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Salem press s 
The Salem Press Co., Salem, Mass. 


The author of the foUowiug pages devoted the leisure of twenty- 
years, until within a few weeks of his death in the autumn of 1895, 
to gathering and arranging facts for a narrative history of the town 
of Sanford. With no thought of gain, without hope of reward other 
than that which comes from the consciousness of duty faithfully per- 
formed, he set himself to the task, bringing to it not only a love for 
historical research, but (the compiler, through filial regard, will be 
pardoned for saying) a mind well adapted, both by nature and habit 
of thought, for the prosecution of the work in a logical, discriminat- 
ing and methodical manner. Conscientious and painstaking, he 
sought to make his history reliable and thorough, deeming no detail 
too trivial for the most careful and ofttimes laborious verification. 
Possessed of that robust health which apparently betokened a long 
life, there never occurred to him the need of liastening the work, 
which, when his fatal illness overtook him, was still uncompleted. 

Having been asked to prepare the History of Sanford for publica- 
tion, the compiler found, upon examination, that it was comprised 
within several volumes of bulky note books, and that while the major 
portion was written in extenso and arranged by subject matter, in 
other instances there were merely notes, unclassified memoranda, 
copies of old documents, or additional data gathered subsequent to 
the writing of the earlier sections. Use has been made of all this 
material. Inasmuch as it was desired to preserve the original man- 
uscripts intact, it has been necessary to transcribe the work entire 
for the printers, a task in itself of no small magnitude, and increased 
by attendant circumstances and conditions. Oare has been taken, 
except where necessity existed for a condensation of material, to 



relaiu the author's exact text ; and for this reason and because of 
the obvious enumeration of events since the author's death, it has not 
been deemed requisite to make formal distinction between the work 
of the author and the compiler. An exception should be noted, how- 
ever, in Chapters II and III, interwoven as they are with material 
obtained by the compiler from original sources, namely, the Propri- 
etors' Records, for which the author sought diligently through a score 
of years, and the existence of which was brought to his attention only 
a short time before his death. These valuable records (much of 
them, it may be said in passing, in the handwriting of the famous 
Samuel Adams, proprietors' clerk) are in the possession of Mr. 
George W. Johnson, of Somersworth, N. H., in whose family they 
have been for about seventy-five years ; by him they were kindly 
placed at the convenience of the compiler, who found them of the 
utmost service in tiding over gaps in the narrative and settling a 
number of disputed questions. 

Of the merits of this volume, the compiler fain would leave the 
reader to judge, yet cannot forbear reference to the author's evident 
intention not merely to chronicle the events of the town, but, by 
presenting as well that which indicates clearly the trend, growth, 
and development of public sentiment in the community on all the 
great questions of the day, to deal in some measure with the true 
philosophy of history. Such will be found in the chapters on the 
Revolution and the events immediately succeeding it ; the action with 
reference to adoption of the Constitution, the Embargo, separation 
from Massachusetts, and surplus revenue ; the temperance move- 
ment ; and the Civil War ; while the votes for President and Gov- 
ernor, set forth in dry flgui'es though they be, bear interesting witness 
to frequent changes in the manifestation of political principles, in the 
expression of which, we cannot doubt, the greatest freedom has 
always been permitted. 

It is a matter of pride to the compiler to be enabled to present to 
the public the author's history of his native town, — a life-work. 
{Without the aid, advice, and encouragement of a host of willing 
ifriends, however, the task would have been difficult of accomplish- 


merit. The compiler's hearty thanks are due to Hon. Frank A'. 
Allen, Hon. E. M. Goodall, Hon. Sumner I. Kimball, Mr. George 
E. Allen, Mr. Charles B. Allbee, Mr. Harry E. Bryant, Mr. Frank 
H. Dexter, Mr. Fred B. Averill, and Mr. Edwin R. Champlin (the 
latter of P'all River), among others, for courtesies extended, and for 
friendly suggestions and criticisms. Laboring under the disadvan- 
tage of being at so great a distance from the scene, the information 
relating to affairs of the last five years, as supplied principally by 
Mr. George E. Allen, has been especially helpful. To the many who 
were of assistance to tiie author during his period of research, and 
who cannot here be called by name, the compiler also would extend 
his sincere thanks. 

Within a few hours the midnight chimes will ring out the old, ring 
in the new. The dawn of the twentieth century is bright with hope 
and encouragement. " The great gain on an occasion like the pres- 
ent," as has been so well said by an eminent son of Maine, " is that 
we stand for the moment in the focus of two great lights. We see 
ourselves in the light of the past and in that of the future. We judge 
the past, and we know as we judge the past, so the future will judge 
us. We stand thus in the presence of an ideal partially fulfilled. 

Today we lift the heroism of the fathers of our town up 

from the obscurity in which their lives were passed, and honor it. 
Let it be an inspiration to our own lives ; so that when the great 
light of the future is turned back upon our memories, as we turn 
back the light of the present upon theirs, we, in the peace and com- 
fort of our homes, shall be seen to be no unworthy successors of 
those whose strong arms and brave hearts conquered for us in the 

Fall Rivek, Mass., 
December 31, 1900. 





Situation — Size — Topograpliy — Hills — Mousam River — 
Water Powers — Brooks — Ponds — Trees — Soil — Min- 
eralogy and Geology — Villages ..... 1 



The Province of Maine — Fluellin's Deed to Major William 
Phillips, 1661 — Tract of Nineteen Thousand Acres Given 
to Nineteen Heirs — Survey of 1720 — Action of Proprie- 
tors — Efforts at Colonization — Grants — Life and Char- 
acter of Major Phillips . ...... 10 



Settlement — Forty Settlers' Lots — Names of First Settlers 
— Lots Improved by Them — The First Houses — The 
First Mill — County and Other Roads laid out — Early 
Litigation — First Innholder and First Retailer . . 22 



Exposure of Frontier Settlements td Attack — The Aborigines 
of Phillipstown — Scouts and Garrison Houses — Names of 
Soldiers Serving in French and Indian Wars, 1744-1762 . 34 





Two Ineffectual Petitions — Increase in Population — The Act 
of 1768 — Name of the New Town — Biographical Sketch 
of Governor Peleg Sanford, in Whose Honor it was Named 

— First Town Meeting — Early Votes .... 43 



Names of Soldiers Furnished, Terms of Service, and Interest- 
ing Facts in Regard to Them — Votes of Town — Money 
Raised 52 



Establishment of New Form of Government — Division into 
Parishes — Alfred Set off and Incorporated — Boundary 
Troubles — Disputed Land Titles — Fryeburg and Groton 

— First Direct Tax 89 



Organization of the Baptist Church, 1772, and Ordination of 
Rev. Pelatiah Tingley — Sketch of his Life — Growth of 
the Church — Incorporation of the Society — First Meet- 
ing-House and Subsequent Places of Worship — Pastors 
and Deacons ......... 97 



Second Baptist Church, Mouse Lane — Mount Hope Church — 

Springvale Baptist Church . . . . . .111 



Early Orthodox Worship — Church in the South Parish Organ- 
ized — Rev. Moses Sweat — A Primitive Meeting House — 
Church Edifices at the Corner — Pastors and Deacons — 
The South Sanford Church 118 




Freewill Baptists — Elder Stewart's Church — Methodists — 

Christians — Adventists — Catholic Churches . . . 135 



The First Schools — Town Votes — Money Raised — Teachers 

— Mode of Teaching — School-Houses — Districts and 
Divisions — " Masters " Clark, Hamilton, Gowen, Thomp- 
son, Shaw, and Others 143 



Agriculture — Spinning and Weaving — Customs of the People 

— Wild Animals — Bear Stories — A Mink Climbs a Tree 

— Fish . . . 155 



Adoption of the United States Constitution — Opposition of 
Major Samuel Nasson — Alien and Sedition Acts — Hos- 
tility to the Embargo - — Letter of Thomas Jefferson — 
Separation from Massachusetts — Removal of the Courts 171 



Post Roads — Horseback Mail Carriers — Stage Routes — 

Complete List of Postmasters — Locations of Offices . 181 



Wayside Inns of the Olden Time — List of Early Innholders 

— Louis Philippe's Visit to Colonel Caleb Emery's Hostelry 

— Licensed Retailers Prior to 1800 186 



WAR OF 1812. 

Feeling of the People — Failure of tlie Crops Causes Filling of 
Sanford's Quota — Patriotic Ode Gives Lieutenant John 
Hanson his Commission — Names of Soldiers . . 190 



Growth of the Town — Business Prosperity — Houses — San- 
ford Corner — Springvale — Naming of the Village — 
Deering Neighborhood — South Sanford — Oak Hill — 
Shaw's Ridge and "Grammar Street " — Mount Hope — 
I nnholders and Traders . . . . . . .194 



The Village Train-band — Horrible Casualty at General 
Frost's Funeral — General Muster — List of Militia Offi- 
cers — Florida War — Madawaska War .... 203 



First Mill at South Sanford — Second, on the Chadbouru 
Privilege — Cane's, Willard's, Moulton's, and the Prov- 
ince Mills — The Iron Works — Morrison's Mills and 
Others — Springvale Print Works — Woollen Mills — 
Cotton Manufacturing at Springvale — Shoe Factories . 209 



Privations of the Pioneers — Protest Against Taxation, 1768 
— Warning Out of Town — Scarcity of Food — Votes Rel- 
ative to the Poor — Disposal by Vendue — Town-Farm 
Established 223 




Common Use of Intoxicants in the Early Days — Meeting 
Houses Raised with Rum — First Restrictive Action of 
the Town — Decided Stand of Rev. Mr. Marsh— Grant- 
ing of Licenses — Early Temperance Workers and Organ- 
izations — Incendiarism at Springvale — The Prohibitory 
Law 2.S0 



A Gift from the National Government — Perplexity as to Dis- 
position of Sauford's Share — Final Payment to Heads of 
Families 240 



List of Traders and Merchants, Beginning with 1830 — Inn- 
holders and Hotel Keepers from 1835 to 1870 — Residents 
of Sanford Corner Fifty Years Ago .... 243 



Seaman George W. Bean Sees Active Service — Company of 
Volunteers Raised — Captain Goodwin Hoodwinked, but 
Comes Out Ahead • 250 



Doubt as to the First Practicing Attorney — Laymen Display 
their Legal Gifts — Colonel Caleb Emery's Opinion — 
John Holmes — The Case of Henry Hamilton — Famous 
Lawsuits — The First Physicians .... 253 



£arly County Roads — Highway Surveyors — The First Town 
Highway — County Road to Fryeburg of 1783 — Bitter 
and Stubborn Controversy Over a Highway from 1804 to 
1810 — List of Roads and Dates of Acceptance . . 259 




Beginnings of the Abolition Movement — Auti-Slavery Soci- 
eties — Oiitbrealt of the War — Captain John Heming- 
way Eaises a Company for the Eighth Maine — Bounties 
for Soldiers and Aid for Soldiers' Families Voted by the 
Town — Sanford's Company in the Twenty-Seventh Maine 
— Four Brothers Enlist — The Roll of Honor . . 277 



Thomas Goodall Comes to Sanford, 18G7 — Starts the Man- 
ufacture of Carriage Robes and Kersey Blankets — The 
Sanford Mills — Mousam River Mills — Goodall Brothers' 
Mills — Consolidation, 1885— Goodall Worsted Mills — 
Maine Alpaca Company — Sanford Light and Water Com- 
pany — Electric Roads Established — Sanford Power 
Company — The Great Dam ...... 30O 



Mousam River and Sanford Banks, 1854-61 — Sanford 

National Bank — Loan and Building Associations . . 308 



Project of 1850 a Failure — The Portland and Rochester Road 

— Town Refuses to Invest in Stock — The Mousam River 

and Sanford and Cape Porpoise Railway Companies . 311 



Record of Fires from 1754 — The Big Conflagration of 1878 

— Fire Department — Water Supply — Electric Alarm 
System .......... 315 




Preshets on the Mousam Eiver — Natural Phenomena — Ex- 
tremes of Weather — Heavy Snow-Storms — Epidemics of 
Small- Pox and Other Diseases — Violent Deaths . . 329 



The Masons — Odd Fellows — Knights of Pythias — Grand 
Army — Golden Cross — Red Men — Other Secret Socie- 
ties 340 



Pamily Burial Places — The Nasson Burying Ground — Re- 
moval of Bodies — Riverside Cemetery, Springvale — Oak- 
dale Cemetery, Sanford ...... 344 



Establishment of Free High School, 1874 — The School Dis- 
continued and Finally Re-Established — List of Principals 

— New Building at the Corner, 1888 — The Present School 
System — Expenditures — Complete List of Members of 

the School Committee ....... 347 



"Town-Houses — Panic at Town Meeting, 1897 — Pounds — 
Population — Sanford the Second Largest Town in Maine, 
1 900 — Valuation and Polls — Lists of Town Officers 

— Representatives — Other Officers — Votes for President 

and Governor . . . . . . . .355 





The Press — Public Library — Opera House — Public Observ- 
ances, the Centennial Fourth, and Other Occasions — 
Some "First Things" — Longevity — Large Families — 
Musical Organizations — A Trout-Breeding Experiment 
— Christian Civic League and Other Organizations — War 
with Spain — The Filipino Insurrection 

Biographies and Genealogies 
Appendix A, "Witch Stories . 
Appendix B, Early Church-Going 
Appendix C, Lawyers and Physicians . 
Appendix D, Various Town Votes 
Appendix E, Shapleigh Annexationists 
Biographical Index .... 
Index of Revolutionary Soldiers 

. 393 

. 518 

. 521 

. 522 

. 52a 

. 527 

. 531 

. 535 


Edwin Emery, .... .... Frontispiece 


Hon. Fkank A. Allen, . . . .16 

Stillman B. Allen, 32 

Ered B. Avkrill, .... . . 48 

Colonel NehemiahButlbr, 64 

Eeank H. Dexter, 80 

Prbscott Emery, . . . . .... 112 

Samuel B. Emery, ... .... 128 

William L. Emery, ..... . ... 144 

Howard Frost . .... 160 

D. M. Frye, . . . . 176 

Hon. Ernest M. Goodall, . .... . . . ... 192 

George B. Goodall, ... ... 224 

Louis B. Goodall, . . ... . 256 

Hon. Thomas Goodall, .... 272 

Hon. Benjamin F. Hanson, .... .... 304 

HoNs I. S. Kimball, 320 

Hon. Sumner I. Kimball 352 

Colonel Ebenbzer Nowbll, . . ... 400 

General Ebbnezer Bicker, 482 

Hon. Charles A. Shaw 464 

.John Storbr, . . . . .... . . .... 480 

Kkv. William Teii-p, .... . 512 



Page 48. line 14. For " seem " read " seen." 

Page 81. Peter Nasson was born in 1766. 

Page 195. As will be noted by statements on pages 195 and 484, traditions 
regarding the Nasson house fail to agree in all details. Assuming that 
General Jotham Moulton was bora in 1740, the house, if erected by him, 
must have been built later than the date mentioned on page 195. It may be 
that the oiiginal structure was built by his grandfather, Colonel Jeremiah 
Moulton, in 1740-41 (having been possibly a block-house), and that General 
Moulton built only the upper story. 

Page 201, line 21. For " Goodwin's" read " Goodrich's." 

Page 213, line 10. David Morrison came to Sanford about 1785. 




Situation — Size — Topography — Hills — Mousam Eiver — Water 
powers — Brooks — Ponds — Trees — Soil — Mineralogy and 
Geology — Villages. 

SANFORD is situated in latitude 43° 25' north, and in longitude 
6° 13' east from Washington, or 70° 47' west from Greenwich. 
It is about four miles south from the Court House, Alfred, thirty-one 
west-southwest from the City Hall, Portland, and eighty-two south- 
west from the State House, Augusta. These are air-line distances. 
It is bounded on the north by Acton and Shapleigh, on the north- 
east by Alfred, on the southeast by Kennebunk and Wells, and on 
the southwest by North Berwick and Lebanon. Owing to its irreg- 
ular boundaries, a part of Shapleigh lies west, of North Berwick, 
southeast, and of Lebanon, northwest, of Sanford. Its length is 
nearly twice its breadth, averaging about ten miles by five. Its 
lower boundary is nearly six and three-quarters miles. Its greatest 
length, from the corner of Acton, Lebanon and Sanford to the Wells 
line, is about eleven and a half miles. A straight line from that 
corner through the pond at Sanford to the Kennebunk line near the 
Mousam River measures nearly twelve miles. Its area is approxi- 
mately 64,000 acres. 

The lower part of the town is sandy and marshy. Its low and 
level surface is relieved by two hills only. Oak and Lyon. The upper 
part is diversified by hills and valleys — the hills, generally called 
ridges, bearing the names of early settlers, as Low's or Shaw's ridge, 
Hanson's or Plummer's ridge, and Deering's ridge. Oak Hill re- 
ceived its name from the large and abundant oaks which covered it 
when first settled. Though a slight elevation its summit affords a 
good view of the White Mountains. More than a century ago. Pres- 
ident Dwight, of Yale College, visited it that he might obtain a view 
of the famous hills. In his " Travels," Volume I, page 427, he informs 
us that he was at Rogers's inn, eight miles from Portsmouth Bridge, 



Thursday, October 6, 1796, and then briefly describes the appearance 
of the mountains as seen from the hill. 

" Our host, having informed us that, at Sanford, four miles north- 
west from his house, the White Mountains were visible, we toob our 
horses and rode to an eminence named Oak Hill ; the spot where, as 
he told us, this interesting object might be seen. The day was 
bright and clear ; and Mount Washington, the highest of these sum- 
mits, was in full view. The computed distance, not far from the real 
one, is ninety miles. The color of this summit was a blue, approx- 
imating to white. It was misty and dim, but easily distinguishable. 
Immediately before a storm it is said to loom in an extraordinary 
manner, i. e. to rise, apparently; to seem nearer; and to become 
more distinct to the eye than at other times." 

One suggestion in regard to the origin of the name of Lyon Hill 
is, that it is a corruption of Lyman's Hill, named for Doctor Job 
Lyman, who was a land owner in Sanford during the latter part of 
the last century. Another suggestion is a similar corruption of Liron's 
Hill, Liron being the name of one of the heirs of Elisha Sanford's 
thousand acres. And still another that the name of Lion Hill was 
applied to this region, whence, in the days of the early settlers, came 
the bowlings of wolves and an occasional catamount, making it a 
region of terror. 

The writer has this origin of the name, which seems more reason- 
able than the other explanations of it, from one (Deacon Stephen 
Dorraan) who had it from an early settler (William Bennett) : The 
hill was so called because one Captain Lyon encamped thereon, with 
a company of soldiers, when on an expedition toward the eastern 
frontier. (Captain Henry Lyon was in Roxbury in 1711, and in 
York in 1714.) 

Beaver Hill, in the northeast part of the town, derives its name 
from the beaver, whose haunts were in the neighboring pond. From 
its summit, six hundred and twenty-six feet above the level of the 
sea, a fine view can be had of the valley of the Mousam. 

The highest elevation of land is Mount Hope, six hundred and 
eighty-five feet above the sea level. This was formerly Annis's Hill, 
from its first settler, Charles Annis. The name Mount Hope is 
found recorded in 1806, but what reason can be given for the change 
is wholly a matter of conjecture. A magnificent view is presented 
from Mount Hope. Toward the west and north stretch the hills of 
New Hampshire, terminating in the White Mountains. Toward the 
east and south lies the valley of the Mousam with low hills beyond, 


and with apparently higher land near the ocean. Woods and fields 
interspersed spread out a beautiful landscape, beyond which the At- 
lantic rolls as far as eye can see. The white sails of vessels going 
hither and thither skirt the horizon, and occasionally a passing 
steamer may be traced by a thread of black smoke gradually dis- 
sipated into the atmosphere. 

The Mousam River, western branch, enters Sanford about midway 
of the northern boundary, flows in a southeasterly direction nearly 
nine miles, and then east till it unites with the eastern branch, and 
forms the boundary between Sanford and Alfred to the Kennebunk 
line. It is from two to four rods wide in its natural course, but 
where dammed as at Willard's, Sanford and Springvale, forms ponds 
of considerable width. Near Morrison's Mill privilege there is a 
natural curiosity called the ' ' Gulf." It is a narrow cut through a 
ledge, about fifty feet long, twenty high and ten or twelve wide, 
through which the water rushes with much force. There is a tradi- 
tion that a Littlefield, chased by an Indian, leaped across this chasm, 
and escaped from his fleet-footed pursuer. 

In his " Summary," Douglass says : " Mausom River comes from 
some Ponds near the famous Lovell's Pond, about 40 miles above 
Piscataqua Harbour ; at these Ponds Bryant the Surveyor began to 
set off" the N. 8d. E. Line between the Province of Main and New 
Hampshire : this river falls into the Ocean in the Township of Wells." 
Says Williamson : " The Mousam, formerlj' called Cape Porpoise- 
River or Maguncook, which issues from ponds of that name in Shap- 
leigh, twenty miles remote, turns several mills, but has no good 
harbor by nature." Sullivan adds, " and is increasing in its use and 

The Mousam River (three branches, eastern, middle and western) 
is about twenty-five miles long, drains one hundred and twenty square- 
miles of territory, and has an estimated yearly discharge of 4,680,- 
000,000 cubic feet. It is supplied by the Shakers', Bunganut, Mou- 
sam, Square and Loon Ponds, whose approximate area is four and 
eighty-five hundredths square miles. At the railroad crossing it is 
two hundred and fourteen feet above the level of the sea, and its- 
descent from about the level of Springvale to tide water is two hun- 
dred and sixty-two feet. According to the United States Coast Sur- 
vey, the depot is three hundred and twenty-eight feet above the level 
of the sea. 

At some remote period the course of the river near Morrison's 
Corner seems to have been changed. Holes worn in the rocks by 


the attrition of water would indicate that the river flowed nearer the 
Corner than its present channel. It has also been conjectured that, 
by some great upheaval of the earth's crust, the lower course was 
turned toward the east from its original basin. The chain of ponds 
extending toward the south from South Sanford seems to indicate 
that the waters found their way to the ocean through the valley of 
the Piscataqua. It is a noticeable fact, that, since the forests have 
been cleared away, a less quantity of water than formerly flows in 
the channel. 

The following brooks are tributaries of the Mousam : A small 
brook which rises in Shapleigh, flows through the Welch neighbor- 
hood and empties into that river below Morrison's ; Frost's brook, 
which crosses the road just below Butler's Corner above Springvale 
and flows easterly ; Chapman's brook, which rises west of Spring- 
vale, and crosses the road between there and Sanford ; Beaver 
Hill brook, which drains the swamps east of the depot, and Muddy 
brook, which drains those south of Shaw's ridge ; the Birch-log 
brook and Thompson brook are small water courses, crossing " Hard- 
scrabble ;" Boston's brook east of Jonas C. Littlefield's ; Perkins's 
brook at East Sanford, which runs east, and has its outlet below 
Whitcher's grist mill. 

The Hay Brook, so called on account of the large number of 
meadows along its banks which it drains, rises southeast of Beaver 
Hill, forms a part of the boundary between Sanford and Alfred, and 
empties into the eastern branch of the Mousam. Its tributary is 
Cane's brook, which rises below the late residence of Stephen H. 

According to the returns made by Moses W. Emery and James O. 
Clark, in 1868, to Walter Wells, superintendent of the Hydrographic 
Survey of Maine, there were sixteen water powers on the Mousam 
within the limits of the town having an aggregate fall of two hun- 
dred and four feet. According to a subsequent survey reported in 
1890, there are nineteen mill-privileges with an aggregate fall of three 
hundred and six feet. We are indebted to tlie same excellent author- 
ity for a description of the same. ' ' Commencing with the upper end 
and following the river down," says Mr. Emery, "we find first the 
fall at Jellison's bridge, that a survey makes 62 feet; then Jordan's 
saw-mill, fall 10 feet; next the Churchill fall 12 feet; then George 
K. Gibbs, 18 feet ; next the Morrison mill privilege owned by Sumner 
I. Kimball, fall 25 feet ; then Springvale mills, fall 17 feet ; first shoe 
factory, fall 10 feet; second shoe factory, 14 feet; Shaekley's grist 


mill, 9 feet ; next a water privilege owned on the east by S. D. Tib- 
betts, and on the west by Sumner I. Kimball, fall 15 feet; then come 
the three water privileges of the Sanford Mills, aggregate 36 feet. 
Then there was, so long ago that none but the very old people re- 
member it, a mill privilege opposite the Jotham Moulton place, 
owned and occupied by a man named Cane, fall said to be 8 feet. 
Below is the Cram, or "Willard mill privilege, fall 8 feet Next is the 
Linscott mill, fall 20 feet; then Estes mill, fall 10 feet; Morse mill, 
fall 14 feet, and last Hill's mill, with a fall of 18 feet, making in all 
19 mill privileges, with an aggregate of 306 feet. The fact that there 
are these good water privileges within very short distances of each 
other, at both Springvale and Sanford Corner, and also the lands 
adjoining the same were favorable to build upon, furnishes the reason 
for the two prosperous villages in this town. Seven of the water 
privileges enumerated are occupied by saw and grist mills, six are 
unoccupied, and among them are some of the very best of all, but 
their location has so far prevented their use, while those at Springvale 
and Sanford Corner are not equal to the amount of business done, 
so that it is sometimes said that these places have about made their 
natural growth as manufacturing places." 

Willis says that the name Mousam is of Indian origin, but Judge 
Bourne has a different opinion. In his " History of Wells and 
Keunebunk," he gives an account of the change from Cape Porpoise 
to Mousam, but sees no reason why the appellation should have been 
used. Henry Say ward completed a saw-mill at the falls, at Keune- 
bunk, in 1672, and then built a giist-mill, to which establishment as 
a whole he gave the name Mousam mills. " Previous to this period, 
the river had been known by the name of Cape Porpoise ; soon after, 
it was called Mousam. The change was probably wrought by this 
designation of the works on it. It would be natural, in referring to 
the Mousam mills, as common in the intercourse of life, to give the 
same name to the territory about it and to the river on which the 
business of the mill was done." But why Sayward gave it the name 
Mousam neither record nor tradition reveals to us. 

The Great Works Kiver, or brook, as it is frequently called, rises 
between Hanson's ridge and Mount Hope, flows in a southerly direc- 
tion, forms a part of the boundary between Sanford and North Ber- 
wick and empties into Bauneg Beg Pond. Among its tributaries are 
Cold Spring brook, which rises west of the Corner, and flows through 
the bed of the "Old Pond," of which it was formerly the outlet ; 
Shepherd's Machine brook, the outlet of Fishing Pond; the Bean 


brook and Walnut brook at the foot of Mount Hope ; and Allen's 
Marsh brook near Oak Hill. At one time, it furnished water-power 
a part of the year for four mills : Hobbs's, Gowen's, Bennett's and 

A brook rising near the Worsters flows easterly, then southerly 
near the Carrolls, and empties into a branch of Little Kiver. The 
outlet of Deering Pond, called the "Branch," with its tributaries, 
empties into Little River. On an old plot of Lydston's grant, the 
Indian name of the pond is given as Tombegewoc, and the name of 
its outlet, Salmon Falls River. 

The Red brook, so called, on the Hanson's ridge road, received its 
name from the red loam or ochre found in its bed and in early days 
used for painting. 

The Branch River has its sources in the swamps and lowlands, 
southwest of the Wells road, through which the "Long Causey" is 
built, and flows southeasterly through Wells into the Atlantic ocean. 
Merriland River rises in the swamps east of Oak Hill. 

According to the plan of Sanford as surveyed in 1 794, there were 
thirteen ponds in town, having an estimated area of two hundred and 
eighty-five acres, and two lying partly in town, of one hundred and 
thirty acres : Deering, twenty acres ; Cold Spring, thirty acres ; Fish- 
ing, twenty acres ; Curtis, eighteen acres ; Picture, twenty acres ; 
Sand, forty acres ; Duck and Eel, ten each ; four nameless ponds, ten 
each ; and one of eighty acres near the southwest boundary of Wells. 
Thirty acres of Beaver HiU Pond and one hundred of Bauneg Beg 
Pond were in Sanford. The latter lies at the foot of Bauneg Beg 
Hills. Its name is undoubtedly of Indian origin, but what it means, 
or its correct orthography. Bonny Bigg, Bonny Beag, Benepeag, or 
Bauneg Beg, we have been unable to determine. 

The name of Picture Pond came from the " Picture Tree " stand- 
ing on its shore, which received its name from the following circum- 
stance: About 1754, " a daughter of Peter Morrell, a Quaker, on 
the northeast side of Berwick, went out on a Sunday morning into 
the woods, near her father's house, to gather hemlock bows (boughs) 
for a broom ; the savages shot her and carried away her head, not 
having time to take off her scalp." When they reached Picture Pond 
they engraved an image of the child upon an old pine tree, which for 
years was a noted landmark in that vicinity. 

Cold Spring Pond has disappeared. Whether these estimates of a 
century ago hold good as to the other ponds, we have no means of 


The surveyor of the eight miles square in 1720, indicated on his 
plan the character of the territory surveyed. Between the Kenne- 
bunk and Mousam Rivers there was " good land;" on the southwest 
side of the Mousam along the Wells head-line, " much clear level land 
and a good soil," beyond which was " The head of Merriland 
Marshes." On the northeast side of the Mousam, western branch, about 
the confluence of the two branches, "pine timber" was abundant; 
along the Berwick boundary, near Bauneg Beg, " much white ash 
timber," and near the Great Works River, " beech and pine." Of the 
land in general. Surveyor Preble thus writes November 10, 1720, after 
having taken possession of the land : " It is a tract of very good 
land, plain flatt level land, good soil as far as we could judge, fat 
land, and well meadowed upon every part ; and for timber the best 
that ever I saw or those that were with me ; yet we saw but the least 
part ; white pine in abundance fit for sawing into boards and not 
difficult to transport ; white oak and red oak in abundance and a 
great deal of large pitch pine suitable for to saw, or for turpentine, 
or making tar, and of white ash Timber enough to supply the King- 
dom many years. And I am credibly informed that there is a great 
quantity of very good and large white Cedar. The rivers will be 
very serviceable to transport your lumber, &c., the way from Wells 
thither is very good & plain and not more than six or seven miles 
to Wells Township and from the Westward part I believe not more 
than seven or eight miles to Berwick meeting house." 

The forests of pine, of which Surveyor Preble writes, disappeared, 
and the white ash, in large quantities, seems to have been a tree of 
the past. Cedar has been abundant in the cedar swamp at South 
Sanford. Oak covered the hill which derived its name from the tree. 

That part of the town now Alfred, was well covered with pitch- 
pine and white oak. North of Bunganut Pond was broken white 
oak. Across the Coxhall line white oak and pitch-pine, along the 
upper course of the eastern branch, and pitch-pine along the lower 
course. Between that branch and the highway from Wells to Mas- 
sabesec, much pitch-pine, both above and below Eastman's Pond and 
its surrounding heath. On the other side of the road, near the 
junction of the eastern and middle branches, white oak flourished, 
between which and the pitch-pine above, was a sharp dividing line, 
and still above the large tract of pitch-pine, another marked divis- 
ion between pine and white oak. Broken pitch-pine, heaths and 
rocky land lay between the middle and western branches. It was 
the tract between these two branches that furnished a weighty 


reason for dividing the town. It was described as a barren pitch- 
pine plain and large spruce swamp unfit for settlements between the 
two parishes, and some years rendered unfit for passage from one 
parish to another without great difficulty, on account of the flow of 
water. Scrub-oak and scrub-pine are found on the plains, while the 
more hardy soils grow white, red and yellow oak, white and pitch-pine, 
beech, maple, birch, spruce, cedar and hemlock. Willow is found in 
small quantities, and a few walnut trees stand out by themselves near 
Deacon Samuel Nowell's on the North Berwick road, at the foot of 
Mount Hope. In our day, a few large, tall Norway pines stood, 
like giant sentinels, near the Hay Brook on the lower road to Al- 

The lower parts of the town are sandy plains or marshes. Oak 
Hill and Lyon Hill are good strong soil, as are the other hills or 
ridges in the northeast and northwest parts. Mount Hope was 
formerly covered with pine growth, but now with hard-wood growth, 
maple, birch, beech, and has a strong ledgy soil. Deering's ridge has a 
rich loam to support its hard-wood growth, and produces hay, wheat, 
corn and potatoes. Hanson's ridge. Hummer's ridge, Shaw's ridge 
and the Beaver Hill neighborhood, have productive soils, which 
yield good crops under skilful cultivation and favorable conditions 
of the weather. 

A complete analysis of the mineralogy and geology of the town 
has never been made. Granite, gneiss and mica slate abound in the 
western counties of Maine, and there are several fine granite quarries 
in Sanford, the stone being said to be equal to that of Quincy. In 
1772 there was in town an iron works erected for the purpose of 
smelting ore and forging iron, the ore being obtained in the northerly 
part of Sanford and in Shapleigh. This venture did not prove success- 
ful. Professor John W. Webster, in the summer of 1848, discovered 
vesuvianite, or idocrase, on the land of the late Solomon Allen, the 
bed being upwards of two hundred feet in length. Professor Web- 
ster relates that he also found molybdenum, epidote, albite and cale 
spar. Of the vein of idocrase, Kunz, in his " Gems and Precious 
Stones of North America" (1890) says, it "occurs in unlimited 
quantities, one ledge, fully thirty feet wide, being made up entirely 
of massive idocrase, associated with quartz, and occasionally with 
calcite, which fills the cavities containing the crystals. Some of the 
crystals are seven inches long and occasionally the smaller ones 
would afford fair gems." It was thought a few years ago that copper 
had been discovered in a granite ledge on the farm now owned by 


Willard Littlefield, but a superficial examination sliowed pyrites of 
iron, with slight traces of gold and copper. Some beautiful speci- 
mens of feldspar of various hues were also found. 

There are two villages in the town, Sanford, or Sanford Corner, as 
it was long known, and Springvale. The latter name is also applied to 
the station of the Portland and Rochester Railroad. South Sanford 
can hardly be called a village, though a post-office is established 
there. Moultonborough is a part of South Sanford extending along 
the eastern side of the river. Mouse Lane, in the eastern part, is said 
to have been a term of reproach. The early settlers kept a breed of 
very small cattle whose coming and going out of the narrow wood 
roads were suggestive of mice darting here and there through the 
almost hidden approaches of their burrows. The Perkins neighbor- 
hood, the Branch, and Getchell's Corner are in the lower part of the 
town ; the Littlefield and the Deering neighborhoods in the upper 
part. Morrison's Corner is a mile above Springvale. "Grammar 
Street " is the road leading from Shaw's ridge to the lower Alfred 
road. Its name was said to have been given because a large number 
of teachers had their homes on that road. Another reason is also 
ascribed for this name. A school-house stood above the woods not 
far from Samuel Shaw's barn. It was burned before 1822. In that 
school-house, about 1817, a class of grown-up scholars began the 
study of grammar, the flist time it was studied in any school in town. 
Thereupon some of the scholars began to call'the road "Grammar 

According to the Postal Register, there are fourteen other San- 
fords in the United States : in Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, 
Florida, Georgia, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, New York, North 
Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia. 
There are also Sanford Corners, New York ; Sanfordtown, Kentucky ; 
Sanfordville, Illinois ; and Sandford in Indiana and Kentucky. There 
are eight other Springvales in the United States : in Georgia, Kansas, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania (York County), Ten- 
nessee and Virginia. Some are towns, while others are merely post 



The Province of Maine — Fluellin's Deed to Major William Phillips, 
1661 — Tract of Nineteen Thousand Acres Given to Nineteen 
Heirs — Survey of 1720 — Action of Proprietors — Efforts at Col- 
onization — Grants — Life and Character of Major Phillips. 

THE name "Province or Countie of Maine " was first used by King 
Charles I of England, in 1639, in chartering the territory lying , 
between the Kennebec and Piscataqua Rivers to Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, a leading spirit in the Plymouth Company. This tract was 
claimed, in 1652, by the General Court of the Colony of Massachu- 
setts Bay, as a part of that colony, and the Province of Maine was 
thereupon erected into a county called Yorkshire, most of the inhab- 
itants acknowledging themselves as subject to Massachusetts. Sir 
Ferdinando had meanwhile died, and after the Restoration, his grand- 
son and heir, Ferdinando Gorges, began to agitate his claim to the 
territory of his grandfather. In 1664 Charles II recognized the claim- 
ant, and ordered the colony to make restitution of his lands, or to 
" show us reasons to the contrary." Troubles arose between the 
adherents of the two parties, two governments were established, 
and a bitter contest was waged. The party of Gorges was obliged 
to yield, though he did not relinquish his claim until 1677, when 
Massachusetts purchased his right for twelve hundred and fifty 
pounds sterling. The indenture transferred all the territories granted 
by charter to Gorges in 1639, " excepting all leases, grants and con- 
veyances made by the original proprietor or his agents, engaged in 
planting the Province, especially all grants to "William Phillips." 

The Province of Maine constituted one county, York, until 1760, 
when the counties of Cumberland and Lincoln were established. 
These three counties formed the northern district of Massachusetts, 
when the state was divided into three districts, in 1778, acquired a 
distinctive name, and was thereafter, until the separation, known as 
the District of Maine. 


William Phillips, in whose favor exception was made by Gorges, 
was a prominent man in the early history of Saco and Biddeford. 
He owned extensive mills at Saco, and large tracts of land inland, 
which he had purchased of the native chiefs. One of these was 
deeded to Lieutenant Phillips, then residing in Boston, by Hombino- 
witt, alias John Kogomock, Indian, of Saco, and lay on the west 
side of Saco River, from Salmon Falls to Captain Sunday's Rocks, 
and " so upward in ye country to his furthest extent." Another tract 
was purchased of Fluellin, son of Sosowen, and particularly concerns 
us, since it embraced the territory about which we are writing. His 
deed, recorded according to the original, July 31, 1717, by Joseph 
Hammond, Register, volume eight, folio two hundred and twenty 
(Vol. 8, p. 220) , registry of deeds, Alfred, is as follows : 

Know All men by these presents that I Fluellin Sometimes residing at Saco, 
Indian, for & in Consideration of Satisfaction have & by these presents do 
sell all my land from Saco Pattent bounds Southward beyond Cape porpus 
river for breadth & from ye head of Wells and Cape porpus Townships hed, 
up into the Countrey to his furthest Extent with all ye appurtenances & 
priviledges whatever Excepting four miles Square Sold to bush, Sanders & 
Turbut,' to Lieut. W" Phillips of Boston in ye County of Suffolk his heirs 
& Assigns forever To have & To hold & peaceably to Enjoy from any other 
Indians as witness my hand this thirtieth day of March in ye year of Our 
Lord 1661. 

FLnELtlNj „his^ 

Subscribed & Delivered with the 
words appurtenances y of 
In ye presence of us 

Richard R p Foxell Fluellins Extent above 

his mark mentioned was Intended 

Har : Symonds to Capt" Sundays rocks as is 

John Alden Inserted in Rogomocks deed 

written by me 

JOHK Aldbn. 

Captain Sunday, alias Meeksombe, was an Indian chief of Ne- 
wichewanack (Newichawannock) . The rocks referred to were de- 
scribed as " three hills of rocks," and from their shining appearance 
were supposed to be impregnated with silver. It is supposed that 
they contained mica, and were situated in Limington.^ 

1 Lieutenant John Bush, John Sanders and Peter Turbet, who in 1660 had purchased 
of Sosowen (the grant being afterwards couflrmed by riueUin) that tract of land which 
later comprised Coxhall (Lyman). 

" Tolsom's " History of Saco and Biddeford." 


Whatever may have been the price of this land deeded by Fluellin, 
it is evident that the grantee recognized the claim of the natives, and 
that the Indians, through their chief, received satisfaction therefor. 
In fact, Fluellin is, in various instruments, acknowledged to be "the 
true Indian proprietor," whose rights were paramount to those of the 
crown. Among these is the confirmation of Gorges, in 1670, to 
Nathaniel Phillips, of the several tracts of land purchased of the In- 
dians. Nathaniel Phillips, a merchant of Saco, was the oldest son and 
heir of Lieutenant William Phillips. Early in 1670 Gorges confirmed 
to him, " for and in consideration of Several good & acceptable ser- 
vice & mutch time which the sd Nathaniel Phillips hath done & spent 
for the sd Ferdinand© gorges in England and for other good causes," 
the tracts of land embraced in the original Phillips purchase. Four 
years later Nathaniel mortgaged these lands to Sir Francis Watson 
of Jamaica for thirty pounds. This sum, with twenty-four pounds 
for interest, was paid in 1689, by Elisha Hutchinson of Boston, to 
Thomas Betterton, the agent of Watson, and the mortgage was 
transferred to him, he making a release in 1716 to Eliphal Stretton, 
only surviving daughter and child of Bridget, widow of William 

As early as 1676 a project was formed of laying out a township 
within the Fluellin grant. It was designed to be eight miles square 
on the westernmost side of Kennebuuk River, and eight miles from 
the sea, adjoining the inland head of Wells. Major Phillips, by deed 
having date June 15, 1676, conveyed nineteen thousand acres of the 
proposed township to nineteen persons, one thousand acres to each, 
reserving the remainder for his own disposal. This land was given, 
granted, bequeathed, and enfeoffed, " For diverse good causes," as 
he says, "A'' Considerations mee thereunto moving, a^ espetially for 
the love A'' tender affection which I beare unto my children, A* the 
children of my now beloved wife," to the following : Samuel Phillips, 
his eldest son ; William Phillips, his youngest son ; Mary Field, 
eldest daughter; Martha Thurston, second daughter; Rebecca Lord, 
third daughter; Elizabeth Alden, fourth daughter; Zachary Gillum, 
son-in-law; Sarah Turner, youngest daughter; Eliphal Stretton, 
daughter of his wife, formerly Bridget Sanford ; Peleg Sanford, her 
eldest son ; John Sanford, second son; Elisha Sanford, third son; 
Robert Lord, London, mariner, son-in-law ; John Jollife, Boston, 
merchant; John Woodmansy, Boston, merchant ; Elisha Hutchinson, 
Boston, merchant; Theodore Atkinson, Boston, felt-maker; John 
Sanford, Boston, writing-school master; and William Hudson, Bos- 


ton, vintner. It was a provision of the deed that this land should 
be taken up in the most convenient place for settling a town, and the 
donors were to have and to hold the said parts " with all the woods 
& underwood trees timber mines quarries rivers & water courses 
with all rights privileges and advantages of fishing fowling hawking 
and hunting within the limits of the sd Tract of Lands." None of 
the donees were to take up their parts or portions without the con- 
sent of a majority of the parties, " that so the Intent of Settling a 
town may not be frustrated." 

By his will of February, 1682, Major Phillips gave his lands in 
Maine to his wife and two sons, Samuel and William, the latter of 
vrhom was then a captive among the Spaniards. Mrs. Phillips outlived 
her husband, and by her will of September 29, 1696, bequeathed to 
Peleg Sanford, Samuel Phillips, William Phillips and Eliphal Stret- 
ton, one-fourth part of her lands in the tract of eight miles square. 
The other three-fourths were reserved for the payment of the debts 
of her husband, deceased. If there were no debts, then that part 
was to be divided among her four children (presumably those before 
mentioned in her will) with the exception of one thousand acres 
given to her grandson, William, son of William and Eliphal (San- 
ford) Stretton. 

It would appear that, during the lifetime of Phillips and his im- 
mediate heirs, no steps were taken toward the laying out of the pro- 
posed township — it had an imaginary existence far away in the 
" forest primeval," but had not even been projected on paper. It was 
not until several years after the death of the principal and his sons, 
that any definite action was taken in regard to the matter. On the 
15th of June, 1720, however, Samuel Tyley of Boston, and Theo- 
dore Atkinson were appointed attorney and assistant attorney, re- 
spectively, of the proprietors, the major part, at least, of the heirs 
of Phillips, of nineteen thousand acres above Wells, with power "to 
survey and make a division of the land belonging thereto." That 
they might avail themselves of any advantage arising from such a 
division, and that their lands might be oflfered for sale under more 
favorable conditions, the following parties were interested in the sur- 
vey and division : 

Theodore Atkinson, owner of one thousand acres ; Simeon Stod- 
dard, Boston, assignee of John and Elizabeth Alden, whose share 
was mortgaged to Stoddard,- January 19, 1690; Samuel Adams 
maester, for himself, Edward Bromfield, Junior, merchant, and 
Thomas Salter, cordwainer, all of Boston, assignees of the heirs of 


Samuel Phillips, deceased, by whom, viz., Sarah Phillips, widow, 
John Merryfleld, cordwainer, and Bridget, his wife, and Anne Phil- 
lips, single woman, of Boston, the right and title to Samuel Phillips's 
thousand acres was sold December 1,] 1718, to Bronifield and his co- 
partners ; Thomas Hutchinson, for himself and the rest of the heirs 
of Elisha Hutchinson ; W. Allen, attorney to Edward and Mary 
Muckett, only child of Martha Thurston, deceased; John Jenkins, 
attorney to Mary Newell and Susannah (Flegg) Flagg the two only 
surviving heirs of William Hudson, deceased ; Brattle Oliver, for 
the heirs of Zachary Gillum, deceased ; Margaret Claxton, only child 
of John Woodmansy ; Samuel Tyley, in behalf of William Sanford, 
only son and heir of Pfeleg Sanford, deceased, and also in behalf of 
Eliphal Stretton ; Martha Balston, as heir of John JoUiffe (Joyliffe). 

Peleg Sanford died in 1701, having bequeathed by will all the lands 
which he had received from his mother, Bridget Phillips, to his son 
Peleg. He left two sons and three daughters. By the provisions of 
the will, probated September 1, 1701, the surviving son, if one should 
die, was to have the other son's property by paying his sisters or 
their heirs three hundred pounds. Peleg died under age and un- 
married, in consequence of which, William, the surviving son, be- 
came heir to a part of the eight miles square. 

Acting under the authority of the proprietors' attorney, Abraham 
Preble surveyed their land, and made a plan thereof. His report 
entered at the registry of deeds, May 12, 1722, was recorded by 
himself, at that time serving as register : 

'< November ye 1th 1720 by the desier of Mr. Sam" Tyley jn"^ of 
Boston for him selfe and attorney for the Maj""^ Part of the Propria- 
tors of a Tract of Land of Eight Miles Square ; Joyning upon the 
Northwest End or Inland head of Wells Township upon the South- 
west side of Kennebunk river Clamed by Said Tyley and Partnors by 
vertue of the Will of Maj'^ William Phillips dec"* as by his deed 
bareing date June the 151h 1676 : on Record in the County of York 
With Sundry Other Pappers and writings Referance thereunto being 
had may more at larg appear and is butted and bounded as foUow- 
eth viz : Beginning at a small Pine Tree Standing upon ye North 
corner of said Wells Township and on the Southwest side of said 
Kennebunk river upon the north end of a rockey hill which tree is 
Marked on four sids and from thence Southwest by Wells Bounds 
(being assisted by the selectmen of Wells) eiglit miles : to a pitch 
Pine tree marked on four sides & markt with : N upon the North 
Side : which Tree Standeth upon the west side of a Marsh or fresh 


Meadow called Meriland Meadow ; and Runs from thence northwest 
Eight Miles to a Greate hemlock tree marked on four sids standing^ 
three Miles to the northward of Bonnebeag hills and runs from thence 
Northeast eigt Miles to a Great white oak tree Marked on four Sids 
and Euns from thence South East Eight Miles to the Pine Tree Be- 
gan at : Justly Measured by two men sworn for that Purpose : the 
bounds hereof being More Perticarally set forth in the Piatt on the 
Other side Laid out. 

" p me Abra™ Preble Surua' 
" I have also taken Possession of above said land by cuting and 
felling Trees and Bulding Tents and Lodging therein &c. 

" p me Abra™ Preble above sd." 

The " Piatt on the other side " is not found on the records at Al- 
fred, but another copy shows that the eastern boundary of the nineteen 
thousand acres began where the Mousam crosses the head-line of 
Wells, and extended northwest eighteen hundred and ten rods ; and' 
that the southern boundary extended southwest from tlie river five 
and a quarter miles along the head-line of Wells. 

In a letter to the proprietors dated at York, Nov. 10, 1720, 
Preble reports on his unpleasant experiences in surveying the land. 
' ' I have spent eight days myself & five men with me ; the Beaver 
have so drowned the low ground and dammd the rivers that we have 
bin forced to wade every day while in the woods above the knees, 
which hath satisfied my rambling ambition at present." Regarding 
the expense of the survey, Preble reports that he paid the five men 
who were with him " forty shillings apiece & two shillings each in 
Rum," and he says in the letter at its close : " I should be glad that 
you will send the Ballance of this Accompt by our representative 
Mr. Salmuel Came, for I am something considerable out of pocket."' 
The expense of this survey was about nineteen pounds, and at a meet- 
ing of the proprietors, held at the Green Dragon Tavern in Boston, 
December 1, 1 720, the proprietors present subscribed a sum of money 
to settle Preble's claim. 

Two years before this survey and three years after, three transfers 
of land were made, but the names of the grantees do not ap- 
pear upon the earliest plan in our possession, which must have 
been made about 1730, or subsequently thereto. Eliphal Stretton 
deeded to Anne Atkins, Bridget Ladd, Boston, and Katherine Liron, 
wife of Lewis Liron, Milford, her daughters, one thousand acres in 
Yorkshire, and her right in one thousand acres of Bilisha Sanford, 


deceased, August 11, 1718. John Wheelwright, Junior, Boston, 
bought one thousand acres of Margaret Claxton, widow and daughter 
of John Woodmansy, April 8, 1723 ; and two thousand acres of 
William and Sarah Phillips, children of William, son of Ilajor Wil- 
liam Phillips, April 18, 1723. In June of that year, Wheelwright 
sold one-half of both tracts to his father, John Wheelwright, Senior, 
of Wells. 

In 1727, the General Court proposed to survey a back tier or 
second line of townships, from the Salmon Falls Eiver to the Andro- 
scoggin, and to offer them to settlers upon the most favorable terms. 
A committee was directed to lay out the aforesaid townships six miles 
square, but it was several years before the work was accomplished. 
Towwoh (Lebanon), Phillipstown (Sanford) , Coxhall (Lyman), Nar- 
raganset Number One (Buxton), and Narraganset Number Seven 
(Gorham) were in this second tier, all of which, except Coxhall, 
were surveyed in 1733 and 1734. 

Hunters and trappers, induced bj' the abundance of game and fish 
in the forests, streams, and ponds, had, undoubtedly, taken up tem- 
porary abodes within the limits of the township at an early date. 
But it was desirable that settlers should move in, occupy the land, 
and improve it. As a preliminary to bringing this about, a meeting 
of the proprietors was held at the Royal Exchange Tavern, Boston, 
June 21, 1729, at which there was a large attendance, nearly all be- 
ing heirs or assigns of the original proprietors. John Wheelwright 
of Wells, Jeremiah Moulton of York, and John Jones of Hopkinton 
were chosen a committee to lay out the nineteen thousand acres of 
land in the most convenient place for settling a town, and to report 
how the proprietors' " proportional parts for houselots, arrable & 
meadow land," may be best laid out. On the 27th of January fol- 
lowing, a meeting was called for the purpose, among other things, of 
doing whatever may seem advisable to encourage a settlement for a 
township, "also to agree upon and determine what quantity or par- 
cels of the said land shall be given to any of His Majesty's good 
subjects who are well inclined to make a speedy settlement thereof." 
At this meeting the committee made the following report, which was 
accepted, so far as laying out the nineteen thousand acres was con- 
cerned : 

" Agreeable to the Proprietors we have Laid out nineteen thous- 
and acres of Land in the most convenient place for making a Town- 
ship, Beginning on the Easterly Side of mousam River, and so run- 
ning on a northwest point five miles and three quarters to a poplar 




tree markt on the northeast of a great hill & then running Southwest 
five miles & a quarter to a great hemlock tree markt & then running 
Southwest down to a Pine tree mark'd on the westerly Side of merry- 
land marishes, & then running on a northeast Point on wells line to 
Mousam River to an Elm tree maikt where we first began and as for 
laying out the Lots we think it will be best to lay out a four rod way 
thro Sd Land & butt one home lot upon each Side of Sd way ; and 
we are of opinion that the land is very good & capable of makeing 
of a very good Settlement, as may more plainly appear by the plans. 

" John Wheelwright"! 

" Jer Moulton V comite " 

" John Jones ) 

It was voted that Moulton and Jones, with Charles Frost of Kit- 
tery, be a committee to adjust the boundary lines with surrounding 
towns ; to lay out, highways four rods wide through the nineteen 
thousand acres ; to lay out lots with meadows for each of the 
proprietors ; to lay out two one hundred acre lots, " one for the 
Minister and the other for the ministry, and a commodious tract of 
land for a meeting house ;" and also to lay out forty settlers' lots 
of one hundred acres each. The latter were to include a house lot of 
fifty acres, and fifty acres besides, with five acres of meadow, and 
were to be granted " to forty able bodied men," provided, under pen- 
alty of forfeiture, that each should build a house eighteen feet long^ 
sixteen feet wide, and seven feet stud, and break up and fence in 
four acres of land within three years, and live upon and improve the- 
land for ten years. The settlers were also to have the use of thfr 
proprietors' meadow land. At the same meeting the proprietors- 
voted to pay twenty pounds per annum for seven years towards 
building a meeting house, and supporting the first orthodox Gospel 
minister. The proprietors also granted to Edward Bromfield, Junior, 
in consideration of one hundred pounds, one twentieth part of their 
land, and subsequently, as will appear later, Jeremiah Moulton re- 
ceived a proportional part, one twenty-first. 

It seemed necessary to have men of character and enterprise, like 
Bromfield and Moulton, to aid in the work of settling a wilderness. 
Bromfield was an eminent merchant of Boston, ' ' distinguished for 
frankness of disposition, urbanity of manners, undeviating rectitude, 
and for great benevolence." He died in 1756. Moulton was born 
in York, in 1688. He was taken by the Indians when they attacked 
York in 1692, but was returned shortly after to one of the garrison- 


houses with others, women and children, — an instance of Indian 
gratefulness. He was one of the four captains in the successful ex- 
pedition against the Indians at Norridgewock, and twenty years later 
served as colonel — the third in command — in the expedition against 
Louisburg. He was representative two or three years, county treas- 
urer, sheriff, a justice of the Common Pleas, a member of the Pro- 
vincial Council, 1735-1752, and Judge of Probate, 1745-1765. As 
a military commander, he was prudent, skilful, and brave ; as a man, 
unassuming in disposition and manners, of sound judgment, and of 
uncommon excellence of character. Though " never a restless aspi- 
rant for oflSce, " few men of his time " had a greater share of public 
confidence, or were called to fill so many places of official trust and 
responsibility."! Having become an extensive landowner, he was 
interested in the early settlement of the town, and helped build the 
mills known as Moulton's Mills. He died July 20, 1765. 

On the 23d of September, 1729, Edward Muckett and Mary, his 
wife, formerly Mary Thurston, daughter of Martha Thurston, deeded 
the one thousand acres to which she became heir, to Nathaniel Al- 
den and Maiy, his wife, late Mary Smith, granddaughter of Mary 

December 22, 1730, the proprietors made an allotment of their 
land, drawing lots for the same. Without being officially so desig- 
nated, the territory gradually came to be "commonly called" Phil- 
lipstown, as appears by the first mention of the name in the record 
of the proprietors' meeting of November 23, 1733. 

At a meeting held February 22, 1736, Sir "William Pepperrell, of 
Kittery, and Jeremiah Moulton, of York, were granted five hundred 
acres each of the un,divided land, in consideration for undertaking 
to secure forty settlers within six years. Colonization being slow, 
however, the proprietors finally decided to increase the settlers' lots 
to one hundred and thirty acres each, the grantee to dwell thereon 
seven years, except in case of war with the Indians, when a return 
within three years after conclusion of a peace was required. An- 
other inducement was held out in the offer of concessions for the 
construction of a saw mill and a grist mill. 

The proprietors granted to Dr. David Bennett, of York, January 
23, 1738, a mill privilege and fifty acres of land on both sides of 
the Mousam in the southern part of the town, and in 1742, another 
tract in the same vicinity, as appears from their vote at an adjourned 
meeting held at the Exchange Tavern, Boston, December 16 : 

» Williamson's " History of Maine,' Vol. II. 


" Voted unanimously that there be and hereby is granted unto Dr. 
David Bennett of York, and his heirs forever one hundred acres of 
timber land in Phillipstown in a square body adjoining to the grant 
to him made of the mill privilege between the branches of Mousam 
Eiver where Jeremiah Moulton, Esquire, shall judge most convenient 
to supply him with timber for building a meeting-house and the ac- 
commodation of the inhabitants with boards at a reasonable rate, 
so as not to interfere with the proprietors' or settlers' lots : and the 
clerk is hereby impowered to pass a deed to him for the same, he 
paying giving bond to pay twenty shillings an acre old tenor for the 
same to the clerk, sixty pounds whereof to be applied in purchasing 
glass and nails for the meeting-house intended to be built in the said 
town and the remainder as the proprietors shall order." 

This lot began at the head and northerly corner of the mill privi- 
lege about two hundred rods from the mill. 

Inasmuch as Pepperrell and Moulton had met with but little suc- 
cess in colonizing, their grant was, on June 18, 1739, declared null and 
void. Moulton, however, was at once admitted as a proprietor, on 
condition of procuring forty settlers. He was also given leave to "re- 
move the meeting house lot, as he shall think most convenient.'' 
"Within twenty months all but twelve of the settlers' lots had been 
disposed of. From time to time, the proprietors granted the rights of 
cutting trees on their land, first to Dr. Bennett, for supplying the 
inhabitants with boards ; later to Moulton, who was to sell the trees 
for the proprietors ; and finally to Colonel John Storer. Among 
the grants to Moulton was one of a water privilege, for a grist mill ; 
and, in December, 1740, another of two lots whereon to erect " a 
good substantial Garrison." A year later, two hundred acres were 
granted to Sir William Pepperrell, who was to build thereon, within 
two years, " a good block-house, and carry to and keep in it two 
great Guns, with powder and ball at his own charge." 

Various grants of land within the present limits of the town were 
made by the General Court. December 6, 1734, a tract of four hun- 
dred acres near Phillipstown and the new settlement above Berwick, 
for his four sons, was granted to Captain Joseph Bean. The grant 
was confirmed some twenty years later, as appears from the Massa- 
chusetts Archives, Vol. 46, pp. 893-6. Joseph Bean was born about 
1675. He was taken captive by the Indians, and lived several years 
among them, learning their language, and becoming acquainted with 
their customs. He lost a hand in the service of the government and 


was pensioned. The following is a copy of an order which came into 
possession of the author : 
" Sir, 

" I do hereby direct you to proceed forthwith in the Transport 
Sloop Massachusetts to the Truck House upon S' Georges River 
under the Command of Cp' Andrew Eobinson where you are to 
officiate as Interpreter to the Indians & the Said Cp' Eobinson is 
directed to receive you accordingly. 

" Boston April 20, 1742. "Your Servant 

" To Mr. Joseph Bane. " W. Shirley." 

It was for this and similar service that the land above mentioned 
was granted. His sons surviving in 1755 were John, husbandman, 
and James, mariner, of York, and David, gentleman, of St. George's. 
The last named moved to Sanford and settled upon his inherited lands. 
In 1791, a portion of his lot, two hundred and one acres, was set off 
by a committee in answer to his petition to the General Court. 

Another similar grant was made to Jonathan Bean in June, 1743. 
He obtained three hundred acres from the province, in consideration 
for the services of his father in raising companies of soldiers yearly 
and marching with them and helping kill about fifty Indians during 
the ten-year war. He first applied in 1736, but the council did not 
concur with the house in granting the land. The elder Bean was 
probably Captain Jonathan Bean, whose company of scouts in 1747- 
48 contained ten or twelve Pliillipstown men. 

In December, 1736, Samuel Green received two hundred acres 
between Phillipstown . and Bauneg Beg Pond and about this time 
Tobias Leighton had two hundred acres near the same pond. 

In November, 1791, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts granted 
to Solomon Allen two hundred and eighty acres near Oak Hill, form- 
erly belonging to Sir William Pepperrell. 

The Lydston grant, of three hundred and twenty- four acres, was in 
the west part of the town. It was granted to John Lydston, in 1744, 
for his services in the Indian wars, and especially because his thigh 
was broken in the War of 1693. Within the grant was a pond, the 
Indian name of which was Tombegewoc, now known as Deering's 
Pond, and from which flows one branch of the Salmon Falls River. 

In July, 1784, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts granted to 
Samuel Dennett six hundred acres between Lydston's grant and 
Shapleigh town line. 


William Frost, Junior, purchased a part of the Lydston grant, and 
also about three hundred and sixty acres from the Commonwealth, 
which, with several other grants, among them Joseph Bean's, were set 
oflf from Sanford in 1785, and annexed to Shapleigh. Subsequently, 
they must have been re-annexed, in part, at least, for they now lie 
within the present bounds of Sanford. 

Major William Phillips, for whom Phillipstown was named, was a 
resident of Charlestown, but removed to Boston in 1646, where he 
was a vintner. Moving to Saco he became a large land proprietor 
and engaged extensively in lumbering operations. He owned mills 
upon the Saco, at Saco Falls, which were on what was then consid- 
ered the frontier, and were exposed to the attacks of the Indians. 
Phillips fortified these, and in 1675 defended thera with a courage 
and valor that gave him his well-earned title. His mills were burned 
and he removed to Boston soon after. In Hubbard's "Indian Wars," 
a graphic description of the fight is given, in which Phillips received 
a wound in his heroic defence. He was an oflScer and magistrate in 
1663 and was confirmed by royal commissioners in 1665. At one 
time a lieutenant, he was promoted to be a major in 1675. He died 
in Boston in 1683. Major Phillips had three wives : Mary, by whom 
he had one son and two daughters ; Susanna, widow of Chris. Stan- 
ley, by whom he also had one son and two daughters, probably ; and 
Bridget, widow of John Sanford, by whom he had three sons. His 
third wife survived him. At the time of her marriage to Phillips 
she had three sons and one daughter. One of Phillips's daughters, 
Elizabeth, married for her first husband Abiel Everill, and second, 
in 1660, John, son of the famed John and Priscilla (Mullins) Alden, 
of the old Plymouth Colony. 



Settlement — Forty Settlers' Lots — Names of First Settlers — Lots 
Improved by Them — The First Houses — The First Mill — 
County and Other Roads laid out — Early Litigation — First 
Innholder and First Retailer. 

THE settlers' lots, to which reference is frequently made, were in 
two ranges, at the head of the proprietors' lots laid out above 
the head-line of Wells. They are designated as the middle and 
western ranges, the eastern range being allotted to the proprietors. 
In each range were twenty lots, numbered consecutively to twenty 
in the middle range, and from twenty-one to forty in the western. 
Number one lay just below the present site of Willard's mill, and 
number twenty just below Elm Street, formerly the " mill lane." 
Number twenty-one^ abutted upon the " Old Pond," and number forty 
was on the opposite side of the proprietors' road between the ranges, 
from number one. The middle range extended five hundred and 
twenty rods to the eastern range, and the western, the same distance 
to Berwick line. Each lot was laid out forty rods front, and con- 
tained one hundred and thirty acres, fifty acres of which were des- 
ignated as the " home lot," and eighty, " additional." The writer 
has been informed that the lots averaged about forty-four rods front, 
making each lot measure thirteen acres more. It is true, undoubtedly, 
that the early surveyors and chainmen were less particular than those 
of to-day, for they were measuring land of comparatively little 
value, — a whole lot being worth less than a house-lot to-day. In 
addition to these settlers' lots were three other important lots : the 
church lot, for the first Congregational church ; the minister's lot, 
for the first settled Congregational minister ; and the school lot, for 
the first grammar schoolmaster. The church lot was below number 
one, the minister's, below number forty — exchanged for number 
eleven — and the school lot, below the original minister's lot. This 
will appear from the plan on page 23. 

1 Number twenty -one Is now owned by Hon. Thomas Goodall. 










Mary Field 






Elizabeth Alden 


Settlers' Lots. 





Edward Bromfield 




130 acres 



Theodore Atkinson 



Settlers' Lots 


Peleg Sanford 


50 plus 80 acres. 



■WiUiam Phillips 




leo rode 





Rebecah Lord 



40 rods front 







Samuel Phillips 









Elisha Sanford 









Martha Thurston 






Sarah Turner 

Minister's Lot. 42 




12 Robert Lord 





School lot 


Rebecca Lord 




John Woodmansay 



Robert Lord 


100 -acre 


Theodore Atkinson 



Theodore Atkinson 



John Jolife 



Edward Bromfield 



Elizabeth Alden 



Elisha Sanford 

13 Esborn Sanford 


Elisha Sanford 



Mary Field 



Esborn Sanford 



Sarah Turner 


John Sanford 


Eliphal Stretton 



■William Phiilipa 


John Jolife 



Elisha Hutchinson 



Samuel Phillips 


Mary Field 


Jeremiah Moulton [XXI] 


Zachariah Gillam 



Robert Lord 


Eliphal Stretton 



Edward Bromfield [XX] 


John ■Woodmansay 


■William Hutson 



Peleg Sanford 


Esborn Sanford 



Sarah Turner 


Peleg Sanford 


Eliphal Stretton 



Samuel PhiUips 


■WDliam Hutson 



■William Phillips 


Martha Thurston 


John ■Woodmansay 



■William Hutson 


Zaeh. Gillam 



John Sanford 


John Sanford 


Jeremiah Moulton 



Martha Thurston 


Elisha Hutchinson 


Elisha Hutchinson 



Zachariah Gillam 


John Joiife 



Rebecab Lord 


Elizabeth Alden 


This plan, obtained by the author from Joaeph Shaw of Sanford, indicates how the proprietofB of Phillips- 
town prior to 1739, had allotted their land, the eastern range and lower half of the middle and western ranges, 
twonty-OJie lota in each range, to themselves, Edward Bromfield and Jeremiah Moulton, reserving the upper halt 
of two ranges for forty settlers' lota. 

24 msTOEY or sanfokd. 

Fifteen of these lots, at least, were deeded May 1, 1739 and, it is 
supposed, that the summer following found men improving them. 
Who was the first settler? "Where did he live? are natural ques- 
tions arising in our mind. We wish he had left some tangible evi- 
dence of his right to be called the first settler of that little community 
which endured the hardships and braved the dangers of the first two 
decades of the plantation. We wish that we could answer these 
questions beyond a reasonable doubt, and establish a date that might 
be regarded as the birthday of the town. There must have been 
temporary residents when the first mill was built, and, perhaps, the 
earliest settlement wag near that mill. Knowing the dangers to 
which the early settlers were exposed, especially from the Indians, 
it seems to us the most natural thing for them to do would have been 
to remove hither in a company at the same time for mutual protec- 
tion and safety. All this is a mere matter of conjecture. 

We have, however, one record of importance, which presents an 
almost conclusive answer to the foregoing questions. In his inter- 
leaved copy of " Ecclesiastical Sketches," the author, Eev. Jonathan 
Greenleaf, pastor of the First Congregational Church in Wells, 
1815-1828, makes this note on a leaf opposite the page upon which 
a short sketch of Sanford is given : 

" Samuel Wilson was the first settler. He began a farm on the 
county road about half a mile north of the present Congregational 
meeting-house, which is now owned by Amos G-oodwin." 

Samuel Willson took up lot number twenty-five May 1, 1739, and 
Amos W. Goodwin, who afterwards lived upon it, died in 1838. 
Rev. Mr. Greenleaf's note was made between the publication of his 
work in 1821, and the death of Mr. Goodwin, probably prior to 
1828. We do not hesitate to express the opinion that he obtained 
his information during his pastorate at Wells, from one of the early 
settlers, if not one of the first, and that Samuel Willson, who settled 
on the west side of the county road, one mile below the Corner, upon 
the farm owned and occupied in late years by John Lord, deceased, 
and at present by Bert Goodrich, has the honor to be called the first 

As far as we have been able we have found the names of the 
original grantees of the settlers' lots, and the early residents of the 
town. The settlers' lots were granted to the following persons on 
the dates noted : 

Church lot. John Stanyan, Hampton, N. H., shipwright, March 
1, 1741. 


No. 1. John Stanyan, Hampton, N. H., shipwright, March 1, 

No. 2. Mary Donnell, York, widow, January 1, 1745. 

No. 3. Jacob Perkins. 

No. 4. Joshua Adams, Wells, laborer, M3,y 1, 1742. 

No. 5. Alexander Bulman, York, chirurgeon, May 1, 1739. 

No. 6. Thomas Donnell, Biddeford. 

No. 7. Nicholas Cane, York, husbandman, May 1, 1739. 

No. 8. Daniel Moulton, York, gentleman, November 18, 1742. 

No. 9. Jeremiah Moulton, Jr., York, gentleman, November 18, 

No. 10. Rev. Samuel Chandler, York, November 18, 1742. 

No. 11. Minister's lot after exchange, by vote of proprietors, 
August 13, 1744. 

No. 12. Joshua Cane, York, tanner, May 1, 1739. 

No. 13. Jonathan Adams, York, laborer. May 1, 1739. 

No. 14. William Standley, Kittery, blacksmith, May 1, 1739. 

No. 15. Samuel Chadbourn, Kittery, husbandman. May 1, 1739. 

No. 16. John Frost, son-in-law of Samuel Willson, Phillipstown, 
laborer, March 2, 1741. 

No. 17. Thomas Fernald, May 1, 1739. 

No. 18. Tobias Leighton, Kittery, yeoman, a settler, January 
1, 1741. 

Nos. 19 and 20. James Chadbourn, Kittery, yeoman, May 1, 

Nos. 21 and 22. Jeremiah Moulton, Jr., York, gentleman, No- 
vember 18, 1742. 
No. 23. William Standley, Kittery, blacksmith. 
No. 24. Charles Annis, Wells, husbandman, May 1, 1739. 
No. 25. Samuel Willson, Wells, husbandman, May 1, 1739. 
Nos. 26, 27, and 28. Dr. David Bennett. 
No. 29. Edward Whitehouse. 
No. 30. Dr. David Bennett. 

No. 31. William Curtis, Wells, husbandman. May 1, 1739. 
No. 32. Alexander Bulman, York, chirurgeon. May 1, 1739 
No. 33. Spencer Bennett. 

No. 34. Benjamin Holt, York, coaster, November 18, 1742. 
No. 35. Daniel Moulton, York, gentleman, November 18, 1742. 
No. 36. William Babb, York, laborer, March 2, 1741. 
No. 37. Jonathan Johnson, York, husbandman. May 1, 1739. 
No. 38. Jeremiah Bragdon, York, coaster, May 1, 1739. 


No. 39. Christopher Pottle, York, tanner, March 15, 1743. 

No. 40. Joseph Simpson, Jr., York, felt maker, March 1, 1741. 

The names of the settlers from 1739 to 1780, arranged by years, 
are as follows : 

1739. Samuel Willson, "Wells, husbandman; Jonathan Adams, 
York, laborer; Charles Annis, Wells, husbandman; 
Jeremiah Bragdon, York, coaster ; Joshua Cane, York, 
tanner; Nicholas Cane, York, husbandman; James 
Chadbourn, Kittery, yeoman ; Samuel Chadbourn, Kit- 
tery, husbandman ; William Curtis, Wells, husbandman ; 
Thomas Fernald ; Jonathan Johnson, York, husband- 
man ; William Standley, Kittery, blacksmith. 

1741. William Babb, York, laborer (later a tailor) ; John Frost, 

husbandman ; Tobias Leighton, Kittery, yeoman ; John 
Stanyan, Hampton, N. H., shipwright. 

1742. Joshua Adams, Wells, laborer; Benjamin Holt, York, 

coaster ; Samuel Staples, laborer. 

1743. Christopher Pottle, York, tanner. 
1745. Mary Donnell, York, widow. 
1745/6. Robert Allen, Kittery. 

1747. Ephraim Low (probably 1742). 

1748. John Low, Wells, weaver. 

1749. John Garey, Jr., York, laborer; Robert Miller, Hampton, 

N. H. ; John Thompson, York, husbandman. 

1750. Moses Fowler, sawyer; John Urin, Greenland, N. H., 

cordwainer and tanner. 

1751. Thomas Wastgatt, laborer; William Bennett (had lived 

in town 58 years in 1809). 

1752. James Urin, Greenland, N. H. 

1753. Benjamin Wittum, clothier ; Daniel Wittum, laborer. 
17.')4. Benjamin Harmon, York, gentleman; Naphtali Harmon, 

1755. Samuel Willard, York, cordwainer. 

1757. John Frost, Wells, mariner. 

1758. Solomon Allen. 

1762. Joseph Swett; Moses Tebbetts (?). 

1763. Elijah Allen, Kittery. 

1764. Joseph Linseott; Phinehas Thompson, Gorhamtown, 

1768. Thomas Walter Powers. 
1770. Jacob Linseott, mill man. 


1773. Caleb Emery, Berwick, cordwainer. 

1778. Josiah Paul. 

1780. Jonathan Tebbets, Berwick, joiner. 

In 1764, at the desire of the proprietors, Jonathan Johnson pre- 
pared a list of these lots, having especial reference to the fulfilment 
of the provisions upon which they were granted. He reported that 
in thirty-two instances the conditions were either being complied with 
or wholly fulfilled ; and of the lots owned by the following he said : 
" Jacob Perkins, a frame but no Person — his son will fulfill directly ; 
Capt. Thomas Donnell, nothing done ; Eev. Mr. Chandler, an house 
built but burnt down; William Bab, not fulfilled, small house and 
some land improved; Jer. Bragdon, now Benj. Wickham, not ful- 
filled, no family there; Joseph Simpson, Jun., now James Urin, 
unfulfilled." On number eight there was " an house with small im- 
provements by Samuel Lane;" on number nine Jeremiah Moulton, 
Junior, had a tenant, and on twenty-one and twenty-two, " a small 
frame on each and small improvement;" James Chadbourn had pur- 
chased number eighteen ; Samuel Staples occupied numbers twenty- 
six and twenty-seven ; and Jon. Howard, twenty-eight ; and other 
new occupants of lots reported by Johnson were Jonathan Swett, 
Thomas Waistcott, Joseph Standley, John Harmon, Benjamin Har- 
rald (Harmon?), John Thompson, Ed. Standley, Eph. Low, John 
"Wilson, John Gerry, John Low, Moses Fowler, Michael Brawn, and 
James Miller. Concerning number two there seems to have been 
some confusion. Johnson's final endorsement is : " Jas. Berry, not 
fulfilled, smaU improvements by Jn° Thompson, since gone." 

In consequence of this report, the proprietors voted that Eev. Mr. 
Chandler " be indulged with one year more to complete the settle- 
ment of his lot;" that lot number six "be sued for;" that "all 
other settlers be indulged one year more by paying forty shillings 
for such indulgence, and no further time allowed them ;" and that 
" the money raised as aforesaid be applied towards settling the Gos- 
pel in Phillipstown." Four years previously the proprietors had 
considered the matter of a subscription " toward the support of the 
Gospel," but the money had evidently not been raised. In 1763 the 
proprietors appropriated a lot for the support and maintenance of a 

In the vicinity of the Leighton grant, near Bauneg Beg Pond, 
Colonel, afterward Sir William Pepperrell owned a large tract of 
land. Jeremiah Moulton, who had bought of Tobias Leighton, 


sold, in 1742, one-half of two hundred acres, to Jacob Perkins, and 
May 6, 1743, Samuel Green, Leighton and Moulton sold to Robert 
Allen, of Berwick, one-half of two hundred acres. Allen and Per- 
kins, in 1745-6, divided their land, Allen taking the lower half near 
his land bought of Pepperrell, and Perkins the half between Phil- 
lipstown and the pond. This Robert Allen was the first settler on 
Oak Hill, from whom, through Solomon and Elijah Allen, and per- 
haps others, the numerous Allen family of the south part of the town 

The first houses, built in.accordance with the conditions imposed 
on the grantees, were known as block-houses. They were rudely 
constructed of timber and some were undoubtedly of logs. Not far 
from 1742, a few years later, probably, Dr. David Bennett built the 
first " proper house " in Sanford, according to a deposition made by 
Ephraim Low in 1797. Dr. Bennett fenced in his three lots, num- 
bers twenty-six, twenty-seven and twenty-eight, and somewhere on 
his land (on number twenty -seven , as stated in a deposition made by 
Edward Standley in 1803) built a house to which he brought, it is 
said, the first minister that ever preached in town," and the people gen- 
erally attended the said, meeting in the said Dr. Bennett's house." 
Dr. Bennett also sowed a nursery for apple trees. In 1751 Daniel 
Moulton had a frame for a dwelling bouse erected. In 1764, the 
first settler of the Alfred district lived in an Indian wigwam, and 
not long after, Daniel Lary built a frame-house near Emerson's 
bridge, which is supposed to have been tha first of the kind in that 
part of the town. Log- and block-houses slowly gave place to frame 
houses, generally one story in height. 

Mills were necessary before much progress could be made in set- 
tling the town. The first mill was built in 1739. In January, 1738/9, 
the^ proprietors deeded to Dr. David Bennett, of York, fifty acres 
of land on both sides of the western branch of the Mousam River, 
with the first mill privilege above the junction of the two branches. 
On April 6, 1739, Dr. Bennett, Jacob Perkins and John Winn of 
Wells, Jeremiah Moulton and Daniel Moulton of York, agreed to 
build, before the first of September following, a double mill to go 
with two saws, " on the westernmost branch of the Mousam river, at 
the first falls above the crotch thereof." Bennett's share was one- 
half ; each of the others was to have one-eighth. Prior to October 
15, the mill was completed ; for on that day three-eighths of it were 
deeded to the Moultons, in consideration for work done by them in 
the erection and fitting thereof. In January following Doctor Ben- 


nett sold one-eighth to James Littlefield of Wells, a millwright, whom 
we shall find interested at a later day in other mills in town. In 1742 
Daniel Moulton sold his right to Jeremiah Moulton for two hundred 
and fifty pounds sterling. The work had at that time reached such 
a magnitude that eight oxen were required to haul the logs to the 
mill and the boards and planks from it. Perkins also sold his eighth 
to Jeremiah Moulton. In later years the Linscotts, John and Jacob, 
came into possession of the larger part of the mill. It had been known 
as " Moulton's mill," but was afterward designated, and is frequently 
mentioned in the records, as " Linscott's mill." It was rebuilt sev- 
eral times. In 1807 John Linscott remarked, at a rebuilding, " This 
is the fourth mill I have seen built here.'' A mill as built then would 
stand about twenty years. One mill was burnt. 

The second saw mill in town was built by James Chadbourn just 
below the Corner. This and subsequent mills will be more fully de- 
scribed in another portion of this work. Probably the earliest grist 
mills were those set up in the corner of the kitchen for family use. 
They were quite common before mills were built to go by water 
power. The Chadbourns had one, the stones of which were formerly 
seen in the stone wall east of Nelson A. Bennett's house. The mill 
is said to have been brought from Berwick (Kittery?) and the upper 
stone to have weighed about one hundred and fifty pounds. Cane's 
saw mill, probably the third in the town, was built at South Sanford 
about 1756. It was burned October 29, 1764. 

Indian paths and hunters' trails were the first travelled ways. 
They lay along the Mousam and the ponds where fishing and camp- 
ing grounds were found, and in the forests where game was abundant. 
The first roads, however, were wood-roads and " mast-ways," which, 
as their names indicate, were used for the transportation of wood and 
timber. In some places these logging roads were crooked and hilly ; 
in others comparatively straight and level. By the charter of 
Massachusetts, in 1691, certain trees were reserved to the crown, 
and in 1743, white pine growing upon any soil or tract not granted 
to any private person, and measuring twenty-four inches and up- 
■ward in diameter at twelve inches above the ground, was protected! 
by a special law, and reserved for masting the royal navy. Such 
trees for the royal navy were hauled along the ' ' mast- ways " to- 
Berwick and Kittery and Wells. One of these roads extended from 
the pitch-pine plains in the south part of the town along the south- 
east side of Bauneg Beg hills. Another probably extended from the- 
southeast part of the town to Wells, and was used when Moulton's. 
mill was built. 


When the proprietors divided their lands and laid out lots for set- 
tlement, they made provision for two four-rod roads, one between 
the eastern and middle ranges, the other between the middle and 
western ranges. The former was laid out from the head-line of Wells 
below Mouse Lane northwest, terminating at the upper settlers' lot 
near the residence of Edgar Wentworth ; the latter began near the 
Branch Brook and ran northwest near Willard's mill, a few rods 
northeast of the residences of late Abiel H. Johnson and Horace 
Bennett, and, crossing the present highway near Bert Groodrich's, 
terminated in "Cold Spring Pond," at the head of the " mill lot." 
When the settlers' lots were taken up, and the lands above occupied, 
rough cart-paths were the main thoroughfares of the pioneers. 

A county road running through Phillipstown was laid out in 1744, 
agreeably to the following petition of Nathaniel Donnell and twenty- 
seven others : 

" To the Hoabl" his Majest? Justices of tlie Court of General Ses- 
sions of the Peace now holden at York 'within and for the County of 
York on the first Tuesday of Janr A. D. 1743. 

"The Petition of Us Subscribers Inhabitants of the County of 

" Humbly Shews 

" that the Lands lying between Saco Salmon Falls and Pesump- 
scotte River near the Center of the Settlement called Goreham Town 
and also between the said Salmon Falls and Phillips Town & from 
thence thro' Berwick to Nechewannick Eiver above the Saltwater, are 
verry convenient for laying out a Road or highway which Road your 
Petition! humbly Conceive would be of great Service to the Said 
Towns and Settlement & Likewise to the County for Travelling from 
Casco Bay (thro Exetor) to Boston making the said Road much 
shorter then the present Road & almost clear of Ferries but more 
especially the Said Road would be quite Necessary for marching of 
Scouts and other forces along the Frontier in Case of Warr Your 
Petitioners therefore Humbly pray Your Honours would be pleased 
to appoint a Committee to View the Said Lands from Saco Salmon 
Falls to Pesumpscotte River and from the Said Salmon P'alls to 
Phillips Town and from thence to Newichwannick River and to Con- 
sider the Necessity & Conveniency of laying out a Road or Highway 
thro' the Same lands and to Report thereon to this Honb\° Court as 
Soon as may be in order to the Speedy Laying out the Said Road ad- 
judged Necessary as soon as the Season of the Year will admit of it 
and Your Petitioners (as in Duty bound) shall ever pray &c." 

The court at once appointed Benjamin Nichols, of the Saco 


truck house, and Jacob Bradbury, of Biddeford, as the committee 
asked for. More than a year later, March 29, 1744, this committee 
made its report, laying out the highway as follows : 

" Beginning at Pesumpscot River, about the Centre of Gorham 
Town, & opposite to the Block House at New Marblehead & running 
thence about West by vSouth as the Road now Goes, by the Southerly 
Side of Mr. John Phinney's House, & thence about South "West, by 
a line of Marked Trees to the Fresh Meadow so called — thence the 
Same Course, by a Line of marked Trees, & on the North West 
Side of Stroudwater Pond, to the Mast Road, & keeping the Same 
Course along the Mast Road on the South Easterly Side of the Block 
House at Narrhaganset Town No. 1 — to Saco Salmon Falls — & 
Crossing sd Saco River, at the Head of the Steep Falls, thence down 
the West Side of sd Falls, & crossing the Mouth of Cook's Brook, 
to a Ridge of High Land on the South Westerly Side of it — Or to 
go from the last mentioned Block House down the Easterly Side of 
Sd Salmon Falls to Pleasant Point, & there crossing Sd Saco River, 
& thence about South West, on sd Ridge of Land passing on the 
South East Side of Morrill's Hill so called, going over y"^ Head of 
the Great Plain & between the Swan Ponds & by the South East 
End of y= Highest Mousom Pond, & by the North West Side of 
Kennebunk Pond & over Two Branches of Mousom River to the 
Western Branch of it, & crossing the Same, at the Ripling Falls, 
near Mr. Chadbourn's Block House in Philips Town — thence about 
South by West on the Eastern Side of s'* Chadbourn's Block-House 
— & by the Western side of Mr. Wilson's Block House to the West- 
ern side of Mr. Johnson's Dwelling House in s* Philips Town — & 
thence about South South West — along the Mast Road, by the South 
Easterly side of Bonny = Beag Hill & Bonny-Beag Ponds, & by the 
South Easterly side of Mr. Hobbs's House, near the Great Works 
Landing — & thence near the Same Course along Berwick Town 
Road, to Newichwannick River above the Salt Water." 

At the July term of the court of sessions, James Chadbourn and 
others, inhabitants of Phillipstown , petitioned the court " that they 
Labour under Great inconveniehcy and Discouragement in their In- 
fant Settlement in not having Convenient highways or Roads laid 
out and maintained thro' the Towns of Wells and Berwick to Phillips 
Town," and therefore prayed the court to order the required roads 
laid out. Richard Cutts of Kittery and Jeremiah Moulton of York, 
who were appointed a committee to view the ground, reported in 
1750 the necessity of the roads petitioned for. A warrant was issued 


to the sheriff or his deputy to summon a jury to lay out such ways, 
and accordingly, a jury of twelve men, viz., Simon Lord, Jos : Hearl, 
Caleb Emery, Noah Emery, Samuel Shaw, Jos : Junkins, Jos : 
Leavit, Jn° H"? Bartlet, Nathan Bartlet, Abel Moulton, Hen^: Simp- 
son and Jn° Frost, was summoned March 25, 1751. The jury was 
at work three days that month, and at the April term, 1751, the 
deputy sheriff made his return. The roads laid out were : One from 
the highway in Berwick, near Peter Morrell's mill on the Great Works 
River, over Oak Hill, by Allen's marsh, through the pitch-pine plain, 
along a " mast-way" to the east, on the ridge (South Sanford) into 
the proprietors' way (between the middle and western ranges) to the 
Commons (above Sanford) ; also another road west of the pond 
(Cold Spring) to the Commons ; also another from the " mast-way" 
above mentioned down by the foot of Lyon Hill, as straight as 
may be to "Wells, to the " Great mill at Meriland." The roads were 
to be four rods wide in everf place. In 1763 the highway from 
Wells line to John Stanyan's inn was miry and in want of bridges 
(old bridges were in decay), so that the inhabitants could not pass 
and repass with their carriages without great damage to themselves 
and their goods. 

Litigation began early in Phillipstown. The first to sue was John 
Stanyan, who, in July, 1744, brought a writ of ejectment against 
Joseph Stanyan of Hampton, to recover settler's lot number one, 
conveyed to John Stanyan three years previous. The plaintiff won 
his case, whereupon the defendant appealed to the next superior 
court of judicature, but as no further record is found, it is to be as- 
sumed that the appeal was not pressed. A few years later John 
Stanyan again appears as a plaintiff, this time in a suit against Henry 
Eines of Berwick, instituted in April, 1749. The verdict was for 
the defendant, and an appeal was taken to the next superior court 
of judicature. 

Although as late as 1752 the town contained only something like 
twenty families, numbering about one hundred souls, a demand for 
a public house arose at an earlier date. In 1749 the aggressive 
John Stanyan was the first licensed innholder of whom we have 
record'. His license gave him authority not only to provide enter- 
tainment for man and beast, but also to engage in selling the chief 
intoxicating beverage of the day. New England rum. Stanyan 
probably kept tavern nearly twenty-five years, though licensed only 
about twenty. His inn stood near the site of John Fletcher's house 
at South Sanford. There is a tradition, however, that Ephraim Low 



was the first innholder, but he was not licensed until twenty years 
after Stanyan began to keep tavern. 

While the settlement existed for only ten years without an inn, it 
remained for over twenty without a trading place. Daniel Coffin 
was the earliest trader of record. He was in town in 1763, and 
bought of Naphtali Harmon forty acres of land lying along the 
Mousam. The same year he was licensed as a retailer, and prob- 
ably traded in the Moulton neighborhood at South Sanford. Under 
the provisions of his license he could sell groceries, of which the 
three prime articles were fish. New England rum and molasses. 

Olive, daughter of Ephraim Low, who lived one mile below the 
Corner, is said to have been the first child born in' town of white 
parents, June 28, 1742. 



Exposure of Frontier Settlements to Attack — The Aborigines of 
Phillipstown — Scouts and Garrison Houses — Names of Sol- 
diers Serving in French and Indian "Wars, 1744-1762. 

THE frontier settlements of Maine were exposed to attacks from 
the Indians, and suffered more or less from their depredations 
until the treaty between the French and English was made in 1763. 
At first it was the seaboard towns which became a prey to the savage, 
and then, as the more hardy explorer and adventurer moved back into 
the forests, the second tier of towns suffered at his revengeful hand. 
The Indians were unceasing in resisting the encroachments of the 
English, and were spurred on by the French, whenever hostilities 
arose between the two rival European governments claiming juris- 
diction over American territory. 

Block-houses were erected for defence and refuge at convenient in- 
tervals ; scouts were employed to guard against the approach of the 
wily red men ; and every precaution was taken to prevent a surprise. 
The loaded flint musket was the constant companion of the laborer 
in the field, or stood, like a sentinel, near the door of the house, or 
hung upon wooden hooks in its accustomed place over the mantel, 
when danger was not apprehended. 

Though Phillipstown was not an especial sufferer, the people were 
on the alert, and were frequently called into active service. The 
preserved refcords of those times are few, but are enough to show 
that the early settlers found military service in the line of their duty. 
Meagre indeed are the accounts given of the aborigines dwelling up- 
on this territory, or roaming over it. There is circumstantial evi- 
dence that the Indians dwelt here a part of the time, and, later, 
passed through here on their excursions toward the south. The 
streams and ponds abounded in fish, game was plenty, and there were 
places favorable for encamping and preparing for sudden incursions 
upon the inhabitants of the towns below, Berwick, York, Wells, and 



Saco, upon which they fell with savage cruelty. They had camping 
grounds along the Mousam, near the ponds, and, it is said, on the 
north side of Cold Spring Pond, the " Old Pond " of a generation or 
more ago, a little southeast of Sanford. Various implements of In- 
dian manufacture and warfare, stone hatchets and arrow-heads, have 
been found. It is thought the Indian burial ground was near the 
brook in the^rear of Bert Goodrich's residence. "What is believed 
to have been an Indian gristmill or mortar, where they ground, or 
rather pounded their corn, can be seen about three rods from the 
road opposite the grand stand on the fair grounds. The Indian 
names Bunganut, Massabesec, Tombegewoe, Towwoh (Lebanon), 
Benapeag (Bauneg Beg), Mousam, according to the late Hon. Wil- 
liam "Willis, and Maguncook, a former name of the river, which ap- 
propriately signifies "ponds at head," furnish inferential .evidence 
that the Indians dwelt in this vicinity. 

A few Indians lived iu town after it was settled, but were quite 
peaceable. The great trouble which they gave the whites was their 
constant begging. In his " History of Alfred," Dr. Usher Parsons 
informs us that, as late as 1764, " a few Indians still lingered about 
Massabesec and Bunganut Pond, one family being in a wigwam 
where the preseht house of Shaker worship stands ; but soon all the 
aborigines disappeared." These Indians were the Abnakis (Abe- 
nakis, Abneaques, or "Wanbanakkie, more properly), of which there 
were several tribes, four or eight. One tribe, the Sosokis, or Sock- 
higones, as Gorges calls them, had their residence on the Saco, and 
upon the islands near the falls, a few miles from the sea. They 
were numerous before the tribe divided, but were greatly reduced by 
the Indian war of 1675. The chiefs before mentioned belonged to 
this tribe. Receding from the tide of civilization, the tribe divided 
into two lodgments, the one at Fryeburg, the other on the Great 
Ossipee River, fifteen or twenty miles below, and took the names 
Pequawkets (or Pigwackets) and Ossipees. 

There is a tradition that Captain Lovewell of the ill-starred expe- 
dition against the Pequawkets at Fryeburg, fought one of his blood- 
iest battles on the territory of Phillipstown. The killing of Peter 
Morrell's daughter by Indians on the northeast side of Berwick has; 
already been referred to in a previous chapter. 

The precautionary measures of scouting and garrisoning were early 
resorted to. In 1723 Jeremiah Moulton of York made a report of a 
scouting party under his command, watching for the Indians between 
Berwick and Saco. On the 23rd of May he reported that he was 


scouting "on the Littel River and luousam River and Kenuebunk 
River and camped at Kennebunk falls." 

In 1 743, the General Court appropriated twelve hundred and eighty 
pounds to be disbursed from the public treasury and expended among 
the eastern settlements for their defence. "To Phillips-Town £100 
■weve granted in order to erect a Garrison or Garrisons of Stockade, or 
of Square Timber around some dwelling house or houses, or otherwise, 
as. will be most for the security and defence of the whole inhabitants 
of the town."i In November of that year William Pepperrell, Jere- 
miah Moulton, Moses Butler, Tobias Leighton, Samuel Moody, James 
Skinner, and Jacob Perkins, with others, were authorized to lay out 
the sum raised for garrisons in the most prudent manner. " The 
■charge of fortifying the several places aforesaid," so reads the order 
to Pepperrell and Moulton, '■ you must proportion according to the 
several sums allowed by the Gen. Court for fortifying each of the 
places aforesaid, and be sure not to exceed those sums, but take care 
that they be lay'd out with all prudence and frugality. The several 
Garrisons or Fortifications you may judge necessary to be erected 
in those places, niust be built of Stockade or square timber as you 
shall apprehend will be most suitable for defence. The particular 
places in said settlements for erecting those works must be such as 
will best accommodate the whole body of the inhabitants in those 
settlements, and so far as that end may be attained, I direct you to 
erect those works in such a situation as may convene any other of 
his Majesty's subjects settled in the exposed parts of the frontiers 
within this district, and that they may be placed at such a distance 
from one another as may be most convenient for the reception and 
accommodation of such scouts as may from time to time be employed 
in ranging the woods and forests as in case of war, may be sent 
out for the annoyance of the enemy in any of those settlements." 
Subsequently Pepperrell and Moulton were empowered to commission 
officers needed for four companies of fifty men each, and to supply 
th«m with the proper munitions of war. 

It is not known whether the Phillipstown block-house was a stock- 
ade, or of square timber, nor precisely where it was erected. Tra- 
dition locates it on top of the hill below Bert Goodrich's house, 
near the residence of Joseph Breary, where the late John Lord, who 
owned the farm, found several bullets,' stone arrowheads, gouges and 
other evidences of the presence of the Indians. Another tradition 
locates it on the other side of the road in a pasture, and a little fur- 

' Journal' of the House, 1743, p. 134. 


ther down. In either case, it seems quite reasonable; for the settlers 
in the upper part of the town would be the first to be troubled by 
the Indians, and with a garrison bouse near, would be the better 
protected. In case of an attack they could flee to it, and send out 
an alarm to those dwelling below. The scouts from Newichawan- 
nock (Berwick) could easily cross over from the foot of Bauneg 
Beg, above the pond, near which the Indians encamped, and follow 
their trail to the Saco truck-house, near Salmon Falls in Buxton. 
From a petition dated March 29, 1744, we know that two block- 
houses were then standing ; namely, James Chadbourn's and Samuel 
Willson's. We are of the opinion that these were private property, 
and that a public block-house was provided according to law. 

In 1743, four hundred men were ordered to be detached or en- 
listed in the county of York, and organized into four companies, as 
-minute- men, to be in constant readiness, with every equipment, and 
prepared to march at the shortest notice. Besides a good gun and 
sufficient ammunition, every one of them was to provide himself with 
a hatchet, an extra pair of shoes, or a pair of moccasins, and even 
a pair of snow shoes. A small stipend was to be paid to them for 
these preparations, and their wages from the time they left home, 
should they be called into active service. 

On the 19th of April, 1744, Governor Shirley ordered Jeremiah 
Moulton, colonel of the Third Massachusetts regiment, to take perfect 
lists of all persons in his command obliged by law to appear under 
arms upon any alarm. On the 1 4th of May following, Colonel 
Moulton wrote from Kittery to John Hill, Esq., Judge, in regard to 
the matter. In his letter he says : " My Desire is to meet you at 
Berwick :Tomorrow morning. If you think it will not be safe to go 
to Phillips Town without the Troop with their Pistols & Guns you 
may give Cap' Shapleigh orders to meet us accordingly." 

In 1744, December 2, all drafted men were ordered to be dis- 
charged, and one hundred effective men to be enlisted out^ of Col- 
onel Pepperrell's regiment, and formed into eight guards — to be 
stationed at suitable distances from one another, and at convenient 
places between Berwick and St. Georges, whence they were severally 
to scout as far as the next sta,tion. Each guard was under the com- 
mand of a sergeant. .Twelve men were stationed at Newichawan- 
nock, to scout to the block-house at Phillipstown, and twelve at 
Phillipstown to scout to Saco truck-house. (Truck-houses or trad- 
ing-houses were established, according to the French-English treaty 
•of 1726, at convenient places where the Indians could exchange furs 
and kindred commodities for the goods of civilized countries.) 


In 1745 four hundred and fifty men protected the frontier from 
Berwick to Brunswick, and ranged in scouting parties between the 
forts and block-houses at which they were stationed. Phillipstown 
had its quota, as it did in 1747, when three hundred and seventy men 
were employed in similar work, scouting as far east as Damariscotta. 
More than twenty-five large and noted block-bouses then stood in 
Maine. In 1748 there were seventeen persons doing guard duty at 
•the Wells and Phillipstown garrisons. From a muster roll of Cap- 
tain Jonathan Bean's company, dated October 27, 1748, we know 
that James Chadbourn, Joshua Chadbourn, Jonathan Adams, Joshua 
Cane, Ephraim Low, Edward Whitehouse, John Stanyan, Samuel 
Willson, John Frost, William Holt, and John Chadbourn were scouts 
between December 10 and March 9, 1747/8. They were probably 
stationed at the Phillipstown block-house. All except Frost and 
Holt served thirteen weeks and received each five pounds, one shil^ 
ling, seven pence. Frost served to February 27, eleven weeks and 
three days, for four pounds, nine shillings, three pence, and Holt 
to December 22, one week and six days, for fourteen shillings, seven 
pence. All except the same two served in the company, March 10-15. 

In 1745 Pepperrell's memorable expedition against the French at 
Louisburg occurred. Four hundred men enlisted from York County, 
among whom are several Phillipstown names. Jonathan Adams, 
Joshua Adams, and William Curtis were among the early settlers. 
Curtis died at Cape Breton. Charles White was in the North Parish 
in 1766, and James Jepson in Sanford in 1789. Benjamin Harmon, 
-who was a lieutenant in the sixth company. First Massachusetts reg- 
iment. Captain John Harmon, presumably his father, came into town 
in 1754. Eobert Miller moved into town in 1749. He lost an arm 
near the shoulder, at the assault on the island battery. About eight 
years after, he was pensioned three pounds annually, and in 1766, on 
account of his advanced age, six pounds. Dr. Alexander Bulman of 
York, the grantee of settlers' lots numbers five and thirty-two, was 
one of the surgeons of His Majesty's forces at Cape Breton, and died 

In 1754, money was appropriated for repairing the block-houses or 
fortified habitations at Towwoh (Lebanon), Phillipstown, etc. Sir 
William Pepperrell used every means in his power to have that part of 
the province in which his command was, well prepared to defend it- 
self, and to meet any emergency. In the wars with the Indians, sud- 
den demands were made, emergencies of such a nature arose thaf 
only great foresight, judgment, and precaution could have been ex- 
ercised to meet them successfully. Colonel Moulton, to whom refer- 


ence is frequently made in this history, was active and vigilant. It 
was enjoined upon him to see that ammunition was provided, as the 
following notice to John Storer of Wells will show • 

" March 14, 1754. Sir, I this day received from Sir "William 
Pepperell, to take Cair and see that the town of York is well Proved 
with Ammunition in their Town Stock, and also that the men be well 
provided with arms and ammunition ; and direct me to writ to you to 
see likewise that "Wells and the Towns to the Eastward of "Wells and 
Phillipstown be all likewise well provided as above. 

" I am, Sir, your humble Servant, 
" Jere Moclton." 

In 1755, fifty men were employed to scout between Lebanon and 
Saco Eiver. Every recruit who furnished his own gun received eight- 
een shillings bounty ; also the statute reward for captives and scalps. 
Enlistments were made for five months from June 20. In 1758, 
eighteen scouts were stationed at Phillipstown. The muster roll for 
that year contains the names of several Phillipstown men. Naphtali 
Harmon, sergeant, Eobert Miller, Samuel Cane, Joshua "Wittum, 
Joseph Stanley, Michael Bran (Brawn), John Thompson, Joseph 
Bounds, James Geare, James Chadbourn, John "Willson, and John 
Staples, sentinels, were on duty in His Majesty's service at Phillips- 
town, August 29-October 31, nine weeks and one day. Amount 
due for said service, thirty-seven pounds, eight shillings, nine pence. 
"William Babb was in Captain Jonathan Bean's company, at the Saco 
block-house, October 17-29, 1756, and also in 1757-8. In imagination 
we see these men scouting through the woods, far out on the border 
of civilization, — sturdy men inured to hardships and exposed to 
danger, who, in after years, enjoyed the comforts and happiness that 
come from peace. 

Meanwhile (1755-8), there were urgent calls for soldiers for the 
expedition against Crown Point, and for the reduction of Canada, 
and later for the eastern frontier, to which Phillipstown nobly re- 
sponded. It is known that the infant settlement sent out during 
seven years some twenty-five men, among whom no casualty seems to 
have occurred, but Joseph Stanley, Edward "Whitehouse, and John 
"Whitehouse contracted the small pox, and died soon after their re- 
turn home. These soldiers were as follows : 


'Samuel Staples, house carpenter, corporal, aged forty-nine years, 
born in Kittery, and Joseph Ayers, laborer, private, aged eighteen 


years, born in Gorhamtown, residing in Phillipsto-wn, were in Captain 
Joseph Holt's company, Colonel Ichabod Plaisted's regiment, May 
7, 1756, in the expedition against Crown Point, and were at Lake 
George. They were in camp at Fort "William Henry, August 7 and 
October 11. Their terms of service were from April 22 to December 
1 and 8, respectively, thirty-two and thirty-three weeks. 


Ebenezer Staples, son of Samuel, aged eighteen years, Jesse 
Thompson and Joshua Wittum were in Captain James Littlefield's 
company, Colonel Jedediah Preble's regiment for the reduction of 
Canada, April 7-November 18, eight months and two days, includ- 
ing twenty days' travel. They were at Lake George. John Staples, 
corporal, April 5-December 18, eight months, four days, twenty 
days' travel, and James Garee (Garey), April 12-November 18, 
were in the same company. John Willson was in Captain Ichabod 
Goodwin's company, same regiment, May 2-November 18, seven 
months, five days ; allowed twenty miles' travel. Edward Harmon, son 
of Benjamin Harmon of York, was in Captain James Gowen's com- 
pany, same regiment, April 13-November 18. The Lake George 
campaign, in which Colonel Preble's regiment participated, was a 
disastrous one. There were two battles, on July 6 and 8, in which 
the army lost nearly two thousand men. For over three months 
Colonel Preble's regiment remained at Fort William Henry, arriving 
at home in November. " The advance of this army down Lake 
George, July 5, was probably one of the grandest spectacles ever 
seen in this country. There were nine hundred batteaux, one hun- 
dred and thirty-five whaleboats, and a large number of heavy flat 
boats bearing the artiUery." Parkman has made the scene the sub- 
ject of a glowing pen picture. 


Samuel Staples and Ebenezer Staples enlisted April 2, 1759, in 
Sir William Pepperrell's command, under General Jeffrey Amherst, 
commander-in-chief, to whom the reduction of Ticonderoga was as- 
signed. John Chadbourn, sergeant, James Chadbourn, ' Ephraim 
Low, Joshua Chadbourn, Joseph Stanlee (Stanley), Edward Stanlee, 
James Garee, John Staples, Samuel Willson, Kobert Miller, Jona- 
than Johnson, Jonathan Johnson, Jr., John Willson, and Edward 
Harmon, sentinels, were in Captain Gerrish's company, callei 
marching company, May 24-September 12. This company consis 
of fifty men, of whom the captain was from Berwick, the lieutenant 


and one sentinel from Gorhamtown, twelve men from Narragansett, 
eight from Lebanon, thirteen from Pearsontown, and fourteen from 
Phillipstown. Edward Harmon, Kittery, aged seventeen years, 
servant to Nathaniel Clarke, was in Pepperrell's expedition, April 6. 
He was also in Captain Joshua Moody's company, . November . 2 , 
1759-January 12, 1761. There is much doubt as to whether he was 
the Phillipstown Harmon. 


A company of thirty-one men, William Gerrish of Berwicli, cap- 
tain, and ten men each from Phillipstown, Narragansett and Leba- 
non, was on the eastern frontier, April 10-September 11, twenty-two 
weeks. The Phillipstown quota was : John Chadbourn, sergeant, 
Sampson Johnson, Stephen Johnson, Robert Miller, Joshua Chad- 
bourn, James Garee, John Willson, Edward Stanlee, Jesse Thomp- 
son and Edward Harmon, sentinels. The following were in Captain 
Simon Jefiferds's company, enlisted for the total reduction of Canada : 
Joseph Stanley, Edward Whitehouse, John Whitehouse, Obadiah 
Whitehouse, servant of Naphtali Harmon, and Jonathan Adams, 
swving from March until the middle of December, a period of thirty- 
seven or thirty-eight weeks. Edward Whitehouse, aged forty-nine 
years, was born in Dover, and John, his son, aged nineteen years, 
in Kittery. 


Ebenezer Staples was in Captain James Sayward's company, April 
10-November 1. 

Alphabetically arranged, we have the following who served His 
Majesty between 1756 and 1762. The numbers on the right indicate 
the times of their service. Others probably bore arms, but their 
names have not appeared in any record or roll examined : 

Jonathan Adams .... 1 Edward Harmon .... 3 

Joshua Ayers 1 Naphtali Harmon, sergeant . 1 

William Babb 1 Jonathan Johnson . . .1 

Michael Bran (Brawn) . . 1 Jonathan Johnson, Jr. . . 1 

Samuel Cane 1 Sampson Johnson .... 1 

James Chadbourn .... 2 Stephen Johnson .... 1 

Joiin Chadbourn, sergeant . 2 Ephraim Low 1 

^^hua Chadbourn .... 2 Robert Miller 3 

^Ptoies Garee 4 Joseph Rounds (York) . . 1 




Edward Whitehouse . . 

. 1 


Jolin Whitehouse . . 



Obadiah Whitehouse . . 



John Willson .... 



Samuel Willson . . . 




Joshua Wittum . . . 


Edward Stanley . . 
Joseph Stanley . . . 
Ebenezer Staples . . 
John Staples, corporal 
Samuel Staples, corporal 
Jesse Thompson . . 
John Thompson . . 

To these should be added the name of another, who moved into 
town in 1773, and for fifty years was among the foremost men in 
Sanford, — Caleb Emery. In 1758, when seventeen years of age, 
he was at Lake George from April 13 to September 25, in Captain 
James Gowen's company. Colonel Jedediah Preble's regiment ; April 
2,1759, enlisted in Pepperrell's expedition; corporal in Captain 
Joshua Moody's company, November 2, 1759 to January 12, 1761 ; 
and sergeant in Captain Simon Jeflferds's company, December 13, 
1761 to May 27, 1762. 



Two Ineffectual Petitions — Increase in Population — The Act of 
1768 — Name of the New Town — Biographical Sketch of Gov- 
ernor Peleg Sanford, in Whose Honor it was Named — First 
Town Meeting — Early Votes. 

PHILLIPSTOWN was incorporated as Sanford February 27, 1768, 
and was the twenty-fifth town in Maine. Sixteen years previous, 
•however, the inhabitants of the plantation had petitioned the General 
Court to incorporate them into a township, and an act of incorpora- 
tion had passed the house of representatives, and there rested. Four 
years later, they had again petitioned, urging the same reasons for 
incorporation, but their prayer was not answered. i Let the records 
tell the story of these ineffectual attempts, and the result of subse- 
quent legislation, by which Phillipstown became Sanford : 

" To His Hon"^ Spencer Phipps Esq'^' L* Govern"^^ & Commander in 
Chief in and over His Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay 

" The Hon''.''' His Majesty's Council & the Hon".''' House of Eepre- 
seatatives in Gener! Court Assembled May 27"" 1752 

" The Subscribers most humbly shew, That the Prop" of a Large 
Tract of Land of Eight Miles Square situate at the Inland head of 
the Town of Wells commonly called by the Name of Phillips-town 
beginning at a small Pine Tree standing upon the North Corner of 
:said Wells Township & on the South West Side of KennebunkKiver 
■upon the North P^nd of a Rockey Hill which tree is mark'd four sides 
■thence South West by Wells bounds Eight Miles to a Pitch Pine 
Tree mark'd four Sides & with the Lett' N. upon the North side & 
"being upon the West Side of a Marsh or Fresh Meadow called 
Merryland Meadow & runs from thence North West Eight Miles to 
a great Hemlock Tree marked on four Sides standing three Miles to 
the Northward of Bonnebeege Hills, thence North East Eight Miles 
to a Large White Oak Tree mark'd on four Sides & thence South 

jj'iln 1755 and 1761 the proprietors contemplated petitioning for incorporation, but took 
!no definite action. 



East Eight Miles to the Pine Tree begau at — in OrdT to bring for- 
ward the settlement thereof for a Township (agreeable to the intent 
of MajT William Phillips in his first Granting the same) did Grant to 
Forty Persons One Hundred & Thirty Acres each being part of said 
Tract upon certain ConditioDS of their settling the same That there 
are now in consequence thereof some of our Families to the Numb' 
of more than Twenty settled upon the said Tract & upwards of one 
hundred souls most of whom thro' the Assistance & protection 
afforded them by this Province have stood it out all the last War 
without the loss of men so much as One Person to the great encour- 
agement of not only your Petitioners but many Others who fre- 
quently are coming to settle In the said place & building there which 
give hopeful prospects of a Flourishing settlement in a Few Years 
if still Suitably encouraged and would in process of Time not only 
be of service to the Neighbour Towns as a Barier to them in Case 
of an Indian War but 'tis hop'd to the Province in General, That 
their greatest Difficulties at present is their being under no proper 
regulation of an Incorporated Town or Precinct and so no powr or 
Priviledge of Raising Money and Obliging the Non-resident Settlers 
& Prop? to pay their proportion for the Support and Maintenance of 
the Gospel among them so necessary for the prevention of Irreligion 
& Profaness as well as for the Edification of such as are Religious 
and well dispos'd and such other necessary Charges arising in make- 
ing & keeping in Repair necessary and convenient Highways &. c. 

" Wherefore your Petitioners pray this Court to take the Premises 
into consideration & of their wonted goodness & Parental care for 
such Infant Settlements Incorporate them into a Town or Precinct 
& Grant y" such Powers & Priviledges as have been usual for such 
— or Provide such other way & means for the effectual redress of 
their Inconveniencies aforesaid And Incouraging the s'^ Settlem! as this 
Court in their Wisdom shall Judge most fit & reasonable & 

" Your Petitioners as in duty bound 

shall ever pray 

"John Frost John Stanyan 

" James Chadboum Sam :11 Staple 

" James Chadbourn Jun Sam -.11 Willson 

" Moses Fowler John Garey 

" John Chadbourn Joshua Cane 

" Joshua Chadbourn Jonathan Adams 

" Thomas Donnell Jeremiah Dunham 



" Jeremiah Moulton ter" 

" Daniel Moultou 

" Benja. Holt 

" Jos : Simpson Ju" 

Thomas Wasgatt 
Eph Low 
Nicolas Cane 
Sam" Cane 
John Low 

Edward Whitehouse 
Jonathan Jonsun 
Robert Miller 
John Urin " 

On the reverse the petition is briefed : 

" Pet" of John Frost and others 
May 29, 1752, Capt Plaisteed 
Mr "Wells Mr Gerrish to prepare a 
Bill to Erect them into a Township." 

"Petition of Phillips 
Town men " 

The bill, granting the " inhabitance " of Phillipstown what they 
desired, was duly prepared and reported in the house. On June 4 
it was passed to be engrossed in the house of representatives and 
sent up for concurrence. No further record is found regarding it. 

The petition of 1756 was of the same tenor, and in nearly the same 
language as that of 1752. There were then about thirty families and 
" upwards of one hundred and fifty souls." Most of the inhabitants 
had fulfilled the conditions of settlement, or were in a fair way to do 
so. The petition was signed by 

Daniel wittum 
Joshua wittum 
Robert Miller 
Nicolas Cane 
John miles 
(or miler) 

Naphtali Harmon 
Jonathan Adams 
John Garey 
Jos Stanley 
John thompson 
John thompson Jun 
Eph Low 
John Calark 
Benja Harmon 
Benjamin Harmon Jun 
Edward Harmon 
John Staple 
Eben Staple 
Benj : Wittum 

John Harmon 
Joshua Cane 
Sam" Wilson ( ?) 
Jonathan Johnson 
Sam' Cane 
John Stanyan 
John Chadbourn 
Joshua Chadbourn 
Thomas Wasgatt 
Jesse Thompson 
Edward Whitehouse 
Jonn: Johnson 
Samson Johnson 
James Garey 
Jonathan Swett 


The petition was read in the house of representatives June 4, 1756, 
and it was ordered that the non-resident proprietors be notified to 
show cause, if any, on the second Wednesday of the next sitting of 
the General Court, why the prayer should not be granted. In this 
the council concurred, and later the whole matter was referred to the 
next session of the General Court. 

It is to be noted that these petitions fix the population of Phillips- 
town in 1752 and 175t), and furnish us with the names, in part at 
least, of the early settlers. All except four or five of the first list, 
were actual settlers, though it is doubtful whether the descendants of 
more than half a dozen can be found in town to-day. It is to be noted 
also that in accepting and settling lots, the petitioners had voluntarily 
become a barrier against the Indians, for the neighboring towns, but 
would be a more effectual barrier in case the settlement increased, 
and at the same time would be a stronger defence unto themselves. 
They had the wisdom, too, to discern that the Gospel is a power, and 
that the preaching thereof conduces to the general good. More than 
this, that the improvement of one part of a town generally enhances 
the value of other parts, and that in justice, one should not bear all 
the burden of improvement and others reap the advantages thereof. 

The second Wednesday of the next sitting of General Court came 
and passed, but no hearing seems to have been held. The order was 
unnoticed, either because the province was in a state of excitement 
attendant upon the fitting out of expeditions for the French and In- 
dian War, or because the petition was deemed of too little consequence 
to be attended to at that time. We do not find any reference to the 
subject of incorporation until twelve years later, when the. house of 
representatives took the initiative in the matter. The successive 
steps were as follows : February 13, 1768, " Upon a Motion made. 
Ordered, That Major Chadburn bring in a Bill to incorporate a Place 
called PMllipstown into a Town." February 19, bill read first time, 
and ordered that it be read again at 3 o'clock. February 20, bill 
read second and third times, and passed to be engrossed. February 
23, Engrossed bill read and passed to be enacted. March 4, signed 
by the Governor. 

The engrossed bill thus reads : 

" An Act for erecting a Tract of Land eight miles square called 
Phillipstown joining upon the Northwest end Of the Town of Wells 
in the County of York into a Town by the name of Sanford. 

^'^ Anno Regni Regis Georgii tertii octavo. 

