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Full text of "A history of the Negro Baptists of North Carolina"

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http://www.archive.org/cletails/cu31924050004963 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 050 004 963 




J. A. WHITTED. 



A HISTORY 



OF THE 



Negro Baptists of NortK Carolina 



BY 



REV. J. A. WHITTED, D.D. 



RALEIGH : 
OP Edwabds & Beocghton Pbinting Co. 
1908 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 
The Negro Baptists of North Carolina Before the War, 7 

CHAPTER II. 
The Work of the Northern Societies for the Colored 
Baptists of North Carolina 18 

CHAPTER III. 
The Baptist Educational and Missionary Convention of 
North Carolina 34 

CHAPTER IV. 

Foreign Missions — The Hayes and Fleming Foreign 
Mission Society ^ 53 

CHAPTER V. 

The Plan of Cooperation in North Carolina 64 

CHAPTER VI. 

Associations 75 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Women's Baptist Home Mission Convention of 
North Carolina 112 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Baptist State Sunday School Convention of North 
Carolina 121 

CHAPTER IX. 

Shaw University 146 

CHAPTER X. 
Secondary Baptist Schools Established and Maintained 
by the Negro Baptists of North Carolina 166 

CHAPTER XI. 
Baptist Papers 189 

CHAPTER XII. 
Biography 199 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



J. A. Whitted, D.D Frontispiece 

Rev. Harry Cowan 16 

Rev. Thomas Parker 16 

Rev. R. H. Harper 17 

S. N. Vass, D.D 18 

Rev. C. S. Brown, D.D 32 

G. W. Bullock, D.D 32 

Rev. S. H. Witherspoon, D.D 33 

Rev. A. Shepard, D.D 33 

Rev. G. W. Holland 64 

First Baptist Church, Winston-Salem 64 

N. F. Roberts, D.D 122 

Rev. G. W. Moore 122 

Hon. J. T. Reynolds 123 

Rev. A. B. Vincent 123 

A. W. Pegues, Ph.D., D.D 128 

Rev. G. W. Johnson, D.D 132 

Prof. R. W. Brown 132 

Col. James H. Young 133 

Prof. John Walter Paisley 133 

Rev. H. M. Tupper, D.D 144 

Charles Francis Meserve, LL.D 144 

Shaw Hall, Shaw University 150 

Rev. C. H. Williamson, A.M 196 



PREFACE 

The writer of this little book has fulfilled a loBg 
cherished desire, not in its best sense to say a history, 
but to lay some kind of foundation, so that the his- 
torian of the future may have something to build 
upon and may some day give to the world the facts 
concerning the service, sacrifice and achievements of 
the Negro Baptists of North Carolina. While the 
difficulty in obtaining information at times has caused 
discouragement and delay, the writer has never en- 
gaged in any task which has brought to him so much 
satisfaction and pleasure, and he will feel amply re- 
paid if the readers find half so much pleasure and 
profit in the reading. The writer, too, expresses the 
hope when some other shall undertake to build on this 
foundation it will not be so difficult to obtain the 
necessary information. To all who have responded 
and have furnished data for this book the writer 
wishes to express his grateful acknowledgment 



TO THE NEGEO BAPTIST MINISTRY AND CHUKCHES 

OF NORTH CAROLINA THIS LITTLE VOLUME 

IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 

BY THE AUTHOR 



A HISTORY 

OF THE 

Negro Baptists of North Carolina 



CHAPTER I. 

THE NEGEO BAPTISTS OF ITORTH CAEO- 
LINA BEFOEE THE WAE. 

Since commuiiicatioii among the Negroes before 
the war was altogether verbal, confined to narrow lim- 
itations, and since no record was kept of his doings 
as a churchman, it is impossible to get anything like 
an accurate statement of his history previous to the 
emancipation. Since we know that there were in this 
country at the close of the war four hundred thousand 
Negro Baptists, and since the Negro Baptists of 
North Carolina formed a part of that number we 
know they had an existence of some kind. Consider- 
ing conditions as they were at that time, and taking 
the statements as we gather them here and there, it 
is safe to say throughout the entire South they existed 
only in connection with the white churches. In the 
history of the North Carolina Baptist State Conven- 
tion, by Eev. Livingston Johnson, we get the follow- 
ing in 1837: "The committee on religious instruc- 
tion of slaves urged that places be provided for them 
in the houses of worship, and that their religious in- 
struction receive special attention." 



8 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Eelating to another statement in tJie Convention of 
1850 is the following: "The churches of the State 
are urged to establish schools for the oral instruction 
of the colored people." In some instances the colored 
people were allowed to hold services conducted by 
some member of their own race in some sections and 
at specified times, but such meetings were usually 
held under the supervision of a white man, and at his 
discretion these meetings were brought to a close. In 
very many instances such meetings were even con- 
ducted by a member of the white race. In matters of 
discipline, especially if a white member was involved, 
the colored people had no voice whatever. In matters 
affecting their own number often some colored brother 
in whom the church had confidence would make re^ 
ports and recommendations. In compliance with the 
resolution of 1837, which we have already mentioned, 
in some instances provision was made in the erection 
of the church edifice by petition, and in the galleries 
for the accommodation of the colored brethren. In 
the communion services, after the bread and wine had 
been passed to the white brethren, it was passed in 
turn to the colored brethren. This was regarded by 
them as a God-sent privilege and a blessing, for which 
their "Amens" were often loud and lasting. 

In that early day even among the white members 
it was not an unusual thing for a white brother or 
sister to give vent to their feelings in a hallelujah, and 
to them it did not seem strange to see tears of joy and 
thanksgiving flowing down the cheeks of the colored 



Before the War. 9 

brother. In the appointment of missionaries among 
the white brethren they were instructed to devote a 
portion of their time to the religious uplift and in- 
struction of the colored brother, and this they often 
did very mueh to their satisfaction. The extent of 
the work of the missionary and the relations of the 
races as master and slave, was the question which 
brought about the separation of the Northern and 
Southern Baptists in 1845. Among the Southern mis- 
sionaries and ministers in !North Carolina as else- 
where throughout the South there were many zealous 
Christians, who devoted much of their time to the con- 
dition of the colored people so much affected and im- 
proved during the days of slavery. It is hard for the 
biased mind and the prejudiced Negro to see God in 
conditions such as surrounded the race before the war 
religiously or otherwise, and yet we verily believe God 
was in it, and much of the discipline and training 
which he received in that early day was greatly help- 
ful in the changes which came to him in the days of 
his freedom and the entire responsibility of work and 
of worship. It was certainly no disadvantage for one 
emerged from heathenism to be brought in touch with 
intelligence in church worship. It took Israel to suffer 
many cruelties to be brought right close to God, and 
even then, despite God's wonderful and miraculous de- 
liverance. His people were often found going in tha 
wrong direction. 

In many localities of North Carolina special revival 
services were held for the colored people ; often great 



10 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

numbers professed faith in Christ. The Pleasant 
Plains Church, of Hertford County, and many others 
had their beginning as a result of such meetings. In 
the instance of the church just mentioned it was 
agreed between a white Baptist and Methodist min- 
ister that they would unite and carry on a revival 
meeting. Large numbers professed faith in Christ, 
and then arose the question to which church they 
would unite. It was finally agreed that the Methodist 
should stand on the one side and the Baptist minister 
should stand on the other, and leave it to the option of 
the candidate on which side he should pass. As might 
have been expected at that day almost every one 
passed over on the side of the Baptist preacher, and 
the Pleasant Plains Church was immediately set 
apart. The same minister served them several years. 
It was not until Rev. C. S. Brown took charge of the 
school at Winton a colored man was called to serve 
this church. While the law expressly forbade the use 
of a book for the colored man, many kind and Chris- 
tian masters and mistresses would gather the colored 
people on Sunday afternoons and teach them the word 
of God. In this way a great number were brought to 
a saving knowledge of the Christ and followed Him, 
not only in conversion and regeneration, but in bap- 
tism as well. There were but few Baptist preachers 
before the war. The first we have any knowledge of 
was "Uncle Harry Cowan," as he was known at that 
time. He was the servant of Thomas L. Cowan. His 
master being present at a funeral was so struck with 



Before the War. 11 

his gift to preach God's word granted him "privilege 
papers" to preach anywhere on his four plantations. 
His papers were fixed up hy a lawyer and read thus : 
"This is to certify that whosover is interested about 
my man Harry he has the privilege to preach and 
marry also; to baptize any one who makes a profes- 
sion of faith." His success was so wonderful and so 
much of the confidence of his master was imposed in 
him his privileges were soon extended, and he was not 
only allowed to preach on his master's "plantations" 
but wherever he was promised "protection." God 
greatly strengthened his ministry and thousands of 
his own race and many of the white race heard this 
man of God in his simplicity proclaim the glad tidings 
of salvation as contained in the word of God. He 
preached the gospel not only until peace was declared, 
but was a leader among the pioneers for many years 
after the great Civil War. During the struggle in 
arms between the North and the South he was the 
body-servant of Gen. Joseph Johnston. He preached 
every night during the struggle except the night when 
General Stonewall Jackson fell in battle. Men like 
"Uncle Harry" were quite rare before the war, and 
even since few have proven such powers for the sal- 
vation of fallen humanity. Seventy years of his life 
were given to the gospel ministry. During that time 
he baptized eight thousand persons. There were 
others as preachers and deacons, men of decided abil- 
ity and firm character. Though possessed of rare 
gifts few were granted the privileges granted to 



12 Negro Baptists of North CarolirM. 

"Uncle Harry." With such men it is not surprising 
that North Carolina even before the war was so 
strongly Baptist. In Raleigh we find such men as 
"Uncle Harry," but they were only laymen. Among 
these we find Todd Palmer, Sandy Pinkin, Henry 
Jett, Richard Shepard and Jim Adkins. In many 
other sections of the State such men existed full of 
faith, of kindness and exhortation. The life and 
deeds, the midnight prayers of such men, did more 
to bring the freedom which afterward followed than 
all other means combined. 

We have already said that questions of discipline 
were almost exclusively left to the white people, but 
in some instances fairness was shown to the colored 
brother, and his side received the proper considera- 
tion. We record a single instance of this kind. A 
conflict ensued between a white brother and a colored 
sister. When the white brother was heard a motion 
at once was made to exclude the colored sister without 
hearing her side, but others insisted and it afterward 
prevailed to hear her side ; and when they had heard 
her side she was justified and allowed to retain her 
membership. 

Notwithstanding there were many obstacles which 
stood in the way of the religious growth and develop- 
ment of the colored people before the war, there were 
many devoted Christians among them. 

At Louisburg there was a splendid illustration of 
this fact, together with many others which might be 
named. Lewis Perry, who was known in that day 



Before the War. 13 

by white and black as "Dr. Lewis Perry," was the 
body servant of Dr. Wilie Perry. He was granted 
papers to hold prayer meetings in Louisburg. He was 
further granted papers to exhort. His white friends 
said by all means he should have been granted "a 
horse and saddle and bridle." His name will always 
live in and about Louisburg, for his services were not 
only greatly helpful to his colored brethren but many 
white people heard him gladly, and were greatly bene- 
fited by his spiritual earnestness and instruction. In 
connection with the white church in which he held 
membership he was called upon almost invariably at 
the concluding of the sermon to lead in prayer, and as 
often as he did the entire congregation felt greatly 
lifted up through his prayers. 

Whenever any colored person' applied to this church 
for membership they had first to secure the permis- 
sion of "Dr. Perry." 

Many revivals were held in the basements of the 
Methodist and Baptist churches of Louisburg by "Dr. 
Perry," and many souls professed faith in Christ 
through these revival efforts, and were added to the 
church. 

An opportunity to worship God was hailed with ex 
treme delight, as was manifest in the sacrifices which 
they were often called upon to make for the worship 
of God. Some would give liberal contributions out 
of their meagre earnings in support of the gospel, 
and while many since the war would not make the 
sacrifice to walk a few hundred yards to hear the gos- 



14 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

pel, there are very many instances in which the ante- 
bellum Christians were known to walk fifteen and 
twenty miles to attend a midnight prayer meeting, 
and rejoiced for the privilege as a special benediction 
from above. In many instances these prayer meet- 
ings were clandestine and many, after taking such 
long walks, were hunted down and chased away as 
disturbers of the peace. 

Strange to say, while the Negroes were allowed to 
dance all night long and were not disturbed, as soon 
as they began the worship of God often it was claimed 
they were disturbers. 

While much of the religion of former years was 
sentimental much was sincere and practical. Even 
in that day of darkness such men and women im- 
pressed themselves not only upon members of their 
own race, but upon those who had the rule over them. 
Often these old antebellum Christians exerted such 
an influence when prayer was necessary they were 
called upon to lead in prayer. Instances can be re- 
called of some who were called to the bedside of their 
dying masters to offer the last sad rites. Some of 
the preachers who came in contact with such devoted 
men and women became devoted to them, and despite 
the changes which followed the war this devotion 
lasted through life. We have already mentioned the 
strength and devotion of some of the Raleigh mem- 
bers. Such a Christian spirit grew up between them 
and their white brethren when the time came for a 
separation they refused to go out from their white 



Before the War. 15 

brethren, and remained with them for several years 
afterward. The property now owned by the colored 
First Baptist Church was offered to them soon after 
the war, but they refused to leave their white brethren 
and it fell into the hands of the Roman Catholics. In 
the special Providence of God after many years of 
worship near the Seaboard workshops, the Eoman 
Catholics sold out to the colored Baptists and they at 
much sacrifice erected the beautiful church on the 
corner of the street southeast of the Capitol Square. 
The instance mentioned of the affection between the 
colored and white brethren growing out of these 
church affliliations is but one of many. So strong 
was the relation in the case of individuals that many 
retained their membership among their white breth- 
ren until their death. 

The dawn of freedom brought many changes in the 
church relations as well as otherwise. The prayer 
which these fathers prayed was "Grant the day Lord 
when we may worship God under our own vine and 
fig tree," and this prayer meant to them a separation 
from the white churches. Rude houses of worship 
were erected in every section, and where they were 
unable to erect houses brush arbors were thrown to- 
gether, and in many instances they were content to 
worship under the trees. This new privilege was 
hailed with extreme delight everywhere, and in North 
Carolina as elsewhere. The fervor and devotion of 
the old slave father was unabating, and for years 
afterward it looked as if the promise of undying ser- 



16 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

vice would find in them a fulfillment. Licenses and 
ordinations became general, and soon there were 
many although unlettered who went forth in their 
rude way telling the joyful tidings of salvation. One 
of the saddest changes in the history of the denomi- 
nation was to see with the growth of education and 
other improvements new demands for a more intelli- 
gent ministry, and to see these old landmarks falling 
out one by one, and men of better training taking 
their places. Only a few of these old ministers sur- 
vived in the midst of these changes. Most of them 
outlived their generation. In nearly every instance 
when these changes became necessary the old leader 
would yield with extreme reluctance. It should be 
said that no men in any age have done more for their 
opportunity than these old ministers coming to the 
church emerging from slavery. 

Some of them lived to see the brush arbor re- 
moved, and the log church erected instead, and even 
the log churches taken away and frame and brick 
churches erected. The history of Rev. G. W. Hol- 
land, of Winston-Salem, gives an instance of this 
kind. Not only did he remove from the brush arbor 
to the frame church, but from the frame church to the 
beautiful brick building in Winston, a monument to 
his energy and faithfulness. He lived not only in the 
memory of the old people like himself, but retained 
up until his death a place of highest esteem among 
the young people of his church and community. 



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Before the War. 17 

Having set apart twenty-eight Baptist churches, 
and having erected the beautiful structure mentioned, 
full of honors and noble deeds he passed with the 
fathers to his home of peaceful rest. 

Rev. Thomas Parker was another example. Pos- 
sibly in his day he baptized four thousand persons. 
Passing through every kind of trial and distress, he 
lived in spite of opposition and changes of every 
kind. At the time of his death he was the pastor of 
four of the largest churches of the Kenansville Asso- 
ciation. For thirty years he was the Moderator of 
this Association. 

It is easy to appreciate improved conditions when 
they are in evidence, but the world soon forgets those 
who have labored to lay a foundation. Taking every- 
thing into consideration the early fathers of the 
churches coming out of the little work done before 
the war, and taking into consideration the ante-bellum 
Negro Baptists, the churches for the generations to 
come owe them a debt of deepest gratitude. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE WORK OF THE JSTOETHERN SOCIE- 
TIES FOR THE COLORED BAPTISTS 
OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The American Baptist Home Mission Society. 

The American Baptist Home Mission Society, 
which was organized 1832, contemplated the uplift 
of all classes and conditions of the people. The Ne- 
gro, although enslaved, naturally appealed to such an 
organization. The society, being an important factor 
in the general Convention of Baptists, North and 
South, did much in and through the early mission- 
aries appointed to reach the Negro with the gospel. 
Much of the religious development and improvement, 
even in that dark period, may be traced to the work 
and influence of the society in the Negro's behalf. 
Much of the splendid results reported from year to 
year may be traced to the field work in North Caro- 
lina. It was the anxiety of the Home Mission So- 
ciety, together with other Northern Baptists, which 
led to differences concerning thir missionary work 
and to the final separation of the white Baptists North 
and South, and caused the organization of the two 
distinct bodies. The North contended that the insti- 
tution of slavery in any form was wrong, and should 
be discouraged, especially by the Southern church 
member ; the South contended for the continuance of 




S. N. VASS, D.D., 

Superintendent of Work Among the Colored 

People tinder the American Baptist 

Publication Society. 



Worh of Northern Societies, 19 

slavery, and hence separation was tte inevitable re- 
sult. 

Not only was this upheaval in the ecclesiastical 
councils, but the entire nation was stirred, and in al- 
most every question which came before the Congress 
of the nation the question of slavery was injected. 
The clash of arms was the final outcome, and victory 
on the side of the Federal troops after one of the 
most bitter struggles the world has ever known. 

To the society as well as others this seemed to bo 
the hand of God. The door of opportunity was 
thrown wide, and among the first Christian organi- 
zations to enter the work of uplifting the homeless, 
ignorant Negro was the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society. 

Others who became lifelong benefactors to the 
cause of education at Shaw were influenced through 
the society. Being the first institution of its kind in 
North Carolina, not only were the Baptists greatly 
benefited, but every denomination in the State owes 
something of its power and usefulness to the men in 
its ranks sent out from Shaw University. The great 
founder of Livingstone College at Salisbury, Dr. J. C. 
Price, laid the foundation for his education at Shaw 
University; and often referred to this beginning as 
the foundation for the inspiration which made him 
the man he was. While Shaw University was estab- 
lished as a Baptist institution it was always quite 
liberal, and many himdreds of all the denominations 
gathered there for instruction. It was only in the 



20 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Theological Department that the distinctive princi- 
ples of the Baptists were taught, and even there rep- 
resentatives of other churches were gathered and bet- 
ter prepared to preach the gospel to their own people. 

If the American Baptist Home Mission Society 
had done no more than to give to North Carolina col- 
ored Baptists Shaw University and H. M. Tupper, 
that would have been a wonderful blessing. In the 
twenty-five years of Dr. Tupper's active and untiring 
service not only was he permitted to see the blessed 
light of intelligence in the Normal, Classical and 
Theological Departments, but Law, Medical and 
Pharmaceutical Departments. It is said that Rev. 
Tupper was called to the bedside of a poor colored 
woman in Raleigh, and upon inquiry found out that 
she had no doctor in attendance, and the reason wa3 
that she could not pay any doctor for lack of means, 
and hence had to be neglected. From that hour he 
decided on the Medical Department to prepare men 
of the colored race for this work. It has been further 
stated that his own embarrassment before the courts 
of Raleigh in the long trials he was called upon to 
meet and his difficulty to secure lawyers to defend 
him, led to the establishment of the Law Department, 

Besides the educational work carried on by the so- 
ciety, missionary work was instituted from the be- 
ginning of its operation in the State. 

The new condition afforded them an opportunity 
to prosecute the work of missions, not to the slave 
Negro as before, but to the Negro freeman. Not 



Work of Northern Societies. 21 

merely to confine itself to missionary work, but to the 
erection of buildings for their education and general 
uplift. God moved upon the hearts of many noble 
men and women, not only to give their money to 
carry on this work, but to give themselves to volunteer 
service, both to preach to them the gospel, and to teach 
them in the day and night schools. The attention of 
the Northern philanthropist was turned to the help- 
less Negro in the Southland, and the society seized 
every opportunity to combine its forces, and while for 
a time much opposition was manifest to the new pro^ 
ject, in the providence of God it was overcome, and 
soon the society began to pour its blessed treasures in 
North Carolina together with other Southern States. 
It was the good fortune of North Carolina to have 
as its first volunteer Eev. Henry Martin Tupper, who, 
in the special Providence of God, saw much of the 
needs of the colored people while fighting in behalf of 
the Union and the freedom of the Negro. The argu- 
ment which overcame the opposition which we have 
mentioned in the ranks of the society, was the fact 
that the education intended was to prepare men and 
women to teach in the schools, and especially to pre- 
pare men of the Negro race to preach the gospel to 
their own race. At first, according to the resolution 
which settled the conflict, only such money could be 
used even in this work as should be sent into the so- 
ciety specified for the mission work and education 
for Negroes. While everlasting gratitude is due to 
the heroism, ability and energy of Eev. Tupper, still 



22 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

more is due to the American Baptist Home Mission 
Society, which made it possible for Rev. Tupper to do 
the great work he did at Shaw University. 

Five hundred thousand dollars were contributed by 
this society besides other gifts from other sources to 
the establishment and maintenance of Shaw Univer- 
sity previous to the year 1908. The society not only 
gave out of its treasury the magnificent sum just 
mentioned, but opened up the way for Rev. Tupper to 
reach others throughout the North. 

Considering the destitute circumstances and condi- 
tions of the people so recently emerged from slavery, 
nothing could so stimulate and strengthen all classes 
as the missionary who was thrown in daily contact 
with the people in their homes, churches and else- 
where. With the advantages of education the mis- 
sionary was quite an improvement to many of the 
pastors in the churches, and his message was both 
encouraging and enlightening. He was not only re- 
quired to go into the towns and cities, but in the rural 
sections. His work was not only to preach in 
churches already established, but to go where there 
were no churches and establish them. Many churches 
owe their existence to the missionary work of the 
American Baptist Home Mission Society. The so- 
ciety not only gave the missionary for this kind of 
work, but in many instances gave from their Church 
Edifice Fund the money to pay for its erection. In 
some instances this money was borrowed, in others it 
was given, just as the individual case demanded. Self- 



Worh of Northern Societies. 23 

dependence was the instruction given to the mission- 
ary ; and it proved far better where the churches were 
taught self-support. Indulgence in some cases proved 
detrimental not only to the church, but to the society. 
Like the Missionary Colporter of the American Bap- 
tist Publication Society, the missionary of the Home 
Mission Society was instructed to hold special revival 
services with the pastors and churches, and in this 
way many thousands were added to the churches 
through conversion in these meetings. Some of the 
strongest and best men in church work came to Christ 
through the preaching of the Home Mission Society's 
missionary. The Scripture that says "Iron sharp- 
eneth iron" was often verified in the missionary of 
the society and the country pastor. This proved very 
helpful to the pastor and the church, as so many were 
deprived of the opportunity of an education. 

While the Southern Baptist Convention, the Bap- 
tist State Convention of North Carolina formed a 
part of the cooperative forces in the plan of coopera 
tion in North Carolina, it had its foundation largely 
in the Home Mission Society. Dr. Henry L. More- 
house, who was then corresponding secretary of the 
society, drew the entire plan, together with the courses 
of study laid down in the original plan. If the so- 
ciety had done no more for the colored Baptists than 
to formulate this plan and bring about the combina- 
tion of the white Baptists South with the Negro Bap- 
tists for the prosecution of cooperation, that of itself 
would have been a wonderful assistance, for of all 



24 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

the work done from the Emancipation in 1863 to 
1908, the few years of cooperation proved to be the 
most helpful. North Carolina Baptists hardly seemed 
like the same people. At once they took the lead of 
all the other denominations nmnerically, and in edu- 
cational and missionary work. 

The reports of the different secondary schools at 
the close of the time of the plan of cooperation showed 
that fifty thousand dollars were raised annually by 
the colored Baptists of North Carolina in support of 
their schools. 

From 1900 to 1908 the society not only gave sup- 
port to Shaw University but gave partial support to 
Waters' Normal Institute at Winton, N. C, the New 
Bern Industrial Institute at New Bern, N. C, and 
the Thompson Institute at Lumberton, N. C. But for 
the aid given these schools they could never have 
proven the blessing they did prove to their communi- 
ties. 

The American Baptist Home Mission Society did 
so much for the colored Baptists of North Carolina 
and in so many ways it was thought by some of the 
Baptists of other States that the society was partial 
to North Carolina Baptists, and to an extent the 
charge was doubtless true, for it was claimed by cer- 
tain leading Home Mission Society representatives 
that the Negro Baptists of North Carolina were the 
most grateful and loyal people with whom they were 
associated in Christian and educational work, and 



Work of Northern Societies. 25 

hence they were necessarily inclined to do more for 
!N"orth Carolina. 

When the disposition of many Baptists in other 
States and a few in North Carolina was to criticise 
and turn away from the society, the great majority 
of North Carolina Baptists stood firm and unchange- 
able in their high esteem and loyal support of the 
Home Mission Society. "Cooperation with religious 
bodies for the advancement of the Master's kingdom 
and economy in Foreign Mission work" was the 
watchword throughout North Carolina ; and although 
at times the contest was bitter, even with some of the 
brethren of the extreme eastern and western sections 
of the State, the Convention stood firm and true to 
the great and good people of the Home Mission So- 
ciety, who had stood by them in times of greatest 
need, and who stood ready all the way to lend the 
same helping hand. It was rather a sad spectacle in 
North Carolina to see a few men educated in the 
schools of the American Baptist Home Mission So- 
ciety turn away with the basest ingratitude, and with 
their greatest efforts, though feeble at best, strike 
back at the society. The sincerity of the rank and 
file was so manifest, and God's bountiful blessing to 
the grateful was so constant, the opposition which at 
a time was so threatening soon passed away and the 
Baptists of North Carolina declared in unmistakable 
resolution their abiding faith and loyalty to the Home 
Mission Society and its interests in North Carolina 
and elsewhere as far as they were able. This spirit 



26 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

paved the way to the society's partial benefactions 
and to their decided and rapid growth and develop- 
ment along all lines. 

Others may with ingratitude turn away from the 
Home Mission Society, but for all time the rank and 
file of Negro Baptists of North Carolina will hold 
in grateful remembrance and appreciation the great 
Home Mission Society which did so much to shape 
their destiny. 

The Ambeican Baptist Publication Society. 

As soon as it was practicable, after the emancipa- 
tion of the negroes of North Carolina, together with 
the Negroes of the rest of the Southern States, the 
American Baptist Publication Society, with head- 
quarters in Philadelphia, began its colportage and 
missionary work among them. The organization of 
the Sunday School forces of North Carolina is due 
more largely to the work of this society than to all the 
other forces combined. The State Sunday School 
Convention of North Carolina owes its existence to 
the society. Its first representative in North Caro- 
lina was Rev. E. E. Eagles, the ablest representative 
of his day. With his exceptional ability, though ig- 
norance and superstition had lordly sway, much in- 
formation was gained through his teachings and still 
more through the distribution of Bibles, tracts and 
other literature. Rev. A. Shepard, then a student 
at Raleigh, was appointed to the same position, and it 



Worh of Northern Societies. 27 

was through his labors that much strength was given 
to the new organization. Rev. Shepard undertook 
to strengthen the parent body by the organization of 
the different counties of the State into county conven- 
tions as auxiliaries. Out of these organizations came 
the Oxford Orphan Asylum, which has since been 
turned over to the State as a State institution. Hence 
it may be said also that the colored Orphan Asylmn 
of Oxford, ]Sr. C, owes its existence to the American 
Baptist Publication Society as well as the State Sun- 
day School Convention. 

While the American Baptist Home Mission So- 
ciety of ISTew York has done its work in North Caro- 
lina among the colored people along educational lines, 
secular and Christian, and through its missionary 
effort in the churches, side by side the Publication 
Society has done its work through the Sunday school 
missionary and the printed page. 

All of the leading ministers of North Carolina 
among the JSTegro Baptists owe in part their prepara- 
tion to the help given them by the Publication So- 
ciety. Many of them were furnished libraries from 
which the greater part of their instruction was de- 
rived. 

Thousands and tens of thousands have been brought 
to a saving knowledge of their Redeemer through 
teachings coming to them from the tracts and other 
religious literature sent out by the society. Not only 
have many been thus brought to a saving knowledge 
of Christ, but much of the soundness of their faith 



28 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

is due to this "wholesome influence and instruction. 
Indeed, it proved an efficient means of disseminating 
the principles as taught by the Baptists. 

Emerging from the bondage of slavery, with faint 
ideas of homes and home training, one of the greatest 
needs after securing some place which might be called 
by the name of home, the next greatest necessity was 
the proper training in the home. The work as out- 
lined and followed by the society met this condition 
as nothing else could. The duty as specified to the 
colporter was not only to leave the literature in the 
home but a prayer and the necessary instruction, and 
hence much valuable information came to the people 
through this medium, which in many instances did 
more than the printed page which was many times 
cast aside in his absence, while the truth to the unlet- 
tered coming into his hearing found its way into his 
heart, his life and his character. 

The Class of Men Appointed by the Society. 

The society could never have accomplished so much 
among the colored Baptists of North Carolina but for 
the class of men appointed to do its work. Almost 
without an exception the men proved themselves to 
be men of rare ability, Christian piety and devotion. 
We have already mentioned Rev. E. E. Eagles, the 
Baptist veteran of his day, and following him Kev, 
Augustus Shepard, who spent eighteen years in the 
society's service. He not only wielded great power 
in the Sunday School work, but was equally service- 



Worh of Northern Societies. 29 

able in the church Conventions. Possibly no one man 
in his day has done so much to lift up the people as 
did this pious servant of God. Then following him 
was Eev. A. W. Pegues, Ph.D. ; although serving but 
a short time took up the work where Rev. Shepard 
left it 

Eev. P. F. Maloy held the position for the same 
length of time as did Eev. Pegues, Eev. Joseph 
Perry, Eev. M. C. Eansom, Eev. C. H. Williamson 
for short periods. Then came Eev. G. W. Moore and 
Eev. A. B. Vincent. These two held the place for 2 
number of years, and with these years accomplished 
great things along Sunday School lines. For two 
years Eev. J. W. Faulk, Jr., was associated with the 
work in the eastern section of the State, l^orth Caro- 
lina Baptists proved their appreciation to the society 
to that extent that they enjoyed not only the appoint- 
ments mentioned but one of the district secretaries, 
Dr. S. N. Vass, was bom in North Carolina, and, al- 
though partly educated in an Episcopal institution, 
reading one of the tracts of the society saw what 
seemed to him the only right way, became a Baptist, 
and after completing his education was appointed to 
serve as missionary in Virginia, afterward appointed 
District Secretary for the Southern States. 

From the beginning Eev. Vass showed rare ability, 
but with the advance of years he proved to be one of 
the ablest men of the entire race throughout the coun- 
try. By the organization of a publishing company 
of colored men in Nashville, Tenn., and this organi- 



30 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

zation having behind it the ISTational Baptist Con- 
vention required able management and skill to enable 
the Publication Society, vsrhich it was claimed was 
a white concern, to hold its place in the estimation 
of the colored people, but Dr. Vass proved himself 
equal to the occasion, and, while, much of the patron- 
age of the colored people was given to the Negro Pub- 
lishing House, much was left to the American Bap- 
tist Publication Society through the influence of Dr, 
Vass. In fact, with the extension of the Sunday 
School work in North Carolina among the colored peo- 
ple, with their growing intelligence and increasing de- 
mands for Sunday School literature, even with the in- 
troduction of the ISTegro Publishing House literature, 
the American Baptist Publication Society maintained 
its usual hold in point of Sunday School supplies. 

