decks open, 
and exposed to our musketry, &c. ; at the same time it was my intention 
to have secured the enemy by graplings, so that, had they cut their 
cables, they would not thereby have attained an advantage. The wind 
was high, and unfortunately the anchor was not let go so soon as the 
order was given; so that the Ranger was brought up on the enemy's 
quarter, at the distance of half a cable's length. We had made no 
warlike appearance, of course had given no alarm; this determined me 
to cut immediately, which might appear as if the cable had parted, and 
at the same time enabling me, after making a tack out of the Lough, to 
return with the same prospect of advantage which I had at the first. I 
was, however, prevented from returning; as I with difficulty weathered 
the lighthouse on the lee side of the Lough, and as the gale increased. 

The weather now became so very stormy and severe, and the sea so 
high, that I was obliged to take shelter under the south shore of Scotland. 
The 2 2d introduced fair weather; though the three kingdoms as far as 
the eye could reach were covered with snow. I now resolved once more 
to attempt Whitehaven; but the wind became very light, so that the 
ship could not, in proper time approach so near as I had intended. At 
midnight I left the ship, with two boats and thirty-one volunteers. 
When we reached the outer pier, the day began to dawn. I would not 
however abandon my enterprise; but despatched one boat under the 
direction of Mr. Hill and Lieutenant Wallingsford, with the necessary 
combustibles, to set fire to the shipping on the north side of the harbor, 
while I went with the other party to attempt the south side. I was 
successful in scaling the walls, and spiking up all the cannon in the first 
fort. Finding the sentinels shut up in the guard house, secured them 
without their being hurt. Having fixed sentinels, I now took with me 
one man only (Mr. Green), and spiked all the cannon on the southern 
fort; distant from the other a quarter of a mile. 

On my return from this business, I naturally expected to see the 
fire of the ships on the north side, as well as to find my own party 
with everything in readiness to set fire to the shipping in the south. 
Instead of this, I found the boat under the direction of Mr. Hill and 
Mr. Wallingsford returned, and the party in some confusion, their light 
having burnt out at the instant when it became necessarj^ By the 



J o liii Paul Jones Commemoration 135 



Strangest fatality my own party were in the same situation, the candles 
being all burnt out. The day too came on apace; yet I would by no 
means retreat while any hopes of success remained. Having again placed 
sentinels, a light was obtained at a house disjoined from the town; and 
fire was kindled in the steerage of a large ship, which was surrounded 
by at least an hundred and fifty others, chiefly from two to four hundred 
tons burthen, and laying side by side aground, unsurrounded by the 
water. There were, besides, from seventy to an hundred large ships in 
the north arm of the harbor, aground, clear of the water, and divided 
from the rest only by a stone pier of a ship's height. I should have 
kindled fires in other places if the time had permitted. As it did not, 
our care was to prevent the one kindled from being easil}' extinguished. 
After some search a barrel of tar was found, and poured into the flames, 
which now ascended from all the hatchways. The inhabitants began to 
appear in thousands; and individuals ran hastily towards us. I stood 
between them and the ship on fire, with a pistol in my hand, and ordered 
them to retire, which they did with precipitation. The flames had 
already caught the rigging, and began to ascend the mainmast: — the sun 
was a full hour's march above the horizon; and as sleep no longer ruled 
the world, it was time to retire. We re-embarked without opposition, 
having released a number of prisoners, as our boats could not carry 
them. After all my people had embarked, I stood upon the pier for a 
considerable time, yet no persons advanced. I saw all the eminences 
around the town covered with amazed inhabitants. 

When we had rowed a considerable distance from the shore, the 
English began to run in vast numbers to their forts. Their disappoint- 
ment may easily be imagined, when they found at least thirty heavy 
cannon, the instruments of their vengeance, rendered useless. At 
length, however, they began to fire; having, as I apprehend, either 
brought down ship's guns, or used one or two cannon which lay on the 
beach at the foot of the walls dismounted, and which had not been 
spiked. They fired with no direction; and the shot falling short of 
the boats, instead of doing us any damage, afforded some diversion, 
which my people could not help showing, by discharging their pistols, 
&c., in return of the salute. Had it been possible to have landed a few 
hours sooner, my success would have been complete. Not a single ship, 
out of more than two hundred, could possibly have escaped, and all the 
world would not have been able to save the town. What was done, 
however, is sufficient to show that not all their boasted navy can protect 
their own coasts; and that the scenes of distress which they have occa- 
sioned in America may be soon brought home to their own door. One 
of my people was missing, and must, I fear, have fallen into the ene- 
mies' hands after our departure. I was pleased that in this business we 
neither killed nor wounded any person. I brought off three prisoners 
as a sample. 



136 Letters 



We now stood over for the Scotch shore; and I landed at noon at St. 
Mary's Isle, with one boat, and a very small party. The motives which 
induced me to land there are explained in the within copy of a letter 
which I have addressed to the Countess of Selkirk, dated the 8th instant. 

On the morning of the 24th I was again off Carrickfergus, and would 
have gone in had I not seen the Drake preparing to come out. It was 
very moderate, and the Drake's boat was sent out to reconnoitre the 
Ranger. As the boat advanced I kept the ship's stern directly towards 
her; and though they had a spy glass in the boat, they came on within 
hail, and alongside. When the officer came on the quarterdeck, he was 
greatly surprised to find himself a prisoner; although an express had 
arrived from Whitehaven the night before. I now understood, what I 
had before imagined, that the Drake came out in consequence of this 
information with volunteers, against the Ranger. The officer told 
me, also, they had taken up the Ra7iger's anchor. The Drake was 
attended by five small ves.sels full of people, who were led by curiosity 
to see an engagement. But when they saw the Drake's boat at the 
Ranger's stern they wisely put back. 

Alarm smokes now appeared in great abundance, extending along on 
both sides of the channel. The tide was unfavorable, so that the Drake 
worked out but slowly. This obliged me to run down several times, 
and to lay with courses up and main-topsail to the mast. At length the 
Drake weathered the point, and having led her out to about mid-chan- 
nel, I suffered her to come within hail. The Drake hoisted English 
colors, and, at the same instant, the American stars were displayed on 
board the Ranger. I expected that preface had been now at an end, 
but the enemy soon after hailed, demanding what ship it was? I 
directed the master to answer, "the American Continental ^\^v^ Ranger; 
that we waited for them, and desired that they would come on; the sun 
was now little more than an hour from setting, it was therefore time to 
begin." The Drake being astern of the Ranger, I ordered the helm up 
and gave the first broadside. The action was warm, close, and obstin- 
ate. It lasted an hour and four minutes, when the enemy called for 
quarter; her fore and main-topsail yards being both cut away, and down 
on the cap; the top-gallant yard and mizen-gaff both hanging up and 
down along the mast; the second ensign which they had hoisted shot 
away, and hanging on the quarter-gallery in the water; the jib shot 
away, and hanging in the water; her sails and rigging entirely cut to 
pieces; her masts and yard all wounded, and her hull also very much 
galled. I lost only Lieutenant Wallingsford and one seaman, Johu 
Dougall, killed, and six wounded; among whom are the gunner, Mr. 
Falls, and Mr. Powers, midshipman, who lost his arm. One of the 
wounded, Nathaniel Wills, is since dead; the rest will recover. The 
loss of the enemy in killed and wounded was far greater. All the pris- 
oners allow that they came out with a number not less than a hundred 



John Pa 71 1 Jones Commemoration 137 



and sixty men: and many of them affirm that they amounted to an hun- 
dred and ninety. The medium is perhaps, the most correct; and by that 
it will appear that they lost in killed and wounded forty-two men. The 
captain and lieutenant were among the wounded. The former, having 
received a musket ball in the head the minute before they called for 
quarters, lived, and was sensible some time after my people boarded the 
prize. The lieutenant survived two days. They were buried with the 
honors due to their rank, and with the respect due to their memory. 

The night and almost the whole day after the action being moderate, 
greatly facilitated the refitting of both ships. A large brigantine was 
so near the Drake in the afternoon that I was obliged to bring her to. 
She belonged to Whitehaven, and was bound for Norway. 

I had thought of returning by the south channel ; but, the wind shift- 
ing, I determined to pass by the north, and round the west coast of Ireland. 
This brought me once more off Belfast Lough, on the evening after the 
engagement. It was now time to release the honest fisherman, whom I 
took up here on the 21st, and as the poor fellows had lost their boat, she 
having sunk in the late stormy weather, I was happy in having it in my 
power to give them the necessary sum to purchase everything new which 
they had lost. I gave them also a good boat to transport themselves 
ashore ; and sent with them two infirm men, on whom I bestowed the 
last guinea in my possession, to defray their travelling expenses to their 
proper home in Dublin. They took with them one of the Drake's sails, 
which would sufficiently explain what had happened to the volunteers. 
The grateful fishermen were in raptures ; and expressed their joy in 
three huzzas as they passed the Ranger' s quarter. 

I again met with contrary winds in the mouth of the North Channel, 
but nothing remarkable happened, till on the morning of the 5th cur- 
rent, Ushant then bearing S. E. by S., distance fifteen leagues, when 
seeing a sail to leeward steering for the Channel, the wind being favor- 
able for Brest and the distance trifling, I resolved to give chase, having 
the Drake in tow. I informed them of my intentions, and ordered them 
to cast off. They cut the hawser. The Ranger in the chase went lask- 
ing between N. N. E. and N. N. W. It lasted an hour and ten minutes, 
when the chase was hailed and proved a Swede. I immediately hauled 
by the wind to the southward. 

After cutting the hawser, the Drake went from the wind for some 
time, then hauled close by the wind, steering from S. S. E. to S. S. W. 
as the wind permitted, so that when the Ranger spoke the chase the 
Drake was scarcely perceptible. In the course of the day many large 
ships appeared, steering into the Channel, but the extraordinary evolu- 
tions of the Drake made it impossible for me to avail myself of these 
favorable circumstances. Towards noon it became very squally, the 
wind backed from the S. W. to the W. The Ranger had come up with 



138 Letters 

the Drake, and was nearly abreast of her, though considerably to the 
leeward when the wind shifted. The Drake was however kept by the 
wind, though, as I afterwards understood, they knew the Ranger, and 
saw the signal which she had hoisted. After various evolutions and 
signals in the night, I gave chase to a sail which appeared bearing 
S- S. W. the next morning at a great distance. The chase discovered 
no intention to speak with the Ranger ; she was, however, at length 
brought to, and proved to be the Drake. I immediately put Lieut. 
Simpson under suspension and arrest, for disobedience of my orders, 
dated the 26th ult., a copy whereof is here inclosed. On the 8th, both 
ships anchored safe in this Road, the Ranger having been absent only 
twenty-eight days. Could I suppose that my letters of the gth and 
1 6th current, (the first advising you of my arrival, and giving reference 
to the events of my expedition; the last advising you of my draft in 
favor of Monsieur Bersolle, for 24,000 livres, and assigning reasons for 
that demand), had not made due appearance, I would hereafter, as I do 
now, inclose copies. Three posts have already arrived here from Paris, 
since Compte d'Orvilliers showed me the answer which he received 
from the minister, to the letter which inclosed mine to you. Yet you 
remain silent. M. Bersolle has this moment informed me of the fate of 
my bills; the more extraordinary, as I have not yet made use of your 
letter of credit of the loth of January last, whereby I then seemed 
entitled to call for half the amount of my last draft, and I did not 
expect to be thought extravagant, when, on the i6th current, I doubled 
that demand. Could this indignity be kept secret I should disregard it; 
and, although it is already public in Brest and in the fleet, as it affects 
only my private credit, I will not complain. I cannot, however, be 
silent when I find the public credit involved in the same disgrace. I 
conceive this might have been prevented. To make me completely 
wretched. Monsieur Bersolle has told me that he now stops his hand, 
not only of the necessary articles to refit the ship, but also of the daily 
provisions. I know not where to find to-morrow's dinner for the great 
number of mouths which depend upon me for food. Are then the con- 
tinental ships-of-war to depend on the sale of their prizes for a daily 
dinner for their men? ' ' Publish it not in Gath ! ' ' 

My officers as well as men want clothes, to cover their nakedness 
and the prizes are precluded from being sold before farther orders arrive 
from the minister. I will ask you, gentlemen, if I have deserved all 
this? Whoever calls himself an American ought to be protected here. 
I am unwilling to think that you have intentionally involved me in this 
sad dilemma, at a time when I ought to expect some enjoyment. There- 
fore I have, as formerly, the honor to be, with due esteem and respect, 
gentlemen, yours, &c. 

[Jno. p. Jones.] 

The Americvn Plenipotentiaries at the Court of France. 





FACSIMILE OF A COPY OF THE GOLD MEDAL ORDERED BY CONGRESS, OCTOBER 16, 1787, "IN 
COMMEMORATION OF THE VALOR AND BRILLIANT SERVICES" OF "THE CHEVALIER JOHN PAUL 
JONES" 

Designed by F. Duprc, Paris. Tlie reverse shows the shattered Boiihofiuite Ric/tard battling with 
the Seiapis, and the Alh'aucir, at the left, firing into her consort, the Bonhomme Richard, 




SWORD SAID TO HAVE BEEN CARRIED BY JOHN PAUL JONES 
DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 



REPORT OF JOHN PAUL JONES 

CRUISE OF U. S. SHIP BONHOMME RICHARD AND SQUAD- 
RON, AND CAPTURE OF H. B. M. SHIPS SERAPIS AND 
COUNTESS OF SCARBOROUGH 

[From contemporary copy in the library o! Congress. Spelling and capitalization closely 

followed.] 

On Board the Ship of War Serapis, 
AT Anchor Without the Texei., in Houand, 

oar 3, 1779- 

Honored & Dear Sir, When I had the honor of writing to you on 
the II August, previous to my departure from the Road of Groa, I had 
before me the most flattering prospect of rendering essential Ser^-ice to 
the Common Cause of France and America. I had a full confidence in 
the Voluntary inclination & Ability of every Captain under my Com- 
mand, to assist & Support me in my duty With cheerful Emulation ; 
& I Was persuaded that Every one of them Would pursue Glory in 
preference to intrest. 

Whether I Was, or Was not deceived. Will best appear \yy a relation 
of Circumstances. 

The l,ittle Squadron under my orders. Consisting of the B. S. R. , of 
40 guns; the Alliance, of 36 guns; the Pallas, of 32 guns; the Ce7'f, 
of 18 guns; and the Vengeance, of 12 guns; joyned by two privateers, 
the Monsieur and the Granville, Sailed from the Road of Groa at Day- 
break on the 14. of August; the Same day We Spoke With a Large 
Convoy bound from the Southward to Brest. 

On the 1 8 we retook a large Ship belonging to Holland, Laden Chiefly 
With brandy & Wine that had been destined from Barcelona for Dun- 
kirk, and taken Eight days before by an English privateer. The 
Captain of the privateer Monsieur, took out of this prize Such Articles 
as he pleased in the Night ; and the Next day being astern of the Squad- 
ron and to Windward, he actually wrote orders in his proper name, and 
Sent away the prize under one of his own oflBcers. This, however, I 
Superseded by Sending her for L' Orient under my orders, in the Char- 
acter of Commander in Chief. The Evening of the day following, the 
Monsieur Separated from the Squadron. 

On the 20 We Saw and chaced a Large Ship, but could not overtake 
her, She being to Windward. 

139 



140 Letters 



On the 2 1 We Saw and Chaced another Ship that Was also to Wind- 
ward, & thereby Eluded our pursuit: The Same afternoon, We took a 
brigantine Called the Mayflower, leaden With butter and Salt provision, 
bound from lyimerick in Ireland for lyondon: this Vessel I immediately 
expedited for L' Orient. 

On the 23d, We Saw Cap Clear and the S. W. part of Ireland. That 
afternoon, it being Calm, I sent Some armed boats to take a brigantine 
that appeared in the N. W. quarter. Soon after, in the Evening, it 
became necessary to have a boat ahead of the Ship to tow, as the helm 
Could not prevent her from I,aying across the tide of flood. Which 
Would have driven us into a deep and dangerous bay, Situated between 
the Rocks on the South called the Skallocks, and on the North Called 
the Blaskats; The Ship's boats being absent, I Sent my own barge 
ahead to tow the Ship. The boats took the brigantine; She being Called 
the Fortune and bound with a Cargo of oil, blubber & staves, from New- 
foundland for Bristol, this Vessel I ordered to proceed immediately for 
Nantes or St. Malo. Soon after Sun Set the villain who towed the Ship, 
cut the tow rope and decamped with my barge. Sundry Shot, Were 
fired to bring them too Without effect; in the mean time the master of 
the B. H. R., without orders, manned one of the Ship's boats, and With 
four Soldiers pursued the barge in order to stop the deserters. The 
Evenin Was then Clear and Serene, but the Zeal of that officer, [Mr. 
Cutting Lunt,]" induced him to pursue too far, and a fog Which came 
on Soon afterwards prevented the boats from rejo5'ning the Ship, altho' 
I Caused Signal guns to be frequently fired. The fog and Calm Con- 
tinued the next day till towards the Evening. In the afternoon Captain 
Eandais came on board the B. H. R. and beheaved towards me with 
great disrespect, affirming in the most indelicate manner and I,anguage, 
that I had lost my boats and people thro' my imprudence in Sending 
boats to take a prize ! He persisted in his reproaches, though he Was 
assured by MM. de Weibert and de Chamillard, that the barge Was tow- 
ing the Ship at the [time of] Elopement, and that she had not been Sent 
in pursuit of the prize. He was affronted, because I Would not the day 
before Suffer him to chace without my orders, and to approach the dan- 
gerous Shore I have already mentioned, Where he Was an entire Stran- 
ger, and When there Was [not] sufficient wind to govern a Ship. He 
told me that he Was the only American in the Squadron, and Was 
determined to follow his own opinion in chacing Where and When he 
thought proper, and in every other matter that Concerned the Service, 
and that if I continued in that Situation three days longer, the Squadron 
Would be taken, &c. By the advice of Captain de Cottineau, and With 
the free Consent and approbation of M. De Varage, I sent the Cerf'va. to 
reconnoitre the Coast, and Endeavour to take the boats and people, the 



a All brackets in this paper are in the original manuscript. — Computer. 



/ o h 71 P a u I J o n e s L o m m e m o r a t i o n 141 



next daj-, AVliile the Squadron Stood off and on in the S. W quarter, in 
the best possible Situation to intercept the Enemie's merchant Ships, 
whether outward or homeward bound. The Cerf had on board a pilot 
\^'ell acquainted \\^ith the Coast, and A\^as ordered to Joyn me again 
before Night. I approached the Shore in the afternoon, but the Cerf 
did not appear; this induced me to Stand off again in the night in order 
to return and be rejoined by the Cerf VXio. Next day; but to my great 
Concern and disapointment, tho' I ranged the Coast along and hoisted 
our private Signal, neither the boats nor the Cerf joined me. The 
Evening of that da}-, the 26, brought with it Stormy Weather, With an 
appearance of a Severe gale from the S. W., yet I must declare I did 
not follow my own judgment, but Was led by the assertion Which had 
fallen from Captain Landais, When I in the evening made a Signal 
to Steer to the Northward and Eeave that Station, Which I Wished to 
have occupied at Least a Week longer. The gale increased in the Night 
With thick Weather; to Prevent Separation, I carried a top Light and 
fired a gun Ever}^ quarter of an hour. I Carried, also, a Very moderate 
sail, and the Course had been Clearly pointed [out] by a Signal before 
night, yet With all this precaution, I found myself accompanied only by 
the Brigantine \ 'cngeance in the morning, the Granville having remained 
astern with a prize. As I have since understood the tiller of the Pallas 
broke after midnight Which disenabled her from Keeping up, but no 
apology has yet been made in behalf of the Alliance. 

On the 31, we saw the Flamie Islands situated near the Lewis, on the 
N. ^ . coast of Scotland; and the next morning, off Cap \^'rath, We 
gave Chace to a Ship to Windward, at the Same time two Ships appear- 
ing in the N. W. quarter. Which proved to be the Alliance and a prize 
Ship Which she had taken, bound, as I understood, from Liverpool for 
Jamaica. The Ship Which I Chaced brought too at noon. She proved 
the Unio7i letter of Marque, bound from London for Quebeck, With a 
Cargo of naval Stores on account of government, adapted for the service 
of the British armed Vessels on the lakes. The public despatches Were 
lost, as the Alliance X&xy imprudently hoisted American Colours, though 
English colours were then flying on board the B. II. R. Captain Landais 
Sent a Small boat to ask Whether I Would man the Ship or [he] Should, 
as in the Latter Case he Would Suffer nor boat nor person from the 
B. H. R. to go near the prize. Ridiculous as this appeared to me, I 
yielded to it for the Sake of pease, and received the prisoners on board 
the B. H. R. , While the prize was manned from the Alliance. In the 
afternoon another sail appeared, and I immediately made the Signal for 
the Alliance to chace, but instead of obeying, he Wore and Laid the 
Ship's head the other Way. The next morning I made a Signal to 
Speak with the Allia7ice, to Which no attention Was Shown. I then 
made Sail With the Ships in Company, for the second rendezvous. Which 



142 Letters 



Was not far distant, and Where I full}' Expected to be Joined by the 
Pallas and the Cerf. 

The 2 of September We Saw a Sail at daybreak, and gave Chace ; 
that Ship proved to be the Pallas, and had met With no Success While 
Separated from the B. H. R. 

On the 3 the Vengeance brought too a Small Irish brigantine, bound 
homewards from Norway. The Same Evening I Sent the Vengeance in 
the N. E. quarter to bring up the two prize Ships that appeared to me 
to be too near the Islands of Shetland, While with the Alliance and the 
Pallas, I Endeavoured to Weather Fair Isle, and to get into my Second 
rendezvous, Where I directed the Vengeance to join me With the three 
prizes. The Next morning, having Weathered Fair Isle, and not Seeing 
the Vengeance nor the prizes, I spoke the Alliance and ordered her to 
Steer to the Northward and bring them up to the rendezvous. 

On the Morning of the 5 the Alliance appeared again, and had brought 
too two Very Small Coasting Sloops in ballast, but Without having 
attended properly to my orders of yesterday. The Vengeance Joined me 
Soon after, and informed me that in Consequence of Captain Landais' 
orders to the commanders of the two prize Ships, they had refused to 
follow him to the rendezvous. I am to this moment ignorant what 
orders these men received from Captain Landais, Nor Know I by Virtue 
of What authority he Ventured to give his orders to prizes in my pres- 
ence and Without Either my Knowledge or approbation. Captain Ricot 
further informed me that he had burnt the prize brigantine, because 
that Vessel proved Leaky ; and I Was Sorry to understand afterward 
that though the Vessel Was Irish property, the cargo Was Property of 
the Subjects of Norway. 

In the Evening I Sent for all the Captains [to] Come on board the 
B. H. R. , to Consult on future plans of operation. Captains Cottineau 
and Ricot obeyed me, but Captain Landais obstinately refused, and after 
sending me Various uncivil messages. Wrote me a Very Extraordinary 
Letter in answer to a Written Order, Which I had Sent him, on linding 
that he had trifled With my Verbal orders. The Next day a pilot boat 
came on board from Shetland, by Which means I received Such advices 
as induced me to change a plan Which I otherwise meant to have pur- 
sued, and as the Cerf did not appear at my Second rendezvous I deter- 
mined to Steer towards the third in hopes of meeting her there. 

In the afternoon a gale of Wind came on, which Continued four days 
Without intermission. In the Second night of that gale, the Alliance, 
With her two Little prizes, again Separated from the B. H. R. I had 
now with me only the Pallas and the Vefigeancc, yet I did not abandon 
the hopes of performing Some essential Service. The Winds Continued 
Contrary, So that We did not see the laud till the Evening of the 13, 
When the hills of the Cheviot in the S. E. of Scotland appeared. The 
next day We Chased Sundry Vessels and took a Ship and a brigantine, 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 143 



both from the Firth of Edinburgh, lyaden with coal. Knowing that 
there lay at anchor in L,eith Road an armed ship of 20 guns, With two 
or three fine cutters, I formed an Expedition against Leith, Which I 
purposed to Lay under a Large contribution, or otherwise to reduce it to 
ashes. Had I been alone, the Wind being favorable, I Would have 
proceeded directly up the Firth, and must have Succeeded; as they lay 
there in a State of perfect indolence and Security, Which Would have 
proved their ruin. Unfortunately for me, the Pallas and Vengeance 
Were both at a considerable distance in the offing; they having chaced 
to the Southward ; this obliged me to Steer out of the Firth again to 
meet them. The Captains of the Pallas and Vengeance being Come on 
board the .5. H. R., I Communicated to them my project, to Which 
many difficulties and objections Were made by them: At Last, how- 
ever, they appeared to think better of the design after I had assured 
[them] that I hoped to raise a contribution of 200,000 pounds sterling 
on Leith, and that there was no battery of Cannon there to oppose our 
Landing. So much time, however, was unavoidably Spent in pointed 
remarks and Sage deliberation that Night, [that] the Wind became 
Contrary in the morning. 

We continued Working to Windward up the Firth Without being able 
to reach the Road of Leith, till on the morning of the 17, When being 
almost Within Cannon Shot of the town, having Every thing in readi- 
ness for a descent, a Very Severe gale of Wind came on, and being 
directly Contrary, obliged us to bear awaj', after having in Vain Endeav- 
oured for Some time to Withstand its Violence. The Gale Was so 
Severe, that one of the prizes that had been taken the 14 Sunk to the 
bottom, the Crew being With difBculty Saved. As the alarm had by 
this time reached Leith by means of a cutter that had Watched our 
motions that morning, and as the Wind Continued Contrary, (tho' more 
moderate in the evening) I thought it impossible to pursue the Enter- 
prise With a good prospect of Success, Especially as Edinbourgh Where 
there is always a number of troops, is only a mile distant from Leith, 
therefore I gave up the project. 

On the ig, having taken a Sloop and a brigantine in ballast. With a 
Sloop laden With building timber, I proposed another project to ^Ir. 
Cottineau, Which Would have been highly honorable tho' not profit- 
able; many difficulties Were made, and our Situation Was represented 
as being the most perilous. The Enemy, he Said, Would Send against 
us a Superior force, and that if I obstinately Continued on the Coast of 
England two days longer, We Should all be taken. The Vengeance 
having chaced along Shore to the Southward, Captain Cottineau Said he 
Would follow her With the prizes, as I Was unable to make much Sail, 
having that day been obliged to Strike the main-top-mast to repair its 
damages; and as I afterward understood, he told M. De Chamillard that 
unless I joined them the next day, both the Pallas and the Vengeance 



144 Letters 



Would L,eave that Coast. I had thoughts of attempting the Enterprise 
alone after the Pallas had made sail to join the Vengeajice. I am per- 
suaded even now, that I Would have Succeeded, and to the honor of my 
young officers, I found them as ardently disposed to the business as I 
could desire: nothing prevented me from pursuing my design but the 
reproach that Would have been Cast upon my Character, as a man of 
prudence, had the Enterprise miscarried, It Would have been Said, 
Was he not forewarned by Captain Cottineau and others? 