" Whereas the Erecting of that Tract of Land called Phillipstown 


into a Town will greatly contribute to the growth thereof, and remedy 
many inconveniences to which the Inhabitants and Proprietors may 
be Otherwise subject : 

" Be it Enacted by the Governor, Council, & House of Represen- 
tatives That the Tract aforesaid Boimded as followeth — viz' Lying 
on the Northwest end of the Town of Wells, "West of Kennebunk 
River, East of the Town of Berwick and North by Province Grants 
in part and in part by unappropriated Lands, Be and hereby is erected 
into a Town by the name of Sanf ord, and that the Inhabitants there- 
of be and hereby are invested with all powers, privileges and Immu- 
nities which the Inhabitants of the Towns within this Province do 

" And be it further Enacted That Benjamin Chadbourne, EsqT be 
& hereby is impowered to issue his warrant directed to some princi- 
pal Inhabitant of said Town requiring him to warn the Inhabitants 
of said Town who have an Estate of Freehold according to Charter 
to meet at such time and place as shall be therein set forth to chuse 
all such officers as are or shall be required by Law to manage the 
affairs of said Town. 

"February 23, 1768. This Bill having been Read three several 
times in the House of Representatives Passed to be Enacted. 

" Thomas Cdshin& Spk' 

" February 23, 1768. This Bill having been Read three several 
times in Council Passed to be Enacted. 

" A Oliver Sec' 

" February 27, 1768. By the Governor. 
" I consent to the Enacting of this Bill. 

" Fra Bernard." 

We are not bound to account for every discrepancy that may 
appear in the records consulted, but we may suggest that this act 
was not published until March 5, nearly a week after the Governor's 
signature was aflSxed, and that in all probability the house of repre- 
sentatives had no official knowledge of his consent before the 4th of 
March, when it is recorded in the Journal of the house that the bill 
was signed by the governor. 

The engrossed bill only contains the name Sanford. This would 
indicate that, the name was not given until the act had reached the- 
Governor ; and, if so, would corroborate the statement, we know not 



upon what authority made, that it was the practice of the General 
Court of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, previous to the Rev- 
olution, out of courtesy to the Governor, to send bills for the incor- 
poration of towns to him with blanks left for the names. This gave 
him an opportunity to compliment his friends by filling the blanks 
with their names, when he signed the bills, or with names suggested 
by them. The Lieutenant-Governor, Thomas Hutchinson, and the 
Secretary, Andrew Oliver, had married granddaughters of Peleg 
Sanford, in honor of whom the town received its name. 

In a list of towns in Massachusetts at the state house, Boston, ap- 
pears this record : " Sandford 27 Feb. 1768. Original name, Phillips- 
town or Benapeag." The latter name is undoubtedly of Indian origin, 
and may have been a form of the familiar Bauneg Beg, or Bonny 
Beag. Phillipstown, as we have seem, took its name from the origi- 
nal grantee. Major William Phillips. Peleg Sanford, whose name was 
ultimately given to the town, was the son of John and Bridget San- 
ford, and by the marriage of his widowed mother became the stepson 
of Major Phillips. He was a useful, energetic, and prominent citi- 
zen of his day. Born in Portsmouth, E. I., May 10, 1639, he was 
admitted freeman of that colony in 1666, and resided at Newport. 
He served as assistant in the General Assembly six years, and at the 
age of forty-one was elected Governor, to which oflSce he was thrice 
re-elected. The third time he declined to be inaugurated, for " suffi- 
cient reasons." Sanford was also General Treasurer at times both 
during and previous to his governorship, and held other offices under 
the colonial government and the crown. He inherited a large part 
of the nineteen thousand acres, or otherwise came into possession of 
it, so that as late as 1768, three thousand six hundred and fifty acres 
adjoining Coxhall, were set off to three of his heirs. He died in 
1701. We may safely assume that Governor Sanford always honored 
the office to which he was chosen, and served his day and generation 
with faithfulness and zeal. Governor Sanford was twice married. 
By his second wife he had three sons and four daughters. His young- 
est son, William, had three daughters, Mary, who became the wife 
of Andrew Oliver, Margaret, the wife of Thomas Hutchinson, and 
Grizzel (Griselda) , unmarried. 

It is noticeable that Sanford was the only town incorporated in 
Maine during a period of nearly four years, from June 25, 1767, 
when Lebanon was incorporated, to April 26, 1771, when Hallowell 
and three other towns were added to the list. The reason for this 
has 'been assigned to the opposition of the royal Governor to the en- 



largement of the house of representatives, by which the power and 
influence of the popular branch would be increased. In this action 
we have indications of that conflict of opinion and authority which 
ended when the mother country formally acknowledged the independ- 
ence of the colonies. 

Sanford having been incorporated, no time was lost in calling a 
town meeting for the transaction of the public business. Following 
is a copy of the warrant for the first t own meeting : 

" York ss To M' John Stanyan of Sanford in the County of 

York Yeoman Greeting 

" In his majestys name, you are Required to warn the Inhabitants 
of Said Town of Sanford that have an Estate of Freehold in Said 
Town Quallifled by Charter to vote in Town meetings, To meet at 
the Dwelling House of M' John Stanyans inholder in Said Sanford 
on Wednesday the Thirtyeth day of March Currant at one of the 
Clock in the afternoon. Then and there, to Chuse a Moderator for 
Said meeting. And to Chuse all such Offlcers as are or shall be by 
Law Required to mannage the Affairs of said Town, 

" And make Return of this Warrant with your doings Thereon at 
the Time and place appointed for Said meeting 

" And for your so doing this shall be your SuflBcient Warrant given 
under my hand and Seal this 11'^ day of March In the Eighth year 
of his Majestys Reign annoque Domini 1768. 

' ' Benj-^ Chadboukn Jus peace " 

The record of this town meeting is lost, but we know from other 
records that Benjamin Harmon, Naphtali Harmon and John Stanyan 
were chosen selectmen, and William Bennett, collector of taxes and 

The records of subsequent early town meetings throw an inter- 
esting light upon the doings of those days : 

1769. March 22 (?) "Voted that William Bennett late constable 
should deliver up the Warrant and Tax Bill for the year 1768," 
which was accordingly done. 

" Voted that Hogs go at large except they do mischief." (A per- 
tinent vote, when we consider that much land was lying in common, 
and swine would make much havoc among the growing crops. It was 
probable that they were yoked and ringed according to the act of 
1693, under William and Mary, which required swine to be yoked 
from April to October 15, and ringed all the year.) 

March 27, an adjourned meeting was held at Samuel Willard's 


house. " Voted that there be raised on the Polls and Estates of the 
Inhabitants of this Town the sum of Fifty Pounds lawful money for 
defraying the Town charges the year ensuing." 

1770. Annual meeting. March 21. " Voted that Hoggs shall goe 
at large with yoking and ringing untill they Do mischief. 

"Voted that the fifty Pounds that was voted the Last year and 
was not Raised should be Raised this year to Support the gospel and 
other insedent Charges." 

On May 9 th the selectmen issued a warrant to the freeholders and 
others " That have an Estate of Freehold in Land within this Prov- 
ince or Territory, of Forty Shillings p' annum at the least, or other 
Estate to the Value of Forty Pounds Sterling," for a town meeting 
on May 22 to elect one or more persons " to Serve for and Represent 
you in the great and general Court or Assembly appointed to be 
Convened held and kept for his Majesty's Service at Harvard Colledge 
in Cambridge," on May 30. There is no record extant that this 
meeting took place. The first representative was not elected until a 
number of years later. 

1771. Annual meeting at the dwelling house of Lieutenant Jona- 
than Johnson, innholder, Thursday, March 21. " Voted to give Mr. 
Nathaniel Bennet Constable one Shilling on the Pound for gathering 
the Rates for the year Past and his Rates for the Same year. 

" Voted that Swine Should Run at Large untill they Do Mischief." 
(Similar vote, March 18, 1772.) 

1772. March 18. Voted not to raise any money. 

May 1 Met at " the Meting House." Voted not to send any 

1773. March 16. William Bennet was chosen to serve on the 
grand jury. 

May 21. Voted not to send a representative this year. 

Dec. 20. " Voted that William Bennet Daniel G-ile James Geary 
and John Stanyan be a Committy to Prefer a Pertition to the 
Great and General Court that the Court of Genera Sessions of the 
Peace and Court of Common Pleas holden at Bideford may be Re- 
moved to the Town of Wells as it Near the Centor of the County." 

1774. Annual meeting at the house of John Stanyan, innholder, 
Monday, March 21, 1774. " Voted to have Two Constable Edn^ard 
Harmon Constable in the Town and Ebenezar Hall Constable for 
that part of the Township called massabeseck. 

" Voted that a committee be chosen to examine the accounts of 


the former Selectmen and make Report thereof to this meeting on 
the adjournment thereof and Massrs Caleb Emery Enoch Hale and 
morgain Lewis were chosen accordingly." 

Sept. 27. Met at the house of Jonathan Johnson. No reference 
is made to His Majesty in the warrant for this meeting. 

1775. March 14. " Voted by the Town to chooes three men to 
see who are or not (voters) & they Brought in if a man paid six 
shilling one singal Rate shall be a Voter for this Presant year." Ad- 
journed to May 22: "To chouse a Committee of Safty; To see 
where the town will agree to hier a ministre to preach sum part of 
the time ; To see where the Town will chouse a Town Treasury ; To 
see whare the Town will alow James Jackson for his portison." 

What is now Alfred formed the northern part of the original town 
of Sanford. Within its limits lay a portion of the territory known 
as Massabesec. This is the Indian name of the pond from which 
the eastern branch of the Mousam flows, and gave name to the upper 
part of Alfred and lower part of Waterborough. According to 
Judge C. E. Potter, Massabesec means " much-pond-place;" Massa, 
much, nipe, pond, ni omitted and a put in for sake of the sound ; 
and auke, place. But, according to Mary, daughter of the old chief 
Neptune of the Penobscot tribe of Indians, it is formed by combi- 
nation and contraction as follows : Mad, great ; om, am, or um, 
suckers ; which with the besec or betticks, according to Potter, would 
make it signify " Great-sucker-pohd-place." We assume that our 
Massabesec is of the same origin as the Thomaston Massabesec, and 
has the same signification. 



Names of Soldiers Furnished, Terms of Service, and Interesting 
Facts in Regard to Them — Votes of Town — Money Raised. 

THE first seven years of the history of the town were eventful 
ones in colonial times, scarcely less eventful than the second 
seven. Then was the period of agitation and discussion of the ques- 
tion, " Shall the American Colonies be compelled to bear their pro- 
portion of the expenses of the home government, and have no voice 
in that government?" The men of the frontier towns, although far 
from the centres of discussion and agitation, were alive to any emer- 
gency that might arise. The immediate action of the people of York 
County, when the first call to arms resounded in 1775, shows how 
ready they were, and how thoroughly in earnest. 

The news of the battle of Lexington reached Lebanon on the morn- 
ing of the 20th of April, 1775, at four o'clock,^ and not many hours 
later aroused the inhabitants of Sanford. The " minute-men " had 
watched with' intense interest the progress of events, and were then, 
at a moment's warning, called upon to shoulder their muskets and 
leave their firesides and friends. The Lebanon company was sent 
off on the 21st, and without doubt, the Sanford company did not long 
delay marching. However that may have been, it is evident that 
thirty-eight men marched sixty miles, and did three days' service 
prior to April 28, at which date their muster roll was made out. The 
following are names of those who "Marched on the Alarum upon Lex- 
ington Battle :/' 

Captain — Morgan Lewis. 

Lieutenant — Benjamin Tripe. 

Ensign — Nathaniel Bennett. 

Sergeants — Andrew Burley, Jeddiah Peabody, Samuel Jalison. 

Corporals — Paul Giles, Henery Hambleton. 

Privates — John Adams, John Barrens, Isreal Hibbard, Jonathan 

> Parson Hasey's Diary. 


Adams, Moses Pette, Samuel Harmon, Samson Johnson, Henery Nut- 
ter, Abraham Barrons, Josiah Harmon, John Cram, Joshua Batch- 
elder, William Tripe, Henery Tibbets, Ephraim Gile, Isaac Coffin, 
Daniel Lary, Thomas Kimble, Timothy Silver, Joseph Thompson, 
Benjamine Lord, Joseph Giles, Benjamine Norton, Joshua Taylor, 
Eliflit Taylor, Jonathan Low, Jonathan Boston, Stephen Hatch, 
Phinas Thompson, Seth Peabody. 

There were minute-men in other companies, some of whom are 
known. Joseph Horn and Samuel Whitehouse were privates in Cap- 
tain Noah M. Littlefield's company. Colonel Moulton's regiment. 
Ebenezer Guptail was a sergeant, and Stephen Perkins, John Clarke, 
Joseph Giles, Jr., Jeremiah Smith, Nathaniel F. York, Israel Smith, 
and Daniel Giles, privates in the " Massabesick" company. Captain 
John Smith, which marched April 22. 

War had actually begun, and other soldiers than minute-men, has- 
tily equipped and poorly furnished, were needed. As soon as Cap- 
tain Lewis's company returned home. Captain Joshua Bragdon, of 
Wells, who had enlisted two days after the Lexington and Concord 
fight, raised a company of eight months' men, in Sanford, Wells, 
and Berwick. It numbered flfty-seven men, of whom thirty-three 
were from Sanford. We give the names of the company entire, as 
they appear on the first muster-roll, August 1, 1775. The numbers 
(106) and (100) show the distances in miles from their homes to 
place of muster-in, fro'm which we see that twenty-three were from 
what was afterwards the North Parish, or Alfred, and ten from the 
South Parish, or Sanford : 

Captain — Joshua Bragdon, Wells. 

Lieutenant — Morgan Lewis, Sanford, (106). 

Ensign — Moses Sweet, Sanford. (106). 

Sergeants — Abraham Barens, Wells; Enoch Hale, Sanford, (100) ; 
William Patton, Wells ; Jerediah Pebody, Sanford, (106). 

Corporals — Simeon Hatch, Wells; Samuel Cluff, Sanford, (106) ; 
Peter Cram, Wells; Ephraim Gile, Sanford, (106). 

Drummer — Joseph Thompson, Sanford, (106). 

Fifer — Josiah Harmon, Sanford, (100). 

Privates — John Adams, Sanford, (100) ; Jonathan Adams, San- 
ford, (100) ; William Burks, Sa nford, (106) ; Nathaniel Butland, 
Wells; William Boston, Wells ; Elijah Boston, Wells; Daniel Bos. 
ton, Sanford, (100); Richard Blabon, Wells; John Clarke, San. 
ford, (106) ; Isack Coffin, Sanford, (106) ; John Emons, Sanford, 
(106) ; Pentleton Emons, Wells ; Nathaniel Edward, Wells ; Stephen 


Edward, Wells ; Daniel Eastman, Sanford, (106) ; James Ford, Wells ; 
Samuel Harmon, Sanford, (100) ; Jeams Hall, Wells; Joseph Hib- 
bard, Sanford, (106) ; Isac Jones, Sanford, (106) ; Thomas Jepson, 
Wells; Samuel Jelson, Stanford (Sanford), (106); Charles Jell- 
son, Berwick; Abram Kimble, Sanford, (106); Joseph Knight, 
Berwick ; Jeddiah Low, Wells ; John Lord, Sanford, (106) ; Thomas 
Neele, Wells ; Abr Pribel, Sanford, (100) ; Moses Pettey, Sanford, 
(100) ; William Powers, Sanford, (100) ; Jeremiah Smith, Sanford, 
(106) ; Jeremiah Steward, Wells ; Marsters Tredwell, Wells ; Nath- 
aniel Tredwell, Wells ; Samuel Whitehouse, Wells ; Charles White, 
Sanford, (106) ; George Whales, Sanford, (100) ; Nathaniel Folsom 
York, Sanford, (106) ; Paul Giles, Sanford, (106) ; Daniel Giles, 
Sanford, (106) ; Israel Smith, Sanford, (106) ; Noah Merrill, Wells; 
Israel Hibbard, Sanford, (106). 

Another muster-roll subsequent to September 17, does not have 
thereon the names of Jerediah Pebody, Isack Coffin, and Moses 
Pettey, but the names of Caleb Clark, Wells, sergeant, and Daniel 
Coffin and Jonathan Powers, Sanford, privates, appear. 

This company, most of whom enlisted May 3, was in Colonel 
James Scammans's (Thirtieth) regiment, of which Samuel Nasson of 
York, afterwards of Sanford, was quartermaster, and marched to 
Cambridge under the command of Lieutenant Lewis. They were at 
least four days on the road and were in camp on May 23. Owing to 
what seems to have been a misunderstanding of orders, this regiment 
did not take part in the battle of Bunker Hill, but assisted in cover- 
ing the retreat of the exhausted men under Prescott. " Colonel 
Scammans was ordered to go where the fighting was, and went to 
Lechmere's Point. Here he was ordered to march to the hill, which 
he understood to mean Cobble Hill, whence he sent a messenger to 
General Putnam to inquire whetlier his regiment was wanted. This 
delay prevented it from reaching the field in season to do any good." 
. . . "His regiment did not advance nearer the battle than Bunker 
Hill. (It should be borne in mind that the battle was fought on 
Breed's Hill, and that Bunker Hill was some seven hundred yards 
nearer Charlestown Neck, over which the retreat was made.) The 
colonel was tried for disobedience of orders, but acquitted."' From 
the fact that Lieutenant Lewis, before the court-martial, " deposed 
and said, ' I saw nothing of cowardice or backwardness in Colonel 
Scammans that day,' "^ it is inferred that he commanded the company 

Frothingham'n "Siege of Boston." 
The Historical Magazine, June, 1868. 


at that time. On August 19, Captain Bragdon resigned and re- 
turned home, and Lieutenant Lewis became captain of the company. 
There is conclusive evidence that the company served during the eight 
months' campaign of that year, for thirty-four names, at least, of 
which Captain Lewis's is one, appear in the " Pension Index, Eight 
months' Service," " Coat Rolls, 1775." 

There were in the possession of the company, fifty-five guns, 
thirty-nine cartridge-boxes, two bayonets, one drum, and one fife. 
The captain and ensign furnished bayonets (swords seemed to have 
been wanting), and fifty-two men furnished their own muskets. 
Three guns were taken from the store, of which Enoch Hale's was 
valued at two pounds, and eight shillings, and William Burks's, at 
two pounds, two shillings, and eight pence. 

After Washington took command of the army Colonel Scammans's 
regiment manned a fort at Cambridge. " The service of the regiment 

was not an feventful one. There were no battles. The 

firing between the lines was desultory, and the encounters with the 
enemy were in the nature of skirmishes. "^ The men served until 
December 31, 1775. 

Other soldiers enlisted in 1775, mostly May 3 : Stephen Johnson, 
corporal, Joseph Kilgore, fifer, Abraham Barnes, Jonathan Baston. 
Timothy Baston, John Cram, Joseph Horn, Nason Lord, Pelatiah 
Penney, Salathiel Penny, Allen Perry (Christian name variously writ- 
ten Allen, AUin, Alex, and Hen [?]), Eliphalet Taylor, and Henry 
Tebbetts, privates, in Captain Samuel Sayer's (Sawyer's) company ; 
Daniel Adams, James Davis, and Joshua Emery, privates, in Captain 
Samuel Leighton's company ; Robert Williams of Mast Camp (Mas- 
sabesec) , private in Captain Jeremiah Hill's company ; William Tripe, 
corporal, and Peter Nasson (said to have been a drummer boy) , in 
Captain Jonathan Nowell's company ; Seth Peabody, private, in 
Captain Jesse Dorman's company, all of Colonel Scammans's regi- 
ment ; Jethro Smith of Massabesec, private ' in Captain William 
Hudson Ballard's company, Colonel Fry's regiment, at Cambridge, 
October 6 ; William Faye, John Penney, and Stephen Perkins, pri- 
vates, in Captain Hubbard's company, Colonel Doolittle's regiment, 
at Winter Hill, Cambridge, now Somerville, October 10; Matthew 
Lassell, corporal, and Gatnsby Witham, private, in Captain Benja- 
min Hooper's company, raised to defend the seacoast, at Biddeford, 
July 17-December 31. 

1 " Col. James ScammanB'B Thirtieth Eegiment of Foot, 1775," by Nathan Goold, Maine 
Historical Society Collections. 


There are traditions among their descendants that James Chad- 
bourn and Ephraim Low, Jr., were at the battle of Bunker Hill, and 
that Low had the end of his nose shot off. He was also in sight of 
Washington and Howe when they concluded the terms for the evac- 
uation of Boston, and was present when the British fleet sailed out 
of that harbor. 

Daniel Giles, Paul Giles, Nason Lord, and Israel Smith are borne 
on the muster rolls, as having " enlisted in the train, June 3." Paul 
Giles and Smith are borne on another roll as having enlisted June 10 
in Captain Samuel Gridley's company, Colonel Richard Gridley's 
matross (artillery) regiment. 

James Davis, who was also a minute man in the Wells company, 
in April, was reported as a deserter, May 31 ; but we incline to the 
opinion that, after an absence without leave, he completed his term 
of service ; for his name appears on the " Coat Rolls," and those 
entered tliere received, at the expiration of their term of enlistment, 
a coat each in addition to their pay, and were entitled to a pension 
from the United States, after the formation of our government. 

Nathaniel Bennett was sergeant in Captain Moses Merrill's com- 
pany. Colonel Edmund Phinney's regiment, from May 15 to July 5. 

The Committee of Safety for this year, chosen May 22, was James 
Gare, Daniel Giles, Walter Powers, Benjamin Tripe, and Elisha 
Smith. This committee was chosen, as were other similar committees 
in other towns, for the purpose of " consulting, upon any emergency, 
the safety, peace, and prosperity of the town, as well as of the whole 
government and continent." 


The term of enlistment of most of the eight months' soldiers ex- 
pired in the early part of this year. Probably some re-enlisted, but 
not enough to fill the quota of the town. On the 19th of January, 
Colonel Sawyer of Wells, Mr. Sullivan of Biddeford, afterward Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, and Major Goodwin of Berwick, were ap- 
pointed a committee to raise men for York county. Only two hundred 
and thirty-eight were required from the ten towns then incorporated, 
of whom Sanford was to furnish twelve. The number was undoubt- 
edly raised, though we are unable to give the names of the men, as 
documentary proof is lacking from the archives. For some unex- 
plained reason, there are fewer rolls for service during 1776 than of 
any other year during the period covered by the Revolutionary war. 


William Tripe did service from January 17 to August 31, in Cap- 
tain Philip Hubbard's company, stationed at Kittery Point and "Old 

Eliphalet Taylor was in Captain John Wentworth's company, Col- 
onel Aaron Willard's regiment, and was discharged at Fort Edward 
in July. He appears subsequently to have been allowed pay for 
three hundred and twelve miles' travel from Bennington, in the vicin- 
ity of which he had been campaigning under the same oflfleers. It 
also appears that he and William Martine ( ?) were in Captain Joseph 
Ilsley's company, Colonel Cogswell's regiment, from September 30 
to November 16, and were allowed pay for thirteen days to reach 
home, two hundred and sixty miles distant, and mileage at the usual 
rate, a penny a mile. 

John Giles and John Lord were in Captain Samuel Leighton's com- 
pany, at Dorchester Heights, in August, and were credited with 
one hundred and twenty-five miles' travel. Michael Brown (Brawn) 
was also in the same company at Dorchester. 

John Clarke and Joseph Kimble (Kimball) were in Lieutenant 
Daniel Wheelwright's company prior to August 3 1 , and had marched 
from home, or were distant therefrom, one hundred and twenty miles, 
as it appears from a " marching or billeting roll of part of a com- 
pany." Undoubtedly they were two of the " six men from the town 
of Sanford and Smith's company, of thirty-six men with Wheelwright 
and Lane as first and second lieutenants," who, " agreeably to resolve 
.of July 10, 1776, marched for the heights of Dorchester as supernu- 
merary men, the 12th of August." A report to this effect is dated 
at Watertown September 5, and signed by Joseph Storer, commit- 

Benjamin Evans, William Martin, and Joseph Kimball were al- 
lowed for one hundred and twenty-five miles' travel home from Dor- 
chester in November. They were in Captain Isaac Tuckerman's 
company, Colonel Ebenezer Francis's regiment. 

On the 6th of September (1776?), Captain Ichabod Goodwin cer- 
tified that eight men from Sanford and Smith's company ("Massabe- 
sick ") joined the regiment raised in the counties of Essex and 
Cumberland, and marched July 22, under his command. Perhaps 
some of the twelve required were among them. Oo a roll of the travel 
of Captain Jedediah Goodwin's company. Colonel Edward Wiggles - 
worth's regiment, discharged at Albany, N. Y., November 30,— made 
up from thence to their respective towns, at one penny per mile, and 
one day's pay for each twenty miles, — are the following names : 


Josiah Harmon, sergeant, John Knight, Abel Getchel, Thomas Gub- 
tail, Samuel Mereal, Daniel Brown, and Samuel Henderson, privates. 

Nathaniel Bennett's name appears as lieutenant in Captain Edward 
Harmon's ninth (Sanford) company, Colonel Ebenezer Sayer's (First 
York County) regiment, in a list of officers of the Massachusetts 
militia, commissioned June 25 ; in a list of militia officers, returned 
by Brigadier General Jotham Moulton, dated Providence, December 
24, he is rated as first lieutenant of Captain Daniel Littlefield's com- 
pany. Colonel John Frost's regiment. 

During a session of the Provincial Congress, April 26, 1775, it 
was ordered that powder be supplied for the use of the towns, but 
with what limitation, and at whose expense, the records do not 
show. It would seem, however, from a vote of the town March 26; 
1776, that some action had been taken, prior to that time, in regard 
to supplying the soldiers with ammunition, and from another vote, 
at a later day, that all expenses were to be borne by the town : 

"Voted that James Gare shall pay back that money that was 
drawn out of Jonathan Johnson, Jr. Constable hand for to buy 

James Gare was first on the Committee of Safety in 1775, and 
would be naturally invested with power to receive money drawn for 
that purpose, and to expend what was necessary to purcliase powder. 

July 8, 1776 : " Voted to have a Town Stock of Powder led and 
flints. Voted to get half Berrel Powder half hun^ led & 1 grose 
flints. Voted M''. John Stanyan & William Person are the two men 
chosen to go and buy s"* Town Stock. Voted M' John Stanyan & 
Nath' Conant are the two men chosen to take the Town Stock till it 
tis Call for." 

William Person, Walter Powers, and Nathaniel Bennett were 
Committee of Safety. 


This year long term men were called for. The following are known 
to have enlisted from Sanford for three years, or during the war: 
Thomas Barnes, Daniel Brawn, Samuel Bridges, William Burks, 
Dominicus Gray, Thomas Gubtail, Josiah Harmon, Samuel Harmon, 
Joseph Hibbard, Thomas Hutchings, Levi Hutchins, Stephen John- 
son, Stephen Kent, Joshua Kimball, Jonadab Lord, John Lord, Na- 
son Lord, John (or Jonathan) Mooney, Thomas Smith, William 
Straw, Obadiah True, Samuel Whitehouse. 

Barnes was mustered in by Nathaniel Wells, muster master, and 


served from June 15 as private in Captain John Reed's company, 
Colonel lehabod Alden's (afterwards Colonel John Brooks's) regi- 
ment. He died in the service, probably about January 1, 1778. 
Barnes was a recipient of state bounty. 

Brawn was in Captain James Donnell's company, Colonel Samuel 
Brewer's regiment. He marched to Bennington, having twenty-nine 
rations furnished him from February 19 to March 20. He was at 
Valley Forge, January 22, 1778. He is reported as having deserted 
from the Colonel's company (Ebenezer Sprout succeeded Brewer in 
command of the Twelfth regiment after the latter was cashiered, 
September 29, 1778), after having served nineteen months and 
twenty-two days. He was also reported dead. He returned from 
desertion July 20, 1780, as shown by the returns of that year, and 
served until December 31, 1780. 

Gray enlisted in Captain Daniel "Wheelwright's company (subse- 
quently Captain Thomas Francis's) , Colonel Ebenezer Francis's reg- 
iment. He was mustered in as a resident of Wells, February 7, 
1777, but the next January was reported from Sanford. 

Josiah Harmon was at first in Captain Wheelwright's company. 
Colonel Francis's regiment. On June 13 he received state and con- 
tinental bounties. He was a sergeant in Colonel Sherburne's regi- 
ment, July 15, 1777, to February 1, 1779. On the latter date he 
deserted, but returned by proclamation as certified by Lieutenant 
Phelon of Colonel Henry Jackson's regiment. 

Hibbard, Levi Hutchins and Nason Lord were mustered in Jan- 
uary 1, 1777. They were in Captain Daniel Merrill's (afterwards 
Captain Luke Hitchcock's) company. Colonel Brewer's regiment. 
They marched to Bennington, two hundred and eighty miles, and are 
credited with ninety days' service to March 17. Hutchins was a 
sergeant, and served three years. Hibbard is reported as a deserter, 
after a service of thirty months and seven days. On another muster 
roll he is borne as having served to July 7, 1779, and been discharged. 
Lord deserted in four months, but was not returned, though appre- 
hended. " N. B. The above Nason Lord now resides in Sanford, has 
been taken as a deserter, and brought before Nath. Wells, Esq.j 
muster master for the County of York, who has dismissed him and 
let him go."i 

Corporal Johnson enlisted March 17 in Captain Thomas Francis's 
company, Colonel Ebenezer Francis's (Eleventh) regiment (Colonel 
Benjamin Tupper's, after Colonel Francis was killed, July 7, 1777), 

1 Muster Rolls, Boston, Vol. 21, p. 115. 


and was discharged May 27, 1778. Term of service, fourteen 
months, ten days. He was furnished with firearms. 

Kent was in the same company with Johnson from May 2, 1777, 
to December 31, 1779, thirty-one months, twenty-nine days. He 
was a flfer. On April 17, 1777, he received state and continental 

John Lord was in Captain Peter Page's company. Colonel Calvin 
Smith's regiment, and died after serving seven months and sixteen 

True was in Captain Francis's company, Colonel Francis's regi- 
ment, from March, 1777, to December 31, 1779, serving thirty-three 
months and thirteen days. He was the recipient of state and conti- 
nental bounties but was not furnished with firearms. He was at the 
surrender of Burgoyne. 

Whitehouse enlisted March 14, and served till December 31, 1779. 
He was in Captain John Mills's company, Colonel Joseph Vose's 
regiment. Credited to Wells in 1780, he served that entire year, a 
total of forty-five months and seventeen days. 

Bridges, Gubtail, Thomas Hutchings, Kimball, Jonadab Lord, 
Mooney and Smith, all of Massabesec, or Mast Camp, served in Col- 
onel Calvin Smith's (late Colonel Edward Wigglesworth's) regiment, 
the group with the exception of Lord being credited to Captain Peter 
Page's company, which was at Valley Forge in 1778 and at Provi- 
dence in the spring of 1779. On another muster roll these men, 
Kimball excepted, are credited to Captain Matthew Fairfield's com- 
pany. Colonel Wigglesworth's regiment, and all received state bounty. 
Lord was also the recipient of continental bounty. 

It is probable that Eliphalet Taylor, Jonathan Webber, Stephen 
Weymouth, Thomas Wright, and Joseph Young enlisted for three 
years. Taylor was at the surrender of Burgoyne, and declared that 
it was the happiest day he ever saw. The names of the others, with 
the exception of Weymouth, appear on the muster roll of Captain 
Wheelwright's company, January 25, 1778. 

Abram Pribble, January 18, and John Huston, April 2, were in 
Captain Daniel Wheelwright's company, Colonel Francis's regiment, 
but it is uncertain how long they were in the service. On one muster 
roll it appears that Pribble marched April 26 and served ninety-nine 
days. He was not furnished with arms. 

In December, 1776, the governor of Rhode Island solicited the aid 
of Massachusetts in defence of that state, and on several occasions 
she responded to similar appeals for assistance. During the follow- 


ing spring and summer many troops were sent to Providence and 
vicinity for a few weeks, or montlis at most, partly as a protection 
to Rhode Island, and partly as a precautionary measure of defence, 
because fears were entertained that the enemy at Newport would 
march through the country and attack Boston. It would appear that 
nine men, at least, from this town, responded to one call. Joseph 
Thompson, drummer, Stephen Gowen, Ezekiel Gowen, John Gowen, 
Caleb Emery, Stephen Perry, James Davis, Daniel Adams, William 
English, Jonathan Gooding, Richard Tinan, and Noah Cluff, privates, 
served between May 19 and July 18, in Captain Abel Moulton's 
company. Colonel Jonathan Titcomb's regiment, and were allowed 
three hundred and twenty miles' travel. Though the last three are 
credited to Sanford, it is doubtful whether they belonged to the town, 
for Gooding does not appear to have been a resident, Tinan is else- 
where enrolled from Wells, and Cluff from Arundel. 

Another record states that Gershom Boston, William Worster, 
Jabez Perkins, Jedediah Jellison, James Davis, Junior, Stephen 
Gowen, William Bennett, Junior, and Joseph Miller Thompson were 
drafted for service in Rhode Island, May 8, 1777, for two months. 
In another place Boston is credited with service from May 19, 1777 
to July, 1778. 

Paul Giles was hired to serve eight months from July 2, joined 
Captain Merrill's company, and was discharged January 11, 1778. 
Others hired at that time refused to march until their mileage was 
paid to them. 

Although Sanford had a large number of men in the field, it was 
included in the order of August 9 for a draft to form a York County 
battalion urjder Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Storer to aid in re-enforc- 
ing the northern army. There were two companies, one of fifty- four 
men, from the First Parish of Wells and Sanford, "being a sixth 
part of the able-bodied effective men drafted from the brigade," 
James Littlefield, Captain, Samuel Gooch, Lieutenant, Tobias Lord, 
Second Lieutenant; and the other, forty-eight men, from Wells, 
Second Parish, Arundel, and Massabesec, Thomas Nason, Captain, 
Issacher Damm, Lieutenant. Lieutenant Lord, son of Captain To- 
bias, of Arundel, was drafted while residing at Moulton's Mills. He 
was at the capture of Burgoyne's army in October. 

William Burks, Benjamin Evans, Samuel Harmon, John Stevens, 
William Straw, and Juseph Thompson were drafted out of the militia, 
or hired by those who were drafted, to serve eight months from Sep- 


tember 4. They were mustered into Captain Nicholas Blaisdell's 
company, Colonel Wigglesworth's regiment. 

Burks and Straw are returned as privates in Captain Joseph Fox's 
company, Colonel Henry Jackson's regiment (Sixteenth), from Sep- 
tember 1. Both enlisted for three years. Both deserted ; the former, 
May 6, 1779; the latter, November 14, 1777, but returned or was 
retaken, May 6, 1779, the day upon which his comrade left. On an- 
another roll StraT^ is reported as serving his full twenty-eight months 
from September 1, 1777, to December 31, 1779, and also the entire 
year 1780. 

Evans joined Colonel David Henley's regiment, one of the three 
additional infantry regiments. His residence seems to have been at 
Coxhall, incorporated after the draft. 

Harmon probably enlisted August 14, was transferred after his 
muster-in to the company of Captain William North, Colonel Henry 
Jackson's regiment (Sixteenth), and was promoted to be corporal, 
September 1, 1778. Note is made of the fact that his family was at 
"Old York," and Straw's at Kennebunk, with the view, probably, 
of rendering them the assistance promised as an inducement for a 
three years' enlistment. Three of the six drafted or hired for eight 
months enlisted for three years. 

It is not improbable that John Gowen, after returning from Rhode 
Island, again entered the service for three years. 

Joseph Kimball of Massabesec was in Captain Fairfield's company, 
Colonel Wigglesworth's regiment. He received state bounty P^ebru- 
ary 8. 

James Davis, after his return from Rhode Island, served in Cap- 
tain Thomas Bragdon's company (late) Colonel Storer's regiment, 
from August 14 to November 30. He was with the Northern army 
and was discharged at Queman's Heights. Jonathan Baston (Bos- 
ton) was in the same company for an equal length of time on the 
same service. 

On December 2, 1777, John Smith of Massabesec was allowed 
mileage, twenty-eight pounds, sixteen shillings, to Saratoga. 

The following letter from Major Osgood needs no explanation : 

" Andover Sep' 22" 1777 
" Gentlemen 

" I haye delivi^ Two fire Arms to the Melitia of your Town 
Lieu' Lord certifying that it was your intention that s"* Men should 
receive s'' arms must therefore request pay for the same & am ready 


to deliver the Remainder of your Towns Proportion when called for 
which is 48 Pounds of Lead 40 flints & two gun Locks 

" I am Gentlemen 

' ' Your humble serv' 

"Samuel Osgood," 
" (Selectmen of Sanford) " 

The archives show that in October of this year the selectmen were 
allowed mileage to Bennington, forty pounds, and in December, for 
rations, eight pounds, ten shillings. 

John Stanyan, Naphtali Harmon, and. William Person were Com- 
mittee of Safety. 


This year Michael Brawn was in a company stationed at Kittery, 
eight months, and Daniel Lary did service in Captain Simeon Brown's 
company, Colonel Nathaniel Ward's regiment, for six months and 
eight days. He was discharged at East Greenwich, R. I., July 1, 
one hundred and sixty miles from home. 

Israel Smith, Daniel Eastman, Daniel Goodrich, Nathan Powers, 
William Powers, Joshua Cane, John Huson, and Charles Smith 
were in Captain Samuel Waterhouse's company. Colonel Jacob Ger- 
rish's regiment, on guard at Winter Hill, from April 2 to July 3. 
James Gary, Ruke Stillings, and John Gowen were also at Winter 
Hill, in Captain Esaias Preble's company, same regiment, undoubt- 
edly for the same term of service. Ezekiel Eastman also served at 
Winter Hill for four months in Colonel Gerrish's regiment. 

From a return made by Nathaniel Wells, muster master, between 
April 9 and 27, we learn that Joseph Horn and Stephen Peary were 
hired to fill the quota of the town of Wells, and were assigned to 
Captain Merrill's company, Colonel Brewer's battalion. " Stephen 
Peary was mustered to go in the room of Allin Peary, mentioned in 
my last return as belonging to Wells or Sanford, and it since appears 
certainly that he belongs to Sanford and so could not be entitled to 
receive a bounty from the town of Wells as was engaged him by the 
person who enlisted him ; said Allin returned his bounty. Horn be- 
ing very poor has liberty from his Capt. as I am informed to enlist 
and serve as one of the quota of the Town of Wells." Other returns 
show that Allin Peary (or Perry), Captain Daniel Wheelwright's com- 
pany. Colonel Benjamin Tupper's regiment, received state and conti- 
nental bounties, April 9 ; that the same soldier served in Captain 
Hitchcock's company. Colonel Sprout's regiment, April 1, 1778- 


April 1, 1780 ; that Stephen Peary served in the same company and 
regiment, April 1, 1778 - December 31, 1779, and subsequently re- 
enlisted for one year ; and that Joseph Horn was in Captain J. Fray's 
company, Colonel Sprout's regiment, April 10, 1778 -December 31, 

Tobias Cole, Daniel Getchel, Joshua Gutterage (Goodrich) and 
Joseph White marched under the command of Captain Samuel Leigh- 
ton to Fish Kill, Jun,e 1, 1778, and were to report to Brigadier Jon- 
athan Warner. Cole and Getchel seem to have dropped out by the 
way. Gutterage and White arrived at Fish Kill, June 4, and are re- 
turned as forming a part of the fifteen battalions raised for nine 
months, Rufus Futman, Colonel. 

William English was also drafted from Massabesec to serve nine 
months. He was at Fish Kill, June 23. Three more of the men 
drafted for Fish Kill were Thomas Clerk (Clark) , Daniel Scribner, 
and John Sills, who were in Captain Smith's company, Third regiment. 
Clark was returned as received of John Frost, superintendent for 
York County, by Captain Samuel Leighton at Kittery June 1, 1778, 
to be conducted to Fish Kill and delivered to Brigadier Warner. 
Jonathan Baston (Boston) was also in the Fish Kill contingent. 

During this year two of the men who enlisted in 1777 were heard 
from. They were at Valley Forge, and in deep distress they sent 
the following letter to " Captain Morgan Lewis, Sundford, Massa- 
chusetts State, To be left at Captain Merrill's :" 

" Pensylvania State 
" Camp at Valley Forge, Aprill 15th 1778 

' ' For In as much as we are the only two Men that belongs to 
your Company & Frefink that continue in the Army for the term of 
three years & have Suffered the lofs of all our cloathing laft year in 
the Retreat from Ticonderoga & Suffered Everything Else but Death 
itt Self and have had a hard fateauguing Campain last year & a very 
uncomfortable Winter & no clothes except some Shews & Stokings 
or a shirt & Tie no prospect of having any, unless sent by the town, 
And as ye other towns in that state are Dayly Sending Cloathes to 
their men, w? can therefore only send our Request which we Fray you 
to take into Consideration & do your Endeavour to help us if you can ; 
as we have no relations to apply to must apply to the Town or Fre- 
fmk by sending to you as a father & a friend in time of need We are 
both of us Exceeding Foorly out for cloathing we Cnt Purchase any 
here unlefs it be old ones of the Virginia or Coneticut troops & Then 



the price will be 4 or 5 times ye valley of new cloathing : Joseph 
Hebbard is Lame with his old Rheumatizm pains and has been for 4 
weeks paft & we have as much to do, as we can do to support our- 
felves here with our Rations & Wages both. Levi Hutching hafs a 
family he Expects at home, but how they are Supported or how they 
are to live I cannot tell But Pray they may not be left Deftitute of 
friends So as to Suffer while in a christian land an He cannot get 
leave to come home & If he could, not Save anything to help his 
family We remain your Dutifull & Suffering Servants 

"Levi Hutchings 
" Joseph Hebberd" 

August 28 the selectmen were allowed mileage and baggage to Pix- 
hill and Fish Kill, forty pounds. December 5 they were allowed 
thirteen pounds for mileage of four men to Providence and Boston, 
although it does not appear who these men were. 

The fourtli article in the warrant for a town meeting to be held at 
the school house, December 1, was : " To see if the Town will ad- 
vance money for the Fire arms in the hands of the Board of Wars 
at Boston, or Give liberty to any one or more of the Town Inhabi- 
tants to taire them." At that meeting the town voted not to raise any 
money for the firearms, and to give liberty to any one or more per- 
sons to buy the said firearms. 

John Stanyan, Naphtali Harmon, and Samuel Friend were Com- 
mittee of Safety. 


James Chadbourn, Joshua Cane, and Nathan Powers were in Cap- 
tain Samuel Sawyer's company, Major Littlefleld's detachment (York 
County) in the expedition against Penobscot, July 7 - September 6, 

Michael Brawn (Brown) served in the Second regiment at Spring- 
field for nine months during this year. 

Ebenezer Hall, Elisha Smith, and John Thompson were Committee 
of Safety. 

September 6. "Vot^ not to raise solgers by a Rate. Vof* the 
method that the Town has agreed upon to Suply the solgers families 
is by Superscription." 


A number of the three years' men of 1777 are found in the service 
this year, but as to whether they re-enlisted the records are not 


always clear. Some of them undoubtedly did re-enlist, being induced, 
perhaps, by the bounty of three hundred dollars offered, when a com- 
mittee, sent out for that purpose late in 1779, just before the expira- 
tion of the term of service of some of the three years' men, visited 
the army. 

Samuel Bridges, who deserted in 1779, was certified May 6, 1780, 
as having returned and re-entered Colonel Calvin Smith's regiment, 
Captain Woodbridge's company. He served until December 31. 
Thomas Gubtail, Thomas Hutchings, and Joseph Kimball, were also 
in Colonel Smith's regiment, Captain John Towle's company, serving 
througli January, and Kimball further remained with the command 
during February. 

In Colonel Sprout's regiment was Daniel Brown (Brawn) who re- 
turned from his desertion. 

Samuel Harmon and William Straw were in Colonel Henry Jack- 
son's regiment on December 1, 1779. Harmon served as a corporal 
from January 1 to August 14, 1780, and Straw remained in the army 
throughout the year. 

Josiah Harmon, who had been a deserter, was a sergeant in July, 
and Obadiah True, private six months, and corporal six months, in 
Captain Thomas Francis's company, Tenth (Eleventh?) regiment. 
True is also credited to Captain Peter Page's company in 1780. 
Samuel Whitehouse served fiom January 1 until December 31. All 
of the foregoing were three years' men of 1777. 

Stephen Perry was in Captain J. Pray's company the entire year. 

Jacob Brown, of Massabesec, enlisted January 21, at Providence, 
as a private in the Colonel's company. Colonel Ebenezer Sprout's 
regiment. A week later he was at West Point. He served until 
December 31. Brown is also credited to Captain Henry Sewall's 
company. Second Massachusetts regiment. 

The Tories who had moved into Lincoln County caused the patri- 
otic settlers there some trouble. To inspire the people of the east- 
ern counties with union and a spirit of resistance, the requirements 
upon them of men to reinforce the Continental army were somewhat 
relaxed. It was determined, however, in March, that a detachment 
of six hundred men be taken from the three eastern brigades and 
organized into companies of a single regiment, and distributed at 
Falmouth, Camden, and Machias. Three hundred were to be sta- 
tioned at Falmouth.' A town meeting was called to be held June 

1 William60n'e '* History of Maine. " 


20, at the house of Jonathan Powers, " To see if the town will Give 
any incouragement to Raise Soldiers for falmouth, iind for the South- 
ern Department." One would naturally suppose that soldiers for 
home defence would be more easily raised than those for a distant 
field of action ; but for some reason not recorded, the town 

" Voted not to give any encouragement to the soldiers desired for 
fallouth from this town. 

' ' Voted to give the men desired for the southward an encourage- 

' ' Voted to choose a committee to agree with two men to go to the 
southward, and a committee of three was chosen to hire two soldiers 
for southward." 

On the 21st of July, the town " Voted to raise £3150 for the use 
of paying the six months soldiers bounty. Also to be raised £450 as 
a bounty to hire a soldier for the term of three months." It seems 
as if James Gare was then and there hired for three months, for he 
served as a private in Captain Andrew P. Fernald's company, from 
July 21 to October 10, and was discharged three hundred miles from 
home. He was allowed pay for three months and five days. 

One of the six months' soldiers was Nathan Powers, who served 
in the thirty-third division from July 28, 1780, to February 5, 1781. 
He arrived at Springfield August 4, and on the next day marched 
thence with Captain Samuel Carr. 

"Agreeable to a Resolve of October the 5"' 1781. For making 
out a Pay Roll for the Six Month Soldier, which went from Sanford. 
he marched the twenty eight Day of July 1780 and was disbanded at 
West Point the 5 of P^eb^ 1781. Nathan Powers was the man we 
find that from West Point [to] Sanford is three hundred and forty 
[miles] Time of Service 6 months 26 days @ 2 Pound Per month 

" Due £13-14-8 

"(Signed) "James Gare "j Selectmen 

[ of 
" Eleazar Chadbourn ) Sanford.'' 

On the nth of March, 1782, the town " Voted to see where they 
allow Edward Harmon anything on account of hiring Nathan Powers 
for six months soldier." 

On a list of men mustered by Nathaniel Wells, muster master, to 
serve eight months for the defence of Eastern Massachusetts, appear 
the names of Asa Lassel and John White, Sanford, Moses Deshon, 
Massabesec, and Joseph Chaney, Jr., Wells. They were certified 


June 6. Deshon was engaged for Biddeford. He became a private 
in Captain Josiah Davis's company, Colonel Joseph Prime's (York 
County) regiment, which he joined May 9, and was discharged at 
Arundel, December 8. Michael Braun (Brown) was in Captain 
Thomas Bragdon's company, Colonel Prime's regiment, from May 7 
to October 30. 

Dominicus Gray also served eight months during the year in the 
defence of the eastern parts of the state. 

On November 6, 1780, the following allowances were made to the 
selectmen of Sanford : 
" For mileage for two men to Springfield 

" Being 200 miles at 6/ P'' mile £120 

" Also to two men to Clavernack it 

" Being 330 miles at 6/ P' mile 198 

" Also to two men to falmouth it 

" Being 40 miles at 3/ P'' mile 12 

' ' Redus to New Money 8-5-0 " 

Towns were required not only to furnish soldiers, but also clothing 
and subsistence. At one time Sanford was required to furnish ten 
coats. 1 A town meeting for the purpose of raising thirty-two hundred 
and ten pounds of beef for the army, agreeably to an act of the Gen- 
eral Court, was held October 23, at which the people 

" Voted to be Raised on the poles and Estates of the Inhabitants 
of this town five thousands pounds to purchase said beef and the 
charges arising thereby. 

"Voted to Let out said Beef to the Lowest Bidder. 

" Voted Cap' Morgan Lewis & Mr. Elezer Chadbourn messers a 
Committee to purchase said beef as Cheep as Possable and to Deliver 
the same to the County agent appointed for that purpose." 

It was also " Voted not to make up any depreciation of money." 

Jonathan Tebbets, Benjamin Tripe, and John Stephens were Com- 
mittee of Safety. 


This year began with large requisitions and increased burdens. At 
a town meeting, January 8, adjourned from December 28, 1780, and 
called " To Vote and Raise a Sum of money sufficient to purchase 
61G5 pounds of beef for the army," and "To see what method the 

1 Journal of Provincial Congress. 


town will take to Raise the Soldiers now demanded To fill up the 
Continental army and furnish them," it was 

" Voted to raise £9248 lawful money for that purpose. 

" Voted to class the poles and estates of this town according to the 
directions of the general court to procure the 8 soldiers now de- 

" Voted Mr. Samuel Willard to be paid out of the town money for 
a pr. men's shoes delivered for encouraging soldiers." 

The eight soldiers were soon raised. Ebenezer Low, Jr., was the 
first to respond, as may be seen from the following receipt : 

" Sanford February 7, 1781 
"then & there Received of Capt. Morgan Lewis the proper Se- 
curity for nine Cows paid me as a bounty for inlisting to Serve in 
the Continental army for the term of three years 

"(Signed) " Ebenezer X Low, Jr." 


" Attest. Caleb Emery." 

John Giles enlisted February 12, for sixty pounds in silver ; Sam- 
uel Gowen, Wells, and Andrew Walker Pugsley, were hired February 
13, for two hundred and eighty-eight dollars each in specie ; William 
Staples and Robert Tripe, same day, for two hundred dollars in spe- 
cie; Thomas Jellison, March 27, for sixty pounds in produce, corn 
at four shillings per bushel, or its equivalent at standard prices ; and 
Thomas Gown of Berwick for sixty-two pounds, six shillings, six 
pence ; all were returned May 10. 

The General Court relieved towns somewhat, and lightened the 
burdens, by offering a bounty of fifty dollars for each soldier enlisted, 
to be allowed on the settlement of their taxes ; and no tax was laid 
on the polls and personal estate of soldiers thus enlisted. 

On the 17th of May, the town " Voted this account that the com- 
mittee brought in against Daniel Lary be taken out of his bounty." 
We are unable to determine whether or not the bounty thus referred 
to was promised to him for his service in 1778. We conjecture, how- 
ever, that he was one of the six months' soldiers of 1780. 

On July 1 the selectmen were allowed the mileage of eight men to 
Boston, five pounds. 

There is no record showing that there was opposition to raising 
money, though the hard lot of the inhabitants made it difficult for 
the town to act as readily as it could wish. Pecuniary means, not 


patriotic motives, seem to have been wanting. However, ontlie 10th 
of July, the town "Voted and raised £42 7s and 6d to purchase 
two thousand five hundred and forty three lbs. beef, to be paid in 
silver. Also £27 3s for to purchase soldiers' clothing." This latter 
was undoubtedly to meet the tax specifically assessed for shoes and 
hose. The beef tax on Maine was 236,120 pounds, and the shoe 
and hose tax one thousand and sixteen pairs. i On the 2nd of August, 
Morgan Lewis and Caleb Emery were chosen a committee to hire six 
three months' soldiers at the cheapest rate, and to make their report 
in twelve days ; and on the 16th, fifty pounds were raised, to be paid 
in silver, to hire those six men. 

In Volume 141 of Massachusetts Archives appears the following 
memorandum of clothing furnished by Sanford in 1781 : 

10 shirts 



8 shoes 



10 hose 



4 blankets 

£1 4s 

£4 16s. 

30 miles' travel 
3 days 


£2 Os. 6d. 

£19 16s. 6d 

Brigadier General Frost sent a detachment under Captain John 
Evans, September 24, to the relief of Sudbury-Canada (Bethel) on 
" Amorescoggin " River. Of these men, several were from Sanford : 
Sergeant George "Wales, and Privates William Chadbourn, Ezra 
Thompson, Bodwell Coffin, Daniel Warren, Thomas Burke, Joseph 
Henderson, Daniel CoflSn, Joseph Moody, and Christopher Chiffener. 
They served September 16 - December 3. 

Though the surrender of Cornwallis virtually closed the war, en- 
deavors were made to fill up the army by the enlistment of men for 
three years or during the war. No pressing demands, however, were 
made, and men relaxed their efforts. 


For the purpose above mentioned, towns were divided into classes, 
and each class was to furnish a man, or to pay a sum sufficient to em- 
ploy a man to serve in the Continental army. We have no evidence 
that this requirement was fulfilled, or that the town made any effort 

1 Massachusetts Resolves, Vol. B. 


in that direction. A Committee of Safety, consisting of Caleb Emery, 
Samuel Nasson, and Ebenezer Hall, was chosen, and the year fol- 
lowing David Bane, Nathaniel Bennett, and Daniel Giles filled that 
office, rendered unnecessary after the treaty of peace, September 
3, 1783, and the disbanding of the army two months later, Novem- 
ber 3. 

One vote more, pertaining to the war, was passed, January 5, 
1784 : " Voted to choose a committee to settle the affairs respecting 
the beef." 

It is a matterof surprise that the inhabitants of the town were able 
to meet the demands placed upon them for provisions, and so willingly 
contributed of their small resources the large amounts which they 
were assessed. They were constantly struggling to reclaim the soil, 
and gain a livelihood. Agriculture was their main support, markets 
were few and distant, money was scarce. The wages and bounties 
of the soldiers brought in some money, but husbandmen were not at 
home to till the soil and clear the land as in days of peace. It is true 
indeed, that when the amount raised to be expended for beef is re- 
duced to the standard of silver then in use, the Spanish milled dollar, 
it is small compared with the thousands of pounds assessed. But such 
calculation, if made at that time, would not have afforded relief to 
the people, when their means of subsistence were slender, and the 
scarcity of money prevented them from complying, except under ex- 
treme pressure, with the urgent demands of the time. 

We can readily understand why the following vote should have 
been passed at a town meeting, January 18, 1782 : " Agreed upon 
and Vof^ to chuse a Committ** to Draw up Petion to send to the gen- 
eral court for to see wyther they abate any part of our taxes or Delay 
the Execution for a longer time." The request was not that of beg- 
gars, impoverished and destitute through misconduct and improvi- 
dence. It was the request of patriotic men, desirous that justice 
might be done them, struggling against adverse circumstances, and 
exercising their utmost endeavors to fulfil the requirements of the 
government, and to aid in securing to themselves the rights of free- 
men and the privileges of self government, both of which were more 
than life to them. 

The paper money of the colonies depreciated during the war, and 
at one time the ratio to specie was ninety to one. Stephen Gowen, 
a Sanford soldier, is said to have received a sixty dollar note for six 
months' service, which became so nearly worthless that he retained it 
in his possession almost threescore years, and transmitted it as an 


heirloom to his son, Walter, who in recent years held it in a good 
state of preservation, though tender by age. The tradition that Aaron 
Witham paid, at one time, eleven hundred dollars for a cow and her 
calf, contains more truth than fiction. 

Brief sketches of Revolutionary Soldiers who served from Sanford, 
and from other towns, who were subsequently residents of Sanford : 

Adams, Daniel. He is supposed to have been the son of Jona- 
than or Joshua Adams, who took up settlers' lots in the south part 
of the town, but what became of him, whether he died in town or re- 
moved, is not known. Poverty seems to have been his lot. One of 
his neighbors, a kind hearted woman, frequently gave him food. At 
one lime, she was trying to teach one of her little daughters a hymn, 
a free version of the thirteenth chapter of I Corinthians. Coming to 
the line about feeding the poor, the artless child insisted on making 
the version still freer, rendering it, "Feed Daniel Adams." 

Adams, John. He was probably a son of the foregoing. In 1783, 
he lived on the east side of the county road leading to Shapleigh, 
just below where Ira Witham now lives. He died February 22, 1800, 
in his fifty-third year. 

Adams, Jonathan. There were two of this name in town, father 
and son. If the former was in the service, he must have been sixty- 
three years of age, and have had experience as a scout in Captain 
Jonathan Bane's company in 1747-8, and in the French and Indian 
War in 1760, in Captain Simon Jefferds's company. He died March 
21, 1791, aged seventy-nine. We think the son was the Revolutionary 
soldier. He lived, in 1783, near where Ira Witham lives, was desig- 
nated by the title " Junior " in 1788, and was a voter in 1805. 

Barnes (Barrons), Abraham. It is quite probable that he was 
one of the five sons of Benjamin Barnes, who came from York, and 
settled at the foot of Shaker Hill, and then moved to the top of it. 
He removed to Francisborough, now Cornish, and was one of the 
members of the branch of the Sanford Baptist Church organized there 
in 1788. He died in Cornish, October 24, 1819. 

Barnes, John. Another of the five sons ; lived on Shaker Hill 
and belonged to the " Merry Dancers." He was one of the most dis- 
orderly at the meetings of the Congregationalists at Mast Camp. Of 
him and one John Cotton, Dr. Parsons says: " One of their prac- 
tices was to hoot the devil, as they called it, in which they would 
march around the Shaker Pond, raving like maniacs. Barnes would 
wear a baize jacket over his clothes, a wig upon his head, with a 
cow's tail attached to it, and Cotton, an untanned cowhide, and in 


these garbs would scream ' Woe ! woe ! ! woe ! ! ! ' audible in the 
stillness of the evening nearly the distance of one mile. Barnes's 
explanation of his conduct in hooting the devil, drinking to excess, 
and indulging in indecent and immoral practices was that they were 
a sort of carnal slough through which he was doomed to pass, pre- 
paratory to spiritual regeneration." • 

Barnes, Thomas. Another of the five sons, probably, and an orig- 
inal member of the Baptist Church. He died in the service, January 
1, 1778. 

Batchelder, JosHDA. " Colonsl " Batchcldcr was born in Ken- 
sington, N. H., May 19, 1749, old style, and married Abigail Hazel- 
tine, of Buxton, Me., said to have been a niece of Governor Hancock. 
He moved into town in early life, was a bloomer by trade, and worked 
in the bloomery, " Iron Works," then standing near the bridge across 
the Mousam at the Corner. When or for what reason he acquired the 
title of "Colonel," we have no knowledge. He died February 7, 1826. 

Bennett, Nathaniel. Lieutenant Bennett was born in York about 
1741. He came into town about 1770, lived at South Sanford, and 
was a leading man. His wife was a Tripp. He was first lieutenant 
of the Eleventh Matross Company, of which Samuel Nasson was 
captain. He was one of the original members of the Congregational 
Church, and served one year, 1780-1, on the board of selectmen. He 
died January 23, 1804, in the sixty- third year of his age. The sev- 
eral Bennett families in town are his descendants. 

Boston (Baston), Daniel. He came into town from Wells prior 
to 1772, and was one of the original members of the Baptist Church. 
He removed to Francisborough (Cornish) , and was a member of the 
Baptist Church there in 1792. 

Boston, Jonathan. Either Daniel or Jonathan lived in the Moul- 
ton neighborhood. The latter was in town in 1789. He lost his 
wife, Abigail, March 2 of that year, and married Mehitable Weston 
of Coxhall (Lyman) December 10. 

Boston, Timothy. He lived in 1792 on Shaw's ridge. None of 
this name resided in town in 1805. 

Boston, William. A Wells soldier, who was a first lieutenant in 
Colonel Edmund Phinney's regiment throughout 1776. He was at 
the Evacuation of Boston, and saw service at Ticonderoga and Fort 
George. Also served in the Penobscot Expedition, 1779. 

Bridges, Samuel. Also credited to Pepperrellborough. On a list 

1 Parsons'e " History of Alfred. " 


of desevtei'S iu 1779 his age is given as 38 years ; height, five feet, 
seven inches ; complexion, light; residence, " Mascaraps." 

Brown (Brawn), Daniel. He received two-thirds pension iu 1776. 

Brown, Jacob. On a descriptive list of enlisted men he is given 
as five feet ten inches in height, and of light hair and complexion. 

Brown (Bkawn, Bran), Michael. He was on duty at the garri- 
son-house, August 29-October 31, 1757, and was deer informer in 

Bdrk (Bdrks), William. He received a pension of thirty dollars 
a year from October 10, 1808. 

Burleigh (Borley), Andrew. He was the son of Andrew Bur- 
ley, a graduate of Harvard, 1742, and was born in Ipswich, Mass., 
where he was baptized December 2, 1744. His second wife was 
Ehoda "White, whom he probably married after his removal into town 
about 1773. He was in town in May of that year, and lived at Mas- 
sabesec, or near the Gore, where he built a saw-mill. He was in 
command of a small quota, sent at one time from Massabesec. Though 
an unsuccessful potash-maker, he was an influential man in the early 
history of Waterborough. He was justice of the peace, selectman, 
and clerk of the courts while they were held in that town. One of his 
daughters married a Bean, a second, a Hasty, both of Waterborough, 
and a third, Simon Ross of Shapleigh. 

Cane, Joshua. He was the son of Joshua Cane, who took up a 
settler's lot in 1739. After his father's death, and mother's second 
marriage, he moved to Wells. Though his name appears among 
Sanford names on a muster-roll of 1778, he lived in Wells in Novem- 
ber of that year. 

Chadbourn, Jamks. He was a son of John Chadbourn, an early 
settler, and was born February 4, 1758. He married Deborah, 
daughter of Naphtali Harmon, and had five sons and five daughters : 
Benjamin, Lucy, Nathaniel, Levi, Mehitable, Anna, George, Mary, 
Theodate, and William. At one time he owned a pottery on the side 
of Nasson Hill. His farm was on Hanson's ridge. He died May 
18, 1839. 

Clark (Clarke), John. He came into town as early as 1756, and 
may have been the grandfather of Abner Clark, who took up land at 
Mouse Lane. 

Cldfi' (Clough), Samuel. He came from Kittery, and settled on 
" Back Street," near a bend in the road, upon a farm owned in late 
years by the Fergusons. He was au ensign in tlie militia in 1788, 
captain in 1792, and major. 


Coffin, Daniel. He was born August 17, 1737, removed from 
Newbury in 1765, and lived in the North Parish. His wife was Me- 
hitable Harmon. In 1772 he was chosen deacon of the Baptist 

Coffin, Isaac. He was one of the Coffins that settled in Massa- 
besec, in 1764-5. 

Cole, Tobias. He was in town in 1805. 

Cram, John. From all that we can gather, he was Captain John 
Stauj'au Cram, father of the Cram families in town. He was an en- 
sign in the militia in 1788, and captain in 1792. His second wife, 
whom he married November 30, 1808, was Jerusha, daughter of 
Captain Enoch Hale, born 1749. He was a pensioner. When he 
took oath, July 4, 1820, he was sixty-six years old, his wife seventy- 
one years, and his daughter Sarah twenty-four years. He died in 
Waterborough not long after. 

Eastman, Daniel. He was probably one of the sons of Daniel 
Eastman, who came from Concord, N. H., with six sons, and settled 
just above Alfred Corner. 

Eastman, Ezekiel. He was brother of the foregoing, and lived 
half way between Lary's bridge (now Emerson's) and the Brooks 

PvMERY, JosHCA. He occupied a house a quarter of a mile south of 
Shaker bridge; started a pottery as early as 1791, joined the Shak- 
ers ; left them and returned ; left and returned a second time. 

Emons, Pendleton. He served from Wells, but on the " Coat 
Rolls " he is credited to Sanford. 

Garey (Gart, Gare) , James. He was the son of John Garey, a 
settler in the south part of the town prior to 1750, and was born 
about 1737. He had experience in the French and Indian War, serv- 
ing as a guard at Phillipstown in 1757, in Captain James Littlefield's 
company, Colonel Jedediah Preble's regiment in 1758 ; in Captain 
William Gerrish's company, " a marching company," in 1759 ; and 
in the last-named company on the eastern frontier, in 1760. He was 
selectman, 1773-7, 1781-3, eight years, and town treasurer, 1775. 
He was an original member of the Congregational Church, a deacon 
thereof twenty-four years, and the last survivor of the original mem- 
bers, except Caleb Emery, who had withdrawn from the church. He 
died March 22, 1824, aged eighty-seven years. 

Getchell, Daniel. He was in town in 1805. 

Giles (Gile), Daniel. He was a native of Plaistow, N. H., and 
came into town in 1765. In 1766 he removed to the North Parish, 


and settled a quarter of a mile north of Coffin's wigwam, on the bank 
of the brook, near the site of the potash manufactory, subsequently 
established. He built the first two-story house in what is now Alfred. 
He was selectman 1772-6 and 1778, six years. 

Giles, Ephraim, John, Joseph, Joseph, Junior, and Paul. These 
five were all undoubtedly residents of the same neighborhood with 
Daniel Giles. Prior to 1782, Daniel, John, Joseph, and Joseph, Ju- 
nior, had settled in the east part of Shapleigh. 

Gooding, Jonathan. It is questionable whether he was a Sanford 
man, although so credited on the rolls. 

Goodrich (Gutterage), Daniel. One Daniel Goodrich is men- 
tioned by Dr. Parsons as one of the successors of Cooley and Jewett, 

Goodrich, Joshua. He came from Berwick in 1774 or 5, settled near 
the eastern branch of the Mousam, just below Alfred Corner, and 
subsequently moved to the Gore. He was a blacksmith. 

Goodwin, Amos W. He was born in 1755, was a Berwick soldier, 
and came to town about 1796. He owned the Willson lot a mile be- 
low the Corner. His death occurred March 20, 1838. His widow, 
Eunice, drew a pension in 1840, and died May 2, 1845, aged seventy- 
seven years and three months. 

Goodwin, . There is a tradition that a Goodwin of thia 

town was on the " Bon Homme Richard," under John Paul Jones. 

GowEN, Ezekiel. William Gowen, of Kittery, accompanied by 
his two sons, Ezekiel and Stephen, into town about 1770. Eze- 
kiel lived on the homestead on the farm now owned by C F. Tebbets,^ 
on Lebanon street, half a mile from the Corner. He was grandfather 
of Samuel, Daniel and Frank Gowen. 

Gowen, John. In 1788 there was a John Gowen living at Mouse 
Lane, but his identity is doubtful. He occupied a house in the field, 
a short distance back of the residence of the late Abner Clark. He 
probably died March 18, 1792, and his widow, after living in that 
vicinity some time, removed and joined the Shakers. 

Gowen, Samuel. He belonged in Wells and was hired by Sanford 
in 1781. He had seen service in 1780. 

Gowen, Stephen. This son of William Gowen, above-mentioned, 
was born in Kittery, June 17, 1753, and came to town about 1770. 
From a memorandum in his handwriting, we learn that he worked on 
the " Iron Works" dam in 1771. He was constable and collector 
several years, selectman, 1799, town treasurer 1804-6, 1810-15, and 
1820, justice of the peace 1811, 1820-9, and postmaster from January 


18, 1816 to December 13, 1817. In 1791 he built, across the river, 
the two-story house now owned by Edgar Wentworth, and in 1815, a 
grist-mill at the Gowen privilege, a mile above the Corner. About 
1818, in company with his sons, James and Walter, he built a saw- 
mill in connection with the grist-mill. He raised a large family, 
among whom were " Old Master Gowen," Timothy, James, George, 
and Walter. He died March 14, 1846. 

Gowen, William. He ser%'ed from Wells. 

Gray, Dominicus. At first he was enrolled from Wells, and then 
from Sanford. The Baptist society bought their parsonage of him. 
He lived, or owned land, on Mount Hope, and was in town in 1789. 
He died in Groton, Vt., in 1829, aged seventy-one years. 

Hale, Enoch. He lived below Butler's bridge on the Willard C. 
Littlefield- place. He was captain of the militia in 1788, and died 
May 13, 1805. 

Hamilton (Hambleton), Henry. " Old Master Hamilton," a 
■Scotchman by birth, was born about 1748. He was coroner, 1782-5. 
He married Eunice Lord, in 1780, taught school many years, and 
died in Harrison, Me., February 21, 1819. 

Hamilton, Jonathan. He lived in Sanford in 1835 or 6, enlisted 
from Berwick. 

Harmon, Josiah and Samdel. The Harmons were descendants of 
the York Harmons. One of Samuel's ancestors, Captain Harmon, 
was distinguished in the Indian wars, and took a prominent part in the 
destruction of the Indian settlement at Norridgewock in 1724. Sam- 
uel Harmon came to town about 1754. He was one of the original 
members of the Baptist Church. He left town prior to 1788, and in 
1835 or 6, lived in Dixmont. Some of his descendants weie among 
the early settlers of Harrison. 

Haskell, Ezra. There is a tradition that he did service at Sud- 
bury-Canadain 1781. 

Hatch, Simeon. His name is borne on the " Coat Rolls" as from 
Sanford, but it is undoubtedly a mistake, for he resided in Wells.. 

Hatch, Stephen. He came from York and settled near the Hay 
Brook. He was a brickmaker, and owned the second brickyard in 
town. He was grandfather of Stephen Hatch, formerly of Sanford. 

Henderson, Joseph. He served from Coxhall; enlisted in 1778 
for the remainder of the war. 

Hibbard, Israel. He was one of the Hibbards that attended the 
meetings of the " Merry Dancers " at Mast Camp, and resided near 
Shaker Hill. 


HiBBAKD, Joseph. Probably another of the " Merry Dancers.'' 

Hill, Nelson. He was born in Kittery (now Eliot), in 1755, 
served as a soldier three years, beginning January 1, 1777, in Col- 
onel Sprout's regiment ; married a Miss Abbott, and prior to 1788, 
settled on the hill beyond Hanson's ridge, where he died, leaving 
several children. 

Huston (Hdson), John. In 1840, John Huston, a pensioner, 
aged seventy-seven, lived with his sou John in the south part of the 
town. He was probably a son of John Huston, who died in 1827 ; 
and, born in 1763, must have been only fourteen, if he was the 
soldier of 1777. He married Sarah Estes, June 12, 1796, and in 
1820 had eight children. 

HuTOHiNS, Eastman and Levi. These two were cousins. The for- 
mer came from Arundel, and settled at the north end .of "Back 
Street." He was sergeant in Colonel Sprout's regiment from March, 
1777, to December 31, 1780. He served as town clerk and select- 
man. At the time of his death, May 8, 1826, he was living in Al- 
fred. His wife's name was Betsey. Levi came from Cape Porpoise, 
but was in town before his cousin Eastman, who belonged to Arundel 
as late as 1778. Levi resided near John Plummer's. In 1835 or 6 
he lived in Alfred. His wife's name was Olive. Both men were 

Jacobs, George. Lieutenant Jacobs was of the fourth generation 
from that venerable martyr, George Jacobs, who was executed at 
Salem for witchcraft, August 19, 1692, and was the fifth George in 
succession. He served as lieutenant in Captain Eobert Davis's com- 
pany. Colonel Joseph Vose's regiment, through 1777. He married 
Hephzibah Bourne, of Wells, where he resided, and long after the 
war removed to Lyon's Hill, where he died June 4, 1831, at the age 
of seventy-nine years. In 1840, his widow was living with her son, 
Theodore Jacobs; and drew a pension. 

Jellison (Jalison), Jedediah, Samdel, and Thomas. The Jelli- 
sons came from Berwick (South Berwick) . Jedediah settled a mile 
southwest of Swett's bridge, and his son Thomas, opposite him. 
Samuel, brother of Jedediah, settled in Mouse Lane, and at length 
removed to Shapleigh. 

Kilgore, Joseph. He was the son of Joseph Kilgore, who lived 
in the south part of the town. 

Kimball, Thomas. He was one of the builders of Conant's mill, 
and dwelt a quarter of a mile above it. 

Knight, John. He came from Kittery Shore, near Portsmouth, 


purchased land of Isaac Coflin, built a barn, resided in one part of it, 
and entertained travellers, from which he acquired the sobriquet, 
"Barn Knight." It was in that barn that a town meeting was held 
May 25, ]780, to examine the several articles in the new form of 
government. At one time, religious meetings were held there, and 
were much disturbed by the "Merry Dancers." Knight moved to 
the hill, now Yeaton's, and was in 1801 succeeded by Dr. Hall. 

Lart, Daniel. Lary was a tanner by trade, and had a tanyard 
by the brook, near his house, built between the bridge and Ezekiel 
Eastman's. It is supposed to have been the first frame dwelling 
house built in Alfred, and was finally moved to the Corner, where 
Griffin's brick hotel stood, and was used many years as a school- 
house. In felling a tree near the late Colonel Lewis's, he accident- 
ally killed Daniel Hibbard. 

Lassell (Lasdel"), Asa. He received a pension in 1835 or 6. 
At one time he lived in Alfred. 

Lassell, Caleb. He came from Arundel, and in 1833 or 6 was 
living in Waterborough. He served in two regiments from February 
1, 1777 to December 31, 1779. He was a pensioner. His wife's name 
was Dorcas. 

Leavitt, Daniel. He was in Captain John Smith's company of 
minute-men from Massabesec. In 1840, a Betsey Leavitt, possibly 
his widow, was a pensioner. She lived with her daughter, Mrs. 
Daniel L. Littlefield. 

Lewis, Morgan. Major Lewis, a native of York, came to town 
from "Scotland Parish," in 1772, and settled in "York Street," on 
the hill east of the river, near where John Lewis used to live. He 
was a prominent man in town affairs, serving on various committees 
of importance, and on the board of selectmen seven years, 1774-9, 
and 1781. He took a deep interest in the conflict between the colo- 
nies and the mother country, espousing the cause of the former with 
all his soul. After the service of which we have made mention, he 
became captain of the Eleventh Matross Company (militia), and 
was subsequently promoted to be major. He was the first militia 
captain in Alfred. He married Sarah Tripp, and their children were : 
Jeremiah, Daniel (who became colonel in the militia), Morgan, Jr., 
John, Sarah, married Jeremiah Trafton, Dorcas, married David 
Bean, Katherine, married Benjamin Trafton, Patience, Abigail and 
Dolly. Major Lewis died November 17, 1784, aged forty-seven 
years ; his widow, surviving hirn thirty-five years, died October 28, 
1819, aged seventy-nine. Both were buried in the Alfred cemetery, 


the former being the first person there interred. Major Lewis's es- 
tate amounted, according to the inventory, to eight hundred and thirty- 
eight pounds, two shillings, two pence, and included two cartridge 
boxes, valued at three shillings, and a powder horn at eight pence. 

LiNscoTf, Theodork. He was born in 1756. Enlisted from 
York ; lived in Sanford 1835 or 6. His wife's name was Dorcas. 
He was a pensioner. 

Lord, Benjamin. He was the son of Benjamin Lord, Senior, who 
came into town with Major Lewis, and settled, about 1772, near 
Conant's mill. 

Lord, John. Died in the service. 

LoKD, ToBFAS. Lieutenant Lord, son of Captain Tobias Lord, of 
Arundel, was born about 1748. When a boy of fourteen or fifteen 
years of age, he went to live with a relative at Moulton's Mills, San- 
ford, and was there employed principally in getting lumber from the 
mills to the house, situated some distance away. This work was at- 
tended with peril, especially when, at night, he drove his oxen to the 
barn half a mile from the road leading to Wells (Kennebunk). "The 
wolves were always on the watch, though they were great cowards. The 
only way in which he could reach his home was by riding one of the 
oxen, and keeping them back with a club or some kind of a bludgeon. 
They came around him in flocks night after night, but he was able 
successfully to defend himself."' He was drafted from this town, 
commissioned lieutenant, and served under Captain James Littlefield. 
In 1778, he went to Wells (Kennebunk), built a house and a store, 
and engaged in ship-building. He transferred his business from the 
Mousam to the Landing, enlarged his operations, but, having lost 
several vessels by shipwreck, he became embarrassed. "Under these 
depressing circumstances he went to William Gray, of Salem, and 
told him his condition. So high an opinion had Mr. Gray of his 
integrity, that he told him to go on with his ship-building and he 
would take care of him. He did so, and again prosperity attended 
him ; and though some of his vessels were taken by the French, he 
still maintained a safe pecuniary standing. "i His hospitality to 
teamsters from the country became proverbial, and burdensome to 
his family ; and to alleviate their labors, he abandoned his business 
and removed to Alfred in 1803. In 1808, he returned to Kennebunk, 
and on the 16th of January, died suddenly, aged fifty-nine years. 

Low, Ebenezer, J0NIOR, Ephraim, Junior, Jedediah, and Jona- 
than. The Lows came from Wells. Ephraim, Junior, was the son 

'Bourne's "HiBtory of Wells and Kennebunk." 



of Ephraim, who lived where Bert Goodrich now lives, and was born 
March U, 1748. He married a Miss Littlefield, of Wells, and moved 
before 1777, on to the ridge, which, from him, received the name 
Low's ridge (now Shaw's) . He was a noted bear hunter, and is said 
to have killed one year as many bears as there were days in that 
year. He had six children, five daughters and one son. We think 
that he must have had two wives, because Ephraim Low, Junior, of 
Sanford, married Esther Lewis, of Berwick, June 15, 1788. One of 
his daughters, Lucy, was the first wife of General Shaw. His son, 
Ephraim, 3rd, was commissioned lieutenant in 1811, served in the 
War of 1812, and was adjutant of the Third Regiment, first brigade, 
first division (after separation) , from 1818 to 1826. In the latter 
year Ephraim and Ephraim, Junior (the first Ephraim had long been 
•dead), removed to Mercer, Me., where the former died March 14, 
1834, and the latter, February 1, 1859, aged seventy-five. Jedediah 
Low, a brother of the first Ephraim, came from Wells during the 
war, or soon after, and settled on a farm above Springvale. In 
1785, having received from the agents of Massachusetts, a deed of 
the land upon which he lived, concerning which there was a famous 
lawsuit, years later (Allen vs. Littlefield), he sold the same and 
removed to Shapleigh. His son, Jeremiah, was the father of the 
late Asa Low, Esquire, of Springvale. Jonathan Low was in town 
in 1788-9. There is a tradition that the Ephraim who served in the 
Revolution was shot in the nose at the battle of Bunker Hill. 

Mbeeill (Mereal), Samuel. Perhaps it was this Samuel Merrill 
that married Miriam Rankins, November 14, 1793. 

Nasson, Petee. He was born about 1763, and served as a drum- 
mer boy at the age of twelve. He was the son of Major Samuel 
Nasson, and probably came into town with his father's family. He 
died in December, 1784. 

Nasson, Samdel. He enlisted from York, May 2, 1775, in Col- 
onel Scammans's regiment, where he served eight months as quarter- 
master, and was ensign and quartermaster in Colonel William Pres- 
oott's Seventh Continental regiment during the year 1776. He served 
through the siege of Boston and took part in the Long Island 
campaign. There is a tradition that he crept three miles on his hands 
and knees to set Boston on fire when held by the British. 

Norton, Nathaniel. He died in Limington November 22, 1831. 
His wife, named Hannah, survived him. 

Nutter, Henry. He was one of the original members of the 
Baptist Church. 


Pattee (Pette), Moses. He lived in the Moullon neighborhood, 
removed to Fryeburg, and was one of the original members of the 
branch of the Sanford Baptist Church there. 

Peabody (Pebody), Jedediah. Sergeant Peabody was born in 
Boxford, Mass., April 11, 1743, and removed to Sanford, North 
Parish, where, in 1776, he married Alice Howlet. In 1781, he re- 
moved to Henniker, N. H., with his ox-team. He arrived at Hop- 
kinton on a Saturday night, and the next morning yoked up his oxen 
and proceeded on his journey. He soon met some tything-men, who 
informed him that he could not go any farther. As he was anxious 
to reach his destination, he remonstrated, but it was of no avail. 
He was obliged to put up bis team until Monday morning. His resi- 
dence was in Warner, near the Henniker line. He died in East Leba- 
non, N. H., about 1825. 

Peabody, Seth. He was the son of Matthew and Sarah (Dor- 
man) Peabody, and was born in Topsfield, Mass., November 27, 
1744. He came to Alfred, where he married Abigail Kiniball, in 
1771. He was one of the builders of Conant's mill, and lived some 
thirty rods west of his brotherin-law, Thomas Kimball. He was in 
Captain Jesse Dorman's company in 1775 from Wells, and later en- 
listed for Topsfield, but was mustered in Boxford. From May, 
1777 to December 31, 1779, he was in Captain Hitchcock's company. 
Colonel Sprout's regiment, and also served in 1780. He died in Ca- 
naan, Me., in 1827. 

Penney, Pelatiah, and Salathiel. They served from Wells in 
1775. Salathiel was also a three years' man from Wells in 1777. 
After the war Pelatiah lived on "Grammar Street," and sold his 
place to Samuel Shaw. He died in Barnstead, N. H., in 1842, aged 
eighty-five years. Salathiel married Margaret Grant, December 28, 
1788, and was then living in town. 

Perry, Stephen. He was in town in 1788-9. In 1805 or 6 he 
lived at Denmark. 

Powers, Jonathan, Nathan and William. These were sous of 
Elder Thomas W. Powers. Jonathan was a Baptist elder, and 
preached in "Back Street." Nathan lived on "Grammar Street," 
and was a deacon of the Baptist Church nearly twenty-six years. 
William lived where Daniel Garey owned a farm on ' 'Grammar Street." 

Quint, John. He was in town in 1788, and a pensioner living 
with John Quint, in 1840. He was born about 1761. He was a 
privateersman, and died in 1856. 

Richardson, Elder Zebadiah. He served nine months in the 
Revolution, prior to becoming pastor of the Sanford Baptist Church. 


Robinson, Elder Otis. He was also a pastor of the Baptist 
Church. In 1778, at the age of fourteen, he enlisted in the Conti- 
nental army from Attleborough, Mass., and served through the war. 

Shackford, Samuel. He was born about 1761, served eight months 
in 1780 in the eastern part of the state, married Eunice Day, Novem- 
ber 15, 1787, and lived at Mouse Lane. He was a pensioner, living 
with Christopher Shackford, in 1840. 

Shaw, Samuel. He was born in York, August 7, 1757, and was 
a soldier from that town. He was among those who enlisted for the 
defence of Rhode Island in 1777, as attested by his receipt for four- 
teen pounds "as bounty for serving as a soldier for Providence." 
In 1788 he came into town, moving into a log house between the Hay 
Brook and the site of the house in which he afterward lived, upon the 
place bought of Pelatiah Penney. He occupied that for eight years, 
and then built a one-story house, subsequently raised another story 
by his son. General Timothy Shaw. He was a lieutenant in the mili- 
tia in 1800, was pensioned eight dollars per month from February 
13, 1808, and continued a pensioner until his death, June 28, 1840. 
His wife, Patience, died September 2, 1840, aged eighty-five. 

Staples, William. He was in town in 1788-9. He died in Bethel, 
February 15, 1832. 

Straw, Valentine. "•Vol" Straw married Sarah Coffin, and set- 
tled near the site of the Shaker saw mill. He became a "Merry 
Dancer.'' Abiel H. Johnson told the writer that the quota of San- 
ford, at one time, met at his grandfather's inn to start for the front, 
and that among them was "Vol" Straw. 

SwETT (Sweet) , Moses. Lieutenant Swett came from New Hamp- 
shire about 1772, and lived in a small house thirty rods east of Swett's 
bridge. About 1795, he built a two-story house opposite, which was 
moved in 1801 a mile north. 

Taylor, Eliphalet. "Life" Taylor, as lie was called, married 
Martha Lord, March 8, 1787, and livadon the Linscott mill privilege. 
He was a very intemperate man, and once, when not quite himself, 
threatened to kill his wife, whom he accused of being a witch. He 
quoted the Mosaic law, "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live," to 
prove that he would be justified in taking her life. His neighbor, 
Mr. Clark, turned him from his purpose by offering to " swap" wives 
with him for thirty wooden tubs " to boot. " Taylor, who was a 
cooper, accepted the offer in good faith, but was not ready for the 
exchange. Clark never heard any more about "swapping" wives, 
nor did Mrs. Taylor suffer death at her husband's hands. Taylor was 


wont to tell an interesting story of his experience at Saratoga, the 
day before Burgoyne was taken, when Gates's men, of whom he was 
one, were ordered to lie on their backs in a hollow in front of the 
British works. Of course they growled somewhat, being inclined to 
think the misery of lying there was more than the danger of rising. 
At last one man near "Life" asked the comrade next to him : "Tom, 
what do you suppose Molly would say if she knew where you are 
now? " '-Humph ! I don't know," replied Tom, poppingup his head. 
At that instant a cannon ball whizzed by, and poor Tom's head went 
with it. A thrill of horror ran through his fellows, and after this every 
soul kept slill until the firing ceased at night. "It was the longest 
day I ever lived," declared Taylor afterwards. The American troops 
were surprised the next morning, he said, to see that Burgoyne was 
ready to surrender on the first invitation to do so. 

Taylor, Joshua. His name appears on tax lists of 1788 and 9, 
and on voting list of 1805. 

Taylor, Noah, and Obadiah. There is a tradition that Obadiah 
Taylor lost a leg in the service, and another that Noah also lost a 
leg Whether or not the two have been confounded, we cannot say. 
Noah was in Captain Merrill's company at Bennington in 1777, en- 
listing from Wells, and in Captain Hitchcock's company, in 1780. 
He died in the hospital, December 1, 1780. 

Tebbets, Heney. He was the son of Moses Tebbets, a centena- 
rian of South Sanford. He joined the Baptist Church, having been bap- 
tized at Massabesec, November 22, 1772, by Elder Pelatiah Tingley. 

Thompson, Joseph. He probably removed to Francisborough 
(Cornish), and was one of the members of the branch Baptist Church 
there, 1788. 

Thompson, Phinehas. The ancestors of Deacon Thompson lived 
in York. He married Martha, daughter of Samuel Willard, of York, 
in 1762, and removed from Gorhamtown (Gorham) to Sanford about 
1765. He was a farmer and a blacksmith, and lived near Thomp- 
son's, now Butler's bridge. He was one of the original members of 
the Baptist church, and for many years one of its deacons. He was 
the father of Ezra, Samuel, Isaac, John, Martha, Hannah, Mary and 
Phinehas Thompson. Deacon Thompson died March 6, 1815, aged 
about seventy years. 

Trafton, Benjamin. He came from York after the war, and set- 
tled in York Street. He was a sergeant, was in the battles of Bunker 
Hill .and Monmouth, and in the retreat under General Lee. He was 
lieutenant of militia in 1792. 


Tripp (Tripe), Benjamin. Lieutenant Tripp was one of the 
builders of Conant's mill, and lived a short distance north of it. He 
removed to Lyman. 

Tripp, Robert. He was the son of Samuel Tripp, who settled 
back of Lyon's Hill. In 1840 he was a pensioner, living with Robert 
Tripp. He died at Solomon Allen's, August 28, 1845. Two of his 
children were Olive and Robert. 

Tkipp, William. He was born in Kittery, January 17, 1750, and 
died in Sanford, March 12, 1828. His first wife was Dorcas, daugh- 
ter of Ephraim Low, by whom he had five children, Jotham, William, 
Thomas, Nathaniel and Catherine. His second wife was Keziah 
Thompson, who bore him three sons, William, Richard and Robert, 
and nine daughters, Dorcas, Catherine, Sarah, Keziah, Mary, Eunice, 
Margery, Margaret, and Anna. William became a minister, and 
Robert lived and died on the old homestead. In 1777, William 
owned a lot on the east side of the Mousam River, but subsequently 
removed to ' ' Grammar Street, " where he lived and died. 

True, Obadiah. He was born in 1758. He entered the army at 
seventeen, and practically served all through the war. After the 
surrender of Burgoyne he came home on a furlough,- and shipped for 
his return at Portsmouth, N. H., on a schooner bound for Boston. 
The first day out she was captured by a British cruiser, and True 
was taken prisoner and carried to England, where he remained in 
prison a year or more. He was released in season to take part under 
General Wayne at the storming of Stony Point in July, 1779. He 
enlisted in the War of 1812, though not from Sanford, and served 
until its close. These facts are contained in statements made to the 
writer by Joseph Bennett and Abiel H. Johnson. True left town 
before 1805, removed to Denmark, Me., and lived there to a good 
old ase, dying in November, 1844. Though he could neither read 
nor write, he had a retentive memory, and could relate with much 
force the incidents of his soldier life. 

Wadlia (Wadlet, Wadlbigh), Daniel. A native of Berwick, 
he served from that town as a private, in Captain Philip Hubbard's 
company. Colonel Scammans's regiment, in 1775, as a sergeant in 
Captain Samuel Derby's company. Colonel John Bailey's regiment, 
and also in Captain Jedediah Goodwin's company. Colonel Joseph 
Prime's regiment, under General Wadsworth, from May 3 to Novem- 
ber 20, 1780. Prior to 1788, he came into town, and owned a house 
and farm on the Lebanon road, near the site of the old Baptist 
meeting house. His grandson, Hiram Witham, said of him : " He 


took his first lesson at Bunker Hill, and received his diploma at York- 
town. He was with Wayne in the assault on Stony Point, was in 
Lafayette's division in the battle of Brandywine, and was one of the 
army under Washington, when he wintered at Valley Forge. When 
Lafayette visited this country in 1824, he went to Kennebunk and 
saw his old commander. They recognized each other, although they 
had been separated more than forty years." 

Wales (Whales), George. " He was at a place at tlie head of 
Sanford, and bordering thereon, not in any town, parish, or village," 
in 1777. In 1784 he was at Osslpee. In December, 1780, one George 
Whales was living in Shapleigh. 

Webber, Daniel. Lieutenant Webber moved into town after the 
war, and prior to 1788, and bought the lot lying along the Mousam, 
formerly owned by William Tripp. He was an' ensign, afterward 
second lieutenant in Colonel Bailey's regiment, commissioned first 
lieutenant April 30, 1782, and was in Colonel Sproat's regiment in 
1783. He was adjutant of Colonel Caleb Emery's regiment of militia 
from 1790 to 1794, when he removed to Hancock County, where he 
was living in 1818, when pensioned by act of Congress ; but, return- 
ing to Sanford, he died February 1, 1827. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. 

Webber, Paul. After the war he came from Cape Neddock, and 
was hired on the farm of the widow of Samuel Friend, who became 
his wife ; he built the George W. Came house, and about the year 
1795 erected a large house at Alfred village ; for many years he kept 
a hotel and grocery store ; was captain of the militia. He returned 
to the Came house in 1808, and there died, leaving one son, Paul. 

Wetmodth, Stephen. He lived in 1781 near the Great Works 
brook, on the Lebanon road, in part then laid out. 

White, Charlks, and John. In 1766, Charles White, son of 
Robert, of York, came into town from Kennebunkport, where his 
father had settled in 1740. His wife was Sarah Lindsey. He lived 
two or three years about a hundred rods west of the brick house 
built by Andrew Conant, in the White field. Charles and his brother, 
John, erected half of a double saw-mill, which with their land 
they exchanged for another tract of land half a mile south on the 
Mousam road. Charles was succeeded by his son, Deacon Samuel 
White, while John was succeeded by his son, John, Junior. 

Witham, Aaron. He was born May 4, 1750, and died July 14, 

Witham, Gatnsby. He was in town in 1783, and lived above the 


Corner on the west side of the road, but whether he moved into town 
subsequently to the Eevolution, we have no knowledge. 

WiTHAM, Jeremiah. These three Withams probably descended 
from the York family of that name. More than a century ago, Jere- 
miah Witham bought 300 acres of land lying east of " G-rammar 
Street" (most of it in the present town of Alfred), and moved his 
family from Berwick. A part of the land was subsequently owned 
by Hiram Witham, and was retained in the Witham family until a 
comparatively few years ago. Jeremiah Witham was a soldier in the 
French and Indian War, was wounded in one shoulder, and carried 
the bullet to his grave. While the army was at Cambridge in 1775, 
under Putnam, he received a furlough bearing General Putnam's sig- 
natui'e, which was cherished for more than a century as a relic by 
the family. Witham's five children, four daughters and one son, 
lived to mature age, and died leaving no children. He died May 12, 
1806, aged seventy-five years. 

Witham, Jonathan. There is a tradition that he served on the 
"Bon Homme Richard," under John Paul Jones, before he came to 

Witham, Simeon. He resided near the Haleys in York Street, 
and also at the grist-mill that once stood a quarter of a mile west of 
the late Aaron Littlefleld's. 

WoRSTER, Thomas. He came from Berwick. Died in Sanford, 
March, 1822 (?). He left a widow named Susan. 

WoRSTER, William. Born in Berwick in 1754, he was in liis 
boyhood apprenticed to a blacksmith of Portsmouth, Chadbourn by 
name, with whom he learned his trade. He enlisted and served 
eighteen months during the war, and then, as tradition runs, several 
months longer at the request of General Washington. After that 
service, he sailed in a privateer, so goes the story, was taken prisoner 
by the English, and kept till the war closed. Soon after the war he 
came into this town, settling above the Deering neighborhood. He 
began his blacksmith business near his house, and then moved his 
shop into the hollow where the same business was continued for so 
many years by his son Samuel and grandson Fernald. He was a 
pensioner. He died August 7, 1842, aged eighty-eight years. His 
first wife, Susannah, died April 26, 1802, aged thirty-five, and his 
second, Eleanor, November 24, 1852, aged one hundred years and 
six months. 

York, Nathaniel F. He lived in the Gore, and built a mill 


We have dwelt thus long upon this portion of the town's history, 
because we have felt that the memory of our heroes should be per- 
petuated. They left their homes, imperilled their lives, performed 
weary marches, endured the severities of winter campaigns, and 
passed through the terrible ordeal of battle, that independence for 
themselves and their posterity might be won. We take pride in the 
foregoing list, because it contains so many names, and reveals the 
spirit of our ancestors. But there are others worthy of commenda- 
tion. The men and women who remained at home, and engaged in 
peaceful pursuits that they might support those in the field, suffered 
and sacrificed much. We honor those noble men, soldiers and civil- 
ians, and praise the patriotic women of the Revolution, to each of 
whom should be attributed a part of the glory of achieving our 
national independence. 



Establishment of New Form of Government — Division into Parishes 
— Alfred Set off and Incorporated — Boundary Troubles — 
Disputed Land Titles — Fryeburg and Groton — First Direct 

THE subject of establishing a form of government by the people 
had been discussed in Massachusetts even before the Declaration 
of Independence was passed, but no decisive action was taken until 
September of 1776, when a committee of the General Court recom- 
mended that the Representatives elected thereto be empowered to act 
for the establishment of a new government. The action of the town 
of Sanford in this matter was not so decisive and pronounced as 
upon other public questions. The inhabitants stood aloof, simply 
expressing a willingness on their part, and passively waiting for 
other men to act. In accordance with the foregoing recommendation, 
they voted on the 14th of October to send a Representative vested 
with the powers desired, but on the 22nd the vote was reconsidered, 
and it was simply " Voted that this Town are willing for the house 
of Representative and Counsel to form a state government." 

A constitution drafted by delegates chosen on recommendation of 
the General Court in 1777 being rejected by the people in 1778, a 
call for another convention was issued the following year. In- 
structed again to lay the subject before the town, the selectmen of 
Sanford issued a warrant for a meeting to be held at the house of 
Nathaniel Conant, May 24, 1779 : (1) " To see whether they chuse 
at this time to have a new Constitution or form of Government 
made ; " and (2) "To see whether they will impower their Represen- 
tatives for the next year to vote for the calling a State Convention 
for the Sole Purpose of forming a new Constitution." Nothing 
seems to have been done at that meeting, or no record of action 
taken was made. The majority of the people, however, were desir- 
ous of having a convention called, and the General Court issued 



precepts for delegates to be chosea to meet at Cambridge on the first 
"Wednesday of September, 1779. This town again did nothing in 
regard to it, except to vote on the 21st of August, " not to send any 
delegate to represent them in said convention. " 

The delegates convened at the time and place aforesaid, and framed 
a constitution, which, early in 1780, was ordered to be printed. A 
copy was sent to each town and plantation for approval or disap- 
proval. A town meeting was called in Sanford May 2.5, to examine 
the several articles in the new form of government, at which the 
following action was taken : 

" Voted to Chouse a committee to make Remarks on a number of 
the ortacles in said form ; Voted to make Remarks on the third orta- 
cle ; Voted the Said Committee to take under consideration the ortacle 
of the Governor Sinneters and Councellors that shall be Prodistants ; 
Voted the 7 ortacle to be taken under consideration ; Voted Walter 
Powers Ebenezer Bussel Daniel Gile Jonathan Tibbetts and Nath' 
Cunnant Be a Committee for the above Purpose, and make Report 
the next meeting." 

The third article referred to is the Bill of Rights and provides for 
the religious instruction of the people. Throughout the state, alter- 
ations relating to that article were proposed. Satisfied of the im- 
portance of religious teachers to the welfare of society and the morals 
of the people, all, undoubtedly, desired perfect toleration. No one 
was to be molested on account of his religious opinions, and no de- 
nomination was to have exclusive or peculiar privileges. Those 
sects inferior in number and in^ wealth were opposed to anything that 
seemed, by implication even, to discourage their existence or' to limit 
their resources. The Baptists especially were inclined to complain, 
because they were obliged to apply for special license to leave one 
society to join another.' The seventh article, to which reference is 
made, is the seventh article either of the second chapter, which re- 
lates to the powers and duties of the Governor as commander-in-chief 
of the militia, or of the sixth chapter, which contains provisions re- 
specting the privilege and benefit of the writ of habeas corpus, both 
of which were objected to and quite fully discussed. As there is 
nothing in any section with regard to officers being Protestants, we 
cannot understand why the town should discuss a point settled in the 
convention, when the word "Protestant" was rejected. Perhaps, 
however, the term "Christian" was regarded by the inhabitants as 

'Bradford's " History of Massachusetts," Vol. II. 


synonymous with "Protestant," and they desired a free and full 
opinion of the declaration to be made by the Governor, Lieutenant 
Governor, Councillor, Senator, or Representative, before entering 
upon the duties of his office: " I, A. B., do declare that I believe 
the Christian religion, and have a firm persuasion of its truth." The 
more probable construction to put upon it is that they wished a re- 
ligious qualification or test, and desired that their chief magistrate 
and representatives should be Protestants, in the literal acceptation 
of the term. 

When the town met at the adjourned meeting, in Jolin Knight's 
barn, June 1, they " Voted not to Except the Report of the Commit- 
tee Brought in Concerning the several ortacles Brouglit in against 
the form of Government ; not to act anything upon the new form of 
Government; not to Except the Committee's Report Brought in Con- 
cerning the 7th ortacle." Thus they dismissed the important subject, 
leaving other towns to accept or reject the new constitution. They 
seem to have overcome the difficulty by having nothing to do with it, 
though they virtually accepted the constitution by their non-accept- 
ance of the report of the committee against the new form of govern- 

On the 16th of June, 1780, the convention having decided that the 
constitution as submitted to the people had been accepted, passed a 
resolution that the first election of Governor, Lieutenant Governor, 
Councillors and Senators should be held in September, and for Rep- 
resentatives in October. On the 4th of September the town cast 
fourteen votes for Governor, all of which "the Honorable John Han- 
•cock, Esqr.," received. No Representative was chosen in October, 
nor was the town represented in the General Court until 1785, when 
Caleb Emery was chosen to fill the office. 

According to the early laws, the parish embraced the whole town. 
In process of time, divisions arose on account of the formation of 
different societies or churches, and the inconveniences arising from 
an extensive parish. As parish matters were town matters, any 
question concerning a division must be acted upon by the town, and 
then by the General Court. On the 11th of March, 1782, the town 
■chose a committee to see where the town should be divided into two 
parishes so as to accommodate all, and when on the 2nd of April 
they reported favorably, another committee was appointed to draw 
up a petition to send to the General Court, with reference to the 
division. The result was the formation of two parishes, the first 
step toward a division into two towns. The act of the General Court 


was passed July 1. This act provided that the parishes should be 
known respectively as the South Parish and the North Parish ; that 
the division should be by a line beginning '' at the head of the town- 
ship of Wells, at Mousam River, so called ; thence running up the 
eastern branch thereof, to the mouth of a certain brook, called the 
Hay Brook ; then up said brook to a certain place known by the 
name of Staple's Marsh ; then northwest to the head of the said town 
of Sanford; " that the two parishes should be vested with "all the 
powers, rights, privileges and immunities '' enjoyed by other parishes 
in the commonwealth ; and that meetings should be called to choose 
officers to manage the affairs of the parishes. 

In 1790 Samuel Nasson, "William Parsons audHeniy Smith, select- 
men ( ?) of Sanford, petitioned the General Court that the town be 
incorporated into two districts, the north and the south, the former 
to be called Smithfield, and to have all the privileges of a town with- 
out the privilege of sending a Representative to the legislature. The 
reasons for this petition were that a barren pitch-pine plain and a 
large spruce swamp unfit for settlement lay between the two parishes,, 
and some years passage was very difficult from one parish to the 
other on account of the flow of water. A bill to divide passed the 
house February 18, 17U1, but was rejected in. the senate three days 

In 1791 a petition signed by Parsons and Smith, selectmen, and one 
hundred and nine others, stated that the sense of the town was mis- 
represented in 1790. There was a very full meeting, and the vote 
was carried by a large majority of the principal inhabitants. 

From the petition, it appears that the signers, for the most part, 
lived in the North Parish, and the objection to the division arose in 
the other parish. In 1793 (June 10), however, the town " Vot* that 
the North Parish Shall be set of as a District and to have all the 
Preveledges as the other Town has : forty-two for it & four against 
it. Vot" W™ Parson and Caleb Kmery Esq and Henry Smith Chosen 
a Committee to draw a Petion to Send to the General Court and they 
are to Prosecute the Same at there Discretion." The opposition. at 
this time was so small and powerless that there was no great difficulty 
in securing the desired legislation, and on the 4th of February, 1794,. 
the North Parish was incorporated, by an Act of the General Court, 
■ into a district by the name of Alfred, with all the privileges of a 
town, except that of sending a Representative. The Representative 
was to be chosen by Sanford and Alfred jointly, at elections held ia 
the town and district alternately. 


The history of the North Parish henceforth ceases to be a part of 
the history of Sanford. By the act of 1794 Alfred was virtually 
made a town united with Sanford in the formation of a Representa- 
tive district, thougli it retained the name of district and was recog- 
nized as such in all of its official acts, until it received the rank and 
privileges of a town by act of February 25, 1808. 

This was done upon the petition of William Parsons and others, 
in May, 1807, and the vote of the town of Sanford, December 14, 
1807, expressing a willingness for Alfred to be incorpoi'ated into a 
distinct town. The petition of Parsons and others declared, in part, 
that " the opposite interests of Ihe two incorporations make it ex- 
tremely inconvenient for us who are the minority to enjoy that right 
of suffrage which is so wisely secured to us by the constitution." 
What "the opposite interests " were, we iiave no definite means of 
knowing. For ten yeais the town and district had no representation 
at the General Court. Two years they were represented by the 
strongest man they could send, — John Holmes, then a Federalist, 
— though tlie first year the selectmen were to give him directions. 
Two years they sent two Representatives, Nathaniel Conant, Junior, 
-of Alfred, and Thomas Keeler, of Sanford. One year Keeler's seat 
was contested by John Say ward, of Alfred, but unsuccessfully. We 
surmise, however, that " the opposite interests " were political in- 
terests, because Sanford was strongly Anti-Federal, giving an over- 
whelming majority for Jefferson in 1804. This idea is strengthened 
liy the fact that when the town voted twice, in 1804, to send no 
Hepresentative, John Holmes and nineteen others petitioned the se- 
lectmen to call a meeting to choose a Representative. 

The first settler of Alfred was Simeon Coffin, who dwelt, in Novem- 
iDcr, 1764, " in an Indian wigwam, that stood a few rods south of 
the present residence of Colonel Ivory Hall." The next year several 
■others came in, and for ten years a large accession was made. 

Williamson informs us that the town was named for Alfred the 
•Great, and says : " Alfred (eighty-fourth town), when incorporated 
into a district, was vested with all town privileges, except it contin- 
ued united to Sanford, in the choice of a Representative, till large 
■enough to choose one. The village is on a plain ; the side of which, 
and the territory about two miles square, were claimed under the 
•Governor's right (Hutchinson and Oliver) and was long in dispute. 
The title to the residue of the town is the same as in Sanford. Al- 
fred has been a shire-town since September, 1803. A post-office was 
■established here in 1800." 


Although Alfred had become a town, it seems not to have been 
separated ecclesiastically from Sanford, or at least not to have been 
independent of the parent societj' ; for on the 2nd of May, 1808, 
Sanford " Voted the petition from Alfred praying they may be in- 
corporated into a Society by the name of the first parish in Alfred 
be granted." 

The early days of the incorporate town were not free from dis- 
putes with adjacent towns over the boundary lines. The proprietors 
had previously, on several occasions, appointed agents to perambulate 
the lines, but evidently the latter were not definitely settled. Soon 
after Lyman, or Coxhall, was incorporated in 1778, there was a dis- 
pute with Sanford regarding the boundary, arising, apparently, out 
of the indefinite terms of Fluellin's deed to Major Phillips. Sanford, 
in town meeting, " Voted and agreed we Give no part of the Town 
(the eight miles square) away to that part called Coxhall." The 
matter was finally settled by the joint action of committees from 
both towns. 

After the claim of the heirs of Nicholas Shapleigh to a tract of 
land above Sanford had been established by the General Court, a 
question arose about the boundaries of the Shapleigh township and 
the Phillips tract. This dispute was settled by the legislature in 
favor of Sanford. When Shapleigh was incorporated, March 5, 
1785, all "Gores" adjoining Sanford, not belonging to any other 
incorporated town, except those belonging to the plantation of Mas- 
sabesec, were annexed to Sanford. This annexation was repugnant 
to some of the inhabitants of the " Gores," who petitioned that the 
tracts be made a part of Shapleigh, because they were "fearful that 
Sanford being an old town was in debt," and they wished to be taxed 
in one town. A committee from Sanford investigated the matter, 
and reported that signatures to the petition had been obtained through 
the influence of " designing men," and that certain signers had been 
coerced because " they were under embarrassments to some persons," 
and that the petition did not represent the real sentiment. The 
General Court, however, repealed in part the annexation act of 1785, 
and annexed five hundred acres to Lebanon, and twenty-seven hun- 
dred acres to Shapleigh. This encouraged further Sanford petitioners 
for annexation to Shapleigh, on the ground of lower taxes, in 1792, 
but this time the Sanford protest proved availing. In 1795 another 
unsuccessful attempt was made to annex a portion of Sanford to 

Meanwhile, in 1779, trouble had arisen with regard to the Berwick 


line. By the original survey, the boundary was very indefinite, be- 
ing largely fixed by a certain hemlock tree. The failure of commit- 
tees from the two towns to agree resulted in years of controversy 
and litigation, recourse being had to the General Court and to the 
law courts. Suits were instituted by Nathaniel Bennett, John Thurs- 
ton and others of Sanford, against Reuben Chadbourn and Simon 
Tebbets of Berwick, to recover for alleged trespass in the cutting of 
timber on lauds claimed by the plaintiffs. During 1802 decisions in 
these cases were given in favor of the inhabitants of Sanford, but 
the boundary question was finally settled in 1804 in favor of Ber- 

Disputes over land titles were frequent in the early days. In 1761, 
on petition of the proprietors of the common and undivided lands in 
Phillipstown, the General Court passed a bill annulling the division 
made in 1730, in order that the proprietors might be enabled to pro- 
ceed to a new division of the lands held in common, the provision 
being made that the bill should not affect the right or title of any 
person actually settled upon lands assigned him before the division 
of 1730. This petition was brought because no plan of the ancient 
division could be found. 

In 1 79 1 the courts were called upon to establish the title of Frances 
Shirley Western, widow, residing in England, daughter and sole heir 
of William BoUan, of Boston, deceased, to a tract of about fifteen 
hundred acres lying along the head-line of Berwick. Bollan had 
bought the land in 1 738 of William Phillips, grandson of Major 
William, and long after his death, no claimant appearing, the tract 
was sold for taxes, subject to the right of redemption. It had 
meanwhile, in part, been occupied and improved. In 1793 it was 
sold in small lots, under constable and collector sales, to some thirty 
grantees. One of these, Samuel Willard, had bought of Eleazer 
Chadbourn in 1780, to pay taxes, but paid one hundred and fifteen 
pounds additional in 1793. We can easily account for the tradition, 
" My grandfather paid for his land twice." 

The lands conveyed to Edward Bromfield in 1718 and 1730 gave 
rise to controversy and trouble. Between 1804 and 1812 Bromfield's 
heirs took steps to recover the estates of their ancestor, with the 
result that a large tract, already occupied by supposed grantees, was 
divided among them. These settlers had bought their lands in good 
faith, but the prior claims, not having been satisfied, still existed. 
Several of the grantees repurchased their rights of the Bromfield 


heirs. A number of lawsuits were instituted. There was also a 
controversy over the Governor Hutchinson lands, claimed by the 
heirs of Feleg Sanford. 

To us judging from records and plans, it seems that the majority 
of the early occupants of the territory above the nineteen thousand 
acres settled thereon without any title, but subsequently came into 
lawful possession by actual purchase, though the right of redemption 
remained with those whose lands were sold to pay taxes. 

Sanford seems to have been a point of departure for the early set- 
tlers of Fryeburg, and to have entertained relations of friendship 
with that frontier town. It was also a centre of trade. In his 
" Centennial Address," Bev. Mr. Souther notes the fact that, in 1763, 
" there were no settlements between Fryeburg and Sanford, a dis- 
tance of sixty miles, and no bridges across the rivers and streams." 
A county road was laid out between the two towns in 1783. In 1788, 
seven persons residing in Fryeburg became members of the Sanford 
Baptist Church, and two years later were embodied into a church, to 
which Elder Richardson ministered after leaving Sanford. New 
centres of enterprise and business sprang up, and the intimate rela- 
tions ceased to exist. 

After the Revolution, a number of the inhabitants of Sanford re- 
moved to Groton, Vt., and became prominent in the affairs of that 
town. Among them were Deacon Josiah Paul, and Sarah, his wife. 
Captain William Frost, Dominicus Gray, Captain Ephraim Gary, 
Captain Stephen Roberts, Foxwell Whitcher, Moses, Moses, Junior, 
and Samuel Plummer, and Obadiah Low. 

Although there was previous taxation, the first direct tax was laid 
in 1798. Sanford, Lebanon and Shapleigh comprised the sixteenth 
district of the second division of the District of Maine. Caleb 
Emery was the principal assessor, and Samuel Nasson, Eleazar 
Chadbourn, Thomas M. Wentworth, Andrew Rogers, and Jeremiah 
Emery, assistant assessors. They received one dollar and fifty cents 
a day. The tax list bears date October 1, 1798. 



Organization of the Baptist Church, 1772, and Ordination of Rev. 
Pelatiah Tingley — Sketch of his Life — Growth of the Church — 
Incorporation of the Society — Fiist Meeting-House and Subse- 
quent Places of Worship — Pastors and Deacons. 

TWO objects of prime importance engaged the attention of the 
early settlers, — the church and the school. The proprietors 
well understood the needs and demands of a young community, and 
were far-sighted enough to endeavor to meet them, as we have al- 
rea-dy seen, although their offers of land and money did not result in 
the formation of a church. 

At first, missionaries occasionally passed through the township on 
their eastern tours, and held religious meetings in dwelling-houses 
and barns, or even the open-air. The Rev. Messrs. Daniel Little, of 
Wells (Kennebunk), Matthew Merriam, of Berwick, and Abial Ab- 
bott were among those who visited the town and awakened deep in- 

As soon as the town was incorporated, the people began to raise- 
money for preaching the Gospel. In 1770 and 1771 it was voted to 
hire a minister three months, and in 1772 to raise thirty pounds ta 
defray the expenses of preaching and other incident charges. The 
next year it was decided to petition the General Court to tax the 
non-resident land owners toward building a meeting-house and hiring 
an orthodox minister. In 1778, one hundred pounds, and in 1779, 
five hundred, were raised for preaching. All of these votes, and 
others of a similar character, were in accordance with the laws of the 
Commonwealth, which made it compulsory for the people to provide 
for preaching, by ao " able, learned orthodox minister." 

Although matters tended so strongly to promote the interests of 
the Congregationalists, of whom there were a number in the planta- 
tion, the Baptists were the first to organize a church in the town. 
How did this happen? Some had embraced the Baptist doctrine 

7 (97) 


before coming to Sanford, and others soon after. The Coffins, who 
settled in the northeast part of the town in 1764 and 1765, came 
from Newbury, Mass., where they had heard Elder Hezekiah Smith 
preach. They were his coadjutors when his missionary labors called 
him to Maine. He visited Sanford in 1766, 1768, and 1771, preach- 
ing at the houses of Daniel and Simeon Coffin, and during one of his 
journeys an extensive revival occurred in the new township. But 
the Coffins were not the only Baptists in the settlement. There was 
in town, in 1768, a minister of the same faith with Elder Smith, El- 
der Thomas Walter Powers. In 1755, he was ordained as pastor of 
a Baptist Church organized at Newtown (now Newton), N. H. Re- 
moving to Sanford, he settled in the south part of the town, and 
there he was somewhat instrumental in building up a society of Bap- 
tists. Some of his sons helped nurture the growing society in its 
infancy. Walter, Jonathan, and Timothy Powers followed in the 
footsteps of their father in proclaiming their views. 

There was an influence from the Berwick church that pervaded the 
neighboring towns. In 1768, that church, the first of the Baptist 
denomination in Maine, was organized, and began its aggressive 
work. " As a result," says Worth, in his " Centennial Discourse," 
" a church was gathered in Sanford in 1772," the third Baptist 
Church in Maine. 

Another person may be named in addition to those already men- 
tioned, who was an active supporter of the church formed, and per- 
haps, the prime mover in the organization. Rev. Pelatiah Tingley, 
at first a Congregationalist, having been attracted to the Baptist faith 
by the preaching of Elder Hezekiah Smith at Haverhill, came to San- 
ford to labor among "the scattered brethren," and, under his personal 
influence, steps were taken towards the embodying of his followers 
into a church. 

■ There is a tradition that eighteen persons, on August 17, 1772, 
held a preliminary meeting east of the John Powers house, near the 
Mousam Eiver, at which it was decided to constitute a Baptist 
Church. This tradition is corroborated, in part at least, by the 
words of a vote passed at a church meeting, July 3, 1773 : "Before 
our Begining which was voted to be Aug' 1772." The organization, 
however, was effected on the 16th of September, and five weeks later, 
October 21 , on a large rock in a field some rods southwest of the res- 
idence of Charles P. Moulton, Pelatiah Tingley was ordained as elder. 
A council had previously been called, composed of "messengers" 
from the churches in Haverhill, Stratham, Brentwood, Deerfield, and 
Berwick. The records say : 


" Then (according to the agreement of said messengers or chosen 
men), being congregated, Elder E. Smith officiated in prayer; Elder 
S. Shepherd preached a sermon suitable to the solemn occasion; 
Elder Shepherd also gave the charge ; Elder Hovey the right hand of 
fellowship — but after the teaching Elders and two of the private 
brethren had laid on hands, and one prayed. Then after prayer, 
singing, etc., Deac. Sleeper gave an excellent caution and exhorta- 
tion to the church not to lean on ministers, etc. Then returned from 
the open air into the Wid° Powers's, and the house seemed in a few 
minutes space to be filled with the glory of the Lord. 

