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Agriculture and Home Economics 

Cornell University 

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Cornell University 

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Dictionary of Gardening, 


EncyclopcEdta ^ of ^ Horticulture 





Of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

Assisted bt Professor J. W. H. TEAIL, A.M., M.D., E.L.S., in the parts eelatinq to Insects and Fun(3i ; 
AND J. GAEEETT in the Peuit, Veoetable, and General Garden Work portions. 

Division III. — Ero. to Lav. 









r lias been suggested, by au eminent Authority, that many readers would be glad 
to bo informed where reliablo Illustrations could be found of those Plants which 
are not figured in this Work. To meet this want, references to the figures 
in Standard Authorities have been given, the titles of the Works referred to 

being, for 



























piV '.'. 









T. &S. 



S. M. . . 

of space, abbreviated as 

Eepoyitory. Londnn 


<"S : 

-xiii. (1843-55). 

Andrews (II. C). Botanist' 

1799-1811. 10 vols. 4to. 
Andrews (H. C). Coloured En^Tavini^^s of Heaths. 

London, 1S02-30. 4 vols. Ito. 
Loudon (.J. C). Arboretum et fruticetura Ijritan- 

nicuni. . . . London, 1853. 8 vols. Bvo. 
Allioni (O.). Flora pedemontana. Aug. Taur., 1785. 

3 vols. Fol. 
Aublet (J. B. C. F.). Histoire iles plantes i!e la 

Guiane fran^aise. Londres, 1775. 4 vols. 4to. 
Andrews (11. C). Tlie Heathery. London, 1304-12. 

4 vols. 4to. 
Maund (B.). The Botanist. . . . London, 1839. 

8 vols. 4to. 
Brandis (D.). Forest Flora of . . . India. London, 

1876, 8vo. Atla.s, 4to. 
Beddome (R. H.). Flora sylvatica. Madras 

[1869-73]. 2 vols. 4to. 
I.a Belgique Horticole. . . Ghent, 1850, &c.* 
Botanical Magazine. London, 1787, Ac. 8vo. ^ 
Bentley (R.) and Trimen (H.). Medicinal Plants. 

London, 1875-80. Bvo. 
Batenian (James). A Monograph of Odontoglossum. 

London, 1874. Fol. 
Botanical Register, ^ondon, 1815-47. 35 vols. 8vo. 
Botanische Zeitnng. Berlin, vols, i.- 

8vo. Leipzig, vol. xiv. (1856).* 
Cathcart's Illustrations of Himalayan Plants. Lon- 
don, 1855. Fol. 
Loudon (J. C). Encvclopwdia of Trees and Shrubs. 

. . . London, 1842. 8vo. 
Sec T. S. M. 
Fitziierald (R. D.). Australian Orchids. Sydney, 

1876. Fol.* 
Flora Danica — usually quoted as the title of the 

work, Icones plantarum . . . Dani;B et Nor- 

vegia". . . . Havnia;, 1761 to 1885. Fol. 
La F'lore des Serres et des Jardins de I'Europe. 

1845-82. 25 vols. 8vo. 
ISIog.gridge (J. T.). Contributions to the Flora of 

Mentone . . . London, 1864-8. 
Flora Oder allgemeine botanische Zeitnng. 1818-42. 

25 vols. Bvo. [New Series] 1843, &c.» 

F. M Floral JIagazine. London, 1861-71, 8vo. 1872-81, 4to. 

1-'. (V P Florist and Pomologist. London, 1868-84. Bvo. 

G. C The Cxardeners' Chronicle and AgTicuItural Gazette. 

London, 1341-65. Fol. 
G. C. n. s. . . The Gardeners' Chronicle. New Series, 1866, &c. 

CJ. G Gray (A.). Genera florre Americfe. . . . Boston, 

1843-9. 2 vols. Bvo. 

, M The Gardeners' Magazine. Conducted by Shirley 

Hibberd. London. 
The Gardeners' Magazine of Botany. . . . London, 

1350-1. 3 vols. '8vo. 
The Garden. London, 1871, Ac. 4to.* 
Gooda]e(G. L.). Wild F'lowers of America. Boston, 

1877. 4to. 
Hooker (W. J.). The British Ferns. 
Hooker (W. .).). Exotic Flora, Edinburgh, 1825-7. 

5 vols. Bvo. 
Hooker (\V. -I.). Flora boreali-americana. . . . Lon- 
don, 1853-40. 2 vols. 4to. 

Hooker (J. D.). Flora Tasmania. London, 1360. 
2 vols. 4to. This is Part 3 of "The Botany of 
the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships 
Frebus and Terror, in the years 1339-43." 

Hooker (W. J.). Garden Ferns. London, 1862. 8vo. 

Hooker (W. J.). Species Filicum. 

L'lllustration horticole. Gand, 1850, &c. 8vo.* 

See C. H. P. 

Journal of Botany. . . . London, 1863. 8vo.* 

Jacquin (N. J.). Florre austriac;e . . . icones . . . 
Vienna:. 1773-8. 5 vols. Fol. 

F. D. . . 

F. d. S. . . 
Fl. Ment. 

G. M. B. 

Gn. . . . 
G. W. F. 

A. .. 

H. B. F. 
H. E. F. 

II. F. B. 

A. .. 

H. F. T. 

II. G. F. 
11. S. F 
I. H. 
I. H. PI. 

J. B. 
J. F. A . 

J. U Journal of Horticulture and (.Jottage CJardener. 

Conducted liy J>r. Roliert Hogg. London. 
J. II. S Journal of tlie Horticultural Society. Londi»n, 1846. 

Kotschy. Bie Eiche Europas und des (.)rients. 
Loddiges (C). Botanical Cabinet. London, 1812-55. 

20 vols. 4to. 
Lindley (J.). Collectanea botanica. . . . London, 

1821. Fol. 
La Marck (J. B. P. A. de JI. de). Kncyclopedio 

nietfiodique . . . Botaiuque. Paris, 1783-1317. 

13 vols. 4to. 
Lemaire (C). Le Jardin fieuriste. CJand, 1851-4. 

4 vols. Bvo. 
Lindley (.1.). Eosarum Mouographia. London, 

1820. Bvo. 
Lindley (J.). Sertum Orchidaceum. . . . London, 

1838. Fol. 
Lindley (J.) and Paxton (J.). Flower Garden. . . . 

London. . . . 1351.5. 3 vols. 4to. 
Salm-Dyck. ^lonographia genenmi Aloes et We- 

semljryanthemi. BonuEe, 1336-65. 4to. 
N Burbidge (F. W.). The Narcissus : Its History and 

Culture. With a Scientihc Review of the 

Genusby J. CJ. Baker, F.L.S. London, 1875. 8vo. 
Nuttall (T.). North American Sylva . . . Phila- 
delphia, 1365. 3 vols. 8vo. 
See L. & P. F. G. 
Paxton (J.). Magazine of Botany. London, 1354-49. 

16 vols. 8vo. 
Saunders (W. W.). Refugium botanicum. . . 

London, 1859-72. Bvo. 
EegeI(E.). Gartenflora, 1852, Ac* 
Revue Horticole . . . Paris, 1852.* 
Hooker (J. D.). The Rhododendrons of Sikkim- 

Himalaya. London, 1349-51. Fol. 
Reichenbach, /L (H. Ct.). Xenia orchidacea. Leip- 
zig, 1858. 4to.* 
Sweet (E. ). British Flower Garden. London, 

1823-9. 3 vols. 8vo. 
Second .Series. London, 1331-3. 4 8vo. 
Sweet (E.). Cistineje. London, 1325-30. Bvo. 
Smith (J. E.). Exotic Botany. . . . Lotidon, 1804-5. 

2 vols. Bvo. 
Sweet (R.). Flora australasica . . . London, 1327-3. 

Flore des 

K. E. E. 
L. B. C. . 

L. C. B. . 

L. H. M. 

L. J. F. .. . 
L. R. . . . 

L. S. O 

L. & P. F. G. 

M. A. S. 

N. S. .. 

P. F. G. 
P. M. B. 

Ref. B. . . 

R. O. . . 
E. H. . . 
E. S. H. 

R. X. O. 

S. B. F. G. 



B. '. '. 






d. J. 







Sw. Ger. 


. En. B. 









s. .. 






. B. 



. A. 


W. S. o. 

W. & F. 
Is still in course of publication. 

Siebold (P. F. de) and Vriese (\V. H. de). 

Jardins du Royaume des Pays-Ba, 

1853-62. 5 vols. Bvo. 
Sibthorp (J.). Flora grjeca . . . London, 1806-40. 

10 vols. Fol. 
Hibberd (Shirley). The Ivy ; a Monograph. Lon- 
don, 1872. Bvo. 
Sweet (Robert). Geraniacere, the natural order of 

Gerania. 1828-1850. 
Syme (J. T. B.), now Boswell. English Botany . . 

Ed. 5. London, 1853-85. 12 vols. Bvo. 
Siebold (P. F. von) and Zuccarini (J. G.). Flora 

Japonica. . . . Lugd. Bat., 1855-44. Fol. 
Transactions of the Horticultural Society. London, 

1805-29. 7 vols. 4to. 
Transactions of the Linnsean Society. London, 

1791-1875. 30 vols. 4to,* 
Emerson (G. B.). Trees and Shrul^s . .'. of Massa- 
chusetts. Boston. Ed. 2, 1375. 2 vols. ovo. 
WatsLin (P. W.). Dendrologia Britannica. Lotidon, 

1825. 2 vols. Bvo. 
See G. W. F. A. 
Warner (R.) and WiUiams (B. S.). The Orchid 

Album. London, 1882. 4to.* 
AA"arner(R.). Select Orchidaceous Plants. London. 

Series i, 1862-65. Fol. 
Series ii, 1865-75. Fol. 
Woods and Forests. 1883-4. 1 vol. 4to. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Eritrichium — continued. 
RX^ot on tho rockery, where it would alway be moist. In- 
creasGcl by seeds, or by divisions. 

C nanum (dwavf). jl. brilliant sky-blue, with a yellowish eye, 
not unlike those of MyDnotis alpestris, but larger. Summer. I. 
linear-ohovate, covered with long silky-white hairs, h. 2in. to 
3in. Alps, 1869. It has been enthusiastically termed the Glory 
of the Alpine Flora. (B. M. 5855.) 

ERNOBIIA MONTAIfA. A synonym of Putoria 

IiBiODIUM (from erodios, a heron ; the carpels re- 
sembling- the head and beak of that bird). Heron's Bill. 
Ord. Geraniacea'. A genus of about fifty species of pretty 
hardy or half-hardy herbs or sub-shrubs, natives of Europe 
(Britain), North Africa, and temperate Asia (rare in South 
Africa and Australia). Bediincles generally many-flowered. 
Leaves various in form. Every part of the plant, when 
bruised, emits a strong peculiar odour. Erodiums form 
admirable subjects for rockwork, in dry, sunny situa- 
tions, and in a sandy soil. Increased by divisions, or by 

£. alpinum (alpine). Ji. purple, about lin. across, six to ten in 
an umbel; petals obtuse, larger than the long-pointed sepals. 
May. I. smoothish, bipinnatiftd. Stem branched. /;. 1ft. 
Mountains of Southern Italy, 1814. Hardy. 

E. caruifollum (Cavum-leaved). Jl. red, about ^in. across, eight 
to ten in an umbel. Spring. I. alternately pinnate ; leaflets 
deeply bipinnate ; midrib of under surface with soft white hairs. 
h. 6in. tolOin. Mountains of Central Spain. Hardy. 

E. glandulosum (glandular).* A synonym of S. macradeninn. 

E. hymenodes (Hymen-like), fl. pink ; upper petals with a 
reddish-brown spot at the base ; peduncles many-flowered. 
Spring and summer. I. somewhat three-lobed, or three-parted, 
very blunt, deeply toothed. Branches clothed with long, soft 
hairs. Stem erect, branched, shrubby at the base. h. 1ft. 
Mount Atlas, 1789. Half-hardy. Syn. E. trilobatum. (B. M. 

E. macradenum (large-glanded).* Jl. pale violet ; petals acute, 
the two broadest ones dark purple at the base; peduncles many- 
flowered. June and July. I. clothed with glandular pubescence, 
pinnate, with bipinnatifid segments and lanceolate-linear lobes. 
Plant stemless. h. 6in. Pyrenees, 1798. Hardy. Syn. E. glanchi- 
losum. (B. M. 5665 ; On., Aug. 30, 1884.) 

E. Manescavi (Manescaut's).* Jl. purplish-red, disposed in 
umbels. Summer. I. pinnate ; leaflets oblong, deeply cut, lower 
ones the largest. /(. 1ft. to 2ft. Pyrenees. Hardy. 

E. pelargoniiflorum (Pelargonium-flowered).* Jl. white, spotted 
with purple ; peduncles umbellate, eight to ten-flowered. 
Summer. I. radical, petiolate, ovate-cordate. Stem elongated, 
branched, ascending. Anatolia. Hardy. (B. M. 5206.) 

E. petrseum (rock). Ji. purple ; petals refuse ; peduncles many- 
flowered. June. I. smoothish, pinnate, with pinnatifid segments 
and lanceolate-linear lobes. Plant stemless. k. 3in. to 6in. 
South France and Spain, 1640. Hardy. 

E. Reichardi (Reichard'a).* Jl. white, faintly veined with pink ; 
peduncles one-flowered. April to September. ;. small, cordate, 
crenated, obtuse, smoothish. h. 2in. to 3in., forming a dense tuft. 
Majorca, 1783. Half-hardy. 

E. romanum (Roman). Jl. purphsh ; petals equal, longer than 
the sepals ; peduncles many-flowered. Spring. I. pinnate ; leaf- 
lets ovate, deeply cut. /;. 6in. to 9in. South Europe, 1724. Hardy 
biennial. (B. M. 377.) 

E. trichoanane folium (Trichomanes-leaved). Jl. flesh-coloured, 
with darker lines ; petals blunt, a little longer than the sepals ; 
peduncles four-flowered. Summer. L hairy, rather glandular, 
bipinnate, with oblong-linear lobules. Plant stemless. h. 4in. 
to 6in. Mount Lelianon. Hardy. 

E. trilobatum (three-lobed). A synonym of E. hymenodes. 
EKOSZ!!. Gnawed, bitten. A term used to denote a 

particular kind of irrc.i4'ular denticulation. 
EROTEITM. See Preziera. 
ERPETION. See Viola. 
ERVUM. This genus is now merged, by the authors 

of the '■ Genera Plantarum," into Vicia (which see). 
ERYNCHUM (from eringion, the old Greek name used 

by Theophrastus, &c.). Eryngo. Ord. Umhelliferce. A 

genus of hardy or nearly hardy herbs, usually perennial 

and spiny. It comprises more than a hundred species, 

natives of temperate and sub - troi:)ical regions, the 

majority being South American. Flowers congregated 

into oblong or roundish dense heads ; lower bracts 

usually the largest, and forming an involucre round the 

Eryngium — contin ued. 
head of flowers. Radical leaves, as well as the cauline 
ones, sheathing more or less at the base. Many species 
of this genus are very handsome plants, and are well 
suited for growing in borders and in sub-tropical gar- 
dens. They thrive best in a light sandy soil. Increased 
by carefully-made divisions, or by seed. 

E. alpinum (alpine).** Jl. in oblong heads ; involucre, along witli 
the upper part of the herb and the flowers, of a beautiful blue 
colour. July and August. I., radical and lower cauline ones on 
long petioles, deeply cordate, 'serrate-toothed ; upper cauline ones 
pahnately lobed, ciliately serrated ; leaves of the involucre ten to 
twenty, rather soft, a little longer than the head of flowers, 
ft. lift, to 2ft. Europe, 1597. Hardy. (B. M. 922.) 

E. amethystinum. (amethyst-coloured).* /. amethyst colour, in 
globose heads. July and August, l, radical ones pinnatifid ; lobes 
cut, spiny, somewhat pinnatifid. Stems smoothish, corymbosely 
brancned at the apex ; leaves of the invohicre seven to eight, 
lanceolate, furnished with a few teeth at the base, much ex- 
ceeding in length the head of flowers, h. 1ft. to 2ft. Europe, 
1648. Hardy. 

E. aquaticum (aquatic). Jl. white or very pale blue, in glolxise 
heads. July to September. I. broadly linear, with parallel 
nerves, remotely spinosely-ciliate ; lower leaves rather ensiform ; 
upper ones lanceolate, toothed ; leaves of the involucre eight to 
nine, shorter than tlie heads of flowers, h. 2ft. to 3ft. North 
America, 1699. Hardy. Syn. E. yucccefoUum. (B. R. 372.) 

E. Bourgatl (Bourgat's).* Jl. bluish, in ovate heads. June to 
August. I., radical ones orbicular, tripartite ; lobes pinnatifid or 
cut in a forked manner, quite entire between the divisions ; 
leaves of involucre ten to twelve, lanceolate, pungent, erect, 
much longer than the head of flowers. Stems simple, a little 
branched^at the apex. h. 1ft. to 2ft. Pyrenees, 1731. Hardy. 

E. bromelisefoUum (Pineapple-leaved). /. white, in round 
heads. July. I. with parallel nerves, bearing large subulate 
teeth, which are shorter than the breadth of the leaves; radical 
ones very long, broadly lanceolate-linear ; involucral leaves ten, 
lanceolate, exceeding the head of flowers, h. 3ft. to 4ft. Mexico. 

E. campestre (fleld). Jl. blue, in roundish heads. July and 
August. I., radical ones nearly ternate ; segments pinnatifid; 
lobes ovate ; cauline ones auriculated ; leaves of involucre 
linear-lanceolate, exceeding the heads of flowers. Stem pani- 
cled. h. 1ft. to 2ft. Europe, &c. (Britain). (Sy. En. B. 570.) 

E. dlohotomum (spreading). Jl. blue, in globose heads. July 
and August. I., radical ones petiolate, oblong, cordate at the 
base, toothed ; cauline ones palmately parted, spreading ; lobes 
spiny-toothed ; leaves of involucre lanceolate, much longer than 
the heads of flowers, h. 1ft. to 2ft. South Europe, &c., 1820. 
Hardy. E. Lasseauxii (R. H. 1874, 375) is closely allied to 
E. dichotomum, but the panicle of reddish-purple flowers is loose. 

E. eburneum (ivory). Jl. whitish ; panicle cylindrical in outline. 
Autumn, l, radical ones 2ft. to 3ft. in length, ed^ed with rigid 
spines ; cauline ones broad, h. 6ft. Brazil, 1872. Hardy. (R. H. 
1876, 112.) 

Fig. 729. EryxNGIUM giganteum. 

3 Y 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Eryugium — continned. 

E. giganteum (^dgantic).* Jl. blue, in ovate heads. July and 
August. I., radical ones on long petioles, profoundly cordate, 
crenate-toothed ; cauline ones stem-clasping, deeply lobed, ser- 
rated ; leaves of involucre eight to nine, large, longer than the 
heads of flowers. .Stem dichotomously branched, 3ft. to 4ft. high. 
Caucasus, 1820. Hardy. See Fig. 729. 

E. xnaritimuxn (sea). Sea Holly. /. very pale blue, in roundish 
heails. July to October. /. of a whitish-glaucous hue, coriaceous ; 
radical ones on long petioles, roundish, cordate, spiny-toothed ; 
superior ones stem-clasping, palraately lobed ; leaves of involucre 
five to seven, ovate, exceeding the heads of flowers, h. 1ft. to 
lift. Europe, &c. (Britain). (Sy. En. B. 569.) 

E. pandanifolium (Pandanus-leaved).* fl. purplish, in rather 
small globose heads, with scarcely any involucre ; panicle very 
large, dichotomous. I. , radical ones 4ft. to 6ft. long, very 
glaucous, concave, acuminated ; margins spiny, k. 10ft. to 15ft. 
Monte Video. Half-hardy. (0. C. n. s., v. 76.) 

E. paiiiculatum (panicled). /. greenish-white, with a small 
horizontal involucre, rather large. L witli parallel nerves, linear, 
spiny-ciliated. Stem nearly naked, bearing at the apex umbellate 
branches ; branches bearing one to three heads, h. 3ft. to 5ft. 
Monte Video. Half-hardy. (G. C. n. s., v. 76.) 

Fig. 750. Flower of Eryngium planum. 

E. planum (fiat-leaved). Jl. blue, in roundish heads. July and 
August. I., lower ones on long petioles, oval, cordate, undivided; 
superior ones five-parted, serrated ; leaves of involucre six to 
eiglit, lanceolate, about equal to or exceeding the heads of flowers. 
h. 2ft. Eastern Europe, &c., 1596. Hardy. See Fig. 730. 
K. platyphyllum (broad-leaved). A synonym of E. scrra. 
E. serra (saw). Jl. white, in small globose heads. Autumn. L, 
radical ones in a spreading rosette, 1ft. to 2ft. long, 4in. Iiroad, 
nearly flat, varying from deeply pinnatifid to merely spinous on 
Hie margins, 'h. 4ft. to 6ft. Brazil, 1372. Half-hardy. Sviv. 
E. ■j'lati/phyllum. 
E, yuccaefolium (Yacca-leavcd). A synonym of E. aquaticuni. 
ERYNGO. See Eryng-ium. 

XIRYSIMUM (Erysimon, the old Greek name of 

Hippocrates, from eryo, to draw; on account of its effects 

in drawing blisters). Hedge Mustard. Ord. Grucifera;. 

A genui3 of about seventy species of hardy annual, 

biennial, or perennial hoary herbs, natives of temperate 

and cold regions of the Northern hemisphere, usually 

branched. Racemes elongated, terminal, many-flowered. 

Leaves variable, usually oblong-linear, entire or toothed. 

A few species only of this somewhat extensive genus 

are worth growing ; and these exceptions are, for the 

most part, very showy border plants, of extremely easy 

cultivation in any ordinary garden soil. Increased by 

seeds ; the perennials by seeds and divisions. 

E. alpiniim (alpine).* jl. sulphur-yellow, sweet-scented. May. 

I. lanrt'idate, distantly tootlted, covered with starry pubescence. 

Sti.'in simple, straight. /(. 6in. Norway, 1823. Perennial. Svk. 

C'lu'iraidhu^'i alpinus. 

E. asperum (rough), jl, petals yellow, with white claws. July. 

/. linear-olilong ; lower ones dentately-r uncinate, pubescent, 

sc;i>trous, and, as well as the stem, greyish, with forked, 

apprcssed haii's. h. Sin. North America, 1824. Biennial. 

(U. F. b. A. i. 22.) 

E. Marschallianum (Marscliall's). fl bright yellow. .July. 

L l;uH-.Holate, narrowed at the base, ti.)othed. /(. 1ft. Caucasus. 


E. ochroleucum (yellowisli-whito).* Jl. pale yellow, scarcely 

scenti'd ; pi.-tiils oliovate. April to July. l. oliliiiig-IanciioljLtn, 

s(ime\vi],-it tiiitthed, covered with two-parted hiiii's, oi' smoutli. 

Stems decumbent, braiichnd. Alps of Jura, 1819. Perennial. 

Plant procumbent. Svn. Chciraiithas ochroleacua. 

Erysimum — continued. 

E. o. helveticum (Swiss). Ji. yellow; petals obovate. Spring. 
I. hnear-lanceolate. either entire or toothed. Stems somewhat 
ascendent, clothed with forked hairs, h. 1ft. Ehsetia, 1319. 

E. Perofskianum (Perofski's).* jl. deep reddish-orange, h. 1ft. 
Caucasus, 1838. This is one of the showiest hardy annuals 
grown ; it is admirably adapted for beds, borders, edgings, &c. ; 
and thrives almost anywhere ; the seeds may be sown m Septem- 
ber for a spring display. (B. M. 3757.) 

E. pulchellum (pretty), fl. sulphur-yellow. Spring, h. 1ft. 
1880. Perennial. A very pretty plant, differing from the 
majority of this genus in being of remarkably compact growth, 
and forming itself into a dense tuft of foliage. (R. H. 1880, 412. ) 

E, pumilum (dwarf).* /. pale sulphur, fragrant. Summer. I. 
linear-lanceolate, somewhat toothed, greyish-green, h. lin. to 
3in. Europe, 1823. An elegant little perennial rock-plant. 
(L. B. C. 899.) 

ERYTHEA (a fanciful name : Erythea, in the 
mythology of the Greeks, was one of the Hesperides, 
daughters of Evening, or the West, " who dwelt on an 
island of the ocean, on the western edge of the world, 
and guarded a garden with golden apples"). Ord. 
Palmem. A genus of two species of greenhouse palms, 
from Southern California. They are tall trees, with naked 
trunks, fan-shaped, plicate, filiferous leaves, and densely 
tomentosG sheaths and inflorescence. Flowers solitary or 
in clusters, scattered along the numerous branches of 
the pendent i^anicle. The genus is very nearly allied to 
Livistona, of Australia and Eastern Asia, which differs 
in its distinct filaments, oblong fruit, with hard crus- 
taceous pericarp, the leaf segments entire or nearly so, 
not filiferous on the margins. For culture, see Areca. 

E. edulis (edible). A handsome species, with a slender trunk, 
30ft. high, and 15in. or more in diameter. Each tree bears one 
to four panicles, blossoming late in March ; the fruit clusters 
are said to weigh 401b. to 501b. Guadalupe Island. Syn, 
Brahea edulia. 

ERYTHRiEA (from erythros, red ; colour of flowers 

of some species). Centaury. Stns. Gyrandra and Hip- 
pocentaurea. Ord. Gentianece. A genus of above thirty 
species of small hardy or half-hardy annual, biennial, or 
perennial plants. Flowers pink, yellow, or rarely white, 
terminal, sessile, or pedicellate. Leaves sessile, opposite, 
decussate ; radical ones rosulate. Erythrccas form elegant 
little plants for rockwork, grown in a sandy loam soil. 
Increased by seeds, or by divisions. 

E. Gentaurium (Centaury), jl. rose-coloured. I. ovate-lanceo- 
late. Stem dichotomously panicled, corymbose. /;. 5in. to 12in. 
North Africa, I'Airope (Britain). Annual. This plant was 
formerly much employed by physicians as a vermifuge. 
(Sy. En. B. 909.) 

Fio. 731. Flowers of Ervtiiu.i-:a diffusa. 
E. diffusa (diffuse).* jl. bright deep rose. I. fleshy, entire, 
glabnius, shining, generally concave, b. 2iu. to 3in. Western 
Europe. X*erenniah A charming little rook plant. See Fig. 731. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Hrytliraea — continued. 

E. UttoraliS (shore), ft. pink, crowded, sessile, fasciculate. .Tune. 
I. ovate-obloug, obtuse. Stem simple or branched, dwarf, tetra. 
gonal. h. 3iu. Europe (Britain). Biennial. (Sy. En. B. 908.) 

Fig. 732. Flowering Stem of EfiVTim.E.i Muhle^bergi. 

E. Mulilenbergl (Muhlenberg's).* fi. of a deep pink colour, with 
a greenish-white star in the centre. Spring. I. oblong-obtuse, 
the floral ones lanceolate. Branches numerous, slender, h. 8in. 
California. An excellent plant for growing on rockwork, or for 
margins of a loamy border. See Fig. 752. 

E. venusta (charming), ft. usually pink, star-like ; corolla liu. in 
diameter ; tube slender ; lobes of the limb elliptic, obtuse, deep 
rose-coloured, yellow at the base, as long as tlie tube. August. 
I. in pairs, scattered, sessile, ^in. to lin. long, oblong or ovate- 
ohlong, rounded at the apexfbase rounded or cordate; upper 
and floral leaves narrower aud acute or acuminate. Stem simple 
or cymosely branched above, few-flowered, h. 6in. to lOin. Cali- 
fornia, 1878. A slender erect hardy annual. (B. M. 6396.) 

EBiYTHBrllTA (from erythros, red ; referring- to the 
colour of the flowers). Coral-tree. Ord. Leguminosce. 
A genus of about thirty species of trees and shrubs, 
principally natives of tropical regions in both the New 
World and the Old, and at the Cape. Flowers coral- 
red, large, in dense racemes, prodirced usually before 
the development of the large leaves (in a few species, 
on the ends of the annual shoots) ; calyx split, spatha- 
ceous, bilabiate ; petals very unequal ; standard large ; 
ripper stamen free to the base, or sometimes connate with 
the others half-way up the filaments ; anthers uniform. 
Pod linear, turgid, tornlose. Leaves constantly tri- 

Cultivation. All the Erythrinas like a strong loamy 
soil, an abundance of water when not at rest, and 
exposurd to bright sunlight. The tree and shrubby- 
stemmed species should be kept growing all summer in 
a warm house, and treated liberally, so as to induce 
vigorous growth. In September, water should be gradu- 
ally withheld, so that the wood may ripen, the leaves 
fall off, and the plants go to rest for the winter. Early 
in spring, they should be repotted or top-dressed, 
placed in a hot, moist temperature, and supplied with 
plenty of water at the roots. This treatment should 
cause them to produce their large racemes of gorgeous 
flowers. If it be necessary to cut away any of the 
branches, it should not be done till after the flowers 
are over, as these are developed on the ripened wood 

Evythvina,— continued. 
of the previous year. The herbaceous-stemmed species, 
E. cri^hi-'jalli and E. Iterhacea, form a stout rootstock, 
from which shoots are annually produced, and upon these 
the flowers are borne in autumn. Both these kinds 
should be started in heat, in spring, unless when 
planted out of doors, in which case they may be left to 
start themselves on the approach of warm weather. 
For pot specimens, however, a little extra heat assists 
the rootstocks, and is conducive to the free production 
of shoots. As these increase in streiigtii, a lower tem- 
perature will be sufficient, till, finally, the plants may ho 
placed out of doors for the summer. By taking off the 
young shoots with a heel, in spring, and inserting them 
in sandy soil, on a little bottom heat, a stock is easily 
obtained. After flowering, the shoots die down, when 
the plants may be placed under stages in cool houses, 
where they can be kept dry and at rest till the follow- 
ing spring. Erythrinas, planted out of doors, require a 
covering of leaves or cocoa-nut fibre, to protect the boles 
from frost. 

E. Corallodendron (Coral-tree), ft. deep scarlet, large, in long 
racemes, appearing when the leaves have fallen. JIaj' ami .June! 
Z., leaflets broad, rhomboid-ovate, acute ; petioles unariiied. Stem 
arboreous, prickly, h. 6ft. to 12ft. West Iiulie.5, 1690. Sv.N. E. 

Fig. 733. Portion of An'N' Hf.rb.vceous Flowering 
Shoot of Erytiirina crista-g.\lli. 

E, crista-galli (Cockscomb).* Common Coral-tree. ft. bright 
deep scarlet, disposed in large terminal racemes. May to July. L, 
leaflets oval or ovate, glaucescent, coriaceous, bluntish ; petioles 
prickly, glandular. Stems woody, h. 6ft. to 8ft. Brazil, 1771. 
This fine species is by far the most frequently cultivated one. 
In the southern counties, it is almost hardy. Sy.n. E. lauri/oUa. 
See Fig. 733. (B. M. 2161.) 

E. glauca (glaucous), ft. copper-coloured. Summer. I., leaflets 
ovate, glaucous beneath ; petioles almost unarmed. Stem 
arboreous, prickly, ti. 10ft. South America, 1819. 

E. herbacea (herbaceous), ft. deep scarlet, distant ; racemes 
elongated. June to September. (. , leaflets ovate or somewhat 
hastate. Branches herbaceous, annual, and, as weU as the leaves, 
unarmed and glabrous. Ii. 2ft. to 3ft. Carolina, 1724. (B. M. 
877.) E. Bidwilli is a hvbrid between E h^rhac.ea aud E. (Crista' 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Erythrina — continued. 

gain, with annual shoots, and axillary and terminal spicate 
!E. Hume! (Hume's). Jl. brilliant scarlet, fading to purple, in 
a sub-verticillate spike ; peduncles axillary, longer than the 
leaves, erect, rounded, studded with white, linear warts. I. 
ternate, rhomb-shaped, acuminate, with an obtuse point ; petioles 
alternate, horizontal, longer than the leaves, armed with a few 
distant prickles. Stem erect, woody. A. 30ft. to 60ft. South 
Africa. A very elegant stove tree. (B. M. 2451, under name of 
E. caffra.) 

Erythrina — continued. 
E. laurifolla (laurel-leaved). A synonym of B. crista-oalli. 

S. speolosa (showy). Ji. deep crimson ; racemes and calyces 
velvety. August to October. L, leaflets liroad, slightly three- 
lobed, acuminated, glabrous ; petioles and ribs of leaves prickly. 
Stems shrubby, prickly, h. 6ft. to 10ft. West Indies, 1805. 
(A. B. R. 443.) 

E. splnosa (spinous). A .synonym of E. Corallodendrov. 
Other very good garden forms, chiefly of E. crista-galli, are : 

Cottyana, flowers deep rich red ; florlbunda, flowers rosy-crimson ; 

Fig. 734. Erythrina indica Parcelli. 

C Indlca (Indian).* Jl. of a splendid scarlet colour. I., leaflets 
broad-ovate, acute, f^jlaltrous ; petioles unarmed. Stem arboreous, 
prickly; spines black, h, 20ft. to 30ft. East Indies, 1814. There 
IS a liandsomo white-flowered form of this specie.s. 

E. 1. luarmorata (marbled). I. large, Itroad, blotched and 
spotted with white in a very effective manner. Polynesia, 1879. 
An elegant variegated plant. 

E. 1. Parcelli (Parcell's). I. alternate ; leaflets three, with a 
yellow variegation, sometimes forming a feather-like stripe along 
the costa and main veins, sometime? more diffused, and forming 
a band lin. wide. Stem .stout, woody. South Sea Islands. See 
Fig. 734, for which we are indebted tu Mr. Wm. Bull. 

Madctme Belanger flowers velvety, rich dark reddisli-crimson ■ 
ornata, flowers dark vermilion ; raberrlma, flowers lar-^e brilliant 
crimson, rosy-tinted ; speciaMlis, leaves witli flue bold \^arle-atio 
markings chiefly yellow. .^"-0^^11011. 

ERYTHROCHITON (from er,jthTo^, red, and chiton 
a tunic; calyx red). Ord. Uutacea;. A gonus of four 
species of very ornamental stove evergreen trees, natives 
of Brazil, Guiana, and New Grenada. They thrive well 
in a compost of loam and leaf mould. Increased by 
seeds, or by cuttings. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Erythrocliiton — continued. 

E. braziliensis (Brazilian). Jl. large, in the axilla of the bract- 
like leaves, two to four, or more, in a cluster, on short, hrac- 
teolate pedicels ; calyx red ; corolla white. July. I. alternate, 
simple, stalked, lanceolate, very long, quite entire, smooth. Axil- 
lary branches almost leafless, bearing the flowers at their ends. 
h. 10ft. Brazil, 1842. (B. M. 4742.) 

E. hypophyllanthus (leaf -flowering). /. white; cymes short, 
one to three-flowered, developed on the costa beneath. I. bold, 
cnneate-oblong:, 1ft. to l-}ft- long. Columbia, 1853. Habit 
erect, unbranched. (B. M. 5824.) 


EKYTHKON'IUM (from erythros, red, the colotir 
of the flowers in the European species ; Erythronion is 
the name given by Dioscorides to a kind of Orchis). 

Dog's-tooth Violet. Oe,d. LiliacecB. A genus of seven 
species of very ornamental dwarf, stemless, hardy, bulbous 
plants, of which one species is dispersed through Europe, 
Asiatic Russia to Japan, and the rest are North American. 
Flowers on a scape, solitary, pendulous ; perianth seg- 
ments six, erect or reflexed. Leaves radical, ovate, or 
ovate-lanceolate. They succeed in almost any light soil, 
but prefer a misture of loam and peat. Propagated by 
offsets, which are produced freely when the plants do 
well. The best time for obtaining them, or for replant- 
ing, is immediately the leaves die away, after flowering. 
Erythroniiims have a better effect when planted in groups 
than if placed in very small quantities separately; the 
bulbs should be inserted about Sin. deep. If left un- 
touched afterwards, an annual top-dressing of good soil 
will be advantageous. Erythroniums succeed best in a 
sheltered position on a rockery, but are also suitable for 
the front line of mixed borders, or for shrubberies. They 
may also be grown in pots, in a cold frame, for green- 
house decoration when in flower. The flowers appear in 
March and April, and are attractive outside at that early 

E. americanmn (American).* Jl bright yellow, about lin. 
across ; perianth segments spreading, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse. 
;. elliptical-lanceolate, recurved at top, dotted and marbled 
with violet and white, h. Sin. to 6in. North America. (B. M. 

Fig. 735. Erythronium dens-canis, Large White Variety. 

Erythronium — contimted. 

£. dens-oanis.^ Dog's-tooth Violet. Ji. purplish-rose or whitish, 
about 2in. in diameter, solitary, droopmg. I. blotched with 
purple-brown and white, radical, stalked, broadly-oval, rounded 
at the base, acuminated, h. 6in. Europe, 1596. (B. M. 5.) 
There are several forms, varying in the colour of the flowers. 
See Fig". 735. 

E. grandiflorum (large-flowered). /. yellow or cream-colour, 
with a more or less orange base, solitary or often in a raceme 
of two to sis or more ; segments lanceolate and somewhat acu- 
minate, strongly recurved^" lin. to 2in. long. I. not mottled, 
always closely approximate, oblong-lanceolate, 3in. to 6in. long, 
with broad, usually short petioles. North-west America. (B. R. 

E. g. giganteum (gigantic). Jf. white, with a yellow and orange 
base, large, I. mottled. Washington Territory. (B. M. 5714.) 

ERYTHBOPHLfEUM (from erythros, red, and 
phloios, bark ; referring to the red juice which flows 
from the tree when cut). "Red-water Tree. Obd. Legu- 
minosce. A small genus, containing three or four species 
of unarmed stove evergreen trees. Flowers small, almost 
sessile, in long, cylindrical spikes, forming a terminal 
panicle; petals five, small, slightly imbricate; stamens 
ten, inserted with the petals, free. Leaves bipinnate. 
For culture, see Acacia. 

E. guineense (Guinea). Ji. pale yellow. I. bipinnate ; leaflets 
opposite, oval, oblique, from roundish to lanceolate, repand, 
acuminated and entire, h. 40ft. to 100ft. Sierra Leone, 1823. 
The bark of this tree is very poisonous. 
K. LabOUClierU (Labouchere's). yf., spikes rather dense, nearly 
sessile, lin. to Sin. long; petals longer than the calyx, with 
woolly edges; stamens more than twice as long as the petals, 
inserted in two rows. I., pinnas opposite, in two or three pairs; 
leaflets four to nine, alternate, obliquely obovate or orbicular, 
very obtuse or retuse. Branches glabrous. North Australia. A 
lofty, hard-wooded tree. 

EB.TTHB.OBCHIS. See Galeola. 

EBYTHROXYLEa:. A tribe of Linese (which see). 

ERYTHROXYLON (from eryfJiros, red, and xylon, 
wood ; some of the species have red wood). Including 
Sethia. Ord. Linece. A very widely -distributed genus 
of about fl-fty species of stove or greenhouse evergreen 
trees, with small white or yellowish-green flowers, which 
arise from the axils of the stipulaceous scales. E. Coca 
thrives in fibry loam ; and cuttings of half-ripe shoots will 
root in sand, under a hand glass, in heat. 
E. Coca (Coca). Jl. greenish, small, three or four together, 

axillary. I. alternate, lanceolate or oval, entii-e. /(. 3ft. to 6ft. 

1869. This is one of the most interesting species of the genus, 

and is extensively cultivated ; its leaves are largely employed by 

the South Americans as a masticatory, under the name of Coca. 

Coca also constitutes an article of commerce with the Indians. 

Greenhouse. (B. M. PI. 40. ) 

ESCAIiIiONIA (nam,ed in honour of Escallon, a 
Spanish traveller in South America, who found the 
first species of this genus in New Grenada). Ord. Saxi- 
fragece. A genus comprising about thirty-five species of 
ornamental half-hardy evergreen shrubs, all natives of 
South America. Flowers usually in terminal racemes or 
panicles. Leaves scattered, serrated, or entire. These 
fine plants grow freely in almost any ordinary well- 
drained garden soil. For training against walls, few 
shrubs are more suitable than E. fiorihunda and E. ma- 
crantha. In the south of England, and on the sea coast 
more especially, they flourish remarkably well, and are 
grown extensively as hedge or shelter plants. Propaga- 
tion may bo effected by cuttings, made of half-ripened 
wood, inserted in sandy loam, and covered with a hand- 
light ; by layers, or by suckers. 

E, floribunda (bundle-flowered).* fi. white ; corymbs terminal, 
rather panicled, much-branched, leafy ; petals obovate-spathu- 
late. .July. I. oblong, obtuse, tinely crenulated or quite entire. 
Branches covered with clammy resin, h. 10ft. New Grenada, 
1827. Stn. K raontevidensis, (B. M, 6404.) 
E. lUinita (varnished), fl. white ; panicle terminal, many- 
flowered, leafy ; petals on long claws. August. I. petiolate 
obovate or oblong, obtuse, crenulated, attenuated at the base, 
beset with glandular dots above, and clammy. Branches spread- 
ing, resinous, h. 5ft. Chili, 1830. (B. R. 1900.) 
E, macrantha (large-flowered).* jl. crimson-red, rather large; 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Hscallonia — continued. 

lower petUmcles simple, axillary ; upper ones racemose. June. 
l. ovate-elliptic, bluntish, seriated, shining, glandularly dotted 
helow. Branches pubescent, glandular, h. 3ft. to 6ft. Chiloe, 
1848. {B. M. 4475.) The variety sanr/uinea has deep red 
E. montevidensls (Monte Video). A synonym of E. jiorCbunda. 
E. organensis (Organ Mountains).* Jf., petals deep rose-colour, 
flve, spathukito, the claws erect, linear, so closely placed as to 
iovm a tube ; limb exactly horizontally patent, oval or obovate, 
obscurely creuate at the margin. I. alternate, oblong, copious, 
erect, somewhat imbricated, glossy, rigid, dark green above, 
with a red niai'gin, rather obtuse at the point, tapering at the 
base into a short petiole. Stems and branches rich red-brown. 
h. 2ft. to 4ft. Organ Mountains, 1844. A lovely plant. (B. M. 
E. Fhillppiana (Philippi's). Jl. white ; panicles terminal and 
lateral, den.sely crowded. July. I. rich green, somewhat spathu- 
late, serrated. Yaldivia, 1873. (G. C. n. s., x. 109.) 
E. pterocladon (winged-branched). Jl. white and pink, small, 
axillary. July. I. very small. A. 4ft. Patagonia, 1854. (B. M. 
E. pulverulenta (dusted). /. white ; petals obovate ; racemes 
terininal, erect. June. I. elliptic, obtuse, on short petioles, ser- 
rulated, rather clammy above when young. Branches rather 
erect, somewhat trigonal. Shrub hairy in every part, k, 6ft. 
to 10ft. Chili, 1831. (S. B. F. G. ii. 310.) 
E. punctata (dotted). Jl. one to four, rarely more, in terminal 
corymbs, sub-erect ; corolla deep dark red. July. I. bright 
gi-een, sessile, or narrowed into a very short petiole, elliptic- 
ovate, acute, finely seiTated, the serration often irregular ; 
upper surface glossy, with deeply impressed veins ; under paler, 
smooth, glabrous, or glandular pubescent, or gland-dotted. 
/(. 3ft. to 6ft. Chili. A much-branched evergTeen shrub. Syn. 
jt,'. rubra punctata. This is easily distinguished from E. rubra 
by the stalked glands upon the young shoots, &c. (B. M. 6599.) 
E. rubra (red).* //. red; petals spathulate ; peduncles two to 
seven-Howered, bracteate. July to September. L obovate-oblong, 
acuminated, serrated, full of resinous dots beneath. Branches 
erect, when young clothed with glandular hairs, h. 3ft. to 6ft. 
Chili, 1827. Shrub smoothish. (B. I\I. 2890.) 
E. r, punctata (red-dotted). A synonym of E. punctata. 

J^SCAJmJm01H12E. a tribe of Saxifragese (which 

ESCHALOT. See Shallot. 

ESCHSCHOLTZIA (named in honour of J. F. Esch- 
sclioltz, M.D., 1793-1831, a celebrated naturalist, who 
accompanied Kotzebue round the world). Stn. Chryseis. 
Ord. Papaveracece. Very ornamental hardy annual or 
perennial glabrous and glaucescent herbs. Sepals coher- 
ing in the form of a cap, deciduous. Leaves much 
divided into narrow segments. Perhaps all the Esch- 
scholtzias here described are mere forms of one very 
variable species. These showy plants are largely em- 
ployed in decorating flower borders in spring, summer, 
and autumn. They are of very easy culture in ordinary 
garden soil. Seeds may be sown in spring or autumn, 
in places where they are to flower. 

E. callfornica (Calif ornian).* Jl. briiL^ht yellow, large. Summer. 
l. glaucous, tripinnatifid ; segments linear. /;. IMt. North-west 
America, 1790. Perennial. From this, the first species intro- 
duced, have sprung a legion of varieties with flowers of a white, 
pinkish, or pale yellow colour. 
E. c. csespitosa (tufted). Jf. yellow, about lin. across. 
Summer. I. divided into almost thread-like segments, h. 6in. 
A very pretty little annual, with a close, compact habit, and 
much branched near the base. Syn. E. tcnuij'olia. (B. M. 4812.) 
E. c. crocea (yellow).* jt. deep rich orange. Summer, h. lit. 
California, 1833. Of this showy biennial, there are numerous 
forms, including white, red, striped, and a double orange- 
flowered kind. 
E, tenulfolla (slender-leaved). A synonym of E. c. ccespitosa. 

In addition to the foregoing, very showy garden forms have been 
raised, including compacta (orange) ; Mandarin (a gorgeous orange- 
crimson flowered sort) ; and several others. 

ESFAIiIEKS. A term applied to a mode of training 
fruit-trees in the open ground, either as permanent features 
or preparatory to placing them on walls or on a trellis 
inside a house. Many methods are employed, some of a 
temporary, and others of a permanent, character. For a 
single tree, a row of stakes about 5ft. high, driven in the 
ground, J)in. apart, is suitable. A narrow strip of wood 
ia generally laid on the tops of the stakes, and a nail driven 
into each, to hold them firmly. Fruit-trees trained as 

Espaliers — continued. 

Espaliers, to separate borders running parallel to walks 
from the inside garden, sometimes have strained wires 
fixed for the purpose. Another mode is to have end 
posts, to which are secured top and bottom rails, with 
vertical strips of wood nailed to them. The trees 
may be trained to any desired shape as Espaliers, in the 
same way as if they were on walls. Full exposui-e to light 

Fig. 736. Fruit-tree trained Upright as an Espalier. 
on both sides is obtained by proper thinning ; but the 
advantages of a wall regarding the protection afforded 
cannot, of course, be similarly secured. An upright- 
trained fruit-tree is shown in Fig. 736 ; the stem is 
represented rather higher than is usual with trees trained 
in this way. Stakes at each end, and an Espalier frame 
fixed to them, would suit such a tree best ; or one each 
of the former might be inserted to the upright branches 
separately. See also Training*. 
ESPARTO GRASS. See Stipa tenacissima. 
ESFEIiETIA (named in honour of Don Jose de 
Espeleta, a Viceroy of New Grenada). Ord. Compositor. 
A genus containing about eleven species of remarkable 
greenhouse woolly-leaved plants. Flower-heads yellow, 
sometimes lin. or more across, corymbose. Leaves alter- 
nate, or rarely opposite, entire, lanceolate or linear, wholly 
covered with dense white or rusty-coloured wool. They 
thrive in a sandy-peat soil, and should be kept in a dry 
and airy part of the greenhouse. During damp weather, 
in winter, the plants should only receive sufficient water to 
keep the soil moist, and care must be taken that the 
woolly leaves are not wetted. The species here described 
are the only ones yet in general cultivation. 
E. argentea (silvery). Jl.-head,<; yellow, moderately large, the 
disk inclining to brown ; florets all subtended by a ligulate, 
membranaceous scale. July. I. narrow-lanceolate," densely silky 
and strigose on both sides, k. 5ft. to 6ft. New Grenada, 1845. 
A very remarkable plant. (B. M. 4480.) 
E. grandiflora (large -flowered), jl-heads yellow, large. Summer 
L lanceolate, h. 10ft. New Grenada. This species yields a gum- 
resin of a beautiful yellow colour, which is largely employed 
by the native printers in the composition of their hiks. 

ETIOLATION. See Blanching. 

EUADENIA (from ew, well, and aden, a gland ; in 
allusion to the appendix at the base of the gynophore 
terminating in about five minute spherical knobs). Ord. 
GapparidecB. A genus of two or three species of stove 
herbs or sub-shrubs, from tropical Africa, only the one 
described below having yet been introduced to cultiva- 
tion. It thrives in a woU-drained loamy soil. Cuttin'^s 
strike readily in bottom heat. 

E. emlnens (eminent). jl, petals four, sulphur-yellow two 
dorsal ones 4m. long, erect, narrowly linear-subulate, narrowed 
into a long claw; two lower ones smaller, pointing forward ■ 
sepals four, green, lanceolate, acuminate, iin. long I alternate' 
stalked, tnfoholate, quite glabrous. A striking plant with a 
"singularly handsome inflorescence, which resembles a c*\n 
delabrum in its ramification, the yellow petals looking like 
?.^.^^t "^IJ^^. J^*^^ ^" ^^^^'* branch." ^Vest tropical Africa. 1880. 

(iJ. M. OD/O.) 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


EUCALYPTUS (from e«, well, and kalyplo, to cover 
as with a lid ; limb of the calyx covering the flower before 
expansion, and afterwards falling- off in one piece, in tlic 
shape of a lid or cover). Gum-tree. Including Eiidesmin. 
Oed. Myrtacew. A genus of 140 or more species of tall 
evergreen greenhouse trees, with very few exceptions 
natives of Australia, whore thoy constitute a large por- 
tion of the forest vegetation. Peduncles axillary, one- 
flowered, or bearing an umbel of from three to fifteen 
flowers. Leaves quite entire, coriaceous, usually alternate, 
very variable, even in the same tree, quite glabrous except 
in a very few of the species. It is worthy of remark that 
the Gum Trees, though among the largest trees in the 
world, have very smaU, or even minute, seeds. In their 
native country, the Eucalypti form extensive forests, 
and grow very fast, some of them reaching an immense 
height and having trunks in the same proportion. The 
timber is extremely durable, and is largely used by colonial 
ship-builders, implement-makers, engineers, &c. None of 
the species attain a size sufficiently large for use as timber 
in this country, as they are not hardy enough to withstand 
a severe winter outside. Several succeed on a south wall 
with protection in winter, and all are useful decorative 
greenhouse plants. They are called Gum Trees in conse- 
quence of the quantity of gum that exudes from their 
trunks. E. globulus, the Blue Gum, one of the most 
valuable timber trees of the Southern hemisphere, is also 
largely cultivated in many parts of the world, especially 
in the Mediterranean region and in malarious districts 
in Italy. Further, it is the species grown more than 
others in this country for its value in sub-tropical gar- 
dening, the leaves being of a distinct glaucous hue, and 
quite different from those of any other plant similarly 
employed. Eucalypti are best raised from imported seeds, 
which generally vegetate freely. They should be sown 
thinly in pots or pans of light sandy soil, and placed in 
a little heat. E. globulus, when intended to be used for 
sub-trox^ical bedding or for a group on a lawn, is best 
sown in August and growm on through the winter for use 
the following season. By this method, much larger and 
hotter plants may be obtained than when sowing is de- 
ferred till spring. It is best to raise new plants each year, 
as lifted ones do not regain their beauty of the preceding 
season, and they cannot be depended on to stand outside, 
at least, not in many places. Being fast growing plants, 
considerable space must be allowed when they become 
established, either in the open ground or in pots. A rather 
rich soil, composed of loam and decayed manure, with the 
addition of some charcoal, to keep it open, is most suit- 
able. E. citriodora is very useful for growing in small 
pots for the conservatory, its scented leaves rendering it 
a general favourite. Comparatively few of the species 
are grown in this country. 

E. amygdalina (almond-leaved). Jl., peduncles axillary or 
lateral, nearly terete, with four to eight flowers. I. alternate, 
linear-lanceolate, 3in. long, three lines broad, attenuated at the 
base. 1820. A moderate sized or large tree. (B. M. 3260. ) In 
the Museum, No. 1, at Kew, there is a photograph of the base 
of a tree from Victoria, known as " Big Ben." The tree measured 
55ft. in circumference, at base, and was 400ft. high. This species 
forms the highest of all known trees ; one is recorded measuring 
470ft. high, far exceeding even the well-known Giant-trees of 
CaUfornia {Sequoia gigantea). 

E. calophylla (beautiful-leaved), fi. rather large, in a terminal 
corymbose panicle, "with one or two sometimes in the upper axils ; 
umbels loose ; peduncles flattened, or nearly terete ; pedicels 
longer than the calyx tube. I. ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or lan- 
ceolate, obtuse or mucronate, acute, rather rigid, with numerous 
transverse parallel veins, the intramarginal one scarcely distant 
from the edge. A very beautiful tree. (B. M. 4036, under name 
of E. splachnicarpa.) 

E. citriodora (lemon-scented).* I. oblong-lanceolate, covered 
with glandular hairs, which, when gently rubbed, emit a power- 
ful odour, resembling that of the lemon-scented Aloysia. 
Australia. An interesting greenhouse plant. 

E. coccifera (Coccus-bearing).* /. purple ; peduncles axillary or 
lateral, terete, or slightly compressed, bearing each an umbel of 
four to eight flowers. December. L in the usual fiirm mostly 
ovate-lanceolate, falcate and very oldique at the base, more or 
less acuminate, 4in. to 6in. long, thick with very oblique distant 

Eucalyptus — LoiUiiuwd. 

anastomosing veins, the intra-marginal one at some distance 
from the edge. A small, generally very glaucous, tree. SVN. 
]-J. daplimldes. (B. M. 4637.) There is a variety, parvijlora, 
having smaller flowers, and extremely short peduncles. 

E. cordata (heart-shaped). A synonym of H. pidoeruknta. 

E. comuta (horned), f.. red, yellow ; peduncles axillary, terete 
or slightly compressed, eacli bearing six to twelve, or even more 
flowers, sessile, but not immersed in the receptacle. /. lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, mostly under 4in. long, rather thick ; the 
veins irregularly ol»li(|ue, the intramarginal one at a distance 
from the edge. A tall shrub or small tree, with a smooth balk. 
(1!. M. 6140.) 

E. daphnoides (Daphne-like). A synonym ni K. nKcifera. 

E. gigantea (gigantic). A synonym of K. uUiiitia. 

Fig. 737 \ 0U^ _. Tki c Ol J l \lu i l s i l j r 1 \ ing Habit. 

E. globulus (globuled).* Blue Gum-tree. Jf. lari;i', axillary, 
solitary, or two or three together, closely se.-^^.ile mi the stem, 
or on a peduncle not longer than thick. L, of the yoimg tree 
opposite, sessile, and cordate ; of the full gTown tree, lanceolate 
01' ovate-lanceolate, nearly falcate, 6in. to 12in. long. h. some- 
times exceeding 300ft. 1810. See Fig. 737. The leaves of this 
and other species have been supposed to possess febrifugal 
properties. Smoked in tlie form of cigars, they have )ieen reom- 
mended in asthma. The oil obtained from the leaves is anti- 

E. Gunnii (Gunn's).* Cider-tree of Tasmania. _/f. white ; peduncles 
axillary, very short, each with three rather large almost sessile 
flowers. I. ovate-lanceolate or elliptical and obtuse to lanceolate- 
acute. A bush or small tree, sometimes attaining a height of 
50ft. Perhaps the hardiest of all the species. 

E. macrocarpa (large-fruited). Jl. very large, solitary, on very 
short, thick, axillary peduncles. June. I. opposite, sessile, broailly 
cordate-ovate, acute or obtuse, often 6in. long, or even more, VL'iy 
thick and rigid, h. 6ft. to 10ft. 1842. A stout shrub, usually 
more or less mealy-white. In the "North" Gallery at Kew, 
there is a portrait of one of the few remaining specimens of this — 
one of the rarest of the Eucalypti. Although it has the largest 
flowers of all the species of the genus, it is only a shrul), and jias 
been nearly extirpated by sheep in the one district where it was 
known to grow. (B. M. 4533; P. .M. B. xv. 29.) 

E. obliqua (oblique). Stringy-bark. Jl., peduncles axillary oi- 
lateral, and, as well as the branches, nearly terete; umliels 
four to eight-flowered. I. alternate, ovate-lanceolate, 4in. to 6in. 
long, acuminated, very unequal at the base. h. 150ffc. to 250ft. 
The bark of this comes oif in large slabs, and is used in making 
wigwams and roofs ; and the natives also use it when they wi.sji 
to cross a river. They strip off a large concave piece, and stop 
up the ends with mud, so as to keep the water out, thus forming 
a rude canoe, in which tlicy paddle themselves over with a piece 
of wood, leaving it to rot or float away. Syn. h\ qiqantca. 
(H. F. T. i., 28.) 

E. paniculata (panicled). fl., peduncles angular; lower ones 
axillary ; the rest disposed in a terminal panicle ; petioles 5in. 
long. I. lanceolate, 3iu. long, and Ave tu six lines bruad. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

attenuated at the base, 


A large shrub or mo derate -sized 

E. plurilocularls (many -celled). A synonym of E. Preusiana. 

B. polyanthemos (many-flowered), fl. white, small, in umbels, 
shortly pedunculate, and usually s-r:vern] 'together in short ob- 
long or corymbose panicles in the upper axils, or at the ends of 
the branches. I. on rather long petioles, t'roadly ovate-orbicular, 
or rhomboidal, obtuse, or rarely shortly acuminate, mostly 
under 3in. long, passing, in older trees, into ovate-lanceolate, ob- 
tuse, and 3in. long, or more, rather rigid, with tine diverging 
veins, the ultra-marginal ones distant from the edge. h. various, 
sometimes small, at others attaining 40ft. to 50ft. Syns. 
-E. populij'olia and E. popylnca. 

E. popuUfolia (Poplar-leaved). A synonym of i?. p>olyanthemos, 

E. populnea (Poplar-like). A synonym of E. %iolyanthemos. 

E. Prelssiana (Preiss's). fl. yellow ; peduncles axillary or 
lateral, very thick and much dilated, sometimes almost winged, 
under lin. long, each with three large flowers, either sessile or 
tapering into a very short, thick, flattened pedicel. I. mostly 
opposite, although petiolate, from broadly ovate to ovate-lanceo- 
late, very obtuse, or rarely acute, Sin. to Sin. long, very thick and 
rigid, the veins diverging and parallel, but not close, the mar- 
ginal one at a distance from the edge. h. 8ft. to 12ft. A stout, 
rigid shrub. Sv.N. E. plxirilocularis. (B. M. 4266.) 

E. pulverulenta (powdery). /., peduncles axillary, very short. 
terete, or angular, each with three flowers not large, and sessile, 
or nearly so. June. I. sessile, opposite, cordate, orbicular or 
broadly ovate, obtuse, or almost acute, quite entire, more or less 
glaucous. A small tree. Syns. E. cordata and E. pidvigera. 
(B. M. 2087.) 

E, pulvigera (powdery). A synonym of E. pulverulenta. 

E* robusta (robust). /., peduncles lateral and terminal, two- 
edged ; pedicels short, compressed. I. alternate, ovate, h. 100ft. 
1794. The variety rostrata has ovate-lanceolate acuminated 

E. splachnicarpa (Splachnum-fruited). A synonym of C. calo- 

E. tetragona (four-angled), fl. red ; peduncles axillary, short, 
thick, angular or flattened, with three or more rather large 
flowers, on thick, angular, or flattened pedicels. July. I. mostly 
opposite, or nearly so, the upper ones alternate, from broadly 
ovate and very obtuse to lanceolate-falcate and almost acute, 
rarely more than 4in. long, thick and ri<>id, with diverging, but 
rather distant, veins, h. varying from a low scrubby shrulS to a 
small tree of 20ft. to 25ft. 1824. Syn. Eudesmm tetragona. 
(S. F. A. 21.) 

EUCH^TIS (from eu, well, and chaite, hair; petals 
bearded inside). Obd. Rutacece. A genus of four or five 
species of greenhouse evergreen Heath-like shrubs, confined 
to South-western Africa. For cultivation, see Diosma. 
E. gloxnerata (close-flowered), fl. white, glomerate at the tops 

of the branches ; peduncles very short, bracteate. May. l. 

scattered, lanceolate, keeled, with a pellucid, rigidly, and ciliated 

margin, h. 2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1818. 

EXJCHARIDIUM (from eucharis, agreeable ; habit 
of plant). Ord. Onagrariem. A genus containing only a 
couple of species of very pretty hardy annuals, both Cali- 
fornian, extremely showy when grown in masses. Seeds 
may be sown in the open border, in spring or autumn. 
E. Breweri is probably not yet in cultivation. 

E. concinnum neat).* fl. lilac-purple, solitary, on long pedicels ; 

petals trilobate; sepals cohering at the tips, reflexed. Summer. 
L. glabrous, ovate-lanceolate, entire. //. 1ft. North America 
1787. (B. M. 3589.) E. c/randiflorum (R. H. vi. 298) is merely 
a large-flowered variety of the above. 

EUCHARIS (from eu, well, and charis, grace ; very 
graceful, a manufactured name). Ord. Amaryllidece. A 
small genus of tropical bulbous plants, from New Grenada. 
There are five species known, all of which arc in cultiva- 
tion, and three of them taking rank among the most 
pjopular of stove bulbous plants. For their cultivation, a 
temperature of 65deg. to 70deg., rising to 80deg. in 
summer ; and, except for a few weeks in autumn, an 
abundance of water always will be found suitable. The 
soil should consist of two parts rich loam to one of leaf 
mould and manure, with the addition of charcoal, to keep 
it open. Bather large pots are best, so as to allow the 
roots to ramify freely, and they should be inserted deeply. 
Half-a-dozen strong bulbs in a lOin. pot will be suitable 
for E. cmdida, E. grandifiora {aTnazo-nira), and E. Sa'ih- 
deriana, whilst for the others a 6in. pot for the same 
number of bulbs will be ample. Where grown in large 
quantities, the bulbs may be planted out in beds beneath 

Eucharis— coiifimied. 
which hot-water pipes are placed, though equally good 
results are obtainable if they are kept in pots and 
plunged in a tan or dung bed. If potted in good soil 
in the first instance, it will not be necessary to do more 
than top-dress the plants annually, repotting only when 
the bulbs are overcrowded. Liquid manure may be given 
with advantage, after the flower-scapes appear. If placed 
in an intermediate house whilst in flower, a longer dis- 
play, and blossoms of better substance, will be the 
result. Offsets are developed rather freely by the bulbs 
when growing well, and if these be removed and potted 
up singly in Gin. pots, a good stock of plants may soon be 
obtained. After the leaves are all matured, less water, 
and a temperature a few degrees lower than that recom- 
mended for the growing period, will be necessary ; always 
however, avoiding total drying off — treatment not essen- 
tial to the free production of flowers, but likely to 
weaken the bulbs. When favoui-ably situated, old-esta- 
blished plants of the above-named best kinds of Eucharis 
win bear two or three crops of flowers in the course of 
a year. Seeds are sometimes ripened on cultivated 
Eucharises, which may be sown as soon as ripe, in a 
warm house. 

B. amazonloa (Amazon), A synonym of E. grandifiora. 
"E. Candida (white).* fi. pure white, drooping, 3in. broad ; corona 
very prominent, divided into six pointed segments, to which the 
stamens are attached ; umbel six to ten-flowered on scape 2ft. 
long. I. solitary on each bulb, broadly elliptic, acuminate ; petiole 
long, compressed, 1ft. long. Bulb large as a hen's egg, with an 
elongated neck. New Grenada, 1851. (F. d. S. 788.) 
E, Candida (white). A garden name for E. subedentata. 
E. c. grandifiora (large-flowered). A synonym of E. grandifiara. 
E. g^andiflora (large-flowered).* fl. pure white, drooping, 4in. 
to 5in. wide, borne in three to six-flowered umbels on erect 
scapes, about 2ft. long; corona tinged with gi-een. I. several to 
a bulb, broadly ovate, acuminate, channelled, slightly waved and 
plaited ; blade Bin., petiole lOin., long. Bulb egg-shaped, with a 
rather long neck. New Grenada, IQ5^. Syns. E. amazonica, 
E. Candida grandifiora. See Fig. 738. (B. M. 4971.) 
E. Hartwegiana (Hartweg's). This species, already described 
in this work under Callphrurla, should now be placed here. 
(B. M. 6269.) 

E. paradoxa (paradoxical). A synonym of E. subedentata, 

E, Sanderiana (Sander's).* fl. pure white, with filaments and 

inside of tube yellow, about 31n. wide; corona suppressed ; iimbel3 
three to seven-flowered, on erect scape, 18in. long. New Grenada, 
1882. Habit and foliage of D. grandifiora, to which it may 
be compared also in the beauty and usefulness of its flowers. 
(B. M. 6676.) 

E. subedentata (almost without teeth, in allusion to absence 
of corona). This is now the correct name of the plant described 
in this work as Caliphruria subedentata. SViNS. E, Can- 
dida (of gardens) and E. parado.ra. (B. M. 6289.) 

ISUCHIIiUS. Included under PultenSQa (which see). 

EUCHL.SIN'A (from eu, well, and clilaina, a mantle ; in 
allusion to the large glumes). Syn. Reana. Ord. Grami- 
nece. Tropical fodder grasses, of annual duration. Male 

flowers in dense terminal panicles ; females in axillary spikes. 
Leaves long, broad, strap-shaped. Stems tall, succulent. 

E. luxurlans (luxuriant). Teosinte. /^, males on short axillary 
panicles ; females in large terminal drooping panicles. I. 4ft. 
long, green, soft in texture. Stems 12ft. to 15ft. high, in tufts. 

as many as thirty stems springing from a single seed. Mexico. 
(B. M. 6414.) 

IIUCHROMA. Included under Castilleja (which see). 
EUCIiEA (from enUeia, glory; referring to the beauty 

of the ebony-like wood). Stn. Diploncma. Obd. Ebenacece. 
A genus containing some nineteen species of greenhouse 
evergreen shrubs, natives, for the most part, of the Cape 
of Good Hope. None are of any value from a purely 
horticultural standpoint. Flowers axillary, racemose 
rarely paniculate or solitary. Leaves alternate or oppo- 
site, entire, oval-lanceolate or oblong, sometimes crisped 
or wavy. For culture, see Diospyros. 

E. polyandra (many-stameneil). //. Hvo to seven-fid dioecious 

Juno and July. I. elliptic, alternate or sub-opposite h 4ft to 
6It. 1774. SVN. Dlpbmenm elUptica. 

EUCNIBi:. Included under Mentzelia (which see). 

An EncyclopvEdta of Horticulture. 


EUCODONIA. This genus is now includud under 
Achimenes (which see). 

EUCOMIS (from eulomes, heautitul-haircd ; allndins 
to the tufted crown of the flcwer-spifie). Oiii.. Liluirrir. 

Encomia — cuni inned. 
large, usually greenish flowers, surmounted by a tuft of 
empty leaf-like liracts. Eucomis thrive in any ricli soil, 
and arc increased Ijy oftscts. 

FlC. 733. I'U'CIlAlils CRANEin-LORA, showing Leaves ami Iiifloiescence. 

A n-enus of about half-a-dozen species of > half- 
hardy buUis, natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Tliey 
have broad root leaves and a simple raceme of rather 

E. amaryllidlfoliaiAniavsllis-Icaved). ;!., raceme, druse, 
2in. to 3in. Imi^ ; iiuicmtli mccn, segments ohlon" ; sca|ir (.\hu- 
lUiral. terete, imdev 1ft. tacj. Au.!;ust. I. conteinricnaiy lutli tlie 
tlowcis, snh-civrt, llcliy in tcNture, lulate lisulate, nanuucil 

3 z 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

lEucomis — continued. 

gTaduiilly to the base, obtuse, quite unspotted upon either back 
or face, channelled down the face in the lu\\ er half. Bulb ovoid. 
Cape Colony, 1878. 

E. bicolor (two-coloured).* //., raceme dense, oblong, 3in. to ^in. 
long ; perianth segments pale green, with a sharp purple edge, 
oblong ; scape terete, Mn. in diameter. August. I. sub-erect, 
oblong, unspotted, crisped towards the edge. Bulb globose, with 
copiou.s fleshy root fibres. Natal, 1878. A handsome, robust- 
growing species. 

E. blfolia (two-leaved), A synonym of WhitelwacUa bifolia. 

E. nana (dwarf).* _/f. brown : scape clavate. May. I. broad- 
lanceolate, acute, h. 9in. 1774. (B. M. 1495.) >;. pui-pureo- 
caulis (A. B. E. 369) is a form of this with a purple scape. 

rio. 739, EUCOMIS PUNCTATA, showing Haljit and Single Flower. 

E. punctata (spotted).* fi. green, brown ; scape cylindrical 

J uly. I. oblong-lanceolate, channelled, spreading, h 2ft 1783 

See Fig. 739. (B. M. 913.) 
E. p. striata (streaked). /. gi-een ; scape cylindrical. June to 

December I. lanceolate, spreading, striped. h. 2ft. 17S0 

(B. JM. Ib59.) 

E. undulata (wavy). /. green; scape cylindrical. March and 
1083 >■ o''''>t'^-ol^lonS. ™vy, spreading. /,. 2ft. 1760. (B. M. 

EUCBOSIA (from ett, g-ooil, and lirossos, a fring-e ; in 
allusion to the beautiful fring-e of tlio flower, formed' by 
the cup of tlio .stamens). Ord. AmaryUUlea'. A very 
handsome greenhouse bulbous perennial". For culture 
see Pancratium. 

E. bicolor (two-coloured). /I. orange, ringent, nodding; umbel- 
late. April. Ii. 1ft. Peru, 1816. Fxtremely rare. (B" iM. 2490.) 

EUCRYPHIA (from ew, well, and tri/p/iio.?, covered ■ 

referring to the calyptra of the flower). Oed. Rosacfn-'. 

A genus of three or four speoioa of very handsome hardy 

evergreen or greenhouse shrubs or trees, of easy culture 

in a compost of loam and peat, and in a warm, sunny 

situation. Cuttings of young shoots will root in sand 

if placed under glass. ' 

E. Billardleri (Billardier's). Jl. white, vci-y showy, the broad 

petals often Im ni di.imeter ; peduncles much shorter than the 

leaves. I. simple, shortly petiolixte, oblong, very obtuse, Mitiie 

coriaceous, glaucou.s or whitish underneath. Tasmania A hand' 

some greenhouse tree, attaining a very large size, although tlij 

smaller lorms are often reduced to a bushy shrub. Sv.N Carno 

E. cordifolia (heart-shaped-leaved). /. white, large, a.xillarv 
?:,!,. Tic, ''!?''■, '■ cordatc-ohlong, crenated, downy, li, 20fV 
CiiUl, idol. Hardy. 

E. pinnatiflda (pinnatifld). Jl. white, large, usually b.irne i,, 
pairs n.-ar the u|i]irr portions of the branches. I. pinnate dnl- 
green. Cluli, 1880. Hardy, (tj. C. n. .s., xiv. 337; tin.; Dc'c: 

EUDESMIA. Included under Eucalyptus (which 

EUGENIA (named in honour of Prince Eugene of 
Savoy, "ivho was a protector and promoter of botany, 
and possessed a botanic garden). Cambuy Fruit. In- 
cluding Jambosa and Syzygium. Ort>. Mijrtacece. A 
large genus (about 700 species have been described) of 
stove and greenhouse evergreen trees or shrubs, with the 
general habit and inflorescence of Myrtus (which see for 

E. apiculata (apiculate). A synonym of Myrtus Liima. 
E. australis (Southern). A synonym of E. rnyrtifoUa. 
E. brasiliensis (Brazilian). /. white ; pedicels one-flowered, 
slender, rising from the axils of the scaly leaves, along the 
branches, from velvety scaly buds. April. (. oval or obovate- 
obloiig, bluntish, 3in. long, l,Un. broad, h. 6ft. Brazil. Stove. 
(B. M. 4526.) 
E. buxifolia(Box-Ieaved). Jh white; peduncles axillary, branched, 
inany-flowered, very short. May. /. obovate-otilong, obtuse, 
attenuated at the base, opaque, lin. to l.'.in. long. /i. 4ft. to 6ft. 
West Indies, 1818. Stove. 
E. fragrans. See Myrtus fragrans. 

E. Jambos (.Jambos). /. white ; racemes cymose, terminal. 
February to July. Jr. white, red, or rose-coloured, about the 
size of a Medlar. I. narrow-lanceolate, attenuated at the 
acuminated at the apex. h. 20ft. to 30ft. East Indies, 1768 
Stove. Syn. Jambosa viilciaris. (B. M. 1696.) 
E. Luma. See Myrtus Luma. 

E. Michelli (Michell's). jl. white ; pedicels axillary, one-flowered, 
usually solitary, shorter than the leaves. (. ovate-lanceolate, 
glabrous, h. 12ft. Brazil. Stove. 

E. myrtlfolia (Myrtle-leaved), y!., peduncles axil l.ary, lateral or 
terminating short leafy shoots, bearing usually three or five 
howers, sometimes more, in a loose, trichotomous panicle, fr ' 
reil, ovoid or nearly globular, crowned by the calyx limb ' I 
petiolate, varying from oval-o))loiig or almost obovate to ohlong- 
elliptu:;il or almost lanceolate, obtuse or acuminate, 2in to 3in 
long, cuneate or narrowed at the base, finely and almost trans- 
yeisely penniveined. h. 6ft. to 12ft. (Queensland and New South 
Males. A glabrous greeiihouse shrub. SVNS. i'. a«s(raiis and 
Juiiiljusa avstrahs. (B. M. 2239.) 

E. orbiculata (orbiculate). jl. white; peduncles single-flowered 
axillary. N oveiiiljer. I. nearly sessile, thick and coriaceous, very 
;?[!;':-';■'',■;'• ,*I-iuntiiis, &c., I824. stove. (B. M. 4558, under 
li.inu' ot Jlyrlus orhiruiata.) 

E. Pimenta. A synonym of Pbneiita rnhmris. 
^;,f.^\*^" (Smith's). /. white, small, numerous, in a terminal 
t itlotoinous panicle, sometimes corymbose and shorter than 
the leaves, sometimes longer and more pyramidal Jnlv fr 
white or purple globular. (. petiolate, from ovate to ovate-oblono- 
or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or more or less acuminate, narrowecl 
at the b.ase, mostly 2in. to 3in. long, smooth, and finely pennt 
veined h 8ft New South Wales. A tree sometimes small 
and slender, but attaining in some places a consider" le 
of"l c'H;>/^.f '*™"'- "^'••^''"l""^'^- (B- M. 1872, uncleri'ame 
Ugni. See Myrtus Ugni. 
EULALIA (from eit,, well, and lalia, speech ■ in 
reference to the high reputation of the plants). Ord 
Grammea;. 1\iQ very ornamental hardy gra-ss described 
below should properly be referred to the genus Miscanthus 
The varieties are well suited for growing in largo pots 
or tubs m unhcatcd conservatories ; they also form ex- 
cellent border plants in any good ordinary soil. Increased 
freely liy divisions. 

^) ^h^?;^UKe:!iT'w?-i^- ''"''"Jr'',"' ""'"'^1^'« sin, to lan. long. 
'. iiiu ,11 -l.uKLol,ite, 3ft. m. length, deep giccn in colour. Japan 

E. J. folus striatis (striated-leaved).* ;. with a crcmv i,..,,,! 

nmiiiug thruugli tlic centre of each. "it"aiuam> band 

^i,^,\,f,f''T"'^ (zebra.leavecl).* A very handsome form, with leaves 

a ng barsot yellow running crosswise, not lougi udi^n h as 

m the foregoing variety. See Fig. 740. ""ouuciiiiau}, as 

EULOPHIA (from eulophos, handsome-crested- re- 
terruig (0 the handsome labellum or lip, which is fnrrmved 
into elevated ridges). Okd. Orel,, .lev. A numerous 
genus of stove terrestrial orchids, a few of wS "re 
pretty. Plower-.soapes cither simple or branched bear" 
ing few or many flowers; sepals and petals nearly equal • 
ip pouched or spurred, with an entire or trilobed limb 
bearded or crested m tho middle. Leaves grassy or 
lanoc-shapcd and pLaitcd. For culture, see Calanthe.' 

'.;:e's). ./;. pvoiluced on .spikes sepals; .and netils 
lip N» hite. Cape of Cioud Hope. ' ^ 


E. Dregiana(ni 


An Encyclopedia of Horticulture, 


Eulophia— coiifiiiMf J. 
E. euglossa (pri'tty-liiiiu'd). //., sep;,is and petals <'veen 
laiK-e.ilatr, aLauiiniatta marly equal, spvcacliiii; ; lip tiiliil ; latcaal 
M-iiit'iiU sfini-ovatu, acutu, lirttwsh-y,AUm ■ middki SfRimait 
somi-oblong, acute, somewljat crisp, white, with some radiatiu" 
jiurple streaks on the base ; S|uu- clavate, gveeu. I ciuieatc- 
iihloUK, acute, 1ft. long. Old, 1866. A rather curious 

""er it successfully. (I;. M. 

I'laut, requiring plenty of heat to 

E. gulneensis (Guinea). ((. whilish-pink ; lip uirmhranoas 
complete; spur ascending. M.iv l.i .Novonher. ( lanceolate' 
nerved, h. 1ft. Sierra Leone, 1322. 

E. Helleborina (llelleborine). ,SVc Hji.benaria Hcllelborina. 

E. macrostachya (hl'SC-spiked). „. shortly i.ediccllate, lin, in 

Eunomia — coiduiued. 
contain.s a couple of species (both natives of tlio moun- 
tainous rc,gions of Asia Minor) of very pretty little 
luLlf-hard,y evergreen sub-shriibs, admirably adapted for 
rockvfork. Increased by cttttings, x^laced under a glass, 
in summer ; or b3' seeds, sown in a similar situation, in 

E. oppositlfolia (oppositedeaved). jl white ; racemes ten or 
twelve-flowered, terminal. June. I. opi:iosite, almost orbicular, 
entire, smooth. Stem decumbent, branched, h. 6in. to 12in. 


EUONYMUS (Einmoiiion, the name given to this 
plant by Tiieoplirastus, from eu, good, and uiioiiia^ a 


/ 1 


- " ' ' * 'V 

V.' * * • ' ' 

rn;. 740. EuL.VLLA -bvroNir.v zi^r.ui^A, showing loliag 

diametcv across the lateral sepals, ei cito-pateiit ; liii very concave, 
gcddcu-vellow-, with red-purple stripes on the disk, broader than 
long, obtusely sh.illowdy three-lolieil. da]Hiary, I. alioat tuo, 
frcjiil the t(jp of the pseudo-hulb, oblong-lanceolate, ai inninafe, 
contracted into .-i jietiole, nuuibiau"ns, plaited, aliout thi'ce- 
riblied. J'sendo-bulbs elong.ite, coniral, teiete, striated. Ceyhm, 
1837. A very dcsiraljle plant, on account of its late flowering. 
(B. M. 6246.) 
E. virens (grecuish) /^, sepals and pi-tals ,vellow ish-grer'n, tessel- 
lated with brown lines, la'arly equal, (diloug, bluntly poiidid, 
narrowed at base ; lip longer than the petals, white, with purple 
streaks, threedobed, the lateral ones being shorteued, and the 
central <uie crisp at margin, obtuse and recurved at apex, and 
furnishcil with rows of dark hairs along its ilisk : spur short, 
conical. I'.^eudo-bullis loundish-ovafe, 2in, to Sin. long, bearing 
several narrow grassy leaves, (eylon, 1366. (lb .VI. 5579.) 

EUNOMIA (from eii, well, and uoi)o.,s, order ; the leaves 
opposite, and seeds twin). Okd. Cnuifcra. This genus 

aiut Tddly-expaudeil and ^'oung Inll(aesceuces. 

name). Spindle-tree. UitD. l.'i:Uu.-l riii,',i\ A genus of 
interesting hardy or half-hanlv. deeiduMiis or o\i.'rgr(.'on, 
trees or shrubs. Flowers small, often greenish or pur- 
pdish ; peduncles axillary. Leaves opjiosite, petiolate, 
entire, or serrate. Braiudies terete. They arc of very 
easy culture in any ordinary garden soil, and form ex- 
cellent sulijeets fen- low, close fences, or shruldjcrics. 
The siieoios with variegutcd leaves arc w-cll suited as 
Priipagatcd readily by cuttings, 
f the la,4 sca.son's growth ; tln'se 
line compost eif h.u.m and sand, 

edgings to largo bod, 
al.MUlt ;li}i. in longfcli, 
shriuld Im.! insi.Ttcd in 
in early autumn. 

E. americanus (.'.merican). Pinning Bnsli ; Str; 
//. greenish -]iin pie ; petals nearlv orbirular ; ]iednn('l 
floweied. .June. yr. scarlet. ('. ovate to olilong-lai 




The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Xluonymus — continued. 

serrated, almost sessile. Branches smooth, quadrangular. /(. 2ft. 
to 6ft. North America, 1636. Hardy deciduous. (A. F. li. ii. 499.) 

"E, atropurpureus (dark-purple).* Burning Bush ; "Waahoo. 
,fl. dark-purple, qnadrifid ; petals orbicular ; peduncles many- 
tiowered, compressed. June. I. oval-oblon?, acuminate, serrated, 
stalked. Branches smooth, h. 6fc. to 14ft. North America, 
1756. Hardy deciduous. (A. F. B. ii. 499.) 

E. europseus (European).^ _/'. greenish- white, small, fictid ; pet;ils 
oblong-, acute ; peduncles usually three-flowered. May. l. ovate- 
lanceolate, finely serrated. Branches smooth, h. 6ft. to 20ft. 
West Asia, Europe (Britain), &c. Hardy deciduous. (8y. En. B. 

E. fimbriatUS (fimbriate).* JI. white, sub-umbellate, on long fili- 
form peduncles. /. ovate, acuminate, fringed with long, parallel, 
toothed scrratures. Branchjs terete, smooth, h. 12ft. Japan, 
India, &c. Half-hardy evergreen. (F. d. S. 1851, 71.) 

E, grandiflorus (large-flowered). /. white, very large, slightly 
nodding, inodorous; petals orbicular, flat, with curled edges; 
peduncles slender, flattened, three to six-flowered. April. I. 
ovate-oblong, obtuse, acutely-serrulate, with a tapering, entire 
base. Branches slightly four-cornered. /(. 10ft. Nepaul, 1824. 
Half-hardy evergi-een. 

E. Hamlltonianus (Hamilton'.^). ./?. white ; petals lanceolate, 
cordate, with revolute edges ; peduncles dichotomous,. six-flowered. 
April. I. lanceolate, tinelv serrated. Branches smooth, terete. 
/(. 6ft. to 20ft. Temperate Himalaya, Japan, 1825. Half-hardy 
evergreen. (B. F. F. 16.) 

E. japonicus (Japanese).* /. white, small ; petals orbicular, 
fringed ; peduncles flattened, crowded and panicled on the recent 
shoots, two or three times dichotomous, many-flowered. April. 
I, oblong, sharply serrulated, acuminated. Branchlets pendu- 
lous, slightly compressed, h. 20ft. Nepaul, 1804. Half-htirdy 
in the northern counties of England. Evergi-een. There are 
several handsomely variegated forms of tliis species, the names 
of which indicate the markings : alho-mar<jinati$, anreo-mayr/l- 
tiatas, lati/oUus-albus, latifolius-aiireuSy &c. L\ radicans, a small 
decumbent shrub, with oblong or orbicular serrated leaves, is a 
form of J'J. japonicus ; it also has several highly ornamental varie- 
gated ^ub-varieties. 

E. latlfolius (broad-leaved). _/7. white at first, but becoming 
pnrplish as they fade; petals oval, ovate; peduncles tricho- 
tomous, many -flowered. June. I. broad, ovate, toothleted. 
Branches smooth, h. 6ft. to 8ft. Europe, Ac., 1863. Haniy 
deciduous. (B. M. 2384.) 

E. verrucosus (warty-branched), /f. greenish-white or gi-eenish- 
yelluw, small ; petals ovate ; peduncles three-flowered. I\Iay. 
I. somewhat ovate. Branches warted. /;. 10ft. to 20ft. Eu- 
rope, 1730. Hardy deciduous. (J. F. A. 1, 49.) 

EUPATORIUM {Eupnforion is a name used by 
Dioscorides and it is said by Pliny to have been so 
called after Mifchridates Eupator, king- of Pontus, who 
discovered one of the species to bo an antidote ag-oinst 
poison). Including Bulhostylis, Conocliniiun, and Hehecli- 
nium. Ord. ComposHcu. A large genns of stove, green- 
house, or hardy, herbaceous or shrubbj'' plants, many of 
which are very ornamental, Avhilst others arc of no hor- 
ticultural value. There are upwards of 400 fipccics, 
most of "which are American; they are rarer in the 
Old World. Flower-heads purplish, bluish or white, in 
terminal corymbs ; receptacle naked; pappus rough, two- 
sexual ; involucral bracts imbricate, two to threc-scriatc ; 
florets all tubular, five-fid. Leaves opposite or rarely 
alternate, entire, dentate, or rarely dissected. Some of 
the hardy sorts form excollGnt border idants, and are of 
very easy culture in ordinary garden soil. These arc 
propagated by division. JjJ. alroruhens and E. ianthinitm 
arc distinct and useful winter-flowering jilants, that 
require a warm greenhouse temperature. Cuttings of the 
young shoots strike easily in spring, if placed in heat, 
in a close frame. If grown on throughout the summer 
without being stopped, a largo terminal flower-head will 
bo produced by each the following winter. A house with 
a temperature of SOdeg. to 55deg. will .suit them wlicu 
in flower, but this should be maintained, as the plants 
soon droop if exposed to cold. If pruned back annually 
after flowering, and repotted, large bushes may, in course 
of time, be formed. E. a^ronthens grows the more vigorous 
of the two, and the flowers are darker than those of 
E. ianihinum, wlucli is, however, a good old sin't^oM, well 
worth attention. Both are generally known a,s l-rel:ieoli- 
niums. The cool grceidiouse species are readily increased 
by cuttings, inserted in spring. E. Weinmaiiiiianiun is 

Eupatorium — continued. 
somewhat shrubby, and may be grown for several years 
if pruned in a little after flowering. It is a very useful 
subject for decorating or for cut flowers, in early autumn 
and winter. E. riparium continues the flowering period; 
and, as this grows rapidly, it is best to propagate each 
year. Any frame where plenty of air can be admitted, is 
suitable for it in summer, and a house -where frost is 
merely excluded, is warm cnongh in winter. If placed 
in heat, the plants soon become weak and drawn. This 
species is slender-growing, and has a much finer appear- 
ance when three plants are placed in an Sin. pot, and 
the growths tied out with small stakes. The most suit- 
able soil for the .greenhouse Eupatoriums is a rich com- 
post of loam and dried cow-manure, in about equal parts. 
Plenty of water is necessary at all seasons, and artificial 
or liquid manure may be used with advantage after the 
flower-heads appear. 

E. ageratoides (Ageratum-like). Jl. -heads pure white, numerous ; 

corymbs compound, twelve to twenty-flowered. Summer. I. 

opp'osite, ovate, or somewhat cordate, stalked, coarsely toothed. 

h. 1ft. to 4ft. Plant branching. North America, 1610. Hardy 

E. aromaticum (aromatic). Jl.-hcads white; corymbs loose, 

ciiiht to twenty-flowered. Late summer. L. opposite, usually 

vtry shortly stalked, rounded, toothed, h. 3ft. to 4ft. North 

America, 1759. A strong-growing, variable, hardy species. 

E. atrorubens (dark-red).* ^.-Aefffts reddish, shaded with lilac, 
numerous. Autumn, winter. I, large, opposite, somewhat 
ovate, toothed. Pdexico, 1862. A very neat and useful gi-een- 
housc species. Sv.\. Ilcbecliaiam atroritbcns. (I. H. 1862, 310.) 

E. cannabinum. Hemp Agrimony. .^.-7jmd5 reddish-purple, in 

terminal tufts. July. L three to five-foliate ; leaflets lanceolate, 
serrate. /;. 2ft. to 4ft. Stems erect, sub-simple, downy. Asia, 
iMu-ope (Britain), &c. A very handsome native perennial, and 
one of the best of hardy species. (Sy. En. B. 785.) 
E, Haageanum (Haage's). Jl.-heads white, small, in loose 
corymbs. I. opposite, ovate, acuminate, coarsely serrated. 
Siiuth America, 18f)7, An erect shrubby greenhouse plant. 

E. ianthinum (violet).* Jl. -heads purple, produced in very large 
terminal corymbs. "Winter. I. large, ovate, soft, deeply serrate 
at tlie edges, h. 3ft. Blexieo, 1849. A very useful greenhouse, 
wintcr-ftowcring plant. SViX. Hchcclinium ianthinuin. (B. M. 

E. macropliyllum (large-leaved), ^ff. -heads reddish-lilac, pro- 
durod in large corymbs, in great profusion. Autumn, winter. 
l. large, cordate, dark gi'een. h. 4ft. Tropical America, 1823. 
A very large greenhouse species, allied to the last-named. SYiN. 
IJcbecli iiiiiin 'inacru2Jhi/l-lum. (R. H. 1866, 42.) 

E, purpureum (purple). Jl.-hcads purplish ; corymbs five to ninc- 
fio^YerGd. Autumn. /. three to six in a whorl, somewhat ovate, 
or lanceolate, acuminated, rough, unequally toothed, downy 
beneath, h. 5ft. to 9ft. Hardy. North America, 1640. 

E. riparium (river-banlv)-* Jl.-heads white, numerously disposed 

in a panicle of terminal and axillary corymbs. Spring, 'l. oblong- 
hmccolate, deeply toothed. South America, 1867. A very desirable 
greenhouse plant. (R. ii. 525.) 
E. Weinmannianum (Wcinmann'.s).* Jl.-hcads white, sweet- 
srontcd, large, corymbose. Autumn and winter, l. opposite, 
elliptic-lanceolate. Soutli America, 1867. An elegant fragrant 
greenhouse plant, (G. C, n. s., v. 53.) 

EUFHOHBIA (a name given to this plant by BIos- 
coridos; said liy Pliny to have licen so called in honour 
of Euphorbus, physicimi to .Tuba. King oC Mauritania). 
Milkwort or Spurge. Wyn. Tilli ijinalns. Including Poi'/;- 
selllii and Treisia. Ord. Enphorbiacecc. A genus com- 
prising about GOO species of stove, greenhouse, or hardy, 
trees, shrubs, and herbs. The flowers arc unisexual, 
collected into heads ; these flower-heads arc placed in 
umbels variously branched, or aggregated into clusters ■ 
round the top of the stem. Only a very few plants of 
this genus arc worth growing for horticultural purposes. 
The few hardy species of ornamental value make ex- 
cellent border plants, and are fit subjects for naturalising 
on rocky, somewhat dry situations. These may bo 
increased by cuttings, or by division. Two largely 
grown stove species, that are among the best and most 
slinwy of wintnr-flowcring plants, are E. fiihjcns and 
E. in>lr!irn-inui (tlio latter is bettor known rinder the 
iia.nic of Vidn.^ctliii i'nJ>-]ierriiiia). Another, which is 
frc-iuunily roi>ru.cnled in gardens by one or more plants, 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Euphorbia — continued. 
is i\ sple)idens. The last is nearly always, more or less, 
in flower; and, although very ornamental, is not of much 
use, except to remain in the stove. Sloiv-growing- Eu- 
phorbias, which are kept fur the sake of their addition 
to a collection of siicculent plants, do not require much 
water, nor a rich soil to grow in. Sandy loam and crushed 
pieces of brick, in nearly equal proportions, form a suitable 
compost. E.fidgens is a somewhat slender-growing plant, 
and is frequently found rather difhcult to establi.-h. It 
succeeds woU planted out in the warmest part of a stove, 
and trained up the back wall or on the roof. It has also 
boon, found to grow and ilower profusely in a house -with 
Pines, the in summer and drier heat in winter, 
suiting admirably. It is very impatient of root disturb- 
ance, and will not bear sudden changes of temperature 
without losing its leaves. For culture in pots, young 
iJants may be raised annually. Cuttings Sin. long are 
best ; they should be inserted about June, three in a 
small pot, and kept close in a warm propagating frame 
until rooted. These maj' be atterwarcls 
kept growing in heat, and transferred 
bodily into larger pots, witliout diS' __ 

tnrbing the roots. If treated in this 
way, they need not be stopped, and 
tho single shoots will consequently be 
much stronger. The plants will not bear 
cold at any time, but wdll succeed in 
frames during the latter ptart of summer. 
Tho flowers are small, produced all along 
the upper part of the shoots in winter, 
so that the ripening of the latter by ex- 
posure to sun, is important. If kept a 
little cooler when in flower, they last a 
long time in beauty, and may be used for 
cutting, although the leaves frequentl,y 
droop very quickly. When flowering is 
over, the plants should be kept quite dry 
and allowed to rest for a period of three 
or four months. As is the case with 
nearly all the species, the beauty of 
E. pv.lcheri-ima does not reside so much 
in the flowers as in the bracts with 
which they are surrounded. The system 
of culture is much the same as with the 
species already described, but varies in 
some respects, as the plants are much 
stronger-growing. Any old ones that 
have been resting should be introduced 
to heat about the beginning of June, and, 
if kept watered, will soon supply plenty of cuttings. 
These are best inserted singly in small pots, without 
crocks, in order to preserve tlie roots afterwards. The 
best summer quarters is on a spent hotbed, where tlic 
tops can be kept near the glass at all times, being low'cred, 
as becomes necessary, by the removal of the manure un- 
derneath. It is advisable to put in several batches of 
cuttings successionally, as plants of various heights may 
then be obtained. The general plan is to grow on young 
ones annually, without stopping, the object being to pro- 
duce a large terminal head of bracts on each. The old 
plants may also be grown if desired. They will not bear 
exposure to a low temperature in autumn, the result being 
invariably the loss of cither the roots or leaves. When 
the bracts appear, more heat and some manure water 
may be applied, to expand them, and the plants should 
afterwards be kept a little cooler, to prolong the season 
in which they remain attractive. E. pidcherrinia suc- 
ceeds best in a soil composed of one-half turfy loam, the 
remainder being equal parts of dried cow-manure and 
leaf soil. Pots Sin. to 7in. in diameter are suitable for 
single plants to flower in. Eetaining the foliage in 
good condition throughout the season, is an indication of 
good culture, and one of the main provisions for secur- 
ing the full development of the flower-heads. Sudden 

Euphorbia — vunlinued. 
changes of temperatin-e in either direction must be 
avoided, and the plants exposed to plenty of light and 
full sunshhie, except when it is very strong, in sunmier. 
After flowering, they should bo kept quite dry, in a 
warm place, to snp)ply cuttings the next year. 
E. atropurpurea (dark-iimple). /'. (= lii;irts) deep red-purple, 
,,r lilocil-rrilniivfil, hin^r, Ijiuadlv uljltDm, nlitusc, cciniljiLOd at 
tho lia-;e ; iinfiliiLTC .small, cup-^liuped, red, with lour retuse, tlesliy 
ycltijw-.^reeii gkiuds at the margin. March. /. inuneruus, lanceu- 
iate, tafierini; at tlic liase, ribtuse, pale glaucou.s-.^ieen, patent or 
(Irnripiii^. /;, ,;rt. tn (jft, 'J'enerilfo. A very ]nf.>ttv greenhouse 
species." (U. M. 33^1.) 
E. Cyparissias (Cypress Spinge). //. yel^J^^^ uinl.iellate ; iu- 
vohicral leaves somewhat cordate, aliout twenty in number, often 
yellow. 8piiuL(. ;. linear, quite entire, somewhat croi^ded. /;. 1ft. 
to2tt. Europe (naturalised in liritain). Hardy. (Sy. En. 11. 1262.) 
E. fulgexis (slnuiu'.;). //., bracts bright riraugc-scarlet, axillary, 
formiu,2: long \\r(.-:ilhs. l. bright green, lanceolate. h. 4ft. 
]\Ie\icn"", 1836. SInvr. (ini- ni the liamlsomcst of winter-flowerili;; 
plants. SVN. Ji. j,ir:j,ii„i,,j!ura. (B. M. 3673.) 
E. jacquiniaeflora (.fucquiuia flowered). Synen^nious with 
E. fulnriis. 


Fig. 711. liuriiORBi.i melofoujiis. 

im-like). Jh greenisli. 
I. to 9in. Cape of ta. 
See Fig. 741. 

Plant unarmed, with 
Id IJniii-, 1774. Stove 

E. meloformis (.Mrl 

many au.£;les. h. 6ii 
or ^va^m grecnhcuso. 

E. Montelri OPinteiro's). a. gveen; invobicre suli-regular cam- 
panulate, turbinate, or hemispherical. .Tune. I. fleshy, glabrous, 
narrow, spathulatc. IJranchlets Auriferous, /i. 2ft. to 6ft. Bahiib" 
1864. A very rcmarkalile species, on account of the curious suc- 
cessive productiuiLs of the starninatc flowers. Stove. (B. M. 

E. Myrsinites (Myrsinites). ;?. yello^v, in au undiel of frrim 
five to lu'ue rays, snrrrauulcd by an inviducre of ovate, sharp 
leaflet.s, Snmnicr. /. fleshy, concave, light green, sessile. South 
Europe. \ very nruauicntal hardy prostrate species. (S. F. C 

E. pulcherrima (lu'ctty). ,i'. greenish-yellow, subtended by large 
verrniliiin bracts, .smal). \\duter. J. ovatc-clliptical, sub-acute, 
petioled. /(. 2ft. to 6ft. Mexico. 1E34. Shrub. Sv.x. T'orn.seHia 
puldteiruna. (B. DI. 5495.) There is a variety of this with 
creamy. white bracts, and another (A'. /^ 2'(t'^"'.S'.sfi((a) with double 
series of bracts ((_;. C. n. s., v. 17). 

E. splendens (s]ilcurlid). jl., bracts bri,L;ht ml, ^\'axy, clustered. 
I. bright Aa'ceu, texture thin, rather small. Stems dark-coloured, 
closely set vitli huig, stout, sbarji thorns, h. 4ft. Bourbon, 
1826. A handsnuie sto\c specie-, a\ itli .- tardy branching habit. 

l^iTirS Cif l-]iii:ln'ihni, Ui'W aluiOSt lost tO OUr 

wiatb culture. .Virj^n;.; these may be mentioned 
nsr tcnuinal heads of flowers, and cro^vded 
es ; Charariri.^; with the flower. stalks equal in 
length and verticillate ; pllosa, with dense terminal tufts of 
greenish-yellow flower-heads, and linear-oblong leaves. Among 
the species iudigemais to this country, anv/gdaloides and Fuicdidti 

Several hard 
gardens, are n\ a 
r_dcp'pi<'a, with 
linear-oblong leav 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Euphorbia — continued. 

are well worthy a place in the \\'iltl garden, and in the margins of 

The following is a list ui species sometimes gTowii in company 
with succulent plants : a.!j;f.\siinva, anacanUia, aafi^/Hnrniu, ai^hiiUrt, 
ca7ian'enbis, rajicn^ib, Caput-Mcdnfice, urosa, fihhn.ii, ,/rinHh\:i:nLi:.; 
grandfileDfi, liijstrix, iiiihricata, inainmitlaris, ^na in-i/rnnrn, ncri'- 
folia, oj/icuiannn, peiiihila, rcyuiifcra, scoUipeiidria, .^crjicih-.', .^i/nar- 
rosa, tri'jona, .xyhipludbiidi:^:. 

EUFHOBBIACES, A very large order of trees, 
shrubs, or herbs, usually abounding- in milky juice. The 
species are found in all except Arctic climates. Flowers 
one-sexual, bracteate or involucrate, sometimes achlamy- 
deous. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, often stipulate. 
Well-known goncra arc: Etiphorhia. .hifropha, Ricinu.'^, 
and Phyllanthus. There are about 200 genera and 3000 

EUPHRASIA (from euphraino, to delight; plants 
supposed to cure blindness). Eyehright. Ord. Scvopliu- 
laiinece. Dwarf herbs. Flowers white, yoUow, or purple, 
in dense, sccund, or interrupted bracteate spikes. Leaves 
opposite, toothed or cut. About twenty species Ijclong to 
this genus, but none are of sufficient horticultural value 
to merit mention Iicrc. 

EUPODIUM. See Mai-attia. 

EUPOMATIA (from eu, well, and poma, a lid; 
calyptra covering t)ie flower before expansion, in the 
manner of an extinguisher). Okd. Anonacecn. This ex- 
clusively Australian genus contains a couple of species 
of fine greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Peduncles short, 
one-flowered, terminal or lateral. Leaves 
alternate, entire, shortly petiolate. They 
thrive in a compost of sandy peat and 
fibry loam. Cuttings of ripened shoots 
will root in sandy soil, if placed under 
a hand glass. 

E. Bennettli (Bennett'.s). rl. solitary, termi- 
nal, on a short pedvmcle above the last leaf, 
when fully expanded rather more than lin. in 
diameter. I. oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, or 
acute, 3in. to 5in. long, narrowed at the base 
into a short petiole, which is again enlarged 
at the base, and shortly decurrciit on the 
stem, leaving oblique raised lines when they 
fall oft. h. 1ft. to 2ft. (li. M. 1848, under 
name of E. laurina.) 

E. laurina (Laurel-like), fl. greenish-yellow ; 
peduncles one-flowered, axillary. (. oblong, 
coriaceous, h. 4ft. 1824. 

EURYA (from cvnj.^, large; wrongly 
applied to the flowers, which arc com- 
paratively small). Stn. Geeria. Ord. 
Ternstrumiacece. Above thirty forms be- 
longing to this genus have been described, 
but probably not more than ten or a 
dozen are specifically distinct, the rest 
being merely varieties, mostly of E. j,i- 
ponica. They are very ornamental half- 
hardy or greenhouse evergreen shrubs, 
with axillary pedicels. All arc natives 
of Japan, Ctiina, the Indian Archipelago, 
*o. Euryas arc of easy culture, in peat 
or leaf soil. Cuttings, made from the 
ends of the young shoots, root freely in 
sandy soil, in a gentle heat. "When rooted, insert 
them in sm,all pots, in either peaty or loamy soil, and 
again place in heat, where they can have the benefit of 
a good .syringing, to encour,age quick growth, and get 
them well established. The variegated form given below 
is one of the most useful plants for conscrvatoT-y, hall, 
or corridor decoration, especially during winter. 
E. japonica (.bipancsc). //. gvccnish-nhite, grucvallv in cluslovs 
of from three to si.x. /. very vari:ihlr, in tlie tj|ir oV;it.', attenu- 
ated. .Japan. A h;dr-h;nily evergreen shrnh. 
E. j. latifolia varlegata (variegated broad-leaved).* ft. white, 
small, on a.xillary fascicled peduncles. (. variegated with pale 
yellow, gkilirous, entire, oblong-lanceolato, ohtusely-acuniinate. 
Japan, 1871. 

EURYALE (mythological : Btiryale, one of tho 
Gorgons, representee! with fierce thorny locks; in allusion 
to the thorny nature of the plant). Ord. NymplKuem. 
An annual stove aquatic. Before the introduction of the 
Victoria Water-lily, the Euryale was the noblest aquatic 
plant in cultivation. Its leaves are circular in form, 
about 2ft. in diameter, with prominent spiny veins on the 
rich purple under side, the upper side being olive-green, 
puckered and spiny. For cultivation, see stove sp)ecies of 

E. ferox (tierce).* Jl. deep virilet; petioles and calyces covered 
with stiff prickles. September. I. large, peltate. Kast Indies, 
1809. Iteproduccs itself freely by means of seeds, which ripen on 
the phmt and germinate at once, if not kept dry. (B. M. 1447.) 