After a lapse of years, just as it should have been 
at first, both houses received recognition according 
to the wishes of the individual, or according to the 
merits of each as seen by the schools. 

Sunday School Institutes. 

With the State Sunday School Convention fully 
organized and cooperating with the society in doing 
its work in the State ; with County Conventions in 
every section, and with its literature spread in every 
destitute corner, the society found it necessary to un- 
dertake a new kind of work from the missionary and 
colporter. In fact the people asked for more ad- 
vanced Sunday School work, and the institute plan 



Work of Northern Societies. 31 

was adopted and proved to be very effective in send- 
ing out men and women in the different sections 
better prepared and inspired to do the work of teach- 
ing in the schools. The missionary was not only seen 
with his budget of books but with blackboard and 
other facilities holding Sunday School Institutes. To 
meet the demands the society arranged general meet- 
ings with the missionaries of other States so as to bet- 
ter prepare all for their special fields, and it was not 
long before the schools were filled with better men 
and women who received much of their instruction 
and inspiration from the institutes. Fortunately the 
Home Mission Society, cooperating with the Church 
Convention, just as the Publication Society was co- 
operating with the Sunday School Convention, was 
holding just such meetings in connection with the 
churches, and sometimes even joint meetings were 
held, which enabled the colored Baptists of ISTorth 
Carolina to leap into prominence and usefulness both 
in their church and Sunday School work. Through 
such infiuences many strong men and women were 
sent forth as leaders, not only to meet the demands 
of the State, but in other States, and as missionaries 
into the regions of dark Africa. 

EvAlSTGELISTIC WoEK. 

We have already mentioned the many thousands 
who were converted to Christ through the work of 
the society in the distribution of its literature and its 
missionary work, but as in the instance of the dc- 



32 Negro Baptists of North Carolina, 

mands for institutes there came as well a demand 
for direct means of bringing the children to a saving 
knowledge of Jesus. And, too, at that time evangel- 
ism was the watchword in nearly every section of the 
country, especially among the white Baptists of the 
North and West. The missionaries sent out con- 
jointly by the society and the State Sunday School 
Convention were instructed to hold evangelistic meet- 
ings wherever it was practicable to do so. Such meet- 
ings always proved very helpful, and many who after- 
ward became great leaders in Sunday School and 
church work were converted in these meetings. 

From 1902 to 1908 the reports showed that the 
society paid out to its missionaries and to the Dis- 
trict Secretary for salaries three thousand dollars a 
year. 

When it was considered that this Christian organi- 
zation began with the colored people in the days of 
their adversity, and did so much for them in that dark 
period, it is not surprising that their gratitude was 
too deep to turn away from them in later years. 

North Carolina took the lead of all the States in 
its manifestation of gratitude. At the time when it 
looked as if all the States among the colored people 
would turn away North Carolina held firmly on, and 
while much patronage was given to the other house 
the orders increased to the American Baptist Publi- 
cation Society. The Children's Day exercises were 
encouraged, and comparatively large sums were sent 




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Work of Northern Societies. 33 

up from the different Sunday Schools of the State; 
yet it was admitted that the great good done by the 
society in the general uplift of the colored people of 
North Carolina, as well as elsewhere, could never be 
repaid in dollars and cents. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE BAPTIST EDUCATIOlSrAL ANT) MIS- 
SIONARY co]srvE]srTio]sr or noeth 

CAEOLINA. 

The Baptist Educational and Missionary Conven- 
tion of Worth Carolina was organized in Goldsboro, 
N. C, in the year 1867. There were present at this 
organization Revs. Edward Eagles, C. Johnson, Wil- 
liam Warwick, L. W. Boone, B. B. Spicer, H. Grimes, 
John Washington, Charles Bryant, Sutton Davis and 
R. H. Harper. To have seen these few fathers gath- 
ered with no experience in Christian work, recently 
emerged from slavery, no money, brush arbors and 
log churches in most cases, should cause the Baptist 
hosts of after years to look with supreme admiration 
and gratitude upon the sacrifices and arduous labors 
of the "fathers in Israel." We have been informed 
that there were a few of our white Baptist brethren 
in attendance at this first meeting of their colored 
brethren and helped them to plan the organization 
and advise for its future operation. It was evident 
that the organization of churches was imperatively 
necessary, and this the new organization determined 
to do. With the few ministers in the Convention 
and in the State, it was further evident that "more 
laborers were needed in the Master's vineyard," and 
for this the brethren earnestly prayed. In some sec- 
tions it has been charged that the colored Baptists 



Educational and Missionary Convention. 35 

fostered ignorance, but as an argument to the con- 
trary in this first organization the purchase of suit- 
able books was urged, and an intelligent ministry as 
the greatest necessity. 

All the ministers present were authorized to do 
missionary work in their immediate vicinity, and as 
extensively as their opportunities would allow. Al- 
though the beginning was meager and such as to dis- 
hearten and discourage weaker men, these fathers 
were by no means daunted. They had strong faith in 
God, and He in His all-wise Providence permitted 
many of them to see a wonderful development and 
growth before He took them hence to their eternal 
reward. 

From the beginning the negro Baptists of !N"orth 
Carolina have felt that their white brethren, with su- 
perior advantages, could be of substantial aid to them 
in their religious and moral development, and they 
invited representatives to meet with them even in 
their organization of the Convention. In the annual 
meeting of the white Baptists at Wilmington in 1867 
the request was granted; the brethren were present 
and rendered valuable service, bidding Godspeed to 
their colored brethren. 

From that day there existed ever afterward the 
kindliest and most friendly relations between the two 
Conventions in ITorth Carolina, the white brethren 
often going to considerable sacrifice to serve them 
with advice, with instruction and with their money. 

As early as 1865, immediately following the bitter 



36 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

struggle in arma between the North and the South, 
they seemed to have lost sight of the fact that the Ne- 
groes had been their slaves, and, together with their 
Northern brethren, despite their poverty and discour- 
agement, growing out of the bloody contest in arms, 
they sought every opportunity to do the colored 
brother assistance. 

The records of the white Baptists will show that a 
resolution was passed in their first Convention foUo^i'- 
ing the Emancipation, which reads as follows : 

"The brethren realize that a new responsibility is 
thrust upon them by the emancipation of the slaves, 
and pledge themselves to do all in their power for the 
religious and educational development of the Negro." 
1876. "We would urge upon our pastors and 
churches the importance of prosecuting, so far as pos- 
sible, the work of giving religious instruction to the 
colored people among us, and we request our mission 
and Sunday School brothers, as far as practicable, 
to give aid in organizing and expanding among their 
Sunday School and church privileges." 

This was further shown in the struggle of North 
Carolina colored Baptists to maintain the principle 
of cooperation with the religious bodies; the white 
Baptists of the State stood firmly by them with their 
moral and financial support. While the plan of co- 
operation emanated from the North, the Southern 
white brother was ripe for such helpfulness, even 
prior to the plan. 



Educational and Missionary Convention. 37 

A resolution passed in the white convention, Golds- 
boro, and $500 was appropriated to conduct Institutes 
for the colored Baptists of the State. 

With all the aid which came to the Negro Bap- 
tists of North Carolina, with ignorance, poverty and 
discouragement staring them in the face, and with 
conditions as the results of war, and a people set free 
with no homes, clotheless and often foodless, their 
struggles were often bitter and disappointing. 

They had only the assurance that they were build- 
ing upon a sure foundation — the eternal word of 
God; and like the Apostle to the Gentile world they 
rejoiced that they were "counted worthy to suffer af- 
fliction" forthe cause which had brought to themlight, 
life and salvation, and they meant as best they could 
to blaze their way through the dense wilderness, and 
tell the story which has since made many thousand 
rejoice together with them. 

For many years comparatively little was accom- 
plished. The growth was necessarily slow, but sure. 

The annual reports were informal, and yet these 
annual meetings were often attended with great spirit- 
ual awakenings. 

It may be said of the Convention, for thirty yeara 
after its organization it was a period of construction. 

In many of the rude structures, about which men- 
tion has been made, great revivals broke out and souls 
were brought into the church by the thousands and 
tens of thousands. ' 



38 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

It was a feast at the close of each conventional 
year to hear these fathers and pioneers of the Con- 
vention telling of the presence of God in their early 
revival meetings. 

Rev. John Washington vcas the first missionary sent 
out by the Convention. There were others whom we 
have mentioned laboring for the Publication So- 
ciety. It is claimed that Kev. E. E. Eagles, the first 
missionary of the Publication Society, organized the 
Convention. If not, he was a great stimulus to the 
work, having superior advantages over most of his 
brethren. Kev. F. E,. Howell was the second. 

Rev. Howell's services as missionary added much 
strength and force to the Convention. Especially did 
his reports give the much needed information re^ 
specting the field, and caused extension of missions 
into unknown sections of the State. 

The Convention was so stimulated and enthused 
through the work done and the reports of Rev. Howell 
until they were encouraged to appoint Rev. P. E. 
Maloy to succeed him as their missionary. 

While Rev. Maloy was not faultless, he had su- 
perior advantages over Rev. Howell, and in many 
respects proved to be an ideal missionary. The ap- 
pointment of these men was in the line of that Provi- 
dence which was shaping the Convention for great 
future usefulness. 

The work of the missionary was by no means so 
definite as in after years, and possibly it was well 
that it should not have been, as it left room for that 



Educational and Missionary Convention. 39- 

service so necessary to meet the demand of that early 
stage. 

Rev. A. B. Vincent came in just previous to the 
"Plan of cooperation." During a part of his time, 
as we have mentioned, the white Baptists made ap- 
propriations which were supplemented by the colored 
Convention, and some of the leading colored breth- 
ren volunteered their services in connection with the 
regular missionary, which greatly assisted him in the 
preparation of the different sections for the splendid 
gift of cooperation. It may be said, too, even prior 
to the appropriation of the white brethren the col- 
ored people in some sections realized the necessity 
of a better and a more united ministry and formed 
Institutes. We recall especially such meetings held 
by the brethren in and about Warrenton, Louisburg 
and in other places. Rev. T. J. Taylor, the pastor 
of the white Baptist Church of Warrenton, attended 
all of these meetings, and it was doubtless his ac- 
quaintance with the plan which led to the resolution 
which he offered in the Goldsboro Convention appro- 
priating $500 to this kind of work among the col- 
ored people. 

Just as the Biblical Recorder was the greatest 
means of organizing and strengthening the white 
Baptists, and which did more than all the agencies 
to make them what they were, so different papers 
representing the colored Baptists proved the same ef- 
ficient means of shaping, developing and makirg 
them what they became in after yeara. 



'40 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

At different times the Oold Dust, the Baptist Head- 
light, the African Expositor, the Chowan Pilot and 
the Baptist Sentinel. 

It was unfortunate that there were so many papers, 
but under the circumstances these papers would but 
blossom, bear an early fruitage and then die. The 
Baptist Sentinel, like the others, though pas^ijg 
through biting frosts and bitter cold, came into ex- 
istence to live; and despite circumstances did Jive, 
not only strengthening the State Convention, but all 
other organizations throughout the State which were 
intended for the betterment of the Baptist cause; 
while the annual collections of the Convention in- 
creased and many other improvements, both in point 
of increasing membership and better plans of work, 
but there was nothing like the proper organization of 
the forces iintil the meeting of the Convention at 
Garysburg. It was there through the plan drawn up 
by Dr. A. W. Pegues that the Convention organized 
itself into Boards which proved greatly in advance 
of any plan which had before been tried. The work 
of the Boards greatly paved the way to the plan of 
cooperation which soon came into existence. The 
death of Rev. Z. Horton was announced at the Garys- 
burg meeting. Rev. Horton was one of the pioneers 
of the Baptist work of North Carolina. Suitable 
resolutions were passed. 

An effort was on foot at this time to raise twenty- 
five thousand dollars, an endowment to the presidency 
of Shaw University. Dr. E". F. Roberts, Prof. S. N". 



Educational and Missionary Convention. 41 

Vass and Prof. A. B. Vincent canvassed the State 
in the interest of this project. 

The Convention gave liberal contributions to this 
fund. It was in the Oxford meeting that the plan of 
cooperation was submitted and voted upon by the 
Convention. There was comparatively no opposition 
to the plan. 

The general missionary and the three district mis- 
sionaries were voted upon and accepted by the Con- 
vention, and the wheels set in motion for that for- 
ward movement which meant more to North Carolina 
than all the efforts of its past thirty years. With 
four of the Convention's ablest men going from place 
to place throughout the State, doing special mission- 
ary work, holding Ministerial Institutes, and doing 
house to house service, it could not serve otherwise 
than produce wonderful improvements and changes. 
It was soon evident that the colored Baptists would 
make history for themselves, and correct the oft-re- 
peated story that the "ISTegro Baptists had no men of 
note." The missionary was hailed with delight in 
sections where he dare not go before, and it could be 
said in reality that the wilderness was blossoming 
as the rose. The fact that the great Home Mission 
Society of N'ew York, the Southern Baptist Conven- 
tion, with headquarters in Atlanta, and the white 
Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, together 
■with, the colored Convention, were behind these men, 
not only gave to them financial support but moral 
support as well ; besides greatly stimulating the men 



42 Negro Baptists of North Cwrolirm. 

themselves, and enabled them to do a work they could 
not otherwise have done. 

To them it was not a question of where their sal- 
ary was coming from, it was provided for in the 
plan. It was theirs to do their work, to do it pro- 
ficiently, and at the close of each quarter and of each 
year to render accurate reports of work done and re- 
sults as far as they were able to gather them. The 
results were good as evidenced on every hand. Not 
only did the missionary see them but the most casual 
observer. 

Possibly no better example could be furnished than 
in Lumberton, where the Baptist people simply leaped 
into prominence materially, morally and spiritually. 
ISTot only were the colored people led to rejoice for 
splendid harvests and for the broad foundation, 
laid through their work, but their white brethren 
throughout the State, the North and the South re- 
joiced with them. The colored brother was so awak- 
ened, not only to his own advancement, but rejoiced 
as he read the annual reports of the white Convention 
at their constant and decided growth. 

It was not surprising at the close of the three years 
that the vote in all the cooperating bodies should have 
been so unanimous for 'three years more of coopera- 
tion." 

The thirty-third annual session of the Convention 
was held in the First Baptist Church of Rocky 
Mount, ]Sr. C, Dr. A. Shepard, of Durham, N. C, 
presiding. Dr. H. L. Morehouse, of New York City, 



Educational and Missionary Convention. 43 

representing the American Baptist Home Mission 
Society ; Dr. W. M. Alexander, of Baltimore, repre- 
senting the Lott-Carey Convention, and Dr. J. M. 
Armstead, of Portsmouth, representing the Baptists 
of Virginia, were present and made able speeches on 
the special objects they came to represent. After 
the speech of Dr. Morehouse on Cooperation, which 
had been prosecuted in the State for three years, the 
Convention unanimously voted to continue the work 
for three years more, pledging its loyal support. The 
Convention also voted to assume the responsibility of 
a teacher in the Theological Department of Shaw 
University. The report of the treasurer showed that 
two thousand, six hundred and twenty-four dollars 
had been raised during the year. 

The new year began with bright hopes; the Con- 
vention appointed Rev. E,. B. Watts, of Wilkesboro, 
to labor in the western and mountain section of the 
State, with instructions to give as much time as prac- 
ticable to the section of the State beyond the Blue 
Ridge Mountains. 

Rev. C. C. Somerville, who had labored so success- 
fully as District Missionary for Eastern North Caro- 
lina, sent in his resignation to take effect October 1, 
1899. His place was filled by the appointment of 
Rev. W. T. H. Woodward, of Littleton, IST. C. 

In the New Bern Convention, at the St. John's 
Church, Dr. C. F. Meserve made an able plea in be- 
half of Shaw University, and Rev. John E. White, 
the Corresponding Secretary of the Baptist State 



44 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Convention (white), made a great talk as he usually 
did at the annual Conventions, on the subject 
"Strengthen the things that remain." Dr. White 
never lost an opportunity to help the colored people, 
and especially the colored Baptists of N"orth Caro- 
lina, and he as no other man always made a profound 
impression on our Conventions. 

The saintly Miss Joanna P. Moore, of ISTashville, 
Tenn., was also present, and since she had done more 
than they all in behalf of the colored people, not only 
in one respect, but in all that pertained to their gen- 
eral uplift, like her blessed Savior, who gave His very 
life for humanity. The Convention heard her with 
breathless silence and appreciation. The Ministerial 
Union, which had been organized many years pre- 
vious and had gone down, was revived at this meeting 
with Rev. K. H. Harper, of LaGrange, President; 
Rev. W. R. Mason, ofWeldon, Vice-President; and 
Rev. S. H. Witherspoon, Secretary. The amount 
of the annual collections had increased a thousand 
dollars over the previous year. The Convention 
changed the time of the annual meeting from October 
to November, just one month later. This was an 
unusual year for the colored Baptists as well as for 
the colored people of all the denominations ; especially 
in the eastern section of the State. A political up- 
heaval such as the State had not known before was 
felt everywhere, and much of the enthusiasm of pre- 
vious years was lost; many of the colored people as 
a result moved to other States, and hence the work 



Educational and Missionary Convention. 45 

so fairly under way was greatly retarded. And yet, 
according to the opinion of many men of eminencs 
of the opposite race, cooperation in the State at such 
a time was providential and a great blessing. Such 
able representatives as the Convention had in the field 
and representatives of the two races, often brought 
together as they were in the meetings held over the 
State, kept up a better understanding than would 
have prevailed, and hence did much to remove the 
bitterness and friction which doubtless would have 
otherwise been manifest. If this was true, and we 
have reason to believe it was, if cooperation had done 
no more than allay race feeling, which was already 
exceedingly harmful to both races, that of itself would 
have been worth the amount of money expended for 
its maintenance. Eev. D. J. Moore, of Emerson, IST. 
C, and Eev. A. Ellis, of Waco, 'R. C, were appointed 
to labor respectively in the southern and western sec- 
tions of the State in behalf of the Convention. 

Dr. 0. L. P. Taliaferro, of Philadelphia, Editor of 
the Christian Banner, and Rev. I. Toliver, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, were in attendance at the next annual 
session of the Convention at Eranklinton, and were 
elected honorary members. A. W. Pegues, J. A. 
Whitted, E. E. Smith, C. Johnson, C. S. Brown and 
I. W. Holden were appointed a committee to petition 
the Legislature in its session following in behalf of a 
reformatory for youthful criminals of the colored 
race. 

Eev. John E. White, about whom reference has al- 



46 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

ready been made, had received a call to the Second 
Baptist Church of Atlanta, Ga., gave his farewell ad- 
dress to his colored brethren, and those vs^ho were so 
fortunate as to hear that address will never forget the 
impression it made on the Convention. 

Following this meeting of the Convention Rev. P. 
F. Maloy, who had been the Western District Mis- 
sionary since cooperation had been inaugurated, ac- 
cepted the call to the Friendship Baptist Church of 
Charlotte, E". C, and was succeeded by Eev. G. 0. 
Bullock, who proved to be eminently successful in 
putting new life, interest and confidence in the work 
throughout the entire West. 

Like his predecessor Eev. Livingston Johnson, the 
Corresponding Secretary of the white Convention, 
met the Convention in its annual session at Lumber- 
ton. Rev. Johnson soon convinced his brethren that 
he was indeed a worthy successor of a great and good 
man. It was in the Lumberton Convention that ef- 
forts were put forth to bring about a closer union be- 
tween the Educational and Missionary Convention 
and the Woman's Convention. Representatives oi 
both Conventions met and held conferences on plana 
for a closer union. One of the plans adopted was to 
have a board of supervisors appointed by the Educa- 
tional and Missionary Convention, whose duty it 
should be to advise the women in their work. A. 
Shepard, A. B. Vincent, J. R. Cozart, C W. Moore 
and C. C. Somerville were appointed a committee 
to represent the Convention in the Negro Young Peo- 



Educational and Missionary Convention. 47 

pie's Congress to be held in the interim of the Con- 
vention in Atlanta, Ga. 

The report of the treasurer showed that six thou- 
sand eight hundred and eighty-one dollars had been 
raised for the different objects of the Convention 
during the year, which was an evidence of the rapid 
growth of the colored Baptists of North Carolina. 

The Negro Young People's Congress, which met in 
Atlanta in August of that year, was by far the great- 
est gathering of intelligent ISTegroes known in the 
world's history. A fair estimate placed the number 
at eight thousand. This was a splendid opportunity 
to demonstrate the strength of the Negro Baptists, 
not only of North Carolina, but of the United States. 
The place they filled on the program and in the Con- 
vention bore evidence of their superior standing in 
the entire race of the country. This fact gave them 
much inspiration and encouragement. The plan of 
cooperation contemplated smaller appropriations from 
the white organizations cooperating with the colored 
Baptists, which necessitated larger appropriations 
from the colored people themselves. Realizing the 
great good which the plan had brought to the cause 
the brethren rallied manfully. Their educational 
work, which had too increased their burdens, made 
it but the harder to support the cooperative work, but 
they kept good their obligations, and thereby increased 
the confidence of their white brethren. North and 
South. Eight thousand dollars were reported in the 
Durham Convention, which exceeded any report pre- 



48 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

viously made. This did not include the amounts 
raised for educational purposes. It was always diffi- 
cult to get an accurate report from the different as- 
sociations as it was well-nigh impossible to get all the 
associations in the State to report to the Convention. 
Some out of opposition, some from indifference and 
several because of the spirit only to foster and sup- 
port objects at their doors. Rev. W. T. H. Wood- 
ward, failing in health, resigned as District Mission- 
ary for Eastern North Carolina. Like Dr. Somer- 
ville, Rev. Woodward did a lasting work in the east- 
ern section of the State, and brought many in touch 
with the work who had not previously supported it. 
Rev. D. J. Avera, of Lumberton, N. C, was ap- 
pointed to succeed Rev. Woodward. Rev. A. B. Vin- 
cent, who had held the place of Central Missionary, 
resigned his work to do pastoral work at Oxford. The 
eastern and western sections were extended, which 
made the central section smaller, and the General 
Missionary took this section together with his. duties 
as General Missionary. The Kinston meeting sug- 
gested many changes. Dr. E. E. Smith was elected 
as one of the editors of the Baptist Sentinel. The 
American Baptist Home Mission Society submitted 
a proposition to the Convention relative to Shaw Uni 
versity. The Home Mission Society agreed if the 
colored Baptists of North Carolina would raise five 
thousand dollars for Shaw University they (the Home 
Mission Society) would give thirteen thousand dol- 



Educational and Missionary Convention. 49 

lars for a Tupper Memorial Building and Estey Semi- 
nary annex. The proposition was accepted, the place 
of General Missionary abandoned, and the Corre- 
sponding Secretary was appointed to raise the five 
thousand dollars within the limited time of two years. 
The Secondary Baptist Schools of North Carolina 
were formed into a confederation to receive support 
in part from the Convention. Although the amoimt 
of money which each school received was very small 
yet it stimulated the schools while it greatly increased 
the interest in the Convention from the different sec- 
tions where these schools were located. 

Very much to the regret of the Convention Rev, 
G. O. Bullock resigned as District Missionary for the 
western section to take charge of the pastorate of the 
Friendship Church, Charlotte, vacated by Rev. P. F. 
Maloy. Dr. S. H. Witherspoon, of the Ebenezer 
Church of Charlotte, was elected to take the place 
made vacant by the resignation of Eev. Bullock. 
After serving one year in this capacity Dr. Wither- 
spoon was promoted to the position of Corresponding 
Secretary. Eev. D. J. Avery left the eastern section 
for the pastorate, and Rev. L. T. Bond was elected 
at the Wilmington meeting to succeed him. It was 
in the Salisbury meeting that the Convention heard 
with profound regret of the death of Eev. G. W. Hol- 
land, of the First Church of Winston-Salem, E". C. 
Few men had done more than Rev. Holland both in 
the extension of the church work and in his loyalty 



50 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

to the Convention, and hence his death was keenly 
felt by his brethren. Dr. L. G. Jordan, Correspond- 
ing Secretary of the Foreign Mission Board of the 
National Baptist Convention, was present in the 
Salisbury meeting and the brethren gave him a royal 
welcome, especially in view of the fact that it dem- 
onstrated the union which for the first time in many 
years existed between the two Conventions. Previous 
to this time Dr. Beckham had visited the Convention, 
but not in the capacity of an invited guest. We have 
already mentioned the differences which arose be- 
tween the Educational and Missionary Convention 
of North Carolina and the National Baptist Conven- 
tion. As a result of this difference the extreme east- 
em section of the State had formed themselves into 
an organization called "The Baptist State Convention 
of North Carolina." The organization was formed 
very much to the regret of the regular Convention 
brethren, and existed for a short while. The feeling 
between the brethren of the two Conventions was 
never so radical as in other States where such rival 
Conventions existed. Both felt that they were con- 
tending for a principle. When the union between 
the mother Convention of the State and the National 
Convention was effected there was nothing for the 
new Convention to feed upon, and hence instead of 
strengthening it weakened. 

The face of Dr. J. O. Crosby, so familiar to his 
brethren when visiting Salisbury, was conspicuous 
for the absence which had called him to distant Cali- 



Educational and Missionary Convention. 51 

fornia to take up his future abode. For many years 
Dr. Crosby, one of the ablest men of the State, was 
identified with every interest of the Baptists. 

The first report of Dr. Witherspoon was read at 
the Oxford Convention. Dr. Witherspoon was quite 
zealous and faithful in carrying forward the cause 
of the Convention as left to his care. There were, 
however, many disadvantages under which he had 
to labor. As we have already said according to the 
plan of the work he had to raise larger amounts of 
money, fewer and less experienced men to assist him, 
and himself new to the field as a whole. Yet his 
brethren acknowledged his faithfulness. The Baptist 
Sentinel, the organ of the Convention, changed iu 
part and Dr. C. S. Brown, a man of wide experience 
as a writer and of exceptional ability, was made one 
of the editors. 

Dr. A. W. Pegues, Dean of the Theological De- 
partment of Shaw University, had resigned as a ne- 
cessity on account of his health, and had again as- 
sumed control of the Deaf and Dumb Institution. 
Dr. P. F. Morris, of Lynchburg, Virginia, was elected 
in his place. He made his appearance before the 
Convention in Oxford and presented a strong plea for 
the work of the Department of Theology. The ten- 
dency of so many of our people to erroneous views 
on the questions of Sanctification, Holiness, the "'Sew 
Tongue," caused the Convention to appoint Dr. Pe- 
gues to give the Baptist view on the subject. When 
he was through all understood our position as Bap- 



52 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

tists on tlie questions, and all were greatly edified. 
Dr. Clugh, Secretary of the Educational Board of 
the ITational Baptist Convention, spoke on the estab- 
lishment of a National Theological Seminary, to be 
under the general supervision of the National Ba[)- 
tist Convention. Dr. W. M. Alexander made an un- 
usual impression in the interest of Foreign Missions. 
Before the next meeting of the Convention, in the 
Providence of God, Dr. Walter A. Patillo, of Oxford, 
was taken away. Dr. Patillo was a strong man taken 
from the ranks, loyal to every interest, and had done 
quite a lot of church and other kinds of Christian 
work. The Convention, as it appeared in 1908, was 
far from the Convention of even fifteen years prior. 
The church work in every respect had made great 
strides. Brush arbors and log churches were no 
more. In many instances brick structures had been 
erected. The value of church edifices and Baptist 
property had long since reached the hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars. The ministry compared favorably 
with all the churches and the wilderness of the re- 
cent past changed to blossom into intelligence, piety 
and Christian dignity. 



CHAPTER IV. 

FOEEIGN MISSIONS— THE HAYES & ELEM- 
MING FOREIGN MISSION SOCIETY. 

The object of the Hayes & Flemming Foreign Mis- 
sion Society was to aid in support of Rev. J. O. Hayes 
and Miss Lula 0. Flemming, engaged in Foreign 
Mission work in Africa. 

Soon after these two consecrated servants graduated 
from Shaw University they went to their fields of 
labor. Brother Hayes felt called to go to Liberia. 
West Africa; Sister Flemming to the Congo Free 
State. To give them direct support, although the Na- 
tion Baptist Foreign Mission Convention was in ope- 
ration, this society was organized; and while its 
headquarters were in Raleigh, branch societies were 
organized and operated in different sections of the 
State. 

Much of the Foreign Mission spirit which after- 
ward prevailed in North Carolina was the result of 
the Hayes & Flemming Society, with its branches, ex- 
erting an influence here and there. 

The work became so successfully organized until 
almost every week during the year a Foreign Mission 
contribution came into the main office. This was 
kept up until the Foreign Mission Convention of the 
United States adopted Rev. Hayes as their mission- 
ary. Until this time his entire support came 
through this society. And, too, in that dark period 



54 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

there was nothing like the method in sending Foreign 
Mission money as prevailed afterward. 

It was an inspiration to meet in a Hayes & Flemm- 
ing Society meeting. Usually a program was pro- 
vided; reports from the missionaries were read and 
sent broadcast, and everything to enlighten and in- 
spire characterized these meetings. Hence the rapid 
growth which led to more extensive work in the Dark 
Continent. Hardly a Baptist meeting of any im- 
port was held in the State unless a place was provided 
for a missionary sermon. Dr. H. M. Tupper, Presi- 
dent of Shaw University, was possibly the most active 
worker the society had, and no work of his life of 
usefulness appealed more closely to him than this 
work. As in all other work he undertook he spared 
neither time nor money to make the society go, and 
it went. 

Like some lovely flower which seems born to bloom 
and give its fragrance and pass away, the Hayes & 
Flemming Foreign Mission Society existed but for 
a short time, but not like the fragrance of the flower 
to die, it can not die, for through its influence, as we 
have already said, life was infused into the Baptist 
forces of the State, and to some extent on the country ; 
its influence was and will be felt in the redemption 
of precious souls on the burning sands of heathendom. 

Such women as Miss Lula C. Flemming are sel- 
dom found. Whatever she undertook to do she did 
it fearlessly, and "with all her might." She soon 
went beyond human endurance. She not only under- 



Hayes and Flemming Missionary Society. 55 

took to administer to the souls of men, but she came 
back to Philadelphia, took a course in medicine and 
went back with more zeal and earnestness to adminis- 
ter to both soul and body. It was while contributing 
to the latter that she fell a victim to a disease from 
which she never rallied, althoiigh by a special Provi- 
dence she was spared to reach her native land. Mis- 
sions, the essence of Christianity, can not die. Al- 
though Miss Plemming was called to a merited rest, 
she adopted Kev. Tule, brought him to this country 
to be educated for the work of the ministry in 
Africa, and her mantle though worthily worn, fell on 
the shoulders of an energetic and faithful successor. 

With Rev. J. O. Hayes in the hands and under the 
direction of the Foreign Mission Convention, and 
with Miss Plemming transported to her place of final 
rest, there remained no longer a cause for the exist- 
ence of the Hayes & Flemming Foreign Mission So- 
ciety. Hence the organization united with the Na- 
tional Convention forces. 

The Lott-Caeet Baptist Home and Foreign Mis- 
sion Convention of the United States. 

This Convention was organized in the city of 
Washington in 1897. 

In the National Convention, which met in the city 
of Boston a year previous to the organization of the 
Lott-Carey Convention, great dissatisfaction was ex- 
pressed by many of the delegates on the ground that 



56 Negro Baptists of North Ca/rolma. 

the Convention covered too much territory, and a 
great deal of money could be saved to the cause of 
Foreign Missions by the Convention organizing it- 
self into districts, and each district hold its annual 
meetings and report through the regular organiza- 
tion. A committee was appointed and a report was 
submitted to the Convention, but was voted down. 
Cooperation with the Northern and Southern white 
Baptists was on trial in several of the States. The 
Convention not only showed hostility to the district- 
ing plan by an open vote in Convention, but its dis- 
approval to the plan of cooperation. The delegation 
from North Carolina were a unit for the district 
plan and for cooperation. An informal meeting was 
called of the brethren in Boston, and while no defi- 
nite action was taken it was evident that a new con- 
vention, whose policy should be cooperation and 
economy in Foreign Missions, would be formed. 
In the fall meeting of the North Carolina Conven- 
tion in Charlotte, N. C, after careful consideration 
a committee was appointed to issue a call to other 
States to unite in the formation of a Foreign Mis- 
sion Convention. Delegates from Virginia, Mary- 
land, the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania and 
other Eastern States, met in the city of Washington 
and organized a convention, afterward named the 
Lott-Carey Home and Foreign Mission Convention 
of the United States. 