" Then the solemn ordinance of Baptism was administered by Eld"^ 
Shepherd to eight persons, Moses Tebbets, Benj'^ Harmon, and Cath- 
erine his wife, Sarah Linscot, Susanna Haselton, Eunice Merril, 
Mary Sanbourn (Ruth Haselton was baptized by him next day at 
Berwick) and Anna Harmon. At night also (at Hale's), the power 
of God's love, etc., flowed very sweetly." 

Who constituted the origipal church we cannot tell, but from the 
records we know that the following persons must have been among 
the number : Naphtali Harmon, Daniel CoflSin, Walter Powers, Phin- 
eas Thompson, Eleazar Chadbourn, Stephen Johnson, Edward Har- 
mon, John Powers, Timothy Powers, Daniel Hibbard, Joshua Chad- 
bourn, Henry Nutter, Daniel Boston, Samuel Harmon, and Thomas 
Barnes. Thomas Bussel was probably an original member, while 
the other two, if tradition be correct in regard to the number, may 
have been wives of two male members. There is evidence that El- 
der Tingley was not included in the membership. Samuel Scribner 
was admitted into church fellowship a few days later. Naphtali 
Harmon and Daniel CoflSn were chosen deacons. 

Among the early church votes were those passed in regard to un- 
necessary apparel. "Dec'. S"', 1772. Church met and voted That it 
shall be esteemed a matter of offence, 1, For a brother to wear more 
buttons on his clothes than are needful or convenient for ye body. 
2, To wear a silken ribband on his hair. Also, for a sister, 1, To 
wear ruffles. 2, To bow ribbands. 3, To wear laces on their cloaks." 
On the first of March following, however, it was voted that " the 
sisters may wear the laces that are now on their cloaks.'' Alongside 
of these should be placed another : " Voted that ye deacons should 
endeavor to procure a coat and surtout and other smaller things for 
Elder Tingley as said deacons may think he needs." 

Differences of opinion in regard to raising money for the support 
of the minister caused hard feeling in the young church, resulting in 


the withdrawal of one prominent officer and a " long declension," from 
which, however, the church successfully emerged. The rules of the 
society provided that the minister's "liberality " should be collected 
" by an equality according to that a man has and not according to 
that he has not, that there may be no oppressions amongst us.'' 
These seemed to be a disposition to have the "equality" bear as 
lightly as possible upon all. One member had his " equality " abated 
'three pounds, old tenor, and the church voted, " That such as cannot 
so conveniently make up their equality otherwise, should be employed 
by the deacons to work on Brother Tingley's land." The trouble 
arose over the question of the time at which the " equality" should 

In July, 1773, sixteen baptized persons in Lebanon (of whom 
Philip Door was later chosen deacon) were received into the fellow- 
ship of the Sanford church, being ayear later embodied into a church 
by themselves. One of the members, Tozier Lord, was licensed to 
preach, and ministered to the church in Lebanon. He was ordained 
in 1776, but three years later left the Baptists and joined in the Free- 
will Baptist movement. Elder Lord appears to have preached in 
Sanford in 1793-4. 

In 1774, the church felt the need of a ruling elder, and made choice 
of Deacon Walter Powers. He began to preach probably, as early 
as 1780, for in 1788 the society voted " to raise a sum for Elder 
Powers and others " that had " improved their gifts with this society 
during the two years past." Subsequently he was pastor of the Bap- 
tist church of Gilmanton, N. H., for about twenty years. 

A conference, embracing three churches, viz., Berwick, Sanford, 
and Brentwood, N. H., was formed in 1776, on the initiative of the 
Sanford body. In 1785 the New Hampshire Baptist Association 
was organized. 

The records of the church from July 7, 1777, to November 18, 
1786, are lost. The records of the society begin in 1783. Elder 
Tingley probably preached until 1780, though he did not leave town 
until 1782, perhaps later. 

Elder Tingley's career was an interesting one. The second son of 
Ensign Timothy and Ruth (Patridge) Tingley, he was born in Attle- 
borough, Mass., January 3, 1734/5. His father was a Representa- 
tive from that town to the General Court in 1735. At the age of 
sixteen Pelatiah experienced religion, and united with the Congrega- 
tional Church. He was graduated at Yale College, in 1761, and re- 
ceived the degree of Master of Arts in 1765. Meanwhile he studied 


theology two years, and was licensed to preach in 1762. We are 
told that, when he entered the ministry of the " standing order," he 
was " sadly backslidden in heart.'" In 1764 he was preaching in the 
West Parish of Haverhill, Mass., and during the next two j'ears in 
Gorham, Maine. He declined a call to settle as pastor of the Con- 
gregational Church in the latter, place, for the probable reason that, 
under the influence of Elder Hezekiah Smith at Haverhill, his doc- 
trinal belief was undergoing a change, and he was in the valley of 
indecision. By November, 1767, the change had taken place, and he 
received the rite of baptism by immersion at the hand of Elder 
Smith, and united with the Baptist Church of Haverhill. Although 
he was permitted to " improve his gift," a license to preach was with- 
held until he should become firmly grounded in his new faith. In 
1768, he was preaching in Weare, N. H., but whether with or with- 
out a license, we cannot say. We lose all traces of him from that 
time until he appears in Sanford. Our first introduction to him there 
is through a warrant in our possession, dated June 28, 1771, issued 
by the selectmen, by whom he is warned forthwith to depart out of 
the town, and disowned for an inhabitant. 

The Chadbourns, Harmons, Thompsons, Coffins, and Powerses 
had preceded him, and his friend and co-laborer, Elder Smith, had, 
in his journeys into Maine, visited them several times. It is pre- 
sumed that Elder Tingley was invited by tliem or sent among them 
to preach, or selected this frontier town as his field of labor, because 
it promised an abundant harvest. He so commended himself to the 
people that he was unanimously chosen " To be Ordained or Set 
apart to ye Work of an PMer, or Office of a Bishop," and was pub- 
licly ordained. For probably eight years he exercised the functions 
of pastor, and was zealous in his calling. His work extended be- 
yond his own parish, his labors in a degree being those of a mission- 
ary ; in fact, his church was a missionary church. In 1773 and 1780, 
we find him in Lebanon, preaching and baptizing converts ; in 1775, 
receiving persons into the church at Gilnianton, N. H. ; and in 1777, 
preaching at the North Church, Barnstead, N. H. 

When the doctrine of election and atonement was discussed in 
Calvinistic churches, in 1780, he took the Arminian side, and was 
one of the founders of the Freewill Baptist denomination. He be- 
came a coadjutor of Elder Benjamin Randall, and took a prominent 
part in the organization of churches, travelling and preaching Free- 

• Stewart's " History of the Freewill Baptists." 


will doctrines. That he was second to Randall is evident, though 
Elder Tozier Lord seems to have been the first Baptist minister to 
preach to an anti-Calvinistic clmrch. There are various authorities 
to show that Tingley was the first to unite with Randall in the Free- 
will movement. In 1781, through the efforts of these two elders, 
there were churches established in Woolwich, Georgetown, Hollis, 
Edgecomb, New Gloucester, and Parsonsfleld. 

Elder Tingley remained in Sanford until 1782. Though his views 
had changed, it is quite certain that the Baptist society had not given 
him up, even at a later period ; for, on the 6th of July, 1783, they 
gave him an invitation to preach for them, which he declined to ac- 
cept. According to Stewart, " the line of demarcation between the 
Calvinistic and Arminian Baptists was but faintly drawn for several 

"I have a tradition from the Hibbard family," writes Rev. Hosea 
Quinby, " that in October, 1783, Randall, Tingley, and Hibbard met 
as strangers in Gorham (Hollis), had a season of prayer together, 
and held a conference for interchanging views, in which they found 
themselves in unison on doctrine, and the general principles of 
Christian enterprise, then and there agreeing upon the system of 
Quarterly Meetings, the first of which was in that place, December 
of the same year. Ever after Tingley stood as Randall's right-hand 
man." Tradition is true thus far at least : Elder Tingley was pres- 
ent at the organization of the Quarterly Meeting in Hollis, December 
6, 1783. He was chosen clerk of that body, and had much to do 
with drawing up the covenant. It was a matter of special impor- 
tance to him to attend Quarterly Meeting, and of the thirty-four ses- 
sions held prior to June, 1792, he was moderator once, and clerk 
twenty-four times. 

In 1790 he was at Waterborough, where he organized a church. 
For twenty years he was actively engaged. He travelled among 
many frontier settlements in Maine, preaching and organizing 
churches, also visiting New Hampshire and Vermont. Many times 
he encountered stiong opposition and even malicious persecution in 
the work of his denomination. 

Elder Tingley was a delegate from Waterborough to the conven- 
tion at Boston in 1788 which assented to and ratified the Constitution 
of the United States. He voted " nay'' on the question of ratifica- 

Of his marriage we have no knowledge, except that he had a wife 
and one daughter; the former died before him, and the latter, Mrs. 


Burrows, did not long survive him. On his farm in Waterborongh 
he spent the declining years of his life. Even before " three-score 
years and ten" his appearance entitled him to the epithet "venera- 
ble," by which he was described, and he well deserved the title, by 
common usage conferred upon him, " Father" Tingley. At the age 
of eighty-six he attended the Quarterly Meeting at Waterborongh, 
where he preached one of his short sermons of eight or ten minutes. 
" A few months after this he requested a visit from several of his 
brethren in the ministry, and a few other friends. The interview 
was one of great satisfaction to the good old man, now coming dowa 
to the grave, and rising from the bed, he stood in his sick-dress, di- 
vinely supported, and preached for a few minutes from the text,, 
' Render, therefore, unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and 
unto God the things that are God's.' He failed fast after this, and 
died early iu the autumn, full of years and good works. "^ 

In 1854, the Freewill Baptists erected a small, plain granite rnomj- 
ment over his grave, at Waterborongh, bearing this inscription : 
"Rev. Pelatiah Tingley, Died Sept. 3, 1821, Ae. 83. Mary, his 
wife. Died May, 1797, Ae. 51." If the date of his birth, as fur- 
nished by the historian of his native town, is correct,. Elder Tingley 
was eighty-six years and eight months old on the day of his death. 

Elder Tingley was a good man, though fond of innovation, and 
too much given to change. Zealous in his work, he was frequently 
impetuous. He spoke with power, and his words made an impression. 
He was quick-witted, and ready to reprove. One cold, blustering 
day, a rough fellow entered the public room in which Elder Tingley 
was seated, leaving the door open. Bantering, he accosted the un- 
assuming preacher with the question, " Well, Elder, what did you 
learn in college?" " I learned to shut the door," was the timely an- 
swer. He usually spoke pointedly and incisively. " He was a man 
of short prayers, short sermons, and short speeches." Of the seven 
early prominent leaders of the Freewill Baptist denomination, Elder 
Tingley was the only one liberally educated. He was learned, un- 
derstood the languages, and was useful in instructing his brethren. 
Especially was his power acknowledged when any letter or report was 
to be prepared. The tact and caution sometimes exercised, when 
matters of a delicate nature were to be disposed of, reveal the wisdom 
of a teacher, to whom had been given the power of a disciplined 
mind as well as the grace of a renewed heart. Precious, indeed, to 

I Stewart's " History of the Freewill Baptists." 


the denomination whose early history is so closely connected with his 
life, should be the memory of " Father " Tingley. 

Prior to 1783, or early in that year, a society of Baptists was 
formed in Sanford, and a constitution adopted. One of the articles 
provided that " all persons that offer themselves to join this society 
be examined of the motives they have in so doing.'' The reason for 
this was, that the Baptists, among other denominations, having been 
exempted from taxation for the support of the Congregational clergy, 
there were some persons who sought the protection of the society in 
order to evade payment of their taxes for supporting a minister, a 
proceeding which was not countenanced by the Baptists. 

In 1786 a Mr. Webster was invited to " improve his gift" half the 
time for four months, and Elder Eliphalet Smith, formerly of Deer- 
field, N. H., received a similar invitation to preach the other half of 
the time. At this period meetings were held at the house of a Mr. 
Taylor, to whom the society paid one shilling per day for a room. 
On the 5th of October, 1786, Elder Zebadiah Richardson was called 
by vote of the society to preach part of the time, for which he was 
to receive " twenty- four shillings per Lord's Day when he improves 
with society." An endeavor was made to arrange for him to serve 
Coxhall in conjunction with Sanford, although Coxhall had a pastor, 
Elder Simon Locke. Perhaps, however, there was need of assistance 
in that portion of the town adjoining Sanford, and one minister could 
supply the wants of both societies. Thirty pounds were raised for 
the support of Elder Richardson's family, and ten, afterward reduced 
to six, for moving his family. That the society had to struggle to 
support him, and that he had to undergo the inconveniences of an 
unsettled life, are evident from the records. 

" Voted that Indian corn (when contributed for Mr. Richardson's 
support) be 4/ per bushel, rye, 5/ per b., pork 2d. per lb., and other 
things in proportion. W. India and English goods at the market 

" The society agreed to work on said Mr. Richardson's house upon 
the first Monday in October next." (1788.) 

Elder Richardson closed his labors in 1790. It was at his request 
that the church' and society paid him the amount due for his preach- 
ing, moved " his family to Plymouth (N. H.), or elsewhere as far 
distant," and gave "him a full fair discharge." 

A few months prior to Elder Richardson's invitation to preach with 
the society, measures had been taken for building a meeting-house. 
The frame was raised in 1786, and, in June of that year, it was voted 


"to move it up to Mr. John Powers, aud set it on his land at the 
■corner near his dwelling-house, fronting to the southwest, said Pow- 
ers giving said privilege to set it on, said house to be fitted for a 
society meeting-house, at the cost of the society from the stump." A 
committee of three was appointed to carry on the worlf, and forty 
pounds lawful money were to be proportioned by " equality " to en- 
able them to complete the house. 

At a subsequent meeting, a change of location was decided upon, 
and the society voted "to set the meeting-house on tlie N. E. of 
•said Powers house, fronting to the S. K." Edward Stanley was 
selected as master of the underpinning, and Deacon Eleazar Chad- 
bourn as master- workman to finish the house. In the fall of 1788i 
the society voted to convert the meeting-house frame to a dwelling- 
house for Elder Richardson. At the annual meeting, in April, 1789, 
by adjournment, all votes respecting tlie society meeting-house were 
:reconsidered, and it was decided to fix the house for Elder Richard- 
son, as previously mentioned. The forty pounds voted June 20, 
1786, were to be used to finish the house and to pay Mr. Powers for 
ten acres of land for Elder Richardson. In view of the indecision, and 
-of the fact that Elder Richardson had no permanent abiding place, tliere 
are good grounds for the tradition that Mrs. Richardson thought 
they better set the house on wheels so as to move it about easily, 
when he preached from place to place. It is quite satisfactory to 
know that the society voted " That Dea. Chadbourn's conduct in 
selling tlie house meant for Mr. Richardson was for the best." 

It was during the ministry of Elder Richardson that two branch 
■churches, one at Francisborough (Cornish) , the other at Fryeburg, 
were organized, the former with twenty-two members, and the latter 
with seven. In 1790, the Fryeburg branch was constituted a sepa- 
rate church. The organization of the church at Francisborough came 
in 1792. Of this church John Chadbourn and William Sayer were 
•deacons. Some of the members had removed to Cornish and Hiram 
from Sanford. 

While Elder Tozier Lord was preaching in 1794, it was proposed 
•by the society to Imild a meeting- house to be set near Deacon Chad- 
iboui-n's. The site selected was at the forks of the roads leading over 
Hanson's ridge and Mount Hope. The structure was raised in the 
spring of 1794, and the lower part completed during the summer and 
fall. In October, 1794, the lower pews — twenty-two in number, 
with twelve half pews^were finished and sold at vendue. In 1797-8 
ithe sixteen gallery pews were completed, and also sold by auction. 


When this house was first occupied, " it was a two-story building, 
with outside porch, and high galleries inside : for years it was with- 
out plastering or means for a fire. Aged people a few years ago told 
how rich was the carving of the old-fashioned square pews, and of 
the quaint sounding-board high over the pulpit, that was itself even 
with the galleries." These extended nearly around the house. The 
lower pews were entered from a broad aisle, extending from the 
porch to the pulpit, and from narrow aisles forming on each side of 
the broad aisle three sides of a rectangle. The meeting-house stood 
near the present residence of Mrs. James Thompson. In 1795, the 
society purcliased land and buildings of Dominicus Gray, for a par- 
sonage, but after improving the land one year without a minister to 
occupy the dwelling, it was deemed advisable to sell the same. 

Ebenezer Kinsman, a licentiate, preached for the society in 1796. 
After various attempts to obtain the services of a minister, in 1798, 
Otis Robinson, of Livermore, having supplied the pulpit, was called 
to the pastorate. The society raised seventy dollars for him, and 
paid the expenses of moving his family. Later his salary was fixed at, 
one hundred dollars a year. His home was in the Deering neighbor- 
hood. On June 7, 1798, he was ordained to the ministry in the new 
church. This was the beginning of the flow of the tide, which had 
reached its lowest ebb. A general revival commenced with Elder 
Robinson's ministry, which, in two years, enlarged the church from- 
thirty to one hundred and forty- four. This revival continued several 
years, and Elder Robinson during the first seven years of his minis- 
try, baptized one hundred and fifty-nine persons. He was dismissed 
at his own request, after one request had been denied, March 3, 1810- 
The ministry of this good and useful man had not been without its- 
troubles, and even dissensions. 

In 1798 a number of Baptists at Lebanon were received as mem- 
bers of the church in Sanford, and a year or two later constituted a 
church by themselves. 

The society formed as early as 1783 was not a body corporate. 
Several petitions to the General Court were brought, year after year, 
to secure incorporation, but without success. Finally the town gave 
its consent, and on June 23, 1806, the society was incorporated. 

Elder Jonathan Powers, a member of the church, supplied the pul- 
pit for a time during 1811. In 1815 there was quite an extensive 
revival, during which. Elder Gideon Cook, of Dixmont, Maine, was 
among those participating. He was then " in the prime of his 
strength, full of zeal and energy,'' and proved himself so acceptable 


to the people that he was called to the pastorate. Accepting the in- 
vitation, Elder Cook was installed December 27, 1815. His ministry 
lasted for nearly ten years, daring which about forty were added to 
the church. Between 1825 and 1832 the pulpit was supplied by El- 
ders Otis Robinson, John Chadbourn, Nathaniel G-. Littlefleld, John 
Sanders, William Johnson, and Philander Hartwell. 

Sins of omission seemed to have weighed down upon the church 
members in 1830, when they accused themselves of remissness in dis- 
cipline. The ancient records were read. The children called to re- 
membrance what their fathers did more than half a century before, 
and judged that their action was worthy to be followed. The old 
articles of faith and covenant, as adopted in 1798, were read aloud, 
reaffirmed, and ordered to be recorded in a book. 

In March, 1832, Elder Cook was called to his second pastorate, 
which continued until his dismissal, April 7, 1838. Following him. 
Elder Paul S. Adams labored here. About this time several persons 
residing on Mount Hope withdrew from this meeting, and set up one 
by themselves. Though nearly all returned, and were received into 
full membership, another church, consisting of seventeen members, 
was formed on Mount Hope in 1841. Elder Adams was succeeded 
by Elder H. W. Strong in a short pastorate. 

Singular as it may seem at the present day, intemperance had made 
sad inroads upon the church. The practice of drinking ardent spirits 
was for a long time common even among members. The church, 
however, took no action in regard to it until April 11, 1840, when a 
vote was passed not to receive any person into the churcli unless 
he took the temperance pledge, and this was to be inserted in the 
church covenant. This was one step in the right direction. But 
there were members not affected by this ; they had not pledged 
themselves to abstain from spirituous liquors. How should they be 
reached? Another step was taken, when, on the 11th of December, 
1841, it was "'Voted this church become a temperate church, and 
each member abstain from all distilled spirituous liquors except in 
case of sickness." 

IClder Joseph Gilpatrick preached one year, 1841-2, and Elder 
John Boyd most of the time from 1842 until 1846. The title "Elder" 
gave way to " Reverend " during his ministry, and was applied to 
him at its close. 

In 1847, the old meeting-house, which had stood for more than fifty 
years, with scarcely an alteration after Joshua Hanson finished the 
lower part in 1803, was entirely remodelled. It was cut down to one 


story, made smaller, and refitted with modern pulpit, pews and choir. 
It was moved back a short distance from the original site, and turned 
so as to front eastward toward the village. In 1848 it was rededi- 

Rev. William H. Copeland began to labor among the people in the 
summer of 1848, and continued his service until the spring of 1850. 
He was followed the next year by Rev. B. F. Hubbard, who preached 
one year. Rev. Thomas Jameson supplied the pulpit two years, 
1853-5, and was succeeded by Rev. Walter T. Sargent, whose labors 
with the church closed in 1857. During the summer of 1853, Rev. 
Mr. Jameson prepared a history of the church, which, with amend- 
ment, was accepted. Rev. Gideop Cook was secured, in 1858, to 
preach at the Corner and Mount Hope, and he remained two years. 
Subsequently Rev. John Hubbard, Senior, preached a short time. 

" From 1860 to 1870, the prospect for better days was almost 
hopeless. The total membership was reduced to twenty-two. But 
during this darkness a little gleam of light was seen in the springing 
up of a new business life in the village which pointed to a growth of 
the population. The brethren of the association saw it, and began 
to advocate the removal of the meeting-house from its old site, more 
than a third of a mile west of the post-office, into the village. Rev. 
James A. Ferguson, as the county colporteur, was directed to labor 
among them, with this object in view. He was successful . . 
. . . and upon the first sufficient snow of tlie succeeding winter 
(1870-1), the almost forlorn house was moved upon its present con- 
venient lot (which Brother Goodel, a student from Newton, who 
preached here during his vacation, was largely instrumental in se- 
curing), and fitted up, and dedicated in June, 1871, nearly free of 

From 1871 to 1873, Rev. Sumner Estes was pastor. In 1872, the 
church and society entertained the association the sixth time, the first 
being in 1808, at which Rev. George B. Ilsley, pastor of the Spring- 
vale Baptist Church, delivered a centennial address. 

The exercises of the one hundredth anniversary of the organization 
of the church were of an interesting character. The house was well 
filled with attentive listeners. The services, conducted by the pastor, 
Rev. Mr. Estes, included the delivery of the " Centennial Discourse" 
by Rev. Mr. Ilsley ; remarks and reminiscences by Rev. Edmund 
Worth of Kennebunk, on the character and labors of Elder Otis Rob- 
inson ; by Rev. G. W. Gile, respecting " Father" Cook (the labors 

' Ilsley's " Centennial Discourse." 


of these two men covered nearly a third of a century) ; by Rev. W. 
H. Copeland, of Wells, the only ex-pastor present, on his ministry 
with the church; by Deacon J. H. Gowen, of Saco, a former mem- 
ber ; and by Deacon Goodwin, of Lebanon, on church-going of years 
before. A few earnest words were spoken in behalf of the church by 
the pastor. 

The meeting-house was burned in the great fire of 1878. There 
was no insurance upon it, so the loss was total, except for the furni- 
ture saved from the burning building. In July, 1880, a notice, signed 
by Jonathan Tebbets, Samuel Nowell, and Jeremiah Moultou, called 
for a meeting of those interested in rebuilding the Baptist meeting- 
house. At that meeting Messrs. Nowell and Moulton were appointed 
a building committee, and work was begun in September. Cap- 
tain Jonathan Tebbets had generously offered two hundred dollars 
towards the project, but his eyes were never gladdened by the sight 
of the new church, for on Sunday morning, September 5, within a 
week after work was begun, he died suddenly of heart disease, in his 
eighty-sixth year. The new house of worship was completed and 
ready for occupancy in the spring of 1882, the dedication occurring 
Tuesday, March 14, of that year. The sermon of the afternoon was 
preached by Eev. T. C. Russell, of Springvale, and the dedicatory 
prayer was by Rev. J. L. Sanborn, of South Waterborough. In the 
evening Rev. H. M. Sawtelle of East Lebanon preached. The struc- 
ture cost about fifteen hundred dollars, of which two hundred dollars 
was indebtedness at the time of dedication. 

Rev. T. C. Russell supplied the pulpit for a few months from the 
Sabbath following the dedication, and was succeeded by Rev. A. 
Sherwin, during the year 1883. Rev. Frank S. Bickford was pastor 
from 1884 to March, 1888. Rev. Samuel H. Emery was settled in 
April following for a pastorate of three years. About this time the 
growth of the society was so rapid that the need of a more commo- 
dious structure became necessary, and in the summer of 1888 the 
church building was sold to the Methodists (subsequently coming^ 
into the possession of the Catholics), to make room for a new place 
of worship. This building was erected and furnished at a cost of 
eight thousand five hundred dollars, from plans of John Calvin Stev- 
ens, architect, of Portland. Three thousand five hundred dollars were 
furnished by the Baptist State Convention Board, and the remainder 
by members of the church and their friends. The new edifice was 
dedicated free of debt on Thursday, April 4, 1889. Previous to the 
ceremonies Rev. Mr. Emery announced that an Indebtedness of some- 


thing over eighteen hundred dollars was to be removed, and this 
amount was immediately secured in the congregation, the subscrip- 
tions pouring in at the rate of one hundred dollars a minute for fifteen 
minutes. W. H. Nason, George H. Nowell, S. J. Nowell, and Kev. 
Sumner Estes each doubled their previous subscriptions, and others 
gave generously. Rev. A. T. Dunn, of Portland, offered the prayer 
of dedication, and an original hymn, written by Samuel E. Robinson, 
of Sanford, to the music o.f " Old Hundred," was sung. 

Since 1890 the pastors have been : Rev. C. C. Speare, 1891- 
1897; Rev. Arthur Twain Belknap, January 24, 1897-October, 
1898 ; Rev. A. N. Dary, October, 1898-July, 1900 ; Rev. George 
M. Stilphen, from July, 1900, to the present time. 

The present membership of the church is one hundred and sixty- 

The deacons of the church have been : Naphtali Harmon, 1772- 
1783; Daniel Coffin, 1772-1774; Walter Powers, 1772-1774; Philip 
Door (Lebanon branch), 1773-1774 ; Eleazar Chadbourn, 1780-1 788 ; 
Phinehas Thompson, 1783 -(?) ; Joshua Goodwin, 1783- (?) ; John 
Chadbourn, Junior, 1788-1792; Samuel Charles (Fryeburg), 1788- 
1790; Nathaniel Gubtail (Lebanon branch), 1798-1800; Nathan 
Powers, 1801-1827; John Libby, 1815-1831; Benjamin Beal, 1831- 
1866; Daniel Wadlia, 1831-1835; Gideon Dearing, 1831-1843; 
Daniel Plummer, 1836-1842 ; William Chadbourn, 1836-1850 ; George 
Moulton, July 5, 1851, to his death, November 21, 1884; W. H. 
Nason, 1883 to date ; Samuel Nowell, 1883 to date. 

Deacon Samuel Nowell has been clerk of the church from 1861 to 
the present time, and George H. Nowell has been superintendent of 
the Sunday School f^r the past thirteen years. There has been, for 
some time, a Young People's Society connected with the church, of 
which Miss Sarah Nutter is now president. 



Second Baptist Church, Mouse Lane — Mount Hope Church — Spring- 
vale Baptist Church. 

THE Second Baptist Church was organized at Mouse Lane, July 27, 
1830. Prior to that date it had existed as a branch of the 
Baptist Church in Kennebunk. It was probably the branch estab- 
lished in the Getchell house, known as " Pilgrims' Tavern." Elder 
Roberts came up from " Alewive" to preach before the church was 
organized, and it is said that Elder John Chadbourn, son of Eleazar, 
preached there in 1826. 

Elder Philander Hartwell, ordained in 1830, supplied the church 
one year, during which it increased to forty members, the original 
number being seventeen. p]lder tiartwell was succeeded by Elder 
John Chadbourn in 1832, who remained as pastor two years, and af- 
terward preached in Hiram. Elder Chadbourn was originally a mem- 
ber of the First Baptist Church. For three years after he left the 
Mouse Lane Church, it was without a minister. But in 1837, under 
the preaching of the neighboring ministers, — perhaps Elder Cook, 
then in Sanford, was one, for he preached there once at the time of 
an extensive revival, — the church awoke from its slumber, active and 
zealous work followed, and twenty -one were added to the member- 
ship. The church was too weak, however, to employ a pastor, and 
soon relapsed into its former condition. It is related that, when an 
erring sister was under discipline, one of its members, sympathizing 
with her, uttered these words : "If you turn her from the church, 
as sure as God liveth, the church will go down." They seem like 
prophetic words ; for, after her excommunication, not a member was 
ever added to the church. 

The small meeting-house at the forks of the road between Good- 
win's and Linscott's was burned about 1850, and in 1855 most of the 
members in good standing joined with the church in Alfred on the 
" Back Road," in building a meeting-house at Littlefield's Mills, and 
forming the church worshipping there. 



About the year 1838, several members of the First Baptist Church,, 
residing at Mount Hope, or in that vicinity, withdrew from that or- 
ganization, and set up a meeting by themselves. They had become 
disaffected for various reasons, one of which undoubtedly was that 
the main body of the church was not in accord with them on the tem- 
perance question agitating the community. Such a proceeding could 
not be overlooked, and accordingly the parent church took action on 
the matter. September 1, 1838, it was " Voted to enter a complaint 
against those persons that had left our meeting, and set up one in 
opposition to the gospel, Daniel Johnson, Nehemiah Littlefield, 
Thomas Merrill, Ebenezer Libby, Royal Morrison, Samuel Wors- 
ter, Enoch Littlefield, and chose Deacon Plumer and Deacon 
Chadbourn to notify those persons to attend our next meeting." 
Their method of separation, not being in accordance with the usage 
of the denomination, undoubtedly had much to do with this vote. 

At various times during the year, until September 14, 1839, the 
case of these offending members was brought up, and finally on that 
day disposed of. Two of them had been restored to good fellowship, 
but on that day it was " Voted that the difficulty between the church 
and Br. Nehemiah Littlefield and others be settled forever." But a new 
difficulty apparently arose, for, in 1840, Daniel Johnson, Nehemiah 
Littlefield, and Enoch Littlefield were dropped at their own request. 

In the meantime, those friendly to the Mount Hope project were 
not inactive. They decided, partly owing to the distance at which 
they lived, to have a house of worship of their own, and contributed 
generously toward that object. A plain strncture, without tower or 
spire, was erected, and in 1840, completed for worship. On the 6th 
of February, 1841, the First Baptist Church dismissed seventeen 
members to organize the new body, and chose Deacons Beal, Hum- 
mer, and Chadbourn, to sit in council. But these men did not take 
their seats, thereby revealing the antagonism of the old church to the 
new. The council convened February 25, with Elder 0. Barron, of 
Wells, as moderator, and Elder G-ideon Cook, of Cape Neddock, as 
scribe, and the following brethren and sisters were organized into a 
church : John Nowell, Daniel Johnson, Nathan Goodwin, Samuel 
Worster, Thomas Merrill, Royal Morrison, Tabitha Butler, Philena 
Johnson, Mary Nowell, Martha Nowell, Lois Butler, Betsey More, 
Lydia Gowell, Abigail Wise, Susannah Worster, Olive Merrill, Mary 
Johnson, Ann Goodwin. The sermon was preached by Elder Bar- 
ron, the inaugurating prayer was offered- by Elder Cook, and the 
hand of fellowship was given by Elder Hayden, of Dover, N. H. 



At a church meeting, March 2, it was "Voted that the church be 
called by the name of the Mount Hope Church." On April 25, Elder 
Gideon Cook was voted pastor of the church. He preached until the 
fall of the next year, when the church granted him his dismission at 
his own request. In 1843 Elder John Boyd was pastor, but how long 
he remained there is no evidence. In March, 1847, it was " Voted 
that Br.' B. F. Hubbard shall be ordained pastor of this church." A 
council was accordingly held on March 30, at which Rev. N. G. 
Littlefield, of Acton, was moderator, and Eev. John Peacock, of 
Springvale, scribe. The examination of the candidate proving sat- 
isfactory, Mr. Hubbard was duly ordained the following day. 

In May, 1849, the church voted to give Eev. Mr. Hubbard his 
dismission from the pastorate, although it was not until 1852 that he 
and his wife withdrew from membership in the church. Up to 
August, 1849, he had preached most of the time. After that, the 
young church, finding out that to sustain preaching theoretically was 
far easier than to support a minister practically, began to devise 
means to have a meeting part of the time only. They chose " a 
committee to meet the Baptist old church in Sanford, to see if they 
can agree to get a minister to preach to them in both places.'' This 
proposition failed, the old church not being disposed to render as- 
sistance to the new. There was afterwards occasional preaching for 
a few years. The last church meeting was held August 17, 1857, 
when it was " Voted to disorganize the church." 

The meeting-house, unoccupied for years, was fast going to decay 
and ruin, when one of its owners sold it. It was moved a short dis- 
tance from its original site, adjoining the graveyard on the southwest 
side of the road, and converted into a barn. 

The total membership of the church in its short existence was- 
thirty-nine. There were two deacons, Daniel Johnson, 1841-1857, 
and Enoch Frost, 1842-1860. 

The Baptist Church at Springvale was organized in 1843. The im- 
provement of the water power at that village some three years pre- 
vious, and the building of a mill at the upper fall, had brought into 
town several Baptists, who were desirous of forming a permanent 
union. Among them were Danforth White, Ivory M. Thompson, 
William Gage, Benjamin F. Hodgdon, and John Montelius, Junior, 
who met at the house of Mr. Gage on the 23rd of May, 1843, and 
organized in the choice of Mr. Gage as chairman, and Mr. Monte- 
lius as secretary. After some conversation relative to the object for 
which they had convened, they appointed Messrs. Hodgdon, White 


and Thompson a committee " to confer with Rev. Eleazar Bobbins, 
of Waterborough, and extend to him an invitation to preach, and to 
make every necessary arrangement for carrying the same into efEect." 

A few weeks later, the committee reported that they had engaged 
Eev. Mr. Robbins to preach every other Sabbath for five dollars a 
Sabbath. "When he came to preach, he was to spend a few days 
among them, and perform the duties of a pastor. A constitution and 
by-laws for the government of the church were duly adopted. Sev- 
eral articles therein deserve more than a passing notice. The tem- 
perance question had been before the people a few years, and many 
churches had taken a decided stand against the use of intoxicating 
drinks. The slavery question was in the first stages of its agitation, 
and men were timorous when it arose before them. The new church 
was outspoken in its opinion upon those two great moral questions, 
and bold in its denunciation of slavery, against which a few only in 
the town had taken a firm stand. The articles referred to declared : 

" No individual can retain membership with this church without 
abstaining strictly from all intoxicating liquors, as an article of lux- 
ury, drink or entertainment, and no individual shall be received into 
membership without fully embracing the first clause of this article." 

" This church will not hold fellowship nor communion with slavery 
in any form, directly nor indirectly, neither admit into its pulpit, as 
a minister, a slaveholder, nor an abettor of slavery, knowing him to 
be such." 

" As this church views slavery as a great and daring sin against 
the law of God, and against the liberty and right of our fellow crea- 
tures, and trampling on the poor and down-trodden, and violating 
every personal right, and as the practice of this sin leads to every 
vice and outrage which characterizes the slave-holding community, 
we must, in all conscience, denounce this sin, against which the Lord 
God has frowned, and opposed His law, and, viewing it in this light, 
we cannot recommend a member of this church to have any fellow- 
ship with a slaveholding church." 

Preparations to hold a council were made, and a covenant and 
articles of faith were adopted. John Montelius, Junior, was chosen 
clerk of the proposed church, and as a committee to prepare an ad- 
dress to be presented to the council, setting forth the reasons for 
proceeding to the organization of a church at Springvale. The address 
spoke of the advantages of the new field of labor, and declared that 
' ' your petitioners made every exertion with the Baptist Church lo- 
cated at Sanford to change its place of worship to this village, and 


having been unsuccessful in all their exertions to accomplish an 
object so desirable, now think it their solemn duty .... to 
form a church here." 

Although there were already three churches of the same faith and 
order in town, the council, meeting on July 27, 1843, with Rev. 0. 
Barron, of "Wells, as moderator, and Rev. J. Richardson, of South 
Berwick, clerk, organized the petitionera into the Baptist Church of 
Springvale, with twelve members, as follows : John Montelius, Ju- 
nior, William Gage, Julia Gage, Julia Ann Gage, Ivory M. Thomp- 
son, Eleanor Thompson, Dorcas Ham, Benjamin F. Hodgdon, Apphia 
Hodgdon, Danforth White, Lucy White, and Caroline Emery, all of 
whom presented letters of dismissal from other Baptist churches in 
various parts of New England. Rev. J. Richardson preached the 
sermon of the occasion, Rev.- Eleazar Robbins gave the right hand 
of fellowship to the church, and Rev. John Boyd, of Sanford, gave 
the charge to the church. 

Rev. Mr. Robbins served the new church until October 22, when 
he resigned to accept a position with the Domestic Missionary Soci- 
ety. During the fall a beautiful communion service was received as 
a gift from two ladies of Cambridge, Mass., Ellen M. Freeman, and 
a Mrs. Farwell. Rev. J. M. Wedgewood supplied the pulpit, follow- 
ing Rev. Mr. Robbins, one-half the timeuntU March, 1844. Meetings 
were held during this period in the Methodist meeting-house, on the 
south side of the county road to Lebanon. In the summer of 1844 
measures were taken for the erection qt a house of worship, but after 
the committee appointed to secure a site, and to draft a plan of a 
church edifice had reported, it was voted " to postpone the erection 
of our house for the present, on account of funds." 

Silas Pearsons and Benjamin F. Hodgdon were chosen the first 
deacons, on December 20, 1843. Four years later Pearsons was dis- 
ciplined by the church and excluded. Deacon Hodgdon served the 
church for a long period, during almost twenty years being also clerk. 

Rev. John Boyd, who had preached or lectured weekly at the house 
of Ivory M. Thompson early in 1845, was invited to become pastor 
of the church, a call which he at first declined, but later accepted in 
part, preaching one-half of the time, the services being held in the 
Congregational vestry, engaged for that year. In 1846 the church 
was again without a pastor and place of worship, meetings were 
omitted, and the Home Missionary Society espoused its cause, voting 
two hundred dollars for preaching for the year ensuing, a fact which 
indicates that the Baptists of Maine regarded Springvale as an im- 


portant position to be maintained. Rev. John Peacock, a preacher 
of considerable success, then at Fitzwilliam, N. H., was invited to 
take the pastorate. Having accepted the call and entered upon his 
duties in September, 1846, a revival of deep interest soon began. 
This work continued during the year, the church being greatly 
strengthened by accessions. 

In 1847, a meeting-house was built, on the road leading to Shap- 
leigh, now Maple street, just above the residence of Deacon Hodg- 
don. It was all paid for by the church and society with this excep- 
tion : Two dollars were contributed bytwo persons outside of Rev. 
Mr. Peacock's congregation. The building was ready for occupancy 
by the first of August, and was dedicated on the third day of that 
month. Rev. J. Richardson, of South Berwick, preached the sermon ; 
Rev. N. W. Williams, of Saco, offered the dedicatory prayer ; and 
Rev. H. G. Nott, of Waterville, delivered an address to the church. 
This commemorative occasion was rendered especially attractive by 
the York Baptist Quarterly Meeting, which was in session on the 
three succeeding days. 

Rev. Mr. Peacock closed his labors September 2, 1849. During 
his three years of service he had received fifty-two members into the 
church. Rev. Austin Robbins supplied the pulpit from October 7, 
1849, to July 18, 1852 ; Rev. Nicholas Branch, October, 1852-Octo- 
ber, 1853; Rev. Albert Dunbar, May, 1854-January, 1856; Rev. 
Mr. Storer, a short time in 1856 ; and Rev. Henry Stetson, May 4, 
1856-May, 1860 (?). In August, 1861, W. T. Emerson, a licentiate 
of the Baptist Church, Saco, accepted a call to preach one year, and 
in October was ordained to the ministry. The following summer he 
asked for his dismission, and enlisted in the array. Rev. B. F. Hub- 
bard and Rev. James Ferguson, of Alfred, were his successors in the 
pulpit supply. 

In the spring of 1864 "William Willard Boyd began to preach, 
though without a license. He had been a member of a Congrega- 
tional Church, but had adopted immersion views after his removal 
to Springvale. On July 3 he was baptized and received into the 
church, to which he ministered, by license, two years and five months, 
closing his labors, August 26, 1866. Fifty-seven were received into 
the church during this time. 

George B. Ilsley, a graduate in theology, began to preach on the 
following Sabbath, September 2. Two months later, by a council 
called by the church, he was ordained to the ministry, the exercises 
occurring on November 21. On the same day, the meeting-house 


having been enlarged and remodelled, through the efforts of Rev. 
Mr. Boyd, " it was rededicated to the worship of Almighty God." 
Eev. Mr. Ilsley resigned in 1873, preaching his farewell sermon June 
29. During his pastorate, and by his exertions, a parsonage, costing 
eighteen hundred dollars, was built, and two-thirds of the debt upon 
the church was paid. His services, which had warmly endeared him 
to the people, were commemorated in complimentary resolutions 
adopted at the close of his pastorate. 

Edward P. Roberts was ordained to the ministry at the church Oc- 
tober 23, 1873, and remained as pastor until August 1, 1875. Rev. 
Amasa Bryant was pastor from August 22, 1875 to October 6, 1878, 
resigning on account of ill health. During his last year the meeting- 
house was again remodelled and repaired, and on the 18th of August, 
1878, for the second time, rededicated. 

Rev. John E. Dame preached from November 17, 1878, to July 25, 
1880. Succeeding pastors have been: Rev. L. D. Hill, 1880; Rev. 
T. C. Russell, 1881 to October 1, 1883 ; Rev. Frank G. Davis, Oc- 
tober, 1883, to October, 1889 ; Rev. George S. Chase, January, 1890, 
to October, 1894; Rev. W. B. Shumway, December, 1894, to Octo- 
ber 1, 1899 ; and Rev. James Edward Cochrane, November 1, 1899, 
to the present time. The church has enjoyed a good degree of pros- 
perity under these able and faithful pastors. 

The deacons have been: Silas Pearsons, 1843-1847; Benjamin 
F. Hodgdon, 1843-1895; Jotham Moulton, 1848-1868; William F. 
Hanson, 1868-1883; Lewis Chadbourn, 1868-1869; Ferdinand A. 
Butler, 1869-1878 ; Loammi K. Moulton, 1869 to date ; Silas B. 
Ridley, 1880-1889; James Sayward, 1885-1900; Clarence Butler, 
1895-1898; George W. Hanson, 1895 to date; Henry S. Packard, 
1898 to the present time. 

The present church officers include : Charles M. Abbott, clerk ; 
Edmund E. Goodwin, treasurer ; Clarence E. Taylor, collector ; 
George W. Hanson, superintendent of the Sunday School. A Young 
Peoples' Society of Christian Endeavor was organized August 3, 
1886, of which Mrs. Jeanette Wentworth is now president. The 
number of church members at present is one hundred and thirty-four. 



Early Orthodox Worship — Church in the South Parish Orgauized — 
Kev. Moses Sweat — A Primitive Meeting- House — Church Edi- 
fices at the Corner — Pastors and Deacons — The South Sanford 

THE votes of the town already referred to were passed to meet 
the wants of a portion of the people. Such votes were neces- 
sary, also, to satisfy the demands of the law, which a town could not 
transgress with impunity. It was an old law, enacted in 1692-3, 
during the reign of William and Mary, and remained in force more 
than a century. One of its requirements was, " That the inhabitants 
of each town within the province, shall take due care, from time to 
time, to be constantly proyided of an able, learned orthodox minister 
or ministers, of good conversation, to dispense the word of G-od to 
them ; which minister or ministers shall be suitably encouraged, and 
sufficiently supported and maintained by the inhabitants of such 
town." The services rendered by " orthodox ministers " from time 
to time, were for a few months only, and for twelve years no steps 
were taken, as far as records show, towards the formation of a Con- 
gregational church. In 1780, however, a church was organized in 
the northeast part of the town, by Rev. Messrs. Daniel Little, of 
Wells (Kennebunk), and Matthew Merriam, of Berwick. 

"The first beginnings of this church were the gatherings of a few 
who loved the truth, to listen to the reading of a sermon. "' It con- 
sisted of twelve or fifteen members, and, two years later, when the 
town was divided into two parishes " for the greater convenience 
of attending the public worship of God," constituted the church of 
the North Parish. "The religious interest of 1780, which centered 
at the newly made parish, continued and increased. Some individuals 
were strangely affected, and seem to have turned religious enthusiasts. 
Though for a time they attended worship at the Congregational par- 
ish, eventually they left and formed the society of Shakers, yet of 

1 " Semi-Centennial of Yorli County Conference, 1872." 


this town."i According to another,*^ " The ministrations of Mr. Lit- 
tle and Mr. Merriam wrought some conversions, but their zeal soon 
engendered extravagancies, and some became strangely affected and 
disorderly, which gave them the name of ' Merry Dancers ; ' most of 
them seceded and joined those on Shaker Hill." 

In the spring of 1 784, a meeting-house was built, but it does not 
appear that the church organization was kept up. It is highly prob- 
able that the church became extinct, or was reduced so low as not tO' 
maintain public worship, prior to August, 1788; for, at that time,. 
Doctor Abiel Hall and wife united with the church in the South Par- 
ish. The parish, indeed, began to act independently in 1787, and to- 
make efforts to procure a pastor. " They invited several preachers- 
as candidates, among whom were Rev. David Porter, Isaac Babbit^ 
and Mr. White, "^ none of whom accepted a call to preach for the 
struggling society. But in February, 1791, Mr. John Turner ac- 
cepted a call, and was ordained in September following, at which 
time the present Alfred Church was re-organized, or rather organized. 
Referring to the church of 1780, Greenleaf says : "It does not ap- 
pear that the church thus formed at Alfred ever received any acces- 
sions. Neither is it now known whether they kept any records, or 
performed any church act. It is most probable they did neither, for 
at the subsequent settlement of ministers, both in Alfred and Lyman, 
no church could be (bund, and the ordaining council proceeded to 
organize one in each place." That the organization and ordination 
did not take place, September 7, or September 8, is evident from the 
record of the church in the South Parish, the 18th of that month. 
' ' In public service read to the church a letter from the North Parish 
in Sanford requesting assistance in gathering a church there, and in 
ordaining Mr. John Turner to the work of the ministry." The church 
voted to send Elder David Bean, Deacon Caleb Emery, and Deacon 
Samuel Nasson. "Also voted. That a recommendation and dis- 
mission be given to Abiel Hall and his wife, upon their joining in the 
church about embodying in the North Parish" of Sanford, if requested 
of them. One week later, September 25, Parson Sweat adds to the 
record : " Being called upon by Mr. Hall, in behalf of himself and 
wife, I gave a certificate agreeably to the above %'ote of the church." 
The organization was probably effected on the 28th of September. 

Rev. John Turner was from Randolph, Mass., and graduated at 

1 " Semi-Centennial of York County Conference, 1872." 

2 Usher Parsons, M.D. 

2 Parsons'B '" History of Alfred." 


Brown University in 1788. Ordained, as above mentioned, he served 
the church and society twelve or thirteen years, and was dismissed 
May 18, 1804. He was installed as pastor of the Second Congrega- 
tional Church, Biddeford, March 1, 1805, from which he was dismissed 
in 1818. Thence he removed to Kingston (New Hampshire or Mas- 
sachusetts?), though he was staled supply at Sebec in 1834-5. He 
died in Dorchester, Mass., October 2, 1839, aged seventy-one years. 

Deacon Moses Stevens, who died June 14, 17.,0, was probably an 
officer of the origipal church, and Deacons Daniel Gile and Ebenezer 
Hall, of the new organization. In 1797, when trouble with Rev. Mr. 
Turner arose, Deacon Hall requested to be excused from the office to 
which he had been chosen, and Thomas Williams was chosen deacon 
in his place. 

Although the South Parish had enjoyed preaching from time to 
time, and a few had cherished the hope that a church would be formed, 
yet no definite steps were taken with that end in view, until early in 
1786. At an adjourned meeting of the parish on Tuesday, March 
28 (no records of first meeting or former meetings appear), it was 
voted, "That Captain David Bean, James Gare, James Heard, Wil- 
liam Bennett, and Captain Samuel Nasson be a committee to form 
some proposals to offer Mr. Moses Sweat in regard to his settling 
with us in the worlc of the gospel ministry." There can be no doubt 
but that Mr. Sweat had supplied the parish the preceding season, as 
Rev. Mr. Hall had, in 1783, surveyed the field, learned what was 
proposed to be done, and given encouragement to those desiring of 
forming a church. 

The proprietors had set apart one lot for the ministry, and one for 
the first settled minister. As an inducement to Mr. Sweat, who would 
be the recipient of one lot, if he should accept a call to settle, the 
committee reported, "That it is their (our) opinion that it is neces- 
sary to him as a settlement, to clear, fence, and plough nine acres of 
land on the minister lot, that is three acres in a year till it is com- 
pleted, and also to help him in boards, timber and labor, to the 
amount of forty-five pounds towards his buildings, and eighty pounds 
as a salary during his continuance with us in tlie ministry." 

Messrs. David Bean, Caleb Emery, Samuel Nasson, James Heard, 
and Nathaniel Bennett were a committee to present the proposals and 
invitation to Mr. Sweat. On the 17th of April, the candidate gave 
his acceptance in writing, and the parish appointed the 19th of July 
following for the day of ordination. 

The ecclesiastical council invited by letters missive convened on 


the day specified, at the house of Captain Samuel Nasson, which 
stood on the brow of the hill known as Nasson's Hill. Rev. Daniel 
Little, of Wells, was chosen moderator, and Rev. Nathaniel Webster, 
■of Biddeford, scribe. The council having examined the candidates, 
•embodied Moses Sweat, David Bean, Ephraim Low, Caleb Emery, 
Nathaniel Bennett, John Stanyan, Samuel Nasson, James Gare, and 
Daniel Morrison, as a Church of Christ, agreeably to the covenant by 
"them subscribed, which was presented by the council. 

The church having been incorporated gave a call to Mr. Sweat, 
which he accepted. The council examined the candidate, and voted 
to proceed to his ordination, which was done. Rev. Elihu Thayer, 
of Kingston, N. H., preached the ordination sermon. Rev. Mr. Little" 
gave the charge, and Rev. Moses Hemmenway, D.D., of Wells, gave 
the right hand of fellowsliip. 

At the first church meeting, held on the 19th of August, it was 
voted that there should be one elder and two deacons in the church. 
David Bean was chosen elder, and Caleb Emery and Samuel Nasson 
first and second deacons. The first votes of the church were purely 
and wholly orthodox and Congregational. But there follows a vote 
which savors otherwise. It was probably introduced through the 
influence of the pastor, and is one reason why some regarded Parson 
Sweat as weak in the faith, not strictly orthodox; an Arminian. The 
vote read thus: "■ That if any person shall present himself to the 
church, and desire to join in covenant with it, and yet shall not see 
his way clear to partake of the Lord's Supper, he may be admitted 
as a member, and have the privilege of Baptism for his children, the 
•church being satisfied with him in other respects." This was essen- 
tially the " half-way covenant" which found favor a century or more 
ago, and prevailed in many Congregational churches. As long as 
Parson Sweat lived, this vote stood unchanged, but before his suc- 
cessor. Rev. Mr. Marsh, was ordained, at the request of the pastor- 
elect, the church voted to erase said vote from their records. 

During his ministry of thirty six years, thirty-three members were 
;added to the church. At the time of his death, there were nine mem- 
bers, — the same as the original number. Pe.ace and harmony seemed 
to have prevailed, though there were seasons of discipline and dis- 
couragements. Serious difi^erences arose between individual members, 
which happily were settled without causing disruption. Members 
wei'e disciplined for non-attendance upon public worship, and other 
oflSences. In 1794, a serious trouble is indicated in a letter from 
Henry Hamilton to Elder Bean, but whether it grew out of trouble 


between prominent members, or was the result of general dissatisfac- 
tion in church and society, the language of the letter does not say. 

These facts are patent : The Baptists made inroads upon the so- 
ciety, and drew off a large number, and even attracted some members 
of the church. One of its deacons had threatened to hurt the parish, 
and was accused of attending a Baptist society meeting, when a meet- 
ing of his own society was to be held, at which he was expected to 
be present. One woman, wife of a prominent man, had joined the 
church in 1790, but for some time had absented herself fram meet- 
ing. A committee appointed to converse with her reported "that she 
was not allowed to attend with the church." The first deacon became 
offended for some cause, unknown, and said " that he should do no- 
more concerning the parish." Two years later he became a member 
of the Baptist society. 

Two years after the organization of the church, during which 
meetings were held in school- and dwelling-houses, the parish began 
work upon a meeting-house. Illustrative of the custom of the time, 
and furnishing evidence of the date of raising the frame of the house,, 
is a peculiar vote passed on the second Monday in April, 1788. 
" Voted to procure and order for Mr. Cram to provide 1 berrell ^ of 
N. E. Rum, 2 quintals ^ of fish and 10 Gallons of Molasses, and 
hogsfat if he can get it," — all of which was to be paid for out of the 
meeting-house tax. Caleb Emery, William Bennett, and Nathaniel 
Bennett were appointed a committee that year, to carry on the work,: 
and the parish voted to procure stuff as far as they could, and under- 
pin the house. The building went slowly on, and the first intimation 
we have of its occupancy is the record of March 15, 1792, at which 
time the parish meeting was held in the meeting-house. The house 
was then ready (however poorly) for use, for on the 28th of May 
following, the parish voted to " give up the old school-house to the 
main district to move it when they see fit." 

The house stood on the northeast side of the county road thea 
leading from the south part of the town over Mount Hope, just above 
the house lately owned by Horace Bennett. It was two stories in 
height, and fronted toward the south. "When it was first occupied, 
there were no desk, no pews, and but three or four glass windows-. 
Parson Sweat read his sermons over a chair, the congregation listen- 
ing to his fifteen minute discourse, on rough seats, made by placing 
planks or boards upon logs or rocks, which had been carried in for 
that purpose. At length a pulpit was put in, over which, like a mon- 
strous toadstool, hung the uncouth sounding-board. Square pews 


and galleries were necessary accompaniments. They were similar to 
those in the Baptist Church, two miles above. 

To this central locality, came the people from all parts of the 
town. Men and women came on horseback, " double-behind," while 
the young people and those unable to keep a horse came on foot, all 
unmindful of the weather. An aged ladyi told the writer that she 
used to walk from her father's on Shaw's ridge down to Parson 
Sweat's meeting-house, through rain and sunshine, heat and cold, and 
sit during the hour of service without minding it. In the coldest 
weather, there was no lire, and ofttimes, with wind whistling through 
the cracks, the rain or snow would beat in upon the people. Some 
of the more fortunate carried warming-pans or foot-stoves, but none 
escaped the hardships of those cold winters, if they ventured out to 

For years, only male voices were heard in singing. Early in this 
century Nathaniel Bennett, Timothy Shaw, John Frost, Benjamin 
Sweat, and Moses Sweat, were " chief singers," and Ebenezer Garey 
and Jeremiah Moulton players on the bass-viol. The voice of Rose 
Garey was the tirst voice of woman heard in public worship in the old 
Congregational meeting-house. 

In 1809, either because new glass was needed, or window-panes 
had been broken, money received was expended for putting in glass. 
So much injury was done on public days, town meeting days, or mus- 
ter days, that it was a matter of necessity for the parish to adopt 
means of protection. Accordingly, m 1811, Eufus Bennett was chosen 
agent to take charge of the meeting-house to prevent any damage be- 
ing done to it on public days. 

In 1813, suits were commenced by the assessors of the parish, 
against Solomon Welch, Aaron Gowen, and others, testing whether 
the parish could tax parties in town not belonging to any other so- 
ciety. After several years of expensive litigation, the assessors were 
sustained in their action in the premises. Hon. John Holmes and 
Hon. Cyrus King were counsel in these suits. In 1818, the parish 
voted to prosecute Holmes for money in his hands. As no further 
action was taken, we suppose the demand against him was cancelled. 
Parson Sweat's ministry closed with his life on the 30th of August, 

Rev. Moses Sweat, or Parson Sweat, as he was generally called, 
was a remarkable personality. Although not college-bred, he became 

1 " Aunt Nabby" Gowen. 


a linguist of liigh attainments, and at the age of tliirty-six was 
honored by Harvard College with the degree of Master of Arts. 
He was born in Kingston, N. H., on Sunday, December 23, 1754, 
the son of Benjamin and Abigail Sweat. His father was a farmer, 
and, for many years, one of the deacons of the Congregational 
Church, dying in 1787, in the eightieth year of his age. His mother 
was nearly ninety-one at the time of her death. The advantages of 
education received by him in boyhood were limited. He was obliged 
to assist his father on the farm, and permitted to attend public 
school only a short season of the year. He enjoyed the opportunity, 
however, of reciting to his father at stated hours of the day, when 
not pressed with work in the field or forest. There is a tradition 
that his brothers were inclined to shirk their lessons, and ofttimes 
induced him to recite for them while they did his work on the farm ; 
no irksome task for one eager for knowledge. He was fond of 
books, and took special delight in the study of tlie dead languages, 
in which he progressed quite rapidly under the instruction of Parson 
Moody, preceptor of Dummer Academy, Newbury, Mass. A farmer 
in early manhood, he taught school occasionally, in winter, and, it is 
said, kept up with a class in college, while farming and teaching. 

Of his early religious instruction and experience, we have no 
knowledge. In the twenty-fourth year of his age, on the 19th of 
July, 1778, he united with the Congregational Church of his native 
town, on profession of his faith. His own belief was that he was 
regenerated and called to preach, a belief which led him to prepare 
for the ministry by reading theology with Rev. Elihu Thayer, D.D., 
pastor of the church to which he belonged. 

On October 21, 1783, he married Hannah, daughter of Ensign Ed- 
ward Eastman, of Hawke (now Danville), with whom he lived thirty- 
nine years. They had five children, three sons and two daughters, 
viz. : Homer, born December 2, 1784 ; Hannah, May 6, 1789 ; Moses, 
July 9, 1792; Sarah, January 23, 1795; Benjamin, January 26, 
1799. His wife and children all survived him. 

Becoming pastor of the South Parish of Sanford in 1786, he began 
his ministerial labors, which lasted for more than a generation. Not 
only must sermons be written (two a week during his early minis- 
try) , church meetings held, and preparatory lectures delivered, but 
parochial visits among a people widely scattered in a large parish 
must be made. Wherever there was sickness, his voice was heard in 
prayer, and it was his duty to minister to the wants of the needy. 
For several years, his duties called him into the North Parish. Nor 


were these all. He took possession of the " ministerial lot," granted 
by the proprietors to the first settled Congregational minister, erected 
a small dwelling-house, and did the usual work of a farmer in a new 
settlement, clearing, fencing, and reducing the wild land to a state 
of cultivation. With this double duty to perform, there is no 
wonder that " he thought it hard to be a farmer and a minister." 

Interested in the common schools, and pre-eminently qualified "to 
inspect" them, he was always one of the committee for that purpose. 
In the winter of 1807, he taught school at South Sanford, proving 
himself a capable instructor. He had, at various times, private 
pupils, who desired to pursue the classics. They recited to him at 
his house, but frequently found him at work in his field, and there 
recited. Prominent among his pupils may be mentioned Usher 
Parsons, George Heard, and Ezra Thompson. 

Parson Sweat was pastor of the church thirty-six years, during 
which he labored among his people constantly with the exception of 
about one year. Ou account of iU health, some ten years subsequent 
to his settlement, he suspended labors about a year. He united two 
hundred and nine couples in marriage, attended two hundred and 
forty-seven funerals, baptized one hundred and twelve persons, many 
of whom were infants, received thirty-three into the church, and pre- 
pared nine hundred and forty sermons. His sermons may have num- 
bered more than that, but it is the number given in the inventory of 
his property at his death. He probably wrote more, for he exchanged 
but little. He held no prayer meetings, had no Sabbath School, but 
punctually held church meetings and preparatory lectures, and 
sacredly observed the Sabbath services of the sanctuary. 

The hard and constant labor to which he was subjected impaired 
his health, and undermined his constitution, and consumption grad- 
ually fastened upon his system. He preached his last sermon in the 
church on the last Sabbath in May, 1822, but attended one funeral 
after that. For days and weeks before his death he suffered great 
pain of body, yet his mind was unclouded and his spirit calm. He 
retained until the end the same cheerful disposition that characterized 
his life. Elder George Heard describes a visit to him about twa 
hours before the good man's death. "He asked me to shave him^ 
saying in his usual pleasant manner, ' Do not strike the bones.' 
After a short conversation, being in much pain, turning over in his 
bed, he asked to be excused from saying more." He died on Friday,. 
August 30, 1822. It was a beautiful afternoon upon which his nu- 
merous sorrowing friends assembled in the meeting-house, to pay 


their last tribute of respect to him whom they had so highly es- 
teemed and honored. The services were conducted by Eev. Messrs , 
Calef , of Lyman, Douglass of Alfred, Greenleaf of Wells, and Bil- 
liard of Berwick. Rev. Mr. Calef preached the funeral sermon. 
His remains were interred in the town burying ground about a mile 
below the Corner, where a plain slate headstone was set to mark his 

Temperate in his habits, he seldom used spirituous liquors, and did 
not pass the decanter when he had company. Sometimes, in haying 
season, he furnished his hands with liquor. He made use of much 
cider, with which his productive orchards furnished him. Owing to 
his hard labor upon his farm, he partook of great quantities of sub- 
stantial food five or six times a day. 

Parson Sweat was a good neighbor ; was a peace-maker ; was a 
kind husband and indulgent father. He was punctual in his busi- 
ness, and was shrewd and prudent in money matters. Moral in 
every respect, his example was a help to the community. Possessed 
of a vein of humor, and a ready gift of anecdote, he was a genial 
companion with all. 

By close application to study and untiring perseverance, often re- 
maining at his books until late in the night, Parson Sweat became 
conversant with eleven languages, most of which he could read with 
ease. In his small library of eighty volumes, there were works in 
eight different languages, in addition to a large Polyglot Bible, six 
volumes, containing eighth versions of the Scriptures. A favorite 
study was Euclid, which he regarded as the foundation of reason. 
His master's degree from Harvard, in 1790, was in recognition of 
his fine scholarly attainments and classical learning. 

One of the early presidents of Bowdoin College, Appleton, or 
Allen, having heard of Rev. Mr. Sweat, came up from Kennebunk 
with a friend to see him. It was in haying time, and the Parson 
was at work in his field. At the call of Mrs. Sweat, he made his 
appearance in tow breeches. Taking his guests into his house, he 
was asked by the President to read from his Polyglot Bible. He 
complied, and read with such ease, and showed so much knowledge 
of the several versions therein, that the astonished visitor remarked, 
'• It is a wonder that one of your education should settle down in 
such a place. You are buried alive." " It is better," replied Parson 
Sweat, " for a large man to get into a small field, than for a small 
man to get into a large field." The President then tried to purchase 
the Bible, but without success. " I can't sell my books," was the 


reply. " It would be a poor plan for a carpenter to sell the tools 
with which he worked. Without his tools he would be without em- 
ployment." President Appleton, on leaving, was .constrained to ex- 
claim, ' ' I don't know anything in comparison with that man ! " 

The Polyglot Bible was procured from London by Parson Sweat 
at a cost of about one hundred and fifty dollars, for which sum he 
toiled and kept school of winters. It was bequeathed to his son 
Moses, who probably sold it to Prof. Thomas C. Upham, and there- 
by it found its way into the library of Bowdoin College. 

Rev. Mr. Sweat's sermons were written in haste, but were " fault- 
less in style in every particular, even to punctuation." While he 
devoted about ten hours to writing a sermon, it is probable that his 
mind was busy during his hours of manual labor. ■' There was 
nothing impassioned about his discourses, but simply appeals to 
reason and common sense." In 1805, he published a discourse of 
about one hundred pages, duodecimo, entitled, "A Critical Investi- 
gation of the Mode of Baptism, as performed by the Primitive 
Churches," in which he traced out the words hapto and haptizo in sev- 
eral of the Oriental languages. It was a scholarly production, highly 
appreciated by the learned. The only other publication was a dis- 
course preached at Alfred, on the occasion of its separation from 
San ford. 

Parson Sweat was gifted in prayer, but nothing in exhortation. 
The fervency with which he prayed one Sabbath morning during a 
severe drought was long remembered. A deep impression was made, 
when, a little later, it rained powerfully. The devout felt that his 
prayer was answered when naught save the beating of the rain 
against the house was heard as the pastor read his sermon. 

So liberal was he in his views, that many r^arded him as a Uni- 
tarian, a suspicion, however, wholly groundless. 

Dr. Usher Parsons said of him that " in all the graces of a Chris- 
tian gentleman and model pastor," he never saw his equal. As long 
as the Congregational Church of Sanford exists, his name wUl be 
held in grateful remembrance.' 

On the 4th of April, 1823, the church voted unanimously to give 
Christopher Marsh, of Kennebunkport, a call to settle over the church, 
which he accepted. Rev. Mr. Marsh was ordained on June 4, and 
filled the pastorate four and a half years. During his ministry nine 

iln 1863, at the suggestion of Prof. Alpheus S. Packard, of Bowdoin College, the 
writer prepared for the Maine Historical Society a sketch of Parson Sweat's life, from 
which much of the foregoing has been taken. 


persons on profession and three by letter were added to the church, 
A Sabbath School was established the first year of liis pastorate, and 
subsequently Mrs. Marsh opened one at the Corner, over Morrill's 
store. The attendance was small, but increased when the advantages- 
of a small library became apparent. Through Rev. Mr. Marsh's per- 
sonal influence, " the church agreed," on the 10th of April, 1827. "to- 
meet weelcly for prayer at such places as should he agreed from time 
to time." This was the beginning of the weelily prayer meeting in 
Sanford. Mr. Marsh was dismissed at his own request, in December,. 
1827. It appears that he felt his salary was inadequate, and he saw 
no encouraging prospects for the future. He was destined, however, 
to minister again to the church some thirty years later. 

Elisha Bacon, a graduate of Bowdoin College, where he had been 
the classmate of Longfellow and Hawthorne, was the third pastor. 
He was ordained May 6, 1829, and was dismissed in September, 1834. 
It was during his pastorate that the temperance question agitated the 
church, and the town. Like his predecessor, he was a staunch tem- 
perance man, and did not believe in the then prevalent custom of 
using intoxicating liquors. The church became a temperance society, 
and none could become members without adopting the principles of 

Soon after Rev. Mr. Bacon's ordination, the society began to con- 
template building a new meeting-house at the Corner. The old house 
stood too far from the centre of business, and population. Several 
years before, during Rev. Mr. Marsh's ministry, a new school district 
had been formed at the Corner, and a school-house built, in Deacon 
Frost's field, opposite the present residence of Hon. Thomas Goodall. 
At that " Congregational school-house," as it was called, meetings 
were frequently held, and a Sabbath School formed in 1830, by Dea- 
con Stephen Dorman, and John Skeele. These facts, together with 
another important one, namely, that men of means and disposition to 
build lived at the Corner, induced many to favor the enterprise, and 
Rev. Mr. Bacon gave his assistance to it. The site selected was on 
the west side of the county road leading to Shapleigh, on a lot ad- 
joining Dr. Dow's. It was given by Deacon Frost, to belong to the 
society as long as a Congregational meeting-house stood thereon, but 
to revert to him or his heirs in case the house was removed or became 
other than a Congregational nleeting-house. Deacon Frost, "William 
Emery, Junior, John Storer, and Timothy Shaw, Senior, took hold of 
the work, and, in the summer and autumn of 1831, erected a neat 
and commodious place of worship. In due time it was finished, with 



steeple and vane surmounting a belfry. In the latter, a small bell 
was hung, the first in the town. This was purchased by subscription, 
large numbers contributing their twenty- five cents to help raise the 
required amount. The bell was cracked during a fire at the Corner, 
and was replaced by another of nine hundred pounds weight. The 
church was dedicated December 29, 1831. 

After Mr. Bacon came into town he taught a singing school and 
the singing in church greatly improved. The clarinet and violin were 
sometimes used. 

During the ministry of Mr. Bacon seventy-two persons were re- 
ceived into the church. At Springvale, considerable religious interest 
was manifest, and he assisted in conducting services in the " dry 
shed" at the print works, in 1831, and later in the church built there. 

For five years various attempts were made to obtain a minister. 
Rev. Josiah Carpenter supplying from 1835 to 1837, and calls were 
extended to Kev. Mr. Marsh, Rev. Jacob C. Goss, Rev. Mr. Bacon, 
Rev. Mr. Goss, a second time, and Rev. George W. Bourne, who ac- 
cepted. Meanwhile difficulties arose in the church and society in re- 
gard to a place for holding public worship. Those in the neighborhood 
of the two meeting-houses claimed that any pastor ordained or in- 
stalled should supply both, but as to time in each they could not 
agree. Some thought, even, that services should be held at the lower 
house all the time ; others, that the Corner being a central locality, 
and the people at Springvale having some claims, it would be better 
to give up the old meeting-house, and use the new one altogether. 
The parish could not settle the difficulties at their meeting in the 
spring of 1835, and in June the church called a council, which was 
likewise unable to adjust the trouble. 

Mr. Bourne had labored several weeks in the church before invited 
to settle. There was unanimity of feeling in both parts of the town, 
but means of support could not readily be raised, and a committee 
was appointed to ask aid of the Maine Missionary Society. Funds 
were soon forthcoming, and the way was opened for a settlement of 
Mr. Bourne. He was installed February 6, 1840. 

In 1840, the church took action again in regard to temperance, and 
voted that the church be a " Temperance Church." It was necessary, 
for intemperance was making sad work among the members. The 
pastor was appointed to draft a pledge, which members were required 
to sign. In 1842, the church voted " That when it can be procured, 
the pure juice of the grape be used at communion, instead of common 


Fifty-three persons were added to the church during Rev. Mr. 
Bourne's ministry. In 1842, the pastor was dismissed, and Rev. 
William Davenport was secured as stated supply for one year. Rev. 
Jacob C. Goss, after a long delay, accepted a call which was tendered 
him, and began to preach in November, 1843, although he was not 
installed until 1846. The church was strong, and the prospect of a 
continued prosperous condition was favorable. Services were held at 
the Corner, though some meetings were held in the new house, built 
in 1841, on the east side of the road, a few rods south of " Powers's 
Corner," and occasionally at the vestry at Springvale, built in 1844, 
a few rods above the store known as the " Factory Store." But the 
old trouble between the two sections broke out afresh. Six members 
living in the lower part of the town withdrew from the meetings, and 
contributed to the support of a minister of another denomination. A 
committee appointed to consider the matter effected an arrangement 
which averted further trouble for a time. In June, 1847, however, 
several members residing in the lower part of the parish, under the 
leadership of Rev. Clement Parker, then residing at Springvale, as- 
sumed to be the ' ' South Church of Sanford," chose a clerk and a 
deacon, and requested the "North Church" to concur with them in 
their opinion. As a result, a council was called, at which the ag- 
grieved parties were advised to ask for dismission, and organize a 
church regularly, and the church was further advised to encourage 
such organization. Following this advice, fourteen members asked 
to be dismissed from the church, and on November 9, with others, 
were organized as the South Congregational Church, Sanford. 

Rev. Mr. Goss terminated his labors August 21, 1850. From that 
time on, for many years, the church had no settled minister, but the 
pulpit was occupied most of the time by a stated supply; These in- 
cluded Rev. Albert Cole, 1851-1853 ; Rev. Stephen Bailey, 1853- 
1854 ; Rev. Edmund Burt, 1855 ; and Rev. George L. Becker, 1856- 
1857. Rev. Christopher Marsh, the second settled minister, became 
acting pastor early in 1858, and a great revival occurring during his 
ministry, thirty-two were received into the church. He preached his 
last sermon March 13, 1859, and died a few montns later. The pul- 
pit was then supplied by Rev. Theodore Wells, 1860-1862 ; Rev. 
JohnU. Parsons, 1864-1865 ; Rev. James Richards, D.D., 1869 ; Rev. 
William V. Jordan, 1870-1871 ; Rev. Elias Chapman, 1871-1874. 

At one time Rev. Mr. Bailey had some trouble with Samuel 
Tompson, who thereupon had his pew covered with a plank and the 
door nailed up. 


The meeting-house was thoroughly repaired outside and remodelled 
inside in 1871 and 1872, at an expense of about fourteen hundred 
dollars. The choir was directly behind the pulpit, the old seraphine, 
of Rev. Mr. Goss's pastorate, gave place to a small organ, and mod- 
ern pews, neatly carpeted, took the place of the old. The church was 
rededicated Wednesday, June 19, 1872. Rev. Albert Cole, of Cor- 
nish, preached the sermon, and an original hymn was written for 
the occasion by Miss Abbie G. Clark. 

After Loren F. Berry, a student of the Theological Seminary, New 
Haven, liad spent four months among the people, in 1876, Rev. 
Thomas N. Lord served as acting pastor from October, 1875, to July, 

In the spring of 1878, Henry J. Stone, a licentiate, began his la- 
bors, which continued until 1884. He occupied the pulpits of the 
two churches, at the Corner and South Sanford. On the 1st of July, 
1878, the meeting-house was destroyed by fire. The pulpit, chairs, 
Bible and a few cushions were saved. 

" The smoke had not ceased to ascend from the ashes of the Con- 
gregation alist Church, when it was declared that another must be 
built. The people met and chose a building committee, consisting of 
George Gowen, Octavius Allen, C. O. Emery, E. K. Bennett and H. 
J. Stone, advising them to build such a house as they could free from 
debt. The committee pushed their work vigorously. Many who had 
spent their younger days in our village remembered us in our distress, 
and rendered us valuable aid in the shape of funds. Among the 
most prominent were William Emery, of Alfred ; Messrs. StiUman B. 
and Frank A. Allen, Salter Emery, Albert D. Kilham, and Dr. Albert 
Day, of Boston ; Edwin Emery, New Bedford ; heirs of John Storer, 
Portland ; Miss Rebecca Weld, Lebanon. At home, there was scarcely 
a person, even to a child, who did not do something to help. While 
we were wonderfully cheered, and had received more than we dared 
to expect, yet we had not enough to place a bell in the tower. At 
this time, Mrs. Daniel P. Stone, of Maiden, Mass., made us a gener- 
ous offer of a nice new bell, if we would complete our church free 
from debt. The committee accepted the offer, and received a fine- 
toned bell, which weighed about fifteen hundred pounds. This, witht 
the mountings, cost over four hundred dollars. The windows, which 
are of ground and colored glass, were presented by the following 
parties: Our Sunday School, George H. Frost, Charles H. Frost,. 
Captain George Nasson, E. P. Kimball, William Miller, Chelsea, 
Friends, Alfred Congregational Sunday School, High Street Congre- 


gationalist church, Portland, and a United States Representative, who 
did not wish his name to appear, and at whose suggestion the names 
of Deacon "William L. Emery and William Emery, who had been 
prominently connected with the church, but have passed away, were 
put in place of bis. The pews were given mostly by members of 
the Congregationalist Churches of Maine. After about eighteen 
months of hard labor on the part of the committee, and helped by the 
noble efforts of the people, we have been able to secure a neat, com- 
fortable and pretty church, which we can dedicate to the worship of 
Almighty God, who has 'supplied all our needs according to His riches 
in glory by Christ Jesus,' and we are free from debt."^ 

It may be truly said, we think, that much credit is due to Mr. 
Stone, without whose constant labors and earnest solicitations the 
meeting-house would not have been built. While the church was in 
process of erection, services were held in Goodall's Hall, through the 
kindness of Hon. Thomas Goodall, and also in the school-bouse. The 
dedication services took place December 25, 1879, on which occasion 
Mr. Stone was also ordained to the ministry. The dedication sermon 
was by Rev. Jonathan E. Adams, D.D., of Bangor, and the prayer 
by Rev. B. P. Snow, of Alfred, while another original hymn by Miss 
Abbie G. Clark was sung. 

Rev. J. C. Osgood, the Freewill Baptist pastor of Spriugvale, sup- 
plied the pulpit in 1884-5 ; Rev. E. C. Cook, also a Freewill Baptist, 
1885-1887 ; Rev. W. G. Wade was acting pastor from April, 1887, 
to August, 1889; Rev. H. S. Ives, September, 1889, to September, 
1891 ; Rev. E. P. Allen, October, 1891, to February, 1893 ; Rev. F. 
A. Poole was pastor in 1893-4, for a few months prior to his ordi- 
nation acting as supply ; and Rev. C. L. Woodworth was pastor from 
November, 1894, to November 1, 1899. Rev. Andrew L. Chase, 
the present pastor, was installed January 31, 1900. 

During Rev. Mr. Cook's ministry, on July 19, 1886, the church 
celebrated the one hundredth anniversary of its organization with a 
centennial sermon by Mr. Cook. At the time there were forty-nine 
members, a total of two hundred and fifty-nine since the formation. 

There have been one elder and fourteen deacons : Elder, David 
Bean, 1786-1800. Deacons, Caleb Emery, 1786-1801 ; Samuel Nas- 
son, 1786-1800; James Garey, 1800-1824; Joshua Gatchell, 1801- 
1802 ; John Frost, Second, 1824-1839 ; Stephen Dorman, 1831-1837, 
1853-1884 ; Joshua Hobbs, 1839-1841 ; Obadiah Littlefield, 1839- 

» Bey. Henry J. Stone's report. 



1853; William L. Emery, 1841-1876; George Gowen, 1878-1895. 
The present deacons, -with dates of election, are : Freeman C. Wat- 
son, September 6, 1887 ; Edward H. Emery, March 4, 1889 ; Howard 
L. Thyng, June 11, 1895 ; John J. Merrill, January 12, 1897. 

Miss Ellen M. Emery is clerk of the church, and Freeman C. Wat- 
son, treasurer ; W. O. Emery is clerk of the parish, and Miss Inez 
M. Merrill, treasurer. The present membership of the church is one 
hundred and seventy-six. 

Fred W. Cousins is superintendent of the Sunday School. A 
Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor was organized Febru- 
ary 7, 1892, of which the present president is Mies Clara Burroughs. 

As has been shown, the departure from the long-established custom 
of holding meetings at the south part of the town, a portion of the 
time at least, resulted in the establishment of the South CongregaT 
tional Church in 1847. The members thereof asserted that they were 
the original church, and that those at the Corner had left them, and 
were the real seceders. This claim was not recognized by the church 
at the Corner, nor by a mutual council which was proposed for the 
settlement of all difficulties. In accordance with the recommendation; 
of that council, Joel Moulton, Joseph Young, John Parsons, Mary 
Cram, Mercy Moulton, Sarah Moulton, Ednah Young, Anna Bennett, 
Deborah Cram, Shuah Johnson, Margaret Johnson, Jerusha Moulton, 
Caroline E. Moulton, and Dorcas Clark asked for and received their 
dismission from the original body, in order to form the new clmrch at 
South Sanfoid. On November 9, 1847, a council, which was duly 
called, set apart these fourteen persons as a church by prayer and 
the expression of the fellowship of the churches. Rev. Clement Par- 
ker was installed as pastor. His ministry continued until 1859, with 
an intermission of one year which the pastor spent in Acton, and 
during which Rev. Isaac Weston was stated supply for a limited 
time. In 1858, feeling the infirmities of age. Rev. Mr. Parker re- 

Rev. Noah Cressey, of Portland, supplied the pulpit a part of the 
time, 1859-1860. Rev. Messrs. Daniel Kendrick and James Carru- 
thers, and others, supplied occasionally. Rev. Jonas Fiske was act- 
ing pastor from 1861 to 1863. For four years the church was without 
preaching, and then for three years had the services of theological 
students, a few months only, during each year. From April, 1870, 
to April, 1871, Rev. William V. Jordan supplied this church and that 
at the Corner. In 1872, Albert Bushnell, from Andover Seminary, 
in 1873, Albert H. Thompson, from Union Seminary, New York, and 


from May 1, 1874, to October, 1876, Kev. George S. Osborn, a 
Christian minister, were acting pastors. During the pastorate of Rev. 
Henry J. Stone at Sanford Corner, he also served the South Church. 
Of late years, services have been discontinued. 

Up to 1880, there had been forty-six members of the church since 
its organization. There have been three deacons, John Parsons, 
Ebenezer L. Hobbs, and James L. Tripp. 

The town was divided into two parishes by an act of the legisla- 
ture, approved March 5, 18.58, the parishes to be Ijnowu respectively 
as the North and South Congregational. The act provided that the 
ministerial fund should be equally divided between the two, and be 
held by boards of trustees to be invested in real estate for the exclu- 
sive support of a Congregational minister in each parish. The trus- 
tees for the North Parish were Timothy Shaw, John Powers, William 
Emery, Samuel Lord, and Samuel B. Emery; and for the South Par- 
ish, Nathaniel Bennett, Horace Bennett, Theodore Tripp, Stephen 
H. Moulton, and John Parsons. 

For years the two Congregational churches received aid from the 
Maine Missionary Society. 



Fr&ewill Baptists — Elder Stewart's Church — Methodists — Chris- 
tians — Adventists, — Catholic Churches. 

THE first Freewill Baptist Church was organized in 1810, in Ro- 
dolphus Young's house, on " Grammar Street." There were 
fourteen (or fifteen) members, one of whom, "William Tripp, became 
a Methodist minister, and died in Ripley, Maine. Humphrey Good- 
win, who had been ordained as an elder, three years before, became 
their pastor. There are no records of this church, but there are 
strong evidences of its organization, possibly as a branch of the 
Freewill Baptist Church of Shapleigh (Acton) . Its existence was 
not long continued, probably because when Elder Goodwin removed 
to HoUis from Acton, in 1814, he left them destitute of a leader, and, 
■was unable to return at stated intervals. 

In 1815, when a powerful revival occurred in Lebanon and Acton, 
^' Elder David Blaisdell was invited into Sanford from the latter 
place, and many were there converted, and a branch of the Lebanon 
■church was there constituted. "i Elder Blaisdell and his brother, 
Edward, came as evangelists, and held meetings in a school-house. 
According to Rev. C. E. Blake, the brothers Blaisdell came into town 
in 1817, and organized a branch church of fifteen members. A cer- 
tificate filed with the town clerk, on September 3, 1817, on behalf of 
persons desirous of avoiding payment of the legal ministerial tax for 
the support of a Congregational minister, shows that on that date, 
Francis Pugsley, Elias Littlefield, Solomon Littlefield, and Theodore 
Emery (clerk) , of Sanford, Benjamin Webber and Edward Standley, 
lof Shapleigh, and James Ridley and John Beedle, of Alfred, were 
members " of the religious society in sd. town of Sanford called by 
the name of the first freewill Baptist Church and Society in s'* town 
of Sanford." 

"Stewart's "History of the Freewill Baptists." 



The two Blaisdells, Henry Hobbs, and others, labored with con- 
siderable success among this scattered flock. Their meetings were 
held in private dwellings and school-houses, sometimes at a distance 
north of Springvale, in Alfred. Elder Ephraim Stincbtield, also 
preached occasionally for the " New Lights," and frequently spent a 
week or two in the Littlefield neighborhood. After sustaining the 
relation of a branch of the Lebanon church several years, the mem- 
bers assumed the functions of a separate church, August 29, 1829. 
The meeting for organization was held at the house of Elias Little- 
field, and Theodore Emery was chosen clerk. It is stated that the 
number of original members was fourteen, of whom Deacon Hiram 
Lord was the last survivor. From the records we can give but thir- 
teen names : Theodore Emery, John Bedell, Edward Standley, Jed- 
ediah Storer, Hiram Lord, Stephen Webber, Polly Emery, Betsey 
Emery, Molly Littlefield, Ruth Littlefield, Susan Chatman, Polly 
Bedell, Sarah Goodwin. It is possible that one name was omitted, 
and entered on the list after others had joined, and that this mem- 
ber was Polly Morrison. 

The following year the church sent Theodore Emery and Stephen 
Webber as messengers to the Parsonsfield Quarterly Meeting, held at 
Acton, by which they were cordially received, and the church in 
whose behalf they appeared, recognized as a duly organized body. 

Elder David Blaisdell ministered to the church from 1829 to 1833 ; 
at first one-fourth of the time, and later, one-eighth. During his 
ministry, meetings were held at the house of Elias Littlefield, and in 
a school-house at Springvale. In May, 1834, Elder Samuel L. Julian 
came from Limerick to reside at Springvale, and to labor half the 
time in the gospel. Under his direction new life was infused into 
the church. A covenant was adopted July 1, 1834, which, in its 
essential features, was retained for many years. 

In a few months the church grew strong in spirit, and on the 16th 
of November, 1834, " established a constant meeting of worship at 
Springvale on the Sabbath." Prior to this, however,, the church 
voted to build a house of worship, which was completed the follow- 
ing year, at a cost of twelve hundred dollars. This house was situ- 
ated on a rise of land, on the county road from Mount Hope to 
Alfred, on the east side of the Mousam River. It was dedicated 
August 13, 1835, Elder Arthur Caverno preaching the dedicatory 

Elder Julian went west as a home missionary, and was succeeded 
by Elder Samuel Burbank. In 1837, Elder David H. Lord began 



his labors with this church and people, and the following year a great 
interest was awakened. 

Notwithstanding the church had taken strong grounds in favor of 
temperance, and against the sale of intoxicating liquors, there ap- 
pears to have been some doubts as to the propriety of ministers ad- 
vocating temperance from the pulpit, or preaching against the use of 
ardent spirits. The church, however, took no step backward, but 
planted itself on higher ground. In 1842 a vote was passed endors- 
ing the position of clergymen in their stand for temperance. A new 
covenant was adopted in October, 1843, into which were incorporated 
anti-slavery sentiments. A committee, however, appointed to draft 
resolutions on the subject of anti-slavery, never reported. There 
was a steady growth of the church during several pastorates, al- 
though there were a number of setbacks. Trouble arose in regard to 
the dismissal of Elder N. K. George, but the breach was healed when 
a Quarterly Meeting council, consisting of Elders Theodore Stevens, 
E. A. Stockman, and G. W. Bean, met and advised the disaffected 

During the pastorate of Rev. A. J. Davis, the old meeting-house 
was replaced by a more commodious structure, costing seven thou- 
sand dollars. John Merrill, merchant, gave a bell weighing fifteen 
hundred pounds. That desirable gift was accepted at a public meet- 
ing of the society, held on March 31, 1866. After appropriate re- 
marks by Rev. Mr. Davis, Mr. Merrill was introduced. He remarked 
that, a good while before, he made up his mind that a man ought not 
to undertake what he could not accomplish. He could not make a 
speech, but he could give a bell, which he did cheerfully, this proviso 
only being made : " It should be rung and. tolled, when required, at 
the funeral services of any one, rich or poor, high or low, black or 

The following have served as pastors of the church : Elder David 
Blaisdell, 1829-1838 (or 4) ; Elder Samuel L. Julian, 1834-1836 ; 
Elder Samuel Burbank, 1836-1837 ; Elder David H. Lord, 1837- 
1840; Elder Alvah Buzzell, 1840-1842; Elder Theodore Stevens, 
1842-1845; Elder Gorham P. Ramsay, 1845-1847; Elder A. R. 
Bradbury, 1848-1849 ; Elder C. B. Mills, 1849-1851 ; Elder W. H. 
Waldron, 1852-1855; Elder Theodore Stevens, 1855-1857; Elder 
N. K. George, 1858-1860; Rev. Edwin Mason, 1860-1863 ; Rev. J- 
M. Brewster, 1863-1864; Rev. A. J. Davis, 1864-1868; Rev. J. H. 
Mason, 1868-1869 ; Rev. W. H. Yeoman, 1869-1875 ; Rev. C. E. 
Blake, 1875-1877; Rev. A. H. Hanscom, April, 1877-June, 1878; 


Rev. B. G. Blaisdell, August, 1878-April, 1882 ; Rev. F. P. "Worm- 
wood, October, 1882-April, 1883 ; Rev. J. C. Osgood, May, 1883- 
April, 1885 ; Rev. R. D. Frost,.June, 1885-April, 1886 ; Rev. A. M. 
Freeman, April, 1886-April, 1889 ; Rev. J. D. Waldron, April, 1889- 
April, 1893; Rev. B. M. Osgood, April, 1893-May, 1896; Rev. J. 
Manter, September, 1896-March, 1897; Rev. W. A. W. Hardey, 
April, 1897-September, 1898; Rev. E. M. Trafton, from December 
26, 1898, to the present time. 

The deacons have been as follows : Hiram Lord, 1836-1877 ; John 
Bedell, 1838-1866 ; Edwin J. Reed, 1864-1883 ; Silas B. Ridley, 
1877-1880; Howard Gowen ; Lyman Hooper, December 4, 1881, to 
present time ; Ephraim Mills, 1892-1895 ; Joseph Ridley, November 
2, 1897, to present time. 

The present church officers include : Clerk, Frank Low ; executive 
committee. Deacon Joseph Ridley, Freeman Goodwin, and Joseph 
Howe ; superintendent of Sunday School, F. H. Dexter ; president 
of Christian Endeavor Society, Miss Fannie Hobbs. The church 
membership is one hundred and forty-three, and that of the Sunday 
School, one hundred and forty. 

In 1830 or 31, John Chadwick built a small meeting-house on the 
hill back of Captain Murray's house, which was afterwards used as 
a Congregational vestry. Elder Stewart of North Berwick preached 
in this meeting-house, and a church was there formed. The only 
record that we haVe been able to find in regard to it is the following 
vote from the First Baptist Church records, of date of December 3, 
1831 : " Voted, to exclude Deacon John Libby and wife, and Na- 
thaniel More and wife from the fellowship of this church, as they 
have withdrawn themselves by joining Springvale church some 
months before." 

We infer from a vote of the Congregational Church, September 
22, 1811, that Elder "Warren Bannister of the New England Metho- 
dist Episcopal Conference was in town, making efforts to form a 
church of his denomination. It seems to have been of no avail. In 
1834, when Rev. Nathan D. George came into town, he found a 
small class formed at Springvale by Rev. J. "W. Atkins, preacher in 
charge at Alfred. As long as the class had an existence, the Spring- 
vale Methodists remained a part of the Alfred charge, and received 
the ministrations of the Alfred pastor every fourth Sunday for two 
years. Rev. Mr. George was a shoemaker by trade, but was a 
licensed local preacher when he came into town. He worked half of 
the time at the bench, and devoted the rest to the church in embryo. 


In his work he was ably assisted by Ichabod Fi'ost, Dr. Jefferson 
Smith, Jotham Wilson, William Lord, and a Mr, Wheeler. In 1835- 
they built a small meeting-house on the south side of the county 
road to Lebanon, on Mr. Frost's land, which was used as a place of 
worship for some years. Rev. Mr. George moved away in 1836, and 
the class began to weaken, and finally disbanded. In 1848, the 
meeting-house was used for a private school, taught hy Rev. Ammi 
R. Bradbury. A few years later, it was moved a few rods toward 
the east, used for a carriage manufactory, and burned in 1852. 

The beginning of the present Methodist Episcopal Church was on 
June 27, 1887, when the first class meeting was held in the home of 
Mrs. Edna Whidden, on School Street. Calvert Longbottom was 
chosen leader. The class had preaching for the first time on Sunday, 
October 16 of that year, when Rev. Gilbert I. Lowe of Milton Mills, 
N. H., conducted services in Goodall's Hall. Other clergymen of 
the denomination followed him, and the first Quarterly Conference 
was held January 22, 1888, with the presiding elder of the Portland 
District, Rev. W. S. Jones, in the chair. The church was organized, 
and the following members were received by cards : Sarah W. Gow- 
en, Mrs. Edna Whidden, Mary A. Whitaker, John J. Merrill, Mrs. 
John J. Merrill, Rose (Littlefleld)Pike, Calvert Longbottom, and 
John Potter. Messrs. Longbottom and Merrill were elected stewards ; 
Sarah W. Gowen, recording steward ; and Mary A. Whitaker, treas- 
urer. May 16, 1888, Rev. Gilbert I. Lowe was appointed pastor, and 
served the church for two years. The room underneath Goodall's Hall 
was fitted up and loaned to the church by Hon. Ernest M. Goodall, 
and here the Methodists worshipped until December, 1889, when the 
Good Templars' Hall in the Nowell block was occupied. Subsequently 
services were held in the old Baptist church on Church Street, then 
called Jones's Hall. 

Rev. John M. Woodbury was appointed pastor May 4, 1890, and 
during the summer and fall the present handsome and convenient 
church structure on Bodwell Street was built. It was occupied for 
the first time on Sunday, September 28, 1890, Presiding Elder Jones 
preaching in the afternoon, and Rev. Henry E. Allen, of Concord, 
N. H., in the evening. The church was not formally dedicated until 
the 16th of April following, on which occasion Rev. J. O. Knowles, 
D.D., of Worcester, Mass., preached the dedicatory sermon. Three 
hundred dollars were raised by subscription during the afternoon 
and evening services. 

On May 3, 1891, Rev. George F. Millward was appointed pastor, 


and served the church for five years. During his pastorate, October 
19, 1892, the Millward Chapter, No. 8942, of the Epworth League, 
was organized. The present president is Mrs. Violet McCrellis. 
April 13, 1896, Rev. Thomas Whiteside was appointed pastor of the 
church, and during his ministry the parsonage, a two-story building 
at the rear of the church, on Bodwell Street, was erected. 

The present pastor. Rev. Alphonso K. Bryant, was appointed to- 
this charge on May 1, 1898. In the first year of liis pastorate the 
church building was raised, and a basement constructed, in which 
pleasant and convenient vestries were finished off for the Sunday 
School and Epworth League. Extensive repairs were likewise made 
in the auditorium, the total cost being over one thousand dollars. 

The church officers now serving include : Recording steward and 
treasurer, George Harding; district steward, Dr. R. S. Gove; treas- 
urer of trustees, Calvert Longbottom ; class leader, John "Wadsworth ;, 
superintendent of Sunday School, Leroy D. Glass. 

The Sanford and Lebanon Christian Church was organized in 1832^ 
by Elder Paul Reynolds, of Acton, who was pastor for several years. 
A meeting-house was erected in the Deering neighborhood at a cost 
of one thousand dollars, and dedicated June 12, 1850. The sermon 
was preached by Rev. Mr. Pike of Newburyport, Mass. Among the 
pastors have been Rev. Messrs. Thomas Bartlett, Levi Eldridge (who 
was in town in 1844), Charles E. Goodwin (in town in 1854), Lem- 
uel Goodwin, Samuel McCann, Josepli Whitney (in town in 1863), 
George S. Osborn, and J. H. Mugridge, who began his work in 
Sanford in 1872. 

The church has been without a settled paster for more than twenty 
years, although there is occasional preaching by pastors of other 
Springvale churches. In the Year Book of the Christian denomina- 
tion, the church is still borne on the rolls, with George L. StiUings 
as clerk, and is credited with forty-six members. 

Advent meetings have been held in Springvale, more or less, for 
thirty years. No church edifice has ever been erected. A church of 
twenty-six members was organized June 16, 1895, in an unused 
school-house on Mill Street, with Elder C. M. Willand as pastor, Ben- 
jamin B. Hill and Leroy P. Goodwin, deacons, and Moses E. Lowd, 
church clerk. There is no settled pastor at present. 

Up to the year 1887 there is no record of Catholic service in San- 
ford,' the spiritual needs of the few Catholic families being with those 

iThe major portion of the account of the Catholic Churches was written by Rev. John 
J. McGiunis. 


of the Springvale Catholics, looked after by priests residing in nearby 
places, particularly Rochester, N. H., and Westbrook, Maine. In 
1887 about twelve French-Canadian Catholic families had settled in 
Sanford. Already a few English-speaking families had preceded 
them. For these mass was celebrated in the home of Mr. Henry 
■Gautier on Main Street. About this time Rev. Moise Denoncourt 
became pastor at Springvale. The Sanford people attended services, 
in common with the people of Springvale, in a hall at the latter vil- 
lage. Rev. Alexandre Dugree succeeded to the pastorate of Spring- 
Tale, in due time built a church, and there the people from Sanford 
•and Springvale continued to worship in common. 

Rev. Father Dugree began his pastorate in February, 1889. The 
Church of Our Lady of Lourdes, on Pleasant Street, was opened for 
services in the fall of that year. On the 30th of June, 1890, it was 
dedicated by the Rt. Rev. James A. Healy, D.D., bishop of Portland, 
who preached the dedicatory sermon in both French and English. He 
was assisted in the services by Fathers Linehan, of Portland, Bradley, 
-of Rochester, Gorman, of Brunswick, Decelle, of Saccarappa, and 
Harrington and Bergeron, of Biddeford. In 1894, Father Dugree built 
a parochial residence near liis church. The entire value of the church 
property in Springvale is estimated at six thousand dollars. 

In 1891 the number of Catholic families in Sanford was about 
thirty. Provision had to be made for services in the village. Father 
Dugree purchased the old Baptist Church on Church Street, fitted it 
up for Catholic worship, and there the little congregation, for the 
first time gathered together, began ^to hold parish services. The 
ohurch took the name of St. Ignatius, Martyr. The number of Cath- 
olics increasing. Father Dugree thought it well to separate Sanford 
from Springvale, and a petition to that effect was sent to Bishop 
Healy. The petition was favorably received, and Rev. M. J. Healy 
came as the first resident pastor, in 1892. Father Healy began the 
work of organizing the people into a parish body, holding regular 
services every Sunday, establishing a Sunday School, and forming 
societies to attach the people the more strongly to the church. He also 
purchased a house on Elm Street to be used as a residence by the 
pastor. Father Healy remained as pastor until July, 1895. During 
his pastorate the work of formation was done. The societies flour- 
ished. The Catholic families numbered about one hundred. 

In July, 1895, Rev. John J. McGinnis came from St. Mary's 
Church, Bangor, where he had been assistant, to assume charge of 
the parish at Sanford. The work of organization continued. The 


societies established were kept up, and provision made by the estab- 
lishment of a private school, for the instruction of the children both 
during the day and in the evening. In the course of a few months 
the debt on the old church was paid off. The arrival of new families 
continued, and the two morning services hardly suflSced for the ac- 
commodation of the worshippers. 

In March, 1897, the bishop transferred Father McGinnis to the 
parish at North Whitefield, Maine, and made Father Dugree resident 
pastor of Sanford, the depression in the cotton industry at Springvale 
having driven many of the Catholic families to look for employment 
elsewhere. In October, 1897, Father Dugree's health failed, and he 
was obliged to seek rest and change in Florida. He resigned the care 
of the Sanford church, but retained his pastorate at Springvale. 

Father McGinnis was recalled to Sanford. The need of a more 
commodious church had become apparent. After long searching for 
a suitable location, the Increase S. Kimball place, between upper 
Main Street and the river, was purchased September 15, 1898, the 
house to be used as a parochial residence, and the lower end of the 
lot for a church site. "Work on a church with brick basement and 
wood superstructure, from plans by F. H. and E. F. Fassett, archi- 
tects, of Portland, was begun immediately. The building was finished 
and the basement made ready for occupancy February 1, 1899. On 
that day, the feast of the patron of the parish, St. Ignatius, Martyr, 
the church was solemnly blessed by Rt. Rev. Bishop Healy, who 
was assisted by Rev. T. P. Linehan of Biddeford, Rev. Fathers M. 
C. McDonough, E. F. Hurley, John O'Dowd, and D. J. O'Brien, of 
Portland, and Rev. J. W. Houlihan, of Dexter. The basement seats 
four hundred. With the two morning services, it no longer suffices 
for the convenience of the parishioners, and the upper church is now 
being made ready for use. The main church will seat five hundred 
on the floor and about one hundred in the gallery. 

The parish now numbers about two hundred and twenty Catholic 
families. The attendance at the two morning services is seven hun- 
dred and fifty, and the Sunday School attendance, one hundred and 
eighty. The old church building on Church Street is now being used 
for school purposes, and there one hundred and twenty children are 
receiving instruction under the care of the Misses Clara and Margaret 

Rev. Father Dugree, in addition to his work at Springvale, has 
charge of the missions at Milton Mills, Kennebunk and Kennebunk- 
port, having the spiritual direction, in all, of about five hundred 



The First Schools — Town Votes — Money Eaised — Teachers — 
Mode of Teaching — School-Houses — Districts and Divisions 
— " Masters" Clark, Hamilton, Gowen, Thompson, Shaw, and 

THE Importance of public instruction was early recognized in the 
" Colony of the Massachusetts Bay." The necessity of free 
schools was felt, and their preserving influence acknowledged; and 
early laws relative to the establishment of schools were passed. These 
laws were in force during the growth of the plantation of Phillipstown, 
though not binding upon the inhabitants thereof, until they were in- 
corporated into a town. The early settlers, however, appreciated, in 
some degree, at least, the advantages of learning, and were not back- 
ward in fostering a spirit of improvement. If the parents among the 
first settlers could read and write, they taught their children them- 
selves, as far as their knowledge and means went. When several 
families had settled sufficiently near together, the best educated per- 
son in the neighborhood would open a school for a few weeks, at his 
own house or at the house of a neighbor, and give rudimentary in- 
struction. This was the only means available for several years, to 
teach the young. With few books, and those for the most part unin- 
teresting, and with home-made ink and quills, the primitive methods 
were not fruitful in great results ; yet there were learned the lessons 
of perseverance, self-reliance, and independence, which gave strength 
in manhood when emergencies arose. 

In 1768, the year of incorporation, the selectmen state, in a peti- 
tion to the Governor, council, and house of representatives, that the 
town " is destitute of a school-master which by law they are now 
obliged to be provided with," but no action in regard to the matter 
appears to have been taken that year or the next, to comply with the 
requirements of the statutes. The earliest votes recorded were passed 
June 12, 1770, when the town " Voted to hier a School-master three 
months," and appointed Naphtali Harmon, Jonathan Johnson, and 
John Stanyan as a committee for that purpose ; the town also "Voted 



to fix the Schoole-house comfortable to meet in and that mr Samuell 
Willard and mr William Bennet and mr James Geary be a Commity 
to fix the Schoole-house." From this it appears that a school- house 
had been erected, but whether by individuals in their private relations 
before the incorporation, or by the town in its corporate capacity, we 
have no means of knowing. 

In 1771, a committee, consisting of William Bennett, Ephraim 
Low, and Jonathan Johnson, was appointed to hire a school-master 
for three months, and the year following twenty pounds were raised 
for a school. At the annual meeting in March, 1773, the following 
votes were passed : " Voted to Rais Sum money. Voted to Rais 
twenty Pounds of Money. Voted that the said sum be for the use of 
a School. Voted that the Selectmen be a Committy to Hier a min- 
ister and schoolmaster." Three years intervened between these votes 
and the next recorded in regard to schools. In 1776, the people voted 
not to have a school, but the next year raised forty pounds for the 
use of a school, and left it with " the selectmen to appoint a place 
of keeping the schools." In 1778, one hundred pounds lawful money 
were raised for a similar object, and Samuel Emmons was chosen "to 
join with the selectmen to provide the places to keeping schools 
at." At an adjourned meeting, however, one half of the money 
raised for schools was " dropped ." No money was raised the next 
year, though it was " Vof^ to leave it under the Direction of the Se- 
lectmen Chosen as a Committee to Provide a school and the Places 
of keeping." From these votes it would seem that more ttian one 
place was required for accommodating the pupils, and we infer that 
schools were established in different jjarts of the town. 

We know of a certainty that a school-house at South Sanford had 
been occupied after 1770, and we learn from Dr. Parsons that Mrs. 
Ruth Hibbard, widow of Daniel Hibbard, and her daughter Dolly, 
taught about that time (1770) in the Ezekiel Eastman house, just 
above the site of Alfred Corner. The subjoined order shows that the 
scholars at Mouse Lane were provided with a school-teacher in 1780 : 

" Sandford October ye 3"^ 1780. 
"to You Slectmen of Sanford Gentlemen We the Scribers do 
Hearby Send you these few Lins to notifi you that we Have Hired 
thankfuU Taylor to Keep School as Much as comes to one Hundred 
ninty Five pound and we would be Glad if you will S^e it paid 

" Joshua Goobwin Daniel Gray 
" John Gray." 



According to a vote of Marcb 7, 1780, school was to be taught six 
months, and nine hundred pounds were raised for school and town 
charges. At a later day, six hundred pounds additional were raised. 
In. 1781, " Voted and raised £43 14s for schools to be paid in silver 
or paper equal thereto." 

Tlie second school-house was built in the North Parish, and was 
standing in 1787 ; for the warrant for a town meeting to be held 
December 10 of that year designated the school-house in that parish 
as the place of meeting. It is probable that the building was erected 
in 1782, soon after the town was divided into two parishes ; for, prior 
to 1783, " the school-house" was designated, several times at least, 
as the place of meeting, but in that year, and in several years fol- 
lowing, as if by way of distinction, " the school-house in the South 
Parish " was specified as the place of assembling. 

About the time of the organization of the two parishes, the town 
contained one hundred families or householders, and was required by 
law to " set up " and maintain a grammar school. Accordingly, a 
grammar school was established, and Josiah Clark, of Wells, engaged 
to take charge of the same, and give instruction. He was, undoubt- 
edly, the first master employed by the town, and was " of good con- 
versation, well instructed in the tongues," but whether always a 
" discreet person," and " sober," may be questioned ; for the masters 
of his time (and he was not an exception) were not morally sensi- 
ble of the degrading influence of intoxicants, and did not live in a 
state of constant sobriety. It is known that " Master" Clark taught 
(probably his first school in town) in 1783, was in town in 1784, 
had wages due in 1788, was taxed in 1789, and taught In the North 
Parish. He had considerable intellectual ability, but was lacking in 
energy. He had a fund of stories which he related to his scholars, 
and of descriptions of all parts of the globe with which he enter- 
tained them, for, although a graduate of Harvard College, he had 
thereafter shipped on a whaling voyage, and had followed the sea 
some ten or twelve years. In his later days, he was fond of repeat- 
ing hymns. " Master" Clark died in Waterborough, November 6, 
1819. During his residence in Sanford he laid claim to the lot, given 
by the proprietors, and known as the " school lot," because he was 
the first grammar school-master. He finally sold all his right and 
title to the lot to William Emery. 

In the North Parish, Dolly McDonald, or McDaniel, succeeded 
Mrs. Hibbard and her daughter. "The earliest school-master was 
John Dennie, grandson of Rev. Dr. Coleman, of^Boston, who taught 


one session among the Gileses." i He preceded " Master" Clark in 
that part of the town. 

In 1784, forty-five pounds were raised for schools, and it was 
" Voted to district the money that is for a school." " Schools were 
to be kept in each district long enough to take up the money in said 
district." It does not appear that any action was taken on the fifth 
article of the warrant for the annual town meeting, namely: "To 
See if the town will take the School Lot in the South Parish and 
Appropriate the Same to the Use of a School." In 1785, seventy 
pounds lawful money were raised for a school or schools, and it was 
" Agreed upon and Vot* that the Selectmen are Chosen to Regulat- 
ing the School or Schools in this town." In 1787, the inhabitants 
" Voted not to raise any money for schools, but to pay it out of the 
money in the bank," and also not to sell the school lot. 

The following year it was decided to "Destrick" the schools, and 
in April it was " Vof* the first Destrict for Schools in the South 
Parish Shall have amendment that is ally^ Inhabitants on the Eastern 
side of mousam River Shall be Sot off by them Selves." About that 
time it was "Agree'* upon and Vof the Selectmen Shall Prosecut 
Mr Jon"' Tebbets constable if he dont pay Master Clark." For 
several years, one hundred pounds per annum were appropriated for 
schools. In 1789 there appears to have been some trouble over the 
school in " the Gore," and it was voted that " the Selectmen are to 
overhaul y^ school money to see where the Inhabitants on the Gore 
got there part." In 1790 it was voted to district the two parishes. 

Though the school-house in the South Parish served the threefold 
purpose of a school-house, a town-house, and a meeting-house, it 
was wholly under the control of the parish ; but having completed a 
meeting-house, the society voted May 28, 1792, " to give up the old 
school-house to the main district to move it where they see fit." It 
was probably moved to Powers's corner, and later was bought by 
John Bennett, who moved it and lived in it on the county road lead- 
ing over Mount Hope, only a short distance from the old meeting- 
house. In May, 1793, it was " Vot"^ that the Shackers Shall have 
there School money by themselv," thus virtually making a district of 
that young and peculiar community. 

Some of the school-masters referred to by Dr. Parsons as having 
taught prior to 1800, John W. Parsons, Joseph Emerson, John Giles, 
Rev. John Turner, Daniel Smith, Robert Harvey, and Robert Jen- 
kins, may have taught prior to 1794 ; and there is a possibility that 

• Parsons'e" Centennial History of Alfred." 


the school-house, used for town purposes as early as 1787, was " the 
old frame house first raised in Alfred by Datoiel Lary," and " finally 
moved to the Corner, where the brick hotel built by C. GriflSn stood, 
and was used many years as a school-house." 

School matters seem to have been in a state of constant agitation 
for ten years, and the best means to be employed to accommodate 
the people was frequently discussed, for every tax payer and every 
head of a family desired that no other resident have greater advan- 
tages than he. It therefore required tact on the part of those having 
a controlling influence to arrange the schools to the satisfaction -of 
the majority. The custom that had prevailed for several years, of 
districting the scheols annually, seems to have given way to a better 
method inaugurated in 1796, when, at the annual town meeting, a 
special committee was appointed to consider the alteration of the 
school districts, and other school matters in general. This committee 
reported, among other things, that the schools in the future be under 
the direction of a committee, to consist of seven members, who 
should be " men of learning," chosen annually in March or April. 
This committee, whose functions corresponded with those of the 
school committee of the present day, was to serve gratuitously, 
" Said Sarvice to be performed only for the Good of the Youth in 
Said Town So that they may have Learning, which is the support 
of Republican Government." The report was accepted, and the 
first school committee was chosen, consisting of the selectmen with 
Rev. Moses Sweat, Caleb Emery, Major William Frost, and Joshua 

Thus far schools had been maintained in different parts of the 
town for the accommodation of the several neighborhoods, but only 
one permanent place, the parish school-house, had been provided. 
Dwelling-houses had been secured, from time to time, in the best 
room of which, or in some unfurnished apartment, the scholars met. 
for daily instruction. These temporary rooms were so inconvenient, 
that it became necessary to have better accommodations. Conse- 
quently, in March, 1797, the people, in town meeting assembled, 
' ' Voted that Each School Destrict Build a Comfortable School house 
in the most proper place for Keeping the School in their Destrict." 
It was about this time, probably, that Major Samuel Nasson gave a 
piece of land for a school-house lot. The frame of a house was- 
raised, but, owing to some trouble, was not boarded. The house oc-. 
cupied so maay years, near the Baptist meeting-house, and after its 
removal, at the Corner, was built soon after. 


On the 8th of March, 1798, seventeen persons residing in the 
vicinity of Linscott's mill petitioned for a new school district, and 
the district at Mouse Lane was accordingly divided. The first notice 
that we find of a district at what is now Springvale is in 1806. The 
school-house built that year stood at the forks of the road leading 
from the Province mill to Beaver Hill and to the Littlefield neighbor- 
hood. The next school-house was built on the western side of the 
Mousam, and was burned December 11, 1837. Betsey, daughter of 
Dr. Linscott, taught at one time in the former, and Mehitable Clark 
and Theodore "Willard were among the teachers in the latter. 

The town records for more than twenty years contain but few ref- 
erences to schools. The report of 1796, so far as it related to a 
school committee of seven, was entirely ignored after two years, and 
only six times prior to 1820, was any committee chosen. That report 
was not binding any longer than the town accepted it, and it was op- 
tional with all towns until after the separation to appoint a school 
committee, or leave the care of the scliools to the selectmen. Appro- 
priations, varying somewhat, liowever, were annually made. 

We have, fortunately, the recollections of a few scholars of those 
early days, and are able to give a brief description of the schools of 
the olden time. 

" The first school that I remember to have attended was kept in 
one room of my father's house, and that unfinished. For seats we 
had blocks of wood with planks laid across ; for writing desks, one 
large rough bench somewhat like those our carpenters use, only not 
quite so steady and well finished. The teacher had but one arm, and 
that was his left. The next one of which I liave any remembrance, was 
a mile away. It was kept in a small, unfinished attic with two small 
windows, and was furnished like the former room. It was in the 
summer, and the room was so close and warm that I played truant 
whenever I could. The teacher was a nervous man — we never had 
any female teachers — so nervous that when he punished one of his 
scholars, he became much excited, turned all sorts of colors, and fi- 
nally said, ' Come up here old times and taste of it.' In school and 
out, he thereafter went by the name ' old times.' When I was about 
ten or twelve years old, I Went one winter near the old Baptist meet- 
ing-house. That school was also in a dwelling-house (Eleazar Chad- 
bourn's) . It was kept in a back room about fifteen feet by eight. 
In one corner was a bed, and all the best clothing of the family, to- 
gether with the week's ironing, was hung round the walls. Our 
books were the testament and the spelling book ; our writing books 


consisted of a sheet of paper, each, folded once ; our pens were made 
of goose quills. If we got two or three months' schooling in a year, 
we thought ourselves well off. I attended about six weeks in a 
school-house. "1 

One of the old-time masters, at South Sanford, was Henry Hamil- 
ton, Senior. He was a Scotchman by birth, tall, spare and with a 
palsied hand. He lived on a farm, near Parson Sweat's, and at such 
a distance from the school-house as to prevent his going home and 
returning during the usual intermission at noon. He was wont to 
resort to the tavern, probably Colonel Emery's, for his dinner. It 
did not vary in kind, though it did frequently in quantity, and yet 
he never tired of it. A gill of rum constituted his dinner, a glass, 
half a dinner. He was always served with it. " Master" Hamilton 
pretended to know much about law, and often tried cases in school, 
some of which continued nearly iialf a day. Among the boys that 
attended his school were Stephen "Willard, William Taylor, and Wil- 
liam Emery. One dayduring the progress of a spelling match, Willard 
crowded Emery against Taylor, who retaliated by striking Emery. 
The result was an out-of-door fight, in which Emery got the better of 
Taylor, who came off with a bloody nose. A trial was at once ordered. 
The master sat as judge. After the witnesses had been heard, sen- 
tence was pronounced and summarily executed. Taylor feruled Emery 
in the presence of the school, and then Emery feruled Taylor. 

Some of "Master" Hamilton's punishments were severe; occa- 
sionally they were peculiar. For instance, one unruly girl was kept 
some time with her head between the master's knees, that she might 
be humbled and brought into subjection. The school- house in which 
he taught was furnished with long, narrow tables, or desks, and weak 
benches that creaked and trembled under their restless load. The 
girls occupied the seats on one side, and the boys, those on the other. 
Beading, writing, arithmetic, and spelling were taught. 

