The original of this book is in
the Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.
CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
3 1924 050 004 963
J. A. WHITTED.
Negro Baptists of NortK Carolina
REV. J. A. WHITTED, D.D.
OP Edwabds & Beocghton Pbinting Co.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
The Negro Baptists of North Carolina Before the War, 7
The Work of the Northern Societies for the Colored
Baptists of North Carolina 18
The Baptist Educational and Missionary Convention of
North Carolina 34
Foreign Missions — The Hayes and Fleming Foreign
Mission Society ^ 53
The Plan of Cooperation in North Carolina 64
The Women's Baptist Home Mission Convention of
North Carolina 112
The Baptist State Sunday School Convention of North
Shaw University 146
Secondary Baptist Schools Established and Maintained
by the Negro Baptists of North Carolina 166
Baptist Papers 189
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
J. A. Whitted, D.D Frontispiece
Rev. Harry Cowan 16
Rev. Thomas Parker 16
Rev. R. H. Harper 17
S. N. Vass, D.D 18
Rev. C. S. Brown, D.D 32
G. W. Bullock, D.D 32
Rev. S. H. Witherspoon, D.D 33
Rev. A. Shepard, D.D 33
Rev. G. W. Holland 64
First Baptist Church, Winston-Salem 64
N. F. Roberts, D.D 122
Rev. G. W. Moore 122
Hon. J. T. Reynolds 123
Rev. A. B. Vincent 123
A. W. Pegues, Ph.D., D.D 128
Rev. G. W. Johnson, D.D 132
Prof. R. W. Brown 132
Col. James H. Young 133
Prof. John Walter Paisley 133
Rev. H. M. Tupper, D.D 144
Charles Francis Meserve, LL.D 144
Shaw Hall, Shaw University 150
Rev. C. H. Williamson, A.M 196
The writer of this little book has fulfilled a loBg
cherished desire, not in its best sense to say a history,
but to lay some kind of foundation, so that the his-
torian of the future may have something to build
upon and may some day give to the world the facts
concerning the service, sacrifice and achievements of
the Negro Baptists of North Carolina. While the
difficulty in obtaining information at times has caused
discouragement and delay, the writer has never en-
gaged in any task which has brought to him so much
satisfaction and pleasure, and he will feel amply re-
paid if the readers find half so much pleasure and
profit in the reading. The writer, too, expresses the
hope when some other shall undertake to build on this
foundation it will not be so difficult to obtain the
necessary information. To all who have responded
and have furnished data for this book the writer
wishes to express his grateful acknowledgment
TO THE NEGEO BAPTIST MINISTRY AND CHUKCHES
OF NORTH CAROLINA THIS LITTLE VOLUME
IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED
BY THE AUTHOR
Negro Baptists of North Carolina
THE NEGEO BAPTISTS OF ITORTH CAEO-
LINA BEFOEE THE WAE.
Since commuiiicatioii among the Negroes before
the war was altogether verbal, confined to narrow lim-
itations, and since no record was kept of his doings
as a churchman, it is impossible to get anything like
an accurate statement of his history previous to the
emancipation. Since we know that there were in this
country at the close of the war four hundred thousand
Negro Baptists, and since the Negro Baptists of
North Carolina formed a part of that number we
know they had an existence of some kind. Consider-
ing conditions as they were at that time, and taking
the statements as we gather them here and there, it
is safe to say throughout the entire South they existed
only in connection with the white churches. In the
history of the North Carolina Baptist State Conven-
tion, by Eev. Livingston Johnson, we get the follow-
ing in 1837: "The committee on religious instruc-
tion of slaves urged that places be provided for them
in the houses of worship, and that their religious in-
struction receive special attention."
8 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Eelating to another statement in tJie Convention of
1850 is the following: "The churches of the State
are urged to establish schools for the oral instruction
of the colored people." In some instances the colored
people were allowed to hold services conducted by
some member of their own race in some sections and
at specified times, but such meetings were usually
held under the supervision of a white man, and at his
discretion these meetings were brought to a close. In
very many instances such meetings were even con-
ducted by a member of the white race. In matters of
discipline, especially if a white member was involved,
the colored people had no voice whatever. In matters
affecting their own number often some colored brother
in whom the church had confidence would make re^
ports and recommendations. In compliance with the
resolution of 1837, which we have already mentioned,
in some instances provision was made in the erection
of the church edifice by petition, and in the galleries
for the accommodation of the colored brethren. In
the communion services, after the bread and wine had
been passed to the white brethren, it was passed in
turn to the colored brethren. This was regarded by
them as a God-sent privilege and a blessing, for which
their "Amens" were often loud and lasting.
In that early day even among the white members
it was not an unusual thing for a white brother or
sister to give vent to their feelings in a hallelujah, and
to them it did not seem strange to see tears of joy and
thanksgiving flowing down the cheeks of the colored
Before the War. 9
brother. In the appointment of missionaries among
the white brethren they were instructed to devote a
portion of their time to the religious uplift and in-
struction of the colored brother, and this they often
did very mueh to their satisfaction. The extent of
the work of the missionary and the relations of the
races as master and slave, was the question which
brought about the separation of the Northern and
Southern Baptists in 1845. Among the Southern mis-
sionaries and ministers in !North Carolina as else-
where throughout the South there were many zealous
Christians, who devoted much of their time to the con-
dition of the colored people so much affected and im-
proved during the days of slavery. It is hard for the
biased mind and the prejudiced Negro to see God in
conditions such as surrounded the race before the war
religiously or otherwise, and yet we verily believe God
was in it, and much of the discipline and training
which he received in that early day was greatly help-
ful in the changes which came to him in the days of
his freedom and the entire responsibility of work and
of worship. It was certainly no disadvantage for one
emerged from heathenism to be brought in touch with
intelligence in church worship. It took Israel to suffer
many cruelties to be brought right close to God, and
even then, despite God's wonderful and miraculous de-
liverance. His people were often found going in tha
In many localities of North Carolina special revival
services were held for the colored people ; often great
10 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
numbers professed faith in Christ. The Pleasant
Plains Church, of Hertford County, and many others
had their beginning as a result of such meetings. In
the instance of the church just mentioned it was
agreed between a white Baptist and Methodist min-
ister that they would unite and carry on a revival
meeting. Large numbers professed faith in Christ,
and then arose the question to which church they
would unite. It was finally agreed that the Methodist
should stand on the one side and the Baptist minister
should stand on the other, and leave it to the option of
the candidate on which side he should pass. As might
have been expected at that day almost every one
passed over on the side of the Baptist preacher, and
the Pleasant Plains Church was immediately set
apart. The same minister served them several years.
It was not until Rev. C. S. Brown took charge of the
school at Winton a colored man was called to serve
this church. While the law expressly forbade the use
of a book for the colored man, many kind and Chris-
tian masters and mistresses would gather the colored
people on Sunday afternoons and teach them the word
of God. In this way a great number were brought to
a saving knowledge of the Christ and followed Him,
not only in conversion and regeneration, but in bap-
tism as well. There were but few Baptist preachers
before the war. The first we have any knowledge of
was "Uncle Harry Cowan," as he was known at that
time. He was the servant of Thomas L. Cowan. His
master being present at a funeral was so struck with
Before the War. 11
his gift to preach God's word granted him "privilege
papers" to preach anywhere on his four plantations.
His papers were fixed up hy a lawyer and read thus :
"This is to certify that whosover is interested about
my man Harry he has the privilege to preach and
marry also; to baptize any one who makes a profes-
sion of faith." His success was so wonderful and so
much of the confidence of his master was imposed in
him his privileges were soon extended, and he was not
only allowed to preach on his master's "plantations"
but wherever he was promised "protection." God
greatly strengthened his ministry and thousands of
his own race and many of the white race heard this
man of God in his simplicity proclaim the glad tidings
of salvation as contained in the word of God. He
preached the gospel not only until peace was declared,
but was a leader among the pioneers for many years
after the great Civil War. During the struggle in
arms between the North and the South he was the
body-servant of Gen. Joseph Johnston. He preached
every night during the struggle except the night when
General Stonewall Jackson fell in battle. Men like
"Uncle Harry" were quite rare before the war, and
even since few have proven such powers for the sal-
vation of fallen humanity. Seventy years of his life
were given to the gospel ministry. During that time
he baptized eight thousand persons. There were
others as preachers and deacons, men of decided abil-
ity and firm character. Though possessed of rare
gifts few were granted the privileges granted to
12 Negro Baptists of North CarolirM.
"Uncle Harry." With such men it is not surprising
that North Carolina even before the war was so
strongly Baptist. In Raleigh we find such men as
"Uncle Harry," but they were only laymen. Among
these we find Todd Palmer, Sandy Pinkin, Henry
Jett, Richard Shepard and Jim Adkins. In many
other sections of the State such men existed full of
faith, of kindness and exhortation. The life and
deeds, the midnight prayers of such men, did more
to bring the freedom which afterward followed than
all other means combined.
We have already said that questions of discipline
were almost exclusively left to the white people, but
in some instances fairness was shown to the colored
brother, and his side received the proper considera-
tion. We record a single instance of this kind. A
conflict ensued between a white brother and a colored
sister. When the white brother was heard a motion
at once was made to exclude the colored sister without
hearing her side, but others insisted and it afterward
prevailed to hear her side ; and when they had heard
her side she was justified and allowed to retain her
Notwithstanding there were many obstacles which
stood in the way of the religious growth and develop-
ment of the colored people before the war, there were
many devoted Christians among them.
At Louisburg there was a splendid illustration of
this fact, together with many others which might be
named. Lewis Perry, who was known in that day
Before the War. 13
by white and black as "Dr. Lewis Perry," was the
body servant of Dr. Wilie Perry. He was granted
papers to hold prayer meetings in Louisburg. He was
further granted papers to exhort. His white friends
said by all means he should have been granted "a
horse and saddle and bridle." His name will always
live in and about Louisburg, for his services were not
only greatly helpful to his colored brethren but many
white people heard him gladly, and were greatly bene-
fited by his spiritual earnestness and instruction. In
connection with the white church in which he held
membership he was called upon almost invariably at
the concluding of the sermon to lead in prayer, and as
often as he did the entire congregation felt greatly
lifted up through his prayers.
Whenever any colored person' applied to this church
for membership they had first to secure the permis-
sion of "Dr. Perry."
Many revivals were held in the basements of the
Methodist and Baptist churches of Louisburg by "Dr.
Perry," and many souls professed faith in Christ
through these revival efforts, and were added to the
An opportunity to worship God was hailed with ex
treme delight, as was manifest in the sacrifices which
they were often called upon to make for the worship
of God. Some would give liberal contributions out
of their meagre earnings in support of the gospel,
and while many since the war would not make the
sacrifice to walk a few hundred yards to hear the gos-
14 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
pel, there are very many instances in which the ante-
bellum Christians were known to walk fifteen and
twenty miles to attend a midnight prayer meeting,
and rejoiced for the privilege as a special benediction
from above. In many instances these prayer meet-
ings were clandestine and many, after taking such
long walks, were hunted down and chased away as
disturbers of the peace.
Strange to say, while the Negroes were allowed to
dance all night long and were not disturbed, as soon
as they began the worship of God often it was claimed
they were disturbers.
While much of the religion of former years was
sentimental much was sincere and practical. Even
in that day of darkness such men and women im-
pressed themselves not only upon members of their
own race, but upon those who had the rule over them.
Often these old antebellum Christians exerted such
an influence when prayer was necessary they were
called upon to lead in prayer. Instances can be re-
called of some who were called to the bedside of their
dying masters to offer the last sad rites. Some of
the preachers who came in contact with such devoted
men and women became devoted to them, and despite
the changes which followed the war this devotion
lasted through life. We have already mentioned the
strength and devotion of some of the Raleigh mem-
bers. Such a Christian spirit grew up between them
and their white brethren when the time came for a
separation they refused to go out from their white
Before the War. 15
brethren, and remained with them for several years
afterward. The property now owned by the colored
First Baptist Church was offered to them soon after
the war, but they refused to leave their white brethren
and it fell into the hands of the Roman Catholics. In
the special Providence of God after many years of
worship near the Seaboard workshops, the Eoman
Catholics sold out to the colored Baptists and they at
much sacrifice erected the beautiful church on the
corner of the street southeast of the Capitol Square.
The instance mentioned of the affection between the
colored and white brethren growing out of these
church affliliations is but one of many. So strong
was the relation in the case of individuals that many
retained their membership among their white breth-
ren until their death.
The dawn of freedom brought many changes in the
church relations as well as otherwise. The prayer
which these fathers prayed was "Grant the day Lord
when we may worship God under our own vine and
fig tree," and this prayer meant to them a separation
from the white churches. Rude houses of worship
were erected in every section, and where they were
unable to erect houses brush arbors were thrown to-
gether, and in many instances they were content to
worship under the trees. This new privilege was
hailed with extreme delight everywhere, and in North
Carolina as elsewhere. The fervor and devotion of
the old slave father was unabating, and for years
afterward it looked as if the promise of undying ser-
16 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
vice would find in them a fulfillment. Licenses and
ordinations became general, and soon there were
many although unlettered who went forth in their
rude way telling the joyful tidings of salvation. One
of the saddest changes in the history of the denomi-
nation was to see with the growth of education and
other improvements new demands for a more intelli-
gent ministry, and to see these old landmarks falling
out one by one, and men of better training taking
their places. Only a few of these old ministers sur-
vived in the midst of these changes. Most of them
outlived their generation. In nearly every instance
when these changes became necessary the old leader
would yield with extreme reluctance. It should be
said that no men in any age have done more for their
opportunity than these old ministers coming to the
church emerging from slavery.
Some of them lived to see the brush arbor re-
moved, and the log church erected instead, and even
the log churches taken away and frame and brick
churches erected. The history of Rev. G. W. Hol-
land, of Winston-Salem, gives an instance of this
kind. Not only did he remove from the brush arbor
to the frame church, but from the frame church to the
beautiful brick building in Winston, a monument to
his energy and faithfulness. He lived not only in the
memory of the old people like himself, but retained
up until his death a place of highest esteem among
the young people of his church and community.
Before the War. 17
Having set apart twenty-eight Baptist churches,
and having erected the beautiful structure mentioned,
full of honors and noble deeds he passed with the
fathers to his home of peaceful rest.
Rev. Thomas Parker was another example. Pos-
sibly in his day he baptized four thousand persons.
Passing through every kind of trial and distress, he
lived in spite of opposition and changes of every
kind. At the time of his death he was the pastor of
four of the largest churches of the Kenansville Asso-
ciation. For thirty years he was the Moderator of
It is easy to appreciate improved conditions when
they are in evidence, but the world soon forgets those
who have labored to lay a foundation. Taking every-
thing into consideration the early fathers of the
churches coming out of the little work done before
the war, and taking into consideration the ante-bellum
Negro Baptists, the churches for the generations to
come owe them a debt of deepest gratitude.
THE WORK OF THE JSTOETHERN SOCIE-
TIES FOR THE COLORED BAPTISTS
OF NORTH CAROLINA.
The American Baptist Home Mission Society.
The American Baptist Home Mission Society,
which was organized 1832, contemplated the uplift
of all classes and conditions of the people. The Ne-
gro, although enslaved, naturally appealed to such an
organization. The society, being an important factor
in the general Convention of Baptists, North and
South, did much in and through the early mission-
aries appointed to reach the Negro with the gospel.
Much of the religious development and improvement,
even in that dark period, may be traced to the work
and influence of the society in the Negro's behalf.
Much of the splendid results reported from year to
year may be traced to the field work in North Caro-
lina. It was the anxiety of the Home Mission So-
ciety, together with other Northern Baptists, which
led to differences concerning thir missionary work
and to the final separation of the white Baptists North
and South, and caused the organization of the two
distinct bodies. The North contended that the insti-
tution of slavery in any form was wrong, and should
be discouraged, especially by the Southern church
member ; the South contended for the continuance of
S. N. VASS, D.D.,
Superintendent of Work Among the Colored
People tinder the American Baptist
Worh of Northern Societies, 19
slavery, and hence separation was tte inevitable re-
Not only was this upheaval in the ecclesiastical
councils, but the entire nation was stirred, and in al-
most every question which came before the Congress
of the nation the question of slavery was injected.
The clash of arms was the final outcome, and victory
on the side of the Federal troops after one of the
most bitter struggles the world has ever known.
To the society as well as others this seemed to bo
the hand of God. The door of opportunity was
thrown wide, and among the first Christian organi-
zations to enter the work of uplifting the homeless,
ignorant Negro was the American Baptist Home
Others who became lifelong benefactors to the
cause of education at Shaw were influenced through
the society. Being the first institution of its kind in
North Carolina, not only were the Baptists greatly
benefited, but every denomination in the State owes
something of its power and usefulness to the men in
its ranks sent out from Shaw University. The great
founder of Livingstone College at Salisbury, Dr. J. C.
Price, laid the foundation for his education at Shaw
University; and often referred to this beginning as
the foundation for the inspiration which made him
the man he was. While Shaw University was estab-
lished as a Baptist institution it was always quite
liberal, and many himdreds of all the denominations
gathered there for instruction. It was only in the
20 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Theological Department that the distinctive princi-
ples of the Baptists were taught, and even there rep-
resentatives of other churches were gathered and bet-
ter prepared to preach the gospel to their own people.
If the American Baptist Home Mission Society
had done no more than to give to North Carolina col-
ored Baptists Shaw University and H. M. Tupper,
that would have been a wonderful blessing. In the
twenty-five years of Dr. Tupper's active and untiring
service not only was he permitted to see the blessed
light of intelligence in the Normal, Classical and
Theological Departments, but Law, Medical and
Pharmaceutical Departments. It is said that Rev.
Tupper was called to the bedside of a poor colored
woman in Raleigh, and upon inquiry found out that
she had no doctor in attendance, and the reason wa3
that she could not pay any doctor for lack of means,
and hence had to be neglected. From that hour he
decided on the Medical Department to prepare men
of the colored race for this work. It has been further
stated that his own embarrassment before the courts
of Raleigh in the long trials he was called upon to
meet and his difficulty to secure lawyers to defend
him, led to the establishment of the Law Department,
Besides the educational work carried on by the so-
ciety, missionary work was instituted from the be-
ginning of its operation in the State.
The new condition afforded them an opportunity
to prosecute the work of missions, not to the slave
Negro as before, but to the Negro freeman. Not
Work of Northern Societies. 21
merely to confine itself to missionary work, but to the
erection of buildings for their education and general
uplift. God moved upon the hearts of many noble
men and women, not only to give their money to
carry on this work, but to give themselves to volunteer
service, both to preach to them the gospel, and to teach
them in the day and night schools. The attention of
the Northern philanthropist was turned to the help-
less Negro in the Southland, and the society seized
every opportunity to combine its forces, and while for
a time much opposition was manifest to the new pro^
ject, in the providence of God it was overcome, and
soon the society began to pour its blessed treasures in
North Carolina together with other Southern States.
It was the good fortune of North Carolina to have
as its first volunteer Eev. Henry Martin Tupper, who,
in the special Providence of God, saw much of the
needs of the colored people while fighting in behalf of
the Union and the freedom of the Negro. The argu-
ment which overcame the opposition which we have
mentioned in the ranks of the society, was the fact
that the education intended was to prepare men and
women to teach in the schools, and especially to pre-
pare men of the Negro race to preach the gospel to
their own race. At first, according to the resolution
which settled the conflict, only such money could be
used even in this work as should be sent into the so-
ciety specified for the mission work and education
for Negroes. While everlasting gratitude is due to
the heroism, ability and energy of Eev. Tupper, still
22 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
more is due to the American Baptist Home Mission
Society, which made it possible for Rev. Tupper to do
the great work he did at Shaw University.
Five hundred thousand dollars were contributed by
this society besides other gifts from other sources to
the establishment and maintenance of Shaw Univer-
sity previous to the year 1908. The society not only
gave out of its treasury the magnificent sum just
mentioned, but opened up the way for Rev. Tupper to
reach others throughout the North.
Considering the destitute circumstances and condi-
tions of the people so recently emerged from slavery,
nothing could so stimulate and strengthen all classes
as the missionary who was thrown in daily contact
with the people in their homes, churches and else-
where. With the advantages of education the mis-
sionary was quite an improvement to many of the
pastors in the churches, and his message was both
encouraging and enlightening. He was not only re-
quired to go into the towns and cities, but in the rural
sections. His work was not only to preach in
churches already established, but to go where there
were no churches and establish them. Many churches
owe their existence to the missionary work of the
American Baptist Home Mission Society. The so-
ciety not only gave the missionary for this kind of
work, but in many instances gave from their Church
Edifice Fund the money to pay for its erection. In
some instances this money was borrowed, in others it
was given, just as the individual case demanded. Self-
Worh of Northern Societies. 23
dependence was the instruction given to the mission-
ary ; and it proved far better where the churches were
taught self-support. Indulgence in some cases proved
detrimental not only to the church, but to the society.
Like the Missionary Colporter of the American Bap-
tist Publication Society, the missionary of the Home
Mission Society was instructed to hold special revival
services with the pastors and churches, and in this
way many thousands were added to the churches
through conversion in these meetings. Some of the
strongest and best men in church work came to Christ
through the preaching of the Home Mission Society's
missionary. The Scripture that says "Iron sharp-
eneth iron" was often verified in the missionary of
the society and the country pastor. This proved very
helpful to the pastor and the church, as so many were
deprived of the opportunity of an education.
While the Southern Baptist Convention, the Bap-
tist State Convention of North Carolina formed a
part of the cooperative forces in the plan of coopera
tion in North Carolina, it had its foundation largely
in the Home Mission Society. Dr. Henry L. More-
house, who was then corresponding secretary of the
society, drew the entire plan, together with the courses
of study laid down in the original plan. If the so-
ciety had done no more for the colored Baptists than
to formulate this plan and bring about the combina-
tion of the white Baptists South with the Negro Bap-
tists for the prosecution of cooperation, that of itself
would have been a wonderful assistance, for of all
24 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
the work done from the Emancipation in 1863 to
1908, the few years of cooperation proved to be the
most helpful. North Carolina Baptists hardly seemed
like the same people. At once they took the lead of
all the other denominations nmnerically, and in edu-
cational and missionary work.
The reports of the different secondary schools at
the close of the time of the plan of cooperation showed
that fifty thousand dollars were raised annually by
the colored Baptists of North Carolina in support of
From 1900 to 1908 the society not only gave sup-
port to Shaw University but gave partial support to
Waters' Normal Institute at Winton, N. C, the New
Bern Industrial Institute at New Bern, N. C, and
the Thompson Institute at Lumberton, N. C. But for
the aid given these schools they could never have
proven the blessing they did prove to their communi-
The American Baptist Home Mission Society did
so much for the colored Baptists of North Carolina
and in so many ways it was thought by some of the
Baptists of other States that the society was partial
to North Carolina Baptists, and to an extent the
charge was doubtless true, for it was claimed by cer-
tain leading Home Mission Society representatives
that the Negro Baptists of North Carolina were the
most grateful and loyal people with whom they were
associated in Christian and educational work, and
Work of Northern Societies. 25
hence they were necessarily inclined to do more for
When the disposition of many Baptists in other
States and a few in North Carolina was to criticise
and turn away from the society, the great majority
of North Carolina Baptists stood firm and unchange-
able in their high esteem and loyal support of the
Home Mission Society. "Cooperation with religious
bodies for the advancement of the Master's kingdom
and economy in Foreign Mission work" was the
watchword throughout North Carolina ; and although
at times the contest was bitter, even with some of the
brethren of the extreme eastern and western sections
of the State, the Convention stood firm and true to
the great and good people of the Home Mission So-
ciety, who had stood by them in times of greatest
need, and who stood ready all the way to lend the
same helping hand. It was rather a sad spectacle in
North Carolina to see a few men educated in the
schools of the American Baptist Home Mission So-
ciety turn away with the basest ingratitude, and with
their greatest efforts, though feeble at best, strike
back at the society. The sincerity of the rank and
file was so manifest, and God's bountiful blessing to
the grateful was so constant, the opposition which at
a time was so threatening soon passed away and the
Baptists of North Carolina declared in unmistakable
resolution their abiding faith and loyalty to the Home
Mission Society and its interests in North Carolina
and elsewhere as far as they were able. This spirit
26 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
paved the way to the society's partial benefactions
and to their decided and rapid growth and develop-
ment along all lines.
Others may with ingratitude turn away from the
Home Mission Society, but for all time the rank and
file of Negro Baptists of North Carolina will hold
in grateful remembrance and appreciation the great
Home Mission Society which did so much to shape
The Ambeican Baptist Publication Society.
As soon as it was practicable, after the emancipa-
tion of the negroes of North Carolina, together with
the Negroes of the rest of the Southern States, the
American Baptist Publication Society, with head-
quarters in Philadelphia, began its colportage and
missionary work among them. The organization of
the Sunday School forces of North Carolina is due
more largely to the work of this society than to all the
other forces combined. The State Sunday School
Convention of North Carolina owes its existence to
the society. Its first representative in North Caro-
lina was Rev. E. E. Eagles, the ablest representative
of his day. With his exceptional ability, though ig-
norance and superstition had lordly sway, much in-
formation was gained through his teachings and still
more through the distribution of Bibles, tracts and
other literature. Rev. A. Shepard, then a student
at Raleigh, was appointed to the same position, and it
Worh of Northern Societies. 27
was through his labors that much strength was given
to the new organization. Rev. Shepard undertook
to strengthen the parent body by the organization of
the different counties of the State into county conven-
tions as auxiliaries. Out of these organizations came
the Oxford Orphan Asylum, which has since been
turned over to the State as a State institution. Hence
it may be said also that the colored Orphan Asylmn
of Oxford, ]Sr. C, owes its existence to the American
Baptist Publication Society as well as the State Sun-
day School Convention.
While the American Baptist Home Mission So-
ciety of ISTew York has done its work in North Caro-
lina among the colored people along educational lines,
secular and Christian, and through its missionary
effort in the churches, side by side the Publication
Society has done its work through the Sunday school
missionary and the printed page.
All of the leading ministers of North Carolina
among the JSTegro Baptists owe in part their prepara-
tion to the help given them by the Publication So-
ciety. Many of them were furnished libraries from
which the greater part of their instruction was de-
Thousands and tens of thousands have been brought
to a saving knowledge of their Redeemer through
teachings coming to them from the tracts and other
religious literature sent out by the society. Not only
have many been thus brought to a saving knowledge
of Christ, but much of the soundness of their faith
28 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
is due to this "wholesome influence and instruction.
Indeed, it proved an efficient means of disseminating
the principles as taught by the Baptists.
Emerging from the bondage of slavery, with faint
ideas of homes and home training, one of the greatest
needs after securing some place which might be called
by the name of home, the next greatest necessity was
the proper training in the home. The work as out-
lined and followed by the society met this condition
as nothing else could. The duty as specified to the
colporter was not only to leave the literature in the
home but a prayer and the necessary instruction, and
hence much valuable information came to the people
through this medium, which in many instances did
more than the printed page which was many times
cast aside in his absence, while the truth to the unlet-
tered coming into his hearing found its way into his
heart, his life and his character.
The Class of Men Appointed by the Society.
The society could never have accomplished so much
among the colored Baptists of North Carolina but for
the class of men appointed to do its work. Almost
without an exception the men proved themselves to
be men of rare ability, Christian piety and devotion.
We have already mentioned Rev. E. E. Eagles, the
Baptist veteran of his day, and following him Kev,
Augustus Shepard, who spent eighteen years in the
society's service. He not only wielded great power
in the Sunday School work, but was equally service-
Worh of Northern Societies. 29
able in the church Conventions. Possibly no one man
in his day has done so much to lift up the people as
did this pious servant of God. Then following him
was Eev. A. W. Pegues, Ph.D. ; although serving but
a short time took up the work where Rev. Shepard
Eev. P. F. Maloy held the position for the same
length of time as did Eev. Pegues, Eev. Joseph
Perry, Eev. M. C. Eansom, Eev. C. H. Williamson
for short periods. Then came Eev. G. W. Moore and
Eev. A. B. Vincent. These two held the place for 2
number of years, and with these years accomplished
great things along Sunday School lines. For two
years Eev. J. W. Faulk, Jr., was associated with the
work in the eastern section of the State, l^orth Caro-
lina Baptists proved their appreciation to the society
to that extent that they enjoyed not only the appoint-
ments mentioned but one of the district secretaries,
Dr. S. N. Vass, was bom in North Carolina, and, al-
though partly educated in an Episcopal institution,
reading one of the tracts of the society saw what
seemed to him the only right way, became a Baptist,
and after completing his education was appointed to
serve as missionary in Virginia, afterward appointed
District Secretary for the Southern States.
From the beginning Eev. Vass showed rare ability,
but with the advance of years he proved to be one of
the ablest men of the entire race throughout the coun-
try. By the organization of a publishing company
of colored men in Nashville, Tenn., and this organi-
30 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
zation having behind it the ISTational Baptist Con-
vention required able management and skill to enable
the Publication Society, vsrhich it was claimed was
a white concern, to hold its place in the estimation
of the colored people, but Dr. Vass proved himself
equal to the occasion, and, while, much of the patron-
age of the colored people was given to the Negro Pub-
lishing House, much was left to the American Bap-
tist Publication Society through the influence of Dr,
Vass. In fact, with the extension of the Sunday
School work in North Carolina among the colored peo-
ple, with their growing intelligence and increasing de-
mands for Sunday School literature, even with the in-
troduction of the ISTegro Publishing House literature,
the American Baptist Publication Society maintained
its usual hold in point of Sunday School supplies.
After a lapse of years, just as it should have been
at first, both houses received recognition according
to the wishes of the individual, or according to the
merits of each as seen by the schools.
Sunday School Institutes.
