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Full text of "British fungus-flora. A classified text-book of mycology"

ALBE?vT R. MANN 
LIBRARY 



New York SxATt Colleges 

OF 

Agriculture and Homh rcoNOMics 




Cornell University 




CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




924 051 800 286 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924051800286 



BRITISH FUNGUS-FLOEA. 



*^* As it has been found impossible to complete this Work 
conveniently in the three volumes originally conteynplaied, the 
subject will be concluded in a Supplementary Volume, which 
will be issued shortly. 



BEITISH 

FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

A CLASSIPLED TEXT-BOOK OF MYCOLOGY. 



aEOEGB MASSEE, 

AUTHOE 0» "tLANT LIFE," "THE PTA.NT WORLD," ETC. 



VOL. III. 



LONDON: 
GBOEGE BELL & SONS, YOEK ST., COVENT GAEDEK 
AND NEW YOEK. 
1893. 



202227 



PBINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED. 
STAUFOBD STBEET AND GHABTNG CROSS. 



CONTENTS. 



BASrOIOMYCETES 
HYPHOMYCETES 

MUCEDDTEAE 

Cbromosponeae 

OOEporeae . 

Cephalospoiieae 

Asperg^eae 

Botrytideae 

Terticillieae 

Oonatobotryeae 

Daotylieae . 

Banmlarieae 

Fasomeae . 

Milowieae . 

Septocylindrieae 

Deuatieae 

Coniospoiieae 

Toinleae 

EchinoljatTyeae 

Fericonieae 

Arthiineae . 

Trichosporieae 

Honotosporeae- 

HaplograpMeae 

Kyzotricheae 

CUaiidieae 



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■n 



CONTENTS. 



Stachylidieae 

Chalareae . 

Bisporeae . 

Cladosporieae 

Glasterospoiieae 

Septonemeae 

Helmintliosporieae 

A.crotliecieae 

SporoscMsmeae 

SendrypMeae 

Stilbeae . 

TuBEHCOIiAEIBAB 



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( vii ) 



LIST OF FIGURES. 



Aovemoniella pallida 
AcremoDium alternatum 
Aorospeira mirabilis 
Aorostalagmus oinnabarinus 
Aorotheoium simplex 
Aegerita Candida 
Alternaria braasicae 
Amanita mappa 
Amblyosporium botrytis 
Armillaria ramentacea . 
Arthrinum carioicoluiu 
Ai'throbotrys rosea . 
Aspergillus glauous 
Asterophora agarioicola 
Atractium flammeum . 
Atrobotryum atrum 
Bactridium helvellae . 
Bispora monilioides 
Bolacotricha grisea 
Bostrichonema alpestre 
Botryosporium diffusum 
Botrytis coroUigenum . 
Braohysporium obovatum . 
Briaria elegans . 
Camptoum curvatum . 
Gatenularia atra 
Oephalosporium aoremonium 
Cephalotheoium candidum 
Cephalotriohum curtum 
Ceratium hydnoides 
Ceratosporium digitatum . 
Cercospora resedas . 
Chaetopsis grisea . 
Chalara longipes 
Chromosporinm lateritium 



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Cladosporium herbarum 
Cladotriohum Cookei . 
Glonostaohys arauoaria 
Collybia butyracea . 
CoUybia ramealia . 
Goniosporium anindinis 
Goniosporium puccinioides 
Goniotbeoium vitioolum 
Oylindrium Cordnc . 
GyliudroooUa urticae 
Dactylaria orcbidis 
Daetylella iinplexa 
Daotylium deudroides . 
Daotylosporium brevipes 
Dematium bispidulum . 
Deudi'odoohium afBne . 
Dendryphium griseum . 
Dicoooum uniseptatum 
Dietyosporium elegana 
Didymaria Ungeri . 
Diplocladium melleum 
Diplosporium album . 
Eoliinobotryum atrum . 
Endodesmia glauoa 
Epicoccum purpuraaoens 
Epidoohium atrovirens 
Exosporium tillae . 
Fumago vagana 
Fusariella atrovirens 
Fusarium betae 
Fusarium solani 
Fusicladium depressum 
Fusidium viride 
Geotrichum candidum . 
G-onatobotrys flava . 



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Vlll 



LIST OF FIGUKES. 



PAGE 

Gonytrichum caesium . . 358 
Graphium subulatum . . . 442 
Graphiotheoiuni parasiticum . 397 
Gyroceras plantaginis . . . 313 
Hadrotriohum arundinaceum . 358 

Haplaria grisea 313 

~ 358 

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Haplographium olivaoeum 
Harpographium graminum 
Helicomyees tubulosus 
Helioosporium MuUeri 
Helioosporium ramosum . 
Helmiuthosporium fuBiforme 
Hormisomm splendens 
Hymenula rubella . 
Hypoderma roseum 
Illosporium roseum . 
Isaria citrina 

Isaria farinosa .... 
Lepiota cristata 
Macrosporium nobile . 
Menispora oiliata .... 358 
Menispora lucida . . . 358 

Microstroma album . 313 

Milowia nivea . . .313 

Monatospora pumlla . . 358 

Monilia aurea . . . 274 

Monosporium olivaceum . . 313 
Mucrosporium spbaerooeplia- 

lum 313 

Mycena leucogala . . . 3 

Mycogone cervina .... 274 
Myrothecium inundatum . . 442 
Mystrosporium stemphylium . 397 
Myxotrichum ochraceum . . 358 
Napicladlum arundinaceum . 397 
Nematogonium aurantiacum . 274 
Oedemium atrum .... 358 
Oedooephalum laeticolor . . 274 
Oedooephalum Preussii . . 274 
Oidium leucooonium . . 313 
Oospora favorum .... 274 
Ovularia veronioae . . . 274 
Papulospora sepedonoideB . . 358 
Passalora baoilligera . . . 358 



Penicillium glauoum . • 
Periconia atra . . . - 
Perlola tomentoaa . 
Polyaoytalum fungorum . 
Prismaria furoata . 
Eamularia hellebori 
Eamularla pratensis 
Ehinotricbum nlveum . 
Rliopalomyces pallidus 
Eussula lutea .... 
Eussula oohroleuoa 
Sooleootriohum stiotlcum . 
Sepedonium chrysoapermum 
Septooylindrium Bonordeni 
Septonema irregulars . 
Septosporium bulbotrichum 
Sporotrichum geocliroum . 
Speira toruloides 
Sphacelia segetum . 
Spioaria elegana 
Spondylocladium fumosum 
Sporidesmium lobatum 
Sporoohisma mirabile . 
Sporocybe byssoides 
Stachybotrys asperula . 
Stachylidium cyclosporum 
Stemphylium asperosporum 
Sterigmatooyatia dubia 
Stilbum oitrinellum 
Stysanus Stemonites 
Tetraploa aristata . 
Torula monilioides . 
Trichoderma lignornm 
Trioboloma rutilans 
Trichoaporium fuaoum 
Triohothecium roseum 
Triposporium elegana 
Tuberoularia euonymi 
Tuberculina persioina 
Verticillium distans 
Vertioladium apicale 
Virgaria umbrina . 
Volutella ciliata 
Zygodesmue terrestris 



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FUNGUS-FLOEA. 



LACTAEIUS. Plies, (figs. 2, 3, p. 301, vol. ii.) 

PiLEUS rather rigid, fleshy, becoming more or less de- 
pressed, often marked ■with concentric zones ; gills decnrrent 
or adnate, tmeqnal, often branched, rather rigid, exuding 
a white or coloured mUk when bruised ; stem stout, central 
or very rarely excentric, its substance continuous with 
that of the pileus; spores subglobose, minutely echinulate, 
white, or sometimes with a very faint tinge of yellow. 

Lactariibs, Fries, Epior., p. 333 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 305. 

The presence of white or coloured milk which flows in 
drops from the pileus, and especially the gUls, when 
wounded, is the most important generic character, and is 
the only one separating the present genus from Bussula. 

Every part of the fungus contains numerous anastomosing 
laticiferous cells filled with a densely granular liquid latex — 
or milh as termed by systematists — which escapes in drops 
when the tissue is broken. The latex is, in the majority of 
species, persistently white; in a few species the latex is 
white at first, and gradually changes to some other colour 
when exposed to the air ; in a still smaller number of species, 
the latex is coloured before escaping from the cells. In some 
species the latex is tasteless, or mild; in others again it is 
intensely acrid or peppery, even when only a very small 
quantity is applied to the tongue. These peculiarities of 
colour and taste of the latex are of specific importance, and 
i-equire to be noted. 

VOL. in. B 



2 FUNGUS-PLOEA. 

ANALYSIS OF TEE SPECIES. 

Suhgen. I. Pipeeites. 
Stem central. Gills uncliaiigeable, not pminose nor be- 
coming discoloured. Milk white at first (usually) acrid. 

* Tricholomoidei. Pileus moist, Tiscid, margin incurved 
and downy at first. 

** Limacini. Pileus moist, viscid, with a pellicle ; margin 
naked. 

*** Pijperati. Pileus without a pellicle, hence absolutely 
dry, often more or loss downy or unpolished. 

Suhgen. II. Dapbtes. 

Stem central. CriUs naked ; milk coloured from the first. 

Suhgen. III. Etjssularia. 

Stem central. Gills pallid, then discoloured, at length 
dark, becoming powdered with the white spores. Milk white 
at first, mild, or mild at first then becoming acrid. 

* Visddi. Pileus viscid at first. 

** Impoliti. . Pileus squamulose, downy, or pruinose. . 
*** Qlahrati. Pileus polished, glabrous. 

Suhgen. IV. Pleueopus.] 
Stem excentric or lateral. Growing on trunks. 

FIGUKBS ILLUSTKATING THE LEUCOSPOBAE. 
Fig. 1, EwsBula ochroleuca, section through the thickness of a gill, 
showing the Tesiouiar trama consisting of large spherical cells ; also the 
laticiferous vessels contaiaiiig a densely granular substance, and project- 
ing beyond the surface of the basidia forming the hymenium ; x 400 ; — 
Fig. 2, Bussula lutea, a small specimen; nat. size; — Fig. 3, section of 
same ; nat. size ; — Fig. 4, Amanita mojopa; about half nat. size ; — Fig. 5, 
seption of same ; half nat. size ; — Fig. 6, Lepiota crestata ; nat. size ; — ^Fig. 7, 
section of same ; nat. size ; — Fig. S, Armillaria ramentacea ; half nat. size ; 
—Fig. 9, section of same ; half nat. size ; — Fig. 10, Tricholoma ruUlans, 
half nat. size ; — Fig.ll, section of same ; half nat. size ; — Fig. 12, spores 
of same ; x 400 ;^-Fig. 13, Mycena leucogala ; half nat. size ;— -Fig. 14, 
section of same ; half nat. size ; — Fig. 15, Collyhia butyracea, about one- 
third nat. size; — Fig. 16, section of same; half nat. size; — Fig. 17, 
Collyhia ramealis ; nat. size. 



4 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

I. PIPERITES. 

* Tricholomoidei. 

Lactarius (Piper.) scrobiculatus. Scop. 

Pileus 4^8 in. across, flesh thick but not firm, whitish, 
usually hecoming yellowish when broken; at first convex 
and umhilicate, then infundibuliform, obtuse, very viscid 
when moist, with agglutinated down, yellow, becoming pale 
in sunny places, usually without zones, but sometimes very 
conspicuously zoned ; margin incurved, fringed with shaggy 
fibrils, expanding with age and becoming almost naked; 
gills slightly decurrent, thia, crowded, whitish; stem stout, 
often stufied when young, but becoming distinctly hollow, 
1J-2| in. long, up to 1 in. and more thick, equal, yellow, 
with large roundish depressions, glabrous, rather viscid, base 
downy; milk copious, at first white, becoming sulphur- 
yellow when exposed to the air, very acrid ; spores sub- 
globose, very minutely echinulate, 7-8 /*,. 

Lactarius scrobiculatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 334; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 305 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 971. 

Agaricus scrobiculatus, Scopoli. 

In damp woods. 

Distinguished by the yellow colour of pileus and stem, and 
by the white milk becoming sulphur-colour when exposed 
to the air. Fries says that the pileus is sometimes 12 in. 
across. When growing in very wet places the flesh some- 
times becomes bluish-purple when broken. Very acrid, 
smell not unpleasant. 

Lactarius (Piper.) intermedius. Krombh. 

Pileus 4-6 in. across, fleshy, broadly infundibuliform, 
viscid, smooth, ochraceous, margin involute, tomentose then 
smooth; gills broad lurid- whitish, somewhat decurrent, 
entire ; stem 1 J-2 in. long, up to 1 in. thick, yellowish, 
covered with spot-like depressions, solid, or sometimes 
hollow ; milk white then yellowish, rather acrid, 

Lactarius intermedius, Krombholz, t. 58, figs. 11-13; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 305. 

In woods. 



LACTAEIUS. 5 

Eeferred by Fries to L. ciliciotdes, from wMch it differs 
more especially in the pitted stem. Differs from L. serobieu- 
latus in the infundibuliform pileus. 

British specimens agree with Krombholz's plant, except 
that when fresh and dried they are more or less zoned, as in 
L. insulsus. (B. & Br.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) torminosus. Schaeff. 

PUens 3-4 in. across, even, viscid when moist, rather 
fi-agile, obtuse, depressed, slightly zoned, margin strongly 
involute for some time, shaggy with whitish fibrils, pale 
flesh-colour, with often a tinge of ochre; flesh pallid; milk 
white, acrid, not changing colour; giUs slightly decurrent, 
1-1^ line broad, very thin and crowded, unequal but rarely 
connected by branches, paler in colour than the pileus ; stem 
up to 3i in. long, |— 1 in. thick, slightly adpressedly tomen- 
tose or almost glabrous, even or obsoletely scrobiculate, 
dry, equal or attenuated downwards, stuffed soon hollow, 
like the pileus in colour or paler; spores echinnlate, 9-10 x 
7—8 /jL. 

Agaricus torminosus, Schaeffer, t. 12. 

Lactarius torminosus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 305; Cke., lUustr., 
pi. 972. 

Among grass, heather, &c. 

Inodorous, acrid, pale flesh-colour ; gills paler. Pileus not 
unfrequently pallid ochraceous, also at times entirely white 
and tomentose. (Fries.) 

Allied to L. cilicioides in the strongly incurved, bearded 
margin of the pileus, but known by the slightly zoned 
pileus and persistently white mUk. 

Pileus 2-5 in. broad, smooth or nearly so, except the 
involute margin, which is most copiously shaggy, depressed, 
more or less zoned, of a beautiful ochre or (sometimes) 
strawberry colour, at first viscid. Milk white, very acrid, 
not changeable. Gills rather narrow, nearly of the same 
colour as the pileus, but yellower and paler, slightly forked. 
Stem 1^2 in. long, ^ in. thick, sometimes shining, obtuse, 
paler than the pileus, at length hollow, clothed with a 
minute depressed down. Yery acrid, but the Eussians 
preserve it in salt, and eat it seasoned with oil and vinegar. 
(Berk.) 



6 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Lactarius (Piper.) cilicioides. Fr. 

Pileus 2-4 in. across, convex then expanded and the centre 
depressed, every part tomentose, viscid, not zoned, pale flesh- 
colour with a fuscous tinge, margin involute, fi.brillose and 
■woolly; flesh yellowish -white, milk acrid, white or with 
a tinge of yellow eventually; gills decurrent, crowded, 
hranched, yellowish-white ; stem firm, stuffed, usually more 
or less hollow with age, equal, 2-3 in. long, 1 in. thick, 
even, prninosely-silky under a lens, pallid, not roughened 
nor spotted ; spores minutely echinulate, 8 X 6-7 /x,. 

Lactarius cilicioides, Pries, Epicr., p. 334 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 306 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 973. 

In woods, pastures, &c. 

Intermediate between L. torminosus and L. turpis. Stem 
dingy, not pure in colour like L. torminosus. (Fries.) 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad, depressed, margin rounded, involute, 
reddish-buff sometimes glutinous, very downy, becoming 
fibrillose at the margin. Gills yellowish, irregular and often 
branching, apparently decurrent from the expansion of the 
stipes into the substance of the pileus. Flesh yellowish-white, 
darker towards the surface. Stem about 2 in. high, nearly 
1 in. thick, dingy white, yellow or brown. There is no juice, 
but a considerable moisture on the surface of the pileus 
which seems to originate from the plant. (Grev.) 

Lactarius (Russ.) lateritioroseus. Karst. 
Pileus up to 3^ in. broad, convex with an umbilicus, soon 
depressed, often at length somewhat infundibuliform and 
wavy, often unequal, zoneless or rarely slightly zoned, flesh 
up to 4 lines thick, becoming very thin towards the margin, 
dry, becoming broken up at the disc into minute, granule- 
like squamules, scales larger towards the margin, and dis- 
appearing eventually, flesh-colour or brick-red with a rosy 
tinge, becoming pale ; gills decurrent, rather distant, thin, 
up to 3 lines broad, often furcate and connected by veins, 
becoming yellowish ; stem up to 3 in. long and f in. thick, 
stuffed, sometimes becoming hollow at the base; unequal, 
incrassated at the base^ curved or flexuous, rarely straight, 
very slightly flocculose, colour of the pileus or paler ; spores 
Bubglobose, echinulate, uniguttulate, white, 8-9 x 6-8 /a ; 
milk acrid, white. 



LACTAEIUS. 7 

Lactariug lateritioroseus, Karsten, Medd. ad Soc. pro Faima 
et Flora Penn., 1888-91, p. 15, and description emended, Lc, 
p. 20. 

In woods. 

Lactarius (Piper.) turpis. Fr. 

Pilens 3-7 in. across, fleshy, rigid, convex then expanded, 
disciform or nmbilicate then depressed, innately downy at 
the margin only or all over, covered with a tenacious olive 
gluten, zoneless, sometimes with a tavsray tinge near the 
margin, at length more or less umber ; margin, for a long 
time involute, downy at first, yellowish-olive, then more or 
less expanded, at length often densely rivulosely snlcate; 
flesh compact, white, unchangeable ; gills adnato-decurrent, 
thin, 1—2 lines broad, much crowded, forked, pale straw- 
colour, spotted with brown when bruised; stem 1|— 3 in. 
long, ^1 in. thick, even or rough and unequal, but not 
spotted, viscid or dry, pallid or dark olive, apex pale whitish- 
ochre, solid, hard ; spores minutely spinulose, 6-S /i diameter. 

Lactarius twrpis. Fries, Epicr., p. 335 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 306 ; 
Cke., niustr., pi. 987. 

In woods. 

iJ. blennius somewhat resembles the present species, but 
differs in the concentrically spotted pileus; stuffed then 
hollow stem, and white gills. 

Gregarious. Distinguished by the olive tone of pileus 
and stem. Fries says that this species sometimes measures 
1 foot across ; flesh compact and rigid. The habit is almost 
that of Paxillus involutus. Stem sometimes hollow, and the 
pileus sometimes slightly zoned. 

Var. pltunbeus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 306. 

Agariaus plumheus. Bull., Champ., t. 282, and 559, f 2. 

Agaricus Listeri, Sow., t. 245, 

Pileus compact, convex, at length infundibuliform, dry, 
unpolished, dingy, then blackish-brown ; stem solid, equal, 
blunt; gills crowded, white then yellowish; milk acrid, 
white, unchangeable. 

In woods. 

Lactarius (Piper.) controversus. Pets. 
Pileus 3-6 ia. across, fleshy, firm, rigid, at first convex 



8 FUN6TJS-FL0EA. 

broadly Timbilicate, when adult, somewhat infundibuliform, 
oblique, emerging from the ground, dry, flocculose, "whitish, 
then after rain glabrous, viscid, reddish, and with red zones 
and spots, especially near the margin ; margin acute when 
young, strongly involute, more or Jess downy ; flesh very 
firm, milk white, acrid, not changing colour ; gills deourrent, 
thin, closely crowded, 1-2 lines broad, short ones numerous, 
rarely branched, white with a pallid flesh-coloured tinge ; 
stem solid, stout, 1 in. thick and long, sometimes quite 2 in. 
long, and evidently attenuated from the base, often excentrio, 
even, but mealy at the apex ; and from the decurrent teeth 
of the gills, appearing striate, entirely white, never scrobi- 
culate ; spores rough, globose, 6-8 jx diameter. 

Laetarius controversus, Pers., Syn., p. 430; Pries, Epicr., 
p. 335 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 306 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1003. 

In woods, pastures, &c. 

Smell weak but pleasant, taste very acrid. 

Laetarius (Piper.) pubesoens. Pr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, almost plane, centre depressed, then 
broadly infundibuliform, zoneless, even, dry, disc almost 
glabrous, shining, white tinged flesh-colour ; margin invo- 
lute, fibrilloso-pubescent ; flesh firm but thin, tough, white, 
or with a flesh-coloured tinge near the margin, unchange- 
able ; milk white, unchangeable, not copious, very acrid ; 
gills adnate or slightly decurrent, crowded, narrower than 
thickness of flesh ot pileus, pallid, slightly tinted flesh-colour ; 
stem stuffed, soft inside, short, about ^ in. thick at the apex, 
attenuated downwards, and sometimes compressed, even (not 
scrobiculate), usually minutely downy when young, then 
becoming glabrous, pale flesh-colour then whitish; spores 
globose, rough, 7-8 fi. 

Laetarius pubescens. Pries, Epicr., p, 835 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
306 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 974. 

In grassy places. 

Allied to L. controversus, but much smaller and more 
slender ; inodorous, taste very acrid. (Pries.) 

Somewhat resembling L. torminosus and L. eilicioides, but 
differing from both in being altogether smaller and more 
slender, and in the margin not being shaggy but only 
fibrillosely downy. 



LACTAEIUS. ' 9 

Lactarius (Piper.) aspideus. Fr. 

Acrid; every part dingy straw-colour, etem and gills 
paler than the pilens ; giving out everywhere when broken, 
white milk that becomes lilac. Pileus 2-4 in. across, flesh 
whitish, rather thin, loose ; plano-convex, unequal, somewhat 
papillate then rather depressed, even, viscid, zoneless ; gills 
adnate, subdecurrent, rather crowded, about 1 line broad, 
very unequal, connected by branches; stem almost equal, 
stuffed then hollow, 2-3 in. long, up to |- in. thick, even, 
glabrous, dry ; spores globose, rough, 8-10 fi diameter. 

Lactarius aspideus, Tries, Epicr., p. 336 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
307 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1083. 

In damp meadows, &c. 

Distinguished from all other species by the presence of a 
white, tomentose, deciduous silky zone near the margin of 
the pilleus ; when this disappears the margin is very glabrous. 
L. uvidus also has milk that turns lilac, but differs in the 
broad gills and obsoletely zoned pileus. 

** Limacini. 

Lactarius (Piper.) utilis. Weinm. 

Pileus 5-8 in. across, flesh thick; convex then plane, 
obtuse, at length infundibuliform, humid but dry in fine 
weather, glabrous, even, often cracked at maturity, tan- 
colour ; gills adnate, crowded, 4r~5 lines broad, pallid ; stem 
2-3 in. long, 1 in. thick, fragile, even, coloured like the 
pileus, hollow ; milk persistently white, somewhat acrid. 

Lactarius utilis, "Weinmann, Hym. Eoss., p. 43; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 307 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1084. 

In woods. 

In the specimen found for the first time in Britain the 
pileus was pale, and rather a dirty ochre, the stem darker, 
and longitudinally striate, but otherwise in accord with the 
description. (Cooke.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) insulsus. Fr. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, fleshy, and not very compact, flesh 

pallid, indistinctly zoned under the cuticle ; deeply umbili- 

cate, at length infundibuliform, rigid, zoned, especially 

near the margin, glabrous, yellowish brick-red, the viscid 



10 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

pellicle separating; margin naked; stem stuffed when 
young, hollow when old, often short and attenuated helow, 
1^ in. long, up to 1 in. thick, rarely drawn out to 3 in. and 
then equal, more slender, glabrous, even or rarely scrobiou- 
lately spotted; gills decurrent, closely crowded, forked at 
the base, 1 line or little more in breadth, whitish then pallid ; 
spheres subglobose, rough, pallid, 10 X 8 /a diameter. 

Laciarius insulsus, Fries, Epicr., p. 336 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
307 ; Cke.i Illustr., pi. 975. 

In pastures, &c. 

Eesembling L. delieiosus in size and habit, but distin- 
guished by the paler colour ; white, unchangeable, acrid 
milk, and absence of red colour in the flesh at every age. 
From L. zonalis, to which the present species is' closely 
allied, it is distinguished by the solid, yellowish stem. 

Lactarius (Piper.) zonarius. Fr. 

Pileus 2—4 in. across, flesh rather thick, white ; convex 
then flattened, depressed, sometimes deeply umbilicate ; 
margin naked, for a long time involute, glabrous and even 
at first, pellicle closely adnate, viscid, pale orange or pinkish- 
yellow, often prettily zoned towards the margin, at length — 
commencing at the margin — minutely rugulosely flocculose ; 
.gills slightly rounded behind and adnately decurrent, arcuate, 
thin, narrow, scarcely 1 line broad, thin, rather crowded, 
branched, whitish, at length dingy yellow, becoming sordid 
or somewhat greenish when bruised ; stem 2-3 in. long, 
^-1 in. thick, equal or attenuated at the base, even, glabrous, 
dry, white then yellowish, not spotted, paler above, solid, 
firm, elastic; milk white, unchangeable, acrid; spores, 
9-10 X 8 /*. 

Lactarius zonarius. Fries, Epicr., p. 336; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 307. 

Among grass, &c. 

Stem sometimes hollow ; pileus sometimes wavy, glabrous, 
and zoneless. (Fries.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) blennius. Fr. (figs. 2, 3, p. 301, 
vol. ii.) 

Pileus 3-6 in. across, flesh thick, firm; soon expanded and 
more or less depressed, glutinous, dingy greenish-grey, often 
more or less zoned with drop-like markings ; margin at first 



LACTAEIUS. 11 

incurved and downy f gills slightly decurrent, crowded, 
narrow, whitish or with an ochraceous tinge ; stem 1-2 in. 
long, up to 1 in. thick at the apex, where it expands- into 
the thick flesh Of the pileus, often attenuated at the base, 
viscid, coloured like the stem or paler, soon hollow; milk 
persistently white, very acrid ; spores subglobose, 7-8 x 6 /*. 

Lactarius hlennius, Pries, Epior., p. 337 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
308 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 988. 

In woods, on the ground, very rarely on trunks. 

L. turpis somewhat resembles the present species, but 
differs in the darker olive-brown pileus and the yellow down 
on the incurved margin, especially when young. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad, fleshy, rarely subzonate, convex, the 
margin generally involute and adpresso-tomentose (quite 
smooth, Fr.) ; ■ at length more or less depressed, dull cine- 
reous green, at first viscid ; more or less pitted. Milk white, 
not changeable. Gills rather narrow, pale ochraceous, 
scarcely forked, not connected by veins. Stem 1 in. long, 
\-\ in. thick, paler than the pileus, attenuated down- 
wards, obtuse, smooth, at length hollow, sometimes pitted, 
Very acrid. (Berk.) m j f 

Lactarius (Piper.) hjsginus. Fr. ' 5 

PiIeus~B^^^¥~in. across, flesh white, rigid, rather thin, 
flattened, umbilicate, margin thin, incurved, even, viscid, 
reddish flesh-colour or brownish-red, zoneless or slightly 
zoned, often shining; gills very slightly decurrent, thin, 
crowded, 1-2 lines broad, white then yellowish-ochre, but 
not pruinose; stem 2—4 in. long, f— 1 in. thick, glabrous, 
roughened with small points or somewhat^ spotted, stuffed 
then hollow, often inflated and constricted at tKe apex ; 
milk acrid, , white, unchangeable ; spores verruoulose, 
10 X 7-8 /i. 

Lactdrius hysginus, Pries, Epicr., p. 337 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
308 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 989. 

Among grass in woods, &c. 

Eigidly fragile, fleshy-red, pileus rather slender, somewhat 
wavy ; milk white, unchangeable, taste acrid. (Pries.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) trivialis. Fr. 

Pileus 4-8 in. across; fleshy, rigid and fragile, convex, 
soon depressed, at length infundibuUform, margin at first 



12 FUNGUS-PLOEA. 

involute then expanded, the pellicle at the margin becoming 
considerably inflexed; even, glabrous, viscid, at first dark 
lurid, then becoming pale, pale yellowish or pinky-tan, not 
zoned ; flesh equal, rather rigid, white ; gills subdecurrent, 
crowded, whitish, then pallid ; stem stout 1-6 in. long, up 
to 1 in. or even more thick, usually inflated and hollow, but 
shorter and firmer in dry localities, even, glabrous, slimy, not 
spotted, paler than the pileus ; milk acrid, white, unchange- 
able; spores 9-10 /n diameter. 

Lactarius trivialis. Fries, Epicr., p. 337 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
308; Gke., lUustr., pi. 976. 

In damp mossy places in pine woods. 

Lactarius (Piper.) circellatus. Pr. 

Pileus 2-4 in. across, flesh compact, rather thick, white ; 
convex and umbilicate at first, then flattened and the centre 
depressed, usually wavy when old, even, glabrous, very 
viscid and rufous-brown when moist, variegated with 
darker zones, becoming pale ; gills adnate with a somewhat 
decurrent tooth, very thin and crowded, narrow, often 
forked, whitish then with a yellowish tinge, horizontal (not 
arcuate); stem l|^-2 in. long, |- in. and more thick, equal or 
attenuated at the base, and often ascending, even, glabrous, 
pallid, solid; milk white, unchangeable, very acrid; spores 
subglobose, echinulate, 7-8 /*. 

Latarius circellatus. Pries, Epicr., p. 338 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
308; Cke., Illustr., pi. 990. 

In woods. 

Stem usually short, firm. Pileus brownish or rufescent, 
becoming pale ; flesh white but rather dark under the sepa- 
rable pelBcle. Grills horizontal, at length somewhat'coloured, 
but the milk unchangeable. Care is required in distinguish- 
ing between this and L. flexuosus and L. pyrogalus. (Fries.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) uvidus. Fr. 
Pileus 1^-3 in. across, flesh rather thick; convex and 
sometimes slightly umbonate or gibbous, then depressed, not 
zoned, viscid, dingy pale ochraceous-tan ; margin naked, in- 
volute at first ; gills - very slightly decurrent, thin, crowded, 
white, becoming lilac when bruised ; stem 2-3 in. long, 4r-8 
lines thick, soon hollow, viscid, pallid ; milk mild at first. 



LACTAEIUS. 13 

slowly becoming acrid; -white, changing to lilac; spores 
globose, 10 /A diameter. 

Lactarius uvidus. Fries, Epior., p. 338 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 
991 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 308. 

In woods. 

Distinguished at once by the milk changing from white to 
a distinct lilac colour when exposed to the air. 

Pileus_ 2-2^ in. broad, fleshy, depressed, sometimes obso- 
letely zoned, -viscid, pale dirty rufescent or cinereous -with a 
shade of lilac, speckled with small watery spots, which origi- 
nate beneath the epidermis. Gills paler, adnato-decurrent, 
the shorter ones very obtuse and truncate behind, connected 
by veins. Milk white, acrid. Stem 2 in. high, ^ in. thick, 
spongy, at length hollow, marked with little longitudinal 
pits, strigose at the base, the whole plant when cut white 
turning to a beautiful lilac. It is not, however, the milk 
which changes colour, on exposure to air, but the flesh itself. 
(Berk.) 

Soft and fragile, somewhat insipid then slowly becoming 
acrid ; smell weak. Milk white, usually changing to a lilac 
colour when exposed, rarely remaining white or changing 
to a dingy tan-colour. Pileus sometimes obsoletely zoned, 
indistinctly pellucidly striate when old; gills sometimes 
becoming yellowish. (Fries.) 

*** Piperati. 

Lactarius (Piper.) flexuosus. Fr. 
Pileus 3-5 in. across, fleshy ; convex then expanded and 
depressed, somewhat wavy, margin at first, and for a long 
time incurved, at length patent, erect, at first almost gla- 
brous and somewhat shining then becoming minutely broken 
up into squamtdes, opaque, lead or violet-grey, becoming 
pale, zoned or zoneless ; flesh hard, white ; gills adnate, 
somewhat horizontal, 1-11 line broad, connected by branches, 
distant, thick, tinged yellowish, then becoming tinged with 
flesh-colour ; stem 2-3 in. long, 1 in. and more thick above, 
stout or equally attenuated towards the base, not unfre- 
quently excentric, and often lacunose, pallid grey, base 
tinged yellow, apex whitish ; solid ; milk very acrid, white, 
unchangeable ; spores echinulate, 6-8 /«. diameter. 



14 FUNGUS-FLOBA. 

Lactarius flexuosus. Pries, Epior., p. 338 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
309 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 992. 
In woods. 

Yar. roseozonatus, Tries, Hym. Eur;, p. 427. 
Pileus entirely rose-colour, and marked witli darker 
zones. 
In woods. 
This variety has not yet been recorded for Britain. 

Lactarius (Piper.) pyrogalus. Bull. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thickish, white ; soon expanded 
and more or less depressed^ glabrous, even, slightly zoned, 
rather, moist, livid grey ; gills slightly decurrent, thin, 
rather distant, ochraceous; stem about 1-J- in. long, up to 
^ in. thick, attenuated at the base, pallid, stuffed then hol- 
low ; milk white, unchangeable, very hot and acrid ; spores 
globose, ecbinulate, 7-10 /a. 

Lactarius pyrogalus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 309 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 
993. 

Agaricus pyrogalus, BuUiard, Champ. France, t.' 529, f. 1. 

In woods, pastures, &c. 

Pileus sometimes brown. Fries mentions a form resem- 
bling L. fuliginosus, pileus clay-colour, not zoned, gills 
yellow. 

Allied to L. flexuosus, but smaller, more slender, pileus 
grey, at length becoming dingy yellowish; milk abundant, 
white, very acrid. The stem is sometimes excentric, and in 
shady places the pileus is pallid and somewhat zoned. 
(Fries.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) squalidus. Krombh. 

Pileus, 1-2 in. across, rather fleshy at the disc, margin thin, 
white, with scattered: yellowish spots near the margin; con- 
vex then almost plajie, umbilicate, dry, glabrous, not at all 
zoned, very pale greyish-olive or lurid ; gills adnate or very 
slightly decurrent, not 1 line broad, white then pale yellow ; 
stem about 2 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, equal, glabrous, pale 
brown, especially downwards, solid, firm ; milk whitish, 
mild, spores echinulate, 6-10 /i. 

Lactarius squalidus, Krombh., t. 40, f. 23-25 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 309 ; Cke,, Illustr., pi. 1004a. 



LACTAEIUS. 15 

Among moss, &c. ; in damp woods. 

About tlie size of X, pyrogalus, but differs in the narrow, 
yellow gills and mild milk. 

Lactarius (Piper.) capsicum. Schulz. 

Pileus 1|— 3 in. across, flesh thick, firm, with a yellow 
tinge, and changing to pale brown when cut ; convex, obtuse 
or slightly gibbous, dry, even, deep chestnut-colour ; margin 
strongly incurved ; gills slightly decurrent, about 1 line 
broad, rather crowded, pale tawny with a golden tinge; 
stem about 2 in. long, ^ in. thick or more, whitish, striate 
with tawny or rufous fibrils, solid, firm ; milk white, acrid ; 
spores globose, 6 fi diameter. 

Lactarius capsicum, Schulzer in Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 428 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 309 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 977. 

On the ground under birches, &c. 

Eeadily distinguished by the deep chestnut- coloured pilous 
and the flesh becoming brownish when broken. 

Lactarius (Piper.) chrysorrheus. Fr. 

Pileus about 2 in. across, flesh thick at the centre, becom- 
ing thin towards the margin, firm, white, tinged yellow when 
broken; umbilicate then depressed or infundibuliform, pale 
yellowish flesh-colour, ornamented with darker indistinct 
zones or spots ; gills decurrent, thin, crowded, dingy yel- 
lowish; stem about 1| in. long, and ^ in. thick, equal, even, 
white, stuffed then hollow; milk very acrid, white then 
golden-yellow ; spores 6-7 /a diameter. 

Lactarius chrysorrheus. Fries, Fpicr., p. 342; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 984; Cke., Hdbk., p. 310. 

In woods. 

Distinguished among the species' having yellow milk by 
the deep golden-yellow colour of the milk, which in all 
others is pale primrose yellow, and the pale yellow pink or 
apricot-coloured pileus. 

Lactarius (Piper.) acris. Fr. 
Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh rather thick, firm, white, 
irregular, often excentric, or one side emarginate, at first 
convex then plane, at length obliquely infundibuliform, more 
moist than viscid, scarcely zoned, but usually spotted, sooty- 
grey, darker or paler ; gills slightly decurrent, thin, rather 



16 FUNGUS-FLOE A 

crowded, somewhat divided behind, pallid at first, then pink- 
ish-yellow ; stem l|-2 in, long, 1 in. and more thick, attenu- 
ated downwards, often obliquely ascending or curved, pallid, 
becoming fragile, stuffed then hollow; milk acrid, white, 
soon becoming reddish ; ' spores subglobose, echinulate, 8-9 
X 6-8 II. 

■■ Lactarius acris. Pries, Epicr., p. 342 ; Cke., Hdbk,, p. 310; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1005. 

In woods. 

Stinking; acrid, milk white then reddish; spores 6 /a 
diameter. (Cooke.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) umbrinus. Pers. 

Pileus 2—3 in. across, fleshy, firm, not thick, convex then 
plane, the centre _ becoming slightly depressed, often wavy 
and excentric, absolutely dry, flocculoso-rivulose, more or 
less intense olivaoeoiis-umber, paler and yellowish when old ; 
flesh firm, white; milk white, acrid, forming grey spots 
when it has escaped ; gills sligiitly decurrent, thin, crowded, 
forked behind, 1 line or a little more in breadth, pallid, 
dingy yellowish; stem solid, compact, stout, up to 1 in. long, 
about ^ in. thick, attenuated upwards, even, colour of the 
pileus or paler, apex white ; spores globose, rough, 8 /u. diam. 

Lactarius umbrinus, Pers., Syn., p. 435 ; Pries, Epior., p. 
339; Cke., Hdbk., p. 310; Cke., Illustr., pi 1006. 

In pine woods, &c. 

Compact, but the pileus not thick, often flexuous, some- 
times becoming pale. Stem scarcely 1 in. long ; gills some- 
what decurrent, forked behind. (Fries.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) pergamenus. Fr. 

White. Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick at the 
disc, thin elsewhere; pliant, convex then plane and the 
centre depressed, often wavy, not zoned, glabrous, minutely 
wrinkled ; giUs adnate, very narrow, horizontal, very much 
crowded, branched, white at first, soon becoming straw- 
colour; milk white, unchangeable, acrid; spores broadly 
elliptical, echinulate, 7 X 5-6 /a; stem 3-4 in. long, ^| in. 
thick at the apex, usually more or less attenuated downwards, 
glabrous, becoming discoloured, stuffed. 

Lactarius pergamenus. Fries, Epicr., p. 340 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 310 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 978. 



LACTAEIUS. 17 

In woods. 

Entirely wMte; milk wMte, abundant, very acrid 
Closely allied to L. piperatus, but dififering in the longer, 
stuffed stem attenuated downwards, thinner pHeus, and the 
adnata, very much crowded and very narrow gills that soon 
become straw-colour. 

The milk is very abundant in the flesh, scanty in the 
gills. (Fries.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) piperatus. Fr. 

White. Pileus 4-8 in. across, flesh thick, firm ; umbili- 
cate then infundibuliform and margin erect, glabrous, even, 
not zoned ; gills deourrent, crowded, not more than 1 line 
broad, frequently forked; stem about 1^ in. long and nearly 
as thick, smooth, solid; milk white, uuchangeable, copious, 
very acrid ; spores subglobose, minutely asperate, 8-9 jx, 
diameter. 

Lactarius piperatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 340 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
310 ; Cke., Jllustr., pi. 979. 

In woods. 

Compact, firm, dry, without smell, milk white, abundant, 
very acrid, unchangeable"; stem solid, stout, 1-2 in. long, 
1-2 in. thick, equal or obconic, even, very slightly mealy, 
white. Pileus fleshy, rigid, umbilicate when young, the 
marginal portion reflexed (margin at first involute), infun- 
dibuliform quite from the margin when adult, 4^9 in. broad, 
for the most part regular, even, glabrous, not zoned, white 
or tinged with yellow when old. Flesh white. Gills de- 
current, crowded, narrow, scarcely a line broad, margin 
obtuse, forking, arcuate, then straight, white, not changing 
to straw-colour, but often spotted with yellow. Not be- 
coming tinted with flesh-colour, as in L. controversus. 
(Fries.) 

Pileus 3-7 in. broad, slightly rugulose, quite smooth, 
white, a little clouded with yellow or stained with umber 
where scratched or bruised, convex, more or less depreesed, 
often quite infundibuliform more or less waved, fleshy, 
thick, firm, but brittle, margin involute at first ; sometimes 
excentrio. Milk white, hot. GiUs generally very narrow, 
•jij- of an in. broad, but sometimes much broader, cream- 
coloured, repeatedly dichotomous, very close, " like the teeth 

VOL. IIL c 



18 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

of an ivoi'y comb," decurrent from the shape of the pileus, 
when bruised changing to umber. Stem 1-3 in. high, 
lJ-2 in. thick, often compressed, minutely pruinose, solid 
but spongy within, the substance breaking up into transverse 
cavities. (Berk.) 

Lactarius (Piper.) vellereus. Fr. 

"White. Pileus 4-8 in. across, flesh thick, firm ; convex 
then expanded and umbilicate, tomentose, not zoned ; gills 
dpcurrent, 2 lines broad, distant, arcuate, not forked but 
connected by branches; stem 2-3 in. long, up to IJ in. 
thick, downy, solid ; spores very minutely asperate, 8-6 /x ; 
milk scanty, white unchangeable, acrid. 

Lactarius vellereus. Fries, Epicr., p. 340 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
311 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 980. 

In woods. 

The pileus is sometimes very broadly umbilicate or cup- 
shaped, at others almost flat. Milk sometimes absent. Very 
closely resembling Bussula delica but distinguished by the 
floccose or downy pileus and acrid taste. 

Large, hard, rigid, milk very acrid, scanty, white. Stem 
stout, solid, equal, 2-3 in. long, 1-1|^ in. thick, with delicate 
innate down on the surface. Pileus fleshy, compact, convex 
then flattened, margin for a long time bent down, 6-7 in. 
broad, innately downy, dry, zoneless, white, with sugges- 
tions of reddish tan. Grills arcuate, adnato-decurrent, 
thickish, margin acute, rather distant, 2 lines and- more 
broad, connected by branches (but not dichotomous), pallid, 
watery white. Closely allied to L: piperaius, difiering in 
certain points, more especially in the broader, arcuate, 
somewhat distant gills. The milk sometimes becomes pale 
sulphur-colour when the flesh is broken, but soon changes 
to white. (Fries.) 

Pileus 4-7 in. broad more or less infundibuliform, the 
whole surface minutely but densely tomentose ; white, firm, 
fleshy ; margin at first involute. Milk white, acrid. Gills 
white, narrow (but occasionally broad and Isrittle, like A. 
exsuceus), distant, forked, connected by veins, at length 
slightly buff or yellowish, rufescent after being bruised. 
Stem 1 in. high, 2 in. thick, blunt, rather less downy than 
the pileus, solid. (Berk.) 



LACTAEITJS. 19 

Lactarius (Piper.) scoticus. B. & Br. 

Pallid-white. Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh, about 1 line 
thiok, firm ; soon becoming almost plane, adpressedly tomen- 
tose, then smooth, except the involute margin ; gills -very 
slightly decurrent, thin, about 1 line broad, scarcely 
branched ; stem about 1 in. long, 3 lines thick, slightly 
curved, smooth, tinged flesh-colour, solid; milk white, 
unchangeable, very acrid ; spores subglobose, with an 
apiculus, minutely echinulate, 7-8 /a ; smell pungent. 

Lactarius scoticus, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., no. 1783 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 311 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1004b. 

Among moss. 

Distinguished from L. involutus, the only other species 
with which it can be confounded, by the much broader gills, 
larger spores, and tinted stem. 

Lactarius (Piper.) involutus. Soppitt. 

Every part white or with a very slight ochraceous tinge. 
Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh about 1| line thick, equal up to 
the margin, compact, rigid; convex soon becoming plane or 
slightly depressed, margin strongly and persistently invo- 
lute, extreme edge minutely silky, remainder even and 
glabrous ; gills very slightly decurrent, densely crowded, 
not |- a line broad, sometimes forked ; stem §-1 in. long, 
2-8 lines thick, equal, or slightly thickened at the base, 
glabrous, even, solid, very firm ; milk white, unchangeable, 
not scanty, very hot; spores obliquely elliptical, smooth, 
5 X 3 /A. 

Lactarius involutus, Soppitt, Cke., Hdbk., p. 380 ; Cke., 
Illustr., pi. 1194. 

On the ground in woods. 

Very firm and rigid, resembling in habit L. vellereus in 
miniature. Most nearly allied to L. scoticus, but known at 
once by the exceedingly narrow, densely crowded gills and 
the smooth, elliptical spores, 

II. DAPETES. 

Lactarius (Dap.) deliciosus. Pr. 
Every part becoming stained with dingy green "when 
bruised or old. Every part abounding with a saiFron-red 



20 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

sweet scented, acrid milk. Pileus 3-5 in, across, flesh tHick 
convex then expanded and depressed, viscid, glabrous, dingy 
orange-red, zoned, margin incurved ; gills deourrent, narrow, 
saffron-colour becoming pale ; stem 1-3 in. long, up to 1 in. 
thick, often narrowed at the base, expanding into the flesh 
of the pileus, smooth, usually paler than the pileus, stuffed 
then hollow ; spores echinulate, 9-10 X 7-8 /x. 

Lactarius delieiosus. Fries, Epicr., p. 341 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
311 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 982. 

Under firs, &c. 

Edible. According to Pries the pileus is sometimes grey 
and not zoned. In Comm. Grypt. Ital., iii. p. 174, a violet 
variety is mentioned. 

Gregarious, sometimes subcaespitose. Pileus 4 in. or 
more broad, zoned, orange-rufous, dull as if it were the 
remains of a minute very closely pressed dirty white web, 
hemispherical when young, in which state the margin is 
decidedly involute and tomentose, at length expanded, de- 
pressed, fleshy. The whole plant abounding with orange 
milk and when bruised or old stained with green. GiUs 
decurrent, from the first of the same colour as the pileus, 
forked at the base, rather broad and distant. Spores white, 
round. Stem 3 in. high, curved, stuffed, more or less 
hollow, scrobiculate, strigose at the base. Odour and taste 
agreeable, like that of Cantharellus cibarius, but slightly 
acrid. Prom the account given by M. Eoques, it should 
seem that this Agaric, however delicious, is not always to be 
eaten with impunity. I have always found the milk acrid. 
(Berk.) 

III. EUSSULAEIA. 

* Yiscidi. 

Lactarius (Russ.) pallidus. Pr. 
Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh thick, rather soft, pallid; 
convex then expanded, umbilicate, viscid, glabrous, margin 
broadly involute, pale oohraceous-tan, not zoned ; gills 
slightly decurrent, crowded, about 1^ line broad, rather 
paler than the pileus, pruinrse; stem l|-2 in. long, up to 



LACTAKIUS. . 21 

f in. thick, equal, smootli, coloured like the pileus or paler, 
firm, stuffed but soon hollow ; milk white, unchangeable, 
mild ; spores 9-10 x 7-8 fn. 

Lactarius pallidus. Pries, Epicr., p. 343 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 
1007 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 312. 

In woods, especially beech. 

Large, texture loose, size of L. deliciosus, but pallid tan- 
colour, taste almost sweet. Stem somewhat equal, stuffed 
then hollo-w, 2 in. and more long, about | in. thick, even, 
glabrous; pileus fleshy, convex, umbilicate, depressed, 
obtuse, margin broadly and for a long time involute, 3-6 in. 
across, glabrous, viscid, not zoned and like the stem pallid 
flesh or clay-colour ; flesh pallid, milk white, unchangeable. 
Gills somewhat decurrent, arcuate, l|-2 lines broad, rather 
thin, crowded, somewhat branched, whitish then the colour 
of the pileus. There is a form with the pileus becoming 
tinged with fuscous. (Fries.) 

Lactarius (Russ.) quietus. Fr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh soft, rather thick, white at first, 
but soon becoming reddish, as does also that of the stem ; 
obtuse, depressed, often more or less waved or irregular, 
viscid at first then dry and somewhat silky, dark reddish 
cinnamon, becoming pale, indistinctly zoned, opaque ; gills 
slightly decurrent, somewhat forked, white then pale brick- 
red ; stem about 2-3 in. long and ^ in. thick, glabrous, 
reddish-cinnamon, base darker as a rule, stuffed; milk white, 
unchangeable, mild ; spores echinulate, 8-10 x 6-7 /a. 

Lactarius quietus. Fries, Epicr., p. 343; Cke., Hdbk., p. 312; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 983. 

In woods, &c. 

Showy, soft, large, not truly stout and fleshy as in 
L. pallidus, from which it is very distinct. Stem stuffed, 
spongy, 2-3 in. long, ^ in. and more thick, glabrous, be- 
coming rufescent and at length pretty rubiginous ; pileus 
fleshy, depressed, obtuse, margin deflexed, 3 in. broad, 
glabrous, at first viscid, cinnamon flesh-colour, disc darker, 
slightly zoned, soon dry, opaque, becoming pale like the gills 
in colour; flesh white, becoming tinged rufescent, milk 
white, sweet, unchangeable. Gills adnato-decurrent, some- 



22 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

what forked behind, 1^-2 lines broad, white, soon brick-red 
with a rufous tinge. (Fries.) 

Margin of pileus delicately downy ; stem bearing strong 
pressure without breaking, when old less firm. Odour oily, 
and somewhat like that of bugs. (Berk,) 

Pileus 2 in. or more broad, opaque, rufescent, often slightly 
zoned, at first deep liver-coloured, obtuse, at length de- 
pressed, smooth, the margin incurved and delicately downy, 
Plesh thick, firm ; milk white, but sometimes of a decided 
but pale yellow, the plant differing in no other respect. 
Gills pale rufescent, gradually becoming darker, decurrent, 
forked at the base, rather numerous, and narrow. Spores 
white, round. Stem 2 in, long, -^-J in, thick, thickest 
■upwards, of the same texture and colour as the pileus ; flesh 
firm, bearing a strong pressure without breaking, when old 
less firm but not hollow, mild; odour oily and sometimes 
like that of bugs, (Berk.) 

Lactarius (Russ.) aurantiaeus. Fr. 

Pileus 1-2^ in. across, convex then plane or depressed, 
even, glabrous, rather viscid when moist, not zoned, golden 
orange, not changing colour; flesh pallid; gills distinctly 
decurrent ; thin, crowded, yellowish then oohraceous ; stem 
stuffed up to 3 in. long and ^ in. thick, equal, even, glabrous, 
coloured like the pileus; milk white, acrid; spores sub- 
globose, echinulate, about 9 /* diameter. 

Lactarius aurantiaeus, Fries, Bpicr., p. 343 ; Cke., lUustr,, 
pi. 1099. 

In woods among moss, &c. 

Eemarkable for the very decurrent gills, L. volemus differs 
from the present species in being much larger and more 
robust, mealy, stem, very slightly decurrent gills and 
rivulose pileus, L. mitissimus differs in the milk being 
sweet, tod the very slightly adnate gills. L. theogalus differs 
in the milk becoming yellow, 

Lactarius (Rusa .) the.iogalu s. Bull. 
Pileus 1}-2|^ inTacross, convex when young, then de- 
pressed, the centre at length infundibuliform, the thin 
margin more or less bent down, even, glabrous, viscid. 



lACTABnrs. 23 

shining wlien dry, not zoned, tawny-rufous ; flesh whitish ; 
gills adnato-decurrent, about 1 line hroad, thin, crowded, 
pale then rnfescent ; stem stuffed then hollow, equal, 1-2 in. 
long, 2—4 lines thict, even, colour of the pileus ; spores 
echinulate, snbglobose, 7— S fi. diameter; millr -white then 
sulphur-colour, at length rather acrid. 

Agarieus ihejogalus, Bulliard, t. 567, fig. 2. 

Lactarius ihejogalus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 313. 

In pine and other woods. 

Inodorous. Fries mentions a form growing in pine woods 
having the pileiis diy and zoneless, and the gUla deep yellow. 
Agrees with L. chrysorrheus and L. capsicum, in the yellow 
milk, but differs from both in the tawny-rufous stem. 

Pileus 1—3 in. broad, buff, sometimes slightly tinged with 
tawny, at first hemispherical, dimpled, at length depressed 
more or less zoned; margin wavy, involute and minutely 
downy when young; flesh firm, crisp. Gills very slightly 
decurrent, connected by veins, distant, by no means rigid, 
salmon-coloured, slightly forked, about as broad as the flesh 
of the pileus. AfilV -white, rather acrid, with a peculiar tast«, 
changing instantly on exposure to air to a delicate but 
beautiful yello-sv, as does -the whole plant when cut. Stem 
li in. high, |— 1 in. thick, at first nearly white, obese, paler 
than the pileus, downy at the base, more or less hollow. 
(Berk.) 

Lactarios (Russ.) cremor. Fr. 

PUeuB rather fleshy, li— 2;V in. across, glabrous, -viscid, 
opaque, tawny, not zoned, remarkable for ha-ving the surface 
minutely punctnlate, convex then plane, somewhat obtuse, 
often unequal and excentric ; margin almost membranaceous, 
at first inflexed, then striate, resembling a jRu^suIa ; flesh 
thin, coloured like the pileus or paler ; gills adnate, rather 
distant, 3 lines broad, firagile, pruinose, white then flesh- 
colour ; stem about li in. long, 3—4 lines thick, equal, even, 
obsoletely silky abjve under a lens, coloured like the pileus, 
or darker ; milk whitish, almost mild, often watery ; spores 
globose, echinulate, 9—10 [t. 

Lactarius cremor. Fries, Epicr., p. 343; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 313. 

In woods, especially beech. 



24 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Thin, fragile. 

Var. pauper, Karsten, Symb., x. 58; Cke., Illustr., pL 
1008. 

Pileus up to 3 in. across, fleshy, soft, nearly plane, smooth, 
zoneless, yellowish flesh-colour, ochraceons when dry,iQargin: 
membranaceous, at length sulcate; gills adnate, rather distant, 
thin, soft, colour of the pileus; stem about 1 in. long, up to 
|- in. thick, equal, naked, smooth, paler than the pileus; 
spores globose, echinulate, 10 ju diameter; flesh juiceless, 
slowly becoming acrid, white. 

Under larches, &c. 

Lactarius (Russ. ) vietus. Fr. 

Pileus 1|-2| in. across, plane and somewhat papillate, 
then somewhat infundibuliform, margin rather bent down, 
even, glabrous, at first viscid, opaque, flesh-colour or livid- 
greyish, rather silky when dry, becoming pale ; flesh 
whitish; gills adnato-decurrent, thin, somewhat crowded, 
rather flaccid, scarcely a line broad, whitish, yellowish with 
age ; stem attenuated upwards or almost equal, stuffed then 
hollow, 2-3 lines thick, even, glabrous, dry, coloured like the 
pileus; milk white then becoming greyish, slightly acrid; 
spores 7-8 /x. 

Lactarius vietus, Pries, Epicr., p. 344; Cke., Hdbk., p. 313; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1009. 

In woods. 

Small, slender, soft, fragile. Pileus sometimes flexuous, 
always truly slender. (Pries.) 

Lactarius (Russ.) cyathula. Fr. 
Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, convex Ihen plane, umbo- 
nate, then plane and. depressed, umbo often disappearing, 
viscid in moist weather, soon dry, always very opaque, even, 
when growing rufous brick-red or flesh-colour, slightly 
zoned, becoming pale when dry, then livid or pinkish-buff, 
hoary-tan, &c., minutely cracked and rivulose; flesh white 
with a pink tinge; gills decurrent, very much crowded, 
thin, scarcely 1 line broad, pinky-white, then yellowish; 
stem about 2 in. long, 1-6 lines thick, equal, round, even, 
glabrous, becoming pale and at length whitish, stuffed j 
spores globose, 6-8 ju; milk white, unchangeable, acrid. 



lACTABIUS. 25 

Ladarius eyaihula. Fries, Epicr., p. 344; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 313 ; Cke., Illnstr., pi. 1009b, and 1085. 

On damp gronnd nnder birches, &c. 

Growing in troops, generally very slender and small, \mt 
mixed ■svith larger, firmer, and darker specimens. Allied to 
L. rieius, but distingnished by its size and slender bnild ; 
milk ■white and nnchangeable when the gills are ■wounded ; 
smell at first scarcely e"vident; but strong and like bugs 
■when half dry. (Fries.) 

** Impoliti. 

Lactarius (Russ.) rufas. Scop. 

Pileus 3—4 in. across, flesh rather thin, 'pallid ; umbonate 
■when yuung, soon depressed and at length infundibuliform, 
the umbo persistent at base of the depression, entirely 
zoneless, dry, floccosely silky at first but soon polished, 
glabrous, rather polished and shining, rufous-bay, rufous- 
cinnamon ■when old; margin incurved and covered ■with 
"whitish down, "when young ; gilLs adnately decurrent, 
crowded, about 1 J line broad, scarcely branched, ochraceous 
then pale rufous ; stem 2—3 in. long, about J in. thick, eqaal, 
nifescent, but paler than the pileus, base ■with ■white down, 
indistinctly pruinose or quite glabrous, stufied, rather 
fragile; milk white, unchangeable, intensely acrid; spores 
echinulate, 9 x T /x. 

Lactarius rufas, Scopoli, Cam., iL 451 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 314 ; 
Cke., Blustr,, pL 985. 

In dry pine woods. 

Differs from every other species included in the section 
Snssulares in the margin being clothed ■with whitish down 
and incurved ■when young. The pileus although minutely 
flocculose at fir^t, is soon glabrous and shining. A small 
form of ■the present species often very much resembles L. siib- 
dulds, from ■which it is distinguished by the very acrid taste. 

Jjactarins (Rnss.") helvus. Fr. ' 

PiTeus 2^^iir. across, tlejEy, fra^e, convex then expanded, 
somewhat umbonate, the entire surface broken up into 
granule-BEe^^occose squamules, brick-red "with a yello^w 
■tinge. Becoming pale ; gills _ decurr ent, crojvded, often 
forking, 1-1 J line broad, fragile, whitish at first then tinged 



26 PUNGUS-FLOEA, 

fleslkcoloTjr, at length yellowisli'j stem 2-3 in. long, J in. 
thick or more, equal, br ick-red then pallid, everywhere 
slightly^jgruinose, hase^downj, stuffed then hgjlow, .firm ; 
spores subglobose, echinulate, 8-9 fj.; m ilk w hite, scanty, 
ug!iall^_§S£fit. 

Lactarius helvus. Pries, Epior., p. 347 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 314; 
Cke., Illustr., p. 994. 

Damp mossy places in woods. 

Frequently in swamps, the milk is then watery and not 
coloured (like water), but in the typical form the milk is 
white and scanty ; smell weak, rather sweet, taste usually 
sweet. (Pries.) 

L. tomentosus differs in the naked stem. 

Lactarius (Russ.) tomentosus. Otto. 

Pileus 3 in. and more across, flesh thick, white then tinged 
brown ; umbonate at first then depressed or infundibuliform, 
downy, dingy flesh-colour, rufescent, or brownish ; gills 
slightly decurrent, yellowish with a tinge of red, 1^-2 lines 
broad ; stem 2 in. long, ^ in. and more thick, erect, stuffed, 
then hollow, pallid, naked, smooth; milk whitish, mild; 
spores 8-9 /x. diameter. 

Lactarius tomentosus, Otto, in Krombh., Schwamme, vi. p. 7 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1010 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 314. 

On the ground in swamps, &c. 

Pileus woolly, milk white, slightly acrid. (Cooke.) 

Lactarius (Russ.) mammosus. Pr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick, acutely umbonate, 
becoming depressed, dry, pale greenish-grey, not zoned, 
covered with interwoven grey down; gills adnate, crowded, 
narrow, white, then tinged with brown ; stem 2-3 in. long, 
J in. and more thick, downy, pallid, often with a tinge of 
pink, stuffed then hollow ; milk persistently white, slowly 
becoming acrid ; spores 8-9 [jl. 

Lactarius mammosus. Pries, Epicr., p. 347 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 314 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 995. 

In woods. 

Pirm, inodorous. Stem pallid white, short, stout. Pileus 
convex at first, acutely umbonate, umbo at length disappear- 
ing, depressed, covered everywhere with depressed down, 
about 2 in. across, greyish-fuscous, margin at first incurved 



LACTAIiirS. 27 

and covered Tvith white down. Gills decurrent, narrow (1-2 
lines) whitish, then pale ferruginous. (Fries.) 

Laetarius (Russ.) glyciosmus. Fr. 

Strong scented. Pileus 1^-21 in. across, flesh npto 1 line 
thick ; convex then plane, nmbonate, dry, lurid, greyish, or 
brownish, opaque, squaniulose; gills somewhat decurrent, 
crowded, abotit 1 line brodd, yellowish then pale ochraceous ; 
stem about 1 in. loug, 3-A lines thick, downy, pallid, stuffed ; 
milk white, unchangeable, mild at first, becoming slightly 
acrid ; spores subglobose, size variable, 6-10 /x. 

Laetarius glyciosmus. Fries, Epicr., p. 348 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
315. 

In woods, especially pine. 

Var. flexuosus. Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 434 ; Cke., lUustr., 
pi. 1011. 

Pileus even, silky at first, umbUicate or depressed, flexuous, 
more or less zoned; stem imperfectly hollow, often elon- 
gated ; rest as in typical form. 

Smell pungent, like spirit-of-wine ; rigid, fragile, small ; 
stem, almost equal, 1—2 in. long, 2-4 lines thick, even, 
pubescent, yellowish, becoming tawny when bruised, some- 
times almost silvery-white, especially- at the apex. PUeus 
convex then almost plane, papillate, then depressed and the 
papilla disappearing, 1-2 in. broad, slightly innately squa- 
molose or tuipolished, opaque, • greyish brick-red, brownish, 
often with a &int violet tinge, not zoned ; flesh white ; gills 
arcuate or almost plane, adnato-decurrent, J-li line broad, 
thin, often connected by branches, straw-colour then ochra- 
ceous; milk white, sometimes unchangeable, sometimes 
with a slight yellowish green tinge, but not discolouring 
the gUls. 

The stem is sometimes elongated, pileus at first silky, even, 
also umbilicate, wavy, zoned. 

A very distinct species, approaching L. vietvs in habit, but 
quite distinct in the absolutely dry pileus, very crowded, 
ochrey straw-coloured gills not becoming spotted when 
braised, smell, &c. (Fries.) 

Laetarius (Russ.) fuliginosus. Fr. 
Pileus 2—4 in. across, flesh thick in the centre and gradu- 



28 FUNGTJS-FLOEA. 

ally becoming thinner towards the margin, rather compact, 
then soft, flattened, rather wavy, often irregular, margin 
inflexed at first, then [spreading and wavy, at first even, 
whitish-tan, zoneless, powdered with innate, sooty down, 
rather velvety to the touch, hardish, somewhat shiny when 
moist, at length naked, with a pellicle, here and there 
slightly rugulose, livid-yellowish or fawn-colour with a 
brick-red tinge, disc sometimes changing to brownish ; gills 
at first rounded behind and adnexed, eoon decurrent, 1-3 
lines broad, rather thin, somewhat distant, white then 
yellowish-ochre, branched and connected by veins; stem 
about 3 in. long 3-5 lines thick, about equal, stuffed, even 
or at length very slightly rugulose, glabrous, white, then 
dingy, tan-colour, almost brick-red, or sooty ; spores pale 
oohraceous, subglobose, minutely echinulate, 8-9 /a diameter ; 
milk white, changing to saffron, mild at first, soon slightly 
acrid. 

Lactarius fuliginosus. Fries, Epicr., p. 348 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 815; Cke., lUustr., pi. 996. 

In woods. 

Eather firm, somewhat elastic ; the broken flesh with the 
milk ranges from white, through rose-colour, to saffron ; 
taste mild at first, soon becoming acrid, but after a time, 
and in adult specimens, sweet and pleasant. Milk some- 
times persistently white, and at others thin and waterj'. 
(Fries.) 

Lactarius (Euss.) picinus. Fr. 

Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh rather thin, firm, pallid, 
convex then flattened, umbonate, orbicular, zoneless, dry, 
even, everywhere downy or somewhat velvety at first, down 
innate, not depressed or silky, then the disc becomes glabrous 
and the surface quite unbroken (not rivulosely flooculose nor 
squamulose), umber or blackish-umber ; gills adnate, very 
much crowded, very thin, straight, plane, oohraceous ; stem 
2-3 in. long, up to | in. thick, equal, even, glabrous, paler 
than the pileus ; spores subglobose, pale oohraceous, minutely 
echinulate, 9-10 /i diam. ; milk acrid, white, unchangeable. 

Lactarius picinus, Fries, Epicr., p. 348 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 
997. 

In dried up 'turfy swamps under pines, &o. 



LACTAEirS. 29 

Rigid, regular in form, milk acrid, white, unoliangeable. 
(Fries.) 

Eeadily distinguislied amongst the species with a dark, 
minutely velvety pLlens, by the acrid, persistently white 
milk. 

Lactarius (Russ.) ligniotus. Fr. 

Pilens 2—3 in. across, flesh thinner than the breadth of the 
gills, and like that of the stem, changing slowly when 
broken from white through ochraceous to saffron or rust- 
colour ; convex then expanded, and subdepressed margin at 
first incTirved then arched and drooping, umbonate, marked 
with radial folds or wrinkles, pruinosely velvety then almost 
glabrous, zoneless, remarkably dry, very opaque, sooty- 
umber j gills at first rounded behind and adnexed, then 
somewhat decurrent, 1 line and more broad, thin, rather 
crowded, almost snow-white when young, then whitish 
ochre, reddish when wounded ; stem 3—5 in. long, somewhat 
ventricose up to f in. thick at the centre, ^ at the apex, 
stuffed, corticated, apex constructed and plicate, pruinosely 
velvety, coloured like the pileus, but the base whitish ; 
spores pale ochraceous, subglobose, minutely eohinulate, 
9-10 fx. diameter; milk scanty, sweet, pleasant, changing, 
like the flesh, through reddish, to saffron. 

Lactarius ligniotus. Fries, Monogr., ii. p. 177. 

Among moss in damp places under fir trees, &o. 

Smell almost none. Allied to L. fuliginosus, but distin- 
guished by the stem being distinctly pruinosely velvety, 
whereas in the last-named species it is glabrous, and also by 
the persistently velvety, smoky-umber, radially wrinkled 
pileus. 

Lactarius (Rnss.) retisporas. Mass. 
Pileus 2-3|^ in. across, convex then plane and with the 
disc depressed, dark smoky-brown, minately velvety, radi- 
ally rugulose &om disc to margin ; flesh nearly \ in. thick 
at the centre, only slightly thinner towards the margin ; 
gills subdistant, \ in. broad, deeply sinuate and slightly 
adnexed, intermediate ones numerous, pale ochraceous with 
darker spots ; stem 1^2 in. long, f in. thick, equal, soUd, 



30 FUNGTJS-FLOEA. 

even, glabrous, rather paler than the pileus, flesh like that 
of pileus dingy yellow, becoming reddish brown when cut ; 
spores colourless, globose, with raised bands forming a 
network, 10 /a diameter; milk white then brown, sweet, 
becoming very thick and tenacious. 

On the ground under beech-trees. Fairmead, Epping 
Forest, Oct. 1888. 

The present species is allied to, and superficially resembles 
Lactarius picinus, L. fuliginosus, and L. ligniotus. All are 
about the same size and have the pileus of a smoky-brown 
colour. The following analysis indicates their most pro- 
nounced distinctive features. 

A. Pileus velvety. 

L. retisporus. Pileus radially rugulose ; gills rather 

distant; milk sweet, white then brownish; spores 

with a network of raised lines. 
L. ligniotus. Pileus radially rugulose ; milk sweet, white 

then saffron-colour ; spores minutely echinulate. 
L. picinus. Pileus even ; gills much crowded ; m.ilk acrid, 

persistently white ; spores minutely warted. 

B. Pileus not velvety. 
L. fuliginosus. 

Lactarius (Russ.) lilaeinus. Lasch. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh rather thick, convex then de- 
pressed, sometimes with a central small papillose umbo, 
rosy-lilac, not zoned, granulose, floccose when dry; gills 
adnate or slightly decurrent, rather distant, about 1 line 
broad, pallid with a tinge of pink; milk acrid, white, 
unchangeable, spores subglobose with an apiculus, echinu- 
late, 7 /A diam. ; stem about 1 in. long, 2 lines thick, pallid, 
sprinkled with a white bloom, stuffed then hollow. 

Lactarius lilaeinus, Lasch, Linnaea, iii. n. 78 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 315; Cke., Illustr., pi. 998a. 

In damp woods. 
, Fragile ; milk copious. 



LACTAEirS. 31 

Lactarins (Russ.) spintilosus. QaeL 

Pileus about li in. across, flesh rather thin, depressed. 
Tunbo acute; clad, especially towards the margin with 
minute erect spines, often zoned and spotted, flesh-colour, 
bricfc-ied, or rosy-lilac ; gills decurrent, narrow, thin, jellow 
flesh-colour, at length yellowish; stem 1-1 J in. long, 2-3 
lines thick, flexnous, rugose, granulated, fragile, shinincr. 
coloured lite the pileus, then paler, hollow; millr white, 
peppery. 

Lactarius gpinulosus, Quelet, Champ. Xorm., t. 8, f. 10; 
Cte., Hdbk., p. 316. 

On the ground. 

Tar. violacens, Cke., Hdbk., p. 316; Cte., lUustr., pL 
9y5B. 

Kleus losy-violet, margin incurved: stem pale, almost 
smooth, stuffed. 

On the ground. The typical form has not occurred iu 
this country. 



*** Glabratl 

Lactarins (Russ.) volemns. Fr. 

Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh thick, white, often tinged with 
brown under the cuticle, rigid ; plane or more or less de- 
pressed, obtuse, dry, golden-tawny, at length becoming 
minutely broken up with cracks; gills decurrent, crowded, 
2-3 lines broad, white then yellowish ; stem 2-3 in. long, 
up to 1 in, thick at the apes, even, coloured like the 
pileus and slightly pruinose, solid; milk copious, white, 
unchangeable, mild ; spores 5-6 /i diameter. 

Lactarius coJerau-s, Flies, Epicr., p. 344; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
316 ; Cke., Dlustr., pi. 999. 

In woods. 

Allied to L. quietus, but distinguished by the brighter 
colour of pileus and stem, and white flesh. 

Stem stour, hard, solid, nearly equal or attenuated upward, 
2— 2?r in. long, f— 1^ in. thick, even, pruinose. Pileus com- 
pact, rigid, obtuse, plano-convex, margin at first incurved, 
at length depressed, 3 in. and more broad, even, becoming 
rimosely livulose, dry, and like the stem, rufous-tawny 



32 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

with a golden sheen, zoneless, becominp; pale. Gills adriato- 
deourrent, 1-2 lines broad, thin, crowded, yellowish-white. 
Large and very robust, and in this respect approaching 
Bussula. Very delicious, also pleasant when raw, celebrated 
as an edible fungus from ancient times. (Pries.) 

Pileus 4 in. broad, flesh thiokish, moderately firm, obtuse, 
minutely umbonate, though the umbo at length vanishes, 
subdepressed, sometimes very faintly zoned, with a few 
minute wrinkles towards the margin, dry at length cracked, 
of a rich orange brown darker in the centre, the whole rather 
dull than shining, margin not the least involute, though 
when young the edge of the pileus is regularly incurved. 
Milk white, abundant, not acrid, quite mild. Gills pale 
ochraceous, becoming fuscous on being touched, not very 
close, scarcely decurrent, even in depressed specimens, some- 
times slightly forked. Spores white, round. Stem 2^-3^ 
in. high, above 1 in. thick, obese, minutely attenuated 
downwards, sculptured longitudinally, paler than the centre 
of the pileus ; it bears a strong compression without giving 
way, but it is spongy in the centre, outer flesh reddish. 
(Berk.) 

Lacterius (Russ.) ichoratus. Batach. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh thin ; rigid then soft, obtuse, 
plane or depressed, often unequal, excentric, sometimes 
wavy, even (not pruinose), very dry, opaque, tawny-brick- 
red, disc often brown, zoned with brick-red. Plash pallid ; 
gills adnate, with a decurrent tooth, scarcely crowded, white 
then ochraceous, never spotted; stem 1^-3 in. long, 3-5 
lines thick, even, glabrous, at first tawny then rufescent, 
solid, equal or fusiform; spores 8-10 x 6-7 /a; milk white, 
sweet, unchangeable. 

Lactarius ichoratus, Batsoh, fig. 60 ; Oke., Hdbk., p. 316 • 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1000. 

In woods. 

Allied to L. volemus, but more slender ; very close to L. 
tithymalinus (not British), very compact when young, then 
softer, with an evident smell. (Pries.) 

Lactarius (Russ.) serifluus. Pr. 
Pileus 1-2 in. across, rather fleshy, plane then depressed, 
often waved, dry, glabrous, tawny-brown, margin incurved ; 



LAOTABIUS. 33 

gills slightly decnrrent, crowded, yellowish, 1— li linobroa-l ; 
stem 1— If in. long, 2-3 lines thick, rather curved near tho 
base, colonred like the pileus or paler, solid ; milk scanty, 
rather insipid, the colour of serum or whey ; spores subglo- 
bose, echinnlate, 7-8 /*. 

Lacfarius serif.uus. Fries, Epicr., p. 345 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 317 ; Cke., Ulnstr., 1012. 

In damp places on the ground. 

Allied to £. subdulcis, but is altogether smaller and more 
slender, stem solid, and smaller spores. Fries states that 
the milk is dilate and watery when growing in damp places. 

Lactaritis (Russ.) nutissimus. Fr. 

Pileus 1-3 in. acr>. ss, flesh thin, rather rigid ; convex and 
papillate then depressed, and the papilla usually disappear- 
ing, glabrous, rather glutinous when moist, not zoned, bright 
tawny-orange, shining ; flesh pallid ; gills slightly decurrent^ 
slightly arcuate then straight, 1— li line broad, thin, crowded, 
a Uttle paler than the pUeus, often stained with small 
brownish spots; stem^ 1—3 in. long, 3— |^ in. thick, even, 
glabrous, coloured like the pileus, staffed then hollow; 
spores 6-8 X 5-6 /* ; milk white, unchangeable, mild. 
e ^Xactarius mitissimus. Fries, Epicr., p. 345; Cke., Hdbk.,. 
p. 317 ; Cke., niustr., pL 1001. 

In woods, &c. 

Slender; closely allied to L. subdulcis, distinguished by 
the copious white Tnilk, srweet, then slightly acrid, and espe- 
cially by the bright, shining, golden-tawny colour of the 
pileiis and stem. (Fries.) 

L. auTantiacus differs in having acrid milk. 

Lactaritis (Russ.) subdulcis. Fr. 

Pileus i-2i in. across, flesh thin, papillate, at length de- 
pressed, even, glabrous, zoneless, rufous-cinnamon or bay- 
when dry; gills adnate, paler than the pileus, crowded, 
about li— 2 lines broad; stem more or less rufous, 1|— 2 in. 
long, stuffed then hollow, minutely pruinose ; milk white, not 
changing colour, at first sweet, then with a trace of acridity ;■ 
spores globose, rough, 10 /i diameter. 

Lactaritis subdulcis. Fries, Epicr., p. 345 ; Cke., Hdbk 
p. 317; Cke., niustr., pi. 1002. 

VOL. in. » 



34 FUNGIIS-FLOEj\. 

In woods. 

Pileus bay, rufous, omnamoB, &c., not becoming pale. 
Gills sometimes dark rusty-rafous, sometimes pale. Flesh 
■with, a rufous tinge, compact, thin. (Fries.) 

Variable. All the forms agree in being slender, stem 
equal, even, glabrous; pileus even, glabrous, dry, znrcless, 
rufescent ; gills rather rigid, crowded, somewhat rufesccnt ; 
taste almost mild : milk white, unchangeable. 

Typical form. In woods. Stem stuffed then hollow, 1-2 in. 
long, 2-4 lines thick,' somewhat pruinose and papillose; 
pileus papillose, convex then depressed, 2-3 in. across, even, 
glabrous, polished, rufous-cinnamon; gills fragile, pallid, 
somewhat rufous. Taste sweet, then a little acrid and 
bitter. 

Var. concavus, Fries, Monogr., ii. p. 181. 

Colours exactly those of Laciarius rufus, rufous-bay, gills 
sometimes a little darker; stem short, 1-1 J in. long, 2-4 lines 
thick, stuffed, spongy, glabrous; pileus thin, flesh scarcely 
as thick as breadth of gills, 1-2 in. across, papillate, 
concave-depressed, marginal limb narrow, thin, iiiflexed, 
even, glabrous, opaque ; gills decurrent, slightly ventricose 
and arcuate, 1 line and more broad, thin, crowded, at first 
pale brick-red, then the colour of the pileus, dark, very 
pruinose. Taste mild. 

Swamps and damp places in fields, &c. 

Var. sphagneti, Fries, Monogr., ii. p. 181. 

Eemarkable. Pretty. Stem hollow, very glabroup. Pileus 
obtuse, depressed, very glabrous, shining as if varnished, red- 
bay, margin inflexed, elegantly crenate. Gills pallid. ( Fries. ) 

Lactarius (Russ.) eamphoratus. Fr. 
Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, tinged brown, as is also 
that of the stem ; more or less depressed, sometimes with a 
slight umboi dry, glabrous, brown with a brick-red tinge, 
indistinctly zoned; gills adnate or with a suggestion of 
being decurrent ; about 1|- line broad, crowded, pale brick- 
red with a yellow tinge ; stem about 1 in. long and 2 lines 
thick, slightly curved, coloured like the pileus, stuffed ; milk 
persistently white, mild; spores subglobose, 8-9 fi.; smell 
strong and fragrant, especially when dry. 



LACTABR"^. 35 

Laetariiig camphoratus. Tries, Epicr., p. 346; Cke^ Hdbk., 
p. 317 ; Cke., IllustT., pL 1013a. 

In ■woods. 

Clearly distinguislied from allied species by the strong 
fragrant smell resembliag melilot, wMch develops dming 
drying, and persists for a long time in the dried specimen. 

Var. terrei, B. ifc Br., Ann. Xat. Hist., no. 1673; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 317. 

Pilens abont ^ in. across, bay-bro-.vn, cormgated, de- 
pressed; stem hollow, thickened at the base, of the same 
colour as the pUens, clad -with orange down ; gills decnrrent, 
pallid. 

On the ground. 

Caespitose, smell sweet. 

Iiactarius (Buss.) cimicarins. Batsch. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh rather thick, tinged with 
brown, as is also that of the stem; plane then depressed or 
infnndibnliform, margin usually waved and lobed, smooth, 
even, dark bay-brown ; gills slightly decnrrent, 1 J line 
broad, dingy ochraceous with a red tinge; stem about 1 io. 
long, 2 lines thick, smooth, paler than the pileus, more or 
less hollow; Tnilk persistently white, acrid; spores 7-8 /t; 
smell strong and unpleasant. 

Lactarius dmicariia, Batsch, fig. 69 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 318 ; 
Cke., mustr., pL 1013. 

In ■woods. 

The smell is strong, heavy, and oily, and is said to re- 
semble bugs. "Wlien dried the smell soon disappears. Dis- 
tingnished from L. camphoratus by the acrid milk and the 
strong unpleasant smell when fresh. The last character 
aiso separates the present species from L. suhdulcis. 

Lactarius ^Rnss.) sabTunbonatiis. Lindgr. 
Pileus about i in. across, flesh rather thick at the disc, 
very thin elsewhere, grey then yellowish; convex, ■with a 
small umbo, becoming depressed, often undulate and wa^vy, 
rugose, pitted, dark cinnamon-colour; gills adnate, not 1 line 
broad, rufous flesh-colour ; stem up to 1 in. long, IJ line 
thick, base thinner, smooth, even, coloured like the pileus, 
stuffed; spore subglobose, 5-6 /j.; milk persistently white, 
mild. 

D 2 



S6 lUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Lactarius subumbonatus, Lindgr., Bot. Not., 1845; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 318; Cke., Illustr., pi. 986a. 

On tlie ground. 

Stem usually thinner at the base, curved, sometimes 
■excentric. (Flies.) 

Odourless when fresh, but with a strong unpleasant smell 
when dry. L. camphoratus differs in having a pleasant smell 
like melilot when dry, also scentless when fresh. L. cimi- 
carius differs in the absence of an umbo, in having an un- 
pleasant smell resembling bugs when fresh, but without 
smell when dried. 

Lactarius (Russ.) obnubilus. Lasch. 

Pileus about 1 in. across, rather fleshy ; convex and usually 
papillate at first then rather broadly umbilicate, glabrous, 
slightly striate, zoneless, sooty-brown ; margin slightly 
arched; gills narrowed behind, adnexed, rather crowded, 
becoming yellowish at maturity; stem 1-1 1 in. long, 2-3 
lines thick, slightly thickened at the base, smooth, even, 
stuffed then hoUow, paler than the pileus; spore globose, 
echinulate, 8 /t ; milk persistently white, slightly acrid. 

Lactarius obnubilus, Lasch, Linn., n. 71 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 318 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1014a. 

In woods. 

Differs from L. fuliginosus in the milk remaining persist- 
• ently white ; from L. picinus in the pileus not being velvety ; 
and from L. retisporus in the spores not being reticulated. 
^he present is also much smaller than either of the above. 

Var. crenatus, Massee. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, convex then depressed, sooty-brown, 
coarsely and regularly sulcate, which causes the margin tf) 
be crenate ; flesh thin ; gills rather close, yellowish, broadly 
adnate with a tendency to become decurrent; stem about 
1 in. long, \ in. thick, equal, solid at first, becoming im- 
' perfectly hollow, smooth, even, paler than the pileus, usually 
incurved at the base; spores globose, minutely war ted, 
7-8 /* diam., cystidia absent ; milk persistently white, very 
slightly acrid. 

On the ground in fir woods. 

Possessing many points in common with L. obnubilus, but 
very distinct af least as a va,riety in the coarsely sulcate 



BrSStTLA- 37 

margin, 'besides being altc^ther a larger and more robnst. 
form. 

Lactarins (Rnss.) minmiTis. "V7. G. Sm. 

Pilens about h in. acT'Oss, fleshy at the disc; convex ani 
somewhat umbonate, excentric, smooth, even, margin in- 
cnrved, pallid tan or pallid ; gills slightly decnrrent, distant^ . 
arcuat*, pallid ; stem up to J in. long, 1 line thick, coloured 
like the pilens, solid ; spores globose, echinulate, 3— t ft.; milk 
copious, -n-hite, mild. 

Lacta I'ls minimus, "W. G. Smith, Jonrn. Bot. 1873, p, 205 ;_ 
Cke., Illnstr., pL 986b.,- Cke., Hdbk., p. 31S. 

In pastures and woods. 

Distinguished by its small size. 

IT. PLErEOPUS. 

Lactarins fPletir.) obliqnns. Fr. 

Pilens about 2 in. across, flesh rather thick at the disc,- 
margin thin; plane then depressed, oblique, lobed, sUky, white 
then yellowish, more or less zoned with grey, even ; gills 
very dightly decurrent, crowded, about IJ line broad, white ; 
stem about 1 in. long, rather excentric, curved, 2 lines thick, 
even, coloured like the pilens; spores globose, echinulate, 
6 /I ; milk white. 

Lactarins obliqmis, Fries, Epicr., p. 34? ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 319 ; Cke., niustr., pL 1014b. 

On trunks, banks, &c. 

Caespitose, slender, fragile, smell strong, pileus deformed. 
(Fries.) 

In Co 'ke's figure the gills are dingy yellow, and the 
pileus without zones. 



ErSSULA. Fries, (figs. I, 2, 3, p. 3.) 

Piletis regular, rigid, usually becoming more or less de- 
pressed ; gills rigid, fragile owing to the trama being com— 
posed of large spherical cells, edge thin and acute ; stem- 
central, stout, rigid ; veil entirely absent ; spores subglobosCr- 
minutely verruculose or echinulate, -white or yellow. 



88 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Bussula,. Fries, Epicr., p. 349; Cke., Hdbk., p. 319. 

A -very distinct genus, closely allied to Lactarius, but dis- 
tinguished by the absence of milk. As in Lactarius, the 
flesh and gills of species included in the present genus are 
replete with anastomosing laticiferous cells, the free ends of 
•which often project as cystidia between the other elements 
of the hymonium ; the dense, granular latex does not flow 
from the cells when broken, hence the absence of milk. 

The flesh (due to the latex) is very acrid or hot in some 
species, mild in others, and as this character is constant 
•when developed under normal conditions, has been utilised 
in the following grouping of species. In a few species the 
taste is mild at fijst, but becomes slightly acrid after re- 
maining in the mouth for a short time; in others the 
acridity is realised at once^! 

The species included in the present genus are by many 
considered as passing all understanding, but I consider the 
white species of Clitocybe much more difficult in that respect. 

The seciions proposed by Fries overlap to such an extent 
as to rend 01- them almost useless ; hence I have ventured on 
a new distribution of species. It may be urged against this 
scheme that iillied species are widely separated ; possibly so, 
"but T consider the primary use of a purely systematic 
work is to citable the student to identify species correctly; 
and as affinities cannot possibly be indicated in serial order 
on a plane surface, the loss is not great. 



ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES. 

Sect, I. Ta^te Mild. (Or in some species mild at first, 
and becoming slowly acrid when kept in the mouth for some 
time.) 

* Gills ocliraceous. 

** Gills pale or bright yellow; without an ochraceous 
tinge. 

*** Gills \\hite or creamy-white ; never yellow nor ochra- 
ceous, but sometimes becoming blackish with age. 



BTJSSTXA. 39 

j Pikisw-Mte or cream-colour at first; becoming blackish 
or brownish-black with age. 

jf Pile -.3 dear yello"w. 

fft Pileus green or olive. 

fttt Pileus red of Tarious shades, purple, brownish- 
oratjgj ; s^oietimes with more or less green intermixed. 

Sed. !I. Taste Acrid. Always so from tte first, 

* Gills yellow or o:lrraceoTis. 

j Pilens yellowish or ochracej'is. 

ft Pileus red or purplish. 

** GLlls white or creamy- white; never with a distinct 
yellow or ochraceons tinge. 

f Pilous ochraceons or umber. 

■f\ Pileus red or purplish. 

Sect. I. TASTE MILD. 
* Gills ochToceou-s. 

Rnssula alutacea. Pr. 

M: Id. Pileus 2— t in. across, flesh rather thin, sno-sv-^hite ; 
tampmulate then convex, at length expanded and somewhat 
mnbilicate, even, with a distinct viscid pellicle, usually 
deep b'.oji-red, sjaierimes blacMsh-purple, but becoming 
pale, especially at the disc; gills at first free, thick, very 
broaiL connected by veins, all equal, rather distant, at first 
pile yellow, then deep ochraceons, not pulverulent ; stem 
S'jlil, St jut, equal, 2 in. long, even, white, often variegated. 
with red ; sometimes purple ; spores, 7—9 fi ; taste mild. 

Suisula alutacea. Fries, Epicr., p. 362 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 336 ; C'ke., Illustr., pL 1096 and 1097. 

In woods, especially beech. 



fO FUNGUS-FLORA. 

, Large, usually showy, taste mild and pleasant ; at length 
truly soft and very fragile. Known from B. Integra by the 
gills not being powdery with the spores. (Fries.) 

Gills very broad, up to J in., deep ochraceous tan when 
fully developed; never powdery with the spores, a cha- 
lacter which at once separates the present species from 
JJ. Integra, the only one with which it can be confounded. 
Pileus very variable in colour; deep blood-red, clear rose- 
colour, dark-purple, greenish, olive, &c. 

Pileus 3 in. broad, fleshy, smooth, viscid when moist,, 
depressed, margin at first even, more or less furrowed and 
tiibercled when old; pink, livid, olive, &c. Gills broad, 
equal, sometimes slightly forked, ventricose, free, connected 
Ly veins. Spores yellow. Stem 1| in. long, 1 in. thick,, 
l:)iunt, surface longitudinally wrinkled or grooved, solid, 
spongy within, smooth, white, sometimes yellow. Taste 
mild, pleasant, acrid when old. (Berk.) 

Russula Integra, Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 4^5 in. acros-s, flesh rather thin, white ; 
convex then expanded and depressed; cuticle separable, 
viscid ; margin thin, at length coarsely striate and tubercn- 
lose ; colour variable, of various shades of red or green ; 
gills almost free, veiy broad, up to f in., equal, rather distant ; 
white then pale , yellow, powdery with the ochraceous 
spores; stem about 2 in. long, up to 1 in. thick, nearly even, 
often moire or less swollen in the middle, or ventricose, 
white, stuffed ; spores pale ochraceous, echinulate, 9-10 ;/a. 
diameter ; cystidia absent. 

Russula Integra, Fries, Epicr., p. 3G0 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 334; Cke., lllustr., pi. 1034 and 1093. 

In woods. 

Agreeing in many points with B. alutacea, but distin- 
guished by the much paler yellow gills being powdered 
with the spores at maturity. 

Taste mild, but often astringent. The most variable of 
all species especially in the colour of the pileus, which is. 
typically red, but also verging on bluish, bay, olive, (fee 
The essential poinds are as follows. Stem spongily-stuffed, 
usually stout, at first short, conical, then clavate or ventri- 
cose, about 3 in. long, clear white. Pileus fleshy, campanui- 



BUSSULA. 41 

lately convex then expanded and depressed, fragile when 
adult, with 'a viscid peUicle, losing its colour, margin at. 
length sulcate and somewhat tabercnlose; flesh white, 
sometimes yellowish upwards. Gills almost free, very 
broad, eqnal or bifid near the base, rather distant, con- 
nected by veins, pallid w^hite then yellow ; pulverulent with 
the somewhat ochraceous spores, a character by which the 
present species is readily known. Gills sometimes quit& 
sterile, and hence remaining persistently white. (Fries.) 

Var. alba, Cke., Hdbk., p. 335 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1094. 

"Whole fungus except the gills of a creamy white. 

In woods. 

Russula nauseosa. Fr. 

Smell strong, unpleasant. Taste mild. Pileus about IJ 
in. across, flesh thin, expanded and slightly gibbous, then 
depressed or infundibuliform, viscid, colour variable, usually 
, dingy purple or lUac, disc darker, sometimes tinged dingy 
yellow; margin very thin, coarsely striate; gills slightly 
adnexed, ventricose, rather distant, yellow then dingy ochra- 
ceous; stem 1-li in. long, 3-5 Unes thick, slightly wrinkled 
longitudinally, white, stuffed ; spores 8-9 /x diameter. 

Sussula nauseosa. Fries, Epicr., p. 363 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 338 ;- 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1147 ; 10G3b. 

In woods. 

Agrees with B. nifida in the strong smeU, but distin- 
guished by the rather distant, dingy ochraceous gills and 
spores. 

In woods, especially pine. Taste mild but the smell 
nauseous. Stem spongy, stuffed, short, about 1 in. long,. 
4 lines thick, slightly striate, white. Pileus thin, at first 
plane-gibbous, then depressed, viscid in moist weather, 
margin sulcate and tuberculose. Colour variable, disc typi- 
cally purplish, then livid, but becoming pale and often 
whitish. Flesh soft, white. Gills adnexed, ventricose,. 
rather distant, with shorter intermediate ones, yellow, then 
dingy ochraceous. (Fries.) 

Var. flavida, Cke., lUustr., pi. 1102iL. 
Pileus pale clear primrose-yellow, stem hollow; strong- 
scented. 

On the ground. 



42 l)^UNGUS-FLOKA. 

Var. pulchralis, Cke., Hdbk., p. 336; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 1095a. 

Mussula pulchralis, Britzel., Sudb., f. 18. 

Pileus viscid, ochraceous, disc spotted with red or purple, 
the thin margin coarsely striate or tuberoulated. 

On the ground. 

Russula vitellina. Pr. 

Strong-scented. Mild. Pileus |-1|^ in. across, the small 
disc slightly fleshy, remainder very thin ; convex, soon 
plane, margin tuberculosely striate, rather dry, yellow, 
becoming pale; gills slightly adnexed, soon separating from 
the stem and becoming free, distant, rather thick, connected 
by veins, saffron-colour ; stem about 1 in. long, and 2 lines 
thick, equal, white ; spores 7-8 /a diameter. 

Bussula vitellina. Fries, Epicr., p. 263 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 338. 

In woods. 

Differs from B. lufea in the strong smell and the striate 
and tuberculose margin of the pileus. 

Var. major, Cke., Illustr., pi. 1102b. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across ; gills 3 lines broad ; stem 1 J in. 
long, 3-4 I nes thick, becoming hollow. 
In woods. 
Agreeing with the typical form except in size. 

Russula ochracea. Fr. 

Mild. Pik-us about 3 in. across, flesh rather thick at the 
oentre becoming thin towards the margin, pale ochraceous, 
soft; con\ex then expanded and depressed, margin coarsely 
striate,' pellicle thin, viscid, ochraceous with a tinge of 
yellow, di.sc usually becoming darker ; gills slightly adnexed, 
broad, scaicoly crowded, ochraceous ; stem about 1^ in. long, 
5-7 lines thick, slightly wrinkled longitudinally, ochraceous, 
stuffed, soi'L; spores globose, echinulatSj ochraceous, 10-12 ^ 
diameter. 

Bussula ochracea, Fries, Epicr., p. 362 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
338; Cko., Illustr., pi. 1050. 

In pine and mixed woods. 

The mild taste, and ochraceous colour of every part, in- 
cluding the flesh, separate the present from every other 
species. 



EVSSULA. 43 

Commonly confounded with Bussula fellea, but known at 
once by its mild taste. Agreeing most nearly with. B. lutea 
in colour, but differing in the softer flesh, which becomes 
ochraceous upwards; sulcate margin of the pileus, and 
broader, less crowded gills. Pileus persistently ochraceous, 
disc usually darker. Stem sometimes yellow, sometimes 
white. (Fries.) 

Kussula lutea. Fr. (figs. 2, 3, p. 3.) 

Mild. Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, white ; soon 
convexo-i'lane or piano-depressed, -viseid when moist, margin 
even, or indistinctly striate when old, always a pretty 
primrose-yellow when young, becoming pale or almost white 
with age ; gills almost free, connected by veins, crowded, 
narrow, equal, bright ochraceous-yellow ; stem about 1 J in. 
long, 3— i lines thick, equal, even, white, never tinged with 
red ; spores echinulate, pale yellow, 8—10 X 7-8 /j.. 

Bussula lutea. Fries, Bpicr., p. 363 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 338 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pL 1082. 

In woods. 

The form with broader, less crowded gills, mentioned by 
Flies, I as been found in Epping Forest. 

Allied to B. vitellina, but known by the even margin of the 
pileus and the absence of smell. 

Russula elegans. Bresad. 

ilild at first, becoming acrid with age. Pileus 2-3 in. 
across, lie.-h rather thick ; convex then depressed ; margin 
tuberculuse and striate when old, viscid, bright rosy flesh- 
colour. bOon ochraceous at the circumference, everywhere 
densely granulated; gills adnexed or slightly rounded, 
narrow behind, very much crowded, equal, rarely forked, 
whitish, l.ecoming either entirely or here and there ochra- 
ceous orange; stem 1^-2 in. long, 5—7 lines thick, a little 
thickened at the base, rather rugulose, white, base ochra- 
ceous; flesh white, turning ochraceous and acrid when old; 
spores 8-10 /i diameter. 

Bussula elegans, Bresadola, Fungi Trident., t. 25 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 330; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1027. 

In damp woods. 

Allied to B. vesca. Known by the bright rose-coloured. 



44 FUNGUS-FLOBA. 

densely granular pileus and tuberculosa margin. When old 
the pileus is almost entirely ochraceous. 

Russula armeniaca. Cooke. 

Mild. Very fragile. Pileus 1-1^ in. across, flesh thin, 
convex then depressed, smooth, even, peach-colour, margin 
paler, even; gills adnexed, rounded behind, lJ-2 lines broad, 
somewhat distant, bright, ochre or almost egg-yellow; stem 
about 2 in. long, 3 lines thick at the base, slightly attenuated 
upwards, smooth, white, hollow; spores echinulate, broadly 
elliptical, pale ochraceous, 10 X 8 ^. 

Bussula armeniaca, Cke., Hdbk., p. 336 ; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 1064. 

Among grass under trees. 

Eeadily distinguished among the small species with ochra- 
ceous gills and spores by the colour of the pileus, which is 
exactly that of a ripe peach. 



Oills yellow, without an ochraceous tinge. 



Russula coerulea. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thiokish at the disc, 
margin thin ; convex then expanded or even slightly de- 
pressed, sometimes slightly umbonate, polished, margin even, 
bluish, bluish-purple, disc sometimes brownish ; gills adnate, 
almost all equal, 2 lines broad, pale yellow, acute in front ; 
stem 2 in. long, 4-5 lines thick, equal, firm, white, spongy 
inside ; spores globose, verruculose, 11-12 /a diameter. 

Russula coerulea. Fries, Epior., p. 353 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 328 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1052. 

In woods. 

The blue colour is usually most conspicuous near the 
margin, the centre purplish. In Mrs. Price's figure, 
no. 164, the pileus is altogether pure deep sky-blue, but 
there may possibly be a little allowance made for the 
cblouring. 

Habjt very much that of It. cyanoxantJia, taste mild, but 
the gills are crowded and yellow. Pileus sometimes sky- 
blue, sometimes purple-lilac ; margin even. (Fries.) 



BUSSULA. 45 

Bussnla nitida. Fr. 

Smell impleasaiit. Pilens aTsont 2 in. across, flesh white, 
rattier thin, rigid, convex then plane or slightly depressed, 
pellicle viscid in moist ^veather, colour various, but usually 
purplish hay, disc darker, shining ; margin striate, some- 
what tuherculose ; gUls adnexed, receding, crowded, pallid, 
then sulphur-coloured, not powdered; stein 2-3 io. long, 
h in. thick, spongily stuffed, almost equal or attenuated 
helow, even, white then paUid ; spores minutely echinulate, 
8-10 X tj-8 [t ; taste mild at first, slowly becoming acrid. 

Busgula nitida. Fries, Epicr., p. 361 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 336 ; 
Cke., niustr., pL 1063a. 

In woods. 

IHstingnished from every other species hy the bright 
lemon-yellow, shining gills, that never become dusted with 
ochraceous powder. (Fries.) 

S. nauseosa agrees with the present species in the dis- 
agreeable smell, but differs in the distant, dingy ochraceous, 
powdered spores. 

Var. ctiprea, Cke., Ulustr., pL 109ob. 
Pileus copper-colour with a tinge of ptirple, otherwise as 
in the typical form. 
In woods. 

Russxila aurata. Fr. 

Mil d. PUetis 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick, firm, white, 
citron-yellow below the cuticle, fragile ; hemispherical then 
plane, pellicle thin, adnate, viscid in damp weather, colour 
variable, citron-yellow, orange, or red, disc darker, but not 
depressed; margin even but slightly striate or wrinkled 
when old ; giUs rotmded behind and almost free, connected 
by veins, broad, equal, shining, never powdery, yellowish- 
white, margin bright citron-yellow ; stem 2-^ in. long, solid, 
firm, but spongy within, cylindrical, indistinctly striate, 
white or citron-yellow; spores subglobose, echinulate, 9—10 
or 8 X 10 fi; taste mUd at first, then becoming slightly 
acrid. 

Busgula aurata, Fr., Epicr., p. 360 ; Cke., Ulustr., pL lOS 3 ; 
Gke^ Hdbk., p. 335. 

Agaricus auratus. Withering, Arr. iv. 

In woods, under pines, &c. 



46 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Distinguished by tlie almost free, broad, shining gills 
having the edge bright lemon-yellow. 

Russula decolorans. Fr. 
■ Mild. Pileus 3-4 in. across, fles h rat h er thick , white, but 
becoming somewhat greyish when broken, and variegated 
more or less with black spots when old ; spherical, then ex- 
panded and depressed, rp.tria.rka.bly regular, v iscid when 
moist, orange-red at first, th en yellow and becoming pale, 
margin thin at length, striate; gills adnexed, often in pairs, 
crowded, thin, fragile, white then yellowish; stem np to 
4 in. long, cylindrical, often rugosely striate, white; then 
especially inside becoming grey ; spores subglobose, minutely 
echinulate, tinged ochraceous, 7-9 /a. 

Bussula decolorans. Fries, Bpicr., p. 361; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 335; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1079. 

In pine and mixed woods. 

Agrees with B. depallens in the stem becoming grey, but 
differs in the long stem, and in the gills becoming yellow. 

Gills not dusted with ochraceous powder, and not clear 
shining yellow. 

Russula punctata. Gillet. 

Mild. Pileus 1J-2|^ in. across, flesh thin, white, reddish 
under the cuticle ; convex then flattened, viscid, rosy, disc 
darkest, punctate with dark rufous point-like warts, pale 
when old ; margin striate ; gills slightly adnexed, 2 lines 
broad, white then yellowish, edge often reddish ; stem about 
1 in. long, 4-5 lines thick, attenuated and whitish at the 
base, remainder coloured like the pileus, stuffed; spores 
8-9 /J. diameter. 

Bussula p/,nctata, Gillet, Tab. Analyt., p. 48; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 334. 

Among grass. 

Var. leucopus, Cke., lUustr., pi. 1032. 

Stem pure white ; agreeing in other respects with the 
typical form. 

A small species, readily distinguished by the deep rose- 
coloured pileus being rough with point-like projections. The 
typical form is not British. 



Rnssnla olivacea. Fr. 

Mfld. Pileiis 3—1: in. acne ss, flesh, white. Tj-rcoming vellowish^ 
ihickish at the disc, margin thin ; convex then expanded, and 
depressed, minutely sciuamnlosely silky, margin straight, 
even, dingy pnrple -with an olive tLnge, or entirely brovrcIiL- 
olive ; gills adnexed, broad, forked and mixed -with shorter 
ones, yellow : stem 2—3 in. long, J in thick, ventricose, pale 
rose-colour, spongily-staffed ; spores globose, minutely grann- 
lar, yellow, 9—10 /i diameter. 

Bugmda cJicaeea, Fries, Epicr., p. 356; Cke.. Hdbk., p. 326; 
Cke., Dlnstr., pi. 1C>41. 

In pine "woods, &c 

A well-marked, species, 'iistingiiished.by the daTk-colonred. 
minutely broken np sTrfece of the pilens, rose-coloured stem, 
and yellow gflls. Differs from B. rubra in the deeper yellow 
gills and the unpolished pileus. B. alutaeea diSers in the 
striate and tnberculose margin of the pileus : the i-ame 
features along with the powdered gills separate B. integra 
from the present species. 

Bnssnla IiiiiiiaeL Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh ereiywhere thick, com- 
pactly spongy, ■svhite, rigid; plane then depressed, sometimes 
wavy, even, glabrous, polished, dry, without a separate 
peUicle, aU. one colour, deep blood-red or dark rose ; margin 
spreading, ottuse, not staiate; gills slightly decurrent, 
rather thick, not crowded, broad, fragile, sparingly connected 
by veins, somewhat anastomosing behind, and with shorter 
ones intermixed, white, yellow when dry ; spires white, sub- 
globose, minutely echinulate, 9-11 X 8—9 /l; stem 11—2^^ in. 
long, 1 in. and more thick, slightly ventricose, indistinctly 
fibrillosely reticulated, deep blood-ied, firm but soft and 
spcmgy within, and sometimes becoming hollow. 

Buggttla Linnaei, Fries, Epicr., p. 356; Cke., lUustr., pL 
1026 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 326. 

In w^oods. 

Distinguished among mild species by the even blood-red 
pilens and stem. 

Habit exactly that of B. emetiea. Substance truly floccose 
but very compact, firm, thick. Stem deep blood-r-d fbut 
perhaps varies to white), iadistiiictly fibiiUosely reticulate. 



48 rUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Pileus without a distinct pellicle, all one colour, dark purple. 
Wood-red, &o., opaque, not becoming pale, 3-4 in. across ; 
p;ills hardly crowded, rarely connected bj' veins, with but 
few short intermediate ones, distinctly anastomosing behind. 
(Fries.) 

Russula chamaeleontina. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 1-2 in. across, plane or slightly depressed, 
pellicle separable, rather viscid ; margin even at first then 
slightly striate, deep rose-red, purplish-lilac, the disc or 
every part soon becoming yellowish, or sometimes yellowish 
from the first; gills slightly adnexed or free, narrow, 
thin, closely crowded, or somewhat forked, yellow ; stem 
1-3 in. long, about 2 lines thick, white, indistinctly 
■wrinkled, imperfectly hollow; spores globose, ochraceous, 
7-8 fi diameter. 

Bussula chamaeleontina. Fries, Epicr., p. 363 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 338; Cke., Illustr., pi. ]098. 

In woods, especially pine. 

Inodorous. Very fragile and slender ; usually small, but 
Fries says that the pileus is sometimes 8 in. across. Known 
among the small species with ochraceous gills and spores by 
the deep rose-red or purplish pileus, and absence of smell. 

In mixed woods, especially pine. Sweet, inodorous, very 
fragile, small. Stem somewhat hollow, up to 3 in. long, but 
'thin, slightly striate, white. Pileus thin, soon expanded, 
1-2 in. across, sometimes oblique, with a thin, viscid, se- 
parable pellicle, at first flesh-coloured, soon losing colour, 
the disc becoming yellowish, and at length entirely yellow. 
Gills more or less adnexed, thin, crowded, equal, narrow, 
•ochraceous-yellow. (Fries.) 

Russula puellaris. Fr. 
' Mild. Pileus 1-lJ in. across, flesh almost membranaceous 
except the disc ; conico-convex then expanded, at first rather 
gibbous, then slightly depressed, scarcely viscid, colour 
peculiar, purplish-livid then yellowish, disc always darker 
and brownish ; tuberculosely striate, often to the middle ; 
gills adnate but very much narrowed behind, thin, crowded, 
white then pale yellow, not shining nor powdered with 
the spores ; stem 1-1 J in. long, 2-4 lines thick, equal, soft, 



EUSSULA. 49 

fragile, mgulose under a lens, wliite or yellowisli ; stuffed , 
soon hollow; taste mild; spores subglobose, pale yellow, 
echinulate, 10 x 8-9 fi.. 

Bussula puellaris, Fries, Bpicr., p. 361 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 337 ;. 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1065. 

In woods. 

Among the most frequent and readily recognised of species, 
occurring in troops. Always small, thin, taste mild. Allied 
to B. nitida, but more slender, colour paler, and not shining. 
(Fries.) 

Distinguished from B. nitida and B. nauseosa by the absence 
of smell- 

Var. intensior, Cke., Hdbk., p. 337; Cke. lUustr., pi. 
1066. 

Nearly the same size as the typical form; pileus deep 
purple, nearly black at the disc. 

In woods, &c. 

The stem has a tendency to become thickened at the base, 
and turns yellowish when touched. Spores 10 x 8 /i. 
(Cooke.) 

Var. roseipes, Secretan, Myc. Suis., no. 483 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 337 ; Cke., lllustr., pi. 1081. 

Pileus 1-1 J in. across, margin thin shortly tuberculately 
striate, convex then flattened and depressed, "viscid, soon drj', 
rosy flesh-colour, rosy-orange, or rosy with a tinge of ocLre, 
at first spotted with white, then becoming bleached ; gills 
free, sometimes with a decurrent tooth, crowded, equal, 
forked behind, connected by veins ; whitish then ochraceous 
egg- yellow ; stem about 2 in. long, 4 lines thick at the base, 
slightly thinner upwards, white, sprinkled here and there 
with rosy meal, flesh white, lacunose ; taste mild ; spores 
globose, minutelj' echinulate, pale ochraceous, 8-10 /x. diam. 

In woods. 

f PileuB white or cream-colour. 

Russula virginea. Cke. & Mass. 
Mild. Every part persistently pure white. Pileus about 
2 in. across, flesh thick, firm ; convex then more or less de- 
pressed, smooth, even, viscid when moist, polished when dry, 
margin even, arched ; gills slightly decurrent, crowded, not 

VOL. III. B 



50 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

1 line broad, repeatedly forked, connected by veins, brittle ; 
stem about 2 in. long, | in. thick at tbe base, becoming 
thinner upwards, slightly -wrinkled longitudinally, firm, 
brittle, solid ; spore globose with a minute apiculus ■ at the 
base, almost smooth, 4 /* diameter; cystidia absent. 

Bussula virginea, Cke. & Mass., in Grevillea, vol. xix. p. 41 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 380; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1197. 

In woods. 

Caie must be taken not to confound the present with 
bleached forms of other species. Distinguished bj' every 
part being persistently snow-white from the youngest stage, 
the very narrow, crowded gills, and the very small spores. 

Russula semicrema. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh thick equally so up 
to the margin, persistently white, firm ; convex then ex- 
panded and depressed, sometimes wavy, polished white, un- 
changeable; margin incurved, glabrous, even; gills rather 
decurrent, thin, crowded, l|-2 lines broad, persistently 
white ; stem 1-3 in. long, up to 1 in. and even more thick, 
almost equal and even, white, flesh becoming blackish when 
broken ; spores globose, verruculose, 8-9 /* diameter. 

Bussula semicrema, Tries, Epicr., p. 350; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 820 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1067. 

Among leaves. 

Intermediate between JR. adusta and B. delica, but readily 
distinguished from both. Stem fleshy, solid, firm, 2-3 in. 
long, white, but becoming greyish and at length blackish 
inside when broken. Pileus compactly fleshy, convex then 
plane, even, glabrous, dry ; disc umbilicate, margin at first 
involute, always even ; colour in every stage persistently 
white, flesh also, and juiceless ; gills decurrent, crowded, 
thin, persistently white. Smell none, taste mild. (Fries.) 

Differs from B. adusta and B. densifolia in the persistently 
white pileus (flesh also) and gills ; and from B. delica in the 
flesh of the stem becoming blackish. The outside of the 
stem often becomes dark with age, 

Russula lactea. Fr. 
Mild. Pileus about 2 in. across, compact and everywhere 
fleshy, flesh white ; campanulate then convex, often ex- 



EUSSULA. 51 

centric, without a separable pellicle, always dry, white at 
first, even, then creamy white, minutely cracked when dry, 
margin spreading, even; gills free, very broad, thick, dis- 
tant, rigid, forked, white ; stem 1|— 2 in. long, up to 1 J in. 
thick, equal, even, always white, solid, very compact, but 
spongy, and soft within ; spores subglobose, echinulate, 
7-9 iJL. 

Bussula lactea. Fries, Monogr., ii. p. 190 ; Cke., Hdbk.» 
p. 324; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1070. 

Agaricus lacteus, Pers., Syn., p. 439. 

In woods. 

Distinguished by being entirely white or cream-colour ; 
very broad, thick gills at first free then adnate, and mild 
taste. Care must be taken not to confound this with 
bleached forms of other species. 

Var. inearnata, Quelet, Assoc. 'Ft., 1882, p. 10; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 324 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1071. 

Size and habit of the typical form. Pileus convex; de- 
pressed, minutely mealy then cracked into areolae, white, 
tinged with rose, at length tan-colour, growing pale; flesh 
white, sweet ; stem stuffed, firm, minutely mealy, white ; 
gills adnate, broad, forked, rigid, white then tinged yellow ; 
spores 9 /x diameter. 

Under fir-trees, &c. 

Russula nigricans. Pr. 

Mild. Pileus 3-5 in. across, very fleshy, convex then ex- 
panded, umbilicately depressed, margin incurved at first ; 
young specimens are slightly viscid when moist, even, 
without a separable pellicle, whitish at first, soon sooty-olive, 
at length becoming broken up into squamules and black ; 
flesh firm, white, becoming reddish when broken; gills 
rounded behind, slightly adnexed, thick, distant, broad, 
brittle, unequal, the shorter intermediate ones sometimes 
very scanty, pallid, becoming reddish when bruised; stem 
1^— 2|^ in. long, 1 in. or more thick, equal, pallid when young, 
then black, solid ; spores subglobose, rough, 8-9 /i. 

Bussula nigricans, Pries, Bpicr., p. 350 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 319 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1015. 

In woods, &c. 

Compact, fleshy, inodorous, becoming entirely black with. 

E 2 



52 FUNGUS-PLOEA. 

age. Known from B. adusta by the flesh, becoming reddish 
when broken, and by the much thicker, and more distant 
gills. B. densifolia agrees with the present species in 
becoming red when cut, but differs in the thin, rather 
crowded gills. 

Russula adusta. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh thick up to the margin, 
firm; soon expanded and more or less depressed, margin 
incurved at first then straight or upturned, even, glabrous, 
white then brownish, finally with a scorched appearance ; 
gills adnata then slightly decurrent, thin, crowded, unequal, 
pallid; stem lJ-2 in. long, up to | in. thick, pallid then 
sooty-grey, solid; spores subglobose, almost smooth, 8-9 /x; 
no cystidia. 

Bussula adusta, Fries, Epicr., p. 350 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 320 ; 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1051. 

In woods. 

Can only be confounded with B. nigricans, from which it 
is abundantly distinct; size usually smaller ; flesh juiceless, 
not becoming reddish, pileus at length infundibuliform ; 
gills decurrent, thinner, crowded. Colour pallid or whitish 
when young, appearing scorched and sooty-grey when old ; 
gills white then dingy, not becoming red when bruised. 
(Fries.) 

Fries mentions a variety which is scarcely different from 
the typical form, except in the flesh becoming blue when 
broken or cut. This is B. adusta coerulescens (Fr.), not yet 
recorded for Britain. 

B. densifolia, a species not recognised by Fries, differs, 
from the present species in the flesh and gills becoming 
red when wounded. B. semicrema agrees in the stem turning 
black, but the pileus is persistently white. 

Var. albo-nigra; Bussula albo-nigra, Fries, Hym. Eur., 
p. 440 ; Bussula nigricans, var. albo-nigra, Cke., Hdbk., p. 
320; Cke., lllustr., pi. 1016; Agaricus aZ&o-m'jre?-, Krombh., 
p. 27, t. 70, f. 16-17. 

Pileus about 2 in. across, flesh rather thick, firm, 
white, turning blackish when bruised ; convex then ex- 
panded, at length infundibuliform, whitish or pallid, smoky 
at the incurved margin ; gills slightly decurrent, thin. 



EI'SSULA. 53 

CKJwded, unequal, whitish then tinged brown, stem 1— 1|^ 
in. long, 1-1|^ in. thick, pallid then sooty-black, solid, 
flesh white, turning blackish when broken; spores 8 /j. 
•diameter. 

Among grass under trees. 

Form abnormal ; stem short, very thick ; pileus thin and 
small in proportion to the stem, rather wavy. Taste rather 
acrid, not pleasant. (Fries.) 

Russula delica. Fr. 

Mild. "White. Pileus 4-6 in. across, flesh firm, white, 
thick to the margin ; convex then expanded and umbilicate 
or depressed, even, shining, glabrous, but often with a white 
superficial silkiness, margin incurved ; gills decurrent, thin, 
distant, brittle, unequal, white or with a slight tinge of 
green; stem 1-1 J in. long, up to 1 in. thick, equal, solid, 
firm ; spores minutely echinulate, white, broadly elliptical, 
8-10 X 6-7 fi. 

Bussula delica, Fiies, Epicr., p. 350 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 320 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1068. 

Lactarius exsuccus. Otto; Cke., Hdbk., p. 311; Cke., 
Illustr., pi. 981. 

In woods. 

Dr. Cooke considers that the present fungus and Lactarius 
•exsuccMS are distinct species. His reasons for this are given 
in detail in Grevillea, vol. xvi. p. 65. 

Dry places in pine woods. Stature and colour unchange- 
able, entirely white as in Lactarius vellereus and Lactarius 
jnperatus, but readily distinguished by the absence of milk 
in the gUls. Stem solid, short (1-2 in.), | in. and more 
thick, even, glabrous, white. Pileus everywhere fleshy, 
firm, umbilicate then infundibuliform, regular, even every- 
where, glabrous, but often with a white downiness, 3-6 in. 
broad ; margin incurved, not striate. Flesh firm, juiceless, 
not very thick, white ; giUs decurrent, thin, but distant, 
very unequal, exuding drops of water in damp weather. 
(Fries.) 

Pileus even broader than the last (L. vellereus'), white, 
fleshy; flesh white without milk and not changing colour. 
Gills distant, white, with often a tinge of verdigris, very 
crisp and brittle, somewhat forked, J in. broad ; con- 



64 l^UNGUS-FLOKA. 

iiected by veins. Spores white, round. Stem obtuse, short, 
thick, surface like that of the pileus. (Berk.) 

Russula densifolia. Seer. 

Mild. Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh thick, firm, white, 
liecoming red when broken, at length blackish; convex 
then depressed, smooth, whitish when young, then dingy, 
brown or greyish, disc darker, margin arched, even ; gills 
adnate, appearing to be slightly decurrent when the pileus 
is depressed, 2-3 lines broad, close, thin, white or with a 
tinge of pink; stem lj-2in. long up to f in. thick, equal, 
even, slightly mealy, white then grey, at length blackish ; 
spores 7-8 /x, diameter. 

Biissula densifolia, Secretan, Myc. Suis., i. p. 47 C ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 320; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1017. 

In woods, &c. 

Allied to U. adnata, and about the same size and 
appearance, but distinguished by the flesh turning red on 
being broken. Smaller and with much thinner and more 
crowded gills than U. nigricans. 



•j"! Pileus clear yellow. 

Russula citrina. Gillet. 

Mild. Pileus 2-3 in. across, slightly fleshy at the disc, 
margin thin ; convex then more or less expanded and 
slightly depressed, rather viscid when moist, smooth, slightly 
wrinkled at the margin when old, bright lemon-yellow, colour 
usually uniform, sometimes paler at the margin, occasionally 
with a greenish tint, centre of pileus at length becoming 
pale ochraceous ; pellicle separable ; gills slightly decurrent, 
broadest a short distance from the margin, and gradually 
becoming narrower towards the base, forked at the base and 
also sometimes near the middle, white, 1\ line deep at 
broadest part ; stem 2-3 in. long, about 4 lines thick, equal 
or slightly narrowed at the base, slightly wrinkled, straight 
or very slightly waved, solid ; spores subglobose, echinulate, 
8 ju. diameter. 

Bussula citrina, Gillet, Hymen. Fr., Suppl. 6 ; Cke,, 
Hdbk., p. 333 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1078. 



KUSSULA. 55 

In woods. 

Known hj the clear lemon-yellow or citron-coloured pileus 
and the persistently white gills and stem. The taste is 
mild at first, hut becomes slightly acrid if kept in the mouth 
for a short time. 

Russula fingibilis. Britz. 

Mild. Pileus about 2 in. across, rather fleshy at the disc, 
margin thin, persistently even ; convex then plane or de- 
pressed, viscid, pale clear yellow, disc darker ; gills narrowed 
behind and almost free, rather crowded, unequal, about 2 
lines broad at the middle, thin, white ; stem 1-1^ in. long, 
4 lines thick, equal, soft, white, spongy, at length hollow; 
spores broadly elliptical, minutely eohinulate, 9 and 7 fj,. 

Bussula fingibilis, 'Britz., Hjia. Sudb., pt. iv. f. 32; Oke., 
Hdbk., p. 332; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1048. 

Among grass under trees. 

Distinguished among species with a yellow pileus by 
being very viscid, persistently mild taste, white gillsi, and 
entire margin of pileus. 

■fff Pileus green or olive. 

Russula olivascens. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thick up to the margin 
white ; convex then expanded and umbilicate, olivaceous, 
the disc becoming yellowish, margin even ; gills slightly 
adnexed, narrowed behind, crowded, lJ-2 lines broad in 
iront, nearly equal, white then yellowish ; stem 1-2 in. long 
and up to f in. thick, firm, even, white, spongy inside ; 
spores 10 fi. 

Bussula olivascens. Pries, Vet. Ac. Porh., 1861, n. 34 ; Cke., 
niustr., pi. 1085 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 321. 

Woods and among bushes, &c. 

Stem firm but spongy inside, 1-2 in. long, almost 1 in. 
thick, usually becoming thinner upwards, even, white. 
Pileus convex then expanded umbilicate, truly fleshy up to 
the margin, 2-scarcely-3 in. across, olivaceous, becoming 
yellowish ; gills slightly adnexed, broadest in front, almost 
equal and rarely forked, white then yellowish. Taste mild. 
Placed in the Furcatae on account of its habit, yet the gills 



-56 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

ai-e rarely forked, and in this respect miglit be in the section 
Fragiles ; in many other points it agrees with the Compactae. 
.(Fries.) 

Russula heterophylla. Fr. 

Mild. Flesh thick, firm, white; convex then plane; 
"usually becoming depressed, quite even and polished, pellicle 
^ery thin ; margin thin, often more or less incurved, even or 
-densely hut slightly striate ; colour variable, greenish, the 
"disc becoming ochraceous, yellowish brown, &o. ; gills almost 
free, very narrow, rarely 3 line broad, very much crowded, 
forked and with many shorter ones, white ; stem about 1^ in. 
long, up to 1 in. thick, nearly equal, solid, firm, white; 
:spores subglobose, echinulate, 7-8 //, diameter ; no projecting 
cystidia. 

Mussula Jieterophylla, Fries, Epicr., p. 352; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 328; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1044 and 1046. 

In woods, &c. 

A very distinct species, easily recognised by the even 
■pileus, and very narrow, closely-crowded white gills. 
JJ. cyanoxaniha differs in the broad gills furnished with 
jaumerous projecting cystidia. 

Colour very variable. Taste always mild, as in Bussula 
■eyanoxantha, from which the present differs in its smaller 
size, thinner pilens, not rugulose, never reddish or purplish, 
the thin pellicle closely adnate, stem firm, solid, gills thin, 
exceedingly narrow, very much crowded, shining white, 
mixed with many shorter and forked ones. Among several 
forms the following is readily distinguished. ("Fries.) 

Var. galochroa, Fr., Mon., ii. p. 195 ; Bussula gahchroa, 
•Cke., Hdbk., p. 328; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1089. 

Stem solid, firm, 1-2 in. long, ^ in. thick, never tinged 
-with red. Pileus almost plane, viscid in damp weather, 
usually dry, greenish-white, even, but often with scattered." 
white floccose spots. Gills very thin, more or less forked 
.and unequal ; spores 5-6 //,. 

Especially in heathy birch woods. 

Russula azurea. Bres. 
Mild. Pileus about 2 in. across, convex, then expanded, 
^and more or less depressed, dry, pale glaucous-green, or 



EUSSULA. 57 

rattier dark olive-green, disc often darker, and frequently 
with a tinge of purple, covered everywhere at first with a 
dense, whitish hlocm, margin very slightly striate; cuticle 
separable; flesh ahout 2 lines thick, becoming thinner at 
the extreme margin, firm, white ; gills very narrow behind, 
and very slightly adnexed, broader in front, 2 lines broad, 
crowded, brittle, often forked behiad, with a few shorter 
ones that reach nearly to the base, connected by veins, pale 
cream colour from the first, not becoming darker; basidia 
clavate, sterigmata elongate, spores subglobose, minutely 
warted, colourless, about 9 X 8 /a diameter ; cystidia absent ; 
stem 1^ in. long, ^ in. thick, nearly equal or slightly swollen 
at the base, very slightly longitudinally rugulose, solid but 
spongy inside, hence not firm when compressed. 

Bussula azurea, Bresadola, Fungi Trident., t. 24; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 328; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1088. 

Among grass under trees. 

Allied to B. cyanoxantha, but smaller, and at once dis- 
tinguished by the dense mealy layer, resembling bloom, on 
the pileus, the smooth spores, and absence of cystidia. 

Russula virescens. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh rather thick, white ; 
globose then expanded, and at length depressed, often un- 
equal, always dry, not furnished with a distinct pellicle,, the 
flocoulose cuticle becoming broken up into areolate warts ; 
margin straight, obtuse, even, dingy opaque green, gills free, 
somewhat crowded, narrowest in front, equal or sometimes 
forked, a few short ones intermixed, white ; stem solid, 
spongy within, firm, white ; spores 8x10 ,u,. 

Bussula virescens Fries, Epicr., p. 355 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 324; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1039. 

In woods. 
"Eeadily distinguished from every species by the green 
pileus without a pellicle, at first innately flocculose then 
rivulose, and broken up into areolate squamules. (Fries.) 

Russula furcata. Fr. 

Mild at first but soon bitter. Pileus 3-4 in. across, fleshy, 
compact, gibbous then piano-depressed, or infundibuliform, 
even, glabrous, but often frosted with a slight silkiness, 



68 FUKGUS-FLOKA. 

sometimes dark lurid green, sometimes greenish-umlDer ; 
pellicle separable; margin thin, incurved at first then 
spreading, always even ; flesh iirm, somewhat cheesy, white ; 
gills adnato-decurrent, rather thick, somewhat distant, broad, 
attenuated at each end, forked, white ; stem solid, firm, 
2-3 in. long, equal or narrowed at the base, even, white, 
firm, solid; spores 7-8 X 9 /a. 

Bussula furcata, Pries, Epicr,, p. 352 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 321 ; 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1036. 

In woods and in grass under trees. 

Differs from B. cyanoxantha in the broad gills being 
narrowed at both ends. JR. oUvascens differs in the broad 
gills becoming yellowish at maturity, and the larger 
spores. 

The leading points of the present species are the slightly 
decurrent, thickish, frequently-forked gUls, and the even 
pileus with a very delicate silky bloom, and the separable, 
entire pellicle. 

Var. pictipes, Cke., Hdbk., p. 321; Cke., lUustr., pi. 
1086. 

MUd. Pileus 4t-6 in. across, flesh thick, white, dingy 
green, disc darker, even; margin even,. or becoming slightly 
striate ; gills adnate, rather distant, white, 2-3 lines broad ; 
stem 4-6 in. long, 1 in. thick at the apex, becoming a little 
thinner downwards, whitish • rosy at the apex ; tinged green 
below ; spores 8 f/, diameter. 

In woods. 

Cuticle of pileus separable, flesh rosy below. 

Var. ochroviridis, Cke., Hdbk., p. 322; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 1100. 

Mild. Pileus 4-5 in. across, flattened then depressed, at 
first viscid, polished when dry, with a thin adnate pellicle, 
ochraceous towards the margin, disc olivaceous or sooty ; 
margin spreading, even, acute; gills slightly adnexed, 
narrowed at both ends, 2 lines broad at the middle, lanceo- 
late, crowded, many furcate, white, becoming slightly dingy 
when old; stem about 2 in. long and 1 in. thick, reticulately 
rugulose, white, rarely becoming pallid, stuffed and spongy 
within, flesh becoming sooty when cut ; spores white, sub- 
globose, faintly granular, 9 X 7 /i. 



KUSSULA. 59 

On the ground. 

Eesembling B. ochroleuca in the rugose stem, but differs in 
not becoming grey, in the dark, dingj' olive centre of the 
pileus, narrow gills, discoloration of the flesh and the mild 
taste. In habit it resembles iJ. furcata, but differs in the 
paler greenish-ochre pileus, narrower gills, rugose stem; and 
discoloured flesh. (Cooke.) 

Russula aeruginea. Lindbl. 

Mild. Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh rather thick, white,- 
fragile, convex then expanded, disc darker and depressed, 
glabrous, rather dry, verdigris-green, margin striate; gills 
narrowed behind and slightly adnexed, 3 lines and more 
broad in front, rather distant, distinct, clear white, some- 
times spotted with brown; stem about 2 in. long and 1 in. 
thick, even, glabrous, equal, always clear white, firm, solid; 
spores subglobose, echinulate, 8-10 ;u, 

Sussula aeruginea, Lindblad, MS., in Fries, Monogr., ii. 
p. 198; Cke., Hdbk., p. 333; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1090. 

In woods. 

Distinguished from every other species in the section 
Fragiles by the mild and pleasant taste. (Fries.) 

Distinguished among the green species by the verdigris- 
green colour of the pileus, with a distinctly striate margin ; 
gills very broad in front, and persistently mild taste. 

■f'fll Pileus red, brownish, pirple, sometimes with more or less 
green interspersed, 

Russula lepida. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh almost equally thick 
everywhere, firm, cheesy ; convex then expanded, scarcely 
depressed, obtuse, opaque, not polished, with a silky. look, 
at length cracked into squamules; blood-red with, a rosy 
tinge, becoming pale or whitish, especially at the disc ; gills 
rounded behind, adnexed, rather thick, somewhat crowded, 
often forked, connected by veins, white ; the edge near the 
front red, due to the colour of the pileus running for some 
distance down the margin of the gill; spores 8-10 x 6-8 fj,. 

Russula lepida, Fries, Epicr., p. 356; Cke., Hdbk., p. 325 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1072, 1073. 



■60 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

In woods. 

Pileus almost equally fleshy, blood-red with a rosy tinge, 
«diso always becoming whitish. (Fries.} 

B. virescens and B. cutefracta agree with the present species 
in having the cuticle of the pileus broken up ; the former 
•differs in the green colour, the latter also differs in never 
becoming pale at the disc. 

Russula xerampelina. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 3-4 in. across, fleshy, flesh compact, white 
then yellowish; convex then expanded, at length depressed, 
without a distinct pellicle, always dry, opaque, even, but 
susually very minutely cracked when old, and under a lens 
tthe cuticle is seen to be broken up into minute granules, 
margin spreading, not striate; colour variable, usually 
Tosy-purple, the disc becoming pale and yellowish- white, 
.-sometimes there is a tinge of olive; gills adnexed, rather 
'Crowded, broadest in front, forked behind, white then 
yellowish-tan; stem 2-3 in. long, 1 in. thick, base usually 
thickened, even, white or tinged red, firm, spongy 
within, sometimes becoming hollow ; spores ochraceous, 
:8-10 X 6-7 /i. 

Bussula xerampelina, Fries, Epicr., p. 356 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
<p. 326; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1053 and 1074. 

In woods. 

Somewhat resembling B. Integra, but distinguished by 
the narrower and more crowded gills not being powdered 
•with the spores. 

Differs from B. ochroleuca and B. granulosa in the mild 
taste and in the darker ochraceous gills. 

Russula cutefracta, Cke. 
Mild. Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh thick, white, tinged 
ipurple under the cuticle, convex, becoming slightly depressed 
-at the disc, cuticle cracking from the margin inwards into 
minute, firmly adnate areolae, otherwise even; variable in 
-colour, purple, dull red, &c. ; gills adnexed, somewhat 
■crowded, narrowed behind and sometimes nearly free, 
forked, 2 lines broad, white ; stem about 3 in. long, up to 
1 in. thick, nearly equal or a little thinner above, smooth, 
-white with a slight tinge of purple, solid, firm ; spores 
globose, echinulate, 10 /a diameter. 