" Aunt Nabby " Gowen informed the writer that Mrs. Esther, wife 
of Ephraim Low, and " Master " Ezra Thompson taught in a house 
on Shaw's ridge, where boards on rocks were used for seats. The 
first " Grammar Street " school-house stood in a field a short distance 
from the Samuel Shaw house. " Master " Thompson taught there 
many terms, and had the Gowens, Shaws, Thoinpsons, Willards and 
Lows for pupils. The building, which, when used for school pur- 
poses, was a rough unfinished affair, was occupied temporarily, by a 
family in 1819, and took fire and burned down. 

1 Belated by Mrs. Sophia Webster, in 1857. 


" Master " William Gowen began to teach in town about 1800, and 
continued his -work in several districts for some thirty years in winter^ 
though mostly in the school-houses near the Baptist meeting-house. 
Often there were a hundred scholars, from the abecedarian to men 
and women grown. As there were but few printed arithmetics, he 
carried most of his pupils, in his early schools, through the funda- 
mental rules, by putting examples dowu on a piece of slate, and giv- 
ing the rules orally. At the same time, he gave to the young men who 
so desired, lessons in wood and land surveying, teaching them to 
make, from the wood pile at the door, with axe and jack-knives, the 
instruments with which they worked. He delighted in astronomy^, 
and studied it with Ms older scholars, as far as his limited means 
would allow, drawing diagrams showing the positions of the planets 
with chalk on his kitchen floor by firelight. He frequently made 
ciphering books for his pupils, some of which, preserved for more than 
two generations, were unfaded and readable as print, though he made 
his ink of maple bark and copperas, and his pens of goose quills. ^ 

Rev. Moses P. Webster thus writes : "I remember when I began 
to attend school. The school-house, near the Baptist meeting-house, 
was then an old and somewhat dilapidated building, with a large fire- 
place on one side, and the seats all on the other. In the winter, we 
were either nearly frozen with the cold, or scorched with the heat. 
The district then included nearly half the town, with about one hun- 
dred scholars in attendance, many of them men and women grown. 
Some of the young men would weigh more than two hundred pounds, 
and we should call them now rather a rough, though generally, a 
good natured and peaceably disposed set of boys. The school in 
winter was often taught by ' Master Bill ' Gowen, as he was called. 
He was very easy, and had but little government, and the school was 
quite noisy." (Another says: "He was stern and unsparing of 
the rod in school government.") "Yet somehow he was apt to teach, 
and would make the scholars learn. But one winter I recollect that 
a young lawyer from Alfred, by the name of Goodenow, and I think 
afterward Judge Goodenow, was engaged to teach, and he could do 
nothing with them ; and so, after a week or two, while I was reading 
in the old ' American Preceptor,' he told me to stop, saying, ' The 
school is dismissed,' and then caught his hat and cane, and ran as if 
for life, with the whole school hooting at his heels. The district was 
afterward divided into six districts." 

Some of the most popular and competent masters of the early days 
gave private lessons, among them Parson Sweat. From him, William 

' MlsB Carrie Hatch. 


Gowen learned grammar, that he might give instruction therein. At 
one time, Ezra Thompson spent two evenings a -week with him in the 
study of Latin and Greek, — he began the latter at the age of fifty- 
two years — that he, too, might disclose their rich and varied treasures. 
" Master " Thompson, in turn, had private pupils in surveying and 

In the Deering neighborhood, Abraham Carroll and Joseph Dam 
were early teachers. At a later period, John Hanson, Daniel Gowen, 
William B. Merrick, Tobias Emery, and Ivory M. Thompson taught 
there. Evat Willard taught iii the Samuel Nowell district in 1829. 
When he was examined, John Hanson, of the committee, asked him 
a ninepence for examining him. Willard taught at the Corner in 
1836, and again in 1860. William C. Allen, afterward Judge of 
Probate, was employed to teach in the school-house above Naphtali 
Chadbourn's. He was carried out by the large boys, and compelled 
to give up the school. George W. Hussey and Daniel Gowen also 
taught in this district. The '' Grammar Street " school district was 
long noted for the large number of teachers brought up within its 
limits, or employed therein. The names of Ezra Thompson, Timo- 
thy Shaw, John Shaw, Theodore Willard, Daniel P. Shaw, Hosea 
Powers, John Thompson, Robert Tripp, George Chadbourn, William 
Gowen, James H. Chadbourn, Joseph L. Tripp, N. Powers Chad- 
bourn, Lewis W. Gowen, Sally Powers, Clarissa Powers, Joanna 
Thompson, Elizabeth Chadbourn, Lucy H. Chadbourn, Betsey Shaw, 
Judith Ann Shaw, and Laura J. Shaw, are a guaranty that the repu- 
tation of the district was well merited. In that district, schools were 
taught in Daniel Garey's house, Ezra Thompson's, and John Thomp- 
son's. " Master " Timothy Shaw taught at onetime in "Master" 
Thompson's house. He was regarded as a handsome man, but was 
considered by his pupils as stern and severe Town business fre- 
quently called him from the school, which pleased the scholars ; for, 
during his absence, " Master " Thompson supplied in his place. 
" Master " John Shaw was strict and dignified. He was a surveyor, 
and gave instruction outside of the school-room, in surveying. 

Regarding the old school-house already alluded to, originally lo- 
cated near the Baptist meeting-house, and afterwards at the Corner, 
the records of the meeting of the first school district on January 18, 
1802, say : " Voted and raised two hundred dollars to be assessed 
on the polls and estates of this district to be appropriated toward 
building a school-house. Voted the said school-house be twenty-six 
by twenty7six, apd eleven feet post. Voted and let the said house 


to Moses Chick to build and finish, including painting the trimmings 
of said house, for two hundred and fifty dollars. Voted and raised 
fifty dollars in addition to the two hundred to be appropriated toward 
building the said school-house." 

We have evidence showing that schools had been established in 
eight districts prior to 1820 : South Sanford, Mouse Lane, two dis- 
tricts, "the Gore" (Deering neighborhood), Sanford Corner, the 
Beau district, Shaw's ridge, and the Frost distiict (Springvale) ; and 
we have reason to believe, in two other districts : Oak Hill and 
Mount Hope. In 1821, school agents were chosen by the town for 
the ten districts then established, as follows : 

No. 1, Sanford Corner, Elisha Allen ; No. 2, South Sanford, John 
Powers ; No. 3, Oak Hill, Jabez Perkins ; No. 4, Springvale, John 
Morrison; No. 5, Shaw's ridge, Stephen Gowen, Junior; No. 6, 
Mount Hope, Abner Hill ; No. 7, Bean district, Nathaniel Bennett ; 
No. 8, Deering's ridge, Stephen Fernald ; No. 9, Mouse Lane, David 
Clark ; No. 10, Mouse Lane, Joshua Getchell. 

At the same time, September 10, a new district was formed, and 
Zebulon Beal was chosen agent. It was formed from the first dis- 
trict, and included residents of Hanson's ridge, the Hobbs road, and 
Lebanon road. On the 19th, the twelfth district, embracing those 
dwelling in the Hobbs neighborhood and on the Lebanon road, was 
organized, and Sheldon Hobbs was chosen agent. The thirteenth 
district was formed in April, 1822. In May of that year, the dis- 
tricts were bounded anew, and accepted July 20. The names were 
practically the same as in 1821, although the fifth was called the 
" Grammar Street " district, and the tenth, the Perkins. The eleventh 
was the Plummer's ridge district, the twelfth, Hanson's ridge, and the 
thirteenth, Shaw's ridge. In another month, a fourteenth district, 
the " Hardscrabble," was formed. 

It was about the time of redistricting the town that school-houses 
were built in different localities where they were needed. In some 
parts of the town, schools were taught in dwelling-houses. The 
brick school-house, which stood for about fifty years at the intersec- 
tion of the roads leading from the Corner and Springvale to Alfred, 
was then erected. The wooden school-house that stood at the forks 
of the road leading from the Corner to Hanson's ridge and the Hobbs 
neighborhood, and did twenty-five years' service, was built in 1822. 
It is highly probable that William Gowen, Junior, taught the first 
school in that house in the winter of 1822-3. 

Within a year or two, a division arose in the first district. It was pro- 


posed to move the school-house, to which objections were made. The 
vote was carried ; the school-house was started, but the first night only 
reached the foot of the hill on its way to the proposed site at the Cor- 
ner. There the shoes were cut off, as it stood in the road, and a short 
delay was caused. The trouble may have arisen, in part, or have been 
aggravated, by the appointment of a meeting by Rev. Mr. Marsh, 
to be held in the school-house, near the Baptist meeting-house, at 
which Elder Cook and his friends presented themselves. Although 
the school-house was moved, the trouble grew so rife that a new dis- 
trict (the fifteenth) was formed, and a new house, known as the 
Congregational school-house, was built. It stood in Deacon Frost's 
field, opposite to the present site of the residence of Hon. Thomas 
Goodall. It was dedicated by Eev. Mr. Marsh. Following the ex- 
ample of Parson Sweat, Mr. Marsh taught a public school in that 
house. More than twenty years later, the house was moved to South 
Sanford, and converted into a dwelling for Eev. Mr. Parker. The 
establishment of the fifteenth district was followed, November 1, 
1824, by the formation at Lyon Hill, of the sixteenth district. In 
1826, the seventeenth district, below Oak Hill, was formed ; in 1830, 
the sixth district was divided and the eighteenth formed, which, in 
the year following, was annexed to the sixth ; in 1833, the eighteenth, 
Moulton's, nineteenth, Littlefleld's, and twentieth. Colonel Butler's, 
were established ; in 1839, number four was divided; and in 1846, 
the Beaver Hill district was established. 

In 1847 a committee was appointed to redistrict the town, but for 
some reason unknown, no progress was made until 1849, when six- 
teen districts were established, in the following consecutive order : 
Springvale, Sanford Corner, South Sanford, above Spiingvale, 
" Grammar Street," Mouse Lane, Kennebunk line, Lyon HiU, 
Deering's, Hanson's ridge, Nowell's, Johnson's mill, Oak Hill, below 
Oak Hill, Moulton's, Mount Hope. Changes were made from time 
to time, one of which, as late as 1875, the consolidation of numbers 
thirteen and fourteen, occurred because the school committee report- 
ed that, " in number fourteen it has, cost the town flfty-six dollars 
to give two scholars nine weeks' school." 

The erection of a new school-house, in 1852, in the " Grammar 
Street " district, near the residence of Timothy Gowen, resulted in 
the refusal of several persons to pay their taxes on the ground that 
the money was illegally raised. Their property was accordingly 
sold for taxes, and the matter was tested in court, judgment being 
rendered against the town. Several years elapsed before the cases 


were finally settled, and meanwhile another school-house had been 
built in the lower part of the district, so that, at one time, there were 
three school-houses within the limit of number five. 

Graded schools were unknown in town prior to 1855. In that year, 
the first two-story school-house was erected at Springvale, at a cost 
of twenty-seven hundred dollars. It was designed and arranged for 
two grades, grammar and primary. Four years later, two grades of 
schools were established at the Corner, the lower one of which was 
taught in the vestry of the Congregational meeting-house. In 1868, 
a new house, the second two-story school-house in town, was built at 
the Corner, in which two grades were maintained, as at Spring\'ale. 

Elder George Heard, Daniel P. Shaw, Caleb Emery, Valentine 
Header, Pelatiah Hussey, Charles Hill, Moses M. Butler, Titus S. 
Emery, John M. Ames, Abner Mitchell, William H. Wiggin, Joseph 
T. Nason, Hubbard Fogg, John M. Stanton, Levi W. Stone, Ger- 
shom Ricker, John Derby, and Edwin Emery, were among the teach- 
ers at the Corner in former years. In the summer, women taught, 
among whom were Rachel Humphrey, Nancy Moulton, and Mary 
T. Barker. 

Sanford Academy was incorporated February 12, 1834. Gideon 
Cook, John Storer, John Skeele, Elisha Bacon, Charles Emerson, 
Daniel Wood, and Abner Flanders were trustees. Funds were want- 
ing to make the new enterprise a success, and so the corporation ex- 
isted only in name. This attempt to provide a higher course of 
instruction and mental training than the public schools afforded, is a 
revelation of the earnest desire of the people of the early part of the 
century for greater intellectual improvement, a desire which was met 
and satisfied, in a degree, by the private schools conducted by Elder 
George Heard, Rev. Mr. Goss, Moses M. Butler, Rev. Ammi R. 
Bradbury, Abner Morrill, John H. Goodenow, William Gowen, Ann 
Maria Hussey, and Albert L. Cleaves, in most of which instruction 
in Latin and the higher English branches was given. In 1831 or 2, 
Rev. Elisha Bacon, with the cause of education deeply at heart, in- 
troduced a new teacher into town. Miss Rachel Humphrey, of Free- 
port, whose improved methods, founded upon principles somewhat 
similar to those of the modern kindergarten, attracted scholars from 
a wide range, and the inspiration of her teaching was productive of 
lasting results. 

An account of the schools of Sanford of the present day will be 
found in a subsequent chapter of the History. 



Agriculture — Spinning and Weaving — Customs of the People — 
Wild Animals — Bear Stories — A Mink Climbs a Tree — Fish. 

ONE of the conditions upon which the settlers' lots were granted, 
was that four acres should be broken up and fenced in within 
three years of the date of the deed conveying the same. When the 
early settlers took up farms the land was cleared and burnt over, 
much of the growth being burnt on the ground. Corn was planted 
without ploughing, and rye sowed and " hacked" in with hoes. The 
new ground yielded large crops, and an abundance of corn fodder and 
rye straw was cured. Wild grass, bushes, and brakes were cut and 
cured for fodder, upon which, and the hay hauled from Wells and 
York, cows and oxen were kept during the winter in numbers suffi- 
cient for the comfort and convenience of the people. At first, how- 
ever, only a few oxen were brought into town, and one of the greatest 
wants of those early days was oxen to haul timber and to plough land 
for planting. 

Sheep and swine were a necessity, the former for wool, the latter 
for food. One necessity produced another. Only a few potatoes 
were planted at first. To keep hogs, farmers must have more corn 
and potatoes. The forests themselves furnished one kind of food 
spontaneously, which sheep and swine could eat. Acorns were abund- 
ant where oak growtii flourished, so that in the fall these animals 
found food enough to render them quite fat. Some farmers gathered 
fifteen or twenty bushels of acorns in the fall, and fed them out dur- 
ing the winter. All the family, male and female, old and young, en- 
gaged in the work of gathering acorns. 

The worth of a man was estimated from the number of cattle kept 
and not the number of acres owned. There was a commendable pride 
in having as many cattle as could possibly be kept during the winter 
upon the fodder cured. Cattle and hogs were small. Oxen that 
measured six feet in girth were rarely seen, and a kept-o.ver hog that. 


weighed two hundred and fifty pounds was a great hog. Some farm- 
ers killed two hogs in the fall, and five or sixshoats, the latter weigh- 
ing from eighty to one hundred pounds apiece. Porlt was the principal 
meat. Beef was eaten during the early part of the winter, pork in 
the spring and summer. Wild game furnished some families with 
nearly all the meat. Many families lived chiefly on bread and butter, 
or bread and milk (milk always for supper). Corn and rye bread 
was in general use ; wheat bread was a great luxury. Beans and 
peas stewed with beef made most palatable bean and pea soup. 
Many families knew nothing for weeks at a time of the luxury of tea 
and coffee. 

Cider was a favorite beverage, and New England rum was freely 
used. The first nursery of apple trees was sowed about 1742, by Dr. 
Bennett. Before orchards produced apples in abundance for cider, 
the farmers joined together, and sent teams to York to buy their stock 
of cider. There is a tradition that the first cider ever made in Sanford 
was made by Eunice Tripp and Mary Johnson. The apples were 
pounded in a long trough by them, and pressed by Jonathan John- 
son. In connection with this it is interesting to notice that Lieutenant 
Jonathan Johnson was the only person in town 1771, that returned 
in the valuation any cider — eight barrels. 

Flax was raised for clothing. Tow and linen cloth were often 
worn for shirts. Cotton was rarely worn, except by women and 
girls, and then only when they could afford to buy calico for gowns. 
Wool was carded, spun, and woven into cloth, which was made into 
clothes by the women in their houses. Almost every family had a 
large spinning-wheel for spinning wool, a foot wheel for spinning 
flax, and a loom for weaving. In 1810, there were one hundred and 
sixty looms in town, and twenty-nine thousand, three hundred sixty- 
nine yards of cloth were manufactured. 

General Moulton was extensively engaged in farming, having at 
one time thirty acres in corn and rye. For years, to encourage wheat 
raising, there was a bounty on wheat. The same may be said of 
corn. In 1837, four hundred and eighty-five bushels of wheat were 
raised, on which the bounty was forty-two dollars and seventy-three 
cents; in 1838, six hundred and forty-nine bushels with a bounty 
given of sixty-three dollars and thirty-seven cents, and twenty thou- 
sand eight hundred and ninety-six bushels of corn with a bounty of 
eight hundred and seventy-four dollars and eighty-eight cents ; in 
1840, seventeen thousand and eighty-four bushels of wheat, rye, bar- 
ley, etc., twenty-nine thousand one hundred and seventeen of pota- 


toes, and two thousand and forty-seven tons of hay raised. Accord- 
ing to the valuation of 1771, only one thousand three hundred and 
twenty- two bushels of grain were raised, and one hundred and sixty- 
seven tons of hay. Captain Jonathan Tebbets of Mount Hope in- 
formed the writer in 1877, that he had raised all his flour in fifty 
years, except one year when the wheat crop was killed by rust. 

One spring. Master Gowen could not get any rum or potatoes, 
owing to the scarcity of those commodities in Sanford, so the reason 
is given. He travelled to York, brought home a bushel of small po- 
tatoes (rum of course was not wanting), and raised therefrom sixty 

Grass grew very sparsely on some of the new clearings, and the 
want of it was a real privation to the neat housewife. One woman 
was much troubled for a place for drying clothes. Calling upon some 
neighbors whose lot had been cleared several years, she received on 
her return as many grass roots as she could carry. She cultivated 
them with the choicest care until she had a patch of grass large 
enough for drying her clothes and bleaching her linen. Clothes lines 
and clothes pins were almost unknown in those days. 

The forests were mostly pine, and pine lumber was cut in consid- 
erable quantities. Before mills were numerous, clapboards and 
shingles were made at the farm houses, and even afterwards, because 
timber and boards were the principal articles manufactured at them. 
Logs were cut into the proper lengths, then split into suitable thick- 
ness to be shaved. These splits were taken to the kitchen and shaved 
in the long winter evenings or on stormy days. That kind of lumber 
was quite easily taken to market because of its lightness, and brought 
a good price. But there was much oak, which was used also. Oak 
Hill appropriately received its name from the oak which covered it. 

Not until the beginning of the present century were nails in com- 
mon use. AU spikes and nails, large and small, were made by the 
blacksmith on the anvil. Shingle nails were worth from two to three 
shillings a pound. Poor people could not buy at that price, and were 
under the necessity of making oak pegs with which to fasten boards 
and shingles. For boards, the pegs were nearly as large as a rake 
tooth. Holes were bored through into the timber, and the peg, driven 
home, held quite fast. In shingling, a large awl was used, and a man 
shingled his house much as a shoemaker pegs on his soles. The barn 
that stood in the writer's boyhood, back of Mrs. Eliza Bod well's 
small house on Washington Street, was so shingled. Moses Witham 
built the barn shortly after the close of the Revolution, and when it 


was taken down in 1845, and hauled to the Corner, some of the shin- 
gles were then sound, and the pegs as good as new. 

Harvesting was followed frequently by two festal occasions, th& 
husking and the apple bee. These evening gatherings for work were 
enlivened with song and laughter, jokes, repartee, and stories, alike 
entertaining to old and young, who were invited to be in attendance. 
Huge stacks of corn filled the barn, over which, suspended from pitch- 
forks stuck securely into the hay-mow, were the old-fashioned tin 
lanterns, shedding their dim, flickering light. The buskers sat along 
one side, and threw their husks into the tie-up. "When that red ear 
for which every one had been looking was found, and the buskers, 
had " washed up," they sat down to tables loaded with hearty and 
substantial food, baked beans, Indian pudding, roast beef or lamb,, 
spare rib, potatoes, doughnuts, pies, tea and coffee. These were 
consumed in large quantities, and the host and hostess seldom had 
occasion to express their fear that their food was not palatable. 
Rum and cider were often served, and always without stint, until 
public opinion began to change, and the habitual use of these was 
condemned by the best men in the town. Following the supper came 
a dance, on the threshing floor cleared for the occasion, or in the 
kitchen after the tables had been removed. If no fiddler (the term 
violinist was unknown) was present, some one sang for the dancers, 
as they " tripped the light (heavy) fantastic toe" in Virginia reels 
and country dances. 

Apple bees were of a similar character, but more quiet and free 
from the rough, boisterous sports of huskings. Apples were pared, 
quartered, cored, and strung or sliced, for family use or the peddler, 
after they had been thoroughly dried in the sun. A supper, dancing,, 
and games followed. Huskings and apple bees were often prolonged 
until the early morning. These gatherings were the natural results 
of the social nature of the people, although the pastime served the 
double purpose of getting work done, in addition. That the early 
settlers were of a very social disposition, is known from the fact 
that they would often travel two or three miles for a family visit, 
and tarry until a late hour at night before returning home. The 
quilting parties of housewives, preparatory to the marriages of their 
daughters, or for increasing their bedding, also disclose the character 
of our ancestors. The work was prepared ; the quilting frame, or 
poles, got in readiness ; the guests, if helpers may be so called, were 
invited. Deft fingers swiftly plied the needle, ready tongues glibly 
told the latest bits of news or gossip. Sometimes envious men, who- 


were invited to tea that they might be present to accompany the 
women home, would intimate more in earnest than in jest, under the 
guise of pleasantry, that the women, while making with their hands 
a durable fabric for comfort, were tearing in pieces or destroying 
with their words the character of their neighbor. 

In 1814 or 15 there had not been any Baldwin apples raised in 
town, though a few trees had been grafted. About that time, a young 
man who had been working in Massachusetts, brought home as a 
present to his betrothed, a few Baldwins in his pack. 

From the earliest settlement of the town, hunting and trapping 
formed an important business, and sometimes a source of revenue. 
Furs were in demand, and sold quickly at good prices. Beavers, 
otters and minks were found near the brooks and ponds, and foxes, 
wild-cats, wolves and bears were plenty in the forests. A bounty 
was frequently paid for destroying some animals, and when money 
was scarce, peltry was taken for taxes. When beavers became 
scarce, and their skins sold for a high price, a single skin of good 
size and quality would hire a man for a month. Bear meat was 
eaten freely, so there was a double inducement to kill bears, some- 
times triple, their meat, skins and bounty. It must be stated, how- 
ever, that young men, fond of sport, often spent more time than was 
profitable in their frequent hunting expeditions. 

There were beaver dams below Moulton's mill in 1741, as wit- 
nesses a deed of ten acres of meadow from David Bennett to James 
Littlefield. Beaver Hill and Beaver Hill Pond received their names 
from the beaver whose homes were numerous in that vicinity. In 
1771, the pond of Sanford head-line was known by that name. There 
was a beaver dam a few rods below where the bridge is on the "new 

We cannot reconcile the following with the town records, but copy 
it as showing the bounty allowed for each wolf killed and the course 
of procedure to prevent deceptions and the payment of a double 
bounty : 

' " Mr. Treasurer 
" This may certify, that there has been paid out of the Town 

Stock of Sanford for five Grown Wolves, and Wolves Whelps, 

killed in and near this Town, since the 15 of february last past, 
and the Heads thereof brought unto our Constable or Constables, 
and the ears thereof cut off in the Presence of our Selves, as the Law 
directs, and so certified unto us, in the whole the Sum of ten Pounds; 


which Sum we desire you to allow to our Town, by paying the same 

unto Mr. Stunells our Town Treasurer. 

" Dated in Sanford aforesaid, the first Day of July, Anno Dom. 


" Benj'' Hakmon \ Selectmen 

" Will" Bennett [• and 

" John Stunells ) Town Treasurer." 

The town voted September 6, 1789, not to raise any money for 
killing wolves. On the 8th of March, 1785, it was voted " To give 
20 shillings lawful money for every wolf's head that is killed within 
this town." This bounty and the worth of their skins caused them 
to be hubted and killed in large numbers. We do not wonder at 
this, for the torn and lacerated bodies of domestic animals killed by 
wolves, and the dead carcasses of many farmers' sheep and hogs, 
bore witness to the ferocity of the wolves. 

At a later period bounties were given for crows and wildcats. 
June 17, 1805, the town "Voted to give ten cents per head for 
crows," and in 1807, twelve cents. In 1831, Elisha Allen was paid 
seventeen dollars and fifty-two cents bounty for two hundred and 
nineteen crows ; in 1832, Francis A. Allen, nine dollars and thirty- 
six cents for one hundred and seventeen crows, fifty- six cents for 
eight crows, and one dollar for one wildcat ; in 1833, nine dollars and 
eighty-four cents for one hundred and twenty-three crows. Thirty 
wildcats were killed in the county that j^ear, and in 1834 four wildcats 
and six crows were killed — where ? The total state bounty for crows 
in 1831 was three thousand, two hundred and forty dollars, and five 

Many interesting stories of adventures with bears have been 
handed down from the original settlers. 

At one time, Mrs. Hanson, of Hanson's ridge, was on her way, 
with her child, to visit a neighbor on Low's ridge, four miles distant, 
when she met a bear in the road. Deeming discretion the better part 
of valor, she turned and hastened home as fast as she could go. 

Mrs. Batchelder, the " ColoneVs" wife, with her infant in her arms 
(born July, 1782) , and with a Mrs. Waterhouse for company, started 
by a path through the woods to visit a neighbor. Presently, on going 
up a little rise, they saw a big brown bear, sitting in the path as if 
he had taken possession of it. " Throw Sammy down, and let's run !" 
exclaimed Mrs. Waterhouse, what courage she had thoroughly fright- 
ened out of her. " Sammy and I will live and die together," answered 



Mrs. Batchelder, fixing her eyes on the bear, and walking slowly 
backward. When she was well out of sight, she ran with her baby 
as fast as she could, until she considered herself out of danger. 

There is a tradition in the Low family, that Ephraim Low, Junior, 
was engaged after the Revolution in cleaning the forests of bears, 
and one year killed as many as there were days in the year. One 
was shot on Low's ridge. 

At one time, the wife of one of the early settlers asked her hus- 
band to get a roast for Thanksgiving. Taking his oxen and sled, 
axe and gun, he went into the woods for game, from which he re- 
turned with a load of bears — nine large and small, — saying to his 
wife, "Here's your Thanksgiving." 

At South Sanford, Mrs. Hale, widow of Captain Enoch Hale, went 
into the pasture one evening after her cows, when she ran across two 
cubs. They were frightened, and took to a tree where she attacked 
them. As they were not very expert climbers, they fell to the ground 
when she struck them. She killed them both with a pitch-pine knot. 

One night a bear came to Major ( ?) Bennett's barn after his swine. 
The disturbance called out the Major with his gun. It was so dark 
that he could not see anything, but intending to frighten away what- 
ever there was, he fired in the direction of the noise which he heard. 
Hearing nothing more he went to bed. In the morning, he found 
bruin dead, shot through the body by the random shot in tlie dark, 
and the indications were that the bear was quite near when the Major 

When Elsie Powers, who married Thomas Willard, was a girl she 
had a young lamb given to her. As was the custom of her early days, 
the barn door or entrance was fenced up in part, with a space left 
open above. One winter's night, the snow drifted about the door so 
that a wolf, which came prowling around, easily jumped into the barn, 
and killed the lamb. It was evident from the marks made that he 
jumped out only after repeated attempts. 

The late Mrs. Sarah Allen told the writer that her grandfather on 
Hanson's ridge, used to go hunting in winter, leaving his wife alone 
with their child. Many a night her grandmother remained at home, 
with door barred, while the wolves came howling around. " Aunt 
Nabby " Gowen also told the writer that there were woods everywhere 
when she came into town in 1788. There were wolves enough then. 
" Wolves came around the house so you could hear them breathe," 
was her expressive language. She remembered that a young domes- 
tic animal was killed by thtm in a yard near by. 


A man was on his way home, at Mouse Lane, from South Sanford. 
He carried a gallon rundlet filled with molasses. The wolves scented 
him and followed. He had heard that, if the attention of the leader 
of the pack could be diverted, or if he acted like a coward, the rest 
would turn upon him. Throwing his rundlet back among them, he 
ran, and, while they were fighting among themselves, reached his 
home in safety. The next morning, he returned to the scene of his 
evening adventure, and found his molasses, all right, but one wolf, 
supposably, the leader, was completely torn into pieces. 

Whatever may be the fact, it used to be currently reported and 
believed that, if the wolves saw anyone put anything over his shoul- 
der, like a gun, they would leave him unmolested. Colonel Emery 
was at one time travelling up into the country through the woods, 
when he heard a pack of wolves behind him. He shouldered a stake, 
and they passed by. At one time when returning to his camp in the 
woods from another to which he had been, shoeing oxen, he came 
near losing his life by wolves, but managed with the dextrous use of 
a large club to escape safely to his camp. 

" Alpha," in the Sanford News, a few years ago, related the fol- 
lowing bear stories : 

" Solomon Allen and son, the latter the father of David and Sol- 
omon Allen, were out in the woods cutting logs, and had just finished 
loading, when the old man accidentally stuck his goad into the snow, 
and found there was a hollow place there, and upon digging away 
the snow, they found the den of a large' black bear, and bruin was 
there, fast asleep. The first thought was, to capture him ; and the 
second was, ' How shall it be done?' As 'necessity is the mother 
of invention,' they were not long in devising a method to secure him. 
The old gentleman took a long stick and poked the bear in the nose 
to divert his attention, while his son' fastened an ox chain around 
his hind leg. They had considerable difficulty in getting the cattle 
near enough to fasten the chain to them, as they sinelled the bear and 
were afraid ; but by dint of coaxing and driving, they, at last, suc- 
ceeded. The old gentleman then seized the axe and told his son to 
start the oxen and when the bear came out of the hole he would kill 
him. For once they ' reckoned without their host ;' the cattle started 
and only succeeded in drawing the bear's leg out straight, when he 
drew it back with apparent ease, cattle and all. This went on for 
some time, until the snow had become beaten down around the den 
sufficiently to allow Mr. Allen to strike the bear in the head and kill 
him. He was then drawn out and put upon the load of logs and 


hauled home, and dressed ; and they had fresh meat eaough all winter. 
He weighed nearly eight hundred pounds. 

" At another time, Mr. Allen was returning home from his work, 
with an axe on his shoulder, when he met a bear in his path, and as 
soon as bruin saw him, he arose on his hind legs and walked towards 
him with huge paws opened, with the intention, no doubt, of giving 
him a friendly hug ; but Mr. Allen met him half way and saluted him 
with the axe on the head, killing him at once." 

" A Story Teller " in the Sanford News, gives us " Reminiscences 
of Olden Time," in which he alludes to some of the courageous women 
of the early days, who occasionally visited their neighbors, although 
it was dangerous so doing. " Among the number were Aunt Nabby 
and Aunt Polly, who, each with a child in her arras, started one bright 
afternoon to visit a neighbor on the hillside, all in sight of where our 
village now stands. As they walked along a well beaten path, through 
the whispering pines, their ever watchful ears were sometimes startled 
by the wild cry of a bird or the crackling of a dry twig, broken by the 
leap of a squirrel, or some other strange sound in the dense thicket. 
Suddenly their attention was attracted by a huge bear that strolled 
leisurely from the woods and seating himself on his haunches in the 
path, only a few rods in front of them, gravely awaited their approach. 
Of course they were frightened, but not so terriSed, as those less ac- 
customed to such visitors might suppose. They neither screamed nor 
ran, but retreated slowly and silently, walking backwards with their 
eyes fixed on those of bruin, while they clasped their little ones more 
closely in their arms. Old bruin had doubtless dined sumptuously, 
for without insisting upon a fat baby for dessert or upon accompany- 
ing them home, he sat quietly, evidently amused at their discomfiture. 
As soon as Aunt Nabby and Aunt Polly escaped from. his sight, they 
turned and ran home. 

" A few years later Aunt Polly, one day, sent her two oldest chil- 
dren to a spring for water. While walking along the same path where 
their mother had before met this adventure, they were startled at the 
sight of another great bear greedily devouring one of their father's 
sheep. He looked steadily at them but, seeming to prefer the muttoa. 
he had to the children he had not, left the frightened little folks to 
scamper home as fast as their trembling legs could carry them. Youi 
may guess they were not allowed to go that path again unguarded. 
Their father on his return from work, being informed of the loss of 
his sheep, was so enraged that, armed with gun, he plunged alone into- 
the thicket and by the light of the moon searched for hours for thft 


thief, which was doubtless sleeping soundly in some hollow log or 

" Not many months after the loss of his sheep, Uncle Stephen 
started out early one frosty morning, axe in hand, to cut some timber 
near the river. The snow was nearly three feet deep, obliging him 
to wear his snow shoes. Having just left the clearing and gone a 
few rods into the woods, he espied a large bear running directly to- 
wards him. For Uncle Stephen to run was impossible, to climb a 
tree useless ; all that remained for him to do was to ' fight it out on 
that line.' He instantly struck a defensive attitude with uplifted axe 
in his firm grasp, and awaited the approach of bruin, who seemed de- 
termined upon a hearty morning's meal. The bear rushed upon him 
with glaring eyes and open mouth, and extended his arms for the 
fatal hug. Nothing daunted, Uncle Stephen with no uncertain aim 
buried his axe in the head of his enemj', who fell at his feet ; with a 
few well directed blows the contest was ended. Uncle Stephen then 
returned home and sent one of his boys for Uncle Joshua to come and 
help in hauling the bear home. When dressed the carcass weighed 
nearly four hundred pounds." 

" Ben," in the Springvale Reporter of March 4, 1876, tells two 
stories concerning one of Sanford's early settlers, whose name he pre- 
tends to conceal. " A man whom we will call Real, made his way 
from old York to the foot of Lyon Hill by road, from thence up the 
Mousam about five miles, spotting trees as he went, thence westward 
about one mile to the side of the ridge, where he commenced a cut- 
down. His first business after locating was to put up a shanty. Here 
he heard the first whippoorwill, which scared him nearly out of his 
wits, thinking the cry was ' "Whip poor Real, whip poor Real,' which 
to him meant that he was surrounded by enemies who intended to 
whip him and drive him away at break of day. He made tracks back 
the way he came, by spotted trees to the nearest house at the foot 
of Lyon Hill. There telling his night's experience he was informed 
it was only a bird that came to sing his song of welcome to the 
knight of the axe." 

Whether whippoorwills were ever heard in York we may question, 
but we know that the nearest house to the Hobbs neighborhood, one 
hundred years before the foregoing story was written, was not further 
down than Ephraim Low's, a mile below the Corner. 

" Every Saturday he walked home to old York for a fresh supply 
of food, which he carried back Monday on his back. On one of his 
home visits he came in contact with an old sea captain who, in course 


of conversation, introduced the article of coffee as one of the finest 
things in the world, and finally persuaded Mr. E. to take a small 
quantity and try it, whereupon a pound was procured and added to 
the already ponderous load. In due season he arrived at his shanty, 
and prepared for the duties of the next few days. ' Now,' he solilo- 
quized, ' for some of that coffee for supper.' He put about one half 
of the coffee in a pot, built up a rousing fire under it, and it soon be- 
gan to boil. Occasionally he would try it, but as it was not cooked 
soft, on would go a fresh lot of wood ; in due season it was again 
tried but with like result. Thus he coutinued for three days, faith- 
fully boiling his coffee early and late, after which time it was all 
thrown away as a ' humbug.' As usual Saturday found him beneath 
the paternal roof, relating his sad experience in ' bilin that coffee.' 
After a hearty laugh Mr. R. was informed of the modus operandi. 
Ever after coffee was his drink until his hand became so tremulous 
he was obliged to abandon its use." 

It was in the fall of 1809 that the last bear of which we have any 
knowledge was killed in Sanford. There was then in the cedar swamp 
in the south part of the town a well-known cave, designated as the 
"bear's den." One Saturday, two brothers, Jotham and Robert 
Johnson, were on their way to work, near the swamp, when it occurred 
to them to visit the den to see whether there was a bear in it or not. 
It has not come down to us whether there had been any bear in it for 
years before, or any tracks of one during that season or the preceding 
summer. It was probably an idle, visionary suggestion that entered 
the mind of one of the brothers, and led him to say, ' ' Let's go to the 
' bear's den ' to see if there's a bear in it." " Yes, let's go to the 
' bear's den ' to see if there's a bear in it," was the reply of the other ; 
for these brothers, always together, had the peculiar habit of repeat- 
ing each other's words without variation. So the two men made their 
vay through the woods to the den, where to their surprise they found 
a bear. Her body was within the cave, and she so lay that her nose 
only stuck out. They were frightened at first, but on second thought 
decided to do something to injure, perhaps to kill, the bear. Jotham 
struck at her with his axe, but succeeded only in wounding her nose 
slightly. Thereupon she rose upon her hind legs, caught Jotham, 
downed him, bit him in the wrist, and ran away. The brothers were 
terribly frightened, — so was the bear — and hurried away in an oppo- 
site direction. Coming out into the cleared land they descried sev- 
eral young men, to whom Robert shouted, at the top of his voice, "A 
bear ! a bear ! we must raise a crew and go and catch her." Repeated 


by Jotham, whose loss of blood and fright had not completely unnerved 
him, the cry greatly excited the young men, and when Robert, with 
short, quicic breath, and in broken sentences, told the story, it crea- 
ted the wildest enthusiasm among them. The report that Jotham 
had been bitten by a bear spread like wildfire, and a crew of ten or 
twelve men, armed with muskets, started in hot pursuit after the bear. 
They proceeded to the den, knowing that they could thence track her 
by the blood of her wound, as it fell upon the snow, which had re- 
cently fallen. From the cave her track was easily disclosed in a south- 
southeasterly direction down through the swamp to the road leading 
to Doughty's Falls. "When the men reached there it was quite dark, 
and they could not go further, so they agreed to meet at that place 
early the next morning. About twenty stalwart fellows assembled 
at their rendezvous on Sunday morning, and continued their pursuit. 
In a short time they discovered the bear lying near a fence only a 
short distance from their place of meeting. Without any leader 
or systematic organization, they did nothing, allowing the bear to 
escape before a shot was fired. Following her towards the " great 
swamp " in the direction of Wells, William Emery and another came 
up within a few feet of her, having distanced all the rest of their com- 
panions. Emery had broken through the ice in a swampy place, and 
so wet his gun that it was entirely useless ; the other had raised his 
gun, but it had missed fire. For a few moments they had a most ex- 
citing time ; they were within six feet of bruin ; she had turned and 
shown her teeth ; their guns would not go off ; their companions were 
too far back to render assistance ; they were inclined not " to bulge 
an inch ;" it would not be prudent to go forward. In this dilemma, 
Emery told the other to prime his gun, while he watched the move- 
ments of the bear. She soon eluded them, and was lost to sight 
among the bushes. 

Once during the chase, Robert Johnson caught sight of her, and, 
though there were several directly in range of lier, raised his gun, 
and shouted, " Fire ! fire ! " But he had scarcely got his words out 
of his mouth, when he fell backward, thus preventing a serious ac- 
cident. In his excitement, he had made so violent an execution that 
he lost his equilibrium, his feet slipped from under him, his gun was 
thrown up, and he himself stretched at full length on the ground. 
Again they lost sight of her ; again they were on her track. The 
nearer they approached, the more intense became their enthusiasm. 
Emery ran around a clump of bushes or trees to head her off, caring 
no more for her than a hog. She turned only to meet another, and 


in trying to escape ran along the whole length of a tree which had 
fallen. Henry Hamilton came up to the top of the tree as she was 
running, took aim, fired, and she fell across the butt. Some were 
afraid that she was not dead, but one of the most active and cou- 
rageous of the company stepped up and took her by the ear. Her 
throat was cut, but owing to the loss of blood from the wound re- 
ceived from Johnson she bled but little. The ball that killed her en- 
tered her hip and passed to her shoulder. Upon poles bound together 
with withes, they carried her through the woods three-quarters of a 
mile to the road leading to Wells, and thence on a team home. They 
gave her skin to Jotham, who had been bitten, and he in turn gave it 
to Dr. Hall, of Alfred, for dressing the wound. The doctor used it 
for years as a carriage-robe. The meat was divided, and sent round 
among the neighbors. So numerous were they, that some of the 
principal actors in the drama got only three or four pounds. The 
writer's father, then a babe, had a taste of the meat, which may ac- 
count for his delight in recounting the incidents of the story to his 
children. The particulars here given came from one of the actors, 
directly to the writer. 

Many years ago, William H. Scribner taught writing-schools at 
Springvale and the Corner. He made Springvale his headquarters, 
and came to the Corner two or three evenings a week. One evening, 
he entered the school-house at the Corner under great excitement, 
and astonished his pupils with his adventure. As he was coming 
past Hanson's woods, above Mrs. Gowen's, he heard a loud noise, a 
screech or a howl, and the crackling of dried limbs and bushes, as if 
a ferocious animal was rushing through the woods towards him. 
He ran as fast as his feet could carry him, and reached the Corner 
out of breath. At the close of the session, the young men and boys 
accompanied him above the woods, but heard nothing save the noise 
which they themselves made. It was currently reported that a loup 
cervier was heard and seen in the woods, and some wonderful adven- 
tures were related, though nothing definite in regard to the size and 
appearance of the wild beast could be learned. A Canada lynx 
tnight have found his way so far from home, but it was a question 
whether the noise heard was not the hooting of a screech-owl, and 
the crackling that followed only a slight movement of the nocturnal 
bird which developed under his excited imagination into the tread of 
a rapacious quadruped. 

It has now been more than forty years since the writer with a 
companion enjoyed an autumnal day, bunting in the woods to the 


south and west of the Corner. A double-barrelled gun, a flask of 
powder, a pouch of bullets, a box of percussion-caps were our arms 
and munitions. A small, short-legged dog, whose slowness of loco- 
motion and general make-up disclosed the fact that he was better 
adapted for domestic duty on the hearth than for scenting game in 
the forest, accompanied us on our predatory excursion. Through 
Gowen's woods, across the Witham lot, toward the Paul Tebbets 
place we wended our way. Now and then a chattering blue-jay at- 
tracted our attention, or a "lightning chipper " darted before us, and 
escaped into his hole in the wall. Our dog ran as fast as his stumpy 
legs could carry him, and barked as if he had something sure, and 
we guess he had, for whatever he started up was surely safe from 
harm. Occasionally the peculiar call of the red squirrel would draw 
us toward a tree, from the branches of which we could see him jump 
with wonderful agility, and ofttimes elude us by his rapid movements. 
Across the Bean and Welch farms we wandered, and strolled along 
the Great Works Brook at the foot of the alU near Ruf us Welch's, 
and up across the Witham field, then owned by " Uncle Bill." What 
our fare was during the day, we have not the slightest recollection, 
but we are safe in assuming that we got apples from the orchards 
through which we passed, and perhaps, came as near the Corner as 
Gowen's cider mill to get a little new cider. 

Along in the afternoon, we were descending the hill from the Red 
Brook toward the Springvale road, and had got nearly through the 
woods, when our dog barked with noticeable earnestness. We hurried 
in the direction from which the sound came. At the foot of an oak 
standing on the edge of the road near John C. Gowen's, stood our 
canine friend, still vigorously barking; while, at the top of the 
almost leafless tree, appeared an animal, which, from its size and 
color, we concluded must be a black squirrel. Our companion had 
the gun, or took it, for we deferred to his skill in handling the weapon, 
and used it. Our black squirrel did not fall at once. At the second 
or third discharge of the musket, however, down dropped our game. 
The dog showed a wonderful degree of activity, and could not re- 
frain from shaking up well the dead victim, and left him in a sorry 
looking plight. 

Our black squirrel turned out to be a mink. He had evidently 
been suddenly surprised, and could find refuge only in that solitary 
tree. We have often wondered how he climbed up the trunk, and 
reached the tip of a topmost branch. When we told the story at the 
Corner, much incredulity was manifested, for no one had ever heard 


of a mink climbing a tree before, and all doubted whether such a feat 
could be performed by that animal. Some may be incredulous now, 
but the fact remains, however strange it may seem,', that a mink can 
climb a tree. 

In former days the rivers and ponds were well stocked with flsh, 
but in later years the number has been greatly reduced. The pick- 
erel, perch, shiner, horn-pout, eel, chub, sunflsh, barbel, and trout 
were abundant, and, probably^ the salmon, shad and alewife came up 
the Mousam, within the town limits. 

It is amusing to read, in the light of modern knowledge and ex- 
perience, a remonstrance of the town, in 1816, against the construc- 
of a passage-way in the Mousam River, for salmon, shad and ale- 
wives. It appears that Dr. Jacob Fisher and others petitioned the 
General Court for such a fish-way, but the town thought it would be 
an injury to the water power of the river, and consequently sent in 
the following counter- petition : 

" To the Hon. the Senate and the House of Representatives in Gen- 
eral Court assembled, 

" Humbly shew The inhabitants of the town of Sanford, in the 
County of York, that they have seen with no little astonishment, a 
petition of Jacob Fisher and others, praying that a passage-way may 
be made and laid open in Mousam River, in the County of York, for 
Salmon, Shad and Alewives. 

" There are on said river and its branches four factories, seven 
grist-mills and seventeen saw-mills. The property is of vast impor- 
tance to the owners, and utility to the public. 

" The oldest inhabitant of this town has never known a Salmon, 
Shad or Alewive to have been caught in the river adjoining. 

" There is not, we humbly conceive, the remotest probability that 
ever a Salmon, Shad or Alewive could be induced or persuaded to en- 
ter the river — "What good motive could have induced the petitioners 
to make this extraordinary request, is beyond our comprehension. 
All rational men must deem the project the most crazy and outra- 

" We therefore confidently hope that the Hon. legislature will give 
the petitioners leave to withdraw their extraordinary petition — and 
as in duty bound will ever pray. 

" Presented by the Town. 

"Nov. 4, 1816." 

In contrast with this remonstrance is a report of Nathan W. Foster 
and Charles G. Atkins, fish commissioners of Maine, January, 1868. 


After studying the characteristics of the river and the country tlirough 
which it flows, the commissioners say: "The Mousam is eminently 
a salmon stream When unobstructed its whole ex- 
tent nearly, must have been suitable spawning ground for salmon. . 
. . . . The natural aspect of the river promises salmon, and tra- 
dition accords with it. From Judge Bourne of Kennebunk we learn 
that the Mousam was once ' full of salmon.' Dr. Emerson informed 
him that one "Wakefield once loaded a cart with salmon in a little 
while at the foot of his garden in Kennebunk. There were, also, 
shad and alewives ; the shad still come into the river, but the salmon 

come no more There are between Mousam Pond and 

the sea, eighteen mill dams and one reservoir dam. There is no 
special obstacle to the construction of a fish-way over any of them. 
None of them are now provided with flshways, and we did not learn 

that they ever were Were it undertaken to restock 

this river, salmon should be the kind selected, but it might at the 
same time be found practicable to increase greatly the amount of 
shad, and to breed alewives here to a certain extent. It would further 
be necessary to breed salmon from the egg in the river, they being 
now entirely exterminated." The report concludes by suggesting 
that owing to the changed conditions of the Mousam " not so many 
salmon could be bred in the river as originally, unless resort should 
be had to artificial breeding." 

In further support of the contention that salmon were once found 
in tlie Mousam Eiver and within the limits of Sanford, is a commun- 
ication from an old resident published in the Sanford News some 
years ago, in which he says that in his boyhood days, when fishing 
in the river between the mills and Butler's bridge, " once in a while, 
I used to catch what ' we boys ' called a ' red-meated shiner.' They 
were usually about a foot long, bright light color, meat red as a 
cherry, and would weigh from a pound to a pound and a half. At 
that time I had never, that I know of, seen a salmon ; but since then, 
having seen them by the hundreds just as they came out of the water, 
I have become entirely satisfied the 'red-meated shiners' we used to 
catch were nothing more or less than young salmon. This opinion 
is backed up by other boys of Sanford." 



Adoption of the United States Constitution — Opposition of Major 
Samuel Nasson — Alien and Sedition Acts — Hostility to the 
Embargo — Letter of Thomas Jefferson — Separation from Mas- 
sachusetts — Removal of the Courts. 

AFTER the adoption of the Federal Constitution by the conven- 
tion in 1787, the General Court of Massachusetts provided that 
towns should choose delegates in the same manner in which Repre- 
sentatives were elected, to meet in Boston, in January, 1788, to con- 
sider the expediency of ratifying the Constitution. Sanford at first 
voted not to send a delegate, but, upon petition of some of the legal 
voters, a meeting was called December 10, 1787, to reconsider the 
former vote, and to choose one or more fit persons to attend the con- 
vention. At that meeting. Major Samuel Nasson was elected as a 
delegate. Whether or not he was authorized to oppose the ratification 
of the Constitution, we are not informed, but we think there is evi- 
dence for the presumption that he was selected as delegate on account 
of his well-known opposition to it. We can but regard him as the ex- 
ponent of the town, and his action, whether by speech or vote, as an 
expression of the sentiment of the majority of the inhabitants, of 
which he was the mo«th-piece. He was prominent in the convention, 
and took an active part in the proceedings. 

Regarding the action of Sanford, David Sewall wrote from York 
a month later, to Hon. George Thatcher, member of Congress, from 
Massachusetts : " Sanford had one meeting and Voted not to send 
any (delegate) — But Mr. S. come down full charged with Gass and 
Stirred up a 2""^ Meeting and procured himself Elected, and I pre- 
sume will go up charged like a Baloon." 

In a letter bearing date. New York, January 14, 1788, General 
Knox refers to three parties in Massachusetts, of which the second is 
in the Province of Maine. " This party are chiefly looking towards 
the erection of a new state, and the majority of them will adopt or 



reject the new Constitution as it may facilitate or retard their designs, 
without regarding the merits of the great question." In a letter to 
Madison, quoted in a communication to Washington, February 3, 
1788, it is stated that " the leaders (in Massachusetts) of this party 
(Anti-Federalist) are Mr. Widgery, Mr. Thompson, and Mr. Nasson, 
from the province of Maine, Dr. Taylor, from Worcester County, and 
Mr. Bishop, from the neighborhood of Rhode Island." This town, 
then, was Anti-Federal, and one of the five towns leading the oppo- 

The objections of Major Nasson can be best understood from his 
speeches, which have been published in the printed reports of the 
proceedings of the convention. The section relating to the apportion- 
ment of representatives and direct taxes was under consideration 
when " Mr. Nasson remarked on the statement of the honorable Mr. 
King (Hon. Rufus King, of Newburyport), by saying that the hon- 
orable gentleman should have gone further, and shown us the other 
side of the question. It is a good rule that works both ways — and the 
gentleman should also have told us that three of our infants in the 
cradle are to be rated as high as five of the working negroes of Vir- 
ginia. Mr. N. adverted to a statement of Mr. King, who had said, 
that five negro children of S. Carolina were equally rateable as three 
governors of New England, and wished the honorable gentleman had 
considered this question upon the other side — as it would then appear 
that this state will pay as great a tax for three children in the cradle 
as any of the southern states will for five hearty working negro 
men. He hoped while we were making a new government, we should 
make it better than the old one ; for if we had made a bad bargain 
before, as had been hinted, it was a reason why we should make a 
better one now." In another speech, again discussing the matter of 
taxation, Major Nasson further treated of the slavery question as 
follows : " On this footing, the poor pay as much as the rich. And 
in this way is laid that five slaves shall be rated no more than three 
children. Let gentlemen consider this — a farmer takes three small 
orphans, on charity, to bring up — they are bound to him — when they 
arrive at twenty-one years of age, he gives each of them a couple of 
suits of clothes, a cow, and two or three young cattle — we are rated 
as much for these as a farmer in Virginia is for five slaves, whom he 
holds for life — they and their posterity — the male and the she ones 

The president of the convention. Governor Hancock, had submitted 
a proposition that certain alterations and amendments should be made 


to the Constitution. Tliat was conciliatory, and had a favorable in- 
fluence upon some delegates, who assented to the Constitution, when 
they saw that some objectionable features of it would be removed 
by the adoption of the proposed amendments. After others had dis- 
cussed the proposition of the Governor, Major Nasson made his chief 
effort of the proceedings, in which he regarded the Constitution as 
"so pregnant with danger," and occasionally rose to heights like this : 
*'Oh Liberty, thou greatest good, thou fairest property ! with thee I 
wish to live, with thee I wish to die ! Pardon me if I drop a tear on 
the peril to which she is exposed. I cannot, sir, see the brightest of 
jewels tarnished ! a jewel worth ten thousand worlds ! And shall we 
part with it so soon? Oh, No." 

Major Nasson's grounds of objection to the Constitution, as stated 
in his speech (which did not deal with the propositions of Governor 
Hancock) , were the dangers of a central government with a sover- 
eign power, vested in Congress, as making for the " annihilation of 
the state governments ;" of biennial elections of Congressmen ; of 
apportionment and taxation according to population, as being un- 
equal ; of the equality of large and small states in the national Sen- 
ate ; of the terms for which Senators were to be chosen, as being too 
long to trust any body of men with power ; of the exercise of the 
right conferred upon Congress to change the time and manner of 
holding elections, as putting "it in the power of a few artful and 
designing men to get themselves elected at their pleasure ;" and of 
the menace to the people's rights in maintaining a standing army and 
in suspending the writ of habeas coi-pus under certain conditions. 
Major Nasson laid especial stress upon the maintenance of a stand- 
ing army, "that bane of republican governments," recurring to the 
Boston Massacre to illustrate his argument, and in stentorian tones 
he exclaimed : " Sir, had I a voice like Jove, I would proclaim it 
throughout the world, and had I an arm like Jove, I would hurl from 
the globe those villains that would dare attempt to establish in our 
country a standing army." 

Nasson did not escape severe criticism for the stand taken, nor 
was he free from the charge that this appeal to the convention was 
not his own production. David Sewall, afterwards writing to Mr. 
Thatcher, said of it: "Who fabricated Mr. N. last Speech I am 
uncertain — one thing I am satisfied of, he never made it himself not 
that I conceive it an Elegant one." 

Notwithstanding the speeches and exertions of the Anti-Federal- 
ists, — they were, undoubtedly, as sincere in their opposition as the 


Federalists were in their support — the Constitution was ratified by 
a small majority, one hundred and eighty-seven yeas to one hundred 
and sixty-eight nays, Major Nasson, of course, being recorded among 
the latter. The situation was gracefully accepted, and the opposition 
manfully ranged themselves on the side of the majority in support 
of the new form of government. On the 7th of February, the day 
on which the convention adjourned, Nasson, '' in a short address, in- 
timated his determination to support the Constitution, and to exert, 
himself to influence his constituents to do the same." That we be- 
lieve they did, and this town has ever been faithful to the obligations 
imposed upon it by the fundamental law of our country. A few 
weeks later, Major Nasson wrote to Mr. Thatcher, saying : " If their 
is any Pleasuer in Beaing in the Minority on Such Greate Questions 
I have it first in Contemplating that I have done my duty and in Re- 
ceiving the thanks of my fellow Citizens through the Countery when 
I Arrived att the County of York I Received in General the Thanks 
of all I Mett, while our Friend Bar' el (for Such I yet Esteem him) 
was much Abused how far the Town will Carry their Resentment 
I Cannot Say I Strove as much as in me Lay to keep down the 
Sperite of the people and I hope that they will not hurt his person or 

his property I hope that we Shall Continue Peacable and 

Try this New Constitution and allso hope I Shall be Agreeably Sup- 
prised by finding it to turn out for the Best My PoUitical day 

is Just at an end for the Town of Sanford is so poor I cannot Recom- 
end it to them to Send any Member (to the General Court) Next 
Year." Nasson further writes, however, that there was talk of send- 
ing him to the General Court, but he was doubtful about accepting 
the honor, because " I feel the want of a proper Education." 

Party feeling ran high in the early days of the republic, particu- 
larly during the administration of John Adams, extending as it did 
to the most remote frontier towns and plantations. To increase the 
revenue to meet the expenses incurred by preparations for the threat- 
ened war with France, stamp duties were imposed on certain docu- 
ments, and a land tax, the first direct tax, was levied ; and in conse- 
quence of the impending war, the Alien and Sedition laws were passed. 
To all these acts of the Federalists there was strong opposition. In 
January, 1799, Captain David Bean, Stephen Gowen, Captain Shel- 
don Hobbs, James Gare, Joseph Shaw, Zebulon Beal, and Moses 
Witham were chosen a committee from Sanford to petition Congress 
and the General Court in hope of securing relief from the obnoxious 
laws. The petition, while setting forth the loyalty of the people of 


Sanford to the government, and their obedience to the Constitution 
and laws, strongly expressed the belief that the stamp tax worked 
injustice to the poor ; condemned the Sedition act as an abridgment 
of freedom of speech and the liberty of the press, and the Alien law, 
as destructive of " that great and inestimable jewel, trial by juries ;" 
and protested against the manner of assessing and collecting the 
direct tax. " Secure to us," the petition concluded, "our liberties 
that we have exposed our lives to obtain, and take our money, nay 
our estates, for what is money or estate without liberty to use it as 
we think will be best. We praying for your happiness and the hap- 
piness of this country are we wishing to be dutifully children." That 
petition was of little avail, but the effects of the laws in question, 
and kindred acts, were to change the political complexion of the 
town from Federal, in 1798, to Eepublican, three to one, in 1,799, 
and throughout the country in 1800 were disastrous to the Federal- 

American commerce suffered severely from the wars in Europe, 
between Great Britain and France, in the early part of the century. 
The Embargo act, passed as a retaliatory measure against Great Bri- 
tain in 1807, forbade the departure of any vessel from the United 
States for a foreign port. The people of New England especially 
writhed and groaned under the exactions of that law, which by a 
reversal of the letters, was dubbed the " O grab me" act. In 1808, 
on petition of James Chadbourn and others, a town meeting was 
called, which voted to petition to President .Jefferson to suspend the 
several acts of Congress laying the Embargo. The selectmen, Ezra 
Thompson, Elisha Allen, and Eufus Bennett, were designated a com- 
mittee to draft the petition. Their prayer, respectful in tone, as was 
fitting, represented that the town's chief industry, the lumber busi- 
ness, had been so injured by the Embargo as to leave the people in 
great distress ; and asked, in case of the inability of the executive to 
suspend the law, that a special session of Congress be called to take 
action. To this petition, Jefferson replied at length, in the only state 
paper ever transmitted direct by a President of the United States to 
the citizens of Sanford. The original document, which descended 
from the chairman of the committee to his daughter. Miss Joanna 
Thompson, who presented it to the writer, reads as follows : 

" To the inhabitants of the town of Sanford in legal town meeting 
assembled: Your representation and request were received on the 
8th instant, and have been considered with the attention due to every 
expression of the sentiments and feelings of so respectable a body 


of my fellow citizens. No person has seen with more concern than 
myself, the inconveniences brought on our country in general by the 
circumstances of the times in which we happen to live ; times to which 
the history of nations presents no parallel. For years we have been 
looking as spectators on our brethren of Europe, afflicted by all those 
evils which necessarily follow an abandonment of the moral rules 
which bind men and nations together ; connected with them in friend- 
ship and commerce we have happily so far kept aloof from their ca- 
lamitous conflicts, by a steady observance of justice towards all, by 
much forbearance, and multiplied sacrifices. At length, however, all 
regard to the rights of others having been thrown aside, the bellig- 
erent Powers have beset the highway of commercial intercourse with 
Edicts which taken together expose our commerce and mariners, un- 
der almost every destination, a prey to their fleets and armies. Each 
party indeed would admit our commerce with themselves with the 
view of associating us in their war against the other. But we have 
wished war with neither. Under these circumstances were passed 
the laws of which you complain, by those delegated to exercise the 
powers of legislation for you, with every sympathy of a common in- 
terest in exercising them faithfully. In reviewing these measures, 
therefore, we should advert to the difficulties out of which a choice 
was of necessity to be made. To have submitted our rightful com- 
merce to prohibitions and tributary exactions from others would have 
been to surrender our independence. To resist them by arms was 
war, without consulting the state of things or the choice of the na- 
tion. The alternative preferred by the Legislature of suspending a 
commerce placed under such unexampled diflSculties, besides saving 
to our citizens their property, and our mariners to their country, has 
the peculiar advantage of giving time to the belligerent nations to 
revise a conduct so contrary to their interests as it is to our rights. 
" ' In the event of such peace or suspension of hostilities between 
the belligerent Powers of Europe, or of such change in their meas- 
ures affecting neutral commerce as may render that of the U. S. suffic- 
iently safe in the judgment of the President,' he is authorized to 
suspend the Embargo. But no peace or suspension of hostilities, no 
change of measures affecting neutral commerce, is known to have 
taken place. The Orders of England, and the Decrees of France 
and Spain, existing at the date of these laws, are still unrepealed, as 
far as we know. In Spain, indeed, a contest for the government 
appears to have arisen ; but of its course or prospects we have no 
information on which prudence would undertake a hasty change in 

D. M, FRYE, 


our policy, even were the Authority of the Executive competent to 
such a decision. 

" You desire that, in this defeat of power, Congress may be spe- 
cially convened. It is unnecessary to examine the evidence or the 
character of the facts which are supposed to dictate such a call ; be- 
cause you will be sensible, on an attention to dates, that the legal 
period of their meeting is as early as, in this extensive country, they 
could be fully convened by a special call. 

" I should with great willingness, have executed the wishes of the 
Inhabitants of Sanford had peace, or a repeal of the obnoxious Edicts, 
or other changes, produced the case in which alone the laws have 
given me that authority; and so many motives of. justice and interest 
lead to such changes, that we ought continually to expect them. But 
while these edicts remain, the Legislature alone can prescribe the 
course to be pursued. 

" Th : Jefferson." 

" Sep. 10, 1808. 

Although the reply of the President was couched in language as 
respectful and free from party feeling as that of the petition, it was 
not satisfactory to the petitioners, who could not accept the reasoning 
of the executive. His refusal to accede to their wishes aroused an 
unusual bitterness of feeling, and increased their animosity against 
the administration. Strong language was heard everywhere against 
the " cursed Jacobins." Another town meeting was called, on request 
of a number of the inhabitants, in January, 1809, at which a commit- 
tee was chosen to draft an address to the Legislature, asking aid, and 
to prepare resolutions. The address and resolutions, which in time 
were accepted by the town, denounced the Embargo acts as "unnec- 
essary, unequal, unjust, oppressive, and tyrannical," but they did 
not succeed in accomplishing the purpose sought. The Non- Inter- 
course act in 1809 took the place of the Embargo, and the series of 
events followed which resulted in the "War of 1812. 

The question of the separation of the District of Maine from Mas- 
sachusetts, thus bringing about the formation of a new state, began to 
be agitated as early as 1784. In the following year a convention of 
the three counties then comprising the District, York, Cumberland 
and Lincoln, was called to meet in Falmouth (Portland) , to act on the 
proposal. This convention, meeting several times in 1785 and 1786, 
proved " a conspicuous failure," for after adjourning from time to 
time, it finally dissolved with only three delegates in attendance. 
Meanwhile, however, a list of grievances had been given to the pub- 


lie, which caused the selectmen of Sanford to call a town meeting' 
to take action on the matter of sending a delegate. At first it was 
voted not to be represented, but at a second meeting, Daniel Gile 
was chosen delegate to Portland, and Nathaniel Conant, Samuel 
Nasson, and Eleazar Chadbourn a committee to give him directions. 
The tenor of these directions is not disclosed, but subsequent votes 
show that the town was nearly a unit in opposing separation. 

It was not until 1791 that another movement was made. Then 
the Senators and Kepresentatives of the District sent out an address 
in favor of separation, to which the town responded in May, 1792, 
by a vote of two for and one hundred and two against. This decided 
majority is attributed to the influence of a convention held at the 
North meeting-house in Sanford, May 1. Sixteen towns and plan- 
tations were represented by thirty-one delegates. Ichabod Good- 
win was president and John Storer clerk. The reasons advanced for 
separation were : New Hampshire intervenes ; the population is more 
than that of Rhode Island, Delaware, Georgia, Vermont, or Kentucky ; 
distance from seat of government, unnecessary travel, and papers of 
Supreme Judicial Court at Boston ; District pays taxes to the support 
of a government where no part of the same taxes is spent, operating 
as a foreign tribute ; the willingness of Massachusetts to allow the 
District to separate. On the other hand, the reasons against separa- 
tion were : The District is within seventy or eighty miles of Boston ; 
not to be bettered by separation ; it would be an " uncertain piece of 
business ;" may be obliged to go to Penobscot (capital) ; the eastern 
counties are poor, and have petitioned the General Court for an abate- 
ment of taxes. This convention voted against separation, thirteen 
nays to three yeas, as follows : Yeas, Biddeford, Buxton, Water- 
borough ; nays, York, Kittery, Wells, Berwick, Arundel, Sanford, 
Pepperrellborough, Lebanon, Shapleigh, Parsonsfleld, Coxhall, Lim- 
ington, Newfield. In twenty-one towns, the following week, the vote 
in York County stood overwhelmingly against separation. 

Sanford took no part in the convention in Portland in 1794. When 
the question was again agitated, in 1797, the vote was unanimously 
against separation at a town meeting at which thirty-five were pres- 
ent. Ten years later the subject was again brought up, and Sanford 
spoke much as before, giving four for separation and one hundred 
and fifty-one votes against it. '1 he population of the District so in- 
creased that the opinion prevailed it had ability enough to take care 
of itself, and was worthy to bear the dignity of a state. In 1816, 
the General Court having received many petitions in favor of sepa- 


ration, ordered the towns and plantations in the District of Maine to 
vote on the question in May, with the result that there was a majority 
of about four thousand in favor. The vote of the town was forty 
for separation and fifty against it. A bill was reported in the legis- 
lature for the creation of Maine as a separate state, but with the 
proviso that towns should again vote on the question in September 
and at the same time choose delegates to a convention to be held at 
Brunswick, where, if the majority in favor of separation was as five 
to four, they were to form a Constitution. A marked change ia 
noticed in the vote in Sanford, one hundred and eighteen votes for, 
fifty-six against separation. Elisha Allen and Ezra Thompson were 
chosen delegates. The convention met at Brunswick as appointed, 
and while the majority of votes for separation were not as five to 
four, the juggling of figures by the advocates of the measure made 
it so appear, with the result that the " Brunswick Arithmetic" was 
known in political circles for years thereafter. The General Court 
took summary action, dissolving and thereby rebuking the conven- 

The subject of separation continued to be discussed, and the party 
in favor grew stronger year by year. It assumed the phase of a 
political question, favored by the Democrats and opposed by the Fed- 
eralists. Some of the opponents of the measure proposed the annex- 
ation of York County, in part, at least, to New Hampshire. But the 
opposition was of no avail. A bill was passed in the legislature June 
19, 1819, calling for a vote on July 26, separation to prevail if there 
should be a majority of fifteen hundred. The majority was about 
ten thousand. Sanford's vote stood ninety-seven for and sixty-nine 

Elisba Allen and Timothy Shaw were chosen as the town's dele- 
gates to the convention for tbe formation of a state Constitution 
which met in Portland, October 11-30. A committee of fifteen, to 
give the delegates instruction was provided, but the vote authorizing 
such a committee was rescinded at the same town meeting. At the- 
convention. Colonel Allen was on the committee of nine to propose 
a name and title for the new state. The committee reported " Com- 
monwealth of Maine." It was moved to substitute "State" for 
" Commonwealth," which was seconded by Colonel Allen, and car- 
ried. When the article in regard to the militia was under considera- 
tion, and the question arose whether minors should vote for company 
officers. Colonel Allen spoke of the diflSculty of discriminating be- 
teen those of age and minors. Both of the delegates recorded their- 


votes, with twenty-eight others, against the adoption of the Consti- 
tution, and refused to affix their signatures to it when engrossed, for 
which they were given a vote of thanks by the town on the grounds 
of the manifestation of " their integrity and patriotism." It is 
thought that the provision in regard to the apportionment of Repre- 
sentatives was one objectionable feature to the Sanford delegates, 
and perhaps that not requiring a religious qualification for holding 
office was another. December 6, the town voted on the ratification 
of the Constitution, giving only ten votes for, and eighty-five against. 
Maine was admitted as a state of the Union on March 15, 1820. 

The question of removing the courts seems to have been frequently 
agitated. The early shire-town, York, was at the southern extremity 
of the county, and the other, Biddeford, near the eastern extremity. 
In 1773 the town authorized a committee to petition the General 
Court that the courts held at Biddeford ' ' may be Eemoved to the 
Town of Wells, as it Near the Centor of the County." In 1790, 
Joshua Gooding and twenty-seven others petitioned for the removal 
of the courts from York and Biddeford to Waterborough. The last 
named was made a shire-town in 1790, where the Courts of Common 
Pleas and Sessions were held until removed to Alfred in 1806. 

The town voted in November, 1796, ten for, three against, removing 
ihe courts from York to Sanford ; and the year following, only three 
voted against removing the Superior Court from York. At the an- 
nual meeting, April 3, 1797, it was " Voted the Delegates from this 
town viz — Samuel Nasson Esq D"^ Elezer Chadbourn and Capt Shell- 
don Hobbs be desiered to Use there Influence that the S'' Court be 
Removed to Sanford or the next Adjeacant Place." 

In 1801 the question of removing the courts to Alfred came up, 
and the town petitioned to the General Court to remove the Supreme 
Court from Kennebunk (Wells) to Alfred. In 1802 the question 
again came up. The year following a jail lot was selected at Alfred, 
and in 1806 " the next Adjeacant Place " became a shire-town. The 
vote for a fire-proof building for the county records in 1814 was : Al- 
fred one hundred and sixty-six ; Wells, thirty-nine ; and Kennebunk, 
four. In 1859 the town voted against the removal of the courts or 
Any term of court from Alfred. 



Post- Roads — Horseback Mail Carriers — Stage Routes — Complete 
List of Postmasters — Locations of Offices. 

IN May, 1775, the first regular post-offlce in Maine was established 
in Kennebunk ( Wells). i The first post-road was established in 
1792, by Congress, to whom power is given by the Constitution. The 
road extended from Wiscasset, Maine, to Savannahj Ga., and, lying 
along the seaboard, passed through Portland, Saco, Wells and York. 
Mail matter for Sanford came to Kennebunk (Wells), and was 
brought thence by teamsters, and distributed, or left at the grocery 
store. As late as 1805, letters were sent that way; for April 1, 
among the letters remaining in the Kennebunk post-offlce, as adver- 
tised, were two for John Powers, Junior, and Daniel Wadlin (Wad- 
lia), of Sanford. 

By the act approved February 25, 1795, a post-road from Dover, 
N. H., through Berwick to Waterborough court house, was estab- 
lished, and the year following a post-offlce in Sanford, of which Col- 
onel Caleb Emery was appointed postmaster. 

Another post-road was established June 1, 1810, from Portland 
through Gorham, Buxton, Limerick, Limington, Cornish, Parsonsfield, 
Newfield, Shapleigh, Lebanon, Berwick, Sanford, Alfred, Water- 
borough, and Phillipsburg (Hollis), to Buxton ; and April 20, 1818, 
still another from Alfred by Sanford and Lebanon to Shapleigh. An- 
other, June 15, 1832, began at Great Falls, N. H., and passed 
through Lebanon, Sanford, Emery's Mills in Shapleigh, Acton Cor- 
ner, and Newfield, by the post-offlces called by those names, and 
through the west part of Parsonsfleld to the post-office in Effingham, 
N. H. It is interesting to notice that these routes began at centres 
of commerce or manufacturing, or business, at a time when they be- 
gan to develop. One route strikes us today as being exceedingly 
circuitous. In 1839, all railroads were made post-roads. From them 
shorter routes have gradually been established. 

i Bourne's " History of Wells and Kennebunk." 




At first the mail was carried in saddle-bags on horseback. The 
first wagon for the accommodation of passengers from Boston to 
Portland left Motley's tavern, with the mail, Saturday morning, and 
reached Portland in six days (Thursday evening). In 1809, the 
mail from Portland, by the circuitous route mentioned, left at eleven 
in the forenoon Monday, and arrived at Doughty's Falls (Dowty's) , 
by six o'clock "Wednesday evening ; returning at six in the morning 
Thursday, arrived in Portland by seven o'clock Monday evening. 

After 1813, the stage started daily, Sundays excepted, at seven in 
the morning, from Hale's or Wild's tavern, Ann Street, Boston, for 
Portsmouth and Portland. Jefferds's tavern, Kennebunk, was its 
stopping-place. To meet this stage once a week in 1820, the mail 
was delivered at Kennebunk from Alfred, Sanford, Lebanon, Shap- 
leigh, Newfield, Pavsonsfleld, and Cornish, on Saturday, and returned 
to Alfred the same day (evening), on the same route. In 1824, the 
mail reached Sanford Corner, Sunday morning, and was eagerly looked 
for by those shut out from the world beyond their home. One man, 
Eev. Mr. Marsh, " remembered the Sabbath day to keep it holy," 
and never called for his mail until Monday morning. 

" Old Tucker," as the mail carrier, James D. Tucker, was familiar- 
ly called, performed his duties with remarkable fidelity. Beginning 
with October, 1811, he served the people regularly through summer's 
heat and winter's cold, always as punctual as the weather and roads 
would allow. Two hundred and thirty miles a week, year in and 
year out, was his customary ride on horseback. That he might not 
be incapacitated for his duties, his diet was spare and his only drink 
a glass of home-made beer or a draught of cold water. Speaking to 
the writer of the olden times, Joshua Hobbs remarked: "The mail 
was carried on horseback in saddle-bags by Tucker. I can see him 
now, horse with head right down." At one time, Nathan Lord car- 
ried the mail. 

In 1825, Joseph Clark left Alfred on Sunday and Thursday morn- 
ings at eight o'clock, and passed through Sanford and Emery's Mills 
in Shapleigh, thence to Lebanon, Sanford, and back to Alfred by 
three o'clock in the afternoon, same day. In his advertisement of 
January 20, 1825 (in the Columbian Star), he says that " he will 
carry passengers when convenient, who wish to go on his route, 
for a reasonable compensation." His was probably the first wagon 
used in town for carrying the mail. In 1826, a stage left Portland 
at eight o'clock in the morning Mondays, Wednesdaj'S, and Fridays, 
passed through Sanford, and reached Dover, N. H., at five o'clock in 


the afternoon. It returned on alternate days. It brought the mail 
twice a weelf. 

The writer's first recollections of the mails are of their being 
brought from the North Berwick depot, about one o'clock every week- 
day, by Stackpole, George or Joe, driver. His coach ran to Spring- 
vale, Alfred, Waterborough, and Limerick. Mondays, Wednesdays, 
and Fridays, at eight o'clock he returned, leaving Alfred at seven 
o'clock, and on alternate days between one and two starting from 
Limerick in the morning. At a later period, the route was extended 
to Cornish. Charles Roberts of Alfred was then proprietor. Keay's 
stage also ran from Great Falls, through Sanford, Shapleigh, Acton, 
Newfield, and Parsonsfield, to Effingham, and returned on alternate 
days. When the route was estabUshed from Wells instead of North 
Berwick, it extended to Shapleigh, possibly to Newfield, and Jona- 
than Ross became mail-carrier. 

The first post-office was established in 1796, at what is now South 
Sanford, but eight years later removed to the Corner ; the second at 
Springvale, in 18S2 ; and the third at South Sanford in 1854. The 
following persons have held commissions as postmasters : 

Sanford. — Caleb Emery, July 1, 1796; Thomas Keeler, December 
31, 1804; Ebenezer Linscott, November 10, 1806; Stephen Gowen, 
January 18, 1816 ; Elisha Allen, December 13, 1817 ; John W. Bod- 
well, December 8, 1820; Elisha Allen, April 20, 1821; Timothy 
Shaw, February 27, 1830 ; Francis A. Allen, November 19, 1831 
Timothy Shaw, August 6, 1833 ; John W. Bodwell, July 13, 1841 
Timothy Shaw, January 31, 1846; John H. Kimball, May 3, 1849 
Increase S. Kimball, December 20, 1849 ; James H. Hubbard, May 
51, 1852 ; Salter Emery, December 2, 1852 ; Timothy Shaw, April 
14, 1853 ; William H. Miller, September 3, 1861 ; Increase S. Kim- 
ball, May 8, 1865 ; Miriam W. Emery (deputy, 1876), January, 1885 ; 
Lebbeus Butler, December, 1885 ; George H. Fogg, October 29, ] 887 ; 
Samuel (). NichoUs, May 28, 1889; Howard E. Perkins, March 29, 
1894; Newton H. Fogg, May 4, 1898. 

Springvale. — John Storer, December 8, 1832; Calvin R. Hubbard, 
July 29, 1833; Nathan D. George, May 27, 1835; John T. Paine, 
June 15, 1836 ; Tristram Gilman, April 4, 1849 ; Samuel Lord, April 
11, 1853; James H. Hurd, August 7, 1861; George A. Rollins, 
December 23, 1862; Howard Frost, January 26, 1864; Amos W. 
Low, June 19, 1885 ; Willis E. Sanborn, September i), 1889 ; Elmer 
E. Harris, January 15, 1895 ; George H. Roberts, February 14, 1899. 

South Sanford. — Joseph H. Moulton, October 6, 1854 ; George 


Clark, Junior, January 8, 1862 ; Joseph H. Moulton, December 17, . 
1862 ; Mrs. Hannah Dorr, May 8, 1893. 

Colouel Emery kept the post-offlce in his store, nearly opposite his 
old house. Thomas Keeler's office was in a small store at the Cor- 
ner, near the site of the Deacon Frost store. Dr. Linscott moved the 
office to his house, now occupied by Charles O. Emerj', and Stephen 
Gowen discommoded the people somewhat by having the office at his 
house across the river, where Edgar J. Wentworth now lives. Gen- 
eral AUen, John W. Bodwell and probably Francis A. Allen, kept it 
in Allen's store. In 1820, Allen having been chosen presidential 
elector, resigned, and Bodwell, a clerk in his store, just rising twenty, 
was appointed in his stead, but liaving performed his duty as an elec- 
tor, Allen was again commissioned. General Shaw transferred the 
office to his store at the upper end of the village, but General Bod- 
well kept it in the Morrill store, on the site of which Daniel G. Clark's 
house now stands. When General Shaw again received the appoint- 
ment, he occupied a small office built for that purpose, in the corner 
of his houselot, where Estes's drug store stands. A change of ad- 
ministration carried the office to Kimball's store on the corner above, 
where the Kimballs and Hubbard kept it, until it was removed, for 
reasons not political, to the Emery store at the lower corner, when 
Salter Emery was appointed postmaster. General Shaw again slowly 
distributed the mail in his post-office until William H. Miller changed 
the location to the Shaw store above. From there it was moved to 
the Kimball store on the site of Porrell's store, where it remained 
till the building was burned in April, 1866. Then it was located in the 
Shaw building, next in a small building on the corner of Daniel G. 
Clark's houselot, from there moved to Hobbs's store, next to S. B. 
Emery's store, and from there to the corner of School and Washing- 
ton Streets. The building was soon after moved down School Street, 
where the office remained till Gowen's block was built on the corner 
of School and Washington Streets, when it was moved to that struc- 
ture, where it remained till the building was partially destroyed by 
fire in 1899. For a few months it occupied a location near the old 
Nasson cemetery on Main Street, until it went into the fine new block 
on Central Square on the last day of September, 1900. 

At Springvale, Hubbard kept the office in Moses Butler's store and 
Butler was clerk. The people objected to going to a place where liq- 
uor was sold for their mail, and succeeded in securing the appoint- 
ment of Nathan D. George as postmaster. The office was in his shoe 
shop. Paine kept it in the building in which his office was, and 



Gilman in his drug store. Samuel Lord kept it in the corner store. 
During Frost's postmastership, a new building was erected just below 
the Lebanon road, which has been occupied since 1878. 

The pay of the early postmasters was small. In 1822-23 General 
Allen received about nine dollars and fifty-two cents per annum. John 
W. Bodwell's compensation in 1841 was fifty-six dollars and twenty- 
four cents, and John T. Paine's for one year, thirty-seven dollars 
and eighty-two cents. Letter postage was considerable in the first 
part of the century, ten cents being the charge in 1816 from Sanford 
to Portland. 

Sanford and Springvale for some years have had presidential post- 
oflSces ; that at South Sanford is a fourth-class office. 



Wayside Inns of the Oldeu Time — List of Early Innholders — Louis 
Philippe's Visit to Colonel Caleb Emery's Hostelry — Licensed 
Eetailers Prior to 1800. 

WAYSIDE inns were a feature of life in the frontier settlements. 
The dispensing of good cheer to man and beast was evidently 
deemed of greater necessity than the providing of facilities for gen- 
eral trade, if we are to judge by the records, the first innholder being 
licensed in 1749, and the earliest retailer in 1763. Following is a 
list of the first men licensed to keep public house in the community : 

JohnStanyan, 1749-50,1755-56, 1758, 1760-73. He probably kept 
tavern nearly twenty-five years, though licensed only about twenty. 
His inn stood near the site of John Fletcher's house at South San- 

Ephraim Low, 1769-71, 1773-75, 1777, 1778-84. His house stood 
-where Bert Groodrich's house now stands. In 1773, Amos W. G-ood- 
win logged above Sanford, and lodged in Low's tavern, which was 
then plastered. It is believed that the old part of the late John 
Lord's house on the site was the tavern. 

Jonathan Johnson, 1769-75, 1777-81, and Mary and Jonathan 
Johnson, 1782. The Johnson tavern was at South Sanford, in the 
house where the late Abiel H. Johnson resided for many years, now 
owned and occupied by his son Chase Johnson. 

Ebenezer Hall, 1779-84, 1791-92. His house was the first inn in 
what is now Alfred. It was about a mile above the village. In 
1794, he was a licensed innholder in the " District of Alfred." 

Caleb Emery, 1782-86. He built a large two-story house at South 
Sanford, the second, if not the first, of its kind in town. He was 
" principal" when Johnson was licensed in 1781, and his son William 
in 1787. 

William Emery, 1787-88, 1791-95. It is presumed that he took 
his father's business, and occupied the same tavern. 


William Frost, 1785, 1791-1807. His house was at what is now 
Springvale. About 1848, Dennis Hatch bought it, or part of it, and 
constructed part of a house from it. 

Obadiah Low, 1791. Presumably at his father's old stand. 

James Heard, 1785, 1791, 1793-96. 

Jesse Colcord, 1794-96, 1803-05. He was living just below the 
old meeting-house at South Sanford in 1804. 

Samuel Nasson. There is a tradition that he kept a tavern at the 
•Corner, and that his widow continued the business several years after 
Ms death. No record of license is found Mrs. Nasson boarded 
Elisha Allen. 

In the fall of 1797, Louis Philippe, King of the French, then in 
-exile, passed through Sanford on his journey from Portsmouth to 
Portland. He was accompanied by his two brothers, the Duke de 
Montpensier and the Count de Beaujolais, and Talleyrand, afterward 
the noted French diplomatist. They travelled leisurely in a covered 
-carriage, and remained, according to tradition, a day or two at 
Colonel Emery's tavern. The " old Colonel" and his wife received 
their royal guests with native hospitality, and seated them at a table 
loaded with good cheer. It is said that Louis Philippe, being a late 
.Tiser, had breakfast served in his room in the morning. The King 
^nd his suite were much pleased with the pictures that hung upon the 
walls of the " spare room." They were probably the work of some 
French artist, who had designated them in the French language. 
Oolonel Emery's tavern was a palatial residence for those days, and 
■was widely known throughout this section. It was standing until a 
•few years ago, being occupied by David Cram, and was finally torn 
.down, much of the lumber being used to construct the houses of Mrs. 
David Cram (now standing on the spot), and of Christopher Cram. 

Most of the early traders whose names have been handed down to 
posterity were licensed retailers. Some sold only intoxicating liquors, 
but the majority dealt in groceries, among which, it should be said, 
one of the leading articles was New England rum. The dates given, 
for the most part, designate the years for which the parties were li- 
oensed, although in some cases they were engaged in trade after the 
expiration of their licenses : 

Daniel CoflSn, 1763. In that year he bought of Naphtali Harmon 
forty acres of land lying along the Mousam. He probably traded in 
iihe Moulton neighborhood at South Sanford. 

Ephraim Low, 1768, 1770. His store was at or near his residence, 
one mile below the Corner. 


John White, 1768. He settled, about 1766, near what was later 
Conant's mill, Alfred, and appears to have been the earliest trader iit 
that part of the town. 

William Bennett, 1773-74. South Sanford. 

Tobias Lord. There is a tradition that he traded at Moulton'* 
mill. Mouse Lane, but whether before he was drafted during thfr 
Revolutionary War, we have no knowledge. 

Samuel Nasson, 1778-1800. The time of the opening of the first 
store at Sanford Corner is fixed by his day book, which was beguo. 
September 29, 1778. The store stood opposite his dwelling-house,, 
on the site of S. Benton Emery's house on Washington Street. 
There he traded more than twenty years, though he seems to havfr 
been licensed only eight years. 

Caleb Emery, 1780-81 , 1796-1805. His store stood near his tavern 
at South Sanford. 

Joseph Leigh, 1781-87 (?). Leigh lived and traded in the house- 
owned by Simon Stackpole. We know that he was licensed four 
years, and that complaint was made against him, in 1787, for not. 
paying his excise. 

Nathaniel Bennett, 1782-84. South Sanford. 

William Parsons, 1783, 1792-93. He was a licensed retailer irt 
the North Parish. 

Joshua Taylor, 1784. 

Thomas Gile, 1790-92 (Guild in 1790). North Parish. 

Joshua Goodwin, 1791-93. He probably traded at Mouse Lane ;:. 
was at Alfred, in 1796. 

James Heard, 1792. 

Jesse Colcord, 1792-93, 1799-1805. South Sanford. 

William Frost, Junior, 1792-93, 1808-12. His store was south- 
east of his dwelling-house at Springvale. It was moved to the brow 
of the hill near Murray's stable, and was owned of late years by 
Sylvanus B. Hill. 

John Knight, 1792-93. North Parish. 

Joseph Carl, 1793-94. 

Samuel Hill, 1794. 

Eobert Johnson, 1797-98. South Sanford. 

George Frost, 1799. 

Moses Chick, 1800. 

The form of a license in the first years of the settlement was as; 
follows : 

to be a Retailer, the said , principalv 


became bound by way of recognizance to our Sovereign Lord the 

King in the penal sum of Ten Pounds, and 

, sureties, in Five Pounds each, to be paid unto our said Sov- 
ereign Lord the King his heirs or successors on condition that the 
said is admitted a Eetailer in said Town of , 

shall use, uphold, and keep good rule and order in his said house, 
and duly observe the laws relating to persons so licensed, and the 

said , principal, entered into recognizance to his 

Majesty in the sum of Ten Pounds, and 

, sureties, in Five Pounds each, on condition that the said 

shall duly and truly pay the duties of excise and ob- 

serve the laws relating thereto. 


WAR OF 1812. 

Feeling of the People — Failure of Crops Causes Filling of Sanford'* 
Quota — Patriotic Ode Gives Lieutenant John Hanson His Com- 
mission — Names of Soldiers. 

THE Embargo, as we have already stated, was followed by acts- 
which resulted in the second war with Great Britain in 1812. 
A large and strong party, especially in New P^ngland, opposed this- 
war, and placed obstacles in the way of carrying it on. The people 
of Sanford had protested against the Embargo with vehemen3e, but 
a small majority of voters for electors in 1812 showed their prefer- 
ence for the war candidate for President, and a much larger number 
declared themselves to be satisfied with the war party by casting their- 
votes for the Republican candidates for Governor during tte three 
years' war. And yet, it was with diflSculty that the town's quota was 
filled. The late William Emery informed the writer that the ;,fovern- 
ment " could not have filled the ranks here, if the crops had not been 
cut off." 

At a Fourth of July celebration in 1812, held in Stephen Gowen's 
orchard, an original patriotic ode was sung which is said to have won 
for its author a commission in the army. The ode revealed the spirit, 
of the times, not only in its expression of patriotism, but als( in the 
implication that Revolutionary soldiers, pensioned on account of 
wounds received in their service, were opposed to the war recently 
declared ; that there were civil discords and factions endangei ng the 
country from within ; and that some persons even preferred a civil war- 
to one with another country. It is stated that John Hanson composed 
this ode, and because of it, received a^ commission, unsought, as Lieu- 
tenant in the regular army. It is certain that Madison commissioned 
him in 1813, to date from November 13, 1812. Lieutenant Hanson 
served in a rifle regiment. His first engagement was at York, April 
27, 1813. He was afterward present at the attack of the British un- 
'der General Drummond upon Fort Erie; September 17, 1814, of 
which one bastion was taken, so vigorous was the assault, but was 
recovered through the persistence and daring of our troops. Captain 

WAR OF 1812. 191 

Hanson (he received this title in 1807, in the militia), died August 
12, 1842, aged sixty-one years. 

In September, 1812, one hundred and seventy-four soldiers, or men 
liable for military service, were enrolled in Sanford. 

The following Sanford men in addition to Lieutenant Hanson are 
known to have served in the war : 

John Batchelder, blacksmith, twenty-three years of age, served in 
Colonel Lane's regiment, Thirty-Third United States Infanti^, as cor- 
poral, and was discharged at Flattsburg, N. Y., May 5, 1814, having 
served the term of his enlistment. He married Betsey, daughter of 
Ezra and Abigail (Wilson) Thompson, and had two cihildren, Justus 
and Mercy. He was lost at sea. 

Stephen Bridges (in the Revolutionary War?), was a private in 
Captain Isaac Hodsdon's company, Colonel Lane's regiment. There 
is a tradition, however, that he could not pass muster on account of 
defective eyesight; whereupon he exclaimed with fervor : "Thank 
God, I can't see as well as some folks!" 

Levi Chadbourn. 

Nathan Goodwin, afterwards Captain in the Maine militia, was in 
Captain Goodnow's company, Thirty-Third Infantry. 

John Gowen, Junior. 

Isaac Hanson died in the service. He was in Captain Rufus Mc- 
Intire's company, Third United States Light Artillery, which saw sei'- 
vice on the western frontier and in Canada, from July, 1812, to June 
15, 1815. 

Samuel P. Hay ward, died June 2, 187S, aged eighty-two years. 

Nathaniel Hobbs. 

Jotham Johnson, was at Kittery. 

John Moore, musician, in Captain Peter Chadwick's company, 
Thirty-Fourth United States Infantry, April, 1813-1814. He was 
last seen at Sapkett's Harbor, where he was left sick. 

John Moore, Junior. 

Japhet Morrison. 

Hiram Murraj^ who enlisted from Shapleigh, but lived in Sanford 
nearly forty years, served at Kittery Point in the fall of 1814. He 
was the son of William Murray of Berwick, a Revolutionary soldier, 
and was born in Shapleigh, November 26, 1792. EVom March 9,. 
1878, he received a pension of eight dollars a month, and died at his 
daughter's home in Mansfield, Mass., May 28, 1886. 

Samuel Nasson, died in the service. He was in Captain Rufus 
Mclntire's company. Third United States Light Artillery, which saw 

192 I1I8T()1!Y OF SANFOKI). 

service on the westeru frontier and in Canada, from July, 1812, to 
June 15, 1815. 

John Phimmer. 

John Quint. 

Nathaniel Quint, died May 16, 1831, aged forty-nine years. 

William Tripp. 

Obadiah True, a Revolutionary soldier. 

Simeon Wallace. 

Caleb "Willard, never returned. 

Jotham Willard. 

Levi Willard, son of Evat, at Kittery Foreside. 

Moses Witham, musician, in Captain Chadwiek's company, Colonel 
Learned's regiment, April, 1813-1814. He was a fifer, and at his 
death left his fife to his daughter, Mrs. Hiram Witham. He was at 
Stony Creek, June 6, 1813, and at Plattsburg. September 11, 1814. 
He was the son of Jacob Witham, born about 1791, and died in 
Madrid, Maine, in 1874, aged eighty-three years. 

Aaron Young, died in the service. 

The compiler has also found, among the notes of the author, the 
following lists of names, unexplained, but undoubtedly a number of 
the soldiers there given were from Sanford : 

Captain Isaac Hodson's company, Thirty-Third United States In- 
fantry : Jeremiah Goodwin was paymaster ; Joseph I'attee, sergeant ; 
John Stanyal, private. 

Captain Rufus Mclntire's company, Third United States Light Ar- 
tillery : Samuel S. Stacey, Benjamin Cheney, sergeants ; Abraham 
Crosby, Ezra Haskell, Corporals ; George Giirey (?) artificer ; Wil- 
liam Webber, Daniel Bridges (?), Ebenezer Clark, Daniel Garey, 
John Quint, Junior, Aaron Welch (?), and Daniel Welch (?) privates. 

Roster of Captain Bartholomew Thompson's company, second reg- 
iment. First Brigade, Major Nowell, at Kiltery, from October 1 to 
November 1, 1814: 

Captain — Bartholomew Thompson, Berwick. 

Lieutenants — Alexander Worcester, Lebanon ; Ephraim Low, 

Ensign — Wentworth Butler, Berwick. 

Sergeants — Elias Libby, Samuel Drew, Samuel Frost, Reuben 
Dennett, Thomas Abbot, John Abbot. 

Musicians — Jacob Hamilton, Phineas Morrill. 

Corporals — Alpheus Hanson, Temple Lord, Joseph Spinney, 
James Pray. 


WAR or 1812. 193 

Privates — J. R. Bragdon, Ebenezer Brackett, Joseph Boston, 
David Brackett, Gideon Brooks, Tilley Clement, George Carlisle, 
Samuel Chick, Thomas Chick, Oliver Cutts, Benjamin Chadbourn, 
Isaac Courson, Joel Emery, William Estes, Williani Fogg, Alexan- 
der Ferguson, John Fall, Benjamin Goodwin, John Goodwin, Thom- 
as Grant, Nelson Hill, John Hooper, James Heart (Heard ?) , Me- 
shach Horn, Samuel Hanscom, Mark Hart, Stephen Jellison, Hugh 
Kennison, Alpheus Kennard, Thomas Keay, Abednego Leathers, Jer- 
emiah Low, John Linscott, William Linscott, John Libby, Nathaniel 
Low, Ivory Murry, Oliver Marrs, Joseph Muchmore, Adam Murry, 
Hiram Murry, Caleb Miller, Junior, Seth Maxwell, Peletiah Mason, 
Nathan Nason, David Nock, Mark Nowell, Hopkins Pierce, Stephen 
Pierce, Nahum Perkins, Jesse Perkins, Nathaniel Pike, John Penny, 
John Raitt, Alexander Raitt, John Roberts, William Randall, Thomas 
Roberts, Jacob Ricker, Richard Ricker, Joshua Rankin, Theodore 
Round, Theodore Ricker, Nathaniel Ricker, Levi Ricker, Enoch Rem- 
ick, Hutchings Remington, Stephen Stackpole, Stephen Smith, Joseph 
Smith, Thomas H. Stanley, S. R. Spinney, Timothy Staples, Rook 
Stillings, Oliver Staples, William Staples, John Spinney, Hiram 
Snow, Absalom Stackpole, George Sherburn, Samuel Thurrell, John 
Thurrell, Oliver Thompson, Ezekiel Twombley, Obadiah Taylor, 
Jotham Taylor, Zacheus Trafton, Ivory Trafton, James Varney, 
Samuel Wilkinson, Clement Wooster, John Whitehouse, Enoch Went- 
worth, John Weymouth, Moses Welch, Richard Young. 



Growth of the Town — Business Prosperity — Houses — Sanford 
Corner — Springvale — Naming of the Village — Deering Neigh- 
borhood — South Sanford — Oak Hill — Shaw's Kidge and "Gram- 
mar Street " — Mount Hope — Innholders and Traders. 

FOR several years prior to the Revolution, the town was quite 
prosperous, notwithstanding the poor condition in 1768. The 
valuation of 1771 gave the annual worth of the real estate one year 
with another as two hundred and four pounds, ten shillings. The 
lumber business was- thriving, and farming and stock raising were 
quite successful. The Revolution put a stop to the lumber opera- 
tions, and the people, not away in the army, had to turn their atten- 
tion exclusively to farming. Every family felt compelled to raise 
its own food and clothe its own backs. After the Revolution, busi- 
ness took a fresh start. New impulse was given by the influx of 
population. Lumber of all kinds sold quickly, and at good prices. 
Ship timber was in demand. One Paul Shaekford, of Arundel, built 
a small coasting vessel in Sanford, near Moulton's mill, and hauled 
it to Kennebunk Landing on the snow. Lumber was dull during the 
War of 1812, the Embargo having crushed out shipping and de- 
stroyed commerce. At Kennebunk, where the market price of lumber 
was fixed, good merchantable boards were worth only four dollars a 

Before considering Sanford in the early days of the century, let us 
look back for a moment at the style of houses built in the beginnings 
of the settlement. Frame-houses, gradually supplanting log and 
block-houses, were erected, generally one story in height, with now 
and then a two-story dwelling. At the opening of the century, there 
were not more than ten or twelve two-story houses in town, and not 
one painted. The Nasson and Colonel Emery houses were the first 
of the former, and Ezekiel Gowen's, on the Mount Hope road, the 
first of the latter. The body of Mr. Gowen's house was painted 


yellow, and the roof, Spanish brown. Master Gowen's house was 
another of the early painted houses. His paint was red ochre, from 
the Red brook on Hanson's ridge. He pounded and sifted the ochre, 
and mixed it with flsh oil and skim milk. It stood the test of time, 
and some parts of it were quite bright in the writer's early years. 

The Nasson house,' which stood until within a few years on the 
brow of the hill, opposite S. Benton Emery's on Washington Street, 
was known more than a century ago as the Brigadier Moulton house. 
It was built by Jeremiah Moulton's grandfather. General Jotham 
Moulton, of York, about a mile below the Corner, opposite George 
Brearey's present residence, in 1740-41. After General Moulton's 
death in 1777, it was moved to the " Iron Works lot, " probably in 
1778, for it was standing on its location of late years in 1779. It 
was the largest house in town, and was called the " great house." 
It took two or three days to move it, and it is said that when the 
oxen hauling it were unhitched, they ran as if pleased to be freed 
from restraint. In 1858, Mrs. Sophia Webster, a daughter of Major 
Nasson, gave this account: The first house in this village was 
hauled here from the hill just below John Lord's (Bert Goodrich's). 
When hauled by Colonel Moulton, it was a one-story house, but soon 
after another story was added. In those days, it was the fashion to 
name houses, and the following couplet was used on that occasion : 

"Here's a new addition for the old foundation ; 
May it be a blessing for tlie rising generation." 

We have reason to believe that such a blessing it proved to be, for 
Mr. Nasson had six children by a former wife, Mrs. Nasson had six 
by her first husband, and they had four, making sixteen who were at 
one time living under the same roof. In this house were held a num- 
ber of the most important town meetings of the young days of San- 

The one-story dwellings were generally of the style known as the- 
" five room" houses. The front door was in the middle of the side 
toward the road, though in some cases it was on the back side, and 
frequently the house was built with reference to the slope of the site,, 
not to the road. The chimney, with its huge fireplace and brick oven,, 
was in the centre. On each side of the front entry was a large room, 
back of which were two small bed rooms. Between them was the 
kitchen. Sometimes, a porch or back entry was built, adjoining the 
kitchen. In the attic were two low, unfinished rooms, sometimes 

1 It was moved in 1894 (rom its original locatioD to the rear, on the same lot. 


separated only by the chimney and a board partition. Boards were 
put on with pins, not nails, as seen in David Bean's old house. 

Such houses as (1875) Joel Moulton's, Abiel H. Johnson's, and the 
ell, or old part of John Lord's, were of the style built subsequently 
to the block-houses. Mr. Moulton thought his house, originally 
twenty by thirty-six feet, with only two rooms, was built by John 
Willard, not far from 1758. Mr. Johnson said, in 1875, that his 
house had been standing one hundred and ten years. At any rate, 
at one time during the Revolution, the quota of Sanford met there to 
start for the seat of war. Mrs. Lord told the writer that Amos 
Ooodwin logged above Sanford in 1773, and lodged in the house. 
Ephraim Low then kept tavern there. 

As late as 1797, a timber house was built on the farm afterward 
occupied by John Bean. 

One Moore commenced building a house or store near Bert Good- 
rich's. After it was boarded, Moore died. The house was moved to 
Gowen farm, and was occupied for years by the Gowen family. 

Frost Garey built a house in Jotham Moulton pasture, of late 
jears Wentworth Davis's. 

The Wadlia house was hauled to the Corner, and set on laud of 
William Emery, by Thaddeus Littletield, about 1845. It was after- 
vrards owned by Deacon Stephen Dorman. 

The old Linscott house at Mouse Lane fell many years ago, and 
another was raised on the other side of the river the same day. 

"When Parson Sweat came to town, he moved into one chamber in 
Ephraim Low's house, in which chamber were two windows of six 
panes each. 

Stephen Gowen raised his house-frame, June 28, 1791. Six years 
later he raised his barn. 

Jotham Wilson built a house up from the road, which was occu- 
pied by John T. Paine, and of late years by Asa Low. He also built 
on Main Street, where his widow lived for years. The next house 
above was built by a widow, Mrs. Batchelder, of Shapleigh. The 
Greenhalgh house was hauled there. 

Sanford Corner. — The Nasson house was the first at the Corner, 
unless the Stackpole house across the river was standing when the 
Nasson house was moved. The Moulton house was built prior to 
1797, the Chick house about 1800, the Eliot Frost house after 1803, 
and the Keeler house about the same time. In 1805 or 6, these houses 
were standing : Joshua Batchelder's, Nasson's, Moulton's, Keeler's, 
Frost's, Stimpson's, Chick's, and Dr. Linscott's. Mrs. Sophia "Web- 


ster informed the writer in 1858 tliat she could remember when there 
were only three houses between her father's (Major Nasson's) and 
William Frost's. These were probably "Gansby" (Gatensby) 
Witham's, John Adams's, and Jonathan Adams's. One of the Ad- 
amses lived where Ira Witham lives. Two houses across the river 
were the only ones to be seen from the Nasson house, so thick were 
the woods all around. 

In 1877, Deacon Joshua Hobbs, born February 8, 1805, gave the 
writer this account of the Corner: He came to Sanford in 1821, as 
clerk in the store of John Storer and Co. They traded in the Chad- 
bourn house, where Obed Littlefleld now lives. It was one story then. 
There were at that time Deacon Frost's house (General Shaw's) , John 
Frost's store (moved to Springvale), the Eliot Frost house, John 
Hanson's (Dr. Weld's) , Jonathan Clark's office and house (General 
Bodwell's), Joseph Webster's, Willard family in house above (Stimp- 
son's) , Dr. Linscott's (Storer house) ; back on the other side, Na- 
thaniel Chadbourn's house on the corner (moved up), the Dr. Lins- 
cott house (occupied by George Heard) toward Lebanon, Samuel 
Chadbourn's house. Deacon Frost's barn and store. Deacon Moulton's 
house and small house below ; across the road. General Allen's house 
and store, the Nasson house, occupied by Thomas Nasson ; across 
the river, Joshua Batchelder's (Stackpole's), Stephen Gowen's, and 
James Gowen's, near the mill. There was a saw-mill at the upper 
falls, and a grist-mill at the lower falls. Joseph Webster was a car- 
penter, and John Hanson, blacksmith. 

When Deacon Stephen Dorman came to Sanford in 1824, the fol- 
lowing houses were standing : Elisha Allen's, on corner (burned in 
1853), Jeremiah Moulton's, Jotham Wilson's (S. Benton Emery's), 
Nasson house. Deacon Frost's, Moses Morrill's, opposite the tin-shop 
(built by Eliot Frost), Captain John Hanson's (the Dr. Weld house, 
burned) , Jonathan Clark's (opposite Miss Ellen M. Emery's) , Dr. 
Dow's (in process of building) , Joseph Webster's (above Clark's) , 
Rev. Christopher Marsh's (Charles 0. Emery's), Jotham Moulton's 
(burnt), John Storer's, Widow Linscott's (Storer house) ; across the 
river : "Colonel " Batchelder's (Stackpole house), Stephen Gowen's 
(Edgar Wentworth's), Webber house ; on '-Hardscrabble :" Captain 
Wilkinson's, Solomon Thompson's, J. Wilkinson's, Flanders Hatch's, 
and one other ; below the Corner : Joshua Tebbets's, Jonathan Teb- 
bets's, Amos W. Goodwin's (Bert Goodrich's) ; towards Lebanon: 
Gowen's house. 

Springvale. — In 1770 a saw-mill was built on the province land 


above the head-line of the town, which was known as the Province 
mill. It was the first mill at Springvale. In 1787 Margaret Adams 
owned and occupied a hut in the vicinity. The land lying between 
the road running past her hut and the river was sold to William 
Frost. Prior to 1790, Ichabod Spencer, Ephraim Getchell, John 
Beatle, and Joseph Chaney lived across the river. 

The early settlers in the north part of the town, beginning at the 

Shapleigh line, on the main road, were : Aaron Jellison ; 

Cousens, on left of road below the bridge ; Captain David Morrison. 
The latter came into town about 1785. John Morrison lived in the 
third house on the place. The first was a log-house. On the back 
road ending at Morrison's Corner lived David Welch, first settler in 
that section, his land being deeded in 1 773 ; Ebenezer Morrison ; 
Ephraim Curtis, on hill near Morrison's mill ; house near the grist- 
mill, occupied by the miller. Below Morrison's Corner : Joshua 

Goodwin, shoemaker and tanner; Murray; Jasper Grant; 

William Frost. John Thompson built a log-house on the cross road 
about 1820. 

In 1821, between Sanford Corner and the Shapleigh line, the houses 
of the following persons were standing, in the order named : William 
Gowen, Joseph Beatle, William Chapman, Jonathan Adams, William 
Frost, Jasper Grant, Joshua Goodwin, John Frost, Thomas Shackley, 
Captain David Morrison, Jotham Stevens, Aaron Jellison. 

In 1827, the site of the village of Springvale was a tract of land 
partly covered with wood, lying open to the public, and not fenced. 
A school-house, the Frost house, and two or three other houses were 
all the buildings there. William H. Frost, in 1883, gave the writer 
the following account of the village : " Joseph Witham's, Ichabod 
Frost's, and Henry Grant's houses were standing in 1827. Benjamin 
Chaney lived where Isaac Reed afterward lived ; Ichabod Spencer, 
where Asa Low ; Dodipher Ricker, near Darling H. Ross's, and a 
Murray where Charles H. Frost's house stands. Ichabod Frost 
bought land of Theodore Willard and Ephraim Getchell, and built a 
mill the same year. The deed was to Frost and Jotham Wilson. They 
sold one-half of the water power to the Manufacturing Company. The 
Province mill stood where Butler and Fogg's shoe factory stands. It 
fell on account of its age. Two mills have been burned on the site. 
Frost built for Lewis, of Boston, the first saw-mill across the river." 

The Province mill privilege was sold in 1828 to John Whitaker and 
Co., who engaged in. calico printing, erecting several buildings on the 
brow of the hill and near the spring. Among those interested in the 


Print Works was Thomas Greenhalgh, who had been in his native 
Lancashire an acceptable local preacher of the Methodist denomina- 
tion, but, for two years after his arrival in America, before coming 
to Sanford, superintendent of the Tourlin Print Works in Dover, 
N. H. To him, William H. Frost told the writer, we are indebted 
for the beautiful name of the village. In the presence of villagers 
and English operatives, gathered near the cold, crystalline spring, 
Elder Greenhalgh, mounted on a box, offered prayer. Then answer- 
ing the question, " What shall we call it?" he thus named the settle- 
ment: " Spring," pointing to the clear water at his feet, and with a 
gesture down the valley, " vale, Springvale." 

It was not long before a number of the English residents peti- 
tioned to be naturalized, among whom were : John Whitaker, 1827 ; 
Thomas Clark, Matthew Hodgdon, James M. Gratrix, Robert Moon, 
1828; Jonathan Chadwick, Edward Thompson, James McA. Teer, 
William Waddington, 1829 ; James Ashton, Thomas Greenhalgh, 
James Hamer, George Barnes, Henry Hampson, 1830. 

Above Springvale, Ephraim Getchell, Enoch Lord, Joseph Chaney, 
Elias Littlefleld, Solomon Littlefield, Abraham Morrison and John 
Bedell lived ; the first two on the Beaver Hill road, and the others 
on the other road. Chaney, Getchell, and Morrison married sisters 
of the two Littlefields. 

Deering Neighhorlwod. — William Merrifield (March, 1776), Fran- 
cis Pugsley (Captain Nathan Goodwin settled on the Pugsley place), 
Joseph Butler, Gideon Deering, Jethro Heard, William Deering, Ed- 
mund Goodwin, William, Samuel and Simeon Bicker, Abraham Car- 
roll, Moses Butler, Moses Pray, and William Worster were among 
the early settlers. The Worsters, William, Samuel, and Fernald, 
were blacksmiths. Elder Robinson also lived in this neighborhood. 
Among the old-time school teachers were Abraham Carroll, Joseph 
Dam, John Hanson, Daniel Gowen, William B. Merrick, Tobias 
Emery, and Ivory M. Thompson. 

South Sanford. — Within the memory of the late Miss Mary Ann 
Emery, the following lived at South Sanford, probably about 1810 : 
John Thompson, Jesse Thompson, Stephen Johnson, John Parsons, 
Thomas Parsons, Robert Tripp, Samuel and George Tripp, Caleb 
Emery, William Nasson, Jotham Johnson, Moses Tebbets, Stan- 
ley, Garey, John Powers, Joel Moulton, Moses Sweat, Josiah 

Paul (the last four beyond Powers's bridge) . 

Oak Hill. — Robert Allen was the first settler on Oak Hill. Sol- 
omon, his son, and Elijah, his brother, were early settlers there. 


James Heard, born in Dover, N. H., moved from Beech ridge to 
Oak Hill in 1783. His son, Jacob, and grandson, Jacob S., inherited 
or purchased his estate, above the Aliens. Daniel Getchell and Jabez 
Perkins came from Wells, and took up land at the foot of the hill 
below the Aliens. Mrs. Martha (Patty) Johnson, eighty-three years 
of age in 1878, said there were on the hill in her childhood, James 
Heard, James Cole, Caleb Cole, Solomon Allen, James Allen, Jede- 
diah Allen, and Andrew Allen. At the foot Joshua Brooks lived. 
Toward Wells, James Davis, father and son, Jabez Perkins, and 
Daniel Getchell. 

Shaw's Ridge and " Grammar Street." — Three sons of Ephraim 
Low, who settled below the Corner, took up farms on the ridge for- 
merly known by their name, — David, Ephraim, Junior, and Oba- 
diah. Their farms afterward came into the possession of Jeremiah, 
Joseph, and Samuel Shaw, respectively, though Pelatiah Penney pre- 
ceded Samuel Shaw in the occupancy of his. Ephraim Low, Junior, 
was on the ridge in 1777. There was a Boston on the farm owned 
by the late George W. Gowen, and Jeremiah Witham and Ezra 
Thompson lived in the neighborhood the last part of the last century. 
Jeremiah Witham owned three fifty acre lots, one for each of his 
children, Stephen, Sarah, and Huldah (?). Going up, came Boston, 
Samuel Shaw, Jeremiah Shaw, and Ephraim Low, Junior. Reuben 
Wilkinson, at one time, lived below Daniel Garey's on the same side. 
Others in the section were Naphtali Harmon, Nathan Powers, Will- 
iam Powers and William Tripe. 

Mount Hope. — Charles Annis, Joseph Hill, Jeremiah Wise and 
Simon Tebbets were among the early settlers on Mount Hope, which 
until 1806 was known as Annis's Hill. 

The innholders in town in the early part of the century were : Jere- 
miah Moulton, 1800-02, at Sanford Corner; Pelatiah Ricker, 1806; 
Elisha Allen, 1815, at the Corner; John Powers, Junioi-, 1819-33, 
(except for about four years), at South Sanford, at the corner be- 
tween the county and Alfred roads ; James B. Shapleigh, 1828-30, 
1832-33, who built a hotel at the Corner, afterwards owned and oc- 
cupied by Simon Tebbets ; Ichabod Frost, 1832-33, at Springvale. 

The traders from 1801 until 1830, or thereabouts, compiised : Wil- 
liam Emery, 1801, 1809-10, South Sanford; William Stanley, 1801- 
02 ; William Simpson, 1801-02, probably opposite Lebanon Street 
at the Corner; Elisha Allen, 1802-31, traded in the store which he 
built in 1802, on the corner just northwest of the site of Hosea Wil- 


lard's house at the Corner. It was destroyed by fire, February 27, 
1853; Job Winchell; Jotham Stevens, 1802-10; Thomas Shackley, 
1802-21 , Morrison's Corner ; Samson Johnson ; Thomas Keeler, came 
from "Wells in the summer of 1802, and began trade at South San- 
ford, in a small store probably occupied previously by the Bennetts. 
He then moved to the Corner, where according to tradition he traded 
in the Deacon Frost store until 1806 ; Eliot Frost, 1803-06, 1809-10, 
1812-13, built the store which stood on the site of Daniel G. Clark's 
house at the Corner, and in 1845 removed to Springvale ; Jeremiah 
Moulton, 1803-05, Sanford Corner ; George Leighton, 1804 ; Robert 
Tripp, 1806-07, South Sanford; Ichabod Lord, 1807-11; Currier 
and Brown, 1807; Henry T. and Caleb Emery, 1807, Caleb Emery, 
Third, 1808, Caleb Emery, Junior, 1809, and Caleb Emery, Fourth 
(?), at the Comer; John Powers, Junior, and Otho Hamilton, 1808, 
South Sanford; Joseph "Webster, 1809-12, Stimpson store. Corner; 
Ebenezer Nowell, 1809; John Frost, 1810 (?) ; John Colcord, re- 
garding whom there is a tradition that he traded in the upper part of 
John Frost's house, a mile or more above Springvale; John Hanson, 
1810-12; Samuel S. Stacey, 1810; "William Gowen, Junior, 1810; 
Jedediah Allen; John S. Cram; Jonathan Johnson, Junior; Henry 

Hamilton ; Moore, in a store in Bert Goodwin's garden ; Ab- 

ner Hill, 1811-13;. John Frost, Junior, 1811-15, and John Frost, 
Second, 1818, 1820-29, 1830-39 (?), in tlie store at the Corner, for- 
merly occupied by Frank Broggi on the site of Garnsey's block, and 
burned May 1, 1892. Deacon Frost bought out the Emerys (Henry 
T. and Caleb) , moved tlieir store to the northwest side of the road to 
Alfred, and fitted it up for a tin-shop for Edwards and Hill. He then 
built a twostory store, 'in two weeks, and had his goods in. He was 
the first trader in town to give up the sale of intoxicating liquors. 
His son, George A., was with him the last three years of his trading ; 
John Powers, Junior, 1811-13, 1825-29, South Sanford ; Nathaniel 
Chadbourn, 1812-13, at the Corner, in the Chick house, or the house 
occupied by Obed Littlefield ; Henry "Wadlia, 1813; Samuel Chad- 
bourn, 1815, probably where Nathaniel Chadbourn traded ; Moses 
Morrill, 1816-20, at the Corner in the Eliot Frost store. There was 
a firm. Frost and Morrill, in 1818 ; Samuel Shackford, 1816 ; Thomas 
Shackford (Shackley ?), 1818; John Storer and Co., 1820, 1824- 
25, 1826-28, and John Storer, 1821-24, 1825-26, 1828-29. They 
traded three or four years in the Chadbourn house, then one story, 
and then built the large square store which stood on the opposite cor- 
ner, on the site of Fred Porrell's. The building was burned in 1866 ;. 