EURYBIA. See Olearia. 

EURYCLES (from etinjf:, broad, and hleio, to close 
up; referring to form of flower, the cup of which is fre- 
quently imperfect). Stn. Pnjiplujs. (Jrd. AmllrlJU't^Jea^. 
Handsome, bulbous plants, allied to rditcruliiim. E. am- 
hoinc'ii.n!^ requires stove treatment ; tlie second, and only 
other, species thrives in a warm grecnlionse. After growtli 
is completed, water should be withheld for a few weeks, 
so that tho bulbs may ripen and rest. 

E. amboinensis (Amboyn.a). ft. white, jjioduced in a n)any- 
tlowered uml.iel, sujiin.ated l)y ;i stout scajtc ; peririnth witli ;i 
cylindric;Ll tube ;iud regular limb of equ;il segments ; stigm;i 
simple ; corona not one-fourth as long as the "perianth Ifibes. 
March. I. very broad, cordate. A. 1ft. to 2ft. Andiovna, 1759. 
Syns. E. anstralanica , raneialunii ajidj'iiiiruse (li. W. 1419), and 
P. austr(Uasica. 

E. australasica (Australian). A synonym of iJ. ainbviiicnsis. 

Fig. 742. El'Iivcle3 Cun'ni.nohami. 

E. Cunninghami (Cuimingham's).* Brisbane Lily /I wliiic ■ 
uuihels loss crowded than in P. aiidiuiiuiisis ■ 'stii'mi Unve 
lolled ; coiona two-thirils as long as the perianth lobes"" / ovate 
notcnidiite. A. lit. (;ueeush,nd. yee Fig. 742. (B. M. 3393.) ' 

EURYGANIA ifrom enr,j», wide, and ganos, bright- 
ness ; JiJurygania was a wife of G'^dipus). . Oed. Vacci- 
■nionac. A gonns of iibout a dozen specios of ornamental 
greenhouse evergreen shrubs, with pendent br;inchcs, 
;ilhcd to Tliibaudia (which .see for eultiv;i.tion). All 
;iro iLatives of the Andes of Smith America. 
E. ovata (ovate), ft. In very s|nvading, shortly pedunded, axillarv 
corymbs, 4,n. o 5m. iicross ; calj.x deep red ; corolla urn-shaped 
re,l ; inouth whitrsh. .luly. /. ov;ite.acntc, serrulate, lin. to Uin 
long, hleni stout ; br;iuches long, r;imbling, cyliudric, green 1878 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


EUSC APHIS (from e«, well, and s/inji/ri.v, a howl ; in 
allusion to tlie persistent, Ijowl-like calyx). Oud. Snpiii- 
ihifuf. A genus containing- two species of hardy, g'labrous 
slirulis, natives of Japan. Flowers small, hermaphrodilo ; 
calyx persistent, five-cleft, imbricate. Leaves opposite, 
stipulate, imparipinnato ; leaflets coriaceous, serrulate, 
stipulate ; stipules deciduous. The species will thrive in 
any good loamy soil, in the ordinary shrubbery border. 
Propagated by seeds, or by cuttings. 

E. staphyleoides(>.t:ii.liylr,'i-Iilce). //. white r.r vvll.iwish. small, 
iiumeruus, ais|ins(.'(l ill trnniiial jjaniclr.^. .//■.' ix-(l wlieu ripu, 
bhuUlery, vt-niaitiing nn the bush until winter appniarties. 
;. eppusite, iiiuiiate, smooth. Ii. 10ft. to 12ft. This plant is liiiihiy 
lirized in its native enunti'y for its meclicinal pinperties. 
(S. ■/,. F. .J. 67.) 

ZIUSTEGIA (from eu. well, and ateyo, to cover; in 
reference to the triple corona). Ord. Ascleinnilfie. A 
genus oontainiug four species of dwarf, deeundjont, gla- 
brous, greenhouse herbs, all natives of Southern Africa. 
Flowers small, in few-flowered, terminal or axillary cymes. 
Leaves opposite, linear, often hastate. For culture, ^ce 

E. hastata (liast:lte). Il white, sub-umliellate ; nml.els inter, 
petinhu: rninlla rutate : emona triple, each coniliosed nf live 
leaves. .Jiuie. /. opposite, hastate, ciliated. 1816. 

EUSTOMA (from eunlomos, of beautiful countenance, 
en, well, and .s/oino, a mouth; referring to the corollas). 

8VN. Aj 


ItW. Gvee 

Ord. iieidiatiecf. A genus containing 
only the tw(i species here described. Flowers wdiite, 
pnrplisli, or Idue, pedunculate. Leaves opi>osite. am- 
plexicaul or sessile. The sjieeies are elegant little plants, 
closely allied to Lisianthits (whieli .^ce for culture). 
E. exaltatum (ex.alted). /;. imrpfe, ■ovynihose ; covcifla with a 
'laped tni.e, whieli isenntrarted tliea]irx : sri;ments 
Inly. /. spathiilate. A. 2ft. South I'ljited .States, 
iillini>e herfiaeeous. (11. R. xxxi. 15.) 
E. RusselllanuiU (Russell's). /;. lavemter-puvple, coiymhosp. 
.lulv. ;. ovntr to lanceolate-oliloni;. Stem terete. Ii. 1ft. to 2ft. 
A'elnaska to Ttxas, ISO). Hardy annual. (I;. M. 362i.) 

EUSTREPHUS (from en, good, and .s/re^Ji... to twine ; 

referring to tlie liabit of the plant). (tRD. L/Z/oreo'. A 

monotypic genus. For culture, see Dianella. 

E. latifolillS (Inoa(f-leaved). Jl. pale purple ; pedicels tw-o to six 

together in the upper cells, filiform, fmt rigid, four to nine tines 

foiig, artfcufate close under the flower, and persistoiit. .lane. 

/. sessile, or nearly so, varying from broadly ovate-lanceolate 

to navrow-liuear, usually taiieiing to a point, of a tiini texture, 

\vith uniuernns fine luit prominent nerves, usually 2iii. to 4iii. long. 

s;teins much hranehed, often climbiirg to a ureat height, ^veak ami, Ijut not twining. New South Wales. (B.'jM. 12fti.) 

ETJTAXIA (from riilii.n'a, modesty; in allusion to 
the delicate and modest aiipearance of the plants wdien 
in flower). t'Kii. Letjn uiiiiuso:. A genus of eight species 
of elegant, greenhouse, evergreen slirubs, all natives of 
Australia. Flowers golden, simple. Leaves opposite, 
decussate. For culture, .we Chorizema. Sclerulltainntix 
is included, by Bentham and Hooker, under this genus. 
E. empetrifolia (Kmpetiuni-lcaved). 'J'lic correct name of plant 

(Irsci il)ed as ^cfcriilhaiiufit.^- ruipelrifulid. 
E. myrtifolla (.Myrtle-leaved).* ,//. nuineniiis along the branches ; 
iieiiieels .axillary, twin. August. /. lanceolate or oho\'ate-laiiceo- 
l;ite,inocronate. /e 2ft. to 6ft. 1803. (hi. M. 127).) 
E. piingcns (si inning). A synonym of ])Uliriinia jni i'ii::n<:. 

EUTERPE (mythological: Enlfj-pe. from r»/crj.cs, 
well-pleasing, was one of fihe nine Muses). ClBi.. Pofmce. 
A small genus of about eight siiecies of tall-growing, 
elegant, uiiarnied, stove palms, natives of tropii'al Ame- 
rica and the West Indian Islands. Leaves pinnatisect ; 
segments narrowly linear-lanceolate ; leaf-sheaths long, 
cylindrical, pale green, " finally falling away completely 
along with the rest of the leaf, so that the stems always 
appear clean and naked up to the base of the lowest 
remaining leaf, forming a striking contrast to many fan- 
shaped Palms, where the leaves hang about tlie crown 
of the tree in every state of decay." To be grown to 
perfection, Euterpes should have plenty of heat, and a 
rich, loamy soil. They attain a height of from Idft. to 
120ft. in their native habitats. 

Euterpe — contimir,]. 

E. Cdulis (cdiftfe). L. segments fanceolate, acuminate ; racliis 
and nerves scaly beneath. Trunk cyliiilric, 10ft. to 100ft. Iii.;;li. 

Brazil, iVc. 
E. montana (monni;iiii). (., se-nicnts lanceolate, spreailing, 

attenu.ifcd ; ]ietioles scaly beueatli. Stem 10ft. or more hi^^ti. 

'the iMution of the ]ilaiit (in tliis and other siiecic's) wliicli is 

eaten, either as a fresh vegetable or as a ]:)ickle, is tlie tenninal 

IniJ and the soft interior part of the stem. 
E. oleracea (eaiinary). Calibage Paim ; t'abliage-free. (., seg- 
ments faileeolate-linear, acoiminate, glalo'escenf. Spailix luanches 

fnrfuraceous, toinentose. Trunk 80ft. to 120ft. high. West 

Indies, &c. 

EUTHALES. Included umler Velleia (which .see). 

EUTOCA. A synonym of Phacelia (wliieh .see). 

EUXENIA. A synonym of Poclanthiis (wdiieb .sec). 

EVALIiARIA. A synonvui of Polygonatum 
(which .see). 

EVEIiYNA. A synonym of Elleanthus (which see). 

EVENING FLOWER. Sn- Hespeiantha. 


EVERGREEN BEECH. Sm Pagus betuloides. 


EVERGREEN OAK. fte Quercus Ilex. 

EVERGREEN THORN. See CratEegus Pyia- 

EVERLASTING PEA. .See Lathyrus sylves- 
tris platypliyllus. 

EVERLASTINGS. This term is applied to a 
section of flowers with coloured bracts that retain a 

Fig. 743. Rixcti n|- Evt:iiL\sT 

WF.RS- Ilrr.irnriYsrMS. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

"Evevlo^stings — conti)Laed. 
consif.'erable portion of their beauty for a long- time after 
teing cut and dried. In addition, many are among- the 
best of ornamental plants, either cultiyated in pots or in 
the open ground. The principal genera that supply 
flowers suitable as Everlastings are : Acroclininm, Aj^he- 
le,ns. Helichrysiim, Rhodanthe, Waitzia, and Xeranthemum., 
The title is more particularly applied to the many 
highly- coloured varieties of HeUclinjsum brad .at n in. 
These are termed Immortelles by ths French, aid are 
more largely used by them than in this country. To 
obtain tbcm in the best condition, they should be gathered 
on a dry day, when each fiower-head is sufficiently open 
to show the inside of the bracts without exposing the 
centre. Ic frequently examined, the whole stonk may 
be secured in this condition. They should be hung, head 
downwards, in a cool shed, and allowed to remain until 
dry. The individual flower-heads may be wired, and 
used, with good effect, among dried ornamental grasses, in 
winter, either in high glasses or vases. The French use 
large quantities to form memorial wreaths and crosses. 
If properly gathered and dried, many of the species will 
keep good, excepting that some of the colour vanishes, 
for two or three years. A new stock, is, however best 
grown and collected each year. A bunch of Helichrysums, 
showing the proper stage for gathering, is represented in 
Fig. 743. 

EVE'S CUSHION. Ser' Saxifraga hypnoides. 

EVOLVULUS (from erolro, to untwist; to dis- 
tinguish it from Convulridafi, man 3^ of the species of 
which are twiners). OrI). ConwJvulaceie. Stove, annual 
or perennial, prostiate or creeping, rarely erect herbs. 
Peduncles axillary, one or few-flowered; corolla sub- 
rotate, campanulate, or funnel-shaped, plicate. Leaves 
entire. There are about seventy known species, dis- 
tributed throughout all tropical regions, but most of 
them are natives of Brazil. The species described below 
is the only one worthy of mention here. For culture, see 

E. purpureo-CEeruleus (purple-bhie). JI. purplish-blue, ter- 
minal un the leafy liijiucht'.s, pediL'eliate ; corolla rotate, rich 
ultramarine-blue, with the centre white, and a purple ray 
diverging from that up the centre of each lube. July and 
Augn.'^t. I. small, lanceolate, acute, entire. Stem quite -woojy 
below, and often about half-\\av up. li. Lift. Jamaica, 1345. 
Perennial. (B. M. 4202,) 

EXACUM {a name ^ used by Pliny, and derived by 
him from e.r, out, and ago, to drive ; in allusion to its 
supposed expelling i^owers). Oed. Gentianeci?. A genus 
containing about a score species of very pretty, erect, 
branched, stove or greenhouse, annual or perennial 
herbs, natives of India and Eastern Asia, the Malayan 
Archipelago, and Socotra. Flowers terminal and axil- 
lary; corolla salver-shaped or sub-rutate, with a globose 
or ventricose tube. Leaves opposite, decussate, sessile. 
The species are not often seen in gardens. They 
thrive best in a compost of peat and turfy loam, in equal 
X^roportions, and a plentiful supply of water is necessary. 
Seeds should be sown in April, and placed in bottom heat, 
and the seedlings carefully shifted into larger pots as 
required. Several other species of this elegant genus, 
besides those given below, are welt worth growing, but 
as yet await introduction. 
E. affine (related). Jl. blnish-lilac, ap^rceably scented ; f^taniuus 

>i_'llii\v. Summer ami autnuni. I. stalked, broadly ovate. A. 6in. 

SiH-iitra, 1882. A compact-habited, free-floweriny, \\'arni yreen- 

ij(Mi-,r peiL-nnial. {G. C. n. s., xxi. 605.) 
E. jnacranthum {larg:e-flowered).'^ jl. about 2in, across, of a deep 

licit lilue-]turple colour, with large, bri;^lit yellow .stamens, ilj.s- 

]»nsed in terminal and axillary, corymbose heads. l»eceml)er. 

L large, ^Uibrou?, glossy, li. l.Ut. (Jeylon, 18^3. Stove annual. 

(15. M. 4771.) 

Exacum — continued. 
E, zeylanicum (Ceylon).*^ ji.. of a beautiful violet colour; petals 
five, ohovate; racemes terminal and axillary, forming an expanded, 
terminal, corvrab-formed panicle. September. I. nearly se-ssile, 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminated. Stem and branches tetragonal. 
h. l/t. to 2ft. Ceylon, 1848. Stove annual. (H. M. 4123.) 

EXALBUMINOUS. Without albumen. 

EXCURKENT. Central, as the stem of a Fir, with 
branches disposed regularly round it. 

EXITELIA. A synonym of Parinaria (which see). 

EXOCHOKDA (from exo, external, and cliorde, a 
cord ; the free placentary cords external to the carpels 
have suggested the name of the genus). Ord. Rosacea;. 
Very handsome, hardy shrubs, remarkable for the structure 
of their fruits, which consist of five small, compressed, bony 
carpels, adhering round a central axis, in a star-like 
manner. The species described below thrives in any good 
garden soil. Propagated by seeds, by layers, or by suckers. 
The second species, E. serratifoUa, also a native of China, 
is not yet introduced. 
E. grandiflora (large-flowered). /. white, large, in axillary, 

elonsate'l, few-flowered racemes; calyx bell-shaped ; petals four 

or five, rounded ; stamens fifteen, short. May. //■. small. I. 

petiolute, lanceolate-oblong, entire or serrulate, membranou--. 

/(. 6ft. North China. A very hand.some plant. (G. C. n. s., 

xvi. 73 ; B. M. 4795, under name of Spiraea ffrandiiora.) 

EXOGENS. See Dicotyledons. 

EXOGONIUM. Included under Ipomsea (which see). 

EXOSTEMMA (from ej;o, without, and sfemma, a 
crown; stamens exserted). Ord. Rnhlacea;. A genus of 
about twenty species of stove, evergreen trees or rhrubs, 
inhabiting tropical America and the West Indies. Flowers 
white, axillary and solitary, or disposed in terminal, few or 
many-flowered panicles ; corolla with a long tube and a 
five-lobed, salver-shaped limb. Leaves ovate or lanceolate, 
stalked or sub-sessile. For culture, see Cinchona. 

E. Caribseum (Caribbean) Jl. white, about the length of the 
leaves, sweet-scented ; pedicels axillary, one-flowered. June. 
I. ovate-lanceolate, acuminated. /(. 20ft. 'Went Indies, 1780. 

E. longiflorum (long-flowered). Jl. white. Sin. long before ex- 
pansion ; pedicels axillary, very short June. I. linear-lanceo- 
late, attenuated at both" ends. h. 20ft. St. Domingo, 1820. 
(B. M. 4186.) 

EXOTHOSTEMON. A synonym of Prestonia 

(which t^ee). 

EXOTIC. Introduced from other countries. Not 

EXSERTED. Anthers are said to be Exserted when 

longer than the corolla, or even when longer than its 
tube, if the limb be very spreading. 

EXSTIPULATE. AVithout stipulcij. 

EXTKA-AXILLARY. Growing from above or 
below the axils of the leaves or branches. 

EXTB.OE,SE. Turned outwards from the axis of 
growth of the series of organs to which it belongs. 

EYE. A horticultural term for a leaf-bud ; also for 

the centre or the central markings of a flower. 

EYEBRIGHT. See Euphrasia. 

EYSENHAB.DTIA (named in honour of C. W. Eyson- 
hardt, M.D., and professor in the University of Konigsber"-, 
in Prussia). Ord. Leffuminosce. A genus containing a 
couple of species of half-hardy, evergreen shrubs, natives 
of Mexico and Texas. They thrive in a compost of 
loam and peat. Young cuttings will root in sandy 
soil, if inserted under a bell glass. 

E. amorphoides (Amorpha-like). jl pale yellow ; racemes ter- 
miuul, cyUnilrical. June. I. imparipinnate ; leaflets numerous 

Htipellate, i^landulav h. 4ft. to 6ft. Mexico, 1838. ' 

JiNI) OK VOLU.Ml': I. 



tin Enc^clopcxMa of If^ovticiiltute. 

The followin,!^ are the Abhrevititions used:—//. Huwers; fr. fruit; l. leaves; //. Iieii;ht; dcrf. degTees ; 

rhi:. rhiznines ; cw. cavidex ; ,Kti. stipes. 

The Asteri.^k.s C") iiMlieafce iilants tliiit are e.speeially ^und or disliiict. 

FAB A (the nlrl Latin name, from tho same root as 
phaijo, to eat; the seeds are esculent). Bean. Onn. 
Leguminosai. This genus, which contains but the si^eeies 
described below, is now included under Vicia. For 
culture, see Bean. 

F. vulgaris (eununon). Jl. white, with a blackish-Mue silky s]iut 
in the middle of the wings. I. thick, with two to tive broad, nval, 
mucronate leaflets ; stipules semi-sagittate, oval ; tendrils of 
leaves almost wanting, h. 2ft. to 3ft. As is the case witli so 
many commonly cultivated food plants, the origin and native 
country of the Bean are doubtful. It was cultivated in pre- 
historic times in Europe, Egypt, and Arabia ; and, according to 
De CandoIIe (" Origine des plantes cultivees"), it may be truly 
native about the Caspian Sea and in Nortli Africa. Tliere is a 
variety of this species (equina) called the Horse Bean. 

FABACE.3:. See LegTiminosse. 

PABIANA {named after Francisco Fabiano, of 
Valencia, in Spain, a promoter of botany). Ori>. Sola- 
naceoi. A genus containing about eleven species of South 
American shrubs. F. irnhricata is a very pretty hardy 
evergreen Heath-like shrub, of erect, rigid growth. It 
thrives in almost any soil, and succeeds best when grown 
against a wall; in the more northern counties of England, 
it is necessary to protect it during severe weather. In- 
creased readily by cuttings of firm young shoots, inserted 
in sandy soil, in a cold frame, in spring. 
F. imbricata (imbricated).* Ji. pure white, terminal, solitary, 
produced in great profusion ; corolla funnel-shaped ; limb short, 
reflexed. IMay. L small, ovate, sessile, crowderl. h. 3ft. (.'tiili, 
1853. This forms an excellent plant for the hardy Heath border, 
or for the decoration of the cfiol conservatory. {B. R. xxv. 59.) 

FABHICIA. Now included under Leptospermuiu 

(which see). 

FADYEKTIA (named after James MacFadyen, ISOO- 
1850, author of a Flora of Jamaica). Okd. FiUces-. A 
peculiar and pretty nionotypic genus, admirably adapted 
for a Wardian case. Sori oblong, in two series. In- 
volucre large, sub-reniform, attaclied by the centre. For 
general cultivation, see Ferns. 
F. prolifera (proliferous).* fminls entire, dimorplious ; the sterile 

ones :'tin. to lin. ItT'oad, elongated, and rootingat the ai>ex ; fertih; 

one ligulate, narro\ved below, 6in. to 9in. long, about !in. bruad. 

Cuba and Jamaica, 1343. 

Vol. II. 

FAGBIiIA (named after Caspar Fagelius, a cultivator 
of plants). Ord. Leguminosoi. An ornamental decumbent, 
greenhouse, twining sub-shrub, clothed with clammy hairs. 
For culture, see Kennedya. 

F, bitumlnosa (pitchy). _//. yellow, keel tipped with violet, on 
long, distant pedicels; rarenies axillary. April to 8cptendier, 
l. petiolate, pinnately-trifoliolate ; leaflets rhomboid; stipules 
ovate, acuminated. Cape of (Jood Hope, 1774. (B. R.. 261, under 
name of Glycine bituminosa.) 

FAGOPYRUM (from i'/ufj/o, to eat, and Fyros, 
Wheat; in reference to the seeds being edible). Ord. 
Polygonacece. A genus of two or three hardy herbaceous 
plants. Perianth cut into five equal divisions, and not 
increasing in size along with the fruit, like some of 
its allies. Seed mealy. Leaves cordate or lanceolate. 
Stems erect, branching. The only species worthy of 
mention is F. escidentum. For culture, see Polyg"onii3n. 
F. esculentum (edible). Common Buckwheat; Brank. jl. pink. 
Stem 2ft. to 3ft. high, branched. Central Asia; but now na- 
turalised in various parts of Europe. Annual. Buckwheat is 
principally used in England as a food for pheasants; but on the 
Continent, and in some parts of the United States, it is largely 
employed for human food. 

FAGB>iEA (named after Jonas Theodore Fagrreus, 
1729-1797, a physician and botanist). Stn:^. ('iirfo- 
phyllum, Kentia (of Steudel), Knlilia, PirropliJiPUin, and 
Utania. Ord. Logdiiincec?. A genus containing about 
tliirty species of ornaiin-'utal stove trees or shrubs. 
Flowers showy ; corolla funnel-shaped, with an imbricate, 
five (rarely six or seven) cleft limb. Leaves large, op- 
posite, broad, coriaceous. The species thrive in a com- 
liost of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings of young slniots, 
made about Aiiril, rout readily in sand, under a bell 
glass, with bottom boat. The species described below 
are probably the only ones yet in cultivation. 
F. auriculata (auricled).* /I. yellow, very large; peduncles ter- 
minal, usually by threes. /. coriaceous, broad, cuneate-obhuig, 
acute, veiny ; interpetiolar stipules two-Iobed, recurved. Java. 
An epiphytal shrub. 
F. obovata (olmvate). _//. wliite, fragrant, coriaceous, smaller 
than those of F. zcylani'-n ; pednnrles terminal, three-Howered, 
suli-c<jr>'mliose. I. Sin. to 6in. long, tliick ; petioles fnrrdslieil 
with a feAv glandular eili;e, connected by interpetiolar stipules. 
h. 12ft. Ceylon, 1816. Tree. (B. W. 4205.) 

The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Fagreea — continue '1. 

F. zeylanica (Cingalpsi-). //. white, I;nj;f, few, terminal, imil.el- 
late. I. cr(nv{|ed, nltovate-olilonii:, nlitii^tr; bracts ovate, obtuse. 
Stem .sub-quadrangular, shrubliy, ciect. h. 12ft. Ceylon, 1816. 
(B. M. 6080.) 

FAGUS (tho old Latin name, akin to Greek Pltegof:, 
an Oak, and perhaps derived from i-ihago, to eat; tlic 
nuts were used as food in the early ag^es). Beech. Ord. 
Cihpullfenr. A g-enus containing- about fifteen species of 
handsome, deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs, widely 
distributed throughout the temperate and colder regions 
of both Northern and Southern hemispheres. Male 
flowers disposed in long-stalked, drooping heads; calyx 
four to seven -lobed. Female flowers two to four 
together, in a four -partite involucre of imbricating 
bracts. Leaves entire or toothed. The common Beech 
grows well in most dry soils, preferring a sandy 
loam, with chalky bottom, and light loams generally, 
to heavier soils. Propagation is effected by means of 
the seeds or nuts, which ripen in October. In order 
to keep them in a fit condition for sowing during the 
ensuing March or April, they should, after being 




Fig. 1. J-iRA\cirt,r;T of Fagils sylvatica, showinfi; Male 
and Female Flowers. 

thoroughly dried, be mixed with about double the quantity 
of dry sand, in tubs or barrels, and stored in a loft or 
some cool place. Provided mice can be kept off the 
ground, it is better to sow the nuts immediately after 
they have been collected ; they may either be sown 
in drills or in beds, covering with about lin. of soil. As 
the Beech does not always transplant very readily, it 
will be necessary to replant in nursery rows every 
two or three seasons, until the seedlings have attained 
the desired size and are placed in the positions they 
arc intended to occupy permanently. Tho numeroiis 
varieties of our native species are propagated by graft- 
ing on the type. The common Beech succeeds admirably 
as a hedge, which it is usual to trim close ; and as the 
dead leaves cling to the stems in winter and during the 
early spring months, they give valnaltle shelter. An oil 
is expressed from Beech nuts. 

F. antarctica (Antarctii;).* I. ov;itn, Idunt,, attenuated 
at tin; b;isi:, douldy dentate, alturnaiu, petinlato, IMn. Un^^,. 
'I'iL-ira ik'i l''iie.i;o, 1830. A ducidu(m.s shrub or tree, with rugged, 
tortuous lu'anclies. (li. F. A. l'Z5.) 

rag"us — contini'sd. 

F, betuloides (Biroh-like).* Evergreen Beech, l ovate-elliptic, 
obtuse, crenulate, leatherv, shining, glabrous, round at the, 
on short footstalks. Tierla del Fuego, 1830. An evergreen tree. 
(H. F. A. 124.) 

F, ferruginea (rusty).* I. ovate, acuminate, thickly toothed, 
downy l)eneath, ciliate on the margin. United States, 1766. 
A larj;e, deciduous tree, very closely resembling the common 
Kuropean species, from which it is distinguished by its longer, 
thinner, and less shining leaves. 

F. obliqua (oblique). I. ovate-oblong, oblique, somewhat rhom- 
boid, blunt, doubly serrated, entire at the base, attenuated into 
the petioles, and somewhat downy, h. 50ft. Chili. Hardy, de- 

F. sylvatica (sylvan). Common Beech. I. oblong-ovate, obscurely 
tootlied ; margin filiate, h. 60ft. to 100ft. A triangular area 
between Norway, Asia Minor, and Spain, A large, deciduous 
tree. See Fig. 1. Of the numerous varieties of this splendid 
species, the following are the most important : argenteo-varie<jatis, 
leaves silver-striped ; asplenifolia, heterophylla, incisa, and guerci- 
folia, with more or less cut leaves ; cuj/rea, leaves copper- 
coloured : aureo-variegatis, leaves gold-striped ; jnirxjurea, leaves 
deep purple ; and the weeping or pendulous ianw, 2J&'iulula. 

culus aconitifolius and Saxifrag'a granulata. 
FAIR MAIDS OF KENT. See Ranunculus 


FAIRY PRIMROSE. See Primula minima. 

FAIRY RINGS. Green circles, or parts of circles, 
seen in pastures, and produced by the peculiar mode of 
growth of several species of Agarics and other Fungi, 
Agariciis arvensis, A. gamhosus, and Marasjniiis oreades, 
are good examples of those usually inhabiting Fairy 

FALCATE, FALCIFORM. Bent like a sickle, 

FALCONERA. This genus is now included tinder 

FALEIA (named after John Peter Falk, 1730-1774, 
a Swede, Professor of Botany at St. Petersburgh). Ord. 
ConvolvulacecE . A genus containing three or four species 
of greenhouse or half-hardy, herljaceous plants, from South 
Africa. F. repens is a very pretty, little, greenhouse, ever- 
green creeper, thriving in a compost of loam and peat, 
or any light soil. Increased by cuttings, inserted under 
a hand glass, in April ; or by divisions. 
F. repens (creeping).* Jf. red, with a paler throat ; corolla 

campanulate, crenated ; peduncles hardly longer than the leaves. 

May. I. scattered, petiolate, cordate-ovate, obtuse, entire. 

Stems decumbent, rooting; branches filiform. Cape of Good 

Hope, 1774. (B. M. 2228.) 

FALLUGIA (named after Fallugius, a Florentine 

botanist, who flourished about the end of the seventeenth 
century), Ord. Rosacece. A monotypic genus. The 
species is an erect, much-branched shrub. For culture, 
see Sieversia (to which it is allied), 

F, paradoxa (paradoxical). Jl. white, large, showy, sub-corym- 
bose, pedicellate. I. alternate, petiolate, irregularly three to 
flve-lobed or pinnatitid, rarely entire ; lobes linear, obtuse ; 
margins recurved, snowy underneath. New Mexico. (B. M. 


FALSE ACACIA. See Robinia Pseudo-acacia. 

FALSE DITTANY. See Bictamnus albus. 

FALSE BRAGON-HEAD. See Physostegla. 

FALSE LARCH. See Pseudolarix. 

FAME FLOWER. See Talinum teretifolium. 

FAN PALM. See Chamaerops, Corypha, and 
Sabal Blackburniana. 

FAN-SHAPED. Plaited like a fan; e.g., the leaves 

of ('/wni(('ro/).s and Livistona. 

FARAMEA (said to be tho native name in Guiana). 
Stn. TeXramermm. Ord. Rubiarew. A tropical American 
genus, containing about forty species, only one of which, 
perhaps, is in cultivation. F. odoratissiuia is a very orna- 
mental, swoet-soented, stovo, evergreen shrub, withtlowurs 
about tho size of those of Jat^mine. It tlirives in flbry 
peat and loam, \\\i\\ the addition of a little silver sand 

An Encycloptedta of Horticulture. 

Paraniea--r.Mi/ 1 u i:,',l. 
and snini> small liimi].-, of eliarroal. T'lit tiiiss, iiiailf in 
s]iriiij;\ ivill rcMit, if iiisrvtiMl \incli'v a Ih'11 j^lass, in licat. 
F. odoratisslma (v.av s\v,.rt--,.eiiteit). ■ ;/. wliitc, in tiaiaiaal 

ciirjiHl.s. /. ,.vnl-.ilil,,im, a.iitisli at the i.asc, aluiiplly a, illiii- 

nat.'il at thi' a]irx. A, ort. WV-st Inilifs, 1793. 

rARFUGIUM GRANDE. S.^r LigTilaria Ka;mp- 
feri aiireo maculata. 
FARINA. Mr,,l. 

TARINACEOUS, FARINOSE. Af. ah ; baviiur 
IIk- l.'Mni'r Mf Horn-. 

FARSETIA (llamra aftrr IMiiliii h'ai-i;li, a N'nirliali 
botaiiistl. I>RD. Cnir,l-nr. A ycnus of al"al(. twenty 
species of luualy or lialf-luivdy, lirancln'il, eia'ot lierlis or 
sub-sliriilis, nn>re or less lioary or driwny, Tliey are 
native's of the Mediterranean re.^ion, Afriea, and Asia 
Minor to Northern India. Intlijreseen'.-e raeeniosi.' or 
spioate. Leaves entire, opposite. Most uf tlif speeies 
are very pretty, and the hardy perennials are ^\'ell adapted 
for growin.i;- on roekworlv, borders, &c., in onlinary 
garden soil. The less hard}^ sorts thrive well in a con^- 
]tost of sandy loam and peat. All are easily increased 1)V 

LATE. Tn liniidles or parcels. 

FASTIGIATE. Taiierintr to a narrow point, like a 

FATR.a!A Included under Terminalia ("which seel. 


u\ ,Talv. /. linear, 
1 leam-jied. /.. 1ft. 

F, segyptica {KL;>]'tian). //. white. .Tnnii 

pia'vscil, Imarv. .^tenis shvnliliv, erect, m 

A'.ntli .\friea,'l78S. Half-havdy'. 
F. clypeata(l'nck]er-shapcil). !l vcllow. .Tnm'. /. olilinc,;, re- 

panil. strain lierli[iceens, elect, /c 1ft. to 2ft. ,s;.iath ICanipe, 

1696. Ilanly. 
F. lUnariOideS (TaHiaria-lilCe). //. velle\A- ; seli.als whitish. Jane. 

l. olilnn^-dliiivate, stalked, lioarv. 'stfins sulfi iiti.i.s,.. ascendent. 

A. 1ft. lii-ecian Arcliipekign, 1731. Hardy. ( 1 1. -■*! . 3U37. ) 

FASCIATED. When a .stem be nies much flat- 
tened, instead eif retainini^' a cylindrical hi^ure ; t'.i/., the 
Cock L 




Fi T \Ts \ r n PI tr \ 

PATSXA fdoriYncT from the Japanese nnmo of nnr- nl' 
the species). Orp. A r<ih<nr,-r. A fremis of lialf-liar^ly slu-nlis 
or small trees, allie<l to Aralia (-whicli see f^r culture). 
All the speeies are deserihcil helow. 

F horrida (horrid). //. in terminal panicle.';. /. palniatcly lulicil, 
cnlate, ])etif)]ate, jirickly. Stems thiclc, arnu'd 
with yellow spines. !i. 6ft. to 12ft. Nnrth - Ave.^t 
America. 1829. Hardy. Ry\. frfvn.r hnrrl>h''„K 
(H. F. ]'>. A. 98.) 
F.japonica (Japanese).* 1. La-f^e, U-atlicry, di-itatc, 
deep shiuin;]^ green. Stem straight, forniiuu; an iini- 
hrelladike head. /^ 3ft. to 5ft. Japan. A v.-ry linr 
half-hardy evergreen shrnlj for snl.i-tropical i^ar- 
dening. It is ensily raised from seed, -which should 
be sown in gentle heat ; and portions of the stem, 
treated a.s cuttings, mot freely. S^^'iXS. A ml, 'a 
:tai>n,n.-n ami A. Si'vlxdJii. See Fig. 2, 
F. j. variegata (variegated).* 1. hlotchcd ami mar- 

g;im.'d -witli white. Japan. Halfdiartly. 
F. j. V. aurea (golden- variegated). "^ Snmewtiat 
larger and stronger than the foregoing, and witli a 
rich yellow variegation. Distinct and tine. Japan. 
F. papyrifera (rice-paper-tree).* _/?. gTeenish, in droop- 
ingpanicles, yliicli are 2ft. to 3ft. long. /. from oin. to 
12in. long, live rir seven-htbed, clothed (as an- also tin- 
stems) with a kind of down, Init ultimately glalirons. 
Stem brandling al 10 ve. A. 6ft. to 8ft. l-'ormosa, lori2. 
A noble half-hardy plant, which mast Ite protected 
from all winds; very useful for snb-troiiiral garden- 
ing. SyN. Aralia j'apvrifcra. See Fii;. 3. (I'.. M 

FAUX. The orifice of a calyx or con^lla. 

FAVEOLATE, FAVOSE. Pittel or ox 
cayatod. like 1lio coll-^ <.>£ a honeyeomli. 

FEATHER GRASS. See Stipa pen 

FEATHER - VEINED. Hayiu- ycius 
"wliicli proceed from a midril"i at an acuto 

cious in lutjderating foyers, 

FEDIA (supposed to he from /Vvh/.s, the same 
as hvnliis, a kid, in allusiiui to the smell of tlir 
X'lajit ; hut ll^^sillly QUO of Adanson's nu^'auiu'j- 
less names). < >rt'. Vnleriiniefr. A pretty gla- 
brous annual licrh. Loayes entire or tuidJo-d, 
It is of easy culture lu moderately g^ood gardon 
^oil. Seeds sliould he sown in pot-:, i^ ^lardi. 

The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Pedia — continued. 
and the seedlings planted ont thickly in the latter part 
of April, at which time seed may also bo sown in the 
open border. 

Fig. 4. Flowering Branch of Fedta Cornucopi^e. 

F. Cornucopise (Covnucopia-like).* jJ. red, corymbose, in 
fascicles ; perUincles thickened, fistular. July. I. ovate-oblonET, 
toothed ; lower ones petiolate, upper ones sessile. Stem purplisli. 
k. 6in. South Kurope, &c., 1796. See Fij;. 4. (B. R. 155, under 
name of Valeriana Cornucopice.) 

F£EA. SVc Triclionianes. 

FELICIA (from feliv, happy ; in allusion to the cheer- 
ful appearance of the plants). Ord. Coin-positce. A genus 
of about forty-five species of dwarf- growing sub-shrubs 
(rarely annual herbs), two of which are from Abyssinia, 
and all the rest from Southern Africa. Felicia is very 
nearly allied to A.'iter. Flower-heads radiate; ray-florets 
blue or white, the disk yellow ; involucre hemispheric or 
broadly bell-shaped, with from two to a large number 
of series of narrow, imbricated, scarious-edged bracts. 
Leaves alternate, entire or toothed. The shrubby species 
like cool greenhouse treatment, and flourish in sandy peat. 
Propagated by seeds ; or by cuttings, struck in sandy soil, 
under a bell glass. 

F. fruticosus (shrnl)l»y).* fl.-heada solitary, upon terminal, soli- 
tary, naked, very slender peduncles ; ray-florets purple, linear, 
■acute, with one or two serratures at the marcnn ; centre florets 
yellow, tubular ; involucre ovate-cyliurirical, of several linear- 
oblonj^, closely imbricated scales. May. /. spreading, linear, 
approaching to spathulate, impressed with dots ; marj^in quite 
entire and recurved. Stem woody, much branched in a zlgza-i 
manner. /;. 1ft. to 2ft. Cape of Good Hope. (B. M. 2718, under 
7irinK: of Aater Jruticoa^tsi.) 

F. reflexa (reflexed). Jl. -heads red, white, terminal, closely re- 
semldinf; the counnon Daisy. Winter. I. ovate, sub-iml>ricate, 
recurved, ciliate. li. 1.1ft. to 3ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1790. 
Shrubby. (B. M. 884, under name of Aster rejiexn^.) 

FELWORT. >SV'. Swertia. 

FUMAIiE FERN. A common name of Asplenium 
Filix-fcEmina iwhieh spp). 

FENCES. Hrf Hedg-es. 


a membrane, and so resemVJing 

FENNEL (Fooniculum viilgare). A hardy perennial 
herb, native of temperate Europe, North Africa, and 
Western Asia, now I>ecome naturalised in some parts of 
this country. It is cultivated for the use of its leaves 
in fish sauces and for garnishing. The stalks are some- 

i hole or gap through 
window in a wall. 

Fennel — continued. 
times blanched, and eaten either boiled or raw. ^ The 
seeds are also used for flavouring. Fennel (see Fig. 5) 
may be easily propagated by seeds or by division. The 
former may either be sown in driUs 15in. apart, and the 

Fig. 5. Fennel. 

plants afterwards thinned to a similar distance, or be 
sown in a bod, and transplanted when large enough. If 
seeds arc not required, the tops should be occasionally 
removed, as this will encourage the production of 
young leaves. A plantation will last for several years. 

FENNEL, GIANT. See Ferula. 
FENUGREEK. See Trig-onella Foenum grse- 

FENZLIA. This genus is now included under Gilia 
(which see). 

FERDINANDA. This genus is now included under 
Zaluzania (which see). 

FEREIRIA. See Hillia. 

FERNANDEZIA (named after George Garcias 
Fernandez, a Spanish, botanist). Obd. Orchidew. A small 
genus of epiphytal stove orchids, allied to Braasia. They 
are not of much hortic\iltural beauty. The species best 
known is F. rohustn. For culture, see Brassia. 

F. robusta (rolmst). /(. brio;ht yellow, barred and spotted with 
red on the lower portion of the lip ; sepals oblonj),' apii-u!;ite, bent 
backwards; petals ovate, obtuse, stretching a little forwards; 
lij) longer and larger than the petals, three-lohed. May. /. keeled, 
l^in. long, sharp at the extremities. Guatemala, 1841. This, 
the largest species of 7'V)7j,rr.7J.'?^ri'a, i.s closely allied to !A)ckbariia 
luni/cra, figured in Reichenbach's "Xenia." (B. I\I. 5592.) 

FERNELIA (named after J. F. Fernel, 1497-1558, 
physician to Henry II. of France). Ord. Eubiaceiv. A 
genus containing four species of small glabrous stove ever- 
green shrubs, having much the habit of Box. Pedicels 
axillary, very short, bracteolate, one-flowered ; corolla 
small. Leaves opposite, small, coriaceous, shortly petio- 
lato, obovate-oblong, or sub-orbicular. The species de- 
scribed below requires treatment similar to Rondeletia 
(which fiee). 

F. buxifolia (Box-leaved). /^, lobes of the corolla obtuse. 
Berry obovate, ciowned by the subulate lobes of the calyx. 
l. live to six lines long, and three to four broad, h. 1ft. to 3ft. 
Mauritius, 1816. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


TERNS. Wliotlirr TicwcMl collociivuly as plants of 
extremo beauty ami intorost when grown as ppccimcns, 
or for their general usefulness in arrangements with 
flowering subjects, Kerns are indispensable, and possess 
attractions x^eculiar to themselves. The very large num- 
ber of genera now in cultivation, including native and 
exotic, stove, greenhouse, and hardy, supply moans of 
making a sxiitable selection for every requirement. Tte- 
markable variation in size and habit is most noticeable 
among Ferns, apart from the extreme conditions under 
which the different ones succeed. The now almost uni- 
versal use of plants and cut fronds intermixed in floral 
decorations, lias led to their production in immense 
quantities annually, to supply the demand for a few of 
the more popular of genei-a and species that are suit- 
able for the pxirpose. The popularity of Ferns is over 
increasing, as ideas regarding the supposed difliculty in 
their culture, and the amount of heat required, have 
been of late considerably modified, many being found to 
succeed in much cooler positions than was at one time 
supposed to be suitable. The majority require more or 
less heat, hut many that are ke])t in a high temperature 
would be healthier and do better in a somewhat cooler one. 
Hardy Ferns are, perhaps, more plentiful in varieties 
than in distinct species, although the latter are numerous. 
Both are interesting and useful for various piositions out- 
side, and arc in combination extremely diverse in general 
habit. It will be impracticable, on account of space, 
to describe here separately the cultivation of every genus 
referred to this heading. The following general remarks 
respecting the treatment of the different groups, accord- 
ing to the amount of beat or other special requirements, 
with cultural notes on some of the principal genera, may, 
however, with the description aeoompanying each indi- 
vidual genus separately, prove sufficiently suggestive for 
the treatment of all. 

PRorAGATiON, Tliis is effected in various ways, ac- 
cording to the different habits or modes of growth 
exhibited in the several types. The most general plan 
of propagation is by spores, but with many species it is 
at best ditlicult, and in many cases quite impossible, to 
obtain these, and raise plants from them successfully. 
The most popular of Ferns, Adiantums, and several species 
of Pieris, are easily raised in immense quantities from 
spores. All Ferns that form several croivns may be in- 
creased by division; and those with creeping rhizomes, 
like many of the Davallias, are easily perpetuated either 
by layering the points or removing portions that have 
formed roots. A few — Aspleniums particularly — produce 
small bulbils along the upper portion and at the end 
of the fronds, and these eventually form plants, if re- 
moved and placed in soil. The increase of Filmy Ferns 
is, in most cases, an extremely delicate operation. Plants 
imported from their native haViitats, with every care 
taken in transit, frequently do not live to become esta- 
blished, even if they arrive in fairly good condition. 
These may be f)ropagated by carefully made divisidns 
of such plants as become established and grow well. 
Tree Ferns are imported in quantities, and a largo pro- 
portion generally succeed. Tonng plants may I'C raised 
from spores, where obtainable, but it would take many 
years for them to grow to the size of imported stems. 
The spores of many of the Tree Ferns germinate freely 
enough, but, under cultivation, never advance l^eyond the 
prothallus stage. 

Spores. The fronds from which spores are required 
should be carefully examined at frequent intervals, when 
they are beginning to ripen, in order to obtain the spores 
at the proper time. When the sori begin to turn brown, 
the fronds sliould be cut and allowed to dry in close 
paper bags. The sooner they are sown, after being kept 
a few days, the better, as any part of the year is suit- 
able for the operation, early spring being, however, pre- 
ferred for the majority of species. They should be sovra 

Ferns — cvntinued. 
in pots or shallow pans that have been lialf-nih'd with 
crocks, the remainder being filled to witijin ^in. of the 
top witli a mixture of fine .sifteil loam and very sm;dl 
pieces of crushed brick. An even surface may be <'l>taincd 
by i^rcssing firmly with the bottom of another pot. The 
soil should then be watered ami allowe<l to drain beforu 
the spores are sown, as by watering afterwards the latter 
might be washed away. Fern spores are extremely minute, 
and, consequently, should be scattered verj^ thinly over 
the surface of the soil, pieces of glass being placed over 
the tops of the pots. The pots should be stood in saucers 
of water and placed in a close frame of a projjagating 
lionso, being kept shaded at all times during sunshine, but 
not in dull weather. Laying pieces of paper on the out- 
side of the frame, and removing them wIk'Ti not requirral, 
is a handy method usually adopted. Wlicn the spores 
are sufficiently grown to be visible as very minute plants 
— a stage that varies considerably, with different Ferns, 
in the time taken to reach it— they should be very care- 
fully pricked off in pots of similar soil, filled, this time, 
level with the top. Very small patches must be taken on 
a stick, having the least notch cut in the end, anil they 
should be merely pressed into tlio new soil about lin. 
apart. 'No water should be applied overhead until the 
little plants have been pricked off some time, and have 
formed fronds. Sulficient will ]]ave been supplied by 
the pots being placed in water, and tlie moisture con- 
tained inside the frame, which is not usually one with 
bottom heat. Adiaiitums arc frequently fit for pricking 
out in a montli or six weeks after toeing sown. Theso, 
or any others, should be returned to a similar frame after- 
wards, and kept close until small x:)lants are cstablislied, 
when air should be very gradually admitted. If condi- 
tiijus are suitable, the young Ferns grow fast in the 
spring or summer; and the next shift should be into pots 
singly, or, in the case of Adiantums, each litth> Iium-h 
of i:>lants may be treated as one, for quickly forming de- 
corative subjects. liaising Ferns of any descriptinn fmm 
spores is an exceedingly delicate operation, and one tliat 
requires considerable care and attention to accmnplisli 
successfully. It frequently happens that spores obtained 
from fronds of any particular Fern which may ha^'e l)i'<.'n 
kept scparat'.'d from others, will, when sown, a]iparently 
produce a h(.)^t of young plants that eventually are found 
to belong to another and commoner sperde^ or gi.'uns. 
The fact of spores being so light as to be removed ami 
carried by a breath of wind, may account for the presence 
of the commoner one, that would probably overgrow the 
other ; or good spores of the one desired may not have 
been present at alL The mode of treatment above de- 
scribed applies to tlie raising of both stove and green- 
house Ferns, and, with the exce]ition of a conler tem- 
perature, will 1)0 also suitable for the hardier species. 
Young plants should be potted on tioforc they are very 
full of roots, as, if allowed to become starved in the 
younger stages, it is a long time bofore they rer-over. 

T>i.risiii)i.^\ S,r. The best time for dividing Ferns, or 
for pro}iagating by nn".'ans of the orrrpiiT,;' rln'/,i:nnes, is just 
before growth eomnionees, in February or early spring. 
It is Viest not to di\ide too severi^ly, as small plants are 
much l.ietter obtained frenn spores if that plan be prac- 
ticable. I";lii/,ome.- slionld be pegged U, a iiieee of 
] teat, or on small p<">ts of soil, and a.lloA\"i.'d to ffrm roots 
before being detached. The jii-:erf,i<.n of tlie little bulbils 
in i"'Ots of soil, in a close i'rame, a\i11 soon incrii'ase the 
stock of those species -\vhicb produee them. 

St(:iVE Ferxs. An idea is often IV^'iucd tliat tropical 
Ferns require a groat heat at all time<, with ei instant 
heavy shading in summer, and but litlle air at that, 
season as well. TIds i^ alh-Hjctlnn- a mistake, as the 
result is invariably weak. elnnL^ated frnnd<, that are at 
once subject to all insect posts, and are randy strong 
enough to stand any change to which it may be necessary 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Perns — continued. 
to snbject them. Blinds on rollers, that admit of being- lot 
down and removed as desired, should be nsod. Although 
Ferns delight essentially in shade and moisture, both may 
be carried to an excess, especially in winter time, when 
all shoiald be at rest. The growing and resting periods 
are as necessary with many Ferns as with flowering plants, 
although the ripening in autumn, as ordinarily understood, 
is not of so much importance. The general arrangement of 
stove Ferns greatly depends on the structure and space 
at command. Adiantums, Davallias, Gymnogrammes, and 
Platyceriums, may be cited as examples for situations 
where most light is obtainable, and only a thin shading 
applied in sunny weather ; while Acrostichums, and the 
stove species of Aspidiunn, Asplenium, Ne'phrodium., and 
Pteris, succeed in darker or more shady positions. The 
introduction of Tree Ferns produces a fine effect where 
there is sufficient height, but, if planted out, these soon 
require much more room than it is possible to obtain in 
the majority of stoves. By growing them in tubs, and 
plunging, a more suitable appearance is presented, the 
restriction of the roots having a corresponding effect on 
the rate of growth in the fronds. Any repotting should 
be performed before growth commences, as, if it is deferred 
till afterwards, many of the young fronds will become 
crippled. For stove Ferns, a growing season of eight 
months should be allowed, namely, from February till Sep- 
tember inclusive. The other four months should be the 
resting period, when a night temperature of 50deg. to 55deg. 
will be sufficient, with a minimum rise by day of 5deg. more. 
A drier atmosphere must also be maintained, and less 
water applied to the roots, at the same time avoiOing an 
extreme in the latter case. When growth commences, the 
minimum night and day temperatures may be gradually 
raised, until, in summer, the former will seldom go below 
60deg. or 65deg. Air should he carefully admitted, and 
plenty of water applied to the roots and amongst the pots, 
with a view to the production of fronds of moderate 
growth and good substance — conditions not to be insured 
by a close atmosphere and very high temperature. Light 
syringings may be occasionally applied to most stove Ferns 
in summer, but too much has a tendency to weaken many 
of the fronds. Adiantums, Gymnogrammes, and, generally 
speaking, species with powdery or very hairy fronds, should 
not be syringed at any time. The whole beauty of Ferns 
consists in the full development of the fronds ; and if these 
are to be kept in good condition afterwards, until the new 
ones of the following year appear, it is important that the 
plants be kept properly watered and subjected to treatment, 
in summer, calculated to produce a moderate amount of 
solidified growth, that, in the autumn, should be thoroughly 
rii^ened by the admission of sun and air to the structure 
in which the Ferns are grown. If, as before recommended, 
blinds on rollers are in use for summer shading, they will, 
of necessity, have to pass over the roof ventilators. This 
has an advantage both of breaking the force of the wind 
and preventing an undue evaporation of moisture from 
the inside. If found to fit too closely, blocks may easily 
be fixed to the rafters at the top, to keep the shading a 
little open. 

Greenhouse Fernh. A large number of Ferns, usually 
grown and treated as stove subjects, succeed equally well, 
but do not grow quite so fast, in a greenhouse temperature, 
and, wherever employed, either alone or in combination 
with flowering plants, are much appreciated. A more 
interesting structure than a cool Fernery attached to a 
conservatory, when well stocked and carefully arranged, 
can scarcely be imagined. The majority of Ferns succeed 
in comparatively small pots, and are consequently well 
suited for mixing with other occupants of the aide stages. 
The stronger-growing ones are also well adapted for 
planting in permanent beds or amongst other plants, such 
as Camellias, &c., where not too much crowded, the 
partial shade and moisture suiting the Ferns admirably. 

Perns — continued. 
Nearly all Adiantums do well under greenhouse treatment 
in summer, but must be removed to warmer quarters for 
the winter. Many Nephrodiums and species of Pteris, 
particularly P. longij'olia, P. serrulata and its varieties, 
and P. tremula, do better planted out in a cool structure 
than anywhere else. Lomaria gibha, and other species, are 
among the most beautiful of cool decorative Ferns, and the 
same may be said of Asj:)lenium bulhiferum, and others 
from Australia and New Zealand : Davallia canariensis, 
Nephrolexiis exaltata, Onychium japonicum, Woodtuardia 
radicans, ^-c. Todea harhara is well adapted for planting 
out in a position where considerable space can be allowed 
for its large fronds to develop ; it may also be grown in 
pots, any cool house, or even a sheltered position outside, 
with protection in frosty weather, suiting it. The genus 
Gleichenia contains many beautiful species that do not 
require much heat, excepting two or three from tropical 
countries. If grown in large pans, and tied out with neat 
stakes, beautiful specimens may be obtained under green- 
house treatment. These are propagated by layering the 
slender rhizomes, or by se^^arating rather large pieces from 
established plants, and potting separately. The shade 
necessary for ordinary greenhouse flowering plants in 
summer will also be suitable for Ferns, plenty of moisture 
being at that season supplied at the roots and, with few 
exceptions, such as Adiantums, overhead. 

Ferns suitable for Baskets. Hanging baskets, 
either in the stove or greenhouse, are, at all times, an 
additional attraction, and the elegant and graceful habit 
of many Ferns constitutes them excellent subjects for 
use in that way. Baskets, made in different sizes, of 
stout galvanised wire, may be suspended from the roof, 
and, if carefully watered, the plants will succeed ex- 
tremely well in most cases. Many are seen to much better 
advantage, especially those with long and drooping fronds, 
than when grown in pots for stage decoration. Some of 
the fast-growing Selaginellas are most useful to plant 
with basket Ferns, for covering the soil or hanging down. 
Adiantums will, again, be found very attractive, par- 
ticularly A. caudatum^ A. cuneatum, A. graciUimuTn, and 
A. Moorei, with Asplenium Belangeri, A. lo^igissimum, 
and A. viviparum; Davallia dissecta and D. pallida; 
Gymnograinme schizophylla ; Nephrolepis davallioides and 
N. exaltata, and many others that are of somewhat similar 
habit. Nearly all of these are amenable to cool-house 
treatment in summer. 

Filmy Ferns. These constitute a distinct class, re- 
quiring different treatment from any other members of 
the family. Very few do well in an open house, as suffi- 
cient atmospheric moisture cannot be obtained. On the 
whole, they do not require much heat, being often found 
to grow stronger and keep in better health when cultivated 
in close cases, in a cool Fernery, than when placed in 
similar cases in the stove. Filmy Ferns should never be 
watered overhead, but the stones and moss amongst which 
they are generally grown must be kept continually moist 
by having water poured on from the small spout of a can. 
This, when evaporating inside the inclosed case, becomes 
condensed on the extremely numerous divisions of the 
fronds as represented in the majority of species, and its 
continued presence there invariably indicates good health 
and the frequency with which it will be necessary to give 
water. Pieces of rough fibry peat and loam, with char- 
coal and sphagnum, are most suitable for Filmy Ferns. 
Nearly all that grow in soil succeed better when planted 
amongst stones, while those that form rhizomes should 
bo placed on blocks of peat, dead pieces of Tree Fern, &g. 
They must always be shaded from sunshine ; and not 
much light is required at any time. The difliculty 
generally experienced is in establishing the plants ; when 
once they begin to grow and increase, the treatment is, 
in most cases, simple enough. Hymenophyllum, Todea, 
and Triclwmanes, are three of the pvinciinil genera 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 

Ferns — contiu ued. 

among Filmy Ferns. Todea superha is a vig-orons species, 
having large fronds of a filmy texture ; and T. hymeno- 
%ihylloides is smaller-growing, but very desirable ; both 
being beautiful and more easily grown than the majority 
of the plants in this section. 

Wardian Oases. Ferns used for decorating Wardian 
eases must only include those of small or moderate 
growth, the space inside being very limited. The system 
admits of more moisture being kept round the plants 
than would be possible in an open room where the air 
is frequently dried either by burning gas or a fire. It 
is always important, in changing plants in those cases 
that become unhealthy, to substitute others from a cool 
house, as, if insufficiently hardened, the young fronds 
soon wither and die. Ample drainage must be provided, 
and, if plants in pots are used, the latter should be 
covered with growing sphagnum. Ferns in Wardian 
cases keep fresh and attractive for a long time if they 
receive proper attention. Cases somewhat similar in 
construction, may be used in cool houses for small col- 
lections of Filmy Ferns. 

Fig. 6. PF.Art Tref Iern ce ">r vtrd with Ferns. 

Tkee Fekns. Considerable space and lofty houses 
are essential for growing and exhibiting Tree Ferns in 
their true characters. In Ferneries of limited size, where 
a few are cultivated, it is best to restrict their root groN\'th 
in large pots or tubs, which also allows of their being 
re-arranged occasionally when overgrowing other smaller 
plants. In very large conservatories, a few x*'-'i'™^"''ii<"--'iit 
specimens planted out in well-drained borders, snc3eed, 
perhaps, better than in any other position, and always 
present a majestic appearance unexcelled by any other 
plants similarly employed. Alsoplnla <n(^tralis and 
A. e'xrelsa, CyatJiea dealhata and C. nied vlUi ris (the 
latter is probably the tallest-growing of all our cultivated 
Ferns), with Dicksonia antarctica, are the best for culture 
in the greenhouse. All those may also be used in 
sub-tropical gardening outside in summer, in sholterod. 

Ferns — conti'iiurd. 
shady places. There are many stove species of Tree 
Ferns, all of which are beautiful, and worthy of culti- 
vation in large heated structures. They all, especially 
Alsophilas, delight in plenty of atmospheric moisture 
and shade. The stems of imported Tree Ferns should, 
on their arrival, be covered with damp moss or canvas, and 
be kept moist by syringing until the new fronds appear. 
The time this takes varies according to the condition in 
which they arrive, and the season. When the head of 
fronds is established, the covering may be removed 
from the stem ; but frecpiont syringing in summer time 
is of the highest importance, as by far the greater 
portion of the stems of many is literally a mass of roots 
requiring a quantity of water. Tree Ferns, in bad health, 
may often be greatly imx:)roved by covering the stem 
from the base to the fronds with lin. of sphagnum, and 
tying it on with string. If kept moist, the roots soon 
fill the moss, and the stem is thus considerably enlarged. 
Tree Ferns that are dead on arrival may be utilised by 
covering with epiphytal or other small Ferns for stove or 
greenhouse decoration (see Fig. 6), the top being scooped 
out, and a free-growing variety with a pendent habit 
inserted and planted in soil ; others being fastened on the 
side with blocks of peat and some small wire. 

Haedy Feigns. These are all attractive, and the ma- 
jority succeed best when planted on rockwork in a shady 
situation, sheltered from high winds. A great diversity, 
both in size and habit, is represented by the British species 
and their innumerable varieties, apart from those intro- 
duced from JSTorth America, Japan, &,o. Many suitable 
positions for hardy Ferns may be found in most gardens 
where their culture is not now attempted. They should 
have a good depth of soil, and plenty of water in summer. 
In the case of a collection, a pile of rockwork, built with 
rough stones, allows of a place being selected for all, 
according to their size and habit. A good clump of those' 
which are plentiful should be planted together, and sufli- 
cient space allowed them to grow and develop, as in this 
way the different characters are much better shown than 
when only single plants are used. Attention in their 
arrangement should also be directed in placing the ever- 
green and deciduous species irregularly throughout the 
space covered, so that the whole may be, more or less, 
furnished at all seasons. In building a rockwork for 
hardy Ferns, the requirements of the plants must be the 
main object, large, well-drained pockets being insured in 
preference to the appearance of the stones, that are, in 
great part, hidden by the fronds. Loam and peat, with 
a quantity of crushed stone or brick, intermixed and 
used round the roots when planting, materially assist 
them to become established. The Royal Fern {Osmunda 
regalis) is one of the most handsome, and succeeds best 
when planted in a partial bog, or by the side of water. 

Underground Fernery. This is an interesting struc- 
ture, to be seen only in a few places, where the owners 
bestow special attention on Fern culture in its various 
aspects. It consists of a large cavity, dug in the middle 
of a hill, and covered with sheet glass, the hill itself being 
surrounded on the summit with trees. A flight of steps 
communicates with the interior, where Ferns are grown 
on the inside of the cavity in pre]i;Lrud suil, ]i;irrow paths 
or stepping stones being provided on w liicli to walk them. A fountain, or I'tVir-r arrangement for 
\\'ater, supplies the necessary mra:-ture. The plants d^i 
not require artificial heat, as they are not mucli afti.'rtei.l 
h\ fluctuations of temperature outside, and a sulidiieil 
light is constantly admitted by the glass overhoad. A 
view of an underground Fernery is shown in Fig. 7. 

Slul, Pi.'Ts. io., FOR Fern Cudture. Nearly all 
Ferns require a quaiility of \vater in summer, and rarel_y 
need to he dry at the ruots at any season, consequently 
a very important niLittcr is that of efficient drainage. 

The Dictionary of Gardening, 

"Fevns—conNnv ed. 
Anything like a sour or waterlogged soil is either detri- 
mental or fatal, even to those which are not quickly injured 
in other respects. Success in the cultivation of esta- 
blished plants depends more on this, with careful water- 
ing, temperature, atmospheric moisture, proper shade, 
&c., than on any soil in which they may be grown. 

Fig. 7. View of UNDERGRou^n Fernery. 

Adiantums, for instance, succeed well either in peat or 
loam alone, the texture of the fronds being firmer in 
the latter instance, and presenting apparently the only 
difference. A large proportion of peat was at one time 
considered necessary for all Ferns, but the superior 
qualities of leaf soU in their culture, where it can 
be obtained, have been more fully recognised of late, 
with considerable advantage to the plants. Soft sand- 
stone, mixed with the soil, tends to keep it porous, and 
suits some varieties better than others ; and charcoal 
may be used freely with all. The diflerent liabits will 
often suggest the mode of treatment required. It will 
not be far wrong to say that a compost of half loam, 
to which is added an equal quantity of leaf soil and peat 
combined, and sufficient charcoal, small pieces of crocks, 
or sharp sand, to keep the whole open, may be used 
successfully for all Tree Ferns and any established plants 
of Adiantum., Aspidiuni, yls^iZe^t^tm, many species of 
DavalUa, Gymnofjvomme, Lomaria, Nephrodium, PtcvU, 
and any others of similar habit. The species of Acro- 
sticlium, DavalUa, &c., that foi-m slender rhizomes, must 
be attached to something on which they can grow. A 
good plan is to cultivate in pans, placing an inverted 
pot or a piece of Tree Fern stem in the middle, and then 
building a small mound on the top with lumps of peat, 
loam, and sphagnum, afterwards fixing the rhizomes to 
the surface with small pegs. Epiphytal Ferns, of which 
PlaLyr.eriuui is a well-known and distinct genus, often 
succeed admirably if fastened with a little moss and peat 
to a block of wood, and suspended in the stove. They 

Perns — continued. 
should be kept rather dry in winter. Similar composts, 
as advised above, if passed through a sieve, may be 
used for young plants. Ferns succeed in pots com- 
paratively small for the size of plants, if due attention 
is given to watering. Small pots have also an advantage 
in appearance ; and any deficiency in the quantity of 
food contained in the soil may be supplied with appli- 
cations of manure water during the growing season. 

Inserts. Ferns, especially those under stove treatment, 
are liable to be attacked by several destructive insect 
pests. Thrips are their greatest enemies, causing irre- 
parable damage to the fronds. Frequent fumigating 
becomes a necessity ; this must be done lightly and 
with the greatest care, on account of the tender growth. 
Any Aphides will also be destroyed by the smoke at the 
same time. Brown and White Scale are sometimes 
plentiful, and these must be removed by sponge or 
brush. The first-named is the one most common on 
Ferns, the other, fortunately, being more rarely found, as, 
when once established, it is very difficult to eradicate. 
Mealy Bug must be destroyed in a similar way to Scale, 
as an insecticide strong enough to kill either, will, to 
say the least, be dangerous to use, in consequence of 
causing injury to the fronds of delicate texture. In 
winter, when the plants are at rest, the whole should 
be examined and cleaned, as stronger measures may 
then be adopted, by fumigation or the use of an insecti- 
cide, than would be safe after growth commences. At all 
times, a watch must be kept for the first appearance of 
insects, as projier means for destruction then applied are 
always more effective in their results. 

FSiROiN'IA (mythological, after Feronia, a nymph who 

presided over the woods and groves, and was worshipped 
by the Eomans as a goddess). Ord. Rulacece. A stove 
evergreen fruit-tree, allied to the Orange {Citii(s), It 
thrives well in a mixture of rich loam and peat, with a 
little sand added. Increased, in spring or summer, by 
placing cuttings of ripe young shoots in sandy soil, under 
glass, in bottom heat. 

Fr;. a Flowering Si-riiF, or Fkkuaiua undulata. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 

Feronia — contiimed. 

F. elephantum. Elephant's Apple, jl. white, with reddisli 
antliei-s ; panicle small, axillary, or terminal, fr. large, about 
the size of an apple, with a greyish rind ; pulpy part edible. 
I. impavi-piunate ; leaflets live to seven, obovate, sessile, crenu- 
lated, shining, h. 30ft. Coromandel, 1804. (B. F. S. 121.) 

FEKBARIA (named after J. B. Ferrari, 158-1-16.53, 
an Italian botanist), Okd. Iridew. A genus of half-a- 
dozen species of interesting dwarf bulbous plants, with 
curiously spotted evanescent blossoms, from the Capo 
of Good Hope. This genus belongs to the section 
Moraem; it has many-flowered spathes, the filaments 
united in a tube, and the petaloid stigmas fringed. In 
a warm, sunny situation, and if planted about 6in. deep, 
Ferrarias prove hardy. Increased by seeds and offsets. 
They rarely grow more than 6in. in height. 
F. antherosa (large-anthered). A synonym of F. Ferrariula. 
F. atrata (Idackish). fl. dark reddish-purple, fringed with 

browiiish-gi-een. (L. E. C. 1556.) 
F. divarlcata (divaricate), fl. brown. May to July. I. linear, 
acute, glaucescent. Stem branched at top. 1825. (S. B. F. G. 192.) 
F. Ferrarlola (Ferrariola).* fi. gr-eenish-brown. March to July. 
I. equitant, ensiforni ; lower narrow. Stem simple. 1800. Syn. 
P. antherosa. (B. M. 751.) 
F. obtuslfolia (obtuse-leaved), fl. brown. May to July. 
I. distichous, ensiform, otituse, keeled on both sides. Stem 
erect, branched, many-ilowered. 1825. (S. B. F. G. 148.) 
F. unclnata (hooked). Jf. brown ; spathe two-flowered ; seg- 
ments of perianth involuted at apex. May to July. /. linear, 
striated, hooked at top. Stem branched, shorter than the 
leaves. 1825. (S. B. F. G. 161.) 
F. tindulata (waved).* JJ. greenish-brown. March and April. 
I. equitant, ensiforni, wavy ; inner twice as narrow as the outer. 
Stem branched. 1755. See Fig. 8. (B. M. 144.) 

rERKUaiNOUS. Iron-coloured, rusty. 

within comparatively recent years that the impo)-tant 
part pjl^JG'^^ ^y Insects in the Fertilisation of flowers, 
has been thoroughly realised. A goodly nvmiber of plants 
will be found, ui^on examination, to bear flowers mani- 
festly adapted for Insect visitations; and observations 
wdl prove tliat in the cases where precautions are taken 
to prevent these, Fertilisation does not occur, although 
the flowers in cjuestion may be hermaphrodite. As a rule, 
flowers of gay colours, those possessing much scent 
or secreting nectar, are more or less dependent upon In- 
sect agency. Most dicecious plants, or even hermaphro- 
dite ones, in the Fertilisation of which the wind is a 
necessary auxiliary, present peculiarities of structure which 
do not obtain in those which are now called " entomo- 
philous ; " they do not secrete nectar, the pollen is too 
dry to adhere to Insects, and the corolla is either absent, 
or possesses neither the colour, scent, nor nectar which 
attract them. Amongst hermaphrodite flowers which 
are homogamous — that is to say, those in which the 
stamens and stigma ripen together — there are some which, 
experiment has proved, are sterile with their own pollen, 
but fertile enough if furnished with pollen from the 
flowers of other plants of the same species. The scarlet- 
flowered Linum grandiflorum is, according to the obser- 
vations of Darwin, a case in point. The same authority 
has shown conclusively enough, by a series of carefully 
conducted experiments, that, in the case of the common 
Primrose, more capsules and larger seeds are developed 
as the result of Cross-fertilisation than when Self-ferti- 
lisation obtains. Therefore, unless the aid of the cul- 
tivator be called into reqixisition, in some oases Insect 
visits are absolutely essential, and in others of consider- 
able value, to the species. 

FERULA (the old Latin name, perhaps from ferio, 
to strike ; stems used as rods). Giant Fennel. Including 
the genera Ferulago and Narthex, which are sunk under 
Ferula by the authors of the " Genera Plantarum." Oed. 
Umhelliferce. A genus of about forty species of splendid 
hardy herbaceous plants, natives of Southern Europe, 
Northern Africa, and Central and Western Asia. Umbels 
of many rays; lateral ones usually opposite or verti- 

Vol. II. 

Ferula — continued. 
cilhite. Leaves supra-decompound ; leaflets usually cleft 
into linear segments. Stems tall. Boots thick. They 
are of very simple cultivation in almost any ordinary 
garden soil ; and form admirable plants for growing near 
water, on banks and herbaceous borders, where their deep 
green, elegant foliage is produced almost in midwinter. 
It is important to plant them in permanent situations. 
The two best species are, perhaps, communis and tinr/itana, 
but all the others below named are well worth growing. 

F. Assafcetida (Asffifcetida). fl. greenish-yellow ; umbels stalked. 
July. L, radical ones Uft. long, stalked: cauliue ones broadly 
sheathing ; both cut into oblong-lanceolate, obtuse segments, 
lin. to 2ih. long. A. 7ft. Persia, 1855. 

F, asparagifolla (Asparagus-leaved).* /. yellow. I., radical ones 
(including the jtctiole) 1ft. to 2ft. long, broadly ovate in outline, 
quadripinnate, the divisions very narrow, linear, hairy ; upper 
cauline leaves sheath-like ; involucral ones numerous, oljlong- 
lanceolate, acute, retlexed. h. 4ft. to 5ft. Asia Minor. 


Fig. 9. Ferula communis. 

F. communis (connuon). * fl. yellow ; central umbel nearly sessile ; 
lateral ones male, pedunculate ; involucre wanting. June. 
I. green ; leaflets linear-setaceous, flaccid ; sheaths of upper leaves 
very large, h. 8ft. to 12ft. Mediterranean region, 1597. A very 
noble herbaceous plant. See Fig. 9. (S. F. G. 279, under 
name of F. nodiflora.) 

F. Ferulago (Ferulago). fl. yellow, in a large terminal umbel; 
leaves of involucre numerous, oblong-lanceolate, reflexed. June. 
I. leaflets pinnatifld, divaricate ; segments linear, cuspidate. 
Stem terete, striated, h. 6ft. to 8ft. Spain. (J. F. A. 5, under 
name of F. nodiflora.) 

F. glauca (glaucous).* fi. yellow ; central umbel pedunculate ; 
lateral ones male, on longer "peduncles ; involucre wanting. June. 
I. glaucous beneath ; leaflets linear, elongated, flat. Stem terete, 
branched, h. 6ft. to 8ft. South Europe, 1596. 

F. persica (Persian), ti. yello^v ; involucre and involucels 
wanting. I., leaflets rather remote or decurrently pinnate ; seg- 
ments linear-lanceolate, dilated and cut at the apex. Stem 
terete, glaucous, h. 3ft. to 6ft. Persia, 1782. (B. M. 2096.) 

F. Sumbul (Sumbul). A newly imported species, with graceful 
luibit, elegant fern-like foliage, and stately pyramidal panicu- 
late inflorescences, h. 9ft. Turkestan, 1872. This species— re- 
markable for the fojtid, musky, and milky .iuice o£ its root— was 
introduced into Eussia in 1835, as a substitute for musk, and a 
remedy for cholera ; thence the drug reached Germany and 
England, where it was admitted into the Pharmacopceia in 1367. 
(B."M. 6196.) 

F, tingitana (Tangiers).* il. yellow ; terminal umbels on short 
peduncles ; lateral umViels few, male, on longer peduncles ; 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Fig. 10. Ferula tingitana. 

involucre wanting. .June. I. shining; le;ilIots or segments 
oblong-lanceolate, deeply tnotlied ; upper ])eti(ili; large, sheatli- 
ing. Stem terete, brancherl. /;. 6ft. to 8ft. Northeru Africa, 
1680. See Fig. 10. 

FERUIiAGO. Included under Ferula (which see). 

FESCUE GEASS. See Festuca. 

FESTUCA (the old Latin name, meaning originally 
a stem or .straw). Fescue Grass. Ord. Graminew. A 
large genus, containing about eighty species, principally 
natives of Arctic, cold and temperate regions. Nino 
species are natives of Eritaiir. They arc chiefly agri- 
cultural grasses. Several are, however, very gracefirl, 
and deserving of cultivation. Panicles loose ; spikelets 
oblong, more or less compressed. F rilauca and F. ni- 
grescens are particularly neat and compact in growth, and 
are well adap)ted for borders. They are of the easiest 
culture in common garden soil. Propagated by seeds, 
or by divisions. 

FEVERFEW. See Pyrethrum Parthenium. 

FEVILIiEA (named after Louis Fouillco, 1G60-1732, 
a traveller and botanist). Si'N. Jsliumlirohn. Ord. 
Cucurhitarec:. A genus containing Irvo or six species 
of climbing shrubs, natives of tropical America. F. 
Moorei, perhaps the only one in cultivation, is a rampant 
evergreen stove climber, thriving in a sairdy loam. 
Propagated by cuttings, made of the young wood, in 
summer, and inserted in sandy loam, under a bell glass, 
in heat. 

F. Mooroi (Moore's). Jl. (males only known) pale liriok red ; 
pedicel slender, jointed in the middle ; corolla lobes orbicular, oi 

Fevillea — continued, 

broader towards the rounded apex ; margins undulate, '-alter- 
nate, membranous, 3in. to 5in. '""g. sl"ninS>'-»f "f^ °™'<=V ™f 
acuminate, rounded at the base. Guiana (?). A slender, quite 
glabrous climber. (B. M. 63o6.) 

FIBKIIiLOSE. Covered with little strings or 

FIBROUS. Composed of fibres. 
FICARIA. This genus is now included under 
Ranunculus (which see). 

FICOIDEJE. A largo natural order, containing about 
450 species, principally distributed throughout tropical 
and sub-tropical regions. They are small shrubs, under- 
shrubs, or herbs. Flowers terminal or axillary, solitary, 
or in cymes, often very beautiful, sometimes minute and 
inconspicuous. Leaves opposite or alternate, undivided, 
usually fleshy or thickened, fiat, terete, or triangular. 
None of the genera are of much importance from an 
economic point of view; some of the species of Tetra- 
gonia are used as pot-herbs. The genus just named, and 
Me.sembryantliemxim, are the best known; indeed, the 
natural order is called Mesembryantliemece in some works. 

Fig. 11. Ficus CoopERi (page 12). 

An EncyclopvEdta of Horticulture. 


riCUS (the old Latin name, akin to the Greek sfakon 
or .■iiil-uii, a fig; tlie Fig--troe has nearly the same name in 
all the European languages) . Pig-tree. Ord. VrHeacecr. 
An extensive genus of usually stove or greenhouse trees 
or shrubs. Flowers monoecious, inserted upon the interior 
surface of a hoUosv, glohnlar or pear-shaped fleshy recep- 
tacle, in whose tip is an orifice closed with small scales ; 
those in the upper part male, the rest female. Very 
ornamental plants, of easy culture. They are readily 
propagated In cnttmgs oi rvc^ humg a \Q\i xttarhcd 
in the case ol the mi k n prits m dttd m a 
close frame in^ik \, \i \ itin, hi , m i ah inn. 

ricus — continiK 
small pot. It sm 
outside ill suinmer 
in sandy loam, witl 
only sin;ill jHjts, in 
be used. Plenty (jf 
keep the le;n"0s i.-h 
may be applied to 
on walls are the be 
1 ir the purpose as 
sidei ible s} \i iiid 
inoe r 1 I ultni 


coeds well in a greenhouse, and also 

Any of the species of Ficus do well 

1 tlie addition of a little leaf soil, and 

comparison to the size of plant, need 

syringing, or occasional sponging, will 

;iii, and almost any amount of water 

ilie roots. The species .which grow 

^t of inside plants that could be used 

once sttitcd they soon cover a con- 

ilw rys ])i cut 1 111 U □i'"en appear- 

t /' ( I i ( bLb Pig. 

12. Shoot of Fins r.xscuLrT.i. 

F. elaflica is one of the most ornamental and extensively- 
grown species, and a plant that withstands confinement 
in rooms better, perhaps, than any other. It is also 
well adapted for stove or greenhouse decoration, and for 
sub-tropical gardening in summer outside. Shoots 1ft. 
long, if furnished with leaves, soon root, and form useful 
plants much quicker than eyes, which, however, have the 
advantage of increasing a much larger cjuantity. Small 
specimens are most attractive when restricted to a single 
stem. These may be afterwards grown into tall branched 
plants if de.sired, by keeping them several years and pinch- 
ing out the points. F. Chinivieri is a fine species that 
forms a large bush, even when grown in a comparatively 

F. acuminata (sharp-pointeil). Jl., perianth three-cleft or three- 
partite, M'itli the segiuent.s lanceolate and acuminated. Becep- 
tacle solitary, axillary, glohose, iieiiLlcnt, of a deep brisht 
orange eeluur, somcwliat lucalv and tuberculated on the surface, 
and terminating a stalk liinge'r than itself. /. lin. or 5in. long, 
somewhat coriaceous, elliptical, petiolatcd, veiny, glabrous above, 
and full green, downy beneath, with the veins prominent. Stem 
(under cultivation in" this country) 5ft. to 6ft. higti. Hilhet, 1333. 
(B. JI. 32S2.) 

F. barbata (lieavdcdi. * /. dark ^vci n, cordate, aliout 3in. bmg ; 
apex eliiim:ded; educs cPitllcd with Iniig briiwii liairs. Kast 
Indies, 1832. A Liinilsouie )ilaiit fnr coveriug the waUs o£ 
stoves ; it has a creeping and rooting habit, similar to Ivy. 

F. benjamina. Eenjtimin-tree. Receptacles solitary, or in pairs, 
globular, aliout -2in. in diameter when ripe. /. ovate, or ovatc- 
oblong, acuuiinafe, shortly stalked, 2in. to 4iii. long, entire, 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

FicMS— continued. 

thinly coriaceous, with numerous rather fine, parallel, primary 
veins. Tropical Asia, Australia. A large elegant gTeenhouse 
tree, with slender pendulous branches, quite glabrous. 

F. Brassli (Brass's).'* I. somewhat fiddle-shaped, rich deep 
ftTeen. Stems and petioles ferruginously tomentose. Sierra 
Leone. A free, erect-gxowing species, equally suited for stove, 
gTeenhouse, or sub-tropical purposes. 

r. Carica (Carian).* Common Fig-tree. I. simple, alternate, 
stipulate, palmate and sub-trilobate, rough above, pubescent 
beneath, h. 15ft. to 30ft. Mediterranean region, &c., 1548. For 
culture, &c., see Fig, 

F. Chauvieri (Chauvier's).* I oval-obtuse, very darlv shining 
gi'een, with pale yellow veins, having one or more large marginal 
undulations. This is described as being a noble species, with a 
faultless habit, and, next to F. elastica, is the best for outside 
culture in summer. 

F. comosa (tufted). Female florets pedicellate, growing amongst 
long, narrow, acuminate, chait'y, white scales; male florets tritid, 
the divisions more acute than in the female. Receptacles 
obovate-globose, small, the size of lar^e peas, produced singly or 
more often in pairs, from the axils of the petioles on the terminal 
branchlets. I. very smooth and shining, dark green above, pale 
beneath, coriaceous and thickish, entu'e, with a sharp, thin, 
pellucid edge. Trunk rather slender, about 1ft. in diameter, 
soon dividing into numerous spreading, or even declining branches. 
Branches slender, bearing conglomerate masses of leaves towards 
their ends. h. 4-Oft. India. A very handsome greenhouse tree. 
(B. M. 3305.) 

F. Cooperi (Cooper's).'*^" l. dark green, ovate, 1ft. or more long, 
3in. to 4in. wide. Probably Australia. A good ornamental- 
leaved plant for either stove or greenhouse decoration. See Fig. 
11, page 10. 

F. dealbata (whitened).* I. elliptic, about 1ft. long by 6in. 
broad,' coriaceous, deep gi-een above, and, from the presence 
of a thick coat of silky hairs beneath, the under side is of 
snowy whiteness, which is particularly conspicuous in the young 
unfolding leaves. Peru, 1867. A very distinct and beautiful 
greenhouse species. (I. H. 1870, 4.) 

F, diversifolia (opposite-leaved).* I. leathery, rounded above, 
narrowed into the short stalk below, upper surface bright green, 
dotted w^ith light brown specks ; lower pale green. A compact 
grower, well adapted for general decorative purposes. Green- 
house. CCt. C. 1881, xvi. 247.) 

F. eburnea (ivory).* I. oblong-ovate, petiolate, about ISin. long, 
9in. broad, bright shining green, with stout ivory-white midribs 
and principal veins. India, 1869. A line free-growing greenhouse 

F, elastica (elastic).* Indiarubber Plant. I. coriaceous, 6in. to 
18in. long, and 3in. to 6in. broad ; upper surface dark bright 
shining green, yellowish-gi-een below. East Indies, 1815. Tliis 
splendid plant is very largely grown, both for indoor decoration 
and for sub-tropical gardening. (G. C. 1874, ii. 358.) 

F. e, foliis aureo-marginatls (gold-margined-leaved). A very 
effective variety with golden-edged leaves, especially in autumn, 
when it has become full-coloured. The yellow band is about lin. 
broad, contrasting beautifully with the dark shining green of 
the centre. Greenhouse. There are also other variegated forms 
of less value. 

F. exsculpta (cut-out).* I. shortly stalked, lanceolate in outline, 
sinuately lobed ; lobes again sinuate so as to produce a prettily 
cut margin. South Sea Islands, 1879. A very handsome stove 
evergreen, the curious crenations giving the" leaf the appear- 
ance of having been stamped or punched out. See Fig. 12, for 
which we are indebted to Mr. \Vm. Bull. 

F. glomerata (glomerate), l. thin, elliptic, acuminate, 6in. to Bin. 
long, 2in. broad, on long petioles. Stems terete, finely pubescent. 
Australia, 1869. A free-growing greenhouse species, of slender 
habit. Syi\. F. vesca. 

F. macrophylla (large-leaved).* Australian Banyan ; IMoreton 
Bay Fig. I. thin, coriaceous, glossy, ovate-oblong, entire, cordate 
at the base, 4in. to lOin. long, 3in. to 4in. broad ; veins slightly 
elevated on both surfaces ; petioles smooth, lin. to 2iii. long. 
Queensland and New South Wales, 1869. Greenhouse. 

F. minima (smaller). See F. stipulata. 

F. Parcelli (Parcell's).* I. olilong-acuminate, serrated, bright 
green, irregularly blotched with dark green and ivory-white. 
Polynesia, 1874. A very ornamental variegated stove plant. 
(F. d. S. 2273-4.) 

F. religiosa (religious). Peepul. Z. bright green, nearly cor- 
date ; apex elongated into a tail-like process, h. 25ft. East 
Indir-s, 1731. A handsome stove plant for decorative purposes, 
forming itself into a compact (B. F. S. 314.) 

F. repens (creeping). A synonym of F. stip^ilata. 

F. Roxburghii (Roxburgh's). Jl. green, j'r. collected in bundles 
of eight to twelve near root, turnip-shaped, ribbed, villnus, 
iKLving umbilicus closed by numerous cordate imbricate scales. 
I. large, smooth, roundish-cordate, three-nerved, downy on the 
nerves beneath, sometimes repandly toothed, h. 20ft. Silhet, 
1840. Greenhouse. See Fig. 13. (R. H. 1872, 385.) 

F. rubiginosa (rusty-Ieavud). ., perianth tliree-parted ; seg- 

FicuS — crmtiiJ II fid 

Fig. 13. Fruit and Leaf of Ficus Roxbueghii. 

ments roundish-oval, concave. Receptacle gi'eenish-bro\vn, 
globose, with an obtuse umbo at the point, the surface gi-anulated 
with small tubercles. I. numerous, handsome, 3in. to 4in. long, 
coriaceous, elliptical, quite entire, on petioles about lin. long, 
obtuse at the point and at the base ; when young, covered, 
especially on the under side, with a feiaaiginous down ; the older 
ones are 'glabrous except on the nerves beneath. Branches spread- 
ing, numerous. New South "Wales, 1827. A small stove tree. 
(B. M. 2939.) 
F, scandens (climbing). A synonym of F. stipulata. 

F. stipulata (stipidate).* I. small, roundish, dark green. A very 
handsome little climber, attaching itself to walls, &c., like Ivy. 
It is half-hardy, and is frequently seen in greenhouses. China 
and Japan, 1721. Syns. F. repeiw O-nd F. scande7is. (B. M. 6657.) 
F. minima, and other small-leaved forms, are only slender- 
twigged, extensively creeping states of barren young" plants of 
F. stipulata. 

F. Suringarii (Suringar's). I. large, cordate, serrate ; upper sur- 
face rich dark green ; main ribs deep red. Amboyna, 1866. An 
ornamental erect-growing stove species. 

F, vesca (weak). A synonym of F. glomerata. 

FIDDLE-SHAPED. Obovate, with ens oi- two 

recesses ozi each side. 

FIDDLE WOOD. See Citharexylum. 

PIELDIA (named in honour of Baron Field. F.L.S., 

once Judre of the Supreme Court of New South Wales), 
Ord. Gesneraceo). An ornamental climbing-, radicant, grcen- 
ho-use evergreen shrub, thriving- well in a compost of peat 
and loam, to whicli a little sand and small pieces of char- 
coal have been added. Increased by eutting-s of firm side 
shoots, left intact, and planted in sandy soil, under a glass. 
F. australis (Southern). /?. white, pendulous; corolla tubular, 

ventricose ; peduncles axillary, solitary, one-flowered. Jidy I. 

simple, opposite, remote, elliptic, coarselv serrated acut" at "both 

ends. New South Wales, 1825. (B.M. 5089.) 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


riG (Ficus C<(nV,i). The Pig, as a frnit-producins' tree, 
has been cultivated from remote anticjaitj. To say 
nothing of America and the countries of the Southern 
hemisphere, the cultiration of the Pig- must be very 
ancient, and is now general from the islands of the 
North Atlantic eastward, through the \\-arm tcunierate 
and sub-tropical regions eastward to China, where, on 
the authority of Dr. Bretschneider, it was carried on, 
at all events, as early as the latter part of the four- 
teenth century. According to various authorities, it is 
a native of the Mediterranean region, Syria, Eastern 
Persia, to Afghanistan. It has become naturalised in 
South-west France, &c. The exact date of its introduc- 
tion into Britain remains in obscurity; and, like the Vine, 
in all ]irobability, it disappeared from Britain for a time. 
According to Pliny, it was largely cultivated by the 
Eomans, who were possessed of a number of different 
sorts prior to the Christian era. The rc-introduction of 
the Pig is said to have taken place in 1525, when Car- 
dinal Pole brought several trees from Italy, and planted 
them in the gardens of the Archbishop's Palace at Lam- 
beth. Another celebrated tree was introduced from 
Aleppo, in 1018, by Dr. Pocock, the eminent traveller, 


Fig. 14. FnumNC, Br.4NCH of Fig. 

and placed in the garden of the Eegius Professor of 
Hebrew, at Christ Church, Oxford. In 1809, it was con- 
siderably damaged by a fire, and the large trunk decayed 
and was removed. A number of fresh branches, however, 
sprang from the root, and, in 1819, those in the centre of 
the tree were 21ft. high. It is remarkable that a tree 
with wood of such a soft nature should live to the age of 
even several centuries in climates suitable to its growth. 
In Britain, when unprotected, the Pig is sometimes killed 
to the ground by very severe frosts, but becomes re-esta- 
blished by the production of suckers from the roots; at 
other times, the points of the shoots are destroyed by frost 
less severe. The fresh fruit does not find general favour 
in this country, partly because successful culture involves 
the necessity of heated glass structures in most districts, 
and the very limited time it remains in good condition 
when ripe. The skin is also extremely tender, and thus 
the fruits are among the worst for packing to travel any 
distance. In Sussex and other mild districts along- the 
Soirth Coast, the tree will grow as a standard, but 
it will not succeed as such further inland. The gene- 
rally necessary situation is a wall with a south or south- 
west aspect ; but in places where the summers are hot, 
and very sharp frosts of rare occiu-rence. Fig-trees may 
be grown as espaliers, being easily protected in winter 

Fig^ — continued. 
as much as woiJd be required. The Fig possesses the 
extraordinary property of producing two, and, in some 
climates, under most favourable conditions, three crops in 
a year. The fruit supply being thus extended over such 
a lengthened period, becomes to the people of the, 
where the trees are much grown, an important source of 
food, both in a frc.--h and in a dried state. The annual 
importation to this country alone of some hundreds 
of tons of di-ied Figs, is an indication of the quantity 
cultivated, and the crops secured. The same article also 
forms one of considerable commerce in Italy, Spain, 
Provence, and in some piarts of France. 

As it is not generally understood, it may be interest- 
ing to state here that the flowers of the Fig are unisexual, 
and produced in large quantities inside a fleshy recepjtaclo 
that is closely united and almost closed at the summit. 
The female flowers are most mimerous, and situated on 
the bottom and greater part of the inside of the receptacle. 
On these becoming fertilised — a condition not absolutely 
essential with all for the ripening of the fruit — each 
becomes a seed, which is surrounded with pulp, and 
these, with the receptacle, form the fruit as shown in 
Pig-. 14. An idea of the enormous quantity of 
seeds contained in a fruit may be obtained by 
examining an imported dried specimen. 

Pkopaoation. This ia easily effected in 
various ways — by seed, cuttings, layers, and 
suckers, also by grafting. 

Seed. Propagation by this method is not 
much practised, but is sometimes adopted with 
a view to raising, from the sorts which succeed 
best in this country, other new and, perhaps, 
hardier varieties than those introduced from 
warmer climates. The seed, if required, should 
be carefully cleaned from the pulp of some of 
the finest and ripest fruits, and kept till Jan- 
uary, when it should be sown in heat, and the 
young plants afterwards grown on as rapidly as 
possible, as on this mainly depends the time 
taken in obtaining the first fruit. 

Cuttings, (^'c. The best cuttings are short- 
jointed growths of the previous year, from Kin. 
to 9in. in length ; if with a heel, so much the 
better. They may be inserted in pots, and 
placed in bottom heat, in early spring 'Some 
prefer selecting them in autumn, and laying 
the ends in the ground all winter, providing 
protection for the part exposed. Whether 
treated in this way or taken directly from the plants and 
inserted, they generally root freely, and, if grown on in 
heat, soon form good plants. Propagation by layers is a 
quick method of obtaining fruiting plants in a limited 
time, as good-sized branches with fruiting wood may bo 
KuccessfuUy rooted in one season, and may then be de- 
tached from the parent. Suckers are freely produced 
where allowed, and may also be grown into plants ; 
but, on account of the wood in these being invariably 
very soft, they are inferior to those grown either from 
cuttings or layers. Grafting is practicable if desired, 
the scions being cut in autumn, laid in the ground all 
winter, and inserted, soon after the stock commences 
its growth, in spring. Figs being so easily increased 
by the other means above named, this method is but 
little adopted. 

CiTLTivATiON. The Fig will grow in almost any soil ; 
but if too rich, the chances are that a great pro- 
duction of wood and not much fruit will be the result. 
The best crops outside are usually secured from trees 
planted in a border composed of loam and brick rubbish, 
by the side of a hard walk, into which the roots can 
scarcely penetrate. If this is not practicable, they 
must be occasionally restricted by root-pruning, or by 
some ether means, such as a narrow wall division under- 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Fig" — coiiti'n tied . 
ground. Good drainage is essential, and chalk is one 
of the best things to use where it can be procured. An 
open warm position should be selected, as this, and root 
restriction, are important points towards encouraging 
the production of short-jointed, fruit-bearing wood. The 
climate of this country will not admit of more than one 
crop being ripened each year outside, and this is by no 
means a certain one in the majority of instances. During 
severe weather, the stem and branches require pro- 
tection. This is afforded in various ways, some unnail- 
ing and collecting tlie latter in bundles, and covering 
with a thick coat of straw or mats. Spruce branches, 
fern, thatched hurdles, and canvas, may all be made to 
answer the same purpose. Neither is necessary, as a 
rule, along the South Coast, and should not be applied in 
other places, unless in severe weather, and then they 
should be removed gradually in spring. 

Mode of Bearing, Pruning, •^r. The fruits are pro- 
duced, one or two together, in the axils of the leaves. 
They are formed along the branch, as growth proceeds, 
and, with but few exceptions, come to maturity, if at 
all, on new or recently ripened wood. It will thus be 
understood that the points of the shoots must, as much 
as possible, be protected from frost, and preserved when 
pruning. Growth seldom begins outside before May ; 
the embryo Figs on the wood of the previous year, and 
new shoots for the next year, starting almost simul- 
taneously. Fruits Avill also be formed along the latter, 
and these constitute the second crop, that ripens in some 
parts of the South of Europe, but in this country the 
summers are too short. Any fruits that are sufficiently 
advanced in early autumn to show the shape of the 
Fig, are of no use ; and if these are carefully pinched 
off, other later ones may be formed by the side, that 
remain dormant with those produced nearer the points, 
as before explained, until the tree starts the following 
year. Pruning is not much required, except to keep 
the branches thinned ; and a good deal of this, also 
pinching of the strongest shoots, should be seen to in 
summer, so as to leave only those required for fruiting. 
Too much pruning frequently results in the increase of 
soft, unproductive wood, especially if the roots are in 
anything like rich soil. New shoots should be en- 
couraged from parts near the stem, where they are 
required to replace any that become bare or exceed 
their limits. Either the horizontal or the fan system 
of training is that usually adopted as being best suited 
for trees having to be grown on walls, or as espaliers. 
Suckers proceed in large quantities from the roots of 
permanent trees ; these are sometimes trained about 
15in. apart, and in course of time allowed to fruit. 
This plan is not to be recommended, as better wood 
may be obtained from healthy branches. 

Forcing. The Fig will bear, and at all times requires, 
a higher temperature to start it into growth than any 
other fruit-trees usually forced. In gardens where a 
house is not siiccially devoted to their culture, some plants 
may be successfully fruited in pots, and frequently good 
crops arc thus obtained. The supply may also be continued 
for a much longer period from these, by introducing a few 
at a time for forcing, and securing a crop from the wood 
of the previous year. A lean-to house admits of trees 
being grown both on a trellis in front, and on the back 
wall, the front trees being stopped so as to admit sun and 
liglit to those at the back. The roots of strong-growing 
varieties should be restricted by being pruned or inclosed 
with a narrow w^all, as recommended for outside culture. 
The border is best made of loamy soil witli a little crushed 
bone and mortar or charred rubbish added, this soil being 
also better suited for pot culture than one with more 
manure. When any repotting is required, it should be 
done wdien the plants are at rest ; and if already in large 
pots, the soil iwd roots may bo ijodueed, and the plants 

Fig" — continued. 
returned to a similar size. A night temperature of 50deg., 
and a rise by day, in mild weather, to 60deg. or 65deg., 
with plenty of moisture, will not be too high for starting ; 
and as soon as the leaves are growing, and the days get 
longer, these figures may gradually be raised lOdeg. 
higher. Large quantities of water are necessary in summer, 
and it should not be applied at a lower temperature than 
that of the soil in which the roots are growing. Plenty of 
syringing with warm water should also be practised until 
the fruit commences ripening, when a drier atmo.sphere 
tends to heighten the flavour. Under glass, the Fig ripens 
two crops if the trees are started early, the first being on 
the wood of the previous season, and the second on that 
of the current year. The new shoots should be pinched 
when about 9in. long, to arrest the progress of the 
sap, and encourage the formation and production of fruit 
from the axils of the young leaves. Disbudding may be 
practised with great advantage, as a large number of 
shoots are formed that cannot be allowed sufficient space 
to develop. Figs forced in pots should be plunged, if 
possible, in tan or in a bed of fermentiug material, with a 
bottom-heat temperature of about 65deg. Liquid manure, 
when the fruits are swelling, may be applied to these 
twice or thrice a week, unless the plants are growing too 
strongly without. As the fruit and leaves ripen, more 
air should be given and water gradually withheld. When 
the leaves are all dropx^ed from trees, either planted out 
or in pots, they must be kept quite cool, and the soil 
only a little moist by occasional waterings, until reciuired 
to start for the next season. 

Sorts. Varieties cultivated in countries where Figs are 
grown in quantities outside, are very numerous, but com- 
paratively few of them have been introduced to our 
gardens. The following selection includes most of the 
best, and is, practically, large enough for all purposes. 
Negro Largo and Osborn's Prolific are good varieties 
for culture in large pots. The former must be rather 
severely restricted in space, if planted out, on account 
of its vigorous growth. Brown Turkey is, perhaps, 
the Ijcst of all for forcing, as it seldom fails to fruit 
abundantly under proper cultivation, and does not grow 
too strongly, even when the roots are not in a limited 
space ; it is also one of the best for outside culture 
where Figs succeed. Brunswick and White Mar- 
seilles are two of the hardiest varieties in cultivation. 
Agen. Fruit of medium size, roundisli, with flattened crown ; 
skin green, covered with blue bloom ; flesh dark red, thick and 
syrupy. Ripens late. 

Fig. 15. Figs, Black Bourjassotts. 

Black Bourjassotte. Fruit medium, with short stalk ; skin 
black, covered with a thick bloom; flesh deep red, thick and 
delicious. See Fig. 15. 

Black Genoa. Fruit oblong, lar<2,e ; skin dark purple, with thick 
blooiu ; flesh yellow, sweet and juicy. A hardy sort, said to be 
much grown in Provence. 

Black Ischia, or Early Forcing. Fruit medium, roundish- 
olxivatc ; ^Ivin nearly black when vipe ; tlesh deep red, richly 
tlavnured. Early and proUtic. 

Brown Turkey. Fruit lars^e, short, pear-shaped, with a thick 
.stalk ; skin brown, -with sometimes a puri>]ish tiu^e ; flesh tin"cd 
red in the middle, lirli and sn^aiy. One of tbe best sorts i;ni\vn 
ed.her for h.icui.i;- nr outside cultuiv. It has svuunyms, 
inclndnii; Jlhie Burgundy, Brown Naples, Common Purple, Italian, 
Laij;e Blue, Lee's Perpetual, Purple, &c. 

Brunswick. Fruit pear-shaped, very large, with short thick 
stalk ; skni fiTeenish-yellow, tinged with brown ; flesh reddish near 
the nnddle, yellowish outside, ricli and sweet. A distinct variety, 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Fig" — confinned. 

htwdior than most others, and not suitable ftn- forcing. It has 
large (loeply-ilividod leaves. 

Castle Kennedy. Fruit very large ; skin greenish-yellow ; flesh 
■whitish, stainfd with red near the eye. Early and very prolitic, 
suitalde for walls. 

Col di Signora Bianca. Fruit meiliuni, pear-shaped, with a 
long neck ; skin thick, yellowish-white when ri])c ; tlesh dark 
Iduod-red, syrupy and delicious. Tins is considered one of the 
finest Figs iii cultivation. 

Early Violet. Fruit small, roundish ; skin brownish-red, with 
bhie bhioni ; flesh red, and nf good flavour. A small-fruited hut 
hardy and very prolitic variety. 

Grizzly Bourjassotte. Frait round, much flattened, with a 
yliort ne'ck ; skin reddish-brown, with a thin bloom ; flesh blond- 
red, thick, and liighh' flavoured. 

Grosse Monstreuse de Lipari. Fruit very large and hroad, 
flattened at the apex ; skin chestnut-lirnwn, e(>vered with a thick 
bloom ; flesh red, thick and juicy. A large handsome Fig, that 
grows and bears freely. 

Negro Largo. Fruit pear-shaped, ribbed, very large and long; 
skin black; flesh pale red, tender, juicy, and richly flavoured. 
A variety of good habit when restricted at the root ; one of the 
btst f 1 I ct cultuiL 

Fig. 16. Fig Oseorn's Prolific. 

Osbom's Prolific. Fiuit rounJisli, tmbiiKite, -with a very Ions 
neck; skin ilark liialmsany, shading off to ])ale Inoivii towards 
tlie neck, wtiicli is green ; surface of fruit thickly dotted with 
RTevisll spots ; flesh milky-white, of exquisite flavour. An ex- 
cellent Fis, introduced by Messrs. Osliorn, of Fulhani, in lo79. 
It is an abundant bearer, and well adapted for culture lu pots. 
(Dr. Hogg-'s "Fruit Manual.") See Fig. 16. 

Panachee. Fruit roundish, with a short neck ; skin yellow, 
lieautifiUlv striped with bright green ; flesh pale red inside, thick 
and syrupy. A handsome distinct fruit. 

White Ischia. Fruit small ; skin gTcenish-yellow, thin and 
delicate ; flesh dark red, juicy, sweet and rich. Small-growing 
and a great bearer, well adapted for pot culture. 

White Marseilles. Fruit large, almost round, and slightly 
ril.bed, with a short thick neck; skin thin, pale gTeen, nearly 
white when ripe ; flesh almost transparent, sweet, and rich. 
One of the hardiest varieties, and also suitable for forcing. 
It has several synonyms, including Figiie Blanche, Ford's 
.Seedling, White Genoa, White Naples, &c. 

riG MARIGOIiD. See Mesembryanthemum. 

riG-TREE. See Ficvis. 

FIGWORT. See Scrophularia. 


FILBERT. Among- cultivated nuts, Filberts are 
usually distinguished by the extension of the husk 
beyond the point of the nut inclosed (see Fig. 17). In 

Filbert — co)itiiiued. 
early spring, the male or pollen-bearing catkins (see Fig 
18, a) apperr cousideixbly in ad\ luce of the female 

Fio. 17. Feuiii.m, liR well let or Filllrt, the Husk being the 
much-eidargcd Bract and Bractcole. 

Fig is I.hflIss Twig or Filli:i;t, slam ing (rO Pendulous 
JIale Catkins and ('.) the Scs.silc Female lloncrs. 

flowers (see Fig-. IS, b). The prcseryation of the former, 
greater or less in ,iuantity, is essential for securing fer- 
tilisation. For culture and list of yarietlcs, .see Corylus. 
FILICES. One of the most important orders of 
acotyledons or cryptogams. Perennial (very • rarely 
annual) herbs, sometimes shrubby or arborescent, with 
fibrous roots or creeping rootstocfcs. Leaves (fronds) 
tufted or alternate on the rootstock, simple, pinnatifid, 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Filices — continued. 
or one to four -pinnate, usually circinate in vernation ; 
petiole (stipes) sometimes jointed at the base and rachis, 
grooYed on the upper surface. Fructification of micro- 
ecopic spores, contained in usually minute capsules that 
are collected in masses (sori) on the under surface or 
edg'e of the frond, or rarely on separate fronds or parts 
of the frond, and are naked, or cohered "with an invo- 
lucre formed of or upon the margin or hack of the frond. 
Capsules membranous, sessile or stalked, often mixed 
with jointed club-shaped hairs (imperfect capsules). Spores 
usually obtusely tetrahedral. There are about seventy- 
five genera and about 2,500 species. The following genera 
contain the largest number of species: Acrostidium, 
Adiantum, Aspidiwn, As]jlenium, Ne'phrodiuin, Polijpo- 
dium-^ and Pteris. 