ELSSULA. 61 

Bussula cutefracta, C'ke., Grev., x. p. 46; Cke.. Hdbk., 
p. 326; Cke., lllustr., pi. 102± and 1040. 

In woods. 

Pileus 3-4 in. or more ; stem 3 in. long, often 1 in. thick. 
Allied to B. tirescens, which it resembles in the cracking of 
the cuticle, but differs in the purple tint beneath, even in 
the green specimens, and in the tinted stem, as well as in 
the colour of the pileus, which is of a darker and different 
shade of green, and sometimes of a deep bluish-purple, as- 
well as of a madder-red. (Cooke.) 

EussTila vesca. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh rather thick, firm,, 
white, convex then plane, at length depressed, viscid, 
marked with radiating, slightlj' raised wrinkles ; flesh-red, 
disc darker ; gills adnexed, rather narrow, thin, crowded^ 
■whitish ; stem l|-2 in. long, about f in. thick, rigid outside- 
and with slight anastomosing wrinkles, white, solid, flesh 
white, becoming tinged with rust-colour when cut, and then 
having a crab-like smell ; spores globose, echinulate, white, 
9-10 /A diameter. 

Bussula cesca, Fiies, Epicr, p. 352 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 327 ;. 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1075. 

In woods. 

Firm, mild and sweet to the taste. Pileus with minute- 
radiating wrinkles or streaks. Tlesh white, that of the stem 
more especially becoming brownish when exposed to the- 
air. The broken stem has a smell much resembling crab or 
lobster. 

Stem solid, compact, rigid outside and with minute ridges- 
anastomosing to form a network, base often attenuated,, 
pure white. Pileus fleshy, rather firm, piano-depressed,, 
rugulosely veined, with a viscid pellicle, flesh-red, disc 
darker, margin at length spreading. Flesh cheesy, firm, 
pure white. Gills adnate, crowded, thin, white, many 
shorter and forked ones intermixed, but scarcely connected 
by veins. Size medium. Taste mild, pleasant. (Fries.) 

Yar. Duportii ; Bussula Buportii, PhU., GreriUea, xiii. 
p. 49; Cke., Hdbk., p. 327; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1042a. 

Pileus li-2f in. broad, the centre rufous, or flesh-red, 
margin bluish, compact, fleshy, firm, convexo-plane, de- 



62 FONGUS-FLOKA. 

pressed, smooth, dry, margin even, obtuse. Stem 1 in. or 
more high, 5-8 lines thick, spongy, stuffed, minutely striate, 
glabrous, white ; gills rounded behind, broad, distant, white ; 
spores 10 /A diameter. 

On the ground in woods. 

The flesh turns reddish-brown when cut, and the odour is 
that of the common crab. (Phillips.) 

Yar. lilacea; Bussula lilacea, Quelet, Bull. Bot. Soc. 
Pr., 1876, t. xi., f. 8 ; Oke., Hdbk., p. 327 ; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 1054. 

Mild. Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thickish, lilac under the 
cuticle ; convex then depressed, viscid, violet or purple, the 
striate margin becoming pale ; gills adnexed, distant, ventri- 
cose, white, connected by veins ; stem lJ-2^ in. long, 
fragile, white, base more or less tinged with rose-colour, 
pruinose above, spongy, flesh white, becoming rusty when 
out. 

In woods. 

Var. Barlae ; Bussula Barlae, Quelet, Assoc. 'Ft., 1883, 
t. vi. f. 12 ; Oke., Hdbk., p. 335; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1061. 

Mild. Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick ; viscid 
then dry, even, peach-coloured, or yellow tinged with orange- 
red, sometimes cracking ; flesh firm, sweet, white, smelling 
slightly of melilot; gills narrowed behind, almost free, 
2 lines and more broad, white then becoming tinged ochra- 
ceous ; stem 1-1^ in. long, up to f in. thick, silkily pruinose, 
snow-white, spongy, firm, flesh white turning reddish-brown 
when cut ; spores 10 x 12 /x. 

Among grass under trees. 

The flesh of the stem turns reddish-brown when cut, and 
the odour is rather that of crab than of melilot. (Cooke.) 

Russula depallens. Pr. 
Mild. Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh rather thick, white ; 
convex then plane, rarely depressed, but often wavy and 
deformed, smooth, pellicle adnate, margin spreading, even, 
slightly striate when old, colour reddish or brownish at first, 
then whitish or yellowish, especially at the disc, opaque in 
every state; gills adnexed, broad, crowded, distinct, but 



KUSSTJLA. 63 

often forked at the tase, and with shorter ones intermixed, 
whitish ; stem about 1 J in. long, solid, firm, usually attenuate 
at the base, white, becoming grey when old ; spores sub- 
globose, echinulate, 7-8 /«,. 

Bussula depallens, Pries, Epicr., p. 353 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
323 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1021. 

In woods, &c. 

Smell none, taste mild. Pileus sometimes deep crimson- 
lake at first, becoming white, especially at the disc ; stem 
pure white at first, then grey. Differs from B. decolorans 
in the white gills. 

Russula cyanoxantha. Schaeff. 

Taste mild. Pileus 2-4 in. across, convex then plane, at 
length depressed or infundibuliform, sometimes even, at 
others rugulose or virgate, viscid, margin bent down, then 
expanded, remotely and slightly striate, colour very variable, 
in the typical form lilac or purplish to olive-green, disc 
usually becoming pale and often yellowish ; margin gene- 
rally bluish or livid-purplish ; flesh firm, cheesy, white, 
usually reddish below the separable cuticle ; gills somewhat 
rounded behind, connected by veins, slightly crowded, 
broad, mixed with forked and shorter ones, shining white ; 
stem 2-3 in. long, up to 1 in. thick, equal, glabrous, 
even, white ; spongily stuffed, but ; firm, often cavernous 
inside when old ; spores 8-9 fx, ; cystidia numerous, pointed. 

Agaricus cyanoxantha, Schafier. 

Bussula cyanoxantha, Fr., Monogr.,ii. p. 194; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 328; Cke., Illustr., pi., 1043, 1076, and 1077. 

Taste mild, pleasant, and in this respect allied to ij. vesca, 
but in the last named the colour of the pileus is constant, 
whereas in the present the colour is very variable ; this, 
and other points of difference are constant. When old the 
pileus is sometimes pallid, greenish- white, but mixed with 
purple. (Pries.) 

The broad, rather distant gills with numerous projecting, 
pointed cystidia, separate the present species from ij. hetero- 
phylla. It. vesca differs distinctly in the reticulately rugxi- 
lose stem. B. furcata differs in the adnato-decurrent, 
thickish gills, and in becoming slightly acrid in the mouth, 
although mild at first. 



64 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Cooke has. figured a form (pi. 1077) having the pilous 
very pale rosy lilac or almost white, disc yellowish. 

Russula elephantina. Fr. 

Mild. Pileus 3-4 in. across ; equally fleshy but not very 
thick ; convex and umbilicate, glabrous, brownish- tan, 
margin paler, incurved, undulating, even; gills obtusely 
adnate, arcuate, rather crowded, thin, whitish, soon marked 
with yellowish spots ; stem 2-3 in. long, 1 in. thick, hard, 
white, flesh firm, white. 

Bussula elephantina, Fries, Epicr., p. 360 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 320. 

In woods. 

The absence of any tendency to turn black or red, 
brownish-tan pileus, and obtusely adnate, thin, crowded 
gills, separate this species from its allies. It is doubtful as 
to whether the present species occurs in Britain. The only 
evidence is the quotation of Bolton's fig. 28 — with a note of 
interrogation — by Fries. 

Habit that of iJ. foetens but without smell, and pileus firm 
and everywhere fleshy. Stem solid, stout, very hard, 2-3 in. 
long, 1 in. thick, even, glabrous, white both outside and 
inside. Pileus fleshy, convex and umbilicate at first, 3 in. 
broad; margin incurved, glabrous, undulate, thin, and ex- 
ceeding the gills, but never striate, pellicle not separable ; 
brownish-tan, paler towards the margin, not changing 
colour, flesh equal, compact, thin in proportion' to the size 
of the fungus ; gills obtusely or somewhat sinuately adnate, 
arcuate, rather crowded, thin, divided behind, unequal in 
front, white, reddish-yellow when bruised. Smell none. 
(Fries.) 

Russula mustelina. Fr. 
Mild. Pileus 2-3 in. across, equally fleshy, firm, convex 
then expanded, centre depressed, at length plane and often 
wavy, glabrous, even, margin inflexed; pellicle viscid in 
rainy weather, adnate, brownish or dingy yellowish, opaque ; 
flesh white, unchangeable ; gills slightly rounded behind and 
adnexed, broadest in front, many shorter ones intermixed, 
crowded, thin, connected by veins, white; stem fleshy, solid, 
about 2 in. longj equal, even, glabrous, white ; spores 7-8 {j, 
diameter. 



RUSSULA. 65 

Bussula mustelina. Fries, Epicr., p. 351 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
321 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1018. 

In woods. 

The only species belonging to the present section having 
a yellow or brownish pileus. There is no tendency to turn 
black in any part. 



Sect. n. TASTE ACEID. 
* Gills yellow or ochraceous. 
f Pileus yellow or ochraceous. 

Hnssnla fellea. Fr. 

Acrid. Pileus 1-3 .in. across, flesh thin, straw-colour ; 
convex then plane, polished, glabrous, pale ochraceous or 
straw-colour, disc darker as a rule, margin even, slightly 
striate when old; pellicle of the pileus closely adnate, thin; 
gills adnate, crowded, thin, narrow, slightly connected by 
veins, mixed with a few shorter ones, bifid behind, straw- 
colour ; stem about 2 in. long, J in. thick, equal, even, white 
then straw-colour, spongy and stuffed then hollow; very 
acrid. 

Busmla fellea. Fries, Epicr., p. 354 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 330 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1058. 

In woods, especially beech. 

Smell none. Eeadily distinguished by the pale ochrace- 
ous straw-colour of every part, and the intensely acrid taste. 
The gills sometimes exude drops of water in damp weather. 

Superficially resembling E. ocJiracea, but readily distin- 
guished by the very acrid taste. 

Russula claroflava. Grove. 

Acrid ? Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick, white, 
yellow beneath the cuticle; convex, at first bullate, then 
plane, slightly depressed in the centre, deep chrome-yellow, 
margin turned down, at length patent, even or slightly 
striate when old, often paler than the disc, but sometimes of 
a deeper colour, cuticle not easily separable ; giUs scarcely 
crowded, adnexed and narrowed behind, not united behind, 

VOL. m. F 



66 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

■white, then altogether pale lemon-yellow, at length sub- 
ochraceous ; stem 1^-2^ in. long, |-f in. thick, smooth, white, 
cylindrical, blunt at the base, spongy within, at length 
rugose and cinereous, or even blackish ; spores globose, 
minutely waste, 9 /a diam. 

Bussula claroflava, Grove, Midi. Nat., 188, p. 265. 

Bussula ochroleuca, var. claroflava, Cke., Hdbk., p. 380 ; 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1196. 

Among grass in damp places. 

Agreeing with B. ochroleuca in the white stem becoming 
grey, but differing in the clear deep chrome-yellow pileus, 
and in the white gills becoming pale lemon-yellow, then 
somewhat ochraceous. 

The smooth, even, rigid pileus, at length cinereous stem, 
and coloured gills are its distinguishing features. ^Grove.) 

f f Pileus red or purple. 

Russula rubra. Fr. 

Acrid. Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh rather thick, firm, 
fragile, white, red under the cuticle j convex then ex- 
panded, becoming depressed, absolutely drj', without a 
distinct pellicle, polished, even, deep blood-red, sometimes 
with a shade of purple, disc darker, becoming- tan-colour 
and minutely cracked with age ; margin spreading, even, 
often wavy; gills obtusely adnate, broad, rather crowded, 
white then yellowish, mixed with forked and shorter ones ; 
etem 2-3 in. long,, about 1 in. thick, solid, even, sometimes 
variegated with red; spores 8-10 /a ; cystidia pointed, pro- 
jecting very slightly. 

Bussula rubra, Tries, Epicr., p. 364 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 325 ; 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1025. 

In woods. 

A veiy showy species ; taste very acrid ; very hard and 
rigid ; very distinct from all other species of this section in 
the even, polished pileus without a distinct pellicle, the 
somewhat grumous flesh, and exceedingly acrid taste. 
(Pries.) 

Var. sapida, Cke., Hdbk., p. 326; Cke., lllustr., pi. 
1087 ; Bussula atropurpurea, Krombh., t. 64, f. 5, 6. 



BUSSUIA. 67 

Besembling the typical form in habit, size, and colonr; 
differing only in being persistently mild to the taste. 
In woods. 

Bnssnla driaieia. Cke. 

Very acrid. Pilens 2-4 in. across, flesh rather thick, firm, 
Trhite; convex then expanded and more or less depressed, 
S(3arcely viscid when moist, opaqne when dry, varying from 
bright purple to dark rose-coloTir ; gills sightly adnexed, 
narrow^ed behind, not mnch crowded, abont 2 lines broai, 
forked at the base, pale primrose-yellow at first, then deeper 
clear yellow ; stem 2—4 in. long, cylindrical, nearly or qnite 
eqnal, pnrple, but paler thaa the pilaus, sometimes rather 
mealy, solid; spores very pale ochre in the mass, 7—9 /i 
diameter. 

Buggula drimeia, Cke., Grev., x. p. 46 ; Cke., lUustr., pL 
1023 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 324. 

Busgula expaUens, GiUet, Hym. Fr., pL 49 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 330; Cke, Dlnstr., pL 1029. 

In woods. 

EeadUy distinguished by the purple pilens and stem, clear 
yellow gills, and very acrid, peppery taste. 

Kleus 2—4 in. broad, stem 2-^ in. long, ^— | in. thick. So 
intensely peppery that after tasting a small fragment, the 
tflngue tingled for more than half an hour. The colour and 
habit similar to M. Qudetii, but distingnished by the yellow- 
gills, ochraceous spores, and intensdy peppery taste. 
(Cooke.) 

Rnssnla vetemosa. Pr. 

Acrid. Pilens about 2 in. across, flesh ihio, soft, white ; 
plane when adult, centre depressed, covere<i with a thin, 
adnate, rather viscid pellicle, rosy or flesh-colour, soon be- 
coming pale, disc nsnally ^rhitish or yellowish; margin 
even, scarcely membranaceous; gills adna'e, crowded, 
narrow, broadest in front, shorter ones intermixed, white 
then straw-colour; stem 2—3 in. long, \ in. thick, soft, 
spongy then hollow, fragile, equals even, white ; spores snb- 
globose, echinulate, 7—9 fu 

Miismila vetemosa, Fries, Epicr., p. 254 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
384; Cke., lUnstr., pL 1033 and 1092. 

In woods. 

7 2 



68 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, rosy or flesh-colour, soon becoming 
pale, disc whitish or j'ellowish. (Fries.) 

Distinguished among species with pale yellow gills hy the 
cleitr rosy or pinkish flesh-coloured, quite even pileus, and 
the even, white stem which soon becomes hollow. 

Russula maculata. Quel. 

Acrid. Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thin, white, firm ; 
convex then plane or slightly depressed, viscid, reddish 
flesh-colour, then pallid or yellowish especially at the disc, 
irregularly blotched or spotted with purple or brown ; 
margin often wavy, often cracked when old ; gills adnate, 
narrowed behind, 2 lines broad, forked, pale sulphur then 
peach-colour; stem 1-1 J in. long, ^ in. or more thick, equal, 
with anastomosing wrinkles, white or tinged rose-colour, 
then spotted with ochre, solid; spores 10 /* diameter. 

Bussula maculata, Quel., Soc. Bot. France, 1877, t. 5, f. 8 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 322 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1069. 

In woods. 

Somewhat resembling B. depallens, but smaller, acrid, stem 
not becoming grey. 

Russula serotina. Quel. 

Acrid. Pilens up to 1 in. across, flesh thin, white; 
globose then more or less expanded, purplish-brown or 
olivaceous, margin lilac, covered with a white bloom at first ; 
gills almost free, about 1 line broad, not crowded, white, 
then with a yellow.tinge, margin slightly broken ; stem about 
1 in. long, 1| line thick, slightly wrinkled, white, rather 
mealy, stuffed ; spores 8-9 /x, diameter. 

Busi-ula serutirta, Quelet, Soc. Bot. France, 1878, p. 289, 
I. 3, f. 11 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 327; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1042b. 

On the ground under beeches, &c. 

Eeadily distinguished by its small size, the pileus rarely 
measuring 1 in. across. 

•* Gilh white. 

■f Pileus ochraceous or umber. 

Russula cchroleuca. Fr. (fig. 1 , p. 3.) 
Acrid. Pileiis 3-4 in. across, flesh thick ; convex then ex- 



EUSSULA. 69 

panded and depressed, polished, pellicle thin, closely adnate, 
dingy ochraceons-yellow, becoming pale, margin spreading, 
almost even ; gills adnexed, ronnded and connected behin<l, 
3 lines broad, with few or no shorter ones, white then pal lid ; 
stem 2-3 in. long, £ in. thick, almost equal, spon-iy, reticn- 
lately wrinkled, white then grey, stuffed ; spores snbglobosc, 
8 X 9 A' ; cystidia absent. 

Buggida oehroleuea, Pries, Epicr., p. 358; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 332 ; Cke., Illnstr., pL 1049. 

In fir woods, &c. 

Distinguished by the dingy yellow pileus, broad white 
gUls ronnded behind, and the grey stem. The centre of the 
pilens is sometimes rather scurfy, owing to the breaking np 
of the cuticle. 

B. granulosa differs in the stem not becoming grey ; gills 
narrowed behind, and in the numerous, slightly projecting, 
pointed cystidia. £. claroflata differs in the chrome-yellow 
pileus, and in the white gills becoming pale le.uon-yellow, 
then somewhat ochraceous. 

Structure and size, also in the acrid taste, asrreeing with 
M. emetiea; differs distinctly in the stem being slightly 
reticulately rugulose, and white then becoming greyisli ; 
pellicle of pileus adnate, margin persistently even for a long 
time, gills rounded behind, becoming pallid ; colour of 
iiileus constantly yellow, becoming pale. Inodorous like 
S. emetiea. (Fries.) 

Russxila granulosa. Cooke. 

Acrid. Pileus 2— 3J in. across, flesh rather thick, firm, 
white ; convex then expanded, becoming depressed or even 
infundibuliform, viscid at first, ochraceous, disc darker and 
becoming broken up into minute granules, owing to the 
cracking of the cuticle, margin even or faintly striate when 
old; gills nearly free, narrowed behind, raiher crowded, 
equal, rarely forked, white; stem 2-3 in. long, nearly or 
quite equal, minutely granular or mealy throughout, 
granules snow-white at the apex, brownish below, intemHlly 
w^hite, spongy ; spores rough, subglobose, white, apiculate, 
11-12 /i; cystidia pointed, only slightly projecting. 

Busgula granulosa, Cke., Hdbk., p. 332; Cke., Ulustr., 
pi. 1038. 



70 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

On tlie ground under trees. - > 

Habit nearly tliat of B. ocTiroleuca,' -whidh it also yesejiibles 
in colour, but differing in the darker and minutely granular 
disc, as well as the mealy stem, which is not at all grey ; 
the cuticle of the pileus is continuous from the margin for 
some distance along the edge of the gills. (Cooke.) 

The disc is often granular in B. ochroleuca, and the present 
species is best distinguished by the granular, persistently 
white stem, gills narrowed behind, and with projecting 
cystidia. B. daroflava differs in the stem turning grey and 
the gills yellnw. Finally, B. citrma differs in the clear 
lemon-yellow pileus and mild taste. 

Russula foetens. Fr. 

Acrid. Smell foetid. Pileus 3-6 in. across, flesh rather 
thin, rigid and fragile, pallid ; subglobose then expanded 
and becoming depressed, pellicle adnate, not separable, viscid 
in damp weather, dingy ochraceous yellow, becoming pale ; 
margin membranaceous, sulcate for a considerable distance 
from the edge, at length tubcrculose, incurved at first ; gills 
adnexed, crowded, connected by veins, with numerous fu:^d 
and shorter ones, 2-3 lines broad, whitish, when young 
exuding drops of water ; stem about 2 in. long, |-1 in. thick, 
wlntishV stuffed then hollow; spores 8-10 /j,; cystidia 
absent. 

Bussula foetens. Fries, Epicr., p. 356 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 329; 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1046. 

In woods. 

Large, very rigid, easily known by the penetrating em- 
pyreumatic smell; pileus at length upturned and wavy. 
Gills (free at fiist) thin, becoming slightly tinged yellow, 
4ingy when bruised. (Fries.) 

Smell sometimes almost none, known by the rigid, dingy 
ochraceous pileus with a suloate, tuberculose margin. Burst- 
ing through the ground like a ball, then expanding. 

Var. subfoetens ; Bussula suhfoetens, Smith, Journ. Bot., 
1873, p. 337 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 329; Cke, Illustr.,,pl..l047. 

Pileus buUate, rather viscid., disc fleshy, margin somewhat 
membranacepus ; gills thick, distant and branched ; , stem 
not so stout as, in U. /oeiens ; smuller, colour somewhat dis- 
agreeable; taste slightly acrid; spores 10 x 8 ju,. 



BUSSrLA, ( 1 

On the gronnd. 

Gregarious. Pilaus 4r-o in. broad, at first convex, the 
margin broadly folded inwariis, convex, at length more or 
less depressed ■with the margin somewhat vaulted, flestij- in 
the centre, the margin thin, furrowed and tubercled, the 
striae appearing as if a glutinoos membrane were stretched. 
over them, dirty yellow, rather brittle. GUIs forked, dirty 
white or yellowish, moderately broad, connected by veins. 
-Stem 3—4 in. high, above 1 in- thick, obtuse, incrassited 
at the base, ruggedly hollow within, as if eaten by snails, 
white or with a dirty yellow tinge, depresso-tomentose, 
beneath the gills minuiely pitted longitudinally, flesh rather 
yellow. Highly acrid, odour very strong, and penetrating, 
empyrenmatic, somewhat resembling that of prnssic acid, but 
exceedingly disa^e^ble. '* (Berk.) •r-- ^ ^ ^ ~- ^ 

Russulacgnsobriiia. Fr. 

Acrid. Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh rather thin at the 
disc, becoming membranaceous at the margin, fragile, 'white, 
greyish below the thick, viscid, separable cuticle ; campanu- 
iate then expanded, at length depressei, dark grey or olive- 
brown, margin spreading, even, although membranaceous ; 
gills at first free, then appearing to be adnate owing to 
the expansion of the piiens, broad, crowded, clear white, 
forked, and with shorter intermediate ones; stem 2-3 in. 
long, almost an inch thick, equal, even, glabrous, clear 
white, at length becoming grey, solid but soft; spores 
nearly smooth, w^hite 8—9 x 7 fi~ 

S>2ssula consohrina. Fries, Epicr., p. 359; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
329 ; Cke., Illnstr., pL 105-5. 

In woods. 

Yery acrid; easily known by the even, umber or olive- 
brown pileus, which ha-s tisually more or less of a grey tinge. 
The cuticle often becomes more or less broken up at the margin. 

Yar. sororia. Fries, Hym. Enr., p. 447 ; Cke., Ulustr., pL 
1057 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 329. 

.Size, colour, and habit of the typical form ; differing in the 
striate margin of the pileus ; gills rather distant, with many 
intermediate shorter ones, but rarely forked, connected by 
veins. 

In woods, &c. 



72 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Var. intermedia, Cke., Hdbk., p. 329 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 
1056. 

Habit, size, and colour of typical form ; pileus fleshy, de- 
pressed, viscid, margin tliin, striate ; stem usually attenu- 
ated downwards, becoming oiuereous and striate; gills dirty 
white; spores 10 /a diameter. 

On the ground under trees. 

Russula pectinata. Tr. 

Acrid. Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh compact, white, 
yellowish below the difScultly separable pellicle ; convex 
then expanded and depressed or concavely infundibuliform, 
viscid and brownish-tan at first, then dry, paler tan, disc 
always darker ; margin thin, tuberculosely sulcate, often 
deformed ; gills narrowed behind and nearly free, broader 
towards the margin, rather narrow, somewhat crowded, 
equal, simple, white ; stem about 2 in. long, |-1 in. thick, 
longitudinally striate, white, base often attenuated, spongy 
stuffed; smeU weak but unpleasant; spores 8-9 /* diameter. 

Bussula pectinata. Fries, Epicr., p. 358 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
332 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1101. 

In woods. 

Large, rigid, smell weak, but nauseous. (Fries.) 

The dingy colour somewhat resembles M. consobrina, var. 
sororia, but is rather lighter, and also differs in the tubercu- 
lose margin of the pileus, and in the crowded gills not being 
connected by veins. Smell resembling that of B. foetens. 

Russula sardonia. Fr. 
Acrid. Pileus 2-3 in. across, fleshy, compact, convex then 
plane, rarely depressed but usually wavy, even, cuticle ad- 
nate, viscid in moist weather, soon becoming discoloured, and 
often spotted; colour very variable, sometimes pallid and 
spotted with yellow, or dingy yellow, sometimes reddish, 
opaque, margin even ; flesh firm, cheesy, white ; gills adnata, 
closely crowded, broad, somewhat forked, white, exuding 
drops of water in damp weather, hence spotted with yellow 
when dry; stem 1^-2 in. long, up to 1 in. thick, firm, even, 
white or reddish, solid but becoming spongy inside ; spores- 
9-10 ju, diameter. 

. Bussula sardonia, Fries, Epicr., p. 353; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
323 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1037 ? 



EUSSULA. / :> 

In woods, amoDg grass, &c. 

Eobust, firm, but not large. Intermediate between B. ro- 
sacea and B. expalJens, but distinct from both in the yellowish, 
colour. (Fries.; 

W Pileus red or purplish. 

Bussula emetica. Fr. 

Acrid. Pileus 3—4 in. across, flesh rather thick, white, reddish 
under the separable cuticle ; at first campanulate, then ex- 
panded and depressed, polished, at first toit then blood-red, 
sometimes yellowish, at length becoming white ; margin at 
length tnberculosely ^^^lcate ; gills almost free, broad, rather- 
distant, and like the spires, clear white ; stem 2—3 in. high, 
t in. or more thick, elastic when young but fragile when old,, 
even, -white or tinged with red, solid but spongy within ; 
spores 8 /t diameter. 

Bussula emetica. Fries, Epicr., p. 357 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 33?;. 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 1030. 

In damp woods, <tc. 

Large, •showy, regular, firm, but fragile when adult, taste- 
very acrid. Pileus tawny when old. (Fries.) 

A distinct species, -well marked by the clear white, fre& 
gUls ; deep rose or criin>on-lake coloured pileus, which soon. 
bleaches almost white ; flesh red tinder the readily separable 
cuticle; and the very acrid taste. 

Pileus 2—5 in. broad, glutinous when young, smooth,. 
hemispherical, at length plane, depressed in the centre, mar- 
gin thin, striato-sulcate, purple, rose-red, bluish, ftiscotis,. 
yellow or even white. Gills rather distant, broad, rigid, 
thickish, connected by veins, equal, with a very few smaller 
interspersed, always white. Stem 2—3 in. high, longitudi- 
nally rugulose, finn, solid, white or tinged with the colour 
of the pileus, very acrid and poisonous, a very small piece- 
producing bad effects. (Berk.) 

Var. Clusii, Cke., lUustr., pi. 1031. 

Acrid. Pileus 3—4 in. across, flesh white, soon becoming 
yellowish, thick up to the margin; convex then expanded 
and sometimes slightly depressed, smooth, even, deep rose— 
colotir or blood-red, margin arched, even for a long time. 



74 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

slightly striate wlien old ; gills adnexed then adnate, rather 
narrowed behind, 2 lines broad in front, rather distant, 
pallid then pale yellow; stem 2-3 in. long, | in. thick, 
■equal, almost even, firm, white, spongily stuffed; spores 
globose, minutely echinulate, 9-10 /a diameter. 

Considered by Fries as a variety of U. emetica, from which 
it differs entirely in those characters which more especially , 
■characterise the last-named — free, persistently pure white 
gills. The points of the present are : acrid taste, deep red 
pileus, and pale yellow, naked gills. ' 

Russula rosacea. Fr. 

Acrid. Pileus 2—4 in. across, flesh thick, firm, cheesy 
white ; convex then expanded, obtuse, but never depressed, 
usually unequal, wavy, sometimes incised ; pellicle viscid in 
moist weather, separable ; margin even ; rosy flesh-colour, 
varying in depth, often with darker spots, whitish in places 
where the cuticle has disappeared; gills adnate in every 
«tage, thin, crowded, fragile, forked behind, shorter ones 
intermixed, always persistently white, broad ; stem 1 J-2 in. 
long, up to f in. thick, even, white with a tinge of rose- 
colour, spongy but solid ; spores 8 /i diameter. 

Russula rosacea. Fries, Bpicr., p. 351 ; Oke., Hdbk., p. 322; 
■Cke., Illustr., pi. 1020. 

In woods. 

Allied to B,. sanguinea, but differs in being irregular, often 
•excentrio, pileus rather wavy, scarcely depressed ; gills less 
■crowded, broader, less divided, and hardly connected. Some- 
times pale flesh-colour, becoming pale and marked with 
darker spots. (Fries.) 

Distinguished from similarly coloured species by the thick 
flesh and persistently white adnate gills. Slowly becoming 
■acrid, 

Russula sanguinea. Fr. 
Acrid. Pileus 2-4 in. across, flesh thick, cheesy, white; 
at first convex, obtuse, then depressed or infundibuliform, 
base of the depression usually gibbous, polished, even, moist 
in wet weather, blood-red, usually becoming pale at the 
•even, spreading marj^in; gills truly decurrent, closely 
■crowded, very narrow, connected by veins, fragile, somewhat 
forked, white ; stem stout, spongily stuffed, apex at first 



BUSSULA. 75 

consiaicted, then equal, slightly striate, -wliite then reddish ; 
spores 9—10 /i diameter- 

Bussula sanguinea, !E*ries, Epicr., p. 351 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
322 ; Cke. Illnatr., pL 1019. 

Among grass in Troods. 

-S. nAra agrees with the present species in colonr, bnt 
differs in the very hard, rigid, somewhat gmmoTis flec'h of 
the pileus, and in the gills bec»ming yellowish. Known, 
from aU other species hy the truly decurrent gUls. 

Russala fragilis. Pr. 

Acrid. Pilens 1—1 J in. across, flesh "very thin and very 
fragile ; convex at first and often nmbonate, then plane and 
depressed, pellicle thin, rather viscid in moist weather, 
becoming pale, colour variable, often opaque, iypicallyrflesh- 
colonr, becoming abnost or entirely white, often with reddish 
spots ; margin very thin, tnbercnlosely striate ; gills slightly 
adnexed, very thin, broad, crowded, ventricose, all eqnal, 
pure w^hite; stem Iv— 2 in. long, slender, often slightly 
striate, shining white, spongy within and soon hollow; 
spores minutely echinnlate, 8-10 x 3 /t. 

Busgula fragSis, Fries, Epicr., p. 359 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 333 ; 
Cke., Illnstr., pL 1091. 

In woods, &c. 

Difficult to define from fragile forms of B. emetica, bnt the 
gills are much more crowded, ventricose, thinner, and the 
margin often eroded ; pileus thinner, more las ; flesh en- 
tirely white — not red nnder the cuticle ; margin tubercnlose, 
and the entire fungus smaller and more fragile. 

Var, nivea, Cke., Hdbk., p. 333; Cke., Hlustr., pL 1060b, 
Size and habit of type form, but every part white from, 
the earliest stage ; spores 8 /i diameter. 

Var. violacea, Quelet, Assoc. Fr., 1882, t. 11, f. 13 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 334; Cke., Hlustr., pi. 1060a. 

Pileus about 1^ in. across, expanded and depresseii, thin, 
viscid, striate, bright violet ^vit^l a narrow whitish margin, 
sometimes spotted with yellow, green, or olive ; flesh soft, 
white, peppery; stem about li in. long, 2—3 lines thick, 
fragile, stariate, pruinose, white, spongy then hollow ; gills 
adnate, crowded, thin, white ; spores 8—9 ft, spinulose. 



76 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Var. fallax; Bussula emetica, -vax.fallax; Cke., Hdbk., p. 
331 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1059. 

Size of the typical form, or slightly larger ; acrid, fragile, 
dingy pale reddish or with a pale purple tinge, disc Tisually 
very dark ; opaque, discoid ; gills adnexed, distant, pallid ; 
spores 8 /* diameter. 

la woods. 

Russula Queletii. Fr. 

Acrid. Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thickish at the disc, 
margin thin, white, purplish under the cuticle; campanu- 
late or convex then plane, even, viscid, dark violet or dusky, 
margin slightly striate, purplish lilac; gills almost free, 
narrowed behind, unequal, forked, 1^ line broad, white, 
exuding drops of water ; stem 1^-2 in. long, 4-3 lines thick, 
purplish- violet, paler than the pileus, mealy, spongy within ; 
spores, 8 /t. 

Bussula Queletii, Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 448 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 330; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1028. 

In fir woods, &c. 

Distinguished by the purple pileus and stem and the 
white gills. B. drimeia somewhat resembles the present 
species in general appearance, but differs in the yellow gills. 

Var. purpurea; Bussula purpurea, Gillet, Tab. Anal., p. 47; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 323 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1022. 

Differs from the typical form in the whitish stem tinged 
with rose-colour at the middle pai t, and the yellowish gills. 



MYCENA. Fries. 

Pileus regular, thin, usually striate, more or less cam- 
panulate, rarely umbilioate or depressed, oonico-oyliudrical at 
first, with the margin straight and closely embracing the 
slender, hollow, central stem ; gills adnate or adnexed, never 
truly decurrent, but often more or less sinuate behind, and 
with a more or less evident decurrent tooth (= uncinate), 
white, greyish, or tinged with pale reddish-pink (= flesh- 
colour) ; spores white. 

Mycena, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 140; Cke., Hdbk., p. 75 
(as a subgenus of Agaricus). 



MYCENA. 77 

The species are as a rule small and slender, colours usiially 
bright and clear, but often very variable in the same species. 
Several species are strong-scented. Most grow on wood, 
branches, or twigs, although some grow in the ground and 
have a long rooting base to the stem, others root among 
heaps of dead leaves, and some of the minute species grow 
upon dead leaves. 

The edge of the gills is often very minutely fringed or 
denticulate under a lens, more especially in the section 
Calodontes. This is due to the presence of numerous inflated 
cells or cystidia of varying length. The same structure 
also occurs in other genera. 

Our information is very scanty respecting nearly all the 
smaller species, and as little or no information can be 
derived from dried specimens, even if you are quite certain 
that the correct species is at your disposal, consequently 
there remains much to be done yet in the way of spore 
form and size, presence or absence of cystidia, &c. 

Gollybia differs from the present genus in the margin of 
the pileus being incurved at first, .Omjahalia and Glitocybe 
differ in having decurrent gills. 



ANALYSIS OF TEH SPECIES. 

I. IsSITlTLiE. 

Minute species; stem very slender, not rooting, nor 
furnished with a disc, nor downy at the base, but abruptly 
piercing the substratum, dry ; gills adnate, uncinate with a 
decurrent tooth. Yery delicate and soon flaccid after being 
touched. M. rorida agrees with the present section except 
in having a very viscid stem, and is therefore placed in the 
section Glutinipedes. 

n. Basipedes. 

Stem dry, not rooting, but attached by a flattened disc 
or small strigose bulb at the base. Slender, solitary, soon 
flaccid. 



78 FUNGUS-PLOEA. 

III. Glutinipedes. 

Stem juioeless, distinctly viscid or glutinous. Gills at 
length with a decurrent tooth. (Some species in the follow- 
ing section are viscid in wet weather, hut\;^are distinguished 
by having juice in the stem.) 

IV. Lactipedes. 

Gills and rooting stem dry (not viscid) but giving out 
juice or milk when broken. 

Y. FlLIPEDES. 

Stem slender, scarcely a line thick, never [jmore, flaccid, 
rather tough, rooting, not viscid, juiceless, usually very 
long in proportion to the size of the pileus ; gills becoming 
slightly coloured, greyish, &c., margin paler, distinct. Very 
slender, straight ; not caespitose nor hygrophanous. 

Allied to the section Bigidipedes, but smaller, stem flaccid 
and with a very small cavity up the centre, and gills hardly 
connected by veins, but as species with a long slender stem 
occur elsewhere, all the characters must be taken into 
consideration. 

VI. Pragilipedes. 

Stem fragile, dry, juiceless, base fibrillose, scarcely rooting, 
not truly dilated at the base, not ending abruptly as in 
Section I. Gills discoloured, at length slightly connected by 
veins. 

Slender, fragile, often soft, usually with a distinct smell, 
normally simple and growing on the ground, a few of the 
strong-scented ones growing on wood and tufted. 

VII. ElGIDIPEDES. 

Stem firm, rigid, rather tough, juiceless, base more or 
less strigosely rooting. Gills discoloured, grey or reddish, 
at length usually connected by veins; pileus not hygro- 
phanous. 

Tough, persistent, inodorous, normally growing on wood 



MYCENA. 79 

and much tufted, but individuals of the same species occur 
solitary and on the ground. 

YTTT. Adonideae. 

Stem without juice and not discoid at the base ; gills all 
one colour, margin not darker, colour not changing. Colour 
pure, bright, not brownish nor greyish. 

Scattered or solitary, terrestrial. 

IX. Calodontes. 

Stem juiceless, not expanded at the base ; gills having the 
edge distinctly darker than the rest, and minutely den- 
ticulate, a feature that sharply separates the present section 
from, every other. 

In M. ganguinolenta the gills agree with those of the 
present section in having a dark edge, but the stem contains 
coloured juice or milk, and consequently is placed in section 
Lactipedes. 

L INSITITIAE. 

Mycena jimoicola. Pr. 

Pileus up to 1 line across, often less, very delicate, convex, 
striate, glabrous, rufescent or with a rosy tinge; giUs 
adnate, distant, white; stem J— | in. long, very slender, 
glabrous, brown, or with a rosy tinge. 

Agaricus {Mycena) juncicola. Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 160; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 91 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 193c. 

On dead rushes, twigs, &c. 

Pileus 1 line broad, of a deep blood-red, inclining to 
tawny ; stem 1 in. high, brown, paler above, smooth ; gills 
forming a collar round the stem. (Berk.) 

Distinguished from M. pterigena by the absence of a disc 
at the base of the stem. 

Mycena eapillaris. Tr. 

White. Pileus about 1 line high and broad, very thin, 

campanulate and obtuse, then umbilicate, slightly striate 

when moist, even when dry ; giUs adnate, ascending, few, 

all entire and of equal length ; stem about 1 in. long, but 



■'80 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

•often 2-3 in. when growing among leaves, hair-like, weak, 
wavy, glabrous, hase rarely surrounded by radiating fibrils, 
:fistulose ; spores elliptical, 7-8 X 4 /,i. 

Agaricus (Mycena) capillaris. Pries, Epicr., p. 119; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 91; Cke., lUustr., pi. 193b. 

On heaps of fallen leaves, especially beech. 

Very delicate, but rather tough, white and striate when 
moist, shining white and even when dry. 

Pileus |-1 line broad, at first conic, like the head of a 
very small pin, grey, the stem dark above and minutely 
pulverulent. (Berk.) 

Mycena setosa. Sow. 

White ; very delicate. Pileus about J line across, hemi- 
'Spherical, obtuse, smooth ; gills almost free, narrow, distant ; 
■stem |— 1 in. long, very slender, covered with delicate 
;spreading hairs. 

Agaricus setosus, Sowerby, Fung., t. 302; Cke., Hdbk., 
^. ■gi ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 193a. 

On dead leaves in woods. 

Distinguished by the smooth pileus and slender stem 
•covered with delicate spreading hairs. 

Mycena codoniceps. Cooke. 

Pileus about 2 lines high and 1 line broad, flesh thick in 
-proportion to the size of the pileus, pale umber ; campanu- 
late, scarcely expanding, suleate, sprinkled with somewhat 
erect short hairs, wholly umber ; gills adnate, narrow, not 
crowded, white ; stem 2-4 lines high, thin, becoming slightly 
thinner downwards, umber below, whitish above; spores 
-elliptical, 5x2- 5-3 fi. 

Agaricus (Mycena) codoniceps, Cke., Grev., xvi. p. 102 ; Cke., 
Hdbk, p. 370; Cke., Illustr., pi. 952b. 

On tree-fern trunks. 

Gregarious. Known by its minute size, and dingy umber 
-pileus. Probably introduced. 

Mycena hiemalis. Osbeck. 
Pileus up to J in. across, very thin ; campanulate, slightly 
'umbonate, margin striate, flesh-colour, rufescent, or white, 
often pruinose ; gills uncinately adnate, narrow, linear. 



BIYCEXA. 81 

■whitish ; stem |-1 in. long, slender, curved, downy helow ; 
spores 7-8 x 3 /x. ; cystidia ahsent. 

Agaricas Memalis, Oshect, in Eetz., Suppl., ii. p. 19 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 91 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 164b. 

On trunks of trees. 

Closely resembling M. corticoJa, but clearly differing in 
the narrow, linear gills, absence of cystidia, and larger 
spores. 

Difficult to distinguish from M. corticola and growing in 
the same localities, but much more scattered ; stem longer, 
erect or ascending, scarcely incurved, pubescent below; 
pileus campanulate, obtusely umbonate, margin striate ; gills 
narrower, linear; colour constantly paler, whitish, rufous 
flesh-coluur, &c., scarcely ever bluish-black or brown. 
(Fries.) 

Mycena corticola. Fr. 

Pileus 2-4 lines across, veiy thin, hemispherical, obtuse, 
at length slightly umbilioate, deeply striate, glabrous or 
ilocculosely pruinose ; colour very variable, blackish, bluish, 
brown, or grey ; gills adnata, with a slight decurrent tooth, 
broad, somewhat ovate, paler than the pileus; stem about 
y in. long, very slender, glabrous or minutely scurfy, p-tler 
than the pileus, incurved, minutely fistulose; spores elliptical, 
5-6 X 3 ^; cystidia obtusely fusiform, 50-60 x 8-10 /n. 

Agaricus (Mycena) corticola. Fries, Svst. Myc, i. p. 169; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 90; Cke., Illustr., pi. ie4A. 

On bark of living trees, among moss, lichens, &c. 

Allied to W. Memalis, but distinguished by the presence of 
cystidia in the broad, ovate gills. 

II. BASIPEDES. 

Mycena pterigena. Fr. 

Pale rose-colour. Pileus about 1 line broad ; very delicate, 
and thin; campanulate, obtuse, almost even; giUs adnate, 
broad, distant, entire; stem 2-4 lines long, very thin, wavy, 
smooth, disc radiately strigose. 

Agaricus (Mycena) plerigenus. Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 160 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 90; Cke., Illustr., pi. 192o. 

On dead fern stems, veins of dead leaves, &c. 

VOL. III. G 



82 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Distinguislied from the other rose-coloured species by its 
smaller size, and hy the disc at the hase of the stem. In 
Fries' Icones, t. 85, f. 4, the stem is in some instances 1 in. 
long, and very slender ; pileus striate. 

Mycena disoopoda. L6v. 

White. Pileus 1-2 lines high, very thin ; conical, ohtuse, 
covered with whitish meal ; gills adnate, few, very distant, 
narrow; stem about 2 lines long, very slender, mealy, ex- 
panding at the base into a minute downy discoid bulb. 

Agaricus discopus. Lev., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1841, p. 239 ; t. 14, 
f. 4; Cke., Hdbk., p. 90; Cke., Illustr., pi. 192b. 

On sticks, &c. 

Distinguished by the persistently conical pileus and 
adnate gills. 

Mycena saccharifera. B. & Br. 

Whitish. Pileus about 2 lines across, very thin; gills 
arcuately decurrent, very few (8-9), very distant, rather 
thick, .sprinkled with shining globose white granules ; stem 
2 lines high, filiform, base with a minute, indistinct disc, 
fixed by a few white fibrils. 

Agaricus (^Mycena) sacchariferus, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
no. 1216; Cke., Hdbk., p. 90; Cke., Illustr., pi. 192a. 

On bramble and nettle stems. 

Distinguished among the species in the present section by 
the rudimentary disc, and by the sparkling particles dusted 
over the gills, these are globose, colourless, and measure 
20-28 /* diameter. 

Var. electica, Buoknall, Trans. Bristol Soc. ; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 249c. 

While. Pileus hemispherical, at length sulcate, clothed, 
as well as the stem and gills, with sparkling granular 
pubescence ; stem filiform, slightly dilated and hairy at the 
base ; gills adnate (4-9), broad, white. 

On dead furze, &c. 

Mycena tenerrima. Berk. 
White ; very delicate. Pileus l-l|^ line broad, convex, 
powdered with white scurfy granules ; gills free, ventricose ; 
stom up to 1 in. high, slender, minutely hairy, fixed by a 
minute downy disc ; spores subglobose, 3-4 /x diameter. 



MYCEXA. 83 

Agaricus (Mycena) tenerriravs. Berk., Oatl., t. 6. f. 6 ; Ckc, 
Hdbk., p. 89 ; Cke., Illnstr., pi. 249b. 

On fir-cones, sticks, &c. 

Gregarious, pnre ■white. Pileus 1— l-J lines broad, verj' 
delicate, frosted with, minute graimles. Stem 1 in. high, 
scarce \ line thick, adhering by a minute pubescent disc, 
which is not the least striate. (Berk.) 

Distinguished from M. saccharifera and its variety by the 
free gills and minutely pilose stem. M. siylohates differs in 
the striate disc. 

Gregarious, pure white. Pileus 1-1| line broad, very 
delicate, tender and easily injured, not pilose but frosted 
minute granules. Gills distant unequal. Sporules white, 
round. Stem 1 in. high. Scarce ^ oi a, line thick, flexuous 
fistulose, adhering by a minute but distant pubescent disc 
which is not the least striate. (Berk.) 

Mycena stylobates. Pers. 

White. Pileus 2—3 lines across, verv" thin ; campanulate, 
obtuse, striate, minutely hairy ; gills free, distinct, ventri- 
cose ; stem 1-2 in. high, slender, equal, smooth, disc orbicular, 
plane, downy, radiately striate, rather large ; spores 4x2/*,. 

Agaricus stylobates, Persoon, Syn., t. v. £ 4; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 89 ; Cke., Ulusti-., pi. 249a. 

On fern stems, twigs, &c. 

Distinguished by the smooth stem and large, flat, orbicular, 
radiately striate disc. 

Pure white. Pileus 2 lines or more broad ; stem 1-2 in. 
high, ^ line thick, rather thicker at the base, adhering by 
a broad membranaceous, tomentose, radiato-striate disc. 
(Berk.) 

Pure white. Pileus 2 lines or more broad, campanulate 
or hemispherical, sometimes broadly and obtusely umbonate, 
striate, with a round mark (in tlunner specimens), in the 
centre caused by the inseri^ion of the stem, minutely pilose, 
not granulosa. Gills unequal, rounded, free. Stem 1-2 in. 
high, J a line thick, rather thicker at the base, flexuous, 
fistulose, downy or minutely pilose, though sometimes as the 
pileus becomes quite smooth, fragile, adhering by a broad, 
membranous, tomentose, radiato-striate disc. (Berk.) 

G 2 



84 rUNGUS-FLOKA. 



III. GLUTINIPEDES. 



Mycena rorida. Pr. 

Pileus 4-7 lines broad, very thin; convex, sliglitly nm- 
bilicate, coarsely striate, dry, ochraceoiis-wliite ; gills slightly 
decTirrent, not sinuate, narrow, distant, white ; stem 1-1 J in. 
long, very slender, whitish, very glutinous. 

Agaricus {Mycena) roridus, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 156; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 89 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 248c. 

On dead bramble twigs, &c. 

Distinguished from every other species by the decurrent 
gills, and the very glutinous stem, the gluten usually ac- 
cumulating in sufficient quantity near the base to hang in 
drops. 

Pileus ^ in. broad or more, dirty ochraceous; stem 1^ in. 
or more high, at first tinged with violet above, at length 
dirty ochre, clothed with abundant white pellucid gluten, 
which almost drips from it ; sometimes the whole plant is 
nearly white. (Berk.) 

Mycena plicato-crenata. Tr. 

Pileus about |- in. across, flesh very thin ; conical, some- 
M'hat umbonate, coarsely sulcate, margin crenate, yellowish- 
white; gills much narrowed behind, adnate with a decur- 
rent tooth, distant, white; stem lJ-2 in. long, slender, 
equal, glabrous, viscid, whitish more or less tinged with 
red or brown, indistinctly hollow, yellowish inside. 

Agaricus (^Mycena) plicato-crenatus. Fries, Monogr., ii. p. 294 ;. 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 89 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 248b. 

Among moss, heath, in larch woods, &c. 

Distinguished by the plica tely sulcate pileus with a crenate- 
margin and without a pellicle, and the sticky stem. M. 
cpipterygius differs in the viscid, separable cuticle, and in 
the larger size. 

Mycena citrinella. Pers. 
Pileus 2-4 lines broad, quite membranaceous, campanulate 
or hemispherical then expanded, not depressed, striate, 
scarcely viscid, lemon-yellow, often darker at the disc, 
becoming pale ; gills adnexed with a decurrent tooth,, 
alternately long and short, distant, broad, clear white; stem 



MYCENA. 85 

about 1 in. long, very slender, glabrous, viscid in moist 
■weather, lemon-yellow, base downy but scarcely rooting; 
«pores obliquely elliptical, 6-8 x 4r-5 /i. 

Agaricus citrinellus, Pers., Ic. Descr., t. ii. f. 3 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 89 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 248a. 

Pine woods, &c., among moss. 

Allied to M. vulgaris, but smaller, less viscid, and pileus 
not umbilicately depressed. 

Var. Candida. Whitish when fresh, becoming sulphur- 
jrellow when dry. 

Mycena vulgaris. Pers. 

Pileus about ^ in. across, almost membranaceous, conve.v 
then depressed and with a central papilla, viscid, pale brown 
or greyish with darker lines resembling striae ; giUs slightlj' 
■deourrent, thin, rather broad, white; stem f— 1|^ in. long, 
slender, equal, tough, viscid, pale, fibrillosely rooting ; spores 
pip-shaped, 5 x 2 • 5 /x. 

Agaricus vulgaris, Persoon, Icon. Pict., t. xix. f. 3 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 88; Cke., Illustr., pi. 191b. 

Among pine leaves and on twigs, &c. 

Distinguished at once among the small species by the 
viscid pileus and stem, pileus depressed and with a minute 
papillate umbo. Sometimes rufous, or whitish with a dark 
papilla. 

Mycena pelliculosa. Fr. 

Pileus f-l in. across, flesh very thin ; campanulate then 
convex, obtuse, finely striat^', with a viscid separable pellicle, 
greyish or brownish; gills slightly decurrent, joined behind, 
•otherwise simple and distinct, somewhat like folds, distant, 
glaucous ; stem 1-1|^ in long, glabrous, viscid, livid, not quite 
straight as a rule. 

Agaricus (Mycena') pelliculosa. Fries, Epicr., p. 116; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 88 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 191a. 

On the ground among heather, &c. 

Larger than M. vulgaris, and known by the viscid, separablo 
cuticle. 

Stem slightly thickened at the apex, at length brownish, 
fragile. (_Fries.) 



h6 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Myeena clavicularis. Fr. 

Pileus |— I in. across, memlDranaceous ; convex then ex- 
panded, somewhat umbonate at first, striate, dry, -withont a 
distinct pellicle, disc at length depressed, wMtish, yellowisli 
or brownish; gills adnate, narrow, white ; stem about 2 in. 
long, slender, tough, glabrous, viscid, whitish base fi^brillose, 
not rooting. 

Agarieus (Myeena) clavicularis, Pries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 158 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 88 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 208b. 

On the ground in woods. 

Allied to M. epipterygia, but distinguished by the perfectly 
dry pileus. M. vulgaris and M. rorida are distinguished by 
the viscid pileus. 

Myeena epipterygia. Scop. 
Pileus J-1 in. across, membranaceous ; campanulate, obtuse, 
iDecoming more or less expanded, never truly depressed, striate, 
covered with a pellicle that is very viscid in wet weather, and 
easily separable in every condition, colour variable, usually 
grey, often pale yellowish-green near the margin ; margin 
often minutely notched when young ; gills adnate with a 
decurrent tooth, thin, whitish or tinged grey; stem 2-4 in. 
long, about 1 line thick, hollow, tough, often wavy, base 
rooting and fibrillose, even, viscid, usually yellowish, but 
sometimes grey, pallid, or whitish ; spores elliptical, 8-10 x 

Agarieus epipterygius. Scop., Carn., p. 453 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 88 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 208a. 

On branches, twigs, among moss, &c. 

Solitary or clustered. Colour variable, but readilj' known 
by the viscid pileus, both being fui niched with a separable 
pellicle. Often resembling M. alcalina in the greenish-yellow 
colour of the pileus, but distinguished by the absence of smell. 

Pileus an inch or more broad and high, obtuse, sometimes 
umbilioate, cinerous-yellow, but also occasionally, according 
to Fries, white, bluish, or rufous, submembranaceous, the 
margin striate and toothed ; epidermis viscid ; when moist 
easily tearing off. Gills arcuato-adnate, subdecurrent, par- 
taking of the colour of the pileus. Stem 3-4 inches high, 
about 1 line thick, full yellow, viscid, smooth, tomentose at 
the base. (Berk.) 



MTCENA. 87 



IV. LACTIPEDES. 

Mycena leucogala. Cooke. 

Pileus l^-f in. higii and broad, flesh thin, dingy ; campanii- 
late, umbonate, sulcate to the middle, purple-brown, margin 
paler, umbo blackish ; gills adnate with a slight decnrrent 
tooth, rather distant, grey, about 1 line broad ; stem 2-3 in. 
long, about 1 line thick at the base, slightly thinner upwards, 
hollow, coloured like the pileus, with whitish down at the 
base, containing a large quantity of white milk that escapes 
in drops when the stem is broken. 

Agarieus (Mycena) leucogalus, Cke., Grev., xi. p. 41 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 88 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 653. 

On rotten stumps, &c. 

Pileus |- in. high and broad, not exceeding 1 in. Stem 
3 in. long; forming dense eaespitose tufts. Very similar 
in general appearance to M. pullata. Berk. & Cke. (Cooke.) 

Closely allied to dark forms of M. galopoda, but the latter 
differs in the pileus not being so coarsely striate, and in the 
nearly white gills. M. pullata differs in the absence of milk 
in the stem, and in the slight alkaline smell. 

M. atrocyaneus also resembles the present species, but differs 
in the absence of milk in the stem. 

Mycena galopoda. Fr. 

Pileus 3—7 lines broad, membranaceous, conical then cam- 
panulate, more or less umbonate, striate, naked or prninose, 
at first blackish then grey, but sometimes white with a 
blackish or brownish umbo; gills narrowed behind and 
adnexed, broad towards the margin, white or with a faint 
greenish tinge; stem 2-3 in. long, 1 line thick, rather fragile, 
even, glabrous or pruinose, greyish-black, apex paler, base 
rather thickened, downy and rooting, giving out a large 
quantity of white milk when wounded ; spores elliptical, 
9-10 X 5 /J.. 

Agarieus (Mycena) galopus, Epicr., p. 115; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 207b ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 87. 

Among moss, on trunks, &o. 

M. leucogala resembles the darker forms of the present 
species, but differs in the gills being grey and connected by 



88 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Pileus ^-1 in. broad, oampanulate or convex, ocliraceouR, 
the centre blactisli (varying somewhat in colour), pellucid, 
striate. Gills white, arcuato-adnate or even decurront. Stem 
2-3 inches high, about 1 line thick, pale umber, the_ base 
somewhat rooting, fibrilloso-tomentose or even strigose, 
iistulose, not brittle. Milk mild. Taste like that of radishe.«. 
Subject to some variation in size and form and colour, but 
known by its white milk. (Berk.) 

Mycena chelidonia. Sow. 

Pileus about 5-7 lines across, fleth very thin ; campanulate 
then convex, obtuse, nearly even ; gills adnate, rather distant, 
distinct, narrow, white then tinged yellow; stem up to 2 in. 
long, thin, equal, smooth, rooting, with a small quantity of 
yellow juice, often compressed; spores 9-10 x 5 /x. 

Agaricus chelidonius, Sowerb.y, t. 385 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 87 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 207a (after Sowerby). 

On beech stumps. 

Distinguished by the yellow juice present in small 
quantity in the stem. 

On dead beech trunks, somewhat caespitose; with the 
habit of the yellowish form of M. alcalina, to which it is 
allied. Stem hollow, l|-2 in. long, about 1 line thick, rather 
firm, even, glabrous, yellowish, containing a small quantity 
of yellowish milk, the rooting base downy. Pileus almost 
membranaceous, campanulate then convex, obtuse i-1 in. 
broad, glabrous, pellucidly striate when moist, even and 
opaque when diy, flesh-colour with a yellow tinge, edge 
quite entire ; gills adnate, rather distant, distinct, whitish 
or yellowish-white. (Fries.) 

Mycena crocata. Fr. 
Pileus J-1 in. across, almost membranaceous, conical then 
campanulate, disc even, umbonate, reddish, olive, greyish, 
or whitish towards the striate margin, edge quite entire; 
gills narrow behind and adnexed, rather distant, broadest in 
front, somewhat ventricose, white ; stem 3-5 in. long, hollow, 
slightly attenuated from the base, glabrous, saffron-red, due 
to the copious amount of milk of this colour which pours out 
when the stem is wounded, especially at the downy rooting 
portion. 



3IYCENA. 89 

Agaricus (Myeena) crocatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 115; Cte., 
Hdtk, p. 87 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 163b. 

Among fallen teech leaves, &c. 

Inodorous. Distinguished from If. chelidonia by the large 
amount of deep saffron-red juice in the stem, especially in 
the rooting portion, and the absence of smell. 

Myeena sanguinolenta. A. & S. 

PUeus up to J in. across, very thin, campanulate then 
convex, striate, reddish-brown ; gills adnexed, rather narrow, 
reddish, margin dark purplish-red; stem 1^2 in. long, 
slender, base downy, containing a pale reddish juice. 

Agaricus sanguinolentus. Alb. & Schw., p. 196 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 87; Cke., Ulustr., p. 163a. 

Among damp leaves, moss, &c. 

Our only species with red juice in the stem that has a 
dark edge to the gills. 

Myeena cnienta. Fr. 

Pilens up to tt in. across, very thin ; conico-campanulate, 
striate, margin quite entire, reddish -brown, becoming pale ; 
gills adnate, narrow, whitish, margin not darker ; stem 
2-3 in. long, slender, equal, straight, glabrous, with a 
downy rooting base, containing a dark red juice. 

Agaricus cruentus. Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 149; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 87; Cke., Illustr., pi. 162b. 

In fir woods, on cones, &c. ; also on the ground. 

Fries says this specits grows singly, Cooke's figure repre- 
sents it as tufted. 

Intermediate between M. Tiaematopa and M. sanguinolenta. 
Stem fistulose, 2-3 in. long, not a line thick but rather firm , 
straight, even, glabrous, never downy, paler than the pileus, 
Avith a downy rooting base, exuding a dark red liquid when 
broken. Pileus submembranaceous, conicdl then campanulate, 
obtuse, striate, glabrous, 3-5 lines broad, bay or reddish- 
brown, margin quite entire ; gills entirely adnate, crowded, 
linear, whitish, margin quite entire, the same colour as tho 
Test of the gill. (Fries.) 

On fir-cones. Pileus conic, obtuse, striate ; margin in- 
flexed, entire ; substance at first rather thick in proportion. 
Stem rigid, smooth, full of red juice, strigose at the base 



90 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Gills obtuse in front, shortly adnate, white, margin of the 
same colour. (B. & Br.) 

Differs from M. haematopa in the margin of the pileus 
being quite entire, and not slightly toothed, and from 
M. sanguinolenta in the margin of the gills not being darker 
than the remainder. 

Mycena haematopa. Pers. • 

Tufted. Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh rather thin ; cam- 
panulate, obtuse, striate (Pries says pileus even), margin 
minutely toothed ; reddish disc darker and with a purple 
tinge; gills adnate, about |— 1 line broad, entirely whitish; 
stem about 2 in. long, 1 line thick, rather thicker at the 
base, paler than the pileus, covered with white pulverulent 
down, containing dark blood-red juice. 

Agaricus haematopus, Pers., Syn., p. 379 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 86 ; 
Cke., lllustr., p. 162a. 

On trunks and stumps. 

The denticulate margin of the pileus and entirely white 
gills readily distinguish the present among species con- 
taining a red juice. 

Tufted. Pileus moist, campanulate, then expanded, reddish, 
with a tinge of purple, |-l in. or more across, striate, 
very minutely livulose; stem pale rufous flesh-colour, at 
first thickened at the base, then nearly equal, farinaceous ; 
gills distant, adnato-deonrrent, white; edge red; interstices 
even. Everywhere distilling, when broken, a dark-red juice. 
Par larger than any form of Jf. sanguinolenta or M. eruenta. 
(B. & Br.) 

V. PILIPEDES. 

Mycena acicula. Schaeff. 

Pileus 1-2 lines across, membranaceous; campanulately 
convex, glabrous, orange-red, margin striate ; gills adnexed, 
rounded behind, ventrioose, distant, yellow, margin whitish; 
stem up to 1^ in. long, very slender, toughj shining, yellowish, 
continued as a long, fibrillose rooting base. 

Agaricus acicola, Schaeffer, Pung., t. 222 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 86; Cke., lllustr., pi. 190c. 

Among fallen twigs, also on wood. 

Very slepder, but tough, persistent. Stem slightly fistu- 



MYCENA. 91 

lose, rooting, atout 1^ in. long, slender as a hair, very glabrous 
(except the rooting base), shining, deep yellow ; pileiis mem- 
branaceous, campanulate then convex, with a very minute 
slightly fleshy umbo, 1—2 lines broad, striate, glabrous, 
shining, vermilion-orange. Gills adnexed and rounded 
behind, almost free, broad in proportion, ventricose, some- 
what ovate, distant, alternate ones shorter, yellow, margin 
white, or altogether white. (Fries.) 

Distinguished among the minute red species by the yellow 
gills and the tough, rooting stem. 

Mycena tenella. Fr. 

Caespitose. Pileus up to J in. across, membranaceous, 
campanulately convex, obtuse, sometimes expanding, pellucid, 
margin slightly striate, white or with a pink tinge ; gills 
uncinate, crowded, very thin and narrow, white then tinged 
pink; stem about 1 in. long, very slender, glabrous, soft, 
white, base downy. 

Agariciis (3Iycena) tenellus. Fries, Epicr., p. Ill ; Cke., 
Illustr., pi. 190b; Cke., Hdbk., p. 86. 

On old trunks. 

Yery delicate and tender. Known from M. tenuis and 
M. gypsea by the smaller size, very narrow, crowded, thin 
gills, and very slightly striate pileus. 

Mycena speirea. Fr. 

Pileus 2-6 lines across, membranaceous, conico-convex 
then plane, at length depressed in the centre, umbilicus 
darker, brown, often ivith a small papillate umbo, remainder 
greyish-white, variegated with brown lines, glabrous, some- 
times pruinose ; gills at first adnate, then decurrent owing 
to the depression of the pileus, distant, alternate ones shorter, 
white ; stem about lJ-2 in. long, hollow, very tough, equal, 
glabrous, shining, white, base brownish and with root-like 
fibrils of mycelium. 

Agarieus speirea, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 158 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 86; Cke., lUustr., pi. 190a. 

On mossy trunks. 

Densely gregarious; but not caespitose. 

Stem minutely fistulose, veiy tough, filiform, about 2 in. 
long, equal, glabrous, shining, white, base brownish, with a 



■^2 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

thin, fibrillose root. Pileus membranaceous, conico-oonvox 
when young, then plane, centre depressed, umbo brown, rest 
pallid or whitish, variegated with brown lines, 2-4 lines 
Ijroad, glabrous, sometimes pruinose. Gills adnate at first, 
then deeply decurrent owing to the depression of the pileu^, 
-distant, alternate ones shorter, clear while. More closely 
-allied to the Pilopedes section of Mycena than to Omphalia, 
although from the deeply decurrent gills might be placed in 
'Omphalia. (Fries.) 

Mycena coUariata. Fr. 

Pileus J-f in. across, membranaceous; campanulate then 
oonvex, somewhat umbonate, striate, brownish or greyish- 
white with a brownish disc, becoming pale, glabrous ; gills 
adnate to a collar round the stem, narrow, crowded, distinct, 
whitish or with a tinge of flesh-colour; stem about 1^- in. 
long, ^ line and more thick, tough, glabrous, shining, pale. 

Agaricus (Mycena) collariatus. Pries, Obs., ii. p. 164; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 86; Cke., Illustr., pi. 189c. 

Among grass in woods, &c. 

Distinguished by the gills separating from the stem and 
attached to each other behind as if by a collar. 

Stem about 1 in. long and nearly 1 line thick, slightly 
striate under a lens. Pileus ^ in. and more broad, typically 
fuscous, but often greyish-white with a brownish disc ; gills 
rather distant when the pileus expands. Allied to Mycena 
Mannem, which differs in the firmer stem. The collar is not 
free, as in Marasmius rotula, but the gills are joined behind, 
^nd cohere to the stem, and at length secede. (Pries.) 

Mycena vitilis, Fr. 

Pileus 3-4 lines across, membranaceous ; conical then ex- 
panded, papillate, deeply striate when moist, brownish or 
greyish-white, becoming pale ; gills narrowed behind and 
A^dnate, rather distant, greyish-white ; stem 3-6 in. long, 
very slender, equal, slightly bending under the weight of 
-the pileus, glabrous, juiceless, shining, rooting. 

Agaricus (Mycena) w'tiZis, Fries, Epicr., p. 113; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 85; Cke., Illustr., pi. 189b. 

Among leaves in damp places. 

Distinguished by the very long, slender, weak stem and 
sdeeply striate pileus. 



MYCENA. 9S 

Stem very slender, 3-6 in. long. Pileus 3— t lines broad, 
somewhat shining, livid-fuscons, whitish-grey, &c., the 
slightly fleshy papilla often absent, almost even when dry. 
Gills ascending, distinct, decurrent tooth obsolete ; margin 
whitish. (Fries.) 

Mycena debilis. Fr. 

Pileus about ^ in. across, membranaceous ; campanulate- 
then convex, obtuse, striate, almost even when dr3-, rugulose,. 
becoming brownish, opaqiie; gills broadly adnate, narrow^ 
distinct, whitish; stem 1-2 in. long, very slender, equal, 
flaccid and not quite straight, whitish, base not rooting,, 
fibrillose. 

Agaricus (Mycena) debilis. Fries, Epicr., p. 112; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 85 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 189a. 

On the ground among moss, &c. 

M. collariata somewhat resembles the present species, but 
differs in having the gills attached to a collar round the- 
stem. 

Becoming dry within an hour in fine weather, but per- 
sisting for a long time in damp places among leaves. About 
the size of M. sanguinolenta. Colour whitish, flesh-colour,, 
livid, &c., becoming brownish. Umbo obtuse when present. 
(Fries.) 

Mycena amicta. Fr. 

Prleus 3-5 lines across, membranaceous, conically cam- 
panulate, striate up to the middle, dry, glabrous, sometimes 
pruinose, greenish, grey, livid, &c. ; gills free, crowded,, 
linear, grey, margin paler ; stem 3-4 in. long, very slender,, 
equal, tough, covered with pulverulent' down, root tapering, 
twisted, glabrous. 

Agaricus (Mycena) amictus. Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 141 ;. 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 85; Cke., Illustr., pi. 283. 

On the ground among moss. 

Eeadily distinguished among allied forms by the long„ 
slender, tough, pulverulent stem, and the grey gills. 

Mycena mirabilis. Cke. (fe Quel. 
Pileus about ^ in. high and across, flesh very thin, campanu- 
late, finely striate, umbonate, pale bluish-grey, umbo darker 
at first, then tan-colour; gills slightly adnexed, distant^ 



94 FUNGt7S-FL0EA. 

■white, edges darkened with minute particles; stem l|-2 in. 
long, slender, equal, greyish, minutely floocose, slightly 
rooting and tomentose at the base, hollow. 

Agaricus (Mycena) mirahilis, Cke. and Quelet, Clavis, p. 39 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 85 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 951a. 

Agaricus marginellus, Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 131 (not of 
Persoon). 

On fir trunks, among moss. 

Somewhat resembling M. iris, but distinguished by the 
umbonate pileus and dark-edged gills. 

Pileus 3 lines across, conical, striate, pallid grey, darker 
in the centre, miautely rivulose ; margin subcrenulate ; stem 
short, slightly curved, shining, quite smooth, minutely fistu- 
lose ; gills distant, slightly adnexed, white, with a purple 
margin. Under a high magnifying power, the pileus (espe- 
cially the edge) and stem appear clothed with minute 
glandular particles similar to those which colour the edge 
«f the gills. (B. & Br.) 

Mycena iris. Berk. 

Pileus J-f in. across, very thin ; hemispherical then more 
■or less expanded, obtuse, striate, slightly viscid, blue when 
young, then brownish and ornamented with blue and 
adglutinated fibrils ; gills almost free, narrow, tinged grey ; 
stem l|-3 in. long, slender, equal, bluish below and tinged 
with brown above, with fascicles of down here and there. 

Agaricus (Myeena) iris, Berk., Outl., t. 6, f. 2; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 85; Cke., Illustr., pi. 161b. 

On fir stumps. 

Fasciculate or scattered, brittle, when young the pileus 
and stem are bright sky-blue and beautifully tomentose. 
Pileus |— I of an in. broad, membranaceous, hemispherical, 
obtuse, striate, umber, clothed with blue fibrillae which are 
glued down to the epidermis, scattered in the centre, thicker 
and more free on the margin, which is slightly denticu- 
late. Gills free or slightly adnexed, linear, pale cinereous, 
the margin sometimes denticulate. Stem 1^-3| in. high, 
not 1 line broad, not rooting, blue below, above sub- 
rufescent, the tomentum below depressed and blue, above 
nearly white, minutely but distinctly fascioulato-pilose : in 
veiy elongated specimens obsolete. Another form has the 



MYCENA. 95 

pileus mtich longer, subcampanulate rufesoent, varied with 
yellow-green towards tlie margin and blue nearer to the 
centre; sometimes the whole rufescent except the extreme 
margin, which is deep blue. The gills paler, but not always 
so, and more denticulate, their edges milky. Smell strong. 
A most elegant though small species. (Berk.) 

Mycena filopes. Bull. 

Pileus about J in. across, membranaceous; conical then 
campanulate, at length expanded, obtuse, striate, brownish- 
grey or livid-grey, rarely whitish; gills free or slightly 
adnexed, narrow, ventricose, crowded, white ; stem 3-4 in. 
long, very slender, equal, rather fragile, flaccid, glabrous, 
whitish ; base rooting, fibrillose. 

Agaricus filopes, BuUiard, t. 320; Cke., Hdbk., p. 84; 
lUustr., pi. 161a. 

In woods among leaves, &c. 

Fragile. Distinguished among the small species by the 
long filiform stem ending in a fibrillose, rooting base. 

Stem fistulose, 3 in. and more long, equal, altogether 
filiform, straight, flaccid but not very tough, oven, glabrous, 
with a long, downy, rooting base, livid or with a fuscous 
tinge, filled with a watery juice when growing. PUeus re- 
markably membranaceous, conical then campanulate, obtuse, 
striate, dry, glabrous, about | in. broad, livid-fuscous, rarely 
whitish. Gills free or touching the stem, lanceolate, ventri- 
cose, crowded, white. (Fries.) 



VI. FEAGILIPBDES. 

Mycena atroalba. Bolton. 

Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh very thin; parabolic- 
campanulate, obtuse, disc even, blackish, becoming whitish 
towards the pellucidly striate margin ; not hygrophanous ; 
gills free, ventricose, crowded, white then glaucous; stem 
3-4 in. long, almost 2 lines thick, even, pallid, apex darker, 
base swollen, strigose. 

Agaricus atroalbus, Bolton, t. 137 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 81. 

On the ground. ' 

Solitary or gregarious, not caespitose. Firm but not 



96 FUXGUS-FLOEA. 

rigid; not fusiformly rooting, distinguished from allies by 
the tumid, inflated, hairy base of the stem. (Fries.) 

Mycena dissiliens. Pr. 

Strong-scented. Pileus about 1 in. across, almost mem- 
branaceous, aoorn-shaped then conico-oampanulate, not be- 
coming flattened, but the margin becomes upturned, sulcate 
to the middle, dry, greyish-fuscous, becoming whitish at 
the margin ; gills rounded behind, seceding and becoming 
almost free, broadest in front, apex very obtuse, soft, watery^ 
whitish base, tinged grey, the shorter ones crisped ; stem 
short, 2 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, attenuated from the strigose 
base, glabrous or slightly pruinose, juiceless, finely striate 
under a lens, grey, splitting into flaps that curve outwards 
when compressed or bent. 

Agaricus {Mycena) dissiliens, Pries, Epicr., p. 138; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 286a; Cke., Hdbk., p. 81. 

On trunks, subcaespitose, or on the ground among fallen 
branches, &c. 

Very fragile, smell unpleasant. In shady places the pileus 
is generally covered with a spidery silkiness. Distinguished 
by the greyish-brown sulcate pileus, and by the split 
portions of the stem curling outwards. 

Mycena; plicosa. Fr. 

Fragile, pileus very thin, campanulate then expanded, 
margin sulcate, greyish-brown when moist, opaque and buff 
when dry; gills distant, thick, broadest in front, adnate^ 
connected by veins, grey; stem smooth, even, shining, 
hollow, often rather flexuous, 1^-2 in. high, slender, equal, 
pale, minutely strigose at base ; spores irregularly globose, 
4^6 fn diameter. 

Agaricus pUcosus, Fries, Hym. Enr., p. 142 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 82; Cke., lUust., t 285b; not good, sulcate margin not 
shown. 

Among grass, &o. 

Stem rather rigid (not soft as in M. metata), rather fragile, 
straight, equal, even, glabrous, 1 in. long, grey or brownish, 
base abrupt, not rooting, furnished with white down. Pileus 
membranaceous, campanulate then expanded, umbo rather 
fleshy, even ; the remainder deeply lineato-sulcate, grooves 
distant almost like folds, often splitting, 1 in. across. 



JIYCENA. 97 

brownish-grey, opaque wlien dry. Gills adnate without a 
decurrent tooth, thick, distant, connected by veins, grey, at 
length whitish pruinose. Appears to be nearest to M. metata, 
which diflfers in the soft, lax stem and almost even pileus. 
(Fries.) 

Mycena paupercula. Berk. 

Strong-scented. Pileus 1-2 lines across, flesh thin ; 
obtusely conical or hemispherical, very minutely innately 
fibrillose, ochraceous-white ; gills free then adnexed, whitish; 
stem i in. and more long, slender, equal, whitish, rooting 
and downy at the base. 

Agartcus (Mycena) pauperculus, Berk., Outl., p. 125; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 82 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 236a. 

Inside decayed stumps. 

Minute, ochraceous-white. Pileus 1 line broad, pale 
ochraceous-white, in age almost tawny. "When moist the 
gills shine through, giving a striate appearance, but not 
always. (Berk.) 

Distinguished among the minute species b}'' the rather 
strong, sweet scent, and rooting stem. 

M. psammicola differs in the wholly whitish-pulverulent 
stem, and in having particles sprinkled over the pileus. 

Pileus 1 line broad, fleshy, for the size of the plant firm, 
scarcely membranaceous, obtusely conic or hemispherical, 
most minutely but decidedly innato-fibrillose, pale ochra- 
ceous-white, in age almost tawny, probably stained bj"- 
the wood on which it grows. When moist the gUls shine 
through, giving it a striate appearance, but not always. 
Gills white, adnexed by reason of the growth of the pUeus ; 
in youth they are really free. Sporules white, round. Stem 
;|— 1 in. high, ^ a line thick, white, curved, rooting, the root 
villous, minutely stuffed, smooth, even, under a high magni- 
fying power, powdered at the top with the sporules, generally 
thicker below. Odour farinaceous. Allied to A. alcalinus, 
but I think distinct from all its small varieties. For it is 
much more fleshy, and seems to have no tendency to bo 
coloured like that species. (Berk.) 

Mycena atrocyanea. Batsch. 
Pileus up to ^ in. across, flesh thin, grey ; fragile, inodorous, 
campanulately convex, umbonate, sulcate, brownish, then 
VOL. iir. H 



98 FUNGUS-FLOBA. 

dark UtiisTi-grey, covered with, a wMte evanescent blooiu ; 
gills narrow hekind, united by a collar behind and slightly 
adnexed, distant, whitish; stem lJ-3 in. long, straight, 
slender, equal, extreme base slightly thickened, glabrous, 
blackish-blue. 

Agaricus (Mycenob) atroeyanea, Batsch, f. 87 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 82 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 236b. 

On the ground, on pine leaves, &c. 

Usually gregarious, sometimes clustered. Distinguished 
from allied forms by the whitish gills and absence of milk 
in the stem. 

Umbo obtuse, often deformed. 

Mycena puUata. Berk. & Cke. 

Smell slight, nitrous. Pileus ^— | in. across, flesh very 
thin; campanulate, obtusely umbonate, coarsely striate to 
the middle, dark brown, disc nearly black ; gills adnexed, 
white, scarcely crowded, about 1 line broad ; stem about 
3 in. long, about 1 line thick at the base, slightly thinner 
upwards, coloured like the pileus, with whitish down at the 
base, hollow, sometimes rooting ; spores elliptical, 6 x 3 ^u.. 

Agaricus (Myeena) pullatus. Berk. & Cke., Grev., xi. p. 69 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 82; Cke., Illustr., pi. 237. 

On the ground among dead leaves. 

Stem 3 in. long, 1 line thick. Pileus f in. broad, at first 
(lark brown with a tinge of purple, almost black, growing a 
a little paler with age, sometimes with a glaucous bloom. 
(Cooke.) 

Closely resembling M. leucogala, but distinguished by the 
absence of milk in the stem ; this character also separates 
the dark form of M. galopoda. M. atroeyanea differs in the 
dark blue tinge of pileus and stem. 

Mycena leptocepliala. Pers. 

Smell strong, alkaline. Solitary; entirely grey. Pileus 
up to 1 in. across, flesh very thin, fragile, campanulate then 
expanded, umbonate, coarsely striate, margin often wavy, 
pruinose or slightly silky, opaque ; gills emarginate, rather 
broad, margin whitish ; stem up to 2 in. long, 1 line thick, 
slightly striate, opaque, dry, equal. 

Agaricus leiptoce'phalus, Persoon, Icon, ot Descr., t. ii. f. 4 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 187a; Cke., Hdbk., p. 83. 



MYOENA. 99 

On trunks and on the ground. 

Stem 1 in. and more long, l|-2 lines thick, base smooth.; 
gills almost 2 lines broad, shining, dark grey, margin 
■whitish ; pileus 1 in. broad, expanded, plario-oonvex, rather 
wayy, grooves broad, distinct, opaque, substance very thin, 
pellucid, appearing to be slightly downy, but really glabrous. 
Taste unpleasant ; smell like sweet nitre. (Persoon.) 

M. alcalina differs in the sticky stem. In Cooke's figure 
the gills are represented as slightly sinuate and with a 
minute decurrent tooth. 

Agreeing with M. alcalina in the nitrous smell ; differing 
in not being caespitose, the slightly striate stem ; sulcate, 
pruinose pileus, and emarginate gills. (Fries.) 

Mycena alcalina, Fr. 

Smell strong, nitrous. Pileus up to 1 in. across, flesh thin ; 
campanulate, obtuse, margin at length spreading or some- 
times upturned, deeply striate when moist, shining when 
dry, colour various, pallid, or with a tinge of pale yellowish- 
green, disc darker; gills adnate, narrowed behind, rather 
distant, whitish then glaucous or greyish ; stem 2-3 in. long> 
1 line thick, equal, pale, sometimes yellow, shining, slightly 
viscid, base downy, hollow ; spores 8 x 5 /u. 

Agaricvs (Mycena') alcalinus, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 142; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 83; Cke., Illustr., pi. 187b, 225. 

On trunks and stumps, among leaves, &o. 

On trunks (somewhat tufted), leaves, &c., not truly terres- 
trial, as in M. ammoniaca. Smell strong, nitrous. Pileus 
without a viscid, separable pellicle ; stem not trulj"^ viscid. 
Very variable in size and colour. Stem j-ellow, aiej, &o. ; 
gills rather thick, slightly connected by veins, often dark 
grey, edge paler, yellowish-glaucous, &o., rigid but fragile, 
(Fries.) 

M. ammoniaca has the same smell as the present species, 
but differs in growing on the ground; sliglitly striate, 
umbonate pileus ; stem without a yellow tinge. 

Solitary or densely caespitose. Pileus |-2 in. broad, sub- 
carnose, umbonate, subumbonate or quite obtnsi^, even, with 
or without imbedded fibrillae, at first conicii-pnpillate, rugose, 
cinereous or tinged with olive, substriate, when olil expanded 
or depressed but little changed in colour, though occasionally 

H 2 



100 FUNGUS-FLOBA. 

with a pink or yellow hue. Gills adnata with a tooth, distant, 
when old slightly ventricose, at first pale then glaucous 
pinkish or yellowish, more or less connected by veins. Stem 
-3 in. high, 1-2 lines thick, fistulose, subfibrilloso-striate, 
attenuated upwards, downy at the base, the down sometimes 
rather tawny, sometimes firm and tenacious, sometimes very 
brittle, grey above, yellowish or reddish beneath when 
young, but when old sometimes changing above to a bright 
yellow. Odour pungent, like that of fermented or putrid 
walnuts. A very variable species ; often passing away into 
a loathsome mass before it fully expands, sometimes becoming- 
dry and tdugh, but still with the same peculiar odour and a 
taste similar to it. (Berk.) 

Mycena ammoniaea. Fr. 

Strong-scented. Pileus |-| in. across, flesh very thin ; 

oonical then expanded, umbonate, naked, discoid, opaqui.', 

• dark brown, sometimes greyish, margin paler and striate; 

gills adnate, linear, narrow, distinct, whitish; gtem about 

"2 in. long and ^ line thick, rather firm, even, dry, whitish, 

rootirg. 

Agaricus (Mycena) ammoniaeus. Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 142 ; 
'Cke., Hdbk., p. 83; Cke., Illustr., pi. 238a. 

On the ground. 

Smell like that of M. alcalina, from which the present 
species differs in growing singly on the ground ; stem 
perfectly dry, and without a yellow tinge. M. metata differs 
in the soft sulistauce of every part, pileus hygrophanous and 
soon becoming whitish. 

Mycena metata. Fr, 

Pileus ^-| in. across, flesh very thin, hemispherical, then 

campanulate, obtuse, soft, very hygrophanous, grey and 

slightly strinte when moist; even, opaque, and whitish when 

dry, and looks somewhat silky, at least under a lens ; gills 

adnate, narrow, linear, rather distant, distinct, whitish ; 

stem 2-3 in. Ling, slender, soft and flaccid, even, glabrous, 

-greyish-white, base fibrillose, but not truly rooting; spores 

■ elliptical, 8-10 x 4^6 /t. 

Agaricus metalus, Fries, Syst. Myc, i, p. 141 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 83; Cke., Jllustr., pi. 238b. 
Among moss in pine woods, &c. 



MYCENA. 101 

Smell alkaline, weak or entirely absent; pileus usually 
grey when moist, sometimes reddisib-pink, pallid, &c. 

Among moss in pastures, also in pine woods ; gregarious 
but never caespitose. Smell weak, alkaline, often entirely 
absent. In other respects differing widely from M. ammoniaca, 
M. alcalina, and W. leptocephala in the soft and flaccid, 
substance, and in the bygrophanous pileus readily becoming 
■pale and discoloured. (Fries.) 

Mycena peltata. Fr. 

Pileus about f in. across ; the broad disc rather fleshy,- 
remainder thin ; convex when young, soon quite plane, 
closely and distinctly striate at the margin, blackish-brown 
when moist, grey when dry ; when dry the edge is upturned 
and blackish, forming a shallow saucer-like depression ; gills 
adnate with a decurrent tooth, crowded at first, ventricose, 
becoming rather distant as the pileus expands, distinct, 
grey, margin paler ; stem 11-2 in. long, about 1 line thick,- 
equal, rigid, rather fragile, often wavy, even, glabrous, 
naked, livid, base elongated and downy when growing among 
moss, but not truly rooting. 

Agaricus peltatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 110 ; Cke., Hdbk.. 
p. 83. 

In pastures, among moss. 

Closely gregarious. Inodorous. More or less resembling: 
M. aetites, but distinguished by the absence of a viscid,, 
separable pellicle. 

Mycena consimilis. Cooke. 

Gregarious. Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh very thin,, 
conically campanulate, umbonate, margin soon upturned and 
at length splitting, striate to the middle, smooth, opaque, 
grey, the umbo darker ; gills adnexed or nearly free, scarcely 
crowded, not 1 line broad, grey; stem about 1^ in. long, 
rather thinner upwards, often compressed below, rather 
ligid, dry, smooth, paler than the pileus, hollow. 

Agaricus (^Mycena) consimilis, Cke., Grevillea, xix. p. 41 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 383; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1186. 

Among grass. 

Mure or less resembling the following species. M. lepto- 
cephala difiers in the striate stem and strong nitrous smcl . 
M. metata also differs in the strong smell. M. peltata difl'ers 



102 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

in the orbicular, plane pileus; finally M. rugosa differs in 
the pileus being wrinkled near the apex and the margin 
even. 

Mycena aetites. Tr. 

Pileus about f in. across, flesh very thin, campanulate 
then convex, glabrous, coarsely striate, with a broad, obtuse, 
prominent umbo, hygrophanous, brownish ; gills slightly 
sinuate, uncinate, thin, connected by veins, whitish j stem 
about 2 in. long, f line thick, becoming thinner upwards, 
glabrous, shining, more or less compressed, whitish, base 
tinged brownish. 

Agaricus (Mycena) aetites. Pries, Bpicr. p. 110; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 84; Cke., Illustr., pi. 188a. 

Among damp moss. 

Gregarious. Distinguished by the broad prominent umbo, 
sulcate pileus, and gills connected by veins. 

Stem 2 in. long, whitish, becoming tinged with fuscous 
below ; pileus sometimes becoming fuscous, margin at length 
blackish. Gills linear, rather distant, cohering behind at 
first, greyish at the sides. (Fries.) 

Mycena stannous. Fr. 

Pileus §-l^ in. across, flesh very thin ; campanulate then 
expanded, glabrous, indistinctly striate, hygrophanous, grey ; 
tin-colour with a silky sheen and even when dry ; gills ad- 
nate with a decurrent tooth J line broad, connected by 
veins, greyish-white ; stem 2-3 J in. long, up to 1 line thick, 
equal, even, shining, pallid, becoming compressed, often not 
quite straight. 

Agaricus '(Mycena) st.anneus. Pries, Epicr., p. Ill; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 84; Cke. Illustr., pi. 188b. 

Among grass in woods. 

Allied to M. vitrea, difiering in the decurrent tooth to the 
gills. 

Inodorous. Stem 2-3 in. long, 1 line thick. Pileus up to 
Ij in. broad, slightly pellucidly striate and umbonate from 
the protruding apex of the stem, grey, colour of tin when 
dry. Gills hardly crowded. (Pries.) 

Mycena vitrea. Pr. 
Pileus up to 1 in. across, very brittle, membranaceous. 



MYCENA. 103 

campanulate, finely striate almost or quite up to the slightly 
umbonate disc, which is not at all flesh)', livid-brown, margin 
naked ; gills adnate, narrow, linear, distinct, whitish ; stem 
3-4 in. long, not 1 line thick, slightly striate, shining, 
coloured like the pileus or paler, hollow, base fibrillose. 

Agaricus (Mycena) vitreus. Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 146 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 84; Cke., lUustr,, pi. 160a. 

In damp pine woods, &c. 

Yery fragile. Allied to M. aetites and M. stannea, but dis- 
tinguished from both by the narrow, linear (not arcuate or 
ventricose, but with the edge straight) gills which are not 
at all sinuate behind, without a trace of a decurrent tooth, 
and not connected by veins. 

Mycena tenuis. Bolton. 

Pure white. Pileus about ^ in. across, very brittle, mem- 
branaceous; campanulate, then convex, obtuse, striate for 
more than half way up to the disc, margin crenulate ; gills 
adnate, ascending, distant, thin, watery ; stem about 2-3 in., 
long, thin, equal, glabrous, pellucid, straight, minutely 
fistulose. 

Agaricus tenuis, Bolton, t. 37; Cke., Hdbk., p. 84; Cke., 
Illustr., pi. 160b. 

In damp woods. 

Fasciculate ; pure white, very fragile and watery ; some- 
what resembling M. gijpsea, which differs in the strigose 
base of the ■ stem ; gills with a slight decurrent tooth, and 
yellowish disc. 

VII. EIGIDIPBDES. 

Myoena prolifera. Sow. 

Pileus about f in. across ; flesh thin ; campanulate, then 
expanded, more or less umbonate, margin at length coarsely 
striate, yellowish or brownish tan ; gills adnexed, 1 line 
broad, whitish then pallid ; stem about 3 in. long, firm, 
rigid, glabrous, shining, slightly striate, rooting, brownish 
below, pallid upwards. 

Agaricus proliferus, Sowerby, t. 169; Cke., Hdbk., p. 79; 
€ke., Illustr., pi. 235. 

On rotten wood and on the ground. 

Densely caespitose; stem frequently proliferous. Stem. 



1 04 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

pallid above, but below tawny or bay ; pileus pallid, disc 
darker and obtusely umbonate; margin somewhat striatey 
«nd at length cracked. (Cooke.) 

Mycena Berkeley!. Mass. 

Pileus l|-3 in. across, flesh up to | line thick in large 
specimens ; campanulate then more or less expanded, slightly 
umbonate, slightly and distantly striate up to the umbo, 
hygrophanous, dingy brown, umbo darker, paler when dry ; 
gills broadly sinuate behind and adnate with a decurrent 
tooth, rather distant, ventricose, 2-3 lines broad, thin, tinged 
purplish or flesh-colour ; stem 3^—5 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, 
almost equal or slightly thickened below, dingy brown with 
a purple tinge, more or less striate, hollow, flesh tinged 
purple, ending in a long, tapering, rooting base ; spores 
broadly elliptical, with an oblique basal apiculus, 5 X 3'5 /*; 
"no oystidia seen. 

Agaricus (^Mycena) excisus, Lasch ; Cke., lUustr., p. 14S 
(pileus brighter in colour thau in Berkeley's original 
drawing). 

On trunks. (Hothorpe.) 

This is certainly not the Agaricus excisus of Lasch, neither 
does it agree with any other described species. 

Pileus 3 in. across, stem 4 in. high, root 2 in. long. 
■Solitary or subcaespitose; gills purplish, strongly cut out 
behind. The fig. Bull., t. 518i, is more characteristic of the 
■specimens than that in Fries' Icones, taken from smaller 
and probably more superficial specimens. (B. & Br.) 

Mycena cohaerens. Fr. 

Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh rather thin ; campanulate, 
obtuse, even, glabrous, but soft to the touch and looking as 
if it was rather velvety, cinnamon or tawny-umber, becom- 
ing pale ; margin straight and pressed to the stem at first;, 
gills almost frbe, rounded behind, distant, very broad; 
usually connected by veins, white then pallid ; stem 4-5 in. 
long, 2 in. thick, equal, even, glabrous, shining, bay up- 
waids, the extreme apex often whitish, chestnut below, 
hollow, very rigid, almost horny, fascioulately tufted at the 
base and grown together with white down; spores 10 x 
7-8 iJL. 

Agaricus (Mycena') cohaerens, Fries, Epier., p. 105 ; Cke., 



MYCENA. 10(5 

Hdbk., p 351 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1128b (as Marasmius 
coJiaerens). 

On trunks or on the ground among leaves. 

Amongst pine leaves in great perfection. It has much 
aiTinity with A. lalaminus, B. ; hut that has the margin of 
the gUls purple. They have, however, the same fulvous 
bristles on the surface. (B. & Br.) 

In woods among leaves, also on wood. I have found it 
growing in tufts on fir trunks. With the habit of Maras- 
mius, but allied to M. galericulata in the gills. 

Mycena excisa. Lasch. 

Pileus convex, somewhat umbonate, rugulose, brownish,; 
gills somewhat cut out behind and almost free, ventricose, 
thick, hoary ; stem even almost glabrous, base rooting. 

Agaricus excisus, Lasch; Linnea, vol. iv. (1829), p. 634', 
(No. 538.) 

Most nearly allied lo Agaricus polygrammus. Pileus. 
campanulate then convex, very obtuse or umbonate, about 
1 in. across ; disc slightly fleshy, pallid-fuscous or greyish- 
fuscous. Gills in series of four, somewhat distant, connected 
by veins, paler in colour than the pileus, very broad and? 
ventricose in front, very much narrowed behind, scarcely 
adnexed. Stem 1^ in. long, 1^—2 lines thick, grey. Tough;. 
almost tasteless. 

Gregarious. On trunks, especially pine. Sept., Nov. 

The whole of the above is a translation of Lasch's original 
description in Linnea, I.e. 

fries' description of what he considers to be M. exeiso) 
differs in some respects from the above, as admitted by him 
(Icon., p. 88), and he there also says that his fungus may b& 
distinct from that of Lasch. 

Scotch specimens in the Berkeley herbarium are the only 
ones collected in Britain so far as I know, and these pre- 
sumably agreed with the Friesian idea of the species ; hence,, 
whether the two are identical, or if not, which species these^ 
specimens represent is at present uncertain. 

Mycena psammicola. B. & Br. 
Smell strong, but not nitrous. Pileus about \ in. across, 
flesh thin, almost hemispherical, hygrophanous, brown. 



106 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

paler towards tlie striate margin ; sprinkled with minute 
particles ; gills adnexed, sinuate behind, about ^ line broad, 
white ; stem up to | in. long, slender, equal, whitish above, 
Timber below, wholly whitish-pulverulent, solid. 

Agaricus (Mycena) psammicola, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
oo. 1518; Cke., Hdbk., p. 79 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 186a. 

On a sandbank, among moss. 

Very much resembling M. paupercula, differing in the 
pulverulent stem and in having particles sprinkled on the 
pileus. 

Myeena rugosa. Fr. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, rather fleshy; campanulale then 
expanded, more or less umbonate, tough, dry, irregularly 
wrinkled with raised ribs, grey becoming pale; gills ad- 
nexed with a minute decurrent tooth, slightly sinuate, 
rather distant, connected by veins, grej'ish-white ; stem 
about 2 in. long, IJ line thick, straight, often compressed, 
firm, tough, even, glabrous, pallid, with a short, oblique, 
strigose rooting base. 

Agaricus (Mycena) rugosus, Fries, Epicr., p. 106 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 80; Cke., Illustr., pi. 186b. 

On or near stumps, trunks, &c. 

Often growing singly, and then large. 

Stem short, rather thick, straight, at length compressed. 
Pileus somewhat obtuse. Gills ventricose, entire or the 
similarly coloured margin minutely serrulate. (Fries.) 

Much tougher than M. galericulata, the latter also differs 
in being turted in habit, pileus not irregularly wrinkled 
but striate up to the umbo, and gills with a slight pink 
tinge. M. excisa has the pileus rugose, as in the present 
epecies, but differs in the brownish stem and in the gills 
being very much narrowed behind. 

Pileus at first campatmlate, then convex, sulcate up to 
the umbo, cinereous, as well as the short, compressed stem, 
which is giabrous above ; gills distant, cinereous, uncinato- 
adnate, connected by veins. (B. & Br.) 

Mycena sudora. Fr. 
"White. Pileus f-l-J- in. across, flesh very thin, except the 
umbo -fi convex, umbonate, striate, viscid, often irregular ; 
gills obtusely adnata without trace of a decurrent tooth, 



MYCENA. 107 

rather thick, somewhat distant, 1^ line broad, white, he- 
coming tinged flesh-colour; stem 3-5 in. long, 1-1^ line 
thick, equal, firm, even, dry, almost glabrous, rooting but 
ending abruptly. 

Agaricus (MycerM) sudorits, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 156; 
Cke., Hdbt., p. 80 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 206. 

On beech trunks. 

Distinguished by the entirely white colour and viscid 
pileus. 

Usually solitary, large, entirely white. Stem very long, 
root long, ending abruptly, glabrous (perhaps not always ?) 
Pileus 1 in. broad, diaphanous, often irregular, not rugose. 
Crills broad. (Fries.) 

Mycena galericulata. Scop. 

Pileus |— 2 in. across, ilesh thin, conical, then campanulate, 
at length expanded, umbonate, dry, glabrous, striate up to 
the umbo, livid-brownish, greyish, pallid, &c. ; gills adnate 
with a decurrent tooth, about 1 line broad, connected by 
veins, whitish then tinged with pink; stem 2-4 in. long, 
1-1^ line thick, equal, rigid, even, polished, pallid, base 
tapeiing, rooting, hollow ; spores 6-7 X 4: /j,. 

Agaricus galericulatus, Scopoli, Cam., 445; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 80 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 222. 

On trunks and stumps. 

M. rugosa is most nearly allied to the present species, but 
differs in growing singly, shorter stem, grey gills, and 
tougher substance. A form of M. galericulata sometimes 
grows on the ground among leaves. 

Common on trunks, exceedingly variable, tufts often 
densely crowded. Not tough and flexible, like M. rugosa. 
Stems somewhat ascending, base downy, rooting, white, 
tawny, bay, &c. (Fries.) 

Solitary or densely capspitose. Pileus 3-9 lines broad, 
sometimes, however, much larger, campanulate or conical, 
often subumbonate, at length depressed, innato-fibrillose, 
striate, brownish-white, with sometimes tints of blue or 
yellow. Gills rather distant, not so broadly adnate as the 
last (^A. alcalinus), sometimes nearly free, often pinkish. 
Stem very various in length, rigid, smooth, except at the 
base, which is densely strigose. Inodorous, insipid. (Berk.) 



108 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Var. calopus, Pries, Hym. Eur., p. 139 ; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 223a. 

Stems chestmit-colour, united at the base into a common, 
fusiform rooting stelii, 

On stumps. 

Mycena polygramma. Bull. 

Pileus thin, elastic, conico-campanulate, often becoming 
expanded ; dark grey with brown tinge when moist, paler 
when dry, margin coarsely striate ; gills broadest in fi ont, 
thick, distant, pale grey, often with a suggestion of pink, 
then whitish; stem 3-4 in. long, equal, tough, shining, 
distinctly striate throughout its length, pale grey, base 
strigose, rooting; spores elliptic-oblong, obliquely apiculate, 
11-12 x6 fJ.. 

Agaricus (^Mycena) polygrammus, Bull., Champ., t. 395 ; 
Cke., Illustr., t. 223b. 

On trunks, stumps, &c. 

Separated from M. plicata by the tougher substance andl 
striate stem. 

Pileus 1-1 J in. broad, at first cinereous, umber towards 
the margin, glandiform, priiinose, then livid brown, conico- 
campanulate, submembranaceous, rugose with innate fibres, 
margin striate. Gills rather distant, at first dirty- white, 
then pinkish, ventricose though sometimes almost linear, all 
but free, margin subseri ulate. Stem 3 in. high, 1 line or 
more thick, regularly and deeply striate, the interstices 
fibrillose, but occasionally the striae are obsolete, silvery, 
rooting, fistulose, nearly the colour of the pileus, but paler, 
twisted, brittle. Inodorous, insipid. (Berk.) 

Mycena parabolica. Fr. 
Pileus 1-1^ in. high and broad, flesh quite thin ; at first 
erect and oval then parabolic, obtuse, moist, somewhat 
shining, glabrous, even, disc blackish with a violet tinge, 
remainder pallid becoming whitish towards the striate 
margin; gills adnexed, ascending, rather distant, slightlj' 
connected by veins, margin quite entire, white, base 
greyish ; stem 2-3 in. long, about 2 lines thick at the coarsely 
hispid base, thinner upwards, blackish-violet above, base 
paler, covered with white meal when young, even, glabrous, 
dry, fistulose, not very rigid; spores elliptical, 11—12 X 6 /i. 



MYCENA. 109 

Agaricus (Mycena) parabolicus. Fries, Epicr., p. 107; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 81 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 224a. 

On rotten trunks, especially pine. 

Gregarious or caespitose. Allied to M. galericulata, but 
■differs in the absence of a decurrent tootb to the gills, and 
also absence of piuk tinge of gills when drying. 

Myeena tintinabulum. Fr. 

Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh quite thin, very tough, 
campanulately convex, almost plane when adult, scarcely 
umbonate, altogether even and not rugulose, rather viscid 
■when moist, variable in colour, usually bay, yellowish brown 
or pallid, becoming pale ; gills adnate with a decurrent 
tooth, horizontal, very thin, crowded, narrow, paUid, then 
tinged pink; stem about 1 in. long, about 1 line thick, 
•always even, glabrous, pallid, very tough, base with short 
white down ; spores 7-8 X 5 /i. 

Agaricus (Myeena) tintinabulum. Fries, Epior., p. 107 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 81 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 224b. 

On fallen trunks, &o. 

Allied to M. galericulata, but known by the shorter stem 
and the perfectly even pileus. Usually gregarious, rarely 
caespitose. Tough, not rugulose, colour very variable, 
bluish, yellowish-brown, whitish, usually bay. Gills pallid 
having a pink tinge when dry. 



VIII. ADONIDEAE. 

Myeena lactea. Pers. 
"White. Pileus about J in. across, very thin ; campanulate 
■and slightly umbonate, sometimes becoming expanded, 
striate when moist, even when dry ; gills adnate, ascending, 
narrow, crowded ; stem 1 J-3 in. long, very slender, equal, 
rather tough, not quite straight, glabrous; spores 7-8 x 

3-4: fJi. 

Agaricus lacteug, Persoon, Syn., p. 394; Cke., Hdbk., p. 79; 
■Cke., Illustr., pi. 159c. 

On the ground in pine woods. 

The disc of the pileus often with a yellow tinge. Dis- 
tinguished from M. gypsea and M. tenuis by the scattered 
habit. 



110 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

In pine woods on the ground, on pine leaves, &c. ; always 
scattered, never caespitose, entirely white. A. Stem fistulose, 
3 in. long, equal, almost filiform, flexile, even, glabrous, base 
fibrillosely rooting; pileus membranaceous, campanulate, 
somewhat umbonate, ^ in. and more across, striate when 
moist, even when dry; gills adnate, ascending, crowded, 
narrow, distinct, alternate ; among grass and moss in pine 
woods. B. Stem 1 in. and more, flaccid, base downy ; pileus 
thin, papillate, indistinctly striate, even when dry, 3-5 lines 
broad; gills scarcely | line broad; abundantly on pine 
leaves. C. Entirely milk-white, base minutely bulbous, 
coarsely downy ; stem not rooting, short, scarcely 1 in., 
pulverulent; pileus convex then almost plane, somewhat 
umbonate, striate, rugulose, glabrous, 3-5 lines broad ; gills 
adnate, distant, rather broad, distinct. (Fries.) 

Mycena gypsea. Pr. 

Pileus ^1 in. across, membranaceous, conical then cam- 
panulate, striate up to the not very prominent umbo, 
remainder whitish ; gills adnate, not decurrent, very broad 
in front, equally narrowed from the margin to the stem, the 
short ones broadest in front, pure white, unchangeable ; 
stem about 3 in. long, |-1 line thick, equal, very straight 
and fragile, even, glabrous, white, base downy, but not 
rooting ; spores 8-9 X 4 /x. 

Agaricus (Mycena) gypseus, Pries, Epicr., p. 104; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 952a; Cke., Hdbk., p. 370. 

On the ground among fragments of wood, and on trunks. 

Gregarious and caespitose. Distinguished from the nume- 
rous white species of Mycena by its size, form, and especially 
the straight, very brittle stem. Pileus .(typically hyaline- 
white, but the umbo or sometimes every part yellowish. 
Gills often with a slight decurrent tooth. 

Mycena luteoalba. Bolton. 
Pileus i-l| in. across, membranaceous, acutely cam- 
panulate, becoming expanded and umbonate, pellucidly and 
finely striate, glabrous, pale yellow, not becoming pale ; gills 
adnate somewhat uncinate, joined both behind at first, broad, 
alternately long and short, distinct, clear white, margin 
quite entire ; stem 1-2 in. long, very slender, equal, rather 



MYCENA. Ill 

wavy, toTigli, glabrous, even, yellowish, base sHgbtly fibril- 
lose, hollow. 

Agaricus luteoalbus, Bolton, t. 38, f. 1 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 
159a; Cke., Hdbk., p. 78. 

In pine woods, among moss, &o. 

Differs from M. flavoalba in the pale yellow stem. 

Mycena flavoalba. Fr. 

Pileus |— f in. across, almost membranaceous, campanuliite, 
stem convex, at length expended, umbonate, even, not truly 
striate, cracking when dry, ochraoeous, yellowish-white, or 
altogether white ; gills adnexed, soon seceding and free, at 
length plane, ventricose, distant, white; stem about 1 in, 
long, rather rigid, up to 1 line thick, equal, not rooting, 
pellucid white, base glabrous, apex pruinose, fistulose ; 
spores elliptical, 6-8 x 3-4 /*. 

Agaricus (Mycena) flavoalhus. Fries, Epicr., p. 103; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 78 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 169b. 

On naked ground or among thin grass, heather, &o., in 
sunny places. 

Scattered or not unfrequently in troops. Closely re- 
sembling some forms of M. lactea, which differs in the adnate 
gills and more or less downy base of the stem. Known from. 
M. luteoalha in the white, peUucid stem. 

Mycena lineata. BuU. 

Var. expallens, Fries, Ic, t. 84, p. 78, f. 5. 

Pileus J— f in. across, membranaceous ; campanulate, obtuse, 
striate with fine lines up to the disc, pale yellow; gills 
adnate, linear, white ; stem up to 2 in. long, J line thick, 
even, pallid, base with white down. 

Agaricus (Mycena) lineatus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 78; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 185b. 

On the ground, among moss. 

Slender, soft, colour (probably") variable. Stem fistulose, 
filiform, 2 in. long, equal, even, glabrous, pallid, often 
yellowish, with white down at the base. Pileus remarkably 
membranaceous, campanulate then expanded, obtuse, ^ in, or 
a little more broad, entirely covered with fine striate lines, 
glabrous, yellowish in our specimens, then pallid. Gills 



112 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

«idnate, linear, very narrow, rather distant, distinct, wliite, 
margin similar in colour and quite entire. (Fries.) 

The typical form has probably occurred in this country, 
but I am not aware of the fact. It differs more especially in 
the pileus being of a brownish colour, and in not becoming 
•expanded, but retaining the campanulate form. 

Mycena adonis. Bull. 

Pileus about ^ in. across, almost membranaceous, conical 
rthen campanulate, glabrous, almost even, drj', somewhat rosy 
but colour variable; stem about 1^ in. long, very slender, 
•equal, white, glabrous ; gills uncinately adnexed, narrow, 
white, then tinged with pink. 

Agarimis adonis, Bulliard, pi. 660, f. 2 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 78 ; 
•Cke., lUustr., pi. 185a. 

In woods ; among short grass, &o. 

Characterised among the small species of this section by 
the even, dry, usually more or less rose-coloured pileus and 
the very slender, entirely glabrous white stem. 

Mycena flavipes. Quelet. 

Pileus about |- in. high and across, flesh very thin ; cam- 
panulate or semiorbicular, obtuse, rosy-pink, purplish-pink, 
or violet, the disc becoming darker and brownish; gills 
adnexed with a very slight decurrent tooth, distant, 1 line 
broad, connected by veins, white then tinged with pink ; 
stem about 2 in. long, thin, equal, tough, shining, pellucid, 
yellow, rooting and downy at the base, hollow ; spores 
-elliptical, 10 X 4-5 /*. 

Agaricus (Mycena) flavipes, Quelet, Tung. Jura, ii. t. 1, 
f. 4: Cke., Hdb., p. 369; Cke., lllustr., pi. 951b. 

On stumps, &c. 

Smell resembling radishes. Clustered, the stems more or 
less connate at the base. Distinguished from every form 
of M. galericulata by tke rosy or purple pileus and yellow 
stem. 

Mycena zephira. Fr. 

Pileus about 1 in. across, almost membranaceous, dia- 

Tphanous, campanulate then convex, obtuse, striate to the 

middle, glabrous, not hygrophanous, livid-reddish, or pinkish- 

-white, disc sometimes with a tinge of brown ; gills adnate, 



MVCEXA. 113 

•nitli a slightly decurrent tooth, broad, but not ventricose, 
at length separating from the stem, indistinctly connected 
by veins, white ; stem 2—3 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, eq nal 
or slightly thinner npwards, ronnd, slightly striate, whea 
young everywhere, or at all events at the apex, whitish, 
sqnamnlose, at length -naked, rufescent, base incurved, 
cottony. 

Agarieus (Mycena) zephirus. Fries, Epicr., p. 102; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 78; Cke., Ulnstr., pL 15 «b. 

On the ground, among twigs, &c. 

Somewhat resembling M. pura, but distinguished by the 
absence of a radishy smeU. The stem often has a lilac 
tinge. M. pseudopura differs in the stem being glabrous at 
all ages and in the margin of the pileus being very indistinctly 
striate. 

Mycena pseudopura. Cooke. 

Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh thin; campanulate then 
convex, and at length expanded, obtusely umbunate, smooth, 
margin obscurely striate, rosy then pale ; gills adiiate, 
narrow, whitish ; stem 2-3 in. high, 1 line thick, rigid, 
straight, even, naked, at first rosy-white, becoming brown 
when dry, hollow ; spores elliptical, 2 x 5 /jl; smell none. 

Agarieus (Mycena) pgeudopurus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 77 ; Cke 
lllustr., pi. 138a. 

In woods. 

Pileus scarcely exceeding an inch, rosy, then pale ; stem 
2-3 in. long, slender, erect, hollow, turning dark brown in 
drying ; spores conspicuously larger and longer than in 
H. pura. (Cooke.) 

-IT. zephira is close to the present species, but difiFeis in the 
more strongly striate pileus, and in the stem being covereil 
with w^hitish squamules w^hen young. 21. pura is distin- 
guished by the radish-like smell. Gills with an indibiiiict 
decurrent tooth. 

Mycena pura. Pers. 

Smell strong, resembling radishes. Pileus 1|— 2^ in. across, 
flesh thin; campanulate then expanded, obtusely umbunate, 
glabrous, margin striate, colour variable, generally clear pale 
rose-colour, but also Ulac, greyish, pallid, yellowish, and 
white; gills adnexed and broadly sinuate behind, veiy broad, 

TOL. lU. 1 



114 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

distinctly connected by veins, pale ; stem 2-3 in. long, 2-3 
lines thick, rigid, even, almost naked, wiiitish or tinged 
with the colour of the pileus, base downy ; spores elliptical, 
6-8x3-3-5 fi. 

Agaricus purus, Pers., Syn., p. 339; Cke,, Hdbk., p. 77; 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 157. 

In woods. 

Distinguished by the strong, radishy smell, and by the 
broad gills being connected by veins. ' Jf. peliantMna differs 
in having the edge of the f;ills dark. M. pseudopara is dis- 
tinguished by the absence of smell, as is also M. zephira. 

Gregarious. Pileus \-2 in. broad, subcarnose, obtuse, 
convex, at length depressed, the margin thin, pellucid ; 
sometimes marked with two or three concentric grooves, 
amethyst or rose-coloured soon changing to a pale brown- 
purple, at length nearly white. Gills broad, adnate, some- 
times almost decun-ent, at first whitish, then amethyst or 
rose, then subrufescent ; connected by veins, margin uneven. 
Stem often twisted, more or less fibrillose, at length smooth, 
tough, hollow, the cavity lined with white silky fibres, 
splitting easily upwards, the base often strigose. Sometimes 
the pileus from the first is pure white, also occasionally 
brownish or yellowish. Always distinguishable by its taste 
and odour like that of radishes. (Berk.) 

IX. CALODONTES. 

Mycena strobilina. Tr. 
Entire fungus shining deep red, not becoming pale nor 
discoloured. Pileus up to ^ in. across, conical then cam- 
panulate, membranaceous, umbo acute, even, the remainder 
slightly striate and often paler in colour, glabrous, dry; 
gills adnate with a slender decurrent tooth, distant, distinct, 
with alternate shorter ones, a little paler than the pileus, 
but the edge darker and blackish blood-red; stem about 
2 in. long, 1 in. thick, equal, juiceless, even, glabrous, base 
with white down, hollow,- rather rigid; spores elliptical, 

8-10 X 4 /;t. 

Agaricus {Mycena) strohilinus, Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 132 ; 
Cke/, Hdbk., p. 77 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 131a. 
On fir cones, among fallen leaves, &c. 



aiYCEXA. ll'i 

DistingnisKed from 21. rosella by tlie deeper colour and 
\>y not becoming pale, also by its laiger size, llore or less 
;as:iciilate. 

Subgregarious, snbfasciculate. Pilens 3-5 lines br'oad, 
campannlate, with a rather short fleshy tunbo, smooth, 
bright-red or oiange-ted, striate at the margin. Gills 
adnate, with a decnrrent process, distant, whitish-red, edges 
dull and darker red- .Stem 1—2 in. high, hollow, firri, 
smooth, pale-red, strigose at the base and whitish, often with 
a long root (Grev.) 

Var. coccinea. Sow., t. 197 ; Cke., Ulnstr., pL 131b. 
.■:>imilar in appearance to JL >rtrohnina, bnt the gflls are not 
at all darker at the edge. 
On fir cones and twigs. 

Mycena rosella. Fr. 

Every pot clear rose-colotir. Pilens about J in- across, 
entirely membranaceons and striate, campannlate then 
hem^ispherical, obtnsely ttmb<onate, rather hygrophanotis : 
giUs adnate with traces of a decnrrent tooth, rather distant, 
margin blackish-purple ; stem abont 1 in. long, very slender, 
soft, base with white down but not strigoie ; obliquely 
elliptical, 7-i X 4 /t. 

Agaricus (Myeena) rogellus. Pries, Epicr., p. 101 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 77 ; Cke., Illustr., pL 131c. 

Among moss and leaves in pine wools. 

Loosely gregarious ; becoming pale with age. 

Agreeing with Jf. gtrobUina in many respects, but qnite 
distinct. Smaller and more slender, softer, paler in colour, 
every part being a pretty rose-colour ; at length becoming 
pale. 

Mycena rabromarginata. Fr. 

Pileus |— 1 in. across, flesh thin; campannlate, obtuse, 
striate, hygrophanous, grey, livid, reddish, whitish when 
dry; gQls adnate, ^ line broad, distant, whitish, margin 
purple-brown ; stem 1-2 in. long, up to 1 line thick, even, 
rigid, juiceless, pallid. 

Agarieug (Myeena) rubromarginata. Fries, .Syst. Myc, i. 
p. 150; Cke., niustr., pL 284b; Cke., Hdbk., p.' 76. 

On rotten wood, pine stnmr?, twigs, &:. 

1 2 



116 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

Small, fragile, inodorous, juioeless, not caespitoso. Stem 
fistulose, 1-2 in. long, not exceeding 1 line thick, equal, 
often curved and ascending, even, glabrous, livid becoming 
pale. Pileus membranaceous, campanulate, obtuse, 1 in. across, 
glabrous, hygropbanons, grey, livid-reddish or brownish- 
parple, pale when dry. Gills aduate, with a decurrent tooth, 
distant, distinct, not ventricose, whitish then grey, margin 
purple-brown, not evidently toothed. Differs from M. san- 
guinolenta in size and in the juiceless stem. Allied tO' 
M. metata, which differs in growing on Ihe ground, j 
jaileus silky-atomate when dry, margin of gills not dis- 
coloured. (Fries.) ^ 

Var. fusco-purpureus, Lasch; Linn., 1829, no. 644; Cke., ' 
Hdbk., p. 76. 

Purple-brown ; stem finely striate, with a rooting downy 
base ; gills eroded, edged with brown. 

On willow trunks. 

Mycena olivaceo-marginata. Mass. 

Pileus about ^ in. high and across, flesh very thin, cam- 
panulate, striate up to the disc, honey-colour with a tawny 
tinge, rather darker when dry; gills adnexed with a very : 
slight decurrent tooth, rather distant, nearly 1 line broad, j 
.slightly connected by veins, pallid, edge brownish-olive, 
wholly greyish when dry ; stem l?,-2 in. long, very slender, 
equal, smooth, shining, naked, dry, paler or similar in colour 
to the pileus, tinged rufous below, base with a little while 
down ; spores broadly elliptical, 6 x 4-5 /jl. 

Agaricus (Mycena) olivaceo-marginatus, Massee, in Cooke's 
Hdbk., p. 369 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 959a. 

Among short grass. 

Scattered or gregarious. Eeadily known by the honey- 
coloured pileus and stem; the olive- coloured margin of the ■ 
gills shows best when the fungus is fresh. 

Mycena aurantio-marginata. Fr. 

Pileus 1-1|- in. across, disc rather fleshy, campanulate 

then convex, obtusely or indistinctly umbonate, even, 

' glabrous, brownish-olive, paler when old, margin straight, 

slightly striate when moist; gills narrowed behind and 

a.lnexed, very much ventricose, and at first sight appearing 



31VCKNA. 117 

to be free, crowded, connected Y>y veins, livid with a 
greenisli "tinge, margin orange, fimbriate ; stem firm, hollow, 
1— li in. long, 3-4 lines thics at the base, 1-2 lines at the. 
apex, even, glabrons, livid or pale, base inflated, ventricose, 
and strigose with yellow down. 

Agaricas (Mycena ) aurantio-marginatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 100 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 76.' 

Distinguished by the fimbriate, orange margin of the gills, 
and the swollen base of the stem with yellow down. 

Mycena elegans. Pers. 

Pilens ^— J in, across, meiubranaceons, campannlate, mori- 
or less nmbonate, striate, glabrons, lirown or livid-j-elLow, 
opaque, not hygrophanous ; gill^ adnate with a decurrei.T 
tooth, naiTOw^, rather distant, distinct, colour variable, usually 
livid, sides greyish, but varying to whitish, yellowish, etc., 
the edge entire, darker, saffron-colour ; stem about 2 in. long, 
I line thick, equal, livid, base fibrillosely downy, hollow, 
rigid, straight ; spores 8-10 x 4^5 /jl. 

Agaricus elegans, Persoon. Syn., p. 391 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 76 ; 
Cke., lUnstr., pi. 234a. 

In pine woods, &c., on the ground. 

Gregarious ; smell weak or absent. Distinguished by the 
«affron-colonred margin of the giUs. 

Mycena balanina. Eerk. 

Pilens §—1^ in. across, flesh rather thick at the disc, 
margin thin, convex then plane, often with an umbo ; striate 
when moist, even when dry, pale yellowish-brown ; gills 
adnate, then separating from the stem, connected by veins, 
1^ line broad, white with a pinkish tinge, edge purple; 
stem about 3 in. long, 1-lJ line thick at the apex, usually 
becoming thinner downwards, striate, downy below, squamu- 
lose above, brownish, becoming paler at the apex, hollow. 

Agaricus (Mycena) halaninus. Berk., Mag. Zool. & Bjt., 
vol. i., t. 15, f. 2; Cke., Hdbk., p. 76 ; Cke., Ulustr., pi. 1.56, 
£2. 

On beech-mast, among beech leaves, &c. 

Distinguished among species having the margin of th& 
gills darker, by the large size and colour of the pileus. 



118 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Mycena pelianthina. Bolton. 

Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh, rather thick at the disc, 
thin elsewhere; convex then expanded, obtuse, moist, hygro- 
phanous, margin striate, pale livid-purple, becoming pale- 
when dry ; gills adnexed, broad, distinctly connected by 
veins, purplish, with a darker, fimbriated edge ; stem 2-3 in, 
long 1| line thick, equal, firm, fibriUosely-striate above, 
pallid, base more or less downy, hollow; spores elliptical, 
7 X 4/x. 

Agaricus (Mycena) pelianthinus, Fries, Syst. Myc, p. 112; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 75 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 156, f, 1. 

jigarieus denticulatus, Bolton, t. 4, f. 1. 

Among dead leaves in woods. 

Sometimes gregarious. Known by the purplish pileus ancB 
gills. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad, when dry whitish, tinged with 
purple; stem 2-3 in. high, l|-2 lines thick; the gills ar& 
sprinkled over with short purple hairs, arranged in fascicles 
on the edge ; smell strong, (Berk.) 



;COLLYBIA. Tries. 

Pileus symmetrica], flesh usually thin, margin incurved! 
at first, not coarsely striate nor corrugated ; gills free or 
adnexed and rounded behind, membranaceous, soft ; stem 
with a cartilaginous cortex, internally cartilaginous or soft, 
fistulose, often rooting ; spores white, smooth. 

Collyhia, Pries, Epicr., p. 81 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 62 (as a 
subgenus of Agaricus). 

Growing on wood, leaves, and on decaying fungi, also on 
the ground, and then often rooting. 

Most closely allied to Marasmius, which, however, difiers in 
the dry, somewhat coriaceous, tough substance of the whole 
fungus, somewhat persistent, und fully expanding when 
moistened after being dried. Clitocyhe and Triclioloma differ 
in the stem being fibrous externally, and Mycena in having 
the margin of the pileus straight, and not incurved when 
young. 



COLLTBIA. 119 

A^'ALTSIS OF TEE SPECIES. 
A. Gills wMte or dear in colour, never grey ; flesh white. 

I. Steiaepedes. 

Stem stout, hollow or imperfectly filled with, a spongy 
pith ; grooved or fibrillosely striate. 

* Gills hroad, rather distant. 
** Gills crowded, narrow. 

II. Yestipedes. 

Stem thin, eqnal, fistulose or staffed, even, velvety, 
floccose, or pminose. 

* Gills broad, rather distant. 

** Gills very narrow, closely crowded. 

in. Laevipedes. 

Stem thin, eqnal, fistulose, naked, glabrons (leaving out 
the base), not conspicuously striate (truly but minutely 
striate under a lens in C. dryophila, &c.). 

* GlUs broad, lax, usually more or less distant. 
** Gills narrow, crowded. 

B. Gills greyish, hygrophanous. 

TV. Tepheophanae. 

Colour brown or greyish. 

Allied to the terminal sections of Tricholoma and Glitocybe, 
but known from these by the cartilaginous stem. 

* Gills crowded, very narrow. Some are strong-soentea. 
** Gills very broad, rather distant. 



120 FUXGUS-FLOKA. 

I. STEIAEPEDES. 

* Gills hroad, ratJier distant. 

Colly bia radicata. Eelh. 

Pileus lJ-4 in. across, flesh thin, soft, elastic, white, 
convex then expanded, more gibbous than umbonate, often 
irregular, glutinous, radiately rugose or wrinkled ; brownish- 
olive, oohraceoiis-brown, sometimes with a greenish tinge, 
rarely altogether white ; gills narrowed behind and adnexed, 
often with a decurrent tooth, at length separating more or 
less from the stem, ventricose, distant, rather thick, white ; 
stem 4r-7 in. long, 3-5 lines thick at the base, from where it 
hecomes gradually thinner upwards, glabrous, but at length 
more or less striately grooved, the cartilaginous cuticle often 
twisted, greyish-pallid, base fusiformly rooting, often 6-8 in. 
long, descending vertically; spores elliptical, 14-15 x 8-9 /x. 

Agaricus radicatus, Eelh., Cant., no. 1040 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 62; Cke., Illustr., pi. 140. 

In woods and grassy places under trees. 

Distinguished by the viscid, rugulose pileus and the long, 
polished stem, ending in a long, tapering root. 

G. longipes differs in the more or less downy pileus and 
stem. 

Pileus 3 in. or more broad, flat, more or less umbonate, 
radiato-rugose, smooth, at first slimy, carnose, tough elastic, 
delicate fusco-ochraceous, olivaceous, &c., often irregular, 
triangular, &c. Grills white, thick, distant, ventricose, 
adnate, with or without a tooth, sometimes almost decurrent. 
Spores white, nearly round. Stem 4—8 in. high, about § of 
an inch thick, attenuated upwards, twisted, not smooth but 
rather furfuraceous, sometimes striate above with raised 
lines, paler than the pileus, juicj', brittle, splitting longi- 
tudinally, but sometimes tough, stuffed at length, sometimes 
hollow, ruftscent within, penetrating very deeply into the 
ground by a fusiform root. (Berk.) 

CoUybia longipes. Bull. 
Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh rather thin, conical then ex- 
panded, umbonate, dry, minutely downy or velvety, pale 
brown; gills adnexed and rounded behind, li-2 lines broad. 



COLLYBIA. 121 

rather distant, white; stem 4—6 in. long, 2—3 Mnes thick 
below, attenuated upwards, at length more or less grooved, 
minutely velvety or downy, coloured like the pileus, ending 
in a long, fusiform, rooting base. 

Agaricus hmgipes, BuUiard, Champ. France, t. 232; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 63 ; Cke., Ulustr., pi. 201. 

Agaricus pvdens. Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., no. 64. 

On old stumps, &q. 

Stem quite as velvety as in G. velutipes, and the pileus, 
especially its margin, more or less so, and by no means 
glutinous. (Berk.) 

With the habit, size, colour, and general appearance of 
C. radicata, but distinguished by the velvety stem and 
pileus. 

CoUvbia Tolatyphylla. Fr. 

Pileus 3—4 in. across, flesh thin, fragile ; soon expanded, 
obtuse, watery when moist, fibrillosely virgate or streaked, 
brown then grey or whitish ; gills slightly adnexed, obliquely 
truncate behind, h in. and more broad, distant, soft, white ; 
stem 3—4 in. long, about -h in. thick, equal, fibrillosely striate, 
otherwise glabrous, naked or the apex obsoletely mealy, 
whitish, base abrupt and springing from broadly extending, 
whitish, cord-like, branched and anastomosing mycelium; 
spores elliptical, 9-10 X 6 /x. 

Agaricus (Collybid) platypMlla, Fr., Epicr., p. 82; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 63 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 128. 

On rotten wood, or on the ground near trunks and stumps, 
among leaves, &c. 

Distinguished by the abundant cord-like, rooting my- 
celium, and the broad, distant gills. 

Collyba semitalis. Fr. 
Pneus 1-4 in. across, flesh cartilaginous, thin, cracking, 
white when dry ; convex then plane, obtuse, even, glabrous, 
moist when growing, pitch-black, sooty, livid-smoky, &c., 
hygrophanous ; greyish-yellow, dingy pale ochraceous, or 
greyish when dry ; margin incurved at first, glabrous, then 
spreading and slightly pellucidly striate ; giUs obtuse 
behind, attenuated or rounded, adfixed in the form of a ring 
and with a minute decurrent tooth, broad, distinct, white, 
then greyish, becoming spotted with black where touched. 



122 PUNGUS-FLOKA. 

and finally altogether blackish, hut the spores are white, 
elliptical, 7-9 X 4-5 fi ; stem stuffed at first, then imperfectly 
hollow, tough, elastic, attenuated from the slightly bulbous 
base, 2-4 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, fibrillosely striate, 
brownish or greyish-white, apex naked; often attenuated 
below the bulb into a tapering rooting base. 

Agaricus (CoUybia) semitalis. Fries, Epicr., p. 82; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 63; Cke., lUustr., pi. 292. 

On the ground by paths ; in woods, after much rain. 

Sometimes caespitose, not truly allied to any species, and 
its true position very doubtful; judging from habit, it 
belongs to this group, but it grows on the ground, and the 
cuticle of the stem is membranaceous and fibrous inside. 
Every part truly somewhat cartilaginous, rather tough, size 
■very variable, sometimes tall, at others very small. The 
typical form is described above, other noticeable forms are : — 
(B) Stem sometimes short, 1 in. long, 2 lines thick, equal 
but curved and ascending, altogether solid; pileus piano- 
depressed, irregular, only slightly hygrophanous : — (C) Stem 
solid, bulbous, bulb up to 1 in. thick, &c. Eeadily known 
by the peculiar characters of the gills. (Fries.) 

CoUybia fusipes. Bull. 

Pileus 1A-2J in. across, flesh rather thick, convex then ex- 
panded, umbonate (the umbo at length disappearing) ; even, 
glabrous, dry, reddish-bay, becoming pale and dingy tan- 
colour, generally cracked and broken up when dry ; gills 
adnexed and joined into a ring, soon separating from the 
stem and becoming free, broad, distant, firm, connected by 
veins, crisped, white then almost coloured like the pileus, 
often spotted ; stem 3-4 in. long, ^ in. and more thick, 
tumid and ventricose at the centre and tapering to both 
ends, often twisted, longitudinally, grooved, rufous or rufous- 
brown, base rooting, fibronsly stuffed, then hollow, re- 
markably cartilaginous outside ; spores 5-6 x 3-4 ^u,. 

Agarieus fusipes, Bull., Champ., t. 106 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 63 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 141. 

On or near stumps. 

Densely tufted. Pileus IJ in. broad, when young hemi- 
spherical, smooth, dull vinous-brown, fleshy, margin in- 
curved; then expanded, cracked, sometimes tesselated and. 



COLLYBIA. 123 

■warty, paler bnt here and there towards the margin marked 
with dark patches as if burnt. Gills pale umber, free, or 
only apparently adnate from the change of form of the 
pilens, sometimes rounded behind and then separating from 
the stem, as represented by Bnlliard, t. 106, they have a 
rather watery appearance, though dry, like that of a piece 
of half-drv parchment, connected by veins, distant. Stem 
2—6 in. long, |— 1 in. thick, ventricose, rooting, paler than 
the pilens, marked t<»wards the base with little dark specks, 
striate longitadinnlly, not tmly tbongh apparently fibrillose, 
often cracked longitudinally and transversely, the transverse 
cracks extending only through the cartilaginous coat; 
snbitince within loose and fibrons, the fibres crisp ■;d, at 
length hollow. Taste agreeable. (Berk.) 

Collybia lancipes. Fr. 

PUeus 2-3 in. across, flesh thick, firm, not watery ; convex 
then expanded, nmbonate, radiately wrinkled frotri the 
umbo, dry, glabrous, pale flesh-colotir, becoming ji.illid, 
margin striate ; grills adnexed, emarginate, very broad 
behind, distant, thick, firm, np to i in. broad, connected by 
veins, tinged flesh-colonr; stem stouf, remarkably carti- 
laginous externally, almost s )lid, but when adtilt sometimes 
stnfifed with crisp, twisted filaments, striate, glabrons or 
indistinctly fibrillose, gradually attenuated tjwar.is the 
base, whitish with a flesh-coloured tinge, base rooting, 
downy. 

Agaricus (CoUybia) lancipes. Fries, Epicr., p. S3. 
■'On the ground. 

Scatteied, rarely clustered; every part rigid and firm. 
Allied to C. fumpes, but diflfeiing in the radiately rugose 
pileus and in being solitary. 