Major John F'rost, Third, 1821-25, in the store formerly occupied by 
Moses Morrill ; Robert Fernald, 1822-30, first at Morrison's Corner, 
and afterwards at Springvale ; Nancy Shackley, 1822-23, she being 
probably the widow of Thomas Shackley, who traded at Morrison's 
Corner; Jotham Storer, 1825, 1836, 1840, in the Deacon Frost store 
at the Comer. He traded at one time at Springvale, where James 
Butler had traded; Timothy Shaw, 1825-39, in the Stimpson store at 
the Corner; William -Stanley, Junior, 1825-27; John Linscott, 1825- 
30, on Shaw's ridge; James Butler, 1826-31, 1832-33, 1840-41, at 
Springvale; William Hobbs, 1826-28 ; John Butler, 1828-30, 1832- 
33 (?), at Butler's Corner ( ?) ; John Hill, 1829-30 ; Micah Phillips ; 
Eoswell Phillips ; Thomas Bennett ; Rufus Hatch ; John Cram ; Wil- 
liam B. Merrick ; James Allen ; John Hubbard ; John Tobey ; Japhet 
Hill; Stephen Young ; Jacob Hodsdon ; Skeele and Hobbs, 1829-30. 
They bought out John Storer and occupied the Storer store ; Skeele 
or Emery succeeded Skeele and Hobbs, 1832 (?), and was in turn 
succeeded by John Skeele. The dates given, for the most part, des- 
ignate the years the parties were licensed. 

Early auctioneers were : Caleb Emery, Third, 1809-10 ; p:benezer 
Linscott, 1811 ; Samuel S. Stacey, 1812 ; Ephraim Low, Junior, 1812 ; 
Abner Hill, 1814, 1816-17 ; William Butler, 1822 ; Ebenezer Nowell, 

As early as 1816, Joseph Edwards had a tin-shop on the site of the 
Emery store. He removed to Lyman, and afterwards to Biddeford- 



The Village Train- band — Horrible Casualty at General Frost's 
Funeral — General Muster — List of Militia OfHcers — Florida 
War — Madawaska War. 

WILLIAMSON informs us that in 1744 there were one hundred 
and fifty able-bodied or feneible men in Phillipstown, belong- 
ing to Colonel Pepperrell's regiment. While this is evidently a mis- 
take as to figures, it is of interest as indicating the attention that was 
given from the start to the subject of citizen soldiery. The train-band 
existed in almost every town, and long after the necessity for the 
minute-man had passed away, the continuance of the militia served 
to foster the military spirit of the forefathers. As early as 1762, 
there is record of a Phillipstown company, of which Benjamin Har- 
mon was Captain, Jonathan Johnson, Lieutenant, and Naphtali 
Harmon, Ensign. In 1776, besides the soldiers actively engaged in 
tlie warfare of the Revolution, there were in the ten towns of York 
County three militia regiments, in which Sanford was well repre- 
sented. York, Sanford, Coxhall, Massabesec, and the First Parish 
of Wells constituted the First York regiment ; Kittery, Berwick, and 
Lebanon the Second ; and the rest of the county the Third. Promi- 
nent among the Sanford officers in the ninth, eleventh (matross, or 
artillery), and twelfth companies, were Captains Edward Harmon 
and Morgan Lewis, and Lieutenants Nathaniel Bennett, Samuel 
Willard, Junior, Ebenezer Hall, and Tobias Lord. 

Details are lacking of the history of the town's militia, but we are 
enabled to give a few incidents. 

When Washington died, the company in town paraded and, under 
the command of Major Samuel Nasson, marched, with arms reversed, 
down to Colonel Emery's tavern, and was treated, — a customary 
proceeding on occasions of either joy or sorrow. 

Major General William Frost died December 23, 1821, and was 
buried with military honors two days later. His sorrel .and white- 
faced horse, saddled and bridled, followed the remains to their last 



resting place. Some of the militia of Sanford, perhaps thirty or 
forty men, and a part of the Kennebunk Artillery, with one field- 
piece, a six pounder, were called out. The company of infantry was 
drilled to fire a volley over the grave. The field piece was on a 
small hill about twenty-five rods from the house, and, p'erhaps, as 
far from the grave, and was to be fired once a minute while the pro- 
cession was passing. That would have given the gunner, Oliver 
Perkins, time to cool the gun by sponging, and to prevent any fire 
from remaining within. He was cautioned to sponge frequently, 
and could have done so by dipping his sponge in the snow that cov- 
ered the ground. Neglecting to do this, he was warned not to allow 
his piece to get hot. "Oh, d — n her, she is not half hot enough 
yet," said he ; " I can fire four times without sponging." These are 
his words as given by an eye witness, but it is also said that he 
added, "and go to h — 1 the next." The gun became heated; the 
man at the vent drew his thumb away, while Perkins was paying in 
the charge ; a little fire from the wrapper of the former charge 
ignited the powder ; it exploded as Perkins stood at the mouth of 
the cannon. Both of his arms were blown ofif, the right near the 
elbow, the left near the wrist. He was thrown ten feet, perhaps, 
and fell sticking the stubs of his arms into the snow. Rising to his- 
feet before anyone reached him, he cried out, " God have mercy on 
my soul ! " Terribly frightened, he thought he could not live an 
hour. Enoch Stanley took his place at the gun, and the salute went 
on. Perkins lived, however, and had iron hooks attached to the 
stumps of his armis, by means of which he could help himself, and 
even do some kinds of work. He was pensioned by the state, at 
the rate of eight dollars a month, payable semi-annually from De- 
cember 25, 1821, in consequence of having lost both arms and one 
eye while in the service of the state. In 1827 and 1837, fifty dollars 
in addition to his regular pension were allowed him. 

For much of the time between 1800 and 1830, perhaps 1843, gen- 
eral muster, as the annual ' ' training " was called, was held at the 
Corner. Perhaps the place was selected because it was central and 
easy of access, or aflbrded a better parade ground than any other 
place within the limits of the brigade, or because the General in com- 
mand resided in town. Generals Frost, Allen, and Shaw were at 
different times in command. Muster was generally held in the field 
below the old mill road, now thickly covered with dwelling-houses. 
One muster, at least, was held in the field back of Jotham Moulton's 
house, afterwards owned by Hon. I. S. Kimball, and destroyed by 


fire. The last " training " in Sanford was in May, 1843, but in No- 
vember of that year the Sanford company went to Brackett's ridge, 
in Acton, and " trained" and that was the last general muster. The 
company, however, participated in a regimental muster at South Ber- 
•wick a few days after the one at Acton. 

The writer, from his recollections of the muster in May, 1843, was 
inclined to think that the event was the great holiday of the year, 
before which the Fourth of July and Thanksgiving were cast into the 
shade. Men and boys were on the ground early, that they might have 
the full enjoyment of the day. Women and girls also came from the 
neighboring towns that they might see the " troopers," hear the mu- 
sic, and enjoy the festivities of the occasion. Tents were pitched 
and booths set up near the training field, where gingerbread, buns, 
apples, cider, and liquor could be bought. These were always well 
patronized during the day, and after the muster, were cleaned out by 
the soldiers, who thoughtfully remembered their families left at home. 
Horse jockeys, gamblers and pugilists would come long distances to 
find victims. Many returned home cheated, many intoxicated, some 
with bruised faces, and all, with few exceptions, with less money in 
their pockets than they brought. The officers, in the habiliments of 
war, with cocked hats and waving plumes, were inspired with an un- 
wonted dignity, which showed itself in the pomp and display of 
marching on parade. 

The boys greatly enjoyed the day, and were sorely disappointed 
if they were debarred from attending muster. One clear day, pre- 
ceding the muster, a boy looking forward with intense interest and 
much fear that the next day would be stormy, remarked to a compan- 
ion : " I shouldn't dread dying one day sooner, if today was general 
muster." At another time, John and Caleb were going to muster, 
when Sam, John's younger brother, determined to accompany them. 
To prevent trouble, as Sam was too young to go, the father sent John, 
under pretext, to a neighbor's to borrow some tools. John and Caleb 
started, knowing that they were to reach the muster-field, while Sam 
remained at home, awaiting their return. The morning hours dragged 
slowly by. About ten o'clock, Sam asked his mother where John 
was. "Why, gone to muster," was her answer. "Oh, Lord, I'm 
dead, I'm dead !" cried Sam, with a wail of agony, and throwing 
himself down upon the floor, he kicked until nearly exhausted. 

But musters for boys' pleasure and men's glory finally had to be 
given up. The law of March 22, 1844, requiring the enrollment of 
all able-bodied white male citizens between eighteen and forty-five 


years of age, with few exemptions, who were to perform no active 
duty except for the choice of officers, or in case of an emergency, 
amounted to an abandonment of the old military system of the 
state, and ended the annual general muster. 

Five persons attained the rank of General in the militia. Their' 
names, with those of other officers who served from Sanford, appear 
below : 

Major -Generals — William Frost, 1817-21, Sixth division; Eben- 
ezer Ricker, 1856. 

Brigadier-Generals — Elisha Allen, 1822-25, First brigade. First 
division; John W. Bodwell, 1826-31 ; Timothy Shaw, 1838-46. 

Colonels — Caleb Emery, Fourth regiment. First brigade, Sixth 
division, 1788. The companies of Sanford, Lebanon, Shapleigh, 
Waterboi'ough, and Coxhall constituted his command ; William Frost, 
by brevet, 1816, Third regiment ; Elisha Allen, 1818 ; Timothy Shaw, 
1828-38 ; Nehemiah Butler, 1838-43. 

Lieutenant-Colonels — William Frost, 1799; Ebenezer Nowell, 
1817-19 ; Timothy Shaw, 1826-28 ; Nehemiah Butler, 1838. 

Majors — Caleb Emery, prior to 1785; Samuel Nasson, prior to 
1786 ; William Frost, 1794 ; Elisha Allen, 1812-13 ; Timothy Shaw, 
1822-26 ; Nehemiah Butler, 1836-38. 

Brigade-Majors — John W. Bodwell, 1825-26, aid to Brigadier- 
General ; Francis A. Allen, 1826-34, aid to Brigadier-General and 
inspector; Samuel M. Shaw, 1841-44; Samuel Tompson, 1844-51. 

Adjutants — Daniel Webber, 1790; Jonathan Burrows, 1794; 
Elisha Allen, 1808 ; Ephraim Low, Junior, 1818-26; Timothy Siiaw, 
Junior, 1838-46. 

Aids-de-Camp — John Frost, Third, 1817-21 ; Nicholas E. Paine, 
1839 ; Samuel M. Shaw, 1839-41 ; Samuel Tompson, 1841-44. 

Quartermasters — William Frost, 1790; Elisha Allen, 1807; Eben- 
ezer Nowell, 1808 ; Henry T. Emery, 1808; John W. Bodwell, 1821- 
22 ; Francis A. Allen, 1822-24 ; James B. Shapleigh, 1830-37. 

Brigade Quartermasters — John W. Bodwell, 1822-24 ; Francis 

A. Allen, 1825-26 ; John T. Paine, 1827-37 (Shapleigh) ; Samuel 

B. Emery, 1839-1846. 

Division Quartermaster — Samuel Lord, 1856-57. 

/Sw^eons — Abiel Hall, 1796 (Alfred) ; Usher Hall, 1814; Caleb 
Emery, 1817 (Eliot). 

Surgeons' Mates — Charles Powers, 1807 ; Caleb Emery, 1810 (El- 
iot) ; Usher Parsons, 1812 ; Ebenezer Linscott, 1813 ; George Weld, 
1828-30, 1836-37 (Lebanon) ; Silas B. Wedgewood, 1839-42. 


Paymasters — "William Frost, Junior, 1811-1821; Ichabod Frost, 
1821-40; Samuels. Stacey, 1847-49 (United States Army). 

Chaplains — Moaes Sweat, 1807-14; Gideon Cook, 1821-28. 

Captains — Samuel Nasson, 1777 (matross company) ; Enoch Hale, 
1788; Ebenezer Hall, 1788; John S. Cram, 17i)2 ; David Morrison, 
1792 ; Samuel Cluff, 1792 ; Ephraim Grant, 1799 ; Mark Prime, 1800 ; 
Caleb Emery, Junior, 1806 ; John Hanson, 1807 ; Ebenezer Nowell, 
1808 ; John Powers, Junior, 1810 ; Aaron Jellison, 1812-17 ; Stephen 
Willard, 1814, 1822 ; Timothy Shaw, 1817-22; Nathan Goodwin, 
1817-25 ; Thomas S. Emery, 1822-24 ; William Wilkinson, 1822-27 ; 
Abner Hill, 1823-25 (cavalry) ; Benjamin Sweat, 1824-27; Daniel 
P. Shaw, 1825 ; Naphtali Chadbourn, 1827 (refused to accept com- 
mission) ; Jeremiah Moulton, Junior, 1827-30 ; Enoch Frost, 1827 ; 
Moses Goodwin ; Nathaniel Hobbs, 1829 (cavalry) ; Theodore Tripp, 
1830 ; Ira Kurd, 1832-33 ; Nathaniel Bennett, Third, 1833 ; Nehe- 
miah Butler, 1835-36; Zebulon Durrell, 1836; Joshua Littlefield, 
1836-39; Samuel Jackson, 1838; Nahum Bennett, 1839; Josiah 
Paine, 1841 ; Otis E. Libby, 1842 ; Charles Butler, 1842-43. 

JFirst Lieutenants — James Heard, 1788 ; William Parsons, 1788 ; 
William Gray, 1792 ; Ephraim Grant, 1792 ; Benjamin Trafton, 1792 ; 
Rufus Bennett, 1797 ; Samuel Shaw, 1800-07 ; John Powers, Junior, 
1806 ; Theodore Emery, 1807-11 ; Robert Johnson, 1810-12 ; Ephraim 
Low, Junior, 1811 ; Samuel S. Stacey, 1812-15 ; Nathaniel Bennett, 
1812-15; Abner Hill, 1813 (cavalry); Joshua Hanson, 1815-26; 
Ebenezer Garey, 1815-21 ; William Wilkinson, 1818-22 ; Thomas S. 
Emery, 1821-22; Benjamin Sweat, 1822-24; William Jacobs, 1822- 
27 ; Jeremiah Moulton, Junior, 1824-27 ; Solomon Frost, 1826 ; John 
Linscott, 1826 (refused to accept commission) ; Phineas T. Witham, 
1826 (or 27) ; Theodore Tripp, 1827-30 ; Jonathan Tebbetts, 1828 
Ira Hurd, 1830; John T. Storer; Nathaniel Bennett, Third, 1830 
Nehemiah Butler, 1833 ; Horace Bennett, 1833 ; Levi Barnes, 1835 
Jackson W. Quint, 1836; Abiel H. Johnson, 1839; Charles Butler, 
1840;Thaddeus Littlefield, 1840; Albert Day, 1840 (cavalry) ; John 
Lord, 1840 (cavalry) ; Joseph Littlefield, 1842 ; Samuel Thompson, 
Second, 1843. 

Ensigns, or Second Lieutenants — John S. Cram, 1788; Samuel 
Clufif, 1788; William Johnson, 1792; William Ricker, 1792; Joseph 
Parsons, 1792; James Garey, Junior, 1800; Phinehas Calcut, 1802; 
Homer Sweat, 1806-12 ; Jeremiah Wise, Junior, 1807-13 ; Joshua 
Hanson, Junior, 1812; Moses Lord, 1812-15; Thomas A. Smith, 
1812 ; Samuel Nowell, 1813-21 ; Wentworth Quint, 1815 (refused to 
be qualified) ; Thomas S. Emery, 1815-21 ; Benjamin Chaney, 1816- 


23 ; Samuel S. Stacey, 1817-21 (Fifth United States Infantry) ; Israel 
Lassell, Junior, 1821; Elisha Sweat; William Jacobs, 1821-22; 
Benjamin Sweat, 1821-22; Jeremiah Moulton, Junior, 1822-24; 
Adrial Thompson, 1822 (refused to accept commission) ; William C. 
Linscott, 1823; Daniel P. Shaw, 1823; Theodore Tripp, 1824-27; 
Solomon Frost, 1826 ; James Butler, 1826-30; Ira Hurd, 1827 ; Jon- 
athan Tebbetts, Second, 1828 ; Joshua Littlefield, 1834 ; James 
Tebbetts, 1835; Nahum Bennett, 1836; Joseph W. Chaney, 1836 
Zebulon Durrell, 1836 ; Jonas Littlefield, 1839 ; Otis R. Libby, 1840 
Joseph Littlefield, 1841 ; Samuel Thompson, Junior (Second), 1842 
Stephen Goodwin, 1842 ; Samuel Gowen, 1843. 

For convenience, in connection with the military history, mention 
of Sanford's participation in two minor wars is here recorded. 

The Florida War (1835-42) caused but little excitement in Maine. 
A few enlisted in the regular army, of whom the names of only two 
are learned. Justus Batchelder, son of John, of the War of 1812, 
born October 15, 1817, enlisted in August, 1839, for five years, and 
was accidentally shot near Fort King, Florida, March 27, 1840. Jacob 
Hamilton, enlisted in Portsmouth, N. H., served in Florida, and was 
iilled. He married Dorcas, daughter of William Deering. 

The Madawaska War, so-called, of 1839, created great excitement 
throughout the state. Some lumbermen from New Brunswick entered 
the territory in dispute between Maine and the British government, 
on the northeastern frontier, and began to cut and carry off the best 
timber. The land agent, Eufus Mclntire, of Parsonsfield, with Sher- 
iff Strickland of Penobscot County, went thither with a posse of two 
hundred men to protect the property and drive off the trespassers. 
One night the agent, with a small company, was seized by the tres- 
passers, and carried to Woodstock, and thence to Fredericton, where 
they were imprisoned. The militia, one thousand men, were ordered 
out, the legislature made a large appropriation to prosecute a war, and 
the Governor ordered a draft of ten thousand men from the militia, 
to be held in readiness for service. Early in March, General' Scott 
and staff arrived on the scene of action, and Congress even went so 
far as to pass a bill endorsing the proceedings in Maine. Though 
several hundred volunteers were hurried down to the Aroostook, their 
services were of little use, only as they, by their presence, had much 
influence in bringing about peaceful negotiations, which were soon 
arranged between Governor Fairfield and the Governor of New Bruns- 
wick, aided by General Scott. General Shaw went to the front, ac- 
companied by a number of drafted men from his brigade. Their 
names we have not learned. 



First Mill at South Sanford — Second, on the Chadbourn Privilege 

— Cane's, Willard's, Moulton's, and the Province Mills— The 
Iron. Works — Morrison's Mills and Others — Springvale Print 
Works — Woollen Mills — Cotton Manufacturing at Springvale 

— Shoe Factories. 

AFTER the first mill in Phillipstown had been erected at what is 
now South Sanford, by Dr. David Bennett and others, as already 
described in Chapter III, it was probably several years before the 
second mill was built. There is a tradition that the mill lot known 
for years as the Chadbourn privilege (the present site of the Mousam 
River mills, so-called), was offered to the person who would build a 
mill thereon, and that James Chadbourn, accepting the offer, built 
the first mill there. We have not learned when it was built, but 
know that it was standing in 1754, for on the 141h day of March, in 
that year, John Chadbourn sold to Samuel Fernald, of Kittery, one 
twenty-fourth of the mill, being the upper mill on the Mousam River. 
It was adjoining Thomas Hobbs's. In 1761, John Chadbourn, and 
Mary, his wife, sold to Captain James Littlefield, one-fourth of the 
miU privilege. Four years later, a writ of possession was granted 
to Jeremiah Moulton, who had brought a law suit against Gideon 
Warren and Gabriel Hamilton, of Berwick, Joseph Killgore, Benja- 
min Killgore, John Chadbourn, and Ephraim Low, of Phillipstown, 
and James Littlefield of Wells, for one acre of land and miU thereon, 
northwest of number twenty. The land had been occupied within, 
twenty years. From this it would appear that the mill builders had 
encroached upon the land of Moulton, and were ejected by a writ- 
issued by a competent court. In 1766, John Chadbourn sold to- 
James Littlefield one-fourth of the mill privilege, with transportation-, 
and exportation to and from the said mill on the twentieth lot. When. 
Jeremiah Moulton died, in 1777, he owned one-half of the mill, ap- 
praised at twenty pounds. The mill was burned November 24, 1817* 
U (.209) 


It was then rebuilt, and was run for many years by Elijah Witham. 
The mill was known as the Chadbourn mill, and the branch upou, 
which it stood was the " west way," evidently misconceived by the 
people at a later day, who applied the term " waste way" to the 
eastern water course, as if the surplus water was carried off by it, or 

Cane's Mill, probably the third in town, stood about ten rods above 
Willard's bridge. It was built about 1756, by James Littlefield, of 
Wells, John Hamilton, of Berwick, and Samuel and Joshua Cane, 
of Phillipstown. The dam caused the water to overflow lands of 
Benjamin and Naphtali Harmon, and a suit arose out of it in 1760. 
The mill was burned in 1764, the Are being supposed to have been 
set by an incendiary. Naphtali Harmon and others were sued for 
trespass, for setting Are to the mill, but were acquitted. Nearly a 
hundred years afterward, a part of the timber of the dam was hauled 
to Kennebunk, and sold for ship timber. Joel E. and Stephen H. 
Moulton made a horse cart of some of the oak timber remaining, 
which did them service for years. 

Willar'd's mill was built between 1755 and 1761, probably by 
Thomas Hobbs, Junior, of Berwick, and John Stanyan, Joseph Kill- 
gore, and Samuel Willard of Phillipstown. In 1755, Stanyan sold 
to Willard, then of York, one-half of lot number one, with mill priv- 
ilege. The mill to be buUt was to be held in equal parts by the two 
parties. Two years later, Stanyan sold to Thomas Hobbs, Junior, 
of Berwick, millwright, one-fourth of the mill privilege, with one- 
fourth part of three acres of land on both sides of the Mousam. In 
1761, Joseph Killgore, Junior, sold to Joseph Simpson, Junior, one- 
sixteenth part of the mill, privilege, etc. This part was purchased 
by Stanyan in 1767. Meanwhile, Hobbs sold one-eighth of a double 
saw-mill and one-eighth of the mill privilege, to Willard, and an 
equal share of the. south side of the mill, with one-sixteenth part of 
the stream, etc., to John Stanyan. The saw-mill was at the upper 
falls, and in 1785 was known as Emery's mill. Colonel Emery hav- 
ing come into possession of the same, or a large part of it. Adja- 
cent and below was the grist-mill, standing in 1783, and known as 
Willard and Stanyan's grist-mill. This is the earliest mention we 
have found of this mill. The saw-mill was for many years known 
as Willard's mill. Otis E. Willard, Christopher Cram, and the heirs 
of Walter Cram are the present owners. 

Subsequently to 1766, Charles and John White, Thomas Kimball, 
Seth Peabody, Benjamin Tripe, and one Ellenwood, of Wells, erected 


a double saw-mill in the eastern part of the town, which was owned 
for years by Nathaniel Conant, and known as Conant's mill. It was 
the first erected in what is now Alfred. The second, according to 
Parsons, was at the extreme south end of the town, and was formerly 
owned by -John Parsons. 

The Province mill at Springvale was built in 1770. It was erected 
l)y John Stanyan, Simon Hobbs, Samuel Moody, and Thomas Mor- 
rill, as appears from the following : 

" This indenture Witnesseth that John Stanyan Simon Hobbs and 
Samuell Moody of Sanford in the County of York and Thomas Mor- 
rill of Berwick in the above s"* county have Settled all accounts for 
a Mill above Sanford on the Province Land and the s"* John Stanyan 
owns Eight Days in twenty and four Days or one-third Part Simon 
Hobbs owns Seven Days in twenty-four Days which is his Part of sd 
mill and Samuell Moody owns one Eight Part which is three Days in 
twenty four Days Which is his Part of sd mill and Thomas Morrill 
above sd owns Six Days in twenty four Days which is his Part of 
"the above sd mill and Likewise the above sd owners all being Pres- 
sant this day and Settled all the accounts for sd Mill and balenced 
the Same by ajusting all our accounts. 

"as Witness our hands and 

seals this 30 days of January 

1771 in the Eleventh year of the 

Thomas Morrill 


Keign of King Georg the third 

Simon Hobbs 


AD 1771. 

Samuell Moodt 


"Signed and sealed in Pres- 

John Stantan 


ents of us 

"Joseph Lewis 

"Thomas Chase." 

The document also contained a memorandum that Moody should 
begin his "turn in the above sd Mill" on January 31, 1771, Morrill 
on February 4, Stanyan on February 11, and Hobbs on February 20. 
It was further " Agreed towards fixing the Mill at three Shillings 
four Pence pr day and accompts to be settled every six months by us 
the Subscribers." In 1794, William Frost owned three-eighths of the 
privilege. One old mill fell on account of age, and two mills were 
burnt on the site. 

In 1772, the Iron Works were built at the upper falls at the Cor- 
ner. Stephen Gowen made this memorandum in 1837 : 

" A memorandum on oners and works on the falls in mousom River 

212 HISTORY or sanford. 

so ealed in Sanford, Maine : in tlie year 1771. Jotham Moulton moul- 
ten, J oseph Persons of York and Some others began to bild a dam 
on Said falls and in 1772 it was finished and a bilding set up for the 
manufacturing of iron. After the deth of moulten it fell into the 
hands of the folowing owners, Moulten the first No. 1, S. Nason No. 
2, Allen No. 3, do Allen No. 4, Pray, No. 5, Cuts No. 6 and 1835 in 
to the hands of a factory company. 7"" it is now under morge* for 
$6500. 1837. I worked on the dam when firs bilt. 

"Stephen Gowen." 

These works stood several years, and gave the name, Iron Works 
lot, to Moulton's four hundred acre lot along the river above the 
settlers' lots. The ore used was obtained in town or in Shapleigh ; 
the iron manufactured was used, in part, at home, and sold, in part, 
in York, Wakefield, and elsewhere. The ore passed through what 
is known as the " bloomary process," giving a very good quality of 
iron at a reasonably low price. Slag was found in 1836, when the 
dam was rebuilt. Joshua Hanson and Joshua Batchelder were 
'bloomers." In 1777, General Moulton owned one-half of the 
Iron Works. Whether tliey existed as late as 1800, we have no 
knowledge, but are of the opinion that they did not. 

Moulton's grist-mill was built about the same time as the Iron 
Works, on the northeastern side of the river at the second falls at 
the Corner. One-half of it, valued at one hundred pounds, was 
owned by General Moulton at the time of his death. In 1782, it 
came into the hands of his widow, then the wife of Major Samuel 
Nasson, as a part of her dower. In 1800, Nasson and others erected 
a saw-mill near the site of the Iron Works. 

In 1781, there were seven "distill houses, mills, etc.," valued at 
eighty shillings apiece. These were Moulton's, owned by Samuel 
Nasson, and leased by Tobias Lord, of Kennebunk, and Benjamin 
Estes in 1781-82 ; Willard's saw-mill, and probably Willard and 
Stanyan's grist-mill ; Chadbourn's saw-mill ; Nasson's grist-mill ; the 
Province mill; and Conant's mill. We presume there were no " dis- 
till houses," for we have never heard of any in town. 

When the great freshet occurred in 1785, there were nine mills 
damaged : Estes's grist-mill, Swett's saw-mill, Nasson's grist-mill, 
Chadbourn's saw-mill, Moody's saw-mill, Emery's, Moulton's, the 
Province mill, and Bennett's. According to tlie valuation of 1786, 
there were thirteen and one-quarter grist- and saw-mills, and one 
other mill, in the town. If Parsons is correct in his statement that 


Swett's mill, half a mile southeast of Conant's, was the fifth mill in 
the North Parish, then five or six of these were in that parish; of 
which all except Conant's were built between 1781 and 1785, — that 
at the extreme south end of the town, Moody's, near " the Gore," 
York's above Moody's, and Swett's, and possibly, Conant's grist- 
mill. The ' ' other mill " was probably the fulling-mill built by Major 
Nasson, and at a later day owned by Jeremiah Moulton and Elisha 
Allen. It was on the southwest side of the river at the second falls 
at the Corner, and was standing in the writer's boyhood. 

Not far from 1780, David Morrison came into town, and settled 
a mile above Springvale. Several years later he built a saw-mill 
some forty rods below the old bridge. The dam was thrown across 
the narrow channel between two ledges ; one abutment rested on a 
ledge on the northeast side, a portion of the timber of which could 
be seen not so many years ago. Soon after, he erected a grist-mill 
about one hundred rods below, following the river down. The mill- 
stones came from York woods, were got out by Morrison, and were 
lying in a pasture on the mill privilege when the writer visited the 
spot. Two negroes, named Caesar and Sharp, hauled the crank from 
Wells, on the snow crust, making the distance, seventeen miles, in 
good time. Prior to 1791, Morrison built some iron works. Pieces 
of slag and ore are found in the river bed. The ore was obtained 
from the mines in Shapleigh and Newfleld, and in the vicinity of 
the bloomary. The rocks in the neighborhood show the presence 
of iron, especially near Frost's brook, below Morrison's Corner. In 
1791, Morrison deeded one-eighth of his iron works on " the Gore " 
on Mousam River to Joshua Hanson, " bloomer." Subsequent own- 
ers of the grist-mill were Elisha Allen, Harriet Allen, and Increase 
S. Kimball; of the saw-mill and privilege, Joshua Hanson, John 
Colcord, William Stanley, E. and M. Goodwin, Ansel Gerrish, J. 
Kicker and A. Lord, Ebenezer Eicker and Whitefleld Lord, Ebenezer 
Ricker, who built a new mill in 1856, Hemingway and Co., Heming- 
way and Lord, Jordan and Allen, Ebenezer and Freeman Jordan. 

At one time four privileges on the Great Works River were util- 
ized : Hobbs's, Gowen's, Bennett's, and Johnson's. Hobbs's grist- 
mill, standing in 1798, was on the upper course, on land afterwards 
owned by Sheldon and Stephen Hobbs. The mill was sold to Joseph 
Quint and torn down ; the stones were purchased and used by James 
O. Clark in his mill at the Corner. Farther down the Gowens owned 
a grist-mill, which was standing as late as 1845. A mile southeast 
of this, on the old county road over Mount Hope to Lebanon, the 


Bennetts had built a mill before 1785. Some years later, Daniel 
Chadbourn, Levi Chadbourn, and Nathaniel Quint had a tannery on 
the privilege. At the end of the tannery, a shingle-mill was first 
built, and then a grist-mill. A threshing machine was subsequently 
put in by Nathaniel Bennett, Daniel Chadbourn, Francis Chadbourn, 
William Stanley, and Robert Johnson. The mill came into the pos- 
session of Johnson, then of Johnson and Simon Tebbets, and finally 
of Tebbets alone. It was changed into a saw-mill. 

A wooden dam was thrown across the stream between Sanford and 
Berwick, by William Johnson, about 1790. A grist-mill, running one 
set of stones, was erected on the Sanford side, and a saw-mill, with 
a single saw, on the opposite side. The latter tumbled down ; the 
former was taken down in 1865, by Jotham Johnson. 

According to plans of Sanford and of the District of Alfred, in 
1794, there were the following mills : On the Mousam : Iron Works, 
saw-mill and grist-mill, at Morrison's ; saw-mill, at Springvale ; saw- 
mill and grist-mill, and fulling-mill, at Sanford ; saw-mill (Chad- 
bourn's) ; saw-mill, at Willard's ; saw-mill, above confluence of 
western branch and eastern ; grist-mill, below, and saw-mill still 
below. On the Great Works : Bennett's saw-mill ; Johnson's saw 
and grist-mill. In Alfred : Saw-mill and grist-mill, Conant's : saw- 
mill, near junction of the eastern and middle branches ; saw-mill, 
near the Waterborough line ; three saw-mills and one grist-mill on 
the middle branch ; saw-mill in lower part of the town, presumably 
the last one on the Mousam, mentioned above. 

At one time a mill called Jellison's mill stood near the Shapleigh 
line. There was an Eastman's grist-mill in the southeast or east part 
of the town, but whether one already mentioned in the vicinity of 
Mouse Lane we cannot say. We do not know what mill was Deacon 
Joshua Goodwin's, or Day's, nor can we tell how many of those re- 
ferred to by Parsons were built before Alfred became a separate 
town. There were Nowell's, on the middle branch. Knight's, north 
of Shaker Hill, Bicker's, near Knight's, Sayward's, and Littlefield's, 
near the bridge; also, the Shakers', Littlefield's, Estes's, Moulton's, 
and Burleigh's grist-mills, the last near " the Gore," the two preced- 
ing at Mouse Lane. We do know, however, that Estes's grist-miU 
was standing in 1785 (it may have been the mill built by Estes in 
1783, for Samuel Nasson), and conclude that some of the others were 
built earlier, unless Parsons has made a mistake in the order of time. 
We are much in doubt in regard to that one-third of a mill mentioned 
in the valuation of 1786. 


In Stephen Gowen's old account book, Jonathan Low is charged, 
August, 1788, with " 600 foot of White Oak Plank at my mill." 
From this we infer his ownership of a mill at that date. His son 
Walter informed the writer, however, that Stephen Gowen built a 
dam across the river, about one mile above the Corner, in 1815, and 
completed a grist-mill, running one set of stones. About three years 
later, Stephen, James, and Walter Gowen erected a saw-mill below 
and adjoining, of which each owned a third. Dr. George Weld bought 
James Gowen's right. Either Gowen owned a mill elsewhere, or a 
saw-mill antedated the grist mill. The capacity of this mill was such 
that eight or ten bushels of corn could be ground per day. 

Few of the grist-mills of this date, about 1820, had more than one 
run of stones, and some of them no bolting-machines. Whenever 
there was a bolter, it went by hand, and was turned, like a grind- 
stone, with a crank. The meal or flour to be bolted was taken from 
the trough, carried up a short flight of stairs, and put into the hop- 
per of the bolter. The owner of the grist did the bolting. It was a 
tedious task for the poor boy, upon whom the duty of going to mill 
fell, to turn the crank slowly, and hear the thump, thump of the old 
machine. Going to mill might have been poetry in comparison with 
the prosaic duties of the farm, but there was no music in turning a 
bolting-machine of rude construction, an hour at a time. The saw- 
mills of that date were cumbersome and slow ; one thousand feet 
of boards per day were as high as they would average. If for any 
reason a grist-mill should fail, the people were somewhat discommod- 
ed, and were obliged to resort to pounding their corn to meal. This 
was coarse food, but it suflflced until they could get better. After 
the grist-mill at the Corner was burned in 1809, there was no mill 
near, and several families had recourse to Gatnsby Witham's samp- 
mortar, in which they pounded corn. The mortar was a hollow log, 
raised about breast high, with a pestle attached to a sweep, like a 
well sweep. " Aunt Polly " Witham, deceased, often stated that she 
was among those who used to exercise themselves at the samp- 

In January, 1805, Joanna and Thomas Nasson sold to Charles 
Dennett and Thomas Frost, of Salisbury, Mass., a privilege for a 
carding-mill and a trip hammer, between the Iron Works, and grist- 
mill, for the purpose of plating seytiies. 

Not far from 1805, " old Shepherd" built a dam across the brook 
which empties the water of the Fishing Pond into Great Works Brook, 
erected a small shop, and manufactured nails. 


In 1810, there were one hundred and sixty looms in town, and 
29,369 yards of cloth were manufactured. 

The Province mill privilege was sold by Ichabod Frost, Betsey 
Frost, widow, and Henry Grant to George Holt and John Oldham, 
of Dover, N. H., for two hundred and thirty-two dollars, February 
5, 1828. The grantees, in turn, conveyed their purchase to John 
Whitaker and Co., of Sanford, June 17, Whitaker's joint partners 
being Matthew Hodgdon, Edward Thompson, George Holt, and John 
Oldham. On the 10th of December, the company, comprising in ad- 
dition to the above, Thomas Clark, Thomas Greenhalgh, John Eams- 
botham and Thomas Read, quitclaimed their property to Luke 
Whitney for eight thousand dollars, and took a bond from him for 
the return of said property after Whitaker and his associates bad ob- 
tained an act of incorporation under the name of Springvale Print 
Works. Meanwhile and subsequently several buildings were erected 
for the purpose of manufacturing prints. Four dwelling-houses, a 
factory store, a dry shed, and a print-house were built on the brow 
of the hill, and near the road, and a dye-house and bleacherj', and 
several other buildings, under the hill. The company failed, and in 
1831 Caleb Duxbury, as superintendent, was running the works for 
the assignees of Avered and Goddard (?). There were then twenty 
blocking tables upon which cloth was printed by hand, and two 
printing machines. Cloth at first had been brought from Dover, but 
at this time it came from Boston to be printed. About 1835, calico 
printing was revived under the management of Eleiizar D. Chamber- 
lain, Samuel Dunster, of Dover, and Abraham Folsom, of Boston. 
Cloth came from Dover and Providence, from the former at the rate 
of one hundred thousand yards per toonth. After about three years 
another failure was made, and the business passed into the hands of 
the Franklin Manufacturing Company. The accounts of the changes 
which have been received are conflicting, so we cannot speak with 
certainty in regard to them. One statement is that Joshua Hanson, 
Nathaniel Hobbs, Enoch Lord, William Chadbourn, Ephraim Getch- 
ell, John Bedell, Samuel Littlefiekl, Moses Heard, Thomas Hobbs, 
and Wentworth Quint (?) were owners in 1838. It appears, how- 
ever, that Danforth White, John Montelius and William Montelius 
had charge of tlie works, with Reuben S. Denney, Abial Lewis, and 
William G. Lewis, as capitalists, to furnish the means of carrying 
on the business. It also appears that John Paul, George Livsey, 
and George Hargraves, calico printers, constituted the firm of John 
Paul and Co., in 1844, and that later Livsey had severed his connec- 


tion with the firm. The Lewises came into possession of all the 
property ; it lay idle for some time ; the buildings were destroyed, in 
part, by incendiarism ; then the property changed hands again, com- 
ing into the possession of the Springvale Manufacturing Company, 
John and Stephen Merrill, George Nasson, George Rollins, and Irv- 
ing Butler. 

In 1835, Hutchinson, Sawyer and Co. bought the upper privilege 
at the Corner. They put up a woollen mill on the eastern side of 
the river, and began the manufacture of cassimeres. In a year or 
two, the mill was burnt, and another built. The firm had dissolved 
prior to August 27, 1839. The property passed into the hands of a 
Mr. Cutts. About 1840, William Miller, who had been engaged in 
the manufacture of woollens at Emery's Mills, hired the mill and 
commenced operations. Later he purchased the mill and continued 
the manufacture of flannels until 1867, when he sold to Thomas 
Goodall, a full account of whose resulting enterprises will be given 
in a subsequent chapter. During the Civil War Mr. Miller made 
woollens for army use. 

About the same time with Hutchinson, Sawyer and Co., Timothy 
Shaw, Nicholas E. Paiue, and Samuel M. Shaw began to occupy the 
second falls at the Corner, where the grist-mill stood. They erected 
a main factory, a dye-house, a store-house, a boarding-house, all 
two stories high, and other necessary buildings, all of which with 
■machinery, personal and real estate of the firm, Shaw, Paine and 
Co., was valued in 1831 at $35,493.49. One mill was burned and 
rebuilt. The company failed about 1840, and the privilege was idle 
about fifteen years. 

At the upper falls at Springvale, Ichabod Frost had a saw-mill 
standing on the southwest side of the river, in 1838. Isaiah Shack- 
ley began to run it for him that year, and continued in his employ 
some two years. With it there was a grist-mill, run by Solomon 
Frost. After Ichabod Frost had sold the privilege to the Sanford 
Manufacturing Company about 1841, the mill was moved down to 
the site of the Province mill, and years later burnt. A mill was 
moved from Emery's Mills to the latter site. 

In 1841 the Sanford Manufacturing Company was organized to 
build a cotton factory at Springvale. At the first meeting Isaac 
Hayden was chosen chairman, Theodore Willard, clerk, Amos H. 
JBoyd, treasurer, and Ichabod Frost, agent to superintend the build- 
ing of the bridge, the dam, and the digging and laying of the 
foundation for the mill. The nearest depots of supplies were 


Kennebunkport, whither freight came by water, and Dover, whither it 
came by the railroad, completed to that point only. The prices for 
cartage may be seen in a vote of the company, passed at the- house of 
Ichabod Frost, January 13, 1842 : " Voted to give Caleb' S. Emery, 
for one year from time mill is put into operation, thirteen and three- 
fourths cents per hundred pounds each way to and and from Kenne- 
bunk Port, and sixteen cents each way to and from Dover Railroad." 
The associate company was changed to a corporate body in 1842 by 
an act of the legislature, which authorized Isaac Hayden, Ichabod 
Frost, Theodore Willard, Caleb S. Emery, Amos H. Boyd, Benjamift 
F. Hodgdon, Andrew Cooper, Daniel Ward, Stephen Ward, Daur 
forth White, John Montelius, Junior, Samuel V. Loring, Amos Getch- 
ell, David Fall, Daniel Chaney, Charles Allen, and Francis Allen, 
their associates and successors, to engage in the manufacture of 
cotton, wool, iron, and steel at Springvale, and to hold real and per- 
sonal estate not to exceed 850,000 in value. Isaac Hayden was pres- 
ident, Samuel V. Loring, clerk, and Ichabod Frost, Danforth White, 
Benjamin F. Hodgdon, Theodore Willard, Samuel V. Loring and 
Andrew Cooper, directors. The machinery from the Belknap mill,. 
Dover, was mostly in by May, 1842, and the first card started. The 
first loom, however, was not started until August, when Benjamin F. 
Hodgdon began to weave the first yard of cloth. It is a matter of 
regret to state that at this time the company was laboring under a 
heavy load of indebtedness. A severe blotv came in the great freshet 
of 1843, by which the concern met with considerable loss, and in 
August of that year the mill was considered as unsafe, and greatly- 
exposed to serious injury from freshet or other casualty. 

Such men as John Fairbanks, Benjamin E. Bates, of Boston, Col- 
onel Alexander DeWitt, afterward member of Congress, of Franklin,. 
Mass., Mason and Co., and Dewey and Bourne, of Worcester, were at 
times stockholders. Among the agents, mention may be made of 
Isaac Hayden (afterwards agent of the "duck" mill, Lawrence),. 
General Amos H. Boyd, Samuel Houghton, and William B. Boyd. 
Houghton and Waterman A. Fisher bought three hundred and seven- 
ty-six shares of Boyd and DeWitt for $37,600. Under the manage- 
ment of Fisher, president, John T. Paine, Caleb S. Emery, Theodore- 
Willard, and Houghton, agent, treasurer, and superintendent, as di- 
rectors, the company manufactured for a short time print cloths, and 
a few three-fourths sheetings. Houghton sold ten shares to William 
B. Boyd, Fisher sold to Dickenson, and about 1850, Fitch, Hodgdort 
and Co., with Austin G. Fitch as agent, leased the property for five 


years. They made a new kind of figured goods, Scotch plaids, ging- 
hams, nanljeens, and other fancy goods. Of this firm, only Hodgdon 
was a practical manufacturer. After four years the property passed 
into the hands of Tufts, Everett and Co., Boston, and was managed 
by a Mr. Hewitt, agent. From 1857 it was idle a year, and was then 
run until the Civil War. Hodgdon acted as agent for a time, and 
was succeeded by Oliver Boyd. He died in March, 1862. His son, 
W. W. Boyd, afterward a Baptist clergyman, had an oversight of 
the property during the war, a part of the time, at least, though the 
mill was not in operation. 

In 1865, J. H. and L. M. Smith, and A. D. Shattuck, of Grafton, 
Mass., and E. W. Holbrook,of New York, purchased of the Spring- 
vale Manufacturing Company (Springvale had superseded Sanford 
years before) their property, and continued the manufacture of cot- 
tons, mostly print cloths, and mosquito nettings, under the name of 
the Grafton Mills. Shattuck acted alternately as agent and treasurer. 
In 1873, Holbrook purchased the interest of the Smiths, Shattuck 
having sold out previously. According to the general statutes of" 
Maine, the Springvale Mills were organized in 1873, with a capital 
of $100,000. The owners were Edwin W. Holbrook, Clarence D. 
Newell, Charles W. Force, Edgar F. Grout, all of New York, Aaron 
Holbrook, of Lexington, Mass., George K. Gibbs, of Sanford, and 
Joseph W. Hall, of Boston. All except Grout and Hall were direc- 
tors, of whom E. W. Holbrook was president, and Gibbs treasurer. 
They began business, January 1, 1874, under the superintendency of 
Mr. Gibbs, running eight thousand spindles, and employing one hun- 
dred and fifty hands, in the manufacture of sheetings. In 1883 the 
company was obliged to suspend operations. 

In June, 1891, the Springvale Cotton Mills Company was incor- 
porated under the laws of Maine, with William D. Wheelwright as 
president and J. O. Bloss, treasurer, with offices in New York. The 
company manufactured cottons, satteens, and twilled goods. Joel 
B. Eicker was agent. In 1899 the company sold its plant to the 
Goodall Alpaca Company, and went south, locating in Fort Valley 
Georgia, where it is operated under $100,000 capital. 

In 1844, Abiel H. Moulton built a foundry with a furnace twenty 
feet wide and seven and a half feet high. Three horizontal bellows, 
blown by one horse, were used. At one blast twenty- five hundred 
pounds could be taken out. Four or five men were employed, manu- 
facturing plows, cultivators, sled shoes, and castings for repairing 
stoves, and machinery. The foundry was carried on by Mr. Moulton 


until 1855. In March, 1857, Jotham K. Moulton purchased and 
continued the business a few years. 

In 1854, Hayden, Wilcox and Co., rebuilt the lower dam at the 
Corner, and put machinery into the Shaw, Paine and Co. factory for 
the purpose of weaving seamless bags. This mill was known during 
the three years' continuance of this business as Victory Mill. In 
1857 the mill was destroyed by fire. 

About 1847, Daniel Clark bought the saw-mill and upper privilege 
at the Corner, and some three years later built a grist-mill on the 
ledge between the two dams. About 1860, he gave this property to 
his youngest son, James O. Clark. In June, 1862, the grist-mill was 
destroyed by fire, and the following spring the saw-mill, with flour- 
mill connected, was also burned. Clark bought the Victory Mills 
privilege, and erected a flour-mill, which he continued to run until 
Thomas Goodall began to improve it. 

One Paul first made brick near his house on " Hardscrabble." 
Flanders Hatch and Daniel L. Littlefield also made brick near the 
Hay Brook, the latter for eight or ten years from 1829 making from. 
50,000 to 100,000 brick. Thomas Goodall has also occupied their 
yard. Aaron Witham and Charles and John Chapman had a yard 
near the Hay Brook. 

About 1871, Jordan and Allen began to make shooks at the Mor- 
rison Iron Works privilege. 

In the fall of 1876, Lyman H. Shackley erected a steam grist-mill 
at Springvale depot, close beside the railroad track. In the summer 
■of 1878, L. H. Shackley and Co. bought the Low privilege, half a 
mile below Springvale, and built a substantial stone dam. During the 
fall they erected a grist-mill on the east side of the river. 

In the spring of 1883, Winslow L. and Orin A. Moulton erected 
a wood-working and saw-mill, near Willard's bridge, for which the 
power was steam. This mill was afterwards burnt. 

Knight and Warren, corn packers, about 1881, erected a factory 
near Springvale depot, where they canned corn for several seasons. 
In 1886, Joseph Knight put up 180,000 cans of corn. 

In the fall of 1839, Captain Joshua Littlefield began to work at 
shoemaking at the Corner, and continued at it during the winters 
for more than forty years, a part of the time on Main Street, and later 
on Lebanon Street. E. W. Thurston occupied a small shop near his 
house on Main Street for something like half a century. 

Between 1850 and 1857, small shops were built in different parts 
of the town, and a large number of people were engaged in making 


shoes for Lynn and Danvers firms. Luther Paul, John Merrill, David 
L. Tebbetts, the Bennetts, at South Sanford, George W. Gowen and 
the Bodwells at the Corner were engaged therein. In 1861, Oliver 

C. Dorr began shoemaking at South Sanford, doing pegged work. 
Emery and Lord, Amos W. Lord, and William H. Miller were in the 
shoe business shortly after the Civil War. 

In 1864, Sylvester Cummings built a shoe manufactory on the 
west side of the river at Springvale, just below the upper bridge, at 
a cost of about $10,000, which was successfully run by Cummings 
and Co., superintended by P. E. Cummings, partner and superinten- 
dent. They moved all their machinery from Worcester, and made 
ladies' shoes, about eight cases a day, employing one hundred and 
fifty hands, and doing $50,000 worth of business annually. They 
used machinery, although the work outside, sewing, stitching, and 
binding, was done by hand. In 1872, they removed to South Ber- 

In 1870, Butler and Fogg built a shop on the Province mill priv- 
ilege, western side of the river, at a cost of $10,000. The firm was 
subsequently Fogg and Vinal, Irving A. Butler and Co., Butler, 
Clark and Davenport, and finally Butler and Clark. Butler and Mer- 
rill, and Butler and Stiles also carried on shoe manufacturing at 

The A. and E. Mudge Shoe Company, Danvers and East Eoches- 
ter, moved to Springvale in 1889, $10,000 having been raised by the 
citizens for the purpose. A large shop, five stories in height, and 
accommodating five hundred hands, was erected. This factory is 
now occupied by the Shaw-Goding Shoe Company, of which John 

D. Fogg is manager. 

William A. Usher is engaged in the manufacture of shoes in a shop 
on Bridge Street. 

The Springvale Shoe Shop Company is a corporation organized by 
the citizens to purchase the Shaw-Goding shop, for the purpose of 
transferring it or leasing it to some firm to induce them to locate in 
Springvale. The company purchased the shop and made a contract to 
sell it to the Shaw-Goding Company. The officers of the Springvale 
Shoe Shop Company are: President, George W. Hanson; treasurer, 
W. E. Sanborn ; clerk, Frank H. Dexter ; collector, James H. Makin ; 
directors, George W. Hanson, Edmund E. Goodwin, Dr. I. C. Saw- 
yer, Charles A. Bodwell, Samuel D. Hanson. 

The Springvale Woollen Company carries on the manufacture of 
woollens in the former shoe factory of Butler and Clark. It employs 


thirty-six hands, and the output is six hundred yards a day. The 
officers are: President, C. M. Abbott; treasurer, Charles W. Low; 
clerk, F. H. Skofleld ; directors, George W. Hanson, Charles W. 
Low, Fred Smith, C. M. Abbott, F. H. Skofleld. Willis A. Fogg 
is manager. 

Fred S. Sherburne has a mill at Sanford in which he manufactures 
sashes, blinds, doors and general building materials. He formerly 
operated a grist-mill. 

At Springvale, W. H. Nason and Co. own and operate a grist-mill 
mear the depot. 



Privations of the Pioneers — Protest Against Taxation, 1768 — 
Warning Out of Town — Scarcity of Food — Votes Relative to 
the Poor — Disposal by Vendue — Town- Farm Established. 

THE early settlers endured the hardships incident to pioneer life. 
The new soil yielded slowly to the advances of man. Scarcity 
of provisions and scantiness of clothing were the common fortune of 
many, perhaps most, of the actual settlers. Into their dwellings, 
poverty like an armed man stalked, less dreaded than the Indian lurk- 
ing in the forest, but scarcely more merciful. The descent of the one 
upon the frontier, the tenacious hold of the other upon an unfortunate 
victim, were enough to appall the stoutest heart, and to deter the 
man of weak spirit from subjecting himself to the dangers and priva- 
tions of the wilderness. Sometimes poverty at home drove men into 
the forests, where, expecting little, suffering much, they obtained 
more than their expectations. 

The pioneers of Sanford were distant from the market, had small 
facilities for intercourse with the neighboring towns, had but little 
ready money, and frequently found themselves in straitened circum- 
stances. At times, they needed help from their neighbors ; occasion- 
ally, when some severe calamity had befallen them, they received 
assistance from the province, as was the case in 1761, when the plan- 
tation was distressed by reason of the small-pox. The taxes of indi- 
viduals having suffered losses were sometimes abated, and the town 
itself was more than once in so poor a condition that it called for as- 
sistance or an abatement of taxes from the commonwealth. The con- 
dition of the town only three months after its incorporation may best 
be understood in the words of the selectmen in a petition to the Gen- 
eral Court : 

"To his Excellency Francis Barnard Esq"" Governer & Command- 
er in Chief in and over the Province of the Massachusetts Bay &c : 



To the Honourable his Majesty's Council and the Honorable. House 
of Representatives in General Court assembled May 1768 

' ' The Petition of Benjamin Harmon Naptali Harmon and John 
Stanyan Selectmen of the Town of Sanford in the County of York in 
behalf of said Towns Humbly shews 

" That said Town was Incorporated into a Town the present year, 
and that the assessors have Taken the valuation as by Law Directed 
according to the best of there understanding That there is a consid- 
erable number of Polls contained in the list of valuation of People 
latly come in said Town from the Province of N Hampshire in very 
Poor Circomstances and as your Petitioners apprehend there stay will 
be very short as they have no Lands of there own, and that most of 
the Inhabitants of said Town are very Poor and unable to support 
themselves, That they are destitute of a minister and School Master, 
which by Law they are now obliged to be Provided with nor have 
they any meeting House in said Town. That the Town is now obliged 
to Clear & make new Roads through the Town leading to other ^ew ' 
Towns beyond them, the Lands in General but very Ordinary they 
never had any help from the Proprietors to enable them to support 
the Gospel or makeing Roads in said Town and the settlers but Small 
Tracts of Lands for settlements Tho the Township is Eight miles 
Square Your Petitioners apprehend that a Province Tax Even a Pool 
Tax at this Time would Greatly Distress the Inhabitants of s* Town 
Wherefore your Petitioners Humbly prays your Excellency and 
Honours that you will not Lay any Province Tax on said Town the 
present year on the Polls and Estates — That they may be enabled 
to settle the Gospel which they are now engaging in and Your Peti- 
titioners as in Duty Bound shall ever pray — 

" Benja Harmon "\ 
Naptali Harmon V 
John Stanyan " ) 

This was indeed a deplorable condition, out of which the town 
came, not by sudden and rapid strides, but by a slow and gradual 
process, the natural result of toil, economy, privation. The Revolu- 
tionary War was a serious drawback in that it was constantly drawing 
from the material wealth of the town, and took away men who would 
otherwise have been engaged in tilling the soil and improving the 
lands. Following it, however, was an accession of sturdy men, who 
developed the resources of the heretofore unoccupied territory and 
added much to the wealth of the community. 


THE POOR. 225 

The poorer classes from the neighboring state, referred to in the pe- 
tition of the selectmen, had secured a foothold prior to the incorpo- 
ration, and, in case they came to want, would be dependent upon the 
town for their support. New-comers could be, and frequently were, 
prevented from gaining a residence ; for, availing themselves of the 
provisions of the law, or rather, performing the duty enjoined by the 
law, the selectmen warned such persons, male or female, to depart 
from the town. Thus warned they were not compelled to leave ; but 
the formal warning was only a legal precaution necessary to avoid 
the support of any comers that might become public charges. In that 
case, the towns whence they came or where they had previously re- 
sided were held responsible for their support. The warning-out of 
Elder Tingley, in our possession, reads as follows : 

" York fs Sanford June ye 28 : 1771 

" Paletiah Tingle Wereas you have come into this Towne With- 
oute Leav of the Towne Tliis is to warne you forthwith to Departe 
out of this Towne forthwith for "Wee Uisowne you for an inhabitant 

" Samdel Willard 
John Stantan 
William Bennet 

■ J Select 
j men 

" Sanford June y^ 28 : 1771 Mr Edward Stanle Constable you are 
Eequiered to warne the above said Paletiah Tingle to Depart forth- 
with or expect to be Dealt With as the Law Directs. 

" Sa" = Willard ) „ , , 
( Select 

John Stantan r „ 

\ men 

William Bennet -' 

[Return on back of warrant.] 

" Sanford July y^ 13 : 1771 I have Warned the Within Named 
Paletiah Tinale to Depart out of this Towne. 

" Edward Stanlbe Constable'' 

Martha alias Patt Chick, a single woman, and Widow Susanna 
Davis were warned out in 1772. It would appear from the records 
that the town would have been the gainer, could the residence of the 
last-named, by any process of law, have been established elsewhere. 

Two or three incidents of the last century will serve not only as an 
illustration of the condition of things, but also as a revelation of the 
character of the early inhabitants. 

At one time, not long after the beginning of the Revolution, there 


was a great scarcity of bread-stuff. Very little corn and grain had 
been raised the year before, but out of this enough had been saved 
and sowed by some farmers, to ensure that year's harvest, if it pros- 
pered. One June morning, Mrs. Thompson, wife of Deacon Thomp- 
son, announced to her family that the bread just eaten for breakfast 
had been made of her last bit of meal. Deacon Thompson then 
made a little speech to his children, telling them that there was not 
any corn or grain that he could buy, and they would all have to do 
without bread until bread-stuff grew again ; that they could live very 
well on such things as they had, and that they must do it cheerfully, 
and have no complaining about it — no murmur must be heard in the 
house. When he had impressed it on their minds, he and the boys 
went out to their hoeing. At noon, little Patty (born March, 1772) 
went to call them to dinner. " What have we got for dinner ? " asked 
one of the boys. "Bread and things," she answered. " Bread ! that's 
a story ! " said he, " we can't have bread I " " Yes, we have ; come 
and see," said she, running back to the house. The boys ran with 
her, and were rejoiced to find a heaping plate of bread on the table. 
When Deacon Thompson came in, he looked at the bread, and turned 
around and wept like a child. His son Ezra, then a boy of about 
fourteen years of age, thought within himself, " Why, what a foolish 
man father is, to be so cheerful about doing without bread, and now 
to cry when we have some ! I should think it is the last thing to cry 
about ! " It seems that a miller living a mile or two away, wishing 
some peas or beans that Deacon Thompson had, had ground some of 
his saved " toll," and sent to exchange. Before that had gone, there 
was corn to be bought, a vessel having brought some to Wells, which 
supplied the people until the earlier crops were gathered. 

At another time, corn was very scarce, and a poor family, consist- 
ing of husband, wife, and three children, had nothing in their house 
to eat. One morning he started on foot for Quampegan, to see if his 
father could possibly furnisli him with some corn, as he had nothing 
with which to buy. During the day she sat with a nursing child and 
spun two double skeins of yarn, with only cold water to put into her 
mouth until her husband's return at night. He returned as destitute 
as he went away, for his father could not help him. The next day 
he walked to Coxhall, to her father's where he obtained half a bushel 
of corn. 

A bride from " below," about to move into town to the cabin pre- 
pared for her future home, tied up all her marriage portion in a yard- 
square handkerchief, and made the journey on horseback behind her 

THE POOR. 227 

husband. A pail of water served her as a looking-glass for a num- 
ber of years. During the short days of winter, he felled and trimmed 
trees, which, by the light of a camp-fire in the evenings, she helped 
saw with a crosscut-saw into shingle-butts. When he had split these 
into thin pieces, and, with a drawing-knife, shaved on a shave-horse 
enough for a load, he would draw them to Wells on a hand-sled, and 
exchange for such necessaries as he could not raise. 

During the Revolutionary War, the families of some soldiers were 
in need of assistance, but the only recorded action of the town regard- 
ing it is a vote of September 6, 1779 : " Vot^the method that the 
Town has agreed upon to Suply the solgers families is by Superscrips- 

In 1781, the town " Voted to help the widow Powers which is now 
distract"* out of the town stock," and the next year "to chuse a Com- 
mitt^ to Draw up Petion to send to the general court for to see wy- 
ther they abate any part of our taxes or Delay the Execution for ai 
longer time." 

Overseers of the poor were first chosen in 1786, subsequently to 
which special votes were frequently passed, relative to the care of 
the poor. 

March 9, 1789. " Vof to abate mr Moses Tebbets taxes so long 
as he has and will have the two children of his son Jonathan Lord." 

April 4, 1791. " Vof* that John Adams agrees to take his Mother 
and Sister for twenty Six dolers only the Town finds Cloth for Shiffs 
and for a bed tow & linnen as so long as they live in Propertion to 
the above Sum and his town County & Satete tax abat* so long as 
they live." 

July 25, 1791. " Voted the Selectmen Purchase a Cow and let 
Mr. John Stanyan have the use of her he keeping and to remain the 
Towns property and to be taken fi'om him at the towns pleasure." 

May 13, 1793. " Vot"* that the Selectmen are to deal with the 
poor as the Law provides." 

March 9, 1801. " Voted to give Jona. Adams 50 cts. per week for 
supporting his mother in victuals and clothes ;" April 5, 1802., 
" Voted the selectmen to put Mrs. Adams out to Best advantage' the. 
year ensuing." 

April 5, 1802. "Voted the selectmen take Care of hartwell Best, 
way they can." 

In 1803, " Old Mrs. Adams " was to be kept for ninety-one cents: 
per week, and widow Mary Johnson was vendued to Captain Mark. 
Prime for sixty-seven cents per week, the doctor's bill in both cases; 


In February, 1819, arrangements were made for bringing a Day- 
family from Augusta, and a man was to be sent for that purpose. 
" Voted to set it up to vendue to see who would go as above cheap- 
est and that if the town should accept of the person who bid lowest. 
Joseph Shaw offered to go as above for twenty-two dollars $22.00. 
And if the family should come the selectmen are to allow the said 
Shaw a reasonable bill for the support on the road : but the said 
Shaw is to conduct in the most prudent manner viz. to purchase bread 
and beef sufficient for their support : but not to have pay at tavern 

May 3, 1819. " Voted the selectmen be directed to prosecute Levi 
Bracket for fetching a pauper into the town unlaw- 

March 4, 1820. "Voted that the overseers of the poor of San- 
ford be directed to prosecute Joshua Emery, of South Berwick, for 
bringing into this town and leaving her here." 

April 4, 1825 "Voted to vendue the Poor. The condition is they 
are to be fed & clothed & to be returned at the year's end as well as 
when received : but the town is to pay doctor's bills and nursing 
should they be sick." 

Various persons were thereupon " struck off" to a number of cit- 
izens for sums ranging from one cent to one dollar per week. 

In 1838, the poor were bid oflf by John Garey for four hundred and 
eighty-nine dollars, and in 1840 by "William L. Emery for five hun- 
dred dollars. In 1842, the town voted to dispose of the poor singly, 
by auction, but after disposing of two persons the vote was reconsid- 
ered, and the care of the poor was left with the selectmen, who were 
to act in the " manner most proper for best interests of the town." 

From time to time, objections were raised against the prevailing 
custom of venduing the unfortunate poor in open town meeting. It 
cost too much, and the poor could be supported in a cheaper manner. 
The aged and infirm in comfortable quarters with families whom 
they liked were too often moved, because the town could save a few 
■dollars by making a change, little or no consideration for the feelings 
■of the poor being exercised. The contracting parties were not always 
reliable and responsible. Sometimes complaints were made of the 
treatment received at the hands of the keepers of the poor, though 
such cases, were, fortunately, of rare occurrence. At length, public 
sentiment or public interests demanded a change. Accordingly, at 
the annual meeting, April 1, 1850, the selectmen were authorized to 
purchase a town farm, at a cost of twenty-five hundred dollars or 
less. On the 22d of that month, however, they were authorized to 

THE POOE. 229 

use their own discretion in the purchase, but it must be made witliin 
three weeks. Stock and farming implements were to be bought, and 
some one put in charge of the farm, and the poor to be moved there- 
to, from the several places at which they had been kept. The farm 
and buildings of Timothy Ham, on Hanson's Ridge, were purchased, 
and Mr. Ham engaged to take charge for one year. Since tlie estab- 
lishment of the farm, the wisdom of having a permanent abode for 
the indigent has been apparent. Whether through misfortune or im- 
providence or intemperance the inmates of that home have become 
chargeable to the town,, they have generally been treated with the 
feeling and consideration due to humanity, and received the sympa- 
thy which Christian communities bestow upon the unfortunate and 
suffering. In sickness, they have been well cared for : in deatli, they 
have received a decent burial. 

The town report of 1900 shows the pauper expenses for the pre- 
ceding year to have been slightly in excess of two thousand dollars. 



Common Use of Intoxicants in the Early Days — Meeting-Houses 
Raised with Rum — First Restrictive Action of the Town — De- 
cided Stand of Rev. Mr. Marsh — Granting of Licenses — Early 
Temperance Workers and Organizations — Incendiarism at 
Springvale — The Prohibitory Law. 

THE sale and use of intoxicating liquors were prevalent in the 
early days of the plantation. The custom of using such liquors, 
which nearly every one followed, did not have the appearance of a 
moral wrong, and could not be so regarded as long as there was no 
higher standard with which to compare. Its evil effects were expe- 
rienced, bitterly, too, at times, and yet, they were recognized only as 
the results of a necessity. No words of condemnation were uttered, 
no voice of warning was heard, and it was many years before the 
people were aroused from their lethargy. 

For nearly eighty years licenses were granted almost every year, 
to both innholders and retailers. The number varied, but the maxi- 
mum was reached in 1810, when eleven licenses were issued to retail- 
ers. The same number was granted in 1829 and in 1832 : in the 
former year, nine to retailers, and two, to innholders ; in the latter, 
eight, to retailers, and three, to innholders. After 1842, licenses to 
sell spirituous liquors for mechanical and medicinal purposes only 
were granted. Since 1857, licenses have not been granted. 

Rum was formerly used upon all occasions. That it was deemed 
necessary when meeting-houses were raised is evident from the follow- 
ing votes, from the records of the two parishes : 

(North Parish.) " April 6, 1784. The inhabitants of this parish 
met, pursuant to adjournment, and passed the following vote : Voted, 
To purchase two barrels of rum, one barrel of pork, four bushels of 
beans, ten gallons of molasses, ten pounds of coffee, and twenty- 
eight pounds of sugar, to raise the meeting-house. Voted, That Na- 
thaniel Conant was desired to procure said articles." 



(South Parish.) April 14, 1788. " Voted, To procure and order 
for Mr. Cram, to provide 1 berrell ^ of N E Rum, 2 quintals ^ of 
fish and 10 Gallons of Molasses, and hogsfat if he can get it," to be 
paid out of the meeting-house tax. 

When these meeting-houses were ready for occupancy, and the 
formal dedicatory services iiad been performed, the event was cele- 
brated, in private, over the social glass, by those engaging in the ser- 
vices. The ministers occupying the pulpits even wrote and delivered 
their sermons under the "inspiration," i. e., exhilaration, of rum. 
Whenever they made pastoral calls, the decanter was set before them, 
of the contents of which they were expected to partake, especially 
where they were, for the first time, visitors of their parishioners. The 
teacher took rum as part of his daily rations ; the farmer and the 
wood-cutter carried it with them into their fields and woods ; the 
teamster needed it to protect him from the heat or cold, as the case 
might be ; the mourner found consolation in the cup ; wedding-guests 
were stimulated by it. On all occasions, huskings, raisings, dances, 
trainings, musters, spirituous liquors were alike needed. Some of 
the best men of their times sold intoxicants, and had as customers 
their equals in ranli and character. Their account-books were filled 
with charges for rum and toddy. We do not wonder that the town, 
from 1800 to 1825, was scourged with intemperance. It was a nec- 
essary and legitimate result of the custom that prevailed among all 
classes and supported for that period an average of seven retailers 
and tavern keepers. As the population was from fourteen hundred 
to twenty- one hundred, the average was one rum-seller to every two 
hundred or three hundred inhabitants. 

The first recorded action of the town, tending to restrict the sale 
of intoxicating liquors, was in 1803, April 4 : " Voted, the Select- 
men Not to give any the Shopkeepers or Tavern-keepers any Appreb- 
tion if they Sel any Licker to any of the Inhabitants of this Town on 
the Lord's day. Only in Case of Nesesity that Excepted." 

May 5, 1817. "Voted to raise a committee of three to order no 
tents within forty rods of the Baptist Meeting House on the days of 
the Association in June next, and that they be directed to prosecute 
any offender wiio shall not comply." The object of such a vote of 
the town was that the meeting might be less disturbed by the quar- 
relling, fighting, and confusion which prevailed among those congre- 
gating in the vicinity of liquor dealers. That this was the case we 
have abundant evidence. When Thomas Keeler was elected repre- 
sentative in 1806, his seat was contested. One of the allegations of 


his opponents was, that Keeler after the election gave public invita- 
tion to all the voters to go to any or all of the public houses or stores 
in Alfred, or to his own house in Sanford, to receive such refresh- 
ments as they should want ; that there was the appearance of riot and 
drunkenness at Keeler's store, with fighting and quarrelling. That 
such an allegation should be made, when intoxicating liquors were in 
general use, and that the vote of 1803 should be passed, give us 
strong reason for the assertion that the people had fallen on troub- 
lous times, owing to the unrestricted sale and excessive use of spirit- 
uous liquors. We have heard from eye-witnesses and from others who 
had listened to their reports, that drinking, carousing, horse-racing, 
gambling, and fighting constituted the pastime of Saturday after- 
noons, when, from all parts of the town, large numbers assembled at 
the Corner, to enjoy their usual weekly holiday. Says one, a native 
whose memory ran back more than sixty years: "In my younger 
days there were four stores at the Corner, and all of them rum-shops. 
There was then an immense sight of liquor sold, and an immense 
sight of fighting and quarrelling and business enougli to support two 

In 1823, an attempt was made to prevent the sale of spirituous 
liquors near the Congregational meeting-house, on the 8th of Septem- 
ber (annual state election) , but a motion to complain of every person 
who should sell such liquors, except in houses, within sixty rods of 
the meeting-house was negatived. The spring meeting, April 5, 
1824, was a stormy meeting, the eSect, one would naturally infer, of 
the free use of intoxicating drinks. Much business had been trans- 
acted, but, at length, there was so much confusion that it was impos- 
sible to proceed. Then the following votes were passed : " 35th. 
Voted the throng-men be seated. 36th. Voted the aisle be cleared. 
37th. Voted that the doors be closed, and no person enter." (This 
was subsequently reconsidered.) " 46th. Voted the town agent be 
directed not to suffer any ardent spirits sold within one mile of the 
meeting-house." Though no time is mentioned, we presume that the 
intention was to restrict the sale on town-meeting days. 

Moral reform is of slow progress. At times it scarcely seems to 
make any advance, and yet, like the glacier, its onward movement is 
irresistible. This general truth has an illustration in the temperance 
reform. It was near the close of the last century that the clergy be- 
gan to make active efforts against intemperance. It was subsequent 
to 1790 that Parson Sweat preached a sermon on temperance. We 
conclude that it could not have been very radical, and obnoxious to 


his hearers, for the innovation did not, so far as we know, cause any 
disaffection. That would iiave been the case, in all probability, had 
the preacher borne down severely on the failings of his hearers, or 
denied them the right to use intoxicating liquors as they pleased. 

In 1813, the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intem- 
perance was formed, and in February, 1826, the American Society 
for the Promotion of Temperance was organized in Boston. Though 
total abstinence had been advocated in 1820, the latter society and 
its auxiliaries did not oppose the use of wine, cider, or malt liquors. 
The only general requirements were total abstinence from distilled 
spirits, except when prescribed for medicine, and moderation in the 
use of other drinks less intoxicating. In 1827, Rev. Christopher 
Marsh delivered a sermon on total abstinence, which was at that time 
in advance of the principles disseminated by temperance pocieties 
throughout the state. It bore good fruit, though of small quantity, 
and in after years its influence was long felt. Rev. Mr. Marsh was 
always consistent, and commanded the attention and respect of those 
who differed with him on the temperance question. "What was a duty 
for his hearer to perform, was equally a duty for him to obey, though 
sometimes his conscientious obedience of the call of duty brought 
him into unpleasant opposition to his ministerial brethren, for whose 
age and experience he had great respect. It was the invariable cus- 
tom when Rev. Mr. Marsh came into town, to have spirituous liquors 
at the meetings of the York County Association of Congregational 
Ministers, which were furnished by the clergyman entertaining the 
Association. Rev. Mr. Marsh and another young minister, members 
of the Association, discussed the custom, and agreed not to furnish 
the usual entertainment, when their turns came to have the Associa- 
tion meet with them. At length it met in Sanford. The usual exe- 
getical exercises were performed. The discussions may not have 
been animated, but we cannot conceive why a deep spirituality may 
not have pervaded every soul, though the exercises were conducted 
with less spirit than similar exercises on previous occasions had been 
conducted. There was much surprise because spirituous liquors were 
not offered. The host did not feel that any apology was necessary 
nor was any made. This lack of Christian courtesy, so called, this 
breach of ministerial etiquette, drew forth sharp and severe criticism 
from outside busybodies as well as from clerical guests, but the 
young minister, having followed his honest convictions, had no com- 
punctions of conscience to disturb him. 

It is evident that public opinion was advancing. The treasurer 


and selectmen refused to attend a meeting, February 16, 1829, to li- 
cense persons to sell liquors. One retailer, convinced of the wrong 
of selling intoxicating liquors, gave up the business, sacrificing trade 
and gain. On the 14th of September, the town "Voted the select^ 
men shall be authorized to license retailers, innholders, and victualers 
to sell spirituous liquors to be drunk in their stores, etc.," and in the 
following two years, a similar vote was passed. In 1832, several of 
those licensed by the proper authorities did not call for their licenses, 
or some of the retailers did not receive licenses. On the 1st of April, 
1833, therefore, it was " Voted the treasurer of said town call upon 
every innholder ■ and retailer of spirituous liquor in said town who 
have sold spirits since the second Tuesday of September last, and 
request them to take their license and pay for the same, and upon 
refusal to enter a complaint before the grand jury at the next court 
of Common Pleas." 

At the annual meeting, April 6, 1835, the question in regard to 
granting licenses for the retail of ardent spirits came up. The first 
vote stood one hundred and three " for," one hundred and five 
"against." The vote was doubted, and the house polled. A second 
time the vote was doubted, and the voters polled in the highway. 
The meeting was immediately dissolved; but a vote reconsidering the 
one dissolving the meeting was declared in the aflSrmative. The tem- 
perance party was in the majority, and yet several persons were li- 
censed. One of the selectmen, however, refused to sign any licenses. 

There are several reasons why a change of sentiment was efEected. 
Rev. Elisha Bacon was an efficient worker in this cause. Soon after 
his settlement he made war on rum-drinking, whether in his church 
or out of it, and held temperance meetings in school-houses in vari- 
ous parts of the town, at which he read Beecher's sermons on intem- 
perance. In 1832, the Congregational Church became a temperance 
society, and most of its members signed the pledge. Many moder- 
ate drinkers became strictly temperance men, and many hard drink- 
■ers became temperate, though constantly struggling against the habits 
of years. Agents employed by the American Society for the Pro- 
motion of Temperance were actively engaged in discussing the great 
moral question of the day. An address delivered in town before the 
first temperance association in York County, January 7, 1835, by 
George W. Wells, may have aroused the people. His subject was 
" The Cause of Temperance is the Cause of Liberty." 

Who were active workers in town? Let one of the number name 
some of them. " Rum was rampant there (Springvale) at that time 


(1834-6). I felt called upon to give battle and there were some 
noble menwho were with me in the work. Among them Mr. Skeele 
at the Corner, Dr. J. Smith, and Caleb Emery, a noble young man, 
who was right and fearless on all the moral questions of the day . . 
. . . . ' Mr. Dustin (agent of the Print Works) was an active tem- 
perance man, and so was Elder Julian, who was pastor of the F. W. 
Baptist Church. Elder Cook, of the other part of the town, did not 
•come up well on temperance."' 

In 1836, John Skeele, William Emery, and others formed a Total 
Abstinence Society, among the first, if not the first, of its kind in 
the state. Albert Day and Alfred H. Emery circulated the pledge 
among the scholars, and obtained several signatures. When the 
Washingtonian movement took place, Hawkins, Bartimeus, of Bos- 
ton, and Parkinson of Wells, were among the public speakers that 
advocated temperance in Sanford. 

In 1840, the Baptist Church adopted a temperance pledge, and in 
1843 the Baptist Church at Springvale took a decided stand in favor 
of total abstinence. Intemperance caused much trouble in all the 
churches, and gave frequent occasion for discipline. At one time, a 
member of the Congregational Church was disciplined for drunken- 
ness. One of the deacons or prominent church members suggested 
that, if he must drink, he had better drink at home, where his fault 
would not be publicly known. Not long after, another member got 
intoxicated, and was summoned before the church. He acknowledged 
the charge against him, but, in defence, pleaded that he had followed 
the advice given to his erring brother, and got drunk at home, not 
at the Corner. 

In 1844, two persons were licensed to sell spirituous liquors for 
medicinal purposes only, in accordance with a vote of April 1 : 
" Voted and directed the selectmen, treasurer, and town clerk to 
license two individuals in said town to sell spirituous liquors for all 
necessary purposes, and that they prosecute all persons who sell spir- 
ituous liquors without a license." The license law in force was vio- 
lated, and fines were imposed upon the violators. The town, on the 
7th of April, 1845, " Voted and authorized the selectmen to appro- 
priate the several fines imposed for the violation of the ' License Law' 
to the support' of the poor in said town.'' 

Licenses w'ere not granted from 1844 to 1850, though some in 1846 
desired to have an agent or two agents appointed to sell spirituous 
liquors for medicinal and mechanical purposes only. Their desire in 

1 Elder Nathan K. tfeorge. 


the form of a petition is expressed iu an article in the wan-ant for 
the annual meeting, April 6, 1846. 

" Art. 31. To see if they (the town) will grant the petition of 
Ichabod Frost and seven others, as follows : 1st. To see if they will 
vote to instruct the selectmen, town clerk, and treasurer to license 
one or two persons to sell intoxicating liquors and that to[o] for 
medicinal and mechanical purposes only. 2d. To see if such person, 
or persons shall have [a] stipulated compensation for such services,, 
and, if so, what, and how to be paid, and see if the town will furnish 
the liquors and receive the profits. 3d. To see if the town will elect 
an agent or committee whose duty it shall be to prosecute all viola- 
tions of the license law with the advice and consent of the selectmen."' 

This petition was not granted. 

York Division, No. Ill, Sons of Temperance, was instituted at 
Springvale, March 8, 1S48. Samuel Lord was Worthy Patriarch, 
Albert Day, Worthy Associate, and Daniel E. Lucy, Recording 

Union Section, No. 13, Cadets of Temperance, was organized 
November 24, 1848. This organization was composed of boys over 
fourteen years of age. 

Star in the East Union, No. 26, Daughter of Temperance, was 
instituted April 26, 1849. It numbered twenty-eight members. They 
ceased to meet about the last of March, 1851. 

In the spring of 1850, Albert Day Encampment, No. 1, Cadets of 
Temperance, was formed. It was named in honor of its chief pa- 
tron, an efficient worker in the cause of temperance. 

All of these organizations did good service in their day, helping;- 
to suppress the sale and use of intoxicating liquors. 

In 1850, Tristram Gilman apd John W. Bodwell were licensed to- 
sell liquors in less quantity than twenty-eight gallons for medicinal 
and mechanical purposes. During the five years in which licenses 
were not granted, intoxicating liquors were quite freely sold. There 
were three or four open bars. In fact, a hotel without a bar was an 
anomaly. One had been opened, however, in 1814, and continued a 
year. It was done at the solicitation of the temperance people, by 
Deacon John Webster, a thorough-going Washingtonian. 

It was during those years that so much trouble arose at Springvale, 
resulting in lawsuits and incendiarism. Rum-sellers were prosecuted, 
and in turn, became complainants against violators of law, who had 
been foremost in prosecuting them. Robert Moon sold rum in defi- 
ance of the law. Conviction did not always follow prosecution. One 


night the heads of his liquor casks were knocked in, and his liquors 
^spilled upon the cellar bottom. Dennis Hatch intimated that, if his 
sledge-hammer could speak, it might reveal the secret of the destruc- 
tion of the liquors. Counter prosecutions resulted in compromise. 
Hatch's blacksmith shop was fired, its posts were cut or sawed nearly 
off, and the building otherwise damaged. This was done in retalia- 
tion, or because his enemies were afraid tliat a fire from his shop 
might sweep the village away. Several incendiary fires occurred dur- 
ing those troublous times, most of which were attributed to the min- 
ions of rum-sellers. It is said that several buildings at the Print 
Works were burned on account of the prosecutions of liquor-sellers. 

At one time Clement Parker, Junior, burned Albert Day in effigy, 
near Mrs. Wilson's house. '■ Glory to God," said old '' Father " 
Greenhalgh, as he laid his hand upon Day's head soon after the 
affair, " there are better men than you tiiat have been burned at the 

When right and wrong come into conflict, such scenes are the nat- 
ural results, especially when radical opinion, ill-timed remark, and 
bitter denunciation are the weapons of contending parties. What- 
ever weight may have been attached to the arguments for or against 
a licensed rumtraflSc, the temperance party presented one fact that 
was effective against its adversary ; namely, the town had lost heavily 
by tlie use of intoxicating liquors. Said a well-known temperance 
man, more than fifty years ago, " More than seventy-five per cent 
of these farms has run through the rum-tap.'' He was accused of mak- 
ing a false statement, and uttering a libel upon the town. He replied 
to his accuser that his statement was true, and he could prove it. 
Beginning at one section of the town, and taking the farms one after 
another, he found that seventy- five out of a hundred had been ex- 
changed by their owners on account of the losses incurred by intem- 

After the " Maine Law " of 1851 was passed, there was manifestly 
a design to bring the law into disrepute, and make it unpopular, even 
among its supporters. At the annual meeting, April 5, 1852, the 
town " Voted and instructed the selectmen not to appoint an agent 
to sell spirituous or intoxicating liquors for medicinal or mechanical 
purposes. Voted that the selectmen be and are hereby authorized 
to prosecute all violations of the liquor law." This was at the re- 
quest of George Nowell and seven others. Whether the last vote 
was obeyed to the letter^ we know not, but we have evidence in a 
.subsequent vote of the town that the people were willing for the vio- 


lators of the law to bear the burden of the fines imposed upon them 
when the law was enforced. That vote was the indefinite postpone- 
ment of an article in the warrant for a town-meeting, March 13, 
1854 : "To see if the town will vote to remit the fines against Clem- 
ent Parker, Jr., George "Wilkinson, Zebulon Nason, Joseph Morrison, 
Timothy Shaw, and others, for violation of the Maine liquor law." . 

There was a reaction througho.ut the state in 1855, and the legis- 
lature chosen that year enacted a license law. John W. Bodwell 
was licensed to sell intoxicating liquors from July 23, 1856 to May 
1, 1857. His was the last license granted in town. 

The town voted June 7, 1858, in relation to "An act to restrain 
and regulate the sale of intoxicating liquors, and to prohibit and 
suppress drinking houses and tippling shops," approved April 7, 1856, 
and in relation to "An act for the suppression of drinking houses 
and tippling shops," approved March 25, 1858. The result was, for 
the " License Law" of 1856, two votes; for the " Prohibitory Law" 
of 1858, eighty-five votes. On the 12th of March, 1866, the eighth 
article in the warrant was postponed indefinitely: "To see if the 
town will raise or appropriate a sum of money for the selectmen to 
purchase spirituous liquors for the town, to be sold by an agent to be 
appointed by the selectmen." Upon ''An act additional to and 
amendatory of chapter thirty-three of the laws of eighteen hundred 
fifty-eight for the suppression of drinking houses and tippling shops," 
the vote of June 3, 1867, was "Yes," eleven, "No," six. 

Prior to the formation of the present Good Templars' Lodges in 
the town, the following were organized in the years specified : Spring- 
vale Lodge, 1868 ; Riverside, 1880 ; Amethyst (South Sanford),1883. 
Organizations of Juvenile Templars, which include Rising Sun Tem- 
ple, Sanford Temple, and Dawn of Hope Temple, have existed dur- 
ing the past twenty years. 

Torsey Lodge, No. 16, Independent Order of Good Templars, was 
organized December 2, 1881, with over forty charter members. Its 
first Chief Templar was Frank J. Nutter, with Rev. Henry J. Stone 
as Chaplain. The membership is now one hundred and three, and 
the present oflflcers are as follows : C. T., Edward H. Emery ; V. T., 
Abbie Ford ; Secretary, Gertrude Wilcox ; Assistant Secretary, Inez 
Merrill; F. S., Villa Chadborne ; T., George L. Stackpole; Chap- 
lain, Orrin Pillsbury ; M., Ralph W. Jones ; D. M., Ida Downes ; G., 
Evaline Quint; S., Adam Dehaven; P. C. T., Don A. Wright; 
Superintendent Juvenile Temple, John P. Bowley ; L. D., W. 0. 


Beacon Light Lodge of Good Templars was instituted January 18, 
1888, by Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Mason of Biddeford. Fifty persons re- 
ceived the initiatory work. Rev. F. G-. Davis was the first Chief 
Templar. The present oflBcers are : C.T., Charles E. Gould ; V. T., 
E. S. Grogan; Secretary, Bessie A. Smyth; Assistant Secretary, 
Mrs. H. M. Smyth ; F. S., Frank H. Dexter ; T., Emma S. Hanson ; 
Chaplain, Mrs. E. S. Grogan; M., Elmer B. Ferguson; D. M., 
Mattie B. Hinkley ; G., Harry Howes; S., Ralph E. Yeaton; P. C. 
T., Wilbert N. Goodwin. 

A Sanford Corner branch of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union was organized September 21, 1892, with more than forty mem- 
bers. Mrs. E. P. Allen, wife of Rev. E. P. Allen, was the first 
President. The present oflBcers are : President, Miss Ellen M. Em- 
ery ; Vice Presidents, Mrs. Nathaniel Bennett and Mrs. Samuel Poin- 
dexter ; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, Miss Mary L. Traf- 
ton ; Treasurer, Mrs. Frank Albee. The present membership is about 

The Springvale W. C. T. U. was organized in January, 1892. 
The present membership is thirty, and the oflBcers are as follows : 
President, Mrs. Mary H. Roberts ; Vice Presidents, Mrs. Lydia Frost 
and Mrs. Sarah Pierce; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, 
Mrs. Hattie Goodwin ; Treasurer, Mrs. Flora Walters. 



A Gift From the National Government — Perplexity as to Disposi- 
tion of Sanford's Share — Final Payment to Heads of Families. 

DURING Jaclison's administration the United States government 
passed an act authorizing the distribution of the surplus revenue 
then in its treasury, amounting to nearly forty million dollars, among 
the states, provided they would stand ready to refund the same on 
demand. The proportion of Maine in this distribution was $955,- 
838.25. The legislature passed au act to deposit this amount with 
the towns of the state, in proportion to their population, upon the 
conditions prescribed by the national government. 

January 28, 1837, the town voted that John T. Paine, Eepresenta- 
tive, be instructed by the town clerk to vote that the surplus revenue 
be divided among the several towns in the state. April 3, 1837, it 
was voted that this town will receive its proportion of money which 
is or may be deposited with this state by the United States, in pur- 
suance of an act to regulate the deposit of the public money on the 
condition specifled in the act of this state, entitled " An Act provid- 
ing for the disposition and repayment of the public money appor- 
tioned to the State of Maine on deposit by the Government of the 
United States." John Frost, Second, was appointed agent to receive 
said proportion, and authorized to give receipt therefor. 

At a second meeting two weeks later, the town voted " to loan the 
public money apportioned to this town on 'deposit from the state of 
Maine to any person in this town in sums not exceeding three hun- 
dred dollars nor less than twenty-five dollars to any one person or 
corporation on he or they producing two good sureties for the repay- 
ment of the same on demand and interest at 6 per cent." It was 
also voted "that the interest on the money deposited as aforesaid 
shall be used to pay the poll tax of the inhabitants of this town — 
and every person who is taxed for property and not for a poll and 
resides within the town of Sanford are to receive the amount of a 
poll tax to be deducted from his or her tax on their property, and 


after appropriating a suflacient sum of the interest of said money for 
the aforesaid purpose, then, if any remain, it is to be used toward de- 
fraying the expenses of the poor of said town." 

A feeling of jealousy sprang up, because some thought that every 
individual, was entitled to a share of the money, and accordingly at 
a meeting, June 3, the foregoing votes were reconsidered, and it was 
" voted to loan this town's proportion of the public money to each 
individual of the town in equal proportions." 

Trouble arose. The selectmen refused to call a town meeting. 
Upon the application of ten freeholders, William C. Allen, of Alfred, 
one of the justices of the peace of Maine, directed Joshua Hanson, 
constable, to call a meeting to be held on the 24th of June, 1837, for 
the purpose of seeing whether the town would direct the treasurer to 
collect the two instalments of surplus revenue received by the town 
and loaned, of those to whom loaned, and to receive the other two 
instalments, and to loan it to individual heads of families, taking 
their notes therefor. The second article in the warrant was : "To 
see if the town will direct the Treasurer of said town to collect the 
two instalments of the surplus revenue received by said town, and 
loaned, of the several persons to whom loaned, to receive the two re- 
maining instalments from the State Treasurer when due, and to loan 
the whole to individual heads of families, each his or her proportion 
according to the census of said town ; to see if the Treasurer shall 
be directed to take notes of the several individual heads of families 
as security for said money, to pay him or his successor in oflBce the 
amount each is entitled to receive and promising to pay the same on 
demand whenever the Treasurer of the town shall be called upon to 
pay the same into the treasury of this state by direction of the gov- 
ernment of the United States, and that said notes shall be deemed 
good and sufficient security, and the Treasurer of said town shall be 
authorized to purchase a book of blank note-forms for the above pur- 
pose, the said notes to be the property of said town and sufficient to 
indemnify said Treasurer from the liabilities from failures on the 
part of heads of families." 

Only one of the selectmen, Jotham Welch, was present. The 
meeting was called to order by the clerk, and duly organized, andi 
the following resolution passed : 

" Resolved, that the Treasurer of said town be directed to proceed' 
according to the second article in said warrant, in the collection of 
the surplus revenue, to loan the same in manner as is therein speci- 


fied, that he be authorized to purchase a book of blank note-forms 
for the purpose, and that he be indemnified as is therein specified." 

The doings of this meeting were confirmed September 11, when it 
was ' ' voted that the agent who was appointed to receive the surplus 
revenue be directed to receive the third instalment and pay the same 
over to the treasurer of said town, and that the treasurer be directed 
to loan the same to heads of families according to a resolve passed 
June 24, 1837." This vote was subsequently reconsidered. 

There was something wrong in the account of the treasurer, or un- 
•satisfactory in his report at the annual meeting iu 1838, and the 
selectmen were appointed as a committee to settle with Thomas 
Hobbs, late treasurer, relative to his receiving, loaning, dividing and 
paying out the surplus revenue, and to report a statement of facts 
at the next town meeting. They made their report June 16, when it 
was voted that the treasurer be desired to call upon the late treasurer, 
Thomas Hobbs, for fifty-five dollars and ten cents, it being the sum 
that he paid of the surplus revenue to heads of families for persons 
that were not taken in said families by the selectmen in the census 
itaken by them in the spring of 1837 ; and, if Hobbs refused to re- 
ifund that amount, the treasurer was directed to prosecute him. 

On the day last mentioned the town voted (this vote seems to have 
been final) , " that the present treasurer pay out the residue of the sur- 
plus revenue to heads of families according to the number in each 
family, as taken by the selectmen in 1837 ; and if it should be the 
.case that certain persons were living in Sanford on the first day of 
March, 1837, and were omitted and not taken by the selectmen, 
ithen in that case the present treasurer is to pay them in the same 
proportion as he pays those that were taken in said census." 

The reason for this change in the disposal of a gift may be attrib- 
luted to the fact that each voter and his dependents received a small 
portion of the money. It should be noticed that the legislature of 
1838 (?) passed an act authorizing the different towns to distribute 
this fund among the inhabitants per capita. It seems to have been 
an unwise thing to do, but, at this late day, it will not change the 
fact to suggest what advantages might have accrued to the town, if 
it had appropriated the money for the foundation of some permanent 



List of Traders and Merchants, Beginning with 1830 — Innholders 
and Hotel Keepers from 1835 to 1870 —Residents of Sanford 
Corner Fifty Years Ago. 

TAKING up the list of traders where we left off, about 1830, we 
find the following : 
Theodore Willard and Co., 1829-30, Theodore Willard, 1831-33, 
1835-38 ; where they traded at first we do not know, but in or about 
1834, Willard built a store on the southeast corner of Main Street 
and the county road. Francis A. Allen, 1831-33; presumably in 
the Allen store at the Corner; in 1832, J'rancis A. Allen and Co. 
was the firm name, Emilus Allen being the company. Jethro Heard, 
1831-33. Ira Tebbets, 1832-35 ; he built a small store on what was 
known as the " heater piece." Moses Butler, 1832-33, and Moses 
Butler, Junior, 1835, at Springvale. Joshua Hobbs and Co. traded 
in the store which John Storer built at Springvale about 1830, until 
they sold out to Hobbs and Conant ("William G., of Alfred), about 
1838. Amos F. Howard and Co. bought out Hobbs and Conant, 
Hobbs leaving town in 1841 ; Nathan O. Kendall was Howard's 
partner. William Emery, Junior, and Co. ; about 1834, Mr. Emery 
built a store at Springvale, on the corner opposite Theodore Willard's 
store, where, with his son Caleb, he traded three years. In 1837, 
Caleb S. Emery bought out Caleb Emery, and continued the business 
with his uncle William three or four years. Samuel Jackson, 1837- 
38, was a licensed retailer, in a store subsequently occupied by James 
Tebbets, and then removed to become an ell of William Miller's fac- 
tory ; it finally was burnt in part and torn down. Samuel Tripp and 
James H. Clark, under the firm name of Tripp and Clark, occupied 
the Storer store a short time from 1837. George Weld, 1839-41, 
1842, 1845, George Weld and Co., 1843, Weld and Tripp (?) ; Dr. 
Weld was a licensed retailer, 1839-41 ; we have the impression that 
he and Samuel Tripp succeeded Tripp and Clark, and afterward 
moved to the Allen store, where Dr. Weld traded during the Clay 



campaign in 1844 and subsequently. Eliot Tebbets, 1839, was li- 
censed as a retailer and traded in the Allen store. George Miller, 
1839-41, kept a groggery at Springvale, near the site of the store 
built by Ichabod Frost, corner of Main and Lebanon Streets. Other 
licensed retailers of this period were the following : Hugh Ashton, 
Springvale, 1840 ; Josiah Paul, 1840 ; EobertMoon, 1840 ; Benjamin 
Melvin, and James Tebbets, at the Corner ; Andrew Allen, Oak Hill ; 
Ivory Johnson and Daniel Maddox, South Sanford : James Boston, 
Zebulon Nason, William M. Roach, and Ezra D. Manahan, Spring- 
vale ; and William Burnham, Manius Moore, and John Littlefleld. 

In the fall of 1840, Stephen Hatch succeeded Jotham Storer in 
the Deacon Frost store at the Corner, where he continued until 1848. 
Frost and Storer (George A. and Horace P.), 1841-43 (1) ; George 
A. Frost and Co. (Amariah Frost), 1843-46 (2) ; George A. Frost, 
1847-52, 1869-74 (3) ; George A. and Charles H. Frost, 1852-1869 
(4) ; Charles H. Frost (5) ; this firm (1) began trade in the Storer 
store at Springvale, then (2) continued in the same location until 
George A. had built a store above on the opposite side of the street, 
when they nooved into it about 1845. For five years George A. (3) 
was alone, when his brother Charles H. formed a copartnership with 
him. In 1870 Charles H. (5) returned from Portland and set up in 
the dry and fancy goods business, in the store built by Albert J. 
Smith, just above the Emery store. 

In 1834, Samuel B., William L., and Caleb S. Emery opened a tin- 
shop at South Sanford, near the old Colonel Emery house. In 1837 
the firm dissolved, the shop was moved to the Corner, and enlarged, 
and Samuel B. and William L. continued the business five years. 
Salter Emery, Christopher H. Bennett, and Albert Day, under the- 
firm name of Bennett, Emery and Day, carried on the buisness oue 
year, and in 1843 William L. Emery and Bennett entered into a five 
years' partnership. Upon its dissolution in 1848 Mr. Emery took in 
as partner Nahum Thompson, and continued the manufacture of ware 
and sale of stoyes three years. All of these, with one exception, had 
been tin peddlers. From 1851 until 1866 Mr. Emery was alone, but 
he then took in his son Prescott as a partner in the firm of William 
L. Emery and Son, which firm name continued some years after the 
death of tlie senior member in 1876. In 1875-6 the old shop was 
moved back, and a two-story front erected on the street. All was 
burnt July 1, 1878. In the shop on the site of the old one Prescott 
Emery continued the business until his death in 1898, since which 
time it has been conducted by George W. Huff. 



The following firms occupied the Emery store at Springvale ; Wil- 
liam Emery, Junior, and Co. (Samuel B. Emery), 1842-44; Emery 
find Lord (Samuel B. and Samuel) , 1844-46 ; Samuel Lord and Co. 
(P. M. Frost), 1846-48 ; Lord and Frost (Samuel and Amariah), 
1849; Lord and Co. (Samuel and Charles O.), 1852; Hersom and 
Keed ; Edwin Reed. The Factory Company carried on a store in 
■the Willard building about 1841, with C. S. Emery as agent. John 
W. Bodwell traded in the Morrill store at the Corner, 1841-45. Caleb 
•S. Emery, 1842-46, began trade in his store, constructed from a 
blacitsmith shop, and afterward raised one story, above the Emery 
store. In 1846, his brother, John F., became his partner, and later, 
Otis R. Chadbourn. They went out of business in 1850. John H. 
Shapleigh and Amos F. Howard, were in business in the Willard 
store at Springvale, about 1843, for a few years. Timothy Shaw, 
Junior, Tripp, and Shaw, 1844-45, and Samuel Tripp, 1845, occu- 
pied the Stimpson store at the Corner. During the presidential cam- 
paign of 1844, a Polk and Dallas flag floated over their store, while 
at the lower end of the village, a' Clay and Frelinghuysen flag waved 
over Dr. Weld's store. Kendall and Merrill (N. O. and John), and 
Merrill and Hubbard (John and A. P.), occupied the Wilson store at 
Springvale. John Merrill and Co. (Stephen Merrill) , Stephen Mer- 
rill, alone, Merrill and Rieker, and Ricker and Hersom occupied the 
Willard store at Springvale. 

Albert Day opened a tin-shop at Springvale in 1844. Soon after, 
he took liis brother, John W. Day, into copartnership, and later 
Abram D. Hubbard and Luther W. Godding. In 1849, Stephen 
Hatch bought out John W. Day. Albert Day left in 1850, and Mr. 
Hatch remained a year or two later. Their shop was just above the 
Lebanon road, on the west side of Main Street. 

Druggists prior to 1850 were Reuben W. Hill, who occupied the 
Fernald store after it was moved upon Ichabod Frost's land, and 
Tristram Gilman, who kept in the Shapleigh store. Oilman was 
•succeeded by John Merrill and John Merrill and Co. 

Between 1846 and 1853, John H. Kimball, KimbaU and Hubbard, 
and James H. Hubbard traded in the Storer store. " Dry Goods, 
Groceries, Farming Implements, and Hardware "was the long sign, 
on cloth that attracted the writer's eye when a boy. David Cram 
built a small store above his house at South Sanford, and traded 
in it. Samuel B. Emery built a store on the corner of the present 
Main and Washington Streets at the Corner, in 1846, and traded 
there some twenty-five years. His partners were Salter and Moses 
W. Emery, and the firm names were as follows : Samuel B. Emery, 


1846 ; Salter Emery and Co., 1849 ; S. and M. W. Emery ; M. W. 
Emery and Co., 1857; S. B. Emery and Co., 1861; S. B. Emery 
and Son, 1862; M. W. Emery and Co., 1871; M. W. and S. B. 
Emery, 1872. S. Benton Emery was in trade with Moses W. when 
Nowell and Bennett bought out the business, to be succeeded by 
Warren and Mason, and by Kimball Brothers and Co., in 1876. 
Samuel Thompson succeeded Dr. Weld in the Allen store. Christo- 
pher H. Bennett succeeded Stephen Hatch (1848), in the Deacon 
Frost store, and after two or three years' moved into the Allen store, 
where he was later burnt out. Then he had charge of the Protective 
Union store, and was in company a short time with Jonas K. Dor- 
man. He built a two-story store below the old Nasson Cemetery, 
where he continued in trade until he sold out in 1871. Elisha A. 
Bodwell traded at the Corner in the Stimpson store, 1850-53. Am- 
ariah Frost was in business at Springvale in 1850. Clement Parker, 
Junior, had a confectionery store below George A. Frost's, prior to 
1850. Fitch, Hodgdon and Co. occupied the C. S. Emery store 
three or four years (1851-54?). Joseph H. Moulton traded at South 
Sanford. George H. Day and Co. succeeded Kimball and Hubbard, 
or Hubbard. 

About 1861, James M. Clough engaged in the tin business in the 
old factory store, where he remained for about forty years, alone, or 
with his son-in-law, William Smyth. About the same time, George 
Willard occupied a small shop on the Lebanon road. 

John Dennett, about 1856, built a store on the site of the Wilson 
stone, removed, which he occupied until 1890. Moses B. Greenhalgh 
opened a dry goods store on the corner of Main Street and the Leb- 
anon road, Springvale, and was burnt out in 1857. Monroe Cook's 
shoe store adjoining Greenhalgh's was burnt at the same time, and 
John W. Frost's store was torn down to prevent the spread of the 
fire. Jonas K. Dorman was trading in the Storer store when it was 
destroyed by fire in 1866. Benjamin F. Hanson and Co. (Hosea Wil- 
lard and Daniel G. Clark), bought out Christopher H. Bennett in 
1871, and carried on business four years, when they sold out. Rev. 
Sumner Estes opened his apothecary store at the Corner in 1873. 
William H. Hobbs occupied a small store below the tin-shop at the 
Corner. Nowell and Libby began business in 1876, in the "Blue 
Store." I. B. Stiles opened a store at Springvale in 1865, and was 
succeeded by Stiles Brothers in 18S0. The Sovereigns of Industry 
occupied a store in Nason's building at Springvale in 1876, and were 
bought out by J. A. Lord, 1878. 


The Deacon Frost store, on the site of Garnsey's Block of the pres- 
ent day, was unoccupied for some time after Christopher H. Bennett 
left it. In 1866, Moses W. Emery and Amos W. Lord engaged in 
the manufacture of shoes therein, and Emery continued the business 
with W. H. Miller and others. In 1873, S. Benton Emery began the 
manufacture of mattresses in this building, soon after opening his 
furniture store, which he removed to Washington Street in 1889. 

Among those engaged in sale-work at Springvale have been : John 
Merrill and Co. ; Isaac Brackett, removed to the Corner in 1876 ; 
Stiles and Hersom (I. B. and J. G.), bought out Isaac Brackett at 
the Corner in 1877, burnt out July 1, 1878, removed to Springvale, 
and dissolved, 1879, Stiles carrying on the business alone ; R. A. 
Kempton and Co. ; Weeks and Cheney ; Lougee and Fenderson, 1878, 
Frank Lougee selling out his interest to James Allen in 1880, and the 
business being continued under the name Fenderson and Allen ; E. 
and E. E. Goodwin, 1877, succeeded by E. E. and J. W. Goodwin, 
manufacturers of clothing. 

Early tanners were : Stephen Dorman, 1825-37, 1843-50 ; James 
Heard, 1825 ; Jeremiah Moulton, 1810-60. 

James B. Shapleigh carried on the business of harness making, 
1826-38, at first in a shop at the Corner, on Lebanon Street, near 
Obed Littlefield's house, and afterward in a shop which he built above 
bis hotel. From 1834, he was at Springvale, just above the factory 
store. One Wetherby had a harness shop at Springvale, 1846-47 

Otis Keay was a harness maker in the Samuel Chadbourn house 
about 1830. Jacob Littlefield was a hatter in the same house after- 
ward. He was in town; 1832-43. Dresser and Bean made pegs in 
the Deacon Frost store. Samuel B. Low was a cabinet maker. 

In 1847, Edwin A. Moulton commenced the carriage business at 
his father's at the Corner. A year later he bought out Alfred Little- 
field, at Springvale, and continued the business in a shop owned by 
Samuel B. Low, near the Theodore Willard store. In 1850, he re- 
moved to the Lebanon road and carried on the carriage and coffin 
work. A blacksmith shop was attached to the wood work shop. In 
1852, his shop, carriages, stock and tools were burned. He returned 
to the Low shop, and there remained until 1856, when he sold out to 
Francis H. Butler and removed to Shapleigh. 

In 1857-58, Jacob Baird carried on the box business in the Jack- 
son house near the Chadbourn mill. 

Innholders and hotel keepers between 1835 and 1870 were : Timothy 

248 HISTORY or sanford. 

Shaw, 1835-39, at Sanford Corner where Frank Gowen now re- 
sides, and after the date last mentioned he continued the business 
some thirty years, though there might have been an interruption 
prior to 1852 ; Abraham CoflSn, 1837-38, at Springvale. Coffin and 
Allen built the upper hotel, afterwards known as the Burbank 
Hotel; Hugh Ashtou, 1840, at Springvale; Deacon John Webster, 
November, 1841, to December, 1842, a temperance hotel at Spring- 
vale ; Nathan O. Kendall ; P. W. Downing, 1844, at Springvale ; 
Samuel F. Nasson, who, about 1845, remodelled the Hobbs store) 
and opened a public house, which at one time was known as the 
Mousam River House; George Nasson; Noah M. Phillips; John 
Hubbard ; Stephen Henderson ; James M. Burbank, who moved into 
town in 1846, taking charge of the upper hotel, which he carried on 
for several years ; Dr. William Gage, Stephen Otis, and William A. 
Rollins, who ran the Burbank House. Finally George Nasson bought 
it, and closed it ; Clement Parker, Junior ; Samuel D. Tebbets, 1866, 
who built a hotel on the corner of Main and Lebanon streets, and 
occupied it several years. 

In a series of historical reminiscences, contributed to the Sanford 
Tribune in the spring of 1900, George E. Allen wrote as follows of 
the Sanford Corner of fifty years ago : 

"P^ifty years ago the following named people, together with their 
families, lived within a radius of three-fourths of a mile of Central 
square : The house now occupied by Charles H. Tebbets was occu- 
pied by Stephen Hatch and Hannah Hussey ; Fred Goodall's by 
Samuel Tompson ; Miss Ellen M. Emery's by her father. Deacon 
W. L. Emery ; Charles F. Tebbets's by Allen H. Bodwell ; Obed Lit- 
tlefleld's by his father. Captain Joshua Littlefield, on Lebanon Street ; 
C. O. Emery's by his father, William Emery ; Bradley Cook's by 
Deacon Stephen Dorman ; Moses Rankin's by Rev. Gideon Cook ; 
John D. Whitehead's by Enoch Stanley ; Fred Porrell's by Robert 
Newman; Preston C. Lord's by John Batchelder ; Henry Nason's by 
Deacon John Frost; Abe Young's by John Storer; Mrs. Nancy 
Smith's by Jonathan Smith ; J. K. Dorman's by Nahum Littlefield ; 
Freeman Watson's by Hon. I. S. Kimball; Mrs. R. W. Thurston's 
by same family ; Dr. Burnham's by Joseph Webster ; on the site of 
Moses Wentworth's lived General John W. Bodwell and Daniel Clark ; 
George H. Nowell's by John S. Philpot ; on the site of Watson's fish 
market, Dr. George Weld ; Samuel Mitchell's by Rev. Jacob C. Goss ; 
Frank Gowen's by General Timothy Shaw ; Hosea Willard's by Har- 
riet Allen ; George Emery's by Christopher Bennett ; on the site of 

BUSINESS. ■ 249 

•Smith's block, Dennis Hatch ; site of Sanford meat market, Harriet 
Butler ; Leavitt's new block, Emilus Allen ; on site of Bodwell's 
block, Salter Emery ; Dr. Blagden's by Samuel B. Emery ; George 
Bemis's by William Miller ; Simeon Stackpole's by his father, Ed- 
mund Stackpole ; Edgar Wentworth's by Walter Gowen ; George 
Filling's by William Webber; Miss Amanda Hatch's by Elijah With- 
am and Nathan Hatch ; Mrs. Daniel Gowen's by Hannah Emery ; the 
house adjoining Mrs. Gowen's, with the brick basement, by Stephen 
Wilkinson and Peletiah Witham ; on site of Worsted Company's 
boiler house, Samuel Shackford ; Joseph Burroughs's by Jeremiah 
Moulton ; George A. Moulton's by his father. Deacon George Moul- 
ton ; Dr. Bernier's by Joel Maddox ; George Thompson's by his father, 
Adrial Thompson ; Wilson place on the hill by Nathaniel Chadbourn ; 
Nelson Bennett's by Samuel Jackson; house opposite fair ground, 
hy Mrs. Jonathan Storer." 



Seaman George W. Bean Sees Active Service — Company of Volun- 
teers Baised — Captain Goodwin Hoodwinked, but Comes Out 

SANFORD furnished one man for active service in the Mexican 
War. There were many others that volunteered, three of whom 
were line officers, but they were not called from the state. 

George W. Bean shipped as a landsman on the steam frigate 
"Mississippi," carrying eight guns, Commodore Henry A. Adams, 
and was afterward rated as an ordinary seaman. The frigate left 
Charlestown, Mass., in June, 1845, for Pensacola, and sailed thence, 
after hostilities had commenced, to the gulf near Vera Cruz. Bean 
went up some of the rivers in small steamers and row-boats on 
expeditions, and was at the bombardment of Vera Cruz in March, 
1847. He was in actual service in the gulf till 1849. He had his 
ankle and heel crushed by a fall from the fore-peak, fifty-five feet, 
for which he received a pension of four dollars a month. Bean was 
a great-grandson of Captain David Bean, an early settler, and was 
born January 22, 1821. 

Nahum Russell, born in Sanford, enlisted from Kennebunk. 

Moses Goodwin, Junior, of Shapleigh, and "William Emery, Jun- 
ior, of Sanford, raised two companies for the Maine Volunteers. On 
the 27th of July, 1846, Goodwin's company (C) consisted of seventy- 
seven men from Sanford, Shapleigh, and Lebanon. On August 7, 
Goodwin was chosen Captain, and Charles E. Weld and Samuel S. 
Thing of Springvale, Lieutenants. At a grand meeting at the Spring- 
vale House, speeches were made by John T. Paine, Major F. A. 
Wood, Lebanon, Timothy Shaw, Asa Low, and others. All present 
were ready and willing to serve their country. 

On the 12th of December, Captain Emery's company (A) con- 
sisted of ninety men in York County. Ezekiel K. Lord, Lebanon, and 
Charles Carpenter, Hollis, were Lieutenants. 



Let one of Captain Goodwin's Lieutenants (Charles E. Weld) tell 
the story of the company: "Early in the year 1846, the state of 
Maine was authorized by the general government to raise one regi- 
ment of volunteers for service in the Mexican War. As soon as this 
was understood, Mr. Moses Goodwin, Junior, of Shapleigh, made 
application to our state authorities for leave to raise a company for 
the regiment. So zealous was he in the matter that he at once pro- 
ceeded to enlist men without waiting for proper authority. He was 
very successful in securing names to his informal enlistment papers, 
and soon secured the requisite number to form a company. His 
headquarters were in Springvale, and nearly all the young men of 
suitable age in the vicinity were thus informally enlisted. The infor- 
mality of the whole matter was well understood, and few were un- 
willing to show their patriotism at so cheap a rate, believing that 
Mr. G. would not receive authority to raise a company, and that, if 
he should, their present action would not bind them. Without wait- 
ing for the tardy action of the state officials, he called his company 
together for the choice of officers, on which occasion the men feasted 
at the hotel at Mr. Goodwin's expense, very much to their satisfac- 
tion, regarding the whole thing as a farce, and that they were bound 
to nothing except to the good things furnished by Captain Goodwin. 
"At length Mr. Goodwin's warrant to raise a company with the 
requisite enlistment papers arrived, but this, with the advice of a 
few friends, was kept a profound secret, until such time as it might 
be disclosed with effect. His first move after receipt of his papers > 
was to call his company together with the understanding that Cap- 
tain Goodwin with his usual liberality would furnish a supper at J. 
M. Burbank's hotel, Springvale, for the whole company. Eveiy one 
responded promptly to the call, and when all were seated at the table 
expecting the good things to come^ the regular enlistment papers 
with pens and ink were quietly passed from hand to hand. The 
larger number present signed willingly. Some objected that it was 
taking an unfair advantage of them, but signed, seemingly ashamed 
to do otherwise under the circumstances. A few only refused to en- 
list regularly, and at the close of the day nearly the required number 
was obtained, and the deficiency was speedily made up. Soon after 
this, the company was duly organized under the state authority. 
The officers first elected informally, refusing to serve, with the ex- 
ception of Captain Goodwin, others were of course elected in their 
places. This was the third company for the before named regiment 
organized in the state and was known as Company C. 


"The one hundred and sixty-seven dollars and thirty-six cents 
which you name as having been paid to Captain Goodwin was no 
doubt to repay him the expenses incurred as before stated, and other 
expenses in raising the company. I have no recollection of the nine 
dollars said to have been paid to me, but it was probably for assist- 
ance rendered Captain Goodwin in getting up the company. The 
three dollars was paid me and every other enlisted man of the com- 
pany as a gratuity, for our patriotism, I suppose. On the day of the 
regular organization of the company. Captain Goodwin, as usual, 
ordered supper at his own expense, at Mr. Burbank's hotel. At the 
organization, Mr. Thing and myself having been elected Lieutenants 
believed it but fair that we should assume a portion of the expense 
of the supper, and Mr. Burbank joined with us by reducing his bill 
one-fourth. We then had no expectation that the state would repay 
any portion of the expense. Captain Goodwin was elected to the 
next legislature, and during the session succeeded in getting all ex- 
penses incurred repaid, including expenses of the final supper. I 
would only add further that Company C was never called into active 

Between June 12 and August 7, Goodwin was engaged forty-two 
days enlisting volunteers, for which he received one dollar a day. 
He paid James M. Burbank at two times thirty-six dollars, fifteen 
and twenty-one, Charles E. "Weld, twelve dollars, nine and three, and 
Samuel S. Thing seven dollars. His bill for one hundred and sixty- 
seven dollars and thirty-six cents was allowed by the legislature, but 
ten dollars for a band on the 17th of June were not allowed. 

Captain Goodwin was undoubtedly hoodwinked, but in the end 
came out not the second best. 