FILIFORiM. Slender ; resembling a thread in form. 

riLMY FERNS. See Ferns. 

FISIBR.IAR1IA. This genus is now included under 
Schwannia (which see). 

FIMBRIATE. Fringed. 

FIR. A general name for the conifers belonging to 
the genera Abies, Larix, Picea, Pinus, &.c. 

FISTULAR, FISTULOUS. Hollow, like a pipe. 
FITTONIA (named in honour of E. and S. M. Fitton, 

authors of "Conversations on Botany"). Okd. Acantliacece. 
A genus containing only a couple of species of stove 
evergreen trailing perennials, with very brilliantly marked 
leaves ; both natives of Peru. They are of easy culture, 
and thrive well in a compost of peat, loam, and silver 
sand; liberal supplies of water and a shady situation are 
necessary elements to successful cultivation. Increased 
by cuttings of half-ripened shoots, planted in sandy loam, 
in bottom heat ; also by divisions of the plant. As 
ornaments for a Wardian case, Fittonias are unequalled ; 
and when grown as pyramids, they form beautiful objects 
in the stove. For planting upon the surface of the pots 
or tubs in which palms or other large sx>ecimens are grow- 
ing, they are very useful, and also for forming narrow 
borders as edges to the walks in heated structures. 
F, glgantea (gigantic).*^ Jl. pale red, in a terminal four-sided 

spike, witli large bracts. I. broadly ovate, sub-cordate, veined 

with carmine -red. h. lift. Habit branching, erect, sub-shmbby. 

1869. See Fig. 19. (R.'G. 629.) 
F. rubronervum (red-nerved). A yynonym of F, Verschaffeltii. 
F, rubrovenosnm (i-ed-veined). A synonym of F. Verschaffeltii. 
F. Verschaffeltii (Verschaffelt's).* I. larger than those of F. 

giijantca, durk green ; midrib and veins deep red. An elegant 



- J* 

? ^t --*^ 




FISCHEBIA (named after Dr. Fischer, of St. 
Petersburgh). Urd. Ascle^nadecc. A genus comprising- 
about twelve species of stove twining shrubs or sub- 
shrubs, natives of tropical and sub-tropical America. 
Flowers white or dull red ; cymes umbelliform or 
shortly racemose. Leaves opposite. In all probability, 
the two species described below are the only ones yet 
in cultivation. They thrive in a peat and loam compost. 
Propagated by cuttings, inserted in light open soil, in 
heat. This genus is often confused with Gonolohus. 

F. hispida (hairy). /I. brown, umbellate ; corolla coriaceous, 
tubercled inside at base. July. I. cordate-ovate, acute. Stem, 
petioles, and nerves of leaves hispid. /(. 4ft. Brazil, 1857. 
(B, M. 3786, under name of Gonolohun Mspidus.) 

F. Martianus ' (Martius's). /(. white, green ; umbels many, 
flowererl, un long peduncles ; lobes of corona fleshy and rounded. 
Mav and .lune. I. oblon;;- - conlite. A. 30ft. Brazil, 1845 
(B. Jl. 4472, under name of (jv,iol„l,:fx Martianus.) 

FISH-BONi: THISTLE. See ChaniEepexice Casa- 

species. Syn'S. P. rubronen'um, F. rubromnosuin. (I. H. 372, 
under name of Gijnmostachium Fersdiaffelti.) 

F. V. argyroneura (silvery-veined).* I. broad, flat, oval, about 
4m. long, and nearly 3in. wide, vivid gi'eeu, traversed by a not- 
work of pure white veins. Habit dwarf and compact. "1857. 

F. V. Pearcel (Pearce's).* I. about 3in. or 4in. long, 2in. or 3in. 
broiid, light bri,ght green; midrib and veins light bright carmine; 
under surface somewhat glaucous. 

FITZROYA (named after Capt. E. Fitzroy, K.N., 
commander of a surveying expedition ; died 1855). Oed. 
Oonifera': A genus containing a couple of species of 
dwarf evergreen trees, with imbricated scale-like leaves ; 
ona (from Patagonia) is sufficiently hardy to withstand 
our winters in favoured spots. They do 
well in almost any garden soil, and are readily propa- 
gated by means of seeds, or by cuttings of half-ripened 
branohlets. F. An-heri makes an intoro-tiag and hand- 
some cool conservatory iilant. 

F. Aroherl (Archer's). ;(. dioecious, the amenta ternnnal male 
cones erect, one to^ two lines long, scarcely thicker tlian the 
branchlets with their leaves, young female cones purplish in the 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 



arie.l state, .mm; linr Ion- and bn.a.l. /. dosely iniln-icate, 
but stnctly o].pusite and -Irrussatc, very ■thick and 
keeled. ■Jasinama. An I'vurt, dmsrly braiiidied shnd.. ' Svn 
Discltna Arc/wri. 

F. patagonlca (Pata.iionian). //. inonu-ri.ais, small, consisting- 
of nine scales in thrw whurls, thu upper and lower of uhicli 
are btirreu. /. small, nvat.^-uhli.n-, t1at, nlituse, sessile, two to 
four-ro\ved. r.ranrlies sKmhUm-, sjuvadin-, inrnrveit at the ex- 
ti-eniities. Tree. l'ata,!ionia. (II. iM. 4616.) 

PLABELLIFORM. Plaited like a fan. 

FLACCID. Fuolde, wea.k. 

^FLACOXTRTIA (named after Etionne de Flacourt, 
1C.07-T601, a Pireotor of the French East India Company). 
Ore. Btd'ii)t'<T. A g-enns comprising- abont a dozen i^pecies 
of frnit-bearingf, often thorny, stove trees or shrubs, from 
the warmer regions of Asia and Africa. Stamens densely 
crowded upon the hemispliorieal receptacle; the sepals 
whitish, and the stamens and anthers yellow. Fruit 
baccate, indehiscent. Leaves shortly stalked, dentate. 
The species arc rarely seen in cultivation. 
FLACOURTIE^ffi. A tribe of Bi.rlnece. 

_ FLAGELLIFORM. Long-, tapering-, and supple, 
like the thong of a whip. 

FLAGELLUM. A runn.T, like that of the straw- 
berry: also a thin IwIl;- or small brancJi. 

FLAME FLOWER. .Ser Kniphofia aloides. 

cicLtleUa). In tliis moth, like the rest of the genus, 
the body seems depressed, hence the common name. 
The fore wings are pale ochreous-reddish, irregularly 
freckled with bro\\n and black specks ; a pale mark 
runs from the base along the front edge, and two or 
three white dots, in black rings, are seen towards the 
middle ; the whole having a glossy appearance. The hind 
wing-s are shining-, but more grey, and without mark- 
ing's. The common Flat-body Moth produces two, or 
perhaps more, broods in a year. The caterpillars are 
found in June, and again in September, and the moths 
in August and November ; the latter live in a dor- 
mant state through the winter, and re-api^ear in the 
spring. Two or three species of this genus, very similar 
in appearance and habit, infest the leaves, flowers, and 
seeds of Carrot crops, sometimes doing- considerable 
damage. The other kinds are D. dnwAla and I), de- 
jn-p^sella. See Carrot Blossom Moth and Purple 
Carrot-seed Moth. 

Eeniedies. The larva) draw the leaves or fiower-heada 
together by means of silken threads, which make their- 
domicile very conspicuous. These may be gathered and 
destroyed ; but as the caterpillar is likely to wriggle out 
and drop, by means of a silken thread, at the moment 
the plant is touched, some receptacle should be placed 
under the curled part before attempting to pluck it off. 
Solitary wasps, and insectivorous birds, are very useful 
in clearing away these small grubs. 

FLAVERIA (from,/?ari/.s\ yellow ; in reference to the 
plants being used in Chili to dye tliat colour). Ord. Covi- 
j'ot^ike. A genus comprising about seven species of her- 
baceous plants. Flower-heads yellow. Leaves op[.)Osite, 
narrow, entire or dentate. Probably the only species cul- 
tivated in England is the one described below. It is a 
greenhouse herbaceous biennial, thriving in sandy loam. 
Propagated by seeds, sown in heat. 

F, contrayerba (vermifu<^e). jL -heads yellow, tcvniinal. Jnly 
to September. I. somewhat stalked, lanceolate, three-nerved, 
mucronate-seiTate. h. VJt. Peru, 1794. (B. M. 240O.) 

PLAVESCENT. A pure pale yellow. 

FLAX. See Linum. 

FLAX, NEW ZEALAND. See Phormium tenax. 

FLAXWORTS. A name for the order LlnKceoj. 

FLEABANE. See Conyza. 

PLEA BEETLE. See Turnip Fly. 

Vol. II. 

FLEXUOUS. Having a bent or undulating direction ; 

FLINDERSIA (named after Capt. M. Flinders, RN., 
1780-1814, who explored the coast of Australia, accom- 
panied by the famous botanist, Robert Brown). Ord. 
Meliacew. A genus of about four species, natives of 
tropical and sub-tropical Australia and the Moluccas. 
They are stove or greenhouse evergreen trees or shrubs, 
succeeding in a compost of loam and peat. Cuttings, 
with leaves intact, will root in sand, under a glass. 

F. australis (Southern). JL white, small, mmieron-s, panicled. 
!iMav. I. inipari-pinnate ; leaflets one to three jtairs, full of 
pellucid dots, as in the Orange, h. 60ft. Queensland, 1823. The 
^\■oo(l is iiseful for various domestic purposes, and is said to he not 
nuich inferior to mahogany. Greenhouse. 

FLOCCOSE. Covered with close woolly hairs, which 
fall away in little tufts. 

FLORAL. Oi or belunging to a flower; near a flower. 

FLORAL ENVELOPES. The calyx and corolla, 
which envelop the inner or reproductive parts of a 
flower, are so calleil. 

FLORETS. Little flowers ; chiefly applied to com- 
posites and grasses. 

FLORIFEROUS. Bearing flowers. 

FLORISTS' FLOWERS. This term is applied to 
a very large section of mostly greenhouse and liardy 
plants, abounding'- in varieties and garden forms that ha\-e 
originally descended from a limited number of species of 
each of the numerous genera included. The Florist is 
one who specially devotes his attentir>n to the )m])rovc- 
ment of such plants as admit of it, either by cultiva,tion, 
careful selection, or systematic hybridisation. The su- 
periority, both in habit of plant, and form and variety 
in colour of flowers, is apparent in almost every subject 
that has been taken in hand. In many cases, where it 
is thought perfection has been well-nigh reached, a new 
break ajipears in some way, and thus fresh material is 
given the Florist on which to efl:'ect an improvement. 
The number of plants included amongst Florists' Flowers 
is continually extending, as, apart from increasing and 
perpetuating new varieties of a superior type, other 
genera, that have hitherto been neglected, are brought 
under the same influence, with a view of eventually ob- 
taining a similar result. Perfection in habit and in form 
of flower, with distinct colouring, are points always to be 
aimed at, and only those flowers which are best in tliese 
respects should be used for seeding purposes. It is in- 
variably necessary to perpetuate varieties of Fhirists' 
Flowers by cuttings or offsets, as the case may be, 
seeds having a tendency to produce jdants of a mixed 
and inferior quality to those from whicli they were c<d- 
lected. The Florist's standard for quality and good cul- 
ture^is now of a high character wdth many plants, and is 
beyond the reach of the majority of cultivators. The 
advantages of tlie improvements effected are, however, 
available for all in the select varieties annually distri- 
buted, or those in general cultivation. Tlie Auricula, 
Carnation, Chrysanthemum, I>ahlia, Fuchsia, Cladiohis, 
Hyacinth, Pelargonium, Tulip. &c., may bo cited as some 
of the most popular and bestdcnown examples, each and 
all exhibiting evidence of the success attending the 
Florist's work. 

FLOWER. In plianerogamic plants, the Flow^er is 
a collection of several whorls (usually four) of modified 
leaves. The calyx is the outer wdiorl, the corolla the 
second, and the stamens and pistil tlie third and f(:>nrth. 

FLOWER BORDERS. See Borders, Flower. 

FLOWER BUDS. See Buds, Flower. 

FLOWER-DE-LUCE. An old English name fur the 
common species of Iris (wliicli see). 

FLOWER FENCE. Sre Poinciana. 




The Dictionary of Gardening, 

PLOWERING ASH. Scr Fraxinus Ornus. 

FLOWERING HUSH. Srr Butonms iimbellatus. 

FLOWER OF JOVE. .SV '■ Agrostemma flos- 

FLUEGGEA. .SVe Ophiopog-ou. 

FLUES. The system of fixing Flues for heatiiif;' 
[)ur[M;isi_'s in glass structures is now become nearly 
obH)lete, the better and more effective mode of heating 
by hot water being almost exclusively adopted. In the 
earlier days of gardening, the use of Flues was general, 
and even now many remain and continue to answer their 
purpose exceedingly well, both for fruit and flower 
cultivation. Flues may be constructed of bricks, and 
covered with thick Hat tiles or slates, placing a cross 
piece of sheet iron under each joint; or large pipes may 
be employed with good results, if properly connected. 
Fire bricks should lie used near the furnace, and the 
Fhio proceed from here round the front part of tlio 
house first, returning at the liauk, or terminating in a 
chimney at the end, according to the amount of heat 
required. Corners should be turned by a curve, to allow 
the heated air and gases to pass more freely, and con- 
sequently prevent cracking of the joints. The whole of 
the heat transmitted to the house must pass through 
the material iisud in the construction of the Flue ; ami 
all holes or crai'ks should be kept stopped, to prevent 
the escape of smoke and injurious gases. It is very 
important that Flues be kept cleaned out, as a coat of 
soot xjre vents the absorption and free passage of heat, 
and is also an obstruction to the draught. The furnace 
is best near one end of the house. It should be placed 
about 2ft. below any part of the Flue, and a gradual 
ascent allowed the latter until the chimney is reached. 

FLUGGEA (named in honour of John Flugge, a 
German crypti")gamie botanist). (Jrd. Eiiiihorhiaceoi. A 
genus comprising several species of much-branched smooth 
shrubs, found in most tropical countries of the Eastern 
hemisphere. Flowers green, minute, and disposed in 
fascicles or cymes in the axils of the leaves. Berry 
about the size of a pea, or smaller. Leaves entire, 
obovate or ovate. In all probability, the species here 
described is the only one yet introduced. It succeeds 
in a rich mould and in a moist stove. Propagated hj 

F. leucopyrus (white-fvuited). Ji, apetalous. Berries white, 
edibk-^. L. alternate, nrlticidar, ovate, entire, smooth ; ypiiies 2iii. 
to 5in. lon.n, very .strong and numerous, whitish. East Indies, 

FLY HONEYSUCKLE. See Lonicera Xylos- 

FLY ORCHIS. St'e. Ophrys muscifera. 

FCENICULUM (the old Latin name). Ord. Uinbelli- 
fene. A genus containing three or four species of hardy 
biennial or perennial, often tall herbs. Flowers yellow, 
in compound umbels, without involucres ; petals entire, 
inflected at the top, but not pointed. Fruit oval. Leaves 
pinnate, decompound, finely dissected. For culture, see 

F. dulce (sweet).* This is considered by some authorities to he 
lint a varii'ty (;if F. vulgare. It ditt'ers, however, in the plant 
li-'iii;; smaller: in the stem )ieing compresssd, not round, at the 
liase; in tlie smaller number of rays to the umbel, &c. It is 
cultivated in this cunntry as ii pot herl). Biennial. 

F, officinale (oHieinal). A synonym of J'"', vulr/are. 

F. vulf^are (common).'^' Common Fennel. Jl. yehow, in rather 
l;n,i;i/ umbels. J^ate summer and autunm. I. three nr four times 
]'uinat(% Avitli very n;irrow, linear or subulate segments. Stems 
erect, Ijranchcd. S'luth I'liirope ; occurring in many jiurts nf 
Britain. Perennial. SViN. /''. "jficinale. (Sy. En. B. 601.) 

FCETIDIA {from fodidus, stinking; in allusion to the 

smell of tlie wood). Ord. Myrtacece. A genus con- 
taining three sjiecies (perhaps these are merely varieties 
of one) of glabrous trees, having' a tough, bitter bark'. 
Poduneles axillary, solitary, one-flowored. Leaves ;lI- 
ternate, elliptic or oblong, entire, penninorved. 1<\ ■md.ii- 

Fcetidia- <-oiil In.nrd. 
rili<uiri is an ornamental greenhouse evergreen tree, 
allied to Gustavia (which see for culture). 
F. mauritiana (Ahturitius). jl. solitary; jaeduncles in the axils 

of the upper leaves; petals wantiny; tulie of calyx tetragonal 
and hemispherical; Johes valvate in ;estivation, permanent, at 
lem^th refiexed. l. alternate, crowded on the branchea, sessile, 
oval, entire, obtuse, h. l&ft. to 20ft. Mauritius, 1827. 

FOLIACEOUS. Having the form of leaves. 

FOLIOLATE. When a leaf is divide<l into leaflets, 
it is called (_)ne, Two, Tliree, Ten, or 
Twelve-foliolate, according to the number 
of leaflets. 

FOLIOLE. A leaflet ; the secondary 
divisions of a r-omponnd leaf. 

FOLLICLE. A kind of fruit consist- 
ing of a sijigle carpel, dehiscing by the 
\'entral suturi' oidy. See Fig. 120. 

FONTANESIA (named in honour of 
M. liene Luniche Desfontaines, 1750-1833, Fi-^- 20. FOL- 
author of " Flora Atlantica," and several ^^^„':?,Jf„5^^" 
other works). Oed. Oleacete. An orna- 
mental, hardy sal.>-e\ergreen shruli, resembling the com- 
mon Privet, but with rough bark, and graceful, slender, 
drooping branches. It thrives in ordinary soil. In- 
creased by layers ; l>y eiittings, jdanted under a hand 
glass, in autumn ; or by grafting on the Privet. In aJl 
])robability, tlic two x^l^i^ts here described are but forms 
of one sijucies. 

Ii'k:. 21. li'i.owivRiM; IWiam'ii oi- I'^'ontanfsia Fortunei. 

F. Fortune! (Imh tum-'.^). //, ercamv-vollow, in axillary and ter- 

muial pauieles. /.. Inncei.Jal.r, rnlin-, loug-acuminated, flossy 
-rrenabuve, jialer lieneath. rhiiia. See l-'ig. 21. (U. H. 1869, ^3.) 
F. pmilyrseoidcs(l'liillyrea-like). J], creamv-vellow, in axillary 
racemes. An.;iis|,. /. I;ince(,late, acute at both ends. h. 10ft. to 
l'4lt. S.\ria, 1.787. 'Uns spe,aes has tlie habit of i'hilhirca nu-iiia. 
0-. B. U, 15U;i.) 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 



stalk of a. leu.f. 
; iniG of tlip 1 


FORCING-. I'liis is oiiG of tliP inr>st importa.Jlt 
n|H.T;i.liinis ill i\\r w licli;- nail iiir of ,^-;ird('iii]i'4-, and oiio 
that requires tlie ;^Tc;i.t.osf rare in iirartirr for nlifa.iiiijiL,'- 
successful results. It lias to he mainly ciinilnetiMl 

tlirou,L;'liinit the winter and early ^prln^:", w hrn ontside 
temperatures are extremely variable, and wlicn the 
auii.>unt (.tf sunshine and L-onsei"[ni:'nt li^ht ulitaim'd is, 
at best, lint very limiteil. FonaMt tli^wrrs, fruits, and 
vcijctables, are aiinnally in demand, and all li;i\"(.' to Ipc 
procured under i-onditions that ar<' e lUK.a'ally unn;itur,il 
to the plants at thi- tinie. in fi.eisi'ijucuci.' df an iusuf- 
ticiout season of re-t heim;- allowed tlnun. Fruit-trees 
earefnlh' foroed in snoces^ive reasons, nni] prdp^rly 
ripened aftrr thr fruit is L;-atliered, tiui^li tlndr L;aM\\lh, 
and la"-;"in a season of rest, earlier tleiu ihu^r a.lh>w(.'il 
til i;a'o\v nna-e in aociu- ' inec ^vitli tlnur natural hahit. 
These start 11m.' n\or(.' ' adily, in C(_nisiM|nuncr, a\ hrai 
artiticial heat is aiiplievl. ilany flowerin;^- itlants arc 
so far injurrd liy ca.rly Forcing, as tn hi- niia.\'a.ilu.l)li; 
fi_u' the pur[tosc the fidlowiu'^- year; luit IJiry niuy 
,i;eneraUy he rrrniited iu health, in the i.-^ lursr t)f t\A'o 
seasvuis, hy phiutim:;- out, and, iu the nn/antiiue, usin,'^- 
othors that ha\ e hccn pn"'pare<l iu a siuuhir w a\'- The 
preparation o( plants for Fnreiu':;-, or scln.-i ion of those 
only which arc thoroni^hly riiiened, is always one of the 
most im]">ovtant points. A fririt-trce, ra- tlowiaun:^- plant, 
thus tr^atod will Iiua'C its embryo flowers foruh'd inside 
the iiud-scalcs, and rrady for cxpandin^^- when tlw ne- 
cessary heat and moisture are £ri^'"'U. In the early sta,L;-es 
of Fori'in'^- operation^, heat should lie applied as o-radnally 
as possible, bc^anniuL;" with a little warnmr, cIomu- atmo- 
sphere than that allowed durin,^- the rc^tin-^' jHuaod. A 
temperature n.-t i-xceediu':;' ohdeg. to Oodr^-. liy artiHr'ial 
heat will suit a hi.r^c number of I'lants to start with, 
but these ti-urr,s must not be taken as applyin;.;- to all 
ahke-tluy would be too hii^h. Most plards subjected to 
Forein,^- w ill heat- more heat after the hmhs swell and 
commence Lirou ini:;-. than they will previously. The value 
of sun-hinc and lin-ht cannot be over-estimated ; eonse- 
rpiently. both should be admitted to the fullest extent in 
winter, when the sun will seldom be stroma- enouL^-h t<^ 
injure the tenderest foliap-e. It is not advisable to api^ly 
heat, when the weather is dull, to maintain a tempera- 
ture equal to that supplied naturally on lu-i-htcr days, 
as the result would be an encouragement of weak, atten- 
uated o-iT.wths, which, with a return of sun. or an 
admission of air, would immediately droop. Very early 
Forcing- renders many plants and yeg-etablcs useless after- 
wards, and this necessitates an annual supply being- 
raised for the purpose. Almost any positions in heated 
structures may be irtilised for such, as, once the crop 
is secured, in the case of cither flowers or YC,getables, 
the roots may bo destroyed, and their place taken by 
otlicrs. Vines, and fruit or other permanent trees, are 
of much more consequence ; hence, the greatest care is 
nece.-sary, in Forcing-, not only to conduct it so as to 
o-ain a crop the following- season, but also to avoifl doing 
anything- that may prove injurious to the well-being of 
the trees afterwards. A rnle-c of fermenting nmterial, 
composed of fresh stalile litter and plenty of leaves, is 
frequently u^cfl, with good ronlts, for starting early Vine> 
or Peach-trees. It requires to be often turned and re- 
newed, in order to keep the requisite temperature, which. 
SQp]>lied in flits way, contains much more moisture than 
would lie lu-oenrablc with the aid of tire heat. The 
hot-water pipes must, howerer, be av^ailalde for use as 
well at any tinic required. 

FORCING HOUSE, The quantities of cut flewers 
and ])lant< riMpiired in nrany gardens, render it a. necessity 
to cither build or set apart a special strueture for forcing 
purposes, with provision for those subject^ needing bottom 
heat, and a b^'d or staging for others tliat are better with- 
out. A Forcing House is also, sometimes, specially reserved 

Forcing- Howse—rmil iinir<i. 
for such plants a.s Strawberries, where they are placed in 
a liigh temperature, after flowering is over, for tlu' purpose 
of swelling and nnituring the fruit. A span-roofed 
l-.uilding is most suitable i'or accommodating plan! s of 
various iieights, ami is. at the same time, one that, admits 
most light. If lu-ovided with a glass partition, and s(q>a- 
rate valves in the hoating arrangements, an advantagt.' is 
gained of keejiing nn>.'. i^art a little cooler than the otln-r, 
and introducing jilants into this when first starting them. 
The Forcing House should bo iu a sheltered positiiui in the 
garden, but not so as to hi/ shadi-'d in winter ; ami it should 
have plenty of heat at eiunmand. A span-roofed strueture 
admits of a centre stage witii path round, and side beds 
under which I'ipi.'s eould be ]ila'-ed for botteaji heat: or, 
iu the case lA' a small one, tlu"^ path may lie tlirongh the 
centre, and beds ari-angi'd on either side. All plants may 
be stood near tlm light, iu a hruise of this di:'scriiition, hy 
raising or hovering thi-m according to height, )u;t this 
condition eould not he procured so readily in one of 
another shape. Si.mngiu- and more equaidc bottom heat 
is olitaim.'d \\heu the jn'pi's ]iass through a shallo^v water 
taidv underneath tlu.^ ^i lunging material. A sjian-roofod 
house, about ijUft. long, Hift. wide, and 9ft. high, wonhl 
allow consideral>lc space for plants of various si/,es, and 
would be nn>st desirable for other purposes, wlnui not 
required for forcing. A ndnimum temperature of from 
.-)(.lileg. to oodeg. is prefera.ble to a higher one iov starling 
most flowering- jilants not requiring In.'at. This 
may I'C raised l()dcg\ aftiu* growth commences, IMiu-h 
mu~t depend, in i'oreing, on the condition of the "wcallnu' 
outside. Light syringings, wiili water as warm as thi' 
house, may lie giveii <in bright days, and all possible sun 
heat should be retained in the winter and early spring- 
months, ^\ Inui foii'ing o|H' rat ions are of tlu^ greatest im- 
portance. The admission of by the ventilators must lie 
conducted :vilh gi-i/at". I'are, when it beccjucs necessary to 
open them, on acciumt of the tender fi.iliage or fhovers. A 
change of air takes ]ilai.'e continually fietweeu tli(.i lajis tA' 
the glass, particularly when the outside temiJcrature is 
much lower than that inside. Fire heat should l:)e stoppr'd 
in the day-tirue, so soon as the sunshine is strong cnougli 
ti:i gi\e suthiMcnt warmth witliont it. 


FORGET-ME-NOT. Nee Myosotis palustris. 

FORK. This is one of the most useful of garden im- 
plements, made i]i various sizes and shapes to specially 
suit the -work for which any particrrlar one is intended. 
Those with two prongs are best for light litter, and for 
mixing manure, ^tc. The fnrir, and sometimes five-pronged 
Forks are those mostly used, being frequently more ser- 
viceable for digging or levelling down soil than the spade. 
It is an indispensable tool for removing earth from the 
roots of trees or shrubs when transplanting, as, if care- 
fully worked from the stem outwards, the soil is loosened, 

:2. l''r\T-Ti\Rn OmoTNO Fouk, 

and the roots uidnjnred in the iiroccss. The Fork is not 
in general use for <ligging. as it does neit so tlna-onglily 
rcniove the earth at the bottom as the spade; but in 
many cases where the latter cannot, for various rea.sons, be 
properly worked, the fiuaucr \\ill be fcamd a certain suli- 
.-titute. A gorid ba-m lor ordinary kitchen garden work, 
and for lifting crojis. such as Potatoes, .'tc, is tliat made 
with four flattened prongs i>ec Fig. '2'^). The quality of 
the steel, with the proper mode of manufacturuig the 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Fork — continued. 
implement, is of much more importance when purchasing- 
than tho difference in price would sug-gest ; consequently, 
those from the bust makers should be obtained. Some 
are easily bent when under pressure : others just as easily 
snap. A good Fork should be made of steel, so combined 
in the manufacture as to wear evenly, and in siich a 
way that the prong-s will neither snap nor bend when 
in ordinary use. Forks for loading leaves are specially 
made with four or five long tines, and are very 
useful in winter where large quantities have to be col- 
lected and taken away. Hand Forks are useful for 
plunging, planting out, &c. ; they are made with three 
short flattened prongs, and a handle of the same size, 
like that of a trowel. 

rORMICID^. See Ants. 

rORNICATE. Arched 

FORRESTIA {commemorative of Peter Forrest, a 
botanist of the seventeenth century). Ord. Comine- 
linace(G-. A genus of seven species of pretty and singular 
stove perennials, of which one is from tropical Africa, 
and the rest natives of India and the Malayan Archi- 
pelago. For culture, see Conimelina. 

F. Hookeri (Hooker'^^). JL ]mr]ili,sh, capitatt', sessile, bracteate, 
in dense clusters from the lower sheaths, and often fruni the 
naked stems alter the leaves liave fallen ; sepals l)n;it-.shaped ; 
petals much paler, almost white, ovate, acute. /. sub-succulent, 
obovate-lanceolate, tinely cordate-acuminate, more or less hairy, 
deep purple beneatli, at length glabrous above, and tliere uni- 
formly ^reen, striately veined ; base tapering downwards, often 
very hairy, and terminating in a large, striated, often very 
villous, sheathing liase. Stem herbaceous, 1ft. to 3ft. long, simple 
below, creeping and radicant, and leafless, h. 3ft. Malay Archi- 
pelago, 1864. (B. M. 5425, under name of F. Mspida.) 

PORSYTHIA (named in honour of William Forsyth, 
1737-180-i, the King's Gardener at Kensington, author 
of "Observations on the Diseases of Trees," London, 
1791). Ord. Oleacece. Very ornamental hardy dwarf 
deciduous shrubs. Flowers yellow, drooping, solitary. 
Leaves simple or compound, glabrous. Branches slender. 
For culture, see Fontanesia. 

Fig. 25. ri,owi-:Ki.\(; BiiANcir oi' Imh{svtiiia susi'Ivnsa. 

F. SUSpensa (hanging-down).* Jl. yellow, fi'w, wcattered, on very 
slender In-anche.s ; jiedtmcles slender. I. simple and trifoliolate on 
the same branch, tootlied ; central leaflet largest. Japan and 
<:iiina. This is a very graceful shrub, wliich does thoroughly 

Forsythia — continued. 

well either as a climber against a wall, or treated as a bush in 
the open shrubbery border ; it also forces readily. In nurseries, 
it is frequently met with under the names of i'\ Fortunei and 
F. .Siehiddi. See Fig. 23. (S. Z. F. J. 3.) 

F. viridissima (very green).* Jl. yellow, numerous; peduncle.s 

much shorter than the flowers, bracteolate. March. I. all 
simple, entire, linear-lanceolate or oblong, acute. h. 10ft. 
Japan, 1345. (B. M. 4587.) 

FORTUNEA. A synonym of Platycarya (which 

FOTHEB.GILLA (named in honour of John Fother- 
gill, 1712-1780, an eminent physician and patron of 
botany). Ord. Ho^mamelideai. The only species of this 
genus is a pretty hardy deciduous shrub. It thrives 
best in a moist sandy peat ; and may be increased by 
seeds, which should be sown in spring, in a peaty soil. 
The varieties may be propagated by layers. 

F. alnifolia (Alderdeaved).* Jl. white, sweet-scented, sessile, 
spicate, terminal, ovate, appearing before the leaves. April, 
May. I. alternate, obovate, stipulate, clothed with soft, starry 
down. !i. 5ft. to 6ft. North-eastern America, 1765. The 
following are varieties : 

F. a. acuta (acute). I. narrow, ovate, acute. 

F. a. major (greater). I. ovate-oblong, somewhat cordate at 
the base. (B."M. 1342.) 

F. a. obtusa (Vjlunt-leaved). I. obovate, crenate at the tup, 
when yoiuig downy beneath. (B. M. 1341.) 

F, a. serotina (late-flowering). L oblong, acute, crenately 
toothed at top. 

FOUNTAINS. In connection with garden, con- 
servatory, and room decorations. Fountains are represented 
in various forms, and are constructed in sizes varying from 
specimens of the most minute description in a room, 
to an enormous display of waterworks, as shown in exten- 
sive public gardens and other establishments. An im- 
portant point in the introduction of a Fountain is the 
selection of a situation that is at once appropriate and 
in keeping with surrounding objects. The centre of an 
inclosed flower garden, of a formal description and 
geometrically laid out, could not, perhaps, be better 
occupied than with a Fountain and circular basin, having 
a walk round it in connection with other cross walks 
formed at right angles. Intersecting points are best in 
any case, on account of the means thereby supplied of 
utilising the water from the basin. Either a single jet 
or an indefinite number, if desired, must be in connec- 
tion with an elevated reservoir or other source of 
supply from which a force can be obtained, and they may 
be fixed so as to conduct the water in various direc- 
tions, and cause it to disperse and descend in minute 
particles. The jets are best arranged amongst a pile 
of rockwork or large stones, that help to conceal them 
from view when the water is stopped. A Fountain 
has a cooling effect in a conservatory, in summer ; and 
when constructed in a prominent position, as in the 
centre, it is invariably a source of attraction. In 
some of the most extensive and beautiful summer floral 
decorations, a small Fountain is introduced, with flowers 
of various Nymphseas, &c., dropped in the water beneath. 
This forms an interesting and novel addition, and one 
that is generally much admired. 

FOUQUIERA (named in honour of Peter Edward 
Fouquior, M.D., a French physician). Ord. Tama- 
riscinew. A genus containing throe species of very 
glabrous, spinose trees or shrubs, natives of Mexico. 
F. fonnofia is described as being a very showy stove 
shrub. It thrives in a loamy and fibry peat ; and is 
increased by cuttings, phintcd in lioat, umlor a bell 

F. formosa(spk'ndid).** ./?. scarlet, lin. lom;-, disp.iscd iu terminal 
errrt siiikes ; crolla tulie cylindrical, a liUle arched; limb 
sprcadin-ly retlcxcd. I. o\\U>ivj^, ticattercd, rather Hesby. h. 6ft. 
tu lUft. 

FOUQUIEREa;. A tribe of TamarisciiLetv. 
FOURCROYA. See Furcrrea. 

An Encyclopedia 

FOX-BANE. .'Jtt Aconitiim vulparia. 

rOXGLOVE. S . Dig'italis. 

FKAGARIA (from Fnnja. tlie old Latin name, from 
the same root as frnrirans, fragrant; referring to the 
perfume of the fruit). Strawberry. Oed. Ruxacea-. A 
genus of three or four species of liardy (except whc're 
otherwise stated) perennial scapigerous herbs, with rnn- 
ners, natives of North temperate region.?, the Andes, 
Sandwich Islamls, and Bourbon. Flowers white or yellow, 
honeyed, often polygamous : achenes many, minute, em- 
bedded on the surface of the large convex fleshy recep- 
tacle. Loaves three-foliolate (in the British species), 
pinnate or one-fcliolatc. Several of the so-called species 
have, without doubt, originated from tn'o or throe ; many 
of them, however, preserve a Avell-marked character. For 
cultivation, xer Strawberry. 


Fig. 24. Fhagaria chile.vsis (Chili SxRAWBCRtiv). 

Fii;. 25. Fruit of Fragaria ciirr.ENSis. 

F. chilensis (Chilian).* _!i. white ; sepaly erect ; peduncles thick 
and silky. April and IMay. fr. rose-coloured, flesh wliite, 
pendulous. l, leaflets obovate, obtuse, serrated, coriaceous, 
wrinkled, .silky beneath. h. 1ft. South America, 1727. See 
Figs. 2^ and 25. 

F. c. grandiflora (large-flowered).'* Pine Strawberry. /?. white ; 
sepals reflexed ; peduncles thick. April and May. fr. red. 
I leaflets glaucous, coriaceous, broadly crenated, pilose beneath. 
;;. 1ft. 1759. See Figs. 26 and 27. 

F. collina (hill). Green Pine. ,rf. white ; sepals, after flowering, 
rrect. April U> June. fr. green. /., leaflets plicate, thin, silky 
above and pilose beneath, h. 9in. Europe, 1798. 

F. elatior (taller). Hautbois. ^/f. wliite ; sepals at length reflexed 
nn the peduncles. April and May. Receptacle Arm, adhei'iug 
hut little to the calyx. /., leaflets plicate, rather coriaceous, 
green. //. 1ft. Europe. Tliis, which is much larger than F. ycvca, 
Ts probably derived from that sjiecies ; it is frequently met with 
as ;i "arden escape in a sumi-uaturallsed cnnditiou in Hritain. 
(Sy. En. P.. 459.) 

F. indica (Indian).* //. goldeu-yelb-w ; calyx ten-jiarted, -niter 
tive sugnients accessory, large, foliareous, ti'identate at the apex, 
and sprrading; peduncles axillary, solitary, uiii'-Muwered. May 
to Octolier. Jr. red, insipid, nunu-nin-^. l. trifdlinlate ; leaflets 
cuneate-ovate, deep green, crenated. India, Japan, &c., 1305. A 
very pretty little greenhouse trailer. (A. B. 11. 479.) 

OF Horticulture. 

Fragaria — conliaued. 


Fig. 26. Fragaria chilensis grandiflora (Pine StrawluvRrv). 

Fid. 27. Fruit of ^'RAll.\RlA chilensis gramm I'i.oiia. 

F, vesca (edible). Common Wild Strawberry, jl. white ; sepals 
at length reflexed. April and May. fr. pendulous. I., leaflets 
plicate, thin, pilose beneath, h. 6in. to 12in. Britain. See 

Figs. 23and29. (Sy. En. B. 438.) 


Fig. 23. Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry). 

K(G. 29. FituiT oi' l'RAG\inA \i;sc,\. 

F. V. monophylla (itnedcaved). Alpine Strawlxrry. jJ. \\hiti' 
May. //. round, small, penduluiis ; rerniitacle rlnn^atr'd, ri d. 
/. .simple, creiialely toothed, h. 6in. Eumpi.., 1773. (I>. .M-63. ) 

F. virginiana (Vh-ginian). Scarlet Stra^biTuy. '!. wliitfj ; pi-- 
duncles and peilicels lengtli of leaves. April. )r. ilrrp red when 
ripe ; receptacle very tumid, pendulous, h. 1ft. North America, 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

FB.AMES, GARDEN. Frames are portable garden 
structures among- tlij most nsofnl for various purposes at 
all seasons, particularly in spring and early summer, when 
lavg-e quantities of different subjects have to be prepared 
for transplanting- outside. They may also 
be effectively employed in forcing opera- 
tions, where pits are limited, by being placed 
on a hotbed of fermenting material, and 
covered with mats and dry litter, according 
to the state of the weather, or the amount 
of heat required inside. Cuciimbers and 
Melons, and a large proportion of green- 
house winter-flowering plants in pots, as 
well as those for more immediate use, may 
l-ie successfully cultivated in FrM.mes during 
the summer. In winter, the latter may be 
utilised for storing I'.lants that merely require 
protection from frost, by placing a quantity 
of dry litter round the woodwork, and cover- 
ing the glass with mats, &c. Frames are 
made of different sizes, none being so gene- 
rally useful as those having two sashes, 
each measuring about 6ft. long by 4ft. wide 
(see Fig. 30, for which, and for Fig. 31, we 
are indebted to Messrs. Boulton and Paul, 
of Norwich), or others large enough to take 
three sashes of similar dimensions. The 
frames of these sashes should be 2in. thick, 
and each fitted with an iron handle for oi^ening, and a 
cross bar of iron for strengthening them. The Frame or 
box itself is usually made of deal timber, l^in. or Ibin. 
thick, a height of 18in. being allowed at the back, and at the front, or other heights may be adopted in 
a similar proportion. The corners should be dovetailed. 

Frames, Garden— continued. 
sashes being made of wood, and glazed in the ordinary 
way, or without putty. One of the most popular and best- 
constructed of this description is that made by Messrs. 

Fk;. 30. TwO-I.KillT ]''KAME. 

and further strengtliencd by pieces of wood fitted inside. 
Frames may be purchased ready for use, but they are 
expensive, and seldom so strong as those which can l:ie 
made at home, somewhat like that above described. A 
new Three-quarter Span-roof Frame, made by Messrs. 
Boulton and Paul, of Norwich, is represented in Fig. 31. 
When made in this shape, it lias the advantage of giving 
more height inside than with the ordinary sashes. The 
sashes here shown are hung to the ridge in such a way that 

Fk;. 31. 'J'liKKrMiiiAirrKi!. Si-an-kooI'' I^'icamI':. 

the front ones may be turned ri'^lit over on the others at 
the back, and the reverse. An imn prop accompanies 
each Frame, to hold the lights wide oiion for attending to 
the plants, and cacli light is provided with a fastening 
that serves the double purpose of securing it against 
wind, and raising it for ventilation. Like the ordinary 
Frames, are made m various sizes. <.)thcr sorts iii;i,y 
bo procured with iron standards and framework, the 


Foster and Pearson, Nottingham (see Fig. 32). A some- 
wliat novel, but effective, mode of ventilation is adopted. 
The sashes are held open at any angle required, by 
dropping a stout hook, attached to each, into a contriv- 
ance cast in the iron rafters, something like part of a 
cog-wheel. This holds them safely in any position in 
which they are placed. The sashes may easily be re- 
moved and replaced, if desired ; and the ridge is made to 
lift up and down its whole length by a lever, as a means 
of ventilation in wet weather. Where expense in pur- 
chasing is no object, Frames like this are very useful 
and durable. They are best suited to remain where 
placed permanently. For sectional representations of 
simple and cliamliered Frames, sre Cucumber. 
rHANCISCEA. .'^re Briuifelsia. 

FRANCOA inamcil in honour of F. Franco, M.I>., of 
Valentia, a promoter of botany in the sixteenth century). 
(.)RD. >Sn;i:ifr<-ir/ecn. A Chilian genus, all the species of which 
are described below. They are very handsome hardy or 
half-hardy perennials, beset with simple hairs or glands. 
Flowers tcrnrinal, copious, in spicate racemes. Leaves 
lyrate, nearly like those of the Turnip, reticulately 
veined. Seeds should be sown, about February or March, 
in a well-drained pan of sandy peat, covered over with a 
pane of glass, and in a heat of about 50deg. The glass 
eovering may be removed when the seedlings have made a 
little growth. So soon as the plants are large enough 
to handle, they should be transferred to other pans, at a 
distance of about 2in. apart. About April or May, they 
may be potted off into 4in. pots, and placed in a cool 
greenhouse or frame. Increased also by divisions. 

F. appendiculata (apponrlaged).* jl, petals pale reil, marked 
t'ai.'li liy a. (IrrjMT ^^p(.t near tile l»ase ; scape nearly simple; 
r.u-vXK-^ .■unip;i.-t. .]iily. /. pt^tinlate, lyrate. h. 2ft. 1850. 
(,.1'.. .M. 517y; misnamed A', siuirhijulin in L. V,. C. 1864.) 

F. ramosa (branched). ^^ _/7. wliite, Inusely an-aui;ed ; raohis and 
si.'[.;il.s >;l;Ll)roiis ; inHdVcsccncc nuu'h lir;iiichcil. ' .lulv, \ii'<iist 
/. sliortly stalked. iisn;dly derurrfnt. h. 2ft. to 5ft. 1831. I'lant 
canlesceiit. (B. M. 3824.) 

F. sonchifolia (Suwthistledcavcd).* //. lonscly arraiisicd; petals 
}Miik, nftcii with a darker l.Iutcli near the I-aso. July. ' I. with 
sliiirt iietinK^s, usually .li-current I.clnw tlio iinricles to the 
uxt.rcuiu l>;isc. h. 2ft. 1050. (li. M. 330G ; S. P.. V. <i. vul. 13, 1(.9.) 





Plumiera tri- 

FRANGULA. lucluilcl unJer Rhamnus. 

An Encyclopvedta of Horticulture. 


FRANKENIA (iiamod iildn- .Iclin Fr^uikriiius, i:,'.i(i- l>l■,,f^■s^,.^■ uf I!,.,t;iny at Upsa.l, wlin first riiniiipratnl 
til.' iilaiits uf Swollen, in " S|ii'riilnm ];otaiiirnii," li;;;8l. 
Si'a Iiicludiny Uml .^n,i hi aaiil ili/jicnVojisi'.s. (IKD. 
J''/'.Mi;,riii,/.r,r. Small, jirusti-atc, Hcatli-iikc, harily dv liall'- 
hai-dy r\ I'l'qi'ceii plants, witli tin.- lluwrrs usually ri.-iii'.^- 
ti-niu tin- lurks uf tlir liraiH-bus, ur ai^iiusril in trrniiiial 

uyiiii's. Srvi'ral uf tliu s| irs ai'u pretty snlijn'ls iui' 

rur-kw.irk, ur in liur.kas- uf dry, li'^^'lit, sanely suil. In- by .livisiuns. 

F. capitata Nothrla (ImmiIciI Xntlnia). ;(. palu n-.l, Palninal, 
ai;j;u--,il,' ; in-lals tuuthr,!. .1 unr 1.. .\ ai;iist, I. rlasPa vd, llnra r, 
.ulalir.nis, wiUi rfVoliitu nlav^ills, .aliat,.;.! at the lia-r. .Slna.-, 
in.isliatr, sAlabr.ais. t'aj.r uf (;,„„l llupe, 1816. Uaul.w 

F. corymbosa (rdvjjuliusr). A synianin uf ]■'. II'./.A/;. 

F. l08Vis (* ;/. tirsll-rulcair.'.l. visilr^ flnai thr furks ul' tin- 
strai, IrnLihial n|- axillary, sulitarv. .Inh. I. rliistnvd, liin'.u, 
.^lalnuns, «iUl U'\ ulutr 'niai :jn,s, cilialra at tlir b.isc St.aus 
pru>trah', runtiia^. Uhis naLiv.' ^)nTir> is une ui Llir ]arUir.-,L. 
(,S). ICn. .1;. 190.) 

F. pauciflora (iVw-Huwrrnl). /'. liink, rtistl.v si-ssit- in 11a' I 1st 
luil^s, iuiiHt!!- a laur<- ur Irss 'itaisi- Uaaainal IfatA .■\nH', ;ual 
sinnclnn, s aiiilatvrallv airalmr.l aluni; its l.ranrla.'s. .IhI.n. /. 
uppu.sitr, <i|- tla- niMirr uiir,, ill «lnals uf lunr. ulitai^-liiiuai ,, ur rarily aliau,t aratr.- ; iiiar'^ilis llstiall.v rrvuliiti'. 
Jirailrhfs asctanlina, liirliulutnuus, utiTt ur divariratr, nr.nh' 
.tflaliruiis, with slaatdiuMi. I,. 1 fl. ,\aslialia, 1824. Ilali-hard.s '; 
shrubby, prurnmbeiit. Sv.\. I''. x,-iil>rii. ( I;. ,M. aMtlo. ) 

F. portulaclfolia (I'lllstmuluavud). ll. rud. /. runnilish, 
llrsliv, alabruiis. Sl.-lu slinilib\, IhisIin. A. Oili. .St. llrluiia. 
Half lialib Si \. J:, -aim., in: i.i.i hilui:iui(iil . 

Fin. 33. Fl.nwr.Rlxn r.TiiNrii uf Fr.\mcenia riiT,YEr,t-i.E>,T..\. 

F. pulverulenta (pu-ivdery). * //. n-d, sulilary ; petals sub-vriiand. 

Jah. /. ruiiiidisli - o\ate, jiuwderv liriieath. Ii . 3iir Sutith 

Eurupu. Hardy. .See Fiy. M. (.s. |.'. Ci. 344.) 
F. scabra (ruuoh). A synunyin ul F. ■jmiicijhira.. 
F. Webbii {\\'ebb's). ll. rus. .-luluai-ed, in tenninal euryinbs. 

.lime .alal -lilly. /, i:lnst(a'rd, linear, \\ith re\uliite iiiariiilis, '^la- 

bruus, sumewhat eiliated at the base. Stems \el\el>, elei t. 

//. bin. Suiitlnwest J-dirulie, i^e., 1825. Hardy. Sir\. j:\ rurinu- 


rRANKENIACE.a:. A small urder uf lierl.s ur 
snl.i->lirulis, cuntainin^- une .ueiins, Fni iij,-^' iiia . The s]H.ei,.s 
nilinlier aliout t^yehe, and are \\idel\- dispHi-rsed river the 
Rea-eoasts of nearl.v all the temp, rale ainl warmer i'e..;iuiis 
of tlie .clutio. They piL^.-e-s nu pruperties uf imiiurlam-e. 

rHASERA (named after Joint Fraser, 17-5I>-1S1], a 
colleutur of Nortli American plants). Oei:>. i4riil in iinr. 
A g-enns of abont seven speeies uf North-west 
hardy jiereiinial herbs. FknN'er.s axillary. -stalked : eurulla 
wllee'l'sliajied. fuur-eleft. Leaves upposite or vertieilUite, 
Tlie'y tliri\i.- in a moist sitnatiun. and ma.y lie inerea>i.'.l by 
seed's, ur by divisiuns. 
F. carollnensis (Carulina). A synunyiu ul !•'. It'alUii. 

Frasera — nmliiuu/il. 

F. Walter! (Walter's). ;/. yelluwisli, veilieillade III] sli.irt, une- 
lluHeiv.l iieili.'i Is. .lajv. /. iM'pu-ile ami ,-iib-,.atiiall:ib., iilijun^-. 
Stems and Inaiiilies letia'sunal. Ii. u(l. tu OIL I'ai.ilina, 17y8. 
SV\. /-'. .•iii-.iliiiriisix. 

FRAXINE.S:. A trdiO uf (_)lr,„-r,r. 

FRAXINEIiIiA. See Dictamnus albvis. 

FRAXINUS (tlie uld Latin mum.' uf the tree). Ash. 
Ineiudin'.;- tlriiiis. *>i;)i. o/.-.ue.e. J>art^e. urnamenfa.l, 
hardy deedduuus trees, with lateral raeemes uf greenish- 
yi.dluw ur wldli-ii tluwers, and ii]iiiusite. linei|nally pinnate, 
ra.reh- simjile lea\es. Tliey hunrisli in niuileratel.\' ...^eiud suil. 
in shelteivd silnatiuns. rrupa.-af.iun is elfeeted ehietly b.N 
seeds, the v.a.rieties bein.e- mereased by ,i;ra,ftin-. 'J'lie' uf the eiiminun Asii ripen in (Jetuber, aaid sliunld 
lie ,-atlim'ed a.iid laid in an upeii pit, eunslaaieted in a where tlie suil is li.ulit a.nd puruns. 'I'uu linshels 
uf sand shunid be with eaeh bushel ul se..,l, and 
the whule pn(, intu this pit till the February iullu\\iu;j. 
diirin.ii- \\ liieh time it nin.-t be- tiuaied u\.n' .-e\..a';Ll times, 
tu ]ire\ent lieaiim.;. d'lie s...|..ds sliullld be siiun in beds, 
m ,e;uud Iriable suil, a. .sandy bein- the best feir the 
]inrpuse. ;\l'ter remainil;;^- twi.i .years, in the- sei.'d bed, 

the iilants may b.. remuved, and ;ila. I, at a dlstanee 

id bin. il-iim utlier, in ruws 1 .i It. apai't. These 
should .stand twii years lun-er, whim they will be «t bir 
liermanentl.v }ila.iitjn,t;- unt ilnrin.e;- an,\ mild weather in 
.antnnm ur i.'arl.s sprnie;. .Kxelnsi\e ul Ibe nia.n.v varieties, 
the present ..;..nirs is eumprised uf abmd. thirty dese-ribed 
slieeies. ,\liuii( (en uf these an., natives uf Nurth Ameriea, 

F. acuminata (lajier-puinb d). .\ sMiuhv 1 y.'. eia. rnnna. 

F. alba (« lid. ■!. ,\ s.Me.nyni uf /.'. ,/,„.,■,.■„„„. 

F. americana (.Vni.'iieanl. " ^\ldte .\sh. it. while, dispused in 
teruiilial liaiiieles. .\)iiil and .May. Samaras iiaiiuw, ubtiise, 
niaerunate, /. udli tw.i (e funi' jiairs uf u\',ile ur ii\ aite-aennii- 
nated, sliinin./, seirab'il JeaHels, oiii. tu tin. luii^, and 2in, bruad. 
Itranches In u« nish-^i ev. /;. 3lJfi. tu 4Uft. tiast Uidted Stab's. 

1723. SKXS. I'. ,i,-,i,nnni!,i, F. tilhii, /•'. CiuVuii, /•'. ./. /,./,-;■./, and 
F. ;e.;/,/,i. ;„,./„( (,il l.aluark). 'J lie \,ilietv l,ihi,F,,i has lir.iader 
leaves tlian the l>|ie. 

F. angUStifolia (n.uiuw letL\eil). .\ sMiiin\ni uf F. I'jcchiiir 


F. argentea (si]\et\). .V s>n.iii\in ul y-'. (inm^. 

F. caroliniana (I ariilina). .V synuiiMa uf /-'. iihitiirarpa. 

F. concolor (ulie-eulnnre.l). .).. s\ii.iii\in uf /-'. ririitis. 

F. Curtisii {< Unais's). .V s^niauni uf F. a nh'n.inia. 

F. epiptera (\\in..;-l.i]i)ieil). .\ s.Miunjni uf /''. mill- rii-a int. 

F. excelsior (taller). ■■ Cunmain ,\sh. ;/. anenisli-veUuw, naked, 
liuidaied in small eiuwded ttxillarv paliii ies. .Marelj ;ind Ajnal. 
Sanairas lineai-ublum;, nulehed at the tip, /., leaflets in live 
lit si-X pairs, almust ses.sile, larii.'eulate-ubliin;;, aenniinate, ser- 
nited, eniieateii at the l.iase. /.. 3011. tu HOil. J.aii.ijie (KritainI, 
(U. 31. Id. 171.) l)f the wuieli.s ul this line tiee, the 
fi.illuw inu is a ]iretty extensive and eun!]irelieMsi\ i.- list, .\s a rule, 
the riaiiii.. in.lieatesdhe aeneral distiiieti\ e eliaiaeter ul etn h surt ; 
rte..a./i.r;, .//,/, „,,,-,.,/. ,ii,,;ii ,,..■ mhi l,i , ,i,ir,;i j,r,i,liil,i :,tiictu, ciiirr- 
liitil. er/.s;»r, lirlr,;.,iliilll,i, iirl,' n.qili hIIii. u/re. ,,./„, hni-ii.iulaUx, e.r„. 
acanlli'ijulm, ,>r 11,1 III,!, ininliila J, •iris ill ri,;i,il ix, ..,;,l,ijiv,i,lrl fnllii , 
.iiiiijii;,:lf,ill,i {--=ii,i,iii,i,liiill,.c), iiliiiplirlfi.ilui liiriiii',11,1, xjiectablUs, 
ofriV/s, ttnd W'.'iil irmilii iniiil iil„. 

F. e. australls (Suatliein). il. ureenish-white, nakeil. May. 
Samtiras in three ur fuiw pairs, I'.iii. tu 2in. hin-^, laneeulate. 
?., leaflets sessile, laneeulate. reniuti'lv denlieidated ; pedaneles 
bel.iw the leaves, sulitarv, 2in. luiu. ' Jtr.inelilets i;reen, diitted 
with wliite. //. 30tt. tu 50ft. Suuth-west Jinmiie and >iurth 
Afriea, 1815. Svx. F. ,i„,jiistijolia. 

F. floribundaibaadle-iliiwered). iL wliite, in ei-iniiiiianil, thyrstiiil, 
terminal panieles. .Vinil. Samaras linear ur nairuw-spatlmlate, 
obtuse, and entire. /., leaflets elliplii'-ubluni;, aiainiinated, ser- 
iated, atabiuas, stalked. A. 30ft. tu 40ft. Nepalil, 1822. Sv.x. 
Oriiii.^il,inl,iiii,l,i. (II. F. F. 37.) 

F. juglandifolia (W'alnnt-leaved). A synunyni uf F. viriiiii. 

F. juglandifolia ()\alnnt-leaved), uf J.amaik. A synonym uf 

F. lentiscifolia (I.entisens-leaved). ,V svimnyni of F, oxiijihiiUa 


F. longicuspis (lun^-puinted). /. with tu.. ur three pairs of 
laneei.ilate, \ ri .\ aenniinate leaflets. Japan, 13o9. 

F. Mariesii (.Maries). //. white, in numerous erect strict panicles 
frum the uiipeimust ttxila. /. tin. to 6in. lung ; petiole and rachis 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Fraxinus — continued. 

slenfler; leaflets five. Northern China, 1880. A small tree. 
(11. M. 6678.) 
F, nigra (black). A synonym of F, pubescens. 

Fig. 34. Flowering Branch of iJivxiNUS Ornus (Manna Asii). 

F. Ornus (Ornus). Manna Ash. Jl. greenish-white, complete or 
hermaphrodite ; peduncles axillary, shorter than the leaves. 
May and June. Samaras brown, I., leaflets lanceolate or elliptic, 
attenuated, serrated, stalked, entire at the base, villous or downy 
beneath. Young branches purplish or livid, with yellow dots, 
h, 20ft. to 30ft. South Kurope, 1730. A very handsome and 
free-flowering" tree. Svns. F. arocntea, F. rotundifoUa, and 
Onivs curfjpcea. See Fig. 34. (W. D. B. 2, 107.) 

F. oxycarpa (sharp-fruited). A synonym of F. oxyphylla. 

F. oxyphylla (sharp-leaved). Jl. greenish-yellow, naked. May. 
Samaras lanceolate, attenuated at both ends, mucronate. I. dark 
glossy green, produced in tufts at the ends of the branches; 
leaflets two to three pairs, almost sessile, lanceolate, acuminated, 
serrated. Branchlets green, with white dots. k. 30ft. to 40ft. 
Caucasus, 1815. Syn. F. oxycarpa. 

F, o. parvifolia (small-leaved). Jl. greenish-yellow, naked. 
May, June. Samaras narrow, gradually widening to the apex, and 
retuse there. I., leaflets four to flve pairs, petiolate, oblong and 
lanceolate, sharply serrated ; serratures mucronate. Branches 
dark purple. //. SOft. to 50ft. Aleppo, 1710. SVN. F. lentiscifolia. 

F. pallida (pale). A synonym of F. plat.ycarpa. 

F. pauciflora (few-flowered). A synonym of F. platycarpa. 

F. pennsylvanica (Pennsylvanian), A synonym of F. puhescevfi. 

F. platycarpa (broad-fi-uited). Carolina Water Ash. Jl. 
greenish-yellow. May. Saraara.s broadly winged, 2hi. long. 
acute at both ends. I., leaflets almost sessile, very distinctly 
serrated, ellipticdanceolate, 2in. long, lin. bi'oad. /(. 30ft. tti 
50ft. Eastern United States, 1724. Svns. F. caroliniana, F. 
iHiUida, F. pauciflora, and F. triptera. 

F. potamophila (swamp-loving). /. greenish, in short dense 
racemes. Samaras stalked, oblong, with a wedge-shaped base. 
I. small. Young branches of a greyish-brown colour, with black 
l.tuds. TurkestiLU. 

F. pubescens (d..wny). /. greenish-yellow, calyculate ; racemes 
rather compound. May. Samaras narrow-lanceolate, obtuse, 
witli a short mucro at the apex, 2iii. long. /., leaflets three to four 
pairs, petiolate, elliptic-ovate, serrated, <lowny or tomentosi; 
beneath, as well as the petioles and l)ranclies. h. 30ft. I'^a.stern 
United States, 1811. Svns. /''. niyra, F. jinnisylranlca, F. tomni- 

F. quadrangulata (four-angled). lilue Ash. /. greenish- 
yellow. May. Samaras blunt at both ends. I. 1ft. to l^J;ft. long; 
leaflets two to four pairs, almost sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, ser- 
ratnil, downy beneath. Jlranches quadrangular. /(. 60rt. to 70ft. 
Kastpvn United States, 1823. 

F. rotundifolia (round-leaved). A synouyni of F. Onms. 

F. sambucifolia (DMor-leaved). Klark Ash. Jl. like those 

of ttie coionioii Asli. May. I., IcaHets three pairs, 3in. to 4in. 
long, [^r.\\U^ ;it hoLli ends, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, serrateil. 
Young brandies gri'cn, beset with lilack dots. }i. 50ft. l^-astern 
United States, 1800. 

F. tomentosa (tommtose). A synonym of /-'. pvl'rsreiiy.. 
F, triptera (three-wiugnl). A synonym of /-'. ■j-lalyrnrpfK 
F. Viridis(grer>n). /., In^.Hrts Iniglit gr.Tii both sides, or bar.dy 
pale ln-neath, from olilong-Iaiice*iiatc to ov;ite, mostly ai-iiminati', 
and sparsely an{I sliarjily st-rrate oi> (U-nticulate. /(.'30ft. Nortl'i 
America, 1824. Svn.s. F. ci^nvolor, F. juylaiuiifoUa. There is a 
variety, F. v. Bcrlandieriana. 

FBrEI!. Not adhering to anything else ; not adnata 
to any other body. 

FKHESIA (derivation unknown). Ord. IridecG. A 
genus of a couple of species (in all probability, these 
are simply forms of one) of very pretty conservatory 
plants, from the Cape of Good Hope. They may be readily 
increased from seed, which should be sown as soon as 
ripe, in pots of light sandy soil, and placed in a sunny 
position, in a cool frame. When the young plants appear, 
air should be admitted ; but draughts are very injurious, 
and must be specially avoided. As the seedlings do not 
succeed well transplanted, it is best to sow in Sin. pots, 
and thin out to six or eight of the strongest plants, this 
being about the space required for flowering bulbs. If 
sown in August, the young plants may flower the follow- 
ing spring, but this is by no means certain. They will, 
however, form good bulbs for the second year. Freesias 
intended for flowering should be shaken out of the 
old soil in August or September, and repotted in sandy 
loam, leaf mould, and decayed manure. The difi'erent 
sizes should be placed together in separate pots or shallow 
pans, in order to have plants uniform in strength when 
flowering. Water will not be required until growth com- 
mences, and a frame where frost is excluded will be warm 
enough. Plenty of air in mild weather, with a light 
position, is most conducive to a dwarf, sturdy growth. 
When the flowers appear, a little more heat may be 
applied to a portion for an earlier supply, others being 
left to form a succession. Freesias are largely and very 
successfully grown in Guernsey. They are potted in suc- 
cessive batches throughout the autumn, the first being 
inserted in August. These begin flowering in December, 
and the supply is kept up until late in spring. The 
flowers are very fragrant, and last a long time when cut 
and placed in water. A numljer of slightly varying 
forms have received distinctive names in nurseries. 
F. Ijeichtlinii (Leichtlin's). fl. yellow or cream-colour ; funnel 
narrowing ahru]ttly into the tube ; throat more open, with the 
segments spreading less horizontally than in F. refracta. 
h. 1ft. 1875. (R. G. 808.) 
F. odorata (sweet-scented). A synonym of F. refracta. 
F, refracta (bent back), jl. pure white, sometimes marked with 
a few violet Unes, and usually with orange patches on the lower 
segments of the perianth ; funnel lon-j, gradually narrowing into 
the tube below ; throat of funnel somewhat narrow ; segments 
spreading lu^rizontally, and with a peculiar fragrance." Syn. 
F. odorata. (IJ. R. 135.) 

F. r. alba (white). Jl. of the purest white, frequently without 

the orange-coloured blotches usually present in the tvpe. See 
Fig-. 35. 

FREMONTIA (named after Colonel Fremont, an 
American oflieer). Ord. MaJracea^ A beautiful hardy 
deciduous shrub, with coloured calyx, and without petals. 
It thrives in a sandy loam soil, and does well on a west 
or north wall, also as a bush in the Southern Counties 
of England. Increased by cuttings, in spring, placed 
under a hand glass ; or by seeds. 

F. californica(Californian).* Jl. bright yellow, about 2in. across, 
solitary on short peduncles the leaves. April. I. large, 
conhite, Hve to .sevcu-lolied, hairy lienoath ; voun- shoots covered 
witli a rich brown tomentum. h. 6ft. to 10ft. C'aliforina 1851 
(li. M. 6591.) 


FRENCH MARIGOLD. See Tagetes patula. 

FRENELA. -sVe Callitris. 

FREYCINETIA (named after Admiral Freyoinet, 
1779-1842, tlie French circumnavigator). Ord. Pandanecr. 
A genus of about thirty species, natives of Eastern tropical 
Asia, tlie Malayan Archipelago, tropical Australia, and the 
Pacific Islands. They are tall-growing evergreen stove 
climbers, suitable for clothing pillars, &c., which should, 
however, be bound round with sphagnum or fibrous peat, 
kept moist, so tliat the climbing stems may root into it. 
The soil in which the plants do best, either in pots or 
when planted out, is a well-drained sandy loam Increased 
by offsets. 

A.N Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Fig. 35. Freesh refrach alb.v. 

Vol. II. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Freycinetia — contimied. 

F. Banksii (Banks'), y/., spikes eylindrical, 3in. to 4in. long, 
surrounded liy white, fleshy bracts, fr. 6in to Sin. long, and 6in. 

■ to Sin. in circumference, of a rich brown hue when ripe, edible. 
New Zealand. (E. M. 6028.) 


F, Cumingiana (Cuuiing's). This has shorter, ascending or 
horizontally spreading leavfs (not arching, as in /■'. Ba)iJ,-sli). It 
is, moreover, a more wlender groA\er. See Fig*. 36. 

FREZIEKA (named after A. F. Frezier, 1682-1773, a 
French engineer and traveller in Chili, who published an 
account of his travels in 1716). Syn. Erolewm.. Ord. 
TertLstrutniacece. A genus containing a dozen or more 
species of evergreen shrubs, with small axillary flowers, 
natives of tropical America. None are worthy of special 
F. theoides (Tea-liku). A synonym of Clcj/era thcuides. 

FKIESIA (named after Ellfis Magnus Fries, M.D., 
17yi-187y, a celebrated cryptogamic botanist). Ord. 
Tiliacece. This genus, now included under Aristotelia. 
contains but a single species, a very ornamental green- 
house evergreen shrub, and an excellent plant for grow- 
ing against the wall of a conservatory. It thrives freely 
in a mixture of turfy loam and jjeat. Increased by cut- 
tings, wliich root readily in sandy soil. 

F. peduncularis (pfdnncled). J!, wliito ; pedicels axillary, 
spreading, one-tiowered, somewliat nodding. September. I. up- 

posite, lanceolnte, serrated, li. 3ft. to 6ft. Van Dieman's Land. 
1818. (B. M. ^246.) 

FRINGE FLOWER. Srr Schizanthus. 

FRINGE-TREE. See Chionanthus. 

FRITILLARIA (from ffililln.^, a chess-board ; refer 
ring to the chequered flowers of some species). Fritillary, 
Including Rliino'pefclum and Theresia. Ord. Liliacece. 
A genus comprising upwards of fifty species of hardy, 
bulbous plants. Flowers drooping, terminal or axil 
lary, campanulate ; perianth of six divisions, each with 
a nectar-bearing hollow at the base on the inside ; style 
three-groved or trifid. Stems leafy. The usual mode 
of propagation is by offsets that are naturally developed 
by the i:)lants when left undisturbed. Some of the free- 
growing species produce many more of these than the 
small slender ones. Seeds are ripened freely by some 
species, but not by all of them in this country. If desired, 
these may be sown when ripe, in pans of sandy soil, and 
the seedlings allowed to remain for the first year, the 
young plants being impatient of root disturbance. It 
takes from four to six years to grow them from seed to 
a size sufficiently large for flowering. All small offsets 
should be collected when the old bulbs are being lifted 
or replanted. If they are placed in lines, a short dis- 
tance apart, in a piece of prepared ground, flowering 
specimens may be more quickly obtained. Fritillarias 
are best suited for positions in the mixed flower border, 
arranged according to their several heights. They should 
have a rich, well-drained soil, as anything like stagnant 
water near the bulbs, especially with the small-growing 
species, proves destructive. It is not advisable to lift 
the bulbs oftener than every three or four years, if it 
can be avoided, and then they should be replanted with- 
out delay, and surrounded with some new soil. A dress- 
ing of manure, to established plants of Crown Imperials, 
just after growth commences, is beneficial, as a number 
of roots ftroceed from the flower-stem just above the 
bulb. The latter should be planted at least 4in. to 6in. 
below the surface, and from l^-ft. to 2ft. apart. Fritil- 


An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Fritillaria — contiiiue<l. 
larias may be gTown in large pots, if dcsircfl, in a cold 
frame, but must not be subjected to forcing- in any way. 
Thoy are perfectly hardy, and best suited for the open 
ground, but the young- tender growths and flowers are 
liable to injury by late frosts in spring. 

F. acmopetala {sliarp-petaUed). //. moin or le.^s dcunpinu- ; 
perianth c;uiip;iniilate ; .segments mon.' nr less Hushed with 
purple on the back and tip, tht? .rest ,i>Teenish, obovate-oblons, 
obtuse. Spring. I. rather i;laucous, all alternate, linear. Stem 
.slender, glaucons, one-flowered. /;. 1ft. Alns of Asia Minor, 
1875. ' 

F. armena (Annenian).-^- jJ. soft yelh.w, tiuddinii-, solitary, bell- 
shaped. /. lanceolate, or linear-lancenlate. />." 6in. Annt-nia, 
1878. A very pretty species, resembling our native one in time 
of flowering, .tc. (B. M. 6365.) 

F. aurea (golden), //..perianth liright yellnw, solitary, cernuous, 
bell-shaped, lin. deep, rounded equally from middle to base; 
divisions witli seven to nine rows of small black tessera much 
broader than deep ; outer segments oblong, 4in. lu-oail ; imier 
ones obovate, \m. broad, l. abont ten to a stem; lower ones in 
whorls of three, linear, glaucescent, fleshy, 2in. to Sin. long; 
bract leaf ^^ulitary. Stem glaucescent, 6in. hiL;h. Cilicia, 1876. 
See Fig. 37. (R. G. 840.) 

F. dasyphylla (thick-leaved). Jl more or less drooping; 
perianth broadly fnnnel-sliaped ; segments purplish on the bark, 
yello\v, without any tessellations inside, with a small green oblong 
foveole above the liase. April. I. green, fleshy, all alternate, 
or the lowest {and sometimes the uppermost) opposite ; the lowest 
oblanceolate-oblong, sub-olituse; the others lanceolate and linear. 
Stem one (rarely two) flowered. l>. 6in. Asia INIinor, 1875. 
(B. I\l. 6321.) 

F. delphinensls (Danphine).- jl. drooping, inodorous; perianth 
vinous-purple, spotted yellow, often obscurely tessellated ; seg- 
ments oblong, obtuse ; anthers yellow, three lines long. I. four to 
six, all above the middle of the stem, upper ones linear, lower 

ones oblanceolate. Stem very often one-flowered, li. 6in. tol2in. 
South Em-ope. 

F. d. Burnati (Bnrnafs). /?. solitary, nodding, al.tout 2in. long, 
bell-shaped ; segments of perianth carinate outside in the lower 
half, lurid brownish-red, close. I. linear-lanceolate, slightly 
glaucous. //. 6in. to Sin. 1879. 
F. d. Moggridgei (IMoggridge's). /. yellow, tessellated inside 
with brown, solitary, large, cylindrical, bell-shaped. August. 
I. broad. /(. 1ft. Maritime Alps, 18S0. A very handsome 
variety. (Fl. Ment. 25.) 
F, graeca (Greek).* /. solitary, rarely two, smaller than those of 
F. Melea;fri,s, and less campanulate ; sepals elliptical, slightly 
apart when fully open, tawny or ferruginous brown, spotted, but 
scarcely tessellated, with a dorsal green line continued to the 
projection which constitutes the nectary at the base. March. 
I., root ones from young bulbs 4in. to 6in. long, lanceolate, 
tapering into a petiole ; canline ones elliptical or linear-lanceolate, 
nearly erect, striated. Stem slender, erect, terete. /). 6in. Greece. 
This plant is closely allied to F. tuUpi/olia. (B. M. 5052.) 
F. Hookerl (Hookers).^ /?. pale lilac, racemose, bell-shaped, 
about lin. lonu'. Summer. I. about Sin. long. h. bin. Sikkmi, 
1878. (B. M. 6535.) 

Fig. 53. Fritillaria iMPEiirALis. .showing Habit and detached 
Single Flower. 

F. Imperialis (Imperial).* Crown Imperial, fi. about the size 
of ordinary Tulips, varying in colour from yellow to crimson, 
drooping, disposed in a whorl at the top of the leafy stem, 
which is surmounted with a tuft of leaves. April. Stem 5ft. 
or more in height. Persia, 1596. See Fig. 58. (B. M. 194.) The 
following varieties are enumerated by Mr. T. S. Ware: Aurora, 
very distinct, cmious bronzy-crimson flowers ; aurea manjinata, 

Fritillaria — rontixued. 

extremely showy, having the leaves margined with a broad, 
golden-yellow band ; lirica, cluster of bright yellow flowers ; 
Miitahire, a pretty, dwarf-growing, red-flowered variety; rjihra^ 
dark red flowers; rubra raaxiina, a fine form, with immense 
flowers ; Slafizwaard, a fasciated form, immense deep red 
flowers ; tiiilphiirine, large, sulphur-coloured t1o\\ ers. 

F, involucrata (involucrate). fl. ilmoping; ]ierianth vinous- 
jmrple, sli,Lihtly tessellated; divisions oblong. May. I. lim-ar- 
lanceolate,' opposite below, forming a whorl of three above. 
Stems one-Howen^d. h. 1ft. Maritime Alps. (Kl. Ment. 36.) 

F, kamtschatcensis (Kamtschatkan). fl., perianth livid vinons- 
purple, not tessellated, campanulate, lin. to l;iiii. long, the seg- 
ments oblong-ohlanceolate, obtuse ; pedicels drooping, l.m. to lin. 
long. Spring. /. ten to fifteen above the ndddle of the stem ; 
lower ones in whorls, lanceolate, 2in. to 4in. long. Stem 6in. to 
ISin. high. Eastern Sil)cria, A;c. SvN. Liliain caint'^chaU'euM'. 
(R. G. 173.) 

F. Karelini (Kan-Iin's). /'. pale purple, spotted, bell-shaped, 
racemose. //. 6in. Ontral Silieria to Beloochistan, 1834. SVN. 
Rh}>,.>i,rlabnn Korclini, (B. M. 6406.) 

F. lanccolata (lauceolate-lcaved). /?. dull vinous-purple, l. 
lanceolate, whorh'd, h. ICt. to 1 ',ft. North-west America, 1872. 
(If. K. B. A. ii. 195.) 

F. lutca (yellow).* fl. drooping; perianth yellow, more or less 
suffused witli purple ; segments oblong-lanceolate, five to eight 
lines lu-oad. April and I\lay. I. linear-lanceolate, alternate ; the 
upper approximated, shorter than the terminal solitary flower. 
Stem very often one-flowered. Ji. 6in. to 1ft. Caucasus, 1812, 
{B. M. 1558.) 

F, 1. latifolia (broaddeaveil). fl. vinous-purple, greenish, or 
tessellated with yellow. April and May. I. lanceolate, approxi- 
matod ; the u]iper opposite, as long as the terminal solitary flower. 
Caucasus, 1604. ( B. M. 853, 1207.) 

F. macrandra (large-anthered). fl., perianth purple, with a 
.i;laucous tmge on the outside, yellow with green lines quite un- 
tessellated on the face, funnel-shaped ; anthers two and a-half 
lines long, oblong, with a very distinct cusp. May. I. Ave or six, 
scattered, green, fleshy, ascending; lower ones oblong-lanceolate, 
3in. to 4in. long; upper ones linear, under !.\n. long. Island of 
Syra, 1875. 

F, macrophylla (large-leaved).* /. rose, racemose, horizontal, 
campanulate; perianth segments obovate-lanceolate, with a darker 
mass at base ; stamens declinate. April to June. I. alternate, 
linear, acuminate, .soft. h. 3ft. Mussooree, 1843. (B. M. 4725, 
under name of Li'lium roseum ; B. R. xxxi. 1, under name of 
Lilium I'hoinsianuui.) 

Fig. 39. Fritillaria Meleagris, showing Habit and detached 
Single Flower. 

F. Meleagris (CIninea-fowl-like).* Common Fritillar} ; Siiake's 
Head- fl. chequered with pale and dark purple, terininal, 
pendulous, solitary ; points of perianth turned inwaid. April. 
l. alternate, narrow-lanceolate, h. 1ft. Europe (Britain, especially 
in Oxfordshire) to Caucasus. See Fig. 39. (Sy. En. B. 1519.^) 
There are white and double-flowered forms of this species. 

F. meleagroldes (Guinea-fowl-like), fl. dark purple. April, h. 
bin. Altai Mountains, 1830. (B. M. 3280, under name of F. minor.) 

F. montana (mountain). A synonym of F. tunclla. 
F. obliCLUa (oblique), fl. brown, purple ; corolla turbinate. April. 
I. gUiucous, numerous, obliciue. /;. 1ft. Caucasus. (B. M. 857.) 
F. oxypetala (sharp-petalled). See Lilium oxypetalum. 

F. pallidiflora (pale-flowered).* fl. yellow, beautifully chequered 
in the interior. I. large, glaucous-blue. h. 9in. Siberia, 1880, 
Very distinct. See Fig. 40. (R. G. 209.) 

F. perslca (Persian).* fl. deep violet-blue, rather small, bell- 
shaped, slightly scented. Ii. 3ft. Persia, 1596. Very distinct 
and curious. (E. M. 1557.) 

F. p. minor (smaller). A smaller-flowered form, with the stamens 
slightly longer than the perianth. (B. M. 962.) 

F. pudica (chaste).* fl. dark yellow, more than lin. across, bell- 
shaped, usually solitary, sometimes t^\■in. ^lay. I. alternate, 
linear, glaucous. Stem upright, leafy. /'. 6iii. to 9in. North- 
west America. See Fig. 41. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Pritillaria — continued. 

F. p. lutescens (yellowisli) has a yL-Uowish-gi-een stripe on the 

outer segments of the perianth. 
F, p, nigra (blacl;) is a garden form, ivith leaves ^in. to ^in. 

wide, and tliree or four dark-coloured flowers. 
F. pyrenaica (Pyrene-se).* .^. deep purple, large. June. A. lift. 

Mountains of Southern France and Northern Spain, 1605. {V>. ftl. 


Fig. 40. FLOWEEiKG Stem of I'.vlliijii-lou.v 

F. recurva (recuryed).* ;(. brisht scarlet ; perianth sesments 
recurved. May. Stems one to nine-flowered. 7i. 2ft. California, 
1870. A very distinct and beautiful species, with floi\-ers nearly as 
large as those of F. Meleagris. See Fig. 12. (B. M. 6264.) 

F. ruthenica (Eussian). f. brown and yellow. Mav I linear- 
lanceolate. A. 1ft. Caucasus, 1826. (S" 15. F. G. se'r. ii. 213.) 

F. Sewerzowi (Sewerzow's). /;. drooping, forniiuK a loose 
raceme; periantli lurid purple, with a glaucous tijit outside 
g;i-eenish-yellow within, not at all tessellated, funnel-slnjird ■ s,'^- 
ments sub-equal, oblanceolate-oblong, sub-acute, with ,■; ruined 
Iceel outside down the lower half, which is more stron;;lv niaiJieil 
in the outer three, and a yellow-green nectary at the top of 
the claw mside. I. five or six below the inflorescence, all except 
the lowest opposite or sub-opposite, sessile, oblong, obtuse 
rather glaucous when young. Stem long, glaucous, teiete. 
h. lift. Turkestan, 1873. A very curious planl. (B. M. 6371 ) 
Syn. KoTolkoicia Sewcrzovji (R. G. 760). 

F'lG. 11. FrtlTILLARIA PUrilCA. 

F. tenella (tender).* Jl. yellowish, densely eljequered with purple- 
hrown : perianth divisions oblong-elliptic, rounded at apex, the 
nectariferous division at base narrow-oblon.g. April. I. distant 
from one another, nearly straight, linear-oblong ; the uppermost 
two or three forming awhorl, rather distant fremi thi/ Hnwer ; tlie 
lowest pair opposite or nearly so, the intennediatn ones altci-nate. 
.Stem stitf,'near]y straight. Maritime Alps, 1867. Sv,N. J<'.iiwii- 
tana (under which name it is figured in Fl, Meut. 66). There is a 
variety racrmusa (figured in 1!. M. 952). 

F. tulipifolia (Tulip-leaved).* .//. glaucous blue, solitary, variable 
in size, nodding, tulip-shaped; periantli segments sub-equal. 

Pritillaria — continued. 

oblong, obtuse, or oljtiisely apiculate, rusty brown-purple within^ 

not tessellated ; the outer dark glaucous blue, streaked with the 


same purple outside ; the inner with a broad glaucous blue band 
down the back. March. I. elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate, sub- 
acute, concave, sessile, straight ; sheath very short, nerveless 

FIG. 13. Fl,l)\Vi;UI\u STE.M oi I'm tillaria yfrtioili vta 

An Encyclopaedia of Horticulture. 


Fritillaria — continued. 

pale green ; uppev linear-lsuiceolate. Stem slender, leafless below, 
but there ulotlied with appressed sheaths. Caucasus, &c., 1872. 
An elesant little plant, remarkable for the peculiar colour of 
its flowers. (B. M. 5969.) 

F. VertlcUlata (verticillate). /(. ivhite, at llie base c.xternallj' 
green, and within at the base spriiilcled witli small purplish 
spots ; suliiav,\-, a.xillary, or terminal, nodiUng ; segments tip|)ctl 
with a green, callous, 'slightly pubescent apex. May. /.bright 
green, or sliglitly glaucous, somewhat crowded about" the middle 
of the stem ; the lowest pair opposite, nriny-nerved, witliout a 
eonsi)icuous middle rib, ovate, tapciing towards the apex, which 
is ratlicr bluut. Stem simple. Altaic iMountains, 1830. (B. M. 
3083, uuilcr uinue of F. Iciicaiitlia.) 

F. V. ThunbergU (Thuubcrg's).* rf. gTccuisli, mottled with 
jiale purple, small, solitary, bell-shaped. (. long, narrow, linear, 
ternuuating i» a tendril. China and Japan, 1880. See Fig. 43. 

F. Walujewi tWalujew's). /(. lead-coloured outside, within 
pur|ilc-bio\\u, uitli whitish spots, large, solitary. I linear, 
attenuated into a tendril ; those at the middle of the stem verti- 
cillate. /Lift. Central Asia, 1879. (E.G. 993.) 

miTILLARY. See Fritillaria. 

FRCELICHIA (nanioa in houoiu- of Jos. Al. Froelich, 
a German ijhysician and botaiiist, 1790-1841). Okd. 
Amarantacece. A g-eniis containing about ten species of 
annrral or perennial herbs, fennel in the warmer parts of 
the New World, from Texas to South Brazil. Flowers 
hermaphrodite, bracteate ; spilies sessile or stalked. 
Leaves opposite, sessile (radical stalked), ovate, linear- 
oblong or spathulate. They thrive in sandy loam and 
leaf mould. Proijagatod by seeds so;vn in heat, in spring'. 

F. floridana (Florida). //. white, tomentose or woolly, in ovate or 
olilniig spikes. /. varying from linear to oblong; bracts mostly 
blacldsli. shorter than the avooIIv calyx. Stem, erect, simple or 
branched. /i. 6in. to 3ft. Southern United States. (B. INI. 2603, 
under name of Opbtlhtcn jlnri,l„,in .) 

SPIT {Apli ropluiia i^pi.i.n}.i:i riu }. The iuseets secreting 
"Frog Spit," which often so disfigures plants, are com- 
monly known as Frog Hoppers. They belong to the same 
order as the ApliidiB, but to that section which has the 
whole of the irpper wings leathery. There are two simjjle 
eyes or " ocell: 
common to insects 

111 addition to the two compound ones 
eneral. It i« the larva3 of the 

Fig. 44. tRijtj HOPPEK (Aphrophora spuhl^ria), showing 
Larva, Froth}' Secretion, and Perfect In.sect. 

" hoppers " that produce Cuckoo Sjjit (sec Fig. 44). The 
former are plentiful in spring, while the perfect insects 
abound most in the autumn. AVhen the curious-looking- 
larviE are deprived of the shelter afforded by this sugary 
secretion, they appear at first quite helpless, and, if the 
day be hot, arc almost immediately killed. Hence an 
effectual mode of clearing plants of Cuckoo Spit, is to 
brush it off' during sunshine, and the insects are at the 
same time destroyed. This pest attacks the young shoots 
of plants, choosing the axil of a leaf for its abode, and so 
damaging the shoot in some cases as to cause it to die 
or become malformed. Carnations, Pinks, and similar 
plants suffer greatly from its ravages. The following 
remedies, together with a frequent syringing \s'ith clear 
water, will be found effective : 

Tobacco Liquid. To" a gallon of water add loz. of soft 
soap, and, wlien thoroughly dissolved, mix a tablespoonful 
of Corry and Soper's Nicotine, well syringing the plants. 
This is best applied lukewarm, and then well washed off 
with clean water in about an hour. 

Quas:<ia. ' Hteep -{lb. quassia chip:, in a gallon of l;oii- 
ing water, and, v/hen cold, add about the same quantity 

Frog' Hoppei', &c. — cunlinaed. 
of water. This should be applied with a 
not washed off' afterwards. It renders the 
plants natu^ieoa'-!, but (Iocs not injure thom. 

syi-inge, and 
stems of the 
ijitter aloes 

nia_v a.l-^ii 


temperature to 


a similar way. 
The leaves of palms and ferns are im- 
properly called Fronds. A true Frond is a combination of 
leaf and stem, as in many seaweeds and liverworts. 

The |ire.-e)iee of Frost denotes a fall of 
point at \vhich still \\'ater becomes 
^oliditied ; and its intensity is known liy the contraction 
of another liquid used in the cunstruction of the ther- 
mometer, which does not become frozen at any tempera- 
ture experienced in this country. Fahi-enheit's scale is 
that in use for thermometers in Great Britain, and this 
places freezing point at o2deg., and boiling water at 
1^12deg., the intervening space being divided equally 
into 180 parts, termed degrees. Similar divisions are 
made below freezing point, and the fall of the liquid in 
use, which is eitlier Mercury or Spirits of Wine, below 
this indicates, in so many degrees, the amount of Frost. 
On plants or other subjects unprotected, the action of 
Frost is from the top downwards towards the earth ; 
hence the value of, and safety frequently effected by, 
slight coverings that are non-conductors of hcLit, and 
consequently prevent it« loss by radiation. The effect 
of Frost on plant life is not always in prop(.'rtion tf.> 
its iiiten>ity or the hardiness of the xilant under what 
may be termed natural conditions. A spell of mild 
weather frcriuently ]i)a(_'es vegetation in a growing and 
tender state, especially in spring, when a sudden change 
to a few degrees of Frost may cause more destruction 
than a great deal at another time, when vegetation was 
more dormant. Frost acts most injuriously on anything 
wet, and is least destructive under the reverse condition. 
It is most successfully removed from plants too tender to 
withstand it, by adopting a method as gradual in effect 
as possible. Frost penetrates in a slow and natural way, 
and the greatest injury, if any, is caused "when it is sud- 
denly displaced by heat, either from sunshine or artificiaiJy. 
Syringing is sometimes recommended with tender subjects 
that have become frozen, but it should be remembered 
that water which is itself much above the freezing point, 
will, when applied, cause a sudden change to anything 
that is considerably below. Frost has a most beneticial 
effect on all soils exposed to its influence, by penetrating 
and pulverizing them, so that what was before unwork- 
able and useless, is afterwards rendered fertile and 
amenaljle to the successful cultivation of various crops. 

FRUCTIFICATION. All those parts composing 
the fruit of iilaul-.. 

FRUIT. T)i;it portion of a plant which consists of 
the ripened rar]iel.-~, and the parts adhering to them. 

FRUIT BORDERS. See Borders, Fruit. 

FRUIT GARDEN, n - Garden. 

PRUIT^GATHERING. Thi,^ cannot be too care- 
fully performed to avoid bruising, especially with those 
fruits having a tender skin. I>ry weather should be 
selected at all times for the operation outside, and only 
such gathered as are at the proper stage. It sometimes 
becomes necessary, at the expense, however, of quality, to 
select Peaches and similar fruits several days before they 
are fully matured, to admit of i^acking and transmitting 
them to a distnnco. It is important, in gathering these, 
that tlic necessary pressure be equally applied by the 
whole of the Angers, and the fruits carefully placed liottom 
downwards on some soft material, in a shallow tray or 
basket. Nothing is more quickly bruised, or shows its 
consequent effect by decay, than thin-skinned ripe fruits. 
Those grown under glass arc even more susceptible to 
injury in this wa\' tiiiin hardier ones from outside. The 
keeping jji-oiJcrtiu:; of Applet, Peart, and similar fruit-, 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Pruit-gathering — con filmed. 
depend a great deal on careful gatkering at the proper 
time, and subsequent storing ; an indication of the time 
is generally known by some of the fruit falling off, and 
by the condition of the pips. Fruit-gathering is always 
best performed by two persons, one to carry a proper 
basket, and the otlier to oolleot and place the fruit in it. 

PBUIT PROTECTORS. In the northern and 
other parts of the country, wdiere Apricots, Peaches, &c., 
do not succeed in the open air, on account of the annual 
destruction of the ilowers by frost, an erection of a 

Fig. 45. Wall-frlut Plant PKOXECTon. 

glass Protector above them (see Fig. 45, a) may frequently 
be found of great value. The framework should be fixed 
on stout brackets, and glazed on a system that admits 
of the glass being removed in summer to allow rain 
and plenty of air to get to the trees. Netting, trigi- 
domo, or other coverings, may be suspended from the 
front of the glass Protecto , in the direction shown by the 
dotted line. A portable Plant and Fruit Protector (see 

Fig. 46. Portable Plant and Fnurr Protector. 

Pig. 46) is usually a very useful structure for growing 
any dwarf sulijects in summer, and for storing plants, 
such as Stfawberries, in winter. 

PRUIT-ROOM. A structure specially set apart in 
gardens for the storing and preservation of fruit. It 
should have a dry, airy position, and one affected as little 
as possible by fluctuations of temperature. Means to 
prevent the occurrence of these internally are introduced 
into the best-constructed Fruit-rooms by building with 
hollow walls, or by placing wood partitions round and above 
the shelves inside, and allowing a channel between them 
and the wall or roof for a tree passage of air. The Fruit- 
room has usually a central walk and tiers of shelves on 
either side. The bottom of the latter should bo of lattice- 
work, so as to allow plenty of air amongst the fruit. It 
is best to have heat at command, either by a small flue 
or stove, or, better still, by hot-water pipes, with means 
of applying or stopping it as desired. It is not advisable 
to give more heat than is sufficient to preserve a dry 
atmosphere and maintain a steady cool temperature. 
Fruit, when kept too warm, invariably shrivels, and, if 

Pruit-room — continued. 
allowed to become very cold, any change to warmer air 
causes a condensation of moisture over the surface that 
is most injurious. It is con,sidered to keep and retain a 
better flavour when in a dark place, and, to this end, 
movable shutters or blinds may be used for excluding 
light at the windows. All fruit should be stored in a dry 
state, and constantly examined during wdnter for the 
removal of any part showing signs of decay, as a single 
specimen allowed to become rotten will speedily affect 
all others with which it comes in contact. A small ven- 
tilator in the roof, provided with means for closing in 
severe frost or in very changeable weather, will be suffi- 
cient to cause a change of air and allow the exhalations 
from the fruit to escape. 


PRUTICULOSE. Of very dwarf shrubby habit. 

FUCHSIA (named after Leonard Fiichs, 1.501-1566, a 
German botanist). Ord. Onogracexe. A genus comprising 
about fifty species of small shrubs or trees, natives, with 
comparatively few exceptions, of Central and Southern 
America, most of them having been introduced from 
Chili, Mexico, and Peru. Flowers trsually drooping, on 
axillary one-flowered pedicels, which are sometimes dis- 
posed in racemes or panicles at the tops of the branches. 
Leaves generally opposite. The Fuchsia ranks as one of 
the most ornamental and popular of garden plants. The 
first plant is stated to have been brought to this country 
by a sailor, about the end of the last century. It was 
observed growing in his window by Mr. James Lee, a 
nurseryman, of ^ the firm still existing under the name of 
Lee and Son, at Hammersmith, and, appearing to be a 
promising plant of an unknown kind, he succeeded, 
after some little trouble, in purcha.sing it. A stock 
was soon obtained, and the next year a large number 
of plants were distributed. The first representative of 
the genus had been discovered something like a century 
previous to this, but none had been introduced to this 
country. A tew species arrived in succession up to about 
1840, when the raising of varieties by seed seems to have 
commenced with that collected from species with long 
flowers, then recently received. From selection and care- 
ful fertilisation of the different flowers afterwards obtained, 
the numerous varieties now grown have descended. - Until 
about thirty years ago, these only included flowers with a 
red tube and sepals, and a blue or purple corolla, or those 
with creamy-white sepals and rose or pink corollas. Then 
a variety wag raised having a white corolla, and subse- 
quently double flowers, in various colours, appeared. These 
all combined have produced the numerous varied selections 
of the present day. Several of the old species are stiU 
largely grown, the profusion in which the flowers are pro- 
duced fully compensating for their small size individually. 
Many are amongst the most beautiful of hardy or half- 
hardy plants for outside borders, while others of a more 
tender constitution are distinct and interesting sub- 
jects for culture inside. F. macrostema globosa, F. m. 
gracilis, and F. m. Biccartoni are representatives of the 
former class; and F. holiviana, F. corymbiflora, F. fulgens, 
F. micropTiylla, F. procitmfcens, "and F. splendens, of the 
latter description. The use of the floriferous varieties 
for decorative purposes is well known, their graceful 
and usually compact habit rendering them general fa- 
vourites. Whether plants be required of a large size 
for exhibition, or others of smaller proportions for green- 
house or window decoration, centres of vases, and outside 
flower borders in summer, the Fuchsia is equally well 
adapted for one and all. Nothing is more attractive than 
those, in summer and autumn, in a greenhouse, if trained 
to the rafters or pillars, and their branches allowed to 
grow and droop naturally with the weight of the flowers. 

Propagation is effected by seeds for the raising of new 
varieties, and by cuttings for the perpetuation of 

An Encyclopaedia of Horticulture. 


Fuchsia— roii f m ued. 
already obtained, or for any of the species. Seeds rix:)en 
freely in summer on tlie majority of plants, if they are 
required. When ripe, they should be washed from the 
pulp srirrounding- them, and afterwards dried, being then 
either sown at once or kept until early the following 

Cultivation. Cuttings of Fuchsias, obtained from the 
points of young growing shoots that are free from flowers, 
root readily at any season. The best are those pro- 
duced by old plants when started in early spring, and 
these may be grown very rapidly the following summer. 
If extra-sized specimens are desired, some cuttings should 
bo inserted in autumn, and the young plants kept grow- 
ing all the winter. These will then be established in pots 
by the time the others arc put in, and will, consequently, 
be considerably advanced. It is not impossible, under 
faTouiable conditions and proper treatment, to insert 
Fuchsia cuttings in October, and grow pyramidal plants 
some 6ft. high to flower the following July. This is not 
the plan usually adopted, old-established plants, under 
good cultivation, being available for use several years in 
succession, and are, as a rule, easier to manage and more 
certain to succeed. The general treatment in the early 
stages is similar at any season. The cuttings should be 
placed in light soil, about six in a Sin. pot, and plunged 
in a warm propagating frame. When rooted, they should 
be potted singly and kept in a light ]iosition, to induce 
a short-jointed sturdy growth. A temperature of about 
GOdeg., with a rise by sun heat, is one most suitable for 
the young plants in spring, and plenty of water should 
be applied, with a syringing in the morning and afternoon. 
Apart from inducing growth, this tends greatly to keep 
down insects. Many of the best-habited varieties will 
require but little stopping or training beyond placing a 
stick to the leading growth, and looping the others to 
it. Before the roots become much restricted for room, 
thev should be placed in Sin. or Cin. pots, in which any 
of the plants will flower if so desired, or they may then 
be transferred to pots of almost any ordinary size. Fuch- 
sias will succeed if proper attention be bestowed, in 
almost any soil ; but where there is a choice, two parts 
loam to one of dried oow-dung, or any other good ma- 
nure, should he selected, well mixed, and used in a 
lumpy state. Plenty of air and a slight shade are 
necessary for those grown under glass in summer, par- 
ticularly when flowering. Liquid manure may be used 
with advantage so soon as the pots are filled with roots. 
Stock plants, or any required for growing another year, 
may be ripened outside, and stored at the approach of 
frost in any cool dry place. These should not be re- 
potted until new growth has commenced. Tender varie- 
ties o-rown in the open air should be at least one year 
old when planted, and they may be lifted and treated in 
a similar way. The hardy ones are more safe if covered 
with a mound of ashes after being cut down for the 
winter. Those cultivated on rafters or pillars in a green- 
house should be planted out and allowed to grow at will, 
except a little thinning of the growths occasionally; they 
may be kept dry at the root in winter and pruned back 
to a couple of eyes at the base of each shoot. 
P alDestris (mountain), fl. pale crimson ; petals liroaiUy 
luueitr (ihtuse, deep purple. August. (. opposite, never tt-r- 
nite oiilon»-lanceolate, acuminate, their margins shghtly vevo- 
lute'and distantly sub-dentate, pubescent above and Ijeluw. 
Branches round, densely pubescent. Ii. 20ft. Organ Momitanis, 
1R42 In its native habitat, this plant has a rambling, sub-scan- 
dent habit the lu-anches being fi"m 12ft. U. 18ft. or 20ft. liigh. 
(B. M. 3999.) 
P apetala (apetalous).* ,/(. drooping, ll-in. b;ng ; caly.x reel ; 
inhes Dale yellow; pedicels sub-corymbose, shorter than the 
flowers I alternate, petiolate, ovate, acuminated, quite entire. 
;,. 1ft. to 2ft. Peru. See Fig. 47. 
P arborescens (tree-like). /!. rose-coloured, as are also the 
ra^Tiicfefand pedicels, numerous, in copiously branched tenmnal 
nan Set October to February. I. elUptlc, attenuated at both 
SSs Mexico, &c. ^ Small tree or tall shrid.. (B^M. 2520. ) M NS. 
F. paniculata and F. synnciajlora (E. H. 18/5, .ill). 

Fuchsia — continued 
P. baciUaris (rod-branched). 

jl. on slender droojiing pedicels, 
springing from" the copious upper and younger branchlets, and 
thus forming a rather large leafy thyrse, or compact panicle ; 
petals deep rose, sub-obcordate, spreading, nerved, bearing a 
blunt macro at the retase apex. Summer. I. opposite or termite, 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, entire or denticulo-serrate, small, 
nearly sessile, peiuiinerved. llianclies with reddish bark. Mexico. 
A low. growing shrnb. (B. M. 4506.) 

P. boliviana (Bolivian).* fl. rich crimson, 2in. to Sin. long, tube 
trnnqict-shaped. h. 2ft. to 4ft. Bolivia, 1876. Of a compact 
branching habit, and free growth. (R. H. 1876, 150.) 

F. coccinea (scarlet). Il, petals violet, obovate and convolute ; 
sepals scarlet, purple at the base, oblong, acute. Summer. I. 
small, ovate, obtuse, denticulated, on short hairy petioles, downy 
white underneath, nearly .glal irons above, /i. 3ft. Brazil (?). A 
very pretty bushy plant, with slender d'oviiv )a-anches. (B. M. 

P. corallina (coral-red).» Jl. pendulous; corolla dark phira- 
colour ; sepals crimson. /. of greenish-crimson tint, the under 
side lieing of a dark crimson, opposite, in whorls of four or five. 
Young stems dark red ; old ones attaining a considerable height 
(20ft. dn favourable spots in West of England) and thickness. 
(G. C. n. s., XX. 565, under name of F. f'Xi'n.ii.'n.^i',:) 

r^VlPITT Ki 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Pnchsia — continupd. 

F. cordlfolia (heart-leaved), fl. scarlet, green ; pedicels axillary, 
solitary, one-flciwered ; calyx downy ; tube longer than ovate 
petals. Anr^ust and September. I. opposite or ternate, cordate, 
acuminate, denticulate, nearly glabrous. Ii. 5ft. Mexico, ISW. 
(B. It. 1841, 70.) 

F. corymbiflora (cluster-flowered).* jl. scarlet, nearly 2in. long, 
in long terminal clusters ; petals oblong-lanceolate, bifld ; sepals 
lanceolate, acute. Summer. L large, opposite, oblong-lanceolate, 
almost entire, with a rosy midrib. Branches somewhat tetra- 
gonal, reddish and downy when young, h. (Ift. to 6ft. Peru, 1840. 
See Fig. 48. (B. M. 4000.) 

49 Flowering I'.r.inth of Fuciisi.i i-ulge,\s. 

F. cylindracea (cylindrical-flowered), tl. scarlet. August h 

2ft. Demcvara, 1837. (B. E. 66.) 
F. decussata (decussate). A synonym of F. macro^fema ipafllls. 
F. dependens (drooping).* _/l., tube soft scarlet ; corolla deeptr 

in im1ou)\ in terminal leafy pendulous racemes. Summer. 

(. whurled, ovate-acute, toothed, slightly putiescent above, paler 

and more decidediv haiiy beneath. Cliiii. A. 2ft. to 4ft. 

Fig. .50. Flowrrinh r.RANri-i oi-' Fuciisr.v MACROSTr:M,\ 


Fuchsia — confiniierl. 

F. Domlniana (Dominy's). A garden hybrid, raised by Messrs. 
Veitch in 1852, lietween P. serrxtifolia and F. spectabilis. (F. d. S. 

F. fulgens (glowing).* jl. scarlet, 2in. long ; petals acutish, shorter 
than the ovate-lanceolate acute sepals ; racemes drooping at the 
apex. Summer. I. opposite, large, ovate-cordate, acute, denti- 
culated, glabrous, h. 4ft. to 6ff. Mexico, 1830. See Fig. 49. 
(B. M. 3801.) 

51. Furiisi.i M.iCROSTEMA GR.iClLls, showing Habit, and 
detached Single Flower and Leaf. 

F. macrantha (long - flowered). n. rosy, green, apetalous ; 
pedicels axillary solitary ■ tube of calvx long April to June. 
l. ovate-acute entne h ott tolumbTa 1844 Plant downy. 
(B. M. 4233. ^ ' 

I Fig. b'i. Fi.owicHiMi BitiNrii or Fuchsia macrostema ihumi 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Puchsia — continued. 

F. macrostema (large-ytamened).* fl., calyx scarlet; lobes of 
calyx itlilnn.i;', acute, exceeding the obovate spreading petals; 
pedicels axillary, nodding, longer than the flowers. July to 
October. I. three in a whorl, ovate, acute, denticulated, on short 
petioles. Branches glabrous. A. 6ft. to 12ft. Chili, 1823. Syn. 
F. magellaDica. 

F, m. conica (conical), fl. peudulou.s, solitary ; petals purple, 
about eiiujil in length to the scarlet sepals ; tube of corolla 
conical. June to October. I. three or four in a whorl, ovate, flat, 
denticulated, glabrous ; petioles pubescent, h. 5ft. to 6ft. Chili, 
1324. (U. 11. 1062.) 