** Grills crowded, narrow. 

Collybia macnlata. A. & S. 
Pileus 2—0 in. across, flesh thick, firm, at first white, then 
more or less sjjotted with reddish-brown, or s ■metiaies 
altogether mfesceat ; convex then plane, obtnse. sometimes 
wavy, even, glabrons, whitish, becoming more or less stained 
or spotted with reddish-brown; margin thin, incnrved at 
first, almost naked, gills emarginate, almost or quite free. 



12 i FUNGUS-FLORA. 

•closely crowded, 1-2 lines broad, wliite then pallid ; stem 
-3-4 in. long, |-| in. thick, somewhat ventrioose, striate or 
channelled, white, becoming spotted like the pileus, base 
attenuated and rooting, cartilaginous externally, stuffed or 
sometimes hollow (wavy in slender forms) ; spores subglobose, 
■4-6 fi. diameter. 

Agaricus maculatus, Albertini & Schweinitz, p. 186; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 64; Cke., lUustr., pi. 142. 

Agaricus (Gollyhia) fodiens, Kalchbr., Icon. Hung., t. 36, 
£ 2 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 367 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 949. 

In pine and other woods ; among grass, &c. 

Var. immaculatuS; Cke., Hdbk., p. 64; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 221. 

Differing from the typical form in not changing colour or 
(being spotted, and in the broader and serrated gills. 

In fir woods. 

CoUybia prolixa. PI. Dan. 

Pileus 8-4 in across, fragile, flesh rather thick, white ; 
•convex then expanded, broadly gibbous, lax, even, glabrous, 
tawny with a brick-red tinge; margin often ii regular; 
gills free, crowded, narrow, quite entire, white, not spotted ; 
.etem 3 in. long, 4^6 lines thick, solid, almost equal, ending 
abruptly, grooved, with a brick-red tinge; spores elliptical, 
.apiculate, 8-9 x 6 //.. 

Agaricus prolixus, Fl. Dan., t. 1608; Cke., Hdbk., p. 363; 
"Cke., Illustr., pi. 950. 

Among leaves, &c. 

Densely tufted. (Cooke.) 

Large, up to a span. Stem firm, often scrobiculate ; 
pileus fragile, rusty brick-red, becoming pale. (Fries.) 

CoUybia distorta. Pr. 
Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh thin, convex then expanded, 
'umbonate, very lax, even, glabrous, bay, becoming pale, but 
mot hygrophanous ; gills slightly adnexed, closely crowded, 
irather narrow, margin scarcely serrulate, white becoming 
-spotted with red ; stem about 3 in. long, up to | in. thick, 
attenuated upwards from the tomentose base, twisted, 
isulcate, pallid, fragile, externally cartilaginous, spongy 
inside and soon hollow; spores elliptical, 6-7 X 4 /*. 



COLLYBIA. 125 

Agaricus (Collyhid) distortus. Fries, Epicr., p. 84; Cie.^ 
Hdbk., p. 64; Cke., Bliistr., pi. 2S2. 652. 

On rotten pine trunks ; also on heaps of leaves, &c. 

Allied to C.fusipeg, but closely lesembling C. hutyracea;- 
known by the broad, lax pileus ; thin, fragile, contorted! 
stem, and the gills becoming spotted with reddish-brown. 

CoUxbia bntyracea. BulL 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh r ather thick at the disc, thin - 
elsewhere, soft, somewhatJiygTophanons, dingy then white ;. 
convex then expanded and more oFless nmhonate, dry, even, 
glabrous, reddisltbrown and shining as if oiled, becoming 
pye_and dull , dingy ochiaceous or whitish when quite dry - 
gills sUghtlji^dnexed, almost free, thin, crowded, crenulate, 
"lyhitg^ never becoming spotted or stained with brown or 
red ; stem 2—3 in. high, 3—4 lines thick at the base, 1 J lines 
at the apex, base incrassated, egually attenuated upwards, 
striate, ruf ous, usually glabrous, but sometimes downy all 
over, with a rigid caiialagiaous cuticle, stuffed or hollow ;. 
spores elliptical, 7-9 X 4-5 /t. 

Agaricus hutyraneus, BulL, t. 572; Cke., Hdbk., p. 64;. 
Cke., niustr., pL 143. 

On the ground in woods. 

Solitary, or usually growing in troops ; closely resembling: 
C. digtorta in many respects, but more constant in form, and 
differing in the gills not becoming spotted with red. 

Pileus 11- in. broad, snbcamose, convex, expanded, umbo- 
nate, snbviscose, of a livid ochre or dull green, when quite- 
young livid-brown ; the margin subrufesent, but a portion 
below the umbo soon grows pale, so that the pileus appears- 
of four colours. The umbo is always dark, but sometimes 
the rest of the pileus is pale rafescent or ochraceous, margin 
occasionally striate ; fle^un'hite mottled with rufous. Gills- 
closeTTree, not jveotaicose, rounded, edge rather uneven 
and notched. Spornles white. Stem li— 2 in. high, f in. 
thick below, somewhat twisted, smooth, slightly striate,. 
downy at the bullx)us base, stnffied white within, the outer- ; 
coat being of quite a different structure and rufegcent^ i 
(Berk.) 

Collybia bibtilosa. Mass. 
Pileus 1-2 in. across, fleshy, subglobose, obtuse, then ex- 



126 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

panded, moist, ver}' smootli and even, dark obscure green 
when moist, pale grey or -whitish when dry ; gills narrow, 
crowded, thin, margin rather undulate, dingy, slightly 
adnexed, separated from the ilesh of the pileus by a dark 
cartilaginous line, a continuation of the outer portion of 
the stem ; spores subpiriform, 6 x 3 /x ; stem cartilaginous, 
spongy, stuffed, becoming imperfectly hollow, tapering 
-upwards, minutely striate, l|-2 in. long, | in. thick at base, 
pale clear brown, darkest below. 
. Agaricus (Gollybia) hibulosus, Massee. 
On stumps. In groups of 2-4, pileus very bibulous, 
changing from blackish green to pale grey during drying. 
Often rooting into the wood. Allied in many points to 
Gollyhia hutyracea. 

CoUybia xylophila. Pr. 

Pilens 2-3 in. across, flesh thin, fragile ; campanulate, lax 
then expanded, broadly gibbous, glabrous, disc brownish- 
tan becoming whitish towards the margin; gills adnate, 
closely crowded, very narrow, white ; stem about 2 in. long, 
2-3 lines thick, equal, not quite straight, fibrillosely striate, 
whitish ; spores elliptical, 4 x 2 • 5 /*. 

Agaricus (^Gollyhia') xylopMlus, Pries, Monogr., ii. p. 289 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 202 ?; Cke., Hdbk., p. 65. 

On rotten trunks, elm, &o. 

Cooke's figure differs very materially from that of Fries, 
Icon., t. 63, f. 2. 

A very fine species, usually densely caespitose. Stem 
hollow, 2-3 in. long, 3 lines thick, equal but often flexuosc, 
fibrillosely striate, whitish, brownish inside. Pileus ample, 
campanulate, broad, up to 3 in. across (up to 4 in. when ex- 
panded), usually obtuse, sometimes with a small but true 
umbo, and when much expanded broadly gibbous, glabrous, 
whitish or the centre brownish-tan. When much ex- 
panded the margin is cracked and split. Flesh everywhere 
very thin, fragile, watery-brown. Grills adnate, often with 
a small decurrent tooth, very narrow, a line broad at most, 
very much crowded, edge entire. (Fries.) 

G. confluens and G. ingrata differ in having the stem downy 
or pulverulent. 



COLLYBIA. 127 

II. VESTIPEDES. 
* Gills broad, rather distant. 

CoUybia velutipes. Fr. 

Pileus Ij— 3 in. across, convex then more or less plane, 
often obscurely umToonate, smooth, even, viscid, bright yeUow, 
disc darker, or altogether fulvous, flesh 1 line or more thick, 
margin very thin, tinged yellow ; gills subdistant, 2—3 lines 
broad, adnexed, cut out behind, then with a minute de- 
current tooth, margin entire, pale opaque yeUow ; stem 2 in. 
long and more, \ in. thick or more, subequal, attenuated 
into a rooting base, orange-bay, darkest downwards where 
it is often very dark brown, minutely velvety, stuffed; 
spores elliptical, 7 X 3-3 • 5 /x. 

Agaricfus (Gollybia) velutipes. Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 115; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 65 ; Cke., Ulnstr., pi. 184a, 

Agaricus velutipes, Curtis, Flor. Lond., t. 73. 

On trunks, logs, &c. Tufted. Pileus variable in colour, 
clear yellow, tawny-yellow, or fulvous, stem sometimes very 
short, at others elongated, usually curved and ascending. 
One of the few species of the Agaricini that bear frost 
well. 

Caespitose. Pileus 1-3 in. broad, smooth, slimy, of a 
beautiful tawny colour, convex, expanded, fleshy; margin 
thin, subtransparent. Grills ventricose, broad, scarcely 
adnate, ochraceous. Stem 2-9 in. high, f in. thick, ia- 
curved, velvety, rich tawny-brown, pale above, often com- 
pressed and striate, fistulose. (Berk.) 

Var. rubescens, Cke., lUustr., pi. 650. 

Pileus viscid, dark reddish-brown ; gills becoming spotted 
and stained with rusty brown; stem elongated, tapering 
downwards, dingy umber. 

Among firs. 

Caespitose. Pileus 1-3 in. broad, smooth, slimy, of a 
beautiful tawny colour, convex, expanded, fleshy, margin 
thin, subtransparent. Gills ventricose, broad, ecarcely 
adnate, ochraceous. Stem 2-9 in. high, f in. thick, incurved, 
velvety, rich tawny brown, pale above, often compressed 
and striate, fistulose. (Berk.) 



128 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

CoUybia laxipes. Fr. 

Pilens ^-f in. across, flesh thin ; convex then plane, obtuse, 
glabrous, even, moist, milk-white or with a very slight 
tinge of buff; gills soon becoming free, distant, 1 line broad, 
ventricose, milk-vrfiite ; stem 3-4 in. long, 1 line thick, 
equal, not quite straight, rigid, with rufous velvety down, 
apex pale, stuffed. 

Agaricus {Collyhia) laxipes. Fries, Epicr., p. 86; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 65; Cke., Illustr., pi. 184b. 

On chips, twigs, &c. 

Eeserabling C. fusijpes in the brown velvety stem, but 
much smaller and slenderer in every part. 

CoUybia floccipes. Fr. 

Pileus |-| in. across, flesh thin ; campanulate then convex, 
and umbonate, even, sooty-brown, becoming pale; gills ad- 
nexed, ventricose, thick, rather distant, white; stem l|-2 in. 
long, ^ line thick, equal, straight, whitish, rough with 
minute black points, fistulose, rooting. 

Agaricus {Gollyhia') floccipes, Fries, Epicr., p. 87 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 368; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1168. 

On stumps and on the ground. 

Distinguished at once from other species with a dark 
pileus by the whitish stem being sprinkled with minute,, 
black, point-like warts. 

CoUybia mimica. W. G. Smith. 

Pileus smooth, with a thin separabls cuticle, stem fibrillose- 
at the base, fibrillose striate in the middle, and naked or 
slightly pruinose at the apex. Gills very broad, somewhat 
distant, thin, white. 

Agaricus (Gollyhia') mimicus, W. G. Smith in Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 65 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 129. 

Among wood shavings. 

Odour and taste strong like fish. Agreeing in some points, 
with A. cueumis, but differing very materially in others. 
(W. G. Smith.) _ 

The above brief description differs in many important 
points from Smith's original figure, which may be described 
as follows. Every part inside and outside, gills also, dingy 
ochraoeous, stem reddish downwards. Pileus about 1 in. 
across, plane, flesh thin; gills 3 lines broad, narrowed in 



COLLTBIA. 129 

front, slightly cut ont behind ; stem ahout 2 in. long, 
2^ lines thick at the apex, [gradnally becoming narro'w to 
the base, -very wavy, hollow; spores elliptic-oblong, white, 
8 X 4-5 /i. 

Collybia vertimga. C!ooke. 

Pilens ^1 in. across, flesh thin, tongh, radiately ■wrinkled, 
minutely pnlvemlent, campannlate, then convex, at length 
plane, dull brown or grey ; gills adnate, narrow, connected 
by veins, white with a tinge of yellow; stem 2-2^ in. high, 
i— 1 line thick, tawny, minutely velvely, strigose at the base, 
fistnlose. 

Agaricus (Collybia) reriirugis, Cke., Hdbk., ed. 1, p. 147; 
el. 2, p. 66 ; Gke. Dlustr., pL 149a. 

Agaricus undatus. Berk., OutL, p. 117. 

On dead fern roots, twigs, &c. 

Distinguished from G. stipitaria by the dingy pileus, and 
the adnate giUs, connected by veins. 

Pileus 1 line to 1 in. broad, campanulate, at length convexo- 
plane, wrinkled in the direction of the gills, tough, snbmem- 
branaceous, minutely pulverulent, dull brown or cinereous. 
Gills truly adnate, ascending or horizontal, moderately 
distant, connected by veins, white with a yellowish tinge. 
Stem 2-21 in. high, ^1 line thick, strigose at the base, 
rufous, minutely velvety, fistulose, sometimes compressed. 
(Berk.) 

Collybia stipitaria. Fr. 

Pileus 2-5 lines across, flesh thin; convex then plane, 
umbUicate, whitish, clothed with tawny or brown fibrils 
that sometimes form minute squamules ; giUs separating 
from the stem and becoming free, rather distant, ventricose, 
white ; stem 1—2 in. long, slender, equal, tough, bright 
IjTOwn or bay, more or less hairy, stuffed then hollow. 

Agaricus {Collybia) gtipitarius. Fries, Syst. ITjx., i. p. 133 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 66; Cke., Illnfitr., pL 149b. 

On grass, twigs, &c. 

Gregarions. Yery remarkable, small, pileus whitish, often 
discoid, with the habit of Marasmius perforang. (Fries.) 

In some of Cooke's figures the pileus is minutely papillate. 
Stem shorter than in C. vertimga, and gills free. 

VOL. in. K 



130 ■ FUNGUS-FLORA. 

** Gills very narrow, closely crowded. 

CoUybia hariolorum. Bull. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesli thin, tough.; campanulately 
convex, then expanded, ohtuse, sometimes depressed, even, 
glabrous, whitish, margin slightly striate; gills slightly 
adnexed at first, soon free, not much crowded, narrow, 
whitish ; stem np to 3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, rather com- 
pressed, for the most part covered with a whitish woolly 
down, apex generally naked and pale, the remainder reddish- 
brown, hollow, the wall of the cavity downy, cartilaginous, 
almost equal ; spores elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4 /a. 

Agarious hariolorum, Bull., t. 585, f. 2 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 66 ; 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 160a. 

In woods, among leaves, especially beech ; also on rotten 
wood. 

C. confluens differs from the present in the densely crowded, 
very narrow gills, and crowded habit of growth. 

CoUybia confluens. Pers. 
Pileus 1 in. and more across, flesh thin but tough, flaccid ; 
convex then expanded, obtuse, at length broadly and 
obtusely umbonate, hygrophanous. rufescent when moist, 
margin slightly striate ; even and altogether white when 
dry; gills free, at length distant from the stem, very closely 
crowded and very narrow, linear, pinkish then whitish; 
stem 3-5 in. long, 1 line and more thick, hollow, remarkaibly 
cartilaginous, apex often dilated, rufous, covered everywhere 
with whitish down, often densely crowded and hence more 
or less compressed ; spores subglobose, 7-9 /x, diameter. 

Agarieus confluens, Pers., Syn., p. 368 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 66 ; 
Cke., lUustr., pi. ISOb. 

In woods, among leaves, &c. 

Growing in troops, many individuals springing from the 
same spreading mycelium and becoming confluent, but 
easily separating from each other, and not truly caespitose. 
(Fries.) 

Known by the crowded habit, crowded rufous stems, 
everywhere covered with white down, and the thin, flaccid 
pileus. 

Densely tufted, often in large rings. Pileus 1-1^ in. 



COLLYBIA. 131 

bioad, reddish-brown, changing when dry to cream-colour, 
at first convex, with the gills perfectly free so as to leave a 
naked ring round the top of the stem, at length expanded 
absolutely umbonate more or less irregular and compressed, 
the margin when fresh finely striate. Gills distinctly free, 
linear, finely serrulate, pale changing to cream-colour. Stem. 
2 in. or more high, above 1 line thick, compressed, thickest 
upwards, and pale rafous below ; the whole villous with 
white mealy pubescence ; not strigose. (Berk.) 

PUeus 1 in. across, reddish-brown, caespitose ; stem 2 in. 
high and more, above 1 line thick, pale rufous below, the 
whole covered with white mealy pubescence. Probably this 
is a true Maragmius. It is of a much drier texture than is 
usual in Agariais. (C!ooke.) 

Collybia ingrata. Schum. 

Pileus about 1 J in. across, flesh thin, tough ; globose, then 
campanulate, then expanded and umbonate, glabrous, dingy 
brownish-tan; gills free but close to the stem, closely 
crowded and very narrow, quite entire, pallid ; stem 2-3 in. 
long, 2—3 lines thick, oftea twisted, w^avy and compressed, 
brownish, umber below^, with white pulverulent down above, 
or sometimes everywhere, cartilaginous, hollow. 

Agaricus ingratus, Schum., SaelL, iL p. 304; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 67 ; Cke., Illustr., pL 283 (very different to the figure 
given by Fries, Icon., pi. 64, f. 1). 

Damp places in woods. 

Caespitose, tough, with a mouldy unpleasant smell. Allied 
to G. confluens, but differing in habit, the stems being 
brownish and not matted together at the base and not 
floccose, pUeus brownish-tan, and gills although free, very 
close to tiie stem. 

Pries describes two forms : — (4.) Tufted, tough, with » 
mouldy smell. Stem cartilaginous, hollow, 2-3 in. long, 
2—3 Imes thick, or broader when compressed, flexuons, 
twisted, brownish, base not rooting, at length umber, 
powdered with ■white meal above, wall of the cavity downy. 
Pileus thin, tough, globoso-campanulate then expanded, 
umbonate, IJ in. across, even, glabrous, dingy brownish- 
tan, difficult to describe. Gills free, very much crowded 
and narrow, but slightly veatricose, quite entire, pallid. 

z 2 



132 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

{B.) Minor. Stem 1^ in. long, about 1 line tliick, pul- 
verulent, glabrous and thinner downwards, outside and 
inside colour of tbe pileus, not rufescent. Pileus convex 
■then plane, 1 in. across. (Fries.) 

CoUybia conigena. Pers. 
PUeus |-1 in. across, flesh thin, rather firm ; convex; then 
almost plane, somewhat umbonate, unequal, often angular, 
also depressed, glabrous, yellowish brick-red, becoming pale 
-and sometimes almost white, margin slightly striate when 
moist ; gills slightly adnexed, soon free, crowded, rather 
narrow, pallid ; stem 1-3 in. long, very slender, car- 
tilaginous, tough, coloured like the pileus, covered every- 
where at first with white flooculent powder, at length almost 
naked, terminating in a strigose, rooting base, spores broadly 
-elliptical, 4r-5 x 3 ju. 

Agaricus conigenus, Pers., Syn., p. 388 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 67 ; 
■Cke., lUustr., pi. 130. 

In pine woods, growing on cones and among pine leaves. 
Usually gregarious. Known from C. tenacella and G. esculenta 
by the free, closely crowded, narrow gills. G. cirrliata differs 
in the adnate gills. 

Gregarious. Pileus 1 in. or more broad, rather irregular, 
Timbonate, expanded, often depressed, sometimes quite smooth, 
but occasionally more or less lanato-pubescent ; sometimes 
tittged with chocolate, but generally ochraceo-rufous ; pale 
when dry, and then occasionally zoned, flesh woolly when 
■dry, firm when moist. Gills very numerous, linear, free or 
only adnexed, tinged with yellow, or of the colour of the 
pileus, the unequal ones very long. Spores white, globose. 
Stem very vaiious in height, ^-l^- lines thick, tough, pul- 
verulento-pubescent with a long very strigose rooting base, 
rufous, hollow, the inside woolly. Certainly a very distinct 
species from the last (A. tenacellus). I do not find any pro- 
cesses on the gills. It must not be confounded with A. con- 
Jluens. (Berk.) 

Collybia cirrhata. Pr. 

Pileus Tip to ^ in. across, flesh thin ; conico-convex then 

plane, the disc at length umbilioately depressed, rufescent, 

often with a central papilla, rather silky, at length very 

..^lightly and often concentrically rivulose, opaque, white; 



COLLTBIA. 133" 

gills adnate, at length, separated from the stem, crowded, 
exceedingly narrow, very nneqnal, white; st«ni 1—2 in- 
long, very slender, flexuous, pallid, delicately coated with. 
white mealy down, ending in an elongated fibrillose, twisted 
root ; spores elliptical, 4^5 x 2-3 /i. 

Agaricus (jOoUyhia) cirrhatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 89. 

Among bioss, &c. 

Sclerotinm not present in this species. Very variatle in 
size, but alw^ays small, tongh, whitish, often becoming tinged 
with rufons. (Pries.) 

Allied to C. canigena but known by the gills being adnate- 
at first. Differs fix)m G. tuberosa in the rooting fibrillose- 
base of the stem, and the absence of a sclerotinm. 

Collybia tuberosa. BuU. 

Pileus up to 1^ in. across, flesh thin, convex then plane, 
nmbonate but not umbilicately depressed, minutely silty then- 
■ almost glabrous, even, opaque, white ; gills adnate, crowded, 
thin, unequal, white, slightly ventricose ; stem l—l^ in. long, . 
thin,' usually ascending, equal, obsoletely powdery, white, 
rarely tinged rufous, base quite glabrous, springing fronv 
a smooth, solid, yello-msh or reddish sclerotinm; spores- 
elliptical, 4^6 x 2-3 ^ 

Agaricus tuberosus, BuUiard, t. 256; Cke., Hdbk., p. 67;. 
Cke., Illustr., pL 144a, 

Agaricus {Gollyhia') cirrhatus, Cte., Hdbk., p. 67 ; Cke., 
Illustr., pL 144b. 

Growing on decaying species of Bussula and other Agarics^ 
and on the ground among moss, &c. 

SmaU. but tough, rather firm, gregarious, entirely -white.- 
C. cirrhata resembles the present species, but differs in having; 
a downy rooting base to the stem, and in not springing from 
a sclerotinm.. 

Collybia racemosa. Pers. 

Pileus S-A: lines across, flesh very thin ; convex, papillate,. 
covered -with grey down ; gills adnate, crowded, white ; stem 
1-2 in. long, slender, bearing slender, minute stems -with 
abortive pilei, base black, sclerotioid, stuffed. 

Agaricus raceraoeus, Persoon, Disp., t. 3, f. 8 ; Cke., Hdbl:.„ 
p. 67. 

Agaricus racemosus, Sowerby, t. 287. 



134 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

On putrid Agarics, and on the gronnd. 

In all probability a monstrous or abnormal form of some 
species, bearing a raceme of minute secondary stems, with 
minute imperfect pilei on the main stem. 



III. LAEVIPEDES: 
* Gills Iroad, lax, usually more or less distant. 

CoUybia coUina. Scop, 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, white ; campanulate then 
expanded, becoming flattened and umbonate, glabrous, rather 
viscid when moist, also slightly striate ; even and shining 
when dry ; brown or tan-colour, becoming pale ; gills 
adnexed when young, then free, rather distant, broad, lax, 
white then pallid ; stem 3-4 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, hollow, 
rather fragile, almost equal or slightly thinner upwards, 
even, glabrous, pallid-white, base downy. 

Agaricus collinus, Scopoli, Cam., p. 132 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 68 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 205. 

In grassy places. 

Usually gregarious. With the habit of a Mycena, but the 
margin incurved at first. Somewhat resembling a small 
form of C. radicata, but differing in the abrupt, and not 
rooting base of stem. 

CoUybia thelephora. Cke. & Mass. 

Pileus f— 1|- in. across, flesh rather thin ; campanulate, lax, 
with a small but acute papillate umbo, margin incurved at 
:first, then expanded and wavy, glabrous, slightly striate, 
pale dingy ocliraceous, the disc darker ; gills adnate, 1^ line 
broad, narrower in front, thin, rather crowded, whitish ; 
stem 3-4 in. long, 1-1 J line thick, equal, hollow, glabrous, 
€ven, base purplish-brown, paler upwards ; spores elliptical, 
9X7/*. 

Agaricus (Gollyhia) thelephorus, Cke. & Massee, Grevillea, 
xviii. p. 51 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1167. 

In partly dried up Sphagnum bogs. 

Gregarious. Inodorous. The pileus is sometimes slightly 
depressed round the umbo. The habit is that of a Mycena, 



COLLYBIA. 135 

tut the margin is distinctly incurved when young. Known 
\>j the thin, persistently campanulate, lax pileus, and the 
small but acute, pointed umbo. 

CoUybia ventricosa. Bull. 

Pileus 1-1^ in. across, flesh thin; campanulate, then 
convex and umbonate, glabrous, pale tan or pale dingy 
ochraceous; gills arouately adnexed, ventricose, 1^ line 
broad, rather crowded, undulate, rufescent ; stem 3-4 in. 
long, ventricose near the base, where it is 2-3 lines thick, 
almost equal above and I line thick, ending below the 
swelling in a slender, tapering, rooting base, coloured like 
the pileus or rufescent, even, naked, hollow. 

Agaricus ventricosus, Bnlliard, Champig. Fr., t. 411, f . 1 ; 
Cke., lUustr. pi. 145a ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 68. 

In woods. 

Somewhat resembling G. dryopMla, but distinguished by 
the longer stem being ventricose or swollen near the base, 
and rooting. 

CoUybia leucomyosotis. Cke. & Sm. 

Strong-scented, rather fragrant. Pileus about 1 in. across, 
flesh rather thick, dingy; convex then expanded, sometimes 
obtusely umbonate, pale mouse-colour, disc darker, margin 
paler and faintly striate, almost white when dry; gills 
adnate and distinctly sinuate behind, thick, rather distant, 
1^ line broad, white; stem 4^5 in. long, ll— 2 lines thick, 
«qual, straight or slightly wavy, very brittle, pallid, base 
white and obtuse, slightly pruinose above ; spores elliptical, 
6 X 4 /x. 

Agaricus (^CoUybia) leucomyosotis, Cke. and Smith; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 369; Cke., Hlustr., pi. 651. 

On Sphagnum, in bogs. 

Habit very much resembling the figure in Fries' Icones, of 
Naucoria myosotis, hence the name. (Cooke.) 

Distinguished by the strong scent and the adnate, sinuate 
gills. 

CoUybia Stevensoni. B. & Br. 
Pileus \ in. across and high, flesh thin; semiovate or 
hemispherical, obtuse, viscid, pallid yellow, spotted here 
and there ; gills broadly adnate with a decurrent tooth. 



136 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

laroad, distant, white; stem 1| in. long, not 1 line thick, 
equal, fibrillose, pulverulent above, externally and internally 
rufous, rooting; spores 10-11 x 7-8 jjl. 

Agaricus (Collyhia) Stevensoni, Berk, and Broome ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 68 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 146b. 

On the ground. 

Somewhat resembling G. esculenta, but differing in the 
pileus not becoming plane, and in the broad, distant, adnate 
gills. 

Collybia psathyroides. Cooke. 

Ivory-white. Pileus about f in. broad, and nearly I in. 
high, flesh thin ; campanulate, obtuse, rather viscid, margin 
regular, even ; gills broadly adnate and with a decurrent 
tooth, triangular, ^ in. and more broad, rather distant, persist- 
ently white ; stem 3-4 in. long, 1 line thick, equal, straight,, 
hollow, rather tough ; spores elliptic-oblong, 15x7/*. 

Agaricus (Gollylia) psathyroides, Cke., Hbk., p. 68; Cke.,. 
Illustr., pi. 266. 

On the ground. 

A very remarkable and distinct species with the habit of 
a Psathyra. Known by being wholly white, and the very 
broad and broadly adnate gills. 

Collybia xanthopoda. Tr. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, campanulately convex 
then expanded, lax, umbonate, glabrous, dry, tan-colour 
becoming pale, margin at length spreading and slightly 
striate ; gills adnexed at first, soon free, truncate behind, 
crowded, very broad, lax, whitish ; stem 3—4 in. long, 2-3. 
lines thick, tough, hollow, equal, even, glabrous, tawny- 
yellow, base strigosely rooting. 

Agaricus (Collyhia) xanthopus, Fr., Epicr., p. 91 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 69 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 203. 

In pine woods, &c. 

Allied to G. dryophila, but distinguished by the umbo„ 
very broad gills and strigose rooting base of stem. C. suecinea 
differs in not being umbonate. 

Collybia nitellina. Fr. 
Pileus 1-1^ in. across, flesh thin, coloured; convex then 
expanded, even, shining, tawny, often with a brick-red 



COLLYBIA. 13T 

tinge, pale when dry, hygroplianous ; gills fcroadly adnatc,. 
thin, rather crowded, white then pallid; stem 2-3 in. long, 
about 1|^ in. thick, equal, rigid, glabrous, tawny, very slightly 
fistulose. 

Agaricus (Collyhia) nitelUnus, Fries, Epicr., p. 80; Cke.,. 
Hdbk., p. 69. 

Among grass by paths in pine woods, &c. 

Solitary or gregarious, inodorous. Stem stuffed then 
fistulose, 2-3 in. long, 1^ line thick, equal and often 
flexuose, glabrous, slightly striate, tawny-ferruginous, 
yellow when dry, base often with down and rooting ; apex; 
rarely pruinose. Pileus somewhat membranaceous, convex, 
then plane, obtuse, 1-lJ in. broad, glabrous, but somewhat 
rugulose when seen in a good light, tawny or brick-red- 
tawny and pellucidly striate when moist, somewhat tan- 
colour when dry; flesh thin, similarly coloured. Gill& 
adnate, very obtuse behind, and equally attenuated to the 
front, not very much crowded, narrow, quite entire, whitish. 
A pretty species, very distinct, and widely separated from, 
C. acervata. With the habit of Laccaria laccata, there is a 
smaller variety having the stem scarcely 1 in. long, pileus- 
^ in. broad, umbonate. (Fries.) 

Cooke has figured a fungus (lUustr., pi. 146) that on the- 
plate is called a variety of the present species, but in the- 
"Handbook" is quoted under the species which appears to- 
be very different from the present species. The figure in 
lUustr., pi. 202, called Agaricus (Collyhia') xylophilus, agrees 
closely with his fig. 146, quoted above ; what these are iu, 
reality, I do not know. 

CoUybia succinea. Fr. 

Pileus 1 in. or more across, flesh thin; convex then ex- 
panded, obtuse, at length usually depressed and unequal,, 
even, glabrous, rufous or brownish, cracked when dry ; gills 
adnate, obtuse behind not much crowded, very broad, rather- 
thick, pallid white, margin minutely toothed ; stem 1-2 in_ 
long, 1—2 lines thick, equal or narrowed at the base, not 
rooting, even, glabrous everywhere, polished, pale rufescent,, 
hollow, tough. 

Agaricus (Collyhia') succineus, Epicr., p. 91 ; Cke., Hdbk.^ 
p. 69 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 151a. 



138 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Among grass, under trees, &o. 

Clearly distinguished from C. dryophila by the broader, 
thicker, less crowded gills ; and from" C. xanthopoda by the 
absence of an umbo. 

CoUybia nummularia. Bull. 

Pileus about 1| in. across, dry, flesh thin; soon almost 
plane and slightly depressed round the umbo, even, pallid 
■or whitish, often variegated with reddish or yellow stains ; 
gills free, broadest behind, rather distant, white; stem 
1^-2 in. long, 1 line or more thick, often slightly thinner 
downwards, pallid, stuffed then hollow. 

Agaricus nummularius, BuUiard, Champ., t. 66 ; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 151b; Cke., Hdbk., p. 69. 

Among leaves. 

Distinguished by being entirely white or pallid, and by 
the plane pileus being slightly depressed round the small, 
obtuse umbo. 

CoUybia esculenta. Wulf. 

Pileus |-| in. across, flesh thin, tough, white, pleasant 
tasted ; convex then plane, orbicular, obtuse, glabrous, even, 
or slightly striate when old, ochraceous-tan or brownish; 
gills adnexed, often with a very minute decurrent tooth, 
then seceding from the stem, very broad, almost obovate, lax, 
rather distant, whitish or with a tinge of tan-colour ; stem 
1-2 in. long, scarcely 1 line- thick, tough, straight, in- 
distinctly hollow, even, glabrous, rather shining, yellowish- 
tan, ending in a long, perpendicular, usually glabrous, 
rooting base. 

Agaricus esculentus, Wulf, in Jacq. Coll., xi. t. 14, f. 4; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 69 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 152a. 

In woods, pastures, &c. 

Gregarious but never caespitose. C. tenacella is allied to 
the present species, but differs in the rooting base of the 
stem being fibrillose, and in the snow-white gills. 

The root is sometimes 6 in. long, and downy when 
growing amongst leaves, either perpendicular or flexuous. 
Much eaten in Austria, where, in the beginning of April 
large baskets of it are brought to market under the name 
of Nagelschwamme, which accords with Linneus's name 



COLLYBIA. 139 

A. clavw. It has, however, a hitter, tmpleasant taste. 
(Berk.) 

CoUybia tenacella. Pers. 

Pileus ahout J-f in. across, flesh thin, white, not hygro- 
phanous ; convex then expanded, orbicular, somewhat nmbo- 
nate, even, glabrous, brown, becoming pale, livid, or rarely- 
white ; gills adnexed, emarginate, broad, ventricose, hence ap- 
pearing lax, rather distant, distinct, snow-white ; stem 2-3 in. 
long, sometimes up to 6 in., not 1 line thick, equal, straight, 
tven, glabrous, tawny, apex white, naked, ending in a long, 
fibrillose rooting base ; spores elliptical, 5-6 x 3 /i. 

Agaricus tenacella. Pars., Ic. Pict., t. 1, f. 3, 4; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 70; Cke., lUustr., pi. 152b, and 649. 

In woods, especially pine. 

Very tough; inodorous, solitary, or sometimes in troops. 
Differs from G. esculenta in the root being downy, and the 
gills snow-white. 

Pileus J-1 in. broad, when young conic, then convex and 
subhemispherical, at length expanded then plane, sometimes 
slightly umbilicate, not striate, sub-carnose, smooth, dry, 
cinereous, inclining to yellowish; often altogether abortive. 
Gills free, or often adnexed, ventricose, sometimes re- 
markably so, rather distant, the shorter ones truncate 
behind ; in general pure white, but sometimes with a tinge 
of grey; under a powerful lens covered with vaxiously 
hooked or conic papillae. Stem 2-4 in. long, scarcely 1 line 
thick, flexuous, filiform, attenuated very much towards the 
base and somewhat strigose, hollow, pale above, below 
tawny, very minutely pubescent under a good lens ; when 
young beautifully downy, and then not distinctly hollow, 
but with only a pale line down the centre. Taste very 
pleasant. (Berk.) 

Var. stolonifer, Jungh., in Linnea (1830), p. 396; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 70; Cke., lUustr., pi. 152c. 

The plants spring at intervals from a long, creeping, 
titolon-like or rhizomorphoid mycelium. 

Among fir leaves, &o. 

CoUybia eustygia. Cooke. 
Odour of rancid meal. Pileus l|-2 in. across, flesh white. 



140 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

thick at the disc, margin very thin ; convex then plane, 
sometimes depressed, sometimes wavy, even, smooth, tongh, 
dingy white, a little darker at the disc, shining when dry; 
gills rounded behind and adnexed or appearing to he almost 
free when the pileus is depressed, not crowded, dark grey; 
stem 2-3 in. long, 3 lines thick, attenuated downwards into 
a rooting base, usually slightly curved, white above and 
sprinkled with small point-like scales, darker below and 
often becoming sooty, somewhat longitudinally striate or 
fibrous, stuffed or rarely hollow ; spores white, globose, 
4-5 ju, diameter. 

Agaricus {Collyhia) eustygius, Cke., Grev., xix. p. 41 ; Cke., 
Illustr., pi. 1185. 

On the ground. 

A well-marked species, characterised by the dark grey 
gills and strong rancid smell. Distinguished from the grey- 
gilled species of Clitocybe and Tricholoma by the character of 
the gills. The whole plant turns black when dry. 

** Gills narrow, crowded, 

CoUybia acervata. Tr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thin, convex then expanded, 
obtuse or at length gibbous, pale flesh-colour when moist, 
whitish when dry, margin at first incurved, then expanded 
and slightly striate ; gills adnexed at first, soon free, very 
closely crowded, narrow, plane, tinged flesh-colour then 
whitish; stem 2-4 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, rigid, fragile, 
distinctly fistulose, slightly attenuated upwards, rarely 
compressed, very glabrous except at the base, even, rufous 
or sometimes brown, wall of the cavity of the stem glabrous ; 
spores elliptical, 7-8 X 3 • 6 /*. 

Agaricus {Collyhia) acervatus, Tries, Epicr., p. 92; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 70 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 267. 

In woods at base of pine trunks, &c. 

Caespitose, stems numerous, crowded, joined together and 
covered with white down at the base. Allied to G. confluens, 
but distinguished by the very glabrous stem. 

CoUybia dryophila. Bull. 
Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, white; convex then 



COLLYBIA. 141 

plane, obtuse, centre usually depressed, reddish bay or pale 
tan, becoming pale but not hygropbanous, even, glabrous, 
margin incurved at first, then expanded; gills almost free, 
with a minute decurrent tooth, but appearing as if adnexed, 
■when the pileus is depressed, crowded, narrow, distinct, 
plane, white or pallid ; stem 1-2 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, 
cartilaginous, distinctly hollow, even, glabrous, somewhat 
rooting, base often swollen when growing in damp places 
among leaves, coloured, usually yellowish or rufessent ; 
spores elliptic-fusiform, 7-8 X 4 /x,. 

Agaricus (Collyhia) dryophilus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 70 ; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 204. 

Agm-icus dryopTiilus, Bull., Champ., t. 434. 
On the ground; among fallen leaves; on rotten wood, &c. 
Distinguished from its nearest allies by the narrow, 
crowded gills and obtuse pileus. 

Solitary or loosely gregarious, inodorous, very variable ; 
pileus rufous-bay, yellowish, or tan-colour; in dry pine 
woods a form occurs having a white pileus and gills and a 
yellow stem. Grills sometimes sulphur-colour, and some- 
times (a morbid state) cinnamon-tan. The following forms 
occur : — 

(.4.) Stem elongated, flexuous, decumbent, base swollen ; 
pileus broad, lobed, gills white : — 

(JB.) funicularis, large tufted ; stem lax, decumbent, base 
equal, downy; gills sulphur-colour: — 

(0.) Numerous individuals growing together in a large 
tuft; stem thick, swollen, deformed, sulcate, brown, myce- 
lium binding the soil into a mass; pileus much deformed, 
angular, waved, blackish then bay. Damp soil in gardens. 
(Fries.) 

Solitary or tufted, very variable in size and colour. 
Pileus 1-3 in. broad, whitish, pinkish, yellowish or livid, 
plane, sometimes depressed, fleshy, thin, tender, easily 
injured, of a watery substance. Gills free, white or very 
pale flesh-colour, soft, tender, entire or serrate, numerous. 
,Stem 2-3 in. high, |-J- in. thick, shining, splitting, 
sometimes twisted, of the same colour as the pUeus, but 
t;he summit is generally darker and pinkish. The whole 
plant is fragile and easily detached from the stem. 
<Grev.) 



142 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Collybia aquosa. Pr. 

Every part honey-colour, watery, liygroplianous. Pileus 
atout 1 in. across, very thin but tough, soon plane, obtuse, 
orbicular, not depressed, margin densely and finely striate ; 
gills slightly adnexed, soon leaving the stem and becoming 
free, very much crowded, narrow, whitish; stem stuffed 
1J-2|^ in. long, scarcely 1 line thick, equal, rather wavy, 
surface slightly undulated, polished and glabrous, stuffed ; 
spores elliptical, 6 x 3-4 /j,, 

Agaricus (Gollylia) aquosus, Pries, Vet. Ac. Porh, 1851; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 71 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 234. 

Damp woods, among moss, &c. 

Yar. Bulliardii ; Agaricus aquosus, Bull., Champ. Pr., 
t. 12. Pileus ochraceous, with a brick-red tinge, becoming 
whitish ; stem tawny-rufous, base fibrillose. 

Intermediate between the present and C. dryopMla. 

Collybia extuberans. Pr. 

Pileus |-lj in. across, flesh rather thin, convex then 
expanded, with a broad, prominent umbo, margin slightly 
incurved, bay or umber ; gills narrowed behind and slightly 
adnexed, nearly free, crowded, narrow, white ; stem 2-3 in. 
long, 2-3 lines thick, glabrous, pallid, fistulose, rooting. 

AgaricMS (Collybia) eaifefeeraws, Pries, Epicr., p. 93 j Pries, 
Icon., t. 67, f. 1 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 71. 

On the ground, near trunks, and on rotten wood. 

Solitary, tough, inodorous; stem fistulose or stuffed, 
rooting, 2-3 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, equal, straight or a 
little wavy, even, glabrous, not pulverulent, whitish. Pileus 
campanulate then expanded, umbo broad, prominent, orbi- 
cular, 1-lJ in. broad, glabrous, even, not hygrophanous, 
rufous-brown, bay, or umber, becoming paler towards the 
margin, which is at first incurved. Plesh white. Grills 
attenuated behind and adnate, separating and appearing to 
be free, crowded, 1-2 lines broad, whitish. AfSnities 
difficult to indicate, in point of size may be compared with 
Collyhia protracta, but differs from every species in the large 
tuberculiform umbo. (Pries.) 

Collybia exsculpta. Pr. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, convex, truly umbiliccate 



COLLYBIA. 143 

tawny-brown, not becoming pale; gills adnexed, densely 
crowded, arcuate, linear, bright sulpliur-yellow ; stem about 
1 in. long, 1 line thick, incurved, clear sulphur-yellow, 
hollow. 

Agaricus (Collyhia) exsculptus. Pries, Epicr., p. 93 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 71 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 268a. 

On dead wood, &c. 

Distinguished from allied species by its toughness, and 
the sulphur-yellow colour of the gills and stem. 

Entire fungus very dry and tough. This species and 
C. aquosa may almost be considered as the two opposite 
extremes of C. dryophila. (Fries.) 

CoUybia macilenta. Fr. 

PHeus about 1 in. across, flesh thin, yellow ; convex then 
flattened, obtuse, orbiculate, even, glabrous, quite dry, dark 
yellow ; gills soon separating from the stem and becoming- 
free, closely crowded, narrow, linear, very unequal, pure 
yellow ; stem about 1 J in. long, not 1 line thick, equal, not 
straight but usually wavy throughout, naked, glabrous, 
bright yellow, indistinctly hollow, tough, cartilaginous, base 
slightly rooting ; spores elliptical, 5-6 X 3 ju. 

Agaricus (Gollyhia) macilentus. Fries, Epicr., p. 93 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 71 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 268b. 

In pine woods on leaves, &c. 

Agreeing in size with C. esculenta, but readily known 
from this and every other species by the yellow colour of 
every part. 

CoUybia clavus. Linn. 

Pileus 1-4 lines across, flesh very thin, conically-convex 
then plane, somewhat papillate, glabrous, shining, orange- 
scarlet, disc often darker, margin slightly striate; gills 
adnexed, ventricose, rather broad, somewhat crowded but 
not numerous, white, rarely with a yellow tinge ; stem up 
to 1 in, long, very slender, naked glabrous, whitish, base 
downy ; spores pip-shaped, 4 X 2 • 5 /a. 

Agaricus clavus, Linn., Fl. Suec, n. 1212; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 71; Cke., Illustr., pi. 147a. 

On twigs, &o. 

The smallest species in the genus, distinguished by the 



141 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

bright-coloured pilens. Mycena acicula differs in. the yellow 
^ills and larger spores, also in the rooting stem. 

Pilens J-4 lines broad, eampanulate, generally umbonate, 
margin striate, imder a powerful lens most minutely pilose, 
bright orange, the umbo darkest, subcarnose, within deep 
■orange. Gills few, somewhat ventricose, adnexed or adnate, 
with shorter ones between them, white tinged with yellow. 
Stem about 1 in. long, quite filiform, flexuous, nearly equal, 
minutely pilose like the pileus, pale yellow with a line 
•within showing it to be fistulose. When growing on sticks 
■there are a few minute strigae at the base. (Berk.) 

CoUybia ocellata. Fr. 

Pileus about J in. across, flesh thin ; conico-convex then 
plane ; disc depressed and darker, brown, rufous, yellowish, 
-with a small paler umbo ; even whitish, margin usually 
•crenulate ; gills adnate, at length separating from the stem, 
•closely crowded, alternate ones shorter, white; stem 1-1| in. 
long, very slender, equal, tough, glabrous, naked, brownish- 
white or yellowish, base slightly rooting, fibrillose, minutely 
fistulose. 

Agaricus (Gollybia) ocelatus, Tries, Epicr., p. 94; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 71 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 147b. 

Among grass in pine woods, &o. 

Dry, persistent. Distinguished from C. cirrhata by the 
glabrous stem. 

CoUybia muscigena. Sohum. 

Pure white. Pileus 1-3 lines across, almost mem- 
branaceous ; convex then plane, obtuse, even ; gills adnate, 
rather crowded, linear ; stem about 1 in. long, very slender, 
■equal, wavy, glabrous. 

Agaricus mwcigenus, Sohum., Saell., p. 307 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p- 72 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 147c. 

Among moss near trunks, &c. 

Eeadily distinguished in the present genus by its pure 
white colour and very small size. Known from the small 
white species of Mycena by the broadly adnate gills and 
•even pileus. 



COLLYBIA. Ii5' 

IV. TEPHEOPHANAE, 

* Gills crowded, very narrow, 

CoUybia rancida. Fr. 

Smell strong. Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, carti- 
laginous and tough ; convex then plane, broadly and obtusely 
umbonate, glabrous, even, not hygrophanous but viscid after 
being wet for some time, greyish-black, sooty, becoming 
pale, covered at first with a delicate whitish l3loom ; gills 
free, crowded, narrow but ventricose, dark grey, slightly 
pruinose; stem 3-6 in long, 2 lines thick, equal, glabrous, 
even, livid, hollow, rigid, straight, with a long, fusiform, 
downy rooting base ; spores elliptical, 7-10 x 4r-5 /jl. 

Agaricus (Gollybia) rancidus. Fries, Epicr., p. 95 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 72; Cke., lUustr., pi. 153a. 

On trunks and stumps, also on the ground among 
moss, &c. 

Smell strong, like fresh meal but somewhat rancid. 

Fries describes a form of this species as -follows :— 

Stem 2 in. long, with a short rooting base. Pileus buUater- 
wavy, 2^ in. across, depressed round the umbo, and outside 
the depression bounded by an elevated ridge, almost black ; . 
gills linear, veined and connected by veins, sooty, powdered 
with white. (Fries.) 

Distinguished among the strong-smelling species by the 
long rooting stem. 

Pileus convex-conical when young, at length, nearly quite 
plane, obtusely umbonate, more or less rugose and some- 
what glutinous, smooth, generally possessing considerable 
toughness and elasticity; in regard to colour it is very 
irregular, being whitish, ash-colour, brown, smoke-grey, 
reddish, olivaceous, greenish, or even, according to Schu- 
macher, sometimes yellow, the most frequent is an olivaceous 
and greenish hue. Flesh very thin, white. Lamella rather 
distant, white, fixed, rather broad, entire, mostly 4 in a set. 
Stipes generally solid, rarely with a small spongy cavity, 
4-8 in. high, firm, smooth, slightly twisted, pale fawn-colour, , 
or tinged with green, gradually tapering upwards. Eoot- 
fusiform, 4-12 in. in length or more, brownish, tough. The 

VOL. III. L 



146 FUNGTJS-FLOBA. 

pileus is so tenacious, that, in some specimens it may be 
folded betwixt the fingers without tearing. (Grev.) 

CoUybia coracina. Fr. 

Smell strong. Pileus up to 1| in. across, flesh very 
thin except at the disc; convex then expanded, naked, 
hygrophanous, brownish then grey; gills adnexed, soon 
separating from the stem, rather broad, hardly crowded, 
gi-eyish-white ; stem about 1| in. long, 2 lines or more thick 
at the base, becoming thinner upwards, not rooting, brown, 
apex pale and mealy with white squamules, hollow, rigid, 
often deformed. 

Agaricus {Gollybia) coracinus, Fries., Epicr., p. 95; Cke., 
Hdl.k., p. 72 ; Cke,, Illustr., pi, 153b. 

Among grass in woods. 

Smell strong, like new meal. Stem hollow, remarkably 
cartilaginous, ligid and tough, when young and mostly com- 
pressed, sometimes lacunose, 1^. in. long, 2 lines thick, more 
when compressed, becoming thinner upwards, not rooting, 
brownish, apex mealy with white squamules ; pileus rather 
thin and cartilaginous, convex then expanded, sometimes 
umbonate, at others depressed, often deformed and wavy, 
1| in. and more broad, even or wrinkled towards the margin, 
glabrous, brown and shining when growing, grey and 
opaque when old and dry ; gills obtusely adnate, soon 
separating from the stem and often appearing to be free, 
broad, scarcely crowded, distinct at first, then especially in 
deformed individuals, connected by veins, greyish- white. 
(Fries.) 

The present species agrees with G. rancida and 0. ozes in 
the strong smell ; differs from the former in the short stem 
being thickened at the base and not rooting. G. ozes differs 
in the long, slender, flexuous stem. 

CoUybia ozes. Fr. 
Smell strong, resembling new meal. Pileus 1-1^ in. 
across, flesh thin; convex then plane, umbonate, glabrous, 
hygrophanous, greyish-brown when moist andmargin' striate ; 
brownish- tan or pallid, and everywhere even when dry ; gills 
adnate, slightly ventricose, crowded, 2-3 lines broad, quite 
«ntire, smoky-olive ; stem 2^-4 in. long, 1 line thick, equal. 



COLLYBIA. 147 

or very slightly narrowed at the base, lax, wavy, fragile, 
smoky-grey, apex powdered with white meal. 

Agaricus (Gollyhid) ozes, Fries, Epicr., p. 95; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 72. 

On pine leaves, &o. 

Allied to C. rancida, which differs in the free gUls con- 
nected by veins. 

CoUybia inolens. Pr. 

Pilens 1-2 in. across, flesh rather thick, not cartilaginous ; 
campanulate then convex, at length plane, and for the most 
part broadly and obtusely nmbonate, very glabfotis, hygro- 
phanbns, livid when moist ; pale tan, rather silky but opaque 
when dry ; gills adnexed, seceding and becoming almost 
free, 1-2 lines broad, linear or slightly ventricose, greyish- 
white ; stem 2-4 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, more when com- 
pressed, equal, the surface wavy, livid, pale when dry; 
rigid at first, then very soft and hollow ; base with white 
strigose down, apex vrith white squamules ; spores elliptical, 
7-8 X 4r-5 iji. 

Agaricus (Gollyhia) inolens. Fries, Epicr., p. 96 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 73; Cke., Illustr., pi. 154a. 

On the ground in pine woods, &o. 

Smell very weak or entirely absent, and in this respect 
differing from C. rancida, 0. ozes, and C. coracina, G. plexites 
and C. protraeta differ in the stem being glabrous at the 
apex. 

CoUybia plexipes. Fr. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin; campanulate, not ex- 
panding, umbonate, somewhat wrinkled, slightly striate, at 
first blackish with a whitish margin, then sooty-livid ; gills 
free, very much iiarrowed behind, ventricose, white then 
glaucous; stem about 3 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, equal, 
altogether cartilaginous, silkily fibrous and slightly striate 
under a lens, from the presence of adpressed interwoven 
fibrils, livid, hollow; stem shortly and abruptly, rooting, not 
fibrillose ; spores^ elliptical, 8-9 X 6 /"■• 

Agaricus (Oollybia) ^plexipes. Fries, Epicr., p. 96; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 73 ; Cke. Illustr., pi. 164b. 

Among grass, near stumps, &c.. . . 

Inodorous, tough, firm, habit exactly that of a Mycena, and 

L 2 



148 FUNGUS-rLORA. 

the margin is perhaps straight, but from analogy nearest to 
Collyhia rancida. (Fries.) 

Diifers from G. rancida in absence of smell, and from 
C. protracta in the free gills. 

CoUybia atrata. Pr. 

Pileus 1-1^ in. across, flesh rather thick, firm ; orbicular, 
disc often slightly depressed, margin arched, very smooth 
and even, viscid after prolonged rain, pitch black and 
shining when moist, fuscous when dry; gills adnate, 
scarcely decurrent, arcuate, then plane, rather broad and 
distant, whitish, then greyish or brownish; stem up to 1 in. 
long, 1-2 lines thick, equal or slightly thickened upwards, 
round, even, glabrous, brown both inside and outside;, 
stuffed, often becoming hollow, distinctly cartilaginous, 
tough. 

Agaricus (Collyhia') atratus, Pries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 168 j 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 73 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 155a. 

On the ground in sunny places, and especially where the 
ground has been burnt. 

Small, firm, pileus often umbilicate, a distinct species, but 
hovering between Collyhia and Omphalia. 

CoUybia amtausta. Pr. 

Pileus \-l in. across, flesh very thin ; convex then plane, 
at length depressed, with a minute papillate umbo, glabrous,, 
brown at first, even, then slightly striate and fusoo-livid, 
margin involute at first; gills adnate, with a decurrent 
tooth, crowded, plane, lanceolate, becoming tinged with 
brown ; stem about 1 in. long, rarely more, not 1 line thick,, 
at length hollow, truly cartilaginous, straight, livid brown, 
pruinose when young, naked when adult ; spores 5-6 X 3-4 /;i. 

Agaricus (Collyhia') amhustus. Pries, Epicr., p. &7; Cke.,. 
Hdbk., p. 73; Cke., Illustr., 155b. 

On scorched ground, &c. 

Small, tough, often gregarious, inodorous, entirely sooty- 
brown. Closely allied to C. atrata, but the present species 
approaches Mycena to the same extent that C. atrata does 
Omphalia. The present species is certainly a Collyhia, as 
shown by the margin of the pileus being incurved at first. 
(Pries.) 



COLLYBIA. 149 

Distinguislied from G. atrata by tlie papillately umbonate 
pileus, and by the stem being whitish-flocculose when 
young. 

** Gills very broad, more or less distant. 

CoUybia lacerata. Lasch. 

Pileus about 1^ in. across, flesh thin ; campanulate, rather 
lobtuse, moist, streaked with dark brown on a pale ground- 
colour, disc darker ; giUs adnexed, distant, broad, thick, 
greyish-white, stem 2-4 in. long, 2 lines thick, equal, firm, 
^twisted, fibrosely-striate, apex floccosely pruinose, at length 
•compressed, stuffed then hoUow. 

Agaricus (Collyhia) laceratus, Lasch, in Fries, Hym. Eur., 
Tp. 127 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 73 ; Gke., lUustr., pi. 269. 

On the ground, near trunks in pine woods. 

Somewhat caespitose. Pileus 1| in. across, sooty-brown, 
■at length pale and somewhat shining like the stem, which is 
2-4 in. long. Not a typical Oollybia, but allied to G. jalaty- 
yhylla, (Pries.) 

CoUybia murina. Pr. 

Pileus 1-1^ in. across, flesh thin, tough ; campanulate 
then convex, at length expanded, not striate, rugulose or 
•very minutely squamulose, dark brown, becoming pale when 
dry ; margin incurved at first, always even ; gills adnexed, 
very broad, almost obovate, narrowed behind, rather thick, 
•distant, distinct, white, becoming grey ; stem 2-3 in. long, 
2 lines thick, equal, straight, not rooting but the base 
downy ; at first sight appearing to be glabrous, but minutely 
ifibrillose under a lens, grey, apex white and rather flocculose 
when young, hollow ; spores 7 X 4 /a. 

Agaricus (Gollybia') murina. Fries, Epicr., p. 97 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 74; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1198. 

On the ground, under oaks, &c. 

Somewhat resembling G. strata, but differing in the very 
broad, almost free giUs, and in the pileus not being umbili- 
•oate. 

CoUybia protracta. Fr. 
Pileus up to 1 in. across, flesh thin; convex then plare, 
the slightly fleshy disc depressed, often with a vestige of a. 



150 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

central 11111130, greyish-brown, shining, margin paler and 
distinctly striate ; gills adnexed but remarkably ventricose, 
almost truncate behind, very broad, 3 lines and more, rather 
distant, grey, slightly powdered with white; stem about 
3 in. long and 1 line thick, straight, even, glabrous every- 
"where, livid grey, slightly hollow, distinctly cartilaginous, 
lont becoming soft, produced underground into a tapering, 
fibrous, rooting base. 

Agaricus (Gollyhia) protractus, Fries, Epicr., p. 97; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 74; Cke., Illustr., pi. 270a. 

On the ground in pine woods, &c. 

Distinguished by the very broad, rather crowded gills and 
the rooting stem. G. plexites differs in the free gills and 
persistently campanulate pileus. Smell none, thus differing 
from C. rancida. 

CoUybia tesquorum. Fr. 

Kleus up to ^ in. across, flesh thin ; convex, obtuse, even, 
hlaokish-brown, becoming pale ; gills free, rather distant, 
ventricose, pale greyish-brown; stem up to 2 in. long, ^ 
line thick, equal, brown, apex pruinose, fistulose. 

Agaricus (^CoUybia) tesquorum, Fiies, Monogr., ii. p. 290; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 74 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 270b, 

Among grass in sunny places. 

Stem fistulose, 1^ in. high, not a line thick, equal, flexuous, 
glabrous, fuscous, apex mealy. Pileus almost membrana- 
ceous, rather firm, convex, very obtuse, glabrous, not striate, 
3-5 lines broad, blackish-brown, becoming pale. Gills 
entirely free, very ventricose, 2 lines broad, rather distant, 
greyish brown. Smell none. 

The broad, free gills distinguish this from all allied 
species. (Fries.) 

CoUybia clusilis. Fr. 
Pileus |-1 in. across, almost membranaceous ; hemi- 
Bpherical then expanded, umbilicate, glabrous, hygrophanous, 
livid, becoming pale ; gills adnexed and with a small de- 
current tooth, broad, almost semicircular, plane, crowded, 
white then pallid ; stem l|-2 in. long, thin, soft, polished 
and cartilaginous, glabrous, not quite straight, not rooting, 
coloured like the pileus, then pale, base with white down, 
fitiiffed then hollow. 



COLLYBIA. 151 

Agaricus (Collybiai) clusilis, Fries, Epicr., p. 98 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 74; Cke., niiistr., pi. 24:7b. 

In woods. 

Allied to C. tylicolor but differs in the umbilicate pileus 
and decurrent tooth to the gills. The same features sepa- 
rate this species from C. nummularia. 

OoUytaia tylicolor. Fr. 

Pileus |— g in. across, flesh thin, convex then expanded, 
somewhat umbonate, even, unpolished, opaque, bluish-grey, 
everywhere powdered with white meal when young ; gills 
free, distant, broad, plane, rather thick, grey but paler than 
the pileus ; stem about 1 in. long and 1 line thick, equal, 
even, grey, everywhere powdered with white meal, hollow. 

Agaricus (Collyhia) tylicolor, Fries, Epicr., p. 98 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 74 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 247a. 

In woods. 

Inodorous. Known by being entirely grey, and in having 
the pileus and stem powdered with white, at least when 
young. 

Introduced species. 

CoUybia caldarii. Berk. 

Pileus I in. across, hemispherical, umbonate, brown, 
rugose, not turning pale; stem paler, even, cartilaginous 
externally, 2 in. high, not a line thick ; gills adnato-deour- 
rent, somewhat ash-coloured, interstices near the margin 
veined. 

Agaricus (Collyhia^ caldarii. Berk., Grevillea, i. p. 89 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 75. 

On Sphagnum in an orchid pot at Dangstein. 

CoUybia Dorotheae. Berk. 
Pileus 1 in. and more across, at first globose, dark brown, 
then flatly hemispherical, at length expanded, with a slight 
umbo, and eventually depressed, pale brown, radiately 
sulcate from the crenate margin almost to the centre, granu- 
lated, beset with short white bristles, which in the young 
state point in every direction; stem 2-2^ in. high, scarcely 
a line thick, at first brownish above, white below, with a 
minute disc-like swelling at the base, then yellowish or 
rufous below and white above, granulated like the pileus, 



152 FUNGUS-FLOBA. 

and beset -witli wliite bristles ; gills white, distant, annexed, 
■eliglitly ventricose, connected behind ; edge quite entire. 

Agaricus (Oollybia) Dorotheae, Berk., Grevillea, i. p. 88; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 75. 

On dead fern stem, in a hotbouse, Dangstein. 



MAEASMIUS. Fries. 

Pileus regular, thin, tough and pliant ; gills pliant and 
^rather tough, somewhat distant, variously attached or free, 
edge thin and quite entire, often connected by veins ; stem 
cartilaginous or horny, continuous with the substance of the 
pilaus, but differing in structure. The species are tough, 
dry, shrivelling and drying up (not putrescent), and ex- 
panding when moistened. 

Marasmius, Fries, Epicr., p. 372 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 344. 

A very distinct genus, but distinguished more especially 
'hj biological characters, and differing from Gollyhia and 
Mycena, its nearest allies, by not deliquescing at maturity, 
but drying up and again assuming the original form when 
moistened. The species are comparatively rare in temperate 
regions, but are numerous in the tropics, where the gills are 
often narrow, very distant, and connected by prominent 
-yeins. Many species have a smell resembling garlic. 

Most species grow on wood, branches, or leaves. 



ANALYSIS OF TEE SPECIES. 

I. COLLYBIARII. 

Flesh of pileus pliant, at length somewhat coriaceous, 
.-grooved or wrinkled, margin incurved at first; stem some- 
-what cartilaginous ; mycelium woolly, absent in only very 
•few species. 

A. Scortei. 

Stem solid, or stuffed then hollow, fibrous inside, outside 
-the cartilaginous cuticle is covered with down ; gills 
-separating from the stem and becoming free. 



3IABAS5UUS. 153 

* Base of stem woolly or strigcse. 

** Base of stem naked, often composed of twisted inter- 
woven fibres. 

B. Tergim. 

Stem Tooting, distincily tubular, not fibrous, evidently 
cartilaginons ; gills separating from tbe stem and becoming 
free; pilens thinner than in the previous section, hygro- 
phanons, sometimes even, sometimes with the margin 
striate. 

* stem woolly below, glabrons above. 

** Stem (at least when dry) everywhere covered with a 
fine pminose down. 

C. Calopodeg. 

Stem short, not rooting, often with a floccose or downy 
tnbercnlar base; pilens convex and with the margin in- 
curved, then expanded and more or less depressed, and in 
this condition -the gills, that are typically adnate, become 
somewhat decurrent. 

On twigs, branches, &c. ; gregarious, dry. 

* Stem very glabrous upwards, shining, base not swollen. 

** Stem covered with fine pminose down, base somewhat 
tuberculose. 

n. ilTCESAEH. 

Stem homy, fistolose but often filled with pith, tough, 
dry, corticate, mycelium rhizomorphoid, not floccose ; pileus 
somewhat membranaceous, campanulate then expanded, 
znargin at first straight and pressed to the stem. 

A. ChordalesJ' 

Stem rigid, rooting or adnate by a dilated base; pileus 
campanulate or convex. 

The Mycena type of structure evident. 



154 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

B. Botulae. 

Stem very slender, flaccid, base not dilated nor flocoose, 
but appearinf; to enter the matrix abruptly; pilens soon 
more or less plane or nmbilioate. 

Growing on leaves, twigs, &c. 

* Stem qnite glabrous, shining. 

** Stem minutely velvety or downy. 

III. Apus. 
Pileus sessile, resupinate. 

I. COLLTBIAEII. 
A. Scortei. 

Marasmius urens. Fr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick at the disc, thin 
elsewhere, more or less camjianulate then expanded, usually 
gibbous, rather tough, margin drooping or incurved, smooth, 
even, pinkish-buff, paler when dry, sometimes almost umber 
when moist, the surface usually becoming broken up when 
dry; gills free, joined behind and becoming remote from 
the stem, distant, tough, pale buff then brownish ; stem 
2-3 in. long, 3 lines thick, equal, or sometimes ventricose 
and up to ^ in. thick, pallid, covered everywhere with minute 
white downy particles, base white, downy, solid, rigid ; 
spores elliptical, 8 x 4 /i. 

Marasmius urens, Fries, Epicr., p. 373 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 344; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1116 (pileus brownish umlser). 

Woods and grassy places, among fallen leaves. 

Gregarious or caespitose. Taste very pungent, a feature 
which separates the present from M. oreades. Not coarsely 
tomentose at the base, as in M. peronatus, but only downy. 

Marasmius peronatus. Fr. 
Very acrid. Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, pliant; 
convex then almost plane, obtuse, opaque, becoming de- 
pressed here and there, or lacunose, pale rufous with a 



MAKASMIUS. 155 

brick-red tinge then tan-colour ; gills adnexed then seceding, 
rather thin, somewhat crowded, 1 line broad, pallid then 
with a rufescent tinge; stem about 2 in. long, 1^2 lines 
thick at the base, slightly thinner upwards, pale, downy- 
above, at the base and for some distance up densely covered 
vrith long, spreading down (= peronate), varying in colour 
from whitish to bright yellow, stuffed with fibres ; spores 
pip-shaped, 10 X 6-7 /a. 

Marasmius peronatus, Fries, Epicr., p. 373 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 345 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1117. 

In woods aniong leaves. 

Amongst rotten leaves, especially oak-leaves, in woods. 
July, November. C'lnmon. Pileus 1-2^ in. broad, convex 
or campanulate at length expanded, sometimes umbonate, 
carnoso-coriaceous, sub-rufescent or yellowish, pallid when 
dry, clothed wiih a minute matted silkiness. Gills of the 
colour of the pileus with a yellowish margin, distant, rounded 
-behind, almost free. Stem 2-8 in. high, 2 lines thick, com- 
posed of fibres, solid above and downy, hollow below and 
there covered with dense yellow strigae. Taste acrid. 
(Berk.) 

Allied to M. wens, but readily recognised by the densely 
■woolly or peronate base of the stem. 

Marasmius porreus. Fr. 

Smell resembling garlic. Pileus 1-2 in. across very thin, 
coriaceous, flaccid, convex then expanded, obtuse, disc even, 
margin striate, opaque, dingy-yellowish, paler when dry ; 
gills soon beciiming free, distant, rather thick, tou^h, about 
1 line broad, at length coriaceous, yellow then pallid ; stem 
Tip to 8 in. long, 1-1^ line thick, downy, reddish-brown, 
apex paler, stuffed then hollow ; spores subglobose, about 
4 /x diameter. 

Marasmius porreus. Fries, Epicr., p. 374; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 345; Illustr., pi. 1183. 

Among fallen leaves, &c. 

Often confounded with M. prasiosmus, which it resembles 
in the strong garlic smell In the present species the smell 
disappears on drying, the stem is pubescent throughout its 
length, the gills are yellowish, and the spores small and 
subglobose ; all points of distinction from M. prasiosmus. 



156 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Pileus ^1 in. broad, plane slightly depressed, dirty-white 
■with a brownish shade, paler on the margin which is 
•membranaceous, and regularly striate. Gills nearly free, 
paler than the pileus, slightly connected by veins. Stem 
-2-3 in. high, 2-3 lines thick, velvety, albido-pulverulent, as 
is at once evident even in dry specimens, rufescent, tomentose 
ibelow, pale above, fistulose, generally growing on the midrib 
of the leaves. Odour like that of garlic, very powerful. 
-Specimens in Sowerby's Herbarium gathered July 31, 1796, 
still retain their garlic scent. (Berk.) 

Marasmius oreades. Tr. 

Pileus 1-1 5- in. across, flesh rather thin, toughi; convex 
then plane, somewhat umbonate, glabrous, brownish when 
^oung, then tan, becoming pale ; gills free, 1^-2 lines broad, 
•distant, whitish then pallid, pliant ; stem 1-^2' in. long, 
1^ line thick, equal, solid, whitish, everywhere covered with 
•closely interwoven down, base naked; spores elliptical, 
■S X 5 /i. 

Marasmius oreades, Fries, Epicr., p. 375; Cke., Hdbk., 
J). 345; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1118. 

In open pastures, forming rings. 

Smell weak but pleasant, stronger when dry. Pileus 
rufescent, becoming pale, margin striate when moist. 
.(Fries.) 

Eoot little more than a minute tomentosity, stipes firm, 
;Solid, brittle in very young plants, tough in old ones, 
furnished with a kind of fibrous bark, tearing and twisting 
longitudinally, about as thick as a goose-quill, flexuose or 
crooked, of a pale whitish brown, sometimes farinose towards 
.the top, from whence it is gradually attenuated downwards. 
In height it is much influenced by situation, varying from 
2 to 6 in. Pileus 1-2 in. or more in breadth, hemispherical 
in the young state, then obtusely conical, finally plano- 
convex, and most frequently umbonate, smooth, the margin 
more or less waved, and turning up with age. The substance 
is leathery, the flesh white, small in quantity. Colour a 
reddish opaque cream-colour in dry weather ; but in a moist 
■state a watery brown, darker in the centre, and somewhat 
iStriate at the margin. Lamellae distant, mostly four in a series, 
rather thick and fleshy, free, yellowish-white, frequently 



MAPiASJnus. 151 

"witli a tinge of pink, generally lying obliquely one over 
another. Fairy-rings are often observed to be formed by 
this plant. (Grev.) 

Gregarions. Pileus J— 1 in. broad, smooth, fleshy, convex, 
at length nearly plane, more or less nmbonate, generally- 
more or less compressed and sinuate, tough, coriaceous, 
elastic, wrinkled and sometimes cracked, watery brown, as 
it becomes dry cream-coloured ; m.argui pale. Mesh white, 
quite distinct from that of the stem. Gills free, pale, 
distant, slightly ventricose. Stem 1—2 in. high, 2-3 lines 
thick, equal, soUd, very tough, composed of fibres splitting 
longitudinally, the outer coat squamuloso-fibrous, base 
downy, somewhat rooting and attached to the roots of th& 
grass. Taste and odour strong but agreeable. Though 
tough, much used, as an article of food on the continent and 
occasionally in this country, but too frequently very different 
and poisonous fungi are gathered under the name. (Berk.) 

Marasmius plancus. IV. 

Pileus |— 1 J in. across, flesh rather thin, pliant, white p 
convex, soon plane then more or less depressed, somewhat 
wavy, obtuse, even, irufescent, becoming pale ; gills slightly 
adnexed, soon separating from the stem and free, distant, 
1 line broad, linear, pale dingy ochraceous-brown ; stem 
about 1 J in. long, hollow, tough, soon compressed, pallid, and 
covered with white down, base somewhat attenuated, naked.. 

Marasmius plancus, JVies, Epicr., p. 375 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 345 ; Cke., Illustr., pL 1119a, 

In woods. 

Allied to M. oreades, but differing in the narrower, darker- 
coloured gills, and in growing in woods or shady places.. 
Taste sweet. 

Marasmius scorteus. Fr. 
Pileus about ^ in. across, flesh thin, tough ; convex then, 
expanded, obtuse, not striate but becoming wrinkled, whitish 
or pallid and becoming pale ; gills free and rounded behind,. 
1 line broad, distant, white ; stem 1-lJ in. long, hardly 1 
line thick, equal, tough, white with a tinge of brown, apex: 
very slightly pruinose, otherwise glabrous, iadistinctly 
fistulose ; spores elliptical, 8 X 6 /i. 



158 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Marasmius scorteus. Pries, Hym. Eur., p. 468,; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 346; Cke., Illu&tr., pi. 1119b. 

In damp woods. 

Taste mild. Eesembling M. oreades in habit, but mucli 
smaller, and differing in the almost glabrous stem. 

B. Tergini. 
* Stem strigose helow, smooth upwards. 

Marasmius prasiosmus. Fr. 

Smell strong, resembling garlic, peirsistent. Pileus; J-| in. 
across, flesh thin, tough, campanulate then convex, at length 
expanded, obtuse, not striate but becoming wrinkled, pale 
dingy yellow or whitish and disc often darker ;. i gills 
adnexed, 'rather crowded, up to 1 line broad, white; stem 
2-3 in. long, 1 line thick, tough, pallid and almost glabrous 
upwards; incrassated downwards, brownish, and downy, 
often slightly curved, fistulose ; spores, pip-shaped, or ellip- 
tical and narrowed at the base, 14-15 X 7 /a. 

Marasmius prasiosmus. Fries, Epicr., p. 370 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 346; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1120. 

Among leaves in woods. 

Differs from M. porreus in the white gills and absence of 
etriae on the pileus. The remaining garlic-scented species 
belong to quite different sections of the genus. 

Marasmius vatricosus. Er. 

Pileus ^f in. across, flesh rather thin, tough, and like 
that of the stem with a reddish-brown tinge ; campanulate 
then plane, sometimes depressed or wavy ; gills adnexed, 
soon seceding and free, closely crowded, very narrow, tinged 
with purple-brown, darker when dry; stem 2-3 in. long, 
1 line thick, glahrous above, reddish, containing dark blood- 
red juice, base covered with tawny down, hollow ; spores 
broadly elliptical, 4 X 3 ;«.. 

Marasmius vatricosus, Epicr., p. 376 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 346 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 1121a. 

Damp places, among hiobs,, &c. 

Inodorous. A very remarkable species, but certainly a 
Marasmius notwithstanding the crowded gills, not at all 



JiAUASinus. 159 

comparable witli Myeena haematopoda. Pilens ^ in. broad 
or a little more ; gills purplisli-brown, and contrary to tie 
general rule, darker when dry. Stem sometimes (among 
high, mosses) 3 in. long, covered with blackish red down 
half way np, the rest glabrons (not prninose when dry). 
(Fries.) 

Marasmius foscopurpurens. Fr. 

Pilens |— 1 in. across, flesh rather thick, whitish ; convex 
then expanded, often somewhat nmbilicate, dark pnrplish- 
brown, becoming tan-colour when dry ; gills joined into an 
indistinct collar behind, at length free, distant, 1 line broad, 
with a rufous or dingy lilac tinge ; stem 1-3 in., 1 line thick, 
jniceless, blackish-parple, glabrons, with reddish stiigose 
down at the base, hollow; spores 4 x 3 /u 

Marasmius fiiscopurjmreua. Fries, Epicr., p. 377; Gke., 
Hdbk., p. 346; Cke., Elnstr., pi. 1121b. 

Among leaves, especially beech. 

Inodorous. Sometimes small and caespitose, sometimes 
larger and solitary. Stem varying from 1-3 in. long, pallid 
at first. Pilens blackish-purple, tan-colour when dry. 
(Fries.) 

Gregarious. Pileus 1 in. or more broad; at first conic, 
obtuse, then expanded, rugose, dark brown-purple, changing 
to pallid umber, snbcamose ; flesh white, firm, elastic. Gills 
tlightly ventricose, almost free, nearly of the same colour as 
the pileus, not very close, the edge dark, denticulate. Spores 
white, round. Stem l^^ in. long, 2 lines thick, fistulose, com- 
posed of fibres, sometimes slightly compressed, elastic, 
distinct from the pileus, umber, with a few scattered dark 
fibrillose specks, stngose at the base, the strigae pale-brown, 
and sending down many matted roots amongst the leaves on 
which it grows. (Berk.) 

Marasmius terginns. Fr. 
Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh thin, tough, convex then 
plane, obtuse, becoming sKghtly depressed, dingy flesh- 
colour when moist, whitish when dry, margin striate ; gills 
separating and becoming free, rather crowded, narrow, 
pallid ; stem 2-3 in. long, 1—2 lines thick, slightly thickened 
below, and attenuated into a white, downy rooting base. 



1 60 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

reddish below, glabrous, shining, and pallid ahove, not at all 
pruinose when dry, hollow ; spores elliptical, 6-7 X 4 /a. 

Marasmius terginus, Pries, Epicr., p. 377; Cke„ Hdbk., 
p. 347 ; Ck., lUustr., pi. 1122a. 

Among fallen beech leaves, moss, &c. 

Solitary. Exactly resembling M. prasiosmus in habit, but 
distinct in the entire absence of smell, and in being juiceless. 
The same features separate this species from M. porreus. 

Fasciculated. Pileus ^-1 in. across, depressed and 
wrinkled . in the centre, opaque, tough, cream-coloured, 
stained with vinous-red, especially when bruised; flesh 
white, thin. Stem 1-2 in. high, hollow, twisted, white and 
mealy above, quite smooth and shining below, of a rich 
light nut-brown. Grills few and distant, rather broad, of 
the same colour as the pileus. Taste and smell exactly like 
that of M. oreades. (B. & Br.) 

** Stem minutely downy or vehety when dry. 

Marasmius Wynnei. B. & Br. 

Inodorous. Caespitose. Pileus 1-1 ^^ in. across, convex 
then almost plane, slightly umbonate, lilac-brown, not 
readily changing colour ; gills adnexed, distant, thick, 1 
line broad, pale lilac; stem 1^-2^ in. high, up to 1 line thick, 
equal, paler than the pileus, minutely powdered or scurfy, 
hollow ; spores elliptical, 7-8 X 4 /*. 

Marasmius Wynnei, B. & Br., Outl., t. 19, f. 3; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 347; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1123a. 

Among leaves, twigs, &o. 

Amongst twigs, &c. Gregarious or caespitose. Pileus 
1-1^ in. across, variously tinged with brown and lilac, not 
rapidly changing colour, umbonate, slightly fleshy. Stem 
2 in. high, 1 J line thick, rather paler than the pileus, fistu- 
lose, furfuraceous, springing from a white mycelium, but by 
no means strigose or tawny at the base. Gills distant, thick,, 
moderately broad, adnexed, beautifully tinged with lilac; 
interstices even. One of the most beautiful of Fungi, and 
apparently quite distinct from M. fuscopurpureus, of whichi 
Fries thinks it may be a form destitute of strigae. The- 
pileus does not, however, rapidly change colour, as ia that 



MAEAS5IIUS. 161 

species ; the stem is not of a blackish-purple, neither is it 
smooth, and the lilac tint is very striking. (B. & Br.) 

A good figure of this beautiful species is given in " Fungi 
Tridentini" by Bresadola, under the name of Clitocybe 
xanthophylla. (B. and Br.) 

Marasmius erythropus. Fr. 

PUeus about 1 in. across, flesh thin, convex then plane, 
obtuse, hygrophanous, pallid, rugulose and almost white 
when dry ; gills almost free, broad, lax, not crowded, con- 
nected by veins, whitish margin quite entire ; stem 2-4 in. 
long, 2 lines thick, hollow, firm, tough, round or becoming 
depressed, blackish-red, glabrous upwards and paler at first, 
rather pruinose when dry; furnished with white strigose 
down below, wall of the hollow of the stem downy ; spores 
8-10 X 0-6 ;u.. 

Marasmiiis erythropus. Fries, Epicr., p. 378 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 347 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1123b. 

In beech woods among fallen leaves ; rarely on trunks. 

Scattered or somewhat caespitose; inodorous, juiceless. 
The colour of the pileus varies according to the amount of 
moisture in the air. Stem sometimes decumbent and con- 
torted. Agreeing in habit with Gollyhia confluens and 
G. acercata, but distinguished from both by the broad,, 
distant giUs. 

Marasmius archyropus. Fr. 

Pileus -J— 1 in. across, flesh rather thin ; convex then plane 
and more or less depressed, glabrous, pale tan, becomings 
paler with age ; gills slightly adnexed then separating from 
the stem, crowded, Unear, ^— f line broad, pallid ; stem 3-4 in. 
long, f line thick, rigid, straight, pale rufescent, but every- 
where covered with dense white down, base similar, stufied 
then hollow ; spores subglobose, 4^5 /a diameter. 

Marasmius archyropus, Fries, Epicr., p. 378 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 347; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1122b. 

Among leaves, &c. 

Inodorous. Fasciculate; differs from M. terginus in the 
tufted habit, and from M. prasiosmus in the absence of 
scent. The down on the stem is rather long, like that of 
M. oreades. 

VOL. III. M 



162 JFUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Marasmius torquescens. Quelet. 

Pileus about ^ in across, flesh very thin ; convex then 
plane, rugosely striate, pallid, disc tawny; gills free, thin, 
ventricose, distant, white with a red tinge ; stem about 2 in. 
long, slender, slightly velvety or downy, brown, glabrous 
and whitish at the top ; spores broadly pip-shaped, 5x4/*. 

Marasmius torquescens, Quelet, Fung. Jura, p. 198, t. 22, 
f. 3 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 348 ; Cke., Ulustr., pi. 1124:A. 

On twigs in woods. 

Distinguished among species with a velvety stem by the 
small, whitish pileus. When dry the stem is twisted and 
grooved. 

Marasmius impudicus. Fr. 

Smell strong, foetid. Pileus ^1 in. across, flesh thin, soft, 
convex then plane, the centre often depressed, reddish-bay, 
pale when dry ; membranaceous from the margin half way 
to the disc, paler, rather coarsely striate; gills at first 
touching the stem, but soon free and abrupt behind, con- 
nected by veins, ventricose, at first crowded, then distant, 
white with a tinge of pink; stem 1^2 in. long, 1 line thick, 
equal, tough, and slightly wavy, base attenuated and rooting, 
rufous or rufous-brown, sometimes purple-violet, naked, but 
entirely covered with white down when dry ; spores elliptical, 

SX4r-5 jJ. 

Marasmius impudicus, Fries, Bpicr., p. 277; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 348; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1124b. 

On or about rotten fir trunks, &c. 

Small; gregarious, smell strong, unpleasant. Somewhat 
resembling Jlf. foetidus, but distinguished by the free gills 
and smaller size. 

C. Calopodes. 

* Stem glabrous upwards, hase not swollen. 

Marasmius scorodonius. Fr. 
Smell strong, resembling garlic. Pileus ^ in. across, 
flesh thin, tough; convex, soon plane, obtuse or slightly 
gibbous, always dry, even when young, rufous, but soon 
becoming pale and whitish, at length rugose, and wrinkled ; 
gills adnate, often leaving the stem, narrow, connected by 



MAltASMIUS. 163 

veins, whitish, at length dry and wrinkled ; stem 1-1^ in. 
long, up to 1 line thick, equal, everywhere glabrous and 
shining, rufous, base naked, penetrating the substance on 
which the fangns is growing, homy, tough, hollow ; spores 
elliptical 6 x 4 /i. 

Marasmius scorodonius, Fries, Epicr., p. 379 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 348; Cke. lUnstr., pi. 1125a. 

On twigs, &c., in pastures, heaths, &c. 

Distinguished from its allies by its strong smell, re- 
sembling garlic. "Usually gregarious. 

Marasmius calopus. Pr. 

Pileus about |^ in. across, flesh thin, tough; convex then 
expanded, obtuse, sometimes depressed at the centre, even, 
glabrous, whitish and wrinkled when dry; gills slightly 
emarginate and adnexed, rather distant, thin, white; stem 
about 1 in. long, not 1 line thick, slightly thinner upwards, 
even, glabrous, tough, shining, rufous or rufous-bay, slightly 
rooting ; spores elliptical, 7 x 4 /t. 

Marasmms calopus. Fries, Epicr., p. 379; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 348; Cke., Ulustr., pi. 1125b. 

On twigs, roots of grass, &c. 

"With the habit of M. scorodonius, but without smell, 
smaller, and paler pileus. 

Marasmius Vaillantii. Fr. 

Pileus |— I in. across, flesh thin, pliant, rather convex but 
soon flattened and more or less depressed at the disc, marked 
with radiating ridges, whitish; gills adnate, from the 
triangular form appearing somewhat decurrent, broad, 
distant, distinct, simple, white ; stem about 1 in. long, 
thickened upwards, glabrous, bay, the apex pale, shining, 
base blackish, naked, penetrating the substance upon which 
it is growing ; spores elliptical, 10 x 6 /i. 

Marasmius VaiUantii, Fries, Epicr., p. 330; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 349 ; Cke., Hlustr., pi. 1126a. 

On dead wood, fallen twigs, leaves, &c. 

Inodorous. Small, tough, dry ; smell none. M. impudicus 
differs in the purplish stem becoming covered with white 
velvety down when dry. M. foetidus differs in the strong 
smell and in colour. 

M 2 



1^4 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Marasmius angulatus. Pers. 

■Gregarious. Pileus ^-| in. across, flesh thin ; hemispherical 

-then plane, hecoming plicate and more or less angular, 

- whitish with a tawny tinge ; gills adnate, narrow, distant, 

paler than the pileus ; stem 1-1^ in. long, slender, thickened 

. at the base, and often at the apex also, greyish upwards, base 

dark and pilose ; spores elliptical, 7 X 4 /x. 

Marasmius angulatus, Pers., Myc. Eur., iii. p. 165, t, 26, 
f. 3, 4; Cke., Hdbk., p. 349; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1226b. 
On grass, rushes, &c. 

Closely resembling M. Curreyi, and M. graminum; differs 
from the former in the gills not being ventrioose, and in 
not forming a collar; and from the latter in the larger, 
elliptical spores, and in the gills being attached to a free 
collar round the stem. M. calojgus differs in the shining, bay 
, stem, and emarginate gills. 

Marasmius languidus. Fr. 

Pileus |-| in. across, thin, tough, at first convex with 
the margin involute, then more expanded and umbilicate, 
flocculose, rugosely grooved, white with a tinge of flesh- 
oolour or yellow; gills adnate then decurrent, distant, 
narrow, white, connected by veins; stem about 1 in. long, 
^1 line thick, slightly thickened upwards, naked pallid, 
base brownish and usually with white down ; spores 
■6-7 X 4 /;i. 

Marasmius languidus. Fries, Epicr., p. 379 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
5). 349; Cko., Illustr., pi. 1126c. 

On twigs, deid grass, leaves, &c. 

Small, giegarious, tough, pliant, inodorous; remarkable 
for the decurrent gills. (Pries.) 

Inodorous. Exactly the habit of a small Omphalia, pileus, 
convex, umbilicate, margin coarsely sulcate ; stem thickened 
upwards. 

Marasmius rubricatus. Mass. 

Caespitose; pileus about -J in. across, convex then plane, 
•whitish then tinged with red or buff, gills adnexed, white 
then bro^^ nish, stem ^^ in. long, slender, incurved at the 
■ base, hollow ; spores pyriform, colourless, 6 X 3 /j.. 

Agaricus (Naucoria) rubricatus, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 



MAEASMIUS. 166 

n. 1873; Cke. Hdbk., p. 175; Cke., IXliistr., pi. 509c; Saoc, 
SylU, vol. v., n. 3428. 

On dead twigs. 

Having made a drawing of this species at the time it was 
found, I am able to add somewhat to Berkeley's description. 
It was growing on a hramble twig. The largest specimen 
was scarce half an inch high, and the diameter of the pileus 
about ^ of an in. ; the stem hollow, sprinkled with delicate 
mealy granules at the base, and about half way up ; gills 
adnexed behind, narrowed in front; whitish, then flesh- 
coloured, becoming brownish. (Cooke.) 

An examination of Berkeley's type specimen shows that 
the spores are perfectly colourless, hence the species belongs 
to the genus Marasmius. 

** Stem slightly velvety or downy, base often somewhat 
tuherculose. 

Marasmius foetidus. Fr. 

Very foetid. Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh rather thin, .. 
pliant, and like that of the stem, tinged reddish-brown ; 
convex then expanded and umbilicate or irregular and wavy, 
rather pellucid, tawny-bay or rufous, paler and slightly 
pruinose when dry, margin striate, rather incurved when 
young ; gills adnexed and joined in an imperfect ring at 
the base, distant, rather thin, reddish with a tinge of yellow ; „ 
stem about 1 in. long, hollow, bay, 1 line or more thick,- 
sometimes thinner at the base, minutely pruinosely velvety, 
bay, the fiocculose base abruptly piercing the matrix ; spores ^ 
elliptical, 7 x 4 ju. 

Agaricus foetidus, Sowerby, t. 21. 

Marasmius foetidus. Fries, Epicr., p. 380 ; Cke., Hdbk.,_ 
p. 349 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1134a. 

On rotten branches. 

Smell very strong and unpleasant, but not like garlic. 

Marasmius amadelphus. Fr. 
Pileus 2-3 lines broad, flesh thin; tough, convex thett-^ 
plane or depressed, discoid, obtuse, somewhat pruinose, 
margin at length striate, pale reddish-yellow, disc darker, . 
hecoming pale ; sometimes whitish; gills broadly adnate. 



166 FUNGUS-PLOEA. 

distant, troad, pallid ; stem up to -^ in. long, very slender, 
pallid, base bay, sliglitly pruinose ; spores elliptical, 
4x2-5 /A.. 

Marasmius amadelphus, Pries, Epicr., p. 380 ; Gke., Hdbk., 
p. 349 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1127a. 

On dead branches. 

Gregarious. Inodorous. Fries says the base of the stem 
is sometimes dilated, and that he has seen the gills rufescent 
when dry. 

We have three small species gregarious on twigs, bramble 
stems, &c., the present, M. ramealis, and M. candidus, distin- 
guished respectively as follows : — 

M. amadelphus ; pileus striate, coloured ; gills broadly 
adnate. 

M. candidus ; entirely white ; pLleus pellucid. 

M. ramealis; pUeus opaque, whitish, disc rufescent; gills 
adnate. 

Yar. insignis ; gills very distant, with slightly thickened 
veins, at length separating from the stem, pale umber. 
On fir twigs. 

Marasmius ramealis. Tr. 

Pileus 2-4 lines across, flesh thin; plane or slightly 
depressed, obtuse, opaque, not striate but wrinkled, white, 
disc more or less rufescent ; gills adnate ; rather distant, 
narrow, white; stem upto^ in. long, very slender, incurved, 
mealy, white, base rufous ; spores elliptical, 4 x 2 ;«,. 

Marasmius rameales. Pries, Epicr., p. 381 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 350; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1127b. 

On bramble stems, twigs, &c. 

Densely gregarious. Inodorous. Gills connected behind, 
and rather crowded for this genus. 

Common upon small decaying branches, especially of 
bramble and hazel, during the whole year. Gregarious. 
Pileus 3-4 lines broad, plano-convex, at length wrinkled 
and depressed, pale rufescent, the centre darker, under a lens 
clothed with minute matted silkiness. Gills distant, adnate, 
sometimes broad behind, whitish or subrufescent, margin 
denticulate. Stem ^-f in. high, -J- line thick, curved, fibril- 
lose with furfuraceouH scales; the base minutely dilated, 
whitish or subrufescent. — I believe A. amadelphus to be 



MAEASmUS. 167 

only a state of this species. Tlie gills are not unfreqnently 
reddisli or ooliraceous; generally so in decay, and though, 
often narrow, they vary in breadth and degree of adherence 
to the stem. • (Berk.) 

Marasmius candidus. Bolton. 

White. Pileus 2-4 lines across, flesh almost membrana- 
ceous ; hemispherical then plane or slightly depressed, 
pellucid, naked, at length wrinkled into grooves ; gills 
adnexed, ventricose, distant, narrow ; stem |— f in. long very 
slender, incurved, slightly pruinose, base downy and at 
length brownish ; spores elliptical, 4 x 2 /t. 

Marasmius candidus. Fries, Epicr., p. 381 ; Oke., Hdbk., 
p. 350; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1127c (after Bolton). 

Agaricus candidus, Bolton, t. 39, f. D. 

On twigs, pine leaves, &c. 

Gregarious. Thinner and altogether more delicate than. 
M. ramealis, tough and persistent. 



II. MYCENAEII. 
A. Ghordales. 

Marasmius alliaceus. Fr. 

Smell strong, like garlic. Pileus 1-1^^ in. across, flesh 
very thin, campanulate then expanded, slightly umbonate ; 
even at first, becoming striate or suloate, glabrous, dry, 
gills at first attached to a collar and adnate, then free, 
slightly ventricose, dry, rather distant, brownish-w^hite, 
crisped when dry ; stem 3—5 in. long, about 1^ line thick, 
slightly attenuated upwards, minutely velvety, blackish, 
base more or less rooting, naked, horny, rigid, hollow; 
spores 14—16 x 8 /*. 

Marasmius alliaceus. Fries, Epicr., p. 383 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 350; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1128a. 

Among fallen leaves, and sometimes on rotten wood. 

Distinguished by its strong garlic smell and minutely 
velvety blackish stem. 

Marasmius cauticinalis. Fr. 
Pileus about |^ in. across, flesh veiy thin, and like that of 



168 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

■the stem, with a yellow tinge ; eampanulately convex, obtuse, 
Kometimes slightly depressed, glabrous, even at first then 
coarsely striate, tawny ; gills adnately decurrent, ^ line or 
more broad, connected by veins, yellow ; stem lJ-2 in. long, 
1 line thick, slightly attenuated upwards, minutely floccu- 
lose, bay, paler and powdery upwards, fistulose but con- 
taining a pith ; spores elliptical, 7 x 3 • 6 /t. 

Marasmius cauticinalis. Fries, Epicr., p. 383 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 350 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1134b. 

On pine leaves, &c. 

Distinguished by the yellow, slightly decurrent gills 
connected by veins. 

PUeus 2-7 lines broad, convex at first and minutely umbo- 
nate, then expanded, depressed, or umbilioate, whitish, with 
small red-brown scales, disposed sometimes in zones, render- 
ing the margin jagged; in large specimens it is sulcate. 
Oills distant with very few shorter ones, nearly free, 
thickish, of a yellow tinge, various in breadth, sometimes 
rather ventricose. Stem f— 1|- in. high, not ^ a line thick, 
flexuous, filiform, clothed with red-brown woolly tomentum 
or squamules, darker than the pileus, often perforating the 
substance on which it grows, composed of fibres, with a 
narrow fistulose line down the centre. (Berk.) 

B. Botulae. 
* Stem glabrous, sMninj. 

Marasmius rotula. Fr. 

Pileus about J in. across, membranaceous ; slightly convex, 
umbilicate, plicate, entirely whitish or the disc darker; 
gills few, broad, distant, joined behind to a collar that is 
([uite free from the stem ; stem 1-1|^ in. long, very slender, 
equal, homy, shining, quite glabrous", blackish ; spores pip- 
shaped, 6 X 3-4 /A. 

Marasmius rotula. Pries, Epicr., p. 385; Cke., Hdbk^ 
p. 351 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1129a. 

( 'n fallen twigs, &c. 

Kot to be confounded with any other of the smaller species 
if attention is paid to the collar oonnecting the gills behind 
being quite free from the stem. 



MAEASMIUS. 16&' 

There is often a blackish, creeping cord-like or rhizomor- 
phoid mycelinm, from which individuals spring at intervals. 

On sticks, stumps, dead leaves, &c. The whole year.. 
Common. Pilens 1-3 lines broad, hemispherical, umbilicate^ 
and minutely umbonate, plaited, smooth, margin crenate, 
■white or pale buff ■with a dark umbilicus. Gills broad 
distant, equal, or occasionally with a few short ones of the- 
same colour as the pileus, connate behind and separating 
from the stem so as to present the appearance of being fixed 
to a fiiee collar surrounding the stem. Stem setiform,, 
slightly flexuous, white above, then ta^wny, deep shining; 
brown at the base, striate, iistulose, frequently branched 
and sarmentose, ■with or without abortive pilei. (Berk.} 

Marasmius graminum. Berk. !^P'^ 

Pileus 4^6 lines across, membranaceous, convex then nearly 
plane, umbonate, deeply and distantly striate or sulcate,, 
tinged with rufous, the furrows paler, disc bro^wn; gills, 
attached to a collar that is free round the stem, few in 
number, slightly ventricose, cream-colour; stem 1-2 in^ 
long, very slender, equal, smooth, shining, black, whitisK 
above ; spores subglobose, 3-4 fi diameter. 

Marasmius graminum, Berk., Outl., pi. 14, f. 8 ; Cke., Hdbk.,, 
p. 351 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1129b. 

On grass, leaves, &c. 

Allied to M. rotula but distinguished by the pale rufescent,. 
distantly sulcate pileus, and in gro^wing on grass. 

Marasmius androsaceus. Fr. 

Pileus up to ^ in. across, membranaceous dry, umbilicate,. 
glabrous, striate, whitish; gills directly adnate to the stem 
without the intervention of a collar, simple, distinct, distant,, 
narrow, whitish ; stem li-2|^ in. long, very slender and 
tough, equal, absolutely glabrous and polished, black ;. 
twisted and striate, due to contraction, when dry ; spores 
pip-shaped, 7 x 3—4 jti. 

Marasmius aKdro«aceit«, Pries, Epicr., p. 385; Cke., Hdbk.„ 
p. 351 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1129c. 

On fallen leaves. 

Fries distinguished two principal forms: — (A) on deci- 
duous leaves ; pileus whitish, deeply umbilicate, plicate ; 
mycelium usually traversing the substance of the leaf; (S^ 



170 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

on pine and juniper leaves, also on the barfc ; pileus scarcely 
umbilicate, surface more even ; mycelium usually superficial. 
(Fries.) 

Distinguished by. the long, slender, horny, black stem. 

On fern stems, oak and beech leaves, &c., generally on the 
principal nerves. The whole year. Common. Pileus 3-6 
lines broad, convex, with a slight depression, pale rafescent, 
darker in the centre, grooved and notched, under a lens 
clothed with a minute matted silkiness. Gills adnate, 
sometimes quite simple (about 15) with shorter ones between 
and no rugae ; occasionally forked with wrinkles in the 
interstices. Stem 1-2 in. high, filiform, quite smooth, 
shining-black, twisted when dry, often branched and sarmen- 
tose at the base like the last, (.4. rotula.') — A. androsaceus. 
Sow., t. 94, though represented as growing on oak-leaves, is 
pronounced by Fries to be A. perforans ; but an inspection 
of the specimen in Sowerby's ' Herbarium ' proves them, to 
be undoubtedly the true A. androsaceus. (Berk.) 

Marasmius splachnoides. Fr. 

Inodorous. Pileus 4-6 lines across, flesh membranaceous ; 
convex then expanded and umbilicate, glabrous, striate, 
whitish with a shade of pale tan ; gills slightly decurrent, 
crowded, simple, anastomosing, white, narrow ; stem 1-2 in. 
long, slender, equal, homy, glabrous, shining, reddish or 
brownish, penetrating the matrix abruptly, fistulose ; spores 
elliptical, 8 X 5 ;«.. 

Marasmius splachnoides. Fries, Epicr., p. 384 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 852; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1130a. 

On pine leaves, &o. 

Size and habit of M. perforans, but readily known by the 
absence of smell, and the quite white, slightly decurrent, 
anastomosing gills. 

Marasmius Curreyi. B. & Br. 
Pileus 3-5 lines across, flesh very thin ; convex then 
plane, coarsely striate, pale rufous, grooves paler, umbo 
tawny ; gills attached to a collar round the stem, few in 
number, rather ventricose, cream-colour, interstices some- 
times veined ; stem about 1 in. long, slender, equal, quite 
smooth, shining, black, apex white; spores 9 X 5-6 //,. 



MABASMIUS. 171 

Marasmius Gurreyi, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., no. 1795; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 352; Cke., Dlostr., pi. 1130b. 

On leaves of grass. 

Distingnished from other species in the present section 
by the pale rufous pileus and cream-coloured gills. 



** Stem velvety or hairy. ^ 

Marasmius insititus. Fr. 

Pileus about J in. across, flesh membranaceous, pliant; 
convex then plane, slightly umbilicate, not polished, at 
length plicate and grooved, pale yellowish-brown, becoming 
whitish ; gills broadly adnate, becoming narrower in front, 
distant, simple, unequal, pallid then white ; stem about 
1 in. long, thin, equal, homy, minutely floccose or scurfy, 
fistulose, slightly attenuated at the base and abruptly 
piercing the matrix, coloured like the pileus ; spores 
4 X 2-5 /^. 

Marasmius insititus. Flies, Epicr., p. 386; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 352; Cke., DJustr., pi. 1135a. 

On fallen oak leaves, &c. 

In Cooke's figures the stem ia about 2 in. long. Berkeley 
has described a form having a white stem. 

Marasmius perforans. Fr. 

SmeE very foetid. Pileus 3-5 liues across, almost mem- 
branaceous, soon becoming nearly plane, rarely depressed, 
not umbilicate nor striate, but at length more or less 
radiately rugulose, whitish or with a rufous tinge ; gUls 
adnate, rather crowded, simple or not forked, unequal (with 
intermediate shorter ones), narrow, whitish ; stem l-l^^ in. 
long, very thin, equal, not horny but tough, even, every- 
where minutely velvety, bay then blackish, base abruptly 
entering the substance on which the fungus is growing ; 
spores broadly elliptical, 4 x 3 /i. 

Marasmius perforans. Fries, Epicr., p. 385 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 352 ; Cke., Hlustr., pL 1130c. 

On pine leaves, &c. 

Distinguished from every allied species by the very foetid 
smell. 



172 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Marasmius Hudsoni. Pers. 

Pileus 1-2 lines across, very tMn ; hemisplierical, rugu- 
lose, brownish, covering witli long, spreading, purplish, 
slender hairs; gills adnexed, narrow, white, unhranched, 
alternate ones shorter; stem ^ in. long, slender, coloured 
like the pileus and heset with similarly coloured, long hairs ; 
spores elliptical, 6 x 3 /x. 

Marasmius Hudsoni, Tries, Epicr., p. 386; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 853 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1135b. 

AgaricuB Hudsoni, Pers., Syst. Myc, i. p. 139. 

Agaricus pilosms, Hudson, Plor. Angl. ; Sowerby, t. 164. 

On fallen holly leaves. 

Eeadily distinguished by its small size, and by the pileusi 
and stem being densely covered with long, coloured, 
spreading hairs. 

Pileus 3 lines broad, convex, almost hemispherical, white, 
clothed with red erect subrigid hairs. Gills dirty white. 
Stem 1-2 in. high, jGlliform, whitish, red brown or reddish, 
somewhat hairy at the base. (Berk.) 

Marasmius epichloe. Fr. 

Pileus 2-3 lines across, flesh very thin ; convex then 
plane, papillate, not striate, whitish, disc bay-brown ; gills 
rounded behind, rather crowded, broadest behind; stem 
about 1 in. long, slender, equal, opaque, bay, coarsely striate, 
striae setulose, base paler ; spores elliptical, 3 x 2 /x. 

Marasmius epichloe. Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 479 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 363; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1136a. 

On dry grass stems, on spines of Bohinia, &c. 

In Cooke's figure the stem is dark to the base, and the 
margin of the pileus striate or puckered. 

Marasmius actinophorus. B. & Br. 

Pileus 1-2 lines across, very thin ; convex then plane and 
umbilioate, pale bay brown, with distant darker, radiating 
lines, wrinkled when dry ; gills adnexed, nairow, whitish, 
alternate ones shorter; stem |-1 in. long, very slender, 
equal, paler than the pileus ; spores subglobose, 3 ju, diameter- 

Marasmius actinophorus, B. & Br., Ceylon Fungi, no. 385 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 353; Cke, Illustr., pi. 1136b. 

On fallen twigs. 



MAKASMIUS. 173 

Eeadily distinguished by the brown pileus marked with 
darker, radiating lines. Not striate. 

Marasmius saccharinus. Batsch. 

Pilens 1-2 lines broad, membranaceous ; convex, minutely 
papillate, glabrous, sulcate, white ; gills broadly adnate, 
narrow, thick, very distant, connected by veins, whitish ; 
stem %-l in. across, very slender, equal, reddish, apex pale, 
minutely flocculose then almost glabrous, piercing the matrix 
obliquely and abruptly ; spores elliptical, 5 X 3 ;«,. 

Marasmius saccharinus. Fries, Epicr., p. 386 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 353; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1136c. 

On slender twigs, leaves, &o. 

Somewhat resembling M. polyadelphus but differing in not 
being clustered, and in the per.sistently convex and papillate 
pileus, which resembles that of a Mycena. 

Marasmius epiphyllus. Fr. 

PJleus about ^ in. across, very thin ; soon plane and at 
length umbilicate, glabrous, wrinkled in folds, milk-white ; 
giUs adnate, few, distant, entire, veined, white ; stem 1-2 in. 
long, very blender, equal, rather horny, minutely velvety, 
apex whitish, bay downwards, fistulose, piercing the matrix 
abruptly ; spores 3 x 2 /i. 

Marasmius epiphyllus. Pries, Epicr., p. 386 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 353 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1137a. 

On dead fallen leaves, twigs, &c. 

Gregarious. 

Pileus 3 lines broad, plane, at length umbilicate, cream- 
coloured, rugose. GiUs veiny, branched, adnate, broad at 
the base ; in large specimens they are seen, when accurately 
examined, to form a close collar round the stem, which is 
evident even when the gills are obsolete ; margin of the 
coUar cream-coloured. Stem 1-2 in. high, filiform, brown or 
blackish below, paler upwards, minutely velvety. (Berk.) 

Marasmius polyadelphus. Lasch. 
Snow-white. Pileus 1-1|- line broad, membranaceous ; 
rather tough, hemispherical, sometimes becoming plane, 
ooarsely striate, minutely flocculose ; gills decurrent, narrow 
and resembling wrinkles; stem ^-f in. long, exceedingly 
slender, base downy ; spores elliptical, 5 x 2 • 5 /t. 



174 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Marasmius polyadelphus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 354 ; iCke., Illustr., 
pi. 1137b. 

Agaricus (Omphalia) polyadelphus. Fries, Hym. Bur., p. 165. 
Agarieus polyadelphus, Lasoh, no. 208. 
On rotten leaves. 
Densely gregarious. 

III. APUS. 

Marasmius spodoleucus. B. & Br. 

Pilens 2-3 lines across, flesh very thin; shell-shaped, 
resupinate, quite stemless, grey, slightly pulverulent or 
scurfy ; gills few, white. 

Marasmius spodioleueus, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., May, 
1859; Cke., Hdhk.,.p. 364; Oke., Illustr., pi. 1137c. 

Marasmius Broomei, Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., 1795. 

On dead elm twigs. 

About 2 lines across, resupinate, altogether stemless, 
conchiform, margin free, arched ; above cinereous, pulve- 
rulent, or slightly furfuraoeous. Hymenium white, very 
even. Gills few, narrow, entire, so short as to leave a naked 
space at the base. (B. & Br.) 



TEICHOLOMA. Pries. 

Pileus symmetrical, fleshy, rarely umbonate, never truly 
umbilicate; gills always (at least at first) sinuate behind, 
often with a slightly decurrent tooth, white, rarely yellow, 
often becoming spotted with reddish stains, and in some 
species dingy grey, or lil_ao ; stem central, flesh continuous 
with that of the pileus, flesh fibrous, not corticated ; veil 
obsolete or evident in the form of down or fibrils on the 
margin of the pileus ; ring and volva absent ; spores white 
or dingy. 

Tricholoma, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 36; Cke., Hdbk., p. 24 
(as a subgenus of Agaricus^. 

All the , species grgg on the ground, and are typically 
fleshy and robust. Some species of Pleurotus with a nearly 
central stem closely resemble in structure the present 
genus, but are distinguished by growing on wood. Gollyhia 



TEICHOLOMA. 175 

differs in the stem being cartilaginous and not fibrous 
externally. Clitocyhe differs in the gills never being sinnate, 
bnt gradnally narrowed benind ; pilens often nmbilicate, &c. 
In some species the gUls separate readily from the pileus, 
as in Paxillus, the latter, however, is distinct in the strongly 
incurved margin of the pileus, and the anastomosing gills. 



ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES. 

Series A. Pileus viscid, fibrillose, scaly, or downy; not 
hygrophanous ; stem fibrillose from the remaias of the 
adnate universal veil. 

I. LlMAdNA. 

Pellicle of pileus viscid when moist, innately fibrillose or 
squamulose, but not broken up ; flesh of pileus thick, firm ; 
margin almost naked. 

* Gills not discoloured, and not becoming rufescent. 

** GiUs discoloured, usually spotted with reddish-brown. 

n. Gentjdta. 

Pellicle of pileus never viscid, but torn into floccose or 
fibrillose squamules ; flesh of pileus soft, not hygrophanous, 
margin involute and somewhat downy at first. Not to be 
confounded with those species that have the pileus fibrillose 
from the remains of the veU. 

* Gills unchangeable, not becoming spotted with rufous 
or black. 

** Gills becoming tinged with rufous or greyish ; edge 
usually at length spotted with rufous or black. 

in. ElGIDA. 

Pellide of the pileus rigid, granulated or broken up into 
small glabrous squamules when dry, not viscid ; floccosely 
scaly, not torn, into fibrils. Pileus rigid, hard when the 



176 FUNGUS-FLOBA. 

tflesli is thick, very fragile wlieii thin, margin naked (except 
in the first species. 

Young specimens are often fibrillose from the remains of 
ithe veil, and not from the torn cuticle. 

* Gills white or pallid, not becoming spotted with rufous 
or grey. Smell often unpleasant. 

** GUIs discoloured, becoming spotted with rufous or 
grey. 

IV. Sericella. 

Pileus (without a distinct pellicle") slightly silky at first ; 
■soon almost glabrous, very dry ; not moist, viscid, hygro- 
phanous, not distinctly scaly. Pileus somewhat thin, 
opaque, absorbing moisture, but the flesh resembles the gills 
in colour, and is not hygrophanous. Flesh of stem entirely 
fibrous, a character by which the smaller species that 
lesemble CoUybia in habit, are distinguished. 

* Gills broad, rather thick, somewhat distant, strong- 
iscented. 

** Gills thin, crowded, narrow. Small ; inodorous. 

Series B. Pileus even, glabrous, not downy, nor scaly, 
«ot viscid, moist in rainy weather; when quite young 
'pruinose from the universal veil (but this character is not 
always v ery conspicuous). Flesh soft, spongy or very thin, 
Twatery a nd hygrophanous. 



V. Guttata.] 

Pileus fleshy, soft, fragile, marked with drop-like spots, 
■orrivulose; stem solid. 

Appearing in the spring, rarely obvious during the 
.a utumn, oaespitose or growing in troops, often in circles. 

* GUIs whitish, 

** Gills discoloured, rufous or smoky grey„ 



TEICHOLOMA. 



VI. Spongiosa. 



Pilens compact then spongy, obtuse, even, glabrous, moist 
but not hygropbanous. 

Pirm, appearing in the autumn, in troops. Stem stout, 
base usually incrassated, spongy-fibrous. GiUs at length 
spuriously decurrent, but sinuate, a character by which the- 
species are readily distinguished from Clitocyhe. 

* Gills not discoloured. 
** Gills discoloured. 

Gills readily separating from the pilaus in T. cinerascens and 
some others. 

VII. Htgrophana. 

PUeus thin, somewhat umbonate, flesh at length soft,- 
hygrophanous. 

Stem not rooting, containing a pith, entirely fibrillose. 
Pileus unequally fleshy, hence more or less umbonate, very 
thin towards the margin. Colour of the pileus, both when 
moist and dry, very variable in the same species. Fleslx/ 
moist, wateiy ; at first compact, then soft ; gills thin, not 
broad. 

Pileus sometimes pulverulent, but this is abnormal, and 
due to the persistence of the veil during dry weather. 
Closely allied to the group Spongiosa, but tending towards- 
Gollyhia rather than Clitocyhe. 

* GUIs whitish, not spotted. 

** Gills more or less violet, grey, or smoky. 

Series A. 

I. LIMACINA. 

* Gills not discoloured. 

Tricholoma equestre. Linn. 

Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh thick, firm, white; convex- 
then expanded, obtuse or sometimes more or less gibbons, 
often wavy, discoid, viscid, squamulose, yellow usually with 
a rufous tinge, disc darker, often greenish late in the season, 

TOL. ni. N 



178 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

gills mnch cut out behind and free, 3 lines broad, crowded, 
sulphur-yellow; stem l|-2^ in. long, ^-| in. thick, base 
more or less swollen, whitish, or yellow like the gills, solid ; 
spores elliptical, 7-8 X 6 /a. 

Agaricus equestris, Linn., Suec, no. 1219; Tries, Elenoh.,i. 
p. 6 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 24 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 72. 

In fir woods. 

Taste and smell none. Sometimes very large specimens 
occur. Difiers from T. sejunctum in the absence of black 
streaks on the pileus, and the yellow gills, 

Tricholoma sejunctum. Sow. 

Smell strong, like new meal ; taste bitter. Pileus about 
S-4 in. across, flesh thin, fragile, white; convex then ex- 
panded, gibbous, the umbo at length disappearing, viscid in 
moist weather, bright yellow, virgate or streaked with 
brownish, minute fibrils; gills emarginate, broad, rather 
distant, pure white ; stem solid, stout, ventricose, then 
elongated up to 4-5 in., up to 1 in. thick, even, glabrous, 
pure white, apex slightly squamulosb ; spores subglobose, 
about G fx. diameter. 

Agaricvs sejunctus, Sowerby, t. 126 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 25 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 53? 

In pine and other woods. 

Stout, showy, smell resembling rancid meal. Stem fleshy, 
solid, ventricose, then elongated, about 3 in. long, usually 
1 in. thick, even, glabrous, pure white, apex slightly 
squamulose, pileus fleshy at the disc, thin towards the 
margin, convex then expanded, gibbous at first, but the 
umbo disapfieariug, about 3 in. across, viscid in damp 
weather, yellow, virgate or streaked with blackish-brown 
innate fibrils. Flesh thin in proportion, white or marbled 
with grey, gills emarginate, rounded when young, broad, 
rather distant, colour not changing. . (Pries.) 

In one of the figures of this species in Tries, Icon., pi. 23, 
the pileus is 5 in. wcross; stem 6 in. long, and 1^ in. at the 
thickest part. Other figures on the same plate are smaller. 
Cooke's figure is not at all characteristic, and is an extreme 
form, if this species at all. 

Tricholoma portentosum. Pr. 
Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh thin, white or with a faint 



TEIOHOLOMA. 179 

yellow tinge, fragile, convex tlien expanded, Tineqtial, viscid, 
usually sooty or with a purple tinge, virgate or streaked with 
fine black lines ; margin thin ; gills rounded behind, often 
almost free, very broad, 4-8 lines, at length distant, pallid ; 
stem usually about 3 in. long, and | in. thick, somewhat 
equal, glabrous, striate, whitish, firm, solid ; spores sub- 
globose, 4-5 X 4 /a, 

Agarieus (Tncholoma) portentosus, Fries, Syst. Mycol., i. 
p. 39 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 25 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 54? 

In pine woods. 

Solitary or gregarious, also rarely forming dense tufts ; 
inodorous, taste mild, these points separate the present 
from T. sejunctum. Stem solid, stout, entirely remarkably 
cartilagineo-fibrous, usually 3 in. long, 1 in. thick, somewhat 
equal, naked but fibre closely striate, white. Tlesh of pileus 
very thin in proportion to the stout stem ; convex then 
plane, somewhat umbonate, unequal and wavy, 3-5 in. 
broad, viscid, virgate from innate, black fibrils ; for the rest 
even, glabrous, usually sooty, but varies to a violet tint, 
livid and pale when old ; margin thin, always naked. Flesh 
white, with a faint yellow tinge, fragile, gills rounded, 
almost free, 3-4 lines up to 1 in. broad, distant, white at 
first, then becoming yellowish or pallid-greyish. Easily 
known from other species by the virgate pileus; T. flavo- 
brunneum and T. albobrwnneum, differ in having the gills 
spotted rufescent. T. virgatum has the pileus absolutely dry. 
(Fries.) 

Cooke's figures, if the right species, differ in the slender 
stem being hoUow, and coloured like the pileus. 

Tricholoma fucatum. Fr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thin, pallid; convex then plane, 
somewhat wavy, viscid, lurid-yellowish, variegated with 
darker stains, disc darker ; gills emarginate, 3-4 lines broad, 
somewhat crowded, whitish or with a yellow tinge; stem 
2-3 in. long, up to ^ in. thick, almost equal, fibrillosely 
equamulose, whitish or with a yellow tinge, stuffed, soft. 

Agarieus (Tricholoma) fucatus, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 40 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 25 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 73. 

In woods, especially pine. 

Stem stuffed, soft ; often ascending, 2-3 in. long, 4-G 

N 2 



180 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

lines thick, somewhat equal, at first minutely and densely 
squamulose, then distinctly fibrillose, at length variegated 
with blackish fibrils, pallid then white, apex white and with 
meal at the apex, at length fragile. Pileus slightly fleshy, 
convexo-plane, obtuse, often irregular, 2-3 in. broad, rarely 
more, viscid, but readily beooiriing, dry and opaque, even, 
glabrous, not variegated with black fibrils, but marked with 
.stains, lurid-yellowish or greyish-yellow, disc darker. Flesh 
thin, pallid, at length fragile. Margin thin, naked. Gills 
deeply emarginate, 3-5 lines broad, ventricose, somewhat 
crowded, fragile, whitish, trama hyaline and coloured like 
the flesh of the pileus. Inodorous, Olten confounded with 
forms of T. portentosum, but clearly and easily distinguished 
by paying attention to the above notes. The stem is ngt 
always so distinctly scaly as in the figure in " Icones," 
tab. 24, which was di'awn from a highly evolved specimen. 
There are forms with the stem short and somewhat bulbous 
that require to be carefully distinguished from T. portentosum. 
(Fries.) 

T. portentosum is clearly distinguished from all forms of the 
present species by having the pileus streaked or virgate 
with innate black fibrils. 

Tricholoma quinquepartitum. Pr. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, fragile ; flesh, with the exception of 
the disc, thin, fragile, white, rather hygrophanous; convex 
then expanded, wavy, even, glabrous, not by any means 
virgate, viscid, fragile, pale yellow; gills emarginate, not 
crowded, ^ in. broad, white ; stem 3-4 in. long, ^ in. and 
more thick, usually attenuated from base to apex, striate, 
glabrous, white, solid ; spores 6-6 X 3-4 /*. 

Agaricus (^Tricholoma) quinqiiepartitus, Fries, Epicr., p, 27j 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 25 ; Cke., lllustr., pi. 74. 

In pine woods, &o. 

Sometimes confounded with wavy forms of T. portentosum 
and T. fucatum; known from the first by the pileus not 
being virgate or radially streaked with wrinkles ; from the 
second, by the glabrous striate stem. Smell none, taste 
mild. 

Tricholoma spermaticum. Fr. 

White. Smell strong, unpleasant. Pileus 2-3 in. across. 



TEICHOLOMA. 181 

flesli rather thin except at the disc, white, compact ; convex 
then expanded, obtuse, wavy, glabrous, viscid, shining when 
dry, never spotted or stained ; margin naked, incurved at 
first, then spreading ; gills emarginate, often with a more or 
less defined decurrent tooth, . 3 lines broad ; rather distant, 
margin irregular ; stem 2-3J in. long, ^-| in. thick, even, 
twisted, stuffed then hollow. 

Agarieus (Tricholoma) spermaticus. Fries, Epicr., p. 27 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 26 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 87. 

In fir woods. 

Distinguished among the white strong-smelling species 
by its stout, twisted, hollow stem. 

Tricholoma resplendens. JFr. 

Entirely clear white. Pileus 2—4 in. across, everywhere 
equally fleshy but not thick ; convex then expanded, obtuse, 
even, glabrous, and viscid when fresh, silvery shining when 
dry, and often with hyaline spots ; disc becoming yellowish 
and appearing adpressedly silky but glabrous ; gills almost 
free when young, then remarkably emarginate, rather 
crowded, thickish, but the edge thin and quite entire, 3-4 
lines broad, equally narrowed in front; stem 2-3 in. long, 
J in. and more thick, equal or bulbous, even, glabrous, or 
apex slightly floccose, dry, sometimes curved, solid ; spores 
elliptical, 7-8 X 4 /*. 

Agaricus resplendens. Pries, Monogr., i. p. 55 ; Cke., lUustr., 
pi. 56 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 26. 

In woods. 

Gregarious, entirely clear white, or disc yellowish; smell 
and taste pleasant. Eesembling Sygrophorus elurneus in habit. 

*• Gills hecoming discoloured, usually with reddish spots. 

Tricholoma colossus. Er. 
Pileus 6-8 in. across, flesh 2 in. and more thick, be- 
coming pinkish-red when broken, very hard; convex then 
expanded, glabrous, at length broken up into squamules ; 
margin naked at first strongly incurved, then expanded or 
even upturned, wavy ; brick-red, or reddish-umber, especially 
at the disc ; gills rounded behind, crowded, thin, white, 
then becoming very broad, up to \ in., and pale brick-red ; 



182 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

stem 3-4 in. long, very hard and solid, base ovately bulbous 
and 3-4 in. tHck, brick-red, apex constricted, 2 in. thick, 
whitish. ; spores broadly elliptical, 6 X 4 /x. 

Agarious (Tricholoma) colossus. Fries, !Epicr., p. 38; Cke., 
Hdbk., pj 26 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 87. 

In fir woods. 

Inodorous. Eeadily known by its large size, and by the 
flesh becoming red when broken. 

The following form or variety is published by Berkeley 
and Broome, Ann. Nat. Hist., 1871, p. 3, no. 1190. 

PileuB about 4 in. across, irregularly lobed and undu- 
lated, minutely scaly, grey; stem about 2 in. high, thicker 
upwards, buff, yellow at the base ; gills ratber wide, 
pallid. Smell strong, like that of cheese. Under an elm. 
(B. & Br.) 

Trieholoma acerbum. Bull. 

Taste bitter. Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh thick in the 
centre, thin elsewhere, margin at first strongly involute, 
rugulose or pitted, becoming straight with age, viscid when 
moiS|t, smooth, convex, then almost plane, whitish then pale 
testaceous with yellow tinge ; gills rather narrow, crowded, 
emarginate, creamy then pale rufous ; stem 2-3 in. long, 
1^ in. thick, solid, pale, apex squamulose ; spores subglobose, 
5-6 fj. diameter. 

Agaricus {Tricholoma) acerhus. Bull., t. 571, f. 2 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 26 ; Cke., Illustr., t. 76 (poor). 

In woods. Taste bitter. Distinguished in the young 
stage by the strongly involute margin of pileus and squamu- 
lose apex of stem, later by the plane pileus, rusty gills and 
stem as before. 

Tricholoma nictitans. Fr. 
Pileus 1|-2J in. across, flesh thin, white; convex then 
expanded, obtuse, even, glabrous, viscid, yellowish, disc 
darker; gills rounded behind and adnexed, but not with a 
decun-ent tooth, crowded, rather broad, somewhat ventricose, 
yellow, spotted with reddish spots when old; stem about 
3 in. long, | in. thick, dry, slightly scaly at the apex, pale 
yellow, solid, equal or attenuated upwards, base truncate ; 
spores elliptic, 7-8 X 6 //,. 



TEICHOLOMA. 183 

Agaricus {TricholQmd) nictitans. Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 38 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., 27 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 56. 

In woods. 

Inodorous ; taste sweet. Allied to T. fulvellum, but 
differing as follows. Stem not viscid, base not attenuated, 
but if anything, incrassated, ending abruptly, becoming 
yellowish. ; pileus thin, not virgate ; gills without a decur- 
rent tooth. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma fulvellum. Fr. 

Pileus 1-2 in; across, flesh rather thin except at the disc, 
dingy; convex then plane, viscid, even, yellowish rafescent 
or tan-colour, disc darker and wrinkled into minute projec- 
tions ; gills rounded then emarginate, 2 lines broad, crowded, 
white then rufescent ; stem about 2 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, 
almost equal, whitish with a rufescent tinge, fibrillose, apex 
naked, stuffed then hollow; spores subglobose, 4-5 /t 
diameter. 

Agaricus (^Tricholoma) fulvellum. Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 50; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 27 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 57. 

In woods. 

Inodorous. Cooke's figures differ considerably fro -n Fries* 
description. The pileus is campanulate, lax, and with a 
prominent umbo, resembling in habit a large Galera. 

Tricholoma flavobrunneum. Fr. 

Smell strong, like new meal. Pileus 3-6 in. across, flesh 
thick, either the whole, or that of the stem and the edge of 
the pileus clear yellow; conically convex then expanded, 
broadly gibbous, viscid, fibrillosely virgate, or innately 
squamulose but the surface not broken up, tawny-rufous 
with the disc darker, or entirely bay or rufous-brown ; gills 
emarginate with a decurrent tooth, crowded, pale yellow, 
becoming spotted with brown when touched or with age ; 
stem 3-5 in. long, |-| in. thick, rufescent or brownish, 
generally ventricose and narrowed at each end, more or less 
equal when small, with rufous fibrils on the surface, viscid 
at first, apex naked, hollow ; spores 6-7 X 4-5 /i. 

Agaricus flavohrunneus, Fries, Epicr., p. 28 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 27 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 68. 

In woods, &c. 

Usually gregarious and often caespitose, gills sometimes 



184 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

whitish, and thus superficially more nearly approaching T. 
'albobrunneum, from which it is always distinguished by the 
jitrong smell, and yellow flesh of the stem. 

Tricholom a albobrun netim. Pers. 

Pileus about ij in. across, fleslT raffier tEck, especially at 

■^;he disc, clear white ; campanulate then hemispherical, 

viscid, almost even, but distinctly virgate or. minutely 

, streaked with innate fibrils, clear brown ; margin at first 

incurved and puckered ; gills emarginate, rounded behind, 

•not decurrent, scarcely crowded, very broad (3-4 lines), 

iirm but not thick, clear white at first, but soon becoming 

- EiHid ; stem 1 J-2 in. long, about 1 in. thick, equal appearing 

-:a,t first sight to be glabrous, but in reality minutely silky 

-on the surface, rufescent, white at both ends but most con- 

i-stantly so at the apex, which is powdei:ed with white m.eal, 

isolid, flesh firm, clear white ; spores 4^6 X 3-5 ft. 

Agaricus alhohrunneus, TerB., Syn., p. 293; Cke., Hdbk., 
-p. 27 ; Cke., lllustr., pi. 197. 
In pine woods, &c. 

Closely allied to T. flavdhrunneum, differing in absence of 
usmell, mild taste, and persistently white flesh. 

Tricholoma ustale. Fr. 

PUeus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick, white; hemi- 
spherical then expanded and umbonate, finally almost plane 
. -and obtuse, even, glabrous, not virgate or streaked, disc 
rugulosely punctate, bay-brown ; gills emarginate with a 
decurrent tooth, crowded, rather broad, white then tinged 
rufous ; stem 2-3 in. long, about \ in. thick, stuffed then 
ioUow, equal, somewhat rooting, dry, fibrillose, whitish or 
with a rufescent tinge, apex silky, whiter but not mealy ; 
, spores elliptical, 7-8 x 5 /x ; smell none. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) ustalis, Pries, Epicr., p. 29 ; Cke., 
JUustr., pi. 88; Cke., Hdbk., p. 28. 

In woods. 

Intermediate between T. flavdhrunneum and T. pessundatum, 
.but distinct from both in the absence of smell. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma pessundatum. Fr. 

Smell strong, resembling new meal. Pileus about 3 in. 
■a.CT0SS, flesh rather thick, convex then expanded, very obtuse. 



TBICHOLOMA. 185 

wavy, glabrous, not virgate but usually marked with spots, 
viscid, bay or rufescent, becoming paler near tbe edge, 
margin incurved, naked; gills deeply emarginate, almost 
free, at first very narrow and pure white, then 3 lines broad 
and with a rufescent tinge ; stem 2-3 in. long, and up to 
1 in. thick, almost glabrous, white ; solid, hard, bulb-like at 
first and covered with down, then elongating; spores 
6 X 2| ju. 

Agaricus (Triclioloma) pessundatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 26 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 28. 

In pine woods, &o. 

Often in company with T. equestre, with which it agrees 
in size, most nearly allied to T. russula, which is distin- 
guished by the granular, rosy pileus. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma stans. Fr. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh thick, firm, white, reddish 
uader the cuticle ; convex then expanded, even (not granu- 
lated nor spotted), viscid, rufescent ; gills rounded behind, 
crowded, white, stained with reddish brown ; stem 2—3 in. 
long, almost equal, solid, ^-1 in. thick, whitish with a 
rufescent tinge, squamulose ; spores elliptical, 6-6 X 4 /i. 

Agaricus {Tricholoma) stans, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 38 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 28; Cke., Illustr., pi. 198, 

On the ground. 

Fries distinguishes two forms of the present species : — 
(A.) campestris ; stem stout [2 in. long, 1:^ in. thick], reddish, 
squamulose but not villose ; pileus broad [5 in. acrossl, 
more expanded, rufous brown, indistinctly virgately squa- 
mulose : — (B.) montana ; stem up to 4 in. long, quite equal, 
white, apex distinctly whitish squamulose; pileus smaller 
£3 in. across], more convex, and altogether even. (Fries.) 

Allied to T.pessundatum by the granulated or spotted pileus, 
and the flesh being reddish under the cuticle. 

Tricholoma russula. Schaeff. 
Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh very thick at the disc, 
becoming thin towards the margin, white, tinged with rose 
under the cuticle ; convex then depressed, obtuse or slightly 
gibbous, granulated, viscid, rosy flesh-colour, sometimes 
very deep; gills slightly rounded behind then slightly 



186 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

decurrent -with an indistinct trace of a sinns, rather distant^ 
pnre white, becoming slightly spotted ; stem l|-2 in. long, 
% in. thick, almost eqnal, solid, firm, white, more or less 
tinged with rose-colour, apex squamulose ; spores elliptical, 
10-5 /t. 

Agaricus russula, Sohaeffer, t. 68 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 363 ; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 926. 

Among grass Tinder trees. 

Smell and taste pleasant ; eaten in Austria. Tlesh-colour, 
sometimes spotted with yellow, as in Mygrophorus pudorinws, 
with which, and Sygrophoi-us erubescens, it is often confused. 
(Pries.) 

The present difiers from both the above-named species 
of Hygrophorus in the granulated pileus, flesh tinged with 
rose-colour under the cuticle, and in not growing in pine 
woods. 

Tricholoma frumentaceum. Bull. 

Pileus 2|-4 in. across, flesh compact, thick at the centre, 
becoming gradually thinner towards the margin, white ; 
convex then expanded, obtuse, glabrous, pallid, with a red 
tinge, and streaked with darker lines ; gills rounded behind 
and slightly annexed, 3-4 lines broad, crowded, white then 
reddish; stem 2^-3 in. long, about f in. thick, equal or 
slightly thickened at the base, solid, fibrillose, whiiish, 
more or less variegated with pale red ; spores faintly tinge i 
with red, elliptical, smooth, 5 x 3 • 5 /a. 

Agaricus frumentaeeus, Bull., Champ., t. 571, f. 1 ; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 470. 

Agaricus (Entolomd) frumentaeeus, Berk., Outl., p. 144. 

On the ground. 

Smell like meal. There is a difference of opinion, as 
shown by the following notes, as to the position of the 
present species. 