With the State Sunday School Convention fully
organized and cooperating with the society in doing
its work in the State ; with County Conventions in
every section, and with its literature spread in every
destitute corner, the society found it necessary to un-
dertake a new kind of work from the missionary and
colporter. In fact the people asked for more ad-
vanced Sunday School work, and the institute plan
Work of Northern Societies. 31
was adopted and proved to be very effective in send-
ing out men and women in the different sections
better prepared and inspired to do the work of teach-
ing in the schools. The missionary was not only seen
with his budget of books but with blackboard and
other facilities holding Sunday School Institutes. To
meet the demands the society arranged general meet-
ings with the missionaries of other States so as to bet-
ter prepare all for their special fields, and it was not
long before the schools were filled with better men
and women who received much of their instruction
and inspiration from the institutes. Fortunately the
Home Mission Society, cooperating with the Church
Convention, just as the Publication Society was co-
operating with the Sunday School Convention, was
holding just such meetings in connection with the
churches, and sometimes even joint meetings were
held, which enabled the colored Baptists of ISTorth
Carolina to leap into prominence and usefulness both
in their church and Sunday School work. Through
such infiuences many strong men and women were
sent forth as leaders, not only to meet the demands
of the State, but in other States, and as missionaries
into the regions of dark Africa.
We have already mentioned the many thousands
who were converted to Christ through the work of
the society in the distribution of its literature and its
missionary work, but as in the instance of the dc-
32 Negro Baptists of North Carolina,
mands for institutes there came as well a demand
for direct means of bringing the children to a saving
knowledge of Jesus. And, too, at that time evangel-
ism was the watchword in nearly every section of the
country, especially among the white Baptists of the
North and West. The missionaries sent out con-
jointly by the society and the State Sunday School
Convention were instructed to hold evangelistic meet-
ings wherever it was practicable to do so. Such meet-
ings always proved very helpful, and many who after-
ward became great leaders in Sunday School and
church work were converted in these meetings.
From 1902 to 1908 the reports showed that the
society paid out to its missionaries and to the Dis-
trict Secretary for salaries three thousand dollars a
When it was considered that this Christian organi-
zation began with the colored people in the days of
their adversity, and did so much for them in that dark
period, it is not surprising that their gratitude was
too deep to turn away from them in later years.
North Carolina took the lead of all the States in
its manifestation of gratitude. At the time when it
looked as if all the States among the colored people
would turn away North Carolina held firmly on, and
while much patronage was given to the other house
the orders increased to the American Baptist Publi-
cation Society. The Children's Day exercises were
encouraged, and comparatively large sums were sent
p o ^
■< .'£ '^
Work of Northern Societies. 33
up from the different Sunday Schools of the State;
yet it was admitted that the great good done by the
society in the general uplift of the colored people of
North Carolina, as well as elsewhere, could never be
repaid in dollars and cents.
THE BAPTIST EDUCATIOlSrAL ANT) MIS-
SIONARY co]srvE]srTio]sr or noeth
The Baptist Educational and Missionary Conven-
tion of Worth Carolina was organized in Goldsboro,
N. C, in the year 1867. There were present at this
organization Revs. Edward Eagles, C. Johnson, Wil-
liam Warwick, L. W. Boone, B. B. Spicer, H. Grimes,
John Washington, Charles Bryant, Sutton Davis and
R. H. Harper. To have seen these few fathers gath-
ered with no experience in Christian work, recently
emerged from slavery, no money, brush arbors and
log churches in most cases, should cause the Baptist
hosts of after years to look with supreme admiration
and gratitude upon the sacrifices and arduous labors
of the "fathers in Israel." We have been informed
that there were a few of our white Baptist brethren
in attendance at this first meeting of their colored
brethren and helped them to plan the organization
and advise for its future operation. It was evident
that the organization of churches was imperatively
necessary, and this the new organization determined
to do. With the few ministers in the Convention
and in the State, it was further evident that "more
laborers were needed in the Master's vineyard," and
for this the brethren earnestly prayed. In some sec-
tions it has been charged that the colored Baptists
Educational and Missionary Convention. 35
fostered ignorance, but as an argument to the con-
trary in this first organization the purchase of suit-
able books was urged, and an intelligent ministry as
the greatest necessity.
All the ministers present were authorized to do
missionary work in their immediate vicinity, and as
extensively as their opportunities would allow. Al-
though the beginning was meager and such as to dis-
hearten and discourage weaker men, these fathers
were by no means daunted. They had strong faith in
God, and He in His all-wise Providence permitted
many of them to see a wonderful development and
growth before He took them hence to their eternal
From the beginning the negro Baptists of !N"orth
Carolina have felt that their white brethren, with su-
perior advantages, could be of substantial aid to them
in their religious and moral development, and they
invited representatives to meet with them even in
their organization of the Convention. In the annual
meeting of the white Baptists at Wilmington in 1867
the request was granted; the brethren were present
and rendered valuable service, bidding Godspeed to
their colored brethren.
From that day there existed ever afterward the
kindliest and most friendly relations between the two
Conventions in ITorth Carolina, the white brethren
often going to considerable sacrifice to serve them
with advice, with instruction and with their money.
As early as 1865, immediately following the bitter
36 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
struggle in arma between the North and the South,
they seemed to have lost sight of the fact that the Ne-
groes had been their slaves, and, together with their
Northern brethren, despite their poverty and discour-
agement, growing out of the bloody contest in arms,
they sought every opportunity to do the colored
The records of the white Baptists will show that a
resolution was passed in their first Convention foUo^i'-
ing the Emancipation, which reads as follows :
"The brethren realize that a new responsibility is
thrust upon them by the emancipation of the slaves,
and pledge themselves to do all in their power for the
religious and educational development of the Negro."
1876. "We would urge upon our pastors and
churches the importance of prosecuting, so far as pos-
sible, the work of giving religious instruction to the
colored people among us, and we request our mission
and Sunday School brothers, as far as practicable,
to give aid in organizing and expanding among their
Sunday School and church privileges."
This was further shown in the struggle of North
Carolina colored Baptists to maintain the principle
of cooperation with the religious bodies; the white
Baptists of the State stood firmly by them with their
moral and financial support. While the plan of co-
operation emanated from the North, the Southern
white brother was ripe for such helpfulness, even
prior to the plan.
Educational and Missionary Convention. 37
A resolution passed in the white convention, Golds-
boro, and $500 was appropriated to conduct Institutes
for the colored Baptists of the State.
With all the aid which came to the Negro Bap-
tists of North Carolina, with ignorance, poverty and
discouragement staring them in the face, and with
conditions as the results of war, and a people set free
with no homes, clotheless and often foodless, their
struggles were often bitter and disappointing.
They had only the assurance that they were build-
ing upon a sure foundation — the eternal word of
God; and like the Apostle to the Gentile world they
rejoiced that they were "counted worthy to suffer af-
fliction" forthe cause which had brought to themlight,
life and salvation, and they meant as best they could
to blaze their way through the dense wilderness, and
tell the story which has since made many thousand
rejoice together with them.
For many years comparatively little was accom-
plished. The growth was necessarily slow, but sure.
The annual reports were informal, and yet these
annual meetings were often attended with great spirit-
It may be said of the Convention, for thirty yeara
after its organization it was a period of construction.
In many of the rude structures, about which men-
tion has been made, great revivals broke out and souls
were brought into the church by the thousands and
tens of thousands. '
38 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
It was a feast at the close of each conventional
year to hear these fathers and pioneers of the Con-
vention telling of the presence of God in their early
Rev. John Washington vcas the first missionary sent
out by the Convention. There were others whom we
have mentioned laboring for the Publication So-
ciety. It is claimed that Kev. E. E. Eagles, the first
missionary of the Publication Society, organized the
Convention. If not, he was a great stimulus to the
work, having superior advantages over most of his
brethren. Kev. F. E,. Howell was the second.
Rev. Howell's services as missionary added much
strength and force to the Convention. Especially did
his reports give the much needed information re^
specting the field, and caused extension of missions
into unknown sections of the State.
The Convention was so stimulated and enthused
through the work done and the reports of Rev. Howell
until they were encouraged to appoint Rev. P. E.
Maloy to succeed him as their missionary.
While Rev. Maloy was not faultless, he had su-
perior advantages over Rev. Howell, and in many
respects proved to be an ideal missionary. The ap-
pointment of these men was in the line of that Provi-
dence which was shaping the Convention for great
The work of the missionary was by no means so
definite as in after years, and possibly it was well
that it should not have been, as it left room for that
Educational and Missionary Convention. 39-
service so necessary to meet the demand of that early
Rev. A. B. Vincent came in just previous to the
"Plan of cooperation." During a part of his time,
as we have mentioned, the white Baptists made ap-
propriations which were supplemented by the colored
Convention, and some of the leading colored breth-
ren volunteered their services in connection with the
regular missionary, which greatly assisted him in the
preparation of the different sections for the splendid
gift of cooperation. It may be said, too, even prior
to the appropriation of the white brethren the col-
ored people in some sections realized the necessity
of a better and a more united ministry and formed
Institutes. We recall especially such meetings held
by the brethren in and about Warrenton, Louisburg
and in other places. Rev. T. J. Taylor, the pastor
of the white Baptist Church of Warrenton, attended
all of these meetings, and it was doubtless his ac-
quaintance with the plan which led to the resolution
which he offered in the Goldsboro Convention appro-
priating $500 to this kind of work among the col-
Just as the Biblical Recorder was the greatest
means of organizing and strengthening the white
Baptists, and which did more than all the agencies
to make them what they were, so different papers
representing the colored Baptists proved the same ef-
ficient means of shaping, developing and makirg
them what they became in after yeara.
'40 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
At different times the Oold Dust, the Baptist Head-
light, the African Expositor, the Chowan Pilot and
the Baptist Sentinel.
It was unfortunate that there were so many papers,
but under the circumstances these papers would but
blossom, bear an early fruitage and then die. The
Baptist Sentinel, like the others, though pas^ijg
through biting frosts and bitter cold, came into ex-
istence to live; and despite circumstances did Jive,
not only strengthening the State Convention, but all
other organizations throughout the State which were
intended for the betterment of the Baptist cause;
while the annual collections of the Convention in-
creased and many other improvements, both in point
of increasing membership and better plans of work,
but there was nothing like the proper organization of
the forces iintil the meeting of the Convention at
Garysburg. It was there through the plan drawn up
by Dr. A. W. Pegues that the Convention organized
itself into Boards which proved greatly in advance
of any plan which had before been tried. The work
of the Boards greatly paved the way to the plan of
cooperation which soon came into existence. The
death of Rev. Z. Horton was announced at the Garys-
burg meeting. Rev. Horton was one of the pioneers
of the Baptist work of North Carolina. Suitable
resolutions were passed.
An effort was on foot at this time to raise twenty-
five thousand dollars, an endowment to the presidency
of Shaw University. Dr. E". F. Roberts, Prof. S. N".
Educational and Missionary Convention. 41
Vass and Prof. A. B. Vincent canvassed the State
in the interest of this project.
The Convention gave liberal contributions to this
fund. It was in the Oxford meeting that the plan of
cooperation was submitted and voted upon by the
Convention. There was comparatively no opposition
to the plan.
The general missionary and the three district mis-
sionaries were voted upon and accepted by the Con-
vention, and the wheels set in motion for that for-
ward movement which meant more to North Carolina
than all the efforts of its past thirty years. With
four of the Convention's ablest men going from place
to place throughout the State, doing special mission-
ary work, holding Ministerial Institutes, and doing
house to house service, it could not serve otherwise
than produce wonderful improvements and changes.
It was soon evident that the colored Baptists would
make history for themselves, and correct the oft-re-
peated story that the "ISTegro Baptists had no men of
note." The missionary was hailed with delight in
sections where he dare not go before, and it could be
said in reality that the wilderness was blossoming
as the rose. The fact that the great Home Mission
Society of N'ew York, the Southern Baptist Conven-
tion, with headquarters in Atlanta, and the white
Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, together
■with, the colored Convention, were behind these men,
not only gave to them financial support but moral
support as well ; besides greatly stimulating the men
42 Negro Baptists of North Cwrolirm.
themselves, and enabled them to do a work they could
not otherwise have done.
To them it was not a question of where their sal-
ary was coming from, it was provided for in the
plan. It was theirs to do their work, to do it pro-
ficiently, and at the close of each quarter and of each
year to render accurate reports of work done and re-
sults as far as they were able to gather them. The
results were good as evidenced on every hand. Not
only did the missionary see them but the most casual
Possibly no better example could be furnished than
in Lumberton, where the Baptist people simply leaped
into prominence materially, morally and spiritually.
ISTot only were the colored people led to rejoice for
splendid harvests and for the broad foundation,
laid through their work, but their white brethren
throughout the State, the North and the South re-
joiced with them. The colored brother was so awak-
ened, not only to his own advancement, but rejoiced
as he read the annual reports of the white Convention
at their constant and decided growth.
It was not surprising at the close of the three years
that the vote in all the cooperating bodies should have
been so unanimous for 'three years more of coopera-
The thirty-third annual session of the Convention
was held in the First Baptist Church of Rocky
Mount, ]Sr. C, Dr. A. Shepard, of Durham, N. C,
presiding. Dr. H. L. Morehouse, of New York City,
Educational and Missionary Convention. 43
representing the American Baptist Home Mission
Society ; Dr. W. M. Alexander, of Baltimore, repre-
senting the Lott-Carey Convention, and Dr. J. M.
Armstead, of Portsmouth, representing the Baptists
of Virginia, were present and made able speeches on
the special objects they came to represent. After
the speech of Dr. Morehouse on Cooperation, which
had been prosecuted in the State for three years, the
Convention unanimously voted to continue the work
for three years more, pledging its loyal support. The
Convention also voted to assume the responsibility of
a teacher in the Theological Department of Shaw
University. The report of the treasurer showed that
two thousand, six hundred and twenty-four dollars
had been raised during the year.
The new year began with bright hopes; the Con-
vention appointed Rev. E,. B. Watts, of Wilkesboro,
to labor in the western and mountain section of the
State, with instructions to give as much time as prac-
ticable to the section of the State beyond the Blue
Rev. C. C. Somerville, who had labored so success-
fully as District Missionary for Eastern North Caro-
lina, sent in his resignation to take effect October 1,
1899. His place was filled by the appointment of
Rev. W. T. H. Woodward, of Littleton, IST. C.
In the New Bern Convention, at the St. John's
Church, Dr. C. F. Meserve made an able plea in be-
half of Shaw University, and Rev. John E. White,
the Corresponding Secretary of the Baptist State
44 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Convention (white), made a great talk as he usually
did at the annual Conventions, on the subject
"Strengthen the things that remain." Dr. White
never lost an opportunity to help the colored people,
and especially the colored Baptists of N"orth Caro-
lina, and he as no other man always made a profound
impression on our Conventions.
The saintly Miss Joanna P. Moore, of ISTashville,
Tenn., was also present, and since she had done more
than they all in behalf of the colored people, not only
in one respect, but in all that pertained to their gen-
eral uplift, like her blessed Savior, who gave His very
life for humanity. The Convention heard her with
breathless silence and appreciation. The Ministerial
Union, which had been organized many years pre-
vious and had gone down, was revived at this meeting
with Rev. K. H. Harper, of LaGrange, President;
Rev. W. R. Mason, ofWeldon, Vice-President; and
Rev. S. H. Witherspoon, Secretary. The amount
of the annual collections had increased a thousand
dollars over the previous year. The Convention
changed the time of the annual meeting from October
to November, just one month later. This was an
unusual year for the colored Baptists as well as for
the colored people of all the denominations ; especially
in the eastern section of the State. A political up-
heaval such as the State had not known before was
felt everywhere, and much of the enthusiasm of pre-
vious years was lost; many of the colored people as
a result moved to other States, and hence the work
Educational and Missionary Convention. 45
so fairly under way was greatly retarded. And yet,
according to the opinion of many men of eminencs
of the opposite race, cooperation in the State at such
a time was providential and a great blessing. Such
able representatives as the Convention had in the field
and representatives of the two races, often brought
together as they were in the meetings held over the
State, kept up a better understanding than would
have prevailed, and hence did much to remove the
bitterness and friction which doubtless would have
otherwise been manifest. If this was true, and we
have reason to believe it was, if cooperation had done
no more than allay race feeling, which was already
exceedingly harmful to both races, that of itself would
have been worth the amount of money expended for
its maintenance. Eev. D. J. Moore, of Emerson, IST.
C, and Eev. A. Ellis, of Waco, 'R. C, were appointed
to labor respectively in the southern and western sec-
tions of the State in behalf of the Convention.
Dr. 0. L. P. Taliaferro, of Philadelphia, Editor of
the Christian Banner, and Rev. I. Toliver, of Wash-
ington, D. C, were in attendance at the next annual
session of the Convention at Eranklinton, and were
elected honorary members. A. W. Pegues, J. A.
Whitted, E. E. Smith, C. Johnson, C. S. Brown and
I. W. Holden were appointed a committee to petition
the Legislature in its session following in behalf of a
reformatory for youthful criminals of the colored
Eev. John E. White, about whom reference has al-
46 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
ready been made, had received a call to the Second
Baptist Church of Atlanta, Ga., gave his farewell ad-
dress to his colored brethren, and those vs^ho were so
fortunate as to hear that address will never forget the
impression it made on the Convention.
Following this meeting of the Convention Rev. P.
F. Maloy, who had been the Western District Mis-
sionary since cooperation had been inaugurated, ac-
cepted the call to the Friendship Baptist Church of
Charlotte, E". C, and was succeeded by Eev. G. 0.
Bullock, who proved to be eminently successful in
putting new life, interest and confidence in the work
throughout the entire West.
Like his predecessor Eev. Livingston Johnson, the
Corresponding Secretary of the white Convention,
met the Convention in its annual session at Lumber-
ton. Rev. Johnson soon convinced his brethren that
he was indeed a worthy successor of a great and good
man. It was in the Lumberton Convention that ef-
forts were put forth to bring about a closer union be-
tween the Educational and Missionary Convention
and the Woman's Convention. Representatives oi
both Conventions met and held conferences on plana
for a closer union. One of the plans adopted was to
have a board of supervisors appointed by the Educa-
tional and Missionary Convention, whose duty it
should be to advise the women in their work. A.
Shepard, A. B. Vincent, J. R. Cozart, C W. Moore
and C. C. Somerville were appointed a committee
to represent the Convention in the Negro Young Peo-
Educational and Missionary Convention. 47
pie's Congress to be held in the interim of the Con-
vention in Atlanta, Ga.
The report of the treasurer showed that six thou-
sand eight hundred and eighty-one dollars had been
raised for the different objects of the Convention
during the year, which was an evidence of the rapid
growth of the colored Baptists of North Carolina.
The Negro Young People's Congress, which met in
Atlanta in August of that year, was by far the great-
est gathering of intelligent ISTegroes known in the
world's history. A fair estimate placed the number
at eight thousand. This was a splendid opportunity
to demonstrate the strength of the Negro Baptists,
not only of North Carolina, but of the United States.
The place they filled on the program and in the Con-
vention bore evidence of their superior standing in
the entire race of the country. This fact gave them
much inspiration and encouragement. The plan of
cooperation contemplated smaller appropriations from
the white organizations cooperating with the colored
Baptists, which necessitated larger appropriations
from the colored people themselves. Realizing the
great good which the plan had brought to the cause
the brethren rallied manfully. Their educational
work, which had too increased their burdens, made
it but the harder to support the cooperative work, but
they kept good their obligations, and thereby increased
the confidence of their white brethren. North and
South. Eight thousand dollars were reported in the
Durham Convention, which exceeded any report pre-
48 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
viously made. This did not include the amounts
raised for educational purposes. It was always diffi-
cult to get an accurate report from the different as-
sociations as it was well-nigh impossible to get all the
associations in the State to report to the Convention.
Some out of opposition, some from indifference and
several because of the spirit only to foster and sup-
port objects at their doors. Rev. W. T. H. Wood-
ward, failing in health, resigned as District Mission-
ary for Eastern North Carolina. Like Dr. Somer-
ville, Rev. Woodward did a lasting work in the east-
ern section of the State, and brought many in touch
with the work who had not previously supported it.
Rev. D. J. Avera, of Lumberton, N. C, was ap-
pointed to succeed Rev. Woodward. Rev. A. B. Vin-
cent, who had held the place of Central Missionary,
resigned his work to do pastoral work at Oxford. The
eastern and western sections were extended, which
made the central section smaller, and the General
Missionary took this section together with his. duties
as General Missionary. The Kinston meeting sug-
gested many changes. Dr. E. E. Smith was elected
as one of the editors of the Baptist Sentinel. The
American Baptist Home Mission Society submitted
a proposition to the Convention relative to Shaw Uni
versity. The Home Mission Society agreed if the
colored Baptists of North Carolina would raise five
thousand dollars for Shaw University they (the Home
Mission Society) would give thirteen thousand dol-
Educational and Missionary Convention. 49
lars for a Tupper Memorial Building and Estey Semi-
nary annex. The proposition was accepted, the place
of General Missionary abandoned, and the Corre-
sponding Secretary was appointed to raise the five
thousand dollars within the limited time of two years.
The Secondary Baptist Schools of North Carolina
were formed into a confederation to receive support
in part from the Convention. Although the amoimt
of money which each school received was very small
yet it stimulated the schools while it greatly increased
the interest in the Convention from the different sec-
tions where these schools were located.
Very much to the regret of the Convention Rev,
G. O. Bullock resigned as District Missionary for the
western section to take charge of the pastorate of the
Friendship Church, Charlotte, vacated by Rev. P. F.
Maloy. Dr. S. H. Witherspoon, of the Ebenezer
Church of Charlotte, was elected to take the place
made vacant by the resignation of Eev. Bullock.
After serving one year in this capacity Dr. Wither-
spoon was promoted to the position of Corresponding
Secretary. Eev. D. J. Avery left the eastern section
for the pastorate, and Rev. L. T. Bond was elected
at the Wilmington meeting to succeed him. It was
in the Salisbury meeting that the Convention heard
with profound regret of the death of Eev. G. W. Hol-
land, of the First Church of Winston-Salem, E". C.
Few men had done more than Rev. Holland both in
the extension of the church work and in his loyalty
50 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
to the Convention, and hence his death was keenly
felt by his brethren. Dr. L. G. Jordan, Correspond-
ing Secretary of the Foreign Mission Board of the
National Baptist Convention, was present in the
Salisbury meeting and the brethren gave him a royal
welcome, especially in view of the fact that it dem-
onstrated the union which for the first time in many
years existed between the two Conventions. Previous
to this time Dr. Beckham had visited the Convention,
but not in the capacity of an invited guest. We have
already mentioned the differences which arose be-
tween the Educational and Missionary Convention
of North Carolina and the National Baptist Conven-
tion. As a result of this difference the extreme east-
em section of the State had formed themselves into
an organization called "The Baptist State Convention
of North Carolina." The organization was formed
very much to the regret of the regular Convention
brethren, and existed for a short while. The feeling
between the brethren of the two Conventions was
never so radical as in other States where such rival
Conventions existed. Both felt that they were con-
tending for a principle. When the union between
the mother Convention of the State and the National
Convention was effected there was nothing for the
new Convention to feed upon, and hence instead of
strengthening it weakened.
The face of Dr. J. O. Crosby, so familiar to his
brethren when visiting Salisbury, was conspicuous
for the absence which had called him to distant Cali-
Educational and Missionary Convention. 51
fornia to take up his future abode. For many years
Dr. Crosby, one of the ablest men of the State, was
identified with every interest of the Baptists.
The first report of Dr. Witherspoon was read at
the Oxford Convention. Dr. Witherspoon was quite
zealous and faithful in carrying forward the cause
of the Convention as left to his care. There were,
however, many disadvantages under which he had
to labor. As we have already said according to the
plan of the work he had to raise larger amounts of
money, fewer and less experienced men to assist him,
and himself new to the field as a whole. Yet his
brethren acknowledged his faithfulness. The Baptist
Sentinel, the organ of the Convention, changed iu
part and Dr. C. S. Brown, a man of wide experience
as a writer and of exceptional ability, was made one
of the editors.
Dr. A. W. Pegues, Dean of the Theological De-
partment of Shaw University, had resigned as a ne-
cessity on account of his health, and had again as-
sumed control of the Deaf and Dumb Institution.
Dr. P. F. Morris, of Lynchburg, Virginia, was elected
in his place. He made his appearance before the
Convention in Oxford and presented a strong plea for
the work of the Department of Theology. The ten-
dency of so many of our people to erroneous views
on the questions of Sanctification, Holiness, the "'Sew
Tongue," caused the Convention to appoint Dr. Pe-
gues to give the Baptist view on the subject. When
he was through all understood our position as Bap-
52 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
tists on tlie questions, and all were greatly edified.
Dr. Clugh, Secretary of the Educational Board of
the ITational Baptist Convention, spoke on the estab-
lishment of a National Theological Seminary, to be
under the general supervision of the National Ba[)-
tist Convention. Dr. W. M. Alexander made an un-
usual impression in the interest of Foreign Missions.
Before the next meeting of the Convention, in the
Providence of God, Dr. Walter A. Patillo, of Oxford,
was taken away. Dr. Patillo was a strong man taken
from the ranks, loyal to every interest, and had done
quite a lot of church and other kinds of Christian
work. The Convention, as it appeared in 1908, was
far from the Convention of even fifteen years prior.
The church work in every respect had made great
strides. Brush arbors and log churches were no
more. In many instances brick structures had been
erected. The value of church edifices and Baptist
property had long since reached the hundreds of thou-
sands of dollars. The ministry compared favorably
with all the churches and the wilderness of the re-
cent past changed to blossom into intelligence, piety
and Christian dignity.
FOEEIGN MISSIONS— THE HAYES & ELEM-
MING FOREIGN MISSION SOCIETY.
The object of the Hayes & Flemming Foreign Mis-
sion Society was to aid in support of Rev. J. O. Hayes
and Miss Lula 0. Flemming, engaged in Foreign
Mission work in Africa.
Soon after these two consecrated servants graduated
from Shaw University they went to their fields of
labor. Brother Hayes felt called to go to Liberia.
West Africa; Sister Flemming to the Congo Free
State. To give them direct support, although the Na-
tion Baptist Foreign Mission Convention was in ope-
ration, this society was organized; and while its
headquarters were in Raleigh, branch societies were
organized and operated in different sections of the
Much of the Foreign Mission spirit which after-
ward prevailed in North Carolina was the result of
the Hayes & Flemming Society, with its branches, ex-
erting an influence here and there.
The work became so successfully organized until
almost every week during the year a Foreign Mission
contribution came into the main office. This was
kept up until the Foreign Mission Convention of the
United States adopted Rev. Hayes as their mission-
ary. Until this time his entire support came
through this society. And, too, in that dark period
54 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
there was nothing like the method in sending Foreign
Mission money as prevailed afterward.
It was an inspiration to meet in a Hayes & Flemm-
ing Society meeting. Usually a program was pro-
vided; reports from the missionaries were read and
sent broadcast, and everything to enlighten and in-
spire characterized these meetings. Hence the rapid
growth which led to more extensive work in the Dark
Continent. Hardly a Baptist meeting of any im-
port was held in the State unless a place was provided
for a missionary sermon. Dr. H. M. Tupper, Presi-
dent of Shaw University, was possibly the most active
worker the society had, and no work of his life of
usefulness appealed more closely to him than this
work. As in all other work he undertook he spared
neither time nor money to make the society go, and
Like some lovely flower which seems born to bloom
and give its fragrance and pass away, the Hayes &
Flemming Foreign Mission Society existed but for
a short time, but not like the fragrance of the flower
to die, it can not die, for through its influence, as we
have already said, life was infused into the Baptist
forces of the State, and to some extent on the country ;
its influence was and will be felt in the redemption
of precious souls on the burning sands of heathendom.
Such women as Miss Lula C. Flemming are sel-
dom found. Whatever she undertook to do she did
it fearlessly, and "with all her might." She soon
went beyond human endurance. She not only under-
Hayes and Flemming Missionary Society. 55
took to administer to the souls of men, but she came
back to Philadelphia, took a course in medicine and
went back with more zeal and earnestness to adminis-
ter to both soul and body. It was while contributing
to the latter that she fell a victim to a disease from
which she never rallied, althoiigh by a special Provi-
dence she was spared to reach her native land. Mis-
sions, the essence of Christianity, can not die. Al-
though Miss Plemming was called to a merited rest,
she adopted Kev. Tule, brought him to this country
to be educated for the work of the ministry in
Africa, and her mantle though worthily worn, fell on
the shoulders of an energetic and faithful successor.
With Rev. J. O. Hayes in the hands and under the
direction of the Foreign Mission Convention, and
with Miss Plemming transported to her place of final
rest, there remained no longer a cause for the exist-
ence of the Hayes & Flemming Foreign Mission So-
ciety. Hence the organization united with the Na-
tional Convention forces.
The Lott-Caeet Baptist Home and Foreign Mis-
sion Convention of the United States.
This Convention was organized in the city of
Washington in 1897.
In the National Convention, which met in the city
of Boston a year previous to the organization of the
Lott-Carey Convention, great dissatisfaction was ex-
pressed by many of the delegates on the ground that
56 Negro Baptists of North Ca/rolma.
the Convention covered too much territory, and a
great deal of money could be saved to the cause of
Foreign Missions by the Convention organizing it-
self into districts, and each district hold its annual
meetings and report through the regular organiza-
tion. A committee was appointed and a report was
submitted to the Convention, but was voted down.
Cooperation with the Northern and Southern white
Baptists was on trial in several of the States. The
Convention not only showed hostility to the district-
ing plan by an open vote in Convention, but its dis-
approval to the plan of cooperation. The delegation
from North Carolina were a unit for the district
plan and for cooperation. An informal meeting was
called of the brethren in Boston, and while no defi-
nite action was taken it was evident that a new con-
vention, whose policy should be cooperation and
economy in Foreign Missions, would be formed.