I made Sail along Shore to the Southward, and next morning took a 
coasting Sloop in ballast, Which With another that I had taken the 
night before, I ordered to be Sunk. In the Evening, I again met With 
the Pallas and Vengeance off Whitby. Captain Cottineau told me he 
had Sunk the brigantine, and ransomed the Sloop, laden With building 
timber that had been taken the day before. I had told Captain Cot- 
tineau the day before, that I had no authority to ransom prizes. 

On the 21 we saw and chaced two sail, of Flamborough Head, the 
Pallas chaced in the N. E. quarter, while the B. H. R. followed by the 
Vengeance chaced in the S. W. The one I chaced, a brigantine collier 
in ballast belonging to Scarborough, Was Soon taken, and Sunk imme- 
diately afterwards, as a fleet then appeared to the Southward. This 
was so late in the day that I Could not Come up With the fleet before 
Night; at Length, however, I got so near one of them, as to force her 
to run ashore, between Flamborough Head and the Spurn: Soon after 
I took another, a brigantine from hoUand belonging to Sunderland; and 
at DayLight the next morning. Seeing a fleet Steering towards me from 
the Spurn, I imagined them to be a convoy, bound from London for 
Leith, which had been for some time Expected, one of them had a 
pendant hoisted, and appeared to be a ship of force, thej' had not, how- 
ever. Courage to Come on, but keept Back all Except the one Which 
Seemed to be armed, and that one also keept to Windward verj- near 
the land, and on the Edge of dangerous Shoals Where I could not With 
Safety approach. 

This induced me to make a Signal for a pilot, and Soon afterward 
two pilot boats Came oif ; they informed me that the Ship that Wore a 
pendant Was an armed merchant Ship, and that a King's frigate lay 
there in Sight, at anchor Within the Humber, waiting to take under 
Convoy a number of merchant Ships bound to the northward. The 
pilots imagined the B. H. R. to be an English Ship of War, and conse- 
quently Communicated to me the private Signal Which they had been 
required to make. I Endeavoured by this means to decoy the Ships out 
of the port, but the Wind then changing, and ^\'ith the tide becoming 
unfavourable for them, the deception had not the desired effect, and they 
Wisely put back. The Entrance of the Humber is Exceedingly difii- 
cult and dangerous, and as the Pallas was not in sight, I thought it not 
prudent to remain off the Entrance; i therefore Steered out again to 



John Paul [ones Commemoration 145 



join the Pallas off Flamborough Head. In the night We Saw and 
chaced two Ships, until 3 o'clock in the morning, When being at a Very 
Small distance from them, I made the private Signal of reconnoisance. 
Which I had given to Each captain before I Sailed from Groa. One 
half of the answer only Was returned. In this position both Sides lay 
too till daylight. When the Ships proved to be the Alliance and the 
Pallas. 

On the morning of that day, the 23, the brig from Holland not being 
in Sight, we chaced a brigantine that appeared Laying too to Winward. 
About noon We Saw and chaced a large ship that appeared Coming 
round Flamborough Head, from the Northward, and at the same time I 
manned and armed one of the pilot boats to send in pursuit of the brig- 
antine. Which now appeared to be the Vessel that I had forced ashore. 
Soon after this a fleet of 41 Sail appeared off Flamborough Head, bearing 
N. N. E.; this induced me to abandon the Single Ship Which had then 
anchored in Burlington Bay; I also Called back the pilot boat and 
hoisted a Signal for a general chace. When the fleet discovered us 
bearing down, all the merchant ships Crowded Sail towards the Shore. 
The two Ships of War that protected the fleet, at the Same time Steered 
from the land, and made the disposition for the battle. In approaching 
the Enemy I crowded Every possible Sail, and made the Signal for the 
line of battle, to Which the Alliance Showed no attention. Earnest as I 
Was for the action, I Could not reach the Commodore's Ship until Seven 
in the evening, being then within pistol shot. When he hailed the 
B. H. R. , we answered him by firing a Whole broadside. 

The battle being thus begun. Was Continued With unremitting fury. 
Every method was practised on both Sides to gain an advantage, and 
rake Each other ; and I must Confess that the Enemie's Ship being 
much more manageable than the B. H. R. , gained thereby several times 
an advantageous situation, in spite of my best endeavours to prevent it. 
As I had to deal With an Enemy of greatly Superior force , I was under 
the necessity of Closing with him, to prevent the advantage Which he 
had over me in point of manoeuvre. It was my intention to lay the 
B. H. R. athwart the enemie's bow, but as that operation required great 
dexterity in the management of both Sails and helm, and Some of our 
braces being Shot away, it did not exactly succeed to my Wishes, the 
Enemie's bowsprit, however, came over the B. H. R.'s poop by the 
mizen mast, and I made both Ships fast together in that Situation, Which 
by the action of the Wind on the Enemie's Sails, forced her Stern close 
to the B. H. R.'s bow, so that the Ships lay Square along side of each 
other, the yards being all entangled, and the cannon of Each Ship 
touching the opponent's Side. When this position took place it Was 
8 o'clock, previous to which the B. H. R. had received sundry eighteen 
7257—07 10 



146 Letters 



pounds Shot below the water, and Leaked Very much. My battery 
of 12 pounders, on Which I had placed my chief dependance, being 
Commanded by lyieut. Deal" and Col. Weibert, and manned principally 
with American seamen, and French Volunteers, Were entirely silenced 
and abandoned. As to the six old eighteen pounders that formed the 
Battery of the Lower gun-deck, they did no Service Whatever: two out 
of three of them burst at the first fire, and killed almost all the men 
Who Were stationed to manage them, before this time too, Col. de 
Chamillard, Who Commanded a party of 20 soldiers on the poop had 
abandoned that Station, after having lost* some of his men. I had now 
only two pieces of Cannon, nine pounders, on the quarter deck that 
Were not silenced, and not one of the heavy er Cannon Was fired during 
the rest of the action. The purser, Mr. Mease, Who Commanded the 
guns on the quarter deck, being dangerously Wounded in the head, I 
was obliged to fill his place, and With great difficulty rallied a few men, 
and Shifted over one of the Lee quarter-deck guns. So that We after- 
ward played three pieces of 9 pounders upon the Enemy. The tops 
alone Seconded the fire of this little battery, and held out bravely during 
the Whole of the action ; Especially the main top. Where Lieut. Stack 
commanded. I directed the fire of one of the three Cannon against the 
main-mast. With double-headed Shot, While the other two Were ex- 
ceedingly Well Served With Grape and Cannister Shot to Silence the 
Enemie's musquetry, and clear her decks, Which Was at last Effected. 
The Enemy Were, as I have Since understood, on the instant of Calling 
for quarters. When the Cowardice or treachery of three of my under 
officers induced them to Call to the Enemy. The English Commodore 
asked me if I demanded quarters, and I having answered him in the 
most determined negative, they renewed the battle with Double fury ; 
they Were unable to Stand the deck, but the fire of their Cannon, espe- 
cially the lower battery. Which Was Entirely formed of 18 pounders. 
Was incessant, both Ships Were Set on fire in Various places, and the 
Scene was dreadful beyond the reach of Language. To account for the 
timidity of my three under officers, I mean the gunner, the carpenter, 
and the master-at-arms, I must obser\?e that the two first Were Slightly 
Wounded, and as the Ship had received Various Shots under Water, and 
one of the pumps being Shot away, the Carpenter Expressed his fear 
that she Should Sink, and the other two concluded that She Was Sink- 
ing ; Which occasioned the gunner to run aft on the poop without my 
Knowledge, to Strike the Colours, fortunately for me, a Cannon ball 
had done that before, by carrying away the ensign staff: he was there- 
fore reduced to the necessity of Sinking, as he Supposed, or of Calling 
for quarter, and he preferred the Latter. 



a This refers to Lieutenant Richard Dale. — COMPILER. 

^These Men Deserted their Quarters. (Footnote on original. — Compiler.) 



John PaiLl Jo7ics Commemoration 147 



All this time the B. H. R. had Sustained the action alone, and the 
Enemy, though much Superior in force, Would have been Very glad to 
have got clear, as appears by their own acknowledgements, and by their 
having let go an anchor the instant that I laid them on board, by Which 
means they Would have escaped had I not made them Well fast to the 
B. H. R. 

At last, at half past 9 o'clock, the Alliance appeared, and I now 
thought the battle was at an End; but, to my utter astonishment, he 
discharged a broadside full into the stern of the B. H. R. We called 
to him for God's Sake to forbear firing into the B. H. R. ; yet he passed 
along the off Side of the Ship and continued firing. There was no possi- 
bility of his mistaking the Enemie's Ship for the B. H. R., there being 
the most essential difference in their appearance and Construction; 
besides, it Was then full moon I^ight, and the Sides of the B. H. R. 
Were all black, while the Sides of the prizes Were yellow, yet, for the 
greater Security, I Shewed the Signal of our reconnoissance, by putting 
out three Lanthorns, one at the head, (Bow,) another at the Stern, 
(Quarter,) and the third in the middle, in a horizontal line. Every 
tongue Cried that he Was firing into the Wrong Ship, but nothing 
availed; he passed round, firing into the B. H. R.'s head, stern, and 
broadside, and by one of his Vollies Killed several of mj' best men, and 
mortally wounded a good officer on the forecastle. My Situation Was 
really deplorable. The B. H. R. received various Shot under Water 
from the Alliance; the Eeack gained on the pump, and the fire increased 
much on board both Ships. Some officers persuaded me to strike, of 
Whose Courage and good sense I entertain an high opinion. My 
treacherous master-at-arms let Loose all my prisoners Without my 
Knowledge, and my prospect became gloomy indeed. I Would not, 
however, give up the point. The Enemie's main-mast begain to shake, 
their firing decreased, ours Rather increased, and the British colours 
Were Struck at half an hour past 10 o'clock. 

This prize proved to be the British Ship of War the Serapis, a New 
Ship of 44 guns, built on their most approved Construction, With two 
compleat batteries, one of them of 18 pounders, and Commanded by the 
brave Commodore Richard Pearson. I had yet two enemies to encoun- 
ter far more formidable than the britons; I mean fire and Water. The 
Serapis Was attacked only by the first, but thei?. H. R. ^■ss, assailed by 
both: there Was five feet Water in the hould, and Tho it Was moderate 
from the Explosion of so much gunpowder, yet the three pumps that 
remained Could With difficulty only Keep the Water from gaining. The 
fire broke out in Various parts of the Ship, in spite of all the Water that 
could be thrown to quench it, and at length broke out as low as the 
powder magazine, and Within a few inches of the powder, in that 
dilema, I took out the povi^der upon deck, ready to be thrown overboard 



148 Letters 



at the I,ast Extremity, and it was 10 o'clock the next day, the 24, before 
the fire Was entirely Extinguished. With respect to the situation of 
the B. H. R., the rudder Was Cut entirely off, the stern frame, and the 
transoms Were almost Entirely Cut away, the timbers, by the lower 
Deck especially, from the mainmast to the Stern, being greatly decayed 
with age, Were mangled beyond my power of description, and a person 
must have been an Eye- Witness to form a just idea of the tremendous 
scene of Carnage, Wreck, and ruin, that Every Where appeared. 
Humanity Cannot but recoil from the prospect of Such finished horror, 
and Lament that War Should produce Such fatal consequences. 

After the Carpenters, as well as Capt. de Cottineau, and other men of 
Sense, had Well Examined and Surveyed the Ship, (Which Was not 
finished before five in the Evening,) I found every person to be 
Convinced that it Was impossible to keep the B. H. R. afloat so as to 
reach a port if the Wind vShould increase, it being then only a Very 
moderate breeze. I had but Eittle time to remove my Wounded, which 
now became unavoidable, and Which Was effected in the Course of the 
night and the next morning. I Was determined to Keep the B. H. R. 
afloat, and, if possible, to bring her into port. For that purpose, the 
first lieutenant of the Pallas continued on board, With a party of men 
to attend the pumps. With boats in Waiting ready to take them on 
board, in Case the Water Should gain on them too fast. The Wind 
augmented in the Night and the next day, on the 25, So that it Was 
impossible to prevent the good old Ship from Sinking. They did not 
abandon her till after 9 o'clock: the Water Was then up to the Eower 
deck; and a little after ten, I Saw With inexpressible grief the last 
glimpse of the B. H. R. No Eives were lost With the Ship, but it Was 
impossible to save the stores of any sort Whatever. I Eost even the 
best part of my Cloaths, books, and papers; and Several of my of&cers 
lost all their Cloaths and Effects. 

Having thus Endeavoured to give a Clear and Simple relation of the 
Circumstances and Events that have attended the little armament under 
my com, I Shall freely Submit my Conduct therein to the Censure of 
my Superiors and the impartial public. I beg leave, however, to 
observe, that the force that Was put under my command Was far from 
being Well composed, and as the great majority of the actors in it have 
appeared bent on the pursuit of intrest only, I am Exceedingly sorry 
that they and I have been at all concerned. I am in the highest degree 
Sensible of the Singular attentions Which I have Experienced from the 
Court of France, Which I Shall remember With perfect gratitude until 
the End of my Eife ; and Will always Endeavour to merit, while I Can, 
Consistent With my honour. Continue in the public Service. I must 
speak plainly. As I have been always honored With the full Confidence 
of Congress, and as I also flattered myself With Enjoying in Some 
measure the Confidence of the Court of France, I Could not but be 



Johji Paul Jones C omvi e m o r a ti on 149 



astonished at the Conduct of M. de Chaumont, When, in the moment 
of my departure from Groa, he produced a paper, a Concordat, for me 
to Sign, in Common with the officers Whom I had Commissioned but a 
few days before. Had that paper, or Even a less dishonorable one, been 
proposed to me at the beginning, I would have rejected it With 
Just Contempt ; and the Word deplacement among others should have 
been necessary. I Cannot, however, Even now Suppose that he Was 
authorized by the Court to make Such a Bargain With me ; Nor Can I 
Suppose that the minister of the marine meant that M. de Chaumont 
should Consider me merely as a Colleague With the Commanders of the 
other Ships, and Communicate to them not only all he Knew, but all he 
thought, respecting our destination and operations. M. de Chaumont 
has made me Various reproaches on account of the Expence of the 
B. H. R. wherewith I cannot think I have been justly chargeable. 
M. de Chamillard can attest that the B. H. R. Was at I^ast far from 
being well fitted or armed for War. If any person or persons Who have 
been charged With the Expense of that armament have acted Wrong, 
the fault must not be Laid to my charge. I had no authority to Super- 
intend that armament, and the persons Who had authority Were So far 
from giving me What I thought necessary, that M. de Chaumont Even 
refused, among other things, to allow me Irons for securing the prisoners 
of War. 

In Short, While my Eife remains, if I have any Capacity to render 
good and acceptable Services to the Common Cause, no man Will Step 
Forth with greater cheerfulness and alacrity than m5'self , but I am not 
made to be dishonoured, nor can I accept of the half Confidence of any 
man living; of Course I Cannot, Consistent With my honor and a pros- 
pect of Success, undertake future Expeditions, unless When the object 
and destination is communicated to me alone, and to no other person 
in the marine Eine. In Cases Where troops are Embarked, a like con- 
fidence is due alone to their Commander in Chief. On no other Condi- 
tion Will I ever undertake the Chief Command of a private Expedition; 
and when I do not Command in Chief, I have no desire to be in the 
secret. 

Captain Cottineau Engaged the Countess of Scarboroiigh and took her 
after an hour's action, while the B. H. R. Engaged the Serapis. The 
Countess of Scarborough is an armed ship of 20 six pounders, and Was 
Commanded by a King's officer. In the action, the Countess of Scarbor- 
ough and the Serapis Were at a Considerable distance asunder ; and the 
Alliance, as I am informed, fired into the Pallas and Killed some men. If 
it Should be asked Why the Convoy Was Suffered to Escape, I must 
answer, that I Was myself in no condition to pursue, and that none of 
the rest Shewed any inclination, not even Mr. Ricot, who had held off 
at a distance to Windward during the Whole Action, and Witheld by 



150 Letters 



force the pilot boat With my Lieutenant and 15 men/' The Alliance too, 
Was in a State to pursue the fleet, not having had a Single man 
wounded, or a Single Shot fired at her from the Serapis, and only three 
that did execution from the Countess of Scarborough, at such a distance 
that one Stuck in the Side, and the other two just touched and then 
dropped into the Water. The Alliance killed one man only on board 
the Serapis. As Captain de Cottineau charged himself with manning 
and securing the prisoners of the Countess of Scarborough ; I think the 
escape of the Baltic fleet Cannot So Well be Charged to his account. 

I should have mentioned, that the main-mast and mizen-top-mast of 
the Serapis fell overboard soon after the captain had come on board the 
B. H. R. 

Upon the Whole, the captain of the Alliance has beheaved so Very 111 
in Every respect, that I must Complain loudly of his Conduct. He 
pretends that he is authorized to act independent of my command: I 
have been taught the Contrary; but Supposing it to be so, his Conduct 
has been base and unpardonable. M. de Chamillard Will Explain the 
particulars. Either Captain I,andais or myself is highly Criminal, and 
one or the other must be punished. I forbear to take any steps With 
him until I have the advice and approbation of your Excellency. I 
have been advised by all the ofiicers of the Squadron to put M. I,andais 
under arrest; but as I have postponed it So long, I Will bear With him 
a Ifittle lyonger until the return of my Express. 

We this Day anchored here having. Since the action been tossed to 
and fro by Contrary Winds. I Wished to have gained the Road of 
Dunkirk on account of our prisoners, but Was Overruled by the majority 
of viy Colleagues. I Shall heasten up to Amsterdam, and there if I meet 
With no orders for my government, I Will take the advice of the French 
Ambassador. It is my present intention to have the Countess of Scar- 
borough ready to transport the prisoners from hence to Dunkirk, unless 
it should be found more Expedient to deliver them to the English 
ambassador, taking his obligation to Send to Dunkirk, &c. immediately 
an Equal number of American prisoners. I am under Strong apprehen- 
sions that our object here will fail, and that thro' the imprudence of M. 
de Chaumont, who has Communicated Every thing he Knew or thought 
on the matter to persons Who Cannot help talking of it at a full table. 
This is the way he keeps State Secrets, tho' he never mentioned the 
affair to me. 

I am ever, &c. Jno. P. Jones. 

His Excellency Benjamin Franklin, Esquire, &c. &c. 

[This manuscript bears the contemporaneous endorsement: "An exact copy." — 
COMPIIvER.] 

aThis is founded on a report that has proved to be false ; for it now appears that 
Capt. Ricot expressly ordered the pilot-boat to board the B. H. R., which order was 
disobeyed. [Footnote on original. — COMPttER.] 



CERTIFICATE OF MESSRS. VAN BERCKEL 
AND DUMAS 

[From contemporary copy in the I^ibrary of Congress.] 

Attestation de DI. I'an Berckel, Grand Pensionnaire d' Amsterdam, etdelSF. Dumas, 
Agent des Etats- Unis en Hollande. 

Le Commandeur Paul Jones, Commandant une Escadre legere equip- 
pee aux frais de sa Maj. Tr. Chretienne, sous Pavilion et commis- 
sion des Etats-Unis d'Amerique, fit voile de France le 14' Aout, 1779 
dans le tems environ que la grande Flotte combinee de France et d'Es- 
pagne de 66 vaisseaux de ligne sous le Commandement de S. E. le 
Comte d'Orvilliers, parut dans le canal entre la France et I'Angleterre. 
Comme on s'attendoit qu'une armee Frangoise sous la protection de cette 
Flotte feroit une descente &. la C6te m^ridionale de I'Angleterre, le Com- 
mandeur, ayant Carte Blanche, crut de son devoir de faire une forte 
diversion pour faciliter I'entreprise. Pour cet eflEet, il allarma et insulta 
les Ports de I'Ennemi depuis le cap Clear, le long de la cote occidentale 
de rirlande par le nord de I'Ecosse jusqu'a Hull £l I'Est de I'Angleterre. 
Dans le cours de ce service, aussi dificile qu' important, il fit plusieurs 
captures armees en guerre et detruisit nombre de Vaisseaux Marchands 
de I'Ennemi. Ee grand desir du Commandeur etoit d'intercepter la 
Flotte Britannique revenant de la Baltique, et par 1&. priver I'Ennemi des 
moyens d'equipper leurs Vaisseaux de Guerre. II y a tout lieu de 
croire qu'il eut completement effectue ce projet, s'il n'avoit ^te aban- 
donne Sur la cote d'Irlande, par une partie considerable de ses forces, et 
si sa Fregate le Bon-homme liichard avoit et6 le moins du monde secon- 
dee dans son memorable Combat contre le Serapis, Vaisseau a deux 
ponts, et contre la Comtesse de Scarborough, Fregate. Mais apres que 
le Commandeur eut seul combattu ces deux Vaisseaux pendant une 
heure a la distance du pistolet, tandis que le reste de ses forces se tenoit 
^ I'abri des coups, malgre I'avantage du vent, V Alliance Fr6gate Ame- 
ricaine vint lacher traitreusement trois bordees de mitraille sur le Bon- 
homme Richard. Durant toute I'aflfaire, V Alliance eut soin de ne pas 
s'exposer a recevoir un seul coup ni a avoir un seul homme de tue ou 
blesse a son bord. Ee Bon-homme Richard fut pendant trois heures 
accroche au Serapis, et apres le Combat, qui dura quatre heures, coula 
bas, crible de coups comme jamais vaisseau ne I'avoit ete jusque-la. Ee 
combat se donnant a une lieue de navigation de Scarborough, il ne fut 
pas possible dans les circonstances ci-dessus mentionnees, d'empecher 

151 



152 Letters 

I'entree de ce Port au Convoi Knnemi, qui s'y mit en surete. Le 
Commandeur entra au Texel avec le rdsidu de son Escadre et ses deux 
dernieres prises le 3 Octobre 1779. I^a moitie des Equipages tant du 
Bonhomme Richard que du Serapis, ayant ^te tuee ou blessee, le 
Commandeur s'adressa &, Eeurs Hautes Puissances pour la permission 
d'6tablir un hopital au Helder, afin d'y pouvoir guerir les blesses: mais 
la magistrature du lieu s'y opposant, leurs Hautes Puissances assignerent 
a cet efEet le Fort du Texel; et comme le Commandeur eut la permission 
de garnisonner ce Fort par un Detachement de ses soldats, il expedia 
la Commission, pour autant de tems que de raison, de Commandant de la 
Place &. I'un de ses officiers. I,a Flotte combinee etant rentree a Brest, 
les Anglois revenus de la terreur d'une invasion dont ils s'etoient vus 
menaces, firent ^clater toute leur animosite centre le Commodore. 
L'Ambassadeur d'Angleterre a la Haye, par des Memoires reiteres aux 
Etats-G6n^raux, ne cessa de reclamer peremptoirement la restitution du 
Vaisseau de Guerre et de la Fregate pris par le Commandeur et d'exiger 
en outre que Pirate Paul Jones Ecossais Mt livre au Roi son Maitre. 
Cette demarche de I'Ambassadeur ne lui reussissant pas, il fit tout ce 
qu'il put aupres des Magistrats et Particuliers d' Amsterdam, pour qu'on 
mit la main sur la personne du Commodore et qu'on le lui livrat; mais 
en vain: personne n'eut la bassesse ou la hardiesse de se preter a ses 
desirs a cet egard. — Ees Anglois detacherent plusieurs Escadres legeres 
pour intercepter le Commandeur. Deux de ces Escadres croisoient con- 
tinuellement &, la vue du Texel et du Vlie; tandis que d'autres etoient 
stationnees de maniere a leur faire croire qu'il etoit impossible qu'il plit 
leur ^chapper. E'objet de la Cour de France en faisant entrer le Com- 
mandeur au Texel, etoit qu'il escortat de la a Brest une nombreuse 
Flotte chargee de materiaux pour I'arsenal de ce Port; mais sa position 
rendit ce service impraticable, surtout des que le ministre n'eut pas 
so in de tenir la chose secrete. — Ea situation du Commandeur au Texel 
fixoit deji I'attention de toute I'Europe, et affectoit profondement la 
politique des Puissances belligerantes. Mais cette position devint infi- 
niment plus critique lorsque le Prince d' Orange &ta le Commandement 
de 1' Escadre HoUandoise qui 6toit de 13 Vaisseaux de Guerre, a M. 
Riemersma, et envoy a le Vice-Amiral Rhynsf pour lui succeder et 
expulser le Commandeur du Texel, &. la vue des Escadres Britanniques. — 
Ceci engagea la Cour de Versailles a envoyer a I'Ambassadeur de France 
5. la Haye une Commission de sa Maj. Tr. Chr. pour le commandeur, 
qui I'autorisoit a arborer le Pavilion de France. Mais a cela le Comman- 
deur n'y voulut point consentir: il avoit fait sa Declaration en arrivant, 
d'oflScier des Etats-Unis: il n'etoit point autorise du Congres a accepter 
la Commission offerte: enfin il concevoit qu'il seroit deslionorant et desa- 
vantageux, tant pour lui-meme que pour I'Am^rique de changer de 

oPieter Hendrik Reynst, vice-admiral of the navy of Holland. — COMPII^BR. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 153 

Pavilion, Vli surtout les circonstances. — Except^ la Fregate V Alliance, 
tout le reste de I'Escadre du Commandeur appartenoit a Sa Maj. Tr. 
Chr. et I'Ambassadeur de France avoit par consequent, le droit d'en 
disposer. — Le Ministre Americain a Paris envoya ordre au Commandeur 
de livrer tous ses Prisonniers ^ I'Ambassadeur de France, et pour obeir 
a cet ordre, le Commandeur flit reduit &. lui livrer aussi le Serapis et La 
Comtesse de Scarborough, parceque les autres Vaisseaux ne pouvoient con- 
tenir le grand nombre des Prisonniers. — Le Commandeur continua done 
de d6ployer le Pavilion Americain a bord de V Alliance, et des que le 
vent I'elit permis, le Vice-Amiral, apres avoir deja rendu le Sejour du 
Commandeur au Texel aussi desagreable qu'il avoit pu, I'obligea de 
faire voile dans cette Fregate. — Le Commandeur eut I'adresse et le bon- 
heur d'echapper S, I'aviditd de I'ennemi, et les Anglois enrages de tout 
cela, et aussi de ce que les Etats-Generaux avoient accorde une escorte 
pour la Flotte qui portoit des matieres na vales du Texel a Brest, declare- 
rent peu apres la guerre aux Pays-Bas-unis: ils se servirent meme du 
sejour et de la Conduite du Commandeur au Texel pour en faire le 
premier article de leur Declaration. Les faits qu'on vient de lire sont 
de notoriete publique par toute I'Europe; et mon motif en donnant ce 
temoignage a I'Amerique en faveur du Commandeur, precede du desir 
de rendre justice a Son Zele et a sa bonne conduite, pour I'honneur et 
les interets des Etats-Unis dans les affaires parvenues plus immediate- 
ment que d'autres a ma connoissance. A. La Haye, ce 10 Mars 1784. 