Dr. P. F. Morris, of Lynchburg, Va., President; 
Dr. W. M. Alexander, of Baltimore, Corresponding 



Hayes and Flemming Missionary Society. 57 

Secretary; Dr. A. W. Pegues, of Raleigh, N. C, Re- 
cording Secretary; Dr. C. S. Brown, of Winton, N. 
C, was elected President in the second annual meet- 
ing. With these men in the lead, and with the loy- 
alty of the Conventions, associations and churches 
which had espoused the cause of the new convention 
it took on new life in the beginning. 

At first the Lott-Carey Convention met much op- 
position from the old Convention, and led to divis- 
ions in nearly all the States composing the new Con- 
vention ; but through this rivalry the forces on either 
side were greatly strengthened and a much greater 
work was accomplished on the home and foreign 
field. 

Beginning with an annual collection of four hun- 
dred dollars, the Lott-Carey Convention soon grew to 
the collection of as many thousand dollars each year. 
The collections for the first six years were ten thou- 
sand dollars. 

Standing for cooperation as one of its principles, 
the plan was fairly tested in North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia. Not only were the organizations in these two 
States enabled to do the usual amount of work but 
by far the greatest work in their history. Their 
reports for their State work were much better and 
their Foreign Mission collections were more. 

In the annual Convention held in Baltimore it was 
decided that the women should be organized into a 
separate organization, auxiliary to the regular Con- 
vention. 



58 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

The organization was formed and known as the 
Woman's Auxiliary Convention. The women proved 
at once their ahility to raise money, and the first 
year they raised as much money as the entire Con- 
vention raised at its first session. 

MiSSIONAEIES AND ThEIE WoEK. 

Eev. J. O. Hayes, who had labored in Africa for 
a number of years and at one time missionary under 
the supervision of the National Baptist Convention, 
accepted an appointment under the Lott-Carey Con- 
vention ; Rev. John Tule, a native African, was also 
appointed. Kev. C. C. Boone and Mrs. C. C. Boone 
were afterward appointed. 

The labors of these missionaries were abundantly 
fruitful and successful. Rev. Tule, although labor- 
ing under the supervision of the Lott-Carey Conven- 
tion but five years, having been removed by death, 
baptized three hundred native Africans. The death 
of Rev. Tule was quite a blow to the Foreign Mis- 
sion cause, but in his death the Convention's life 
was by no means extinct. One of the converts of 
Rev. Tule was Mdodana. Soon after Mdodana was 
baptized he gave evidence of a call to the gospel min- 
istry. He made known his call and a desire to pre- 
pare for his life work. 

Provision was made for Mdodana in one of the 
Home Mission schools at Selma, Alabama, and after 
three years of study Rev. Mdodana was prepared to 
take up the mantle laid down by Tule. 



Hayes (md Fhmming Missionary Society. 59 

After traveling through North Carolina and cer- 
tain portions of Virginia Mdodana set sail for the 
field December 25, 1904. 

Mrs. C. C. Boone had but fairly begun her work 
among the heathen when she was called from labor 
to reward. Only eighteen months in the work; but 
they were months of arduous toil and care, and the 
accomplishments for so short a time were an inspira- 
tion to the husband still left to labor a little longer. 
The Missionary Union of Boston greatly facilitated 
the work of Rev. and Mrs. Boone. The Lott-Carey 
Convention, maintaining as one of its principles 
"cooperation with any and all Christian organiza- 
tions for the advancement of the Kingdom," entered 
into cooperation with the Missionary Union of Bos- 
ton on condition that the union should furnish "the 
base of operation" for its missionaries, while the sal- 
ary and other expenses were to be met by the Con- 
vention. This was a great advantage to the Con- 
vention and to Rev. Boone, the first appointee under 
the plan. Full of zeal and faith in his ability to 
do the great work of soul saving. Rev. Boone proved 
himself a great power in the Foreign Missionary 
work. Many souls were brought to Christ, and a 
broad foundation was laid for future results. 

North Carolina, first in the organization, and hav- 
ing two of her sons in the foreign field, had a great 
incentive to the activity which characterized her re- 
lations to the Convention from the beginning. Rev. 
James O. Hayes, the veteran missionary, hailed from 



60 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Sampson County, NortK Carolina. After gradu- 
ating from Shaw University he gave his whole life 
work to "the land of his fathers." While much of 
his time was given to school work, he wrote his name 
high on the roll of the Christian missionaries. We 
have already said that the rivalry between the two 
Conventions caused both to do more than they would 
have done otherwise. The missionary force from the 
National Convention weis largely increased, more 
money was raised for the foreign work and more 
care used in its appropriations. 

The first seven years, in summing up the results, 
the Corresponding Secretary showed that seventy 
per cent of all collections raised on the home field 
had been expended on the foreign field; that ten 
thousand dollars had been raised and seven hundred 
persons had been baptized as the direct results of the 
missionary work of the Lott-Carey Baptist Home and 
Foreign Mission Convention. 

The reversal of the ITational Convention after 
seven years proved the convincing influence of the 
Lott-Carey Convention. 

Cooperation as taught and practiced by the Lott- 
Carey Convention was called subordination by the 
parent body, but after six years the National Con- 
vention reversed itself and entered into cooperation 
with the Southern Baptist Convention (white), to 
the exclusion of the Northern Baptists. After seven 
years moving over a vast territory they decided 
to organize a district convention, and in the same 



Hayes and Flerwming Missionary Society. 61 

city, just as their brethren of the Lott-Carey Con- 
vention had done seven years prior. Thus the Lott- 
Carey Convention was fully vindicated. 

With the years the feeling between the two Con- 
ventions was better, and at their sixth annual session 
a commission was appointed by the Lott-Carey Con- 
vention to meet the National Convention, looking to 
some land of peace terms. While little apparently 
was accomplished, it did much to modify the feelings 
of the Conventions to each other. Viewing the Lott- 
Carey Convention in its relation to cooperation, and 
its organization at a time when the plan needed a 
firm friend ; viewing it in its bold stand for economy 
in Foreign Mission work, it was none other than a 
creature born from above, and its mission none other 
but a mission of righteousness. 

Peacticallt United. 

Recognizing the change in the parent body, and 
realizing the necessity of closer relations between 
the two great Baptist organizations of the country, 
delegations clothed with authority to effect a closer 
unity were sent successively to the annual meetings 
of the National Convention in Philadelphia, Chica- 
go and Memphis, Tenn. At first their brethren re- 
garded their coming with some suspicion, but when 
they saw the earnestness of their plea for unity they 
received them with open arms; and while they saw 
the wisdom of the continuation of the district body, 
in spirit and in kindly interest they became united. 



62 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Eev. Mdodana who had labored in South Africa in- 
dependent to his brethren, was placed under the di- 
rection of the Foreign Mission Board of the ^National 
Convention. 

The barriers which had stood in the way of the 
progress of both Conventions were removed, and bit- 
terness, the worst feature of the differences which 
had existed for ten years, ceased. 

Representatives and ofEcers of the one Convention 
felt free to attend the meetings of the other. Con- 
tributions were sent from the one to the other, and 
a spirit of genuine love prevailed. 

North Carolina Baptists, feeling themselves 
largely responsible for the existence of the Lott- 
Carey Convention, were faithful and loyal all the 
way. It was the meeting of the Lott-Carey Conven- 
tion in the First Baptist Church of Winston-Salem, 
N. C, that North Carolina, in defiance of the opin- 
ion of the others, took the lead for the union which 
afterward followed. "First in war," when a prin- 
ciple was involved, and "First in peace," when op- 
position to this principle was removed. The Wo- 
man's Convention of North Carolina, in its annual 
session at Reidsville, 1907, voted the entire support 
to Miss Cora A. Pair, one of the young women of 
North Carolina who made known her call to the mis- 
sion field of Africa. In 1908 she set sail for the 
Dark Continent to spend herself in the work of sav- 
ing the heathen. Three from among Negro Baptists 
of North Carolina, within its short history of twelve 



Hayes and Flemming Missionary Society. 63 

years, were sent out by the Lott-Carey Convention 
besides its contributions in money. With the angel 
of peace and good will hovering over the two Con- 
ventions, and with zealous-hearted men and women 
on the home field and in the wilds of Africa, going 
forth bearing to the heathen world the gospel, great 
glory came both to the sender and the sent. Much 
of the wonderful activity and progress of the work 
on the home field came from the untiring efforts of 
the President of the Convention, Dr. C. S. Brown, 
of North Ca.olina, and much from Dr. W. M. Alex- 
ander, the Corresponding Secretary, of Baltimore, 
who, though hindered with the arduous duties of a 
city pastorate, awakened much interest throughout 
the bounds of the Convention. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE PLAN OF OOOPEKATION IN NORTH 
OAEOLINA. 

The Providence -whicli had been manifest in the 
welfare of the Negro Baptists since their orginization 
in Goldsboro in 1867, had something special in 
store to be brought to them in their annual meeting 
at Oxford, N. C, in 1894. A meeting between the 
Northern and Southern Baptists (white) had been 
held at Fortress Monroe September 12th and 13th, 
1894, to devise plans by which the two sections 
might work together for the further uplift and de- 
velopment of the Negro. When this meeting was 
called there was much apprehension lest the effort 
should prove futile. God watching over the destiny 
of His people willed it otherwise, and what the ar- 
dent friends of the race feared did not happen. 
Everything presented on either side, instead of meet- 
ing with bitter opposition, was kindly received, and 
soon it was evident that the North and the South, 
so long apart, could and did reach an amicable agree- 
ment. 

Another meeting was called in Atlanta in the same 
year. The plan, with some modifications at this next 
meeting, met the hearty endorsement of both sides. 
This plan was submitted to the colored Convention 
at its meeting at Oxford, N. C, for ratification. It 
was afterward submitted to the white Convention at 
Greensboro. Both adopted the report and it was im- 



Plan of Cooperation. 65 

mediately put into prosecution. The following be- 
came parties to the plan for North Carolina: The 
Home Mission Society, New York City; the South- 
em Baptist Convention, Atlanta, Ga. ; the white Con- 
vention of North Carolina and the Educational and 
Missionary Convention of North Carolina, The 
work began at once. Missionaries were appointed as 
follows: Rev. C. S. Brown, General Missionary; 
Rev. A. B. Vincent, Central Missionary; Eev. P. !F. 
Maloy, Western Missionary ; J. A. Whitted, Eastern 
Missionary. The objects of the plan, as stated, were 
to effect the strongest possible combination of talent 
and resources for the better organization and more 
efficient prosecution of missionary and educational 
work among the colored people in North Carolina, 
and the Christian development of our Baptist forces 
in the State. 

The Beiatign of the Coopeeative OEGAiirizATioKs 
TO Each Otheb. 

For the foregoing purposes in the State of North 
Carolina these organizations shall be regarded as co- 
ordinate bodies, and all work undertaken under this 
plan of cooperation shall be with the concurrence 
of all their recognized officers or Boards. The work 
in the State shall be under the immediate direction 
of the State Convention or its Executive Board, in 
conformity with this plan of cooperation; but rep- 
resentatives of other cooperative bodies shall have 
the right to make inquiries concerning the work. 
5 



66 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Methods of Woek. 

There shall be one general missionary and not to 
exceed four district missionaries for the State, each 
of the latter having a designated section for his field. 
The salaries of these missionaries and their expenses 
shall be borne as follows: For the first year one- 
fourth by each organization; the second year two- 
fifths by the State Convention, and the other three- 
fifths by the other bodies. 

The plan further outlines the duties of the mis- 
sionaries on the field ; plan of reports, relation of the 
missionaries to the cooperating bodies and to each 
other. The most important feature of the plan of 
cooperation was the New Era Institute. One of 
these meetings was provided for alternately each week 
throughout the different districts. A thorough course 
of lectures was provided on Biblical Theology, Church 
History, Christian Missions, Christian Education and 
other subjects, covering a period of three years. The 
best talent available, both colored and white, was se- 
cured to deliver lectures in these meetings. Another 
feature of the plan was to do missionary work proper 
in the rural and destitute sections of the State, and 
to raise money for the furtherance of the objects of 
the Convention. For the twelve years of cooperation 
some of the ablest men of the denomination in the 
State were employed : Rev. C. C. Somerville, D. D. ; 
Eev. W. T. H. Woodward, Eev. D. J. Avera, Rev. 
G. 0. Bullock, D.D. : Rev. D. J. Witherspoon, D.D. ; 
Rev. L. T. Bond. 



Plan of Cooperation. 67 

CooPEEATioN Eminently Successful. 

The plan of cooperation provided for only three 
years. The wisdom of the plan was so evident that 
a continuation was imperatively necessary. Through- 
out the State such changes were effected as to bring 
hope and cheer from time to time to its promoters. 
When cooperation began in North Carolina the Con- 
vention was comparatively weak in the scope of its 
missionary and educational operation and in the in- 
fluence exerted even in its own ranks. Only one mis- 
sionary was employed, and it was utterly impossible 
for one missionary over such a vast territory to do 
the necessary work. His work in the past was largely 
confined to the central sections of the State. Scarcely 
anything was done for ministerial education, and but 
little more for the missionary work. The Convention 
counted itself fortunate to realize as much as three 
hundred dollars for all purposes per annum. Pew 
took part in deliberations. This condition caused 
the State to be fully prepared for a change of some 
kind, and the Convention to give a hearty welcome 
as a promise of better conditions. When the plan 
was proposed to the Convention which met in its an- 
nual session at Oxford, IST. C, in the fall of 1895, it 
was gladly and almost unanimously accepted. The 
churches entered into it with heart and hand. 
The Institute Woek. 

While North Carolina preachers compared favor- 
ably with those of any other State when the work 



68 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

began, yet they were far behind. The Institute soon 
awakened new life in the ministry throughout the 
State; many libraries were purchased, schools were 
better attended, even by the pastors; more attention 
was given to the preparation and delivery of ser- 
mons, and in many ways decided changes were real- 
ized as the direct result of these meetings held in the 
different and destitute sections of the State. Not 
only was there an awakening in the pulpit, but es- 
pecially was it seen and felt in the pew ; and as might 
be expected many changes were made in the pastor- 
ates throughout the State. Much of the sentimental 
and demonstrative worship gave way to intelligence 
and practical Christianity. As a natural consequence 
a change in the churches meant change in the associ- 
ations and other religious organizations. At the end 
of the twelve years of cooperation in many respects 
the colored Baptists of North Carolina stood in the 
foremost ranks of Baptists, certainly in the manage- 
ment and deportment of their deliberative bodies. 
Such things as "points of order" and needless dis- 
cussion, rows and confusions were things of the past. 
Said a gentleman visiting our State Convention, 
"When are you going to fuss ?" The reply was, "We 
are not going to fuss." North Carolina Baptists 
had been taught that it was not dignified, it was not 
religious to "fuss," and this training through which 
they had so recently passed had much to do with such 
a conclusion. 



Plan of Cooperation. 69 

FllTANCES. 

Tlie largest collection ever reported at any session 
of the Convention previous to the adoption of coopera- 
tion was three hundred dollars, and when this report 
was made by the Treasurer the Convention iinited 
in singing "Praise God, from whom all blessings 
flow." 

Immediately aft«r the new plan was operated a 
decided change was manifest and for each one hun- 
dred dollars a thousand dollars was realized. At one 
session eight thousand dollars was reported as an 
annual contribution for all objects. The change in 
the amount of finance realized was by no means eon- 
fined to the Convention. New life and inspiration 
was infused in churches and other bodies throughout 
the State; increased collections and hence a higher 
financial mark was the cry from the mountains to 
the seashore. Better churches were erected, more 
work of charity undertaken, and the missionary had 
a kindly welcome in sections where the work previous 
to this time had been hindered. 

Mission AET Feature. 

Shaw University, until then only partly filled, was 
filled to overflowing, and the twelve years of coopera- 
tion closed as should be with the beginning of a de- 
termined effort to provide facilities for still larger 
numbers. While all that might have been done with 
regard to missions was not done, owing to the re- 
quirements of the plan for an increased appropriation 



70 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

from the Convention with the increase of years, yet 
sections of the State were reached which had not been 
reached before, and sections contributed to the Con- 
vention which hardly knew before that there was a 
Convention. While twelve years of the work marked 
but a beginning, yet those twelve years vsdll always 
be regarded by loyal Baptists as a Godsend from the 
white Baptists and at an opportune moment. Not only 
did the State missionaries get a hearing in sections 
before unknown, but many associations of these sec- 
tions had missionaries of their own, and through them 
quite an interest was awakened. In some instances 
these missionaries united wixh the State missionaries, 
and thereby added new strength. The Convention 
of the State was encouraged to appoint local mission- 
aries. At one time there were four such mission- 
aries laboring side by side Avith the State mis- 
sionaries. Associations came into the Convention 
with men from their fields recommended for their 
Special section. This was not only added strength to 
the Convention but renewed interest to the associa- 
tion. This work added much support to the endeav- 
ors of the women through their State organization to 
reach the people. For a long time it was extremely 
difficult for the women to do any work, but with the 
increase of this missionary spirit they were enabled 
to reach sections which they dare not undertake to 
reach before the infusion of this mission spirit. 
Local Missions, State Missions, Foreign Missions was 
the cry throughout North Carolina. 



Plan of Cooperation. 71 

Cooperative Bodies. 

MucK praise is due the white brethren, North and 
South, for this movement. They entered the work 
with a will and at each step their instruction and ad- 
vice have done much to make it what it was. Evi- 
dently it was intended for the emergency. It came 
at a time when political upheavals, which the colored 
people regarded as alarming, prevailed throughout the 
South. The only star of hope, as the colored Bap- 
tists of North Carolina saw it, was held out in the 
work of cooperation. The white brethren brought 
in touch with the leaders of the new movement offered 
the best advice they could under the circumstances, 
for no one could tell the outcome; and the leaders 
in turn gave this kindly advice to give comfort and 
cheer to their depressed brethren throughout the 
State. One of the white brethren was heard to say. 
"It was the leaders in cooperation that calmed the 
troubled waters." To some extent this may be at- 
tributing too much to cooperation, but certainly, com- 
ing at such a time and bringing the leaders of these 
two strongest church forces face to face from time 
to time in these meetings effecting the best under- 
standing for such a period, must have had quite a 
wholesome bearing upon both races. 

While much credit and lasting gratitude is due 
the brethren of the North, much was due the South. 
The North contributed their pro rata in money; the 
South not only gave money but their time and talent. 



72 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

and, as we have already intimated, advice at a time 
when it was imperatively necessary. It was hard 
to the Negroes of ISTorth Carolina, as they saw it, 
when the right of franchise was taken from the vast 
majority. The presence of the white brother at such 
a time relieved the situation and helped to remove 
the opinion so prevalent that the white people of 
Worth Carolina had no care for the Negro. 

And, too, be it said, those who came to speak on 
such occasions were armed with the truth and so 
fully prepared they gave splendid light and informa- 
tion on the subjects laid down in the plan for the 
Institutes. Nothing of the past so enabled the white 
brethren to understand the colored brother, and noth- 
ing had done so much to bring the colored brother 
in closer touch and interest with his white brother. 
They were brought not only to labor together, but the 
one to pray for the advancement of the other in the 
blessed cause of the Redeemer's Kingdom. 

The Tuppeb Memobiai, Building and the Estey 
Seminaet Annex. 

A splendid test of the changes which had come 
over the colored Baptists of North Carolina came to 
them just at the close of ten years of the plan of 
cooperation. The offer of a conditional gift was made 
to the Trustees of Shaw University of thirteen thou- 
sand dollars for an industrial building to the mem- 
ory of Dr. H. M. Tupper, founder of the University, 
and an annex to Estey Seminary, provided the col- 



Plan of Cooperation. 73 

ored people of the State would raise five thousand 
dollars additional. 

The time-limit for the raising of this amount was 
two years. The Convention in its annual session at 
Kinston accepted the proposition, and the Corre- 
sponding Secretary of the Convention was appointed 
agent to raise the five thousand dollars. To meet 
these conditions not only must the five thousand be 
raised but an additional thousand, making six thou- 
sand in all to be raised. Responses were generous. 
Eighteen hundred dollars of the amount were pledged 
on the floor of the Convention, and wherever the 
agent appeared the people were ready to give. Much 
to the credit of the uneducated people their responses 
surpassed many who had the advantages of an edu- 
cation. With the expiration of the two years the 
amount was in hand, and the thirteen thousand se- 
cured. The building stands there as a mark of the 
respect and love of the colored people of North Caro- 
lina to the great and good man who laid the founda- 
tion and paved the way for the uplift of the !N"egro 
youth not only in North Carolina but throughout 
the Southland. While much of the success of the 
undertaking was due to the esteem in which Dr. Tup- 
per was held by the colored people of North Caro- 
lina, much depended upon the improved condition 
of the people brought about through the developments 
of cooperation. 

To have undertaken such a task previous to the 
new movement would have "been a useless task, es- 



74 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

pecially in so short a time, but the twelve years of 
giving had taught the people to give, and when called 
upon it was comparatively easy to meet the require- 
ments of the gift. Lasting gratitude and praise to 
all who brought cooperation to North Carolina. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ASSOCIATIONS. 

Grate's Creek Association. 

The Gray's Creek Association was organized soon 
after the war in Bladen County, with only three 
churches in the organization : New Hope, New Light 
and Gray's Creek. There were present in the or- 
ganization Elders John Croslin, J. M. Whitted, Sam- 
uel Boon, assisted by Elders James Register, James 
Toler. Eive associations have been formed out of 
the Gray's Creek: The Lumber River, the Union, 
the Lake Waccamaw, the Hammond's Creek and the 
Kinston Lake. Elders J. Croslin, J. M. Whitted. 
S. Boon, S. H. McKoy, James Bright, John Marley, 
Mitchell Morrison, R. Johnson, T. Cain, D. Graham, 
C. R. Baldwin, J. A. Spaulding, H. Gore, N. Robe- 
son, B. W. Williams, A. Thompson, E. Thompson. 
H. S. McNeill, N. B. Dunham, Gilbert Monroe, L. 
Hodge S. Chestnut. The progress of the Gray's 
Creek Association has been gradual. It has done 
some work in the direction of missions and educa- 
tion, and its hopes like many others are bright. 

The Ebbnbzee Association. 

The Ebenezer Association was organized in the 
year 1890 in the Ebenezer Baptist Church, Cleveland 
County. There were thirteen churches in the or- 
ganization. Rev. A. Ellis was the first Moderator; 



76 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Rev. W. A. Eoberts, Secretary; Brother B. Gingles, 
Treasurer. Like other associations this organization 
has fostered Home and Foreign Missions, helped 
weak churches and assisted in the cause of education, 
especially in that section of North Carolina. 

The Yadkin Baptist Association. 

The Yadkin Association was organized in the 
Thomasville Baptist Church September 17, 1874. 
Rev. H. Cowan, C. Ellis and W. Leak were in the 
organization. The following churches composed the 
Association: Pleasant Hill, Pee Dee, Thomasville. 
Red Hill, Macedonia, Saron, Mt. Pleasant, Snuggs' 
Grove Mt. Vernon, Leak's Chapel, Olive Grove, Gar- 
ris Grove, Moore's Grove, Hamar's Grove, Liberty 
Hill, Troy-Norwood, Wadesboro. 

The ministers of this Association are Elders W. 
Leak, B. R. Richardson, M. Ingram, H. G. Hyatt, 
I. M. Elake, K. W. Wall, Alfred Reed, S. D. Davis, 
Levi Ingram, S. A. Dunlap, P. J. Ewing. The mem- 
bership in 1906 was nine hundred. The church prop- 
erty amounted to five thousand two hundred dollars. 
Altogether there were raised by the Association three 
thousand six hundred dollars, which was used in the 
cause of missions, education and aged ministers. 

The Pee Dee Union Association. 

The Pee Dee Union Association was organized 
Thursday before the third Sunday in October, 1899. 
by Revs. E. W. Andrews, W. H. Diggs, G. C. Bow- 



Associations. 77 

den, J. E. Ellerbee and F. M. McCall, at Saron Bap- 
tist Church. The following churches compose this 
Association: Pleasant Grove, Providence, Mt. Mo- 
riah, Belford, Diamond Grove, Friendship and Mt. 
Olive. The Association had a membership of seven 
hundred in 1906; church property to the amount of 
a thousand dollars. It had, besides its usual expenses; 
contributed regularly to Home and Foreign Mis- 
sions. 

The Shiloh Baptist Association (West). 

The Shiloh Baptist Association northwest of Char- 
lotte, N. C, was organized at the Washington 
Church, near Waco, N. C, 1867. 'Rev. Samuel Fox, 
of Waco, was the principal mover in the organiza- 
tion. At one time this Association formed a part 
of the Mecklenburg Association, and the two re- 
mained together about two years. Afterward there 
was a separation — the one assuming the name of the 
Ebenezer, while the other retained the name of Shi- 
loh. Since that time the Association has developed the 
following membership : Mt. Sinai, Salem, Gold Hill, 
Bethel, Mt. Vernon, Fancy Hill, Springfield, Smith- 
field, Mt. Carmel, Dallas, Galilee, Mt. Moriah, Mt. 
Olive, Providence, St. Philips, Woodford Chapel. 
Providence, Maiden. It had a membership of eight 
hundred and thirty-one in 1906. 

High Point Missionaey Baptist Association. 
The High Point Missionary Baptist Association 
was organized at High Point, N". C, the second week 



78 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

in August, 1891. Kevs. Anthony Wilborn, S. 
Thomas, F. K.. Howell, W. D. Haden and others com- 
posed the organization. It took its name from the 
name of the town where the first meeting was held. 
This Association came out from the Kowan, and is 
composed of churches in the counties of Guilford, 
Alamance, Randolph, Davidson and Orange. Con- 
sidering the Association to be one of the small asso- 
ciations and composed of small churches, no associa- 
tion in the State is more loyal to the work of the 
Convention than the High Point Association. Since 
its organization until 1906 eight hundred and fifty 
dollars had been raised. This amount was used in 
the support of missions, Home and Foreign, minis- 
terial education, the Orphan Asylum and church ex- 
tension. The following churches compose the Asso- 
ciation: Elm Grove, Locust Grove, Jones, Gibson- 
ville, New Light, Mt. Pisgah, Rocky Springs, Lati- 
cure. Friendship, St. John, Graham, Locust Grove 
(Alamance), Cross Roads, Main St., Hillsboro, Aus- 
tin Grove, Mechanic, Asheboro, Randleman, Trinity. 
Thomasville, Mt. Pleasant, Liberty Grove, Rock 
Grove. 

The following are the ordained ministers : A. Wil- 
born, S. Thomas, E. Graves, C. IST. Brown, F. A. 
Long, J. W. Turner, C. Hughes, S. Troxler, G. W. 
Austin, W. W. Price, B. F. Bobbins, W. E. Graves. 
Grimes. The High Point Association has a member 
ship of twelve hundred and fifty, and houses of wor- 
ship valued at five thousand dollars. 



Associations. 79 

The Lake Waccamaw Missionary Baptist Asso- 
ciation. 

This Association was organized at the Baptist 
church near Lake Waccamaw, and on which account 
it takes its name. The organization dates from the 
year 1884. Five churches came out from the Gray's 
Creek Association and formed the Lake Waccamaw: 
Little Wheel of Hope, Whiteville, White Pond, Sandy 
Plain and Welch's Creek, with the following minis- 
ters: D. Graham, I. Cain, M. Morrison, R. John- 
son, C. E. Baldwin, J. A. , Spaulding and D. J. 
Moore. 

About one thousand dollars had been raised since 
its organization, 1884 — 1906. The Association as- 
sisted the Thompson Institute at Lumberton, Home 
and Foreign Missions and ministerial education. St. 
John and St. James Churches were added to the orig- 
inal number. The property of these seven churches 
amounted to three thousand five hundred dollars. 
Eevs. P. J. McKoy, J. S. McKoy, T. H. Crawford 
and A. S. Mitchell have been added to the list of 
ministers. 

The Nexise Eivee Baptist Association. 

The ISTeuse River Baptist Association was organ- 
ized in the town of Halifax, E". C, in 1866. Rev. 
Ananias Buck, Benjamin Moore, John Washington 
and C. Johnson were in the organization. The 
churches of Northampton, Halifax, Edgecombe and 
a part of Warren formed this Association. The or- 



80 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

ganization soon developed into a large body of 
churches. While the Association has boasted of large 
numbers, twenty thousand members in the different 
churches, comparatively little was given to missions 
outside its bounds, and but little educational work 
accomplished. A feeble effort was made to establish 
a school at Weldon, ]^. C. A site was purchased 
with a small building, and for two years a school 
was carried on, but the building burned and a tract 
of land was purchased outside the town of Weldon. 
As in all the other associations of ISTorth Carolina 
there were some splendid men and leaders, but some- 
how they exerted but little influence, and hence the 
small amount of good accomplished either for mis- 
sions or education. In 1908 there were some addi- 
tions to its forces which gave promise of better re- 
sults. With such churches as compose the Associa- 
tion there was every opportunity for splendid re- 
sults. 

The Beulah Associatiokt. 

This Association was formed in part out of the 
Neuse River Association and the West Roanoke As- 
sociation. All the churches of the West Roanoke 
Association in ISTorthampton County and a number 
from the Neuse River in 1903 agreed and formed 
the Beulah Association. Rev. W. T. H. Woodward, 
of Littleton, IST. C, was the first Moderator. From 
its incipiency the Beulah Association was a part of 
and loyal to the State Convention. Its moral and 



Associations. 81 

financial support was given to the Kich Square Acad- 
emy at Rich Square, N. C, and the Garysburg High 
School, at Garysburg, ]^. C. The Beulah Associa- 
tion was greatly hindered in its infancy on account 
of the indisposition of its Moderator, who was 
stricken down with paralysis. 

The Old Easteeit Missionaey Baptist Associa- 
tion. 

The Old Eastern Missionary Baptist Association 
was organized at James City in the church then 
known as "Slab Chapel," but since the name has 
been changed to Pilgrim Chapel. Its first Moderator 
was Rev. Samuel Peterson, with Fred Long as Secre- 
tary. Hull Grimes, Nat Benton, Elias Brown, Henry 
Simmons, Emanuel Reynolds, Thad Wilson, Thos. 
Erkett and John Washington were in the organiza- 
tion which took place in the fall of 1865. 

In 1866 a number of the members of the Old East- 
ern Association obtained letters and organized an as- 
sociation in Halifax County, the Neuse River Asso- 
ciation. Later on the New Bern Eastern Associatioo 
was formed from the Old Eastern in the same way. 

In the early history of this Association some of 
the delegates and preachers walked seventy-five and 
even a hundred miles to attend the annual sessions. 
In 1899 the Association numbered sixty-five 
churches, with church property amounting to twenty 
thousand dollars. In 1900 a site was purchased at 



82 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Greenville, in Pitt County, for the purpose of carry- 
ing on an associational school. In 1904 Rev. W. A. 
Taylor, pastor of the church at Greenville, was elected 
first principal. Although the site was adjoining the 
graded school, which gave many disadvantages to 
its success, the graded school requiring no tuition, and 
the Tar Eiver Institute having to require a tuition 
fee. Despite this the Institute was a decided suc- 
cess. For many years Rev. T. S. Evans was the Mod- 
erator of this Association. Much of the success of 
the Association was due to the untiring efforts of 
Rev. Evans. 

The Beunswick Atlantic Associatiost. 