In the fall meeting of the North Carolina Conven-
tion in Charlotte, N. C, after careful consideration
a committee was appointed to issue a call to other
States to unite in the formation of a Foreign Mis-
sion Convention. Delegates from Virginia, Mary-
land, the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania and
other Eastern States, met in the city of Washington
and organized a convention, afterward named the
Lott-Carey Home and Foreign Mission Convention
of the United States.
Dr. P. F. Morris, of Lynchburg, Va., President;
Dr. W. M. Alexander, of Baltimore, Corresponding
Hayes and Flemming Missionary Society. 57
Secretary; Dr. A. W. Pegues, of Raleigh, N. C, Re-
cording Secretary; Dr. C. S. Brown, of Winton, N.
C, was elected President in the second annual meet-
ing. With these men in the lead, and with the loy-
alty of the Conventions, associations and churches
which had espoused the cause of the new convention
it took on new life in the beginning.
At first the Lott-Carey Convention met much op-
position from the old Convention, and led to divis-
ions in nearly all the States composing the new Con-
vention ; but through this rivalry the forces on either
side were greatly strengthened and a much greater
work was accomplished on the home and foreign
Beginning with an annual collection of four hun-
dred dollars, the Lott-Carey Convention soon grew to
the collection of as many thousand dollars each year.
The collections for the first six years were ten thou-
Standing for cooperation as one of its principles,
the plan was fairly tested in North Carolina and Vir-
ginia. Not only were the organizations in these two
States enabled to do the usual amount of work but
by far the greatest work in their history. Their
reports for their State work were much better and
their Foreign Mission collections were more.
In the annual Convention held in Baltimore it was
decided that the women should be organized into a
separate organization, auxiliary to the regular Con-
58 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
The organization was formed and known as the
Woman's Auxiliary Convention. The women proved
at once their ahility to raise money, and the first
year they raised as much money as the entire Con-
vention raised at its first session.
MiSSIONAEIES AND ThEIE WoEK.
Eev. J. O. Hayes, who had labored in Africa for
a number of years and at one time missionary under
the supervision of the National Baptist Convention,
accepted an appointment under the Lott-Carey Con-
vention ; Rev. John Tule, a native African, was also
appointed. Kev. C. C. Boone and Mrs. C. C. Boone
were afterward appointed.
The labors of these missionaries were abundantly
fruitful and successful. Rev. Tule, although labor-
ing under the supervision of the Lott-Carey Conven-
tion but five years, having been removed by death,
baptized three hundred native Africans. The death
of Rev. Tule was quite a blow to the Foreign Mis-
sion cause, but in his death the Convention's life
was by no means extinct. One of the converts of
Rev. Tule was Mdodana. Soon after Mdodana was
baptized he gave evidence of a call to the gospel min-
istry. He made known his call and a desire to pre-
pare for his life work.
Provision was made for Mdodana in one of the
Home Mission schools at Selma, Alabama, and after
three years of study Rev. Mdodana was prepared to
take up the mantle laid down by Tule.
Hayes (md Fhmming Missionary Society. 59
After traveling through North Carolina and cer-
tain portions of Virginia Mdodana set sail for the
field December 25, 1904.
Mrs. C. C. Boone had but fairly begun her work
among the heathen when she was called from labor
to reward. Only eighteen months in the work; but
they were months of arduous toil and care, and the
accomplishments for so short a time were an inspira-
tion to the husband still left to labor a little longer.
The Missionary Union of Boston greatly facilitated
the work of Rev. and Mrs. Boone. The Lott-Carey
Convention, maintaining as one of its principles
"cooperation with any and all Christian organiza-
tions for the advancement of the Kingdom," entered
into cooperation with the Missionary Union of Bos-
ton on condition that the union should furnish "the
base of operation" for its missionaries, while the sal-
ary and other expenses were to be met by the Con-
vention. This was a great advantage to the Con-
vention and to Rev. Boone, the first appointee under
the plan. Full of zeal and faith in his ability to
do the great work of soul saving. Rev. Boone proved
himself a great power in the Foreign Missionary
work. Many souls were brought to Christ, and a
broad foundation was laid for future results.
North Carolina, first in the organization, and hav-
ing two of her sons in the foreign field, had a great
incentive to the activity which characterized her re-
lations to the Convention from the beginning. Rev.
James O. Hayes, the veteran missionary, hailed from
60 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Sampson County, NortK Carolina. After gradu-
ating from Shaw University he gave his whole life
work to "the land of his fathers." While much of
his time was given to school work, he wrote his name
high on the roll of the Christian missionaries. We
have already said that the rivalry between the two
Conventions caused both to do more than they would
have done otherwise. The missionary force from the
National Convention weis largely increased, more
money was raised for the foreign work and more
care used in its appropriations.
The first seven years, in summing up the results,
the Corresponding Secretary showed that seventy
per cent of all collections raised on the home field
had been expended on the foreign field; that ten
thousand dollars had been raised and seven hundred
persons had been baptized as the direct results of the
missionary work of the Lott-Carey Baptist Home and
Foreign Mission Convention.
The reversal of the ITational Convention after
seven years proved the convincing influence of the
Cooperation as taught and practiced by the Lott-
Carey Convention was called subordination by the
parent body, but after six years the National Con-
vention reversed itself and entered into cooperation
with the Southern Baptist Convention (white), to
the exclusion of the Northern Baptists. After seven
years moving over a vast territory they decided
to organize a district convention, and in the same
Hayes and Flerwming Missionary Society. 61
city, just as their brethren of the Lott-Carey Con-
vention had done seven years prior. Thus the Lott-
Carey Convention was fully vindicated.
With the years the feeling between the two Con-
ventions was better, and at their sixth annual session
a commission was appointed by the Lott-Carey Con-
vention to meet the National Convention, looking to
some land of peace terms. While little apparently
was accomplished, it did much to modify the feelings
of the Conventions to each other. Viewing the Lott-
Carey Convention in its relation to cooperation, and
its organization at a time when the plan needed a
firm friend ; viewing it in its bold stand for economy
in Foreign Mission work, it was none other than a
creature born from above, and its mission none other
but a mission of righteousness.
Recognizing the change in the parent body, and
realizing the necessity of closer relations between
the two great Baptist organizations of the country,
delegations clothed with authority to effect a closer
unity were sent successively to the annual meetings
of the National Convention in Philadelphia, Chica-
go and Memphis, Tenn. At first their brethren re-
garded their coming with some suspicion, but when
they saw the earnestness of their plea for unity they
received them with open arms; and while they saw
the wisdom of the continuation of the district body,
in spirit and in kindly interest they became united.
62 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Eev. Mdodana who had labored in South Africa in-
dependent to his brethren, was placed under the di-
rection of the Foreign Mission Board of the ^National
The barriers which had stood in the way of the
progress of both Conventions were removed, and bit-
terness, the worst feature of the differences which
had existed for ten years, ceased.
Representatives and ofEcers of the one Convention
felt free to attend the meetings of the other. Con-
tributions were sent from the one to the other, and
a spirit of genuine love prevailed.
North Carolina Baptists, feeling themselves
largely responsible for the existence of the Lott-
Carey Convention, were faithful and loyal all the
way. It was the meeting of the Lott-Carey Conven-
tion in the First Baptist Church of Winston-Salem,
N. C, that North Carolina, in defiance of the opin-
ion of the others, took the lead for the union which
afterward followed. "First in war," when a prin-
ciple was involved, and "First in peace," when op-
position to this principle was removed. The Wo-
man's Convention of North Carolina, in its annual
session at Reidsville, 1907, voted the entire support
to Miss Cora A. Pair, one of the young women of
North Carolina who made known her call to the mis-
sion field of Africa. In 1908 she set sail for the
Dark Continent to spend herself in the work of sav-
ing the heathen. Three from among Negro Baptists
of North Carolina, within its short history of twelve
Hayes and Flemming Missionary Society. 63
years, were sent out by the Lott-Carey Convention
besides its contributions in money. With the angel
of peace and good will hovering over the two Con-
ventions, and with zealous-hearted men and women
on the home field and in the wilds of Africa, going
forth bearing to the heathen world the gospel, great
glory came both to the sender and the sent. Much
of the wonderful activity and progress of the work
on the home field came from the untiring efforts of
the President of the Convention, Dr. C. S. Brown,
of North Ca.olina, and much from Dr. W. M. Alex-
ander, the Corresponding Secretary, of Baltimore,
who, though hindered with the arduous duties of a
city pastorate, awakened much interest throughout
the bounds of the Convention.
THE PLAN OF OOOPEKATION IN NORTH
The Providence -whicli had been manifest in the
welfare of the Negro Baptists since their orginization
in Goldsboro in 1867, had something special in
store to be brought to them in their annual meeting
at Oxford, N. C, in 1894. A meeting between the
Northern and Southern Baptists (white) had been
held at Fortress Monroe September 12th and 13th,
1894, to devise plans by which the two sections
might work together for the further uplift and de-
velopment of the Negro. When this meeting was
called there was much apprehension lest the effort
should prove futile. God watching over the destiny
of His people willed it otherwise, and what the ar-
dent friends of the race feared did not happen.
Everything presented on either side, instead of meet-
ing with bitter opposition, was kindly received, and
soon it was evident that the North and the South,
so long apart, could and did reach an amicable agree-
Another meeting was called in Atlanta in the same
year. The plan, with some modifications at this next
meeting, met the hearty endorsement of both sides.
This plan was submitted to the colored Convention
at its meeting at Oxford, N. C, for ratification. It
was afterward submitted to the white Convention at
Greensboro. Both adopted the report and it was im-
Plan of Cooperation. 65
mediately put into prosecution. The following be-
came parties to the plan for North Carolina: The
Home Mission Society, New York City; the South-
em Baptist Convention, Atlanta, Ga. ; the white Con-
vention of North Carolina and the Educational and
Missionary Convention of North Carolina, The
work began at once. Missionaries were appointed as
follows: Rev. C. S. Brown, General Missionary;
Rev. A. B. Vincent, Central Missionary; Eev. P. !F.
Maloy, Western Missionary ; J. A. Whitted, Eastern
Missionary. The objects of the plan, as stated, were
to effect the strongest possible combination of talent
and resources for the better organization and more
efficient prosecution of missionary and educational
work among the colored people in North Carolina,
and the Christian development of our Baptist forces
in the State.
The Beiatign of the Coopeeative OEGAiirizATioKs
TO Each Otheb.
For the foregoing purposes in the State of North
Carolina these organizations shall be regarded as co-
ordinate bodies, and all work undertaken under this
plan of cooperation shall be with the concurrence
of all their recognized officers or Boards. The work
in the State shall be under the immediate direction
of the State Convention or its Executive Board, in
conformity with this plan of cooperation; but rep-
resentatives of other cooperative bodies shall have
the right to make inquiries concerning the work.
66 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Methods of Woek.
There shall be one general missionary and not to
exceed four district missionaries for the State, each
of the latter having a designated section for his field.
The salaries of these missionaries and their expenses
shall be borne as follows: For the first year one-
fourth by each organization; the second year two-
fifths by the State Convention, and the other three-
fifths by the other bodies.
The plan further outlines the duties of the mis-
sionaries on the field ; plan of reports, relation of the
missionaries to the cooperating bodies and to each
other. The most important feature of the plan of
cooperation was the New Era Institute. One of
these meetings was provided for alternately each week
throughout the different districts. A thorough course
of lectures was provided on Biblical Theology, Church
History, Christian Missions, Christian Education and
other subjects, covering a period of three years. The
best talent available, both colored and white, was se-
cured to deliver lectures in these meetings. Another
feature of the plan was to do missionary work proper
in the rural and destitute sections of the State, and
to raise money for the furtherance of the objects of
the Convention. For the twelve years of cooperation
some of the ablest men of the denomination in the
State were employed : Rev. C. C. Somerville, D. D. ;
Eev. W. T. H. Woodward, Eev. D. J. Avera, Rev.
G. 0. Bullock, D.D. : Rev. D. J. Witherspoon, D.D. ;
Rev. L. T. Bond.
Plan of Cooperation. 67
CooPEEATioN Eminently Successful.
The plan of cooperation provided for only three
years. The wisdom of the plan was so evident that
a continuation was imperatively necessary. Through-
out the State such changes were effected as to bring
hope and cheer from time to time to its promoters.
When cooperation began in North Carolina the Con-
vention was comparatively weak in the scope of its
missionary and educational operation and in the in-
fluence exerted even in its own ranks. Only one mis-
sionary was employed, and it was utterly impossible
for one missionary over such a vast territory to do
the necessary work. His work in the past was largely
confined to the central sections of the State. Scarcely
anything was done for ministerial education, and but
little more for the missionary work. The Convention
counted itself fortunate to realize as much as three
hundred dollars for all purposes per annum. Pew
took part in deliberations. This condition caused
the State to be fully prepared for a change of some
kind, and the Convention to give a hearty welcome
as a promise of better conditions. When the plan
was proposed to the Convention which met in its an-
nual session at Oxford, IST. C, in the fall of 1895, it
was gladly and almost unanimously accepted. The
churches entered into it with heart and hand.
The Institute Woek.
While North Carolina preachers compared favor-
ably with those of any other State when the work
68 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
began, yet they were far behind. The Institute soon
awakened new life in the ministry throughout the
State; many libraries were purchased, schools were
better attended, even by the pastors; more attention
was given to the preparation and delivery of ser-
mons, and in many ways decided changes were real-
ized as the direct result of these meetings held in the
different and destitute sections of the State. Not
only was there an awakening in the pulpit, but es-
pecially was it seen and felt in the pew ; and as might
be expected many changes were made in the pastor-
ates throughout the State. Much of the sentimental
and demonstrative worship gave way to intelligence
and practical Christianity. As a natural consequence
a change in the churches meant change in the associ-
ations and other religious organizations. At the end
of the twelve years of cooperation in many respects
the colored Baptists of North Carolina stood in the
foremost ranks of Baptists, certainly in the manage-
ment and deportment of their deliberative bodies.
Such things as "points of order" and needless dis-
cussion, rows and confusions were things of the past.
Said a gentleman visiting our State Convention,
"When are you going to fuss ?" The reply was, "We
are not going to fuss." North Carolina Baptists
had been taught that it was not dignified, it was not
religious to "fuss," and this training through which
they had so recently passed had much to do with such
Plan of Cooperation. 69
Tlie largest collection ever reported at any session
of the Convention previous to the adoption of coopera-
tion was three hundred dollars, and when this report
was made by the Treasurer the Convention iinited
in singing "Praise God, from whom all blessings
Immediately aft«r the new plan was operated a
decided change was manifest and for each one hun-
dred dollars a thousand dollars was realized. At one
session eight thousand dollars was reported as an
annual contribution for all objects. The change in
the amount of finance realized was by no means eon-
fined to the Convention. New life and inspiration
was infused in churches and other bodies throughout
the State; increased collections and hence a higher
financial mark was the cry from the mountains to
the seashore. Better churches were erected, more
work of charity undertaken, and the missionary had
a kindly welcome in sections where the work previous
to this time had been hindered.
Mission AET Feature.
Shaw University, until then only partly filled, was
filled to overflowing, and the twelve years of coopera-
tion closed as should be with the beginning of a de-
termined effort to provide facilities for still larger
numbers. While all that might have been done with
regard to missions was not done, owing to the re-
quirements of the plan for an increased appropriation
70 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
from the Convention with the increase of years, yet
sections of the State were reached which had not been
reached before, and sections contributed to the Con-
vention which hardly knew before that there was a
Convention. While twelve years of the work marked
but a beginning, yet those twelve years vsdll always
be regarded by loyal Baptists as a Godsend from the
white Baptists and at an opportune moment. Not only
did the State missionaries get a hearing in sections
before unknown, but many associations of these sec-
tions had missionaries of their own, and through them
quite an interest was awakened. In some instances
these missionaries united wixh the State missionaries,
and thereby added new strength. The Convention
of the State was encouraged to appoint local mission-
aries. At one time there were four such mission-
aries laboring side by side Avith the State mis-
sionaries. Associations came into the Convention
with men from their fields recommended for their
Special section. This was not only added strength to
the Convention but renewed interest to the associa-
tion. This work added much support to the endeav-
ors of the women through their State organization to
reach the people. For a long time it was extremely
difficult for the women to do any work, but with the
increase of this missionary spirit they were enabled
to reach sections which they dare not undertake to
reach before the infusion of this mission spirit.
Local Missions, State Missions, Foreign Missions was
the cry throughout North Carolina.
Plan of Cooperation. 71
MucK praise is due the white brethren, North and
South, for this movement. They entered the work
with a will and at each step their instruction and ad-
vice have done much to make it what it was. Evi-
dently it was intended for the emergency. It came
at a time when political upheavals, which the colored
people regarded as alarming, prevailed throughout the
South. The only star of hope, as the colored Bap-
tists of North Carolina saw it, was held out in the
work of cooperation. The white brethren brought
in touch with the leaders of the new movement offered
the best advice they could under the circumstances,
for no one could tell the outcome; and the leaders
in turn gave this kindly advice to give comfort and
cheer to their depressed brethren throughout the
State. One of the white brethren was heard to say.
"It was the leaders in cooperation that calmed the
troubled waters." To some extent this may be at-
tributing too much to cooperation, but certainly, com-
ing at such a time and bringing the leaders of these
two strongest church forces face to face from time
to time in these meetings effecting the best under-
standing for such a period, must have had quite a
wholesome bearing upon both races.
While much credit and lasting gratitude is due
the brethren of the North, much was due the South.
The North contributed their pro rata in money; the
South not only gave money but their time and talent.
72 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
and, as we have already intimated, advice at a time
when it was imperatively necessary. It was hard
to the Negroes of ISTorth Carolina, as they saw it,
when the right of franchise was taken from the vast
majority. The presence of the white brother at such
a time relieved the situation and helped to remove
the opinion so prevalent that the white people of
Worth Carolina had no care for the Negro.
And, too, be it said, those who came to speak on
such occasions were armed with the truth and so
fully prepared they gave splendid light and informa-
tion on the subjects laid down in the plan for the
Institutes. Nothing of the past so enabled the white
brethren to understand the colored brother, and noth-
ing had done so much to bring the colored brother
in closer touch and interest with his white brother.
They were brought not only to labor together, but the
one to pray for the advancement of the other in the
blessed cause of the Redeemer's Kingdom.
The Tuppeb Memobiai, Building and the Estey
A splendid test of the changes which had come
over the colored Baptists of North Carolina came to
them just at the close of ten years of the plan of
cooperation. The offer of a conditional gift was made
to the Trustees of Shaw University of thirteen thou-
sand dollars for an industrial building to the mem-
ory of Dr. H. M. Tupper, founder of the University,
and an annex to Estey Seminary, provided the col-
Plan of Cooperation. 73
ored people of the State would raise five thousand
The time-limit for the raising of this amount was
two years. The Convention in its annual session at
Kinston accepted the proposition, and the Corre-
sponding Secretary of the Convention was appointed
agent to raise the five thousand dollars. To meet
these conditions not only must the five thousand be
raised but an additional thousand, making six thou-
sand in all to be raised. Responses were generous.
Eighteen hundred dollars of the amount were pledged
on the floor of the Convention, and wherever the
agent appeared the people were ready to give. Much
to the credit of the uneducated people their responses
surpassed many who had the advantages of an edu-
cation. With the expiration of the two years the
amount was in hand, and the thirteen thousand se-
cured. The building stands there as a mark of the
respect and love of the colored people of North Caro-
lina to the great and good man who laid the founda-
tion and paved the way for the uplift of the !N"egro
youth not only in North Carolina but throughout
the Southland. While much of the success of the
undertaking was due to the esteem in which Dr. Tup-
per was held by the colored people of North Caro-
lina, much depended upon the improved condition
of the people brought about through the developments
To have undertaken such a task previous to the
new movement would have "been a useless task, es-
74 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
pecially in so short a time, but the twelve years of
giving had taught the people to give, and when called
upon it was comparatively easy to meet the require-
ments of the gift. Lasting gratitude and praise to
all who brought cooperation to North Carolina.
Grate's Creek Association.
The Gray's Creek Association was organized soon
after the war in Bladen County, with only three
churches in the organization : New Hope, New Light
and Gray's Creek. There were present in the or-
ganization Elders John Croslin, J. M. Whitted, Sam-
uel Boon, assisted by Elders James Register, James
Toler. Eive associations have been formed out of
the Gray's Creek: The Lumber River, the Union,
the Lake Waccamaw, the Hammond's Creek and the
Kinston Lake. Elders J. Croslin, J. M. Whitted.
S. Boon, S. H. McKoy, James Bright, John Marley,
Mitchell Morrison, R. Johnson, T. Cain, D. Graham,
C. R. Baldwin, J. A. Spaulding, H. Gore, N. Robe-
son, B. W. Williams, A. Thompson, E. Thompson.
H. S. McNeill, N. B. Dunham, Gilbert Monroe, L.
Hodge S. Chestnut. The progress of the Gray's
Creek Association has been gradual. It has done
some work in the direction of missions and educa-
tion, and its hopes like many others are bright.
The Ebbnbzee Association.
The Ebenezer Association was organized in the
year 1890 in the Ebenezer Baptist Church, Cleveland
County. There were thirteen churches in the or-
ganization. Rev. A. Ellis was the first Moderator;
76 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Rev. W. A. Eoberts, Secretary; Brother B. Gingles,
Treasurer. Like other associations this organization
has fostered Home and Foreign Missions, helped
weak churches and assisted in the cause of education,
especially in that section of North Carolina.
The Yadkin Baptist Association.
The Yadkin Association was organized in the
Thomasville Baptist Church September 17, 1874.
Rev. H. Cowan, C. Ellis and W. Leak were in the
organization. The following churches composed the
Association: Pleasant Hill, Pee Dee, Thomasville.
Red Hill, Macedonia, Saron, Mt. Pleasant, Snuggs'
Grove Mt. Vernon, Leak's Chapel, Olive Grove, Gar-
ris Grove, Moore's Grove, Hamar's Grove, Liberty
Hill, Troy-Norwood, Wadesboro.
The ministers of this Association are Elders W.
Leak, B. R. Richardson, M. Ingram, H. G. Hyatt,
I. M. Elake, K. W. Wall, Alfred Reed, S. D. Davis,
Levi Ingram, S. A. Dunlap, P. J. Ewing. The mem-
bership in 1906 was nine hundred. The church prop-
erty amounted to five thousand two hundred dollars.
Altogether there were raised by the Association three
thousand six hundred dollars, which was used in the
cause of missions, education and aged ministers.
The Pee Dee Union Association.
The Pee Dee Union Association was organized
Thursday before the third Sunday in October, 1899.
by Revs. E. W. Andrews, W. H. Diggs, G. C. Bow-
den, J. E. Ellerbee and F. M. McCall, at Saron Bap-
tist Church. The following churches compose this
Association: Pleasant Grove, Providence, Mt. Mo-
riah, Belford, Diamond Grove, Friendship and Mt.
Olive. The Association had a membership of seven
hundred in 1906; church property to the amount of
a thousand dollars. It had, besides its usual expenses;
contributed regularly to Home and Foreign Mis-
The Shiloh Baptist Association (West).
The Shiloh Baptist Association northwest of Char-
lotte, N. C, was organized at the Washington
Church, near Waco, N. C, 1867. 'Rev. Samuel Fox,
of Waco, was the principal mover in the organiza-
tion. At one time this Association formed a part
of the Mecklenburg Association, and the two re-
mained together about two years. Afterward there
was a separation — the one assuming the name of the
Ebenezer, while the other retained the name of Shi-
loh. Since that time the Association has developed the
following membership : Mt. Sinai, Salem, Gold Hill,
Bethel, Mt. Vernon, Fancy Hill, Springfield, Smith-
field, Mt. Carmel, Dallas, Galilee, Mt. Moriah, Mt.
Olive, Providence, St. Philips, Woodford Chapel.
Providence, Maiden. It had a membership of eight
hundred and thirty-one in 1906.
High Point Missionaey Baptist Association.
The High Point Missionary Baptist Association
was organized at High Point, N". C, the second week
78 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
in August, 1891. Kevs. Anthony Wilborn, S.
Thomas, F. K.. Howell, W. D. Haden and others com-
posed the organization. It took its name from the
name of the town where the first meeting was held.
This Association came out from the Kowan, and is
composed of churches in the counties of Guilford,
Alamance, Randolph, Davidson and Orange. Con-
sidering the Association to be one of the small asso-
ciations and composed of small churches, no associa-
tion in the State is more loyal to the work of the
Convention than the High Point Association. Since
its organization until 1906 eight hundred and fifty
dollars had been raised. This amount was used in
the support of missions, Home and Foreign, minis-
terial education, the Orphan Asylum and church ex-
tension. The following churches compose the Asso-
ciation: Elm Grove, Locust Grove, Jones, Gibson-
ville, New Light, Mt. Pisgah, Rocky Springs, Lati-
cure. Friendship, St. John, Graham, Locust Grove
(Alamance), Cross Roads, Main St., Hillsboro, Aus-
tin Grove, Mechanic, Asheboro, Randleman, Trinity.
Thomasville, Mt. Pleasant, Liberty Grove, Rock
The following are the ordained ministers : A. Wil-
born, S. Thomas, E. Graves, C. IST. Brown, F. A.
Long, J. W. Turner, C. Hughes, S. Troxler, G. W.
Austin, W. W. Price, B. F. Bobbins, W. E. Graves.
Grimes. The High Point Association has a member
ship of twelve hundred and fifty, and houses of wor-
ship valued at five thousand dollars.
The Lake Waccamaw Missionary Baptist Asso-
This Association was organized at the Baptist
church near Lake Waccamaw, and on which account
it takes its name. The organization dates from the
year 1884. Five churches came out from the Gray's
Creek Association and formed the Lake Waccamaw:
Little Wheel of Hope, Whiteville, White Pond, Sandy
Plain and Welch's Creek, with the following minis-
ters: D. Graham, I. Cain, M. Morrison, R. John-
son, C. E. Baldwin, J. A. , Spaulding and D. J.
About one thousand dollars had been raised since
its organization, 1884 — 1906. The Association as-
sisted the Thompson Institute at Lumberton, Home
and Foreign Missions and ministerial education. St.
John and St. James Churches were added to the orig-
inal number. The property of these seven churches
amounted to three thousand five hundred dollars.
Eevs. P. J. McKoy, J. S. McKoy, T. H. Crawford
and A. S. Mitchell have been added to the list of
The Nexise Eivee Baptist Association.
The ISTeuse River Baptist Association was organ-
ized in the town of Halifax, E". C, in 1866. Rev.
Ananias Buck, Benjamin Moore, John Washington
and C. Johnson were in the organization. The
churches of Northampton, Halifax, Edgecombe and
a part of Warren formed this Association. The or-
80 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
ganization soon developed into a large body of
churches. While the Association has boasted of large
numbers, twenty thousand members in the different
churches, comparatively little was given to missions
outside its bounds, and but little educational work
accomplished. A feeble effort was made to establish
a school at Weldon, ]^. C. A site was purchased
with a small building, and for two years a school
was carried on, but the building burned and a tract
of land was purchased outside the town of Weldon.
As in all the other associations of ISTorth Carolina
there were some splendid men and leaders, but some-
how they exerted but little influence, and hence the
small amount of good accomplished either for mis-
sions or education. In 1908 there were some addi-
tions to its forces which gave promise of better re-
sults. With such churches as compose the Associa-
tion there was every opportunity for splendid re-
The Beulah Associatiokt.
This Association was formed in part out of the
Neuse River Association and the West Roanoke As-
sociation. All the churches of the West Roanoke
Association in ISTorthampton County and a number
from the Neuse River in 1903 agreed and formed
the Beulah Association. Rev. W. T. H. Woodward,
of Littleton, IST. C, was the first Moderator. From
its incipiency the Beulah Association was a part of
and loyal to the State Convention. Its moral and
financial support was given to the Kich Square Acad-
emy at Rich Square, N. C, and the Garysburg High
School, at Garysburg, ]^. C. The Beulah Associa-
tion was greatly hindered in its infancy on account
of the indisposition of its Moderator, who was
stricken down with paralysis.
The Old Easteeit Missionaey Baptist Associa-
The Old Eastern Missionary Baptist Association
was organized at James City in the church then
known as "Slab Chapel," but since the name has
been changed to Pilgrim Chapel. Its first Moderator
was Rev. Samuel Peterson, with Fred Long as Secre-
tary. Hull Grimes, Nat Benton, Elias Brown, Henry
Simmons, Emanuel Reynolds, Thad Wilson, Thos.
Erkett and John Washington were in the organiza-
tion which took place in the fall of 1865.
In 1866 a number of the members of the Old East-
ern Association obtained letters and organized an as-
sociation in Halifax County, the Neuse River Asso-
ciation. Later on the New Bern Eastern Associatioo
was formed from the Old Eastern in the same way.
In the early history of this Association some of
the delegates and preachers walked seventy-five and
even a hundred miles to attend the annual sessions.
In 1899 the Association numbered sixty-five
churches, with church property amounting to twenty
thousand dollars. In 1900 a site was purchased at
82 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Greenville, in Pitt County, for the purpose of carry-
ing on an associational school. In 1904 Rev. W. A.
Taylor, pastor of the church at Greenville, was elected
first principal. Although the site was adjoining the
graded school, which gave many disadvantages to
its success, the graded school requiring no tuition, and
the Tar Eiver Institute having to require a tuition
fee. Despite this the Institute was a decided suc-
cess. For many years Rev. T. S. Evans was the Mod-
erator of this Association. Much of the success of
the Association was due to the untiring efforts of
The Beunswick Atlantic Associatiost.
The Brunswick Atlantic Association was organ-
ized December 5, 1896, in Pleasant View Baptist
Church, Brunswick County. There were but ttve
churches in the organization. In 1908 there were
thirteen. Rev. J. H. Rhoe and Rev. J. S. Gore were
with the Association in its origin, and for many
years afterward were the leaders. There were eight
ordained preachers and twelve hundred members.