Doubt as to the First Practicing Attorney — Laymen Display Their, 
Legal Gifts — Colonel Caleb Emery's Opinion — John Holmes — 
The Case of Henry Hamilton — Famous Lawsuits — The First 

SANFORD seems to have been an attractive field for members of 
the legal profession. We notice, especially, that a large num- 
ber of lawyers settled in town between 1820 and 1850. Several rea- 
sons may be assigned for such an influx, conspicuous among which 
were the prospective growth of the town as soon as the water power 
of the Mousam began to be utilized in the manufacture of prints, 
cottons, and woollens ; the reputation enjoyed by several of the early 
counsellors as instructors in legal knowledge ; and the numerous 
cases growing out of disputed land titles, petty quarrels of a personal 
nature, and the sale and use of intoxicating liquors, for the success- 
ful prosecution or defence of which, legal advice and service were in 
constant demand. 

Caleb Emery, father of Colonel Caleb Emery, is the first lawyer of 
Sanford of whom we find mention, and it is by no means certain that 
he ever followed the practice of his profession in town. He was a 
native and long a resident of Kittery. Our only evidence to show 
that he practiced in Sanford appears in a Maine Register of 1770, in 
which his name is mentioned as an attorney in this town. We are 
well aware that Williamson refers to him as a resident of Sanford, 
subsequent to his residence in York, but he is undoubtedly in error, 
evidently having confounded Caleb Emery, Senior, with Colonel Ca- 
leb, his son. It is possible that Mr. Emery moved into town soon, 
after its incorporation, and was in practice here when the Register 
of 1770 was published, and of that fact Mr. Williamson may have 
been cognizant. If Mr. Emery resided in town, it is highly probable 



that he removed within a year or two, and did not spend the last 
years of his life here. For, according to the author already referred 
to, there were six practicing attorneys in Maine in 1768, and five in 
1780, of whom Caleb Emery, of York, was one. Caleb Emery was 
born October 17, 1710, the son of Daniel and Margaret (Gowen) 
Emery, of Kittery, and younger brother of Noah Emery, the earliest 
resident lawyer in Maine. He was a tanner by trade, though farming 
was his chief and favorite occupation. A man of plain manners, 
and a peaceful citizen, he discouraged litigation among his neighbors, 
even after he had entered the legal profession. He read law with his 
brother, Noah, and, in 1750, was admitted to the bar of the Com- 
mon Pleas. He seems to have succeeded his brother in practice in 
Kittery and York, was King's Attorney in 1761, and, during the Rev- 
olution, retired from the law to engage in agricultural pursuits. Mr. 
Emery was successful in practice, had the confidence of his fellow 
citizens, and was noted for his integrity. His daughter, Jane, mar- 
ried Simon Frost, Junior, and had a daughter, Jane, who became the 
wife of William Nasson, of Sanford, and mother of Elders William 
H., Nathaniel F., and Samuel S. Nasson. Her son, Henry Frost, 
was for many years a minister of the Christian denomination. Mrs. 
Jane Frost, having become a widow, married Peaslee Morrill, grand- 
father of Hon. Anson P. and Hon. Lot M. Morrill, both of whom 
filled the gubernatorial chair of Maine. 

For forty years, no lawyer settled in town. Counsel was sought 
in neighboring towns, when needed, though several leading men acted 
as such in cases where common sense, not technical law, was re- 
quired. Major Nasson and Captain John Hanson were frequently 
employed, but it is uncertain whether " old Master" Hamilton ever 
served as counsel, although he made some pretension to legal learn- 
ing. Colonel Emery had some knowledge of law, and for more than 
thirty years, performed the duties of a justice of the peace. It is 
worthy of note that his decisions were scarcely ever reversed by a 
higher court. At one time. Captain Hanson appeared as counsel in 
a case brought before the "old Colonel" (pronounced "cunn'l"). 
In his plea in behalf of his client, he quoted Judge Holt's opinion in 
a similar case, and from it argued, of course, that judgment should 
be rendered in his favor. We infer the decision from the reply of 
the justice : " I care nothing about Judge Holt's opinion, or the dev- 
il's ; I have an opinion of my own !" 

A few cases only, and those of more recent date, have come to 
our knowledge, of the people being at once counsel, judge, and execu- 


tive, when the law had been violated, or humanity and decency out- 
raged. Some of the older inhabitants of a few years ago had distinct 
recollections of the effective work, in one direction and another, of 
" Captain Joe's company." Happily, however, the calmer judgment 
of the people generally prevailed, and satisfaction was obtained by 
the usual recourse to law. 

WhUe Alfred was yet a district, John Holmes, in 1799, engaged 
in practice there. Ambitious, politic, witty, argumentative, ready of 
speech, he gained a great reputation in his contests with such advo- 
cates as Cyrus King, Prentiss Mellen, Nicholas Emery, Dudley Hub- 
bard, and Joseph Bartlett, who then adorned the York County bar, 
and thereby was trained and disciplined to become a skilful pleader. ^ 
Representing the town and the district two terms at the General 
Court, in 1802 and 1803, he won for himself distinction as an able 
speaker, and rendered efficient service as a legislator. The town had 
the benefit of his legal knowledge as well as of his legislation, for 
he was often called to plead her cause and to defend her people. 

Grove Catlin, Junior, was the first regular practitioner of authen- 
tic record in wliat is now Sanford. He opened his office in 1812, and 
remained in town about three years. 

In April, 1797, the town "Voted Whereas it is Notorious Henry 
Hambelton death and hath been the means of Stirring up Many and 
friviolous lawsuits, Voted, that the Town Disapprove of his Proceed- 
ing, and do not think that he aught to be impaneled on any jury 
Therefore Voted that the Selectmen be directed to withdraw his Name 
from the Jury Box." In April, 1801, Hamilton having sued the town 
clerk, Stephen Hobbs, for giving a copy of a part of the town records 
and attesting to the same, it was voted to restore his name to the 
jury list. The wording of this vote took a very apologetic tone, -as 
will be seen by the following extract from the records : " Whereas 
at a Meeting of Some of the Inhabitants of Sanford Held April 17, 
1797, on very Short notice in the abstance of Said Hamilton Some 
malevolent Persons Procured a Vote to Be passed Intimating that 
He had been the means of Stirring up many and frivolous Lawsuits 
the town now manifest their total Disapprobation Thereof the num- 
ber of Persons at this meeting Being Eighty Voted that the town 
Clerk serve Said Hamilton With a true attested Coppy of the Pro- 
ceeding of this meeting Examined and approved By the Selectmen. 
Voted the above accepted and the town to Pay Hamilton's Cost of 

1 Parsons's " History of Alfred." 

256 HISTORY or sanfokd. 

prosecuting and this to Be a final End of all former Proceeding Re- 
specting the said matter the Cost above mentioned to Be Left to the 

Among the famous lawsuits of the early days of the township were 
the following : 

James Chadbourn, Junior, vs. Noah Emery, executor of the will of 
Tobias Leighton, April, 1750. Verdict for plaintiff, one hundred and 
four pounds, sixteen shillings and costs, amounting to nearly two 
pounds more. 

In 1760, Benjamin and Naphtali Harmon petitioned the Court of 
Sessions that a jury be summoned to assess damages done to their 
land by overflow. Fifteen acres belonging to each, and seven acres 
additional to Naphtali were overflowed. The mill and dam were 
built on or about 1756, by James Littlefield, Wells, Samuel Cane, 
Phillipstown, John Hambleton, Berwick, and Joshua Cane, deceased, 
Phillipstown. When the suits came to trial, Benjamin Harmon did 
not appear, and his case was dismissed. A jury having viewed the 
land, awarded Naphtali thirty shillings a year from 1760. 

Daniel Hubbard sued the town of Sanford, in 1789, because one 
of his steers " slumped" through Jellison's bridge, a pole bridge, and 
broke his leg. Verdict for defendant. 

In 1806, the town voted unanimously to " prosecute villain or vil- 
lains who took the body of James Hartwell from his grave," and the 
next year Sheldon Hobbs was agent to York term of court to prose- 
cute. Peter Whittemore and Caleb Emery were indicted for digging 
up the body of Hartwell, proved guilty, and fined ten dollars each, 
and costs. May, 1807. 

Aaron Gowen vs. Rufus Bennett, Ephraim Low, Junior, and James 
Garey, Junior. The case was brought before Benjamin Warren at 
his house in Waterborough, March 7, 1812, and judgment rendered 
in plaintiff's favor for one dollar and ninety cents, and costs of suit. 
This was a case of trespass, in that the defendants took from plain- 
tiff, January 30, 1812, five hundred feet of pine boards. The case 
was appealed to the Court of Common Pleas, where the follow- 
ing year judgments were given for the defendants. The latter were 
assessors in 1810, and in levying the tax, assessed the plaintiff forty- 
eight cents. As Gowen refused to pay, the boards were sold to pay 
the tax. A similar case was that of Solomon Welch vs. the Asses- 
sors. Here a steer had been sold. Two dollars and fifty cents, and 
costs, were awarded, but on appeal the case went against the plain- 



In 1820, two suits were brought against Levi Brackett and Joshua 
Emery, for bringing a pauper into town. Neither party appeared in 
the first ease. In the Circuit Court, the case went against Emery, 
and in April, 1821, he appealed to the Supreme Judicial Court, where 
he recovered the costs of the suit, amounting to something like sixty- 
four dollars. 

In 1844, Jeremiah Goodwin moved to Great Falls just before the 
first of April or May, assessors' day. His tax assessed was not paid, 
and on the 9 th of September, the town voted not to abate the tax, 
but the constable was to collect it immediately. Having paid his tax, 
Goodwin brought suit against the town and secured judgment. An 
appeal was taken, and during 1845, $1350 was raised to prosecute 
the suit. Judgment was ultimately against the town. 

At various times the state prosecuted the town in consequence of 
roads being out of repair. Fines were imposed, the money to be ex- 
pended in repairing the roads in question. 

The disposition of cases of crime was for years under the trial 
justice system. In 1897, however, the Sanford Municipal Court was 
established, of which George W. Hanson was appointed Judge, and 
George E. AUen, Recorder. This Court also has jurisdiction over 
minor civil causes. 

Among those who obtained deeds of land from the proprietors in 
1739 were Dr. David Bennett and Dr. Alexander Bulman, of York. 
They were physicians of good repute, and had a large practice, ex- 
tending into adjoining towns. It is reasonable to suppose that they 

— the one interested in the erection of the first saw-mill within the 
limits of the town, the other in the improvement of the settlers' lots, 

— made frequent visits to the new plantation, of a professional, no 
less than of a business nature. For many years after their deaths 
in 1743 or 45, urgent calls for a doctor were answered by physicians 
from Wells, Berwick and York, while less serious cases were intrust- 
ed to experienced nurses. In 1745, Hannah Chadbourn nursed a 
sick soldier on the eastern frontier, and John Stanyan lodged and 
nursed another soldier, for whom a doctor was twice called. Dr. 
Gideon Frost, of Wells (Kennebunk), took charge of the patients in 
a hospital, established in the northeast part of the town, when the 
small-pox prevailed about 1780. Dr. Abiel Hall, Senior, then re- 
cently settled, having been inoculated for that disease, was one of 
his patients. Prior to 1796, the services of Dr. John Gates, of 
Wells, were sought by the people of Sanford. We may infer that 
Major Samuel Nasson, for years regarded as lawyer and doctor of 


the South Parish, and even designated by the title " Doctor," was 
somewhat acquainted with the nature and use of medicine, and in 
cases of sickness was often consulted. The first resident physician, 
however, was Dr. Hall, mentioned above. 

Sketches of the lawyers and physicians of Sanford will be found 
in the biogr!\phical section of this work. 



Early County Roads — Highway Surveyors — The First Town High- 
way — County Road to Fryeburg of 1783 — Bitter and Stubborn 
Controversy Over a Higliway From 1804 to 1810 — List of 
Roads and Dates of Acceptance. 

AFTER the " mast-ways," as we have already seen, the first roads 
in the township were the proprietors' roads between the ranges. 
The county road from Gorhamtown to Newiehawannock (Berwick), 
passing through Phillipstown, laid out in 1774, and three other county 
roads, laid out in 1751, have previously been described. Although 
in March, 1769, "Nathan' Bennet (was) Survey"^ of High Ways in 
the Town, and Simeon Coffin Survey"^ for that part of the Township 
called Massabeseck," it was not until March, 1770, that the first town 
road was accepted. On that occasion the vote was : " Vof* by the 
town to Receive the Road on Moses Tibotse's Land and Walter Pow- 
erse's Land for a Town Road." 

In 1773 the residents of Massabesec desired accommodation, as 
voiced by the following petition : 

" To the Honourable Select-Men of Sanford : 

" Where as we the Freholders and inhabitants of that Part of the 
aforesaid Sanford cauled Massebesick do Stand in nead of a Publick 
road or Highway from Thomas Williamss to Walthar Powarss & we 
do Hearby beg your Honours would take it into Consideration & Lay 
us out a road or Highway where youre Honours shal think most Con- 
yenant for the People of the Town and others that may wont to Pase 

" N : B : We the Subscribers that do own Land where said road 
is Expected to be Laid out Do here by Promise to freely Give the 
Same for the benefit of a Publick road or highway for Ever, two 

rods wides 

" Daniel Gile Eben» Hall 

" Daniel Coffin Arch" Smith 

"Thomas Williams Moses Stevens 

" And^ Burlet Jeremiah Eastman 
" Dated Sanford 21* May 1773 " 



The following year, the town voted to accept this new highway as 
laid out by the selectmen, two rods wide, beginning at Thomas Wil- 
liams's, and running to Walter Powers's. In March of 1774, the Hay 
Brook and Thompson bridge road was accepted, as follows : 

" A Return of a rode Laid out on the Esten Side of Mousem river 
begining at a pine Stump on the northwest Side of the rode to the 
haei brook oppset of the widow Powrses hous and from thence acrost 
the lots of mr Linsets to a yalo oak tree spoted on Mr Joel moltens 
lot and from thence acrost sd moltens to the Ksterd of his houel to 
Moses Pettes Ijot and from thence acrost sd pettes to the westward 
of sd pettes hous to a white pine tree spoted in the Croch of the Path 
and from thence as the Path Goes round by Bostons Cosey and so 
to the Bridg on sd Mousam Eiver at Phineses thompsons shop and 
from thence to sd thompsons Line between Edward harmon and sd 
thompson and from thence on the South Side of sd line out to the 
Contry Rode Free from all cost to the town." 

The annual town meeting of March 14, 1775, was adjourned to 
May 22. There was an article in the warrant, "To see where the 
town will swop there Road that gowes to Berwick with John Thomp- 
son," but the action thereon is not recorded. 

The Mouse Lane road as laid out was accepted at the meeting of 
May 22 : "A. Return of a Road Laid out by the Selectmen of San- 
ford. Beginning at the Estren branch of mousam river by Joshua 
Goodwins and fioin thence to Linscot mill so called the Convenernt 
way that may be and from thence to Aaron Days as the Road now 
Gowes and from thence to wells Line as the Road now Gowes." 
Also the following road: "Begining at the western line of James 
burks land at a white oak Tree mark"* I : B from thence to John Em- 
mons house and from thence to m'' Benjamin Stephens mill as the 
Road now gows and from thence to m'^ William Leabathy barn as the 
road now gows and from thence to wells Corner furthemore begining 
at Kennebunk River and keeping the line Between m' Elisha Smith 
and Elislia Littlefield land as far as s* Littlefield land gows and from 
thence to Joseph Taylor and from thence to Caleb Kimbal and from 
thence as the road now runs to a pitch pine tree spotted on three 
sides and then to a white burch mark'' on three sides and then foi- 
ling the spotted trees till it 6omes to the Road." 

In 1776, the town, though hard pressed by the demands of the 
Revolutionary War, raised one hundred pounds to " mend the high- 
ways." The men employed were to be paid four shillings a day, and 
three for their oxen. 

EOADS. 2(51 

On the 16th of May, 1777, the following return of a road from the 
Corner to Low's ridge was made : " A Return of a Road except'd by 
the Town, laid out by us the Selectmen beginning at the Country 
Road at the S. E. Corner of Joshua Chadbourn Lot, and from thence 
as sd Lot runs as far as the Cart path and from thence as the road 
now gows to the Iron Works, and fiom thence on the N. E. Side of 
Mousam River in the Convenent place that may to Joshua Batclor 
land and from thence as sd road is fenst to William Tripe land and 
from thence as sd road is now fenst to William Gowen land and from 
thence as the road is fenst to John Waterhouse land and from thence 
in the Convenentes place to the undivided land, and from thence to 
Ephraim Low Jun>' in the conveenents place that may be found." 

March 16, 1779, the town " Vot" the Selectmen are to Settle the 
road that is in Despute betwick Thomas William and Daniel Scrib- 

On the 24th of May, 1779, the town voted to accept a new highway 
leading from the Corner to Hanson's ridge : " Beginning at the road 
that now leads to the Iron Works near the house formerlj' eall'd 
Brig""^ Jotham Moulton now deceas, at the corner of the field that 
the s* house now stands in, and from thence to li^leaz"^ Chadbourn as 
the road now gows and from thence to Joshua Hanson near as the 
road now gows and from thence to Reuben Hussey near as the road 
now gows, and from thence Extends to the Town line as the road 
now gows." This was a two-rod road. 

In May, 1780, the selectmen laid out a road two rods wide begin- 
ning at the Great Works brook on the land of Ezekiel Gowen, and 
thence in a general northeasterly direction to a road already laid out. 
A new road on John Thompson's land towards Berwick was accepted 
May 25, 1780. Satisfaction for the same was to be made to the said 
Thompson. " Voted that John Thompson shall have all our Right 
and title to that Road on the South-East Side of Said tliompsons 
Land untill Such time as any Dispute may arise concerning s''. Road 
as far as a Committee shall say the same shall Pay." 

In 1781, the town voted and allowed the petitioners a road from 
Mr. Conant's to Linscott's mill, so called, and another laid out by the 
selectmen, beginning at the Great Works Brook near Stephen Wey- 
mouth's, and from thence to Eleazar Chadbourn's, and so out to the 
county road. 

April 7, 1783. " Excepted roads laid out beginning at Coxhall 
line running near Coffin's mill so called." 

June 16, 1783. James Garey and Eleazar Chadbourn, selectmen, 


made this return: "Agreeable to request of Cap' David Bane and 
others we Poseded and laid out a roade : begining at the Corner of 
Edmund Welch field and running as the Spof trees gow by lands of 
David Bane & Solomon welch to lands of Ezekiel Gowns and from 
thence as the Spot"^ trees gows by s* gowen land and s'' Solomon land 
to the Great Works brook so call* tow a road which was laid out by 
the Selectmen of said town." 

In 1788, John Frost, Ichabod Goodwin, Samuel Leighton, Joseph 
Farnham, and Nathaniel Bennett, appointed by the Court of General 
Sessions, laid out a county road four rods wide from Ephraim Low's, 
Sanford, to Major Osgood's, Fryeburg. Their report is dated at Ber- 
wick, October 8, 1783. About thirty courses were in Sanford. It 
appears that some years before, Colonel Joseph Frye had taken the 
first steps for a road by felling the trees the whole distance, fifty- 
four miles, as appears by the following extract from his petition : 

' ' However your petitioner used means which revived the courage 
of his associates to abide by him in a third trial ; pitched upon a 
time when he would go (with two men only) to look out the way and 
accordingly went ; and through much difficulty found a passage 
through the wilderness which he thought might possibly answer and 
made report thereof to his associates, who thereupon went with him, 
cleared, bridged and causewayed the same where it wanted (except 
Great and Little Ossipee Rivers) tlien measured the road and found 
that from the town then called Phillipstown (which was the place of 
their departure) to Fryeburg was fifty-four miles. Cost with two 
other attempts to lay out a road more than £400." 

May 9, 1784. " Vot'' and excepf^ the road from the Bridge at the 
foot of Massebeseek pond so called out to the main road.'' 

March 8, 1785. Roads laid out June 1, 1784, were accepted: 
" Begining at the house formaly own"* by M' Sam' Friend and from 
thence to Cockhall line near M'' John Kilham, also from M'^ Hum- 
phrey Whitton to M'' Sam' Cluff and thence to M' James Barrons." 

In 1786, a road from Mr. Robbert's to Mr. Bean's was laid out. 

March 13, 1786. " Voted to have road laid out from Jonathan 
Johnson to John Willard & from their over to Sweet Bridg so call." 

May 8, 1786. " Vot* the Town agreed to except Mr. John Thomp- 
son road be exchange for that Gow to Berwick all his right and 

In September, 1786, Samuel Nasson and Caleb Emery laid out a 
road from James Chadbourn's house to the Shapleigh line. 

March 12, 1787. " Voted that the selectmen shall lay out a high 

ROADS. 263 

way from John SaywardB to Joel Allen and from thence to Benjamin 
Trafton Provis** that they give their lands." 

March 19, 1787. A road two rods wide was laid out, beginning 
at Sweet's bridge, so called, across the Hay Brook, to John Gowen's 
house, thence to Josiah Norton's house, past John Pugsley's house ' 
to the end of John Gray's field, thence to Daniel Gray's house, and 
from thence " as the road now goes to the road laid out from Joshua 
Goodwin's to Linseott's mill" (Mouse Lane). Also, beginning at 
John Willard's rye field and running across Samuel Willard's lot to 
Willard's mill. 

May 7, 1 787. " Voted the selectmen are to lay out a road agree- 
able to the Petitions that was handed in this begining to Nathan 
Powers so running up to Ephraim Low Jr if in case the people give 
there lands." 

April 7, 1788. " Voted that the Selectmen are chosen to view the 
road that gows through Daniel Wadley land and lay it out in a more 
convenient place, if it tis agreeable to the Inhabitants where the 
road is wanting." 

May 7, 1788, it was voted to empower the selectmen to lay out a 
new highway from Jeremiah Wise's to the county road, and " to' 
Prize all the Damages ; " also one from Waterborough line down to 
the main road, and then from Moody mill " down lead into the same 
road in the most convenient Place." These roads were accepted' 
June 2. The selectmen's return of this road over Mount Hope is 
endorsed on the back : "A Return of a road from Annefs to Ben- 
net Mill." Damages to the amount of twenty pounds were assessed 
to Jonathan Tebbets, Edward Stanlee, Ephraim Low, Nath. Ben-' 
net, and William Bennet. 

May 23, 1788, the selectmen laid out a road two rods wide from 
Ebenezer and Samuel Roberts's land to Henry Smith's and Archibald 
Smith, Junior's land. Damages were awarded to Ebenezer Hall and 
Henry Smith. 

March 9, 1789. A road was laid out through Captain Ebenezer 
Hall's land. 

April 6, 1789. " Voted that the selectmen are to lay a road from' 
Trip to Ithamar Littlefleld Jun"" so to Well line. Voted that select-' 
men are to gow & view arourd that is lay"* through Mr. Daniel Wad-' 
ley land & see where they can commoad the inhabitants Better.'' 
(He is to give the land.) " Voted that the Selectmen are view a 
road from Ephraim Low Ju""^ down to Wil Trip and so down to Be- 
sick road to commodate the Inhabitants." 


May 4, 1789. A road was laid out for Samuel Kobberts. 

In 1789, Gideon Hatch, Joshua Hanson, Joseph Carll, Jonathan 
Low, James Chadbourn, Joshua Bane, Moses Plumer, Solomon Al- 
len, Jonathan Witham, Robert Ford, Sheldon Hobbs, Joseph Quint, 
Thomas Abbot, Stephen Hobbs, Nelson Hill, Reuben Hussey, David 
(or Daniel) Quint, Nathan Hatch, Caleb Hanson, Frost Gary, Zeb- 
ulon Beall, and John Quint, owners in the " Six Hundred Acre Lot," 
petitioned for a road from the main road leading from Eleazar Chad- 
bourn's over Deering's ridge, beginning where the road " is now used 
which leads to Hobbses Mill.'' This road, from the Red brook to the 
Hobbs neighborhood, was laid out two rods wide in March, 1791. 

May 9, 1791, it was voted that the selectmen lay out a new high- 
way from Ephraim Low, Junior's, to John Trafton's, and also from 
said Low's to Ezra Thompson's and thence to the Hay Brook ; also, 
a highway from the " old Province mill " to John Beetle's. 

August 8, 1791. " Accepted road down by Mr. Daniel Gile." 
This road ran from William Worster's land to Deering's. 

March 12, 1792. " Vof to Chues a Committee to go View and 
Examining and See where there is any Prospeck for a road from a 
meeting (hoiise) in the South Parish over towards the fishing pond 
so call"* so to Come out in Berwick road." 

May 7, 1792, a road was accepted from the Province mill through 
land of Ichabod Spencer, Ephraim Getchell, Javish Jenkins and 
James Perree, and from the latter's " to the road lately laid out the 
same course two rods wide ;" also, a road starting at the same point, 
and running to the house of John Beadle, and from thence " to the 
head of the town on the same course, two rods wide." Other roads 
were accepted on the same date. Two had been laid out April 28, 
one from the house of Ephraim Low, Junior, via Samuel Shaw's, 
William Tripp's, and Nathan Powers's, to the old "Proprietors' road," 
and the other from the " Proprietois' road," " from the corner of the 
lot called the mill lot," by land of Samuel Shaw and Timothy Baston, 
to the house of Ephraim Low, Junior. The record is, " Accepted 
May 7, 1792, provided they give their land." The second of these 
roads is marked as if accepted in preference to the other. Another 
road accepted on May 7- was one starting from a town road laid out 
the same day at a point between the houses of Ephraim Low, Junior, 
and Joseph Shaw, by the land of James Gerry, Third, to a rocky 
ledge, and thence to a town way laid out near the house of John 
Trafton, this road to be two rods wide. 

During 1792, Thomas Williams and Daniel Gile objected to Cap- 

liOADS. 265 

tain Daniel Seribner's being set off from Waterborough to Sanford, 
because, as they alleged, Scribnei' wished to get more power that he 
might force a road through their lands, to their injury. 

In August, 1791, Simon Frye, Ichabod Goodwin, Joshua B. Os- 
good, Jonathan Kinsman, and John Low laid out a county road from 
Sanford through Waterborough, three rods wide. In Sanford it ex- 
tended from the county road wheie the old pound formerly stood, near 
Moses Tebbets's, to the Waterborough town line. This road was 
accepted in August, 1792. 

A county road leading to Wells was laid out August 29, 1792. It 
ran from the county road near Colonel Emery's to Wells line, three 
miles, two hundred and ninety rods. 

November 13, 1792, John Frost, John Hill, Ichabod Goodwin, 
Andrew Burley, and John Low laid out a county road from Garland's 
mill bridge on the Salmon Falls, Lebanon, to Sanford. This road 
was to be^lifiree rods wide in Sanford. 

May 1, 1793. A road was laid out from the county road to Cap- 
tain Bane's. 

In October, 1794, a road was laid out from Elisha Allen's, Wells, 
to the foot of Oak Hill, passing tlirough lauds of Andrew and Eph- 
raim Allen. This road to be three rods wide. 

November 3, 1794. A town road was laid out and accepted, run- 
ning from Mount Hope to the county road near the Baptist meeting- 

Noveml)er 20, 1795. Nathan Hatch and ten others petitioned to 
have a road laid out across Hatch's land, and a portion of the road 
laid out in 1791 discontinued. 

A road laid out from the county road near Charles Annis's, and 
running to Rook Stillings's, was laid out in June, 1795, and accepted 
March 14, 1796. 

Another road accepted March 14, 1796, was laid out November 
26, 1795, from Sheldon Hobbs's house to Nathan Hatch's. 

In May, 1796, a petition was addressed by George Chapman and 
twelve others " To the Gentlemen Selectmen of Sanford," setting 
forth that " meny of the freeholders and inhabitents of said Sanford 
suffer By heing shet up and no Publick rode to Pas in and sum of us 
the subscribers are so shet up that we cannot git to or from our 
Houses with out Ciiming over our neighbours fences and crosing 
Theii' fields and Pasters and have ben for biden to cros Them." 
Therefore, the petitioners prayed for a town way from the road cross- 
ing the Muddy brook to one crossing the Mousam River, near the 


Piovince Mill. In accordance with this petition, Ezra Thompson 
and Eleazar Chadbourn, selectmen, laid out a road June 24, 1797, 
which was accepted April 2, 1798. It ran from a point near Ichabod 
Spencer's and the Province mill to the road leading from Samuel 
Nasson's to Alfred. 

Three roads laid out in 1798 were accepted May 6, 1799. They 
were two rods wide. One began in the middle of the Hay Brook 
bridge, near Jedediah Jelison's, and ran over Linscott's mill bridge 
to Moul ton's mill bridge on the line between San ford and Alfred ; 
the second began at the place before mentioned and led by Joshua 
Goodwin's to the branch bridge ; and the third ran from William 
Heard's to Joseph Moors's. 

April 4, 1801. A road was accepted from Mount Hope to the Ber- 
wick line. 

November 22, 1802. Objection to road near Bauneg Beg Hills, 
crossing the county road at Allen's Marsh brook. 

May, 1803. Road from William Heard's through Jeremiah Wise's 
land discontinued, on petition of Mark Prime and twelve others. 

A road laid out in 1802, from Berwick to the road leading to Wells, 
at the branch, was accepted in April, 1803. 

In 1804, Jedediah Allen was chosen agent to petition the General 
Sessions to take up the county road laid out along the northern side 
of Bauneg Beg Hills and leading to Wells, or so much thereof as is 
on the easterly side of Sugar brook, so called. 

June 18, 1804. Voted to accept a road laid out between Timothy 
Gowen's land and Joseph Shaw's, leading to Alfred, on condition 
that the District of Alfred meet said road at the town line, and that 
the parties give the land for said road ; also, to accept a town road 
laid out from the Province mill, leading to James Garey, Junior's. 

These roads and most of the others in town were laid out and 
accepted witli little opposition, but when the new county road from 
Alfred by the Province mill to Eliot Frost's on Mount Hope was pro- 
posed, it was bitterly and stubbornly opposed. This was a subject 
of controversy for several years. At a session of the Court of Ses- 
sions held in August, 1803, at Waterborough, Joseph Wilkinson and 
forty-seven others petitioned that a way be laid out beginning at the 
dwelling house of Charles Annis, and leading by the Baptist meeting- 
house, to the dwelling house of the Widow Joanna Nasson, thence 
in the most convenient route to Alfred meeting-house. John Storer, 
John Low, and Joseph Savage were appointed to view the place 
mentioned and any other places near it, and consider the expediency 

EOADS. 267 

of laying out such highway, and to report as soon as might be. They 
reported October 14, 1803 : 

"Pursuant to the foregoing order of court, we the subscribers have 
viewed the ground in the different places for a county road, and are 
of opinion that the road leading from Charles Annis's to the Widow 
Nasson's, which is now a town road, may be shortened (rom Ezekiel 
Gowen's on a straight line to Jeremiah Moulton's dwelling house 
leaving the Baptist meeting-house on the left ; and from the "Widow 
Nasson's to Ephraim Low's and Joseph Shaw's dwelling-houses is a 
town road from thence through the ' Wilderness ' about one mile 
across several lots to the town road in Alfred, where Joseph Gerry 
lived, thence in said road to Alfred meeting-house, which route might 
accommodate several individuals to have a town road, but not the 
community at large. To accommodate the community at large, it is 
our opinion that a county or town road beginning at Mr. Eliqt Frost 
and Mr. Prime's land by the road leading from Shapleigh and across 
Prime's lot to the line between Daniel Bean and Timothy Langton to 
the road leading from Shapleigh, thence to and through Colonel 
Frost's land to the Province mill, so called, the whole being the dis- 
tance of about three miles, thence in a town road to Enoch Lord's, 
thence partly through James Gerry, Junior's land to John Trafton's, 
thence in a town road by Deacon Gerry's to Alfred meeting-house ; 
which we suppose may greatly accommodate the community, and a 
number of the inhabitants much better than the first mentioned road, 
although both places is pretty rough and rocky. 

" All which is humbly submitted, 

John Storer, 
John Low." 

The road was laid out June 25, 1804, by Ezra Thompson, sur- 
veyor. At a town meeting held in June, objections were made to the 
acceptance of this highway, and Jedediah Allen was chosen agent to 
prevent acceptance of the same. 

Andrew Rogers and Benjamin Warren were added to the commit- 
tee. They awarded damages and made their report August 23, 1804. 
During that month several petitions (of Joseph Prime and thirty- 
nine others, Solomon Thompson and forty-seven others, mostly in 
Sanford, and Robert Tripe and seventy-four others, in Sanford and 
Alfred) were handed in, opposing the county road on the ground 
that it would be a costly road to make, and injurious to persons on 
whose land it is. If intended to accommodate the Lebanon people, 

268 HISTORY or sanford. 

the ground of the old county road is much better, and the distance 
by Jesse Colcord's only two hundred and sixty rods further. If, to 
accommodate Shapleigh, etc., there is a town way from the Province 
mill to answer that purpose; also, that the town road from Charles 
Annis's by widow Nasson's to Alfred, though very crooked, is much 
shorter than the new road. 

April 1, 1805. Voted to petition the Court of Sessions for a com- 
mittee to view the county road from Eliot Frost's to Alfred. 

Joseph Prime and forty-five others, and Dominicus Lord and sixty- 
eight others signed petitions for the discontinuance of the county 
road. The committee asked for was not granted, and the petitioners 
had leave to withdraw. 

May 6, 1805. Voted to give leave to the selectmen to lay out a 
town road from Hanson's ridge to the Province mill on condition that 
they give the same for said land as the court committee gave, and 
that "William Frost, Esquire, sign an obligation to take up the county 
road laid out through the northerly pait of the town of Sanford. 

June 17, 1805. Another meeting, to petition the General Court 
of Sessions for a committee to view the county road and discontinue 

April 7, 1806. Voted not to accept return of road from Solomon 
Welch's to county road to Lebsinon. In 1807 the opposition to the 
county road continued. Ezra Thom[)son was appointed an agent to 
make plans of the old and new roads. 

During 1806 a road had been laid out from near Sugar brook to the 
county road near Colonel Emery's, a road four rods wide. 

In 1808 the selectmen were directed to lay out a road near Moses 
Goodwin's to the county road leading from Kennebunk to Shapleigh, 
to strike said road near Captain David Morrison's. This road was 
accepted May 2, two rods wide. During 1808 a road from Doughty's 
Falls to Lyman through the lower part of the town was opposed. 

In April, 1808, the selectmen petitioned that the county road might 
be discontinued. This was not granted, and the town was allowed, 
at the September term, until December to make it passable as a win- 
ter road, and two years to make it passable in the summer season. 

May 2, 1808. Voted not to lay out a town way from "William 
Frost's to Daniel Bean's until alter the next adjourned meeting. Later 
in the same year it was voted that the selectmen lay out the road from 
"William Frost's to Bean's house, provided the holders of land will 
take what the former county committee appraised it at ; and at still 
a later meeting, it was voted that the selectmen be directed not to lay 

ROADS. '2^ii) 

out the road from William Frost's to Daniel Bean's till after the 
Court of General Sessions at York, and if Colonel Frost advocate the 
former county road laid out from Alfred to Lebanon, or near Eliot 
Frost's, the selectmen are not to lay it out at all. Voted to have 
county road from Eliot Frost's to Alfred meeting-house discontinued. 

September 5, 1808, two roads were laid out. one beginning at the 
Alfred meeting-house, and running past the Widow Lewis's, the Ha- 
leys', Nathaniel and Richard, Junior, to the Sanford line, thence to 
the middle of the county road at Sanford Corner, thence past the 
Baptist meeting-house and Solomon Welch's house, to the middle of 
the road opposite Eliot Frost's house, said road to be three rods wide. 
From the Hay Brook to the top of the ridge this road was to be new, 
or a deviation from the old road ; from the meeting-house to near 
Ezekiel Gowen's, new ; and from near Solomon Welch's to near But- 
ler's, new. The second road was to begin at the above described 
highway near Ephraim Low's, running thence to the county road. 
Damages in Sanford, two hundred and eighty-three dollars. Accepted 
with this alteration : To begin at Lebanon line and keep the old 
county road to the corner near p]liot Frost's, then northerly in the 
town road till it intersects the county road leading to Colonel William 
Frost's. The county road laid out from near tlie Province mill to 
James Garey's was- discontinued September, 1808. Two years were 
allowed for building. 

September 26, 1808. Raised money to build county roads from 
Mrs. Nasson's to Alfred, and from i'rovince mill to intersect said 

October 10, 1809. Voted to open the county road from Abner 
Hill's to Solomon Welch's. (Reconsidered.) 

During this year Ezra Thompson was chosen to make a plan of the 
town with the roads therein. It was also voted to lay out a town 
way from near Colonel William Frost's to Hanson's ridge, near where 
laid out by the county committee in 1 804 ; also, one from Eliot 
Frost's to Mrs. Nasson's as laid out in 1808 by the county com- 

1810. Voted to open road from Eliot Frost's to Hanson's ridge. 

Several interested parties, Joseph Shaw and ten others, were dis- 
satisfied with the damages awarded for the county road, and in 1809 
petitioned for an increase. A jury was summoned, and gave damages 
of three hundred and eighteen dollars in Sanford. A number of al- 
terations were made in the road about this time. 

In 1812 the town road from the new county road near Isaac Chap- 


man's corner to the county road near Muddy brook was discontinued. 
A road from John Libbey's to the Lebauonline, laid out in 1811, was 
accepted April 7, 1812. 

October 11, 1813. A town way was laid out from Linscott's mill 
to the road leading to Ithamar Littlefield's house. Also, a road from 
Linscott's mill to the Kennebunk line. 

June 25, 1814. Eoad from Oak Hill to near Branch bridge accepted. 

Article two in the town meeting warrant of July, 1816, was as fol- 
lows : "To see if the town will support Mr. Moses Witham, Junior, 
sjirveyor of the tenth highway district in said town, in removing the 
fences and all other obstructions thrown across or in any way incum- 
ber so much of the town road in said highway district as was laid 
upon the land of Mr. Joseph Shaw, and indemnify said surveyor 
against any prosecution which may incur thereon, or otherwise pro- 
vide a road for the convenience of said district, and the other inhab- 
itants of said town." At the meeting it was " Voted the selectmen 
be directed to lay out a road through Joseph Shaw's land to accom- 
modate the inhabitants and to report at the next meeting. Mr. 
Shaw agrees to give the land, but the town will not agree by the 
passing this vote to lose their title to the road where it was laid out 
and said Shaw agrees to pay the expense of laying out said road." 
When the alteration was made, the old road, or part of it, was dis,- 
continued. July 29, the town accepted the alteration of the town 
way running from the old proprietors' road near Ezra Thompson's to 
and through Joseph Shaw's land. 

December 20, 1817. Voted that the said agent (Dr. Linscott) in- 
spect the road between Jelison's bridge, and the line between San- 
ford and Shapleigh, and to pursue any measure that shall be lawful 
for the removing (of) every incumbrance from said road, whether 
logs, boards, or whatever the incumbrance may be. At the same 
meeting a town way from the Hay Brook Hill to the Corner was 
accepted, two rods wide, and the old "Brick road" from Josiah 
Paul's to Hay Brook road was discontinued. 

April, 1818. County road accepted from road to Little River 
Falls to county road. 

May 3, 1819. Road two rods wide laid out from Shapleigh line 
near Benjamin Webber's, to road leading by David Welch's. 

1819. Voted not to discontinue way from Enoch Lord's to John 
Oarey's ; also not to accept one from Willard's mill to George 

September, J819. Road from Bauneg Beg to Sanford accepted. 

EOADS. 271 

In September, 1820, Mehitabel Wise petitioned that the road laid 
out from Lebanon might be altered so as to pass before her house, 
which was done a year later. 

Some parties feeling aggrieved petitioned to have the road through 
Tebbets's land altered. This was done, and the new road ■ accepted 
in May, 1822. 

In 1822, the proprietors' road led from the road running to Colonel 
Emery's from Willard's mill to the brook near George Tripp's. 

April, 1822. Road from Joshua Danielson's, Lyman, to Jona- 
than Hamilton's, Berwick, passing through Sanford, four roads wide, 
was accepted. 

April, 1823. Road two roads wide, laid out in December, 1822, 
from Moses Fray's to Robert Carroll's, was accepted. 

September 11, 1826. Voted to discontinue that part of the town 
road commencing at the road leading from Andrew Allen's to Wells, 
and ending where it intersects the county road leading from Moul- 
ton's mill to Oak Hill. 

April 2, 1827. Road from Moulton's mill to Oak Hill opened. 

June~16, 1827. Road from Samuel Worster's to Lebanon line dis- 

April 9, 1830. A two-rod road, . starting at Shapleigh town line, 
was accepted from Beatle's house to the Province mill road ; also a 
second road, starting from the northwest side of the Province mill 
road and running to the Shapleigh town line. 

September 13, 1830. Road from Reuben Chick's to Aaron Wors- 
ter's accepted. 

In 1828 or 29 a road laid out on Mount Hope was not accepted. 
In 1830 a committee laid out a roa,d three rods wide, which was ac- 
cepted in May, 1X32. 

May, 1833. Road from Emery's mills to Lebanon laid out. Road 
from North Berwick to Alfred straightened. 

1834. Road from Alfred through Shapleigh to Springvale laid out. 

September 14, 1835. A three-rod road was accepted from the 
county road to T; K. Bennett's, the land to be given, provided the 
old road be discontmued between the Congregational meeting-house 
and point of intersection. This was done. 

May, 1840. Petition that road through the south part of the town 
from Hollis be opened. Road built, but the town appealed to the 
Supreme Judicial Court in 1841. 

November 9, 1840. Road leading from Moulton's mill to Oak Hill 
ordered opened. 


1841. Road from Thompson's bridge out near Joshua Tebbets's 
laid out. 

April 12, 1841. Two-rod road accepted from JohnBeatle's house, 
Springvale, to Elias Littlefield's. 

May, 1842. Road from Alfred line to Berwick laid out. 

1842. Road from Wells line, three rods wide, to county road from 
Lyman to Oak Hill. 

November 13, 1843. Road from Captain Moses Goodwin's, Leb- 
anon town line, to Moses Fray's. 

May, 1844. Road from Dowty's Falls to Waterborough. 

1844. Road from Springvale to Sanford Corner straightened. 
May, 1845. A road from North Berwick to Wells was laid out. 

The road had been used before, but had sometimes been fenced by 
land owners. 

1845. Fifty-four rods through land of Ira Heard, bought of Sam- 
uel B. Emery, discontinued. 

April 6, 1846. Town road from Oliver Frost's to Charles Emery's 

July 11, 1846. Road one rod and a half in widtli was accepted, from 
the Deering school-house to Samuel Worster's blacksmith shop, on 
county road leading from Emery's Mills to Lebanon. 

October, 1846. Road from Sanford Corner to South Sanford was 
straightened and made three rods wide. Road from the Corner to 
Samuel Merrill's was laid out, and road from Samuel Merrill, Ju- 
nior's, to the North Berwick line was ordered opened and made. 

September 13, 1847. Road from Jesse Furbish's to Samuel F. 
and Francis Allen's accepted. This road was discontinued the fol- 
lowing spring. 

April 29, 1848. The warrant called for action in regard to county 
road from near Joshua Littlefield's house to Great Works River. 
Article passed. 

In the fall of 1848 a road was contemplated from Sanford Corner 
to Thompson's bridge and Willard's mill to Wells Depot. Ichabod 
Frost was chosen agent to petition the county commissioners to dis- 
continue the road from Sanford Corner to Samuel Merrill's, and to 
appeal to a higher court if necessary. Later the road asked for was 
duly laid out and accepted. The road laid out by the county com- 
missioners in 1841, to Allen's Marsh brook, was discontinued; also 
part of one laid out in 1844, from Great Works stream to old road 
leading over Oak Hill. A road from Hay Brook Hill to Mouse Lane 
was laid out, three rods wide. 


ROADS. 273 

In 1849, roads from Sanford to Great Falls (following the old road 
in North Berwick) , and from Springvale to Sanford Corner were laid 

1850. Road laid out in 1849, from Emery's Mills to Little River 
Falls, accepted. April 1, three roads located below Sanford Corner, 
towards North Berwick, and below Oak Hill, to be built ; from Jesse 
Furbish's to Oak Hill accepted. April 22, old road from Thompson's 
bridge to John Lord's discontinued. 

April 7, 1851. Road located on petition of George Chadbournand 
others (Mouse Lane?). 

October 25, 1852. A town road two rods wide was laid out from 
Springvale (county road), across land of Springvale Manufacturing 
Company, to Amos Getchell's. In 1 853 the town refused to accept 
the foregoing, and the county commissioners laid out a town way, 
practically on the same layout. 

1854. Road laid out in 1853 from Nahum Perkins's to Thomas 
Hobbs's accepted. 

September 10, 1855. Road accepted from the Springvale Manu- 
facturing Company's cotton factory to the Province mill. 

In 1856 the road to Lebanon was straightened. 

In 1857 the road from Joel E. and Stephen Moulton's to 

Moulton's was laid out. 

March 10, 1862. Road laid out in December, 18G1, accepted, from 
Joseph Perkins's to Thomas Hobbs's, three rods wide. The old road 
which this one superseded was discontinued the following year. 

February 21, 1870. School Street, Sanford Corner, as laid out 
June 26, 1869, was accepted, to be two rods and nineteen links in 

November 30, 1870. Road laid out to the depot, November 15, 
not accepted. This road was to start near William "Webber's, and 
be three rods wide. 

Hon. Thomas Goodall and thirty-one others presented to the- 
selectmen, December 1, 1870, a petition praying that a town way- 
might be laid out, beginning at the bridge over the Mousam River 
near Goodall's mill, and ending at the Portland and Rochester Rail- 
road, in Springvale. This road the selectmen refused to lay out, 
and at the March town meeting following, two resolves were adopted 
" First, that the town is opposed to the location of the town way or 
road in Sanford on the petition of Thomas Goodall and others as 
prayed for in said petition ; Second, That the town has no objections, 
to the location of a town road leading from the road (leading from 


Sanford Corner to the Brick school-house, so called), commencing 
near the house where Mr. Bedell foimerly lived to or near the bridge 
at the foot of the Brick school-house hill, so called." The Brick 
school-house road on petition of Asa Low and others, was accord- 
ingly accepted on June 17, by a vote of one hundred and thirteen to 
fifty-one, and an attempt at a special town meeting held ten days 
later to discontinue this road was defeated. This highway was three 
rods in width. Meanwhile the petitioners for the Goodall road, as it 
•came to be called, had, at the April session of the county commis- 
sioners, prayed that honorable body to lay out and order said road 
to be built. The commissioners met in Sanford, Augusts, 1871, and 
proceeded to view the route set forth in the petition. Afterwards a 
hearing was given at the town-house to all interested. Having 
iidjourned to meet at the county commissioners' office at Alfred, 
August 18, to hear the arguments of counsel, the commissioners 
■decided that the prayer of the petitioners ought to be granted. 
Accordingly, on the 27th day of September, they laid out and lo- 
'Cated the said town way, the road to be three rods wide. Land 
damages, amounting to three hundred and thirty-five dollars, were 
iiwarded to David Goodwin, William Webber, William H. Conant, 
William Hanson, and Samuel D. Tebbets, and the town was to pay 
sixty-six dollars costs. At the March town meeting in 1872 the 
town voted to appeal from the county commissioners' decision to tlie 
Supreme Judicial Court, before which the case came in May, 1873. 
The town's exceptions were overruled, and costs of three hundred 
and ten dollars were charged to the town. William H. Conant was 
not satisfied with his damages of fifty dollars awarded by the county 
commissioners, and on his petition, a special committee allowed him 
one hundred and seventy-five dollars. 

March 10, 1873, it was voted to authorize the selectmen "to open 
and build the road the present year" as laid out by the county com- 
missioners, beginning at the depot at Springvale, and extending 
across to the road leading by the house of Enoch F. Lord, and that 
the amount of money to be raised therefor should be discretionary 
with the selectmen. 

On September 18, 1875, after several futile attempts to have the 
Goodall road discontinued, tiie matter was finally settled by the pas- 
sage of the following votes: "Voted to instruct the selectmen to 
build and open the road laid out by the county commissioners in the 
town of Sanford, and known as the Goodall road, as soon as practi- 
cable. Voted to raise the sum of twenty-five hundred dollars by 

ROADS. 275 

taxation to build the Goodall road, so called, and to pay the land 

In 1871 a road from the Sanford line to town road leading to David 
Fall's was laid out, and completed in 1872. 

In 1872, road from the depot to Alfred was laid out three rods 

1874. Boad leading from the house of Jesse Furbish over Oak 
Hill laid out and accepted. 

March 13, 1876. Road to Porter Hobbs's accepted (discontinued 
November 7, 1876) ; road from Province mill bridge by the house of 
J. G. Wilkinson to the Shapleigh town line widened and straightened. 

March 16, 1878. " Voted that the sum of one thousand dollars be 
appropriated out of the money raised this year to repair the highways 
and bridges in town, the said sum to be equally divided between the 
two villages, and three special surveyors to be appointed in each vil- 
lage to superintend the expenditures on the improvements called for 
by this article ; and they be authorized to make the improvements as 
soon as the condition of the soil will permit." Sewers and culverts 
were to be constructed to drain water from the streets of the two 
villages. The following were the surveyors appointed : Asa Low, 
William A. Ricker, John Merrill, Edward K. Bennett, Thomas Good- 
all, and Hosea Willard. 

March 10, 1879. Road laid out on Benjamin Seal's petition ac- 

March, 1880. Voted to discontinue road from John Morrison's to 
Jordan's mill, and parts of road above Springvale past the house of 
Samuel Morrison, and old road between the houses of Charles But- 
ler and Elisha Goodwin. 

Miscellaneous matters pertaining to early roads and bridges : 

1800. Thompson bridge built (rebuilt?). 

1801. The county road from Sanford to Shapleigh repaired. 
1803. County road from Berwick line below Oak Hill to Alfred 

line at the Hay Brook out of repair, and the town fined. Eleazar 
Chadbourn agent to go to Alfred to have the fine remitted. 

1803. Ezra Thompson agent to go to Waterborough to have road 
from William Johnson's mill to Wells discontinued. 

1804. Voted that the town direct that the inhabitants living on 
the main road leading from Shapleigh to Wells keep their cattle from 
troubling teamsters travelling on said road. Sheldon Hobbs came 
forward and protested against the proceedings of this meeting. 

In 1819 and 1820 $2,000 was appropriated each year for highways. 


1824. Voted to build a causeway over Allen's Marsh brook, to be 
built by laying a tier of logs a foot through in the bottom and brushed 
over and sanded suflflciently to make it permanent, with a water-way 
four feet wide, to the acceptance of the selectmen. Robert Johnson 
bid ofE the work for twenty-four dollars and fifty cents. 

1830. Powers's bridge rebuilt. 

In 1852 there were thirty-seven highways; in 1858, thirty-eight; 
in 1863, thirty-seven. 



Beginnings of the Abolition Movement — Anti-Slavery Societies — 
Outbreak of the "War — Captain John Hemingway Raises a Com- 
pany for the Eighth Maine — Bounties for Soldiers and Aid for 
Soldiers' Families Voted by the Town — Sanford's Company in 
the Twenty-Seventh Maine — Four Brothers Enlist — The Roll 
of Honor. 

BEFORE proceeding to the history of the town during the dark 
days of the Civil War, let us consider the beginnings of the 
Abolition movement in Sanford some twenty years prior to the open- 
ing of that bloody conflict. Quite a difference of opinion on the sub- 
ject of slavery existed among the voters. A few thought slavery 
right and proper. A larger number thought it wrong, but said that 
the people of the free states had nothing to do with it in the slave 
states. Some good people said we ought to pray for the poor slave, 
and leave the rest with God. Others said we ought to pray certainly, 
but vote as we pray. These men accepted the Abolition doctrine, 
and espoused its cause. There were five only. We can count on the 
fingers of a single hand the number of the original members in San- 
ford. Their names are Elder Theodore Stevens, Deacons Stephen 
Dorman and William L. Emery, and the brothers Charles and Fran- 
cis Allen. They believed that anti-slavery principles were Christian 
principles, and in advocating them that they were exemplifying their 
Christian faith and doctrine. It required no little moral courage at 
that time to take a pronounced stand upon the question, yet those 
five men boldly proclaimed their views, and exerted their influence in 
opposition to negro slavery. They endured reproach and contumely ; 
they were taunted and stigmatized as the " Long Heel" party. El- 
der Stevens was outspoken on the subject in his pulpit, and was ob- 
noxious to quite a number of his church. He told them that he should 
preach Abolitionism, bread and butter, or no bread and butter. His 
principles could not be bought for money, or his voice silenced. A 



clergyman preaching a Fast Day sermon in the Congregational meet 
ing-house at the Corner, gave such offence, on account of his Aboli- 
tion views expressed, that some of his hearers left the house in dis- 
gust and in a very noisy manner. Others declared that they would 
not pay Abolitionists for preaching at all. A leading Democrat once 
met Deacon Emery, and denounced him as a mischief maker, and a 
disorganizer, called him a " Long Heel " in derision, and jeeringly 
questioned, " What do you expect to accomplish?" Having faith in 
the cause which he believed to be right, the deacon simply answered, 
' ' Wait a while, and you will see." His prophecy was fulfilled, and 
each of those five men rejoiced that his efforts, small and feeble though 
they might have appeared, had not been in vain. The great, grand 
object was accomplished in their day, and their eyes beheld the glory 
of their work. The brothers Allen suffered some loss of property 
through the malicious mischief of their opponents. Yet they were 
not turned from their righteous purpose, nor willing to sell their 
birthright of manhood for a mess of pottage. 

In July, 1843, a mass meeting was called at Alfred, to consult in 
regard to nominating a list of county officers. About sixty attended, 
and nominated officers, and pledged themselves to use all honorable 
means to bring out a good vote at the September meeting. Six men 
from Sanford attended : Charles and Francis Allen, Ivory Brooks (?), 
Stephen Dorman, William L. Emery, and John Parsons. Elder Ste- 
vens was selected by the Abolitionists as their candidate to represent 
the classed towns, Sanford and Lebanon, in the state legislature. He 
declined the nomination, and Deacon Dorman was nominated. No 
choice was effected, as a majority was necessary, until the last of 
December, when by the combined Abolition and Whig vote Deacon 
Dorman was successful, receiving in Sanford one hundred and thirty- 
five of the two hundred and ninety-four votes cast. He was thus the 
first Abolitionist elected to any public office in the County of York. 
In the legislature, only two others of his party were in the house, 
namely, Henry K. Baker, of Hallowell, and Lyndon Oak, of Exeter ; 
and one in the senate. Dr. Ezekiel Holmes, of Winthrop. In 1844, 
the Abolition presidential electors had seventeen votes, and James 
Appleton twenty-three for Governor. For the latter office, in 1845, 
Samuel Fessenden had thirty-two votes, and in 1848, sixty-seven 
votes. The Abolitionists, or Free Sellers, cast thirty-one votes for 
Van Buren the year last named. Albert Day had sixty-one votes 
for County Treasurer, and Samuel V. Loring one hundred and thirty- 
three for Clerk of the Courts. In 1845, Theodore Stevens received 


thirty votes for Congressman, and twenty- five at the next election. 
The party in Sanford, as all over the country, was merged into the 
Republican party in 1856, and gave its influence and vote in favor of 
the great principle for which it was founded. In its transition it was. 
a constituent part of the Free Soil Democratic party, which supported 
John P. Hale and George W. Julian for President and Vice President 
in 1852, and of the Know Nothings of 1854. 

April 7, 1854, some of the women of Springvale formed a wo- 
man's anti-slavery society, which was afterward called the Daughters 
of Freedom. Among its first members were Mrs. W. H. "Waldron, 
Mrs. Nancy Reed, and Mrs. Eliza D. Willard. It numbered at one 
time about eighty members, and continued until November 13, 1855, 
when free soil took another form. The Sons of Freedom were 
formed some time in the spring or summer. Both societies, Sons 
and Daughters, held their meetings separately, but sometimes jointly 
for the sake of union of action. 

The Nathanites were made up of both political parties, of men 
only, mostly of the Sons of Freedom, and were organized as a secret 
society about 1854. The first members were Henry Gloucester 
(colored), George A. Willard, Lyman Littlefield, William P. Ran- 
kins, Dennis Hatch, and nine others. The paraphernalia, consisting 
in part of an exceedingly gorgeous regalia, and the property of the 
order were owned by Gloucester, who seems to have been chief. He 
failed, and the property was attached by his creditors. It was 
receipted for by a few of the members, paid for according to ap- 
praisal, and not permitted to be sold by a public auction. The so- 
ciety did not remain long in existence. 

Though Sanford was not strongly in favor of prosecuting the 
memorable war which began in the spring of 1861, yet before the 
struggle was ended, it had sent its quota into the field. The feeling 
which existed in town during the first year of liostilities, is evidenced 
by the action at a town meeting held on May 14, called " to see if 
the town will vote to make proper provision for the support of the 
families of any persons having their residence in said town, who may 
enlist into the service of the United States, during their absence from 
the state, and whose families may stand in need of assistance, by 
virtue of an act passed by the legislature of this state and approved 
by the Governor thereof, April 25, 1861, and, if they so vote, to see 
what sum of money they will raise for that purpose." The record 
of the meeting assembled upon that warrant is brief : " First, chose 
moderator. Second, dissolved the meeting." Another meeting was 


called for a like purpose one week later, when a motion that the 
town provide for families of the soldiers, was decided in the nega- 

In the fall, however, the patriotism of the citizens manifested itself. 
John Hemingway received a commission as Captain of Company F, 
Eighth Maine Volunteer Infantry, and opened a recruiting station in 
the interests of that company, in which a goodly number of the 
young men of Sanford enlisted. Alonzo E. Kimball, of Biddeford, 
was First Lieutenant, and John H. Eoberts, of Alfred, Seconcl Lieu- 
tenant. The regiment was composed of companies organized in all 
parts of the state. Company F's contingent from Sanford included 
Corporals Edmund G. Murray, Frederick A. Henderson, William J. 
Eeed, and Benjamin Bicker, and Privates Norris E. Bancroft, George 
W. Brackett, John M. Brackett, James W. Butler, John S. Carter, 
Simeon B. CoflSn, Thomas W. Frost, John B. Goodwin, George 
Hubbard, Francis Hurd, Henry A. Hurd, John Jacobs, Alonzo Lit- 
tlefleld, William A. Moore, Ebenezer Ricker, Thomas B. Seavey, 
William "W. Wentworth, and William F. Willard. The regiment 
was organized September 7, 1861, at Augusta, the place of general 
rendezvous, and left the state on September 10, under command of 
Colonel Lee Strickland, of Livermore. "No finer body of men has 
entered the service from this state," says Whitman and True's "Maine 
In The War For The Union," from which we have drawn our facts. 
The regiment proceeded first to Hempstead, Long Island, and after 
a few weeks in Washington and Annapolis, took part in the Port 
Royal expedition, landing at Hilton Head on November 9. In May 
following the command participated in the bombardment and cap- 
ture of Fort Pulaski, 8. C, in which several batteries were success- 
fully operated by soldiers of the Eighth. From that time until the 
spring of 1864, the regiment did guard duty at Hilton Head and 
Beaufort, S. C, and at Jacksonville, Fla., during which time there 
was much sickness and death. Three hundred recruits joined the 
regiment in the fall of 1862, including Samuel Allen, Seth H. Colby, 
Elias L. Goodwin, Jonathan Hamilton, Moses Hemingway, William 
P. Rankins, Warren Thompson, Ira M. Welch, Stephen F. Welch, 
and Andrew J. Wentworth, of Sanfordi. During the summer of 
1863, Companies F, I, and K were detached for provost guard duty 
at Hilton Head, where Captain William M. McArthur of Company I, 
of Limington, was Provost Marshal. " During the month of June 
Lieutenant Lord of Company F was detached to engineer and cut a 
road through a dense and swampy forest on Hilton Head Island, 



•where many of the men contracted a swamp fever which proved fatal 
in many cases." Captain Hemingway had been commissioned Major 
in March, 1862, and in April of 1863 was promoted to be Lieuten- 
ant Colonel of the regiment, serving until February, 1864. Early in 
1864 the following Sanford recruits joined the command : Edward 
L. Boyd, John Duncan, Edward Eldridge, Edwin W. Gould, and 
William H. Harmon. Corporal E. G. Murray became First Lieuten- 
ant in the latter part of the year, and later a Captain. 

The Eighth moved on Petersburg and Richmond in April, 1864, 
and distinguished itself in action. "Of the regiment, both oflficera 
■&nd men, it may be said that in bravery and eflflciency they have been 
excelled by few regiments, if any, in the service." They saw hard 
fighting at Drury's Bluff, Wier Bottom Church (where Private Colby 
was killed), Cold Harbor (where Corporal Reed was killed). Fair 
Oaks, Hatcher's Run, and Appomattox. Principal Musician Willard 
was killed before Petersburg on July 31. After the surrender of 
Lee the regiment went to Richmond, where it camped until August, 
being stationed later at Manchester and Fortress Monroe. The men 
were mustered out January 18, 1866, and returned to Maine on the 
■25th of that month. 

By the spring of 1862 public sentiment in Sanford in regard to en- 
couraging enlistment had undergone a radical change. At the town 
meeting held in April, it was voted, under provision of the legislative 
-enactment of the month previous, to raise the sum of three hundred 
-dollars to aid the families of volunteers. During the summer follow- 
ing, as an additional inducement, it was decided to offer bounties to 
all who should enlist. On the petition of Samuel B. Emery and six- 
teen others, a meeting was held July 22, at which ttis vote was 
passed : " Voted, that the selectmen be authorized to pay each vol- 
unteer that enlists in this town when he shall be mustered into the 
United States service, one hundred dollars out of the town treasury." 
This vote was reaffirmed early in August, in a slightly amended form, 
when it was provided that the bounty should be paid to " each vol- 
unteer who shall legally enlist for the quota of this town," and at the 
same meeting the treasurer was authorized to borrow $2,400 "on the 
credit of said town of Sanford," for the payment of bounties. The 
meeting was called on petition of John Lord and eleven others. It 
-was followed by a meeting on August 25, William F. Hanson and 
•others being the petitioners, when the bounty was for a third time 
fixed at one hundred dollars for nine months' men, and the following 
votes were passed : 


" Voted to pay A. W. Dam the sum of $3,300 to procure fifteen 
volunteers to serve under the President's call for 300,000 volunteers 
for three years' service in the United States army, and in that same 
proportion for a larger number, if necessary, to fill this town's quota, 
when they are mustered into the service of the United States, and 
that sum to include this town's bounty in full for said men. Voted 
to chose a committee of twenty-three persons to hire money to pay 
the sums on the votes passed this day to pay volunteers for this- 
town's quota when mustered into the service of the United States, 
and that said committee be empowered to pledge the credit of the 
town for the payment thereof, payable in one year and interest, and 
that John Storer, John Merrill, George A. Frost, Nathaniel F. 
Heard, Charles Butler, Increase S. Kimball, Stephen Hatch, Benja- 
min F. Hanson, Simon Tebbets, Porter Willard, Otis R. Willard, 
John Lord, David Pray, Samuel B. Emery, Jonathan Tebbets, 
Samuel D. Tebbets, Irving A. Butler, George Bennett, Calvin 
Bennett, Oliver F. Dennett, Robert Carroll, Jacob P. Allen, and 
John H. Shaw be that committee. Voted that the treasurer of 
this town be authorized to endorse the notes given for said sums 
of money borrowed by said committee, as town treasurer. Voted 
to authorize the treasurer of said town to hire any or all of the 
said sums of money by giving the treasurer's notes of the town alone 
to those who will accept of them without the signatures of the 
committee. Voted to choose a committee of five persons to procure- 
enlistments for the 300,000 nine months' men, to fill up this town's 
quota, and that five dollars be paid to each of the committee for each 
man enlisted by them when they are mustered into the service of the 
United States, and that the committee to borrow money or the treas- 
urer be authorized to hire the same. Voted that John L. Huston, 
Lorenzo Dow, William H. Miller, John Lord, and Benjamin Beal, 
Junior, be that committee. Voted to instruct the town treasurer to 
go with the volunteers to the place where they are mustered into the 
service of the United States, and see that they are mustered in for 
this town, and pay them their bounty, and that he be paid for his- 
time and expense wfiile doing the same. Voted that George A. Frost 
be a committee to see if the volunteers sent heretofore from this town 
are credited to this town's quota. Voted that each one of the com- 
mittee to procure enlistments for the nine months' men have ten dol- 
lars extra paid to them if they will volunteer and place their own 
names at the head of the enlistment papers." 

At an adjourned meeting, August 28, reports of the committees to- 


hire money and procure enlistments were made, and Jesse Giles was 
added to the committee to procure enlistments for the nine months' 
service. On September 5, Increase S. Kimball, Benjamin F. Han- 
son, and Moses W. Emery were chosen a committee " to take one of 
the papers prepared by the committee to hire money to pay volun- 
teers, and signed by about eighty-five inhabitants of said town of 
Sanford, and go to the North Berwick Bank and hire upon that and 
the town note given by the treasurer of the town as such, five thou- 
sand dollars to pay volunteers their bounty ;" and it was also voted 
"that the same committee take the other prepared and signed as- 
aforesaid, and when needed hire upon that and the note aforesaid 
the money necessary to finish paying all the sums voted by the town 
for volunteer bounties and expenses connected therewith." At the- 
same meeting the bounty for nine months' men was increased to one 
hundred and fifty dollars, and A. W. Dam was added to the commit- 
tee to procure enlistments. 

It was at this time that the Twenty-Seventh Maine Infantry, to be- 
composed of nine months' men, was being organized, almost exclu- 
sively in York County. Of Company E, of which John M. Getchell, 
of Wells, was Captain, Sanford furnished a large share. William H. 
Miller, of Sanford, was First Lieutenant. The men generally volun- 
teered in order to 'prevent a draft. We quote from a private letter 
of date of September 10, 1862 : " Yesterday morning at nine o'clock, 
the time set to draft, the quota of the company in this part of the 
town was full, excepting four or five. Mr. Miller suggested they put- 
off the draft until eleven or twelve o'clock. It was put off until eleven, 
and the quota was filled by volunteers. It was the same with the 
company at Springvale. It was pretty hard work, but they got their 
number at last, and no draft. There was great excitement here all 
the forenoon ; many trembling hearts until we heard the glad news, 
' No draft.' " Those who volunteered from Sanford at this time were l 
Sergeant George W. Thompson; Corporals Jesse Giles, William B. 
Gowen, and Ivory Johnson; and Privates Jedediah Allen, William 
A. Allen, Philip Banfield, Joseph W. Bartlett, Luther H. Butler, 
Willis H. Butler (afterwards First Lieutenant, Ninth Infantry) , Wil- 
liam Chapman, George K. Currier, Benjamin N. Day, George W. 
Edwards, William R. Emery, Hugh A. Frost, George W. Gerrish, 
Freeman B. Hill, Christopher Hussey, Charles Jacobs, John W. Jel- 
lison, Edward P. Johnson, John T. Johnson, John W. Lord, James 
G. Pei'kins, Trafton Phillips, Joseph P. Richardson, Joseph Ridley, 
Seth M. Sylvester, Adriel Thompson, Junior, Josiah Welcli, and 


Stephen "Wilkinson. Reuben O. Littlefleld, Frank E. Needham, and 
Herman Stevens joined the company in October. 

The regiment rendezvoused at Portland, going into camp on the 
10th of September, and being mustered into the service on the 30th. 
Rufus P. Tapley of Saco was Colonel. On the 11th of October, the 
Sanford "boys" came home for a short furlough, and on the 20th 
the regiment left the state for Washington. It was sent into camp 
at Arlington Heights, on General Robert E. Lee's estate, where it 
engaged in picket duty and in labor on the unfinished woi-ks in the 
-vicinity. . December 12 it went to Hunting Creek on picket duty. 
About this time the guerrilla, Mosby, was on his raids, and the win- 
ter of 1862-63 was passed by the Twenty-Seventh at Chantilly, near 
Fairfax Court House, in guarding against such attacks. The regi- 
ment returned to Arlington Heights in June, joining the Army of the 
Potomac, which was then moving to meet Lee, who was advancing to 
invade Pennsylvania. The term of service of the Twenty-Seventh 
was about to expire, but the men were appealed to by the President 
and Secretary of War to remain for a short time and assist in the 
defence of Washington. Volunteers from the regiment, oflBcers and 
men, to the number of three hundred and fifteen, did remain, and were 
:on duty until after the decisive battle of Gettysburg had been fought. 
On the 4th day of July the regiment marched into. Washington, and 
taking cars for home, arrived in Portland on tlie 6th. These men 
who had stayed by when danger threatened the capital were tendered 
receptions by the citizens generally all along the route, and were 
given a most notable demonstration in Portland. " There were 
thanks and blessings in every eye, and welcome on every hand," says 
Whitman and True's work. " It may be doubted if any army has 
ever seen better material than that which composed the nine months' 
regiments from this state, and the Twenty-Seventh had its share of 
it." The regiment was mustered out July 17, 1863, after serving ten 
months and seventeen days. Later on medals were awarded the offi- 
cers and men by the war department for remaining beyond the expi- 
ration of their term. 

In' November, 1862, the town decided to pay drafted men for nine 
months' service the same bounty as volunteers, and it was voted to' 
communicate with the Adjutant General, " and have the town given 
full credit for the men sent and paid, which is twenty-five." From 
the other records, it would appear as if there were an error in the 

Further votes of the town making provision for soldiers and sol- 


diers' families are of interest. In July, 1863, the town voted twa 
hundred and seventy- five dollars for each man drafted and accepted 
to pay exemption, which sum was raised to three hundred dollars a 
few days later. " Voted and chose a committee of six persons, con- 
sisting of Hampden Fairfield, Samuel B. Emery, William C. Wey- 
mouth, Charles F. Moulton, Samuel Lord, and Henry W. Bodwell 
(all Democrats) to hire money upon the credit of the town and pay 
it out to the drafted men as voted to each man." One thousand 
dollars was raised to aid the families of volunteers. The following 
fall, George A. Frost was chosen a committee to visit Augusta to ar- 
range, if possible, for a reduction in the town's quota. At the same 
time it was voted to pay A. W. Dam $15,600 to fill the quota of 
forty men for the town, " or in that ratio, if the quota should be re- 
duced to a less number." It was also voted to hire money to pay 
the bounties, and Benjamin F. Hanson and Asa Low were chosen a 
committee to borrow the money of banks in Portland. It appears to 
have been necessary to raise considerable of the money needed by in- 
dividual loans in town, and it was voted " to exempt those who loan 
money to tlie town from taxation for that money for one year." 

Early in 1864, after the President had called for 500,000 men, 
Hampden Fairfield and George A. Frost were chosen a committee to 
arrange for filling the quota of the town. It was voted to raise $3,233 
for bounties for drafted men, $9,200 for the payment of notes, and 
$1,000 to aid the families of volunteers, if needed. In the summer a 
committee which had been appointed to see that the town was given 
proper credit for its quota, reported that three names of men who had 
enlisted in the navy had been found, and properly credited, thus "re- 
ducing the quota with the overplus of six before had from thirty-six 
to twenty-seven." George A. Frost was at this time chosen agent 
to fill the quota, either by recruiting men or finding substitutes. A 
little later it was voted to raise two hundred dollars for one year's, 
three hundred for two years', and four hundred for three years' ser- 
vice of each volunteer, drafted man, or substitute. In September, 
$2,000 additional was raised to pay bounties. November 8, Hampden 
Fairfield and George A. Frost were engaged to procure thirty men at 
three hundred dollars each to fill the next call for troops, and it was 
voted to raise $9,000 on town notes to pay the bounties. 

January 23, 1865, it was voted to pay the enrolled men who have 
or may put in substitutes for three years, or who volunteer and are 
mustered in on the town's quota, four hundred dollars each. The 
sum of $12,000 was raised to pay the same, town notes for one year 


to be given. In March the town decided to raise 83,500 to pay notes 
given in 1863; $9,000 to pay bounties on the call before the last; 
$10,000 to pay bounties under the last call ; and $1,000 to aid the 
families of volunteers. 

Four years later, A. W. Dam was chosen a committee to receive 
state bonds of one hundred dollars each, as equalization of bounty. 

A list in the possession of the author indicates that sixty-six men 
were drafted from Sanford during the war. In 1863, eighteen con- 
scripts were accepted. 

A list of Sanford men who served in the Civil War is as follows, 
the regiment being from Maine in each case, unless otherwise stated : 

Ai.LEN, Gkorge H. November 29, 1864. Navy. 

Allen, Jedediah. Single, twenty-seven years. Company E, 
Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862 to July 17, 

Allen, Orrin. Single, eighteen years. Company K, Fourteenth 
Infantry. Private, January (July?) 16, 1862. 

Allen, Samdel. Single, nineteen years. Company F, Eighth In- 
fantry. Private, August 20, 1862. A. E. hospital nurse, November, 
1864. Discharged, June 5, 1865. 

Allen, William A. Company E, Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Sep- 
tember 30, 1862. 

Adld, William M. October 15, 1862. 

Baker, Granville M. Single, twenty-eight years. Company D, 
Twentieth Infantry. Private, August 30, 1862. Hospital nurse, 1862. 
Assistant Surgeon, April 5, 1863. Mustered out, June 4, 1865. 

Balz (Baltz), John. Married, thirty years. Company B, First 
Infantry, January 2, 1865. Company mustered out, July 25, 1865. 

Bancroft, Norris E. Single, eighteen years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Sick at Beaufort, November, 
1862. Re-enlisted, February 29, 1864. Corporal, June 12, 1865. 
Company mustered out, January 18, 1866. 

Banfield, Philip. Single, twenty-eight years. Company E, 
Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 

Bartlett, Joseph W. Single, eighteen years. Company E, Twen- 
ty-Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 1863. 
Re-enlisted, March 3, 1864; Corporal Company A, Thirty-Second 
Infantry. Wounded June 18, 1864. Sergeant, Company A, Thirty- 
First Infantry, December, 1864. Mustered out, July 5, 1865. , 



Bearns, William. September 16, 1864. 

Beauch AMP, Edward. Company A, Ninth Infantry. September 
15, 1864. 

Bedell, Irving A. New Hampshire Infantry. September 18, 

Bedell, Ivout. Seventh New Hampshire Infantry. 

Bennett, Edward. Single, eighteen years. Company F, Thirty- 
Second Infantry. Aprils, 1864. Transferred to Company ^, Thirty- 
First Infantry, December 1, 1864. Company mustered out, July 15, 

Bennett, Frank. Son of T. K. Bennett. Drafted in Boston. 
Killed, 1864. 

Blair, Alexander. March 4, 1865. 

Boston, James. Fourteenth New Hampshire Infantry. 

Boyd, Edward L, Single, twenty-five years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, April 12, 1864, to June 12, 1865. Wounded, 
June 18, 1864. Discharged for disability. 

Brackett, George W. Single, twenty years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Sick at Beaufort, November, 
1862. Discharged at expiration of service, 1864. 

Brackett, John M. (W?). Single, twenty-two years. Company 
F, Eighth Infantry. Private, October 5, 1861. Sick at Hilton Head, 
S. C, December, 1861. Discharged for disability, June 21, 1862. 

Bbiant, Charles H. Company F, Thirtieth Infantry. January 4, 

Butler, James W. Single, twenty-four years. Company F, 
Eighth Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Discharged for dis- 
ability, 1861. 

Butler, Luther H. Single, twenty years. Company I, First Cav- 
alry. Private, October 31, 1861. Private, Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry, September 30, 1862. Saw later service and was 
mustered out, August 1, 1865. 

Butler, Willis H. Single, twenty-three years. Private, Company 
E, Twenty-Seventh Infantry, September 30, 1862. Private, Company 
K, Ninth Infantry, September, 1864. Second Lieutenant, September, 
1864. First Lieutenant, Company B, Ninth Infantry, January 4, 

Campbell (Campwell), George. Navy, December 13, 1864. 

Carroll, John W. Thirteenth Massachusetts Infantry. Died in 
Boston, October 2, 1893, aged fifty years. 

Carter, John S. Single, thirty-eight years. Company F, Eighth 


Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Discharged for disability, 
1861. Died, September 3, 1882, aged fifty-nine years, seven months. 

Chadbourn, Henrt. 

Chapman, William. Single, nineteen years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 1863. 

Clancy (Chancy), John. Seventeenth United States Infantry. 
November 29, 1864. 

Clark, George, Jonior. Married, twenty-five years. Company 
F, Thirty-Second Infantry. April 4, 1864. Transferred to Company 
F, Thirty-First Infantry, December 1, 1864. Discharged, December 
2, 1864, by order of General Dix. 

Cobb, Dr. Stephen M. Born in Gorham, Maine ; in Sanford, No- 
vember, 1852, to June, 185,6, Surgeon, Thirty-Fifth Iowa Infantry, 
September, 1862 to August",' 1865. Muscatine, Iowa. 

CoFKiN, Simeon B. Single, nineteen years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Corporal, July 1, 1863. Ee- 
enlisted February 29, 1864. Died of wounds, August 13, 1864. 

Colby, Seth H. Married, twenty-two years. Company F (K?), 
Eighth Infantry. Private, August 25, 1862. Killed at Bottom's 
Church, May 20, 1864. 

Cram, Edwin J. Son of John and Deborah Cram. Third Assist- 
ant Engineer on United States Steamer " R. R. Cuyler." Died, April 
14, 1882, aged forty years. 

Cram, Walter. Navy, October 5, 1863. Landsman. On the 
" Niagara " and " Hartford." August 6, 1864, at Mobile Bay. Dis- 
charged in Philadelphia, November 5, 1864. Nurse at Pensacola 
Naval Hospital. 

Currier, George E. Single, eighteen years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Private, October 5, 1862, to July 17, 1863. 

Davis, David. Navy, 1863. 

Day, Benjamin N. Single, twenty-one years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 1863. 

Day, Leonard. Served in a Massachusetts regiment. 

Day, Orrin. Served from Massachusetts. 

Day, Samuel. Served from Massachusetts. 

Denney, John. Navy. January 19, 1865. 

DoBLE, Hiram H. Company F, Thirtieth Infantry. January 4, 

DoRMAN, George H. Single, eighteen years. Company K, Four- 
teenth Infantry. Private, January (July?) 16, 1862. Discharged 
for disability, January 27, 1863. 


DoKMAN, Stephen G. ■ Second Lieutenant, Thirty-Second Infantry, 
"Wounded in leg and face, 1864. Died, October 26, 1898. 

Dow, Charles H. C. Twenty years. Company B, Second (Twen- 
tieth ?) Massachusetts Infantry, May 25, 1861 to May 28, 1864. 

Downs, Joseph W. Company D, Thirtieth Infantry, January 26, 

DoNCAN, John. Company F, Eighth Infantry, February 29,1864. 

Edwards, George W. Single, twenty years. Company E, Twen- 
ty-Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 1863. 

Eldridge, Edward. Company F, Eighth Infantry. February 29, 

Emert, Cyrus C. Sergeant, Troop C, Second Massachusetts 
Cavalry, December 8, 1862. Second Lieutenant, July 27, 1863. First 
Lieutenant, Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry, January 13, 1864 ; Captain, 
January 18, 1864; Major, May 30, 1865. Discharged, December, 

Emert, Edwin. Company F, Seventeenth Infantry. Private, Sep'- 
tember 10, 1863; Sergeant, November 1, 1863; Color Sergeant,. 
April 27, 1864; wounded, Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864; Secondl 
Lieutenant, June 28, 1864. Mustered out, June 4, 1865. 

Emery, William H. Born May 11, 1848. Served four months in; 
Company D, Forty-Second Massachusetts Infantry, in 1864. 

Emery, William R. Company E, Twenty- Seventh Infantry. Sep- 
tember 30, 1862. 

English, Henry. Served in the navy from Massachusetts. 

Evans, Frank. September 17, 1864. 

Farnham, Stephen. Served from New Hampshire. 

Fernald, Horatio P. Company F, Seventh Infantry. January 
6, 1864. 

Foot, Ebenezbr. Served in the navy ( ?) . 

Foster, Charles E. Company I, Twentieth Infantry. December 
1, 1863. 

Frost, Hikam. Single, twenty years. Company E, Ninth Infan- 
try. Private, September 22, 1861, to September 27, 1864. 

Frost, Hugh A. (H. ?) Single, twenty-four years. Company E, 
Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 18, . 
1863. Battery E, Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. Died, , 
August 18, 1865. 

Frost, Thomas W. Single, twenty-one years. Company F, Eighth, 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Sick at Beaufort, Novemberi^, 


1862. Discharged for disability, January 25, 1863. Died, February 
20, 1863. 
Garet, Caleb E. 
Garet, Ctrds M. 
Garet, Moses E. 

Gerrish, George W. Single, twenty years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862 to July 18, 1863. 
Getchell, Edwin S. Served from Massachusetts. 

Giles, Jesse. Married, twenty-eight years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Corporal, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 1863. 

Giles, John. Seventeenth Kegulars. 

Giles, William D. Seventeenth Eegulars. Died, June 23, 1867, 
aged thirty- two years. 

Goodwin, Alvin. Single, eighteen years. Company H, Third 
Infantry. Private, August 9, 1862. "Wounded at Fredericksburg. 
Discharged, 1863. 

Goodwin, David S. Navy. 

•Goodwin, Edmund F. Born January 1, 1844. Battery G, Second 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, August 19, 1863. 

Goodwin, Elias L. Single, thirty-four years. Company A, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 2, 1862. Wounded, June 18, 1864. 
Discharged, June 12, 1865. Died, April 27, 1883, aged fifty-five 

Goodwin, Elisha J. Served from New Hampshire. 

Goodwin, John B. Single, twenty-one years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Sick at Hilton Head, De- 
cember, 1861. Discharged for disability. May 27, 1863. Re-enlisted, 
December 18, 1863 (64?). Died at Hampton, Va., January 10, 1866. 

Goodwin, John H. Served from New Hampshire. 

Gould, Edwin W. Company F, Eighth Infantry. February 29, 

GowEN, Emilus S. Navy (?). 

GowEN, Frank A. iSeventeenth Eegulars. July 20, 1864. 

GowEN, Oren a. Navy ( ?) . 

GowEN, William B. Single, twenty-seven years. Company E, 
Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Corporal, September 30, 1862, to July 
17, 1863. 

GowEN, William J. Single, twenty-six years. Company H, Sec- 
ond Infantry. Private, September 29, 1864, to August 29, 1865. 

Green, William. April 13, 1865. 


Ham (Hans), James D. Company H, Thirtieth Infantry. January 
19, 1865. 

Hamilton, Alvah M. Died, August 25, 1870, aged twenty-eight. 

Hamilton, George. Died, November 16, 1873, aged twenty-eight. 

Hamilton, Jonathan. Single, forty-one years. Company A, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 2, 1862. Died of disease, March 3, 
1865, Point of Rocks, Va. A carpenter by trade. 

Hamilton, Richard W. Battery G, First Heavy Artillery. Janu- 
ary 6, 1864. 

Hanson, William M. Navy. February 9, 1865. 

Harmon, William H. Company F, Eighth Infantry. February 
29, 1864. 

Hatch, Franklin N. Single, sixteen years. Company A, Fifth 
Infantry. Private, September 22, 1861. Discharged for disability, 
July, 1862. 

Hatch, Dr. George W. 1862. Assistant and surgeon in charge, 
hospital, Washington. 1863-1865, medical oflScer, navy. At Mobile 
Bay, August 5, 1864. 

Hemingway, John. Married, forty-three years. . Company F, 
Eighth Infantry. Captain, September 7, 1861. Major, May 18, 1862. 
Lieutenant Colonel, December 1, 1863. Resigned, on account of 
disability, February 16, 1864. 

Hemingway, MosES. Single, eighteen years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 2, 1862. Discharged, September 10, 
1863. Re-enlisted, March 21, 1865, Company K, Twelfth Infantry. 
Discharged March 23, 1866. 

Henderson, Frederick A. Married. Twenty-six years. Com- 
pany F, Eighth Infantry. Corporal, September 7, 1861. Sergeant, 
September 1, 1862. Detached service in Maine, November, 1863. 
Discharged, June 18, 1864. February 7, 1865, Hancock's Corps. 

Hersom, Dr. Nahum A. Siagle, twenty-seven years. Twentieth 
Infantry. Assistant Surgeon, August 9, 1862. Surgeon Seventeenth 
Infantry, April 11, 1863. Mustered out, June 4, 1865. 

Hersom, Stephen M. 

Hill, Freeman B. Single, forty-four years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 1863. 

Hill, Joseph. Served from Massachusetts. 

Hill, Reuben. Single, forty-one years. Company I, Third In- 
fantry. Private, August 9, 1862. Transferred to Company D, 
Seventeenth Infantry. Wounded. Discharged, June 1, 1865. Died 
in West Newfield, December 29, 1893. 


HiLLER, Charles. Died, September 4, 1868, aged twenty-eight. 

HoBBS, John H. Served from New Hampshire. 

HoDGDON, James M. Thirteenth New Hampshire Infantry. Ser- 
geant, September 18, 1862. Second Lieutenant. 

Houston, Ithamar. First Infantry (?). 

Houston, John L. (S. ?) Son of James and Sylvina (Hussey) 
Houston. Born September 28, 1834. Company I, First Infantry. 
Enlisted Westbrook. Died, August 26, 1868. 

Hubbard, G-eorge. Eighth Infantry. Died in the service. 

Hubbard, Thomas. Navy ( ?). 

Hunt, Levi. Company F, Thirtieth Infantry. January 9, 1864. 

Hurd, Francis. Single, twenty- two years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Corporal, November 1, 1862. 
Died of wounds, June 1, 1864. 

Hurd, Henry A. Single, eighteen years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Re-enlisted, February 29, 
1864. Corporal and Sergeant. Missing, October 27, 1864. 

Hurd, Luther J. Born, January 11, 1842. Company H, Six- 
teenth Infantry. Private, August 14, 1862. Shot through the arm. 

Hussey, Christopher. Married, twenty-four years. Company E, 
Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 

Ingbbsoll, Arthur S. Troop M, Second Cavalry. January 2, 

Jacobs, Charles. Married, forty-three years. Company E, Twen- 
ty-Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 18fi3. 

Jacobs, John. Married, thirty-eight years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Discharged, June 21, 1862. 

Jameson, W. H. 

Jellison, G-eorgb C. Married, nineteen years. Private, Company 
K, Ninth Infantry. September 20, 1864, to June 30, 1865. 

Jellison, John W. Single, eighteen years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862, to July 17, 1863. 
Re-enlisted, September 20, 1864. Corporal, Company K, Ninth In- 
fantry. Discharged for disability. May 24, 1865. 

Jellison, Joseph R. Twenty-two years. Second Massachusetts 
Infantry. May 25, 1861. Died, November 12, 1862. 

Jellison, Norris F. Sergeant, Eleventh Ohio Battery. October 
27, 1861. 

Jennison, William H. Company B, Twentieth Infantry, October 
29, 1862. 


Johnson, Edwakd P. Single, twenty years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862 to July 17, 1863. 

Johnson, Harvbt B. Single, nineteen years. Private, Company 
D, Eleventh Infantry. August 25, 1864, to February 2, 1866. 

Johnson, Ivory. Married, forty-four years. Company E, Twen- 
ty-Seventh Infantry. Corporal, September 80, 1862. Company 
mustered out, July 17, 1863. 

Johnson, John T. Single, twenty years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862. Died, December 
26, 1862. 
' Johnson, Robert. 

Johnson, Samuel F. Served from New Hampshire. 

Jones, Ezra E. L. Single, eighteen years. Troop L, First Cav- 
alry. Private, November 30, 1863. Sick, November, 1864. Mus- 
tered out, August 1, 1865. 

Jones, Orin E. Served from New Hampshire. 

Jones, Rhfus L. Single, twenty years. Troop L, First Cavalry. 
Private, December 18, 1863, to December, 1864. 

Jones, Rdfds. Served from New Hampshire. 

Kames, John. Company D, First Vermont Infantry. January 1 , 
1864. Re-enlisted. 

Kenniston, Eleazar B. January 25, 1864. 

Kenniston, William R. Battery E, First Heavy Artillery. De- 
cember 22, 1863. 

Knox, Somner. Company D, Twentieth Infantry. August 29, 

Leach, Frank. January 31, 1865. 
• Leighton, Warren C. Company D, Twentieth Infantry, August 
25, 1862. 

LiTTLEFiELD, Alonzo. Sluglc, nineteen years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Died at Hilton Head, July 
6, 1863. 

LiTTLEFiELD, Elias. Single, forty-one years. Company K, Four- 
teenth Infantry. Private, December 17, 1861. Died at CarroltOn, 
La., October 31, 1862. 


. LiTTLEFiELD, Reuben O. Single, eighteen years. Company E, Twen- 
ty-Seventh Infantry. Private, October 5, 1862, to July 17, 1863. 
Re-enlisted, Troop I, First Cavalry, September 27, 1864. Discharged, 
May 25, 1865. 

Lord, Albion A. Thirteenth New Hampshire Infantry. Corporal, 
September 18, 1862. Wounded, September 29, 1864. 


Lord, Charles 0. Single, eighteen years. Company F, Thirty- 
First Infantry. April 5, 1864 to January 30, 1865. : 

Lord, Hiram. Served from Massachusetts. 

Lord, John, Second. 

Lord, John W. Company E, Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Septem- 
ber 30, 1862. 

Lord, Stephen. Seventh Massachusetts Infantry. 

Ltons, Charles. Company H, Thirtieth Infantry. January 6, 1864^ 

Mahonby, Charles. August 26, 1864. 

Mahonbt, Patrick. September 5, 1864. 

Marsh, Asbdry C. Major, Second Missouri Infantry, 1862.^ 
Provost Marshal. Died, January 22, 1887. 

Medcalp, George. Company F, Thirtieth Infantry. January 4, 

Merrick, Stephen W. Single, nineteen years. Troop I, P'irst 
Cavalry. Private, October 31, 1861, to November 25, 1864. Died, 
October 6, 1865. 

Mbrrow, Arvenden. Single, eighteen years. Company A, Twen- 
tieth Infantry. Private, August 29, 1862. Discliarged for disability,. 
January 2, 1863. 

Messer, Alvxn a. Company G, First Vermont Infantry. De- 
cember 14, 1863. 

Miller, George W. Navy (?). 

Miller, William G. Navy. 

Miller, William H. Single, twenty-seven years. Company E, 
Twenty-Seventh Infantry. First Lieutenant, September 30, 1862,. 
to December 16, 1862. 

Millett (Miller?), Jared F. Company B, Twentieth Infantry^ 
October 29, 1862. 

Millett, John B. Invalid Corps. December 1, 1863. 

Milliken, George W. Company F, Thirtieth Infantry. January; 
4, 1864. 

Moore, William ^. Single, twenty-seven years. Company F, 
Eighth Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Re-enlisted, February 
29, 1864. Subsequent records are contradictory. One states, died, 
March 8, 1864; another, missing, October 27, 1864. 

MoTT, Perkins F. Second New Hampshire Infantry. Navy ( ?) ^ 
Murray, Edmund G. Married, twenty-flve years. Company F, 
Eighth Infantry. Corporal, September 7, 1861. Re-enlisted, Feb- 
ruary 29, 1864. First Sergeant, May 1, 1864. First Lieutenant,: 
October 3, 1864. Captain. Provost Marshal, Richmond, Va., for 
nearly a year. Mustered out, January 18, 1866. 



Murray, Jonathan' C. Company H, Thirtieth Infantry. January 
6, 1865. 

Murray, Simon. Fourteenth MassachusettB Infantry. 

Nason, Henry. Battery C, First Rhode Island Artillery. Wounded 
near Robertson's Tavern, Va., November 30, 1863. Died December 
23, 1863, aged thirty-seven years. 

Needham, Frank E. Company E, Twenty- Seventh Infantry. 
October 15, 1862. 

Newell, Ira A. Single, twenty-eight years. Company C, Twenty- 
Ninth Infantry. Private, November 13, 1863. Absent sick, Decem- 
ber, 1864. Company mustered out, June 21, 1866. 

Nutter, Albert. Navy ( ?) . 

Otis, Charles H. C. Thirteenth New Hampshire Infantry. Sep- 
tember 18, 1862. 

Paige, Smith C. Thirteenth New Hampshire Infantry. Septem- 
ber 18, 1862. Invalid Corps, December 13, 1863. 

Parry, Richard. November 21, 1864. 

Parsons, Alonzo Z. (Y. ?) Company B, Twentieth Infantry. Oc- 
tober 29, 1862. 

Paul, Levi H. Seived from Massachusetts. 

Perkins, James G. Son of James and Experience Perkins. Born 
September 15, 1840. Single. Company E, Twenty-Seventh Infantry. 
Private, September 30, 1862. Absent sick, December, 1862. Mus- 
tered out, July 17, 1863. 

Perkins, Thomas B. Company F, Seventeenth Infantry. Sep- 
tember 30, 1863. 

Phillips, Trafton. Married, forty-two years. Company E, 
Twenty- Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862. Absent 
sick, December, 1862. Mustered out, July 17, 1863. 

Pierce, Ivory M. Served from Massachusetts. 

Pillsbury, Emerson. Single, nineteen years. Company H, Third 
Infantry. Private, Angust 9, 1862. Prisoner, May 2, 1863. Trans- 
ferred to Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, 1864. Mustered out, 
June 4, 1865. 

Pollard, David 0. Battery G, First Heavy Artillery, December 
16, 1863. 

PopoLi, Pierre. April 4, 1865. 

Potter, William. Single, twenty-three years. Company H, 
Eleventh Infantry. Private, December 22, 1864. Detached service, 
November, 1865. Company mustered out, February 2, 1866. (Name' 
given on Dr. Dam's list as Potter Williams.) 


Powers, Samuel H. Battery G, First HeaVy Artillery. Decem- 
ber 16, 1863. 

Quint, Joseph. Served from New Hampshire. 

Baneins, William P. Married, forty-four years. Company F, 
Eightli Infantry. Private, August 25, 1862. Detailed as regimental 
tailor, 1863. Missing in action, May 16, 1864. Died in Anderson- 
ville prison. 

Reed, William J. Single, twenty-five years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Corporal, September 7, 1861. Sergeant, July 1, 1863. 
Killed in action near Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864. 

Richardson, Joseph P. Company E, Twenty-Seventh Infantry. 
September 30, 1862. 

RlGKBR, A. A. 

RiOEEK, Benjamin. Married, forty-four years. Company F, 
Eighth Infantry. Corporal, September 7, 1861. Color bearer, 1863. 
Re-enlisted, February 29, 1864. Sick at Fortress Monroe, Novem- 
ber, 1864. Discharged January 2, 1865. 

Rtcker, Ebenezer. Single, twenty-one years. Company F, Eighth 
Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Wounded, June 18, 1864, 
In hospital, November, 1864. 

, RiCKER, EliR. Married, forty-four years. Company B, Fourteenth 
Infantry. Private, December 30, 1861. Transferred to Company 
K, 1862. Discharged, May, 1862. 

Ricker, George. Single, nineteen years. Company K, Thirty- 
Second Infantry. May 6, 1864. Died at Annapolis, Md., October 
30, 1864. 

Ridley, Joseph. Single, nineteen years. Company E, Twenty- 
Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862. Absent, December, 
1862. Mustered out July 17, 1863. 

Roberts, John H. Second Lieutenant (?). 

Rogers, Ezra P. 

RowE, Charles M. Company H, Thirtieth Infantry. January 
6, 1865. 

Ryan, Peter. January 10, 1865. 

Scott, John. December 1, 1864. Navy. 

Seavey, Asa W. Single, eighteen years. Troop I, First Cavalry. 
Private, November 30, 1863. Absent sick, November, 1864. Mus- 
tered out, August 1, 1865. 

Seavey, Samuel. Single, twenty years. Company K, Fourteenth 
Infantry. Private, December 28, 1861. Died, December 14, 1862. 

Seavey, Thomas B. Single, twenty-five years. Company F, Eighth 


Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Fourth New Hampshire In- 

Sewell, Charles "W. Company D, Thirtieth Infantry. January 
26, 1864. 

Shackley, Lewis. 

Skillin, Sumner L. Company D, Twentieth Infantry. August 
25, 1862. 

Skillin, Thomas J. (A.?) Company D, Twentieth Infantry. Au- 
gust 25, 1862. 

Smith, Arthur W. 

Smith, Charles. Single, twenty-two years. Co. H, Fifteenth 
Infantry. March 23, 1865. 

Smith, Henri; (A). Navy(?). December 17, 1864. 

Smith, William H. Single, twenty-two years. Company G, Fif- 
teenth Infantry. January 25, 1865. 

Spaulding, Randall H. Company B, Twentieth Infantry. Oc- 
tober 29, 1862. 

Spenser, John. Served from Massachusetts. 

Spooner, Asa. First Heavy Artillery. 

Stevens, Herman. Company E, Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Oc- 
tober 16, 1862. 

Strout, Henry A. 

Stubbs, Frederick A. Company C, Thirtieth Infantry. January 
12, 1864. 

Sutten, Charles H. Colored. September 27, 1864. 

Swett, Henry A. Company D, Twentieth Infantry. August 25, 

Sylvester, Seth M. Married, twenty-seven years. Company E, 
Twenty- Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862. Killed by 
-accidental discharge of musket, May 28, 1863. 

Thompson, Adriel, Junior. Single, twenty-one years. Company 
E, Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862. In hos- 
pital, December 1, 1862. Mustered out, July 17, 1863. Ee-enlisted, 
Company F, Thirty-Second Infantry, April 5, 1864. 

Thompson, George. Served from Massachusetts. 

Thompson, George W. Single, twenty-six years. Company E, 
Twenty- Seventh Infantry. Sergeant, September 30, 1862, to July 
17, 1863. 

Thompson, John. Born, November 22, 1844. Served from Mas- 

Thompson, Joseph. Born, September 2, 1846. Served from Mas- 


Thompson, Moses. Born, March 1, 1834, Served from Massa- 

Thompson, Warren. Born, January 17, 1836. Married. Company^ 
A, Eighth Infantry. Private, September 2, 1862. In hospital, Hil- 
ton Head, November, 1863. Eighteenth Corps Hospital. November, 
1864. Discharged, June 12, 1865. 

John, Joseph, Moses and Warren Thompson were brothers, sons 
of Ebenezer and Rachel Thompson. The three serving from Massa- 
chusetts enlisted from Danvers. 

Todd, Francis. December 7, 1864. Navy. 

Trafton, Dr. Clark C. Born in Alfred, April 9, 1831. In San- 
ford, 1858-60. Surgeon Thirty-Second Infantry, 1864. Died in 
Washington of malarial fever, August 11, 1864. 

Trafton, Edwin (Edward) T. Married, nineteen years. Private, 
Company K, Ninth Infantry. September 20, 1864, to October 19,. 
1864. Died of disease. 

Vanderlinden, Charles. December 2, 1864. 

Wakefield, George. Served from Massachusetts. 

Watson, Charles. Single, eighteen years. Company K, Seventh 
Infantry. Private, November 25, 1862. Wounded and missing, 
May 4, 1863. 

Watson, Dr. David. Born, November 6, 1836, Limerick. In San- 
ford, 1861-63. Assistant Surgeon, United States Steamer "Onward."' 
Resigned, July 3, 1865. 

Weaverlet, John. August 19, 1864. 

Welch, Ira M. Born, February 28, 1844. Company B, Eighth 
Infantry. Lost a limb at Bermuda Hundred, May 20, 1864. Died,. 
October 24, 1871. 

Welch, Josiah. Company E, Twenty-Seventh Infantry. Septem- 
ber 30, 1862. 

Welch, Stephen E. Married, twenty-six years. Company K, 
Tenth Infantry. Private, July 18, 1862. Transferred to Company 
A, 1863; to Company G, Twenty-Ninth Infantry, 1864. Absent 
sick, December, 1864. Discharged, May 31, 1865. 

Welch, Stephen F. Married, forty-three years. Company A, 
Eighth Infantry. Private, September 2, 1862. Wounded, June 18, 
1864. Absent, November, 1864. Discharged, April 27, 1865. 

Wentworth, Andrew J. Eighth Infantry. September 2, 1862.. 
Transferred to the regular army. 

Wentworth, Joseph W. Third Infantry. August 26, 1862. 

Wentworth, Thomas S.. Thirteenth New Hampshire Infantry, Sep- 
tember 18, 1862. Wounded severely May 16, and September 29, 1864. 


"Wentworth, William "W". Married, twenty-six years. Com- 
pany F, Eighth Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Hospital 
nurse, November, 1863. *Ee-enlisted, February 29, 1864. Dis- 
charged for disability, August 28, 1865. 

Wentworth, Jacob. Company C, First Vermont Infantry. 
December 14, 1863. Re-enlisted. 

Whiteknoch, George "W. Single, nineteen years. Company G, 
First Infantry (Cavalry ?) . Private, December 20, 1864. Discharged, 
June 5, 1865. 

Whitten, James G. Served from Massachusetts. 

Wilbur, D. W. Company B, Thirty-First Infantry, March 8, 1864. 

Wilkinson, Charles. Single, eighteen years. Company B, 
Fourteenth Infantry. Private, December 30, 1861. Transferred to 
Company K, 1862. Re-enlisted, January 1, 1864. 

Wilkinson, George H. Company F, Thirtieth Infantry. Jan- 
uary 4, 1864. , 

Wilkinson, Stephen. Married, forty-four years. Company E, 
Twenty-seventh Infantry. Private, September 30, 1862. 

WiLLARD, Henrt C. Tenth New Hampshire Infantry. Corporal, 
September 18, 1862. Wounded, June 1, 1864. 

WiLLARD, William F. Single, nineteen years. Company F, 
Eighth Infantry. Private, September 7, 1861. Principal Musician, 
July 1, 1863. Re-enlisted, February 29, 1864. Killed before Peters- 
burg, July 31, 1864. 

Williams, John H. January 25, 1864. 

WiTHAM, Alvah C. Single, thirty-six years. Company K, 
Thirty-Second Infantry. May 6, 1864. Wounded, June 3, 1864. 
Transferred to Company K, Thirty-First Infantry, December 1, 
1864. Killed in the service. 

WiTHAM, Otis. Born, December 22, 1819. Company G, Thirtieth 
Infantry. January 1, 1864. 

WiTHAM, Phinehas C. Company K, Tenth Infantry. August 
26, 1862. 

Young, Moses C. Company H, Thirtieth Infantry. January 6, 

The above list contains two hundred and sixty names. Sanford 
was credited by the state for one hundred and forty-seven soldiers, 
but there were one hundred and sixty in the army, and fifteen iu the 



Thomas Goodall Comes to Sanford, 1867 — Starts the Manufacture 
of Carriage Robes and Kersey Blankets — The Sanford Mills — 
Mousam River Mills — Goodall Brothers' Mills — Consolidation, ' 
1 885 — Goodall Worsted Mills — Maine Alpaca Company — 
Sanford Light and Water Company — Electric Roads Estab- 
lished — Sanford Power Company — The Great Dam. 

TO give, in detail, the history of the Goodall enterprises, would 
require a volume of well filled pages, devoted absolutely to 
nothing else. This chapter will therefore be confined to the most im- 
portant features of these enterprises, affecting the growth of Sanford. 
It is acknowledged that GoodaU enterprise has been chiefly instru- 
mental in transforming the Sanford of yesterday, into the thriving 
industrial centre of today. The actual conversion of this rustic, 
farming village, composed of thirty dwellings and a corner grocery, 
into the important commercial and manufacturing Sanford of the 
present, had its beginning in the summer of 1867, when Thomas 
Goodall, born in Dewsbury, County of Yorkshire, England, Septem- 
ber 1, 1823, came here from Troy, N. H., where he had previously 
been engaged in the production of horse blankets and blankets for 
the army and navy, and purchased from William Miller and James 
O. Clark, the flannel factory of the former and grist-mill and saw- 
mill of the "latter, together with the entire water privilege of the 
Mousam, controlled by them at this point, paying for the same, the 
sum of $15,500. Mr. Goodall began immediately the enlargement 
of the property, and early in the following year, had two sets of 
cards and ten looms in motion, the entire plant, at that time, giving 
employment to fifty operatives, in the production of carriage robes 
and Kersey blankets. These carriage robes were the very first of 
the kind to be manufactured in the United States. Mr. Goodall, 
while sojourning in England, had been engaged in exporting carriage 
robes to this country, and it was this experience that induced him to 
come here and undertake their production. 


The products of his plant finding a ready market, with an ever 
increasing demand, further enlargements became necessary for the 
accommodation of constantly augmented manufacturing facilities, 
until, at the present time, The Sanford Mills have a capital of $750- 
000, turn out an annual product valued at $1,000,000, and provide 
employment for seven hundred and fifty operatives, many of whom 
own their own homes. 

In 1873, Lucius C. Chase of Boston, and Louis B., George B., and 
Ernest M. Goodall, sons of Thomas Goodall, together with Amos 
Garnsey, Junior, formed a co-partnership and during the following 
year, 1874, began the manufacture of plain and fancy blankets in 
newly erected factories known as the Mousam River Mills, and occu- 
pying the site of an old saw-mill once operated by Elijah Witham. 
The business was conducted under the firm name of Goodall and 
Garnsey. Ere long these factories were consuming two thousand 
five hundred pounds of wool daily. On the morning of Thanksgiv- 
ing day, November 24, 1892, the larger of the factories constituting 
the plant, was entirely destroyed by fire, entailing a loss of $120,000. 
Strange as it may seem, this disastrous conflagration was caused, 
undoubtedly, by ice that had collected beneath the waterwheel gates, 
which becoming loosened by the action of the water, allowed a suffi- 
cient quantity to set one of the waterwheels in motion, to escape. 
Once the wheel was in motion, the automatic regulator would raise 
the gate until the highest rate of speed had been attained. A heavy 
leather belt being driven rapidly over a wooden pulley that remained 
stationary because connected with a waterwheel that had not thawed 
out, created sufficient friction to set fire to the factory. 

On October 1, 1881, George B., Louis B., and Ernest M. Goodall 
organized the firm of Goodall Brothers and began the manufacture 
of mohair car and furniture plushes , and of mohair carriage robes, 
the very first of each of these fabrics to be produced on this side of 
the Atlantic. Their venture in this new field proved eminently suc- 
cessful, and on April 4, 1885, the plush business of Goodall Brothers 
and the blanket business of Goodall and Garnsey at the Mousam 
River Mills, were consolidated with the Sanford Mills, founded by 
Thomas Goodall. 

The present officers of the Sanford Mills Company are : E. M. 
Goodall, President; Frank Hopewell, of Boston, Treasurer ; L. B. 
Goodall, Clerk ; E. M. Goodall, George B. Goodall, and Louis B. 
Goodall, of Sanford, and John Hopewell and Frank Hopewell of 
Boston, Directors. 


On October 19, 1889, the G-oodall Worsted Company was organ- 
ized with a capital of $30,000, with the following ofHcers : George 
B. Goodall, President ; Louis B . Goodall, Treasurer ; William Batch- 
elder, Jupior, Clerk ; E. M. Goodall, L. B. Goodall, George B. Good- 
all and H. Hodgson, Directors. The growth of this branch of the 
Goodall enterprises has been phenomenal, as is amply evidenced by 
the fact that its present authorized capital is $350,000. 

Taking a just pride in the township of their adoption and deter- 
mined that it should not longer linger in darkness, the Goodalls in- 
terested themselves in the organization of the Sanford Light and 
Water Company.' 

During all these years of progress, the raw material and manufac- 
tured products of the Goodall industries, as well as all fuel and mer- 
cantile supplies for business houses of all kinds, were conveyed to 
and from the railway station at Springvale by heavy truck teams, 
the expense keeping pace with the ever increasing capacity of the 
plants and the growth of the town. With a view to reducing this 
expense, and rendering an actual necessity a possible source of profit, 
the Goodalls turned their .attention to electric railroading, organizing 
and operating the Mousam River Railway, the first car traversing the 
rails between Sanford and Springvale in March, 1893. 

In 1897, the Goodalls were instrumental in organizing the Sanford 
and Cape Porpoise Railway, which has been in operation since the 
summer of 1899. 

In 1897, the Sanford Power Company was organized and has been 
dispensing power since February 20, 1899. 

On October 3, 1899, the Maine Alpaca Company was organized, 
and has been in successful operation since the spring of 1900. 

These industries constitute the chief features of the Goodall enter- 

The reader will appreciate the magnitude of the present plant op- 
erated by the Sanford Mills Company by the following brief descrip- 

Mill Number One is devoted to the carding, spinning and weaving 
of carriage robes and velours. This factory, now forty feet wide and 
one hundred and sixty-five feet long, three stories including basement, 
with two-story ell, forty by seventy-five feet, was, previous to the 
first enlargement, the Miller flannel factory in its entirety. When 
Mr. Goodall began operations in 1868, after remodelling to some ex- 
tent, the main structure was forty feet wide and sixty-five feet long. 
It constitutes the actual nucleus of all the Goodall enterprises. 


A portion of Mill Number Two, which occupies the site of Clark's 
■old grist-mill of the early sixties, was used for many years for the 
printing department in connection with the manufacture of carriage 
robes and furniture plushes, but in the winter of 1888-89, a commo- 
dious structure was erected on the westerly side of the Mousam, con- 
nected with Mills Numbers Two and Three by grade and overhead 
bridges, and here the color making, chemical, block cutting, printing, 
steaming, washing, fibre fixing, pile raising and drying departments 
are now concentrated under one roof. At the southerly end of this 
structure and adjoining it, is a brick building containing a battery of 
thirteen boilers, their furnaces consuming thirty tons of coal every 
twenty-four hours, and sending their dense volume of smoke into the 
tallest chimney in the state of Maine, an attractive piece of architect- 
ure, measuring fourteen feet square at its base, reaching skyward 
one hundred and fifty-seven feet, with a diameter of eight feet, and a 
circumference of twenty-four feet at its apex. The carriage robe and 
velour finishing departments now occupy the first and second floors of 
Mill Number Two, while the third floor is devoted to the drying and 
storing of unprinted fabrics. This factory is a three-story structure 
with basement, one hundred and forty-five by forty feet, with an ell 
forty feet square. 

Mill Number Three is a three-story building, fifty by one hundred 
and twenty feet. The ground floor is devoted to the storage of raw 
material ; the second contains the blending department, while the third 
is provided with plush stretching machinery and appliances for the 
drying of printed and unprinted fabrics. Parallel with Mill Three and 
-connected with Mill Two by an overhead bridge, is an immense build- 
ing for the storage of raw material on the ground floor, and finished 
carriage robes and blankets on the second and third floors. This 
structure also contains the packing and shipping departments, from 
which the products of the factories are distributed all over the United 
States and Canada. 

Mill Number Four is the monster of the entire aggregation of fac- 
tories and occupies a position directly across the Mousam, looking 
in an easterly direction from Mill Two. It is three stories high, and 
the dimensions of the main structure are fifty by two hundred and 
seventy feet, while the dyeing department, with which it is connected, 
occupies a one story ell, forty by one hundred and twenty feet. In 
Mill Four are the fulling and pile or nap raising machines on the 
ground floor, also the mohair warping department, while the second 
and third floors give space to the mohair spinning departments. 


Mill Number Five, connected with Mill Four, by a covered bridge, 
is a weaving shed with monitor roofs of glass, constructed with es- 
pecial attention to ample lighting, and contains a veritable forest of 
plush looms. The main structure is one hundred by two hundred and 
fifty feet. In the northerly end of this building are the mohair comb- 
ing and preparing machines, exceedingly interesting pieces of mech- 
anism, while the basement below is devoted to the mohair scouring 
department. Mill Five also gives space to the drying, cropping, em- 
bossing, steaming, packing and shipping departments, in connection 
with the manufacture of car and furniture plushes. In close proxim- 
ity to Mill Five is a two-story structure containing a store room for 
raw material and the wool sorting department. 

Of Mills Number Six and Seven, formerly known as the Mousam 
River Mills, the larger of the two main structures is fifty by one hun- 
dred and seventy feet, and the other, forty by one hundred and twenty 
feet. In the last mentioned, the raw material undergoes the initial 
process toward conversion into blankets. In the larger factory, the 
carding, spinning, weaving, dyeing and finishing departments are 

In a building located just south of Mill Five, a skilled tinsmith and 
his assistants manufacture the long wire knives used for loop cutting 
in the plush looms, and attend to the repairing of the long tin cylin- 
ders used in the mohair spinning frames. Scattered about the factory 
yard, which includes many acres, in locations convenient to the fac- 
tories with which their contents are identified, are innumerable store- 
houses, containing raw material valued at hundreds of thousands of 
dollars. The plant operates its own saw mills for the manufacture 
of shipping cases, and for the turning out of lumber for building and 
all other purposes. A large corps of skilled machinists and wood 
workers are constantly employed in splendidly equipped shops. There 
are also blacksmith shops where the music of the anvil is seldom 

Every factory is provided with the sprinkler system for protection 
from fire, the same being connected with huge reservoirs, each with 
a capacity of 50,000 gallons. In addition to this, the Sanford Mills 
have a thoroughly equipped fire department, including an Amoskeag 
steamer, hose trucks, and combination hook and ladder apparatus, aU 
manned by trained fire fighters. In a brick structure, located at a 
considerable distance from any other building in order that it may 
not become a prey to the flames in the event of a conflagration, is an 
automatic force pump, operated by steam, with a capacity of twelve 



huudred gallons of water per minute. The giving way of a single 
fusible plug, all of which are governed by temperature, in any part 
of the sprinkler system, suffices to set this pump in motion. The 
opening of a hydrant will operate in the same manner, and should it 
be necessary, in case of a stubborn blaze, to augment the service of 
the village water system, one of the finest in Maine, the opening of 
a single valve, connecting the two systems, is the only requisite. 

The Goodall Worsted Mills. — Nothing like the rapid but permanent 
growth of the plant of the Goodall Worsted Company has ever been 
witnessed in this section of the country, and it is extremely doubtful 
if its parallel can be found elsewhere. Established in 1889, opera- 
tions were begun in a two-story structure, fifty-three by one hundred 
and fifty-three feet. Since that time an addition of thirty-five feet 
has been made to the main factory, while other additions include a 
machine shop eighteen by one hundred and five feet ; twisting room 
thirty-seven by fifty-five feet ; engine room thirty-two by fifty feet ; 
scouring department, forty-seven by one hundred feet ; together with 
ample and well appointed offices. The building now occupied by the 
cloth dyeing and finishing departments was erected in 1893, taking the 
place of a similar structure destroyed by fire on January 18th of that 
year, and entailing a loss of $100,000, while fully one hundred oper- 
atives were thrown out of employment. This new building is eighty- 
nine by one hundred and thirty-seven feet, and two stories high. A 
yarn dyeing house, twenty-seven by one hundred and two feet, was 
erected in 1892. To this structure, additions twenty-seven by fifty- 
two and thirty-eight by fifty feet have since been made. The so^ 
called "Hill Mill" was erected in 1890-91 and after being twice 
enlarged in 1892, is now forty-two feet wide, five stories high and 
two hundred and thirteen feet long. A building, erected in 1896 for 
the accommodation of the increasing demands on the weaving depart- 
ment, with an addition made in 1899, is now fifty -four feet wide, 
two hundred and forty eight feet long and three stories high. The 
boiler house is sixty- seven by ninety-seven feet, the drug building 
sixteen by sixty-six feet, piping shop, fifteen by thirty feet, while:- 
the new fire-proof warehouse is fifty by ninety-five feet. In addition 
to the buUdings mentioned above, there are numerous smaller struc- 
tures, giving to this plant that has been in operation less than a dozen., 
years, a total of twenty structures erected at different periods in itsi 
brief history. 