(Signe) E. F. Van Berckei.. 

Je soussigne connoissant non seulement I'exacte v^rite de tout ce que 
dessus, mais ayant de plus du etre officiellement present pendant pres de 
trois mois sur I'Escadre Americaine en rade au Texel, I'atteste avec 
plaisir. X La Haye ce 11' Mars 1784. 

(Signe) C. W F. Dumas, 

Agent des Etats-Unis d'Amerique. 



LETTER TO ROBERT MORRIS 

[From autograph draft in the I,ibrary of Congress.] 

Phii,adei<phia, {October 10, i'/83P\'' 
Sir : It is the custom of nations, on the return of peace, to honor, 
promote and reward such officers as have served through the war 
with the greatest "zeal, prudence and intrepidit}'". And since my 
country has, after an eight years' war, attained the inestimable blessing 
of peace and the sovereignty of an extensive empire, I presume that, (as 
I have constantly and faithfully served through the Revolution, and at 
the same time supported it, in a degree, with my purse,) I may be 
allowed to lay my grievances before you, as the head of the marine. I 
will hope, sir, through you, to meet with redress from Congress. 

Rank, which opens the door to glory, is too near the heart of everj' 
man of true military feeling , to be given up in favor of any other man 
who has not, by the achievement of some brilliant action, or by known 
and superior abilities, merited such preference. If this be so, how must 
I have felt, since, by the second table of captains in the navy, adopted 
by Congress, on the loth of October, 1776, I was superseded in favor of 
thirteen persons, two of whom were my junior lieutenants at the begin- 
ning ; the rest were only commissioned into the_ continental navy on that 
day ; and, if they had any superior abilities, these were not then known, 
nor have since been proved! I am the eldest sea officer (except Captain 
"Whipple) on the Journal, and under the commission of Congress, remain- 
ing in the service. In the year 1775, when the navy was established, 
some of the gentlemen by whom I am superseded, were applied to, to 
embark in the first expedition, but they declined. Captain Whipple has 
lately and often told me, they said to him, "they did not choose to be 
hanged' ' . It is certain the hazard at first was very great ; and some 
respectable gentlemen, by whom I am superseded, accepted the appoint- 
ment of captain and of lieutenant of a provincial vessel for the protec- 
tion of the river, after our first little fleet had sailed from it ; and on 
board of which they had refused to embark, though I pretend not to know 
their reason. But the face of affairs having changed, as we ripened into 
the declaration of independence in 1776, their apprehensions subsided; 
and in a letter I received from the late Mr. Hewes, of Congress, and of the 
marine committee, dated at Philadelphia, May the 26th, 1776, and directed 

aThis date is assigned to this paper by Mr. Charles Henry Lincoln in the Calendar 
of John Paul Jones Manuscripts in the Library of Congress. — Compiler. 

155 



156 Letters 



to me as captain of the Providence, at New York, he says, ' ' You would be 
surprised to hear what a vast number of applications are continually 
making for officers in the new frigates, especially for the command. The 
strong recommendations from those provinces where any frigates are 
building, have great weight". He adds, " My utmost endeavors shall 
be exerted to serve you ; from a conviction that your merit entitles you 
to promotion, and that you ought to command some who were placed in 
a higher rank than yourself ' 

I ask, sir, did these " recommendations" plead more successfully than 
the merit of all the gallant men who first braved the ocean in the cause 
of America? Your candor must answer, "yes". What a hapless pros- 
pect then have those, who can only claim from past, though applauded 
services ! Credit, it is alleged, has been, however, taken in this Revo- 
lution for "unparalleled heroism". I am sorry for it, for great as our 
pretensions to heroism may be, yet modesty becomes young nations as 
well as young men. But the first beginning of our navy was, as navies 
now rank, so singularly small, that I am of opinion it has no precedent 
in history. Was it a proof of madness in the first corps of sea officers 
to have, at so critical a period, launched out on the ocean, with only two 
armed merchant ships, two armed brigantines and one armed sloop, to 
make war against such a power as Great Britain ? They had, perhaps, 
in proportion to their numbers, as much sense as the present table of 
officers can boast of ; and it has not yet been proved, that they did not 
understand, at least as well their duty. 

Their first expedition was more glorious than any other that has been 
since effected from our coast. Every officer on that service merited pro- 
motion, who was capable of receiving it. And, if there was an improper 
man placed over them as commander-in-chief, was that a reason to slight 
or disgrace the whole corps? Has the subsequent military conduct of 
those officers, by whom the first corps of sea officers were superseded, 
justified the preference they had to command the new frigates? If it 
has not, what shall we say in favor of the precedence, which "Repug- 
nant to an Act of Congress, of the 22d of December, 1775 ", and contrary 
to all rule or example, was given them in the second table of naval rank, 
adopted the loth of October, 1776? Could anything have been more 
humilitating than this to sea officers appointed and commissioned in 
1775? Would it not have been more kind to have dismissed them from 
the service, even without assigning a reason for so doing? Before any 
second arrangement of naval rank had been made, perhaps it would 
have been good policy to have commissioned five or seven old mariners, 
who had seen war, to have examined the qualifications of the candidates, 
especially those who made their conditions and sought so earnestly after 
the command of the new frigates. Those commissioners might also have 
examined the qualifications of the first corps of sea officers, proposed to 
promote such as were capable of it, and struck from the list such as 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 157 



were unequal to the commission they bore, &c. Thus, by giving pre- 
cedence in rank to all the captains who had served and were thought 
worthy of being continued ; and also to all lieutenants whose merit and 
services with their approved qualifications had entitled them to promo- 
tion to the rank of captains, justice might have been done both to indi- 
viduals and to the public. It has been said, with a degree of contempt, 
by some of the gentlemen who came into the continental navy, the 
second year of the war, that I ' ' was only a lieutenant at the beginning ' ' ; 
and pray, what were they when I was out on the ocean in that character? 
They pay me a compliment. To be diffident, is not always a proof of 
ignorance, but sometimes the contrary. I was offered a captain's com- 
mission at the first, to command the Providence , but declined it. lyCt it, 
however, be remembered, that there were three grades of sea lieutenants 
established by the Act of Congress of the 22d of December, 1775; and as 
I had the honor to be placed at the head of the first of those grades, it is 
not quite fair to confound me with the last; I had sailed before this 
Revolution in armed ships and frigates, yet when I came to try my skill, 
I am not ashamed to own, I did not find myself perfect in the duties of 
a first lieutenant. However, I by no means admit, that any one of the 
gentlemen who so earnestly sought after rank and the command of the 
new frigates the next year, was at the beginning able to teach me any 
part of the duty of a sea officer. Since that time it is well known, there 
has been no comparison between their means of acquiring military marine 
knowledge and mine. 

If midnight study, and the instruction of the greatest and most 
learned sea officers, can have given me advantages, I am not without 
them. I confess, however, I am yet to learn. It is the work of many 
years' study and experience to acquire the high degree of science necessary 
for a great sea officer. Cruising after merchant ships, (the service on 
which our frigates have generally been employed) affords, I may say, 
no part of the knowledge necessary for conducting fleets and their opera- 
tions. There is 7iow, perhaps, as much difference between a single battle 
between two ships, and an engagement between two fleets, as there is 
between a single duel and a ranged battle between two armies. I became 
captain by right of service and succession, and by the order and com- 
mission of the commander-in-chief, his Excellency Ezek Hopkins, Esq., 
the loth day of May, in the year 1776, at which time the captain of the 
Providence was broke and dismissed from the navy, by a court martial. 
Having arrived at Philadelphia, with a little convoy from Boston, soon 
after the declaration of independence, President Hancock gave me a 
captain's commission under the United States, dated the 8th da}- of 
August, 1776. I did not at the time, think that this was doing me jus- 
tice, as it did not correspond with the date of ray appointment by the 
commander-in-chief. It was, however, I presumed, the Jirst naval com- 
mission granted under the United States, and as a resolution of Congress 



158 Letters 



had been passed the 17th day of April, 1776, "that the appointment of 
captains should not determine their rank, which was to be settled before 
commissions were granted," my commission of the 8th of August, must, 
by that resolution, take rank of every commission dated the loth of 
October. My duty brought me again to Philadelphia in April, 1777; 
and President Hancock then told me that new naval commissions were 
ordered to be distributed to the officers. 

He prayed me to show him the captain's commission he had given me 
the year before. I did so. He then desired me to leave it with him a day 
or two, till he could find a leisure moment to fill up a new commission. I 
made no difficulty. When I waited on him the day before my depar- 
ture, to my great surprise, he put into my hands a commission dated the 
loth day of October, 1776, and numbered eighteen in the margin! I 
told him that was not what I expected, and demanded my former com- 
mission. He turned over various papers on the table and at last told 
me he was very sorry to have lost or mislaid it. I shall here make no 
remark on such conduct in a president of congress, perhaps it needs 
none. He paid me many compliments on the services I had performed 
in vessels of little force; he assured me no officer stood higher in the 
opinion of Congress than myself; a proof of which, he said, was my late 
appointment to the command of secret expeditions, with five sail and men 
proportioned, against St. Kitts, Pensacola, Augustine, &c. 

That the table of naval rank that had been adopted the loth of Octo- 
ber, 1776, had been drawn up in a hMxry, and without well knowing the 
different merits and qualifications of the officers; but it was the intention 
of Congress to render impartial justice and always to honor, promote 
and reward merit. And, as to myself, he added that I might depend on 
receiving a very agreeable appointment soon after my return to Boston, 
and until I was perfectly satisfied respecting my rank, I should have a 
separate command. I returned to Boston and it was not long before I 
received orders to proceed to Europe to command the great frigate build- 
ing at Amsterdam for the United States, then called the Indien and 
since the South Carolina. It was proposed I should proceed to France 
in a ship belonging to that kingdom; but, some difficulties arising, the 
sloop of war Ranger, of eighteen guns, was put under my command for 
that purpose and to serve afterwards as a tender to the Indien. Political 
reasons defeated the plan, after I had met our commissioners at Paris, 
agreeable to their order, to consult on the ways and means of carrying 
it into execution. I returned in consequence to Nantes, and reassumed 
the command of the Ranger. When I returned from Europe and 
my sovereign told the world that some of my military conduct on the 
coast of England had been "attended with circumstances so brilliant as to 
excite general applarise and admiration ; " when the honours conferred on 
me by his most christian majesty, to wit, a gold sword, on which is 
impressed the highly flattering words: " Vindicati Maris Ludovicus XVI. 



fohn Paul fones C o mm e m o r at i o ii 159 



Remunerator Strenuo Vindici," and emblems of the alliance between the 
United States and France, accompanied with the order and patent of mili- 
tary merit, and a very strong and particular letter of recommendation to 
Congress in my behalf, were declared by them to be " highly acceptable ; ' ' 
when I was thought worthy of a vote of thanks and general approbation so 

strong and comprehensive, as that hereto subjoined, in Paper No. . 

I was far from thinking that such expressions were all the gratification 
I had to expect. The committee of Congress, to whom was referred my 
general examination by the board of admiralty, with the report of that 
board thereon, were of opinion that I had merited a gold medal, with 
devices declarative of the vote of thanks, I had received from the United 
States in Congress assembled. And I was persuaded that I should also 
be promoted, or at least restored to the place I held in the naval line of 
rank in the year 1775. I waited patiently for some time, but nothing 
was done on either of these subjects. Being informed by some members 
of Congress, that it was necessary I should present my claim respecting 

rank in writing, I did so, in a letter of which No. is a copy, 

addressed to his excellency the president of Congress, the 28th of May, 
1781. My application was referred to a special committee who, as I 
have been informed by one of its members, made a report in my favor 
and gave as their opinion that I had merited to be promoted to the rank 
of rear-admiral. Before Congress had taken up the report an application 
in opposition to me was made by two of the captains who had superseded 
me. Upon this the report was recommitted. The committee once more 
reported in my favour ; but without giving a direct opinion respecting 
my promotion, and recommended the appointment of a commander-in- 
chief of the navy, &c. , as may be seen by the annexed copy. No. , 

of that report; which, on account of the thinness of Congress, was on 
the 24th of August, 1 78 1, endorsed "Not to be acted upon" It is, 
however, plain, it was intended to be taken up again, when a proper 
opportunity presented itself ; otherwise it would not have been retained 
on the files of Congress. This appears also by the extract of a letter. 

No. . which I wrote from Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, and 

the answer, No. , that I received from the honourable John 

Mathews, Esq., who was chairman of the committee respecting the 
honorary medal, and a member of the committee on my rank. "While 
my claim to rank stood recommitted before the committee, I had an 
unanimous election by ballot in Congress, the 26th of June, 1781, to 
command the America, of 74 guns; and, as I was erroneously informed, 
ready to launch at Portsmouth; [and] several of the members of Con- 
gress told me as their opinion, that my rank was thereby settled beyond 
a dispute ; because the America was the only ship in the service ' ' of 
forty guns and upwards;" and Congress had resolved that captains 
of ships of 40 guns and upwards should rank as colonels, and captains of 
ships between 20 and 40 guns as lieutenant-colonels. There appeared 



i6o Letters 



so much reason and justice in that opinion, that I was then and am still 
inclined to believe it was not without foundation ; for certainly there is 
no comparison between the trust reposed in a captain of the line and 
a captain of a frigate ; and, except in England, there is no equality 
between their distinct ranks. A captain of the line must at this day be a 
tactician. A captain of a cruising frigate may make shift without having 
ever heard of naval tactics. Until I arrived in France, and became 
acquainted with that great tactician Count D'Orvilliers and his judicious 
assistant the Chevalier Du Pavillion, who each of them honoured me 
with instructions respecting the science of governing the operations and 
police of a fleet, I confess I was not sensible how ignorant I had been, 
before that time, of naval tactics. 

I have already said, there were three grades of sea lieutenants, estab- 
lished by the act of Congress, of the 22d of December, 1775. If I may 
be allowed at this date to judge, it would be sound wisdom to re-adopt 
the same number of subaltern grades, exclusive of midshipmen, under 
the same, or some other denomination. From the observations I have 
made, and what I have read, it is my opinion, that in a navy there 
ought to be at least as many grades below a captain of the line, as there 
are below a colonel of a regiment. Even the navy of France is deficient 
in subaltern grades, and has paid dearly for that error in its constitu- 
tion, joined to another of equal magnitude, which authorizes ensigns of 
the navy to take charge of a watch on board ships of the line. One 
instance may be sufl&cient to shew this. The ZSIS, in the night between 
the nth and 12th of April, 1782, ran on board the Ville de Paris, 
which accident was the principal cause of the unfortunate battle that 
ensued next day between Count de Grasse, and Admiral Rodney. That 
accident in all probability would not have happened, had the deck of the 
Zel6 been at the time commanded by a steady experienced lieutenant of 
the line, instead of a young ensign. The charge of the deck of a ship 
of the line, should in my judgement never be entrusted to an ofiBcer 
under twenty-five years of age. At that time of life he may be sup- 
posed to have served nine or ten years, a term not more than sufficient 
to have furnished him with the necessary knowledge for so great a 
charge. It is easy to conceive that the minds of officers must become 
uneasy, when thej' are continued too long in any one grade, which must 
happen, (if regard be paid to the good of the service) where there are 
no more subaltern grades than midshipman and lieutenant. Would it 
not be wiser to raise young men by smaller steps and to increase the 
number? 

I have many things to offer respecting the formation of our navy, 
but shall here limit myself to one, which I think a preliminary to 
the formation and establishment of a naval constitution suitable to the 
local situation, resources, and prejudices of the Continent. The con- 
stitution adopted for the navy in the year 1775 and by which it 



John Paul fones Commemoration i6i 



has been governed ever since, and crumbled away I may say to nothing, 
is so very defective, that I am of opinion it would be difficult to spoil 
it. Much wisdom, and more knowledge than we possess, is in my 
humble opinion necessary to the formation of such a naval constitu- 
tion as is absolutely wanting. If when our finances enable us to go 
on, we should set out wrong, as we did in the year 1775, but much 
more so after arrangement, or rather derangement of rank in 1776, 
much money may be thrown away to little or no purpose. We are 
a j'oung people, and need not be ashamed to ask advice from nations 
older and more experienced in marine affairs than ourselves. This I 
conceive might be done in a manner that would be received as a com- 
pliment b}' several or perhaps all the marine powers of Europe, and at 
the same time would enable us to collect such helps as would be of 
vast use when we come to form a constitution for the creation and 
government of our marine, the establishment and police of our dock- 
yards, academies, hospitals, &c., and the general police of our seamen 
throughout the Continent. These considerations induced me on my 
return from the fleet of his Excellency the Marquis de Vaudreuil to 
propose to you to lay my ideas on the subject before Congress, and to pro- 
pose sending a proper person to Europe in a handsome frigate to display 
our flag in the ports of the different marine powers, to offer them the 
free use of our ports, and propose to them commercial advantages, 
&c. And then to ask permission to visit their marine arsenals, to be 
informed how they are furnished both with men, provision, materials, 
and warlike stores ; by what police, and officers they are governed, 
how and from what resources the officers and men are paid, &c. The 
line of conduct drawn between the officers of the fleet, and officers of 
the ports, &c. Also the armament and equipment of the different ships 
of war with their dimensions, the number and qualities of their officers 
and men, by what police thay are governed in port and at sea, how 
and from what resources they are fed, clothed and paid, &c.; and the 
general police of their seamen, academies, hospitals, &c. If yo\x still 
object to my projects on account of the expense of sending a frigate 
to Europe and keeping her there till the business can be effected, I 
think it may be done, though perhaps not with the same dignity, 
without a frigate. My plan for forming a proper corps of sea officers, 
is by teaching them the naval tactics in a fleet of evolution. To lessen 
the expense as much as possible, I would compose that fleet of frigates 
instead of ships of the line : on board of each I would have a little 
academy, where the officers should be taught the principles of mathe- 
matics and mechanics, when off duty. When in port the young officers 
should be obliged to attend at the academies established at each dock- 
yard, where they should be taught the principles of every art and 
science that is necessary to form the character of a great sea officer, 
7257—07 II 



i62 Letters 



and every commission ofl&cer of the navy should have free access, and be 
entitled to receive instruction gratis at those academies. All this would 
be attended with no very great expense, and the public advantage 
resulting from it would be immense. I am sensible it cannot be imme- 
diately adopted, and that we must first look about for ways and means ; 
but the sooner it is adopted the better. We cannot, like the ancients, 
build a fleet in a month, and ought to take example from what has 
lately befallen Holland. 

In time of peace it is necessary to prepare, and be always prepared for 
war by sea. I have had the honor to be presented with copies of the 
signals, tactics, and police, that have been adopted under the different 
admirals of France and Spain during the war; and I have in my last 
campaign seen them put in practice. While I was at Brest, as well as 
while I was inspecting the building of the America^ as I had furnished 
myself with good authors, I applied much of my leisure time to the 
study of naval architecture and other matters, that relate to the estab- 
lishment and police of dock-yards &c. (I, however, feel myself bound 
to say again, I have yet much need to be instructed). But if, such as I 
am, it is thought I can be useful in the formation of the future marine 
of America, and make whole my honour, I am so truly a citizen of the 
United States, that I will cheerfully do my best to effect that great 
object. It was my fortune, as the senior of the first lieutenants, to 
hoist, myself, the flag of America the first time it was displayed. 
Though this was but a light circumstance, yet I feel for its honour 
more than I think I should have done if it had not happened. See 

Paper No. . I drew my sword at the beginning, not after having 

made si7iister conditwis but purely from principle in the glorious cause 
of freedom; which I trust has been amply evinced by my conduct during 
the Revolution. I hope I shall be pardoned in saying, it will not now 
be expected, after having fought and bled for the purpose of contribut- 
ing to make millions happy and free that I should remain miserable and 
dishonoured by being superseded, without any just cause assigned. 

Though I have only mentioned two things that afflict me, the delay of 
a decision respecting my rank, and the honorary medal, yet I have met 
with many other humiliations in the service, that I have borne in silence. 
I will just mention one of them. When the America was presented to 
his most Christian Majesty, I presume it would not have been incon- 
sistent with the dignity of that act of my sovereign, if it had mentioned 
my name. Such little attentions to the military pride of officers are 
always of use to a state, and cost nothing. In the present instance, it 
could have been no displeasing circumstance, but the contrarj', to a 
monarch who condescends to honour me with his attention. I appeal to 
yourself, sir, whether, after being unanimously elected to command the 
first and only American ship of the line, my conduct, for sixteen months 
while inspecting her building and launching, had merited only such cold 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 163 



neglect? When the America was taken from me, I was deprived of my 
tenth command. Will posterity beHeve, that out of this number the 
sloop of war Ranger was the best I was ever enabled by my country to 
bring into actual service? If I have been instrumental in giving the 
American flag some reputation and making it respectable among Euro- 
pean nations, will you permit me to say, that it is not because I have 
been honoured, by my country, either with the proper means or proper 
encouragemeyit. I cannot conclude this letter without reminding you of 
the insult offered to the flag of America, by the court of Denmark, in 
giving up to England, towards the end of the year 1779, two large letter 
of marque ships (the one the Union from London, the other the Betsy, 
from Liverpool) that had entered the port of Bergen, in Norway, as 
my prizes. Those two ships mounted 22 guns each, and were valued, as 
I have been informed, at sixteen hundred thousand livres Tournois. I 
acquit myself of my duty in giving you this information now when the 
sovereignty and independence of America is acknowledged by Great 
Britain, and I trust Congress will now demand and obtain proper 
acknowledgments and full restitution from the court of Denmark. 

I have the honour to be, with the greatest respect, sir, your most 
obedient and most humble servant." 

[Endorsement] 

J. P. Jones to the U. S. Minister of Marine Hon Robt. Morris. 

oThis paper is unsigned. The signature "J. Paul Jones" is appended to a similar, 
but abridged, letter of October 10, 1783, printed by R. C. Sands in "L,ife and Cor- 
respondence of John Paul Jones," New York, 1830, pp. 304-309. — Compii,ER. 



LETTER TO MRS. BELCHES 

[From original, in possession of Edinburgh Antiquarian Society.] 

Paris, August 2p, ij86. 
Madam : It is with great pleasure that I now execute the flattering 
commission you gave me before you left this city. Sir James Stuart, 
who returns immediately to Scotland, does me the honor to take charge 
of the Medallion you desired I might send you. I am unable to say 
whether it is well or ill executed, but, I feel, it receives its value 
from your acceptance: an honor for which I can never sufficiently 
express my obligation, but which it will always be my ambition to merit. 
My respectful compliments await your husband. I am very sensible of 
his polite attentions while here. 

May you always enjoy a state of Happiness, as real as is the esteem 
and respect with which I have the honor to be, Madam, 
Your most obedient and most humble Servant 

J. Paxil, Jones. 
Mrs. Belches, Scotland. 
164 



.'. V-<^.u^^Uj'^lf2^; 




i-^-./a.'^-'-- — . -V- .*. ■*. •■ — 



'UlMlU 



M'^ '^jjclui _ ./C^Q 



FACSIMILE OF LETTER TO MRS. BELCHES, 

Froin photograph of original iu possebsion of Edinburgh Antiquarian Society, furnished by 
Capt. John S. Barnes. (Scale, two-thirds of originaL) 



..^^.^ ^1/ ..-/e^- ^^-^ -^■' ^^ •--^=^- ^" 




v.HA iviEOALLION PRESENTED TO MRS. BELCHES IN 1786. 

from photograph of origiual in possession of Edinburgli Aiitiqimriau Society, furuishcd Ijy 
Capt. John S. Barnes. 



IV. CHRONOLOGY 



[Numbers at right of page denote references, see pp. 186-193.] 

1747, July 6. Born at Arbigland, Scotland i 

1759 to . Apprenticed. Went to sea on the Friendship 2 

Visited his brother, William Paul, in Virginia 3 

Made voyage as third mate of slaver King George 4 

1766. Chief mate of the Two Friends, of Kingston, Jamaica 5 

1768. Returned to Scotland in tint John 6 

Made master and supercargo of the John ; sailed for the West 

Indies 7 

1770, Aug. 5. Wrote from St. George, Granada, to Mr. Craik regarding his 

private business, his ship, and the care of his mother 8 

1770, Nov. 27. Made a Freemason [entered apprentice] St. Bernard's Lodge, 

Kilwinning No. 122. Kirkcudbright, Scotland 9 

1771, Apr. I. Date of certificate of high approval from owners of the John. 

Same year visited his family in Scotland for last time 10 

1772, June 30. Date of affidavit sworn to before Governor Young, of Tobago, 

exonerating Jones from charges made against him 11 

1772, Sept. 24. In London. Wrote to his mother and sisters; enclosed copy 

of affidavits establishing his innocence in the case of Mungo 

Maxwell 12 

1772. Commanded the Betsey 13 

1773. J3-11- 3°- Evidence in Jones's behalf given before Mayor of London. ... 14 

1773. In Virginia 15 

Assumed the name of Jones in North Carolina 16 

1774. Jones's brother, William Paul, died. Date taken from tomb- 

stone in St. George's Churchyard, Fredericksburg, Va. 