F. m, globosa (globose).* Jl. globular ; petals purplish-violet; 
sepals purplish-red. Summer. I. ovate, acute, small, denticu - 
lated. h. 5ft. to 6ft. Chili. See Fig. 50. (B. M. 3364.) A seed- 
ling from this {F. riccartoni), one of the most handsome and the 
hardiest of all the outdoor Fuchsias, was raised at Riccarton, 
near Edinburgh, about 1830 ; it stands the winters, in many 
parts of Scotland, uninjured. 

F, m. gracilis (.slender).* fi., petals purple, convolute and retuse ; 
sepals scarlet, oblong, acute, exceeding the petals ; pedicels 
axillary, nodding, puberulous. Summer, autumn. I. opposite, 
lilabroiis, on long petioles, remotely denticulated. Branches 
tinely pubescent, h. 6ft. to 10ft. Mexico, 1825. See Fig. 51. 
(U. it. 847 ; B. U. 2507, under name of F. decussata.) Tliere is 
a beautiful variegated form of this species. 

F. m. pumila (dwarf). A variety with flowers much like uraciUt.-, 
but of dwarfer habit. See Fig. 52. 

F. magellanlca (Magellan). A synonym of F. viacrosteina. 

Fig. 53. Floiverixg Branch anb Single Flower of 
fuchsia microphylla. 

F. microphylla (small-leaved).* jL, petals deep red, retuse, 
toothed ; calyx scarlet, funnel-shaped, with ovate -acuminate 
lobes ; pedicels axillary. Autumn. I. opposite, small, elliptic- 
oblong, acutish, toothed, glabrous. Branches pubescent. /(. 2ft. 
Mexico, &c., 1828. See Fig. 55. (B. R. 1269.) 

F. paniculata (panicled). A synonym of F. arbor esccns. 

F. penduliflora (pendent-flowered).* ji. in axillary and terminal 
clusters ; tube rich crimson, shaded with maroon, 5in. to 4in. 
long, trumpet-shaped. March. /. 3in. to 4in. long, ovate, 
acuminate, glabrous. Tropical America, 1879. (F. M. n. s. 412.) 

F. procumbens (procumbent).* /. small, erect; tube yellowish, 
upper portion reflexed, blue. l. small, round. New Zealand, 1874. 
This exceedingly pretty little hardy creeper is principally grown 
on account of its large, oval, magenta-crimson berries, which 
remain on for months, and are very attractive during the winter. 
It is an admirable plant for a suspending basket. (B. M. 6139.) 

F. serratifolia (saw-edge-leaved), fi., petals scarlet, ovate- 
oblong ; sepals red, rather villous, liin. long, exceeding the 
petals, somewhat tumid at the base ; pedicels axillary, drooping. 
Summer. I. in whorls of three or four, narrow, oblong, acute, 
f'laudidarly toothed. Branches furrowed, reddish, h. 6ft. to 8ft. 
Peru, 1844." See Fig. 54. (B. M. 4174.) 

F. sessilifolia (sessile-leaved), fi. panicled ; petals red ; sepals 
pink and green. June. I. oblong-lanceolate, opposite or -whorled, 
with tHruiinal, pendulous, leafy racemes. Columbia, 1865. A 
pretty shrub. (B. M. 5907.) 

F. simplicicaulis (slightly-branched).* fi. rose-scarlet, one in 
the axil of each bract, pendent, numerous, handsome ; petals 
ovate, acute, shorter than the sepals. October. L ternate on 
the main stem and branches, 4in. to 5in. long, much smaller 
upon the pendulous, elongated, flowering branches ; ovate, ap- 
proaching to lanceolate, a little polished above, entire, on very 
short petioles ; those of the bracts sessile. Peru, 1858. A very 
beautifid plant. (B. M. 5096.) 

Vol. II. 

Fuchsia — coitiuaed. 
F. spectaMliS (showy), fl., peduncles red, axillary, solitary, 
single-flowered, shorter than the leaves ; calyx bright red, tube 
swollen at the base ; petals deep red, large, nearly orbicular, 
waved, very patent, and pressed, as it were, upon the segments of 
the calyx. 'September. I. mostly ternate, 6in. to 8in. long, between 
ovate and elliptical, petiolate, not tapering at the base, acute or 
slightly acuminate at the points, obscurely ciliated, entire at the 
margin, or only having minute tooth-like processes, occasioned 
by the presence of small oblong glands ; petiole erect or spread- 
ing ; stipules triangular between the petioles, h. 2ft. to 4ft. 
Andes of Cuenca. A moderate-sized handsome shrub. (B. M. 


Flowering Branch of Fuchsia serratifoll\. 

F. splendens (splendid).* fi. scarlet and gTeen, very showy. 
Early summer. I. ovate-cordate, pale green. Jt. 6ft. Mexico, 
1841. This is one of the l.iest and most distinct of the green- 
house species. (B. M. 4082.) 

F. syringseflora (Syringa-flowered). A synonym of F. arborcs- 

F. thymifolia (Thyme-leaved).* fi. red; petals obovate-oblong, 
undulated ; calyx funnel-shaped, with oblong-acute lobes ; pedi- 
cels axillary. Summer. /. about opposite, small, ovate or 
roundish-ovate, obtuse, nearlv entire, downv above, nearly smooth 
beneath. /(. 4ft. to 6ft. Mexico, 1827. (B. R. 1284.) 

F. triphylla (three-leaved).* fi. glowing cinnabar-red, about l^in. 
long, in terminal, nodding racemes ; petals shorter than the 
sepals. I. small, l^in. to Sin. long, purplish beneath, and tra- 
versed by numerous lateral veins that curve round and run into 
each other near the margin, h. 1ft. to 2ft. West Indies. A hand- 
some ornamental plant. (B. M. 6795,) 

F, venusta (charming), fi., petals scarlet, oblong-lanceolate, 
acute, with undulated margins ; sepals purple, about the same 
shape and length as petals ; pedicels axillary ; upper ones race- 
mose. August. I. opposite, and three in a whorl, elliptic, acute, 
entire, glabrous. Branches downy, h. 4ft. Central America, 
1825. (F. d. S. 558.) 

Varieties. The.^e are very numerous, and are annually 
increased by others, representing- a difference either in 
form, size, or colour. Many of the old varieties can 
scarcely be excelled in their general floriferous habit ; 
but those more recently raised have a remarkable varia- 
tion in sliape and length of flowers. The subjoined list 
includes a selection of the best for general cultivation. 

Varieties with Single Flowers. Alba coccinea, tulie 
cherry-coloured, sepals N\'hite, corolla rose, very distinct ; 
Aurora superba, rich salmon, corolla scarlet ; Beauty of 
CUYFFE Hall, tube and sepals blush-white, corolla rich car- 
mine-pink, large and free ; Beauty of Swanley, tube and se- 
pals white, corolla pink ; Beauty of Trowbridge, tube and 
sepals white, corolla light, good ; Bland'.s New Striped, tube 
and sepals scarlet, corolla plum-colour, striped rose ; Cannell's 
Gem, tube and sepals glowing red, corolla pure white, cupped, 
good ; Charmlng, tube and sepals red, corolla dark, showy and 
effective ; Delight, tube and sepals crimson, corolla bell-shaped, 
pure white, free and good ; Earl of Eeaconsfield, rosy-car- 
mine, corolla deep carmine, one of the best (this is a very 
remarkable hybrid— the seed-bearing parent being F. fxdgens 
—raised, several years ago, by Mr. Laing ; hitherto it has re- 
mained quite sterile) (see Fig. 55); Erecta superba, a curious 
strong-growing garden hybrid, with flowers nearly erect (see 
Fig. 56) ; Ethel, tube and sepals pure wdiite, corolla violet ; 
Gazelle, dark red, a floriferous variety, of good habit ; 
GENERAL Garfield, rich crimson, sepals broad, reflexed, 
corolla bluish; Gkand Duchess Marie, tube white, corolla 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

TvLchaisL— cuiit i nv ^il . 

Fig. 55. Fuchsia Earl of Beaconsfield. 

rose, free and good ; Inimitable, sepals scarlet, broad, finely 
reflexed, corolla deep violet ; James Lye, tube and sepals 
red, corolla deep violet, good dark variety ; Jeanne d'Arc, 
tube and sepals bright red, corolla pure white, extra good ; 
Jules Ferry, scarlet, corolla violet, mottled wliite ; Lady 

Tuchsia — continued. 

Heytesbury, white, corolla purple, free ; Lord Byron, bright 
crimson, corolla very dark, bell-shaped ; Lord Wolseley, 
sepals broad, deep red, corolla rosy-crimson, margined purple, 
extra fine; Lye's Rival, tube and sepals red, corolla violet- 
purple, very free; Marginata, white, corolla pink, margined 
with scarlet, of fine habit ; Mjgnonne, tube and sepals bright 
red, corolla pure whito, one of the best of its class ; Mr. J. 
HuNTLY, red, corolla plum-colour, showy dark variety; Mrs. 
E. Bennett, scarlet, corolla white, free; Mrs. J. Lye, tube and 
sepals white, corolla pink, habit branching; MRS. King, white, 

Fig. 57. Flower of Fuchsia Gipsy Queen. 

corolla rich carmine, good ; Mrs. Mein, tube and sepals crimson- 
scarlet, latter well reflexed, corolla white ; Pink Perfection, 
creamy-white, corolla violet ; Rose of Castile, .sepals blush, 
corolla purplish, good old variety ; Sedan, dark self-coloured 
variety, distinct and good ; Star of Wilts, cream, corolla violet, 
very fine ; Sunray, scarlet, corolla light purple, leaves crimson^ 
bronze and white, very ornamental; Thomas King, tube and 
sepals coral-red, corolla rich deep purple; Wave of Life, sepals 
scarlet, corolla violet, a good old variety with yellow foliage 


Fig. 56. Flowering Bra.nth of Fuchsia erecta superha. 

Fig. 58. FLOWER of Fu( iisia Miss Lucv Finnis. 

Varieties with Double Flowers. Alfred Dumesnil sepals 
clear criuLsoii, eoiolla pale violet, long; Avalanche carmine 
corolla (lark purple, one of the best doubles ; Champion of the 
World, coral-red, corolla dark purple, produces when fuUv 
developed, tlie largest flowers of any variety known ■ Df Mon- 
TALlVET, rosy-carmine, corolla violet, Haked, small full flower • 
Gem of Ii'swr'H, tube and sepals coral-red, corolla purple' 
striped; General, sepals deep rose, much reflexed, corolla 
rich violet, striped; Gipsv Queen, sepals scarlet and much 



Tuchsia— roi(h/tM(.'i('. 

rellexed.^curollLL very full, violt't (see Fi?,. 57); King of ti-ie 
Doubles, scarlet, corolla purple, striped ; Ki.ngsbuuyana, scarlet, 
corolla pure white, and remarkable for its size and shape ; Le 
Cygne, tube and sepals crimson, corolla white, dwarf ; Little 
Alice, scarlet, corolla pure white, ftood ; Marksman, sepals car- 
mine, corolla violet, habit good ; Marvellous, tube and sepals 
rose, corolla blue, full ; Milne Edwards, coral-red, corolla bluish- 
violet; Minstrel, rosy-crimson, corolla ivory-white, striped, full ; 
Miss Lucy Finnis, tube and sepals coral-red, corolla pure white, 
large and very full (see Fig. 58) ; Wiss L. Yidler, sepals crimson, 
corolla violet, good; Mrs. H. Cannell, sepals bri;iht rrimson, 
broad, corolla pure white, extra tine ; Nelly Morton, .scarlet, 
corolla white ; Pierre Ooigneaux, sepals lij^ht red, corolla deep 
carmine, poi.'uliarly furnied. 

rUEL AND rURNACES. The necessary annual 
supply of Fuel for heating purposes forms a considerable 
and very important item in garden expenditure. The bulk 
of that used in old-fashioned flues was coal, either as 
supplied from the pit or mixed with cinders. Since the in- 
troduction and general adointion of heating by hot water, 
coke has become a substitute in most cases where it can 
be obtained. The use of coal in large boilers would soon 
choke the flues with soot, and tliis is one important objec- 
tion. Various gases are removed vv^ith the smoke in the 
manufacture of coal gas for burning, and the coke which 
remains contains about two-thirds of carbon, and forms 
the strongest heating combustible material available in 
quantity for horticultural piirposes. The large pieces and 
those of medium size are of the best quality ; the small, 
generally termed " breeze," being miich inferior, and sold 
at a lower price. Combustion is first caused by heat, and 
it increases as the heat becomes more intense. A certain 
quantity of Fuel consumed inside a Furnace, transmits the 
heat evolved by combustion to the boiler, &c., surrounding 
it, or, if allowed, a great part passes to the chimney, where 
it is completely wasted. A draught, caused by the opening 
of the damper and ash-pit door at the same time, is a 
means whereby much oxygen is admitti d to the fire, and 
a passage opened for the escape of the ascending heat. 
This is one of the principal things to avoid by using the 
damper, so that the greatest possible amount of heat may 
be utilised, -with, at the same time, an economical use of 
Fuel in proportion. 

FUGACIOUS. Lasting but a short time. 

PU0OSIA (named in honour of Bernard Cienfugos, a 
Spanish botanist of the sixteenth century). Stns. Cien- 
fuegia, Cienfugosia, and Rciloittea. Ord. Malvacece. A 
genus comprising about a score species of greenhouse ever- 
green shrubs ov sub-shrubs, natives of tropical America, 
Africa, and Australia. Flowers often yellow, surrounded by 
an outer calyx or involucel of six or more leaves, within 
which is a flve-clcft calyx dotted over with black spots, 
and five oblique petals. Leaves entire or lobed, rarely 
partite. Fugosias succeed in a peat and loam soil, to 
which a little silver sand may be added. Proi:)agated by 
cuttings, made in April or May, and inserted under a 
bell glass, in mild bottom heat. The species here de- 
scribed arc those iisually seen in cultivation. 

F. cuneiformis (wedge-shape-leaved). /. red ; petals about li,m. 
long, slightly tomentose ; involucre very small, minutely five or 
six-toothed, placed a little below the calyx ; peduncles short 
and thick. June to August. I. cuneate-oblong or broadly linear- 
obtuse, lin. to 2in. long, entire, thick and somewhat fleshy. 
h. 15ft. West Australia. Shrubby and glabrous. Syns. Hibiscus 
cuneiformis and Lagunaria cuneiformis. 

F. hakesefolia (Hakea-leaved). /. purple-lilac, large, on axillary 
pedunclfs, articulate, and often bearing a small bract about the 
middle ; petals 1-Mn. to 2in. long. August. I. from deeply bi- 
pinnatifid to trifid only, or the upper ones entire, often several 
inches long, the whole leaf or lobes narrow-linear, somewhat 
fleshy, grooved above or almost terete, h. 8ft. to 10ft. South 
Australia, 1846. An erect shrub. (B. M. 4261.) Syns. Hibiscus 
hakecefolius a.nd B. midtifidus (P. F. G, vii. 105). 

F. heterophylla (vaiirms-leaved). ji. yellow, with purple claws. 
June. I. ciliated, ellijitical, entire, rarely trihd. h. 3ft. South 
America, 1822. Sv,\. UcdoiUea heterophylla. (B. M. 421S.) 

FULICrlNOUS. Dirty brown, verging upon black. 

FULLER'S TEAZEL. See Dipsacus FuUonum. 

FULVOUS. Dull yellow, with a mixture oJ' grey 
and brown. 

FUMANA. Tills genus is now included, by most 
authorities, under Helianthemum {which see). It forms 
a distinct section of that genus, and is characterised by its 
yellow flowers, narrow linear leaves, and erect habit. 

FUlVIAKiIA (Spanish /tuMari'a, from famus^ smoke; in 
allusion to the disagreeable smell of the plant, or to its 
poetical name. Smoke of the Earth). Fumitory. Includ- 
ing Discocapnos and Platycapnos. Ord. Fumariacece. A 
genus of perhaps a score species of annual (rarely peren- 
nial) herbs, usually branched, often climbing. Flowers 
small, in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes ; petals four, 
erect, conniving, the posterior gibbous or sj^urred at the 
base, the anterior flat, two inner narrow, cohering by their 
tips, winged or keeled at the back. Leaves much divided ; 
segments very narrow^ ISTo less than four species of this 
genus are found in Britain, but that described below is 
the only one worth growing. They are all of the easiest 
possible cultivation. Seeds xuay be sown in any ordinary 
soil, in spring. 

F. capreolata (ti'iidrilled).* fl. whitish, tinged with dark purple ; 

spur comprpssed, Idnnt, short, mitre-iormed ; racemes oblong. 

I\Iay tit SHptemlicv. /. bipinnate ; petioles somewhat tendrilled. 

h. 4ft. Kurope (Britain), Asia. 
F. formosa (beautiful). A synnuym of Diccntra formosa. 

FUMARIACE.S:. An order of herbs, now included, 

by Bentham aud Hook^^r. a.s a tribe of PapaveraceT. 
Flowers irregular ; sepals two, deciduous ; petals four, 
in two usually very dissimilar pairs, cruciate, irregular, 
one or both of the outer i^airs often saccate or spui-red, 
and the tw^o inner frequently cohering at the apex so as to 
include the anthers and stigma. Leaves alternate, usually 
divided, exstipiilate. Stems brittle. The species possess 
slight bitterness and acridity, and are natives of the 
temperate and warm regions of the Northern hemisphere 
and of Southern Africa. Five of the seven genera are : 
Adlumia, Corndnlis, Dicenfm, Fiimaria, and Hypecoiun. 
There are about 100 specie?. 

FUMIGATING. The process of destroying insects, 
principally Thrips and various Aphides, by means of 
tobacco smoke. Tobacco itself is seldom used for the 
operation, being too expensive. The various preparations 
supplied by nurserymen, or other Arms of repute, as 
Fumigating mixtures, answer the same purpose most 
effectually. They are manufactured by soaking brown 
paper, pieces of rag, &c., in a strong solution of tobacco 
juice, and afterwards drying them for use. Only that 
which is known to be of good quality should be used, 
as valualile plants may be either injured or destroyed 
by the effects of smoke from material prepared from a 
solution containing injuiious ingredients. A dull, still 
evening is best for Fumigating in any house or frame, 
as the smoke does not then escape so quickly. The 
leaves of the plants should, if possible, be dry at the 
time. The amount of smoke that may be allowed with 
safety, must depend on the hardiness of the subjects to 
withstand it. As a rule, it is always safer to moderately 
fill the structure on one evening, and again on the follow- 
ing morning, or on two successive evenings, than to run 
the risk of applying too much at once, with tJie inten- 
tion of not repeating the operation. Fumigating may 1;)g 
practised with advantage, more as a preventative to the 
increase of insects, especially in spring. Care should be 
taken never to allow sunshine on a house with smoke 
inside, or tender plants are certain to be scorched. If 
still, rainy weather be selected, this is always avoided. 

Fumigators are manufactured of various descriptions, 
but are not much used in large establishments, an open 
iron vessel, having a cross handle and a grating at the 
bottom, or some other means of a similar kind, being 
employed with equally good results. Most of the pre- 
parations of tobacco paper now sold burn without the use 
of bellows ; consequently, the operator need not remain 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Fumig'ating — continued 
inside the house if the vessel containing' the fire is placed 
near the door and carefully watched from the outside. 
The most important point is not to allow the material 
to flame. Some Fumig-ators have a perforated lid to 
prevent this. A layer of damp moss may also be used for 
a similar purpose where there is danger of ignition. 

FUMITORY. See Fumaria. 

FUNERAL CYPRESS. A common name of Cu- 
pressus fuuebris (which see). 

FUNGI. A large class of cryptogams, distinguished 
from alg£e more by habit than by any general character. 

Fig. 59. Spores of Fungi (Agaricus). 

" They are polymorphous, (often) ephemeral, annual or 
perennial, never green ; composed either of filaments, or of 
a loose or close tissue, pulpy or fleshy, rarely woody ; some- 
times furnished with peculiar vessels, containing a white, 
yellow, or orange milky juice. They grow above or under 
ground, on decomposing vegetable or animal matter, or 
are parasites on vast numbers of phsenoga- 
mous plants, and even on other Fungi. They 
are very rarely found on stones, or in water. 
In no particular can they be compared with 
phsenogams, having no organs comparable with 
leaves and flowers. Among acotyledons, they 
approach algte in their vegetation, and lichens 
in their fructification, but they have no 
fronds. Fungi have nearly the same geo- 
graphical distribution as lichens ; they are 
met with in the tropics, and in the coldest 
regions of both hemispheres, at the top of 
the highest mountains, beyond phasnogamic 

Fungi — continued, 
ricas and Lactarids, are poisonous. To distinguish between 
edible and poisonous Fungi is a very difficult matter" 
(Leveille). With the exception of the Ergot of Eye or 
Wheat, Fungi are now seldom employed in medicine. 
Fig. 59 shows spores of a number of species of the huge 
genus Agaricus. Most of the species of this genus 
have colourless spores, but in some they are pink, brown, 
or black; they are very variable in size; some, also, are 
smooth, whilst a few are rough or nodulose— especially 
amongst those in which the colour is pink. Fig. 60 
represents the Candlesnuff Fungus which is frequently 
seen on decaying wood. Some of the minute Fungi — 
such as the Peronospora infestans, which attacks the 
potato and other Solanaceous plants — are extremely de- 
structive, and amongst the worst pests against which 
the gardener has to contend. 

FUNKIA (named after H. Funck, 1771-1839, a 
German botanist). Plantain Lily. Stns. Hosta, Saus- 
surea (of Salisbury). Oed. Liliacece. All the species 
of this genus (according to Mr. Baker) are described 
below. They are handsome, hardy, herbaceous plants. 
Flowers solitary in the axils of the bracts, forming a 
raceme. Leaves broadly ovate or cordate. Eoots tuberous, 
fascicled. These fine plants are admirably adapted for 
the lawn, shrubbery border, beds, or rockwork ; and, 
when grown in pots, they form very effective subjects for 
the greenhouse or conservatory. They thrive best when 
the gronnd, in whi.:;h they are to be grown, is deeply 
dug, and well enriched with rotten manure. Propagation 
may be effected by cutting the crowns through with a 
sharp spade during winter, or when they begin to start 

Fig. 60. CANUHiSNUFF FUiNGUS {,Xvi,.\ria 

vegetation. The smell of Fungi is not gene- 
rally strong, and might be termed fungoid 
when it is mild and pleasant, like that of 
the Mousseron (Agaricus albellits). They arc 
usually mild, and not very pleasant to the 
taste. Some are so extremely acrid that it 
would be dangerous to retain much of them 
in the mouth ; however, this acridity disap- 
pjears when they are properly cooked. Many 
species, as Truffles, Morels, and certain Aga- 
rics, are edible, and much soug'ht after. Many 
others, which strongly resemble the preceding, 
and which nearly all belong to the genera Aga- 

Fig. 61. FuNKlA SIEI30LDIANA, 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Punkia — coiUiuued. 
ill spring-. The latter season is, perhaps, the mo^t suitable, 
as the mutilated parts then quickly heal. None but 
strong, healthy clumps should be divided, and eacli 
portion should comprise several crowns. The genus is in a 
state of much confusion, from the number of garden 
varieties and synonyms. 

F. Fortune! (Fovtune's). ,/f,, perianth pale lilac, funnel-shaped, 

l.Mn. Ion;:;', the lanceolate ascending divisions half as long- 
as the tube. July. I. six or eight to a stem ; blade cordate- 
ovate, cuspidate, pale green on both sides, conspicuously and 
persistently glaucous, furnished with ten or twelve arching veins 
on each side, between the midrib and the margin, h. VAt. 
Japan, 1S76. 

F. grandlflora (large-flowered).* rf. fragrant; perianth pure 
wdiite, nearly ain. long, dilated gradually from a tube -iin. 
thick ; scape about 2ft. high, bearing a twelve to fifteen- 
flowered raceme. July to September. L ovate, with a slightly 
cordate base. Sin. to 9in. long, 4.iin. to 5in. broad ; petiole 1ft. 
long ; edges incurved until they meet. .Japan. Svn. _/■'. lapo/iica. 
(V. d. S. 158; a. C. n. s., x. 629.) 

F. japonica (Japanese). A synonym of F. [/ramlijlora. 

F. lancifolia (lance-leaved), /f., perianth white or with a lilac 
tinge, Iin. to 1-^.in. long, dilated suddenly from a tube not more 
than a line in thickness ; scape Sin. or 9in. high, slender, with the 
raceme hardly, if at all, overtopping the leaves ; raceme 3in. to 
5in. long, six to ten-flowered. August. I. green, lanceolate, 
4in. to 5in. long, IMn. to 2in. broad, narrowed iOTadually towards 
both ends ; petiole 6in. to Sin. long ; edges not mcurved. Japan, 
1829. (E. U. 3663.) F. albo-mar>,inata only difters by its rather 
larger flowers and leaves, slightly variegated towards the edge 
with white. F. vndulata is another garden form with irregu- 
larly frilled or crisped leaves, which are copiously variegated 
\\ ith streaks or large patches of white. 

F. ovata (ovate).* jl., perianth bluish-lilac or white, IMn. to 2in. 
long, dilated suddenly from a tube ^in. in thickness ; scape 
1ft. to IMt. long, overtopping the leaves ; raceme ten to fifteen- 
flowered. INIay. I. ovate, 5in. to 9in. long, 5in. to 5in. broad ; 
petiole 4in. to 12iu. long ; edges not incurved. .Japan, Northern 
China and Eastern Siberia, 1790. The commonest and best-known 
species. Syx. IlemerocalUs ca-n'lca. (B. JM. 394.) 

F. o. marginata (margined).* A variety in Miiich the leaves are 
l.iroadly niargiiied with white. 

F. Sieboldlana (Siebold's).* y/., perianth white, Mith a pale lilac 
tinge, 2in. to 2k\\'\. long; scape with the raceme not overtopping 
the leaves ; racemes 4-in. to 6in. long, ten to fifteen-flowered. June. 
I. glaucous, broadly cordate-ovate, lOin. to I2in. long, 7in. to Bin. 
broad; petiole Sin. to 12in. long, edges not incurved. Japan. 1856. 
See Fig. 61. (B. R. 1839, 50.) 


Fro. 62. FuNKi.v subcorpata. 

F. subcordata (sub- cordate).* ./?., perianth pure white, 4in. to 
4v^in. long, gradually dilated from a tube :iin. in thickness ; 
scape Iwft. to 2ft. long ; raceme nine to fifteen-tiowered. August. 
l. cordate-ovate, pale"' green, 6in. to 9in. long, 3in. to 5in. broad ; 
petiole 6in. to Sin. long. Japan, 1830. Syns. He incrocallis alba 
(A. B. R. 194), H. cordata, H. jaoonica (B. I\I. 1433), H. planta- 
'juua. See Fig. 62. 

FUBCATE. Forked. 

TVRCRTBA (named in honour of A. F. Fourcroy, 
1755-1S09. a celebrated French che2nist). Stn. Four- 
cro'in, O'dl). Amaryllidecp. A genus of about fifteen 
species of rery noble greenhouse or stove plants, closely 
allied to Ar/ai-ey but with horizontally spreading perianth 
segments, For culture, &c., see Agave. 

Furcrsea—' unttnued. 

F. Bedinghausii (Bedinghausen's).* i'. grecni>h ; scape 12ft. to 
loft, high ; branches drooping. /. thirty to afty in a rosette, 
lanceolate, about 5ft. long ; margin minutely denticulate. Trunk 
3ft. high. Mexico, 1860. SVNS. iioezlia reffia, Yucca argyrophylla, 
Y. Pannciiticri, Y. Toncliana. 

.^ "^ 

Fig. 63. Furcr.ea cutiE;NSis_, yhowing Inflorescence, with 
Bulbils developed instead of Flowers. 

F, cubensis (Cuban).* ji. greenish. Autumn. I. twenty-five to 
thirty in a rosette, bright green, rigid in texture, channelled 
and "sn^ooth down the face, generally scabrous on the back, 
the end a minute brown, scarcely pungent point ; edge armed 
with regular hooked brown prickles. Tropical America, 1879. 
One of the commonest and best known of all the species. See 
Fig. 63. 

F. C. inermis (unarmed). This plant differs from the ordinary 
F. cuhciisis by its less rigid leaves, and by the total or almost 
entire suppression of the marginal teeth, which in the type are 
very close and large, and armed with pungent horny brown 
spines. Tropical America. (B. i\I. 6543.) 

F. elegans (elegant).* Jl. greenisli-white; scape 20ft. to 25ft. high. 
I. forty to fifty in a rosette, lanceolate, 5ft. to 6ft. long ; prickles 
brown, honked, horny. Mexico, 1868 Plant stemless. SVNS, 
F. Olii'js''i-€;i!iUi, F.pugioniformis. 

F. flavo-viridis (yellow-green), rf., perianth pale yellowish- 
gTeen ; tube incorporated with the obtusely triangular ovary ; 
scape 12ft. to 14ft. high, naked below, but bracteated above, 
forming a long, loose, racemose panicle. I. radical, more or less 
spreading, and somewhat tortuose, lanceolate, pungently acumi- 
nate, spinulose at the margin, h. 14ft. Mexico, 1846. (B. M. 

F. fcetida (fLetid). A synonym of F. gigantea. 

F. Ghiesbreghtii (Ghiesbreghfs). A synonym of F. elegans. 

F. gigantea (giganticV* jl. milk-white inside, greenish on the 
back outside ; scape 20ft. to 30ft. high. L forty to fifty in a dense 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Furcrsea — continued. 

rosette, lanceolate, ^ft. to 6ft. lon,!i- ; mnrain usnally entire- 
Trunk 2ft. to 4ft. high. South America, 1690. Syn. F. fcctuki. 
See Figs. 64 and 65. 

" I i» X^ , 


F. longteva (long-lived).* fl. ivliitish ; scape 30£t. to lOit. Ion? ■ 
limiiclies spreading, compound. I. numerous, in a dense rosette 
lanceolate, 4ft. to Btt. long. Trunk about 3ft. to 4ft., but in a 
wild state, said to reach 40£t. to 60ft., in beight. Mexico, 1833. 
This is probably the handsomest species of the genus ; it is per- 
fectl.v hardy in the open at the Scilly Isles, whei-e it has fre- 
ciuently flmvered. (B. M. 5519.) 

F. puglonlformis (dagger-shaped). A synonym of F. defiavs. 

F. Selloa (Sello's). fl. white, tinged with gi-een ; scape 15ft. to 
16ft. long ; panicle 3ft. broad. I. thirty to forty in a dense rosette, 
lanceolate, 3ft. to 4ft. long ; margin with upcurved brown spines 
about Jm. long. Trunk none or scarcely any. (E. M. 6148.) 

F. undulata (waved).* ]1. all drooping, usually in pairs ; perianth 
pale green ; segments narrow-oblong, obtuse, obtusely keeled 
down the centre. November. I. forming a flat crown 3in. in 
diameter, not very numerous, strict, spreading, thick, ensiform, 
long acuminate, terminated by a pungent chestnut-brown spine' 
obscurely keeled at the back, which is scabrid ; margin sub' 
undulate, with incurved chestnut-coloured stout spines. Stem 
none, or very short, h. 10ft. Me.\ico, 1868. (B. M. 6160.) 



Scaly, mealy, scurfy. 
Fuel and ruriiaces. 

PUBZE. Hee Ulex europjevis. 

PUSIFOBM. Spiudle-shaped, 


G.9:BTNEBA (named after Dr. Jo.seph Gajrtner, a 
celebrated German botanist, 1732-1791). Stns. Frutesca, 
Sykesia. Ord. Loganiacew. A genus containing about 
twenty-five species of handsome store glabrous shrubs 
or trees, natives of West Africa, Mauritius, Madagascar, 
and the Malayan Islands and Peninsula. Flowers white, 
green, or rose-coloured ; in some species, not unlike 
those of the common Privet, and arranged in a similar 
manner ; in others, disposed in compact terminal heads ; 
and in others in corymbs ; calyx usually very minute. 
Leaves opposite, entire, coriaceous, penniveined. They 
thrive in a mixture of loam and peat. Cuttings of 
firm shoots, made in April, will root, if inserted in sand, 
under a hand glass, in heat. The species here described 
are those best known in cultivation. 

G. obtusifolia (obtuse-leaved), fl. composed of five petals, the 
lower two more expanded, the upper three completely refiexed, 
the uppermost one has a rosy tinge round a yellowish base, 
the other four are white ; fragrant. March. I. oblong, obtuse. 
7i. 20ft. China, 1810. A large shrub. 

G. racemosa (racemose).* fl. somewhat resembling G. obtusifolia> 
but larger, more beautiful, and exceedingly fra,gTant ; exterior 
petals oblong. April. I. ovate-oblong, acute. Various parts of 
India, 1795. A very handsome species. (A. B. R. 600.) 

CfAGEA (named after Sir Thomas Gage, a British 
botanist, who died at Eome in 1820). Ord. Liliacem. A 
genus of about a score species of hardy bulbs, natives of 
Europe, temperate Asia, and Northern Africa ; formerly 

like the root of 

Fig. 65. Branch of iNn.uaESCENCii, and Single Fioweh of 


An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gagea — (■o)ifi)i}ip(l. 
ino'iudcd under Oniitliof/alnm. Flowers gTeenisli-yellow, on 
■ci S'cape, in a terminal bracteated umbel. Leaves radical, 
linear. The species closely resemble each other; bnt few 
of tlirui, llo^Yever, are seen in gardens. For culture, i:ee 

G. lutea (yellow).* Yellow Star of Bethlehem. Jf. three or four 
ill :l H;it raceme, almost contracted into an umhel ; the leaf-like 
Inacts ;is long as the pedicels or longer ; perianth segments yellow, 
Mitli a green back, very spreading, narrow-oblong. Spring. I. 
one, or very rarely two, linear, pointed and cnrved like tbose^of a 
Tulip. Stem slender, rarely 6in. high. Europe and Russian 
Asia, except the extreme North ; also occun-ing in several yjarts 
of England, and, but rarely, in the Lowlands of ScotUmd. 
(Sy. En. B. 1522.) 

G. stenopetala (narrow-petaled). Ji. in umbels ; perianth pale 

yullnw, deeply six-parted. March. I., root ones solitary, glau- 
cous, revolute, linear-lanceolate, acute, strongly three-nerved ; 
^.cape leaves opposite, lanceolate, acute, sharply keeled, glaucous, 
pnliescent, and fringed with long hairs. Europe. (S. B. F. G. 

177, under name of (r. tihitica.) 

GAGNEBINA (nainod in houonr of P. Gagnebin, a 
botanical writer of the seventeenth century). Ord. Le'jii- 
viinosce. An elegant, unarmed, stove evergreen shrub, 
closely allied to Mimosa (which see for cultivation). 

G. tamariscina (Tamarix-like). /. yellow ; spikes crowded at 
tin.- tnp ijf the liranclie.-;, di:?posed in a kind of racemose corymb. 
I. with aliuut t\\e[it\- pairs of pinnce, each pinna bearing al.Kmt 
thirty pairs of leatlL'ts. h. 6ft. Mauritius, 1824. 

GAILLAHDIA (named in honour of M. Gaillard, a 
FrL-ncb patron of beitany). Okd. Gompositce. A genus 
of \cvy ornamental hardy annual or perennial herbaceous 
plant--, natives of North and extra-tropical South Ame- 
rica. Flower-heads yellow or purple. 2in. across, single, 
and supported on naked stalks; ray-florets three to tive- 
toothed, often two-coloured \ receptacle furnished with 
filiform bristles between the florets. Leaves sometimes 
liinnatifid, but usually entire or obscurely toothed, lance- 
shaped and rough ; the cauline ones sessile. There are 
about eight species, all thriving in a good light friable 
soil, in masses. Propagation may be effected by cuttings, 
in autumn or spring ; also by division, in the latter In cold localities, the perennial species fre- 
qncntly die in winter: in this ease, seeds should be sown 
on a mikl hotbed, in February or March. The best 

Fig. 66. Flowehlng liRA>xr-T of G.aillardia arist.-vta 


Gaillardia — coidinaed. 
method of propagating the annuals is by cuttings, which 
are readily obtainable, as these form far superior plants 
to those yirocured from seed. 

G-. amblyodon (Idunt-toothed).* /I. -heads terminal, peduncled; 
ray-linrets liet-p idond-red, twelve to fourteen, spreading; limb 
cuneate-oblnng, obtusely threedobed; disk-florets short. October. 
I., radical ones sub-spathulate ; cauline ones semi-amplexicaul, 
oblong, snb-acute, coarsely toothed beyond the middle, usually 
contracted below it. /(. 2fc. to 3ft. Texas, 1375. Annual. (E. M. 

G. aristata (awned).* jl.-headR yellow, with prominent exserted 
reddish styles in the disk, lin. to 3in. across. Autunm. I. lanceo- 
late, entire, or remotely toothed. Ii. Vdt. United States, 1812. 
Perennial. (i>. M. 2940.) There are several very handsome 
varieties of this species ; notably grandijlora (see Fig. 66), (Gn., 
Dec. 15, 1884), and grandijiora maxima. 

G. pulchella (neat).* Jl. -heads larger than those of the tirst- 
named species ; ray-florets crimson, tipped with bright yellow. 
Autumn. /. coarsely and sparsely toothed. /(. 2ft. to 3ft. Annual. 
(E. M. 1602, under name of G. bicolor.) A new form, named 
Lorenziana, is very handsome and unique in appearance : the 
ray .and disk - florets develop themselves into tubular funnel- 
shaped three to flve-lobed florets, and form handsome flower- 
heads, which are admh-aldy adapted for cutting. Another 
variety, iiaiia, is a fine free-flowering form of good compact 
habit, and with large flower.-;, which are reddish-crimson, bor- 
dered with citron-yello\\". 

G. p. picta (painted). '■ A form with some'\\hat succulent leaves, 
and the more or leas subulate fimlnillre of the receptacle shorter 
and stouter. (B. I\I. 5568, under name of G. bicolor Driua- 
The following are mere garden names for slightly-varying forms 

of the foregoiirg species : Bos.selan\ coronata, hyhrkla, Luiselli, 

Richards-oni, and Telemachi. G. viniiatifida is a species not often 

seen in cultivation, 

GALACTIA PINNATA. A synonym of Bo.yhifrta 

GALACTITES (from fiala, gahfltos, milk; in allu- 
sion to the veins of the leaves being milk-white). Ord. 
CompositcB. A genus of hardy annual or biennial erect 
herbs, nearly allied to Cnicns-^ from which it differs 
chiefly in the outer florets of the flower-head being sterile 
and larger than the others, as in Centaurea. Leaves 
pinnatifid, with spiny - pointed segments, spotted with 
white above, and covered with cotton - down below. 
There are three species, all inhabiting the Mediterranean 
region. They thrive in any common garden soil, and 
may be propagated by seed, sown in the flower border, 
in March or April. The species here described is the 
one best known to cultivation. 

G. tomentosa (woolly). Jl. -heads purple, pedunculate. July. 
/(. iJjft. 1758. This species Is remarkable among the thistles for 
having a milky juice, similar to that so frequently found in the 
Chicory group. 

GAIiACTODENDRON (from gala, milk, and den- 
dron, a tree; in reference to the copious milky juice). 
Cow-tree. Oed. Urticacece-. This genus is now usually 
referred to Brosimum. It is only met with in botanic 

G. utile (useful), the Palo de Vaca, first described by Humboldt, 
is a native of Venezuela, where it forms large forests, and attains 
a height of upwards of 100ft., with a smooth trunk, 6ft. or 8ft. in 
diameter. On incisions being made in the trunk, the natives 
obtain an abundant supply of milky sap, which is extensively 
employed by them as a substitute for milk. (B. M. 5725, 3724.) 

GALANTHUS (from gala, milk, and anthos, a flower, 
in reference to the milk-white flowers). Snowdrop. Ord. 
AmarijllidetT. A well-known genus, containing three 
species of hardy bulbous plants. It is distinguished from 
Leucoiutn principally in having the three inner segments 
of the perianth shorter than the outer. Snowdrops are 
well-known and general favourites, on account of the 
modest beauty displayed by their flowers at the early 
season in which they appear ; hence, no word of recom- 
mendation is needed to insure their cultivation, which 
is of the simplest description, as the roots thrive in 
almost any soil or position out.side. "When once planted, 
it is best to let them take care of themselves, as lifting 
has a tendency to dry the bulbs, which is not desirable 
if it can be avoided. Snowdrops are cheap and attractive 
subjects for naturalising in grass, by woodland drives, &c., 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Galsmtlnxs— continued . 
as, if planted where the soil is suitable, and left alone, 
they increase rapidly, and annually appear to flower almost 
suddenly, about the beginning of February. j 

Pot Culture. If a number of roots are purchased with j 
the ordinary Dutch bulbs in autumn, and about eight j 
placed in a 5in. pot, an intsresting addition may be ob- ! 

Galauthus — con tin 

Fig. 67. Flowers of Galanthhs Elwesii. 

tained for greenhouse decoration in January. Snowdrops 
will not bear forcing, and, if it is attempted, failure in 
securing ilowers is almost certain. After potting, they 
should be covered with ashes until growth commences. 
The pots should then be removed and kept in a light 

Fig. 68. Oala.ntijus .nivali.s. 


position in a cold frame, giving plenty of air at all 
times when the weather is mild. Both the single and 

Fio. 70. Ft,owf,r,s of Gai.antiu's nivalis REKLF.XL'S 
(CniJiF.AN Snowdrop). 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


GalantKus — -continKed. 
double forms seldom fail to flower when treated in tliis 

G. Elwesii (Elwes's).^ Jl, petals (inner perianth segments) con- 
stvii'te'l above the middle, yli^ilitly notched at the apex, and 
niaikcil with green spots at tlie liase. I. twisted within the 
-sheath, not fuldecl. /(. 6in. tu 12in. Asia Minor, 1875. A very 
distinct lar^e-tiowered furni, and said tn lie the tinest of the 
i^LMius. (r..'M. 6166.) 

G. nivalis (snowy).* Common Snow<lrop. jl. with white perianth 
su-iiR'uts, the three inner streaked with iL^reen on the inside, and 
hLi\'iug a spot of the same colour on the outside, pendulous, l. 
keeled, hnear, ol>tuse, usually in twos. Bulb ovate. /(. 4in. tn 
6in. Europe. This well-known plant has a number of more or 
less distinct varieties. Jviperntl is a very large form, with outer 
segments of the flower very abrupt and "narrow at the base (see 
Fig. 69) (G. C. n. s., xi. 237) ; latifuliuH (= Redoutei) differs only 
in its very liroad strap-shaped leaves ((I. C. n. s., xv. 404) ; iiiaim' ; 
fcikxHs, with outer perianth segments retlexed (see lug. 70); 

Fro. 71. Flowers op Galaivthus nivalis virescens. 

Shai/lockii (G. 0. n. s., xi. 545) ; and vire.'icens; with inner segments 
all over green (see Fig. 71), are varieties. There is also a well- 
known double form. 
G. plicatus (folded).* Ji. some^^'hat similar to those of G. nicalls, 
but sometimes smaller, and of a greenish hue. I. with a longi- 
tudinal fold on both sides near the edge, whence the specitie 
name. /(. 6in. Crimea, 1818. This rare species is, with the ex- 
ception of the flower, larger in all its parts than G. nivalis, but 
is not, however, so pretty. (B. M. 2162 ; G. C, n. s., xi. 236.) 

GALATELIiA. This genus is now included, by Ben- 
tham and Hooter, under Aster. 

GAIiAX (from gala, milk ; referring to the milk- 
white flowers). Stns. Enjthrorhiza and SolenanJra. 
Ord. iJiapensiaceo?. An elegant little hardy herbaceous 
perennial, particularly suitable for growing on rockwork. 
It thrives best in a compost of nearly all leaf mould, 
rather damp, with the addition of a small quantity of 
loam . and charcoal, but will succeed in almost any soil, 
in a cool, damp place. Propagated by divisions of well- 
grown clumps, in autumn. 

G. aphylla (naked-stemmed).* Jl. white, small, numerous, pro- 
duced at the apex of the slender, elongated, naked scape, in a 
loose, spicate raceme. July. I. round-cordate, thickly crenate- 
dentate, veiny, thin, but persistent over A\inter, rather shining, 
long-petioled. h. 3in. to 6in. N<trth America, 1756. See Fig. 72. 
(B. M. 754 ; A. B. U. 343, under name of Blandfordia cordata.) 

Vol. n. 

ti 7^ ( \[ w \iinLL\ sh v,ui^ II il it in I 1 t he 
Intl leseence 

GAIiAXIA (from gala, galaldos, milk ; referring to 
the juice). Ord. Iridecp-. A genus of two or three 
species of very pretty greenhouse bulbous plants, natives 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers, perianth funnel- 
shaped, with a slender terete tube, and a six - j)a,rted, 
equal limb of oblong, wedge-shaped, spreading segments. 
Leaves linear or rather broad, sheathing at the base. 
The species will succeed out of doors, planted in a 
warm, sheltered spot, if afforded some slight protection 
in winter ; it is, however, safer to grow them in pots, 
in a cool greenhouse. They are of easy culture in sandy 
peat, with a little fibry loam added. Propagated by 

G. graminea (grass). _(i. light yellow ; spathe one-valved, one- 
flowered. July. I. linear, filiform, dilated at base. 1795. Plant 
almost stemless. (B. M. 1292.) 

G. ovata (ovate).* Jl. dark yellow ; spathe one-valved, one- 
flowered. May to 8epteml>er. I. oblong. 1799. Plant almost 
stemless. (B. iM. 1203.) 

GAIiBANUM. The name of an aromatic gum-resin 
issuing from the stems of several plants of the Carrot 
family, Ferula gidbaaifiua and F. rabricaidis, &.c. 

GALEANDBrA (from galea, a helmet, and aner, 
andros, a stamen; referring to the crested male organ 
on the top of the column). Oe-d. Orcliideoe. A genus of 
about half-a-score species of stove terrestrial orchids 
(included by some authors under Eidophia), natives of 
tropical America, from Brazil to Mexico ; having slender, 
erect, fleshy, jointed stems, from the tops of which the 
flower-spikes are produced, just after the growth is 
finished. Leaves narrow, lanceolate, two-ranked, sheath- 
ing. The species are somewhat difficult to cultivate, 
and require strict attention during the growing season, 
in order to keep the leaves free from the attacks of Eed 
Spider and Thrips. This may be done by syringing them 
twice a day in warm weather. Galeandras should be 
cultivated in pots of peat, in the East-Indian house. 
When growing, a plentiful supply of water should be 
given ; but while at rest, they should be placed near the 
glass, in a Cattleya house, and kept moderately moist. 
G. Baueri lutea (Bauer's yellow).* fl. yellow, beautiful, in 
drooping racemes ; lip with parallel purple lines near the apex, 
which has wavy margins. June to August. I. veined, lance- 
shaped. Stems cylindrical, h. bin. Guiana, 1840, A very rare 
but desirable species. (B. M. 4701.) 
G. cristata (crested). _fl. pink and dark purple ; spike drooping. 
June to August, h. lUt. South America, 1844. 



The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Galeandra — continued. 

G. Devoniana (Duke of Devonshire's).* Jl. white, elegantly pen- 
cilled with pink, about 4in. across, produced in pendent spikes 
from the top of the pseudo-bulbs. Blossoms at various times 
of the year, and remains a considerable period in full beautv. 
h. 2ft. South America. (B. M. 4610.) 

G. Harveyana (Harvey's). Jl., sepals and petals sepia-brown ; 
lip light yellow, with a tuft of hair over the anterior part of the 
disk, Tropical America. 

G. minax (projecting), jf. yellowish-copper, whitish, purple. June. 
Columbia, 1874 

G. nivalis (snowy).* jl. in nodding racemes, each about 2in. long, 
with narrow refiexed rich olive-coloured segments, having a large 
funnel-shaped white lip, marked with a central violet blotch. 
Tropical America. A beautiful and rare species. (G. C. ii. s., xvii. 

GALEATE. Helmeted. 

GAZiiEGA (from gala, milk ; referring to its supposed 
property of increasing- the milk of animals which feed 
upon the plants). Goat's Eue. Okd. Legnminoso}. A genus 
comprising three species of ornamental, hardy, smooth, 
erect perennial herbs, natives of Southern Europe and 
Western Asia. Flowers white or blue, disposed in axil- 
lary and terminal racemes. Leaves impari-pinnate ; leaf- 
lets entire, veined ; stipules somewhat sagittate. The 
species succeed in almost any soil, but will well repay for 
liberal treatment. They succeed in rich loam, with a 
sunny situation, and can remain year after year in one 
position. It is, however, advisable to divide them every 
few years. Propagation is effected by dividing the roots 
into several strong pieces, and replanting them in a 
deeply dug soU, and in a position where they are in- 
tended to flower ; or by seeds, sown in the open ground, 
iu spring. 

G. oilicinalis (officinal).* Jl. blue ; racemes longer than the 
leaves. Summer. I. lanceolate, mucronate, glabrous ; stipules 
broad-lanceolate, h. 3ft. to 4ft. South Europe, 1568. 

G. o. albiiiora (white-flii\\ered)* is a pretty white-flowered form. 
h. 2ft. to 3ft. Persia, 1823. Syn. G. perska. 

Fig. 73. Galeoa orientalis, showing Flowering Stem and 
detached Single Flower. 

G. orleiltalls(Hastern).» Jl. blue; racemes longer than the leaves 
Suuiuier and autumn. (. ovate, acuminated, smooth ; stipule; 

Galena — continued. 

broad-ovate, h. 2ft. to 4ft. Caucasus, 1810. This species may 
be distinguished by its creeping roots and simple, flexuous stems. 
See Fig. 73. (B. M. 2192.) 
G, persica (Persian). A synonym of G. ojiciiiali^ albijiora. 
GALEOBDOIiON. Included under Iiamium. 
GALEOGLOSSUM. A synonym of Prescottia 
(which see). 

GAIiEOIi A (a diminutive of galea, a helmet ; in al- 
lusion to the form of the labeUum). Including Oyrtosia, 
Erythrorcliis, &o. Oed. Orchidea^. A genus of about a 
dozen species of leafless epiphytes, sometimes climbing 
to a considerable extent. They are natives of India, 
-Japan, the Malayan Archipelago, ISTew Caledonia, and 
Australia. Flowers in terminal, usually pendulous, 
panicles. Some of the species are decidedly showy ; 
but, probably, none are successfully cultivated in this 

GALEOFSIS (the old Greek name used by Dios- 
corides, from gale, a weasel, and op.s';.s, appearance ; in 
allusion to the likeness of the flower to a weasel's 
snout). Stn. Tetrahit. Ord. Lahiatw. This genus, 
according to some authorities, contains twelve species of 
hardy, erect, or slightly decumbent, annual herbs ; whilst 
others reduce the number of species to three. They are 
natives of Europe and West Asia. Flowers red, yellow, 
or variegated, sessile ; calyx nearly regular, with five 
pointed teeth ; corolla with a tube larger than the calyx. 
The species thrive in any ordinary garden soil, and are 
piropagated by seed. 

G. Ladanum (Ladanum). _/f. purple, six to ten together, in 
dense whorls in the upper axils, the upper ones forming a ter- 
minal head. Summer and autumn. I. shortly stalked, narrow- 
ovate or lanceolate, coarsely toothed, fi. Sin. to 9in. This 
species varies considerably in the breadth of leaf, in the 
degree of hairiness, and iu the size of the flowers. (Sy. En. B. 
1074, 1075.) 
G. versicolor (various-coloured), jl. yellow, with a purple spot 
on t!ie lower lip, large. Summer and autumn. (. stalked, ovate, 
very pointed, and coarsely toothed. Stem hispid. This is con- 
sidered by some authors to be a variety of G. Tetrahit, a 
common cornfield weed in Britain. (Sy. En. B. 1077.) 
GALEOFSIS (of Mcench). A synonym of Stachys. 
GALEOTTIA. Included under Zygopetalum. 
GALE, SWEET. See Myrica Gale. 
GALIACEJE. A tribe of Rtihiacew. 
longnis (which see). 

GALIFEA (native name of one of the species). Oed. 

Rutacece. A genus comprising about twenty species of 

stove evergreen trees or shrubs, natives of South-eastern 

tropical America. Racemes axillary or terminal, simple 

or compound. Leaves alternate, petiolate, one to seven- 

toliolate ; leaflets entire, rarely serrated, full of pellucid 

dots. For oultiu'c, see Erythrochiton. 

G. maorophylla (large-leaved), jl. pale rose or white, in a 

stalked interrupted spike or raceme. I. unifoliolate, elliptic 

glabrous, obtuse, somewhat leathery, 6iu. to 12in. lon»- li 2ft 

Brazil. (B. M. 4943.) ' 

G. odoratisslma (very sweet-scented). ;(. wliite. very fra"rant 
in many-flowered, sub-sessile, short, axillary spikes Mav (' 
deep green, broad, obovate, obtuse, shortly petiolate h' 2ft 
Rio Janeiro. (B. R. 1420.) 

G. trifoliata (three-leaved), jt. greenish, small, corymbose 
September. I. trifoliate, smooth. //. 6ft. Guiana. 

GALIUm (Galion, the old Greek name used by Dios- 
corides, from gala, milk ; the flowers of one of the species 
having been used to curdle milk). Bedstraw. Oed. 
Rubiacece. An extensive genus of annual or perennial 
herbs, spread over the whole of the temperate regions of 
the New, as well as of tlie Old World, especially abundant 
in Europe and Northern Asia, penetrating also into the 
tropics, but there chiefly conhnod to mountainous districts. 
The species number 1.50, and are, for the' most part, 
uninteresting weeds; the following, however, may be 
employed to cover rockwork : maritinmn, purjmreum, 
ruhmm, and uliginosum. Flowers white, yellow, or (iu 

common name of Cyper-as 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Galmm — continue-d, 
exotic species) red, in axillary or terminal trichotomous 
cymes or panicles, sometimes reduced to small clusters ; 
calyx completely combined with the ovary ; corolla rotate, 
the tixbo scarcely perceptible, with four spreading- lobes. 
The annuals require to be sown in any ordinary border, 
in March ; the perennials should be divided at the same 
time. The g-enus is represented in the British flora 
by eleven si^ecies, the flowers of one of which — the golden- 
yellow-flowered Lady's Bedstraw, G. verum — are used 
in some districts to curdle milk, hence one of its popular 
names, Cheese Rennet. 

GAIiIiS. Excrescences of various kinds, produced by 
the deposit of the egg-s of insects in the bark or leaves 
of plants. What is commonly known as the Oak Apple 
is caused by a Gall Fly {Andricua terminalis). When cut 
longitudinally, the Gall is seen to inclose a great number 
of granules, each containing a minute larva. The Rose 
Bedeguar, frequently seen on the Wild Eose, is the work 
of another Gall Fly [Rhodites roscc). Cynips aptera, a 
hymenopterous wingless fly, causes large roundish Galls 
on the roots of the Oak, Elii, Beech, and other trees. 
Illustrations of the insect and the Galls it makes are 
given in the " Gardeners' Chronicle," n. s., i. 19. 

GALFHIMIA (an anagram of Mcdpigliia). Ord. 
Mal'piijhitirete. This genus comprises about a dozen 
species of handsome stove evergreen shrubs, inhabitants 
of tropical and sub-tropical North America and Brazil. 
Flowers yellow or reddish, in terminal racemes. Leaves 
opposite, small. Galphimias thrive in a compost of i^eat 
and loam. Cuttings, made of the ripened wood, will root 
in sand, under a bell glass, in heat. 

G. glandulosa (giandulav). j!. yellow; petal^s uMnii^. April. 

L oval-lanct'olate, smootb ; pL'tiulos ■with two lar^^e ^Uinds at top. 

h. 3ft. to 4ft. Mexico, 1824. 
G-. glauca (glaucous).* ji.. yellow. I. ovate, obtuse, siiiodtli. 

glaucous beneath, and with one tooth on each side at the base ; 

petiules without glands. Mexico, 1830. (B. H. 8, 45.) 
G. hirsuta (hairy). Ji. yellow. September. I. ovjite, acute, on 

short foutstalks, hairy on both surfaces. /;. 6ft. Jlexico, 1324. 

blG. 74. GALTo>LV CANDICANS, bh<.iA\in,^ Hal it and detached 
Single Flower. 

GALTONIA (name commemorative of Francis Galton, 
author of a ^'Narrative of an Explorer in South Africa"). 
Ord. Liliace(e. A genus of a couple of species of very 
beautiful hardy bulbous plants, natives of South Africa. 
They are admirably adapted for growing in clumps in 

Galtonia — rontiiiHed. 
borders, or for conservatory decoration. They prefer a 
rich leaf mould, with a little sandy peat added. Pro- 
pagated by offsets, or by seeds. 

G. candioans (white).* JJ. pure white, large, fragrant, drooping, 
funnel-shaped ; raceme about 1ft, long, fifteen to twenty-flowered ; 
scape (inclusive of raceme) erect, glaucous, about 4ft. long. 
Summer, l. lorate-lanceolate, sub-erect, 2Ut. long. Bulb larg_e 
round. SVN. H)/achithus candica7h9. See Fig. 74. (R. H. 1882, 52.) 
G. princeps (prince). This is closely allied to the foregoing, 
but less ornaniental.with broader and shorter racemes and smaller, 
greenish Hnwers, with .spreading segments. (Ref. B. 175.) 
GAMOCHLAMYS. Included under Spathantheum. 
GAMOSEFALOUS. When the sepals are joined 

GAKCIANA. A synonym of Philydrum. 
GAH.CINIA (nameil in honour of Laurence Garcin, 
M.D., a French botanist and traveller in India, author 
of numerous botanical memoirs). Stns. Camhogia, Man- 
gostana, and O.rycarpus. Obd. Guttiferce. A genus 
comprising about forty species of stove evergreen 
fruit-bearing trees. Flowers usually solitary at the tops 
of the branches. The fruit is very delicious and re- 
freshing. Leaves coriaceous or rarely sub-membrana- 
eeous. Garcinias thrive in a peat and loam compost. 
Cuttings of ripened shoots will root, if inserted in sand, 
under a glass, in strong bottom heat. The species here 
described arc, perhaps, the best known to cultivation. 
G. Cam*bogia. (ianrboge. Ji. yellow, terminal, solitary. Novem- 
ber, /r. about Sin. in diameter, drooping, on peduncle^s lin. in 
length. I. elliptic, tapering to both ends, 5in. long. h. 40ft. 
Branches spreading, opposite. East Indies, 1822. (B. F. S. 85.) 
G. cornea (horny), jl. pale yellow, scentless, terminal. .January 
and February. Berry nearly round, the size of a medlar, 
covered with a dark purjjle juiceless bark. l. opposite, oblong. 
h. 20ft. East Indies, 1823. 
G. Cowa (Cowa). jl. yellow, tenninal. February, fr. edible, 
though not the most palatable. I. broad-lanceolate. /?. 60ft. 
("'hittagong, 1822. A middle-sized handsome tree, yielding an 
inferior kiiid of gamboge. 
G. Mangostana.* Mangosteen. Jl. red, resembling a single rose, 
(■(impi;ij-crl of fniir roundish petals, which are thick at the base, 
but thinner towards the raargms, terminal, solitary, fr. round, 
about the size of a medium orange ; it is esteemed one of the 
most delicious fruits in the world. I. elli])tic-oblong, acuminated, 
7in. or 8in. long. h. 20ft. Molucca Islands, 1789. (B. M. 4847.) 
G. Morella (iMurella). Jl. yellowish ; panicles terminal and 
lateral. .//■. small, edible, in shape and size resembling the 
^lorello (Jherry (whence the specific name). I. oblong-elliptic, 
tapering to both ends. h. 30ft. to 50ft. Ceylon, Slam, East Indies, 
itc. This plant yields the Ceylon gamboge of commerce. 
(B. F. S. 87.) 

GAHDEN. A Garden is usually understood to mean 
a piece of land of any description or size, attached to, or 
connected with, a residence, and set apart, either for the 
purpose of growing vegetables and fruits for the supply 
of the household, or for the cultivation of plants and 
flowers for the embellishment of any part of the house 
or the Garden itself. The results attending the culture 
of vegetables and fruits are of the greatest national 
importance, as representing a necessary source for sup- 
plying wholesome food, which it would be impossible 
to obtain unless care were bestowed in preparing the 
land and cultivating the crops annually, according as each 
may require. Flowers, and the plants specially grown 
for producing them, have a universal charm, presenting 
a means of endless study and enjoyment to all who 
properly appreciate their worth. The value of making 
a Garden of some description wherever practicable in 
conjunction with every dwelling house, cannot be over- 
estimated, as it invariably tends to promote health and 
enjoyment. There is an extremely wide range in its 
application, admitting unlimited arrangements according 
to the amount of available space to be inclosed or the 
requirements and taste of those persons who have to 
incur the expense of preparing or keeping it up. In 
large towns, the value of land precludes the possibility 
of obtaining any more than a limited portion as Garden 
grouud, yet this should be utilised to the fullest extent 


The DictioMary of Gardening, 

Garden — continued. 
for the purposes to which it is best adapted. The 
amount of interest and pleasure, apart from profit, to 
be derived from a Garden, depends greatly on the 
capacity of the individual who may frequently or occa- 
sionally visit it, to notice and appreciate the beauties 
of nature that may be found in every conceivable 
form around. These advantages of pleasure, combined 
with utility in obtaining the crops annually, represent 
the practical outcome of capital expended on Gardens, 
and an adequate return should be obtained in an 
indirect, if not in a piecuniary, manner. Very much 
depends on the gardener iising every available means 
to render his charge attractive and satisfactory to all 
concerned, as, without this attention, a Garden Ijecomes 
the reverse of what it really should be. Much more 
may be accomplished in a small space, if proper and 
continued attention is bestowed, than would, at first 
sight, appear credible. This is frequently exemplified 
in the case of amateurs, who only have window space 
or that allowed with a small villa or cottage. The love 
of a Garden and its products, in every way, is one 
of the prevailing characteristics of English fashion, from 
the highest to the lowest class of individuals, and it 
should receive encouragement on every hand. The more 
a student of nature learns of the various forms and 
means adopted therein for reaching certain ends, every 
one of which has some definite purpose, the more is he 
induced to pursue his investigations, although the gain- 
ing of further knowledge only reveals the marvellous 
extent of the system open for study to those who choose 
to proceed with it. The form and extent of Gardens de- 
pending so entirely on that of the house or mansion with 
which they are associated, renders it impossible to give 
more than general advice regarding their position or 
method of laying out to the best advantage. Some of 
the principal points to be adopted, and others which it 
is well to avoid, will be duly noticed, both in the case 
of Gardens of considerable extent, and also in those of 
smaller dimensions. 

Feuit and Kitchen Gabden. In planning and 
laying out this department, on an extensive scale, the 
exercise of considerable judgment and forethought will 
be required. It is work that only falls to the lot of 
comparatively few gardeners in the first instance, yet a 
knowledge of its performance is frequently requisite to 
enable alterations to be made with part at a time, that 
in due course may, in some respects, convert the whole. 
The most important points to be observed are situa- 
tion, soil, form, size, and shelter. 

Situation and Soil. A situation has sometimes to be 
accepted irrespective of the condition or quality of the 
soil, but each requires an equal notice wherever there is 
a choice. In selecting a site, it should be, if possible, 
slightly undulated and face the south, or a little south- 
east. In dry districts, or where the sub-soil is of a 
gravelly nature, it would be better it the ground wore 
nearly flat, provided efficient drainage could be secured 
without having to go very deep at any point. If in 
connection with a mansion, the best position near to it 
should bo selected for the Kitchen Garden, on account of 
transferring the produce ; yet it should be sufiiciently 
far away to allow work of any description to proceed at 
the proper time. Many proprietors take a great interest 
in this department, which generally includes nearly tlie 
whole of the forcing operations, grape and other fruit 
culture under glass, &c. It is advisable that the ap- 
proach from the mansion should be towards the front or 
ends of the houses, in ])referenoe to the back, which is 
invariably utilised for tool and other sheds. A southern 
aspect, or nearly so, being that usually selected for garden 
structures, and also for the front or principal part of a 
mansion, it follows that the best position for tho Garden 
is on some point towards the east or west, far enough 

Garden — continued. 
away to admit of the boundary walls being concealed 
from view by trees and shrubs, and to allow of the 
approach being in the direction above indicated. The 
condition of the soil should be considered in several 
respects — as to its depth in general, the quality of the 
top spit, and also the sub-soil. A depth of less than 
18in. will be unsuitable, the best being from 2ft. to 3ft. 
A rather heavy loam in some parts, with that of a lighter 
or more sandy nature in others, will admit of positions 
being selected for different crops that require such soils ; 
and, for this reason, both are preferable if to be obtained. 
The quality of the sub-soil, especially when it is of an 
irony or close, retentive nature, and so prevents the free 
passage of air and water, has a great effect on all fruit- 
trees and on garden crops generally. Fruit-trees seldom 
succeed on such sub-soils, as, once their roots enter it, 
canker and other diseases immediately attack the branches 
and cause them to decay. Much may be accomplished 
in improving and deepening shallow soils by adding more 
on the top from an adjoining field or other place ; but 
this causes a great deal of work, and, moreover, does 
not remove the evils attending a bad sub-soil ; conse- 
quently, the latter should be avoided, if possible. The 
amount of drainage to be applied artificially depends 
a great deal on the pjorosity of the earth beneath the 
surface. In many cases, it is only necessary to drain 
the walks ; and if the situation of the garden is un- 
dulated, this may be easily effected. Land of a reten- 
tive, clayey nature may require draining throughout 
in districts where the rainfall is heavy, in order to re- 
move the superabundant moisture that would otherwise 
coUect. In other soils, resting mostly on gravel, suffi- 
cient is generally conducted naturally by the latter from 
the majority of growing crops. In selecting a situation 
for the Kitchen Garden, the available means for sup>plying 
water must also be considered, as a large quantity is always 
required in summer. If it can be procured from a stream 
or large open reservoir exposed to sun and air, it will be 
found warmer, softer, and better suited in every way 
for plants, than if obtained direct from a well or spring. 
A stream passes through some Gardens, and although 
the water is very useful at times, its p)resence in spring 
attracts the least frost, which often proves destructive 
to fruit blossom and other early crops. If a natural 
source, higher than the garden itself, is not available, 
another method may be employed, such as a hydraulic 
ram, for forcing water into a reservoir at a point suffi- 
ciently high to insure its return through pipes to any 
part of the Garden desired. The above conditions are 
not always to be obtained, but they should be fully 
considered wherever there is a choice of site. 

Form and Size. Where, as in this case, the cultivation 
of fruit and vegetables is of first importance, the shape 
of the ground does not matter materially. This and the 
size are points depending a good deal on each other, 
and on the requirements of each place individually. An 
extensive Kitchen Garden, of some five or six acres of 
land, has often to be managed for cultivating sufficient 
fruit and vegetables to supply the demands of a large 
household. As the expense of laying out a Garden of 
this size, and the subseqxient annual expenditure to keep 
it stocked, and in good order, are necessarily heavy, 
the greatest care should be taken, in the first instance, 
to utilise every means for rendering the whole a per- 
manent success. The size, number of walls, glass 
structures, &o., must, therefore, entirely depend on re- 
quirements and the amount of expense to be incurred. 
The Kitchen Garden, or a large portion of it, is usually 
surrounded with walls. These are essential for the culti- 
vation of fruit-trees that would not succeed and ripen 
crops in the open ground, and they are best placed 
so as to form either a square or an oblong, with its 
ends running towards east and west. Such shapes 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Crarden — continued. 
admit of the division and arrangement of the inclosure 
being carried out in a uniform manner, the latter allowing 
a much larger surface of wall exposed to a southern 
aspect than the former— an important consideration in 
many localities, as the borders share the same advantage. 
Whether the walla should be direct north and south, or 
facing a little to one side, is a matter on which opinions 
differ. If set on an angle from the south, they 
should certainly face a little in an easterly direction, to 
obtain the full benefit of the sun's rays before midday. 
Fruit-trees, suitable for all aspects, may be selected so 
as to cover both sides if desired. Thus, the walls having 
a southern aspect, should accommodate Peaches, Nec- 
tarines, Apricots, and some of the best Pears ; the eastern 
would do for Plums and good hardier Pears that are too 
tender for succeeding in the open ; the western for more 
Plums and Cherries, also for Apricots in some localities ; 
and the northern for Morello Cherries, late Gooseberries 
and Currants. In northerly or extreme cold districts, some 
of the first-named of these trees require a glass cover- 
ing as well. The proper levels for every main point 
will be one of the first conditions to be fixed in laying 
out, and this, on a large scale, will necessitate the use of 
instruments that are seldom kept by gardeners. Such 
main points should be decided so as to insure a means of 
drainage and other necessaries before any of the positions 
for the walls are fixed, and they should be disposed so 
that the intermediate spaces may be regulated from them. 
and the whole work proceed on a definite system thus 
arranged at the outset. Generally, three or four main 
walks, intersected with others at right angles, are sufficient 
for any walled-in Kitchen Garden, the quarters thus 
formed being sub-divided, for convenience, with paths cut 
in the ground. The fruit-tree borders should be at least 
10ft. or 12ft. wide, and the outer main walk should follow 
their limit at that distance from the wall. Trained fruit- 
trees are usually placed parallel with the main walks, suffi- 
ciently far back to form the boundary for other borders 
that should preferably be utilised for growing Eoses and 
hardy flowers for cutting, or for some crop such as a 
salad. In many Gardens, a range of forcing houses through- 
out a good portion of the length is thought desirable, 
and they usually present a fine appearance if built on 
a plan and of a size i^roportionate with the surroundings. 
, In most instances, it is, however, advisable to place the 
glass structures by themselves, just sufficiently far apart 
to admit of all equally sharing a full amount of sunshine 
and light. This allows of all being more conveniently 
connected with a heating apparatus without having re- 
course to an unnecessary number of boilers. Additional 
si^ace will usually be required for fruit culture beyond 
that inside the Garden waUs, and an adjoining site should 
be selected, if suitable, and included within the boundary 
fence. The soil, subsoil, draining, &c., will need similar 
attention to be bestowed as in the interior or any other 
part of the Garden where such trees are planted. Where 
a good orchard is at command for the supply of Apples, 
&c., a material advantage is gained in the Garden, by an 
extra amount of land being available for vegetable culture. 
It is always best to allow crops plenty of room to develop 
themselves, as the soil in the intermediate spaces may 
be more easily cleaned, and the produce will invariably 
be of a superior quality. 

Shelter. An important requisite in connection with the 
site selected for a Kitchen or Fruit Garden, is shelter. 
The most destructive winds are those from the East and 
North-east to North-west. If natural shelter from these 
quarters can be procured at the outset, so much the better; 
but otherwise, a screen must be prepared in some way, 
to neutralise the force of the wind, and to render its 
effect on tender vegetation less dangerous. This is most 
effectually provided by planting a double avenue of 
trecSj or forming a wide plantation, so as to include 

Garden — continued. 
trees or shrubs that are of a quick-growing nature, and 
are known to succeed in the locality. Scotch Firs, Piinrs 
OAistriaca^ P. Laricio, and several others of this family, 
Poplars, Larches, Elms, &c., may be freely used where 
they are known to succeed. Garden walls, 10ft. or 12ft. 
high, afford some shelter to the part inclosed; but the evil 
effects of cold, cutting winds have always to be guarded 
against, not only for the sake of outside plants, but also 
for those in forcing or other warm structures. South- 
west winds are frequently very rough and destructive. 
It is also advisable to provide a shelter from these, but 
it should be further away, so as to avoid excluding sun 
and light. High trees of any description are not desir- 
able near the southern exposure. Those recommended 
for planting on the northern and eastern sides may com- 
mence at a distance of about thirty yards from the 
Garden boundary. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground. By 
these terms reference is made to departments entirely 
devoted to the cultivation of flowers, shrubs, and trees 
of an ornamental character, selected and arranged with 
the natural scenery, &c., around, to form a place of 
resort for interest and pleasure at all times. A Flower 
Garden is considered an indispensable adjunct to every 
residence ; combined with Pleasure Grounds, it has a 
more extensive significance as applying to that adjoin- 
ing or surrounding a mansion. It must, of necessity, be 
within easy access, so that the most attractive parts 
may be seen from the windows, or reached in a short 
time from the outside. The embellishment of Flower 
Garden beds, and the continued attention required to 
keep all in good order throughout the year, most 
seriously affect the other departments where the num- 
berless plants have to be prepared, esi^ecially if carpet- 
bedding is introduced. Where the means at command 
for storing and growing these plants are totally inade- 
quate for supplying enough to properly fill the space, 
it would be better to reduce the number of beds, or 
to devote some of them to select hardy perennials, 
than to attempt too much with an insufficiency of 
material, and so destroy the effect of the whole. This 
is a matter requiriiig attention when first planning and 
laying out a Flower Garden. The extent of Pleasure 
Grounds may be as much as desired, or according as 
the woods surrounding the mansion will admit. They 
are frequently made to form a connection between this 
latter and some other building or permanent place of 
interest, such as the Kitchen Garden. Apart from the 
natural scenery and the free use of ornamental trees and 
shrubs, the introduction of many hardy flowering plants 
may be recommended, as suitable positions for their 
development may, perhaps, be better found here than 
in the Flower Garden proper. The various tastes pos- 
sessed by proprietors or their friends, with the size of 
the establishment and the extent to which gardening may 
be carried, will each have an effect on individual cases, 
and prevent the following remarks from being more than 
those of a general character. It is well, if possible, to 
avoid extremes in the matter of taste, as there is plenty 
of room for all styles, if restricted to places in which 
they are appropriate. 

Site and E.vtent. Most of the mansions built some 
two or three centuries ago are situated in a valley or 
the lower part of an extensive park. A somewhat ele- 
vated position is now invariably chosen, as the great 
importance of fresh air has become more fully recog- 
nised. Extended views of landscape are usually selected 
for the front or principal outlook ; and as these already 
exist, and, perhaps, form part of the design in fixing 
the site for the building, neither of them should be 
selected for the Flower Garden, if another place in the 
vicinity can be obtained without interfering with that 
which exhibits natural beauty in itself. An open expanse 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Garden — continued. 
of lawn, with a few clumps of shrubs and trees of 
limited growth, judiciously placed, would be more ap- 
propriate in close proximity to the building from 
which the view is desired, and would not be likely 
to detract attention, as would a mass of flowers, from 
the main object of view beyond. Where such land- 
scape effects do not exist, one of the best positions 
may be chosen for the Flower Garden — supposing there 
is sufficient shelter, as the advantage of being able to 
view it from the windows in any weather, must not be 
overlooked. Some of the best-arranged and most com- 
pact Flower Gardens are those laid out on grass, in an 
inclosure of which a large conservatory forms part of 
the boundary, the other part being composed 
of trees of an ornamental character that afford 
good shelter, and do not exclude too much 
light. Shelter is most important in the selec- 
tion of a site, as the tender exotics used in 
summer, especially in carpet and sub-tropical 
beds, will not succeed if too much exposed. 
Bedding plants present but a poor appearance 
when allowed to suffer from drought in sum- 
mer ; hence the necessity of an abundance of 
water. This may, in many instances, be ob- 
tained from that supplying the mansion, by 
means of pipes laid underground, and furnished 
with screw sockets, wherever desired, for con- 
necting a standpipe and hose. Carrying water 
by hand is an almost hopeless task in a large 
establishment in summer. 

PreparntioH of Ground, Flower Beds, <^c. 
Soil which is heavy and retentive is unsuited 
for a Flower Garden ; but at times there is no 
choice, and the best modes of ameliorating and 
warming it must be adopted. The first ne- 
cessary means for attaining this end is thorough 
drainage, not only for the good of the shrubs 
and flowers, but also for the whole of the land 
and walks. The state of the latter has much 
to do with the general appearance of the 
Garden, and, if undrained, it is impossible to 
pass over them with pleasure dirring or im- 
mediately after rain. A gravelly sub-soil will 
usually drain the lawn and open land suffi- 
ciently without pipes, especially if the position 
is a little elevated; but where the whole is of 
a clayey nature, and of a good depth, it may 
be necessary to lay them at distances not ex- 
ceeding 12ft. apart. The work of laying main 
drains, and the branches connected therewith, 
shotdd be a preliminary operation, performed as 
soon as the various points and levels are fixed, 
and before the plan of the beds is finally laid 
out. All tender bedding plants require a rather 
light, moderately rich soil, to encourage them 
to root and grow freely so soon as they are 
planted. If that secured naturally to form 
new beds be heavy or retentive, it should be 
dug out about l^ft. deep, and either par- 
tially or entirely replaced with some of a lighter de- 
scription. Leaf soil is the best of all manures to use, 
as it tends to encourage rapid root action, without, as 
a rule, causing an undue growth at the top. In soils 
ak'oady light, an addition of something heavier in the 
way of loam would be advisable, otherwise leaf mould 
may be used in quantity. It should be thoroughly in- 
corporated by digging, or part of the plants will out- 
grow the others. A flower bed prepared for planting 
should be firm and raked rather fine, and should present 
a uniform nearly flat surface, about lin. higher than 
the edge of the bed, from which it should be clearly 

Style and Mode of Laying Oat. Various styles of 

Garden — contvnued. 
laying out are employed : they may be practically included 
under two headings — the geometrical, and the free or 
symmetrical. The former is essentially formal and is 
largely employed, as being most . suitable, for inclosed 
Gardens surrounded with everything more or less of a 
formal character. It admits of colours being arranged 
so that the proportion is evenly balanced when viewed 
as a whole ; one-half of any correct geometrical design 
being intended as an exact counterpart of the other. 
The free, or symmetrical, style allows, according as indi- 
vidual taste may suggest, a much wider scope in the 
.shape and arrangement of the beds and their mode of 
embellishment. This plan, properly executed, is preferred 

Fig. 75. Ground-plan of the Tuit.eries Warden 
(Time of Louis XIII.). 

by many, as it dispenses, iu great part, with the formality 
of the other; yet, to be attractive, symmetry must, to a 
certain extent, be assured both with the beds and their 
occupants. The surrounding scenery must also be appro- 
priate, and should form the main guide in disposing of 
the space at command. Although it is scarcely possible 
to have an excess of flowers, when placed in their proper 
positions throughout an extended area, yet too much is 
frequently attempted in Gardens of limited proportions, 
with the disadvantage that the plants employed arc 
unable to exhibit their true characters. Simple figures, 
as beds out out in the turf, in a size proportionate to 
the surroundings, are invariably most satisfactory, in 
Gardens of either large or small pretensions, where the 

An Encyclopaedia of Horticulture. 


Garden — continued. 
symmetrical style is adopted. Geometrical designs may 
also be cut in ^rass, although some prefer Box or 
other edgings. Figure gardening was for a long time 
greatly in vogue; the various scrolls were represented 
by different shrubs and coloured gravels, the numerous 
narrow walks between being also gravelled. The ground- 
plan of the Garden of the Tuileries in the time of 
Louis XIII. (see Fig. 75) may be interesting as indicating 
the extent to which the system was carried out in France. 
Its existence in this country is now almost entirely 
limited to Gardens of historic interest, the general use 
of turf having become more prevalent, with the result 
that a great improvement has been effected in the majority 
of instances, as the plants and flowers were previously 
subordinate to the edgings and walks surrounding them. 

The method of laying out will be the next proceeding, 
after the points already noticed are decided, and the 
preliminary work of di'aining, levelling, &c., is accom- 
plished. The design on paper, if to be accurately repre- 
sented on the ground, should be prepared to a scale that 
may be easily divided, and the enlargement calculated. 
A Garden, in the shape of a square or parallelogram, of any 
size, may be more readily laid out than one with an 
irregular outline. The necessary tools will be a tape 
measure and measuring rod, a strong line, and some 
pegs. A right-angled triangle, a pair of wooden com- 
passes, and a large T-square, are also useful instruments. 
A system of exactly gauging and marking everything, 
must be adopted where there are many figures to be 
shown in relation to each other. The outside boundary 
should be measured out into equal distances of one or 
more feet, according as it may be practicable to divide 
the plan ; and if these points are marked with pegs, 
and the positions of all the walks similarly fixed, a 
foundation will be formed that will facilitate the means 
of obtaining the other references required. Where there 
are several walks, it would be advisable to mark all the 
corners, and insert a few pegs to define their bound- 
aries on both sides. If it is necessary that a main walk 
should x^roceed at considerable length, quite straight, an 
ordinary line is not a certain guide. Upright stakes, 
about 6ft. high, specially prepared and painted white, 
with a broad band of black or red near the top, are most 
useful. When the two ends are fixed by having a stick 
driven in at each, the intervening space may be accu- 
rately marked by others from the sight obtained from 
either end. If a long curve or sweep is to be laid out, 
the ends must first be known, and, if possible, a few 
points between. This may also be marked by similar 
stakes; but one side is usually obtained by laying a rather 
heavy line with the hand, and afterwards measuring the 
width from it for the other. Gardens vary so much in 
size, shape, and other respects, that it would be impos- 
sible to give advice applicable to all alike. The fore- 
going remarks refer to some of the principles adopted in 
laying out the Flower Garden or walks in the Pleasure 
Ground, but other methods may be necessary in instances 
where these cannot be applied. The Pleasure Ground, as 
a rule, has only one main walk, sometimes formed of 
gravel, and at others of a broad expanse of turf. The 
principal recommendation for gravel is that, if properly 
laid, it may be walked on in weather and seasons when 
turf would not be dry enough. In forming Pleasure 
Grounds, much may be done with trees and shrubs that 
not unfrequently exist beforehand, by arranging and 
grouping others, so as to more fully exhibit the true 
character of those growing in a natural state. Avenues, 
glades, and vistas, with an irregular outline running into 
the surrounding woods, terminating with some speci- 
men tree or other object in the distance, and clumps of 
massive Rhododendrons, placed far enough from the walk 
to show their beauty when in flower : these should be 
some of the leading characteristics. The planting of 
conifers and other ornamental trees should be restricted 

Garden — conthmed. 
to such as are known to succeed in tlie locality, as 
climate and soil greatly aifect them everywhere. The 
permanent i^ositions for these should be selected, so that 
plenty of room is allowed them to develop, and nothing 
of interest eventually hidden in consequence. A group 
of conifers, planted wide enough apart to avoid over- 
crowding, and surrounded by an open lawn, always has 
a more striking ai^x^earance than when the same number 
are placed about singly over an extended area. 

American Garden. This title signifles an open space 
in the Pleasure Ground, or some other part of the Flower 
Garden, wherein a collection of chiefly American plants, 
or those whose progenitors came from that country, are 
grown. Many of the most beautiful of hardy flowering 
shrubs are included amongst these, and others, of a hard- 
wooded nature, that are usually cultivated and thrive 
under similar conditions. The Rhododendron and hardy 
Azalea are shrubs largely grown, and both are now re- 
X)resented in endless and beautiful varieties. Heaths in 
variety. Ledums, Kalmias, Gaultherias, and many others 
of a like character, ah help to constitute a collection of 
interesting shrubby plants that cannot fail to be admired. 
They require a light peaty soil, and will not succeed if 
chalk is present, or if the drainage be defective. For 
plants of this description, the usual and necessary plan, 
where the natural soil is heavy, is to specially prepare 
beds with peat and leaf soil, which, on the other hand, 
need not be of a great depth where the sub-soil is light 
and porous, as none of them are of a deep-rooting nature. 

Sub -tropical Garden. Where means are at command, 
sub-tropical gardening should be adopted in summer so 
far as the number of plants and suitable situations admit. 
It is imperative that the latter should be well sheltered 
from rough winds, as these soon destroy the fine foliage 
of the plants used. If a suitable site can be obtained 
in the Flower Garden, it is preferable, as forming a con- 
trast to the ordinary flowering subjects used in the other 
beds. Large plants, such as some of the hardier palms, 
tree ferns, Musas, &c., in pots or tubs, present a fine 
appearance when plunged outside ; but these require 
considerably more room to keei^ them in winter than can 
be aUowed in any except very extensive places. Many 
other plants are, however, available that may be raised 
from seed or cuttings each sx^ring, and these form, in 
suitable situations, a commendable addition. They require 
a deep rich soil and more light than palms, &c., which 
make but little growth outside. Sub -tropical plants, 
such as Acacia lopliantlia, Cannas, Eucalyptus globulus, 
Grevillea rohusta, Melianthus major, Ricinus in variety, 
Solanums and Wigandias, with many others, are all of 
easy culture, and are very effective on account of their 
varied and attractive foliage. 

Hardy Perennial Garden. After a long season of 
comparative neglect, the large and very important class 
of herbaceous and other hardy perennial plants once 
cultivated are again assuming their proper position in 
many Gardens, by having an extensive border or other 
space specially devoted to then- accommodation. An 
open situation and a rich soil are preferred by the 
majority. Shelter, afforded by trees or by other means, 
is advisable, supposing the former are not near enough 
to overhang and cause shade, or for their roots to im- 
poverish the ground. Many of the choicest alpine plants 
require partial shade and thorough drainage. These 
succeed best in positions such as the nooks and corners 
of rockwork ; consequently, the latter is a useful and 
oftentimes requisite addition. Herbaceous plants are not 
unfrequently disliked on account of the appearance nearly 
always presented by some of the tops dying away. There 
are, however, always others to form a succession and 
prolong the ' flowering season; and it must be remem- 
bered that the decaying tops should only be partially 
removed, as they form the natural jirotection for the 
roots in winter. Sufficient interest should be developed 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Garden — continuetl. 
in hardy plants for the general beauty and floral dis- 
play presented by such a large proportion of their num- 
ber, to completely ignore an objection like this. The 
Perennial Garden or mixed border should be of con- 
siderable width, to admit of tall-growing subjects being 
included ; and if a background can be obtained of high 
Rhododendrons, or other evergreens that shelter without 
causing too much shade, the cultivated plants will be 
benefited, and, when in flower, will be seen to the best 
advantage. In Fig. 76 is represented a summer view 
of an existing garden, a little less than an acre in 
extent, devoted chiefly to the cultivation of hardy pe- 
rennial and alpine plants. Sufficient space is here found 

Fig. 76. Hardy Pkrennial and Alplne Garden. 

for upwards of 2000 species and varieties, and all suc- 
ceed more or less under unfavourable atmospheric con- 

Rock Garden. Where numerous hardy alpine and 
herbaceous plants arc cultivated, a Rock Garden, greater 
or less in extent, is the most suitable place for their ac- 
commodation. Many of tbe best and rarest species will 
not succeed so well elsewhere as they do amongst the 
crevices on an elevated piece of rockwork, which, in 
addition, affords a situation for an endless variety of 
hardy and half-hardy plants. There are few Gardens 
in which something of the sort might not be con- 
structed and rendered attractive, especially in localities 
where stones are plentiful. After being once planted, 
the requisite care in after treatment is but nominal, 

Garden — continued. 
compared with the additional interest thereby secured, 
particularly when only a select class of plants is 
allowed, and these are appropriately placed, according* 
to their height or special cultural requirements. At- 
tempts are sometimes made, in a Eock Garden of an 
extensive description, to imitate, so far as practicable, 
the work of Nature in the arrangement of the stones 
employed. This has often to be conducted partially at 
the expense of providing adequate means for the well- 
being of the plants, which should be the main considera- 
tion. AVhere space and material are unlimited, excel- 
lent results may be attained ; but in a confined area, 
the effect produced in many cases only shows the insig- 
nificance of the work in comparison with that of Nature. 
Rockwork may be introduced for various reasons, apart 
from the culture of alpines, such as hiding an unsightly 
wall or other objects of limited height, or for giving a 
diversity to an otherwise flat and uninteresting scene. 
A Erock Garden may be successfully formed where the 
surface is generally flat, by digging a deep cutting of 
an irregular outline through a piece of ground, and 
utilising the soil thus obtained as mounds of uneven 
heights along the upper part on either side, whereon 
trees and evergreen shrubs may be planted as a back- 
ground and for affording shelter. The stones should 
be arranged to form cavities of an irregular size and 
shape, for the accommodation of various plants, from the 
sides of a walk made in the centre of the cutting, up 
the gradual slope formed by the soil, until the shrubs in 
the background are reached. It does not so much matter 
what the quality of the soil is underneath, providing it is 
porous enough to insure drainage, as additional new soil 
should be given each plant when inserting it. Formality 
must be avoided as much as possible in the arrange- 
ment, and the stones should be deeply embedded, in order 
to hold them firmly. Various aspects are desirable to 
suit different plants, and these should be readily secured 
in a Rock Garden by the irregular shape the latter should 
assume in construction. Artificial masses of rockwork, 
for^ ornamental effect, are sometimes introduced into the 
slopes of hills adjoining a mansion ; and, if properly 
executed, they present quite a natural and fine appear- 
ance. The extent of, and position for, a Rock Garden 
must depend on the surroundings, and on the amount of 
space and number of plants at command. If arranged 
on a mound in the open, the slope should be very gradual ; 
and a good proportion of shrubs should be introduced 
near the top. Dwarf-growing shrubs, Yuccas, and other 
subjects of an evergreen character, are always accept- 
able for their attractiveness in winter when the primary 
alpine and herbaceous occupants are resting. Care should 
be taken not to over-fill the cavities with soil, so as to 
bury the stones ; and the surface of each, when planting, 
should be left somewhat flat, in order that rain and 
other water may enter the ground instead of running off. 
Considerable experience is necessary for the proper con- 
struction of a Eock Garden on a large scale, and a know- 
ledge of the various habits of hardy plants is requisite 
before their positions for planting can be appropriately 
fixed. A quantity of loam and leaf soil, with some small 
pieces of granite or other stone, should be mixed before- 
hand, and a portion placed round each plant, the addi- 
tion of peat being made in the case of those requiring- 
it. Rockeries usually improve in appearance with age, 
and when the plants have had time to develop and fill 
their allotted space. Other plants may be continnaUy 
introduced, and improvements effected, where the ar- 
rangement of those first selected proves in any degree 
unsatisfactory. Annual top-dressings of new soil should 
be given to such as do not appear to succeed; and a 
plentiful supply of water in summer is requisite, almost 
without exception, for all. 

Wild Garden. Of recent years, the naturalisation 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Garden — continued. 
of hardy plants lias received more than usual attention 
by the formation of Wild Gardens, wherein they may 
grow and produce an effect by an artificial arranjje- 
ment so] i I i i r i i 

Fig. 77. Plan of Df.tached Villa Garden (Front 
Carriage EiNtrance). 

in a natural state. The spot selected for a Wild Garden 
should be possessed of some natural attraction adapted 
to artificial improvement ; otherwise, the attempt to 
imitate Nature will be but a poor one. Various strong-- 
growing perennials that cannot be afforded space to 

Garden — continued. 
with woods. Many of the beautiful bulbous plants that 
may be secured in quantity, succeed admirably under 
trees ; and, when flowering above the grass, in spring, in 
I ii'ge groups, they present a charming appearance. Nar- 
cissi in great variety, common Hyacinths, 
Primroses, hardy Cyclamens, variou.s Liliums, 
Snowdrops, and numerous other subjects of 
a similar nature, arc well suited for natural- 
ising in masses. Tall-growing plants, such 
as Asters, Fosgloves, Polygonums, strong- 
growing Eoses, and others, in endless variety, 
may be similarly treated where there is 
sufficient room for their full development. 
The Wild Garden, as its name indicates, 
should be specially set apart as a place for 
the cultivation of hardy plants that grow 
freely, and where they may be allowed to 
do so at will with only very limited restric- 

Rose Garden. The popularity of Roses, 
and their general beauty in summer, demand 
special attention in the matter of cultiva- 
tion, which cannot bo better secured than 
by specially selecting a position for the pur- 
pose, and arranging the different sections, 
as dwarf, standard, climbing, or pillar plants, 
to form a garden exclusively for Roses. A 
piece of ground should be set apart in 
every largo establishment for this purpose, 
and if the habits of the various sorts are 
studied and due notice given in the re- 
spective positions selected for them, a floral 
effect may be obtained, and a greater or less 
quantity of flowers gathered for four or five 
months in the year. For further information and culture, 
^''e Roses. 

Villa Gaedenh. Villas most largely preponderate 
in the suburbs of cities and extensive commercial centres 
or towns, and are built either as detached or semi- 

FiG. 73. Plan of Semi-detached Villa Gardens (Front Entrances), 

develop in the mixed border or rockery, form the best 
of subjects to arrange in the Wild Garden, which, in 
country districts, cannot be better .situated than in a 
part of the Pleasure Ground more or less surrounded 

Vol. II, 

detached residences, with an adjoining Garden, that 
must necessarily be of a limited character. Detached 
villas are usually situated at or near one end of their 
own grounds a small space at the front being devoted 



The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Garden — continued. 

to )awn and shrubs, with or without a carriage drive 
to the door, and the back part also laid out in lawn, 
with the addition o£ as many shrubberies and flower 
beds as may be thought desirable ; the space beyond 
this being utilised for a Kitchen Garden, if there is 
sufficient inclosed. Semi-detached residences are fre- 
quently limited to a piece of land not much exceeding 
half the size of that allotted to those entirely isolated, 
and are at a further disadvantage of each being over- 
looked from the neighbouring side. It frequently happens 
that these Gardens are laid out by the builder when 
his operations are finished, and the incoming tenant 
has, perhap)S, only a short lease, which naturally pre- 
vents him going to the expense of extensive altera- 
tions to suit personal requirements for a very limited 
time. It cannot be expected that anything elaborate 
can bo obtained in such a limited space as that 
connected with a villa ; yet it is surprising what an 
amount of interest and pleasure may be derived from 
such, if care and judgment are exercised — first, in laying 
out, and afterwards in the selection of suitable subjects 
for filling the space at command. Flower beds are re- 
commended, so far as circumstances admit, particularly 
those of a mixed character, where the permanent oc- 
cupants may be select hardy perennial and alpine 
plants, various spring flowering bulbs, &c. ; and the inter- 
vening spaces filled, in summer, with annuals and various 
tender bedding subjects. A position should always be 
found for lioses, as* they are indispensable in every 
Garden. The selection of shrubs should be restricted to 
such as are known to be limited in growth, and suitable 
for their positions, when required for the lawn or for a 
border below the front windows. When it is necessary 
to plant trees near flower beds, for a screen, considerable 
injury must, of necessity, be caused by the roots perme- 
ating the soil, and by the tops frequently overhanging and 
so causing too much shade. One of the greatest faults 
in any Garden is overcrowding. This should be a point 
especially avoided with those adjoining villas, where 
the owners, in their laudable endeavour to grow as 
many things as possible, are often advised to try what 
is quite beyond their means to successfully accomplish. 
Laying out, replanting, the care of plants, &c., grown 
in the greenhouse or frames, with the ordinary general 
attention requisite for all, should always be entrusted 
to someone competent to advise and undertake it, in pre- 
ference to employing another whose services may be 
procured at a cheaper rate. Just sufficient trees, of 
limited growth, should be planted to insure privacy at 
all times ; a certain portion of the inclosure, according 
as circumstances admit, being devoted to the cultivation 
of a few good shrubs and flowers, and the rest laid in 
turf, i.e., supposing the whole is arranged for pleasure 
only. This is generally the intention with villa Gardens, in 
which a space is allowed, perhaps not exceeding 6yds., 
from the house to the front boundary, and another, about 
2.5yds. long, at the back, the width being that of the 
Ijuilding and its side entrance. A greenhouse is always 
interesting when adjoining a villa, if the plants therein are 
such as do well, and arc properly tended — a condition, 
perhaps, not practicable with all, but one that is insuffi- 
ciently studied where means are at command. Far more 
pleasure is derived from a few floriferous plants well grown, 
than from a quantity that merely exist, and are unduly 
crowded. Villa Gardens depend so much on the plan 
adopted with the building and with others afljoining it, 
also on the taste a,nd resources of the proprietor or tenant, 
that definite advice cannot be given so as to be applicable 
to all. AVith a view to assist amateurs in tlie arrange- 
ment or laying out of their gardens permanently, both 
in the front and back parts of their residences, some illus- 
trations are given witli a view to suggestions being 
taken therel'rom. In Fig. 77 is represented the front 

Garden — continued. 
entrance to a detached villa by a semi-circular carriage 
drive. The object is to screen the door from view out- 
side l)y a thick shrubbery, and to have circular flower 
beds cut in the turf on each side of the steps ; a larger 
one of another shape, also for flowers, such as dwarf Roses, 
being situated in the front, on the opposite side of the 
drive. Front gardens connected with two semi-detached 
villas are shown in Fig. 78. That on the left (a) is laid 
out in a formal style, a large flower bed surrounded with 
a gravel walk. The bed might be planted geometrically. 

Fig, 79. Plan of Detached Villa and (.iAKOLiN. 

as shown, or in any way desired. The other (b) has a narrow 
border of shrubs under the window, which is continued 
round as far as the entrance gate. The space between 
is intended for turf, witli a few small beds cut in it for 
flowers or some dwarf shrubs. This style is much to 
be preferred to the preceding one. A plan of a detached 
residence situated inside its grounds is represented in 
Fig. 79. This shows a greenhouse and pits attached to the 
building, the lawn having flower bods in it, and nearly 
surrounded with a dwarf shrubbery. Tlie object here 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Garden — continned. 
is to got the best yiew from a snmmer house in the 
corner (b), and from the windows of the inrincipal rooms. 
The plan shown at Fig. 80 is one that might be adopted on a 
rather large and expensive scale for a Garden connected 
with a good-sized villa. The outside boundary is usually a 
wall, and in this case it is intended to be hidden by a row 
of dwarf Kobinias and an irregular belt of shrubs. These 

i'lG. £9. Pla.n for Vill.\ Ci.vrhen'. 

are followed by turf and a wall; of an irregular outline, 
which ends in a rustic summer house at one corner (a) 
and has a garden seat at another. A greenhouse joins 
the residence, which is not shown in the figure ; and the 
lawn, situated in the middle, has a tew clumps of ever- 
green flowering shrubs arranged in the corners and 
curves formed by the walks. Considerable expense would 

Garden — continued. 
be incurred in stocking and properly keeping up a 
Garden of this description ; but it would not require to be 
frequently renewed, like a f|nantity of summer flower beds. 

GAKDEN CHESS. Sre Cress, Garden. 

GARDENER'S GARTER. See Plialaris arun- 
dinacea variegata. 


GARDENIA (named in honour of Alexander 
arden, M.D., of Charlestown, Carolina, one of 
the correspondents of Ellis and Linnrcus). In- 
luding floi/Mnnnmin. Orb. Rubiaceo?. A genus 
"imprising about sixty species of elegant stove 
■ greenhouse evergreen trees or shrubs, indi- 
enous to tropical Asia, as well as the Capo 
f Good Hope. Flowers white, axillary or ter- 
inal, usually solitary, and generally sweet- 
cented ; coroUa funnel-shaped or salver-shaped, 
hxving the tube much longer than the calyx, 
and the limb twisted in gestivation, but after- 
wards spreading. Leaves opposite, rarely 
horled. The double forms of G. florida and 
fr. radicans produce white flowers that are 
xmongst tlie most beautiful and highly per- 
t imed of any in cultivation. Gardenias are 
1 rincipally grown for the use of tlio flowers 
n a cut state, as these are in great demand, 
nd appear so much in a succession as not to 
r 'uder the plants sufficiently attractive by their 
presence for ordinary decoration, excepting that 
f the stove. Propagation is readily efl'ected by 
c ittings. Strong, healthy ones should be se- 
1 cted, preferably with a heel attached, such as 
those obtained from the points of side shoots, 
1 xlf or fully ripened. Early in January is the 
best time to propagate for allowing the plants 
a long season to grow before flowering the next 
vinter ; but almost any time in the year will 
Id when suitable cuttings can be secured. They 
hould be inserted singly in small pots of sandy 
1 'at, unless required in large quantities, when 
tl is plan would demand too much space, and 
the alternative of placing several in a larger 
ze would have to be adopted. The pots should 
e pjlunged in a bottom heat of about 75deg., 
1 an inclosed frame of the propagating house, 
md allowed to remain there until the cuttings 
re rooted. 
Cultivation. Gardenias arc not difiicult to 
ciltivate, provideil they have plenty of heat 
md moisture during the growing season, and are 
1 ept free from insects. These conditions en- 
Durage the production of strong healthy shoots, 
hich, after being ripened, and the pjlants 
rested, supply a large quantity of flowers from 
the points. The young plants, when rooted, 
hould be hardened from the frame to the open 
1 ouse, and potted on by liberal shifts as becomes 
requisite, in a lump.y compost of two-thirds 
I eat to one of fibry loam, with an addition of 
ome charcoal. Where bottom heat is not at 
command, a hotbed of fermenting material is 
frequently made up in a house, for plunging the 
pots in, the house itself being heated by pipes 
in the ordinary way. If carefully managed, and 
not allowed to over-heat, this plan is generally attended 
with good results. Very large plants may be obtained, 
under proper treatment, in one season ; and if a succession 
is propagated occasionally to foUow others, and thus some 
are in different stages of growth, the supply of flowers 
may be considerably prolonged. After the season's growth 
is completed, a lower temperature and more air should 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

G-ardenia — conti 


be given. Some persons prefer planting out Gardenias 
in a }ieated structure over hot-water pipes ; but culti- 
vating- in large pots allows the advantage of being able 
to sliift them for destroying insects and for subjecting 
them to lower temperatures in other houses. It is not 
advisable to keep old plants ; much better flowers, and 
a greater quantity, may be obtained from young ones 
grown rapidly by liberal treatment each, or, at least, 
every second, year. Almost any amount of water may 
be applied to the roots in summer, and syringing 
morning and evening may be freely practised. 

Injects. Gardenias, if not well looked after, become 
more infested with insects than is usual with even the 
ordinary occupants of warm houses. Mealy Bug is most 
destructive, collecting in quantities about the points, and 
crippling the young flowers and leaves. Careful watching 
for these, from the time cuttings are inserted, must be 
constantly kept up, and measures taken to insure their 
eradication if found. A wineglassful of petroleum to a 
three-gallon can or open i:)ail of tepid water, thoroughly 
mixed, by having a syringe filled two or three times, 
and its contents returned into the can, previous to 
being applied, is one of the best insecticides. The 
plants should be laid on their sides, if in pots, the 
operation performed in dull weather, and the petroleum 
thorouglily removed by clean water half an hour later. 
This may be practised occasionally as a preventative. 
Green Fly is readily destroyed by fumigation ; Eed Spider 
may be kept down considerably by syringing ; and if 
Scale should be troublesome, they must be removed by 
sponging. All these infest Gardenias at some time, if 
the least chance is given; consequently, a watch must 
be kept, and measures applied, as preventatives to their 
becoming established. 

G. amoena (pleasing). /. white, having the lol>es purple on the 
outKide in that part which is exposed to the air, while the 
corolla is in jestivation, almost terminal, solitary, sessile; tube, long, terete. June. I. oval, acute, glabrous, on short 
petioles; spines axillary, .short, straight, h. 3ft. to 5ft. China. 
Stove. (B. M. 1904.) 

G. florlda (flowery).* Cape Jessamine. /I. white, sweet-scented, 
solitaiy, ahuost terminal, sessile, salver -shaped, nine -parted. 
Ansnst. I. elhptic, acute at both ends. h. 2ft. to 6ft. China, 
1754. Plant shrubby, unarmed, erect. Stove. (B. M. 3349.) Of 
thi.s species, there are several varieties, and that iisually gi'own 
iis Jlorida is but a double-flowered variety (B. M. 2627). 

G. f. Fortune! (Fortune's).* Jl. white, large, pure, fragrant. 

July. I. opposite, or in whorls, bright shining green. China. 

Apparently a very large form of the typical species. (B. R. 32, 45.) 
G. f. variegata (variegated). This is much the same as the type, 

but has leaves beautifully margined with yellowish-white. A 

handsome form. 

G-ardenia — contimteit. 

G. nitida (shining).* JJ. white, terminal, solitary ; calyx six-parted ; 
corolla with a narrow tube and a seven-parted, reflexed limb. 
October and November. L opposite or tern, oblong-lanceolate, 
undulated, h. 3ft. Sierra Leone, 1844. Stove. (B. I\I. 4343.) 