There was a Sunday School Convention connected
with this Association organized a year previous at
WhiteviUe, N. C. Rev. D. C. Gore, G. A. Best and
William Davis were the leading forces of the Sun-
day School Convention for several years. There
were five hundred members represented in the
schools composing the Convention.
The New Been Eastern Missionaey Baptist As-
This Association, although it soon grew to be as
large as the parent Association, came out from the
Old Eastern Association. The first session of this
body was held in the Cedar Grove Baptist Church.
New Bern, N. C, 1875.
There were included in this Association the
churches in the counties of Pamlico, Beaufort, Hyde,
Jones and Craven. There were as many as fifty and
sometimes a larger number of churches represented
in the annual meetings of this Association. In the
early history of this vast body, representing twenty-
five thousand in membership, with much ignorance
predominant, bitter strife was often precipitated, and
for a time it looked as if the Baptist cause through-
out that section was hopeless. Possibly no forces
did more to bring the change than the saintly women
of New Bern and James City, Misses Waugh and
Williams, sent as missionaries representing the Wo-
men's Home Mission Society of Chicago. The toils,
and even sufferings at times, and the splendid work
of these godly women will never be known until the
deeds of men shall be read in the great judgment.
The greatest hindrances to their labors as they
have often related came from the leaders of this As-
sociation, the ministers of that vast section. Like
many others of our associations in the State time
brought many changes, and much of the contention,
84 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
strife and superstition of that section passed away
as time advanced and these old leaders passed away.
As evidence of their prejudice it was related upon
good authority that this Association held one of its
annual sessions in New Bern in one of the churches,
while the State Convention of North Carolina was in
another of the churches of the same city, and no at-
tention whatever was paid by the Association to the
great State body. We were a witness to the fact that
one of the leaders of this body went around the
streets of New Bern with a petition trying to get
the other ministers to sign it, pledging not to attend
a meeting of the New Era Institute, although the
President of the State Convention, the President of
Shaw University and the Corresponding Secretary
of the American Baptist Home Mission Society were
The brethren fell in line, however; the spirit to
educate and go forward took hold of them; a school
was erected in Brownsville, just across the river from
New Bern and beyond James City, and like other
sections of the State, even in the life of Misses Waugh
and Williams, could the good seed they had so faith-
fully sown be seen to take root, spring up and begin
the bearing of fruit to God's glory.
The Oakt Geove and Teent Kivee Association.
The Oaky Grove and Trent River Association
came out from the New Bern Eastern, and was or-
ganized in 1882. But few churches at first, the num-
ber soon grew to twenty-two churches. Their boun-
daries lay west of the New Bern Eastern, and with
the educational fever felt over the State they began
the establishment of a school at Jacksonville, N. C.
For a number of years after its establishment Kevs.
W. H. Moore and Everett were the leaders. With
few churches and small revenues the school grew
slowly but surely, and with it the Association.
The Beae Ceeek Association.
The Bear Creek Association was organized in 1872
by Kev. E.. H. Harper, who was in the organization
of the Educational and Missionary Convention, to-
gether with Rev. W. H. Croom, Rev. J. 0. Carroll,.
Eev. I. IST. Patterson. Eev. A. A. Smith, the Secre-
tary for many years, did much to strengthen the cause
of the Bear Creek Association. Eev. W. L. Hood
was for many years the Moderator. In 1906 the
records contained a list of thirty-four churches, a
membership of eighteen hundred and ninety-seven,
and church property valued to the amount of twelve
thousand one hundred and seventy-five dollars. The
Association was always generous to worthy objects,
as was shown from their annual reports.
The Middle Associatiok'.
The Middle Association came out from the Shiloh
Baptist Association, and was organized 1891. The
Shiloh Association had purchased a school site at
Warrenton, N. C, and each of the churches of the
86 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
body was assessed to meet the annual payments on
the school property. Many of the churches remote
from Warrenton did not feel the same interest in
the school project and complained that they were
called upon to meet the assessments, and hence de-
cided to withdraw.
Eleven churches signed a call for letters which
the mother association granted, and a meeting was
held at Shiloh Baptist Church, Kittrell, IST. C., and
an organization effected under the name of the Mid-
dle Association. Dr. W. A. Patillo was the leader
in this movement. Dr. R. I. Walden, of Henderson.
ISr. C, was elected the first President; Rev. A. B. J.
Wyche, Secretary. Eev. T. H. Burwell and Rev. T.
B. Hicks were also leaders in the organization. This
Association had no special project on hand, but was
loyal especially to Foreign Missions, ministerial edu-
cation and to the interests of the State Convention.
The Middle District Association.
Soon after the close of the war in the Providence
of God there came to the city of Wilmington Rev.
Wm. H. Banks from the State of Virginia. For a
time he was the pastor of the First Baptist Church
of Wilmington, IST. C. For some cause a division oc-
curred and the pastor, together with a number of
the members withdrew, and organized the Ebenezer
Church. Rev. Wm. A. Greene united with Rev.
Banks and they began the organization of churches
in ISTew Hanover, Duplin, Sampson and Bladen
Counties ; ordaining men to the gospel and establish-
ing the work generally. Kansom Royals, Richard
Keithron, Wm. Devane were among the men and
were lifelong friends of the Association which was
afterwards formed. In Aiigust, 1872, a meeting
was called of the churches and pastors at the Ebe-
nezer Baptist Church, Wilmington, and the Middle
District Association was organized. There were
eighteen churches in the organization. Rev. Wm.
Devane, Henry Andrews and E. J. Bell were ap-
pointed successively as missionaries to labor in the
counties of Brunswick, Pender, New Hanover, Samp-
son and Duplin to organize new churches, strengthen
those already organized, and to build up the work in
general. The money raised in the first few years
of the organization was devoted to these churches,
especially the weaker churches.
The Burgaw High School was the product of the
Middle District Association. This school proved a
decided blessing in many respects to the Association
and to that section of l^orth Carolina.
The Mountain anb Catawba Association,
The Mountain and Catawba Association was or-
ganized at Claremont, N. C, in the year 1875. The
following ministers were present in the organization :
Rev. B. F. Watts, Berry Lyons and Brother D.
Lynch. The object set forth in the formation of
the Association was education and missions. The
Baptists in that section of the State were not so nu-
88 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
merous as in other sections, and hence the Associa-
tion was necessarily composed of fewer churches and
leaders. The organization finally gained enough to
swell the number to twenty-two, and with the in-
crease of churches there was an increase of men. Kev.
W. S. Dacons came to the Association at an oppor-
tune time. Like many other associations throughout
the State in 1905 the Association, together with the
Convention, which had been organized five years
prior, decided to establish a school at Claremont, I^^.
C, and Kev,. Dacons, of Statesville, 'E. C, was ap-
pointed to take charge of the school. The Mountain
and Catawba, like most of the mountain associations,
for some cause did not unite with the State Conven-
tion for many years, but accomplished a splendid
work in their immediate section.
The Gold Hill Association.
The Gold Hill Association embraced the churches
west of the Ebenezer Association, and in 1908 had
on its roll fifteen churches. Like many other asso-
ciations for many years after its organization its
greatest need was a sufficient number of able men
to properly conduct its affairs; yet despite its hin-
drances its growth was seen from year to year. To-
gether with the Ebenezer Association the Gold Hill
gave its support to the Western Union Academy at
Eutherfordton, N. C. The Western Union Academy,
first under the leadership of Eev. W. T. Askew, and
afterward Rev. R. B. Watts, gave much strength di-
rectly and indirectly to the Association. For many
years Rev. E. A. Hemphill was its Moderator. With
each year of its growth, together with other associa-
tions of the mountain section, the tendency was to-
ward intelKgence and general denominational unity.
The McDowell Association.
This Association lies north of the Gold Hill. The
churches of this Association are still fewer and
smaller than the Gold Hill; its leaders fewer and
it has no special object for contribution. Up to 1908
but little inspiration had been awakened in the Mc-
Dowell, but it was hoped with the passing years this
condition would be changed, or the Association would
see the wisdom of uniting with some stronger body
Kenahsville Easteen Association.
The name of the Kenansville Eastern Association
originated with the place of its first meeting, which
was Kenansville, N. C, November, 1870; and, too.
.there was a white association by the same name. The
following ministers were present in the organization :
T. Parker, A. B." Williams, B. B. Spicer, D. T. Best
and John F. Hill. The first Moderator was Rev. A.
B. Williams. The following churches were repre-
sented and composed the first meeting: First Bap-
tist Kenansville, Six Eun, First Baptist Clinton.
Warsaw and Hill's Chapel. The largest number of
churches afterward represented at any annual session
was forty-eight. The two leading spirits of the As-
90 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
sociation for many years were Rev. Thomas Parker,
who was Moderator for twenty-four years, and Hon.
A. R. Middleton, Secretary for thirty years. Rev.
J. O. Hayes, for years missionary to Africa, came
out of the Kenansville Eastern Association. The
school at Faison, N. C, became one of the objects
of the Association, and the Sunday School Conven-
tion of the same name. Foreign Missions came in
for a great share of the Association's interest, and
especially since one of its men was on the foreign
field. The Association was represented regularly in
The West Union Association.
The West Union Association came out from the
Kenansville Eastern in the year 1904, soon after the
old association had held its annual meeting in Wil-
mington, N. C. Like the mother association the West
Union began with five churches, but it began at once
to increase in numbers, and as it had for its object
the Union Academy at Clinton it began at once to
assert its usefulness and development. Soon the Eirst
Church at Clinton, which was in the organization
of the Kenansville Eastern, united with the West
Union. Other churches, especially from Sampson
County, fell in line, which greatly strengthened the
body both in size and in finance. Rev. A. A. Smith,
pastor of the Eirst Church of Clinton, was the Mod-
erator. Rev. C. T. Underwood was quite active in
the organization, and was greatly helpful to its ex-
The Wake Baptist Association.
The Wake Baptist Association was organized with
Rev. George W. Harris Moderator, G. W. Freeman,
"The promotion of the Kingdom of Christ," put-
ting it in terse language, was the object of the Wake
This the Association endeavored to accomplish
from year to year by donating to State Missions, min-
isterial education, Foreign Missions, and aiding the
weaker churches within its bounds. This Associa-
tion has contributed larger sums to young men pre-
paring themselves for the ministry than any other
similar organization in the State. It was in the
Wake Association that the Oxford Orphan Asylum
was conceived. A committee was appointed to meet
with others in Henderson, and as a result of this con-
ference the Grant Colored Orphan Asylum was estab-
lished. The Association has since felt a peculiar re-
sponsibility toward the asylum, making annual con-
tributions for its maintenance. The Association in
1908 had forty-three churches, forty-two ordained
and twenty-seven licensed preachers ; forty-three Sun-
day Schools, with six thousand one hundred and
thirty members to the churches, and three thousand
two hundred and twenty-six pupils in regular attend-
ance in the Sunday Schools. Many of the churches
of the Wake Association have B. Y. P. U. Societies.
The Association loyally supports the Lott-Carey Con-
92 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
vention and the Educational and Missionary Conven-
tion of North Carolina.
The New Hope Association.
The New Hope Association was organized in Chat-
ham County in 1870. Kevs. C. L. Hackney, E. H.
Cole, C. D. Hackney, Jack Taylor and Wm. Taylor
formed the ministry in the organization. Like many
other associations the New Hope has developed won-
derfully since its organization. Erom the few scat-
tered churches it has grown to forty-two churches,
with a membership of ten thousand. Many of the
ministers of the Association in 1908 were men who
had advantages of Shaw University. No association
of the State was more loyal to the cause of Foreign
Missions and the objects of the Convention. Revs.
J. H. Dunston, L. H. Hackney, B. F. Hopkins, M.
W. Brown and J. H. Caldwell, following in the wake
of the old men of the organization, made the New
Hope Association what it was. Whatever the Bap-
tists of the State undertook that is what these men
fell in line with, and ceased not until that object was
The Rowan Baptist Association.
The Rowan Baptist Association was organized in
1877 in a hospital at Salisbury, which was afterward
purchased by the Baptists there and was organized
as the Dixonville Baptist Church. Revs. Harry
Cowan, Z. Horton and Cumbe Ellis were the minis-
ters presenj in the organization. Rev. Harry Cowan
was the first Moderator. There have presided over
this body since : Revs. John Washington, Z. Horton,
Gove Crowell, George Bowles, J. O. Crosby, P. S.
Lewis, C. 0. Somerville, C. L. Davis and G. W.
There were three churches in the organization, and
except the Dixonville, in the hospital as stated, the
others worshiped under brush arbors. At the As-
sociation in Charlotte in 1908, there were sixty-five
churches, with a membership of twelve thousand, and
church edifices worth two hundred thousand dollars.
Altogether the best edifices among the Baptists o±
North Carolina were to be found in the bounds of
the Rowan Association. This was said as well of
While there were many able preachers in other as-
sociations, there were more at that period in the
Rowan than in any other. The school facilities were
not equal by far ; they had not the secondary schools
as the others. At a time the Rowan ITormal School
was conducted by Dr. C. 0. Somerville in Charlotte.
While the Association made annual contributions to
it, it was never adopted as the property of the As-
When Dr. Somerville was called to Portsmouth
the Salisbury people took the school there and con-
ducted it, changing the name of it to the Piedmont
Institute. The Association was liberal in its contri-
butions to mission work and ministerial education.
94 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
It was from this Association the strongest support
came to the State Convention, especially in the early
years of its history.
Hammond^s Ceeek Baptist Association.
Hammond's Creek Baptist Association was organ-
ized in the year 1886, with the Kev. Gilbert Monroe
as its first President. Seven churches met together
for the advancement of Christ's Kingdom in the
world. Since its organization eight more churches
have been added. Such heroes as the late Revs. Jo-
seph Mackay, Waymon Kelly, Luke Hodge, Levi P.
Troy and Gilbert Monroe were present in its first
meeting. The work of Rev. Luke Hodge, whose
name the Hodge's Institute bears, still lives.
The Sunday School Convention in connection with
the Association was an able factor in aiding the cause
of organizing this Institute in our bounds. Rev.
George Williams was the first President of the Con-
vention organized in the spring of 1886, and N.
McCall was Secretary. The Convention and Associa-
tion acting together for the cause of education and
uplifting of its members. The Hodge's Institute was
organized in 1907. Rev. S. W. Smith was President
of the Association and the Convention. Prof. W. T.
Askew was requested to take charge of the Institute,
which he did with good results. One hundred and
three students were enrolled the first session. This
school was situated in West Clarkton, just one mile
from depot; a school building on 12 acres of land
paid for at a cost of $600. The Board of Trustees
have in view the erection of a $1,000 building.
The ministers at work in 1908 were the Kevs. S.
W. Smith, W. H. Monroe, E". Eobinson, H. S. Mc-
Neil, M. H. Monroe, T. H. McKay, Z. T. Euss and
The Hammond's Creek Association and Convention
have been loyal to the State Convention. Rev. Geo.
Williams was for many years the exponent, and
through him and others these bodies were loyal and
The Johnston District Association.
This Association was organized in 1886 at Piney
Grove Church, Johnston County. The Johnston As-
sociation was once a part of the Wake Association.
Eevs. E. B. Blake, P. T. Young, R. R. Johnson, John
Jefferson, Charles Thompson, James Chavis, S. B.
Smith, J. C. Pool, W. A. Jones were in the organi-
zation. Rev. E. B. Blake, who was then the acknowl-
edged leader, was elected the first Moderator; Rev.
W. A. Jones, who afterward took the leadership, was
the first Clerk. There were eleven churches in the
organization. In 1908 there were thirty-five. A
Secondary Baptist School was before the Association
for several years, and was put on foot, and located in
Smithfield, IST. C, in 1908. There were several
churches in the Association, vdth splendid property.
The thirty-five churches in 1908 might be fairly esti-
mated at twenty thousand dollars. Much of the
96 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
progressiveness and aggressiveness of the Association
in the first years of its history was due to the energy
and push of Eev. W. A. Jones, although pastor of
four of the largest churches set an example by re-
maining in Shaw University Theological Department
until he finished his course, which greatly enabled
him to lead the Association, although most of his
time holding a place in the ranks.
The Pee Dee Baptist Associatioit.
The Pee Dee Baptist Association was composed
largely of the Baptist churches in Eichmond, Scot-
land and Moore Counties. There were but few in
the organization in 1870, yet like most of the associa-
tions of the State the number grew rapidly. Although
the Pee Dee had one of the strongest advocates the
State Convention possessed in the person of Rev. S.
W. Dockery, for many years there was some oppo-
sition to the Convention; but with the accession of
such men as H. I. Quick, J. J. Hines and J. S.
Brown the opposition was overcome. The Pee Dee
brethren fell in line with the spirit to organize asso-
ciational secondary schools, and provided such a
school at Hamlet, the most central location in the
This school did not grow so rapidly as some of the
others in the State, but kept intact the churches and
afforded an object about which they might rally. The
Pee Dee Union Association was formed out of the
Pee Dee. At first the spirit of missions was not so
manifest in the Association, but with other growth
and progress came that of missions.
The Zion Missionary Baptist AssociATioiir.
The Zion Association was along the Seaboard Air
Line Railroad beyond and west of the Pee Dee. From
the organization to the time of the death of Eev. J.
H. Katliff, of Deep Creek, he was the much loved
Moderator of the Zion Association. Possibly the
most progressive and ablest minister of the Associa-
tion for many years was Kev. J. P. Davis. Although
a layman, A. J. Beverly, intelligent, manly and of a
modest Christian spirit, added great strength to the
Association, especially in the school work which was
begun long after the beginning made by the Pee Dee
people, but was pushed to a ripid growth and develop-
ment. The Zion Academy was the pride of the Bap-
tists of that section. For several years after its es-
tablishment Prof. E. H. Lipscombe was the principal.
As in and about Lumberton the Baptists of Anson
County were greatly stimulated and encouraged by
the Institute work of the 'New Era Institute. Their
wisdom was shown in the rapid growth of the Zion
Academy at Wadesboro.
The Unioit Baptist Associatioit.
This Association, composed largely of the churches
of Cumberland County, was organized 1883. The
McDonalds, H. C. and J. J"., IST. B. Dunham, O. Wat-
kins, J. M. Whitted and W. H. Anders were first in
98 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
this Association for many years after its organiza-
tion. Dr. E. E. Smith, of Eayetteville, Kevs. J. J.
Hines and J. S. Brown were added afterward. Dr.
Smith had no equal in the Association, and compared
favorably with the ablest men in the denomination.
Soon after connecting himself with the body he be-
came its Moderator, in which capacity he was able
to lead his brethren into usefulness and prominence.
There were many good men in the Union, as well as
other associations of the State, and no good cause was
ever turned away without aid. They were faithful
and loyal to the Convention and its objects. The
Theological Department at Shaw University and the
Eayetteville Normal School received its largest do-
nations for education. Like many of the associa-
tions of North Carolina, the Union had a Sunday
School Convention in connection with it, which also
did much good in works of education, charity and
The Lane's Ceeek Association.
The Lane's Creek, which was organized in 1891.
was never a very large body compared with the larga
associations of the State, and yet small in number
and in the size of the churches it was generous. The
statistical table shows that there were sixteen churches
and twenty-four ministers in 1897. A difference of
opinion respecting the standing of one of its leading
ministers was a dispute for years, and did more than
all else to impair its usefulness. "Shall an individual
be allowed to marry again if tKe other party is living,
though the cause of separation he a Bible cause?"
was the question which constantly brought confusion
in the ranks of the Lane's Creek brethren. In 1907
the Association was submerged, and with two other
associations helped to form a new one.
The Mud Ceeek Association.
The Mud Creek Association was organized near
Asheville, St. John Baptist Church, 1878. There
were present in the organization Rev. Caleb Johnson,
B. F. and C. W. Hemphill and Eev. Lindsay. The
Association, as it was finally constituted, were the
Asheville First Church, St. Luke, Swannanoa, St.
John, Arden, Concord, Hendersonville, Flat Eock,
Mills River, Davidson River, Brevard and a few
others. Altogether there are fifteen hundred mem-
bers in these churches which compose the Mud Creek
Association. There is also a Sunday School Union
connected with the Mud Creek. This Union, together
with others beyond the mountain, have purchased
land at Arden and have undertaken the erection of
a school building. There has been some opposition
to the work at Arden on which account the school
work has been greatly retarded. There is some Home
Mission work done in connection with the poorer
churches, and like many associations east of the Blue
Ridge, there is Foreign Mission money taken when
there is some one to represent the Foreign Mission
cause. Rev. A. H. Wilson, A. Black and Rev. Fos-
100 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
ter were among the leaders of after years together,
with such laymen as J. P. E. Love, B. Underwood
and Thomas Furney.
The Watnesville Association-.
The Waynesville Association was organized 1880
at Waynesville, IST. C, with the Hemphills, B. F.
and Calvin ; also Eev. Ponders and Kev. Frank Lind-
say. It was named for the village in which it was
organized. The following churches composed thij
Association: Waynesville, Scott's Creek, Webster,
Bryson City, Franklin, Piney Grove, Birdtown (an
Indian Church), Murphy and Blue Ridge, Ga. This
Association unites with the Mud Creek to do Home
Mission work. This is likewise done through the
union. James Ritchie, A. H. Wilson, M. L. Page,
Wm. Love, Calvin Hemphill, A. L. Copeland and
C. L. Stewart are the leading ministers of this Asso-
The Feench Beoad Association.
This Association was united with the others in the
union work until 1905, when it separated from the
union and undertook its own individual work. This
Association was originally formed out of the Mud
Creek. Some of the churches of this Association
were the Mt. Zion, Asheville, Alexander, Leicester and
Madison. As we have already mentioned, Rev. J. R.
Nelson was the acknowledged leader of this body.
This Association gives some assistance to the
school at Madison and in its own way gives to Home
Missions and the Foreign Mission work through the
National Baptist Convention.
The Shiloh Baptist Association.
The Shiloh Association was one of the first organ-
ized in the State, and one of the first to undertake
the secondary school project. Kev. Isaac Alston was
for many years its Moderator; M. F. Thornton, a
prominent layman of the First Church of Warrenton.
its Clerk. The growth of this Association soon placed
it among the leading associations for the colored Bap-
tists of the State. After years of progress it began to
wane, the Middle Association being the first to pull
away, and in its annual session of 1908 a part of the
Association met in Ridgeway and the other part in
Henderson. Through strenuous efforts the property
purchased in Warrenton for school purposes was paid
for at an original cost of six thousand dollars, but as
a long standing debt amounted to eight thousand.
According to its strength and opportunity the As-
sociation did but little for missions proper, but de-
voted its energy to the school at Warrenton. For
several years this school was the pride of the Bap-
tists of the State, but there arose differences in the
management which were never healed, and hence the
usefulness of the work was greatly hindered. While
the Association had many noble and able men in it's
ranks these differences which we have mentioned kept
them from doing what they might have done.
102 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
The West Koanoke AssociATioif.
As we have already mentioned, in connection with
the East Roanoke Association it was thought advisable
after some years of its existence that a new Associa-
tion should be formed, and hence this new associa-
tion was formed in 1884, and took the name of the
West Roanoke Association. This was afterwards
found to be not only practical but wise. The school
project was already under way at Winton under the
guidance and leadership of Rev. C. S. Brown, then
a recent graduate of Shaw University, and this new
organization was just the thing to push this move-
ment to a happy condition.
The West Roanoke included the churches of Hert
ford County and a part of Northampton with Bertie
County. The brethren from Bertie felt that the
school at Winton in Hertford was too far away for
them to enjoy its benefits, and hence they established
in the county, and at Windsor, the Bertie Academy.
The Northampton people, with a school of high
grade at Rich Square, felt that their pro rata should
come to them for the support of their school, and this
caused the West Roanoke Association to divide its
annual contributions with the three schools. We
have mentioned the educational fever which pre-
vailed in North Carolina at this time. Every asso-
ciation, with few exceptions, felt they should have
a school of their own, and in the case of the West
Roanoke they were content only with three. With
years of experience it was seen to be unwise, that
the schools should have been fewer, which would have
given better support, and yet there was untold good
accomplished in these schools throughout the State
The West Eoanoke Association raised the largest
amount of money raised by any association in the
State : as much as twenty-five hundred dollars in an
Somehow the ambition to raise money and build
up schools took hold of the brethren, and many
sacrifices were made to carry out this ambition. It
was edifying and encouraging to see deacons of the
different churches, many of them unable to read
themselves, struggling with their membership to bring
up large sums of money to the Association for educa-
tion. The Moderator of this Association for many
years was the President of the Lott-Carey Convention
and President of the State Convention. This was
sufficient to arouse the brethren of the West Koanoke
in behalf of both State and Foreign Missions; and
hence the Association became prominent not only
in that locality but throughout the State and else-
The Kbedt Ceeek Association.
The Reedy Creek Association was composed of the
churches north of the Shiloh and between the Shiloh
and the Neuse River, including churches in Warren,
Halifax, Northampton and Nash Counties. The
Eeedy Creek was never as large as the Shiloh or the
104 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Ifeuse River. Like nearly all the associations with
a school on their hands, the Reedy Creek fostered the
school at Littleton under the principalship of Mr.
Warwick. While the Association was never hostile
to missions, comparatively little was given in this
direction; yet whenever the missionary was present
and laid the cause of missions before the Association
he met a welcome and a response. Rev. Jack Mayes,
of Littleton, who was in this body in its origin, was
foremost for many years, in fact until his death,
which occurred in 1906. Rev. L. J. Alexander and
Rev. S. Grigg, of Wise, IST. C, took the lead in after
years and did much to bring the Association abreast
with the best associations of the State. In speaking
of the Association it should not be thought that this
Association was so far behind many others so far as
the missionary spirit was concerned. The great hin-
drance to the Negro Baptists of North Carolina, as
we find it was with the white Baptists in the days of
their early history, the great need of more of that
spirit which made them Missionary Baptists, the mis-
The Middle Geoun^d Associatioh".
Not only was the West Roanoke Association formed
out of the East Roanoke, but it seemed practicable
and wise to the East Roanoke brethren in 1899 that
letters should be granted to the remaining churches
beyond the sound, and that they should be set apart
into a new organization, and hence, like the original
thirteen States which formed themselves into a union
and government, thirteen of the churches lying be-
tween East and West Eoanoke formed themselves
into the Middle Ground. The East and West Eoan-
oke, having some of the ablest and strongest men
of the denomination as leaders, there was but little
for the Association forming a wedge to accomplish,
and hence their growth was slow.
LUMBEE E.IVEB AsSOCIATIOlT.
This Association is composed of the churches of
Columbus County with a few from the adjoining
counties. The Thompsons, E. M. and A. H., to-
gether with several others, organized the Lumber
Kiver Association. This Association was not among
the largest in number, but did a decided service in
the support it gave to the school at Lumberton, which
took its name from Eev. A. H. Thompson. Like
many other associations in the State, these fathers
could do but little more than organize them and push
them off, leaving the real work to be done by the
younger men. In some cases the young men had
first to contend for the place as leaders while the old
men lived, but not so with the fathers of the Lumber
River Association. When W. C. Pope, J. D. Har-
rell and James McKellar came to the front, with
Avery and Knuckles in charge of the educational
work, these old men gave way and with the prayers
and benedictions said "Go ahead, young men, and
carry the work forward where we have left off."
106 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
These young men went ahead, and as a result three
imposing buildings were erected on the school site at
Lumberton, and one of the best secondary schools of
North Carolina was put into successful operation.
Several of the ministers of the Association, that they
might have the benefit of the school and a pleasant
social surrounding, erected homes near the school,
making it a village in itself, attractive in appearance
and the pride of the Negro Baptists of North Caro-
lina. As an expression of its pride in the wonderful
developments and improvements of the Baptists of
this locality, the State Convention met with the Sandy
Grrove Baptist Church, which proudly lifts her spire
in the midst of these school buildings and Baptist
The East Roanoke Association.
The organization of the East Eoanoke Association
took place in the Haven Creek Baptist Church, Eoan-
oke Island, 1886. There were present in this or-
ganization L. W. Boone, J. T. Reynolds, C. E
Hodges, J. A. Fleming, Asberry Reid and others.
Rev. L. W. Boone preached the introductory sermon
and was elected Moderator; J. T. Reynolds, Clerk;
J. A. Flemming, Assistant Clerk. Together with
the above named Revs. J. ~K. Lamb, Zion H. Berry,
A. Mebane, Wm. Reid and Emanuel Reynolds led
the forces for many years.
At their annual session 1884 the Association,
which included some of the churches across the line
of Virginia, had grown so large until they granted
letters to the churches beyond the sound to organize
another association, and hence the West Roanoke
was formed. Its forces grew so rapidly even after-
ward, in 1899, they granted letters for the forma-
tion of an association for the second time, and the
Middle Ground Association, lying between the East
and the West Roanoke, took its existence. Even giv-
ing off such large numbers the East Roanoke was
one of the largest if not the largest Association in
the State. The Association not only counted for
numbers, but was second only in its contributions to
its child, the East Roanoke, in its annual contribu-
tions. The reports of its work through the Roanoke
Institute at Elizabeth City showed that one thousand
students had been enrolled up to 1908 ; thirty-five
graduates had been sent forth to bless the State and
the world, and that among that number were sev-
eral of the ablest preachers to be found anywhere
in the State. i^Tot from this school but from this
Association had gone the gifted Boone, than whom
North Carolina has produced no greater ; George W.
Lee, often called "The Daddy of Negro Preachers,"
and the gifted Norman of the Metropolitan Church
of Washington City. Besides these Revs. G. D.
Griffin, B. W. Dance, Z. W. White, W. A. Taylor, C.
M. and R. R. CartviTight and I. S. Riddick. In
1908 the Association numbered twenty thousand in
membership with some of the best church structures
to be found in the State.