The plate issued in "Illustrations" was copied from a 
drawing made by Mr. Worthington Smith, from specimens 
sent to him from Forres, by the Eev. Dr. Keith. Never having 
been so fortunate as to see this species, we accepted the 
designation attached to the drawing, and published it as an 
Entoloma, under the impression that it was the Agaricus 
(Entoloma') frumentaeeus, B. & Br. Dr. Keith has kindly 



TEICHOLOMA. 187 

drawn our attention to this figure, at tbe same time stating 
his conviction that the original specimens were those of an 
undoubted Trioholoma, the pink tinge of the spores being 
faint and quite of a different character to the spores in 
Byporhodii. Whatever, therefore, the plant of Berkeley and 
Broome may be, to which they attach the name of A. 
frumentaceus, and include in the subgenus Entoloma, it cannot 
be the species figured as above, since Dr. Keith must have 
had ample material to judge, and no one would doubt his 
ability to form an authoritative opinion. Plate 470 must, 
therefore be corrected to Ag. (^Trickoloma) frumentaceus,. Bvill. 
"We may add that the majority of Continental mycologists 
contend that Bulliard's species is a Tricholoma, and both the 
size and form of the spores given in our plate certainly are 
more in accordance with those usually found in Tricholoma 
than those of Entoloma. (Cke.) 

On the ground under a hedge. Somewhat caespitose ; 
pileus 3^ in. across, plane, with the margin arclied and 
sinuated, dry, buff, tinged with red, marked with fine 
streaks, which are sometime s slightly raised, fleshj-, tirm, 
rather brittle. Stem 2 in. high, 1 in. thick, of ihe same 
colour as the pileus, stieaked and slightly cracked, some- 
times compressed, blunt at the base, with a little white 
down stained with the spores. Gills broad, moderately 
distant, isinuated and toothed, rounded behind, sometimes 
emarginate, adnata, cinereoii>, with a reddish yell'jw tinge; 
spores elliptic, minute, '0002 in. long, rose-coloured. Taste 
agreeable ; smell farinaceous with a slight taint of amadou. 
This is undoubtedly the plant of Bulliard, whicli is not 
described by him as viscid. The spores are decidedly rose- 
coloured and not white. (Berk.) 

Entirely pallid then white, but stem and pileus stained 
with rufous, the gills at length becoming rufescent, »nd the 
strong smell, resembling new meal, point to an undoubted 
affinity with T. pessumdatum. Stem solid, 3 in. L ing, \ in. 
thick, equal, dry, fibrillose, whitish. Pileus truly fleshj', but 
less compact than in T. pessunrlatum, convex then plane, 
obtuse, 2-3 in. broad; viscid, dry in very dry weather, even, 
glabrous, whitish or tan-colour, and variegated with rufous. 
Flesh white. Gills rounded, somewhat crowded, rather 
broad, white, at length spotted with rufous. (Fries.) 



188 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

II. GENUINA. 

* Gills not discoloured nor spotted. 

i^^gyTricholoma ru tilans. Schaeff. 

Pileus 3-6 in. across, flesh thick, soft, deep yellow from 
the earliest stage, becoming golden-yellow when broken; 
semiovate, obtuse, and with the margin incurved when 
young, entirely covered with a dense, uninterrupted coating 
■of dark purple or reddish-brown down ; when older becoming 
"campanulate and often umbonate, purple, all one colour; 
•when mature convex then expanded, often umbonate, the 
cu ticle brok en up into small, innate flocose squamules, 
yellow, v£(jiegated_with jurple ; always dry; gUls yellow 
from the first, broadly adnexed, crowded, edge thickened, 
-obtuse, floccose, often wavy ; thinner, broader, and less 
-crowded wheii adult, edge deep yellow, sides paler ; 2-3 in. 
long, I in. thick, fleshy, imperfectly hollow, soft, bulbous 
when short, ventricose when elongated, yellow; variegated, 
•€specially upwards, with purplish, floccos e squamu les ; spores 
-subglobose, 5-6 /jl diameter. 

Agaricus rutilans, Schaeffer, t. 219 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 28 ; 
-Cke., lUustr., pi. 89. 

Agaricus serratus, Bolton, t. 14. 

Agaricus xerampelinus. Sow., t. 31. 

In pine woods, &c. 

Inodorous. Dimensions very variable ; in large specimens, 
■usually caespitose, stem 1-2 in thick, pileus up to a span 
broad, but usually much smaller. (Fries.) 

Commonly confounded with T. variegatum, from which it 
•differs in the flesh being yellow from the first, and deeper 
an colour; and more especially in the downy or floccose 
-margin of the gills being deep yellow at maturity. In 
T. variegatum the margin of the gills is quite entire. 

Tricholoma variegatum. Scop. 

Pileus 2-4 in. across, fragile, flesh thickish, whitish at 

first, then pale yellow; expanded when adult, very obtuse 

or with a trace of an umbo ; more or less densely and entirely 

or in part covered with reddish-purple downy tufts on a 



TEICHOLOMA. 189 

pale yellowish, ground-colour, margin naked ; gills rounded 
behind and emarginate, crowded, thin, margin always quite- 
entire, acute, yellowish-white like the remainder of the gill ;. 
stem stuffed, rather hard and tough, 2-3 in. long, ^ in. thick,, 
almost equal, curved, sometimes bulbous, yellowish-white, 
either variegated with reddish down, or almost naked, 
apex very indistinctly whitish pruinose, spores subglobose, 
5-7 X 4-5 IX.. 

Agaricus variegatus, Scop., Cam., p. 434; Cke., Illustr., 
t. 642, Cke., Hdbk., p. 642 (very small). 

On rotten wood. 

Usually mixed up with T. rutilans, which the present 
closely resembles, differs in being usually smaller, paler, 
less showy, and especially in the pale yellow flesh. Fries 
says that he has not met the true T. rutilans growing on. 
wood. 

Tricholoma luridum. ¥i. 

Smell like fresh meal, taste mild, Pileus 1^-2 in. across, 
flesh rather thin, convex then plane, obtuse, rather wavy, 
deformed, quite dry, cuticle readily separating in fibrils, 
cracked and incised (as in Inocybe rimosa), yellowish- 
grey, sometimes yellow, never rufescent; gills emarginate, 
broad, closely crowded, watery white; stem solid or stuffed, 
2-3 in. long. |-] in. thick, unequal, glabrous, white ; spore& 
5-0 X 3-4 /I. 

Agaricus {Tricholoma') luridum. Fries, Epicr., p. 31; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 29 ; Cke., lllustr., pi. 214. 

In dry pine woods, &c. 

More or less resembling T. saponaceum, T. porterdomm, and 
others, but clearly distinguished by the smell resembling^ 
new meal ; flesh of pileus and stem fibrous, soft ; pallid 
white, never reddish. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma guttatum. Schaeff. 
Smell and taste bitter, somewhat acrid. Pileus 2J-5 in. 
across, 'flesh thick, white; convex then expanded, cinnamon 
or with a pinkish tinge,' becoming broken up into granulose- 
or floccose innate scales ; margin remotely sulcate, incurved 
and with white floccose down at first; gills emarginate,. 
with a decurrent line down the stem, 1^ line broad, very 



190 FXJNGUS-FLOEA. 

closely crowded, snow-white ; stem 2-3 in. long, ^ in. tMck, 
about equal, white, mealy, solid. 

Agaricus guttatus, Schaeffer, t. 240; Cke., Hdbk., p. 29 ; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 59 ? 

Borders of woods, &c. 

Sometimes rather tufted. Differs from T. tigrimum in the 
persistently white gills and the sulcate margin of the pileus. 
Cooke's figures differs from the form described above in the 
smaller size, and in the pileus being ornamented with large, 
innate, dark brown patches, more or less concentrically 
■arranged, and disappearing towards the margin. 

Tricholoma columbetta. Fr. 

Entirely pure white but here and there spotted with 
red. Pileus 2—4 in. across, flesh firm but not thick, convex 
then expanded, obtuse, wavy, dry, glabrous at first, then 
squamulose or cracked into squarrose particles, margin 
downy and incurved when young ; gills slightly emarginate, 
almost free, 2-3 lines broad, persistently clear white; stem 
3-4 in. long, almost 1 in. thick in large forms, usually 
UTi equal, at times quite short, solid; spores elliptical, 
«-7 X 4-5 /i. 

Agaricus (^Tricholoma) coZ««iJ>eMa, Fries, Epicr., p. 32; Cke., 
Illustr., pi. 48 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 29. 

In woods. 

Widely separated from every other species of Tricholoma. 
Solitary, inodorous; taste mild. The following are re- 
markable forms : — 

{A.) In heathy birch wooas among moss. Stem short, 
stout, somewhat rooting, moist, naked, not distinctly striate ; 
pileus always wavy and more or less lobed, moist in damp 
weather, usually spotted with red, margin involute and 
iowiiy : — 

(B.) In damp bushy places. Stem elongated, base 
narrowest, pileus wavy, silkily-fibrillose, somewhat squamu- 
lose, sometimes with brownish spots :— 

(0.) In very shady beech woods. Pure white, not spotted, 
but there are sometimes bluish spots in the flesh; stem 
■equal, cylindrical, 4 in. long, f in. thick, fibrillosely striate; 
pileus regular, flattened, obtuse, 4 in. across, evidently 
fibrillose when dry, margin naked, flesh thin, splitting. 



- TEICHOLOMA. 191 

This last appears to be quite a distinct species from A., but 
B. is intermediate between the two. (Fries.) 

Pileus 1^-4 in. broad, white at the margin, centre pale 
mouse-coloTir, sometimes spotted when touched with violet 
or yeUow ; stem 2 in. high, 3-6 lines thick. (Berk.) 

Trieholoma scalpturatum. Fr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh Tery thin except at the disc, 
dingy, as is also that of the stem ; conical then expanded, 
tomentose at first, then becoming broken up into umber or 
rufous scales on a yellowish- white ground ; gills emarginate. 
adnexed, rather crowded, 2 lines broad, white then yellowish ; 
stem 2-3 in. long, \ in. thick, unequal, whitish, fibrillose or 
minutely squamulose, stuffed ; spoies 6-7 x 3 • 5 /a. 

Agaricus (^Trieholoma) scalpturatus, Fries, Epicr., p. 81; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 215 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 29. 

In woods. 

Covered with floccose down like a Lepiota when young, 
then broken up into broad, discoloured scales on a yellowish- 
white ground. Allied to T. terreum. (Fries.) 

Var. argyraceus, Bull. ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 165. 

Differing from the typical form in being more slender and 
graceful ; pileus whitish or silvery; gills narrower and 
more crowded, whitish. 

Var. ehrysites, Jungh. ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 947. 
About the size of the typical form ; very pale, pileus and 
gills becoming yellowish ; spore subglobose, 4 /a diameter. 

Var. virescens, Wharton ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 641. - 
Somewhat resembling the typical form in colour, but 

turning yellowish-green in all parts when bruised, or during 

drying. 

Slightly acrid, odour none. Spores elliptical, 6x3/*. 

According to the figure the gills are narrow and slightly 

sinuate, with a minute decurrent tooth. 

** Gills becoming tinged red or grey, edge often spotted. 

Trieholoma vaccinum. Fr. 
Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh rather thick, and like that of 
the stem, white and fibrous, then reddish ; campanulate then 



192 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

expanded, umbonate, becoming everywhere broken up into 
small floccose, sqnarrose scales, or torn into smaller adpressed 
scales, dry, rufous ; margin at first involute and tomentose 
from tbe veil ; gills very slightly sinuate, almost adnate, 
rather distant, 3-6 lines broad, whitish at first, then spotted 
with red, at length rufescent ; stem about 3 in. long, 4-8 
lines thick, hollow, equal, round, remarkably fibrillose, 
more or less evidently cortinated, apex naked, whitish with a 
rufescent tinge ; spores subglobose, 6-7 jj, diameter. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) vaeoinus. Fries, Epicr., p. 33 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 30; Cke., Illustr., pi. 60 (called Ag. imbricatus). 

In pine, &c. 

Allied to T. imhricatwm, but differs in the stem being hollow, 
and its apex naked (i.e. not powdery), and in the flesh 
becoming reddish. 

Tricholoma imbricatum. Fr. ' 

Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh thick, white; convex then 
expanded, obtuse, quite dry, rufous-umber, becoming broken 
up into minute innate squamules ; margin at first incurved 
and downy; gills sinuate and adnexed, 2-3 lines broad, 
rather crowded, white then rufescent ; stem 3-6 in. long, 
^-| in. thick, paler than the pileus, apex with white pulve- 
rulent down, solid ; spores 6 X 4 /x. 

Agaricus imbricatum. Fries, Obs., i. p. 27; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 199 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 30. 

In pine and other woods. 

Stem solid, firm (often riddled by larvae), sometimes short, 
conical, 1 J-2 in. long and up to. 1 in. thick, sometimes drawn 
out, , 3 in. long, almost equal, adpressisdly fibrillose, apex 
white, pulverulent with white squamules, Pileus fleshy, 
compact, broadly convex then expanded, obtuse, very dry, 
umber or rufous-umber, very opaque, 3 in. and more broad, 
disc remaining, smooth, the remainder broken up into 
squamules, fibrillose towards the margin. Margin thin, 
slightly incurved at first, downy, then almost naked. Gills 
slightly emarginate, almost adnate, rather crowded, 3 lines 
broad, entirely white when young, then rufous. (Fries.) 

T. vaccinum somewhat resembles the present species, but 
differs in the distinctly corticate, hollow stem having the 
apex naked ; umbonate pileus, &c. 



TEICPIOLOMA. 193 

Tricholoma immundus. Berk. 

Pilens 2-3 in. across, rather fleshy at the disc, becoming 
very thin towards the inflexed margin, minutely silky or 
with very small scattered, sqnamules visible only tinder a 
lens, when dry dingy white, with darker stains; gills very 
slightly rounded behind, rather close, about 1| lines broad, 
pale grey with a pink tinge, in the larger specimens more 
especially becoming very dark with age, margin entire ; 
«teni about 2 in. long, 2 lines thick, nearly equal, dingy 
white, fibrillose, often broken up into squamules at the apex, 
solid ; spores subglobose, apiculate, colourless, 4-5 ju. 
diameter ; every part of the fungus becomes blackish when 
bruised. 

Agaricus (^Tricholoma) immundus, Berk., Outl., p. 103 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 31 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 61 (not characteristic). 

Among short grass in open places. 

Caespitose or solitary ; characterised by the very dark 
gills and thin pileus. The gills separate readily from the 
pileus during drying, a character taken along with the 
globose spores, that suggests the genus Paxillus. 

Tricholoma inodermeum. Pr. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh rather thin, white, then tinged 
red ; conico-campanulate, acute, then becoming more conve.x; 
and somewhat umbonate, the surface becoming broken up 
into fibrils and adpressed, radiating scales, rufous-brown ; 
gills free or slightly adnexed, very broad and remarkably 
ventricose, almost semicircular, distant, rather thick, per- 
sistently white, but becoming spotted with reddish when 
bruised ; stem about 3 in. long, 1^-2 in. thick, equal, hardly 
fibrillose, white with a rufous tinge, apex powdered witli 
white, stuffed, hollow upwards, entirely fibrous, tough ; 
«pores elliptical, 7-8 X 4 /a. 

Agaricus inodermeus. Pries, in Vet. Ac. Porh., 1851 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 364 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 945. 

In damp, dense pine woods, &c. 

Not closely allied to any known species. Eesembling 
Inocyhe pyriodora in habit. 

Tricholoma hordum. Pr. ' 

Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh rather thick ; campannlate 
then expanded, at length flattened, somewhat umbonate and 
VOL. III. 



194 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

the margin upturned, dry, unequal, wavy, glabrous, surface 
soon cracking, and in dry weather the whole surface becomes 
broken up into squarrose scales, grey ; gills emarginate, 
broad, rather distant, white then greyish ; stem 3 in. long, 
^ in. and more thick, straight, glabrous, whitish, stuffed, 
equal. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) hordum, Fries, Epicr., p. 39. 

Under beeches, &c. 

Very distinct. Inodorous, mild, very rigid and fragile. 
Pileus sometimes covered with fibrils which soon disappear. 
(Fries.) 

Tricholoma murinaceum. Bull. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thin, except the disc ; campa- 
nulate then expanded, sometimes more or less umbonate, 
silky, becoming cracked into scales, oi* virgate, greyish 
sometimes becoming paler, especially at the disc ; gills cut 
out behind and adnexed, broad, distant, undulate, grey ; 
stem 2-3 in. long, ^-f in. thick, pale grey and with scat- 
tered, darker, minute scales, stuffed. 

Agaricus nmrinaceus, BuUiard, t. 520 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 31 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 49. 

In woods. 

The gills in " Illustrations " should have been cinereous, 
but were left white by an error of the printer. (Cooke.) 

Fries says that the scent is strong and nitrous ; he 
however did not know the fungus, and quoted Persoon. 
Berkeley says the smell is slight and not at all nitrous, 
whereas BuUiard does not mention the smell at all. Some- 
what resembling T. terreum, but differs in the black squamules 
on the stem. 

Pileus 4|- in. across, at first campanulate, slightly umbo- 
nate, then expanded, thin, firm, but very brittle, mouse- 
coloured, cracked and virgate, silky, not the least viscid, 
flesh white. Taste bitter, unpleasant, rather acrid. Smell 
neither powerful nor nitrous. Stem 3 in. high, 1 in. thick at 
the top, cracked and streaked, silky, with minute black 
scales, solid but fibrous, not the least stufied or hollow. 
Gills very broad, undulate, distant, having a tendency to 
become forked and anastomosing, brittle, often marked with 
raised lines, cinereous, powdery ; interstices slightly veined j 



TfilCHOLOMA. 195 

edge at length black. Individuals occur much thicker and 
larger. 

Having at length found this species, I am ahle to state 
positively that it is not the plant of Tries; the specific 
name refers to the colour, not to the scent, which is very- 
slight, and hy no means nitrous. It is not at all moist or 
viscid, hut has a clothy feel, being virgate and silky. The 
gills are not olivaceous when rubbed. Its affinities are 
rather with Ag. argyraceus than with Hygrophorus. (Berk.) 

Very variable inform and size, and more especially in the 
colour of the pileus ; nevertheless it is easily recognised by 
the form and colour of the large, broad gUls, and by the 
extremely fragile flesh. (Bulliard.) 

Trlcholoma terreum. Schaeff. 
' Pileus 2-3 in. across, disc fleshy, thin elsewhere ; soft, 
campahulate, then expanded, umbonate, entirely covered 
with innate downy squamules, dark bluish-grey, sometimes 
with a tinge of brown ; gills cut out behind and adnexed, 
with a minute decurrent tooth, 2 lines or more broad, 
margin crenulate, greyish- white ; stem 1-3 in. high, ^— ^in. 
thick, almost equal, adpressedly fibrillose whitish, stuffed ; 
spores subglobose, 6—6 fi. 

Agarieus terreus, Schaeffer, t. 64 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 81 ; Cke., 
lUustr,, pi. 50. 

In woods, especially of fir. 

Solitary or caespitose, almost without smell; sometimes 
large and with the pileus wavy and fibrillosely squamulose, 
sometimes small, regular, pileus papillate and also squamu- 
losely punctate. Pileus grey, bluish, fuscous, &o. (Fries.) 

Var. orirubens, Quelet; Cke., lUustr., pi. 90; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 31. 

About the size of the typical form ; pileus fleshy, convex, 
fragile, smooth, grey, brownish in the centre ; clad with 
blackish fibrils; stem solid, fibrous, white, streaked with 
rose at the base ; flesh white ; gills emargin ite, undulated, 
white with the edge reddish or rose-colour ; spores elliptical, 
6-7 X S-5 fjL. 

On the ground. SmeU like new meal. 

Var. atrosquamosus, Chev. ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 32 ; Cke., 
niustr., pi, 51. 

o 2 



196 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

About the size of the typical form ; pileus pale grey, 
covered with small black scales ; gills emarginate, whitish. 
On the ground. 



III. EIGIDA. 

* Gills white or pallid, not spotted. 

Tricholoma macrorhizum. Lasch. 

Smell strong. Pilens 6-8 in. across, flesh thick, fiim, 
white, becoming tinged with yellow when broken ; convex 
then expanded and often more or less depressed at the disc, 
glabrous and even at first, then becoming cracked in an 
areolate manner, ochraceous, darker when old ; gills deeply 
emarginate, almost free, hardly crowded, narrowed towards 
the front, 4-9 lines broad, pallid ; stem solid, stoiit, ventri- 
cose, 2-3 in. long, 2 in. thick, very minutely granulated, 
whitish, ochraceous downwards, and continued downwards 
as a stout, elongated, rooting base ; spores irregularly 
globose, 5-6 fj, diameter. 

Agaricus macrorhizus, Lasch, in Linnea, no. 240 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 32. 

Among grass under oaks, &c. 

Smell strong, resembling that of Tricholoma mlfureum. 
(Schulzer.) 

The figure in Cooke's Illustrations, pi. 278, cannot, I 
think, possibly be the present species, although it is called 
so ; the gills are 1 line broad, somewhat decurrent, not at all 
sinuate or emarginate ; what it does in reality represent, I 
do not know. 

Tricholoma saponaceum. Tr. 

Strong-scented, firm. Pileus 2-4 in. across, fiesh thick, 
reddish when broken or sometimes when intact ; convex 
then expanded, obtuse, often irregular, diy, glabrous, at 
length cracked into squamules or punctate, livid-brown 
often with a tinge of olive ; margin naked at first ; gills 
unoinati-ly emarginate, 2 lines broad, thin, distant, quite 
entire, white then pallid with a tinge of green ; stem 2—4 in. 
long, about ^ in. thick, whitish, glabrous, fibrillose, or 



TBICHOLOMA. 197 

sqiianmlose, Tmeqnal, solid, somewhat rooting ; spores about 
5 X 4 /t. 

Agaricus saponaceus. Pries, Obs., ii. p. 101 ; Cke. Hdtk., 
p. 32; Cke., lUnstr., pi. 91, 216. 

In woods. 

Smell altogether peculiar, more soapy than nitrons (very- 
different to Ag. alcalinus, Sygrophorus murinaceus, &c. ; 
always -safely distingiiished by the compact but not fragile 
substance, distant gills, pUeus with a dry cuticle, glabrous, 
at length cracked into scales, flesh of pileus and stem 
becoming reddish when wounded. Stem solid, 2-3 in. long, 
J in. and more thick, often unequal or curved ; base at- 
tenuated, rooting, pallid; sometimes glabrous, sometimes 
squamulose when growing in leafy woods early in the season, 
sometimes in late autumn elegantly reticulated with black 
fibrils. Pileus fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, 2-4 in. 
broad, entirely glabrous, moist in rainy weather, but never 
viscid, even, then when becoming dry more or less cracked 
and rivulose, punctate, or broken up into scales ; normally 
livid-brown, but varying to cinereous, greenish-olive, or 
blackish ; margin tliin, very glabrous, incurved at first. 
Flesh whitish, becoming more or less red when cut. Gills 
uncinately emarginate, distant, thin, quit* entire, pallid- 
white ; in a remarkable variety, yellowish. Scarcely any 
other species is so much confused as the present, yet it is 
easily distinguished by the soapy smell and the reddish 
flesh. (Fries.) 

Triclioloina cartilaginetun. BuU. 

PUeus 2-3 J in. across, flesh rather thick, rigid, white ; 
c-'uvex when young, obtuse, margin incurved and downy 
then expanded and undulate or w^avy, very obtuse, margin 
arched, bent down, and persistently incurved ; always very 
dry, densely covered with minute black granules on a white 
ground ; gills emarginate and sintiate, crowded, thin, 2 lines 
broad, white, then grey but not dingy ; stem hollow, short 
and firm, but fragile, 1-2 in. long, almost 1 in. thick, pnre 
white, surface even, glabrous, polished. 

Agaricus (Tricholomd) cartilagineum. Fries, Icon., t. 33 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 33; Cke., Ulustr., pi. 166. 



198 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Among grass in damp places in pine woods, &c. 

Smell none. Pileus minutely and very densely granulated 
fi'om the first, but th.e' granules are entirely innate, and are 
formed by the cuticle. The granules are at first in Qontact, 
and the pileus black, when adult these become true 
granules separated by white cracks. (Fries.) 

Smell like new flour. (Berk.) 

Tricholoma tenuiceps. Cke. & Mass. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh except at the disc very thin, 
white ; convex, obtuse or sometimes slightly gibbous, dry, 
granular, opaque, everywhere sooty-brown; gills adnexed 
and rounded behind, 2 lines broad, narrowed in front, ventri- 
cose, white; stem 2-3 in. long, §-1 in. thick, solid, tough, 
slightly thinner upwards, ochraceous-white, the entire 
surface minutely granular, base abrupt, furnished with 
long, spreading, cord-like mycelium; spores subglobose, 
6-7 /A diameter. 

Agaricus (Trieholoma) tenuiceps, Cke. and Massee, Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 398; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1166. 

Among grass under trees. 

A very distinct species, easily known by the very thin, 
blackish-brown pileus, and the spreading cord-like mycelium 
resembling that of Collyhia platyphylla, Tax. repens. 

Solitary or in clusters of 2-3. 

Tricholoma loricatum. Pr. 

Smell strong, unpleasant. Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, 
whitish; cartilaginous, tough, campanulate, then convex, 
somewhat undulate, slightly viscid when moist, somewhat 
papillose; cuticle thick, homy, separable; umber-brown 
or Kvid-brown, paler towards the margin; gills narrowed 
behind and almost free, closely crowded, ventricose, quite 
entire, watery pallid or whitish straw-colour, readily sepa- 
rating from the pileus ; stem 2-3 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, 
equal or narrowed at the base, flesh fibrous, very tough, 
imperfectly hollow, often tw;isted or irregular, brownish 
bri(Jk-red, minutely fibrillusely striate under a lens. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) loricatus, Pries, Epicr., p. 37 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 33. 

In woods. 



TEICHOLOMA. 199 

Smell strong, impleasant. Tough; remarkable for the 
horny, separable cuticle. Stem sometimes pale. 

Tricholoma atrocinereum. Pers. 

Pileus 1^2 in. across, flesh rather thick, dark and hyaline 
when moist, hygrophanous ; convex then plane, glabrous, 
dry, opaque, grey, the prominent disc darker, at first even 
and entire, at length cracked and incised, margin upturned, 
but not becoming broken up into squamules ; gills variable, 
sometimes free, sometimes with a decurrent tooth, or 
arcuately adnexed, more or less ventricose, thin, crowded, 
hyaline white; stem 2-3 in. long, 4 lines thick, equal, 
cylindrical ; striate from adpressed, longitudinal fibres, apex 
naked, glabrous, whitish, stuffed, 

Agariciis atrocinerius, Pers., Syn., p. 348; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 33 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 62a. 

Among grass, &c. 

Allied to a form of T. cuneifolium, but distinguished by 
the regular pileus not becoming broken up into scales, form, 
of the gUls, and naked apex of stem. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma cuneifolium. Ft. 

Smell strong, like meal. Pileus up to 1 in. across, flesh 
thin ; convex then plane, dry, glabrous, soon broken up into 
squamules, brown, margin often upturned and split ; gills 
broad and obliquely truncate, narrowed behind and adnexed, 
with a decurrent tooth, thin, crowded, white ; stem up to 
1 in. long, 1-1^ line thick, hollow, narrowed at the base, 
pallid, apex with white meal ; spores subglobose, 3 • o /a. 
diameter. 

Agaricus cwneifolius, Pries, Obs., ii. p. 99 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 33; Cke., Illustr., pi. 52b. 

Among grass in sunny places, also in woods. 

Eeadily distinguished by the small size, form of gills and 
strong smell of meal. 

Yar. cinereo-rimosus, Batsch; Cke., Hdbk., p. 34; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 261. 

Pileus up to 2 in. across, pale grey with a pink tinge, 
soon becoming concentrically cracked, interstices white ; 
gills broad, rather distant. 

Among grass. 



200 FUNGUS-FLORA. 



** Gills discoloured, spotted with rufous or grey. 

Tricholoma crassifolium. Berk. 

Strong-scented. Pileus about 2-4 in. across, flesli wLite» 
thick at the disc, very thin elsewhere ; somewhat cam- 
panulate, then expanded and generally wavy, umbonate, 
ochraceous ; disc darker and tinged umber ; gills sinuai& 
and nearly free, thick, moderately distant, becoming yellowish 
and stained with brown ; stem 1-1^ in. long, \ in. thick, 
sometimes more, nearly equal, solid, paler than the pileus, 
pruinose. 

Agarieus (Tricholoma) crassifolius, Berk., Outl., p. 100 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 34 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 92. 

In fir woods. 

Eecognised by the strong small, ochraceous pileus, and 
more especially the thick gills, which are very unusual in 
the present genus. 

Tricholoma tumidum. Pers. 

Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh rather thick, white ; de- 
formed and buUate or inflated, then expanded and wavy, at 
length cracking, damp in rainy weather, rather shining 
when dry, livid-grey, spotted and variegated, margin thin, 
more or less lobed, incurved at first ; gills emarginate, ^ in. 
broad, thickest at the base; rather distant, pure white then, 
grey with a rufescent tinge ; stem solid, flesh fibrous, stout, 
3 in. long, | in. thick, sometimes inflated, glabrous, striate, 
pure white, base often attenuated and rooting; spores; 
elliptical, 6 X i ix. 

Agaricus tumidus, Persoon, Syn., p. 850; Cke., Hdbk. p. 34 j 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 93. 

In pine woods, &c. 

A tall species, somewhat cartilaginous, at length rigid 
and fragile, smell weak, not unpleasant. Dimensions very 
variable; sometimes, when growing among high moss, the 
stem is elongated and slender, and the pileus smaller. Allied 
to the Difformes section of Clitocyhe. (Fries.) 

Var. Keithii, Phil. & Plow. ; Cke., J-Tdbk., p. 34. 

This differs from the type in its cinero-riifescent pileus. 



TEICHOLOMA. 201 

less turgid, dirty white stem, cuticle not so brown, innate 
fibres, and in being tinged with red, especially near the 
base. In some of these characters it agrees with T. sitdum, 
from which it differs in its undulating pileus, distant gills, 
and often rooting stem. The whole plant is fragile, th& 
gills have a cinereous tinge, usually at length becoming 
rufescent. It frequently has a powerful odour of new- 
meal, and is intermediate between T. svdum and T, tumiduniy 
but is nearer the latter. (Phil. & Plow.) 
In pine woods. 

Tricholoma sudum. Fr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thickish, firm, white ; convex 
then plane or even upturned, obtuse, dry, broken up into 
scales, rufous or brownish-rufous ; gills deeply emarginate 
with a decurrent tooth, about 3 lines broad, crowded, whitish, 
margin rufescent, but not truly spotted with rufous ; stem 
about 3 in. long, -^ in. and more thick, slightly thinner 
upwards, punctate with minute squamules but not fibrillose, 
pallid with a slight tinge of rufous, base with white down, 
solid ; spores elliptical, 6—7 x 3 ■ 5 /<.. 

Agaricus (^Tricholoma) sudus. Fries, Epicr., p. 38. 

Among grass in woods, &c. 

Somewhat resembling T. arcuatum ; the latter differs in the 
bulbous stem. j / _ 

.l^icho]£[aa_yir^;ti3mj_JFr. <3 ,/, r 't 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thin, greyish-white, rigid ; ^^ i'' 
convex then expanded, somewhat umbonate, always very \}~(^ , OJi" 
dry, glabrous and almost even, but elegantly virgate or _— - — " 
s treak ed with fine black lines formed by^ innate fibrils ; 
greyish, umbo often darker, broken up into squamiiles 
when old ; margin straight and naked at first ; gills broadly 
emarginate, 3-5 lines broad, crowded, at length greyish^ 
stem about 3 in. long, ^ in. and more thick, equal, or the 
base roOTg^ or less swollen, striate, usually glabrous, some- 
times squamulose, whitish both outside and inside, firm,, 
solid; spores subglobose, 6-8 x 5-6 fx.. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma^ virgatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 39; Cke.,. 
Hdbk., p. 35; Cke., Illustr., pi. 167. 

In pine and other woods. 

Usually solitary. A well-marked species, being the only 



202 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

one witli a perfectly dry, virgate pileus ; all the other virgate 
species, as T. portentomm, &c., having the pileus viscid. 
Taste bitter when young, but insipid at maturity. 

The figure in " Illustrations " is too dark. The pileus is 
usually white with a slight cinereous tinge. (Cooke.) 



IV. SEEICELLA. 
* Gills broad, rather distant. Smell strong. 

Trieholoma sulphureum. Fr. 

Foetid. Pileus 1-3 in. across, flesh rather thick ; sub- 
globose, then soon convexo-plane, rather umbonate, at 
length depressed, slightly silky at first, soon almost 
glabrous and even, pale sulphur-colour, sometimes with a 
rufescent tinge ; gills adnexed, narrowed behind, arcuately 
emarginate, rather thick, distant, distinct, bright sulphur- 
colour ; stem 2-4 in. long, 3-6 lines thick, almost equal, 
often curved, almost glabrous, striate, sulphur-yellow; 
same colour inside, and fibrous; spores 9 — 10 x 5 ju,. 

Agaricus (Trieholoma) sulfureus, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 110; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 85 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 62. 

In woods. 

Gregarious. Distinguished by the sulphur-yellow colour 
of every part, and the strong, penetrating, unpleasant smell. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad, fleshy, obtuse, at length expanded 
or depressed with a slight appearance of an umbo, sometimes 
flexuous and irregular, dirty yellow, or ochraceous-umber, 
darker in the centre, the margin at first involute and 
minutely tomeiitose, the whole clothed with extremely 
minute silkiness or squamulae, so as to give it a pulverulent 
appearance, retaining the impression of the fingers; flesh 
yellow. Gills subdistant, rounded, flexuous, emarginate or 
acuto-adnate. Stem 2 in. or more high, 4 lines thick, occa- 
sionally subbulbous, stuffed, sometimes at length hoUow, 
the surface of the cavity rather slimy, yellow within, 
furnished at the base occasionally with many rather strong 
yellow fibrous roots. Odour disagreeable, at first farina- 
ceous, then like that of Hemerocallis flava. Taste unpleasant 
but acrid. (Berk.) 



•TRICHOLOMA. 203 

Tricholoma opicum. Fr. 

Pileus 1-1 5^ in. across, flesh rather thin, becoming greyish ; 
convex then expanded, obtusely-umbonate, at length usnally 
upturned and split, very dry, even at first, then minutely 
squamulose. grey ; gills broadly emarginate, ventricose, 
rather thick, scarcely distant, hoary ; stem 2-3 in. long, 
2-3 lines thick, equal, fibrillose, becoming almost glabrous, 
pallid then greyish, stuffed. 

AgaricMs (Tricholoma) opicus. Fries, Epicr., p. 39. 

Among moss, in pine woods, &c. 

Inodorous. Somewhat resembling T. saponaceum, but dis- 
tinguished by the absence of smell. This same character, 
and difference in colour separate the present from T. 
sulphureum, with which it agrees in size and gUl structure. 

Tricholoma bufonium. Pers. 

Pileus 1|-2J in. across, flesh thick ; convex then expanded 
or almost plane, somewhat umbonate or gibbous, silky at 
first, soon almost glabrous, punctately rugose, opaque, 
purplish- brown, blackish-umber, tan-colour, &c. ; gills 
slightly sinuate, and more or less decurrent, rather distant, 
yellowish tan-colour then pallid; stem about 2-3 in. long, 
3-4 lines thick almost equal or slightly ventricose towards 
the basci flocculose, coloured like the pileus, stuffed ; spores 
subglobose, 4-5 /jl. 

Agaricus bufonius, Persoon, Syn., p. 359 ; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 181 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 35. 

In pine woods. 

Distinguished by the tan-coloured gills and flocculose or 
downy stem. 

Tricholoma lascivum. Fr. 

Pileus about 2 in. across, flesh rather thin, persistently 
white; convex then plane, at length depressed, obtuse, 
indistinctly silky, dry, tan-colour becoming pallid ; margin 
at first incurved ; gills arcuately adnexed, at length arcu- 
ately decurrent, horizontal, thin and crowded ; stem about 
2 in. long, solid, rigid, entirely fibrous, equal, externally 
fibrillose, whitish, apex with white meal, base rooting and 
downy ; spores 8-10 x 4-5 fi. 

Agaricus {Tricholoma) lascivus. Fries, Epicr., p. 110 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 35; Cke., Illustr., pi. 94. 



204 PUNGUS-FLOEA, 

In mixed woods. 

Agreeing in many points of structure, and in the strong 
smell, with T. sulphureum and T. inamoenum, but differing 
from both in the crowded gills, and in colour. 

Odour of gas tar. (Berk.) 

Var. robustus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 36; Cke., Illustr., pl.'217. 

More robust than the tj'pe. Pileus almost white, silky, 
not viscid ; scarcely any perceptible odour. 

Pileus 2^ in. broad, convex, at length depressed, firm, 
fleshy, under the lens minutely adpresso-silky, margin at 
first involute; flesh white. Gills white, when young 
arcuato-adnate, nearly horizontal, when old sub-decurrent, 
very brittle, closer than in the last, but still not very close. 
Stem firm, solid, composed of fibres, more or less fibrillose 
or fibrillose squamose, the fibrillae curved up from below ; 
paler than the pileus, rooting, downy at the base, not 
bulbose, apex pruinose. Odour in all respects like thejlast 
(A. sulphureus), only not quite so strong. (Berk.) 

Tricholoma inamoenum. Fr. 

Foetid. Pileus 1-2J in. across, flesh thin but firm, pure 
white ; convex then expanded, rather umbonate, very dry, 
slightly silky then even, dingy white; gills variously 
adfixed, normally emarginate with a decurrent tobth, but 
sometimes truly adnato-decurrent, plane, rather thick, very 
broad and very distant, distinct, pure white ; stem 3-4 in. 
long, 3"6 lines thick, equal, almost glabrous, white, solid, 
firm, often rooting and downy when growing among moss ; 
spores 9-10 x 6-7. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) inamoenus, Fries, Epicr., p. 44; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 36 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 77. 

In pine woods, &c. 

Our only white Tricholoma with a strong smell. The 
smell is something like that of T. sulfureum, but stronger 
and more disagreeable. 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad, convex, with or without an umbo, 
fleshy, but not very thick on the margin, under the lens 
adpresso-silky ; white with a slight tinge of ochre in the 
centre. Gills broad (J— | of an in.), distant, emarginate. 
Stem 2 in. or more long, 3-6 lines thick, equal, tough, com- 
posed of fibres, not rooting in my specimens. Odour like 



TRICHOLOMA. 205 

that of Trick, sulphurea. I find a state of this with the 
pilous singularly compressed all round, minutely pitted and 
■wrinkled, the epidermis cracked, so as to appear tesselated. 
Fries in his specific character describes it as smooth, but in 
his subjoined remark implies that it is " sericeo-adpressus." 
Hygr. coasus. Sow., with which Fries compares it in his 
Elenchus is certainly quite different, as stated above. My 
specimens have not so much the habit of that, as of Trick, 
cinerascens, Bull., or Trick, colunibetta. (Berk.) 

Var. insignis, Mass. Gills decurrent, truly distant. 

The smell is so precisely like that of the normal A. 
inamoenus, that I follow Fries in considering it a mere 
■variety. (B. & Br.) 

** Gills tkiii, crowded, narrow. Small ; inodorous. 

Tricholoma cerinum. Pers. 

Pileus 1-li in. across, flesh thin, firm, white; convex 
then expanded, obtuse, at length depressed, very opaque 
and remarkably dry, even and almost glabrous, dingy wax- 
colour or brownish ; gills sinuate, adnexed, separating from 
the stem, horizontal, plane, very thin and crowded, 1 line 
broad, dark yellow or wax-colour ; stem about 1 in. long, 
2-3 lines thick, equal, naked, fibrillosely striate, yellow, 
base sometimes brown, stuffed. 

Agaricus cerinus, Persoon, Syn., p. 321 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 36 ; 
'Cke., lUustr., pi. 95b. 

In dry pine woods, &c. 

Small, the structure of the stem inclines to that oha- 
Tacteristic of Glitocyhe, but the gills are sinuate when per- 
fectly developed. (Fries.) 

The yellow gills, contrasted with the brown pileus, make 
it a very pretty species. The pileus in our specimens is 
brown, which seems to be the more usual colour ; but it is 
sometimes yellow. (B. & Br.) 

Trieholoma fallax. Peck. 
Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh thin; convex then ex- 
panded, rarely depressed at the centre, moist, smooth, yellow, 



206 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

disc sometimes" rufotis; gills adnexed, rounded behind, 
crowded, wMte then yellowish; stem about 1 in. long, IJ 
line thick, smooth, pale yeUow, stuffed then hollow, iDase 
sometimes narrowed ; spores elliptical, 4-5 X 3 /i. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) fallax, Peck, 26th Eeport, State 
Mns., N.T., t. i. f. 5-8; Cke., Hdbk., p. 364; Cke., Illnstr., 
pi. 1151a. 

Under firs. 

Distinguished among the small species of Tricholoma by 
the clear but pale yeUow pileus and stem, and the yellowish 
gUls. 

Tricholoma ionides. Bull. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, disc fleshy, campanulate, then convex, 
at length plane, umbonate, even, almost glabrous, usually 
dingy violet, becoming pale ; gills emarginate with a slight 
decurrent tooth, crowded, thin, margin eroded, 1^ line 
broad, white then becoming pallid; stem 1-1^ in long, 
elastic, often curved at the base, fibriUose, coloured like the 
pileus, stuffed ; spores pip-shaped, 6-7 X 3 ■ 5 /t. 

Agaricus ionides,. Bull., Champ., t. 633, f. 3 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 36 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 96a. 

In woods. 

Pileus violet, lilac, or brownish-purple; distinguished 
from T. Jmmile and T. sordidum by the white gills. 

Var. parvus, Lasch, Cke., Hdbk., p. 37. 

Eeddish-brown, pileus somewhat fleshy, campanulate then 
expanded (slightly silky), stem stuffed, then hollow, floccose. 
attenuated downwards ; gills adnexed with a tooth, eroded, 
powdered with white. 

In a stove. 

Tricholojna carneum. Bull. 
Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh thin, tough, snow-white ; 
hemispherical at first, then convex and regular, obtuse, at 
length expanded and upturned, often with an umbo, usually 
wavy and sometimes excentric, even, glabrous, dry, not at all 
hygrophanous, reddish flesh-colour, at length whitish ; gills 
rounded behind and almost free, horizontal, closely crowded, 
broadest behind, 1-1 -^ line broad, pure white ; stem up to 



TRICHOLOMA. 207 

1 in. long, sometimes very short, 1-2 lines tMok, apes 
thickest, and narrowing towards the base, pale reddish-pink 
becoming almost white, apex somewhat pruinose, tough and 
fibrous almost cartilaginous, rigid, stuffed then hollow ;. 
spores 3 X 2 /t. 

Agaricus carneus, Bull., t. 533 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 37 ; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 96a. 

Among grass, by-paths in woods, &c. 

In general habit and stem structure agreeing with Gollybia, 
but placed here on account of its evident affinity with 
T. paeonium and T. ionides. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma caelatum. Fr. 

Pileus up to 1 in. across, flesh thin ; convex but with th& 
centre depressed, not striate, glabrous and brown when 
growing, but flocculose, cracked and pallid grey when dry ;. 
gills sinuate, adnate with a decurrent tooth, crowded, slightly 
arcuate, dingy white or greyish ; stem up to 1 in, long, 
1-1|^ line thick, equal, or the apex slightly thickened, brown, 
apex obsoletely pruinose, tough, elastic, but not cartilaginous, 
stuffed in small specimens, often hollow when large ; spores 
elliptical, 8 X 5 /x,. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) caelatum. Fries, Epicr., p. 42 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 37 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 96b. 

On the ground, especially scorched places. 

A very peculiar species, entire habit remarkable, and not 
to be compared with any other species of Tricholoma. From 
the constantly umbilicate pileus, at first sight resembling an 
Omphalia, but the stem is not at all cartilaginous, and the 
gUls evidently sinuate behind. Somewhat agreeing with 
Tricholoma putidum in colour and stature, but in this species 
the pileus is umbonate, smell strong of new meal, and 
other points of difference. There are certain affinities with 
certain species of Glitoeybe, as G. hirneola and 0. parilis, 
with which the present species agrees in size, colour, and 
the dingy white spores, but again, these differ widely in th© 
decurrent giUs and many other points. (Fries.) 



'208 FUNGUS-FLOItA. 

V. GUTTATA. 
* Gills whitish. 

Tricholoma gambosum. Tr. 

"Smell resembling fresli meal. Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh, 
"thick, soft, fragile, white ; hemispherical then convex, at 
length expanded, obtuse, wavy, even, glabrous, but marked 
-with drop-like spots, at length cracking, but not becoming 
"truly broken up into squamules, pallid-tan, margin incurved 
and downy at first; gills emarginate and adnexed, with a 
somewhat decurrent tooth, sinuate and decurrent when old, 
crowded, ventricose, 2-3 lines broad, whitish ; stem 2-24^ in. 
long, -1-1 in. thick, almost equal, base often curved and 
ascending when growing in clusters, white, apex downy, 
solid; spores elliptical, 13-14 x 8-9 /t. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) gamhosus, Fries., Epicr., p. 43; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 37 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 63. 

In pastures, &c. Spring. 

Often growing in circles, or tufted. Smell pleasant, like 
"new meal. 

** Gills discoloured, rufous or smoJcy. 

Tricholoma amethystinum. Scop. 

Pileus 1-5—2 in. across, flesh thick, white ; convex then 
•expanded and often wavy or with the margin slightly 
niptumed, obtuse or with a trace of an umbo, glabrous, even, 
:moist, livid and more or less spotted or stained with blue, 
margin paler and wrinkled ; gills somewhat adnate, 1^ line 
"broad, crowded, white then rufescent ; stem 1^-2 in. long, 
5-5 lines thick, attenuated at the base, paler than the pileus, 
solid, often slightly bent. 

Agaricus amethystinus, Scopoli, Cam., ii. p. 437 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 38 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 262. 

In pine woods. 

Pileus pale with a dingy olive tinge, and spotted with 
■clear blue. 

Tricholoma albellum. Fr. 
Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh, thick at the disc, becoming thin 
towards the margin, soft, white, unchangeable ; convex then 



TKICHOLOMA. 209 

expanded and gibbons, ■white tben pallid, greyisb when dry, 
often mottled or with scale-like spots, margin naked; gills 
slightly adnexed, much narrowed behind, broadest in 
front, closely crowded, entire, white ; stem ovately bulbous, 
cylindrical above, 1^-2 in. long, up to -J in, thick, fibrillosely 
striate, white, solid ; spores elliptical, 6-7 X 4 /i. 

Agaricus {Tricholoma) albellus. Fries, Epicr., p. 43 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 38; Cke., Ulustr., pi. 299. 

In woods, &c. 

Appearing earlier in the season than T. gamhosum, found 
in April. Sometimes solitary, large; sometimes densely 
caespitose and smaller. Smell and taste pleasant, weak. 
Pileus regular, not turning yellowish, white when fresh, 
then greyish-brown, spotted here and there. Often con- 
founded with a small form of A. gambosus. (Fries.) 

T. gamhosum differs in the gills being attached by a 
decurrent tooth; stem downy at the apex; the pileus is 
usually very pale tan, but sometimes whitish. 

Tricholoma boreale. Fr. 

Pileus about 2 in. across, flesh thick at the disc and 
becoming gradually thin towards the margin, soft, white ; 
irregular, somewhat umbonate, glabrous, rivulose or minutely 
downy when dry, flesh-colour then whitish ; margin naked, 
even ; gills emarginate, thin, crowded, white ; stem 2-3 in, 
long, ^-| in. thick, solid, elastic, glabrous, unequal, at- 
tenuated at the base, whitish; spores subglobose, 4-5 ft. 
diameter. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma^ borealis, Fries, Epicr., p. 44; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 366 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 956 ? (differing widely from 
the figure and description of Fries in the very distant dingy 
gills). 

Among grass in woods, &c. 

Truly gregarious, somewhat caespitose, smell resembling 
new meal, taste pleasant, hence without doubt esculent, and 
with allied forms may be compared with T. gamhosum. Stem 
solid, elastic, 2-3 in. long, f in. thick, attenuated downwards, 
often twisted and incurved, glabrous, apex indistinctly 
pruinose, always white. Pileus fleshy, variable in form, 
usually convex and umbonate, unequal, ofien wavy, not 
spotted, glabrous, minutely cracked when dry, about 2 in. 

VOL. m. p 



210 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

fcroad, flesh-colour at first, but becoming pale wheii; old and 
whitish, tan; margin thin, naked, involute. Tlesh soft, 
■white, soon infested with maggots. Gills emarginate, 
with a decurrent tooth, thin, crowded, whitish, colour not 
changing. Among the tribe Guttata, where the species are 
closely allied, and of which T. gambosum is typical, the present 
speraes is remarkable for the flesh-coloured, unspotted pileus. 
Most nearly allied to T. albellumj which however appears 
earlier in the season and differs in colour, &c. (Pries.) 

Tricholoma tigrinum. Schaeff. 

Pileus 1^-2 in. across, flesh thick at the disc, margin thin, 
white; convex then expanding and often wavy, glabrous, 
pale brown or greyish-white, with darker, crowded spots, 
but not broken up ; gills rounded behind, crowded, narrow, 
white ; stem about 1 in. long and nearly or quite as thick, 
tumid, firm, white, pruinose, solid. 

Agaricus tigrinm, Schaeff., t. 89 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 38 ; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 64. 

In fir woods, &c. 

Stout, smell not remarkable, like fresh meal. Stem 1 in. 
long and thick, very compact, solid, pruinose, white. Pileus 
compactly fleshy, in my specimens convex then expanded, 
obtuse, wavy, 2 in. broad, pale brown, variegated with 
crowded, darker spots. Flesh thick, white, unchangeable, 
thin towards the involute margin. Gills rounded behind, at 
length with a decurrent tooth, crowded, narrow, white, at 
length becoming dark. (Fries.) 

Odour foetid. (Cooke.) 

The pileus is sometimes whitish or with a tinge of grey, 
and the spots almost black. Differs from T. guttatum in the 
pileus not being broken up, and the margin even. 

Tricholoma pes-caprae. Fr. 

Pileus fleshy at the disc, the rest thin, conical then 
expanded, umbonate, unequal, 1-2 in. across when young, 
entire; expanded when adult, and then 3-4 in. across, 
cracked, greyish-brown, variegated, margin thin, naked; 
gills emarginate, up to ^. in. broad, at length distant, white 
then greyish ; stem solid, about 3 in. long, scarcely ^ in. 
thick, equal or attenuated downwards, naked, white ; spores 
elliptical, 8x5/4. 



TEICHOLOMA. 211 

Agaricus {Tricholoma) pes-caprae, Pries, Epicr.,p. 45 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 365. 

Among grass, leaves, &c. 

Gregarious, subcaespitose, fragile, Hmch more slender thait 
neighbouring species. (Pries.) 

Var. multiformis, Scbaeff., t. 14 ; Cke., lUtistr., pi. 946. 
Form variable, caespitose, ' smaller and flesh of pileus 
thinner than in the typical form. 



VI. SPONGIOSA. . 
* Gills not discoloured. 

Triclioloma patulum. Fr. 

Pileus 2J-4 in. across, flesh thin, not ■compact,- white i 
firm, convex then plane, obtuse, often wavy, even, glabrous, 
not spotted,- pale ashy-grey ; gills constantly aiid equally 
emarginate, almost free, crowded, 2 lines broad, plane, sides 
veined, whitish; stem 2-4 in. long, ^1 in. thick, equal, 
rather elastic, glabrous, pure white; flesh fibrous, solid, 
firm ; spores elliptical, 7-8 X 4 /x. 

Agaricus (Trichohmd) patulus. Fries, Epicr., p. 47 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 39 ; Cke., lllustr., pi. 279. 

In mossy meadows, under birches, &c. 

Solitary, or growing in troops. Inodorous. Cannot be 
compared with any other species of Tricholoma, but re- 
sembling certain caespitose species of Clitocyhe, from which 
it is quite distinct in the remarkably emarginate, and almost 
free giUs. The colour somewhat resembles that of Gollybia 
platyphylla, but the two are not at all allied, the last-named 
differing in the thinner, virgate pileus and very broad gills. 

Very luxuriant in rainy seasons, and when the weather is 

very dry it is entirely absent. In dry seasons it is solitary, 

whereas during rainy seasons it is , densely qaespitose. 

(Fries.) 

/U -' ' 
Tricholoma Schumacheri. Fr. 

Pileus about 3 iu. across, Hesh thick, spongy, white, 

compact; convex then expanded, obtuse, regular, even, 

glabrous, moist in rainy weather but not hygrophauous, 

p 2 



212 I'UNC US-FLOEA. 

uniformly livid-grej', the extreme margin projecting beyond 
the gills and incurved; gills emarginate, closely crowded, 
plane, 3-4 lines broad, white ; stem solid, stout, 3-4 in. long, 
up to ^ in. thick, equal, base downy, and sometimes ventri- 
cosely bulbous, naked, slightly striate, white, fibrous outsider. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) Schumacheri, Bpicr., p. 45 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 38; Cke., lUustr., pi. 168. 

In back woods, &c. 

Stature of Tricholoma personatum, colour resembling: 
Clitocybe nebularis. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma ciroumtectum. C. & M. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thick, white ; convex, dry, very 
obtusely umbonate at first, or quite obtuse, rarely becoming 
slightly depressed, margin incurved, downy, wavy ; often, 
cracking a little when old, disc dingy pale tan or ochraceous, 
greenish-olive towards the margin, at length altogether 
pale tan ; gills slightly sinuate, adnexed, 1^-2 lines broad, 
scarcely crowded, persistently white ; stem aboiit 1 in long, 
^-| in thick, usually more or less swollen near the base, but 
always tapering more or less to a point at the extreme base, 
striate, whitish, solid ; spores subglobose, 4-5 /j, diameter. 

Agaricus {Tricholoma') cireumteetus, Cooke & Massee; Cke,, 
adbk., p. 382 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 1182. 

On the ground under trees. 

A well-marked species, known by the pileus being dingy 
-olive at first then tan-colour, the change starting at the 
disc, downy margin of pileus, and pointed base of stem. 

Tricholoma arcuatum. Bull. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thick, soft, hygrophanous, 
•1)rownish-white, at length usually tan-colour ; at first 
compact, then very soft, convex then plane, obtuse, even, 
■jrlabrous, moist in rainy weather, blackish-umber or rufous- 
'brown, becoming pale and discoloured with age ; gills 
■rounded behind, sinuate and with a decurrent tooth, arcuate, 
at length plane, crowded, narrow, pure white; stem solid, 
iirm, 1^ in long, ^ in. thick, incrassated below and more or 
less bulbous, at first squamulosely fibrillose, then naked and 
somewhat reticulated, pale brown, base blackish, spongy 
vithin. 



TEICHOLOMA. 213 

Agaricns arcuattis, Bulliard, Champ. JFr., t. 589, f. 1 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 39 ; Cke., ZUustr., pL 218a. 

Among grass in pastures, &c. 

Colour and size variable. AUied to T. panaeolum and 
37. melaleucum ; the former differs in the greyish gills, and 
the latter in the ■white flesh. 

Tricholoma oreinuni. "Ft. 

Pilens about 1 in. across, flesh rather thick, white ; convex 
then plane, obtuse, even, glabrous, fuscous then livid ; gills 
rounded behind, free, crowded, plane, up to 1 line broad, 
white ; stem about 1 in. long, and li line thick, with a slight 
swelling at the base, otherwise equal, whitish, apex with 
white squamnles, solid. 

Agaricus ( Tricholoma) oreimts. Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 52 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 39; Cke., lUnstr., pi. 218b. 

On heaths, &c. 

The gUls are equally broad up to the margin, beyond 
which they project, a character that separates this species 
from T. humilum. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma album. SchaefF. 

Entirely white. Taste acrid. Pilens 3-4 in. across, flesh 
thick ; convex then expanded, very dry, even, disc sometimes 
yellowish ; gUls emarginate, about 3 lines broad, somewhat 
crowded, not changing colour ; stem about 3 in. long and 
1^ in. thick, attenuated upwards, almost naked, elastic, solid. 

Agaricus albux, Schaeffer, t. 256 (slender form); Fries, 
Icon., p. 39, pL 43; Cke., Hdbk., p. 39; Cke., lUustr., pi. 65 
(too ochraceous). 

In woods. 

Size very variable, sometimes very robust, at others 
slender. Entirely pure white, sometimes becoming yellowish, 
especially the disc. Smell weak but taste bitter. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma leucocephalum. Fr. 
Pure white. Smell strong, pleasant, resembling new- 
meal. Pileus about 1 J in. across, flesh thin, compact, tough ; 
convex then plane, obtuse, even, moist, glabrous, but covered 
with pure white silky do\vn when young; margin acute, 
spreading, glabrous ; gills rounded behind and almost free, 
crowded thin, quite entire, clear white ; stem up to 2 in. 



214 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

long. 3 liaes tHck ; hollow, fibrous but polished and somewhat 
cartilaginous externally, base solid, attenuated, rooting, 
twisted, even, glabrous ; spores subglobose minutely echinu- 
late, 9-10 X 7-8 /*. 

Agarieus (Tricholoma) leucocephalus, Fries, Epior., p. 47; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 40 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 78. 

On naked ground, also among grass, &c. 

T. album somewhat resembles the present species, but 
diifers in being inodorous. T. inamoenum differs in the very 
strong disagreeable smell, and the very broad gills. 

** Gills discoloured. 

Tricholoma militare. Lasoh. 

Pileus 4-7 in. across, flesh thick, firm, white ; pileus at 
first convex and gibbous, with the margin incurved and 
furnished with white floccose down, then expanded and more 
or less plane or depressed and'w^avy, almost glabrous, viscid, 
cinnamon or yellowish, margin even ; gills emarginate, 
slightly crowded, whitish, at length spotted, 2 lines broad, 
edge becoming torn ; stem 3|-5 in. long, up to 1 in. thick at 
the somewhat bulbous or thickened base, squamulose or 
coarsely fibrillose, pallid, solid. 

Agarieus mi'Ziians, Lasch, Linnea, no. 490; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 40; Cke., Illustr., pi. 169. 

In woods, &o. 

Smell and taste unpleasant. Differs from Tricholoma. 
civile in the strong smell and spotted gills. 

Tricholoma civile. Pr. 

Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh white, soft, rather thick ; 
convex then almost plane, even, glabrous, cuticle separablev 
rather viscid, gilvous or pale yellowish brown ; gills deeply 
emarginate, 2-3 lines broad, crowded, white then yellowish, 
not spotted ; stem 2-2f in. long, 3-5 lines thick, solid, soft^ 
fragile, whitish, fibrillosely squamulose. 

AgaricMS {Tricholoma') civilis, Fries, Icones, p. 38, t. 42 ; 
€ke., Hdbk., p. 40. 

In pine woods. 

Stem solid, soft inside, fragile, narrowed upwards from 
the incrassated base, 2 in. and more long, fibrillose or 



TEICHOLOMA. 215 

squamulose, whitish. Pilens truly fleshy, very soft and 
fragile, convex then plane, obtuse, 3 in. broad, even, very 
glabrous, almost viscid when moist, gilvons then becoming 
pale, not becoming discoloured, never virgate, disc darker, 
pellicle separable. Flesh spongy, whitish. GUIs deeply 
sinuate, almost free, crowded, 3 lines broad, very soft, white 
then pallid or yellowish. Inodorous. Tricholcnna militare 
differs in the strong smell, margin of pileus at first involute 
and pruinose, gills spotted. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma dttracmum. Cooke. 

Pileus 2— 2J in. across, disc verj- fleshy, margin thin, flesh 
nearly white, firm ; convex, broadly gibbous, dry, smooth, 
shining, grey with an olive tinge, margin incurved ; gills 
emarginate, 1 line broad, arcuate, crowded, grey; stem 
about 2 in. long, 1 in. thick near the base, attenuated 
upwards, striate below, reticulately squamose above, paler 
than the pileus, or greyish-white, solid. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) duracinus, Cooke, Grev., xii. p. 41; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 640. 

On the ground under cedars. 

Pileus 3 in. diameter, stem 3 in. long, IJ in. thick at the 
base, nearly an inch at the apex. Fleshy disc nearly an inch 
thick. Gills little more than a line broad. Upper part of 
the stem minutely squamose in a peculiar reticulated manner. 
Whole fungus cinereous and firm. (Cooke.) 

Tricholoma personatum. Fr. 

Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh thick, white, firm then soft ; 
convex then expanded, regular, glabrous, moist, margin 
slightly projecting beyond the gills, at first incurved and 
pruinosely downy, yellowish tan-colour, sometimes greyish 
or with a lilac tinge ; gills rounded behind and almost free, 
2 Unes broad, crowded, violet then dingy ; stem 2 in. long, 
J— I in. thick, rather bulbous, downy, coloured like the 
pileus, often with a violet tinge, solid; spores elliptical, 
8-10 X 5-6 //,. 

Agaricus (^Tricholoma) personatus. Fries, Syst. Myc, i. 
p. 60 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 41 ; Cke., Dlustr., pi. 66. 

In pastures, woods, &c. 

Allied to T. nudum, but differs in the downy margin of the 
pileus, downy stem, and thick flesh of pileus. 



216 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Gregarious, frequently in large rings. Pileus 2-6 in. 
broad, fleshy, firm, pale bistre or purple lilac, occasionally 
violet, convex, obtuse, very smooth and shining as if oiled 
but not viscid, margin involute, pulverulento-tomentose. 
Gills rounded, free, not distant, narrow in front, paler than 
the pileus, sometimes violet, turning to a dirty flesh-colour, 
especially when bruised. Stem 1-3 in. high, f of an in. 
thick, firm, bulbous, solid, mottled within towards the apex 
with watery spots ; clothed more or less with villous 
fibrillae, tinged with violet. Odour like that of A. oreades, 
but rather overpowering, taste pleasant. Sold, according to 
Sowerby, in Covent Garden Market under the name of 
Blewitts. (Berk.) 

Tricliolonia nudum. Bull. 

Whole fangus tinted violet at first. Pileus 2-2| in. 
across, convex then more or less depressed and often wavy, 
becoming pale, silky and shining when diy, flesh very thin 
except at the disc, tinted pale lilac, margin persistently 
incurved, naked; gills rather crowded, narrow, 2-3 lines 
broad, narrowest behind and subdecurrent, intermediate 
ones numerous, bright violet when young, brownish-lilac 
-when old; stem 2-3 in. long, up to ^ in thick, subeqnal, 
elastic, stufied, longitudinally fibrillose, slightly powdered 
with a white bloom ; spores elliptical, 7 X 3 • 5 /i. 

Agaricus nudus, Bulliard, t. 439 ; Oke., Hdbk., p. 41 ; 
Berk., Outlines, t. 4, f. 7. (It is doubtful whether Cke., 
lUustr., t. 67 is the right species ; it is certainly too robust 
and yellow in the pileus for the typical form.) 

On the ground among leaves, &c. Known from Trieholoma 
sordida, which the present species somewhat resembles, by the 
perfectly even, naked, incurved margin of the pileus. 

Pileus about 2 in. broad, thin, obtuse, plane or subde- 
pressed, at first amethyst-coloured, but changing to a pinky 
rufous ; margin involute. Gills of the same colour as the 
pileus, rounded behind though sometimes decurrenti-adnate, 
ijonnected and traversed by veins. Stem 2 in. high, 3-4 
lines thick, stuffed with spongy fibres, subequal, at first 
fibrillose, at length nearly smooth, more or less of the colour 
of the pileus. (Berk.) 

Altogether more slender than T. personafum, becoming 



TEICHOLOMA. 217 

very muci discoloured, brownisli-violet at first, then rufes- 
cent, gills darker. Smell acid. (Fries.) 

Ywr, major, Cke., Hdbk., p. 41 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 133. 

Larger and more robust than the typical form. Pileus 
4-5 in. across; stem 4-6 in. high, 1 in. thick, spores 
5 X 2-5 /x. 

Among dead leaves. 

The figure by Cooke looks very much more like a very 
large T. personatum ; the gills are pallid, without a trace of 
lilac. 

Tricholoma cinerascens. BuU. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, rather fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
obtuse, smooth, even, white becoming greyish, margin thin, 
naked, slightly striate ; gills rounded behind, not distinctly 
sinuate, rather close, white then reddish-grey, finally dingy 
yellow, easily separating from the pileus; stem stuffed, 
fibrous, elastic, subequal, smooth ; spores elliptical. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) cinerascens, Bull., Champ., t. 48, f. 2 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 41 ; Cke., Illustr., t. 170. 

In woods. 

Caespitose ; pileus 2-3 in. across, convex, of a dirty pale 
oehre, slightly streaked with watery lines, firm but not 
brittle, clothed with very obscure matted down ; flesh thin, 
white. Stem curved, slightly streaked, tinged like the 
pileus, paler above and slightly pulverulent, solid, stringy. 
Gills moderately distant, at first attenuated behind, at 
length rounded and easily separating, as in Paxillus involuius, 
white or very slightly oohraceous, stained like the pileus 
when old and bruised, very slightly anastomosing behind. 
Spores certainly not cinereous. Smell rather disagreeable, 
pungent ; the stem, however, when broken, smells like new 
meal. (B. & Br.) 

Triclioloma panaeolum. Fr. 
Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh not thick, and like that of 
the stem, spongy and absorbing moisture, but the pUeus is 
not by any means hygrophanous, white when dry, convex 
then flattened or often depressed, obtuse, usually wavy and 
often excentric, even, sooty-grey, covered with an almost 
innate grey bloom ; gills emarginate or rounded behind, at 



218 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

length slightly decurrent, closely crowded, quite entire, 
plane, 2 lines broad, white then grey; stem 1-1-^ in long, 
I in. thick, solid, tough, elastic, fibrous outside, spongy 
within, glabrous, naked not polished, greyish-white ; spores 
subglobose, 5-6 fi. diameter. 

Agaricus ( Tricholoma) panaeolus, Tries, Epicr., p. 49 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 42 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 97. 

On the ground. 

Small, but firm, tough, elastic, smell and taste not un- 
pleasant ; colour of pileus sooty, and with a broken up 
hloom on the surface. (Fries.) 

Colour of the pileus dingy or smoky-grey, the gills sepa- 
rate readily from the pileus. (Cooke.) 

Tricholoma cnista. Fr. 

Pileus 2- 3 in. across, flesh rather thick, soft, white, 
unchangeable; convex then plane, obtuse, even, glabrous, 
moist, not viscid, pale tan or whitish, disc darker, margin 
incurved, naked, even ; gills adnexed, rounded behind, 
inclined to separate from the pileus, broad, crowded, 3 lines 
broad, transversely veined, crisjied when dry, white, pallid- 
yellow when bruised; stem 1^-2 in. long, 4 lines thick, 
equal, even, frlabrous, white, tough, solid ; spores 9-10 X 4: f/,. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) cnista, Fries, Epicr., p. 60. 

Among jirass in open places, &c. 

Similar to T. panaeolwm, but white, not becoming grey; 
smell resembling cooked flesh. Stem fleshy, 1^-2 in. long, 
^ in. thick, even. Pileus 2-3 in. across, white, somewhat 
tan-colour, disc rather darker, flesh white. (Fries.) 



VII. HYGEOPHANA. 

* Gills whitish, not spotted. 

Tricholoma melaleucum. Pers. 
Pileus 1^-3 in. across, flesh thin; convex then plane, 
obsoletely umbonate, glabrous, moist, sooty brown, hygro- 
phanous and passing through various shades of colour as it 
dries, dingy tan when dry; gills adnexed and emarginate, 
ventricose, crowded, white ; stem 2-3 in. long, 2-4 lines thick. 



TEICHOLOMA. 219 

almost glabrous, whitish, striate with smoky fihrils, stuffed, 
hase thickened ; spores elliptio-oblong, 10 x 4-5 /u,. 

Agaricus melaleucus, Persoon, Syn., p. 365; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 42 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 119. 

On the ground in woods, &c. 

Distinguished by the sooty black pileus, thin flesh, and 
white gills. The smaller forms resemble T. oreinum in 
general appearance, the latter is however readily separated 
by the whitish sqnamules at the apex of the stem. 

Stem stuffed, then hollow, ri>;id and fragile, elastic when 
young, 2—3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick (sometimes more), base 
somewhat incrassated ; naked (not pulverulent), but fibril- 
losely striate, whitish, striae darker. Pilens fleshy, soft, 
convex then expanded, obsoletely umbonate, 1^3 in. broad, 
even, glabrous, usually sooty-blackish when moist, then 
livid brown, becoming pale when dry ; gills emarginate, 
adnexed, crowded, horizontal, straiijht (not arcuately falcate 
as in A. arcuatus), broad, more or less ventricose, quite entire, 
white. Flesh soft, wliite, not hygrophai ous, not yellowish 
as in A. arcuatus. There are several remarkable varieties : 
(1) adstringens, Pers., pileus rigid, gills becoming tinged 
flesh-colour ; (2) polioleuca, stem short, firm, apex pruinose, 
pileus livid grey, gills dingy white ; (3) porphyroleuea, firm, 
pileus rufescent, stem solid, fibrillose. (Fries.) 

Var. polioleucus, Fr. ; Cke. Illustr., pi. 957. 

About the size of the typical form; pileus obtusely 
umbonate, livid grey ; stem almost equal, apex pruinose 
with white meal ; gills whitish ; spores elliptical, 10 x 5 /i. 

Var. porphyroleucus, Fr., Cke., Illustr., pi. 119b. 

Not half the size of the typical form; firm; pileus 
fleshy, umbo darker and evanescent, stem solid, fibrillose; 
gills white. 

Tricholoma gram mo podium. Bull. 
Pileus 3-6 in. across, disc thickish, margin thin, flesh- 
coloured when moist, white when dry, soft, fragile ; cam- 
panulate then convex, obtusely umbonate, even, glabrous, 
pellicle moist in rainy weather but not viscid, brownish or 
livid when moist, whitish when dry; sometimes entirely 
white ; gills adnate with a sinus, or emarginate, narrowed 



220 PUNGUS-FLOliA. 

at both ends, closely crowded, quite entire, shorter inter- 
mediate ones numerous, somewhat branched behind, white ; 
stem 3—4 in. long, -J in. and more thick, base thickened, re- 
mainder equal, cylindrical, firm, glabrous, distinctly longi- 
tudinally grooved, whitish, solid, elastic ; spores subglobose, 
■5—6 /A diameter. 

Agaricug grammopodius. Bull., Champ., Pr., t. 585 ; f . 1 ; 
Oke., Hdbk., p. 42; Cke., lUustr., pi. 98. 

In pastures, &o. 

Distinguished by the grooved stem and crowded gills, 
•which are adnate when the pileus is expanded. Often 
.^rowing in rings. 

u> * » Tricholoma brevipes. Bull. 

Pileus 1^2J in. across, flesh thick, brown when moist, 
• whitish when dry, rigid, then soft ; convex then flattened. 
*he umbo soon disappearing, black i sh-umbe r or brown, 't 
becoming paler, glabrous ; gills emarginate, 1-1^ line broad, 
<5rowded, ventricose, at first with a brown tinge, tlien 
whitish; ste m up to 1 in. long, firmj__rigid, somewhat 
t hickene d_ at the base . ^Tn. thick above, brown both outside 
and inside, solid ; spores elliptical, 7-4 fj.. 

Agaricus brevipes, Bull., Champ., t. 521, f. 2; Cke., Hdbk., 
•p. 43 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 68. 

On the ground. 

Distinguished by the very s hort, more or less bulbo us 
«tem, which is brown both inside and outside. In Cooke's 
ifiguxes the pileus and stem are dingy lavender colour. 

Stem solid, very rigid, at length fibrous, apex pruinose, 
brown both outside and inside ; for the rest very variable, 
.sometimes not more than 2-3 lines high and thick, attenuated 
below ; usually 1 in. long, sometimes bulbous, sometimes 
equal, and slender. Pileus fleshy, soft, convex then flattened, 
glabrous, moist (opaque when dry), about 2 in. across, umber 
becoming pale, often stained with soil. Flesh of pileus 
brownish when moist, becoming white when dry. Gills 
emarginate and almost free, crowded, ventricose, disappearing 
within the margin of the pileus, quite entire, whitish. 
Inodorous. (Pries.) 

Tricholoma humile. Pers. 
Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thin, soft, greyish when. 



TRICHOLOMA. 221 

moist, wMtisli when dry; convex at first, soon expanded, 
wavy, sometimes umtonate, at others depressed, even, 
glabrous, blackish, brown, livid or pallid, depending on the- 
amount of moisture and age, margin thin, extending beyond 
the gills; gills adnexed, rounded behind, and with a slight 
decurrent tooth, or sometimes arcuately decurrent, crowded, 
2-3 lines broad, whitish ; stem 1-2 in. long, about ^ in> 
thick, almost equal, greyish-white, entirely covered with a 
very delicate down, stuffed, sometimes becoming hollow, 
soft, fragile ; spores broadly elliptical, 7-8 X 5 /t. 

Agaricus humilia, Pers., Myc. Eur., iii. p. 218 ; Oke., Hdbk., 
p. 43 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 99 and 263a. 

In gardens, among cinders, grass, &c. 

Very varialDle in form, usually tufted. Allied to T. hrevipes; 
but distinguished by being caespitose, stem softer and 
thinner. 

Allied to T. hrempea, but stem thinner, longer and soften. 
Pileus greyish brown then passing through paler tints and 
becoming pale, often entirely pulverulent. 

Var. blandus, Berk.; Cke., Hdbk., p. 43; Cke., Illustr.,. 
pi. 263b. 

About the size of the typical form ; pileus thin, greyish- 
lilac; gills broad, rounded behind and nearly free, purfr 
white ; stem slender, somewhat broken up into fibrils, rather 
bulbous, the base brown. 

Tricholoma exscissum. Fr. 

Pileus 1-1^ in. across, flesh thin, white ; campanulate then' 
expanded, at length umbonate, even, greyish-brown, hoary- 
when dry ; gills emarginate, 1^2 lines broad, crowded, clear 
white; stem about 1 in. long, and 2 lines thick, almost 
equal, whitish, polished and shining, stuffed then hollow;, 
spores elliptical, 6-7 X 4 /;(,. 

Agaricus (^Tricholoma) exscissus. Fries, Syst., i. p. 114; Cke., 
IHustr., p. 171 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 43. 

In pastures. 

A small but pretty species. Stem solid when young, 
hollow when adult, thin, even, glabrous, shining, 1-2 in. 
long, 1-2 lines thick, equal, pure white. Pileus rather- 
fleshy, campanulate when young, soon expanded, umbo pro- 
minent, at length often undulate, even, glabrous, mouse- 



222 FUNGUS-PLOEA. 

colour or greyish-brown when yoting, at length hoary but 
not becoming discoloured when dry, but shining. Flesh 
thin, white. Gills emarginately adnexed, crowded, 1-2 
lines broad, clear white. Sometimes the pileus is pul- 
verulent but never silky. (Fries.) 

Tricholoma subpulverulentum. Pers. 

Pileus about ]^ in. across, flesh rather thick, hygrophanous ; 
convex then plane and depressed at the disc, even, livid 
but innately pruinose, becoming whitish and hoary, margin 
slightly projecting beyond the gills, and this portion in- 
curved; gUls rounded behind, without a decurrent tooth, 
crowded, 1 line broad, white ; stem 1-2 in. long, 2-3 lines 
thicki often ascending, solid, equal, glabrous, slightly striate, 
whitish ; spores 5 x 3 /i. 

Agaricus subpulverulentus, Persoon, Myc. Eur., iii. p. 221 ; 
Cke., lUustr., pi. 219 j Cke., Hdbk., p. 43. 

In pastures. 

Pileus 2 in. across; dirty white or greyish, with a white 
lustre. (Cooke.) 

** Gills violet, grey, or smoJcy, 

Tricholoma sordidum. Fr. 

Pileus 1-3 in. across, rather fleshy ; oampanulately convex 
then plane or slightly depressed, more or less umbonate, 
glabrous, undulating when old ; livid lilac, brownish or flesh- 
coloured violet when young, becoming discoloured when old, 
and the entire fungus squalid and brownish, becoming pale 
when dry; margin slightly striate when adult; gills at 
first rounded behind, then sinuate and slightly decurrent, 
rather crowded, at length truly distant, violet then pallid or 
smoky ; stem about 2 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, base usually 
thickened, slightly incurved, fibrillosely striate, coloured 
like the pileus ; spores elliptical, 7-8 x 3-4 /j,, minutely 
rugulose. 

Agarims sordidus. Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 51 ; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 100 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 44 (small). 

On the ground ; among manure, &o. 

Allied to TrikJioloma nudwm, but much smaller and more 
slender, very tough, hygropianous. (Fries.) 



TEICHOLOMA. 223 

Tricholoma paedidum. Fr. 

Pileus about 1^-in. across, flesh very thin, tough, "becoming 
whitish ; campamilate then convex, at length expanded, 
umbonate, at length depressed round the conical, prominent 
umbo, moist, virgate or streaked with innate fibrils radiating 
from the centre, otherwise almost even, smoky-mouse-colour, 
opaque, margin naked ; gills adnexed with a slight decurrent 
tooth, slightly sinuate, crowded, narrow, white then grey; 
stem about 1 in. long and 2 lines thick, base slightly bulbous, 
tough, slightly striate, naked, dingy grey ; spores elliptic- 
fusiform, 10-11 X 5-y IX.. 

Agaricus (^Tricholoma) jiaedidus, Epicr., p. 53; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 44; Cke., lUustr., pi 120a. 

In gardens, on dung-hills, &c. 

Small, tough, colour dingy, without a trace of violet 
tinge, distinguish this species from T. sordidum, to which it 
is most allied. T. lixivium differs in the free, truncate gills. 

Tricholoma lixivium. Fr, 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thin, convex then plane, umbo- 
nate, never depressed, even, glabrous, greyish-brown when 
moist then umber, margin membranaceous, at length slightly 
striate, sometimes wavy ; gills rounded behind and adnexed, 
at first appearing as if free, distant, soft, 3 lines broad, 
becoming narrower from the stem towards the margin, 
sometimes crisped, grey; stem 2 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, 
entirely fibrous, often flexuous, fragile, grey, at first covered 
with white down, stuffed then hollow ; spores 7 X 4-5. /j.. 

Agaricus (Tricholoma) lixivius, Fries, Epicr., p. 64; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 44; Cke., Illustr., pi. 120b. 

In woods. 

Eeadily distinguished by the umbonate pileus, and broad, 
grey, nearly or quite free gills. 

Tricholoma putidum. Fr. 
Pileus about I in. across, rather fleshy, hemispherical, 
umbonate, soft, even, margin straight, not striate, but here 
and there with a white silkiness, somewhat olive-grey, hoary 
when dry ; gills slightly adnexed but appearing as if free, 
crowded, ventricose, 2-3 lines broad, distinct, grey ; stem 
about 1^ in. long, 2-3 lines thick, equal, slightly com- 
pressed, soft, rather fragile, slightly striate, grey, with a 



224 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

very delicate white bloom, hollow ; spores elliptical, 
8-io X 3-5 /i. 

Agaricus (Tricholomd) putidus. Fries, Epicr., p. 64 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 44; Cke., lUustr., pi, 172. 

Among pine leaves, &c. 

Smell strong, rancid. Eesembling Oollybia rancida in 
habit and smell, but at once known by the soft stem being 
entirely fibrous, and not at all cartilaginous, and not rooting. 



AEMILLAEIA. Fries. 



. ji>>-i 



-\4.-.' 



Pileus symmetrical, more or less fleshy ; gills adnate or 
slightly decurrent, stem central, passing continuously into 
the flesh of the pileus, furnished with a ring ; spores white, 
elliptical, smooth. 

Armillaria (as a subgen. of Agaricus), Fries, Syst. Myc, i. 
p. 26; Cke., Hdbk., p. 21. 

The principal points to be observed in the present genus 
are, gills more or less attached to the stem, and the presence 
of a ring. In a few species the ring disappears at an early 
period, when the species somewhat resemble those of Tricko- 
loma, but are distinguished by the gills not being sinuate ; 
whereas the gills are generally sinuate, more or less, in those 
species having a permanent ring. In fact but for the 
presence of a ring, the species of Armillaria would fall 
naturally into three sections, belonging respectively to 
Tricholoma, Clitocybe, and Cullyhia. 



ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES. 

* Gills sinuately adnexed ; stem fleshy, substance equal 
throughout, furnished with a ring (resembling Tricholoma 
with a ring). 

** GiUs narrowed behind, more or less decurrent, not 
sinuate ; stem solid, with a ring (resembling Clitocybe, but 
with a ring). 

*** Gills equal behind, adnate ; stem cartilaginous outsid& 
(resembling Collyhia, but with a ring). 



ARMILLAEIA. 225 

* Gills sinuate, adnexed. 

Armillaria bulbigera. A. & S. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh thick, soft ; convex then 
expanded, obtuse, glabrous but fibrillosely squamulose, espe- 
cially near the margin, from fragments of the veil, soft, 
brownish, or yellowish brick-red, diy ; gills broadly emar- 
ginate, broad, at first rather crowded then distant, becoming 
coloured; stem 2-3 in. long, about ^ in. thick, cylindrical, 
base with a distinctly marginate bulb, pale with blackish 
fibrils, stuffed ; ring soon disappearing. 

Agarieus (^Armillaria) bulbiger, Alb. & Schw., Consp.,p. 150 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 21 ; Oke., Illustr., pi. 20. 

In pine woods, &c. 

Keadily distinguished by the distinctly marginate bulb at 
base of stem. 

Armillaria focalis. Fr. 

Pileus 3-5 in. across, fiesh soft, thick at the disc, thin. 
towards the margin, convex then expanded, obtuse, dry,, 
i-ather shining, smooth, silky-fibrillose, reddish-tawny ; gills 
ciuarginate and almost free, crowded, narrow, white then 
pallid ; stem about 3 in. long, up to 1 in. thick, equal, not 
at all bulbous, pale tawny, more or less torn into fibrils, 
sulid ; ring rather large, median on the stem, oblique. 

Agarieus (^Armillaria) focalis, Fries, Epicr., p. 20 : Gke., 
Hdbk., p. 21 ; Cke., Illustr., pi, 245. 

On the ground in pine woods, &c. 

Pileus 4 in. across, pale fawn-coloured; darker above» 
slightly virgate, extreme margin involute ; stem 5 in. high, 
H in. thick at the base, variously lacerated ; mycelium 
■white, fibrillose, ring very broad (to which the specific name 
a,lludes), superior ; odour farinaceous ; ^substance tender. 
Almost agreeing in dimension with the Var. Goliath. 
(B. & Br.) 

Var. goliath, Fries, Monogr., i. p. 5 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 21 ; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 31. 

Stem fibrous, solid, up to 8 in. long, 1 in. thick, usually- 
recumbent from the weight of the pileus, equal or attenu-, 
atod into a rooting base, white outside and iaside, but tawny. 

VOL. III. q 



226 FUNGUS-PLOEA. 

or with: tawny fibrils below. Eing median, fugacious, often 
qiiite obliterated. Pileus flesby, but becoming very tbin 
towards the margin, convex then expanded, at length 
gibbous, margin revolute, 5-8 in. across, moist, not viscid, 
disc even, rufous-bay, towards the margin paler and fibril- 
lose, cuticle torn, becoming whitish. Flesh spongy and 
soft, elastic, white. Gills rounded and almost free, ^ in. 
and more broad ; cuticle of pileus and stem torn into fibrils 
and separable. 

On the ground in woods. 

Intermediate between A. focalis and A. rohusta. 

Armillaria robusta . A. &_S.. 

Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh up to 1 in. thick at the 
centre, hard ; convex then expanded, obtuse, dry, glabrous 
or becoming more or less broken up towards the margin, 
rufous-bay ; gills broadly emarginate, almost free, up to 2 in. 
wide, crowded, whitish; stem 1-2 in. long, up to 1 in. 
thick, base thinner, . often ventricose, solid, firm, reddish- 
whit e and persistently flooculosely fibrillose below the ample, 
distant ring, above which the stem is white and flocculose. 

Agancus (Armillaria) robusta, A. & S., Consp., p. 147 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 22; Cke., Illustr., pi. 33 (called Agaricus 
(jirmillaria) aurantius, Schaeff.). 

In woods. 

Distinguished from A. aurantia by the deeply emarginate, 
very broad, whitish gills, and absence of orange-tawny, 
more or less concentrically arranged wart-like squamules on 
the stem up to the imperfect ring ; and stem attenuated at 
Ihe base. 

Var. minor. Fries, Hym. Eur., p. 41; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 22 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 86. 

Smaller than the typical form, ring and gills very narrow, 
pileus smooth. 

On the ground. 

Armillaria aurantia. Schaeff. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thick at the disc, becoming 

very thin towards the margin, convex then almost plane, 

obtuse, obsoletely innately squamulose, deep orange, disc 

often darker ; gills emarginate, adnexed, about 2 lines broad. 



AKMILLAEIA. 227 

wliite then tiuged witli rufous ; stem about 3 in. long, ^-1 in. 
thick, equal or slightly attenuated upwards, with tawny- 
orange, concentrically arranged squamules up to the obso- 
lete ring, shining white and exuding drops of water in 
damp weather above the ring. .< 

Agaricus (Armillaria) aurantius. Fries, Hym. Eur., p, 41 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 22. 

Agaricus aurantius, SchaefFer, Ic, t. 27. 

In pine woods. 

Varying a good deal in the nature and frequency of the 
scales. 

This is doubtful as a British species. We have only 
heard of the Scotch specimens (lUustr., t. 33), which belong 
to Ag. rdbustus. (Cke.) 

Armillaria ramentacea. Bull. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, fleshy ; convex then expanded, 
becoming almost plane, obtuse or gibbous, at length de- 
pressed and revolute, dry, whitish, or yellowish, cuticle 
broken up into darker, floccose, adpressed scales; gills 
emarginate, adnexed, seceding and becoming free, 3-4 lines 
broad, thin, crowded at first then rather distant, white then 
yellowish ; stem 1-2 in. long, about ^ in. thick, base often 
thickened, white, pruinose; below the oblique, narrow, 
fugitive ring, variegated with brown, depressed squamules, 
solid. 

Agaricus ramentaceus, BulliarJ, Champ. Trance, t. 595, f. 3 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 22 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 71. 

On the ground, under pines, &c. 

Colour of pileus variable, pallid, whitish, or with a 
yellowish or rufescent tinge, squamules and the punctate 
disc darker. SmeU unpleasant. (Pries.) 

Armillaria haematites. B. & Br. 

Pileus about 1 in. across, fleshy ; hemispherical then more 
or less expanded, liver-coloured, rather hispid when dry ; 
yills adnato-decurrent, narrow, whitish with a red tinge; 
stem 1-2 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, thickened at the base, 
solid, coloured like the pileus, whitish above the superior, 
spongy ring. 

Agaricus (^Armillaria') haematites, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 1635; Cke., Hdbk., p. 22; Cke., Illustr., pi. 45. 

Q 2 



228 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Among fir leaves. 

Distinguished by its peculiar colour. Stem sometimes 
^ in. thick at the base, scaly below the ring. Flesh of 
pileus and stem reddish. 

Armillaria constricta. Fr. 

Entirely white ; pileus up to 2 in. across, flesh not thick, 
but compact, convex then plane, obtuse, dry, glabrous, but 
covered with a delicate silkiness from the veil when young, 
never broken up into squamules; gills emarginate or 
rounded, sometimes adnexed or altogether free, very much 
crowded and narrow, unequal ; stem lJ-2 in. long, up to 
^ in. thick, equal or thickened at the base, solid, fibrous, 
squamulose or fibrillose, ring narrow, near the apex. 

Agaricus (^Armillaria) constrictus, Epicr., p. 22 ; Cke., 
Illustr., pi. 46 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 23. 

Among grass in sunny places : especially where the grass 
has been scorched by urine. 

Margin of pileus incurved and downy when young, 
every part becoming pallid when old ; firm ; smell re- 
sembling new meal. (Fries.) 

A much stouter fungus than Armillaria suhcava. 

** Gills more or less decurrent. 

. , Armillaria^ellea. Vahl. 
- Pileus' 2-5 in^ across, disc fleshy, remainder thin, convex 
' then expanded, often becoming more or less depressed at the 
centre, often sooty or covered with olive down when young, 
soon becoming paler, usually ochraceous with a tinge of 
honey-colour, sprinkled all over with small, spreading, 
blackish-brown scales, margin striate ; gills adnata then 
becoming more or less decuirent, rather distant, white with 
a flesh tinge, then brownish and powdered with the white 
spores; stem 3-5 in. long, 3-6 lines thick, rigid, more or 
less grooved, dingy ochraceous, floccose or almost naked 
below the ring, base often covered with yellowish down, 
btuffed then hollow, elastic; spores elliptical, 9 x^-6 /jl^ 

Agaricus (Armillaria) mellea, Cke., Hdbk., p. 23; Cke., 
Illustr., pi. 32. 

At the base of trunks or on the ground. 



AEMILLARIA. 229 

Exceedin gly variable; usually dense! j^caespitose when 
growing at the hase of trunks ; larger when, solitary or 
almost so, among leaves on the ground. Sometimes the 
stem and pileus are suffused with a yellow o r orange tint, .f ' 
which at other times is entirely absent, leavmg the pileus ' 
dingy ochraoeous ; stem and pileus sometimes almost or 
quite glabrous, especially when old. 

Tufted. Pileus 1-5 in. in breadth, hemispherical in its 
young state, at length nearly plane, except in the centre, 
where it is usually, but not invariably, more or less umbp- 
n^e, slightly striated, and often somewhat uneven at the 
margin; surface~Trnoqually covered with dark or black- 
pointed scales composed of bristly hairs, most numerous in 
the centre; the colour of the pileus is otherwise variable,^ — ■ 
dull yellow, brownish-yellow, or reddish. Lamellae narrow, 
whitish, at length partly reddish, rather distant, eight 
in a series, adnate or even slightly decurrent. Stipes 
2 to 8 in. high, robust, firm, somewhat fibrillose, generally 
incrassated at the base, some shade of yellow, changing in 
age to a reddish or olivaceous colour, solid, white and 
spongy within. Annulus always present, spreading, large 
and tumid. Spores white, copious, and when shed from 
the uppermost pilei upon those below them giving them the 
appearance of having been sprinkled with white powder. 
There is scarcely a plant more apt to assume different 
aspects under different conditions than the present one, 
and yet, to an experienced eye, there is always a peculiarity 
about it not easily expressed in words, which is sufficient to 
distinguish it. (Grev.) 

Armillaria subcava. Schum. 

Pileus 1-1-J^ in. across, rather fleshy at the disc, thin else- 
where, convex then expanded, striate to the middle, viscid, 
umbonate, white except the umbo, which is brownish ; gills 
decurrent, rather close; plane below, white; stem about 2 in. 
long, 2 lines thick, equal, punctulate, smooth above the 
distant, torn ring, hollow towards the apex, white. 

Agaricus (Armillaria) suhcavus, Schum., in Flora Danica, 
t. 1843 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 23 ; Cke., lllustr., pi. 46. 

On the ground in pine woods, &c. 

Wholly white except the brownish umbo. Distinguished 



230 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

■from A. constrictus by the longer, tMnner stem, and the 
striate pileus. 

Armillaria mucida. Schrad. 
Pilens 1^-3 in. across, flesh thin and almost diaphanous, 
hemispherical then expanded, obtuse, often rugulose, glu- 
tinous, whitish or tinged with grey ; gills rounded behind 
and, broadly adnexed with a line-like deourrent tooth, 
' distant, broad, white ; stem I5-4 in. long, 3-5 lines thick, 
base thickest, ascending, glabrous, white but base often 
with sooty squamules, rigid, stuffed ; ring near apex of stem, 
white, tumid ; spores elliptical, 15-16 X 8-9 fi. 

Agaricvs (^Armillaria) mucida, Sohrader, Spic, p. 116; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 23; Cke., Illustr., pi. 16. 

Yery variable in size. Eeadily known by the very shiny 
' pileus, which is usually whitish, but sometimes sooty or 
olive-brown. Solitary or caespitose. 

Armillaria denigrata. Fr. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, sometimes even more ; flesh not thick 
. but firm, not flaccid, convex then plane, obtuse, slightly 
viscid when moist, not fibrillose but looking as if covered 
with minute drops of water due to the presence of elevated 
warts, dark fuscous-brown; margin always even; gills de- 
current, rather distant, 1-1^ line broad, at iirst pale brown, 
then darker, scarcely powdered with the spores ; stem solid, 
firm, up to 2 in. long, sometimes equal, -J in. thick, sometimes 
rather ventricose near the base and attenuated below the 
swelling, fibrously striate, pallid fuscous ; dingy within and 
fuscous towards the base; ring attached near the apex, 
narrow, entire, readily falling away, paler. 

Agaricus (Armillaria) denigratus, Fries, Vet. Ac. Forh., 
1861 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 24. 

On the ground in damp, shady places. 

Gregarious or solitary. The species is considered by 
Berkeley to be identical with Ag. (Pholiota) erebius. 

*** Gills adnate, not sinuate. 

Armillaria eitri. Inzenga. 
Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh thin, convex then plane, 
\ rather umbonate, smooth, even, sulphur-yellow, margin 



HIATULA. '231 

crenulate, becoming wliite; gills adnate, narrow, crowdod, 

white; stem 2-3 in. long, about 1 line tbick, wbitisb, pallid, 

rufescent at tbe base, ring superior, ratber large, spreading.; 

spores subglobose, 5x4. 

Agaricus (Armillaria) citri, Inzenga, Sic, t. 3, f. 1 ; Oke., 

Hdbk., p, 881; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1181. 

On stumps. J 

Smell resembling fresb meal. Caespitose. Tbe general 

habit is that of a cluster of small-sized specimens of Mypho- 

toma fasciculata. 

Armillaria Jasonis. Cke. & Mass. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, ratber fleshy, especially at the disc, 
campanulate then expanded, with a distinct rounded umbo, 
granularly papillate, granules innate, golden yellow, tinged 
with tawny at the disc; margin appendiculate with the 
fibrous veil ; gills adnate, scarcely crowded, thin, white, then 
pallid ; stem 2-3 in. long, i-J in. thick, equal or a little 
thickened below, coloured like the pileus, squamulose 
below the distant, torn, squarrose ring; spores elliptical, 
8 X 6 /x. 

Agaricus (Armillaria) Jasonis, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. 
p. 77 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 363; Cke., Illustr., pi. 955. 

On. stumps. 

Eesembling in habit and appearance, several species ot 
Pholiota, but with white gills and spores. 

HIATULA. Fries. 

Pileus symmetrical, very thin, without a distinct pellicle, 
formed by the union of the backs of the gills, splitting when 
expanded ; gills almost or quite free, white ; stem central ; 
spores white. 

Fries, Nov. Symb., p. 11; Cke., Hdbk., p. 224. 

Allied to Lepiota in the thin pileus and free gills, but 
differing in the entire absence of a ring. Not at all deli- 
quescent as in the genus Goprinus, near to which it was at 
one time placed by Fries. 

Hiatula Wynniae. B. & Br. 
Pileus §-1^ in. across, exceedingly thin, campanulate then 



232 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

jDlane, with a trace of an umbo, striate, pulverulent, whitish, 
disc more or less tinged with brown; gills free or veiy 
slightly adnexed at first, rather distant, about 1 line broart, 
white ; stem about 1 J in. long, 1 line thick, slightly striate, 
hollow ; spores white, smooth, 6 X 4 /i. 

Hiatula Wynniae, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1772; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 224; Cke., lUustr., pi. 688. 

In a stove at Kew. 

Undoubtedly an introduced species, and in all probability 
an Australian species, as I have seen specimens from Queens- 
land that agree exactly with Berkeley's type. In Queenslanil 
it is said to be luminous, emitting a greenish light. 



LEPIOTA. Fries, (figs. 6, 7, p. 3.) 

Pileus regular, usually scaly, due to the presence of the 
concrete universal veil and the breaking up of the cuticle ; 
gills free, often very remote from the stem and attached to 
a Cartilaginous collar, stem central, its substance distinct 
from the flesh of the pileus; ring atfiist continuous with 
the cuticle of the pileus, often movable, sometimes soon 
disappearing; voU'a absent. 

Lepiota, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 19; Cke., Hdbk., p. 11 (as 
a subgenus of Agaricus). 

The present genus differs from Amanita and Amanitopsis in 
the absence of a volva, and from every other genus in the 
Leucosporeae in the free gills. 

In many species^but not in all — the flesh of the stemi 
is of a difierent texture to that of the pileus, and its apex, 
terminates in a socket-like depression of the flesh of the 
pileus, a peculiarity clearly evident in a vertical section 
through pileus and stem. The remains of the imiveroall 
veil is thoroughly connate with the cuticle or the pileus, and 
not in the form of removable warts or flakes as in Amanita 
and Amanitopsis. 

The species grow on the ground ; several are met with 
in hothouses, melon beds, &c., and are in all probability 
introduced species. 



LEPIOTA. 233 



ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES. 

A. Cuticle dry, 

I. Proceei. 

Eing movable, distinct from tlie volva. 

When young the fungus is entirely enclosed in the 
universal veil, which splits in a circumscissile manner, the 
basal portion not distinct from the bulb, the upper portion 
being concrete with the cuticle of the pileus, which is usually 
scaly. Stem not peronate or sheathed with stocking-liko- 
continuation of the volva, as in the following section ; apex 
of stem with a cartilaginoiis ring, to which the free, remote> 
gills are attached. 

II. Clypeolarii. 

Eing fixed, homogeneous with the universal veil that 
sheaths the stem. 

Stem floccose or squamulose with the universal veil up to 
the ring; cartilaginous collar at the apex close to the stem^ 
hence the gills are usually not so remote. Flesh soft, smelL 
and taste unpleasant, somewhat resembling radishes. 

III. Annulosi. 

Eing superior, fixed, somewhat persistent; universal veil 
adnate with the pileus. 

Collar at apex of stem absent, or similar in texture to the 
flesh of the stem. 

IV. Geanulosi. 

Universal veil at first contiguous with pileus and stem, 
and when ruptured forms the inferior ring. 

Pileus granular or warted. The stem is not so distinctly 
differentiated from the pileus as in the other sections. 

V. Mesomoei'hi. 

Small, slender, stem fistulose ; pileus dry, cuticle entire. 
Not granular nor torn, as in the seel ion Clypeolarii. 

B. Cuticle of pileus viscid ; not at all hroJcen up. 



L23i FUNaUS-FLOEA. 

A. Epidermis dry. 

I. PEOCEEI. 

Lepiota procera. Scop. 
Pileus 4-9 in. across, flesh rather thick, very soft and 
cottony,- tough, permanently white; cylindrical ovate at ' 
first then campanulate, finally expanded ; nmho prominent, 
broad, and obtuse; cuticle brown, becoming broken up into 
. broad, fiat, thick scales, interstices whitish ; gills terminating 
behind in a broad, plano-depre&sed, cartilaginous collar that 
carries them away from the stem, crowded, ventricose, 
broadest in front, soft, whitish, edge sometimes brownish; 
stem 5-8 in. long, ^ in. thick, base swollen, the remainder 
cylindrical, firm, somewhat cartilaginous, variegated with 
adpressed brown scales, apex inserted into a deep socket 
in the fiesh of the pileus ; internal cavity distinct, at first 
stuffed with delicate fibrils ; ring ample, persistent, becoming 

■ free and slipping down to the base of the stem ; spores 
. elliptical, 12-15 x 8-9 //,. 

Agaricus procerus, Scop., Carn., p. 418; Cke., Hdbk., p. 11; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 21. 

Pileus 3-7 in. broad, at first obtusely conic, at length 
campanulate, strongly umbonate, fleshy, epidermis velvety, 
red-brown, broken into subreflexed scales, the whole re- 
sembling brown shaggy leather ; margin white or pinkish, 
silky ; flesh soft cottony except in the centre when young. 

■ Gills perfectly free, separated by a considerable space from 
the point of insertion of the stipes, ventricose, margin ser- 
rated, pale pinkish yellow or white. Spores white elliptic. 
Stem 8-12 in. high, | in. thick, attenuated upwards, sunk 
deep into the flesh of the pilous as into a socket, very bulbous, 
scaly, hollow but stuffed with a cottony web. Eing coriaceous, 
thick and spongy, convex below, movable. Taste and smell 
pleasant. (Berk.) 

Var, rachodes ; ■ Agaricus rachodes, Vittadinsi, Fung. 
Mang., p. 158, t. 20 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 11 ; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 22. 

Habit, and about same size as the typical form ; differing 
more especially in the stem being ([uite even and not at all 



LEPIOTA. 235 

squamiilose ; flesli of pileus thicker, wliit^, but becoming 
more or less evidently tinged with red when broken. 
Among grass. 

Yar. puellaris, Agancus rachodes, var. puellaris, Fries, 
Monogr., ii. p. 285; Cke., Hdbk., p. 11. 

Smaller than the typical form, white, pileus floccosely 
squamulose. 

Lepiota excoriata. Schaeff. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick, white, soft, un- 
changeable ; globose then expanded, at length flattened, more 
gibbous than umbonate, sometimes altogether whitish, disc 
sometimes brownish, cuticle very thin, sometimes even and 
persistently silky, [sometimes broken up into scales, more 
or less peeling off towards the margin ; giUs free but not 
distant from the stem, soft, white ; stem about 3 in. long, 
4r-5 lines thick, quite equal or very slightly bulbous, hollow, 
even, almost glabrous, not spotted, very distinct from flesh 
of pileus, white; spores 14-16 x 8-9 /«,. 

Agaricus excoriatus, Schaeffer, t. 18, 19 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
, p. 12 ; Cke., Ulustr., pi. 28. 

In pastures. 

Pileus 2i in. across, expanded, often a little irregular, 
, carnose, umbonate, flesh spongy; epidermis cracked into 
small areolae, silky between them, especially on the margin, 
pale fawn, the umbo dark. Gills ventricose, free, so as to 
leave a broad space round the top of the stem, which is 
sunk into the substance of the pileus, dull white, slightly 
watery, imbricate when old ; sometimes much broader on 
one side than on the opposite side of the pileus and some- 
times stained with claret-coloured blotches. Spores white, 
elliptic, with an evident transparent border. Stem l|-2 in. 
high, ^^ in. thick, attenuated regularly upwards without a 
decided bulb, minutely fibrillose, hollow but stuffed with a 
beautiful cottony .^eb, ring deflexed, movable, but not so 
free as that of A. procerus. (Berk.) 

Lepiota gracilenta. Kromb. 
Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick at the disc ; cam- 
panulate then expanded, obtusely umbonate, brownish when 



236 FUJfGUS-FLOEA. 

quite young, wMtisli when expanded and spotted with the 
adpressed, broken up patches of the brown cuticle; gills 
free, remote from the stem, very broad, pallid; stem 5-6 in. 
long, 3-5 lines thick, more or less bulbous at the base, 
whitish, hollow; ring thin, floccose, disappearing. 

Agaricus gracilentm, Krombholz, t. 24, figs. 13, 14; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 12; Cke., lUustr., pi. 28. 

In pastures, also in woods. 

Eesembling L. procera, but more delicate. Stem 5-6 in. 
long, 4-5 lines thick, obsoletely scaly. Pileus at first ovate, 
then campanulate, and at length flattened, spotted with 
brownish scales. (W. G. Smith.) 

Lepiota mastoidea. Fr. 

Everywhere whitish. Pileus 1-1^ in. across, flesh thin, 
soft; ovate or campanulate then expanded, acutely um- 
bonale, the cuticle breaking up into warts which eventually 
disappear; gills free, very distant from the stem, 1^ line 
broad, pallid ; stem 2-3 in. high, 1^-2 lines thick, equally 
narrowing upwards from the bulbous base, glabrous, hollow ; 
ring entire, movable. 

Agaricus (Lepiota) mastoideus, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 20 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 12; Cke., lUustr., pi. 24? 

In woods, &c. 

The most slender of the present section ; entirely whitish. 
(Fries.) 

Distinguished from species in other sections which it 
somewhat resembles, in the gills being very distant from 
the stem, movable ring, and glabrous stem. Cooke's figures 
quoted above, if the right species, differ in having the pro- 
minent umbo dark brown, and the remainder of the pallid 
pileus ornamented with small brown patches more or less 
concentrically arranged. 



II. CLYPEOLAEII. 

Lepiota acutesquamosa. Weinm. 
Pileus 4-5 in. across, flesh thick, firm, pure white; 
hemispherical when young, then expanded and convex, very 
obtuse, pale ferruginous, adpressedly downy, and rough 



LEPIOTA. 237 

with, minute, poiuted brown warts that fall away, leaving 
areolate marks on the pileus, margin rather fringed when 
young and sometimes furnished with fragments of the veil ; 
gills free and attached to a collar, hut very close to the 
stem, lanceolate, 3—4 lines hroad, much crowded, white; 
stem up to 4 in. long and nearly 1 in. thick, elastic, base 
rather swollen, attenuated upwards, white and silky- 
fibrillose above, but with rusty fibrils below, and also with 
spirally arranged scales, ring large, persistent, thin ; spores 
elliptical, 7-8 x 4 /i. 

Agaricus (Lepiota) acutesquamosus, Weinm., Syll., i. p. 70 ; 
Cte., Hdbk., p. 12 j Cke., lUustr., pi. 14. 

On the ground. 

Universal veil floccose, pale ferruginous, forming pointed 
warts on the pileus which fall away readily, leaving areolate 
scars on the fundamental floccose surface, as in Lycoperdon 
gemmatum. (Pries.) 

Distinguished from L. Friesii by the rigid, deciduous 
warts of the pileus, and in the broad giUs being very close 
to the stem, 

Lepiota Friesii. Lasch. 

Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh thick, white, not changing 
colour to any appreciable extent; convex then expanded, 
sometimes slightly umbonate, soft, yellowish-brown, becoming 
torn into adpressed, tomentose scales ; gills free, rather 
distant from the stem, closely crowded, narrow, branched, 
•whitish ; stem 4r-5 in. long, 4-6 lines thick at the apex, base 
somewhat bulbous, coloured like the pileus, scaly, hollow, 
with a web-like pith ; ring superior, fixed, pendulous ; spores 
elliptical or pip-shaped, 8—9 X 5 /x. 

Agaricus Friesii, Lasch, Linnea, vol. iii. no. 9 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 361 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 941. 

In gardens, &c. 

Odour strong. DiEFers from L. procera in the fixed ring, 
and from L. acutesquamosa, to w^hich it is most nearly allied, 
in the branched gills and adpressed scales of the pileus. 

Lepiota Badhami. Berk. 
Pileus 2-4 in. across, flesh thick, and like that of the 
stem becoming safiton-red when cut ; campanulate then ex- 
panded, obtuse, or depressed and more or less umbonate. 



238 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

sooty brown, velvety or broken up into scales ; gills free, ' 
distant, ventricose, 2-3 lines broad, white at first; stem 
2-4 in. long, |-| in. thick, base bulbous, slightly attenuated 
upwards, whitish, silky or floccose, stufied then hollow ; 
ring firm, slightly loose ; spores elliptical, 5 x 3 /x. 

Agaricus (^Lepiota) Badhami, Berk., Outl., p. 93 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 13 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 25. 

Under yew trees, &c. 

L. emplastrum agrees with the present in becoming red 
when wounded, but differs in the thick, smooth cuticle 
becoming broken into large patches as the pileus expands. 

Pileiis 2-4 in. across, at first campanulate obtuse, at length ' 
expanded, often depressed and umbonate, hispid, with minute, 
velvety, fuliginous scales, but sometimes entirely fuliginous 
without any distinct scales. Stem 2-3 in. high, \—\ in. or 
more thick, attenuated above, bulbous below, white, silky or 
floccoso-squamose, stuffed with cottony threads ; ring firm, . 
erect and deflexed, more or less movable beneath, frequently 
clothed with dingy granules ; gills truly remote, ventricose, 
rather broad; spores elliptic, "0003 in. long, flesh tolerably' 
compact. The whole plant when wounded assumes a rich 
red tint. A splendid Agaric, resembling some forms of 
A. dypeolarius, but more robust. In some specimens the , 
surface is decidedly scaly, in others simply velvety. The , 
margin often projects beyond the gills and is delicately 
silky and fimbriated. The stem, though bulbous, is by no 
means marginate. Smell rather disagreeable. (B. & Br.) 

Lepiota emplastra. Cke. & Mass. 
Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thick, firm, white, but like that 
of the stem becoming pink or reddish when cut; convex, 
then expanded, when young covered with a thin, smooth, 
dark brown cuticle that beicomes broken up into large, 
, rregular, persistent patches as the pileus expands, and is 
then entirely absent from the even margin, pallid and silky . 
below the cuticle; gills free, remote fiom the stem, crowded, 
l|-2 lines broad, narrowed behind, whitish ; stem about 3 in. 
long,, J in. thick slightly thickened at the base, otherwise 
equal, more or less striate, pallid, hollow ; ring rather distant, 
erect, externally brown at the margin ; spores elliptical or 
pip-shaped, obliquely apiculate, 18-2Q x 10-12 /a. 



LEPIOTA. 239 

Agaricus (Lepiota) emplastrum, Cke. & Mass., Grevillea, 
vol. xviii. p. 51; Cke., Hdbk., p. 361; Cke., Ulustr., pi. 1164. 

Among grass under trees. 

Allied to Lepiota Badhami, but di-stinguished by the 
glabrous cuticle of the pileus and the much larger spores. 

Lepiota meleagris. Sow. 

Pileus §-1^ in. across, flesh thin, becoming red; convex 
then expanded and almost or quite plane, cuticle broken up 
into minute black scales on a pale ground, disc darker; 
gills nearly or quite free, li-2 liues broad, -svhitish ; stem 
1^—3 in. long, swollen at the base or higher up, blackish 
below, pale with black squamules upwards, stuffed; ring 
obsolete ; spores elliptical, 6-7 X 4 /-t- 

Agaricus meleagris, Sowerby, Pung., t. 171 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 13 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 26. 

In hot-beds, greenhouses, &c. 

It has a solid stem, and a curious, somewhat reticulated 
root, in drying it becomes of a blush-red all over, except the 
lower part, which retains the darker hue. (Sowerby.) 

This species came up abundantly in a hot-house at Coed 
Coch, Denbighshire, amongst spent tan, and is certainly a 
Lepiota closely allied to Lep. clypeolarius. Two forms occur 
which run into each other, the less typical of which has a 
campanulate, obtuse pileus, and is of a darker tint whea dty. 
Pileus at first ovate or hemispherical, very obtuse, fawn- 
coloured, minutely tomentose and warty, then expanded, 
subcampanulate, about 2 in. across, dotted with minute 
brown scales ; stem at first fusiform, then nearly equal, of 
the same colour, here and there tinged with 3'6llow, most 
minutely squamulose, stuffed with cottony threads; ring 
soon ruptured, ver3'^ fugacious ; gills remote, distant rounded 
behind, sometimes connected, white. The whole plant 
changes in drying, or when cut, to a beautiful red. In the 
variety the gills are sometimes lemon-coloured. (B. & Br.) 

Lepiota biomata. B. and Br. 
Pileus 1-2 iu. across, flesh thick at the disc, very thin 
elsewhere, with a faint yellow tinge; convex or broadly 
campanulate, silky, white, sprinkled with minute dark red 
scales that are most nionerous at the disc ; gills free, ventri- 
cose, 2 lilies broad, rather crowded, white then with a pale 



240 FUKGUS-FLOEA. 

yellow tinge; stem 3-4 in. long, 3-5 lines thick, slightly 
■ventrioose near the base, then attenuated and rooting, 
whitish and spotted with red, reddish within, stuffed then 
^hollow ; ring rather distant ; spores elliptical, 8-9 X 6 /x. 

Agaricua (Lepiota) hiornatus, B. & Br., Journ. Linn. Soc, 
^o\. xi. p. 602 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 13 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 37. 

In melon and cucumber frames, &c. 

The present distinct species was first described from 
'Ceylon specimens, and is probably an introduced species in 
ihis country. 

Lepiota hispida. Lasch. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thin, white, unchangeable ; 
hemispherical then expanded, umbonate, tomentose or downy 
ai first from the remains of the universal veil, diiring ex- 
pansion the down becomes broken up into small spreading 
scaly points which eventually disappear, umber brown, 
sometimes with a tawny tinge ; gills free but near to the 
«tem, the collar of the pileus prominent, and sheathing the 
stem, crowded, ventricose, simple, white ; stem about 3 in. long, 
3-5 lines thick, attenuated upwards, densely squamosely- 
wooUy up to the superior, membranaceous, reflexed ring, 
fuscous, stem tubular but fibrillosely stuffed ; spores 
•6-7 X 4 /t. 

Agaricus Mspidus, Lasch, n. 407; Cke., Illustr., pi. 1180; 
Oke., Hdbk., p. 13. 

In shady woods ; among pine leaves, &c. 

Intermediate between L. clypeolaria and L. acutesquamosa, 
agreeing in size with the former, and with the latter in the 
^pinulose pileus. Smell somewhat like radishes. 

Lepiota clypeolaria. Bull. 
Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thickish, soft, white; at first 
obtusely cylindrical, even, apex tawny, surface silky and 
soft but not at all broken up, then campanulately expanded, 
•umbo tawny, the remainder entirely broken up into very 
■soft, yellowish tan-coloured squamules ; gills free but close 
to the stem, up to 3 lines broad, soft, crowded, white or 
yellowish ; stem about 3 in. high, 2-3 lines thick, soft, fragile, 
-equal or slightly thickened at the base, at first squarrosely 
scaly from the breaking up of the yellowish veil, becoming 



LEPIOTA 241 

almost naked and pallid, fibrillose; striate above the ring, 
stuffed then hollow; spores elliptical, 6 x 4 /i. 

Agaricus dypeolari'us, Bull., Champ. Fr., t. 405, f. 2; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 14; Cke., Illustr., pi. 38. 

In woods, hothouses, &o. 

Distinguished from L. cristata by the squamulose stem, 
and more especially by the gills being very close to the 
stem behind. Smell weak or absent. 

Fries mentions the following forms : — (B). In shady pine 
woods ; stem covered with a white, floccose woolliness ; disc 
of pileus not broken up, remainder woolly, yellowish red or 
becoming pale. ((7). In densely shaded beech woods on 
damp, rotten leaves, a slender form with a floccosely 
squamulose stem ; pileiis white, ornamented with con- 
centric brown scales. (D). In swampy places ; pileus rosy, 
squamulose. 

Stem 2-3| in. high, 2 lines thick, hollow but stuffed with 
cottony fibres, whitish, pale brownish or rufescent, the 
whole clothed with fibrillose scales. Eing sometimes re- 
maining on the stem, but more generally attached to the 
margin of the pileus or evanescent. Inodorous and insipid. 
Bearing some resemblance to A. procerus, but smaller and 
more delicate. (Berk.) 

Variable in colour, white, yellow, pink, rufous, brown, &c. 
Pilous 1^ in. broad, whitish, with reddish scales; stem 
2-3|^ in. high, 2 lines thick. Inodorous and insipid 
(Cooke.) 

It is very desirable that the spores of this species and 
allied forms should be caiefally observed, as they seem to 
be the surest distinction between this species and Lep. 
cristata. (B. & Br.) 

Lepiota felina. Pers. 
Pileus 1-1^ in. across, flesh thin ; ovate-campanulate then 
expanded, more or less umbonate, black when quite young, 
after expansion there is a black patch at the disc, the rest 
white, scaly, each minute scale tipped with black, scales 
arranged more or less concentrically, as indicated by the 
delicate, black, broken rings; gills free, rather distant. In- 
line broad margin serrulate ; stem 2 in. long, 1 line thick at 
the apex, becoming thickened downwards, white, sometimes 

VOL. III. K 



242 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

witli Hack specks below, liollo-w ; ring superior, large, soon 
disappearing ; spores elliptical, 10 X 5 /t. 

Agaricus felinus, Pers., Syn., p. 201; Cke., Hdbk., p. 362; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 943a. 

Among moss in fir woods, &c. 

Eeadily known by the wbite pilaus having a black disc, 
and delicate concentric ring of black on the remaining por- 
tion. Sometimes smaller than the measurements given above. 

Lepiota metulaespora. B. & Br. 

Pileus f-1 in. across, flesh thin ; campanulate then ex- 
panded and having the margin sometimes turned up, margin 
coarsely and distantly striate ; whitish, with small pallid 
scales ; gills almost free, ventricose, lJ-2 lines broad, white ; 
stem 2— 2|^ in. high, IJ line thick, nearly equal or slightly 
clavate, smooth, pale lemon-yellow, fistulose ; ring superior, 
spreading, whitish; spores fusiform or obliquely clavate, 
15-16 X 6 yu. 

Agaricus (Lepiota) metulaesjiorus. Berk. & Broome,. Ceylon 
Tungi, n. 67; Cke., Hdbk., p. 14; Cke., lUustr., pi. 39. 

On the ground in shady places. 

This species, in external characters, approaches Lep. 
clypeolaria, but is at once distinguished by the length of its 
spores, which is -0006 in. (= 15-16 /x). (B. & Br.) 

Lepiota cristata. A. & S. (figs. 6, 7, p. 3.) 

Smell and taste strong. Pileus |-1| in. across, flesh thin ; 
campanulate then plane or with the margin slightly upturned, 
obtuse, or slightly gibbous, cuticle at first continuous, then 
broken up into reddish-brown, glabrous, somewhat granulose 
scales that are generally more or less concentrically arranged, 
ground colour whitish, minutely silky ; gills free, at length 
remote from the stem, 1^ line broad, pallid ; stem about 2 in. 
long, IJ line thick, equal or slightly thickened at the base, 
silky-fibrillose, whitish or tinged brown, fistulose ; ring 
distant, entire, soon falling away ; spores elliptical. 

Agaricus cristatus. Alb. <fe Schw., p. 146 ; Cko., Hdbk., 
p. 14 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 29. 

In fields, &c. 

Plant scattered, having a taste and smell strong and 
unpleasant. Pileus obtusely conical when young, gradually 
expanding, and at length becoming quite plane or even 



LEPIOTA. 2 13 

somewhat turned upwards at the margin, the centre re- 
maining iimbonate. The epidermis cracks into a great 
numher of minute reddish scales, which vanish towards the 
edge, leaving that part nearly quite white, while towards 
the centre the scales being smaller and more contiguous, it 
is of a deeper hue. Flesh very thin, white. At its full 
growth, the pileus is from |^ in. to 2 in. in breadth. 
Lamellae moderately numerous, white, 2—4 in a set, rather 
narrow, their edge imeven, often splitting, free, and leaving 
a channel between them and the stipes. Stipes 1 to near 2 
in. in height, about 2 lines in diameter, often less, whitish 
or pinkish, fistulose, smooth. Veil separating early from 
the pileus, and forming a more or less imperfect ring, which 
is subfugacious. Eoot a mass of white, branching fibres, and 
of considerable tenacity, and generally retaining a quantity 
of soil. From Agaricus clypeolarius (= Lepiota clypeolaria), 
it is chiefly distinguished by its peculiar taste and smell, 
and smooth stipes. (Grev.) 

Lepiota erminea. Fr. 

"White. Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh thin, soft, white, taste 
resembling radishes ; campanulate, soon expanded ; disc even, 
prominent or slightly gibbous, sometimes tinged with colour, 
Ary, glabrous and even, the cuticle broken up into fibrils 
near the margin ; gills free but very close to the shem, veiy 
obtuse at both ends, rather crowded, 3 lines broad, clear 
white ; stem 3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, equal, very fragile, 
dry, rather fibrillose ; ring membranaceous, soon torn and 
disappearing; spores elliptical, 11-12 x 4-5 fi.. 

Agaricus (Lepiota) ermineus, Fr., Syst. Myc, i. p. 22 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 14; Cke., lUustr., pi. 40. 

Among grass, &c. 

Somewhat gregarious, very fragile, white ; smell none, 
taste that of radishes. (Fries.) 

Lepiota micropholis. B. & Br. 
Pileus about ^ in. across, flesh, very thin ; conical then, 
plane, white, clad with minute, radiating, dark grey or 
blackish squamules, margin slightly striate; gills free, ^ 
lino broad, crowded, ventricose, white, stem up to 1 in. long, 
^ line thick, slightly thicker below, curved, white, hollow ; 
ring spreading ; spores elliptical, 5 x 3 /x. 

B 2 



244 FUNaUS-FLOEA. 

Agarieus (Lepiota) micropholis. Berk, and Broome, Jouim. 
Liun. Soc, vol. xi. p. 506; Cke., Hdbk., p. 362; Cke., 
Illnstr., pi. 943b. 

On cocoa-nut fibre in a stove. 

Pirst described from Ceylon specimens, and probably in- 
troduced into this country. 

Lepiota citrophylla. B. & Br. 

Pileus up to f in. across, flesli thin ; convex then expanded, 
obtuse or broadly umbonate, at length depressed, lemon- 
yellow, clad with rnfous scales; gills free or slightly 
adnexed, rounded behind or attenuated, lemon-yellow ; stem 
1-1| in. long, 1-1^ line thick, equal, squamulose, lemon- 
3'ellow, stuffed then hollow ; ring almost obsolete ; spores 
elliptical, 7-8 X 4 /j,. 

Agarieus (Lepiota) eitropTiyllus, Berk. & Broome, Linn. 
Journ., vol. xi. p. 609 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 362 ; Cke., lUustr.,. 
pi. 639. 

On the ground. 

Somewhat resembling L. amianthina, but distinguished by 
the free or only very slightly adnexed gills and the whitii 
flesh. 

III. ANNULOSI. 

Lepiota Vittadinii. Pr. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh 4-6 lines tbick at the disc?, 
1 ecoming very thin at the margin, white; convex then 
plane, obtuse, or gibbous, densely covered with small, erect, 
•wart-like scales, altogether whitish; gills free but rather 
•clote to the stem, 3-4 lines broad, rounded in front, thickisb, 
ventricose, with a greenish tinge ; stem 2J-3| in. long, up 
to f in. thick, cylindrical, with numerous concentric rings of 
squarrose scales, up to the superior, large ring ; whitish, or 
the edges of the scales often tipped with red, solid. 

Agarieus (Lepiota) Vittadinii, Fries, Epicr., p. 16 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 15; Cke., lUustr., pi. 36 (after Krombholz). 

In pastures, &o. 

Intermediate between Lepiota and Amanita. (Fries.) 

Differs from L. nympTiarum in the solid stem and superior 
ring. 



LEPIOTA. 245 

liepiota nympharum. Kalchbr. 

Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh thick, soft, white ; convex 
tlien expanded, nmbonate, white or with a fuscous tinge at 
the disc, everywhere covered with somewhat overlap pins;, 
more or less spreading, concentrically arranged scales ; gill.s 
free but close to the stem, without a cartilaginous collar, 
crowded, ventricose, soft, white ; stem 3-4 in. long, 4-5 lines 
thick, inserted into a deep socket of the flesh of the pileus, 
white, somewhat equal, smooth and glabrous below the ring, 
minutely floceose above, hollow ; ring very distant, narrow, 
persistent, fixed, reflexed ; spores globose. 

Agaricus (Lepwta) nympkamra, Kalchbrenner, Icon. Sel. 
Hymen. Hung., p. 10, tab. 2, fig. 1. 

Among grass, &c. 

The flesh of the stem becomes rufous near the oiitside. 
Differs from L. Yittadmii in the hollow stem. 

Lepiota holosericea. Fr. 

Pileus ^—4: in. across, flesh thick, soft, white ; convex then 
■expanded and almost plane, obtuse, silkily floceose and some- 
what fibrillose, even, fragile, whitish or with a tinge of tan- 
eolour, disc not at all gibbous and coloured like the remainder, 
margin incurved when young ; gills quite free, broad, ven- 
tricose, crowded, pallid white; stem solid, 2J-4 in. long, 
^ in. and more thick, soft, fragile, silkily-fibrillose, whitish, 
i)ase bulbous, not rooting ; ring superior, membranaceous, 
large, soft, pendulous, margin turned up; spores elliptical, 
7-8 X 5 ;it. 

Agaricus (Lepiota) holoserieeus, Fries, Epicr., p. 16 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 15; Cke., lUustr., pi 41. 

In gardens, &o. 

Large, inodorous, very soft. 

Lepiota naucina. Fr. 

White. Pileus 2-A: in. across, flesh thick, soft ; spherical 
then expanded and almost plane, somewhat umbonate and 
smooth at the centre, cuticle thin, glabrous, then breaking 
up into evanescent granules ; gills free but very close to the 
stem, 2-3 lines broad, narrow in front ; stem 2 in. long, |^ in. 
thick at the apex, becoming thicker downwards to the swollen 
base, imperfectly hollow ; ring superior, thin, delicate, 
usally soon disappearing ; spores subglobose, 6-7 /* diameter. 



246 FUNGUS-PLOEA. 

JIgaricus (Lepiota) naucinus. Pries, Epicr., p. 16; Cke., 
Ildbk., p. 15; Cke., lUustr., pi. 15. 

In fields, CTicumlDer frames, &c. 

Somewhat caespitose. Eesembling L. excoriata in general 
appearance, but differing in the superior, thin ring, &c. In 
Cooke's figure the pileus is slightly depressed at the disc, 
and no indication of an umbo. 

Lepiota cepaestipes. Sow. 

Pileus 1-3 in. across, flesh thin; ovate then expanded, 
disc fleshy and broadly umbonate, mealy and squamose with 
evanescent plumose scales, pale sulphur-yellow or white, 
disc often brownish, margin plicate; gills free, at length 
distant from the stem, 1-2 lines broad, rather distant, 
whitish or with a yellow tinge ; stem 8-6 in. high, 1^ line 
thick at the apex, swollen, often very considerable at the 
middle or near the base, floccose, white or pale yellow, 
hollow ; ring distant ; spores elliptical, 7-8 X 4 /a. 

Agaricus cepaestipes, Sowerby, Fungi, t. 2 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 16 ; Cke., lllustr., pi. 5, also pi. 942 (as Agaricus (Lepiota) 
cepaestipes, var. cretaceus, BuUiard). 

On tan in hothouses, melon beds, &c. 

Gregarious or tufted. Probably an introduced species. 

Gregarious or tufted. Whole plant white, pale sulphur- 
colour or yellow. Pileus 1-3 in. broad, ovate-conical when 
young, then campanulate, and finally nearlj' or quite plane, 
darker in the centre, and more or less covered with small 
scattered fibrous scales, the flesh thin, and vanishing entirely 
towards the margin, which is plicate and semi-transparent ; 
the substance is however tough, and bears folding between 
the fingers without laceration. Lamellae numerous,'thin, in 
no regular series, the extremities next the stipes broad and 
rounded, and separated from it by a circular space. Stipes 
3-6 in. high, straight or crooked, firm, even-, smooth, narrow 
at the top, but ventricose below, and then narrower again at 
the very bottom, somewhat pruinose, the centre at first fitted 
with delicate silky fibres, at length hollow. Annulus perfect, 
erect, persistent. Sporidia white, copious, elliptical. 

In decay the pileus turns brownish, and, according to its 
situation, either dries up, or becomes covered with little 
globules of fluid, and gradually dissolves. (Grev.) 



LEPIOTA. 247 

Lepiota licmophora. B. & Br. 

Entirely pale lemon-colour. Pileus about 1 in. across, 
flesh very thin ; coarsely grooved, up to the disc, margin 
crenate, subcylindrical, then campanulate, at length plane, 
gills free, very remote from the stem, distant, slightly ven- 
tricose, thin, IJ line broad, interstices veined; stem 3—4 in. 
high, 1-1 J line thick above, becoming thickened downwards, 
base abrupt, smooth, hollow ; ring distant, persistent ; spores 
lemon-shaped, 9-10 X 5 /*. 

Agaricus (^Lepiota) licmophorus, Beik. & Broome, Ceylon 
Fungi, n. 20; Cke., Hdbk., p. 20 & 381; Cke., Ulustr., 
pi. 1179. 

On soil in hot-houses, stoves, &c. 

First described from Ceylon specimens, and undoubtedly 
an introduced species. Distinguished from L. cepaestipes by 
the glabrous pileus. Perhaps only a variety of the last- 
named species. 

IV. GEANULOSI. 

Lepiota ciunabarina. A. & S. 

Pileus 2—3 in. across, flesh rather thick, pallid ; convex 
soon expanded, obtuse or more or less gibbous, granulosely 
scurfy, persistently brick red ; gills free, 1^2 lines broad, 
lanceolate, white ; stem lJ-2 in. long, 2 lines thick, base 
thickened, clothed with red scales up to the imperfect ring, 
pale and smooth above, stuffed ; spores 6-7 X 5 yn. 

Agaricus cinnaharinus, Alb. & Schw., p. 147 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 16 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 43. 

In pine woods. 

Distinguished from L. granulosa by the larger size and 
persistently biick-red, or red-lead colour of the pileus. 

Yar. Terreyij Berk. & Broome, Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1183; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 16. 

Pileus subhemispherical, bright tawny red, rough with 
minute warts ; stem subequal, clad with furfuraceous scales 
of the same colour ; ring at length torn ; gilLs white, narrow, 
remote ; spores 7 x 4 /x. 

Pileus 1-2 in., bright tawny ; scales on the stem of the 
same colour, often cylindrical ; gills not branched. Spores 
•0002 in. long by -00015 wide (= about 7 x 4 /x). 



248 FUN6US-FL0EA. 

This species, -whicli appears quite distinct, approaclies 
L. granulosa on one side, and L. acutesquamosa on the other, 
tut is nearer to the latter than the former. The spores of 
L. granulosa are slightly larger, those of L. acutesquamosa 
are rather longer, and at the same time narrower. (B. & Br.). 

Lepiota carcharias. Pers. 

Smell strong, unpleasant ; taste bitter. Pileus f-l|^ in. 
across, flesh rather thin, white ; convex then almost plane, 
more or less umhonate, granulose, pale flesh-colour or 
yellowish-pink, sometimes whitish; gills adnexed, about 
]^ line broad, clear white, rather crowded; stem about 
l| in. long, l|-2 lines thick, slightly thickened at the base, 
granulose and coloured like the pileus up to the ring, pale 
and smooth above, stuifed then hollow. 

Agaricus carcharias, Pers., Syn., p. 263 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 15; Gke., Illustr., pi. 42. 

On the ground, often under firs. 

Distinguished from allied forms by the strong smell and 
bitter taste. 

Lepiota granulosa. Batsch. 

Pileus |-1 in. across, flesh thin except at the disc, with a 
reddish tinge ; convex then expanded obtusely umbonate, 
granulosely scurfy, rusty or brownish, sometimes nearly 
white, often wrinkled, hoary and pallid when dry, margin 
often fringed with fragments of the veil; gills slightly 
adnexed, crowded, lJ-2 lines broad, white; stem 1-2|^ in. 
long, 2 lines thick, almost equal, floccosely squamulose and 
coloured like the pileus up to the ring, smooth and pale 
above, stufied then hollow. 

Agaricus granulosus,'Bsdsdh,t. 6, f. 24; Cke., Illustr., pi. 18; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 16. 

Woods, heaths, &c. 

Somewhat gregarious. Distinguished from L. cinndbarina 
by the adnexed gills and the pileus becoming pale. L. 
carcharia difiers in the strong smell. L. amianthina is sepa- 
rated by the adnate gills and yellow flesh, especially that of 
the stem. 