G. radicans (rooting). Ji. white, solitary, almost tenninal, and 
nearly sessile, salver-shaped, very fragrant. June. I. lanceolate. 
Stems radicant. k. 1ft. to 2ft. Japan, 1804. Plant shrubby, un- 
armed. Greenhouse. (B. W. 1842.) 

G. r. major (larger).* This is one of the most profuse flowering 
forms ; it is larger in all its parts tlian the type, but smaller than 
G. Jlorida. 

G. r. variegata (variegateil). I. margined with white. Japan. 
An interesting and elegant form. See Fig. 81. 

G. Rothmannia (Rothmann's). Jl. yellow, purple; sepals sub- 
ulate, rounded ; tube smooth, dilated, short. July. I. oblong ; 
stipules subulate, h. 10ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1774. Green- 
house. (JG. M. 690.) 

G. Stanleyana. See Randia maculata. 


82. GAltOEMA TlIUNnERGIA, showing 
Sijigle Flower. 

Habit and detached 

31. Shoot of Gaiidema kadjca.ns vau 

G. Thuubergia (Thunbergia).* jl. white, large, fragi-ant, terminal, 

solitary, sessile, eight-parted. January to March. I. elliptic, 
acute, glabrous, opposite, or three or four in a whorl. /;. 4ft. to 
5ft. Central and Southern Africa, 1774. Plant shrubby, unarmed. 
Greenhouse. See Fig. 82. (B. M. 1004.) 

GARDEN FINK. See Dianthus plumarius. 

GARDOQUIA (named in honour of Don Diego Gar- 
doqui, a Spanish financier of the eighteenth century, 
who promoted the puhlication of a Flora of Peru). Stn. 
Rizoa. Orb. Lahiatm. A genus comprising about 
.twenty-six speeies of greenhouse or half-hardy sub- 
shruhhy evergreens, natives, for the part, of Chili 
and Peru. Calyx tubular, thir- 
tcen-norved ; corolla with a long, 
almost straight tube, its upper 
lip notched, the lower in three 
lobes, the middle one of which 
is broadest. Leaves small, nu- 
merous, entire, rarely largely 
dentate. Gardoquias thrive in a 
compost of loam, peat, and sand. 
Propagation is effected by cut- 
tings, made of half - ripened 
shoots, and inserted in sand, 
ander a bell glass. When rooted, 
the young plants sliould be 
potted off in small pots, and 
grown near the glass, in a 
greenhouse, and, as they ad- 
vance in size, shifted into larger- 
sized i)ots. 

G. betonlcoides (Betony-like) is 
Cedronella mexlcana (which 

ace). See Fig. 8i. (IJ. M. 5860.) 
G. breviflora (short-tluweretl). n. 
secund, in whorls; calyx a httle 
coloured, \^ith lanceolate - acute 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 

Gardoquia — contimied. 

tt't'tli, :iii(l >vith the thiTiat naked insiile. J. on short petioles, 
rounilish-ovate, (ihtuse, with scarcely revolute itiar;;iiis ; tloral 
leaves similar to the rest. I'eru. This species is scareely distinct 
from the f;ciins Micwmtjrut, in conserjnence of tlie corolla hardly 
excecdin.n' the calyx. 

Fig. 83. Cedronella me.xicana (CiAUnoQniA nEXOiNicoiDES) 
showing Habit and Single Whorl of Flowers. 

G. Gilliesil (Gillies'), y;., corolla scarlet, pubescent; calyx 
eloimate.l erect w'lth lanceolate, subulate, nearly equal teeth; 
throat naked inside. June. i. obloiiK-linear, or cnneateil obtuse 
quite eutire, narrowed at the, green on both surfaces, flat'; 
plwIuJdieiS: "™r!'iS12.)'" """"■ ^="P^^»'^°' 1^20. '-lant 

G. multiflora (many-flowered). Jl in loose whorls, sub-secuud ■ 
cymes pedunculate, scarcely dichotomous ; corolla scarlet or 
purple, in.n-e than Im long. April. I. petiolate, ovate, bluntish, 
creuated a little, rounded at the, green, pale lieneath. Stems 
hard at the base, but scarcely woody. A. 1ft. Chili. (B. M. 3772.) 

GABIDELLA. Now included under Nigella (which 

GARLAND PLOWER. A common name for He- 
dijfliium. It is also applied to Daphne Cneorum and 
rieiirandra Cneonun. 

GARLIC {Allium sativum). This perennial has been 
extensively cnltirated in Europe, Asia, and North Africa, 
from remote anticiuity. It has become naturalised in 
Sicily, the South of France, and most of the South of 

Fig. 84. Garlic. 

Europe, heingf found grovvingf in meadows, pastures, and 
waste places. According to De Candolle, the only country 
in -which it is known to be undoubtedly wild is tbe 
Kirghis Desert. Garlic has been cultiyatcd in this country 

Garlic — continued. 
since 1548. At one time, it held a place in most 
of the early pharmacopceias ; but, like many other 
of our vegetable medicines, has fallen into disuse. In 
Britain, it is employed as a culinary ingredient; but, on 
account of its extremely penetrating and diffusive 
odour, it is seldom served up in a solid state. Garlic is 
easily propagated by seeds, which should be sown in the 
open ground, in March ; or by dividing the cloves of the 
bulbs (see Fig. 84) into as many parts as they admit, to 
form separate plants. A light soil, and rather dry posi- 
tion in the kitchen garden, suit them best, planting 
the cloves early in March, about 9in. asunder, in drills 
1ft. apart, and covering with 2in. of soil. An occa- 
sional hoeing, to destroy weeds, will be all that is 
necessary for the after treatment, until the tops die, 
when the roots should be lifted and dried in the sun. 
A few may be planted in autumn for an early suppjly, 
only a small cpiantity being usually required at one 
time in private gardens. 

GARLIC FEAR. See Crataeva. 

GARRYA (nxmed in honour of Michael Garry, of 
the Hudson s Biy Company). Including Fadyenia. 
Tribf (jtniii > f of Ord. Cornnrew. A genus con- 
sisting of xl) ut eight species of ornamental hardy evcr- 

85. Floweri.xg Twig of Male Plant of Garrva 

green shrubs, of which seven are found in California 
and Mexico, and one in Cuba and Jamaica. Flowers, 
male and female on different plants, arranged in elegant 

pendulous catkins, proceeding from 


e aoeis 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Geirrya,— continued. 
the shoots, and often from 4in. to 9in. long. Leaves 
opposite, petiolate, entire or denticiilate, penninerved. 
G. elliptica is the only species in general cultivation. 
It forms an elegant bnsh plant for the shrubbery border in 
the South of England, biit is, perhaps, seen to the greatest 
advantage when grown against a wall or trellis. Pro- 
pagated by seeds ; or by cuttings of half-ripened wood, 
inserted in sandy loam, in August, and shaded from strong 
light until rooted. 

G. elliptica (elliptical).* _//. fireenish-white or yellowish. Spring. 
Berries black. I. elliptical, dark green and shining above, hoary 
beneath, h. 8ft. to 10ft. California, 1818. See Fig. 35. 

G. Fadyenii (M'Fadyen's). -inale jlowers, spike-s branched, pen- 
dulous ; sepals cohering at apex, female fmvers, spikes simple, 
erect ; style short, thick. Spring. I. elliptic, shortly apiculate. 

G. Fremonti (Fremont's). Jl. resembling those of G-'. elliptica, 
but catkins shorter and less decidedly pendulous, l. oblong or 
obovate, acute, .'^linhtly wavy at the margins. North-west America. 
(G. C. 18S1, XV. 43l.) 

G. macrophylla (large-leaved), jl. green ; racemes short, dis- 
posed in terminal, dense, few-flowered panicles. Spring. ^ ovate- 
elliptic, 4in. long, 2Mn. broad, h. 6ft. Mexico, 1846. 




Fig. 85. Branch of Garr'ia Thureti. 

G. Thureti (Thuret's). A garden hybrid, intermediate in general 

characters between its two parents, G'. Fadyemi and Q. elliptica, 
the first being the seed-bearer. It was raised in the Paris Botanic 
Garden about 1862. See Fig. 86. (R. H. 1879, 154.) 

CrARRYACE^. A tribe of C'ornacece. 

CrARUG-A (native naiiie). Okd. BurseracecB. A genus 
of about eight or ten species of ornamental stove ever- 
green trees, natives of tropical Asia and America, with 
one from Australia. Flowers yellowish. Leaves impari- 
pinnate ; leaflets almost sessilo, crenate. The speciee here 
described is tho one most generally met with in cultiva- 
tion. For culture, see Boswellia. 

G. pinnata (pinnate). I. somewhat villous ; leaflets oblong, lanceo- 
late, bluntly crenate. Drupe globose, fleshy, with a rough austere 
taste, h. 60ft. I'last Indies, 1808. A deciduous tree, with soft, 
spongy wood. 

GAST£RIA (from gaster, a belly ; referring to the 
swollen base of the flowers). OnD. Liliacece. A genus 
of about fifty species of greenhouse evergreen succulents, 
closely allied to Aloe, natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Flowers racemose or panicled ; pedicels red ; bracts small, 
persistent ; peduncles naked. Leaves usually rosulate, 
thick, fleshy, generally tongue-shaped or ensiform. Under 
cultivation in this country, the flowering season of all 
the Gasterias is during the winter months. For culture, 
see Aloe. 

G. acinacifolia (scimitardeaved). jl. orange. March to Septem- 
ber. I. distichous, scimitar-sliape'd, with cartilaginous prickly 
edges. 1819. (B. M. 2369, under name of Aloe aciimcifolia.) 

G. brevifolia (short-leaved).* fl. red, nearly lin. long ; raceme 1ft. 
long ; peduncles 1ft. long, simple or forked. July. l. ten to twelve, 
close together, lingulate, 3in. to 4in. long ; apex bluntly cuspidate ; 
dirty green, with numerous small white spots. Stems leafy. 
Previous to 1809. 

G. carinata (keeled).* fl. lin. long ; raceme 1ft. long ; peduncles 
simple, l^ft. long. I. fifteen to twenty, dense, outer ones spread- 
ing, inner ones ascending ; all lanceolate, 5in. to 6in. long; face 
concave ; back distinctly keeled ; apex deltoid-cuspidate. Stem 
leafy. 1731. 

G. Croucherl (Croucber's).* fi. numerous, pendulous, 2in. long; 
perianth tubular, cylindric, contracted m the middle, upper part 
white, with green veins, lower pale rose-colour ; racemes nume- 
rous. Sin. to lOin. long, curving upwards ; scape 2ft. to 2^ft. high. 
August. I. numerous, spreading, recurved, Ift. long, 3in'. to 3iin. 
broad at base, |in. to lin. thick, dark green, spotted with white ; 
margins toothed, h. 2ft. Origin unknown. (B. M. 5812, under 
name of Aloe Croucherl.) 

G. disticha (two-ranked).* /. scarlet, nearly lin. long ; racemes 
1ft. or more in length; peduncles the same, simple or branched. 
L ten to twelve, distichous, dense, patent, 4in. to 6in. long, l^^in. 
broad ; face flat, with small obscure gi-een spots on both surfaces. 
Stem leafy. 1820. There are several varieties of this species. 

G, glabra (glabrous), fi. lin. long ; racemes 1ft. or more long, 
forty to fifty-flowered ; peduncle simple, 6in. long. I. fifteen to 
eighteen, dense, outer ones recurved, inner ones" erec to-patent, 
lanceolate, 6in. to Sin. long; face concave, shining green, both 
surfaces with small white spots; apex deltoid- cuspidate. Stem 
leafy. 1796. (B. M. 1331, under name of Aloe carinata.) 

G. maculata (spotted).* fi. scarlet, gin. long; raceme 1ft. long; 
peduncles 1ft. or more lon^;, simple or branched. I. sixteen to 
twenty, distichous, loosely disposed, erecto-patent, bright shining 
green or purple, 4in. to 6in. long, with large white bright spots 
in profusion ; base dilated, rose-colour. Stem leafy, 6in. to 9in. 
1769. (B. ]\1. 979, under name of Aloe Lingua.) 

G. nigricans (blackish), fi. nearly lin. long ; raceme 1ft. to l^ft. 
long ; peduncle stout, 1ft. or more long, always simple. I. twelve 
to twenty, distichous, dense, tongue-shaped, coriaceous, 4in. to 8in. 
long; face swollen below, flat above, shining, dark or purple- 
green, with copious small white spots. Stem leafy, 2in. to 3in. 
1790. (B. H. 838, under name of Aloe Lingua crassifolia.) 

G. nitida (shining), fi. lin. long ; raceme 1ft. to l^ft. long ; peduncle 
1ft. or more long, simple. I. twelve to fifteen, dense, outer ones 
spreading, inner ones spreading, all lanceolate, Sin. to 9in. long, 
bright green ; face concave ; back oblique, keeled, with copious 
small white spots on both surfaces. Stem leafy, i:Vin. to 2in. 
1790. (B. M. 2304. under name of Aloe nitida.) The variety 
grandipunctata has larger spots. 

G. pulchra (fair).* fi-. scarlet, |in. long ; raceme 1ft. long ; pe- 
duncles 1ft. or more long, branched. I. sixteen to twenty, 
distichous, loosely disposed, all ascending, sometimes 1ft. loug ; 
face concave, with lar^e bright green or purplish spots on each 
surface. Stem leafy, 6in. or more high. 1759. (B. M. 765, under 
name of Aloe maculata.) 

G, variolosa (variegated). ./?., inflorescence and perianth agreeing 
with G. maculata. l. fifteen to eighteen, in a congested, sessile, 
spirally distichous rosette, ligulate-lanceolate ; the edge white and 
horny in the upper half, slightly eroded ; the surfaces smooth, dull 
green, densely spotted with copious, immersed, small oblong 
whitish-green blotches, h. 1ft. 1860. (Ref. B. 347.) 

G. verrucosa (warty).* /. lin. long ; racemes four to eight, dis- 
posed in a deltoid panicle, terminal, 6in. long ; peduncles 6in. long. 
I. ten to twelve, distichous, close, ensiform, outer ones patent, 
inner ones alone ascending, 6in. to 9in. long; face concave- apex 
sub-pungent ; back swollen. Stem leafy, lin. to 2in. 1731. (B. M. 
837, under name of Aloe verrucosa.) 

GASTONZA (named in honour of Gaston de Bourbon, 
1608 to 16G0, natural son of Henri IV. of Franco). Ord. 
Araliaceci3. A stove evergreen shrub, allied to Aralia 
(which see for culture). 

G. cutispongia (spongy-barked). Bois d'lCponge. ;?., panicles 
1ft. long ; umbels at end of crowded erecto-patent branches * 
petals, stamens, styles, and cells of ovar\', each ten to twelve.' 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gastonia — coiitinued. 

I. at the tops of the Vjraiiches, impari-pinnate ; leaflets six to eislit, 
coriaceous, ovate, obtuse, quite entire. Mauritius. A tall, smooth 
tree, covered with spongy baric. This plant is now referred to 
the genus J'ula^ria^. 

GASTRODIA (from ga.iler, a belly; referring to the 
swelling' of the column in front). OliD. Ordiidecc. A 
genus of about severe species of tall, slender, leafless, 
whitish or brown terrestrial orchids, fonnd in Au.stralia, 
New Zealand, and tho Indian Islands. For culture, see 

G. Cunninghamli (Cunningham's), fl. dirty green, spotted with 
wliite ; bracts short, scarious ; claw of lip winged ; blade linear- 
oblong, membranous, waved, with two thiclv ridges down the 
middle ; column very short. Stem 1ft. to 2ft. high ; root some- 
times 18in. long, very stout. Syn. (?. sesaiiioides. 

G, sesamoides (8esanunu-Iike). A synonym of G. CtinninrihaniU. 
GASTROIiOBIUM (from gnslei; the belly, and 
lobos, a pod; in reference to the pods being inflated). 
Okd. Leguminosm. A genus, containing thirty-two species 
of greenhouse evergreens, limited to Western Australia. 
It is closely allied, on the one hand, to the strophiolate 
species of Oxylohium, only differing froru them in the 
number of ovules, constantly two ; and, on the other, to 
Pultencea, from which it is distinguished by the habit, 
the coriaceous leaves, the bracteoles either deciduous 
or inconspicuous, and the more coriaceous turgid pod. 
Flowers yellow, or the keel and base of the standard 
purple-red, in terminal or axillary racemes, either loose 
or contracted into corymbs or whorl-like clusters ; bracts 
and brrcteoles usually very deciduous. Leaves on very 
short petioles, more or less distinctly verticillate or oppo- 
site, simple and entire, usually rigid : stipules setaceous, 
rarely wanting. For culture, see Fultensea. 

G. bilobum (two-lobed).* Jl. numerous, in very short, almost 
umbel-like terminal racemes. March to ISIay. I. mostly verticil- 
late, in threes or fours, from obovate to nan-ow-oblong, thinly 
coriaceous, glabrous and veined above, pale and often minutely 
silky pubescent underneath. 1839. A tall shrub. (B. M. 2212 ; 
B. R. Ill ; L. B. C. 70.) 

G. calycinum (large-calyxed).* Jl., racemes terminal or in the 
upper axils ; bracts larger and more membranous than in any 
other species. I. opposite or in threes, oblong-elliptical, or more 
frequently from ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, with a pungent 
point, coriaceous, rigid, reticulate, and often glaucous. An erect 
G. emarginatum (emarginatc). A synonym of G. velutinum. 
G. trilobum (three-lobed). fl. few, in loose axillary racemes, not 
usually exceeding the leaves. I. rhomboidal or three-lobed, some- 
times lanceolate, sometimes very broad and short, very coriaceous, 
often glaucous, the fine reticulations scarcely prominent. A much- 
branciied, quite glabrous species. 
G. velutinum (velvety), fl. orange-red, in terminal, rather dense 
i-acemes ; bracts ovate, very deciduous. April. I. verticillate in 
threes or fours, from obovate or obcordate to linear-cuneate, very 
obtuse or truncate, emarginate ; margins recurved, coriaceous, 
reticulate, glabrous above, usually pubescent underneath. 
Branches rather stout, angular, minutely silky pubescent. An 
elegant species. Syn. G. emarginatum. 
GASTRONEMA. A synonym of Cyrtanthus 
(which see). 
GATHERING. See Fruit Gathering'. 
GAUB, or GAB. Indian names for the astringent 
fruits of Divspijros Embryopteris. 

GATJDICHAUDIA (named in honour of Charles 
Gaudichaud, who accompanied Freycinet as naturalist in 
his voyage round the world, 1817-'20). Okd. Malpi- 
fjhiarece. A genua comprising twelve species of graceful, 
mostly t\Yining stove shrubs, inhabitants of Mexico, 
New Grenada, and Venezuela. The species of this 
genus, like those of some other genera of the same 
family, are remarkable for constantly producing two 
kinds of flowers. Flowers yellow ; petals sometimes 
perigynous, roundish, spreading. In the more imper- 
fect flowers, the petals are either rudimentary or alto- 
gether absent. Leaves opposite, entire. The species 
given below is the one in general cultivation. For 
culture, see Galphijnia. 

Gaudichaudia — continued. 

G. oynanoholdes (Cvnanchum-like). fl. yellow, in axillary or 
terminal crowded racemes. I. stalked. A. 10ft. Mexico, 1824. 

GAIJLTHERIA (named in honour of Ganlthier, a 
physician and fjotanist of Can.ida). Aromatic Winter- 


Fig. 87. Flowering Branch of Gaultheria procumbens 
(Creeping Wintergreen). 

green. Stn. Gualtheria. Ord. Ericaceo'. A genus 
comprising about ninety species of very ornamental hardy 
or greenhouse small trees or shrubs, inhabitants of the 


Gauetheria Shallon. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gaultheria — continued. 
American continent, A few are found in Asia, five or 
six occnr in Tasmania and New Zealand, and one is 
Japanese. Flowers white, pink, or red, axillary and 
terminal, racemose, rarely solitary ; corolla urceolate or 
campanulate, five-lobed ; lobes spreading or recurved, 
imbricated. Leaves coriaceous, persistent, alternate, 
rarely opposite, often serrate or serrulate, penninerved. 
The hardy species thrive in a peat soil, and are readily 
increased by division or by layers. The greenhouse 
kinds should be treated like other greenhouse shrubs. 
The species enumerated below are those best known to 
cultivation. G. 'procumhens does well in the ordinary 
peat border ; and G. Shallon is well adapted for growing 
on rockwork, or as edgings. 

G. autipoda (antipodal).* Jl, white or pink, small, axillary and 

solitary, or crowded towards the ends of the branchlets. I, very 
coriaceous, veined, shortly petioled, orbicular, ohlong-lanceolate 
or linear-lanceolate, acute, obtuse, or acuminate, h. 6ft. New 
Zealand, 1820. Greenhouse. 

G. ferruginea (rusty-coloured).* jl. pink ; racemes bracteate, 
erect, rising from the axils at the tops of the branches, the whole 
fonning a panicle. June. I. ovate, acute, shining above, with 
serrulately scabrous margins, clotlied with rusty tomentum 
beneath, as well as the racemes and flowers. A dwarf shrub, or 
small tree. Brazil, 1852. Greenhouse. (B. M. 4697.) 

G. fragrantlssima (very fragrant).* ft. secund, drooping, shortly 
pedicelled ; racemes axillary, strict, erect, or inclined, shorter 
than the leaves, many-flowered, pubescent ; corolla white or pale 
pink, mouth small ; lobes rounded. April. I. very variable in 
shape, elliptic, ovate, obovate, or lanceolate, acute or acu- 
minate. Branches stout, obtusely angled, shining. Himalayas, 
1869. A handsome gi-eenhouse plant (quite hardy in some parts 
of Ireland). (B. M. 5984.) 

G. procumbens (procumbent).* Canada Tea ; Creeping Winter- 
green. Jl. white, few, terminal, nutant, solitary. July. Berries 
red, edible. I. obovate, acute at the base, finely and ciliately 
toothed. Stems procumbent ; branches erect, naked at bottom, 
but with crowded leaves at top. North America, 1762. Hardy. 
See Fig. 87. (B. M. 1966.) 

G. scabra (scabrous). /., racemes axillary, simple ; calyx and 
bracts clothed with glandular hairs. Summer. I. ovate -cor date, 
acute, toothed, scabrous, retieulately veined beneath. Caraccas. 

G. Shallon (Salal).* Ji., corolla white, tinged with red, downy, 
urceolate, with a closed limb ; racemes secund, bracteate, downy. 
May. Berries purple, globose, acute, fleshy. I. ovate, sub- 
cordate, serrate, glabrous on both surfaces. North-west America, 
1826. Plant procumbent, hairy. The berries of this hardy species 
have a very agreeable flavour, and make excellent tarts. See 
Fig. 88. (B. M. 2843 ; B. R. 1411.) 

GAUKA (from gauros, superb ; in reference to the 
eleg"ance of the flowers of some of the species). Ord. 
Onagrariece. A genus comprising about twenty species 
of hardy annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, 
natives of the warmer parts of North America. Flowers 
in terminal, spiral racemes. Leaves alternate, simple. 
But few of the species are now to be found in cultiva- 
tion. A light soil suits Gauras best, and they can only 
be propagated by seed, which should be sown early in 
spring, in the open ground. As soon as the seedlings 
are large enough to handle, they should be transferred 
to their flowering quarters, and a slight covering 
afforded them during severe weather. 

G. biennis (biennial). Jl. irregular ; petals at first white, then 
reddish, obovate, ascending, spreading, naked ; sepals purple 
at tlie apex. August to October. I. lanceolate-oblong, acute, 
denticulated, h. 4ft. to 6ft. 1762. (B. M. 389.) 

G. Lindheimeri (Lindheimer's).* /. rose-white, produced in 
numerous elegant spikes throughout the summer, h. 4ft. Texas, 
1850. Annual or perennial. An elegant slender branching species 
for masses or mixed borders. See Fig. 89. (L. & P. F. G. 3, 127.) 

G. parviflora (small-flowered). Jl. yellow, minute, crowded ; 
spikes elongated. August. I. oblong, acuminated, remotely 
denticulated, and ciliated on the margins, rather velvety when 
young, h. 1ft. to l-^ft. 1835. Annual. (B. M. 3506.) 

GAUSSIA (a commemorative name). Obd. Palmece. 
A genus of two or three species of crnaraental, medium- 
sized, unarmed palms, with pinnatisect leaves, from the 
West Indian Islands. They are nearly allied to Cha- 
msedorea (which see for culture). G. GMeshreghfAi 
(Stns. Gh-amoidorea Ghieshreglitii and Oreodoxa ventri- 
cosa) and G. princeps are in cultivation in this country. 

GAYI.USSACIA (named in honour of N. F. Gay- 
Lussac, a celebrated French chemist, 1778-1850). Syn. 
Lus.-^acia. Orb. Vacciniacece. A genus of about forty 
species of very ornamental, but little grown, green- 
house or half-hardy evergreen or deciduous shrubs, 
natives of tropical America. Flowers white or scarlet, 
small, disposed in few or many-flowered axillary racemes. 
Leaves alternate, persistent, rarely membranaceous, and 
deciduous, entire or serrate, terminated by a hard spine. 
For culture, see Vaccinium. 

G. dumosa (low). Jl. white to rose-red ; corolla bell-shaped ; 
bracts leaf -like, as long as the pedicels ; racemes elongated, 
June. Jr. black. I. deciduous, entire, obovate-oblong, mucronate, 
green on botli sides, rather thick and shining wdien old. h. 1ft. 
to 5ft. North America, 1774. (B. M. 1106, under name of Vac- 
cinium dumosum. 

G. frondosa (leafy).* Jl. greenish-purple ; corolla globular, bell- 
shaped ; bracts deciduous, shorter than the slender drooping 
pedicels; racemes slender, loose. May and June, Jr. dark blue, 
with a white bloom, sweet and edible. I. deciduous, entire, 
obovate-oblong, blunt, pale, glaucous beneath. Branches slender 
and divergent, h. 3ft. to 6ft. North America, 1761. (A. B. R. 140, 
under name of VaGciniutn Jrondosum.) 

G. pseudo-vaccinium (false Vaccinium). }i. crimson ; racemes 
axillary, erect, secund, bractecate. May. I. elliptic-lanceolate, 
obsoletely serrated towards the top. h. 1ft. to 2ft. Brazil, 
1845. Greenhouse. SVN. Vaccinium hraHiiensis. 

G. resinosa (resinous).* Jl. reddish ; corolla ovoid-conical, or at 
length cylindrical, witli an open mouth ; bracts and bractlets 
small and deciduous; racemes short, clustered, one-sided; pe- 
dicels as long as the flowers. May and June. fr. black, without 
bloom, pleasant (very rarely white). I. deciduous, entire, oval, 
oblong-ovate, or oblong, thickly clothed and (as well as tlie 
flowers) at first clammy with resinous globules, h. 1ft. to 3ft. 
North America (in woodlands and swamps), 1782. (B. ^M. 1288, 
under name of Vaccinium resinosum.) 


Fi,owj;ring Brancu of Gaura LiMUiEiMEni. 

An Encyclop/edta of Horticulture. 


GAZANIA (named in honour of Thooiloru Gazii, 
1393-l-i7S, a learned Greek translator of the Iiotaiiical 
works of Tlieophrastus into Latin). Stns. Mulmia. and 
Mii^ssinia. Ort>. Oomjtosikc. A genus couiprisiui^- twenty- 
four species of very sLowy plants, natives of tlie C' 
of Good Hope. Flower-heads largo and hands, nee, witli 
yellow strap-shaped ray-florets and tnliul.i.r disk-flcivid.s, 
usually of a darker eolour. Leaves alleniate or re.dieal, 
entire or pinnatisect. Gazanias are <it' easy enltnrc, in 
a cool greenhouse, or in the open Ixa-der, in snnnner. A 
coiiipost of loam and peat is most snitahle. Propagation 
is rapidly effected, in July or August, by cuttings, made 
from the side shoots near the hase of the plant : these 
shonhl be inserted in sandy soil, anil in a close frame. 
G. Pavonia (iicaceek).* il.-liniilx l.o;;.-, li.oelsenie ; vay-flnvets 

witll ln'..\vn spot at tlie liasr, i.v « liite ,;elitr:d .lut, auilaerrrii 

tin^e. Julv. ;. piiUMititl.l, h.'ihy. /,. l:ft. 1864. A very ii:iiid- 

sonie plant, (i;. R. 35.) 
G. rigens (stiff). fl.-Iini,lx ln-illi:mt tjelden relniir, with :in intevier 

lilac'lc velvet liand. .lime. ;. linear, s],:ithnl;de, hairy. Ii. 1ft. 

175.S. (li. jr. 90.) Freiii this and G. nuijlum, tlie sev.aal f^anleii 

varieties have tieen raised. 
G. splcndens(s|ileniiid).* /;!;e; rav-Hevetsl.rinhtnraime, 

witli a l.lael; and «]iile ;,pi,t at the l.a.s,. nf radi ; ilislc paler. 

I. linear -spatliulatr, silky, white heiieath. Ii. l.lft. A very 

hauilsuuie and iiiueIi-,L;rtiwa trailer, el' supposed hybrid origin. 
G. uniflora (une-flnwrred)."^" //.-/irre/.s' yellow; ray-lierets same 

cehair as disk. .Inly and -\n<Aiist. I. spatliulate-laneenlate, downy 

beneath, tstem shrnhhj , ,l«aiiiihent. /,. 1ft. 1816. (B. Ab 2270.) 

GEAN. The vi'ihl Clierry, Cerasiis Avmni (wliieli 

GEASTER. In the southern parts of England, 
Earth Stars — for so the species of (re'i.^/er are oalleil — 
are now and tln^n found in shrulii iie '^ m it tli in 
are extremely seieitive to moislui ti 1 hi i 

I-'IO. 90. (.lE.\STF.n IIVOROMETRnaiS. 

about by the Avind as shapeless masses (see Fi.g. OH, a), 
till the first sliower expands them, as in Ei.g. '.HI, h. 
GEBLEKA. Included under Secnrineg'a. 
GEERIA. A synonym of Eurya (\vliieh t:cc). 
GEISSOIS Ifroin fipi.if:nn. house-tiling; the seeds .are 
imbricated like tlic tiles on a house). ylr„D. Sii.'ifrnrii;i\ 
A genus comprising .about fonr species of stove e\'ergreen 
trees, natives of New Caledonia, the Fiji Islands, and 
Australia. ft. rnremosn. perhaps the only species yet 
introduced, is a hanilsome tree, rcr(uiring a very sanily 
loam, to wliiidi a small quantity of peat may be added. 
Cuttings root if inserted in sand, under a hand glass, in 

G. racemosa fracemose). //. crimson: raremes axill;iry, many- 
flowered, solitary, or in threes, prodneed from tlu' old v.iod, 
I. oiijiosite, pctiolatc, ipiinab.; leatlets elli|itii', ohtnsi', ipiih' 
entire; stipules oblong, ribbed, nndivided. I:. 20rt. New r:ile- 
donia, 1851. 

GEISSOMEBIA (from geisson, a tile, and meres, a 
part; the imlu-icatcd bracts fall over each other like tiles 
on a roof). Stn. Salpixantlui. Ord. ArinitliureiT. A 
genus containing aliout ten species of stove evergreen, 
pubescent or glabrous shrubs, of which one is from 
Jamaica .and the rest from Brazil or Guiana. Flowers 
red, often velvety, long, in simple terminal sjiikes or 
paniculate racemes ; calyx five-parted ; corolla tnbular, 
dilated npwards. Leaves oval or oblong, entire. Stems 

Vol. TT 

Geissomeria — conHnned. 
tetragonal. The plants thrive in a compost of loam .ami 
]ieat, with the addition of sand and a little rotten cow- 
dung. Cuttings, proimred from riither firm shoots, root 
easily during snninien-, if inserted in samly soil, covered 
witli a bell glass, and jdaerd in bottom heat. The 
spia-ies liest known to cultivation are those described 

G. COCCinca fsi-nlen.' ll. sc'ail. t, srssilr, (leeus.sate in loose 
spiki's ; pr.hili.lrs axdlioy, solil.iry, iiciidulous, or tennilKil hy 
threes. Aii!;iisl. /. o\ ;ih., .■ori.ircons, -ailiic. h. 3ft. .l.ain;Lie;i, 
1842. (I!. i\l. 41.58, iindr.- nail!., of S,(l iii.rii nl h,i. ,;,,;-i iinl.) 

G. longlflora(loii!;-Ho«.iv,ll, //.. eoroll.i srarh't, tnlmlar, 
with :ill arciiair, .l.nalc, soiii.e\liat vi'iitri. oso tilli.', wliirli is 
smooth inside ; s|iikes Inniinal .aint .axillary. Octoliir. /. o]ipo- 

site, ovate-Ialireol.ati., w;ivv, si-ssilo, biprrini; to the li;iso, s oMi 

ahove, somewlnt pnli.'srrnt lina.ath, silkv at the veins. A. 5fl.. 
biazil, h-;2':,. .V splrnJid r,..,..n.,«<.ring pl:oit. (I;. E. 1045.) 

GEISSOHHIZA (ii-oin f/e/.sso,/, a tile, and r/iice, a 
root; referring to the dry eoals wliir.h eover the bnllis, 
like the tiles on a root).' Tile L'oot. (U:.u. Jri.lnr. A 
genus of al.iout twenty-fonr species of very pretty green- 
house or half-hardy bulbous plants, natives, for the 
most part, of the t'apc of (4ood Hope. Flowers Ixia- 
like, variafilc in colour, very slmwy ; ]M'ri;i,nth fnnnel- 
shirped, with ;i short tube, and an ample, six-]tarted, 
nearly ei|nal limb, Lea^■es n;irro\v. set;ieoi.ns, or swa.rd- 
.shaped. Bulbs covered liy Iho se.irious remains of ilie 
bases of the leaves, whieh lio over eaeh cither like llic 

tiles of .a roof, and lienee llie <; mmi name. F<n- r-iil- 

ture, .see Galaxia. The bdlowiiig are a .selection of 

the species usually seen in mijtivation : 

G. excisa(:dnaiiit-leaved). //.white. April .ami l\rav. /., r;iiliral 

ones ov;ite-obloil,g. Ii. 6ill. 1789, (P.. M. 534, liilder name of 

./xet e.rr/.se.) 

G. grandis(largr-flowrrod).* //. inelined ; perianth seomrnls ]i,ale 
straw-eoloured, v itil a I ilooil-ivil iiii.lrih, elliptii'-ohova ha .itfase, 
patent; spike six to ei-ht-tlouered. ,^h-ly. /. radi.;il, liiiear- 
eiisif..riii, ohtuse, .green, strongly rihhed towards the hase. Stem 
stunt, le;ify tlnonghout. 186S': (l;, M. .5877.) 

G. inflexa (hemlinny.* /;. very l;irge and handsome; peiiaiilh 
petal-like; tnh|. veiv slant, si. aider at the h.ase ■ se..nients .il a 
liriglit yellow, ..aiii m;iil;eil .at the hase with .an olii:er.late ilark 
limple or velvet .-.]iet. ,Ma\. /. eieir.iian, aeal... fajeale, .,r oli- 

liipiely bent. /..lift. 11:24. Urn- of the h boniest sjieiaes of 

the genus; elosi'ly to (,'. fj!,/ i:.:,i l,i . M.N. a. nfii,i,il<i. 
(S. l;. f. Ik 138. ) 

G. Obtusata (hlnnt). //. yellow. yi.av. /., r:idie;d ones en- 

sifonn. linear, ohtiise. A.lfi:.. h'nl. (I;. .M. 672.) 
G. Rochcnsis (lie la Roehe's).' //. bha., eiimsoii-sjiotted centre 

IMav. /, i~idieal, linear, aeiite, .stem smoolli. /,. 9in. 1790. 

(b. .M. 598, iimler iiai f /..;/,/ /,■-.,■/., /,.s/v ) 

G. secunda (side-flow, riiii;). jL whit,., yjay. L, r.nheal oni's 

line,ar-:i,aite. St,.ni vilhnis. /,. 1ft. 1795. (l;.Jk 110,5, nn,l,a- 

name of /.tae .sc'e/e/e.) 

G. Setacca(liristle-leave,I). ll. sill], hnr-, a,!, aire, I. .Tune ami ,Tnlv. 

(., ra,li,-:il ones bristly. Stem simjile, few -tl,.weiv,l. A. 1ft, 18U9. 

(b. iM, 1255.) 
G. vaglnata (sheathe, I). A synonym r,f (/. iujlr.ra. 

GELASINE (fr,nii f/ebesanos, a smiling dimple; a 
poetic alhision to the ilelieacy ,,f the flowers). Oktk 
Indeir. G. uit'rt'ii is a predty hardy Imllioiis plant, 
native of South Ann'rica. For culture, .ye,, yr Romii- 

G. azuroa (bine). //. hhio ; petals dotte.l with white ami black ;it 
l,;ise ; spath,"' mam -flew ,a'e,l, shorter pedniieles ; ]ie,liiiieles 
ilaspe.l closely by thr,-,. ,,r fonr bracts. May. L plicate, lift, to 
2ft. loirg. /,. 1ft.' 1833. (B. U. 3779.) 

GELONIUM. This genus is now included, by the 
irnthors of the " Genera Plantarum,"' under Ratonia 
(which see), 

GELSEMIE.^:. A tribe of Loganiacem. 

GELSEMITJM (from Grlsemino, an Italian name of 
the Jessamine). Stns. Lepto-pterif: and Medicia. Ord. 
Loganiacece. A genus comprising three species of twining 
glabrous shrubs, one from North America, another from 
Sumatra, and the thircl from China. Flowers yellow, 
showy ; corolla infnndibuliform ; tube sub-cylindrical ; 
throat dilated. Leaves opposite, membranaceous. G. sem- 
pervirens, the only species yet known to cultivation, is a 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gelsemium- — contiaiied. 

half-hardy shrub. It thrives in a rich loamy aoil, and may 

be propagated by cntting-s, ydaced under a hand glass. 

G. nitidum (sliining"). A Jiynrmym of O. .seiapcrvireus. 

G. sempervirens (evergreen), /i. fragrant ; corolla deep yellow, 
i)vi;i' lin. lung ; ])eduncles very short, axillary ; stigmas of one form 
mill antliers of the other protruding. Spring, l. evergreen, thin- 
coriaceoiis, shining, oblong or ovate-lanceolate, l.Vin. to 2in. long. 
Ktem slender. Southern United State.i, 1840. Svn. G. nitidum. 

GEMINATE. United in pairs. 

GEMINIFLOROUS. Twin-flowered ; when two 
flowrrs grow toyetlier. 

GENETYLLIS. A synonym of Darwinia (which 

GENICULATE. Bent abruptly, like a knee, e.g., 
tho wtems of many g-raases. 

GENICULUM. The node of a stem. 

GENIFA (from Genipapo, the Guiana name of one of 

the species). Genip-tree. Oiid. Rubiacew. A genus com- 
prising about eight species of stove evergreen shrubs or 
small trees, natives of tropical America and the West 
Indian Islands. Flowers white, at length yellow, axillary 
or terminal, solitary or few ; corolla narrow, campanulate ; 
tube short ; throat glabrous or villous. Fruit succulent, 
with a rather thick rind, crowned by the calyx, and 
tapering at each end. Leaves sessile or shortly pedun- 
culate, opposite, coriaceous, obovate, or lanceolate, clear ; 
stipules interpetiolar, ovate, acuminated, deciduous. For 
culture, .'^ep. Gardenia, to whicli the genus is closely 
allied. The species enumerated below flower in summer. 

G. americana (American). Genipap Fruit. Jl. small ; pe- 
duncles axillary, dichotomous, corymbose, fr. greenish- white, 
large, full of dark purple juice; pulp edible, rather acrid. /. 
oblong-lanceolate, quite glabrous on both surfaces, h. 20ft. U> 
30ft. West Indian Islands, &c., 1779. 

G. Caruto (native name), jl, corolla white, having the tnlie 
silky both inside and outside ; peduncles terminal, two or three- 
tiowered. l. obovate, obtuse, glabrous above, clothed with 
velvety tomeutum beneath, h. 20ft. West Indian I.slands, &c. 

G. Merianse (Merian's). Ji. nearly sessile, crowded at the tops of 
Lir;inches. Berry hairy, umbilicate ; pulp edible. /. olilong- 
oi'ate. h. 20ft. Guiana, 1800. 

G. oblongifolla (oblong-leaved). ^. crowded at the tops of the 
branches, on short pedicels, and disposed somewhat racemosely. 
fr. the size of a peach. I. oblong-ovate, obtuse, shining above, 
and downy on the nerves beneath, with rather revolute margins. 
/>. 2Qft. Peru, 1821. The seeds and pulp of the fruit of this 
species are used by the Inilians as a <Iye. 

GENIPAP FRUIT. >SV,> Genipa americana. 

GENIP-TREE. See Genipa. 

GENISTA (the old Latin name used by Yirgil). 
Ord. LrijiDtivnotiw. A large genus (about seventy species 
have been described) of pretty dwarf-growing unarmed 
or prickly, greenhouse or hardy shrubs, natives of Kurope, 
Northern Africa, and Western Asia. Flowers yellow, 
rarely white, produced either singly or in clusters from 
the angles of the leaves, or at the ends of the branches. 
Leaves simple or trifoliolate. The hardy species are 
very pretty plants for growing on rockwork, in almost 
any ordinary soil, where they will flower continuously 
throughout the summer. All hardy, except where other- 
wise stated. For general culture, see Cytisus. 
G. setnensis (Etna). Jl.^ racemes terminal. June and .Inly. 

L f.-w, linear, silky, h. 6ft. to 15ft. Sicily and Sardinia, 1816. 

Plant, eif.Tt, ntm.-li l.ranched. (B. RI. 2674, under name nf 


G. anglica (Knglisli). Needle Furze ; Pettywhin. li., racemes 
few-lluwered, terminal ; floriferous branches unarmed. Snuuner. 
I. ovate-laiiL-eolate ; spines simple. Root woody, long, creeping. 
//. 1ft. to 2ft. Europe (Britain). Plant smooth. (Sy. En. li. 326;) 

G. anxantica (Anxantic). jl. racemose. Snnmicr. I. ovato- 
clliptio, rather coriaceous, veiny. Branches angular ; stems dif- 
fuse. Naj.los, 1818. Plant quite diffuse. (S. E.'"(l. ii. 266.) 

G. ephedroides (Ephedradike). fl.. rather silky, alternate, 
spicate. Summer. /. few, sessile, trifoliolate, and simple ; leaf- 
lets linear, .smoothish. Branches spiuescent, stiff, torete, at 
length striated, h. 2ft. to 3ft. Corsica and Sardinia. 

G. hispanica (Spanish). /., racemes terminal, somewhat capi- 
tate ; tiuriferous branches unarmed. Summer, l. lanceolate. 

Genista- — continued. 

villnns ; s]}ines branctied, stiff, h. 6in. to 12in. S*>uth-western 

Burnpe, 1759, (L. B. C. 1733.) 
G. ovata ("nvate). fi. in short racemes. Summer. I. ovate, or 

o\ate-ol>lijng, hairy. Stems numerous, hairy, erect, somewhat 

lipi'liaceotis,"striated, terete. //. 2ft. to 4ft. Central and Southern 

]':in'(.i.e, 1316. (L. B. C. 482.) 
G. pilosa (liairy). Creenweed. Jl. axillary, on sliort pedicels. 

Sunniiei . /. ()l)ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, complicated, downy. 

Stem priM iimlient, striated, branched. Europe (Britain). (Sy. 

En, B. 327.) 
G. radiata (rayed), fl.y heads two to four-flowered, terminal. 

Summer I. trifoliolate, nearly sessile, opposite ; leaflets linear, 

ratlier silky. Branches angular, crowded, glabrous. }t. 1ft to 3ft. 

Sontli Europe, 1758. (B. M. 2260, under name of Spartium 

G. Retama (Retam). Jl. wliite, silky ; racemes lateral, few- 
flowered. Summer. l. very few, linear-ohlong, pubescent. 

Branches erect, slender, twiggy, flexible, h. 2ft. to 4ft. Spain, 

Portugal, A'c, 1670. (B. M. 683, rmder name of Sparti/iim. inono- 

G. sa^ttalls (arrow-jointed). //. disposed in an ovate, terminal, 

leafless spike. Spring. I. ovate-lanceolate. Stems prostrate ; 

branches herliaceous, ascending, two-edged, raeniliranous. //. 6in. 

Soutli Europe, 1750. 
G. tinctoria (dyers'). Dyers' G'reenweed. Jl. disposed in spicate 

racemes, snujoth. Spring and autumn. I. lanceolate, smoothish. 

Stems erect ; branche.s terete, striated, erect, h, 1ft. to 2ft. 

Europe (Britain), North and West Asia. This species, of wliich 

there is a very pretty double-flowered form, yields a yellow dye. 

G. triangularis (triangular). Jl-., racemes terminal, short. 
Summer. I. trifolhdate, the upper ones simple ; leaflets ovate- 
laniTolate, villous. Branches triquetrouH, decumbent, h. 2ft. to 
4ft. South JCurope. (B. M, 314, under name of G. triguetra.) 

G. virgata (twiggy). /, silky, disposed in something like racemes. 
IVlarcli. l. oblong-lanceolate, rather silky. Branches twiggy, 
terete, striateil. h. 3ft. to 4ft. Madeira, 1777. (B. R. xxx. 11.) 

GENTIAN. See Gentiana. 

GENTIANA {(.-leiifiaiic, a name used by Dioscorides, 
so called in honour of Gentius, a King of lUyricum, who 
imprisoned the Roman Ambassadors at the request of 
Perseus, King of Macedonia ; he is said to have been the 
first who experienced the virtues of Gentian). Gentian. 
Stn. Selatimn. Including Pv/eitm-oiiaitf/i!?. OnD. Gentianece. 
A large genus (about 180 species) of hardy, annual or 
perennial herbs, dispersed throughout temperate and alpine 
(rare in Arctic) regions. Flowers blue, violet, purple, 
yellow, or white, axillary and terminal, sessile or rarely 
pedunculate, erect. Leaves opposite, often sessile. Gen- 
tians are among the most beautiful of hardy plants, and 
some have flowers of a deeper and more intense blue colour 
than can be found in almost any other genus. Un- 
fortunately, they are, in many localities, most difficult to 
establish ; and some species, G. verna for instance, can 
rarely be induced, under artificial conditions, to increase 
and blossom as it does in a natiu-al state. All Gentians 
are extremely sensitive of root disturbance, caused by 
their being divided or transplanted ; consequently, any 
that are established should be allowed to remain, unless 
their removal is an a.bsolute necessity. 

Prcqiiigation is effected by seeds, which ripen in this 
country ; and, in one or two instances, by division of 
the plants, although this is not recommended, for the 
reasons already given. G. acaulis withstands division, 
perhaps, better than any of the others, and, being rather 
plentiful, it is frequently used as an edging plant, more 
especially in Scotland, and in some of the cooler parts 
of England. Early in spring, just as growth com- 
mences, is the best time for division, which should be 
carefully performed, without undue injury being caused 
to the roots. Species like G. cviicicita. which have their 
flower-stems proceeding from one rootstock, will not admit 
of increase by this method. Seeds are slow in vegetating, 
especially if tbey are old, or have been stored in a very 
dry v>lace. AVheu gathered from home-grown plants, they 
should be sown as soon as ripe ; and, if this is done 
during the latter part of summer, germination may be 
expected (although it does not always take place) the 
following spring. If seeds are imported or purchased from 
uui-norymeu, the process may take one or two years, and 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gentiana — cuntinued. 
then be uncertain. Well-drained pots or pans sliould be 
prepared, and tilleil with a compost consisting chiefly of 
loam and sand, nuxde rather hue. The seeds must only 
be lightly covered and \va( r I lli j aiis 1 tin, iftei 
wards wintered in a framu litiu \ hi li it t is m i ly 
excluded. Raising Gentians irom seed i l 1 \ ] i 
requiring considerable care m t\ it iiii 1 m | ttiii^ 

or pricking off the ymiiig ]1 i( n 1 u il iiipiiy 

to the tender roots, lliit litti i Ui ill I mil 1 > 
the iiuijority of perennial \ i luiiii^ tli hi t \ ii 
and they .-hould not lie full\ \i 1 ut 1 1 d I ist 

Gentiana — rontiniied. 
species ; and those which are very dwarf alpincs, from 
high elevations, should bo pjrovided with a place on rock- 
work, speciall,y prepared to insure sufficient moisture at 
the season wh(n it is required. A cool place should 
li s. It, 1,(1 1 1 the titatment of the species from the 
Hiui il n IS Any that ire dithcidt to manage, and are 

II t 1 md t sniriel should be provided with a tiqi- 
li 111 111 111 ( r other e.\tra attention, in )iro- 
1 iLiiL tj lilt n til m unless the iiroper and requisite 

lit II I I pin II lit li ive been neglected when planting 

III til ill t I I t In Scotland, G. verna is successfu]l.y 

FlU. 91. UEN'riAN.l AIMUI.IS. 

before the second season. It usually takes three or four 
years to obtain sizes large enough for flowering. 

CulHvation. Nearly the whole of the Gentians require 
plenty of moisture when making their growth, although 
thorough drainage is also essential. To insure this, extra 
attention should be given in the first place, and perma- 
nent po.sitions selected. Some species succeed fairly well 
in various situations, either with or without shade. A 
"ood depjth of loamy soil, having .stones intermixed, and 
some of the latter placed round the plants, is the best pre- 
paration for them, this mixture requiring the addition of 
some peat for such as have thick stocks or long tap 
roots. An open position at the base of rockwork, or in 
the open border, should be chosen for the taller-growing 

cultivated in pans, being planted and left undisturbed, 
with the exception of an annual top-dressing. The pans, 
with their contents, arc wintered in cold frames, and 
plunged, ill spring, in the open ground, where the plants 
flower and remain for tlie summer. Stones are most 
useful nmnd tlie roots of those planted out, on account of 
the moisture wliicli they retain in dry weather. All the 
species described below are perennials. 

n. acauUs (stevnless).* Cieiitianella. .rf. blue, with tive yeljow 
inarks in.sirte, vevv large, 2in. long; corolla campanaiate ; seg- 
ments ,,l,tuse, mu.'vonate. March to May. I. opposite, decassate; 
ladii-al o!icsiaii\\dt'd,iiiilivi'-ated. Stems tetragonal, oiie-flowered. 
//' 2in tci 4iii .Alps ami Pvrenees. See Fis. 91. (B. -M. 52.) 
Theie aie stveial hirnis of this handsonie species. 
G. adscendens (ascendent). il. blue ; corolla cauniamilate. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

five-cU'ft, tJicthrd lictwetiii tlii^ si",'iiiciits ; I'lilyx tlirci'-tontlu-'il, 
o]"ifiiinii' (III (iiir side. June iiiiil .hilv. t- l.inmilatc. h. 9iii. 
Silieria, 1799. (U. M. 705.) 'J'lini.- i.s ;i form dlthi.s spL-cius, iniiiur 
(B. M. 723). 

Fig. 92. Flowerimj Uu.v.Nciiii.s hf (":e,\tiax,v .vfi' 

G. afflnls(ri.-l;Lk'il).* y. blue; corolla liarriiwIyfimiirl-.slK,|H.,l li„ 
or Ii'ss liiiiK ; t-ily.-: lolie.s linear or sulnilate, iiiie.|iial Siiiii'iiier' 
Z fv.iin "liloiig or laii.-rnlatc to linear. Stems cliLstere,!, 4iii. tii 
12iii. lij^li. North America. See Ji'ig. 92. 

G. algida (cold).* //. milk-i-oloiirea, markeil with liluish dots and 
stripes; hinh of a livid Ijlne colour, terminal and lateral, pedicel- 
late ; corolla ten-cleft, campannlale, lai;;e. June and July ( 
hnear-lanceolate. Stems ohsoletely tetraRonal, or nearly terete' 
7i. 3in. to 6in. .Silieria, 1808. See l''ix. 93." 

G. Andrcwsii (Aiiilieu-.s's).« //. hhic, .inndnt, i,, axill.irv and 
terminal iascides, sessile; corolla i-iiiipaiinlatcly,' with 
five ohtiisc entire .se^iiients, and five smaller access,, r\- friiced 
one-i. Angust. I. olilonu-lanccolatc. Stems terete. A Ift'to 
2ft. North America, 1776. (I!. !\\. I:A21.) 

G. asclepiadea(Swalliiw-»oit hke).' /(.. Ici miiKil s cniwded 

,T\illar\ ones solit.srv, .ill iicai l.\ scs.ilc ■ r II, i j,,-,. (■■inijiaiiii 

latl', three times liiii^er llcili U:r cajv.\, lilr-rjrrt; SVKlll'cllts 

ovate, acute. July. I. ovate-lanceolate, .stem-clasiiiiig" with 

Gentiana — continuerl . 

repand ed.ges. Stems ohsoletely totra.o:onal. h. 6in. to 13in. 
Soiitlieiii and Eastern Europe, 1529. {\i. M. 1073.) 

G. bavarica (Bavarian).* Jl. dce|i hliie ; corolla funnel-shaped, 
ten-cleft; se.ginents entire, or sli.ghtly serrated, the acces.sory 
ones small, horn-formed. July. /. ovate, obtuse ; radical ones 
crowded, iiiiiiricated, longer tlian the cauline ones. Stems one- 
flowcrcd. Ii. 3iii. Central Europe, 1775. 

G. Bursci'i (IJnrser's). //. yellow, verticillate ; corolla usually 
five-cleft, camiianiilate, dotted ; segments lanceolate, with a small 
accessory tooth hetweeii each. July. L opposite, ovate, apicil- 
lated, sheathing at the ba-se. A. 2ft. Pyrenees, 1820. 

G. Catesbeei (Catesby's). /;. pale blue, terminal, fasciculate; 
corolla ten-cleft, cam]iaiinlate, somewhat ventricuse or barrel- 
shaped ; the five regular se.gnients acutisli, the live accessory 
ones .iiigged. August. L short, elliptic-ovjite, acute, with 
scabrous edges. Steiii terete, minutely downy, h. 6iii. to 12in. 
Carolina, 18U3. 

G. Ciliata (fringed). //. light blue; corolla four-cleft; segments 
serrated, hnely cut in the middle. August and September. I. 
laiueolate and linear. Stem llexnose, angular, h. 9in. Cermany, 
1759. (B. M. 039.) 

G. crinita (hairy). ,//. light blue; corolla four-cleft ; segments 
finely cut. June and .liilv. I. liiiueolate, acute. Stem erect, 
rounded. A. 6in. North America, 1804. (I'-W. 2031.) 

G. cruciata (crossed).* .//. terminal and axillary, crowded, nearly 
sessile ; corolla tuliularly campanulate, eight-cleft (regular seg- 
ments aiaite, four accessory ones small, acutely bitid or iaggeii), 
with a ]iale tiilie, widened iipwarils, and a pale blue limb,' dotted 
with green in the throat. June and July. t. broad-lanceolate, 
connate at the base. .Stems ascending, terete, k. 6in. Europe. 
1596. ' ' 

G. Fortune! (Fortnne'.s).* II. axillary, solitary, .sessile ; corolla 
funnel-shaped, sli.ghtly ventricose ; limb of five spreading cordate- 
ovate lobes, deep blue, and ei|uallv s|iotteil with white.' Decem- 
ber. «. opposite, the lowest small anil ovate, the rest lanceolate, 
glabrous, three-nerved. North China, 1853. A very handsome 
gTeeiihoiise s|iecies. (C- SI. 4776.) 

G. gellda (ice-cold). /;. axillary and terininal, aggTegate ; corolla 
caiii]ianiilate, with bhintish segments, the five" accessory ones 
short anil lagged. June and July, (.lanceolate. Stems ascend- 
ing, tetra-oual. /,. bin. Cancasu.s, 1807. 

G. Intermedia (intermediate). A synonym of G. ochmleuca. 

G. Kurroo (native name).* fl. erect or inclined, pedicellate; 
corolla tube narrowly cannianulate ; lobes Hve, broadly ovate, 
acute or acuminate, azure-blue, sluinkled towards the throat 
wath white. October. I. clon,g;ite-liuear or oblong-lanceolate, or acute, concave, very coriaceous, brightgreen. Himalaya 
Mountains, 1879. A very handsome plant for the rock garden. 
SVN. Piirinnoimnlhe Kurruu. (B. M. 6470.) 

G. linearis (linear-leaved), fl. blue, one to five, in a terminal 

FIG. 93. OlMMNi VI II V sh «,„, II il il ul hliclH ITorlion 
Cl llllll ICSCCIKC (ciil u^cd) 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Geiitiaua— cnnliu unl. 

imul rvat, Hustrr; ,■,., oil;, 1 ,„, „v mnro l„n^ ; r;,lvx Inbrs short,.,- 
thanthf t„ „■ S,,, „„„.,■. /, li,„.,„„,- „;,,n,wlv laH,vol;,lo. Sl,.„ 
slMulfV, 111. t,. 2IL lii-l,. N,„tl, A,,,riir,i ,sv,-v ,; ;■,■,„/„ 

G. lutea (yrll, .«■).'■ /(. vo,-ticill,itc, n,,i,-,:v,,,os,. ■ r,,,,illi v.-llnw 
vi',,,y, ;,„,1 K|i,,l.l,',l, rotalu, Hvi, oi- siv-iloft, .l,,lv / '\,r„i,]' 

uvatf; nulicl l.-avrs (iv,it.c'-,,l,lo,,'4 ; ,,,,,lii, ..^ s'i'H.silr ,,vil,'' 

acute. /,. 4i;t. to Crt. H„,.,|„., L'jy,,. This si„M;ics f„,a,„.s 'th,' 
(it-ntiaii root ot c,,iii,,,,a'o,'. 

G. macrophylla (laru.z'-k'avcl). /l. tcviaiaal, vta-ti.illat.-lv a- 
,;;iV!;atj-, ,,,vol,i,aatc,c l,y asaally r,,i,i' ti.„-al l,'av,'s ■ r,,V,iria 
I'ak' 1,1,10. s,,iall, tahalaiiv i-ai,l|)aaiilato, f.„ii- ,,i- liv,.-,'l,.rt nilh 
short aiaitish sc,;;mti,ts. July. L, I'a, Ileal o,,,.s I ii,,-,',.lat,' lV,i"tl, 
of stom. Stems nearly teiete, i,ala',l i,, the i',,i,l',ll,' " /, 
5iii. to 12iii. Siheria, 1796. (B. M. 1414.) 

G. ochrolcuca (yell..\visl, -white). /(. I,li,,', terioin;,! a'"Te".at,- ■ 
eal.\x I'oliaeeoirs, uiieniial ; eorolla vei,trie,,se, tive-tl.l ' /"oh.o' ,te- 
ohloia;, thiei'aiiaveil. Ii. bin. United State.s, 1820 Sv\ (.' leVe,- 
u,ni;„. (V,. M. 2303.) 

G. ornata(ailoriieil).* (/. solilarv a,,,l si-ssil,- at th.- .■!„]< of flio 
h,ai,el,es ; eoiMlla ta'ie «,, st, i|„.,l «ith hl,„. s,,l,., ■^ |j,,,|i !,■ 
a little iallate.l ; h.h.-s i,,te,is,4v hi,,,', IIm', M,,all ii,;, ,,..,, I,,' 
ovate, aeate. ."May. I. o\ al,'-la,,eeolate oV Ii ,,, ar-la],,oo|:,h' 
aeate, aemiiiiiate o,' ,.htHse, deep m,', ,,, \iill, ,■, iiale i,,i,|,ih' 
Himalayas. (IJ. .M. 6hll.) 

G. pannonlca ^l'allllol,ian). //. v,.,li,allale, a\illa,v ai,,l ter. 
miaal ; .-or.illa ].nr|,le, l„-set «iil, ,h,ls, . :i,,,|Ki,i,,lato, si.v .„■ s,-viai- 
eleft, rather iiiei,d,raao,,s ; t,il,,' \ , ll,,\\ i.h. .1 i,ly. /,', i;olieal om^s 
ovate, aiiiealate; ea,,li,,,- ,i,,,s' ,nal,'. la,,,',,.!,-,!,' ■' tloi;,i o,,es 
acuminated. Stem oh.-i.iletelv let,au..j,al. h. lit. t,. 2lt. Alps 
of iMirope. 

Fig. 94. GEiMl.v.N.i P.\Ei.ijlu.N.\.\'llli,, sl,o«ii,i; Hal, it ami detaeheil 
Single l'l,i\\er. 

G. Pneumonanthe. ' Win.l l'l,,«er. //. termii,,al an, I axillary, 
pe.laileulate; c.„-,,lla ,Iee|, ),h„', havina the a,av,s.„,ry .se.aments 
small and :;Teen, f,,iii,el-sliap.',l, tive-elcft. Anaust. '- Imcar- 
s|,atl,iilate,'ol,tiise. .stems simple, tetraKonal. /,. bin. to 12iii. 
X,.rtl„'rn liemispliere ( Ihitaiii). See Fig. 94. There are white 
ami I, tiler varieties ,,f this species. 

G. Pseudo-pneumonanthe (hastar.l Wiml Fl, iwcr). A sym:,nym 
,jf (.;. l!,i,;,yis. 

G. punctata (dotted).* fl. verticillate ; cor.,lla yellovv, dotted 
with niinieroii.s irresular piirjile .spots, eanipanulate. six to eislit- 
cleft, lar!;-e. June. I. ovate, a, ntish ; h,wer ones petmlate, 
superior ones acaminate.l. Stem si,l.-t,tra,e,i„al, A. Ht. to ^.tt. 
European Alps, 1775. 

G. purpurea (purple), ji. from tliiv,- 1,. ,a^l,t *;^-;'';';';; '.'-;';'''";; ' 
the axillary ones usually solitary; -■"'■"ll;H""hIi-lh >"• ' ') ' 
dots in lines inside, coriaceous, campan, date ; tui,e su.iiajci 
greenish-yellow. June, .Tuly. /., ra, oi„-s ,,yate ; ■■■'"""■ '""■;: 
ovate-lanceolate; upper ones l,i ,,a.l-laii,e,,late. .-.nai, la i .u 
.slreatliins at the liase. Stem o),s,,letely t, l,a,o,nal. /,. lit- t,, 
2ft. Hurope, 1768. 

a r)vrenaica(Pyreneau).» II. terminatins tlie branches, siihtar.v; 
c?rolia° ale green outside, with the limb deep blue above, funnel - 

Gentiaua— eoa/iaat,?. 

sh,ip,Hl. t,a,-,-]eft ; the accessory segments r,I)lon,g, ohtitse, and 
cren,,l;it,',i ;,t the afiex. April. /. laiiceoIat(--lii,ear ; ra,li,'al 
oM,'s ,,,,^\,l,'d, iinliricato ; r;;niiiiie connately sheathing, .acute. 
Stem |„-.„,iiiil,eiit, hrancheil at l„,ttoni. A. 3iii. I'vreiiees. 1825. 
(C. M. 5742.) 
G. quinquetlora (live-How, av, I). II. lilac. i4nsten',l at en, Is ,,f 

stem aULl branches, three to live lo'4,'tl,,'r ; ■,,11;l clav.ate, tiv,-- 

ti,l ; caly-x very short, acute. Octohe,'. /. ;,n,plexic,iiil, deltoi,!- 
,'o,',Iate, three to tive-nerved. A. I'.lt. iNorth America, 1831 
(II. .M. 3496.) 

1/ j^-'^v-i^ ^A f ^ 

X* 1^'^f ^ V'V^'^^'"^'l^- 

Fig. 95. Genti.vx-.a ski'ti-.hi-'ih.v. 

G. SCptemfida(.seven-Hd).» /. tiamiaal. one t,, s,'V,alilia,;lnst.a- ; 
cirolla a/.,ne-l,lue, having the tube aliim-l .■yli,,d, ,.'al, wi,l,-n,iig 
npwarils. te,i-, 1,'ft ; live acce.ssory segi,,ci,ls ja-^uiil. .I,iii,', .Inly. 
I ovate-lan,:eolat,', ol,tiise, appriixiniat,-. SI, a, is l.tiag.aial, la'i'i't, 
simple. /;. 6in. t,,18iii. Persia. 1804. S,,- h'i'.;. 95. (F.. W. 122a.) 
G. S.COrdifolia (heait-,sli,a|,e-l,.-ave,l). //. imnaa.ais. i,i .a com|,ai't 
ratlier eloi,:;ate hea,l. sessi),-, ,,r very sh,,, lly p,',li, ,41110 ; c,,r,,lla 
dark blue, clavat,, ; b'lies Kv,'. small. ,,v,,l,'. s,,l,-aia,l,'. .l,l,,e. 

July. (. all ,,vat,-,o,-,lal,', s,,l,-ac,,l ,■. ii v,'-,„ , I; u,v,a, 

ahove. spreading .„ d,ll,'x,,l. e,„ i;„vo,,s. th,' ,,|,p,a- ,.ll,' ,■,,,, ,,g 

a .s,,rt of involucre. Asi.aMii,,,,-. This plant is ,,ft,„ lailtivatcl 
umlev the name of G. ilHi'l"- (l^- -^l- M'J^-) 
G. Verna (green).* /(. solitary ; ,'.„,illa a7.,,r,'-l,l,l,a salv,a-sl,a|„d. 
live-cleft, with a-s many si, vail hiH,l a,-,a'ss,,ry si'gments. April, 
May i. ovate, ; railical ones spreailiiig, ,a,,w,le,l. Stem 
bran.4!ed at bottom. A. 3iii. Knglan.l. (I!. M. 491.) Tlna'e are 
several varieties of this s|„',i,'s. in, haling lirucliiji^lnillii. (leaves 
lanccjlate, vonmlish. very sli,,rt) aial rl.ui.jnl.i. (stem elongate, 1, 
tiliforni, nearly iiaketl). 

GENTIANEjE. a largo or,ler of aaiiiiial or peren- 
nial herlis, rarely slinibs. Fhiwers reil. jadhnv, lilue, white, 
or violet, showy, reg-irlar : calyx divicled, persistiait ; corolla 
persi,stent, imbricate or iiiduplicato, ami olten twiste,! in 
asstivation ; stamens alternate with the lobes of the 
eorolla. The leaves (alternate tinit trifoliolate in Meny- 
anthes) are nearly always ojiposite (rarely whorled), entire, 
esstipulato, usually ribbed. Tliero are about forty-nine 
genera, and .520 species, broadly dispersed through almost 
all parts of the world ; some arc found at high elevations, 
and others in hot tropical plains. Bitterness characterises 
the whole order. Illustrative genera are : Cliimiia, 
Chlora, ErijHircra, Gentiana, Lim iwidliKtmnn , Lisitiullm.':, 
Meii'icinthe.':. and ri7.(<n-sia. 

GENTIANELLA. iS'ce Gentiana acaulis. 
GEODORUM (from f/e, the earth, and donjii, a. gift). 
Okd. Oi-fhuleo:. A small genus of stove terre.strial 
orchids, natives of East Imlia. Scapes terminating in 
a nodding spike of flowers, \vlii,.di in smn,' arc <>( a pale 
green colour, the lip white, veineil with purple or 
yellow lines ; and in others blush, with a yellow spot 
on the lip. Leaves radical, lance-shaped or elliptical. 
Roots tuberous. The species thrive in fibrous peat, in 
a hot, damp stove, but re,piire to lie restcl after tlie 
leaves have withered. 

G. citrlnum (lemon-coloure,!). Jl. yell,,w, ,-|,,s,- ; s]iik,' pen- 
il,,h,ns- lip somewhat spurre,! at base, blunt an, I laitll,' at,-l„l; 
s,-,pe shortei than heaves, (),b,he,' t,, llecaah,,. /. la, , relate. 
/,. lit. Fast Indies. 1800, (1). .M. 2195.) 

G. dilatatum (swollen). //, whitish He,sli-,,,lo„i-. ,i,,«,le,l; sah- 
labiato-,'ami,annlate, ii,„l,lii,g; racemes iiiaiiy-H,,nere,i. sparsely 
imbricate. Summer. (. 6in, long. 3iii. to 4in. broail. erect, 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Geo dor nm — continued. 

lanc'fiilate ; ycapu leaves short, ft. 6in. to 12in. Iiitlia, 1800. 
(B. K. 675.) 
G. fucatum (painted). /'. sn)i-canipamilate ; si-pals pink, lineav- 
obkm;;, acute ; lip ovate, cuiicave, euiargiiiate, entire ; scapes 
radical, erect, clothed, recurved at apex. .Inly. /. nldtm.ii- 
lanceolate, acute, plicate, long. It. 1ft. Ceylim, 1832. (K. U. 1687.) 

GEOFFR^A (named after Dr. M. E. F. (.^.-uffroy, 
of PiL.ris, lli7"-i - 1731, author of a Materia Medica). 
Bastard Cabba^i-e-tree. 8tn. Gcofffoija. Okd. Leijiinii- 
nosce. A g'enus comprising' four sx^ecies of stove ever- 
green thorny or unarmed trees, natives of tropical 
America. Flowers yellow, often foetid, in siinplu ra- 
cemes. Seeds edible. Leaves alternate, imparl -pinnate ; 
leaflets alternate or sub-opposite. Geoft'ra^as thrive in 
a compost of loam and peat. Propag-ated by cutting-s, 
made of ripened shouts, and inserted in sand, under a 
bell g'lass, in heat. 

G. spinulosa (spiiudu^:;c). jL, laccmt-s fortiiini^ a spn>;i(lin,!:i 
paiiiclf. L, Icallets tivate, ohtuse, pubescent, and retirnlateil 
beiieatli ; petinjes \vin,L;ed. Branches covered with a s[n.i[iyy 
bark. Trunk unarmed. Jirazil. 

G. superba (superb). Jl. yellow, in simple racemes the leiijitli 
of tlie leaves. Jr. about tlie size and form nf a \\'alnnt, havin.ij; 
a j;reenish-yelluw downy rind, a fleshy pulp, and a hard nut, 
inclnsing a sin^de seed. I. clu.sely resemliling those vi tlie 
Taniariud-tree, shining and puberulous above, Imt glaucous and 
paler !.)eiieath. h. 24ft. Ura/Jl. A magnificent tree. 

GEOFFROYA. SV. Geoffraea. 

GEON'OIVIA (from geoiwiiios, skilled in agriculture ; 
the allusion is obscure). Ord. Palmecc. A genus of 
about a hundred species of very elegant dwarf-growing 
stove iDalms. Flowers monoeeious, disposed on simple 
or branched spikes. Fruit a small, dry, oval berry. 
Leaves entire, or more or less pinnately divided, nsually 
of a pale green colour. The present genus is allied to 
CliamfpAorea, but is less useful for decorative purposes. 
Geonomas thrive in a compost of two - thirds spongy 
peat and one of loam, with the addition of a little sand 
or charcoal. A plentiful supply of water is needed — 
" indeed, many of them grow best when plunged in a 
tank; and should any of them fall into bad health, if 
stood in a tank of water, with a little extra heat, they 
will speedily recover." They should be confined to the 
stove, as the constitution of the plants will not admit 
of their being employed in a permanent manner for 
indoor decoration ; but they may be occasionally used for 
the dinner table. Nearly all the species are exceedingly 
handsome, especially in a young state. Propagated by 
seeds and suckers only. 

G. arundinacea (reed-like). ^. dark green (brown when youni;), 
bilobcd. ytems ciespitose, cane-like. (G. 0. 1872, p. 78.) 

G. binervis (two-nerved). I. pinnate, pendent, 2rt. to 4ft. long ; 
pinnpe decarrent at base, tapering to a tail-like point, 6in. to 12in. 
long, dark green ; petiole clothed with a network of rougli l]ro\\n 
fibres. Stem slender. Nicaragua. 

G. Cardcri (r'arder's).* /. pinnate, strongly ril.lied ; ]iiunai un- 
equal, Ain. to 2.jin. broad, upper jiart cnnthif/nt into a )ir<.iad 
bilolicd apex; petioles flat on tlie ujiper, rounded and asperous 
on tho lower, face, Columbia, 1376. 

G. congesta (crowded).* /. 1ft. to 2ft. long, either entire ur 
with a bifid apex, or divided into broad segments, wiilening 
upwards; 6iii. to Sin. across at the apex; petioles sheathing at 
base. Stem moderately thick. Costa Rica. 

G. elegans (elegant).* I. Ift. long ; terminal pinna.-, bmud, bifid ; 
two lateral pairs broad, decurrent ; bright pink when voimu ; 
petinh's sheathing at base. Stem slender'^ reeddike. Ihazil. 

G. fcrruginea (rusty). L arched, pinnate, 1ft. tr. 2ft. long, about 
8in. ljroa<l; terminal one bifid; two lateral pairs broad, "sessile ; 
petinh-s ;Lnd .stems slender. lirazil. 

G. Ghicsbreghtiana. Sr,:. Calyptrogyne Ghiesbreg-htiana. 

G. gracilis (slmdcr).'- /. pinnate, Jircliin-, -with long linear 
pinn;i', (kirk i;reen. A graceful species, rfsembliii'' ('>>ni:-i Wrd- 
deliainr. Brazil, 1874. 

G. macrostachys (large-spiked). /. 1ft. to l,|ft. long, usually 
divided iido tiiree pairs of Itroad segments, ending in tail like 
points, dceprrd when young; petioles light brown, sheathing at 
the base, tomentose. Stem sleniler. Brazil, 1823. 

G. magnifica (mugnificent). /. 2ft. to 3ft. long, 9in. tu 12in. broad 
plaited, unequally pinnate ; apex deeply bifid ; petioles blackish] 
sheathing. Stem somewhat stout. ( 'hipiaa. 



G. MartianadMartias').-*^ I. 1ft. to 2ft. long, 2in. across at the 
liasi'. ,^■l■adually increasing to the deeply hilid apex, where it is 
yin. Mide, reddish-cainison when yonn^' ; petioles slieathingat base, 
bin. lon.u. St.-ni rather stout. Costa Rica. An extremely beau- 
tiful palm, the iiiature colour of the leaves being a deep metallic 
gtei'u. 'J'here is a form known as Sci'iiiannU sometimes grown. 

G. Porteana (P'lrte'.s).* I. pinnate, 1ft. to 2ft. long, arched; 
Iiiiina- sessile, di.stant, 6in. to Sin. long, 2in. luoad ; apex deeply 
bifid. Stem smooth, slender. New Grenada, 18b3. An elegant 

G. procumbens (pr'icumbent).* /. pendent, 2ft. to 4ft. long, pin- 
nate ; iii)ni;e pi-mlent, ab.Mit 1ft. hmy, lin. to 2in. broad, very deep 
green. Sterji stout. iJesctibed as one of the most beautiful palms 
in the whole gcTius. 

G. pumila (dwarf).-- _ /. lu'oiid, deeply cleft at the apex ; petioles 

slendi.'r, terete. Tropical America. A jnetty dwarf -growing species. 
G. Schottiana (Schott's).* I. lunnate, 1ft. to 3ft.. long; pinnai 

long, ta])ering to a taildike point; petioles sheathing at base, 

long, arching. Stem slender. Brazil, 1320. 
G. undata (wavy). I. arching, irregularly pinnate, 2ft. to 3ft. 

Ion;;; jiinna^ plaited, dark green, terminal ]iinna deeply bifid; 

petioles sheatlnn,';, clothed 'with rou,i;li fibrous tissue at base. 

Stem stout, 9in. to 12in. in circumference. Venezuela, 1850. 

G. Vcrschafleltii (Verschatlelt's). See Calyptrogyne Ghies- 

<_)ther species sometimes seen in cultivatiuu are : primxiih ami 

G-£OKCHIS. Included under Gooclyera (which see). 
GEORGINA. A syn.myrn of Dahlia (which see). 
GEOTHERMOMETER. A tliormumeter for deter- 
mining tinj temperature of the earth. 

GERANIACE.X. A natural order of herbs, shrubs, 
or sub-shrubs, rarely arborescent. Flowers often showy; 
sepals five, imbricate, one of them sometimes spurred ; 
petals five, nnguiculate, imbricate or valvate in bud. 
Leaves opposite or alternate, usually palmately veined and 
lobed, often stipulate. There are about twenty genera 
and 750 species, dispersed through the temperate and sub- 
tropical regions of the whole world, but especially abound- 
ing in South Africa. The species possess astringent and 
aromatic properties ; many of them are fragrant, while 
others have a musky odour. The members of the tribe 
Oxalidece abound in oxalic acid, and some have edible 
tubers. Well-known genera are : Eroiliiim, Geranium, 
Pelar<iun.inrn^ and Tropn.nhun. 

GERANIUM (Gernnion, the old Greek name nsed 
by Diosuorides, derived from geranos, a crane ; referring 
to the long beak which terminates the carpels). Crane's 
Bill. Ord. Geraniacea'. A genus containing a hundred 
species of hardy herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs, dis- 
persed through the temperate regions of the whole world. 
Flowers equal ; sepals and petals five, imbricate in bud ; 
stamens ten, rarely five ; inflorescence cymose. Leaves 
opposite or alternate, stipulate, dentately or palmately 
(rarely pinnately) lobed or dissected. The genus is re- 
presented in Britain by eleven species, some of which 
are thoroughly well worth growing as ornamental border 
plants. One of the commonest of them, the Dove's Foot, 
G. muUe, is found almost everywhere in waste places 
and on dry lawns. Geraniums thrive in almost any 
common garden soil, but prefer a well-drained one. They 
are excellent subjects for growing on rockwork, banks, 
or borders. Propagated by divisions, or by seeds. 

Tile host of garden plants popularly known as Show, 
Fancy, Scai-lot, Tricolor, &q., Geraniums, belong to the 
genus Pelargonium (which see). 

G.albanuni( Albanian), fl. ])urple; petals eujarginate ; peduncles 
tA\o-tlowered. elongated, hispid, Alav. /.. kidney-shaped, seven- 
lobrd ; lolies triii.l; lobules thieedoothed. Stem flaccid, simple. 
h. 1ft. Tauria, .Vc. 1820. Svn. a. cri.sla/>un. 

G. ancmoncefolinm (Anenauie-leaved).^- //, purplish-red. large; 
pedunclHs twollouered, o|.p<isite, ere.'t, snuioih. May. /. smooth, 
palmately five-clel't, with bipinnatifidlv-cleft se;;ments, upper ones 
three-parted. Stem /;. 1ft. to 2ft. Madeira, 1778. 
Halfdiardy shrub. See Kig, 96. (B. M. 206.) 

G. argenteum (silver) ). ■ //, |iaie re.l, with darker stripes kn-H. • 
petals eniaM;inale ; prJnn, l,'> alnmst radii'al, t\\ n-fio\vered.' .TunJ 
and July. /. all aluio.-l Kidical, on bum petioles, lin;iry or .silky ou 
linth surfaces, \\\v to seven parted, with Irilhl lubes and liiieav 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Geranium — rnntiuK,;!. 

lolMiIos. /,. 3ili. Nci-lhem Italy, 1699 An el,- 
See Fi^. 97. ' 

.imt :ll|iinp pliiiit. 

G. asphodeloides (AspIiodeMike). //. nsualiv puiiilisli-violet 

te\y ; pet^ils ,viite, nften triiiieate, tHiee as Imn: as the ^harv- 

pumted (U.wiiy sepals. Su.iuiaT. /, |iv,-- ,j - |„|„.^ trifl,!- 

railieal lines hum.stall 
1S23. (S. |.'. (j. bhl.) 

ly ■l"Wijy. A. (,ii 


u I, I, lied. 

and ekitllecl with minute .■iilinessed liaiis, palev lielow, out down 
iiearlyiv qnite t(i the Iiase iiitii tinee tn live divisinns, w itii several 
aeute', ereeto-palent, irveKiilai', linear teetli. Steins, iften 
Ift. or 2rt. lehK, and entangled, generally nakedin the Inwer part, 
hut eldtheil with shnit gvey glandular piiheseenee npwanls. 
h. 9in. fsonth Afriea, 1862. (Ret. T). 117.) 
G. clnereum (.niey).* /(. pale red, with daik stripes ; petals 


Fig, 96. CiF-RANlUM amkmoxj 


G. atlanticum (Atlantii ).* 
t\V(_i-fl(.i\\'eifd, hairy i^udiiiicl 
pale purple, ^\'itIl red 

Jl. liin. in iliatneter, in terminal, 

.s ; sepals elliptic, acnmiiiate ; petals 
l.i'onlate, three (U' fonr times as lon.a,- 
the sej.tals. June. t. uibieular, cut nearly tu the base into 
tive or se\'on narrowly ohovate <'v cuneate, trithl 'tv iiinnatitlUh- 
laciniated, and toothed sei;iii.'iits. Stems 1ft. to l.'.ft. hi-h. 
Algiers, 1873. (B. M. 6452.) 



G. caffrum (Catfre). .//. in pairs, on long- slender pedieels ; petals 
pale lilac or white, otiovate, emarginate at the ayiex, considerably 
exceeding the calyx. June. I. liii, to 3in. broad, full green above. 

emarginate ; peduncles almost radical, two -flowered. June. 
/. almost radical, stalked, clotheil with glaucouy pubescence, tive 
to seven-]iarted, with wedgc-shapeil tritid litlies. Ii. 6in. Pyre- 
nees, Ac. Plant almost stendess. 

G, COllinum (hill-loving). _//. puriilish-viulct ; petals entire, 
roiin.lish, hardly louger than the calyx. May. /. pahuatfly live- 
parted, \\\i\\ snuiewhat trilubed Iol)es,"d..'L-iily serrated ; pcdunelcs 
anil calyces covereil \vith clannny hairs. Stem angular, diffused, 
and somewhat decund.ient, ]mbescent. I'iastern Kurope, Ac, 

G. cristatum (crested). A synonym of G. alhauvm.. 

G. dahuricum (Dahurian).* Jl. purple \ petals entire, much 

liearded ;it the base ; peduncles two-fldwered, three times longer 

than the leaves. June. I. opposite, three to tive-p nted, witli 

cut. acute lubes. Stem erect, smooth, naked at the b.isi.'. A. l.'.ft 

Dahuria, 1820. 
G. Endressii (Endress'.s).* //. light rose, with darker veins; 

petals nblnng-ovate, entire, fringeil at base; filaments densely 

hairy ; peduncles axillary, twu-tinwered. Summer. /. opposite. 

stalked, palmate ; upper ones threi.'-lobed, Iuamt imes Hvf-lobed ; 

lobes acute, serrated. It. Ift. Pyrenees. 
G. eriostemon (woolly-stamencd). jl. )iale violet, with white 

stamens, but lanple towards tin- apex; pel.ik eiit ire, liearded at 

thM Ivise. .luue. /. five-lobed, uitli ovate (lre|i!y-toMthed lobes; 

lower '.nes on long stalks, alternati' ; upper ones sessile, opposite. 

Stem slightly ani;Ied, forked, erert. //. Gin. to 5ft. Neji.aul, 1322. 

(Sw. Ger. 197.) 

G. ibericum (Iberian).* jj. blue, large; petals obcnrdate, or 
some \\ hat tritid. Summer and autumn. /. live to seven- 
]>arted, ^\■ith i.dnnately-cut lobes and toothed lobules, villous, 
dichotonmus, erect. A. 1ft. Iberia, 1802. A very sho\\A- iilant. 
(B. M. 1386.) 

G, i. platypetalum (bmad-petaled). Jl. deep violet, with red- 
dish streaks; more than lin. in diameter; petals emarginate. 
Summer. (. alternate oi' o].i|iosite ; lobes tive to seven, dee])ly tait, 
fringed. //. 1ft. to 2ft. (ieorgia. See Fig. 98. 

G. Lamberti (Lambert's).*^ Jl bright lilac, large ; petals large, 
roundish-ovate, concave and veiny; filaments beset with white 
hairs. Summer and autumn. /." opposite, cordate, fivedobed, 
pilose on both surfaces, soft ; lobes wedge-shaped, cut, toothed. 
Stem diffuse, branelied, elongated. Nepaul, 1824. (Sw. tier. 

G. lucidum (clear), jl. bright rose-culuured, small. May to 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Geranium —continued. 

Aiij^ust. I. roundish, five-lul)e(l, shininjc;. Stem spreading: in every 
directinn. h. bin. to 12in. J<2uroj)e (liritaiu), North Africa, Asia. 
Annual or biennial. (Wy. En. B. 304.) 

G. macrorhizon {large-rooted).* Jl. deep red or hri,i;lit purple ; 
petals ontirLs a little reflexed ; calyces globose, inflated. May 
to July. L smooth, tive-parted, witli the lol)Cs tontliod at the 
apex. Stem suft'rutictisu at the hasf^ dichotonioiis at tlie tipex. 
/(. 1ft. South Europe, 1576. (li. U. 2420.) 

G. maculatum (spotted).* /. pale hlac, varying in size; petals 
'ilinvatp, entire. Summer. /. three to tive-parted, with dee]jly- 

(.ttied loljes; radical 
sessile. Stem rather 
/(. l.^ft. Nortli Amerie 


Geranium — ronliaued. 

diffuse, liraiiched. h. 1ft. to 2ft. Europe (Britain), West Asia. 

A very handsonie s]tocies. (Sy. En. li. 293.) 
G. s. lancastriensc (Lancaster). jl. Hesh- coloured, with 

ptu]de veins, lar^e. 
G. striatum (streaked).* /?. pink, eluKantly striped with darker 

veins ; petals eniarj;-inately two-lo)jed. May to October. L, lower 

ones tive-lo))ed, upper ones three-lobed ; the lobes ovate, acute, 

deeply toothed. Stem round, decumbent. South Europe, 1629. 

(B. M. 55.) 
G. sylvaticum (wood).' //. purple or blue, with crimson veins ; 

petals somewhat emarginate ; peduncles ratlier corymbose. June 

and July. L live to seven-h'lied ; lobes oblun,!;-, deeply toothed. 

Stem round, erect, h. 2rt. Kumpc (lli'itain), Siberia, West 

Asia. (Sy. En. B. 296.) 
G. tuberosum (tnberose). Jl, purple, large, numerous, elegant; 

jietals liilid. May. /. many-parted; lobes linear, piunatitid, 

serrated. Stem, from the base to the fork, naked, h. 9in. South 

Euro]je, Ac, 1596. (Sw. Uer. 155.) 

Fic;. 98. Flowering Branch of Geranium ibertcum 


G. omithopodum (bird's -foot), fl. in pairs, on densely downy, slender pedicels ; petals white, and veined with red. 
I. roundish in general outline, downy principally on the lower 
face, palmately'flve-lobed, usually at least half-way down, with 
pinnatitid divisions. Stems densely clothed with soft, shurf, 
decmved, whitish hairs. //. 4ft. to 5ft. Cape 
Colony, 1872. A diffusely-branched half- 
hardy perennial herb. (Ref. B. 290.) 

G. phseum (dusky).* Jl. dark brown, almost 
black, with a white spot at the base of each 
petal ; petals sprcadin;^ and entire. May 
and .Tune. I. five to nine-lolied, deeply 
tonthed ; upper ones sessile. Stem round, 
forked. Central and Western l^urope; natural- 
ised in Britain. (Sy. En. B. 294.) 

G. pratense (meadow).* Jl. blue, large; pe- 
tals entire; peduncles somewhat corymbose. 
SuiiUin.T. /. seven-parted, witli sharply-pin- 
natilid and deejily serrated, linear lobes. 
Stem roniiil, erect, downy. /(. 2ft. to 3ft. 
Europe (Britain), Siberia. (Sy. En. B. 297.) 
There is a donl de-flowered form of this 
species, which makes an excellent border 

G. Robcrtianum. TTerb-ltobert. _//. bri-lit 
criiiisnn, small ; petals entire. Summer and 
autumn. I. tliree to five-i)arted, with trifid 
pinnatifid lobes. //. 6in. to 9in. Europe 
(I'-ritain), A.sia, North Africa. (Sy. En. B. 

G. R. alba (white). A wliite-Mowered form, 
w(dl woftliy of a place on the rockery or in 
the herbaceous ln.'rder. 

G. sanguineum (Ijloody).* /'. ci-imson or 

ld<.od-red, large, al i, I'.in. a.'ross ; jietals 

notched ; peduiiclrs one-llnucrrd, axillary, 
much longer than tlie jietiolcs. Summer. L 
opposite, five t{j seven-jiarted, with trifid 
lobea and linear lobules. Stems erect or 

II '^9 C ER\Ml -M \\ \IT If 111 \M M 

G. Wallichianum (Wallich's).* JJ.. purple, largo ; petals emar- 
ginate. Jiini\ /. five-parted, with broailly cuneate-ovate, 
dee])ly tontlted lolies, clothed on both surfaces, as well as the 
stem, with silky hairs. Stem decuiubcnt, pui'ple. Temperate 
Himalaya, 1320. Sec Fig. 99. (B. M. 2577.) 

G£B>AIt,DIA (named in honoui- of John Gerard, 1545- 
1G07, author of the famous "Herbal," 1597, and a 
S'rcat cultivator of exotic plants). Syn. Virgidaria. Ord. 
Scrophularineco. A genus containing- about thirty species 
of annual or perennial, erect, branching herbs, natives of 
North and South Amcriea. Corolla roso-i)urple or yellow, 
fnrmer colonr rr!rely varyiun- to white. Leaves 


(iKUARUlA QUiiitCII-OLlA, showing Habit and detached Flow 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gerai-dia— con/ I'll, iieiL 
Tisually opposite, tlio nppcrmosst rediK-.cil t.o bracts of 
tho rauemoso or panioulato showy flowers. CoiLsiderable 
diffioulty is oxporionuod in tho cultivation of tliis gonus 
(owing- to its being- moro or less root-parasitic); Lcnco, 
it is but rarely represontcil in Kng-lisli ganlcns. Ini- 
porteil seeds frequently ,g-crniiiiate, and tho plajits tlu-ivc 
in rich, friable soil, in a warm, slieltcrod situatirai. 

G. pedlCUlaria (,). /(. i^iti-nn-vellow, vin-yini; to .In-p 
yt-llow, suiiirliines assuiniiiK- a rr.ldish 'tint. 1. iimiiatiHil, c-iit 
ti.otlied. /,. art. to 3rt. Umled .states. Peiviiiiinl. .-V smaller, 
but liiiii-e lirallc-hini;- species tll.ili (,'. iinrrrhrl,,: . taviic smsllci' 
anil less iiuiiieieiis tl.juevs, aPcnit lie. l..n^. (I^- < '. I.i72,"p. 4.3.) 

G. purpurea (prnpl.-). jl. pin-ph^-, i-niLlla lie. Ill- less liiii-; 
pedicels shnrtertlian tlie calyx-, luahilv c,|ip,.site. .Inly. (. usually 
spreadin;;-, uai lowly linear, eitlu-r soiiienlcit .scaln-uns or sinootli, 
Avith merely scaln-.nis mav!;iiis. Jlraiiclics vii-^:ite, rather spread- 
ins, h. Ift. to 2ft. United States, 1772. Amiicd. A mail;ed 
variety of this variable .species, G. v- y«iejic/-ci,;„, is H!;nied in 
B. M. 20'18, under the name of (V. ji«cy<i/ic.6. 

G. quercifoIia((lak-leav,d). rf., corolla yellow, neavlv 2in. Ion-,', 
tulnilaily canijiaindale ; calyx lar^,-, a litlle inflated.' .lulv and 
An,i;nst. I., lower ones lar?;e, lii|iinnatiKd ; np]iei- ,,nes oril.iim- 
lanceolate, pinnatifid ca- ond'- entire, h. 3ft. to 6ft. United 
States, 1812. Perennial. See l-i-^. 100 

GERMANDER. .SVc Teucriuin Chamfedrys. 

6I:B.MANI:A. a synonym of Plectranthus. 

GEKMAN IVY. See Senecio mikanioides. 

GERMEN. 'I'hc ovary. 

GERMINATION. Tho Erst act of growth in the 
embryo pdant. Its immediate causes are tho x^rescncc of 
moisture, atmosplieric air, and a certain temperature 
above freezing point, varying in elevation, of corirse, 
with the nature of the species. Heat excites the vitality 
of the embryo plant, anil enables it to tal-ce advantage 
of the agents -with which it is in contact. It has 
generally been considered that the seed should be ex- 
cluded from direct light at first, but this has been proved 
to be quite unnecessary in very many eases. 

GEROFOGON. Now included under Trag-opogon 
(which .-.ce). 

GESNERA (named after Conrad Gesner, of Zurich, 
1.51G-1.5G5, a famous botanist and natural historian). In- 
cluding Rechsteinera. OitD. Ges'neracea^. A genus of 
about fifty sx^ecics of very elegant stove perennials, 
mostly natives of Bra/.il ; a few, however, are dispersed 
through Guiana, Columbia, and Peru, one extending to 
Mexico. Flowers disposed in opposite cymes, consti- 
tuting a terminal thyrso : peduncles furnished with 
floral leaves or bracts at the base ; corolla titbe often 
elongated, sometimes distinctly ventrioose, often curved 
and gibbous at the base ; limb regular, or two-liiiped. 
Leaves opposite. The species arc mostly tuberous- 
rooted and herbaceous. 

Cultivation. Propagation is ctTccted by the increase 
of tubers ; also by cuttings of the shoots, inserted in 
peat, soon after tho plants are started, and by leaf 
cuttings, detached and put in when they are fully 
matured. Tho flowering season of Gcsneras may be 
considerably prolonged by starting sucoessional batches 
from March until midsummer. Thorough drainage is 
essential, and peat and loaf soil, with the addition of a 
little loam and sand, forms a good compost, which should 
only be pressed moderately firm in potting. The bulbs 
may either bo groivn singly, in 5in. pots, or about five 
arranged over one 6in. in diameter ; they should be 
covered with lin. of soil, and kept rather dry until 
growth commences, when tho quantity of water may be 
increased, according to the amount of roots. Shade from 
bright sunshine, in summer, is necessary, and care miist 
be taken to keep tho leaves clean, as in many species 
these are extremely attractive and beautifully marked. 
Syringing is not recommended after the leaves are de- 
veloped ; the water, in nearly all cases, contains lime in 
solution, and, as evaporation takes place, a sediment is 
left and retained amongst the minute hairs on the leaves 

Gesuera— con /limed, 
of such plants as Cesnoras, greatly to their disfigurement, 
when in flower. The pilants suceeed best on a moist 
bottom, siTcli as a bed of coal ashes, in a house kept, 
in Slimmer, at about d.^ideg. by night, and, in winter not 
below 55deg. When flowering is over, tliey should be 
gradually ripened and dried off', until all the foliage is 
deail, when water should be entirely withheld, and the pots 
stored, with their contoits, in a dry jiart of the sto\e, 
\vliere they may remain until starling time tho following Tiirips are frequcntl,v very troublesome on the 
young leaves, and should l>e carefully looked for and 
destroyed by fumigating, when in a young state. Spong- 
ing is sometimes yiraetised, but the leaves are very 
brittle, and easily broken. If it can lie .avoided, the 
idants should nut bo placed in any house where these 
insects, or other pests, are present. 

G. aggregata (aL;-KTe!;-ided). Jl. ,si-arlct ; corolla clavate, cylin- 
drical : ]jeduncles axillaiy, one-IIowered, agijrejiatc. Aiignst. 
I. o]i].osit(-, oliloini.ovati-, i-renate. liranches rounded, h. 2ft. 
Ui-azil, 1816. (13. ;M. 2725 ; Ji. 11. 329.) 

G. bulbosa (IndPous). //. scarlet; cymes many - flowered, 
spreading- from the axils of the leaves, and disposed upwards 
in a terminal thyrse. Snniincr. /. opiiosife, In-oad-ovafe, cor- 
date, serrate. Stem erect, /i. 2ft. liiazil, 1816. Plant villnus. 
(B. M. 3011.) 

G. chroinatella (yellow). /(. rich >cllow, drooping, in 
ele.^ant erect s[iikes. Suniuici-. /. rich dark velvety. CJarden 

G. clnnabarina. ,Scc Nsegelia cinnabarina. 

G. COChlearis (sjioon-leaved). Jl. s<-ai-|et, ill simple racemes; 
tube of coioUa Ion,-.;, inflated beneath; linil. live-lol.ed; pedicels 
elongated. .Tune toAn,i;iist. /. opposite, on I01114 iietioles, cordate- 
ovate, concave, tomentose, ru,g-ose. h. 1ft. Biazil, 1857. (l-I. I\I. 

G. Cooperi (t'oopcr's).* /'. bright scarlet, -with a densely spotted 
throat, droopiii.g. Way. /. ligiit green, /i. 2ft. Ijiazil, 1829. 

G. discolor (two-coloured). Ji. scarlet, pendulous ; corolla 
glabrous, clavately cylindrical ; pedicels elongated, slender, June to September. /. large, opposite, petiolate, 

Fig. 101. Floweri;\g Brtt.xcii of Gesnerx ellhtica lutea. 

Vol. n. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gesnera — contiuncd. 

rontate-nvatf, crfiKiU'd, downy. h. 2ft. 15r;Lzil, 1859. (IJ. R. 
1351, 65.) 

G. Donkelaarlana (rionkelar's).* //. hri^lit V(.'niii]init, ;ilHMit2iii. 

Ion;i', freely prniiticed ill terminal licaits. June. /. lU'iirly cnrd;ite, 

about Sin. acros.-^, yreen, tiniied with piu'iilu ami rt-d. />. 1ft. 

to 2ft. Cnlunibia. (U. I\1.5070.) 
G. elliptica lutea (clliiitic, yLdlnw-lli.wen'.l). .//., fin.lla yrlluw ; 

11 ml. ol)li([nrly liilaMattt ; ]KMlunrl<'s tcrininal, racemose and 

axillary, sdlilatj'. .May. I. nj)]iiisiti.', elliplir, wrinkled, serrate; 

lower lines petinlate, njiper ones ses.sile. h. 1ft. 8anta Martha, 

1344. See Im,-. 101. (B. M. 4242.) 
G. CXOnicnsis (T'-xeter). " Jl. deep orange-.'^carlet, with a yellow 

throat, numeriMisly produced in elosely-set, about 1ft. 

throujih. Winter. 1. dark rich velvety, covered with minute red 

hairs, (larden hyhrid. 
G. glaucophylla (glaucous-leaved). .//. deep nran.^e-red ; tlivoat 

li,'.;lit. spotted ^vith orauiie. Sununer. I. .^huieiin.s, prettily 

mottle.I, coveied with red hairs. 
G. Hondensis (Honda). Jl-. yellowish-red, hairy, venfricose at 

top ; peduncles axillary, one-flowered, hy Iwtis ami threes. 

May. I. iippnsite. .souiewliafc obliipiely u\at('-nh].iii^, creuulated, 

wnnlly lu.,H.'ath. h . 1ft. Ilrazil, lo45. (li. M. 4217.) 

Fig. 102. (Jes.\er,\ kei'liluens. 

G. Llndleyana (Linilluy's). /(. freely prixluced ; iipper part of 
tube ; hiwer part and limb yellow, frerl^led with red. 
July ^. iMiiatUy uvate, rich deep velvety-green ami red. Brazil, 


G. Marchii dMai-eh'.s). A symjnyni of ir. pnnialiiui. 

G. niBgelloldes (>J;ef;elia-like).* 11. hn'ulit iniil;. marbled 

with red, large, tubular; throat yellow, dotted with red. 

Summer. I. cordate-ovate, deep green, hairy on the margin.s 

and rouglily toothed. An elegant garden liyluid, \^■ith juunerou.s 

varietie.^, of Aviiii h th(.> following are a selecticui ; 

G. n. aurco-roseum (golden-rose), jl. bright ro.^yiiiac ; upper 

poitious iif tile, liiiih plain rose-colour, lower jiart beautifully 

.spotted with carmine; thiriat marked with tuange- yellow, l. 

G. n. bicolor (two. coloured). /(., upper half rosy. red, lower 

orange-yellow ; iinih and throat orange-yellow, profusely spotted 

w itii led. (. ov.ife-laiiceolate, serrated, purplisli-red on the under 

side, hluish nn't;illic-green on the upper. 
G. n. Candida (wliitc). 7!. pure white, m:iiki-d with jkiIc yi How 

in the throat, tubular; produced in givat profusion. ;. ludadlj. 

ovate, tootiu^d, deep green. Stems eit-ct, braiidiiug. 
G. n. corallina (cnal-red). II. rich deep red, aluiiist m.iroon ■ 

throat .uangi'-yillow, pidfnseiy spotted with re,|. (. deoji ,"rreii' 

coarsely to(dlied. Stems led. 

G. n. lilaclnclla (lilac). //. dclic.iti^ lilac-colour, bc'iutifully 
marbled with :i de,-|icr tint of \.\\r same .'olour ; tliroat lemon' 
coliuir ; produced in inofusion n|)oii the niiiiierous laterals, ;iiid 

Cresnera — cuntinued. 

friuii the base of the leaves upon the main stein, upon long foot- 
stalks. /. large, cord.ate, coar-sely toothed, deep bright green 
above, paler and woolly below. 
G. n. scintUlans (glistening). /;., outside deei> ijluin-coloui' ; 
limb rosy-red; throat orauge-ycllow, streaked and dotted crimson, 
about 2in, long in tlu^ tube, and nearly as much across the limb ; 
lirodiiced in large lateral heads towards the tops of the shoots. 
L somewhat oblong, serrated, Inight green above, pale below, 
tinged with red. 

G. nigrescens (blackish), fl., tubes dark reil ; throat light orange, 
.spotb.-d. (. l.irge, dark velvety. ( .'arden hybrid. 

G. pendulina (pendiilousV //. scarlet, nuniercuis, in whorls; 
corolla d]oo]iiug, cylinilrical, gibbous at top ; limb five-lobed. 
August. /. three in a whorl, petiolate, ovate, crenate. /'. 5ft. 
Mexico, 1344. SlN. (r. Maixhii (under \^■hich name it is figured in 
M. M. 3744). 

G. purpurea (purple), //.purple; panicle sub-verticillate; corolla 
with a long tube; upper lip straight, two-lobed. -lune to Sep- 
tember. /. whin-Ieil, cordate-oblong, toothed, downy, k. 2ft. 
Brazil, 1S49. 

G. pyramidalis (pyramid;il). * Jl. deep orange-red ; throat and lip 

light oninge, spottr'd. \\'iuter. I. 7iu. broad, nearly round, with 

a dark velvety ground. < (arden hybrid. 
G. refulgens (refulgent). /(. rich deep red. Summer. Z. ccudate- 

ovate, clothed with short blood-coloured liairs. h. 1ft. to l/,ft. 

A beautiful plant, of garden origin. See Fig. 102. 
G. tuberosa (tuberons-rooted). /. scarlet; peduncles friuu base 

of rhi/.oliic. August. I. brrjad-ovato, toothed, cordate at base, 

downy. .Stem on horiziuital rhizome, h. 6in. Brazil, 1334. 

(B. M". 3664.) 
G. zebrina. Sec Nsegelia zebrina. 

C£SNI:KACI:.S:. a natural order of licrljs or slirubs, 
rarely trees, nlicn .growing- from scaly tuLors. Flowor.s 
showy ; corolla variously culoured, often scarlet, violet, 
or blue, rarely white ; calyx half adhering-, five-parted : 
stamens two or four. Leaves opposite, usually wrinkled. 
There are about seventy-one g-cnera and 700 species, 
natives of various parts of the world, chiefly the warmer 
ree-ions of America. Sometimes the name Cyrtanflracece 
is given to this order. Illustrative g-enera are : Achimenes, 
Bedeyia, Cijyltuitlra, Gt-.suerrf, Glv.>-i'itia, and Slreptocarpiis. 

GESNERIA. .See Pentarhapliia. 