108 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
The Cedae Geove Associatioit.
In 1868 the Cedar Grove Association was organ-
ized in Pleasant Grove Baptist Church., Eoxboro,
Person County, N. C. Pleasant Grove, Mt. Zion
and Cedar Grove were in the organization. Kevs.
E. P. Martin, Eudley WiUiams, Steven Williams
and Elijah Jones. The Association was first called
the Pleasant Grove, and afterward at a meeting at
Pleasant Grove the name was changed to the Oak
At the third meeting of the Association Eev. L. C.
Eagland, a white minister, united with the body of
colored brethren, and remained with them until his
death. His scholarship and piety served his breth-
ren well for at such a time just such a man was
needed. Eev. D. A. Howell came to his brethren
and greatly aided the Association in its rapid growth.
Through these and other men the Association soon
developed into a membership of forty-two churches.
Eevs. A. J. Graves, A. L. Johnson, J. E. Cozart,
E. H. Harris and W. H. Toler did much to make the
Association what it proved to be in missionary and
educational endeavor. The unusual thing was the
constant change of name, but it was afterward
changed to the Cedar Grove, and kept its name as
well as its faith in the principles as taught in the
Scriptures. Like most of the Associations of the
State, this Association caught the spirit of education
to do educational work and purchased a site at Eox-
boro, N. C, but somehow there was always some ob-
jection to the project, and the school was not estab-
lished. This difference and others finally led to a
separation of the churches and the formation of an-
other Association known as the East Cedar Grove
Association. After this separation Eev. A. L. John-
son led in the effort and a school site was selected
at Yanceyville, but even as late as 1908 there was
still division on the school question which greatly
weakened the body in other respects, and yet with
all the division on the school question the Associa-
tion was a great help in that section of the State.
The East Cedab Geove Association'.
This Association came out from the Cedar Grove
Association and was drawn out by sectional lines
from all the churches east of Eoxboro. Eev. J. K.
Cozart was easily the acknowledged leader of the new
faction, and his influence did much to shape the
child, so that it soon became stronger in every way
than the parent. Eevs. J. M. Taylor, W. H. Lyons
and Mayes greatly assisted in the new organization.
Eev. E. H. Harris, though a member of the old body,
was conservative and greatly aided the new body by
his prayers and counsel. The East Cedar Grove
Association from its organization was a friend to mis-
sions and education, and never did they turn deaf
ears to a worthy cause. It kept in line with the
State and Foreign Mission Conventions, and in fact
110 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
with every effort of the Baptists of the State which
meant progress. They were not encumbered with
local projects, as many of the Associations of the
State, and hence were in a better condition and posi-
tion to do for objects on the outside. Missions es-
pecially suffered often at the hands of associations
where local interests were in the ascendency. The
Wake, the East Cedar Grove and a few others were
Charitable Institutions. Ill
The Baptists of whatever nationality have always
stood for charity as well as missions. Early after
Emancipation the spirit of charity took hold of the
fathers; they began to cast about for plans, places
and opportunity to put their spirit into successful
The Wake Association, located in Central North
Carolina, was the proper organization in which their
spirit should take form, and hence representatives
were appointed from this body to meet in Hender-
son, N. C, in 1875. An organization was effected
with Rev. A. Shepard, of Raleigh, N. C, President.
The Oxford Orphanage, 1875, was organized at
Henderson ; the first Association formed for the pur-
pose at Henderson by representatives from the Wake
Association. Rev. A. Shepard held the office of
President more than thirty-three years.
After some consideration Oxford was decided upon
as the place of location, and twenty-five acres of
land was purchased from W. A. Patillo, who was
elected Superintendent and who served a few years.
Miss Hawkins was appointed in his stead. She
gave it up and Robert Shepard was appointed.
THE WOMEN'S BAPTIST HOME MISSION
COIsTVENTIOlSr OF NOETH CAROLINA.
The Womeu's Baptist Home Mission Convention
of North Carolina was organized 1884, with Mrs.
Lizzie Neely, of Salisbury, N. 0., President; Mrs.
Lizzie Saunders, of Henderson, Secretary, and Mrs.
Mary E. Tinsley, of Oxford, Treasurer. Mrs. B.
E. Green and Miss Helen E. Jackson assisted in the
organization. For more than sixteen consecutive
years Mrs. Pattie G. Shepard remained at the head
of the Woman's Organization of North Carolina,
which was unmistakable evidence of her ability to
lead women. She was modest and retiring, and yet
when brought into action, with her heart of Chris-
tian devotion, her command of a choice flow of lan-
guage and her great executive mind, she swayed great
audiences wherever she appeared, not only of the
gentler sex, but of the opposite as well. The suc-
cess of the Convention for all the years of her re-
maining at the head was a continued success, and
progress was due largely to the President, whom
most of the women were glad to follow. In that
blessed Providence which brings individuals to "work
together for good," Mrs. S. A. Eaton, of Hender-
son, N. C, was brought to labor side by side with
Mrs. Shepard with the only hope of reward in that
Women's Home Mission Convention, 113
"Blessed Beyond." While Mrs. Shepard was wield-
ing the gavel for the Women's Convention, Mrs.
Eaton was wielding the pen. Mrs. Virginia King
and Mrs. A. L. Ransom have made efficient treas-
urers of the Convention. Mrs. Ransom holds that
A number of times during their administration
the place of Corresponding Secretary, so important
in any organization, underwent changes: Mrs. E.
E. Smith, of Eayetteville, an efficient and good wo-
man, called from labor to a blessed reward in 1906 ;
Miss Hannah Steward, of Salisbury, N. C, and
Mrs. Annie M. Brandon, of Oxford, N. C, who
held the position successfully for a number of years.
Back of these women was an executive board com-
posed of the best talent among the women of the
Differing somewhat from the men's convention,
most of the work of the women was done through
the Executive Board, and instead of their sessions
being devoted to discussions of business, often use-
less, they were given to papers and addresses on use-
ful topics and to songs and devotions.
At times there was so much done through the
Board of the Convention some complaint was al-
leged, but after all much of the wisdom of such a
course was seen in the avoidance of needless discus-
sion and a waste of time and bitter feelings so often
engendered in floor debates.
114 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
The objects of the Women's Convention, as con-
tained in their Constitution, were "To establish and
improve Baptist Home Mission Societies in all the
Baptist churches and destitute sections of the State ;
to assist in the support of the Oxford Orphan Asy-
lum; to cooperate with the Chicago Baptist Home
Mission Society, to send the gospel to Africa, and to
awaken a general interest in the study of the Bible,
and in the religious education of both the aged and
the young by gathering them into the Simday
Much of the success of the Women's Convention
of Worth Carolina was due to their affiliation with
the Baptist Home Mission Society of Women of
Miss Mary G. Burdette, for many years the able
Corresponding Secretary of that .society, was one
of the strongest friends the Negro Baptist women of
this country ever had. Her whole soul was devoted
to their uplift, and no pains were spared on her
part in making provisions for the extension and
progress of the work among them. While Mrs. El-
lers, the first Superintendent of the Woman's Train-
ing School, in connection with the Shaw University,
succeeded by Misses Miller and Hamilton, made it
possible for so many to go forth throughout North
Carolina prepared to do Christian missionary work.
Miss Burdette was the power behind the throne which
made the Training School a reality.
Women's Home Mission Convention. 115
What the Home Mission and Publication Socie-
ties were to the Education and Sunday School Con-
ventions, the Chicago Society was, and even more,
to the Women's Convention of North Carolina.
The Convention was required to raise what they
could in support of their missionaries; the society
obligated itself, and paid from year to year a suffi-
cient amount to meet the deficit.
Despite the efforts of these Christian heroines
there was always at the close of each year a con-
siderable deficit to be met.
MiSSIONAET WOEK OF THE WoMEN.
What Mrs. Shepard was in the chair and Mrs.
Eaton at the desk, Mrs. Sallie A. Mial, of Raleigh,
was on the mission field of IsTorth Carolina. In
thinking of one of these women it looks as if she was
indispensable to the work, but it was equally true of
the others, and it seemed good that they were kept by
a special Providence to labor so ably and long. Pre-
ceding the death of Mrs. E. E. Smith, about whom
mention has already been made, the Convention sus-
tained great loss in the death of Mrs. Alice A. Pat-
terson, of Raleigh, 'N. C. Mrs. Patterson was a de-
voted Christian woman and not only was she helpful
during the sittings of the Convention with her pray-
ers and advice, but she was at the side of the mis-
sionary whenever and wherever opportunity afforded,
going into the homes and in the prayer meetings,
giving encouragement and aid such as only devoted
women can give.
116 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Mrs. Virginia King, too, situated in the distant
east, made her lovely home a base of operation for
the missionaries of the cross. She too was of in-
calculable good to the annual councils.
Some achievements can only be known in the
"Great Beyond," where there shall be a general reve-
lation of records and deeds of Christian servants.
This gives some idea of the great work done by
the women in their missionary work in ITorth Caro-
Their work was divided into home visitation, Bible
instruction, charity distribution, organizing,
strengthening and building up societies already or-
Naturally the first and greatest need of the col-
ored people after they secured some kind of homes
was to have the proper regulations and practices
within the home circles. As much as they stood in
need of education, as much as they needed property,
the greatest need of this people emerged from slavery
with all its stains, and greatest need for many years
thereafter was home training, and this the Women's
Convention of North Carolina through its mission-
aries undertook to accomplish.
How well they succeeded is best seen in the splen-
did homes throughout North Carolina, especially
among the Negro Baptists. Mrs. Mial, about whom
mention was made, had considerable influence with
the brethren, so necessary for the successful prose-
cution of the missionary work among the women,
Women's Home Mission Convention. 117
since they could only be reached through the leaders
of the churches, usually the ministers and deacons;
often too it was necessary to appear on the floor of
the Associations and Conventions as well as the
churches. She was especially adapted to this.
Mrs. E.. A. Morris, of New Bern, N. C, too, was
employed for some years and gave excellent accounts
of real work accomplished throughout the eastern
section of the State, her special field of lahor.
Mrs. Roberta Bunn, of Selma, N. 0., the excep-
tion who had been thus appointed without the usual
course at the Training School, was appointed con-
jointly by the Women's Convention and the Educa-
tional and Missionary Convention. Mrs. Bunn was
a woman of much Christian piety and zeal. Like
the two already named she was possessed of peculiar
adaptation to the missionary work, being called as
she felt of God for this specific work. Her reports
from year to year were an inspiration and encour-
agement to her Convention.
The Eelatios- of the Women's Conventioit to
the ed0catioi«ral and missionaby
For many years after the organization of the Wo-
men's Convention strenuous efforts were made to
unite the Conventions forming the women into an
auxiliary of the men's Convention, but for fear of
the change of the autonomy and a final submerging
of their Convention they would never consent to the
118 . Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
change, and no doubt their position was wise, since
alone, under the guidance of God and the aid of the
leading brethren, they accomplished possibly most
existing separate and apart. Still there was always
the kindliest feeling between the two Conventions,
the women sometimes taking part on the programs
of the men's Convention and the men sometimes tak-
ing part with them.
By mutual consent a commission was appointed in
the men's Convention to act as an advisory board
for the Women's Convention. Tor many years the
women made annual appropriations to the men to
be used in connection with their Foreign Mission
In the Convention at Eeidsville, 190Y, it was
unanimously voted that the Women's Convention of
ISTorth Carolina should pay the expenses of Miss
Cora A. Pair to labor as missionary under the au-
spices of the Lott-Carey Foreign Mission Conven-
tion in Africa.
At the meeting of the Lott-Carey Convention
which met in Washington City September 2, 1908,
the first quarter's salary of Miss Pair, $267, was
paid in by the Women's Convention. ISTo object ap-
pealed more readily to the generosity of the North
Carolina women than Foreign Missions.
It may be truly said too, while the women were
wholly dependent on the churches through which to
Women's Home Mission Convention. 119
organize the societies and prosecute their work, they
contributed in many instances and in many ways to
the general development and improvement of the
churches. There are many imposing church struc-
tures throughout the State which owe their construc-
tion to the societies in the churches, and the zealous
women at their helm.
We have mentioned the great good of the Conven-
tion through the women and we may as emphatically
mention the good of the individual society.
Thousands of dollars were given in clothing to
the naked through these societies, thousands in food
for the hungry, and prayers without number at the
bedside of the sick and dying.
It has been said that "many a flower has bloomed
and shed its fragrance upon the desert air" un-
noticed and imseen ; as truly may it be said while
much of these splendid deeds which we have men-
tioned have never come to the recognition which
they deserve, yet the Heavenly Father, of whom it
is said "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing?
and one of them shall not fall on the ground
without your Father" sees and knows, and in the
final consummation will give the reward which is
their due. Possibly in no way, as a convention, did
the Baptist women of North Carolina accomplish
more than in one feature of their annual gatherings.
At times it was thought that some of the women
carried some of their views too far, but it was never
thought that there was not great spiritual power and
120 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
helpfulness in tlie Women's Convention of North
Carolina; for wherever they met they left an in-
delible impression and a spiritual awakening upon
the minds of many. In fact there are instances in
which many souls were led to the blessed Christ and
many cold and indifferent Christians awakened to
new life and usefulness.
The report of the Convention of 1908, as an in-
stance of their annual results, shows that there were
eight thousand members of the different societies
represented; two hundred and eighty-one dollars
raised ; and eleven hundred dollars expended in food
and clothing. There were several other organiza-
tions existing in the State, separate and apart from
the Convention, but as with the men there was a
gradual unification of the forces. There was great
rejoicing when the Northbound Association, with
Mrs. R. A. Fitts, of Eidgeway, as President, and
Mrs. W. JST. Coats, of Margarettsville, as Secretary,
came into the Convention with a strong force of
Christian women. We close this chapter with the
splendid results of this union going on and with the
fields of golden harvests more evident to the Conven-
tion than ever; with zeal, anxiety and determination
such as has never characterized the Convention be-
fore they go forth determined to labor on until their
blessed Master calls them as He has called out of
their ranks before, from persistent, faithful service,
they may joyfully "lay down their cross for the
THE BAPTIST STATE SUNDAY SCHOOL
CONVENTION OE NORTH CAROLINA.
The Baptist State Sunday School Convention of
North Carolina was organized in the Eirst Baptist
Church in the city of Raleigh, May, 1873. The ob-
ject of this organization, as set forth in the call, was
to prosecute Sunday School missions; to cooperate
with the American Baptist Publication Society in its
work already weU under way in the State, and to es-
tablish an orphan asylum for the protection and care
of the colored orphans of North Carolina. The Con-
vention was organized with Rev. A. Shepard, Presi-
dent, and Sherwood Capps, Secretary.
But little was accomplished in the first few years
of the organization; in fact the Convention was com-
paratively inactive until the appointment of Rev. A.
Shepard, the President of the Convention, mission-
ary and colporter for the American Baptist Publica-
New life and interest was soon manifest in the
Sunday School work of the State, as the President
of the Convention and the missionary for the society
came in contact with the Sunday Schools and the
Christian workers of the State. Erom that time
continuous development and improvement was made,
until it became the most intelligent organization for
the Baptists of North Carolina. The fifth annual
122 Negro Boftists of North Carolina.
Convention was held with the church and Sunday
School of Weldon, N. C, September 21, 1876.
Extensive reports were made at this session by
Rev. A. Shepard, in behalf of the Convention and
the society; also by Rev. C. Johnson, in behalf of
the American and Foreign Missionary Bible Society.
These reports showed rapid and decided improve-
ment in the work of the State. Rev. C. Johnson
was elected President at this meeting. Seventy dol-
lars was realized for all purposes.
In the sixth annual session, which was held at
Battleboro, IST. C, an auxiliary committee was ap-
pointed to correspond with the Sunday Schools in
each county of the State. The purchase of a print-
ing press was considered at this meeting. The con-
stitution was so amended that each person repre-
sented in the Convention was required to pay two
cents per annum. Rev. N. F. Roberts was elected
President at this meeting. Hon. J. T. Reynolds,
who was the most proficient Corresponding Secretary
the Convention ever had up to that time, was elected
at this meeting, and served in this capacity for
twelve years. During these years the Corresponding
Secretary threw himself into the work, and soon his
influence and usefulness was manifest in the growth
of the Convention financially and otherwise. In
connection with his duties as Corresponding Secre-
tary he was also appointed as Sunday School mis-
sionary for the eastern section of North Carolina.
The next meeting of the Convention, which was in
Sunday. School Conventions. 123
Wilmington, IST. C, increased its collections to one
hundred and seventy dollars. A donation from this
amount was sent to the yellow fever sufferers in the
valley of the Mississippi Kiver.
In the annual session at Goldsboro one hundred
dollars was appropriated to the distribution of books
and other literature in the poorer sections of the
State. It was at this session that the Convention
voted to incorporate at the next session of the Legis-
lature with the following named persons as trustees :
]Sr. F. Eoberts, A. B. Williams, A. Shepard, E. E.
Smith, J. T. Reynolds, J. J. Worlds, C. Johnson.
P. T. Hall, L. H. Wyche, E. I. Walden and A. J.
Walker. This incorporation dates from March 14.
During the following year the Middle Ground
Union District Convention was organized with all
the schools east of the Chowan River auxiliary to the
State Convention. This union at its organization
had eleven thousand enrolled. Rev. R. I. Walden
was appointed to labor in the East Roanoke Union,
another auxiliary to the Convention; Mr. J. T. Rey-
nolds in the Middle Ground Union bounds. Under
the incorporation the name of the Convention was
changed at the Tarboro meeting to the North Caro-
lina Missionary Baptist Sunday School Convention.
A bright and promising young man. Prof. Jerry S.
Lee, represented the Caswell County Convention at
the Tarboro session. To the deepest regret he soon
passed into the beyond. At the next annual session
124 Negro Baptists of North Carolina,
the Convention agreed to pay into the treasury of the
American Baptist Publication Society one hundred
dollars per annum to assist in defraying the expenses
and salary of the missionary colporter.
Eev. W. W. Colly, returned missionary from
Africa, addressing the Convention at its next session
on the subject of Eoreign Missions, the Convention
agreed to make annual contributions in part payment
of the salary and expenses of Eev. J. 0. Hayes, who
V7as then laboring in Africa. At the fourteenth an-
nual session for the second time at Tarboro adopted
the Orphans' Advocate as its organ and made a do-
nation to the same. At this time the Grant Colored
Orphan Asylum was well under way. The Conven-
tion regarding this institution as its child felt free
to make to it a generous offering. The following
counties were admitted to the Convention at this sit-
ting as its auxiliaries: Vance, Warren, Franklin.
Granville, Wake, Halifax, Northampton and the
Cape Fear Sunday School Convention. The next
session at Seaboard showed that five thousand dol-
lars had been raised during the year by the different
schools represented in the Convention. The Baptist
Pilot was represented by its editor, Eev. C. S.
Brown. The Convention adjourned here for a
special session to be held at Franklinton, to provide
for a joint session to be held with the Church Con-
vention at Garysburg. For several years these two
Conventions met together in their annual sessions
until it was found that not so much could be ac-
Sunday School Conventions. 125
complished as in separate sessions. The Garysburg
meeting was composed of the Ministerial Union, the
Hayes and Flemming Foreign Mission Convention,
the Educational and Missionary Convention and the
State Sunday School Convention. It was in this
joint session that a resolution was passed to change
the name of the Grant Colored Orphan Asylum and
make it a Baptist institution. The impression that
Eev. J. Anderson Taylor, of Richmond, Va., made
on the Convention in the interest of Foreign Mis-
sions was profound.
Considering the wonderful achievements of Dr.
H. M. Tupper, the President of Shaw University, a
resolution was passed commending Dr. Tupper, and
the hearty cooperation of the Convention was assured
to assist Dr. Tupper in the furtherance of the great
work of educating and uplifting our people, old and
Hon. J. H. Young, of Raleigh, was elected Presi-
dent of the Convention at its annual meeting in War-
renton. Dr. E. M. Brawley was present, represent-
ing the American Baptist Publication Society as its
District Secretary; Dr. H. L. Morehouse, Field Sec-
retary of the American Baptist Home Mission So-
ciety, was also present. Both of the gentlemen spoke
in the interest of their respective organizations and
stirred the Sunday School workers present as they
had not been stirred before. Each and all went
away from the Convention with new life and inspira-
126 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
During the interim of the Convention Revs. Jo-
seph Perry and M. C. Ransom were appointed by
the Executive Board missionary colporters, one for
the western section of the State and the other for the
eastern section. A western Convention had been
organized somewhat antagonistic to the regular Con-
vention, and at this Convention a committee was ap-
pointed to try to effect a union of the two Conven-
tions, but their work was without avail, only to the
extent as to bring about a spirit of harmony. Col.
J. H. Young held the place as President two years.
Rev. A. P. Eaton was elected the following year at
Louisburg, and he bald the place but a year, being
succeeded by Dr. N. F. Roberts, who, like Mr. J. T.
Reynolds, seemed to be indispensable to the success
of the Convention. He held the place with honor
to the Convention for many years with Dr. A. W.
Pegues, its able Corresponding Secretary. There
were many and important changes in connection with
the Convention during their administration. The
Girls' Education Fund was the most important fea-
ture. Through this means several hundred dollars
were raised annually and partial support was given
to deserving girls in Baptist schools of the State.
As many as twenty girls received help from this
fund during a single year. No object appealed to
the support of the Sunday Schools of the State as did
the Education Fund for the girls. By a wise and
discreet appointment every section of the entire
State was reached and with each year this fund in-
Sunday School Conventions. 127
creased. A book store was set apart in the city of
Ealeigh through the plans and management of Drs.
Pegues and Eoberts, which greatly increased the
revenues of the Convention besides greatly helping
the missionary forces, as the surplus was given to
the missionary work of the State. Not only was the
Convention enabled to contribute annually to the
Foreign Mission work, but a donation was made to
the Church Convention for its missionary work in
the State. Although the two Conventions, as we
have stated, met at different times and at different
places, perfect harmony prevailed and each was mu-
tually helpful to the other.
It was at this Convention in Greensboro that the
death of Dr. H. C. Crosby, of Raleigh, was made
known. Dr. Crosby was the first colored man to
make a bequest to Shaw University, and the Conven-
tion passed strong resolutions commending his life
work, and especially this splendid gift of all his
earthly possessions to Shaw University.
Eev. G. W. Moore was elected missionary at this
session, and, like the officers about whom mention
was made, Rev. Moore labored faithfully and long
in the interest of the Convention in North Carolina.
In the Durham meeting delegates were sent from
the Western Convention which had previously stood
apart. These delegates were gladly received as an
expression of the growing unity of the two Conven-
tions. This was the beginning of the kindly feeling
which finally terminated in the joint appointment
128 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
of certain of its missionaries and a oneness of aim
and of purpose. In the Kaleigh meeting which fol-
lowed the Baptist Young People's Union was organ-
ized in connection with the Convention, and foi
many years held its annual session at the same place
and time of the State Sunday School Convention.
In the Charlotte Convention six hundred and
ninety-nine conversions were reported as the direct
result of the Sunday School work through its State
organization. Kev. E. H. Lipscombe was appointed
mountain missionary to labor west of the Blue Ridge
As an evidence of the Convention's appreciation
of the work of the American Baptist Home Mission
Society, and realizing the great work of Dr. T. J.
Morgan, its Corresponding Secretary, learning of
the death of this Christian man, passed suitable reso-
lutions on his splendid life and the great interest
he had manifested in the advancement of the col
ored people, not only of Worth Carolina, but of the
entire country. Dr. S. N. Vass, who had held the
position of District Secretary of the American Bap-
tist Publication Society so admirably, was appointed
in connection with his general work Superintendent
of Missions for ISTorth Carolina. Rev. A. B. Vin-
cent, for many years missionary in connection with
the plan of cooperation for church work, was ap-
pointed missionary for the eastern section of the
State. Rev. G. W. Moore, whom we have already
mentioned, was missionary in Central ITorth Caro-
A. \\. PEGUES, Ph.D.. D.P.,
Formerly Dean Theological Department, Shaw University. Now Supervisor Colored Depart-
ment State School for the Blind and Deaf. Corresponding Secretary of the Baptist
State Sunday School Convention.
Sunday School Conventions. 129
Una, and Eev. B. B. Hill, appointed conjointly by
the Western Convention and the State Convention,
was appointed for the Piedmont and western section
of the State. These men, covering almost the entire
State, greatly strengthened the Convention by their
The reports of the different auxiliary conventions,
together with the State Convention in 1908, showed
that a hundred and sixty thousand persons, old and
young, were gathered in the different Sunday
Schools, and in a few of the schools of the State more
money was realized in one year than was realized
in the first ten years of the Convention's existence.
The great misfortune in the schools, with few ex-
ceptions, they were composed of the children with
now and then an old man or woman. In many of
them not a single young man was to be seen. This
was not only true in the Sunday School, but largely
in the day school. In fact the Convention itself was
largely composed of young women. It was encourag-
ing, however, to find so many of the professional
men of the State falling in line with the Sunday
School work and helping to fill up the ranks depleted
by the young men. In the First Baptist Sunday
School of Raleigh was Col. J. H. Young; in the
White Kock Sunday School of Durham was Dr. A.
M. Moore, most earnest Sunday School superintend-
ents. In the Providence Sunday School, Greens-
boro, Dr. J. E. Dellinger ; in the Ebenezer School of
130 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Charlotte was Dr. A. A. Wyche, and others, who did
very much not only in the Sunday School work but
in the church work.
The work of the Convention and the Sunday
School became greatly helpful to the younger people
and the school itself, but with the growth of the
Sunday School came the growth of the church and
better pastors and officers were demanded; the Asso-
ciations were better, the Conventions better, and in
every way the State Sunday School Convention and
the Sunday School work became helpful to the gen-
eral and religious uplift of the people.
For one to have been present at the Convention
held at Smithfield, N. C, after following up the Con-
vention for twenty-five years of its previous history,
he would feel like exclaiming as one of old, "What
hath God wrought !" The wrangles which one heard
in that early period had entirely ceased ; intelligence
had come in the place of ignorance, peace and har-
mony in the place of contention and strife. A more
harmonious Convention was never held anywhere ; a
greater manifestation of intelligence was never
known. Encouraging reports from all the mission-
aries, an increase of money with which to carry for-
ward the work for the ensuing year, enthusiastic and
able addresses from each and every one on the pro-
gram and everything which bespoke a bright future
for the Negro Baptist Sunday School workers of
Sunday School Conventions. 131
The Sunday School Convention of Westeen
The Baptist State S\mday School Convention of
North Carolina in its annual session at Tarboro, N.
C, adjourned to meet with the Dixonville Baptist
Church and Sunday School of Salisbury, JST. C. For
some reason the Executive Board during the interim
of the Convention changed this decision and deter-
mined on Louisburg. The people of Salisbury and
the west had made preparation, and did not regard
the reason as given by the Executive Board suffi-
cient for the change. They held the Convention to
its decision at the Tarboro meeting, and hence fric-
tion ensued. A part of the Convention met at Louis-
burg and a part met in Salisbury. All the officers,
together with the Board, met at Louisburg, which
necessitated the election of new officers for the Salis-
bury wing. This marks the beginning of the West-
ern or Piedmont Convention, for it has been com-
posed altogether of Sunday Schools from the Pied-
mont section. It may be said, therefore, that the
Western Convention dates from 1884, in the month
of September, Salisbury. The Convention for sev-
eral years after its reorganization was rather crude,
compared with its previous record; but its leaders
were determined, and finally it took form and began
to show decided gains for improvement and develop-
ment. As soon as this was manifest it was also seen
that one of its chief aims was better Sunday Schools.
132 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
and progressive in every respect After ten years
of its existence this Convention realized the necessity
for some kind of educational institution for the Pied-
mont section among the Baptists. A meeting was
called at High Point, and the following was en-
couched in the Constitution of the Convention:
"To encourage, foster and stimulate the Sunday
Schools of Western iforth Carolina; to organize new
schools; to teach the doctrine and principles of the
Baptist Church; to educate our people to a free use
of the Bible and Baptist literature ; to foster and en-
courage mission work, and to formulate general plans
to systematize and unify the Sunday School work of
Western North Carolina."
In the ten years from 1899 to 1908 there was a
great increase in the number of schools represented
and in the number of persons in the individual
schools. This was largely due to the men at the
helm. In the time of its greatest weakness the Con-
vention elected E. W. Brown, of Winston-Salem.
N. C, for its President, and J. W. Paisley, of Win-
ston, for its Secretary. These two young men, as-
sociated in Sunday School and church work, and in
fact brought up side by side in the schoolroom, were
very much suited to each other in the development
of the great Sunday School work of the Piedmont
section. J. H. Elam, for several years Treasurer
was also of the same city and Sunday School. While
it was thought that too many came from the same
church and Sunday School, it was conceded that the
O ^ ;
Sunday School Conventions. 133
wonderful growth and progress was due to the un-
tiring energy of these men more than to any other
single cause. Possibly this unusual ability of these
young men, coupled with P. S. Smith, W. J. Poin-
dexter, L. M. Morton and others, enabled the First
Baptist Sunday School of Winston-Salem to take its
place in the lead, not only of the Sunday Schools
of this particular Convention, but of the schools of
the entire State.