The Brunswick Atlantic Association was organ- 
ized December 5, 1896, in Pleasant View Baptist 
Church, Brunswick County. There were but ttve 
churches in the organization. In 1908 there were 
thirteen. Rev. J. H. Rhoe and Rev. J. S. Gore were 
with the Association in its origin, and for many 
years afterward were the leaders. There were eight 
ordained preachers and twelve hundred members. 
There was a Sunday School Convention connected 
with this Association organized a year previous at 
WhiteviUe, N. C. Rev. D. C. Gore, G. A. Best and 
William Davis were the leading forces of the Sun- 
day School Convention for several years. There 
were five hundred members represented in the 
schools composing the Convention. 



Associations. 83 

The New Been Eastern Missionaey Baptist As- 
sociation. 

This Association, although it soon grew to be as 
large as the parent Association, came out from the 
Old Eastern Association. The first session of this 
body was held in the Cedar Grove Baptist Church. 
New Bern, N. C, 1875. 

There were included in this Association the 
churches in the counties of Pamlico, Beaufort, Hyde, 
Jones and Craven. There were as many as fifty and 
sometimes a larger number of churches represented 
in the annual meetings of this Association. In the 
early history of this vast body, representing twenty- 
five thousand in membership, with much ignorance 
predominant, bitter strife was often precipitated, and 
for a time it looked as if the Baptist cause through- 
out that section was hopeless. Possibly no forces 
did more to bring the change than the saintly women 
of New Bern and James City, Misses Waugh and 
Williams, sent as missionaries representing the Wo- 
men's Home Mission Society of Chicago. The toils, 
and even sufferings at times, and the splendid work 
of these godly women will never be known until the 
deeds of men shall be read in the great judgment. 

The greatest hindrances to their labors as they 
have often related came from the leaders of this As- 
sociation, the ministers of that vast section. Like 
many others of our associations in the State time 
brought many changes, and much of the contention, 



84 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

strife and superstition of that section passed away 
as time advanced and these old leaders passed away. 
As evidence of their prejudice it was related upon 
good authority that this Association held one of its 
annual sessions in New Bern in one of the churches, 
while the State Convention of North Carolina was in 
another of the churches of the same city, and no at- 
tention whatever was paid by the Association to the 
great State body. We were a witness to the fact that 
one of the leaders of this body went around the 
streets of New Bern with a petition trying to get 
the other ministers to sign it, pledging not to attend 
a meeting of the New Era Institute, although the 
President of the State Convention, the President of 
Shaw University and the Corresponding Secretary 
of the American Baptist Home Mission Society were 
in attendance. 

The brethren fell in line, however; the spirit to 
educate and go forward took hold of them; a school 
was erected in Brownsville, just across the river from 
New Bern and beyond James City, and like other 
sections of the State, even in the life of Misses Waugh 
and Williams, could the good seed they had so faith- 
fully sown be seen to take root, spring up and begin 
the bearing of fruit to God's glory. 

The Oakt Geove and Teent Kivee Association. 

The Oaky Grove and Trent River Association 
came out from the New Bern Eastern, and was or- 
ganized in 1882. But few churches at first, the num- 



Associations. 85 

ber soon grew to twenty-two churches. Their boun- 
daries lay west of the New Bern Eastern, and with 
the educational fever felt over the State they began 
the establishment of a school at Jacksonville, N. C. 
For a number of years after its establishment Kevs. 
W. H. Moore and Everett were the leaders. With 
few churches and small revenues the school grew 
slowly but surely, and with it the Association. 

The Beae Ceeek Association. 

The Bear Creek Association was organized in 1872 
by Kev. E.. H. Harper, who was in the organization 
of the Educational and Missionary Convention, to- 
gether with Rev. W. H. Croom, Rev. J. 0. Carroll,. 
Eev. I. IST. Patterson. Eev. A. A. Smith, the Secre- 
tary for many years, did much to strengthen the cause 
of the Bear Creek Association. Eev. W. L. Hood 
was for many years the Moderator. In 1906 the 
records contained a list of thirty-four churches, a 
membership of eighteen hundred and ninety-seven, 
and church property valued to the amount of twelve 
thousand one hundred and seventy-five dollars. The 
Association was always generous to worthy objects, 
as was shown from their annual reports. 

The Middle Associatiok'. 

The Middle Association came out from the Shiloh 
Baptist Association, and was organized 1891. The 
Shiloh Association had purchased a school site at 
Warrenton, N. C, and each of the churches of the 



86 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

body was assessed to meet the annual payments on 
the school property. Many of the churches remote 
from Warrenton did not feel the same interest in 
the school project and complained that they were 
called upon to meet the assessments, and hence de- 
cided to withdraw. 

Eleven churches signed a call for letters which 
the mother association granted, and a meeting was 
held at Shiloh Baptist Church, Kittrell, IST. C., and 
an organization effected under the name of the Mid- 
dle Association. Dr. W. A. Patillo was the leader 
in this movement. Dr. R. I. Walden, of Henderson. 
ISr. C, was elected the first President; Rev. A. B. J. 
Wyche, Secretary. Eev. T. H. Burwell and Rev. T. 
B. Hicks were also leaders in the organization. This 
Association had no special project on hand, but was 
loyal especially to Foreign Missions, ministerial edu- 
cation and to the interests of the State Convention. 

The Middle District Association. 

Soon after the close of the war in the Providence 
of God there came to the city of Wilmington Rev. 
Wm. H. Banks from the State of Virginia. For a 
time he was the pastor of the First Baptist Church 
of Wilmington, IST. C. For some cause a division oc- 
curred and the pastor, together with a number of 
the members withdrew, and organized the Ebenezer 
Church. Rev. Wm. A. Greene united with Rev. 
Banks and they began the organization of churches 
in ISTew Hanover, Duplin, Sampson and Bladen 



Associations. 81 

Counties ; ordaining men to the gospel and establish- 
ing the work generally. Kansom Royals, Richard 
Keithron, Wm. Devane were among the men and 
were lifelong friends of the Association which was 
afterwards formed. In Aiigust, 1872, a meeting 
was called of the churches and pastors at the Ebe- 
nezer Baptist Church, Wilmington, and the Middle 
District Association was organized. There were 
eighteen churches in the organization. Rev. Wm. 
Devane, Henry Andrews and E. J. Bell were ap- 
pointed successively as missionaries to labor in the 
counties of Brunswick, Pender, New Hanover, Samp- 
son and Duplin to organize new churches, strengthen 
those already organized, and to build up the work in 
general. The money raised in the first few years 
of the organization was devoted to these churches, 
especially the weaker churches. 

The Burgaw High School was the product of the 
Middle District Association. This school proved a 
decided blessing in many respects to the Association 
and to that section of l^orth Carolina. 

The Mountain anb Catawba Association, 

The Mountain and Catawba Association was or- 
ganized at Claremont, N. C, in the year 1875. The 
following ministers were present in the organization : 
Rev. B. F. Watts, Berry Lyons and Brother D. 
Lynch. The object set forth in the formation of 
the Association was education and missions. The 
Baptists in that section of the State were not so nu- 



88 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

merous as in other sections, and hence the Associa- 
tion was necessarily composed of fewer churches and 
leaders. The organization finally gained enough to 
swell the number to twenty-two, and with the in- 
crease of churches there was an increase of men. Kev. 
W. S. Dacons came to the Association at an oppor- 
tune time. Like many other associations throughout 
the State in 1905 the Association, together with the 
Convention, which had been organized five years 
prior, decided to establish a school at Claremont, I^^. 
C, and Kev,. Dacons, of Statesville, 'E. C, was ap- 
pointed to take charge of the school. The Mountain 
and Catawba, like most of the mountain associations, 
for some cause did not unite with the State Conven- 
tion for many years, but accomplished a splendid 
work in their immediate section. 

The Gold Hill Association. 

The Gold Hill Association embraced the churches 
west of the Ebenezer Association, and in 1908 had 
on its roll fifteen churches. Like many other asso- 
ciations for many years after its organization its 
greatest need was a sufficient number of able men 
to properly conduct its affairs; yet despite its hin- 
drances its growth was seen from year to year. To- 
gether with the Ebenezer Association the Gold Hill 
gave its support to the Western Union Academy at 
Eutherfordton, N. C. The Western Union Academy, 
first under the leadership of Eev. W. T. Askew, and 
afterward Rev. R. B. Watts, gave much strength di- 



Associations. 89 

rectly and indirectly to the Association. For many 
years Rev. E. A. Hemphill was its Moderator. With 
each year of its growth, together with other associa- 
tions of the mountain section, the tendency was to- 
ward intelKgence and general denominational unity. 

The McDowell Association. 

This Association lies north of the Gold Hill. The 
churches of this Association are still fewer and 
smaller than the Gold Hill; its leaders fewer and 
it has no special object for contribution. Up to 1908 
but little inspiration had been awakened in the Mc- 
Dowell, but it was hoped with the passing years this 
condition would be changed, or the Association would 
see the wisdom of uniting with some stronger body 

Kenahsville Easteen Association. 

The name of the Kenansville Eastern Association 
originated with the place of its first meeting, which 
was Kenansville, N. C, November, 1870; and, too. 
.there was a white association by the same name. The 
following ministers were present in the organization : 
T. Parker, A. B." Williams, B. B. Spicer, D. T. Best 
and John F. Hill. The first Moderator was Rev. A. 
B. Williams. The following churches were repre- 
sented and composed the first meeting: First Bap- 
tist Kenansville, Six Eun, First Baptist Clinton. 
Warsaw and Hill's Chapel. The largest number of 
churches afterward represented at any annual session 
was forty-eight. The two leading spirits of the As- 



90 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

sociation for many years were Rev. Thomas Parker, 
who was Moderator for twenty-four years, and Hon. 
A. R. Middleton, Secretary for thirty years. Rev. 
J. O. Hayes, for years missionary to Africa, came 
out of the Kenansville Eastern Association. The 
school at Faison, N. C, became one of the objects 
of the Association, and the Sunday School Conven- 
tion of the same name. Foreign Missions came in 
for a great share of the Association's interest, and 
especially since one of its men was on the foreign 
field. The Association was represented regularly in 
the Convention. 

The West Union Association. 
The West Union Association came out from the 
Kenansville Eastern in the year 1904, soon after the 
old association had held its annual meeting in Wil- 
mington, N. C. Like the mother association the West 
Union began with five churches, but it began at once 
to increase in numbers, and as it had for its object 
the Union Academy at Clinton it began at once to 
assert its usefulness and development. Soon the Eirst 
Church at Clinton, which was in the organization 
of the Kenansville Eastern, united with the West 
Union. Other churches, especially from Sampson 
County, fell in line, which greatly strengthened the 
body both in size and in finance. Rev. A. A. Smith, 
pastor of the Eirst Church of Clinton, was the Mod- 
erator. Rev. C. T. Underwood was quite active in 
the organization, and was greatly helpful to its ex- 
istence. 



Associations. 91 

The Wake Baptist Association. 

The Wake Baptist Association was organized with 
Rev. George W. Harris Moderator, G. W. Freeman, 
Clerk. 

"The promotion of the Kingdom of Christ," put- 
ting it in terse language, was the object of the Wake 
Baptist Association. 

This the Association endeavored to accomplish 
from year to year by donating to State Missions, min- 
isterial education, Foreign Missions, and aiding the 
weaker churches within its bounds. This Associa- 
tion has contributed larger sums to young men pre- 
paring themselves for the ministry than any other 
similar organization in the State. It was in the 
Wake Association that the Oxford Orphan Asylum 
was conceived. A committee was appointed to meet 
with others in Henderson, and as a result of this con- 
ference the Grant Colored Orphan Asylum was estab- 
lished. The Association has since felt a peculiar re- 
sponsibility toward the asylum, making annual con- 
tributions for its maintenance. The Association in 
1908 had forty-three churches, forty-two ordained 
and twenty-seven licensed preachers ; forty-three Sun- 
day Schools, with six thousand one hundred and 
thirty members to the churches, and three thousand 
two hundred and twenty-six pupils in regular attend- 
ance in the Sunday Schools. Many of the churches 
of the Wake Association have B. Y. P. U. Societies. 
The Association loyally supports the Lott-Carey Con- 



92 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

vention and the Educational and Missionary Conven- 
tion of North Carolina. 

The New Hope Association. 

The New Hope Association was organized in Chat- 
ham County in 1870. Kevs. C. L. Hackney, E. H. 
Cole, C. D. Hackney, Jack Taylor and Wm. Taylor 
formed the ministry in the organization. Like many 
other associations the New Hope has developed won- 
derfully since its organization. Erom the few scat- 
tered churches it has grown to forty-two churches, 
with a membership of ten thousand. Many of the 
ministers of the Association in 1908 were men who 
had advantages of Shaw University. No association 
of the State was more loyal to the cause of Foreign 
Missions and the objects of the Convention. Revs. 
J. H. Dunston, L. H. Hackney, B. F. Hopkins, M. 
W. Brown and J. H. Caldwell, following in the wake 
of the old men of the organization, made the New 
Hope Association what it was. Whatever the Bap- 
tists of the State undertook that is what these men 
fell in line with, and ceased not until that object was 
accomplished. 

The Rowan Baptist Association. 

The Rowan Baptist Association was organized in 
1877 in a hospital at Salisbury, which was afterward 
purchased by the Baptists there and was organized 
as the Dixonville Baptist Church. Revs. Harry 
Cowan, Z. Horton and Cumbe Ellis were the minis- 



Associations. 93 

ters presenj in the organization. Rev. Harry Cowan 
was the first Moderator. There have presided over 
this body since : Revs. John Washington, Z. Horton, 
Gove Crowell, George Bowles, J. O. Crosby, P. S. 
Lewis, C. 0. Somerville, C. L. Davis and G. W. 
Johnson. 

There were three churches in the organization, and 
except the Dixonville, in the hospital as stated, the 
others worshiped under brush arbors. At the As- 
sociation in Charlotte in 1908, there were sixty-five 
churches, with a membership of twelve thousand, and 
church edifices worth two hundred thousand dollars. 
Altogether the best edifices among the Baptists o± 
North Carolina were to be found in the bounds of 
the Rowan Association. This was said as well of 
the leaders. 

While there were many able preachers in other as- 
sociations, there were more at that period in the 
Rowan than in any other. The school facilities were 
not equal by far ; they had not the secondary schools 
as the others. At a time the Rowan ITormal School 
was conducted by Dr. C. 0. Somerville in Charlotte. 
While the Association made annual contributions to 
it, it was never adopted as the property of the As- 
sociation. 

When Dr. Somerville was called to Portsmouth 
the Salisbury people took the school there and con- 
ducted it, changing the name of it to the Piedmont 
Institute. The Association was liberal in its contri- 
butions to mission work and ministerial education. 



94 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

It was from this Association the strongest support 
came to the State Convention, especially in the early 
years of its history. 

Hammond^s Ceeek Baptist Association. 

Hammond's Creek Baptist Association was organ- 
ized in the year 1886, with the Kev. Gilbert Monroe 
as its first President. Seven churches met together 
for the advancement of Christ's Kingdom in the 
world. Since its organization eight more churches 
have been added. Such heroes as the late Revs. Jo- 
seph Mackay, Waymon Kelly, Luke Hodge, Levi P. 
Troy and Gilbert Monroe were present in its first 
meeting. The work of Rev. Luke Hodge, whose 
name the Hodge's Institute bears, still lives. 

The Sunday School Convention in connection with 
the Association was an able factor in aiding the cause 
of organizing this Institute in our bounds. Rev. 
George Williams was the first President of the Con- 
vention organized in the spring of 1886, and N. 
McCall was Secretary. The Convention and Associa- 
tion acting together for the cause of education and 
uplifting of its members. The Hodge's Institute was 
organized in 1907. Rev. S. W. Smith was President 
of the Association and the Convention. Prof. W. T. 
Askew was requested to take charge of the Institute, 
which he did with good results. One hundred and 
three students were enrolled the first session. This 
school was situated in West Clarkton, just one mile 
from depot; a school building on 12 acres of land 



Associations. 95 

paid for at a cost of $600. The Board of Trustees 
have in view the erection of a $1,000 building. 

The ministers at work in 1908 were the Kevs. S. 
W. Smith, W. H. Monroe, E". Eobinson, H. S. Mc- 
Neil, M. H. Monroe, T. H. McKay, Z. T. Euss and 
H. Cromartie. 

The Hammond's Creek Association and Convention 
have been loyal to the State Convention. Rev. Geo. 
Williams was for many years the exponent, and 
through him and others these bodies were loyal and 
faithful. 

The Johnston District Association. 

This Association was organized in 1886 at Piney 
Grove Church, Johnston County. The Johnston As- 
sociation was once a part of the Wake Association. 
Eevs. E. B. Blake, P. T. Young, R. R. Johnson, John 
Jefferson, Charles Thompson, James Chavis, S. B. 
Smith, J. C. Pool, W. A. Jones were in the organi- 
zation. Rev. E. B. Blake, who was then the acknowl- 
edged leader, was elected the first Moderator; Rev. 
W. A. Jones, who afterward took the leadership, was 
the first Clerk. There were eleven churches in the 
organization. In 1908 there were thirty-five. A 
Secondary Baptist School was before the Association 
for several years, and was put on foot, and located in 
Smithfield, IST. C, in 1908. There were several 
churches in the Association, vdth splendid property. 
The thirty-five churches in 1908 might be fairly esti- 
mated at twenty thousand dollars. Much of the 



96 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

progressiveness and aggressiveness of the Association 
in the first years of its history was due to the energy 
and push of Eev. W. A. Jones, although pastor of 
four of the largest churches set an example by re- 
maining in Shaw University Theological Department 
until he finished his course, which greatly enabled 
him to lead the Association, although most of his 
time holding a place in the ranks. 

The Pee Dee Baptist Associatioit. 

The Pee Dee Baptist Association was composed 
largely of the Baptist churches in Eichmond, Scot- 
land and Moore Counties. There were but few in 
the organization in 1870, yet like most of the associa- 
tions of the State the number grew rapidly. Although 
the Pee Dee had one of the strongest advocates the 
State Convention possessed in the person of Rev. S. 
W. Dockery, for many years there was some oppo- 
sition to the Convention; but with the accession of 
such men as H. I. Quick, J. J. Hines and J. S. 
Brown the opposition was overcome. The Pee Dee 
brethren fell in line with the spirit to organize asso- 
ciational secondary schools, and provided such a 
school at Hamlet, the most central location in the 
Association bounds. 

This school did not grow so rapidly as some of the 
others in the State, but kept intact the churches and 
afforded an object about which they might rally. The 
Pee Dee Union Association was formed out of the 
Pee Dee. At first the spirit of missions was not so 



Associations. 97 

manifest in the Association, but with other growth 
and progress came that of missions. 

The Zion Missionary Baptist AssociATioiir. 

The Zion Association was along the Seaboard Air 
Line Railroad beyond and west of the Pee Dee. From 
the organization to the time of the death of Eev. J. 
H. Katliff, of Deep Creek, he was the much loved 
Moderator of the Zion Association. Possibly the 
most progressive and ablest minister of the Associa- 
tion for many years was Kev. J. P. Davis. Although 
a layman, A. J. Beverly, intelligent, manly and of a 
modest Christian spirit, added great strength to the 
Association, especially in the school work which was 
begun long after the beginning made by the Pee Dee 
people, but was pushed to a ripid growth and develop- 
ment. The Zion Academy was the pride of the Bap- 
tists of that section. For several years after its es- 
tablishment Prof. E. H. Lipscombe was the principal. 

As in and about Lumberton the Baptists of Anson 
County were greatly stimulated and encouraged by 
the Institute work of the 'New Era Institute. Their 
wisdom was shown in the rapid growth of the Zion 
Academy at Wadesboro. 

The Unioit Baptist Associatioit. 

This Association, composed largely of the churches 
of Cumberland County, was organized 1883. The 
McDonalds, H. C. and J. J"., IST. B. Dunham, O. Wat- 
kins, J. M. Whitted and W. H. Anders were first in 

7 



98 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

this Association for many years after its organiza- 
tion. Dr. E. E. Smith, of Eayetteville, Kevs. J. J. 
Hines and J. S. Brown were added afterward. Dr. 
Smith had no equal in the Association, and compared 
favorably with the ablest men in the denomination. 
Soon after connecting himself with the body he be- 
came its Moderator, in which capacity he was able 
to lead his brethren into usefulness and prominence. 
There were many good men in the Union, as well as 
other associations of the State, and no good cause was 
ever turned away without aid. They were faithful 
and loyal to the Convention and its objects. The 
Theological Department at Shaw University and the 
Eayetteville Normal School received its largest do- 
nations for education. Like many of the associa- 
tions of North Carolina, the Union had a Sunday 
School Convention in connection with it, which also 
did much good in works of education, charity and 
missions. 

The Lane's Ceeek Association. 

The Lane's Creek, which was organized in 1891. 
was never a very large body compared with the larga 
associations of the State, and yet small in number 
and in the size of the churches it was generous. The 
statistical table shows that there were sixteen churches 
and twenty-four ministers in 1897. A difference of 
opinion respecting the standing of one of its leading 
ministers was a dispute for years, and did more than 
all else to impair its usefulness. "Shall an individual 



Associations. 99 

be allowed to marry again if tKe other party is living, 
though the cause of separation he a Bible cause?" 
was the question which constantly brought confusion 
in the ranks of the Lane's Creek brethren. In 1907 
the Association was submerged, and with two other 
associations helped to form a new one. 

The Mud Ceeek Association. 

The Mud Creek Association was organized near 
Asheville, St. John Baptist Church, 1878. There 
were present in the organization Rev. Caleb Johnson, 
B. F. and C. W. Hemphill and Eev. Lindsay. The 
Association, as it was finally constituted, were the 
Asheville First Church, St. Luke, Swannanoa, St. 
John, Arden, Concord, Hendersonville, Flat Eock, 
Mills River, Davidson River, Brevard and a few 
others. Altogether there are fifteen hundred mem- 
bers in these churches which compose the Mud Creek 
Association. There is also a Sunday School Union 
connected with the Mud Creek. This Union, together 
with others beyond the mountain, have purchased 
land at Arden and have undertaken the erection of 
a school building. There has been some opposition 
to the work at Arden on which account the school 
work has been greatly retarded. There is some Home 
Mission work done in connection with the poorer 
churches, and like many associations east of the Blue 
Ridge, there is Foreign Mission money taken when 
there is some one to represent the Foreign Mission 
cause. Rev. A. H. Wilson, A. Black and Rev. Fos- 



100 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

ter were among the leaders of after years together, 
with such laymen as J. P. E. Love, B. Underwood 
and Thomas Furney. 

The Watnesville Association-. 

The Waynesville Association was organized 1880 
at Waynesville, IST. C, with the Hemphills, B. F. 
and Calvin ; also Eev. Ponders and Kev. Frank Lind- 
say. It was named for the village in which it was 
organized. The following churches composed thij 
Association: Waynesville, Scott's Creek, Webster, 
Bryson City, Franklin, Piney Grove, Birdtown (an 
Indian Church), Murphy and Blue Ridge, Ga. This 
Association unites with the Mud Creek to do Home 
Mission work. This is likewise done through the 
union. James Ritchie, A. H. Wilson, M. L. Page, 
Wm. Love, Calvin Hemphill, A. L. Copeland and 
C. L. Stewart are the leading ministers of this Asso- 
ciation. 

The Feench Beoad Association. 

This Association was united with the others in the 
union work until 1905, when it separated from the 
union and undertook its own individual work. This 
Association was originally formed out of the Mud 
Creek. Some of the churches of this Association 
were the Mt. Zion, Asheville, Alexander, Leicester and 
Madison. As we have already mentioned, Rev. J. R. 
Nelson was the acknowledged leader of this body. 

This Association gives some assistance to the 
school at Madison and in its own way gives to Home 



Associations. 101 

Missions and the Foreign Mission work through the 
National Baptist Convention. 

The Shiloh Baptist Association. 

The Shiloh Association was one of the first organ- 
ized in the State, and one of the first to undertake 
the secondary school project. Kev. Isaac Alston was 
for many years its Moderator; M. F. Thornton, a 
prominent layman of the First Church of Warrenton. 
its Clerk. The growth of this Association soon placed 
it among the leading associations for the colored Bap- 
tists of the State. After years of progress it began to 
wane, the Middle Association being the first to pull 
away, and in its annual session of 1908 a part of the 
Association met in Ridgeway and the other part in 
Henderson. Through strenuous efforts the property 
purchased in Warrenton for school purposes was paid 
for at an original cost of six thousand dollars, but as 
a long standing debt amounted to eight thousand. 

According to its strength and opportunity the As- 
sociation did but little for missions proper, but de- 
voted its energy to the school at Warrenton. For 
several years this school was the pride of the Bap- 
tists of the State, but there arose differences in the 
management which were never healed, and hence the 
usefulness of the work was greatly hindered. While 
the Association had many noble and able men in it's 
ranks these differences which we have mentioned kept 
them from doing what they might have done. 



102 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

The West Koanoke AssociATioif. 

As we have already mentioned, in connection with 
the East Roanoke Association it was thought advisable 
after some years of its existence that a new Associa- 
tion should be formed, and hence this new associa- 
tion was formed in 1884, and took the name of the 
West Roanoke Association. This was afterwards 
found to be not only practical but wise. The school 
project was already under way at Winton under the 
guidance and leadership of Rev. C. S. Brown, then 
a recent graduate of Shaw University, and this new 
organization was just the thing to push this move- 
ment to a happy condition. 

The West Roanoke included the churches of Hert 
ford County and a part of Northampton with Bertie 
County. The brethren from Bertie felt that the 
school at Winton in Hertford was too far away for 
them to enjoy its benefits, and hence they established 
in the county, and at Windsor, the Bertie Academy. 
The Northampton people, with a school of high 
grade at Rich Square, felt that their pro rata should 
come to them for the support of their school, and this 
caused the West Roanoke Association to divide its 
annual contributions with the three schools. We 
have mentioned the educational fever which pre- 
vailed in North Carolina at this time. Every asso- 
ciation, with few exceptions, felt they should have 
a school of their own, and in the case of the West 
Roanoke they were content only with three. With 



Associations. 103 

years of experience it was seen to be unwise, that 
the schools should have been fewer, which would have 
given better support, and yet there was untold good 
accomplished in these schools throughout the State 
The West Eoanoke Association raised the largest 
amount of money raised by any association in the 
State : as much as twenty-five hundred dollars in an 
annual sitting. 

Somehow the ambition to raise money and build 
up schools took hold of the brethren, and many 
sacrifices were made to carry out this ambition. It 
was edifying and encouraging to see deacons of the 
different churches, many of them unable to read 
themselves, struggling with their membership to bring 
up large sums of money to the Association for educa- 
tion. The Moderator of this Association for many 
years was the President of the Lott-Carey Convention 
and President of the State Convention. This was 
sufficient to arouse the brethren of the West Koanoke 
in behalf of both State and Foreign Missions; and 
hence the Association became prominent not only 
in that locality but throughout the State and else- 
where. 

The Kbedt Ceeek Association. 

The Reedy Creek Association was composed of the 
churches north of the Shiloh and between the Shiloh 
and the Neuse River, including churches in Warren, 
Halifax, Northampton and Nash Counties. The 
Eeedy Creek was never as large as the Shiloh or the 



104 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Ifeuse River. Like nearly all the associations with 
a school on their hands, the Reedy Creek fostered the 
school at Littleton under the principalship of Mr. 
Warwick. While the Association was never hostile 
to missions, comparatively little was given in this 
direction; yet whenever the missionary was present 
and laid the cause of missions before the Association 
he met a welcome and a response. Rev. Jack Mayes, 
of Littleton, who was in this body in its origin, was 
foremost for many years, in fact until his death, 
which occurred in 1906. Rev. L. J. Alexander and 
Rev. S. Grigg, of Wise, IST. C, took the lead in after 
years and did much to bring the Association abreast 
with the best associations of the State. In speaking 
of the Association it should not be thought that this 
Association was so far behind many others so far as 
the missionary spirit was concerned. The great hin- 
drance to the Negro Baptists of North Carolina, as 
we find it was with the white Baptists in the days of 
their early history, the great need of more of that 
spirit which made them Missionary Baptists, the mis- 
sionary spirit. 

The Middle Geoun^d Associatioh". 

Not only was the West Roanoke Association formed 
out of the East Roanoke, but it seemed practicable 
and wise to the East Roanoke brethren in 1899 that 
letters should be granted to the remaining churches 
beyond the sound, and that they should be set apart 
into a new organization, and hence, like the original 



Associations. 105 

thirteen States which formed themselves into a union 
and government, thirteen of the churches lying be- 
tween East and West Eoanoke formed themselves 
into the Middle Ground. The East and West Eoan- 
oke, having some of the ablest and strongest men 
of the denomination as leaders, there was but little 
for the Association forming a wedge to accomplish, 
and hence their growth was slow. 

LUMBEE E.IVEB AsSOCIATIOlT. 

This Association is composed of the churches of 
Columbus County with a few from the adjoining 
counties. The Thompsons, E. M. and A. H., to- 
gether with several others, organized the Lumber 
Kiver Association. This Association was not among 
the largest in number, but did a decided service in 
the support it gave to the school at Lumberton, which 
took its name from Eev. A. H. Thompson. Like 
many other associations in the State, these fathers 
could do but little more than organize them and push 
them off, leaving the real work to be done by the 
younger men. In some cases the young men had 
first to contend for the place as leaders while the old 
men lived, but not so with the fathers of the Lumber 
River Association. When W. C. Pope, J. D. Har- 
rell and James McKellar came to the front, with 
Avery and Knuckles in charge of the educational 
work, these old men gave way and with the prayers 
and benedictions said "Go ahead, young men, and 
carry the work forward where we have left off." 



106 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

These young men went ahead, and as a result three 
imposing buildings were erected on the school site at 
Lumberton, and one of the best secondary schools of 
North Carolina was put into successful operation. 
Several of the ministers of the Association, that they 
might have the benefit of the school and a pleasant 
social surrounding, erected homes near the school, 
making it a village in itself, attractive in appearance 
and the pride of the Negro Baptists of North Caro- 
lina. As an expression of its pride in the wonderful 
developments and improvements of the Baptists of 
this locality, the State Convention met with the Sandy 
Grrove Baptist Church, which proudly lifts her spire 
in the midst of these school buildings and Baptist 
village. 

The East Roanoke Association. 

The organization of the East Eoanoke Association 
took place in the Haven Creek Baptist Church, Eoan- 
oke Island, 1886. There were present in this or- 
ganization L. W. Boone, J. T. Reynolds, C. E 
Hodges, J. A. Fleming, Asberry Reid and others. 
Rev. L. W. Boone preached the introductory sermon 
and was elected Moderator; J. T. Reynolds, Clerk; 
J. A. Flemming, Assistant Clerk. Together with 
the above named Revs. J. ~K. Lamb, Zion H. Berry, 
A. Mebane, Wm. Reid and Emanuel Reynolds led 
the forces for many years. 

At their annual session 1884 the Association, 
which included some of the churches across the line 



Associations. 107 

of Virginia, had grown so large until they granted 
letters to the churches beyond the sound to organize 
another association, and hence the West Roanoke 
was formed. Its forces grew so rapidly even after- 
ward, in 1899, they granted letters for the forma- 
tion of an association for the second time, and the 
Middle Ground Association, lying between the East 
and the West Roanoke, took its existence. Even giv- 
ing off such large numbers the East Roanoke was 
one of the largest if not the largest Association in 
the State. The Association not only counted for 
numbers, but was second only in its contributions to 
its child, the East Roanoke, in its annual contribu- 
tions. The reports of its work through the Roanoke 
Institute at Elizabeth City showed that one thousand 
students had been enrolled up to 1908 ; thirty-five 
graduates had been sent forth to bless the State and 
the world, and that among that number were sev- 
eral of the ablest preachers to be found anywhere 
in the State. i^Tot from this school but from this 
Association had gone the gifted Boone, than whom 
North Carolina has produced no greater ; George W. 
Lee, often called "The Daddy of Negro Preachers," 
and the gifted Norman of the Metropolitan Church 
of Washington City. Besides these Revs. G. D. 
Griffin, B. W. Dance, Z. W. White, W. A. Taylor, C. 
M. and R. R. CartviTight and I. S. Riddick. In 
1908 the Association numbered twenty thousand in 
membership with some of the best church structures 
to be found in the State. 