GETHYIiIiIS (an old Greek name, a diminutive 
of i/eHi"oii,a leek). H]iD. Anui njllidew. A genus of four 
or five species of pretty dwarf g-reenhouse bulbous peren- 
nials, from the Cape of Good Hope, allied to Sternberijia. 
Flowers white, delieiously fragrant ; perianth tube long-, 
cyliudrieal ; limb of six seg-ments, regular and spreading ; 
scapes sliort, ono-flowered. Leaves linear. The plants 
thrive best in a mixtirro of sandy loam and peat ; they 
may be increased by offsets, or by seeds. But few of 
the species liave liccn introduced. 

G. ciliaris (fringed). //. white ; sepals ovato-oblong. June and 
.Inly. (. linear, spiral, ciliated. /?. 6in. 178S. 

G.lanceolata (lance-shaped), /(.white; .sepals lanceolate. June. 
/. lanceolate, flat. //. 9in. 1790. 

G. spiralis (spiral). //. -white; sepals ovate-olilong. .lune and 
July. /. linear, spiral, smooth, /i. 9in. 1780. (B. M. 1088.) 

G. vlllosa (liair\). .//. white ; sepals ovate-(.blong. June and 
July. (. linear, Hlifoiui, spiral, villoits. h. 9in. 1787. 

GEUIVI (tlio old ],atin name used by Pliny). Avens. 
Including- Sierer.iia. Some of the species were formerly 
placed under a genus namcfl, --Irfomsia. Ord. Rosncew. 
A genus eniiiprising about thirty species of hardy peren- 
nial lierbs, widely diffused over all temperate and eold 
regions. Flowers yellow, red, or white, growing singly ou 
long peduncles, at the ends of the stems or branches; 
petals five. Leaves variously dissected, the terminal lobe 
always the largest. Geums are of very easy culture, in 
moderately good soil, and in a well - drained situation. 
Most of tho species are well adapted for growing in 
borders and in tho rock garden. Propagated by seeds, 
or by division. 

G. Chilocnso (I'biloe). /(. scarlet, sometimes copper - coloured 
pauicled, i-rc.-f. Sunimcr /, vadic-il ou.-s iulcrniptedlv pin- 
nalely scrralcd, tin- leiiuinal one large, cordate, 

'■i''":d-'-'l ; '-aolii iH-N three-parted, d.-eldv cut 

Strm glaudnl.-ir. A. 1ft. (o 2ft. (liiloe, 1820 J'lalit vilhuis 
(B. R. 1088, under u;ilne of O'. ™o-/„ce,a ) 

ll.-ite; lealli'ts 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture, 


Genm — <;nilinu,',1. 
G. c. flore-pleno (,l,,nl,l,.-H,, is a very haiidsmne fm-ni, 

with .luulik' lluurrs i,f :i hiinht ,l;izzlii,- srarirt. 

G. coccineum (si'ail,.|,).< //. t,-niiiii:il, ].r,lunnilato eiv.-t ■ cilvx 
sesnu-Ml.s au|irv.iSf,l, i.i,l,esr..|it ; jH'tals puiplisli, .n'lii.iilat.^-ivMi- 
fm-lM, claweil. I. jjivi'ii, iiH-is(,-,avnatr, vriiii-.l ],il,,s,.- niljr'il 
ones tufted, .spveacliii-, large, Ivrale-piiiiialiti,!; leaflets live i,r 
seven; upper eauliiie leaves siiiijile, tliree-lolaal, ti,..tlLeil. Sleiii 
solLtary, herl,;u'eoiis, eveet ; apex suli-eovyinl.use, lew-flew, ivil. 
/(. 6111. to Ibiii. lireeee, Asia Miner, iVe. (S. K. II, 486.) 

G. elatum (lall).» //. eveet; petals aol.len - yellew, orl.i.-nlar 

? ","';'^ le.telie.l er twe-l„l,e.l; ealyx evatealelt.ii.l, or 

lane.>..late, entire er t.n.tliecl; pe.luneles;-, slen.ler. .Iiilv. 
(., radical enes siili-sessile, narrow, gradually dilate.l from tile 
base to the rounded tip, pinnatise.'t ; ones small, with 
larger adu;,te-cut stipules. stem very slender, tuiee or nuue 
forked rarely simple. Himalaya i\lount;nus, IHHO. Hardy. 
(B. iM. bSbS.) 

G. Japouicum (Japanese), rf. veil, iw, erect. Summer / three 
to flve-lolieil, hairy. Stem, hairy. /,. 1ft, to gft. .lapan 

f '-'.Vil '• 

Fig. 103. tiEum mo.ntanum, sho\\iiig ITaliit ami detached 

Sin.ule Flo\\er, 

G. montanum (mountain)." 
hairy, irregularly incised, h. 

fl. yellow, erect. Spring. I. softly 
. 6iii. to 12iii. I'lnrope. See Fig. 1U5. 

G. pyrenaicum (I'vrenean).* Jl. yellow, nodding; stems one to 
four.Howereil. .June. I. interruptedly pinnate; lower leaflets 
ovate, ilentate, small. Stems erect, simple, /i. lAft. Pyrenees, 
1801. Plant pilose. 

G. rivale (luook-loving).* Water Avens. Jl. redilish, nodding; 
peduncles pilose, elongated ; stems one to foiiv-tlowcred. .luiie. 
(. interru|itedly and lyrately pinnate ; leaflets ohovate, hiser- 
rate ; eaulinu leaves tlireedohed. Steins erect, simple. /;. lit. 
to 3ft. Cold and temperate regions (l!ritain). 

G. Strictura (upright), it. yellow and striped, large, ascending. 
May to .Inly. /. all interruptedlv pinnate ; leaflets ovate, to<itIied, 
I,. 2ft. Kiifopi', North America," 1778. Plant hairy. 

G. triflorum (three-Howered), * Jl, calyx dark purple ; petals while. 

purplish-red at extremity and maigins, olilong, ne 
scape purplish, Sin. to 12in. high, hairy, termiuati 
flowered iinibel ; pedicels 3iii. to 4in. lon.g. .luly. 
to 6in. (or more) long, <.hloug cu- ohovate m outline, 
pinnate; margins of pinme deeply serrated. Ni 
(B. .M. 2Sia, under name of Slerersia Irulnrri.) 

GHERKIN. A small-fruited variety 


ading ; 
lig 111 a three 
(. radical, liii 
interriiitf edl; 
•rth America 

of Ciuuuii 


GIANT FENNEL. See Ferula. 

GIBBOUS. Protubpi-aiit ; more eonvex or tnmiil in 
one place tlian aiiiitlior. 

GIIiIA (nameil in honour of P. S. Gilio, a 
botanist of the eiffhteentli eentnr.y). Ineludiuo 
I'pomopsif!, Leptodarhjlon, and Leplosiphnn. Orti. Polemo- 
niaeece. A g-enus eoutaining- about sixty-fiye species of, for 
the most part, hardy annual herbs, natives of North-west, 
extra-tropical, and sub-tropical South America. Corolla 


Gilia — rnnlinited. 
infnndiliuliform .anil hypnnr.ateriforni, sometimes almost 
eanipanulatc or rotate. Leaves varialile. Gilias form very 
attractive sniijects i'or lieds or edging's, where they suc- 
ceed witliout causing- lilanks liy part of the plants 
dyin.g away. They a.Te rea.dily raised from seed, sown 
ill the "pen ground, in ]\lai'c!i or April. A ratlier li.g'ht 
soil slnmhl bo clin.-roi, and positions soh'i-I.ed according 
to thc! heights of different species. 

G. achillei3efolia (Milfoil-leaved).* //. imrjilish-hlue ; corymhs 
capitate, many - flow ered, on very long ]ic(hiiieles. August. 
/. twice or thrice ]unuate ; leaflets iiiiear-suhnlate. //. 1ft. i'ali- 
fornia, 1833. (B. M. 5939.) There is an eh-gant variety with 
white flowers, and another v itli ones. 

Fio, 104. liit.iv .-\xr'nosACT;,\. 

G. androsacea (Audro.sacc-like).* il., ciuMlla lilac, pink, or 

nearly white, with \cllo\\ or dark throat. .-Vunust. (. opposite, 
naiiow, palmaliseet. //, 9iii. to laii. California. See Fig. 104. 
SviN. /,cy//c,s/y(//c;/. ff/o/re.srovocs' (iiieler wliicli n.aine it is tigiiied 
in l-i. M. 3191, K. R. 1710). 'I'liere is a variety, rusaira. Iiaving a 
rose-red corolla, varying, however, into other hues. San Fran- 
cisco. (II. M. 5363, under name of Le irh>si phon pai-Dillorn^ 

G. Brandegei (Brandegee's).' //. several, in a short, racemose, 
leafy tliyrse ; corolla gol(len->eliow, tiMiiipet-shaped ; lolies oval 
and short. /. all iiinuate, elongated-linear in cireumseripticai ; 
leaflets small, numerous. Stem siin]ile, /r. 9iii. tol2in. Colorado, 
1878. Perennial. (U. M. 6378.) 

G. capltata (headed).* Jl. hlue, sessile, di.sposed in dense heads 
on long iicdiincles. Summer. (. hipiimatifid ; segments linear, 
cut. /.. 1ft. to iift. America, 1826. (B'm.2698.) 

G. densiflora (dense-flowered).* /(., cru-olla tube lilac or nearly 
white, little (if at all) exserted'heyond the calyx. .June. (.', 
divisions flliform, sonu'what rigid. California. S\x. Lrpto^/jiJn'it 
fJt')i.\il!"rii^ (under which name it is flgiireil in li. M. 3578 ; 
K. It 1725). 

G. dlanthoides (Pink -like). ./'. varying greatly in .size and 
Cohan- ; corolla lilac, or |iiiiplisli, usually with darker or yellowish 
thmat. .luly. /. narrow-linear. /,. 2in. to 5in. California, 
1855. A .showy little jilant. (B. 51.4876.) 

G. inconspicua (inconspicuous). //. somewhat crowderl and 
suh-sessilc, or at length hiosely panicled ; corolla virdet or juir- 
pdish, narrowly funnei-shaped, A\ith ])ro)>er tuhe siiorteror sliglitly 
longer than the calyx, .\iigust. l. mostly pinnatitid vv pinnately 
parU'd, (U' the lowest hipiiinatifld, with short mueronate cuspi- 
date lohes. A. Bin. to 12iii. North America. (B. M. 2883.) 

G. laciniata (cut-leaved), jl. purplish ; ]>ediincles axillary, soli- 
tary, one to three-flowered. .lub-. (. inimatitid ; segments 
naiTow-ohlong, sinuated. A. 6in. to 12in. Cln'li, 1831. 

G. liniflora (Flax-flowered).* //. white, solitary, on long peduncles. 
Summer. (., lower ones opposite, all sessile and pahuatelv cut. 
h. 1ft. California, 1833. (ti. M. 5895.) 

G. micrantha (small-flowered).* //. rosy-cfdoured, produced in 
great ahiind.'ince, with a slender tuhe about l.'i 11. long. Summer. 
/. H\'e to se\en-]iarted ; segments linear, acute. A. 9iii. Plant 
niijve or less clothed with longish weak Jiairs. California, 1870. 
Syn. LeptoKiplivn. rei'cai'. There is a form, aitrca, with golden- 
yeUow flowers. 


Gilia — co')it i 

The Dictionary of Gardening, 

G. multicauUs (many-steinmed). Jl. blue ; corymbs three to ten- 
fluwered, on very Ion:;' iieduncles, scarcely pariii'Ied. Suninier. 
I. sDinewliat liijjinnati.', siiuintliisli ; segments linear, /t. 1ft. 
Califuriiia, 1835. (B. W. 3440, and K. 11. 16S2, under name d 
0. arlnUetefolin..) 

G. tricolor (tliree-cnlonrod).'^ /?., cnmlla Avith an orange-yi'Ilnw 
tubn and centre, and the li.'^lit jiuride (w white of the niar.i;in 
separated by a circle nf deuji purple; corynil>s three t(i six- 
tlowered ; ipaiiicles rather dense, -lune. I. liipinnate ; se^nnieuts 
linear-subulate, h. 1ft. California, 11^;33. (B. I\]. 3465; B. R. 
1704.) There are several pretty vaiietiL-s of this s|n.-cics, including 
white and violet-coloured ones. 

GILIBERTIA (named after J. E. Gilibert, 1711- 
ISl'l, a Fronini botanist and physician). Onn. Araliacea;. 
A g'enns comprising- two or three species of ornamental 
evergreen shrubs, natives of tropical America. Flowers 
in terminal compound umbels. Leaves simple, entire. 
The species described below is, perliaps, the only one 
yet in cultivation. It thrives in a compost of sand, leaf 
mould, and light loam. Increased readily by cuttings, 
inserted in sand, in a gentle heat. 

G. "brasiliensis (BraziHan). fl. oiveem-ih. February ami Marcli. 
/. leathery, dark green. /(. 4ft. to 6ft. 

GIIiXiISNIA (named after Arnoldus Gillenius, a 
botanist of tlie seventeenth century). Ord. Rosacea^. A 
g-enus comprising two species of hardy perennial herbs, 
natives of Northern United States. Flowers axillary 
and terminal, on very long' peduncles. Leaves sub-sessile, 
trifoliolate ; leaflets stalked, serrated. Gillenias are of easy 
culture, in a rather moist peaty soil, with partial shade. 
Increased readily by dividing the roots, in spring. 

G. stipulacea (stipulaceous). Jl white. June. I. lancectlate. 
deeply incised, h. lit. to 2ft. 

Fig. 105. r.II.LENTA 

ntiidLT.VTA, s]i(i\ving TTabit and detached 
single l''li>\\-L'r. 

G. trifoliata (three-leaved).* j}. red tn wldte, in panicles ; calyx 
jjersistrnt, ln'coniing red after the petals have fallen. .Tune. 

/., stipiilt^s linrar, acuminated, entire, h. l.',ft. 1713. Sec Fig. 105 
(B. M. 489, under nanif of S/u'nra I rifi'Uaia.) 

GILLIESIA (named in Inmonr of Dr. Gillies, of 
Mondnza, in (Jhilij. OitD. Liliacetc. A genus compris- 
ing three species of bulbous herbs, natives of Chili. 
Flowers greenish, in terminal umbels ; scape simple, leaf- 
less. Leaves few, radical, linear. G. r/raminna, the species 
best known to cultivation, thrives in a loam and iieat 
soil, in a warm border; it rei|nircs a little protcel.iou 
in winter. Propagateil liy oll'sets. 

G. graininea (grass-liloO. Jl. green, incfuisiiicinms, drnnpiug ; 
umbels divari(';itr, few-MiiwBred ; sputhe twn-valveii, green, rtci't, 
persistent; Hr;ipps wnilc, terete, ilecunibpiit. Si-')itcnd)i'r. /. 
radical, hnear, channelled, h. lit. Valparaiso, 1825. (B. U. 992.) 

GILLIFLOWER. A name corrupted from the French 

Giroticc ; it is also -written Gillyflower and Gilloflower. 
" The name was originally given, in Italy, to plants of the 
Pink tribe, especially the Carnation, but has of late years, 
in England, Itoon transferred to several cruciferous plants. 
Tliat of Oliancer, Spencer, and Shakespeare was, as in 
Italy, Dia-nUniti Canji'i'lvijUii^ ; that of later writers and 
gardeners, MnlUiiola and Vliriranihu^ " (Britten and 
Holland, "Dictionary of I^nglish Plant Names"). 

GINGETt. The Ginger of commerce is the dried 
rhizomes of Zingfiber officinale (which aee). It is 
imported into this country in its dried and bleached 
state, from both the ['Ixst and "West Indies, Africa, and 
China; but Jamaica Ginger is considered the best. It is 
used both as a condiment and as a preserve. 

GINGERBREAD PALM. Sr.e Hyphsene the- 


See Parinarium 

A popular name for the 7yin- 





GINKGO (the Japanese name). Maidenhair-tree. 

Stnh. Hidishii.ria, Pieroplitjllu^. OiiD. Goniferw. A mono- 
typic genus, the species being a line deciduous tree. It 
thrives thoroughly well in almost any garden soil in the 
South of England, but in the North requires the shelter 
of a wall. In some parts of France, it fruits freely. 
Propagated by imported seeds. 

G. biloba (two-lobed).* /. ditecious; male catkins slender, stalked; 
females in pairs, or solitary, on long footstalks. Kprin;;. fr. 
edilile, sweet, not produced until the tree has attained some size. 
I. three to five, handsome, fan-shaped, cloven aliout half-way 
from their summit, irreijularly notched, thickened at the margin, 
smooth, striated on eacli side with numerous parallel nerves. 
Branches verticillate. h. 60Et. to 80ft. Northern China, 1754. 
(W. D. B. 168.) There are several forms of this handsome and 
Interestini^ tree in the nurseries : laciniata has the leaves more 
dee|.)ly cut than usual; pcndula is of weeping habit; and tarie- 
ffata has variegated foliage, but the colouring is not very marked. 

GINSENG. The root of one or two species of Panax. 

GIPSY MOTH (Li/paris di.'^'par). The specific name 

of this insect is derived from the fact that there is great 

Fig. 106. Male Gipsy Moth. 

disparity in the sexes. The male (Fig-. 106) is dark brown 
or smoky, with zigzag darker markings and lighter similes; 


<■' ^ 

(ill'Sl IMOTIl. 

the anl-,0Tma3 arc likn fmllirvs. T)ii> r.Miialc (Fig-. 107) is 
hu's-er tlian the male : thr \viii<4'« are iliiisT <'i' yellowish- 
wliilc, clunker \n;i.rkiii,i;-«, ;i,s in the male, and a distinct 
lihick ni;i,r'k < nciirtlir crntrp ..I' llic fore wing'; the antenntB 
iivc biijiplu. In both scxus the I'rini^e.s are fah', with dark 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gipsy Moth — continuotL 
inters persions at the end of the wing-rayp. The cator- 
pillar is black, with yellowish marking-, and a grey line 
down the baek. Each segment has sis tnbercles, all emit- 
ting bristly haivs, black on the back and brown on tlir 
sides. It is believed that the Gipsy Moth is almost, if 
not qnite, extinct as a British syiecics ; Imt, npon the 
Continent, the larvie occasionally do consideralde damage 
to fruit-trees by stripping them of their leaves. They 
may be collected by beating the brandies over an in- 
verted nmbrella. 

GITHAGO. Included under Lychnis {which see). 

GLABROUS. Smooth ; .lestitnte of hairs. 

GLADIATE. Sword-shaped ; the same as Ensifnvm. 

GLADIOLUS (diminutive of glo'lius, a sword; re- 
ferring to the sliape of the leaves). Corn Flag. Oimi. 
Iruleo\ This genus contains about ninety species of 
so-called "bulbous" p)lants, many of which are amongst 
the most popular of outdoor summer and autumn-flower- 
ing subjects. The geographical distribution is Central 
Europe, the Mediterranean region, West Asia and Africa 
— the headquarters of the genus being South Africa. 
The flowers are secund, spiiked, borne on tall scapes, the 
colours being very varied; the iierianth is sub-bilabiate, 
with a short curved tube. The leaves are all eqnitant 
and sword-shaped; and the corms have netted fibrous 
coats. Original species have long since been superseded 
by the very numerous and beautiful hybrids that are in 
cultivation. Many of the former are, howcA^er, very 
ornamental, and well wortliy of retaining for pot cul- 
ture in cool houses, or for mixed flower borders, in 
Bummer. Improvement in the Gladiolus is wholly due 
to the efforts of hybridisers, who took it in hand, flrst 
in France, some flfty years ago, and afterwards in this 
country, about the middle of the present century. Varie- 
ties that were subsequently, and those which are still 
annually, obtained, represent an extreme diversity in the 
colouring of the flo^vers. Some are pure white, others 
range from that colour to deep crimson, and include 
yellowish and purple shades, many being beautifully flaked 
and marked. Gladioli are propagated by seeds, which 
ripen and germinate pretty freely ; and by numerous 
large and small bulbils, usually termed " spawn," that 
are found round the old corms, or on the ends of the 

Fir;. 108. GlaI'Iolus Cokm, sliowini;' Mode of Increase. 

roots, in autumn (see Fig. H'S). Seeds sfiuuld be sown 
early in March, preferably in large pans or i)ots, where 
the young plants may be thinned and allowed to remain 
for the first season. The pans should first be placed 
in heat, and, as the seedlings appear, a light position 
and more air should be given, in order to gradually 
harden off for placing outside all the summer. If well 
attended to when growing, and afterwards thoroughly 
ripened in autumn, the young corms may be stored like 
larger ones, and many of them will flower the second 

Gladiolus — continued. 
year. For increasing stock of any one or more varieties, 
the small corms should be separated from those in- 
tended for flowering, and planted from 4in. to Gin. apart, 
in a warm border, id)Out the middle of Marcli. If 
wat-^'rod, and allo^ved to grow for the summer, many of 
them will l>eeome large ennngh to flower the following 

Ciillivdiiiiii. A deep rich soil, and a sheltered, sunny 
position, are requisite for attaining the best results. 
Plenty of manure may Ito intermixed with the soil, in 
the autumn, wlien trenching and ntlier jireparations for 
Gladioli slionld be commenced; but none sliould be applied 
in a fresh state at pil^nting time, as it tends to cn.nse 
decay in the corms, if coming in contact with them 
before growth commences. Bre'iicldeyetn^ifi is aii old 
sort, liut still one of the best and most extensively 
grown. It increases rapidly and is of a good consti- 
tution, succeeding with tolling eft'ect when planted eitlier 
in a lied or in small groups of about half-a-dozen, in 
various parts of mixed flower borders or shrubberies. If 
the planting of a portion is commenced early in Mareli, 
and continued at intervals till the end of May, the 
flowering period may be similarly prolonged until late 
in the autumn. The corms should bo insertet.l ;iJn)nt 
:"lin. deep, and 1ft. apart, if in beds; and a cireiilar 
group may consist of four or five, in a space oi' lit, 
diameter. Each plant will require a stake before the 
flowering season arrives, to prevent injury from rough 
winds. In liot w^eather, iilenty of water must be given, 
and a mulching of short manure is always beneficial as 
a preventative of undue evaporation. Before the a^")- 
yiearance of severe frost, the corms should be lifted, 
with their tops intact, and laid in a cool, dry shed, 
to become ripened, when the tops may be cut off' close 
dinvn, and the corms placed in paper bags, until plant- 
ing time. This specially refers to the South African 
species, and to all the finer hybrids ; except in very dry 
sandy soils, it would l>e unwise to leave the corms 
of these in the ground throughout the winter. The 
South European species do not need any such attention. 
The largo and small ones are best separated when stor- 
ing; and the bags should be labelled according to the 
size or the variety contained in each. 

Culture in Pots. Large-flowering Gladioli succeed in 
pots, if desired for summer or autumn decoration of 
greenhouses, &c. One large corm is sufiicient for a Tin. 
pot, and successional batches may be inserted in rich 
soil, and grown in a frame whore plenty of air can be 
admitted, or in a sheltered position outside. G. Col- 
villei and its white form, known as "The Bride," are 
amongst the most beautiful for pot culture. They 
succeed admirably, and may be had in full beauty in 
April and May, if gently forced. The corms are small, 
and do not require much root space. About five of 
them should be placed in a Sin. or Gin. pot, in autumn, 
and either covered for a time with ashes outside, as 
ordinary bulbs are, or placed in a cold frame from the 
first. When roots are formed, and growth begins, a few 
pots at a time should be snccessionally placed in a tem- 
perature of about 55dcg. Each strong corm will produce 
two or more flower scapes, and, when those appear, a 
little higher temperature may be given, always select- 
ing a situation exposed to light, and applying plenty of 
water to the roots. Later batches come on all right in 
a cold frame. G. ColviUet and G. 0. alha succeed erpially 
well with the larger-flowered varieties, when planted 
outside in summer. Any Gladiolus flowers expand well 
in water when they are far enough advanced to begin 
opening naturally. With a system specially adopted by 
exhibitors, the whole of the flowers in a spike are 
secured at one time by placing the latter in water at a 
certain stage, and encouraging the flowers to expand 
slo^vly in a cool place. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 


Except where otherwise stated, the species en urn crated 
below arc natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 

G. blandus (f;iir).* /. white, with red maikinys, large; tube 

yelluw, slnivter tlian tlie sputhe. June. /. eusifunn, nerved. 

Stem 6in. tu 2ft. liigh, three to ten-tiowered. 1774. (K. M. 625.) 
G. b. campanulatus (bell-shaped). A lari^e rmd strims; variety, 

with whitish-purple Howers. (B. H. 645.) 
G. brachyandrus (short-staniened).* Jl, piTiLintli In-iglit pale 

scarlet, 2in. to 2T|.in. lont!;; tube ^iri. long; sei^nientsnlilnnj;, acutti ; 

spike nearly 1ft. long, eight to ten-flowered. July. /. fnur or flvo, 

near the base of the stem, strongly ribbed and margined, nut 

more than 3in. long, about Mn. broad. /i. 2ft. Tropical 

Africa, 1879. (B. M.6463.) 
G. byzantinus (Byzantine).* /. red ; eorolla adseendent, mul- 

ding ; spike.s many-flowered. June, /. narrow, deep gieen. 

h. m. Turkey, 1629. (B. M. 874.) 

Fig. 109. catibinali.s, showing H;ibit and detaclied 
Single Flower. 

G. cardinalis (cardinal).* Jl. Hue scarlet; corolla with large 
white rliomboidal s]n.its, erect; limb campanulate. July and 
August. /. eusifovui, uianv-uerved. Stem 5ft. to 4ft. high. 1789. 
See Fig. 109. (B. M. 135.) " 

G. Colvillei (C'olville's).* Jl., perianth tubular; limb bright 
red, with pale purple marking.^, spreading. July. /. linearly- 
ensifoini, acute, strongly nerved in the middle on both sides. 
Stem sliglitly flexuose, l.;ft. high, leafy, slightly angular, glau- 
cous. A garden hybrid between (./. canliitalis an<l 0. trix/is. 
(S. B. F. G. 155.) 

G. C. alba (white) is a charming white-flowered form ; it is very 
largi-jy cultivated for decorative purposes liysonie of the plant 
gro\v<-is who sup]dy (Movent (Jarden^under the name of The 

G. communis (common). Jl. briglit rose, sometimes white ; 
tube short ; upper segments approaching, larger than the lo\ver 
ones, the three intern;il ones almost equal ; spike miilateral, six 
to eight-Howered. Summer, h. l.'.ft. to 2ft. South Kurojie, 
1596. (B. M. 86 and 1575.) 

G. Cooperl (Oooper's). Jl., perianth tulio ycllowish-gTccn, funnel- 
shaped ; limb yellow, closely lined with purplish-red ; expanded 
spike 1ft. long, eight to twelve-tiowei-ed. Septeud)er. I. radical, 
aljoutsix, erect, ensiform, glabrous, acuminate, 1ft. to l,',ft. long, 
lin. I.road, .strongly ribbed.^ /,. 2ft. 1862. (B. M. 6202.) 

G. cruentus (Idooily).* Jl. I»vi]liant scarlet, yellow-white aud 
s[ie(.kled with red at base of lind), broadly campanulate, 4iu. in 
diameter ; two lower lateral segments of perianth marked witli 
white ; spike 6in. to lOin. Imig, dense-flowered. Sejtteniber. /. 
1ft. to l.Ut. long, iiiiear-ensifovm. //. 2ft. to 3ft. Natal, 1868. 
(B. I\I. r,H10.) 

G. cuspidatus faliruptly-pointed).* jl. vav\iiig mu 
usually heaufifully marked with ]UMple and \ri[ 
segments ; tului liJiform, straight. May and .)i 
geuerallv shoitci- than the stem. Stnn 2l't. ti! 
A magMitircnt plant. (B. iVI. 582.) 

G. C. ventricosus (swelling). A variety with reddish ilow.Ts, 
wliicli are not so ujiright, and with a slmvter tulie and less inflated 
spathe Ilia II the l.v|'c. May and .lune. (IV. M, r,91, under iiamr<.f 

G, dracocephalus (dragon's head). /I., iierianth yt'llowish, 
closely striated witit dull red-puiple, "ahnnt 2iu. long and 
broad ; lower segments bright green, sjiotted lairple ; spikes 
erect, five to seveii-Howercd. August. /. 6in. U^ VA\u. long, lin. 
to l.'in. broad, pah> green. Stem Uiin. to ISin. high, stout, tetvic. 
1871. (C. M. ;iB84.) 

G. Iloribundus {liuudle-Howered).'- jl. four to six, large and 
upright; lindj segments varying* from dirty-white with a liroad 
livid purple longitudinal ttUet, to bright flesh-colour with u 

ch in Colour 

in the Inwf 

e. /. eusilorni 

1ft. high. 1795 

Gladiolus— CO I Ui nurd. 

lively red lilhd ; anthers dark violet. May. I. strongly and 
many-ner\'e(l. Stem alioiit 1ft. liigh, flower-bearing nearly to its 
base. 1788, (B. I\!. 610.) 



G. gandavensis (iliient). ll. rich eiini.^on, marked with yellow. 
Suumier. Accurdilii; tu Van Hr.utte, this i.s a hybrid betM'eea 
Q. -psittaciiius and 0. cardiiialu< ; whilst Herbert believes it to 
have originated between O. /w//^'c/'/n(,v and '.'. uppo^-ttilltirys. SVN. 
a.gaadiens'is. See Vis. HO. (P. M. B. xi., p. 27.) 
G. gandiensis {(Jlicnt). A synunj'ui of G.yandaven^h, 
G. gracilis (slemler). //. white, variaVde, similar to those of 
<r. retmnm^. March ancl Ai)ril, /. thick and flat, with a deep 
square groove on botli sides, Sleiii 1ft. to Sft. hiisli. laOO. (B. M. 

G. grandis (large), ll. reddish. brown tfi whitish; segments of 
flower longer than the throat. May and .Tnne. I. linear-ensifornr, 
three-ribbed on eacli side. h. Wit. 1794. {B. IM. 10!12, nnder 
name of ir. iyr.'^ifiUi>i\) 

G.hastatus (lialbert-shaped). 11, yierianth pinkisli-white, reddish 
on the outside, 2:'.iu. high. April aud INIay. (. radical, h. 1ft. 
1816. 1'his species is nearly allied to (J. llaiulus. (B. M. 1554.) 

G. Papllio (butterfly-flowered).* ff. very pale purple, marked with 
rich ilark jjurple aud golden. yellow ; spike slender, 1ft. or more 
long. l. uarrow-ensiform, 2ft. to 3ft. long; ape.x acuminate. 
/i. 3ft. 1866. (B. IM. 5,565.) 

G. plicatus (folded), ,'V synonyur of Bahiaiw styirfn ^ulphurea. 

V\n. 111. (lI.Al)l(il.liS I'slTTACI.NU.s, showing TIabit and 
detached Single I'lower. 

G. pslttacinus (iiarrot.likr),^ /(,, ci.rolla tube greenish, with 
pnr|ilc streaks ; huib cauii.annlatc, spreading, ricll scarlet (in hud 
pnrplisb-bl.ioil colour), and spotted with yellow ; spikes 1ft. 
or more long, ten to tuelve-Howered. Snnini.n- and autinun. 
(, disticlious; lower ones 1ft. or long. Stem Sit. high. 
Snuth-.^astcru .Africa, .,Vc. Sc Kig, Ul. (P.. ' Jl. 3032.) 

G. pudlbundusd lest). //. Iirilli.aut, largo, about ten in 

number, in a disticlious s])ike ; .si.atlies two-valved ; authors 
purple, (. lu'oadly en.siforni, acuminate, ribbed, pale green. 
Stem 2ft. to 3lt, high, A ,gar,h-n bvbrid between (,'. hiiiiiilm 
and (.', ninliiiulix. (S, i;. I'\ (1. .scr. ii. 176.) 

G. purpureo-auratus(paiple.and-g(ddeu).* il almost liifarious; 
l.eriauth limb gold,ac.\cllow, witli a large purple blotch on the 
two lower seguieids, Angnst. /. 6iu. to 9in. long, Jin. broad, 
acuminate, erect, /o 3ft. to 4ft. 1872. (R. M. 5944.'^) 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 



G. auartinlanus ((jumiiii Dinars). //. yiOlnw iihkIilmI ;uii1 
spolU.l ivUlisrarUiL; s|,:,1Ims l„rl,;, ,■,.,„«, l.nMrnl^il,., alioiit 2in. 
I'liii ; spikr aliont six-Huwrr.Ml, Aiiuiist. /. liiiraT-nisirt.i'iii, ]l"t. 
..r lunix. Ion- nsiil, pnjiiiira-iiljy iicivcl. /,. 3lt. to <lrt. 'jK.iiical 
AIneii, ISSi. (li- M. 6739.) 

G. reCUrVUS drruiv,.,!). ;;. yi-llow, thirklv ,l„tUd «iU. hlur 
wUu-h colour rvcutually prr^loioinatrs, viol.t-sci.iiU'a ; sriaUic.^ 
ahimt halt the l^■]l^th of tlir .■..lolla, niurli loii"ia- tJnii tlir 

tube. April and JIay. t. tliivr, onlrr nearly '"the luMulit of 

the stem. Stem lit. to 3ft. hi-h, .slender, erect. Koot .sheath 
white, mottled with piu'i.lish-lirow u. 17&S. The llower.s of tiji.s 
species are the most exquisitely s.;ented of the whole ,^euus. 
(r>, I>I. o7o.) 

G. sanibucinus (iCUK 

rcnWd). A syiii.iiyui uf IJahi 

G. Saundersii(S;Luii(Un\s').-^- jl. .-nuisi-n, sj.utt.tMl witli wliitf, yix 
to t\\-<.-]vt\ i-iLthfV remote; periautli Sin. t.i S.'.iii. in .Uaineter ; 
anthers yell. nv. Aiitiiniii. I. 2ft. to 5 It. loni;. .',iii. to ,an. livoad, 
wtruiii;ly nerved, h. 2rt. to 3ft. 1871. (B. M. 5873.) 

G. segetum (cnvnfiel.l). /?. rose-coloured, in two rows; lower 
seiiments nnequal, each with a loni^-, narrow white spot. Ii. 2ft. 
Sontli Kui'ope, 1596. (B. M. 719.) 

G, sericeo-villosus (siiag-iiy-steiiniied). H- a very pccuhar yrlli.w- 
y,i-een, tinged with piLle yellowisltOnnwn ; .sinla's iiiaiiy-l"l"\vcr<'d ; 
corolla liml> tingeil with red, caitipamilaLc ; spathJ's ,sliam;y. 
June. I. linear^ensiforni, wtriped. Stfiu with siiag^'y-siiky 
clothing-. /;. 3ft. to aft. 1864. (Li. M. M27.) 

G, sulphureus (.sulplmr). A synonym of Bahiaaa .slrlda :<ia. 


G. tristis (sad), jl. cernuous, 2in. to 3in. deep; corolla tuhe 

funneh.shapcd, rather shorter than tlie division.s, tlie gj-nund- 
work yellow, the three upper segments minutely spntte<l all over, 
both externally and internally, with small rcfhlish-lirown dots, 
the three lower ones narrower and spottoil only on the outer jialf. 
.luly. I. with long cylindrical «pathes helow, almost tetragoual. 
h. 1ft. Natal, 1745. (B. M. 1098 ; Kef. B. 25.) 
G. vittatus (striped). /. pink, \\ith darker stripes ; anthers 
purple ; ctrolla. erec't, funncl-shaitetl. IMav. I. ensiferni. Stem 
Sin. to 12in. high, snnple or loanched. 1760. (B. M. 538, under 
name of G. viultdcUns rar.) 

Varieties. Named collections are exijensivc, and not 
largely grown, n,nloss they are recxnired for exhibition. 
The subjoined list inclnde.-y a selection of new and older 
varieties, of varied colours, that arc amongst the best 
for this purpose, although it contains only a few com- 
pared with the large number offered for sale by nur- 
serymen. Seedlings are now very good, if obtained from 
a reliable soxu'ce, and answer for x^'^i-i'poses of de- 
coration almost erjually as well as named ones, excepting 
the well-known Brein-hJeijeiisis and ;/rrjo/rf ryjusis varie- 
ties, from which the majority of those in cultivation 
have descended, and which are now tolerably cheap, and 
well worth growing on an extensive scale. 

Agdestes, white, violet blotch on lower petal, large, handsome ; 
Agnes Mary, white, shaded pale lilac, purplish mark on lower 
petal ' Anna, cherry, striped carmine, white ground ; Astr,f..\, 
scarlet-crimson, with rose :-.i lipe, white centre; Brkncii- 
LEYENSIS, vermilion-si arlri., l.n-.- .^inkps, one of the best grown ; 
Calliphon, rose, streaked 1m igliter .olonr, light centre ; Captain 
BOVTON, red, bluish centre, white spots on lower petals ; CouiSTiws 
OF Pembiioke, rich purple, flaked lake; Damia, white, tinged 
pale purple or lilac; Delicatjsstma, white, shaded blac : Dr. 
Benson, light scarlet, purple centre ; .DR. HOGG, mauve, suffused 
rose, centre white ; DtUiE o\-' Tkck, blush-white, rosy-red centre, 
tine ; Karl of Airltk, orange-red, crimson-scarlet mark on lower 
petal ; Klectra, pale rosy-purple, violet .stripe on lower pet;d, 
rine, well-formed ; Felicikn Davih, rosy-cerise, striped carnnne ; 
Hepum, violet-purple, deep purple flake; Hesperia, orange- 
scarlet, purple throat; Hogarth, white, lower part flaked lilac- 
pnrple ; L.inv BRiorORT, bhish, striped carmine, extra large and 
tine ■ Ladv Carrincton, pale hlac, white centre, very tine ; Lady 
LHiriir white, tinted rose, flaked pale purple; La Francr, pale 
flesh-colour inside, flaked rosy-purple outside, lower petals purple, 
tipped yellow ; 1/Alsace, pale canary, lower petal 1;.lotched dull 
carmine very pretty ; LeiM0INE[, creamy, blotched maroon- 
crimson, good decorative variety ; Lord Byron, scarlet, spot 
white ■ Lord Powis, white, bordered rose, flaked red; Madame 
ViLMOR.iN bright rose, white centre; Marcianus, orange-red, 

striped carmine, hue ; MARitciiAi, Bazaine, scarlet, white centre, 
and flake on each petal ; Mars, deep scarlet; RT.VSQ.UE de Fer, 
bronzy-red, lower segments darker, velvety, yellow spotm centre ; 
Mr. Derrv, pale lilac-purple, veined rosy-purple, tine; Mr. 
Thornton, purplish-crimson, veined red; Mrs. J. Evton, 
white, shaded and striped lilac-rose; Mrs. Laxton, rosy-red, 
ivory-white centre; Nai'Opeon IlL, scarlet, blotched white: 
Neocles, Avhite, purple on the lower petals; PlcmM, sahuon- 
Bcarlet, flalted carmine, Hue; Q^^EE^■ jNEary, white, purplish- 
violet -stripe on lower petal, flne ; Remi3RANDT, brilliant-scarlet, 
good; Bemus, bright rosy-purple, flaked crimson; Rev. jM. J. 


.l'.i';riKi';i,KV, oi-ange-scarlec, flaked carmine, pure white centre; 
UiciiMin hi;AN, light crimson, carun'ne stripe on lower petal; 
SIR SiAi'i'oKi> NORTIICOTE, salmon-red, flaked crimson; Solfa- 
TERKK, yellow, spotted carmine: Tet^amon, flesh-colour, flaked 
carmiuo, Aviiite ; TriOMAS Mhtiiven, violot, tinted rose ; 
IfiNA, scarlet, white centre, petals Haked white, fine; VjrroRV, 
crimson, flaked purple centre, tine; W. li. (Jumrleton, rosy- 
purple, .striped carmine, maroon spots, tine decorative variety; 
Vhii.i.ow JCiiNG, yellow, oi-ange centx-e, flaked carmine. 

GLADWYN. See Iris foetidissima. 



ni)un their tips. 


t_!i.)Vcrod with hairs, bcariiig glands 

Hearing glands. 

Having serratures 


tipped with glands. 

GLAREOSE. rU-owing in gravelly places. 

GLASS. The (piality and thickness of Glass are 
important considerations in the construction of houses 
for horticultural purposes. yinco the value of light for 
plants has been nnjre fully recognised, and Glass of good 
quality has Ijccomo much cheaper, improvements have 
been generally made which entirely siipersede the old 
system of inserting very small panes. Various sorts of 
Glass have been tried at different times, but none is 
found to equal g'ood sheets of not less than 21oz. or 
2toz. to the square foot, where the panes are intended 
to be large. It is not advisable to have the latter more 
than 3ft. long for any plant structure, on account of 
their weight and tJic expense of repairs, should any 
breakage occur. Opaque corrugated Sheet-glass, and 
rough or unpolished Plate-glass, have each been tried for 
various plant liouoes, but have been found unsuitable on 
account of admitting insufficient light in dull weather, 
and also as not affording the requisite shade for tender 
plants in summer without additional covering being 
applied. Green-tinted Glass is sometimes used where a 
subdued light is desirable, such as a house devoted to 
ferns. This does' not prevent the necessity of giving 
other shade in addition on bright summer days. Except- 
ing for frame sashes or small panes in houses, Glass that 
oidy Aveighs lOoz. to the scpiare foot should not be used 
for glazuig any framcAvork that is exposed to hail or 
snow storms and other rough weather. Curvilinear roofs 
require specially bent Glass for certain parts, which, how- 
ever, costs nearly double the price of the ordinary kind, 
and consequently renders repairs to such structures con- 
siderably more expensive. If Glass is of bad quality, the 
destruction, by burning, of the tender foliage of plants 
beneath is almost certain. This is caused by numerous 
defects in tlic Glass acting as foci. 

GLASSWOK.T. See Salicornia. 


Oxyacantlia prsecox. 

GLAUCESCENT. Having something of a bluish- 
green, hoary, or sea-green appearance. 

GLAXTCIUIYE (from yhiuJcos, greyish-green ; referring 
to the hue of the leaves). Horned Poppy. Ord. Papa- 
veracece. A genus comprising five or six species of hardy, 
ornamental, glaucous, annual or biennial herbs, chiefly con- 
fined to the Mediterranean region, one being a native of 
Britain. Flowers yellow or crimson, solitary. Leaves 
lobed or dissected. Glanciums are of easy culture in 
any good garden soil. They may be propagated by seeds, 
sown in April or May, in the open ground. The seed- 
lings, Avhen large enoiigh to handle, should be transferred 
to their floAvoring cpiarters. 

G. corniculatum (horned). A synonym of <j. plnxnirrwi, 
G. flavum (yellow).* ji. bright yellow, large. June to August. 
I'od nearly 1ft. long. I., radical ones nnmerous, stalked, pin- 
n;itihd, hairv. A. 1ft. to 2ft. Europe (Britain), North Africa, and 
We.^tAsia. " Whole plant glaucous. Syn. I'l. la.tcum. (Sy. En. B. 
G. luteum (yellow). A synonym of <J. /laouin. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Glaucium — eo^iHmind. 

G. phoeniceum (lunplr)/ //, crimson, with a lilack spot at 
the liasi.^ nf oiirti ]ict;L]. .tiiiK-. /. oblonp;, piiinatitid, haivy. 
h. din. I<]n,i;lanil ([irdlialily naturahsed). SVN. G. cunliculatiua. 
(Wy. En. B. b5.) 

GLAUCOUS. Covered with a fine bloom. 

G-IaAUX (tho name giYen by Dioscoridos to another 
plant ; from glaulcos, g-reyish-f^rccn). Blaek Saltwort ; Sea 
Milkwort. Ord. Primulacew. A pretty little herbaceous 
perennial, rarely yecn in gardens. It thrives in a moist 
sandy soil, and may be propa.^'atcd by seeds. 

G. maritima (.sea). ./(. nf a pale pinlt colmu-, not two lines luni;, 
solitary, nearly sessile and axillary ; corolla wanting ; calyx deejily 
tlve-lobed. Smiimer. L small, mostly o[iposite, scssife. ovate, 
oblong or almost linear, entire. Ii. 3in. to bin. l']urope (Britain), 
North and West Asia, and North America, on sands, saltinarshes, 
and nunldy places, near the sea. (.Sy. l^n. B. 1150.) 

GIiAZING. Numerous systems of Glazing have, of 
late years, been invented and patented, all lieing chiefly 
directed against tho use of putty, and professing to offer 
advantages over the ordinai-y method, such as cheapness 
in construction, durability, the admission of additional 
light, and special facilities for repairing broken glass. 
Although some of those methods arc largely adopted, and 
answer well in the case of extensive glass buildings, their 
use for horticultural purposes is by no means general. 
One of the best patent systems introduced is that known 
as Kcndlc's, in -which the panes of glass are fitted at the 
top and bottom into horizontal grooves formed of bent 
zinc, and arc slightly lapped on each other at the sides. 
The zinc grooves are made to conduct tho water down 
the roof from the outside, and also that caused by con- 
densation underneath. This renders the structure re- 
markably free from drip inside, which is an important 
consideration. No putty is used, and the plan answers 
equally well cither with straight or curvilinear roofs, the 
glass being kept in place by indiarublior wedges. Various 
other modes arc recommended by diiferent makers, some 
having strips of felt along tho sides of the panes, and a 
metal ridge on each rafter, screwed on the felt sufiBcicntly 
close to hold all firmly underneath. The use of putty is 
requisite with sashes that are movable, either as ven- 
tilators or for covering frames, to prevent tho glass 
shaking out or becoming displaced. In Glazing, the 
panes may vary in size, aceoriling to the dimensions of 
the house or pit. Unless the roof bo very flat, the laps 
should not exceed i'in., and they should be made as air- 
tight as possible, each pane being secured in position 
lieforo the putty is put on by small pieces of zinc made 
for the purpose. The larger the panes arc, tho more 
light do they admit ; but a length of 2i-tt. or oft. must 
be an outside limit, with a width not much exceeding 1ft. 
Great pressure is put on the surface of glass houses 
by rough winds, and by snow in winter ; and, in order to 
withstand this, the cpiality of the glass and proper Glazing 
must be insirrod in the first instance. 

GIiAZIOVA. Included under Cocos (which see). 

GIiUCHOMA. Now included under Nepeta (which 

GLEDITSCHIA (named after Gottlieb Gleditseh, of 
Lcijisic, 171 1-1 7y'>, Director of Botanic Gardens at Eerlin). 
Syn. Glcililsi'i. OitD. LegmnhionK. A genus comprising 
about half-a-dozen species of ornamental, mostly hardy, 
deciduous trees, inhabiting temperate or sub-tropical 
Asia and North America (ono of them tropical Afi'ican). 
Flowers greenish, disposed in spikes. Leaves abruptly 
pinnate and bii)innate on the same tree. Branches supra- 
axillary, freqrrcntly converted into branched spines. The 
species arc of easy culture in almost any soil. Propa- 
gated by seeds, obtained from their jiatnral habitats, and 
sown i]i I\Iari!h, about lin. dee]). 
G. horrida (llorriil). A synonym of (,'. ni.m;iisis. 
G. monosperma (one-.secded). Water IjCicnst. //. gveenish. 
Snmnier, /., IcaHnts nv;ite-ohlini'4', acide ; spines slender few 
usnally triUd. A. iOft. to lOft. United iStates, 17Z3. 

Gleditschia — coHtiuued. 

G. sinensis (Chinese), yi. greenish. Summer. Z., leaflets ovate- 
elliptic, obtnse; spines robust, conical, rameal ones simple or 
branched, cauline ones in fascicles, branched, h. 30ft. to 50ft. 
China, 1774. WvN. (;. honiila. 

G. triacanthos(tlircc-spined).^' Honey bocnst. _/?. gj-eentsh. Snm- 
mer. L, leaflets linear-oblong, lnc:id ; spines robust, compressed 
at the t)ase, but cvlimhically conical at the apex, simple or trdid. 
/i. 30ft. to 50ft. U'iiited States, 1700. 'I'liere are several varieties 
<if this tine tree, iiicbiding an unarmed one, also one with a pen- 
dulons habit. (W. D. B. 'ii. 138.) 

GLEDITSIA. A synonym of Gleditschia (which 


GLEICHENIA (named in honour of W. F. Gleicben, 
1717-1783, a German botanist). Okd. Filires. A genus 
comprising about thirty species of ornamental stove aixd 
greenhouse ferns. Gaudex mostly creeping. Fronds rarely 
nnbranched, generally dichotomously divided ; pinnie 
deeply pinnatifid, with the segments small and concave. 
Sori of few (usually two to four) sessile capsules, situated 
on a lower exterior veinlet. For general culture, see 

G, acutifolia (acute-leaved). .\ s>iantyni of O. (]y,adfiintiiita. 
G, Eancroftii (Baricruft's). A synonym of (t. Umijl^stma. 
G. bifurcata (twice-forked). A synonym nf G. Jlatjellaris. 
G. bracteata (l>racteate). A synonym of G. 'kt^ellarls* 


G. circinata (circinate).* .I'rmids, lobes of the pinnte ovate or 
suli-rotund, more or less glaucous beneath, the margins slightly 
recurveil ; blanches and rachis glabrous, or more'er less pu- 
bescent. Capsules three to four, superficial. Australia. Stove. 
See Fig. 112. Syns, G. microphjiUa, G. tipelmica'. The variety 
,iemi-vcst.i.fa has the rachises and young fronds very paleaceo- 
pubescent. See Fig. 113. 

G. cryptocarpa (hidden-fruited), .frond-i proliferous, coriaceous, 
deep yellow or yellow-brown whenilry; branches dichotomously 
tlabellifnrm ; pinna?, broad-lancecjiatc, sub-erect and compact, 4in. 
to 5m. long, lin. broad, pectin.ato-pinnatitid ; .segments narrow- 
Imear, .stron.gly veined, the maryins simjnlarly revolute, conceal- 
m? the sun. Capsules one to four in a sruus. ' /,. 3ft. Chili, 1865. 
( ireunhmise. 

C. Cunninghaml (Cunningham's), fmnds often proliferous, cori- 
aceous ; branches dichotomously flabellifcirm. glaucous beneath, 
hairy ; pnui.-e hnear-lanceol.atc, acuminate, 4ili. to 6in. long, ^in. 
to Im. broad; segments linear, acute. Capsules two tio four 
m a sraus. New Zealand. Greenhouse. (H. S. F. i. 6b.) 

G. dlcarpa (two-fruited).* fronds, lobes of the pinnje round, sub- 
hemisphencal, very fornicate. Capsules two, concealeil within 
the almost slipper-shaped lobes, and mixed with ferruginous, 
paleaceous hau's, wbicli often extend to the r;ichis. Australia. 
A variable stove sjiecies. (H. s. I<\ i. Ic.) The variety alpina 
js generally smaller and more compact, racliis and young shoots 
ferriiKuions nitb iialean'ons Sv,\. (,'. iH.-h-^lvp/nilta.iH. S. F. 
1. 2li.) Another elegant variety, introduced in 1879, is Inihiipiil- 
mil, I, Ml which the Ironds are longer than those of the' type, 
and the growth is exceedingly graceful. 

G. dichotoma (forked)." .,li. zi.gzae, repeatedly di- or trichoto- 
mons, the nUiiuate lirauches bearing a pair of forked pinine 
about 8m. long and 2in. wide ; segments never decurrent, glau- 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 



cciils Ix-iieuth. ■]'r..i.i.:il n 
'.'. ll,n„„„n, (.: niiificrris. 

SVNS. (?. ferruainra, 

^;i(ills. Stn 
and liiaiiy utli. 
G. CXcelsa (tall). A syncmyni (if (,'. /.j/i,/;™;/,,,!. 
G. ferruginea (rusty). A .syimnyni .if G. .Ildmluma. 
G. flabellata (faii-sluipe.l). Jnjmls very pvnliffrc.ii.s ; livaiichfs 
(luli.itoiii.iii.sly Halirllifonn ; iiiiiiia' asreiiiliiii;, 6iii. l.iii^;, 
Ini. tu 2iii. bniail, lancedlatf ; .■ii'siiiMits linear. Australia, cVr., 
1825. Cireenlniuse. 

G. flagellaris(wliiji-lil;e).* .;>..,/.;«, branches £;lal.r.ins, repeati-.Uy 
du'lictcmiuus, eo|in..usly foliari-.,Hs, "laliruus, dften shiueuus 
lieneath, sub-eciriareo-nicnilnanarenus ; pinna: erertu-patent en- 
divaricatinj;, extremely varialile, liniail or narrow, or linear- 
laneeolate, 5in. to 1ft. anil more lonj;; seRnienls ,',in. to 2iii. and 
more long, linear, sometimes fernn;iiico-tomentose at the li;ise 
beneath, (.'apsnles two to four. .Mauritius and Bourbon, Ma- 
dasasear; abundant in Java and iVIalay Lslands. Stove. S\,\s. 
<j. Iii/urcala, G. briicteat-a, G. hfrujata, (}. ylmimfnrmis. 

G. furcata (forked). A synonym of G. pube^icens. 

G. gigantea (liigantic), A synonym of G. longissima. 

G, glauca (.^laueous). A synonym of G. Im^g-i^-sima. 

G. hecistophylla (smallest-leaved). A svnonyn of O. dUarjia 

G. Hermanni (llornumn's). A synonym of G. diehidoum. 

G. lsevigata(sn th). A synonym u( G. flar/ellaris. 

G. longiplnnata (long-pinnated). A synonym of G. ptibescens. 

G. longisslma (lon.gest).* ,s-(,'. stout, forked ; branches very long ; 
piinue numerous, 4in. to 8iu. long, lin. to 2in. broad, deeply ])in- 
natitid ; segment.s linear, aiaiminated, or oblong, China and 
Japan. Greenhouse. Sv.\s. (;. Ikmcrvftii, G. exaisa, G. giiianlai, 
e. glauca. (H. S. V. i. 3l;. ) 

A ffi'Otip 


siib-ordor of 

Fig. 113. Gleichenia circixata semi-vestita. 

G. Matthewsii (Mattliews's). A synonym of G. puhescena. 

G. luicrophylla (small -leaved). A synonym of G. circinata. 

G. pectinata (combed).* sti. zigza.g, Ijranched ; branches bearings 
one to three pairs of forked divaricating pinnie ; segments never 
decurrent, freijuently glaucous beneath, sori of eight to ten 
capsules. Tropical America, 1824. Very distinct. 8tove. 

G. plumseformis (feather-formed). A synonym of G. _fiagellarls. 

G. pubescens (downy).* sti. and rachises often woolly ; branches 
of the frond repeatedly dichotomous, leafy ; pinnae 5in. to 2ft. 
long", lin. to 2in. broad, pectinato-pinnatitid, clothed with col)- 
webby pubescence ; segments spreading, linear. (.Capsules two to 
five. Tropical America. Stove. Svns. G. furcata, G. lonr/ipln- 
vata, G. Ma/(/icirsii, G. tomentosa. 

G. quadripartita (quadripartite), fronds coriaceous, black when 
dry, rufous-bruwn beneath, not proliferous, only once-forked ; 
each branch dichotomonsly flabelliform ; pinnae lanceolate, acu- 
minate, falcately curved, pectinato-pinnatifid, 4in. to 6in. long, 
lin. to Ijlin. broad ; lobes narrow-linear, sub-falcate, sharply 
acute, the margins a little recurved. Capsules one to three in a 
sorus. Straits of Magellan. Ureenhouse. SVN. G. acutifolia. 

G. rufinervis ( re il -nerved). A synonym of G. dichotoma. 

G, rupestris (rnck).* fronds 2ft. to 6ft. long; lobes of pinn^ 
rounded or <.btu.^ely suli-qiiadvangular, coriaceous ; margijis 
thickened and recurved, suli-glancons beneath, xori of three or 
four capsules, su])erHcia], Australia, 1860. Greenhouse. Per- 
haps only a variety of G. circinata. 

G. speluncse (cavern). A synonym of (?. circinata. 

G. tomentosa (tomentose). A synonym of G. pubescens. 

Vol. II. 


G-LOBBA (native Mnlncca name). Svx. Splnrn>rnrpn.^\ 
Onu. Zini/iherarea\ A ^njnuK of about twenty-four species 
of pretty stove herbaceous perennials, natives of India and 
the Malayan Archipelago. Flowers yellow or pinkish, 
very curious-looking ; calyx three-cleft, tubular ; corolla 
w^ith a slender tube. (;41obbas are of easy cultare in a 
warm, moist stove ; and may be readily increased by 
dividing the roots. 

G. atro-san guinea (dark red).*^ /f. yellow, witli scarlet bracts, 
disp'isL'il ill ilense tciiiiiiKd rart^nies. In lilnssom tlie greater i-iart 
i.if tlu^ yc;ir. /. alternate, ii\ ;itr-l:inceo]ate, arinuiuate, dee]) ^lussy 
green. .Steui.-^ about as thiclc as a goose quill, nnich cruwiled, 1ft. 
to lUt. long, gracefully arching on all sides. Borneo, 1881. An 
elegant plant. Sy.n. G. cuccinea. (B. M. 6626.) 
G. coccinea (scarlet). A synt.tnym of G. atro-xatiriuinca. 
G. Schomburgkii (SchomlHirgk's).* .//. golden-yellow, with a 
bright orange-red Ijase to i\n- lip ; panicle drooping ; lip narrowly 
cuneate, with a liroad, retuse, truncate end. August. I. ellijttic- 
ovate or lanceolate, witli slender acuminate tips, contracted into 
a short petiole ab<.tve tiie \'a^iiia. Stem.-; tufted, 6in. to 12iH. high- 
Siani, 1864. (B. .M. 6298.) 
G. sessiliflora (sessile-tlowered). /?. yellow ; spike whorletl ; 
lateral segments of eoroUa longest ; l>racts lanceolate, witlieriug. 
August, t. lanceolate, acuminate, li. Wit. J'egu, 1307. (B. iM. 

GI.OBB AMARANTH. S<^p. Gomplirena globosa. 
GLOBE FLOWEK,. sv^^ Trollms. 


GLOBE THISTLE. -S - Echinops. 


GLOBULAKIA (from i;h>hvJo.^, a small 
round bead ; in allusion to the form of the 
capitate flower), OiiD. Selaginece. A genus 
comprising twelve ppecies of hardy or green- 
house perennial herbs, shrubs, or sub-shrubs, 
inhabiting the Mediterranean region, &c. 
Flowers collected ux)on a common recep- 
tacle, surrounded by a many-leaved invo- 
lucre. Leaves radical or alternate, cori- 
aceous, obovate-oblong' or lanceolate, entire 
or argntely sparingly toothed. Globularias 
are pretty plants for the rock garden, in 
a moist, free soil ; they may also be grown 
in the margins of borders. Propagated by 
seeds, or by division. 

G. Alypum (Alypum).* fl. -heads pale, terminal. 
August ami September. I. lanceolate, three- 
toothed and entire. Stem shrubby, h. 2ft. S<iuth 
Kurope, 1640. Greenhouse shruh. See Fig. 114. 
(Fl. Ment. 34.) 
G. COrdifolia (heart-leaved). ji. -heads blue, small, globular, 
solitary, terminal. Summer. L petiolate, obovate- cuneate, 
emargiuate. Stemshruliby, prostrate, much branched. Europe, 
"Western Asia, 1633. Hardy sul.i-shrub. 



Fic. 114, FL0WER-in;\i> of Glorui.arta Alypum. 

G. longifolia (long-leaved). jL-hcad^^ white, axillary, sub-sessile, 
solitarv. .lulv and i lanceolate, linear, entire. Stem 
-shrubhy. h. 3ft. Madeira, 1775. Greenhouse. (B. R. 685.) 

G. nana (dwarf). f.-/ieads bluish, globular, nearly ^in. in 
diameter. Sununer. I. radical, fleshy, narrowly obcordate- 
cnneate. Stem woodv, cree]>ing, prostrate. South Euri:>pe, 1824. 

G. nudicaulis (naked-stemmed).-* 

Ji.-heads blue, larger than 



The Dictionary of Gardening, 


rdii'oUa. Suiiiinev. 
herbaceuus. Jt. 

L radiL-al, olilonir, crenato 
6in. South Kiirope, 1629. 


those of O. cii 

obtuse. Steins 

Hardy herlj. 
G. trichosantha (hairy-flowered), fl.-licaih li;;ht bhie, lar^e. 

Sii miller. /., radiual ones spathiilate, simu'tniies tridentate ; 

eauliiie ones linear, luucruiiate. Stem herbat'ciMis, leafy, h. 6iii. 

t(.t oil). Asia Minor. Plant glaucescent. Hardy liei'b. 
G. vulgaris {cnnnnon).* Jl.-h'-ads bright blue, dense, terminal; 

invnlucre uf nine to twelve iinliricated leaflets. Summer. /., 

j-adical i;mes siiatliulate, emar.icinate, or shortly tridentate ; 

canline ones small, lanceolate. Stems herbaceous, erect, h. 6in. 

tul2in., 1610. Hardy herb. (B. M. 2256.) 

G-I.OBUI.ARIE.ffi. A synonym of >^H<i<iinP(C. 

GLOBULEA. Incluacd, by Eentham and Hooker, 
under Cnissnht. 

GLOMBB.ATE. Gathered into round lieaps or heads. 

GLONBRIA. Included under Psychotria (which 

GIiOBtlOSA (from glono.'^vs:, full of g-lory ; referrin.c' 
to the handsome flowers). Syns. Glijno.stijlii:, Methonica . 
Or-d. Liliacece. A genus comprising" three species of very 
ornament^,!, usually stove bulbs. Flowers axillary, in ra- 
cemes on the ends of the stems, which bear leaves remark- 
able in having tendril - like apices. Propagation is 
effected by seeds and by offsets. Seeds are best in- 
serted singly, in small pots, in January, using a liglit 
sandy soil, and x^li^^nging in bottom heat. Offsets should 
be carefully removed from old bulbs when starting them 
in spring, as the roots are very brittle, and are easily 
injured if division is attempted at other times. Good 
drainage is always essential, and an open soil, composed 
of loam and peat in about equal proportions, is recom- 
mended. The bulbs should be carefully repotted in 
February, and then started in a temperature of about 
70deg. Plenty of heat and moisture are necessary in 
summer ; but, as the growth ripens, water should be 
gradually withheld. During winter, the soil must be kept 
<iuite dry, and the pots laid on their sides in a warm 
place. Exposure to cold, when at rest, is a point 
specially to be avoided. The winter treatment applies 
alike to seedlings and established bulbs. Gloriosas are 
frequently very slow-growing, and are impatient of root 
disturbance on account of their brittleness. The seasons 
of growth and complete rest in a warm place, are most 
important considerations in their culture. 


Fjg. 115. Flowkrtng Branch and Single Flower, op 


G. auperba (superb).^ //. deep rich orange and red; perianth 

segments narrow, dei/ply undnlate and crispate, erect. Summer 
h. 6ft. Tropical Asia and Africa, 1690. See Fi^^ 115. (A. E. R 
129; B. R. 77.) 

G. Virescens (greenish), jl. drrp umnse and yi'll-.w ; |)eriantli 
-se^'ments spathulate ; margins nut crispate, and but slightly un- 
dulated, h. 4ft. Mozambique, 1323. (B. M. 4938.) (J. J'Laniii 

Ct\oxios?i^co)dinv ed. 

is the form with reddish-yellow flowers. The variety <irandi flora 
{DIelhonica i ra/idljiora, B. W. 5216) is a trniiical African form, 
with much larger flowers than the type. 

GLOB.Y PEA. .St,. Clianthus. 

GI.OSSARRHEN. A synonym of Schweig-g-eria. 

GliOSSASFIS. A synonym of Glossula. 

GLOSSOCOMIA. A synonym of Codonopsis. 

GliOSSODIA (from glof^sa, a tongue, and eidofi, like; 
alludiiig to the tongue-like appendage within the flower). 
Ord. Orcdiidem. A genus comprising about four species 
of greenhouse terrestrial orchids, limited to Australia. 
Flowers purple or blue, erect, one or two on an erect 
scape, leafless except an empty sheathing bract at or 
below the middle, and a similar one under each pedicel; 
lip sessile, undivided, not fringed. Leaf solitary, oblong 
or lanceolate, from within a scarious sheath close to the 
ground. Glossodias thrive in sandy loam and peat, and 
require but little water when in a dormant state. Propa- 
gated by division. 

G. major (larger), ft. blue ; sepals and petals oblong-lanceolate, 
obtuse, not blotched; lip ovate, broad, biconvex and pubescent 
with wliite hairs in the lower half, upper half lanceolate, blue and 
glabrous. June. I. oblong or lanceolate, lin. to 2in. long. Tu!>er 
ovoid. 1810. Syn. Caladenin major. 

G. minor (smaller), jl. blue ; sepals and petals oblong-lanceolate ; 
lip about one-third the length of the sepals, broad, biconvex and 
pubescent in the lower half, the spreading upper half triangular, 
acute, flat, glabrous. June. I. lanceolate, the small sheathing 
bract usually green. 1810. SVN. Caladenia minor. 

GIiOSSUIiA (from glossa, a tongue ; in reference to 

the tongue-like segments of the labellum). Syn. Gloss- 
as'pis. Obd. Orchidece. A monotypic genus, the species 
being a curious tuberous-rooted stove orchid, peculiar to 
the island of Hong Kong and the adjacent mainland. For 
culture, see Glossodia. 

G. tentaculata (feeler-flowered), fl. gi-een, small, in a slender, 
erect spike; lip deeply three-lobed ; lobes long and tlu-ead-like, 
somewhat resembling the antennae of an insect, hence the 
speciflc name. December. I. few, at base of the stem. h. 9in 
(B. R. 862.) 

GLOTTIDIUM. Now included under Sesbauia 
(which see). 


GLOXINIA (named in honour of Bcnj. Petr. Gloxin, 
of Colniar, a botanical writer). Syns. Escheria and 
Salisia (of licgel). Ohu. Gesneracew. A genus contain- 
ing SIX species of elegant stove plants, all natives of 
tropical America. Flowers variously coloured, sometimes 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gloxinia — conlin iwil 






variegate i"l with spots, axillary, usually siug-ly or a few 
together, large, noclding. Leaves opposite, stalked. The 
innumerable forms which are cultivated as Gloxinias 

Gloxinia — cvii(inn.ed. 
rightly belong to the genus Sinniyigia, and most of them ' 
are derived from S. speciosa. On account, however, of 
their being so universally known as Gloxinias, the culti- 
vation is here given. 

Few stove plants are more beautiful than Gloxinias ; 
and they may, by potting succcssionally, be had in flower 
throughout the greater part of the year. They always 
prove attractive in a warm house, and are very useful for 
cutting. The flowers originally were all drooping, as 
shown in Fig. 116, which detracted considerably from 
their beauty, as now exhibited in the numerous varieties 
with erect flowers (see Figs. 117 and 118). Some have 
colours of intense rich crimson; others are pure white, or 
are dehcately spotted and pencilled internally. 

Propagation. Gloxinias may be annually increased in 
large quantities by seeds, and by cuttings of the stems 
or leaves. Seeds should be sown early in February, in 
well-drained pots or small pans of finely-sifted soil, com- 
posed of peat, leaf mould, and sand, in about equal pro- 
portions. After the seeds are thinly sown, and only 
very slightly covered with soil, they should be care- 
fully watered, placed in a temperature of about 70deg., 
aud kept shaded. On the appearance of the seedlings, 
a sharp look-out must be kept, to prevent them damping ; 
and, as soon as large enough, they should be pricked off, 
about lin. ax:)art, in other pots of similar soil, and, in 
due course, potted into single ones. Seedlings form good 
plants, and flower the same season, if sown early, and 
afterwards grown on without check, being always kept 
shaded, and in a moist, warm temperature. Cuttings of 
shoots may be secui-ed when the old bulbs are started in 
spring ; they strike very readily in a close prox^agating 
frame, and make good plants for flowering the following 
summer. Leaf cuttings may be inserted wlien the plants 
are ripening, or at other times if firm ones can be spared. 
They should be inserted with a small portion of the 
petiole attached — a bulb forms at the base of this for 
flowering the next year. A method of propagating more 
rapidly by matured leaves, is to cut through the midribs 
at the back of each, at distances of about lin. apart, 

Fig. 118. Erect- flowered Gloxinia. 

Fig. 119. Gloxlxia diversiflora. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gloxinia — coiLtimfe-d. 
and peg them down flat on pans of light soil, or on cocoa 
fibre, in a propagating frame. Numerous bulbils will 
eveutirally be formed at all the firmer parts of the mid- 
ribs where incisions have been made, and may be col- 
lected from the soil or fibre when the other portions of 
the leaf are decayed. 

Cultivation. Gloxinias arc naturally summer-flowering 
plants, and should be started into growth about February, 
or earlier, if desired. A i^iortion may be retained for a 
succession, to be followed, in early autumn, by seedlings, 
thus securing a long period for a display with even a 
limited niimber of plants. The roots should bo removed 
from the dry soil in which they have been stored, or from 
other sources, as the case may be, placed in small pots, 
and stood in a temperature of about 65deg. The soil best 
suited is leaf mould, not too much decayed, and lumpy 
peat, in equal proportions, with the addition of a little 
sand or charcoal. Loam is sometimes used, but it is not 
required if watering is attended to. The pots should be 
well drained, and nearly filled, the bulbs being pressed 
in and covered with soil, which is best raised above them 
in the middle of the pot. No water is required until 
growth begins, except a little syringing round the pots, 
to prevent the soil becoming too dry. When growing, 
the plants require plenty of water, and are much bene- 
fited by copious syringings with tepid water morning and 
evening, in summer. Cold water must on no account 
be applied, or much injury will ensue. Before the small 

Fig. 120. Gloxinia gksineruides. 

Gloxinia — continued. 
pots are filled with roots, and if the plants are calculated 
to grow strongly, a shift into the flowering sizes, which 
range from Sin. to Sin. in diameter, may be efi'ected. A 
light position, and shading from sunshine, will ensure a 
sturdy growth, which eventually produces flowers of good 
substance. Air should be carefully admitted, and the 
leaves handled with caution, as they are exceedingly 
brittle. Artificial manure, or manure water, is beneficial 
when the flowers appear, but it should bo kept from the 
foliage. The flowers last longer if the plants are sub- 
jected to a cooler temperature and more air at the flower- 
ing season. As the leaves ripen, water should be withheld ; 
and when they die away, the roots may he stored in a 
dry place till the following spring, but they must not be 
exposed to cold. 

Insects. The leaves and flower-stalks are frequently 
much injured by Thrips. If these are allowed a footing, 
it is difficult to effect eradication ; but injury may be 
largely prevented by maintaining a moist atmosphere 
during the time the plants are growing. 
G. diversiflora (variable-flowered). A pretty, dwarf, free- 

floweviiig hybrid, probably of garden origin. See Fig. 119. 
G. gesneroides (Gesnera-like) is said to be a hybrid between 
a Sinningia and Gesnera Bonkelaariana. It has fiery-red flowers. 
See Fiff. 120, for which we are indebted to Messrs. Carter. The 
absurdity of the name is apparent ; it is mentioned here solely 
because it is known by no other name in gardens. 
G. glabra (glabrous). Jl. white ; throat yellow, spotted with 
purple ; corolla funnel-shaped ; lobes nearly equal, with wavy, 
finely-fringed edges ; calycine segments foliaceous ; peduncles 
axillary, solitary, one-flowered. August. I. ovate, acute, ser- 
rated, glabrous. Stem erect, simple, sub-tetragonal, k. 9in, 
1847. (B. M. 4430, under name of G. fimhriata.) 
G. maculata (spotted). Jl. purplish-blue, downy ; peduncles axil- 
lary, one-tluwered, solitary, -lune to October. I., radical ones 
cordate, obtuse, doubly toothed, shining aliove, reddish beneath. 
Stems simple, spotted. /;. 1ft. South America, 1739. (B. M. 1191.) 
G. moltiflora. See Nsegelia amabllis. 

G, pallidiflora (pale-flowered), jl. pale blue; lobes of corolla 

concave ; calyeine segments linear, reflexed. August. I. broad, 

sub-obliquely ovate, obscurely serrated, rather pilose above. Stem 

erect, simple, spotless, h. 1ft. Santa Martha, 1844. (B. M. 4213.) 

G, Passinghamii (Passingham's). A synonym of Sinningia 

G. speciosa (showy). A synonym of Simiini/ia 6-pec-kum. 

Varieties. As a much greater variety in colour may 
be secured from mixed seeds than from a limited number 
of named sorts, the general and most satisfactory method 
of growing seedlings is here recommended. Seeds of erect 
and drooping varieties are sold in separate mixtures. 
GLUMES. The floral envelopes of grasses. 
GLUTINOSE. Adhesive, gluey. 

GIiTCINX! (from glyhys, sweet ; the leaves and roots 
of one or two of the species are sweet). OftD. LeQuini- 
nosw, A genus of about twelve species of stove or green- 
house, twining or prostrate, slender or rarely sub-erect 
herbs, distributed over Asia, Africa, and Australia. G. 
hedysaroicles (probably the only species introduced) 
thrives in a compost of peaty loam and a little sand. 
Propagated, in spring, by cuttings of young side shoots, 
inserted in sand, under a bell glass; or by seeds, sown 
in a hotbed. 

G. AploS (Apios). A synonym (if Apki^ (uhcrosa. 
G. "biloba (twodobed). A synonym of Colo<janla biloba. 
G. hedysaroldes (Hedysarum-like). ji. purple, axillary, usually 
five together. June. I., leaflets ovate, obtuse, mucronate, pilose 
l.>eneath. Piranches twining a little. Stem erect, tonu-ntose. 
Guinea, 1823, Stove. 

GLYCOSMIS (from glijkys, sweet, and osme, smell; in 
allusion to the scent of tho leaves and flowers). Ord. 
Rvtaceoj. A genus comprising five species of unarmed 
stove trees and shrubs, inhabiting tropical Asia and 
Australia, and (one, doubtful) Africa. Flow^ers small, in 
axillary, rarely terminal, panicles. IJcrrios small. Leaves 
unifoliolato or impari-pinnato ; leaflets alternate, entire or 
serrate. The species tbrive in a rich mould. Increased 
by cuttings, inserted in sand, under a hand glass, in heat. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture, 


GXycosmis — cotdin ned. 

G. arborea (tree-like). Jl. -white. INIay to A\igust. I pinnate, in 
two pairs ; leatieta long, nbsoletely .serrate, h. 20ft. East Indies, 
1796. 'J^rtie. 

G. cltrifolia (Citrus-leaved). Ji. white ; peduncles axillary, 
shorter than the stalk. January to December. I. simple, and 
three-leafleted ; leaflets ovate-oblong, acununate. h. 6ft. China. 

G. pentaphylla (five-leaved).* /?. white. June and July. L pin- 
nate, m two pairs; leaflets elliptical, entire, h. 20ft. Kast 
Indies, 1790. Tree. 

GLYCYRRHIZA (the old Greek name used by 
DiosGorides, from glykys, sweet, and rhiza, a root ; in 
reference to the sweetness of the root). Liquorice. In- 
cluding- Liquiritia. Ord. Leguminosce. A genus com- 
prising- about twelve species of hardy herbaceous peren- 
nials. Flowers blue, violet, white, or yellow, in axillary 
racemes. Leaves pinnate. Root long, perpendicular, 
sweet. These rather coarse-growing plants succeed in 
a deep sandy loam. Propagated by divisions, each of 
which should have one or more buds. The species most 
cultivated is G. glabra, from which is obtained the true 

G. ecblnata (prickly). JJ. purple, in racemes not half so long as 
the leaves. June and July. I., leaflets oval-lanceolate, mucro- 
nate, glabrous; stipules oblong-lanceolate, k. 3ft. Europe, 1596. 
Whole plant glutinous to the touch. (B. M. 2154.) 

G. glabra (glabrous).* Jl. pale blue, distant ; spikes or racemes 
pedunculate, shorter than the leaves. Summer and autumn. 
l.y leaflets ovate, rather retuse, and somewhat clammy beneath, 
as well as the branches. Stem only terete at the apex. k. 3ft. to 
4ft. Europe, &c., 1562. 

G. lepidota (scaly). Ji. whitish ; spikes pedunculate, shorter 
than tlie leaves, dense. July and August. Pods beset with 
hooked prickles. L, leaflets 15in. to 19in. long, oblong-lanceo- 
late, acute, squanmlose, under surface covered with glandular 
dots. Root creeping, h. 2ft. to 3ft. North America, 1817. 
(B. M. 2150.) 

GIiYPHJEA (from glyphe, carving, carved work ; in 
allusion to the markings of the fruit). Ord. Tiliacew. 
A genus containing two species of stove shrubs, natives 
of tropical Africa. Flowers yellow; cymes few-flowered, 
axillary, lateral or terminal. Leaves denticulate, three- 
ribbed. For culture, see Apeiba. 

G. grewioides (Grewia-like). ft. bright yellow, IJin. in diameter ; 

cymes three to four-flowered, pubescent, with stellate hairs. 
September. I. glabrous, 4in. to 6in. long, membranous, oblong 
or ovate, rounded or slightly unequally cordate at the base, 
acuminate, acutely and irregularly toothed. Benguela, 1866. 
(B. RI. 5610, under name of Qlyphma Monteiroi.) 

GLYPHOSPERMA (from glgid^^, carving, and 
spennn., seed; in allusion to the markings of the seed). 
Ord. Liliacece. A singular hardy plant, nearly allied to 
the European Anthericum. It has fascicled, fleshy, fibrous 
roots, and slender, soft, bright green, grass-like leaves. It 
thrives in any dry, sandy soil, but should be protected, 
during winter, from excessive moisture. 

G. Palmeri (Palmer's). JL white, starry, ^\t). in diameter, in 
panicled racemes. I. linear, channelled, 1ft. to lAft. long*. 
Northern Mexico, 1884. (B. M. 6717.) 


GMEIiINA (named in honour of S. CTottlieb Gmelin, 
a celebrated German naturalist and traveller, 1743- 
1'774). Ord. Verhenacece. A genas containing eight 
species of stove evergreen trees, natives of East 
India, Eastern Asia as far as China, the Malayan Archi- 
pelago, and tropical Australia. Flowers blue, pale violet, 
or yellow. Leaves opposite, entire. Gmelinas thrive in 
a rich fibry loam. Propagated by cuttings, made of firm 
young shoots, and inserted in sand, in heat. They 
are seldom seen in cultivation in this country ; and, in 
all probability, the species described below is the only 
one yet introduced. 

G. Kheedii (Rheed's). /. white ; thyrse many-flowered ; corolla 
downy, bilabiate. June to August. /. rhomb -cordate, sometimes 
three-lobed, tomentose beneath, h. 20ft. East Indies, 1824. 
Plant arboreous, downy. (B. M. 4395.) 

GNAPHALIUM (from giucphalon, soft down; woolly 
covering of the leaves). Cudweed ; Everlasting. Ord. 

Guaphaliuiii — coidvnued, 
GoinposiUe. A genus comprising about a hundred species 
of hardy, stove, or greenhouse, annuals, biennials, or 
perennials, spread over nearly the whole globe, from the 
tropics to the Arctic Circle. Flower-heads yellow or 
white, small, sessile, often clustered, rarely forming ter- 
minal corymbs ; involucral bracts imbricated, scarious 
(whence the English name), and often coloured at the 
tips. Leaves alternate, entire, sessile, decurrent, or 
rarely petiolate. Few of the species (four of which 
are natives of Britain) are worthy of special mention in 
this work. 

Fjo. 121. CiiNAi'iiALiuM DECURRENS, showing Habit and 

Cluster of Flower-heads. 

G. decurrens (decurrent), Jf..-headf; white, in cymosely disposed 
glomerules. July and August. I. strongly scented, lanceolate or 
linear, white beneath, h. 2ft. to 3ft. North America. Hardy 
perennial. See Fig. 121. 
G. Leontopodium. Sre Ijeontopodium alpinum, 
G. margaritaceum (pearly). Pearl Cudweed. A synonym of 
Ariteii luu'ia margarlUixea. 

GNUTACCS:. A small order of shrubs, rarely trees, 

natives, for the most part, of tropical regions. Flowers 
monoecious or dioecious, with sheaths or lacini^te scales, 
the female Avith a membranous, tubular, bifid, calyciform 
sheath. Leaves opposite, reticulated, sometimes scaly. 
The seeds of some of the species are edible. There are 
three genera — the best-known of which are Epliedra and 
Wehoitscliia — and about thirty species. 

GNIDIA (pertaining to Gnidus, a town in Crete ; a 
name given by the ancients to the Laurel). Ord. Thyme- 
lacece. A rather large genus (about fifty sx->ecies are 
known) of greenhouse evergreen shrubs or under-shrubs ; 
foTind in the Southern and Eastern tropical parts of 
Africa. Flowers white or pale yellow, inconspicuous ; 
calyx funnel-shaped, with a regular four-cleft limb. 
Leaves scattered or opposite. Branches slender. The 
plants require a moist atmosphere, and a situation close 
to the glass. In other respects, they should be treated 
like Pinxelea (which see). 

G. denudata (shaven). Jl. pale yellow. May to July. I. ovate- 
oblong, imbricated, hairy, with naked nerves, h. lift. Cape of 
Good^Hope, 1820. (B. R. 757.) 

G. oppositifolia (opposite-leaved). Jl. pale yellow, terminal ; 
scales four. May to July. I. opposite, ovate, tomentose. h. 1ft. 
Cape of Good Hope, 1783. (B. M. 1902.) 

G. pinifolia (Pine-leaved).^ Jl. creamy-white, very fragrant, dis- 
posed in umbellate heads. March and April. I. scattered, 
three-cornered, h. lit. Cape of Good Hope, 1768. (B. M. 2016.) 

G. tomentosa (downy). Jl. pale yellow, sessile, collected into a 
sort of fasciculated head at the extremity of the younger shoots, 
and surrounded by four closely-placed leaves, which form an 
involucre ; tube long and slender, swollen at the base, clothed 
externally with long, white, rather silky hairs ; segments faintly 
three-nerved. March and April. I. opposite, decussate, more or 
less spreading, sometimes reflexed, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gnidia — continued. 

very often appruachin;^ to oblons or elliptical, sessile, rather 
obtuse at the point, five-nerved, hairv. h, 3ft. to 4ft. Cape of 
Good Hope. (B. R. 2761.) 

GOAT MOTH (Cossus ligniperda). The Goat Moth 
prodncGw not only one of the largest of known European 
caterpillars, but also one of the most clestriictive to timhcr 
and frtiit trees. The perfect insect measures from 2:^in. 
to Sin. from point to point of its fore wing-s, which are 
of an ashy-brown colour, shaded with dark brovpn, espe- 
cially across the middle, and marked with many irregular 
transverse streaks, in the form of network. The hind 
wings arc brown, the reticulation being marked with 
somewhat obscure lines ; hence, the insect is difficult to 
detect while at rest, with folded wings, upon the stems of 
trees during the day. The female has a powerful ovi- 
positor for the purpose of securing her egg's in crevices 
of the bark. As soon as the larvte are hatched, they 
commence to eat away the bark next them, and, as 
gro\vth proceeds, make their way towards the heart of 

Fir. 122. Lakva of Goat Moth. 

the tree. The caterpillar (see Fig. 122) when fully grown, 
measures 4in. long, and is as thick as a man's finger. 
It exudes- a liquid of a powerful and fcotid odour, some- 
what resembling the unpleasant effluvium exhaled by the 
he-goat, whence the "Bnglish name. The body is smooth, 
and bears short, scattered hairs ; it is dark red on the liack, 
with spiracles, or breathing apertures, of the same colour 
along the sides; the sides and under surface of the body 
are flesh-coloured, and the head is black. The jaws arc 
very powerful, and capable of cutting the hardest wood. 
When two years old, the caterpillar changes to light yel- 
low, .surrounds itself with a strong cocoon, made of chips 
of wood, and assumes the p)upa state — generally in spring, 
the perfect insect appearing in June or July. 

Remedies. The remedies suggested are ; Coating the 
trees with a mixture of cow-dung and clay, to prevent 
egg-laying ; injecting paraffin or sulphur fumes into the 
holes ; and foiling the trees, splitting up, and destroying 
the caterpillars ivhen badly infested. 

GOAT'S BEARD. See Spiraea Aruncus and 

GOAT'S FOOT. See Oxalis caprina. 

GOAT'S RUE. See Galega. 

GODETIA. Included under (Enothera (which .'<pp). 

GODOYA (named in honour of K. (;iodoy, a Spanish 
statesman, 17(ii-1839— commonly called Prince of the 
Peace, on account of his having concluded a peace 
between France and Spain— a patron of botany). Oui>. 
Ochnneew. A genus comprising two species of stove 
trees, natives of Peru and New Grenada. Flowers yellow 
or white, disposed in terminal and axillary racemes or 

Godoya — continued. 
panicles ; calyx twin-formed. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, 
thick, simple, marked with numeroirs transverse veins. 
Godoyas delight in a compost of peat and loam. Propa- 
gated by cuttings, inserted in sand, under a glass, in a 
strong bottom heat. 
G. geminifiora (hud-flowered). /'. yellow; racemes axillary or 

terminal, rniii]iiiui](l, eloniiated. .Time. I. oblong, bluntish, ob- 

soletcly senulatfd. I,. 20ft. Jirazil, 1820. An elegant species. 
G. splendida (splendid).* Jl. pure white, fragrant, ten to fifteen 

on a spike. I. pinnate, large. ?i. 10ft. Columbia, 1869. A com- 

p:ict-gro^\ing plant. 

GOD'WINIA GIGAS. See Dracontium gigas. 

GOETHEA (named in honour of J. W. Goethe, the 
celebrated German poet, 1749 - 1832, who was also an 
excellent botanist). Okd. Malvaceae. A genus com- 
prising about four species of stove evergreen shrubs, 
natives of Brazil. Flowers showy, nodding ; pieduncles 
axillary, one-flowered. Leaves entirely or remotely den- 
tate. For culture, .see Pavonia. 

G. Makoyana (Makny's).* Jl. with a five-leaved epicalyx of large, 

cordate, ovate-acute, crimson bracts ; borne in terminal clusters. 

I. shortly-stalked, elliptic, dull green, with two leafy lanceolate 

stipules, h. 2ft. 1878. (B. M. 6427.) 
G. xnultiflora (many-fltiwered).* Jl.. with an epicalyx of numerous 

linear pink or red bracts. September. I. lanceolate, serrate. 

SVN. J'ttnuiia Wiuli. (B. M. 6398.) 
G. semperlloreus (ever-flowering), jl purplish, with a white 

disk, usually terminal ; involucre i)rown. I. elliptical, serrated 

at the apex. /;. 30ft. 

G. strictiflora (upright-flowered). Jl. a,«gregated, axillary ; bracts 
yellowish-white, tinged with red. August. I. ovate, large. 
h. Utt. 1852. (B. M. 4677.) 

GOLD CUP. See Ranunculus bnlbosus. 
GOLDEN CHAIN. See Laburnum vulgare. 
GOLDEN PEATHER. See Pyrethrum. 
GOLDEN HAIR. A common name of Clirysocoma 
Coma-aurea (which .•ice). 

GOLDEN ROD. See Solidago 'Virgaurea. 
GOLDEN SAXIPRAGE. See Chrysospleuium. 
GOLDEN THISTLE. See Scolymus hispanicus. 
GOLD PERN. See Gymnogramme. 

GOLDPUSSIA. Tliis genus is included, by the 
authors of the " Genera Plantarum," under Strobilan- 
thus (which see). 

GOLD KNOTS. See Ranunculus acris. 

GOLD THREAD. A name given to the .slender 
yellow roots of (Jojiiis trifolia, an inhabitant of Canada 
and Siberia, where they are largely employed for dyeing 
skins and wool. 

name for Chrysocoina. See also Heliclirysuni Stoechas. 

GOMFHIA (from gom,phos, a club; in reference to 
the shape of the fruit). Button Flower. Oed. Oc/ninren;. 
A genus comprising about eighty species of stove ever- 
green trees or shrubs, of which the majority are natives 
of South America, a few from Africa, and a very few 
from Asia. Flowers yellow, in terminal racemes or 
panicles ; sepals five, coloured, imbricated ; petals five, 
generally clawed. Loaves alternate, persistent, simple, 
coriaceous, shining, serrate. Gomphias thrive with similar 
treatment to that usually given to hard-wooded stove 
shrubs. A compost of two parts fibrous loam and the 
remainder of peat, with a small quantity of silver sand, 
suits them best. Propagated by cuttings of rather firm 
young shoots, inserted in sand, under a bell glass, in 
heat. The undermentioned are probably the only species 
now in oultivaticni. 

G. decorans (adorned). A syu.inym of <!. olinv/onnis. 

G. oliveeformls (Olivr formed).* il. rioli liright yellow, densely 

I'rndii I ill larne terminal bramliing racemes. May. I. shining 

dark Hrcrii, alterMalc, hroadly - lanceolate, 5in. long ; margins 
scrrnlatc. /,. 10ft. to 16ft. Brazil, 1S6S. SVN. Gl decorans. 
(B. M. 5262.) 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture, 


G. Theophrasta (Theoplinista-liko). /?. cnMen-yellnw, dfiisely 
in-niluccd in iimch-braiicluMl ]i;niick-s, m-aily lit, ^|<^VJ;. May. 
/. i.iIuiii;Lite, ovate-lanceolate, sfiriilatu, ll't. Itm^, sliorlh' stalked. 
Suutli America. (B. M. 5G42.) 

GOMPHOCARPUS (from ijoniplio^:, a clnh, and 
karpus, a fruit ; the I'oliielcS! aro voiitricosc). OuD. 
Asclepiaded'. A genus comprising- about eighty species 
of greenliouse lierbw or sub-i^lirubs, natives of Southprn 
and tropical Africa, Arabia, Central and North America. 
Flowers nsually showy, on many - flowered, interpoti< >Iar 
peduncles. Leaves opposite. The plants tlirive in a 
compost of sandy loam and fibry peat. Propagated by 
seeds, sown in a hotbed, in spring ; or by cuttings, 
made of small side shoots, wlion the phrnt is commencing 
new growth, and inserted in sand, under a bill glass. 

G. arborescens (Ivce-liko). JI., coroUa white, j^IabroiLs ; 
peiUiiieles, itedirf Is, anil calyces villous. December. I. ovato- 
oliloiig, ijkibroiis, witli an acnnien. Stem villons, bvancheil. 
//. 4ft. to 6ft. Cape of (Jood Hope, 1714. Shrubby. 

G. crispus (cnrled). Jl. greenish-yellow ; peduncles and calyces 
pilose. Jidv- I. lanceolate-cordate, undulate<l, hispid. Jiranclies 
downy, h. 1ft. to 2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 17W. Herl». 

G. fruticosus (shrubby).* /!. white ; peduncles and pedicels 
downy. .Tune to Septend:>er. I. linear-lanceolate, 4in. to 5in. 

huiy aniU in. broad. Stem downy, h. 5ft. to 7ft. Capeuf(inoil 
ITnjH.', 1714. The leaves of this sliruh are sometimes employed to 
atliilterate senna. (B. M. 1623.) 

G. padifoliUS (Cherry-leaved). Jl. axillary (not terminal), in 
-shiirtly-stalked uniljels of six to ten; corolla lobes purplish- 
y.reen ; divisions of the cmwn purplish-yellow. I. broadly cordate- 
uvaLe, yessile, decussate, in close opposite pairs, 2in. to 3iu. hiuti, 
acute, entire, glabrous ; upper surface pale green, tiMi;ed wiili 
purple as they grow old ; under surface glaucous, deeper in cnlour. 
Stem purplish-srr-eeu, erect. /;. 3ft. South Africa, 1867. Warm 
greenhouse herb. (Kef. B. 25^.) 

GOMPHOIiOBIUM (from gom-plios, a chib, and 
lohos, a pod ; in reference to the shape of the pod 
being like that of a club or wedge). Oud. Legwmviwso:. 
A genus containing twenty-four species of elegant green- 
house shrubs, all from Australia. Flowers yellow or 
red, terminal or rarely in the upper axils, solitary or 
two or three together, or in short racemes. Leaves 
simple, or more frequently compound ; leaflets usually 
narrow, digitate or pinnate, with the terminal leaflet 
sessile between the last p>air ; stipules small, lanceolate 
or subulate, or none. Gompholobiums should be grow^n 
in a compost of peat and loam, chopped into small 
pieces, but not sifted, with the addition of plenty of 
silver sand and small pieces of charcoal. Careful drain- 
age and watering are of great importance in their 
culture. Propagated by cuttings, made of young 
shoots, about 2in. in length, during spring, inserted in 
sandy peat, under a bell glass, in shade. 
G. aciculare (needle-shaped). A synonym of G. tomentos-um. 
G. barbigerum (bearded). A synonym of G. latifolium. 

G. capitatum (headed), jl. yellow, very shortly pedicellate, in 
dense, terminal, leafy corymbs, almost contracted into heads ; 
calyx usually very hirsute. July. I. the same as in G. tonientosuni; 
or the leaflets rather move slender, k. 2ft. 1830. This species is 
closely allied to G. tomcntos'nin, of which, perhaps, it is Imt a 
variety. (B. R. 1563.) 

G. grandiflorum (large-flowered).* jl. large, solitary, or two or 
three together, shortly pedicellate, terminal, or on very short, 
axillary, leafy branches ; standard broad, -|in. long. June. I., 
leaflets three, on a very short common petiole, narrowdinear, 
with a short, almost pungent point; margins revolute ; veins 
inconspicuous, h. 2ft. 18C)3. (S. E. B. 5.) 

G. grandiflorum (large-flowered). A synonym of G. pidymor- 

G. heterophyllum (variabledeaved). A synonym of G. Knir/hU- 

G. Knightianum (Knight's).* fi. pink or purple, in a short 
coryndiose raceme, on a rather long peduncle above the last 
leaves ; standard broad, rather longer than the calyx ; wi)igs aiul 
keel i-ather shorter. August. I. mostly pinnate, with Ave to 
eleven lanceolate or linear leaflets, obtuse or mucronate, flat, or 
with slightly recurved margins ; stipules subulate. Stems slender, 
rigid, ascending or erect, h. 1ft. or more. 1830. Syn. G. hetero- 
jjlqilUnn. (B. R. 1468.) 

G. lanatum (woolly). A synonym of G. tonientosum-. 

G. latifolium (broad-leaved), jl. golden-yellow, about lin. long; 

Gompliolobium — ronh'nupd. 

vexillum large. April to June. l ternate : leafle^ts hnear, 
acutisji. Stem erect; bi'anches angular, h. 1ft. tu 2ft. 1824. 
SVN. ^', harhliirrum. (B. M. 4171.) 

G. marginatum (i'(]ne,i). /]. yellow, small, few, in irregular, 
lonsL- teniiiNal rareuH's, nr r;ire]y sulitarv; stanrbird abftut four 
liues', deeply n<.t.-]iL^d; Inui-r petals scarcely exceeding the 
calvx. May. /., leaflets three, or rarely solitary, on a common 
petiole, froiu obovate to liiiear-obloni:-, with a short sharp point, 
coriaceous, bordere.l bv a thirkeued nei've-like edge; stipules 
lanceolate-subulate or setaceous. Stems slender, rigid, decum- 
bent orasc'eiidiii-, under 1ft. lung. 1820. (\i. K. 1490.) 

G. minus (smaller). Il yellow. May. L glabrous; leaflets tliree, 
on a very slioi'l, ccnnmoii petioIi\ A nnich-branched shridi. SVN. 
Uin-lnuiir iHlnnr. 

G. peduncularc (hm'^' flower-stalked). A .synonym of d p«hi- 

G. polymorphum (many-formed).* .//., vexillum scarlet on tlie 
inside, with a yellow base, and purple on the (uitside, large; 
pedicels much longer than the leaves. March to August. I., 
leaflets three to five, linear, or oldoiig-cuneated, mucronate, with 
reeurveil mari^ins. Stems ]>rocumbent, \\'eak, twining. (B. M. 
1553.) SVNS. G. <imndillor,nn, G. pcdu nrulan; G. icniie (B. R. 
1615), and'.'. n-Hidusiiiii (JI. R. 1574). <.'. (vr.s/rr./r,,- iy a luxuriant 
form, haviim large Howers and long leaflets (B. M. 4179; B. R. 
1839, 45; I'. M. B. xii. 219.) 

G. tenue (slender). A synonym of G. jinhjiiini-i'lnrm. 

G. tomentosum (shaggy). Jl. yellow, terminal, few, in compact, 
leafy corymbs, or rarely solitary ; stjindard about six lines long; 
keel rather shorter, broad, somewhat curved, the edges minutely 
ciliate. May /., leaflets nsnally five or seven, but varyuig from 
three to eleven, nari'ow-linear ; margins revidute, so as to be 
almost terete, nuu'.roiiate, more or less pubescent. }i. 1ft. to 3ft. 
1830. SviNS G. aciculare, G. hnnihiDi {\',.\l. 1474). 

G. venulosum (veiny-leaved). A synonym of <r. pfb/moyhion. 

G. venustum (charming).* //. purple; corymb stalked, many- 
flnw(.>red. April to July. /". impari-iiinnate, \vith many pairs 
of leaflets : leaflets awl -shaped, veinv, with revolute margins, 
gkibrous. //. ]it. (n3lt. 1S03. (i;. M. 42&a.) 

Ccelog"yne maculata (wljicii srr). 

Fig. 123. Flowf.uing Branch of OoMrriREXA globosa. 

GOMFHRENA (altered from Ocuinp/icrna, the 
name given ])j Pliny to a kind of Amaranth). (}rlohe 
Amaranth. Ord. A'inarantaceas. A large genus (about 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gomphrena — conlrnned. 
seventy species) of half-hardy, annual, biennial or 
perennial lierbs, abounding- in tropical America and 
Australia, one species being- widely dispersed through 
Asia and tropical Africa. Flower-heads g-enerally sessile 
and solitary at the tips of the branches. Leaves oppo- 
site, sessile or shortly-stalked, entire. The common 
g-lobe-flowered species is one .of the prettiest hardy 
plants g-rown. It is admirably adapted for the summer 
decoration of greenhouses and conservatories, forming a 
neat, erect-branched growth of about 2ft., and a pro- 
fusion of richly - coloured flower-heads. In order to 
retain the beauty of these for a considerable period, 
they should be cut prcA^ious to full maturity. For 
cultiire, see Celosia. 

G. globosa (i,dobe-flowered).* fl-heads various. July. I. pu- 
bescent, oblong, h. l\ft. India, 1714. Annual. See Fig. 125. 
(B. M. 2815,) Of tlie many varietie.s, nana is perhaps the 
prettiest, with flowers of a fine dark red ; it ravely exceeds 5in. 
in height, and is usually 7in. to Sin. in diameter. Other 
varieties are : alba, aiirea superha, carnea, Jsahellina, pur- 
pvrca, and .striata. 

G. perennis (perennial). jL-hraJs pale yellow, two-leaved ; 
flucets distinguished by a peculiar perianth. July to (_)etober. 
I. kmceolate. /(. 2ft. South America, 1732. (B. M. 2614.) 

G. pulchella (neat). Jl. -heads rosy, gliJxtse, smooth ; involucre 
manydeaved ; segments of staminous tube bicuspidate; peduncles 
elongated. July. I. lanceolate, h. Vjft. Brazil, 1843. Annual (?). 
(B. M. 4064.) 

GONATANTHUS (from gonu, gonatos, a knee, and 

antlios, a iiower ; referring to the bent spathe). Ord. 

Aroidece (Aracece). A distinct and interesting stove 

perennial, allied to Colocasia. For culture, see Cala- 


G. sarmentosus (twiggy). jJ. very fragrunt ; spathe rich golden- 
yellow, 6in. Inng, crane-neck shaped; spadix about Xm. in 
length. May. I. pale gi-een, marbled with a dark shade, very 
handsome. Jlinialaya. (B. M. 5275.) 

GONATOPUS. Included, by the authors of the 
''Genera Plautarum," under Zamioculcas (which see). 

GONGORA (named after D. Antonio C'abellero, of 
Gongora, once Viceroy of New Granada, and a zealous 
patron of Mutis). Including- Acro2:>era. Ord. OrcJiidece. 
A singular genus, comprising -more than a score species of 
ornamental, evergreen, stove epiphytal orchids, natives of 
tropical America. Flowers drooping, in racemes, some- 
times 2ft. long; lateral sepals free and spreading; upx)er 
one remote and connate with the column ; petals small, 
adnate to the middle of the column ; lip clawed, continuous 
with the base of the column. Leaves broadly lanceo- 
late, plaited, 1ft. or more long. Pseudo-bulbs oblong, 
two - leaved. Gongoras should be grown in baskets of 
peat and moss, and with the temperature of a cool end 
of the Cattleya house. A liberal supply of water, both 
to leaves and roots, may be applied during summer. 
During winter, little will be required, but the pseudo- 
bulbs must not be allowed to shrivel. This genua, 
although somewhat neglected of late, possesses several 
free-flowering and handsome species, of which the follow- 
ing are a selection : 

G. armeniaca (Apricot-coloured). _/?. rich yellow, slightly sjiotted 
with red ; raceme rather lax, twelve U> tweuty-Huwered, ]n.-ndu- 
Jous, 1ft. orniore long. Sunnner. I. twin, broail, ]ii;ht green, iir(.t- 
duced on the top of the oval p,sendo-bull)s. Nicaragua, 1850. 

G. atropurpurea (dark-purple). Jl. dark purjjlo, borne in great 
profusion ; racemes long. Suinuier. /. light green. Pseudo- 
bulhs ri)il>fil. Trinidad, 1824. An old but very pretty species, 
of c(,iiipar't grnwtli. (B- M. 3220.) 

G. bufonia major (large frog-like). Jl. elegantly vaiiegated 
witli puriile anil white. Brazil, 1857. This species mucli re- 
sembles G. airopatpurr.a. in lial)it, leaves, and pseudo-bulbs. 

G. Galeottiana (GahM-tti's). Jl. red, yellow. April. Mexico, 


G. maculata (spotted).*^ _//. yellow, spotted with rosy-red; 
racemes more than 1ft. long, pendulous. May. I. dark green. 
Pseudo-bulbs ribbed, h. b'ft. Demerara, 1832. (B. M. 3687.) 
There are, or were, numerous varieties of this species, one of 
the best being grand ijluiu, in which the flowers are pure white, 
with a few rosy spots on the lip, and the pseudo-bulbs more 
deeply ribbed than in the type. tJuiuna, 1836. 

Gon^^ora — continued. 
G. portentosa (monstrou.s). Jl. l.'dn. to 2in. long; sepals pale 

rtesli-ci.luured ; petals and lip speckled with small violet-purple 

spots ; raceme elongated, many-Howered. April. Ecuador, 1869. 

A pretty compact-growing species. (B. M. 6284.) 
G. speciosa (showy). A synonym of Coryanthcs sjjeciosa. 

GONIOPHBEBIUM. f^ee Polypodium. 

GONIOPTERIS. See Polypodium. 

GONOCAIiTX (from gonos, an angle, and calyx ; in 
allusion to the angled calyx). Ord. Vacciniaceoi. The 
only species of this genus is the one described below ; it 
is a charming cool-house bushy evergreen, from New 
Grenada, For culture, see Thibaudia. 

Fig. 124. Gonocat.yx ruLciiru. 

G. pulcher (beautiful), fl. deep bright red, white ; corolla tubu- 
lar. Spring. I. shortly stalked, nearly round, small, ohtuse. 
tinted with rose-pmple when y<.ung. bright green when old. See 

GONOIiOBUS (from gonia, an angle, and lohos, a 
pod ; in reference to one of the original species having 
costate-angled foUicles). Ord. Asdrpiadeo'. A o'onus 
containing about seventy species of stove, greenhouse or 
hardy, twining or prostrate, shrubs or sub-shrubs, natives 
of tropical and North America. Flowers dull or dark- 
coloured, in racemes or corymbs ; peduncles interpetiolar ; 
corolla rotate or reflexed, spreading; limb hve-parted. 
Leaves opposite, very often cordate. The greenhouse 
and stove species thrive, with ordinary treatment, in a 
compost of loam and peat. Cuttings will root readily 
in sand, under a glass. The hardy sorts require a light 
sandy soil, and a warm dryish situation ; and may be 
increased by divisions or by seeds. 