One thousand was its enrollment in 1907; $812
its collections; six hundred and twenty-five the aver-
age attendance. Soon after these workers came to
the front the first improvement was seen in the su-
perintendency ; its teaching forces; its methods, and
in the increase of finances. Two hundred per cent
was the general increase. The number of teachers
in the various schools was soon increased to three
hundred and fifty. The increase in membership
was in proportion. The Convention soon found it
necessary to appoint a missionary, although consid-
erable missionary work was done previous to this
time, largely by voluntary service. Kev. B. B. Hill,
a man of considerable experience as pastor, both in
the western section of the country and in North Car-
olina, was appointed the first permanent mission-
ary. With his rich experience Rev. Hill added great
strength to the Convention, both in its annual coun-
cils and in the destitute sections, carrying to them
the open Bible and giving instruction, comfort and
encouragement. The Convention was greatly aided
134 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
in the accession of such men as Kevs. F. E. Mason,
of Salisbury; A. S. Groom, R. L. Eile, J. P. Alex-
ander, of the same city; J. W. Hairston, of Ad-
vance ; D. J. Avery, of Reidsville ; O. S. Bullock and
Jordan, of High Point; E. H. Harris, Watkins and
Hairston, of Greensboro, and others. The reports of
the schools showed not only that mere teaching had
been conducted but practical evangelical work had
been done as seen in the conversion of three hundred
and twenty-two precious souls. These were some of
the direct results; what the indirect results were we
have no way of ascertaining only in the final accounts
of the lives and deeds of men. We have mentioned
the educational movement in the meeting held at
High Point. The Rowan Normal and Industrial
Institute, conducted in Charlotte a number of years
and at Salisbury, was in part the result of this
awakening through this Convention. The Conven-
tion aided these projects at each of its annual sit-
tings. In the light of changed conditions, and in
that feeling of compromise which comes to all Chris-
tians after mature deliberation, the two Conventions,
which we have said went apart in 1884, were brought
into more harmonious relations, and, regarding the
other body as parent, the Western Convention sent
correspondents and finally delegates to meet the pa-
rent body from year to year. In fact the appoint-
ment of Eev. B. B. Hill, about whom mention has
been made, was made conjointly by the two Conven-
Sunday School Conventions. 135
tions; the parent body paying one hundred dollars
of his salary and the Western Convention paying
the rest. In the providence of God an orphanage
was established near Winston-Salem. The Conven-
tion regarded it as a Godsent opportunity, and an
object upon which to bestow its charity. The Win-
ston-Salem Orphanage had no better friend than the
Western Sunday School Convention. The Baptist
Sentinel, the Home and Foreign Mission work, in
fact every work which meant the furtherance of the
Master's Kingdom found a hearty response in the
Convention. The great State Sunday School Con-
vention came to regard this not as a mere expression
of difference and indifference formed, fostered and
encouraged to hinder, but an arm of might and of
power, intended to strengthen the forces in Zion and
hasten that day when "the kingdoms of this world
are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His
The New Hope Sunday School Convention.
The New Hope Sunday School Convention was
organized by Eevs. L. H. Hackney and M. W. Brown
in the year 1877. The object of this Convention
was for the purpose of strengthening the weaker
schools, helping to prosecute missionary enterprises,
and building up a secondary school within its bounds
for the better education of the young men, women
and children. After the organization had grown to
136 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
the number of thirty-five schools, with a member-
ship of twenty-five hundred, a school site was pur-
chased at New Hill, N. C. Not only did this Con-
vention provide for the young people within their
own bounds but many other similar enterprises, to-
gether with missionary objects and' charity, receive
help, and hence the Conventions as, well as the Asao- •
ciations contribute generously from time to time.
The Western North Carolina Sunday School
The Western North Carolina Sunday School Con-
vention was composed of the larger number of the
Sunday Schools within the territory of North Caro-
lina west of the Blue Ridge Mountains.
The object of this Convention, as set forth in its
Constitution, was for educational and missionary
purposes, especially in the Sunday Schools and
churches of the Blue Ridge section. In 1891 the
Western Convention agreed to unite with the regular
State Convention of Sunday School workers, which
held its annual session of that year in the city of
Charlotte. Prof. E. H. Lipscombe came from the
Western Convention as its first representative.
The representative was received with open arms,
and the day was hailed with gladness when the wall
of separation between the two Conventions was
broken down. Mr. Lipscombe made a strong appeal
for aid for his mountain section, and the Convention
Sunday School Conventions. 13T
responded gladly to the appeal. They agreed to give
support in part to a missionary to do Sunday School
mission and colportage work in that section of the
Prof. Lipscombe was named as the missionary for
the Blue Ridge section and served several years in
that capacity, doing acceptable work in the spread
of gospel literature and awakening an interest
throughout that region for the uplift of the Master's
At that time there were about seven thousand Bap-
tists beyond the mountains. Compared with their
numbers they gave much aid to the missionary. One
great hindrance, as in the eastern section of the
State, it seemed hard to get the proper union and
cooperation of the few scattered here and there in the
mountain fastnesses and made the work of the mis-
sionary quite difficult. The President and officers
of the Western Convention were in hearty sympathy
with the Sunday School missionary work, and did
much to foster the spirit of missions. Much of the
same difficulties were met with by the white brethren
in trying to do work in the mountain section of the
State, but being much abler and having superior ad-
vantages made better headway.
At that time too there was considerable division
even in that small company of Baptists. A conten-
tion over the literature and over the two Foreign
Mission Conventions had reached that section and
stood somewhat in the way of the proper union. With
138 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
the growth of time so much of the bitterness which
at first existed passed away, and a spirit of union be-
gan to grow, which meant better churches and Sun-
day Schools. Rev. J. R. Nelson, of Asheville, and
Rev. A. H. Wilson, of Waynesville, were leading
spirits for many years both in the church and Sun-
day School work, although the foundation for Bap-
tist work in the Blue Ridge section was laid by the
Hemphills. As the successor of Rev. Rumley, a sen-
sational divine of his day. Rev. J. R. Nelson held
the Second Church in Asheville, which gave him a
conspicuous place in the affairs of the colored Bap-
tists of the Blue Ridge, and he held it successfully
for many years. He did much to shape the policy
and work of the churches and Conventions.
Rev. Wilson, holding some of the most prominent
churches in the mountains, and especially the church
at Waynesville, gave him an opportunity for special
usefulness, and in many respects he used his oppor-
tunities to advantage. Many of the Baptists of the
Blue Ridge section have come from South Carolina
and other States, which to some extent alienated
them from the regular Conventions of the State.
And too, for the most part, the churches were small,
the revenues comparatively little, which did much to
discourage the proper afiiliation with the eastern
brethren. Be it said to the credit of the eastern
brethren, they entertained a deep sympathy and in-
terest in the brethren of the distant western section
Sunday School Conventions. 139
of l^orth Carolina, and let no opportunity pass them
to render assistance, as was demonstrated in the
Charlotte Convention toward Prof. Lipscomhe, the
representative from that section. In several in-
stances leading brethren from the east volunteered
their services and crossed the mountains bearing
light, intelligence and encouragement to their more
needy brethren beyond.
KE]srA]srsvixLE Eastern Sunday School Conven-
This Convention was organized at Williams's Cross
Roads, four miles east of Warsaw, under the auspices
of the Baptist State Sunday School Convention. A.
J. Stanford, of Warsaw, and A. E. Middleton, of
Kenansville, being the auxiliaries for the State Con-
vention in that section, felt that more effective Sun-
day School work could be done by such an organiza-
tion and took the leading part in its organization.
The number of schools and members of the different
Sunday Schools uniting with the movement showed
the wisdom of such a convention. From the few in
the beginning it soon grew to forty-three schools,
representing a membership of three thousand. At
one time the Convention sent twenty-five dollars for
the support of Rev. J. 0. Hayes in Africa. They
took the leading part in the purchase of the school
site at Faison at a cost of fifteen hundred dollars.
140 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
NOBTHEAST AND OaPE FeAB SuNDAY ScHOOL CON-
At the annual session of the Middle District Asso-
ciation Convention a resolution prevailed to organ-
ize a Sunday School Convention in connection with
the Association. In 1879 this Convention was or-
ganized. It was through the incentive of the Con-
vention, as in the instance of the Kenansville Asso-
ciation and Convention, that the school, the property
of the Association, had its origin. Together with
the Association seven hundred dollars are raised an-
nually and appropriated to the Burgaw High School.
Some local missionary and even State missionary
work is done also through the Convention. Much
light and inspiration has been infused into the Sun-
day School and church work throughout the entire
section in which the Convention is located, and to-
gether with the State Convention of which the North-
east and Cape Fear is an auxiliary our Foreign Mis-
sion work was aided. As in other sections of the
State the future development and improvement in
the ministry and church work generally depended on
the Sunday School, so in the Cape Fear section, and
this Convention, the child of the Middle District As-
sociation, became the central light.
The Chowan Sunday School Convention.
The Chowan Sunday School Convention was or-
ganized in 1884 and is composed of. the Sunday
Schools largely of Hertford County. While this
Sunday School Conventions. 141
Convention does other work, it is practically giving
its strength to the aid of the Waters Normal Insti-
tute of Winton, N. 0. No Convention of its kind
in the State raised as much money as the Chowan
Convention. While the regular State Convention re-
quired only two cents per capita the Chowan Con-
vention required three cents. The constitution
states that the Treasurer of the Waters Institute
should be the Treasurer of the Convention. The
Convention did a splendid work for the cause of the
institution it fostered, and made splendid offerings
in its behalf.
Since it required all the energy of that section of
the State to make Waters Normal School what it
was, and since it was the moral, intellectual and re-
ligious development of so many who afterward be-
come proficient and active in Sunday School work,
doubtless the Convention served its highest and best
purpose by giving its strength and support in thie
The collections have amounted to eight hundred
dollars in a single year. The Convention has fos-
tered different missionary and icharitable objects,
and in that respect as well as educational has done
much good in the cause of humanity.
But little time was given to the literary work or
to a fixed program as its session was usually but
one or two days at most. The time was largely taken
with money raising to advance the objects men-
tioned, and this seemed to give entire satisfaction
142 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
to the different representatives. A kindly spirited
competition is not only in the churches composing
the West Roanoke Association, of which this Con-
vention forms a part, but in the Convention itself.
There is usually a sermon and other papers on these
occasions. It may be said of this Convention and
the Association through their financial aid to
Waters and its other benefactions, a centre of edu-
cation gets its support, which did more than all the
agencies to cause "the wilderness to blossom as the
The Baptist Young People's Union Association
OF Noeth Caeolina.
In connection with the Baptist State Sunday
School Convention, which met with the First Baptist
Church and Sunday School of Kaleigh, IST. C, in
September, 1900, a meeting was called to consider
the advisability of organizing a Baptist Young Peo-
ple's Union Association. After some deliberation it
was decided to organize such an association, which
should meet annually in connection with the meeting
of the Sunday School Convention. Mr. J. P. Wil-
liams, Business Manager of the Baptist Sentinel, was
elected first President; Miss C. F. Blount, of Wil-
mington, Secretary; Miss Emma W. Sasser, of
Goldsboro, Corresponding Secretary and State Or-
ganizer; J. N". Coats, of Seaboard, Treasurer.
The object of this organization, as stated in the
Constitution, was the "Unification of the Baptist
Sunday School Conventions. 143
young people, their increased spirituality; their
stimulation in Christian service; their edification in
scripture knowledge; their instruction in Baptist
history and doctrine, and their enlistment in mis-
sionary activity through existing denominational or-
Miss Sasser traveled in nearly every section of the
State and organized a number of unions, some of
which became greatly helpful, not only to the State
organization, but to the local Sunday Schools and
churches. Her tenure of office was of short duration,
and Rev. A. B. Vincent, who had much experience
in the church and Sunday School work, was ap-
pointed to succeed her. Rev. Vincent served but a
year, and left the work to enter the pastorate. The
growth of the B. Y. P. U. work was slow because of
the lack of an organizer after the two mentioned had
given up the work. Mr. Williams was succeeded by
Dr. C. C. Somerville, of Charlotte, as President.
Dr. Somerville served but a year, not sufficiently long
to do much in the way of building up the work. He
was succeeded in the session at Fayetteville by Mr.
E. J. Young. Mr. Young gave some attention to
the unions and to the organization of new unions
but his efforts were comparatively feeble, being en-
cumbered with business enterprises.
At the annual meeting of the Association E«v. W.
H. Knuckles was elected Corresponding Secretary
and State Organizer. He gave some of his spare
time to the organization of new unions and visited
144 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
some of the old unions, which added some strength
to the B. Y. P. U. work in the State, and yet, after
ten years of existence, its progress was far from
what its friends had anticipated and hoped.
Wherever unions were organized and kept up they
proved a great blessing in many respects, but their
slow growth to some extent was due to the fact that
many of the churches felt burdened with organiza-
tions and to some extent the young people felt dis-
The work did not promise sufficient salary to keep
a representative on the field, and yet the success
which attended the efforts which had been made in
the ten years of its history gave assurances thai
greater effort would bring decided improvement and
helpfulness to the Baptist cause in the State in gen-
eral. The objects, as set forth in the constitution,
from the little that had been accomplished proved
to be of the greatest necessity, and in the session at
Greensboro a united effort was made to prosecute
the work with greator vigor than ever.
The result of the work of the Corresponding Sec-
retary, Bev. W. H. Knuckles, for the year which
came to a close at the annual meeting of the organi-
zation at Smithfield, N. C, showed that the vigor-
ous service was not without splendid results; the re-
port of the Corresponding Secretary showed that
more unions had been organized throughout the
State, inquiries of plans for organization and a gen-
eral revival in the unions already organized.
3L v^ ^
^^Ink. ^* ' Jl
^^^H^ -• . -,M.- W
^^9^H|^^N t ^
Sunday School Conventions. 145
Conditions were so flattering through the efforts
of Secretary Knuckles the State B. Y. P. U. elected
him as President of the organization. The watch-
word of the meeting was "More Unions and Better
Unions." From the outlook the friends of the or-
ganization were assured that North Carolina would
soon take her place in the foremost ranks in this
splendid work among the Baptist young people.
Shaw University is situated in Kaleigh, the capi-
tal of the State. It has a beautiful location within
the city limits, and a few minutes' walk from the
Union Station, the Capitol and the United States
Although within the city limits, it has an entire
square to itself, quiet and secluded as if it were situ-
ated miles away in the country. This quiet and se-
clusion, together with a bountiful supply of pure
water, perfect sanitation, sewerage and other city
advantages, make Shaw well-nigh an ideal place for
study. Its grounds are spacious and well kept, and
its principal buildings large, imposing brick struc-
tures. There are 25 buildings in all owned by the
institution; seven of them are large brick structures
and eight are dwellings that are rented by the in-
stitution, the income from which is devoted to the
aid of needy and meritorious students.
This institution of learning, that has done so much
in uplifting our race in North Carolina and in all
the other States of the Union where our people are
found in considerable numbers, was established by
Henry Martin Tupper.
Rev. Henry Martin Tupper, D.D., was a native
*The editor is indebted to Rev. H. L. Morehouse, D.D.,
Corresponding Secretary of the American Baptist Home Mis-
sion Society, New York, and President Charles Francis Meserye,
L L.D., of Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C, for the data con-
tained in this chapter.
Shaw University. 147
of Monson, Mass. His boyhood was passed upon
liis father's farm in the outskirts of the town; his
parents were not Christians; he attended neither
church nor Sabbath School, and the district school for
only a short term during the winter ; but possessing
a thirst for knowledge he read books and papers that
came in his way with great avidity and while a mere
lad had decided convictions upon the subject of
In his eighteenth year he entered Monson Acad-
emy, where he fitted for college, and while in the
academy was converted.
As he was dependent upon his ovpn exertions for
means to obtain an education he frequently taught
school, and while thus engaged in a town in New
Jersey he became so impressed with his duty to be
immersed that one Sunday afternoon he walked
twenty miles to the nearest Baptist Church and asked
for baptism. Having received it, he returned to his
work Monday morning, and later united with the
Baptist Church in Wales, Mass.
After leaving the academy he went to Amherst
College, graduated in 1859 ; then entered Newton
Theological Institution, where he was graduated
June 26, 1862, on the day of the battle of Fair
Soon after Governor Andrew, of Massachusetts,
issued a call for men to "carry the musket," stating
that there was already a surplus of ofScers, and on
the fourteenth of July he enlisted as a soldier; a
148 Negro Baptists of North CwroUna.
few days afterward he was ordained and joined the
Army of the Potomac about the time of the battles
of South Mountain and Antietam; he was in the
battle of Fredericksburg and followed the Ninth
Army Corps into Kentucky; was in the campaign
against Vicksburg and in the raid upon Jackson.
Mississippi, under General Sherman. In one en-
gagement a shell burst so near his face that it
scorched his flesh; but, though others at the right
and the left were killed by the flying pieces, he was
providentially spared to do his great life-work.
Although a private soldier he was constantly en-
gaged in Christian work, holding meetings among
the men, vrriting letters for the sick and wounded
and often performing the duties of chaplain. Dur-
ing these years he also found many opportunities of
becoming acquainted with the colored people who
flocked to the camps, and of studying their condition
While a student he had been deeply impressed
with a desire to labor as a missionary in Africa ; and
when in college had a large Sunday School class of
colored youths. While in the seminary he was em-
ployed as a Sunday School missionary in Boston by
the Dudley Street Baptist Church, laboring more
especially among the foreign element. Thus Provi-
dence had already opened the way for him to obtain
a varied and practical experience in missionary work.
But the opening up of the South as a fleld for mis-
sionary effort had modified his views in reference
Shaw University. 149
to going to Africa, though he had not as yet formu-
lated any definite plans as to how or where he should
A few weeks after the cessation of hostilities, and
previous to his discharge from the army, he received
a commission from the American Baptist Home
Mission Society to go South as a missionary to the
"freedmen" and to select his own field. This com-
mission, coming as it did entirely unsolicited, was
regarded by him as the finger of Providence pointing
to the home field. After due deliberation he decided
upon Ealeigh, North Carolina, as a central point for
missionary operations. He was discharged from the
army July 14, 1865, and on the first of the follow-
ing October started with his wife for Raleigh. After
a tedious journey occupying nearly a week, owing
to broken lines of travel, they reached Raleigh Oc-
tober 10th, having purchased tickets Nos. 1 and 2 at
Portsmouth, Va., and taking the first train that had
passed over the Seaboard route since the close of the
The day following his arrival Dr. Tupper called
upon the pastor of the Baptist Church, presented
his credentials and made known his mission. Of
course at that early date cooperation was not to be
expected. It is true that hostilities had ceased, but
the bitterness that war had engendered was not
easily overcome and several years elapsed before
much fraternal feeling was developed.
Without waiting for further recognition he at once
150 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
commenced his work among the colored people, whose
condition he found pitiable in the extreme. They
were poor and destitute; many of them were refu-
gees who had followed the army, and were literally
houseless and homeless. Having been in the army,
he was especially able to aid them in procuring food
and clothing from the Freedmen's Bureau, and at
one time had upon his list 1Y5 persons over 75 years
of age whom he regularly assisted in obtaining "ra-
But there was no place where the people could be
gathered for religious instruction except under the
shelter of a neighboring tree or in their low, dark,
From his diary we quote the following: "Decem-
ber 1st. Visited six families; held a prayer meet-
ing; heard my theological class." Thus December
1, 1865, dates the humble beginning of the educa-
tional work of which the present Shaw University
is the outgrowth.
An Humble Oeigin.
Shaw University was started in a very humble
way in a negro cabin on the outskirts of the city.
The enterprise grew and larger buildings became
necessary, but there was little money either for car-
rying on or extending the work. Accordingly with
a few faithful helpers day after day he shouldered
his axe and went out of the city into the woods, and
together they felled huge pines and hewed the logs
Shaw University. 151
into timber. After many weeks of struggling and
after receiving a little help from the North, the
actual work of building began. A large two-story
structure to be used both for a church and a school
was finally erected on Blount street, a block north ol
the present location of the University.
The work continued to grow and again larger
quarters were required. At this juncture the man-
sion and grounds of the late General Barringer, ex-
minister to Spain, were for sale. This property,
comprising several buildings and 12 acres of land,
and occupying an entire square, was purchased at a
cost of $13,000. Of this sum $5,000 was pledged
by the Hon. Elijah Shaw, of Wales, Mass., whose
honored name the institution so appropriately bears.
Dr. Tupper spent considerable time in the North
raising money to complete the payment on the pur-
chase of the Barringer property. In order to aid the
students and to teach them the importance of self-
help he commenced in the spring of 1871 the manu-
facture of brick from clay found upon the premises.
The amount netted from the brick ente]*prise the
first year, clear of all expenses, in addition to brick
used in building, was between $3,000 and $4,000
which was applied toward the erection of buildings.
The aim of the society at first was mainly to pro-
vide schools for the training of ministers and young
men as Christian workers. But Dr. Tupper early
152 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
perceived that the education of young women was
of equal importance and in 1870 he received a few
coming from different parts of the State, obtaining
rooms and board for them in private families. When
he first proposed educating young women the idea
did not meet with much favor. It was looked upon
as a doubtful if not an unwise step. In the mean-
time the number applying for admission continued
to increase until in the spring of 1872 he determined
again to appeal to Northern friends for aid, and for
two months held a daily prayer meeting with the
students, asking the Lord to open the way that suit-
able accommodations might be furnished for a female
department. The following summer he went North
and was so far successful in obtaining the necessary
funds that upon his return in the fall he commenced
a dormitory for girls, which was afterward named
Estey Hall in honor of Deacon Jacob Estey and sons
of Brattleboro, "Vermont, who gave $8,000 toward
This was the first effort of the denomination in
gathering colored girls into a boarding school, and
the Estey building was the first school edifice of any
considerable size in the South erected solely for the
accommodation of colored women for their Christian
development and education.
Shaw was incorporated in 1875. At that time the
work was more elementary than now, but such as
was adapted to the needs of the people. The man-
agement, however, has kept pace constantly with the
Shaw University. 153
progress of the race and the demand of the times
until there are today in addition to normal, college
and industrial departments, schools of theology, law,
medicine and pharmacy.
An Anxious Night.
In the early days there were trying times and
there was no social recognition of President Tupper.
his devoted wife and associates on the part of the
white people of the city and State. President Tup-
per and wife spent a night in a corn field in the rear
of their humble cabin, having been threatened by the
Ku Klux. Every moment of these hours of anxious
suspense they expected to see the flames consume
their home and all their earthly effects, but a kind,
all-wise Providence guarded them through the long
night watches, and when the welcome dawn tardily
appeared the humble cabin was still standing and
in devout thanksgiving they returned to its kindly
shelter. The animosity and bitterness of the post-
bellum and reconstruction days are happily things
of the past, and the work now goes smoothly on with
the respect of the community, and at times there is
genuine sympathy and helpful cooperation.
A Noble Oaeeeb Ended.
On the 12th of November, 1893, after a prolonged
illness. Dr. Tupper breathed his last. His funeral
was one of the largest ever attended in the city of
Raleigh, and the esteem in which he was held was
154 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
evidenced by the large concourse of people of both
races that assembled on the Shaw campus to pay
their respect to his memory and in recognition ol
the work that he had done. His remains lie on the
campus, in front of Shaw Hall, a fitting resting
place for the hero who had given more than a quarter
of a century of the best part of his life in the city of
Raleigh to the uplifting of our race and for the bet-
terment of the State in which he and his devoted
wife had for so many years cast their lot.
The Second Peesident of Shaw Univeesitt.
On the 17th of March, 1894, Charles Francis Me-
serve, a native of Abington, Plymouth County,
Massachusetts, took up the work where Dr. Tupper
laid it down. President Meserve had been engaged
in educational work in the New England States for
many years, but for some years immediately preced-
ing his coming to Raleigh he had been Superintend-
ent and Special Disbursing Agent of Haskell Insti-
tute at Lawrence, Kansas, at that time the largest
United States Indian Industrial Training School in
the West. He had served five years in this capacity
and was expecting to continue indefinitely. When
the call came for him to take up the work laid down
by Dr. Tupper, he felt that he could not consider it-
He was urged by the officers of the American Baptist
Home Mission Society to visit Shaw University and
look over the field and see the magnificent oppor-
tunity to continue the work of uplifting our race so
Shaw University. 155
recently in slavery and that had made such marvel-
ous progress during the brief time we had been on
the road to freedom. He was so impressed upon
visiting Shaw with the importance and need of the
work, aside from the fact that he was loyally devoted
to the missionary and educational work of his de-
nomination, that he consented to resign his impor-
tant civil service position in Kansas and take up the
work as President of Shaw University.
During the fifteen years that have elapsed since he
came to Raleigh he has given his entire time and
strength to the various departments of the institu-
tion, endeavoring to build it up both in the esteem
of the colored and white people of the South as well
as the people of the North. During these years sub-
stantial, material and spiritual progress has been
made. Modern sanitation has been introduced
throughout the institution and a central hot water
heating plant installed, and most of the large build-
ings have been connected with this central plant.
Aside from these important improvements the build-
ings generally have been repaired and renovated and
put in a more modern condition. A large addition
has been made to the girls' building to provide better
facilities for instruction in cooking, sewing, dress-
making, laundry work and all other domestic arts.
The girls' department is now well equipped and well
nigh perfect. A large building known as the Tup
156 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
per Memorial, to be used as a men's industrial de-
partment, was completed last year, a fitting me-
morial to one who was reared on a New England
farm and who was so closely in sympathy all through
his life with the industrial ideas that are so essen-
tial to the development and support of any race.
The attendance has increased until it has been
necessary for the last three years to refuse many ap-
plicants for lack of room. Last year the enrollment
was 526 and the disbursements of the institution
more than $42,000. The average age of the students
was nearly twenty-three and one-half years.
An interesting feature of the work is the develop-
ment of self-help on the part of our people them-
selves. The General Education Society in !N^ew
York pledged $13,000 for additional buildings on
condition that the colored people would raise $5,000
additional. J. A. Whitted, Corresponding Secretary
of the Baptist State Convention, was appointed Fi
nancial Agent, and in two years of faithful and per-
sistent work, traveling up and down the State, se-
cured more than was necessary. This money was
used in the erection of the Tupper Memorial and
an addition to Estey Hall, the girls' dormitory.
Another important addition is the enlargement of
the Administration Building and the extending of
the heating system to this building. This was made
possible by a gift of $2,500 from a generous friend
in the North, assisted by several other donors and
the American Baptist Home Mission Society. The
Shaw University. 157
urgent need at the present time is equipment for the
Tupper Memorial, a portion of the money for which
is already in hand, and the erection of a larger hos-
pital and a laboratory for the Medical Department.
All the departments have grown through the yeard
and there has been a growing confidence on the part
of the public in the work done by all departments of
the institution. There is a kindly attitude on the
part of the leading white people of the city toward
the work. One 'of Raleigh's leading citizens re-
marked not long ago that they felt safe as long as
Shaw University was located in their midst.
More than 7,000 students of both sexes have been
enrolled at Shaw University since the work was be-
gun by Dr. Tupper in the autumn of 1865.
Over 300 men and women have been graduated
from the Normal, College and Theological Depart-
The first class was sent out by Shaw University
in 1878 and consisted of the following:
Henry Clay Crosby Plymouth,
Caesar Johnson Kaleigh.
Nicholas F. Eoberts Ealeigh.
Ezekiel E. Smith Fayetteville.
Frederick H. Wilkins. . .Honey Grove, Texas.
Louis H. Wyche. .i Williamsboro.
Of the more than 300 graduates a large number
have taken the Theological Course and have become
ministers of power and influence in various parts of
158 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Leonard Medical School.
The Leonard Medical School was established in
1880. The first class was graduated in 1886 and
consisted of the following men:
M. S. G. Abbott Pensacola, Ela.
James H. Bugg Savannah, Ga.
M. T. Pope. Raleigh.
A. T. Prince ,. .Beaufort, S. C.
L. A. Scruggs Southern Pines
J. T. Williams Charlotte.
Three hundred and one men have been sent out with
the degree of M.D. and are practicing in a majority
of the States of the Union, and some have located in
foreign countries. The good that has been done by
these medical men can scarcely be overestimated. It
was thought at one time that colored youths had not
the ability to acquire even an ordinary education,
and when there was broached the subject of medical
education it was said that it would be utterly impos-
sible to educate colored men in medicine.
An interesting feature of the Leonard Medical
School is the composition of the Faculty. Prom the
beginning the Faculty has consisted of Southern
white men of splendid training and preparation for
their work, — in fact, the most skillful and influential
physicians in the city of Raleigh. They have gone
in and out for years before their students and it
would be difficult to find an institution of learning
where there is a more devoted feeling of loyalty on
ShoAu University. 159
the part of students for their teachers. It will be
an everlasting monument to the credit of the South
that men reared in the South, descendants of slave-
owners, and some of them former slave-owners them-
selves, took hold of this work and have carried it on
so successfully and with such a magnificent spirit for
so many years.
While the Law Department has never been large,
43 men have been graduated. The first class was
sent out in 1890 and consisted of one man, Edward
A. Johnson, of Raleigh. Professor Johnson served
for many years as the Instructor of the Law Depart-
ment, and it was with great regret that his resigna-
tion was accepted two years ago on his departure
from Kaleigh to locate as a lawyer in the city of
New York, where he has since been successful, as he
was during his career in Raleigh.
Leonaed School of Phaemacy.
The first class in the Leonard School of Pharmacy
was graduated in 1893 and consisted of one man,
George P. Hart, of Houmah, Louisiana. A class
has been graduated every year since, with the excep-
tion of 1899, the total number of graduates reach-
A National Woek.
The blessing that Shaw has been to our race can
hardly be estimated. Thousands of young men and
160 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
women have gone forth from her halls into fields of
usefulness and influence. They are foimd in nearly
every State and Territory of the Union, though
naturally the largest numbers are found in the South.
They are making their way in every walk of life and
the majority of them are the substantial, influential
leaders of the race. In the teaching profession they
have made themselves particularly felt as well as in
the ministry. At one time flve of the seven colored
normal schools of the State were presided over by
principals who were Shaw men. Dr. J. O. Crosby,
for some years President of the State Agricultural
and Mechanical College for colored young men and
young women. Dr. E. E. Smith, ex-Minister to Li-
beria, Hon. H. P. Cheatham, for several years a
member of Congress and a former Recorder of Deeds
of the District of Columbia, the general and State
missionaries and the principals of the secondary
schools of the denomination in the State and in
other States, as well as several of the professors at
Shaw, are Shaw men.