108 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

The Cedae Geove Associatioit. 

In 1868 the Cedar Grove Association was organ- 
ized in Pleasant Grove Baptist Church., Eoxboro, 
Person County, N. C. Pleasant Grove, Mt. Zion 
and Cedar Grove were in the organization. Kevs. 
E. P. Martin, Eudley WiUiams, Steven Williams 
and Elijah Jones. The Association was first called 
the Pleasant Grove, and afterward at a meeting at 
Pleasant Grove the name was changed to the Oak 
Grove Association. 

At the third meeting of the Association Eev. L. C. 
Eagland, a white minister, united with the body of 
colored brethren, and remained with them until his 
death. His scholarship and piety served his breth- 
ren well for at such a time just such a man was 
needed. Eev. D. A. Howell came to his brethren 
and greatly aided the Association in its rapid growth. 
Through these and other men the Association soon 
developed into a membership of forty-two churches. 
Eevs. A. J. Graves, A. L. Johnson, J. E. Cozart, 
E. H. Harris and W. H. Toler did much to make the 
Association what it proved to be in missionary and 
educational endeavor. The unusual thing was the 
constant change of name, but it was afterward 
changed to the Cedar Grove, and kept its name as 
well as its faith in the principles as taught in the 
Scriptures. Like most of the Associations of the 
State, this Association caught the spirit of education 
to do educational work and purchased a site at Eox- 



Associations. 109 

boro, N. C, but somehow there was always some ob- 
jection to the project, and the school was not estab- 
lished. This difference and others finally led to a 
separation of the churches and the formation of an- 
other Association known as the East Cedar Grove 
Association. After this separation Eev. A. L. John- 
son led in the effort and a school site was selected 
at Yanceyville, but even as late as 1908 there was 
still division on the school question which greatly 
weakened the body in other respects, and yet with 
all the division on the school question the Associa- 
tion was a great help in that section of the State. 

The East Cedab Geove Association'. 

This Association came out from the Cedar Grove 
Association and was drawn out by sectional lines 
from all the churches east of Eoxboro. Eev. J. K. 
Cozart was easily the acknowledged leader of the new 
faction, and his influence did much to shape the 
child, so that it soon became stronger in every way 
than the parent. Eevs. J. M. Taylor, W. H. Lyons 
and Mayes greatly assisted in the new organization. 
Eev. E. H. Harris, though a member of the old body, 
was conservative and greatly aided the new body by 
his prayers and counsel. The East Cedar Grove 
Association from its organization was a friend to mis- 
sions and education, and never did they turn deaf 
ears to a worthy cause. It kept in line with the 
State and Foreign Mission Conventions, and in fact 



110 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

with every effort of the Baptists of the State which 
meant progress. They were not encumbered with 
local projects, as many of the Associations of the 
State, and hence were in a better condition and posi- 
tion to do for objects on the outside. Missions es- 
pecially suffered often at the hands of associations 
where local interests were in the ascendency. The 
Wake, the East Cedar Grove and a few others were 
the exceptions. 



Charitable Institutions. Ill 

CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

The Baptists of whatever nationality have always 
stood for charity as well as missions. Early after 
Emancipation the spirit of charity took hold of the 
fathers; they began to cast about for plans, places 
and opportunity to put their spirit into successful 
operation. 

The Wake Association, located in Central North 
Carolina, was the proper organization in which their 
spirit should take form, and hence representatives 
were appointed from this body to meet in Hender- 
son, N. C, in 1875. An organization was effected 
with Rev. A. Shepard, of Raleigh, N. C, President. 

The Oxford Orphanage, 1875, was organized at 
Henderson ; the first Association formed for the pur- 
pose at Henderson by representatives from the Wake 
Association. Rev. A. Shepard held the office of 
President more than thirty-three years. 

After some consideration Oxford was decided upon 
as the place of location, and twenty-five acres of 
land was purchased from W. A. Patillo, who was 
elected Superintendent and who served a few years. 
Miss Hawkins was appointed in his stead. She 
gave it up and Robert Shepard was appointed. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE WOMEN'S BAPTIST HOME MISSION 
COIsTVENTIOlSr OF NOETH CAROLINA. 

The Womeu's Baptist Home Mission Convention 
of North Carolina was organized 1884, with Mrs. 
Lizzie Neely, of Salisbury, N. 0., President; Mrs. 
Lizzie Saunders, of Henderson, Secretary, and Mrs. 
Mary E. Tinsley, of Oxford, Treasurer. Mrs. B. 
E. Green and Miss Helen E. Jackson assisted in the 
organization. For more than sixteen consecutive 
years Mrs. Pattie G. Shepard remained at the head 
of the Woman's Organization of North Carolina, 
which was unmistakable evidence of her ability to 
lead women. She was modest and retiring, and yet 
when brought into action, with her heart of Chris- 
tian devotion, her command of a choice flow of lan- 
guage and her great executive mind, she swayed great 
audiences wherever she appeared, not only of the 
gentler sex, but of the opposite as well. The suc- 
cess of the Convention for all the years of her re- 
maining at the head was a continued success, and 
progress was due largely to the President, whom 
most of the women were glad to follow. In that 
blessed Providence which brings individuals to "work 
together for good," Mrs. S. A. Eaton, of Hender- 
son, N. C, was brought to labor side by side with 
Mrs. Shepard with the only hope of reward in that 



Women's Home Mission Convention, 113 

"Blessed Beyond." While Mrs. Shepard was wield- 
ing the gavel for the Women's Convention, Mrs. 
Eaton was wielding the pen. Mrs. Virginia King 
and Mrs. A. L. Ransom have made efficient treas- 
urers of the Convention. Mrs. Ransom holds that 
office now. 

A number of times during their administration 
the place of Corresponding Secretary, so important 
in any organization, underwent changes: Mrs. E. 
E. Smith, of Eayetteville, an efficient and good wo- 
man, called from labor to a blessed reward in 1906 ; 
Miss Hannah Steward, of Salisbury, N. C, and 
Mrs. Annie M. Brandon, of Oxford, N. C, who 
held the position successfully for a number of years. 
Back of these women was an executive board com- 
posed of the best talent among the women of the 
State. 

Differing somewhat from the men's convention, 
most of the work of the women was done through 
the Executive Board, and instead of their sessions 
being devoted to discussions of business, often use- 
less, they were given to papers and addresses on use- 
ful topics and to songs and devotions. 

At times there was so much done through the 
Board of the Convention some complaint was al- 
leged, but after all much of the wisdom of such a 
course was seen in the avoidance of needless discus- 
sion and a waste of time and bitter feelings so often 
engendered in floor debates. 

8 



114 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

The objects of the Women's Convention, as con- 
tained in their Constitution, were "To establish and 
improve Baptist Home Mission Societies in all the 
Baptist churches and destitute sections of the State ; 
to assist in the support of the Oxford Orphan Asy- 
lum; to cooperate with the Chicago Baptist Home 
Mission Society, to send the gospel to Africa, and to 
awaken a general interest in the study of the Bible, 
and in the religious education of both the aged and 
the young by gathering them into the Simday 
School." 

Much of the success of the Women's Convention 
of Worth Carolina was due to their affiliation with 
the Baptist Home Mission Society of Women of 
Chicago. 

Miss Mary G. Burdette, for many years the able 
Corresponding Secretary of that .society, was one 
of the strongest friends the Negro Baptist women of 
this country ever had. Her whole soul was devoted 
to their uplift, and no pains were spared on her 
part in making provisions for the extension and 
progress of the work among them. While Mrs. El- 
lers, the first Superintendent of the Woman's Train- 
ing School, in connection with the Shaw University, 
succeeded by Misses Miller and Hamilton, made it 
possible for so many to go forth throughout North 
Carolina prepared to do Christian missionary work. 
Miss Burdette was the power behind the throne which 
made the Training School a reality. 



Women's Home Mission Convention. 115 

What the Home Mission and Publication Socie- 
ties were to the Education and Sunday School Con- 
ventions, the Chicago Society was, and even more, 
to the Women's Convention of North Carolina. 

The Convention was required to raise what they 
could in support of their missionaries; the society 
obligated itself, and paid from year to year a suffi- 
cient amount to meet the deficit. 

Despite the efforts of these Christian heroines 
there was always at the close of each year a con- 
siderable deficit to be met. 

MiSSIONAET WOEK OF THE WoMEN. 

What Mrs. Shepard was in the chair and Mrs. 
Eaton at the desk, Mrs. Sallie A. Mial, of Raleigh, 
was on the mission field of IsTorth Carolina. In 
thinking of one of these women it looks as if she was 
indispensable to the work, but it was equally true of 
the others, and it seemed good that they were kept by 
a special Providence to labor so ably and long. Pre- 
ceding the death of Mrs. E. E. Smith, about whom 
mention has already been made, the Convention sus- 
tained great loss in the death of Mrs. Alice A. Pat- 
terson, of Raleigh, 'N. C. Mrs. Patterson was a de- 
voted Christian woman and not only was she helpful 
during the sittings of the Convention with her pray- 
ers and advice, but she was at the side of the mis- 
sionary whenever and wherever opportunity afforded, 
going into the homes and in the prayer meetings, 
giving encouragement and aid such as only devoted 
women can give. 



116 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Mrs. Virginia King, too, situated in the distant 
east, made her lovely home a base of operation for 
the missionaries of the cross. She too was of in- 
calculable good to the annual councils. 

Some achievements can only be known in the 
"Great Beyond," where there shall be a general reve- 
lation of records and deeds of Christian servants. 

This gives some idea of the great work done by 
the women in their missionary work in ITorth Caro- 
lina. 

Their work was divided into home visitation, Bible 
instruction, charity distribution, organizing, 
strengthening and building up societies already or- 
ganized. 

Naturally the first and greatest need of the col- 
ored people after they secured some kind of homes 
was to have the proper regulations and practices 
within the home circles. As much as they stood in 
need of education, as much as they needed property, 
the greatest need of this people emerged from slavery 
with all its stains, and greatest need for many years 
thereafter was home training, and this the Women's 
Convention of North Carolina through its mission- 
aries undertook to accomplish. 

How well they succeeded is best seen in the splen- 
did homes throughout North Carolina, especially 
among the Negro Baptists. Mrs. Mial, about whom 
mention was made, had considerable influence with 
the brethren, so necessary for the successful prose- 
cution of the missionary work among the women, 



Women's Home Mission Convention. 117 

since they could only be reached through the leaders 
of the churches, usually the ministers and deacons; 
often too it was necessary to appear on the floor of 
the Associations and Conventions as well as the 
churches. She was especially adapted to this. 

Mrs. E.. A. Morris, of New Bern, N. C, too, was 
employed for some years and gave excellent accounts 
of real work accomplished throughout the eastern 
section of the State, her special field of lahor. 

Mrs. Roberta Bunn, of Selma, N. 0., the excep- 
tion who had been thus appointed without the usual 
course at the Training School, was appointed con- 
jointly by the Women's Convention and the Educa- 
tional and Missionary Convention. Mrs. Bunn was 
a woman of much Christian piety and zeal. Like 
the two already named she was possessed of peculiar 
adaptation to the missionary work, being called as 
she felt of God for this specific work. Her reports 
from year to year were an inspiration and encour- 
agement to her Convention. 

The Eelatios- of the Women's Conventioit to 

the ed0catioi«ral and missionaby 

Convention. 

For many years after the organization of the Wo- 
men's Convention strenuous efforts were made to 
unite the Conventions forming the women into an 
auxiliary of the men's Convention, but for fear of 
the change of the autonomy and a final submerging 
of their Convention they would never consent to the 



118 . Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

change, and no doubt their position was wise, since 
alone, under the guidance of God and the aid of the 
leading brethren, they accomplished possibly most 
existing separate and apart. Still there was always 
the kindliest feeling between the two Conventions, 
the women sometimes taking part on the programs 
of the men's Convention and the men sometimes tak- 
ing part with them. 

By mutual consent a commission was appointed in 
the men's Convention to act as an advisory board 
for the Women's Convention. Tor many years the 
women made annual appropriations to the men to 
be used in connection with their Foreign Mission 
work. 

In the Convention at Eeidsville, 190Y, it was 
unanimously voted that the Women's Convention of 
ISTorth Carolina should pay the expenses of Miss 
Cora A. Pair to labor as missionary under the au- 
spices of the Lott-Carey Foreign Mission Conven- 
tion in Africa. 

Achievements. 

At the meeting of the Lott-Carey Convention 
which met in Washington City September 2, 1908, 
the first quarter's salary of Miss Pair, $267, was 
paid in by the Women's Convention. ISTo object ap- 
pealed more readily to the generosity of the North 
Carolina women than Foreign Missions. 

It may be truly said too, while the women were 
wholly dependent on the churches through which to 



Women's Home Mission Convention. 119 

organize the societies and prosecute their work, they 
contributed in many instances and in many ways to 
the general development and improvement of the 
churches. There are many imposing church struc- 
tures throughout the State which owe their construc- 
tion to the societies in the churches, and the zealous 
women at their helm. 

We have mentioned the great good of the Conven- 
tion through the women and we may as emphatically 
mention the good of the individual society. 

Thousands of dollars were given in clothing to 
the naked through these societies, thousands in food 
for the hungry, and prayers without number at the 
bedside of the sick and dying. 

It has been said that "many a flower has bloomed 
and shed its fragrance upon the desert air" un- 
noticed and imseen ; as truly may it be said while 
much of these splendid deeds which we have men- 
tioned have never come to the recognition which 
they deserve, yet the Heavenly Father, of whom it 
is said "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? 
and one of them shall not fall on the ground 
without your Father" sees and knows, and in the 
final consummation will give the reward which is 
their due. Possibly in no way, as a convention, did 
the Baptist women of North Carolina accomplish 
more than in one feature of their annual gatherings. 
At times it was thought that some of the women 
carried some of their views too far, but it was never 
thought that there was not great spiritual power and 



120 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

helpfulness in tlie Women's Convention of North 
Carolina; for wherever they met they left an in- 
delible impression and a spiritual awakening upon 
the minds of many. In fact there are instances in 
which many souls were led to the blessed Christ and 
many cold and indifferent Christians awakened to 
new life and usefulness. 

The report of the Convention of 1908, as an in- 
stance of their annual results, shows that there were 
eight thousand members of the different societies 
represented; two hundred and eighty-one dollars 
raised ; and eleven hundred dollars expended in food 
and clothing. There were several other organiza- 
tions existing in the State, separate and apart from 
the Convention, but as with the men there was a 
gradual unification of the forces. There was great 
rejoicing when the Northbound Association, with 
Mrs. R. A. Fitts, of Eidgeway, as President, and 
Mrs. W. JST. Coats, of Margarettsville, as Secretary, 
came into the Convention with a strong force of 
Christian women. We close this chapter with the 
splendid results of this union going on and with the 
fields of golden harvests more evident to the Conven- 
tion than ever; with zeal, anxiety and determination 
such as has never characterized the Convention be- 
fore they go forth determined to labor on until their 
blessed Master calls them as He has called out of 
their ranks before, from persistent, faithful service, 
they may joyfully "lay down their cross for the 
crown." 



CHAPTER Vm. 

THE BAPTIST STATE SUNDAY SCHOOL 
CONVENTION OE NORTH CAROLINA. 

The Baptist State Sunday School Convention of 
North Carolina was organized in the Eirst Baptist 
Church in the city of Raleigh, May, 1873. The ob- 
ject of this organization, as set forth in the call, was 
to prosecute Sunday School missions; to cooperate 
with the American Baptist Publication Society in its 
work already weU under way in the State, and to es- 
tablish an orphan asylum for the protection and care 
of the colored orphans of North Carolina. The Con- 
vention was organized with Rev. A. Shepard, Presi- 
dent, and Sherwood Capps, Secretary. 

But little was accomplished in the first few years 
of the organization; in fact the Convention was com- 
paratively inactive until the appointment of Rev. A. 
Shepard, the President of the Convention, mission- 
ary and colporter for the American Baptist Publica- 
tion Society. 

New life and interest was soon manifest in the 
Sunday School work of the State, as the President 
of the Convention and the missionary for the society 
came in contact with the Sunday Schools and the 
Christian workers of the State. Erom that time 
continuous development and improvement was made, 
until it became the most intelligent organization for 
the Baptists of North Carolina. The fifth annual 



122 Negro Boftists of North Carolina. 

Convention was held with the church and Sunday 
School of Weldon, N. C, September 21, 1876. 

Extensive reports were made at this session by 
Rev. A. Shepard, in behalf of the Convention and 
the society; also by Rev. C. Johnson, in behalf of 
the American and Foreign Missionary Bible Society. 

These reports showed rapid and decided improve- 
ment in the work of the State. Rev. C. Johnson 
was elected President at this meeting. Seventy dol- 
lars was realized for all purposes. 

In the sixth annual session, which was held at 
Battleboro, IST. C, an auxiliary committee was ap- 
pointed to correspond with the Sunday Schools in 
each county of the State. The purchase of a print- 
ing press was considered at this meeting. The con- 
stitution was so amended that each person repre- 
sented in the Convention was required to pay two 
cents per annum. Rev. N. F. Roberts was elected 
President at this meeting. Hon. J. T. Reynolds, 
who was the most proficient Corresponding Secretary 
the Convention ever had up to that time, was elected 
at this meeting, and served in this capacity for 
twelve years. During these years the Corresponding 
Secretary threw himself into the work, and soon his 
influence and usefulness was manifest in the growth 
of the Convention financially and otherwise. In 
connection with his duties as Corresponding Secre- 
tary he was also appointed as Sunday School mis- 
sionary for the eastern section of North Carolina. 
The next meeting of the Convention, which was in 




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Sunday. School Conventions. 123 

Wilmington, IST. C, increased its collections to one 
hundred and seventy dollars. A donation from this 
amount was sent to the yellow fever sufferers in the 
valley of the Mississippi Kiver. 

In the annual session at Goldsboro one hundred 
dollars was appropriated to the distribution of books 
and other literature in the poorer sections of the 
State. It was at this session that the Convention 
voted to incorporate at the next session of the Legis- 
lature with the following named persons as trustees : 
]Sr. F. Eoberts, A. B. Williams, A. Shepard, E. E. 
Smith, J. T. Reynolds, J. J. Worlds, C. Johnson. 
P. T. Hall, L. H. Wyche, E. I. Walden and A. J. 
Walker. This incorporation dates from March 14. 
1879. 

During the following year the Middle Ground 
Union District Convention was organized with all 
the schools east of the Chowan River auxiliary to the 
State Convention. This union at its organization 
had eleven thousand enrolled. Rev. R. I. Walden 
was appointed to labor in the East Roanoke Union, 
another auxiliary to the Convention; Mr. J. T. Rey- 
nolds in the Middle Ground Union bounds. Under 
the incorporation the name of the Convention was 
changed at the Tarboro meeting to the North Caro- 
lina Missionary Baptist Sunday School Convention. 
A bright and promising young man. Prof. Jerry S. 
Lee, represented the Caswell County Convention at 
the Tarboro session. To the deepest regret he soon 
passed into the beyond. At the next annual session 



124 Negro Baptists of North Carolina, 

the Convention agreed to pay into the treasury of the 
American Baptist Publication Society one hundred 
dollars per annum to assist in defraying the expenses 
and salary of the missionary colporter. 

Eev. W. W. Colly, returned missionary from 
Africa, addressing the Convention at its next session 
on the subject of Eoreign Missions, the Convention 
agreed to make annual contributions in part payment 
of the salary and expenses of Eev. J. 0. Hayes, who 
V7as then laboring in Africa. At the fourteenth an- 
nual session for the second time at Tarboro adopted 
the Orphans' Advocate as its organ and made a do- 
nation to the same. At this time the Grant Colored 
Orphan Asylum was well under way. The Conven- 
tion regarding this institution as its child felt free 
to make to it a generous offering. The following 
counties were admitted to the Convention at this sit- 
ting as its auxiliaries: Vance, Warren, Franklin. 
Granville, Wake, Halifax, Northampton and the 
Cape Fear Sunday School Convention. The next 
session at Seaboard showed that five thousand dol- 
lars had been raised during the year by the different 
schools represented in the Convention. The Baptist 
Pilot was represented by its editor, Eev. C. S. 
Brown. The Convention adjourned here for a 
special session to be held at Franklinton, to provide 
for a joint session to be held with the Church Con- 
vention at Garysburg. For several years these two 
Conventions met together in their annual sessions 
until it was found that not so much could be ac- 



Sunday School Conventions. 125 

complished as in separate sessions. The Garysburg 
meeting was composed of the Ministerial Union, the 
Hayes and Flemming Foreign Mission Convention, 
the Educational and Missionary Convention and the 
State Sunday School Convention. It was in this 
joint session that a resolution was passed to change 
the name of the Grant Colored Orphan Asylum and 
make it a Baptist institution. The impression that 
Eev. J. Anderson Taylor, of Richmond, Va., made 
on the Convention in the interest of Foreign Mis- 
sions was profound. 

Considering the wonderful achievements of Dr. 
H. M. Tupper, the President of Shaw University, a 
resolution was passed commending Dr. Tupper, and 
the hearty cooperation of the Convention was assured 
to assist Dr. Tupper in the furtherance of the great 
work of educating and uplifting our people, old and 
young. 

Hon. J. H. Young, of Raleigh, was elected Presi- 
dent of the Convention at its annual meeting in War- 
renton. Dr. E. M. Brawley was present, represent- 
ing the American Baptist Publication Society as its 
District Secretary; Dr. H. L. Morehouse, Field Sec- 
retary of the American Baptist Home Mission So- 
ciety, was also present. Both of the gentlemen spoke 
in the interest of their respective organizations and 
stirred the Sunday School workers present as they 
had not been stirred before. Each and all went 
away from the Convention with new life and inspira- 
tion. 



126 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

During the interim of the Convention Revs. Jo- 
seph Perry and M. C. Ransom were appointed by 
the Executive Board missionary colporters, one for 
the western section of the State and the other for the 
eastern section. A western Convention had been 
organized somewhat antagonistic to the regular Con- 
vention, and at this Convention a committee was ap- 
pointed to try to effect a union of the two Conven- 
tions, but their work was without avail, only to the 
extent as to bring about a spirit of harmony. Col. 
J. H. Young held the place as President two years. 
Rev. A. P. Eaton was elected the following year at 
Louisburg, and he bald the place but a year, being 
succeeded by Dr. N. F. Roberts, who, like Mr. J. T. 
Reynolds, seemed to be indispensable to the success 
of the Convention. He held the place with honor 
to the Convention for many years with Dr. A. W. 
Pegues, its able Corresponding Secretary. There 
were many and important changes in connection with 
the Convention during their administration. The 
Girls' Education Fund was the most important fea- 
ture. Through this means several hundred dollars 
were raised annually and partial support was given 
to deserving girls in Baptist schools of the State. 
As many as twenty girls received help from this 
fund during a single year. No object appealed to 
the support of the Sunday Schools of the State as did 
the Education Fund for the girls. By a wise and 
discreet appointment every section of the entire 
State was reached and with each year this fund in- 



Sunday School Conventions. 127 

creased. A book store was set apart in the city of 
Ealeigh through the plans and management of Drs. 
Pegues and Eoberts, which greatly increased the 
revenues of the Convention besides greatly helping 
the missionary forces, as the surplus was given to 
the missionary work of the State. Not only was the 
Convention enabled to contribute annually to the 
Foreign Mission work, but a donation was made to 
the Church Convention for its missionary work in 
the State. Although the two Conventions, as we 
have stated, met at different times and at different 
places, perfect harmony prevailed and each was mu- 
tually helpful to the other. 

It was at this Convention in Greensboro that the 
death of Dr. H. C. Crosby, of Raleigh, was made 
known. Dr. Crosby was the first colored man to 
make a bequest to Shaw University, and the Conven- 
tion passed strong resolutions commending his life 
work, and especially this splendid gift of all his 
earthly possessions to Shaw University. 

Eev. G. W. Moore was elected missionary at this 
session, and, like the officers about whom mention 
was made, Rev. Moore labored faithfully and long 
in the interest of the Convention in North Carolina. 

In the Durham meeting delegates were sent from 
the Western Convention which had previously stood 
apart. These delegates were gladly received as an 
expression of the growing unity of the two Conven- 
tions. This was the beginning of the kindly feeling 
which finally terminated in the joint appointment 



128 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

of certain of its missionaries and a oneness of aim 
and of purpose. In the Kaleigh meeting which fol- 
lowed the Baptist Young People's Union was organ- 
ized in connection with the Convention, and foi 
many years held its annual session at the same place 
and time of the State Sunday School Convention. 

In the Charlotte Convention six hundred and 
ninety-nine conversions were reported as the direct 
result of the Sunday School work through its State 
organization. Kev. E. H. Lipscombe was appointed 
mountain missionary to labor west of the Blue Ridge 
Mountains. 

As an evidence of the Convention's appreciation 
of the work of the American Baptist Home Mission 
Society, and realizing the great work of Dr. T. J. 
Morgan, its Corresponding Secretary, learning of 
the death of this Christian man, passed suitable reso- 
lutions on his splendid life and the great interest 
he had manifested in the advancement of the col 
ored people, not only of Worth Carolina, but of the 
entire country. Dr. S. N. Vass, who had held the 
position of District Secretary of the American Bap- 
tist Publication Society so admirably, was appointed 
in connection with his general work Superintendent 
of Missions for ISTorth Carolina. Rev. A. B. Vin- 
cent, for many years missionary in connection with 
the plan of cooperation for church work, was ap- 
pointed missionary for the eastern section of the 
State. Rev. G. W. Moore, whom we have already 
mentioned, was missionary in Central ITorth Caro- 




A. \\. PEGUES, Ph.D.. D.P., 
Formerly Dean Theological Department, Shaw University. Now Supervisor Colored Depart- 
ment State School for the Blind and Deaf. Corresponding Secretary of the Baptist 
State Sunday School Convention. 



Sunday School Conventions. 129 

Una, and Eev. B. B. Hill, appointed conjointly by 
the Western Convention and the State Convention, 
was appointed for the Piedmont and western section 
of the State. These men, covering almost the entire 
State, greatly strengthened the Convention by their 
able services. 

The reports of the different auxiliary conventions, 
together with the State Convention in 1908, showed 
that a hundred and sixty thousand persons, old and 
young, were gathered in the different Sunday 
Schools, and in a few of the schools of the State more 
money was realized in one year than was realized 
in the first ten years of the Convention's existence. 
The great misfortune in the schools, with few ex- 
ceptions, they were composed of the children with 
now and then an old man or woman. In many of 
them not a single young man was to be seen. This 
was not only true in the Sunday School, but largely 
in the day school. In fact the Convention itself was 
largely composed of young women. It was encourag- 
ing, however, to find so many of the professional 
men of the State falling in line with the Sunday 
School work and helping to fill up the ranks depleted 
by the young men. In the First Baptist Sunday 
School of Raleigh was Col. J. H. Young; in the 
White Kock Sunday School of Durham was Dr. A. 
M. Moore, most earnest Sunday School superintend- 
ents. In the Providence Sunday School, Greens- 
boro, Dr. J. E. Dellinger ; in the Ebenezer School of 



130 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Charlotte was Dr. A. A. Wyche, and others, who did 
very much not only in the Sunday School work but 
in the church work. 

The work of the Convention and the Sunday 
School became greatly helpful to the younger people 
and the school itself, but with the growth of the 
Sunday School came the growth of the church and 
better pastors and officers were demanded; the Asso- 
ciations were better, the Conventions better, and in 
every way the State Sunday School Convention and 
the Sunday School work became helpful to the gen- 
eral and religious uplift of the people. 

For one to have been present at the Convention 
held at Smithfield, N. C, after following up the Con- 
vention for twenty-five years of its previous history, 
he would feel like exclaiming as one of old, "What 
hath God wrought !" The wrangles which one heard 
in that early period had entirely ceased ; intelligence 
had come in the place of ignorance, peace and har- 
mony in the place of contention and strife. A more 
harmonious Convention was never held anywhere ; a 
greater manifestation of intelligence was never 
known. Encouraging reports from all the mission- 
aries, an increase of money with which to carry for- 
ward the work for the ensuing year, enthusiastic and 
able addresses from each and every one on the pro- 
gram and everything which bespoke a bright future 
for the Negro Baptist Sunday School workers of 
North Carolina. 



Sunday School Conventions. 131 

The Sunday School Convention of Westeen 

NOKTH CaeOLINA. 

The Baptist State S\mday School Convention of 
North Carolina in its annual session at Tarboro, N. 
C, adjourned to meet with the Dixonville Baptist 
Church and Sunday School of Salisbury, JST. C. For 
some reason the Executive Board during the interim 
of the Convention changed this decision and deter- 
mined on Louisburg. The people of Salisbury and 
the west had made preparation, and did not regard 
the reason as given by the Executive Board suffi- 
cient for the change. They held the Convention to 
its decision at the Tarboro meeting, and hence fric- 
tion ensued. A part of the Convention met at Louis- 
burg and a part met in Salisbury. All the officers, 
together with the Board, met at Louisburg, which 
necessitated the election of new officers for the Salis- 
bury wing. This marks the beginning of the West- 
ern or Piedmont Convention, for it has been com- 
posed altogether of Sunday Schools from the Pied- 
mont section. It may be said, therefore, that the 
Western Convention dates from 1884, in the month 
of September, Salisbury. The Convention for sev- 
eral years after its reorganization was rather crude, 
compared with its previous record; but its leaders 
were determined, and finally it took form and began 
to show decided gains for improvement and develop- 
ment. As soon as this was manifest it was also seen 
that one of its chief aims was better Sunday Schools. 



132 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

and progressive in every respect After ten years 
of its existence this Convention realized the necessity 
for some kind of educational institution for the Pied- 
mont section among the Baptists. A meeting was 
called at High Point, and the following was en- 
couched in the Constitution of the Convention: 

"To encourage, foster and stimulate the Sunday 
Schools of Western iforth Carolina; to organize new 
schools; to teach the doctrine and principles of the 
Baptist Church; to educate our people to a free use 
of the Bible and Baptist literature ; to foster and en- 
courage mission work, and to formulate general plans 
to systematize and unify the Sunday School work of 
Western North Carolina." 

In the ten years from 1899 to 1908 there was a 
great increase in the number of schools represented 
and in the number of persons in the individual 
schools. This was largely due to the men at the 
helm. In the time of its greatest weakness the Con- 
vention elected E. W. Brown, of Winston-Salem. 
N. C, for its President, and J. W. Paisley, of Win- 
ston, for its Secretary. These two young men, as- 
sociated in Sunday School and church work, and in 
fact brought up side by side in the schoolroom, were 
very much suited to each other in the development 
of the great Sunday School work of the Piedmont 
section. J. H. Elam, for several years Treasurer 
was also of the same city and Sunday School. While 
it was thought that too many came from the same 
church and Sunday School, it was conceded that the 



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Sunday School Conventions. 133 

wonderful growth and progress was due to the un- 
tiring energy of these men more than to any other 
single cause. Possibly this unusual ability of these 
young men, coupled with P. S. Smith, W. J. Poin- 
dexter, L. M. Morton and others, enabled the First 
Baptist Sunday School of Winston-Salem to take its 
place in the lead, not only of the Sunday Schools 
of this particular Convention, but of the schools of 
the entire State. 