An Encyclopedia of Horticulture, 


G-OUolobllS — ro)(/r(LNe*/. 

G. carolinensis (Can.liiKi).'' jl purplish, umhelluty ; .segnients of 
ooiolla oval-oblonp:, hluniish. June and July. I. ovate-cordate, 
aennniiated, downy, on lungish petioles. Stem and petioles 
nairy. Carolina, 1824. Greenhouse deciduous. (S. B. F. G. 1.) 

G. Cundurango (Condor vine). Tlie correct name of this 
plant IS Marsdenia Cundurango (which a<v)- 

G. diadematus (iliademod). //. ;;reen ; en.wn at )inttnm of tulio. 
S..>pt..'nil»er and October. I. olilon^-, elliptical, lanccnlatc, cnrdati-. 
Muxico, 1812. Stove. (B. R. 252.)" 

G. ISBVis (smooth). /. jiTeen ; umbels many-Howered ; cmlla 
rather elonguted-conical in the bud, not twisted ; lobes nairnwiv 
or lineardancGoIate, olituse, ,y;lal)rnus inside. June. I. oblnn.v 
cordate, with a deep ami narrow but oju-n sinuw, cinspiciuiu.^ly 
acimiinate. Nortli America, 1806. Hardy hei'liacenus. 'I'hcre is 
avarn.'ty, vuirn>ph,ilhi,s, with ].ruadiy-c(.rdatc leaves, and with the 
rouudod basal lobes approximate or even overlapping. 

G. niger (black). Jl. black, or very dark purple ; racemes few- 
tiowered. Gctoljer. I. ovate-cordate, acute. Mexico, 1825. 
Stove evergreen. (B. M. 2799.) 

G. Obliquus (oblique). /. in umbels, sometimes cymosely cmii- 
pound or geminate ; corolla in the bud obloug-cmical ; lobes 
crimson-purple inside, dull or greenish ami minutely pubescent 
outside. Sunniier. I. from rounded to ovate-cordate, ^viLll a 
narruw sinus, ahruptly acuminate. North America, 1809. Ha.r<ly. 
Syn. Cjiiianchum dimolof (under whicJi name it is figured in 
B. M. 1273.) 

G. suberosus (sub-erose). Jl., umbels three to nine-flowered, 
mueb shorter tluin the petiole ; corolla broadly conical, and with 
abruiit ai uun'uation, twisted in the bud; lobes ovate, or be- 
coming triangular-lanceolate, acute, of tliickish and firm texture. 
Summer. I. cordate, with an open and shallow, or sonu-tlnies 
deeper and narrow, sinus, acunnuate, minutely pubescent, 
glabrate, or sometimes hairy. North America, 1732. Hardy. 
SVN. Cynanchtnn. snbcrvsuiii... 

GONOSTEMON. Included under Stapelia. 

GOODENIA (named in honour of Dr. Samuel Good- 
enougli 1713-18^7, Bishop of (Carlisle, author of a monograph 
of the genus Carex^ published in the " Linna^au Transac- 
tions "). Ord. Goodenoviem. A genus containing about 
seventy species of greenhouse herbs or sub-shrubs, rarely 
shrubs, limited to Australia. Flowers yellow, purplish, or 
blue ; peduncles either axillary or in terminal racemes or 
panicles. Leaves alternate or radical. Goodenias thrive in a 
compost of peat and loam. Propagated by cuttings, which 
root freely under a bell glass, during spring. The species 
described below are those usually seen in cultivation. 
G. grandiflora (large-Howered). Ji. yellow, more or less streaked 
\\ itlj purple, large ; corolla glabrous or slightly pubescent outside ; 
peduncles axillary, uue-tlcnvered. July. I. petiolate, from broadly 
o\ate to ovate-lanceolate, truncate or cordate at the base, toothed. 
/;. 3ft. to 4ft. 1805. Herbaceous. (B. M. 890 ; B. R. 18^5, 29.) 
G. laevigata (smooth). A synonym of Sccevola microcarpa. 
G. ovata (ovate). _//., corolla yellow, glabrous outside ; peduncles 
axillary, often two together or forked near the base, slender and 
often several-flowered. July. L petiolate, from ovate to broadly 
lanceolate, or the lower ones sometimes almost orbicular-cordate, 
denticulate, lin. to 2in. long. h. 2ft. to 4ft. An erect, glabrous, 
often somewhat viscid shrub or under-shrub. {A. B. K. 68.) 
G. stelligera (star-haired). Jl. yellow, sessile or nearly so, in 
clusters of two or three, the upper ones solitary, in a long, inter- 
rupted spike; corolla densely villous outside. June. L, radical 
ones linear, or slightly linear-acute, obtuse, rather thick, entire ; 
stem ones very few, and much shorter ; floral ones reduced to 
linear bracts. Stems erect, almost leafless, k. 1ft. to 1-^ft. 1823. 
G. tenella (tender). A synonym of ]'dleia trincrviS. 

GOODENOVIE.S;. A natural order of herbs, sub- 
shrubs, or rarely shrubs, the juice not milky. Flowers 
hermaphrodite, axillary or in terminal spikes, racemes, 
or panicles, the primary inflorescence centripetal, the 
secondary usually cymose and dichotomous; corolla 
yeUow, blue, or white, rarely red or purple. Leaves 
alternate or radical, very rarely irregularly opposite, 
entire, toothed, or rarely pinnatifid. The order is almost 
exclusively Australian, a few species only of one genus 
{Sccevola) being known from New Zealand, the Pacific 
Islands, and the coasts of tropical and sub-tropical 
Africa, Asia, and America ; and one of another genus 
{Calogyne), perhaps not different from an Australian 
one, extending to the coast of China. There are about 
twelve genera and two hundred species. Good examples 
are: Dampiera, Goodenia, LesclienoJiUia , Sc^wola, and 

Vol. II. 

GOODIA (named in honour of Peter Good, a bota- 
nical coUoctor, who was employed in collecting seeds 
in Australia, where he died). Ord. Leguminosw. A 
genus containing two species of ornamental greenhouse 
evergreen shrubs, natives of Australia. Flowers golden- 
yellow, like those of Lahurnum, but smaller ; calyx two- 
lipped, the lips not deeply divided ; stamens all united 
in a sheath. Leaves pinnate, trifoliolate ; leaflets en- 
tire. Goodias thrive in a compost of sandy peat and 
fibry loam. Propagated by seeds, -which usually ripen 
in abundance ; or by cuttings, made of the young 
shoots, during spring, and inserted in sand, under a iicll 
G. lotifolia (Lotus-leaveil).'* Jl. yellow, but with the base of the 

vexilium red. April to July. L, leaflets obovate, smooth, h. 2ft. 

to 4ft. 1753. (B. M. 953 ; L. B. C. 696.) 
G. puljescens (downy).* //. yellow, spotted with red. Suuuner. 

L, leatiets olMivately-cuneate([, pubescent. Branches and pe- 

dmicles rather hispid. /(. 1ft. to 3ft. 1805. (B. M. 1310.) 

GOOD KING HENRY. See Chenopodiuni 

GOODTERA (named in honour of John Goodyer, a 
British botanist, who assisted Johnson in his edition of 
"Gerard's Herbal"). Syns. Perainiu7n, Tassacia. Ord. 
Orchid-em. A genus of about twenty-five species of hardy, 
greenhouse, or stove terrestrial orchids, with flower-spikes 
issuing from the centre of the foliage, and thick, fleshy 
roots. Some species have their dark, velvet-like foliage 
marked like that of some Ancectochili. The greenhouse 
and stove sorts thrive best in small pots or shallow pans, 
in a compost of well-drained peat and sand, with a little 
loam ; and require a liberal supply of water when in a 
growing state. Propagated by cuttings, taken with a 
piece of root to each, inserted in similar soil to that 
already mentioned, and placed under a boll glass. The 
hardy sx:'ecies should be grown in a shady position, and 
in moist, peaty soil, with which soft sandstone may be 
incorporated. The best species is umloubtedly G. dif^- 

G. cordata (heart-shaped). Jl. yellowish-brown ; racemes usually 

severabliowered. September, l. few, oblong-acute, usually cor- 
date ;it the base. Stem upright. India, 1840. Stove. Syn. 

G. discolor (two-coloured).* ji. pure wbite, with a lemon-yellow 
blotch on the lip, which is curiously twisted or contorted ; sjjikes 
numerous, erect, about lOin. hiy,li, remaining a considerable time 
in perfection. \Vinter. I. Sin. lon^s lin. broad, rich dark velvety- 
green, ■with interrupted longitudinal white stripes, more or less 
distinct. South America, 1815. Greenhouse. (B. M. 2055.) 

G. Dominii (Dominy's). I. larger than those of G. discolor, with 
a dark, Itronzy, velvet-like appearance, and lightish longitudinal 
lines. A very handsome garden hybrid. Stove. 

G. macrantha (large-flowered).* Jl. pale rose, large, t^vo or three 
at the ends of the shoots. June. I. ovate, acute, bordered with 
yellow; central parts dark green, reticulated with pale gieen lines. 
Japan, 1867. This pretty plant is nearly hardy. Syn. G. picfa. 
(G. C. 1867, 1022.) 

G. picta (painted). A synonym of G. wacrcudha. 

G. pubescens (downy).^ Jl white. July. I. green, delicately 
veined A\ith silver. /(. 5in. North America, 1802. A very pretty 
little spei.ies, suitable for growing either in a cool house or pit, 
a cool fernery, or out of doors ; in the latter case, it thrives best 
when planted under evergreen shrubs, in deep shade, and in a 
compost of peat and leaf mould. Tlaere is a pretty form of 
this, minor (figured in B. M. 2540). 

G. repens (creeping), jl. white, with a sweet scent ; spike spiral, 
secund. July. I. ovate, dark, evergreen, h. 6in. Northern 
hemisphere (Britain). This species thrives well in a leaf mould, 
in deep shade. (8y. En. B. U75.) 

G. rubicunda (reddish). Ji. reddish. July. I. velvet-like, with 
three longitudinal bands of red down each leaf. Manilla, 1858. 
Stove. Syn. G. rubrovenia. 

G. rubrovenia (red-veined). A synonym of G. ruMcunda. 

G. Veitchii (Veitch's).* I. rich deep reddish-brown, with a few 
silver rifis. A vigorous hybrid between G. discolor and A'jiOiCto- 
cliilus Vniichii. Stove. 

G. velutina (velvety).* Jl. ^\"hite, sliaded with rose or salmon ; 
spike usually ten-flowered, terminal. I. ovate, acute, dee]:i velvety, 
purplish-green, with a well-defined white costa. Jajjan, 1867. 
A very pretty, nearly hardy plant. (E. G. 533.) 

GOORA NUT. See Cola acuminata. 



The Dictionary of Gardening, 

GOOSEBEKBY {Kibes). Ttie Gooseberry is a lianly 
deciduous shrub, native of various parts of Europe, in- 
cluding Britain, where it is eitlier indigenous or has been 
introduced at an early period, and become naturalised. 
Its cultivation is neglected in France, Italy, Spain, and 
Southern Europe, but is much practised in Britain, where 
the fruit has been highly esteemed since the time of 
Henry VIII., and is still one of the most popular grown. 
Plants, under favourable conditions, are recorded as 
having attained an age exceeding forty years. Two re- 
markable ones are stated to have been growing about the 
year 1821, against a wall in the garden of the late Sir 
Jo.seph Banks, at Overton Hall, each measuring upwards 
of 50ft. from one extremity of the branches to the other. 
Gooseberries succeed well in the North of England and 
Scotland, and the fruits attain a higher flavour in these 
parts, where the temperature is moderate and compara- 
tively cool, tlian in the hotter climate of the South, 
where they frequently become prematurely ripened by 
scorching sun and an insufficiency of moisture. In Lan- 
cashire, Chesliire, and neighbouring counties, the raising 
of Gooseberries has received special attention ; more, per- 
haps, by encouragement oif ered for very large fruits, than 
for their superior quality when ripe. These large-fruited 
varieties are, however, valuable in a green state for 
cooking, being sufEieiently grown for the pur])Ose before 
the smaller sorts, which are, as a rule, of the highest 
flavour when gradually and properly ripened. The crop 
is a valuable and usually remunerative one in the neigh- 
bourhood of large towns, where there is a demand for 
the fruit, both in a green and ripened state. It is one 
of the earliest in use for cooking, bottling, or preserving 
when green, and, when ripe, a selection of varieties and 
a cool aspect, will ensure a supply for dessert from an 
early season until late in the autumn. Although the 
bushes are quite hardy, the leaves and tender young 
fruits are very liable to destruction by late spring frosts, 
if these suddenly happen after a spell of mild wealhcr. 

Propagation may be readily effected by seeds, cuttings, 
layers, or suckers. The first method is only adopted 
with a view to raising new varieties, as none of those 
existing reproduce themselves true from seed ; neither will 
the product be restricted to fruit of the same colour as 
that from which the seeds were collected. If any are 
required, they should be washed from the ripe fruit, 
merely dried on sheets of paper, and then sown in the 
open ground, afterwards covering with about lin. of light 
sod. The young seedlings will be ready for transplanting 
the following autumn, and will usually require about 
three years' growth before fruiting. Propagation by cut- 
tings is the mode generally practised, and it is one that 
is tolerably certain, if the cuttings are healthy and 
properly put in. Strong, well-ripened shoots should be 
selected, and taken off, it possible, at their junction with 
the older wood. The tops will require shortening to 
make the cutting about 1ft. long, and all eyes must be 
carefully removed from the lower half before placing 
in the soil. Early autumn is the best time for this 
operation. An open piece of moist ground should be 
selected, and the cuttings inserted thickly in trenches 
4in. deep, the soil being then filled in and evenly trodden, 
and otlier lines cut out in a similar way, about 1ft. apart. 
Under this treatment, plenty of time is allowed the cut- 
tings to callus before spring, and good plants, ready for 
training in any form desired, will be available the follow- 
ing year. Layering is a certain method for increasing 
any variety in summer, by pegging the branches down, 
and covering them with some light soil. Largo branches, 
or merely their tops, may thus be sucecssfully rooted and 
removed to permanent positions the same season. Such 
plants are not so symmetrical as others raised from cut- 
tings; but the method is useful for tlio perpetuatioji of 
scarce varieties. Suckers have the disadvantage of con- 
tinually increasing themselves in a similar way from the 

Gooseberry- t:uiil iniird. 
base. They are objectionable on this account, as it is 
difficult to keep all the eyes removed from the part 
which is under ground. 

Cultivation, Site, ^r. The Gooseberry thrives in any 
good garden soil that is of a moist, rather than dry, cha- 
racter, and not sufficiently heavy to cake hard in dry 
weather. For growing specially fine fruit, a rich loamy 
soil, with plenty of decayed manure, should be prepared, 
and plenty of water supplied throughout the summer. 
An open situation is best for giving the highest flavour 
to ripe fruit ; but, if too much exposed to easterly or 
other cold winds in spring, there is a danger of much 
injury being caused to the crop thereby. In the hottest 
parts of the country, the bush form is the best for the 
open quarter, as the branches then help to shade each 

Fig. 125. Fruiting Br.sncii of Gooseberry. 

other, and protect the fruits that hang underneath (see 
Fig. 12.5) from scorching sunshine, which tends to pre- 
maturely ripen them. For an autumn supply for dessert, 
late varieties should be planted in a north border, or 
trained on a wall with that aspect, and protected from 
birds. Such plants are, as a rule, more likely to escape 
injury from spring frosts, as early growth is not encou- 
raged, on account of the absence of sun on the plants. 
In planting bush trees in the open quarter, a distance 
of about 6ft. apart should be allowed, and the plants in 
each line placed opposite the angles formed liy those in 
the preceding one. The intervening space may at first 
be partly occupied by some other crop untU the Goose- 
berries are established. The latter should have the soil 
removed a little with a fork each autumn, and a dressing 
of manure applied round the stems. In the more northern 
parts of the country, a southern aspect, with exposure 
to sunshine, is most suitable, such as a position afl'orded 
by planting and training the trees thinly as espaliers. A 
number of sorts are naturally of a pendent habit, and 
are, consequently, best adapted for growing in the bush 
form. In districts like Lancashire, where very largo 
fruits are grown, a special system of culture is adopted 
to attain that end, by planting in prepared soil, watering 
the roots, and placing, for a supply of moisture, saucers 
full of water under the limited number of fruits retained 
after severe thinning-out has been practised. This is 
only a means adopted for special purposes, to obtain 
large specimens, and it is generally conducted at the 
expense of high flavour. Where there is a prodigious 
crop, it is advisable, so soon as safety from frost is in- 
sured, to thin out some for use in the younger stages. 

Pruning and Training. Gooseberries required for 
bushes in an open quarter should have a clear stem above 

An Encyclopaedia of Horticulture. 


Gooseberry — continued. 
grouiul of about Gin., to admit of the soil boinn; boed and 
forked uiiderneatli. If, on replantiiif^ tlio tii-st year after 
insertinj;i: tlie cntting-s, three shoots can be obtained at 
this heiglit, tlioy should be shortened to three or four 
eyes each. The following- sunimev, two new shoots shonhl 
be secured from each, and the laterals ke]it stopped for 
forming spurs, the main branches being- cut back to about 
1ft. the next autumn, and these, in due conrsc, allowed 
two more each ; this bein^ sufficient to form, if evenly 
regulated, what is considered a perfect tree. Some of 
the pendulous varieties require propping with forked 
sticks, to keep the branches and fruit oif the ground; 
others, of an erect, vigorous habit, may require tying 
down. In the annual pruning of established trees, the 
spurs should be preserved, and strong, well-ripened shoots 
of the previous summer retained, so far as ]U'acticable, 
to replace old wood, which does not bear fine fruit. Al- 
though plenty of room must be allowed each branch 
for tlic admission of light and air, it is not well to have 
them too thin in southern localities, on account of tlie 
shade from sunshine afforded the fruit by the leaves. 
When planted to cover north walls, the fan system of 
training may be adopted, and part of the old wood 
annually replaced; or the plants may be inserted, when 
youug, 3ft. apart, and three shoots conducted from each 
at equal distances perpendicularly, afterwards pruning, in 
summer, with a view to limiting the production of fruit 
from spurs. Gooseberries succeed well in such a position ; 
and if dessert varieties of good constitution are planted, 
and the necessary protection from birds, &c., is afforded, a 
supply may be secured much later than from the open 

I'lisects, tfc. The Gooseberry suffers severely from the 
ravag'cs of several destructive insects, which feed on the 
leaves so far as to entirely defoliate the trees. The 
principal depredators are the caterpillars of the Magpie 
Moth [Abraxas tfrossidariata) and of 1' Vanaria, 
and the larva3 of the Gooseberry and Currant Sawfly 
[Nematus Ribetiii). Hand-picking, persistently practised 
from the first appearance of the insects, is the most 
certain cure ; but this is almost impossible in extensive 
collections. Bushes situated near much-frequented walks, 
or placed under protection from birds, have been observed 
to become more infested than others fully exposed. This 
infers that birds of some sort, although it is doubtful 
which, either eat the insects or carry them away to feed 
their young. Cuckoos are considered special friends for 
this purpose ; and sparrows, sparrow-hawks, and tomtits, 
have also been observed to visit the bushes frequently 
when infested with caterpillars; but whether for eating 
them or not, is somewhat uncertain. Lightly syringing 
the bushes, in the evening, with water, and then dusting 
with lime or flowers of sulphur, also scattering some of 
each and some soot round the plants, are means usually 
adopted as remedies. As most of these insects undergo 
their transformation in a young state, on or beneath the 
ground, various methods for destroying them there have 
been recommended, such as occasionally dusting with 
newly-slaked lime or Hellebore powder; or covering 
the soil, in spring, to a depth of oin., with fresh tan. 
Great destruction is frequently caused to Gooseberries 
in some localities by birds, particularly bullfinches, pick- 
ing out the buds in spring, and also devouring the fruit 
when ripe. A limited number of trees may be covered 
with netting : but, in a large collection, it is difficult to 
stop these attacks, when once begun. 

Sorts. Gooseberries are divided into classes that are 
distinguished from each other by the colour of the fruits 
and the absence or presence of hairs on the skins. 
Varieties in each colour are very numerous, many of the 
smaller fruits being of the highest flavour, while the 
larger ones are fit for cooking earlier in the season. 
Those having red skins are variable in flavour, a large 

Gooseberry — continued. 
quantity being more or loss acid. On account of their 
late-keeping properties, the best red sorts are most 
valuable for dessei't fruit in autumn, after the majority 
of the others are pa'^t. The highest flavour is attained 
in the amber anil yellow varieties, which are very 
tender in the .skin, and mostly early in ripening. Many 
of the green ones are large, and contain but little imlp 
in proportion. Others of the same colour qtc small, 
but remarkably thin-skinned and rich in flavour when 
ripe. Amongst wdiite sorts, there are several of good 
quality, but they are not so generally cultivated as the 
others. Su];)joined is a selection from tije lea<ling 
varieties in each class. Those marked p, are spi'cialiy 
recommended for flavour ; and others marked s, for size. 

Class I, Fruit with Red Skin. 

Conquering Hero (s). Fniildark red, very loirs and larffe, a 

littli_^ liaii-.V. JliiinrlH.'s sU'inIcf, lar^e, and spreadin.i;'. 
Crown Bob. Fruit brijiht wA, uf good flavour, ruunilish-ohlon,!,', 

liairy. Uriinflius pcnduluns. 
Dan's Mistake (s). Fruit li^lit red, very lar^^-e, liairy. llrani^hes 

.strony, erect. Usefnl variety for exhibiti(»n. 
Dr. Hogg (!■■). Fruit ])urplish-red, long, Ijvoad, dnwny. F.rat.ches 

short-juinttd, erect, vignroiis. 
Henson's Seedling. I'^ruit deep red, medium, of good flavour, 

vtry hairy ; ]at^^ Jii'anrlies erect. An abundant bearer. 
Ironmonger (!■■)■ Fruit dark red, small, hairy. Branches 

spreading. Often cnnfoinuled with, liut inferior to, Red ('liani- 

paguc. SvN. Hairy iJlaclc. 
Keen's Seedling (r). I-'ruit bright red, medium, oblong, very 

hairy ; earh'. ilranches pendulous. Great bearer. 
Lion's Provider. Fruit light red, long, a little hairy. Erauclic^ 

long, slender, erect- 
London (s). Kruit dark red, very large, rountlish-nvate, smooth. 

liranches pendulous. A rather tender and uncertain bearer, lint 

the largest gooseberry knnwn. 
Miss Bold (lO- Fruit light red, niediuro, very downy ; early. 

Branches spi'eading. 
Monarcli. Fruit deep reil, very large, oblong, hairy. Branches 

strung, erect. A good bearer. 
Plough Boy. Friut light red, shaded yellow, very long, smooth ; 

late. Branches slender, spreading. 
Raspberry (!■)■ Fruit dark red, small, liairy ; early. Branches 

spreading, penduhuis. 
Red Champagne (f)- Fruit light reil, .small, ronnilisli-dblong, 

hair}. Brandies very erect. A good bearer. Sv.NS. (.'onntcss of 

]''rr)d and Ironniojiger uf hcotlaud. 
Red Turkey, l-'niit ilark red, small, obovate, smooth ; late. 

Branches .solue\\liat erect. 
Red Warrington (i-'). Fruit red, ronndish-oblong, hairy; late, 

hangs well in autuuni. Brandies pendulou.s. One uf the best I'lir 

general cultivation. Sv>;s. Aston Seedling, Volunteer. 

Rifleman. Fruit red, very large, roundish, hairy. Branches 

erect. A goml ))earer. 
Rough Red (i')- Fruit dark red, .small, very hairy; early 

Brandies upright, sjireading. 
Wilmot's Early Red. Bruit dark red, large, smooth. Brandies 

Wonderful (s). l-'ruit purplish-red, very large, smooth. BrLuicIies 

short-jointed, stiff, very tender in spring. 

Class II. Fruit with Yellow Skin. 

Broom Girl {v). Fruit large, with long stalk ; skin dark yellow, 
hairy ; early and tirat rate. Branches strong, erect. 

Catherina (s). Fruit yellow, very large, obovate, slightly hairy. 
Branches slender, spreading. 

Criterion. Fruit greenish - yellow, medium, a little hairy. 
Branches spreading, pendulous. 

Drill (s). Fruit gi-eenish-yellow, large, long, smooth ; late. 
Branches spreading. 

Early Sulphur (f). Fruit bright yellow, medium, very hairy; 
early and abundant. Leaves pubescent above. Branches erect. 

Fanny. Fruit pale yellow, large, round, hairy. Branches erect. 

Garihaldi (s). Fruit pale yellow, large, long ; skin hairy. 
Branches spreading, pendulous. 

Gipsy Queen (f). Fruit pale yellow, large, smooth; eaily. 
Branches slender, pendulous. 

High Sheriff. Fruit deep yellow, large, round, very hairy. 
Branches spreading, pendulous. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gooseberry -- roni iimed. 

Leader 0-). Kiuit^rft-mish-yellow, mecliinn, of ricli flavrmr, smooth : 

eiirly. Br;Liiclins spri'iuiiii.i;-. 
Leveller (s). !''niit ii;-VL;t!in.sli- yellow, very l;n',i;e, loti^-, siiinotli. 

Jjraiiclies siirHaiUng. An excellent bearer. 
Lord RancliflFe. Fruit pale yollmv, mediuin, nmnil, liaiiy. 

JJi-anclies straiiilit, spreading. 
Moreton Hero (i-'X Fruit pale yellow, large, oval, sniuotli ; skin 

tliiii. Ilranches free, spreading. 
Mount Pleasant (s). Frnit deep yellow, lon.i^f, hairy; late. 

liranclies \iL,forous, spreading. 
Peru (s). Fruit pale yellow, large, tapering, sliglitly hah-y. 

Ilraurlirs .sprrailiug, pendulous. 
Rumbullion. Fruit pale yellow, small, very downy; early; 

uiueli cultivatf'il for bottling. Branches erect. 
Smiling Beauty (i-O- Fruit yellowish-\\iiite, large, ohhnig, 

quite suiootli; (-arly. Branches pendulous. 
Sulphur. I''ruit yellow, small, roundish, hairy, and of gndd 

HaVMiir ; rating- late. Branches erect. SVN. Rougli Vi-llow. 
Yellow Ball (f). Frnit yellow, medium, thick-skinned, smooth. 

IJraucln.'s erect. 
Yellow Champagne (k). Fruit .small, of rich flavour, hairy ; 

lat(^ BrancliHs t-rcct. One of the best yellows. SVN. Hairy 


Class III. Fruit Trith Green Skin. 
Glenton Green (f). Fniit medium, oblong, with very hairy, thick 

skin. Leaves pul)escent above. Branches peuilulons. 
Green Gascoigne (i). Frnit deep green, small, round, liairy ; 

earl>'. I'>i-anchr.s erect. Fi'ee bearer. 

Green London (s). Fi-uit bright green, medium, smooth. 

Branches short-jointed, spreading. 
Green Overall (i')- Fruit dark green, of good flavour, medium 

size, sTuoiitli. Branches spreading. An excellent variety. 

Green River. Fruit deep green, smootli, medium, oval. 

Branches spreading. 
Green Walnut (i ). Fruit dark green, smooth, medium, obovate , 
skin tliiii ; early. Branches long, spreading, Svi\s. Nonpareil, 

SuiM'itli ( .'reeli. 

Gregory's Perfection. Fruit green , downy, large, round. 

Bran-'lii's peinhilniis, {.;ood late variety. 
Heart of Oak (t-). Fruit smooth, large, oblong ; skin green, 

with yellowisli veins ; footstalk thick, tapering iiito the fruit. 

Eramdies jiendulous. 
Hebburn Prolific ( lO. Fruit medium, roundish, hairy, ['.ranches 

erect. An early and a)inudant bearer. 
Jolly Anglers. Fiaiit large, oblong, of good nualitv, downy; 

late. Jiranches erect. " ... 

Keepsake. I'Vuit green, large, smooth, sometimes a little hairy ; 

ripens early. Jhanclies vigorruis, pendulous. 
Laurel, l-'ruit jiale green, downy, large, obovate ; late. Branches 

erect. An aliundant bearer. Syn. Green Lanrel. 
Lord Eldon (\-). Fruit dark green, smooth, rouml, very rich 

Havoiir ; early. BraniOies slender, spreading. 
Pitmaston Greengage (f). Fruit small, obovate, smooth, of 

rich flavour; bangs well. Branches erect. 

Random Green (i'). -Frnit deep green, smooth, large, of good 
flavour. I;ran(^hes spreading. A good bearer. 

Roseberry (i-). Fruit large, round; skin dark-green, smooth. 

Branches vigorous, erect. A very productive and good variety. 

Shiner (s). Fruit very large, round, smooth, one of tlie largest 
gdoseheiiies grown. Branches spreading. 

Stockw^ell. I''rnit bright green, long, smooth. Branches slender, 

Telegraph Cs). Fruit large, long, .smooth; late. Branches short- 
jointed, spreading. 

Thumper (s). I'mit large, flat-sided, smootli, of good flavour; 
late, ilranches pendulous. 

Thunder (i'). l-'ruit large, roundish, hairy, of excellent flavour; 
early. Brantdies short-jointed, erect. 

Class IV. Fruit with White Skin. 

Abraham Newland (\-)- Fruit white, large, oblong, slightly 

liairy, rieh-ilavoiircfl ; late. Branches erect. 
Adams's Snowball. Frnit medium, roundish ; skin hairy. 

Jiranrhi/s pendulous. 

Antagonist (s). Fruit creamy-white, very large, long, hairy, of 

gooil flavour. Jiranches spreading. A heavy "cropper, and the 

largest white gooseberry grown. 
Bright Venus (f). Fruit medium, obovate, slightly hairy; 

hangs W(dl. branches erect. 
Careless (h). Fruit creamy-white, large ami long, smooth, very 

handsome. Branches slender, spreading. An abundant bearer. 
Cheshire Lass. Frnit large, oblong, flowny, of rich sweet flavour. 

Branches erect. Very early, and a good hearer. 

Gooseberry — ro'iiUniied. 
Crystal (p). Frnit small, roundish, smooth. Branches spreading, 

pendulous. A valuable late variety. 
Early White (i-)- Fruit roundish-oblong, downy, of rich flavour ; 

skin thin ; very early. Branches spreading. 
Hero of the Nile (s). Fruit greenish-white, large, smooth. 

Branches spreading. 
King of Trumps (i')- Fruit roundish-ol">long, slightly hairy, 

of good flavour. Braiudies slender, spreading. 
Lady Leicester (s). Fruit large ; skin whitish, with green veins, 

hairy ; early. Branches spreading. 
Mayor of Oldham (f)- I'ruit greeni^h-white, round, smooth, of 

excellent flavour. Branches spreading. 
Princess Royal. Fruit large, obovate, hairy, of good flavour 

Branches pendulous. A good bearer. 
Queen of Trumps (s). Fruit long, flat-sided, smooth, large, 

and of excellent flavour. Branches vigorous, spreading. 
Royal White. Fruit small, round, slightly hairy. Branches 

Snowdrop (k). Fruit very large, roundish, of excellent flavour; 

skin white, with broad green veins, hairy. Branches .slender, 

spreading. One of the best grown. 
White Champagne (f). Fruit small, roundish, sweet and rich, 

hairy. Leaves pubescent above. Branches erect. 

White Fig. Frnit small, obovate, smooth ; will hang till it shrivels 

Branches erect. 
White Lion. Fruit large, obovate, slightly hairy, rich flavour 

Branches pendulous. Very late variety 
Woodward's Whitesmith (f). Fruit white, downy, large, 
roundish-oldong, of excellent flavour. Branches erect. Rather 
early, an almndant liearei, and one of the best in r-uUivation. 
SvNS. Hall's Seedling, Lancashii'e Lass, Sir Sidney Smith, Ac. 


{Nematus Rihei^ii}. This is a well-known enemy to the 
gardener, from the damage the larvsB do to Gooseberry 
and Currant bushes, completely strix:iping them of their 
leaves. The eggs nxe laid in spring, on the under side 
of the newly-expanded leaves, and are hatched in a few 
days. The caterpillars are of a peculiar bluish-green 
colour, with black spots on the segments and yellow 
markings by the head and tail. They have as many as 
twenty legs. When full grown, they descend into the 
earth, and either at once assume the chrysalid state, and 
thence become perfect flies, or else hibernate till the fol- 
lowing spring, before making their final changes. The 
following are a few of the remedies given for the exter- 
mination of the post r 

Tobacco Pvirilrr. This, dredged over the bushes, at 
night and early in the morning, will dislodge the worms. 
and they can be tvoihlen on or pticked up by hand and 

Soot and Lime. Equal parts of dry soot and air- 
slaked lime, mixed together, and dusted over the foliage 
whilst in a damp state, and when the caterpillars are 
small, will help to keep the plants clear. When the leaves 
are fallen, they should be raked together and removed 
or burnt. A good dressing of soot and lime must then 
be applied to the ground, which should not be dry at 
the time, and the same operation should be repeated in 

Hellebore. Freshly-ground White Hellebore, dusted 
over the trees while the foliage is damp, is a certain 
exterminator of the caterpillars. The following recipe is 
equally efllcacious : Dissolve lib. of size in a gallon or 
two of hot water, and to this add lib. of Hellebore 
powder. When the water becomes nearly cold, mix 
thoroughly, and add enough eold water to make about 
sixteen gallons. Apply with a water-pot or syringe. At 
the end of a week, thoroughly wash off with clean water, 
as the powder is imisoiKuis. 

(irossulariata). This comnnin and familiar moth (see 
(Fig. 126) is often mistaken for a butterfly. It usually 
appears about the middle of summer, and continues 
until autumn. Its wings have a white background, 
with numerous patches of black, varying much in size. 
At the base of the forewings is a yellow patch, and 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gooseberry or Magpie Moth — contimied. 
near the middle a baud of yellow, between two rowR 
of black spots. The oolouring- is, however, very vari- 
able. In the niale, the antoiiiuo are very slightly 
feathered, while in the female tliey are thread-like. 
The female deposits her egg-s singly on the leaves of 
Gooseberry or Black Cnrrant bushes, generally towards 
evening ; and the fact that the eggs are so thoroughly 
distributed by the moth, sufficiently explains, apart 
from its mere fecundity, how the caterpillars are so 
difficult to eradicate. The eggs soon hatch, and the 
larvoe feed for from two to three weeks, and then lie 
secure within the folds of Goosolierry or Currant leaves, 
and pass a sort of torpid state of existence. When the 

Fin. 126. Gooseberry or iM-\gpie Moth. 

winter is past, the caterpillar emerges from its tem- 
porary lodging, and again sets about the process of 
eating. The grub, when full grown, is white and orange, 
with some conspicuous black bands at each joint. The 
chrysalis is of a black colour, having a few orange rings 
round the segments of the body. The caterpillars of 
this pretty moth are exceedingly destructive, and will 
soon defoliate a very large space, especially if the trees 
are on walls. Hand-Yiicking is very practicable, the ca- 
terpillars being conspicuous. Toads and birds will also 
take thera ; but damage will be ]trevented by seasonable 
precautions. For remedies, see Gooseberry and Cur- 
rant Sawfly. 

GOOSE FOOT. A common name of Chenopodium 
[which see). 

GORDONIA (named in honour of Alexander Gordon, a 
nurserynnm contemporary with Philip Miller). Including 
Polyspora. OnD. Ternslreemiaceai. A genus comprising 
ten species of greenhouse or hardy trees, natives of North 
America, and of tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Flowers 
often showy ; peduncles solitary, one-flowered. Leaves 
evergreen, entire or erenate. The hardy species are very 
hand'some, and deserve careful culture ; they thrive in a 
moist peat, or leaf mould and sand. The greenhonse 
species succeed in a similar compost, with ordinary treat- 
ment. Propagated by layers, or by imported seeds. 
G. anomala (anomalous).* Jl. crermi-coloured sessile, solitary, 

usually axillary. November. J- "^'''\^^ff ''''?' .^Yf}^mfi 
upper ..nes entire, h. 3ft. Tropical and sul.-tvopical Asia, 1816. 
( ireeiihnuse. (B. M. 4019, under name of Pubisjmra axillaris. ) 

G erandis (great). II. white, large ; corymbs few-Howered, ter- 
minal 1880.' A very liaudsoine greenhouse species, with leaves 
somewhat like those of the Cherry Laurel. 

G javanica (Javan). A synonym of Hchima Noronhm. 

o'lasianthus (hairy-flowered).* Ji. white, «n.', fragr.ant ; 
nedicels axhUirv. Julv aiul August. (, oblong, smooth, seriated, 
coriaceo.;^ A- 8ft to'lOft. (in linglaud). North America, 1739. 
Hardy. (B. M. 668.) ., , . 

G DUbescens (downy).* Jl. white, with yellow filaiiients fragrant 
almost se^^ile, 3in. acn«s; petals and sepals rather silky on the 
SSe August. (. obovate-lanceolate, pul.eseeut beneath 
?omewhat seirated, membranous, h. 4ft. to 6ft. (in Knglaud). 
North America, 1774. Hardy. 

GORSE. See TTlex europaius. 

GOSSTPITJM (the Latin name used by Pliny). 
Cotton Plant. Ord. Malvaee.e. A small genus (com- 
prisino- three species) of stove perennial herbs or shrubs. 

Gossypium — r,niliniied. 
Flowers yellow or purple, usually large and showy: calyx 
truncate or shortly Kve-fid. Fruit a three or five-ceUud 
capsule, bursting when ripe, and exposing the numerous 
seeds covered with down. Leaves three to nine-lobcd, or 
rarely entire. Gossypiums thrive in a light rich soil. 
Propagated by seeds, sown in moist heat, in spring. The 
seedlings, when large enough to handle, should be filanted 
singly in small pots, and transferred to larger ones as 
required. This genus is one of the most important of 
the whole vegetable kingdom, yielding, as it does, the 
well-known cotton of commerce. 

G- Bahma (Bahma). This differs from other Cnttons in its larger 
size, and its erect, .almost uuluMiirlied hal)it. .More cottun, too, 
is produced Ity it. (liighiateil in I'X^vpt, se\'eral years age; said 
to lit- a Iiv1)ri(l between I'^gyptiau Cuttun and Jlil'tscii^ e.sciUnitns, 
((!. C. U.S., vii. 561.) 

G. barbadense (Barbadoes). /. yellow, with a piirjile spot at 
the base of each ]>ctal, finally turning reddisli, large. Septeiulier. 
L, upper nnes three-lotted; lower ones tive-lnlH-d. Stem sninoth. 
h. 5ft. Barl.adues, 1759. (B. R. i. 84.) 

G. herbaceum (liertiaceens). JI. yellow, with a purple spot on 
the claw of eiicli Jietal. .Tuly. /. tivc-lohed ; lobes rounded, 
nnicr.inide. Ii. 3ft, t.> 41t. East Indies, 1594. 

GOUANIA (named in honour of Anthony Gouan, 
1733-1S21, Profess(u- of Botany at Montpelier). Stn. Re- 
tinaria. Obd. Rhamaeie. A genus containing about 
thirty species of usually evergreen stove scandent shrubs, 
of botanical interest only. They are natives of the 
forests of troxncal America, Asia, and Africa. Flowers 
small, usually produced in clusters along leafless branches, 
forming slender spikes. Leaves alternate, petiolate, with 
veins running straight from the midrib to the margin. 
The species require a compost of peat and loam. 
Cuttings will root freely if inserted in sand, under a 
glass, in heat. The most interesting species of the 
genus is I), dvnu lujensis, the Chaw-stick of Jamaica. 

GOURDS (C'ucurhita). The species and varieties of 
Gourds are very numerous, and, as they readily cross- 
hyinddise when growing near each other, it is somewhat 
difficult to keep the sorts distinct without having them 
isolated. Some have fruits highly coloured and very 
ornamental, and others produce them of an enormous 
size. From investigations made by M. Naudin, in 
France, where Gourds are more largely cultivated than 
here, the edible varieties have been referred to three 
species of Oticiirhita, namely, C. maxima, C. mosrhata, 
and G. Pepo. The includes the varieties 
with nnfurrowed stalks and large broad leaves, such as 
the Large Yellow and Turk's Cap Gourds. Varieties 
with slightly-furrowed stalks, much enlarged near the 
fruit, deeply-lobed leaves, and rough seeds, are referred 
to the second species. C Pepo comprises all the 
varieties with slender, deeply-furrowed stalks and deeply- 
lobed leaves with rough hairs ; these include the Vege- 
table Marrow, Custard, Crookneck, and Orange Gourds. 
With the exception of the Vegetable Marrows, Gourds 
are cultivated in this country more as curiosities than 
for the value of their fruits for eating. Where the 
fruits of the I'ery large sorts can be ripened before 
frost sets in, they may be cut, suspended in a dry, 
airy place, and kept for several months. The flesh is 
usually scooped or out out, after being kept some time, 
and used in soups and stews, or baked, either alone or 
with apples, in pies. The fruits may also be cooked as 
a vegetable when young. All the plants are annuals, 
and hardy enough to succeed outside, in warm positions, 
from May until autumn. Many of them are vigorous- 
growing trailing subjects, that may be utilised — par- 
ticularly the ornamental ones — for covering bare walls, 
hedges, unsightly fences, &c. Seeds shoukl be sown in 
a gentle heat, in April, and the young plants afterwards 
grown on and hardened before being placed outside, 
about the end of May. Protection should then be 
afforded by handlights, until danger of frost is past, 
and the plants have become established. All the sorts 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gourds — continued. 
require a rich soil, wliicli should be placed above a large 
heap of manure ; and any quantity of water may be 
applied to the rootR in summer. 

Sorts. The following: are amongst the best in the 
sections representing large-frnited kinds and those of 
an ornamental character. The Apple, Pear, and Lemon 
Gourds are varieties having fruits more or less resembling 
those after which they are popularly named. Various 
ornamental 'CucurhitacecG not belonging to the genus 
Chu-}' rhita^ will be found under their proper headings. 
See ,ihu Vegetable Marrow. 

Boulogne Grey. Fruit lari;e ; rind deep oHve-green, towards 
maturity covt-red w itii a fine network of greyish lines ; flesh 
yellow, thick ;ind Htniry. Aic< Tiling to Vilmorin, this was raised 
only a few yeiirs ngu, at Houlngne-siir-Seine, but it is now widely 
grown, and is uiiicli esteemed by tlie market gardeners about 
Fa I is. 

Chestnut Gourd. Fruit medium or small, depressed ; ribs indis- 
tinct or altogt'tliiT absent; rind snim.tli, deep brick-red; flesh 
deep yellnw, very thick, sugary and Hdury. An excellent variety, 
of vigorous babit. Sin. Cnrfu (inurd. 

Fin. 127. CitowN or Ccstaud Gourd. 

Crown Gourd, or Custard Marrow. Fruit scolloped at the 

edge, produced close to the .stem. Plant compact ; does not run 
on the ground. See Mg. 127. 

:-^ \ \\St I'f, 

Fic. 128. LAKnic Vi:i:i,o\v (.Inrito, 

Egg-shaped. Fruit 

redilisli colour. A free 

, -w itli a liard skin, of a 
'-bearing, vigorous, trailing 

Embroidered Warted. Fruit small, with yel- 
low flesh; skin beautiful yellow, covered with 
large excrescences. An exceedingly ornamental 
variety, but rather tender. 

Green-Striped Bergen. Fruit dark green and 
white .stripcMl, small. <tf comjiact vigorous habit. 
Much cultivated in Anierir-a. 

Hubhard Squash. Frnit pointeil, suddenly 
narrowed into the stalk; rind deep green, som*^- 
times marbled witli liri<'-k-rod ; very )uird and 
thick, fle.'sh deep yellow, very floury, not very 
sugary, and somewhat dry. lu tlie TInited States, 
this is regarded as a variety of excellent quality. 
It is a good keeper. Habit vigorous. 


Large White. Fruit cream-coloured, very large with a smooth 
rind, more spherical than the Large Yellow. A very distinct 
variety. It is the Potiron hlaiic (jros of the French. 

Large Yellow. Flesh deep yellow. Stems very thick, running 
to a great length along the gTound. The fruit is used in a ripe 
state, and has been grown to a weight exceeding 2001b. Syn. 
Mammoth Pumpkin. See Fig. 128. In the United States, a 
variety with a tiner rind, but otherwise much resembling this, is 
cultivated under the name of Connecticut Field Pum]ikin. 

Fig. 129. Naples Gourd. 

Naples Gourd. Fruit large, sometimes l.;;,ft. long; rinrl a deep 
green, turning yellow when thoronglily ripe, smooth ; flesh 
perfumed, orange-yellow, sugary. A very productive variety. 
SYN. African Gourd. See Fig. 129. 

Fi(. 130 NuiMro (.oi ivH oi Mvusnircs 

Nutmeg Gourd of Marseilles. Fruit nearly spherical in 

sliape, flesh very red and highly musk-scented. See Fig. 130. 
Ohio Squash. A tine-Ha\'oured, heavy variety, that keeps well 

when rijie. 

Olive Gourd. Fruit the form ami colour of an unripe olive; 
rind thin, quite smooth ; flesh yellow, Hrm, alnindaiit. A strong 

Orange. Fruit resembling an orange in size, form, ai.d colour. 

Bears abundantly, and is very ornamental. 
Patagonian, Fruit large, oblong, sometimes tapering to each 

end; Hesh yellow; .skin deep green, frequently riblied. Keens 

well. See Fig. 131. 

Red Etampes. b'ruit meilium-sized, prominently rilibed ; rind 
l)riglit orange-yellow, iiabit of plant like tlie Large Yellow, but 
foliage paler in colour. This variety is one of the most popular 
amongst the growers who supply the Paris markets. 

Spanish. Fruit green, flat, of medium size, Arm, and of good 

Fiii. 131. Pat,\(;onman Tionun. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gourds — continued. 

Summer Crookncck. Fruit Itri^lit yellow, small, \M'tli wurty 
excrcscL'iiCL's tm tin; .surface. Plant comiiaet, dncs not run. 

Fig. 132. TuiiK's (.'ai' (Id 

Turk's Cap. Fruit palu i^Teen, Hat, with nmn.k'.l niariiin ; rentre 
elevateil, of ;i ileej. i^ruen, marbled wliitu and y(>]|o\v ; n'u'diinu- 
sized, tirni Hesli, An oruaniuntal variety. SVN. Turltan'i'umnkiu 
See Fig. 132. ' 

Valparaiso. Fruit oldong-, citron-slia]ted, sornotimos I'.ft. lon^- 
liy 1ft. in diameter in its widest part ; ovanue-vellow,' sugary'; 
rind greyish-wlnte, covered witli a tine ndwiirk'when ripe. A 
stnutM i^iduer, .stems attaining a length of 4yds. nv 6yds. 

Winter Crookneck. Fruit pale yellow, solid, with long neck. 
A rinuier variety, and an aluimlant liearer. Much i;rown in 

Yokohama Gourd. Knn't tlattened, generally twic- as iimad 
as long, irregularlv ridhed, very ilark, aluioU black, green 
{CllcurOiia )nd<ntivj"r,nis, K. H. ISSO, 157, 451.) 

GOVENIA (named after J. E.. Gowcii, Esq., the raiser 
of isome tine liybrid Rhododendrons, Ac). Oi-^d. Orchidem. 
A genus containing' about sixteen species of stove ter- 
restrial orchids, natives of tropical America. Flowers 
usually wliito or cream-coloured, but in some yellow, with 
or without blood-red spots ; sepals and petals free, of 
nearly equal leng-th ; lip much shorter, without spur, 
entire, and jointed to the ba>--e of tbc (M)Iunin. About 
seven species luxve been cultivated; but. in all proba- 
bility, those described below are tlic only ones now to 
be met with. For cxilture, see Bletia. 

G. Andrieuy.ii (Andrieux's). //. yellouish, wliite at liase ; lip 
wliite, spotted purplish-red in front, above yellow, barred \\ith 
brown. -Mi'xicu, 1384. 

G. deliciosa (delicious). //. white, marked with small i"iurj>!e 
bars in.side ; lip nearly elliptic, apiiadate, \\ ith dark liruwn situts 
in front. .Mexico, 1884. 

G. Gardner! (rbirdner's).^" fl: white, sjiotted, refracted after 
tlnwering ; raceme elongated ; sepals and petals ovate, bluntish ; 
lip ovate, acute, naked, marked with five marginal spots and two 
convergent convex lines in middle; scajie Iduutly tetragonal, 
sheathed in miildle. /;. 2ft. Brazil, 1837. (CM. 5660.) 

G. utriculata (bladdery), fi. white ; racemes elongated, niany- 
tlowered ; sepals and petals curved, acuminated; lip oblong, 
ovate, acute. Septemlier. /. twin, broad-oblong, plicate, 
Pseudo-bulbs ovate, inclosed in a large, membranous, obhjng- 
pellucid, striated, sheath. ]>.. 1 U't. Jamaica, 1843. (B. M. 4151.) 

GRABOWSKIA (named in honour of Mr. H. Gra- 
bowsky, an apothecary, anil a botanical author, of Ohlaf, 
in Silesia, 1702-1842), Oed. Solanacecr. A genus con- 
taining four or five species of hardy or half-hardy shrubs, 
natives of extra-tropical South America. Flowers pale 
violet. Leaves obovatc or oblong, entire. The genus 
is nearly allied to Lycium {which see for culture). 

G. "boerhaa vise folia (Hoerhaavia-leaved). Jl., corolla pale dull 
lihie, imltricate in ;e.stivatlon ; calyx fleshy, sub-regular, often 
broadly cleft. April, l. fleshy, glaucous, h. 6ft. Peru, 17S0. A 
singular spiny scramliling shrub, sufficiently hardy to withstand 
our winters when planted in the open shrubbery border in the 
S<..nth of England, or against a south wall elsewhere. (B. R. 1985.) 

G. duplicata (toothed). /7. axillary, fascicled, from the upper 
leaves; calyx tube short, hemispherical; limb of live spread- 
ing ovate - lanceolate segments; corolla greenish- white ; tube 
straight, very hairy within. July. L alternate, very broadly 
ovate, or almost orljicular, exceedingly glaucous, waved, entire, 
slightly attenuated at the base into a moderately short petiole. 
South Brazil. 1840. Half-hardy. (B. M. 3841.) 

GRAFT. A small shoot or scion of a plant or tree, 
inserted on another plant, the stock, which supports and 
nourishes it. 

GRAFTIKTG is an art which has been practised 
from a period of remote antiquity ; by whom it was dis- 
covered is unknown. The operation consists in plac- 
ing two cut surfaces of one or of different plants 
under conditions which cause them to unite and grow 
together. The plant — usually termed the stock — on 
which the graft is inserted, should, in almost every case, 
be provided with roots, for tlie purpose of drawing and 
transmitting nutriment to support tlio graft after a 
union lias taken pUicc. The part inserted is called tlie 
scion, and is analogous to a cutting placed in tlio soil, 
although its growth is developed by nourishment supjilied 
througJi the stock. The action of the one on tlic otlier 
is frequently marked an<l very important. Some fruit- 
trees, for instance, grow freely on one stock, but scarcely 
bear, whilst on others they produce abundant crops, though 
they do not grow so vigorously ; nevertheless, althougli 
both are so intimately connected, they retain their in- 
dividual characters distinct. The stock wdll become en- 
larged by the elaboration of sap in the leaves of the 
scion without the nature of the wood in either case being 
much altered, each part forming its own peculiar secre- 
tion from sap arising from the same source. Scions from 
variegated trees will frequently cause variegated slioots 
to develop on the stock far below the graft; and tJiese 
can be used to increase the supply of a given form 
just as well as those produced by the original tree. The 
Golden Laburnum is a well-known case in point. 

The importance of the possibility of Grafting cannot 
be over-estimated, as, by its adoption, the propaga- 
tion of varieties of fruits, flowers, many forest trees, 
shrubs, &c., is rendered availa.blo, and the good qualities 
or habits of any are retained, without alteration, ex- 
cepting such modihpations as may be caused ])y tlje 
sui^erior constitution or special suitability of the stock. 
Grafting may also be employed for restoring defective 
branches on any part of an otherwise healthy fruit-tree, 
or for the insertion of fruit-bearing wood, where there 
is a deficiency. Seedling fruit-trees are brought more 
quickly into a bearing condition by being grafted on fruit- 
bearing stocks, so soon as sufficiently-matured scions can 
be obtained. The two sexes of monoecious plants may, 
in some cases, be brought together on one stock in order 
to eventually insure their reproduction by self-fertilisa- 
tion. Certain conditions are essential for attaining success 
in Grafting. A great deal depends on the skill of the 
operator, the condition of the sap, a healthy growth in 
the stock and scion, and the season when the operation is 
performed. In order tliat a vital union may take phice, 
it is essential that the two parts employed should have 
a natural affinity to each otlier, either as varieties of the 
same species, species of the same genus, or genera of the 
same natural order. In the works of celebrated ancient 
writers, accounts arc given of various attempts having 
been made, and supposed unions effected, under conditions 
which have since been found impossible, on account of a 
natural affinity being non-existent. A temporary union 
has sometimes taken place, but not a vital and lasting 
one. A fundamental principle, which applies to every 
method of Grafting, is the neccs.sity of forming a direct 
communication between the layers of inner bark in each 
of the parts to be united ; as, without this, a perfect 
joining is not effected. The pithy or woody parts never 
unite, as may be frequently observed when grafted trees 
of long standing arc cut down, and the ends of wood 
originally placeil in contact are found to have become 
decayed. Provided this essential principle be kept in 
view, the methods of Grafting may be varied almost in- 
definitely. The natural vigour of the stock and scion 
should be somewhat similar for inducing a steady growth ; 
but, at times, it is preferable that the scion should be the 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Grafting — contiu ued. 
hardier anil more vigorous of the two. This is exempli- 
fied, and the desired results attained, in many cases, by 
Grafting various strong-growing varieties of Apples on 
the Paradise stock, Clherries on the Mahaleb, and Pears 
on the Quince. In these and other instances, the stock 
is restricted in its root-growth, and the supply of sap 
transmitted to the grafted portion is, consequently, limited. 
This latter condition tends to encourage fruit-bearing 
instead of vigorous wood, and proves, by results, the 
modifying effect of the stock and the superior results in 
productiveness thereby secured. Double-grafting is some- 
times adopted as another means for reaching the same 
end, by having a variety of intermediate growth inserted 
first on the stock, this to be ultimately grafted with the 

— QijiT:CL- pti.ick. 

IL —Pear stock. 

Fir,. 133. Double. GRAFTING. 

one it is intended to propagate. Fig. 1.33 is intended 
to illustrate what is here meant in the case of Grafting 
the Pear. The special influence exerted on the part of 
the stock or scion with certain varieties in either direc- 
tion, can only he learned by experience. Grafting should 
be performed when the sap is in motion, between the time 
when it begins flowing in spring and a period before 
it ceases in autumn, avoiding the middle of summer, or 
any very hot weather. It is most largely practised, both 
indoors and outside, in early spiring, the scions being 
slightly retarded by keeping them in a cooler place, or, 
in the case of fruit trees, previously cutting and inlaying 
them in the ground. Calm, moist weather is most suitable 
for the operation outside, which should always be skil- 
fully performed, by means of clean cuts, a careful fitting 
of the parts together, and an exclusion of air by the 
application of grafting-olay or wax. Close frames or cool 
houses are requisite for tender plants, and for various 
evergreen trees or shrubs, until the parts have become 
united. Many of these do not require any clay or graft- 
ing wax, if kept moist, quite close, and shaded. Heat is 
unnecessary in the case of many hardy plants, a protec- 
tion from the drying influence of wind and sun being 
all that is required. There are various methods of Graft- 
ing that may be sucoessfiiUy practised, according to the 
size or variety of subject it is intended to propagate 
or improve. Tlie following are those most generally 
used, and all arc subject to slight modifications under 
varied circumstances. 

In Fig. 134, A shriws the mode of tying the graft 
adopted with many fruit trees, and b the work com- 
pleted by the application of clay, which should bo left 
in the shape shown, and ho carefully fitted to the stock 
and BOion. This plan may bo employed either for dwarf 

Grafting— con/ iwud. 
or tall stocks. All grafts inserted outside should be 
protected, and kept from moving by a stake, which 

Fig. 131. Mode of Tying ,\nd Claying Graft. 
should reach nearly or quite to the top, and have both 

Fig. 135. Mode of Supporting the Graft. 

the latter be- 

stock and scion secured to it, to prevent 
coming displaced (see Fig. 135). 

KiG. 136. Whip ob Tongue-grafting. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Grafting^ — continued. 

Tnii^i, Splice, ui- Tunijiie-ycaflijig. This is the best 
method, and the one generally and most extensively prac- 
tised in this country. It is represented in Pig. 136, where 
A shows the stock, b the scion, and c the two fitted 
together and tied. Whip-grafting is easily performed, 
and is tolerably certain in its effects, provided the essen- 
tial conditions be insui'ed, and the work carefully e-\e- 
cuted. The stock shonld not be removed until the graft 
is ready to be inserted, in order that the parts may be 
quite fresh. It should be cut in a -sloping direction, 
just above a bud if possible, as this sometimes prevents 
the old wood from dying back. The scion (e) should 
then be similarly cut through obliquely from d to e, 
allowing the latter point to be quite thin. Next, a thin 
tongue, /, must be cut in an upward direction, and the 
sciLin will then bo ready for insertion. The stock should 
now be cut in a corresponding manner, so that the 
tongue fits in its place, and the inner barks come 
into direct contact witli each other when pressed 
together. Where there is a difference in the si/.cs 
of the two parts used, the scion must be placed a 
little on one side, to insure a union being effected at 
some part of its surface. The notch should be kept 
open by the point of a knife until the tongue is pro- 
perly inserted. When the exposed parts have been 
fitted as accurately as possible, they should be bound 
with a ligature of woollen thread, or material of a like 
description, to hold everything firmly in position, and 
at once covered with clay or grafting wax, for excluding 
air and preventing the .sun and wind from drying up the 

Cleft-'p\(fiutij. In this mode, which is a very objec- 
tionable one in many respects, the stock has to be 
split open by a chisel or other instrument, and the scion 
cut wedge-shaped, and fitted in the cleft, so that the 
inner barks may meet each other. The plan is largely 
adopted in some parts of the country for woody de- 
ciduous trees and plants with old stocks, which are 
split across, sometimes transversely each way, and two 

Fig. 137. Cl.El-T-(iR.1FTIXG. 

or more grafts inserted, according to the size (see Fig. 
137). The objection is, that the wide cleft necessarily 
made in the solid wood can never unite again in the 
centre, although, after some time, it may be partiaDy 
covered by the scions growing over. Another form of 
Cleft-grafting is shown in Fig. 138, where stock and 
scion are of the same size. This also has some ob- 
jections, the stock having to be split and fitted with 
a wedge u, formed on the end of the scion. The cleft 
invariably extends beyond where it ia intended the graft 

Vol. IL 

Grafting' — co n tin ued. 
should reach, and, if this happens, the latter, when 
fitted, prevents that portion of the stock from again 
becoming united. The stock and scion should be pre- 
pared so that all tlie parts coincide. 

Fro. 138, Ci.EFT-nRAKTIXG. 

Saddle-grciftiny. In Saddle-grafting, the stock and scion 
must, of necessity, be of nearly equal thickness, as the 
former is cut sloping on each side, like a wedge, and the 
latter is split up the centre and thinned, to allow of it 
fitting accurately on the top, as shown in the illustra- 

FiOS. 139 AND 140. S-VDIil.K-ORAKTI.NO. 

tions (see Figs. 139 and 1-tO). It is important that the 
scion should not be split fui'ther than the end of the stock 
will reach, and the wood in both should be clean cut 
with a thin, narrow-bladed knife. For Saddle-grafting, 
the wood is usually young and vig'orous ; care must 
therefore be taken that the ligature is not made too tight 
at first, and that it is loosened afterwards before injury 
is caused to the bark. This method has been success- 
fully practised tor obtaining divarf flowering plants of 
Rhododendrons by CTrafting teruiinal shoots just before 
the flowering season arrives, and p)lacing them in a close 
frame, without bandaging or anything beyond a tie. In 
Wedge-grattmg, the positions of parts are reversed, the 
scion being made wedge-shaped, and fitted into an in- 
cision of similar shape and size cut in the stock (see 
Fig. 141). 

Crovjii or Rind'itcaftiag has advantages over Cleft-graft- 
ing, it being practicable to work stocks of considerable 
age and size without cleaving, and rendering the wood 
unsound. It is practised in spring, when the bark easily 
separates ; and with this method it has been recommended 



The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Grafting^ — continued. 
that tlie stocks should, be cut down a month beforehand, 
the cuts beine^ ajcain made i're^h at Giraftinff time. The 


Fig. Ill, Wedge-chaftinr. 

scion should be about Gin. long-, with two or three eyes 
attaehed to the npj'er pai-t. Tlie lower half is cut in a 
sloping direction, the same as the splice-graft, and the 
notch or shoulder formed in cutting it is made to fit on 
the top of the stocl:. It is then inserted between the 
bark and wood, which readily separate, if in in'(tper con- 
dition. One or more scions may be inserted, a(!(iording 

Figs. 142 and 143. Criiwn or Kind-grai 'n^<;. 

to the size of tlie stem intended for their reception (see 
Figs. 142 and 11-3). The out parts should be afterwards 
covered with a bandage, not made too tight, and clay or 
grafting wax. In what is known as Improved Crown- 
grafting, the top of the stock is cut obliquely, and the 
bark only raised on one side of the longitudinal cut made 
for the reception of the scion ; the motive being to 
increase the points of contact between the two portions 
of bark, and accelerate their cohesion. 

Side-grafting is employed for inserting scions without 
catting away the head of tlie stock. It is useful for pro- 
pagating plants, and also for supplying, where deficient, 
a branch or stem to any part of a tree (sec Pig. 144). 
There are two systems of Side-grafting : one, by placing 
a simple, or occasionally a based, branch under tlie bark, 
and the other, by inserting branches in clefts cut in the 
alburnum. A side-graft under the bark may cither con- 
sist of a branch, having what is termed a shooting-bud, 
or it may possess one tliat is dormant. If thn former 
is selected, a branch of the previous year forms the 

Grafting — continued. 
scion, which should be inserted about April, when the 
sap is flowing. Grafts with dormant buds are made 
from wood of the current year, and put in about 
August or September, to develop the following year. 

Fig, 144. Side-grafting. 

The scion may be prepared for the side of an upright 
stock by making a long splice-cut in the lower piart, 
taking care to render it smooth throughout, and thin at 
the point. Incisions, not penetrating the alburnum, are 
then made in the stock, and the scion inserted, in 
much the same manner as a bud, tied in, and covered 
with clay or wax. On horizontal branches, the stock 
may have a notch cut, and a pjortion of the bark raised 
nearer the tree (see Fig, 144, a), the scion b being pre- 
pared to fit, as shown at c. It will be observed that 
Double - grafting on established fruit-trees of inferior 
quality might be largely practised, if desired, by this 
method. Side-grafting in the alburnum, with an oblique 
or vertical cleft, is more especially adapted for ever- 
greens, when the operation is performed, under glass, in 
Feliruary, or the latter part of summer. 

Ordinary Veneer - grafting is principally employed 
for propagating various trees and evergreen shrubs, 
either in spring or autumn, the former preferred. The 
scion should be well ripened, either of the previous 
or current year, according to tlie time it is inserted, and 
the stock must be in a state of activity. In an ever- 
green scion, the leaves from the top are not removed. 
It must be cut with an even aplice-cut, about lin, long, 
and fitted on the side of the stock previously prepared 
by having just the same quantity of bark, as far as the 
first layers of the alburnum, removed that the size of 
the cut portion in the scion requires. Both parts are 
then fitted without a cleft or incision being made in the 
wood; and, after being tied olosel.y with a woollen or 
cotton bandage, are placed in close frames, with or with- 
out grafting wax. The stock should not bo headed at 
first ; when the parts have properly united, it may be 
gradually removed. This method answers well for Rho- 

Grafting by A2il}roafh,, or Inari'hing, is the oldest 
system known ; examples being frequently seen in trees 
growing naturally together. It was formerly practised 
with trees, to form arches, doorways, itc, for pic- 
turesque effect, but is now more generally in use for 
propagating plants that do not succeed well under other 
methods. The season for Grafting by Approach begins 
with the flow of sap in the spring, and ends with 
it in autumn. The operation is performed when the 
leaves are on the plants forming the stock and scion, 
and they are allowed to remain on both for some time. 
The scion intended for Inarching must either bo a movable 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Grafting" — continued. 
pot plant (as shown in Fi^. 145) that may bo taken 
to any phieo rlesirod, or ono ])hLntod in close proximity 
to the stock. A similar portion of wood slionld be re- 
moved from both the parts intended for joininj,'-, and 
they must bo carcluUy fitted to-cther and socurod with 

Fig. U5. CIrafti^g by ArrnoAcii. 

tying material and a bandage. Sometimes, a tongne is 
cut in the plant forming the scion, and made to fit into a 
corresponding notch in the stock at the point whore the 
barks meet. In other methods of Inarching, the stock 
is cnt off and the scion inserted on or near its point ; 
and for restoring defectiTe parts, the torniinal point of 
the scion is cut witli a thin edge, as for a splice-graft, 
and inserted where required. Grafting by Approach is 
much practised with A^'incs for obtaining fruiting wood 
of any particular kind in a shorter time than would be 
possible by ordinary propagation. Some varieties also 
succeed better when grafted on a stock which is more 
vigorous than their own. After the cut portions heal 
and become established, the work of detaching them from 
their own roots, and removing the branches from the 
upper extremity of the stock, must be very gradually 
performed, to avoid extreme cheeks. 

Herhareons Grafting, as its name indicates, is applic- 
able for increasing plants when still growing, but, at the 
same time, becoming solidified and passing into an her- 
baceous state. The system has been applied with success 
in Grafting the Melon on the Cucumber, the Tomato on 
the Potato, dwarf species of cacti on tall ones, &c. Its 
chief advantage, however, is in the increase of resinous 
trees, principally Pines, by inserting grafts on the points 
of commoner species, which may be used as stocks. The 
proper time for the operation is in May, when the 
young shoots aro just beginning to grow, or else when 
growth stops and the shoots begin changing to a woody 
nature. Stock and scion should be, if possible, similar 
in texture. The former must be cut off just below the 
terminal buds, and nearly all the leaves removed from 
the point thus obtained. This should be carefully split, 
and the scion prepared wedge - shaped, and inserted 
rather deeply, allowing the barks to coincide, as in all 
other methods. Tie in with worsted, cover the cuts 

Grafting" — continued. 
with grafting wax, and shade them from sunshine by 
paper caps until growth is resumed. The Walnut may 
be suecossfully propagated by terminal Herbaceous 
Grafting, employing shoots for both scion and stock 
that havo not becomo woody. Those trees may also he 
terminal -grafted in spring, just before growth com- 

Root-grafting is ijracticable with many plants, cither 
on their own roots or on those of others, ;ind ;i larger 
stock is obtainable of such as succeed than by any other 
method. Good roots should be secured as stocks when 
the plants bearing them arc in a dormant state, and the 
grafts inserted, in most eases, when the sap begins to 
flow in spring. Largo fleshy roots, such as Dahlias and 
Tree Piconios, should have a notch cut in a triangular 
form, about l.^in. long, and the shoot or graft similarly 

Fig. 146. Hoot-grafting (Dauua). 

prepared and made to fit therein (sec Fig. 146). Other 
pltLuts largely propagated by Root-grafting are Bignonias, 
Clematis, Hollyhocks, and Wistarias. Saddle-grafting on 
roots is sometimes employed. 

GRAFTING CLAY. This consists of two parts 
clay and one (if cow-dung. Some persons mako an ad- 
dition of finoly-eut hay, as being of use in preventing the 
Clay from cracking and falling off. These ingredients 
should be beaten together, and thoroughly mixed, several 
wrecks before being rcipiired for use, and be then occa- 
sionally turned and mixed again. If a cavity is made 
in the top of the heap, and filled with water, the whole 
bulk may be kept moist for a long time. Grafting Clay 
is an economical composition, most useful for excluding 
air and moisture until a union in the stock and scion 
is effected. 

GRAFTING WAX. In grafting small or delicate 
plants, the use of clay is scarcely practicable, and 
various compositions of different substances have been 
prepared for answering the same purpose. It is essen- 
tial that whatever is used should not be injurious to 
the cuts which have to be covered, either by drying or 
burning them up. Neither must it crack or run off 
under the action of natural heat and moisture. What is 
known as warm mastic is applied in a lukewarm state, 
by means of a small brush or broad wooden label. A good 
Grafting Wax for using lukewarm may be made of three 
parts each of resin and beeswax, and tw^o x:iarts of 
taUow ; or these inj^redients may be prepared in equal 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Grafting Wax — mnHnvecl. 
proportions by melting all togeth er in an ii'on pot over 
the fire, and afterwards allowing the composition to 
cool. Burgundy pitch and various other substances are 
sometimes used in compositions. An excellent prepara- 
tion that may be purchased in tin boxes, and applied 
cold, is the French cold Grafting Wax, sold under the 
name of Mastic I'homme Lefort. This may he spread 
on the graft with a flat pieco of wood, and it hardens 
by exposure to the air. Gold mastics are not so well 
suited for autumn grafting outside as warm ones, the 
frost sometimes haWng an injurious effect on the grafts 
through a soft substance. Grafting Wax may be applied 
to largn as well as small plants, if desired. 


Granum Faradisi and A. melegnieta. 

GRA3VI, or CHICK PEA (Cicer arietini(>m.) . An 

annual herb, extensively cultivated in India for its 
seed, which, when ground, forms an important article 
of food. 

GEpAMINES. a large order of annuals or peren- 
nials, usually herbaceous, Ccespitose, rarely suffrutescent or 
arborescent. Flowers rarely diclinous monoecious, or dice- 
cious, sometimes polygamous ; epikelets in terminal spikes, 
racemes or panicles, usually composed of two flowers 
(empty), glumes inclosing or subtending one or more, 
sessile or stalked, normally flower-bearing (but sometimes 
also empty) glumes, which are distichously arranged on a 
slender rachis (rachilla) ; flowering glumes boat-shaped, 
inclosing the flower and a flat, often two-nerved, scale 
ijyaleo.) ; perianth of two (rarely none, or three or more) 
minute scales; stamens three (rarely one, two, six, or 
more), with capillary filaments and two-celled pendulous 
anthers. Leaves alternate, distichous, springing from 
the nodes ; petiole dilated, convolute, sheathing the 
stem ; margins free, or very rarely more or less united ; 
blade entire, usually narrow-linear, sometimes oblong or 
oval ; margins very often scabrid ; nerves parallel ; stipule 
axillary, adnate by its dorsal face to the sheath, and pro- 
duced as a membranous tongue (liguls). The order is 
widely distributed over the world. " Gramineae contain 
in their herbage, and especially in their seeds, nutritious 
principles, which entitle them to the first rank among 
plants useful to man, and which are of the greatest im- 
portance in an economic and jtolitical point of view. The 
Cerealia are : Wheat {Triticum sativtmi), Rye (Seoale 
rereale), Barley (Hordeuin vidgare, disHchutn, &c.), Oats 
(Avena sativa), all cultivated by the Caucasian race in 
the Northern and temperate regions. Rice (Oryza safAva) 
and Millet (Panicum' miliaceum) originated amongst the 
Asiatic races. The Sugar-cane (Saccharwm offijcinarn.w-) 
is, in all probability, a native of tropical Asia ; it has 
been caltivated from very ancient times in the East 
Indies. A considerable number of Graminete are medi- 
cinal, viz., Triticum repens, glaucum, junceum, Gynoclon 
Doctylon, Andro'pogon hicornis, Arunclo Donax, Calaino- 
grostis, &c." (Decaisne and Le Maout). This order like- 
wise furnishes numerous ornamental garden plants, some 
of the most striking of which are Arundinaria falcata, 
Mpfake, Ariindo Donor (the Provence Gane), Aru,ndo 
mniiriinrtiro , Banrhnsn nriivdi >mrpa , Gyverium nrgen- 
teum, Pmnriim plirnl inv, Phalavis nrn luhnncpa , kv.. 

GRAMSIANGIS (from grcumna, writing; probably 

in allusion to the markings of the flowers). Ord. OrchidexF. 

A genus comprising two species of stove epiphytal 

orchids, one of which is from Madagascar, the other 

from Java (?], Flowers showy, on long pedicels ; racemes 

loose, many-flowered ; bracts small ; scape simple. Loaves 

few, long, coriaceous, veined. Pseudo-bulbs oblong or 

fusiform, fleshy. For culture, .sp.e Saccolabium. 

G. Elllsil (Ellis's). Jl. numerous ; sepals yellow, with several 

transverse brown stripes; petals and lip whitish; spikes very 

graceful, bent over, produced from the base of the pseudo-hnlbs 

along mth the young growths. Summer, t. broad, ligulate, 

Gr ammaii^is — continue d . 

blunt, glaucous. Pseudo-bulbs about 6in. long, square. Mada- 
;j;ascav. (B. M. 5179, under name of Graminatophi/Uum Blli^ii.) 
G. Huttoni (Hutton's).* jl. shortly pedicellate, Uin. in diameter ; 
racemes teu-tlowered, pendulous ; sepals recurved, obovate, acu- 
minate, pale brown externally, internally studded with transverse, 
small, short, chocolate streaks ; petals smaller, but similar in 
form and direction, dark chocolate inside ; lip sub-sessile, lateral 
lobes obtuse, greenish, striped with chocolate ; scape from the 
base of the pseudo-bulbs, stout. June. I. narrow-oblong, obtuse, 
very coriaceous, nerveless, dark green. Pseudo-bulbs elongate- 
ovoid, with straight sides, compressed, grooved, green. Java, 
18b7. (B. M. 5676, under name of Cy tnhidium Huttoni.) 

GRAMMANTHES (from gramma, writing, and 

niiflw.-<, a flower ; in con-equence of the petals having 
some supposed resemblance to the letter V marked on 
them ; hence its synonymous name of Vauanthes). Stn. 
V'auanthes. Ord. Crassulacec^. A very pretty half- 
hardy annual. It thrives in a peaty or light sandy 
soil, and forms an excellent subject for rockwork. Seeds 
should be sown in a warm greenhouse, during March, and 
the seedlings transferred when large enough. Plenty 
of air, and care in watering, are important features in 
the culture of this plant. 

G. chlorseflora (yellow-flowered).* Ji. at first orange-yellow, 
finally more red, with a deep V-shaped mark at the base of each 
corolla lobe ; corolla tube equalling the calyx or longer ; axillary 
and terminal lobes ovate or lanceolate, acute. July. /. sessile, 
ovate, acute, succulent, concave, h. 4in. to 5in. South Africa, 
1774. A glaucous herb. (B. M. 4607.) 

G, C. csasia (greyish). This only differs from the type in its 
smaller, less brightly coloured flowers, and more glauctuis leaves, 
(B. M. 6401.) 

GRAIffMATOCARPUS (from grammata, letters, and 

l>arpos, fruit ; in reference to the markings of the fruit). 

Stn. Scypha7it]iu.i^. Ord. Loasece. A monotypic genus, 

the species being a half-hardy, twining, pubescent, annual 

herb, allied to Loasa (which see for culture). 

G. volubills (twining).* J!-, yellow, axillary, sessile; calyx tube 

linear-elongate ; lobes hve, spreading, linear-spathiUate ; petals 

Ave, saccate. Summer. I. opposite, hi- or tripinnatisect. Chili. 

(B. M. 5028; S. B. F. G. 238.) 

GRAMMATOFHYLLUH (from grammata, letters, 

and phyllon,, a leaf; in reference to the markings on the 
leaves). Ord. Orchidece. A genus of three or foni 
species of rather large-growing, handsome stove epiphytal 
orchids, usually very shy of flowering. All are natives 
of the Malayan Peninsula and Archipelago. Grammato- 
phyllums should be cultivated in large pots, filled with 
peat. Good drainage and a liberal supply of water, when 
the plants are in a growing state, are essential elements 
in their culture. After a few strong growths have been 
made, the plants should be allowed a season of rest. 
Propagated by divisions of the pseudo-bulbs. The under- 
mentioned are the only species in general cultivation, 
and these are still very rare. 

G. multifloruin (many-flowered).* /f. green, brown, purple ; 
racemes long, many-flowered ; bracts oblong, scale-formed ; sepals 
oblong, obtuse ; petals similar, acute, narrower ; lip three-lobed, 
downy ; middle lobe oblong, rounded ; lateral ones erect, sub- 
falcate, with four elevated lamelhe in middle. Summer. I. linear, 
distichous, striated, h. 2ft. Manilla, 1838. (B. R. 1839. 65.) 

G. m. tigrlnum (tiger-spotted), jl yellow, spotted with purple. 
Summer, h. 2ft. East Indies, 1840. (R. R. 1B42, 69.) 

G. speciosum (showy).* /. nearly 6in. across ; sepals and petals 
undulated, ovate-oblong, rich golden-yellow, spotted with purple ; 
lip three-lobed, streaked with red ; scape often nearlv 6ft. lone;, 
growing from the base of the stem. Winter. I. "distichous, 
lorate, acute, l^ft. to 2ft. long. Stems sometinifs 9ft. to 10ft. 
high. Java, 1837. One of the nio^t eleii;int plants in cultivation. 
(B. M. 5157.) 

GBtAMMITIS. See Gymnogramme and Poly- 

GRANADILLA. A name given in the AVcst Indies 
to the fruits of different species of the genus Passiflora 
(which spp). 

GRANULAK. Divided into little knobs or knots ; 

r.g.^ the roots of Snxifraga gratnilafn. 

GRAPH. The well-known fruit of the Vine, Vitis 
vinifera (which .s-cc). 


An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


GBAFE OR VINZ: LOUSE {PJnjIln.rera vasbifrix). 

This insect belong-s to the Aphides, or Green Flies, a 
group that contains many species very destructivG to 
field and garden crops, but none which approaches 
this in the injuries done by it. The insect lives on the 
European Vine {Vitis vinifera), forming- g:alls on both 
roots and leaves; and, when it has onee effected a settle- 
ment, the plant, if left to itself, soon perishes iinder the 
attacks. The injuries to the leaves are of compara- 
tively slight moment ; the danger proceeds from the 
effects produced on the young- roots. The insects fre- 
quently affix themselves near the tips of newly-formed 
roots, and push their probosces through' the bark, it may 
be even to the cambium. There results from this a 
thickening of the bark, due to the development of new 
cells— hence the formation of galls, some of which 
reach the size of a pea ; and, after a time, the central 
part of the root also becomes modified. In autumn, 
the healthy young roots begin to undergo enlargement, 
to form the older ones of the next year ; but, in those 
affectedj the galls die, and the roots also perish. The 
plants are thus deprived of due nourishment, and are 
starved ; while, at the same time, they are weakened by 
the abstraction of food by the insects on the older roots 
and leaves. Phylloxera vastatrix passes the winter on 

Fin. 147. riRATF. OR Vine Louse. 

the roots. Tn spring, the plants push out ynung 
branches and leaves, but these soon become yellow, and 
wither ; and the fruits, if they ripen, often remain un- 
coloured and sour. The next year, the leaves are still 
more deformed ; and fruits are not formed, or do not 
ripen. The insects leave the Vines before the latter are 
quite dead, and crawl about in search of new plants. 
Hence, any diseased plant is a dangerous centre of infec- 
tion in a vinery. The insects vary in appearance. Eggs 
laid, in the autumn, between the crevices of the bark on 
the roots, produce, in spring, larvae, which pass, with 
little change, except mere increase in size, into the 
matiire females. These larvae usually form galls on 
the leaves, but, at times, the roots alone arc attacked. 
The leaf-galls form small reddish warts nn the one 
surface of the leaf, with small depressions on the other 
surface. In this depression is the entrance to the galb-- 
a slit, closed with hairs. From the leaf-galls emerge 
wingless insects, which continue for a time to form new 
galls, and at last pass down to the roots. 

Tn Fig. 147, A shows sketch of a Vine root attacked by 
phylloxera; b, portion of leaf of Vine, showing the galls 
formed on the leaf by the Phylloxera, as seen both on 

Grape or Vine liouse — rotitAiuied. 
upper and under side ; and 0, subterraTiean form of female, 
magnified. The egg^ are about H^iin. long. The mature 
female may reach -u->m. in length, and varies in colour from 
pale yellow to dull brown. The males become winged 
when mature ; the body is about ^Vin. or ^^Tin. long ; the 
wings are nearly twice as long as the body. The colour 
is golden-yellow, or approaches dull orange, except a dark 
band across the thorax. The eyes arc red in both sexes. 

History. The disease of Vines caused by Phylloxera 
was first noticed in 1863, in Southern France, but did 
not seem very dangerous till 186.5. Planehon, in 1868, 
discovered that it was caused by the insect, which, how- 
over, had been previously known to zoologists. In 1856, 
E)r. Asa Fitch observed it in America, and named it 
Pemphigus vitifolice. In 1863, it was discovered in 
vineries near London, and was named by Professor West- 
wood Perihjnihia viiisana. In France, it spread very 
rapidly, even till it reached the most northern vineyards. 
In the department of, the yield of wine had, 
in 1876, lieen reduced to about one-tenth of the former 
amount. The disease still spreads, and has appeared in 
most countries of Western and Central Europe. 

The effect of the legislation which the dread of the 
Phylloxera has brought about, seriously interferes with 
the nurserymen who ex^^ort plants. In some countries — 
Germany, for example — no plants are allowed to be im- 
ported. An exception in this case, we believe, is made 
in favour of "bulbs;" but plants equally unlikely to be 
in any way the means of furthering the spread of the 
Phylloxera, are rigidly refused admission. In order to 
send ]ilants to any of the countries in which the regula- 
tions of tin; Phylloxera Convention are enforced, it is 
necessary to sign a declaration that the package contains 
no Vines or roots of Vines, that no Vines are grown near 
the place whence the plants were taken, and that no 
Phylloxera exists, or has existed, in the immediate 
neighbourhood. This declaration must be stamped and 
countersigncil by a magistrate, and afterwards be pre- 
sented to the (,'onsul or Vice-Consul of the country to 
which it is proposed to send the package, for his vis'^. 
The fee for the latter varies almost for every country. 
The declaration is then handed to the agent or railway 
f^ompany who undertake to forward the plants : without it, 
the goods are not allowed to be sent to their destination. 

Reiiw'hf.s. Those fall almost entirely under the head 
of "Prcveiitinn of the Spread of Disease," which has been 
attempted in various countries by strict prohibition of 
the export of Vines from infected districts, and of the 
import oT Vines into places where disease has not yet 
appeared (the Cerman law of 11th Feb., 1873, is espe- 
cially strict in this matter). It has also been attempted 
by the destruction of the Vines wherever disease has 
appeared. The German law of fith March, 1875. enforces 
the thorough uprooting of infected plants, burning every 
part, and a disinfection of the soil, for which many sub- 
stances have been used — the most reliable, however, is 
carbon disulphide, which destroys the insects on the 
roots, but does not injure the plants, especially if applied 
in winter. A mixture of carbon disulphide and coal-tar 
has also been advised; and a good mode of using it is 
to scatter on the soil pieces of wood saturated in the 
mixture, and washed with water-glass (silicate of pot- 
ash), so as to allow the gases to pass off gradually as 
the latter dissolves. Another method is, where easily 
practicable, to lay the soil under water for six or seven 
weeks. The American Grape Vines, especially V. cordi- 
folia and V. (vsHvalis, resist the attacks of Phylloxera 
far better than do the European species ; and, of late 
years, they have been largely introduced into European 
vineyards, for the purpose of supplying stocks on which 
to graft the better flavoured, but more delicate, Old 
World varieties. (" Enquete de I'Academie des Sciences 
sur le Phylloxera." Paris, 1879. 2 vols., with many plates.) 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

GRAPE 'P'EA'R. !^pp Amelancliier canadensis. 

Grape or Vine 



GRAPE, SEASIDE, l^ee Coccoloba. 
GRAPPLE PLANT. See Harpag-ophytum pro- 

GRAPTOPHYLLUM (from grapho, to write, and 

p]i..ylt(>ii, a leaf; roferriiiy tu the markings on the leaves). 

Stn. Kavlia. Okd. Acmi.tliaceai. A genuR comprising 

four or five species of ornamental stove evergreen glabrous 

shrxibs, natives of Australia or the Pacific Islands. 

Flowers red, shortly ijcdicellate. Leaves opposite, entire 

or (in one species) spinosc-dentatc, generally spotted. The 

jilants thrive in a compost of peat and loam. Cuttings uf 

rather firm young shoots, taken with a heel, will root, if 

inserted in sand, under a bell glass, in heat. 

G. Earlii (Kiirl's), fi. of a rich red, sohtary in tliu ;ixil«, nr in 

olustuvs of very few. I. iibloiiK-elliiJtiail, aciitt; nr niucrnniilitti.-, 

entire, or with a few very small acute teetli. }>. 10ft. to 15ft. A 

heautifvil glabrous shrub or tree. Australia. Si\\. Eaiiia 


G. hortense (garden).* C'aricature Plant. Jl. crimson, iiiflated at 

Mjc tlirnat, whorled, in axillary and terminal racemes. July and 

Aut;ust. I. elliptical, variegated. 1780. _(B. R. 1227, under name 

of Jiisticia picta.) This spicies — its native country is unknown 

— is largely cultivated tlircii.^lKuit the tropics for the lieauty of 

its ftdiage. A variety, \\itb purplish leaves and blnod-colouretl 

veins, is figured in P>. M. 1870, under name of Jv.sti.cia picia 


G. medio -auratum. A synonym of AjihrlaiKh-a Diedio-aurata. 

GRASSES, ORNAMENTAL. Numerous annnal 
species of Grasses are cultivated, for the double purpose 
of rendering mixed flower or shrubbery borders attractive 
in summer, and for the use of the sjiikes or panicles, in 
a dried state, intermixed with everlasting flowers, or 
arranged separately in vases by themselves, in winter. A 
few perennial species are equally attractive for similar 
purposes, notably Arundo conspictt'a, Gynerium argenteum 
(Pampas Grass), and Stipa pennaia (Feather Grass). The 
annuals may be sown in any soil outside, in March or April ; 
and if the spikes are intended for drying, they should be 
gathered on fine days before the seeds ripen, and gradually 
dried in a cool place. A selection of the best and most 
ornamental would include A(jrostis elegans, nehidosa, and 
ptdchello., Briza maxini.a and minor, Bromus brizceformis, 
Erogrostis elegans, Hordeum juhatum-y and Lngurits ovatus. 
It is advisable to treat many of the annnal species as 
biennials ; that is to say, sow the seeds in July or August. 
This is too late to allow the plants to flower the same 
year, but they make finer clumps, and produce larger 
spikes, the following season. 

GRATIOLA (a diminutive from gralia, grace; re- 
ferring to its medicinal virtues). Hedge Hyssop. Stn. 
Sophronanthe. Obd. Scrophidarinew. A genus con- 
taining about twenty species of pretty free - flowering 
hardy herbaceous plants, mostly natives of Central 
Europe, North America, and extra- tropical Australia. 
Corolla often white or pale, tubular; limb two-lip)ped, the 
upper lip notched or cleft into two divisions, the lower 
three-cleft. Leaves opposite, entire or dentate. Gratiolas 
thrive in a rich, moist soil. Propagated readily by dividing 
the roots, in spring. 

G. aurea (golden).* _//. golden-yellow; peilnncles hardly the 
lenyth of the leaves. Alfiy. /. broad-hnear. sessile, toothed, 
dotted above. Stem livnnched at the base. I/. 4in. jSorth Ame- 
liea. 18^3. (L. B. C. 1599.) 
G. carolinensis (rari.lina). A synonym nf (,'. virniniaim. 
G. officinalis (ufficiiml),' /', whitish, striated with purple, pedun- 
culate. Rhiy. I. laiMTiilati-, .srrrateil. />. 1ft. Europe, 1568. 
G. pilosa (I'ilose). ./'. ^^hitl■; rorolla three or four lines long, 
]\U\v. rx'^eding the calyx ; tube nldong. July. I. ovate or ovate- 
ianrcdlate, sparingly and ai'ntely dentirulate, closely sessile by 
;l broad base. Stem 1ft. to 2ft. high, from an ajiparently aininal 
root. North America, 1827. 
G. quadridentata (four-toothed). A synonyTnof <j. rania.'^a. 
G. ramosa (branrhcd). Jh white ; sepals liiiear(two or three lines 
long), half the lejjgth of the corolla. May to August. I. lanceo- 

Gratiola — ro idin ned. 

late or lineavdaMccnlate, acute, serrate with sharp coarse teeth, 
equalling or shorter than the pedicels. A. 9in. North America, 
1321. SVN. 0. 'imiib-ideatata, 
G. virginiana (Virginian), ft., corolla four or five lines long; 
tube yellowish, barely twice the length of the calyx ; lobesnearly 
wliite, tin.' two upper emarginate. ' August. I. commonly gla- 
brous, oblinig-lanceolate, acute, fnuu entire to denticulate-serrate, 
niiistly narrow at tlie Itase. h. 6in. to 9in. North America, 1759. 
SVN. (4. candiiiensis. 

GRAViESIA {named in honour of C. L. Graves, a 

writer on the plants of Northern France ; he also collected 
in Madagascar). Ord. Melastoinace<v. A genus contain- 
ing a couple of species of dwarf stove herbs, natives of 
Madagascar. Flowers disposed in few-flowered umbel- 
late cymes; scape solitary, erect. Leaves petiolatc, sub- 
radical, ovate-oblong, membranaceous, sub-serrate, five- 
nerved. For culture, see Bertolonia. 

G. guttata (spotted).* l. ovate, 3in. to 6in. long, 2in. to 5in. wide ; 
ground colour rich dark green, profusely dotted with rose-coloured 
spots arranged in lines. 1864. (B. M. 5524, under name of 
Bertolonia guttata.) The best varieties are: 
G. g. margaritacea (pearly).* I. ovate-acuminate ; upper surface 
dark olive-green, faintly shaded with purple, with pearly-white 
spots in regular lines; under side bright pink. 1862. SVN. 
Bcrtoloiiia 'imiraiij-itafca. 
G. g. superba (superb).* I. cordate-ovate, acute, greenish-olive, 
thickly spotted with rather large circular spots, interspersed 
among which are very minute dots of the same colour. SvN. Ber- 
tolonia supcrhis.mrm. 

(_»tber vaiieties are : albo -punctata (white-dotted) and ronco- 
jnoirf.Ulafa {vi>sy.i\i,ttQ(\). 

GRAY PLUM. The fruit of Parinarium ex- 

celsum (wliicli see). 

GREAT BURNET. Sec Poterium officinale. 
GREEK DRAGON. See Arum Dracontium, the 

proper name of wdiich is Ariscrwa Dracontmm. 

GREEN PLY. See Aphides. 

GREENGAGE. A delicious variety of Plum 
(which see). 

GREENHEART. See Nectandra Rodirei. 

GREENHOUSE. A Greenhouse is usually understood 
to be a strn(;turc specially devoted to the cultivatiim or 
exhibition of plants that never require a very high tem- 
perature. It is distinguished from a conservatory by the 
occupants being almost exclusively grown in pots and 
tubs ; whereas, in the other instance, many are perma- 
nently planted out. Greenhouses have a wide application, 
ranging from a single house possessed by an amateur, to a 
large structure set apart for the exhibition of plants 
that are previously grown to the flowering stage in other 
houses or pits. Subjects which arc available for Green- 
house decoration throughout tiie year, are almost in- 
numerable, and include a large proportion of the most 
beantiful plants in cultivation. An important essential 
for their general well-being is plenty of light; con- 
sequently, this is one of the fii-st structural conditions 
to be secured. Secondly, provision should be made for 
admitting any quantity of air whenever required, as is 
the case throughout the summer. The best houses of 
modern construction are far before those of former years 
in these respects, the general substitution of largo for 
small panes of glass, and glass roofs for slates, having 
effected great improvements. In well-arranged Green- 
houses, where sufficient plants are at command, a fine 
display may be insured throughout the year by having 
a varied selection, and hastening and retarding to keep 
a succession. Nearly all the improved types of florists" 
flo^vers and select annuals are available for pot culture 
if desired. Exotic plants are extremely numerous ami 
attractive, particularly those from Australia, the Capo of 
(.4ood Hope, the Himalayas, China, and Japan. Many 
hardy flowering plants and shrubs may also be lifted 
from the open ground and forced in early spring^a time 
when Greenhouses are better furnished and more interest- 
ing than at any other season of the year. Where there are 
othor houses and pits devoted to the preparation of flower- 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 

Greenhouse— roH/i*(t(^(?. 
ing' plants, each subject may be much better providod with 
its special requirements, than when space for cultivation is 
limited to the Greenhouse only. Here a certain tempera- 
ture is maintained which suits a number of yjlants in flower, 
but may not be warm cuough fur others that are making- 
their annual growth. If one house can be devoted more 
especially to the exhibition of tliose plants in flower and 
others with ornamental foliage, and they are chang-ed as 
becomes requisite, the interest in Greenhouse subjects will 
be rendered more certain. This is, however, frequently 

Sliape atid As'pect. Plenty of light and air being- essential 
conditions for keeping in view in the construction of a 
Greenhouse, it follows that the site chosen should be an 
open one. The best shape is a span roof, as light is 
admitted on all sides, and the plants are not so likely to 
draw or grow in any one direction. Fig. 148 represents a 
section of a span-roofod house well adapted for Greenhouse 

Greenhouse — couiinued. 

Fig. 148. Section of Span-roof Plant House. 

plants. A centre stage is shown that may be made flat 
if desired, for accommodating vigorous-growing subjects. 
The side stages are on a level with the walls, and upright 
sashes above these (a, a) are hung so as to open in the way 
indicated. Top ventilation must also be provided, either 
by sliding sashes, as shown in Fig. 149 (which, however, 
have the disadvantage of admitting rain if open), or by a 
more modern method which prevents this, by raising a 
portion of the roof with a lever. A small Ican-to house, 

Fig. 149. Lean-to House. 

Fig, IfjO. Hip-roofed Greenhouse. 

adapted for amateurs or others with only a limited 
tity of plants, is shown in Fig. 149. This might be 
:iently heated by a very small hot water apparatus. 
Hip-roofed houses (see Fig. 150) iisually admit 
light, but are not so convenient for attending 
and arranging the occupants as the full span. 
Again, shelf stages are not so favo^lrahle to 
good cultivation as flat ones, where a moist 
bottom of ashes or small stones may he secured, 
on which to stand the pots. Ventilation in 
hip-roofed houses must be detained by sliding or 
other movable sashes at the apex, and by small 
doors inserted in the front wall. The aspect 
best suited is one nearly south ; hut, with the 
full span, the ends should run north and south, 
so that all possible light may be admitted, and 
the sun's rays in summer sumewliat obstructed 
in the middle of the day. 

Greenhouse plants are divided into two 
general groups, hard-wooded and soft-wooded. 

Hard-'ioooded Section. This includes all 
plants of a shrubby habit, and the majority 
of climbers. A largo proportion of them are 
diffioalt to cultivate, particularly if their requirements 
are insufficiently understood, and suitable positions are 
not provided. The majority fl,ower in spring and summer, 
and proper treatment varies according to the condition 
of the plants in such as the growing, resting, and 
flowering periods. Healthy and floriferous hard-wooded 
plants in spring, notably the numerous and beautiful 
speries from Australia and the Cape, are only secured 
by constant attention throughout the preceding summer 
and winter. Nearly all repotting should be 
attended to just after the annual growth 
begins, this season varying with different spe- 
cies, A somewhat closer atmosphere, and 
more moisture, may be allowed for a month 
afterwards, to encourage the emission of roots 
into the new soil. Afterwards, more air may 
be gradually admitted, and, in bright summer 
weather, a thin, temporary shading applied. 
The aim, with hard-wooded plants, shouhl be 
to encourage summer growth to the fullest 
extent, and to insure its thorough ripening 
in autumn. Without this, the results sultse- 
qnently obtained in the X->i"oduction of flowers 
will be but secondary compared with what 
is possible under good cultivation. There 
are also numerous evergreen shrubs and 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Greenhouse — coiUvuund. 
small trees of an oruameutal character, well adapted 
for intermixing in Greenhouses as permanent decorative 
subjects, and a larg-e proijortiou may be cultivated in 
comparatively small pots. When any require larger sizes, 
they should be shifted in spring or early autumn, and, 
if possible, kept a little clo.^er for a few days after- 
wards. Examples of hard-wooded flowering plants are: 
Acacia, Azalea, Boronia, Camellia, Epaeris, Erica, and 

Soft-wvoded Section. This includes all that have stem^ 
and leaves of a more or less sappy growtli, and are mostly 
propagated from cuttings in that state, or from seeds. 
A large number of florists' flowers are included in this 
section, and, as many of them are growing throughout 
the winter months, a position where all possible light is 
obtainable, should be allotted them. Many soft-wuoded 
subjects are easily cultivated; but they are very sensitive 
to improper treatment, such as allowing too close an 
atmosphere, or too much heat or shade. A number of 
beautiful Greenhouse plants are annually raised from 
seed, and good strains or selections of such varieties as 
Calceolarias, Celosias, Cinerarias, Mignonette, Primulas, 
Ehodanthes, &c., should be secured. These should be sown 
at different periods, in order to prolong the flowering 
season. Immunity from insects, and a continued growth 
without check, are important conditions in the successful 
cultivation of all. Other plants of a soft-wooded nature, 
but which become somewhat hard with age, are either 
propagated each year, or, in some oases, treated as peren- 
nials. Examples of these are : Chrysanthemums, Eupa- 
toriums, Fuchsias, Pelargoniums, and Salvias. A selection 
from each is indispensable for Greenhouse decoration, and 
all are easily cultivated where space admits. An open 
and somewhat rich soil is a general requirement, and 
plenty of air and water in summer, after the plants are 
become established. Lilies of the Valley, Solomon's Seal, 
Deittzia gracilis, Iticentra speciahilis, &c,, are amongst 
the most attractive and useful subjects for forcing. 

Greenhouse Bulbous Plants. Amongst these, a great 
diversity and selection are available for cultivation, and 
numerous beautiful plants are included. Apart from the 
value of Dutch bulbs for forcing and spring decoration, 
nearly all the various species from the Cafte succeed under 
Greenhouse treatment, and are highly ornamental when in 
flower. The majority may be grown in a sandy soil, and 
in comparatively small pots. Most Cape bulbs should be 
encouraged . to make their growth in a moderately warm 
house or pit, and then be allowed a season of rest in a 
cooler place before flowering. In addition to Hyacinths, 
Tulips, &c., the following are amongst the best of Green- 
house plants generally termed " bulbous," but some of them 
are in reality not so : Babianas, Begonias (of the tuberous 
Section), several Crinums, Cyclamens, Freesias, Gladioli, 
Ixias, Lacheualias, Liliums, Narcissi, Nerines, &c. The 
foregoing, with many others, are well adapted for pot 
culture, and well repay for any special attention devoted 
to them. 

Arraiiyemeut of Flowering Plaids, i^c. In Greenhouses 
retained more for the exhibition of plants than for theii- 
cultivation, a method of arrangement should be adopted 
by which the whole may be rendered attractive, and, at the 
same time, .sufficient space allowed each plant to enable 
it to be properly seen. In span-roof houses, there are 
usually side stages, and, if larg^ enough, a central one, 
or otherwise a bed, nearly level with the floor, forms the 
centre. The latter position, in either case, should be 
devoted to the taller-growing plants and evergreen 
shrubs, interspersed with a few in flower, according to 
the stock at command. Formal arrangement should 
specially be avoided, the flowering subjects being evenly 
dispersed throughout, and, so far as practicable, plenty 
of XJ^^-i^^i^ ^^'i^*^ green foliage intermixed. Araucarias, 
Cordy lines, Cyperus, Ferns, &c., are especially useful 

Greenhouse -vunlitittfd. 
for the purpose. Small groups of dwarf plants are 
frequently more eft'ective than when the same are dis- 
tributed as single specimens. The side stages should 
be about 3ft. above the ground, and, if any of the 
plants are very dwarf, they should be raised on pots or 
suspended from the roof. 

Olimhev!^ and Pillar Flaids. These are important and 
attractive additions to Greenhouse embellishment. Many 
are, however, rather unusually susceptible to the attacks 
of insects, and, if the latter are allowed a footing, con- 
siderable injury is caused to plants underneath. If taken 
down from the wires each winter, thoroughly washed, 
and occasionally examined and .sponged afterwards during 
summer, the majority of climbers may be kept tolerably 
clean ; but, if this is neglected, the plants soon become 
an eyesore, and fail to succeed. Climbers should be 
planted out so soon as they are large enough to establish 
themselves, but good specimens should first be prepared in 
pots. They have, of necessity, to be placed near the side 
walls, and, as the hot-water pipes are often there, suit- 
able provision is rarely made for roof-covering plants. If 
such is the case, they can hardly be expected to grow 
and flower well. An open compost of sandy peat and 
loam is best, and any special soil may be placed round 
particular plants requiring it. Copious supplies of water 
are necessary in summer, but only a little should be 
applied during the resting period of winter. One or 
two wires flxed near each rafter, and the plants limited 
to covering' them separately, is the best arrangement, 
as exclusion of light from plants underneath must be 
avoided. Fuchsias are amongst the best of subjects, 
either for pillars or rafters. Tea and Noisette Roses 
should always be included, and a light position selected 
for them. Bougainvillea glabra. Oestrums, Kennedyas, 
Passifloras, Swainsonas, and Tacsonias, amongst many 
others, may be plantpd where there is sjiace for them to 

Airing and Tem-peratures. A confined, close atmo- 
sphere should always be avoided in a Greenhouse devoted 
to the general cultivation of plants. Cold draughts and 
improper airing are equally to be condemned. When 
proper means of ventilation are provided in span-roofed 
houses, air may be admitted on the opposite side to that 
from which the wind blows. In pits, or houses of other 
shapes, the admission of air is an important matter that 
can only be practised properly after experience is gained. 
Young and tender growths are frequentlj' mucli injured 
through injudicious airing in spring. During warm summer 
weather, too much can scarcely be given to plants in 
flower, but with those making their growth its admission 
should be carefully regulated. A little ventilation at the 
ajjex, especially if the house is closely glazed, is advisable 
whenever the weather is mild. All Greenhouse shrubs 
permanently employed, and the majority of spring and 
summer-flowering subjects, should be allowed to rest 
during winter, by keeping a rather low temperature and 
a dry atmosphere, A temperature ranging from -1..5deg. 
to 50deg. should be a maximum, and lOdeg. less will 
do no injury. In summer, fire heat should be withheld, 
and the house kept as cool as possible, fur preserving the 

Watering. Although a large proportion of cool-house 
jilants require plenty of water, its application indis- 
criminately would end in destruction with many others. 
As a rule, those having the finest roots require the 
least amount of moisture, and as these are invariably 
hard - wooded, careful watering becomes one of their 
special requirements. Rules for watering plants are fre- 
quently given, but the knowledge can only be properly 
obtained by experience. Soft - wooded plants require a 
much larger amount, as their sappy growths are rarely 
at rest, and the roots should never be allowed to get 
too dry. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


GREENOVIA. Now included under Sempervivum 

(which srr). 

GREEN ROSECHAFER. Srr Rosechafer. 

GREENWEED. ,Sr. Genista tinctoria. 

GREGORIA VITALIANA. A synonym ot Audro- 
sace Vitaliana (which .•<rr}. 