William Paul's will dated 1772 17 

1775. Apr. 25. Wrote to Joseph Hewes, Robert Morris, and Thomas Jefferson 

desiring a naval appointment 18 

1775, May — . Visited French -ship Terpsichore, Commodore Kersaint, in 

Hampton Roads. Met Louis Philippe, Egalit^ 19 

I77S> June 24.0 Marine Committee desired Jones's views on naval affairs 20 

1775, July i8.a Appeared before the committeeat Philadelphia 21 

177s. Aug. 2$.a Requested by Marine Committee to fit out the Alfred 22 

1775. Sept. 14, Sent, through Hon. Joseph Hewes, replies to inquiries from 

or Oct. 3.0 Congress on naval affairs 23 

1775, Dec. 3. "B. P." wrote to Earl Dartmouth that the " Continental flag 

was this day hoisted on the Black Prince [later the Alfred^ 

at Philadelphia " 24 

oBuell, "Paul Jones, Founder of the American Navy." These statements are not 
supported by the Journals of the Continental Congress. — Compii,kr. 

165 



1 66 



C h rono logy 



1775, Dec. 7. Jones appointed first of the first lieutenants in the Continental 

Navy by Congress. Ordered to the Alfred 25 

1775, Dec. 22. Appointments of December 7 confirmed by Congress 26 

1775. Dec. — . Offered command of the /yoOT'affWff or /^/^. Preferred remain- 
ing on the Alfred 27 

1775, Dec. — . Hoisted the American flag on the Alfred, flagship of Com- 
or mander-in-Chief Esek Hopkins. (Entry above, No. 24, 

1775, Jan. — . indicates December 3 as the date) 28 

1776, Feb. 9. Commodore Hopkins's fleet sailed from Philadelphia under 

the ' ' Union flag " as used by General Washington at Cam- 
bridge. Jones first lieutenant of flagship Alfred 29 

1776, Feb. 17. The fleet left the Delaware on expedition 30 

1776, Mar. I. Fleet anchored off Abaco. Jones piloted the ^//?'i?a? into New 

Providence 31 

1776, Mar. 17. Fleet sailed from New Providence with captured military 

stores and the governor and other important prisoners 32 

4-5. Schooner Hawk and bomb brig Bolton captured 33 

6. Alfred 3.'a.& Cabot ^vl^&^&A.'Cpl^ Glasgow. She escaped. Hop- 
kins's squadron put into New London 34 

14. Jones wrote Honorable Mr. Hewes account of the expedition. 

Sent extract from log of the Alfred 35 

I. Ordered to attend the coiurt-martial of Captain Whipple, cap- 
tain of the Alfred 36 

10. Jones ordered by Hopkins to command the Providence 37 

18. Providence arrived off New York 38 

19. Jones explained to Hewes reasons for declining the command 
of the Fly\ says new commission has not been sent him. ... 39 

6. Desired command of one of the new ships being constructed 

by order of Congress 1 . . . . 40 

10. In obedience to Commodore Hopkins's order, pursued an 

armed sloop in sight off New London. She escaped 41 

13. Ordered to convoy the Fly and other vessels carrying Gov- 
ernment supplies 42 

18. Ordered to Boston by Hopkins 43 

20. Colonel Tillinghast requested by Jones to get his private Log 
of the Alfred from that ship and send it to him 44 

I. Arrived in the Delaware with convoy from Boston 45 

8. Received a captain's commission from the President of Con- 
gress. "The first naval commission under the United 

States," or "since the Declaration of Independence " 46 

Marine Committee proposed to Jones the command of the 

Hampden; he chose to remain on the Providence 47 

i5. Ordered to watch for French vessel with supplies 48 

21. Sailed from the Delaware with orders to "cruise against 

enemy for six weeks or more " 49 

1776, Sept. I. After a sharp action escaped from the British frigate Solebay, 
near Bermuda. Later encountered and escaped from the 

Milford, off Cape Sable 50 

1776, Sept. 3 Captured off northeast coast of America, 16 vessels, destroyed 
to Sept. 28. fishery at Canso and shipping at Isle Madame. Sent in 8 

prizes, burned 8 51 

List of prizes 52 



1776, Apr. 
1776, Apr. 

1776, Apr. 

1776, May 

1776, May 
1776, May 
1776, May 

1776, June 

1776, June 

1776, June 

1776, June 
1776, June 

1776, Aug. 
1776, Aug. 



1776, Aug. 
1776, Aug. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 167 



1776, Oct. 7. Arrived at Newport, R. I., in the Providence 53 

1776, Oct. 10. Commissioned captain in the Continental Navy (new list 

made by Congress: Jones No. 18) 54 

1776, Oct. 17. Wrote Robert Morris an account of cruise. Made suggestions 

for improvement of the Navy and plans for an expedition 

against enemy's African trade 55 

1776, Oct. 22. Took command of expedition to Cape Breton 56 

1776, Oct. 27. The Hampden disabled, had to put back 57 

1776, Nov. 2. Jones sailed with the Alfred and Providence 58 

1776, Nov. 10. Captured brig Active off Louisburg 59 

1776, Nov. 13. Captured transport Ulellish, with 10,000 suits of uniform. 

Took 150 prisoners 60 

1776, Nov. 16. Captured ship Hetty 61 

1776, Nov. 18. The Providence parted company from Alfred in the night. . . 62 
1776, Nov. 24 Captured 5 vessels, one a privateer of 16 guns. Destroyed a 
to Nov. 30. transport, ashore at Canso Straits. Burned buildings at Isle 

Royale 63 

1776, Dec. 7. Chased by frigate Milford; escaped with loss of only one of 

the prizes 64 

1776, Dec. 10 Arrived at Boston 65 

or Dec. 15. 

1777) Jan. 12. Explained to Mr. Hewes failure to release the Americans at 

Cape Breton coal mines 66 

1777. Jan. 14. Superseded by Hinman in command of ^c Alfred, by order of 

Commodore Hopkins 67 

I777> Jan. 21. Protested to Marine Committee against this injustice 68 

1777, Feb. 5. Marine Committee ordered Jones to command a fleet of six 

vessels for an expedition to Pensacola 69 

1777, Feb. 10. Wrote Robert Morris concerning the Navy 70 

1777, Mar. 17. Appointed by Congress to command one of the three ships 

purchased "until a better can be had " 71 

1777, Mar. 25. Ordered to Boston to select and fit out a ship 72 

1777, Apr. 7. At request of President of Congress submitted plans for organi- 
zation and government of Navy 73 

1777, Apr. 19. Met Da Fayette in Alexandria, Va 74 

1777, May 4. Detter to Mr. Mawey regarding money due him and care of 

his mother. Written from Boston 75 

1777, May 9. Ordered to proceed to France in ^wi/AzMViT. To take officers 
and men to man a fine ship to be purchased for him in 

Europe. Letter to Commissioners in Paris 76 

1777, May 23. In Boston, shipped men for Amptiitrite 77 

1777, May 26. Wrote to the ' ' Secret committee " 78 

1777, June 14. Ordered to command the Ranger, first called the Hampsliire, 
building at Portsmouth, N. H.; and Stars and Stripes 

adopted as National ensign by act of Congress 79 

1777, June 18. Appointment to the j^aK^^r sent by Marine Committee 80 

1777. July I. 2. Orders received by Jones at Boston 81 

1777, July 4. Stars and Stripes hoisted on a United States man-of-war for 

first time; the Ranger, or the Raleigh. 82 

1777, July 12. Jones announces to Captain Roach, former commander of 

Ranger, his arrival at Portsmouth and his orders 83 

1777, July 29. Directions to Dieut. Elijah Hall regarding men's pay 84 

1777, Aug. 2. Advertised for crew for Ranger 85 



i68 Chronology 



ilTJ, Sept. 6. Ordered by Marine Committee to proceed to France to report 
to the Commissioners. The Indien, at Amsterdam, prom- 
ised him 86 

1777, Oct. 29 Reported to Marine Committee the many hindrances in fitting 

or 30. the Ranger for sea. Will sail ' ' with first favorable wind " . . 87 

1777, Nov. I. The Ranger sailed from Portsmouth, N. H 88 

1777, Nov. 26. Captured two brigs (Green says 23d and 25th) 89 

1777, Dec. 2. Anchored off Nantes. Forwarded papers to Paris 90 

1777, Dec. 5. Jones visited the Commissioners at Paris 91 

1777, Dec. II. Gave a detailed account of voyage in letter to Jacob Wendell . . 92 

1778, Jan. 10. Commissioners directed an advance of 500 louis d'or to be 

paid Jones for expenses of ship 93 

1778, Jan. 16. Commissioners give Jones "unlimited orders" 94 

1778, Feb. I. Fired 13 guns in honor of Mr. Thomas Morris, Continental 

agent at Nantes, recently deceased 95 

1778, Feb. 12. Ranger sailed from Nantes for Quiberon Bay 96 

1778, Feb. 13. Anchored in Quiberon Bay at 7 p. m. (or 6 p. m.) 97 

1778, Feb. 14. Received from Admiral I^a Motte Piquet, commanding French 
squadron, first salute to the Stars and Stripes from a foreign 

power. Gave 13 and received 9 guns 98 

1778, Feb. 15. Sailed through the French fleet in the American brig Inde- 
pendence, Captain John Young; saluted the French squadron 

with 13 guns and received 9 in return 99 

1778, Feb. 22. Informed the Marine Committee of exchanging salutes 100 

1778, Mar. 3. Sailed from Quiberon Bay loi 

1778, Mar. 8. Anchored in Camaret Bay 102 

1778, Mar. 23. Sailed up to Brest. Exchangedsalutes with French Admiral. . 103 
1778, Mar. 25. Wrote Silas Deane and John Ross that he was to receive salute 

of gun for gun when leaving Brest 104 

1778, Apr. 2. Count d'Orvilliers saluted .ffflw^^r with 10 or 11 guns when 

she left Brest, about 5 p. m 105 

1778, Apr. 5. Ships forced by bad weather to return to Brest 106 

1778, Apr. II Ranger sailed from Brest in company with French frigate 

or 10. Fortuna 107 

1778, Apr. 14 Captured brig Dolphin oflf Cape Clear 108 

or 15. 

1778, Apr. 17. Captured ship Lord Chatham; sent her to Brest 109 

1778, Apr. 19, Sunk schooner and sloop taken off coast of Ireland no 

20. 
1778, Apr. 21. Captured a fishing boat. Bad weather prevented surprising 

and boarding the Drake, 20 guns in 

1778, Apr. 22. Captain Jones and 31 volunteers landed at Whitehaven. 

Spiked guns, burnt shipping, including ship Thompson .... 112 
1778, Apr. 23. Jones and 12 men landed at St. Marys Isle to capture Earl of 
Selkirk. Selkirk, being absent, men took 160 pounds 

weight of silver. I/ist of names of landing party 113 

1778, Apr. 24. After fight of one hour and five minutes, H. B. M. S. Drake 

surrendered to the Ranger 114 

1778, Apr. 25. Captured brig /'fl/iVwcf. Let fishing boat go. Buried Captain 
Burden, of the Drake, and Lieutenant Wallingsford, of the 

Ranger, with military honors 115 

1778, Apr. 26. Lieutenant Simpson given command of the Drake. Relieved 
of command by Jones because of disobedience of orders. A 
brig captured by Ranger 116 



John Paul fones Cotnmemoration 



169 



1778, May 6. I<ieut. Elijah Hall sent on board the Drake to supersede Lieu- 
tenant Simpson 117 

1778, May 7. Lieutenant Hall ordered to follow 7?a»§'f»' and take the /?ra;4ff 

into Brest 118 

177S, May 8. The Ranger reentered Brest with the Drake 1 19 

Jones wrote Lady Selkirk courteous letter. Will return her 

silver. Inventory of silver 1 20 

1778, May 9. Reported the result of expedition to American plenipotentia- 
ries at Paris 121 

1778, May 10. Hoisted Continental colors on the prize Patience 122 

1778, May II. Prisoners sent on board the Patience 123 

1778, May 27. Reported to Marine Committee actions from April 10 to 

May 27 124 

1778, May 27. Informed Doctor Bancroft of need of funds for crew, and sur- 
prise at the dishonoring of his draft 125 

Reports death of Lieutenant Dobbs, R. X., of the Drake 126 

Thanked Doctor Franklin for his expressed approval 127 

Explained his financial embarrassment; had advanced .^1,500 

of his own money; received no wages 128 

Submitted plans for combined operations against the British, 

to American plenipotentiaries and French minister of marine . 129 
Sailing in companj' with the Boston, Capt. S. Tucker, off Isle 

Dieu; visited the ship 130 

Informed by Doctor Franklin that he is to have the hidien, 

building at Amsterdam 131 

Proposed to the plenipotentiaries that Lieutenant Simpson 
retiurn to America in command of the Ranger. Celebrated 

anniversary of independence on Ranger 132 

Letter to Mr. Grand regarding qualifications requisite in a 

Protestant chaplain for his ship 133 

Lieut. Simpson took command of Ranger 134 

Informed General Washington that, at the request of the 
French minister of marine, he will remain in France. Begs 
the General's acceptance of a pair of epaulettes he sends. 
Men of Whitehaven expedition recommended to plenipo- 
tentiaries 135 

1778, Aug. 10. Informed that the plenipotentiaries will recommend to Con- 
gress those who took part in the landing at Whitehaven , . . 136 

Requested the plenipotentiaries to order a court-martial 137 

Capt. Abr. Whipple, of the Providence, requested by Jones to 

summon a court-martial to try Lieutenant Simpson 138 

Recommends to Congress all who landed at Whitehaven 139 

Ranger ran out with a fine breeze 140 

Commissioners order court to try Simpson 141 

Charges against Simpson withdrawn 142 

Having been informed that he can not get the Indien and pre- 
vented from going on expedition with Count d'Orvilliers, 

asked Sartine's permission to return to America 14J 

1778, Sept, 21. Requested the Due de Chartres to aid him in his efforts to get 

a ship or some active duty 144 

1778, Oct. 16. Ranger arrived at Portsmouth, N. H 145 

1778, Oct. 19. Implored King Louis XVI to aid him to get a ship. The 

Duchess de Chartres presented the letter 146 

1778, Nov. 21. Explanatory letter replying to Jlr, Arthur Lee 147 



177S, May 
1778, June 
1778, June 

1778, June 

1778, June 

1778, June 

1778, July 



1778, July 12. 



1778, July 
1778, Aug. 



1778, 


Aug. 


15. 


1778, 


Aug. 


18. 


1778, 


Aug. 


21, 


1778, 


Aug. 


22, 


1778, 


Sept. 


6. 


1778, 


Sept. 


13 



I70 



C h r n logy 



1778, Dec. 17. Jones summoned to audience with the King 148 

1779. Feb. 4. The King gave Jones the Duras; to be fitted out and manned 

by him. Permission given to change name to Bonhonirne 

Richard, in compHment to Doctor Franklin 149 

1779, Feb. 6. Jones thanked M. de Sartine for his interest 150 

1779, Feb. 10. Doctor Franklin and Hon. J. Adams to Jones regarding his 

giving up the Ranger 151 

1779, Mar. 6. Jones explained to Benjamin Franklin cause of his trouble 

before coming to America 152 

1779, Apr. 27. Informed that I,a Fayette is to command Jones's expedition. 

Bonhoinnie Richard to be ready May 7 153 

1779, Apr. 30. Jones wrote to "Father John" (John Mehegan), chaplain to 

Count d'Orvilliers, that he would require a chaplain for the 

French of his crew 154 

1779, May I. Replied to I,a Fayette that it would be a great pleasure to serve 

under his command 155 

Thanked Sartine, La Fayette, and Benjamin Franklin 156 

1779, May 1-3. Jones in command of Bonhoinme Richard at I'Orient 157 

1779, May 9. Informed by Franklin of affairs on the Alliance 158 

1779, May II. Captain Landais brings the ^//z'awcf from Nantes to rOrient. 159 

1779, May 13. Ordered Landais to prepare the Alliance for sea 160 

1779, May 22. La Fayette ordered by King to command a regiment ashore 

instead of the fleet 161 

I779i June i. Jones wrote and sent money to his sister Elizabeth 162 

1779. June 10. Informed by M. de Chaumont regarding the preparation of 

the Bonhoinme Richard, her officers and crew 163 

1779. June 14, M. De Chaumont sent Jones the " Concordat " 164 

3°- 
i779> June 19. Bonhomme Richard, Alliance, Pallas, Cerf, Vengeance sailed 

from rOrient, under command of Capt. John Paul Jones. 

Convoyed French merchant ships and transports with troops 165 
1779, June 20. At midnight the Alliance "ran afoul" of the Bonhomme 

Richard; carried away latter's jib boom 166 

1779, Ju°s 21. The Alliance made prize of a Dutch ship. A privateer cap- 
tured, but abandoned; superior force in sight 167 

i779i June 23. Jones issued "standing orders" to the fleet 168 

1779, June 29, Chased two frigates. Prepared for action ; they stood away. 

30. Consulted with his officers as to chasing 169 

1779, June 30. Thanked officers and men for efforts on 29th 170 

Entered Groix to refit. Ordered to cruise on coast of Ireland. . 171 

1779, July I. Reported to Franklin; cruise from June 19 to 30 172 

1779) July 4. Celebrated on board the Bonhomme Richard. Fired two 

salutes each of 13 guns 173 

1779, July 12. Franklin informed that the Bonhomme Richard is too old to 

admit of proposed alterations 174 

1779, July 26. Would like to have the I\Ionsieur added to fleet. Jamaica 

fleet, convoyed by a 50-gun ship and two frigates, may be 

encountered I75 

1779, July 28. Sent Mr. Lunt and gunner to recruit crew from exchanged 

prisoners 176 

1779, July 30. Reported sinking at anchor of prize Three Friends 177 

1779, Aug. 3. Bonhomme Richard spoken of as having three decks 178 

1779, Aug. 7. Mr. Lunt returns with 29 men 179 

1779, Aug. 10. Special orders issued to the fleet 180 



1779. 


Aug. 


1779, 


Aug. 


to 


Sept. : 


1779, 


Aug. 


1779. 


Sept. 


1779. 


Sept. 


1779. 


Sept. 



John Paul Jones C mm e7n r a ti o n 171 



1779, Aug. 13. Signed the "concordat" on eve of departure i8i 

1779, Aug. 14. The fleet, under Jones's command, sailed from Groix. Con- 
sisted of Bonhomnie Richard, Alliance, Pallas, Cerf, Ven- 
geance, Granville, and Monsieur 182 

1779, Aug. 16. Application made by Jones for affiliation with the lodge of 

Les Neuf Soeurs, Paris 183 

18. Captured the Verwagting. The Monsieur left fleet 184 

22 Captured Mayflower, Fortune, Betsey, Union, and i ship, 5 

22. brigs, and 5 sloops 185 

25. The Cerf Si-nA the Granmlle parted from the fleet 186 

17. Letter written to the chief magistrates of Leith 187 

Released captured fisherman; gave him a passport 188 

— . I/iverpool put in a state of defense 189 

23. Captured H. B. M. S. Serapis and Countess of Scarborough 
off Flamborough Head, England. After an engagement of 
nearly four hours, the Sempis, 44 guns, Capt. Richard Pear- 
son, R. N., surrendered to the Bonhomme Richard, Capt. 
John Paul Jones. The Countess of Scarborough surrendered 
to the Pallas and Alliance. When asked by Captain Pear- 
son if he had struck, Jones replied "in a most decided 

negative;" or, "I've not yet begun to fight " 190 

1779, Sept. 24. Log of the Bonhomme Richard states that the Alliance raked 
the Bonhomme Richard fore and aft during the latter part 

of the engagement of 23d igi 

Jones transferred his crew to and hoisted his flag as Commo- 
dore on the captured Serapis 192 

Note to log of the U. S. S. Serapis says: "At Yz past 12 at 

night (23d) the Serapis colours were hailed down and some 

of the Bonhomme Richard's officers and men boarded her." 193 

i779i Sept. 25. The Bonhomme Richard sank between 10 and 11 a. m., her 

flag flying as she went down. Nothing saved but the signal 

flags. Jones's loss "50,000 livres " 194 

1779, Sept. 26. Master-at-arms of the Bonhomme Richard put in irons for 

liberating prisoners during the fight, September 23d 195 

1779, Oct. 3. Jones anchored his squadron and prizes in the Texel 196 

1779, Oct. 5. Reported his arrival to French ambassador at The Hague 197 

1779, Oct. 6. Captain Pearson, R. X., reported the engagement and his sur- 
render on September 23 to the British Admiralty Office 198 

1779, Oct. 7. Jones left the ship and went to Amsterdam 199 

1779, Oct. 9, 13. Sir Joseph Yorke, British ambassador, requested the Dutch 

Government to hold Jones's prizes as English property. . . . 200 
1779, Oct. II. Franklin informed by Jones that he will hold Captain Pearson 

as hostage for Captain Conyngham's release 201 

1779, Oct. 15. Franklin acknowledged receipt of letter of 8th instant. "All 
Paris and Versailles praising Jones's victory." Directions 
given regarding Landais. Anxiety regarding prisoners 
Jones has taken. The prizes sent into Norway arrived safely . 202 
1779, Oct. 19. Captain Pearson complained to Jones of his not having visited 
him, and wished to know what had been done towards 

exchange of prisoners 203 

1779, Oct. 20. Jones replied to Pearson, and referred to treatment of Captain 
Conyngham in England. Sick and wounded British to have 
all the care given to Americans 204 



172 Chronology 



1779. Oct. 24. Jones wrote to M. de Chaumont regarding the unaccountable 
conduct of Landais, September 23d. Thanked M. de Chau- 
mont for his kindness 205 

1779) Oct. 25. Holland refused to agree to Sir J. Yorke's demands regarding 

Jones's prizes; ' ' will observe a strict neutrality " 206 

1779. Oct. 30. Charges preferred against Landais, signed by " ofBcers of the 
American squadron in the Texel." Sent to plenipotentiaries 
at Paris 207 

1779, Nov. 4. Jones informed the French minister at The Hague of need of 

water and squadron supplies 208 

Wrote to French ambassador explaining position. Loss of 
French commission and intention to leave the Texel. 
British squadron watching for him 209 

1779, Nov. 15. Directed by Franklin to turn over to French ambassador at 

The Hague all prizes and ships of his fleet but the Alliance . 210 

1779, Nov. 21. All American officers and men transferred to the Alliance. 
Command of the Serapis turned over to Captain Cottineau 
by Jones. Captain Pearson exchanged for Captain Con- 
yngham, who was taken on Alliance 211 

i779i Dec. i. The Alliance ready, waiting favorable wind to sail 212 

1779, Dec. 5. Informed Robert Morris of desire to return to America. Num- 
ber on list of October 10, 1776, unsatisfactory 213 

1779, Dec. 13. Indignantly declined "letter of marque" commission from 

French ambassador at The Hague 214 

1779, Dec. 16. Declined to visit Dutch admiral on his ship 215 

1779, Dec. 17, Refused to hoist other than American colors on the Alliance. 

Waiting for pilot 216 

1779, Dec. 27. The Alliance sailed from the Texel. Escaped the British 

fleet outside 217 

1779) Dec. 28, Sailed past British fleets in the Downs and off Spithead, show- 

29. ing American colors 218 

1780, Jan. I. Got clear of the British Channel 219 

Jones wrote some " Lines" in reply to Miss Dumas 220 

1780, Jan. 8, Took two prizes; sunk one and sent one to America 221 

12. 

1780, Jan. 16. Put into Corunna, Spain, for anchor 222 

1780, Jan, 28. Sailed from Corunna, French frigate La Sensible, bound for 

Brest, in company. Before sailing visited by governor; 

saluted him with 13 guns 223 

1780, Feb. 5, Recaptured a French bark from a Guernsey privateer 224 

1780, Feb. 10. Alliance arrived at Groix. Convoyed the American merchant 

ship Livingston into port. Notified Franklin of arrival and 

repairs needed to the Alliance 225 

1780, Feb. 13. Reported to Franklin from 1' Orient 226 

1780, Feb. 19. Great economy ordered to be observed in refittingthe ^-J/Z/awir. 