Subgregarious. Pileus |-1 in. broad, in general dull 
reddish-yellow, but occasionally ferruginous, pink, ver- 
milion or white. Pleshy in the centre, at first convex, or 



lepiota' 249 

obtuselj' Timtonate, at length often plane or depressed, some- 
"what wrinkled, covered -with furfuraceous scales. Gills 
white or yellowish white, fixed to the stem, ventricose and 
nearly free in depressed specimens. Stem 1-3 in. high, 1-4 
lines thick, slightly incrassated at the base, when young 
solid, but in age hollow, with a core occasionally running 
down from the centre of the pileus, and the base stuffed, 
sometimes slightly compressed, with a subfugacious floccu- 
lose ring about the middle, above which it is slightly 
fibrilloso and beneath it scaly, like the pileus. In the white 
variety above mentioned the pileus and stem were mealy 
rather than scaly and the ring attached in fragments to the 
edge of the pileus. (Berk.) 

Var. rufescens, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1834; 
Cbe., Hdbk., p. 16; Cke., lUustr., pL, 213a. 

This curious form was found near Bristol, by Mr. 
Bucknall, pure white at first, then partially turning red, 
and in drying acquiring everywhere a rufous tint. 

I have not seen the variety indicated above, but judging 
from the figure in Cooke's " Illustrations," it is about the size 
of the typical form, ring obsolete or nearly so, and the stem 
almost smooth throughout. 

Lepiota araianthina. Scop. 

Pileus ^-1 in. across, flesh thin, yellow; convex then 
plane, more or less umbonate, granulosely scurfy, pale 
oohraceous ; gills adnate, crowded, about 1^ line broad, 
white then with a yellow tinge; stem 1^-2 in. long, about 
1 line thick, equal, squamulose up to the ring, smooth above, 
pale, fistulose, fiesh yellow. 

Agaricus amianthinns, Scopoli, Carn., xi. p. 434; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 17 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 213b. 

In woods, pastures, &c. 

Distinguished from allied species by the adnate gills and 
yellow flesh, especially that of the stem. 

Yar. Broadwoodiae, B. & Br. ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 17. 

Pileus hemispherical, yeUow, delicately tomentose, margin 
incurved ; stem equal, and, as well as the ring, mealy ; gills 
white, adnate, sometimes deourrent. 

A very distinct variety, if not species. (B. & Br.) 



250 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Lepiota polysticia. Berk. 

P;leus about 1^ in. across, flesh thick, firm, white ; convex 
then expanded, obtusely nmbonate or qiiite obtuse, reddish 
or yellowish brown, usually broken up into minute adpressed 
scales, margin often fringed with fragments of the veil; 
gills free, rounded at both ends, crowded, 2-3 lines broad, 
with a yellowish tinge; stem 1-1| in. long, 3-4 lines thick 
at the apex, base narrowed, scaly and coloured like the pileus 
up to the imperfect ring, smooth and pale above, stuffed. 

Agarieus (Lepiota) polysticius, Berk., Engl. Flora, vol. v. 
p. 9 ; Cke. Hdbk., p. 17 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 30. 

Among short grass by road sides, &c. 

Pileus 1^ in. broad, not at all campanulate, expanded, and 
broadly and obtusely umbonate ; flesh thick in the centre, 
firm and tough, the epidermis broken into minute flat scales 
of a rich red-brown. Gills numerous, unequal rounded 
before and behind, broad, ventricose, quite free, the margin 
serrulate, white with a slight yellowish tinge. Stem 1 in. 
high, -I in. thick in the middle, divided into two dis- 
tinct portions, the upper one silky of a pinkish hue, the 
lower scaly like the pileus, but the scales browner; attenu- 
ated at the base where it is furnished with many branched 
fibrous roots, hollow, stuffed with fine silky filaments. Eing 
furfuraceoiis, attached in minute portions to the edge of the 
pileus. Inodorous and insipid, (Berk.) 



V. MESOMOEPHI. 

Lepiota sistrata. Er. 

Pileus -|-1^ ill. across, flesh thin ; campanulate then ex- 
panded, obtuse or at times obtusely umbonate, wJiitish, disc 
often darker, tinged with yellow or flesh-colour, pruinose 
with shining particles ; gills almost free, ascending, clear 
white, crowded, l|^-2 lines broad; stem l|-2 in. long, 
about 1 line thick, equal, silky-fibrillose, white, fisttilose, 
loosely stuffed with loose fibrils ; ring torn, fibrillose, attached 
to the edge of the pileus in the form of delicate fibrils, 
fugacious. 

Agarieus (Lepiota) sistratus, Pries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 24 ; 
Cke'., Hdbk., p. 17; Cke., Illustr., pi. 85a. 



LEPIOTA. 251 

Among grass, in gardens, &c. 

Allied to L. seminuda and to i. mesomorplia ; the former 
differs in the mealy stem, the latter in the glabrous pileus 
and stem and in the entire ring. 

This pretty species is remarkable for the iilamentous ring. 
(B. & Br.) 

Lepiota parvannulata. Lasch. 

Pileus up to ^ in. across, disc rather fleshy, remainder 
almost membranaceous, campanulately convex, umbonate or 
gibbous, even, at first appearing to be glabrous, but slightly 
pruinose when young, white with more or less of a yellow 
tinge ; gills free but close to the stem, ventricose, crowded, 
white, not united to a collar round the stem ; stem 1-2 in. 
long, not a line thick, fistulose, equal, ascending or slightly 
wavy, white, fibrillose below the ring, naked and glabrous 
above ; ring small, distant, entire, rather persistent, spread- 
ing ; spores 4 X 2 • 5 /x. 

Agaricus parvannulatus, Lasch, Linnaea, iii. n. 12; Pries, 
Icon., p. 14, pi. 16, fig. 3. 

In pastures, &c. 

In woods the specimens are often larger than the measure- 
ments given above, but the pileus rarely reaches to 1 in. 
across. 

The only species with which L. parvannulata can be con- 
founded is L. erminia, which agrees in colour, and is found 
in similar places, but the latter is much larger, and differs 
in the superior, torn ring, glabrous pileus, radishy smell, 
&c. (Fries.) 

Lepiota mesomorpha. Bull. 

Pileus about f in. across, flesh thin ; campanulate then 
expanded, the margin sometimes slightly turned up, often 
more or less umbonate, dry, even, glabrous, yellowish or 
pale yellow-brown ; gills free, about 1 line broad, ventricose, 
clear white ; stem 1-1|- in. long, about 1 line thick, equal, 
dry, even, glabrous, paler than the pileus, fistulose; ring 
superior, erect, persistent, whitish. 

Agaricus mesomorplms, Bulliard, t. 50C, fig. 1 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 18; Cke., Illustr., pi. 85b. 

On the ground. 



252 FUN6US-FL0BA. 

Distill guisted by the entire, erect ring, and the even and 
glabrous pileus and stem. 

Lepiota semimida, Lasch. 

Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh thin ; campanulate then ex- 
panded, umbonate, floccosely mealy then naked, whitish or 
flesh-colour, margin often fringed with the torn veil ; gills 
touching the stem, thin, | line broad, white ; stem 1-2 in. 
long, not a line thick, equal, whitish, mealy; ring small, 
imperfect, superior ; spores elliptical, 6 X 3 /i, 

Agarieus seminudus, Lasch, Linn., iii. no. 17; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 18; Cke., lllustr., pi. 19a. 

In woods, &c. 

Inodorous. Yery slender and delicate. L, sisirata differs 
in the pileus being covered with glistening particles, and in 
the stem being fibrillose downwards. L. Buclenalli differs in 
the strong smell and the violet powder on the pileus and 
stem. 

Lepiota Bucknalli. B. & Br. 

Smell strong, resembling gas tar, Pileus ^-| in. across, 
flesh thin ; campanulate then convex, white, sprinkled with 
lilac powder, which is densest at the disc; gills touching the 
stem, about 1 line broad, white ; stem 1^-3 in. high, 1 line 
thick, more or less dilated at the base, otherwise equal, 
straight, white, basal half sprinkled with violet powder, 
fistulose ; spores 7 X 3 • 5 /x,. 

Agarieus (^Lepiota) Bucknalli, Berk. & Broome ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 18; Cke., lllustr., pi. 19b. 

On the ground. 

Smell strong, like gas tar. (B. & Br.) 

Lepiota ianthina. Cooke. 

Pileus about f in. across, flesh thin; campanulate then 
■expanded, umbonate, whitish at the even margin, disc 
■dark violet, fibrillose, rest of pileus streaked with innate, 
radiating, violet, hair-like squamules ; gills free, about 1 line 
broad, lanceolate, scarcely crowded, whitish ; stem about 
1 in. long, 1 line thick, nearly equal, somewhat flexuous, 
■whitish, soon hollow ; ring distant, narrow deciduous. 

Agarieus (Lepiota) ianthinus, Cke., Grevillea, vol. xvi. 
p. 101; Cke., Hdbk., p. 363; Cke., lllustr., pi. 944a. 



LEPIOTA. 253 

In a stove. 

Possibly an introduced species. 

Lepiota martialis. Cke. & Mass. 

Pileus up to 1 in. across, flesh tMn, wliite ; campanuliite 
then plane, minutely silky, clear deep pink, disc darker, 
with an ochraceous tinge when old, margin striate; gills 
free, np to 1 line broad, rather crowded, somewhat lanceolate- 
whitish; stem 1-1 J in. long, 1| line thick at the base, 
thinner upwards, pinkish red below the ring, pale ochraceous- 
above ; ring broad, pendulous, rather distant, persistent ; 
spores elliptical, 8x4^. 

Agaricus (Lepiota) martialis, Cooke & Mass., Grevillea, 
vol. xvi. p. 77; Cke., Hdbk., p. 363; Cke., Illustr., pi. 944b. 

On the trunk of a tree fern. 

Eeadily distinguished by the clear pinkish-red pileus. 
Probably introduced. 

B. Cuticle viscid, not broken wp. 

Lepiota meduUata. Fr. 

Smell resembling radishes. Every part pure white. 
Pileus 1J-2|^ in. across, flesh rather thiu, watery; convex 
then expanded, even, glabrous, viscid, disc sometimes 
greyish, fragments of the veil often fringing the margin ;. 
gills free, crowded, ventricose, broadest in front, about 1|— 2 
lines broad; stem 2|-3 in. long and 3 lines thick, equal, 
dry, silky-squamulose below the veil, apex striate, the thick 
external cortex readily separable from an internal tube, at 
length fistulose; ring incomplete, torn, -usually remaining in 
fragments at the margin of the pileus and scarcely evident 
on the btem, rarely distinct and entire or nearly so on the 
stem and almost absent from the pileus. 

Agaricus (Lepiota) medullatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 19; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 18 ; Cke., lUu&tr., pi. 44. 

On the ground. 

Agrees with L. illinita in colour, but differs in the dry 
stem and distinct veil. Differs in colour from L. delicata. 
(Fries.) 

Lepiota delicata. Fr. 
Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh thin ; convex then plane, 



■ 254 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

somewhat iimlionate, even, glabrous, viscid, but granular, 
rufescent or yellowish. ; gills free, crowded, thin, pure white ; 
stem 1 in. long, 1 line thick, equal, dry, whitish, covered 
with floccose down; ring usually entire, membranaceous, 

Agaricus (Lepiotd) delicatus, I'ries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 23 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 19; Cke., lUustr., pi. 18b. 

In woods, also in hothouses. 

Certainly distinct from L. glioderma, although the dis- 
tinctive features are not very pronounced. Differs in being 
only about one-lhird the size; pileus not campanulate; stem 
floccose, not squamose. (Fries.) 

Pileus hemispherical, obtuse, rivulose, viscid, smooth, 
pallid, 1 in. across ; stem ^ in. high, ^ in. thick, transversely 
_ punctate, squamulose, stuffed with flocoi, white above ; veil 
floccose, slightly appendiculate ; gills free, rounded behind, 
approximate, pallid. The veil is really double, floccose, 
covered with scaly particles. Taste like that of Polyjporus 
squamosus. This is clearly a stout form of Lepioia delicata, of 
which we have a figure, from the author, closely corre- 
sponding with our species. (B. & Br.) 

Pries mentions two varieties : — pallida ; pileus yellowish 
or pale rose ; in woods and uncultivated places ; vaporaria ; 
pileus rufescent. 

Lepiota illinita. Fr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thin, white, soft ; ovate- 
campanulate, then expanded; somewhat umbonate, viscid, 
glabrous, margin slightly striate and often fimbriate, usually 
clear white, sometimes tinged with ochraceous or tan- 
colour; gills free, crowded, at length remote from the stem, 
white; stem 2-3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, white, equal, 
. glutinous, ring obsolete, stuffed then hollow. 

Agaricus {Lepiota) ilUnitus, Tries, Obs. Myc, xi. p. 8; 
Tries, Icon., pi. 16, f. 1 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 19. 

In woods. 

Entire fungus glutinous from the universal veil, which 
forms an incomplete ring on the stem, when the pileus 
expands ; partial veil not evident. Stem stuffed when young, 
soon hollow, 2-8 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, equal, fragile, not 
at all floccose or scaly, but glutinous and slimy, but dry 



LEPIOTA. 255 

above the ring. Pileus with the flesh thin, li-3 in. across, 
glabrous, viscid, soft, at length fragile, umbo with a fuscous 
tinge, margin slightlj' striate. GiUs free, at length distant 
from the stem, crowded, soft, often connected by veins. 1'he 
entire fungus is usually clear white, but forms occur having 
the pileus clay-colour or tan-colour, margin even, fimbriate. 
(Fries.) 

Eeadily distinguished by the very imperfect ring, and the 
glutinous pileus and stem. L. medullata differs in having 
the stem quite dry. 

Lepiota glioderma. Fr. 

Pileus 1-2 in. across, flesh thin, soft, white ; campanulate 
then convex, broadly gibbous or obtuse, even, glabrous, 
reddish-bay or yellowish-brown, viscid ; gills free but close 
to the stem, ventricose, broad, pure white, not spotted ; stem 
about 3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, equal, dry, soft, whitish, 
covered with floccose squamules as far up as the incomplete, 
torn ring, quite naked above the ring, whitish or with a 
rufous tinge. 

Agaricus (^Lepiota) gliodermus, Fries, Yet. Ac. Forhandl., 
1852; Cke., Illustr., pi. 118a; Cke., Hdbk., p. 19. 

In pine woods, &c. 

Eeadily distinguished by the dark-coloured, viscid pileus, 
that does not become at all broken up at the surface, as 
usual in the genus. 

Analogous in many respects with L. clypeolaria, but very 
distinct in the even, glabrous, viscid pileus. (Fries.) 

Lepiota lenticularis. Lasch. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh rather thick, soft, spongy, 
white ; globose when young, then campanulate and convex, 
even, glabrous, naked, tan-colour with a tinge of red ; gills 
entirely free, but close to the stem, ventricose, broadest in 
front, closely crowded, whitish ; stem 4^6 in. high, J in. and 
more thick, base slightly swollen, or altogether equal, solid 
but very spongy and soft, more or less squamulose or almost 
glabrous; ring superior yet distant from the pileus, even, 
large ; stem above the ring exuding large drops of water in 
damp weather which dry up and leave spots. 

Agaricus lenticularis, Lasch, Linn., iii. n. 18; Cke., Illustr., 
pi. 17; Cke., Hdbk., p. 19. 



256 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

In damp woods. 

Eemarkable for the great development of the ring, and 
the smooth pinkish tan pileus. Stem 4r-6 in. long, i^ileus 
3-4 in. broad. Fries places it in Amanita. (Cooke.) 

Lepiota Georginae. W. G. Smith. 

Pileus ^-1 in. across, flesh rather thin, white, changing to 
crimson when broken; fragile, campamzlate then plane, 
covered with a dense, viscid mealiness, white, changing 
instantly to crimson when touched, margin at length striate ; 
gills free, very thin, moderately distant, somewhat ventri- 
cose, about IJ line broad, white, the edge becoming crimson 
when touched ; stem 1-2 in. long, up to 1 line thick, slightly 
attenuated upwards, clothed with white, viscid meal which 
becomes crimson when touched, fistulose ; ring evanescent, 
spores elliptical, 10-12 X 6-7 /i, 

Agaricus (^Lepiota) Georginae, W. Gr. Smith, Seeman's 
Journ. Bot., vol. ix. p. 1, t. 112 (1871); Cke., Hdbk., p. 20; 
Cke., Illustr., pi. 132 (after Smith). 

On mosses in a cool fernery. 

Eeadily distinguished by being white at first, and every 
part turning crimson at once when touched. An introduced 
species. 

AMANITOPSIS. Eoze. 

Stem with a volva at the base ; ring absent ; remainder 
as in Amanita. 

Amanitopsis, Eoze, in Karst., Hattsv., i. p. 6 ; Sacc, SylL, 
vol. V. p. 20. 

Amanita, Pers., Syn., p. 246 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 6 (as a sub- 
genus of Agaricus). 

The present genus differs from Amanita in the absence of 
a ring, and from Lepiota in the presence of a volva. 

Amanitopsis vaginata. Eoze. 
Pileus~2^^in. acirosiiTIesh rather thin, whitish ; campanu- 
late then expanded, obtuse, glabrous, naked or rarely with 
fragments of the volva attached, moist in rainy weather, 
somewhat shining when dry, margin quite membranaceous 
and coarsely striate; colour variable, lead-colour, orange- 
rufous, whitish, &c. ; gills free, ventricose, uot much crowded, 



AMANITOPSIS. 257 

■white or pallid ; stem 4-5 in. high, ^ in. thick at the base, 
eqnally attemiated upwards, very soft and at length fragile, 
the entire surface broken up into squamules, hollow or -with 
fine fibrils more or less occupying the cavity ; volva entirely 
free from the stem, except a point at the extreme base, 
sheathing, lax, fragile ; spores elliptical, 10 x 7-8 fi.. 

Amanitopms vaginata, Eoze, in Karsten, Hattsv., i. p. 7. 

Agaricus (^Amanita) vaginatus, Cke., Hdbk., p. 10 ; Cke., 
Illustr., pi. 12, & 18. 

Agaricus vaginatus. Bull., t. 98, 512. 

Agaricm nivalis, Grev., Scot. Or. FL, t. 18 (the white 
form). 

Among grass, in woods, &c. 

Pileus 4 in. or more broad, plane, slightly depressed in the 
centre, scarcely umbonate, fleshy except at the extreme 
margin, which in consequence is elegantly grooved ; viscid 
when nioist, beautifully shining when dry; at first there 
are a few broad scales, the remains of the volva, but these 
soon vanish; the epidermis easily peels off. GUIs free, 
ventricose, broadest in front, often imbricated, white. Spores 
white, round. Stem 6 in. or more high, J-1 in. thick, 
attenuated upwards, obtuse at the base, where it is furnished 
with a volva which is adnate for about an inch and then, in 
general, closely surrounding it like a sheath, but sometimes 
the margin is expanded, marked within at the base, with' 
the groves of the pileus, brittle, sericeo-squamulose, scarcely 
fibrillose, but splitting with ease longitudinally, hoUow, or 
rather stuffed with fine cottony fibres, the very base solid, 
not acrid, insipid ; smell scarcely any. The volva is easily 
overlooked if care be not taken to dig up the very base of 
the stem, as it is apt to be entangled in the grass. It occurs 
of various colours; the more general one is a mouse-grey. 
Bolton figures a tawny variety agreeing with A. fulvus, 
Schaeff., t. 95. Others are figured by Schaeffer of a bluish 
and bay hue. Batsch has a white and Haller a green 
variety. (Berk.) 

White. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, ovate in the volva, then 
convex, at length plane and subumbonate, the centre sub- 
ochraceous, at first warty then quite smooth. Flesh white, 
very thin on the margin. Gills subdistant, broad in front, 
narrow behind, entire. Stem 3-5 in. high, 3-4 lines thick, 

VOL. III. s 



258 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

naked, stuffed with spongy fibres, TjulboTis at the base, with 
a constriction where, the volva becomes free. Volva loose, 
persistent. (Grev.) This applies to Ag. nivalis, Grev. 

Amanitopsis strangulata. Fr. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh rather thick, whitish, not 
changing colour ; campanulate then expanded, plane when 
adult, margin striate when young, then sulcate, slightly 
Yiscid, glabrous, livid-bay, becoming pale, with numerous 
wart-like fragments of the Tolva ; gills free, without a de- 
current line on the stem, crowded, ventricose, 3 lines broad, 
clear white ; stem 4-6 in. long, up to 1 in. thick at the base 
and gradually attenuated upwards, pale, stuffed then hollow ; 
Tolva adnate, becoming broken up into 1-3 irregular rings 
•owing to increase in length of the base of the stem. 

Agarieus (Amanita) strangulatus. Fries, Epicr., p. 6 ; Fries, 
Icones, p. 11, t. 11; Cke., Hdbk., p. 10; Cke., Illustr.,pl. 13. 

In woods. 

Colour mouse-grey ; smeU none ; taste sweet, (Cke.) 

Amanitopsis adnata. W. G. Smith. 

Pileus about 3 in. across, flesh rather thick, whitish, firm ; 
•convex then expanded, rather moist, pale yellowish-buff, 
often famished with irregular, woolly patches of the volva ; 
margin even, extending beyond the gills ; stem 2-4 in. long, 
^ in. thick, cylindrical, rough, fibrillose, pale buff, flesh 
distinct from that of the pileus, stuffed then hollow ; base 
fiolid slightly swollen, volva adnate, white, downy, margin 
free and lax, sometimes almost obsolete ; gills truly adnate, 
crowded, with many intermediate, shorter ones, white ; 
spores subglobose with an oblique apiculus, 7-8 /*. 

Agarieus (Amanita) adnatus, W. G. Smith. Saund. & Smith, 
t. 20 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 10 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 35. 

Woody pl|aoes, under oak and holly. 



AMANITA. Fries, (figs. 4, 5, p. 3.) 

The universal veil at first completely enclosing the whole 
fungus, becoming ruptured by the increase in length of the 
stem, one portion remaining as a volva or sheath at the 
base of the stem, the remainder usually forming separable 



AMANITA. 259 

scales or patches on the pileus ; stem central, its substance 
usually distinct from the flesh of the pileus, furnished with 
a ring ; gills free. 

Amanita, Pries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 12 ; Cke., Hdhk., p. 6 (as 
a subgenus of Agaricus). 

The universal veil is quite distinct from the pileus. Most 
nearly allied to Amanitopsis, which differs only in the absence 
of a ring. Lepiota differs in the absence of a volva. 

All the species grow on the ground. 



ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES. 

* Volva splitting at the apex or clrcumscissile, limb free, 
persistent. Pileus naked or with broad membranaceous 
fragments of the pileus. 

** Volva distinctly circumscissile, margin persistent, the 
upper portion broken Tip into thick warts by the expansion 
of the pileus. 

*** Volva very friable, entirely broken up into wart-like 
scales. Pileus with unequal mealy patches which soon 
disappear, or with small, hard, polygonal warts. 

**** Volva almost obsolete, flocculose, entirely dis- 
appearing. 

* Volva splitting or circumscissile; pileus naked or with 

irregular patclies. 

Amanita virosa . Tr. 
Foetid. Entirely pTire^white; rarely with a tinge of 
yellow on the pileus. PUeuT^f-i in. across, fleshy, at first 
acutely conical, then campanulate, at length expanded, 
naked, viscid in moist weather, shining when dry, margin 
always even, but often unequally waved and incurved.; gills 
free, thin, 2 lines broad, slightly broader in front, not 
decurrent, crowded, margin minutely flocculose ; stem 4-6 in. 
long, f in. thick at the base, slightly attenuated upwards, 
apex often compressed, surface t orn into squamules, entirely 
stuffed, almost solid, ring near apex of stem,~lax^Bi^yj_torn, 

s 2 



260 I'UNGUS-PLOEA. 

fragments often adhering to the gills and margin of the 
pileus ; volva large, lax, irregularly splitting at the apex ; 
spores snbglobose, 8-10 /x diameter. 

Agaricus (Amanita) virosus, Fries, Epicr., p. 3; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 1, 

In damp woods. 

Distinguished by the strong, disagreeable smell, white 
colour, and large, lax volva. 

Amanita phalloides. Fr. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh rather thick, white ; ovate then 
campanulate, at length expanded, obtuse, covered with a 
pellicle that is viscid when moist, but not glutinous, rarely 
with one or more fragments of the volva attached, margin 
regular, even ; colour very variable, usually white or pale 
yellow when exposed to light, greenish or with an olive 
tinge, or often spotted when in shady places; gills free, 
ventricose, 3-4 lines broad, pure white ; stem 3-5 in. long, 
|-|- in. thick, almost glabrous, white, bulbous, solid at the 
base, hollow and slightly attenuated upwards, often curved ; 
ring superior, large, reflexed, slightly striate, tumid, usually 
entire, white ; volva more or less buried in the ground, 
bulbous, nearly free, margin torn, lax ; spores subglobose, 
7-8 /A diameter. 

Agaricus (Amanita') phalloides. Pries, Epior., p. 4 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 6 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 2. 

Agaricus vernus. Bull., t. 108; Cke., Hdbk., p. 7; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 3. 

Smell not strong but unpleasant. Distinguished by the 
ample, nearly free volva and the large ring. Fries says 
that he has met with this species in late autumn having the 
disc of the pileus almost black and becoming whitish towards 
the margin. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad, fleshy subhemispherical, then ex- 
panded or even slightly depressed, sometimes slightly umbo- 
nate, irregularly scaly from the fragments of the volva 
adhering to the shining surface, which is slimy when moist ; 
the margin quite even and free from striae; white, straw- 
coloured, olive-green with brown markings, &c. Gills 
numerous, unequal, ventricose, broader in front, pure white, 
subadnexed, sometimes quite free; when young covered 



AMANITA. 261 

with a mem'brane wliioli in course of expansion either falls 
off or forms a deflexed ring. 

Stem 3-4 in. high, half an inch thick, fibrillose with a 
few adpressed scales arising from the partial ring which was 
at iirst in contact with it, attenuated upwards, bulbous 
below and there furnished with a variously lobed volva, 
which is adnate with the base of the stipes, but has the 
margin free and more or less expanded, in general hollow at 
the apex or for some distance down, though occasionally the 
inner substance is only a little more spongy than the outer, 
varying much in size and colour and degree of scaliness, and 
according to Fries in the manner of adherence of the volva. 
When fresh it has a powerful but not disagreeable smell ; 
when past maturity, its odour becomes almost insupportable. 
(Berk.) 

Amanita mappa. Fr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, rather fleshy; convex then plane, 
ohtuse or depressed, orbicular, dry, usually white or yellowish, 
margin for the most part even ; gills adnexed, crowded, 
narrow, clear white ; stem 2-3 in long, 3-5 lines thick, 
white ; ring superior, soft, lax, usually torn ; volva splitting 
in a regularly circumscissile manner, a portion remaining on 
the pileus in the form of broad, irregular, seceding scales, 
base globosely-bulbous, connate with the stem, margin acute, 
distinct and distant ; spores subglobose, 7-9 ft. diameter. 

Agaricus (Amanita) mappa, Fries, Epicr., p. 4 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 7 ; Cke., Illustr., pi. 4. 

In woods. 

Smell strong; colour variable. Somewhat resembling 
A. pTialloides, but differing in the shorter, equal stem. 

** Volva circumscissile ; pileus warted. 

Amanita pantherina. Fr. 
Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh thin except at the disc, per- 
sistently white ; convex then almost or quite plane, margin 
striate, reddish-yellow or hrownish, cuticle viscid, usually 
ornamented with pale, flat, mealy warts; gills narrowed 
hehind and free but dose to the stem, broad in front, white ; 
stem 4-5 in. long, J in. thick, hulbous, more or less silky or 



262 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

broken up into scales, wHtisli, stuffed then hollow; ring 
distant, usually oWique ; volva adnate, the extreme margin 
only free ; spores elliptical. 

Agaricus (Amanita) pantherinus, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 16; 
Cke., Hdhk., p. 8 ; Oke., Illustr., pi. 6. 

In woods and in pastures under trees. 

Solitary. Pileus 4 in. broad, at first convex with many 
flat mealy warts, which rub off with difficulty ; then expanded 
and slightly depressed, glutinous when moist, when dry soft 
to the touch like kid leather ; beneath the gluten are minute 
fasciculato-pilose scales, but quite adpressed and innate, 
reddish grey or brown, according to Fries sometimes livid, 
margin sulcate and tubercled. Gills broad in front, free, 
white. Spores round, pure white. Stem' 5 in. high, ^ in. 
thick, stuffed, at length more or less hollow, bulbous, either 
silky and even or torn into reflexed scales ; ring deflexed ; 
volva quite smooth, connate, the extreme margin only free 
all round.. (Berk.) 

Amanita musearia. Fr. 

Pileus 4-8 in. across, flesh rather thin in proportion, white, 
yellowish just under the cuticle ; globose then plane, margin 
■ striate, pellicle viscid, usually deep_s.Q adet, but sometimes 
orange, lemon-yellow, or" brownish, becoming whitish ; gills 
approaching the stem, down which they form decurrent 
lines, 3-5 Unes' broad, white or with a tinge of yellow ; stem 
4-7 in. high, up to 1 in. thick, base ovately bulbous, stuffed 
then hollow, whitish, ring superior, lax; volva adnate, 
broken up into concentric scales ; spores elliptical. 

Agaricus [Amanita') muscarius, Syst. Myc, i. p. 16 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 7; Cke., lUustr., pi. 117. 

In woods, especially birch and fir. 

Pileus 3-6 in. broad, convex at first, at length nearlj' or 
quite plane,- striated at the margin, mostly bright red or 
orange, but varying sometimes to liver-colour, yellowish, 
or even whitish, warty. Warts white or yellowish, pro- 
minent, pretty ' regularly scattered Over the siirface, some- 
times wanting. Lamellae adnate with the stipes, very 
numerous, broad, white. Flesh thick, white, partaking to a 
small depth of the colour of the pileus. Stipes smooth, white,i 
very straight, subsolid; 4-8 in. high, nearly an inch thick, 



AMANITA. 263 

bulbous at the base. Veil annular, white. Volva perfect 
only in extremely young plants, cracking immediately into 
pyramidal warts, which become less elevated, and generally 
leaving a few traces upon the bulb at the base of the stem. 

This most splendid chief of the agaricoid tribe really 
deserves the name of imperial, applied to it by Batsch, for 
the most indifferent person must be attracted by the glowing 
hues of its ample pileus, its regular form, and tall pillar-like 
stipes; eminently conspicuous, even at a distance, in the 
shaded recesses of its native woods. In the Highlands of 
Scotland it is impossible not to admire it, as seen in long 
perspective between the trunks of the straight fir-trees ; and 
should a sunbeam penetrate through the dark and dense 
foliage, and rest on its vivid surface, an effect is produced 
by this chief of a humble race which might lower the pride 
of many a patrician vegetable. (Grev.) 

Amanita excelsa. Tr. 

Pileus 4-5 in. across, flesh thick, everywhere white, un- 
changeable ; soft, globose, expanding until quite plane, viscid 
in damp weather, then the surface often becomes wrinkled 
into wart-like projections or variously cavernous and lacu- 
nose; warts or fragments of the volva friable, irregular, 
angular, greyish-white, readily separating and disappearing, 
colour of pileus brownish-grey, centre darker ; margin even 
at first, but when fuUy expanded and developed, evidently 
striate; gills free, not striately decurrent down the stem, 
ventricose, J in. and more broad; pure white, with many 
intermediate short ones ; stem at first stuffed, almost solid, 
but becoming hollow, 4r-Q in. long, 1 in. thick, base a de- 
pressed sphere, above which the stem is attenuated upwards, 
the epidermis broken up into dense, concentric scales up 
to the ring or near the base only ; apex striate ; bulb some- 
what marginate when young, but not at all separable, 
margin scaly, immersed in the ground, somewhat rooting, 
having irregularly concentric grooves below the margin; 
ring superior, large, becoming free or torn ; spores 
8-9 X 5-6 /^. 

Agaricus {Amanita) excelsa, Pries, Epicr., p. 8; Cke., 
lUustr., pi. 6; Cke., Hdbk., p. 8. 

Grassy places in woods. 



264 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Solitary. Pileus 4 in. broad, umber-grey, ^lightly viscid, 
smooth, easily rubbed off; epidermis tough and clammy, 
easily peeling off; margin not striate. Gills obtuse before 
and behind. But much broader in front, truly free, ^ in. 
broad, the margin slightly uneven. Stem 6 in. or more 
high, 1 in. thick, going deep into the earth; scaly below the 
ring, scales thick and squarrose ; above the ring the scales 
are closely adpressed, their interstices finely silky, apex 
striate, tolerably firm, juicy, of an unchangeable white, 
distinct from the pileus, though nearly of the same sub- 
stance ; ring half way down, large, substriate within, ex- 
ternally downy. Taste pleasant. (Berk.) 

Amanita strobilifdrmis. Vitt. 

Pileus 5-8 in. across, flesh thick at the disc, thin towards 
the margin, firm, white, convex then expanded, with a 
distinct pellicle, margin even, extending slightly beyond 
the gills, white, greyish, or yellowish-brown, warts large, 
angular or pyramidal, hard, closely adnate and persistent; 
gills rounded behind and free, broad, whitish; stem 6-7 in. 
long, up to IJ in. thick, solid. Floccosely scaly, expanding 
at the base into a subterranean bulb having 1-2 concentric, 
acutely marginate rings ; ring superior, large, torn. 

Agaricus (Amanita) strohiliformis, Vittadini, Fung. Mang., 
i. 9 ; Cke., Hdbk., p. 8 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 8, and 277. 

Borders of woods, &c. 

Pileus when young subglobose, bulb of the stem conical 
below, rooting, its border sometimes incised all round, some- 
times even, flocoose above to the edge of the pileus ; scales 
of the pileus large, wart-like, with a brown disc and white 
floccose border, at length falling off. Pileus when expanded 
S or 9 in. across, at length quite smooth ; margin extending 
beyond the gills. Stem 6-7 in. high, 1^ in. thick, firm, 
solid ; bulb not properly scaly ; veil large ; gills rounded 
behind, the shorter ones denticulate at the base. Smell and 
taste at first slight, at length disagreeable. 

This is undoubtedly the species of Vittadini and Bulliard. 
Too much stress must not be laid upon the incision of 
the bulb or its scales, for neither character is constant. 
(B. & Br.) 



AMANITA. 265 

Amanita solitaria. Bull. 

Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh, rather thin, persistently white, 
compact ; convex then almost plane, with a distinct pellicle, 
margin almost even, whitish or with a rufous tinge, with 
rather small, scattered, floccose, angular warts that are easily 
removed ; stem solid, equal, 3-4 in. long, 1 in. thick, clothed 
with imhricated scales below, coloured like the pileus, bulb 
campaniilate, rooting, marginate; ring superior, torn; gills 
narrow behind and adnexed, broad, white. 

Agaricus solitarius, Bulliard, Champ. Fr., t. 48; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 361 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 939. 

On the ground, in damp places. 

Distinguished by the scaly stem and rooting base of the stem. 

*** Volva entirely friable. ujv^"- ' 

Amanita rubescens. Fr. ( - 

Pileus 3-6 in. across, flesh thick, white, becoming dingy 
red when broken ; convex then expanded, dingy flesh-colour, 
reddish-brown, or tan-colour, sprinkled with small, adnate 
warts ; gills narrowed behind and touching the stem, down 
which they pass as decurrent lines, whitish ; stem about 
3 in. long, 1 in. thick at the base, oonically attenuated 
upwards, stuffed, more or less scaly, whitish then stained 
with red, flesh turning red with age or when broken; ring 
superior, large, entire, drooping; volva nearly obliterated, 
bulbous base of stem more or less concentrically grooved ; 
spores elliptical, 8 x 6 /;i. 

Agaricus (^Amanita) rubescens, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 18 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 8; Cke., Illustr., pi. 9 and 1163. 

In woods, &c. 

Very variable, but readily distinguished from every other 
species by the flesh becoming red when broken. Stem and 
pileus usually becoming red when bruised. In very rainy 
weather the warts of the pileus are often washed off. 
A form with a short, subequal stem, and smaller, crowded, 
firmly adhering warts, requires to be carefully distinguished 
from A. asjpera. (Fries.) 

PUeus convex, reddish, unequally warty, warts flat ; 
smooth and even on the margin ; in old specimens there is 
sometimes an appearance of striae on the margin in con- 
sequence of its becoming transparent, slightly viscid, flesh 



266 FUNGTJS-FLOKA. 

tuming red when cut, more or less completely. Gills broad 
in front, narrow beHnd, adnexed by a fine prominent line. 
Spores snbeUiptic. Stem stuffed at length more or less 
hollow, bulbous, the bulb more or less smooth, above the 
ring clothed with flat adpressed scales; below the ring the 
scales have their upper margin free and patent ; ring large, 
deflexed, striate. Smell strong, taste not unpleasant. Such 
is the form which occurs not unfrequently in the South of 
England. The discoloration of the flesh is by no means 
strongly marked. Indeed I find specimens in which it is 
very slight, and the change is rather to brown than red ; 
the stem furfuraceous below the ring, and above striate and 
pulverulent ; the volva thick and smooth. (Berk.) 

Amanita spissa. Fr. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across, flesh rather thick, white, unchange- 
able; convex then plane, obtuse, glabrous, even, but more 
or less covered with small, angular, adhate, greyish warts, 
umber, sooty, or grey ; margin even but often torn into 
fibrils ; gills approaching very close to the stem, down which 
they run in fine decurrent lines, broad, crowded, clear white , 
stem 2-3 in. long, nearly 1 in. thick, clear white, solid ; bulb 
globose-depressed, not marginate, slightly rooting; stem at 
length concentrically cracked and squamulose ; ring superior, 
large; spores rather pear-shaped, 9-10 x 6 /*. 

Agaricws {Amanita) spissus, Pries, Epicr., i. p. 9 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 9 ; Cke., lUustr., pi. 69. 

-In woods. 

Pileus often torn and fibi-illose at the magin ; warts thin, 
adnate, mealy, grey. 

Amanita nitida. Er. 
Pileus about 4 in. across, flesh rather thick, white, almost 
unchangeable, somewhat compact, hemispherical, covered 
with the thick floccose volva wbich becomes broken up 
into thick, adherent, brownish, angular warts as the pileus 
expands, dry, shining, whitish, without a viscid pellicle, 
margin always even; gills free, crowded, up to ^ in. broad, 
ventricose, crowded, clear white; stem almost 3 in. long, 
1 in. thick, conicaUy attenuated upwards, solid, base bulbous, ! 
sqnamulose, white; ring superior, thin, torn, rather striate, 
white, downy below, at length disappearing. 



AMANITA. 267 

Agaricus (Amanita) nitida, Fries, Epicr., p. 8 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
p. 9 ; Cke., lUustr., t. 70. 

In shady woods. 

Eeadily known by the wMtish pileus bearing large, hard, 
thick, angular warts. 

Amongst several specimens, some exactly agree with the 
definition of Fries in the thick indurated angular warts, 
while others approach so near to A. mappa that it is difficult 
to distinguish them. (B. & Br.) 

Amanita aspera. Fr. 

Pileus 2-3 in. across, flesh rather thick at the disc, whitish, 
reddish or brownish under the cuticle ; convex then plane, 
margin thin and even, rough with firmly adnate, minute, 
closely crowded, angular warts, reddish brown or livid 
brownish, not pure white, unchangeable; gills free and 
rounded behind, not striately decurrent, ventricose, white ; 
stem stuffed, short at first, ovate, then elongating to 2-3 in., 
attenuated upwards from a rugulose bulb, squamulose, white 
without and within ; ring superior, entire ; spores 8 x 6 /i. 

Agaricus (Amanita') asper, Fries, Epicr., p. 9 ; Cke., lUustr., 
pi. 10; Cke., Hdbk., p. 9. 

In woods, especially beech. 

Free margin of volva obsolete and pileus densely crowded 
with innate, minute, sharp warts distinguish this species. 
Pileus sometimes with an olive tinge, stem up to 4 in. long, 
^ in. thick- 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad, at first convex, then expanded, 
scarcely umbonate, reddish, with various tints of livid and 
grey, clothed with small acute warts, margin not striate; 
flesh thick, permanent white, except immediately beneath 
the epidermis. Gills white, broad in front, with sometimes a 
little tooth behind running down the stem, at length more or 
less imbricate. Stem 2-3 in. high, sometimes 1^ in. thick at 
the base, but often much less; bulbou«i the bulb rather rough, 
striate above the ring, diffracto-squamulose, or silky below, 
stuffed ; ring broad striate. Flesh of the stem when eaten 
by maggots- and bulb when old, red. The delicate stirface 
of the ring and stipes is brick-red when touched, or from 
the pressure of the surrounding grass. Odour strong, taste 
not unpleasant. • (Berk) 



268 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

**** Volva almost obsolete. 

Amanita magnifica. Fr. 

Pileus 3-5 in. across, flesh rather thick, white, then like 
that of the stem reddish ; convex then almost plane, almost 
naked or with scattered mealy patches of the pileus that 
do not form warts, reddish-hrown or liver-colour, margin 
striate ; stem 4-5 in. long, up to f in. thick, almost equal 
or more or less hulbous at the base, scaly and coloured like 
the pileus up to the superior, large, drooping, seceding ring, 
pale above, stuffed then hollow ; v^olva obliterated ; gills 
narrowed behind and slightly deourrent, rather narrow, 
whitish. 

Agaricus (Amanita) magnificus. Fries, Epicr., p. 10 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., p. 9 ; Cke., Jllustr., pi. 34. 

Under beech-trees, &c. 

The whole fungus is sometimes more slender than indi- 
cated above. Allied to A. ruhescens, but differing in the de- 
current gills, absence of warts on the pileus, stem becoming 
hollow, &c. 

In fir woods. Our plant differs from the figure in 
Fl. Dan., t. 2146, in having a bulbous base. Pileus cam- 
panulate, even, with scattered mealy patches ; stem attenuated 
upwards, transversely scaly. Whole plant dark liver-red, 
with the exception of the white, adnexed gills. Allied to 
A. rubescens, but quite distinct, though variable. Fl. Danica, 
tab. 2148, fig. 2, which is referred by Fries to this species, 
has, like the Agaric before us, a bulbous base. (B. & Br.) 

Amanita megalodactyla. Berk. 

Strong scented. Pileus 2-2J in. across, flesh rather thick, 
white ; convex then expanded, somewhat gibbous, soft, smooth, 
reddish-grey, cuticle not broken up, margin even; gills 
free, 2-3 lines broad, paUid, becoming tinged with red ; stem 
4^5 in. long, ^ in. thick, slightly bulbous, solid, fibrillose, 
white ; ring superior, large, spreading ; volva floccose, almost 
obsolete, entirely adnate ; spores elliptical, 5 x 3 /;i. 

Agaricus (^Amanita) msgalodaeiylus. Berk.. Outl., p. 91 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., p. 9j Cke., lUustr., pi. 11. 

In woods. 

In Cooke's figure the pileus is bright ochraceous, and 



HYPHOMYCBTES. 269 

altogether recalls to mind Lepiota lenticularis ; the latter is, 
however, more rohust and differs in the squamulose stem, 
and ahsence of smell. 



HYPHOMYCBTES. Corda (in part). 

Saprophytes or parasites, generally superficial, or nearly 
so on the matrix ; rarely internal parasites in the bodies of 
insects ; hyphae typically septate, more or less abundantly 
developed, and bearing naked conidia. 

Myphomyeetes, Corda (in part), Icones Fung., i. p. 10. 

Myphomyceteae, Saccardo, Syll., vol. iv. p. 1. 

The members of the present group are mostly individually 
minute, and come under the designation of microscopic fungi, 
and are known in popular language as "moulds." Most 
species are gregarious, and form white or coloured, cottony 
or velvety patches on decaying or dead plants and animals, 
although some species are true parasites. The conidia, as the 
minute spores or reproductive bodies are called, are always 
borne naked, on the hyphae, and are never contained in 
asei, or enclosed in sporangia, as in the JPJiycomycetes, which 
include Mucor and other genera, which are also frequently 
included under the term "moulds." 

In a few species the heads of conidia are involved in 
mucus, which may, under superficial examination be mistaken 
for a membrane. Again in some groups the hyphae are also 
more or less viscid, and are hence more or less horny when dry. 

When mature, the conidia fall away very readily, and this 
is especially the case when placed in water, hence when 
the general habit, mode of branching, &c., of a specimen has 
been first observed under a low power of the microscope, 
it is best to remove a small portion with a pair of forceps, 
and place it in a drop of absolute alcohol or acetic acid on 
a slide ; by this means many of the conidia are retained in 
their natural position; specimens treated in this way can 
be stained, and afterwards mounted in Canada balsam or 
glycerine jelly. 

Many forms included in the present family, that were at 
one time considered as distinct species, have been shown by 
recent researches to be only forms in the life-cycle of more 



.270 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

MgHy developed fungi belonging to other families, more 
especially to the various orders of the Ascomycetes. All 
such foi-m-species are included in the present arrangement, 
and their true relationship indicated where known. 

In dealing with the Eyphomycefes I have followed the 
arrangement given by Saccardo in "Sylloge Fungorum," 
vol. iv. 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 

I. MUCEDINEAE. 

Hyphae pallid or bright-coloured, collapsing, lax, crowded, 
but not cohering in regular fascicles to form a stem-like 
structure ; conidia similar in colour. 

II. Dematieae. 

Hyphae dark coloured, brown or blackish, rather rigid, 
crowded, but not fasciculate ; rarely somewhat hyaline, but 
then the conidia are dark-coloured. 

III. Stilbeae. 

Hyphae pallid or brownish, densely coherent in elongated, 
stom-like fascicles ( = stipes). 

IV. Tubeecdlakieae. 

Hyphae pallid or brownish, densely conglutinated into a 
wart-like tuft (= sporodooMurn), often seated on a compact, 
stroma-like base. 



Pam. I. MUCEDINEAE. Link. 

Hyphae white, pallid, or bright-coloured (rarely brownish), 
forming cottony, or downy patches, soon collapsing, lax; 



HYPHOMYCETES. 271 

never agglutinated together in a definitely fasciculate 
manner. 

Mucedineae, Link, Berl. Mag., iii. p. 10 ; emended by Sac- 
cardo, in Mich., ii. p. 13 ; Sacc, Syll., vol. iv. p. 2. 

The leading characters of the present family consist in 
the white or bright colour of the hyphae and conidia ; the 
hyphae are comparatively flaccid and soon collapsing, 
forming dense cottony or downy tufts, but never agglu- 
tinated together to form, compound stem-like structures. 



Sect. I. Amerosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia continuous ( = 1 -celled, hence not septate), hyaline 
or brightly coloured, subglobose or shortly cylindrical, not 
elongated. 

Subsect. 1. Micronemeae, Sacc. 

Hyphae very short, scarcely to be distinguished from the 
conidia. 

Tribe 1. Chromospmieae. Sacc. 
Conidia not concatenate. 



Tribe 2. Oosporeae. Sacc. 
Conidia catenulate. 

Subsect. 2. Macronemeae. Sacc. 
Hyphae elongated, distinct from the conidia. 

Tribe 3. Cephalosporieae. Sacc. 
Conidia produced in a head or cluster, not catenulate. 

Tribe 4. Aspergilleae. Sacc. 
Conidia capitate and catenulate. 



272 FUNGUS-FLORA. 



Tribe 5. Botrytideae. Sacc. 

Conidia not capitulate, biit vaguely inserted on simple or 
branched (not Terticillate) hypbae. 



Tribe 6. Verticillieae. Sacc. 

Conidia terminal on branches or branchlets arranged in 
a verticillate manner. 



Tribe 7. Gonatdbotryteae. Sacc. 

Conidia springing from scattered, intercalary, swollen cells 
of the hyphae. 

Sect. II. Didymosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia elliptical, oblong, or shortly fusoid, 1-septate. 
hyaline or brightly coloured. 

Sect. III. Phragmosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia oblong, fusoid, elongated, or vermicular, 2 or 
many-septate, hyaline or brightly coloured. 



Subsect. 1. Macronemeae. Sacc. 
Hyphae evident, distinct from the conidia. 

Tribe 8. Dactylieae. Sacc. 
Saprophytes. 

Tribe 9. Bamularieae. Sacc. 
Parasites. 

Subsect. 2. Micronemeae. Sacc. 

Hyphae very short, scarcely distinct from the conidia. 



HYPHOMYOETES. 273 

Tribe 10. Fusomeae. Sacc. 
Conidiophores not inflated or only indistinctly so. 

Tribe 11. Milowieae, Sacc. 

Conidiophores about 3-celled, the upper cell broadly 
inflated. 

Tribe 12. Se^tocylindrieae. Sacc. 
Conidia catenulate. 

Sect. IV. Staurosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia stellate, radiate or 3-furcate, hyaline or brightly 
coloured, septate or continuous. 

Sect. Y. Helicosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia spirally coiled, cylindrical, more or less perfectly 
septate, hyaline or brightly coloured. 



VOL. III. 



CHEOMOSPOEIUM. 275 



Fam. I. MUOEDINEAE. Link. 

Sect. I. AMEEOSPOEAE. Sacc. 

Subsect. 1. Micronemeae. Sacc. 

Tribe 1. Chromosporieae. Sacc. 

CHEOMOSPOEIUM. Corda. (fig. 15, p. 313.) 

H3'phae at first creeping on the substratum, thin, soon 
disappearing; conidia forming an effused, powdery layer, 
bright coloured (not brown or blackish). 

Ghromosporium, Cda. ; Sturm, Deutsch. Crypt., iii. 2, p. 119 ; 
Sacc, SylL, vol. iv. p. 6. 

When mature consisting of an effused powdery stratum of 
bright-coloured conidia, with only traces of hyphae or none. 
Analogous to the genus Coniosporium in the Dematieae. 

Ghromosporium lateritium, Sacc. (fig. 15, p. 813). 
Effused and forming a powdery bright brick-red layer, 

FIGURES ILLUSTRATING THE MXTCEDINEAE. 

Kg. 1, Oospora favorum; — Fig. 2, Monilia aurea; — Fig. 3, Cylindrium 
Cordae ; — Fig. 4r, Oedocepkalum laeticolor, fertile head and free oonidium ; 
^Fig. 5, Oedocepkalum Freussii, fruiting heads and a free oonidium ; — 
Fig. 6, BhinotricJmm niveum; — Fig. 7. Botrytis corolUgenum ; — Fig. 8, 
Ovularia veronieae ; — Fig. 9, Verticillium distans ; — Fig.J 10, Spicaria 
clegans; — Fig. H, Mycogone cervina; — Fig. 12, Gonatobotrys flava; — 
Fig. 1 3, Nematogonium aurantiacum ; — Fig. 14, Trichotheeium roseum ; — 
Fig. 15, Diplosporium album; — Fig. 16, Arthrohotrys rosea, and free ooni- 
dium ; — Fig. 17, Didymaria Ungeri ; — Fig. 18, Bostriclwnema aliiestre ; — ■ 
Fig. 19, Selicomyces iubuloms, showing coiled septate oonidium ; — Fig. 20, 
Aspergillus glaucus; — Fig. 21, section of licad of same; — Fig. 22, Penicil- 
lium glaucum; — Fig. 28, Cephalosporiwm acremonium, twining round a 
black mould ; — Fig. 24, Dactylaria orchidis ; — Fig. 25, Dactylella implexa ; 
— Fig. 26, Daetylium, dendroides ; — Fig. 27, Bamularia pratensis; — 
Fig. 28, Bamularia hellehori. (The figures are highly magnified.) 

T 2 



276 rUNGUS-FLOEA. 

conidia glolDose or 'broadlj' obovate; wall thick, pale red, 
6-7 or 6 X 8 /i. 

Chromosporium lateritium, Sacc, Syll-, v. iv., n. 5. 

Gymnosporium lateritium, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 
1903. 

On bark. Eare. 

When mature the conidia are globose, but are at first, 
as is always the case, obovate, and sometimes in this con- 
dition break away with a portion of the supporting hypha. 
(Described from type in Herb. Berk., Kew.) 

Chromosporium rubiginosum, Cke. & Mass. 

Eust-coloured, in effused patches, pulverulent, conidia 
profuse, elliptical, smooth, pale orange, 10 x 7-8 /». 

Chromosporium rubiginosum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., vol. xvi. 
p. 78 (188). 

Gym/nosporium rubiginosum, Carm. MS. 

Forming orange-rust-ooloured scattered patches on dead 
leaves. Distinguished from G. lateritium by the larger 
spores. (Described from type in Herb., Kew.) 



MICEOSTEOMA. Niessl. (fig. 29, p. 313.) 

Forming effused, plane, thin patches, fertile hyphae very 
short, erect, densely crowded, colourless, aseptate ; conidia 
acrogenous, elliptical, one-celled, colourless. 

Microstroma, Niessl, Mahr., Crypt. FL, p. 163; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. 9. 

Mycelium creeping, giving origin to erect, densely crowded, 
short, simple, or slightly branched conidiophores. 

Forming scattered or effused exceedingly thin patches on 
fading leaves. 

Microstroma album. Sacc. (fig. 29, p. 313.) 

Patches minute, scattered or becoming confluent, very 

thin, hypophyllous ; conidiophores subolavate, sometimes 

with a tendency to become lobed at the apex, 20-26 ft, long ; 

conidia colourless elliptic oblong, sometimes slightly oblique 

S-7X 2-5-3 /* • ^ 1 . 

Microstroma album, Sacc, F. Ital., t. 863 ; Sacc, Syll., n. 17. 

On fading oak leaves. Not uncommon. 



MICROSTROMA — OOSPORA. 277 

Tlie present species appears to have been confounded witli 
FuBidium griseiim. Link so hopelessly that it is impossible 
to give synonyms. 

Forming very delicate whitish, filmy patches on the under 
surface of the leaves. 



Tribe 2. Oosporeae. Sacc. 
OOSPOEA. Wallr. (emend. Sacc.) (fig. 1, p. 274.) 

Tufts effused or pulvinate, lax or rather compact ; fertile 
hypha short, slender, simple or sparingly branched ; conidia 
regularly concatenate, globose or elliptical, bright-coloured 
or colourless. 

Oospora, Wallr., Fl. Crypt., p. 182; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 11. 

Characterised by the globose or broadly elliptical, bright- 
coloured or colourless conidia being arranged in a con- 
catenate or moniliform manner. Analogous with the genus 
Torula in the Dematieae. 

* Conidia colourless. 

Oospora fasciculata. Sacc. & Vogl. 

Tufts at first distinct, becoming confluent, white, then 
greyish, fertile hyphae branched, ascending ; conidia con- 
catenate, broadly elliptical. 

Oospora fasciculata, Sacc, Syll., iv. 23. 

Oidium, fasciculatum, Berk., Eng. FL, p. 349 ; Cke., Hdbk., 
n. 1813. 

On decaying oranges. Eare. 

Oospora epilobii. Sacc. & Vogl. 

Tufts white, effused, conidia broadly elliptical or globose, 
forming long concatenate chains, colourless, 4 ju. or 4 x 5 //. 

Oospora epilobii, Sacc, Syll., iv. 24. 

Torula epilobii, Cda., Ic. Fung., iv. p. 23, ser. vi. f. 75. 

On living stems and leaves of various species of Epilohium. 
Eare. 

Forming very delicate bloom-like patches. 

Oospora lactis. Sacc. 
Tufts snow-white, velvety, membranaceous, sterile hyphae 



278 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

densely interlaced, fertile ascending; conidia concatenate, 
elliptic-oblong, 18-21 x 6-7, sometimes shorter subglobose 
conidia occur in tbe cliains. 

Oospora lactis, Sacc, Syll., iv. 45. 

Oidium lactis, Fres., Beitr., p. 23. 

On milk, cbeese, &c. Not common. 

Forming membranaceous, snow-white velvety patches that 
sometimes spread for a considerable distance. 

Oospora porriginis. Sacc. 

Tufts rather effused, whitish, hyphae much interlaced, 
aseptate; conidia colourless, concatenate, very irregular, 
elliptical, triangular, cuboid, 3-7 fjL. 

Oospora porriginis, Sacc, Syll., iv. 46. 

Oidium porriginis. Berk. & Mont., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 546 ; 
Cke., Hdbk., n. 1814. 

On Porrigo Iwpinosa. Not uncommon. (Type in Herb. 
Berk., Kew.) 

Oospora pulmonea. Sacc. 

Hyphae branched, septa rare, variable in thickness, 
6-10 ju; conidia concatenate, elliptical or subglobose, 5-10 ix, 
colourless. 

Oospora pulmonea, Sacc, Syll., iv. 47. 

Oidium pulmoneum, Bennett. In the sputum of people 
affected with consumption. 

Oospora aequivoca. Sacc. & Vogl. 

Tufts very minute, chains of conidia simple, erect, conidia 
elongated, pointed at each end, colourless, 11-12 /a thick. ' 

Oospora aequivoca, Sacc, Syll., iv. 53. 

Odium aequivocum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 821 ; Cke., 
Hdbk., n. 1816. 

On Polyporus Schweinitzii. Eare. Tufts almost invisible 
to the naked eye. 

Oospora candidula. Sacc. 

Tufts effused, pure white, thin ; sterile hyphae creeping, 
filiform; fertile erect, simple or forked, 30 X 3 /x,, continuous, 
hyaline ; conidia in long chains, ovate-oblong, 6-6 X 3 ;u,, 
hyaline. 

Oospora candidula, Sacc, Fung. Ital., 880. 



OOSPOBA. 279 

On Tubercularia vulgaris, Nectrla cmnaharina, and the 
adjacent bark. (Grove.) 

** Conidia yellow. 

Oospora favonim. Sacc. & Yogi. (fig. 1, p. 274.) 
Tufts minnte, white, unconspicuous, hyphae branched, 

intertwined, septate, fertile branches erect bearing short 

chains of yellow, snbglobose conidia, 4-5 jtu 
Oospora favorum, Sacc, Syll., iv. 83. 
Oidium favorum, B & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 762, t. 16, 

f. 14; Cke., Hdbk., n. 1815. 

On honey-comb. Eare. (Type in Herb. Berk., Kew.) 
An examination of type specimen shows the conidia 

subglobose and concatenate in short chains. When quite 

young the conidia are filiform. 

Oospora microsperma. Sacc. & Vogl. 

Tufts minute, scattered, equal, yellowish-ochre, hyphae 
branched, septate, radiating, conidia in chains, subglobose, 
pale yeUow, 4^5 fi.. 

Ooesjpora microsperma, Sacc, Syll., iv. 84. 

Oidium microspermum, B. & Br., AJnn. Nat. Hist., n. 1387. 

On bark of fir. Eare. 

Tufts about ^ line across, gregarious, numerous. (Type 
in Herb. Berk., Kew.) 

*** Conidia rose-colour, red, or orange. 

Oospora rosella. Grove. 

Hyphae fasciculate, at length effused, long, erect, then 
effused, branched, 2-3 /a thick, aseptate, hyaline ; conidia 
concatenate in rather long simple chains, rosy, elliptical, 
apiculate at both ends, 10 x 4= fu 

Oospora rosella. Grove, Journ. Bot., n.s., vol. xiv. p. 163; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. 63. 

On horse-dung. Eare. 

Tufts ^1 mm. high, becoming confluent. Allied to 
0. fasciculata, but distinguished by the colour of the 
conidia. 



280 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Oospora aurantia. Saco. & Yogi. 

Tufts irregular, scattered, becoming confluent, thick and ' 
spongy, pale orange; hyphae branched, septate, 6-8 jx, thick,, 
conidia concatenate, chains simple or branched, conidia 
broadly elliptical, 7 X 5 /^ or 6-7 /i, pale orange. 

Oospora aurantia, Saco., Syll., iv. 81. 

Oidium aurantium, Cke., Grev. 

On spent hops. Eare. 

Forming broadly extending patches formed by the blending 
of several originally independent tufts; clear pale orange,| 
becoming much paler when old. (Type in Herb., Kew.) 

Oospora Crustacea. Sacc. 

Tufts at first orbicular, becoming confluent, velvety, bright 
orange or vermilion ; chains of conidia long, often curved, 
orange-vermilion, conidia cuboid globose, 6-8 /t. 

Oospora Crustacea, Sacc, Syll., iv. 72. 

Torula sporendonema, Cke., Hdbk., n. 1426. 

On cheese, glue, &c. Not uncommon. 

Often forming broadly effused orange-vermilion patches 
that become crustaceous when old. 

**** Conidia fulvous or brownish 

Oospora fulva. Sacc. & Vogl. 

Tufts dense, often broadly effused, velvety, at first 
whitish, becoming fulvous; conidia concatenate, fusiform, 
falvous, 8-11 X S /i. 

Oospora fulva, Sacc, Syll., iv., 85. 

Oidium fulvum, Link. 

On rotten wood. Eare. 

Often forming patches extending for several inches. 

Oospora fusca. Grove. 

Forming a clear brown powder, which often covers the 
whole exterior and disc of the host ; chains of conidia at first 
erect, but soon becoming depressed and intricate ; conidia 
fusiform, clear ochraceous-brown, 6-8 x 3 -5-4 jx,, reaching 
even 10 X 5 /a. 

Oospora fusca. Grove, Journ. Bot. (1885), p. 164, tab. 257, 
f. 1. 

Atysidium fuscum, Bor., Hdbk., p. 35, f. 13. 



FUSIDILM. 281 

On Bulgaria inqidnans, the spores are not only mucli 
smaller, but also paler and more hyaline than those of 
Oidium fulvum. Link, and of a different colour. (Grove.) 

***** Conidia grey or blackish. 

Oospora inaequalis. Cke. & Mass. 

Effused, like a very thin pale grey bloom ; conidia very 
unequal in size and form, globose to elliptical, united in 
short, simple or branched curved threads, hyaline, from 
5 /J. diameter, to 10 x 5 /i.. 

On culms of bamboo. Kew. 

Oospora abortifaciens. Sacc. & Vogl. 

Spots at first very minute and scattered, becoming effused 
and often confluent; mycelium thin, fertile hyphae erect, 
very slender, unbranched ; conidia in chains, broadly ellip- 
tical, grey, 5—6 X 4 /x., falling away and forming a dark grey 
powder. 

Oospora dbortifaciens, Sacc, Syll., iv. 101. 

Oidium ahortifaciens. Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 545. 

In the upper portion of the ovary of various grasses, said 
to occur also in the ovary of Silene gaUica. 

FUSIDIUM. Link. (fig. 18, p. 313.) 

Hyphae short, simple. Conidia fusiform, concatenate, 
bright coloured or colourless. 

Fusidium, Link, Berl. Mag. (1809), iii. p. 8 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 25. Forming usually exceedingly thin films; the chains 
of fusiform conidia with pointed ends mark the genus. 

Fusidium viride. Grove, (fig. 18, p. 313.) 
Forming bright deep green elliptical spots ; mycelium 

white, thinly effused; conidia concatenate, chains long, 

variously intertwined; conidia exactly fusiform, straight, 

both ends acute, pale green, 10 x S fi. 

Fusidium viride. Grove. Joum. Bot. (1885), p. 164, t. 257, 

f. 2 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 103. 

On dead stems of Heracleum. Spots sub-elliptical, 1-1 i cm. 

long, of a pleasing saturated green like a Conferva. (Grove.) 



282 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Pusidium griseum. Link. 

Forming small isolated patches, wliich Tisually combine to 
form broadly extending, extremely thin films, mycelium very 
thin, evanescent ; conidia concatenate, fusiform, colourless, 
6-7 X 1-5^. 

Fusidium griseum, Link., Ohs., i. p. 6 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 105. 

On dead dry oak and beech leaves. Not common. 

Sometimes covering the greater part of the under surface 
of the leaf. Care must be taken not to confound the present 
species with Cylindrinum griseum, Bon., a much commoner 
mould on dead leaves, and presenting a similar superficial 
appearance. 

Fusidiusn asteris. P. & P. 

Tufts crowded in the centre, scattered at the margin; 
conidia emerging from the leaves in clusters, cylindrical, 
25 fi. long, intermixed with mycelial threads. 

Fusidium asteris. Plow. & Phill., Grev. ; Sacc, Syll., 
n. 125. 

On both sides of dying leaves of Aster tripdlium. 

Fusidium. deutziae. Cooke. 

Forming small, powdery, convex, flesh-coloured tufts on 
under surface of the leaves; conidia fusiform, straight 
hyaline, continuous, 18-20 X 3-4 ju, seated on very short 
conidiophores. 

Fusidium deutziae, Cke., Grev., v. 16, p. 48. 

On fading leaves of Deutzia. 

Fusidium sulphureum. Link, is stated in Cooke's list of 
British Hyphomycetes to have occurred at Appin, N.B. An 
examination of Carmichael's specimen, now in the Kew 
Herbarium, shows it to be Oylindrium flavo-virens, Ditm. 

Fusidium lycotropum. Pr. 

White, thinly effused; conidia Curved like a horse- 
shoe, hyaline, fusiform, obtuse at each end, 2-4 guttulate, 
18-20 X 3 /*, the two inner guttulae almost always very 
large. 

Fusidium lycotropum. Pr., St. Deutschl. Fl., xxix. 57, t. 29; 
Grove, Journ. Bot. (1886), p. 10. 



MONILIA. 283 

On rotten stem of Carduus palustrig. 

The conidia are bent so as sometimes to form nearly a 
complete circle, 7-8 /x diameter. I was unable to observe 
them concatenate, so that the genus is rather dubious. 
(Grove.) 



MOXHilA. Pers. (emended), (fig. 2, p. 274.) 

Hyphae erect, irregularly branched, generally forming 
dense tufts, rarely effused, producing here and there sub- 
erect, minutely toothed conidiophores giving origin to 
conidia arranged in a moniliform or concatenate manner. 

Monilia, Pers., emended by Saccardo, Mich., ii. p. 17 (not of 
Fries). 

Usually forming dense tufts. Closely resembling Oospora, 
and distinguished more especially by the more copious 
development of mycelium. The conidiophores are often 
furnished vritb. minute tooth-like projections varying from. 
2—5 in number, each of -which produces a chain of conidia, 
so that there is a tendency on the part of the chains to 
become fasciculate. 

Monilia aurea. Genel. (fig. 2, p. 274.) 

Tufts pulvinate. compact, yellow, hyphae ascending, simple 
or scantily and vaguely branched, septate, 7-8 /j. thick, at 
and near the apex giving origin to minute spicules from 
which the short chains of conidia spring; conidia lemon- 
shaped rather abruptly attenuated at each end, yellow, 
18-21 X 10-12 /i. 

Monilia aurea, Sacc, Syll., iv. 149. 

On bark, mosses, &c. Bare. 

Tufts pulvinate (cushion-shaped), up to \ in. across, pure 
yellow or with an ochraceous tinge. 

Monilia fractigena. Pers. 
Tufts compact, pulvinate, often growing in circles and 
becoming confluent, white, then dingy ochraceous red, 
hyphae branched ; chains of conidia long, often variously 
branched ; conidia elliptic-oblong, rather variable, colourless 
then tinged dull red, 19-26 x 10-12 /u 



28 i FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Monilia fructigena, Pers., Syn., p. 693; Sacc, Syll., iv, 
n. 157. 

On various fruits. Common. 
Forming dense tomentose tufts. 

Monilia caespitosa. Purton. 
Hyphae tufted, branched in a racemose manner; chains 
of globose conidia terminal and lateral. 
Monilia caenpitosa, Purton. 
Monilia racemosa, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 163. 
On putrid substances. 
A doubtful species that has not been seen of late years. 

Monilia pruinosa. C. & M. 

Forming a broadly effused thin white pruinose stratum, 
hyphae flexuous, elongated, septate, 10-12 /jl thick, irregu- 
larly branched; conidia in short chains, subglobose or 
elliptical, smooth, hyaline, 14-15 x 12 /jl. 

Monilia pruinosa, Cke. and Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 78. 

On fading leaves of Caladium. 



CYLINDEIUM. Bon. (fig. 3, p. 274.) 

Hyphae very short, hardly distinct from the conidia. 
Conidia concatenate, cylindrical, elongated, ends obtuse, 
colourless or brightly coloured. Patches thin, plane, slightly 
pulverulent. 

Gylindrium, Bonordan, Hdbk. Myk., p. 34; emended by 
Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 14 ; Sacc, Syll., 36. 

Distinguished by the scanty mycelium and the elongated 
cylindrical, concatenate conidia with blunt ends, this dif- 
ference in shape of conidia distinguishes between the 
present genus and Fusidium, where the conidia are fusiform 
(spindle-shaped). 

Gylindrium. Cordae. Sacc. (fig. 3, p. 274.) 
Tufts white, very thin, slightly pulverulent ; conidia cylin- 
drical, tips abruptly truncate, colourless, 28-33 x 3-4 /jl. 
Gylindrium Cordae, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 169. 
On dead oak leaves. Not uncommon. 
Forming exceedingly thin white pileus on the leaf. 



CYLINDRIUM— GEOTEICHtlM. 285 

Cylindrium. flavo-virens. Bon. 

Tufts thin, plane, yellowisli-green ; conidia cylindric- 
fusiform, Bometimes curved, both ends blunt, 14—16 x 3-3 • 5 p.. 

Cylindrium flavo-virens, Bon., Hdbt., p. 34; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 171. 

On fallen leaves of oak, beech, &c. 

Cylindrium heteronemum. Saco. 

Tufts thin, small, white ; oonidiophores not septate, simple 
or rarely forked above ; conidia rather variable in form, cylin- 
drical with blunt ends or fusoid, 15-40 x 3-4 fi., colourless. 

Cylindrium heteronemum, Sacc, Syll., iv. 177. 

On wood and dung. Eare. 

Intermediate in foiTU of conidia between Fusidium and 
Cylindrium. 

POLYSCYTALTJM. Eiess. (fig. 21, p. 313.) 

Hyphae scanty, slightly branched, hyaline or smoky ; 
conidia slender, cylindrical, truncate at both ends, con- 
catenate. 

Polyscytalum, Biess, Bot. Ztg., 1838, p. 138 j Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 38! 

Polyscytalum fungorum. Sacc (fig. 21, p. 313.) 

Tufts consisting of hyphae that are fasciculate at the 
base, brownish, colourless above, and running off into long, 
slender chains of conidia, that measure 10—18 x 3, hyaline, 
cylindrical, truncate at both ends. 

Polyscytalum fungorum, Sacc, Syll., 1622. 

On Nyctalis parasiticae. 

The conidial stage of Hypomyces asterosporus. 

GEOTEICHUM. Link. (fig. 17, p. 313.) 

Mycelium creeping, fertile branches or oonidiophores 
ascending, septate; conidia shortly cylindrical with both 
ends truncate, colourless, chains of conidia short. 

Geolriclmm, Link, Obs., i. p. 53 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 39. 

Distinguished from Cylindrium by the presence of creeping, 
interwoven mycelium, and the shortly cylindrical conidia 
with truncate ends. 



286 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Geotrichum candidum. Link. (fig. 17, p. 313.) 
Tufts pulvinate, ■white, rather powdery ; sterile hyphae 

creeping, somewhat continuous ; fertile ascending, short ; 

conidia cylindrical, truncate at both ends, 5-10 x 4, hyaline. 
Geotrichum candidum. Link, Obs., i. p. 15; Sacc, Syll., 

n. 183. 

On the naked ground, also on damp, rotten paper, 

bones, &c. 

Geotricliuni roseum. Grove. 

Hyphae creeping, white, interwoven ; conidia pale rose- ' 
coloured, concatenate, shortly cylindrical, ends truncate, 
16-30 X 9-10 fji. or sometimes longer. 

Geotrichum roseum, Grove, Journ. Bot., tab. 266, f. 8 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 185. 

Forming dense small, round or oblong rosy spots at the 
base of a species of Juncus. 

OIDIUM. Link (emended), (fig. 8, p. 313.) 

Growing on living plants. Mycelinm creeping, conidio- 
phores erect, sub-simple ; chains of conidia soon breaking 
up ; conidia rather large, elliptical, colourless or coloured. 

Oidium, Link, emended by Saocardo, Mich., ii. p. 15; 
Sacc, Syll., 40. 

Developing on living plants, chiefly on the leaves. Many 
species have been proved to be the conidial condition of 
ascigerous fungi belonging to the Ferisporiaceae. 

I. On Dicotyledons. 

Oidium erysiphoides. Fx. 

Broadly effased, indeterminate, white ; tufts conspicnons, 
rosy- white ; hyphae almost erect, very slender ; conidia 
ovate, oblong, pellucid, internally grannla.r, 30-45 X 13-20 fi. 

Oidium erysiphoides, Fries, Syst. MycoL, iii. p. 432 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 189. 

On living leaves of various plants. The conidial phase of 
a species of Erysiphe. 

Oidium leucoconium. Desm. (fig, 8, p. 313.) 
Tufts broadly effused, white ; hyphae creeping with short, 
erect, fertile branchlets ; conidia elliptical, 20-30 x 13-16 //,. 



oiDiUM. 287 

Oidium leucoconium, Desmaz., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1829, xiii. 
p. 102, t. 6, f. 1-2 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 190. 

On stems, leaves, and calyces of cultivated and wild roses. 
The conidial condition of Sphaerotheca pannosa. 

Oidium Tuckeri. Berk. 

Tufts small, densely gregarious, often confluent and 
forming broad wliite patcliesof a loose, open texture, wMtish, 
becoming dingy ; sterile hyphae with lobed hanstoria, ending 
in short, suberect, colourlecis couidiophores ; conidia elliptical 
or oblong, ends obtuse, in short chains of 2-3, 25-30 x 15-17, 
granular •within, hyaline. 

Oidium Tuckeri, Berk., in Gard. Chron., 1847, p. 779 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 191. 

On living leaves and fruit of vine. 

Oidium farinosum. Cooke. 

White, mealy, eifused, covering the young leaves and 
twigs as if dusted with flour ; threads simple, breaking up 
into elliptical, truncate joints or conidia, which are smooth, 
28-30 X 12 /x. 

Oidium farinosum, Cooke, Grev., xvi. p. 10. 

On living leaves and twigs of apple. 

Oidium erumpens. Cke. & Mass. 

Tufts greyish-white, erumpent, rather compact, becoming 
dark-coloured with age, formed on the under surface of the 
leaves; conidia subglobose, at first rather quadrate, due to 
mutual pressure, concatenate, hyaline, 5 x 7 /x. On .short 
stout conidiophores. 

Oidium erumpens, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 49. 

On living leaves of Bivea hypocraieriformis. 

Oidium chrysanthemi. Eab. 

Effused, white ; sterile hyphae creeping, aseptate, hyaline ; 
conidia in long chains, elliptic-oblong, rounded at both ends, 
granular inside, hyaline, 40-50 x 20-25 /jl. 

Oidium Chrysanthemi, Eabenh., Hedw., i. p. 19, t. 3, f. 1 ; 
Sacc, Syll., no. 199. 

On leaves of cultivated species of Chrysanthemum. 

Oidium aceris. Bahach. 
Densely caespitose, whitish with a red tinge ; conidia 
ovoid or broadly ovate, often truncate, 25-45 x 8-12 /*.. 



288 KUNGUS-FLORA. 

Oidium aceris, Eataoh., Flora, 1854, p. 207 ; Sacc, Syll., 
n. 207. 

On living leaves of Acer pseudoplaianus. 
The conidial stage of Uncinula hicornis. 

Oidium mespilinum. Thftm. 

Tufts lax, broadly eifused like a delicate cob-wel) on the 
npper surface of the leaf, pure white ; hyphae short, simple, 
without septa, hyaline ; conidia obovately-elliptical, both 
ends obtuse, simple, in chains of 2-3, hyaline or very pale 
grey, 10 X 6 /i. 

Oidium mespilinum, Thiim., Fungh. Liter, n. 249 ; Sacc, 
Syll., n. 208, 

On living leaves of medlar (Mespilus germanica). 

Oidium pactolinum. Cooke. 

Thinly effused, golden-tawny ; hyphae very short, scarcely 
conspicuous ; conidia subglobose, white in chains truncate at 
the points of contact, at length when free globose, filled with 
subgranular golden endochrome, 10 /x diameter. 

Odium pactolinum, Cooke, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 209. 

On living jasmine leaves in a hothouse. 

Oidium. balsamii. Mont. 

Forming a very delicate, white cobweb-like film, often 
broadly effused and minutely powdery from the conidia ; 
sterile hyphae creeping, vaguely branched, sparingly septate, 
slender; chains of conidia elongated, conidia elliptical and 
truncate at both ends (barrel-shaped), hyaline, 15-22 x 
8-10 /*. 

Oidium lalsamii, Mont., in B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 763 
(name only). 

On living leaves of various species of mullein ( Verhascum). 

The above description is from Montague's specimen in 
Berk. Herb., Kew. 

II. On Monocotyledons. 

Oidium m.onilioides. Link. 
Tufts broadly effused, ochraceous-white ; conidia forming 
moniliform chains, elliptical, white or dirty white, hyaline, 
25-30 X 8-10 /i. 



OEDOCEPHALUM. 289 

Oidium monilioides. Link, sp. pi. p. 122; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 219. 

On the livinj:; leaves and cnlms of various grasses. The 
conidial stage of Erysi^he graminis. 



Sutsect. 2. Macronemeae. Saco. 

Tribe 3. Gephalosporieae. Sacc. 

OEDOCEPHALUM. Preuss. (figs. 4, 5, p. 274.) 

Sterile hyphae scanty ; creeping ; fertile hypliae erect, 
simple, gregarious, apex swollen and rough, with minute 
point-like projections, to which the conidia are attached; 
very slightly or not at all aieolate; conidia sessile, con- 
tinuous, globose or oblong, hyaline or bright coloured. 

Oedocephalum, Preuss, Fimg. Hoyersw., n. 100; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 47. 

Distinguished from Bhopalomyces in the swollen apex of 
the fertile hyphae not being broken up into polygonal 
portions. 

Oedocephalum roseum. Cooke. 

Forming effused rose-coloured tufts ; fertile hyphae short, 
simple, septate, heads subglobose; conidia broadly elliptical 
with a basal apiculus, colourless, smooth, 11—14 x 8—l6/x.. 

Oedocephalum roseum, Cooke, Grev., i. p. 184, t. 22, f. 8 ; 
Sacc, Syll., 226. 

On paper and old cloth, &c. 

Individual tufts almost invisible to the naked eye, but 
gregarious, and forming extended patches. 

Oedocephalum laeticolor. B. & Br. (fig. 4, p. 274.) 

Very minute, brick-red with a rosy tinge ; fertile hyph.ie 
equal, pallid, apex inflated, not 1 mm. high; heads sub- 
globose, conidia subglobose or broadly elliptical, apiculate 
at the base, minutely warted, 15-20 X 9-12 fi.. 

Oedocephalum laeticolor, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., no. 
1056, t. 14, f. 12 ; Sacc, Syll., 228. 

On dung of sheep. 

VOL. lu. r 



290 FUNGTJS-FLOEA. 

Oedocephalum Preussii. Sacc. (fig. 5, p. 274.) 
Loosely gregarious; fertile hyphae erect, base hulbotis, 
becoming a little thinner upwards, apex broadly pyriform 
or nearly globose ; heads globose, white ; conidia colourless, 
broadly elliptical or nearly globose, apiculate at the base, 
10 X 7-8 11.. 

Oedocephalum Preussii, Sacc, Syll., iv. no. 233. 
On decaying leaves, stems, &c. 

Oedocephalum sulfureum. C. & M. 

Tufts hemispherical, often confluent, sulphur-coloured; 
threads septate, branching in a dichotomous manner, swollen 
into a globose, papillate vesicle at the apex ; conidia globose, 
hyaline, smooth, 3-5 fn diem. 

Oedocephalum sulfureum, Cooke and Massee, G-rev,, 17, p. 3, 

On damp decaying rope. 



EHOPALOMYCES. Corda. (figs. 19, 20, p. 274.) 

Sterile hyphae scanty, creeping; fertile hyphae erect, 
simple or rarely furcate, apex inflated into a globose or 
broadly obovate vesicle which is distinctly areolate ; conidia 
elliptical, continuous, not concatenate, hyaline or slightly 
coloured, supported on papillae occupying the centre of the 
areolae. 

Bhopalomyces, Corda, Prachtflora, p. 3; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 50. 

Distinguished by the walls of the vesiculose heads of the 
erect, fertile hyphae being divided into distinct polygonal 
portions, each of which has a papilla at its centre that bears 
a conidium. 

Rhopalomyees candidus. B. & Br. 

'White; sterile hyphae obsolete; fertile hyphae erect, 
simple; vesicular head globose are broadly obovate, dis- 
tinctly areolate ; conidia minute, elliptical, 8 x 4-5 /a. 

Bhopalomyces candidus, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 505 
t. V. f. 3 ; Sauc Syll., iv. n. 240. 

On decaying vegetable matter. 



EHOPALOMYOES— BOTKYOSPOEIUM. 291 

Rhopalomyces elegans. Corda. 

Fertile hypliae erect, aseptate, colourless, vesicles spherical, 
distinctly hexagonally areolate, centre of the areolae 
papillate ; corddia elliptic-oblong, hyaline then tinged with 
brown, 35-40 x 18 //.. 

Mhopalomyces elegans, Corda, Prachtflora, p. 3, t. ii. ; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 289. 

On decaying herbaceous stems, &c. 

Rhopalomyces pallidus. B. & Br. (figs. 19, 20, 
p. 274.) 

Pale fawn-colour, effused, fertile hyphae forked, flexnous ; 
conidia minute, supported on the papillae occupying the 
centre of the areolae, 10 x 6 /i. 

Bhopalomyces cervinus, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 504, 
t. V. f. 2 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 241. 

On decayed Russian matting. Broadly effused, forming 
fawn-coloured, snbfiirfuraceous patches. 



BOTEYOSPOEIUM. Corda. (figs. 3, 4, p, 358.) 

Mycelium creeping ; fertile hyphae, ascending, septate, 
simple or branched, and furnished with numerous short 
lateral branches; tips of the short lateral branchlets each 
bearing' a globose head of spores that are produced on 
minute spine-like spicules present at the tip of the 
branchlet; conidia colourless, the heads soon dispersing. 
Each spicule bears a cluster of spores, the whole forming 
the head. 

Botryosporium, Corda, Anl., p. 58 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 54. 

Botryosporium diffusum. Corda. (figs. 3, 4, p. 858.) 
Fertile hyphae long, ascending, often more or less forked, 
septate, colourless, bearing numerous scattered short branch- 
lets of equal length, each with 3-4 spicules at the tip, each 
of these spicules bears a cluster of conidia, the whole forming 
a globose head. Conidia broadly ellipsoid or globose, 
colourless. 

Botryosporium diffusum, Corda, in Sturm, Deutschl. Fl. ; 
Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 265. 

On rotten wood, branches, leaves, itc. 

c 2 



292 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Botryosporium pulchrum. Corda. 

Tufts lax, broadly effused, white; fertile branches long, 
simple or forked, with numeious scattered short branchlets 
of about equal length arranged in a racemose manner ; each 
branchlet bears at its apex five short spicules or conidio- 
pjiores, each of which in turn bears a cluster of conidia, the 
whole framing a globose head. Conidia colourless, broadly 
elliptical. 

Botryosporium pulchrum, Corda, Prachtflora, t. xix. ; Sacc, 
SylL, iv. n. 266. 

On stems of herbaceous plants 



CEPHAL03P0KIUM. Corda. (fig. 23, p. 274.) 

Primary hyphae long, creeping and producing numerous 
erect, scattered short branchlets at intervals ; these branch- 
lets are of nearly equal length, and each bears at its tip a 
globose head of conidia. 

Cephalosporium, Corda, Anl., p. 61; Sacc, Syll., p. 56; 
Grove, Joum. Bot., t. 257, f. 3. 

Distinguished from Botryosporium by the creeping primary 
' hyphae, and also by the absence of distinct conidiophores at 
the tips of the branchlets. Differs from Acremonium in the 
capitate spores. 

Cephalosporium acremonium. Corda. (fig. 23, 
p. 274.) 

Tufts dense, rather cottony, at first white, then pale rose; 
primary branches creeping, secondary erect, not septate, 
40-50 X 3 /i; terminal heads of conidia globose, 8-10 ii. 
diameter; conidia colourless, elliptic-oblong; for a long 
time remaining in clusters, 4r-5 X 2 ;«,. 

Cephalosporium acremonium, Corda, Icones Fungorum, iii. 
p. 11, f. 29; Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 270. 

On stems of Mubus, Heracleum, on rotting wood and a. 
Myxomycete. Heads round, pure white, about 10-12 fi. diam., 
but varying in size from age. The long creeping stems are 
sometimes suberect ; the branches often once, sometimes 
tvrice forked, 30-40 //. high or more. Corda describes tha 
spores as assuming a rosy tint, which no other author haa 



PAPULOSPOKA— GLIOULA.DIUM. 293 

olDserved. My specimens belong rather to Penzig's form, 
but scarcely diiFer from Corda's figure, except in the more 
oblong spores. (Grove.) 

PAPULOSPOEA. Preuss. (figs. 1, 2, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, effused, septate ; fertile branches 
or conidiophores ascending, septate, bearing at the tip a 
head of conidia that does not readily separate into its 
component conidia. Conidia globose or elliptical, colourless 
or coloured. 

Papulospcyra, Preuss, Fl. Hoyers., n. 40 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 

The head of conidia, as described above, is considered by 
some authors to be a single many-celled conidium. 

Papulospora sepedonioides. Preuss. (figs. 1, 2, 
p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae effused, branched, septate, interwoven, 
brownish-rust colour ; conidiophores colourless, septate, 
bearing at the tip a cluster of agglutinated conidia forming 
a red head ; conidia oblong, 10-15 /a long. 

Papulospora sepedonioides, Preuss, Fl. Hoj'ersw., n. 40 ; 
Sacc, SyU., n. 282. 

On decaying cabbage stalks, rotten apples, &c. 

GLIOCLADIUM. Corda. 

Stem erect, septate, penicillate above, branches and 
branchlets septate, crowned by a common gelatinous head. 
Conidia acrogenous, irregularly heaped together, simple, 
with a gelatinous coat. 

Gliodadium, Corda, Icon. Fung., iv. p. 31 ; Grove, Journ. 
Bot., vol. xxiii. p. 10. 

Differs from Penicillium in the spores being produced 
singlj', not in chains, but remaining united in the mucous 
substance simultaneously excreted. (Grove.) 

Gliodadium penicillioides. Corda. 
Tufts minute, punctiform, white; stems erect, flexuous, 
thickened above, white ; branches opposite, branchlets 



294 PDNGUS-PLOEA. 

■vvhorled, quaternate, crowded ; liead of , conidia globose, 
■white ; conidia 5 • 5 /x long, conglutinate, oblong, surrounded 
by a thick gelatinous stratum. 

GUocladium. penioilUoides, Corda, Icon. Fung., iv. p. 31, 
pi. vii. fig. 92 ; Grove, Journ. Bot., vol. xxiii. p. 10. 

On the hymenium of an old Sterenm (probably Mrsutuni). 

The gelatinous heads of neighbouring stems unite, even 
16—20 being thus bound together into one large common 
head. The resemblance of the GUocladium to PenicilUum is. 
striking, but I could not abcertain that the spores were ever 
in chains in my specimens, and the abundant gelatinous 
secretion of the former is a marked feature, which Mr. 
Pldwright informs me that he did not notice in the conidia 
of the Hypomyces figured in " Grevillea." I could not 
perceive in my spores the gelatinous coat which Corda 
figures ; they measured 5 X 2 /jl, and were extremely abun- 
dant. The stems were thrice bi- tri-chotamous, the branchlets. 
being parallel and appressed. (Grove.) 

Considered to be the conidial stage of Mypomyces aureo- 
nitens, 

Gliocladium lignicolum. Grove. 

Hyphae gregarious or fasciculate, erect, equal, 3-4 septate, 
hyaline, apex penicillate di- tri-chotamous ; head of conidia 
■white, globose or obovate ; conidia involved in mucus, 
oblong ovoid, 2-2 • 5 x 1 • 5 /i. 

Gliocladium lignicolum. Grove, Journ. Bot., vol. xxiii. p. 11. 

On wood. 

Perhaps a variety of Gliocladium penioilUoides, from which 
it differs in the conidia being only half the length, and the 
habitat different. (Grove.) 



TEICHODEEMA. Pers. (emend.) (fig. 26, p. 313.) 

Mycelium or sterile hyphae in plane, compact tufts, 
fertile branches ascending, typically 2-3 times forked, tips 
not inflated, but bearing a head of minute colourless or 
coloured conidia. 

Trichoderma, Persoon, Disp. Fung., p. 12; Sacc, SylL, iv. 
p. 69. 



TfilCHODERJIA — ASPEEGILLUS. 295 

Trichoderma lignorum. Harz. (fig. 26, p. 313.) 

Tufts pulvinate, more or less circular, rather compact, 
then effused, at first white, then from the centre becoming 
entirely verdigris-green, here and there yellowish ; hyphae 
very slender, not septate ; fertile ascending, forking into 
2-3 branches; conidia globose, minute, green, 3 ft. diam., 
collected into a small head. 

Trichoderma lignorum (Tode), Harz, Einig. Hyph., p. 29, 
t. iv., f. 6 ; Sacc, SyU., n. 284. 

Trichoderma viride, Pors., Syn., p. 230. 

On bark, wood, rotten leaves, &c. 

The conidial stage of Hypocrea mfa. 

Tribe 4. Aspergilleae. Sacc. 
ASPEEGILLUS. MicheH. (figs. 20, 21, p. 274.) 

Mycelium creeping, effused, septate ; fertile hyphae or 
conidiophores erect, inflated and vesiculose at the tip, the 
vesiculose portion giving origin to numerous radiating 
chains of gonidia. 

Aspergillus, Mich., Nov. PI. Gen., 212; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 64. 

The sterigmata borne by the inflated head are often 
reduced to minute points. Many species are known to be 
the conidial stage of higher fungi. The mycelium of some 
species forms sclerotia. 

* Glaucous or greenish. 

Aspergillus glaucus. Link. (figs. 20, 21, p. 274.) 
Hyphae creeping, floccose, branched, indistinctly septate, 
uncoloured ; fertile erect, simple, almost without septa, 
hyaline or with a glaucous tinge, the apess inflated into a 
vesicle covered with minute cylindrical sterigmata or 
conidiophores each bearing a chain of conidia ; conidia 
globose, slightly asperulate, hyaline, then glaucous, 8-10 /*, 
diam. 

Aspergillus glaucus, Link, sp. pi., Fung., i. p. 67; Sacc, 
Syll., n. 304. 



296 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

On fruit, brandies, leaves, and all kinds of decaying 
organic matter. 

The conidial condition of Eurotium Jierbariorum. 

Aspergillus griseus. Link. 

Mycelium effused, grey, branched and interwoven, 
sparingly septate ; fertile hyphae erect, septate, head club- 
shaped, or nearly globose, small, grey ; basidia cylindrical, 
minute ; conidia in chains, globose, 2-3 yu, diameter. 

Aspergillus glaums. Link, sp. pi., Fung., i. p. 69 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 306. 

On fruit and various decaying substances. 

Yar, fenestrale, Link ; mycelium radiating in a den- 
dritic manner; Sacc, Syll., iv. 306. 
Byssocladium fenestrale, Link. 
On glass. 

Aspergillus virens. Link. 

Mycelium creeping, branched; fertile ascending, slender, 
300-500 X 10 /I, very sparingly septate, apex inflated, 
green ; conidia in chains, globose, greenish, 3 jj. diameter. 

Aspergillus virens. Link, Obs., i. p. 14; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 309. 

On decaying wasps' nests and other putrifying organic 
substances. 

** Whitisl. 

Aspergillus candidus. Link. 

Mycelium creeping, white; fertile branches erect, gre- 
garious, white, without septa as a rule, 150-200 x 4r-5 /^i, 
apex inflated ; cliains of conidia colourless ; conidia globose, 
2-3 /i diam. 

Aspergillus candidus. Link, sp. pi., Fungi, i. p. 65 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 315. 

On fungi, dried plants, &c. 

The white colour and small conidia distinguish the present 
species from A. glaucus, 

Aspergillus mollis. Berk. 
Forming minute, scattered, whitish spots; mycelium 
branched, septate, interwoven, fertile hyphae erect, branched, 



ASPEEGILLUS. 297 

heads clavate, conidia in chains, colourless, globose, 5 /t 
diameter. 

Aspergillus mollis, Berk., Engl. Fl., vol. v. p. 340 ; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 340. 

On dead leaves. 

*** Beddish. 

Aspergillus roseus. Link. 

Mycelium scanty, creeping ; fertile branches erect, simple, 
"without septa, head globose, conidia catenulate, pale rose- 
coloured, globose, 3 /A diameter. 

Aspergillus roseus, Link, as determined by Berkeley in 
Eng. FL, V. p. 340 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 320. 

On damp paper, linen, &c. 

Scarcely visible during the vegetative stage, but showing 
as pale rose-coloured patches when in fruit. 

**** Yellowish or tawny. 

Aspergillus flavus. Link. 

Mycelium white, spreading in a cobweb-like manner; 
fertile branches erect, in loose tufts, tips globose, becoming 
yellowish; conidia in chains, globose, yellowish, very 
minutely warted, 5-7 /x diameter. 

Aspergillus Jiavus, Link, Obs., p. 14; Sacc., Syll., iv. n. 
328. 

On dried plants in herbaria, and on various organic 
substances. 

Aspergillus spiralis. Grove. 

Sterile hyphae, septate, spirally contorted, branched, inter- 
woven, citrin-yellow; fertile hyphae yellow, erect, not septate, 
once or twice forked above, tips subclavate ; sterigmata 
obovate or oblong, constricted in the middle, 20-30 x 10 /a; 
conidia obovate then globose, smooth, yellow, 10—12 fx. 
diameter. 

Aspergillus spiralis. Grove, Journ. Bot. 1886, p. 164, t. 257, 
f. 5 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 332. 

On the cork of a bottle containing a solution of carmine 
in ammonia. 



298 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

The mycelium spirally contorted, also the lower portion 
of tlie fertile hyphae, and the latter sometimes flexuous up 
•to the apex. 



Aspergillus nigricans. Cooke. 

Fertile hyphae erect, colourless, simple, not septate, apex 
inflated into a globose vesicle ; sterigmata linear ; conidia 
in chains, globose, smoke-coloured, 5 /x, diameter. 

Aspergillus nigricans, Cooke, Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, 
1885, p. 3, pi. 9, f. 3 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 337. 

In meatus auditorius of human ear. 

The heads of conidia are black in the mass. 



STEEIGMATOCYSTIS. Cram. (iigs. 27, 28, p. 313.) 

Mycelium creeping, fertile branches erect, not branched, 
tip inflated and covered with radiating basidia-like out- 
growths, each producing at the summit several slender 
spines or sterigmata ; these latter in turn bear each a chain 
of conidia. 

Sterigmatocystis, Cram., Viert. Nat. Gesell., Zurich, 1859 ; 
Sacc._, Syll., iv. p. 71. 

With the general habit of Aspergillus, but known by the 
well-developed basidia and whorled sterigmata bearing the 
catenulate conidia. 

Sterigmatocystis dubia. Sacc. (figs. 27, 28, p. 313.) 

Tufts minute, white ; mycelium creeping, fertile threads 
erect, without septa, head globose ; basidia slender, radiating, 
each with 3-4 slender sterigmata at the apex, conidia in 
chains, globose, colourless, 4-5 /x, diameter. 

Sterigmatocystis dubia, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 346. 

Aspergillus dubius, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 520. 

On decaying cheese, dung, &c. 



AMBLYOSPOEIUM. Fres. (fig. 30, p. 313.) 

]Mycelium copious, creeping, septate, interwoven ; fertile 
hyphae ascending, tips not inflated but furnished with 



AjlBLyOSPOEIUJI — PENIClLLIUil. 299 

nnmerous minute points ttat Lear tlie chains of brightly 
coloured, fusiform conidia that are abruptly truncate at 
both ends. 

Ambli/osporium, Fres., Beitr., p. 99, t. xii. f. 17-21 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 77. 

Amblyosporium botrytis. Fres. (fig. 30, p. 313.) 

Tufts broadly effused, forming a woolly felt of a bright 
orange-red colour ; fertile hyphae ascending, orange-red, 
septate, 20-25 ft. thick, branched, the concatenate conidia 
forming a bright orange head, conidia elliptic, both ends 
contracted and abruptlj' truncate, ] 5-25 x 10-12 /t. 

Ambli/osporium botrytis, Fres., Beitr., p. 99, t. xi. f. 17-21 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 372. 

On decaying fungi of various species. 

The mould often completely covers the host "with a dense 
felt of a brilliant orange-red colour. In some instances 
numerous bright orange sclerotia are formed in the substance 
of the fungus attacked. 



PEXICILLIUM. Link. (fig. 22, p. 274.) 

Mycelium creeping, septate ; fertile branches erect, with 
branchlets arranged in irregular verticils towards the 
apes; conidia globose, catenulate, colourless or brightly 
coloured. 

PenicilUum, Link, sp. pL, Fungi, i. p. 69 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 78. 

Distiuguished by the branchlets being arranged in 
irregular whorls, or in a penicillate manner, and the chains 
of globose conidia. 

* Glaucous or greyish. 

Penicillium glaucum. Link. (fi^. 22, p. 274.) 
Mycelium effused, creeping, white ; sterile hyphae creeping, 
septate, interwoven; fertile hyphae erect, apex peuicil- 
lately branched, branches single or in pairs, erect, once or 
twice forked at the apex ; conidia concatenate, globose or 
broadly elliptical, smooth, hyaline with a tinge of gieeu, 
4 fji diam., the chains of conidia produced at the tips of the 
ultimate branchlets. 



300 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Peniciltium glaucum, Link, Obs. Myc, i. p. 15 ; Sacc, Syll., 
n. 373. 

On fruit, leaves, and on almost every kind of decaying or 
damp organic matter. 

Var. ooremium, Sacc, Syll., n. 373. 

Fertile hyphae fasciculate, forming a white compound 
tem. 
Floccaria glauca, Grev., Scot. Cr. Fl., t. 301. 

Penicillium quadrifidum. Salisb. 

Hyphae of mycelium nodulose, fertile threads septate, 
divided above into four equal branches, divided in a sub- 
fasciculate manner below, tips of the branches with 3-4 
branchlets in a verticil ; conidia in long chains, globose, 
glaucous. 

Penicillium quadrifidum, Salisb., in Hallier's Zeitsch. Paras., 
iv. Bd., 1 Heft, Catt. Mic. Carp, urn., p. 123, t. vi., f. 11 ; 
Sacc, Syll. iv., n. 378. 

On human blood taken from a patient suffering from 
erysipelas. 

Penicillium pruriosum. Salisb. 

Fertile hyphae septate, branched (?), with a whorl of 6-8 
brancblets at the apex ; conidia elliptic-globose. 

Penicillium pruriosum, Salisb., in Catt. Mic. Carp, um., p. 124, 
t. vi., f. 12 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 379. 

Appearing on mucous membrane. 

** Whitish. 

Penicilliuni candidum. Link. 

White, appearing as minute tufts that soon run together ; 
sterile hyphae creeping, interwoven, septate ; fertile branches 
ascending or erect, septate, branched above, branches erect, 
bearing small branchlets that carry the chains of minute, 
globose, colourless conidia, measuring 2-3 /j. diameter. 

Penicillium candidum, Link, Obs. MycoL, i. p. 16 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 381. 

On decaying leaves, bulbs, fungi, &c. 

Yar. coremoides (= Ooremium candidum, Nees). 
Fertile hyphae fasciculate. 



PENICILLIUM. 301 

Penicillimn hypomycetis. Sacc. 

Effused, white, fertile threads erect, septate, 2-3 times 
forked at the apex, branches short, erect, the terminal ones 
bearing short chains of elliptical conidia, 3-4 X 2 /i. 

Penicillium hypJwmycetis, Sacc, Syll., n. 382. 

Described and figured as the conidial stage of Sypomyces 
aureo-nitens, TuL, in Grevillea, vol. xi. p. 49, t. 156, 
figs, c, d. 

On Siereum Mrsutum, accompanying the ascigerous condition 
of Sypomyces aureo-intens. 

Allied to P. candidum, differing in the greater regularity of 
branching, and elliptical conidia. 

Penicillimn subtile. Berk. 

Very minute, snow-white ; mycelium very delicate, 
creeping ; fertile hyphae erect, simple or ternately divided ; 
conidia in short chains, broadly elliptical, apiculate at both 
ends, 20 X 8-10 /j,. 

PeniciUmm subtile. Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 241, t. xiv. 
f. 25 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 385. 

In the interior of a dead willow. 

The chains of conidia are few in number; the elliptic 
form of the conidia is unusual in the genus. 

Var. ramosius, Grove, Joum. Bot. 

Sterile hyphae creeping ; fertile, erect, often temate at the 
apex, branched below the apex ; conidia in short chains of 
4-8, hyaline, broadly elliptical, apiculate at both ends, 
16-20 X 10 /I. 

On rotten wood. Entirely pure white and very thin and 
delicate. 

Penicillium megalosporum. B. & Br. 

Pure white, short, hyphae fasciculate, conidia globose or 
oblong, smooth, 13-15 /a diameter. 

Penicillium megalosporum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist. 1875, 
p. 34, n. 1457 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 386. 

In an old chicken-coop. 

There is no specimen of the present species in Berkeley's 
herbarium, consequently I cannot supplement the original 
meagre description. 



302 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Penicillium sparsum. Grev. 

Tufts whitish, elongated, sterile hyphae effused; fertile 
branches simple, sparinirly septate, suberect, forked near the 
apex, each branch with a terminal yerticil of branchlets, 
couidia colourless, minute, globose. 

Penicillium sparsum, Greville, Scot. Crypt. Fl., t. 58, f. 2 j 
Saco., Syll., iv. n. 390. 

On putrid stem of Lappa, 

Penicillium. abnorme. B. & Br. 

Wbite, hyphae scanty, delicate, continuous, apex swollen 
and obconical ; conidia minute, nearly globose, catenulate, 
springing from the apex of the vesicle. 

Penicillium abnorme, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist,, n. 1914, 
t. 3, fig. 4 ; Sacc, Syll., n. 893. 

On leaves of Trientalis. 

As there are no specimens of the present species in 
Berkeley's herbarium, it is impossible to add to the above 
brief diagnosis, or to know whether the fungus belongs to 
Penicillium or Aspergillus. 



*** YellowisJi, ochraceous, or tawny. 

Penicillium bicolor. Fr. 

Sterile, hyphae effused, yellowish ; fertile hyphae more or 
less fasciculate, apex penioillately branched; conidia sub- 
globose, about 4 fi, diam. borne in chains at the tips of the 
branchlets. 

Penicillium hicolor. Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 408 ; Sacc, 
Syll., n. 394. 

Coremium glaucum. Link. (When the fertile hypbae are 
distinctly fasciculate.) 

On various decaying organic substances. 

Penicillium macrosporunii. B. & Br. 
Orange, conidia globose, large. 

Berk, & Broome, Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1978; Sacc, Syll., 
n. 396. 

On rotting lettuce. 

An imperfectly known species, described from a drawing. 



. BEIAREA. 303 

Penicillium cofFeicolor. B. & Br. 

Broadly effused, -umber ; fertile hyphae short, tliick, 
conidia in short chains, subglobose or irregular, 12-13 /jl 
diam., translucent, tinged -with brown. 

Penicillium coffeicolor, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1614; 
Saoc, Syll., n. 403. 

Forming a felt on Pasteur's solution. Possibly an abnormal 
aquatic condition of some species. 

**** BeddisJi or rose-colour, 

Penicillram roseum. Link. 

Sterile hyphae very delicate, creeping, white, forming a 
very thin cobweb-like film on the matrix ; fertile hyphae 
erect, sparingly penicillately branched at the apex ; conidia 
in persistent, short chains, rose-colour, globose, 3 //, diam. 

Penicillium roseum, Link, Obs., ii. p. 37 ; Sacc, Syll., n. 406. 

On dry potato stems. 

A coremioid form of the present species has been described. 



BEIAEEA. Corda. (fig. 22, p. 313.) 

Mycelium creeping; fertile hyphae erect, unbranched; 
chains of conidia springing directly from the tip of the fertile 
branch, which is not inflated, nor furnished with conidia- 
bearing branchlets. 

Briarea, Corda, in Sturm, D. C. PL Prance, ii. p. 11 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 85. 

Distinguished from Aspergillus by the absence of an in- 
flated head, and from Penicillium by the absence of branchlets 
that bear the conidia. 

Briarea elegans. Corda. (fig. 22, p. 313.) 
Mycelium creeping, fertile branches erect, simple, con- 
stricted- at the septa; chains of conidia loosely spreading 
and springing directly from the apex of the primary erect 
branch ; conidia subglobose. 

Briarea elegans, Sturm., Deutschl. Cr. PL, p. 11, f. 6; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 412. 

Porming grey, scattered or gregarious patches on decaying 
grass, leather, wood, &c. 



304 FTJNGUS-FLOEA. 

Tribe 5. Botrytideae. Sacc. 
HAPLAEIA. Link. (fig. 16, p. 313.) 

Mycelium creeping; fertile branches erect, septate, once 
or several times bifurcating ; conidia globose or elliptical, 
one-celled, almost colourless, sessile and springing laterally 
from the branches. 

Haplaria, Link., Obs., i. p. 9 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 85. 

I am not acquainted with the species constituting the 
present genus, and am not certain as to the origin of the 
conidia which in figures are represented as scattered in an 
irregular manner over the branches. 

Haplaria grisea. Link. (fig. 16, p. 313.) 
Forming minute greyish tufts; hyphae very slender, 
rather rigid, simple or forked, becoming thin at the tip, 
sparingly septate ; conidia subglobose, very minute, at first 
clustered near to or below the tip, then becoming dispersed 
over every part, subhyaline. 

Haplaria grisea. Link, Obs., i. p. 9, f. 12 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 414. 

On damp grass leaves. 



HYPHODEEMA. Fries, (fig. 33, p. 313.) 

Mycelium very thin, septate, creeping and forming an 
eifused stratum that is covered with erect, very slender, 
closely packed branches, each bearing a one-celled conidium 
at the apex. 

Syplioderma, Fries, Sum. Veg. Scand., p. 447 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 89. 

Forming crust-like patches resembling a Corticium. 

Hyphoderma roseum. Fr. (fig. 33, p. 313.) 
Tufts compressed, at first rounded then effused, minutely 
villose, margin minutely radiato-byssoid ; fertile branches 
very slender, erect, parallel, crowded, with a globose, rose- 
coloured conidium at the apex, 7-8 jn diameter. 



ACEEMONIUM — EHINOTEICHUM. 305 

Syphoderma roseum, Fr., Summ. Veg. Scand., p. 447 ; 
Sacc. SylL, iv. n. 434. 

Porming orange or rosy patches on decayed wood, &c. 



ACEEMONIUM. Link, (emended), (fig. 32, p. 313.) 

Hyphae simple or sparingly branched, creeping, with 
scattered, suberect conidiophores that bear a single conidium 
at the tip ; conidia colourless or brightly coloured. 

Acremonmm, Link., Obs., i. p. 13 ; emended by Sacoardo, 
SylL, iv. p. 89. 

Loosely interwoven, prostrate hyphae giving off slender 
branches, each with a single conidium at the tip, are the 
features of the present genus. 

Acremonium altematum. Link. (fig. 32, p. 313.) 

Mycellium white, delicate, loosely interwoven ; fertile 
brHcfaes suberect, from alternate sides of the prostrate hyphae, 
acute, 40-50 jj, long, conidia elliptical, straight or curved 
hyaline, 6-10 x 2-4 yn. 

Acremonium altematum. Link., Obs. Myc, i. p. 13 ; Sacc, 
SylL, iv. n. 436. 

On fallen leaves. 

The conidia are at first involved in mucus and are then, 
globose, but at maturity the mucus disappears and the true 
form is seen. 

Acremonium verticillatum. Link. 

Mycelium white, very delicate, densely compacted ; fertile 
branches verticillate ; conidia elliptical, minute. 

Acremonium verticillatum, Link, Obs., i. p. 20 ; Sacc, SylL, 
iv. n. 436. 

On rotten trunks, &c. 



EHINOTEICHUM. Corda. (fig. 6, p. 274.) 

Saprophytes. Mycelium creeping, fertile branches erect, 
simple or sparingly branched ; tips of the branches with 
minute spindules that bear the one-celled, colourless or 
brightly coloured conidia. 

VOL. III. x 



306 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

BMnotriehum, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 17 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 91. 

* Whitish or greyish. 

Rhinotrichum repens. Preuss. 

Tufts grey or yellowish ; mycelium, branclLed, septate, 
creeping, interwoven ; fertile branches erect, septate, above 
with spine-like warts that bear the conidia in loose clusters ; 
conidia elliptical, apiculate at the base, smooth, pale grey, 
protoplasm granular, 18-23 X 10-12 /x. 

Bhinotrichum repens, Preuss, Sturm, p. 6, t. 22 ; Sacc, 
Syll., n. 443. 

On rotten wood. 

Rhinotrichum niveum. Cke. & Mass. (fig. 6, 
p. 274.) 

Tufted, caespitose, snow-white ; fertile hyphae erect, 
simple, septate, not quite so thick as the diameter of the 
spores ; upper joint, and sometimes the one below, bearing 
conical spicules that bear the conidia; conidia continuous, 
hyaline, ovate or broadly elliptical^ smooth, with a persistent 
minute apiculus at the base, 20-25 X 10-12 /i. 

Bhinotrichum niveum, Cooke & Massee, Grevillea, vol. xvi. 
p. 10. 

On dead wood. 

Rhinotrichum opuntia. B. & Br. 

White. Hyphae rather thick, simple below, towards the 
top forked 2-3 times, here and there rather swollen, tips of 
branchlets thickened, and furnished with minute wart-like 
projections that bear the globose, colourless conidia, mea- 
suring 8-9 /!A diameter. 

Bhinotrichum opuntia, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 761, 
t. xvi. f. 13 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n 446. 

On wood. 

Rhinotrichum deeolorans. Cooke. 
Snow-white then brownish ; hypha erect, tip 2-3 times 
furcate in a corymbose manner, tips slightly swollen, 
minutely denticulate ; conidia globose, minutely rugulose, 
colourless, apiculate, 10 /a diameter. 



KHINOTEIOHUM. 307 

Bhinotrichum, decolorans, Cooke, Grevillea, v. p. 58 ; Sacc, 
Syll.,- iv. n. 446. 
On chips. 

Rhinotrichum lanosum. Cooke. 

White or pale ochraceous; forming dense, extended 
patches ; mycelium delicate, branched, septate interwoven ; 
fertile branches decumbent, elongated, slender, septate, and 
with short, spreading branchlets, each with 3-4 minute 
spicules at the tip that bear the obovate, colourless conidia. 

Bhinotrichum lanosum, Cke., Hdbk., n. 1769 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 451. 

Bhinotrichum lanosum, Cooke, Pop. Science Eev., 1871, t. 68, 
f. 1-3. 

Forming woolly patches on damp wall-paper. 



** More or less rosy. 

Rhinotrichuni Bloxami. B. & Br. 

Forming white or cream-coloured effused patches; my- 
celium white, decumbent, septate; fertile hyphae erect, 
sometimes sparingly divided, tips clavate bearing scattered 
spicules surmounted by subelliptio or slightly obovate 
conidia, which are sometimes obtuse, sometimes apiculate, 
6 X 4;u. 

Bhinotrichum Bloxami, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 541 , 
t. vii. f. 19 ; Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 454. 

On dead wood. 

Rhinotrichum decipiens. Cooke. 
• Broadly effused, at first pale rose-coloured, becoming 
whitish with age, margin radiating ; mycelium densely inter- 
woven, creeping, branched, septate ; fertile branches erect, 
closely septate, the one or two highest joints with short, 
pointed, wart-like projections that bear the elliptical, colour- 
less conidia, 22-25 x 14-15 /x,. 

Bhinotrichum decipiens, Cke., Grev., xiv. p. 6 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 455. 

Incrusting bark and moss, resembling a Corticium, and in 
some instances can be separated in a sheet. 

X 2 



308 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 



*** Golden, citron, ochraceous, or tawny. 

Rhinotrichum ramosissimum. B. & C. 

Pale fawn-colour or clay-colour ; hyphae very much and 
irregularly brancted, septate, the terminal joints elongated 
and furnished with slight, projecting points that hear the 
■obovate conidia, which measure 7-8 x 4-5 /*.. 

Mhinotrichum ramosissimum. Berk. & Curt., N. Amer. Fung., 
n. 662 ; Sacc, Syll., n. 469. 

On rotten wood. 

The British form differs from the type in having the 
hyphae densely fasciculate, resembling the capillitium of a 
TricMa after the rupture of the peridium. 

Rhinotrichum Thwaitesii. B. & Br. 

Tufts, orbicular, often becoming confluent, yellow with a 
pale margin ; mycelium dense, interwoven, creeping, the tips 
becoming erect and branching in a forked manner, apices 
slightly thickened, denticulate, spores globose, very pale 
yellow, minutely warted, furnished with a very short pedicel, 
7-10 fj. diameter. 

Shinotrichum Thwaitesii, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., Ser. 2, 
vol. vii. p. 10, t. vi. f. 12 (n. 542) ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 470. 

On naked ground. 

Var. fulvum, Grove. Tawny or almost fuscous ; spores 
not so coarsely warted. 
On rotten wood. 

Rhinotrichum aureum. C. & M. 

Broadly effused, overrunning the entire matrix, bright 
-deep ora.nge ; sterile threads creeping, branched, thin, septate ; 
fertile threads erect, simple or forked, septate, 180-250 X 
12 /J. ; ultimate joint papillate with small, obtuse warts; 
cimidia broadly elliptical, 18-20 x 10^12 yu., springing from 
4he warts, and forming subglobose heads. 

RMnotrichum aureum, Gke. & Mass. Grev., xviii. p. 27. 

On decaying Paxillus, Boletus, and Lactarius. 



SPOEOTEIOHUM, 309 



SPOEOTEICHUM. Link, (emended), (fig. 31, p. 313.) 

Hyphae vaguely and repeatedly branciied, witli or without 
septa, all similar and procumbent. Conidia springing from 
the tips of branchlets or spinous processes, sulssolitary, 
elliptical or subglobose, one-celled. 

Sporotriehum, Link., sp. pi. Fungi, i. p. 1, emended by 
Saocardo in Mich., ii. p. 16 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 96. 

Distinguished from Botrytis by all the hyphae being pro- 
cumbent, and the subsolitary spores ; from Trichosporium by 
never being black. 

* Whitish. 
I Saprophytes on Plants. 

Sporotriehum laxum. Nees. 

Forming minute white spots that often eventually become 
confluent; hyphae irregularly branched, forming lax, de- 
pressed tnfts ; conidia minute, white, elliptic or obovate. 

Sporotriehum laxum, Nees, Syst., p. 49, f. 46 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 483. 

Sporotriehum minutum, Grev., Scot. Crypt. FL, t. 108, f. 1. 

On rotten wood and on various substances. 

ff Growing on animals. 
(= Mierosporon. Gruby.) 

Sporotriehum mentagrophytes. Eob. 

Hyphae densely interwoven ; conidia subglobose, very 
numerous, 6-12 /j, diam. 

Sporotriehum mentagrophytes, Eobin., Hist. Veget. Paras. ; 
Sacc, SylL, n. 499. 

On human hair, especially near the bulb. 

** Yellow or saffron. 

Sporotriehum flavissimum. Link. 
Hyphae sparingly septate, vaguely branched, hyaline, 
interwoven and forming a loose, thick, broadly effused 
stratum, and giving off numerous short conidia-bearing 



310 FUKGUS-PLOEA. 

iDranolies; conidia obovate or subgloliose, 4-6 X 3-3 • 5 /x, 
deep 3'ellow. 

Sporotrichum flavissimum. Link, Obs., ii. p. 34 ; Saec, Syll., 
n. 610. 

? Sporotrichum sulphureum, Grev., Scot. Cr. Fl., t. 108, f. 2. 

On decaying leaves, stems, wood, tubers, &c., also on dung. 

Sporotrichum sulphureum. Grev. 

Tufts small, orbicular, clear yellow, sometimes becoming 
confluent ; bypbae very slender, scantily septate, branched, 
loosely inteiTvoven ; conidia minute, globose, yellow. 

Sporotrichum sulphurewm, Grev., Scot. Crypt. Fl., t. 108, f. 2; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 511. 

On bark, dung, corks and other substances, in cellars, &c. 

Sporotrichum merdarium. Ehrb. 

Tufts minute, deep yellow, somewhat powdery ; branches 
of hyphae often trifid, slightly rough ; conidia globose, muri- 
culate, yellow, 9-10 /a diameter. 

Sporotrichum merdarium, Ehrenb., Sylv. Berol., p. 10 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 524. 

On dung. 

Distinguished from the other yellow species by its globular 
conidia, which leave a wavy or knobby outline in optical 
section, arising- from the bluntly convex elevations by which 
the surface is ornamented. Conidia 5-6 //, diameter. On 
dog's dung. (Grove.) 

Sporotrichum aurantiacum. Grev. 

Forming minute orange-red tufts ; hyphae very slender, 
very much interwoven ; conidia globose, very minute. 

Sporotrichum aurantiacum, Grev. in Wern. Trans., iv. t. 5, 
f. 4 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 523. 

On dung, &c. 

Sporotrichum geochroum. Desm. (fig. 31, p. 313.) 
Tufts small, velvety, oohraceous with rust tinge ; fertile 

hyphae erect, minutely rough, very sparingly septate, 

branchlets scanty ; conidia globose, clear brown, 3-4 fx. 

diameter. 

Sporotrichum geochroum, Desm., in Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 

146; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 532. 
On rotten wood, &c. 



MONOSPOKIUM. 311 



»»* 



Greenish. 



Sporotrichum chlorinum. Link. 

Forming effused, rather thick oliTe-green or yellowish 
patches ; hyphae dense, branched, interwoven ; conidia 
ohovate, with a green tinge, 4^6 X 2-3 /x, 

Sporotriclmm chlorinum, Link, Obs. Myc, ii. p. 35 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 669. 

On fallen leaves, especially oak. 

MONOSPOEIUM. Bon. (fig. 4, p. 313.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping ; fertile hyphae repeated branched 
in a tree-like mannei-, erect ; conidia hyaline or brightly 
coloured, terminal and solitary on the tips of the terminal 
branchlets. 

Monosporium, Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 95 ; Sacc, Syll., vol. iv. 
p. 118. 

Monosporium olivaceum. C. & M. (fig. 4, p. 313.) 
Broadly, and for the most part densely effused, olive; 
hyphae interwoven, septate, pale olivaceous, fertile branches 
erect, sparingly branched towards the apex, branchlets some- 
times alternate, sometimes in pairs ; conidia hyaline, oval, 
6-8 X 4 /*. 

Monosporium olivaceum, Cke. & Massee, Grevillea, vol. xvi. 
p. 78. 

On Cortidum and bark. 

Monosporium ooprophilum. C. & M. 

Tufts snow-white, subglobose, sometimes confluent; hyphae 
interwoven, septate ; fertile hyphae short, repeatedly dicho- 
tomous, branches ascending, slightly narrower upwards ; 
conidia ovate, continuous, hyaline, granular inside. 
12-16 X 10 /t. 

Monosporium coprophilum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 10. 

On dung. 

Monosporium saccharium. B. & Br. 
Tufts gelatinous, coffee-colour, fertile hyphae short, erect, 
somewhat clavate; spores obovate, base truncate, smooth, 
tinged coffee-colour, 10-13 x 7 /x.. 



312 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Monofijiorium saccharinum, Berk. & Broome, Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 1379; Sacc, Syll., n. 603. 

On decaying substances under glass. 

BOTEYTIS, Mich, (emended), (fig. 7, p. 274.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, fertile erect, vaguely branched. 
Branchlets slender, tips rather acute {Eubotrytis) ; branchlets 
thickened, rather obtuse (Polyactis) ; tips inflated and 
furnished with pointed wart-like projections (Phymato- 
triehum) ; tips obtuse and divided into numerous spine-like 
projections {Gristularia). Conidia one-celled, globose, ellip- 
soid, or oblong, colourless or brightly coloured, variously 
aggregated near the tips of the branchlets, bat not forming 
dense heads. 

Botrytis, Micheli, emended by Link, Sp. PL, i. p. 53 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 116. Polyactis, Link, (in part). 

A. Eubotrytis. 

Small, soft, colour variable ; branches slender, somewhat 
equal ; conidia loosely aggregated at the tips. 



FIGURES ILLUSTRATING THE MUCEDINEAE. 

1. Milowia nivea, portion of plaiit and a free eonidium; — Fig. 2, Fris- 
mariafurcata (enlarged, after Grove); — Fig. 3, Mucrosporium spliaeroce- 
plialum ; — Fig. 4, Monosporium oUvaceum ; — [Fig. 5, Marmnia i-pomeae, 
natural size, emerging from a branch; — Fig. 6, portion of same; — Fig. 7, 
JSypodermium orchidearvm, emerging from a leaf;] — Fig. 8, O'idium 
leueoeonium; — Fig. 9, Hormiscium splendens ; — Fig. 10, Torula moni- 
Uoides ; — Fig. 11, Gyroceras plantaginis ; Fig. 12, Echindbotryum atrum ; — • 
Fig. 13, Stachybalrys asperula ; — Fig. 15, Cliromosporium lateritium ; — 
Fig. 15a, Olonostachys araucaria ; — Fig. 16, Haplaria grisea ; — Fig. 17, 
Geotriclmm candidum ; — Fig. 18, Fusidiwn viride ; — Fig. 19, Bhopdlmnyces 
pallidum; — Fig. 20, head of same, showing areolated surface; — Fig. 21, 
Polyseytalvm fungorum ;^Fig. 22, Briaria elegans ; — Fig. 23, Septoaj- 
lindrium Bonordeni; — ^Fig. 24, Biplocladiitm melleum; — Fig. 25, Sepe.- 
donium chrysospermum ; — Fig. 26, Tnehnderma lignorum ; — Fig. 27, 
Sterigmatocystis duHa; — Fig. 28, section of head of same; — Fig. 29, 
Microstroma album;— ¥ig. HO, Amblyosporium botrytis; — Fig. 31, Sporo- 
tridh'Um geocJiroum ; — Fig. 32, Acremonium alternatum ; — Fig. 33, Hypho- 
derma roseum. All the figures are highly magnified. 

Figs. 5-7 do not belong to the Hyphomyoetes. 



314 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 



Whitish. 



Botrytis trabea. Sacc. 

Forming minute pale spots; fertile hyphae erect, septate, 
sparingly branched in a forked manner, branches divided at 
the apex into 3-5 slender branchlets, each bearing a single, 
globose, colourless conidium, 5-6 /a diameter. 

Botrytis trabea, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 597. 

Stachylidium traheum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1920, 
t. 3, f. 6. 

On an old beam. 

Botrytis coroUigena. 0. & M. (fig. 7, p. 274.) 
Pure white. Sterile hyphae scanty ; fertile, erect, septate, 
7-8 /A thick, elongated, very shortly branched near the tip ; 
conidia elliptical, crowded in small subglobose heads, con- 
tinuous, hyaline, smooth, 25 X 15-18 /j.. 

Botrytis coroUigena, Cke & Mass., Grevillea, xvi. p. 10. 
On fading corollas of Calceolaria. 

Botrytis gonabotryoides. C. & M. 

Whitish. Hyphae gregarious but not fasciculate, erect, 
simple or furcate, septate, pale olive below, conidia elliptical, 
continuous, hyaline, 16 x 7-8 /j,, in subglobose, apical 
clusters, and also in three or four similar clusters at various 
heights around the septa of the hyphae, but the joints are 
not swollen, conidia-bearing branchlets short and crested at 
the tip. 

Botrytis goiiabotryoidps, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 79. 

On dead leaves of Hypericum calycinum. 

** Beddish or lilac. 

Botrytis coccotricha. Sacc. 

Tufts rather large, pallid, then dingy rose-coloured ; 
hyphae branched in a dichotomous, rarely trichotomous 
manner, 6-7 ju. thick, colourless below, rosy towards the 
tip ; conidia generally solitary at the attenuated tips of the 
branchlets, elliptical, 25-30 ft, long, at first granular, rufous- 
ferruginous. 

Botrytis coccotricha, Sacc, Fung. Ital., t. 694 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 614. 

On decayed branches. 



BOTRTTIS. 315 

*** Yellow ; tawny, or golden. 

Botrytis citrina. Berk. 

Forming thin patches 1 in. or more across, at first white, 
then yellow ; hyphae erect, septate, main branches attenuate 
or often in opposite pairs, hranchlets short, each hearing 
a single pear-shaped yellow conidium at the tip, measuring 
9-10 X 5 yn. 

Botrytis citrina, Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. i. n. 127, 
t. viii. f. 12. 

On dead fallen branches of cherry. 

The hyphae when mature are bright yellow. 

Botrytis brevior. Sacc. 

Tufts minute, subglobose, rufous, hyphae sparingly 
branched, septate, joints short ; conidia elliptical, granu- 
lated, 5 X 7-8 IX. 

Botrytis hrevior, Sacc, Syll., n. 635. 

Coccotrichum brevius, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1918, 
t. 3, f. 8. 

On bark. 

Tingeing water with a rufous shade. Subferruginous when 
dry. 

**** Olay-colour or greenish. 

Botrytis argillacea. Cooke. 

Forming broadly effused, thin, greyish-brown patches; 
fertile hyphae, erect, septate, main branches few, divided in 
a forked manner at the apex ; tips of branchlets slightly 
thickened, bearing small numbers of elliptical, almost colour- 
less conidia, measuring 10-12 X 7 /x.. 

Botrytis argillacea, Cke., Grev., t. 48, f. 6 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
m. 646. 

On wood. 

Forming clay-coloured patches 6 in. and more long. 

Botrytis virella. Fr. 

Forming an effused, powdery, very delicate greenish layer ; 

sterile hyphae creeping, about 3 /t thick, colourless, branded, 

septate; fertile hypbae erect, septate, coloured, 100-120 x 

3 fi, bearing near the apex 2-4 short, slightly inflated branch- 



316 FUXGUS-FLOKA. 

lets, that bear the imperfect, greenish heads of conidia; 
conidia globose, pale dingy green, 2 /x diameter. 

Botrytis virella. Fries, Summa. Veg. Sc, p. 491 ; Sacc, 
SylL, n. 663. 

On very wet and rotten wood. 

***** Brownish or darJc-coloured. 

Botrytis Tilletii. Desm. 

Forming dense and often broadly effused, fawn-coloured or 
brownish expansions ; sterile hyphae 8-10 /x. thick, septate, 
branched, interwoven ; fertile, same thickness, short, erect, 
irregularly or imperfectly verticillately branched near the 
apex, tips of the branchlets spinulose and bearing numerous 
elliptical or subglobose conidia, 4 x 3 or 4 /t diameter. 

Botrytis Tilletii, Desm., Ann. Sci. Nat. (1838), vol. x. 
p. 308 ; Sacc, SylL, n. 660. 

Eunning over moss, leaves, wood, &c. 

Botrytis croci. Gke. & Mass. 

Small dark smoky tufts, sometimes confluent and effused ; 
threads thick, rather closely septate, slightly branched at 
the attenuated tips, pale olive below, colourless above ; 
conidia elliptical, continuous, hyaline, 15-18 x 8-10 /jl, 
collected at the tips of the branches in small heads of from 
3-8 conidia. 
y Botrytis croci, Gke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 10. 

On dead leaves of Crocus. 



B. Polyactis. Link. 

Large, rather rigid, forming brownish-grey tufts ; branches 
thickish, obtuse, usually with scattered tooth-like projections 
arranged in a racemose or corymbose manner, and bearing 
the conidia. 

Botrytis vulgaris. Fr. 

Tufts greyish-olivo, scattered; often becoming confluent, 

fertile hyphae septate, ascending or erect, olive, branched 

near the tip ; primary branches short, spreading, bearing a 

few short branchlets usually arranged in pairs; conidia 



BOTRYTIS. 317 

clustered at tips of brancUets, elliptical, smooth, pale brown, 
10-12 X 7-9 /A. 

Botrytis vulgaris. Fries, Syst. Mycol., iii. p. 398; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 664. 

On decaying fruit, flowers, leaves, wood, &c. 

The following varieties, some of which have not yet been 
met with in Britain, are known. 

Var. plebeja, Pres., Beitr., p. 13, t. 11, f. 1-7. 

Tufts greyish-olive, hyphae rather rigid, ascending or 
erect, septate, sparingly branched or subsimple, fertile 
branches divided in a binate or temate manner at the apex, 
nodulose; conidia elliptical, hyaline, 10-14 x 7-8 /x, smooth, 
borne on very minnte, verruculose branchlets that spring 
from the nodulose portions of the branches. 

On dead or fading leaves, branches, &c. 

Var. condensata, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 358. 

Tufts suberumpent, grey; conidia 10-12 x 9-10 /j.. 

Parasitic on Tuhercularia. 

Var. furcata, Fres., Beitr., p. 13, t. ii. f. 8-11. 

Tufts olive, hyphae 1 • 5 mm. high, once or twice forked, 
bearing tufts of conidia here and there ; conidia globose, 
10-15 fj. diameter. 

On damp paper. 

Var. interrupta, Fres., I.e., figs. 12-14. 

Tufts brownish ; hyphae subsimple, elongated, subnodulose, 
conidia globoso-ellipsoid, 11-15 /a long, arranged in elongated 
clusters at the nodes and resembling an interrupted spike. 

On onion scape. 

Botrytis cana. Kunze & Schm. 

Forming subrotund hoary tufts that are often crowded or 
confluent ; hyphae septate, branched above in a botryoid 
manner ; conidia elliptical, pale brown. 

Botrytis cana, Kunze & Schm., Myk., Heft i. p. 83 ; Sacc, 
Sjll., iv. n. 129 (not of Corda). 

Polyactis cana, Bon., Hdbk., p. 115, f. 156. 

On dead leaves of various plants. 

Botrytis vera. Fr. 
Forming minutely woolly tufts of a greyish colour ; fertile 



318 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

liypliae vaguely branclied above, septate; conidia almost 
colourless, elliptical, 10-12 X 5-7 fi, arranged in a spicate 
manner at tlio tips of the branchlets. 

Botrytis vera, Fries, Syst. Myc.,iii. p. 417 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 666. 

MuGor lotnjtis, Bolton, Fting., t. 132, f. 3. 

On fruit, decaying herbaceous stems, fungi, &c. 

Botrytis cinerea. Pers. 

Sterile hyphae creeping, fertile erect, gregarious, simple 
or sparingly branched, and with several short, simple or 
divided branchlets near the apex, the ultimate branchlets 
spinulose ; septate, slightly constricted at the septa, smoky- 
brown, 200-300 X 12-16 ju,; conidia broadly elliptical or 
subglobose, apicnlate, almost colourless, 10-12 /x diameter. 

Botrytis cinerea, Pers., Syn., p. 690 ; Sacc., Syll., n. 667. 

On rotting leaves, stems, putrid fungi, &c. 

Var. sclerotiophila, Sacc., Mich., ii, p. 358. Hyphae 
densely fasciculate, sooty -grey, septate, not at all or 
sparingly branched, nodulose above ; conidia springing from 
the nodules, elliptical, 8-9 x 6, almost hyaline. 