One thousand was its enrollment in 1907; $812 
its collections; six hundred and twenty-five the aver- 
age attendance. Soon after these workers came to 
the front the first improvement was seen in the su- 
perintendency ; its teaching forces; its methods, and 
in the increase of finances. Two hundred per cent 
was the general increase. The number of teachers 
in the various schools was soon increased to three 
hundred and fifty. The increase in membership 
was in proportion. The Convention soon found it 
necessary to appoint a missionary, although consid- 
erable missionary work was done previous to this 
time, largely by voluntary service. Kev. B. B. Hill, 
a man of considerable experience as pastor, both in 
the western section of the country and in North Car- 
olina, was appointed the first permanent mission- 
ary. With his rich experience Rev. Hill added great 
strength to the Convention, both in its annual coun- 
cils and in the destitute sections, carrying to them 
the open Bible and giving instruction, comfort and 
encouragement. The Convention was greatly aided 



134 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

in the accession of such men as Kevs. F. E. Mason, 
of Salisbury; A. S. Groom, R. L. Eile, J. P. Alex- 
ander, of the same city; J. W. Hairston, of Ad- 
vance ; D. J. Avery, of Reidsville ; O. S. Bullock and 
Jordan, of High Point; E. H. Harris, Watkins and 
Hairston, of Greensboro, and others. The reports of 
the schools showed not only that mere teaching had 
been conducted but practical evangelical work had 
been done as seen in the conversion of three hundred 
and twenty-two precious souls. These were some of 
the direct results; what the indirect results were we 
have no way of ascertaining only in the final accounts 
of the lives and deeds of men. We have mentioned 
the educational movement in the meeting held at 
High Point. The Rowan Normal and Industrial 
Institute, conducted in Charlotte a number of years 
and at Salisbury, was in part the result of this 
awakening through this Convention. The Conven- 
tion aided these projects at each of its annual sit- 
tings. In the light of changed conditions, and in 
that feeling of compromise which comes to all Chris- 
tians after mature deliberation, the two Conventions, 
which we have said went apart in 1884, were brought 
into more harmonious relations, and, regarding the 
other body as parent, the Western Convention sent 
correspondents and finally delegates to meet the pa- 
rent body from year to year. In fact the appoint- 
ment of Eev. B. B. Hill, about whom mention has 
been made, was made conjointly by the two Conven- 



Sunday School Conventions. 135 

tions; the parent body paying one hundred dollars 
of his salary and the Western Convention paying 
the rest. In the providence of God an orphanage 
was established near Winston-Salem. The Conven- 
tion regarded it as a Godsent opportunity, and an 
object upon which to bestow its charity. The Win- 
ston-Salem Orphanage had no better friend than the 
Western Sunday School Convention. The Baptist 
Sentinel, the Home and Foreign Mission work, in 
fact every work which meant the furtherance of the 
Master's Kingdom found a hearty response in the 
Convention. The great State Sunday School Con- 
vention came to regard this not as a mere expression 
of difference and indifference formed, fostered and 
encouraged to hinder, but an arm of might and of 
power, intended to strengthen the forces in Zion and 
hasten that day when "the kingdoms of this world 
are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His 
Christ." 

The New Hope Sunday School Convention. 

The New Hope Sunday School Convention was 
organized by Eevs. L. H. Hackney and M. W. Brown 
in the year 1877. The object of this Convention 
was for the purpose of strengthening the weaker 
schools, helping to prosecute missionary enterprises, 
and building up a secondary school within its bounds 
for the better education of the young men, women 
and children. After the organization had grown to 



136 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

the number of thirty-five schools, with a member- 
ship of twenty-five hundred, a school site was pur- 
chased at New Hill, N. C. Not only did this Con- 
vention provide for the young people within their 
own bounds but many other similar enterprises, to- 
gether with missionary objects and' charity, receive 
help, and hence the Conventions as, well as the Asao- • 
ciations contribute generously from time to time. 

The Western North Carolina Sunday School 
Convention. 

The Western North Carolina Sunday School Con- 
vention was composed of the larger number of the 
Sunday Schools within the territory of North Caro- 
lina west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. 

The object of this Convention, as set forth in its 
Constitution, was for educational and missionary 
purposes, especially in the Sunday Schools and 
churches of the Blue Ridge section. In 1891 the 
Western Convention agreed to unite with the regular 
State Convention of Sunday School workers, which 
held its annual session of that year in the city of 
Charlotte. Prof. E. H. Lipscombe came from the 
Western Convention as its first representative. 

The representative was received with open arms, 
and the day was hailed with gladness when the wall 
of separation between the two Conventions was 
broken down. Mr. Lipscombe made a strong appeal 
for aid for his mountain section, and the Convention 



Sunday School Conventions. 13T 

responded gladly to the appeal. They agreed to give 
support in part to a missionary to do Sunday School 
mission and colportage work in that section of the 
State. 

Prof. Lipscombe was named as the missionary for 
the Blue Ridge section and served several years in 
that capacity, doing acceptable work in the spread 
of gospel literature and awakening an interest 
throughout that region for the uplift of the Master's 
cause. 

At that time there were about seven thousand Bap- 
tists beyond the mountains. Compared with their 
numbers they gave much aid to the missionary. One 
great hindrance, as in the eastern section of the 
State, it seemed hard to get the proper union and 
cooperation of the few scattered here and there in the 
mountain fastnesses and made the work of the mis- 
sionary quite difficult. The President and officers 
of the Western Convention were in hearty sympathy 
with the Sunday School missionary work, and did 
much to foster the spirit of missions. Much of the 
same difficulties were met with by the white brethren 
in trying to do work in the mountain section of the 
State, but being much abler and having superior ad- 
vantages made better headway. 

At that time too there was considerable division 
even in that small company of Baptists. A conten- 
tion over the literature and over the two Foreign 
Mission Conventions had reached that section and 
stood somewhat in the way of the proper union. With 



138 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

the growth of time so much of the bitterness which 
at first existed passed away, and a spirit of union be- 
gan to grow, which meant better churches and Sun- 
day Schools. Rev. J. R. Nelson, of Asheville, and 
Rev. A. H. Wilson, of Waynesville, were leading 
spirits for many years both in the church and Sun- 
day School work, although the foundation for Bap- 
tist work in the Blue Ridge section was laid by the 
Hemphills. As the successor of Rev. Rumley, a sen- 
sational divine of his day. Rev. J. R. Nelson held 
the Second Church in Asheville, which gave him a 
conspicuous place in the affairs of the colored Bap- 
tists of the Blue Ridge, and he held it successfully 
for many years. He did much to shape the policy 
and work of the churches and Conventions. 

Rev. Wilson, holding some of the most prominent 
churches in the mountains, and especially the church 
at Waynesville, gave him an opportunity for special 
usefulness, and in many respects he used his oppor- 
tunities to advantage. Many of the Baptists of the 
Blue Ridge section have come from South Carolina 
and other States, which to some extent alienated 
them from the regular Conventions of the State. 
And too, for the most part, the churches were small, 
the revenues comparatively little, which did much to 
discourage the proper afiiliation with the eastern 
brethren. Be it said to the credit of the eastern 
brethren, they entertained a deep sympathy and in- 
terest in the brethren of the distant western section 



Sunday School Conventions. 139 

of l^orth Carolina, and let no opportunity pass them 
to render assistance, as was demonstrated in the 
Charlotte Convention toward Prof. Lipscomhe, the 
representative from that section. In several in- 
stances leading brethren from the east volunteered 
their services and crossed the mountains bearing 
light, intelligence and encouragement to their more 
needy brethren beyond. 

KE]srA]srsvixLE Eastern Sunday School Conven- 
tion. 

This Convention was organized at Williams's Cross 
Roads, four miles east of Warsaw, under the auspices 
of the Baptist State Sunday School Convention. A. 
J. Stanford, of Warsaw, and A. E. Middleton, of 
Kenansville, being the auxiliaries for the State Con- 
vention in that section, felt that more effective Sun- 
day School work could be done by such an organiza- 
tion and took the leading part in its organization. 
The number of schools and members of the different 
Sunday Schools uniting with the movement showed 
the wisdom of such a convention. From the few in 
the beginning it soon grew to forty-three schools, 
representing a membership of three thousand. At 
one time the Convention sent twenty-five dollars for 
the support of Rev. J. 0. Hayes in Africa. They 
took the leading part in the purchase of the school 
site at Faison at a cost of fifteen hundred dollars. 



140 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

NOBTHEAST AND OaPE FeAB SuNDAY ScHOOL CON- 
VENTION. 

At the annual session of the Middle District Asso- 
ciation Convention a resolution prevailed to organ- 
ize a Sunday School Convention in connection with 
the Association. In 1879 this Convention was or- 
ganized. It was through the incentive of the Con- 
vention, as in the instance of the Kenansville Asso- 
ciation and Convention, that the school, the property 
of the Association, had its origin. Together with 
the Association seven hundred dollars are raised an- 
nually and appropriated to the Burgaw High School. 
Some local missionary and even State missionary 
work is done also through the Convention. Much 
light and inspiration has been infused into the Sun- 
day School and church work throughout the entire 
section in which the Convention is located, and to- 
gether with the State Convention of which the North- 
east and Cape Fear is an auxiliary our Foreign Mis- 
sion work was aided. As in other sections of the 
State the future development and improvement in 
the ministry and church work generally depended on 
the Sunday School, so in the Cape Fear section, and 
this Convention, the child of the Middle District As- 
sociation, became the central light. 

The Chowan Sunday School Convention. 

The Chowan Sunday School Convention was or- 
ganized in 1884 and is composed of. the Sunday 
Schools largely of Hertford County. While this 



Sunday School Conventions. 141 

Convention does other work, it is practically giving 
its strength to the aid of the Waters Normal Insti- 
tute of Winton, N. 0. No Convention of its kind 
in the State raised as much money as the Chowan 
Convention. While the regular State Convention re- 
quired only two cents per capita the Chowan Con- 
vention required three cents. The constitution 
states that the Treasurer of the Waters Institute 
should be the Treasurer of the Convention. The 
Convention did a splendid work for the cause of the 
institution it fostered, and made splendid offerings 
in its behalf. 

Since it required all the energy of that section of 
the State to make Waters Normal School what it 
was, and since it was the moral, intellectual and re- 
ligious development of so many who afterward be- 
come proficient and active in Sunday School work, 
doubtless the Convention served its highest and best 
purpose by giving its strength and support in thie 
direction. 

The collections have amounted to eight hundred 
dollars in a single year. The Convention has fos- 
tered different missionary and icharitable objects, 
and in that respect as well as educational has done 
much good in the cause of humanity. 

But little time was given to the literary work or 
to a fixed program as its session was usually but 
one or two days at most. The time was largely taken 
with money raising to advance the objects men- 
tioned, and this seemed to give entire satisfaction 



142 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

to the different representatives. A kindly spirited 
competition is not only in the churches composing 
the West Roanoke Association, of which this Con- 
vention forms a part, but in the Convention itself. 
There is usually a sermon and other papers on these 
occasions. It may be said of this Convention and 
the Association through their financial aid to 
Waters and its other benefactions, a centre of edu- 
cation gets its support, which did more than all the 
agencies to cause "the wilderness to blossom as the 
rose." 

The Baptist Young People's Union Association 
OF Noeth Caeolina. 

In connection with the Baptist State Sunday 
School Convention, which met with the First Baptist 
Church and Sunday School of Kaleigh, IST. C, in 
September, 1900, a meeting was called to consider 
the advisability of organizing a Baptist Young Peo- 
ple's Union Association. After some deliberation it 
was decided to organize such an association, which 
should meet annually in connection with the meeting 
of the Sunday School Convention. Mr. J. P. Wil- 
liams, Business Manager of the Baptist Sentinel, was 
elected first President; Miss C. F. Blount, of Wil- 
mington, Secretary; Miss Emma W. Sasser, of 
Goldsboro, Corresponding Secretary and State Or- 
ganizer; J. N". Coats, of Seaboard, Treasurer. 

The object of this organization, as stated in the 
Constitution, was the "Unification of the Baptist 



Sunday School Conventions. 143 

young people, their increased spirituality; their 
stimulation in Christian service; their edification in 
scripture knowledge; their instruction in Baptist 
history and doctrine, and their enlistment in mis- 
sionary activity through existing denominational or- 
ganizations." 

Miss Sasser traveled in nearly every section of the 
State and organized a number of unions, some of 
which became greatly helpful, not only to the State 
organization, but to the local Sunday Schools and 
churches. Her tenure of office was of short duration, 
and Rev. A. B. Vincent, who had much experience 
in the church and Sunday School work, was ap- 
pointed to succeed her. Rev. Vincent served but a 
year, and left the work to enter the pastorate. The 
growth of the B. Y. P. U. work was slow because of 
the lack of an organizer after the two mentioned had 
given up the work. Mr. Williams was succeeded by 
Dr. C. C. Somerville, of Charlotte, as President. 
Dr. Somerville served but a year, not sufficiently long 
to do much in the way of building up the work. He 
was succeeded in the session at Fayetteville by Mr. 
E. J. Young. Mr. Young gave some attention to 
the unions and to the organization of new unions 
but his efforts were comparatively feeble, being en- 
cumbered with business enterprises. 

At the annual meeting of the Association E«v. W. 
H. Knuckles was elected Corresponding Secretary 
and State Organizer. He gave some of his spare 
time to the organization of new unions and visited 



144 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

some of the old unions, which added some strength 
to the B. Y. P. U. work in the State, and yet, after 
ten years of existence, its progress was far from 
what its friends had anticipated and hoped. 

Wherever unions were organized and kept up they 
proved a great blessing in many respects, but their 
slow growth to some extent was due to the fact that 
many of the churches felt burdened with organiza- 
tions and to some extent the young people felt dis- 
couraged. 

The work did not promise sufficient salary to keep 
a representative on the field, and yet the success 
which attended the efforts which had been made in 
the ten years of its history gave assurances thai 
greater effort would bring decided improvement and 
helpfulness to the Baptist cause in the State in gen- 
eral. The objects, as set forth in the constitution, 
from the little that had been accomplished proved 
to be of the greatest necessity, and in the session at 
Greensboro a united effort was made to prosecute 
the work with greator vigor than ever. 

The result of the work of the Corresponding Sec- 
retary, Bev. W. H. Knuckles, for the year which 
came to a close at the annual meeting of the organi- 
zation at Smithfield, N. C, showed that the vigor- 
ous service was not without splendid results; the re- 
port of the Corresponding Secretary showed that 
more unions had been organized throughout the 
State, inquiries of plans for organization and a gen- 
eral revival in the unions already organized. 



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Sunday School Conventions. 145 

Conditions were so flattering through the efforts 
of Secretary Knuckles the State B. Y. P. U. elected 
him as President of the organization. The watch- 
word of the meeting was "More Unions and Better 
Unions." From the outlook the friends of the or- 
ganization were assured that North Carolina would 
soon take her place in the foremost ranks in this 
splendid work among the Baptist young people. 



10 



CHAPTER IX. 

SHAW UNIVERSITY.* 

Shaw University is situated in Kaleigh, the capi- 
tal of the State. It has a beautiful location within 
the city limits, and a few minutes' walk from the 
Union Station, the Capitol and the United States 
Government building. 

Although within the city limits, it has an entire 
square to itself, quiet and secluded as if it were situ- 
ated miles away in the country. This quiet and se- 
clusion, together with a bountiful supply of pure 
water, perfect sanitation, sewerage and other city 
advantages, make Shaw well-nigh an ideal place for 
study. Its grounds are spacious and well kept, and 
its principal buildings large, imposing brick struc- 
tures. There are 25 buildings in all owned by the 
institution; seven of them are large brick structures 
and eight are dwellings that are rented by the in- 
stitution, the income from which is devoted to the 
aid of needy and meritorious students. 

This institution of learning, that has done so much 
in uplifting our race in North Carolina and in all 
the other States of the Union where our people are 
found in considerable numbers, was established by 
Henry Martin Tupper. 

Rev. Henry Martin Tupper, D.D., was a native 

*The editor is indebted to Rev. H. L. Morehouse, D.D., 
Corresponding Secretary of the American Baptist Home Mis- 
sion Society, New York, and President Charles Francis Meserye, 
L L.D., of Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C, for the data con- 
tained in this chapter. 



Shaw University. 147 

of Monson, Mass. His boyhood was passed upon 
liis father's farm in the outskirts of the town; his 
parents were not Christians; he attended neither 
church nor Sabbath School, and the district school for 
only a short term during the winter ; but possessing 
a thirst for knowledge he read books and papers that 
came in his way with great avidity and while a mere 
lad had decided convictions upon the subject of 
slavery. 

In his eighteenth year he entered Monson Acad- 
emy, where he fitted for college, and while in the 
academy was converted. 

As he was dependent upon his ovpn exertions for 
means to obtain an education he frequently taught 
school, and while thus engaged in a town in New 
Jersey he became so impressed with his duty to be 
immersed that one Sunday afternoon he walked 
twenty miles to the nearest Baptist Church and asked 
for baptism. Having received it, he returned to his 
work Monday morning, and later united with the 
Baptist Church in Wales, Mass. 

After leaving the academy he went to Amherst 
College, graduated in 1859 ; then entered Newton 
Theological Institution, where he was graduated 
June 26, 1862, on the day of the battle of Fair 
Oaks. 

Soon after Governor Andrew, of Massachusetts, 
issued a call for men to "carry the musket," stating 
that there was already a surplus of ofScers, and on 
the fourteenth of July he enlisted as a soldier; a 



148 Negro Baptists of North CwroUna. 

few days afterward he was ordained and joined the 
Army of the Potomac about the time of the battles 
of South Mountain and Antietam; he was in the 
battle of Fredericksburg and followed the Ninth 
Army Corps into Kentucky; was in the campaign 
against Vicksburg and in the raid upon Jackson. 
Mississippi, under General Sherman. In one en- 
gagement a shell burst so near his face that it 
scorched his flesh; but, though others at the right 
and the left were killed by the flying pieces, he was 
providentially spared to do his great life-work. 

Although a private soldier he was constantly en- 
gaged in Christian work, holding meetings among 
the men, vrriting letters for the sick and wounded 
and often performing the duties of chaplain. Dur- 
ing these years he also found many opportunities of 
becoming acquainted with the colored people who 
flocked to the camps, and of studying their condition 
and needs. 

While a student he had been deeply impressed 
with a desire to labor as a missionary in Africa ; and 
when in college had a large Sunday School class of 
colored youths. While in the seminary he was em- 
ployed as a Sunday School missionary in Boston by 
the Dudley Street Baptist Church, laboring more 
especially among the foreign element. Thus Provi- 
dence had already opened the way for him to obtain 
a varied and practical experience in missionary work. 
But the opening up of the South as a fleld for mis- 
sionary effort had modified his views in reference 



Shaw University. 149 

to going to Africa, though he had not as yet formu- 
lated any definite plans as to how or where he should 
labor. 

A few weeks after the cessation of hostilities, and 
previous to his discharge from the army, he received 
a commission from the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society to go South as a missionary to the 
"freedmen" and to select his own field. This com- 
mission, coming as it did entirely unsolicited, was 
regarded by him as the finger of Providence pointing 
to the home field. After due deliberation he decided 
upon Ealeigh, North Carolina, as a central point for 
missionary operations. He was discharged from the 
army July 14, 1865, and on the first of the follow- 
ing October started with his wife for Raleigh. After 
a tedious journey occupying nearly a week, owing 
to broken lines of travel, they reached Raleigh Oc- 
tober 10th, having purchased tickets Nos. 1 and 2 at 
Portsmouth, Va., and taking the first train that had 
passed over the Seaboard route since the close of the 
war. 

The day following his arrival Dr. Tupper called 
upon the pastor of the Baptist Church, presented 
his credentials and made known his mission. Of 
course at that early date cooperation was not to be 
expected. It is true that hostilities had ceased, but 
the bitterness that war had engendered was not 
easily overcome and several years elapsed before 
much fraternal feeling was developed. 

Without waiting for further recognition he at once 



150 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

commenced his work among the colored people, whose 
condition he found pitiable in the extreme. They 
were poor and destitute; many of them were refu- 
gees who had followed the army, and were literally 
houseless and homeless. Having been in the army, 
he was especially able to aid them in procuring food 
and clothing from the Freedmen's Bureau, and at 
one time had upon his list 1Y5 persons over 75 years 
of age whom he regularly assisted in obtaining "ra- 
tions." 

But there was no place where the people could be 
gathered for religious instruction except under the 
shelter of a neighboring tree or in their low, dark, 
comfortless cabins. 

From his diary we quote the following: "Decem- 
ber 1st. Visited six families; held a prayer meet- 
ing; heard my theological class." Thus December 
1, 1865, dates the humble beginning of the educa- 
tional work of which the present Shaw University 
is the outgrowth. 

An Humble Oeigin. 

Shaw University was started in a very humble 
way in a negro cabin on the outskirts of the city. 
The enterprise grew and larger buildings became 
necessary, but there was little money either for car- 
rying on or extending the work. Accordingly with 
a few faithful helpers day after day he shouldered 
his axe and went out of the city into the woods, and 
together they felled huge pines and hewed the logs 



Shaw University. 151 

into timber. After many weeks of struggling and 
after receiving a little help from the North, the 
actual work of building began. A large two-story 
structure to be used both for a church and a school 
was finally erected on Blount street, a block north ol 
the present location of the University. 

The work continued to grow and again larger 
quarters were required. At this juncture the man- 
sion and grounds of the late General Barringer, ex- 
minister to Spain, were for sale. This property, 
comprising several buildings and 12 acres of land, 
and occupying an entire square, was purchased at a 
cost of $13,000. Of this sum $5,000 was pledged 
by the Hon. Elijah Shaw, of Wales, Mass., whose 
honored name the institution so appropriately bears. 

Dr. Tupper spent considerable time in the North 
raising money to complete the payment on the pur- 
chase of the Barringer property. In order to aid the 
students and to teach them the importance of self- 
help he commenced in the spring of 1871 the manu- 
facture of brick from clay found upon the premises. 
The amount netted from the brick ente]*prise the 
first year, clear of all expenses, in addition to brick 
used in building, was between $3,000 and $4,000 
which was applied toward the erection of buildings. 

EsTEY BLall. 

The aim of the society at first was mainly to pro- 
vide schools for the training of ministers and young 
men as Christian workers. But Dr. Tupper early 



152 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

perceived that the education of young women was 
of equal importance and in 1870 he received a few 
coming from different parts of the State, obtaining 
rooms and board for them in private families. When 
he first proposed educating young women the idea 
did not meet with much favor. It was looked upon 
as a doubtful if not an unwise step. In the mean- 
time the number applying for admission continued 
to increase until in the spring of 1872 he determined 
again to appeal to Northern friends for aid, and for 
two months held a daily prayer meeting with the 
students, asking the Lord to open the way that suit- 
able accommodations might be furnished for a female 
department. The following summer he went North 
and was so far successful in obtaining the necessary 
funds that upon his return in the fall he commenced 
a dormitory for girls, which was afterward named 
Estey Hall in honor of Deacon Jacob Estey and sons 
of Brattleboro, "Vermont, who gave $8,000 toward 
its erection. 

This was the first effort of the denomination in 
gathering colored girls into a boarding school, and 
the Estey building was the first school edifice of any 
considerable size in the South erected solely for the 
accommodation of colored women for their Christian 
development and education. 

Shaw was incorporated in 1875. At that time the 
work was more elementary than now, but such as 
was adapted to the needs of the people. The man- 
agement, however, has kept pace constantly with the 



Shaw University. 153 

progress of the race and the demand of the times 
until there are today in addition to normal, college 
and industrial departments, schools of theology, law, 
medicine and pharmacy. 

An Anxious Night. 

In the early days there were trying times and 
there was no social recognition of President Tupper. 
his devoted wife and associates on the part of the 
white people of the city and State. President Tup- 
per and wife spent a night in a corn field in the rear 
of their humble cabin, having been threatened by the 
Ku Klux. Every moment of these hours of anxious 
suspense they expected to see the flames consume 
their home and all their earthly effects, but a kind, 
all-wise Providence guarded them through the long 
night watches, and when the welcome dawn tardily 
appeared the humble cabin was still standing and 
in devout thanksgiving they returned to its kindly 
shelter. The animosity and bitterness of the post- 
bellum and reconstruction days are happily things 
of the past, and the work now goes smoothly on with 
the respect of the community, and at times there is 
genuine sympathy and helpful cooperation. 

A Noble Oaeeeb Ended. 

On the 12th of November, 1893, after a prolonged 
illness. Dr. Tupper breathed his last. His funeral 
was one of the largest ever attended in the city of 
Raleigh, and the esteem in which he was held was 



154 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

evidenced by the large concourse of people of both 
races that assembled on the Shaw campus to pay 
their respect to his memory and in recognition ol 
the work that he had done. His remains lie on the 
campus, in front of Shaw Hall, a fitting resting 
place for the hero who had given more than a quarter 
of a century of the best part of his life in the city of 
Raleigh to the uplifting of our race and for the bet- 
terment of the State in which he and his devoted 
wife had for so many years cast their lot. 

The Second Peesident of Shaw Univeesitt. 

On the 17th of March, 1894, Charles Francis Me- 
serve, a native of Abington, Plymouth County, 
Massachusetts, took up the work where Dr. Tupper 
laid it down. President Meserve had been engaged 
in educational work in the New England States for 
many years, but for some years immediately preced- 
ing his coming to Raleigh he had been Superintend- 
ent and Special Disbursing Agent of Haskell Insti- 
tute at Lawrence, Kansas, at that time the largest 
United States Indian Industrial Training School in 
the West. He had served five years in this capacity 
and was expecting to continue indefinitely. When 
the call came for him to take up the work laid down 
by Dr. Tupper, he felt that he could not consider it- 
He was urged by the officers of the American Baptist 
Home Mission Society to visit Shaw University and 
look over the field and see the magnificent oppor- 
tunity to continue the work of uplifting our race so 



Shaw University. 155 

recently in slavery and that had made such marvel- 
ous progress during the brief time we had been on 
the road to freedom. He was so impressed upon 
visiting Shaw with the importance and need of the 
work, aside from the fact that he was loyally devoted 
to the missionary and educational work of his de- 
nomination, that he consented to resign his impor- 
tant civil service position in Kansas and take up the 
work as President of Shaw University. 

Impeovements. 

During the fifteen years that have elapsed since he 
came to Raleigh he has given his entire time and 
strength to the various departments of the institu- 
tion, endeavoring to build it up both in the esteem 
of the colored and white people of the South as well 
as the people of the North. During these years sub- 
stantial, material and spiritual progress has been 
made. Modern sanitation has been introduced 
throughout the institution and a central hot water 
heating plant installed, and most of the large build- 
ings have been connected with this central plant. 
Aside from these important improvements the build- 
ings generally have been repaired and renovated and 
put in a more modern condition. A large addition 
has been made to the girls' building to provide better 
facilities for instruction in cooking, sewing, dress- 
making, laundry work and all other domestic arts. 
The girls' department is now well equipped and well 
nigh perfect. A large building known as the Tup 



156 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

per Memorial, to be used as a men's industrial de- 
partment, was completed last year, a fitting me- 
morial to one who was reared on a New England 
farm and who was so closely in sympathy all through 
his life with the industrial ideas that are so essen- 
tial to the development and support of any race. 

The attendance has increased until it has been 
necessary for the last three years to refuse many ap- 
plicants for lack of room. Last year the enrollment 
was 526 and the disbursements of the institution 
more than $42,000. The average age of the students 
was nearly twenty-three and one-half years. 

An interesting feature of the work is the develop- 
ment of self-help on the part of our people them- 
selves. The General Education Society in !N^ew 
York pledged $13,000 for additional buildings on 
condition that the colored people would raise $5,000 
additional. J. A. Whitted, Corresponding Secretary 
of the Baptist State Convention, was appointed Fi 
nancial Agent, and in two years of faithful and per- 
sistent work, traveling up and down the State, se- 
cured more than was necessary. This money was 
used in the erection of the Tupper Memorial and 
an addition to Estey Hall, the girls' dormitory. 

Another important addition is the enlargement of 
the Administration Building and the extending of 
the heating system to this building. This was made 
possible by a gift of $2,500 from a generous friend 
in the North, assisted by several other donors and 
the American Baptist Home Mission Society. The 



Shaw University. 157 

urgent need at the present time is equipment for the 
Tupper Memorial, a portion of the money for which 
is already in hand, and the erection of a larger hos- 
pital and a laboratory for the Medical Department. 

All the departments have grown through the yeard 
and there has been a growing confidence on the part 
of the public in the work done by all departments of 
the institution. There is a kindly attitude on the 
part of the leading white people of the city toward 
the work. One 'of Raleigh's leading citizens re- 
marked not long ago that they felt safe as long as 
Shaw University was located in their midst. 

More than 7,000 students of both sexes have been 
enrolled at Shaw University since the work was be- 
gun by Dr. Tupper in the autumn of 1865. 

Over 300 men and women have been graduated 
from the Normal, College and Theological Depart- 
ments. 

The first class was sent out by Shaw University 
in 1878 and consisted of the following: 

Henry Clay Crosby Plymouth, 

Caesar Johnson Kaleigh. 

Nicholas F. Eoberts Ealeigh. 

Ezekiel E. Smith Fayetteville. 

Frederick H. Wilkins. . .Honey Grove, Texas. 
Louis H. Wyche. .i Williamsboro. 

Of the more than 300 graduates a large number 
have taken the Theological Course and have become 
ministers of power and influence in various parts of 
the South. 



158 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Leonard Medical School. 

The Leonard Medical School was established in 
1880. The first class was graduated in 1886 and 
consisted of the following men: 

M. S. G. Abbott Pensacola, Ela. 

James H. Bugg Savannah, Ga. 

M. T. Pope. Raleigh. 

A. T. Prince ,. .Beaufort, S. C. 

L. A. Scruggs Southern Pines 

J. T. Williams Charlotte. 

Three hundred and one men have been sent out with 
the degree of M.D. and are practicing in a majority 
of the States of the Union, and some have located in 
foreign countries. The good that has been done by 
these medical men can scarcely be overestimated. It 
was thought at one time that colored youths had not 
the ability to acquire even an ordinary education, 
and when there was broached the subject of medical 
education it was said that it would be utterly impos- 
sible to educate colored men in medicine. 

An interesting feature of the Leonard Medical 
School is the composition of the Faculty. Prom the 
beginning the Faculty has consisted of Southern 
white men of splendid training and preparation for 
their work, — in fact, the most skillful and influential 
physicians in the city of Raleigh. They have gone 
in and out for years before their students and it 
would be difficult to find an institution of learning 
where there is a more devoted feeling of loyalty on 



ShoAu University. 159 

the part of students for their teachers. It will be 
an everlasting monument to the credit of the South 
that men reared in the South, descendants of slave- 
owners, and some of them former slave-owners them- 
selves, took hold of this work and have carried it on 
so successfully and with such a magnificent spirit for 
so many years. 

Law School. 

While the Law Department has never been large, 
43 men have been graduated. The first class was 
sent out in 1890 and consisted of one man, Edward 
A. Johnson, of Raleigh. Professor Johnson served 
for many years as the Instructor of the Law Depart- 
ment, and it was with great regret that his resigna- 
tion was accepted two years ago on his departure 
from Kaleigh to locate as a lawyer in the city of 
New York, where he has since been successful, as he 
was during his career in Raleigh. 

Leonaed School of Phaemacy. 

The first class in the Leonard School of Pharmacy 
was graduated in 1893 and consisted of one man, 
George P. Hart, of Houmah, Louisiana. A class 
has been graduated every year since, with the excep- 
tion of 1899, the total number of graduates reach- 
ing 76. 

A National Woek. 

The blessing that Shaw has been to our race can 
hardly be estimated. Thousands of young men and 



160 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

women have gone forth from her halls into fields of 
usefulness and influence. They are foimd in nearly 
every State and Territory of the Union, though 
naturally the largest numbers are found in the South. 
They are making their way in every walk of life and 
the majority of them are the substantial, influential 
leaders of the race. In the teaching profession they 
have made themselves particularly felt as well as in 
the ministry. At one time flve of the seven colored 
normal schools of the State were presided over by 
principals who were Shaw men. Dr. J. O. Crosby, 
for some years President of the State Agricultural 
and Mechanical College for colored young men and 
young women. Dr. E. E. Smith, ex-Minister to Li- 
beria, Hon. H. P. Cheatham, for several years a 
member of Congress and a former Recorder of Deeds 
of the District of Columbia, the general and State 
missionaries and the principals of the secondary 
schools of the denomination in the State and in 
other States, as well as several of the professors at 
Shaw, are Shaw men. 