Four gentlemen have permission to return to the United 

States on her. She is to carry arms and ammunition for the 

United States Government 227 

1780, Feb. 25. Jones replied to Franklin that his wishes shall be complied 

with as far as possible 228 

1780, Mar. 12, Franklin informed Landais that he would not give him a ship 

if he had twenty 229 

1780, Apr. II. ^'i ///'«//(<:• ready to sail for America. Arms and supplies for the 

American Army all on board. Jones visited Paris 230 



John Paul f on e s C o in in c in oration 



173 



1780, May I. Festival in Jones's honor given by the Masonic Lodge of Les 
Neuf Soeurs, Paris. This lodge ordered Jones's bust to be 
made by Jean Houdon 231 

1780, May Informed that King Louis XVI had awarded him the Order of 

Military Merit and a gold sword 232 

1780, May 30. The King, through M. de Sartine, commended Jones to the 

Continental Congress 233 

1780, June I. Letter received by Franklin from the American Board of 
Admiralty dated March 28, 1780, desiring the immediate 

return of the Alliance 234 

Franklin commended Jones to Congress 235 

1780, June 13. Jones read his orders to command the Alliance to the crew. 
Left for Paris. Landais assumed command of Alliance 
against Franklin's orders. Arthur Lee supported Landais's 
action 236 

1780, June 16. Officers and men desiring to remain with Jones went from the 

Alliance to the Ariel, loaned to America hy France 237 

1780, June 20. Jones returned from Versailles. Alliance dropped down to 

Port Louis 238 

1780, June 21. Jones informed Franklin of Landais's refusal to obey orders. 
Stated that he had prevented the French forts from firing 

on the Alliance, and that she had been towed out 239 

Rouel, Parisian artist, desired Jones to sit to him for his 
portrait 240 

1780, June 22. The Serapis sold at I'Orient for 240,000 livres to the King of 

France 241 

17S0, June 24. The Alliance sailed for Groix 242 

1780, June 25. Commodore Gillen, of South Carolina, visited Jones in regard 
to men from South Carolina who had been on the Bon- 
homme Richard 243 

1780, June 28. M. de Sartine notified Jones that the King would present to 
him a gold sword, and the French decoration of the Order 
of Military Merit. A packet for Chevalier de Luzerne 

intrusted to Jones's care for transportation to America 244 

Landais ordered not to sail for America without instructions. 
Requested to send So men to assist in equipping the Ariel. 
He sent 22 245 

1780, June 29. An officer sent to the Alliance for more men contemptuously 

treated by Landais 246 

1780, July 3. Jones wrote to crew of Alliance 247 

1780, July 8. ^-i///a«r(' sailed for America 248 

1780, July 21. The gold sword presented to Jones. He is received by the 
King at Versailles. Asked Countess de La Vendahl to be 
custodian of sword while he was at sea 249 

1780, July 24. Wrote to Madame de T. explaining affair between Landais 

and himself at I'Orient 250 

1780, Aug. 2. The Ariel nearly ready for sea. Jones solicited the interest 
of the Count de Maurepas and the Count de Vergennes in 
his plans for active operations 251 

1780, Aug. 13. The Alliance made Cape Ann 38 days from land to land 252 

1780, Aug. 15. Jones informed that Count de ilaurepas would endeavor to 

secure vessels and aid for an expedition 253 

1780, Aug. 25. Birthday of Louis XVI celebrated on board the .-Iricl at 

I'Orient. Two royal salutes fired 254 



174 Chronology 



1780, Sept. 2. Jones gave a grand entertainment on the Ariel 255 

1780, Sept. 5. Ariel moved to outer harbor of Groix 256 

1780, Sept. 8. Jones wrote M. Dumas that at next meeting with Captain 

Pearson he would ' ' make him a count. ' ' (Most biographies 

say ' ' make a loM of him " 257 

1780, Sept. 21. Replied to letter (July 5) in which the Countess de La Ven- 

dahl declined to be custodian of his sword 258 

1780, Oct. 7, The Ariel put to sea 259 

1780, Oct. 12. Ariel returned, disabled by storm 260 

1780, Oct. 13. Statement of Ariel's officers of disasters caused by storm of 

8th, 9th 261 

1780, Oct. 26. Franklin notified that all haste will be used to refit Ariel, 

and of correspondence with Capt. Thos. Truxtun, of XT. S. 

privateer Independence, regarding his right to fly a broad 

pennant, contrary to act of Congress October 29, 1776 262 

1780, Dec. 4. Ordered by Franklin to proceed to America with dispatches 

for Congress. Franklin will use best endeavors to secure 

prompt payment of prize money 263 

1780, Dec. — . Superb entertainment given on the Ariel. Fight between the 

Bonhomme Richard and Serapis represented 264 

1780, Dec. 18. The Ariel sailed for Philadelphia 265 

1780, Dec. — . In latitude 26°, longitude of Barbados (60°), the Ariel 

engaged and received the surrender of the British frigate 
Triumph, Capt. John Pindar. She escaped after striking 
her colors 266 

1781, Feb. 4. ^ri>/ reached Delaware Bay. Col. Henry Fisher, Continental 

Army, loaned money to Jones for his officers and crew 267 

1781 , Feb. 18. Ariel arrived at Philadelphia 268 

1 781, Feb. 19. Jones ordered to attend Congress on February 26 269 

1781, Feb. 20. Required by the Board of Admiralty to reply to 47 questions. . 270 
1781, Feb. 27. Congress passed resolutions commending Jones. Praised his 
brilliant victory. Authorized his acceptance of decoration 

of Order of Military Merit from Louis XVI 271 

1781, Mar. I. Ariel took part in celebration of ratification of confederation 

of the States, held at Philadelphia 272 

1781, Mar. 17. Franklin replied to Board of Admiralty, explaining the "Con- 
cordat " 273 

1781, Mar. 21. Jones sent replies to the 47 questions from the Board of 
Admiralty. About this time he was invested with the Order 
of Military Merit, became a "Chevalier," and was per- 
mitted to wear the decoration. The Chevalier de la Luzerne 
gave, at Philadelphia, a grand entertainment in honor of 
the event. Board of Admiralty desired Jones's opinion 
regarding exchange of prisoners on prison ships at New 

York 274 

1781, Mar, 28. Board of Admiralty satisfied with Jones's replies; commended 

him to Congress 275 

1781. "Propheties," etc., "par Paul Jones," published 276 

17S1, Apr. 14. Thanks of Congress given to Capt. John Paul Jones, his offi- 
cers and men 277 

1781, May 15. Letter of congratulation from Gen. George Washington 278 

1781, May 28. Jones sent memorial to Congress requesting he be given his 

right number on list of captains 279 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 



175 



17S1, July 
17S1, July 

1 78 1, Aug. 

1 78 1, Nov. 

1781, Dec. 
1 78 1, Dec. 

1781, Dec. 

1782, May 

1782, June 



1781, June 26. Made statement to Board of Admiralty of amount of pay due 

him from December 7, 1775 (/'i,4oo 5s.) 280 

Jones unanimously elected by Congress to command the U. S. 
ship-of-the-line America, building at Portsmouth, N. H. 
Rank of admiral proposed 281 

1781, June 28. Petitioned Congress for an advance on pay due him, to enable 

him to pay his debts and proceed to Portsmouth in obedi- 
ence to orders 282 

Wrote certificate of merit for I,ieut. Richard Dale 283 

Congress approved accounts; referred him to the Treasury 

Board for payment 284 

Deft Philadelphia. Visited General Washington at White 

Plains. Reached Portsmouth late in August 285 

Jones addressed a public meeting in the town hall, Ports- 
mouth, N. H 2S6 

Appointed by Congress Day of Thanksgiving 287 

Farewell letter from Da Fayette to Jones 288 

Jones wrote to "Delia" from Philadelphia 289 

Birth of the Dauphin of France announced. All commanding 

officers ordered by Congress to celebrate it 290 

Jones celebrated the birth of the French Dauphin on board 
the U. S. S. America. Supplied guns and powder at his 
own expense 291 

1782, July 4. Celebrated the Declaration of Independence on board the 

America 292 

1782, July 29. Highly praised and commended by Chevalier de la Duzerne. . 293 

1782, Sept. 4. Robert Morris inclosed resolution of Congress September 3, 

presenting the America to France 294 

Description of the America 295 

Memorial from Jones to Congress regarding his position. 
Made suggestions for the betterment of the Navy. Through 
Robert Morris asked permission to join French expedition 

to West Indies with the Marquis de Vaudreuil 296 

9. Robert Morris commended his sentiments 297 

5. The America launched and delivered to Chevalier de Martigne 
for France. Jones ordered to superintend her fitting out. 
Jones about this time made another effort to get the Indien, 

then at Philadelphia 298 

29. Jones'srequest to join French squadron presented toCongress. 299 
4. Request granted. Congress commended his zeal, and recom- 
mends him to the Marquis de Vaudreuil 300 

24. French fleet sailed for the West Indies. Jones on the Tri- 

omphante 301 

18. French fleet at Port Cabello, waiting for Spanish 302 

8. Notice of the declaration of peace received by French fleet . . . 303 
20. Jones ill. He sailed from Cape Franfois for Philadelphia. 

Highly praised by French officers 304 

18. Jones arrived at Philadelphia 305 

17. Attended religious services of Moravians at Bethlehem, Pa. 

Quieted a disturbance 306 

1783, Aug. 21. At Bernam, Pa. Wrote to Maj. J. S. Sherburne at Ports- 

mouth, N. H., that his health was restored and he might 

visit that city 307 



1782, Sept. 22. 



1782, Oct. 
1782, Nov. 



1782, Nov. 
1782, Dec. 

1782, Dec. 

1783, Feb. 
1783, Apr. 
1783, Apr. 

1783, May 
1783, Aug. 



176 



C hr o no logy 



1783, Oct. 10. Letter to Robert Morris reviewing his naval career and injus- 
tice done him 308 

13. Applied for position as United States prize agent in Europe . . 309 

I. Appointed United States prize agent by Congress; to act under 

minister plenipotentiary at Paris 310 

10. Sailed from Philadelphia for Havre on the packet Washington. 311 

30. Bad weather forced the packet to put into Plymouth, Eng- 
land. Jones went to London with dispatches 312 

6. Arrived in Paris 313 

T7. Franklin authorized Jones to receive all prize money due to 
officers and men of squadron lately under his command in 

European waters 314 

20. In Paris. Presented to Louis XVI by the Mar^chal de Cas- 
tries 315 

"Life of Louis XVI," by John Paul Jones, published in Lon- 
don 316 

I. Jones transmitted his credentials to Mar^chal de Castries; 

hoped for immediate settlement of prize cases 317 

10. Informed that amount of prize money due, after all expenses 

are paid, will be " 283,631 1. 13 s." 318 

25. Letter from Franklin regarding prisoners 319 

— . Prepared to return to America with La Fayette. Delayed by 

settlement of prizes ; papers not ready 320 

23. Marechal de Castries signed prize case papers. Payment 

delayed 321 

8. Lady Selkirk informed by Jones that her silver, taken April 

23, 1778, had been shipped to London 322 

23. De Castries urged to settle prize cases. Jones referred to royal 

auditor at 1' Orient 323 

— . Left Paris for I'Orient 324 

15. Order for payment of prize money issued 325 

29. Thomas Jefferson, minister to France, informed of difficulties 

in settling prize cases 326 

31. Jones informed Jefferson of actions of Algerines against the 
United States 327 

4. Lord Selkirk acknowledged receipt of the silver taken April 

23, 1778 32S 

— . Prize money amounting to " 181,039 livres i sou 10 deniers" 

paid to Jones for the United States 329 

8. Proposed to Jefferson that Doctor Bancroft take his place as 

prize agent to Denmark 330 

18. Letter from Count d'Estaing praising Jones's "Journal." 
Refers to his joining the Society of the Cincinnati. One of 

the original members of the Society of the Cincinnati 331 

1786, Jan. I. Jones presented his "Journal" to King Louis XVI. Thanked 

his Majesty for honors conferred by him 332 

1785, Feb. 28. JeiTerson acknowledged receipt of Jones's bust by Houdon . . . 333 

1786, Aug. 12. Balance of prize money after deducting Jones's share, 

" 1 12,172 1. 2-4," placed with Jefferson 334 

1786, Aug. — . Alliance sold at Philadelphia for fg,75o 335 

1786, Aug. 29. Jones sent his miniature done in wax to Mrs. Belches, Edin- 
burgh 336 



1783, 


Oct. 




18. 


1783, 


Nov. 


1783, 


Nov. 


1783, 


Nov. 


1783, 


Dec. 


1783, 


Dec. 


1783, 


Dec. 




1784. 


1784, 


Feb. 


1784, 


Feb. 


1784, 


Mar. 


1784, 


June 


1784, 


Oct. 


1784, 


Nov. 


1785, 


June 


1785, 


July 


1785, 


July 


I7S5, 


July 


1785, 


July 


1785, 


Aug. 


1785, 


Sept. 


1785, 


Oct. 


I7S5, 


Dec. 



John Paul [ones Commemoration 177 



1786, Sept. 3. Informed Jefferson that " bad health has prevented his setting 

out for Denmark " 337 

1787, spring. Left Paris for Copenhagen to settle prize claims in Denmark. 

Turned back from Brussels and sailed for the United States. 338 

1787, July 18. In New York. Wrote John Jay that he will soon return to 
Copenhagen. Spent summer in Pennsylvania. Urged Con- 
gress to do something for relief of Americans in Algiers . . . 339 

1787, Sept. 4. Wrote to Madame de T. Sent letter through Thomas Jeffer- 
son, October 24, 1787 34° 

17S7, Oct. II. Settlement of prize claims in France approved by Congress, 
Treasury to paj' money ' ' as soon as may be among the 
captors " 341 

1787, Oct. 16. Gold medal ordered by Congress for Jones. To be made in 
Paris under Jefferson's supervision. King of France to be 

informed 342 

Jones to be bearer of a letter to King of France. To proceed 

to Denmark as prize agent 343 

1787, Oct. 26. Notified by Congress that Jefferson is to manage Danish prize 

cases, but can appoint Jones or other agent 344 

1787, Nov. II. Sailed from New York; vessel bound for Holland; captain of 
vessel promised to land him in France. Landed him at 
Dover. Passed some days in London 345 

1787, Dec. 12. Jefferson informed of his being in Paris. Jones desired this 

may not be made known until after an interview with him . 346 

1787, Dec. 20. Announced his arrival at Paris. Was informed that Russia 

would like to have him command Black Sea fleet. Would 

not deliver his letters for King until return from Denmark . 347 

1788, Jan. 24. Received from Jefferson credentials as agent to Denmark 348 

1788, Feb. I. Interviewed by II. Simolin, minister from Russia to France, 

at house of Chevalier Littlepage 349 

1788, Mar. 4. Cordially welcomed upon arrival at Copenhagen 350 

1788, Mar. II. Reported to Jefferson his arrival and illness 351 

1788, Mar. 18. Informed Jefferson of presentation at Danish court 352 

1788, Mar. 24. Count Bernstorff informed of his mission to Denmark 353 

1788, Mar. 25. Informed Jefferson regarding Russian offer 354 

1788, Mar. 30. Prompt reply asked from Denmark as to payment of prize 

money due United States 355 

1788, Apr. 4. Informed by Count Bernstorff that he has not full powers need- 
ful for a full agreement. Jones awarded a pension of 1,500 
crowns a year by Denmark in recognition of respect shown 

Danish flag when in the North Sea 356 

1788, Apr. 5. Count Bernstorff informed that prize claims will be negotiated 

and settled by Baron de Blome with Jefferson in Paris 357 

1788, Apr. 18. Jefferson informed of the termination of the Danish mission, 

and that Jones has decided to enter the Russian service .... 358 
1788, Mar. or Grade of captain commandant with rank of major-general 

Apr. offered Jones by Empress of Russia through Baron Krudner . 359 

1788, Apr. 23 Arrived at St. Petersburg after dangerous journey 360 

(old style. )« 

«The dates herein of events connected with Jones's service with Russia are 
generally "old style,'' or eleven days earlier than the present "new style " or 
Gregorian Calendar. — Compher. 
7257—07 12 



178 



Ch r n o logy 



First audience with Empress Catherine II of Russia 361 

Jefferson informed General Washington of the invitation to 

Jones to enter the Russian service 362 

Jones left Catherine's palace with a letter from her to Prince 

Potemkin at St. Elizabeth 363 

Arrived at St. Elizabeth ; was ordered to command of Russian 

fleet in the Liman 364 

Left St. Elizabeth to take command of the naval force at the 

mouth of the Dnieper River. Set out for Cherson 365 

Hoisted his flag as rear-admiral on the Wolodimir 366 

Reenforced the fleet of the Prince of Nassau with one of his 

ships 367 

The Russian squadron commanded the passage of the Liman . 368 
Successful engagement vnth the Turkish fleet. Turks driven 
back. Jones commanded in person the flotilla of the 

Prince of Nassau and his own ships 369 

Potemkin thanked Jones for his victory of June 7, over the 
Turks. The Order of St. Anne presented him in recog- 
nition of this service to Russia 370 

Jones thanked Prince Potemkin for his commendation 371 

Turks reenforced; advanced to attack 372 

Jones engaged the Turks. Captain Pacha driven back 373 

Renewed attack by Turks; their vessels driven ashore and 

burned 374 

Potemkin thanked for letter of June 19. Referred to engage- 
ment of the i6th 375 

Jones cut off communication between Oczakow and Beresane. 
Captured two chaloupes and one batteau laden with powder 

and shot 376 

Jones received a warning letter from Prince Potemkin 377 

Jones withdrew frigates by order of Prince Potemkin 378 

Ordered by Potemkin to establish blockade between Oczakow 

and Beresane 379 

Jones inspected entrance to the Liman 380 

Flotilla to be added to Jones's command 381 

Jones to send five frigates to be refitted at Glouboca 382 

Vessels sent off at daybreak. Thanked by Potemkin 383 

Operated against Turkish gunboats. Ran close in under 
Fort Hassan under heavy fire from Turks. Secured one of 

their gunboats with aid of Lieutenant Edwards 384 

Jefferson informed Mr. Cutting of Jones's brilliant victory 

over the Turks 385 

Jones neglected to salute flag of Vice-Admiral Prince of 

Nassau-Siegen 386 

Potemkin proposed by letter that Jones take command of the 

Sebastopol fleet 387 

Requested Jefferson to attend to some private affairs in Paris. 
Busts to be sent to General St. Clair, Mr. Ross, of Philadel- 
phia, John Jay, General Irvine, Secretary Thompson, Colonel 
Wadsworth, of New York, Mr. Madison and Colonel Car- 

rington, of Virginia 388 

Madison considered bust an exact likeness 389 

Unsuccessful attack upon Turkish flotilla 390 



1788, Apr. 
1788, May 


25- 
2. 


1788, May 


7- 


1788, May 


19- 


178S, May 


20. 


1788, May 
1788, May 


26. 
28. 


1788, May 
1788, June 
7- 


29. 
6, 


1788, June 


8. 


1788, June 
1788, June 
1788, June 
1788, June 


10. 
16. 

17- 
18. 


1788, June 


20. 


1788, June 


28. 


1788, June 
1788, July 
1788, July 


29. 

I. 

10. 


1788, July 14. 
1788, July 17. 
1788, July 18. 
1788, July 19. 
1788, July 21 
to July 31. 


1788, July 


28. 


1788, Aug. 


I. 


1788, Aug. 


19 


1788, Aug. 


29. 



1788, Aug. 30. 



fohn Paul Jones Commemoration lyg 



1788, Sept. 18. Potemkin gave secret orders to attack Turks. Preparations 

made. Jones ordered to defer operations 391 

1788, Oct. 10. Jones to relinquish command of the fleet. I,ieutenant Ed- 
wards, one of his officers, failed in attempt to dislodge a 
gun from one of enemy's ships 392 

1788, Oct. 13. Ordered by Potemkin to drive back Captain Pacha. Insinua- 
tions in wording of letter resented by Jones 393 

1788, Oct. 18. Informed that Admiral Mordwinoff had been ordered to super- 
sede him in command of squadron 394 

Ordered by Empress Catherine to proceed to St. Petersburg 
for service in the North Sea. Order addressed to Jones as 
vice-admiral 395 

1788, Oct. 31. Recommended by Potemkin to Empress Catherine for zeal 

displayed in her ser\'ice 396 

1788, No\-. 9. Embarked in an open galley for Cherson. Suffered greatly 

on the journey 397 

17S8, Nov. 12. Arrived at Cherson; detained there by illness 398 

1788, Dec. 6. Proceeded to St. Elizabeth 399 

1788, Dec. 28. Arrived at St. Petersburg. Ordered to appear at court 400 

1788, Dec. 31. Audience with the Empress Catherine II of Russia 401 

1789, Jan. 15. Informed Jefferson of return to St. Petersburg 402 

1789, Jan. 20. Proposed alliatice between Russia and America against the 

Algerines and for defense of Mediterranean. Would like 
command of combined fleet 403 

1789, Feb. I. Further propositions of alliance between Russia and America 

in the ilediterranean 404 

1789, Mar. 23. Informed by Jefferson that his letter of January 31 is the only 
information received from him since he left Copenhagen 
(about March, 1788) 405 

1789, Apr. 13. Forwarded to Prince Potemkin proof of his innocence of a 

slander against him 406 

1789, Jlay 17. Requested permission of Catherine to return to France or 

America 407 

1789, June 5. Requested an interview with Count Besborodko 408 

1789, June 27. Informed that he has been granted leave for two years, with 
all appointments belonging to his military rank, by Her 
Imperial Majesty 4ug 

1789, Jul)' 7. Took leave of Catherine II 410 

1789, July 14. Made a third application for interview with Besborodko 41 1 

1789, July 21. Count de Segur defended Jones against slanders. Sent an 
article to be published in the Gazette de France, vindicating 
Jones's character 412 

1789, Jul J- 24. Reviewed campaign of Diman in letter to Potemkin 413 

1789, July 29. End of the "Journal of the Liman," written for the Empress 

of Russia by Jones 414 

1789, July 30. Informed of his appointments and arrearages by Count Besbo- 
rodko 415 

1789, Sept. — . Left St. Petersburg for Warsaw 416 

1789, Sept. 25. Wrote from Warsaw to Empress Catherine. (See letter Feb- 
ruary 25-March 8, 1791) 417 

1789, Nov. 2. Informed General Kosciusko that he would leave Warsaw 

' ' this day for Vienna " 4j3 

1789, Dec. 2u. Wrote to General Washington from Amsterdam 41Q 



i8o Chronology 



1789, Dec. 


29. 


1790, Feb. 


9- 


1790, Mar. 


25. 


1790, Apr. 


) 


May — 




1790, July 


24. 


1791, Feb. 


I. 



1791, Apr. 


20. 


1 79 1, July 


4- 


1791, July 


9- 



1789, Dec. 27. l,etters to John Ross expressing desire to return to America 
and purchase a farm, and to Benjamin Franklin inclosing 
documents from Count de Segur, and recalling the tenth 

anniversary of sailing of the Alliance from the Texel 420 

Justified his conduct in Russia to Baron Krudner 421 

All calumny removed by Count de Segur 422 

Wrote to sister, Mrs. Taylor 423 

In England attending to private business. Received vpith 

distinction. Returned to Paris 424 

Congratulated Potemkin upon Russian success 425 

Proposed to Gouverneur Morris a plan for attack on India 

should Russia and England engage in war 426 

1791, Feb. 25. Asked Empress Catherine to cancel his leave if she does not 
require his service. Sent her his "Journal of the Liman 

Campaign " 427 

1791, Mar. 20. Asked Jefferson to obtain for him from Congress permission 
to wear the Russian Order of St. Anne, as it will be on bust 

ordered for North Carolina 428 

1791, Mar. 23. Jefferson informed by Chevalier Ivittlepage of Jones's brilliant 

work in Russia 429 

Met lyord Daer, son of Ivord Selkirk, at dinner 430 

Called on Gouverneur Morris 43 r 

Sent copy of his bust to Baron Grimm. Referred to inven- 
tions and styles of war vessels 432 

1791, Aug. 31. Informed by Jefferson that his good conduct required no proof 
in America. Congress could take no action regarding the 

wearing of the order 433 

1791, Nov. — . Published "Treatise on the Existing State of the French 

Navy" 434 

1791, Dec. 7. Wrote I,a Payette that he is to be presented to l^ouis XVI as a 

Russian admiral. Will later present to His Majesty letters 
from Congress, given him when last in the United States 
[November, 1787] 435 

1792, Mar. 14. Urged upon the French minister of marine the payment of 

money he advanced for salaries of Bonhonitne Richard's 
crew 436 

1792, June I. "Admiral John Paul Jones's" appointment as United States 
Commissioner to treat with the Bey of Algiers for the re- 
lease of captive Americans, confirmed by Congress. In con- 
formity with act of Congress May 8, 1792 437 

1792, July II. Jones attended the meeting of the National Assembly, Paris. 
Dined at the Caf^ Timon. Toasted as the ' ' coming admiral 
of France " 438 

1792, July 18. Admiral John Paul Jones died in Paris at his residence. No. 42 
Rue de Tournon. Gouverneur Morris had drawn up his will 
a few hours previous to his death 439 

1792, July 19. M. Le Brun announced Jones's death to the National Assembly 
(of France). It decreed that a deputation of 12 members 
attend his funeral. Some of the members proposed to ' ' put 
him in the Pantheon." Members of the National Assembly 

wore mourning in his honor 440 

M. Beaupoil, French ofBcer, notified Jones's sisters of his 
death, told them of his will, and sent a schedule of his 
property 441 



John Paul Jones Commemoration i8i 



1792, July 20. Body put in a leaden coflBn to be convenient for removal to 
the United States when desired. Prominent Americans and 
French attended funeral. Swiss Protestant ' ' Pasteur" Jules 
Marron pronouncedan oration. Gouverneur Morris " desired 
that he (Jones) might be buried in a private and economical 

manner " 442 

Thomas Waters Griffith, of Baltimore, Md., was among those 
present at Jones's funeral. Restated that there was "no 
priest, no service." "A volley of muskets was fired by 
soldiers over his grave," which was in "one of the common 
cemeteries of Paris." "No priest " doubtless refers to there 

being no Roman Catholic priest 443 

Jones's body deposited in Cemetery for Foreign Protestants at 

the instance of Gouverneur Morris 444 

1792, Aug. 9. Colonel Blackden wrote to Sirs. Taylor, Paul Jones's sister, a 

full account of his last illness, death, and burial 445 

1796, Jlay 20. Information published concerning Jones's shares in the Ohio 

Company 446 

179S. "Citoyen " Andr^ published in Paris in French, " M^moires 

de Paul Jones." (This is the "Journal for the King" so 

often mentioned. — COMPILER. ) 447 

1S09. A brief, unreliable sketch of the Life of Paul Jones, published 

in New York by ' ' Duy ckinck " 448 

1812, June — . Niles's Register published first installment of an English 

translation of Andre's M^moires 449 

1820, July I. Niles's Register published a notice that the New York His- 
torical Society will be furnished, by Jones's niece, with origi- 
nal papers from which to prepare a biography. About the 
the same date Col. J. H. Sherburne advertised for data for 
same purpose 450 

1824, Aug. 7. Niles's Register tells of the finding of 414 Jones's original let- 
ters and documents in a " huckster's shop" in New York. 
They were placed in the hands of a Mr. Wiley; later, 
through a jMr. Ward, came into the possession of Col. J. H. 

Sherburne 45 1 

1825. Colonel Sherburne published first edition of the " Life of the 

Chevalier John Paul Jones " 452 

1827, Apr. 28. Niles's Register stated that the Journal of John Paul Jones 

was to be published in Portsmouth, N. H 453 

1830. Memoirs of Paul Jones, published by Oliver & Boyd in Edin- 

burgh, from papers in the possession of Jones's family. 

(Known as the Janette Taylor edition) 454 

A Life of John Paul Jones, published in New York by R. C. 

Sands 455 

1831. Lieut. A. B. Pinkham, U. S. Navy, while traveling in Scot- 

land, visited the birthplace of Jones, and had the house in 
which Jones was born restored at his own expense. Miss 
Janet Taylor, niece of Jones, gave Lieutenant Pinkham the 
miniature now at the United States Naval Academy, in recog- 
nition of his kindness 456 

1831, June 13. William P. Taylor, nephew of John Paul Jones, appointed 

midshipman United States Navy, died December 14, 1836. . 457 



1 82 Chro7iology 



1834, June 30. Congress authorized that a fj-igate be named _/oA« Paul Jones. 