On dead stems of Umhellifers ; springing from an elongated, 
externally black sclerotium, once called Selerotium durum. 

Botrytis capitata. B. & Br. 

Altogether white. Fertile hyphae arising from a basal 
inflated cell, erect, bifid or trifid above ; conidia obovate, 
25 fi long. 

Botrytis capitata, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist. (1881), p. 131, 
n. 1919 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 680. 

On Cheiranthus. 

Botrytis fascicularis. Sacc. 

Tufts minute, brown, shining; hyphae erect, clustered, 
rather wavy, fasciculate or connate at the base, brown, semi- 
pellucid above ; branches hyaline ; clusters of conidia sub- 
globose ; conidia oblong, large. 

Botrytis fascicularis, Sacc, Syll., n, 686. 

Polyactis fascicularis, Corda. 

On decaying plants. 



BOTETTL?. 319 

Botrytis aclada. Fr. 

Forming minnte browTiist tnfts ; hyphae Tmbraiiched, 
septate, erect ; conidia elliptic-obloiig, almost colourless, 
i3-S X -5—6 m aggregated in elongated clusters at the tips of 
the hyphae. 

Botrytis aelada, Fres., Beitr., p. 16, t ii. £ 23-2i; Sacc, 
StIL, iv. n. 672. 

On decaying onion scap^ 

C. Crigtularia. 

Tips of the branchlets scarcely inflated, cristato-crenate or 
digitate. 

Botrytis depraedens. Sacc. 

Forming grey determinate or confluent spots on leaves ; 
hyphae colourless, ascending, septate, ■wavy, nnbranched, 
terminated by elliptical basidia-lite cells, the terminal one 
bilobed; head of conidia globose, snbcompact; conidia 
globose, hyaline, 12 fi. diameter. 

Botrytis depraedens, Cooke, some remarkable moulds, 
Quelet, ilicr. Joum., v. : Sacc., Syll., iv. n. 692. 

On sycamore leaves (Acer pseudo-pleUamis). which it 
destroys. 

D. Phymatolrichum. 

Tips of branches inflated and everywhere covered -with 
pointed wart-like projections bearing the conidia. 

Botrytis tiicepliala. Sacc. 

Tufts minute, elliptical, white, 3 mm. long ; sterile hyphae 
hyaline, loosely interwoven ; fertile simple, erect, septate, 
10 /t thick, simple above or divided into two branches each 
again divided into 3 short branchlets with globose inflated 
tips, from which originate the globose conidia, measuring 5 n 
diameter. 

Botrytis tricephala, Sacc., Syll., iv. n. 693. 

Acmosporium trieepTuHamj Phillips, in Grard. ChronT Mar. S, 
1884, fig. 61. 

On faUen leaves of Cryptomeria Japcniea. 



320 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Botrytis galanthina. Saco. 

Hyphae with short branches towards the tip, umber- 
brown, branchlets inorassated at the tip ; conidia obovate, 
borne on elongated spictiles, 15-18 /«. long. 

Botrytis galanthina, Saoc, Syll., iv. n. 705. 

Polyactis galanthina, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1385, 
t. viii. f. 8. 

On bulbs of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis). 



OVULAEIA. Sacc. (fig. 8, p. 274.) 

Parasites. Hyphae subsimple, erect, more or less dis- 
tinctly furnished with minute tooth-like projections near 
the apex that bear the conidia. Conidia one-celled, colourless, 
solitary, or rarely in short chains. 

Ovuiaria, Saoc, Mich., ii. p. 17; Saoc, Syll., iv. p. 139. 

Closely allied to Bamularia, but distinguished by the con- 
tinuous conidia. 

* On Dicotyledons. 

Ovuiaria lychnicola. Mass. 

Spots often rather large and numerous, subcircular, 
ocbraceous; fertile hyphae short, simple, erect, tufted; 
<3onidia cylindrical, attenuated slightly at both ends, 
■colourless, 12-16 X 4 /*. 

Bamularia lychnicola, Cke., Grev., xiv. p. 40 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv., n. 993. 

On living leaves of Lychnis diurna. 

Ovuiaria lapsanae. Mass. 

Spots at first inconspicuous then becoming dry and pale ; 
fertile hyphae tufted, simple or with a few short branchlets, 
•30-50 X 3 /A, not septate ; conidia cylindrical, rather 
attenuated at both ends, 10-16 x 3-6-4 /i, in short chains. 

Bamularia lampsanae, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 649 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1008. 

On imder surface of living leaves of nipplewort (La^sana 
communis). 

Ovuiaria destructiva. Mass. 
Parasitic Brumpent; forming broadly effused patches; 



OTULAEIA. 321 

fertile hvpliae erect, simple, not septate, as^gregated ; 
coiiidia elliptical, cream-coloured, 15 /u. long, ia short chains 
of two or three, terminal npon the hyphae. 

Ramularia destructica, Phill. & Plow., Grev., vi. p. 23, t. 91, 
f. 1 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 962. 

On Myrica gale. When it occurs upon the smaller branches 
it is in the manner of an encircling zone 1-3 cm. wide, whicli 
quickly causes loss of vitality of the parts beyond, very 
much in the same manner that Shytisma maxima does. It 
also occurs on the under surfaces of the leaves, upon reddish- 
brown spots. (P. & P.). 

Ovularia senecionis. Mass. 

Tufts white, conspicuous, irregular; hyphae erect, septate, 
wayy, slender; conidia cylindrical, ends rounded, con- 
tinuous, 7-18 X 5 ft, colourless. 

Eamularia senecionis, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1023. 

Cylindrosporium senecionis, B. & Br., Ann. Xat. Hist., 
n. 1G13. 

On leaves of Senecio vulgaris. 

Ovularia lactea. Mas.=. 

Spots suboircular, -whitish, boundpd by a brownish 
margin; hyphae rather wavy, 30-60 x 2 /a; conidia variable, 
elliptic-oblong, fiisoid, or cylindrical, both ends obtuse, 
8-11 X 2-3 fx, colourless, in short chains. 

Itamularia lactea, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 549 ; Sacc, Svll., iv. 
n. 979. 

On upper surface of living leaves of Viola liir'.a, V. 
odoraia, &c. 

Ovularia armoraciae. Mass. 

Spots irregular in form and size, often numerous, sub- 
ochraceous then pale; liyphae stibfasciculate, spiinging from 
a prostrate mycelium, without septa, simple or rarely with 
nn indication of branching; conidia elongated, cylindrical, 
both ends obtuse, colourless, 15-25 x 2-5-3 /x (or accord- 
ing to Fuckel, becoming subventricose, and measuring 
22 X 5 /i). 

Samularia armoraciae, Fckl., Symb. Myc, p. 361, t. i. 
f. 24; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 978. 

On leaves of horse-radish. 

VOL. iir. Y 



322 FUXGUS-FLORA. 

Ovularia interstitialis. Mass. 

Spots hypophyllous, yellowish ; conidiopliores erect, 
aseptate, simple subflexuous or irregularly nodulose, 
60-80 X 5-6 fx,, supporting a single conidiutn attached 
obliquely to the abrupt apex; conidia elliptic-oblong, colour- 
less, 16-18 X 5-7 fjL. 

Peronospora interstitialis, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., sei". iv. 
vol. XY. p. 34 (n. 1465); Sacc, Syll., vii. n. 867. 

On the under surface of primrose leaves. " Spots hypo- 
phyllous, yellow, confined to the interstices of the veins, 
rarely extending slightly beyond them." (Berk.) 

A singular species, a typical Ovularia. The above descrip- 
tion is drawn up from the type specimens in Berkeley's 
herbarium at Kew. 

Ovularia rufibasis. Mass. 

Hypophyllous, spots on under surface, pale on upper 
surface bright brown, conidiophores erect, simple, aseptate, 
60-80 X 4-6 fj,, apex abrupt with a very minute oblique 
apiculus supporting a single conidium; conidia variable 
in shape, obovate, ovate, or elliptic-oblong, colourless, 
25-30 X 5-7 /A. 

Peronospora rufibasis, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. iv. 
vol. XV. p. 34 (n. 1456) ; Sacc, Syll., vii. n. 873. 

On under surface of leaves of Myrica gale. Eare. 

Spots small, pallid, with corresponding bright brown spot-! 
on the upper surface of the leaf. The above diagnosis is 
drawn up from Berkeley's type specimens. Evidently a 
characteristic species of Ovularia. 

Ovularia cochleariae. Mass. 

Forming one or two large subcircular pale spots on leaves ; 
conidia elongated, cylindrical, both ends round, colourless, 
25-30 X 2-5-3/i;. 

Bamularia cochleariae, Cke., Grev., xi. p. 155; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 977. 

On living leaves of Cochlearia officinalis. 

Ovularia alnicola. Mass. 
Spots circular, greyish -white then smoky, epiphyllous ; 
Lyphae very short; conidia elliptical, colourless, in short 
chains, 10-14 X 4 /it. 



OVULAKIA. 323 

Hamularia alnieola, Cke., Grev., xiv. p. 40 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 967. 

On living leaves of Alnus glutinosa. 

Ovularia scelerata. Mass. 

Spots elongated, brown, often becoming effused over the 
greater portion of the leaf ; hyphae short, scattered, generally 
on the under surface of the leaf; conidia cylindrio-ellipsoid, 
rounded at both ends, colourlesis, 20 x 3'5 //, 

JRumularia scelerata, Cke., Grev., xiv, p. 40 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 971. 

On living radical leaves of Banunculus sceleratus. 

Ovularia rosea. Mass. 

Spots subochraceous or with a tinge of rose-colour; 
hyphae erect, fasciculate, simple or sparingly forked, tips 
subdenticulate, colourless, 30-40 x 2- 5-3 ;«,; conidia fusoid, 
15-25 X 2-3 IX., colourless. 

Hamularia rosea, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 966. 

On the under surface of living leaves of Salix viminalis, 
S. triandra, S. vitellina, &c. 

Sometimes the conidia are spuriously 1-septate, due to 
the division of the protoplasm into two parts, but a true 
septum is not present. 

Ovularia asperfolii. Sacc. 

Tufts spot-like, depressed, white ; hyphae tortuous, 
sparingly septate, 50-70 x 4 /x ; conidia elliptical, base sub- 
apiculate, 10-12 x 7-8 /i, hyaline, inserted on lateral or 
terminal scars of the hyphae. 

Ovularia asperfolii, Sacc, Fung. Yen., ser. v. p. 186 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 735. 

On leaves of Comfrey (^Symphytum officinalis^. 

Those portions of the surface of the leaf opposed to the 
spots are yellow. 

Ovularia veronicae. Sacc. (fig. 8, p. 274.; 
Tufts white, often occupying nearly the whole of the 
under surface of the leaf; hyphae long, branched ; conidia 
cylindric-ellipsoid, one-celled, colourless, size very variable, 
12-30 X 5-6 /x. 

Ovularia veronicae, Sacc, Svll., iv. n. 742. 

y 2 



324 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

f^^Bamularia teronicae, Fuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 361 ; Bei-k. & 
Broome, Ann. Niit. Hist., n. 1917, t. 3, f. 7. _ 

On under surface of leaves of various species of Speedwell ; 
Veronica hederifolia, V. agrestis, &c. 

Ovularia Lamii. Sacc. 

Tufts minute, white, seated on somewhat discoloured spots ; 
hyphae fascictilate, very short, simple, thinner than the 
elliptical, continuous conidia which measure 18 x 6 /x. 

Ovularia Lamii, Sacc., Syll., n. 744. 

Bamularia Lamii, Fuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 361, t. 1, f. 25. 

On leaves of Lamium. 

Ovularia berberidis. Cke. 
Hypophyllous, greyish-white, effused ; hyphae short, 
simple; conidia elliptical, hyaline, 16-18 x 8-9 fj.. 

Ovularia herheris, Oke., Grev., v. 16 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 746. 
On fading leaves of Berheridis asiatica. 

Ovularia syringiae. Berk. 

Hyphae decumbent, 300 /^ long, conidia at first subglobose, 
apex papillate, then elliptical, large, 60-75 fi. long. 

Ovularia syringae. Berk, in Grev., 1882, p. 16 and 115 ; al.-oi 
in Gard. Chron., 1881, fig. 136, 

On leaves of Syringa. 

Ovularia obliqua. Oudem. 

Spots subcircular, subochraceous when dry, bordered by a 
red margin ; hyphae on both sides of the leaves, but usually 
on the under surface, fasciculate, simple or with 1-2 
small branohlets, colourless, aseptate or rarely 1-septate, 
70-125 X 3-4 fj.; conidia elliptic-oblong, one-celled, often 
oblique, 18-28 x 9-12 /a. 

Ovularia obliqua, Oudemans, Hedw., 1883, p. 85 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv; n. 150. 

Pernnospora ohliqua, Cke. 

On fading leaves oi Bumex crispus, B. obtusifolius, &o. 

Said to-be the conidial stage oi Sphaerella rumicis, Fckl. 

** On Monocotyledons. 

Ovularia elliptica. Berk. 

Hyphae short, here and there nodulose, septate, springing 
from creeping mycelium ; conidia elliptical, colourless, huge. 



SKPKDOXIUM — ASTEEOPHOBA. 325 

Ocularia elliptica. Berk., Gard. Chron., 1881, ■with fig., 
Giev., 1881, p. .51 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 752. 
On several cultivated varieties of Lilium. 



SEPEDONIUM. Link. (fig. 25, p. 313.) 

Hj'pliae vaguely branched, creeping; conidia produced at 
tho tips of branches, solitary or 2-3 together, ore-celled, 
minutely warted, hyaline or brightly coloured. 

Sepedonium, Link, Obs. Myc, i. p. 16 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 146. 

Most species are parasitic on fungi, and are the conidia) 
stage of species of Hypomyces. 

Sepedonium chrysospermum. Fr. (fig. 25, p. 313.) 

Hj-phao effused, interwoven, rather thick, almost hyaline, 
vmiously forked and branched, bearing short, spreading. 
Literal conidiophores ; conidia solitary, globose, minutely 
warted, veiy numerous, bright yellow, 13-17 /a diameter. 

Sepedonium chrysospermum, Fr., Syst. Myc, iii. p. 438 ; Sacc, 
S.N II.. n. 754. 

Very common on decaying fungi. Boletus, Agaiics, &c. 
Probably a true parasite, attacking the fungus early and 
arresting its development. At first white, then bright yellow 
and powdery from the very numerous spores. 

The conidial condition of Hypomyces chrysospermus. 

Sepedonium Tulasneanum. Sacc. 

EflFused, ochraceous or with an olive tinge, hyphae 
sparingly septate, dividing into 2-3 subequal, short branches 
near the apex, each producing at its summit an ochraceous, 
elliptic-fusiform, warted conidium, 16—24 X 8—10 /*. 

Sepedonium Tulasneanum, Sacc, Sj'U., vol. iv. n. 766. 

Parasitic on vari^'us species oi Boletus. 

The conidial coudition of Hypomyces Tulasneanus. 



ASTEEOPHOEA. Ditm. (fig. 5, p. 358.) 

Hyphae vaguely branched, erteping; conidia stellately 
tuberculose. 



326 FUKGUS-FLOKA. 

Asteroplwra, Ditm., in Sturm's DeufscU. ITl., iii. p. 53; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 148. 

Shown by Brefeld to be the chlamydosporous state of 
the parasitic agaric Nyctalis. 

Asterophora agaricicola. Corda. (fig. 5, p. 358.) 
Hyphae filiform, septate, hyaline, interwoven, sparingly 
branched ; conidia globose or broadly elliptical, stellately 
tuberculose, rarely 2 conidia superposed, hyaline then some- 
what dingy ochraceous, 18-24 /i. 

Asteroplwra agaricicola, Corda, Ic. Fung., vi. p. 8, f. 24; 
Sacc, Syll., n. 770. 

On the pileus of Nyctalis asterophora, of which Brefeld lias 
proved it to be the chlamydosporous condition. 



Tribe 6. Verticillieae. Sacc. 
VEETICILLIUM. Nees. (fig. 9, p. 274.) 

Vegetative hyphae creeping, septate, fertile erect, with 
more or less elongated branches that are frequently branched, 
and arranged in a vetticillate manner; conidia solitary at 
the tips of the branchlets, colourless or coloured, siminie or 
septate. 

Fer/icji!Zium, Nees, Syst. der Pilze, p. 57; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 150. 

In most species both primary and secondary branches are 
arranged in a verticillate manner, and the secondary branches 
arc thickened at the base, tapering towards the tip bearing 
the conidium. 

A. Eu-Verticillium. 

Branches almost straight ; heads of conidia not involved 
in mucus. 

* Whitish 

Verticillium candelabrum. Bon. 
Tufts white, at first minute, then often growing into each 
other, velvety, fertile hyphae erect, septate, primary branches 
few, scattered, shorter towards top of main stem, ultimate 



YEETICILLIUM. 327 

brancMets thick at the base, becoming thin at the tip, short, 
usTially in whorls of three ; conidia elliptical, 4r-6 x 3 yn. 

Yeri-icillium candelabrum, Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 97, f. 121 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 777. 

On rotten wood, leaves, &:c. 

Verticillium compactiusculum. Sacc. 

Forming rather compact, effused white tufts, sterile 
creeping hyphae scanty, fertile erect, septate, primary and 
secondary branches in whorls of 3-4; conidia cylindric- 
oblong, 8-10 X 2-8 jj.. 

Verticillium compactiusculum, Sacc, Fung. Ital., t. 724 ; 
Syll., iv. n. 781. 

On various decaying vegetable substances. 

Verticillium ampelinum. Cke. & iMass. 

White ; caespitose. Hyphae erect, sparingly branched, 
ultimate branches mostly ternate, attenuated at the apex, 
septate, conidia elliptic, hyaline, continuous, 10 x 4 /a. 

Verticillium ampelinum, Cke. & Mass., Grevillea, vol. xvi. 
p. 79. 

On knots on vine stems. 

Verticillium distans. B. & Br. (fig. 9, p. 274.) 

Forming scattered, indistinct white patches, primary- 
branches 3—4, alternate, secondary branches attenuated at 
the tip, in whorls, a whorl also terminates the main stem, 
conidia colourless, elliptic-oblong, becoming distinctly one- 
septate, 8—10 X 4 /x. 

Verticillium distans, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 534, 
t. 7, f. 16; Sacc, Syll.,iv. n. 784. 

On herbaceous stems. 

An examination of the type specimen in Berkeley's 

. herbarium at Kew shows that the conidia are distinctly 

uniseptate at maturity, hence technically the species is not 

a Verticillium; but as the agreement with this genus is 

perfect in every other respect, it is retained here. 

Verticillium terrestre. Sacc. 
Tegetative mycelium creeping, interwoven, white, fertile 
erect, septate, often wavy, sometimes branched once or twice 



328 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

in a forked manner, secondary branches short, in verticils 
usually consisting of four branchlets ; conidia minute, 
globose, colourless. 

Verticillium terrestre, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 78."). 

Slachylidium terrestre, Grev., Scot. CrjJ^pt. Fl., t. 257. 

On tbe bare ground and on fallen wood. 

Verticillium nanum. B. & Br. 

Very minute, wbite, barren byphae creeping, interwoven, 
fertile erect, minute, wavy, branches short, in pairs or single ; 
conidia elliptical, white, 5 X 3 /*. 

Verticillium nanum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 532, t. 7, 
f 18 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 789. 

On pears. 

A very minute and degenerate species, the whorls being 
reduced to two opposite branches, sometimes only one. 

Verticillium agaricinum. Corda. 

Forming white, woolly tufts ; fertile hyphae erect, 

poptate, verticillately branched, the lowermost and most 

■ A igorous branches with branchlets in verticils ; bianchlets 

acute at the tip and bearing a single elliptic-obovate 

cunidium (rarely more) at the apex ; conidia 14 X 5-6 /*. 

Verticillium agaricinum, Corda, Icon. Fung., xi. p. 15, f. 68 ; 
Sacc, Syll., no. 790 (in part) ; (not Plowright, Grevillea, 
pi. 150, f. A.) 

On Agarics. 

Verticillium. lactescentium. Sacc. 

Effused, white; hyphae erect, 8-10 /x thick, attenuated 

, Towards the apex, septate, simple or with 1-2 branches 

towards the top, branchlets in whorls of 3-5, acuminate, 

each bearing a single conidium at the apex ; conidia elliptical, 

apiculate at the base, 25-30 X 10-12 ;li. 

Verticillium lactescentium, Sacc, Syll., n. 791 ; Grevillea, 
III. 153, fig. A. 

On species of Lactarius ; accompanying Hypomyces terrestris, 
of which it is the conidial form. 

Verticillium microspermum. Sacc. 
Effused, white; fertile branches erect, 5-6 /x thick, apex 
tapering, septate ; branches in verticils of 3-4, bearing 



VEKTlClLLICJr. 329 

secondaiy verticils of 2-4 acuminate branchlets; conidia 
torminal, solitarj% elliptical, 5 x 3 fi. 

VerticilUiim microsjpermum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 793 ; Grevillea, 
1>I. 154, fig. A. 

On Fames annosus ; accompanying Hypomyces Broomeaniis, 
of which it is the conidial form. 

Verticillium aspergillus. B. & Br. 

"White; sterile hyphae scanty, cieepiug; fertile branches 
erect, septate, simple, rarely branched near the base, up to 
] 50 /A long, repeatedly dividing near the apex, in a dicho- 
tomous manner, the branches terminating in a verticil of 3—4 
acuminate branchlets ; conidia apical, solitary, elliptical, 
3 X 2 ;ti. 

VerticiUium aspergillus, Berk, it Broome; Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 1384, pi. 8, f. 7 ; Sacc, Syll., n. 795. 

On decaying Poria vaporaria. 

The habit is that of Clonostachjs araucaria, Cda. It is 
worth inquiry whether this may not be a state of Hypocrea 
farinosa. (B. & Br.) 

VerticiUium quaternellum. Grove. 

Snow-white. Mycelium very slender, intricately branched, 
fertile hyphae short, hyaline, erect, almost cylindrical, 
remotely septate ; branches cylindrical, straight, simple, in 
verticils of 3-4, and bearing 3-5 (most frequently foui) 
ccmidia at the apex; conidia cylindric-oblong, hyaline, 7-8 /a 
long. 

VerticiUium quaternellum. Grove, Journ. Bot., vol. xiii. 
p. 10; t. 24G, f. 7; Sacc, Syll, u. 720. . 

On Agaricus {Mycena). 

** Bosy, red, taicri'j, or yellow. 

VerticiUium epimyces. B. & Br. 
Forming effused, rather dense patches, at first white, then 
tinged with rose, primary and secondary branches usually 
in pairs, opposite, tertiary branches short, becoming sharp 
pointed, often also in pairs ; conidia colourless, at first almost 
globose, then elliptical, 9-12 x o /x when mature. 



330 FUNUUS-FLORA. 

Verticillium epimyces, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. IILst., n. 533, 
t. Yii. f. 15 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 798. 
On various species of decaying fungi. 

Verticillium buxi. Aners. & Pleisch. 

Forming eifused, minutely pulverulent, very pale rose- 
coloured tufts ; sterile hypiiae creeping, interlaced ; fertile 
erect, main branches short, in opposite pairs or whorls of 
three, secondary branchlets similarly arranged ; conidia 
elliptic- oblong, with a faint rosy tinge when mature, 
6-10 X 3-4 IX. 

Verticillium buxi, Aners. & Fleisch. in Hedwigia, 18G7, 
p. 9 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 800. 

Not Penicillium roseum, Cooke, as stated by Saccardo. 

On the under surface of fading and dead box leaves. 

Verticillium lateritium. Berk. 

Forming broadly effused velvety orange-red or vermilion- 
coloured patches ; sterile hyphae dense, creeping septate, 
fertile erect, primary and secondary branches in verticils, 
the whorls becoming smaller upwards, giving the whole a 
pyramidal outline; conidia, like the hyphae, pale red by 
transmitted light, elliptic-oblong, 4^6 X 3 ;«,. 

Verticillium lateritium, Berk., in Cke., Hdbk., p. C35 ; Sacc, 
Syll, iv. n. 808. 

On various decaying vegetable substances. 

[Verticillium Vizei, B. & Br., in Vize, Microfungi, n. 247. 

According to Saccardo, who has examined a specimen in 
Vize's exs., this is the imperfectly developed mycelium of 
Oospora perpusilla, Sacc. In the Kew copy there is only 
mycelium, and that only in small quantity.] 



ACEOSTALAGMUS. Corda. (figs. 6, 7, p. 358.) 

Vegetative hyphae creeping, septate ; fertile liyphae erect, 
septate, primary branches in whurls that become smaller 
upwards, secondary branches also whorled ; conidia aggre- 
gated in clusters at the tips of the branchlets and involved 
in mucus. 

Acrostalagmus, Corda, Icon. Fung., ii. p. 15 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 163. 



ACEOSTALAGMUS— CLONOSTACHYS, ool 

Eesembling VerticiUium in habit, distinguislied by the 
cluster of spores involved in mucus at the tip of each 
branchlet. By some the spores are considered as being 
enclosed in a cell, as in Mucm; but it has been shown by 
Berlese that the apparent membrane consists of mucus that 
disappears at maturity. 

Acrostalagmus cinnabarinus. Corda. (figs. 6, 7, 
p. 358.) 

Tufts pulverulent, effused, orange-red or vermilion ; vege- 
tative hyphae branched, septate ; fertile hyphae erect, rigid, 
septate, primarj' and secondary branches arranged in whorls, 
clusters of conidia globose, conidia elliptical, very faintly 
tinged rose, 3-5 x 1-2 p.. 

Acrostalagmus cimidbarinus, Corda, Ic. Fung., ii., p. 15, fig. 
66 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 139. 

On various decaying vegetable substances. 

CLONOSTACHYS. Corda. (fig. 15a, p. 013.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, continuous ; fertile, erect, simple, 
continuous below, septate towards the apex and giving off 
whorls of brancbes, usually in fours, from the septa; 
branclilets a^so beaiing whorls of branchlets, usually in 
■fours ; branchlets subulate, the upper part densely covered 
with white, continuous conidia, spirally arranged, and 
resembling a compact spike. 

Glonostachys, Corda, Prachtflora, p. 31, t. xv. ; Sacc, Syll., 
vol. iv. p. 165. 

Clonostacliys araucaria. Corda. (fig. Ioa, p. 313.) 
Forming-minute white, downy tufts 1—2 line broad and 
\ a line high ; fei-tile branches erect, simple and without 
septa for some distance- from the base, septate above, and 
bearing verticils of branches at the septa, branches aLso 
verticillately arranged, branches and branchlets in fours ; 
the branches covered for some distance with closelj- crowded, 
oblong conidia, the whole resembling a spike ; spikes 
•crowded, iind forming a compact, elliptical head; conidia 
5-6x2/1. 

Clonostacliys araucaria, Corda, Praclitfl., p. 31, t. xv. ; Sacc, 
SyU., n. 849. 



332 . FUNGUS-FLORA. 

On bark, wood, &c. 

A very beautiful fungus, resembling an Araucaria 
miniatuie when seen under a low magnifying power. 



SPICAEIA. Harz. (fig.. 10, p. 274.) 

Sterile hypbae creeping, brancbed, septate ; fertile hypbae 
erect, septate, repeatedly verticillately brancbed towards 
the apex, ultimate brancblets eacb bearing a diverging chain 
of elliptic or oblong, pale or colotirless, continuous conidia. 

Spiearia, Harz, Hypb., p. 50 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 166. 

With the general habit of Verticilliuni, but distinct in the 
lax, spreading chains of conidia. 

Spiearia elegans. Harz. (fig. 10, p. 274.) 
Tufts thin, effused, minutely velvety, whitish ; fertile 
hypbae erect, septate, 2-3 times verticillately branched 
aiiove, ultimate brancblets tapering, chains of conidia elon- 
gated, lax ; conidia elongato-elliptical, colourless. 5 x 3 /«.. 
ifp'caj-ia eZeg^ajis, Harz, Hyphom. p. 51; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 853. 
On bark, fungi, &c. 

Var. muscorum. Grove, Journ. Bot., t. 256, f. 8. 
Fertile hypbae 150-250 x 4-5/u,; conidia slightly larger 
than in type, subacute at both ends, 9 x 3 /a. 
On moss, wood, &c. 
Forming a thin, white, pulverulent stratum. 



Tribe 7. Gonatobotryteae. Sacc. 
GONATOBOTKYS. Corda. (fig. 12, p. 274.) 

Sterile hypbae creeping, fertile erect, septate, inflated at 
the septae, inflated portions covered witli spicule-like pro- 
jections that bear the continuous conidia. 

Gonatrobatrys, Corda, Prachtflora, t, v. ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 169. 

Must not be confounded with Arthrobotrys, which has 
1-septate conidia. 



GOXATOBOTEYS— NEJIATOGONIUM. 333 

Gonatobotrys simplex. Corda. 

White ; tufts lax, minute, downy ; fertUe h5-p]iae simple, 
long, erect, furnished with many nodes or swollen portions, 
septate, fertile nodes glohose ; conidia hyaline, subglobose, 
base apiculate. 

Gonatdboi'rys simplex, Corda, Prachtfl., t. v. ; Sacc, S3-II., 
n. 863. 

On decaying fruit of Tamus ; on hawthorn branches ; on 
old perithecia of Yalsa, &c. 

Gonatobotrys flava. Bon. (fig. 12. p. 274.) 
Tufts, minute, white then yellowish; fertile hyphae erect, 
simple, here and there inflated, the inflated portions covered 
with spicules spirally arranged ; conidia elliptic-oblong, 
base subapiculate, 18-25 x 10—12 /*, at first colourless then 
slightly tinged yellow. 

Gonatobotrys flava. Bonorden's Hdbk., p. 105, f. 22, 23 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 8G4. 

On decayed wood, fungi, &c. 

KEMATOGONIUM. Desm. (fig. 13, p. 274.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, fertile erect, conspicuously 
jointed, sterile joints thickened at both ends (bone-shapedj, 
fertile joints globose, smooth; conidia elliptical, continuous. 

Nematogonium, Desmazieres, Ann. Sc. Xat., 1834, ii. p. 09 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 170. 

Kecognised by the thigh-bone-shaped sterile joints of the 
erect hyphae interspersed with spherical joints bearing the 
conidia in loose clusters. 

Nematogonittni anrantiacum. Desm. (fig. 13, p. 274.) 
Tufts orange-brown minutely velvety, often considerably 
effused ; sterile hyphae very slender, septate, creeping ; 
fertile hyphae erect, jointed, sterile joints infiated at both 
ends, with conidia-bearing globose cells interposed here and 
there; conidia obovate, base acute,' 15 x 8—10 /x, with an 
orange tinge, sessile, arranged on the globose cells in loose 
clusters. 

Nematogonium aurantiaeum, Desm., Ann. Sci. Xat., 1S34, ii. 
t. 11, f. 1 ; Sacc., Syll., iv. n. 807. 
On rotten wood and bark. 



334 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Nematogonium aureum. Sacc. ' 

Fertile hypliae erect, short, club-shaped, consisting of 
about four joints ; conidia elliptical, golden-yellow, sparsely 
scattered. 

Nematogonium aureum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 868. 

Aspergillus aureus. Berk., Eng. PI., vol. v. p. 340. 

On bark. 

No specimen exists in Berkeley's herbarium, and the de- 
scription is probably too brief to insure future identification, 
although mycologists are not wanting who imagine they 
possess the power of knowing exactly what species were 
intended in such cases. Po.ssibly self-assurance goes for 
much on such occasions. 



Sect. II. DIDYMOSPOEAE. Sacc. 
DIPLOCLADIUM. Bon. (fig. 24, p. 313.) 

Sterile hj'phae creeping ; fertile erect and "verticillately 
branched; conidia elliptic-oblong or obovato, 1-septate, 
hyaline or clear and bright in colour, solitary or 2-3 at the 
tips of the branchlets. 

Diplocladium, Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 98 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. p. 
176. 

Diplocladiuin minus. Bon. 

Tufts, small, white, silky ; fertile hyphae ascending, 
oppositely branched; branchlets usually in threes at the 
ends of the branches, tips slightly thickened ; conidia 
obovate, 1-septate, slightly constricted, hyaline, l3-15 X 
7-8 IX. 

Diplocladium minus, Bon., Hdbk., p. 98, t. 6, f. 119; Sacc, 
Syll., n. 871. 

Biplocladium Benneiii,'8a,cc., Syll., n. 875. 

Dactylium Benneyiy^. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1383. 

On trunks ; forming white, downy patches 1-8 lines 
across. ..;>-..,.,. 

DiplpclafiiUni penicillioides. Saco. 
White; effused; hyphae. fasciculaite, septate, 4^5 /x thick, 
erect or ascending, vaguely branched, bearing at the apex an 



MPLOCLADIUM. 335 

imperfect wlioii of 3-4 short, erect brancblets ; com'dia 
apical, solitary, elliptic-clavate, becoming 1-septate, 12-14 
X 5fi.. 

Diplocladium penicillioides, Saoc, Syll., n. 872 ; Grev., pi. 
150, fig. b. 

On decaying species of Polyporus, Agaricus, and Partus ; 
along Hypomyces aurantius, of wbicb it is considered to be tbe 
conidial form. 

Diplocladium melleum. Sacc (fig. 24, p. 313.) 

Forming minute, honey-coloured tufts ; hj-phae branched 
at the apex, branchlets arjanged in whorls^ acute at the tip ; 
conidia elliptical, base slightly attenuated, almost colourless, 
12-14 X 5-6 fjL. 

Diplocladium melleum, Sacc, Syll., n. 874. 

Dactylimn melleum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1382 
t. 8, f. 6. 

On old specimens of Polyporus and Stereum. 

Diplocladium tenellum. Mass. 

Tnfts white or with a reddish tinge ; hyphae aggregated, 
fertile, short, slender, erect, septate, branchlets short, sub- 
verticillate ; conidia slightly obovate, colourless, 1-septate, 
in clusters of 3-4 at the ti]ps of the branches, 12-13 x 6 /t. 

Mucrosporium tenellum, Sacc, Syll., n. 924. 

Dactylium tenellum. Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 413. 

An examination of authentic specimens shows the spores 
to be constantly 1-septate, hence the species cannot be a 
Mucrosporium, as placed by Saccardo. 

Diplocladium macrosporum. Mass. 

Sterile hyphae loosely interwoven, white then pale rose- 
colour ; fertile subverticillately branched at the apex ; 
conidia elliptic-oblong, apioulate at the base, colourless, 
1-septate, 20-25 x 8-10 u, produced in cluster-s of 2-3 at the 
lips of the branchlets. 

Dactylium macrosporum, Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 414; Sacc 
Syll., iv. n. 918. 

On bark, moss, &c. 

The spores are constantly 1-septate, hence the present 
Rpecies cannot belong to the genus Dactylium, where it was 
placed by Saccardo. 



336 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 



DIPLOSPOEIUM. Bonord. (fig. 15, p. 274.) 

Sterile hypliae creeping ; fertile liypliae ascending or 
«rect, septate, vaguely • branched ; conidia terminal on the 
branchlets, usually solitary, 1-septate, elliptical or oblong. 

Diplosporium, Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 93; Sacc, S)ll., iv. 
p. 178. 

Closely allied to Diplocladium, differing only in the 
branchlets being scattered, and not in whorls. 

Diplosporium album. Bon. (fig. 15, p. 274.) 
Forming effused, lax, silky, snow-white tufts; fertile 

hyphae ascending, septate repeatedly irregularly forked ; 

oonidia, oblong, 1-septate, constricted, 20-28 x S> /x ; 

hyaline, contents granular. 

Diplosporium album, Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 99, f. 108 ; Saco., 

SylL, n. 877. 

On decaying stems of bean ( Vicia faba) ; also on branches. 

Var. fungicolum, Sacc, Syll., n. 877 ; Grevillea, pi. 157, 
fig. d. 

Conidia elliptic-oblong base apiculate, remaining for a 
long time continuous, then 1-septate, not constricted, 18-23 
X, 6-7//,. 

On Aethalium septicum, along with Hypomyees violascens, of 
which it is supposed to be the conidial form. 

Diplosporium cervinum. Sacc. 

Effused; pale fawn-colour; hyphae branched, septate; 
conidia obovate, 1-septate, base apiculate. 

Diplosporium cervinum, Sacc, Syll., n. 879. 

Dactylium cervinum, B". & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1716. 

On branches of laburnum. 

There is no specimen in Berkeley's herbarium, and owing 
to the absence of information respecting the mode of branch- 
in g, it is uncertain whether the present belongs to Diplo- 
sporium or to Diplocladium. 



TEICHOTHECIUM. Link. (fig. 14, p. 274.) 

Sterile hyphae creapiug; fertile, simple, erect; conidial 
terminal, solitary, two-celled, colourless or brightly coloured. 



DIPLOSPOEIUM— TEICHOTHECIUJr. 337 

TncoiJiectum, Link, sp. pi. Fungi, i. p. 28; Sacc, feyll., iv. 
p. 178. 

Trichothecium roseum. Link. (fig. 14, p. 274.) 

Tufts minutely velvety, rather large, often becoming 
confluent, at first white then pale rose-coloured ; fertile 
h^ ))liae erect, short, without septa ; conidia pyriform, slightly 
ctrustricted at the septum, attached obliquely to the narrow 
apex of the conidiophore, 12-18 x 8-12 /j., pale rose or almost 
colourless. 

Trichothecium roseum, Link, Obs. Mycol., i. p. 16, f. 27 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 881. 

Dactylium roseum, Berk. 

On bark, leaves, fruit, paper, cheese, dung, &c. 

Trichothecium candidum. Wallr. 

Tufts roundish, often confluent, minutely velvety, white; 
fertile hyphae erect, septate, 150 x 3 /a; conidia solitary, 
elliptic-oblnng, apiculate at the base, two-celled, slightly 
co)i>tricted at the septum, colourless, 20-25 x 10-15 /*. 

Trichothecium candidum, Wallr., Fl. Crypt., n. 1879 ; Sacc, 
Svl]., n. 883. 

Ou bark and decaying vegetable substances. 

Care must be taken not to mistake bleached states of T. 
roseum for the present species. 

Trichothecium otaovatum. Sacc. 

"White, forming exceedingly minute tufts ; fertile hyphae 
very t^lender, without septa ; conidia colourless, obovate, 
two-celled, not constricted at the septum, solitary or in pairs 
at the tips of the conidiophores, 14^17 X 10 /x. 

Trichothecium ohovatum, Sacc, Syll., n. 884. 

Dactylium ohovatum. Berk., Ann. JSat. Hist., n. 242, t. 14, 
f. 26. 

On willow branches, springing from the exolete perithecia 
of a Sphaeria. 

Trichothecium piriferum. Sacc. 
Tufts, minute, white, often becoming confluent and 
forming effused, minutely velvety patches ; fertile hyphae 
agi^regate, sparingly branched above ; conidia obovate, two- 
ceiled, terminal cell largest, not constricted at the septum, 
colourless, 20-25 x 10-12 //.. 

VOL. J II. z 



338 rUNGUS-FLORA. 

Trichoihecium piriferum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 885. 
Bactylium piriferum, Fries, S. M., iii. p. 413. 
On dead stems and on the naked ground. 

Trichothecium domesticum. Tries. 
This species has been recorded as British ; hut examina- 
tion of the specimens show it to be T. roseum. 



CEPHALOTHECITJM. Corda. (fig. 11, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping ; fertile hyphae erect, simple, 
septate ; conidia oblong or clavate, 1-septate, hyaline, 
forming somewhat of a head at the tip of the hypha. 

Cephalothecium, Corda, Anl., p. 67 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 180. 

Differs from Trichoihecium in the conidia being produced 
iu clusters or heads. 

Cephalothecium candidum. Bon. (fig. 11, p. 358.) 
Tufts white, effused, or minute and bursting through the 
epidermis; fertile hyphae erect; subfasciculate, not sep- 
tate, 40-60 X 5-6 fi; conidia obovate, 1-septate, con- 
stricted, 12-14 X 8 /i, 3-6 springing from the apex of the 
hj'pha. 

Cephalothecium candidum, Bonorden, Handbuch, p. 81, f. 80 ; 
Sacc, Syll., n. 891. 
On rotten branches. 



AETHEOBOTEYS. Corda. (fig. 16, p. 274.) 

Hyphae erect, simple, septate, nodulose; nodes furnished 
with minute pointed warts spirally arranged, each bearing a 
single conidium; conidia elliptical or obovate, 1-septate, 
hyaline or bright and clear in colour. 

Arthrdbotrys, Corda, Prachtfl. t. xxi. ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 181. 

Arthrobotrys rosea. Mass. (fig. 16, p. 274.) 
Tufts small, downy, pale rose-colour ; fertile hyphae erect, 
simple, sparingly sefitate, 7-8 fi thick, having 3-5 vesicular 
inflations at equal distances, swollen nodes, each bearino- a 



AKTHKOBOTEYS — MYCOGONE. 339 

head of conidia springing from minute spicules on the 
nodes ; conidia broadly pyriform, 1-septate, constricted at 
the septum, upper cell almost globose, lower small, apiculate, 
iimooth, almost colourless. 

Arihrobotrys rosea, Massee, Journ. Eoy. Microscop. Journ., 
vol. v., p. 758, pi. 13, figs. 6, 7; Sacc, Syll., n. 896. 

On wet rotten branches. 



MYCOGONE. Link. (fig. 11, p. 274.) 

Hyphae branched, interwoven ; fertile branches short, 
lateral. Conidia unequally two-celled, terminal cell largest, 
often warted. 

Mycogone, Link, sp. pi. Fungi, i. p. 29. 

There is some difierence of opinion as to whether the 
conidia are in reality two-celled, the so-called lower cell is in. 
most species not cut off from the conidiophore by a septum, 
of which it may be the inflated apex. 

Mycogone rosea. Link. 

Forming effused, velvety, rose-coloured patches ; hyphae 
slender, colourless, densely interwoven ; conidia obovate, 
reddish, two-celled, upper cell largest, warted, lower cell 
paler, smooth, 36-40 x 20-26 /jl. 

Mycogone rosea. Link, Obs., i. p. 16 ; Sacc, Syll., ir. 
n. 899. 

On various decaying Agarics. 

Mycogone cervina. Ditm. (fig. 11, p. 274.) 
Forming greyish woolly tufts; hyphae slender, white, 

densely interwoven; conidia two-celled, obtuse, fawn-coloured, 

upper cell largest, warted, lower cell paler, smooth, 28-36 

X 18-20 ij.. 
Mycogone cervina, Ditm. in Sturm's D. F., t. 63 ; Sacc, 

Syll., iv. n. 900. 

On species of Peziza, as P. macropoda, &c. 

Mycogone anceps. Sacc. 
Tufts minute, ochraceous-olive, velvety, effused ; hyphae 
forked or vaguely branched, with scattered septa, yellowish ; 
conidia sometimes almost globose, 20 /a diam., sometimes 

z 2 



240 FUNGUS-FLOEA 

elliptical, 30-35 x 20, often slightly constricted at the tasal 
Kiptnm, contents granular, somewhat orange-colour. 

Mycogone ancepa, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 372 ; Sacc, Sj'll., 
n. 902. 

On dunjr, human and other. 

Chlamydosporous condition of Pilobolus oedipus. 



DIDYMAEIA. Corda. (fig. 17, p. 274.) 

Parasitic. Hyphae suhsimple, erect, gregarious, hearing 
a single two-celled, colourless conidium at the tip. 

Bidymaria, Corda, Ic. Fung., vi. p. 8 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 184. 

Didymaria Ungeri. Corda. (fi.g. 17, p. 274.) 
Forming subcircular oohraceous spots that become pale 
with age ; tufts white, minute, hypophyllous ; fertile hyphae 
erect, fasciculate, slender, unbranched, without septa, 50-60 
X 3-4 fiL, bearing at the tip a single obovate-elliptic, colour- 
less, 1-septate conidium scarcely or not all constricted at 
the septum, 20-26 X 7-10 jx. 

Didymaria Vngeri, Corda, Anleit., t. B., f. 9. I. ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 904. 

On the under surface of living leaves of Ranunculus 
rojpcns. 



BOSTEICHONEMA. Cesati. (fig. 18, p. 274.) ' 

Parasitic Hyphae erect, unbranched, spirally waved, 
without septa, colourless. Conidia elliptic or oblong, 
wo- celled, hyaline. 

Bostrichonema, Cesati, Erb. Critt. Ital., n. 149 ; Sacc, 
.Syll., iv. p. 185. 

Distinguished from Bidymaria by the wavy or spirally 
curved fertile hyphae. 

Bostrichonema alpestre. Ces. (fig. 18, p. 274.) 
Spots subcircular, ochraceous-brown ; fertile hypliae 
forming white tufts on the under surface of the lewf, 
.spirally waved, 130-140 X 4-6 /a, sparingly septate, not 



BOSTEIOHONEMA— DACTYLIUM 311 

constricted, sliglitly thinner towards the tip ; conidia pro- 
duced at the apex (and laterally ?), elliptical, for a lony; 
time 1-celled, then 2-celled and slightly constricted at thu 
septum, 20-22 X 14^15, colourless, curved, at length 
asperulate. 

Boslrichonema alpestre,' Cesstti, Erh. Critt. Ital., n. 149; 
Sacc, Syll. iv. n. 909. 

On living leaves of Polygonum, historta, P. vivipara, &c. 

Bostrichonema modestum. Sacc 

"White, springing from brownish spots ; hyphae almost 
straight or slightly wavy, about 100-7 /x.; conidia eUiptic- 
oblong, 1-septate, constricted, 24-27 x 8—10 /x. 

Bostrichonema modestum, Sacc, Syll., n. 910. 

Dactylium modestum. Berk, and White, Scottish Xat., voL iv. 
p. 162, t. 2, fig. 2. 

On the under surface of fading leaves of Alchemilla alpina. 



Sect. III. PHRAGMOSPORAE. Sacc. 
Subsect. 1. Macronemeae. Sacc. 
Tribe 8. Dactylieao. Sacc. 
DACTYLIUil. Nees. (fig. 26, p. 274.) 

Saprophytes. Sterile hyphae creeping, fertile ascending, 
repeatedly branched in a verticillate manner, or (in the sub- 
gen. HelmintJiopJiora) once verticillately branched. Conidia 
oblong, 2 or many septate, colourless, subsolitary at the 
tips of the branchlets. 

Dactylium, Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 413; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 189. 

Dactylium dendroides. Fries, (fig. 26, p. 274.) 
Forming whitish, effused, byssoid tuits ; fertile hyphae 
erect, septate, main branches usually subopposite, branchlets 
in whorls of three as a rule, tips thin ; conidia oblong, 
apiculate at the base, 3-septate, scarcely constricted at the 
sspta, colourless, 26-32 x 10-13 yx. 



342 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Dactylium dendroides, Fr., S. M., iii. p. 413 ; Sacc, Syll., 
n. 916. 

On various decaying Agarics and on tlie adjoining moss, &c. 

MUCEOSPOEIUM. Preuss. (fig. 3, p. 313.) 

Sterile hyphae, septate, creeping fertile erect, verticil- 
lately branched, branclilets with, a cluster of spicules at the 
tip that bear a head of colourless, septate oonidia. 

Muorosporium, Preuss, P. Hoversw., n. 97 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 190. 

Distinguished from Dactylium by the tips of the branchlets 
bearing a head of spores instead of a single one as in the 
last-named genus. 

Mucrosporium sphaerocephalum. Sacc. (fig. 3, 
p. 813.) 

Forming effused, thin, persistently white patches ; sterile 
hyphae creeping, fertile erect, septate, towards the top ni(jr& 
or less regularly branched in threes ; branchlets thickened 
at the base and tapering upwards, bearing at the tip a 
cluster of colourless, oblong, 3-septate spores, furnished 
with a short pedicel at the base, 20-26 X 'i-8 /x. 

Macrosporium sphaerocephalum, Sacc, Syll., n. 923. 

Dactylium sphaerocephalum. Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. vi 
n. 233, t. 14, f. 27. 

On dead wood, branches, &c. 

DACTYLELLA. Grove (fig. 25, p. 274.) 

Mucedinous, saprophytic Fertile hyphae subereot, 
simple ; conidia elongated, pluriseptate, terminal, solitary. 

Dactylella, Grove, Journ. Bot. 1884, p. 199 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 193. 

Allied to Dactylium, but differing in the solitary spores. 
Distinguished from Piricularia more especially by the sapro- 
phytic habit of the species. 

Dactylella minuta. Grove. 
Scattered, white ; fertile hyphae cylindrical, slender, 
iyaline, unbranched, 120-160 /t high, apex passing into the: 



DACTYLELLA. 343 

solitary, terminal, perfectly hyaline, clavulate, 6-8-septate 
(jonidium, measuring CO-70 x 14r-15 /n. 

Dactylella minuta, Grove, Journ. Bot. 1884, p. 199, t. 246, 
f. 6 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 937. 

On dead wood. 

This species closely resembles Dactylium candidum, Nees 
(Bonord. Hdbk., p. 82, f. 189), but differs in the form of the 
spores, if Bonordtn's figure be correct, and in their constant 
position as a continuation of the stem. It is certainly not 
congeneric with Dactylaria purpurella, Sacc. (Fung. Ital., 
£ 8). (Grove.) 

Var. fusiformis. Distinguished from type by the gre- 
garious or caespitose hyphae, and the elongato-fusoid 
conidia, 60-75 x 7-9. 

Dactylella rhombospora. Grove. 

Very much scattered and exceedingly delicate, closely 
resembling Dactylella minuta, but differing in the form of 
the conidia, which are broadly fusoid, almost rhomboid, and 
obtuse at both ends. 

Dactylella rJiombospora, Grove, Journ. Bot., t. 257, f. 4 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 938. 

On rotten wood. 

Dactylella ellipsospora. Grove. 

Pure white, in effused lufts ; fertile hyphae slender, erect, 
not or very sparingly septate, white, 100-200 x 4 /i ; 
conidia elliptical, rather acute at both ends, colourless, 
guttulate, then a slender septum is formed near to each end, 
central cell with one large vacuole, 40-50 x 16-18 /a. 

Dactylella ellipsospora. Grove, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 939. 

Menispora ellipsospora, Preuss, F. Hoyersw., n. 69. 

On rotten wood, &c. 

Dactylella implexa. Sacc. (fig. 25, p. 274.) 

Forming an exceedingly thin greyish- white film; fertile 
hyphae simple or very sparingly branched above, erect, 
septate; conidia subojliudrical, base apiculate, 3-septate, 
25-30 X 5-dfj.. 

Dactylella implexa, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 941. 

Dactylium implexum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1381, 
t. vii. f. 6. 

Inside a hollow willow. 



344 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 



DACTYLAEIA. Saco. (fig. 2i, p. 27i.) 

Saprophytic. Sterile hypliae present or almost obsolete; 
fertile erect, simple ; conidia fusoid or more or less clavate, 
clustered in an irregular manner at tlie apex of the stoiu, 
2- many-septate, hyaline or brightlj' coloured. 

Dactylaria, Saoc, Mich., ii. p. 20 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 194. 

Bactylium, Bonord. (in part.) 

Dactylella differs in having only a single conidium at the 
apex of the fertile hj-phae. 

Dactylaria orchidis. Cke. & Mass. (fig. 24, p. 274.) 
Scattered or solitary ; fertile hyphae erect, simple, 
springing from a delicate, branched mycelium, septate, 
250-280 X 10-12, filled with orange colouring-matter, apex 
2— 3-times dichotomous, branchlets short, almost erect ; 
conidia fusoid, 4-guttulate, then 3-septate, hyaline, 40-50 x 
7-9 //,, solitary at the tips of the branchlets, and altogether 
forming a lax head. 

Dactylaria orchidis, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xix. p. 42 ; Sacc, 
Syll., Suppl., vol. X. n. 7248. 

On putrid leaves of Oncidium macranthum. 



Tribe 9. Bamularieae, Sacc. 
EAMULAEIA. linger (emended), (figs. 27, 28, p. 274.) 

Parasitic. Hj-phae simple or with short, scattered 
branchlets, tips denticulate and bearing conidia which are 
1- many-septate, colourless Of larely brightly coloured, and 
m some species catenulaie. 

Hamularia, Unger, Exanth., p. 169 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 196. 

The parasitic habit, simple or sparingly branched hyphae 
denticulate and bearing the septate conidia at the tips, cha- 
racterise the genus, which differs from Ovularia only in the 
septate conidia. 

Ramularia hellebori. Fuckel. (fig. 28, p. 274.) 
Forming suborbicular spots on boih sides of the leaves, 
spots white wiih a rather broad black margin ; hyphae 



EAMULAEIA. 345 

fasciculate, nodulose, not septate, colourless, 20 X 3 /x; 
conidia fusoid ; 24^30 X 4-5, at first continuous, then 1- 
septate, colourless. 

Bamularia Jiellebori, Fckl., Symb. Myc, p. 361 ; Sacc, 
S}-11., iv. n. 970. 

On leaves of Hellehorus foetidus and ff. viridis. 

Ramularia ulmariae. Cooke. 

Spots, irregularly angular, whitish, often with a rufous 
margin; hyphae fasciculate, simple or rarely with very 
short branchlets, sparingly septate, 30-50 x 4 /x,; conidia 
cylindrical, ends obtuse, for a long time continuous then 
1-septate, 15-25 x 4—5 /i, colourless. 

Bamularia ulmariae, Cke., Grev., iv. p. 109 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 989. 

On living leaves of meadow-sweet (Spiraea ulmaria). 

Ramularia geranii. Fuckel. 

At first appearing as whitish, minute scattered, tufts 
seated on brownish spots, then becoming confluent ; fertile 
hyphae short, 30 X 2 /*, nodulose, not septate ; conidia 
cylindrical, ends obtuse or apiculate, 18-20 x 2 '5-3 fj,, 
colourless, 1-septate. 

Bamularia geranii, Fuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 361, t. 1, f. 23 ; 
Sacc, Syll., n, 994. 

On the under surface of the leaves of various species of 
Geranium, as G. pusillum, G. pratense, G. diasectum, G. silva- 
ticum. 

Ramularia Keithii. Mass. 

Tufts lax, whitish, thin yellowish-green, becoming con- 
fluent and rather broadly effused; fertile hyphae tufted, 
short, subsimple; conidia subcylindrical, obtuse, colourless, 
1-septate, 30 x 5 /j,. 

Bamularia malvae, var. Malvae moscJiatae, Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 995. 

On living leaves of Malva moschata. 

Ramularia lapsanae. Sacc. 
Spots at first indistinct, then becoming dry and pale ; 
hyphae in small tufts, simple or with short branches, 
30-50 X 3 /*, continuous ; conidia tereti-fueoid, 10-15 x 



346 FUXGUS-FLOKA. 

3-5-4 /J., hyaline, continuous, rather acute at both ends, 
catenulate. 

Bamularia lapsanae, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 549 ; Sacc, Sj'l!., 
n. 1008. 

On the under surface of living leaves of Lapsana communis. 

Ramularia pruinosa. Speg. 

Spots at first small, soon coalescing and covering the 
greater portion of the leaf, ochraceous ; tufts densely gre- 
garious, whitish, prunose ; hyphae suberect, Cdntinuous, 
40-60 X 3-4 fj., apex 1-3 denticulate ; Cduiilia cylindriciil, 
and rounded, 20-30 x 3-4 /j,, becoming 1 -septate, colourless. 

Bamularia pruinosa, Speg., Mich., ii. p. 170; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1022. 

On leaves of Senecio jacohaea. 

Ramularia variabilis. Fuckel. 

Tufts lax, tliin, whitish, seated on greenish-brown spots; 
liyphae fasciculate, flexu us, continuous, apex very minutely 
denticulate; conidia very variable, ovate, obovate, elliptical, 
typically cylindrical and 1 -septate, colourless, 15— 22 x 3-4 /j,. 

Bamularia variabilis, Fuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 361 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1030. 

On leaves of foxglove (^Digitalis purpurea), Yerhascum 
ihapsus, V. blattaria. 

Ramularia calcea. Ces. 

Spots minute, whiiish, bounded by a brown margin; 
hyphae fasciculate, cylindrical, 15-20 X 2 /a, sparingly den- 
ticulate, hyaline, continuous; conidia cylindrical, slightly 
obtuse or ajdculate at both ends, 25 x 3-3 '5 /x, continuous 
or 1-septate, hyaline. 

Bamularia calcea, Gesati, in Klotzsoh, Herb. Mycol., 
1681; Sacc, Syll., n. 1032. 

On leaves of ground-ivy (Gleclioma hederacea'). 

Ramularia cryptostegiae. Pim. 
Snow-white, cottony, very delicate; hyphae simple or 
sparingly branched ; conidia cylindric-oblong, apex rather 
obtjise, 30-40 X 6-7 /i, delicately 1—3 septate, apical on the 
hyphae. 



PAEASPORA. 3i7 

Bamularia cryptostegiae, Pirn, Grevillea, 1880, p. 130; 
Sticc, Syll., n. 1048. 

On fallen seeds of Cryptostegia, in a hothonse. 

Ramularia pratensis. Saoc. (fig. 27, p. 274.) 
Spots generally epiphyllous, subcircnlar or elongated, 
pale ochraceous with a brown marginal zone; hyphae rather 
Jax, terete, 30-40 X 4 jn, denticulate at the ot.tuse apex, 
colourless, continuous or 1-septate ; conidia cylindrical or 
subfusoid, catenulate, becoming 1-septate, hyaline, 16-25 X 
3—3 ■ 5 //,. 

Bamularia pratensis, Saoc, Mich., ii. p. 550; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1049. 

On leaves of Mumex acetosa. 

Ramularia urticae. Ces. 

Spots white then greyish, small, 1-3 mm., indefinite, on 
both surlaces of the leaf; hyphae hypophyllous, loosely 
fasciculate, subeifused, hyaline, continuous, 30-40 /j, long, 
denticulate above, rarely with very short branchlets; conidia 
cylindric-fusoid, sometimes apiculate at both ends, becoming 
l-septat6, 15-20 x 3-5 /x, forming rather long chains. 

Ramularia urticae, Cesati, in Fresen. Bf itr., p. 89 ; Sacc, 
Syll., n. 1053. 

On leaves of Urtica dioica, and other nettles. 



Subsect. 11. Micronemeae. Sacc. 

Tribe 10. Fusomeae, Sacc. 

PAEASPOEA. Grove. 

Saprophytic. Conidia septate, springing in minute clusters 
from a delicate, creeping mycelium. 

Paraspora, Grove, Journ. Bot., vol. xiii. (1884), p. 196; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 222. 

It resembles Bactridium, but hyphae are almost entirely 
wanting. (Grove.) 

Paraspora triseptata. Grove. 
White ; spores oblong, obliquely apiculate, hyaline, 
3-septate, 15-20 X 5-6 /x. 



348 FUXGUS-FLOEA. 

Paraspora iriseptata, Grove, Journ. Bot., vol. xiii. (1884), 
p. 196, pi. 246, f. 9 ; Sacc, SylL, n. 1084. 

On dead wood. Invisible to the naked eye ; consisting of 
small, closely compacted clusters of the erect spores. 



Tribe 11. Milowieae. Sacc. 
MILOWIA. Mass. (fig. 1, p. 313.) 

Sterile hyphae forming an intricately interwoven tuft that 
produces here and there towards the surface large vesicular 
bodies, which in turn bear 2—4 erect, cj'lindrical outgrowths, 
the contents of which become broken up by transverse septa 
into conidia ; the conidia at length escape through the 
ruptured apex of the mother liypha. 

Milowia, Massee, Journ. Eoy. Micr. Soc, vol. v. p. 758, 
pi. 13 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 222. 

The counterpart of SporooMsma in the Dematieae. The 
conidia present the appearance of spores in an ascus. 

Milowia nivea. Mass. (fi^. 1, p. 813.) 
Tufts globose, 1 line across, snow-white; the erect hyphae 
containing the conidia, 60-70 x 7-8 /x., and containing 6-8 
cylindiical, abruptly truncate conidia, 9-10 x 6-7 fj.. 

Milowia nicea, Mass., Journ. Eoy. Micr. Soc, vol. v. p. 758, 
pi. 13; Sacc, Syll., n. 1086. 

On dead leaves of Blysmus compressus. 



Tribe 12. Septocylindrieae. Sacc. 
SEPTOCYLINDRIUM. Bon. (fig. 23, p. 313.) 

Hyphae very short, scarcely distinct from the conidia. 
Conidia cylindrical, odourless or brightly coloured, con- 
catenate, 2- many-septate. 

Septocylindrium, Bonurden, Handb., p. 35 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 223. 

The species are reduced to chains of septate conidia. 



SEI'TOCYLINDEIUM. 349 

Septocylindrium Bonordenii. Saco. (fig. 23, p. 313.) 

White, velvety, effused, thin ; conidia cylindrical, obtuse 
at both ends, 30-40 x 4, at first continuous, then 2-4 septate, 
Lj'aline; chains rarely branched. 

Septocylindrium Bonordenii, Sacc, Syll., n. 1087. 

Cylindrium septaium, Bon., Hdbk., 35, f. 16. 

On rotten leaves, especially those of the snowdrop (Galan- 
tJius nivalis). 

Septocylindrium elongatisporum. Saco. 

Tufts effused, white, rather powdery ; hyphao erect, with 
a lew minute branchlets ; conidia cylindrical, tips rather 
acute, 1-3 septate, colourless, 15-25 x 5 /j.. 

Septocylindrium elongatisporum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1094. 

Septonema elongatispora, Preuss, F. Hoyersw., n. 25. 

On dead stems of mint (Mentha") and nettle ( Ilrtica). 

Septocylindrium pallidum. Grove. 

Conidia pale olive, 3-septate, acute at the ends, 25-40 X 5-6, 
in short, straight, simple or rarely branched chains ; hyphae 
as long as the chains but thinner, sparingly septate, olive, 
darker than the conidia. 

Septocylindrium pallidum, Grove, Journ. Bot., tab. 266, f. 12 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1095. 

Forming pallid tufts on the ostiola of Biatrype stigma. 

The olive colour of hyphae and spores along with the well- 
developed hyphae suggest that the present species should be 
located with the Dematieae. 

Septocylindrium chaetospira. Grove. 

Subfasciculate or gregarious, white, chains of conidia erect, 
spirally coiled like a corkscrew, 200-250 /j, high; conidia 
becoming 3-septate, cylindrical, ends subacute, sometimes 
curved, hyaline, 20-25 x 2 '6-3 /^. 

Septocylindrium chaetospira, Grove, Journ. Bot., tab. 266, 
f. 1 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1096. 

On rotten wood. 

The chains of conidia spirally coiled like , a corkscrew 
readily distinguish this species. 

Septocylindrium concentricum. B. & Br. 

In small orbicular spots that often become confluent, every 
part at first white, the centre changing to pale ochraceous ; 



350 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

hyphae erect, shoit, septate, springing from a pale stroma ; 
conidia in chains, cylindrical, tips subacute, 1-septate, 
16-25 X 3-7 fi. 

Septocylindrium conceniricum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1097. 

Septonema concentricum, B. & Br., in Eab. Pung. Eur;, Exs., 
n. 777. 

On cHps of larch and. pine. 

Septocylindrium viride. Saco. 

Tufts very thin and cloud-like, more or less effused, 
greenish ; sf roma-like base very thin, yellowish ; chains 
straight, rigid, vfith short branchlets ; conidia subfusiform, 
tips obtuse, 3-septate, pellucid with a green tinge, 
18-24 X 6-7 fji. 

Septocylindrium viride, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1107. 

Septonema viride, Corda, Ic. Fung., ii. p. 9, f. 44. 

On rotten wood. 

Septocylindrium Magnusianum. Saco. 

Tufts suberumpent, dirty white, on reddish, slightly cor- 
rugated portions of both surfaces of the leaves, very minutely 
velvety; chains of conidia springing from a slightly inflated 
basal hypha ; conidia cylindrical, ends obtuse, 20—25 X 4 /i, 
colourless, 1-septate, not constricted at the septum. 

Septocylindrium Magnusianum, Sacc, Mich.,i. p. 130; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1088. 

On fading leaves Trientalis Europaea. 



Sect. IV. STAUEOSPOEEAE. Sacc. 
PEISMAEIA. Preuss. (fig. 2, p. 313.) 

Fertile hyphae erect, simple, not septate, conidia radiating 
from the tip and forming an incomplete head. Conidia 
elongated, colourless, with or without septa. 

Prismaria, Preuss, E. Hoyersw., n. 86 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 229. 

Distinguished by the unbranched, aseptate conidiophores 
producing a few elongated, radiatiug conidia at the tip that 
form a loose, non-compacted head. 



PRISMAEIA — HELICOMYCES. 351 

Prismaria furcata. Grove, (fig;. 2, p. 313.) 
Scattered or gregarious, white; mycelium tbin, creeping; 
fertile liyphae short or almost absent, equal, hyaline, non-sep- 
tate, bearing at the tip two or rarely three radiating elongato- 
conical conidia, rounded at the base and attenuated upwards:, 
inconspicuously multiseptate, colourless, 60-100 x 6-7 /i. 

Prismaria furcata. Grove, Jouru. Bot., 1884, p. 198; Sacc.j 
Syll., iv. n. 1110. 
On decaying wood. 



Sect. V. HELICOSPORAE. Sacc. 
HELICOMYCES. Link. (fig. 19, p. 27-1.) 

Hyphae very short, without septa. Conidia cylindrical, 
spuriously septate, subhyaline or brightly coloured, spirally 
coiled. 

Eelicomyces, Link., Obs., i. p. 19; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 233. 

The colourless or clear-coloured, long hypha-like spirally 
coiled conidia mark the genus. In some species there are 
several distinct coils in a conidium ; in others, the conidia 
are curved to form part of a circle onlj'. 

Helicomyces roseus. Link. 

Eorming minute pale rose-coloured patches ; hyphae very 
short, colourless, nodulose at the tip ; cpnidia springing 
frcm the nodules, rose-coloured, cylindrical, becoming many- 
septate, slightly tapering at both ends, curved in a loose 
spiral, 150-180 x 6 /i. 

Helicomyces roseus, Link., Obs. iMyc, i, p. 19, t, i. f. 35; 
Sacc, Syll., iv., n. 1115. 

On wood, branches, &c. 

^Vhen old the tufts become whitish. 

Helicomyces tubulosus. Eicts. (fig. 19, p. 274.) 
Eorming whitish minutely powdei-y, minute tufts ; hyphae 
very short; conidia brown, many-septate, joints cuboid, 
spirally coiled into a long tube, joints of conidia about 10 jx, 
the tube composed of 6-7 spirals. 



352 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Helieom,yces tuhulosus, Eiess, Bot. Ztg„ 1853, p. 140, t. iii. 
f. 11-13; Saoc, Syll., iv. n, 1120. 
Oa rotten wood. 



Fam. II. DEMATIEAE. Fries. 

Hyphae forming a cottony or byssoid expansion, brown or 
black, ratter rigid, threads lax, crowded but not aggregated 
in definite fascicles or heads. Hyphae and conidia typically 
blackish-brown, but in some cases the hyphae are hyaline 
and the conidia dark; in others the hyphae are dark and 
the conidia almost colourless. 

In the present family the hyphae and conidia are never 
both colourless in the same fungus, there is also an absence 
of bright, clear colours, the predominating shade being 
blackish or olive-brown, the colour being in many cases so 
intense that the hyphae and conidia are quite opaque. 

Sect. I. Amerosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia globose, elliptical, or oblong, blackish or some- 
what hyaline, continuous, the hyphae always brown. 

Subsect. 1. Micronemeae. Sacc. 

Hyphae almost obsolete or very short, scarcely distinct 
from the conidia. 



Tribe 1. Coniosporieae. Sacc. 
Conidia not catenulate. 

Tribe 2. Toruleae. Sacc. 
Conidia catenulate. 

Tribe 3. EoMnohotryeae. Sa?c. 
Conidia crowded m small heads or rr.cemos. 



DEMATIEAE. 353 

Subsect. 2. Macronemeae. Sacc. 
Hyphae evident and distinct from the conidia. 

Tribe 4. Periconieae. Sacc. 
Conidia brown, capitate, not cateniilate. 

Tribe 5. Arihrineae. Sacc. 

Conidia brown, not catenulato, produced in wborls along 
tbe hyphae. 

Tribe 6. Trichospmeae, Sacc. 

Conidia brown, not catenulate, produced vaguely in a 
scattered matter. 

Tribe 7. Monotosporeae. Sacc. 

Conidia brown, not catenulate, borne singly at tbe tips of 
erect hypbae or conidiopbores. 

Tribe 8. Haplographieae. Sacc. 
Conidia brown, catenulate. 

§ Conidia colourless or almost so, borne by short specialised 
conidiophores situated at the base of the long, sterile, erect, 
brown hyphae. 

Tribe 9. MyxotricJieae. Sacc. 

Conidia aggregated to form a head ; (at first enclosed in 
a vesicle ?). 

§§ Conidia colourless or nea,rly so ; hyphae brown, not 

differentiated into fertile and sterile, i.e. all alike in 
structure. 

VOL. III. 2 A 



354 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Tribe 10. Chlorideae. Saco. 
Conidia solitary, i.e. neither catemilate nor capitate. 

Tribe 11, Stachylidieae. Sacc. 
Conidia aggregated into a head. 

Tribe 12. Ghalareae. Sacc. 
Conidia catennlate. 

Sect. II. Didymosporae. Sacc, 
Conidia elliptical or oblong, typicallj' 1-septate. 

Subsect. 1. Micronemeae. Saco. 

Hyphae very short, or scarcely distinguishable from tho 
conidia. 

Tribe 13. Bisporeae. Sacc. 

Subsect. 2. Macronemeae. Sacc. 
Hyphae evident, distinct from the conidia. 

Tribe 14. Cladosj/orieae. Sacc. 
Conidia smooth, without appendages, not capitate. 

Sect, III. Phragmosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia elliptical, oblong, cylindrical, or worm-liko, 
2- many-septate, brown, rarely somewhat colourless. 

Subsect. 1. Micronemeae. Sacc, 

Fertile hyphae or conidiophores aloDost obsolete or very 
short, or scarcely distinguishable from the conidia. 



DEMATIEAE. 355 

Tribe 15. Clasteriosjjorieae. Sacc. 
Conidia not catenulate. 

Tribe 16. Septonemeae. Sacc. 
Conidia catenulate. 

Subsect. 2. Macronemeae. Saec. 
Hyphae evident, distinct from tbe conidia. 

Tribe 17. B.elmint'hosporieae. Sacc. 
Conidia few, borne at the apex or lateral and scattered. 

Tribe 18. Acroiheeieae. Sacc. 

Conidia either in sessile, lateral whorls, or forming a 
terminal head. 

Tribe 19. Sporoehismeae. Sacc. 

Conidia catenulate, produced within the hyphae, then 
escaping. 

Tribe 20. Bendryphieae. Sacc. 

Conidia catenulate, springing from the apex of conidio- 
phores. 

Sect. IV. Dictyosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia globose, or oblong, transversely and longitudinally 
septate, brown. 

Subsect. 1. Micronemeae. Sacc. 

Hyphae almost obsolete or very short, scarcely distinct 
from the conidia. 

2 A 2 



356 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Subsect. 2. Macronemeae. Sacc. 
Hyphae evident, distinct from tke oonidia. 

Sect. V. Staurosporae. Sacc. 
Conidia stellate. 



Sect. VI. Helicosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia cylindrical, coiled in a spiral plane, typically 
many-septate, hyaline or coloured. 



Fam; II. DEMATIEAE. Fries. 

Sect. I. AMEEOSPOEAE. Sacc. 

Subsect. 1. Micronemeae. Sacc. 

Tribe 1. Coniosporieae. Sacc. 

CONIOSPOEIUM. Link. (figs. 18, 19, p. 358.) 

Conidia globose, elliptical, or discoid, springing from very 
fibort, colourless hyphae, generally forming when mature a 
pulverulent mass. 

Goniosporium, Link, Obs. Myc, i. p. 8; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 238. 

Coniosporium arundinis. Sacc. (figs. 18, 19, p. 358.) 
Conidia forming blackish, usually elongated or effused 
patches, originating from a yellowish pseudoparanchymatous 
mass of hyphae ; conidia lenticular, outline circular or 
bcibangular, 8-12 fi. diameter by 4-6 /i in thickness, when 
young reddish brown, becoming darker and with an olive 
-tinge. 



CONIOSPOEIUM—TOEULA. 357 

Coniosporium amndmis, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 124 ; Sacc, SylL, 
iv. n. 1150. 

On culms and sheaths of Ai-undo donax and Phragmites 
communis. 

Coniosporium physciae. Sacc. 
Conidia mimite, elliptical, semipellucid, forming a black, 
pulverulent, superficial stratum. 

Coniosporium physciae, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1170. 
On the apothecia oi Physcia parietina. 

Coniosporium carbonaceum. Cke. & Mass. 

Epiphyllous, effused, resembling patches of Fumago, black, 
opaque ; conidia oval or lemon-shaped, like spores of some 
species of Chaetomium, continuous, brown, opaque, 10 X 12 /n. 

Coniosporium carbonaceum, Cke. & Mass., Grevillea, vol. xvi. 
p. 79. 

Cfymnosporium carbonaceum, Carus, MS. 

On leaves of meadowsweet {Spiraea uhnaria). 

Coniosporium olivaceum. Link. 

Patches small, rounded or oblong, blackish-olivc ; conidia 
heaped together, subovate or somewhat irregular, 4-6 /* long, 
olive. 

Coniosporium olivaceum, Link, Obs., i. p. 8 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 1131. 

On wood. 

Tribe 2. Toruleae. Sacc. 
TOEULA. Pers. (fig. 10, p. 313.) 

Sterile hyphae decumbent, fertile branches short, or very 
short and scarcely distinct from the chains of conidia. 
Chains either separate or aggregated in fascicles (Tetra- 
colium. Link), soon breaking up into their component 
conidia, which are all alike, black or brown, continuous, 
globose, oblong, or subfusoid. 

Toruld, Pers., Syn., p. 693; amended by Saccardo in 
Michelia, ii. p. 21 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 247. 



Conidia smooth.. 



TOKULA. 359 

I. Eu-Torula. 
* On Dicotyledons. 



Torula ulmicola. Eabenh. 

Black, tufts Tinequally and often, broadly effused, rather 
shining ; conidia oblong, rounded at both ends, dirty brown, 
semi-pellucid, in long, branched chains. 

Torula ulmicola, Eab., Hdbk. Pilze, p. 35 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 1201. 

On dead, slender twigs of JJlmus campestris. 

Torula pulvillus. B. & Br. 

Tufts minute, pulvinate, black, springing up ia cracks in 
th.e bark ; chains rather compact, erect, sparingly branched, 
monUiform ; conidia oblong, ends rounded, 1-nucleate. 

Torula puhillus, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 463 ; Sacc., 
Syll., iv. n. 1206. 

On oak bark. Tufts about 1 mm. diameter. 

FIGURES ILLUSTKATING THE DEMATIEAE. 

Fig. 1, Papulospora sepedonoides ; — Fig. 2, head of same; — ^Fig. 3, 
Botryosporium diffasum ; — Fig. 4, Two heads of same ; — Fig. 5, Aiterophora 
agarieicola ; — ^Fig. 6, Acrostalagmfis dnndburinus ; — Fig. 7, head of same ; 
— Fig. 8, Camptoum, curvatum; — Fig. 9, Zygodesmug terrestris; — Fig. 10, 
Monatospora pumila; — Fig. 11, Cephdlothecium candidum; — ^Fig. 12, 
Saplographium olivaoemm; — ^Fig. 13, Acrospeira mirdbilis ; — ^Fig. 14, 
Periconia atra; — Fig. 15, Dematium hispididum; — Fig. 16, Acremomdla 
pallida; — ^Fig. 17, Hadrotriclmm arundinaceum ; — Fig. 18, Coniosporiura 
arundints ; — ^Fig. 19, spores of same; — 20, CatentUaria atra, Sacc. (not 
British); — Fig. 21, Arthrinum caricicolum ; — Fig. 22, Virgaria unibrina ; 
— ^Fig. 23, Cephalotrichum curium ; — Fig. 21, Meitiepora ciliata ; — Fig. 25, 
Trichosporium ftiscum; — Fig. 26, Oedemium atrum; — Fig. 27, Gonio- 
sporium puccinioides ; — Fig. 28, Thread of same, showing arrangement 
of conidia: — Fig. 29, Menispora lunida; — Fig. 30, Ohaetopsis grisea,; — 
Fig. 31, Verlicladium apicale; — Fig. 32, Sfyxotrichum ochracewm; — 
Fig. 33, Thread of same, showing barbs ; — Fig. 34, Scolecctrichum sticti- 
cum; — ^Fig. 35, Chodara longipes ; — Fig. 36, Stachijlidium cychsporum 
(after Grove) ; — ^Fig. 37, Bispora monilioides ; — Fig. 38, Bicoccum unisep- 
tatum ; — Fig. 39, Gonytrichum caesium ; — Fig. 40, Paisalora baciUigera ; — 
Fig. 41, Bolacotricha grisea, showing general aspect of a tuft, and a 
single thread; — -Fig. 42, Spores of same in clusters, and free. (All the 
figures are highly magnified.) 



360 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Torula monilioides. Corda. (fig. 10, p. 313.) 
Tufts effused, black; conidia elliptical, subtruncate at 

both ends, 6-7 x 3-4 /x, smoky-brown, arranged in monili- 

form erect chains. 

Torula monilioides, Corda in Sturm's Deutsch. Cr. Tl., 

t. 38 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1217. 
On rotten wood and branches. 

Torula cylindrica. Berk. 

Forming black, effused patches ; basidia short, cylindric- 
clavate, erect ; chains of conidia short, decumbent ; conidia 
cylindrical, ends slightly rounded, dark smoky-brown, 
7-9 X 5 /*. 

Torula cylindrica, Berk., Engl. Plor., v. p. 359; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1220. 

On fallen branches. 

Torula abbreviata. Corda. 

Tufts small, black, soon confluent, chains short, of 3— i 
minute, globose, greyish-brown, semipellucid conidia. 

Torula ahhreviala, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 8, f. 130; Sacc, 
Syll. iv., n. 1233. 

On herbaceous stems, wood, &c. 

Yar. sphaeriformis, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 464. 
Not effused, but collected in little heaps; mycelium more 
abundant than in type, fertile hyphae forked, bearing the 
chains of conidia at the tips. 

On decorticated branches of Finns sylvestris. 

Torula basicola. B. & Br. 

Forming black, effused patches ; sterile hyphae creeping, 
branched, here and there ascending; fertile hyphae very 
short ; chains of conidia short, in compacted fascicles ; 
conidia subquadrate, dark brown, 6-7 /i diameter, not 
narrowed at the ends, hence the chains present no con- 
strictions. 

Torula hasieola, B. & Br., Ann, Nat. Hist., n. 465, t. xi. 
f. 4 ; Sacc, SyU., 1237. 

On stems of Pisum and NemopMla. 

Torula gyrosa. Cke. & Mass. 
Forming small punctiform spots, black ; conidia sub- 
quadrate, three or four united in variously curved threads, 



TOEULA. 361 

wldcli are often adglutinated side by side, pale olive, 
12 X 6—8 fL, scarcely constricted at the joints. 

Torula gyrosa, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 10. 

On rotting pine wood. 

Torula pulveracea. Corda. 

Tufts blackish-olive, very thick and powdery, oblong, 
parallel, sometimes confluent, dense, stroma spurious, 
blackish ; chains of conidia branched ; conidia elliptic- 
oblong, smooth, 1-2 guttulate, olivaceous, 7-11 X 4-6 ft. 

Torula pulveracea, Corda, Ic. Fung., xi. p. 8, f. 38 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1221. 

On fallen branches, wood, &c. 

Torula antennata. Pers. 

Tufts effused, felty, blackish-violet or black with ochra- 
ceous tinge ; fertile hyphae, filiform short, conidia oblong, 
unequal, 10-15 x 3-4 /i, sometimes slightly constricted at 
the centre, but never septate, with 1-3 hyaline oil globules, 
sooty ; in rather persistent, longish chains that are some- 
times branched. 

Torula antennata, Pers., Myc. Eur., i. p. 21 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1189. 

On rotten wood of Fagus, Fraxinus, Vitas and Corylus. 

Torula ovalispora. Berk. 

Tufts flattened, powderj', circular or elongated, black or 
with an olive tinge ; conidia in long chains, very irregular 
in form, broadly elliptical, fusiform, or oblong; size vari- 
able, 8—15 X 4—6 /t," clear pale brown. 

Torula ovalispora. Berk., Engl. Flora, vol. v. p. 359. 

Oospora ovalispora (Berk.), Sacc. et Vogl., Syll., iv. n. 30. 

On rotten wood and branches. 

Patches sometimes ^ in. across, black, powdery ; a typical 
Torula. The above description is drawn up from Berkeley's 
type specimen. 

Torula expansa. Pers. 
Tufts large; chains of conidia aggregated or solitary, 
simple, straight, rather ligid, subpellucid, jointed, joints or 
conidia more or less quadrate, 7—10, central ones slightly 
largest, 6—8 jx diameter, not separating, brown. 



362 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Torula expanaa, Pers., Myc. Eur., i. p. 22 ; Saoc, Syll., iv. 
n. 1231. 

Hormiseium expanmm, Kunz., Myc, Heft i. p. 13, t. 1, f. 7. 

On herbaceous steins, rotten wood, &c. 

The conidia are more or less quadrate, and may possibly 
be only joints of an elongated conidium, slightly attenuated 
•at each end, and if so, will not properly belong to the 
present genus, but to Hormiseium. 

Torula herbarum. . Link. 

Tufts effused, minutely velvety, olivaceous then black 
with olive tinge ; sterile hyphae creeping, smoky, septate ; 
fertile short, erect, soon passing into the elongated, simple 
or branched chains of conidia. Conidia olive, subglobose, 
6-7 /J, diameter. 

Torula herbarum. Link, sp. pi. Fungi, i. p. 128 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1230. 

On decayed stems of various herbaceous plants. 

Torula nucleata. Cke. 

Forming small, irregular, thinly effused, blackish patches, 
mycelium creeping, thread with an attenuated hyaline base, 
above resolved into 6-8 subglobose concatenate conidia, 
which remain for a long time united ; conidia dark brown, 
with a large oil globule, 10-12 /x diameter. 

Torula nucleata, Cke., Grev., xvi. p. 79. 

On herb stems. 

** On Monocotyledons. 

Torula graminis. Desm. 

Tufts very minute, subrotund or slightly elongated ; at 
first brown, then blackish ; chains of conidia simple, erect ; 
conidia globose, equal, blackish, 5-6 /t diameter. 

Torula graminis, Desmaz., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1834, ii. p. 72, 
t. ii. f. 6; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1246. 

On leaves of grasses and sedges. 

Torula rhizophila. Corda. 
Tufts oblong, minute, then confluent and forming lines, 
black ; hyphf^e simple or bifid, short, tinged brown; conidia. 



HOKMISCIUBL 363 

globose, equal, clear brown, translucent, 8-1 /^ diameter, 
"very soon free from each other. 

Torula rMzopMla, Corda, Icon., p. 8, t. 11, f. 127; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1249. 

On rhizomes of Carex arenaria, Phragmites, Triticum repens, 
and other grasses and sedges. 

*** On paper. 

Toriila chartanim. Corda. 

Tufts effused, indeterminate, black ; mycelium white, 
branched, septate, white; fertile hyphae hyaline, short, 
nodulose; chains of conidia long, branched, wavy or erect; 
conidia elliptical, smooth, brown, 8-9 x 5—6 ju,. 

Torula chartarum, Corda, Ic. Fung., iv. p. 24, f. 78 ; Sacc, 
Syll., n. 1260. 

On damp decaying paper. 



II. Trachytora. Sacc. 
Conidia rough. 

Torula asperula. Sacc. 

Tufts effused, sooty, velvety; sporophores cylindrical, 
simy)le or forked, 30-33 X 4 ju,, ascending ; conidia globose, 
6-7 /x diam., in chains, sooty-brown, minutely rough. 

Torula asperula, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 560; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 1269. 

On damp rotting paper. 



HOEMISCIUM. Kunze. (fig. 9, p. 313.) 

Hyphae short or almost obsolete, or scarcely distinct from 
the conidia. Conidia catenulate, chains not readily breaking 
up, cuboid or globose-cuboid, brown. 

Hormiscium, Kunze, Myk., Heft i. p. 12 ; Sacc, SyU., iv. 
p. 263. 

Very closely allied to the genus Torula, in fact the only 
difference consists in the chains of conidia not 
breaking up in the present genus. 



364 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

Hormiscium splendens. Sacc. (fig. 9, p. 313.) 

Forming black, rather dense, velvety patches ; chains of 
conidia becoming, thinner towards the tip, simple or rarely 
branched, straight or sslightly wavy, up to 400 /it in length ; 
conidia subglobose, subcompressed in the direction of the 
long axis of the chain, blackish-brown, remaining in chains 
for a long time, at the base 10 fx. diameter, rather smaller 
towards tip of chain. 

Hormiscium splendens, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1279. 

Torula splendens, Cooke, Grev., t. 48, f. 1. 

On bark. 

Hormiscium hysterioides. Sacc. 

Tufts linear, short, often parallel, black ; chains of conidia 
erect, crowded, equal, filiform, yellowish, remaining in 
parallel bnndles for some time; conidia cylindric-cuboid, 
semipellucid. 

Hormiscium hysterioides, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1282. 

Torula hysterioides, Corda, Icon. Tung., i. p. 9, f. 139. 

On rotten wood. 

The pale chains of conidia remaining collected in bundles 
for a long time mark the present species. 

Hormiscium stilbosporum. Sacc 

Tufts erumpent, pulverulent, elongated, confluent, very 
black ; chains of conidia simple or unequally branched, 
.wavy, conidia subquadrate, brown, 7-8 fj. diameter. 

Hormiscium stilbosporum, Sacc, Syll., n. 1283. 

Torula stilhospora, Corda, in Sturm's Deutschl. Fl., t. 46. 

On branches of poplar and willow. 

Hormiscium pithyophilum. Sacc. 

Effused, thick, superficial forming very irregular black 
patches; chains of conidia irregularly branched, branches 
becoming thinner at the tips, rather wavy ; conidia cuboid 
or globoso-cuboid, smoky-brown, 18—20 /t diameter. 

Hormiscium pithyophilum, Sacc, Syll., n. 1286. 

Mhacodium pithyophilum, Wallr., Fl. Cr., ii. p. 120. 

On branches and leaves of Taxus baccata and species of 
Abies and Pinus. 



GYEOCEEAS— EOHINOBOTBYUM. 365 



GYEOCEEAS. Corda. (fig. 11, p. 313.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, vaguely branched. Conidia dark 
coloured, cuboid, for a long time coberent in long cylindrical 
chains that are more or less curved or circinate towards the 
tip. 

G-yroceras, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 9 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 206. 

Distiaguished from Torula by the cuboid conidia forming 
chains that are more or less curved. 

Gyroceras plantaginis. Sacc. (fig. 11, p. 313.) 

Forming rather large, irregular, velvety, black patches on 
the under surface of leaves ; sterile mycelium creeping, 
branched ; chains of conidia erect, brown, springing in 
fascicles, simple or rarely furcate, incurved ; conidia sub- 
quadrate, 9-13 /J, or 10 X 5 /i, smooth, brown, 1-guttulate. 

Gyroceras plantaginis, Sacc, Mich., i. p. 226 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 1295. 

Torula plantaginis, Corda, Ic, iii. p. 5, t. i. f. 14. 

On leaves of Plantago media. 



Tribe 3. Echinobotryeae. Sacc. 
ECHINOBOTEYUM. Corda. (fig. 12, p. 313.) 

Hyphae slender, simple or with short branchlets ; conidia 
elliptical or lemon-shaped, smooth or minutely warted, 
brown, continuous, produced in clusters at the tips of the 
hyphae. 

Echinobotryum, Corda, Anleit., p. 10; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 268. 

Echinobotryum atrum. Corda. (fig. 12, p. 313.) 
Appearing as minute blackish lufts that usually become 
confluent; conidia pear-shaped, fixed by the broad end, apex 
beaked, pale, remainder brown, minutely warted, 10-12 x 
6-8 /*, grouped ru stellate clusters ; hyphae pale brown, 
septate. 



366 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Echindbotryum atrum, Corda, Ic. Fung., iii. f. 6 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1297. 

Echinobotryum leve. Sacc. 

Loosely gregarious, effused, black ; hypliae short, simple 
or -with very short branchlets, spaiingly septate, hyaline; 
conidia in loose racemose heads towards tip of hyphae, ovate 
or somewhat fusoid, 12 x 6-7 //., attenuated and more or less 
apiculate at the apex, base subtruncate, smooth, sooty, paler 
above, with a very short hyaline pedicil. 

Echinobotryum leve, Sacc, Mich., i. p. 82 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 1298. 

On rotten -wood, paper, dung, &o. 

Specimens agreed exactly with the description, in regard 
to the spores, but the hyaline hyphae belonged, I fear, to a 
fungus upon which the Echinohotryum was parasitic. I do 
not think that E. leve is distinct from E. atrum, Ca., being 
in fact merely " status junior." (Grove.) 



TRICHOSPORIUM. Fr. (fig. 25, p. 358.) 

Hyphae creeping, brown or pale, vaguely branched ; 
conidia globose or elliptical, smooth, or minutely asperulose, 
brown, rarely almost colourless, terminal or lateral on short 
branchlets. 

Trichosporium, F;-., Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 288. 

A somewhat doubtful genus, at least so far as British 
species are concerned, and resembling a weft of broadly- 
effused felt-like mycelium, but here and there producing 
conidia. 

Trichosporium umbrinum. Sacc 

Hyphae septate, brown, forming a broadly effused, inter- 
laced stratum ; conidia rare, terminal on the branches, 
globose, smooth, brown, 12-14 /a diameter. 

Trichosporium umbrinum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1413. 

Golletosoporium umbrinum, Link., sp. pi. Fungi, i. p. 25. 

Forming a dense felt overrunning plant-pots in a stove. 
Also inside bark on rotten trunks. 



TEICHOSPOEIUM— STACHYBOTRYS. 367 

Trichosporium fuscum. Sacc. (fig. 25, p. 358.) 
Hyphae brownish, interwoven into a dense felt, repeatedly 

irregularly branched, septate ; branchlets somewhat acute, 

conidia elliptical, brown, 8-11 X 6-7 /*, forming lax racemes 

at the tips of the branchlets. 

Trichosporium fuscum, Sacc, Mich., ii- p. 640 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 

n. 1400. 

On rotten bark of pine and other trees ; often associated 

with BoselUnia aquila. 

Trichosporium inosculans. Sacc. 

Forming a dark brown, thin, minutelj' velvety crust ; 
sterile hyphae much branched, septate, interwoven ; fertile, 
erect, forked ; conidia elliptical, smooth, brown, 6 X 4 ju,. 

Trichosporium inosculans, Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 1427. 

Sporotrichum inosculans. Berk., Eng. Flor., v. p. 346. 

On dead fungi, Thelephora, &c. 

Trichosporium murinum. Sacc. 

Aggregated in minute tufts or effused, flocculose, greenish- 
grey then blackish-brown ; hyphae dichotomously or vaguely 
branched, septate, olive-brown; conidia inserted near the 
tips of the branchlets more or less spicate, ovate, 10-12 X 8 /i, 
apex rather acute, 1-guttate, olive-brown. 

Trichosporium murinum, Sacc, Fung. Ital., t. 740 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1409. 

On rotten branches and on old Fistulina. 

Subsect. 2. Macronemeae. Sac?. 

Tribe 4. Periconieae. Sacc. 

STACHYBOTEYS. Corda. (fig. 13, p. 313.) 

Fertile hyphae erect, sometimes springing from a prostrate 
mycelium, entirely brown; conidia forming a head at 
the apex, subglobose or elliptical, brown, sometimes 
(spuriously?) 1-septate, produced at the tips of short, 
specialised conidiophores. 

Stachyhotrys, Corda, Anleit., p. 67 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 269. 

Characterised by the crown of specialised conidiophores at 
the apex of the erect fertile hyphae. 



36S FUXaUS-FLORA. 

Stachybotrys alternans. Bon. 

Sterile liyphae creeping, branched, sparingly septate, 
often minutely rough or papillose, blackish-hrown, 3-5 /a 
thick ; fertile erect, smoky or almost hyaline, slender, 3-5 /a 
thick, often simple, apex not inflated, bearing numerous 
obclavate conidiophores, smoky or hj'aline, 10 X 4-5 /j. ; 
conidia terminal, elliptical, 7-9 x 5-6 /*, black, opaque. 

Stachyhotrys alternans, Bonord. ; Hdbk., p. 117, fig. 185; 
Sacc, Syll.,n. 1301. 

On damp paper. 

Stachybotrys atra. Corda. 

Tufts delicate, black; hyphae dichotomously branched, 
sparsely septate, yellowish-olive ; fertile branches ascending, 
paler upwards; apical conidiophores crowded, erect, some- 
what fusiform, almost colourless ; conidia elliptical, brown, 
2-guttulate and (spuriously ?) 1-septate, smooth, 8-9 /a long. 

Stachyhotrys atra, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 21, f. 278; 
Sacc, Syll., vol. iv. n. 1308. 

On damp paper, damp walls, rotting wood, &c. 

Stachybotrys lobulata. Berk. 

Black, sterile hyphae creeping, fertile branches ascending 
or erect, simple or branched, pale upwards, crowned at the 
apex by 4^6 thickish, almost erect, hyaline conidiophores; 
conidia elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6 /jl, brown, smooth at first, but 
distinctly warted when mature. 

Stachybotrys lobulata. Berk., Outl., p. 343 ; Sacc, Syll., 
n. 1304. 

Sporocyhe lobulata, Berk., Ann. jS'at. Hist., n. 228, t. 13, 
f. 17. 

On damp linen, paper, &c. 

From the articulated creeping mycelium, spring slender, 
very minutely scabrous threads, branched proliferously ; 
ramuli often alternate, attenuated, their apices swelling into 
a pyriform, 4:-5-lobed receptacle, from which spring elliptic 
spores, some of which are echinulate, others smooth, with 
two nuclei. The lobes are not mamillate, as in S. atra, and 
the spores have no true septum. (Berk.) 

Stachybotrys dichroa. Grove. 
Hyphae scattered, ' erect, simple, hyaline, 3-8-septate,, 



PERIOONIA. 369 

flexuoMS, 150-200 X 6 /i diameter, thinner upwards, tase 
somewhat bulhous, apex crowned with 5-6 hyaline, simple 
conidiophores arranged in a compact verticil, 12-15 and S-i/j.;. 
conidia blackish-olive, oUong (spurionsly ?) 1-septate, apex 
ohtnse, base obliqne and attenuated, involved in mucus 
and crowded together to form a spherical, black, shining 
head. 

Stachyhotrys dichroa. Grove, in Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1306. 

On rotten stem of Carduus palustris. 

Stachybotrys asperula. Mass. (fig. 13, p. 318). 

Effused; black. Hyphae abundant, creeping, dichoto- 
mously branched, ascending, minutely rough, the tips 
crowned with pale, clavate conidiophores ; conidia globose, 
blackish-brown, opaque, minutely rough, 7-10 /j. diameter. 

Stachybotrys asperula, Mass., Grevillea, vol. xvL p. 26. 

On damp paper that had come from Ceylon, hence the 
fungus may possibly be an introduced species, although first 
noticed at Kew. 



PEEICONIA. Bon. (fig. 14, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, often -obsolete, fertile brown, 
simple or with one or two short branches ; conidia usually 
globose, brown, not catenulate, forming a compact head at 
the apex of the stem. 

Periconia, Bonord., Hdbk., p. 112 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 270. 

Distinguished from Sporocybe by the stem consisting of a 
single hypha, whereas in the last-named genus the stem is 
composed of a compacted bundle of hyphae. Differs from 
Stachybotrys in the absence of conidiophores or short branch- 
lets bearing the conidia at the apex of the stem. 

Periconia byssoides. Pers. 
Forming small black patches ; fertile hyphae simple, erect, 
up to 1 mm. high, slightly attenuated upwards, apex, 
whitish, and slightly inflated, remainder dark brown, septate ; 
head globose, compact; conidia subglobose, apiculate, 5-7 fx. 
diameter, dark brown, srnooth (Berkeley says minutely 
echimilate). 

VOL. III. 2 B 



S7Q FUNGUS-FLORA, 

Periconia lyssoides, Pers., Syn., p. 686; Sacoj, Syll., 
n. 1310. 

Gn decaying herbaceous stems,' leaves, &c. 

The. discrepancy ■between rough and smooth conidia may 
very possibly be dne to difference of age in -the specimens 
examined. 

Periconia atra. Corda. (fig. 14, p. 358.) 
Forming blackish-brown, very thin stains ; fertile hyphae 
very delicate, wavy, septate, sooty, somewhat incrassated at 
the base ; head almost globose ; conidia subglobose, with an 
apiculus, brown, rather pellucid, smooth, 4r-5 ^ diameter. 

Periconia atra, Corda, Icon. Fung., vol. i. p. 19, f. 258 ; 
Sacc, Syll., vol. iv. n. 1311. 

On culms of grass, 'dead herbaceous stems, &o. 

Periconia nigrella. Saoo. 

Yery minute, black, scarcely ^ mm. high, fertile hyphae 
simple, very slender and rather attenuated upwards, 3-5- 
septate, dark brown ; conidia globose, smooth, brown, 5 /* 
■diameter, forming a compact globose head. 

Periconia nigrella, Sacc, Syll., iv. 1328. 

Sporocyhe nigrella, Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 226, t. xiii. 
^■. 16. 

Gn fallen grass, leaves. 

Periconia alternata. Sacc. 

Forming minute, greyish-black, suborbicular tufts ; sterile 
hyphae decumbent, slender, fertile ascending or erect, 
branched in a zigzag manner; tips of fertile branches 
swollen; conidia oblong, truncate at both ends, brown, 
7-8 X 5 fi, compacted to form a globose head. 

Periconia alternata, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1332. 

Sporocybe alternata. Berk, in Cooke's Hdbk., n. 1698. 

On damp paper. 

Periconia podospora. Corda. 
Tufts brown ; hyphae erect, flexuous or wavy, brown, 
semipeHucid ; septate, inflated and club-shaped at the apex ; 
conidia subglobose or obovate, brown, with a minute hyaline 
pedicel, 8-9 /x diameter, aggregated to form an oblong or 
elliptical head. 



CEPHALOTEICHUM. 371 

Periconia podospora, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 19, f. 255; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1317. 

On stems of Heracleum spondylium, and other Umljellifers. 

Periconia minutissima. Corda. 

Tufts minute, brown, not much eifused; fertile hyphae 
blackish -brown, pellucid, sparingly septate, erect and straight 
or subflexuous, rarely branched, apex with nutiierous nipple- 
like projections that bear the globose, dark brown conidia, 
8 /A diameter, compacted to form a globose head. 

P&iiconia minutismma, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 19, fig. 256 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1320. 

On alder. 

Periconia minima. Sacc. 

Black, effused; fertile hyphae erect or ascending, often 
forked, about 4-5 /a thick, brown, septate, apices hyaline, 
obtuse but not inflated ; heads of conidia rather large, more 
or less spherical, black; conidia subglobose with a basal 
aj)iculus, brown, smooth, 6-7 /a diameter. 

Periconia minima, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1333. 

Sporocybe minima, Cooke. 

On damp millboard. 

(Described from the type specimen). 



CEPHALOTEICHLTM. Berk. (fig. 23, p. 358.) 

Fertile hyphae erect, brown, the apex divided into a 
number of irregularly branched, spine-like, spreading 
branches that collectively form a head ; conidia subglobose, 
coloured, borne by the branchlets. 

Gephaloirickum, Beik., Outl., p. 344 ; Sacc, Syll., vol. iv. 
p. 275 (not of Link). 

Distinguished from. Periconia a,ni StacJiyhotrys by the crown 
of irregular, divided branchlets. 

Cephalotrichum curtmn. Berk. (fig. 23, p. 358.) 
Scattered, very minute, brown ; fertile hyphae erect, 
short, slender, 1-2-septate, brown, apex branching to form a 
head, branches 2— 3-furcate, with acute spine-like branchlets ; 
conidia subglobose, smooth, 3-4 /t diameter, brown. 

2 B 2 



372 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Gephalotrichum curium, Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 222, t. xi., 
f. 13 ; Sacc, Syll., n. 1336. 
On dead leaves of Carex. 



CAMPTOUM. Link. (fig. 8, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae obsolete ; fertile simple, hyaline, marked 
at regular intervals with brown rings ; conidia more or less 
boat-shaped, typically curved or inequilateral, continuous, 
brown. 

Camptoum, Link, Spec. PI. Fungi, i. p. 44 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 276. 

Eeadily distinguished by the hyaline fertile hyphae being 
marked with brown rings at regular intervals, and the 
terminal head of oblique spores. 

Camptoum curvatum. Link. (fig. 8, p. 358.) 
Tufts jet-black, velvety, often running into each other, 
hyphae filiform, slightly thickened at the base, hyaline, 
marked with prominent black rings, apex minutely verru- 
culose, and bearing the conidia, which are collected into a 
subglobose head, but soon disperse ; conidia ovate-oblong, 
variously curved, sooty-black, 18-20 X 7-8 /jl. 

Camptoum curvatum, Link, Sp. PI. Tungi, i. p. 44 ; Sacc, 
Syll., n. 1337. 

On dead leaves of Carex paludosa, Scirpua lacustris, Scirpus 
syhatieus. 

ACKOTHBCA. Fuckel. 

Sterile hyphae creeping or almost obsolete ; fertile hyphae 
erect, simple brown ; conidia fusoid or cylindrical, brown or 
subhyaline. 

Acroiheca, Fuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 380; emended by 
Saccardo, Mich., ii. p. 24; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 276. 

Acrotlieca solani. Sacc. 
Fertile hyphae springing from dry spots, ochraceous, erect, 
slender, 80-90 X 3 /u, sparingly or not at all septate, brown, 
paler at the slightly attenuated tips, conidia cylindrical. 



ACKOTHECA — ARTHRIXIOI. 373 

subacute at liotli ends, many guttulate, not septate, hyaline, 
18 X 4 /I, in clusters of 2—4 at the tips of the hyphae. 

Aerotheca solani, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1342. 

On fading leaves of potato (Solarium tvberogum). 



Trite 5. Arthrineae. Sacc. 
AETHEINIUM. Kunze. (fig. 21, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping or obsolete; fertile somewhat 
simple, hyaline, with thick black septa ; couidia lateral, 
whorled, often in fours, fusoid, oblong, or columnar, conti- 
nuous, brown. 

Arthrinum, Kunze, Heft i. p. 9 ; Sacc, Syll., vol. iv. 
p. 279. 

Distinguished from GampUmm by the lateral whorls of 
conidia. 

Arthrinium earicicolum. K. & S. (fig. 21, p. 358.) 
Forming small jet-black tufts ; fertile hyphae ascending, 
rod-like, 50 x 4 /x, apex obtuse, transverse septa crowded, 
thick, black, remainder hyaline; conidia fusiform, ends 
obtuse, smoky, 50 X 8 /j,, springing from the apex and 
lateral septa in a verticillate manner. 

Arthrinium earicicolum, Kunze and Schm., Myk., Heft i. 
p. 9, t. 1, f. 4 ; Sacc, Syll., n. 1349. 
On dead leaves of Garex. 

ArthriniTim sporophleum. Kze. 

Forming small black tufts, hyphae slender, hyaline, 
nodulose and with crowded black septa, simple, base some- 
times slightly inflated ; conidia oblong or ovoid, somewhat 
inequibteral, rather acute at both ends and with a colour- 
less apiculus, in verticels of four, 9-14 fi. long. 

Artlirinium sporophleum, Kunze, Myk., Heft ii. p. 104 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1350. 

On leaves of Garex and Juncug. 



374 FUKGUS-FLORA. 



GONIOSPOEIUM. Link. (figs. 27, 28, p. 358.) 

Fertile hyphae erect, distinctly nodnlosely-septate ; conidia 
lateral, opposite or verticillate, angular or globosely-angular, 
sooty, minutely stipitate. 

Goniosporium, Link, Spec. PI. Fungi, i. p. 46 ; Sacc, Syll., 
vol. iv. p. 280. 

Distinguished by the fertile hyphae being distinctly 
swollen or nodulose at the septa, and the more or less 
angular spores. 

Goniosporium puccinioides. Link. (fig. 27, 28, 
p. 358.) 

Forming small, gregarious, rounded, black, somewhat 
shining tufts; hyphae distinctly swollen at the nodes, 
Hyaline, 3-4 //. thick, simple, bearing the conidia about the 
middle, often sterile above, apex obtufee; conidia globosely 
cuboid or variously angular, 10-14 fx, diameter, sooty brown. 

Goniospoiium puccinioides. Link, Sp, PL Fungi, i. p. 45 ; 
Sacc, Syll., vol. iv, n. 1354. 

On dead leaves of Garex stricta. 



Tribe 6. Trichosporieae. Sacc. 
VIE&AEIA. Nees. (fig. 22, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping ; fertile erect, simple or forked, 
or with a few erect branches, rather rigid, septate ; conidia 
inserted near the tip of the stem and the branches, globose 
or elliptical, sooty-brown. 

Virgaria, Nees, Syst., xi. p. 14; emended, Sacc, Syll., 
vol. iv. p, 280. 

Virgaria nigra. Nees. 

Tufts effused or, compact, somewhat circular; fertile 
hyphae erect, dichotomously divided into slender, erect 
dark brown branches that are attenuated at the tips ; conidia 
globose, blackish brown, about 3 /t diameter. 

Virgaria nigra, Nees, Syst., ii. p. 14; Sacc, Syll., n. 1356. 

On rotten bark and wood. 



ACEOSPEIKA — ZYGODESMTJS. 375 



ACKOSPEIEA. B. & Br. (fig. 13, p. 368.) 

Sterile hyphae decumbent ; fertile erect, branched above, 
septate ; tips of the branches somewhat spirally coiled, with 
many septa; conidia more or less globose, muriculate pro- 
duced at the sides of certain of the joints of the spiral tips 
of the branches. 

Acrospeira, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 952 ; Sacc, Syll., 
vol. iv. p. 282. 

Distinguished by the few rough spores being borne late- 
rally on the joints of the spiral or curved tips of the 
branches. 

Acrospeira mirabilis. B. & Br. (fig. 13, p. 358.) 

Fertile hyphae vaguely branched above, and closely 
septate ; branches spirally coiled or curved at the tip, and 
one or more of the cells near the apex bearing a more or less 
globose, dark brown, minutely warted spore 15-20 /j. 
diameter. 

Acrospeira mirabilis, B. & Br., in Berk. Intr. Crypt. Bot., 
p. 305, f. 69a ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1366. 

On fruit of Gastanea vesca. 

A most curious fungus, in which the dark granulated 
spores are formed by a transformation of the second joint 
from the top of the branchlets. All the four terminal joints 
swell, but the second one only in general proves fertile, 
though in a few instances the terminal joint is also trans- 
formed. (Berk. & Broome.) 

ZYGODESMUS. Corda. (fig. 9, p. 358.) 

Hyphae creeping, irregularly branched, brown or pale 
with numerous lateral swellings, the transverse septa appear- 
ing as if they did not extend across the hypha ; conidia 
globose or elliptical, coloured, epispore usually ornamented, 
rarely smooth, springing from minute tooth-like prickles, or 
from short, lateral branchlets, or sometimes from basidium- 
like bodies bearing sterigmata. 

Zygodesmus, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 11; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 283. 



376 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

The species usually form more or less dry, loosely inter- 
woven patches on rotten ■wood, colour various shades of 
brown. 

Zygodesmus fuscus. Corda. 
. Effused, hrown, somewhat crustaceous, surface velvetj' ; 
hyphae branched, septate, reddish-brown, anastomosing and 
interwoven ; conidia globose, echinulate, yellowish brown, 
9-11 iL diameter, borne singly on short, slender, lateral 
oonidiophores. 

Zygodesmus fuscus, Corda, Icon. Fung., iv. p. 26, f. 81 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1370. 

On rotten wood, branches, &c. 

Saccardo says that an Italian specimen, agreeing with the 
present species in habit differs from Corda's figure in having 
basidia with four sterjgmata. 

Zygodesmus terrestris. B. & Br. (fig. 9, p. 358 ) 
Effused, thin, brown, minutely velvety; conidia somewhat 

elliptical or lemon-shaped, echinulate at maturity, 12 X 8-9 jj,, 
Zygodesmus terrestris, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1915; 

Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1372. 
On the naked ground. 



OEDEMIUM. Link. (fig. 26, p. 358.) 

Fertile hyphae rigid, opaque, simple or slightly branched, 
with lateral or terminal, subglobose, rather large oonidio- 
phores that bear numerous subglobose conidia. 

Oedemium, Ling, Sp. PI. Fung., i. p. 42 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 297. 

The structure of the fungi constituting the present genus 
is not well understood. Berkeley considers, and perhaps 
•correctly, the large lateral structures described above as 
oonidiophores, to be the true conidia, and these are in most 
species multicellular. 

Oedemium atrum. Link. (fig. 26, p. 358.) 
Hyphae erect, simple or slightly branched septate, 
blackish with a tinge of reddish-purple, opaque, densely 
crowded and forming a thickish black, effused layer ; conidio- 



OEDEMIUM — MONOTOSPOEA. 377 

phores subglobose, black; conidia minute, subglobose or 
elliptical, scabrid, hyaline. 

Oedemium atrum. Link, Sp. PI. Fung., i. p. 43 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1448. 

On branches and bark of lime {Tilia), &c. 

Tribe 7. Monotosporeae. Sacc. 
MONOTOSPOEA. Corda. (fig. 10. p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, scanty; fertile hyphae simple, 
distinct at the base, somewhat elongated, brown ; conidia 
apical, solitary, continuous, brown. 

Monotospora, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 11 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 299. 

Distinguished from Hadrotrichum and Acremoniella in the 
elongated, distinct, erect fertile hyphae. 

Monotospora sphaerocephala. B. & Br. 

Forming a dense, effused, black layer; fertile hyphae 
erect, simple, sparingly septate ; conidia globose, smooth, 
blackish-brown, more or less opaque, 21-26 yu. diameter. 

Monotospora sphaerocephala, B. and Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 819, t. ix. f. 5 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1459. 

Monotospora repens. Mass. 

Forming small black tufts. Threads short, flexuous, 
simple or shortly branched, closely septate, especially 
upwards, where the cells are about equal in length and 
diameter, pale brownish above but hyaline at the base, 
8-10 fi diameter; conidia solitary, apical, globose, dark 
brown, opaque, 20-25 fi diameter. 

Periconia repens, Cke., Grev., vol. xvi. p. 79. 

On herb stems. 

The solitary apical conidium removes the present species 
from Periconia. 

Monotospora ptunila. Mass. (fig. 10, p. 358.) 
Fasciculate or scattered ; fertile hyphae simple, subulate, 
erect, septate, blackish-brown and opaque below, apex 
paler, conidia broadly obovate, opaque, blackish-brown, 
shining, 23-25 X 15-17 /*. 



378 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

Monotospora pumila, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1463. 

Helminthosporium pwmilum, Mass., Journ. Eoy. Micr. Soc, 
vol. v., p. 758 ; pi. 13, fig. 4 & 5. 

Parasitic on QrapJimm flexuosum, also on rotten wood and 
bark. Distingtushed from. M. megalospora by the smaller, 
blackisb, shining conidium. 

Monotospora megalospora. B. & Br. 

Forming small blackish tufts ; fertile hyphae erect, simple, 
somewhat equal, septate; conidia obovate, smooth, opaque, 
brown, 30-36 X 20 /x. 

Monotospora megalospora, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n 759 ; 
t. XV. f. 11, n. 943; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1460. 

On bark of yew (Taxus). 

Var. fusispora, B. & Br., I.e., conidia broadly and 
obtusely fusiform, 28-30 x 23 /j.. 
On rotten trunks. 

Monotospora asperospora. Cke. & Mass. 

Efiixsed, black, forming thin, velvety patches ; threads . 
erect, short, attenuated upwards from a discoid base, without 
septa, opaque and dark brown below, pale above ; conidia 
globose, minutely warted, brown, 24-28 yu, diameter. 

Monotospora asperospora, C. and M., Grev., vol. xvi. p. 69. 

On dead twigs of Clematis. 



HADEOTRICHUM. Pckl. (fig. 17, p. 358.) 

Hyphae short, simple but thickish, brown, fasciculate at 
the base; conia globose or somewhat oblong, continuous, 
brown, apical and solitary. 

HadrotricJium, Fuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 221 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 301. 

Fuckel considers the members of the present genus as the 
conidial condition of species of Scirrliia. 

Hadrotrichum arundinaceum. C. & M. (fig. 17, 
p. 358.) 

Black; at first in small spherical tufts, at length confluent 
in velvety patches, threads branched, septate, creeping, 



HADKOTEICHUM — ^ACEEMONIELLA. 379 

sooty, Btanding up erect, simple, fertile brandies, each 
bearing a subglobose, opacLue, nearly black conidiTim 30 fx. 
diameter. 

Hadrotrichum arundinaceum, Cke. & Mass., Grevillea, vol. xvi. 
p. 11. 

On dead Arundo consj)icua. 



ACEEMONIELLA. Sacc. (fig. 16, p. 358.) 

Hyphae creeping or oblique, simple or branched, byalino 
or coloured, having rather short conidiophores scattered at 
intervals ; conidia globose or elliptical, brown, continuous, 
solitary, apical. 

Acremoniella, Sacc, Fung. Ital., t. 713; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 302. 

Agrees in structure with. Acremonium, but difiers in the 
coloured spores. 

Acremoniella fusca. Sacc 

Hyphae expanded, delicate, cobweb-like, effused, brown, 
conidiophorous branches attenuate or opposite, approximate, 
conidia globose, brown. 

Acremoniella fusca, Sacc, Syll., v. n. 1475. 

Acremonium fuscum, E. & S., Myk., Heft i. 79, t. 2, f. 23 ; 
Grev., Scot. Or. Tl., t. 124, fig. 1. 

On rotten pine-wood, &c. 

Acremoniella pallida. C. & M. (fig. 16, p. 358.) 
Somewhat effused, forming pallid spots on dead leaves, 

mycelium creeping, hyaline, fertile threads short, erect, 

septate, hyaline, with short, lateral, acuminate branches; 

conidia terminal, ovate, continuous, clear brown, 30-35 X 

25/1, 

Acremoniella pallida, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 79. 
On dead leaves. 



380 rUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Tribe 8. HaplograpMeae. (fig. 20, p. 358.) 
CATENULAEIA, Grove. 

Hyphae erect, fuscous, septate, TDearing a chain of conidia 
at the apex ; conidia continuous, fuscous. 

Gatenularia, Grove, in Sacc, Sj'll., iv. p. 303. 

Differs from the genus Oladotrichum in the non-septate 
conidia. 

Gatenularia simplex. Grove. 

Effused, ■ black ; sterile hyphae elongated, creeping, wavy,' 
eq[ual, fuscous, septa rare, somewhat branched, 3-4 /* thick ; 
fertile hyphae gregarious, erect, although sometimes bent 
or recurved, yet rigid,, simple, 100-200 X 3-4 /*, fuscous, 
septate, inflated here and there, or cupulate upwards, the 
cups deeper in colour, and from the centre of the apical one 
originates a simple, rigid, erect chain of conidia ; chain con- 
sisting of 2-10 conidia, obovate or obconic, truncate at both 
ends, olivaceous then fuscous, 10 X 5-6 /x. 

Gatenularia simplex. Grove, in Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1482. 

On rotten wood. 



HAPLOGEAPHIUM. B. & Br. (fig. 12, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, scanty, fertile branches erect, 
septate, brown, bearing a head of very short or elongated 
branchlets at the summit, these in turn bear chains of simple, 
coloured conidia. 

HaplograpMum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 1859, p. 6; 
Sacc, Syll., p. 304. 

Somewhat resembling PenicilUum in general habit and 
structure, but dark-coloured. . In some species the terminal 
branchlets bearing the chains of conidia are very short, in 
others more or less elongated. 

Haplographium delicatulum. B. & Br. 
Forming dark olive patches; fertile hyphae erect, dark 
olive-brown, simple or very rarely branched; sterigmata 



CATENULAEIA— HAPLOGEAPHIUM. 381 

very short, scarcely distingui stable from the conidia, aggre- 
gated at the tips of the hyphae ; conidia in simple or slightly 
hranched chains and forming a small dark olive-coloured 
head, conidia elliptic-oblong, simple, olive, 4—5 x 2 ■ 5 /a. 

Hajplagraphium delicaiulum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 818, t. 9, f. 4; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1484. 

On dead trunks. 

Haplographium chartarum. Sacc. 

Tufts minute, olive, suborbicular or irregular, 4-16 mm. 
diameter; fertile hyphae simple or sparingly branched 
above ; chains of conidia simple or branched ; conidia oblong, 
pale olive, 4-5 /x long. 

Haplographium chartarum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1487. 

Penicillium chartarum, Cke., Pop. Science Eev., 1871, t. 68, 
f. 4. 

On decaying paper, along with Sporodesmium alternaria. 

Haplographium bicolor. Grove. 

Fertile hyphae effused, gregarious, erect, straight, sep- 
tate sometimes 2-3 connate at the base, blackisli-brown, 
opaque, paler towards the rounded tip, base bulbous, 
250-300 X 8 /*. ; conidiophores numerous, radiating, pale, 
fasciculately branched; conidia oblong or ovate, subacute, 
hyaline, 4-5 /u, long, involved in mucus and forming an 
obovate pale honey-coloured head. 

Haplographium bicolor. Grove, Science Gossip, 1885, p. 197, 
f. 127, 128; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1490. 

On decayed wood. 

Haplographium tenuissimum. Grove. 

Effused, delicate, pale brown ; fertile hyphae unbranched, 
^- mm. longi straight, filiform, base dilated, brown, semi- 
pellucid ; head subglobose formed by the yellow fasciculate 
conidiophores ; conidia elliptic-fusiform, 4-5 /a long, in lax 
chains. 

Haplographium tenuissimum. Grove, Sc. Gossip, 1885, p. 198, 
f. 130; Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 1491. 

Graphium tenuissimum, Cda. 

On chips, wood, &c. 

Haplographium saponis. Sacc. 
Black ; sterile hyphae creeping, fertile erect, forked at the 



382 FUNGUS-PLOEA. 

tip ; branchlets turgid at the apex, eacli bearing 2-4 rather 
long chains, of .oonidia; conidia globose, black. 

Saplographmm aaponis, Sacc, Syll., iv. n, 1499. 

PenieilUum saponis, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1913, 
t. 3, f. 3. 

On soap. 

Haplographium olivaceum. C. &M. (fig. 12, p. 358.) 
Somewhat effused, dark olive, nearly black ; threads erect, 

septate, simple, dark, slightly clavate and paler at the apex ; 

conidia narrowly elliptical, catemilate in simple chains, 

12-14 X 4 /i, pale olive, forming a subglobose, rather lax 

head. 

SaplogrwpMum olivaceum, Cke. & Mass., Grevillea, vol. xvi. 

p. 11. 

On rotten wood. 



DEMATIUM. Pers. (fig. 15, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae scanty, creeping; fertile hyphae erect, 
simple or sparingly branched, septate, producing lateral 
chains of conidia. Conidia sphaeroid or ellipsoid, continuous, 
brown, sometimes connected by a short isthmus. 

Bematium, Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 365 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 308. 

Sporodum, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 18. 

Dematium hispidulum. Fr. (fig. 15, p. 358.) 

Tufts minute, hemispherical, setulose, black; hyphae 
simple or sparingly branched, septate, the upper naked 
portion obtuse or often acute, brownish; conidia globose, 
dingy ochraceous, at length minutely asperulose, the terminal 
one largest and darkest coloured, 10-14 ft, diameter. 

Bematium hispidulum, Fr., S. Myc, iii. p. 365; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1600. 

Sporodum conopleoides, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 18, f. 247, iii. 
f. 22. 

Conoplea Mspidula, Pers., Sym., p. 235. 

Bematium graminum, Libert. 
. On decayed leaves oi Arundo donax and.vaiious grasses. 



BOLACOTEICHA — MYXOTEICHUM. 383 

Dematium vinosum. Mass. 

Forming broadly extended patclies of a chocolate colour. 
Sterile liyphae creeping, colourless, septate, bearing bere and 
there erect, branched, septate conidiophores ; conidia con- 
catenate, terminal on the conidiophores, shortly cylindrical, 
ends truncate (barrel-shaped), vinous brown, 10-12 X 8 /x. 

Dematium vinosum, Massee, Grevillea, vol. xxi. p. 7, pi. 182, 
f. 7. 

On damp, gummed paper. Commencing as pure white, 
waxy -looking patches ; the conidia are fully formed and full 
sized before they become tinged with colour. 



Tribe 9. MyxotricJiea. Sacc. 
BOLACOTEICHA. B. & Br. (figs. 41, 42, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae more or less erect, simple, septate, some- 
what circinate or curved at the tips ; conidia clustered into 
small heaps, and held together by mucus, subglobose, hyaline, 
shortly pedicellate. 

Bolacotricha, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 606 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 316. 

The sterile hyphae stand up above the mass of spores, and 
are more or less curled at the tips. 

Bolacotricha grisea. B. & Br. (figs. 41, 42, p. 358.) 
Tufts pulvinate, effused, grey; sterile hyphae flexuous, 
simple, equal or thickest downward, sparingly septate, pale 
lufous, apex more or less spirally incurved ; conidia crowded 
into glomerules, globose, granular within, 5-8 times the 
diameter of the hyphae. 

Bolacotricha grisea, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 506, t. v. 
f. 4 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1534. 

On rotten cabbage stalks, rotten sacking, &c. 



MYXOTEICHUM. Kunze. (figs. 32, 33, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae naked above, straight or circinate, very 
much branched below, dark-coloured ; conidia variously 



384 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

inserted on the brancUets, globose or ovoid, aggi-egated in 
clusters and held together by mucus. 

Myxotrichum, Kunze, Myk., Heft ii. p. 108; Sacc, SylL, 
iv. p. 317. 

Allied to Bolacolricha, but distinguished by the sterile 
hyphae being very much branched near the base. 

Myxotrichum chartarum. Kunze. 

Hyphae very slender, decumbent, divaricately branched 
below, almost simple upwards, interwoven into blackish- 
olive tufts, the tips hooked ; conidia aggregated in clusters 
at the tips of the basal branchlets. 

Myxotrichum chartarum, Kunze, Myk., Heft ii. p. 110; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1535. 

On damp paper, &c. 

Myxotrichum cancellatum. Phil. 

Tufts minute, subglobose, grey, ^ mm. diameter ; hyphae 
elongated, subulate, blackish, simple, elegantly cancellately 
branched near the base ; conidia elliptical, 3 /a long, some- 
what hyaline, covering the network of branchlets. 

Myxotrichum cancellatum, Phillips, in Grevillea; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1539. 

On rotten stem of Bartsia odontites. 

Myxotrichum deflexum. Berk. 

Tufts minute, slightly downy, grey, hyphae radiating, 
branched, branches opposite, deflexed, becoming shorter 
upwards, branchlets few, short, acute ; ccnidia elliptic- 
oblong, collected in clusters towards the base of the tufts. 

Myxotrichum deflexum. Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 122, 
t. viii. f. 9 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1540. 

On paper, rotten wood, &c. 

Myxotrichum ochraceum. B. & Br. (figs'. 32, 33, 
p. 358.) 

Yellow then greenish ; hyphae elongated, acute, branchlets 
deflexed ; conidia globose, 3 '6 /a diameter. 

Myxotrichum ochraceum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1475, 
t. i. f. 4; Sacb., Syll., iv. n. 1541. 

On wood. 



CHAETOPSIS — MENISPOEA. 385 

Tribe 10. Chloridieae. Sacc. 
CHAETOPSIS. Grev. (fig. 30, p. 358.) 

Hyphae erect, bearing towards tlie middle irregular whorls 
of short conidiopliores ; conidia cylindrical, hyaline. 

Chaetopsis, Greville, Soot. Crypt. Mora, t. 236 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 324. 

Chaetopsis Wauchii. Grev. (fig. 30, p. 358.) 

Hyphae gregarious, blackish-brown, rather rigid, subulate, 
with short branchlets near the middle; conidia cylindric- 
oblong, abundant, hyaline, aggregated in greyish masses. 

Chaetopsis Wauchii, Grev., Scot. Cr. Fl., t. 236. 

Chaetopsis grisea,' Sa,cc., Syll., iv. n. 1569. 

On rotten trunks, &c. 

MENISPOEA. Pers. (figs. 24 and 29, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, scanty; fertile erect, septate, 
brown, furnished with pellucid branches towards the middle ; 
conidia fuso id-falcate, continuous or spuriously septate, hya- 
line, sometimes (in subg. Eriomene) with a delicate spine at 
eaoh end ; soon often bound iato clusters by mucus. 

Menispora, Pers., Myc. Eur., i. p. 32 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 
325. 

* Eu-Menispora ; conidia without spinules at the ends. 

Menispora lucida. Corda. (fig. 29, p. 358.) 
Tufts minute, brown ; hyphae erect, lax, unequally septate 

or nodulose, brown and semipellucid below, paler above ; 

conidia fusoid, sometimes slightly curved, obtuse, hyaline, 

4-6 nucleate. 

Menispora lucida, Corda, Fung. Icon., i. p. 16; Sacc, Syll., 

iv. n. 1574. 
On wood. 

VOL. III. 2 



386 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 



** Uriomene, Sacc. ; conidia ciliate at the ends. 

Menispora ciliata. Corda. (fig. 24, p. 358.) 
Tufts minute, somewhat effused, slightly tawny, with an 
olive tinge ; hyphae erect, somewhat dichotomous, lax, un- 
equally septate, sometimes incurved, olive-brown ; conidia 
fusoid, curved, hyaline 16-17 /«. long, furnished with a very 
delicate long seta at each end. 

Menispora ciliata, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 16 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1683. 

On rotten wood, bark, &o. 



VEETICICLADIUM. Preuss. (fig. 31, p. 868.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping; fertile erect, septate, vertioil- 
lately branched above ; branches usually in fours, ultimate 
branehlets subulate ; conidia continuous, single at the tips of 
the branehlets, soon falling away. 

Verticicladium, Preuss, Fung., Hoyersw., n. 93 ; Sacc, Syll., 
p. 327. 

Habit of Vertioillium, but belonging to the Dematieae. 

Verticicladium trifidum. Preuss. 

Tufts slender, effused, scarcely conspicuous, hoary-brown ; 
fertile hyphae erect, septate, semipellucid, base dilated, with 
spreading, verticUlate branches above, blackish-brown ; coni- 
dia globose, pellucid, white. 

Verticicladium trifidum, Preuss, F. Hoyersw., n. 93 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1586. 

On rotten pine leaves, &c. 

Verticicladium apicale. B. & Br. (fig. 31, p. 358.) 

Effused, olive-black ; hyphae erect, septate ; branches api- 
cal, inflated at the base, whorled, short ; conidia globose, , 
brown, 6-8 /jl diameter. 

Verticicladium apicale, B. & Br. ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1688. 

Verticillium apicale, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 631, t. 
vii. fig. 17. 

On decorticated oak branches. 



GONYTEICHUM— STACHYLIDIUM. 387 

Tribe 11. StacJiylidieae. Sacc. 
GONYTEICHUM. Nees. (fig. 39, p. 358.) 

Hyphae decmabent.braiiclied, bearing here and there long, 
swollen, spimilose nodes ; conidia springing from the tips of 
the spines on the nodes, subglobose, almost solitary or col- 
lected into heads, and sometimes involved in mucus. 

Gonytrichum, Nees, Act. Leop., ix. p. 244, t. 15, f. 14; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 329. 

Gonytrichum caesium. Nees. (fig. 39, p. 358.) 
Tufts minute, pulvinate, grey at first, then brown ; hyphae 
rather rigid, septate; brown, apex paler, nodulose, spines 
subulate, almost colourless; conidia elliptical, 2-3 X 1 /*., 
sometimes 2-guttulate, and looking as if 1-septate, hyaline. 

Gonytrichum caesium, Nees, Act. Leopol., ix. p. 244, t. 16, f. 
14; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1592. 
On fallen wood and branches. 



STACHYLIDIUM. Link. (fig. 36, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, scanty ; fertile erect, somewhat 
verticillately branched ; conidia aggregated at the tips of the 
branchlets, globose or elliptical. 

Stachylidium, Link, Obs., i. p. 13 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 331. 

Stachylidium cyclosporum. Grove, (fig. 36, p. 358.) 
Fertile hyphae erect, paler and attenuated upwards, base 
brown, 200-300 X 4 /*, septatfe and branched. above, branches 
2-4 springing from the septa, 2-4 jointed, dividing into 
opposite or alternate branchlets, ultimate branchlets subu- 
late, hyaline, bearing a head of conidia 8-10 fi diameter; 
conidia spherical, somewhat hyaline, 2-2 • 5 ^ diameter, in- 
volved in mucus. 

Stachylidium cyclospora, Grove, Journ. Bot., 1885, p. 12, t- 
257, f. 6; Sacc, Syll., iv. 1607. 
On fallen branches. 

2 c 2 



388: FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Stachylidium extorre. Sacc. 

Effused, fusco-cinereous, velvety; hyphae erect, cylindri- 
cal, slightly thickened at the base, gradually attenuated up- 
wards, 50-200 X 4-5 /J,, septate, opaque, dark brown, verti- 
cillately branched towards the apex ; branchlets apical or 
nearly so, paler, almost hyaline, 3-6 together, attenuated 
above, bulbous below, simple or rarely again branched; 
conidia forming spherical translucent globules 6-10 fj, dia- 
meter on the apex of the branches, at first involved in 
mucus, then diffluent, oblong, 3-4 x 1 ' 5 /«., hyaline. 

Stachylidium extorre, Sacc, Mich., i. p. 84; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 1603. 

On dead wood. 

No brown creeping threads at the base ; but many of the 
stems were beaten down by the weather, and the apex curl- 
ing upwards looked like a very short stem. Occasionally the 
stem seemed almost non-existent, and the crown of glistening 
ramuli was seated directly on the wood. (Grove.) 

Tribe 12. Chalareae. Sacc. 
CHALAEA. Corda. (fig. 35, p. 358.) 

Sterile hyphae absent or obsolete; fertile ones simple, 
short, straight, brown, sometimes flask-shaped; conidia hya- 
line, cylindrical, truncate at both ends, in chains. 

Chalara, Corda, Icon. Fung., ii. p. 9; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 333. 

Chalara longissima. Grove. 

Fertile hyphae densely gregarious, erect, rigid, straight, 
septate, equal, 150-170 X 4-5 /i, fuscous below, paler and 
often somewhat inflated upwards, gradually passing into a 
very long, white, flexuous chain of conidia more than twice 
the length of the stem ; conidia fusoid, irregular, somewhat 
«,oute at both ends, almost hyaline, continuous, 1-4-guttulate, 
10-15 X 3-4 /i. 

Chalara longissima, Grove, Journ. Bot., 1885, p. 12, t. 257 • 
f. 8; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1615. 

On rotten wood. 