But perhaps a better comprehension of its enormous growth and' 
capacity will be gleaned from the statement that the value of its- 


annual production of worsted and mohair yarns and worsted and mo- 
hair dress goods and men's wear, is $1,500,000 ; that 750,000 pounds 
of yarn are consumed by the weaving department annually in the 
production of 1,200,000 yards of dress goods and men's wear, while 
984,000 pounds of worsted and mohair yarns are annually shipped to 
other fabric manufacturers, and employment provided for eight hun- 
dred and fifty operatives. It may also be added that this corpora- 
tion is almost constantly employing other New England factories in 
commission weaving and spinning in order to supply the demand for 
its product. 

When running at their fullest capacity, the mills of Sanford con- 
sume more mohair than all other mills in the United States combined. 

Sanford Light and Water Company. — The Sanford Light and 
Water Company was organized December 29, 1886, with a capital 
of $2,000, increased from time to time until its present capital is 
$25,000. The present officers are: E. M. Goodall, President; 
George H. Nowell, Treasurer; E. E. Hussey, Clerk. The under- 
taking has been a success from the beginning. The water supplied 
is of the purest, and the source unfailmg, while Sanford's street and 
residential lighting will compare favorably with that of any of the 
smaller towns in New England where arc and incandescent systems 
are in vogue. The electric plant of the Sanford Light and Water 
Company was leased to the Mousam Eiver Eailway in 1899, and is 
now installed in the power house of the railway. A stand-pipe with 
a capacity of 500,000 gallons was erected in 1899. The present 
pumping station, located just across the highway from the power 
plant, was erected in 1898. 

The Maine Alpaca Company. — The Maine Alpaca Company was 
organized October 3, 1899, with a capital of $300,000, and the follow- 
ing 'officers : George B. Goodall, President; Louis B. Goodall, 
Treasurer ; William Batchelder, Junior, Clerk ; E. M. Goodall, L. 
B. Goodall, G. B. Goodall, J. HoUinrake and H. Hodgson, Directors. 
This plant is located at Springvale, occupying the factories formerly 
operated by the Springvale Cotton Company. The products are 
mohair and alpaca linings. The mill gives employment to one hun- 
dred and forty operatives. 

The Sanford Power Company. — The Sanford Power Company was 
organized in 1897 with a capital of $100,000 and the following board 
of officers : E. M. Goodall, President ; Frank Hopewell, Vice Presi- 
dent ; George B. Goodall, Clerk and Treasurer. It began supplying 
power to the Sanford factories on February 20, 1899. The electric 


generating plant is located at the Old Falls of the Mousam and the 
structure containing the three monster turbines, an exciter and three 
powerful generators, one double current and two alternators, is a 
model of attractive neatness in modern architectural design, finished 
in faced brick and chiseled granite, while surmounting an eminence 
overlooking the river are the homes of the workmen, supplied with 
hot and cold water, electric heat, baths, electric lights and telephonic 
communication with Sanford and the world in general. 

The great dam, planned and constructed under the personal super- 
vision of Hon ¥i. M. Goodall, is a solid mass of masonry, sixteen to 
twenty feet high, and stretching like a Chinese wall, across the river, 
two hundred and thirty-five feet from border to border, and capable 
of resisting the floods of a thousand years. It is, in its immensity 
and in the thoroughness of its construction, a marvel of modern 
engineering skill. From this dam, a tube of steel nine feet in diame- 
ter and four hundred and fifty feet in length, serves as a means of 
communication between the confined volume of water and the tur- 
bines in the power station, giving a head of sixty-three feet and 
developing two thousand five hundred horse power. Of this, one 
thousand five hundred horse power is necessary for the operation of 
the factories at Sanford, while the balance is utilized according to 
the demands of traflSc by the electric railways. 

From the power station, seven miles of wire transmit an alternat- 
ing current of 10,000 volts to the transformers in a brick structure 
at Sanford, where the voltage is decreased to four hundred and forty. 
Ordinarily, five hundred volts is sufficient to operate the two electric 
railway systems. 

During the year 1899, the Sanford Mills acquired, by purchase, the 
water privilege at Emery's Mills, formerly owned and controlled by 
the Springvale Cotton Mills, and replaced the old dam by one of 
solid stone and cement, not using a piece of wood in the entire 



Mousam River and iSanford Banks, 1854-1861— Sanford National 
Bank — Loan and Building Associations. 

FEELING that the business interests of the community demanded a 
banking institution in the town, a number of influential citizens^ 
sometime in 1853, set to work to secure a charter for the purpose. 
Their endeavors resulted in the incorporation by act of the Legisla- 
ture of the Mousam River Bank of Sanford, on March 22, 1854. 
The corporators were twenty-three in number and the capital stock 
was $50,000, divided into shares of fifty dollars each. The bank 
began business August 16, 1854, and its career from almost the start 
appears to have been attended by misfortune. Judge Shepley, on 
application of tlie bank commissioners, issued a writ of injunction 
against the bank, September 22, 1854. The difficulty, however, was 
adjusted, and the bank continued business for a year or two. "We 
find the following in the report of the bank commissioners for 1857 : 
" The condition of this (the Sanford) bank was such on the 11th 
day of November last, that, on application of the bank commission- 
ers to Judge Groodenow for an injunction, it was granted, and at the 
hearing before him the 12th of November, it appeared that the circu- 
lation was $27,498. The amount due depositors was $2,545.94. 
Total, $30,043.94. The resources of the bank consisted of specie 
in bank, $4.07 ; Suffolk Bank, $3,000 ; loan, $76,665.45. Of the 
debts due, about $40,000 were considered very doubtful, if not bad ; 
the residue is considered available. The Judge, on motion of the 
bank, continued the injunction in a modified form, to December 23, 
at which time the bank had reduced its liabilities, exclusive of capital 
stock, to $19,029.91, and a further continuance was granted to the 
2nd of February. Its officers confidently believe they shall be able 
to redeem all its bills. Oliver Hill has been elected president in 
place of Samuel Tompson, resigned." 

BANKS. 309 

On April 9, 1857, the ntime of the bank had been changed to Saa- 
ford Bank, and by an enactment of the same day, the president, 
directors, and company had been authorized to increase the capital 
stock, by adding thereto the sum of $25,000, to be paid in gold or 
silver, on or before the 1st of October following, to be divided in 
shares at fifty dollars each. The commissioners' report of December 
1, 1859, showed that the injunction had been removed, that the 
.deficiency in the capital stock, amounting to about $37,000, had been 
subscribed and paid in, and that all matters had been satisfactorily 
arranged for a resumption of business, which occurred during 1860. 
The affairs of the bank ran along smoothly for about a year, when 
the commissioners again stepped in, and in May, 1861, secured an 
injunction from Judge Goodenow, at Alfred. Eeceivers were ap- 
pointed, and as it was deemed impracticable to continue" the bank, 
its affairs were wound up and its existence terminated. 

The Sanford National Bank was organized in March, 1896, and 
was opened for business on July 27 of that year. Its capital stock 
is $50,000. The officers are : Louis B. Goodall, President; George 
H. Nowell, Vice President; M. A. Hewett, Cashier; L. B. Goodall, 
George H. Nowell, Fred J. Allen, E. E. Goodwin, and Harmon G. 
Allen, Directors. At the time of its last report the bank had the 
largest deposit of any bank in York County, $416,093.12. That 
report was as follows : 

Resources : United States treasury government bonds, $15,000 ; 
United States treasury reserve, $750; premium, $1,882.50; notes 
discounted, $354,015.72 ; Boston banks, $53,335.82 ; Portland banks. 
$54,476.97; stocks and bonds, $6,940; expense account, $861; 
revenue stamps, $106.03 ; real estate, furniture and fixtures, $7,337.- 
59; cash, $29,262.26; $523,967.89. 

Liabilities : Capital stock, $50,000 ; profit and loss, $15,139.76 ; 
circulation, $15,000; surplus, $10,000; individual accounts, $416,- 
093.12 ; interest, $1,340.28 ; discount, $6,347.88 ; exchange, $46.85 ; 
certified deposits, $10,000 ; $523,967.89. 

The Sanford Loan and Building Association was organized March 
17, 1890, and began business on the 2nd of April following. Its 
accumulated capital November 1, 1900, was $71, 324.19, and its 
loans on the same date, $78,657.37. The oflBcers are : William 
Kernon, President; Frank L. Senior, Vice President; George H. 
Nowell, Treasurer; Frank Wilson, Secretary, who, together with 
Samuel Littlefield, Orrin Roberts, Charles O. Emery, Second, Fred 
J. Allen, Albert W. Hunt, John Howgate, Ben Ramsden and Jerry 


A. Low, form the Board of Directors. Orville V. Libby, Daniel T. 
Hill, and Charles D. Clark constitute the security committee, and 
John Nutter and William E. Nutter are the auditors. 

The association has been very successful from its organization, 
always paying good dividends. It has enabled a number to own 
houses by small weekly payments, who probably otherwise would 
still be paying rent. Since its inception the association has had but 
two presidents, John H. Neal, M.D., and William Kernon; two 
treasurers, Samuel 'Littlefield and George H. Nowell; and two secre- 
taries, Fred A. Springer and Frank Wilson. 

The Springvale Loan and Building Association was organized as a 
branch of the Granite State Provident Association of Manchester, 
N. H., July 25, 1893. The officers were : E. E. Goodwin, Presi- 
dent; Harley O. Witham, Vice President; S. F. Felker, Secretary; 
Leroy Haley, Treasurer. The association was discontinued about 
two years ago. 



Project of 1850 a Failure — The Portland and Rochester Road — 
Town Refuses to Invest in Stock — The Mousam River and 
Sanford and Cape Porpoise Railway Companies. 

ABOUT 1850, the York and Cumberland Railroad Company made 
surveys of several routes through the town, for a road from 
Portland and Great Falls (Somersworth) , N. H. Bauneg Beg and 
Mount Hope were the great obstacles in the way, preventing a com- 
paratively straight road through the town. That year or the next, 
ground was broken with appropriate ceremonies west of Springvale, 
and for several months the work of excavating, filling in, and grad- 
ing was quite rapidly carried on. Money was not advanced in pay- 
ment for stock subscribed, sub-contractors failed to meet their obli- 
gations, and work was suspended. Not only stockholders, but others 
interested in the project were losers by this unfavorable beginning. 

For nearly twenty years nothing more was done on the road, west of 
the Saco River. At length, after various vicissitudes, the company 
reorganized, or a new company, under the name of the Portland and 
Rochester Railroad Company, completed the road to Rochester, which 
was made the western terminus. The road was finished in running 
order, rough, in 1870-71, and on Monday, December 5, 1870, the 
first passenger cars, two trains daily, were run between Portland and 
Springvale. Before this, however, and while the road was under 
construction west of the Mousam, a car ran from Saco River to the 
Mousam, with iin engine in one end. This dummy used 1o stop at 
any and every road crossing to leave or take on passengers, and was 
the subject of much jesting. The bridge over the Mousam was tested 
December 7, 1870, with an engine, tender, and two cars, with forty 
tons of iron rails thereon. 

Before the work was begun, a large majority of the voters thought 
it advisable to give the company material encouragement by subscrib- 
ing liberally for its stock. Accordingly, at the annual town meeting, 
April 6, 1868, Moses W. Emery offered the following : 



"That the selectmen of the town be and hereby are authorized 
and directed to take and subscribe $20,000 to the stock of the Port- 
land and Rochester Railroad, Provided, that the amount is not to be 
paid until the road is completed to and into the town of Sanford, 
and suitable passenger and freight depots erected." 

The vote was, yeas, two hundred and twenty-four ; nays, one hun- 
dred and forty-seven. This being less than the required two-thirds, 
the proposition fell through. The advocates of the measure were not 
daunted, but attempted to weary the minority by calling meetings, 
hoping that more than two-thirds at some' meeting would favor loans 
ing the credit of the town to the company. April 13, the town voted 
not to subscribe $19,900 (yeas, two hundred and eighty-four; nays, 
one hundred and eighty-six), if the road is completed to the main 
road between Emery's Mills and Wells Depot. April 14, the propo- 
sition to subscribe $15,000 was lost. The meeting of April 25 was 
a,djourned to the 27th. On that daj', Asa Low's motion to subscribe 
$20,000 contained two provisos: " That ten or more citizens or re- 
sponsible parties should give bonds to take and pay for said stock at 
fifty cents on the dollar of its cost ; and that if $10,000 were received 
from the state as equalization of bounties, the bonds thus received 
should be used instead of bonds to be issued." This was lost, two 
yeas, one hundred and eighty-two nays. 

Between May 25 and June 4, nine different meetings were held, at 
each of which the vote was unanimously against taking any stock in 
the road. To prevent the calling of such frequent meetings, it was 
voted, on June 4, on motion of Charles F. Moulton, that for all future 
special town meetings, until otherwise directed, the warrant must he 
posted at least three months before the day named for the meeting. 

The railroad matter thereupon rested until May 31, 1869, when a 
motion to transfer the bonds that may be received on account of the 
equalization of the war debt, to the Portland and Rochester Railroad 
was negatived, one hundred and seventy-two yeas to one hundred 
and forty-six nays. A month later, June 29, it was voted to ex- 
change the state bonds due the town of Sanford for stock in the rail- 
road, a vote which was reconsidered and rescinded the following 
February, thereby finally disposing of the matter which had so long 
disturbed the community. 

The telegraph along this road was completed to Springvale from 
Portland, December 19, 1870. 

In the spring of 1871, a platform car just unloaded and standing on 
the rails, at the foot of Deering Pond, a mile west of Springvale, but 


"detached from the engine and other cars, was discovered by the work- 
men to be sinking. The rails bent downward, and all went down to- 
•gether. The car could not be found the next day, nor was it ever 
seen afterward. The depression was soon filled with stone and gravel, 
and in a week or two, the engine and cars ran back. 

In due time the Portland and Rochester road was absorbed by the 
Boston and Maine system. In 1880, a railroad from Springvale to 
"the Corner was proposed, and a survey of the routes suggested was 
made in December of that year, but the project went no farther. 

The Mousam River Electric Railway Company, already mentioned 
as one of the Goodall enterprises, was organized July 18, 1892, and 
began carrying passengers and transporting freight in March of 
1893. The authorized capital of the company is $200,000. This road 
-was among the very first in New England to inaugurate tlie trans- 
iportation of freight by means of electrical power, and to adopt the 
-electric system of heating. The present officers are : E. M. Good- 
all, President ; L. B. Goodall, Clerk and Treasurer. By means of 
this road the villages of Sanford and Springvale liave been brought 
into closer commercial and social relationship, while the cost of freight 
and passenger transportation has been very materially reduced. 

The Sanford and Cape Porpoise Railway Company was organized 
in 1897, and began operations on August 1 st of 1899. Its capital 
lis $250,000, and the existing official board is composed of E. M. 
•Goodall, President; Frank Hopewell, Vice President; L. B. Good- 
all, Clerk and Treasurer. This railway is one of the most modern 
in tiie country in the matter of equipment, and its road-bed one of 
the finest in New England. The entire length of the road from ter- 
minal to terminal, including sidings, is twenty-five miles. Like the 
Mousam River Railway, the Sanford and Cape Porpoise transports 
both passengers and freight. Its southern terminus at Cape Porpoise 
is one of the most exclusive and picturesque spots on the Atlantic 
•seaboard , and with the advent of railway facilities, is rapidly growing 
in popularity as a summer resort. Under government appropriation, 
a vast amount of work is being accomplished with a view to improv- 
ing the harbor so that connection may be made with freight and pas- 
senger vessels to be operated by a new corporation in which Goodall 
•enterprise is again displayed, and for which charter rights have al- 
ready been granted. 

The route followed by the Sanford and Cape Porpoise line to which 
"the Mousam River road has been leased, is from Sanford proper, 
through South Sanford, Lyman, West Kennebunk, Kennebunk Vil- 


lage, to connection with the New Atlantic Shore Line which the 
Goodalls have been instrumental in constructing as far as Kenne- 
hunkport, and will extend to a junction with the Portsmouth, Kittery 
and York Electric Railway at Ogunquit, thence to the southern ter- 
minal at Cape Porpoise. 

At the Old Falls of the Mousam, seven miles south of Sanford, and 
from which the power to operate this road, as well as the Mousam 
River road, is derived, pleasure grounds have been arranged, supplied 
with an open air theatre and dancing pavilions, the forests surround- 
ing this section forming a beautiful natural park system. Already 
this spot rivals the beaches as a picnic and outing rendezvous during 
the summer months, and when contemplated improvements are com- 
pleted, it will become one of the most attractive pleasure grounds in 
New England. 

At West Kennebunk, connection is effected with trains to and 
from Portland and Boston, over the Eastern division of the Boston 
and Maine Railroad, while at Kennebunk Village, a loop runs through 
Stofer Street to Main ; the main line continuing along Fletcher Street 
to a junction with the loop line, and thence by the way of Summer 
Street to the Western Division station of the Boston and Maine Rail- 
road, where connection is made with that division and with the Ken- 
nebunkport branch of the Boston and Maine. The trip through Ken- 
nebunk Landing, and to the Cape, or over the intersecting line of the 
Atlantic Shore road to Kennebunkport, is full of interest, revealing^ 
as it does, odd- examples of ancient and modern architecture, and new 
beauties of nature, glimpses ef forest primeval, stretches of seashore 
with shifting sands, cosy summer retreats, and the broad expanse -of 
old ocean, at every turn of the wheels. 



Record of Fires from 1754 — The Big Conflagration of 1878 — Fire 
Department — Water Supply — Electric Alarm System. 

FIRES were a source of dread to the settlers of the frontier towns 
With no adequate means at hand of fighting the flames, and 
generally with no suitable water supply convenient, the work of 
months would be wiped out almost in a twinkling. For years the 
"bucket brigade" was the only source of protection against the de- 
vouring element, and as can be inferred from the records that follow, 
its efforts were only too often of no avail. Sanford was for many 
years without a fire department or engines, and suffered much, but 
with the increased growth and responsibilities of the last two decades, 
the town has placed herself in the front rank in this as well as in all 
other matters pertaining to the public weal. 

No details are given us of the first fire in the settlement, which 
took place on settler's lot number ten, occupied by the pioneer clergy- 
man of Phillipstown. Mention of it, however, is found in the pro- 
prietors' records. 

.A chronological li^t, without pretensions to completeness, of the 
more important fires in Sanford, is herewith presented : 

1754. (Probably.) Rev. Samuel Chandler's house was burnt. On 
November 22 of that year, the proprietors voted, " That Rev. Mr. 
Samuel Chandler be indulged with one year more to complete the 
settlement of his lot according to condition of his deed, in consider- 
ation of house he built having been consumed with fire." 

1764. October 29. Cane's saw-mill, South Sanford, with two 
thousand feet of boards and one thousand feet of plank, was de- 
stroyed by an incendiary. Loss, one hundred and fifty pounds. John 
Powers went out in the evening for water, and, seeing a light like 
the flash of a gun, discovered the mill all afire. 

1784 or 1785. Josiah Norton, Mouse Lane, lost his house, prob- 
ably by fire. The town voted, March 8, 1785, to give him the rates 
against him, on account of his losing his house. 




1805. March (?). Jonathan Tebbets, Junior, lost his house. It was 
two-story, built by Samuel CoUey. and occupied by Abraham Crosby. 
It stood near Bert Goodrich's. 

1809. August 31. A grist-mill, at the Corner, on the site of 
Number Two mill, was burnt. 

1817. November 24. The Chadbourn mill at the Corner was de- 
stroyed by Are. 

1821. October. About ten o'clock one evening a fire caught in 
the ell of John Paul's house. Mount Hope road, and entirely con- 
sumed the house. Theodosia Paul, then a baby in the cradle was al- 
most forgotten, and Josiah Paul narrowly escaped being burned to 

A school-house on Shaw's ridge, near the Madison Shaw place, was 
burnt before 1822. 

1826. Spring. Willard's saw-miU, South Sanford. 

1837. December 11. A school-house at Springvale. 

1838. Hutchinson, Sawyer and Go's factory at the Corner. 
183-. Shaw, Paine and Go's factory at the Corner. 
184-. Dennis Hatch's blacksmith shop at the Corner. 

1843. August. Thatcher Jones's barn, at Mouse Lane, was struck 
by lightning, and consumed with hay and tools. 

1847. April 30. School-house in district number twelve, was 
burned by an incendiary. 

184-. The Baptist meeting-house was set on fire under the porch, 
but the fire was extinguished without much damage. 

1848. June 15. The old meeting-house at South Sanford was de- 
stroyed by incendiarism about nine o'clock in' the evening. 

1849. February 19. The ell of William Miller's factory at the 
Corner. The fire caught in the picker one afternoon, but was stayed 
■by pulling down the ell. By the timely exertions of the people, the 
main building was saved. Loss, $500 ; covered by insurance. The 
fire occurred on an intensely cold afternoon. 

1851. August 2. Dennis Hatch's blacksmith shop was entirely 
destroyed by fire about three o'clock'in the morning. A store con- 
tiguous, occupied as a shoemaker's shop, and a shed belonging to 
James M. Burbank, were burnt; also, a small store. Loss, $800. 

1851. September 4. John Shaw's barn, Shaw's Ridge, was struck 
by lightning and consumed. Mr. Shaw and his son Daniel, were in 
the barn, but escaped uninjured. They attempted to stay the flames 
in the hay, but to no purpose. 

1851. September 30. About midnight, a two-story house, unoC- 


cupied, owned by Mr. Goodwin of Lawrence, was burned at Spring, 

185-. Harriet Allen's house, with ell and store. The fire caught 
in the store, occupied by C. H. Bennett, and totally consumed his 
stock. Most of Mrs. Allen's furniture was saved. 

185-. Ivory Clark's barn at South Sanford. 

185-. A meeting-house at Mouse Lane. Incendiary. 

185-. A school -house at Oak Hill. 

185-. Joshua Liltlefield's shoe-shop at the Corner caught fire 
around the chimney, and was destroyed. 

1852. Edwin A. Moulton's carriage-manufactory, with carriages, 
stock, and tools, at Springvale, was burnt. Loss, $1,000 ; insurance, 

1852. January 19. George A. Willard's tin-shop, Springvale. 

1853. February 22. Nearly all of the Print Works at Springvale 
was destroyed by an incendiary. The dry-house and another build- 
ing were'likewise destroyed at a later day. 

1854(?). William ^Gowen's house, standing at the forks of the 
road on Mount Hope, was burnt January 18, 1854, says one of his 
daughters. (The writer thinks that the fire occurred as late as 1856 
or 7 ; as January, 1857, came in on Thursday, the 18th was Sunday, 
and the house was burnt on Sunday.) The fire is supposed to have 
caught from turpentine on mantel-piece behind the stove and over 
the fire-place, in both of which there had been fires the evening pre- 
vious. It was discovered about two o'clock Sunday morning, during 
a heavy snow-storm. Everything was lost. No insurance. Loss, 

1855. August 15 (?). John Nowell's house, Mount Hope, was 
burnt about ten o'clock at night. It caught in the shed, probably 
from ashes containing fire. It was discovered by one of his daugh- 
ters, who heard what seemed to her to be rain falling, and got up 
a second time, to see the flames bursting out through the shed. A 
part of the furniture was saved. Loss, $1,500 to $2,000. 

1856. April 14. William Gowen lost his house and barn by fire, 
between two and three o'clock in the afternoon. Cause, a defective 
chimney. Loss, $600. This house was on " Hardscrabble," 

1857. June 20. A fire occurred on the corner of Main and Leb- 
anon streets, on Sunday morning, burning out Moses B. Greenhalgh's 
dry-goods store, Monroe Cook's shoe-store, and Sanborn's saddler's 
shop. The fire caught in Cook's store, and is supposed to have been 
the work of an incendiary. Dr. Dam's office was in one of the build- 


ings. Greenhalgh estimated his loss at $2,500. John W. Frost's 
store was torn down to prevent the spread of the Are. William Em- 
ery, James M. Burbank, and Nathaniel Hobbs were appointed a 
committee to investigate and report whether the town was liable to 
pay Mr. Frost for store damaged. 

18-57. December 27. The Victory Mills was burnt Sunday morn- 
ing. It had been idle several months, but a man had been employed 
to look after the machinery, and so it is questionable whether the fire 
was the result of carelessness or incendiarism. 

1859 or 1860. An unoccupied house, formerly the Kendall store, 
owned by William H. Frost-, and standing on the street back of the 
Baptist meeting-house, at Springvale, was burnt. Loss, $600 ; in- 
surance, $400. 

1862. June 30. About half-past eleven o'clock in the evening, 
the grist-mill at the Corner, James O. Clark's, was discovered to be 
on fire, and was completely destroyed. Probably caught from over- 
heated machinery. Insured for $750. 

1863. Spring. James 0. Clark's saw-mill caught fire from a 
stove, and was entirely consumed. 

1864 or 1865. A dwelling-house owned and occupied by Jacob 
Ellis on the Hartwell place. South Sanford, was burnt. 

1865. December. Sometime during the week before the 23d, a 
fire was discovered in the barn of William Gowen, on " Grammar 
Street," which destroyed it, together with hay, one cow, two heifers, 
and fifteen hens. Loss, $250 to $300 ; insurance, $50. It was Mr. 
Gowen's second loss by fire. Origin, unknown. 

1866. April 14. Saturday night. Increase S. Kimball's store at 
the Corner was burnt. It was occupied by Jonas K. Dorman, mer- 
chant, I. S. Kimball, lawyer, and the post-offlce. It was a total loss, 
though Mr. Dorman had his goods partially insured. 

1867. September 27. The Parker Gowell house near the Lebanon 
line was burned. 

1869. August 25. Monsieur R. Merrifield's buildings were burnt. 
They consisted of house, two barns, and shed. Hay, farming uten- 
sils, and household furniture were consumed. Loss, $2,500 to $3,000. 
Insured $1,500 in a worthless company. The barn, evidently set on 
fire, was all aflame when discovered between two and three o'clock in 
the morning. 

We have knowledge of the following fires, of which the dates are 
not known : Moulton's mill. Mouse Lane ; Estes's mill. Mouse Lane ; 



Hoses S. Moulton's hou8e, South Sanford ; the pest house, near 
Chapman's brook ; the Province mill, Springvale, burned twice, once 
'by an incendiary; Dr. A. W. Dam's office, Springvale; William H. 
Brown's buildings, Deering neighborhood ; and the Trafton Pliillips 
house at the " Branch," occupied by Simon Bennett. 

1871. April. Christopher Shackford's house, occupied by Simon 
Bennett, was burned on Fast Day. 

1871. October. Mrs. Theodore "Willard's house, shed, and barn, 
at Springvale, were burnt. Loss, $3,000. Insured $1,400. 

1873. June 17. A fire caught in the ell of Nahum Littlefield's 
house at the Corner, and burnt his house and barn, and Increase S. 
Kimball's house. It broke out about three o'clock in the afternoon, 
during a high wind, which, fortunately, changed, thus preventing a 
more serious conflagration. Mr. Kimball's furniture and the greater 
part of Mr. Littlefield's and Mr. Dorman's were saved. Loss, $4,000 ; 
insurance, $2,600. This fire led to the organization of a fire company 
of forty-flve men. 

1875. Stephen Lord's barn in the Deering neighborhood. 

1876. February 24. About nine o'clock Thursday evening, Dr. 
Brooks's house caught fire in the attic, probably from a defective or 
overheated chimney, which had been on fire during the afternoon, and 
was wholly consumed, though his furniture was saved. A small 
building, occupied by D. D. Eicker, just south, was torn down. In- 
sured, -i 

1877. March 8, Thursday. Garnsey and Goodall's picker caught 
fire. Part of the roof of the storehouse was also burnt. , 

1877. October 10. Wednesday night. A house occupied by 
George Goodwin, near the Deering meeting-house, was burnt. Fur- 
niture mostly saved. Insured. 

1877. October 17. A fire caught in the front entry clothes-press 
of a house occupied by Harry Downing, near Jordan's mill and burnt 
into a chamber, but was soon extinguished. 

1878. February 5. Emery and Bodwell's bakery at the Corner 
caught fire in the attic. The damage, all inside, was slight. In 
March, the bakery was again on fire. 

1878. March 16. The house, shed, and barn, owned by Mrs. 
Theodosia (Paul) Moulton, or by her son, were wholly consumed. 
The house stood on the site of the Paul house burnt in 1821. 

1878. March 26. Frank Beal's house, corner of Mill and Paine 
streets, Springvale, together with furniture and clothing, was burnt. 
The fire caught from a stove-pipe passing through a closet. Mr. 


Crooker, living in the house saved most of his furnitui-p, however.. 
Insurance, $800 on the house, but nothing on Beal's furniture. 

1878. July 1. The most disastrous conflagration that had ever 
been witnessed in Sanford occurred on Monday afternoon and even- 
ing. The fire caught in the northerly end of No well's block, occu- 
pied by Nowell and Libby, merchants, Stiles and Hersom, manufac- 
turers of clothing, and J. Charnley, shoemakei-, which, owing to the 
intense dryness of the building and the lack of fire apparatus, was in 
one vast flame in a few minutes. Efrom this the fire spread in both 
directions, to Prescott Emery's store and tin-shop above, and to 
the bakery of Emmery, Bodwell and Co. below. Then William Mil- 
ler's house adjoining the tin-shop caught fire, and an attempt was 
made to blow it up with gunpowder to stay the flames but without 
success. Then the two churches, the Congregational on the north, 
and the Baptist on the south, fell a prey to the devouring element. 
The steeple of the formei' was the first to take fire, and the flames 
rapidly worked downward. Amid the fire and smoke and heat, the 
bell kept ringing the fire-alarm until the rope burnt off and came 
down. Meanwhile Prescott Emery's stable and the ice-houses in rear 
of the store and bakery had been destroyed, and a small dwelling- 
house owned by Thomas Gloodall and occupied by John Clayton had 
been torn down in part to prevent the further spread of the fire north- 
ward. Fortunately, the wind changed. But the doors of the Weld 
barn on the opposite side of the street were opened, and the sparks 
set that on fire and it was burnt, with the house adjoining. Thus 
thirteen buildings were consumed — two churches, two stores, three 
dwellings, three barns, one bakery, and two ice-houses. Loss, 
$20,000 to $26,000 ; insurance, $11,400. Prescott Emery lost $6,000, 
insured, $3,200 ; William Miller's loss, $1,500; insurance, $1,000; 
Stiles and Hersom's loss, $3,000 to $4,000, insurance, $2,700 ; Now- 
ell and Libby had $1,500 insurance on their stock, and Samuel 
Nowell, $3,000 on his block and bake-shop ; the Knights of Pythias, 
whose hall was in Nowell's block, had $500 insurance on their fur- 
niture. The Sanford Mills had $15,000 worth of goods stored in the 
Congregational vestry, all of which were saved except $ 1 ,500 worth 
of camel's hair and $1,500 worth of goods. Increase S. Kimball's 
house and barn valued at $2,500, and Emery, Bodwell and Co's 
stock, valued at $4,000, were not insured, neither were the meeting- 
houses and their organs. The engine did good work after it got un- 
der way, and it was a fortunate thing that the hose of the Sanford 
Mills reached to the top of the hill. 

1878. October 15. The Charles Emery house on Oak street^ 



Springvale, near the railroad crossing, was damaged to the amount 
of $200. Covered by insurance. Cause, lamp upsetting. 

1878. December 19. H. Downing's iiouse, formerly owned by 
C. E. Butler, was destroyed by fire, caused by a defective chimney. 
Furniture saved. House insured. 

1878. December 22 or 23. The double house of Stephen H. and 
Joel E. Moulton, and the barn of the latter were burnt at South San- 
ford. The fire caught in Joel's barn. Stephen's barn was saved by 
tearing down a shed. Part of the furniture was saved. Insurance 
on house, $1,600. 

1879. January 22. The picker-room of the Mousam River Mills 
suffered slightly from fire. 

1879. May. The roof of the new Congregational meeting-house 
caught fire from pot used while tinning. There was a high wind, and 
the fire was discovered just in time to prevent a repetition of the con- 
flagration of the preceding summer. 

1879. June 6. The Moon house was struck by lightning and 
burnt to the ground. It was owned by the Portland and Rochester 
Railroad Company, and occupied by Charles Ogden. The fire con- 
sumed $600 worth of rags, upon which there was an insurance of 

1879. August 31. "William B. Emery's house, South Sanford, 
was burnt. The lower part was cleared of furniture. Insured $650. 

1879. During the summer, a barn owned by James and John 
Allen, at Oak Hill, was burned. 

1879. November 14. Charles Merrill's barn, farming tools, and 
several tons of hay were burnt by an incendiary, in the Deering 
neighborhood. No insurance. 

1«79. December 23. Edmund Goodwin's shop, with a pung and 
set of carpenter's tools, was destroyed by fire. Loss estimated at 
$200, without insurance. 

1881. January 21. There was a slight fire in the machine shop 
of the Mousam River Mills. 

1881. March 21. The dry-house of the Mousam River Mills was 
slightly damaged by fire. 

1881. July 12. About eleven o'clock Tuesday night, the stable 
and house of Mrs. Stephen A. Hersom and Mrs. Smith, Springvale, 
were burnt. Loss, $2,500; insurance, $2,000. The house and store 
of Moses Dennett, the store of George A. Frost,' and the stock of 
I. B. Stiles were damaged by the fire, but were fully insured. 

1881. November 23. The Gowen house on the' Lebanon road, 



near the Corner, owned by Simon Tebbets, and occupied by Mrs. 
Eunice Joy, was wholly destroyed by fire. Cause, unknown, but 
supposed to have caught from the fireplace during her absence. 

1881. December 14. The dry-house connected with S. Benton 
Emery's furniture store at the Corner, was burnt. 

1882. September 19. The Mousam Mills dry-room was damaged 
about $100 by fire. 

1882. December 29. Tlie studding between the walls of Miss E. 
J. Andrews's millinery store, Springvale, caught fire from a defect- 
ive chimney, doing but little damage. 

1882. During the fall, a dwelling-house at Mouse Lane, owned 
by Isaiah Linseott, and occupied until the day of the fire at nine 
o'clock in the evening, was burned. Probably incendiary. 

1883. May 26. During a high wind, fire caught on the roof of 
Joseph H. Moulton's house. South Sanford, but owing to the coolness 
of Mrs. Moulton was extinguished with a few buckets of water. 

1883. July 29. A house and barn containing a cow and a pig, 
belonging to Fairfield Butler, "were burnt. 

1883. • October 3. By the explosion of a lamp in Hill and Gow- 
en's market at the Corner, a window-casing was set on fire, but was 
extinguished with but little damage. 

1883. October 4. Emery and Batchelder's stable floor caught 
fire from the hot coals of a stove put into the stable the night before. 
Discovered in the morning. 

1883. November 28. The dwelling-house of James Wilson, well 
known as the Nathaniel Chadbourn house, was totally destroyed by 
fire. Cause, a defective chimney. 

1884. October 31. An employe at the Mousam River Mills weave 
room filled a lighted kerosene lamp, with the old result. An alarm 
was rung, but fortunately the fire was smothered with blankets, and 
the services of the fire department were not required. 

1884. Novembers. About eleven o'clock at night the blacksmith 
shop of Samuel R. Day, on Water Street, Springvale, was discov- 
ered to be a mass of flames. All efforts to extinguish the fire proved 
unavailing, and the shop and its contents were totally destroyed. A 
high wind prevailed. The fire was the work of an incendiary. 

1885. October 27. Moulton Brothers' saw-mill was burned. Loss, 
$2,500 ; no insurance. Cause, unknown. 

1886. December 31. A fire caused by a defective flue broke out 
in the Hovey Low house near the Freewill Baptist Church, in the tene- 
ment occupied by Frank N. Butler, who lost considerable furniture. 


1887. April 16. Shortly before midnight a fire was discovered 
in the old bowling alley just below Hotel Hanson. Tlie dwelling- 
house, stable, and carriage-house adjoining were burned to the 
ground. Total loss, nearly $5,000. The house, owned by Mrs. David 
Welch, of Beveily, was only partially insured. William Merrill and 
Charles Eicker, occupants, lost considerable furniture. Captain Mur- 
ray was also a loser by the destruction of the carriage-house. C. L. 
Bod well lost billiard tables and other furniture. 

1887. April 22. Fred Sargent's house was entirely consumed by 
fire between twelve and one o'clock in the morning. 

1887. September 10. About two o'clock in the morning the store- 
house of Joseph Knight's corn factory, near the station, was discov- 
ered to be on fire. The flames had then obtained complete sway, 
and the building and its contents, empty cans and most of the corn 
packed during the season, were totally destroyed. Loss, $6,000 ; 
insurance, $3,000. 

1887. September 20. A barn owned by Howard Frost, on Paine 
Street, was completely destroyed. 

1887. October 2.3. The house of Atwood Allen caught fire from 
a defective chimney, and was completely destroyed. Loss, $1,000 ; 
insurance, $650. 

1888. July 6. S. B. Emery's dry-house was burned. A high 
wind prevailed, but owing to the extra precautions against fire, the 
flames were extinguished. Loss about $500. No insurance. 

1888. August 10. The picker room of the Mousam River mill was 
damaged by fire about $75. 

1888. December 13. Sanborn's shook shop was burned to the 

1889. January 9. A fire caught near the boiler in Wingate's drug 
store. The damage by fire was confined to one partition, though the 
apartments of Messrs. Twombly and Mr. Boocock were damaged by 
smoke and water. 

1889. September 18. A two-story building belonging to the Nas- 
son heirs in Springvale, occupied by Andrew Hilton, fruit-dealer, and.' 
by Miss Lord as a tenement, was discovered on fire in the basement 
at two o'clock in the morning, but the flames were extinguished withi 
small damage. The fire was evidently an incendiary, as the building; 
was saturated with kerosene. 

1890. January 29. The mixing mill of the Mousam River Mills 
was gutted by fire. Loss $3,000. No insurance. It caught from 
the picker. 


1890. May 5. Joshua Littlefield's buildings took fire from a de- 
fective chimney and burned to the ground. Ko insijrance. 

1890. August 2. Three houses on Mill Street, Springvale, were 
destroyed by fire. They belonged to the Springvale Cotton Mills, 
the heirs of Samuel Willard, and D. C. Ingraham. Loss, $5,000, 
covered in part by insurance. The fire caught from matches, with 
which some boys were playing in a shed adjoining the block. 

1890. August 5. Fogg's shoe factory caught fire, from a cigar 
stub carelessly thrown away by some employe, as it is supposed, and 
it grew to be quite a blaze before it was extinguished. 

1890. November 17. A barn on Main Street near the railroad, 
owned by Thomas Makin, and occupied by Frank Fellows, was set 
on fire about six o'clock in the morning by an overturned lantern, 
and consumed. The house adjoining was partially destroyed. 

1891. April 9. The new steam mill of the Hutchins Brothers was 
burned between nine and eleven o'clock in the evening. Total loss ; 

1891. May 6. The sheds attached to the Arcade Block, Spring- 
vale, were burned, and the block damaged. The Advocate office, 
B. P. Hamilton's harness store, and Hamilton Brothers' barber shop 
were thoroughly drenched. " The condition of a printing office after 
such a visitation can be better imagined than described," says the 

1891. September 27. Simon Littlefield's barn, together with some 
live stock therein, was burned by an incendiary. 

1892. May 1. Sunday evening, Frank Broggi's store (the old 
Deacon Frost store), E. A. Kempton's building and stable, Smith's 
photograph gallery, and Haigh's restaurant, occupied by C. F. Teb- 
bets, were burned, and other buildings slightly damaged. Loss esti- 
mated at $7,700; insurance, about $4,500. The Broggi store was 
owned by Hon. I. S. Kimball. 

1892. June 12. E. K. Bennett's building, occupied by the Amer- 
ican Express Company, W. S. Lord, harness maker, and Miss Cook, 
dressmaker, was damaged. 

189^. November 24. Thanksgiving morning, at half past nine 
o'clock, Mill Number Six was burned. It was fifty feet wide and one 
hundred and fifty feet long, and contained the cardirfg, weaving and 
^dyeing departments of the blanket manufactory. The origin of the 
fire was the friction of a large belt over a wooden wheel. Total loss 
estimated at $120,000, including $40,000 on stock in the process of 
manufacture, and $80,000 on building and machinery ; insured for 


$70,000. The mill was built in 1874. By its destruction one hun- 
dred and twenty-five persons were thrown out of employment. 

1893. January 18. For the second time within two months the 
mills at Sanford Corner were visited by fire. Wednesday morning, 
between two and three o'clock, the dyeing and tinishing mill of the 
Goodall Worsted Company, and a dwelling near by were burned. 
The loss was estimated at $100,000, covered by insurance. It was 
a bitter cold morning, and the firemen had a severe fight to save the 
boiler-house, which furnished power for the rest of the corporation. 
A week . after this fire, the balance-wheel of the Sanford Mill Com- 
pany's engine in Mill Number One burst, and pieces were hurled 
through the air. One fragment, weighing one hundred and thirty- 
five pounds, was sent as far as the junction of Allen and Washington 
Streets. Another piece, of one hundred and seventeen pounds, passed 
through the side of the mixing mill, and up through the floors. 
Strange to say, no one was injured. 

1893. July 25. Shortly before midnight, the laundry of Roberts 
and Co., situated near Butler and Clark's slioe factory at Springvale, 
was burnt. Loss about $1,700 ; partially insured. 

1893. September 19. Frank Broggi's fruit store was set on fire 
on the outside, but was fortunately discovered in time to prevent 
serious damage. 

1894. January 17. Jeremiah Moulton's house, on Pleasant Street, 
was completely destroyed, about two o'clock in the morning. Insur- 
ance, $1,100. The Pillsbury brothers' house near by was badly dam- 

1894. February 3. Nahum Day's barn at East Sanford, with 
four oxen, four cows, thirty-five sheep, and thirty-five tons of hay, 
was totally destroyed. Cause, unknown. Loss, $1,500. 

1894. June 26. Between twelve and one o'clock Tuesday morn- 
ing the box mill near the railroad bridge over the Mousam was burned. 
It was occupied for about two years by the Springvale Wood and 
Paper Box Company, but for about the same length of time was un- 
occupied. The fire was undoubtedly of incendiary origin. The 
building was owned by the Sanford Loan and Building Association. 
Insurance, $1,000. 

1894. July 21. Houses on Cross and Emery Streets were dam- 
aged by lightning. 

1894. December 11. The Joe Bean house. Mount Hope, owned 
by Herbert Welch was burned. It was undergoing repairs, and the 
fire is supposed to have caught from an overheated stove. 


1895. January 23. The house of George Jacobs of South San- 
ford was destroyed by fire between one and three o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Mr. Jacobs and his family had a narrow escape, the former's 
hands, face, and feet being badly burned and terribly blistered. 

1895. February 16. A barn containing a horse, a pig, and five 
tons of hay, owned by John E. Greenwood was burned. 

1895. April 22. The ell of James Phillips's iiouse at South San- 
ford caught fire, and was badly damaged, but the house was saved 
by the timely assistance of a fishing party from Springvale. 

1895. July 24. The two-story house and barn owned by Charles 
B. Jacobs of South Sanford were burned. The property was set afire 
by children playing with matches in the barn. 

1896. January 14. Amos Lord's house burned. 
1896. January 22. Abby Taylor's house burned. 

1896. January 25. Destruction of Frank Bean's house by fire. 
1896. February 25. William Wilson's picture frame shop was 

1896. March 19. Porell's store was partially destroyed by 

1897. February 10. John Brierly's blacksmith shop was gutted 
by fire. 

1897. October 3. Frank Bodwell's house at Springvale burned. 
1899. February 9. Otis R. Willard's two-tenement block burned. 
1899. May 12, Mrs. Adriel Thompson's house burned. 
1899. July 20. Two-tenement block owned by the Sanford Mills 

1899. September 29. The post-ofl3ce block was burned at two 
o'clock in the morning, causing a total loss of $16,000. The build- 
ing was owned and occupied on the ground floor by Leavitt andCo., 
dry goods and grocery dealers. The fire started from some cause 
unknown, and at one time the firemen thought they had it under con- 
trol, but the flames broke out again, and before they were subdued 
the loss was practically total. Leavitt and Go's loss was $10,000 
on stock and about $5,000 on the building. The post-oflBce did not 
contain a large quantity of mail and the loss to the government was 
not heavy. The offices of the Loan and Building Association were 
on the upper floors and most of their property was burned. The 
building and contents were insured. 

1900. September 25. Charles Bedell's house at Springvale was 

1900. October 17. Johnson Brothers' laundry burnt. 


From the records it appears, although there was au engine in towa 
at an earlier date, that in May, 1887, an engine, two Babcock extin- 
guishers, and eight hundred feet of hose were purchased. E. F. 
Davenport was chairman of the fire apparatus committee. 

In April 1887, a company was formed to be attached to Deluge 
Fire Engine No. 1, and officers were elected as follows: Foreman, 
F. A. Goodall; Assistant Foreman, Elmer D. Bennett; Clerk and 
Treasurer, C. E. Twombly ; Foreman of Suction Hose, Augustus 
Houle ; Foreman of Leading Hqse, Nathaniel Bennett. 

Prior to May 20, 1887, the Dirigo Fire Company was organized at 
Springvale, with E. F. Davenport, Foreman ; F. O. Goodwin and 
R. G. Mansell, Assistants ; B. P. Hamilton, Clerk ; and Eben Libby, 

Sanford village at present enjoys fire protection from two well 
organized companies, the Sanford Mills Company, of which Eugene 
Gerry is Foreman, and the Alert Hose Company, with A.. K. Garn- 
sey as Foreman. The former has its engine house at the mills, and 
is equipped with a powerful steam fire engine, hose carriages, ladder 
truck, and an abundant supply of hose. The Alert's machine is a 
hand engine, and the^ also have a hose wagon, with plenty of hose, 
and a ladder truck. The engine house is on Nasson Street. At 
Springvale is the Dirigo Fire Company, Fred Shackley, Foreman, 
fully equipped with hand engine and other apparatus, which is kept 
at the engine house on Bridge Street. The fire wardens for 1900 
are: For Springvale, H. B. Rowe, A. J. Fernald, Alvah Garvin; 
for Sanford, Orrin Roberts, Samuel Littlefleld, C. O. Emery, Second. 

At the Corner the water supply comes from a spring near the 
power station of the Mousam River Railroad, which is pumped into 
the stand pipe situated on Chadbourn's Hill, east of the village. 
The pipe is forty feet in diameter, and sixty feet in height, giving a 
pressure in the village of about sixty pounds. There are hydrants 
at nearly all the street corners, and the system can be instantly con- 
nected with the service at the mills. 

Springvale is supplied by two water companies, the Springvale 
Aqueduct Company, and the Butler Spring Water Company. The 
former had its beginnings in the summer of 1876, when Samuel D. 
Tebbets, John A. Dennett, Moses Dennett, and Stephen M. Hersom 
formed themselves into a company, and laid a pipe from Littlefleld's 
pond, a mile and a quarter north of Springvale, and east of the Mou- 
sam, down to and through the river, and up to Main Street, thus 
bringing water of an excellent quality into the village. The Spring- 


vale Aqueduct Company was incorporated in 1878, and tlie enter- 
prise has always proved a success. In September, 1890, tlie company 
laid a six-inch iron main from Littlefleld's pond. C. H. Pierce is 
President of the corporation at the present time. The Butler Spring 
Water Company was organized April 17, 1889, with a capital of 
$25,000. Irving A. Butler was elected president, and has since held 
that offlce. This company takes water from the spring which gave 
the village its name. The water from both sources of supply is of 
remarkable purity. 

The Gamewell electric fire alarm system has been installed in both 
villages during the past year. There are thirteen signal boxes in 
Sanford and eight in Springvale. The Sanford alarm is connected 
with a large steam gong or whistle at the mills, and Springvale's 
with the factory bell. 

Mention may appropriately be made here of attempts other than 
the foregoing, to sepure a water supply in the town. During the first 
part of the century there was no water fit for drinking purposes 
nearer than half a mile from the Baptist meeting-house, and in 1811 
or 12 the society decided to help Deacon Eleazar Chadbourn build an 
•aqueduct to his house on the west ( ?) side of the Hobbs road sev- 
eral rods from the church. The principal men of the church and so- 
ciety wiio helped were Gideon and William Deering, Thomas and 
William Worster, Stephen and Sheldon Hobbs, Daniel Bean, and 
Zebulon Beal. Many others gave work and timber. The water 
was brought in bored logs, from a spring on a hill, on the right hand 
side of the Hobbs road. It was on Deacon Chadbourn's land, and 
the water came into his porch, where it was drawn from a wooden 
faucet. It was also carried to his barnyard. Over the log at the 
spring, a pewter platter pierced full of holes was fastened to prevent 
dirt from going into the log. All that went to the Baptist meeting 
were at liberty to go to Deacon Chadbourn's on Sunday to get water 
to drink. 

An iron tank, six feet in diameter, was sunk during 1886 under the 
band stand, and connected with the Sanford Mills force pump, by a 
four-inch pipe, and with several hydrants on the street, to be used in 
case of fire. The cost was paid by contributions. 

In 1887 a company was formed to furnish Sanford Corner with 
water, from the "cold spring" in Charles O. Emery's field, west of 
the village. An analysis of the water showed that it was entirely 
free from organic matter, and of remarkable purity. 

In 1888 a reservoir was built in W. H. Nason's pasture. 



Freshets on the Mousam Eiver — Natural Phenomena — Extremes 
of Weather — Heavy Snow-Storms — Epidemics of Small-Pox 
and Other Diseases — Violent Deaths. 

FRESHETS along the Mousam River have done great damage 
from time to time, especially to the bridges. Bourne says : 
" October 21, 1755, a great freshet, surpassing any which had been 
known before or since, carried away every mill on the Mousam River. 
The water rose to the height of eleven feet." 

In October, 1785, another great freshet occurred. Four days, from 
the 20th to the 23d, it rained, but "two days and nights it rained 
without cessation, as powerfully as was ever known." It swept away 
mills and dams and bridges, and did much damage to the roads and 
fences. At a town meeting, April 3, 1786, it was " voted to choose 
a committee to estimate the damage was done by the freshet last Oc- 
tober," and Caleb Emery, Samuel Nasson, and Henry Smith were 
chosen for that purpose. They brouglit in a report fixing the total 
damage at nine hundred and forty-two pounds. Their report con- 
cludes : 

" This being the Best information we can get and we after Consid- 
eration Cannot but think it is full low Considering how much the 
people Suffered in Delayes on account of the Bridges being Gone 
Could not go to Market." 

The General Court was petitioned to grant relief to those towns 
along the Saco and the Mousam, which suffered most from this ex- 
traordinary freshet, and the prayer of the petitioners was granted by 
abating the taxes of seven towns. Those of Sanford were abated 
sixty pounds. 

In 1793, Morrison's bridge was carried away. May 13. " Vot* 
that the Selectmen are to direct"* to Give David morrison Some help 
out of other Destricts to Build a Bridge that was carried away by the 



Another freshet occuri-ed in 1814, and still another in May, 1843. 
The factory at Springvale sustained quite a loss, and was so damaged 
as to be considered unsafe. At the Corner the water spread over the 
whole surface above the bridges, and was about a foot deep upon and 
between the two bridges. The force with which the water flowed may 
be estimated from the fact that a huge rock supposed to weigh three 
tons was carried down the stream some fifty feet. 

On the 14th of April, 1857, Willard's bridge and four or five others 
were carried away, and likewise the corporation blacksmith shop at 

The water rose so high on April 19, 1870, that it carried away all 
of the bridge at the Province mill, and most of the upper bridge. 

In 1876, the dam of Number Three mill at the Coiner was swept 
away, and the water flowed over the dam of the Springvale mills for 
the whole length, something never before known, filling the lower 
rooms to the depth of ten -or twelve Inches. 

April 19, 1895, the Mousam rose to the same height it did in 1870. 

1896. March 1. The greatest freshet on the Mousam that Sanford 
had seen since 1843 occurred on Sunday. At the foot of Washington 
Street the water ran over the dam to the depth of three feet, and at 
one time it was about up to the railroad bridge. The lower floors of 
some of the buildings of the Sanford Mills Company were flooded, 
and machinery ruined, doing several hundred dollars' worth of dam- 
age. The electric power house was crippled for several days. 
Numerous bridges were carried away or badly damaged. At Spring- 
vale, Cliarles H. C. Otis was drowned during the freshet. The 
monetary damage was figured at $5,000. 

1900. February 12-13. Owing to a heavy rain, the Mousam 
Elver was flooded to a point within three Inches of the high water 
mark of the fieshet of 1896. Some bridges were carried away. 

Natural Phenomena. — In 1761, droughts prevailed in this part of 
the state, and again in 1765, when aid was asked of the state by some 

1803. October 9. The snow fell to the depth of two feet, and 
drifted badly. The wind was so heavy that it uprooted first-growth 
trees and threw them across the roads. Teams at the Landing were 
delayed on the road and almost frozen. Some did not reach home 
till the storm was over. The people were entirely unprepared for it ; 
their barns were full of unhusked corn, so they could not put up their 
cattle, and the poor creatures blinded and almost fi-o&en rushed to 
the woods for shelter. ' 

Miss Carrie Hatclv 


1806. June 6. There was a total eclipse of the sun, causing no 
little consternation. Mrs. Edmund Stackpole told the writer that she 
remembered the eclipse, having iiad to come home from school to her 
dinner, when it was so dark as to frighten her very much. The 
morning was bright and sunny, but after the eclipse came on, the 
stars appeared, and the birds ceased singing till it passed. 

1806. In October, a terrific snow-storm occurred. The weather 
for Some days previous to the 9fh, when it began, was warm. Cat- 
tle, sheep, and hogs were in the pastures or woods. Corn was stand- 
ing in the fields, and potatoes remained in the ground. Nobody was 
prepared for such an event. Many teams were hauling lumber to 
Berwick or Kennebunk. One man, a Mr. Ford, from the vicinity of 
Bauneg Beg, was barefooted, while driving his team to Quampegan 
Landing. The storm l)egan at noon of the 9th, with thunder, light- 
Ming, and rain. Toward night a northeast wind blew with great 
"violence, and snow fell to the depth of eighteen inches. The storm 
extended over New England, many vessels along the coast were dam- 
aged, and much timber was blown down in the forestp. After the 
storm the weather was warm, the snow melted in the fields, though it 
remained in the woods till spring, and the farmers harvested their 
crops in good order. (The writer thinks this and the 1803 storm 
may be the same.) 

1812. The summer was very cold. Frost killed the corn and 
potatoes. Corn brought two dollars and a half per bushel and pork 
twenty cents a pound. 

1813. December 22. Eemarkably clear atmosphere. A fire at 
Portsmouth lighted up the southwest horizon so that small objects 
•could be picked up in the road at the Corner. 

1815. May 18. (Some papers say Friday, May 19). It snowed 
jfive or six inches, and the snow lay on the ground till the next morn- 
ing. The apple trees were in full bloom, people were planting their 
•corn, and it had been a forward spring. 

1816. This was a cold year, but there were sudden changes from 
■cold to hot. It snowed in June, the season was dry, and there was 
frost every month of the year. There was not corn enough for seed 
the next year raised in town. The price of corn for consumption 
was two dollars a bushel, and of hay, thirty dollars a ton. Though 
cattle and sheep were reduced one-half, those wintered were nearly 
starsfed before spring. In June, spots appeared on the sun, and in 
July one very^large spot. Some attributed the cold to the sun-spots, 
cutting off part of the heat. 


1823. July 23. An earthquake was felt in this section. 

1826. The spring and summer were dry. Towns suffered ott 
account of grasshoppers. They moved in swarms, and consumed 
such grass as had leaves and the heads of herds-grass. When corn 
silked they ate the silk, and down into the ears, even. So numerous^ 
were they that the sun was obscured by clouds of them, like a fog. A 
storm drove them seaward, and large windrows of them were washed 
up ou the coast. In their course they seemed to follow the Salmon 
Falls River. 

1839. July 13. A hail storm of considerable severity passed 
over the town. Several fields of corn were damaged, and more than 
a hundred panes of glass broken. 

The winter of 1843 was very cold, except January. The cold 
weather set in the latter part of November, 1842. From twelve to- 
fifteen feet of snow fell. On the 20th of April, the snow was deep 
and solid ; there was very good sleighing, with little bare ground. 
Two days later wagons were used. 

An earthquake occurred on August 25, 1846. 

The winter of 1846-7 was one of excellent sleighing and sledding.. 
It began December 11, 1846, and lasted till April i, 1847, with just, 
snow enough to keep the ground well covered, and without a single 
day during the winter that a team could not work. From April 14 
to 16 it was very cold. "Water froze four inches in thickness, in 
tubs, and Mousam pond froze over. On the 19tii of April, 1847, six 
inches of snow fell, and less than seven months later the first snow 
of the following season occurred. By eight o'clock Sunday morning, 
November 14 ( ?), three or four inches covered the ground. 

1869. Friday, October 22. Earthquake felt. 

1876-77. Snow, six feet, seven inches ; two feet less than in 1875- 

1878. Tuesday, January 8. Thirty-one degrees below zero. 

1880. Tuesday, March 29. Pkrthquake shock. 

1881. July 10. One hundred and three degrees in the shade. 
1881. Tuesday, September 6. The celebrated " yellow day."- 
1883. January 26. Twenty degrees below zero. 

1883. November 12. Monday night, a heavy wind blew down 
chimneys, telegraph poles, trees, and Mr. Goodall's windmill, and 
broke glass to some extent. 

1885. November 25 and 26. Fourteen inches of snow fell. 

1886. On the 2nd and 6th of January, plowing was done by twa 
different persons. By way of contrast, less than a week later, the 


■thermometer dropped to the following figures: January 11th, four- 
teen degrees below zero ; 12th, twenty below ; and 13th, thirty below. 
1888. The mercury fell seventy-one degrees during the twenty- 
four hours beginning at five o'clock in the morning of February 15. 

1888. March 12. Twenty-six inches of snow fell during the 

1889. February 23. Sunday. The coldest day of the season, the 
mercury registering twenty-two degrees at seven o'clock in the morn- 

1889. April 20. A hail-storm passed over Sanford, doing sev- 
eral hundred dollars damage. Hail-stones as large as hens' eggs fell, 
and a great many windows were broken. The glass roof of Hon. 
Thomas Goodall's conservatory was ruined. One hailstone was an 
inch and three- fourths in diameter. It seems to have been central 
below Washington Street. 

1889. June 15. The lightning struck the tower of the Baptist 
Church, tearing the shingles from all the corners of the upper part. 
It then passed down one corner of the tower, entered the church 
above the gallery, passed down the electric light wire, and utterly 
demolished the cluster of lamps near the door. It apparently passed 
off by the steam piping. Comparatively little damage was done. 
Several in the village (Corner) received shocks more or less severe. 

1890. January 22. The fall of a very brilliant meteor was ob- 
served Wednesday evening. It fell about nine o'clock, and the whole 
western heavens were ablaze with light. 

1890. August 19. A heavy rain and wind storm blew down, in 
part, R. A. Kempton's barn near Lebanon, injuring an ox so that it 
was necessary to kill the animal. 

1894. April 1 1. Twelve inches of snow fell. 

1894. September 2. " Yellow Sunday," similar to the "yellow 
day" of September 6, 1881. 

1898. January 31. A blizzard prevailed in this section, and San- 
ford was cut off from the outside world for a day or two. Steam 
and electric car service was entirely stopped, and business generally 
was suspended. The heavy wind piled the snow up in drifts from two 
to fourteen feet deep. The storm was the worst for twenty-five years. 

1898. November 26. Sanford did not suffer as much from the 
awful blizzard which caused the loss of the steamer City of Portland, 
as from some previous storms. The drifts were so deep in the out- 
skirts, however, as to prevent the people there from reaching the 
villages for several days. The wind played considerable havoc, but 
caused no extensive damage. 


Small- Pox and Other Epidemics. — There is a tradition tiiat tiie 
small-pox, brought from Mast-bridge camp by a man named John- 
son, raged in town about 1760. Several died, of whom two were 
buried in the pasture belonging to the heirs of William L. Emery, 
and others back of the Silas Moulton pasture. In this as in several 
other instances, tradition accords in part with the facts in the case. 
In 1761, Phillipstown was visited by a contagious and mortal dis- 
temper of the small-pox, so that a committee, consisting of Foxwell 
C. Cutts, Benjamin Chadbourn, and Capt. John Lord, was appointed 
by the Court of General Sessions, to furnish the inhabitants with 
physicians, nurses, and the necessaries of life. The distemper was 
brought among the said inhabitants by soldiers employed by the gov- 
ernment in the expedition for the reduction of Canada. The names 
of the soldiers who brought it were Joseph Stanley, Edward White- 
house, and John Whitehouse, who enlisted in March, 1760, in the 
above-named expedition, and returned in December of that year. 
Soon after they toolf or had the small-pox and died. The disease 
seems to have spread all over the colony, and a large number of 
towns were reimbursed for money paid out for nurses, medical at- 
tendance, etc. , At this time, Dorcas Goodridge was employed as a 
nurse, twenty-three days, at four shillings per day. Dr. Sayer served 
as physician, and Foxwell C. Cutts furnished twenty-six pounds of 
beef and pork at four pence per pound, in January. 

The following petition was acted upon by the General Court : 
" To his p]xcellency Francis Barnard Esq"' Captain General & Gov- 
ernour in Cheif in & over His Majesty's Pi-ovince of the Massachu- 
setts Bay &c The Honourable his Majesty's Council and House of 
Representatives for said Province in General Court Convened y^ 25"' 
Day of March 1761 

" The Petition of Benjamin Harmon of Phillipstown in behalf of 
the Heirs & Orphans of Edward Whitehouse enlisted into his Maj- 
esty's Service Some Time in the Month of March last in Capt. Simon 
Jefferds's Company & Continued in the Service till he Return'd home 
which was Some time in Decem"^ last & immediately after his Return 
home was taken sick with the small-pox of which he died & his Ex- 
pences in the Time of his Sickness was Eight pounds Sixteen shillings 
& Nine pence according to the account herewith Exhibited wherefore 
your Petitioner humbly prays that the said Account May be allowed 
or as much as your Excellency & Honours in your Great Goodness 
shall think fit & your Petitioner as in Duty bound shall ever pray 

Benjamin Harmon." 


" The Com''''= Report Six pounds fifteen Shillings nine pence In 
full to be paid Doct' Sayer for y" use of the Use of ye Peti"" 

"W Lawrance p order" 

Similar petitions for the heirs of Joseph Stanley and John White- 
house were presented, and seven pounds, fifteen shillings, four pence, 
and six pounds eight shillings, respectively, of eleven pounds, twelve 
shillings, four pence, and nine pounds, thirteen shillings, asked, were 

In 17 — , the throat distemper prevailed. Mrs. Linscott, of Mouse 
Lane, told Mrs. David Clark, mother of Abner Clark, that she lost 
several children by it, and that her nearest neighbors to call upon for 
assistance were John Stanyan's family. 

The spotted-fever, or plague, as it was called, was prevalent in 
1814-15. Parson Sweat records the deaths of sixteen persons, all 
young with one exception, between November 14 and March 11. 
Theodore Linscott lost three children in November, the 24th, 25th and 
29th, and Joseph Paul, four in February, one on the 1 7th, the others 
CD the 18th. The number of deaths is not known. The severity of 
the disease and the fatality of the distemper threw consternation 
among the people, and caused the stoutest heart to tremble. For 
months they rehearsed the sad and sickening details, and even more 
than three scorejyears later the impressions of that season were fresh 
in the minds of a few of the older people. This account furnished 
by Rev. Nathaniel F. Nason, though incorrect as to time, may convey 
an idea of the character of the disease. " In 1813, the spotted-fever 
or plague, as it was called, went through Sanford. Seven of our 
family had it. Samuel was sick but a few days. He died. Four- 
teen days before he was buried he helped to carry three children from 
one family to the grave. They were put in one grave. My sister 
Mary was sick. She lived till June, 1814, then died. There were 
not well people enough to care for the sick. The fever ran thirty-six 
days. I had it. I was taken sick in January. I lost my reason. 
Miss Sarah Emery, Mr. Moses Garey's wife, made my grave clothes. 
I came to my senses in April. My arms, neck, and legs were sore 
with fly blisters. I had a large number of boils on my neck, under 
each ear, over one eye, on one thumb, on both legs. My teeth 
turned black, my under jaw was twisted, one tooth did not cover the 
other. Many died who did not suffer one hundredth part that I did. 
So fatal was the disease, many died in a few hours. Blood-letting 
was fatal, none that were bled lived." 


The small-pox broke out in the spring of 1846, in the hotel kept by 
James M. Burbank, at Springvale. It spread quite rapidly, and a 
large number of cases of small-pox and varioloid was reported. Dr. 
Brooks says there were fifty or sixty cases, though that seems to be 
an exaggeration. A hospital was established in the Beatle (Bedell) 
house, near the Chapman brook, and several patients were carried 
there for treatment. In the majority of cases, however, the sick 
were cared for at their own homes. Nurses who had had the small- 
pox were employed, and every thing that could be done was done for 
the afflicted, though through fear and excitement some things may 
not have been well done. Only one case proved fatal, that of Bet- 
sey, the eleven-year-old daughter of Deacon William L. Emery. 
The town took stringent precautions to prevent the spread of the 
disease and to exterminate the same. 

It was at this time that a company of young men at the Corner 
built a fence across the road above- John Stofer's, and surmounted it 
with a red flag bearing this inscription, " Small-pox, don't come." It 
did not keep travel away, for the next day, Sunday, the people as 
was their custom, rode down to church, turning out into the field to 
get around the fence. Nor did it prevent the small-pox from coming, 
for one of the young men was shortly after taken down with the dis- 

In 1860, there were some ten or twelve cases of the small-pox, and 
on subsequent occasions there was a great scare when the disease pre- 
vailed. Although vaccination has counteracted this disease, and les- 
sened the liability of the people thereto, and physicians have a better 
knowledge of it and the proper treatment thereof, a single case can- 
not occur without creating the greatest excitement, and giving rise to 
as wild and unfounded reports as those which were circulated in 1846. 
This statement can be substantiated by those who remember the ex- 
aggerated stories that were afloat when a single case occurred on 
School Street, in 1872. A wise precaution, however, is commended. 
Such was observed in 1885, during the prevalence of the small-pox 
in Montreal, when the selectmen provided ' ' for the free vaccination 
with the cow-pox, of all the inhabitants over two years of age," by 
employing Drs. Durgin and Brooks to attend to this duty. 

In 1861 and 62, the diphtheria raged to an alarming extent. This 
was a new disease, or an old epidemic, perhaps the throat-distemper, 
under a new name, and baffled at first the skill of the best physicians. 
The number of fatal cases was small. 

No more severe bereavement have we to record than that which 


sadly afflicted the family of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Shaw, of Shaw's 
ridge, in the winter of 1883-84. They had seven children, one son 
and six daughters, bright, attractive, intelligent, lovely, — a family 
to attract attention in any community. Five of the daughters and 
the babe of the oldest, Mrs. 0. V. Libby, were taken away within 
two weeks, by that terrible disease, malignant diphtheria. 

During six weeks between January and March, 1887, more than 
forty cases of pneumonia were reported in the town. Diphtheria was 
prevalent, with a number of fatal cases, in the fall. 

During the winter of 1889-90, la grippe raged all over the country, 
its first appearance. The secretary of the local board of health esti- 
mated that there were more than two hundred cases in Sanford. The 
sciiools were closed by the advice of physicians. 

Violent Deaths. — A few of the violent deaths occurring in town 
are here mentioned. Probably the first drowning in the settlement 
was prior to the Revolution, when George and Joshua Chadbourn, 
sons of Joshua Chadbourn, were drowned in the Mousam Eiver, near 
Chadbourn's.mill. "When found they were locked in each other's 

1846. March 9. Isaiah Go wen and Aaron Jellison were killed 
by the caving-in of a frozen sand-bank, near Gowen's mill. They 
with others were repairing the dam, and had dug into the bank on 
the east side of the mill road, leaving a thick frozen crust hanging 
over them. Their attempts to break it off had failed. Suddenly it 
gave way, late in the afternoon, and fell upon Gowen and Jellison as 
they were shovelling. They were extricated about half an hour after 
the accident. Gowen was dead, and Jellison, dreadfully mangled, 
lived an hour and a half. 

1857. May 16. George W. Hewes, aged twenty-six years, was 
drowned in the Mousam River, at Springvale. He and William J. 
Reed were out rowing, when they began to rock the boat. At length 
they were capsized, and Hewes drowned. Reed reached the shore 
with difficulty. 

1861-65. Davis Estes, Junior, was killed on the street, in Boston, 
some time during the Civil War, while arresting a desperado. He 
was on duty as a special policeman. His burial took place in Sanford. 

1869. November 28. Nathaniel C. Lord, son of William and 
Huldah (Getchell) Lord, was killed in Peabody, Mass. Frank D. 
Bowers and James E. Ricker were convicted of manslaughter, and 
given a life sentence for the crime, although they were pardoned 
after serving fifteen years. 


1875. November 20. Stillman A. Bodwell, son of Mrs. Eliza 
Bodwell, was drowned near the Corner. He and several other boys 
were skating on a small pond at the " parsonage," when the ice broke 
and plunged five of them into the water. Stillman went to the rescue 
of his older brother, William, caught him by the band, and was drawn 
in and under the ice. He remained in the water some three-quarters 
of an hour, and when found was standing on his feet under the ice. 
All efforts to resuscitate him were in vain. 

1893. January 6. John Derom (De Coreau) was killed on the 
Mousam River Railway. A gang of workmen were pushing a flat 
car over the bridge, when the engineer of the old engine Rochester 
saw a signal for assistance, and drove his engine toward the men. 
Not expecting it, they jumped for their lives, and all escaped except 
Deroin, who was caught by the engine and killed. 

1895. January 29. Daniel O'Connell, about twenty-five years of 
age, in trying to board the noon passenger train for Portland, after it 
left the station, fell under the cars, injuring him about the head, and 
crushing his right leg below the knee. At nine o'clock he submitted 
to amputation, but survived only two hours. 

1896. March 1. Through the great freshet on the Mousam River, 
Charles H. C. Otis, aged fifty, boss carpenter at the Springvale cotton 
mills, lost his life. Early in the morning a crew of men were at work 
at the mills endeavoring to lessen the danger to the property. About 
half past eight o'clock the water had risen so high, and was still ris- 
ing, that an attempt was made to pull the flush boards off the dam. 
In trying to fasten a hook to the board, Mr. Otis was swept over the 
dam to the rocks beneath, the water carrying him about twenty-five 
feet, landing him on a small ledge. While lying there a rope was 
thrown him from the shore, but his strength was not equal to the 
task of tying it around his body. Thereupon, William Galloway, 
foreman in the card room at the mills, after attaching a rope to his 
body, managed to wade through the rushing water and reach Mr. 
Otis, whom he grasped by the hand, and both started for shore. 
When within seven or eight feet of land the force of the water swept 
both men off their feet, Mr. Galloway's handclasp was broken, and 
Mr. Otis was carried under the water, the other being saved only by 
the rope around his body. All this occurred in less than fifteen min- 
utes, and in sight of several hundred people who thronged the bridge 
and banks of the river. Mr. Olis was a veteran of the Civil War. 

1896. September 2. Willie Rankin of Sanford was killed in a 
bicycle race at Lewiston. 


1898. July 30. Mrs. Lillian Swett was burned to death at Spring- 
Tale while attempting to kindle a fire with kerosene oil. The house 
was partially destroyed. 

One of lightning's most curious freaks, though not fatal, occurred 
during a terrific tempest at midnight August 11, 1845. The two-story 
house of Captain Stephen Willard was struck upon one chimney, the 
fluid separating on reaching the roof. The lightning smashed a large 
chest at the head of Captain VVillard's bed, then passed to the left 
arm of the Captain, burning him, and stripping offl his night clothing, 
and that of one child. Thence it passed from Mrs. Willard's feet 
towards her head, severely lacerating her lower limbs. One daughter 
in the room above was badly burned, and two injured in their hear- 
ing. The room was shattered into splinters. 



Free Masons — Odd Fellows — Knights of Pythias — Grand Army 
— Golden Cross — Red Men — Other Secret Societies. 

SANFORD is abundantly supplied with lodges of the mystic orders. 
All of the leading secret societies are represented, in some in- 
stances with organizations both at Sanford and Springvale, and the 
oflflcers report the condition of the various fraternities as flourishing. 
The oldest of them all is Preble Lodge, No. 143, A. F. and A. M., 
which was organized in 1867, and worked under dispensation until 
May, 1868, when a charter was granted by the Grand Lodge. May 
29, 1876, Preble Lodge was reorganized, and took on a new lease of 
life, under Moses W. Emery as Worshipful Master. The oflScers for 
1900 are : W. M., Fred Hodgson ; S. W., Edmund F. Low ; J. W., C. 
W. Blagden ; Secretary, Joseph Leckenby ; Treasurer, George H. 
Nowell; S. D., W. T. Beck; J. D., C. S. Holmes. 

Springvale Lodge, No. 190, A. F. and A. M., was organized under 
dispensation June 23, 1885, and was constituted by the Grand Lodge 
of Maine, June 17, 1886, with William Dart as Worshipful Master. 
The following oflScers have served during the past year : W. M., W. 
F. Ferguson; S. W., George H. Drew; J. W. , William J. Gowen; 
Secretary, William H. Wood. 

Another Masonic organization is the White Rose Chapter, No. 54, 
of the Royal Arch degree. The ofBcers include : High Priest, Frank 
H. Dexter ; King, Samuel Jaggar ; Scribe, William T. Black ; Sec- 
retary, Calvert Longbottom. 

Ruth Chapter, No. 14, Order of the Eastern Star, is a Springvale 
lodge. The officers are : Worthy Matron, Annie E. Moulton ; Wor- 
thy Patron, Joseph P. Moulton; Secretary, Frank H. Dexter; 
Treasurer, Nettie Shackley. 

Friendship Lodge, No. 69, I. O. O. F., was instituted March 13, 
1872, with nine charter members. The first Noble Grand was George 
E. Allen. At present H. O. Witham is Noble Grand, and John A. 
Dennett, Secretary. 


Ruhamah Rebekah Lodge, No. 53, I. 0. O. F., was organized at 
Springvale. The oflaeers are : N. G., Lucy M. Garvin; V. G., Fan- 
nie A. Clarii ; F. S., Clara Elwell; K. S., Ella H. Smith. 

Riverside Lodge, No. 12, Knights of Pythias, dates back to 1875, 
having been instituted February 1 of that year with twelve charter 
members. Gilbert G. Littlefleld was the first Chancellor Commander. 
The present officers are as follows: C. C, Guy B. Stover; V. C, 
Harry E. Whicher ; Pre., Alberto I. Gerry ; K. of R. and S., Charles 
O. Emery, Second ; M. of F., George E. Allen. 

Mousam River Lodge, No. 72, Knights of Pythias, holds its meet- 
ings in Pythian Hall, Kempton's Block, Springvale. George Good- 
win is the Chancellor Commander, and Joseph P. Moulton, K. of R. 
and S. 

Arbutus Assembly, No. 43, Pythian Sisterhood, was instituted at 
Sanford May 5, 1900, with fifty charter members. The officers are : 
C. C, Winifred Hill ; V. C, Nellie Dart ; P., Sadie Ford ; K. of R. 
and S , Violet McCrellis ; M. of F., Mrs. A. M. Dart. 

William F. Willard Post, No. 75, G. A. R., was organized and 
mustered March 22, 1883. W. H. Rodgers was the first Commander. 
The present officers include : Commander, W. H. Rodgers ; Adju- 
tant, G. H. Roberts ; Quartermaster, S. Stokes. This is a Spring- 
vale organization. 

At Sanford the Civil "War veterans are mustered in William Reed 
Post, No. 164, G. A. R. The officers are: Commander, John M. 
Hayes ; Senior Vice Commander, Noah Gerrish ; Junior Vice Com- 
mander, Moses Twombly ; Adjutant, Frank Engel. 

RsLGh Grand Army Post has its associated Woman's Relief Corps. 
Of "Willard Corps, No. 52, Springvale, Mattie S. Ferguson is Presi- 
dent, and Louisa Getchell, Secretary. Of Reed Corps, No. 53, of 
Sanford, Lilla Ricker is President, Elizabeth Dyer, Vice President, 
and Bessie Shepard, Secretary. 

Brown Camp, No. 44, Sons of Veterans, is also an auxiliary to the 
G. A. R. Frank McCann is Captain, Jesse Tarbox, Lieutenant, and 
B. F. Dyer, Secretary. 

Springvale Commandery, No. 197, United Order of the Golden 
Cross, was organized May 24, 1882. E. E. Goodwin was the first 
Noble Commander. The present officers are: N. C, Hattie E. 
Cooper; V. N. C, Isadore A. Home; P., Lizzie E. Jenness ; K. of 
R., Frank H. Dexter; F. K. of R., Herbert Smith; Treasurer, Mrs. 
Herbert Smith. 

Sanford Commandery, No. 341, United Order of the Golden Cross, 


was instituted April 13, 1888, with sixteen charter members. George 
E. Bowley is N. C, and E. K. Allen, K. of R. 

Pioneer Lodge No. 150, Order of the Sons of St. George, of San- 
ford, was instituted March 1, 1884, with sixteen charter members. 
Charles H. Ogden was the first President. The ofHcers for 1900 in- 
clude : Thomas Kaye, President ; John Hargraves, Vice President ; 
Samuel Needham, Secretary. 

Victoria Lodge, No. 15, Daughters of St. George, is also a Sanford 
organization. It was instituted November 26, 1895. The ofHcers 
are : President, Miss M. Pickles ; Vice President, Mrs. S. Taylor ; 
Recording Secretary, Miss S. Denby; Financial Secretary, Mrs. S. 
Nutter ; Treasurer, Miss M. Ramsdeh. 

T. F. Boylen Lodge, No. 15, New England Order of Protection, 
was instituted at Springvale, December 20, 1887, with thirty-five 
charter members, by T. F. Boylen of Boston. The first Warden was 
B. P. Hamilton. At present the ofHcers are: Warden, Charles W. 
Belden ; Secretary, Leroy A. Wentworth ; Financial Secretary, Cora 
A. Graves ; Treasurer, E. E. Goodwin. 

Thomas Goodall Lodge, No. 51, Ancient Order of United Work- 
men, was instituted September 14, 1889, with twenty-two charter 
members. This Lodge was named for Hon. Thomas Goodall, whose 
likeness appears on the seal. William Kernon was the first presid- 
ing ofHcer. At present Herbert J. Hope is Master Workman, and 
Robert Halford Secretary. 

Sagamore Tribe, No. 33, Improved Order of Red Men, was organ- 
ized at Sanford June 29, 1894. The present officers are as follows : 
Prophet, Eugene M. Hewett; Sachem, Charles Hooper ; Senior Sag- 
amore, Fred Jagger; Junior Sagamore, Robert Halford; Chief of 
Records, Frank McCann. 

Fluell in Tribe, No. 49, Improved Order of Red Men, was organ- 
ized at Springvale, July 17, 1900. The name was selected to com- 
memorate the original Indian proprietor of the lands of the town of 
Sanford. The officers are : Prophet, Rev. E. M. Trafton ; Sachem, 
W. H. Wood; Senior Sagamore, W. H. Folsom ; Junior Sagamore, 
E. A. Hanson ; Chief of Records, F. A. Clark. 

The officers of Garfield Lodge, No, 416, L. 0. I., are as follows : 
Master, W. O. Nute ; Deputy Master, George Harding ; Recording 
Secretary, Henry Neal ; Financial Secretary, Freeman Briexly ; Treas- 
urer, Abraham Young. 

Loyal Sanford Lodge, I. 0. O. F., Manchester Unity, has the fol- 
lowing board of officers: N. G., Arthur Wilcock; V. G., Alfred 


Parker ; P. S., Arthur F. Engel ; C. S., Charles Whidden ; Treasurer, 
Harry Johnson ; Auditor, John W. Thompson. 

Washington Council, No. 9, Junior Order of United American 
Mechanics, meets in Knights of Pythias Hall, Springvale. Its oflfi- 
cers are Councillor, Artliur C. Goodwin ; Secretary, "W. H. "W. Bart- 
lett ; Treasurer, E. E. Goodwin ; Financial Secretary, C. L. Hayes. 

The Order of Knights of Maccabees is represented by Mousam 
Lake Tent, No. 5. Walter Ashworth is Secretary. 

Of Mercier Court, No. 822, Catholic Order of Foresters, William 
■George Milue is Secretaiy. 

Pride of the Juniors Council, No. 20, Daughters of Liberty, was 
instituted at Springvale, in May, 1900. The officers are: C, Nellie 
M. Home ; A. C, Geneva Hanson ; V. C, Mrs. H. J. Sanborn ; 

E. S., Frank H. Dexter; T., Jeaaette Shackley. 

Two camps of the Modern Woodmen of America were organized 
in town during 1900. Springvale Camp, No. 7995, was first in the 
field, being instituted May 1 , with a charter membership of twentyr 
seven. The officers are : V. C, Joseph P. Moulton ; W. A., John 

F. Peabody ; C, William H. Wood ; B., Charles E. Adams ; E. M., 
Harry Dorsey. 

Sanford Camp, No. 8238, of the same order, was instituted June 
13, with thirty-seven charter petitioners. The officers are: V. C, 
Benjamin Jepson ; W. A., F. L. Brown ; C, Charles Whidden ; B., 
B. F. Albee ; E., R. W. Jones. 

The lodges of Good Templars have already been mentioned in the 
chapter on Temperance. 

Among the lodges which have been organized in town in the past, 
but which have passed out of existence are the following : Prospect 
Eebekah Lodge, No. 14, organized February 14, 1877 ; Springvale 
Encampment, No. 26, P. M., I. O. O. F., organized October 16, 
1877; Nazarite Legion, organized February 22, 1883; Warren 
•Camp, No. 44, Sons of Veterans, organized July 23, 1886 ; Martha 
Washington Lodge, Knights and Ladies of Honor, organized Jan- 
uary 5, 1886 ; and Columbia Assembly, No. 18, Pythian Sisterhood. 



Family Burial Places — The Nasson Burying G-round — Eemoval of 
Bodies — Riverside Cemetery, Springvale — Oakdale Cemetery, 

EVERYBODY travelling through the western part of Maine must 
have noticed the numerous graveyards along the roads, in the 
fields and pastures, and adjoining the churches. We can trace the 
practice of burying the dead in churchyards back to our English ances- 
tors, but the peculiar custom of having family burial grounds instead 
of a town cemetery can only be explained as arising from the condi- 
tions and circumstances in which the early settlers found themselves, 
remote from their neighbors, and in scattered and sparsely settled 
communities. The family burial place was established where it was 
easy of access, and the old usage was followed in many towns until 
within a comparatively few years, when modern demands resulted in 
the laying out of public cemeteries. 

One of the oldest burying grounds in town was the Nasson grave- 
yard at Sanford Corner, located at the corner of Main and Roberts 
Streets. The first person interred there was Peter, eldest son of 
Major Samuel Nasson, who died December 15, 1784, aged eighteen 
years, eight months. His grave was marked by a rough, unhewn 
stone, bearing the inscription, " P. N., Di* Dee 1785." This is an 
error, as the family record shows that he died a year earlier. Beside 
him :was buried his sister, Susannah Colcord, and by her side, Mrs. 
Joanna Nasson, wife of Major Samuel. Others of the family were 
also buried there, and in May of 1900, this cemetery contained fifty- 
six known graves. In that month, however, the bodies were re- 
moved to other localities, owing to the need of the lot for a public 
building site. The necessity for such a lot had been apparent for 
some time, and Hon. E. M. Goodall, after consulting other promi- 
nent men of the town concerning the matter, generously offered to 
defray all the expenses of removing the bodies and monumental fix- 
tures of the cemetery, providing the owners would deed the land to 


the town to be used as the site of a public building, to which the 
owners readily agreed. The work of exhumation was duly performed, 
a large majority of the bodies being transferred to Oakdale cemetery, 
although several were sent to distant points. The lot has a frontage 
of eighty feet on Main and one hundred and twenty-seven feet on 
Roberts Street. The opposite sides measure eighty and one hundred 
and thirty-seven feet respectively. 

On the 30th of September, 1854, Asa Low, John Merrill, James 
M. Burbank, and thirteen others purchased six acres of land at the 
confluence of the Mousam and a brook entering the pond above the 
upper dam at Springvale, and laid it out for a cemetery. Albert J. 
Smith was the first president of the company. The first interment 
to be made there was of the body of Dr. William G-age, a prominent 
Baptist, and a Thorn sonian practitioner of medicine. He was buried 
by the Masonic order in the fall of 1854. In 1868 the Springvale 
Cemetery Company added two acres to the lot, and seven acres more 
in 1882, at which time the company was reorganized. The cemetery 
is now known as Riverside. 

For the past twenty years or more, there has been a cemetery on 
Main Street, about half a mile below the main part of Sanford vil- 
lage, which was generally known as the town cemetery. This is still 
used, although many families have removed the bodies buried there 
to Oakdale cemetery, on Berwick Street. This fine burial ground 
was laid out by the Oakdale Cemetery Association, organized in 
1893. We quote from a circular issued by the association: •" The 
cemetery has a frontage on the Berwick road of about a thousand 
feet, marked by a substantial iron fence, through which there are 
three entrances guarded by large double gates of iron for the use of 
"carriages, and single gates for foot passengers. The first entrance 
is located in a little dell between two small hills wooded by beautiful 
oak groves — a delightful spot. Further on and similarly located is 
the main entrance, opposite which, and facing it, is the receiving 
vault, a substantial structure of stone and brick with heavy oak doors, 
the whole of modern design and built upon the most approved prin- 
ciples. The grounds are diversified by hUls and dales, wooded to a 
proper extent by groves of oak and pine, with a liberal scattering of 
maple, ash and elm. Running directly across, and just in the rear 
of the plotted land, as shown in the plan, is the Great Works Brook, 
which by the construction of a dam can be readily converted into an 
artificial pond, there being excellent natural facilities. The land near 
the first entrance is reserved for a park, and other plots throughout 


the grounds will be set aside for ornamental purposes. The soil is a 
sandy loam with hardpan subsoil, very free from stones, and never 
caves in excavating. There are at present some twenty-five acres in 
the cemetery, and additions can be made at any time should it become 
necessary, so that there never will come a time when Oakdale will 
not be the principal burial ground in this section. With its little hills 
and dales, its miniature plains and plateaus, its stream of sparkling 
water, its groves of soughing pines, majestic oaks and stately elms, 
its location, and many other desirable advantages, the question arises, 
' Can a more suitable spot for a cemetery be found?' "^ One desira- 
ble feature in connection with this cemetery is the record kept by the 
clerk of all interments, with name, age, time of burial, number of lot, 
and other essential particulars. The superintendent has a plan of 
every lot, on which is shown the exact location of any grave, a mat- 
ter of importance for the future, as well as for the present. 



Establishment of Free High School, 1874 — The School Discontinued 
and Finally Re-Established — List of Principals — New Build- 
ing at the Corner, 1888 — The Present School System — Ex- 
penditures — Complete List of Members of the School Com- 

A GREAT advance in the line of improvement of the educational 
system of the town was the establishment of a free High 
School. The legislature of 1873 passed a law which conferred upon 
every town in the state the right to establish and maintain a free 
High School ; a law by which the state was to pay one-half the act- 
ual cost of instruction in any school established in accordance with 
the provisions of said law, on condition that it be continued ten 
weeks, and that the appropriation and expenditure therefor on the 
part of the town be exclusive of the amount required by law to be 
expended for common school purposes. An article looking towards 
the establishment of such a High School was inserted in the warrant 
for a special town meeting, June 21, 1873, but was not acted upon. 

At the annual town meeting the following spring, however, it was 
* 'Voted, that the town of Sanford establish a free High School of 
two terms a year of at least ten weeks each term, the first term to 
commence in the town-house at Springvale, some time in the month 
of August next, and the second term to commence at Sanford Corner, 
at Goodall's Hall, if it can be obtained for such purpose! or if said 
hall cannot be obtained, then some other suitable place at Sanford 
Corner. And the town does hereby raise the sum of six hundred 
dollars for maintaining said High School and providing equipments 
for the same, providing school districts Nos. 1 and 2 shall warm the 
building, when said school shall be kept in their respective districts.'' 

In accordance with this vote, seats, desks, and blackboards, cost- 
ing about two hundred and fifty dollars, were placed in the town hall, 



and S. C. Page engaged to teach the first term. The school began 
August 17, 1874, and continued twelve weeks. There were flfty-twa 
students in attendance, and an average of forty-five. The second 
term, under the same instructor, began in the school-house at the 
Corner, February 22, 1875, and continued ten weeks. A larger 
number of pupils entered, and the classification was not so good. 
Ellen M. Emery assisted in instruction a portion of each day. 

In 1875 the town voted to raise four hundred dollars to continue 
the school. The same principal had charge, and was assisted during 
the first term by Plioebe Bodwell, and the second by Maria L. 
Witham. Eighty- three scholars were enrolled during the second 
term. Each term was of twelve weeks' duration. 

Three hundred and fifty dollars were appropriated for the school 
in 1876. Daniel L. Lane, Junior, assisted by his older pupils, taught 
the fall term at Springvale, and E. N. Mitchell, of Newfield, a grad- 
uate of Harvard, assisted by Ellen M. Emery, taught the spring term 
at Sanford. 

At the annual town meeting in 1877, the article in the warrant 
relating to the High School was indefinitely postponed. A petition, 
signed by nearly twenty voters, asking that a meeting be called to 
reconsider the vote, was subsequently presented to the selectmen, 
who, however, declined to call a meeting. The matter came before 
the town in July, but with a result similar to that of the previous 
spring. It was a noticeable fact that those without children, and 
those outside of the villages, whom it would greatly benefit, were 
alike opposed to the continuance of the High School. There is much 
truth in the remark of one of the scholars of that day: " It does- 
not make much difference to District Number One whether they have 
a High School or not ; but it does make a great deal of difference 
whether the smaller districts outside have it or not." That the dis- 
tricts outside of the two villages, in a great degree, availed them- 
selves of the opportunities with which they were favored, is shown 
by the report of the fourth term. The number of scholars then in 
attendance was eighty-one, of whom seven were from the first dis- 
trict, forty-seven from the second, four from the fifth, two from the 
sixth, one from the eighth, eight from the tenth, six from the eleventh, 
four from the sixteenth and two from the seventeenth. 

The town was fortunate in the teachers employed in that school. 
They were competent instructors, and labored witli much zeal and 
interest for its advancement, proficiency, and thoroughness. An 


indirect advantage, worthy of mention, was the influence upon the 
other schools, exerted from the beginning. Eev. Edward P. Rob- 
€rts, a member of the school corrimittee, said at the end of the first 
year : "1 can see that the High School has already infused new life 
into all the other schools in town." 

Another advance was suggested in 1876, when it was proposed to 
abolish the district system. The time for so radical a change had 
not come, however, and the people, accustomed to have a voice in 
their little democracies, were unwilling to give up the control of the 
schools wholly into the hands of others. They could not endure the 
thought of losing their long cherished privilege, for they virtually 
selected their teachers. 

In the spring of 1881, the town voted " to instruct the selectmen 
to see that all children between the ages of six years and seventeen 
years of age attend scliool according to law." 

It was not until 1887 that the free High School question found a 
permanent and satisfactory solution. At the annual town meeting 
that spring an effort was made to pass an appropriation of two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars to maintain a High School, in order to secure 
a like amount offered by the state. The appropriation was refused, 
and it appeared as if the town were to continue without a -High 
School, until a thorough agitation was started, and finally Hon. E. 
M. Goodall generously agreed to furnish the sum required. This 
public spirited act was productive of a beneficial and healthy result, 
for, after Mr. Goodall had contributed the money for one year, the 
voters arose to meet the educational demands of a modern and rapidly 
growing community, and have supported two High Schools ever 

The school at Sanford opened in December, 1887, with A. W. 
Langley as principal. He was succeeded in 1888 by Samuel Perry. 
The spring term of 1889 was conducted by Miss Mason, while E. C. 
Cook had charge during the fall and winter terms following. J. Her- 
bert Maxwell was principal in the spring term of 1890, and was 
«losely followed by O. Howard Perkins, now a Universalist clergy- 
man at New Bedford, Mass. During the five years in which Mr. 
Perkins was at the head of the school he met with great success as a 
teacher, and won the lifelong esteem of his pupils and associates. 
Frank G. Thompson, of Lewiston, succeeded him in 1895, serving as 
principal for two years. In 1897 Frank 0. Small, of Oldtown, was 
chosen, but his stay was brief, as he decided to study law, and 


resigned in Marcli, 1898. Since that time Harry E. Bryant has filled 
the position to good acceptance. 

Feeling the need of a new school building at Sanford Corner, the 
town made appropriation therefor, and a handsome and commodious 
structure was erected in 1888 at a cost of about S15,000. The former 
school-house, built twenty years before, was sold to S. B. Emery, 
who moved it to "Washington Street, and converted it into the furni- 
ture store now occupied by him ; and the new building was erected 
on the site of the old, on School Street, at the junction of Mousam 
Street. In it are located the High and common schools to the num- 
ber of ten, including all the grades from the first to the highest. The 
High School principal has entire charge. The building is heated with 
steam, and is furnished with electric bells and many other conven- 

The principals of the Springvale High School, within the same pe- 
riod, have been : Samuel E. Berry, 1888 ; A. M. Richardson, 1889 ; 
W. B. Moore, 1890-91; F. P. Knight, 1892-95; Rev. F. G. Davis, 
1896-1900, thirteen terms ; and Frank C. Thompson, the present in- 
cumbent. Mr. Thompson has previously taught the Sanford school. 

In the main, it can be said that the principals of the High Schools, 
from the first, have been earnest, zealous, and faithful teachers, who 
have awalsened the minds of their pupils, inspired them with a love 
of learning, and created enthusiasm among them in behalf of broad 
and liberal education. 

The school-house at Springvale is the one erected in 1855, men- 
tioned on page 154. About eight years ago, a two-story wing was 
added, and the buUding now contains six rooms. 

The two High Schools maintain a praiseworthy standard of excel- 
lence. Three four-year courses of study of three terms a year, are 
offered : English, or scientific ; classical ; and business. The first is 
designed to prepare pupils for the higher technical and scientific 
schools. The classical instruction is such as to furnish complete prep- 
aration for the entrance examinations of the leading colleges. The 
business course, while affording thorough training in English and sci- 
entific studies, offers in addition instruction in commercial arithmetic 
and bools-keeping. Special students are also accepted in the two 
schools, but they are not awarded diplomas. Honorary parts for 
graduation are assigned, according to rank, in the following order : 
Valedictory, salutatory, history, prophecy. 


District Number One is at Springvale. Beside the High School, 
there are also the grammar, first and second intermediate, and first, 
second and third primary. At Sanford, District Number Two, there 
are, in addition to the High School, first and second grammar, first 
and second intermediate, and first, second, third, and fourth primary. 
The outlying districts are well housed, and during the past year, the 
school buildings have been named, in honor of distinguished men, 
as follows : District Number One, Lincoln ; Two, Longfellow ; Three, 
Hawthorne; Four, Edison; Five, Holmes; Six, Grant; Eight, Whit- 
tier ; Nine, Emerson; Ten, Jefferson; Eleven, Washington; Thir- 
teen, Webster; Sixteen, Bryant; Seventeen, Franklin. 

In 1899 Myron E. Bennett was appointed Superintendent of 
Schools, the office then being filled by act of the school board. In 
the present year, when it was deemed desirable to make the position 
an elective oflSce, and to fix a salary for the same, Mr. Bennett was 
the unanimous choice of both political parties at the annual town 
meeting. During his incumbency he has made several improvements 
in the school system, among them the introduction of teachers of 
music for all schools in Districts One and Two, and the establishment 
of a niglit school, of which Mr. Bennett himself is the teacher. 

The last school census showed a total of 2072 scholars, an increase 
of more than one hundred over the previous year. The annual ap- 
propriation for schools is : Common schools, $5,000 ; High School, 
81,900; Superintendent's salary, $1,000; books, $500; insurance, 
$350 ; total, $8,750. The town draws over $5,000 from the state as 
its share of the so-called " mill tax," and also the High School aid, 
hence, the total expenditures are about $14,000. The figures are in 
telling contrast to the appropriations of earlier times. We quote the 
sums raised for school purposes in other years : 1826, $732.80 : 18.50, 
$1,000; 1856, $1,500; 1865, $2,000; 1870, $2,500 ; 1871, $3,000; 
1874, $2,400; 1876, $2,000; 1881, $2,200. 

A complete list of the members of the school committees who have 
served the town is appended. It will be noticed that for several years 
a Supervisor of Schools was chosen instead of a committee of three. 
At the present time, one member of the committee is elected each 
year. In 1835, the town voted that the committee be paid a reason- 
able compensation, which, in 1836, was fixed at fifty cents per day. 
In 1837, no pay was allowed, and the year following they were re- 
quested and required to perform their duties as the law required. In 
1842, a reasonable compensation was voted. In passing, we may 
notice the fact that three young men were elected as comniittee in 



1843, one of whom was only nineteen years of age, and the others 
were but a few years more than their majority. The list : 

The Selectmen, 
•Caleb Emery, 
Jeremiah Wise, 
William Frost, 
Joshua Getchell, 
Moses Sweat. 

Moses Sweat, 
William Trost, 
Eliot Frost, 
Francis Pugsley, 
ISathanlel Bennett. 

Moses Sweat, 
Ezra Thompson. 

Moses Sweat, 
Sheldon Hobbs, 
Joseph Shaw. 

Moses Sweat, 
Eleaziir Chadbourn, 
Ezra Thompson. 

Moses Sweat, 
Ezra Thompson, 
William Gowen, Jr. 

Moses Sweat, 
Ezra Thompson, 
William Gowen, Jr. 

<JeorKe Heard, 
William Gowen, Jr., 
Ezra Thompson. 

Gideon Cook, 
Christopher Marsh, 
Ezra Thompson. 


Ezra Thompson, 

John Shaw, 

William Gowen, Jr. 

John Shaw refused to 
serve, and Daniel 
Gowen was chosen 
in his place. 


Ezra Thompson, 

William Gowen, Jr.,, 

Daniel Gowen, 

George Chadbourn, in 
place of William 
Gowen, Jr., excused. 

Christopher Marsh, 
Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel Gowen. 

Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel Gowen, 
Jonathan Clark. 

Elisha Bacon, 
John Hanson, 
Daniel Gowen. 

Elisha Bacon, 
Timothy Shaw, 
William L. Walker. 

William L. Walker, 
Elisha Bacon, 
John Frost, 2d. 

Elisha Bacon, 
William L. Walker, 
John Frost, 2d. 

Elisha Bacon, 
John Skeele, 
Nicholas E. Paine. 

George Heard, 
Nicholas E. Paine, 
Gideon Cook. 

Nicholas E. Paine, 
John Skeele, 
John Shaw. 

Nicholas E. Paine, 
John Shaw, 
Calvin R. Hubbard. 

John T. Paine, 
John Frost, 2d, 
John Storer. 

John T. Paine, 
Nicholas E. Paine, 
Daniel P. Shaw. 

John Shaw, 
George Heard, 
Daniel P. Shaw. 

George Heard i 
Nicholas E. Paine, 
Daniel P. Shaw. 

John T. Paine, 
John Shaw, 
Jolin L. Allen. 

George W. Bourne, 
John Shaw, 

/ t 




Charles E. Weld, 
Daniel P. Shaw, to fill 
vacancy created by 
the removal of 
George W. Bourne, 
prior to December 3. 

Moses M. Butler, 
William Gowen, 
James Chadboiirn, Jr. 


Jacob C. Goss, 

Mark F. Wentworth, 

John L. Allen, 

May 29, Charles E. 
Weld, in place of 
Mark F. Wentworth, 
left town. 

Jacob C. Goss, 
John Boyd, 
Ivory Brooks. 

John Boyd, 
Ivory Brooks, 
Samuel S. Thing, 
September 11, William 
Emery, 3d, in place 
of John Boyd, re- 

Ivory Brooks, 
Timothy Shaw, 
William Go wen. 

Samuel S. Thing, 
Asa Low, 
Elias Libbey. 

Asa Low, 
Samuel S. Thing, 
Elias Libbey. 


Austin Eobbins, 
C. B. Mills, 
Clement Parker. 


C. B. Mills, 3 years, 
Austin Robbins, 2 

Clement Parker, 1 



Albert Cole, 3 years, 

Clement Parker, 2 

Austin Bobbins, 1 

November 15, Asa Low 
in place of Austin 
Eobbins, removed ; 
William H.Waldron, 
in place of Albert 
Cole, removed. 


Stephen M. Cobb, 3 

Nicholas Branch, 2 

Clement Parker, 1 

September 24, Asa 

Low, in place of 

Nicholas Branch, 

not accepting. 


Asa Low, 3 years, 
Stephen M. Cobb, 2 

Alvah W. Dam, 1 year. 


Alvah W. Dam, 
Asa Low, 
Stephen M. Cobb. 

Stephen M. Cobb, 
Alvah W. Dam, 
Asa Low. 

Asa Low, 3 years, 
John VV. Bodwell, 2 

Alvah W. Dam, 1 year. 

Gershom Ricker, 
Asa Low, 
John W. Bodwell. 

Clark C. Trafton, 
Gershom Ricker, 
Asa Low. 


Asa Low, 

Clark C. Trafton, 

Gershom Ricker. 

Evat Willard, 
Asa Low, 
Clark C. Trafton. 

Hampden Fairfield, 
Evat Willard, 
Asa Low. 

Asa Low, 

Hampden Fairfield, 
Evat Willard. 

Evat Willard, 
Asa Low, 
Hampden Fairfield. 

William W. Boyd, 3 

Charles 0. Emery, 2 

Asa Low, 1 year. 



AlvahW.Dam, Syears, 
Charles E. Lord, 2 

Charles 0. Emery, 1 

Charles O. Emery, 
Alvah W. Dam, 
Charles E. Lord. 

Charles E. Lord, 
Charles 0. Emery, 
Alvah W. Dam. 

Asa Low, 
Charles E. Lord, 
Charles O. Emery. 

Hosea S. Merrifleld, 3 

Asa Low, 2 years, 
George B. Ilsley, 1 

George B. Ilsley, 
Hosea S. Merrifleld, 
Asa Low. 


Asa Low, 
George B. Ilsley, 
Hosea S. Merrifleld. 

Howard Frost, 
Asa Low, 
George B. Ilsley. 

Edward P. Roberts, 
Howard Frost, 
Asa Low. 

Asa Low, 

Edward P. Roberts, 
Howard Frost. 

Howard Frost, 3 years, 
Asa Low, 2 years, 
John H. Mugridge, 1 

Charles O. Emery, 
Howard Frost, 
Asa Low. 

A. S. Bird, 
Charles O. Emery, 
Howard Frost. 

Howard Frost, 
A. S. Bird, 
Charles 0. Emery. 


Asa Low. 

Asa Low. 

Charles 0. Emery. 

Frank L. Durgin. 

Frank L. Durgin. 

Edward C. Frost. 

Edward J. Hatch. 

William J. Maybury. 


F. G. Davis, 
Nahum P. Allen, 
George W. Trafton. 

Nahum P. Allen, 
George W. Trafton, 
F. G. Davis. 

Amos W. Low, 
Edward H. Emery, 
Nahum P. Allen. 

William J. Maybury. 


Mrs. Ella M. Little- 

Edward H. Emery, 
George A. Goodwin. 

George A. Goodwin, 
Frank H. Dexter, 
John J. Merrill. 

Mrs. Ella M. Little- 


Frank H. Dexter, 
Nahum P. Allen. 

Fred J. Allen, 
W. E. Sanborn. 


E. L. Thompson, 
Edward H. Emery, 
Mrs. Ella M. Little- 


George W. Hanson. 


Mrs. J. D. Weymouth. 



Town-Houses — Panic at Town Meeting, 1897 — Pounds — Popu- 
lation — Sanford the Second Largest Town in Maine, 1900 — 
Valuation and Polls — Lists of Town Officers — Representatives 
— Other Officers — Votes for President and Governor. 

TOWN meetings were held, at first, in various places, but after 
the meeting-houses were built, in them for the most part. On 
the 4th of April, 1820, when the article in the warrant relative to 
holding the annual town meeting in the Baptist Church was acted 
upon, it was voted, " that the town-meeting shall be held at the Con- 
gregational Meeting-House." In 1839, the parish voted to allow the 
town to have the old meeting-house to hold town meetings in. The 
next year Thomas Hobbs offered a lot of land below the Corner for 
a town-house. At the annual meeting in 1848, it was voted to build 
a town-house, and Nehemiah Butler and Horace Bennett were added 
to the selectmen as a committee for that purpose. They were to act 
under the following instructions : That they select a suitable lot as 
near Sanford Corner as can be obtained, and cause a town-house to 
be built thereon by the lowest bidder on or before the first day of 
September next. Four hundred dollars were raised for the purpose. 
A lot was purchased adjoining Christopher H. Bennett's house-lot, 
and the town building erected, David Cram furnishing the frame. 
The first meeting held therein was the annual meeting for the election 
of state and county officers, September 11, 1848. The last meeting 
in the old meeting-house was April 3. In the meantime that old di- 
lapidated structure of nearly sixty years was destroyed by fire. 

March 9, 1868, land of Mr. Emery, adjoining the town-house, was 
accepted, to be fenced with stone posts and slats. In March and 
August warrants, 1870, articles were inserted in reference to building 
a new town-house, but they were " passed." 

Four votes were passed August 3, 1872, by which alterations were 
to be made. By two of them, the Sanford Dramatic Club was per- 
mitted to make an addition of thirty feet in length to the town-house 



and to put in such partitions as it needs, at its own expense ; and to 
have free use of tlie house for entertainments. The town on its 
part was to put on another story of suitable height for a hall ; and 
cho^e Increase S. Kimball, Hosea Willard, and Moses W. Emery as 
a committee to superintend the alterations. Another meeting was 
called on the 12th, but the active member of the committee anticipat- 
ing objections, or a rescinding of the votes, hiid put the house in a 
condition unfit for use, thereby setting the majority against the pro- 
posed alterations, so that when the voters met in a house roofless and 
with walls defaced, they were ready to vote anything to show their 
disapprobation. Accordingly, the four votes passed August 3 were 
" rescinded, abrogated, revoked and annulled," two hundred twenty- 
five to fifty-one, and the town voted to sell " all the right, title, and 
interest the town has in the town-house and lot on which said house 
Stands," to instruct the selectmen not to draw any orders to pay bills 
contracted by the pretended committee chosen August 3, on the 
ground that the town meeting of that date was illegal and void, and 
" to build a new town-house, and that the same be located on the 
main road leading from the corner of the roads at Springvale to the 
post-olHce at Sanford Corner, at such place as the building committee 
hereinafter named may designate." William Eussell, Asa Low, Moses 
H. Libby, A. W. Dam, and Howard Frost were chosen as that com- 
mittee with full powers. 

Owing to a defect in the notification, another meeting was called at 
the Calvinistic Baptist vestry at Springvale, August 23. It adjourned 
to meet immediately after at the front steps of the church, where votes 
of like tenor as those of August 12 were passed. "Voted that the 
town does hereby authorize a suit to be commenced against the per- 
sons that have torn down and injured their town -house." All persons 
were forbidden doing any work on the town-house, and all legal con- 
tracts were rescinded, abrogated, and annulled, on the ground that 
the town meeting, claiming said contract, was illegal and void, and 
of no binding eflTect on the town. Another meeting, called August 31, 
to rescind the votes passed on the 23d, was adjourned without date. 

The selectmen refused to issue a warrant for another meeting, but 
Simon Tebbets, trial justice, issued one for a meeting, December 12, 
to rescind the votes of August 23, and to take action with reference 
to paying for the house altered at the Corner. This meeting was ad- 
journed without date. 

The town-house was located at Springvale, between the points 
designated in town meeting, August 12. The final vote in regard 
thereto was passed March 10, 1873. " Voted that each and all votes 


passed at a town-meeting of the legal voters of this town, in town- 
meeting assembled at the vestiy of the Calvin Baptist Meeting-House 
in the village of Springvale in the town of Sauford, on Friday the 
tvventy-third day of August, A. D. 1872, be and the same are here- 
by legalized, confirmed, and made valid and binding on this town in 
as full and ample a manner as if the same had been originally passed 
at this meeting," one hundred and fifty one to sixty-seven. 

But this was not the final action of the town. Its agent, Asa Low, 
brought a suit against Orren G. Jones and George W. Thompson for 
trespass, which was entered at the September term of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1872. At the January term, 1873, Jones entered a 
suit against Sanford for money due him from the town for additions 
and alterations of the town-house. The town lost both cases, and 
judgment was rendered in Jones's favor for $2,625. By the sale of 
the town-house at the Corner, $1,008 was received. The cost of the 
new building, lot, fencing, etc., was $4,754. The old structure at 
first became G-oodall's Hall, and was later converted into a theatre 
or opera house. Jt was torn down in 1900. 

On the 27th of March, 1897, a panic, caused by the giving way of 
the floor, interrupted a town meeting wliieh was being held in the 
Springvale town-house, and several citizens were bruised, while Cap- 
tain Edmund G. Murray had two ribs broken. The hall was packed 
at the time, and a stringer broke, owing to the heavy weight put upon 
it. As a consequence, an area of about twenty square feet of floor 
gave way. Between sixty and seventy-five men were precipitated 
through the opening, most of them landing in the soft earth about 
five feet below. 

The early settlers were obliged to protect themselves against the 
depredations of domestic animals. Fences were few, and much land 
was lying in common. Swine, especially, made sad havoc of grass 
plots and growing crops. According to an act of 1 693, swine were 
to be yoked from April to October 15, and ringed all the year. It 
depended upon the vote of the towns whether they should go at large- 
The town took action in regard to the matter sevenil years as appears 
from such votes as these : March 22, 1769, " Voted that Hogs ga 
at large except they do mischief;" March 21,1770, "Voted that 
Hoggs shall goe at large with yoking and ringing untill they Do mis- 
chief." The latest vote noticed was in 1809, when it was '-voted 
that Hogs may run at large the present year, provided they are yoked 
and Rung according to law." 

Prior to 1774, there seems to have been occasion for impounded 
cattle ; for, at the annual town meeting in March it was voted to 


build two pounds, one in each part of the town, for the accommoda- 
tion of the inhabitants. The record for March 21, 1774, thus reads : 
"Voted one to (be) Built at the mouth of the new road moses Tib- 
bets engaged to give the Land and near his House and lie to be Pound 
Keeper and the other to be Built in that Part of the Township called 
massabeseek where the Selectmen see lit and the Persons Imployed 
to do the Labour on these Ponds to have Three Shillings p'' Day." 

The first pound stood at the corner of the road at South Sanford 
laid out in 1770 across the river to Powers's. The second was thus 
located May 19 : " Voted that moses Stevens Give a Peace of Land 
for a Pound by the Road East of his Barn for that Part of the Town- 
ship called Massabeseek." ■ Stevens lived above what is now Alfred 
Corner, on the road on the southwest side of Shaker Pond. Fifteen 
years later, the town voted to have two pounds, one in each parish, 
but nothing was done toward building the same for two years. Then 
it was decided that they should be built near each meeting-house in 
each parish. 

One would hardly suppose that any advantage could come from 
the location of a pound, and yet there was, at one time, much local 
jealousy manifested in discussing the question, " Where shall the new 
pound be built?" We surmise that there was also considerable 
society feeling, from the fact that the sites proposed were in the 
vicinity of the two meeting-houses. After two previous ineffectual 
attempts to have stone pounds, the first, forty feet in diameter, the 
second, thirty-six feet square, on Wadlia's land near the Baptist 
meeting-house, on the 4th of April, 1820, the town voted to erect a 
pound in the same place where it formerly stood. Everything in re- 
gard to it was done in a truly democratic spirit ; for it was not left 
with a committee or the selectmen, but in open town meeting decided 
what the enclosure should be and how built. The draft having been 
presented by the town, it was accepted. Thomas S. Emery bid off 
the same for twenty-four dollars, and Nathaniel Bennett became his 
surety. That the work was well done we infer, from the length of 
time during which the pound at South Sanford was used. The 
troubles arising from impounding cattle and the bad blood stirred 
up need not be mentioned. 

According to Williamson, there were about nine thousand souls 
in the Province of Maine in 1735. Of these there were, by estima- 
tion, five hundred in the plantations and new townships, Brunswick, 
Topsham, Harpswell, Towwoh, Narraganset, Numbers One and 
Seven, New Marblehead, and Phillipstown. As the last named had 
been laid out but a siiort time, and the proprietors had not sold any 



of their lands, it is unlikely that there were any settlers. In 1744, 
according to the same authority, there were in the two eastern prov- 
inces, Maine and Sagadahoek, two thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
five able-bodied or fencible men, of whom one hundred and fifty were 
in Phillipstown, and belonged to Colonel Pepperrell's regiment. This 
cannot be possible, for it was only five years after the coming of the 
first recorded settlers, and it is not likely that more than twenty fam- 
ilies had moved into the plantation. From two petitions of 1752 and 
1756, we learn that there were move than twenty families and up- 
wards of one hundred souls in 1752, and about thirty families and 
upwards of one hundred and fifty souls in 1756. The estimated 
population in 1764 was one hundred and fifty. In 1771, there were 
eighty-nine ratable and nine non-ratable polls. In 1777, when the 
census of the town was taken, according to an act of December 9, 
1776, the number of male inhabitants at home and abroad, sixteen 
years old and upwards, was found to be one hundred and fifty-eight ; 
Quakers, eight ; Indian, one ; and " Molatoe," one. Total, one hun- 
dred and sixty-eight. In 1779, there were one hundred and eighty- 
five polls; in 1781, two hundred and nine; in 1785, one (two?) 
hundred and sixty-two ; in 1789, two hundred and thirty-five in tlie 
South Parish; and in 1794, four, hundred and ten polls. A list of 
voters, March 1, 1805, contains one hundred and eighty-one names. 
Alfred, set off as a separate district in 1794, had a population of 
nine hundred and six in 1800. 

According to the first census in 1790, the population was eighteen 
hundred and two. The following table gives the population of the 
town by decades, with the percentage of gain or loss every ten 
years : 












































Distribution by sex from 1800 to 1860 inclusive was as follows : 

1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 
Males 681 727 896 1185 1112 1152 1098 

Females 682 765 935 1142 1121 1178 1123 


Miscellaneous census statistics of various years : Not taxed, 1800, 
eleven; colored, one male, 1840, one female, 1860; na,tives, 1870, 
twenty-two hundred and twenty- four; foreign born, 1870, one hun- 
dred and seventy-three ; aged between ninety and one hundred years, 
1830, one man and two women; ditto, 1840, one woman; pension- 
ers, 1840, six men and three women ; there were in 1840, one thous- 
and and fifty-two scholars, twelve persons over twenty years of age 
not able to read or write, and seven insane persons and idiots. 