Not carried out 458 

1837, Feb. 28. Col. J. H. Sherburne discovered an unpaid balance of jS5o,ooo 
in the United States Treasury due to Jones, his officers and 
men for prizes captured 459 

1839, Feb. 18. Letters of administration granted by the orphan's court of the 
District of Columbia to Colonel Sherburne to enable him to 
carry out the instructions of Congress regarding the money 

due for prizes taken by Jones's squadron 460 

1841. Capt. A. S. Mackenzie, U. S. Navy, published a "Life of John 

Paul Jones " 461 

1844, Jan. 31. Heirs of Jones petitioned Congress for land in Virginia that 

had belonged to him 462 

1845. Hon. George Bancroft, Secretary of the Navy, asked by Col- 

onel Sherburne to grant permission for the remains of Jones 
to be brought to the United States in a man-of-war return- 
ing from the Mediterranean. No reply given to the request. 463 

1846. J. Fenimore Cooper, published a brief life of Jones. This was 

followed by sketches of the naval hero by many authors. . . 464 

1847, Dec. 28. Colonel Sherburne wrote to Hon. R. Rush, minister to France, 

with regard to removal of Jones's remains 465 

1848, Jan. 3. Mr. Rush replied that he would give Colonel Sherburne any 

aid in his power in the removal, from Paris for interment in 
Congressional Cemetery, Washington, D. C, of Jones's body. 466 

1848, Mar. 21. Congress authorized the payment of arrears of pay and prize 

money to John Paul Jones's heirs 467 

1848, July 6. Appropriation for payment of balance of $50,000 to heirs of 
Jones, his officers and men, and the Danish claim, jjiso,ooo, 
finally made 468 

1851, Jan. 27. Secretary of the Navy informed that a revolution in France 
had prevented Colonel Sherburne from bringing back 
remains. Asked to be allowed to bring them on the U. S. 
frigate St. Lawrence when she returned to the United States. 
Americans in Liverpool had subscribed $300 toward a fund 
for reinterment 469 

1851, Jan. 30. Capt. Joshua R. Sands ordered to transport Jones's remains 
on the St. Lawrence upon his return from Southampton to 
New York 470 

1851, Jan. 30. Department informed Colonel Sherburne of orders given to 

Captain Sands 471 

1851, Feb. 20, Colonel Sherburne to accompany remains on board the St. 

11. Lawrence upon her return voyage 472 

1851, May 6. Captain Sands notified Colonel Sherburne from Southampton 

that he was ready to receive the remains and to sail 473 

Mr. N. Billings, attorney for F. E. Lowden, and legal repre- 
sentative of Jones's heirs in Scotland, notified Colonel Sher- 
burne that he had taken steps to prevent removal of remains . 474 

1851, May 16. Mr. Billings apologized to Colonel Sherburne. Wrote "will 

be glad to aid in search for remains " 475 

1851, May 19, Correspondence between Colonel Sherburne at Paris, and 
27. Captain Sands at Lisbon, regarding Mr. Billings's interfer- 
ence. Sands regretted that he could not have the honor of 
conveying the body of Jones to United States 476 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 



183 



1851, July 14. The Secretary of the Navy, Hon. Wm. A. Graham, informed 
that Colonel Sherburne's search of the records of Paris and 
the files of the Moniteur showed that the Protestant Ceme- 
tery in the rear of the Hotel Dieu, where John Paul Jones 
was supposed to have been buried, had been sold and all 
bones removed to catacombs. Mr. Billings assisted in the 
search 477 

1851, August. Colonel Sherburne in New York, sent to Hon. Wm. A. Gra- 

ham a copy of the second edition of his ' ' Life and Charac- 
ter of John Paul Jones," recently published 478 

1852, June 5. Death of Col. J. H. Sherburne, Washington, D. C 479 

1859. M. Charles Read, discovered entry in an old burial register, 

of interment of Jones in (Dutch) Foreign Cemetery in 
northeast part of Paris. Made copy from register 89, 1799. . 480 
i86t, July 29. Congress requested a statement of proportion of fund due 

heirs of John Paul Jones 481 

1861, Aug. 6. Secretary of Treasury submitted to Congress statement of prize 

money due to officers and seamen of the Bonhomme Richard 
and Alliance. To Bonhomme Richard, 191,024.34; to the 
Alliance, $74,574.03 482 

1862, Jan. 3. Above statements presented to Congress 483 

1862. U. S. S. Paul Jones built and put in service 484 

1869, Dec. — . Charles Dickens made the erroneous statement that the remains 
of John Paul Jones had been brought to the United States 
on the St. Lawrence in 185 1, for interment in the Congres- 
sional Cemetery at Washington, D. C 485 

1899, July 31. Hon. John Hay, Secretary of State, informed that Mr. Charles 
Read (antiquary) had made a copy of the burial register 
destroyed in 1871 486 

1905, Feb. 9. Gen. Horace Porter, United States ambassador to France, 
announced that he had located the burial place of John Paul 
Jones 487 

1905, Feb. 14. President Roosevelt transmitted General Porter's report to 
Congress. Recommended appropriation of fos,ooo to defray 
expense of search in Cemetery St. I<ouis (uo such appro- 
priation was made). Also recommended an appropriation 
for monuments to John Paul Jones and John Barry 488 

1905, Feb. 22. At banquet in Paris General Porter stated that after a search 

of five years he had found the long-sought site 489 

1905, Apr. 14. Ambassador Porter cabled to Washington that John Paul 
Jones's body had been found and identified by French 
scientists 490 

1905, June 15. A silk flag presented to Rear-Admiral Sigsbee hy the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution Society to be used in con- 
nection with the return of Jones's remains. Afterwards to 
be hung in Continental Hall, Washington, D. C 491 

1905, June iS. Squadron under command of Rear-Admiral C. D. Sigsbee, 
sailed for France to bring John Paul Jones's body to the 
United States 492 

1905, July 6. Body of John Paul Jones delivered hy Ambassador Porter to 
Assistant Secretary of State Loomis, and by him delivered 
to Rear-Admiral Sigsbee in the American Church of the 
Holy Trinity, Rue de I'Alma, Paris, with appropriate cere- 
monies 493 



1 84 



C h r o n o logy 



1905, July 8. The United States squadron, under command of Rear-Admiral 

Sigsbee, sailed from Cherbourg for the United States 494 

1905, July 23. Rear-Admiral Sigsbee's squadron, the Brooklyn, Galveston, 
Chattanooga, and Tacoma, convoyed by the Alabama, 
Massachusetts, Illinois, and Iowa, and the French cruiser 
Jurien de la Graviire, dropped anchor off Annapolis, Md. 495 

1905, July 24. Body of John Paul Jones placed in brick vault. Naval Academy 

grounds, Annapolis, with religious and military ceremonies. 496 

1905, Sept. 23. Tablet erected on Badgers (formerly Langdons) Island, in 
harbor of Portsmouth, N. H., in "Memory of the Conti- 
nental sloop Ranger " 497 

1905, Oct. — . Gen. Horace Porter's account of the finding of John Paul 

Jones's body published in the Century Magazine 498 

1905. Report of Gen. Horace Porter in Foreign Relations 499 

1905, Dec. 4, 6. Bills introduced in Congress by Senator I/odge and Repre- 

sentative Currier for the erection of a monument to John 

Paul Jones in Washington, D. C 500 

1906, Feb. I. The John Paul Jones Club of Portsmouth, N. H., desired 

Masonic honors at final interment or commemoration of 
Jones 501 

1906, Apr. 24. Commemorative ceremonies held in the armory of the Naval 
Academy, Annapolis. Casket containing the body was 
taken from brick vault to armory, and at close of cere- 
monies was deposited in Bancroft Hall. The military escort 
was composed of ofiicers and men from the French and 
American squadrons in the harbor, the midshipmen of the 
Naval Academy, and two troops of United States cavalry, 
under command of Col. A. P. Hatfield. Masonic services 
were held at Portsmouth, N. H., Kittery and Berwick, Me., 
and Alexandria, Va. , on the same day 502 

1906, May 9. Joint Resolution extending the thanks of Congress to General 

Horace Porter for recovery of the body of John Paul Jones. 503 

1906, June 8. Bill for the erection of monument to John Paul Jones ap- 
proved 504 

igo6, June 11. Portrait of John Paul Jones, painted by Miss Cecelia Beaux, 

presented to the Naval Academy by the class of 1881 505 

1906, June 29. Concurrent resolution of Congress provided for printing 11,000 

copies of addresses, etc., of the commemorative services at 
Annapolis, Md., April 24, 1906 506 

1907, Jan. 30. Bill introduced in Congress to establish September 23, to be 

observed in the Navy, as Paul Jones Day 507 

1907, Mar. I. Letter, signed " Chevr. Paul Jones," to Board of Admiralt}', 
stating amount of pay due him from December 7, 1775, to 
June 26, 1781, sold at auction in New York for I142.50. . . . 508 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 185 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES CONSULTED 

-Mdmoires de Paul Jones, edited by " Citoyen Andr^," Paris, 1798. 

-Ivife of Celebrated Paul Jones, published by E. Duyckinck, New York, 1809. 

, Niles's Weekly Register. 

-lyife and Character of John Paul Jones, by Col. J. H. Sherburne, iSSj, 1851. 

, Memoirs of Rear-Admiral Paul Jones, published Edinburgh, 1830. 

Ijife of John Paul Jones, by R. C. Sands, New York, 1830. 

Life of John Paul Jones, by A. S. Mackenzie, U. S. Navy, 1S41. 

Life of John Paul Jones and History of U. S. Navy, by J. F. Cooper. 
. Paul Jones, Founder of the American Navy, by A. C. Buell. 

Commodore Paul Jones, by C. T. Brady. 
-Paul Jones, by il. E. Seawell. 

Congressional Records. 

American Archives. 

Journals of Congress (Folwell), vols, i, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 12. 

Jefferson's Complete Works, vols, i, 2, 3. 
- Naval Chronicle, by Goldsborough, vol. i. 

Files and Records of Navy Department. 

Stevens Facsimiles, Library of Navy Department. 
. Life of Esek Hopkins, by Field. 
. Life of John Barry, by Griffin. 
. Diary of Dr. Ezra Green. 
. Life of Com. Tucker, by Sheppard. 
. A Relic of the Revolution, by Rev. R. Levesey. (Herbert's Diary.) 

My Scrapbook of the French Revolution (T. W. Griffith), by Mrs. Latimer. 
-History of the Flag and History of the Portsmouth Navy- Yard, Preble. 
^United States Navy, 1775-1853, Emmons. 

Original Commission of 1792 in Kane collection. New York, and original draft in 
Library of Congress. 

Diary and Letters of Gouverneur Jlorris. 
-Calendar of John Paul Jones' Manuscripts in the Library of Congress, 1903. 

Copies of Logs of the Ranger^ Bonhomme Richard, Serapis, Alliance, and Ariel. 

Type-written copy of Letter-Book of John Paul Jones, Naval Academy, vols. 1,2,3. 

Type-written copy of original logs and correspondence preserved at St. Marys 
Isle, in the Charter-room of Lord Selkirk's house. 

John Paul Jones Miscellany, vols, i, 2, 3. This includes pamphlets, magazine 
articles, and copies of original correspondence in Navy Department Library. 

Letter from Miss Janette Taylor to James Fenimore Cooper, October 28, 1843, 
published in Proc. U. S. Naval Institute, June, 1907. 

National Intelligencer, Washington, D. C, June 7, 1852. 

A number of encyclopedias and French and English Histories. 

Dictionnaire Larousse, old and new editions. 
^Report of Gen. Horace Porter. 



i86 Chronology 



SPECIFIC REFERENCES 

I. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 2. Memoirs, 1830, vol. i, p. i. 

2-3. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 8. Memoirs, vol. i, pp. 5, 6. 

4. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 9. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 7. 

5. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 10. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 7. 
6-7. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 11. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 7. 

8. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 15. 

9. John Paul Jones Miscellany, vol. i, No. 3; vol. 2, pt. i, p. 6. 
10. Memoirs, vol. I, pp. 8, 12. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 12. 

11-15. Memoirs, vol. i, pp. 9-11, 13, 17, 18. Mackenzie, vol. i, pp. 13-15, 17. 

16. Junius Davis pamphlet and letters from A. and W. Jones, John Paul Jones 

Misc., vol. 3. Proc. U. S. Naval Institute, June, 1907. 

17. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. i, No. 3; vol. 2, pt. i, p. 5. 
18-23. Buell, vol. 1, pp. 24-32. 

24. American Archives, series 4, vol. 4, p. 360. 

25. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 28. 

26. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. i, p. 281. Sherburne, 1851, p. ii. 

27. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 30. Mackenzie, vol. 1, p. 23. Sands, p. 305 (letter 

dated Oct. 10, 1783). Sherburne, 1851, p. 17. 

28. Ivife of Esek Hopkins, Field, p. 98. Biographies of Jones. 

29. American Archives, series 4, vol. 4, p. 964. 

30-32, Mackenzie, vol. i, pp. 25, 26, 28. Memoirs, pp. 32, 34. Sherburne, 1851, 
p. 12. 

33. Emmons, U. S. Navy, 1775-1853, p. 41. Sherburne, 1851, p. 13. 

34. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 28. Sherburne, 1851, p. 13. Buell, vol. i, p. 50. 

35. American Archives, series 4, vol. 5, p. 932. 

36. Calendar John Paul Jones Manuscripts, Ivib. Cong., p. 10. 

37-38. American Archives, series 4, vol. 6, pp. 418, 511. Sherburne, 1851, p. 16. 

39. American Archives, series 4, vol. 6, p. 511. 

40. Sherburne, 1851, p. 19. 

41. Memoirs, vol. I, p. 36. 

42-43. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 36. American Archives, series 4, vol. 6, pp. 820, 
844, 972. 

44. American Archives, series 4, vol. 6, p. 980. 

45. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 37. M^moires (Andr^), p. 7. 

46. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 37. M^moires (Andr^), p. 7. Sands, p. 306. 

47. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 37. 

48. American Archives, series 5, vol. i, p. 977. 
49-50. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 29. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 38. 

51-52. Emmons, U. S. Navy, 1775-1853, p. 43. Sherburne, 1851, p. 22. 

53. Sherburne, 1851, p. 21. 

54. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. II, p. 381. 

55. Sherburne, 1851, p. 22. 

56-58. Sherburne, 1851, p. 26. American Archives, series 5, vol. 2, pp. 1194, 1303. 

Vol. 3, p. 491. 
59-63. Emmons, U. S. Navy, 1775-1853, p. 43. American Archives, series 5, vol. 

3, p. 1282. 

64. Sands, p. 41. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 42. 

65. Sherburne, 1851, p. 27. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 42. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 32. 

66. Sherburne, 1851, p. 27. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 15. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 187 



67-68. Memoirs, vol. I, p. 42. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 35. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., 

Lib. Cong., p. 17. 
69-70. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 42. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 35. Calendar J, P. J. MSS., 

Lib. Cong., p. 19. 
71-72. Journals of Congress (Folvpell), vol. Ill, p. 71. 

73. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 20. Sands, p. 66. 

74. Buell, vol. I, p. 71. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. i, p. 119. 

75. Sherburne, 1851, p. 41. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 23. 

76. Sherburne, 1851, p. 37. M^moires (Andr^), p. 17. Memoirs, vol. i, pp. 

53. 54- 
77-78. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 37, 38. 

79. Journals of Congress (Folwellj, vol. Ill, p. 194. 

80. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 23. Sherburne, p. 38. 

Si. Calendar. J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 25. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. 2, 
p. 142. 

82-83. J- P- J- Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 137; vol. i. No. 2, pp. 452, 453. 

84. Sherburne, 1851, p. 40. 

85- J- P- J- Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 141. 

86. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 57. M^moires (Andr^), p. 18. 

87. Buell, vol. I, p. 82. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 33. Mackenzie, 

vol. I, p. 47. 

88. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 48. History Portsmouth Navy- Yard (Preble), p. 14. 

Ezra Green's Diary, p. 30, MSS. copy. 

89. Log of Ranger^ p. i. Emmons, U. S. Navy 1775-1853, p. 45. Ezra Green's 

Diary, p. 31. 

90. Log Ranger, p. 4. Ezra Green's Diary, p. 33. Mdmoires (Andr^), p. 18. 

91. Buell, vol. I, p. 86. 

92. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 173. 

93. Sherburne, 1851, p. 44. 

94. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 56. 

95. Log Ranger, p. 16. B. F. Stevens Facsimiles, 759. 

96. Log Ranger, p. 19. 

97-98. Log Ranger, p. 19. Ezra Green's Diary, p. 33. 

99. Log Ranger, p. 20. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 36. 

100. Mackenzie, vol. i, pp. 54, 55. 

101-103. Log Ranger, pp. 25, 26, 29. 

104-106. Letter Book of John Paul Jones at U. S. Naval Academy, pt. i, pp. 9, 14, 15. 

107. Log Ranger, p. 34. Ezra Green's Diary, p. 36. 

108. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. i, pp. 37, 48. Log Ranger, p. 35. Ezra Green's 

Diary, p. 37. 
109-111. Log Ranger, pp. 37,38. Ezra Green's Diary, p. 37. Letter Book of 

J. P. J., pt. I, pp. 37,48. 
112-113. liOg, Ranger, p. 39. Ezra Green's Diary, p. 38. Letter Book of J. P. J., 

pt. I, pp. 23,39. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 44-45. 

114. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. I, p. 37. Ezra Green's Diary, pp. 39, 40. Manu- 

scripts from St. Mary's Isle. 

115. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. i, pp. 44, 45. Ezra Green's Diary, p. 40. 
116-118. Log Ranger, pp. 41, 46. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. i, pp. 21, 22. Manu- 
scripts from St. Mary's Isle. 

119-120. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. i, p. 37. Sherburne, 1851, p. 51. 

121. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. i, p. 33. 
122-123. IvOg Ranger, p. 48. 



Chron o logy 



124-128. I,etter Book of J. P. J., pt. i, pp. 37, 56, 58, 60, 64. 

129. Sherburne, 1851, p. 70. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 44. 

130. Ivife of Commodore Samuel Tucker (Sheppard), pp. 290-291. 

131. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 108. Sands, p. 114. 

132. L,etter Book of J. P. J., pt. i, p. 83. Ezra Green's Diary, p. 42. Sands, 

p. 118. 

133. Sherburne, 185 1, p. 329. 

134. Ezra Green's Diary, p. 43. 

135-139. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. i, pp. 95, 96, 105-iog. Sands, p. 124. 

140. Ezra Green's Diary, p. 44. 
141-142. Buell, vol. I, pp. 132, 136. 

143-144. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 2, 151, 162. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 74, 77. 
Mtooires (Andr6), pp. 49-52. 

145. Sherburne, 1851, p. 62. 

146. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 2, pp. 187, 189. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 79, 81. 

147. Sherburne, 1851, p. 83. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, pp. 241, 282. 

148. M^moires (Andr6), pp. 49, 57. Sherburne, 1851, p. 66. 

149. Sherburne, 1851, p. 85. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, p. 225. 

150. Sherburne, 1851, p. 86. 

151. Buell, vol. I, p. 139. 

152. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 233. Vol. 3, No. 13. 

153. Sherburne, 1851, p. 87. 

154. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, p. 282. Calendar J. P. J., MSS., Lib. Cong., 

p. 82. American Catholic Historical Researches, July, 1905. 
155-156. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 89, 90. 

157. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, p. 290. 

158. Sherburne, 1851, p. 91. 

159. l-iOg Bonhom-me Richard, p. i. 

160. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, p. 297. 

161. Sherburne, 1851, p. 91. 

162. Memoirs, vol. 1, p. 156. 

163-164. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 93, 94, 200. Buell, vol. i, pp. 175-178. 

165. Log Bonhomme Richard, p. 12. 

166. Log Bonhomme Richard, p. 13. 

167. Log Bonhoinme Richard, p. 13. 

168. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, p. 312. 

169. Log Bonhomme Richard, pp. 17, 18. 

170. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, p. 314. 

171. Sherburne, 1851, p. 95. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 158. 

172. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, p. 315. 

173. Log Bonhomme Richard, p. 19. 

174-175- Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, pp. 323, 332. Sherburne, 1851, p. 98. 

176. Log Bonhomme Richard, p. 22. 

177. Letter Book of J. P. J., pt. 3, p. 339. 
178-179. Log Bonhom-me Richard, pp. 23, 24, 

180-181. Sherburne, 1851, p. 104. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 153. 

182. Mdmoires (Andr^), p. 71. Log Bonlwmme Richard, p. 26. 

183. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. i, pp. 22-23. 
184-185. Emmons, U. S. Navy, 1775-1853, p. 47. 

186. Sherburne, 1851, p. 109. 

187. Sherburne, 1851, p. io5. Sands, p. 172. 

188. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 171. 



John Pa til Jo ties Commemoration 189 



189. Liverpool Privateers, pp. 223, 262. 
190-191. IvOg Bonhomme Richard, pp. 46, 47. M^moires (Andr^), pp. 77-102. 

Sherburne, 1851, p. 114. 
192-193. I/Og U. S. S. Serapis, pp. i, 3. 

194. M^moires (Andr^), p. 103. Biographies. 
195-196. 'hogV.S.S. Serapis, pp. 3, 10. Sherburne, 1851, p. 120. 
197-198. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 124, 174. 

199. I/Og U. S. S. Serapis, p. 11. 

200. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 216. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 203. Sherburne, p. 128. 

201. Sherburne, p. 175. 

202. Sherburne, p. 176. 
203-205. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 177-179. 

206. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 218. 

207. Sherburne, 1851, p. 156. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 225. 

208. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 230. 

209. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 210. 

210. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 235, 

211. IvOg U. S. S. Serapis, p. 30. Log U. S. S. Alliance, p. 34. 
212-213. Mackenzie, vol. i, pp. 241, 242. 

214. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 217. 
215-216. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 247. 

217. Log Alliance, p. 44. 

218. Log Alliance, p. 45. Mackenzie, p. 253. 

219-220. Mackenzie, vol. i, pp. 255, 257. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 184, 335. 
221-224. Log Alliance, pp. 55, 60, 65, 68, 76. 

225. Sherburne, 1851, p. 185. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 260. 
226-228. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 185, 189, 190. 

229. Sherburne, 1851, p. 173. 

230. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 15. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 144. 

231. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. i, p. 23. 

232-233. M^moires (Andre), p. 123. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 35. Sherburne, 1851, 

P- 193- 

234-235. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 151. Sherburne, p. 195. 

236. Log Alliance, p. 108. Mackenzie, vol. 2, pp. 38, 41. Memoirs, pp. 244, 245. 

237. Log Alliance, p. 109. 

238. ho^ Ariel, p. iii. 

239. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 247. 

240. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 154. 
241-243. LiOg Ariel, pp. iii, 112. 

244. B. F. Stevens Facsimiles, No. 727. Sands, p. 279. Memoires (Andr^), 
p. 198. 
245-246. Log Ariel, p. 113. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 58. 

247. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 157. 

248. Relic of the Revolution (Herbert), p. 242. 

249. Mackenzie, vol. 2, pp. 61-62. Letter from Mr. R. Dale, February 15, 1907. 

Files Navy Department Library, No. 3739. 
250-251. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 204, 208. 

252. Relic of the Revolution (Herbert), p. 242. 

253. Sherburne, 1851, p. 209. Memoires (Andrd), p. 199. 
254-255- l^og Ariel, pp. 129, 131. 

256. liog Ariel, p. 132. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 65. 

257. Calendar J. P. J. MSS.', Lib. Cong., p. 166. 



igo Chronology 



258. Sherburne, 1851, p. 332. 

259. L,og Ariel, p. 141. 

260. l/Og Ariel, p. 144. 

261. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 170. 

262. Sands, p. 298. Calendar J. P. J MSS., Wb. Cong., p. 172. 

263. Sands, p. 299. 

264. Mackenzie, vol. 2, pp. 76-77. Brady, p. 297. 

265-266. Sherburne, 1851, p. 213. Mackenzie, vol. 2, pp. 78, 79. M^moires (Andre), 

P- 139- 

267. (H. Res. 411), introduced April 21, 1906, sgth Congress, ist sess. 

268. Memoirs, vol. i, p. 269. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 82. 

269. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VII, p. 29. 
270-271. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VII, p. 32. 

272. History of Philadelphia (Scharf & Westcott), vol. i, p. 415. 
273-274. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 198-201, 215. 

275. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VII, p. 70. 

276. I<ibrary, Navy Department, 035:48. 

277. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VII, p. 71. 

278. Calendar J. P. J. MSS. Lib. Cong., p. 177. 
279-280. Sands, pp. 327, 330. 

281. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VII, p. 109. 

282. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 95. 

283. Sherburne, 1851, p. 357. 

284. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VII, p. 124. 

285. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 96. 

286. Buell, vol. 2, p. 77. Rambles about Portsmouth (Brewster). 

287. New Hampshire Gazette, Nov. 17, 1781. New Hampshire State Papers, 

vol. VIII, p. 915. Files Library, Navy Dept., No. 3150. 

288. M^moires (Andr^), p. 206. 

289. Sherburne, 185 1, p. 322. 

290. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VII, pp. 289, 290. 

291. M^moires (Andr6), p. 159. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 100. 

292. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. lor. Rambles about Portsmouth (Brewster). 

293. M^moires (Andr^), p. 162. 

294. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VII, p. 343. Sherburne, 1851, p. 229. 

295. History of Portsmouth Navy- Yard (Preble), p. 15. 
296-297. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 230, 234. 

298. Mackenzie, vol. 2, pp. 106-109. History Portsmouth Navy- Yard, p, 17. 

299. Sherburne, 1851, p. 234. 

300. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VIII, p. 18. 

301-304. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 235-237. M^moires (Andr^), pp. 169, 173, 174. Mac- 
kenzie, vol. 2, pp. 117, 119, 121, 268, 269. 

305. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 123. 

306. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 3, No. 12. 

307. Sherburne, 1851, p. 360. 

308. Sands, p. 304. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 187. 

309-310. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. VIII, p. 335. Sherburne, 185 1, p. 238. 

Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 127. 
311-312. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 128. M^moires (Andr^), p. 177. 
313-315. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 129. M^moires (Andr^), p. 178. 

316. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. i, p. 56. 

317. Sherburne, 1851, p. 240. 



John Paul Jones CoTnntevi oration 191 



318. Mdmoires (Andr6), p. 181. 

319. Sherburne, 1851, p. 247. 
320-321. Mdmoires (Andr6), pp. 183-184. 

322. Ivetters and Documents at St. Mary's Isle. 

323. Sherburne, 185 1, p. 250. 

324. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 134. 
325-327. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 252-254, 261. 

328. I,etters and Documents at St. Mary's Isle. 

329. Jefferson's Complete Works, vol. 2, p. i. Sherburne, 1851, p. 261. 

330. Sherburne, 1851, p. 267. 

331. Sherburne, 1851, p. 57, Letter from A.sa Bird Gardiner, J. P. J. Miscellany, 

vol. 3. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 190. 

332. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 194. 

333. Sherburne, 1851, p. 257. 

334. Jefferson's Complete Works, vol. 2, p. i. 

335. History of Philadelphia (Scharf & Westcott), vol. i, p. 441. 

336. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. i, p. 48. Letter from Captain John S. 