DICOOCUM — BISPOEA. 389 

Chalara longipes. Cooke, (fig. 35, p. 358.) 
Tufis effused, inconspicuous; mycelium branched, often 
anastomosing, septate; hyphae simple, septate, brown, pel- 
lucid, apex running out into a rigid, very fragile, simple, 
dichotomous, or rarely trichotomous chain of cylindrical 
conidia. 

Chalara longipes, Cooke, Grev., 1881, p. 50 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 1621. 

On damp fallen pine leaves, pericarp of walnut, &c. 



Sect. II. DIDYMOSPOEAE. Sacc. 

Subsect. 1. Micronemeae. Sacc. 

Tribe 13. Bisporeae. Sacc. 

DICOCCUM. Corda. (fig. 38, p. 358.) 

Conidia oblong or shortly clavate, brown, 1-septate, 
springing from very short simple hyphae. 

Bicoceum, Corda, in Sturm, Deutsch. PL, t. 54 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 342. 

Dicoccum uniseptatum. B. & Br. (f. 38, p. 358.) 

Tufts minute, black; conidia obovate, 1-septate, vinous- 
black, shortly pedicellate, 12-13 /a long, the lower joint 
shortest and narrowest. 

Bicoceum uniseptatum, B. & Br. ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1628. 

Sporidesmium, uniseptatum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., m. 
815, t. ix. f. 2. 

On twigs of Clematis vitalba. 

BISPOEA. Corda. (fig. 37, p. 358.) 

Conidia oblong, 1-septate, fuscous, catenulate; springing 
from very short hyphae. 

Bispora, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 9 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 

343. 
Distinguished from Bicoceum by the concatenate conidia.. 



390 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Bispora monilioides. Corda. (fig. 37, p. 358.) _ 

Effused, blackish-brown, powdery; bypbae or conidio- 
pbores sbort, subconioal ; conidia shortly fusoid, truncate at 
both ends, 20-22 x 6-7 /x, with one thick septum, not con- 
stricted, 2-guttulate, sooty-brown. 

Bispora monilioides, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 9, t. 11, f. 143 ; 
Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 1632. 

On oak and beech wood, especially the cut ends of trunks 
and stumps. 

According to Puckel this is the conidial stage of Bisporella 
monilifera. 

Subsect. 2. Macronemeae. Sacc. 

Tribe 14. Cladosporieae. Sacc. 

PASSALOEA. Fries & Mont. (fig. 40, p. 358.) 

Hyphae elongated, filiform, intricate, many - septate, 
olivaceous ; conidia oblong or fusoid, 1 -septate, acrogenous. 

Passalora, Fries & Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 2, vol. vi. 
p. 31 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. p. 344. 

Closely allied to Fusicladium, but distinguished by the 
larger, pluriseptate conidiophores. 

Passalora baeilligera. M. & Fr. (fig. 40, p. 358.) 
Hypophyllous ; hyphae somewhat fasciculate, simple, 

wavy, apex obtuse, olive, septate, intricate, forming minute 

sooty spots ; conidia acrogenous, elongato-obclavate, 1-sep- 

tate, 30-50 X 6-7 fj.. 

Passalora hacilligera, M. & Fr., Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 2, vol. 

vi. p. 31, t. 12, fig. 5; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1640. 

On the under surface of fading leaves of Alnus glutinosa. 



FUSICLADIUM. Bon. (fig. 3, p. 397.) 

Hyphae short, straight, sparingly septate, somewhat 
fasciculate, olivaceous; conidia ovoid or subclavate, for a 
long time continuous, at length often 1 -septate, acrogenous, 
solitary or in pairs. 



FUSIOLADIUM— SOOLBCOTEICHUM. 391 

Fusicladium, Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 80 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 1642. 

Fusicladium dendriticum. Fokl. 

Effused, velvety, olivaceous, often growing on leaves in 
a dendritic manner; hyphae filiform, erect, fasciculate, 
50-60 X 5 fji,, sparingly septate ; conidia apical, fusoid- 
obclavate, 30 x 7-9 /j., for a long time continuous, then 
1-septate, not constricted, olivaceous. 

Fusicladium dendriticum, Puckel, Symb. Myc, i. p. 357 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1642. 

On fading leaves of apple and pear; sometimes also 
occurring on tte fruit of tlie above-mentioned. 

Fusicladium depressum. B. & Br. (fig. 3, p. 397.) 

Tufts small, angular, up to 2 mm. across, blackish-brown, 
composed of roundish fascicles ; hyphae simple, short, con- 
tinuous, scarcely wavy, erect, olivaceous, 60-70 X 6-7 /* ; 
conidia obclavate-fusoid, 50-55 x 7-8 /a, sometimes curved, 
multiguttulate, olivaceous, continuous, then constricted and 
apparently 1-septate. 

Fusicladium depressum, B. & Br., Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 
1646. 

Cladosporium depressum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 514, 
t. V. f. 8. 

On under surface of living leaves of Angelica silvestris. 



SCOLECOTEIOHUM. Kze. & Schm. (fig. 34, p. 358.) 

Hyphae short, somewhat fasciculate, olivaceous ; conidia 
oblong or ovate, lateral and terminal. 

ScolecotricJium, Kunze & Schm., Myc, Heft i. p. 10 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 347. 

Allied to Fusicladium, but distinguished by the conidia 
being lateral as well as terminal. 

Scolecotrichum sticticum. B. & Br. (fig. 34, p. 358.) 
Tufts minute, point-like, gregarious, black; hyphae 
fasciculate, nodulose or irregular ; conidia oblong-olavate, 
1-septate, 40 y. long. 



392 PUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Scoleeotrichum sticticum, B. & Br.; Sacc, SylL, iv, n. 
1660. 

Helminthosporium sticticum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 
758 t. XV. f. 10. 

On dead leaves of grass. 

Scoleeotrichum clavariarum. Sacc. 

Hyphae densely aggregated, simple, stort, straight, 
obtuse, septate, blackish; conidia oblong, 1-septate, con- 
stricted, pellucid or opaque, 15-20 X 8 /a, cells often unequal, 
1-guttnlate. 

Scoleeotrichum clavariarum, (Desm.), Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 
1661^ 

Parasitic on Clavaria rugosa and C. fuliginea. 



POLYTHEINCIUM. Kze. & Sohm. 

Hyphae erect, fasciculate, short, rather thick, distinctly 
and regularly wavy or twisted, blackish ; conidia obovoid, 
1-septate, acrogenous. 

Polythrincium, Knnze and Schm., Myk., Heft i. p. 13 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 350. 

Polythrincium trifolii. Kze. & Schm. 

Hyphae rigid, short, regularly twisted or waved, hypo- 
phyllous, forming grumous olive-brown patches that often 
become confluent, seated on yellow spots ; conidia obovate, 
1-septate, constricted, pale olive, 20-24 x 9-12 /j.. 

Polythrincium trifolii, Kunze, Myk., Heft i. p. 13, t. 1, 
f. 8 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. p. 350. 



CLADOSPOEIUM. Link. (fig. 2, p. 397.) 

Hyphae subdeoumbent, branched, olive ; conidia at first 
subglobose, then elliptical and typically 1-septate. Some- 
times 2-3-septate and forming terminal or lateral short 
chains of 2-3 conidia. 

Cladosporium, Link, sp. pi. Fung., i. p. 39 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. 
p. 350. 



POLYTHEINCIUM — CLADOSPOEIUM. 393 

Erect, hyphae or conidiopiiores usually erect or ascending, 
simple, branclied, or nodulose, usually forming velvety olive 
tufts or cloud-like patches on leaves, &c. Less rotust than 
Belminthosporium and distinguished hy the smaller, usually 
l-septate spores. 

•f On Dicotyledons. 

Cladosporium epiphyllum. Mart. 
Tafts minute, forming rather olive-hlack, circular patches ; 
hyphae at first erect, then more or less deolinate, branched, 
much intermixed, pale olive ; conidia elliptic-oblong, con- 
tinuous, then 1-3-septate, arranged in chains, olive 10-22 X 

Cladosporium epiphyllum, Mart., Erlang., p. 351 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1718. 

On leaves of Quercus, Platanus, Populus, Laurocerasus, 
Hedera, &c., usually appearing on the under surface, under 
the form of numerous small patches. 

Cladosporium sphaerospermum. Penz. 

Tufts conspicuous, aggregated, confluent, forming a velvety 
layer; hyphae erect, septate, brown, 150-300 X 3 •5— 4 fi; 
conidia terminal or very near the apex, very variable, 
generally spherical or elliptical, concatenate, rarely l-septate, 
smaller form 3-4 X 4 /a; larger 6-14 x 3-5-4 ji., olivaceous, 
smooth. 

Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penzig, Fung. Agrum. in 
Mich., ji. p. 473 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1688. 

On fading twigs and leaves of Cilrus. 

Cladosporium fulvum. Cooke. 

Effused, minutely velvety, reddish-brown ; hyphae erect, 
wavy, sparsely septate, nodulose, sparingly branched, 
brownish ; conidia elliptical, l-septate, scarcely constricted 
at the septum, pale fulvous, pellucid, 10-20 x 4-5 fi. 

Cladosporium fulvum, Cke., in Eavenel's Fung. Amer. Exs., 
n. 599; Grevillea, 1883. p. 32 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1731. 

Cladosporium lycopersici, Plow. 

On living leaves of tomato (Solarium ly coper sieum). 

Cladosporium lignicolum. Corda. 
Tufts thin, rather compact, black, |-1 in. across ; fertile 



394 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

threads very short, simple or nearly so; conidia elliptic- 
oblong, 1-septate, often in chains, dark hrown and almost 
opaque, 8-10 x 5-6 /x. 

Gladosporium lignicolum, Corda, Icon. Fung., p. 14, t. iii. 
f. 206; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1692. 

On rotten wood. 

Gladosporium brachormium. B. & Br. 

Forming thin, eifused, grey patches ; hyphae erect, wavy, 
nodulose above ; conidia elliptic-ohlong, in one or more short 
terminal chains. 

Gladosporium irachormium, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 5 1 5 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1736. 

On leaves of Fumaria officinalis. 

Gladosporium juglandinum. Cke. 

Forming small, scattered, sooty patches on the under 
surface of the leaves ; hyphae septate, nodulose, slightly 
wavy, blackish-hrown at the base, paler above; conidia 
apical, fusoid, 1-septate, pellucid, 36 X 9 /i. 

Gladosporium juglandinum, Cke., G-rev., xvi. p. 80 ; Sacc, 
Syll., Suppl., X. n. 7501. 

On walnut leaves (Juglans regia). 

Gladosporium herbarum. Link. (fig. 2, p. 397.) 
Tufts dense, aggregated, confluent, forming an olive- 
yellow, then blackish-olive stratum ; h;^phae erect or ascend- 
ing, brown or olive, septate, sparingly branched, 5-7 fx. thick ; 
conidia springing from near the tips of the hyphae, not at 
all or very shortly concatenate, pale brown or olive, form 
and size exceedingly variable, oblong, ovoid, oblong-elliptical, 
cylindrical, simple or 1-3-septate, constricted at the septa, 
smooth. 

Gladosporium herbarum. Link, Obs. Myc, ii. p. 37 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1665. 

On every portion of decaying herbaceous plants ; on wood, 
paper, fungi, &o. 

Gladosporium nodulosum. Corda. 
Tufts narrowly oblong, olive-brown then blackish ; hyphae 
clustered, long, wavy, pale brown, apex generally incurved, 
simple, with very short spurious, nodulose branchlets; 



CLADOSPOEIUM. 395 

conidia oUong or ouneate, simple or 1-septate, pale olive- 
brown, 15-16 /x, diameter. , 

Gladosporium nodulosum, Corda, Icon.,i. p. 15, t. iv. f. 212 ; 
Sacc, Syll., It. n. 1666. 

On rotten wood, herbaceous stems, leaves of grass, &c. 

If On Monocotyledons. 

Cladosporium Kniphofiae. Cooke. 

Amphigenous ; spots olive, caespitos'e ; tufts minute, 
gregarious or confluent, velvety; liypbae simple, erect, 
flexuous, confluent at the base and fasciculate, nodulose at 
the septa, pale yellow-brown ; conidia typically 1-septate, 
afterwards sometimes 2-3-septate, twice the thickness of the 
hyphae, elliptical, 25-30 X 1 /a, pale olive. 

Cladosporium Knvphqfiae, Cke., Grev., xiv. p. 40 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1759. 

On dead leaves of Kniphofiae aloides, 

Cladosporium fasciculare. Pr. 

Spots oblong, greyish ; tufts of hyphae minute, erumpent ; 
tips of the hyphae wavy, black, indistinctly septate; conidia 
elliptic-oblong, continuous or rarely 1-septate, in chains that 
break up and form a conglobated mass ; conidia numerous, 
8x4-6/.,. 

Cladosporium fasciculare. Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 370; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1758. 

On stems of Asparagus, Lilium, &c. 

Cladosporium orchidearum. C. & M. 

Tufts erumpent, small, originating principally through 
the stomata, olivaceous; threads short, sparingly branched, 
septate, rather slender and flexuous ; conidia elliptical, 
uniseptate, pale olive, 17-18 x 5-6 fn. 

Cladosporium orchidearum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 80 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 7506. 

On fading leaves of cultivated orchids. 

Cladosporium sphaeroideum. Cooke. 
Forming minute black, compact, gregarious, spot-like, 
hemispherical, velvety tufts; hyphae densely fasciculate, 
short, septate ; conidia olive, 20—40 X 7 /*. 



396 FUNGfUS-FLOEA. 

Oladosporium sphaeroideum, Cke. ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1745. 
On leaves of grasses. 



fll On Acotyledons. 

Oladosporium epibryum. C. & M. 

Tufts very minute, black ; hyphae simple, short, flexuous, 
septate, olivaceous, paler iipwards ; conidia elliptical, rounded 
at both ends, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, pale olive- 
brown, hyaline, 18-20 X 10-12 /t. 

Oladosporium epibryum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvii. p. 76 ; 
Sacc, Syll., x. no. 7509. 

In the capsules of mosses. The present species was first 
found on mosses collected in the United States. 

Oladosporium algarum. C. & M. 

Effused in irregular dark olive patches; threads erect, 
sparingly branched, septate, olive below, pale and atteniiated 
above; conidia oblong, cylindrical, 1-3-septate, slightly 
constricted, pale olive, 30-35 X 10 /*. 

Oladosporium algarum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 80. 

On washed up fronds of Laminaria flexicaulis. 



FIGURES ILLUSTEATING THE DEMATIEAE. 

Fig. 1, Cladotriehum Coohei ; — Fig. 2, Oladosporium herharum ; — ^Fig. 3, 
Fusicladium depressvm ; — Fig. 4, Fusariella atrovirent ; — Fig. 5, Spondylo- 
eladium fumosvm ; — Fig. 6, Sporoohisma mirahile; — Fig. 7, Sporidesmium 
lobatum ; —Fig. 8, Claaterosporium vermiculatum ; — Fig. 9, Heterosporium 
typharimi s^-Fig. 10, Helminthosporivm fusiforme; — Fig. 10a, Helico- 
sporivm Midleri; — Fig. 11, Triposporium elegans; — ^Fig. 12, Cerato- 
sporimn digitatum ; — Fig. 13, DendrypMum griseum ; — Fig. 14, Coniothe- 
cium vitieolum; — Fig. 15, Tetraploa arutata; — Fig. 1&, Braohysporiwm 
dbovatum; — Fig. 17, Stemphylium asperosporum ; — Pig, 18, Septonema 
irregiilare ; — Fig. 19, Napicladium arwndinaceum ; — Fig. 20, Dictyospo- 
rivm elegans; — Fig. 21, Alternaria hrassicae; — Fig. 22. Acrothecium 
simplex; — Fig. 28, Dactylosporium hrevipes ; — Fig. 24, Cercospora, re- 
sedae ; — Fig. 25, Macrosporium nohile ; — Fig. 26, Septosporium huTbo- 
trichum; — Fig. 27, Speira torulmdes; — ^Fig. 28, Stysanus stemonites ; — 
Fig. 29, Mystrosporivm stemphylium; — Fig. 30, Harpographiwm grami- 
num ; — Fig. 31, Isaria farinosa ; — Fig. 32, Fumago vagans ; — Fig. 33, 
Atractium flammeum; — ^Fig. 34, Grapiothecium parasiticum. (All the 
figures are highly magnified.) 



398 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 



CLADOTEICHUM. Corda. (fig. 1, p. 397.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, fertile ascending, rather rigid, 
branched, dark-coloured, swollen here and there; conidia 
1-septate, coloured, originating from the tips of branohlets ; 
usually in short chains. 

Cladotrichum, Corda, in Sturm's Deutschl. ¥1. t. 20 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 370. 

The dark, branched threads with nodulose swellings here 
and there, and the 1-septate spores, mark the genus. 

Cladotriohuni Cookei. Sacc. (fig. 1, p. 397.) 

Effused, black ^ hyphae branched, forked, nodulose, septate, 
upper joints inflated or cupulate, conidia oblong, constricted, 
1-septate,- obtuse, often collapsed at the extremities, and then 
apparently truncate, 18-20 x 9-10 /x. 

Cladotrichum Goohei, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1784. 

Cladotrichum uniseptatum,, Cke., Grev., t. iii., p. 182, pi. 48, 
f. 2. _ 

On sticks ; forming thick black velvety patches sometimes 
nearly an inch in length. 

Cladotrichum fuseum. Sacc. 

Tufts thin, indeterminate, brown ; hyphae intricately inter- 
woven, ascending, branched, wavy, branches diverging, 
obtuse ; conidia oblong, 1-septate. 

Cladotrichum fuseum, Sacc, n. 1800 (not n. 1786). 

Macrotrichum heterosporium, Grev., Ed. Phil. Joum., iii. 
t. 1. ■ 

On dead capsules of Gentiana campestris. 

Cladotrichum triseptatum. B. & Br. 

Forming broadly effused, jet-black minutely velvety 
patches; hyphae repeatedly forked, septate, olive-brown, 
5-7 /* thick, tips with one or more globose swellings ; conidia 
oblong, tips very obtusely rounded, 3-septate, constricted 
at the middle septum, 14-16 x 7-8 jx, dark olive-brown, at 
length nearly opaque. 

Cladotrichum triseptatum, B. & Br., Ann, Nat. Hist., n. 511, 
pi. 5, f. 7, ser. ii. vol. vii. 

On stumps. 



DIPLOCOCOIUM— CLASTEEOSPOEIUM. 399 

The conidia are distinctly 3-septate in Berkeley's type 
specimen. The present species so obviously belongs to the 
present genus that it is retained here in spite of the conidia 
being 3-septate. 



DIPLOCOCCIUM. Grove. 

Fertile hyphae erect, septate, branched, olivaceous ; conidia 
catenulate, 1 -septate. 

Bvphcoccium, Grove, Journ. Bot., vol. xxiii. p. 167; Sacc, 
SylL,p. 374. 

Allied to Gladotrichum, but distinguished by the less 
rigid hyphae not being furnished with inflations here and 
there. 

Diplococcium spicatum. Grove. 

Fertile hyphae gregarious, somewhat fasciculate, erect, 
rather wavy, olive, septate, filiform, 200-300 x 4-5 /x, 
furnished with a few alternate, long, spreading branches ; 
conidia in chains of 3-4, opposite or verticillate near the 
tips of the branches; conidia 1-septate, constricted at the 
septum, oblong, 9-10 X 4-5 fi, olivaceous, pellucid. 

Diplococcium spicatum. Grove, Journ. Bot., vol. xxiii. p. 167, 
pi. 267, fig. 7 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1802. 

On rotten wood. 



Sect. III. PHEAGM03P0EAE. Sacc. 

Subsect. 1. Mieronemeae. Sacc. 

Tribe 15. Clasterosporieae. Sacc. 

CLASTEROSPOEIUM. Schw. (fig. 8, p. 397.) 

Saprogenous; hyphae creeping, bearing here and there 
solitary, fuscous, 2- many-septate, somewhat straight, fusoid 
or cylindrical conidia. 

Glasterosporium, Schweinitz, Syn. Amer. Fung., n. 2998 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 382. 



400 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Clasterosporium hirundo. Sacc. 

Densely and indeterminately effused, jet-black ; creeping 
liypliae scanty, filiform, septate, sooty, then disappearing; 
fertile hypliae very short ; oonico-cylindrical, erect, sparingly 
septate, sooty ; conidia very long, worm-like, often curved, 
somewhat constricted here and there, attenuated upwards, 
apex rounded, base wedge-shaped, truncate, septa crowded, 
joints numerous (55-65), 200-230 x 15 /<., sooty-black. 

Clasterosporium Mrundo, Sacc, Mich., i. p. 85; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1814. 

On rotten oak wood. 

The typical form has not yet been recorded for Britain. 

Var. Anglieum. Grove, Journ. Bot., 1886, p. 14, t. 267, 
f. 5. 

Forming aggregated, oblong or elongated, velvety, jet- 
black spots ; hyphae somewhat fasciculate, short, cylindrical, 
septate, 26-50 x 6—8 [x, fuscous ; conidia sooty-brown, 
300-400 /J. or even up to 450 /j, long, lanceolate below, 15 fj. 
thick, attenuated upwards into a very long, cylindrical 
beak 6-8 /j, thick, 50-60-septate, cells of beak quadrate, apex 
truncate, not paler. 

On dead wood. 

Var. minus. Grove, Journ. Bot., 1886, p. 14. 

Densely gregarious, forming effused black spots ; conidia 
lanceolate, attenuated into a long, cylindrical beak, 100-200 ft, 
long, 10-12 fj, (beak 4-5 /jl) thick, blackish-brown, semi- 
pellucid, 30-50-septate ; conidiophore short or elongated, 
rigid, 3-5 -septate. 

On rotten wood. 

Clasterosporium hormiscioides. Sacc. 

Effused, black, velvety; fertile hyphae or conidiophores 
2-4 septate, ochraceous, 20-30 X 6 /t : conidia worm-like, 
conico - cylindrical, 150-180 x 12-16 fn, tortuous, 35-46 
joints, smoky-browr, 1-2 terminal joints hyaline and more 
or less swollen. 

Clasterosporium hormiscioides, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1815. 

On rotten wood and branches. 

Clasterosporium vermiculatum. Cke. (fig. 8, p. 397.) 
Effused, thin, black; mycelium creeping, simple or 



CLASTEEOSPOBIUM. 401 

branclied, septate, browii ; conidia erect, often fasciculate, 
cylindric-fusoid, blackish-brown, multi-septate, straight, 
curved, or geniculate, obtuse and paler at both ends, 150— 
200 iL long. 

Clasterogporium vermicidatum, Cke., Black Moulds, t. 11, 
f. 10; Sacc., SyU., iv. n. 1817. 

On oak wood. 

Clasterosporium fasciculare. Sacc. 

Tufts effused, black, opaque; conidia crowded, erect, 
obovate, very shortly pedicellate, usually 3-septate, scarcely 
or not at all constricted at the septa, blackish-brown, almost 
opaque, 30-40 x 20-25 /i. 

Clasterosporium fasciculare, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1834. 

On wood, especiallj- birch. 

Clasterosporium. opacum. Sacc. 

Unequally effused, jet black, opaque ; conidia very shortly 
pedicellate, oblong, elliptical, obovate, or otherwise variable, 
1-3-septate, more or less constricted at the septa, brown, 
then almost black and opaque, 25-35 x 13-18 /jl. 

Glasfervsporium opacum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1836. 

On elm trunks, &c. 

Clasterospormm fungorom. Sacc. 

Tufts effused, plane, jet black, 2-3 mm. across, compact, 
superficial ; conidia densely fasciculate, fusoid, apex rounded, 
25-28 X 8 /i, straight or imequal sided, 3-, rarely 4-septate, 
slightly constricted at the septa, the two intermediate cells 
smoky and guttulate, attenuated at the base into a short, 
cylindrical conidiophore. 

Clasterosporium fungorum, Sacc, Miscell. Myc, i. ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1846. 

Sporidesmium atrum, Grev., Cr. FL, t. 194. 

On various species of Corticium, &o. 

Clasterosporium abruptum. Sacc 

Forming little, black, pulvinate tufts, and externally 
resembling a hairy Sphaeria ; conidia oblong or sb'ghtly 
clavate, apex rounded, base attenuated into a very short 
conidiophore, 3— 4-septate, apical and basal joints short ; the 
second from the top very long, 50-75 X 12—18 /*. 

VOL. in. 2d 



402 FUNaUS-PLOEA. 

Glasterosporium abrwptum, Saco., Syll., iv. n. 1849. 
Sporidesmium abrwptum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1042, 
1865, p. 11, pi. xiv. fig. 8. 

Clasterosporium clavaeforme. Sacc. 

Tufts small, eifnsed, black, opaque ; conidia fasciculately 
crowded, erect, clavate, unequal, base narrowed, 8-10- 
septate, pedicellate, blaokish-brown, terminal joint paler. 

Clasterosporium clavaeforme, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1859. 

On rotten pine wood, &o. 

Var. leptopus, Saco. 

Conidia fusoid, elliptical, or clavate, unequal, 30-40 X 
15-20 /A, apex rounded, 3-6-septate, scarcely constricted, 
sooty, produced into a very short stem of the same colour at 
the base. 

On rotten wood. 

Clasterosporium parasiticum. Saco. 
Parasitic, black ; conidia cylindrical, straight, 6-8-septate, 
twisted, brown, shortly stipitate, 60-70 x 10 /j,. 
Glasterosporium parasiticum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1863. 
Sporidesmium parasiticum, Cke., Grev., vol. vi. p. 74. 
Parasitic on Pleospora mori on leaves of mulberry (^Morus^. 

Clasterospormm eaulicolum. Sacc. 

Effused, black ; conidia somewhat fasciculate, cylindric- 
fusoid, sooty, 7-8-septate, slightly constricted at the septa ; 
pedicel obsolete. 

Clasterosporium eaulicolum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1868. 

On dry herbaceous stems. 



STIGMINA. Sacc 

Conidia ovoid or oblong, 2- many-septate, coloured, ter- 
minal on short oonidiophores, that are arranged in small 
clusters ; growing on leaves. 

Stigmina, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 22 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 294. 

Differs from Clasterosporium in the conidia being crowded 
into compact patches. Fusariella is distinguished by the 
fusoid, falcate conidia. 



STIGjnNA — ^FTJSAEIELLA. 403 

pr^ Stigmina Visianiea. Sacc. 

Patches mimite, scattered or gregarious, ernmpent, be- 
coming superficial, flattened, blackish-olive, slightly velvety, 
hypophylloTis ; conidia densely packed, but individually 
distinct at the base, springing from a ■ dark, cellnlar basal 
stratum, elliptic-oblong, rather obtuse at both ends, 18-35 
X 7-10 /J, 2-4 usually 3-septate, rarely with 1 or more 
vertical septa, greenish-olive; conidiophores very short, 
hyaline. 

Stiijriiina Vmanica, Sacc, Fung. Ital., t. 930 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1871. 

On fallen leaves of Platanus orientalis. 

Sesembles Cladosporium epiphyUum in habit. 



rUSAEIELLA. Sacc. (fig. 4, p. 397.) 

FertUe hyphae simple or variously branched, short or 
very short, somewhat hyaline, springing from a creeping 
mycelium; conidia acrogenous, fusiform, more or less 
curved, 2- msmy-septate, olive or fuscous. 

Fusariella, Sacc, Misc. Myc, i. p. 29 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 895. 

Analogous with Fusarium in the structure of the conidia, 
but resembling a Torula in habit. 

Fusariella atrovirens. Sacc. (fig. 4, p. 397.) 

Forming minute patches at first whitish, then black with 
a tinge of olive, hyphae whitish and radiating; conidia 
forming a pulverulent central mass, fusiform, olive, 3-septate, 
24^32 X 5-7 /I, straight, or usually more or less angularly 
bent or curved, the bending often due to the larger size of 
the second joint of the conidium. 

FusarieUa atrovirens, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1876. 

Fusarium atrovirens. Berk., Engl. Flor., v. p. 351. 

On stem and leaves of onion (Allium). 



2 D 2 



404 FUNGTJS-FLORA. 

Trite 16. Septonemeae. Sacc. 
SEPTONEMA. Corda. (fig. 18, p. 397.) 

Sterile hyphae creeping, often obsolete; fertile hyphae 
very short or scarcely distinct from tbe conidia. Conidia 
oblong, pluriseptate, brown, catemilate. 

Septonema, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 9; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 397. 

Distinguished from Torula and Sormiscium by the septate 
conidia. 

Septonema spilomeum. Berk. 

Tufts minute, scattered, blackish ; chains of conidia 
branched ; conidia elliptic-oblong, 3-septate, rugulose, smoky, 
25-28 X 8 /x. 

Septonema spilomeum. Berk., Hook. Joum. 1845, iv. p. 310, 
t. xi., f. 6 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1895. 

On fallen wood, sawdust, &c. 

Septonema irregulare. B. & Br. (fig. 18, p. 397.) 
Effused, thin, black, very irregular in outline; conidia 

concatenate, elliptic-oblong, 3-septate, slightly constricted at 

the septa, 17-28 x 6-8 /x. 

Septonema irregulare, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 942, 

t. 15, f. 13; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1896. 
On living branches of Pyrus mains. 

Subsect. 2. Macronemeae. Sacc. 

Tribe 17. HelmintJwsporieae, Sacc. 

HELMINTHOSPOEIUM. Link. (fig. 10, p. 397.) 

Hyphae . rather rigid, subsimple, often nodulose, brown, 
usually growing on wood and forming velvety, effused 
stains ; conidia cylindrical, fusoid, or elongato-clavate, 
smooth, 2- many-septate, rigid. 

HelmintJiosporium, Link, Berlin Mag. 1809, iii. p. 10 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 402. 



SEPTOJTEMA — HELMTNTHOSPOEIUM. 405 

The species with short subelliptioal conidia, formerly 
included in the present gernis will be found under Brachy- 
sporiiim. 

Distinguished from Cladosporium by the conidia being more 
than 1-septate at maturity. 



■f Conidia 2-3-septate. 

Helminthosporium velutina. Link. 

Effused, black, velvety ; hyphae filiform, 200-250 X 6-7 /*, 
septate, smoky-black ; conidia from oblong to ovate-obpyri- 
form, 25-30 x 11-13 /x, 3-septate, smoky, 3-guttulate, lowest 
cell subacute, hyaline. 

Helminthospoi-ium velutinum, Link, Obs., i. p. 8 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 1914. 

On rotten wood. 

Hehninthosporiuin cylindricnm. Corda. 

Effused, velvety, foscous ; hyphae subfasciculate, filiform, 
long, simple, septate, sooty, paler upwards, 100-130 x 4r-5fi; 
conidia cylindrical, apex rounded, base acute, 3-d-septate, 
14^15 X 2-5 /I, pale smoke-brown. 

Helminthosporium cylindricnm, Corda, in Sturm, t. ii. ; Sacc., 
Syll., iv. n. 1917. 

On rotten wood, beech, &c. 

Helminthosporiam simplex. Nees. 

Thin, effused, black, toruloid, hyphae densely crowded, 
simple or sparingly branched ; conidia pale, shortly fusiform, 
2-3-septate. 

Helminthosporium simplex, Xees, Nova. Act. Leop., ix. p. 241, 
t. V. f. 11 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 1921. 

On willow wood. 

Helminthosporium capitulatum. Corda. 
Tufts minute, somewhat effused, glaucous brown ; hyphae 
quite simple, erect, septate, clear brown, pellucid, apex 
white, and crowned with an incomplete, whitish head of 
conidia which are oblong, 8-septate, pellucid and white, 
19-20 /i long, often curved, apical cells minute. 



406 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Helminthosporium capitulatum, Corda, Icon. Fung., ii. p. 13, 
t. X. f. 58 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1926. 
On wood of Tilia, &o. 

Helminthosporimn moUe, B. & 0. 

Soft and velvety, black; hypliae simple, septate, wavy, 
more or less nodulose, obtuse; conidia oblong or elliptic- 
oblong, 3-5-septate, both ends obtuse, 20-30 X 4-5 /jl. 

Helminthosporium molle, Berk. & Curt., N. Amer. Fung., 
n. 633; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1942. 

On branches of holly (Ilex), Passiflwa, &c. 

Helminthosporimn exasperatum. B. & Br. 

Hyphae fasciculate, flexuous, nodulose upwards ; conidia 
springing from the nodes, cylindric-oblong, ends rounded, 
3-septate, 30—45 X 10-12 /m, slnoky olive, base apiculate. 

Helminthosporium exasperatum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 1380, t. vii. f. 4; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1945. 

On stems of Dianthus and Silene. 

Helminthosporium parvum. Grove. 

Thinly gregarious, brownish-black ; hyphae erect, septate, 
pale brown, slender, straight, the base sometimes rather 
incrassated, 80-90 X 3-4 /x, bearing at the apex a single 
(rarely 2) conidium; conidia oblong, 2-septate, 12-15 X 
5-6 iJ., apical cell somewhat quadrate and the basal one 
wedge-shaped, pale yellowish, central cell larger, rounded, 
brown. 

Helminthosporium parvum, Grove, Journ. Bot. 1886, p. 203, 
t. 267, f. 4; Sacc, Syll, Suppl. vols, i.-iv. n. 3626. 

On oak wood. 

Apical cell of conidium sometimes brownish, basal cell 
always pale. 

Helminthosporium minimum. Cke. 

Thinly effused, black; threads simple, erect, septate, 
rather thicker than the diameter of the conidia; conidia 
fusiform, obtuse at the ends, 3-septate, scarcely constricted, 
hyaline, 12-14 X 3-4 jn. 

Helminthosporium minimum, Cooke, Grevillea, vol. xvi. 
p. 80. 

On dead decorticated branches. 



HELmXTHOSPOElUM. 407 



f I Gonidia 3-S-septate. 

Helnunthosporiuin tilias. Fr. 

Effused, lax or slightly tufted ; conidia cylindric-obclavate, 
60 X 15 /A, o-pseudo-septate, sooty, terminal or fasciculate, 
filiform, septate; hyphae of equal length. 

Helminthosporium tiliae, Fries, Syst. Myc, ui. p. 360 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1950. 

On dead, decorticated tranches of Tilia. 

Quite distinct from Exosporium tiliae, although the two 
hear a superficial resemblance to each other. 

Helminthosporiuiu Rousselianum. Mont. 

Hyphae sooty-black, gregarious, simple, base bulbous, 
apex pellucid, oblong, incrassated, nodulose, remotely 
septate ; conidia fusiform, hj-aline, 3-5-septate, 50 X 5 fi, 
inverted laterally in the hyphae. 

Helminthosporium Sousselianum, Mont., Cast., vi. n. 8-1 
Mont., SyU. Ciypt., n. 1129 ; Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 1957. 

On wood. 

Helminthosporiuin subulatum. Xees. 

Hyphae subsimple, subulate, loosely aggregated, straight 
conidia rather large, clavate, incurved, 3— i-septate. 

Hehninihosporiiim subulatum, Xees, Xov. Act. N. C, ix. 
p. 242 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1968. 

On oak branches. 

Helminthosporiuia nanum. Xees. 

Hyphae simple or furcate, nodulose, opaque, rigid, erect, 
short; conidia subcylindrical, ends obtuse, 3-5-septate, 
equal to or twice as thick as the hyphae. is^VO 

Melminthosporium nanum, Nees, Syst., p. 67, f. 65 ; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 1962. 

On rotten wood, stems, &c. 

Helminthosporium delicatulum. Berk. 
Tufts soft, thin, black, hyphae subulate, slender, multi- 
septate, brown, paler above; conidia subhyaline, oblong, 
ends obtuse, 3-4 septate, curved cells sometimes vertically 
septate. 



,408 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Helminthosporium delicalulum, Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 233, 
t. xiii. f. 20 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1964. 
On steins of Umbellifers. 

Helminthospormm inconspicuum. C. & E. 

Forming a very thin, cloud-like stain, hyphae elongated, 
septate, nodulose, pale brown; conidia lanceolate, at first 
4^6-nucleolate, then 3-5-septate, 80-120 x 20 /*, epispore 
thin. 

HelminthoBporium inconspicuum, 0. & E., Grev., t. 99, f. 19; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1969. 

On fading leaves of Indian corn (Zeamays). 

Tar. Britannicum. Grove, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1979. 

Efiused, brownish, hyphae subflexuous, scarcely nodulose, 
4-5-septate, pale brown, 160-180 x 10 /t; conidia oblong, 
diaphanous, brownish endochroma divided then 3-5-septate, 
60-1,00 X 18-22 jx.. 

On fading leaves of grass. 

The type has not been met with in Europe. 

\\\ Conidia 6- many-septate. 

Helminthosporium macrocarpum. Grev. 

Broadly effused, black with olive or smoke-brown tinge, 
velvety; hyphae aggregated, subulate, simple or rarely 
sparingly branched, septate, 350-500 X 15-20 //,; conidia 
elongato-clavate, 6-9-septate, not constricted at the septa, 
dingy olive, 50-90 x 15-20 /jl. 

Belminthospm-ium m,acrocarpum, Grev., Scot. Or. PI., t. 148 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1973. 

On branches and trunks of Carpinug, Quercus, Fraxinus, 
■Castanea, Vlmus, Gorylus, Acer, Cirsium, &o. 

Helminthosporium fusiforme. Corda. (fig. 10, 
p. 397.) 

Effused, blackish-brown, coarsely velvety; hyphae filiform, 
waved, 100-140 x 5-6 >, dirty brown, paler upwards, 
septate; conidia fusiform, 30-40 X 9-12 /*, 7-9-septate, 
dingy olive, paler generally at both ends. 

Helminthosporium fusiforme, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 13, 
f. 194; Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 1974. 

On branches and wood of hazel {Corylus), Bobinia, &o. 



HELMINTHOSPOEIUM. 409 

Helminthosporium apiculatum. Corda. 

Tufts black, tomentose, effused, hypliae in fascicles, flexu- 
ous, unbranched, 120-160 x 8 /i, tip minutely denticulate, 
brown; conidia elliptic -fusiform, 6-8-septate, brown, 35-40 
X 10-13 II.. 

Helminihosporium apiculatum, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 13, 
f. 191 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1976. 

On wood. 

Helminthosporium scolecoides. Corda. 

Tufts broadly effused, indeterminate, black; bypbae 
brancbed, angularly bent, rigid, brown, semipellucid ; conidia 
very long, 8-10-septate, brown, subtorulose, 50-60 /x long, 
terminal segment pale. 

Helminthosporium scolecoides, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 13, f. 
180 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1978. 

On wood, berbaceous stems, &c. 

Helminthosporium foUiculatum. Corda. 

Tufts minute, indeterminate, tomentose ; hypbae lax, 
brancbed, slender, flexuous, brown, 160-200 X 8-10 fj,; conidia 
very long, pod-shaped, thickisb, brown, semipellucid, 6-7-sep- 
tate, cells internally cuboid, 40-60 x 11-14 /x, paler at the 
ends. 

Helminthosporium foUiculatum, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 13, f. 
180; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1979. 

On rotten wood, stems of species of Brassica, Zea, and 
various Umbellifers. 

Helminthosporium gongrotrichum. Corda. 

Tufts minute, black, somewhat effused; hypbae simple, 
curved, rigid, nodulose, at first brown then quite black and 
opaque ; conidia elliptical, 34—35 //, long, attenuated at both 
ends, 7-8 septate, brown, pellucid. 

Helminthosporium gongrotrichum, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 13, 
t. iii. f. 192; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1981. 

On rotten beech wood, &c. 

Helminthosporium dendroideum. B. & Br. 

Spots indistinct, scattered, very thin, hypbae erect, attenu- 
ated upwards, septate, with short, lateral, conidia-bearing 
branchlets ; conidia oblong-fusoid, slightly curved, 8-10-sep- 
tate, 55-66 X 8-10 fi, brown, basal cell pale. 



410 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

HelmintJiospormm dendroideum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 
946, t. xvi. f. 14; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1983. 
On branches of Acer. 

Helminthosporium densum. Sacc. & Eoum. 

Shortly velvety, dense, blackish-brown ; conidia fusoid, 
somewhat acute at both ends, straight or often vaguely 
curved, 45-60 x 7-8 ju, 7-8-septate, not constricted, sooty; 
hyphae cylindrical, somewhat attenuated below, 20-40 X 
4-5 • 5 n, more or less septate and constricted, olivaceous. 

Melminthospormm densum, Sacc. & Eoum., Eev. Myc, 1881, 
p. 29 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 1985. 

On Morus alba. 

Helminthosporium obclavatum. Sacc. 

Effused, forming black spots ; hyphae erect, filiform, base 
slightly swollen, 60-70 X 6-7 fi, sparingly septate, smoke- 
brown; conidia solitary at the apex, obolavate-fusoid, be- 
coming considerably attenuated above, 90 X 15 /*, apex 
rounded, base truncate, 18-24-septate, brownish-black. 

Helminthosporium obclavatum, Sacc, Mich., i. p. 85 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1989. 

On rotten alder wood, &c. 

Helminthosporium Smithii. B. & Br. 

Forming broadly effused coarsely velvety patches on wood, 
or sometimes forming lines, or erumpent and forming reticu- 
lated patches on bark, black ; hyphae unbranched, flexuous, 
septate ; conidia apical, very long, multi-septate, straight or 
wavy, olive brown, cells cuboid, epispore very thick, 80-150 
X 8-12 IX.. 

Helminthosporium Smithii, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 507, 
t. V. f. 5 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 1991. 

On dead branches of holly, &c. 

Helminthosporium fusisporum. Berk. 

Hyphae densely aggregated, sparingly branched, obtuse, 
blackish; conidia fusoid, 6-7-septate, narrower than the 
hyphae. 

Helminthosporium fusisporum. Berk., Eng. El., v., p. 336 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2000. 

On rotten wood and branches. 



HELMINTHOSPOKIUM. 411 

Helminthosporium macilentum. Cooke. 

Broadly effused, black ; hyphae erect, septate, olive-brown ; 
conidia fusoid or subolavate, 7-10-septato. terminal on the 
hyphae and for a long time persistent, 50-65 X 10 /x. 

Selminfhosporium macilentum, Cooke, Grev., t. 97, f. 18 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2002. 

On rotten wood. 

Helminthosporium turbinatum. B. & Br. 

Tufts thin, effused, velvety, brown ; hyphae slender, 
simple, straight, obscurely septate, pale brown ; conidia 
broadly turbinate, dark brown, subtruncate and apiculate 
at the apex, the apiculus often falling away, 3-7-septate, 
21-26 X 14-15 fi.. 

Helminthosporium turbinatum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 
508, t. 5, f. 6; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2005. 

HelminthosporiTim velatum. Corda. 

Mycelium effused, black, subtomentose ; hyphae simple, 
.short, thick somewhat nodulose, septate and opaque below, 
apex thickened, continuous, semipellucid, furnished with a 
white, diaphanous veil, blackish-brown; conidia oblong, 
5-6-septate, laterally adnate then deciduous, 36-37 /x. long, 
yellowish brown, pellucid. 

Selminthosporium velatum, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 13, t. 
Ill, f. 183 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2006. 

On rotten wood. 

Helminthosporium rhabdiferum. B. & Br. 

Forming variously sized and rounded, intensely black 
patches, sparingly branched, septate, very short; conidia 
straight, at first oblong and pale, 1-2-septate, then elongating 
and becoming sublinear, 7-11-septate, deep brown, torulose, 
50-100 n long. 

Helminthosporium rhabdiferum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 1053, (1865) ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2010. 

On ripe peaches. 

Helminthosporium rhopaloides. Fres. 
Effused, velvety, blackish-olive; hyphae terete, 150 X 9 /t, 
straight, septate, smoky-brown; conidia cylindric-clavate, 



412 I'UNGUS-FLOEA. 

obtuse at the ends, 9-12-septate, 60 x 10-11, produced at the 
tips of terminal hranchlets, brown, terminal cell pale. 

Helminthosporium rhopaloides, Fres., Beitr. Myk., p. 50, t. 
vi., f. 16-21 ; Saco., Syll., iv. n. 2013. 

On rotten stems of Dianthus, Brassica, &c. 



BEAOHYSPOEIUM. Saco. (fig. 16, p. 397.) 

Hyphae rigid, subsimple, brown ; conidia ovoid or piri- 
form, brown, 2- or few-septate, brown. Often growing on 
wood. 

Brachysporium, Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 423. 

Selminthosporium, of authors (in part). 

Distinguished from Helminthosporium, by the shortness of 
the conidia. It is very doubtful whether relative size of 
conidia is sufficient to constitute a valid generic character 
when all other characters are common ; however, we have 
accepted Saccardo's genus, as in the present group any 
character that tends to individualise a group is of service, 
whether of generic value or not. 

Brachysporium stemphylioides. Sacc. 

Tufts eifused, black, velvety ; hyphae short, simple, pale, 
crowded ; conidia terminal, solitary, large, obovate, 5-6-sep- 
tate, not constricted at the septa, the two central cells dark, 
the terminal ones colourless or yellowish, 35-37 X 16-18 /*. 

Brachysporium stemphylioides, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2037. 

Helminthosporium stemphylioides, Corda, Prachtfl., p. 7, 
t. 4. 

On dead wood. 

Brachysporium Salisburiae. Saco. 

Hyphae torulose, 4-5 /x. diam., yellow-brown, aggregated 
into minute blackish-olive tufts ; conidia at fi.rst ovoid, hya- 
line, 2-guttulate, afterwards larger, 2-3-septate, 14-21 X 
6-7 /t. 

Brachysporium Salisburae, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2037. 

On fallen leaves of Salishuria. 

Brachysporium oosporum. Sacc. 
Tufts small, black, hyphae scattered, simple, blackish 



BKACHYSPOEIUM. 413 

brown, rather pellucid ; conidia oblong-ovoid, yellow-brown, 
pellucid, 18-20 /x in length. 

Brachysporium oosporum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2040. 

Helminthosporium oosporum, Corda, Tcon. Fung., i. p. 14, 
f. 200. 

On decaying trunks, branches, &c. 

Brachysporium altum. Sacc. 

Tufts effused, tomentose, black ; hyphae slender, elon- 
gated, simple, subpellucid then very black and opaque, bear- 
ing conidia at the apex ; conidia oblong or piriform, attenu- 
ated below, 7-9-septate, blackish-brown, pellucid, lowest cell 
very small, uppermost one much larger. 

Brachysporium altum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2044. 

Helminthosporium altum, Prenss, Fung. Hoyersw., n. 59 ; 
and in Sturm's Deutschl. Or. H., t. 17. 

On rotten wood. 

Brachysporium hyalospermum. Sacc. 

Tufts somewhat effused, black ; hyphae simple, straight, 
rigid, fuscous, more or less pellucid; conidia minute, ob- 
ovate, 3-septate, 18-20 /a long, colourless. 

Brachysporium hyalospermum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2047. 

On rotten wood. 

Brachysporium apicale. Sacc. 

Hyphae simple, equal, septate, attenuated upwards, terminal 
cell verruculose and conidia-bearing; conidia apical, elliptical, 
3-septate, brown, dark in the centre and hyaline at either 
extremity, 17-18 /n, long. 

Brachysporium apicale, Sacc, Syll., n. 2048. 

Helminthosporium apicale, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 947, 
t. xvi. f. 15. 

On fallen branches. 

Brachysporium Bloxami. Sacc. 

Sparingly effused, black, hyphae erect, rigid, opaque, 
slender, simple or rarely furcate, base generally slightly 
inflated; conidia terminal, elliptic-clavate, 3-celled, brown, 
25-27 X 12-14 /J., epispore thin. 

Brachysporium Bloxami, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2049. 

Helminthosporium Bloxami, Cke., Grevillea, xii. p. 36. 

On naked wood. 



414 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Brachysporium obovatum. Sace. (fig. 16, p. 397.) 

Forming dense Uack velvety patches, hypHae erect, simple, 
septate, subulate, base slightly incrassated ; conidia apical, 
solitary, obovate, 2- septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 
brown, upper cell large, rounded at the free end, lowest cell 
minute, acute, 23-26 x 11-14 /x. 

Brachysporium obovatum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2052. 

Helminthosporium obovatum. Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 232, 
t. xiii. f. 19. 

On rotten wood. The conidia are opaque and black and 
highly polished, shining like black glass beads when exa- 
mined in situ under a 1-in. objective. 

Brachysporium tingens. Sacc. 

Forming slightly effused, thin black patches that tinge 
the matrix of a purple colour ; hyphae long, rigid, erect, 
septate, simple, cells short, brown ; conidia generally termi- 
nal, elliptic-olavate, 3 or rarely 4-septate, paler than the 
hyphae, epispore thin, 30 x 10 fi. 

Brachysyorium tingens, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2053. 

Selminthosporium tingens, Cke., Grev., vii. p. 37. 

On rotten wood, Eemarkable for imparting a purplish 
tinge to the matrix. 

Brachysporium biseptatum. Saco. & Eoum. 

Tufts minute, black, hyphae fasciculate, filiform 300 X 10 /*, 
septate, almost straight, rounded at the tip, deep smoky- 
brown ; conidia elliptical, 25-30 x 15 fi., rounded at both 
ends, 2-septate, not constricted, smooth, smoky-olive. 

Brachysporium biseptatum, Sacc. & Eoum., Mich., ii. p. 641 ; 
Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 2061. 

On putrid stems. 

Brachysporium ellipticum. B. & Br. 

Tufts black, very minute ; fertile threads short, erect, 
simple or rarely forked above, septate, dark and opaque 
below, paler upwards; conidia elliptical, smooth, brown, 
1-septate at maturity, terminal, sometimes 1-2 also spring 
from minute lateral spicules near the apex, 12-15 X 6 /x. 

Monotospora elliptica, B. & Br., Ann. Nati Hist., n. 1909, 
t. iii. fig. 4. 

On dead herbaceous stems. 



CERCOSPOEA. 415 



CEECOSPORA. Fres. (fig. 24, p. 397.) 

Hyphae not rigid, simple or branched, bro^vn, often 
parasitic and forming spots on leaves ; conidia elongated and 
slender, brown or olive, rarely subhyaline, septate. 

Cercospora, Fres., Beitr., p. 90 ; Sacc., Syll., iv. p. 431. 

Virgasporium, Cke. 

Cladosporium and Selminthosporiwm of various authors (in 
part). 

Distiagnished by the vermiform septate spores. 



* On herbaceous Dicotyledons. 

Cercospora Bloxami. B. & Br. 

Forming pale orbicnlar spots, conidia elongato-fusiform, 
acute at both ends, multiseptate. 

Cercospora Bloxami, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1979 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2082. 

On fading leaves of Brassica napus and B. sinapis. 

Cercospora resedae. Fckl. (fig. 24, p. 397.) 

Forming minute grey, gregarious tufts on dry spots of 
the leaf, 2— 4. mm. diameter; hyphae densely crowded, un- 
branched, continuous or sparingly septate, straight below, 
subtortuous above, 50-70 x 4-5 /a, brown; conidia borne at 
the tips of the hyphae, obclavate-linear, 4r-5 septate, hyaline, 
100-140 X 2-5-3 /x. 

Cercospora resedae, Fuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 353; Sacc, 
SyE., iv. n. 2092. 

Virgasporium maculatum, Cke., Grev., iii. p. 182, t. xlviii. 
f. 4. 

On living leaves of Reseda odorata. 

Cercospora calthae. Cke. 

Spots orbicular, epiphyllous, brown ; hyphae short, hyaline ; 
conidia cylindrical, somewhat attenuated, septa scarcely 
distinct, 30-35 x 2 fn. 

Cercospora calthae, Cke., Grev., xvii. p. 65 ; Sacc, SyU., 
vol. iv. n. 7571. 

On fading leaves of Caltha. 



416 FUN'GUS-FLOEA. 

Cercospora ferruginea. Fckl. 

Tufts thin, delicate, iDioadly effused ; hyphae very loBg, 
slender, creeping, branolied, septate, ferruginous ; conidia 
variable in length, often very long, elongato-clavate, often 
curved, 3-7-septate, brown, 40-100 x 6-7 /j.. 

Cercospora ferruginea, Pckl., Symb. Myc, p. 354; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 2138. 

On the under surface of living leaves of Artemisia vulgaris, 
also on species of Erigeron in Canada. 

Cercospora mercurialis. Pass. 

Spots rounded, silvery-virhite with a fuscous border ; tufts 
minute, hypophyllous, gregarious, often occupying the 
central portion of the spots ; hyphae pale smoky, con- 
tinuous, contorted, nodulose, short, 20-40 X 5-6 ft, ; conidia 
cylindric rod-shaped, attenuated upwards, 2-7-septate, wall 
thick, hyaline, 70-80 x 4-6 /a, straight or slightly curved. 

Cercospora mercurialis, Passerini, in M. U., n. 783 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2193. 

On living or fading leaves of Mercurialis perennis. 

** In woody Dicotyledons. 

Cercospora moricola. Cke. 
, Hypophyllous ; spots orbicular, reddish-brown ; hyphae 
fasciculate, short, olive ; conidia attenuated upwards, 3-4- 
septate, hyaline, 70 x 3 /x. 

Cercospora moricola, Cke., in Eav. Amer. Fung., n. 587 j 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2281. 

On leaves of Moms alba and M. rubra. 



*** On Monocotyledons. 

Cercospora concentrica. C. & E. 
Spots large, subcircular or elliptical, ferruginous, at 
length greyish; hyphae fasciculate, pustulate, arranged 
concentrically, flexuose, unbranohed, continuous or septate, 
12-20 X 4; conidia cylindrical, thinner towards the tip, 
straight or curved, 3-5-septiite, 40-70 x 3-4, reddish-brown 
at maturity. 



HETEEOSPOEIUM. 417 

Cercospora coneentrica, Cke. & Ellis, Grev., v. p. 90; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2302, 

Cercospora yuccae, Cke. in Grev., vii. p. 35. 

On half-dead leaves of Yucca gloriosa and Y. filamentoga, in 
gardens. 

HETEEOSPOEIUM. Klotzsch. (fig. 9, p. 397.) 

Fertile hyphae, erect, fasciculate, septate, simple or 
branched, often nodulose, olive or blackish ; conidia ter- 
minal or lateral, septate, olive, epispore minutely warted, 
at first catenulate in some species, but soon becoming 
free. 

Seterosporium, Elotzsch, Herb. Myc, i. n. 67 ; Cke., Grev., 
V. p. 122 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 480. 

Besembling Helminthosporium in general habit and struc- 
ture, in fact only distinguished by the minutely warted 
conidia. Growing on fading leaves or herbaceous stems, on 
algae, and fungi. 

* On Dicotyledons. 

Heterosporium echinulatum, Cke. 

Clusters small, often numerous, seated on brown spots, 
usually on the upper surface of the leaf; hyphae fasciculate, 
springing from a small aggregation of cells, 100-200 x 
8-10 /t, dusky olive, nodulose above, septate ; conidia ter- 
minal or lateral, springing from the nodes, olive, minutely 
warted, 2-5-septate, cylindrical, constricted at the septa,. 
30-50 X 10-15 /n. 

Heterosporium ecMnulatum, Cke., Grev., v. p. 123; Sacc,,. 
Syll., iv. n. 2311. 

Helminthosporium echinulatum. Berk., Gard. Chron., 1870, 
p. 382. 

Heterosporium dianthi, Sacc. et Eoum., Mich., ii. pp. 559' 
and 643. 

On leaves of species of Dianthus. 

Heterosporium variabile. Cke. 
Forming distinct, small, more or less circular, densely- 
velvety, dusky olive patches ; hyphae slender, 5-6 jj. thick, 
VOL. in. 2 E 



418 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

septate, nodulose, olive, fasciculate; conidia cylindrical, 
olive, 1-3-septate, minutely warted, 15-35 x 6-10 /*. 

Heterosporium variabile, Cke., Grev., v. p. 123 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2310. 

Forming small scattered patches on tlie upper ^surface of 
fading spinach leaves. Spots often numerous and becoming 
more or less confluent. 

Heterosporium laricis. Cke. & Mass. 

Tufts scattered, suborbioular, woolly, sooty; threads 
thick, septate, with the joints swollen, 16-18 yu, thick, 
conidia 1-3-septate, elliptical, obtuse at the ends, minutely 
warted, pale fuliginous, 50-60 X 20 /a. 

Heterosporium laricis, C. & M., Grev., xvi. p. 80. 

On fading larch leaves. 



** On Monocotyledons. 

Heterosporium minutulum. C. & M. 

Torming velvety, dark olive patches of variable size 
and form; threads somewhat fasciculate, short, flexuous, 
sparingly septate, pale olive ; conidia 1-2-septate, elliptical, 
rounded at the ends, not constricted, pale olive, epispores 
rough, 16-20 X 6-8 (jl. 

Heterosporium minutulum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 11. 

On palm leaves (Chamaerops humilis). 

Heterosporium omithogali. Klotzsoh. 

Forming broadly effused, olive, cloudy spots on the upper 
surface of leaves ; fertile hyphae erect, simple or rarely 
branched, septate, nodulose, olive, often flexuous, 100-250 x 
8 X 14 /A, fasciculate, originating from a basal aggregation 
of hyphal cells resembling ; a minute sclerotium ; conidia 
olive, cylindrical, 1-5-septate, very minutely warted, 
25-90 X 8-14 /i. 

Heterosporium omithogali, Klotzsoh, Herb. Myc, i. n. 69 ; 
Cke., Grev., v. p. 123; Sacc, Syll., n. 2311. 

Helminthosporium exasperatum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist,, 
n. 1380, t. 7, f. 4; Sacc, Syll., n. 1946. 

On fading leaves of Ornithogalum, Oonvallaria, Smilax, and 
other lUiaceous plants. 



NAPICLADIUM, 419 

Heterosporium typharum. C. & M. (fig. 9, p. 397.) 

Tufts erumpent, elongated, gregarious, sooty; threads 

erect, mostly simple, septate, nodulose ; conidia 1— 3-septate, 

elliptical, ends somewhat acnte, rough with minute granules, 

pale olive, 30-40 x 10-14 /a. 

Hetero»porium typharum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 80. 
On leaves of Tyyha angitsti folia. 

*** On Acotyledons. 

Heterosporium epimyces. C. & M. 

Occurring in more or less effused, dense, velvety, olive 
patches ; threads sparingly furcate, often simple, sparsely 
septate, pale fuscous ; conidia 1-3-septate, eUiptical, minutely 
warted, pale olive, 25-30 X 8 /i. 

Heterosfporium epimyces, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 80. 

On old specimens of Polyporus squamosus. Boletus felleus, 
Itussula nigricans, &c. 



XAPICLADIUM. Thumen (emended), (fig. 19, p. 397.) 

Fertile hyphae fasciculate, erect, short, not rigid ; conidia 
rather large, solitary at tip of hyphae, septate, smooth, 
coloured. 

Napicladium, Thumen, Hedw., 1875, p. 3; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 481. 

Somewhat resemhling Helminthosporium and Brachysporium, 
but distinguished by the less rigid fertile hyphae, and the 
large solitary conidia. 

On living or fading leaves. 

Napicladium arundinaceum. Sacc. (fig. 19, p. 897.) 

Forming broadly efFused, velvety, blackish-olive patches ; 
hyphae fasciculate, short, thickened at the base, 1-2-septate, 
50-60 X 7-8 fj., olive ; conidia obclavate, 40-50 x 15-18 /a, 
1-2-septate, olive. 

Napicladium arujidinaceum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2317. 

Helminthosporium arundinaceum, Corda, Ic. Fung., iii. p. 10, 
f. 25. 

On fading leaves of Phragmites communis. 

2 E 2 



420 PUNGUS-FLOBA. 

Tribe 18. Acrothecieae. Sacc. 
SPONDYLOCLADIUM. Martins, (fig. 5, p. 397.) 

Sterile lyphae creeping, septate, fertile erect, simple, 
rather rigid. Conidia spindle-shaped, or pear-shaped, 
coloured, generally 2-septate, prodnced in distant -whorls on 
the hyphae. 

Spondylocladium, Martins, Erl., p. 355 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. 
p. 482. 

-Distinguished by the verticillate arrangement of the 
conidia. 

Spondylocladium fumosum. Martius. (fig. 5, 
p. 397.) 

Forming effused blackish patches, creeping mycelium 
septate, fertile erect, septate, not branched, tapering up- 
wards ; conidia brownish-olive, 2-septate, pear-shaped or 
broadly spindle-shaped, in 2-4 verticils of 3-6 conidia each, 
produced towards the apex of the hypha, a single conidium 
usually terminates the hypha, 21-25 X 10-12 /j.. 
. . S^ondyioeladium fumosum, Martius, Erl., p. 355 ; Berk. & 
Broome, Ann. Nat. Hist.j n. 1314, t. xviii, f. 7 (1870); Sacc, 
Syll., iv; n. 2319. 

On rotten branches. 



ACROTHECIUM. Preuss. (fig. 22, p. 397.) 

Sterile or vegetative hypha,e creeping, fertile erect, un- 
branched; conidia septate, coloured or almost colourless, 
springing- in a cluster from the tip of the hypha. 

Acrothecium, Preuss, P. Hoyersw., n. 99, emended by 
Saccardo in Miohelia, p. 29 (not of Corda). Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 483. 

Acrothecium delicatulum. B. & Br. 

Effused, blackish, fertile hyphae erect, septate, slighlty 
bulbous at the base, rarely forked at the tip ; conidia colour- 
less, springing just below the tip of the hypha, cylindrical. 



SPONDYLOCLADroM — ^ACEOTHECIUM, 421 

cui'ved, 2-3 septate, not constricted at the septa, 12— 

20X4:fJL. 

Acrothecium delicatulum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. BIst., n. 
1055, t. xiv., f. 11; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2328. 

On decayed beech, wood, also on bramble twigs. In the 
last habitat the hyphae are much scattered. 

Acrothecium simplex. B. & Br. (fig. 22, p, 397.) 

Effused, brownish-olive, erect hyphae simple, wavy, 
septate, brown ; conidia few, springing, from the apex, 
oblong or subclavate, 4— 5-septate, at first colourless, then 
pale brown, ] 6-20 X 5-6 /i. 

Acrothecium simplex, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 950, 
t. xvi. f. 16; Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 2330. 

Var. elatum, Grove. Hyphae simple, erect, rather wavy, 
equal, brown, paler above, 240-280 x 6-7 /* ; conidia 3- 
septate, often in threes, hyaline, subclavate, 20-22 X 6 /i. 

On nettle stems. 

Acrothecium obovatum. Cke. 

Black, effused, velvety; fertile hyphae simple, septate, 
sooty, 150 X 5 /i ; conidia obovate, 2-septate, 18-20 x 7-8 /*, 
slightly constricted at the septa, sooty, terminal on the 
fertile hyphae. in groups of 4-5. 

Acrothecium obovatum, Cke., Grev., v. p. 50, t. 80, f. 13; 
Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 2322. 

On dead wood. 

Acrothecium tenebrosum. Sacc. 

Tufts broad, black, fertile hyphae, gregarious, 200 X 3-4 
m erect, septate, simple, base thickened or dilated, blackish- 
brown, paler upwards; conidia oblong, ends rounded, curved, 
tinged brown, somewhat diaphanous, 3-5-septate, 20-25 x 
5-6 /i, springing from minute spinous processes, and form- 
ing a terminal head. 

Acrothecium tenebrosum, Sacc, Mich., i. p. 74 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 2323. 

On dead wood. 

Spores at first hyaline, guttulate, then pale brown. It 
does not differ much from Melminthosporium apicale, B. & Br., 
except in the more numerous and uniformly coloured spores. 
(Grove.) 



422 PUNGUS-PLOKA. 

Acrothecium xylogenum. Grove. 

Hyphae erect, straight or curved, equal, brown iDelow, 
paler above, apex almost colourless, 120-160 /a high, bearing 
a crown of 6-8 conidia at the apex ; conidia cylindrical, 
apex rounded, base acute, 4-guttulate, at length with three 
delicate septa, 14-17 X 3 ju-, hyaline. 

Acrothecium xylogenum, G-rove, Joum. Bot., 1886, p. 203, 
tab. 67, fig. 2 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3635. 

On rotten wood. 

Allied to A, caulium, but known by the persistently 
hyaline, 3-septate conidia. 



Tribe 19. Sporoschismeae. Sacc. 
SPOEOSCHISMA. B. & Br. (fig. 6, p. 397.) 

Fertile hyphae erect, simple ; conidia cylindrical, septate, 
coloured, produced in chains within the erect hyphae, and 
eventually escaping through the ruptured apex. 

BporoscMsma, B. & Br., in Gard. Chron., 1847, p. 540 ; Sacc, 
Syll. iv., p. 486. 

Distinguished at once by the conidia being produced 
within the erect hyphae, and somewhat resembling an ascus 
containing spores, if in reality this is not the case. 

Sporoschisma mirabile. (B. & Br.) (fig. 6, p. 397.) 
Forming velvety, black patches, hyphae unbranched, 
cylindrical, abruptly narrowed at the base, erect, 200-260 x 
14-15 11. : within these hyphae the conidia are formed in a 
chain ; conidia brown, 3-septate, cylindrical, truncate, not 
constricted at the septa, 40-60 x 12 )«.. Along, with the 
conidia-forming hyphae are others that are sterile, septate, 
and frequently thickened at the tip. 

Sporoschisma mirabile, B. & Br., Gard. Chron., 1847, p. 540; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2333. 

Forming coarsely velvety blackish patches in rotten wood, 
and on stems of herbaceous plants. 



SPOEOSCHISMA — DENDETPHIUM. 423 

Trite 20. Bendryphieae. Sacc. 
DENDEYPHIDM. Wallr. (fig. 13, p. 397.) 

Vegetative hyphae creeping or almost atsent, fertile 
hyphae erect, more or less branched at the tip ; conidia 
coloured, more or less cylindrical, septate, springing from 
the tips of the branches, usually produced in simple or 
branched chains. 

JDendrypMum, Wallr., Fl. Crypt., ii. p. 300; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 487. 

Dendryphium comosum. WaUr. 

Broadly effused, blackish, hyphae septate, 9-12 /i thick, 
dark brown, septate, simple, bearing at the apex simple or 
branched chains of cylindrico-fusoid, straight or slightly 
curved, yellowish-brown, 3-5 septate conidia, 25—35 x 
6—7 fjL, slightly constricted at the septa. 

Dendryphium comosum, Wallr., Fl. Crypt., n. 1943; Sacc, 
iv. n. 2335. 

Forming blackish stains on decaying herbaceous stems, 
especially nettle. 

Dendryphium fumosum. Fr. 

Tufts small blackish-brown, hyphae erect, short, dark 
brown, septate, paler upwards, branchlets towards the apex 
pale, closely septate, spreading ; conidia catenulate, cylindric- 
fasoid, pale brown, 9—13 septate, not constricted at the 
septa, 25-85 x 5-6 jx. 

Dendryphium fumosum, Fr., Summa Veg. Scand., 504 ; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 2337. 

On herbaceous stems, especially umbellifers. 

Dendryphium griseum. B. & Br. (fig. 13, p. 397.) 
Tufts minute, sometimes more or less concfluent, blue-grey, 

hyphae sparingly dichotomously branched above; conidia 

cylindrical, tips apiculate, arranged in branching chains, 

l-septate, 14r-17 X 4^5 /ii, almost colourless. 

Dendryphium griseum, B. & Br., Ann. Xat. Hist., n. 540 

t. vi. f. 11 ; Sacc, Syll,, iv. n. 2344. •• 

On putrid nettle stems. 



424 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Dendryphium ramosum. Cke. 

Forming Uackish effused stains on stems of herbaceous 
plants, erect hyphae dark 'brown, closely septate, branched 
above, branches paler, forked ; conidia straight, cylindrical, 
3-5-septate 24-28 x 6-8 /j,, pale brown. 

Dendryphium ramosum, Cke., Hdbk., n. 1690 ; Sacc, SylL, 
ir. n. 2147. 

On stems of Papmer, Hesperis, &c., forming broadly 
effused black stains. 

Dendryphium curtum. B. & Br. 

Forming blackish stains, hyphae short, septate, 7-8 /x thick, 
blackish brown below, paler above, as are also the few short 
branchlets ; conidia cylindrical, 3-5-septate, slightly con- 
stricted at the septa, 20-25 X 4-6 /a, pale brown. 

JDendrypMum curtum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 538, 
tab. vi. f. 9 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 2348. 

On stems of herbaceous plants, woody branches of trees, &c. 

Dendryphium laxum. B. & Br. 

Forming effused blackish, velvety patches, erect hyphae 
short, closely septate, branched above, branches often wavy ; 
conidia linear-oblong or obclavate, 7-11 septate, slightly 
constricted at the septa, brown, 25-35 X 4-5 /*, springing 
from the tips of the branchlets. 

BendrypMum, laxum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 539, 
t. vi., f. 10 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2350. 

Forming black velvety, patches on putrid stem of Inula 
■viscosa. 

Sect. IV. DICTTOSPOEAE. Sacc. 

Subsect. 1. Micronemeae.. Sacc. 

SPOEODESMIUM. Link. (fig. 7, p. 397.) 

Mycelium generally scanty ; conidia from ovoid to oblong, 
■often rather large, almost sessile, or shortly stipulate, muri- 
fcrmly septate, da,rk coloured. 

Sporodesmium, Link, Sp. PI. Fung., xi. p. 120 ; emended 
Bacc, Mich., xi. p. 23 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. p. 497. 



SPOEODESMIUil. 425 

Distinguished hj the somewhat large, suhsessile conidia 
being muriformly septate, i.e., having both transverse and 
vertical septa. 

Sporodesmium melanopodum. B. & Br. 

Tnfts ample, black; conidia subglobose, opaque, multi- 
septate, springing from a cellular base of variable size. 

Sporodesmium Tnelanopodum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 456 ; Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 2356. 

On bark. 

Sporodesmium lobatum. B. & Br. (fig. 7, p. 397.) 
Tufts minute, black, pulvinate ; conidiophores short, arti- 
culated, hyaline below, broken up into subquaternate, sub- 
globose joints above ; conidia terminal, 15 /j. long. 

Sporodesmium lobatum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1146, 
t. iii. f. 7 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 2364. 
On pine wood. 

Sporodesmimn scutellare. B. & Br. 

Tufts small, scattered, minute, shield-like ; conidia broadly 
obovate, muriformly septate, brown, pedicel short, one or few- 
celled. 

Sporodesmium scutellare, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist, n. 456 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2366. 

On larch bark. 

Sporodesmium antiquum. Corda. 

Tufts black, minutely downy, often effused ; irregularly 
cylindrical and sometimes slightly wavy, 100-150 X 20 /i 
muriformly septate, and broken up into numerous small 
cells, smoky brown, base narrowed into a minute stem, 
somewhat fasciculate. 

Sporodesmium antiquum, Corda, Icon. Fung., iii. f. 11; 
Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 2368. 

On trunks, wood, &c. 

Var. compactum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 453. 

Our species agrees in general character with Corda's, of 
which we have a specimen from the author, but it is more 
compact and composed of smaller cells (B. & Br.) 

On hard wood. 



426 FUNGUS-FLOEA, 

Sporodesmium polymorphum. Corda. 

Tufts black, opaque, eifused, pulverulent ; conidia ovoid 
or angularly elliptical, 40-60 X 25-30 /i, variously muri- 
formly septate, blackish-brown, almost opaque ; sporophores 
short, terete, septate, paler than the conidia. 

Sporodesmium polymorphum, Corda, loon. Fung., i. p. 7, 
f. 119 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2377. 

On iDark and wood of oak, birch, &c. 

Sporodesmium piriforme. Corda. 

Effused and somewhat crustaceous, black ; conidia obovate, 
at first septate, then cellular, 28-30 /x. long, brown, semi- 
pellucid, 2-4-celled ; sporophores colourless, short or of 
medium length, filiform, flaccid, sometimes slightly curved. 

Sporodesmium piriforme, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 116; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2384. 

On rotten saw-dust. 

Sporodesmium. cladosporii. Corda. 

Tufts effused, olive ; conidia ovoid, continuous, at length 
opaque brown and densely reticulately septate, scarcely con- 
stricted, 20-24 /u, long ; conidiophores obsolete. 

Sporodesmium cladosporii, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p, 7, t. 11, 
f. 118 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2405. 

On dry pods of Phaseolus vulgaris, stems of ScropJiularia, 
&o. 

Sporodesmium triglochinis. B. & Br. 

Tufts point-like, bright brown, springing from a cellular 
base ; conidia obovate when young, then subglobose and 
obliquely septate, at length oblong and muriformly septate, 
8-1 1) [x, diameter; conidiophores short, thickened upwards. 

Sporodesmium triglochinis, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 
1607, t. X., fig. 4 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2407. 

On Triglochin palustre. 

Sporodesmium. chartarum. B. & C. 
Tufts small, black, velvety, often concentrically arranged 
and forming small patches ; conidia elliptical or subglobose, 
at first 2-3-septate, then muriformly septate, 10-16 /a 
diameter ; conidiophores short, colourless. 



CONIOCETIIIUM. 427 

Sporodesmium chartarum, B. & C, N. Amer. Fung., ii. 631 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2413. 
On damp paper. 

CONIOTHECIUM. Corda. (fig. U, p. 397.) 

Conidia very irregular and variable in form, cruciate or 
radiately septate, several often coalescent and forming black 
points or spots on leaves or wood. 

Coniotheciwn, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 2 ; Sacc, Syll.',iv. 
p. 508. 

Conidia usually very variable, resembling irregular con- 
glomerations of cells of variable size. Avery badly defined 
genus, and it is doubtful wbether many of the so-called 
species are such, in reality. 

Coniothecium effusum. Corda. 

Black, broadly eifused; conidia subglobose or irregular, 
sessile, brown, semipellucid, clustered into irregular masses. 

Conioihecium effusum, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 2, t. 1, f. 21 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2420. 

Sporodesmium, lepraria, Berk. 

On wood. 

Coniothecium conglutinatum. Corda. 

Tufts small, black, subglobose or confluent ; conidia 
minute, ovoid, brown, 4^5 ft. diam., aggregated in clusters. 

Conioihecium conglutinatum, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 2, t. 1, 
f. 20 ; Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 2421. 

On birch wood, &c. 

Coniothecium amentacearum. Corda. 

Tufts pulvinate, black ; springing from a brown, fleshy, 
lactiform stroma, conidia somewhat oblong, brown, 13-14 /* 
diameter, clustered. 

Coniofhecium amentacearum, Corda, Ic Fung., i. p. 2, t. 1, 
f. 26; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2426. 

On dead branches of willow. 

Coniothecium betulinum. Corda. 
Tufts small, solitary, black, innate in the wood, at first 
covered, then erumpent, scarcely 1 mm. in diameter ; conidia 
black, subglobose, •i-B fi diameter, clustered. 



428: FUNGUS-FLOBA. 

Coniotheetum hetuKnum, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 2, t. 1, f. 25 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2428. 
On dead branches of Betula alba. 

Coniothecium viticolum. C. & M. (fig. 14, p. 397.) 

Tufts erumpent, hemispherical, black, rather compact, 

loosely gregarious; conidia rounded, subglobose, variously 

agglutinated together, with 2-4 cells, usually in fours, pale 

olive, 12-15 fJL diameter. 

Goniotheeium viticolum, C. & M., Grev., xvi. p. 9. 
On dead twigs of vine ( Vitis vini/era). 



DICTYOSPOEIUM. Corda. (fig. 20, p. 397.) 

Conidia ovoid, or more or less cordate, formed of aggluti- 
nated, parallel rows of articulated filaments that do not 
separate from each other, without appendages. 

Bictyos^orium, Corda, Icon., Fung., ii., p. 87 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 513. 

Diotyosporium elegans. Corda. (fig. 20, p. 397.) 
Growing on wood; tufts effused, black; conidia tongue- 
shaped, apex acute or rounded, rarely more or less contracted 
at the centre, base attenuated or cordate, cells diaphanous, 
yellow 4^5 rows, walls rather thick, brown or blackish, 
67-60 /x long. . 

Dictyosporium elegans, Corda, Icon. Fung., ii. p. 87 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2451. 

On rotten wood of oak, pine, &c. 



SPEIEA. Corda. (fig. 27, p. 397.) 

Conidia muriformly septate, sooty, formed of chains of 
cells that eventually separate, without appendages, base 
shortly stipitate or almost sessile. 

i^eim, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 9 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 514. 

Somewhat like Dictyosporium, but distinguished by the 
chain of cells forming the spore opening out at maturity. . 



TETRAPLOA — STEMPHYLIUM. 429 

Speira toruloides. Corda. (fig. 27, p. 397.) 
Clusters of conidia irregular, brown; sterile hyphae 
obsolete or none ; conidia more or less ovoid, formed of 6-7 
longitudinal rows of articulated filaments, at first in contact 
with. each, other, but eventually separating, 50-60 /u. long, 
single joints 8-9 /* diameter. 

Speira toruloides, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. fig. 140 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv., n. 2454. 

On rotten leaves, stems, wood, &c. 

TETEAPLOA. B. & Br. (fig. 15, p. 397.) 

Conidia ovoid-ohlong, muriformly septate, apex furnished 
with four slender spines, dingy brown ; mycelium obsolete. 

Tetraploa, Berk. & Broome, Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 457; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 516. 

Distinguished from allies by the delicate spines at the 
apex of the conidium. 

Tetraploa aristata. B. & Br. (fig. 15, p. 397.) 
Tufts effused, blackish-olive; conidia oblong, muriformly 

septate, smoky ochraceous, 30 x 20-22 /*, apex crowned 

with four slender spicules 60—90 X 3—4 /j,, septate and 

divergent. 

Tetraploa aristata, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 457, tab. xi. 

fig. 6 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2463. 
On herbaceous stems, grass, &c. 

Subsect. 2. Macronemeae. Sacc. 
STEMPHYLIUM. WaUr. (fig. 17, p. 397.) 

Hyphae decumbent, intricately branched, hyaline or 
smoky ; conidia elliptical or subglobose, 2- many-septate and 
muriform, smoky. 

Stemphylium, WaUr., Fl. Cr., p. 300 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 519. 

Stemphylium maerosporoideum. B. & Br. 
Efiused, thin, greyish-black; hyphae thin, effused, un- 
equally branched, branches sometimes anastomosing in a 
rectangular manner; conidia subglobose or resembling a 



430 tUNGUS-FLOEA. 

mulberry, cniciately or radiately septate, 12-18 /it diameter, 
colourless at first then brown. 

StempJiylium macrosporoideum (B. (fe Br.), Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 2478. 

Epochnium macrosporoideum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 131, t. viii., f. 14. 

On rotten brancbes of Bibes, &c. 

Stemphylium alternariae. Cke. 

Tnfts irregular, - dendritic, shining, brown ; mycelium 
abundant, creeping, delicate, hyaline, branched, septa scanty ; 
conidia irregular, ovate, somewhat pyriform or cylindrical ; 
1- many-septate, brown. 

Stemphylium alternariae (Cke.), Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2497. 

Sporodesmium alternariae, Cke., Hdbk., n. 1440. 

On damp wall-paper, along with Sporodesmium chartarum. 

Stemphylium asperosporum. Cke. & Mass. (fig. 
17, p. 397.) 

Wholly mouse-grey. Tufts irregular, confluent, and 
somewhat effused. Threads creeping, septate, branched, 
hyaline, fertile branches erect, slender, more or less branched 
near the tips, which are swollen into a depresso-globose 
torus, bearing the sessile, subglobose conidia, which consist 
of 2-4 sooty-brown, warted cells, each cell about 12 fi. 
diameter. 

Stemphylium asperosporum, Cke. & Mass., Grrev., xvi. p. 11. 

On damp wall-paper. 

Eesembling in some respects Stemphylium alternariae, but 
the conidia are supported upon a distinct, pyriform, hyaline, 
terminal receptacle, and they are warted, and consist of but 
a few cells. 

Stemphylium Magnusianum. Sacc. 

Tufts flattened, spot-like, indeterminate, rufescent-brown ; 
hyphae delicate, creeping, vaguely branched, continuous, 
hyaline or yellowish ; conidia subglobose, 20-30 /a diameter, 
presenting a reticulatecl appearance from, the walls of the 
numerous cells, clear, rufous -colour. 

Stemphylium Magnusianum, Sacc, Mich., i. p. 132 j Sacc, 
Syll., iv., n. 2484. 

On bark, rotting paper, dung, &c. 



MACEOSPOEIUM. 431 



MACEOSPORIUM. Fries, (fig. 25, p. 397.) 

Hyphae subfascicnlate, rather flaccid, erect or ascending, 
simple or branched, coloured, bearing at or near the tips 
oblong or clavate, muriform, coloured conidia. 

Macrosporium, Pries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 373; Sauc, SylL, 
iv. p. 523. 

On trunks, herbaceous stems, leaves, &c. ; usually sapro- 
phytes, but sometimes on living or languid portions. Often 
forming olive-black, more or less extended patches. 

Macrosporium commune. Eabh. 

Tufts numerous, densely gregarious, brownish ; hyphae 
subfasciculate, ascending, septate, not constricted at the 
septa, brown, 80-90 X 4-6 ; conidia variable in form, oblong, 
obovate, or clavate, attenuated at the base, 3-5-septate, septa 
transverse, oblique or longitudinal, olivaceous, epispore 
sometimes minutely granular, 18-35 X 8-14 fi. 

Macrosporium commune, Eabh., Fung. Eur. Exs., n. 1360 ; 
Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 2499. 

On the decayed portions of various plants. 

Considered to be the conidial condition of Pleospora 
Jierharum. 

Macrosporium sarcinula. Berk. 

Forming compact patches \-^ in. across, white and downy, 
then blackish-olive; hyphae suberect, delicate, sparingly 
branched, soon disappearing after maturity ; conidia clavate, 
at length divided by septa into cuboid portions, yellow, then 
olive-brown, 14-24 X 8-10 /i. 

Macrosporium sarcinula. Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 125, t. 8^ 
fig. 10 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 2600. 

On rotten cucumber fruits, also on dry grass leaves. 

Macrosporium cladosporioides. Desm. 
Spots large, irregular, fulvous, tufts velvety, minute, 
numerous; hyphae erect, simple, nodulose, septate, semi- 
hyaline, fasciculate, 150-200x5; conidia olive-brown, 
semi-pellucid, sometimes torulose, unequal, 2-3, or up to 
10-septate, ovoid, oblong or elongated, club-shaped, attenuated 
below and shortly pedicellate, 16-75 /x long. 



432 FUNGUS-FLOE A.. 

Maerosporium cladosporioides, Desm., Plant. Crypt., 1857, 
p. 3, and xxiv. p. 3 ; Saco., Syll., iv. n. 2501. 

On fading leaves of beet, onion, lettuce, &c. 

The conidia are not vertically or murali-divided, hence 
the present species differs from the typical condition of 
Maerosporium. 

' Maerosporium heteronemum. Sacc. 

Spots scattered, reddish-white, irregular, often confluent, 
on both surfaces of the leaf; hyphae erect, septate, of two 
forms, crowded into minute, distinct bundles ; the conidio- 
phores short, nodulose, 50 X 5 /a, brown; sterile hyphae 
simple, elongated, rather flexuous, whitish, obtuse above, 
attenuated towards the base, 150-200 fj, long ; conidia large, 
pedicellate, oblong-clavate, brown, divided into cells by 3-7 
septa,'50-60 /j. long, pedicel hyaline. 

Maerosporium heteronemum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2502. 

Septonema heteronema, Desmaz., xxii. Not. p. 4. 

On dead or fading leaves of Sagittaria sagittifolia. 

Maerosporium brassicae. Berk. 

Forming small pustules; hyphae fasciculate, simple, rather 
flexuous, septate, slightly constricted at the septa, brown, 
pale towards the apex, 50-70 fx. long; conidia solitary and 
terminal on the conidiophores, clavate, 6-10-septate trans- 
versely, afterwards vertically septate, brownish, 60-70 X 
10-16 /*. 

Maerosporium brassicae, Berk., Engl. Plor., vol. v. p. 339 ; 
Sacc. Syll., iv. n. 2506. 

On decaying stems, leaves, fruits, &o., of cabbage. 

Maerosporium nobile. Vize. (fig. 25, p. 397.) 
Hyphae fasciculate, short, erect, septate, brown, simple, 
in minute tufts; conidia rather large, subpiriform, or 
irregular, 4-lOseptate, unequally divided by 2-6 vertical 
septa, brown, constricted at the septa, 60-80 x 40 /a. 

Maerosporium nobile, Vize, in Grevillea, also in Cooke's 
' Black Moulds,' pi. 26, f, 20 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2625. 
On dead stems and leaves of Bianthus. 

Maerosporium eoneinnum. B. & Br. 
Spots velvety, black ; hyphae flexuous, septate, minute, 
brown, pellucid above and sometimes with a small lateral 



MACBOSPOEIUM. 433 

branch; conidia obo-vate, pedicellate, generally 3-septate 
and muriformly divided, at length oblong. 

Macrosporium concinnum. Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 235, 
t. xii. f. 21 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2536. 

On dead decorticated branches of willow. 

Macrosporium tomato. Cke. 

Patches orbicular, J-J in. across, blackish ; hyphae short, 
thick, flexuons or subangnlar, septate ; conidia clavate, apex 
rather pointed, attenuated downwards, pedicel very short, 
brown, broken up into several cells by transverse and 
vertical septa, 100-120 x 16-24 fj.. 

Macrosporium tomato, Cke., Grevillea, xii. p. 32 ; Sacc, Syll. 
iv. n. 2525. 

Forming blackish patches on ripe tomatoes. 

Macrosporium alliorum. Cke. & Mass. 

Effused in thin fuliginous patches ; hyphae flexuons, simple, 
septate, nodulose, collapsing when dry; conidia elliptical, 
triseptate, then divided into quadrate, muriform cells, amber- 
coloured, with a tinge of olive, 40-50 X 20-25 ju,. 

Macrosporium alliorum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 80. 

On onion leaves. 

Macrosporium delicatulum. B. & Br. 

Tufts soft, delicate, black; hyphae subulate, slender, 
many-septate, brown, paler upwards; conidia somewhat 
hyaline, oblong, obtuse at both ends, usually 6-celled, cells 
irregular in form, one or other usually vertically septate. 

Selminthosporium, delicatulum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 233, t. xiii, f. 20 ; Sacc. Syll., iv. n. 1964. 

On dead stems of umbellifers. 

Macrosporium ramulosum. Sacc. 

Effused, velvety, black ; hyphae ascending, filiform, J mm. 
high, 10-13 /J, thick, slightly thickened below, apex simple 
or repeatedly shortly branched, everywhere closely septate, 
intense sooty-brown, joints 2-guttate ; conidia apical, oblong 
or obpiriform, 35-50 X 18 /x, 5-7-muriformly septate, crowded 
with guttulae, smoky-brown. 

Macrosporium ramulosum, Sacc, Fung. Ital., t. 854 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2512. 

On rotten stem of Apium petroselinwm, &c. 

VOL. III. 2 p 



434 FXJNGUS-FLOIiA. 

Macrosporium cheiranthi. Fr. 

Hyphae erect, simple, pellucid, somewliat nodulose, sep- 
tate ; conidia very abundant, large, piriform, ovato-clavate, 
muriformly septate, blackish-olive, about twice as thick as 
the hyphae. 

Macrosporium cheirantM, Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 374 j 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2505. 

On fading leaves and fruit of species of GheirantJms and 
Drdba. 

Macrosporium convallariae. Fr. 

Spots rather silky, indeterminate, olivaceous, easily re- 
m.ovable and soon disappearing ; hyphae erect, fugacious ; 
conidia obovate, blackish-olive, paler and narrowed at the 
base, muriformly septate ; pedicel short, hyaline. 

Macrosporium, convallariae, Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 373 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2574. 

On fading leaves of Convallaria multiflora. 

Macrosporium scolopendri. Cke. 

Spots brown, orbicular or irregular ; tufts small, scattered 
over the spots, olive; threads short, seldom branched, sep- 
tate, slender ; conidia 3-4-septate, with 1-2 transverse septa, 
pale brown, 40 x 15 //,. 

Macrosporium scolopendri, Cke., Grev., xvi. p. 81. 

On fading fronds of Scolopendrium vulgare. 



MYSTEOSPOEIUM. Oorda.. (fig. 29, p. 397.) 

Conidiophores simple or sparingly branched, rathe !• short 
and rigid, septate, typically brown; conidia elliptical, 
subglobose, or oblong, many-septate, muriform, blackish, 
aorogenous, subsolitary. 

Mystrosporium, Corda, loon. Fung,, i. p. 12. 

Allied to Macrosporium, but distinguished by the more 
rigid and darker-coloured hyphae and conidia. 

Mystrosporium stemphylium. Corda. (fig. 29, 
p. 397.) 

Tufts thin, broadly effused, blackish ; conidiophores short, 
flexuous, erect, olive-brown; conidia obovate, variable in 



MYSTEOSPOBIUM — SEPTOSPOEIUM. 435 

form, cellular, unequal, 35-40 fx, long, olive, yellow, or 
brown, pedicel short. 

Mystrosporium, stemphylium, Corda, Icones Pungorum, ii. 
p. 13, t. X. f. 61. 

On stems and leaves of dahlia, and mallow, also on rotten 
wood. 

Mystrosporium alliorum. Berk. 

Conidiophores flexuous, septate; conidia terminal or some- 
times latera,l, oblong, constricted in tbe middle, subpiriform, 
multiseptate and muriform, septa sometimes oblique. 

Mystrosporium alliorum. Berk., Gard. Chron., 1878, p. 192; 
Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 2592. 

On onions. 

T cannot find the type specimen in Berkeley's herbarium. 
Hence cannot give more information, measurements, &c. 



SEPTOSPOEIUM. Corda. (fig. 26, p. 397.) 

Hypha of two kinds — fertile short, sterile elongated; 
conidia elliptical or piriform, brown, murali-septate. 

Sepiosporium, Corda, in Sturm's Deutschl. Tl., t. 17 ; Sacc, 
SylL, iv., p. 543. 

Septosporium bulbotrichum. Gorda. (fig. 26, 
p. 397.) 

In effused, slender, brown tufts ; sterile hyphae unbrancbed, 
base bulbous, septate, obtuse, brown below, yellowish up- 
wards, pellucid ; conidia pedicellate, springing up amongst 
the sterile hyphae, oblong-clavate, yellow ; pedicel septate,, 
attenuated, 35-36 ft, long. 

Septosporium hulbotriehum, Corda, Ic. Fung., i. p. 12,. 
f. 176. 

On rotten wood. 

Septosporitini atrum. Corda. 
Tufts minutely downy, effused, black ; hyphae erect, 
almost simple, wavy, grey, 2-3-septate, semipellucid ; conidia 
large, pedicellate, oblong or clavate, glaucous, somewhat 
pellucid ; apiculus white or sometimes obsolete ; pedicel 
filiform. 

2 F 2 



436 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Septosporiwm atrum, Corda, in Sturm's Deutscli. FL, t. 17; 
Saco., Syll., iv. n. 2600. 



DACTYLOSPOEIUM. Harz. (fig. 23, p. 397.) 

Hyphae erect, simple ; conidia obovate, m.uriformly septate, 
iDrown, collected into a terminal head. 

Bactylosporium, Harz, Hyph.. p. 44; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 645. 

Dactylosporium brevipes. Grove, (fig. 23, p. 397.) 

Gregarious, black; hyphae erect, short, flexuous, fuscous, 
paler upwards, densely septate, subtorulose (cells sub- 
quadrate), simple or furcate towards the apex, 50-70 X 5 /j., 
bearing a jet-black head consisting of 5-8 conidia closely 
compacted ; conidia obovate, deep fuscous, almost opaque, 
20-22 X 10-13 /i, angularly cellular, one septum longitudinal, 
the remainder oblique or radiating. 

Dactylosjxn-ium brevipes, Grove, Journ. Bot., 1886, p. 204, 
tab. 267, f. 7; Sacc, Syll., Suppl. 1-4, n. 3641. 

On wood of sycamore. 

Closely allied to D. macropus, of which it is perhaps a 
variety. (Grove.) 



ALTEENAEIA. Nees. (fig. 21, p. 397.) 

Hyphae fasciculate, somewhat erect, almost simple, short ; 
conidia clavately flask-shaped, muriformly septate, catenulate 
and connected by slender portions, soon separating. 

Alternaria, Nees, Syst. d. Pike, ii. p. 72 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 545. 

Distinguished by the clavate, or flask-shaped muriformly 
septate olive conidia being united in chains and connected 
by narrow isthmus-like portions. 

Alternaria brassicae. Sacc. (fig. 21, p. 397.) 
Hyphae short, continuous, very shortly branched, tips 
equal, in small tufts; conidia in chains, deciduous, elongated, 



FUMAGO— CEEATOSPOEIUM. 437 

fusoid or clavate, nmriformly septate, olive-green, 50-85 X 
12-18 fjL. 

Alternaria brassicae, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2613. 

On dry spots on the leaves of Brassica oleracea. 



PUMAGO. Pers. (fig. 32, p. 397.) 

Hyphae decumbent, intricately wefted, often moniliform 
and muriformly divided, usually forming Hack crust-like 
patches that fall away when dry ; fertile hyphae erect, 
branched, conidia elliptical, oblong, or deformed, 1-2-septate, 
typically produced in chains. 

Fumago, Persoon, Myc. Eur., i. p. 9 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 547. 

Forming black, sooty, crust-like patches on living leaves 
and stems. 

Probably nothing more than a stage of development of the 
genus Capnodium. 

Fumago vagans. Pers. (fig. 32, p. 397.) 

Sterile creeping hyphae vaguely branched, free or more 
or less fasciculate, often confluent in cellular muraliform or 
multicellular masses, olive or smoky-brown ; fertile hyphae 
ascending, short, corymbosely branched above ; conidia formed 
at the tips of the branches, shortly catenulate, generally 
2-celled, rarely continuous or 2-septate, 6-18 /x long. 

Fumago vagans, Pers., Myc. Eur., i. p. 9 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 2618. 

Forming sooty patches on living leaves of various trees. 

Yery variable, and undoubtedly the conidial phase of 
Capnodium. 

Sect. V. STAUEOSPOEAE. Sacc. 
CEEATOSPOEIUM. Schw. (fig. 12, p. 397.) 

Sterile hyphae slender, creeping ; conidia sessile, attached 
to each other in small clusters at the base, ascending, rigid, 
many-septate, brown. 

Geratosporium, Schweinitz, Syn. Amer. Bor., t, 19, f. 3; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 552. 



438 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Distinguished from Triposporium by the conidia being 
sessile, and the sterile hyphae almost obsolete. 

Ceratosporium digitatum. Sacc. (fig. 12, p. 397.) 

Forming effused, black, dense velvety patches ; conidia in 
fascicles of 2-4, attached at the base, sessile on the slender 
creeping threads, obclavate, wavy, many-septate, pale then 
dark brown, 80-120 x 12-16 jx. 

Ceratosporium digitatum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2625. 

Sporidesmium digitatii/m, Cke. 

On holly branches. 

** Maeronemeae. 
TEIPOSPOEIUM. Corda. (fig. 11, p. 397.) 

Sterile hyphae scanty, creeping; fertile hyphae erect, 
brown, rigid, septate ; conidia terminal, brown, stellate 
with 3-4 rays. 

Triposporium, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 16 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 554. 

Distingnished by the coloured, stellate, 3-4-rayed conidia. 

Triposporium elegans. Corda. (fig. 11, p. 397.) 
Mycelium very slender, effused, brown ; fertile hyphae 
erect, slender, simple or sparingly branched, brown, trans- 
lucent, distantly septate ; conidia stellate, central point dark 
brown, the three or four rays paler, each ray 4-6-septate, 
tip subhyaline, 48-50 /j. long. 

Triposporium elegans, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 160, fig. 220; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2631. 
On rotten wood. 

Triposporium ficinusium. Preuss. 

Tufts broad, black ; hyphae erect, simple, septate, long, 
blackish-brown, dilated at the base, attenuated and paler 
upwards ; conidia solitary, inserted at the apex of the coni- 
diophore, pedicellate, tri-radiate, central portion blackish- 
brown, rays paler, apiculus white, obtuse, 4-5-septate. 

Triposporium ficinusiwm, Preuss, Fung. Hoyersw., p. 64; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2634. 

On rotten wood. 



TEIPOSPOEIUM — HELICOSPOEIUM. 439 

Sect. VI. HELICOSPORAE. Saoc. 

HELICOSPOEIUM:. Nees. (figs. 10, p. 397, and 29, p. 443.) 

Sterile hypliae creeping, fertile ascending, dark-coloured, 
furnislied here and there with small spine-lilce ongrowths 
that bear the conidia. Conidia terminal or lateral, spirally 
coiled, hyaline or coloured, pluriguttulate or pluriseptate, 
coloured. 

Selicosporium, Nees, Syst. der Pilze, p. 68 ; Emend., Sacc, 
Mich., ii. p. 29 ; Sacc, Syll., iv., p. 557. 

Some pale coloured species connect the present genus with 
Helicomyces in the Mucedineae. 

Helicosporium pulvinatum. Er. 

Tufts broadly effused, dingy yellowish-white, becoming 
dusky ; hyphae slender, septate, branched, dingy olive, 3-4 /x. 
diameter ; conidia in spirals with 2-3 turns, 2 /* diameter, 
70-80 jK. long, not septate but multinucleate, hyaline. 

Helicosporium pulvinatum, Er., Syst. Myc, iii. p. 354; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2638. 

On rotten wood, especially oak. 

Var. efFusunx, Berk. Tufts effused, exceedingly thin; 
conidia colourless. 

Helicosporum MuUeri. Sacc. (fig 10, p. 397.) 

Tufts broadly effused, rather woolly, dark olive ; sterile 
hyphae creeping, fertile ascending, fasciculate, 10 /«, thick, 
not branched, septate, smoky or brownish, towards the tip 
with minute branchlets or tooth-like projections that give 
origin to the conidia. Conidia cylindrical, sparingly septate, 
6-7 /A thick, colourless, spirally coiled, diameter of entire coil 
about 25 /J,. 

Helicosporium Miilleri, Sacc. Mich., ii. p. 129 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv, n. 2639. 

Helicoma Miilleri, Corda. 

On rotten wood of poplar, oak, &o. 

Helicosporium viride. Sacc. 
Tufts effused, olive-green ; mycelium olive, interwoven, 
fertile threads erect, septate, olive, tips paler ; conidia large. 



440 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

cylindric - olavate, septate, hyaline, coiled in 1-2 loose 
spirals. 

Helicosporium viride, Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 2640. 

Helicocoryne viridis, Corda. 

On rotten wood. 

Helicosporium lumbricoides. Sacc. 

Effused, forming greyish-white spots ; hyphae creeping, 
slender, branched and more or less anastomosing, 4-5 ft. dia- 
meter, remotely septate, pale sooty-grey, with hyaline denti- 
oulations at the insertion of the couidia; conidia worm-like, 
coiled in 2-3^ loose spirals, 150 X 4 ju, with many guttulae 
in a single row, hyaline. 

Helicosporium lumbricoides, Sacc, Mich., i. p. 86 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2642. 

On rotten oak wood. 

Helicosporium vegetum. Nees. 

Tnfts broadly and vaguely effused, golden, then yellow, at 
length olivaceous, sometimes black ; fertile hyphae straight, 
simple, rather closely septate, 300 X 4 /x, pallid at first, at 
length sooty-black, studded laterally . with minute hyaline 
points to which the conidia are attached ; conidia filiform, in 
a spiral of 2-3 turns, 45-65 X 1-1 " 6 /j,, furnished with many 
guttulae in a single row, septate, greenish, pellucid. 

Helicosporium vegetum, Nees, Syst. d. Pilze, p. 68, fig. 69 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2643. 

On rotten wood, especially oak. 

Helicosporium ramosum. Mass. (fig. 29. p 443.) 
Tufts effused, often large, downy, dingy brown with 
an olive tinge ; sterile hyphae creeping, fertile ascending, 
vaguely branched, brownish, septate, 5-7 /* 1hick, bearing 
short lateral branches that gradually increase in length and 
form a close spiral, the whole forming an olive brown coni- 
dium varying from elliptical to obtusely fusiform, 60-80 x 
30-40 /A, consisting of 7-9 coils. 

Helicoryne ramasum. Berk, and Smith, Gard. Chron., 1882, 
April 8th. 
On wood. 



STILBEAE. 441 



Fam. III. STILBEAE. Fr. 

Byssoid fungi, pallid or browli. Sterile hypliae creeping, 
scanty; fertile hyphae or conidiophores collected in erect, 
stem-like fascicles (stromata), bearing the conidia at their 
tips. 

The present family differs from the two preceding in 
having the fertile hyphae agglutinated into erect, stem- 
like bundles, the tips of the hyphae usually becoming free 
near the apex of the fascicle, and bearing the spores. There 
are two primary groups, one resembling the Mucedineae in 
having the hyphae and conidia pallid ; the other resembling 
the Hematieae in having the hyphae and conidia dark 
coloured. 

Series I. Hyalostilbeae. Saco. 

Hyphae and conidia pale. 

Sect. 1. Amerosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia globose, elliptical, or oblong, continuous, hyaline 
or pallid. 

Sect. 2. Phragmosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia oblong, or fusiformly-elongated, 2- many-septate 
or guttulate. 

Series II. Phaeostilbeae. Sacc. 

Hyphae and conidia (or one or the other) brown, rigid. 

Sect. 1. Amerosporae. Sacc. 
Conidia globose, oblong, or elongated, continuous. 

Sect. 2. Phragmosporae. Sacc. 
Conidia oblong or cylindrical, 2- many-septate. 



442 



FUNGUS-rJLOEA. 




FIGUEES ILLUSTRATING THE STILBEAE. 

Fig. i, Exosporivm tiliae ; section of fungus and conidium ;— Fig. 2, 
EpidoeMum atrovirem ; section of fungus, and portion of hyphae with, a 
conidium; — ^Fig._ 3, Myrothecium inundaium ; general appearance of 
fungus, and portion of section showing oonidiophores bearing conidia ; — 
Fig. 4, Atrdboirymn afrum;— Fig. 5, Aegeriia Candida ;— Fig. 6, Dendro- 
doOiimn affine;— Fig. 7, TuhercuUna persicina ;— Pig. 8, Volutella ciliata; 
— Pig, 9, sterile hypha and two conidiophores bearing conidia, of same 



STILBUM. 443 

Tarn. in. STILBEAE. 

Series I. Hyalostilbeae. Sacc. 

Sect. 1. Amerosporeae. Sacc. 

STILBUM. Tode. (figs. 20-22, p. 442.) 

Stroma subterete, usually elongated and stem-like, com- 
posed of agglutinated hyphae that become free above and 
form a more or less swollen Lead ; conidia minute, con- 
tinuous, borne on the tips of the hyphae forming the head, 
at fijst involved in mucus. 

Stilbum, Tode, Fung. Mechl., i. p. 10 ; einended by Sac- 
cardo in Mich., ii. p. 32 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 564. 

The distinct, simple or branched stem bearing a single 
head, and the conidia involved in mucus characterise the 
genus. Small fungi, rarely exceeding ^ of an inch in 
height. 

Stilbum orbiculare. B. & Br. 

Forming white patches an inch or more in diameter, 
^springing from a white, thin, pulverulent stratum, stem 
cylindrical, tomentose, often with a torn frill-like structure 
at the apex ; head globose ; conidia cj-lindrical, 5 x 2 /a. 

Stilbum orbiculare, B. & Br., Ann. Sci. Xat., n. 1714; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 2676. 

On lAndbladia effusa. 



fungus ; — Fig. 10, Epicoccum purpurascens, section of ; — Fig. 11, coni- 
dium of same; — Fig. 12, Endodesmia glauca; — Fig. 13, Bactridium 
hehellae, spore of;— Fig. 14, Fttsarium solani; — Fig. 15, Graphium 
sutmlatum ; — Fig. 16, Isaria citrina, and portion of a branch showing 
origin of conidia; — Pig. 17, Feriola tomentosa; — Fig. 18, Hymenvla 
rvhetla; — ^Fig. 19, Sporocyie iyssoides; — Fig. 20, Stilbum citrinellum ; — 
Fig. 21, section of head oi same, showing it to consist of hyphae spreading 
from the stem ; — ^Fig. 22, hyphae hearing conidia, from head of same ; — 
Fig. 23, Ceratium hydnoides ; — Fig. 24, Tubereularia ewmymi ; section of 
fungus and curved condiophore; — Fig. 25, Cylindrocolla urticae; — 
Fig. 26, lUosporium roseum ; — Fig. 27, Fusarinm betae ; — Fig. 28, Splia- 
celia eegetum; — ^Fig. 29, Selicosporium ramogum. (All the figures are 
highly magnified.) 



444 PUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Stilbum tomentosum. Schr. 

Gregarious, every part pure white, stem slender, tomen- 
tose; head subrotund becoming opaque; conidia globose, 
2-3 fi. diameter. The plants spring from an effused white, 
creeping mycelium. 

Stilbum tomentosum, Schr., Joum., 1799, ii. p. 65, t. 3, f. 2 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2677. 

Very minute. Parasitic on various species of Myxogastres, 
as Trichia, Bidymium, Arcyria, &c. 

Stilbum erythroeephalum. Ditm. 

Gregarious or scattered, stem rather thick, tomentose, 
whitish, terminating in a turbinato-globose, rosy or deep red 
head ; conidia elliptical, 4^6 X 2-2 • 3 jjl, hyaline, borne on 
slender, septate, colourless conidiophores that are nodulose 
at the apex, 50-60 X 3-3-5 ju,. 

Stilbum erythroeephalum, Ditm. in Sturm. D.C., t. 45 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2680. 

On damp dung of rabbits, pigeons, &c. 

Stilbum vulgare. Tode. 

Stems gregarious, fibrous, smooth, elongated, becoming 
thinner upwards, white, then yellowish; head globose, 
white, then yellowish ; conidia elliptical, hyaline, 8 x 5-6 /i. 

Stilbum vulgare, Tode, Mecklenb., i. p. 10, t. 2, f. 16 ; Sacc, 
Syll;, iv. n. 2682. 

On rotten wood, oak cupulos, &c. 

Stilbum pellucidum. Schrad. 

Scattered ; head white, from turbinate to subglobose ; 
stem equal, rigid, hyaline. 

Stilbum pellucidum, Schrad., Journ., 1779, p. 65; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. II. 2686. 

On rotten wood, decaying fungi, &c. 

Scarcely 2 mm. high. Allied to S. vulgare. 

Stilbum acicula. Sacc. 

Mycelium obsolete ; stems scattered, scarcely 2 mm. high, 
gregarious, white or pallid, splitting longitudinally; head 
subglobose, while ; conidia ellipsoid, minute. 

Stilbum acicula, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2691. 

Pachnocyhe acicula. Berk., Engl. Flora, vol. v. p. 334. 

On herbaceous stems. 



STILBUM. 445 

Stilbum vaporarium. B. & Br. 

Stems clustered, fasciculate, more or less connected at the 
base, grey; heads flesh-coloured; conidia elliptic-oblong, 
7-8 x3 fi. 

Stilbum vaporarium, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 493 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2968. 

On wood. 

Distinguished from S. fasciculatum more especially by the 
larger size of the conidia. 

Stilbum fasciculattim. B. & Br. 

Stems flabellato-fasciculate, joined at the base, grey ; 
heads flesh-colour ; conidia elliptical, 5 X 2 /n. 

Stilbum fasciculatum, B. & Br., Ann. Xat. Hist., n. 492 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2699. 

On fallen -wood. 

According to Cooke the present species is the conidial 
condition of Sjphaerostilhe gradlipes. 

Stilbum fimetarium. B. & Br. 

Slender, clear-red, head at first subconic then becoming 
flattened and angidar; conidia ellipsoid, 6-7 jj. long. 

StiUmm fimetarium, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 494 ; 
Sacc., Syll., iv. n. 2710. 

Small; on the dung of various animals. 

Stilbum aurantiacum. Bab. 

Subfasciculate, orange ; stem smooth, darker at the base ; 
head subclavate ; conidia oblong, obtuse, subtruncate, 12— 
14 iL long. 

Stilbum aurantiacum, Babington, Linn. Soo. Trans., 1839 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2714. 

On dead elm branches. 

Stilbum turbinatum. Tode. 

Head variable, globose, oval, or obpiriform, whitish or 
golden ; stem yellow, base greenish, peUucid ; conidia 
globose. 

Stilbum turbinatum, Tode, Meckl., p. 12, t. 2, f. 20 ; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 2718. 

Stilbum citrinum, Pers., Syn., p. 681. 

On rotten beech trunks. 



446 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

Stilbum ramigenum. Sacc. 

Stem citr in-yellow, cylindrical, formed of filiform, septate, 
fasciculated hyphae, expanding at the apex into a sub- 
globose bead; byphae attenuated at the apex, bearing 
numerous short, lateral conidiopbores j conidia globose, 
ecbinulate, 10 ;«. diameter, collecting in masses. 

Stilbum ramigenum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2719. 

Acremonium ramigenum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1319, 
t. 18, i. 10. 

On rotten branches. 

Stilbum melleum. B. & Br. 

Minute; pale yellow; stem short, hispid, dilated above; 
conidia globose, 1'5-2/x diameter; globose, war ted, honey- 
coloured, crystallised bodies 12-15 /a diameter are mixed with 
the conidia. 

Stilbum melleum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1G09, t. 10, 
fig. 6; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2667. 

On bark. 

Stilbum citrinellum. Cke. & Mass. (figs. 20-22, p. 
442.) 

Minute, scattered, stem erect, cylindrical, whitish, a little 
attenuated upwards ; head subglobose, lemon-yellow ; com- 
pacted byphae furcate at the tips ; conidia solitary, elliptical, 
continuous, hyaline, 7-9 X 4 /t. 

Stilbum citrinellum, Cke. & Massee, Grev., vol. xvi. p. 81. 

On fading leaves of Lycopodium,. Whole fungus about 
2 mm. high. 



ISAEIA. Pers. (fig. 31, p. 397.) 

Stroma erect, clavate and simple or variously branched or 
fimbriated, consisting of loosely compacted byphae, every- 
where bearing conidia that are borne at the tips of the 
hyphae; conidia minute, globose or elliptical, continuous, 
colourless. 

Isaria, Persoon, Tent. Disp., p. 41 ; Sacc, Sj'll., iv. p. 584. 

On the pupa, larval, or imago condition of insects, also on 
wood, dung, leaves, &o. The species on insects are mostly 
conidial conditions of species of Cordyceps. 



ISARIA. 447 



* On insects. 

Isaria farinosa. Fr. (fig. 31, p. 397.) 

Subcaespitose ; wliite, 1 in. or more h.igli, stem distinct, 
simple, glabrous, fertile, upper portion thickened, more or 
less branched, powdery ; conidia globose, hyaline, 2 yu, 
diameter. 

Isaria farinosa. Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 271 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 2772. 

On dead, putrescent chrysalis form of various insects, 
especially those buried amongst fallen leaves. 

The conidial condition of Cordyceps militaris. 

Isaria floccosa. Fr. 

Caespitose ; subulate, simple, white, 2—4 mm. high, 
everywhere floccoso-tomentose ; conidia subglobose, 2 m 
diameter. 

Isaria floccosa. Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 274 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 2778. 

On larvae and pupae of Bombyx Jacobaea, 

Isaria spMngum. Schw. 

Gregarious; stromata erect, very long, filiform, often 
compressed, subpulverulent, springing from a silky fibroso- 
crustaceous mycelium ; conidia subglobose, 2 /x diameter. 

Isaria sphingum, Schweinitz, Syn. Fung. Carol., p. 126, 
n. 1298 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2781. 

On the pupa of a dipterous insect in Scotland. In other 
countries on SpJiingum and various Orthopterous and Lepi- 
dopterous insects. 

The ascigerous form, Cordyceps sphingum, Sacc, has not yet 
been recorded for this country. 

Isaria aracliiiophila. Ditm. 

Caespitose, springing from a whitish stroma, cylindrical, 
unbranched, white or with a suggestion of- pink; conidia 
linear-oblong, 3-4 X 2 jit. 

Isaria arachnophila, Ditm. in Sturm, D. C. FL, t. 55 ; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 2791. 

On various spiders. 



448 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 



** On dung or on (he ground. 

Isaria felina. Fr. 

Tufted, slender, elongated, branched, white, consisting of 
more or less parallel hyphae firmly compacted in the centre, 
becoming loose at the periphery, tips of branches sometimes 
fimbriate; conidia about 3 x 2 ju,. 

Isaria felina, Tries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 271 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 2793. 

On dung of cats and dogs. Prom \-\ in. high. 

Isaria sulphurea. Fiedl. 

Gregarious, clavate pale sulphur-colour ; stem formed of a 
bundle of interwoven hyphae ; conidia borne on the minute 
branchlets of the hyphae, that are variously branched above, 
subglobose, with a yellow tinge, 5-6 jj, diameter. 

Isaria sulphurea, Fiedl., in Eab. Pung., Eur., n. 60 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2794. 

On the dung of various mammals, and on manured 
ground. 

The flocci of my specimens did not anastomose so much as 
in Saccardo's drawing [Fung. Ital., t. 845], and they were 
swollen at intervals, the swelling being very similar to a 
conidium. (Grove.) 

*** On fungi. 

Isaria brachiata. Schum. 

Gregarious on a whitish stroma, white, erect, rigid, more 
or less branched, branches subhorizonal, flocculose ; conidia 
elliptical, hyaline, 3-4 X 2 /t. 

Isaria brachiata, Schum., Saell., ii. p. 443 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 2800. 

On various putrescent fungi ; also said to have occurred 
on leaves, roots, &c. 

Isaria intricata. Fr. 
Caespitose, thread-like, branched, white, 2-6 mm. high;- 
branches few, erect, intricately interwoven, downy, the 
threads bearing one conidium at the apex. 



ISAEIA. 449 

Isaria intricata, Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 278 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 2802. 

On various species of decaying or dried up fungi. 

Isaria citrina. Pers. (fig. 16, p. 442.) 
Gregarious, springing from a yellow stroma; yellowish, 
very mucli branched, villous and powdered with the white 
conidia, feathery ahove ; conidia subglohose, 3—4 /x.. 

Isaria citrina, Pers., Syn., p. 689 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2801. 
On decaying fungi, alio on trunks, &c. 

Isaria umbrina. Pers. 

Gaespitose ; clavate, branched, salmon-colour ; branches 
divided, straight, tips rather flattened, everywhere villose ; 
conidia obovate, pale brown, 5—6 X 3 fj.. 

Isaria umbrina, Pers., Syn., p. 687 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n; 2807. 

About 2 liues high. On Hypoxylon coccineum, of which it 
is the conidial form. 

[Isaria microscopica, Grev., Scot. Cr. Fl., t. 3 = Stilbum 
tomentosum.'] 

**** On wood or baric. 

Isaria Priesii. Mont. 

Minute, up to 2 mm. high, whitish, fasciculate, erumpent, 
villous, conidia oblong, 3-4 /x long. 

Isaria Friesii, Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. ii., vi. p. 28, t. 12, 
f. 3 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2809. 

On the bark of branches, bursting through the epidermis. 
Sometimes greyish or yellowish. 

Isaria muscigena. Cke. & MuU. 

Pallid. Stroma erect, simple or forked, compressed, 1-2 
lines high, gregarious, but not fasciculate ; conidia large, 
sphaeroidal, 8-9 /k. diameter, hyaline. 

Isaria muscigena, Cke. & Mull., Grev., vol. xvi. p. 81. 

Among Hypnum serpens, on trunks. 

Isaria albida. Pr. 
Gregarious, white, club-shaped, about 1 line high, club 
sometimes forked ; conidia elliptical, 6 X 4 fj.. 
Isaria albida, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2814. 

VOL. III. 2 Q 



450 I'UNGUS-PLOEA. 

PacTmocyhe alhida (Ft.), Berk., Eng. Fl., v. p. 335. 
On rotten wood and herbaceous stems. Scattered specimens 
resemble short white hairs. 

Isaria spumarioides. Cooke. 

Densely tufted, white, palmate or infundibuliform,_ tips 
crisped, lobed, or serrate, attenuated below into a minute 
stem ; stems more or less connate ; conidia suhglobose, 4^5 ju. 
diameter. 

Isaria spumarioides, Cke., Grev. ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2816. 

On bark. Superficially resembling Spimaria alba. 

Isaria tomentella. Fr. 

Gregarious; simple cylindrical or subclavate, dingy 
yellow, 1 line high, rather thick, villose. 

Isaria fomenfeZZa, Pries, Syst. Myc, iii. 276 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 2832. 

On rotten wood, also amongst leaves. 

Isaria clavata. Ditm. 

Gregarious ; springing from a stroma ; simple, clavate, 
whitish or sometimes brownish, villous ; conidia suhglobose, 
2-3 fi diameter. 

Isaria clavata, Ditm. in Sturm, D. 0. Fl., t. 56; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 2826. 

On trunks. From 2-3 lines high. 



***** On leaves, flowers, or fruit. 

Isaria fuciformis. Berk. 

Slender, pale or bright rose-colour, J in. high, simple or 
sparingly branched, branches acute; conidia very minute, 
globose, 2 /A diameter., 

Isaria fuciformis. Berk., Austr. Fung., n, 205 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 2839. 

On leaves and germinating seeds of grass. 

Isaria puberula. Berk. 

Minute, reddish, about 1 line high; stem straight, 
branches few and simple, tips clavate, subverticillate, 
mealy. 



CEKATIUM — ATEACTIUM. 451 

Isaria puherula. Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 221, t. xii. f. 12 ; 
Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 2839. 
On dead Dahlia flowers. 

Excluded species. 
Isaria microscopica, Grev. = Stilbum iomentosum. 

CEEATIUM. Alb. & Schw. (fig. 23, p. 442.) 

Stroma club-shaped, simple or variously branoted, in- 
distinctly cellular, externally covered everywhere with, 
conidia, borne on very short spicules that give to the stroma 
a velvety appearance, when the conidia have fallen away ; 
conidia large, continuous, hyaline. 

Geratium, A. & S., Comp. Pung. Lus., p. 358 ; Sacc, Syll., 
vol. iv. p. 596. 

The present gentis is considered by some authors as 
belonging to the Myxoga stres, differing from the Hyphomycetes 
in the absence_of^ true hyphae, and in the conidia giv ing 
origin to activ e amo e boid bodies on germination. Saccardo 
considers the genus to be allied to Isaria, but the points of_ 
agreement appear to be confined to superficial resemblances. 

Geratium hydnoides. A. & S. (fig. 23, p. 442.) 
Forming minute, or sometimes effused, pure white tufts, 

consisting of numerous erect, simple or slightly branched 

spines that deliquesce and almost disappear when touched ; 

conidia hyaline, smooth, broadly elliptical or globose, 

10-12 X 8 or 10 /A diameter. 

Geratium Jiydnoides, A. & S., Com., p. 358, t. 11, f. 7 ; Sacc.,, 

Syll., iv. n. 2845. 
Onjvfctenjwood. 

Sect. 2. Phragmosporeae. Sacc. 

ATEACTIUM. Link. (fig. 33, p. 397.) 

Stroma stem-like, terete, composed of a fascicle of more or 
less parallel hyphae, expanded to form a conidia-bearing 

2 G 2 



452 FUNGUS-FLORA. 

iead at the apex ; conidia falcate -vermicular, 2- many-septate, 
«Tibhyaliiie. 

Atractium, Link, Berlin Mag., iii. p. 10 (1809); Sacc, 
SylL, iv. p. 699. 

Distinguished from other compound stemmed, more or less 
club-shaped genera by the slender, pointed, elongated, many- 
.septate conidia. 

Atractium flamEaeum. Berk. & Eav. (fig. 33, p. 397.) 
Stroma cylindric-clavate, obtuse, shortly stipitate, 1 mm. 
high, reddish flame-colour ; whitish below, pruinose ; conidia 
fusoid, curved, both ends acute, hyaline, 4-6 septate, not 
"Constricted at the septa, 70-75 /^ilong ; sporophores elongated, 
septate, 3 • 5 /^ thick, 

Atractium jlammeum. Berk. &Eav., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 757; 
•Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2860. 

On bark of living willow, &c. 



Series IT. Phaeostilbeae. Sacc. 

Sect. 1. Amerosporae. Sacc. 

SPOEOCYBE. Fries, (fig. 19, p. 442.) 

Stem consisting of a fascicle of hyphae, fibrous, apex 
■capitate and bearing the conidia ; capitulum globose or 
-elongated ; conidia subglobose or ellipsoid, brown. 

Sporocybe, Fries, emended by Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 138 ; 
•Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 604. 

Somewhat resembling Periconia in habit, but in the latter 
the stem consists of a single hypha, and not of a bundle of 
hyphae as in the present genus. 

Sporocybe byssoides. Bon. , (fig. 19, p. 442.) 
Stems gregarious, subulate, 1 mm. high, rigid, blackish- 
grey, springing from a common compact base ; heads minute, 
blackish-olive; conidiophores paler, divergent; conidia 
obovate, 4-6 X 3-4//,; olive, 1-guttulate. 

Sporocyhe hyssoides, Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 188, f. 217; Sacc, 
Syll., 2877 & 1310. 

On stems of herbaceous plants ; branches of ivy (Hedera), 
ibox (^Buxus), &c. 



SPOEOGYBE. 453 

Sporocybe brassicaecola. Sacc. 

Stem black, sometimes forked ; head globose, at first grey, 
then black ; conidia grey, irregular, more or less attenuated 
at the ends, 5-10 /i long. 

Sporoeyhe brassicaecola, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2878. 

Periconia Irassicaecola, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1452, 
t. 1, f. 3. 

Forming dense black patches on the inside of decayed 
cabbage-stalks. 

Sporocybe cuneifera. Sacc. 

Stem attenuated upwards, brownish, simple or sparsely 
divided by the separation of the hyphae into two or more 
bundles from being firmly compacted below; heads ovate; 
conidia obversely cuneate or narrowly obovate, pale greenish- 
brown, 10-11 X 3-4 /i. 

Sporocybe caneifera, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2879. 

Stilbum cuneiferum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1451, 
t. 1, f. 2. 

On rotten cabbage-stalks. 

Sporocybe calycioides. Fr. 

Black, 4 mm. high ; mycelium effused, forming spots ; 
head subglobose, compact ; stem slender, subulate, sometimes 
striate, sometimes flexuous. 

Sporocybe calycioides. Fries, Syst., Myc, iii. p. 342 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2855. 

Periconia calycioides (Fr.), Berk., Outl., p. 343. 

On dead herbaceous stems, trunks of beech, &c. 

Sporocybe atra. Sacc. 

Black. Scattered or gregarious, \-^ mm. high; stem 
erect, opaque, rather rigid ; head ovoid, with spreading, short 
hyaline conidiophores ; conidia oblong-fusiform, olive, 
10-12 /A long. 

Sporocybe atra, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2891. 

GrapMum atrum, Desmaz., XVI. Not., p. 343 (1848.) 

On dry leaves of Solcus mollis and species of Festuca. 

Sporocybe Phillipsii. Sacc. 
Minute ; stem erect, cylindrical, black ; head globose ; 
conidia globose, brown, verruculose, 7-10 /i diameter. 



454 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Sporocyle PMllipsii, Sacc, Sj'U., iv. n. 2894. 

Periconia PMllipsii, Berk. & Leight., Ann. Nat, Hist., 
n. 1453 ; Grev., vol. iv. t. 42. 

On naked ground, along with a minute species of 
Thelocarpon. Stem about equal in height to the diameter of 
the head, thick for the size of the plant. Looks at first sight 
like a little Sphinctrina, so minute that it is quite invisible 
to the naked eye. (B. & L.). 



GEAPHIUM. Corda. (fig. 15, p. 442.) 

Stroma cylindrical, clavate, or capitate, brownish, rather 
rigid ; the upper hyphae paler, lax, and bearing the conidia ; 
conidia elliptical or oblong, hyaline, often involved in mucus 
at first. 

Graphium, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 18 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 609. 

Distinguished from Isaria and Stilbum by the dingy 
brown colour of the erect stroma. 



I. EU-GEAPHIUM. Head whitish or glaucose. 

Graphium stilboideum. Corda. 

Gregarious, scarcely 2 mm. high, stem long, filiform, 
consisting of parallel sooty hyphae, expanded at the apex 
into a pale subrotund discoid head ; conidia elliptic-oblong, 
6x3, hyaline. 

Graphium stilboideum, Corda, Icon. Pung., ii. p. 69 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 2896. 

On branches, cabbage-stems, &o. 

Graphium rigidum. Sacc. 

Stems gregarious, robust, rigid, blackish-olive, fragile, 
becoming subulate from a thickened base ; head at first 
watery-white, then grey, compact, easily breaking off. 

Graphium rigidum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2897. 

Stilbum rigidum, IPersoon, in Uster Annal., i. p. 32, f. 2 ; 
and Pers., Syn., p. 680. 

On rotten trunks. 



GRAPHIUM. 455 

Graphium Desmazieri. Sacc. 

Coarsely velvety, sooty, stems erect, 450 X 40, formed of 
numerous brown septate hyphae; upper hyphae spreading 
in a paniculate manner, branched, almost hyaline, the small 
branclilets flexuoso-denticulate and bearing the hyaline, 
elliptical conidia, measuring 3-4 x 2 • 5 /x. 

Graphium Desmazieri, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2898 ; Fung. 
Ital., t. 394. 

Graphium flexuosum. Sacc. 

Gregarious, blackish, stem elongated, filiform, usually 
flesuous or geniculate, base slightly incrassated, composed 
of parallel, septate, brown hyphae; head olavate then 
subglobose, even ; conidia hyaline, subglobose, 2 • 5 /a dia- 
meter, borne at the tips of repeatedly forked hyaline hyphae. 

Graphium flexuosum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2902. 

Stitbum flexuosum, Massee, New Micro-Fungi, Journ. Eoy. 
Microscop. Soc, vol. v. p. 758, figs. 1-3. 

On rotten wood, 1-2 lines high, gregarious. 

Graphium subulatum. Sacc. (fig. 15, p. 442.) 

Stems scattered, rigid, 2-4 mm. high, subulate, black; 
head elongated, cylindric-fusiform, acute, grey; conidia 
almost globose, hyaline. 

Gi-aphium subulatum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2910. 

Periconia subulata, Nees, Act. Leop., ix. t. 6, f. 8. 

On trunks, pericarps, &c. 

Graphium Grovei. Sacc. 

Stems subgregarious, erect, 300-500 /a high, rigid, filiform, 
shining brown, blackish at the base ; head equal to the stem 
or a little more, also slightly thicker, rather clavate, obtuse 
or rather acute, never subulate; conidia rounded or oval, 
very minute, 2 /a diameter, hyaline. 

Graphium Grovei, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2911. 

Pachnocybe clamlata. Grove, New or Noteworthy Fungi, 
Journ. Bot., vol. xxiii. p. 14, t. 256, f. 10. 

On rotten decorticated wood. 

Graphium Passerinii. Sacc 
Stems hair-like, erect, brown, composed of fasciculate 



456 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

hyphae varying in length, free at the tips and bearing the 
minute, ovate-ohlong, continnous, hyaline conidia. 

Graphiwm Passerinii, Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 2912. 

GrapUum subulatum, Pass, et Beltr., Fung. Sic, n. 33 (not 
of Nees). 

On dry corticated branches of Buhus. 

Graphium Stevensonii. Sacc. 

Scattered ; stem very short, black ; head white, globose ; 
conidia very minute, globose, hyaline, about 2 ju. diameter. 

Graphium Stevensonii, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2915. 

Stilhum Stevensonii, Berk. & Broome, Ann. Nat. Hist., 
n. 1713. 

On rotten wood. Eesembling a Didymium in habit. 

Graphium griseum. Sacc. 

Densely gregarious, velvety, short ; stems black, fibrous, 
about 2 mm. high, head subglobose, rather large, grey then 
blackish and globose ; conidia greyish, elliptical, 1-guttulate. 

Graphium griseum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2926. 

Pachnocyhe grisea, Berk., Engl. Flor., v. p. 334. 

On decaying stems. 

Graphium glaucocephalum. Sacc. 

Tufts slender, powdery, glaucous, rather inconspicuous ; 
stem short, slender, glabrous, blackish-brown, opaque ; head 
globose, large, glaucous ; conidia ovate, yellowish, guttulate. 

Graphium glaucocephalum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2927. 

Sporoeybe glaucocephala, Bon. 

Periconia glaucocephala, Corda. 

On rotten nettle stems, &o. 



Graphium piliforme. Sacc. 

Stems gregarious, straight, black, glabrous ; head spheri- 
cal, hyaline, very fugacious ; conidia hyaline, elliptic-oblong, 
subcylindrical, at first conglutinated together. 

Graphium piliforme, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2928. 

Stilbum piliforme, Pers., Syn., p. 581. 

On rotten branches and herbaceous plants. 



GKAPHIUJE. 457 

Graphium nigrum. Sacc. 
Stem short, scarcely 1 mm. high, blackish ; head ovate or 
subglohose ; conidia subcylindrical, minute, numerous. 
CrrapMum nigrum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2931. 
Stilbum nigrum. Berk., Engl. PI., v. p. 330. 
On rotten stems of EriopTtorus. 

Graphinin graminum. Cke. & Mass. 

Scattered, minute, dispersed over the leaves and culms, 
grey ; stems erect, composed of delicate septate threads, 
almost colourless v?hen separated; conidia elliptical, con- 
tinuous, hyaline, 6 x 3-^ [i. 

Graphium graminum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 11. 

On Cfynerium. 

Graphium penicilloides. Corda. 

Stems scattered, black, short, 100—130 /i high, thick, 
obtusely clavate above, sometimes swollen below, composed 
of fasciculate hyphae, paler upwards ; conidia acrogenous, 
linear, hyaline, 4-5 x 1 " 5 /i, forming a whitish head. 

Graphium penicilloides, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 18, t. 5, 
f. 251 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2895. 

On bark of sycamore, poplar, &c. , 



II. CHEOMOCEPHALUM. Head brightly coloured. 

Graphium anomalum. Sacc. 

Minute, hardly 1 line high; head suhglohose, yellow; 
stem hlack, yellow upwards, generally even, sometimes 
rather floccose at the base ; apex expanded, disciform, conidia 
almost fusiform. 

Graphium anomalum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2937. 

Stilbum anomalum. Berk., Mag. Zool. & Bot., n. 34, t. Ill, 
f. 9. 

On dead branches. 

Graphium bicolor. Sacc. 

Exceedingly minute; head rounded, whitish, at length 
becoming olive; stem rather firm, subulate, pallid, olive- 
brown at the base. 

Graphium bicolor, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2943. 



458 rUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Stilbum hicolor, Pers., Syn., p. 682. 
On trunks, branclies, &c. 



HAEPOGEAPHIUM. Sacc. (fig. 30, p. 397.) 

Stroma forming a stem, apex forming' a head or equal, 
sooty-brown, bearing more or less loose paler conidiophores 
upwards ; conidia elongated or falciform, continuous, 
hyaline. 

Harpographmm, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 33; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 619. 

Only differs from Graphium in the elongated or falciform 
conidia. 

Harpographium graminum. Cke. & Mass. (fig. 30, 
_ p. 397.) 
Solitary, scattered, very minute ; stem consisting of a 
fascicle of septate, olive hyphae, becoming free and spread- 
ing above ; conidia cylindric-fusiform, 2-guttulate, hyaline, 
12 X 5 /x. 
Harpographium graminum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 81. 
On straw. 