Pbominekt in Wab as Well as in Peace. 

The Third North Carolina Eegiment of the United 
States Infantry was composed of men of ovjc race, 
and Shaw figured prominently in this regiment. Col. 
James H. Young, Adjt. E. E. Smith, Chief Sur- 
geon J. E. Dellinger, Asst. Surgeons M. T. Pope 
and M. W. Alston, Capts. J. J. Hood and J. T. 
York and other ofiicers, and many in the ranks were 



Shaw University. 161 

graduates or former students of Shaw. The Chief 
Surgeon and his assistants and Captain Hood were 
graduates of the Medical Department. 

Peofessional Schools. 

Graduates of the Law Department go into court 
and plead their cases with the same courteous treat- 
ment from judge and jury as is accorded to white 
members of the bar. Success has also been won by 
the graduates of medicine and pharmacy, and they 
are found very generally throughout the South. 
A. W. Benson, of Atlanta, Class of 1895, was the 
first colored man to obtain a license from the Vir- 
ginia Board of Pharmacy Examiners. His standing 
in examination was slightly in excess of 95 per cent. 
The first man of any race to receive 100 per cent in 
an examination before the Virginia Board of Medical 
Examiners was Dr. C. E. Alexander, of Lynchburg, 
Class of 1891. He is located in Petersburg, Vir- 
girda, where he has practiced for many years and 
has the confidence and respect of the community. He 
has recently established a hospital that is being 
operated for the benefit of the poor and needy. Dur- 
ing the Spanish-American War Dr. Alexander was 
Chief Surgeon of the Sixth Regiment of the United 
States Infantry from Virginia. 

Aw Educated Ministet. 

A goodly number of our young men, as has been 

the case from the founding of the Institution, are 
11 



162 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

studying for the ministry. Shaw has furnished 
nearly all the denominational leaders in North Caro- 
lina and many in other States. In the gospel minis- 
try her greatest influence has been exerted, for her 
Theological Department has always been well at- 
tended, and the minister is still the influential factor 
in directing the life of the great mass of colored 
people in every community. 

An Educated Laitt. 

Many of her former students are thrifty farmer?, 
successful business men and occupy positions of 
honor and trust in their respective counties. The 
aim of the institution from the very beginning has 
been to turn out well-equipped Christian men and 
women to be leaders in the best sense of the term and 
thus indirectly but effectually reach the great masses 
of the people. This has been done with signal and 
gratifying success. 

Coeducation. 

Shaw believes in coeducation. Men and women 
meet in the class room, in the chapel and around the 
family board on terms of equality. The Women's 
Department is known as Estey Seminary. It was 
predicted that coeducation would be a dismal and 
disgusting failure, but it should be said to the great 
credit of the race that there never has been a scandal 
connected with the institution. President Meserve 
states that after nearly a quarter of a century spent 



Shaw University. 163 

in educational work among white young men and wo- 
men, Indian young men and women and colored 
young men and women, he has found it no more diffi- 
cult to maintain good discipline and proper relations 
between the sexes than he has in other fields with 
other races. 

A WOELD-WIDB InFLUEITCB. 

The influence exerted by Shaw is well-nigh world- 
wide. At the present time she has students from the 
West Indies and Africa and has enrolled them from 
Central and South America. Although a home mis- 
sion school, her spirit reaches out to other lands. 
Missionary Hayes, the well-known African mission- 
ary, was a Shaw student. Dr. Lulu C. Fleming and 
four others from Shaw have done missionary work on 
the Congo. A Prince of the Royal line, Alfred Impy. 
a nephew of King Kama, of the Kaffir tribe of Cape 
Colony, South Africa, was for some time a student. 
He came to Shaw to get his education, with the inten- 
tion of returning to do missionary work at home. He 
was a fine, manly fellow and, although he could 
speak and write English only indifferently when he 
came, he made good progress and his untimely death 
was greatly mourned by all who knew him. 

It is worthy of note that Shaw men and women do 
not become criminals and seldom, if ever, do educated 
young men and women belong to the criminal or law- 
less classes. Rather are they conservators of law and 
order and preservers of the peace. Shaw students 



164 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

and graduates are as a rule Christian men and ■wo- 
men of clean lives, and some of them are earnest 
workers in the cause of temperance and social purity. 
Deplorable indeed would be the condition of our 
people, only a generation from actual slavery, were it 
not for the stalwart men and pure women from Shaw 
now found in nearly every community, who, by their 
example and precept, show the possibilities of our 
race and exert such a strong controlling influence for 
good over the ignorant and less favored. 

High Ideals. 

This sketch of Shaw University and its work would 
not be complete did we not emphasize the fact that 
President Meserve is holding the institution up to 
the highest standards and loftiest ideals and is keep- 
ing Shaw in touch with the best methods of the day. 
While there are college and normal departments and 
much attention is given to the institution because of 
her professional departments, yet the industrial idea 
is by no means put out of sight. Outside of the pro- 
fessional departments all of the students spend half 
a day at their books and the other half at some trade. 
If you were to visit the women's departments in the 
afternoon you would find scientific instruction right 
up to date given to the girls in cooking, in dressmak- 
ing, in sewing, in millinery, and in all the arts that 
make the home what it should be. If you were 
to visit the Tupper Memorial, when completely 



Shaw University. 165 

equipped, you will find young men learning the trade 
of the blacksmith, the mason, the carpenter, and you 
will also in other rooms find them at work at the 
drafting boards, preparing plans and estimates and 
receiving instruction in all lines of industrial work, 
for which there is to-day such demand. 



CHAPTER X. 

SECONDAET BAPTIST SCHOOLS ESTAB- 
LISHED AND MAINTAINED BY THE NE- 
GKO BAPTISTS OF NOETH CAROLINA. 

For many years after the war tlie Negro youth de- 
pended largely upon the public schools and schools 
supported by the Freedmen's Bureau. In some 
places the Friends (the Quakers) established schools 
for their education. Shaw University at Raleigh 
was the first school which promised anything like a 
high course of study. We have already mentioned 
the intention of the founders of Shaw IJniversity to 
prepare men for the gospel ministry, and to prepare 
men and women as teachers. The effort was a com- 
plete success. Some of the ablest and best men who 
have ever gone out from Shaw were among the first 
to enter after its establishment; this was not only 
true as ministers, but teachers as well. The public 
schools over the State were largely supplied by men 
and women from Shaw. Many of them were not con- 
tent to teach in the public schools but felt the need of 
a higher training, and hence they began here and 
there to establish high schools. First among these 
were Alexander Hicks, of Plymouth, N. C, and 
E. H. Lipscombe, of Dallas, N. C. The School at 
Plymouth, established by Mr. Hicks, a graduate of 
Shaw, developed into a State Normal School. Al- 
though the Dallas School was continued for several 



Secondary Schools. 167 

years and during its existence sent out several teach- 
ers and preachers, it was finally discontinued. 

Possibly the causes which led to the discontinuance 
of the School at Dallas proved helpful to the estab- 
lishment of others. It was evident to maintain such 
schools whole associations met and formed educa- 
tional associations, and here and there over the State 
Baptist Schools with Baptist Associations behind 
them were established. The Home Mission Society 
came to the rescue and partial support of three of 
them, the others received support from the Associa- 
tions, and elsewhere, as friends could be moved to 
their help. 

Shiloh Institute, Waeeenton, N. C. 

Shiloh Institute at Warrenton, N. C, was the 
third in the list of the secondary schools. This 
school was established in 1885 by the Shiloh Bap- 
tist Association. The Plummer residence, containing 
eight acres of land, was purchased for this purpose. 
This place was beautifully situated within the corpo- 
rate limits of Warrenton, N. C, and offered every fa- 
cility for such an undertaking. Taking the name of 
the Warrenton High School and conducted in that 
name for several years, it was afterward changed to 
Shiloh Institute, in honor of the Shiloh Association. 
During the first years of the existence of the school 
it was the strongest school of its kind in the State. 
Within twelve years after its establishment, in 1885. 
there were sent out one hundred and twenty-five 



168 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

teachers, in Warren and other counties of the State, 
besides several ministers of the gospel, who did much 
good along the line of the ministry. 

After the property of this school was secured 
gradual improvements were made, and in 1906 it 
was valued at seven thousand dollars. Changes in 
the management of the school, and divisions in the 
Association, caused a decline in the school, and many 
who had patronized it turned to other similar schools 
scattered over the State. 

The Gabysbueg High School. 

Even prior to the establishment of the Shiloh In- 
stitute there was a school established at Garysburg, 
IST. C, by Eev. E. I. Walden, a graduate of Shaw 
University. This property was owned and eon- 
trolled by Rev. Walden. Several efforts were made 
to have the Weuse River Association adopt this 
school, as the school of the Association, but the effort 
was unsuccessful, although many of the leaders of 
that body received their education from the Garys- 
burg School. Much of Dr. Walden's time was given 
to the gospel ministry, as well as to the work of 
teaching. Like the Shiloh School at Warrenton. 
much good was accomplished and many able men and 
women were sent out to join the hosts of Christian 
workers in the State. The strength of Dr. Walden 
was so taxed, endeavoring to keep the school going, 
and the two churches, the one at Louisburg, and the 
other at Henderson, he finally turned the school over 



Secondary Schools. 169 

to Eev. Mr. Blacknall, one of the graduates, and 
moved to Henderson, 1^. C, where he might give his 
entire time to the gospel ministry. Mr. Blacknall 
was quite successful, enrolling two hundred during 
the winter months of each year. 

Waters ISTobmal and Industrial Institute at 
WiNTON, E". C. 

This institution, established in 1886, was by far 
the strongest and ablest school of its kind in North 
Carolina. For twenty-five years after its establish- 
ment Eev. C. S. Brown, a graduate of Shaw Univer- 
sity, was the Principal. During the forty-three 
years of the history of Shaw there had not gone out 
from that institution a man who had done so much 
along the educational lines as Dr. Brown, the Prin- 
cipal of Waters Institute. When he went to Winton 
the site where the Institute was erected was a wil- 
derness. He began with a rude structure for a boys' 
dormitory, and recitation rooms. In 1896 a two- 
story building was erected at a cost of six thousand 
dollars, a dormitory for girls, recitation rooms, and 
a dining hall. 

The boys' dormitory, being destroyed by fire in the 
year 1907, a brick building was soon after begun and 
completed in 1908 at a cost of eight thousand dollars. 
The reports showed in 1908 that sixty-six had grad- 
uated from Waters Institute. Several had taken up 
the practice of medicine, six had gone into the gospel 
ministry and quite a number were teachers in the 



170 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

schools of North Carolina. Waters Institute received 
the largest amounts from the Home Mission Society 
given to any similar school in the State, which 
enabled the school to so far outstrip the other second- 
ary schools of the State. And, too, as we have al- 
ready indicated, Principal Brown was a man of rare 
gifts, as was shown in the success which came to the 
school and in many other ways, as he was interested 
in almost everything which meant the uplift of his 
race and the advancement of the Negro Baptists of 
North Carolina and elsewhere. This School exerted 
such an influence in Eastern North Carolina it not 
only proved helpful to the colored people but to Win- 
ton, which was little known before its establishment, 
and to all that section of the State. That they might 
enjoy the benefits of the school many of the patrons 
moved to Winton and, without a single exception, 
erected creditable and most of them beautiful build- 
ings. As these were near the campus all added to 
the beauty and worth of that section of the town. 
Shiloh Institute, about which mention has already 
been made, and Waters Institute, contributed each a 
missionary to the Foreign Mission forces of Africa. 
Miss Mary Fields, of the Shiloh Institute, and Rev. 
C. C. Boone, of the Waters Institute. If Waters In- 
stitute had done no more than give to the cause of 
African missions Rev. Boone, his services to the Dark 
Continent would have been worth the existence of the 
institution. 



Secondary Schools. 171 

While the Home Mission Society of New York, to- 
gether with the Woman's Home Mission Society of 
New England have contributed much to the strength 
of Waters Institute, great credit was due the colored 
people of the West Roanoke Association, and espe- 
cially the colored Baptists of Hertford County. For- 
tunately Dr. Brown was pastor of five of the largest 
and ablest churches of Hertford County, and the 
Moderator of the West Eoanoke Association for a 
number of years, the President of the Educational 
and Missionary Convention of North Carolina, and 
the President of the Lott-Carey Home and Foreign 
Mission Convention, all of which contributed to his 
influence and to his opportunity to raise funds to 
carry on the work at Waters, and he used the oppor- 
tunity to a great advantage. 

Beetie Academy, Windsoe, N. C. 

Like the Institute at Winton the Bertie Academy 
at Windsor was under the auspices of the West Roa- 
noke Association. This school was established several 
years after the Waters Institute and while much help- 
fulness came to Bertie County and the cause in gen- 
eral in its establishment, it was never as strong as the 
Waters Institute. The ministry afforded the princi- 
pals to such schools opportunities to reach the people 
they could not otherwise have, and it may be the 
Principal of Waters Institute being a minister and 
a man of extensive influence, and the Principal of 



172 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

the Bertie Academy being a layman, had much to do 
with the popularity of the Waters Institute over the 
Bertie, and yet, considering the proximity of the two 
schools, the Bertie Academy did splendid work. 

The Bertie Academy was not only established by 
the colored people, but was altogether maintained by 
them. The churches of Bertie County, though a 
part of the West Roanoke Association, invariably di- 
rected their educational funds sent up to the Associa- 
tion to be paid over to the Bertie Academy, while the 
Hertford people directed theirs paid over to the 
treasury of the Waters Institute. 

The collections from Bertie County were usually 
larger than the Hertford collections, which gave evi- 
dence of their deep concern for Bertie Academy. In 
1908 the buildings and grounds were valued at six 
thousand dollars, located near the corporate limits of 
Windsor. For many years after its establishment the 
Academy had to undergo great hardships. Through 
wise management the opposition was overcome and 
all things considered, the school enjoyed much pros- 
perity. 

The Roanoke Institute, Elizabeth City, N. C. 

The Roanoke Institute, located at Elizabeth City. 
is the property of the East Roanoke Association. 
The property purchased for this purpose was formerly 
used as a private school by Rooks Turner. The 
growth of the school was so rapid that additional 
buildings were soon a necessity. 



Secondary Schools. 173 

Dr. M. W. D. Norman, Dean of the Theological 
Department of Shaw University, was elected the 
first Principal. Dr. Norman had great influence with 
the brethren of the East Roanoke Association as well 
as in other sections of the State, and the much- 
needed buildings were soon erected. Rev. G. D. 
Griffin succeeded Dr. Norman, and although a grad- 
uate of the Institute, had exceptional ability, and the 
work under his management went steadily on to suc- 
cess. Professor Graves succeeded Rev. Griffin. Al- 
though one of the Normal Schools of the State was 
located in Elizabeth City, the Roanoke Institute was 
crowded each year not only from the city but from 
the adjoining counties, over a thousand students up 
to 1908, with thirty-five graduates. In point of 
numbers the East Roanoke Association was one of 
the largest Associations in the State; financially the 
second only to the West Roanoke. This enabled the 
school to derive a good revenue. Self help was the 
motto of this Association, and the colored Baptists of 
that section deserved the entire credit for the Roa- 
noke Institute, worth six thousand dollars in 1908. 

The Giels' Training School, Eeanklinton, N. C. 

After a few Associations had set the example and 
had organized themselves to do educational work, 
schools were established in every section of the State. 
While the Girls' Training School at Franklinton was 
not the property of the Wake Association, located in 
the bounds of the Wake Association, the Association 



174 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

became deeply interested in its welfare and made an- 
nual appropriations to it. Rev. T. O. Fuller, a 
scholarly young man, a graduate of Shaw University, 
became its first Principal. Eev. Fuller succeeded in 
interesting a few ^Northern friends in the school, and 
not only did they contribute their money, but several 
white ladies came down and taught in the school. 
The first to take hold as teacher was Miss Hawkins, 
who finally succeeded Eev. Fuller as Principal. 
Others joined her, and for several years the school 
was taught by white ladies. It was found expedient 
to change and secure colored teachers. Dr. A. W. 
Pegues was elected Principal. Like the other schools 
mentioned the Girls' Training School did much to 
foster Christian education, especially in the counties 
of Franklin, Wake and Granville. The Educational 
ind Missionary Convention undertook to form these 
schools into a confederation and give partial support 
to them. This was kept up a few years, but after- 
ward it was found to be impractical. 

The Addie Moebis School, "Winstoit-Salem, IST. C. 

The Addie Morris School, at Winston, can hardly 
be called a secondary school, as it was largely com- 
posed of children. The school was named in honor 
of the foiinder, Miss Addie Morris, a missionary em- 
ployed by the Woman's Missionary Society in Chicago, 
At that time there were ten thousand colored people 
in Winston-Salem, and Miss Morris, seeing so many 
children coming up in idleness, felt that something 



Secondary Schools. 175 

should he done to change conditions, and in connec- 
tion with the missionary and Bible school organized 
a children's school. The object of this school was 
not only to impart secular knowledge, but especially 
a knowledge of the Bible. The First Baptist Church 
of Winston-Salem granted the lot to the Home Mis- 
sion Society and Sister Morris, and a building was 
erected for this purpose. This school was composed 
entirely of pupils from Winston-Salem, but an incen- 
tive was given to several to pursue a higher course of 
study in Shaw University and elsewhere. It will 
never be known the real good this school did in shap- 
ing the life and character of so many who came under 
the training of this Godly woman. Few women with 
even better advantages, and none with the same ad- 
vantage in North Carolina, did so much to shape the 
lives of so many individuals. Although of little learn- 
ing "Sister Morris," as she was best known, gave her 
life unreservedly to the caiise of Christ, both among 
the old and the young. She not only conducted this 
school during her lifetime, but gave much energy and 
care to the establishment of an Orphan Home two 
and a half miles from Winston. After her death, 
which occurred in the spring of 1907, her sister, Mrs. 
Emma Simmons, took charge of the school. Mrs. 
Simmons's health was pjor and, although the same 
godly woman her sister was, could do but little in 
carrying on the school, and with the death of Sister 
Morris the school work largely came to an end. 



176 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

The Rowan ISToemal and Industeial School, 

Chaelotte, IST. C. 

The existence of the Rowan Normal and Industrial 
School was due to Rev. C. C. Somerville, who was 
called from the position of District Missionary for 
Eastern Worth Carolina to the pastorate of the First 
Baptist Church of Charlotte. Dr. Somerville was 
not only called to the pastorate of the First Baptist 
Church, but was elected Moderator of the Rowan 
Baptist Association, in whose boundary the school 
was located and for which the school was named. 

The Moderator endeavored for several years to 
have the School adopted as the property of the 
Rowan Association, hut the brethren could not 
agree to do so. They gave the school an endorsement 
and an annual donation, but they would never agree to 
adopt it as theirs. The untiring efforts and sacri- 
fices of the Principal enabled him to carry on this 
school for several years. The Graded Schools, Bid- 
die University, located in Charlotte; failure to se- 
cure the full cooperation of the Association made it 
hard for the Rowan Industrial, but made of an iron 
will, Dr. Somerville kept up the work, gathering 
means here and there until he was called to the pas- 
torate of the Ebenezer Baptist Church, of Ports- 
moulh, Virginia. The school was then moved from 
Charlotte to Salisbury and the name was changed to 
the Piedmont Institute. In the following fall the 
school opened in the property adjoining and belong- 



Secondary Schools. 177 

ing to the Dixonville Baptist Church, with Rev. 
D. W. Montgomery, Principal. Another effort wa? 
made to adopt the school as the property of the Rowan 
Association, but again the effort failed, although trus- 
tees were appointed in the meeting of the Associa- 
tion. The Association agreed to keep up the appro- 
priation, but nothing more. Rev. Montgomery con- 
tinued at the head but a short time and Rev. A. S. 
Croom, his successor at Dixonville, became the Prin- 
cipal. 

ZioN Academy, Wadesboeo, N. C. 

The buildings of the Zion Academy were erected 
in the town of Wadesboro, 1903 and 1904. This 
school was owned and controlled by the Zion Baptist 
Association and, considering the capacity of the build- 
ings, reflects credit on the Zion Baptist people. 

We have already mentioned Prof. E. H. Lips- 
combe as the second person in North Carolina to 
undertake secondary schools. He was called to the 
Zion Academy as the first Principal of the Academy. 
ISTo Association in the State was more enthusiastic 
over education than the Zion people, and no school 
advanced more rapidly than the Zion Academy. This 
enthusiasm did not by any means grow out of the 
fact that many of them were educated technically ; 
there were but few among them educated, but they 
had great faith in the proper kind of education, and 
they went at it with a will. The first two years after 
the school was organized they raised and expended 
12 



178 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

two thousand dollars. While Professor Lipscombe 
was scholarly he did not possess all the necessary 
energy and push to carry on such a work, and as 
a result the school was not all it might have been. 
No section of the State was more in need of such a 
school than the section included by the Zion Associa- 
tion, and soon after the school was established its 
great service was everywhere manifest. 

Thompsoit Institute, LuMBERToisr, JST. C. 

The Thompson Institute, at Lumberton, IST. C. 
took its name from the oldest minister of the Lum- 
ber River Association at the time of its establish- 
ment. Rev. A. H. Thompson. This school is another 
monument to the thrift and energy of the JSTegro Bap- 
tists of North Carolina. Just as has been said of the 
Zion Academy, the Thompson Institute was of the 
greatest necessity in the section in which it was lo- 
cated. In 1880 there was not a good dwelling be- 
longing to a Negro Baptist in the section of Lumber- 
ton ; in 1900 a poor dwelling was the exception. The 
old dilapidated church was torn down and a beautiful 
and commodious building erected in its place for the 
worship of God, and a little village surrounded the 
campus, which made it but the more attractive. Rev. 
D. J. Avera was elected the first Principal. Rev. 
Avera, being there but two years, could hardly make 
proof of his proficiency in this kind of work, but he 
laid the foundation iipon which another has builded 
with considerable success. 



Secondary Schools. 179 

Prof. W. H. Knuckles, from the Theological De- 
partment of Shaw University, was elected Principal 
to succeed Rev. Avera. Rev. Knuckles's efforts have 
been untiring, and instead of the one building partly 
completed there were three buildings with a faculty 
of five. 

The school made rapid progress in every respect ; 
large numbers gathered there from year to year from 
all that section of coimtry. As early as 1905 most 
of the teachers from the three surrounding counties 
were supplied from Thompson Institute, and with 
the preparation were able to do splendid work in the 
public schools. While the annual appropriation from 
the Home Mission Society, of New York, was small, 
yet the Society did make a small appropriation to 
the Thompson Institute, and was exceedingly helpful 
in the prosecution of the work. While, as we have 
said, much of the rapid growth of the School was 
due to the thrift and energy of Professor Knuckles, 
much was likewise due to Rev. J. D. Harrell, Modera- 
tor of the Lumber River Association, and Financial 
Agent of the Thompson Institute. It was through 
his persistency that the buildings in turn were erected, 
through his energy the large numbers were gathered, 
and through him much of the necessary funds were 
realized to carry on the school. In fact, the Lumber 
River Association was made up of many others like 
Brother Harrell, in their zeal for the progress of 
Thompson Institute. 



180 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

ITew Been Industrial and Collegiate Institute, 
New Bern, IST. C. 

This school was one of the exceptions, being the 
product of an individual or, better said, individuals. 
Kev. and Mrs. A. L. E. Weeks. Kev. Weeks was 
called to the pastorate of the Cedar Grove Baptist 
Church, New Bern, N. C. Realizing the condition 
of his people and the people of that vast section felt 
that their greatest need was the proper provision for 
their education, set to work at once and selected a 
place suitable for the planting of a school. The 
large lot adjoining the Fair Grounds was selected 
and bargained for at a cost of twelve thousand dol- 
lars. Only a man with the pluck of Rev. Weeks, 
with comparatively no money in sight, would have 
undertaken such a task; but if it occurred to Rev. 
Weeks that a mountain should be moved, he was the 
man at least to make a beginning. Undaunted he 
went about the raising of the money for his purchase 
and the erection of buildings for a beginning. Al- 
most to a man he was told it could not be done, but he 
simply said do what you can, and when he or his wife 
left an individual they somehow felt that something 
must be given, whether they had it or not. In this 
way opinion began to take another shape, and it was 
said that it would be done, since Weeks was at the 
head. 

At first the Home Mission Society was moved to 
give two hundred dollars, and the next year the ap- 



Secondary Schools. 181 

propriation was increased to four hundred dollars. 
This appropriation was indeed a blessing to the 
school struggling for life and existence. The white 
people of New Bern deserve great praise for the man- 
ner in which many of them stood by Rev. and Mrs. 
Weeks. In fact, without their moral and financial 
support, such as Rev. Weeks had from the beginning, 
it would have been utterly impossible to have estab- 
lished the school which would be more fitly called 
Weeks Institute. It was through them the beautiful 
and appropriate site was secured, through them Rev. 
Weeks was able to reach the ears of the Society, 
through them many friends, white and colored, iii 
North Carolina. It is deserving of mention that Mr. 
Isaac Smith, a generous-hearted colored citizen, made 
the largest donation of any single individual, which 
gave the Principal much encouragement and enabled 
him to make a stronger appeal to others. 

While the New Bern Industrial and Collegiate In- 
stitute was not directly under the supervision of any 
Association, as nearly all these secondary schools 
were, yet with his push Principal Weeks succeeded 
in reaching several Associations even with their own 
schools on their hands. How this was done only the 
Principal and God can tell. There was a strong ef- 
fort to unite the school supported by the New Bern 
Eastern Association, located just across the Trent 
River, and the New Bern Collegiate and Industrial 
Institute, but the effort proved a failure. As has 
been said of other sections, there was much ignorance 



182 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

throughout this section, and somehow, despite his 
efforts to prove the worthiness of his cause and the 
sincerity of purpose, many of the old heads stood in 
awe of this young, active and able divine, and hence 
much he might have accomplished could not be done 
for this reason. 

The church of which Rev. Weeks was pastor was 
burned in 1905, and much of the attention of the 
principal and pastor had to be given to church erec- 
tion. A lovely brick structure took the place of the 
old frame structure, while the work of the school 
moved right on. The work of Rev. Weeks was the 
wonder of North Carolina. Much light was diffused 
and much good accomplished through this one man 
showing "Where there is a will, there is a way." 

The Buegaw High School. 

The Burgaw High School is located at Burgaw. 
N. C, and is the property of the Middle District 
Association. At the opening of the fall term of 1907 
there were two buildings erected, one for school rooms 
and dormitory for girls; the other a dormitory for 
boys. 

The decided success and growth of the Burgaw 
High School from the beginning was due to the faith- 
fulness and proficiency of the Principal, Mr. J. A. 
Fennell. In all the secondary schools of the State 
there was not a more unassuming and energetic prin- 
pical than Mr. Fennell. No distance was too far, no 



Secondary Schools. 183 

task too great for this man if it meant any advance- 
ment of the Burgaw High School. Like others ol 
the Principals, Mr. Fennell had much unnecessary 
difficulties to overcome, and often those who were in 
the position to help him stood in the way of the prog- 
ress of the school. The management of these second- 
ary schools in North Carolina especially demonstrated 
the fact that in some instances the schools would have 
been better off with no other management than the 
faculty. It is not meant that there were not some 
good men in the management other than the faculties, 
but many who stood in the way of everything that 
meant progress and improvement. 

Despite every opposition the Principal and Miss 
Smith, his assistant, did splendid work at Burgaw. 
Many splendid young men and women were sent out 
through that section imparting the light and instruc- 
tion which they received at the Burgaw High School. 

The Faison High School and the UNioisr 
Academy. 

Both of these Schools grew out from the Kenans- 
ville Eastern Association. Unfortunately division 
marked the educational work of the Association al- 
most from the beginning. A difference of opinion 
grew out of the place for the location, especially after 
the first change had been made. The Association 
was at the mercy of factions. Some wished the school 
to be located at Clinton and others at Faison. A 
majority voted in favor of Faison, while a strong 



184 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

faction contended for Clinton. An effort was made 
to have schools in both places and the Association to 
make equal or pro-rata appropriations to both of the 
schools, but in the meeting of the Association in 
Goldsboro it was evident that the majority opposed 
such a proposition, and as a natural consequence two 
associations were formed, the churches of Samp- 
son composing the one and the churches of Duplin 
composing the other. 

Mr. J. N. Bennett was elected Principal of the 
Faison School. Soon it was evident that still more 
divisions were ahead for the Faison High School. 
The management was not satisfactory to many of the 
leaders of the Association, and the differences were 
so great until Mr. Bennett came out in 1907 and 
formed an independent school. From the work ac- 
complished it was evident, with a spirit of unity, a 
much better work could have been accomplished. 

For some cause the Union Academy at Clinton was 
not what it might have been. The beginning of the 
school was under the direction of Professor Ashford. 
Professor Ashford was an earnest and good man, but 
the fact that Clinton was his home, upon the prin- 
ciple taught by our Saviour, "A prophet is not with- 
out honor, save in his own country, and in his own 
house," was verified in his case, and he did not do 
the good he might otherwise have done. The same 
was true of his successor, Mr. Boykin. He was also 
a native of the county in which the school was lo- 



Secondary Schools. 185 

cated and he, too, was a good man — but he was never 
able to accomplish so much as he might have accom- 
plished. In the fall of 1897 Mr. Thomas J. Brown, 
of Winston-Salem, was appointed as the successor of 
Mr. Boykin. At once the school began to take on 
new strength and usefulness. At the close of the first 
year it was evident that the right man had been 
agreed upon, the people became united, the number 
of pupils in the school increased, and everything 
looked promising for a bright future for Union 
Academy. 

The Atlantic and North Caeolina Institute. 
James City, N. C. 

This school was established by the New Bern East- 
em Association, one of the largest Associations in 
point of numbers in the State. There were many 
divisions in the ranks of the New Bern Eastern As- 
sociation, which gave many setbacks to the school 
project. The fact that the New Bern Industrial and 
Collegiate Institute was located just across the Trent 
Eiver in New Bern and directed and controlled by 
an able and energetic young man, Kev. Weeks, stood 
in the way of the progress of the Atlantic and North 
Carolina Institute. Mr. Q. C. Mial, an old and ex- 
perienced teacher from Johnston County, was elected 
as the first Principal. In the short time Mr. Mial 
was in charge of the school his work bore evidence of 
his splendid experience, but he soon grew tired of 



186 Negro Baptists of North, Carolina. 

teaching and resigned. Since that time until 1908 
the progress of the school was slow. Some of the old 
leaders of the Association have since died, and it is 
hoped that the new and more advanced leaders will 
see their way clear to unite with the New Bern and 
Collegiate or strengthen the work on the other side of 
the Trent, as such a work is so much needed in that 
section of Worth Carolina. 

The Western Union Academy. 

The Western Union Academy is located a mile 
from the town of Rutherfordton and is the property 
of several of the Western Associations. Two com- 
modious buildings have been erected on the grounds 
and every section of that country was represented in 
the school. 

Rev. Mr. Hobson, at that time living at Shelby. 
If. C, was foremost in establishing the school, in 
fact erected the first building. Afterward Rev. W. 
T. Askew, of Eastern ISTorth Carolina, who came to 
the school from Rich Square Academy, was proficient 
in this kind of service, was the first Principal, and 
under his leadership the school leaped into promi- 
nence and usefulness. Rev. Askew held this place for 
three years. Rev. R. B. Watts was elected to suc- 
ceed Rev. Askew. Rev. Watts was experienced in 
teaching, having given many years to public school 
teaching and had experience in higher school work. 
Before leaving Worth Carolina Rev. Watts had quite 
a hold on the churches and associations of the West- 



Secondary Schools, 187 

em Piedmont section, having edited a paper in that 
section for several years, which gave him a decided 
advantage in the school work, and a broad foundation 
having been laid by Rev. Askew he had but to move 
forward with the work of the Western Union Acad- 
emy, which he did, and in a few years the school was 
on a firm footing. 