Barnes, File No. 1137, Library, Navy Department. 

337-339- Sherburne, 1851, pp. 261, 269. 

340. Sherburne, 1851, p. 337, Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 195. 

341. Sherburne, 1851, p. 266. Journals of Congress (Folwell), vol. xn, pp. 

133. 135- 

342-344. Journals of Congress (Folwell) vol. xii, pp. 138,145. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 
272, 274, 

345. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 163. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 4. 

346. Sherburne, 1851, p. 275. Calendar J. P. J. MSS., Lib. Cong., p. 196. 

347. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 4. 

348-350. Memoirs, vol, 2, p. 6. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 165. 

351-358- Sherburne, 1851, pp. 279, 280, 284, 285. Sands, pp. 381-389. 

359. Sands, p. 387. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 173. 

360-361. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 180. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 10. 

362. Jefferson's Complete Works, vol. 2, p. 372. 

363-384. Memoirs, vol. 2, pp. 11-65. Mackenzie, vol. 2, pp. 184-206. Sherburne, 
1851, pp. 287-296. 

385. Jefferson's Complete Works, vol. 2, p. 41:. 

386-387. Memoirs, vol. 2, pp. 66, 68. 

388-389. Sherburne, 1851, p. 297, and preface (letter from James Madison). 

390-401, Memoirs, vol. 2, pp. 70-96. Mackenzie, vol, 2, pp. 204-218. Sherburne, 

1851, pp. 300-301. 

402-403. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 301, 302. 

404. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 97. 

405-409. Memoirs, pp. 101, 150, 163, 172, 176. 

410. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 237. 

411-417. Memoirs, vol. 2, pp. 174, 182, 224, 117, 180, 184, 231. 

418-423. Memoirs, vol. 2, pp. 196, 203, 213, 211, 292. 

424. Manuscript from St. Mary's Isle. 

425. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 224. Sherburne, 1851, p. 311. 

426. Diary and Letters of Gouverneur Morris, vol. i, p. 378. 

427. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 231. Sherburne, 1851, p. 314. 
428-429. Sherburne, 1851, pp. 316, 319. 

430. Manuscript from St. Mary's Isle. 

431. Diary and Letters of Gouverneur Morris, vol. i, pp. 407, 429. 



192 Chronology 



432. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 265. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 237. 

433. Jefiferson's Complete Works, vol. 3, p. 293. 

434. Buell, vol. 2. p. 292-295. 

435. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 298. 

436. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 300. 

437. Jefferson'sCompleteWorks, vol. 3, p. 431. American State Papers, Foreign 

Relations, vol. i, p. 290. 

438. Buell, vol. 2, pp. 312-313. 

439. Diary and I<etters of Gouverneur Morris, vol. i, p. 555; vol. 2, p. 45. Sher- 

burne, 1851, p. 338. 

440. Sherburne, 1851, preface, letter from Thomas Jefferson, p. 338. Files of 

Le Moniteur. Buell, vol. 2, pp. 322-325. 

441. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 307. 

442. Mackenzie, vol. 2, p. 280. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 311. Diary and Letters of 

Gouverneur Morris, vol. 2, pp. 45, 46. 

443. "My Scrap-book of the French Revolution" (GriflSth), Latimer, p. 21. 

444. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. i. No. 6. Buell, vol. 2, p. 324. " My Scrap-book, 

etc." (Griffith), Latimer, p. 21. 

445. Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 309. Sands, p. 542. 

446. Sands, p. 598. 

447. "M^moires de Paul Jones, par le citoyen Andr^. Paris, An VI, 1798." 

448. Life of Paul Jones. B. Duyckinck, New York, 1809. 

449. Niles's Register, vol. 2, p. 230. 

450. Niles's Register, vol. 18, p. 320; vol. 27, p. 150. 

451. Sherburne, 1825. Introduction, p. viii. Memoirs, vol. i, preface. Niles's 

Register, vol. 26, p. 369. 

452. Life and Character of the Chevalier John Paul Jones, City of Washington, 

1825. 

453. Niles's Register, vol. 32, p. 15. 

454. Memoirs of Paul Jones, Edinburgh, 1830. 

455. Life of John Paul Jones. R. C. Sands, New York, 1830. 

456. Mackenzie, vol. i, p. 5; vol. 2, p. 26, footnotes. 

457. Navy Registers and files Bureau Navigation, Navy Department. 

458. Sherburne, 185 1, p. 373. Statutes at Large, vol. 4, p. 724. 

459-460. Sherburne, 185 1, pp. 364-366. Files Navy Department. Copies in Library. 

461. Life of Paul Jones, A. S. Mackenzie, U. S. N., Boston, 1841. 

462. House Report 115, 28th Cong., ist sess., vol. i. Mackenzie, vol. 2, appen- 

dix, p. 305. 

463. Sherburne, 1851, p. 369. 

464. Lives of Distinguished American Naval OflScers, J. F. Cooper, 1846. 
465-466. Sherburne, pp. 369, 370. 

467. 9 Stat. L., p. 214. 
430. Sherburne, 185 1, p. 368. 
469-477. Files Navy Department (Correspondence with Col. J. H. Sherburne and 
Capt. Joshua Sands, U. S. N. Copies in Library). See also Sherburne, 
1851, p. 369. 

478. Files Navy Department. 

479. National Intelligencer, Washington, D. C, June 7, 1852. 

480. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 1, No. 6. Vol. 2, pt. i, pp. 59, 6i. 
481-483. Senate Executive Document No. 11, 37th Cong., 2d sess. 

484. U. S. Navy Registers, 1862-1867. 
485-496. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. 1, pp. 59-128. 



John Paul /ones C o in m e in o r a t i o n 193 



497. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 198. 

498. Century Magazine, October, 1905. 

499. Foreign Relations, 1905. 

500. Senate, Public Act 685; H. R. Bill 179, 59tli Congress, ist sess. 
501-502. J. P. J. Miscellany, vols, i, 2, 3. 

503. 34 Stat. L., p. 829. 

504. 34 Stat. L., p. 224. June 8, 1906. 

505. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 3. 

506. Concurrent Resolution, House of Representatives, No. 30, 59th Congress, 

ist sess. 

507. H. R. Bill 25516, 59tli Congress, 2d sess. 

508. J. P. J. Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 48." 
7257—07 13 



APPENDIX 



IvETTER FROM UNITED STATES CONSUVGENERAL 
GOWDY TO REPRESENTATIVE LANDIS 

RuSHViivi,E, Indiana, May 26, 1907. 

My dear Mr. Landis: It gives me much pleasure to enclose to you a copy of 
my letter to you of Jan. 2nd, 1899, in answer to yours of November 25, 1898. 

I had two copies made at the time I wrote you thinking that at some time in the 
future I might want the copy for a special purpose. 

In fact, Charley, when I dictated the letter it occurred to me that it was rather a 
good letter, please excuse me for saying so much to you. 

From the date of the receipt of your letter I was actively engaged, through several 
different channels trying to locate the body, and last resting place of the founder of 
the American Navy, John Paul Jones. One of my representatives located the grave, 
and so reported to me, but at the same time said an agent of General Horace Porter 
obtained the same facts and information the previous day. This closed my further 
investigation. General Porter and myself always worked in perfect harmony in 
everything. To General Porter is due the credit of finding the body of the greatest 
Naval Hero of his day, John Paul Jones. 

M}- desire to do a kindness for you and at the same time perform a patriotic duty 
for my Government, caused me to give time and expense in an effort to recover the 
neglected remains of one of America's greatest heroes. 

Assuring you of my great pleasure in complying with your request, 
I am faithfully yours, 

John K. Gowdy. 

Hon. Chas. B. IvANDIs, Delphi, Indiana. 

[Enclosure.] ' 

Paris, January 2, i8gg. 

Dear Sir: There are in the catacombs bones representing six million people. 
After all the research I have made I very much fear that the remains of John Paul 
Jones lie in the Catacombs, but have learned nothing positive to that effect. 

I am still trying to get some information, if possible, and if I succeed will write 
you at once. 

I learn from his biography that "his remains were placed in a leaden coffin, for 
the convenience of their removal in case the United States should ever claim them 
for burial," but unfortunately our Government never did so. 

It does seem strange that we have not identified ourselves in gratitude to him who 
fought our battles at sea in our struggle for independence, and who was the first to 
secure our recognition as a Republic. 

"His achievement of glorious deeds commends itself to the gratitude of the 
country. 

Every thoughtful American citizen can not but feel the deepest regret that we 
have shown no interest in his resting place. The graves of other heroes of the Rev- 
olution have been marked, and honor paid. Washington's tomb is as familiar as 

195 



196 Appendix 



his deeds; and not a week passes but American citizens inscribe their names on the 
visitor's book at the little cemetery of Picpus and pay their respects at the grave of 
General La Fayette. 

John Paul Jones' love of liberty and devotion to the United States Government 
and its principles, were the strongest passions of his life. Besides fighting our 
battles he identified himself in many ways with our Government, that in the past 
century should have called forth as for other heroes of the Revolution the praise 
and admiration of a grateful people. 

1 . As Lieutenant of the Alfred he hoisted the first American flag that was ever 
displayed. 

2. So closely is he connected with the flag so dear to us that in the same resolution 
to Congress that made ' ' the flag of the thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, that 
the Union be thirteen states, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation." 
John Paul Jones was also appointed Commander of the Ranger, the best ship in the 
service, and over which he was no doubt the first to hoist the new flag. 

3. He received the first salute ever given to American Independence, that being 
given by the French fleet at Quiberon Bay three years before the surrender of 
Cornwallis. 

4. He paid off the crews of the Alfred and the Providence from his own resources 
and left the United States on the Ranger 1,000 (j55, 250.00) pounds in advance to the 
U. S. Government. 

5. He fought with a true love of liberty, and during the revolution devoted himself 
wholly to the interest and honor of America. He afterwards fought under other 
flags, but always remained true to the U. S. Government, and one of the last efforts 
of his life was to secure the liberation of American seamen in Algiers. 

6. He won several titles and delighted in being recognized by them. He said 
' ' Rank opens the door to glory, ' ' but he never renounced the glorious title of citizen 
of the United States. In making his last will and testament he chose not to call 
himself Lieutenant, Captain, Admiral, or Chevalier, but "I, John Paul Jones, an 
American citizen." He went in dangerous ways for us, displaying loyalty and 
courage in great deeds that astonished the age. He certainly deserves a fitting 
memorial as the great hero that he was, and the founder of our American navy, 
which by the master ability of Perry, Farragut, Dewey, Sampson, and Schley has 
won the admiration of the world. 

I am faithfully yours, 

John K. Gowdy. 
Hon. Chas. B. Landis, M. C, 

Delphi, Indiana. 



[Inclosure C of Report of Rear-Admiral Sigsbee.] 

FRENCH OFFICERS AND OFFICIALS WHO TOOK PART IN 
THE CEREMONIES AT PARIS 

The American train arrived at the Gare des Invalides at 11.50 a. m. 

At the station: Capt. Andr^, French navy, representing the minister of marine; 
Lieut, de Grancej-, French navy; Capt. Couranjou, of the staff of the militar}- gov- 
ernor of Paris (Gen. Dessirier); Commandant Vignal, of the general staff of the 
army; Capt. Beque, of the Legion of the Garde Republicaine, and Lieut. Ebenrecht, 
of the Seventy-sixth Regiment of Infantry (the last two officers were placed at the 
disposal of the oiEcer commanding the American guard); Capt. Lepelletier, and 
Monsieur Tounay, representing the prefect of police of Paris. 



John Paul [ones Commemoration 197 



Outside the station there was a detachment from the One hundred and third 
Regiment of Infantry, of the Paris garrison. Staff of the detachment: Capt. Lejay, 
commanding; 2 lieutenants, i adjutant, i sergeant-major, 4 sergeants, 8 corporals. 

There was also a military band, also the One hundred and third Regiment of 
Infantry. 

After mutual salutes and the playing of the "Star-Spangled Banner" and the 
"Marseillaise," the American escort and the French detachment proceeded along 
the Rue de I'Universit^, avenue Centrale de I'Esplanade des Invalides, avenue de la 
Motte-Piquet, avenue Duquesne, and avenue des Invalides, to the Ecole Militaire. 
On the large central esplanade of the Ecole, called the " Cour de Fontenoy," three 
tents had been erected — one as dining room for the noncommissioned and petty 
officers of the American escort, another as dining room for the American sailors and 
marines, and the third as baggage and washing room for the men. 

Upon arrival at the Ecole Militaire, and after the men had been dismissed, 
Col. Buisson d'Armandy, commanding the One hundred and third Regiment of 
Infantry, and charged with the reception of the American escort, invited the 
American and French officers to come into one of the tents and drink a glass of 
champagne, Col. d'Armandy making a speech in English, in which he referred to 
the close friendship existing between France and America. Lieut. Commander 
George, in reply, proposed the health of the President of the Republic. Capt. 
Tabary, of the One hundred and third Infantry, was in charge of the arrangements 
at the Ecole Militaire. At i p. m. the American men sat down to the following 
lunch: Jlousse de Jambon, olives, radis, beurre, saut^ de veau, American roast beef, 
choux fleurs a I'huile, petits fours, half a liter of wine per man, coffee, rum. 

In the meantime the American officers, with the exception of three, went to a 
lunch offered them at the Cercle Militaire of Paris. The three American officers 
remaining at the Ecole Militaire lunched with Capt. Tabary and other French 
officers of the One hundred and third Infantry. Everything was done with great 
liberalit}- and perfect courtesy. 

At 1.30 a detachment of American sailors (body bearers) went to the American 
Church, followed at 2.30 by the rest of the men. 

The ceremony at the church was scheduled for 3.30. Practically the entire diplo- 
matic corps of Paris was present. The name of the church is American Church of 
the Holy Trinity, avenue de I'Alma, Paris. The service was conducted by the Rev. 
John B. Morgan, assisted by the Rev. M. Van Winkle, Monsieur Mesny, and Doctor 
TuUy. The first hymn sung was No. 418. Then followed the Lord's Prayer, then 
prayer for the President of the United States, two other collects. Then hymn 107, 
specially chosen, as all the rest, for some reference to "those who go down to the 
sea in ships," etc. Then hymn 144. Then followed the fiftieth chapter of Genesis, 
and Exodus, thirteenth chapter, nineteenth verse. Then two special prayers. Then 
the hymn, "My Country, 'Tis of Thee; " Benediction. Hymn, "Onward, Christian 
Soldiers." 

At about 5 p. m. the procession formed and proceeded along the avenue de I'Alma, 
avenue des Champs Elysees, avenue Alexandre III, Pont Alexandre III, to the 
Esplanade des Invalides, where a tent or tribune had been constructed to receive 
the body of Paul Jones and the members of the cortege. The body was deposited 
there and the march past then took place. The French troops taking part therein 
were the following: 

General commanding the troops. General of Division Frey, commanding the First 
Division of Colonial Infantry. 

General commanding the infantry. Gen. de Chalendar, commanding the Four- 
teenth Brigade of Infantry. 

Infantry. — One hundred and second Regiment of Infantry, Col. Mollard, com- 
manding. 



igS Appendix 



One hundred and fourth Regiment of Infantry, Col. Poline, commanding. 
Each of these regiments consisted of about i,ooo men. 

Cavalry. — First Regiment of Cuirassiers, Col. Foucault, commanding, about 
350 men. 

Artillery. — One group of horse batteries of the First Division of Cavalry, Com- 
mandant Bernard, commanding, consisting of 2 horse batteries of 6 pieces each. 

At the conclusion of the ceremonies the American sailors and marines returned to 
the Ecole Militaire, where they dined, and left about 9.30 p. m. for the railway 
station of the Invalides, accompanied by the same detachment that had received 
them in the morning. 

The police arrangements were in charge of Monsieur Lepine, prefect of police, 
Monsieur Selves, prefect of the Seine, and Monsieur Tounay, subprefect. 

There was no cheering, but every one in the crowd took his hat off at the passage 
of the French and American flags and of the body of Paul Jones. 



[Inclosure D.] 

ADDRESS OF JUNIOR SPECIAL AMBASSADOR LOOMIS 

IN PARIS 

The nature of this occasion, coupled with the presence of the distinguished Amer- 
ican who just finished speaking, reminds me that on the banks of the Hudson 
River, high above the city of New York, commanding a prospect of uncommon 
loveliness, stands a stately tomb erected in memory of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, a 
President of the United States and perhaps its foremost soldier. That memorial 
structure was erected by the American people, almost solely through the brilliant 
initiative and tireless efforts of Gen. Horace Porter, who again has won the gratitude 
of his countrymen on account of the complete ultimate success which has marked 
his patient, persistent, self-sacriiicing search for the grave and body of John Paul 
Jones; and France, ever generous, is about to crown the kindness shown to the 
United States during its painful struggle for independence by returning, with 
conspicuous honors, to that country the remains of the founder of the American 
Navy, who by his brilliant victories proclaimed to the world the rise of a new sea 
power, and flung to the breezes a new flag representing a new nation. 

It is doubly generous on the part of France to surrender the dust of this hero to 
us, for much of his life was interwoven with the French history of his day, and had 
he been permitted to enjoy a few years more of health it is known that he would 
have commanded the fleets of France. 

It was from these hospitable shores that he set sail on the memorable cruise which 
resulted in his victory over the Serapis. It was here that he experienced in the 
highest degree the joys of a conqueror, and it was here that he met some of his 
most grievous disappointments by reason of the penury and divided councils of 
America's representatives, and by reason, too, of professional jealousies. Here, 
laurel crowned, he returned from his cruise, an acknowledged hero, and received 
with becoming modesty the plaudits of a most friendly people. Here he fulfilled 
his gallant promise to lay a captured frigate at the feet of his friend and patroness, 
the Duchess de Chartres, one of the best and loveliest French women of her century. 
Here, too, from the hands of King Louis XVI, he received knighthood and a sword 
of honor. Here were heaped upon him social attentions, admiration, and many 
discriminating tributes of friendship and praise. 

In the general environment of Paris and Versailles he found an atmosphere that 
caused his heart to glow, his mind to broaden, his imagination to kindle with 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 199 



generous enthusiasm and lofty dreams for the welfare of mankind. It was in France 
that Jones, one of nature's truest gentlemen, the lowly-born Scotch gardener's 
sou, came to his own and found those things which made life most worth the 
living, namely, the intelligent, sympathetic companionship of great men and lovely 
women, coupled with opportunities for high endeavor and professional advancement 
and the chance to draw his sword in defense of cherished principles. 

To France John Paul Jones was chiefly indebted for those fateful and momentous 
opportunities which, as a sea fighter, and, later, as a diplomatist, gave him a place 
among those who have achieved enduring renown. His genius contributed largely to 
the organization and construction of the American Navy, and in his letter to the 
committee of the American Congress is set forth in admirable form the mental, 
moral, and professional requirements essential to a naval officer. His words of 
wisdom are as true, as apt, and as valuable to-day as they were the day they were 
written. It is the thorough understanding and faithful adherence to the principles 
so clearly and adequately expounded by John Paul Jones that gave to our naval 
officers those qualities of heart and mind which enable them to command the 
confidence of their countrymen and the respect of their professional colleagues 
throughout the world. 

Not only was John Paul Jones a philosopher, a commander, a leader of men, a 
diplomatist, but in an age when letter writing was a delightful and mannered art 
his epistles were noteworthy for their lucidity and charm of style. 

This veritable sea king, around whose bier the representatives of two Republics 
meet to pledge anew the time-hallowed and indestructible friendship and the 
historic good will and amity which cement them, loved, in his broad, magnanimous 
way, all that was admirable and lovable in the two peoples, and was willing to draw 
his sword for France and America. To his own countrj' his services were but little 
less useful on land than on sea. His diplomatic achievements and correspondence 
indicate statecraft of a high order ; and it is said by one of the greatest living 
authorities on naval affairs that, "Viewed in the light of results, Jones's diplomatic 
operations in the Texel lose no luster by comparison with his victories at sea. ' ' 

So it may be justly said that he played his part as effectively on sea, considering 
his limited opportunities, and accomplished as great results for his country, within 
the scope of those opportunities, as did our foremost military commanders on land. 
He fought with daring determination and the cool certainty of consummate skill, 
not for the sake of carnage, not for the accumulation of prize money, but because 
he was convinced that he was right, and, being so convinced, he meant to win vic- 
tories at any cost for the principles he loved, and because he believed that fierce, 
successful fighting was, in the end, the most merciful and the shortest pathway to 
peace. He loved, of course, success and glory, but he was not a mere soldier of 
fortune, a fiery captain athirst for blood, treasure, and conquest, yearning to tread 
to eminence over men's graves. He could be great, either in peace or war. He 
was profound, accomplished, many sided. He is entitled to distinction as a lover of 
the human race, as a genial, optimistic philosopher, and to gratitude as a brilliant 
conversationalist, whose wit, grace, and informing speech won, at a highly oppor- 
tune moment, a vast deal of substantial good will for the American cause in Europe. 

This symmetrically developed man was wholly self-made. His careful bioo-- 
rapher says: "Everything that he was, or that he did, or that he knew was the 
fruit of self-incentive and self-help to a degree that was, and still is, unexampled 
in the histories of great men. No successful man who ever lived owed so much to 
himself alone, so little to the adventitious in circumstance." 

One likes to dwell upon his achievements in the ways of peace, and upon his 
devotion to what he believed to be good and sound political principles. Said he: 
"I have drawn my sword only from motives of humanity and in support of the 



200 Appendix 



dignity of human rights." What warrior ever placed his martial activities upon 
a higher and nobler plane than that? He fought for good and sound political and 
moral doctrine. Love of liberty led him into the ranks of the American Revolution- 
ists when the safer and easier course for him would have been to espouse the cause 
of the King. 

Two years' residenct in the American colonies as a. landed proprietor; careful 
study of momentous governmental principles at issue; the friendship of such men 
as Washington, Jefferson, Hamilton, Hewes, and other leaders of the period, was 
enough, and more, to convince a man of his swift natural perception, originality of 
ideas, profound and tireless observation, and logical, ordered thought, that a crisis 
in human affairs had come; so he turned from the allurements of the throne and 
resolutely trod the way he knew might lead him to the scaffold. 

Fortune was not unkind to him always. He hoisted the first American flag that 
ever flew from an American war vessel on his ship the Ranger. The flag was author- 
ized and created by Congress in the same resolution, on the 14th of June, 1777, 
which commissioned Jones a captain, and he said of the banner, "That flag and I 
are twins, born at the same hour in the womb of destiny. We can not be parted in 
life or death. So long as we shall float, we shall float together; if we sink, we shall 
go down as one." 

Under this flag he came to France the same 3'ear, bearing ofiicial information of 
Burgoyne's surrender; information which had much to do in causing Louis XVI to 
recognize the independence of the United States. 

It was at this period, February 14, 1778, that the French naval commander at 
Brest fired the first salute ever given by a foreign nation to the American flag — an 
historic and important event which was arranged through the diplomacy of John 
Paul Jones. 

With this great sailor, love of freedom was innate and natural as love for the sea. 
Beginning his ocean career at 12, he became familiar with the sensation of looking 
out upon illimitable vistas of water. He studied the pathway of the winds, the 
sweep of ocean currents by day, and the positions and the movements of the stars 
at night, facing the infinite, and with imminent peril for his unfailing companion. 
His seafaring life was an experience to shrivel a small, to uplift a noble and great 
nature. For we may suppose, during these years, something of the strength and 
purity of the sea entered his soul and abided evermore. His love for his fellow-men 
caused him, at that early date, to detest the institution of human slavery, and later, 
to refuse to resume his plantation life after the war, for the reason that, under the 
then existing economic social conditions, agricultural success could only be achieved 
through the employment of slave labor. 

John Paul Jones died in France at the period when France had great need of his 
services; and Napoleon deplored the untimely death that robbed him of a great 
admiral. The conjunction of these two warriors of genius might have changed the 
history of the world. 

America unfortunately exemplified the adage that republics are ungrateful, for in 
the stress and struggle of building a new country, she forgot for a time her departed 
hero. France, be it said to her credit, remembered Paul Jones in appropriate, hand- 
some, and touching ways, showing as ever her keen and splendid appreciation of 
genius and valor — an appreciation which is magnanimous and magnificent in its 
scope, knowing neither race nor nationality. 

The National Assembly of France when notified of John Paul Jones's death, on 
the 19th of July, 1792, paid immediate and appropriate respect to his memory, by 
suspending the order of the day, adopting a suitable resolution, and appointing a 
committee of twelve members to attend his funeral. 

In the latest biography of Admiral Joues it is stated that before the resolution 
was adopted in silence by a rising vote, a member of the Assembly said: "I trust 



J o k 71 Pa til Jones C onini e ni o r a tion 201 



the feeling of personal bereavement universal in this body may be granted brief 
expression. What Paul Jones has done for the rights of men need not be told to 
Frenchmen. What more he stood pledged almost with his last breath to do if spared 
is known to many Frenchmen." 

Bertrand Barere, then at the height of his fame as a powerful and popular orator, 
delivered from the portico of the palace of justice an impassioned oration on the 
achievements of his dead friend, John Paul Jones. The first memoir of Jones vpas 
published by Benoit-Andr^ in 1798. 

Think for a moment what opportunity for the biographer his brief but crowded 
career presents! Sailor boy at 12, officer at 17, captain at 20, in the merchant service 
of the North Atlantic; East Indiamanand Virginia planter— all before he had passed 
the age of 27; naval lieutenant at 28, captain at 29, commodore at 32, the ocean hero 
of the Old World and the New at 33; a knight of Prance; the most famous sea victor 
of his time; patronized by kings, petted by duchesses of the royal blood, thanked 
by Congress, and the trusted friend and sometimes associate of Washington, Frank- 
lin, Jefferson, La Fayette, Hamilton, and Morris; at 36 selected as special envoy to 
the most aristocratic of courts, charged with the most delicate and intricate of mis- 
sions — the adjudication and collection of international claims — without any guide 
or precedent; at 40, voted a gold medal by Congress; at 41, a vice-admiral in the 
imperial navy of Russia, and winning victories over the Turks; at 43 a prominent 
figure in the thrilling overture of that tremendous drama, the French Revolution, 
and dead at 45; disinterred one hundred and thirteen years later from a dismal and 
forgotten grave, and brought here this afternoon, receiving merited honors too long 
delayed. 