STYSANIJS. Corda. (fig. 28, p. 397.) 

Stroma erect, cylindrical or clavate, brown, rather rigid ; 
conidia ovoid, lemon-shaped, or somewhat fusoid, subhyaline, 
concatenate, grouped into an oblong or subglobose, somewhat 
lax, terminal panicle. 

Stysanus, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 21 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 620. 

Stysanus stemonites. Corda. (fig. 28, p. 397.^ 
Gregarious, stem simple, thin, blackish-brown, consisting 

of septate, olive-brown, parallel hyphae, which separate above 

into a cylindrical headj conidia ovate or lemon-shaped, 

concatenate, almost colourless, 8 x 5 fi. 

Stysanus stemonites, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 22, t. vi. 

f. 283 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2961. 
On trunks, branches, leaves, &c. 



STTSA^JS — GKAPHI0THECITJ3I. 459 

Stysanus clematidis. Fckl. 

Steins gregarious, slender, striate, blact, 1 line higli; the 
conidia-tearing portion elongato-cylindrical, occupying half 
the length of the stem, grey ; conidia elliptical, S x 2 /x, 
hyaline. 

Stysanus clematidis, Fuckel, Svmh. Mvc, p. 365; Sacc, 
Syll., 2960. 

On rotting stem of clematis. 

Stysanus putredinis. Corda. 

Tafts, effused, crowded, shining white, then mealy and 
tinged with pale red ; stem straight, slender, wavy, downy 
and somewhat pilose, ■white; head large, ohovate, snow- 
white ; chains of conidia at first few and distant, then 
becoming numerous and crowded, short; conidia elliptic- 
oblong, opalescent. 

Stysanus putredinis, Corda, Icon., iii. t. ii. f. 36 ; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 2965. 

On rotten leaves, stems, &e. 



GEAPHIOTHECIUM. Fuckel. (fig. 84, p. 897.) 

Stroma vertical, composed of fasciculate hyphae, inflated 
at the base and resembling a perithecium. Conidia spring- 
ing from the tips of the hyphae, continuous, fusoid, cate- 
nulate. 

Graphiotheciiim, Fckl., Symb. Myc, p. 366 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. 
p. 624. 

Distinguished amongst the genera with an elongated 
vertical stroma composed of fasciculate hyphae by the very 
much swollen base of the stroma, which resembles a perithe- 
cium in appearance. 

Graphiotliecium parasiticmn. Sacc. (fig. 34, 
p. 397.) 
Tery minute, rather scattered, simple, stem composed of 
more or less parallel hyphae, very slender, subulate, glabrous, 
blackish-brown, base spherically incrassated, above cylin- 
drical, white; chains of conidia short, conidia minute, 
elliptical, colourless, 5-7 /j. long. 

Grapkiotkedum parasiticum, Sacc., Syll., iv. n. 2971. 



460 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Stysanus parasiticus, Desm., Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. iii. v. x. 
p. 344. 

On fading or rotten leaves of various plants. 



Sect. 2. Phragmosporae. Sacc. 
AETHEOBOTEYUM. Cesati. (fig. 4, p. 442.) 

Conidiopliore capitate, on an elongated coloured, rigid 
stem composed of agglutinated, parallel, septate hyphae, 
that spread out at the apex and become more or less free, 
hearing the septate, coloured conidia at their tips. 

Arthrdbotryum, Cesati in Hedw., i. t. iv. f. 1 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 608. 

Usually gregarious, the hyphae forming the compact, 
rigid, dark-coloured stem becoming free at the tip and 
forming a head, the tips of the hyphae bearing the conidia. 

Arthrobotryum stilboideum. Cesati. 

Gregarious, blackish brown, stem tapering upwards, 
blackish, conidia cylindrical, 3-septate, endochrome becoming 
pale brown, 10-12 X 4 /a. 

Arihrohotryum stilboideum, Cesati, Hedwigia, i. t. iv. f. 1 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2986. 

On rotten wood. Whole plant not 1 mm. in height. 

Arthrobotryum atrum. B. & Br. (fig. 4, p. 442.) 
Gregarious, blackish, stem stout, cylindrical, rigid ; head 

large, subglobose ; conidia cylindrio-ovoid, 3-4 septate, the 

two end cells pale, remainder brown, 30-40 X 12-16 /x. 
ArtJirdbotryum airum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 822, 

t. ix. f. 6 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 2987. 

On dead stems of various herbaceous plants, and on 

branches. 



Fam. IV. TUBEECULAEIEAE. Ehrenb. 

Compact ; usually originating from a more or less de- 
veloped basal stroma ; wart-like, globose, discoid ; super- 



TUBEBOULAKIEAE. 461 

ficial or erumpeht; waxy or subgelatinoiis. Conidia tome 
laterally or terminal on simple or branched conidiophores 
that are agglutinated together to form a head ; very rarely 
sessile. 

The principal character of the group under consideration 
consists in the agglutination of the conidiophores to form a 
■waxy or subgelatinous, ■wart-like or depressed head ; conidia 
usually minute, very numerous. 

Series I. Tubercularieae mucedineae. Sacc. 

Hyphae and conidia hyaline or bright coloured (not 
black). 

Sect. 1. Amerosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia continuous, elliptical, curved, shortly cylindiical, 
or fusoid. 

Sect 2. Didyiaosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia 1-septate, hyaline or pale-coloured. 

Sect. 3. Phragmosporae. Sacc. 

Conidia elongated, fusiform or falcate, typically 2- many- 
septate. 

Series 11. Tubercularieae dematieae. Sacc. 

Hyphae olivaceous or smoky-black ; conidia similarly 
coloured, rarely hyaline. 

Sect. 1. Amerosporae, Sacc. 

Conidia continuous, globose, elliptical, elongated, or 
unequal, for the most part brown. 

Sect. 2. Phragmosporae. Sacc. 
Oonidia oblong or cylindrical, 2- many-septate, coloured. 



462 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Fam. IV. TUBEBCULARIEAE. Ehr. 

Series I. Tubercularieae mucedineae. Sacc. 

Sect. 1. Amerosporae. Saoc. 

TUBEECULAEIA. Tode. (fig. 24, p. 442.) 

Sporodocliium wart-like or tubercular, sessile or subsessUe, 
generally some shade of red, waxy, glabrous, very rarely 
ciliated at tlie margin; conidia produced at the tips of 
lateral branohlets or at the apex of the conidiophores, con- 
tinuous, elliptical or oblong, typically solitary. 

Tvhereularia, Tode, Meckl. Fung., i. p. 18 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 638, 

Many of the so-called species are known to be the conidial 
stage of species of Nectria. 

The sporodochium consists of densely compacted, simple 
or branched, straight or curved conidiophores which spring 
from a pseudo-parenchymatous base, and become expanded 
at the apex to form a more or less capitate structure. The 
minute conidia form a dense waxy layer covering the 
surface of the sporodochium. 

I. On trunks and tranches of trees or woody shrubs. 

Tubercularia vulgaris. Tode. 

Sporodochia gregarious, rather large, erumpent, margin 
naked, red, shining, glabrous, globoso-depressed, sometimes 
flattened and also confluent, more or less shortly stipitate ; 
conidiophores fasciculate, straight, repeatedly forked, with 
very short lateral branohlets ; conidia elliptic-oblong, some- 
times slightly curved, 6-8 X l'5-2 fi, terminal on the 
branohlets. 

Tubercularia vulgaris, Tode, Meckl. Fung., i. p. 18, tab. iv. 
fig. 30 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3002. 

On branches of various trees. 

Tubercularia granulata. Pers. 
Dingy red, becoming rarely black, granuliform, erumpent ; 



TUBESCULAEIA. 463 

conidial stratum rugose, margin naked ; conidiophores 
filiform, branched ; conidia ovato-oblong, hyaline, borne on 
the lateral branchlets. 

Tuhercularia granulata, Pers., Syn., p. 113; Sacc, SylL, 
iv. n. 3006. 

On tranches of various trees, bursting through the bark. 

Tubercularia nigricans. Link. 

Tubercles rather large, immersed, red, even, margin naked, 
stratum of conidia red ; flesh of tubercle at length black. 

Tuhercularia nigricans. Link, Sp. PI., xi. p. 102 ; Sac, SylL, 
iv. n. 3009. 

On dead branches of elm, and other trees. 

Tubercularia versicolor. Sacc. 

Sporodochia minute, sometimes flesh colour, sometimes 
greenish ; conidia ovoid-oblong, 7-9 X 3-3 • 5 yn, flesh-colour 
greenish, terminal on filiform conidiophores. 

Tubercularia versicolor, Sacc, Fung. Ital., t. 961 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3036. 

On boK twigs (Buxus). 

Tubercularia sarmentosum. Fries. 

Sporodochia small, emerging in longitudinal lines through 
the split epidermis, crimson; conidia allantoid, 7-8 x 
2-2 • 5 IX., hyaline. 

Tuhercularia sarmentosum. Fries, Obs., i. p. 208 ; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 3042. 

On twigs of ivy, &c 

Tubercularia subpedicellata. Schw. 

Sporodochia minute, pale brick red, narrowed below into a 
rather long base, epidermis elevated round the pedicel, head 
emerging above the ruptured cuticle, globose, the pedicel 
separated from the head by a red line; conidial stratum 
rugulose ; conidia 6-7 X 3— i /*. 

Tuhercularia pedicellata, Schw., Syn. Amer. Bor., n. 3014 ; 
Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 3038. 

On Syringa and Lycium. 

Tubercularia ligustri. Cke. 
Tubercles minute, convex, erumpent, soon black and de- 
pressed in the centre, subsessile ; conidia very minute, ellip- 



464 FUNaUS-FLOEA. 

tical, hyaline, 2 x 1 fn; conidiophores short, delicate, appa- 
rently simple. 

Tubercularia ligustri, Cke., Grev., vol. xvi. p. 49. 

On twigs of Ligustrum. 

Tubercularia euonymi. Eonm. (fig. 24, p. 442.) 
Tubercles minute, pnlvinate, hrick-red ; conidia cylindri- 
cal, G X 1 /x, produced laterally on filiform, strongly curved 
conidiophores. 

Tuhercularia euonymi, Eoum., Fung. Gall., n. 55 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3013. 
On Euonymus. 

Tubercularia expallens. Fries. 

Tubercles subglobose, minute; flesh of stroma whitish, 
stratum of conidia pale rose-colour, then yellowish ; conidia 
ellipsoid, obtuse. 

Tubercularia expallens. Fries in index of Syst. Myc, iii. p. 
197 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 3015. 

On dead branches of horse-chestnut. 

Tubercularia sambuci. Corda. 

Erumpent, rather large, vermilion ; stroma somewhat im- 
mersed, convex, grumous, yellow inside, externally red ; 
conidia vermilion, minute, oblong, rather acute, diaphanous. 

Tubercularia sambuci, Gorda, Icon. Fung., i, p, 4, f. 69 ; Sacc, 
SylL, iv. n. 3020. 

On elder (Sambucus). 

Tubercularia aesculi. Opiz. 

Erumpent; tubercles short, fuscous inside, often lobed 
above, stratum of conidia vermilion; conidia rather large, 
oblong, obtuse, whitish, diaphanous. 

Tubercularia aesculi, Opiz. in Oorda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 4, f. 
77 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 8014. 

On dead branches of horse-chestnut. 

Tubercularia confluens. Pers. 
Gregarious, confluent, large, rosy flesh-colour, then pale ; 
conidial layer thick, difBuent; stroma pulvinate, whitish, 
yellowish inside at the base ; conidia large, fusoid-ovate, 
somewhat obtuse. 



TUBERCULAKIA. 465 

Tuhercularia confluens, Pers., Syn. Fung., p. 113 (in. part) ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3017. 
Ou bark of poplar, willow, sycamore, &c. 

Tubercularia minor. Link. Var. Syringae, Cke. & 
Mass. Minute, erumpent, horn-coloured then flesh-colour or 
reddish, shining, gelatinous when moist, stroma readily 
falling away when mature ; conidia oblong, straight, rounded 
at the ends, 12 x 2 /a; conidiophores simple. 

Grev., 1889, p. 80. 

On twigs of filac. 



II. On herhaceous stems. 

Tubercularia herbarum. Fries. 

Erumpent, innate, pallid, minute ; the wedge-shaped stroma 
purple inside, and covered with a pale conidial stratum ; 
conidia ovate, involved in mucus. 

Tubercularia herbarum. Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 465 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3056. 

On dead herbaceous stems. 

Tubercularia brassicae. Lib. 

Tubercles superficial, wart-like, minute, red, even ; conidiaf 
cylindrical, very slightly curved, 8-10 x 1.1- /a, hyaline, 
borne laterally on simple or forked, toothed conidiophores. 

Tuhercularia brassicae. Lib., Herb., n. 1019 ; Sacc, Syll., iv^ 
n. 3057. 

On decaying cabbage stalks. 



III. On leaves. 

Tubercularia aquifolia. C. & M. 

Tubercles scattered, innate, at length erumpent, pallid 
£esh-colour, subsessile ; conidiophores rather thick, furcate ; 
conidia narrowly elliptical or sausage-shaped, obtuse, 12-15 
X 2-3 fjL. 

Tubercularia aquifolia, Cke., & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 49. 

On dead holly leaves. 

VOL. ni. 2 H 



466. FUNGUS-FLOEA. 



IV. On fit' cones. 

Tubercularia conorum. C. & M. 

Tubercles sessile, erumpent in lines, convex, often con- 
fluent, rosy; oonidiopliores long, straight, erect j conidia 
allantoid, obtuse, 8-10 X 2-3 fj.. 

Tubercularia conorum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 49. 

On fir cones. 



DENDEODOCHIUM. Bon. (fig. 6, p. 442.) 

Sporodoohium pulvinate or wart-like, variable, white or 
bright-coloured; conidia elliptical or oblong, hyaline, pro- 
duced at the tips of somewhat verticillately branched coni- 
■diophores. 

DendrodocMum, Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 135 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 650. 

Allied to Tubercularia, but distinguished by the conidio- 
phores being more or less verticillately branched. 

Dendrodochium citrinum. Grove. 

Sporodochium wart-like, ^ mm. diam., circular, very con- 
vex, distinctly marginate j disc shining, citrin-yellow, deepest 
■outside the tumid margin ; conidiophores repeatedly 2-5-ver- 
ticillately branched ; branches filiform ; conidia apical on the 
branchlets, spherical, yellowish, guttulate 1-75 /x diameter. 

Dendrodochium citrinum. Grove, in Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3083. 

On rotten wood of Pinus sylvestris (?). 

Dendrodochium affine. Sacc. (fig. 6, p. 442.) 
Sporodochium bursting through from below the cuticle, 
hence erumpe'nt, depressedly cushion-shaped, reddish, mi- 
nute ; conidia broadly elliptical, 4^5 x 2-3 /a, biguttulate, at 
first with a faint tinge of rose, then hyaline ; conidiophores 
filiform, fasciculate, 2-3-times forked above, sparingly sep- 
tate ; sterile hyphae creeping, distantly septate. 

Dendrodochium affine, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 562 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 3073. ' 

On dead stems of potato and sunflower. 



DENDEODOOHIUM — TUBEEOULINA. 467 



TUBEECULINA, Saco. (fig 7, p. 442.) 

SporodoohiTim minute, plano-convex, often more or less 
violet, at length becoming hard and sclerotiform; conidia 
subglobose, acrogenous, conidiopbores ratlier thick, simple, 
or with a few short branchlets. 

Tiiberculina, Sacc, Mich., vol. ii. p. 34 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 
653 ; Mass., Brit. Fung., vol. i. p. 203. 

The species are remarkable for being parasitic on the mem- 
bers of another family of fungi, the Uredines. The general 
habit is that of a Tuhercularia, near to which form-genus it is 
placed by Saccardo. Gobi, on the other hand, considers the 
genus as having more affinity with the Ustilagineae, 

Tuberculina persicina. Sacc. (fig. 7, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium plano-convex, minute, several often arranged 
concentrically, violet-brown, paler inside; conidia subglo- 
bose, 7-8 rarely 10 //, diameter, rosy-violet, smooth ; conidio- 
phores simple, or with a few scattered branches, aseptate, 
denticulate at the tips, almost colourless. 

Tuberculina persicina, Sacc, Fung. Ital., t. 964; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 3088 ; Plow., Brit. Ured. and Ustilag., p. 299 (excl. 
syn. Tuberculina vinosa, Sacc.) ; Mass. Brit. Fung., vol. i. p. 
204, fig. 132. 

Tubercularia persicina, Ditm. in Sturm's Fl. Deutschl., 
t. 49. 

Parasitic on Uredo, Aecidium, and Boestelia stages of 
various Uredines. 

Tuberculina vinosa. Sacc 

Closely allied to Tuberculina persicina, from which it differs 
in the larger pustules of a vinous colour ; conidia subglobose 
or ovoid, 11-12 x 10 /^, conidiophores shorter, thicker, sep- 
tate, simple. 

Tuberculina vinosa, Sacc, Michelia, i. p. 262, and ii. p. 34; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3089; Massee, Brit. Fung., vol, i. 
p. 204. 

Parasitic on Aecidium on Coltsfoot, on jRoestelia on apple 
and hawthorn, and on Aecidium on boraginaceous plants. 
Eare. 

2 H 2 



468 FUNGTJS-FLORA. 



ILLOSPOEIlJM. Mart. (fig. 26, p. 442.) 

Sporodocliium wart-like, pulvinate, or somewhat effused, 
wMte or iDriglit-coloiired, subgelatinoTis and waxy, sometimes 
cracking ; conidia variable, globose or sigmoid, agglomerated 
in irregular clusters by mncus ; conidiophores variable. 

IHosporium^ Martins, Fl. Cr. Erlang., p. 325 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 656. 

Differs from Tvhercularia in the conidia being held together 
in irregular masses by mucus. Often forming rosy stains on 
lichens. 

lUosporium roseum. Mart. (fig. 26, p. 442.) 
Erumpent, free, gregarious and forming irregular masses, 
soft, subgelatinous, deep rose-colour, readily becoming pow- 
dery and friable ; conidia ovoid, unequal, involved in mucus ; 
conidiophores branched and contorted. 

Hlosporium roseum, Mart., Fl. Erl., p. 325 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 3100. 

Growing on the thallus of various species of lichens* 
Physcia, Parmelia, '&c. 

Illosporium coccineum. Eries. 

Sporodochia minute, crowded, globose, scattered every- 
where, scarlet, at length breaking up into similarly coloured 
conidia, whi'ch are subglobose and held by mucus in small 
groups. 

lUosporium coccineum. Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 259""; Sacc, 
Syll., IV. n. 3101. 

On the thallus of various lichens. 

Illosporium corallinum. Eob. 

Gregarious, minute, rosy, globose, ovoid or cylindrical, 
taore or less branched and coral-like; conidia variable in 
shape, somewhat hyaline, agglutinated in groups. 

Illosporium corallinum, Eob., inDesm., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1848, 
X. p. 342 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3102. 

On various species of frondose lichens. 

Illosporium carneum. Fries. 
Gregarious, globose, free, soft, powdery, flesh-red ; conidia 



ILLOSPOBIUM — AEGERITA. 469 

ovoid, curved, rosy-hyaliiie, aggregated by mucus into small 
groups. 

Ulosporium carneum, Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 259 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3103. 

On lichens, especially belonging to the genus Peltigera. 

Illosporium Curreyi. Berk. 

Sporodochia subglobose orpulvinate, scattered or gregarious, 
formed of interwoven, branched hyphae that are constricted 
at the septa ; conidia bright yellow, globose. 

Arthroderma Curreyi, Berk., Outl., p. 357. 

Illosporium. Curreyi, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3116. 

On dead twigs and leaves. 



AEGEEITA. Pers. (fig. 5, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium subglobose, sessile, delicate, somewhat mealy, 
superficial, growing on wood ; conidiophores white or pallid, 
short, rather thick, simple, or slightly branched, sometimes 
obsolete ; conidia globose or ovoid, rather large, more or less 
terminal, solitary; 

Aegerita, Pers., Disp. Fung., p. 40 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 661. 

Aegerita Candida. Pers. (fig. 5, p. 442.) 
Crowded, granular, subglobose; minute, pure white when 
growing, yellowish when dry, even, glabrous, minutely 
mealy from the numerous conidia ; sporophores short, fascicu- 
late, rather thick, cylindrical, wavy ; conidia elliptical, base 
sometimes apiculate, 12-15 X 7-8 ^a, usually terminal, hya- 
Jine. 

Aegerita Candida, Persoon, Syn., p. 684 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 
3124. 

On wood and bark of elder in wet places. 

Aegerita virens. Carm. 

Scattered, granuliform, minute, hemispherical, olive ; coni- 
diophores fasciculate at the base, radiating, rather thick, 
flexuous, simple or diohotomous, often clavate at the tips; 
conidia terminal, globose, pale olive, 15 /* diameter. 

Aegerita virens, Oarmichael in Herb. ; Grev., vol. xvi. p. 81. 

On birch bark. 



470 FUKGUS-FLOKA. 



SPHACELIA. Lev. (fig. 28, p. 442.) 

SporodocHum somewliat plane, effused, seated on a fleshy 
or -waxy basal stratiim; conidiophores short, somewhat 
simple, rod-shaped ; conidia ovoid, single, aorogenous. 

SpTiacelia, Lev., Mem. Hoc. Linn., v. p. 578 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 666. 

Definitely known to be the conidial condition of species 
of Clavieeps and Epichloe. 

Sphacelia segetum. Lev. (fig. 28, p. 442.) 
Whitish, covering the surface of the young stroma of 
Claviceps purpurea with a somewhat mealy bloom ; coni- 
diophores rod-shaped, slightly clavate, densely packed, 
continuous, hyaline, 9—12 fx, long; conidia solitary at the 
tips of the conidiophores, elliptical, hyaline, 4-6 X 2-3 /jl. 

Sphacelia segetum, Lev.^ Mem. Soc. Linn., v. p. 578; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. 3147. 

Covering the surface of the young stroma of Claviceps 
purpurea, of which it is the conidial stage. Springing from 
the ovary of various species of grass. 

Sphacelia typhina. Sacc. 

Waxy, pale flesh-colour, encircling the leaf-sheaths or 
stems of grasses for a space of 1-2 in. as a continuous, thin, 
crustaceous layer ; conidiophores 20-24 x 1 ' 6-2 fi, ■ rod- 
shaped',' slightly attenuated upwards; conidia aorogenous, 
ovoid, 4-5 X 3 /i, hyaline. 

SpJiacelia typMna, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 297 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 3150. 

On the leaf-sheath or rachis of various grasses, JDactylus, 
Hdlcus, Triticum, &c. 

The conidial condition of Epichloe typMna. 



HYMENULA, Fr. (fig. 18, p. 442.) 

SporodochiuM disciform, regular, brightly ■ coloured ; 
•conidia borne at the 'tips of simple or rarely forked coni- 
diophores. 



SPHACELIA — HTMBNULA. ' 47 

Mymenula, Pries, Syst. Myc, ii. p. 233 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 667. 

The Mack species are arranged under the genus Hymenopsis, 
amongst the Tubereulariae dematiae. 

Hymenula constellata. B. & Br. 

Sporodoohia orbicular, 1 ■ 5 mm. across, pallid, compact in 
the centre, conidiophores branched, compact ; conidia 
elliptical, 5 X 3 /a. 

Hymenula constellata, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1590 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3170. 

On rotten -wood. 

Hymenula rubella. Pr. (fig. 18, p. 442). 

Sporodochiiim oblong, shining, yellowish-red, agglutinated 
to the matrix ; conidiophores acicular, sometimes furcate, 
20-25 X 1 /J.; conidia terminal, cylindrical, ends obtuse, 
straight or slightly curved, 5-7 X 1*5 /a, hyaline. 

Mymenula rubella. Pries, Elenoh., ii. p. 38 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 3171. 

On dead stems of Typha, Juncus, Phragmites, Garex, &o. 

Hymenula Berkeleyi. Sacc. 

Sporodochium punctiform, pallid, gelatinous, dingy white 
or pale yellow, about J mm, diameter ; sometimes subundu- 
late ; conidia elliptical, 6 /a long. 

Hymenula BerJceleyi, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3174. 

Hymenula punetiformis, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 729 ; 
Berk., Outlines, p. 291. 

On fir wood. "With the habit of a small Galloria. 

Hymenula vulgaris. Pries. 

Sporodochium subgelatinous, naked, slightly elevated, 
oblong or irregular, 2-6 mm. long, white or with. a tinge of 
blue when fresh, blackish when dry ; conidiophores erect, 
densely crowded, very slender, colourless, simple (?), throw- 
ing off conidia at the apex ; conidia 5—6 X 1 ' 5—2 jx, obtuse 
at both ends, colourless, very numerous, slig;htly curved. 

Hymenula vulgaris, Pries, Syst. Myc, Hi. p. 234; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3157. 

On rotting stems of Angelica, Urtica, &c. 



472 . FITNGUS-FLOEA. 



CYLINDEOCOLLA. Bon. (fig! 25, p. 442.). 

SporodocMiim subtremelloid, wart-like, irregular, brightly 
coloured ; conidia terminal on the tips of repeatedly forked 
conidiophores, concatenate, rod-skaped, truncate at both 
ends. 

CylindrocoUa, Bonorden, Hdbk., p. 149 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 673. 

, Characterised, by the repeatedly dichotomising conidio- 
phores and the concatenate cylindrical truncate conidia. 

CylindrocoUa urticae. Bon. (fig. 25, p. 442.) 
Gregarious, irregularly circular, becoming collapsed in 
the centre, bright orange-red ; conidiophores repeatedly 
forked, elongated ; conidia terminal on the branchlets, 
cylindrical, 8-12 X 1'5 /*, continuous, hyaline. 

CylindrocoUa urticae, Bon., Hdbk., p. 149 ; Sacc, Sj'll., iv. 
n. 3190. 

On dead nettle stems. Forming bright orange-red, sub- 
gelatinous, minute patches. Said to be the conidial con- 
dition of Calloria fusarioides. 



PEEIOLA. Pries, (fig. 17, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium free, superficial, rounded, variable, sur- 
rounded, by the cortex ; stroma cellular, fleshy or somewhat 
gelatinous ; conidia globoso-ovoid, hyaline, continuous, in 
peripheral chains mixed with bristles. 

Periola, Pries, Syst. Myc, ii. p. 266 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 681. 

Allied to Volutella, but differing in the peripheral chains 
of conidia. 

Periola tomentosa. Fries, (fig. 17, p. 442.) 
Bounded, deformed, tomentose, white, scattered or con- 
glomerated, often confluent, base adnate, 4r-6 mm. across, 
somewhat fleshy,, pallid .inside, firm; conidia obovate, 
minute, 5 X 3 /a, hyaline, (catenulate ?), borne on. densely 
•crowded, rod-shaped basidia. j 



PEEIOLA — VOLUTELLA. 473 

Periola tomentosa. Pries, Syst. Myc, ii. p. 267 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. no. 681. 

On potatoes that have been stored. 



VOLUTELLA. Tode. (figs. 8 and 9, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium disciform, regular, margin with elongated 
cilia, or in some species everywhere with projecting spine- 
shaped hyphae or cilia, sessile or stipitate ; oonidia elliptical, 
oblong, or snbglobose, terminal or slender, simple or branched 
conidiophores, which constitute the sporodochium. 

Volutella, Tode, Mecklenb. Fung., i. p. 28; emended by 
Saccardo in Mich., ii. p. 36 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 682. 

Distinguished by the regular and symmetrical sporo- 
dochium, which is either fringed or studded all over with 
'elongated projecting spine-like hyphae. Certain sessile, 
broadly applanate, more or less irregularly shaped species 
have been removed to the genus Psilonia. 

A. Sporodochium stipitate or with a narrowed base. 

Volutella ciliata. Fries, (figs. 8 and 9, p. 442.) 
Sporodochium substipitate or contracted at the base, 
pale pink or whitish, hemispherical, 150-200 //, across, disc 
slightly convex, furnished at the margin with a fringe of 
scattered, hyaline, continuous or septate, elongated, pointed 
hyphae 250-600 x 8-10 yu. ; conidiophores densely crowded, 
unbranched, colourless or with a tinge of rose-colour ; conidia 
narrowly elliptic-oblong, ends rounded, hyaline, straight, or 
slightly subinequilatcral, 5-7 X 2-2 "5 /*. 

Volutella ciliata. Fries, Syst. Myc, iii. p. 467 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 3223. 

On ratten wood and branches, also on decaying fraits, 
tubers, &c. 

Var. stipitata. Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3223. Sporodochium 
shortly stipitate, stem brownish, or subsessile, hemispherical, 
rather fleshy, ■ covered above with a rose-coloured layer of 
conidia, marginal setae scanty, rigid, septate, subulate, 
hyaline ; conidia elliptic-oblong, minute, hyaline, 2-guttulate, 
5x2-5/*. 



474 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Psilonia stipitata, Libert, exs. cent., iii. n. 287. 

On rotten branches and stems, and on various sclerotia. 

Volutella roseola. Cke. 

SporodooHum subglobose, rose-colour, seated on a distinct 
thin stem -like base, cilia marginal, elongated, flexuous, 
attenuated upwards ; conidia cylindrical, 3 X 1 j"- 

Volutella roseola, Cke., in Grevillea ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3230. 

On branches. Distinguished from Volutella ciliata by the 
much smaller conidia. 

Volutella hyacinthorum. Berk. 

Minute ; pure white, shortly but distinctly stipitate ; sporo- 
dochium surrounded by a row of long, pointed, colourless 
hairs ; conidia colourless, 4 x 1 " 5 /x. 

Volutella hyacinthorum. Berk., Outl., p. 340 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 3231. 

Psilonia hyacinthorum, Berk., Engl. PI., v. p. 363. 

On dead bulbs, leaves, herbaceous stems, &c. 

Volutella nivea. Sacc. 

Erumpent; sporodochia gregarious or confluent, snow- 
white, 1-2 mm. diameter, sessile, hemispherical, hairs 
hyaline, numerous, wavy, with spreading branches ; conidia 
minute, elongato-oylindrical, curverl, hj'aline. 

Volutella nivea, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3236 fnot of Fries), which 
is, as pointed out by Cooke, of insect origin, being caused 
by Adelges fagi, as proved by an authentic specimen from 
Fries. 

On bark of beech, emerging through the cracks. 



B. Base of sporodochium hroad and flattened. 

* Growing on Dicotyledons. 

Volutella setosa. Berk. 
Sporodochium white, sessile on a broad base, margined 
and its substance interspersed with elongated, continuous, 
hair-like hyphaej conidia globose, very minute, about Vyi. 
diameter. 



VOLUTELLA. 475 

Volutella setosa. Berk., Outl., p. 340 ; Sacc,, Syll., iv. 
n. 3235. 

Aegerita setosa, Grev., Scot. Crypt. FL, tab. 268. fig. 2. 
On rotten herlDaoeous stems, &o. 

Volutella buxi. Berk. 

Sporodooliia gregarious, minute, sessile, pulvinate, , the 
elongated setae clear pale rose, septate, tips obtuse, 100^120 x 
4 fj. erecto-divergent, forming a fringe round the sporodooHum ; 
conidia oblong-fusoid, acute at both ends, 10-12 x 3-5 jx; 
pale rose-colour. 

Volutella buxi, Berk., Outl., p. 340; Sacc, Syll^ iv. n. 3237. 

Ohaetostroma Inixi, Corda, Icon. Fung., ii. f. 107. 

On the under surface of box leaves. 

Volutella gilva. Sacc. 

Sporodochia scattered, erumpent, convex, |— 1 mm. dia- 
meter, rather compact, sometimes elongated, dingy yellow or 
reddish, its substance interspersed, with filiform, very wavy, 
160-200 X 5-6 /x, septate, ochraeeous setae that are rough 
at the tips; conidia cylindrical, straight, ends obtuse, 
10-13 X 1-2 '5 fi, basidia fasciculate, filiform, 15-20 X 
1-5-2 fj,. 

Volutella gilva, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 208; Sacc. SyU., iv. 
n. 3240. 

On putrid leaves, stems, &c. 

Volutella discoidea. Sacc. 

Sporodochium 2-4 mm. high, orbicular, elongated, flexuous, 
pale fulvous then brown, at first setulose all over, disc 
proliferous, margin rosy-brown ; conidia oblong or sub- 
cymbiform, 9 X 3-4 fi. 

Volutella discoidea, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3246. 

Psilonia discoidea, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., 1866, n. 1150, 
t. 3. f. 8. 

On rotten wood. 

** Growing on Monocotyledons. 

Volutella arundinis. Desm. 
"^'Sporodochium oblong, pale rose-colour; setae hyaline, 
fasciculate ; conidia elliptical, 5 /a long. 



476 rUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Volutella arundinis, Desm,, Obs. Crypt., 1830, p. 12; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3261. 

On sheaths of Phragmites comttmnis. 

Volutella melaloma. B. & Br. 

Sporodocliia orange-oolotiv, fringed -witli black, septate 
cilia ; conidia fusiform, often slightly curved, appendiculate, 
8x4//. 

Volutella melaloma, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 496, t. xi. 
f. 3 ; Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 3252. 

On leaves of a species of Carex. 

Volutella festucae. Sacc. 

Sporodochium sessile, epiphyllous, hemispherical, woolly, 
minute, lax, fugacious, whitish rose-colour ; setae subdistant, 
erect, simple, acute, continuous, hyaline ; conidia cylindrical, 
curved, ends obtuse, pale rose-colour, 6-6 X 2 /a. 

Volutella festucae, Sacc. Syll., iv. n. 3262. 

Psilonia festucae. Lib., Exs., n. 286. 

On leaves of Festuca. 

Sect. 2. Bidymospprae. Sacc. 
ENDODESMIA, B. & Br. (emend.) (fig. 12, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium subglobose, conidiophores very short and 
forming a compact basal stratum, each bearing an erect 
chain of uniseptate conidia ; sterile hyphae numerous, elon- 
gated, radiating from the base, slender, continuous. 

Endodesmia, Berk. & Broome, Ann. Nat. Hist., 1871, p 16 ; 
Sacc, SyU., iv. p. 691. 

An examination of the type specimen shows that the 
spores are not at all appendiculate. Differs from Volutella 
in the long chains of 1- septate conidia. 

Endodesmia glauca. B. & Br. (fig. 12, p. 442.) 
Sporodochium about 1 line high and across, glaucous; 
conidiophores very short, rod-like, conidia elliptical, . both 
ends rather acute, 1-septate, smooth, almost or quite hyaline, 
catenulate, chains more or less erect ; sterile hyphae, radi- 
ating on all sides, very slender, rather wavy, 200 X 2 /*, con- 
tinuous, almost hyaline. 



ENDODESmA — BACTEIDIUM. 477 

Midodesmia glauca. Berk. & Broome, Ann. Nat. Hist., 1871, 
n. 1318, t. XX. f. 9 (conidia wrong shape, and should not be 
appendionlate) ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3267. 

On old cabbage stalks, forming minute glaucous or 
greyish, silky-looking tufts under a lens. The above de- 
scription is drawn up from the type specimen. 

Sect. 3. Phragmosporae. Sacc. 
BACTEIDIUM. Kunze. (fig. 13, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium superficial, rather thin, more or less convex ; 
conidia elongated, large, pluriseptate, colourless or coloured ; 
conidiophores simple or branched, terete. 

Bactridium, Kunze, Mykol., Heft i. p. 5 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 691. 

Distinguished by the very large, elongated, multiseptate 
conidia. 

Bactridium flavum. K. & S. 

Sporodochium nearly globose, clear orange, 1-1 • 5 mm. 
across; conidia fusiform-clavate, 150-180x30-50 /«,, 5-6- 
septate, olive with a rufous tinge; sporophores simple, 
150-180 X 8-10 fjL, colourless. 

Bactridium flavum, Kunze & Sohw., Myk., Heft i. p. 5, t. i. 
f. 2; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3268. 

On rotten wood. 

Bactridium acutum. B. & W. 

White ; parasitic, conidia attenuated at the base, apex 
acute, 1-3-septate, penultimate joint tumid. 

Bactridium acutum. Berk. & White; Scottish Nat., iv. 
p. lfi^2, t. ii. f. 4; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3275. 

Parasitic on the hymenium of Peziza cocMeata. Differs 
from. Bactridium helvellae in the conidia being constantly 
acute at the apex and attenuated towards the base. 

Bactridium helvellae. B. & Br. (fig. 13, p, 442.) 
Sporodochia confluent, thin, minute, Subeffused; conidio- 
phores suberect, sparingly branched ; conidia clavate, clavato- 
piriform, subfusiform, colourless, at maturity 6-7-septate, 
60-70 X 14r-16 fi. 



478 . FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Bactridium pezizae, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist,, n. 816, t. ix. 
f. 3; Sacc, Syll,, iv.n. 3276. 
On the hymenium of a Peziza. 

Bactridium atrovirens. Berk. 

Hyphae forked, pellucid; conidia lanceolate, 1— 2-septate, 
dingy green, forming a minutely granular olive-green 
stratum. 

Bactridium atrovirens. Berk., Engl. Flora, vol. v. p. 350 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3278. 

On trunks. There is no specimen in the Berkeley 
herbarium. 



PUSAEIUM. Link. (figs. 14 and 27, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium pulvinate or rather effused ; conidia fusoid or 
falcate, typically pluriseptate at maturity, borne at the tips 
of branched conidiophores. 

Fusarium, Link, Berl. Mag., iii. p. 10 (1809), emended by 
Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 35 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 694. 

ci'y * -^ . }• of many old authors. 
iselenosponum J ■' 

Often occurring as more or less effused, orange crusts that 

are rather gelatinous when moist. 

L EU-FUSAEIUM. Conidia fusoid, falcate, or cylindrical, 
one or many-septate. 

Fusarium lateritium. Nees. 

Sporodochium variable, thick, erumpent, deep brick-red!^; 
conidia arcuate, acute at both ends, 39-40 X 4-5 fji., 4-5- 
septate, borne on oppositely branched conidiophores. 

Fusarium lateritium, Nees, Syst., f. 26; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 
3283. 

On dead branches, galls, &c. 

Fusarium sarcochroum. Sacc. 
Sporodochium erumpent, J-| mm. diameter, fleshy, rather 
convex, compact, at first white, then flesh-colour or reddish ; 
hyphae densely fasciculate, ascending, septate, repeatedly 



FUSAEIUM. 479 

dicliotomotisly branohed ; conidia produced at tke tips of the 
braiiclies, fusiform, slightly curved, acute at both ends, 3-5- 
septate, rosy-hyaline, 28-40 X 4-6 fi,. 

Fusarium sarcoehroum, Sacc., Syll., iv. n. 3281. 

Selenosporium garcochronm, Desm., Ann. Sci. Kat., 1850, xiv. 
p. 111. 

On the bark of branches. 

Fusarium pyrochroum. Sacc. 

Sporodochia spot-like or minute, erumpent, remaining 
partly covered, pale ochraceous, flame-colour when dry, 
■J-J mm. across ; conidia produced at the tips of verticillately 
branched, curved conidiophores, 35-40 x 3-5 yn, spuriously 
■3-5-septate, acute, rosy-hyaline. 

Fusarium pyrochroum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3282. 

Selenosporium pyi-ochroiim, l)esm., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1850, xiv, 
p. 111. 

On dead branches. 

rusarium vinosum. Mass. 

Sporodochia minute, gregarious, erumpent, deep vinous 
brown, often, becoming confluent and forming a crust, some- 
what gelatinous ; conidia fusoid, arcuate, acuminate at the 
ends, 37 X 40 X 4-5 /j,, 5-septate, borne on oppositely 
branched conidiophores. 

On decaying beech mast. 

Fusarium viticola. Thiim. 

Sporodochia solitary or scattered, sometimes confluent, 
large, elevated, originating under the epidermis, which is at 
length perforated, slightly rugulose, shining, almost flesh- 
colour ; conidia exactly fusiform, slightly curved, sometimes 
straight, rather acute at both ends, 3-5-septate, not con- 
stricted at the septa, subnucleate or granular within, 
36-40 X 4 /i, hyaline. 

Fusarium viticola, Thiim, Weinst., p. 52, t. iii. f. 3 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 1288. _ 

On dry vine twigs. 

Fusarium tubereularioides. Sacc. 
Erumpent, minute, purple ; stroma fleshy, ochraceous ; 
conidia 45-50 /j, long, fusiform, curved, very acute at both 
ends, 6-'septate, white. 



480 FUNGUS-FLOE A. 

Fusarium tubermlarioides, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3299. 
Selenosporiwm tubermlarioides, Corda, Ic, i. p. 7, f. 111. 
On rotten branches of Bubus. 

Fusarium foeni. B. & Br. 

Grolden-red, sporodochium broadly effused, mycelium 
creeping, sparingly septate, cpnidiopliores very stort; 
conidia oblong, curved, 1-2-septate, 45-50 X 5 /i, hyaline. 

Fusarium foeni, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 550 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3306. 

On damp hay. 

Fusarium myosotidis. Cke. 
Hypophyllous. Spots small, irregular, pallid ; stroma thin ; 
conidia fusiform, curved, triseptate, hyaline, 30 X 3-4 fx.. 
Fusarium myosotidis, Cke., Grev,, xvi. p. 49. 
On fading leaves of Myosotis. 

Fusarium inaequale. Auersw. 

Conidia rose-colour, hyaline, variable in shape, oblong, 
fusiform, and linear, 1-5-septate or continuous, rounded at 
both ends, 7-15 /x long. 

Fusarium inaequale, Auersw., in Klot. Herb. Myc, n. 1383; 
Bot. Ztg., 1860, p. 439; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3310. 

On various decaying substances. 

Fusarium diffusum. Carm. 

Effused, orange, conidia fusiform, accuminate, slightly 
fusiform, especially at the extremities, 3-5-septate, hyaline, 
60-70 X 3 IX. 

Fusarium diffusum, Carm. MS., Grev., xiv. p. 81. 

On thistle stems. Near F. roseum. 

Fusarium roseum. Link. 

Sporodochium minute, sessile, subglobose or rather effused, 
gregarious, rust-colour ; conidia fusiform, pale, very abundant, 
30-65 X 4 /A, usually 3-septate. 

Fusarium roseum. Link., Sp. PI. Fungi, ii. p. 105; Sacc, 
SyU., iv. n. 3311. 

On decaying leaves and stems. 

Fusarium brassioae. Thiim. 
Sporodochia wart-like, densely gregarious, sometimes but 



FUSAEIUM. 481 

rarely confluent, compact, rather firm, superficial, opaque 
brown ; conidia lunulate, fusiform, ratlier acute at both ends, 
2-septate, but not constricted at the septa, sometimes guttu- 
late, hyaline, 30-36 X 3-4*5 /x, conidiophores short. 

Fusarium hrassicae, Thiim., Hedw., 1880, p. 191 ; Saoc, 
Syll., iv. n, 3314. 

On rotten cabbage stalks. 

Fusarium Cordae. Mass. 

Sporodochium broad, orange; hyphae creeping, branched 
and densely interwoven, 3-5 /x thick, hyaline ; conidiophores 
acicular, branched ; conidia fusoid, curved, very acute at 
both ends, 3-5-septate, rosy-hyaline, 40-55 X 3-5 fx,. 

Fusarium aurantiacum, Corda, in Sturm, t. 8. 

Fusarium oxyfporum, Schlecht, var. aurantiacum, Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 3334. 

On various decaying vegetable substances, seeds, fruits, &c. 

Corda's name is antedated by (Link) Sacc. 

Fusarium caeruleum. Sacc. 
Sporodochium broadly effused, bright violet-blue; conidia 
fusiform, 2-3-septate, curved, 24-30 X 5-6 /u.. 
Fusarium caeruleum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3335. 
Fusarium violaceum, Fuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 369. 
On rotten tubers of potato. 

Fusarium solani. Sacc. (fig. 14, p. 442.) 
Globose, irregular, tomentose, white; hyphae branched; 

conidia fusiform-falcate, 3-5-septate, 40-60 X 7-8 ju,, almost 

hyaline. 

Fusarium solani, Sacc, Mich., ii. p. 296 ; Syll., iv. n. 3336. 
Fusisporium solani. Mart., Kartof. Epid., t. 3, f. 25-30. 

Fusarium heterosporum. Nees. 

Sporodochium rather tremelloid, expanded, deep red ; 
conidia fusiform, 3-6-septate, 30-35 /a long. 

Fusarium heterosporum, Nees, N. A. Cur., ix. p. 135 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3343. 

On the fruit, glumes, and in the seed of various grasses. 

Fusarium minimum. Fckl. 
Sporodoohia very minute, spot-like, hemispherical, often 

VOL. III. 2 I 



482 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

confluent, vermilion; conidia fusiform, curved, obscurely 
3-septate, 14 x 3 /*, hyaline. 

I'usarium minimum, Puckel, Symb. Myc, p. 370, t. 1, f. 39 ; 
Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 3345. 

On fading grass leaves. 

Fusarium insidiosum. Sacc. 

Sporodochia whitisli, subglobose, very minute ; mycelium 
creeping ; conidiophores simple or branched, torulose ; conidia 
fusiform, falcate, apiculate, 50 ft, long, 1-5 septate. 

Fusarium insidiosum, Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 3346. 

Fusisporium insidiosum, 'Beik., Gard. Chron., 1860, p. 480, 
with a fig. 

On leaves and culms of Agrostis pulchella. 

Fusarium bulbigenum. Cke. & Mass. 

Effused, whitish, at first somewhat erumpent in small 
tufts, which become confluent; conidia fusiform, arcuate or 
incurved at the acute extremities, triseptate, hyaline, 
40-60 X 5 /u. 

Fusarium bulbigenum, Cke. & Mass., Grev., xvi. p. 49. 

On bulbs of Narcissus. 

Fusarium filisporum. Sacc. 

Sporodochium minute, rosy, developing in the capsules 
and amongst the leaves of mosses; conidia filiform, multi- 
septate, breaking up at the septa, 170 /;i long. 

Fusarium filisporum, Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 3348. 

Fusisporium filisporum, Cooke. 

On Orihotrichum. 

Fusarium obtusum. Sacc. 
Tremelloid, white; conidia cylindrical, generally at- 
tenuated at the ends, obtuse, 3-septate, 40 X 5 /x. 
■ Fusarium obtusum, Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 3353. 
Fusisporium obtusum, Cke., Grev., v. p. 58. 
On Diatrype. 

Fusarium epiiayces. Cooke. 

Sporodochium minute, whitish, gelatinous, often con- 
fluent ; conidia fusiform, the pointed extreme tips abruptly 
curved, hyaline, 50-60 X 4 //,, 3-septate. 

On Scleroderma vulgare. 



FUSAKIUJM. 483 

Fusarium mucophytum. Mass. 

Mycelium pallid or colourless, thin, some what torulose, 
forming a thin, somewhat gelatinous stratum; conidia very 
large, curved, fusiform, 3-8-septate, nucleate, at first 
colourless, then pale brown or salmon-colour. 

Fusisporium mucophytum, W. G. Smith, Gard. Chron., 1884, 
p. 245, with a fig. 

On gills of living Agarics. 

Fusarium roseolum. Sacc. 

Sporodochium rose-red, delicate, flocculose ; hyphae short ; 
conidia curved, elongated, rather obtuse, 3-6-septate, slightly 
torulose. 

Fusarium roseolum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3363. 

Fusisporium roseolum. Staph., Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 
549. 

On rotten potato tubers. 

Fusarium. bacilligerum. Sacc. 

Greyish-white ; mycelium obsolete ; conidia very long, 
hyaline, 5-7-septate, obtuse or slightly clavate, rather 
curved. 

Fusarium hacilligerum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3370. 

Fusisporium hacilligerum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 
548. 

On leaves of RJiamnus. 

Probably a species of Gercospora. 

Fusarium heteronemum. B. & Br. 

Hyphae septate at the base, joints broad, continuous up- 
wards, branched, sometimes furcate, slender ; conidia oblong, 
curved, uniseptate. 

Fusarium "heteronemum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1051, 
t. 14, f. 9 ; Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 3374. 

On decayed pears. 

Fusarium incarcerans. Sacc. 
Pale rose-colour; conidia arcuate, slender, 60-65 ju, long, 
3-septate. 

Fusarium incarcerans, Sacc, Syll., n. 3383. 
Fusisporium incarcerans. Berk., Intell. Obs., 1863, p. 11, 
f. 4. 
In fruit of Orthotrichum. 

2 I 2 



484 FUNGUS-FLOKA. 

Fusarium Kiihnii. Sacc. 

Mycelium cobweb-like, white, effused, consisting of blender 
branched hyphae, at length disappearing; sporodochium 
irregularly oblong, horny, clay-colour, texture areolate, 
hardly visible to the naked eye ; conidia slightly lunate, 
1-septate, hyaline, 12 X 4 ft. 

Fusarium Kuhnii, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3384. 

Fusisporium Kuhnii, Tuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 371. 

On lichens and mosses, especially when growing on 
poplars. 

Fusarium betae. Mass. (fig. 27, p. 442.) 

Somewhat tremelloid, orange-red, irregularly lobed and 
more or less effused; fusiform, slightly curved, 3-5-septate 
at maturity, hyaline, 85-40 X 4 /a; conidiophores short, 
branched, slender, septate. 

Fusisporium betae, Desm., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1830, vol. xix. 
t. 18, fig. 2. 

FusicoUa betae, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3142. 

Pionnotes betae, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3470. 

On decaying beetroot. Forming subgelatinous, effused, 
orange-red patches. The British fungus agrees exactly 
with Desmaziere's specimens, and is a true Fusarium. Sac- 
cardo quotes Desm. under both genera given above. 

II. PUS AMEN. Conidia fusiform, falcate or cylindrical; 
continuous (or septa not indicated). 

Fusarium salicinum. Corda. 

Stroma subcortical, forming pale patches; hymeniiim 
orange, effused, gyrose ; sporophores filiform, fasciculate ; 
conidia elongated, 12-15 /i, cylindrical, lunulate, con- 
tinuous. 

Fusarium salicinum, Corda, Ic. Fung., iii. p. 33, t. 6, f. 87 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3391. 

Fusarium rhabdophorum. B & Br. 

Erumpent, brown, base orbicular; conidia straight, rod- 
shaped, 15 fi, long. 

Fusarium rhabdophorum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1612 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3395. 

On dead branches. 



PIOXXOTES. 485 

Pusarium cucumerinum. B. & Br. 

Pale orange, subglobose, subeffused; conidia fusiform, 
12-13 /x long. 

Fusarium cucumerinum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 1611 ; 
Sacc, SylL, iv. n. 3410. 

'On rotten cucumber. 

Pusarium equisetorum. Desm. 

Erumpent, minnte, convex, globose or oblong, rufons ; 
gelatinous; conidia for a long time ovoid, then elongated, 
slightly curved, hyaline, continuous, up to 38 ju, long ; 
Gonidiopbores dichotomously or irregularly branched. 

Fugarium, equigetorum,, Desm., Exs., n. 1546 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. n. 3416. 

On stems of Equisetum. 

Fusarimii aurantiacnin. Sacc. 
Sporodochium thin, effused, orange, margin ■woolly, white ; 
conidia oblong-fusiform, straight, continuous. 
F\tsarium aurantiacum, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3428. 
Fhisisporium aurantiacum. Link, Obs., i. p. 17. 
On herbaceous stems. 

Pusarium translucens. B. & Br. 

Pellucid, substipitate, margin slightly ciliate, white, at 
length tinged yellowish, umbilicate above ; conidia slender, 
cylindrical, 7-8 /j. long. 

Fusarium translucens, B. & Br., Aim. Nat. Hist., n. 1610 ; 
Sacc, SyU., iv. n. 3436. 

On fir branches. 

Fusarium minutulum.. Corda. 

Spot-like, very minute, white ; stroma convex, fibrous ; 
conidia minute, oblong, rounded at both ends, 5 /j. long. 

Fusarium minutulum, Corda, Icon. Fung., ii. p. 4, f. 18; 
Sacc, SjlL, iv. n. 3441. 

On chips, &c. 

PIONNOTES. Er. 

Sporodochium gelatinous, rigid when dry, orange-coloured, 
forming a thick, often lobed mass; conidia rather large, fu- 



486 FFNGUS-FLOEA. 

soid or cylindrical, curved, pellucid, obsoletely septate, (rarely 
elliptical and one-celled). Hyphae fasciculate, simple or 
branched. 

Pionnotes, Pries, Summ. Veg., p. 481 ; Sacc, SylL, iv. 
p. 726. 

Perhaps too closely allied to the genus Fusariv/m, and dis- 
tinguished principally by the broadly effused, gelatinous 
sporodochium that becomes rigid when dry. 

Pionnotes uda. Sacc. 

Broadly effused, tremelloid, dingy orange ; hyphae decum- 
bent, sparingly branched, septate ; conidia elongated, curved, 
3-5 septate, acute at both ends, orange, 40-50 x 5-6 /i. 

Pionotes uda, Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3468. 

Fumporium udum, B. & Br., Ann. Nat. Hist., n. 245, t. xiv 
f. 28. 

On trunks. 

Pionnotes Biasolettiana. Corda. 

Irregular or effused, fleshy-tremelloid, thick, reddish- 
orange ; stroma floccose ; hyphae septate, simple or sparingly 
branched, fasciculate; conidial stratum rather thick, gelati- 
nous, orange-red, viscid; conidia fusiform, acute at both 
ends, slightly curved, becoming 2-5-septate, 60-60 X 4-6 //.. 

Pionotes Biasolettiana, Sacc, Syll., n. 3464. 

Fusarium Biasolettianum, Corda. 

On rose branches. 



MICEOCEEA. Desm. 

Sporodochium conical or pulvinate, slender ; conidia nar- 
rowly falciform, many-septate, borne at the tips of filiform 
conidiophores. 

Mictocera, Desm., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1848, p. 359 ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 727. 

Closely allied to Fusarium, but distinguished by the small, 
horn-like sporodochium. 

Microcera coccophila. Desm. 
Minute, somewhat caespitose, conical or horn-shaped, 
simple, rosy, base with a whitish membranaceous sheatt; 



mCEOCEKA — EPIOOCCUM. 487 

conidia elongated, acute at both ends, curved, 3-3-septate, 
hyaline, 70-100 x 4—5 /a; conidiophores long, 2-5 /«. thick. 

Microcera coccopMla, Desm., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1848, p. 359 ; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3473. 

On various kinds of Coccus attached to branches of trees. 

The conidial condition of Sphaerostilbe. 



Series .II. Tubercularieae dematieae. Sacc. 
Sect. 1. Amerosporae. Sacc. 
EPICOCCTJM. Link. (figs. 10, 11, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium more or less globose or convex, cellular; 
conidia subglobose, surface minutely warted and sometimes 
divided into areolae (many-celled), conidiophores very short. 

Epicoeeum, Link, Obs., ii. p. 32 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. p. 736. 

The sporodochia are gregarious, and often beated on a red 
or purple patch of colour. 

Epicoccum vulgare. Corda. 

Spots variable in colour, greyish, greenish, or with a blue 
tinge; stroma convex, oblong, blood-red, then blackish; 
conidia crowded, globose, reticulated, brown, the middle por- 
tions of the areolae furnished with black worts, 21-25 /j, dia- 
meter, conidiophores very short, white, attenuated down- 
wards. 

Epicoccum vulgare, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 5, fig. 90 (in 
part); Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3482. 

On rotting herbaceous stems, leaves, &c. 

Epicoccum granulatum. Penz. 

Sporodochia gregarious, confluent, pulverulent, jet black ; 
stroma hemispherical ; hyphae yellow then brown or fuscous, 
articulated ; conidia blackish-olive, sphaeroidal, not pedi- 
cellate, many-celled, minutely granular or warted, 20-28 /a 
diameter. 

j^icoccum granulatum, Penzig, Fung. Agrum. in Michelia, 
ii. p. 487 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3484. 

On rotting wood, fading leaves of orange, and on Sorghum 
cernuum. 



488 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

Epicoccum neglectum. Desm. 

Spots none or obsolete, sporodocliia epiphyllous, spot-like, 
scattered, jet-black; stroma hemispherical, brown or black- 
ish, formed of very short, septate hyphae; conidia globose, 
blackish-brown, reticulated, 12-16 /* diameter, furnished with 
a very short, hyaline, obconic, truncate pedicel. 

Epicoccum neglectum, Desm., Ann, Sci. Nat., xvii. p. 95; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3483. 

On fading leaves of grasses, sedges, orange, &c. 

Epicoccum diversisporum. Preuss. 

Minute, gregarious, seated ou rosy spots ; stroma globose, 
blackish-purple, purple inside, irregularly cellular, vericu- 
lose ; conidia crowded, of various size, angularly globose, 
not reticulated, warted, fuscous, warts darker, pedicel 
white. 

Epicoccum diversisporum, Preuss, in Linn., xxv. p. 740 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3502. 

On leaves of Phragmites, Carex, &c. 

Epicoccum herbarum. Corda. 

Very minute, gregarious ; stroma globose, purple, pale 

flesh-colour inside, cells six-angled ; conidia angularly 

■ globose, reticulated, fuscous, 20-23 ix diameter, areolae 

darker; pedicel conical, short, immersed in the stroma, 

tinged fuscous, diaphanous. 

Epicoccum herharum, Corda, Icon. Fung., i. p. 5, f. 68 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3489. 

On herbaceous stems, leaves, &c. 

Epicoccum micropus. Corda. 

Sporodochia gregarious, effused, black; stroma subglobose, 
then depressed, reddish-brown; basidia projecting, clavate, 
transversely septate, fuscous; conidia angularly globose, 
base depressed, sessile or very shortly pedicellate, glabrous, 
fuscous, 22-23 fx, diameter. 

Epicoccum micropus, Corda, Icon. Fung., iii. p. 32, f. 82; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3492. 

On roiten leaves and stems, also on Lactarius. 

Epicoccum equiseti. Berk. 
Sporodochia arranged in lines in. the grooves of the stemj 
conidia minute, smooth, black with a blood-red tinge. 



EPiDOCHiusr. 489 

Epicoccum equiseti. Berk., in Cooke's Hdbk., n. 1679; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. n. 3504. 

Oa decayiag stems of Equisetum, limosum. 

Epicoccum purpurascens. Ehreiib. (figs. 10, 11, 
p. 442.) 

Sporodochia blackish-brown, globular, 120-150 /i diameter, 
crowded into oblong clusters 2—3 mm. long, seated on an 
elongated purple spot ; conidia large, subglobose, yellowish 
then brown, reticulated, distinctly areolated and warted, 
pedicel hyaline, attenuated at the base, 16-22 /a diameter. 

Epicoccum purpurascens, Ehr., Sylv., p. 12 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n. 3481. 

On leaves or dead herbaceous stems. 



EPIDOCHIUM. Fries, (fig. 2, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium erumpent, almost superficial, waxy or 
gelatinous then fleshy, subglobose or wart-like, blackish, 
rarely pallid, conidiophores filiform and equal or passing 
into globoso-clavate pseudo-conidia ; conidia ovoid, oblong or 
piriform, solitary or catenulate. 

Epidochium, Fries, Summa Veg. Scand., p. 471 ; Sacc, 
Syll., iv. p. 747. 

The subgenus Eu-Eptdochium is more closely allied to 
Vaeryorayceteae than to the Tuberculariae. (Sacc.) 

Epidochium atrovirens. Fr. (fig. 2, p. 442.) 
Erumpent, discoid, very minute, papillately rugulose, 
sooty-gi-een when moist, black when dry, gregarious or con- 
fluent, about 1 mm. diameter; sporophores filiform, passing 
at the apex into tawny, eUiptico-clavate pseudo-conidia, 
35 X 15 /i; conidia unknown. 

Epidochium atrovirens. Fries, Sum. Teg. So., p. 471 ; Sacc, 
SyU., n. 3538. 

On dead branches of Ulex, Sarothamnus, Fraxinus, &c. 



490 FUKGUS-FLOEA. 



MYEOTHECIUM. Tode. (fig. 3, p. 442.) 

Sporodochium shield-like or discoid, black, margin wtite 
ciliated, cilia, slender, hyaline; conidia minute, elliptical or 
cylindrical ; conidiophores slender, cylindrical. 

Myrotliedum, Tode, Meckl., i. p. 25, in part ; Sacc, Syll., 
iv. p. 750. 

Forming small, flattened black patches bounded by a 
white ciliate margin. 

Myrothecium roridum. Tode. 

Sporodoohia flattened, discoid, at lengtli confluent and 
irregular, black -with a white margin, 2—6 mm. diameter; 
conidiophores simple or branched ; conidia cylindrical, ends 
obtuse, 8-12 X 2 /a, pale olive. 

Myrothecium roridum, Tode, Meckl., i. p. 25, t, v. f. 38; 
Sacc, Syll., iv. n. 3550. 

On various decaying vegetable substances. 

Myrothecium inundatum. Tode. (fig. 3, p. 442.) 
Sporodochiiini disc-like, variable in form, disc plane, 
blackish-olive, with a white margin ; conidia broadly ellip- 
tical, 8-4 X r '5-2/*, olive; conidiophores filiform, fasciculate, 
hyaline, 40 X 1 /a., 

' Myrothecium intmdatum, Tdde, Meckl., p. 25 ; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
n.'3552. 

On decaying species of Agaricus, Cortinarius, and other 
fungi. ' 

Sect. 2. Phragmosporae. Sacc. 

EXOSPORIUM. Link. (fig. 1, p. 442.) 

Sptorodochium convex, compact; conidiophores simple; 
densely fasciculate, blackish, bearing at their tips the oblong 
or terete pluriseptate conidia. 

Exosporium, Link, Berlin Mag., iii. p. 9; Sacc, Syll., iv. 
p. 755. 

Distinguished by the coloured pluriseptate conidia. The 
genus resembles species of Eelminthosporium springing from 
a stroma. 



MYKOTHECIUM — EXOSPOEIUJI. .491 

Exosporium tiliae. Link. (fig. 1, p. 442). 

Sporodochia subemmpent, convex, black, i-1 mm. across, 
becoming shining, compact; conidiophores thick, short, 
obclavate, 1-septate, brown, 60-70 x 16-18 /x; conidia 
smoky-olive, epispore yery thick, contents divided into 9-11 
cuboid portions, spuriously 8-10 septate. 

Exosporium tiliae. Link, Obs., i. p. 8, t. 1, f. 8 ; Sacc, Syll. 
iv. n. 3569. 

Selminthosporium tiliae, Cke., Hdbk., p. 572. 

On lime branches. 



492 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 



ADDENDA. 



The following species, some of which have been omitted, 
others have heen first observed in this country during the 
progress of the work, should be notified at the place indi- 
cated in the body of the book. 

Corticium nudum. Fr. 

Effused, closely agglutinated, waxj', rather rigid, margin 
determinate, glabrous; hymenium with a flesh-coloured 
tinge, pale and cracked when dry, even, very minutely 
powdery at maturity from the spores, which are elliptic- 
oblong, slightly curved, 12-14 x -4-5 yu,. 

Corticium nudum, Pries, Epicr., p. 564; Berk., OulL, 
p. 276. 

On bark and wood. 

(Should follow G. confluens, vol. i. p. 122.) 

Corticium leve. Pers. 

Effused, often for several inches; often separating from 
the matrix, downy below, margin byssoid but not fibrillosely 
radiating ; hymenium even, glabrous, livid with more or less 
of a fleshy tinge, buff when dry ; spores elliptical, 6 X 3 • 5 /a. 

Corticium leve, Pers., Disp., p. 30; Berk., Outl., p. 273. 

On rotten wood. 

(Pollows C. lacteum, vol. i. p. 122.) 

Clavaria crassa. Britzl. 

Scattered or solitary, violet or lilac-grey ; stem slender, 
expanding upwards and dividing into several obtuse some- 
what compressed branches; spores white, subglobose, 
8-10 X 8 /*. 

Clavaria crassa, Britzl., Hymen. Sudb. Clav., p. 286, 

fig- 
On the ground in woods. Somewhat resembling a much- 



ADDENDA. 493 

branclied specimen of Clavaria nigosa in size and form, 
according to Britzelmeyer's fig. ; according to the author, the 
j)resent species resembles Clavaria Kromhhohii. 
(To follow G. Krombholzii, vol. i. p. 78.) 

Clavaria flava. Schaeff, 

Fragile ; trunk up to 1 in. long, and as much thick, white, 
becoming broken up into numerous terete, even-topped, 
crowded, obtuse, bright lemon-yellow branches ; spores 
elliptical, -white with a tinge of yellow, 9—10 X 4r-5 /j.. 

Clavaria flava, Schaeffer, t. 175. 

Somewhat resembling a pollard willow in miniature, 
hence the German name " pollard fungus." Allied to 
C. aurea, but distinct in its fragility, clear lemon-yellow 
branches and white spores. 

(Should stand first in the genus Clavaria, vol. i. p. 75.) 

Hydrnim plumosum. Duby. 

Entirely resupinate, snow-white, tomentose, subiculum 
very delicate ; spines usually crowded, 2 mm. or more long, 
slender, minutely feathered near the apex ; spores globose, 
4^5 /x diameter. 

Hydnum plumosum, Duby. Bot. Gall., ii. p. 778 ; Berk., 
Outl., p. 261. 

On dead wood, bark, &c. 

Distinguished from allies by the feathered spines. 

(Should follow H. Stevensoni, vol. i. p. 164.) 

Hydnrmi (Mesopus) molle. Fries, Vet. Akad. 
Fork, 1851, p. 5S ; Fries, Icon., t. 2, f. 1. 

PUeus 3—4 in. across, flesh thick, white, soft ; convex then 
umbilicate or irregularly depressed, often wavy, covered 
with a dense coat of velvety down, white ; stem 1-1 J in. 
long, up to f in. thick, about equal, glabrous, white, solid ; 
spines crowded, uniform, acuminate, about J in. long, white, 
unchangeable, slightly decurrent on the stem ; spores globose 
with a basal apiculus, smooth, 7 /x diameter. 

On the ground, Netherton, Meigle, N.B. (Mrs. Farqu- 
harson). 

Somewhat resembling H. repandum in habit, but quite 
distinct in the pure white, densely velvety pileus ; white, 
equal subulate spines that do not become at all discoloured. 



,494 FUNGUS-FLOEA. 

and the larger spores. The pileus is not in the least scaly. 
Flesh becoming slightly tinged yellow when broken. Smell 
none, taste pleasant, 

Polystictus zonatus. Fries. 

Pileus horizontal, more or less imbricated, rigid, flesh 
rather thick, tuberculose and gibbous behind, convex, velvety 
or sometimes almost strigose, somewhat zoned and banded 
■with various colours, opaque, margin -whitish ; pores short, 
angularly rounded, obtuse, whitish, small ; spores elliptical, 
7-9 X 3-4 /i. 

Polystictus zonatus, Fries, Syst. Myc, i. p. 368. 

On trunks. 

Pileus lJ-3 in. across; pores about J mm. across. Some- 
what resembling P. versicolor in the colour and zoning of the 
pileus, but differs in being'opaque and without a silky sheen, 
and in being altogether thicker, and tuberculose or gibbous, 
and. not depressed behind. 

(To follow P. velutinus, vol. i. p. 214). 

Entoloma porphyrophaeum. Fr. 

Pileus 2J-3| in. across, flesh rather thin, cracking ; cam- 
panulate, soon expanded, umbonate, sooty-brown, not hygro-. 
phanous, but becoming paler and mouse-colour when dry, 
very opaque in every condition, even and almost glabrous ; 
stem almost 3 in. long, 4-5 lines thick at the incrassated 
base, solid, entirely fibrous and readily breaking up into 
fibres, equally attenuated upwards, soft, naked, but un- 
polished, opaque sooty purple, base with white down ; gills 
truncate behind, almost free, rather distant, 2-3 lines broad, 
ventricose, distinct, greyish- white at first, then reddish-grey 
from the rosy spores ; spores irregularly nodulose, salmon 
colour, 8-9 X 6 /;t. 

Agarieus (Entoloma) porphyropliaeus. Fries, Monogr., i. 
p. 473 ; Fries, Icones, pi. 93, fig. 1. 

Among grass. 

Large, soft and rather rigid, but at the same time brittle. 
Margin of pileus wavy and often incised and lobed. (Fries.) 

The present species has been confounded in this country 
with Ag..{Eni.') juhatus, Fr., as shown by Dr. Cooke in the 
followiDg note. 



ADDENDA. 495 

I have just discovered that by accepting without question 
the figure in Woolhope Transactions, 1868, pi. 21, as Agaricus 
(Entoloma) juhatus, Fr., I have fallen into error with the 
plate 317 of my illustrations. We have Ag. juhatus in this 
country but it is not the same as my figure, which un- 
doubtedly, as I think, represents Agaricus (Entoloma) porphy- 
ropJiaeus, Ft., on account of the solid stem, purplish in colour, 
attenuated upwards, pileus neither villose nor squamose, 
and gills truncate behind, not to mention their colour. 

It must be added that the dimensions of the spores given 
by Saccardo, evidently are on the authority of Britzelmeyer, 
whose figure cannot be the species of Fries, and hence there 
is no authority for spore measurements in Ag. porphyrophaeus. 
Moreover the delusion was increased by the description given 
in the Woolhope Transactions, which is not the description 
given by Fries, and does not represent his Ag. juhatus. I 
believe that it is less derogatory in me to confess this error 
than to have made it. (M. C. Cooke.) 



INDEX TO GENEEA. 



Acremonilla. Sacc. 379. 
Acremonitim. Link, 805. 
Acrostalagmns. Corda, 330. 
Acrospeira. B. & Br. 375. 
Aorotheca. Fuckel, 372. 
AorotlieciTim, Preuss, 420. 
Aegerita. Pers. 469. 
Altemaria. Nees, 436. 
Amanita. Fries, 258. 
Amanitopsis. Boze, 256. 
Amblyosporinm, Fres. 298. 
Armillaria. Fries, 224. 
Arthrinium. Kunze, 373. 
Arthrobotrys. Oorda, 338. 
Arthrototryum. Cesati, 460. 
Aspergillus. Mioheli, 295. 
Asterophora. Ditm. 325. 
Atractium. Link, 451. 

Baotridium. Kunze, 477. 
Bispora. Corda, 389. 
Bolacotricha. B. & Br. 383. 
Bostrichonema. Cesati, 340. 
Botrytis. Mich. 312. 
Botryosporium. Corda, 291. 
Brachysporium, Sacc. 412. 
Briarea, Corda, 303. 

Camptoum, Link, 372. 
Catennlaria. Grove, 380. 
Cephalothecinm. Corda, 338. 
Cephalotrichnm. Berk, 371. 
Cephalosporinm. Corda, 292. 
Ceratinm. Alb. & Schw. 451. 
CeratOBporium. Sohw. 437. 
Cercospora. Fres. 415. 
Cliae.topBis. Grev. 385. 
Chalara. Oorda, 388. 
CliromoBpoTium, Onrda, 275. 
Cladosporium. Link, S92. 



Cladotrioliiim. Corda, 898. 
ClaBteroBporium, Schw. 399. 
ClonoBtachys. Corda, 331. 
Collytia. Pries, 118. 
Coniosporinm, Liuk, 856. 
Coniothecinm. Corda, 4^7. 
Cylindrium. Bon. 284. 
Cylindrooolla. Bon. 472. 

Sactylaria. Sacc. 344. 
Daotylella. Grove, 342. 
Dactylimn. Nees, 341. 
Dactylosporinm. Harz, 486. 
Eematium, Pers. 382. 
Sendrodocliinm. Bon. 466. 
Dendryphium, Wallr. 423. 
Dlctyosporium. Corda, 428. 
Didymaria. Corda, 340. 
Dicoccum. Corda, 389. 
Diplocladituu. Bod. 384. 
Siplococcltim. Grove, 399. 
Siplosporinm. Bonord. 836. 

Echinoliotryiim. Corda, 365. 
Endodesmia, B. & Br. 476. 
Epiooccum. Link, 487. 
EpidocMnm. Fries, 489. 
Exosporium. Link, 490. 

Fumago. Pers. 437. 
Eusariella. Saoo. 403. 
rnsarium. Link, 478, 
Fasicladinm, Bon. 390. 
Ensidium. Link, 281. 

Geotrichnm. Link, 285. 
Qliocladimn. Corda, 293. 
GonatobotryB. Oorda, 332. 
Goniosporium. Link, 374. 
Gonytriehum. Nees, 387. 



INDEX. 



497 



Crrapliiothecium. Fuckel, 459. 
GrapMam. Corda, 454. 
Gyrooeras. Corda, 365. 

Hadrotriclmm. Pokl. 378. 
Haplaria. Link, 304. 
Haplographium. B. & Br. 380. 
Harpographiuin. Sacc. 458. 
Helicomyoes. Link, 351. 
Helicosporlum Nees, 439. 
Helminthospoiium. Link, 404. 
Heterosporiiun. Klotzsoh. 417. 
Hiatula. Fries, 231. 
Hormlscinm. Kunze, 363. 
Hymenula. Pr. 470. 
Hyphoderma. Fries, 304. 

Illosporlam. Mart. 468. 
Isaria. Fers. 446. 

Lactarios. Fries, 1. 
Lepiota. Fries, 282. 

Macrosporium. Fries, 481. 
Harasmius. Fries, 152. 
Kenispora. Fers. 385. 
Uicrocera. Desm. 486. 
Uicrostroma. Niessl. 276. 
Hilowia. Mass. 848. 
Monilia. Pers. 283. 
Uonospoiinm. Bon. 311. 
Konotospora. Cbida, 877. 
Uncrosporium. Freues. 342. 
Mycena. Fries, 76. 
Uycogone. Link. 339. 
fflyrothecitim. Tode, 490. 
Mystrosporinm. Corda, 434. 
Myxotrichum. Kunze, 383. 

Napicladium. Tiium. 419. 
Kematogonium. Desm. 333. 

Oedeminm. Link, 376. 
Oedocephalum. Freus?, 289. 
Oidiom. Link, 286. 
Oospora. Wallx. 277. 
Oynlaria. Sacc. 320. 

Papulospora. Freuss, 293. 
Paraspora. Grove, 347. 
Passalora. Fries & Mont. 390. 
VOL. III. 



Penioillinm. Link, 299. 
Fericonia. Bon. 369. 
Periola. Pries, 472. 
Pionnotea. Fr. 485. 
Polyscytalnm. Eiess, 285. 
Polythrinoinm. Kze. cS: Sohm. 392. 
Frismaria. Freuss, 350. 

Eamnlaria, Unger, 344. 
EMnotriolium. Corda, 305. 
Ehopalomyces. Corda, 290. 
Eussula. Pries, 87. 

Ssolecotriolium. Kze. & Solim. 391. 
Sapedonitim. Link, 825. 
Saptocylindrium. Bon. 348. 
Septonema. Corda, 404. 
Ssptosporium. Corda, 435. 
Speira. Corda, 428. 
Sphaoelia. Lev. 470. 
Spicaria. Harz, 332. 
Spondylocladium. Mart. 420. 
Sporooybe. Fries, 452. 
Sporodesminm. Link, 424. 
Sporodum. Corda, 882. 
SporoscMsma. 6. & Br. 422. 
Sporotriolium. Link, 309. 
Stachybotrys. Corda, 867. 
Stachylidinm. Link, 387. 
Stemphylium. Wallr. 429. 
Sterigmatooystis. Cram. 298- 
Stigmina. Sacc. 402. 
StUbnm. Tode, 443. 
Stysanus. Corda, 458. 

Tetraploa. B. & Br. 429. 
Tomla. Fers. 357. 
Trichoderma, Pers. 294. 
Tricholoma. Fries, 17 k 
TriebOBporium. Pr. 366. 
Tricbothecinm. Link, 336. 
Triposporium. Corda, 438. 
labercnlaria. Tode, 462. 
TuberouUna. Sacc. 467. 

Vertioicladium. Freuss, 386. 
Verticillitim. Nees, 326. 
Virgaria. Nees, 374. 
VoluteUa. Tode, 473. 

Zygodesmus. Corda, 375. 
2 K 



INDEX TO SPECIES. 



abhreviata (Torula), 360. 

Var. sphaeriformis, 360. 
abnorme (Penioillium), 802. 
abortifaoiens (Oospora), 281. 
abortifaoiena (Oidium), 281. 
abriiptum (Olasteroaporium), 401. 
abruptum (sporidesmium), 402. 
aeerhum (Tricholoma), 182. 
aceris (Oidium), 287. 
ncervata (CoUybia), 140. 
aeieala (Mycena), 90. 
aoicula (Pachnooybe), 444. 
aoicala (Stilbum), 444. 
aclada (Botrytie), 319. 
acremonivm (Cephalosporium), 292. 
acHi (Lact. Piper.), 15. 

actinopTwrus (Marasmius), 172. 

acutesguamosa (Lepiota), 236. 

acutvm (Bactridium), 477. 

adnata (Amantopsis), 258. 

adonis (Mycena), 112. 

adusta (Eussula), 52. 
Var. albo-nigra, 52. 

aequivoea (Oospora), 278. 

aequivoeum (Oidium), 278. 

aeruginea (Bussula), 59. 

aeseuli (Tubercularia), 464. 

aetites (Mycena), 102. 

affine (I)endroobium),,466. 

agaricicola (Asterophora), 326. 

agariainum (Vertioillum), 328. 

albellvm (Tricholoma), 208. 

albida (Isaria), 449. 

albobrunneum (Trioboloma), 184. 

album (Diplosporium) 336. 
Var. fungieolum, 336.. 

album (Miorostroma), 276. 

albwm (Tricholoma), 213. 



alcalina (Mycena), 99. 
algarum (Cladosporium), 396. 
alliaceus (Marasmius), 167. 
alliorum (Macrosporium), 433. 
alUorum (Mystrosporium), 435. 
alnicola (Ovularia), 322. 
ainicola (Ramularia), 323. 
alpestre (Bostrichonema), 340. 
alternata (Periconia), 370. 
alternata (Sporocybe), 370. 
alternans (Staohybotrys), 368. 
alternatvm (Acremonium), 305. 
alternariae (Sporodesmium), 430. 
alternariae (Stemphylium), 430. 
altum (Braehysporium), 413. 
altum (Helminthosporium), 413. 
alutaoea (Euss.), 39. 
amadelplms (Marasmius), 165. 

Var. insignis,' 166. 
anibusta (CoUybia), 148. 
amentacearwm (Coniothecium), 

427. 
amethysHnum (Tricholoma), 208. 
amianthina (Lepiota), 249. 

Var. Broadwoodiae, 249. 
amicta (Mycena), 93. 
ammoniaca (Mycena), 100. 
ampeUnwm (Verticillium), 327. 
anceps (Mycogone), 339. 
androsaceus (Marasmius), 169. 
angulatua (Marasmius), 164. 
anomalum (Graphium), 457. 
anomalum (Stilbum), 457. 
antennata (Torula), 361. 
antiquum (Sporodesmium), 425. 

Var. compactum, 425. 
apieale (Braehysporium), 413. 
apioale (Helminthosporium), 413. 



INDEX. 



499 



apiculalum (Helminthospoiium), 

409. 
aguifolia (Tuberoularia), 465. 
aguosa (Collybia), 142. 

Tar. Buniardii, 142. 
arachnophila (Isaria), 447. 
araucaria (Clonostaohys), 331. 
archyropus (Marasmins), 161. 
areuatum (Tricholoma), 212. 
argiUacea (Botrytis), 315. 
aristata (Tetraploa), 429. 
armoraeiae (Ovnlaria), 321. 
armoraciae (Bamulaiia), 321. 
amndinaceum (Hadrotrichtira), 378. 
arundiiiaceum (Napicladium), 419. 
arundinaceum (Helrainthospo- 

rium), 419. 
arundinis (Coniosporimn), 356. 
arandinis (Volutella), 475. 
aspera (Amanita), 267. 
asperospora (Monotospora), 378. 
asperfdii (Ovularia), 323. 
aspergillus (Vcrticillimn), 329. 
aspenda (Stachybotrys), 369. 
aspervla (Torula), 363. 
asperosporum (Stemphylium), 430. 
aspideus (Lact. Piper.), 9. 
asteris (Fusidium), 282. 
atra (Periconia ), 370. 
atra (Sporocybe), 453. 
atra (Stachybotrys), 368. 
airata (Collybia), 148. 
atroalba (Mycena), 95. 
atrocimereum (Tiioboloma), 199. 
atrocyanea (Mycena), 97. 
atrcmirem (Bactridium), 478. 
atrmirens (Epidocbiom), 489. 
atrovirens (Fusariella), 403. 
atroTirens (Fnsarium), 403. 
atrum (Arthrobotrynm), 460. 
atrum (Echinobotryum), 365. 
atnim (Graphivun), 453. 
atrum (Oedemiam), 376. 
atrum (Septosporium), 435. 
atrum (Sporideemiuin), 401. 
aiirantia (Armillaria), 226. 
aurantia (Oospora), 280. 
aurantium (Oidium), 280. 
aurantiacum (Fusarinm), 481. 
aurantiacum (Fusarinm), 485. 
aurantiacum (Fusisporium), 485. 



auTaniiaeum (Nematogonixun), 333. 
aurantiacum (Sporotrichum), 310. 
aurantiaaum (Stilbum), 445. 
aurantiacux (Lact. Buss.), 22. 
aurantio^marginata (Mycena), 116. 
aurea (Monilia), 283. 
aureum (NematogOnium), 334. 
aureum (Bhinotrichum), 308. 
aureus (Aspergillus), 334. 
azurea (Bassula), 56. 

liaoHligera (Passalora), 390. 
hadlligerum (Fusarinm), 483. 
bacilligemm (Fnsisporinm), 483. 
Badhami (Lepiota), 237. 
halanina (Mycena), 117. 
ialsamii (Oidium), 288. 
hasicola (Torula), 360. 
BerheUyi (Hymenula), 471. 
BerJceleyi (Mycena), 104. 
Jierberidis (Ovnlaria), 324. 
hetae (Fusarinm), 484. 
betae (Fusicolla), 484. 
betae (Pionnotes), 484. 
ietvlinum (Coniotiiecium), 427. 
Biasolettiana (Pionnotes), 486 
Biasolettianum (Fusarinm), 486. 
hibulosa (Collybia), 125. 
Hcolor (Graphium), 457. 
hicolor (Haplographinm), 381. 
Medlar (PeniciUinm), 302. 
biornata (Lepiota), 239. 
biseptatum (Brachysporinm), 414. 
bUnnius (Lact. Piper.), 10. 
Bloxami (Brachysporinm), 413. 
Bloxami (Helminthosporinm), 413. 
Bloxami (Cercospora), 415. 
Bloxami (Ehiuotrichnm), 307. 
Bonordenii (Septocylindrium), 349. 
boreale (Tricholoma), 209. 
botrytis (Amblyosporitmi), 299. 
botrytis (Muoor), 318. 
brachiata (Isaria), 448. 
brachormium (Cladosporium), 394. 
brassicae (Altemaria), 436. 
brassicae (Fusarinm), 480. 
brassicae (Macrosporinm), 432. 
brassicae (Tubercularia), 465. 
brassicaecdla (Sporocybe), 453. 
brassicaecola (Periconia), 453. 
brevipes (Dactylosporium), 436. 

2 K 2 



500 



INDEX. 



Irevipes (Trioholoma), 220. 
Tirevior (Botrytis), 815. 
breviuB (Cooootriohum), 315. 
Broomei (Marasmius), 174. 
Buclmalli (Lepiota), ^52. 
hufonium (Trioholoma), 203. 
6MH»ig.e»-a (Armillaria), 225. 
iiiWigeriim, (Fusarium), 482. 
hulbotriclmm (Septosporium), 435. 
hittyracea (CoUybia), 125. 
buxi (Chaetostroma), 475. 
hiixi (Vertioillium), 330. 
huxi (yohitella), 475. 
hys9oides (Perioonia), 309. 
iyssoides (Sporooybo), 452. 

caelatum (Tricholoma), 207. 
caeruleum (Fusaruim), 481. 
caespitosa (Monilia), 284. 
caesium (Gonytriehum), 387. 
ealeea (Baraularia), 346. 
caldarii (CoUybia), 151. 
calopus (Marasmius), 163. 
calthae (Cercospora), 415. 
calyo'oides (Sporooybe), 453. 
calycioides (Perioonia), 453. 
campJiorattis (Laot. Buss.), 34. 

Var. terrei, 35. 
cana (Botrytis), 317. 
cuna (Polyaotie), 317. 
canceUatum (Myxotriobum), 384. 
candelabrum (Vertioillium), 326. 
Candida (Aegerita), 469. 
candidula (Oospora), 278. 
candidum (Oephalotheeium), 338. 
candid^ml (Geotrichum), 286. 
candidum (Penioillium), 300. 

Var. corem^ides, 300. 
candidum, (Trichotheciura), 337. 
candidus (Agaricus), 167. 
candidus (Aspergillus), 296. 
candidus (Mavasmius), 166. 
candidus (Khopalomyoes), 290. 
capillaris (Mycena), 79. 
capitata (Botrytis), 318. 
capitulatum (Helminthosporium), 

405. 
capsicum (Laot. Piper.), 15. 
canonaceum (Ooniosporium), 357. 
carbonaceum (Gymuosporium), 

357. 



carcharis (L'epiota), 248. 
caricicolum (Artliriniam), 373. 
carneum (Illosporium), 468. 
carneum (^Trioholoma), 206. 
cartilaginewm (Trioholoma), 197. 
cauticinalis (Marasmius), 167. 
cerinvm (Trioholoma), 205. 
cepaestipes (Lepiota), 246. 
eerBi?ia (Mycogone), 339. 
cervinum (Diplosporium), 336. 
chaetospira (Septooylindrium), 349.. 
chamaeleontina (Eussula), 48. 
chartarum (Haplographium), 381 
chartarum (Myxotrichum), 384. 
chartarum (Penioillium), 381. 
chartarum (Sporodesmium), 427. 
chartarum (Torula), 363. 
cheiranthi (Macrosporiura), 434. 
ehelidonia (Mycena), 88. 
chlorinum (Sporotriohum), 311. 
chrysanthemi (Oidium), 287. 
ohrysorrheus (Laot. Piper.), 15. 
chrysospermum (Sepedonium), 325- 
aUiata (Menispora), 386. 
ciliata (Volutella), 473. 

Var. stipitata, 473. 
cilicioides (Laot. Piper.), 6. 
cimicarius (Laot. Kuss.), 35. 
cinerea (Botrytis), 318. 

Var. sderotrophUa), 318. 
cinerascens (Tricholoma), 217. 
cinndbarina (Lepiote), 247. 

Var. Terreyi, 247. 
cinnaharinus (Acrostalagmus), 331. 
circellatus (Laot. Piper.), 12. 
cirrhata (CoUybia), 132. 
circumtectum (Tricholoma), 212. 
citri (Arraillaria), 230. 
citrina (Botrytis), 315. 
citrina (Isaria), 449. 
citrina (Eussula), 64. 
eitrinella (Mycena), 84. 

Var. Candida, 85. 
citrinellum (Stilbum), 446. 
citrinum (Dendrodoohium), 466. 
citrinum (Stilbum), 445. 
citrophylla (Lepiota), 244. 
civile (Tricholoma), 214. 
cladosporii (Sporodesmium), 426. 
cladosporioides (Macrosporium), 



INDEX. 



501 



claroflava (Bussula), 65. 
clavae/orme (Clasterospoiium), 402. 

Var. leptopiis, 402. 
clavariarum (Scolecotriohum), 392. 
clavata (Isaria), 450. 
clavicylaris (Slyoena), 86. 
clavulata (Paohnocybe), 455. 
davus (Collybia), 143. 
clematidis (Stysanus), 459. 
clusilis (Collybia), 150. 
clypeolaria (Lepiota), 240. 
cnista (Tricholoma), 218. 
coccineum (Illosporium), 468. 
coccophila (Microcera), 486. 
coccotricha (Botrytis), 314. 
cochleariae (Ovularia), 322. 
cochleariae (Bamularia), 322. 
eodoniceps (Myoena), 80. 
<x)ffeicolor (Penicillium), 303. 
coJiaerens (Mycena), 104. 
cdUariata (Mycena), 93. 
coUina (CoUybia), 134. 
colossus (Tricboloma), 181. 
columbetta (Tricholoma), 190. 
commune (Macrosporium), 431. 
comosum (Dendrypbium), 423. 
compaciJiis«tZ«m(Virticilliuin),327. 
concentrica (Cercospora), 416. 
concentricum (Septocylindrium), 

349. 
concentricum (Septonema), 350. 
concinnum (Macrosporium), 432. 
confluens (Collybia), 130. 
confluens (Tubercularia), 464. 
congZ«ifna{Mm(Sporodesmium),427. 
conigena (Collybia), 132. 
conopleoides (Sporodum), 382. 
conorum (Tubercularia), 466. 
consimilis (Mycena), 101. 
consobrina (Ruasula), 71. 

Var. sororia, 71. 
„ intennedia, 72. 
canstellaia (Hymenula), 471. 
comtricta (Aimillaria), 228. 
controversus (Lact. Piper.), 7. 
convallariae (Macrosporium), 434. 
CooTcei (Cladotrichum), 398. 
coprophilum (Monosporium), 311. 
coraeina (Collybia), 146. 
corallinum (Illosporium), 468. 
Cordae (Cylindrium), 284. 



Gordae (Fusarium), 481. 
coToUigena (Botrytis), 314. 
corticola (Mycena), 81. 
crassa (Clavaria), 492. 
crassifolium (Tricholoma), 200. 
eremor (Lact. Euss.), 23. 

Var. pauper, 24. 
cristata (Lepiota), 242. 
crocata (Mycena), 88. 
croci (Botrytis), 316. 
cruenta (Myoena), 89. 
Crustacea (Oospora), 280. 
cryptostegiae (Bamularia), 346. 
eucumerinum (Fusarium), 485. 
cuneifera (Sporooybe), 453, 
cuneiferum (Stilbum), 453. 
cuneifolium (Tricholoma), 199. 
Var. cinereo-Hmesus, 199. 
Curreyi (Arthrodema), 469. 
Gurreyi (Illosporium), 469. 
Curreyi (Marasmius), 170. 
curtum (Cephalotrichum), 371. 
curium (Bendryphium), 424. 
curvatum (Camptoum), 372. 
cutefracta (Bussnia), 60. 
cyanoxantha (Bufsula), 63. 
cyathula (Lact. Busa.), 24. 
cyclosporum, (Stachylidium), 387. 
cylindrica (Torula), 360. 
cylindricum (Helminthoaporium), 
405. 

delicatuliim (Helminthosporium), 

433. 
delicatulum (Macrosporium), 433. 
debilis (Mycena), 93. 
decipiens (Ehinotrichum), 307. 
decolorans (Bhiuotrichum), 306. 
decoloraTis (Buss.), 46. 
deflexum (Myxotrichum), 384. 
delica (Bussula), 53. 
delicata (Lepiota), 254. 
delicatulum (Acrothecium), 420. 
delicatulum (Haplographium), 380 
delicattdum (Helminthosporium), 

407. 
deliciosus (Lact. Piper.), 19. 
dendriticitm (Fusicladium), 391. 
dendroides (Dactylium), 341. 
dendroideum (Helminthosporium), 

409. 



502 



INDEX. 



denigrata (Armillaria), 230. 
dsmsifolia: (Eussula), 54. 
densum (Helminthosporium), 410. 
depallens (EuBsula), 62. 
deprfiedens (Botrytis), 319. 
depresaum (CladoBporium), 391. 
depressum (Pusieladium), 891. 
Deaimazieri (Graphium). 455. 
destriietiva (Ovularia), 320. 
destruotiva (Eamularia), 321. 
deutziae (Fusidium), 282. 
diantM (Heterosporium), 417. 
diehroa (Stachybotrys), 368. 
diffusum (Fuaarium), 480. 
d^usum (Botryospoiium), 291. 
digitatum (Ceratoaporium), 438. 
digitatum (Sporidesmium), 438. 
discoidea (Volutella), 475. 
diaooidea (Pailonia), 475. 
discopoda (Myoena), 82. 
dissiliens (Myoena), 96. 
distans (Verticillium), 337. 
distorta (Oollybia), 124. 
diversisporvm (Epiooccum), 488. 
domestimmXT^chothecixaa), 338. 
Dorofheae (CoUybia), 151. 
drimeia (Kueaula), 67. 
dryopMla (Collybia), 140. 
dubia (Sterigmatooystis) 298. 
dubuis (Aspergillua), 298. 
duracinum (Trioholoma), 215. . 

eoMnulatum (Heliainthospoiivim), 

417. 
echinulatum (Heteroaporixim), 417. 
effusum (Coniotbecirini), 427. 
elegam (Briarea), 303. 
eleganS' (Diotyosporium), 428. 
elegans (Myoejia,), 117. 
elegans (Ehopalomyoeg), 291. 
elegans (Euss.), 43. 
elegans (Spicaiia), 332. 

Var. museonim, 332. 
eZegrflsns (Triposporium), 438. 
elepTiantina (Euasula), 64. 
elUpsospora (Dactylella), 343. 
ellipBoapora (Menispora), 343. 
elUptiea (Ovularia), 324. 
elliptioa (Monotbspora), 414. 
elUpUcmn (Brachyaporium), 414. 
elongatispora (Septonema), 349^ 



elongatisporum (Septooylindrium), 

349. 
emetiea (Eussula), 73. 

Var. Clusii, 73. 
emplastra (Lepiota), 238. 
epibryum (Oladosporium), 396. 
epiohloe (Marasmius), 172. 
epildbii (Oospora), 277. 
epilobii (Torula), 277. 
epimyces (Fuaarium), 482. 
epimyees (Heterosporium), 419. 
epimyces (Verticillium), 329. 
epiphyllum (Oladosporium), 393. 
epiphyllus (Marasmius), 173. 
epiterygia (Mycena), 86. 
equestre (Trioholoma), 177. 
equiseti (Epiooccum), 488. 
equisetorum (Pusarium), 485. 
erminea (Lepiota), 243. 
erumpens (Oidium), 287. 
erysiphoides (Oidium), 286. 
erythrocephalum (Stilbnm), 444. 
erythropus (Marasmius), 161. 
esculenta (Oollybia), 138. 
eustygia (Oollybia), 139. 
euonymi (Tubercularia), 464. 
exasperatum, (Helminthosporium), 

406. 
exasperatum (Helminthosporium), 

418. 
excelsa (Amanita), 263. 
excisa (Mycena), 105. 
exciaus (Agaricus), 104. 
exBoriata (Lepiota), 235. 
expallens (Eussula), 67. 
expallens (Tubercularia), 464. 
expansa (Torula), 361. 
expansum (Hormiscium), 362. 
exsoissum (Tricholoma), 221. 
exscidpta (Oollybia), 142. 
exsuccus (Lactarius), 53. 
extorre (Staohylidium), 388. 
extuberans (Oollybia), 142. 

fallax (Trioholoma), 205. 
far'inosa (Isaria), 447. 
farinosum (Oidium), 287. 
fascioulare (Oladosporium), 395. 
fascioulare (Olasterosporiujn), 401. 
fasciBularisXBotrytis), 318. 
fascicularis (Polyaotis), 318. 



INDEX. 



503 



fascieulata (Oospora), 277. 
fasciculatum (Oidium), 277. 
fasdcvlatum (Stilbmn), 445. 
favorum (Oidium), 279. 
favorum (Oospora), 279. 
fdina (I^trla), 448. 
fclina (Lepiota), 241. 
fellea (Kussula), 65. 
fenestrale (Byssocladium), 296. 
ferruginea (Cercospora), 416. 
festucae (Psilonia), 476. 
festucae (Volutella), 476. 
ficinusium (Triposporium), 438. 
filisporum (Fusarium), 482. 
filisporum (Fusisporium), 482. 
filopes (Mycena), 95. 
fimetarium (Stilbum), 445. 
fingibilis (Kussula), 55. 
Aammeum (Attractram\ 452. 
flava (Clavaria), 492. 
fiava {Gonatobotrys), 333. 
flavo-virens (CyUndriiiin), 285. 
flampes (Mycena), 112. 
flamssimum (Sporotriohum), 309. 
flavobrunneum (Tricholoma), 183. 
flavodUba (Mycena), 111. 
flavum (Baotridium), 477. 
Jlavus (Aspergillus), 297. 
fiexuosum (Graphium), 455. 
fiexuosum (Stilbum), 455. 
flexiMsus (Lact. Piper.), 13. 

Var. roseozonattts, 14. 
floccipes (Collybia), 128. 
floccosa (Isaria), 447. 
focalis (Armillaria), 225. 

Var. goliath, 225. 
fodieus (Agaricus), 124. 
foeni (Fusarium), 480. 
foetens (Enssula), 70. 

Var. subfoeteng, 70. 
fodidus (Agaricus), 165. 
foetidus (Marasmius), 165. 
follieulatum (Helminlhosporium), 

409. 
fragilis (Kussula), 75. 

Var. nivea, 75. 
„ violacea, 75. 
„ fallax, 76. 
Friesii (Isaria), 449. 
Friesii (Lepiota), 237. 
fructigena (Monilia), 283. 



frumentaceum (Tricholoma), 186. 
fucatum (Tricholoma), 179. 
fuciformis (Isaria), 450. 
fuliginosus (Lact. Russ.) 27, 
fulva (Oospara), 280. 
fvlmim (Oidium), 280. 
fulvellvm (Tricholoma), 183. 
fulvwm (Cladosporium), 393 
fumosum (Dendi-yphium), 423. 
fumosum (Spondylocladium), 420. 
fungomm (Clasterosporium), 401. 
fungorum (Polyscytalum), 285. 
furcata (Prismaria), 351. 
fuTcata (Bussula), 57. 
var. pictipes, 58. 
„ ochroviridis, 58. 
fiisca (Acremoniella), 379. 
fvsca (Oospora), 280. 
fuscum (Atysidium), 280. 
fuscum (Acremonium), 379. 
fuscum (Cladetriolium), 398. 
ftiscum (Trichosporium), 367. 
fuscus (Zygodesmus), 376. 
fuseopurpweus (Marasmius), 159. 
fvsipes (Collybia), 122. 
fusiforme (Helminthosporium), 406. 
fusisporum (Helminthosporium), 
410. 

gcdanthina (Botrytis), 320. 
galanthiua (Polyactis), 320. 
galericidatus (JJycena), 107. 

Tar. ealopus, 108. 
galopoda (Mycena), 87. 
gambosum (Tricholoma), 208. 
geochroum (Sporotriohum), 310. 
Georginae (Lepiota), 256. 
geranii (Eamularia), 345. 
gilva (Volutella), 475. 
glauca (Endodesmia), 476. 
glaucocephala (Sporooybe), 456. 
glaucocephala (Fericonia), 456. 
glauoum (Coranium), 302. 
glaucum (PenicUlium), 299. 
glaucocephalum (Graphium), 456. 
gXaucus (Aspergillus), 295. 
glaucus (Aspergillus), 295. 
glioderma (Lepiota), 255. 
glyciosmus (Lact. Euss.), 27. 

Var. Jlixttosus, 27. 
gonabotryoid.es (Botrytis), 314. 



504 



INDEX. 



go»i5'roJnc/iMm(Helminthosporium), 

409. 
gracilenta (Lepiota), 235. 
<;famimis.(Torala), 362. 
graminum (Dematium), 382 
graminvm (Harpograpliium, 458. 
graminium (Marasmius), 169 
gramiuopodium (Trioholoma), 219. 
granulata (Tubercularia), 462. 
grcmulatum fEpiooccum), 487. 
granulosa (Lepiota), 248. 
Var. rufesaens, 249. 
granulosa (Eussula). 69. 
grisea (Bolaeotrioha), 383. 
grisea (Chaetopsis), 385. 
griaea (Haplaria), 304. . 
grisea (Pacbnooybe), 456. 
grisewm (DendrypMum), 423. 
griseiim CPusidiuin), 282. 
grisewm (Grapliuim), 456. 
griseus (Aspergillus), 296. 

Var. fmestrale, 296. 
Orovei (Gj'aphium), 455. 
guttaium (Trioholoma), 189. 
gypsea (Myoena), 110. 
gyrosa (Tomla), 360. 

haematites (Armillaria), 227. 
haematopa (Mycena), 90. 
hariolorum (Collybia), 130. 
hellebori (Ramularia), 344. 
lielvellae (Baotridium), 477. 
helvus (Laot. Suss.), 25. 
Jierbarum (Cbadosporuim), 394 
Jierbarum (Epicoeoum), 488. 
heriarum (Torula), 362. 
heriarmii (Tubercularia), 465. 
lieteronemum (Cylindrium), 285. 
lieieronemmrt (Eusarum), 483. 
Jieteronemum (Maorosporium), 431. 
beteronema (Septonema), 432. 
heterophylla (Eussula), 56. 

Var. gatocliroa, 56. 
heterosporum ((Fusarium), 481. 
.heterosporittm (Macrotriobum), 398. 
Memalis (Mycena), 80. 
Mrv/ndo (Clasterosporium), 400. 

Var. Anglicvm, 400. 
„ mitms, 400. 
Mspida (Lepiota), 240. 
Mspidula (Conoplea), 382. 



Mspidulum (Dematium), 382. 
hohserieea Lepiota), 245. 
liordum (Tricholoma), 193. 
liormisaioides (Clasterosporium), 

400. 
Sudsoni (Marasmius), 172. 
hvmile (Trioboloma), 220. 

Var. blandus, 221. 
hyaciniJiorum (Volutella), 474. 
hyaointhorum (Psilonia), 474. 
hyalospermum (Braobysporium), 

413. 
liydnoides (Ceratium), 451. 
liyphomyeetis (Penicillium), 301. 
hysginus (Lact. Piper.), 11. 
liysterioides (Hormiscium), 364. 

■iantliina (Lepiota), 252. 
iehoratns (Lact. Buss.), 32.' 
illinita (Lepiota), 254. 
imirioatum (Tricholoma), 1 92. 
immundus (Trioholoma), 193. 
implexa (Dactylella), 343. 
implexum (Dactyliiim), 313. 
impudieus (Marasmius), 162. 
inaequale (Fusarium), 480. 
inaequalis (Oospora), 281. 
inamoenum (Trioholoma), 204. 

Var. insignis, 205. 
incarcerans (Eusarinm), 483. 
incaroerans (Fusisporium), 483. 
inconspiouum (Helminthosporium), 
408. 

Var. Britannicum, 408. 
ingrata (Collybia), 131 
inodermeum (Tricholoma), 193. 
inolens (Collybia), 147. 
inosculans (Trioiiosporium), 367. 
inosculans (Sporotrichum), 367. 
insidiosum (Fusarium), 482. 
insidiosum (Fusisporium), 4S2. 
insititius (Marasmius), 171. 
insulsus (Lact. Piper.), 9. 
Integra (Enss.), 40. 

Var. alba,Al. ; 

intermedins (Lact. Piper.), 4. 
interstitialis (Ovularia), 322. 
interstitialis (Peronospora), 322. 
intricata (Isaria), 448. 
inundalum (Myrotheoium), 490. 
involuius (Laot. Piper.), 19. 



INDEX. 



595 



iris (Mycena), 94. 
irregiUare (Septonema), 404, 
ionides (Tricholoma), 206. 
Var. parvus, 206. 

Jasonis (Armillaria), 231. 
juglandinum (Cladosporium), 394. 
jundcola (Mycena), 79. 

Keithii (Bamnlaria), 345. 
Kniphofiae (Cladosporium), 395. 
Kvhnii (Fusarium), 484. 
Knhnii (Fusisporium), 4S4. 



lacerata (Collybia), 149. 
lactea (Mycena), 109. 
lactea (Ovularia), 321. 
lactea (Bamnlaria), 321. 
lactea (Bnssnla), 51. 

Tar. incarnata, 51. 
ladescentium (VertlciUum), 328. 
lactis (Oidinm), 278. 
lactis (Oospora), 277. 
Lamii (Ovularia), 324. 
Lamli (Bamnlaria), 324. 
lampsanae (Bamnlaria), 320. 
lancipes (Collybia), 123. 
languidus (Marasmins), 164. 
lanosum (Ehinotrichvim), 307. 
lapsanae (Ovnlaria), 320. 
lapsanae (Bamnlaria), 345. 
lands (Heterosporium), 418. 
lasdmim (Tricholoma), 203. 

Var. robusttis, 204. 
lateritium (Chromosporium), 275. 
lateritium (Fusarinm), 478. 
lateritium (Gymnosporimn), 276. 
lateritioToseus (Lact. Buss.), 6. 
lateritium (Verticillium), 330. 
laticolor (Oedocephalum), 289. 
laxipes (Collybia), 128. 
laxum (Dendryphium), 424. 
laxum (Sporotrichum), 309. 
lentictdaris (Lepiota), 255. 
lepida (Enssnla), 59. 
lepraria (Sporode8minm),427. 
leptocephcUa (Mycena), 98. 
latcooephalum (Tricholoma), 213. 
leucoconium (OidinmJ 286. 



Uucogala (Mycena), 87. 
leucomyosotis (Collybia), 135. 
leve (Corlicium), 492. 
leve (Echinobotryum), 366. 
licmophora (Lepiota), 24 7. 
lignicolum (Cladosporium), 393. 
lignicoltim (Gliocladium), 294. 
ligniotns (Lact. Buss.), 29. 
lignonim (Trichoderma), 295. 
ligustri (Tubercnlaria), 463. 
lUadnus (Lact. Buss.), 30. 
lineata (Mycena), 111. 

Var. expallens. 111. 
lAnnaei (Bnssnla), 47. 
Listeri (Agaricus), 7. 
lixivium (Tricholoma), 223. 
lobatum (Sporodesmium), 425. 
lobiUata (Staohybotrys), 36S. 
lobulata (Sporocybe), 368. 
Imigipes (Ghalara), 389. 
lon^pes (Collybia), 120. 
longissima (Chalara), 388. 
loricattim (Tricholoma), 19S. 
liKida (Menispora), SSo. 
lumbricoides (Helicosporium), 440. 
luridum (Tricholoma), 189. 
lutea (Buss.), 43. 
luteoalba (Mycena), 110. 
lychnicota (Ovularia), 320. 
lychnicola (Bamnlaria), 320. 
lycopersid (Cladosporiimi), 393. 
lyootropum (Fusidium), 282. 



macilenta (Collybia), 143. 
iruicilentum (Helminthosporium), 

411. 
macrocarpum (Helminthosporium), 

408. 
macrorhizum (Tricholoma), 196. 
maerosporiodeum (Epochinum), 

430. 
macrosporiodeam (Stemphylium), 

429. 
maja-osporwm (Diplocladium), 335. 
macrotporum (Penicillium), 302. 
ma.culaia (Collybia), 123. 

Yar. immaeulatus, 124. 
maculMta (Bnssnla), 68. 
maculatum (Virgasporium), 415. 
magnifica (Amanita), 268. 



506 



INDEX. 



Magnusianum (Stempliylmni), 430; 
Magnusianum (Septooylindrium), 

350. 
malvae (Eamularia), 345. 
mammosus (Lact. Euss.), 26. 
mappa (Amanita), 261. 
marginellus (Agaricua), 94. 
martialis (Lepiota), 253. 
mastoidea (Lepiota), 286. 
medullata (Lepiota), 253. 
megalodaotyla (Amanita), 268. 
megabspora (Monotospora), 378. 
Var. fusispora, 378. 
' megalosponim (Penicillium), 301. 
melaloma (Volutella), 476. 
meleagris (Lepiota), 239. 
melaleueum (Tricholoma), 218. 
Var. polioleucus, 219. 
„ porphyroleucus, 219. 
mellea (Armillaria), 228. 
melleum (Diplocladium), 335. 
ineniagropliytes (Sporotriohum), 

309. 
mercurialis (Cercospora), 416. 
merdariwm (Sporotridium), 310. 
mesomorpha (Lepiota), 251. 
mespilinum (Oidium), 288. 
metata (Myoena), 100. 
melanopodium (Sporodesmium), 

425. 
metulaespora (Lepiota), 242. 
micropholis (Lepiota), 243. 
micropus (Epicocoum), 488. 
microscopica (Isaria), 449. 
microsperma (Oospora), 279. 
microspermum (Oidium), 279. 
microspermum (Verticilliun), 328. 
iMitare (Tricholoma), 214. 
mimica (OoUybia), 128. 
minima (Periconia), 371. 
minima (Sporocybe), 371. 
minimus (Laot. Euss.), 37. 
minimum (Fusarium), 481. 
minimum, (Helmintliosporium), 

406. 
minor (Tuberoularia), 4G5. 
minus (Diplocladium), 334. 
minululum (Fusarium), 485. 
minutulwm (Heterosporium), 418. 
minuta (Dactylella), 342. ' 
Var. fimfdrrHis, 343. 



minutissima (PericWnia), 371^ ' 
minutuiii: (Sporotriohum), 309. 
mirabile (Sporoschisma), 422. 
mirabilis (Acrospeira), 375. 
mirdbilis (Mycena), 93. 
mitissimus (Lact. Euss.), 33. , 
modestmn (Bostrichonema), 341. 
modestum (Dactylium), 341. 
molle (Helminthosporium), 406. 
molle (Hydnum), 493. 
mollis (Aspergillus), 296. , 
nionilioides (Bispora), 390. 
monilioides (Torula), 360. 
monilioides (Oidium), 288. 
morioola (Cercospora), 416. 
mucida (Armillaria), ^30. 
muoigena (OoUybia), 144. 
mucigena (Isaria), 449. 
mucophytum (Fusarium), 483. 
Mulleri (Helicoma), 439. 
Mulleri (Heliooaporium), 439. 
murina (OoUybia), 149. 
murinum (Triohosporium), 367. 
murinaceum (Tricholoma), 194. 
musoaria (Amanita), 262. , 
mustelina (Eussula), 64. 
wyosotidis (Fusarium), 480. 



nanum (Helminthosporium, 407. 
uanum (Verticilluui), 328. 
naucina (Lepiota), 245. 
nauseosa (Euss.), 41. 
Yai-.flavida, 41. 
„ pulchralis, 42. 
negleotwm (Epicocoum), 488. 
niotitans (Tricholoma), 182. 
nigra (Vigaria), 374. 
nigrella (Periconia), 370. 
nigrella (Sporocybe), 370. 
nigricans (Aspergillus), 298. 
nigricans (Eussula), 51. 
nigricans (Tuberoularia), 463. 
nigrum (Grapliium), 457. 
nigrum (Stilbum), 457. 
nitellina (OoUybia), 136. 
nitida (Amanita), 266. 
nivea (Milowia), 348. i 
nivea (Volutella), 474.. 
niveum (Ehinotriohum), 306. 



INDEX. 



507 



Tidbile (Macrosporium), t32. 
noduhsum (Oladosporiimi), 394. 
nudeata (Torula), 362. 
nudum (Corfioinm), 492. 
nudum (Triclioloma), 216. 

Var. major, 217. 
nummulaTia (CoJlybia'), 138. 
nympharum (Lepiota), 245. 

dbclavatum (Eelminthosporitun), 

410. 
dbliqua (Ovularia), 324. 
obliqua (Peronospora), 324. 
ohliquus (Lact. Russ.), 37. 
dbmibilus (Lact. Knss.), 36. 

Tar. crenatus, 36. 
obovatum (Trichothecium), 337. 
obovatum (Dactylium), 337. 
obovatum (BrachyBporimn), 414. ~ 
obovatum (Helminthosporiiim), 

414. 
dbtusum (Fusarium), 482. 
oceUaia (Collybia), 144. 
ochracea (Euss.), 42. 
ochraceum (Myxotrichum), 384. 
ockroleuca (BussTila), 66, 68. 
olivacea (Eussnla), 47. 
dlivaceo-marginata (Mycena), 116. 
oUvaeeum (Coniosporium), 357. 
oUvaceum (Haplographium), 382. 
olivaceum (Monosporium), 311. 
olivaseens (Bussula), 55. 
oosporum (Brachysporium), 412. 
oosponim (Helmintliosporium), 413. 
opacum (Clasterosporium), 401. 
opicum (Tricholoma), 203. 
opuntia (Ehinotriohum), 306. 
orbicvlare (Stilbum), 443. 
orchidearum (Cladosporlum), 395. 
orchidis (Dactylaria), 344. 
orainum (Tricholoma), 213. 
oreades (Marasmius), 156. 
omitkogali (Hetergsporimn), 418. 
ovalispora (Torula), 361. 
ovalispora (Oospora), 361. 
oxysporum (Fusarium), 481. 
ozes (Collybia), 146. 

pactoUnum (Oldium), 288. 
paedidum (Tricholoma), 223. 



•pallida (Acremoniella), 379. 

pallidum (Septocylindrium), 349. 

paUidus (Ehopalomyces), 291. 

pallidus (Lact. Bnss.), 20. 

panaeolum (Tricholoma), 217. 

pantherina (Amanita), 261. 

paraholica (ilycena), 108. 

parasitiamn (Clasterosporium), 
402. 

parasiticum (Sporidesmium), 402. 

parasiticwm (Giaphiothecium), 
459. 

parvannulata (Lepiofa), 251. 

parvum (Helminthosporium), 406. 

Passerinii (Graphium), 455. 

patulum (Tricholoma), 211. 

paupercula (Mycena). 97. 

pedinata (KusBula), 72. 

pelianthina (Mycena), 118. 

pelliculosa (Mycena), 85. 

pellucidum (Stilbum), 444. 

peltata (Mycena), 101. 

penicillioides (Diplocladium), 334. 

peniciUioides (Gliooladium), 293. 

penicillioides (Graphium), 457. 

perforans (Marasmius), 171. 

pergaraenut (Lact. Piper.), 16. 

peronatus (Marasmius\ 154. 
persicini (Tuberculina), 467. 
personatum (Tricholoma), 215. 

pescaprae (Tricholoma), 210. 

Var. multiformis, 211. 
pessundatum (Tricholoma), 184. 
phalloides (Amanita), 260. 

Phillipsii (Sporocybe), 453. 
physciae (Coniosporium), 357. 
picinus (Lact. Euss.), 28. 
piliforme (Graphium), 456. 

piliforme (Stilbum), 456". 
piperatus (Lact. Piper.), 17. 
piriferum (Trichothecium), 337. 

piriferum (Dactylium), 338. 
piriforme (Sporodesmium), 426. 
pithyophilum (Hormiscium), 364. 
pithyophilum (Eacodium), 364. 
plancus (Marasmius), 157. 
plantaginis (Gyroceras), 365. 
plantaginis (Torula), 365. 
platyphylla (Collybia), 121. 
plexipes (CoUybia), 147. 
plicato-crenata (Mycena), 84. 



508 



INDEX. 



plicosa (Mycena), 96. 
plumosnm (Hydnum), 493. 
podospora (Periconia), 370. 
polyadelphus (Marasmius), 173. 
polyadelphus (Agaiious), 174. 
polygrdmma (Mycena), 108. 
polymorphwm (Sporodesmium), 426, 
polyetieta (Lepiota), 250. 
porphyrophaeum (Entoloma), 494. 
porreus (Marasmius), 155. 
porriginie (Oospora), 278. 
povriginis (Oidium), 278. 
portentosum (Trickoloma), 178. 
prasiosmus (Marasmius), 158. 
pratensis (Eamularia), 347. 
Freussii (Oedocephalum), 290. 
procera (Lepiota), 234. 
Var. rachodes, 234. 
„ pv£llaHs, 235. 
proUfera (Mycena), 103. 
prolixa (Collybia), 124. 
protracla (Collybia), 149. 
pruinosa (Monilia), 284. 
pruinosa (Eamularia), 346. 
prwiosum (Penioillium), 300. 
psammioola (Myceua), 105. 
psathyroides (Collybia), 136. 
psevdopura (Mycena), 113. 
pterigena (Mycena), 81. 
pvherula (Isaala), 450. 
pubescens (Lact. Piper.), 8. 
pucdnioides (Goniosporium), 374. 
pudens (Agaricus), 121. 
puellaris (Kussula), 48. 
Var. intensior, 49. 
„ roseipes, 49. 
pulchrum (Botryosporium), 292. 
pullata (Mycena), 98. 
pulmonea (Oospora), 278. 
pulmoneum (Oidium), 278. 
pulveracea (Torula), 361. 
pulmllm (Torula), 361. 
pulvinatum (Helicosporium), 439. 

Var. effusvm, 439. 
•pumila (Monotoapora), 377. 
pumilum (Helminthosporium), 

378. 
punctata (Euss.), 46. 

Var. leucopus, 46. 
punctiformis (Hymenula), 471. 
pura (^Mycena), 113. 



purpurascens (Epicoocum), 489. 
pviidum (Trioholoma), 223. 
putredinis (Stysaims), 459. 
^i/rocftj-OMm (Fusarium), 479. _ 
pyroohroiun (Selenosporium), 479. 
pyrogalua (Lact. Piper.), 14. 

quadrifidum (Penicillium), 300. 
quaternellum (Verticillium), 329. 
Queletii (Eussula), 76. 
Var. purpurea, 76. 
quietus (Lact. Euss.), 21. 
quinqu^partitum (Trioholoma), 180. 

racemoM (Collybia), 133. 
radieata (Collybia), 120. 
ramealis (Marasmius), 167. 
ramentaeea (Armillaria), 227. 
ramigenum (Acremonium), 446. 
ramigenum (Stllbum), 446. _ 
ramoesissimvm (Ehinotrichum), 

308. 
ramosum (Dendrypliium), 424. 
ramosum (Helicoryne), 440. 
ramosum (Helicosporium), 440. 
ramulosum (Macrosporium), 433. 
rancida (Collybia), 145. 
Eenneyi (Diplocladium), 334. 
Eenneyi (Dactylium), 334. 
repens (Monotospora), 377. 
repens (Ehinotrichum), 306. 

resedae (Cercospora), 415. 

resplendens (Trioholoma), 181. 

retisporus (Lact. Euss.), 29. 

rTidhdiferum (Helminthosporium), 
411. 

rhoMophorum (Fusarium), 484. 

rliopaloides (Helminthosporium), 
411. 

rhomiospora (Dactylella), 343. 

rhizophila (Torula), 362. 

rigidum (Graphium), 454. 

rigidum (Stilbum), 454. 

rdbusta (Armillaria), 226. 
VaT. minor, 226. 

rorida (Mycena), 84. 

roridum (Myrothecium), 490. 

rosacea (Eussula), 74. 

rosea (Arthrobotrys), 338. 



INDEX. 



509 



rosea (Myoogone), 339. 
rosea (Ovularia), 323. 
rosea (Eamulaiia), 323. 
losdla (Myoena), 115. 
rosella (Oospora), 279. 
roseola (Volutella), 474. 
roseolum (Fusarium), 483. 
roseum (Fusarium), 480. 
roseum (Geotrichum), 286. 
roseum (Hyphoderma), 304. 
roseum (lUospoiium), 468. 
roseum (Oedooephalum), 289. 
roseum (Penioillium), 303. 
roseum (Trichothecium), 337. 
roseum (Daetylium), 337. 
roseus (Aspergillus), 297. 
roseus (Helioomyces), 351. 
rotula (Marasmius), 168. 
Eousselianum (Helmmthosporium), 

407. 
rubella (Hymenula), 471. 
rubescens (Amanita), 265. 
ruhra (RuBBula), 66. 

Var. sapida, 66. 
rubricatus (Marasmius), 164. 
rubromarginata (Myoena), 115. 

Var. fu^co-purpureus, 116. 
rufibasis (Ovularia), 322. 
riifibasis (Perouospora), 322. 
rufus (Lact. Russ.), 25. 
rugosa (Mycena), 106. 
russula (Triolioloma), 185. 
rutilans (Tricholoma), 188. 



saccharifera (Myeena), 82. 

Var. eleitica, 82. 
saecharium (Monosporium), 311. 
saccharinus (Marasmius), 173. 
salicinum (Fusarium), 484. 
salieburiae (Brachysporium), 412. 
sambud (Tubercularia), 464. 
sanguinea (Eussula), 74. 
sanguinolenta (Mycena), 89. 
saponaceum (Triciioloma), 196. 
saponis (Haplographium), 381. 
saponis (Penioillium), 382. 
sarcinula (Maorosporium), 431. 
sarcochroum (Fusarium), 478. 
sarcochroum (Fusarium), 479. 
sarcochroum (Selenosporium), 479. 



sardonia (Russula), 72. 
sarm^ntosum (Tubercularia), 463. 
scalpturatum (Tricholoma), 191. 

Var. argyraceus, 191. 
„ chrysites, 191. 
,y vireseens, 191. 
scelerata (Ovularia), 323. 
scelerata (Ramularia), 323. 
Sclmmaclieri (Tricholoma), 211. 
saolecoides (Helminthosporium), 

409. 
scolopendri (Maorosporium), 434. 
scorodonius (Marasmius), 162. 
scorteus (Marasmius), 157. 
scotious (Lact. Piper.), 19. 
scrdbi(yulatus (Lact. Piper.), 4. 
scutellare (Sporosdesmium), 425. 
segetum (Sphaeelia), 470. 
sejunctum (Tricholoma), 178. 
semierema (Eussula), 50. 
seminuda (Lepiota), 252. 
semitalis (CoUybia), 121. 
senecionis (Cylindrosporium), 321. 
senecionis (Ovularia), 321. 
sepedonioides (Papulospora), 293. 
septatum (Cylindrium), 349. 
serifluus (Lact. Euss.), 32. 
eerotina (Russula), 68. 
serratus (Agaricus), 188. 
setosa (Aegerita), 475. 
setosa (Mycena), 80. 
setosa (Volutella), 474. 
simplex (Acrothecium), 421. 

Var. elatum, 421. 
simplex (Gonatobotrys), 333. 
simplex (Helmintliosporium), 405. 
sistrata (Lepiota), 250. 
Smithii (Helmiuthosporium), 410. 
solani (Acrotheca), 372. 
solani (Fusarium), 481. 
solani (Fusisporium), 481. 
solitaria (Amanita), 265. 
sordidum (Tricholoma), 222. 
sparsum (Penicillium), 302. 
speirea (Mycena), 91. 
spermaticum (Tricholoma), 180. "^ 
spliaerooeplmla (Monotospora), 377. 
spliaerocephaJum (Mucrosporium) , 
' 342. 

sphaerocephalum (Daofylium), 
342. 



510 



INDEX. 



sphaeroideum (Cladosporium), 395. 
sphaerospermum (Oladosporiuiti), 

393. 
apliingwm (laaria), 447. 
gpicatum (Diploooooium), 399. 
spilomeum (Septonema), 404. 
spinulosus (Lact. Buss.), 31. 

Var. yiolaoeus, 31. 

spiralis (Aspergillus), 297. 

spissa (Amanita), 266. 

^spoddleucits (Marasmius), 174. 

' sporendonema (Torula), 280. 

sporopheum (Arthrinium), 373. 
/^lachnoides (Marasmius), 170. 
( splendent (Hormisoium), 364. 
\ splendens (Torula), 364. 
spumarioides (Isaria), 450. 
squalidits (Laot. Piper.), 14. 
etanneus (Myoena), 102. 
stans (Tricholoma), 185. 
stemonites (Stysanus), 458. 
stemphylium (Mystrosporium), 

434. 
etemphylioides (Braohysporium), 

412. 
stemphylioides (Helminthospo- 

rium), 412. 
Stevensoni (CoUybia), 135. 
Sfejjemsomjj (Graphium),456. 
Stevensonii (Stilbum), 456. 
sticticum (Sooleootriclium), 391. 
sticticum (Helminthosporium), 

392. 
stilboideum (Graphlum), 454. 
stilboidevm (Arthrobotryum), 460. 
slilhosporum (Hormisoium), 364. 
stipitaria (CoUybia), 129. 
strangulata (Amanitopsis), 258. 
itrdbiliformis (Amanita), 264. 
stroMlina (Myoena), 114. 

Var. cooainea, 115. 
styldbates (Myeena)^ 83. 
siihcava (Armillaria), 229. 
subdulcis (Lact. Kuss.), 33. 
Var. eoneavus, 34. 
„ sphagneti, 34. 
siibpedicellata (Tubercularia), 463. 
subpulverulentiim (Tricholoma), 

222. 
subtile (Penicillium), 301. 
Var. ramosius, 301. 



subulatum (Graphium), 455. 
subulata (Perioonia), 455. 
subulatum (Helmintbosporium), 

407. 
subumbonatus (Lact. Buss.), 35. 
succinea (CoUybia), 137. 
sudora (Mycena), 106. 
siidum (Tricholoma), 201. 
sulfureum (Oedooephalum), 290. 
sulphurea (Isaria), 448. 
sulphureum (Pusidium), 282. 
sulphmeum (Sporotrichum), 310. 
sulphureum (Tricholoma), 202. 
syringiae (Ovularia), 324. 



tenacetta (CoUybia), 139. 

Var. stolonifer, 139. 
tenebrosum (Acrotheclum), 421. 
tenella (Mycena), 91. 
teneUum (Uiplooladium), 335. 
tenellum (Muorosporium), 335. 
tenerrima (Mycena), 82. 
tenuioeps (Tricholoma), 198. 
tenuis (Mycena), 103. 
tenuisdmum (Haplographium), 

381. 
tenuissimum (Graphium), 381. 
terginus (Marasmius), 159. 
terrestre (Verticillium), 327. 
terrestre (Stachylidium), 328. 
terrestris (Zygodesmus), 376. 
terreum (Tricholoma), 195. 

Var. orirubens, 195. 
„ atrosquamosus, 195. 
tesquorum (CoUybia), 150. 
tliejogalus (Lact. Buss.), 22. 
thelephora (CoUybia), 134. 
Tliwaitesii (Bhinotrichum), 308. 

Var. fulvum, 308. 
iignrewm (Tricholoma), 210. 
tiliae (Exosporium), 491. 
tiliae (Helminthosporium), 407. 
Tilletii (Botrytis), 316. 
tingens (Braohysporium), 414. 
tingens (Helminthosporium), 414. 
tintinabuhim (Myoena), 109. 
tomato (Macrosporium), 433. 
tomentella (Isaria), 450. 
tomentosa (Periola), 472. 



INDEX. 



511 



totnentosiim (Stilbum), 444. 
tomentosus (Laot. Kuss.), 26. 
torminosus (Lact. Piper.), 5. 
torquescens (Marasmius), 162. 
toruloides (Speira), 429. 
trabea (Botrytis), 314. 
trabeum (Staohylidram), 314. 
translitcens (Pusarium), 485. 
triaepliala (Botrytis), 319. 
tricephalum (Aomosporium), 319. 
trifidwm (Vertioioladium), 386, 
trifolii (Polythrinoium), 392. 
triglochinis- (Sporodesmium), 426. 
triseptata (Paraspora), 347. 
triseptatum (Cladotricimm), 398. 
trivialis (Lact. Piper.), 11. 
tvhercularioides (Fusarium), 479. 
tuberoularioides (Selenosporinm), 

480. 
tuberosa (OoUybia), 133. 
tubulosus (Helioomyees), 351. 
Tuelceri (Oidium), 287. 
Tidasneanum (Sepedonium), 325. 
twrihidmn (Trioholoma), 200. 

Var. KeitUi, 200. 
twMnatum (Helminthosporium), 

411. 
turbinatum (Stilbum), 445. 
turpis (Lact. Piper.), 7. 

Var. plvmbeus, 7. 
tylicolor (Collybia), 151. 
typharum (Heterosporium), 419. 
typMna (Sphacelia), 470. 



uda (PioDnotes), 486. 
udum (Fusisporium), 486. 
uVmariae (Eamularia), 345. 
uhnicdla (Torula), 359. 
mnbrina (Isaria), 449. 
uwhrimmi (Trichosporium), 366. 
umbrinum (CoUetosporium), 366. 
wwhrinus (Lact. Piper.), 16. 
TJngeri (Didymaria), 340. 
uniseptatum (Cladotriohum), 398. 
uniseptatum (Diooccum), 389. 
uniseptatum (Sporidesmium), 

389. 
urens (Marasmius), 154. 
urtioae (Oylindrocolla), 472. 
urtioae (Ramularia), 347. 



ustale (Tricholoma), 184. 
utilis (Lact. Piper.), 9. 
uvidus (Laot. Piper.), 12. 



vaccmmn (Tricholoma), 191. 
vagans (Fumago), 437. 
vaginata (Amanitopsis), 257. 
Vaillantii (Marasmius), 163. 
vaporarium (Stilbum), 445. 
variabile (Heterosporium), 417. 
variabilis (Eamularia), 346. 
variegatum (Tricholoma), 188. 
varicosus (Marasmius), 158. 
vegetv/m (Helicoaporium), 440. 
velatum (Helmintliosporium), 411. 
vellereus (Lact. Piper.), 18. 
veluUnum (Helminthosporium), 

405. 
velutipes (Collybia), 127. 
Var. rubeseens, 127. 
ventrieosa (Collybia), 135. 
vera (Botrytis), 317. 
vermieulatum (Clasterosporium), 

400. 
veronicae (Ovularia), 323, 
veronicae (Ramularia), 324. 
versicolor (Tubercularia), 463. 
verticillatum (Acremonium), 305. 
vertiruga (Collybia), 129. 
vesea (Eussula), 61. 
Var. Duportii, 61. 
„ lilaoea, 62. 
„ depallens, 62. 
veternosa (Eusaula), 67. 
vietus (Laot. Euss.), 24. 
vinoaa (Tuberoulina), 467. 
vinosum (Dematium), 383. I 

violaceum (Fusarium), 481. 
virella (Botrytis), 315. 
virens (Aegerita), 469. 
virens (Aspergillus), 296. 
virescens (Eussula), 57. 
virgatam, (Tricholoma), 201. 
mrginea (Eussula), 49. 
viride (Pusidium), 281. 
viride (Helicosporium), 439. 
viride (Septooylindrium), 350. 
viride (Tiichoderma), 295. 
viridis, (Heliooryue), 440. 
virosa (Amanita), 259. 



512 



INDEX. 



visianica (Stigmina), 403. 
vitellina (Rues.), 42. 
Var. major, 42. 
viticola (Fusarium), 479. 
viticolum (Coniothecium), 428. 
vitilis (Myoena), 92. 
vitrea (Mycena), 102. 
Vittadinii (Lepiota), 244. 
volemus (Laot. Eusa.), 31. 
vulgare (Bpioocoum), 487. 
vulgare (Stilbum), 444. 
vulgaris (Botrytis), 316. 
Yar. plebeia, 317. 

„ ccmdensata, 317. 

„ fwcata, 317. 

„ interrupta, 317. 
vulgaris (Hymenula), 471. 



vulgaris (Myoena), 85. 
vulgaris (Tubercularia), 462. 

Wauohii (Ohaetopsis), 385. 
Wynniae (Hyatula), 231. 
Wyrmei (Marasmius), 160. 

xantliopoda (Colly.bia), 136. 
xerampelina (Russula), 60. 
xerampelinus (Agaricus), 188. i 
xylogenum (Aorothecium), 421. 
xylopliila (Collybia), 126. 

zephira (Myoena), 112. 
zoitarius (Laot. Piper.), 10. 
zonatus (Polydtictus), 494. 



THE END. 



londoh: printed by tvm. Clowes akd sons, limited, 

STAIIFORD STREET AND CHAEIXG CHOSS.