The Educational Convention in forming a confed- 
eration of these secondary Baptist schools felt at that 
time that there were too many of them, but the as- 
sociations caught the educational fever which was so 
prevalent especially in the administration of Gover- 
nor Cbas. B. Aycock, but it was afterward found that 
all of them did much good in bringing the Baptists 
to the front. They caused an interest in the associa- 
tions which they would never have manifested. 
Hence, after all, the secondary Baptist schools were 
a great blessing to the cause of the denomination. 

The Claeemont Noemal School. 

This school is the property of the Mountain and 
Catawba Association and was established at Clare- 
mont, E". C, 1904. Eev. W. S. Dacons was elected 
the first Principal. There were six acres of land in 
the tract and one building in 1908, the land and 
building valued at three thousand dollars. In the 
four years between its organization and 1908 the 
number of persons in attendance had increased to 
one hundred and twenty-five. A school of such a 



188 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

character was of such vast importance its success was 
assured from the beginning. The Principal was a 
man of energy, enterprise and push, and with but 
four years everything gave promise of a splendid 
work in the education of teachers and preachers so 
much in demand in that section. 



CHAPTER XI. 

BAPTIST PAPERS. 

The African Expositoh. 

The African Expositor was established in 1877 
with Dr. H. M. Tupper, President of Shaw Uni- 
versity, Dr. ]Sr. F. Roberts, Prof. E. H. Lipscombe. 
Editors ; Drs. A. Shepard, C. Johnson, G. W. Perry, 
Business Managers. The motto of the Sentinel was 
"Ethiopia shall soon stretch forth her hands unto 
God." 

The Expositor consisted of eight pages and was 
devoted to education, religion, temperance and gen- 
eral intelligence. The paper had a wide circulation 
throughout the State, as might have been expected 
with the ablest men of the denomination at its head. 
Representing Shaw University from time to time 
through its columns it had a wide circulation in 
many places in the North. Dr. Tupper once said. 
"Had it not been for the Expositor I could not have 
established the Medical Department." The pastors 
and Christian workers throughout the State took hold 
of the Expositor and it became a great strength to the 
Sunday school work as well as the church and con- 
ventional work. A portion of each issue was devoted 
to the Foreign Mission interests, and much of the 
awakening of that early period may be directly 
traced to the sentiment developed through the col- 
umns of the African Expositor. 



190 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

The Gold Dust and the Baptist Headlight. 

For several years following the publication of the 
African Expositor there was no paper published by 
the Negro Baptists of North Carolina. For a while 
there was a paper published in Salisbury called the 
Gold Dust. We are not quite certain, but we think 
Dr. J. O. Crosby was the first editor and was as- 
sisted by Dr. C. C. Somerville. Although the Gold 
Dust did not exist sufficiently long to accomplish all 
that might have been accomplished, yet while it did 
exist it was greatly helpful to the cause in the State, 
and especially in the western section, where it was 
more largely read. As no one individual can arro- 
gate to himself the sole credit of building up a great 
cause, so no single enterprise can lay claim to such an 
accomplishment. It was not the African Expositor, 
nor the Chowan Pilot, nor the Baptist Sentinel, but 
each and all serving in their turn, contributing a por- 
tion which makes a great cause go. So it was with 
the Gold Dust. There appeared from time to time 
able articles and editorials from the gifted pen of 
the gentleman who had the management, and from 
others throughout the State, which have done much 
to mould sentiment and marshal into line the forces 
which have made the Negro Baptists what they are. 
Certainly much of the intelligence of the Piedmont 
section, much of the ambition and push, much of 
the strength of the men and the churches is due to 
education and encouragement which came to the Bap- 



Baptist Papers. 191 

tists of that section through the publication of the 
Gold Dust. 

The Baptist Headlight. 

The Baptist Headlight had its birth in Salisbury, 
as did the Gold Dust. Dr. Somerville was intimately 
associated if not at one time editor of the Headlight. 
Tor the most part Kev. A. L. Sumner was its editor. 
The Headlight had a longer existence than did the 
Gold Dust, and in fact had a more extensive circula- 
tion and support. The Headlight drew more largely 
on the State Convention and the different associa- 
tions and other organizations of the State. While it 
was published at first in Salisbury when the editor 
was elected Principal of the Goldsboro Normal 
School he carried the Headlight with him, and it was 
published while he remained in connection with the 
school, at Goldsboro. From Goldsboro he went to 
Burgaw, and took charge of the Burgaw High School. 
The paper was then sent out from Burgaw. The 
fact that a paper invariably secures a good deal of 
local patronage made the Headlight more extensively 
read in the east as well as the western section of the 
State. Like the Gold Dust the Headlight did its spe- 
cific work in making sentiment and' paving the way 
for a paper which was to be the permanent organ of 
the Baptists of the State. It was true that the short 
life of these two papers and others of lesser caliber 
made the saying proverbial that "Baptist organs die 
early" ; yet the good these men did and the sacrifices 



192 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

they made to run these papers as long as they did 
has an important place in the cherished recollections 
of the achievements of the blessed past. 

The Chowan Pii.ot. 

The Chowan Pilot was at first edited by Dr. C. S. 
Brown, and had Winton, N. C, for its home. The 
Pilot had even greater advantages over the Headlight 
than the Headlight had over the Gold Dust. To be- 
gin with the East Roanoke Association took firm hold 
of the Pilot, and not only gave loyal support in the 
number of paying subscribers, but made donations 
to enable the editor, who was the acknowledged leader 
of the Association, to purchase office fixtures and 
press to run the paper from the office. Soon the 
paper was issued in connection with the school, the 
Waters ISTormal and Industrial Institute, and as a 
feature of the industrial department the paper was 
published. The students soon learned to set up the 
type, which greatly facilitated the work and made 
the cost considerably less. The editor, with that 
spirit so characteristic of him, m.et every organiza- 
tion of Baptists it was possible to meet, and so im- 
pressed the paper on them they felt it almost im- 
perative to give their support, and hence the Chowan 
Pilot was read all over the State. And, too, it was 
always considered that the Baptists had no writer 
superior to Dr. Brown. His editorials aroused an 
interest in the Baptist cause as nothing else had 
done. Sometimes it was a political issue, and then 



Baptist Papers. 193 

a moral, and an educational, but always sonaething 
which, meant the uplift of the race and the denomi- 
nation. If there ever lived an uncompromising Bap- 
tist it was the Editor of the Chowan Pilot. Such 
loyalty and decision will always demand respect and 
attention. With so many duties upon him as princi- 
pal of a growing institution and pastor of several 
churches, the Editor of the Pilot felt called upon to 
ask that the Baptists assume control of the paper and 
appoint another editor, and Eev. W. A. Patillo, of 
Littleton, was appointed to take the editorship. Dr. 
Patillo had experienced something of this kind of 
work in connection with a Farmers Alliance sheet, 
besides many admirable qualities such as the former 
editor possessed, and the Convention felt itself fortu- 
nate to secure his services. The Pilot was not, how- 
ever, published long before a great change came in 
connection with the conventional work which necessi- 
tated a change in its organ. The work of cooperation 
had its beginning. Dr. Brown was chosen to lead 
that work as Corresponding Secretary of the Con- 
vention and general missionary under the plan of 
cooperation. This work began with the publication 
of -the Baptist Quarterly, with the general mission- 
ary editor. The quarterly was continued for ten 
months and a monthly took its place. Dr. Brown felt 
that he could not do the work of general missionary 
and editor and keep up the work of the Waters In- 
stitute, and he resigned this place to return to the 
school work and the pastorate. 
13 



194 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Dr. Brown was succeeded by J. A. Whitted, Corre- 
sponding Secretary and general missionary, who be- 
came his successor as Editor of the Baptist Quarterly. 
He edited the Baptist Sentinel Monthly and Baptist 
Sentinel Weekly covering a period of twelve years. 

The Baptist Sentinel was established December 8. 
1898, with the motto "I have made thee a watchman 
unto the house of Israel." Ez. 3 :7. The paper was 
published in the city of Raleigh every Thursday. At 
first there were only three hundred subscribers; but 
it grew rapidly until soon its list increased to thirty- 
five hundred. 

The effort to establish papers had proven so fruit- 
less it was difiicult to secure the confidence of the 
readers as to the permanency of the paper; but this 
was finally overcome, and the Sentinel gained the 
confidence of the State and established a record for 
its conservatism and for the choice matter which ap- 
peared from time to time. The plan of cooperation 
being in full blast at this time, and having meetings 
in the State somewhere each week through its mis- 
sionaries, the spread of the Sentinel was greatly fa- 
cilitated. 

Dr. N. F. Roberts, who had served up to this time 
as business manager, very much to the regret of the 
staff resigned. Mr. J. P. Williams was elected to 
succeed him. At the meeting of the Convention at 
Kinston, ]^. C, 1905, Dr. E. E. Smith was elected 
one of the editors ; Dr. S. IST. Vass and Rev. G. W. 



Baptist Papers. 195 

Moore, corresponding editors; Dr. N. F. Roberts, 
secretary and treasurer. Dr. Roberts was well known 
and trusted in North Carolina, which gave much en- 
couragement to the project. Mr. Williams gave his 
best energy to the paper, and its success was largely 
due to his faithfulness and efficiency. 

As the people became convinced that the Sentinel 
was abiding they took hold of it and its circulation 
was increased to thirty-five hundred. The policy of 
the paper had very much to do with its growth and 
development. From the beginning the paper was 
conservative and sound in its policy, allowing nothing 
to come into its colimins which meant to destroy the 
harmony and prosperity of the denomination. 
Throughout all the changes and commotions of that 
period the Sentinel stood for harmony and mutual 
helpfulness between the races. At times it was con- 
demned for its conservative policy, but extraneous 
articles were kept out of its columns. Thus it made 
friends for the race and for the denomination. It 
proved to be one of the main levers in the uplift of 
the ISTegro Baptists, which dates from the establish- 
ment of this Baptist Sentinel. 

The President of Shaw University kindly granted 
to the Convention a site on the campus of the Uni- 
versity for the erection of a building for ninety-nine 
years for the exclusive use of the Baptist Sentinel. 
The grant was gladly accepted; subscriptions to the 
amount of four hundred and fifty dollars were taken 



196 Negro Baptists of North Oarolirui. 

for this object and the building erected as the home 
of the organ of the Convention. 

While the Convention still held claim to the Benii- 
nel, that it might be relieved of a part of the respon- 
sibility, granted the organization to a number of the 
brethren into a Sentinel Stock Company, the Con- 
vention itself taking a number of stocks. May 8 
1901, this company was organized and incorporated 
April 27, 1905, taking the name Baptist Sentinel 
Publishing Company. While the Sentinel still con- 
tinued as the organ of the Convention, it was under 
the direct supervision of the stockholders. The Senti- 
nel Company did a great deal of job work, and foi 
this purpose bought type and other fixtures to the 
amoimt of several hundred dollars. With this in- 
crease of strength, with its conservatism and clean 
publications, the Baptist Sentinel took its place among 
the leading weeklies of the ISTegro Baptists in the 
country. It improved its material, m.aking an eight 
page sheet. It became a tower of strength, and found 
a welcome in thousands of homes throughout the 
State and in other States. The Biblical Recorder, 
the organ of the white Baptists of ISTorth Carolina, 
said of the Sentinel: "This excellent paper is con- 
ducted by Brother Williams with industry, ability 
and devotion. It is one of the best representatives of 
the colored race. In fact, such a paper goes far to 
create hope for the race." 

While the Sentinel was the organ of the colored 




Kev. C. H. WILLIAMSON, A.M., 
Business Manager Baptist Sentinel. 



Baptist Papers. 197 

Baptists of North Carolina it was extensively read in 
other States, and gained considerable influence 
throughout the country. 

The paper sustained its greatest loss in the death 
of Mr. Williams, Business Manager, which occurred 
at his home in Warrenton June, 1906. There have 
been men of whom it may be said they laid their life 
on the altar for the success of some project. This may 
be truly said of Mr. Williams in his relation to the 
Sentinel. 

Eighteen months intervened from the death of Mr. 
Williams to the appointment of a permanent business 
manager. Dr. A. W. Pegues, C. L. W. Smith and 
G. W. Yores served in this capacity during their in- 
tervention. The Jamestown Exposition had just 
closed. Eev. C. H. Williamson, of Ealeigh, had 
served in the capacity of Commissioner-General for 
North Carolina. His work had been so well accom- 
plished his praises were sounded by men of distinc- 
tion of both races. He had handled to splendid ad- 
vantage ten thousand dollars and had made such a 
presentation at the Exposition the Board saw in him 
a suitable successor for Mr. Williams, and he was 
elected to that position 1907. 

In the fall of 1907 J. A. Whitted, who had served 
as editor since the establishment of the paper, re- 
signed, and Dr. C. S. Brown, an able and gifted 
writer, ripe with experience in this line, was elected 
to succeed him as editor with Dr. Smith. Dr. S. N. 



198 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

Vass and Dr. S. H. Witherspoon were elected field 
editors. The Sentinel took on new life and influ- 
ence, as might have been expected with such an able 
staff. What the Biblical Recorder was to the white 
Baptists of North Carolina the Baptist Sentinel was 
to the colored Baptists, awakening an interest, giving 
life and inspiration to everything which meant the 
uplift of the Negro Baptists in North Carolina in 
particular and humanity in general. 



CHAPTER Xn. 

BIOGKAPHY. 

While tliis work is by no means intended for biog- 
raphy it seems befitting that the readers may get 
some idea of the struggles of the pioneers of our 
cause that a short sketch should be given of a few of 
them. We begin with Rev. Harry Cowan, who might 
fitly be called the father of the Baptist preachers of 
North Carolina. He was born two miles west of 
Mocksville, N. C, January 20, 1810. He united with 
the church at the age of sixteen and was granted such 
licenses as was granted to Negro preachers of that 
period, at the age of eighteen. His master, Thomas 
L. Cowan, of Salisbury, an elder in the Presbyterian 
Church, heard him speak for the first time at a fu- 
neral, and was so struck with his gift granted him his 
"four plantations" as his "field" for the ministry. 
His license was drawn up by a lawyer and read thus : 
"This is to certify that whosoever is interested about 
my man Harry he has the privilege to preach and to 
marry; also to baptize any one who makes a profes- 
sion of faith." His master made himself responsible 
for his protection, and allowed him to go anywhere 
the proper protection was guaranteed to him. God 
wonderfully blessed his labors and often thousands 
gathered in single congregations to hear him. When 
the war broke out he was made the body servant of 
General Joseph Johnston. He continued to preach 



200 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

the gospel throughout the war, preaching every night 
of that memorable struggle except the night when 
Stonewall Jackson fell. Seventy years of the life 
of Kev. Harry Cowan were given to the preaching of 
the gospel. In that time he organized forty-nine 
churches. This work was done following the emanci- 
pation. Eight thousand five hundred souls were bap- 
tized. Full of years and glorious service he came to 
the home of Mrs. H. H. Hall, his adopted daughter, 
of Winston-Salem, IST. C, where he spent his last days 
peacefully and joyfully. God sent His messenger 
and took this faithful servant unto Himself March 
11, 1904. 

Eev. Thomas Parkee, of Warsaw, N. C. 

Rev. Thomas Parker, another pioneer of the ISTe- 
gro Baptists of North Carolina, was born October 14, 
1830, Gates County, near Gatesville, N. C. From 
there he was carried to Fernandina, Fla. He was 
afterward brought back to Wilmington, N. C. He 
was converted at the age of thirty and was baptized 
and united with the Wilmington church 1863. He 
soon made known his call to the gospel ministry. 
The First Baptist Church, colored, was soon after- 
ward organized and Rev. Parker became one of its 
most active members. He was ordained to the gos- 
pel ministry at the third annual meeting of the Bap- 
tist State Convention, which was held in his church 
in the city of Wilmington. Rev. Parker has organ- 
ized during his ministry the following churches : Six 



Biography. 201 

Run, Kenansville, Hill Chapel, Little Piney Grove, 
Pilgrim Eest and Shady Grove. Four thousand seven 
hundred persons have been converted and baptized 
under his ministry. Rev. J. 0. Hayes, the venerable 
African missionary, was one of this number; con- 
verted, ordained and sent out by the Six Run 
Church. Rev. Parker was in the organization of the 
Kenansville Eastern Association, and served as its 
Moderator for twenty-six years. He was connected 
with the State Convention in its early struggle, and 
was one of the old men who followed it until his 
death. Few men if any have been called upon to 
suffer more for the preaching of the gospel than Rev. 
Parker, and yet despite all God permitted him as 
few men to realize the results of his arduous labors. 
It may be said of Rev. Parker as of most men of his 
day he was uncompromising in what he believed con- 
cerning the teachings of the Bible. He had just 
sense enough not to allow any of the Word to be ex- 
plained away from him. 

Rev. Aenold B. Williams. 

Rev. Arnold B. Williams was born in Johnston 
County 1804. By extra service while a slave he 
earned sufficient money and purchased his own free- 
dom. He was sent away from the South by the 
Quakers and remained in the ISTorth in and about 
Boston for sixteen years. He was connected with 
the Twelfth Baptist Church of Boston. It was dur- 
ing that time he accumulated six hundred dollars and 



202 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

undertook the purchase of his wife. When the proc- 
lamation was issued her freedom came to her without 
the purchase. Rev. Williams returned to the South 
immediately after the war; was ordained to the gos- 
pel ministry and took pastoral charge of the First 
African Baptist Church of Goldsbord, successor of 
Rev. Charles J. Nelson. Soon after this in the First 
African Baptist Church under the pastorate of Rev. 
Williams the Educational and Missionary Baptist 
State Convention was organized. At this first meet- 
ing in 186Y Rev. Williams was elected Treasurer of 
the Convention, which position he held until his 
death, which occurred in Goldsboro 1896. It ma^j 
be truly said of the man of God he did what he could 
for the cause of the Negro Baptists of North Caro- 
lina. He left as his logical successor "My Son in the 
Gospel," Rev. J. W. Dew, who held the place made 
vacant by death for many years after. 

Rev. Anthony W. Welbobne. 

Rev. Welborne was born in Randolph County Feb- 
ruary 3, 1840. He united with the Liberty Grove 
Church in 1870, was ordained in the white Baptist 
Church of High Point, and took charge of Liberty 
Grove. He held successful charge of eighteen 
churches of the Piedmont section ; assisted in the or- 
dination of twenty-one persons to the gospel ministry 
out of these churches. Twelve hundred persons have 
been converted and baptized through his ministry. 
He was one of the pioneers of the Rowan Association ; 



Biography. 203 

the Moderator of the High Point Association for 
many years. Although himself comparatively illiter- 
ate he stood for education and for everything which 
meant the advancement of humanity. What Eev. 
Parker was to Eastern E^orth Carolina Eev. Wel- 
borne was to the Piedmont section and to the Bap- 
tists of North Carolina. 

Rev. R. H. Haepee^ LaGeawge, IST. C. 

Among the very few who composed the first Bap- 
tist State Convention was Kev. R. H. Harper, of 
LaGrange, N. C. Rev. Harper was converted at the 
age of eighteen. He served twelve months in the 
Civil War and at its close, realizing his call to the 
gospel ministry, entered immediately upon the call. 
The first year of this service was rewarded with the 
conversion of one hundred and sixty-five persons. In 
the sixty-five years of his ministry he baptized four 
thousand two hundred and twenty-five. When the 
work of these pioneers is considered it is not surpris- 
ing that North Carolina was so largely Baptist. Not 
only did Rev. Harper take part in the organization of 
the Baptist State Convention but three associations 
and thirty-seven churches. He was pastor of the Mt. 
Pleasant Church, Wayne County, thirty-eight years; 
of another church twenty-seven and still another 
twenty-five. Truly it may be said of this servant that 
he carried out the injunctions of the Saviour to the 
letter when He said "Go ye, therefore, and teach all 



204 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

nations, baptizing them in tlie name of the Father, 
Son and Holy Ghost." 

Rev. Nicholas Fkanklin Kobeets, D.D. 

Dr. Roberts was born at Seaboard, ISI". C, October 
13, 1849. He entered Shaw University 1871 and 
graduated from the Collegiate Department 1876. In 
the fall of the same year he was elected to the Chair 
of Mathematics in Shaw University, his Alma Mater, 
which position he filled successfully for thirty-two 
years. Upward of five thousand young men and wo- 
men came under his instruction. Dr. Roberts was 
interested in everything which pertained to the uplift 
of his denomination and the general advancement of 
the Master's cause. He has served as the Editor of 
the African Expositor, President of the Educational 
and Missionary Convention of North Carolina, Pres- 
ident of the State Sunday School Convention of North 
Carolina for many years, and on almost every Board 
representing the Negro Baptists of North Carolina 
for forty years, which made him a conspicuous, in- 
dispensable factor in everything which meant the up- 
lift of the denomination. 

Rev. Geoege W. Holland. 

As the best illustration of the men of the two gen- 
erations with which this work has to do is to be found 
in the Rev. G. W. Holland and Rev. G. W. Johnson, 
both of Winston-Salem, N. C. ; the one representing 



Biography. 205 

the generation immediately following the emancipa- 
tion, the day of brush arbors and log churches, the 
day of excessive "heat and burden," of ignorance and 
doubt; the other representing the age of frame and 
brick structures, the day of comparative light and 
intelligence, the "day of wonderful growth and de- 
velopment. 

Rev. George W. Holland was born in Virginia, 
1833. Was ordained to the Gospel ministry by the 
High Street Baptist Church, and served as local 
preacher for several years, rather in the capacity of 
a missionary to the churches in and about Danville. 
In this capacity he organized and set apart fifteen 
churches. He came to Winston, 1878, and took 
charge of the First Baptist Church, which position 
he held until his death. Although a pastor it was 
the calling of Rev. Holland, it seemed, to organize 
and set apart churches. It was said of him many 
times even at midnight he would rest himself by the 
wayside after long journeys through the Blue Ridge 
Mountains, and would sit down to pick the blisters 
on his worn and weary feet. While Rev. Holland 
was uncompromising in questions of faith he had 
many friends in all the denominations through that 
kindness and generosity so characteristic of him. 
Three thousand persons were baptized in his minis- 
try. Fifteen Baptist churches in Virginia and 
twenty-three in North Carolina organized. Sixty 
young men and women were sent to Shaw University 



206 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

througli his influence. From his entrance into North 
Carolina until his death he was a faithful and true 
friend of the Educational and Missionary Conven- 
tion. Full of years of service and individual 
achievements, surrounded with a host of friends of 
hoth races, twenty-nine years the pastor of the ablest 
church of the denomination in the State, he passed 
into a well-earned rest, 1906. The largest funeral 
procession which has honored any colored man in 
the State of both races followed the remains of this 
hero to his last resting place, where he quietly sleeps 
to await the resurrection of the dead in Christ. 

Eev. George W. Johnson, D.D. 

Rev. G. W. Johnson was born in Person County, 
N. C, May, 1856. Eev. Johnson united with the 
High Street Baptist Church. Danville, Va., 1871, 
and was baptized by Rev. Harrison Scott. Real- 
izing his call to the Gospel ministry, an ordination 
counsel was called, consisting of Revs. J. J. Worlds, 
J. L. Coleman, A. L. Avery and Dr. H. H. Mitchell, 
pastor. He took a three years' course in the Theo- 
logical Department of Wayland Seminary, Washing- 
ton, D. C, under the venerable Dr. G. M. P. King. 
He has served as pastor for the following churches: 
Lexington, Chestnut, Oak Grove, Kernersville and 
Mt. Zion, Winston, which place he has held twenty 
years. He has assisted in the organization of New 
Bethel, Happy Hill, Kernersville, Mt. Zion, Shiloh, 



Biography. 207 

Yadkin Star, and First Church, Trenton, N. J. 
Twenty-five hundred persons have been baptized 
through his ministry. In the annual session of the 
Eowan Baptist Association, at High Point, he was 
elected Moderator to succeed Dr. J. 0. Crosby, and 
set a precedent in reaching directly and indirectly 
every church throughout the bounds of the Associa- 
tion, awakening an interest in the churches to the 
objects of the Association. In 1908 the G-uadaloupe 
College, Texas, granted him the honorary degree of 
D.D. As a financier. Dr. Johnson has no superioi 
and few equals. He has the confidence, in this re- 
spect, of all Winston-Salem, and in every respect is 
fully qualified to take up the work where "Father 
Holland," as he always called him, laid it down. 

Rev. Augustus Shepaed, D.D. 

Dr. Shepard was born in the city of Raleigh, 
]Sr. C, March 1, 1846. When it is considered that 
he was the son of Richard Shepard, and had a pious 
mother, it is not surprising that he should have been 
the stalwart Baptist preacher he was. While a stu- 
dent at Shaw University the President of the Uni- 
versity saw in him such fitness that he made him his 
assistant pastor of Blount Street Baptist Church. 
For eighteen years he was Colporter Missionary for 
the American Baptist Publication Society for North 
Carolina. 

It was in this capacity that Dr. Shepard did 
his best work; and the work which gave him a 



208 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

place in the hearts of the Baptists of North Caro- 
lina, which he always held. In this capacity he 
stood at the foundation of the State Sunday School 
Convention of North Carolina. It was largely 
through his efforts that the Orphan Asylum at Ox- 
ford gained its strength and many churches and 
Sunday Schools throughout the State owe their ex- 
istence largely to him. Nearly all the county Sun- 
day School Conventions were organized directly or 
indirectly through him. Dr. Shepard was one of 
the very few men who stemmed the tide of the more 
intelligent ministry which swept most of the pioneers 
from the stage. He was regarded among the ablest 
ministers of the State throughout his career. This 
was not only due to his able ministry, but to the fact 
he never turned away a struggling young man. He 
was ever ready to give him encouragement and sup- 
port. Besides the work on the field. Dr. Shepard 
pastored the Blount Street Church, Raleigh ; the 
First Baptist Church of Charlotte ; the White Eock 
Church, Durham ; the First Baptist Church, Rox- 
boro; Wake Forest Baptist Church, Warrenton, For- 
estville, the First Church of Henderson, and the 
First Church of Oxford, besides erecting and pas- 
toring the spacious church, Roanoke Salem, Garys- 
burg, N. C. No man in his day has contributed 
more to the cause of the Baptists of North Carolina 
than Dr. Shepard. 

There are many other men who might be men- 
tioned as able pioneers to the cause of the Negro 



Biography. 200 

Baptists of North Carolina, Dr. Caesar Johnson, of 
Raleigh, without whose name the history of the Bap- 
tists can not be properly written ; Lemuel W. Boone, 
the hero in the ministry and a politician as well, 
whose remains have rested under the shade in a 
lonely grave in Hertford County, awaiting the final 
reward of the just. 

And, too, there are Eagles and Horton, Warwick 
and Banks, Burwell and Patillo, the story of whose 
lives would make a history in itself. They sleep in 
their graves, but "their works do follow them." 
When a more extensive work shall be written much 
worthy of mention in their wonderful lives will be 
brought to light. Upon their shoulders at the most 
critical period rested the destiny of the cause so dear 
to our hearts, and it may be truly said of them, they 
bore their burdens, and, like Paul, rejoiced that they 
were "counted worthy to bear them." They en- 
dured their afflictions as men without murmur or 
complaint and, despite their disadvantages of igno- 
rance and poverty, they have left names worthy of 
our cherished recollections. The most fitting monu- 
ment we could rear to them has been to take up the 
work there they have left off and hand down to our 
posterity achievements commensurate with our ad- 
vantages and opportunities. A fair estimate of the 
achievements of the generation following in the wake 
of the fathers we have mentioned, and others equally 
worthy of mention, would prove them worthy of the 
14 



210 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

trust committed to their hands. With no greater 
faith, devotion and loyalty, but with broader shoul- 
ders and stronger, because of superior advantages and 
environments, both generations have vsTought well in 
their day. The foundation was laid in the fathers, 
their sons have gone far with the superstructure. 
We have used a few illustrations of those who bore 
the "burden of the heat of the day" and a few of 
that number who have so successfully carried the 
work on where they left it. In the Shaw Univer- 
sity chapter it was shown at one time, when all the 
Normal Schools of the State with a single exception 
were in charge of Shaw men, and of Baptists, as an 
evidence of what the denomination has been in the 
educational advancement of the race in North Caro- 
lina. In the establishment of the Oxford Orphan 
Asylum, in the contributions given by the Baptists 
since its establishment, with a Baptist at the head; 
and the same of the Winston-Salem Orphan Home, 
the only two Negro institutions of their kind in the 
State, is evidence of what the Negro Baptists were in 
the charitable development. 

Besides its contributions to the States of the entire 
Union in professional men, in North Carolina were: 
Charlotte, Drs. A. A. Wyche, W. H. Graves; in 
Winston, Drs. J. W. Jones, E. E. Carter; W. A. 
Jones, pharmacist, ovming and controlling the lead- 
ing Negro drug store in the country; J. S. Fitts, a 
leading lawyer ; Greensboro, Dr. J. Elmer Dellin- 
ger, lawyer G. H. Mitchell; Durham, Drs. A. M. 



Biography. 211 

Moore, C. H. Shepard; Raleigh, Drs. M. T. Pope, 
L. B. Capehart, Peter Roberts, lawyer George Lane ; 
Payetteville, H. H. Perry, pharmacist; Wilmington. 
Drs. M. D. Bowen, J. H. Alston; Wilson, Dr. F. S. 
Hargrave; Tarboro, Dr. N. S. McMillan; Bertie 
County, Dr. Sharpe; Edenton, Dr. Hines, Hon. H. 
P. Cheatham served several terms in the United 
States Congress; Dr. E. E. Smith, of Eayetteville. 
was Minister to Liberia during the administration of 
President Grover Cleveland. Members of General 
Assembly of North Carolina, Register of Deeds and 
many other places of honor and trust have been held 
by Negro Baptists of North Carolina. From the 
humble beginning of the few preachers gathered in 
the first Convention in the First African Baptist 
Church, of Goldsboro, N. C, 1867, representing just 
a handful of churches, have come in 1908 nine hun- 
dred preachers, many of them able and scholarly; a 
thousand churches, with a membership of one hun- 
dred and eighty thousand is a record worthy of proud 
mention. Besides the money given to Shaw Univer- 
sity fifty thousand dollars are raised and paid an- 
nually to the secondary Baptist schools of North 
Carolina by the Negro Baptists of the State. The 
spirit to educate, as manifested by the fathers in 
their first Convention, is evidently alive, and con- 
stantly growing in their sons. While perfection is 
yet far removed, and much unification and loyalty 
to be brought to bear on the Negro Baptist hosts of 
North Carolina, they have made many and rapid 



212 Negro Baptists of North Carolina. 

strides, as ia universally acknowledged. The dis- 
couragements which many of our remote sections 
have suffered, "the Baptists have no men," are fast 
being overcome; from the mountains to the seashore 
the Negro Baptists are sending men of whom they 
feel justly proud. With every known section of the 
State dotted with secondary Baptist schools, and 
with Shaw University in the midst of them, the 
pride, not only of the Baptists, but the entire race of 
the country, the day can not be far distant when 
every country church, as well as the brick structures 
of our cities, will be filled with men of intellectuality 
as well as the Divine Spirit. The writer closes with 
the hope that some information respecting the strug- 
gles of the past, some word of what ha^ been wrought 
under so many disadvantages, may cheer those upon 
whose shoulders the burdens may fall. The founda- 
tion has been laid, the superstructure well under 
way. Continuing under that Architect Supreme, in 
whom our fathers have faithfully trusted, failure 
is impossible. Holding fast the "faith," turning 
neither to the right hand nor to the left, suffering re- 
proach if need be for the eternal principles upon 
which we build, we have all to hope for in Him. 
whose fame rested on Calvary's cross, and whose final 
triumph will be the gathering of the redeemed unto 
Himself. 

THE END.