I have the honor, on behalf of the President of the United States, to accept the 
custody of the casket which incloses the remains of Admiral Jones, and to commit 
them to the worthy hands of Admiral Sigsbee. They will be borne over the seas he 
loved back to the land he served so well, where I am confident the justice and gen- 
erosity of a great people will move them to render ample homage to the memory of 
a man to whom all the world ungrudgingly awards the august meed of immortal 
fame. 



[Inclosure E.] 

ADDRESS OF REAR-ADMIRAI. SIGSBEE, U. S. NAVY, 

IN PARIS 

Mr. Ambassador: I am here in command of a squadron of United States war 
vessels, and am charged with the transportation of the remains of Admiral John Paul 
Jones to the United States. 

Although it was largely by the aid of France that our hero fought so conspicuousl}', 
he fought in the service and for the cause of the United States. It is therefore fitting 
that his remains should find their last resting place within our own boundaries. 
Since he was the greatest of our earliest naval commanders, it is appropriate that his 
remains should be transferred to the guardianship of the naval service. 

The President of the United States, in the exercise of his ever friendly and correct 
judgment in all that pertains to the naval service of his country, has decided that 
the remains shall be deposited in perpetuity within the walls of the chapel of the 
Naval Academy at Annapolis. It can not be doubted that their presence in that 
institution will serve as an inspiration and as an example to all future generations of 
our Navy. Our President had this object in mind when he chose the Naval Academy. 

It will be remembered by the Navy of the United States that these remains of a 
naval ofi&cer were recovered through the initiative and the efforts of Gen. Horace 



202 Appendix 



Porter, a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point. The Army 
and Navy of the United States therefore come together in patriotic and fraternal 
sentiment on this occasion. General Porter may be well assured that my own appre- 
ciation of his labors is shared by the whole naval service, which he has so greatly 
honored. We shall ever regard him affectionately. 

The occasion which calls us here has also served to bring together, in remembrance 
of our joint history, the army and navy of France and the Army and Navy of the 
United States. If ever the gratitude of the United States to France may seem to be 
latent, we Americans have only to open a history of our war for independence in 
order to quicken our sentiments and to compel our blessings. 

I take advantage of this opportunity, Mr. Ambassador, to request you to express, 
through appropriate channels and in behalf of myself and the whole personnel of 
my command, our thanks for the many honors paid us by the President of France 
and by the personnel — civil, military, and naval — of his Government and of the city 
of Paris. Their action signalizes the interest of the French people in the object of 
our present mission to France. Our time has been so filled by honors and events 
that I fail to conceive any other way of acknowledging our indebtedness within the 
time remaining at our disposal. 

I beg also, Mr. Ambassador, to present to the American ambassador at Paris, to 
General Porter, and to yourself the thanks of my officers and myself for the kind 
consideration, both official and personal, that you have severally shown us in con- 
nection with the duty to which we have been appointed. 

I am here, as you well know, Mr. Ambassador, as the naval representative of the 
Navy Department at Washington. I am directed in my orders from the Navy 
Department to receive from you these remains. You have decided to transfer them 
to my charge in Paris. Therefore I hereby accept from you the honor and the 
further responsibility, with the assurance that my command will bear the remains 
of John Paul Jones most reverently to their final resting place within the Naval 
Academy at Annapolis. 



[Inclosure F.] 

ADDRESS OF VICE-ADMIRAI. BESSON, AT CHERBOURG 

[Translation by Prof. H. Marion.] 

Admiral and Gentlemen: You are longing to take on board the Brooklyn^ 
where they will at last rest on the territory and under the flag of the United States, 
these venerated remains of Admiral Paul Jones. I understand your patriotic impa- 
tience ; therefore I shall not detain you to listen to a new eulogy on the well-known 
and so marvelously successful career of your illustrious compatriot. 

But at the moment when his ashes are about to leave the hospitable land which 
for one hundred and thirteen years has carefully guarded them in her bosom, it is 
my duty to give to them, in the name of the French navy, a last salute. 

Your hearts, as well as ours, are to-day closely brought together in common sym- 
pathy. In the month of February, 1778, in the Bay of Quiberon, the squadron com- 
mander in chief. Da Motte-I'iquet, was the first to salute the starry flag of the young 
Republic of the United States. This flag was that of Commodore Jones. 

And truly, upon this solemn occasion, there was none more worthy than this 
gallant sailor to represent his country and to receive for her this public declaration 
of her admission to the ranks of nations. 

After some brilliant ser\'ices rendered the cause of independence in American 
waters, he had been directed to make a diversion in European waters, and was 
returning at that time from a memorable cruise in the Irish Sea. He was then, as 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 203 



commander of a squadron of French ships, sailing under American colors on the 
eve of that famous battle off Flamborough, the most extraordinary in his life, so 
rich already in remarkable deeds. 

It is my privilege to recall that Paul Jones led French vessels to victory; that his 
brilliant achievements caused him to be received among us with an enthusiastic 
welcome; that at the outbreak of our Revolution he again offered to serve in our 
navy, and that when, a short time afterwards, he died, at the age of 45, our legisla- 
lative assembly attended his funeral. 

It is therefore to one of our own brothers in arms of the end of the eighteenth 
century that we render the last honors. 

This hero, whose exploits have given much brilliant luster to the dawn of the 
American Navy, is one of those who have most contributed in cementing these ties 
of friendship between our two nations, yet unbroken after more than a century. 

In the name of the French navy, I salute with respect the memory of Admiral 
Paul Jones, and I hope that the ashes of this illustrious sailor may speedily accom- 
plish their triumphal return to his grateful country, which now reclaims him. 



THE CEREMONIES AT THE NAVAL ACADEMY 
JULY 24, 1905 

[Extract from "John Paul Jones's I^ast Cruise and Final Resting Place, the United .States Naval 
Academy," by Prof, H, Marion,] 

On Monday morning, July 24, the body of America's greatest naval hero was 
transferred from the Brooklyn to the Naval Academy on the naval tug Standi sh , 
amid the booming of guns fired in his honor by the American and French men-of- 
war, and placed in the temporary vault that had been erected for this purpose. 

The ceremonies at the Naval .Academy were purely of a naval character, neither 
President Roosevelt nor Governor Warfield, of Maryland, being present. They 
took place at 10 a. m., when the remains were landed from the Standish on a beau- 
tifully decorated float in the basin facing the Severn River. Everything was done 
with the same precision and clocklike regularity that had characterized the whole 
expedition from beginning to end, and nothing happened to mar the solemnity of 
the occasion. After a heavy rain, which lasted until the early morning hours, 
the sun shone brightly when the naval hero's remains reached the American 
shore. They were met at the float by Rear-Admiral Sands, Superintendent of the 
Naval Academy, Chaplain Clark, and the commanding officers of the American men- 
of-war of the squadron who acted as pallbearers with Captain Gervais, of the_/«nV« 
de la Graviere, who had sent a detachment of sailors from his ship to act as an 
escort of honor with the sailors and marines of the American ships and the midship- 
men of the fourth class of the Naval Academy. 

After the leaden cofi&n had been placed in the hearse, the cortege proceeded slowly, 
accompanied by the strains of a funeral dirge played by the Naval Academy band, 
to the front of the temporary vault, near the new memorial chapel, where Chaplain 
Clark read the burial service and offered the following prayer: 

"God of our fathers, we praise Thee for the life and memory of him whose mortal 
remains are now to find resting place under the flag he so loved, in the nation he 
did so much to create. We thank Thee that Thou didst show in him qualities of 
manhood that not only create but preserve and perpetuate nations. As all that is 
earthly of him is committed to the reverent care and devotion of the land whose 
debt to him is beyond all price, may the sublime lessons of his courage and patience 
and resource and hopefulness and consecration be charged anew with moral power 



204 Appendix 



to more deeply fire and impress every American heart. Grant that the nation so 
rich in the heritage of great names may more and more guide its life by standards 
of highest honor and righteousness. Free us from every motive that can pervert 
our deeds, that can hurt our influence among the nations of the earth. Make us 
equal to our high trust, reverent in our use of freedom, just in the exercise of 
power, tender and pitiful toward ignorance and weakness; and may we walk 
lovingly and humbly in Thy sight, in all these ways endeavoring to show the depth 
of our gratitude for the men who, by the greatness of Thy call to them and in the 
execution of the work allotted to them, made us a sovereign people, made possible 
the greatness and the happiness that crown our national life. Hear us, our 
Heavenly Father, in this our prayer, for Christ's sake." 

When the prayer had been concluded the French and American sailors who acted 
as body bearers carried the casket into the vault while the Naval Academy band 
played Chopin's Funeral March. 

The pallbearers then stepped back and saluted the dead hero, a squad of marines 
fired a volley over the vault, and a bugler sounded taps, the strains of this exquisite 
tune dying out slowly, listened to by a large crowd of reverent spectators who 
witnessed the ceremony in dead silence. It was a most solemn and impressive 
spectacle, forming a fitting finale to the ceremonies that had taken place in 
France in honor of the famous sea captain. 

Thus ended this beautiful ceremon}', which now goes down to history as one of the 
most impressive demonstrations of international honors ever paid to a naval hero. 



ORDER OF REAR-ADMIRAL SANDS 

United States Naval Academy, 

Annapolis., Md., April 14., igo6. 

The President of the United States, the Secretary of the Navy, and other distin- 
guished personages will visit the Naval Academy upon the 24th instant to take part 
in the commemorative ceremonies upon the occasion of the transfer of the body of 
John Paul Jones. The heads of departments will accompany the Superintendent to 
the station to meet the special trains and escort the distinguished visitors to the 
Superintendent's quarters. 

2. At 12.45 P- in- the marine battalion and the band will be drawn up opposite the 
Superintendent's quarters to receive the President upon his arrival. After the Presi- 
dential party has entered the house, the marine battalion will be dismissed and will 
be detailed as patrols and sentinels, as directed by the commandant of midshipmen. 

3. The brigade will be in charge of Lieutenant-Commander Hoogewerff, U. S. Navy, 
assisted by Lieutenant-Commander Reid and Lieutenant Buchanan, U. S. Navy. 

4. The commandant of midshipmen is charged with carrying out the detail of this 
order, and all ofScers, professors, and instructors, except the heads of departments, 
are directed to report to him for this purpose. 

5. The first battalion of midshipmen will form at 1.30 p. m., as for Sunday inspec- 
tion, in the court before Bancroft Hall, having previously procured their muskets 
and equipments and taken them to their rooms. They will then march to the ath- 
letic field, Upshur row, to receive the President. This battalion will be on the linu 
at 1.45 p. m. sharp, to act as a guard to the President. 

6. The second battalion of midshipmen will form and equip as above, then proceed 
to' the armory, forming in line from Governor street to the southeast door of the 
armory, leaving the sidewalk clear. The battalions will, subsequently, enter the 
armory by tlie northwest door. In case of bad weather, the battalions will be formed 
in the corridors of Bancroft Hall. 



John Paul Jones Commemoration 205 



7. The Naval Academy Band will report to Commander Howard at the armory for 
instructions at 1.15 p. m. The band will accompany the first battalion of midship- 
men to Upshur row. 

8. All officers, civilian professors and instructors, and the members of their families 
holding tickets of admission will enter the armory by the gallery door from the 
colonnade and occupy such seats as will be provided for them. All persons will be 
required to present tickets at the door. Ushers will be appointed to attend in the 
armory and show visitors to designated seats. 

9. All visitors holding tickets for reserved seats will enter by the northeast door. 
All other visitors will enter by the northwest and southeast doors. 

10. The President, escorted by the first battalion of midshipmen and the band, 
will proceed from the Superintendent's quarters to the armory and enter by the 
southwest door. When the President enters the armory the audience will rise, face 
him, and remain standing until he takes his seat on the platform. As soon as the 
President and party have reached the platform the first battalion of midshipmen 
will be drawn up under the gallery opposite the speakers' stand, facing the platform. 
The second battalion will be drawn up behind the speakers' stand under the gallery. 
Benches will be provided for them on which to sit after the ceremonies have com- 
menced. The ceremonies will then proceed in accordance with the programme. 

11. At the conclusion of the speeches the body will be taken by the body bearers 
(selected petty officers from the French and American squadrons) and, preceded by 
both battalions of midshipmen in regular order and the band playing a dirg,-, be 
borne to Bancroft Hall. The court of honor must be kept clear and the midshipmen 
will form in mass on either side as the body passes up the steps to be deposited in 
the crypt beneath the main stairway. The space in front of Bancroft Hall is to be 
kept clear. The chaplain will precede the coffin and offer a brief prayer at the 
conclusion of the ceremony. 

12. When the ceremonies over the body have been concluded, the President will 
be escorted to the Superintendent's quarters by the brigade of midshipmen. 

13. When the President departs, the officers of the Naval Academy and the brigade 
of midshipmen will be in attendance. 

14. The formation of the procession from the armory will be as follows: 
Band. 

Escort (brigade of midshipmen). 

Chaplain of the Naval Academy. 

Coffin. 

Mourners (reversed order). 

15. The uniform for the day, after 12 m., will be special full dress. 

16. No vehicles, except those in the Presidential procession, will be permitted to 
enter the Academy grounds while the ceremonies are in progress. 

James H. Sands, 
Rear-Admiral, U. S. Navy, Superintendent. 

ORDER OF CAPTAIN COI.VOCORESSES, U. S. NAVY 

[Extract.] 

United States Nav.vi, Acadejiv, 

Annapolis, Md. , April 21, igo6. 
In accordance with the Superintendent's order of April 14, 1906, the following 
details of duty are hereby made for the carrying out of that order during the John 
Paul Jones ceremonies on April 24, 1906:'' 



a Details of officers and stations omitted. — Compiler. 



2o6 Appendix 



The armory will not be opened to the public vintil i p. m. 

A medical officer and a sufficient force of attendants will be at the hospital during 
the ceremonies. 

Lieut. Commander H. J. Ziegemeier, U. S. Navy, will report to Lieutenant- 
Commander Hoogewerff for immediate charge of the casket and body bearers during 
the ceremonies and transfer of the casket. He will be assisted by Lieutenant 
Jeffers, U. S. Navy. 

At the close of the ceremonies in the armory, when the President and distin- 
guished persons who are to be in the cortege have left the armory, all passing 
through the northwest doors will be stopped, and the audience will leave the armory 
by the southeast, northeast, and terrace doors, going from the doors to the western 
terrace of Bancroft Hall. 

The ushers, when not needed in the armory, will assist in placing the public on 
the terrace. 

Twelve midshipmen from the upper classes of the second battalion will be detailed 
to report to Lieutenant-Commander Nulton at the armory at 12.45 P- ™- 

All officers and others named in this order, who are not on duty at that time, will 
report for instruction at the office of the commandant, Bancroft Hall, at 10 a. m., 
24th instant. 

The French and American battalions will be placed in line by direction of the 
commandant, first formation facing Blake row from Maryland avenue to the armory, 
French battalions on the right, other battalions in order of seniority, and salute the 
President as he passes. They will afterwards take up a position facing Bancroft 
Hall on the brick walk from library to Blake row. When the United States cavalry 
join the formation, they will occupy the right of the line. 

The casket containing the remains of Admiral Jones will be placed in the armory 
early in the forenoon of the 24th by men from the Santee, under the supervision of 
the officer in charge of buildings and grounds. 

Twenty body bearers, selected petty ofiicers of the French and American fleets, 
will be chosen to carry the casket from the armory to Bancroft Hall by way of the 
shell road. 

The space in front of Bancroft Hall between the Superintendent's office and 
library and Sampson's row must be kept clear of spectators. 

G. P. COLVOCORESSES, 

Captain, U. S. Navy, Commandant of Midshipmen . 

I.IST OF COMMANDING OFFICERS IN THE FRENCH AND 

AMERICAN NAVAL FORCES ASSEMBI.ED 

AT ANNAPOLIS 

Rear-Admiral Sands, U. S. Navy, Superintendent Naval Academy. 

Rear-Admiral Campion, commanding French Division. 

Rear-Admiral C. H. Davis, U. S. Navy, commanding Second Division. 

Rear-Admiral R. B. Bradford, U. S. Navy, commanding Fifth Division. 

Capt, B. F. Tilley, U. S. Navy, commanding Iowa. 

Capt. E. D. Taussig, U. S. Navy, commanding Indiana. 

Capt. G. Lefevre, commanding Aube. 

Capt. J. A. Rodgers, U. S. Navy, commanding Illinois. 

Capt. E. Guepratte, commanding Marseillaise. 

Capt. A. Hut;uet, commanding Condi. 

Capt. G. P. Colvocoresses, U. S. Navy, conmiandant of midshipmen. 

Capt. S. P. Comly, U. S. Navy, commanding Alabama. 






FACSIMILE OF \Hi 



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COMnEMORATION 

or 
JOHN- PAUL -dONE^. 




APPII. 24™, 1906 



NAVAL ACADE/AY. 



ANNAPOLIJ, 
MACrt'LAND. 



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John Paul Jones Commemoration 207 



Commander E. F. Qualtrough, TJ. S. Navy, commanding Cleveland. 

Commander W. F. Halsey, U. S. Navy, commanding Des Moi?ies. 

Commander B. A. Fisk, U. S. Navy, commanding Minneapolis. 

Commander J. C. Colwell, U. S. Navy, commanding Denver. 

Commander J. Batellet, Chief of Staff. 

Commander E. Vergos, Executive officer Aube. 

Commander F. Boyer, Executive officer Ma7-seillaise. 

Commander M. Delahet, Executive officer Conde. 

Lieut. Commander A. G. Long, U. S. Navy, commanding Mayflower. 



PROGRAMME 

PARTICIPATED IN BY 

Theodore Roosevelt, 
President of the United States. 

His Excellency, J. J. JussERAND, 
Ambassador E. and P. of the French Republic. 

The Honorable Chari,es J. Bonaparte, 
Secretary of the Navj", 

The Honorable Edwin Warfiei<d, 
Governor of the State of Maryland. 

General Horace Porter, 
of New York. 

Chaplain Henry H. Clark, U. S. N. 

With Music by the Oratorio Society of Baltimore, 

Under the direction of Joseph Pache, 

And the U. S. Marine Band, 

Under the direction of Lieut. W. H. Santelmann. 



"The Star-Spangled Banner" Oratorio Society 

Address The President of the United States 

"The Marseillaise " Oratorio Society 

Address The French Ambassador 

"Around About Thy Starry Throne,'' Handel Oratorio Society 

Address General Porter 

"Maryland, My Maryland " Oratorio Society 

Address Governor Warfield 

" Hovi' Sleep the Brave " Oratorio Society 

At the conclusion of the exercises, the audience is requested to rise and remain 
standing while the casket is removed from the hall. 



2o8 Appendix 



DESCRIPTION OF THE SWORD PRESENTED BY LOUIS XVI 
TO JOHN PAUL JONES 

This fine specimen of the sword-smith's craft is now owned by Mr. Richard Dale, 
of Philadelphia. It was kindly lent by him and brought to Annapolis by Dr. W. 
Wharton Hollingsworth, representing the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincin- 
nati, for the commemorative exercises of April 24, 1907, and was lying on the 
casket during the services. It was in the custody of Capt. George P. Colvocoresses, 
U. S. Navy, until its return to Mr. Dale. 

The blade is a four-sided, double-edged rapier, of finest steel, 33^^ inches long, 
tapering to a point, and blued for 1 1 inches from the hilt. Inlaid in gold are figures 
representing the sun, trophies, and the French royal arms of three fleurs de lis, sur- 
mounted by a crown. The motto "Vive le Roy" is engraved on both sides. The 
following inscription" (somewhat illegible, as the gold inlay has fallen out in 
places) is below the guard plate: 

VINDICATI MARIS 

I.UDOVICDS XVI 

REMUNERATOR 
STRENUO VINDICI. 

On the reverse side is lightly engraved a motto which has become obliterated by 
time. 

The name of the maker, or more probably the furnisher, is on the blade: "La 
Veuve Guilmino, Versailles." 

The hilt is of gold, richly chased with figures and floral decorations. The pommel 
is made up of two designs, the figure of Neptune with his trident in high relief, and 
the three fleurs de lis. The grip is ornamented on the obverse with figures of 
Hercules and Mars in medallions, festoons, and ribbons held in the mouth of a 
mythological animal, and a standard of flags; the reverse side shows the three fleurs 
de lis, Roman soldier, trophies, and Greek soldier. 

The upper surface of the guard plate is ornamented on both sides; on one, in a 
medallion, is the figure of Minerva standing, also a rising sun; on the other, is Mars. 
The lower surface of the plate has a similar medallion of Minerva and fleur de lis. 
The pas d'ane and finger guard are beautifully chased with floral designs and termi- 
nate in dolphin heads. 

The scabbard is of black leather, the mountings of gold, engraved with trophies 
and arms. The drag is quite plain. The sword is in a wooden case, fitted to its 
shape and lined with chamois skin and the outside covered with red morocco leather. 



JOHN PAUL JONES'S SWORD 

[Newspaper extract, Washington Evening Star, December 27, 1906.] 

In practically the same condition as when it was used by its distinguished owner, 
the sword of John Paul Jones now rests in the Library of the Navy Department, 
where it has been placed by Commander Reginald F. Nicholson, U. S. Xavj-. The 
tradition was that Jones wanted it to be given to the senior officer of the Navy, but 
that, however, has never been established, and the sword has been in the possession 
of a number of persons outside the Navy. It is believed that the weapon originally 

"This inscription has been erroneously publi.shed as "Vindicator Ludovicus XVI 
remunerator strenuo victor" in Proceedings of the Numismatic and Antiqua- 
rian Society of Philadelphia, 1904-5, p. 41, and in proceedings of the U. S. Naval 
Institute, June, 1907, p. 711. 



John Paul [ones Commemoration 209 



was given to Jones b)' the North Carolina family of that name at the time he 
changed his own name, in compliment to them. 

From the best records obtainable, some of which are verified by letters and other 
documents in the Navy Department, the sword was given by Jones himself to 
Theodosia Burr, daughter of Aaron Burr. Theodosia Burr, after marrying Joseph 
Alston, a wealthy and talented young planter of South Carolina, who in after years 
became governor of the State, presented it to Judge Matthew Davis, of Charleston, 
who gave it to Reverend Doctor Ducachet, of Philadelphia. The latter gave it to 
Commodore Somerville Nicholson, U. S. Navy, and the Commodore gave it to its 
present owner, Commander Nicholson. 

It is 30 inches long — longer than the cutlass — and is of the style commonly termed 
=1 "gentleman's sword," in vogue in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It is 
beautiful in design, very strong, and highly tempered. The qualities as to shape 
and temper are very remarkable. The hilt is of white brass with the portion known 
technically as the basket broken away. The tang is wide and strong, and the grip 
piece of the handle is of wood covered with twisted copper wire. 

A number of scars appear on the edge of the blade, indicating that Jones frequently 
had been engaged in hand-to-hand encounters. 



I.IST OF RECIPIENTS OF CASTS FROM THE BUST OF JOHN 
PAUIy JONES IN THE NATIONAI^ ACADEMY OF DESIGN, 
NEW YORK 

[From memoranduta of Mr. Frank D. MiUet, under whose direction these casts were made and 

distributed.] 

Fourteen casts in plaster and six in bronze were made in 1904 from the plaster 
terra-cotta colored bust of John Paul Jones by Houdon. 

A cast in plaster was furnished to each of the following persons and institutions: 

National Academy of Design, New York. 

Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington, D. C. 

Trocadero Museum, Paris. 

National Museum, Berlin. 

South Kensington Museum, I/)ndon. 

Mr. Herbert Adams, New York. 

Mr. Irving R. Wiles, New York. 

Mr. J. Alden Weir, New York. 

Mr. Sargent Kendall, New York. 

Capt. John S. Barnes, New York. 

Mr. John 1^. Cadwalader, New York. 

Mr. F. D. Millet, in England. 

Mr. F. D. Millet, in New York. 

Bronze founder in New York (plaster cast ruined in making casts in bronze). 
A cast in bronze was furnished to each of the following persons and institutions: 

Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 

U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Gen. Horace Porter, New York. 

Mr. J. Alden Weir, New York. 

Capt. John S. Barnes, New York. 

Mr. John I. Waterbury, Morristown, N. J. 

Note. — The frontispiece in this volume and the Trocadero bust, used in identifica- 
tion of Jones's body were furnished by Mr. Frank D. Millet, from the original 
plaster terra-cotta colored bust in the National Academy of Design, New York. It has 
been suggested that this is the original made by Houdon's hands in 1780. — Computer. 

7257—07—14 



2IO Appendix 



NOTES REGARDING JOHN PAUL JONES 

The miniature of John Paul Jones, said to have been painted by the Countess de 
La Vendahl, is at the United States Naval Academy. It came into the possession 
of the United States Navy through Lieut. A. B. Pinkham. (See Mackenzie, Life 
of Paul Jones, and article by Prof. P. R. Alger in Naval Institute, 1905. ) 

The gold sword presented to Jones by King Louis XVI is owned by Mr. Richard 
Dale, of Philadelphia. The history of this weapon is given in proceeding of U. S. 
Naval Institute, June, 1907, by Mr. Charles Henry Hart. Another sword, once 
owned by Jones, is the property of Commander R. F. Nicholson, U. S. Navy. 

Miss Curtis, of Schenectady, N. Y., claims to possess the original of Jones's com- 
mission of October 10, 1776. On a facsimile copy, in Sherburne's life of John Paul 
Jones, edition of 1851, it is stated that the original was owned by Sherburne. 

The uniform of the Navy, as worn by Jones, is given in Sherburne's "Life," etc., 
and American Archives, series 5, vol. 2, p. 181, Res. Marine Committee, Sept. 5, 1776. 

Description of the Order of Military Merit is given in Nouveau Larousse, vol. 16, 
p. 38, and files of Navy Department library. No. 3702. 

Lists of those who served on ships commanded by Jones are in Sherburne's and 
Buell's biographies and copies of the log books. 

Songs, verses, and poems referring to Jones: See naval song books, Paul Jones 
Miscellany, Seawell, Brady, and other lives. Verses by him are in Sherburne and 
other biographies. 

Mention that Jones experimented with torpedoes. (See Life by M. E. Seawell.) 

Coat of mail worn by Jones, mentioned in New York Times, July 15, 1905. (See 
John Paul Jones Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. i, p. 57.) 

Private Signals, John Paul Jones Miscellany, vol. 3, "John Paul Jones's Last 
Cruise," by Prof. H. Marion. 

A flag of the Bonhomme Richard is at U. S. National Museum. (See John Paul 
Jones Miscellany, vol. 2, pt. i.) 



o