It will be seen that from 1790 to 18(^0 there was gradual increase 
in population, and then for thirty years a very slight decrease. In 
1870 the increase had been only seventy during the forty years pre- 
vious. The opening of the water power at Springvale prior to 1830 
accounts for the gain at that time, and the impetus given to manufac- 
turing just after the Civil War, when Hon. Thomas Goodall began to 
improve the mill privileges at the Corner, caused the increase between 
i860 and 1870, which has been enormously augmented during the 
past three decades. From 1870 to 1900 the gain in population has 
been 3681, or about one hundred and fifty-four per cent. The census 
returns of 1900 make a most gratifying showing for Sanford as com- 
pared with other places in the state. Sanford is thereby given a 
place of honor as the second largest town in Maine, Brunswick alone 
outranking her ; and of the twenty cities, Sanford exceeds seven in 
population, as follows : Belfast, Brewer, Eastport, Ellsworth, Gard- 
iner, Hallowell, and Oldtown. Given fifty more people, and Sanford 
would outstrip Saco. Her relative rank among the cities and towns 
of the state is fifteenth. Small wonder then that a proposition look- 
ing toward the granting of a city charter by the legislature of 1901 
has been under consideration. 

The following table gives the town's valuation and the number of 
polls by decades for the past eighty years : 
































The amount raised by town appropriations in 1900 was 825,450 ;. 
total tax, $36,695.35. Rate of taxation, 1900, fourteen dollars on 
one thousand ; poll tax, three dollars per capita. 


The principal town officers from the time of incorporation to the 
present have been : 

Town Clerks — 1768, records lost; Samuel Willard, 1769; John 
Stanyan, 1770-73; Joel Moulton, 1774-79, 1781-96; Caleb Emery, 
1780 ; Samuel Masson, 1796-98, 1800 ; Stephen Hobbs, 1799, 1800^ 
03 ; Sheldon Hobbs, "protempory clerk," September 2, 1800 ; Thomas 
Keeler, 1804-07 ; Ezra Thompson, chosen November 9, 1807, to fill 
vacancy ; Elisha Allen, 1808-09, 1811-29 ; Ebenezer Linscott, 1810 ; 
Timothy Shaw, 1830-38; Timothy Shaw, Junior, 1839-41 ; Samuel 
Tripp, 1842-45 ; Charles O. Lord, 1846-49, 1850-52 ; Caleb S. Em- 
ery, 1850; Stephen Merrill, 1853-55; Asa Low, 1856-58; Salter 
Emery, 1859-60; Moses W. Emeiy, 1861-66; John A. Dennett, 
1866-82, 1884, 1887, 1890-91; Howard J. Frost, 1883 ; Willis A. 
Fogg, 1885-86, 1888-1889; Charles O. Emery', Second, 1892-93; 
Charles B. Allbee, 1894 to the present time. 

Treasurers — James Gare, 1775; Joel Moulton, 1776-77, 1779- 
80; Selectmen, 1782-88, 1791 ; Samuel Nasson, 1789 ; William Par- 
sons, 1792; Henry Smith, 1793; William Frost, 1794-1803 (the 
selectmen acted as treasurers to receive and collect all moneys due 
the town prior to the division) ; Stephen Gowen, 1804-06, 1810-15, 
1820; Ezra Thompson, 1807-09; Stephen Hobbs, 1816-18, 1821- 
25; John Frost, Second, 1819, 1828; William Hobbs, 1826-27; 
Timothy Shaw, 1829; Elisha Allen, 1830; Francis A. Allen, 1831; 
Nathaniel Hobbs, 1832-36; Thomas Hobbs, 1837 ; Daniel P. Shaw, 
1888-49 (no record of election in 1844) ; Nehemiah Butler, 1850- 
53 ; Jonathan Tebbets, 1854-55 ; Joseph Butler, 1856-57 ; Samuel 
D. Tebbets, 1858-59, 1864-65; Simon Tebbets, 1860,1869; Albert 
J. Smith, 1861, 1863, 1874-75 (Mr. Smith was elected at the 
March meeting, in 1863, but declined to do all the business connected 
with the offices of treasurer, collector, and constable, for twenty-Bve 
dollars, the amount which he bid) ; Moses W. Emery, 1862; Wil- 
liam Emery, 1863 (having agreed to do the business, which Mr. Smith 
declined to do, for eighty-eight dollars, he was elected, April 18) ; 
SamuelB. Emery, 1866-68; Jonas C. Littlefield, 1870-72; Charles 
Butler, 1873 ; Charles O. Emery, 1876-82 ; Benjamin F. Hanson, 



1883-86, 1888-89; Lewis Butler, 1887; Orville V. Libby, 1890-93; 
Willis A. Fogg, 1894 to the present time. 

Selectmen, Assessors, and Overseers of the Poor. 

Benjamin Harmon, 
Naphtali Harmon, 
John Stanyiin. 


Jonathan Johnson, 
William Bennet, 
Samuel Willard. 


Jonathan Johnson, 
Samuel Wlllarcl, 
William Bennet. 


Samuel Willard, 
William Bennet, 
John Stanyan. 


Jonathan Johnson, 
William Bennet, 
Daniel Gile. 


Daniel Gile, 

James Geary (Gare), 

William Bennet. 


Daniel Gile, 
Morgan Lewis, 
James Gare. 

James Gare, 
Daniel Gile, 
Morgan Lewis. 

James Gare, 
Morgan Lewis, 
Daniel Gile. 

James Gare, 
Morgan Lewis, 
Joel Moulton. 


Daniel Gile, 
Morgan Lewis, 
Phinehas Thompson. 


Morgan Lewis, 
Walter Powers, 
Joel Moulton. 


Caleb Emery, 
Nathaniel Bennett, 
Ebenezei' Hall. 


James Gare, 
Morgan Lewis, 
Eleazar Chadbourn. 


William Person, 
James Gare, 
Eleazar Chadbourn. 


James Gare, 
William Person, 
Eleazar Chadbourn. 

William Person, 
Eleazar Chadbourn, 
Joel Moulton. 

Caleb Emery, 
Eleazar Chadbourn, 
Henry Smith. 

(Overseers of the 
Poor first elected this 


Caleb Emery, 
Henry Smith, 
Samuel Nasson. 


Henry Smith, 
Eleazar Chadbourn, 
Joshua Goodwin, 
Samuel Nasson, to All 

Samuel Nasson, 
Eleazar Chadbourn, 
Henry Smith. 

Samuel Nasson, 
Eleazar Chadbourn, 
William Parson. 

Samuel Nasson, 
Joel Moulton, 
Henry Smith. 

Caleb Emery, 
William Parson, 
Henry Smith. 


Samuel Nasson, 
Henry Smith, 
Sheldon Hobbs. 


Henry Smith, 
Samuel Nasson, 
Sheldon Hobbs. 




Samnel Nasson, 
Sheldon Hobbs, 
Ezra Thompson. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Ezra Thompson, 
Eleazar Chadboiirn. 


Samnel Nasson, 
Sheldon Hobbs, 
Ezra Thompson. 


Samuel Nasson, 
Eleazar Chadbourn, 
Ezra Thompson. 


Samuel Nasson, 
Eleazar Chadbourn, 
Ezra Thompson. 


Samuel Shaw, 
Stephen Gowen, 
Sheldon Hobbs. 


Samuel Nasson, 
Sheldon Hobbs, 
Ezra Thompson, 
August 13, Zebulon 
Beal, in place of 
Samuel Nasson, de- 


Ezra Thompson, 
Caleb Emery, 
Eleazar Chadbourn. 


Ezra Thompson, 
Eleazar Chadbourn, 
Jededlah Allen. 


Eleazar Chadbourn, 
Ezra Thompson, 
Jededlah Allen. 


Jededlah Allen, 
Samuel Shaw, 
Ezra Thompson. 


Samuel Shaw, 
Thomas Keeler, 
Jededlah Allen. 


Thomas Keeler, 
Samuel Shaw, 
Rufus Bennett. 


Thomas Keeler, 

Samuel Shaw, 

Kufus Bennett, 

Elisha Allen, to fill 
vacancy caused by 
the removal of 
Thomas Keeler. 


Elisha Allen, 
Ezra Thompson, 
Rufus Bennett. 


Ezra Thompson, 
Rufus Bennett, 
Elisha Allen. 


Rufus Bennett, 
Sheldon Hobbs, 
Elijah Allen. 

Sheldon Hobbs, 
Rufus Bennett, 
Elijah Allen. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Rufus Bennett, 
Elijah Allen. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Rufus Bennett, 
Timothy Shaw. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Thomas Shaokley, 
Elisha Allen. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Timothy Shaw, 
John Libbey. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Timothy Shaw, 
Enoch Lord. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Timothy Shaw, 
Enoch Lord. 


Timothy Shaw, 
Enoch Lord, 
John Frost, 2d. 

Timothy Shaw, 
John Erost, 2d, 
Enoch Lord. 

Timothy Shaw, 
Sheldon Hobbs, 
Ezra Thompson. 

Timothy Shaw, 
Sheldon Hobbs, 
Ezra Thompson. 




Sheldon Hobbs, 
Timothy Shaw, 
John Prost, 3cl. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Timothy Shaw, 
John Frost, 3d. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Timothy Shaw, 
John Frost, 3d, 
John Powers, in place 

of John Frost, 3d, 



Timothy Shaw, 
John Powers, 
Sheldon Hobbs. 


Sheldon Hobbs, 
Timothy Shaw, 
John Powers. 


John Powers, 
Timothy Shaw, 
Nathan Goodwin. 


John Powers, 
Daniel Gowen, 
John F lost, 2d. 


John Powers, 
Daniel Gowen, 
Timothy Shaw. 


John Powers, 
Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel P. Shaw. 


Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel P. Shaw, 
John Powers. 


Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel P. Shaw, 
John Powers. 


Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel P. Shaw, 
John Powers. 


Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel P. Shaw, 
William B. Merrick. 


Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel P. Sliaw, 
William B. Merrick. 


Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel P. Shaw, 
Jothara Welch. 

Jotham Welch, 
Daniel P. Shaw, 
John Storer. 

Timothy Shaw, 
Daniel P. Shaw, 
Jotham Welch. 

Daniel P. Shaw, 
Theodore Tripp, 
Nehemiah Butler. 

Nehemiah Butler, 
Jotham Welch, 
Timothy Shaw. 


Nehemiah Butler, 
Jotham Welch, 
Timothy Shaw. 


Amos F. Howard^ 
Enoch Frost, 
Stephen Willard. 


Amos F. Howard^ 
Enoch Frost, 
John Shaw. 


Samuel B. Emery,. 
Thomas J. Allen, 
Nathaniel Hobbs. 

Nathaniel Hobbs, 
Samuel B. Emery,. 
John Merrill. 

Enoch Frost, 
John Shaw, 
Horace Bennett. 

Samuel B. Emery,. 
Enoch Frost, 
John Carroll. 

Samuel B. Emery, 
Enoch Frost, 
John Carroll. 

Samuel B. Emery, 
John Carrnll, 
Jonathan Tebbets. 

Theodore Willard, 
Daniel Cheney, 
Christopher Shack- 



Theodore WUlarcl, 
Daniel Clieney, 
€liristoplier Shack- 

Theodore Willard, 
Albert J. Smith, 
Theodore Tripp. 

James M. Burbank, 
Stephen Willard, 
Nehemiah Butler. 

James M. Burbank, 
Nehemiah Butler, 
Horace Bennett. 

James M. Burbank, 
Nehemiah Butler, 
Horace Bennett. 

James M. Burbank, 
Horace Bennett, 
Nathaniel Chadbourn, 

James M. Burbank, 
Horace Bennett, 
Nathaniel Chadbourn, 

James M. Burbank, 
Horace Bennett, 
Nathaniel Chadbourn, 


Jonas 0. Littlefield, 
Albert J. Smith, 
Gershom Eicker. 

Jonas C. Littlefield, 
John Carroll, 
Nehemiah Butler. 

Asa Low, 
Moses H. liibby, 
George Bennett. 

Asa Low, 
Moses H. Libby, 
George Bennett. 

Asa Low, 
Moses H. Libby, 
George Bennett. 

Asa Low, 
Moses H. Libby, 
George Bennett. 

Asa Low, 
Mosps Jellison, 
Jesse Farbish. 


Asa Low, 
Moses Jellison, 
Jesse Furbish. 


Irving A. Butler, 
Daniel G. Clark, 
George Jacobs. 


Alvah W. Dam, 
Daniel G. Clark, 
George Jacobs. 


Alvah W. Dam, 
William Russell, 
Lewis Butler. 

Lewis Butler, 
William Bussell, 
Hosea Willard. 

Alvah W. Dam, 
Lewis Butler, 
William Kussell. 


Alvah W. Dam, 
Walter Cram, 
John B. Libby. 

Alvah W. Dam, 
Lewis Butler, 
Enoch F. Lord. 

Alvah W. Dam, 
Enoch F. Lord, 
Lewis Butler. 

Alvah W. Dam, 
Lewis Butler, 
Enoch F. Lord. 

Alvah W. Dam, 
Enoch F. Lord, 
Lewis Butler. 

Alvah W. Dam, 
George W. Go wen, 
Walter Cram, 
July 14, Asa Low, in 

place of Alvah W. 

Dam, deceased. 

George W. Gowen, 
Walter Cram, 
Darling H. Ross. 

Darling H. Ross, 
Ernest M. Goodall, 
Ivory C. Allen. 

Enoch F. Lord, 
Ernest M. Goodall, 
Moses Jellison. 



Enoch F. Lord, 
Moses Jellison, 
James L. Tripp. 

Ernest M. Goodall, 
James B. Clark, 
Jeremiah G. Wilkin- 

George Bennett, 
Elihu Parsons, 
Francis Chadbonrn. 

George Bennett, 
Jeremiah G. Wilkin- 
Charles 0. Emery, 2d. 

George Bennett, 
John Merrill, 2d, 
Charles 0. Emery, 2d. 

John Merrill, 2d, 
Moses B. Twombly, 
George Bennett. 

Isaiah B. Stiles, 
Moses B. Twombly, 
William H. Nason. 


Benjamin Beal, 

George Bennett, 

Winslow L. Moulton, 

Bennett resigned No- 
vember 17, and Frank 
Wilson was chosen 
to succeed him. 


Edmund G. Murray, 
Frank Wilson, 
Winslow L. Moulton. 


Enoch F. Lord, 
Charles 0. Emery, 2d, 
N. Y. Morrill. 


Edmund G. Murray, 
Elmer E. Harris, 
Moses H. Libby, Jr. 


Frank Wilson, 
Horace T. Bennett, 
Charles F. Derby. 

George W. Hanson, 
Leroy Haley, 
Moses H. Libby, Jr. 

George W. Hanson, 
Hiram B. Eowe, 
Jerry A . Low. 

George W. Hanson, 
Hiram B. Rowe, 
Jerry A. Low. 

George W. Hanson, 
Hiram B. Rowe, 
William H. Nason. 

George W. Hanson, 
William H. Nason, 
Leroy A. Wentworth. 

George W. Hanson, 
William H. Nason, 
James H. Makin. 


George W. Hanson, 
William H. Nason, 
James H. Makin. 


George W. Hanson, 
Ernest M. Goodall, 
Elmer E. Harris. 

Deer Reeves, or Deer Informers. 




Michael Brawn. 

Thomas Russel. 

Jonathan Adams. 



John Stanyan. 

Robert Miller. 

Michael Brawn. 




Jonathan Johnson, 

William Bennett, 

Daniel Gile, 


Thomas Williams. 

John Stanyan. 

Samuel Merrill. 





Naphtali Harmon. 

Samuel Willard. 

David Bean. 




Samuel Willard. 

Jolin Stanyan. 

David Bean. 


John Stanyan. 

One or two men were chosen annually, whose duty it was to in- 
form if any one molested the deer at certain times during the year, 
and to assist in punishing offenders. 

At the town meetings in tlie spring of 1900 the following officers 
were elected: Moderator, Joseph HoUinrake ; Town Clerk, Charles 
B. AUbee ; Selectmen, Assessors, and Overseers of the Poor, George 
W. Hanson, Ernest M. Goodall, Elmer E. Harris ; Treasurer, Willis 
A. Fogg; Town Agent, James M. Ricker; Auditor, William H. 
Wood ; Superintendent of Schools, Myron E. Bennett ; School Com- 
mittee, Mrs. J. D. Weymouth; Road Commissioners, Elmer E. 
Wentworth, Winfield Moulton ; Constables, Charles H. Tebbets, J. 
W. Biierly, Frank S. Beal, C. F. Miles ; Truant Officers, Minor H. 
Spinney, Walter C. Remick. 


To the General Court — 178.5, Captain Caleb Emery; 1786, Major 
Caleb Emery; 1787, Major Samuel Nasson ; 1788, Major Samuel 
Nasson ; 1802, John Holmes, Alfred (Sanford classed with the Dis- 
trict of Alfred) ; 1803, John Holmes, Alfred ; 1806, Nathaniel 
Conant, Junior, Alfred, Thomas Keeler, Sanford; 1807, Nathaniel 
Conant, Junior, Alfred, Thomas Keeler, Sanford; 1810, Sheldon 
Hobbs ; 1811, Sheldon Hobbs ; 1812,Elisha Allen and Sheldon Hobbs ; 
1813, Elisha Allen and Sheldon Hobbs; 1814, Elisha Allen; 1815, 
Sheldon Hobbs ; 1819, Elisha Allen. 

To the Legislature of Maine after the Separation — 1 820, Elisha 
Allen; 1821, Elisha Allen; 1822, John Frost, Second; 1826, John 
Powers; 1827, Timothy Shaw; 1828, Timothy Shaw; 1829, John 
Powers; 1830, John Powers; 1881,. John Powers; 1832, Timothy 
Shaw; 1833, Timothy Shaw; 1834, Timothy Shaw; 1835, John 
Powers; 1836, Timothy Shaw; 1837, John T. Paine; 1838, John 
T. Paine; 1839, John T. Paine; 1840, John T. Paine; 1841, John 
T. Paine; 1842, Nehemiah Butler. 
At this time the number of Representatives was reduced to one 


hundred and fifty-one, and Sanford and Lebanon were classed to- 
gether, the first Representative being from Sanford, the second from 
Lebanon, and so on. 

1844, Stephen Dorman; 1845, Alpheas Staples (elected May 19, 
but his name does not appear on the pay-roll for 1845) ; 1846, Sam- 
uel Tripp; 1848, Nathaniel Hobbs ; 1850, Ichabod Frost; 1851, 
Rev. Oren B. Cheney; 1852, Rev. Oren B. Cheney (held over); 
1853, Charles O. Lord ; 1855, Nehemiah Butler ; 1857, Lyman But- 
ler ; 1859, Ebenezer L. Hobbs; 1861, Increase S. Kimball; 1863, 
Benjamin F. Hanson; 1865, Charles H. Frost; 1867, Samuel New- 
ell; 1869, Edward K. Bennett; 1871, Simon Tebbets ; 1873, Wil- 
liam P. True ; 1875, William F. Hanson ; 1877, Hosea Willard ; 
1879, Jeremiah Moulton, Second ; 1880, Isaac Hanson (Stephen 
D. Lord, " counted in," took his seat in the " bogus" legislature, of 
which H. Carleton Cheever of Springvale was assistant clerk) ; 1881- 
82, Ernest M. Goodall; 1885-86, Benjamin Beal; 1889-90, George 
H. Nowell. 

In 1892 a new apportionment of legislative districts was made, 
under which Sanford was no longer a classed town with Lebanon, 
but chose its own Representative at each election. 

1893-94, Orville V. Libby ; 1895-96, Charles F. Moulton; 1897- 
98, Willis E. Sanborn; 1899-1900, William Kernon; 1901-02, 
Fred J. Allen. 

In 1806, when Thomas Keeler was elected a member of the House 
of Representatives, objections to his taking his seat were made by 
John Sayward and others. It is alleged that Ebenezer Sayward, 
innholder, of Alfred, furnished voters with victuals' and drink, and 
that Keeler paid the bill ; that Keeler made a similar agreement with 
Paul Webber; that the meeting was tumultuous and disorderly, and 
conducted with an unusual and unpardonable degree of spirit and 
acrimony, probably as a result of hard drinking ; that Keeler gave a 
public invitation after the election to the voters to go to any or all 
of the public houses or stores in Alfred, or to his own house in San- 
ford to receive such refreshments as they should want, and that he 
and his colleague, Nathaniel Conant, Junior, paid more than fifty 
dollars (some were furnished with refreshments at Keeler's house and 
store) ; that there was the appearance of a riot and much drunken- 
ness, fighting and quarreling at his store ; and that Keeler was a 
deputy postmaster, and had no assistant in that office. The decision 
rendered, however, was that Keeler was duly elected, and nothing- 
appeared to prevent him from holding his seat. 


In 1813-14 the election of Sanford was controverted, but no re- 
port or action of the House was taken thereon. 

In 1836 there was an exceedingly long-drawn-out contest over the 
election of a Representative. On the first ballot, the vote stood as 
follows : John T. Paine, eighty votes ; Jotham Welch, sixty-two ; 
John Powers, one hundred and ten ; Daniel P. Shaw, twenty-two ; 
John Frost, Second, one. There was no choice. Nicholas E. Paine 
was substituted for John T. Paine. Three more ballots were taken, 
without a choice, and the meeting adjourned for one week. As no 
election then resulted, the meeting was further adjourned from week 
to week, for four weeks, when, Anally, on the thirty-third ballot, on 
the sixth election day, a choice was made. John T. Paine, John 
Powers, and Daniel P. Shaw were the principal candidates, after the 
first meeting, the last named controlling the election. The final bal- 
lot stood : Paine, one hundred and seventy-nine votes ; Powers, one 
hundred and sixty-eight ; Shaw, seven ; scattering, two. The fol- 
lowing year, three ballots were required to elect. John T. Paine 
was again the successful candidate. 


Senators — General Timothy Shaw, 1839-40; Benjamin F. Han- 
son, 1874-76; Ernest M. Goodall, 1883-84; Charles H. Frost, 

Councillors — Dr. Caleb Emery, 1829 (born in Sanford) ; Elisha 
Allen, 1830; Increase S. Kimball, 1841 (residing in Lebanon); 
Ichabod Frost, 1857 ; George A. Frost, 1861 - 62 ; Ernest M. Good- 
all, 1885-86. 

Deputy Sheriffs— Caleb Emery, 1784-86 ; William Emery, 1788- 
1810; Jedediah Allen, 1812-15, 1817-19; Abner Hill, 1813, 1815 
-19; John Powers, Junior, 1816-19; Moses Lord, 1820-24 
William Emery, Junior, 1825-30, 1838 ; Ebenezer Garey, 1827 - 28 
James B. Shapleigh, 1828-29, 1831-33, 1838; Ebeaezer Nowell 
1830, 1838; Emilus Allen, 1832-34; William B. Merrick, 1835 
Samuel B. Emery, 1834 - 37, 1839 ; Nathaniel Bennett, Third, 1838 
Nathaniel Hobbs ; Caleb S. Emery, 1840-41 ; John Shaw, 1840-41 
Ivory Johnson, 1841 ; Samuel Lord, 1842, 1846, 1850, 1863 ; Timo- 
thy Shaw, Junior, 1842; Daniel L. Littlefield, 1845-48; John 
Lord, 1848; John Hemingway, 1854 ; Simon Tebbets, 1854, 1857; 
George Nowell, 1856 ; Albert J. Smith, 1857 ; Charles 0. Lord, 1859 ; 


John W. Bodwell, 1859 ; Samuel D. Tebbets, 1860, 1865, 1867, 
1879 ; Samuel Nowell, 1861 ; James M. Nowell, 1869 ; Edmund G. 
Murray, 1871-99; Charles Oscar Emery, 1879-81; William A. 
Alleu, 1881-88; Frank N. Butler, 1885-88; Thomas Reid, 1889- 
95 ; Newell T. Fogg, 1895-1900 (elected Sheriff) ; Hiram B. Rowe, 
1900-01 ; Thomas T. Rankin, deputy sheriff and keeper of Alfred 
jail, 1901. 

" Goal" keepers— Nathaniel Bennett, Third, 1843 ; William Em- 
ery ; Ebenezer Nowell. 

Coroners — Henry Hamilton, 1 777-85 ; Ezra Thompson, 1803-19 ; 
Samuel Moulton, 1807-19 ; Stephen Gowen, 1811 ; Ebenezer Nowell, 
1818-19, 1822-33, 1836, 1840, 1842 ; Ephraim Low, Junior, 1820- 
25; Stephen Hobbs, 1822-25; Moses Lord, 1822-24; Ebenezer 
Garey, 1828-31; John Hanson, 1829-33, 1836; William Emery, 
Junior, 1829-31, 1840, 1842; William Butler, 1833-36; James B. 
Shapleigh, 1833-34; Samuel B. Emery, 1836, 1840; Nathaniel Ben- 
nett, 1840,- 1842; Samuel Nowell, 1871-1882; Charles F. Moulton, 
1893 to the present time. 


1788. Two electors were chosen by the legislature immediately. 
Of the candidates (two names on each ballot) voted for in each dis- 
trict, the General Court chose one of the two receiving the highest 
number of votes, as elector for that district. For candidates, David 
Sewell and Joseph Noys (Noyes), Federalists, received in Sanford, 
nine votes ; William Widgery and Samuel Nasson, Anti-Federalists, 
twenty-three votes. In the Maine district, Daniel Sewell received 
two hundred and thirty-one votes and Daniel Cony, two hundred and 
thirteen. The former was chosen, and voted for George Washington. 

1792. For electors, York County, Edward Cutts, 16 votes ; Cum- 
berland, Peleg Wadsworth, 16 ; Lincoln, Hancock, and Washington, 
Nathaniel Twing, 16, John R. Smith, one. Nathaniel Wells, Peleg 
Wadsworth, and Daniel Cony were chosen, and voted for George 

1796. Nathaniel Wells,] Federalist, 10 votes ; John Adams, 
Federalist, was elected. 

1800. Federal electors chosen by the legislature. 

1804. James Sullivan and seventeen others (Suffolk district not 
mentioned in the records). Republicans, 101 votes; John CoflSn 


Jones and fifteen others, Federalists, 8 ; John Lord, Berwick, Feder- 
alist, 6 ; Reverend Moses Sweat, Sanford, Federalist, 2. Thomas 
Jefferson, Republican, was elected. Charles C. Pinckney was the 
Federalist candidate. 

1808. Federal electors chosen by the legislature. 

1812. York County, John "Woodman, Cumberland, Theodore 
Mussey, Oxford, Henry Rust, Republicans,, or Democrats, 115 
votes ; York County, Nathaniel Goodwin, Cumberland, Samuel Par- 
ris, Oxford, Lothrop Lewis, Federalists, 109. James Madison, Re- 
publican, or Democrat, was elected. DeWitt Clinton was the 
Federalist candidate. 

1816. Federal electors chosen by the legislature. 

1820. . At large, Joshua Wingate, Junior, William Moody, Re- 
publicans or Democrats, 76 and 73 votes respectively ; First District, 
Elisha Alien, Republican, or Democrat, 74 votes. Colonel (after- 
ward General) Allen received 793 of the 861 votes cast in the dis- 
trict. James Monroe, Republican, or Democrat, was elected. 

1824. At large, Thomas Fillebrown, James Campbell, and York 
District, Nathaniel Hobbs, National Republicans, 83 votes ; at large, 
William Cliadwick, Peleg Tallman, and York District, John Mc- 
Donald, Democrats, or Democratic Republicans,' 18, 18, and 19 re- 
spectively. John Quincy Adams, National Republican, was elected. 
Andrew Jackson was the Democrat, or Democratic Republican can- 

1828. John Quincy Adams, National Republican, 114; Andrew 
Jackson, Democrat, or Democratic Republican, 4. 

1832. Andrew Jackson, Democrat, 205; Henry Clay, National 
Republican, or Whig, 143. 

1836. Martin Van Bureu, Democrat, 123; William H. Harrison, 
Whig, 66. 

1840. William Henry Harrison, Whig, 172; Martin Van Buren, 
Democrat, 254. 

1844. James K. Polk, Democrat, 230; Henry Clay, Whig, 144; 
James G. Birney, Abolitionist, 17. 

1848. Lewis Cass, Democrat, 227 ; Zachary Taylor, Whig, 152; 
Martin Van Buren, Free-Soiler, Abolitionist or Whig ( ?) , one. (Tris- 
tram Gilman and eight others had one vote each.) 

18.52. Franklin Pierce, Democrat, 222 ; Winfleld Scott, Whig, 
182 : John P. Hale, Free-Soiler, 40. 

1856. John C. Fremont, Republican, 257; James Buchanan, 
Democrat, 215 ; Millard Fillmore, Whig, 9. 

1860. Abraham Lincoln, Republican, 222 ; Stephen A. Douglas, 


Northern Democrat, 163 ; John C. Breckenridge, Southern Democrat, 
15 ; John Bell, Union, 6. 

1864. Abraham Lincoln, Republican, 218; George B. McClellan, 
Democrat, 265. 

1868. Ulysses S. Grant, Republican, 240; Horatio Seymour, 
Democrat, 194. 

1872. Ulysses S. Grant, Republican, 210; Horace Greeley, Dem- 
ocrat and Liberal, 100. 

1876. Rutherford B. Hayes, Republican, 224; Samuel J. Tilden, 
Democrat, 270. 

1880. James A. Garfield, Republican, 253 ; Winfleld S. Hancock, 
Democrat, 338 ; James B. Weaver, Greenback, one. 

1884. James G. Blaine, Republican, 315 ; Grover Cleveland, Dem- 
ocrat, 267 ; Benjamin F. Butler, Greenback, 12 ; John P. St. John, 
Prohibitionist, 10. 

1888. Benjamin Harrison, Republican, 425 ; Grover Cleveland, 
Democrat, 295 ; Clinton B. Fisk, Prohibitionist, 9 ; Alsou J. Streeter, 
Union Labor, 14. 

1892. Benjamin Harrison, Republican, 488 ; Grover Cleveland, 
Democrat, 898 ; John Bidwell, Prohibitionist, 31 ; James B. Weaver, 
People's Party, 26.' 

1896. William McKinley, Republican, 662; William J. Bryan, 
Democrat, 176; John M. Palmer, National Democrat, 7; Joshua 
Levering, Prohibitionist, 14 ; William J. Bryan, People's Party, 8. 

1900. William McKinley, Republican, 775; William J. Bryan, 
Democrat, 256 ; John G. WooUey, Prohibitionist, 37 ; Eugene V. 
Debs, Democrat Socialist, 5. 

The Presidential campaign of 1840, known as the " log cabin and 
hard cider campaign," was very exciting everywhere. The Sanford 
delegation to a convention at Kennebunk went with a large log cabin 
built upon wheels and drawn by oxen. The old men rode in it, hav- 
ing a barrel of hard cider to drink. Its walls were hung with coon 
skins. Sanford gave Van Buren a large majority, but the state went 
for Harrison. 

During the "Know Nothing" agitation, a subordinate council of 
the organization, located at Springvale, though ultimately extending 
throughout the town, was instituted August 3, 1854, by Charles E. 
Weld. It was composed of William Gage, Loammi K. Moulton,and 
sixteen others. This council ran till, it numbered, August 10, 1855, 
ninety-seven members. It finally went mostly into the Republican 




1780. John Hancock, 

1781. John Hancock, 
John Savage, 

1782. John Hancock, 

1784. John Hancock, 

1785. Thomas Gushing, 
James Bowdoin, 

1786. Benjamin Lincoln, 
James Bowdoin, 

1787. John Hancock, 

1788. John Hancoclt, 
Elbridge Gerry, 
James Bowdoin, 

1789. John Hancock, 

1790. John Hancock, 
James Bowdoin, 

1791. John Hancock, 
1793. John Hancock, 
1794:. William Gushing, 

Samuel Adams, 
Theodore Lyman, 

1795. Samuel Adams, 
Theodore Lyman, 

179G. Samuel Adams, 
Increase Sumner, 
Samuel Nasson, 

1797. James Sullivan, 
Increase Sumner, 
Samuel Nasson, 

1798. Increase Sumner, 
James Sullivan, 
Theodore Lyman, 

1799. Increase Sumner, 
William Heath, 
Theodore Lyman, 

1800. Caleb Strong, 
Elbridge Gerry, 
Oliver Keating, 

1801. Galeb Strong, 
Elbridge Gerry, 

1802. Elbridge Gerry, 
Caleb Strong, 

1803. Elbridge Gerry, 
Galeb Strong, 

1804. James SuUivnn, 
Caleb Strong, 



James Sullivan, 



Caleb Strong, 




James Sullivan, 



Caleb Strong, 




James Sullivan, 



Caleb Strong, 


Benjamin Austin, 




James Sullivan, 



Christopher Gore, 



Benjamin Austin, 




Levi Lincoln, 



Christopher Gore, 



Joseph B. Varnum, 



David Cobb, 



Nahum Morrill, 




Christopher Gore, 



Elbridge Gerry, 




Elbridge Gerry, 



Christopher Gore, 



William Gray, 




Elbridge Gerry, 



Caleb Strong, 




Caleb Strong, 



Joseph B. Varnum, 




Caleb Strong, 



Samuel Dexter, 




Caleb Strong, 



Samuel Dexter, 




Samuel Dexter, 



John Brooks, 




John Brooks, 



Henry Dearborn, 




John Brooks, 



Benjamin W. Crown- 






John Brooks, 



Benjamin W. Crown- 







After Separation. 



William King, Rep., 



Ezekiel Whitman, 



John Holmes, 



Samuel Merrill, 




Albion K. Parris, Rep., 





Joshua Wingate, Jr., 


Rep. , 


Ezekiel Whitman, Fed., 


William D. William- 



Benjamin Ames, 



Samuel Merrill, 



Albion K. Parris.Rep., 


Ezekiel Whitman, Fed., 




Albion K. Parris.Rep., 


Ezekiel Whitman, Fed., 


Ephraim Low, Jr., 



John W. Bodwell, 


Thomas Nasson, 



Reuben Chick, 



Albion K. Parris,Rep., 




Albion K. Parris,Rep., 



Enoch Lincoln, Rep., 




Enoch Lincoln, Rep., 


John Holmes, 



Thomas Merrill, 



Enoch Lincoln, Rep., 


John Powers, 



Jonathan G. Hunton, 


Nat. Rep., 


Samuel E. Smith, 

Dem. Rep., 



Joseph Dane, 



Jonathan G. Hunton, 

Nat. Rep., 


Samuel E. Smith, 

Dem. Rep., 



Timothy Shaw, 



Samuel E. Smith, 

Dem. Rep., 


Daniel Goodenow, 

Nat. Rep., 




Samuel E. Smith, 

Dem. Rep., 


Daniel Goodenow, 

Nat. Rep., 



Samuel E. Smith, 

Dis. Dem., 



Daniel Goodenow, 



Robert P. Dunlap, 



Joseph Dane, 



Robert P. Dunlap, 

Dem., 150 

Peleg Sprague, Whig, 145 
Samuel E. Smith, 

Dis. Dem., 2 
Robert P. Dunlap, 

Dem., 144 

William King, Whig, 59 
Robert P. Dunlap, 

Dem., 157 

Edward Kent, Whig, 91 

Gorham Parks, Dem. , 174 

Edward Kent, Whig, 118 

John Fairfield, Dem., 257 

Edward Kent, Whig, 181 

John Fairfield, Dem., 212 

Edward Kent, Whig, 126 

John Fairfield, Dem., 236 

Edward Kent, Whig, 165 

John Fairfield, Dem., 244 

Edward Kent, Whig, 130 

Daniel Goodenow, 1 

Jeremiah Curtis, 1 

John Fairfield, Dem., 221 
Edward Robinson, 

Whig, 105 
Hugh J. Anderson, 

Dem., 203 
Edward Robinson, 

Whig, 79 

James Appleton, Lib., 49 
Hugh J. Anderson, 

Dem., 245 
Edward Robinson, 

Whig, 160 

James Appleton, Lib., 23 
Hugh J. Anderson, 

Dem., 187 
Freeman H. Morse, 

Whig, 107 
Samuel Fessenden, 

Lib., 32 

David Bronson ,Whig, 156 

John W. Dana, Dem., 147 
Samuel Fessenden, 

Lib., 26 

Reuel Williams, 2 

John W. Dana, Dem., 176 














David Uronson,Wliig, 



Lot M. Morrill, Rep., 


Samuel Fessenden, 

Robert Thompson, 




Edward Kent, 


JohnW. Dana, Dem., 



Manasseh H. Smith, 

Elijah L. Hamlin, 





Lot M. Morrill, JRep., 


Samuel Fessenden, 


LotM. Morrill, Rep., 




Manasseh H. Smith, 

John Hubbard, Dem., 




Elijah L. Hamlin, 

Simon Tebbets, 





Israel Washburn, Jr., 

George F. Talbot, F. S. 

, 44 



John Hubbard, Dem., 


Ephraim K. Smart, 

William G. Crosby, 





Phinehas Barnes, 

George F. Talbot, F. S. 

, 28 



No election. The Gov- 


John W. Dana, Dem., 


ernor of 1850 held 

Israel Washburn, Jr., 




An-:on G. Chandler, 

Charles D. Jameson, 

A. M. L., 


War Dem., 


William G. Crosby, 


Bion Bradbury, Dem., 




Abner Coburn, Rep., 


John Hutjbard, Dem., 


Charles D. Jameson, 

Ezekiel Holmes, F. S., 


War Dem., 


Albert Pillsbury, Dem., 



Bion Bradbury, Dem., 


William G. Crosby, 

Samuel Cony, Rep., 




I, Esq., 


Ezekiel Holmes, F. S., 



Joseph Howard, Dem., 


Anson P. Morrill, M.L., 


Samuel Cony, Rep., 


Albion K. Parris, 


Joseph Howard, Dem., 




Samuel Cony, Rep., 


Anson P. Morrill, M. 


Ebeu F. Pillsbury, 

L. andK. N., 




Shepard Cary, 0pp. 

Joshua L. Chamber- 



lain, Rep., 


Isaac Reed, Whig, 


Pelatiiih Witham, 


Samuel Wells, Dem., 



Bben F. Pillsbury, 

Anson P. Morrill, 





Joshua L. Chamber- 

Isaac Reed, Whig, 


lain, Rep., 


Samuel Wells, Dem., 


Pelatiah Witham, 


Hannibal Hamlili, 


Eben F. Pillsbury, 





George F. Patten, 

Joshua L. Chamber- 



lain, Rep., 


Manasseh H. Smith, 

Pelatiah Witham, 





Franklin Smith, Dem., 





Joshua L. Chamber- 


Aaron B. Clark, Pro., 


lain, Eep., 



Edwin C. Burleigh, 

Nathan G. Hichborn, 





William L. Putnam, 

Lot M. Morrill, 





Chas. W.' Roberts, Dem. 

, 185 

Volney B. Gushing, 

Sidney Perham, Rep., 





Chas. P. Kimball, Dem., 


William H. Simmons, 

Sidney Perham, Rep., 





Charles P. Kimball, 


Edwin C. Burleigh, 





Sidney Perham, Rep., 


William P. Thompson, 

Charles O'Connor, 





Nelson Dingley, Jr., 

Aaron B. Clark, Pro., 




Isaac C. Clark, Lab., 


Joseph Titcomb, Dem., 



Henry B. Cleaves, Rep., 



Joseph Titcomb, Dem., 


Charles P. Johnson, 

Nelson Dingley, Jr., 





Timothy B. Hussey, 


Charles W. Roberts, 





Luther C. Bateman, 

Selden Connor, Rep., 





John C. Talbot, Dem., 


E. P. Knowlton, Un. 

Selden Connor, Rep., 





Joseph H. Williams, 


Henry B. Cleaves, 





Selden Connor, Rep., 


Charles P. Johnson, 


Alonzo Garcelon, Dem., 

, 172 



Joseph L. Smith, Nat. 

Ira G. Hersey, Pro., 


G. B., 


Luther C. Bateman, 

Selden Connor, Rep., 





Daniel P. Davis, Rep., 



Llewellyn Powers, Eep. 


Joseph L. Smith, Nat. 

Melvin P. Frank, Dem. 

, 194 

G. B., 


A. S. Ladd, Pro., 


Alonzo Garcelon, Dem., 

, 141 

Luther C. Bateman, 

Bion Bradbury, Dem., 





Harris M. Plaisted, Pus. 

, 339 

William H. Clifford, 

Daniel P. Davis, Eep., 


Nat. Dem., 



Harris M. Plaisted, Pus, 



Llewellyn Powers, Rep. 


Frederick Robie, Eep., 


Samuel L. Lord, Dem., 



Prederick Robie, Rep., 


A. S. Ladd, Pro., 


John B. Redman, Dem., 


Robert Gerry, Peo., 


HoseaB. Eaton, G. B., 


Erastus Lermond. Nat. 

William T.Eustis, Pro., 





Joseph R. Bodwell, 


John F. Hill, Rep., 




Samuel L. Lord, Dem., 


Clark S. Edwards, 

Grant Eogers, Pro., 




N. W. Lermond, Soc, 




The Press — Public Library — Opera House — Public Observances, 
the Centennial Fourth, and Other Occasions — Some "First 
Things " — Longevity — Large Families — Musical Organiza- 
tions — A Trout-Breeding Experiment — Christian Civic League 
and Other Organizations — War With Spain — The Filipino In- 

FOR the past quarter of a century the town of Sanford has had 
a weekly newspaper, and for most of the time two. The Spring- 
vale Reporter was the first to be issued. In November, 1875, H. 
Carlton Cheever, having sold out his office at Danvers, Mass., visited 
Springvale to look over the ground, and locate, if advisable. This 
latter he concluded to do, and by the first week in December had part 
of his material on hand ready for work. His first office was in the 
Frank Butler building, corner of Main and Bridge Streets. Mr. 
Cheever's first compositor was Mrs. Jesse Giles, who had worked 
many years in the Argus office, Portland. In press work he had the 
assistance of Thomas Slater, who had learned the trade more than 
fifty years before, in Manchester, England. The first number of the 
Reporter was printed Saturday, January 1 , 1876, at about nine o'clock 
in the evening, and its appearance was the occasion of considerable 
excitement on the part of the people of Springvale (who crowded in 
to see the thing done), and of a great deal of labor and anxiety on 
the part of the publisher. The venture, however, proved a success. 
For one year from March 1, 1879, Cheever and Noyes were the pro- 
prietors. Mr. Cheever then assumed sole charge again, and continued 
till May 15, 1880, when he removed from Sanford. 

On the 19th of June, 1880, D. M. Frye and E. Lord, under the 
firm name of D. M. Frye and Co., started the York County Advo- 
cate at Springvale. This paper passed into the hands of Mr. Frye, 
January 6, 1881, and in December following was purchased by Frank 
H. Dexter, who still continues its publication, having changed its 



name to the Springvale Advocate, September 29, 1882. Mr. Dexter 
issues a wide aAvake, readable, newsy slieet, in which local happen- 
ings and those of the surrounding towns are chronicled with care. 
The editor being a prominent temperance worker, the Advocate is a 
staunch supporter of the temperance cause, as well as of everything 
else that makes for the good of the community. 

The first paper at Sanford Corner was the Sanford News, of which 
Rev. Henry J. Stone began the publication July 3, 1880. It was 
printed at W. A. Allen's printing office. Rev. Mr. Stone, although 
pastor of the Congregational Church at the time, had been previously 
engaged in the printing business, which he had always found con- 
genial, even fascinating, and his active, untiring spirit led him to 
assume editorial duties in addition to those of his pastorate. The 
paper was continued until October 27, 1883, shortly before Mr. Stone 
severed his connection with the Sanford church, the name having 
been changed to the Sanford "Weekly News aftei' April 23, 1881. 

The Sanford Herald was printed by T. P. James from October 1, 
1884, to October, 1885. 

November 8, 1888, James H. and Frank A. Goodall started the 
Sanford Siftings, of which the former was announced as publisher, 
and the latter, who had been, and is at the present time, although 
removed from Sanford, correspondent for papers in Boston and other 
large cities, as editor. After one year, Siftings retired from the 
field, but on March 5, 1892, the Messrs. Goodall made their second 
venture with the Sanford Weekly Ledger. The publication of the 
Ledger was continued until October 31, 1895. 

Since December 19, 1895, Sanford village has been represented in 
the journalistic world by the Sanford Weekly Tribune. This paper 
was established by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Huff, who carried it 
on successfully for over three years. In the spring of 1899, Mr. Huff 
retired, to take charge of another line of business which demanded 
all his time, and on May 1 of that year the Tribune was sold to 
Fred B. Averill, the present editor and publisher. Soon after taking 
control, Mr. Averill issued a special edition, illustrated with half-tone 
pictures of well known citizens and buildings in the village. The 
Tribune has taken as its motto, " A Live Paper in a Live Town," 
and Mr. Averill has lived up to it. The paper is now issued in at- 
tractive eight-page form, and its columns bear evidence of the enter- 
prise and ability of its editor. 

The N. E. O. P. Journal, organ of the New England Order of Pro- 
tection, was published at Springvale by D. M. Frye from October, 
1889, to 1894. 


The Star, a monthly paper devoted to the interests of the Christian 
Endeavor movement, was published by Fred B. Averill for two years 
from December, 1895. 

The Sanford Directory was issued by D. M. Frye in December, 
1893. It contains a historical sketch of Sanford by Edwin Emery. 

Sanford has had a free public library, open to all residents of the 
town, since June 1, 1900. The story of the organization and growth 
of the libj'ary is best told in the following extract from the Sanford 
Tribune of May 18 of this year : 

" For the past twenty years or more a few public spirited citizens 
have been agitating the question of a free library for the town, but 
no definite action was taken until about five years ag6, when the Wo- 
man's Literary Club, organized for the purpose of collecting books 
to be given to a public library at some future date, commenced by 
purchasing an edition of Chambers' Encyclopaedia. Other books were 
added from time to time as fast as the Club's means would permit, 
until, in 1898, when the library became a fact, quite a respectable 
collection had been made. Meanwhile the ladies had not been alone 
in the field. Several young men had been continually agitating 
the question, among them being Messrs. Bentley Aveyard and Ed- 
ward H. Emery, through whose persistent efforts the public were 
compelled to keep the matter in mind. Superintendent E. E. Hussey 
of the Sanford Mills, was among the first to become interested and 
othei' prominent men, including Mr. Thomas Goodall, took the mat- 
ter in hand. June 18, 1898, the Sanford Librar}' Association was 
organized with eighty members and the following officers chosen : 
Thomas Goodall, President ; Fred J. Allen, Vice President ; William 
Batchelder, Junior, Clerk; E. E. Hussey, Treasurer; Fred J. Allen, 
George H. Nowell, Moses Weutworth, Thomas Goodall, William 
Batchelder, Junior, Trustees. The Woman's Literary Club donated 
their collection, and it was decided to open a library at once, to be 
run for an indefinite period on a membership basis, each member to 
pay two dollars per year for use of the books, and non-members to 
pay five cents per week if they desired library privileges. Bentley 
Aveyard was chosen librarian, which position he has held ever since. 
At that time about thirteen hundred dollars had been pledged for 
support of the library. Of tliis amount the Sanford Mills subscribed 
five hundred dollars and the Goodall Worsted Company two hundred 
and fifty dollars, the remainder being given in smaller sums by indi- 
viduals. Mr. Goodall offered free use of the rooms on the ground 
floor of the building on School street where the library is now located, 


and about six hundred volumes were purchased with the money sub- 
scribed. The library was first opened to the public December 31, 
1898. At the beginning of the second year the membership fee was 
reduced to one dollar. The librarian's report for the year ending 
April 30, 1900, showed that one hundred and seventy-one volumes 
had been added duiing the year, one hundred and fifteen by purchase, 
and fifty-six by gift. Some twenty public documents and pamphlets 
have also been donated. The reading room was opened to the pub- 
lic for free use February 1, 1899, and has been extensively patron- 
ized. The library now numbers nine hundred and fifty volumes." 

There was a library in existence — the Social library — in 1819, 
for the town voted not to give Hubbard's "History of New Elng- 
land " to it, on May 3 of that year. 

Alter its period of service as a public building was ended, the old 
town-house at Sanford Corner was purchased by Hon. Thomas Good- 
all, who added another story to it, and converted it into a public hull. 
It was called Goodall's Hall for many years, and on numerous occa- 
sions served as a place for public worship. About a dozen years 
ago it was converted into a theatre, or opera house, and was fitted 
with opera chairs, stage appliances and all the equipments of a mod- 
ern playhouse. Many travelling companies have appeared there. 
During the past summer the building was torn down, on account of 
its being adjudged unsafe, and at this writing, a new tlieatre is being 
erected on the east side of School Street. It is to have a seating 
capacity of about a thousand people, and will embrace all the con- 
veniences of modern theatre construction, the plans having been drawn 
by S. Tobey, architect, of Boston. The theatre is being built by the 
Sanford Mills, and is owned and controlled by that corporation. 

The seventy-first anniversary of our national independence was 
observed at Springvale, Monday, July 5, 1847, with a celebration 
somewhat elaborate for those days. A salute of twenty-seven guns 
was fired at sunrise. At half-past ten o'clock a procession formed 
on Maple Street, and headed by the Saco Brass Band, moved to 
Picnic Grove, under the direction of John T. Paine, assisted by four 
marshals. This procession consisted of the president of the day, 
orator, and reader of the Declaration of Independence, committee 
of arrangements, ladies of the village and vicinity, strangers and 
citizens. At the grove the exercises comprised : Music by the band ; 
reading of the Declaration of Independence ; salute of thirteen guns, 
and "Hail Columbia'' by the band; oration. After the exercises, 
the procession reformed and proceeded through Maple, Prince, 


Bridge, and Water Streets to Market Square, where refreshments 
were served. The " Hydrosqiiabutic Dragoons " made their second 
annual appearance in full uniform at seven in the morning and half 
past five in the afternoon, under the direction of Corporal SnooUs, 
Commander-in-chief, who " conducted his forces through the princi- 
pal streets, lanes, courts, and avenues of the large and flourishing 
village of Springvale." 

The Fourth of July, 1876, the nation's one hundredth birthday, 
was celebrated in Sanford, in common with other places, with special 
exercises, including an historical address. We quote from the 
Springvale Eeporter, an account of the day's observance in Sanford : 
" The Centennial Fourth is now past, and the forms and actions of 
its observance liave passed into history, to be studied and reviewed 
by the generations who are to control and give shape to the destiny 
of the great American nation through its second century of existence. 
In Springvale the only recognition of the day was the ringing of the 
bells at sunrise and the hoisting of the nation's ensign by several of 
our patriotic citizens. At Sanford the day was ushered in by the 
usual noisy demonstrations of Young America and the national salute 
at sunrise. Next on the programme were the Horribles, over one 
hundred m number, under the command of Fred Kimball personating 
the Indian chief, Wahwa, a celebrated sachem of the tribe occupy- 
ing the territory embracing what is now Sanford, mounted upon the 
spirited coal-black steed, St. Lawrence, Junior. All sorts of funny 
ideas were represented with good effect. The ' Centennial Thoughts ' 
by Lew Ginger were full of happy hits, and were received by the 
listening crowd with frequent bursts of applause. The song, entitled 
' One Hundred Years Ago,' written, composed, and sung with great 
success by Mr. Ginger, needs no comment from us. At eleven 
o'clock, L. B. Goodall, president of the day, took the stand, accom- 
panied by Edwin Emery, Esq., who being formally introduced, pro- 
ceeded to give an historical sketch of the town from its first settlement 
until 1800. After the address the Declaration of Independence was 
read by I. S. Kimball, Esq. The celebration was closed by a fine 
display of fireworks in front of Mr. Goodall's residence, which was 
gaily illuminated with numerous Chinese lanterns, which were also 
displayed by Kimball Brothers and Company. There was a large 
gathering of people from the adjoining towns and the scene was one 
not soon to be forgotten by all who witnessed it. The music for the 
day was furnished by the Sanford Cornet Band.'' The committee of 
arrangements comprised W. A. Allen, L. B. Goodall, and C. C. 


Memorial services on the death of President Garfield were held on 
Sunday, September 25, 1881, in the Freewill Baptist Church, Spring- 
vale, Friendship Lodge, I. O. O. F., being present. The church was 
draped in mourning. The services were conducted by Rev. Mr. 
Blaisdell, assisted by Rev. Mr. Osborn. At the Corner on Monday, 
the 26th, the day of the funeral, business was generally suspended, 
and the mills and stores were draped in mourning. In the square, a 
beautiful monument, with the name, ''James A. Garfield," inscribed 
on the four sides, was erected. Services held in tiie Congregational 
Church included a sermon by Rev. Mr. Stone and an address by Rev. 
Mr. Blaisdell. 

Memorial Day had been informally observed prior to 1883, but 
the first stated ceremonies occurred in that year. At ten o'clock in 
the morning, squads of Grand Army members decorated the graves 
of deceased soldiers and sailors. At eleven o'clock the Limerick 
Band gave a concert, and a procession was formed, made up of Wil- 
liam F. Willard Post, G. A. R., Knights of Pythias, Encampment of 
Odd Fellows, temperance organizations, and school children. The 
parade moved through Springvale, starting from the town-house, and 
proceeding to the school-house yard, where an oration was delivered 
by Rev. T. C. Russell, after which the line of march was taken up 
for the cemetery, where Post services were held. The parade then 
returned to Main Street Square and was dismissed. 

On August 9, 1885, memorial services for General Grant were ob- 
served by William F. Willard Post, G. A. R. Services in the morn- 
ing were held in the Congregational Church at Sanford, Rev. Mr. 
Cook preaching. The churcli was appropriately draped. In the 
afternoon, services were held at the Freewill Baptist Chuich, Spring- 
vale, which was festooned with black and white. Addresses were 
given by Rev. R. D. Frost, Rev. C. P. Bennett, and Rev. George 
A. Tewksbury of Cambridge, Mass., and the Sanford Cadet Band 
and the Springvale Male Quartette participated. 

March 1, 1891, the Sherman Porter memorial service was held in 
the Baptist Church, Springvale. Willard Post, G. A. R., and Wil- 
lard Relief Corps attended. The pulpit was draped with the Ameri- 
can flag. The house was filled with an attentive audience. Rev. 
George S. Chase delivered the address. 

Columbus Day exercises were held by the public schools of San- 
ford at the Opera House on Friday evening, October 21 , 1892. There 
were appropriate tableaux, recitations, and music, and addresses by 
George Goodwin, Rev. C. C. Speare, Edward H. Emery, and Dr. J. 
H. Neal. 


The first carriage in town is said to have been owned by Dr. 
Ebenezer Linscott, who began to practice in Sanford not far from 
1800. Timothy Gowen purchased it, and made it over into a wagon. 
According to tradition it was painted yellow. 

Mrs. Nicholas E. Paine probably owned the first pianoforte, John 
Storer, the second, and Rev. Mr. Goss, the third. 

The national game of base-ball was introduced in 1861. 

The first steamboat, "Elfin" was launched May 15, 1877. She 
was twenty- five feet in length, and could carry ten or fifteen passen- 
gers. Her owners were Goodall Brothers, and William A. Allen, 
Sanford, J. Hopewell, Jr., and Edwin Ham, Boston, and E. A. 
Noyes, Portland. 

Louis B. Goodall introduced tlie bicycle in April, 1879. 

The telephone was first used in May, 1883, when the office of the 
Sanford and Mousam River Mills, about a quarter of a mile apart, 
were connected by Holcomb's acoustic telephone. The long distance 
telephone service was instituted May 1, 1894. 

The first electric light machine in town was set in motion at Wil- 
liam A. Allen's printing-office, October 5, 1886. It was attached to 
six arc lights. On November 27 of the same year, I. B. Stiles 
lighted his store by electricity in the presence of four hundred people. 

The first automobile in town was purchased by Hon. E. M. Good- 
all in June, 1900. 

Five centenarians have died in Sanford : Susannah Davis, Novem- 
ber 25, 1836, aged one hundred and four years; Patience Plummer, 
January 17, 1840, aged one hundred years, eleven months and 
twenty-seven days ; Moses Tebbets, August 25, 1825, aged one hun- 
dred and one years, five months and thirteen days ; Eleanor Worster, 
widow of William, November 24, 1852, aged one hundred years and 
six months ; and Nancy Paul Welch, March 17, 1893, in her one 
hundred and first year. 

Nonogenarians who have died in Sanford, or having long been resi- 
dents of Sanford, have died elsewhere, are as follows, given alpha- 
betically : P^phraim Allen, died November 14, 1868, aged ninety-one 
years; Lydia (Mrs. Ephraim) Allen, October 28, 1878, ninety-one; 
Solomon Allen, December 19, 1826, ninety-eight; Hannah Bean, 
July 11, 1823, ninety-three; Joseph Bedell, December 31, 1851, 
ninety; Asenath (iMrs. George) Chadbourn, January 16, 1892, 
ninety-two years, one month, fourteen days ; Abner Clark, Septem- 
ber 16, 1882, ninety-two years, nine months, eight days ; Mary (Mrs. 
William) Deering, July 13, 1869, ninety- three ; Mrs. Lavinia Dodge, 
March 10, 1891, ninety-four years, nine days; Eliot Frost, January 


30, 1840, ninety-two years, nine months, four days; Hannah (Mor- 
rill) (Mrs. John) Frost, October 1, 1884, ninety-four; Abigail (Mrs. 
Timothy) Gowen, January 11, 1878, ninety-six years, four months, 
twenty-five days ; Hepzabeth Gowen, February 15, 1897, ninety-two 
years, ten months; Stephen Gowen, March 14, 1846, ninety-two 
years, eight months, twenty-five days; Walter Gowen, July 18, 
1887, ninety-two; Mrs. Hannah Haines, March 27, 1890, ninety- 
eight; Betsey (Mrs. Nahum)HersoiH, October 25, 1893, ninety years, 
five months; Jane Hough, June 26, 1899, ninety-one years, five 
months, five days; Scholastique Houle, February 28, 1899, ninety- 
seven; James Hurd, June 16, 1837, ninety-one years, four months; 
Sarah (Mrs. Ahijah) Hiissey, November 28, 1877, ninety-two years, 
eight months, twenty-five days ; Jane Jackson, March 4, 1855, 
ninety-one; Margaret Johnson, March 30, 1831, ninety-one years, 
nine months ; Sarah Johnson, 1862 (?), ninety-five ; Betsey Leavitt, 
August, 1858, ninety; Ithamar Littlefield, December 24, 1837, 
ninety-three years, eight months, twenty-seven days ; Louisa Lord, 
July 11, 1899, ninety-two years, eight months, five days; Betsey 
Moore, November 19, 1877, ninety-one years, five months; Hannah 
(Mrs. Jeremiah) Moulton, November 25, 1869, ninety-one; Hiram 
Murray, May 28, 1886, ninety-three years, six months, two days; 
Margaret (Mrs. Michael) O'Connor, November 1, 1894, about ninety 
years; Mary (Mrs. John) Paine, May 15, 1861, ninety-two years, 
two months, ten days ; Mrs. Lucy Parsons, October 21 , 1871, ninety- 
two years, seven months, nine days; Mrs. Experience Perkins, Oc- 
tober 4, 1889, ninety-two years, five months; Mary H. Perkins, 
April 11, 1895, ninety .years, eight months, sixteen days; Moses 
Plummer, April 1, 1850, ninety-three years, six months; John Quint, 
June 24, 1856, ninety-five or ninety-six years; Gideon Ross, June 

25, 1887, ninety years, three months; Keziah Smith, June 25, 1819, 
ninety-nine; Joseph Smyth, March 27, 1876, ninety-seven years, two 
months, twenty-eight days ; Fannie (Mrs. Enoch) Stanley, March 

26, 1876, ninety; John Stanyan, November 18, 1794, ninety-three; 
Mary (widow of Captain Jonathan) Tebbets, April 26, 1893, ninety- 
seven ; Tirzah (Mrs. Simon) Tebbets, September 19, 1863, ninety- 
four; Priscilla Thompson, May 24, 1793, ninety; George Tripp, 
October 22, 1859, within a few days of completing his ninetieth 
year; Samuel Willard, December 12, 1792, ninety; Aaron Witham, 
July 14, 1841, ninety-one years, two months, ten days ; Jerusha 
(Mrs. Joseph) Witham, June 23, 1883, ninety years, one month, 
eleven days. 

John Paul had eighteen children by three wives ; six by each. The 


oldest was born near the close of the Revolutionary War ; the young- 
est, some thirty years after. One of the oldest, John, of Wakefield, 
N. H., was shipwrecked near New Orleans about 1812, and with sev- 
eral others walked home from there, being about nine months on the 

Henry Hatch and Eunice his wife had a family of sixteen children, 
including two pairs of twins, in about twenty years. The oldest was 
born in 1802. 

William and Huldah Lord, of Beaver Hill, were the parents of six- 
teen children. 

Eugene C. and Marilla F. (Davis) Perkins are the parents of four- 
teen children, all but one of whom are living. The eldest, Howard 
E., was born July 5, 1869. 

In January, 1868, triplets, two boys and a girl, were born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Samuel Slater. 

William N. and George T., sons of Noah and Joanna (Nasson) 
Phillips, were born October 22 and 25, 1857, respectively. The 
former died August 20, 1858. 

The original Sanford Band, known as the Moulton Band, or "Cast 
Iron Band," was organized in the fall of 1844, and continued two 
or three years. David 'Cram was leader, and the players were as 
follows : David Cram, Calvin Bennett, Joseph Cram, and Lewis 
Moulton, B-flat post-horns ; John Parsons, trombone ; Joel E. Moul- 
ton and Rufus Bennett, B-flat bugles ; Abiel H. and John H. Moul- 
ton, ophicleides ; Ivory Clark, trumpet ; Stephen H. Moulton, bass 
drum; Henry Whitten, tenor drum. Orin Day joined some time 

The second band, the Sanford Cornet Band, was organized Sep- 
tember 14, 1860, with twenty-two men, twenty of whom are given 
here : David Cram, first B-flat cornet, leader ; Rufus Bennett, first 
E-flat cornet; John B. Bodwell, second E-flat cornet; Moses H. 
Libby, second B-flat cornet ; William Bennett, third B-flat cornet ; 
Walter Cram, first E-flat alto ; Edward K. Bennett, second E-flat 
alto ; John B. Libby, baritone ; Stephen Ford, Third, B-flat tenor ; 
Lebbeus Butler, first B-flat bass ; Daniel G. Clark, second B-flat 
bass ; Christopher H. Cram, first E-flat bass ; George Bennett, sec- 
ond E-flat bass ; John Merrill, Second, third E-flat bass ; Thaddeus 
L. Tebbets, fourth E-flat bass ; Calvin Bennett, fourth B-flat cornet ; 
Otis R. Libby, third E-flat alto; Joshua M. Roberts, bass drum; 
Edmund Johnson, tenor drum ; David B. Tebbets, cymbals. 

The South Sanford Brass Band was organized May 9, 1866. It 


was largely composed of Moultons, the following representatives of 
that family being members : Stephen H., Joel E., John H., Lewis, 
Joseph H., Jotham K., Elisha B., and Charles P. The other mem- 
bers were Edward P. and James C. Johnson, Herbert Lunny, Wesley 
W. Frost, and David Cram. 

The Springvale Philharmonic Club was organized March 1, 1876, 
with the following officers : H. C. Cheever, President; John Pound, 
Vice President; Clara Crocker, Secretary; Asa Low, Treasurer; 
H. C. Keen, H. C. Cheever, J. W. Lowe, Executive Committee ; H. 
C. Keen, Director. 

Weeman and Low's Quadrille Band was organized in 1876. John 
Weeman, A. W. Low, Albert Crooker, and Thomas Banks were 

Under the leadership of Nathaniel Bennett the Mechanics Cornet 
Band was organized April 10, 1878. George F. Kimball was Sec- 
ond Leader, E. E. Hussey, Clerk, and F. A. Garnsey, Treasurer. 
The original members were : E. E. Hussey, first E-flat cornet ; 
George F. Kimball, second E-flat cornet ; C. F. Gerry, third E-flat 
cornet ; James Thompson, first B-flat cornet ; Moses H. Libby, Jun- 
ior, second B-flat cornet ; J. B. Clark, solo alto trombone ; Almon 
Garnsey, second alto horn ; Charles Clark, first tenor trombone ; Na- 
thaniel Bennett, second tenor horn ; O. V. Libby, B-flat bass ; F. A. 
Gai-nsey, first E-flat tuba ; George E. Allen, second E-flat tuba ; 
Edward Gerry, bass drum ; Nelson Bennett, snare drum. The fol- 
lowing joined after the band was organized : E. S. Wright, first alto 
born ; Edward Gowen, cymbals ; Thomas Sykes, clarinet. This or- 
ganization disbanded in 1883. 

Sanford's present musical organizations include the Springvale 
Brass Band, Frank Shackley, leader ; Sanford Drum Corps, H. Wig- 
gins, manager ; and Smith and Gerry's Orchestra, Sanford, William 
Smith, conductor. 

The old liberty-pole that stood so many years near the Allen store 
was raised in 1838. 

Hon. E. M. Goodall and Charles A. Bodwell built a trout-breeding 
house in 1879., at the Birch Log brooki and hatched out about 50,- 
000 trout. In the spring following, 100,000 fi'y were purchased. As 
the trout grew, it was thought the water supply would be insuflScient, 
so a tile pipe was laid to the river. In July the water became so 
warm that the fish died by thousands. What remained were placed 
in the "Muck Hole " brook, but the experiment was finally aban- 
doned, as the trout were fished out by boys at night, and it was felt 
that the results would give no adequate return for the efforts made. ' 


A skeleton was unearthed, August 7, 1880, in front of George 
Nason's house, when the Springvale Aqueduct Company was laying 
its pipes. It was supposed to be of some one buried in an old grave- 

In 1886, John Buzzell, of Mount Hope, raised cotton from seed 
picked at New Orleans by George B. Goodall. 

A Christian Civic League, known as the Sanford Auxiliary to the 
Maine State Christian Civic League was organized April 23, 1899, 
in the Baptist Qhurch at Sanford, with Edward H. Emery as Presi- 
dent. The League holds public meetings, upholds those officers who 
discharge their duties faithfully, and takes an active part in town 
elections. There are eighty- two members. The present officers are : 
President, Edward H. Emery; Vice Presidents, Frank H. Dexter, 
Rev. Sumner Estes ; Secretary and Treasurer, John P. Bowley ; Ex- 
ecutive Boaj'd, George H. Nowell, William H. Whitcomb, Clarence 
Goodwin, and W. F. Ferguson. 

The Social Club has comfortable quarters in Gowen's Block on 
School Street. Thomas Howe is President, and John Hargraves, 

The Sanford Cycle Club is a flourishing organization, located in 
Bodwell's Block on Washington Street. Samuel Mitchell is Presi- 
dent and Will Leavitt, Secretary. 

One of the popular organizations of Springvale is Springvale 
Grange, No. 310, of which the officers are as follows : Worthy 
Master, Joseph P. Moulton; Overseer, Daniel L. Ellis; Lecturer, 
George W. Hanson ; Steward, Anson M. Butler ; Assistant Steward, 
J. Wesley Joy ; Chaplain, Mrs. G. W. Hanson ; Treasurer, Henry 
C. Welch ; Secretary, Annie E. Moulton ; Gate Keeper, Harry B. 
Goodwin; Pomona, Mrs. C. L. Libby; Ceres, Lena A. Welch; 
Flora, Mrs. H. C. Welch; Lady Assistant Steward, Mildred R. 

The Sanford Agricultural and Mechanical Association built Oak 
Grove Park, Springvale, and conducted agricultural fairs thereon 
for a number of years. The Association has dissolved, and the park 
was sold. Mousam River Park, Sanford, was conducted by the San- 
ford Fair and Trotting Association, which, although in a state of 
inactivity, is still in existence. 

Sanford sent several men to the front in the War with Spain in 
1898, and the resulting hostilities in the Philippine Islands. Abraham 
Lincoln Frost, son of the late Howard Frost of Springvale, was in the 
south when the Spanish War began, and enlisting in the Vicksburg 


Southerns, of Vicksburg, Miss., at the first call for volunteers, be- 
came a private in First Mississippi Infantry. He was in camp at 
Chickamauga for several weeks, when he was transferred to the Sig- 
nal Corps, and attached to the First Army Corps, under General 
Brooke. Going with his command to Porto Eico, he was in the en- 
tire campaign on that island, and was present at the surrender of San 
Juan. Afterwards he was assigned to service at various cities on the 
island. Mr. Frost died from cerebral congestion at Mayaguez, on 
February 9, 1899. His remains were brought home, and buried in 
the family lot at Springvale. He was in his thirty-sixth year, having 
been born October 14, 1863. 

Hugh H. Thompson, au employe of the Goodall Worsted Company, 
enlisted in the army in November, 1899, and was assigned to the 
Fourth Cavalry. Being sent to the Philippines, he was promoted to 
corporal of Troop I. Under General Lawton he saw considerable 
active service. He died of disease on the Island of Luzon, May 14, 
1900. The remains were brought to Sanford, and given a soldier's 
burial, a squad of militia from Company G, Biddeford, participating. 
Mr. Thompson's age was twenty-seven years, nine months. He left 
a widow and one son. 

John S. Goodrich, son of Sewall Goodrich, enlisted in Company 
D, Twenty-Sixth United States Volunteers, and saw active service in 
the Philippines. 

Fred Ashworth, son of Henry Ashworth, was with the Fifth Artil- 
lery at Pekin at the time of the capture of the Chinese capital by the 
allies during the summer of 1900. 

During the British-Boer War in South Africa, in 1900, the English 
sympathizers in Sanford raised nearly $1,000 for the Maf eking re- 
lief fund, which brought to Joseph Hollinrake, treasurer of the com- 
mittee in charge, a cordial letter of thanks from Lady Georgiana 
Curzon : 

" My Dear Sir: I have just received your letter of June 6, and I 
write at once to re-echo the thanks which I have already begged 
Messrs. Baring Bros, to convey to you and your committee. I am 
deeply touched at this generous assistance from the British Ameri- 
cans of Sanford, and I trust you will assure them of my gratitude, 
and that you will also tell them that my sister. Lady Sarah Wilson, 
and the mayor of Mafeking, have both cabled to me expressions of 
sincere thanks from the townspeople. I am quite sure the efforts 
you and your community have made will be amply repaid by the 
knowledge of the assistance you have rendered to that gallant little 


town of Mafeking, and that this material form of acknowledging 
their loyalty must please them as much as your liberality compensates 
them for their losses. It is indeed sincerely to be hoped that ere long 
peace will reign throughout South Africa, and I heartily reciprocate 
your hopeful expressions, that with the rule of the queen over that 
distressed country, the South Africans may derive all the benefits of 
good government to be found in every other British colony, and 
which are so tjjoroughly appreciated by them. 
" I remain, yours faithfully, 

" Georgiana Cdrzon." 

The upper story of the Church of St. Ignatius, Martyr, being 
finished, the church edifice was formally opened to the public on 
Christmas Day, 1900, when masses were celebrated by Rev. John J. 
McGinnis, and his assistant. Rev. George J. Pettit. 



RoBEKT Allen was the first settler on Oak Hill. In 1743 he pur- 
chased one hundred acres of land near Bauneg Beg Pond for thiity- 
five pounds, and settled thereon in 1745/6, coming from Kittery or 
Berwick. He was the son of Francis and Hannah Allen, of Kittery, 
was born July 24, 1710, and died before the third Tuesday of June, 
1763. Elijah Allen, his brother, was born March 12, 1719/20. 
September 26, 1763, Solomon Allen, administrator of the estate of 
Robert Allen (and probably his son) , sold to Elijah Allen, Kittery, 
yeoman, lands of said Robert. Solomon Allen had a few years pre- 
viously purchased thirty acres at Oak Hill of Jacob Perkins, and 
twenty- four acres of Robert Allen. From these Aliens the numerous 
Allen family of the south part of the town descended. 

Allkn, Geokgb, Descendants of. The Allen family that included 
General Elisha Allen, his sons, Francis A,, Horace O., and Emilus, 
and his grandsons, Stillman B., Hon. Frank A., William A., George 
E., and Rev. Henry E., trace their genealogical line back as follows : 

1. George Allen, b. 1568 in Braintree, Essex County, England; 
d. April, 1648, in Sandwich, Mass. Came to America (Saugus, 
Mass.) in 1635. In 1637 he with several others, purchased of the 
Indians the township of Sandwich on Cape Cod and settled there. 
He was a Puritan ; a member of the Baptist Church ; a " Freeman " 
and the first town officer of Sandwich. In his will he appoints his 
wife, Catherine, executrix, and mentions Matthew, Henry, Samuel, 
William and "least five children." 

2. Samuel Allen, b. about 1597 in Braintree, England. Came to 
America seven years before his father, arriving in 1628. His first 
wife, Ann, died September 29, 1641. Second wife was Margaret 
Lamb. He settled in Braintree, Mass., and died there in 1671. His 
will is preserved in Suffolk County Probate office. Children by first 
wife: Samuel, b. 16;i2 ; Mary, b. 1634; James, b. 1636; Sarah, b. 
1639 ; and by second wife: Joseph, b. 1650. 

3. James Allen, b. 1636, d. 1714; m. Elizabeth Perkins. Chil- 
dren : Ebenezer, and seven other sons. 



4. Kbeiiezer Allen, b. 1671, d. 1724; m. Rebecca Gould. Cliil- 
dren : James, and four other sons. 

5. James Allen, b. 1716, d. 1786; m. Abigail Pease. Children:: 
Eleazer, and two other sons. 

6. Eleazer Allen, b. about 1742, d. August 29, 1782. As an " im- 
pressed seaman" he was on board the British battleship " EoyaL 
George," Commander Kerapenfelt, when she capsized in Spithead 
harbor, and sank with nearly all on board, August 29, 1782. He 
married Mary Sherman of Bridgewater, and settled in Rochester, - 
Mass., where their children were born: Zephaniah, Jesse, Elisha, 
Mary, Elizabeth, Lydia and Lois. 

7. Elisha Allen, b. November 7, 1775, d. in Sanford, August 8,- 
1831; m. Harriet Matilda, daughter of Samuel Nasson (see Nas- 
son genealogy) , in 1804. 

Gknbral Elisha' Allen {Eleazer,^ James,^ Ebenezer,'^ James,^' 
Samuel,^ George^) came from a family whose motto was " Un yield 
ing Perseverance." Of this his life was an exempliflcation. He was- 
bora in Rochester, Mass., November 7, 1775. After his father's- 
death, which occurred when he was seveu years of age, Elisha's- 
mother married a Gilbert, and removed to Brookfleld, and he went 
to New Braintree, Mass., to live with a man named Pepper. Upon 
the death of Mr. Pepper's son John, whom the boy liked very much, 
young Allen ran away, because he could not agree with Mr. Pepper. 
While working in a paper-mill in Dorchester, not long after, his 
brother, Captain Jesse, persuaded him to leave and go to sea. He 
sailed from Boston to New York for freight, but while delayed there, 
the young sailor grew sick of a seaman's life, as its hardships began 
to be realized, told the captain that he had seen as much sea as he 
wished, and refused to go with him, notwithstanding the persuasive 
words of his brother. He thereupon returned to his work at Dor- 
chester. Jesse sailed from New York as soon as his vessel was 
loaded. The brothers never met again, for the vessel was never 
heard of after her departure. From Dorchester young Allen went to 
Saccarappa, Maine, and, after working a short time on a canal, 
opened a store. Not long after, he removed to Eeadfield, and formed 
a copartnership with another man. While engaged in trade, he dis- 
covered that his partner was in the habit of carrying goods from the 
store to his home without charging them. Telling him that partner- 
ship was no ship for him, Mr. Alien proposed a dissolution, and 
bought him out. From Readfield, he went to Boston in 1801, and 
opened a store in or near what was called " Hatters' Squiire." One 
year suflSced, and he again turned his foptsteps toward the east. 


Early in 1802, Mr. Allen came into town on foot, and lodged at 
Ezra Thompson's. During their evening conversation, he revealed 
the object of his eastern journey, whereupon his host recommended 
the Corner as a promising iield for a trader. William 8timpson was 
then trading in a store at the upper end of the village. Allen's ob- 
jection, that there was one trader at the Corner, was met with the 
reply that a new man could get most of the trade. Mr. Allen listened 
with interest, gave the matter due consideration, visited the Corner 
on the following day, and concluded that it was a desirable location 
for him. He immediately began to trade near the site of the little 
cobbler's shop near Mrs. R. W. Thurston's residence on Main Street, 
and was licensed as a retailer in April, 1802. Stimpson, licensed in 
1801 and 1802, does not appear among the retailers after that. Ac- 
cording to General Allen's memoranda, his store, built in 1802, cost 
two hundred and twenty-nine dollars and sixteen cents. It was a 
one-story wooden building, with a large fireproof brick vault at the 
southeast end. It stood on the corner in what is now Hosea Wil- 
lard's yard. In 1804, he erected a two-story, flat-roofed dwelling 
house, southeast of his store, and connected therewith by a long, 
narrow ell. The buildings were burned February 27, 1853. One 
item in his memoranda may be of interest: "8 poplars fa) 20, 
$1.60." These stood nearly fifty years, and were the only ones at 
the Corner. 

During his residence of nearly thirty years in Sanford, General 
Allen was engaged in trade, was prominent in town affairs, and held 
various offices, both civil and military. He was town clerk twenty- 
one years, selectman four years, treasurer two years, Representative 
to the General Court four years, and also to the first Legislature of 
Maine, delegate to the convention that framed the Constitution of 
Maine, Presidential Elector, councillor, and postmaster. He was a 
justice of the peace ten years, and of the peace and quorum eleven 
years, and appointed to qualify civil officers four years. In the 
militia he was Quartermaster, Adjutant, Major, Colonel and Briga- 
dier General. He was postmaster in 1820, when he became a candi- 
date for Presidential Elector. That he might be eligible, he resigned 
his office, though his successor was not commissioned until after the 
election. After Monroe had taken his seat in 1821, Colonel Allen 
was reappointed. He received seven hundred and ninety-three of 
the eight hundred and sixty-one votes cast in the first district. It 
was indeed an "era of good feeling." In 1800, when at Eeadfield, 
he boarded with a Mr. Mitchell, one of whose daughters was the wife 

39(5 msTOKY or sanford. 

of Jonathan G. Hunton, a young lawyer. By a strange coincidence, 
that young lawyer and the young mercliant met in the council of the 
state in 1830, the former as Governor, the latter as a member of the 
Governor's council. 

Just before the War of 1812, in company with Captain Hugh Mc- 
Cullough, of Kennebunk, General Alien built a ship called the 
" Sabine." He was the first owner of ships in Sanford. "We have, 
in a memorandum of money, May 14, 1803, a little evidence of his 
trade at that time. He then had in bills, $506 ; dollars, $629 ; 
change, fourteen dollars; "four oz."(?) eleven dollars; cents, 
seven dollars and fifty cents ; gold, eight dollars and fifty cents ; 
total, $1176. 

General Allen married Harriet Matilda, daughter of Major Sam- 
uel and Joanna Nasson, April 8, 1804. They had six children : 
Harriet M., born October 19, 1804, married Jonathan Clark, and 
died December 16, 1831; Julia A., born September 23, 1806, mar- 
ried John W. Bodwell, and died April 20, 1875 ; Francis A., born 
June 27, 1808, married Rowena C. Paine, and died December 4, 
1834; Horace 0., born March 16, 1810, married Elizabeth Derby, 
and died May 30, 1837 ; Emilus, born June 19, 1811, married Sarah 
Hanson, and died December 23, 1855; Maria Louise, born May 6, 
1818, died April 15, 1825. Francis A. was the father of Mrs. Frank 
Gowen, and the late Mrs. Louise Frances, wife of Major General 
Schuyler Hamilton of New York. She married, first, Hon. James 
M. Cavanaugh, a prominent lawyer and member of Congress, who 
died October 30, 1879. Mrs. Hamilton died in New York, March 31, 
1898, and was buried in Sanford. She was much admired by her 
friends and acquaintances as an exceedingly brilliant woman. 

GeneralAUen died August 8, 1831. His widow died May 13, 1872, 
aged eighty-nine years, six months, thirteen days. 

Hon. Mark Dennett, of Kittery, who was a member of the first 
Legislature of Maine with General Allen, said of him: '' He took 
a deep interest in legislative affairs, and sometimes took part in dis- 
cussion with great caution, being rather diffident because his educa- 
tion had not been so good as he desired. He was an honorable and, 
I think, an honest gentleman." His last surviving child, Mrs. Bod- 
well, thus wrote of her father : " My father was one of the kindest 
fathers that ever children had. They all loved him very dearly. He 
could never do too much for them, — I revere his memory, — was a 
noble-hearted man, was rather quick-tempered, but was always ready 
to make the 'amende.' He despised meanness in any shape whatever." 


Horace Octavics^ Allen {Elisha,'' Eleazer,^ James,^ Ehenezer,^ 
James,^ Samuel,'^ George^) was born in Sanford, March 16, 1810, 
and died in Sanford, May 30, 1837. He prepared for college at 
Gorham Seminary, and entered Bowdoin in 1823, when thirteen 
years old, graduating in 1827. He studied law in the office of John 
Holmes at Alfred, married Elizabeth Derby of Lyman, and lived in 
Waterborough until 1831, when he moved back to Sanford into the 
old Nasson homestead situated on the top of Nasson Hill. This 
"oldest house in the town" is still standing. He practiced his pro- 
fession here during the rest of his lifetime. Children : Stillman 
Boyd, born September 8, 1830, died June 9, 1891 ; Frank Augustus, 
born January 29, 1835; Rufus Derby, born March 8, 1837, died 
November 23, 1867. Mrs. A.llen is still living, making her home in 
Cambridge, Mass. Her ancestry is as follows : 

1. John Derby arrived in Marblehead previous to 1679. He 
moved to Ipswich, where he died about 1688. 

2. John Derby, son of John (1), b. October 8, 1681, d. March 
7, 1753 ; m. Deborah Conant of Beverly (a descendant of Roger Co- 
nant). Moved from Ipswich to Concord, Mass., where some of their 
descendants are now living on the old homestead farm. 

3. Ebenezer Derby, son of John (2), b. December 7, 1712. 
Moved to Kittery, Maine, in 1767, with bis sons Samuel and Silas. 

4. Silas Derby, son of Ebenezer (3), b. in Concord, Mass., April 
20, 1745 ; m. Sarah Norwood of Tork. 

5. Rufus Derby, son of Silas (4), b. in York, April 22, 1778; 
m. Sarah Bragdon in 1798, and moved to Lyman, Me., in 1800, where 
he died December 29, 1859. Children: Mary, b. November 11, 
1798 ; Rufus, b. November 5, 1800; Hannah, b. December 25,1803 ; 
Sally, b. November 19, 1806 ; Olive, b. September 13, 1809 ; Eliza- 
beth, b. March 28, 1812 ; Silas, b. January 31, 1815 ; Lucy, b. April 
24, 1818; Eunice, b. April 26, 1821. 

6. Elizabeth Derby married Horace O. Allen of Sanford. 

Emilus^ Allen {Elisha,~ Eleazer,^ James,^ Ebenezer,* James,^ 
Samuel,^ George^) was born in Sanford, June 19, 1811. He was 
educated in the town schools and Gorham Academy. At the age of 
eighteen he went to sea and made several voyages to the West In- 
dies. After leaving seafaring life he returned to Sanford and learned 
the mason's trade with the late Adrial Thompson. March 3, 1832, 
he was united in marriage to Sarah Hanson. They had six children : 
Octavius, born December 21, 1832 ; Lucy A., born March 19, 1836 ; 
William A., born October 12, 1842 ; George E., born July 13, 1846 ; 
Henry E., born September 8, 1851, and one who died in infancy. 
Mr. Allen served as a Deputy Sheriff for several years. The remainder 


of his life he spent in working at his trade. He was an omnivorous 
reader and was considered one of the best informed persons in town 
in general history. He died December 23, 1855. 

Stillman Botd^ Allen {Horace 0.,^ Elisha^'' Eleazer,^ James,^ 
Ebenezer,* James^^ Samuel,^ George^) was born in Waterborough, 
Maine, September 8, 1830. On him, his mother's first born, devolved, 
after the death of his father, the duties of father, brother, and son. 
His natural force of character was thus early developed. As a mere 
lad, he was a clerk in the store of Samuel B. Emery. At the age of 
eighteen he shipped for Liverpool and New Orleans as a sailor. On 
his return voyage, while scarcely recovered from an attack of mala- 
rial fever, his vessel was totally wrecked, and he was washed ashore, 
more dead than alive, on the sands of Cape Cod. Abandoning the 
sea he obtained a responsible position in the Kittery navy yard. Mr. 
Allen secured his early education in the village and private schools 
in Sanford and Springvale, and later attended the Kennebunk, Al- 
fred, and North Yarmouth Academies. He taught school in Kittery 
in 1849-50-51. Reading law with Judge Daniel Goodenow, of Al- 
fred, and Hon. "William H. Y. Hackett, of Portsmouth, N. H., he 
was admitted to the bar of York County, September Term, Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1853. He immediately began to practice at Kittery 
Foreside, where he remained until May, 1861, when he removed to 
Boston and opened an office at No. 20 Court Street (now Young's 
Hotel building), and at once commenced the practice of his profes- 
sion. Two years later Hon. John D. Long (then a young lawyer, 
now Secretary of the Navy) , entered his office as clerk on a salary of 
ten dollars per week. Mr. Long's ability was quickly appreciated 
by Mr. Allen, and his salary was rapidly increased until it reached 
$3000 per annum, and finally resulted in an equal partnership which 
continued until Mr. Long was elected Governor of Massachusetts. 
For many years, and until the time of his death, June 9, 1891, Mr. 
Allen was senior member of the law firm of Allen, Long and Hemen- 
way, Secretary Long, after his retirement from Congressional life, 
resuming his former relations in the firm. The third partner was 
Alfred Hemenway. 

Mr. Allen took a prominent place in the courts about 1868, and 
for more than a score of years was one of the most successful jury 
advocates at the Suffolk bar. No man, probably, ever secured such 
A succession of large verdicts in actions of tort as he. His reputation 
was such in that respect that his docket was always full and he was 


largely retained as senior counsel in the trial of cases by other at- 
torneys. Among the verdicts obtained by him was one of $39,500, 
in 1879, against the old Eastern Railroad Company for personal 
injuries suffered by Dr. Charles W. Haekett. Another was a verdict 
of $28,000 against the Boston and Maine Railroad, on behalf of a 
boy, injured in Springfield, and he obtained a great many verdicts 
ranging from $10,000 to $20,000. Mr. Allen had a natural taste for 
practical business, and also for mechanics, both of which gifts gave 
him special facilities in comprehending and explaining the details of 
intricate cases and making them plain to the jury. His great forte 
was his persuasiveness, his happy power of illustration, and a knowl- 
edge of human nature and sympathy with the common experience of 
men which enabled him to come closer than any other advocate to 
the hearts and common sense of a jury. He was, besides, a man of 
great intellectual power. He was very ready as a speaker on the 
platform, and was always attractive in debate. Of a kindly, sym- 
pathetic and generous nature, he never forgot an old friend, and es- 
pecially those who befriended him in the early days of his life. People 
came to him for friendly counsel, and young men were constantly 
being aided by him. For thirty years he was a prominent and active 
member of the Berkeley Street Congregational Church in Boston, de- 
voting much of his time to the work of the Sunday School. He was 
the largest financial contributor to that church and society during his 
connection with it. 

Early in life Mr. Allen served on the school committee in Kittery. 
In 1876 and 1877 he represented the city of Boston in the Massachu- 
setts Legislature, serving the first year upon the judiciary committee. 
The following year he was chairman of the committee on probate 
and chancery. In 1877 he conducted an examination made by the 
Legislature into alleged abuses existing in the State Reform School 

. at Westborough, which resulted in an entire change in the manage- 
ment of that institution. In December, 1889, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Boston school committee. He was deeply interested in 
this work and devoted all the time to it his declining health would 
permit. The very last active dut3' of his busy life was attending a 
meeting of the school committee on a cold stormy evening in Janu- 

. ary, 1891. A severe cold which lie contracted that evening resulted 
in confining him to a sick room, from which he was only released by 
death the following June. 

September 8, 1854, Mr. Allen married Harriet S., daughter of 

-Joseph and Mary Seaward, of Kittery, by whom he had two children, 


Willis Boyd Allen, born July 9, 1855, and Marion Boyd Allen, born 
October 23, 1862. His widow and ciiildren reside in Boston. His 
son is the well known and successful writer, author of "The Pine 
Cone Stories," " The Lion City of Africa," "Navy Blue," " Cleared 
for Action," and other attractive books for the young. 

Hon. Frank August0s9 Allkn {Horace 0.,^ Elisha,'' Eleazer,^ 
James,^ Ebenezer,'^ Javies,^ Samuel,^ George^) was born in Sanford, 
January 29, 1835. When he was two years of age, his father died, 
leaving the care of three small boys to their mother. She was a most 
faithful mother, and in addition to instruction in the public school and 
neighboring academy, they received excellent home training. Frank 
attended school at the Coiner until sixteen years of age, and com- 
pleted his schooling with one year at the academy at Alfred. He was 
then employed one year in the mill, beginning in William Miller's 
woollen factory, and continuing at Limerick, Alfred and Biddeford. 
At eighteen years of age he began his mercantile life as a clerk in 
Portland, and there remained three years. Having attained his ma- 
jority, he engaged in business for himself, at Saccarappa one year, 
with Augustus G. Paine, under the firm name of Allen and Paine. 
Removing to Portsmouth, N. H., they commenced the sale of wool- 
lens and the manufacture of ladies' cloaks, which they prosecuted 
with energy and business tact. After three years in Portsmouth and 
three years in Boston, they removed to New York. During these 
six years, their sales amounted to many million dollars, and during 
their seven years in New York their sales were enormous. Mr. Al- 
len's brother, Rufus D., had charge of one department of their ex- 
tensive business in New York. At one time the firm employed six 
hundred persons, and one hundred sewing machines. 

After fourteen years of active business life, Mr. Allen retired. 
One year of inactivity was spent before he embarked in another en- 
terprise. He and otlier York County men formed a copartnershii^ in 
Boston in 1867, under the firm name of the Oriental Tea Company, 
and for years this company has carried on a large business in teas 
and coffees at 87 and 89 Court Street, Boston. He moved his family 
to Cambridge, Mass., in 1870, and has resided there since that 

In 1874 Mr. Allen was elected a member of the common council of 
Cambridge, and was re-elected the following yeav. and became pres- 
ident of that body. In December, 1876, he was elected mayor by a 
majority of 654 votes over his opponent. During his membership in 



the common council Mr. Allen had been a leader in the investigation 
of the hack and cigar scandals, and the examination of the books in 
the oflSce of the water registrar, whereby glaring abuses and irregu- 
larities were discovered. His determined stand that the business of 
the treasury department should be conducted on strictly business 
principles made him the natural head of the reform movement in 1876, 
and his administration resulted in practical and gratifying reform in 
the management of the city's affairs. In a speech made at the time 
of his election, Mr. Allen said: " I shall come to the oflSce under 
no pledge or obligation to any individual or party, but under the most 
solemn obligations to my fellow citizens to do all in my power to 
promote their welfare. In this work I shall ask, and I am sure I 
shall receive, the co-operation of you all, of those whose choice I am 
not, as well as of those whose choice I am. My ambition will not be 
to have held the high ofHee to which you have elected me, but to have 
merited the confidence to which I owe it. But gentlemen, speech 
making is not my forte. I prefer to be judged by what I do, rather 
than what I say." These remarks received the editorial endorsement 
of the Congregationalist in the following terms : " These are senti- 
ments and language which would do honor to anybody. They deserve 
to be published abroad in the political world, as profitable for doc- 
trine, reproof, correction, and instruction in righteousness." Mr. 
Allen, as mayor, exemplied his platform. He placed the system of 
keeping the accounts of the city upon a substantial basis, and accom- 
plished reforms at City Hall of great and permanent benefit to the 
tax payers. " The city owes him a debt of everlasting gratitude 
which it will never repay," we quote from an editorial in a Cam- 
bridge paper of the time. At the conclusion of his term of ofBce, Mr. 
Allen declined a re-election. He was a member of the Cambridge 
water board from 1894 to 1899, and has been a member of the board 
of sinking fund commissioners from 1878 until the present time. Mr.. 
Allen has been a member of the Prospect Street Congregational 
Church since hiTs residence in Cambridge. 

In January, 1858, he was married to Annie G. Scribnerof Gorham, 
Maine, by whom he had three children: Annie E., born September 
4, 1858; Georgie, born January 23, 1860, died in infancy; Herbert 
M., born February 22, 1865. His wife Annie died March 2, 1865, 
and April 3, 1866, he was married to Elizabeth M. Scribner. 

William A." Allen {Emilus,^ Elisha,'' Eleazer,^ James,^ Ehen- 
ezer,'^ James,? Samuel,^ George^) was born in Sanford, October 12, 


1842. He received his education in the public schools of Sanford, 
At an early age he displayed a natural tendency towards mechanics. 
In the summer of 1861 he took sole charge of the steam engine in 
Littlefield Brothers' saw-mill in York. For some time thereafter he 
was engaged as an engineer in different localities. August 29, 1862, 
he enlisted as a private in Company E, Twenty- Seventh Maine Vol- 
unteers, which was attached to the Army of the Potomac under Gen- 
erals Hooker and Meade. He was discharged July 17, 1863. After 
the close of the war he was engaged as foreman of the stitching room 
of a large shoe manufactory in Marlborough, Mass. After Hon. 
Thomas Goodall located in Sanford, Mr. Allen was employed as a 
general mechanic, where he remained until failing health caused him 
to resign his position. He was for a short time employed as overseer 
of the stitching room of Butler and Fogg's shoe manufactory in 
Springvale. Upon recovering his health he was engaged by the San- 
ford Mills Company as master mechanic, which position he held for 
fourteen years, when his health again failed, and he was compelled 
to resign his position. For the next six years he had sole charge of 
the large building on Huntington Avenue, Boston, owned by the 
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association. In 1896 Mr. Al- 
len became master mechanic of the Goodall Worsted Company, which 
position he held for three years. Since that time he has resided in 
Belmont, Mass. 

In public affairs Mr. Allen has been quite prominent, having served 
as Deputy Sheriff for, eight years and for three years as tax collector. 
He was the founder of Allen's tag manufacturing business and sold 
out to James H. Goodall. He is a member of the G. A. R., and the 
Masonic fraternity. 

Mr. Allen was united in marriage, December 6, 1863, with Louisa 
Bennett, of Alfred. Carrie, the only child of this union, is the wife 
of William J. Kammler of Boston. 

George E.^ Allen {Emilus,^ Elisha,'' Eleazer,^ James,^ Ebenezer,'^ 
James,^ Samuel,^ George^) was born in Sanford, July 13, 1846. He 
received his education in the town schools. At the age of sixteen 
years he learned the shoemaker's trade, which occupation he followed 
till 1872, when he entered the employ of the Sanford Mills Company. 
In 1876 he learned the business of printing carriage robes, which he 
has followed until the present time. In 1887 Mr. Allen was appointed 
a Trial Justice by Governor Bodwell, and was reappointed in 1894 
by Governor Cleaves. In 1897 the Sanford Municipal Court was 


established, and George W. Hanson, Esquire, appointed Judge, and 
Mr. Allen was appointed Recorder. Mr. Allen served as Auditor of 
Sanford two years. In 1887, he was appointed a member of the 
Board of Health and was elected Secretary, which position he has 
held ever since, and since 1896 has been the executive officer of the 

Mr. Allen is deeply interested in the history of bis native town, 
and has contributed a number of articles on the subject to the press. 

He is quite prominent as a secret society man, being a charter 
member of Preble Lodge, No. 143, F. and A. M., under its res- 
toration, and for six years its Worshipful Master. He is also a 
charter member of Friendship Lodge, No. 69, I. 0. O. F., and was its 
first Noble Grand. A charter member of Riverside Lodge, No. 12, 
Knights of Pythias, he has filled every office in the lodge and was for 
three years District Deputy of the First Pythian District. Mr. Allen 
was a charter member of Harmony Council, No. 10, Jr. 0. U. A. M. ; 
also a member of Torsey Lodge, I. 0. G. T., and was District Tem- 
plar of York District Lodge one year and Lodge Deputy of the local 
lodge for eight years. 

Mr. Allen married Hannah M. Carpenter, August 22, 1865, and 
they have two sons, Frank L., and Edward E., who reside in San- 

Db. John Lareabee Allen, son of John and Mary (Larrabee) 
Allen, was born in Cornish, April 26, 1814. He fitted for college 
at Alfred and Limerick ; studied medicine with Dr. Stephen C. Brews- 
ter, of Buxton ; and graduated at the Maine Medical School, Bruns- 
wick, in 1836. Soon after his graduation, he settled in Springvale, 
where he enjoyed a large and successful practice until the fall of 1852, 
when he removed to Saco. There he became one of the best known 
physicians in this section. During the Civil War he offered his ser- 
vices to Governor Washburn, and was ordered to Fairfax Seminary 
Hospital, near Alexandria, Va., in September, 1862, where he ren- 
dered valuable service. He was United States examining surgeon for 
pensions for nearly twenty years. He died September 4, 1897, at 
Saco. Dr. Allen married Mehitable B., youngest daughter of Theo- 
dore and Anne (Harmon) Elwell, of Buxton. They had eight chil- 
dren : Lucinda R., Marianna, Amelia, Francesca B., Georgianna B., 
and a son and two daughters (triplets) who died in infancy, unnamed. 

Fred John Allen, son of John and Caroline P. (Hill) Allen, was 
born in Alfred, July 27, 1865. He lived on a farm until he was 


nineteen years of age, and attended the Alfred High School. Grad- 
uating from Nichols Latin School, Lewiston, in 1886, he entered 
Bowdoin College, from which he graduated in 1890. After studying 
law, Mr. Allen was admitted to the bar, at Alfred, in May of 1893. 
The following August, he opened an office in Sanford, and has been 
located here ever since, meeting with much success. In September, 
1900, he was elected Kepresentative to the Legislature by a large 
plurality. Mr. Allen has made his way by pluck and perseverance, 
as instanced by the fact that he was dependent largely upon his own 
resources in defraying college expenses, which he met by teaching 
school and working in summer hotels. He was married, June 8, 
1892, at Alfred, to Ida S. Leavitt, and has two sons. 

Elder Paul S. Adams supplied the pulpit of the Sanford Baptist 
Church for a time in 1838, and was ordained September 19 of that 
year. He was subsequently pastor of Baptist churches in Brunswick, 
from January 3, 1841, to 1843, South Reading, Newburyport, and 
Georgetown, Mass., leaving the last named town in 1851, Newport, 
N. H., and Brattleboro, Vt. He was born in North Berwick, May 
5, 1812. In 1843, he married Susan, daughter of Dr. Ebenezer and 
Olive (Chadbourn) Linscott, born in 1821. They had seven children. 
In 1861, when the Civil War broke out, Elder Adams was an ardent 
patriot, and on one occasion exhibited his love of country in a very 
practical way. In a blacksmith's shop, he knocked down with his 
fist, a man who dared to give utterance to treasonable sentiments. 

Charles B. Allbee, who is now serving his seventh term as town 
clerk of Sanford, was born in Somerset County May 31, 1865, being 
a son of Benjamin G. and Lois C. Allbee. He received his educa«- 
tion in the public schools and at Anson academy. He began his busi- 
ness career at the age of fifteen, joining with his brother, Benjamin 
F. Allbee, in the clothing business at Milton Mills. After remaining 
there a number of years he came to Sanfoid and opened a tailoring 
and clothing establishment, which he conducted independently until 
1891, when he received his brother Benjamin in partnership. Since 
that time the business has been managed under the firm name of All- 
bee Brothers. Mr. Allbee also acts as manager of the Sanford ex- 
change of the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company. 

In 1894 he was elected town clerk, to which oflSce he has been re- 
elected annually ever since. In politics he is a Republican. Mr. 
Allbee is prominent in fraternal organizations, being a member of 
Preble Lodge of Masons, and White Rose Royal Arch Chapter ; a 


past noble grand of Miltonia Lodge of Odd Fellows, Milton Mills ; 
a member of Riverside Lodge, Knights of Pythias, and of Sagamore 
Tribe Independent Order of Red Men. 

On May 30, 1892, Mr. Allbee was united in marriage with Eliza- 
beth II. Emery, daughter of the late B. Frank Emery of Sanford. 

Bkli,e Ashton is the first woman lawyer of York County, and the 
second in the state of Maine. She was born in Wetmore, Kansas, 
the daughter of Thomas G. and Mary (Kernon) Ashton, Mrs. Ash- 
ton being the sister of William Kernon of this town. The mother 
dying when Miss Ashton was a child, the latter was obliged, from the 
age of eleven years, to depend upon her own resources, and she ac- 
quired a shorthand training by attending a night school while working 
days to secure the necessary funds to pay her school expenses. Coming 
to Sanford in 1893, she secured employment in the office of the Goodall 
Worsted Company. In 1894 she accepted a situation as stenographer 
in the office of Fred J. Allen, where she began the study of law in 
her spare moments. Completing her course, she was examined at the 
term of the York County Supreme Court in Alfred last June, and was 
admitted to the bar. On the day of her admission she was compli- 
mented by the presiding judge and by the members of the bar assem- 
bled for her high rank in both written and oral examination. 

Georgk Ashworth, son of John R. and Alice Ashworth, was born 
in Newchurch, near Manchester, England, June 23, 1856. He re- 
ceived his early schooling in his native town, and at the age of fifteen 
was apprenticed to learn the carpet printer's trade. At the close of 
his apprenticeship of seven years he worked as a journeyman opera- 
tive for a time, coming to the United States in 1881. For three years 
he was employed in a number of places, and in 1884 came to San- 
ford to enter the printing department of the Sanford Mills, where he 
has since continued. Mr. Ashworth resides upon a large farm, which 
affords him ample opportunity to indulge his taste for gardening and 
f mit culture. While in England he had always devoted much leisure 
time to gardening, and had won many prizes at agricultural fairs ; and 
since his residence in Sanford he has been very successful as a large 
grower of fruit and vegetables, and a stock and poultry breeder. 
Mr. Ashworth married, March 9, 1874, Elizabeth A. Clark, a native 
of Lnncashire, England, daughter of Henry and Ann Clark. They 
have six children. Mr. Ashworth was practically the founder of the 
Sons of St. George of Sanford. 


Fred B. Avertll, editor and publisher of the Sanford Tribune, is 
a descendant of one of the oldest families in the Pine Tree State. 
His grandparents, John and Mary (Moulton) Averill, lived at the 
old homestead in York, where their son Joseph B., father of the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was born. Joseph B. Averill learned the black- 
smith trade in his father's shop, remaining there until the time of his 
marriage. His wife, Luella Frances, was a daughter of Tracy P. 
and Ellen (Wallingford) Wales, of Beverly, Mass. Captain Tracy 
P. Wales, for many years commander of a trans-Atlantic steamer, was 
a native of Beverly. He died in Liverpool, p]nglaud. Mrs. Wales 
was a native of Lebanon, Maine. Joseph B. Averill settled in Great 
Falls (now Somersworth) and there his elder son, Fred B., was born 
May 31, 1872. A few years later Mr. Averill purchased a blacksmith 
shop in Dover, N. H., moving with his family to that city, where 
Fred B. attended the public schools until about thirteen years of age. 
Mrs. Averill died in 1883. 

At the age of thirteen young Averill commenced to earn his own 
living by working in a Portsmouth grocery store, giving up his situ- 
ation there to come to Sanford in the fall of 1887, where he worked 
for about one year in the plush department of the Sanford Mills. 
During the five years following he attended the New Hampshire Con- 
ference Seminary at Tilton, and the Maine Wesleyan Semiiiary at 
Kent's Hill; working his way by teaching school and in various 
other pursuits, such as giving public entertainments with phonograph, 
lecturing, etc. He owned the first improved Edison phonograph ever 
exhibited in Eastern Maine, and for a time the business proved quite 
profitable. In 1893 he determined to enter the printing business, and 
in November of that year purchased a small outfit, including an eight 
by twelve job press. With such a knowledge of the business as could 
be acquired from studying trade journals and close application to his 
work, Mr. Averill soon had all he could do ; in ten months he found 
his quarters in the basement of A. E. Garnsey's store on School Street 
altogether inadequate, as was the original outfit, for his business re- 
quirements. In September, 1894, he increased his type outfit to more 
than double its original size, and purchased a larger press, moving 
the plant to E. K. Bennett's building on Washington Street, where 
the Sanford National Bank now stands. In 1896, the business, now 
known as the Averill Steam Print, had grown to such proportions 
that another move was necessary, and Mr. Averill leased the entire 
building at the rear of Garnsey's new block on Main Street, where he 
remained until November 12, 1898. On that date he purchased the 


land and building on "Washington Street known as the Goodall Tag 
"Works, of Newell T. Fogg, selling agent for James H. Goodall. It 
was in this building that the printing and shipping tag industry had 
been founded years before by "William A. Allen. Since its purchase 
by Mr. Averill it has been known as the Averill Press, and is the 
only job printing establishment in Sanford, and one of the largest in 
York County. 

In December, 1895, Mr. Averill entered the field of journalism by 
issuing the first number of the Star, a monthly paper devoted to the 
interests of the Christian Endeavor Societies in this section ; contin- 
uing the publication for two years, during which period he enlarged 
it twice, and then sold it to a Boston publishing house. May 1, 18i)9, 
he purchased the Sanford Tribune of its founder, George W. Huff. 
Since that date the paper has been enlarged to eight pages and its 
circulation is rapidly increasing in Sanford and surrounding towns. 

Mr. Averill held the office of town auditor for two years. He is 
a member of Sagamore Tribe, Improved Order of Red Men ; River- 
side Lodge, Knights of Pythias ; Friendship Lodge, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, and has been identified with the Junior Order 
of United American Mechanics, having held the trusted position of 
state treasurer in that organization. 

Mr. Averill was united in marriage with Ida M. Lord, September 
19, 1894. Mrs. Averill is a granddaughter of the late John D. Cook, 
who is remembered by some of the older residents as one of the 
founders of the Republican party in York County. 

Rev. Elisha Bacon was born in Freeport, Maine, June 17, 1799. 
Having lost his father when four years of age, he was brought up by 
Deacon John Webster, and, in youth, apprenticed to a shoemaker 
and tanner. Afterwards he prepared for college at Gorham Acad- 
emy, and graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825. Among his class- 
mates were Longfellow, Hawthorne, John S. C. Abbott, and George 
B. Cheever, distinguished in literature, and Cilley, Bradbury, and 
Sawtelle, men of note in political life. After graduation he engaged 
in teaching a short time on Cape Cod. Mr. Bacon read theology 
with Rev. P. Fish, of Mashpee, Mass., and was employed for a few 
months, by the Maine Missionary Society. He supplied the church 
at Shapleigh part of a year. On the 6th of May, 1829, he was or- 
dained pastor of the Congregational Church of Sanford, and at his 
own request was dismissed September 10, 1834. He removed to 
Eliot, and was there installed January 2, 1836. Prior to his dismis- 


sion, June 1, 1840, he had removed to Centreville, in Barnstable, 
Mass., and was during that year invited to become pastor of the 
Congregational Church in that village. He did not accept the pastor- 
ate, though he continued to preach to the church seventeen years, 
until a throat trouble compelled him to give up preaching. He then 
opened a family boarding school at Centreville, which he taught 
until the Monday before his death. He died just as the bells were 
ringing for meeting, Sunday afternoon, January 11, 1863. 

Rev. Mr. Bacon married Emeline W. Basset, of Hyannis, Mass., 
January 10, 1828. They had five children : Mary B., who married 
Captain J. C. Case, and now resides in Springfield, Mass. ; George 
B., died in New Orleans; Sarah L., died in infancy; Sarah L., who 
married Captain H. A. Bearce ; and Elisha "W. , lost at sea. Mrs. 
Bacon died in New Bedford, Mass., March 20, 1887. 

Mr- Bacon was a preacher of fair abilities, and a ready speaker. 
He seldom preached doctrinal sermons, but dwelt on themes of a 
practical nature, and insisted upon a godly life as the best evidence of 
true religion in the heart. His sermons were written, his evening 
discourses, extemporaneous. Genial, social, sympathetic, he was 
beloved by all who knew him ; and his influence, especially among 
the young, was deeply felt. He was a considerate pastor, always 
ready to minister to the wants of the feeblest of his flock, especially 
in their afflictions by sickness or death. He was of medium height, 
quick, active, and strong physically. He suffered from a spinal 
difficulty, though not to such a degree as to incapacitate him from 
work. A firm temperance man, even to avoiding the use of tea and 
coffee, he was the happy instrument of saving a number of young 
men from ruin. His pastorates were eminently successful, and his 
death was " a loss to the church and the world." 

Captain David Bean, son of Captain Joseph Bean, of York, was 
born about 1723. His father was in the Provincial service for many 
years, as an Indian interpreter (his Indian captivity fitting him ad- 
mirably for that duty), lost an arm in the service, was pensioned, 
and received a grant of land from Massachusetts, in 1734, for his 
four children, then in their nonage. In 1755, the three surviving 
sons, John, James, and David, gentlemen, then of St. Georges, peti- 
tioned the General Court for a survey and lay-out of their father's 
grant. This was done, and in course of time the lands came into 
the possession of Captain David. This grant contained four hundred 
acres, and lay southwest of what is now Sanford Corner. For many 


years Captain Bean was engaged in navigation in the eastern part of 
the state, thus acquiring his title. His descendants claimed that he, 
for services rendered to the Province, or for a nominal price, received 
a deed of that territory now embracing the city of Ellsworth and its 
environs, and that they have a claim thereupon. Returning from the 
east to York, he removed to. town about 1 780, and settled upon the 
Bean grant. He came up from York alone, and camped out, board- 
ing at David Bennett's. He was engaged in clearing a portion of 
his land, and preparing it for occupancy. The wild beasts of the 
forest howled around his camp. One night in particular, he had rea- 
son for fear. In a temporary camp, without gun, by accident left at 
William Bennett's, he heard crossing the brook near his camp, with 
much noise, what he supposed to be a catamount. He was not mo- 
lested, however, and, of course, could tell only by the tracks of the 
beast that it must have been a powerful animal. He built the frame 
or timber house (we used to call it a log-house) occupied by his son 
John Bean, some fifty years ago. He was one of the original mem- 
bers of the Congregational Church, and was its first and only elder. 
He died March 15, 1800, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. One 
of his great-grandsons, George W. Bean, served in the navy during 
•the Mexican War. 

Rkv. Isaiah M. Bedell, son of Deacon John and Polly Bedell, 
-was born in Sanford, July 11, 1820. He indulged in the Christian 
hope during a revival at Springvale, in the spring of 1831. He pre- 
pared for college at North Parsonsfleld Academy, and studied for the 
ministry at Whitestown, N. Y. At his ordination in Buxton, Maine, 
February 19, 1851, Elder Gorham P. Ramsay, formerly pastor of the 
Freewill Baptist Church, preached the sermon. Rev. Mr. Bedell 
■filled pastorates or preached at Buxton, Woolwich, Farmington, and 
Topsham, Maine, Meredith, Gilmanton, and Strafford, N. H., and 
Lynn, Mass. He married June 1, 1846, Ellen E. Roberts, of Lyman. 

Bknnett Family. Although Dr. David Bennett, of York, was an 
original grantee of four of the settlers' lots (on one of which he built 
the first " proper house " in Sanford), and erected, in company with 
others, the first miU in town in 1739, there is no evidence to show 
that he was a settler or ever a resident of Sanford. In March, 1803, 
Edward Standley, aged seventy-five years, made a deposition, in 
which he stated that in 1743, Dr. Bennett's house, which stood on 
settler's lot number twenty-seven, was occupied by Samuel Staple. 


In 1797, Ephraitn Low, aged seventy- eight, also made a depositioQ, 
staling that Dr. Bennett owned lots twenty-six, twenty-seven and 
twenty-eight; that he (Low) fenced said lots about fifty-five years 
before (1742) ; that, about that time, Dr. Bennett built the first 
proper house in Sanford, and that he put Samuel Staple, one Howard's 
family, and others into it. Susannah Hatch, aged seventy-six in 
1797, made a similar deposition in regard to the ownership and occu- 
pancy of the lots. These depositions would tend to confirm the 
belief that Dr. Bennett was not a settler of the town, although 
active in promoting the settlement. His wife was named Alice, and 
their children were William, Hannah, David, Nathaniel, and John. 
After Dr. Bennett's death, which occurred probably in 1745, his widow 
married Joseph Simpson, Junior. She gave her lands in Sanford , in 
part before her death, and in part by will, to her sons William and 
Nathaniel. In 1790, William sold one-half of lot twenty-seven to- 
William Bennett, Junior. Nathaniel Bennett was a Lieutenant in the 
Revolutionary War (see page 73) . His son Joseph, born February 
11, 1786, died in August, 1846, married Abigail Batchelder, born 
April 4, 1792, died in December, 1875, and after having four sons, 
born in Sanford, moved to Hiram, March, 1824, and to Denmark, 
December, 1825. 

Edwakd K. Bennett, son of Nathaniel and Abigail (Hanson) 
Bennett, was born at South Sanford, November 2, 1837. He was 
left fatherless at the age of three years. When he was seven years 
old he went to live with Jotham Moulton, with whom he remained 
one year. About a year later he went to live on Dr. Bennett's farm, 
where he received two dollars a month for the work he was able to 
do. He remained six months, and then began to work regularly each 
summer on the farm of Calvin Bennett, until he reached his fourteenth 
year. His wages, meanwhile, had increased from five dollars a 
month to nine. He decided to learn a trade, and for this purpose 
entered the shoemaker's shop of Eben Hobbs, at the end of the year 
receiving thirty dollars and a set of shoemaker's tools. For twenty 
years he was engaged in shoemaking, at one period employing sixteen 
workmen. He afterward moved to Sanford Corner and bought an 
interest in an express business, continuing this work for many years; 
He also was a successful dealer in coal. In 1869 he was sent as 
Representative to the Legislature from the classed towns, Sanford 
and Lebanon. Mr. Bennett married Calista, daughter of Stephen 
Willard, of South Sanford. They have two sons : WillardH., pro- 


prietor of Hotel Sanford ; and Myron E., superintendent of Sariford'& 
public schools. 

Myron E. Bennett, son of Edward K. and Calista (Willard) Ben- 
nett, was born in this town December 2, 1876. He attended the 
schools in Sanford until 1893, when he entered the Maine Wesleyan 
Seminary at Kent's Hill, from which he graduated with honors in 

1896, and completed a post-graduate course at that institution in 

1897. Returning to Sanford, he became his father's successor as agent 
of the American Express Company, which position he retained until 
the spring of 1900, when he resigned. 

In 1899 Mr. Bennett was appointed superintendent of schools, that 
office then being filled by act of the school board. In the present year, 
when it was deemed practicable to make the position of superintend- 
ent of schools an elective office and to fix a salary for the same, Mr. 
Bennett was nominated by the Republicans as their candidate for the 
new position. His nomination was endorsed by the Democrats, and 
he thus became the first salaried superintendent of schools iu Sanford 
by unanimous choice of the town. Since entering upon the duties of 
his office he has made several improvements in the school system, and