Pbominekt in Wab as Well as in Peace.
The Third North Carolina Eegiment of the United
States Infantry was composed of men of ovjc race,
and Shaw figured prominently in this regiment. Col.
James H. Young, Adjt. E. E. Smith, Chief Sur-
geon J. E. Dellinger, Asst. Surgeons M. T. Pope
and M. W. Alston, Capts. J. J. Hood and J. T.
York and other ofiicers, and many in the ranks were
Shaw University. 161
graduates or former students of Shaw. The Chief
Surgeon and his assistants and Captain Hood were
graduates of the Medical Department.
Graduates of the Law Department go into court
and plead their cases with the same courteous treat-
ment from judge and jury as is accorded to white
members of the bar. Success has also been won by
the graduates of medicine and pharmacy, and they
are found very generally throughout the South.
A. W. Benson, of Atlanta, Class of 1895, was the
first colored man to obtain a license from the Vir-
ginia Board of Pharmacy Examiners. His standing
in examination was slightly in excess of 95 per cent.
The first man of any race to receive 100 per cent in
an examination before the Virginia Board of Medical
Examiners was Dr. C. E. Alexander, of Lynchburg,
Class of 1891. He is located in Petersburg, Vir-
girda, where he has practiced for many years and
has the confidence and respect of the community. He
has recently established a hospital that is being
operated for the benefit of the poor and needy. Dur-
ing the Spanish-American War Dr. Alexander was
Chief Surgeon of the Sixth Regiment of the United
States Infantry from Virginia.
Aw Educated Ministet.
A goodly number of our young men, as has been
the case from the founding of the Institution, are
162 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
studying for the ministry. Shaw has furnished
nearly all the denominational leaders in North Caro-
lina and many in other States. In the gospel minis-
try her greatest influence has been exerted, for her
Theological Department has always been well at-
tended, and the minister is still the influential factor
in directing the life of the great mass of colored
people in every community.
An Educated Laitt.
Many of her former students are thrifty farmer?,
successful business men and occupy positions of
honor and trust in their respective counties. The
aim of the institution from the very beginning has
been to turn out well-equipped Christian men and
women to be leaders in the best sense of the term and
thus indirectly but effectually reach the great masses
of the people. This has been done with signal and
Shaw believes in coeducation. Men and women
meet in the class room, in the chapel and around the
family board on terms of equality. The Women's
Department is known as Estey Seminary. It was
predicted that coeducation would be a dismal and
disgusting failure, but it should be said to the great
credit of the race that there never has been a scandal
connected with the institution. President Meserve
states that after nearly a quarter of a century spent
Shaw University. 163
in educational work among white young men and wo-
men, Indian young men and women and colored
young men and women, he has found it no more diffi-
cult to maintain good discipline and proper relations
between the sexes than he has in other fields with
A WOELD-WIDB InFLUEITCB.
The influence exerted by Shaw is well-nigh world-
wide. At the present time she has students from the
West Indies and Africa and has enrolled them from
Central and South America. Although a home mis-
sion school, her spirit reaches out to other lands.
Missionary Hayes, the well-known African mission-
ary, was a Shaw student. Dr. Lulu C. Fleming and
four others from Shaw have done missionary work on
the Congo. A Prince of the Royal line, Alfred Impy.
a nephew of King Kama, of the Kaffir tribe of Cape
Colony, South Africa, was for some time a student.
He came to Shaw to get his education, with the inten-
tion of returning to do missionary work at home. He
was a fine, manly fellow and, although he could
speak and write English only indifferently when he
came, he made good progress and his untimely death
was greatly mourned by all who knew him.
It is worthy of note that Shaw men and women do
not become criminals and seldom, if ever, do educated
young men and women belong to the criminal or law-
less classes. Rather are they conservators of law and
order and preservers of the peace. Shaw students
164 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
and graduates are as a rule Christian men and ■wo-
men of clean lives, and some of them are earnest
workers in the cause of temperance and social purity.
Deplorable indeed would be the condition of our
people, only a generation from actual slavery, were it
not for the stalwart men and pure women from Shaw
now found in nearly every community, who, by their
example and precept, show the possibilities of our
race and exert such a strong controlling influence for
good over the ignorant and less favored.
This sketch of Shaw University and its work would
not be complete did we not emphasize the fact that
President Meserve is holding the institution up to
the highest standards and loftiest ideals and is keep-
ing Shaw in touch with the best methods of the day.
While there are college and normal departments and
much attention is given to the institution because of
her professional departments, yet the industrial idea
is by no means put out of sight. Outside of the pro-
fessional departments all of the students spend half
a day at their books and the other half at some trade.
If you were to visit the women's departments in the
afternoon you would find scientific instruction right
up to date given to the girls in cooking, in dressmak-
ing, in sewing, in millinery, and in all the arts that
make the home what it should be. If you were
to visit the Tupper Memorial, when completely
Shaw University. 165
equipped, you will find young men learning the trade
of the blacksmith, the mason, the carpenter, and you
will also in other rooms find them at work at the
drafting boards, preparing plans and estimates and
receiving instruction in all lines of industrial work,
for which there is to-day such demand.
SECONDAET BAPTIST SCHOOLS ESTAB-
LISHED AND MAINTAINED BY THE NE-
GKO BAPTISTS OF NOETH CAROLINA.
For many years after the war tlie Negro youth de-
pended largely upon the public schools and schools
supported by the Freedmen's Bureau. In some
places the Friends (the Quakers) established schools
for their education. Shaw University at Raleigh
was the first school which promised anything like a
high course of study. We have already mentioned
the intention of the founders of Shaw IJniversity to
prepare men for the gospel ministry, and to prepare
men and women as teachers. The effort was a com-
plete success. Some of the ablest and best men who
have ever gone out from Shaw were among the first
to enter after its establishment; this was not only
true as ministers, but teachers as well. The public
schools over the State were largely supplied by men
and women from Shaw. Many of them were not con-
tent to teach in the public schools but felt the need of
a higher training, and hence they began here and
there to establish high schools. First among these
were Alexander Hicks, of Plymouth, N. C, and
E. H. Lipscombe, of Dallas, N. C. The School at
Plymouth, established by Mr. Hicks, a graduate of
Shaw, developed into a State Normal School. Al-
though the Dallas School was continued for several
Secondary Schools. 167
years and during its existence sent out several teach-
ers and preachers, it was finally discontinued.
Possibly the causes which led to the discontinuance
of the School at Dallas proved helpful to the estab-
lishment of others. It was evident to maintain such
schools whole associations met and formed educa-
tional associations, and here and there over the State
Baptist Schools with Baptist Associations behind
them were established. The Home Mission Society
came to the rescue and partial support of three of
them, the others received support from the Associa-
tions, and elsewhere, as friends could be moved to
Shiloh Institute, Waeeenton, N. C.
Shiloh Institute at Warrenton, N. C, was the
third in the list of the secondary schools. This
school was established in 1885 by the Shiloh Bap-
tist Association. The Plummer residence, containing
eight acres of land, was purchased for this purpose.
This place was beautifully situated within the corpo-
rate limits of Warrenton, N. C, and offered every fa-
cility for such an undertaking. Taking the name of
the Warrenton High School and conducted in that
name for several years, it was afterward changed to
Shiloh Institute, in honor of the Shiloh Association.
During the first years of the existence of the school
it was the strongest school of its kind in the State.
Within twelve years after its establishment, in 1885.
there were sent out one hundred and twenty-five
168 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
teachers, in Warren and other counties of the State,
besides several ministers of the gospel, who did much
good along the line of the ministry.
After the property of this school was secured
gradual improvements were made, and in 1906 it
was valued at seven thousand dollars. Changes in
the management of the school, and divisions in the
Association, caused a decline in the school, and many
who had patronized it turned to other similar schools
scattered over the State.
The Gabysbueg High School.
Even prior to the establishment of the Shiloh In-
stitute there was a school established at Garysburg,
IST. C, by Eev. E. I. Walden, a graduate of Shaw
University. This property was owned and eon-
trolled by Rev. Walden. Several efforts were made
to have the Weuse River Association adopt this
school, as the school of the Association, but the effort
was unsuccessful, although many of the leaders of
that body received their education from the Garys-
burg School. Much of Dr. Walden's time was given
to the gospel ministry, as well as to the work of
teaching. Like the Shiloh School at Warrenton.
much good was accomplished and many able men and
women were sent out to join the hosts of Christian
workers in the State. The strength of Dr. Walden
was so taxed, endeavoring to keep the school going,
and the two churches, the one at Louisburg, and the
other at Henderson, he finally turned the school over
Secondary Schools. 169
to Eev. Mr. Blacknall, one of the graduates, and
moved to Henderson, 1^. C, where he might give his
entire time to the gospel ministry. Mr. Blacknall
was quite successful, enrolling two hundred during
the winter months of each year.
Waters ISTobmal and Industrial Institute at
WiNTON, E". C.
This institution, established in 1886, was by far
the strongest and ablest school of its kind in North
Carolina. For twenty-five years after its establish-
ment Eev. C. S. Brown, a graduate of Shaw Univer-
sity, was the Principal. During the forty-three
years of the history of Shaw there had not gone out
from that institution a man who had done so much
along the educational lines as Dr. Brown, the Prin-
cipal of Waters Institute. When he went to Winton
the site where the Institute was erected was a wil-
derness. He began with a rude structure for a boys'
dormitory, and recitation rooms. In 1896 a two-
story building was erected at a cost of six thousand
dollars, a dormitory for girls, recitation rooms, and
a dining hall.
The boys' dormitory, being destroyed by fire in the
year 1907, a brick building was soon after begun and
completed in 1908 at a cost of eight thousand dollars.
The reports showed in 1908 that sixty-six had grad-
uated from Waters Institute. Several had taken up
the practice of medicine, six had gone into the gospel
ministry and quite a number were teachers in the
170 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
schools of North Carolina. Waters Institute received
the largest amounts from the Home Mission Society
given to any similar school in the State, which
enabled the school to so far outstrip the other second-
ary schools of the State. And, too, as we have al-
ready indicated, Principal Brown was a man of rare
gifts, as was shown in the success which came to the
school and in many other ways, as he was interested
in almost everything which meant the uplift of his
race and the advancement of the Negro Baptists of
North Carolina and elsewhere. This School exerted
such an influence in Eastern North Carolina it not
only proved helpful to the colored people but to Win-
ton, which was little known before its establishment,
and to all that section of the State. That they might
enjoy the benefits of the school many of the patrons
moved to Winton and, without a single exception,
erected creditable and most of them beautiful build-
ings. As these were near the campus all added to
the beauty and worth of that section of the town.
Shiloh Institute, about which mention has already
been made, and Waters Institute, contributed each a
missionary to the Foreign Mission forces of Africa.
Miss Mary Fields, of the Shiloh Institute, and Rev.
C. C. Boone, of the Waters Institute. If Waters In-
stitute had done no more than give to the cause of
African missions Rev. Boone, his services to the Dark
Continent would have been worth the existence of the
Secondary Schools. 171
While the Home Mission Society of New York, to-
gether with the Woman's Home Mission Society of
New England have contributed much to the strength
of Waters Institute, great credit was due the colored
people of the West Roanoke Association, and espe-
cially the colored Baptists of Hertford County. For-
tunately Dr. Brown was pastor of five of the largest
and ablest churches of Hertford County, and the
Moderator of the West Eoanoke Association for a
number of years, the President of the Educational
and Missionary Convention of North Carolina, and
the President of the Lott-Carey Home and Foreign
Mission Convention, all of which contributed to his
influence and to his opportunity to raise funds to
carry on the work at Waters, and he used the oppor-
tunity to a great advantage.
Beetie Academy, Windsoe, N. C.
Like the Institute at Winton the Bertie Academy
at Windsor was under the auspices of the West Roa-
noke Association. This school was established several
years after the Waters Institute and while much help-
fulness came to Bertie County and the cause in gen-
eral in its establishment, it was never as strong as the
Waters Institute. The ministry afforded the princi-
pals to such schools opportunities to reach the people
they could not otherwise have, and it may be the
Principal of Waters Institute being a minister and
a man of extensive influence, and the Principal of
172 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
the Bertie Academy being a layman, had much to do
with the popularity of the Waters Institute over the
Bertie, and yet, considering the proximity of the two
schools, the Bertie Academy did splendid work.
The Bertie Academy was not only established by
the colored people, but was altogether maintained by
them. The churches of Bertie County, though a
part of the West Roanoke Association, invariably di-
rected their educational funds sent up to the Associa-
tion to be paid over to the Bertie Academy, while the
Hertford people directed theirs paid over to the
treasury of the Waters Institute.
The collections from Bertie County were usually
larger than the Hertford collections, which gave evi-
dence of their deep concern for Bertie Academy. In
1908 the buildings and grounds were valued at six
thousand dollars, located near the corporate limits of
Windsor. For many years after its establishment the
Academy had to undergo great hardships. Through
wise management the opposition was overcome and
all things considered, the school enjoyed much pros-
The Roanoke Institute, Elizabeth City, N. C.
The Roanoke Institute, located at Elizabeth City.
is the property of the East Roanoke Association.
The property purchased for this purpose was formerly
used as a private school by Rooks Turner. The
growth of the school was so rapid that additional
buildings were soon a necessity.
Secondary Schools. 173
Dr. M. W. D. Norman, Dean of the Theological
Department of Shaw University, was elected the
first Principal. Dr. Norman had great influence with
the brethren of the East Roanoke Association as well
as in other sections of the State, and the much-
needed buildings were soon erected. Rev. G. D.
Griffin succeeded Dr. Norman, and although a grad-
uate of the Institute, had exceptional ability, and the
work under his management went steadily on to suc-
cess. Professor Graves succeeded Rev. Griffin. Al-
though one of the Normal Schools of the State was
located in Elizabeth City, the Roanoke Institute was
crowded each year not only from the city but from
the adjoining counties, over a thousand students up
to 1908, with thirty-five graduates. In point of
numbers the East Roanoke Association was one of
the largest Associations in the State; financially the
second only to the West Roanoke. This enabled the
school to derive a good revenue. Self help was the
motto of this Association, and the colored Baptists of
that section deserved the entire credit for the Roa-
noke Institute, worth six thousand dollars in 1908.
The Giels' Training School, Eeanklinton, N. C.
After a few Associations had set the example and
had organized themselves to do educational work,
schools were established in every section of the State.
While the Girls' Training School at Franklinton was
not the property of the Wake Association, located in
the bounds of the Wake Association, the Association
174 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
became deeply interested in its welfare and made an-
nual appropriations to it. Rev. T. O. Fuller, a
scholarly young man, a graduate of Shaw University,
became its first Principal. Eev. Fuller succeeded in
interesting a few ^Northern friends in the school, and
not only did they contribute their money, but several
white ladies came down and taught in the school.
The first to take hold as teacher was Miss Hawkins,
who finally succeeded Eev. Fuller as Principal.
Others joined her, and for several years the school
was taught by white ladies. It was found expedient
to change and secure colored teachers. Dr. A. W.
Pegues was elected Principal. Like the other schools
mentioned the Girls' Training School did much to
foster Christian education, especially in the counties
of Franklin, Wake and Granville. The Educational
ind Missionary Convention undertook to form these
schools into a confederation and give partial support
to them. This was kept up a few years, but after-
ward it was found to be impractical.
The Addie Moebis School, "Winstoit-Salem, IST. C.
The Addie Morris School, at Winston, can hardly
be called a secondary school, as it was largely com-
posed of children. The school was named in honor
of the foiinder, Miss Addie Morris, a missionary em-
ployed by the Woman's Missionary Society in Chicago,
At that time there were ten thousand colored people
in Winston-Salem, and Miss Morris, seeing so many
children coming up in idleness, felt that something
Secondary Schools. 175
should he done to change conditions, and in connec-
tion with the missionary and Bible school organized
a children's school. The object of this school was
not only to impart secular knowledge, but especially
a knowledge of the Bible. The First Baptist Church
of Winston-Salem granted the lot to the Home Mis-
sion Society and Sister Morris, and a building was
erected for this purpose. This school was composed
entirely of pupils from Winston-Salem, but an incen-
tive was given to several to pursue a higher course of
study in Shaw University and elsewhere. It will
never be known the real good this school did in shap-
ing the life and character of so many who came under
the training of this Godly woman. Few women with
even better advantages, and none with the same ad-
vantage in North Carolina, did so much to shape the
lives of so many individuals. Although of little learn-
ing "Sister Morris," as she was best known, gave her
life unreservedly to the caiise of Christ, both among
the old and the young. She not only conducted this
school during her lifetime, but gave much energy and
care to the establishment of an Orphan Home two
and a half miles from Winston. After her death,
which occurred in the spring of 1907, her sister, Mrs.
Emma Simmons, took charge of the school. Mrs.
Simmons's health was pjor and, although the same
godly woman her sister was, could do but little in
carrying on the school, and with the death of Sister
Morris the school work largely came to an end.
176 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
The Rowan ISToemal and Industeial School,
Chaelotte, IST. C.
The existence of the Rowan Normal and Industrial
School was due to Rev. C. C. Somerville, who was
called from the position of District Missionary for
Eastern Worth Carolina to the pastorate of the First
Baptist Church of Charlotte. Dr. Somerville was
not only called to the pastorate of the First Baptist
Church, but was elected Moderator of the Rowan
Baptist Association, in whose boundary the school
was located and for which the school was named.
The Moderator endeavored for several years to
have the School adopted as the property of the
Rowan Association, hut the brethren could not
agree to do so. They gave the school an endorsement
and an annual donation, but they would never agree to
adopt it as theirs. The untiring efforts and sacri-
fices of the Principal enabled him to carry on this
school for several years. The Graded Schools, Bid-
die University, located in Charlotte; failure to se-
cure the full cooperation of the Association made it
hard for the Rowan Industrial, but made of an iron
will, Dr. Somerville kept up the work, gathering
means here and there until he was called to the pas-
torate of the Ebenezer Baptist Church, of Ports-
moulh, Virginia. The school was then moved from
Charlotte to Salisbury and the name was changed to
the Piedmont Institute. In the following fall the
school opened in the property adjoining and belong-
Secondary Schools. 177
ing to the Dixonville Baptist Church, with Rev.
D. W. Montgomery, Principal. Another effort wa?
made to adopt the school as the property of the Rowan
Association, but again the effort failed, although trus-
tees were appointed in the meeting of the Associa-
tion. The Association agreed to keep up the appro-
priation, but nothing more. Rev. Montgomery con-
tinued at the head but a short time and Rev. A. S.
Croom, his successor at Dixonville, became the Prin-
ZioN Academy, Wadesboeo, N. C.
The buildings of the Zion Academy were erected
in the town of Wadesboro, 1903 and 1904. This
school was owned and controlled by the Zion Baptist
Association and, considering the capacity of the build-
ings, reflects credit on the Zion Baptist people.
We have already mentioned Prof. E. H. Lips-
combe as the second person in North Carolina to
undertake secondary schools. He was called to the
Zion Academy as the first Principal of the Academy.
ISTo Association in the State was more enthusiastic
over education than the Zion people, and no school
advanced more rapidly than the Zion Academy. This
enthusiasm did not by any means grow out of the
fact that many of them were educated technically ;
there were but few among them educated, but they
had great faith in the proper kind of education, and
they went at it with a will. The first two years after
the school was organized they raised and expended
178 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
two thousand dollars. While Professor Lipscombe
was scholarly he did not possess all the necessary
energy and push to carry on such a work, and as
a result the school was not all it might have been.
No section of the State was more in need of such a
school than the section included by the Zion Associa-
tion, and soon after the school was established its
great service was everywhere manifest.
Thompsoit Institute, LuMBERToisr, JST. C.
The Thompson Institute, at Lumberton, IST. C.
took its name from the oldest minister of the Lum-
ber River Association at the time of its establish-
ment. Rev. A. H. Thompson. This school is another
monument to the thrift and energy of the JSTegro Bap-
tists of North Carolina. Just as has been said of the
Zion Academy, the Thompson Institute was of the
greatest necessity in the section in which it was lo-
cated. In 1880 there was not a good dwelling be-
longing to a Negro Baptist in the section of Lumber-
ton ; in 1900 a poor dwelling was the exception. The
old dilapidated church was torn down and a beautiful
and commodious building erected in its place for the
worship of God, and a little village surrounded the
campus, which made it but the more attractive. Rev.
D. J. Avera was elected the first Principal. Rev.
Avera, being there but two years, could hardly make
proof of his proficiency in this kind of work, but he
laid the foundation iipon which another has builded
with considerable success.
Secondary Schools. 179
Prof. W. H. Knuckles, from the Theological De-
partment of Shaw University, was elected Principal
to succeed Rev. Avera. Rev. Knuckles's efforts have
been untiring, and instead of the one building partly
completed there were three buildings with a faculty
The school made rapid progress in every respect ;
large numbers gathered there from year to year from
all that section of coimtry. As early as 1905 most
of the teachers from the three surrounding counties
were supplied from Thompson Institute, and with
the preparation were able to do splendid work in the
public schools. While the annual appropriation from
the Home Mission Society, of New York, was small,
yet the Society did make a small appropriation to
the Thompson Institute, and was exceedingly helpful
in the prosecution of the work. While, as we have
said, much of the rapid growth of the School was
due to the thrift and energy of Professor Knuckles,
much was likewise due to Rev. J. D. Harrell, Modera-
tor of the Lumber River Association, and Financial
Agent of the Thompson Institute. It was through
his persistency that the buildings in turn were erected,
through his energy the large numbers were gathered,
and through him much of the necessary funds were
realized to carry on the school. In fact, the Lumber
River Association was made up of many others like
Brother Harrell, in their zeal for the progress of
180 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
ITew Been Industrial and Collegiate Institute,
New Bern, IST. C.
This school was one of the exceptions, being the
product of an individual or, better said, individuals.
Kev. and Mrs. A. L. E. Weeks. Kev. Weeks was
called to the pastorate of the Cedar Grove Baptist
Church, New Bern, N. C. Realizing the condition
of his people and the people of that vast section felt
that their greatest need was the proper provision for
their education, set to work at once and selected a
place suitable for the planting of a school. The
large lot adjoining the Fair Grounds was selected
and bargained for at a cost of twelve thousand dol-
lars. Only a man with the pluck of Rev. Weeks,
with comparatively no money in sight, would have
undertaken such a task; but if it occurred to Rev.
Weeks that a mountain should be moved, he was the
man at least to make a beginning. Undaunted he
went about the raising of the money for his purchase
and the erection of buildings for a beginning. Al-
most to a man he was told it could not be done, but he
simply said do what you can, and when he or his wife
left an individual they somehow felt that something
must be given, whether they had it or not. In this
way opinion began to take another shape, and it was
said that it would be done, since Weeks was at the
At first the Home Mission Society was moved to
give two hundred dollars, and the next year the ap-
Secondary Schools. 181
propriation was increased to four hundred dollars.
This appropriation was indeed a blessing to the
school struggling for life and existence. The white
people of New Bern deserve great praise for the man-
ner in which many of them stood by Rev. and Mrs.
Weeks. In fact, without their moral and financial
support, such as Rev. Weeks had from the beginning,
it would have been utterly impossible to have estab-
lished the school which would be more fitly called
Weeks Institute. It was through them the beautiful
and appropriate site was secured, through them Rev.
Weeks was able to reach the ears of the Society,
through them many friends, white and colored, iii
North Carolina. It is deserving of mention that Mr.
Isaac Smith, a generous-hearted colored citizen, made
the largest donation of any single individual, which
gave the Principal much encouragement and enabled
him to make a stronger appeal to others.
While the New Bern Industrial and Collegiate In-
stitute was not directly under the supervision of any
Association, as nearly all these secondary schools
were, yet with his push Principal Weeks succeeded
in reaching several Associations even with their own
schools on their hands. How this was done only the
Principal and God can tell. There was a strong ef-
fort to unite the school supported by the New Bern
Eastern Association, located just across the Trent
River, and the New Bern Collegiate and Industrial
Institute, but the effort proved a failure. As has
been said of other sections, there was much ignorance
182 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
throughout this section, and somehow, despite his
efforts to prove the worthiness of his cause and the
sincerity of purpose, many of the old heads stood in
awe of this young, active and able divine, and hence
much he might have accomplished could not be done
for this reason.
The church of which Rev. Weeks was pastor was
burned in 1905, and much of the attention of the
principal and pastor had to be given to church erec-
tion. A lovely brick structure took the place of the
old frame structure, while the work of the school
moved right on. The work of Rev. Weeks was the
wonder of North Carolina. Much light was diffused
and much good accomplished through this one man
showing "Where there is a will, there is a way."
The Buegaw High School.
The Burgaw High School is located at Burgaw.
N. C, and is the property of the Middle District
Association. At the opening of the fall term of 1907
there were two buildings erected, one for school rooms
and dormitory for girls; the other a dormitory for
The decided success and growth of the Burgaw
High School from the beginning was due to the faith-
fulness and proficiency of the Principal, Mr. J. A.
Fennell. In all the secondary schools of the State
there was not a more unassuming and energetic prin-
pical than Mr. Fennell. No distance was too far, no
Secondary Schools. 183
task too great for this man if it meant any advance-
ment of the Burgaw High School. Like others ol
the Principals, Mr. Fennell had much unnecessary
difficulties to overcome, and often those who were in
the position to help him stood in the way of the prog-
ress of the school. The management of these second-
ary schools in North Carolina especially demonstrated
the fact that in some instances the schools would have
been better off with no other management than the
faculty. It is not meant that there were not some
good men in the management other than the faculties,
but many who stood in the way of everything that
meant progress and improvement.
Despite every opposition the Principal and Miss
Smith, his assistant, did splendid work at Burgaw.
Many splendid young men and women were sent out
through that section imparting the light and instruc-
tion which they received at the Burgaw High School.
The Faison High School and the UNioisr
Both of these Schools grew out from the Kenans-
ville Eastern Association. Unfortunately division
marked the educational work of the Association al-
most from the beginning. A difference of opinion
grew out of the place for the location, especially after
the first change had been made. The Association
was at the mercy of factions. Some wished the school
to be located at Clinton and others at Faison. A
majority voted in favor of Faison, while a strong
184 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
faction contended for Clinton. An effort was made
to have schools in both places and the Association to
make equal or pro-rata appropriations to both of the
schools, but in the meeting of the Association in
Goldsboro it was evident that the majority opposed
such a proposition, and as a natural consequence two
associations were formed, the churches of Samp-
son composing the one and the churches of Duplin
composing the other.
Mr. J. N. Bennett was elected Principal of the
Faison School. Soon it was evident that still more
divisions were ahead for the Faison High School.
The management was not satisfactory to many of the
leaders of the Association, and the differences were
so great until Mr. Bennett came out in 1907 and
formed an independent school. From the work ac-
complished it was evident, with a spirit of unity, a
much better work could have been accomplished.
For some cause the Union Academy at Clinton was
not what it might have been. The beginning of the
school was under the direction of Professor Ashford.
Professor Ashford was an earnest and good man, but
the fact that Clinton was his home, upon the prin-
ciple taught by our Saviour, "A prophet is not with-
out honor, save in his own country, and in his own
house," was verified in his case, and he did not do
the good he might otherwise have done. The same
was true of his successor, Mr. Boykin. He was also
a native of the county in which the school was lo-
Secondary Schools. 185
cated and he, too, was a good man — but he was never
able to accomplish so much as he might have accom-
plished. In the fall of 1897 Mr. Thomas J. Brown,
of Winston-Salem, was appointed as the successor of
Mr. Boykin. At once the school began to take on
new strength and usefulness. At the close of the first
year it was evident that the right man had been
agreed upon, the people became united, the number
of pupils in the school increased, and everything
looked promising for a bright future for Union
The Atlantic and North Caeolina Institute.
James City, N. C.
This school was established by the New Bern East-
em Association, one of the largest Associations in
point of numbers in the State. There were many
divisions in the ranks of the New Bern Eastern As-
sociation, which gave many setbacks to the school
project. The fact that the New Bern Industrial and
Collegiate Institute was located just across the Trent
Eiver in New Bern and directed and controlled by
an able and energetic young man, Kev. Weeks, stood
in the way of the progress of the Atlantic and North
Carolina Institute. Mr. Q. C. Mial, an old and ex-
perienced teacher from Johnston County, was elected
as the first Principal. In the short time Mr. Mial
was in charge of the school his work bore evidence of
his splendid experience, but he soon grew tired of
186 Negro Baptists of North, Carolina.
teaching and resigned. Since that time until 1908
the progress of the school was slow. Some of the old
leaders of the Association have since died, and it is
hoped that the new and more advanced leaders will
see their way clear to unite with the New Bern and
Collegiate or strengthen the work on the other side of
the Trent, as such a work is so much needed in that
section of Worth Carolina.
The Western Union Academy.
The Western Union Academy is located a mile
from the town of Rutherfordton and is the property
of several of the Western Associations. Two com-
modious buildings have been erected on the grounds
and every section of that country was represented in
Rev. Mr. Hobson, at that time living at Shelby.
If. C, was foremost in establishing the school, in
fact erected the first building. Afterward Rev. W.
T. Askew, of Eastern ISTorth Carolina, who came to
the school from Rich Square Academy, was proficient
in this kind of service, was the first Principal, and
under his leadership the school leaped into promi-
nence and usefulness. Rev. Askew held this place for
three years. Rev. R. B. Watts was elected to suc-
ceed Rev. Askew. Rev. Watts was experienced in
teaching, having given many years to public school
teaching and had experience in higher school work.
Before leaving Worth Carolina Rev. Watts had quite
a hold on the churches and associations of the West-
Secondary Schools, 187
em Piedmont section, having edited a paper in that
section for several years, which gave him a decided
advantage in the school work, and a broad foundation
having been laid by Rev. Askew he had but to move
forward with the work of the Western Union Acad-
emy, which he did, and in a few years the school was
on a firm footing.
The Educational Convention in forming a confed-
eration of these secondary Baptist schools felt at that
time that there were too many of them, but the as-
sociations caught the educational fever which was so
prevalent especially in the administration of Gover-
nor Cbas. B. Aycock, but it was afterward found that
all of them did much good in bringing the Baptists
to the front. They caused an interest in the associa-
tions which they would never have manifested.
Hence, after all, the secondary Baptist schools were
a great blessing to the cause of the denomination.
The Claeemont Noemal School.
This school is the property of the Mountain and
Catawba Association and was established at Clare-
mont, E". C, 1904. Eev. W. S. Dacons was elected
the first Principal. There were six acres of land in
the tract and one building in 1908, the land and
building valued at three thousand dollars. In the
four years between its organization and 1908 the
number of persons in attendance had increased to
one hundred and twenty-five. A school of such a
188 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
character was of such vast importance its success was
assured from the beginning. The Principal was a
man of energy, enterprise and push, and with but
four years everything gave promise of a splendid
work in the education of teachers and preachers so
much in demand in that section.
The African Expositoh.
The African Expositor was established in 1877
with Dr. H. M. Tupper, President of Shaw Uni-
versity, Dr. ]Sr. F. Roberts, Prof. E. H. Lipscombe.
Editors ; Drs. A. Shepard, C. Johnson, G. W. Perry,
Business Managers. The motto of the Sentinel was
"Ethiopia shall soon stretch forth her hands unto
The Expositor consisted of eight pages and was
devoted to education, religion, temperance and gen-
eral intelligence. The paper had a wide circulation
throughout the State, as might have been expected
with the ablest men of the denomination at its head.
Representing Shaw University from time to time
through its columns it had a wide circulation in
many places in the North. Dr. Tupper once said.
"Had it not been for the Expositor I could not have
established the Medical Department." The pastors
and Christian workers throughout the State took hold
of the Expositor and it became a great strength to the
Sunday school work as well as the church and con-
ventional work. A portion of each issue was devoted
to the Foreign Mission interests, and much of the
awakening of that early period may be directly
traced to the sentiment developed through the col-
umns of the African Expositor.
190 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
The Gold Dust and the Baptist Headlight.
For several years following the publication of the
African Expositor there was no paper published by
the Negro Baptists of North Carolina. For a while
there was a paper published in Salisbury called the
Gold Dust. We are not quite certain, but we think
Dr. J. O. Crosby was the first editor and was as-
sisted by Dr. C. C. Somerville. Although the Gold
Dust did not exist sufficiently long to accomplish all
that might have been accomplished, yet while it did
exist it was greatly helpful to the cause in the State,
and especially in the western section, where it was
more largely read. As no one individual can arro-
gate to himself the sole credit of building up a great
cause, so no single enterprise can lay claim to such an
accomplishment. It was not the African Expositor,
nor the Chowan Pilot, nor the Baptist Sentinel, but
each and all serving in their turn, contributing a por-
tion which makes a great cause go. So it was with
the Gold Dust. There appeared from time to time
able articles and editorials from the gifted pen of
the gentleman who had the management, and from
others throughout the State, which have done much
to mould sentiment and marshal into line the forces
which have made the Negro Baptists what they are.
Certainly much of the intelligence of the Piedmont
section, much of the ambition and push, much of
the strength of the men and the churches is due to
education and encouragement which came to the Bap-
Baptist Papers. 191
tists of that section through the publication of the
The Baptist Headlight.
The Baptist Headlight had its birth in Salisbury,
as did the Gold Dust. Dr. Somerville was intimately
associated if not at one time editor of the Headlight.
Tor the most part Kev. A. L. Sumner was its editor.
The Headlight had a longer existence than did the
Gold Dust, and in fact had a more extensive circula-
tion and support. The Headlight drew more largely
on the State Convention and the different associa-
tions and other organizations of the State. While it
was published at first in Salisbury when the editor
was elected Principal of the Goldsboro Normal
School he carried the Headlight with him, and it was
published while he remained in connection with the
school, at Goldsboro. From Goldsboro he went to
Burgaw, and took charge of the Burgaw High School.
The paper was then sent out from Burgaw. The
fact that a paper invariably secures a good deal of
local patronage made the Headlight more extensively
read in the east as well as the western section of the
State. Like the Gold Dust the Headlight did its spe-
cific work in making sentiment and' paving the way
for a paper which was to be the permanent organ of
the Baptists of the State. It was true that the short
life of these two papers and others of lesser caliber
made the saying proverbial that "Baptist organs die
early" ; yet the good these men did and the sacrifices
192 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
they made to run these papers as long as they did
has an important place in the cherished recollections
of the achievements of the blessed past.
The Chowan Pii.ot.
The Chowan Pilot was at first edited by Dr. C. S.
Brown, and had Winton, N. C, for its home. The
Pilot had even greater advantages over the Headlight
than the Headlight had over the Gold Dust. To be-
gin with the East Roanoke Association took firm hold
of the Pilot, and not only gave loyal support in the
number of paying subscribers, but made donations
to enable the editor, who was the acknowledged leader
of the Association, to purchase office fixtures and
press to run the paper from the office. Soon the
paper was issued in connection with the school, the
Waters ISTormal and Industrial Institute, and as a
feature of the industrial department the paper was
published. The students soon learned to set up the
type, which greatly facilitated the work and made
the cost considerably less. The editor, with that
spirit so characteristic of him, m.et every organiza-
tion of Baptists it was possible to meet, and so im-
pressed the paper on them they felt it almost im-
perative to give their support, and hence the Chowan
Pilot was read all over the State. And, too, it was
always considered that the Baptists had no writer
superior to Dr. Brown. His editorials aroused an
interest in the Baptist cause as nothing else had
done. Sometimes it was a political issue, and then
Baptist Papers. 193
a moral, and an educational, but always sonaething
which, meant the uplift of the race and the denomi-
nation. If there ever lived an uncompromising Bap-
tist it was the Editor of the Chowan Pilot. Such
loyalty and decision will always demand respect and
attention. With so many duties upon him as princi-
pal of a growing institution and pastor of several
churches, the Editor of the Pilot felt called upon to
ask that the Baptists assume control of the paper and
appoint another editor, and Eev. W. A. Patillo, of
Littleton, was appointed to take the editorship. Dr.
Patillo had experienced something of this kind of
work in connection with a Farmers Alliance sheet,
besides many admirable qualities such as the former
editor possessed, and the Convention felt itself fortu-
nate to secure his services. The Pilot was not, how-
ever, published long before a great change came in
connection with the conventional work which necessi-
tated a change in its organ. The work of cooperation
had its beginning. Dr. Brown was chosen to lead
that work as Corresponding Secretary of the Con-
vention and general missionary under the plan of
cooperation. This work began with the publication
of -the Baptist Quarterly, with the general mission-
ary editor. The quarterly was continued for ten
months and a monthly took its place. Dr. Brown felt
that he could not do the work of general missionary
and editor and keep up the work of the Waters In-
stitute, and he resigned this place to return to the
school work and the pastorate.
194 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Dr. Brown was succeeded by J. A. Whitted, Corre-
sponding Secretary and general missionary, who be-
came his successor as Editor of the Baptist Quarterly.
He edited the Baptist Sentinel Monthly and Baptist
Sentinel Weekly covering a period of twelve years.
The Baptist Sentinel was established December 8.
1898, with the motto "I have made thee a watchman
unto the house of Israel." Ez. 3 :7. The paper was
published in the city of Raleigh every Thursday. At
first there were only three hundred subscribers; but
it grew rapidly until soon its list increased to thirty-
The effort to establish papers had proven so fruit-
less it was difiicult to secure the confidence of the
readers as to the permanency of the paper; but this
was finally overcome, and the Sentinel gained the
confidence of the State and established a record for
its conservatism and for the choice matter which ap-
peared from time to time. The plan of cooperation
being in full blast at this time, and having meetings
in the State somewhere each week through its mis-
sionaries, the spread of the Sentinel was greatly fa-
Dr. N. F. Roberts, who had served up to this time
as business manager, very much to the regret of the
staff resigned. Mr. J. P. Williams was elected to
succeed him. At the meeting of the Convention at
Kinston, ]^. C, 1905, Dr. E. E. Smith was elected
one of the editors ; Dr. S. IST. Vass and Rev. G. W.
Baptist Papers. 195
Moore, corresponding editors; Dr. N. F. Roberts,
secretary and treasurer. Dr. Roberts was well known
and trusted in North Carolina, which gave much en-
couragement to the project. Mr. Williams gave his
best energy to the paper, and its success was largely
due to his faithfulness and efficiency.
As the people became convinced that the Sentinel
was abiding they took hold of it and its circulation
was increased to thirty-five hundred. The policy of
the paper had very much to do with its growth and
development. From the beginning the paper was
conservative and sound in its policy, allowing nothing
to come into its colimins which meant to destroy the
harmony and prosperity of the denomination.
Throughout all the changes and commotions of that
period the Sentinel stood for harmony and mutual
helpfulness between the races. At times it was con-
demned for its conservative policy, but extraneous
articles were kept out of its columns. Thus it made
friends for the race and for the denomination. It
proved to be one of the main levers in the uplift of
the ISTegro Baptists, which dates from the establish-
ment of this Baptist Sentinel.
The President of Shaw University kindly granted
to the Convention a site on the campus of the Uni-
versity for the erection of a building for ninety-nine
years for the exclusive use of the Baptist Sentinel.
The grant was gladly accepted; subscriptions to the
amount of four hundred and fifty dollars were taken
196 Negro Baptists of North Oarolirui.
for this object and the building erected as the home
of the organ of the Convention.
While the Convention still held claim to the Benii-
nel, that it might be relieved of a part of the respon-
sibility, granted the organization to a number of the
brethren into a Sentinel Stock Company, the Con-
vention itself taking a number of stocks. May 8
1901, this company was organized and incorporated
April 27, 1905, taking the name Baptist Sentinel
Publishing Company. While the Sentinel still con-
tinued as the organ of the Convention, it was under
the direct supervision of the stockholders. The Senti-
nel Company did a great deal of job work, and foi
this purpose bought type and other fixtures to the
amoimt of several hundred dollars. With this in-
crease of strength, with its conservatism and clean
publications, the Baptist Sentinel took its place among
the leading weeklies of the ISTegro Baptists in the
country. It improved its material, m.aking an eight
page sheet. It became a tower of strength, and found
a welcome in thousands of homes throughout the
State and in other States. The Biblical Recorder,
the organ of the white Baptists of ISTorth Carolina,
said of the Sentinel: "This excellent paper is con-
ducted by Brother Williams with industry, ability
and devotion. It is one of the best representatives of
the colored race. In fact, such a paper goes far to
create hope for the race."
While the Sentinel was the organ of the colored
Kev. C. H. WILLIAMSON, A.M.,
Business Manager Baptist Sentinel.
Baptist Papers. 197
Baptists of North Carolina it was extensively read in
other States, and gained considerable influence
throughout the country.
The paper sustained its greatest loss in the death
of Mr. Williams, Business Manager, which occurred
at his home in Warrenton June, 1906. There have
been men of whom it may be said they laid their life
on the altar for the success of some project. This may
be truly said of Mr. Williams in his relation to the
Eighteen months intervened from the death of Mr.
Williams to the appointment of a permanent business
manager. Dr. A. W. Pegues, C. L. W. Smith and
G. W. Yores served in this capacity during their in-
tervention. The Jamestown Exposition had just
closed. Eev. C. H. Williamson, of Ealeigh, had
served in the capacity of Commissioner-General for
North Carolina. His work had been so well accom-
plished his praises were sounded by men of distinc-
tion of both races. He had handled to splendid ad-
vantage ten thousand dollars and had made such a
presentation at the Exposition the Board saw in him
a suitable successor for Mr. Williams, and he was
elected to that position 1907.
In the fall of 1907 J. A. Whitted, who had served
as editor since the establishment of the paper, re-
signed, and Dr. C. S. Brown, an able and gifted
writer, ripe with experience in this line, was elected
to succeed him as editor with Dr. Smith. Dr. S. N.
198 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
Vass and Dr. S. H. Witherspoon were elected field
editors. The Sentinel took on new life and influ-
ence, as might have been expected with such an able
staff. What the Biblical Recorder was to the white
Baptists of North Carolina the Baptist Sentinel was
to the colored Baptists, awakening an interest, giving
life and inspiration to everything which meant the
uplift of the Negro Baptists in North Carolina in
particular and humanity in general.
While tliis work is by no means intended for biog-
raphy it seems befitting that the readers may get
some idea of the struggles of the pioneers of our
cause that a short sketch should be given of a few of
them. We begin with Rev. Harry Cowan, who might
fitly be called the father of the Baptist preachers of
North Carolina. He was born two miles west of
Mocksville, N. C, January 20, 1810. He united with
the church at the age of sixteen and was granted such
licenses as was granted to Negro preachers of that
period, at the age of eighteen. His master, Thomas
L. Cowan, of Salisbury, an elder in the Presbyterian
Church, heard him speak for the first time at a fu-
neral, and was so struck with his gift granted him his
"four plantations" as his "field" for the ministry.
His license was drawn up by a lawyer and read thus :
"This is to certify that whosoever is interested about
my man Harry he has the privilege to preach and to
marry; also to baptize any one who makes a profes-
sion of faith." His master made himself responsible
for his protection, and allowed him to go anywhere
the proper protection was guaranteed to him. God
wonderfully blessed his labors and often thousands
gathered in single congregations to hear him. When
the war broke out he was made the body servant of
General Joseph Johnston. He continued to preach
200 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
the gospel throughout the war, preaching every night
of that memorable struggle except the night when
Stonewall Jackson fell. Seventy years of the life
of Kev. Harry Cowan were given to the preaching of
the gospel. In that time he organized forty-nine
churches. This work was done following the emanci-
pation. Eight thousand five hundred souls were bap-
tized. Full of years and glorious service he came to
the home of Mrs. H. H. Hall, his adopted daughter,
of Winston-Salem, IST. C, where he spent his last days
peacefully and joyfully. God sent His messenger
and took this faithful servant unto Himself March
Eev. Thomas Parkee, of Warsaw, N. C.
Rev. Thomas Parker, another pioneer of the ISTe-
gro Baptists of North Carolina, was born October 14,
1830, Gates County, near Gatesville, N. C. From
there he was carried to Fernandina, Fla. He was
afterward brought back to Wilmington, N. C. He
was converted at the age of thirty and was baptized
and united with the Wilmington church 1863. He
soon made known his call to the gospel ministry.
The First Baptist Church, colored, was soon after-
ward organized and Rev. Parker became one of its
most active members. He was ordained to the gos-
pel ministry at the third annual meeting of the Bap-
tist State Convention, which was held in his church
in the city of Wilmington. Rev. Parker has organ-
ized during his ministry the following churches : Six
Run, Kenansville, Hill Chapel, Little Piney Grove,
Pilgrim Eest and Shady Grove. Four thousand seven
hundred persons have been converted and baptized
under his ministry. Rev. J. 0. Hayes, the venerable
African missionary, was one of this number; con-
verted, ordained and sent out by the Six Run
Church. Rev. Parker was in the organization of the
Kenansville Eastern Association, and served as its
Moderator for twenty-six years. He was connected
with the State Convention in its early struggle, and
was one of the old men who followed it until his
death. Few men if any have been called upon to
suffer more for the preaching of the gospel than Rev.
Parker, and yet despite all God permitted him as
few men to realize the results of his arduous labors.
It may be said of Rev. Parker as of most men of his
day he was uncompromising in what he believed con-
cerning the teachings of the Bible. He had just
sense enough not to allow any of the Word to be ex-
plained away from him.
Rev. Aenold B. Williams.
Rev. Arnold B. Williams was born in Johnston
County 1804. By extra service while a slave he
earned sufficient money and purchased his own free-
dom. He was sent away from the South by the
Quakers and remained in the ISTorth in and about
Boston for sixteen years. He was connected with
the Twelfth Baptist Church of Boston. It was dur-
ing that time he accumulated six hundred dollars and
202 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
undertook the purchase of his wife. When the proc-
lamation was issued her freedom came to her without
the purchase. Rev. Williams returned to the South
immediately after the war; was ordained to the gos-
pel ministry and took pastoral charge of the First
African Baptist Church of Goldsbord, successor of
Rev. Charles J. Nelson. Soon after this in the First
African Baptist Church under the pastorate of Rev.
Williams the Educational and Missionary Baptist
State Convention was organized. At this first meet-
ing in 186Y Rev. Williams was elected Treasurer of
the Convention, which position he held until his
death, which occurred in Goldsboro 1896. It ma^j
be truly said of the man of God he did what he could
for the cause of the Negro Baptists of North Caro-
lina. He left as his logical successor "My Son in the
Gospel," Rev. J. W. Dew, who held the place made
vacant by death for many years after.
Rev. Anthony W. Welbobne.
Rev. Welborne was born in Randolph County Feb-
ruary 3, 1840. He united with the Liberty Grove
Church in 1870, was ordained in the white Baptist
Church of High Point, and took charge of Liberty
Grove. He held successful charge of eighteen
churches of the Piedmont section ; assisted in the or-
dination of twenty-one persons to the gospel ministry
out of these churches. Twelve hundred persons have
been converted and baptized through his ministry.
He was one of the pioneers of the Rowan Association ;
the Moderator of the High Point Association for
many years. Although himself comparatively illiter-
ate he stood for education and for everything which
meant the advancement of humanity. What Eev.
Parker was to Eastern E^orth Carolina Eev. Wel-
borne was to the Piedmont section and to the Bap-
tists of North Carolina.
Rev. R. H. Haepee^ LaGeawge, IST. C.
Among the very few who composed the first Bap-
tist State Convention was Kev. R. H. Harper, of
LaGrange, N. C. Rev. Harper was converted at the
age of eighteen. He served twelve months in the
Civil War and at its close, realizing his call to the
gospel ministry, entered immediately upon the call.
The first year of this service was rewarded with the
conversion of one hundred and sixty-five persons. In
the sixty-five years of his ministry he baptized four
thousand two hundred and twenty-five. When the
work of these pioneers is considered it is not surpris-
ing that North Carolina was so largely Baptist. Not
only did Rev. Harper take part in the organization of
the Baptist State Convention but three associations
and thirty-seven churches. He was pastor of the Mt.
Pleasant Church, Wayne County, thirty-eight years;
of another church twenty-seven and still another
twenty-five. Truly it may be said of this servant that
he carried out the injunctions of the Saviour to the
letter when He said "Go ye, therefore, and teach all
204 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
nations, baptizing them in tlie name of the Father,
Son and Holy Ghost."
Rev. Nicholas Fkanklin Kobeets, D.D.
Dr. Roberts was born at Seaboard, ISI". C, October
13, 1849. He entered Shaw University 1871 and
graduated from the Collegiate Department 1876. In
the fall of the same year he was elected to the Chair
of Mathematics in Shaw University, his Alma Mater,
which position he filled successfully for thirty-two
years. Upward of five thousand young men and wo-
men came under his instruction. Dr. Roberts was
interested in everything which pertained to the uplift
of his denomination and the general advancement of
the Master's cause. He has served as the Editor of
the African Expositor, President of the Educational
and Missionary Convention of North Carolina, Pres-
ident of the State Sunday School Convention of North
Carolina for many years, and on almost every Board
representing the Negro Baptists of North Carolina
for forty years, which made him a conspicuous, in-
dispensable factor in everything which meant the up-
lift of the denomination.
Rev. Geoege W. Holland.
As the best illustration of the men of the two gen-
erations with which this work has to do is to be found
in the Rev. G. W. Holland and Rev. G. W. Johnson,
both of Winston-Salem, N. C. ; the one representing
the generation immediately following the emancipa-
tion, the day of brush arbors and log churches, the
day of excessive "heat and burden," of ignorance and
doubt; the other representing the age of frame and
brick structures, the day of comparative light and
intelligence, the "day of wonderful growth and de-
Rev. George W. Holland was born in Virginia,
1833. Was ordained to the Gospel ministry by the
High Street Baptist Church, and served as local
preacher for several years, rather in the capacity of
a missionary to the churches in and about Danville.
In this capacity he organized and set apart fifteen
churches. He came to Winston, 1878, and took
charge of the First Baptist Church, which position
he held until his death. Although a pastor it was
the calling of Rev. Holland, it seemed, to organize
and set apart churches. It was said of him many
times even at midnight he would rest himself by the
wayside after long journeys through the Blue Ridge
Mountains, and would sit down to pick the blisters
on his worn and weary feet. While Rev. Holland
was uncompromising in questions of faith he had
many friends in all the denominations through that
kindness and generosity so characteristic of him.
Three thousand persons were baptized in his minis-
try. Fifteen Baptist churches in Virginia and
twenty-three in North Carolina organized. Sixty
young men and women were sent to Shaw University
206 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
througli his influence. From his entrance into North
Carolina until his death he was a faithful and true
friend of the Educational and Missionary Conven-
tion. Full of years of service and individual
achievements, surrounded with a host of friends of
hoth races, twenty-nine years the pastor of the ablest
church of the denomination in the State, he passed
into a well-earned rest, 1906. The largest funeral
procession which has honored any colored man in
the State of both races followed the remains of this
hero to his last resting place, where he quietly sleeps
to await the resurrection of the dead in Christ.
Eev. George W. Johnson, D.D.
Rev. G. W. Johnson was born in Person County,
N. C, May, 1856. Eev. Johnson united with the
High Street Baptist Church. Danville, Va., 1871,
and was baptized by Rev. Harrison Scott. Real-
izing his call to the Gospel ministry, an ordination
counsel was called, consisting of Revs. J. J. Worlds,
J. L. Coleman, A. L. Avery and Dr. H. H. Mitchell,
pastor. He took a three years' course in the Theo-
logical Department of Wayland Seminary, Washing-
ton, D. C, under the venerable Dr. G. M. P. King.
He has served as pastor for the following churches:
Lexington, Chestnut, Oak Grove, Kernersville and
Mt. Zion, Winston, which place he has held twenty
years. He has assisted in the organization of New
Bethel, Happy Hill, Kernersville, Mt. Zion, Shiloh,
Yadkin Star, and First Church, Trenton, N. J.
Twenty-five hundred persons have been baptized
through his ministry. In the annual session of the
Eowan Baptist Association, at High Point, he was
elected Moderator to succeed Dr. J. 0. Crosby, and
set a precedent in reaching directly and indirectly
every church throughout the bounds of the Associa-
tion, awakening an interest in the churches to the
objects of the Association. In 1908 the G-uadaloupe
College, Texas, granted him the honorary degree of
D.D. As a financier. Dr. Johnson has no superioi
and few equals. He has the confidence, in this re-
spect, of all Winston-Salem, and in every respect is
fully qualified to take up the work where "Father
Holland," as he always called him, laid it down.
Rev. Augustus Shepaed, D.D.
Dr. Shepard was born in the city of Raleigh,
]Sr. C, March 1, 1846. When it is considered that
he was the son of Richard Shepard, and had a pious
mother, it is not surprising that he should have been
the stalwart Baptist preacher he was. While a stu-
dent at Shaw University the President of the Uni-
versity saw in him such fitness that he made him his
assistant pastor of Blount Street Baptist Church.
For eighteen years he was Colporter Missionary for
the American Baptist Publication Society for North
It was in this capacity that Dr. Shepard did
his best work; and the work which gave him a
208 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
place in the hearts of the Baptists of North Caro-
lina, which he always held. In this capacity he
stood at the foundation of the State Sunday School
Convention of North Carolina. It was largely
through his efforts that the Orphan Asylum at Ox-
ford gained its strength and many churches and
Sunday Schools throughout the State owe their ex-
istence largely to him. Nearly all the county Sun-
day School Conventions were organized directly or
indirectly through him. Dr. Shepard was one of
the very few men who stemmed the tide of the more
intelligent ministry which swept most of the pioneers
from the stage. He was regarded among the ablest
ministers of the State throughout his career. This
was not only due to his able ministry, but to the fact
he never turned away a struggling young man. He
was ever ready to give him encouragement and sup-
port. Besides the work on the field. Dr. Shepard
pastored the Blount Street Church, Raleigh ; the
First Baptist Church of Charlotte ; the White Eock
Church, Durham ; the First Baptist Church, Rox-
boro; Wake Forest Baptist Church, Warrenton, For-
estville, the First Church of Henderson, and the
First Church of Oxford, besides erecting and pas-
toring the spacious church, Roanoke Salem, Garys-
burg, N. C. No man in his day has contributed
more to the cause of the Baptists of North Carolina
than Dr. Shepard.
There are many other men who might be men-
tioned as able pioneers to the cause of the Negro
Baptists of North Carolina, Dr. Caesar Johnson, of
Raleigh, without whose name the history of the Bap-
tists can not be properly written ; Lemuel W. Boone,
the hero in the ministry and a politician as well,
whose remains have rested under the shade in a
lonely grave in Hertford County, awaiting the final
reward of the just.
And, too, there are Eagles and Horton, Warwick
and Banks, Burwell and Patillo, the story of whose
lives would make a history in itself. They sleep in
their graves, but "their works do follow them."
When a more extensive work shall be written much
worthy of mention in their wonderful lives will be
brought to light. Upon their shoulders at the most
critical period rested the destiny of the cause so dear
to our hearts, and it may be truly said of them, they
bore their burdens, and, like Paul, rejoiced that they
were "counted worthy to bear them." They en-
dured their afflictions as men without murmur or
complaint and, despite their disadvantages of igno-
rance and poverty, they have left names worthy of
our cherished recollections. The most fitting monu-
ment we could rear to them has been to take up the
work there they have left off and hand down to our
posterity achievements commensurate with our ad-
vantages and opportunities. A fair estimate of the
achievements of the generation following in the wake
of the fathers we have mentioned, and others equally
worthy of mention, would prove them worthy of the
210 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
trust committed to their hands. With no greater
faith, devotion and loyalty, but with broader shoul-
ders and stronger, because of superior advantages and
environments, both generations have vsTought well in
their day. The foundation was laid in the fathers,
their sons have gone far with the superstructure.
We have used a few illustrations of those who bore
the "burden of the heat of the day" and a few of
that number who have so successfully carried the
work on where they left it. In the Shaw Univer-
sity chapter it was shown at one time, when all the
Normal Schools of the State with a single exception
were in charge of Shaw men, and of Baptists, as an
evidence of what the denomination has been in the
educational advancement of the race in North Caro-
lina. In the establishment of the Oxford Orphan
Asylum, in the contributions given by the Baptists
since its establishment, with a Baptist at the head;
and the same of the Winston-Salem Orphan Home,
the only two Negro institutions of their kind in the
State, is evidence of what the Negro Baptists were in
the charitable development.
Besides its contributions to the States of the entire
Union in professional men, in North Carolina were:
Charlotte, Drs. A. A. Wyche, W. H. Graves; in
Winston, Drs. J. W. Jones, E. E. Carter; W. A.
Jones, pharmacist, ovming and controlling the lead-
ing Negro drug store in the country; J. S. Fitts, a
leading lawyer ; Greensboro, Dr. J. Elmer Dellin-
ger, lawyer G. H. Mitchell; Durham, Drs. A. M.
Moore, C. H. Shepard; Raleigh, Drs. M. T. Pope,
L. B. Capehart, Peter Roberts, lawyer George Lane ;
Payetteville, H. H. Perry, pharmacist; Wilmington.
Drs. M. D. Bowen, J. H. Alston; Wilson, Dr. F. S.
Hargrave; Tarboro, Dr. N. S. McMillan; Bertie
County, Dr. Sharpe; Edenton, Dr. Hines, Hon. H.
P. Cheatham served several terms in the United
States Congress; Dr. E. E. Smith, of Eayetteville.
was Minister to Liberia during the administration of
President Grover Cleveland. Members of General
Assembly of North Carolina, Register of Deeds and
many other places of honor and trust have been held
by Negro Baptists of North Carolina. From the
humble beginning of the few preachers gathered in
the first Convention in the First African Baptist
Church, of Goldsboro, N. C, 1867, representing just
a handful of churches, have come in 1908 nine hun-
dred preachers, many of them able and scholarly; a
thousand churches, with a membership of one hun-
dred and eighty thousand is a record worthy of proud
mention. Besides the money given to Shaw Univer-
sity fifty thousand dollars are raised and paid an-
nually to the secondary Baptist schools of North
Carolina by the Negro Baptists of the State. The
spirit to educate, as manifested by the fathers in
their first Convention, is evidently alive, and con-
stantly growing in their sons. While perfection is
yet far removed, and much unification and loyalty
to be brought to bear on the Negro Baptist hosts of
North Carolina, they have made many and rapid
212 Negro Baptists of North Carolina.
strides, as ia universally acknowledged. The dis-
couragements which many of our remote sections
have suffered, "the Baptists have no men," are fast
being overcome; from the mountains to the seashore
the Negro Baptists are sending men of whom they
feel justly proud. With every known section of the
State dotted with secondary Baptist schools, and
with Shaw University in the midst of them, the
pride, not only of the Baptists, but the entire race of
the country, the day can not be far distant when
every country church, as well as the brick structures
of our cities, will be filled with men of intellectuality
as well as the Divine Spirit. The writer closes with
the hope that some information respecting the strug-
gles of the past, some word of what ha^ been wrought
under so many disadvantages, may cheer those upon
whose shoulders the burdens may fall. The founda-
tion has been laid, the superstructure well under
way. Continuing under that Architect Supreme, in
whom our fathers have faithfully trusted, failure
is impossible. Holding fast the "faith," turning
neither to the right hand nor to the left, suffering re-
proach if need be for the eternal principles upon
which we build, we have all to hope for in Him.
whose fame rested on Calvary's cross, and whose final
triumph will be the gathering of the redeemed unto