GREIGIA (naniud m honour of Major-Guucral Greig-, 
a, promoter of Eusyian horticulture). Ord. Bromeliacem. 
A genus compriKinn- two apecies of large-growing herbs, 
producing a fine crown of Pineapple-like ypiny leaves. 
Greigias are usually described as requiring wtove heat, 
but in summer they may be placed outside the rock garden 
or warm border, in light, perfectly-drained soil. In the 
stove, they require treatment similar to Billbergia (which 

Fig. 150. GREKJIA SPIlACF.t,.\T.V. 

G, sphacelata (scorched). Jt. rose-coloured, .sessile, overlappin<( 
each other, and disposed in dense heads ; bracts larfie, tinged with 
Si'cen. Summer, l. numerous, erect, sword-shaped, acuminated, 
fringed with stiff spin^es. /?. 3ft. ChUi, 1865. See Fi^. 150. 
(R. G. 1865, 474.) sk\. milhrniia sphaccL.ila. 

GRENVILLEA. Included under Pelargonium 

(which aee). 

GREVILLEA (named in honour of C. F. Groville, a 
patron of botany). Including Anadenia, Liji^anlhe, Man- 
{llema, MoUoija, Strangea, Sl.ijlunis. Ord. Prutearecp. A 
large genua (more than HiO species have been described) 
of beautiful greenhouse shrubs or trees, limited, with the 
exception of seven New Caledonian species, to Australia. 
Flowers in pairs along the rachis of a short and umbel- 
like or elongated raceme, rarely reduced to a single pair ; 
racemes either terminal or also axillary, rarely all axillary. 
Grevilleas thrive with ordinary greenhouse treatment. 
They should be repotted after the flowering season. For 
general culture and propagation, see Cytisus. 

G. acanthifolia (Arantlius-leaved).*-y/., densely disposed 
in racemes 5in. or 4-in. king ; styles (;ts in thi- other species) lon,u. 
liliforni, considerably exceeding the periiuth in length. June. 
I rigid, divided nearly to tlie centre; lower divisions cuai-sely 
toothed ; very bu^gestive of Acanthus foliagt. h. 41't. 132^". 
(B. M. 2807.) 

Voi. II. 

Grevillea — continued. 
G. alpestris (rock). A synonym of G. alpina. 
G. alplna (alpine).* Jl. red, yellow; racemes very short, terminal, 
sessile; pedicels pubescent. May. /. rather crowded, sessile or 
nearly .so, oval, obloii'j,-l;i in nihite or almost linear, obtuse or 
witli a small point, suniri.iinr-, attaining lin., hirsute or rarely 
scabrous only above, silky-villnus beneath; margins revolute. 
//. 4ft. A mncli Itranclieil, erect, spreading, or diffuse shrub. 
SV-N. r;. alpc^lri.. (I'.. .^I. 5007.) 
G. arenaria (sand-loving). ,//.. racemes short, terminal, umbel- 
like, few-flowered, mostly reilexed. L shortly petiolate, obovate- 
oblong to narrow-oblong, obtuse, with a very small point ; 
margins recurved, minutely hoary-tomentose, and scarcely veined, 
on the upper siiie. densely tomentrtse, and often ferruginous 
underneath. Branches densely tomentose. h. 6ft. An erect 
shrub. SVN. L/isauthe cana. (B. M. 3285.) 
G. a. canescens (hoary). This closely resembles the type, with 
the exception that the perianth is more villous, and the points to 
the lamina- longer. SvN. G. caucsren^s. (B. M. 5185.) 
G. aspera linearis (I'ongli, linear). A synonym of <.', jasricc.lata. 
G. asplenifolla (Asjileuium-leaveil) jt. pink; 
racemes sessile or shortly pedunculate, terminal, 
or in the upper axils, sMcnnd, lin. to 2in. long. 
July. I. hmceolate or linear-lani'.eolate, mucro- 
nate-acute, entire, acutely tootheil or pinnatifld, 
with short broad acute Inbes, (Contracted into a 
short petiiile. Branches minutely silky-pubescent 
when very y(.ung. A. 12ft. to 15ft. 1806. A tall 
shrub or small slender tree. Syn. G. longijolm. 
G. Banksii (Banks').* /. red, in dense terminal 
Tai.enies. August. L. 4in. to Sin. long, deeply 
(liiinatifiil ; segments broadly-linear, decurrent, 
whitish, h. 15ft. 1868. (B. M. 5870.) 
G. blechnifolia(B]echnnm-leaved). A synonym 
nf 'r. Ctilciii. 

G. Caleyi (< 'aley's). ,//. red ; racemes terminal, or 
in the upper axils, erect, rather dense, secimd, 
shortly pedunculate, lUn. to 2in, long. June. 
/. deeply pinnatitid or junnate, with numerous 
oblong-linear divaricate segments, obtuse or mu- 
cronate, with recurved margins, glabrous above, 
softly villous beneath. Branches densely villous, 
with soft spreading ftrrui^inous hairs, h. 5ft. to 
6ft. 1830. A slender shrub. Syn. G. blechni- 
Inlia. {B. M. 5133.) 

G. canescens (hoai'y). A synonym of G. arenaria 

G. Drununondii (Drummond's). fi. white, 

yellow ; racemes umViel-like, sessile, terminal, or 

un very short axillary tufts. June. l. sessile, 

ratlier crowded, oblong, lanceolate, or linear, 

olitnse or mucronate ; margins recurved. Stems 

;ipparently diffuse or procumbent. Branches 

tomentose and hirsute with long fine-spreading 

hairs. 1859. 

G. dubia (doubtful). A synonym of G. scricea. 

G. ericlfolia (Heath-leaved). Jl. bright red in 

the lower part, upper gTeenish-yellow ; racemes 

terminal, short, but rather loose, and often 

shortly pedunculate, quite glabrous. Winter. I. 

sessile, linear or lanceolate, mucronate -acute, 

with revolute margins. Branches pubescent or 

tomentose-villous. A low, spreading, or diffuse 

shrub. (B. 1\J. 6361.) 

G. fasciculata (fascicled).* fi. bright red, with yellow tips; 

racemes umV)eldike. few-flowered, sessile, axillary or terminal. 

Spring. I. sessile, or very shortly petiolate, linear-lanceolate, 

or lower ones oldoTig-elHptical, obtuse or wiiih a callous jioint ; 

margins revolute. A low, prostrate shrub in the typical form, 

but sometimes attaining 5ft. or 4ft. in height. 1875. Sy.\. 

(V. asi„ni. linearis. (B. M, 6105.) 

G. glabrata (snuioth). /I. white; racemes axillary, the upper 
ones forming a terminal jtauicle ; rachis slender. May. /. 
broadly cuneate, shortly ami broadly threedobed ; lobes acute, 
witli tine pungent points, contracted into a petiole, flat, with 
prominent primary veins. //, 5ft. to 6ft. An *-rect, quite gla- 
brous shrub. 183o. SYiNS. Anadenia Maiojle^ii and Maiifilhia 

G. intricata (entangled). iL white ; racemes slender, peduncu- 
late, lin. to 2in. long, and sometimes branched, terminal or 
lateral. IMay. l. long and slender, once, twice, or three times 
ternately divided into linear-subulate, almost terete, rigid, acute 
segments, singly or doubly gTo(»ved, often above lin. long, on a 
common peticde. Branches slender, glabrous, h. cift. "^to 5ft. 
1871. (B. M. 5919.) 

G. junlperina (.luuiiK-r-like). ./'. pale yellow and green, more 
or less tingeil with red : racemes short, ahnost umbellate, sessile, 
ternnnal. Mti v. /. linear, rigid, sharyj-pointed. An -erect or 
spreading bushy shrub. (L. H.C. 1003 ; B. R. 1089.) 

G. j. sulphurea (sulphur-coloured). This plant is, according to 
Bentliam, only a variety of (-i. jiinipcritirr, from whicli itsdift'ersin 
the i>erianth being withontany, or scarcely any, rcl tint. Syn. 
G. salphurea. (L. B. C. 1725.) Thia is one of the hardiest of aU 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Grevillea — continued . 

tlie Ui 
ill the 

lleaa. It tlmvers freely in the open air, as a wall plant, 
i^libourltnuil of London. 

G, lavandulaceairaveniler-leiLved).* Jl. rich bright mse, race- 
mosely pnnha-eil iti almiulance from tlie points of all the shouts. 
Spriii.n'. /. linear, terminated by a sharp spine. 1850. Syn. 
G. rusm. (L. & V. F. G. ii. 56.) 

G. longlfolia (lonj,'- leaved). A synonym of G, asjdeni/oUa. 

G. macrostylis (htn.ix-styled).* Jl. crimson and yellow, few, in 
iimljel-like axillary or terminal racemes, mure ur less secnnd. 
April. /. oTi short petioles, ciineate at the l)ase, more or less 
deeply divided into tliree liroad triangular or lanceolate puny;ent- 
ptiinted IhIil's, nearly jj;l;il>rous, and more or less veined aljove, 
silvery-silky underneatli. h. 4ft. to 6ft. 1868. (li. M. 5915.) 

G. Preissi (Preiss's). A .syn(mym of G. 'J'/iciemanidana. 

G. pulchella (neat). jL white ; racemes dense, usually .iilaltrons, 
terminal or in tlie upper axils, on short slender peduncles, i. 
pinnate; seg-nients seven tu eleven, cuneate, tritid or three- 
toothed, distinct, or the upper ones confluent atid more entire ; 
lobes trianjiular or lanceolate, acute or pungent-]nniited ; ma.i-nins 
revohite. h, 1ft. to 2ft. A rather slender divaricate shrub or 
under-shrub. SVN. Aaadeuia pulchella. (B. M. 5979.) 

G. punicea (scarlet).* jl. briij;ht deep red; racemes very short, 
rather deiise, almost sessile at the emls of tlii^ In-anches, very 
spreadinj,^ or recurved. I. shortly iH-tiolate. nlilnns-elliptiral or 
almost oval,, with a small callous point, ;;labrous, often 
shinin*: and obscurely pennivelned above and frequently with 
a promimMit niar,i;inal or inter-mar^inal nerve, silvery-silky or 
ferru;;inous undei-neath, the midriit alone prominent; margins 
recurved. An erect shrub. Syn. Li/mnlheapeciom. (B. M. 669S ; 
B. R. 1319.) 




G. robusta (robust).* Jl,. orange ; racemes panicled. June. I. 

pinniite, with fi'om eleven to twenty-one pinnaLilid prnn;i>; seg- 
ments acute, smooth and veiny aljove, linary l)ene; h. 5ft. 
1829. «A very p'aceful foliaiie plant, and for ^enrraJ ]inr| 
the best and most eusi]y-j;ro\vji of the "enus. Wee I'i", 151 
(B. M. 3184.) 

Grevillea— roit^MutecZ. 

G. rosea (rose). A synonym of G. lavaudulacea. 

G. rosmarlnifolia (Rosemarydeaved).* jl. red, disposed in 
terminal chister.s. June. I. linear, h. 4ft. This very handsome 
.shrub proves to he hardy in the more southern counties of 
England. 1824. (L. B. C. 1479.) 

G. sericea (silky).* Jl. rose-coloured ; racemes very dense, rather 
shrirt, on short terminal peduncles. I. shortly petiolate, olilong- 
lanceoliite or linear, nuicr<inate, with recurved margins, 
glabrous or sparingly silky above and more or less distinctly 
penniveineil, closely silky-tomentose underneath, the midrib 
alone innminent. Branches rather slender, silky-pubescent. An 
erect, sjjreadiiiL;-, or diffuse shrub. Syns. G. dubia, Lysaiithe 
sericea. (A. B. It. 100 ; B. M. 3798 ; L. It. C. 880.) 

G. sulphurea (sulpluir). A synonym of G. juniper Ina sulphur ea. 

G. Thelemanniana (Thelemann'.s).* jl. bright deep red and 
yellowish at the tij), produced in dense pendulous racemes, 3in. 
or 4in. long, .Spring. I. pinnate; divisions linear, bright green. 
iJranches slender, -sbuiewhat drooping. /(. 3ft. to 5ft. 1838. This is 
one of the most elegant of the genus. Svn. G. J'reiMi. (B. M. 5857.) 

G. vestita (clothed). _/f. pur|>le ; racemes axillary, dense, scarcely 
exceeding the leaves ; racliis pul)escent or villous. May. 
l. cuneate, broail or narrow, taiH-ring toward tlie very narrow 
base, more or less deeply three or rarely tive-lobed at the end; 
lobes broad, mucronate, and often pungent, glabrous above when 
old and veined, pubescent or villous underneath ; margins re- 
curved, h. 6ft. to 9ft. An erect, bushy shrub. Sy'N. Man<jlesicb 

GBiEWIA (named in honour of Nchemiah Grew, 
M.D., famous for his work on the Anatomy of Vege- 
tables). Stns. Ghadara, Mallococra. OuD. Tiliacecv. A 
g-enus comprising about sixty species of trees or shrubs, 
for the most part continod to the hotter regions of the 
Old World. Flowers yellow or rarely purple, axillary, 
few, or more numerous and panicled. Drupe fleshy or 
fibrous, entire, or two to four-lobed. Leaves entire or 
serrate, three to seven-nerved. Grewias thrive in a mix- 
ture of sandy loam and x^^at. Propagated by cuttings, 
inserted in sand, under a glass, in heat. The species 
here described arc those best known to cultivation. 

G. asiatica (Asiatic), /., petals yellow, linear-oblong, half the 
length of the sepals ; peduncles two or more. July and August. 
I. obliquely cordate, base five-nerved, h. 12ft. East Indies, 1792. 
A small tree. 

G, OCCidentaliS (Western).* jl. purple; peduncles solitary, one- 
tlowered. July to Septemljer. I. roundish-ovate, blunt-toothed, 
smooth. /(. 10ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1690. (B. M. 422.) 

G, sapida (savoury). Jl. yellow, ^in. in diameter ; sepals oblong; 
petals entire, half the length of the sepals. I. sub-sessile, 
ovate or orbicular, doubly serrate, pilose above, pubescent be- 
neath. Tropical Himalaya. A decumbent shrub. 

GRATIA (named after Sir George Grey, Governor- 
General of the Cape Colony, where the species was dis- 
covered). Oed. Sii'pindacew. A nionotypie genus. The 
species is a handsome greenhouse shrub, requiring fidl 
exposure to the sun, and a season of rest (during 
which it must be kept rather dry) after the wood is 
ripened. It grows best in a sandy loam. Propagated 
by seeds ; or by cuttings, made of half-ripened shoots. 
G. Sutherland! (.Sutherland's). Jl. showy, five-petaled, crowded 
in long, thick, terminal racemes. March, l. alternate, sub-cor- 
date, stalked, inciso-lobate, .Stems stoutish, soft, smooth. 
Natal, 1859. (B. M. 6040.) 

GRIAS (from grew, to eat ; fruit edible). Anchovy 
Pear. OitD. Myrtarecc. A genus containing two or three 
species of tall, hardly branched, stove evergreen trees, 
natives of tropical America. Flowers white, large ; petals 
four, coriaceous. Leaves very long, oblong, entire. 
The species are of quick growth, and thrive in a compost 
of rich sandy loam. Propagated by cuttings of ripe wood, 
in spring. 

G. canliflora (stem-flowering).* Jl. produced in short peduncles 
from the old stem, not particularly ornamental, but very sweet- 
scented. ]5erry ovate, about the size and shape of an alligator's 
egg, of a brownisii-russet colour. I alternate, lanceolate, spathu- 
late or entire, drooping, glossy green, sometimes upwards of 3ft. 
long. /(. 30rt. to 50ft. West Indies, 1768. (B. M. 5622.) 

G. zamorcnsis (/amoran). I. ovate-lanceolate, 1ft. to 2ft. long. 
Peru, 1879. A very noble and striking ornamental foliage 
[dant, not yet much grown, 

GRIFFINIA (named in lionour of William Griffin, 
a patron of botany). Ord. Amanjlli.deLC. A genua com- 
prising seven or eight species of very ornamental cool 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Grifiinia — co ni inned. 
stove bulbous plants, all natives of Brazil. Upper se;^- 
ments of the periauth distiuotly broader than the others, 
and directed iipwards ; two of the remaining three spread 
out at right angles, and the third directed downwards. 
Leaves broad, iisnally stnllvcd. and peculiarly netted 



Fig. 152. Grti iinia Elumenavia. 

Griffinias thrive in well-drained fibrous loam. After 
growth is5 completed, water should be withheld for a 
time, in order to thoroughly ripen the bulbs. All the 
species, unless forced, flower in syn-ing and siuumev. 

wliite, ti|i]M-d witli ricli Itlue, nearly 
, to t\volvr-ltu\vi_'vod. /. Iivmidly Dvatu- 


G. Blumenavia (lllmiiuii;ive'.s). jl. white, streaked witli pale 
rtisi-; iiiulit-l six tc i_'i,i;iit-M')were(.l ; scapt^ erect, 6in. to Sin. hi^;li. 
/. uhl(iiii;-l;Lii<;ci'hite, 4iii. tn 5in. in leniitli, on slender pelioli's. 
Bull, iiiedimn-sizfd. 1866. See Fig. 152. (B. M. 5666.) 
G. dryades (niuinitaiii-wood).* _//. ])iiv]>lisli-lilac, whitisli towards 
tlir centre, iilinnt 4in. in diameter; iimliel larj^e, loose, ten to 
tliii-tecri-Howeicd ; scape stont, l^ft. lii;ih. l. lavue, olduni^- 
laiicrnliitc, irt. lun,-. Bulb Iari;e. 1863. (B. M. 5786.) 
G. hyacinthina (liyacinthine-ljlue).* //., ujiper sci;-nicnts tiine at 
the t'lp, white towards the base, ab(Jiit 3in. across; uinliel nine 
to trn-Mowered ; scape rather longer than the leaves. ^. stall^cd, 
ovate-oblong, 6in. to Sin. long, "with a reniarkalde lattice-like 
venation. jiulbs ovate, ninderate sized. 1G15. See Fig, 153. 
((.;. C. 1S74, ii. 14.) 
G. h. maxima (largest). jL 
5in. across; uniliel cdose, toi 
G, ornata (adorned).* jl. delicate bluishdilac, fading nft' to 
nearly white, long-stalked ; umbel twenty to twenty-fonr- 
Howered, and foriiling a spreading head of some Sin. or 9in. 
across; scape 1ft. to l/,ft. high, oonipressud, with an acute ridge 
on eacli side. /. elliptic-olilong ; margins much recurved. 1^'Vci. 
(B. I\I. 6367.) 

GRINDEIiIA (named in honour of David H. Grindel. 
a German botanist, 1706-1836). Syn. Donia. Okd. 
Compofiitoi. A genus containing about twenty species of 
hardy or nearly hardy, biennial or perennial, shrubby or 
herbaceous plants, natives of North America and extra- 
tropical South America. Flower-heads yellow, solitary at 
the ends of tlie branches, and from lin. to 2in. across. 
Leaves alternate, sessile or semi-amplcxicaiil, often rigid, 
dentate, or ciliato-serrate. Grindclias are of easy culture 
in peat and loam. Propagated by seeds, sown in spring 
or autumn, in a cool greenhoase or frame ; by cuttings ; 
and by divisions. 

G. arguta (sharp), fl.-heads yellow. July and September. I., 
lower ones sjiatludate; upjier ones linear-oblong, serrated, one- 
nerved, ^teni simple. A. 1ft. Mexico, 1S22. Herbaceous, hardy. 
(B. K.. 731, under name of G. anituxtiJoHa.) 

G. glutinosa (glutinous). «' Jl.-head.s yellow; involncres viscid. 
January to Becinnber. I. ovate-oblong, serrated, evergreen. 
h. 2ft. "J^ern, 1803. .Shrubby, nearly hardy. (B. R. 187.) 

G. grandiflora (large-flowered).* Jl.-licaih deep yellow or orange, 
wliiih, inior to ('xjiansion, is covered \\'itli the glutinous balsannc 
secretion occurring in some other species <.if tins genus, large, 
aboutlAin. across. Sunnner. I., radical ones sitathulate ; caidine 
ones sessile, clasping, dentate. Stem brandling near the tf>p. 
/(. 2:ft. t<.3ft. Texas^ 1851. Hardy biennial. (U."M. 4628.) 

G. inuloides (Inula-like).* JJ. -heads yellow. June to Sejjtember. 
/. se.^sile, oiiliiug-Iancei'late, acute, serrated at end, not viscid. 
},. l.'.rt. .Afexico' 1315. Shrubby, hardy biennial. (B. W. 3737; 
B. It". 243.) 

G. speciosa (slmwy), Jl.-heads yellow, nearly 3in. across, covered, 
to a considerable (.hickness, with a transparent glutinous varnish. 
h. 2ft. Patagonia, 1352. Shrubby, nearly hardy. (L. ..t P. I''. (;. 
iii. 290.) 

G. squarrosa (squarrose). .//.-//eatw yellow ; scales of involucre 
filiform at end, revtdute, sipiarrose. July to Se])tember. /. 
oblong, aniplexicanl, serrated, /o 2ft. North America, 1811. 
Ilevliareous, hardy perennial. (B. JI. 1706, under name of Dvnia 

GRISCIiINIA (named in honour of Franc. Grisolini, 
an Italian botanist, who flourished in the middle of the 
eighteenth century). Ord. Cornnrei.c. A genus com- 
prising eight species of trees or shrubs, natives of New 
Zealand, Chili, and Brazil. Flowers dicecious, in terminal 
panicles. Leaves alternate, often unequilatcral, oblong, 
sub-cpiadrate or lanceolate, thick, coriaceous, entire, 
spinose-dcntate or angulato ; ribs inconspicuous ; veins 
reticulated. Griselinias thrive in light rich loam, and are 
l^ropagatcd by cuttings, or by layers. The species de- 
scribed below are proljaldy the only ones yet in cultiva- 

G. littoralis (shore-loving).* rf. as in G. lucida. I. ovate or 
ohiuiig, less obli.|ue at the base, wedge-shaped or narrowed in ti' 
tlie slender ralliec long petiole ; veins very obscure below. //. 301 1. 
New Zealand. 1372. 

nute ; iiedicels jointi'd, very siiort ; 

long as tile leaves, HMK.ii branched, 

siin-ading golden (when dry) haiis. 

lie or obldug. iiuito entire, olituse or 

ipial towiirds the base, one side nuich 

narrower than the otiier ; veins very distinct on the under surface. 

/(. 10ft. to 12ft. New Zealand. G. inacnipJiijUa due.s not appear 

to be more than a large-leaved form of this. 

G. lucida (sliining). jL i 
panicles axillary, often a: 
minutely ].iulicscent, ^^it)l 
I. vei'y oldii|uel>' <ivate, <ib( 
rounili.'d at the tip, 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

GIMSXaCA (named in lionour of Gabriel Grisley, 
aiithor of a work on the Botany of Portugal, who lived in 

the seventeenth century). Ord. Lythrariew. A genus now 
limited to the one species described l>elow, which is a 
very pretty stove evergreen shrub. It thrives in a com- 
post of tibry and sandy peat and loam. Propagated by 
cuttings, obtained in spring from firm young shoots, 
ami insprted in sandy soil, under a bell glass, in heat. 

G. secunda (side-flowering). _/Z. pale pink ; stamens long;, purple. 
/. on slioit petioles, puberultjus on both surfaces. Bniuclilets 

.LilaUrnus. /(. 4ft. to 6ft. \Vneziiel;i iind New Grenada, 1821 

G. tomentosa. .See Woodfordia tomeutosa. 

GROBYA (named after L^rd Grey, of Groby, a 

munificont patron of horticulture; he died in 1836). 

OiiD. ij re hide en. A genus containing two species of 

stove epiphytal orchids, natives of Brazib Flowers yellow 

or greenish, tinged and spotted with purple, in short 

racemes ; petals broader tUau the sepals, forming- a sort 

of helmet overhanging the lip ; lip small, five-lobed at 

the apex. Leaves grass-like, riltbed at the apex. P.^eudo- 

bulbs ovate. For culture, .'^rp Stanhopea. 

G. AmlierstisB (Lady Amherst's).* jl. uchre-sputted, in j:ienduliius 

racemes. September. I. linear, acute, striated. Pseiidc-lndli.s 

ovate, -.a-een, terete. /(. 6in. 1829. (B. R. 1740.) 

G. galeata (helmeted). Jl.. gi-een, purple ; petals oljlong-, 

'.)iliiliicly-ilioinboid, rounded at top, disposed nito a helmet 

aliiiij; with the dorsal sepal; lateral sepals detlexed, connate at 

Itase ; \\\i tripartite ; lateral seirments linear, middle one cuneate- 

truncate, with a toothed disk, warted from shining; tubercles. 

Summer. I. like those of G. AinherxHii'. It. 6in. 1836. 

GRONOVIA (named in honour of Dr. John Frederick 
Gronovius, a learned botanist at Leyden ; he was a friend 
of Linmuus, and died in 1763). Oed. Loasece. A scandent 
stove or greenhouse annual herb, somewhat resembling the 
common Bryony. It succeeds in a rich sandy loam. Pro- 
pagated by seeds, sown on a hotbed ; the seedlings, when 
large enough, being potted off singly, and trained upon 

G. scandens (climbiusi). _//. yellow, small ; calyx with a tive- 
tootheil lini-iler, funnel-shaped; petals five, inserted in the calyx 
tube. June and July. /. alternate, xjetiolate, broad-cordate, tive- 
lobed, striniry. Texas to Venezuela, 1731. 

GROSSULARIACE.a;. A tribe of Saxifrn;ieo:'. 
GROUND CHERRY. ,SVe Cerasus ChaniEe- 

GROUND IVY. .SVv Nepeta Gleclioma. 
GROUND LAUREL. ,sVv' Epig-aea repens. 
GROUNDSEL. See Senecio. 

GROUNDSEL- TREE. A common name of Bac- 
charis halhnifolia (which .sv^r). 

GRUBBER, or GRUBBING AXE. A useful gar- 
den iniplumout for uprooting trees, &c., somewhat similar 

Fio. 151 Grurret?, or Grtip.bino Axv.. 

in shape to the ordinary pick, but having both points 
flattened and made wedge-shaped. One point, for cutting 

Grubber, or Grubbing" Axe — confinupd. 
roots or splitting wood, is in a line with the handle ; and 
the other is placed in a transverse direction for clearing 
roots of soil (see Fig. 154). What is known as a Daisy 

Fir;. 155. Daisy Grubber. 

Grubber (sec Fig. 1;")5) is a short implement, made with a 
claw, for removing the roots of Daisies from lawns. It 
is furnished with a handle, and the flat portion (a) is 
bent to form a leverage when pressed on the ground. 

GRUBS. Apple Grubs may be the larvte either of 
a beetle, Atilhuiunnus poinoruin, or of a small moth, 
Carpocajjsa [ixuunuiitit. The beetle belongs to the group 
of Weevils, or long-snouted beetles. It is about .Un. 
long, and of a dark colour. In June, the females lay 
their eggs in the flower buds (one egg in each), and 
the larvai soon emerge and live in the interior of the 
bud, which remains unopened. The grub is footless, of a 
pale colour, with a dark liead. The only remedies are to 
remove and destroj^ the buds containing the larvae and 
pupa3, and to shake from the branches and destroy the 
females before they have laid their eggs. See also 
Apple or Codlin Grub. 

GRYLLOTALPA. See Mole Cricket. 

GRYLLUS. Srr Crickets. 

GUAIACUM (fnini Gaa'ij.u\ its South American name). 
Ord. Zygopltyllece. A genus containing about eight species 
of lofty stove evergreen trees or shrubs, inhabiting the 
West Indies and sub-tropical North America. Flowers 
blue or purple ; peduncles axillary, one-fiowered. Leaves 
opposite, abruptly pinnate; leaflets entire. Guaiacums 
require a compost of rich, sandy, fibry loam. Propagated 
from ripened cuttings, obtained in April, and inserted in 
sandy soil, under a hand glass, in heat. 

G. arboreadiee-like). /?. blue, disposed in loose racemes. July. 
/. with seven tofor.iteen pairs of oval-oblong, blunt leaflets, which 
are unequal at tli*-; Uase, and are usually alternate. /(. ^Oft. Car- 
thaaena, 1816. 

G, officinale (ntliciual).^' Lignum Vitfe. _//. Idue; iieduncles twin. 
-Toly. /. with t\\'ii i)airs of oliovate or oval liluut leatietw. Bark 
suio'itli, viiriegated with green and wliite ; wnod \\itlL a peculiar 
acid aromatic .scent, h. 30ft. Jamaica, 1694. (LI. M. PI. 41; 
i>. R. i839, 9.) Thiy species yields the Lignum Vitic, a greenish- 
lii'own, hard, heavy wood, extensively uscil hy turnfv.s ; "and also 
the fragrant lesiii nmnnonlv called gum i;uaiacuni, wliich, as \^■e^ 
as the bark and w 1, is used nifdicinally. 

GUALTHERIA. SV- Gaiiltheria, 

GUANO. Srr Manures. 

GUARUA (from Gnuniy the native name in Cuba). 
Ord. Meli'iv'uv. A genus comprising thirty species of tall 
store evergreen trees or shrubs, natives of tropical 
America, but rarely seen in cultivatiou. Flowers white 
or reddish, in axillary panicles, racemes, or spikes. Leaves 
pinnate ; leaflets opposite or alternate. For culture, see 

G. grandiflora (large-flowored). _//., petals silky on the outside, 
liardly Aiu. liuig; racemes elongated. February. /., leaflets many 
pairs, oval-obloug. Sin. or 9in. long. h. 50ft. I'^rench (xuiana, 
1752. All ])arts of this tree, hut esi>ecially the bark, have a 
nuiskdike perfunie. 
G. raniiflora(ltvaMch-Hnwereil). Jl. wliitish ; racemes lateral, very 
short, rising fmni the sides of the branches, i., leaflets ovate- 
lanceolate. " /(. 20lt. Porto Rico, 1822. Tree. 
G. Swartzii(Swartz's). //. wliite; racemes flougated. June and 
.1 uly. /,, li-allrts Janceidate-ovate, acuniiuatni, featlier-nerved, 
witii six iiv scvrn pmniinent lateral ner\cs beneath. Ii. 20ft. 
West Indian Islands, V<^2.i. Tree. 

GUATTERIA (named in honour of John B. Guatteri, 
an Italian botanist, once Professor at Parma). Oko. 
AnonaceoE. A genua containing about fifty species of very 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Guatteria — roni mh 


ornauiGntal stove everg-reen trees or shrubs, all natives 
of the warmer parts of the New World, ^'lowers yellowish- 
white, greenish, or dusky; peduncles one-flowered, axillary 
or lateral, solitary or fasciculated. Leaves feather-nerved, 
alternate, entire, exstii3ulate. Guatterias thrive in a com- 
post of loam, peat, and sand. Propagation is readily 
effected by cutting-s, inserted in sand, under a glass, in heat. 
Proba.bly G. Ou/rpgini, is the only species in cultivation. 

G. Ouregou (Oumiion). jl., pe<luiicles axillary, short, two to 
four; calyx segments triani^iiliir, imiiitefl ; jn.'tals; rusty-velvety, 
oliuvate, interun" longer; cai'i'iils ovnid. /. ulni\';Lte-iil)liiii^, 
cuspiilatf, cuneate at the biise, shiniiiii, a.liDvi^ j^lalirew.eiit be- 
neath ; veins pruiuineiit. (_'ari]>lK-'aii Islamls. A tall tree. SVN. 
Anoint rhrii.s-'pctala. 

GUAVA. .S't6 Psidiuni pyriferum. 

GUAZUMA (name of Mexican origin, employed by 
Pluniier). Bastard Cedar. Syns. Buhroma and Diiiro- 
gloas'um. Oru. Sieve tiliareoi. A genns containing about 
live species of ornamental stove evergreen trees, natives 
of the tropical regions of both liemispheres. Flowers 
small; cymes axillary, shortly pedunculate. Leaves un- 
equally dentate, often oblique. The species thrive in a 
compost of peat and loam. Cuttings of ripened shoots 
root freely in sand, under a glass, in heat. 

G. ulmifolia (Elm-leaved). Jl., petals yellow, with two purple 
awns at the apex. August, h. 40ft. to 60ft. A A\'ide-spreadiug* 
tree, not unlike the Elm, with leaves that sleep hanging quite down, 
whilst tlie petioles remain entirely stilt and straight. West 
Indies, 1739. Svx. fhilinurta (hioztnna. 

GUEIiDER ROSi:. Ser Vibttrmim Opulus. 

GUERNSEY LILY. See Neriiie sarniensis. 

GUETTARDA (named in honour of John Etienne 
Guettard, 1715-1780, nieniber of the Academy of Sciences 
at Paris, who j>u^t*lished, in 1747, a catalogue of the 
plants growing in the vicinity of Estampes). Including 
Cadnmha and Luiiijena. Okd. Ruhiaren-. A genus 
containing' about fifty species of ornamental sto\'e ever- 
green shrubs or small trees, natives chiefly of tropical 
America, Flowers sessile and unilateral along the branches 
of the peduncles, and solitary in the forks ; corolla salver- 
shaped, with a cylindrical tube, and from four to nine 
oval-oblong lobes ; peduncles axillary, bifid. Leaves 
ovate or lanceolate. Guettardas succeed best in peat and 
loam mixed. Propagated by cuttings, inserted in sand, in 

G. odorata (sweet-scented).* .//. reddish, nearly lin. long, villous 
on the outside, very sweet-scented at Jiiglit; cymes liitid. Sum- 
mer, l. oval, acute at both ends. A. 6ft. to 10ft. Tropical 
America. 1818. Shrub. 

G. rugosa (wrinkled). A synonym of G. scahra. 

G, scabra (scabrous). jL white ; peduncles compressed, villous, 
almost four times longer than the petioles, l. obovate, luucronate, 
coriaceous, scabrous above, reticulated and pubescent beneath ; 
stipules lanceolate, acuminated, caducous. West Indies, 1818. 
Tree. Syn. C. ragum-. 

G. speciosa (showy). /'. white, exquisitely fragrant, partaking 
much of the scent "of cloves, large ; cymes pedunculate, velvety, 
much shorter than the leaves. June and July. I. broad, ovate or 
obovate, downy beneath. Branches horizontal, forming a large 
shady head. A. 30ft. Tropical Asia, 1771. Tree. (B. R. 1393.) 

GUEVINA (the native name). Stn. Quadria. Okd. 
Protpa<:ei.e. A monotypic genus. The species is a 
greenhouse evergreen tree, succeeding in a jteat and 
loam soil. Propagated by cuttings, inserted in sand, 
under a glass. 

G. Avellana (nut). Jl. white, hermaphrodite, geminate, pedi- 
cellate, disposed in rather long axillary racemes ; perianth tube 
cylindrical ; limb ovoid, recurved. June. /r. coral-red when 
ripe, about the size of a cherry. Seed edible, largely used by the 
Chilians. I. alternate, impan-pinnate ; leaflets dentate, h. 40ft. 
(in its native country). Chili, 1826. This tree is hardy in the 
South-west of England. 

GUICHENOTIA (named in honour of Antoine 
Guicbenot, a French gardener and traveller). Including 
Saroies. Okd. Sterculiarem. A genus containing about 
half-a-dozen species of greenhouse shrubs, conflned to 
extra-tropical Australia. Flowers nodding, solitary, at 

Guiclieiiotia — rontinyed. 
shortly racemose : calyx five-lobed ; petals five, small and 
scale-like. Leaves narrow, entire, with revolute margins. 
Guichenotias succeed in a loamy-peat soil. Propagated 
by cuttings. The two species here described are probably 
the only ones yet introduced. 

G. ledifolia (Ledum-leaved). yZ. white ; racemes several -flowered ; 
calyx scarcely menil.tranous, tomentose, the three prondnent ribs 
on each sepal giving it a rigid, striate appearance. Spring. I. on 
very shoit petioles, oblnug-lineiir, <ibtuse, mostly lin. to Ijiu. 
long ; margins much revolute, wrinkled, thick, and siift ; stipides 
similar, but usually ratlirr shorter and more sessile. 1868. S\',n. 
Lii:<i'<l-rlahini linuj ri, ol liardois. 

G. macrantha (large-flow (-■red). //. pm-ple, large, penduhuis, in 
racemes of two or thrfe. March. /. resembling those of O. 
lEili/idia. imi. (B. M. 4651.) 

GUILANDINA. Included under Ccesalyin.i„. 

GUILIELMA (named in honour of (jueen Frederica 
Gruilielma [Wilhelmine] Carolina of Bavaria). Obd. 
Palmce. A genus (included, by Bentham and Hooker, 
under Baetrls) containing three species of elegant stove 
palms, conflned to the tropical regions of South 
America. Flower -spike branched. Fruit ovate, about 
the size of a peach, produced in large pendulous 
bunches. Leaves pinnate, hairy; leaflets and footstalks 
spiny. Trunk slender, marked with circular scars, and 
armed with exceedingly sharp spines. For culture, see 

G. speciosa (showy). < l. 2ft. to 4£t. long, pinnate; pinnae about 
ll't. long, liii. widf, ajiex broader, bifid, deep green nerves on the 
upper siiles clotheil with slender black bristles ; petioles )tri>adly 
sheatlihiy at the base, thic.kl\' armed with slender loir^ black 
sharp sidiies. Stem tail, densely spiny, slender. Amazon. S\\n. 
Bactris (jasipa^-x. 
G. Utilis (useful). Jl. mono-cions. Seeds edilde, having the 
flavour of L-hestniits. I., young ones broad and bifld, bristling 
with short s]»iues, which spring from the rilis or veins, the 
ridges of the npjier surface and the costa beneath being the 
parts fiirnished with them; matui'e ones forming a handsmiie 
}jinnate head ; petioles densely spiny. Trunk slender, spiny. 
Costa Kiea, 1375. ((i. C. 1873, 1271.) 
GUIIfEA PEACH. See Sarcocephalus. 
GUM AMMONIAC. See Dorema Ammoniac um. 
GUM CISTUS. See Cistus ladaniferus. 
GUM ULEMI. The gum-resin of Amyris Plti- 

mieri (which ^:ee\, (V-0. 

GUMMING. See Gummosis. 

GUMMOSIS, or GUMMING. Recent observations 
on this highly contagious disease have shown that it is 
caused b}^ a fungus, which has been named by Professor 
Oudemans Corynevin Beijerinchii. The mycelium of this 
fungus appears to develop a ferment which penetrates 
the adjacent cells and transforms the cell - walls, the 
starch grannies, and other cell contents into gum, 
whether these cells belong to the host plant or to the 
fungus. The ferment of the Coryneum can penetrate 
into living cells — e.g., those of cambium — and can 
modify their protoplasm so that the cells that they 
afterwards produce by division form a tissue with new 
properties. This tissue is the pathological wood 
parenchyma. Sooner or later, this tissue begins, in turn, 
to secrete the ferment, and to change into gum. The 
quantity of ferment so formed is greater than the 
amount originally x^^e^^nt in the diseased cells. Gum- 
ming can be propagated from diseased to healthy 
I>laces without mycelium extending from one to the 
other. The action resembles the propagation that albi- 
notic parts exercise on healthy ones. It is conjectured 
that the channel of propagation is the phloem, and 
that the contagion is the ferment. In other cases, the 
mycelium of the Coryneum is the exciting cause of 
Gumming. A similar disease produces gum arable, gum 
tragacanth, and, probably, many resins and gum resins, 
" One point concerning the spread of this disease seems 
clear — the fungus itself cannot penetrate the bark : there 
must be some abrasion or laceration of the latter before 
the germ tubes can enter. These injuries may clearly 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gummosis, or Gumming — coiiiinued. 

arise from many causes ; but how do the spores which are 
undeveloped in the viscid gum gain access to them ? 
That they cannot be blown there by the wind, is obvious. 
If the Gumming occurs upon the upper branches, of course 
they may bo washed down by the rain ; but how do they 
spread from tree to tree ? Obviously, they must be carried 
- — ^most probably by insects" (Plowright). The best 
remedy against this disease would, therefore, appear to be 
the destruction, by burning, of the infested parts, and 
carefully coating the cut surfaces with some 
preservative solution. A. risume oi Dr. Beije- 
rinck's observations and experiments is given 
in the " Gardeners' Chronicle," n. s., xxii., i^p. 
239, 410. Fruit-trees affected by Gumming 
are : Cherries, Peaches, and Plums. Its effects 
on Peach-trees are most to bo dreaded, neither 
of the others being so much injured as these. 
In slight cases, the bark should be frequently 
well washed in damp weather, with a brush 
and water ; but, where the disease pervades 
the tree to a considerable extent, it is diffi- 
cult to effect a cure. Gumming occurs most 
frequently, and is greatly encouraged, where 
the soil has been too richly manured, and 
growth is consequently over-luxuriant. The 
necessity of removing large branches at pruning 
time should also be specially avoided by judi- 
cious summer stopping of the young shoots, 
in order to divide the saii, and insure an 
equal medium growth throughout. Lifting 
and root-pruning, or planting in a poorer soil, 
might be adopted to check Gumming, where an 
undue growth is encouraging it. 

GUM SENEGAI.. See Acacia Senegal. 

GUM-TREE. See Eucalyptus. 

GUNDEIiIA (named after Andrew Gundelsheimer, a 
German botanist, who accom]janied Tournefort in his 
journey into the Levant, in 1709). Syn. Gundelsketmera. 

Gundelia — coniinued. 
Obd. Compositcc. A monotypic genus, the species being 
a hardy, lactescent, thistle-like perennial. It thrives 
in a sandy-peat soil, and is propagated by division. 

G. Tournefortii 

terminal cluster 
nntitid ; Inlies 
Wee Fig. 156. 


IVTI 1 Su.di^li 

(IV)urnefort's). fl.-lteruU purplish, large, in 
.- - June to August. /. alternate, sessile, pin- 
and teeth very spiny, h. l,',ft. Kastern Asia, 1739. 

(named in honour of J 
bishop and botani-^t) 

E Gunner, 1718- 
Okd Hdh'taf/Lce. 

Fig. 156. (Ju.NUEL 


A genus containing about eleven species of hardy herba- 
ceous perennials, scattered over the Aiistrahan, Malayan. 
New Zealand, Pacitic, and South American Islands ; also 
found in South Africa, and in the Andes as 
far north as the Gulf of Mexico. Flowers 
greenish, minute, in dense spikes or branched 
panicles. Leaves all radical, large, petiolate, 
ovate or cordate -rotundate, simple or lobed, 
crenate, coriaceous-cai'nose, often wrinkled. 
Some of the species form noble plants for 
sub-tropical gardening, and grow vigorously in 
a damp, sunny situation, if sheltered from 
winds. A slight protection, such as a cover- 
ing- of dry leaves, is advisable in severe weather. 
Propagated by division. 

G. manicata (sheathed).* I. 12ft. tn 20ft. in circum- 
feifuee, lionie upiin stout f<nttst;ilks from 4 ft. to 
6ft. liigh. 1367. A majestic plant, fmui the cold and 
fii'ozinn reginus, known in Southein Brazil under 
the name of Oauipos des Lages. (I. II. 1821, 128.) 

G. perpensa (well-considered). Jl. green. August. 
/. lenifnini, toothed, shorter than the scape in fruit. 
/(. l!ft. Cai-e of Good Hope, 1688. (H. M. 2576.) 

G. scabra (rough).* Jl. reddish, small, very numerous, 
dispi'sed on a large club-.sluiped sjtike. /. Ijvoad, 
4ft. to 5ft. in diameter, liorue upon stout prieklv 
peti<des 3ft. to 6ft. in length, h. 4ft. Chili, 1S49. 
A line plant for large lawns ur parks. See Fig. 157. 
(F. d. S. 1879.) 

GUNNERACEffi. A synonym of Ha- 


GUNNIA. Included under Sarcoclxilus 

(which s,u-). 

GUSTAVIA (named after Gnstavus III., 
King of Sweden, and a patron of Linnteus). 
Stn. Vtriijara. Ord. Myrtfivi-o:. A genus con- 
sisting of about eleven species of stove ever- 
green trees or shrubs, natives of tropical 
Ann;rica. Flowers showj' ; peduncles one- 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gust a via — coiUinued. 
flowered, sub-umbollate. Leaves larg-e, alternate, ovate or 
spathalate, glossy. Gustavias thrive in a rich loamy soiJ. 
Cutting's, made from ripened shoots, root freely if inserted 
in sand, under a glass, in heat. 

G. gracillima (very sJunder).* /. rose-ml, 4in. in diameter, pro- 
iliKx'd fi'um the leaf axils in fclie yonn,^ phnits, from the wood in 

old ones, solitary or In paii-s ; pudiniclu stout, clavate, lin. to 
2in. knifj;. September. I. close-sot, spi-ea.ilin;j; and recurved, 
aciiniiiiate, serrate, narrowed into a sleinler in-tioU', lin. to 2in. 
^<^uiZ ; uiarftin .somewhat waved ; niidrih prominent beneath. 
Tvunk slender, quite glabrous. New Grenada, 184&. (B. M. 6151.) 

G. insignis (remarkable).* ./?., corolla very lar.ii:e, 5in. to 6in. in 
diameter ; petals cream-white, concave, spreading, externally 
tinged with rose-colour ; filaments rose; anthers orange. June. 
I. glossy, dark green, obovate-lanceolate, acuminated at the 
ptiiut, nnich attennate<l at the liase, and sessile, or nearly so. 
/;. 5ft. to 4ft. Tropical America, 1858. (B. M. 5069.) 

G. pterocarpa (wing-fruited).^ This is closely allied to G. 
iii.sifini.s, but ditEers from it by the ovary Iteing winged, the 
smaller and white flowers, the comparatively large calyoine lobes, 
and the more coriaceous, nearly entire foliage. (B. M. 5239.) 

G-UTIEBiRIlZIA (meaning probably commemora- 
tive). Syns. Br'(r]iyris and Brackyachiris. Oru. Com- 
poditiv. A genus comprising about twenty species of 
erect herbs or sub-shrubs, peculiar to America, extending 
from the Red River to Mexico ; a few also occur in 
Chili and the extreme South of the continent. Flowcr- 
heads yellow, small, very numerous, arranged in corymbs 
at the ends of the twigs. Leaves linear, entire, gummy. 
The species are of botanical interest only. The plant 
grown in gardens under the name of G. gym')Wfiper- 
moides is now referred to the genus Xanthocephalum 
(which see). 

GUTTA-PERCHA-TREE. See Isonandra. 

GUTTIPER.a;. A natural order of trees or shrubs, 
with a resinous juice, natives of humid and hot places 
in tropical regions, chiefly in South America or Asia, 
while a few are found in Africa. Flowers white, yellow, 
or pink, often incomplete ; sepals and petals two to six, 
rarely eight. Leaves opposite, leathery, entire. The 
plants are generally acrid, and yield a yellow gum-resin. 
There are about twenty-four genera and 230 species. 
Illustrative genera are : CalopUyllum, Cliisia, Garcinia, 
and Ma'nunea. 

GUZMAN'ITIA (named in honour of A. Guzman, a 
Spanish naturalist). Ord. Brotneliacece. A genus of 
four or five species of very handsome stove herbaceous 
perennials, allied to Tillandsia (which see for culture). 
They are all natives of tropical America. 

G. Devansayana (Devansay's). Jl. white, tightly packed within 
broad, acuminate, scarlet bracts. I. dilated at the base, purple- 
striped. Ecuador. (B. H. .1883, 8, 9.) 

G. erythrolepis (red- scaled).* Jl. white ; the uniform purplish- 
red colour of the bracts distinguishes this at once from G. tricolor. 
I. deep green, like those of G. tricolor. (F. d. S. 1089.) 

G. fragrans (f ragi'ant). A synonym of Canistrum eburneuin 

G. tricolor (three-coloured).* Ji. pure white; scape erect, 1ft. to 
2ft. long, clothed with numerou.s bracts of a bright pale yellow 
green, beautifully streaked with blackish-purple towards the top, 
tipped with red, and at the extreme apex rich scarlet. Summer. 
I. rosulate, broad-linear, sword-shaped, involute, concave, sheath- 
ing at the base, l^ft. long, rich green. 1820. (B. M. 5220.) 

GyMXADENIA (from gymnos, naked, and aden, a 
gland; the glands of the pollen masses are naked). Obd- 
OrcJiidem. Pretty terrestrial orchids, now referred to 
Habenaria (which see). 

GfMNEMA (from gymnos, naked, and nema, a fila- 
ment ; the stamineous corona being absent, the filaments 
are left naked). Ord. Asclepiadecc. A genus com- 
prising about twenty-five species of stove evergreen 
climbing shrubs or sub-shrubs, natives of Africa, troj^ical 
and sub-tropical Asia, and Australia. Flowers yellow, 
small. Leaves opposite. The plants thrive in a well- 
drained compost of fibry loam and sandy peat. Cuttings 
of firm side shoots, made in spring, will root if inserted 
in sand, in heat. 

Gymnema — contijmed. 



al As 


li. iu nnibels, sliortov than the 
rrnutied l)y hvo llesliy tiil...-t rh,.. 

ite, bluntly acnrjdnati.'d, usnally 
Tlie milk of this plant is sub- 

iws' milk. 

: yellow, numerous; nniljcls or 

. cordate, acnniinated, to oval. 

-i.iue). A synonym of Pluchea 

G. lactiferum (m 

j.etioles; throat o\ sukU 
July. /. on short iieti^ 
iniei|nal-side<I. Tropiu;, 
stituted by tlie (Jiii-ale> 

G. tlngens (staining). 

cnrynilis (il'ten t\\iu. 

Troiaral .Himalaya, 1323. 
GYMNEMA (of i;.a 
(which see). 

GYMNOCLADUS (from gymnvs^ naked, and Uados, 
a branch ; in rGfcrciici.^ to tlie naked appearance of the 
branches during winter). Kentucky Coft'ee - tree. Ord. 
Leguminosw. A monotypic genus. The species is a very 
ornamental hardy deciduous tree. It thrives in a shaded 
situation, and in a rich, deep, free soil. Propagated by 
cuttings, made of the roots; or by imported seeds. The 
name Coffee-tree comes from the fact of its seeds having 
been used as a substitute for coffee by the early settlers. 

G. canadensis fCauailian).* jL white, disposed in terminal 

simple or tii^Tsoid raiM;nii's, i\Iay to July. L bipinnate, with 
four to seven pairs nf ]iinna\ the lowest pair bearing single 
leaKets, tlii! rest ix^arinu six to eiuht pairs of leaflets, h. 30ft."to 
60rt. Northern United States, 1748. 

GYMNOGRAMME (from gymnos, naked, and 
gramrna, writing; referring to the spore cases). In- 
eluding Ceterach (in part), Bictyogrmmne, G-rammiiis (in 
part), Pterozonium, Sellignea, and Trismeria. Ord. 
Filices. A genus consisting of about a hundred species 
of (except where otherwise stated) beautiful stove 
Perns. Sori arising from the veins over the under 
surface of the frond, linear or linear oblong, simple 
or forked. Those si;)Gcies which have the under surface 

Fig. 158. Frond of Gi'MiNOUKAMaiE ualomelaxnos chrysophylla. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gyiuno gramme — contv)iued. 

of the fronds covered with a yellow powder are popularly 

known as Gold Ferns, and those with silver xjowder as 
Silver Ferns. For culture, &c., -syf; Ferns. 

G. calomelanos (beautiful black), sti. tnfted, 6in. to 12hi. 
long, frnncln Tft. to 3ft. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, trlpinnatitid ; 
pinnse close, lanceolate, lowest lar^'est, about 2in. broad; lower 
pinnules distinct, often cut rlown nearly to the rachis : puwder 
white. Tropics, 1790. A variable species. (H. G. F. 30.) 

G. c. chrysophylla (goldendeaved).* Very like G. c. peruniann, 
but with darker rnchis and bright yellow powder. See Fig. 15o. 
Others iiirluiled in this species by Mr. Baker are : Bracla-nrUI'jei, 
tntcniii'i/id, L'/lmiiinicri, Martenaii, and Massoni. 

G. c. peruviana (Peruvian).* .s^'. and rachis castaneous. J'rninls 
smaller ; lower pinnae deltoid ; lower iiinnules often cut quite 
down to the rachis. See Fig. 159. 


Fig. 159. Oymnogramme calomelanos peruviana. 

G. oaudlformis (taildike). rhiz. woolly, creeping, scaly, .sti. 6in. 
to 9in. long, fronds 6in. to 9in. long, ovate-oblong, acuminate ; 
sterile ones Sin. to 4in. broad ; others lin. to 2in. broad. Malay 
Archipelago, &c., 1862. 

G. chsorophylla (Chervil-leaved). .s7/. tufted, slender, 3in. to 
6in. long, jroiiil.i: 3iri. to 6in. hmg, 2in. to 4in. broad, quadri- 
pinnatitid ; lower pinnae and pinnules deltoid ; the segments 
flabellately cut. Cuba to Paraguay, 1825. An elegant annual, 
producing an almndance of spores. 

G. decomposita (decompound).* .stL 1ft. long, frondu lanceolatc- 
deltoiil, 1 ',tt.. long, 1ft. broad, foiir or tive-pinnatifid ; pinnje rlosn, 
laiirruliiti', tlie. lowest largest; pinnules close, stalked, deltojtl; 
]M.wder y.dlow. South America, 1873. See Fig. 160. 

G. ferruginea (rusty). .sV/. tufted, 6in. to 12in. long, tomentitse. 
J'nnu/s id'out ll't. long, 3in. to 4in. broad ; pinnre 2in. to 3in. long, 
hm. to lin. broad, cut to the rachis into ol:ilong or linear-oblong 
entire or slightly toothed lobes ; lower surface and rachis densi^ly 
tomentose. Tropical America. G. lanata is a variety with fronds 
less woolly beneath, and larger pinnules; the lower ones bluntly 
lobed half way down. 

G. flexuosa (wavy), sfi. 6in. to 18in. long, tlexuose, slender. 
I'niiuh 3ft. to 4ft. long, scandent, three to four-pinnate ; pinn;e 
reflexed, outline sub-deltoid ; segments flabellately-liranched ; 
rachis zigzag, branched. Central America to Peru, 1865. 

G. Hamiltoniana (Hamilton's), rhiz. wide-creeping, woody. 
j'roiuls dimorphous ; barren ones 1ft. long, Sin. to 4in. broail 
spathnlate ; fertile ones 4in. to 6in. long, l^in. broad; stems lunrr. 
than 1ft. long, slender, .sori. in l)road continuous mws. Sub- 
tropical Himalaya. 

G. Ilispida (hairy), rhiz. creeping. .s7./. 3in. to 6in, long, julosr. 
fro/Ills doltoid, tripinnatitid, 2in, to 3in. each way; hiwer pruna- 
much the largest, cut down to the rachis ; upper pinnules clnsi', 
ligulate, Idunt; under surface with pale brown tomentum ; rachis 
scaly. New Mexico. 

Gymnogr amme — vo'iitvu ued 


An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Gymnogramme— ro/(/inwi'(7. 

G, japonica (Jaimncse). rhtz. crcejiinji-. sti. 6in. to ISin. hmfi. 
Jro/nlsHJt. to 2ft. Inn^-, ]ft. broad, pinnate ov liipinnate at the 
liasr ; jiiinia:' 6in. to 12in. long, lin. to 2in. broad, linear-oblong", 
acmniiiate, entire, lower ones stalked. Japan, &c., 1863. Mr. 
Baker considers tbia ay "probably not really distinct from 
(t. javanica." Tboro is a variegated form. 

G. javanica (JavaTiese).* rhiz. creeping. Ui. lEt. to 4ft. long. 
fronds ll't. to 4ft. long, one to two-iiiniiate ; pinnules sessile or 
nearly so, 5in. to I2in. long, -Km. to 3in. limad, the apexaciiMiinnte ; 
rachis strartiineoiis ; botli surfaces glnssy. 'I'mpics of ("Hd Wurld. 
See Vig. 161. 

G. lanceolata (lanceolate), rlnz. widi^-creeping ; scales small. 
fronds simple, 6in. to ]2in. long, less than lin. broad, point acute, 
edge entire, lower third narrowed gTadually to the base. Tropica 
of Old World. 

G. Lathamiaa {Mrs. Latham's).* cau. erect, sti. chestnut-red, 
tufted, fronds 2ft. to 2^ft. long, quadripinnate ; pinnse ascending, 
triangular, very shortly" stalked, upper surface pale green, lower 
whitish. Supposed to be a hybrid between G. decomposita and 
O. schizQphyUa. It is a plant of garden origin, recently raised by 
Mr. W. B. Latham, Curator of the Botanic Gardens, Edgbaston. 

G. leptophylla (slender-leaved).* sti. lin. to 4in. long, fronds 
2in. to 4in. long, lin. to l^in. broad, ovate or deltoid, two or 
three-pimiate ; segments cuneate-flahellate, cut into linear or 
oblong lobes. Temperate regions througlioiit the world (Jersey). 
Hardy. One of the very few annual ferns. 

G. macrophylla (large-leaved), rhiz. creeping, scaly, sti. 2in. 
to 6in. long, fronds 1ft. to lAft. long, 3in. to4in. broad, narrowed 
gradually to both ends. sort in single continuous or slightly 
interrupted rows between the main veins. Malaya. 

G. Pearcei (Pearce's).* sti. 6in. to 9in. long, fronds about 1ft. 
each way, deltoid, quadripinnatifid ; lower pinnre largest, 4in. to 
6in. long; pinmiles imbricated; one vein and sorns to each 
ultimate division ; powder white. Peru, 1864. 

G. pnlchella (neat), sti. tufted, 6in. to 9iii. long, powdery. 
fronds b\w. to 12in. long, 4in. to 6in. broad, tripinnatifld ; lower 
piunre largest ; pinnules imliricated ; segments flabellate-cnneate ; 
powder pure white. Venezuela. The variety Weftenhal liana has 
pale sulphur-coloured powder. 

G. rufa (red), sti. tufted, 4in. to 12in. long, hairy, /rojii/s 12in. to 
18in. long, 3in. to 5in. broad, pinnate ; pinnae distant, stalked, 
rounded, lin. to 2^in. long; rachis pilose. Tropical America, 




G. schlzophylla (cut-leaved).* sti. tufted, slender, fronds lift, 
to 2ft. long, graoefuUv arching, very finely cut ; ultimate pinnules 
minute, Jamaica, 1880. See Fig. 152. 

G. s. gloriosa (glorious). A garden variety, of more vigorous 
habit than the type. (I. H. 522.) 

G. sulpliurea (sulphur-coloured).* sti. densely tufted, lin. to 6in. 
long, often powdery, fronds 6in. to 12in. long, 3in, to 4in. broad, 
tripinnatitid ; lower pinnae gradually reduced ; pinnules flabel- 
lately cut ; powder bright yellow. West Indies, 1808. 

G. tartarea (infernal).* sti, tufted, 6in. to 12in. long, fronds 1ft. to 
2ft. long, 6in. to 12in. broad, oblong-deltoid, bipinnatifid ; pinna? 
lanceolate, lowest largest ; pinnules oblong, obtuse, entire or 
nearly so ; powder dense, pure white. Tropical America, 1817. 

Vol. II. 

Gymnograiiime — conliunei'l. 

Fig 165 G\>INI ( RVMML TART^rEV 

See Fig. 163. There are three or four varieties, including ockracea 
(pinnules very regular, and only the lowest toothed; powder 
bright yellow), ornitho-pterts, and Stdtzneri. 

G, tomentosa (tomentose). Hi. tufted, 6in. to 12in. long, villose. 
fronds 6in. to 12in. long, deltoid, bipinnate ; upper pinnai simple, 
stalked, lin. to 2in. long, -hm. to lin. broad; lower ones lin. to 
4in. long. South Brazil, &c.. 1831. 

G. triangularis (triangular).* sti. densely tufted, 6in. to 12in. 
long, fronds 3in. to 4in. each way, deltoid ; lower pinnee much 
the largest, deltoid ; others lanceolate, deeply pinnatitid ; powder 
varying from deep orange to white. Vancouver's Island, &c., 1874. 

G. trifoliata (trifoliate), sti. tufted, Sin. to 12in. long, fronds 
2ft. to 3ft. long, 6in. to Sin. broad, pinnate ; lower pinnte ternate, 
upper ones simple, petiolate, 2iu. to 4in. long ; under surface of 
fertile frond.s clothed with white or yellowish powder. Tropical 
America, 1810. A variable species. 

GYMNOGYNOUS. Having a naked ovary. 

GYMITOIiOMIA (from (jijmnos^ naked, and loma, a 
fringe ; in reference to the pappus being mneli redirced 
or altogether absent). Syns. Gyninopsis and Heliomeris. 
Ord. Com-'positije: An interesting genus, containing six- 
teen species of erect greenhouse or half-hardy herbs, na- 
tives, for the most part, of Mexico and Central America. 
Flower-heads pedunculate, solitary or loosely corymbose. 
Inferior leaves rarely almost all opposite, superior ones 
rarely almost all alternate, entire, dentate or lobed. The 
species described below is the one usually seen in cul- 
tivation. For culture, see Helianthus. 

G. multiflora (many-flowered). Jl.-heads yellow. Autumn. I. 
narrowly linear to lanceolate, h. 1ft. to 3ft. New Mexico. 
Annual. Syn. Heliomeris muUiJlora. 

GYMNOFSIS. A synonym of Gymnolomia (w-hich 

GYMNOPTERIS. See AcrosticHum. 

GYMNOSTACHYS (from g'jmnos, naked, and 
stacliijb-, a spike; in reference to the leafless scapes). 
Oed. Aroidecp (Aracece). A nionotypic genus. The species 
is a pretty greenhouse perennial herb. It thrives in a 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Gymuostachys — continued. 
compost of peat and loam. Propagated by suckers and 
by diyisions. 

G, anceps (two-edgeJ). JJ. white, small, sessile, but not closely 
packed ; perianth segments or scales obovate, truncate, net 
exceeding the ovary ; scapes nearly as tall as the leaves, much 
flattened, with acute, smooth, or serrulate-scabrous edges. 
June. I., radical ones erect, rather rigid, strongly nerved, 1ft. 
to 3ft. long. Roots tuberous, fusiform. Australia, 1820. 

GTMNOSTACHYUM (from gymnos, naked, and 
stacliys, a spike; probably on account of the absence of 
bracteoles). Stn. Cryptophragmia. OitD. AcanthacecB. A 
genus of about fourteen species of ornamental stove ever- 
green erect kerbs, natives of the East Indies and the 
Malayan Archipelago. Flowers tubular, in erect spike- 
like racemes. Leaves cauline or sub-radical, entire or 
obscurely sinuate. The species here described are those 
usually seen in cultivation. For culture, see Sran- 

G. ceylanlcum (Ceylon).* Jl. small, pretty, in pseudo-verticils ; 
corolla white, tipped with green and yellow. Winter. I. oppo- 
site, spreading horizontally, oval or obovate, obtuse, obscurely 
serrated, having milk-white stains upon a dark green ground. 
Stem very short, downy. Ceylon. (B. M. 4706.) 
O. VOnusta (charming).* jI. purple, remotely fasciculated, sub- 
sessile, disposed in slender elongated racemes ; panicles large, 
terminal. September. I. ovate-acuminate, crenate. /u 5m. 
Bengal. (B. R. 1380, under name of Justicia venusta.) 

GYMNOTHRIX. Now referred to Feunisetnxii 

(which see). 

GTNANDBiOFSIS (from gyne^ a female, andros, a 
male, and opsis, appearance; stamens appear aB if in- 
serted on the top of the ovary). Ord. OapparideoB. A 
genus containing about ten species of haK-hardy or green- 
house annual herbs, natives of tropical regions of both 
hemispheres. Flowers white or purple, often showy ; 
racemes leafy. Leaves three to seven-foliate. For cul- 
ture, see Cleome. 

G. COCCinea (scarlet). Ji. scarlet, in a many-flowered corymbose 
terminal raceme. Summer. I. long-stalked, palmipartite. h. 
6ft. to 9ft. Columbia, 1878. A beautiful cool-house plant. 
G. pentaphylla (flve-leaved). _fl. white ; petals obovate, four 
times the length of the calyx ; stamens inserted upon the middle 
of the gyuopbore. June and July. I. quinate ; segments ob- 
ovate-lanceolate or elliptical -lanceolate. Stem unarmed, h. 2ft. 
East and West Indies, 1640. Greenhouse. (B. M. 1681, under 
name of Cleome pentaphi/Ua.) 

GYNEBiIXIM (from gyne, female, and erion, wool ; 
in reference to the stigmas being woolly). Pampas Grass. 
Ord. Grami/nece. A genus of three species of very orna- 
mental hardy, or nearly hardy, herbaceous grasses, natives 
of tropical and sub-tropical America. They have two- 
flowered spikelets and dicecious flowers. G. argenteum 
thrives best in a light sandy soil, well enriched with 
stable manure. The best positions for it are well- 
prepared shrubbery borders, or sheltered places in the 
flower garden or pleasure ground, where it will be pro- 
tected from high winds. It requires plenty of water 
when making growth. Propagated by seeds, sown under 
glass, tho young plants being grown on in pots until suffi- 
ciently large to plant outside. If it is desired to utilise 
the plumes for indoor decoration, they shoxxld be cut 
from the plants during the latter part of summer. 
G. argenteum (silvery).* H. disposed in a very large, dense, ter- 
minal, silky panicle, which, including the stalk, attains a height 
of from 6ft. to 10ft. Autumn. I. linear, glaucous-green, about 
6ft. long, in large dense tufts, 4ft. to 6ft. high, and as much 
across ; edges very rough. Temperate South America, 1848. 
See Fig. 164. Varieties have been raised with purplish or 
yellowisli-tinted panicles. 

GYNOPHORE. The stalk of the ovary, within the 
origin of the calyx. 

GYNURA (from gyne, female, and oura, a tail; in 
reference to the rough, elongated stigma). Oed. Com- 
positce-. A genus comprising about twenty species of 
stove perennial herbs, inhabiting the tropics of the 
Eastern hemisphere. Flower-beads corymbose or soli- 
tary, at the tops of the branches. Leaves alternate, en- 
tire, dentate or pinnate, lobed or dissected. Gynuras 

Gyimra — continued. 
thrive in a compost of sandy loam and peat, and are 
propagated by cuttings. The three species described 
below are those usually seen in cultivation. 
G. anrantlaoa (orange-coloured).* Ji.-heads brilliant orange- 
colour, aboutl^in. across ; florets all tubular. February. _ I. (and 
stem) furnished over their entire surface with small hairs of a 
beautiful violet colour ; young leaves surrounding the flower- 
heads especially hairy, h. 2ft. to 5ft. Java, 1880. This may be 
planted in warm places out of doors during the summer. (I. H. 
G, biCOlor (two-coloured). Jl.-heads solitary, terminal ; _ invo- 
lucres cyhndrical ; florets rich orange, slightly spreading, uniform, 
tubular. I. on the under side purple, sub -membranaceous, broad- 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, slightly do^vny, penninerved, petio- 
late ; petiole short. Stem herbaceous, erect, h. 2ft. to 5ft. 
Moluccas, 1799. (B. M. 5125.) 
G. ovalis (oval-leaved). Jl.~heads yellow. May to September. 
I. thickish, villous ; lower ones oval, repand-toothed, stalked ; 
upper sub-lyrate, amplexicaul. h. 3ft. East Indies. (B. R. 101, 
under name of Cacah'a ovalis.) 

Fig. 164. Gtnerilm armmilm 

GYPSOPHIIiA (from gypsos, lime, and philein, or 
love; in reference to the species preferring a limestone to 
a chalky soil). Ord. Caryopliyllece. A genus containing 
about fifty species of hardy annual or perennial herbs, 
inhabiting various parts of Europe and Asia. Flowers 
white or pink, small, usually disposed in diffuse panicles. 
Leaves flat or rarely acerose. Some of the species form 
excellent subjects for growing as border plants or on 
rockeries. They thrive in a dryish soil, especially if 
intermixed with calcareous matter or old lime or brick 
rubbish. Propagated by seeds, by cuttings, or by 
division. The species described below are perennials. 

G. cerastioides (Cerastium-like).* jL white, red-veined, 
corymbose ; petals emarginate. May. I. pilose on both sur- 
faces ; margins ciliated ; radical ones spathiilate, on long foot- 
stalks, mucronulate ; cauline ones obovate. Stems erect, four- 
sided, /l 3^ft. Himalaya. (B. M. 6699.) 

G. fastiglata (fastigiate). /. pale red, corymbosely fastigiate ; 
petals vyry rarely eraargiuated. July. I. linear, rather fleshv, 
glabrous, flat. h. 1ft. Europe. 1801. (F. d. S. 135.) 

G. glauca (glaucous), fl. white, panieled ; panicle divaricating. 
July. I. linear-lanceolate, somewhat fleshy, obtuse. Branches 
few-flowered, pubescent, clammy, h. lift. Caucasus, 1822. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Crypsoplxila — conti'iiued. 

G. paniculata (panicled).* Jt. whitish, small, very luiraerous, 
panicled; peduncles smooth, tilifonn, divaricating^. June to 
August. I. few, linear-lanceolate, scahrouy, acute. //. 2ft. to 3ft. 
Europe, 1759. A very elegant, light, and graceful perennial. 
(J. F. A. V. 1.) 

G. perfoliata (perfnliiite). Jh iiink, panicled ; panicles dicho- 
tonious, clammy. July. l. lanceolate, half stem -clasping, acute, 
smooth, h. 1-Aft. to 3ft. South-western Europe, 1817. 

G. prostrata (prostrate). A synonym of G. repens. 

G. repens (creeping). Jl. white or pale rose-coloured. July to 
September, l. linear, glabrous. Stems somewhat panicled, few- 
flowered. /(. 6in. Alps of Europe, 1774. Syn. G-'. prostrata. 

G. Stevenii (Steven's).* jJ. white, panicled; petals broad-linear, 
obtuse, entire. July. I. linear-lanceolate, keeled, grey. Stem 
diffuse, h. 1ft. to 2ft. I'aucasus, 1818. 

G-YRANDRA. See Erythrroa. 

GYROCARFE.S:. A sub-order of ComhvetacecG. 

GYROSE. Bent backwards and forwards, like the 

anthers of cucurbits. 

HABENARIA (from habena, a tliong or strap; spur 
long-, strap-shaped). Syn. Sieherla. Ord. Orchidece. A 
g-enus of about 400 species of terrestrial stove, greenhouse, 
or hardy plants with the habit of Orchis, many of which 
are highly ornamental, and well worthy of a place in any 
garden. They are found in almost all temperate and 
warm regions. Among the numerous genera which are 
now included under Habenaria are : Gceloglossum, Gymna- 
denia, Phyllostachya, and Platanthera. The species de- 
scribed below are hardy, except where stated otherwise, 
and form very pretty plants for boggy places, or other 
situations, in moist, peaty soil. For culture of stove 
species — of which few are now grown— 6(^e Bletia. 

Fig. 165. Flower of Habenaria btfolia chlorantha. 

H. "bifolia (two-leaved). Butterfly Orchis, jl white, numerous ; 
lip lanceolate, entire, about half the length of the very long, 
filiform spur. June. Stem angular, 1ft. high. Britain. Accord- 
ing to Bentham, this species varies much in the breadth of the 
leaves as well as of the parts of the flower, and the extreme 
forms have been distinguished as species, the name of N. chlo- 
rantha (see Fig. 165) being given to those in which the flowers 
are large, and" the anther cells much more broadly diverging at 
the base. Darwin, however, regarded H. chlorantha and H. hij'olia 
as distinct species, and states that they require different species 
of moths to fertilise them. 

H. blephariglottis (fringed-tongued).'^ _fl. white, beautifully 
frin'^'ed, in spikes. May and June. North America, 1820. 
(L. B. C. 925.) 

H. Candida (white). Jl. white ; spike few-flowered ; sepals ovate- 
acute, nearly equal, dorsal one horizontal ; petals undivided, 
caleate, obtuse ; lip entire, ensiform ; spur pendulous, twice as 
long as'ovary, two-lobed at apex. August, h. 1ft. Sierra Leone, 
1841". Stove. 

Habenaria — cvnivimed. 

H. ciliaris (ciliated). Jl. orange-yellow, arranged in dense clusters ; 
lip beautifully friui^ed. Sterns or spikes very showy, lift, to 2rt. 
high. North America, 1796. An elegant, but rare, species. (B. M. 

H. cristata (crested).* Jl. golden-yellow, crowded, individually 
much smaller than those of II. ciUaris ; lip deeply fringed. Late 
spring. Stem 1ft. high. North America, 1806. (L. B. C. 1661.) 

H. dllatata (widened). jL white, densely arranged ou slender 
spikes. Summer. Stem 1ft. to 2ft. high. North America, 1823. 
Very showy and rare. 

H. fimbriata (fimbriated).* jl_. lilac-purple, large, and prettily 
fringed, arranged on a long spike. Summer. Stem 1ft. to lU't. 
high. North America, 1789. (B. R. 405.) 

H. gigantea (gigantic). Jl. greenish-white, large, about 4in. 
across, very fragrant ; racemes four to six-flowered. July. Stem 
about 4ft. high. India, 1834. Stove. (B. M. 5574.) 

H. Helleborina (Helleborine).* Jl. green, flesh-colour, sessile, 
distant, horizontal ; lip much larger than the sepals or petals ; 
limb semicircular ; column short, broad, concealed under the 
dorsal sepals and petals. September. I. oblong-lanceolate, sub- 
acute, not plaited, tive-nerved, deep green. Sierra Leone, 1870. 
Stove. SVN. Eidoph-ia Ilellcborina. ("B. M. 5875.) 

H. Hookerii (Hooker's), jl. greenish-white. Spikes slender, 
twenty to thirty-flowered, 6in. to 12in. high. June. North 
America, 1822. 

H. orbiculata (spherical). Jl., in loose spikes. 
I. very large, silvery-white beneath, prostrate upon the ground. 
h. 1ft. to 2ft. North America. A distinct and very large species. 
(L. B. C. 1625.) 

H. psycodes (fragrant).* jl. varying from rose to crimson, 
very fragrant, fringed; s]iikcs 4in. to lOin. long. June. North 
America, 1826. A very shuwy species, allied to B . Jimbriata, hnt 
with smaller flowers. 

H. rhodochila (red-lipped).* jL, scape 9in. long; raceme about 
twelve-flowered ; sepals green, united into a hood-like process ; 
lip large, bright cinnabar-red, August. North China, 1884. 

H. rotundifolia (ruuud-leaved.) Jl. rosy-purple ; lip white, 
spotted with purple ; spikes large and compact. Summer, h. IMt. 
to 3ft. North America. 

H. salaccensis (Salakiau). jl., raceme ovate, 5in. to 6in. long; 
pedicels short, clothed with two or three narrow-lanceolate bracts ; 
sepals spreading, green ; petals reddish, very narrow ; lip elon- 
gated, tripartite ; spur reflexed, narrow, tipped with orange ; 
column short. April. I., lower ones 4in. to 5in. long, lanceolate, 
acuminate, striated ; superior ones becoming gradually smaller, 
bractiform. Stem 12in. to 14in. high, partially clothed at the 
base with two or three sheathing scales, leafy upwards. Root a 
tuber, and three or four thick fleshy fibres. Mount Salak, Java. 
Stove. (B. M. 5196.) 

HAB£B)L1SA (named after Karl Konstantin Haberle, 
Professor of Botany at Pesth, died 1831). Obd. Gesne- 
racece. A nionotyx:)iG genus. The species is an elegant 
little hardy herbaceous perennial, not unlike a miniature 
Gloxinia, and with a tufted habit. For culture, see 

H. rhodopensis (INIount Rhodope).* Jl. pale lilac, umbellate, 
droopino- ; corolla lin. in diameter ; scapes several, stout, two 
to five-flowered. April. I. all radical, spreading; and recurved, 
obovate-oblong, obtuse, h. 4in. to 6iu. Roumelia, 1880. (B. M 

HABIT. The general appearance of a plant; its 
manner of growth. 

HABITAT. Habitation ; native country. 

HABLITZIA (named in honour of C. von Hablitz, 
a distinguished Prussian author and traveller). Ord. 
Chenopodiaceo3. A uionotypic genus, the species being 
a tall, hardy, climbing herb. It thrives in any ordinary 
garden soil. Increased by divisions, or by seeds. 

H, tanmoides (Tamnus-like).* jl. green, small, in branching 
cymes, sessile or terminal, pedicellate. July to October. I. 
alternate, on long petioles, triangularly cordate, acuminate, 
entire, membranaceous, nerved. Caucasus, 1828. 

HABRANTHUS (from habros, delicate, and antlxos, 
a flower). Oed. AmarylUdece. The plants formerly 
included in this genus are now referred, by Eaker and 
the authors of the " Genera Plantarum," to Hix^peas- 
trum and Zephyranthes (.which see). 
H. Andersonii. ,^lc Zephyranthes Andersonii. 
H. bifidus. Sec Hippeastrum bifidum. 
H. gracilifolius. See Zephyranthes gracilifolius. 
H. miniatus. See Hippeastrum advenum. 
H. versicolor. See Zephyranthes versicolor. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

HABROTHAMNUS. Included under Oestrum 
(whicli see). 

HACKBEBB.T. A name given to Celtis occi- 
dentalis (whicli see). 

HACQUETIA (named after Balthasar Haequct, 
1740 - 1815, author of " Plantae Alpinas Carniolicas "). 
Stns. Dondia, Dondisia. Okd. UmhellifercB. A mono- 
tjpic genus. The species is a pretty little alpine her- 
baceous perennial, thriving in good stiff loam. It is 
a slow-growing subject, and should not be disturbed. 
Propagation must, therefore, only be undertaken in the 
case of strong healthy clumps, which arc best divided 
before growth oommenoes, in spring. 

H. Epipactls ( lipipacti^).* Ji. yellow, on short pedicels ; scapes 
one to three, bearing at their tops simple umbels ; involucre 
of five or six obovate leaves, which are lonjier than the umbels. 
Spring. I. radical, petiolate, palmate ; leaflets three, cuneated, 
two to three-cleft, h. Sin. to 6in. Europe, 1823. (L. B. C. 1832.) 

HADENA OI.ERACEA. See Fot-herb Moths. 

H^CKERIA. See Humea. 

H2:MADZCTY0N. a synonym of Prestonia 

(w^ich see). 

HiEMANTHUS (from haima, blood, and antlios, a 
flower; referring to the colour of the spathe and fila- 
ments of some species). Blood Flower. Ord. AniarylUdeT. 
A genus of about thirty species of fine stove or green- 
house bulbous plants, all — with the exception of about species from tropical Africa — natives of South Africa. 
Scape, involucre, umbels, and stamens, all add their quota 
to the interest and beauty of these ourious flowers, which, 
in some of the species, are gathered together into closely 
compact umbels, and present in the mass a sort of 
filamentous appearance, somewhat resembling that of the 
feathered Hyacinth. The culture of H. sanguineus, and 
its allies of similar habit, is of the simplest nature. The 
various species blossom at different seasons, and it is 
important that, after flowering, each should have a period 
of growth, to be followed by one of rest. A mixture of 
sandy loam and fibrous ptcat is most suitable, and the 
plants flower more freely when under-potted. For this 
reason, it is not necessary to shift them every year. 
As the bulbs grow, and the strong roots increase, both 
may be stimulated and supported with weak manure 
water. Although some of the species of Hcvmantlius are 
frequently described as cool greenhouse bulbs, and some 
even recommend cultivating them in warm borders in the 
open ail", yet they succeed best in a temperature of from 
50deg. to 60deg. during the growing season. The sorts 
with well -developed bulbs should have these quite buried 
in the soil. When in flower, the blossoms will last longer 
in cooler quarters. Propagation is effected by offsets, 
which are produced more or less profusely. They should 
be removed and potted when the plants are commencing 
new growth, and be kept in a close pit or house till 
established. The offsets will reach flowering size all the 
sooner if kept in a temperatui'e as recommended above 
for the growing season. 

H. abyssinicus (Abyssinian).* Jl. numerous, in a depressed 
spherical head, appearing before the leaves ; peduncles lin. to 
liin. long, pale ; perianth scarlet, tube -]in. long ; lobes ^in. long, 
slender, with upturned hooded points ; filaments scarlet; anthers 
small, yellow ;* scape erect, green, 4in. long ; spathes lin. to lAin. 
long, pale green and purplish. April. I. three to five, autumnul, 
4in. to 5in. long, elliptic, green, with purple-spotted sheathing 
bases. Tropical Africa, 1868. Syn. H. teiLiaJlorus coccineas. 
(B. M. 5881.) 
H. albo-maculatus (white-spotted). Jl in a dense head, 2in. 
to 3in. in diameter ; perianth pure white, lin. to l.',iii. bmg ; 
ascending linear segments twice as long as tlie tube ; l.tractH 
six to seven, white, veined with green; ncfLpe 3in. to 4in. Imig ; 
glabrous. December. /. two, contemporary with the flowers, 
ugulate, fleshy, aliove 1ft. long, 2^in. to 3in. brnail, tlee(i grMim, 
copiously spotted white. Bulb compressed, 2in. in diameter. 
h. 6in. youth Africa, 1878. 
H. Oinnabarlnus (venuilion).'* jl red; nnibol tueuty tu furty- 
flowered ; scape slender, al)0ut 1ft. long. April. /. long, stalkeil, 
four in a radical rosette, oblong, 6in. to Sin. long. \Vest Africa, 
1855. (B. M. 5514.) 

Haemautlius — contiimed. 

H. deformis (deformed). Jl. pure white, numerous, shorter 
tlian the involucre ; head compressed, parallel to the bulb ; 
involucral spathes about six, equal, erect, obovate-oblong, obtuse, 
ciliate, pure white ; perianth tube shorter than the erect, linear, 
obtuse lobes ; stamens exserted ; anthers pale yellow; scape very 
short, sessile amongst the leaves. March. I. about two pairs, 
3Ain. to 4in. long and broad, dark green, smooth, hairy above, 
pubescent beneath. Bulb 4in. to 5in. in diameter, slightly com- 
pressed, h. 3in. Natal, 1869. A singular and grotesque species. 
(B. M. 5905.) 

H. hirsutus (hairy). Jl. pure white, in dense heads, 4in. in 
diameter ; scape compressed, stout, densely hairy. I. twin, 
round-oblong. Transvaal Repubhc, 1878. 

H, incarnatus (flesn-colonred). This species is closely allied 
to H. iigrinus, but is a more elegant plant, with broader leaves ; 
the scape more slender; the divisions of the spathe smaller, nar- 
rower, and less coloured; the flowers smaller, and of a different 
colour. South Africa, 1865. (B. M. 5532.) 

H. insignis (remarkable). Jl. bright orange-scarlet, in an umbel. 
July. I. large, oblong, wavy, and spotted with purple. Stems 
cylindrical, thickly spotted with purple. Natal. A handsome 
greenhouse species. (B. M. 4745.) 

H. Kalbreyeri (Kalbreyer's).* Jl. bright crimson ; umbel thirty 
to forty-flowered, 5in. to 6in. in dinnieter ; scape lateral. I. 
oblong, h. bin. Guinea, 1878. (I. H. 354.) 

H. Katherinse (Mrs. Katherine Saundersoii's).* Ji. deep red ; 
umbels dense, 6in. to 7in. in diameter. I. oblong, with both veins 
and veinlets very much more distinct than in the closely allied 
species II. multijlorus. Natal. (B. M. 6778.) 

H. Mannii (Mann's). Jl. crimson-scarlet. Spring. h. 1ft. 
Guinea, 1877. This species closely resembles H. ciiiTiabarinus 
in the flowers, but the leaves are produced from a special stem 
formed after the scape. (B. M. 6364.) 

H. multiflorus (many-flowered). Jl. deep red; umbels sometimes 
one-hundred-flowered, dense, globose, about 6in. in diameter. 
April. I. three to four, oblong, acute, nearly 1ft. long, on a short 
spotted stem. Sierra Leone, 1783. (B. M. 961 and 19§5.) 

H. natalensis (Natal).* This species is closely allied to H. 
inaionis, but maybe distinguished from it by the large, beautifully 
coloured and dotted, sheathing scales at the base of the plant, 
by the much longer leaves, by the pale green flowers, the orange- 
coloured stamens and styles, and by the nearly uniform bracts of 
the involucre, of a rich ferruginous purple, shorter than the 
flowers. February. Natal, 1862. A handsome greenhouse plant. 
(B. M. 5378.) 

H, puniceus (scarlet). Jl. orange-scarlet, with yellow or orange 
stamens. June. I. oblong, elliptical, acute, retuse, wavy. h. 1ft. 
Cape of Good Hope, 1722. (B. M. 1515.) 

H. sanguineus (blood-flower). Jl. scarlet, in dense beads. I. two, 

olilong-elliptic, leathery, glabrous, not spotted. South Africa. 
This species has decidedly ornamental foliage, and is the one 

most easily grown. It is a good cool-house plant. 

H. tenuiflorus coccineus (scarlet slender-flowered). A synonym 
of II. abyaslmcus. 

H. tigrinus (tiger-spotted). Ji. deep crimson, disposed in large 
heads. April. I. linguiform, flat, smooth, fringetl at edge, de- 
pressed. /(. 1ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1790. (B. M. 1705.) 

H. vlrescens (greenish). Ji. whitish. July. I. curious, oblong- 
lanceolate, hairy all over. h. 1ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1774. 
(L. B. C. 702.) 

H, V. albiflos (white-flowered). Jl. white. June. I. oblong, 
strap-shaped, witli ciliated mar-gins. h. 1ft. Cape of Good Hope, 
1791. (B. M. 1259, under name of H. albijios.) 

HiEMABtlA (from haima, blood; in reference to the 

blood-red colour of the leaves on the under surface). 
Stn. Ludisia. Ord. Orchidece. A genus comprising 
about four species of terrestrial orchids, natives of 
China, Cochin China, and the Malayan Archipelago. 
Flowers racemose, shortly i^edicellate or sub-sessile. 
Leaves shortly petiolate, ovate or elliptic, thickish, mem- 
branaceous ; bracts membranaceous. H. discolor, the 
only species yet introduced, is an interesting stove plant. 
For culture, see Goodyera. 

H. discolor (two-coloured). Ji. white, gin. across; spike erect, 

f uruisfied with a number of crimson bracts. November. I. ovate, 
few, gn-'en above, crinisnu underneath. k. 1ft. South China, 
1815. (B. R. 271 ; B. M. 2055, under name of Goodyera discolor.) 

HSMATOXYLON (from haima, haimalos, blood, 
and xylun, wood). Logwood. Ord. Legaminosw. A 
monotypic genus. The species is a stove evergreen tree, 
with unarmed branches, or with spines under the leaves. 
It succoods in a mixture of sand and peat. Eather firm 
cuttings of young shoots will root in sandy soil, under 
glass, and in heat. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 



H. oampechlanuxn. Canipeacliy Wood. Jl. ytllow, produced in 
axillary racemes. I. abruptly pinnate, in fascicles ; leaflets small, 
obovate, obcordate. h, 20ft. to 40ft. Central America, Columbia, 
and the "West Indies, 1724. Tliis plant yields the well-known 
logwood of counnerce, largely employed by calico-printers, dyers, 
and hat-makers. It consists of the heart- wood of the tree, from 
which the sapwood has been removed, and is of a deep, dull, 
brownish-red colovir. (,B. M. PI. 86.) 

HJEMOBORACE^. An order of cpigyiious mono- 
cotyledons, lielonging- to Lindloy's Narcissal alliance of 
endogens. Perennial herbs, natives of the Cape, North 
and South America, Central and Eastern Asia, and South- 
west Australia. Perianth petaloid, tubular or sub-cam- 
panulate, usually hairy or woolly outside, glabrous within. 
Leaves alternate, usually distichous, sub-onsiform, sheath- 
ing at the base, equitant. Bitterness exists in some of 
the plants. The roots of some also yield a red colour : 
hence the name of the order. As understood in the 
" Genera Plantarum," there are twenty-six genera and 
about 120 species. Well-known genera are : A'uigo- 
santlius, Ha-modoruin, and Wachendorji.a. 

H.S:iyEODORUM (from haivia, blood, and doron^, a 
gift ; probably in reference to the roots serving as food 
for the natives of Australia. The name was given by 
Theophrastes to the Broom-rape). Bloodroot. Ord. 
HcemodoracecG. A genus of about seventeen species of 
pretty greenhouse perennials, all natives of Australia, with 
black, red, livid green, or orange-coloui-ed flowers. They 
thrive in peat and loam. Increased by dividing the 
roots, in spring. The two species described below are 
those best known to cultivation. 

H, planifolium (flat-leaved). Ji. livid-purple or greenish at the 
base, in sh(.>rt forked racemes or cymes, collected in a compact, 
more or less corymbose panicle ; perianth segments linear or 
linear-lanceolate. August. ?., lower ones grass-like, flat; upper 
ones few and .short. Stems 2ft. to 3ft. high. 1810. (B. M. 1610.) 

H. teretifolium (terete-leaved). This closely resembles //. plaiu- 
folvurn., but the leaves are from a short sheathing base, very long, 
slender, and terete, or nearly so. August. 1822. 

HACfB£B.R7. See Cerasiis Fadus. 

HAIRB£LL. Sec Harebell. 

HAIR GRASS. See Aira. 

HAKEA (named after Baron Hake, a CTcrman patron 
of botany). Syn. Conchiuni. Okx>. Pruteacece. A large 
genus (ninety-five species have been described) of green- 
house evergreen shrubs or rarely small trees, limited to 
Australia. Flowers hermaphrodite, in pairs ; perianth 
irregular or rarely regular, the tube revolute or curved 
under the limb, or rarely straight. Leaves alternate, very 
diver;^ified in shape, flat or terete ; margins rarely re- 
curved, and the two surfaces usually similar and equally 
veined. Hakeas thrive in a compost of two parts pieat 
and one of loam, with sufficient sand to secure perfect 
drainage. Well-ripened cuttings v\'ill root in sandy peat, 
under a bell glass, if first placed in a cool house, and 
transferred to a mild bottom heat so soon as a callus 
is formed. During summer, when the i:)lants are grow- 
ing, water may be freely given in early morning or 
evening ; at other times, it should be carefully adminis- 

H. COUChifolla (shell-leaved). A synonym of H. cucuUata. 
H. cristata (crested). Jl. white, small, in short axillary racemes. 
June. I. cuneate-ohovate, spinosely toothed, glabrous. /;. 6ft. to 
8ft. 1857. 
H. cucuUata (hooded).* ./f. red, small, showy, in dense axillary 
clusters. June. I. leathery, cordate, alternate, sessile, minutely 
toothed, milky-green. Branches round, very hairy, h. 4ft. 1824. 
SY,Na. M. coadufolia and H. Victorice. (B. M. 4528.) 
H. Cunninghami (Cunningham's). /., racemes lateral on thy 
old wood, loosely cylindrical, 5iu. tu 6in. long. l\I;iy. I. terete, 
rigid, mostly above 1ft. long. h. 12ft. to Ibft. A small tree. 
Syn. B. longij'olia. 
H. dactyloides (finger-like).* //. white, very small, numerous, 
in axillary clusters or short racemes ; perianth glabrous. July. 
I. from linear-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute or scarcely 
obtuse, tapering into a short petiole, rigid, prominently three- 
nerved. Branches erect, h. 7ft. 1790. Shrub. Syn. Conchiuni 
dactyloides. (B. M. 4528.) 

Hakea— co^itiri'iteci. 

H. ferrugluea (rusty). Jl. small, in axillary clusters ; perianth 
glabrous, much revolute ; limb ovoid. May. I. glabrous or 
villous, sessile, from cordate-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, shortly 
acuminate, with a callous point, entire, or with slightly sinuate 
or undulate margins. Branches tomentose-pubescent. A. 5ft. 
to 4ft. Syn. //. repanda. (B. M. 3424 ; L. B. C. 1750 ; S. F. A. 45.) 

H. florida (flowery). Jl. white, veiy small, in axillary clusters. 
Jidy. I. sessile or nearly so, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, very 
acute and pungent-pointed, bordered by a few prickly teeth or 
small lobes. Branches pubescent or villous, h. 5ft. to 6ft. 
1803. (B. M. 2579.) 

H. linearis (linear). Jl. white, small, in axillary clusters or 
short racemes ; perianth glabrous ; tube slender. May. I. ses- 
sile, linear-lanceolate, pungent-pointed, entire or bordered by a 
few small prickly teeth, h, 4ft. 1824. An erect, bushy, bright 
green, glabrous shrub. (B. R. 1489 : S. F. A. 45.) 

H. longifolia (long-leaved). A synonym of H. Cunnini/hanii. 

H. myrtoides (Myrtle-like). Jl red, in axillary clusters. Fe- 
ijruary. I. sessile, ovate or sub-orbicular, pungent, marginate, 
smooth. Branches rather loosely villous, at length glabrous. 
h. 2ft. to 3ft. 1849. (B. M. 4645.) 

H. nitida (sliining).* Ji. white, small, numerous, in axillary 
racemes. June. I. obovate-oblong, or rarely lanceolate, some- 
times quite entire and obtuse, with a small pungent point, some- 
times acute, pungent-pointed, and irregularly bordered by a few 
prickly teeth or lobes. Branches glabrous. Ji. 6ft. to 8ft. 1803. 
A dense shrub. (B. M. 2246.) 

H. pectinata (comb-like). A synonym of //. suaveoUns. 

H. propinqua (related). Jl. very small, in little axillary clusters. 
June. I. crowded, terete, smooth, mucronatf , rather tliick, shortly 
attenuated at the base. Branches scarcely puliescent. A bushy 

H. pugioniformiS (dagger-formed). Jl. lew, in axillary sessile 
clusters ; perianth tube slender. May. I. terete, smooth, rigid, 
with a short pungent point. Branches glabrous or very minutely 
silky-pubescent, h. 2fb. to 4ft. 1796. (L. B. C. 353.) 

H. repanda (repand). A synonym of H.ferruginea. 

H, sallgna (Willow-like). Jl. small, in dense axillary clusters; 

perianth glabrous. April. I. usually lanceolate, obtuse, or ■with a 

short, callous point, veinless, or obscurely and obliquely penni- 

veined. h. 7ft. 1791. A tall bushy shrub. (S. F. A. 27.) 
H. Buaveolens (sweet-smelling).* Jl. white, racemose, smooth. 

Suiuijier. (. furrowed above, pinnatilld, occasionally undivided. 

/(. 4ft. 1803. Syn. H. 'pectinata. 
H. sulcata (furrowed-leaved). Jl. small, in dense axillary clusters, 

the small rachis densely villous. May. i. linear-terete, angular, 

and furrowed, rigid, mucronate, sometimes pungent-pointed. 

h. 5ft. to 6ft. 1820. An erect shrub. 
H. s. scoparia (bruom-like). Ji. yellow. May. I. mostly longer, 

sometimes Sin., less pointed than in the type, but occasionally 

short in some branches. 1849. (B. M. 4644.) 
H. Victorise (Queen Victoria's). A synonym of H. cucuUata. 

HALESIA (named after Stephen Hales, 1677-1761, 
author of a famous work on " Vegetable Statics "}. Silver- 
Bell or Snowdrop Tree. Stn. Fterostyrax. Oh-D. Styra- 
cacew. A genus containing about haif-a-dozen species of 
ornamental hardy deciduous small trees, of which three 
are North American, one Chinese, and two or three 
from Japan. Flowers white, showy, drooping, on slender 
pedicels, in fascicles (or rarely very short racemes) from 
the axils of the fallen leaves of the preceding year. Leaves 
rather large, ovate-oblong, acuminate, more or less den- 
ticulate, slender-petioled. The species are well suited for 
shrubberies and lawns, in almost any position ; but one 
somewhat sheltered is most suitable, and a deep, sandy, 
moist soil is best. Increased by layers, or by cuttings 
of the roots, in spring and autumn. 

H. corym'bosa ("corymbose). Jl. white, tinted with rose or 
yellow, in corymbose panicles. June. I. rounded at the base, 
ovate -cuspidate, sharply-serrated, hairy, h. 10ft. to 12ft. Japan. 
8yn. Pterostyraz coryinhosiirn. (S. Z. F. J. 47.) 

H. dlptera (two-winged), ji. white. Spring, ^r. with two large 
opposite wings and two obsolnte ones. t. laige, ovate, acute, 
serrated, h. 10ft. IMorth Ameiica, 1758. .Syn. R. reticulata. 
(L. B. 0. 1172.) 

H. hispida (hairy).* _/f. white, in corymbose racemes. Jr. covered 
^vitb stiff and dense haiis. I. large, cordate, on stout petioles. 
Japan, 1875. Syn. Fterostymx hiapiditm. See Figs. 166 and 167. 

H. parviflora (small-flowered). Jl. white, drooping; racemes 
panicled. May. Jr. clavate, slightly foar-winged. I. ovate- 
oblong', acute, nearly entire, downy, glaucous beneath, k. 10ft. 
Georgia and Florida, 1802. 

H. reticulata (reticulated). A synonym of H. diptera. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Halesia — continued. 

H. tetraptera (four-winged).* JI. pure white, nine or ten in a 

fascicle, drooping-, somewhat reyenibling those of the Siiowtlntp. 
Spring, fr. four-winged, lin. to 2in. long. I. ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminated, sharply serrated, h, 15ft. to 20ft. North America, 
1756. (B. M. 910; L. B. C. 1173.) 

Fig. 166. Flowering Braincu and uetached Floiveks ov 
Halesia hispida. 

Fig. 167. Portion of Fruiting Branch of Halesia hispida. 

HALIMIUM. Included under Gistue. 

HALIMODIiNDBOIf (from halimos, maritima, and 
dendron, a tree ; the jjlant grows in dry, naked, salt- 
fields, ill Siberia). Salt-tree. Okd. Legmninosae. A 

Haliiuodeudron— continued. 
monotypic genus. The species is a very pretty, silky, 
hardy deciduous shrub, forming a handsome plant when 
grafted upon the Laburnum as a standard. It thrives 
in a sandy soil, and may be increased freely by seeds, 
by cuttings, or by layers. 
H. argenteum (silvery).* fi. purplish, rather large, umbellate, 

axillary, or fa.scicled on the old nodes. May to July. I. hoary, 

abruptly pinnate, with two pairs of leaflets, h. 4ft. to 6ft. 

Asiatic Russia, 1779. (B. W. 1016, under name of liobima 


HALLERIA (named after Albert Haller, 1708-1777, 
author of " Stirpes IIelvetica3," and other botanical 
works). Obd. Scrophularinea^. A genus containing about 
five species of ornamental greenhouse evergreen glabrous 
shrubs, of which one is from Abyssinia, another from 
Madagascar, and the rest from the Cape of Good Hope. 
Flowers scarlet ; cymes terminal, few-fiowered ; calyx cup- 
like, bell-shaped, with three to five broad, short lobes ; 
corolla tubular, widening upwards, \vith an oblique, shortly 
five-lobed limb. Leaves ovate or oblong. Hallerias thrive 
in light, rich soil. Propagated by cuttings, which will 
root freely under a glass. Plenty of water is needed 
during summer, and a well-ventilated spot is at all times 
necessary. The species described below is the one usually 
seen in cultivation. 

H. lucida (shining). African Honeysuckle, ft. reddish, large, 
drooping ; corolla bilabiate. Jime. I. ovate, acuminate, ser- 
rated. A. 4ft. to 5ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1752. (B. M. 1744.) 

HALLIA (named in honour of Bergen Martin Hall, a 
pupil of Linnffius). Ord. Leguminosce. A genus contain- 
ing sis species of erect or decumbent greenhouse peren- 
nial herbs or sub-shrubs, aU natives of South Africa. 
Flowers purple, small, axillary, solitary. Leaves alter- 
nate, simple, very entire, often black-dotted, two-stipuled. 
The best-known species is H. imbricata. For culture, 
see Alhagi. 

H. imbricata (imbricated), fi. purple, axillary, sessile. August. 
I. cordate-ovate, convolute, imbricated, h. lift. 1812. (B. M 
1850, 2596.) 

HALOKAG-IiS!. An order of herbs or under-shrubs, 
rarely annual, aquatic, or terrestrial. Flowers often axil- 
lary, solitary, or aggregate, sometimes whorled in a 
spike, rarely pedicelled, sometimes panioled. Leaves 
usually opposite or whorled, simple, entire or toothed, 
the submerged ones usually pectinate, rarely entire ; 
stipules none, or (in Gunnera) adnate to the petiole. The 
species are sparingly dispersed throughout the world, 
and may be found in damp places, ditches, and small 
streams, sometimes submerged. There are nine genera 
and eighty species. Well-known examples are ; Gunnera 
and Hij>ripuvis. 

See Turnip Fly. 

HAMA1VIELIDE.3:. A small order of shrubs or 
small or large trees, inhabiting temperate and sub-tro- 
pical Asia, South Africa, and North America. Calyx 
four-partite, more or less adnate to the ovary ; limb trun- 
cate or five-lobed; lobes valvate or imbricate. Leaves 
alternate, petioled, simple, penninerved ; stipules deci- 
duous. There are about fifteen genera and thirty species. 
Examples : Bucklandia, Corylopsis, Hamamelis, and 

HAMAUIELIS (from hama, with, and melon, fruit; 
the fruit accompanies the fiower). Witch-hazel. Okd! 
Hamamelideo!.. A genus containing three species of hardy 
deciduous shrubs or small trees, one from the United 
States, the others from Japan. Flowers yellow, two to 
three bracteolate, glomerate. Leaves alternate; sub-ro- 
tundate, unequal at the base, crenate-dentate. H. vir- 
ginica, the species best known in gardens, thrives in a 
moist sandy soil, and may be propagated by layers. 
During autumn and winter, the plant is profusely covered 
with its fine rich yeUow flowers, which begin to expand 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Hamamelis — coidvuued. 
before the leaves of the previous siimracr drop off, and 
continue on the bush throughout the winter ; after the 
petals drop off, in spring-, the persistent calyces remain 
on till the leaves reappear in April or May. 

H. arborca (tree-like).* jl., petals clear rich primrose-yellow; 
calyces deep claret. Winter. Japan, 1862. This plant differs 
from the American species in forming a small tree, 15ft. to 20ft. 
high, and in its larger and iiner flowers. (G. C. n. s., i., 187 ; 
B. M. 6659, under name of H, japonica.) 

H. japonioa (Japanese). Jl-. lemon-yellow. A form with paler 
tlowers, and of much dwarfer habit than H. arborea. H. Zuc- 
carinuma is an allied form, with pale petals and a greenish-brown 

H. Virginica (Virginian).* fl. yellow, disposed in axillary clusters. 
October to February. I. obovate, acutely toothed, alternate, on 
short petioles. North America, 1736. Shrub. The seeds of this 
plant contain a quantity of oil, and are edible ; the bark and 
leaves are astringent. (J3. iM. 6684.) 

HAMATO-SERRATE. Serraturea having- a some- 
what hooked form. 

HAMEIiIA (named after Henry Louis du Hamel du 
Moncean, 1700-1782, a celebrated French author). Ord. 
Ruhiacece. A genus containing six or eight species of 
handsome, ornamental, free-flowering evergreen stove 
shrubs, natives of tropical and sub-tropical America. 
Flowers yellow, reddish or scarlet, in di- or triohotomous 
cymes, sessile or shortly pedicellate ; bracts minute. 
Leaves opposite or three to four nate, verticillate, petio- 
late, membranaceous, ovate oblong, and acute at both 
ends. Hamelias succeed best in a compost of sandy peat 
and fibrous loam. Nearly ripened cuttings will root 
during the early part of summer, inserted in sand, under 
glass, with bottom heat. The two species here described 
are those usually seen in stoves. 

H. patens (spreading). Jl. almost scarlet ; cymes di-trichotomous, 
disposed in a terminal pedunculate umbel. Summer. I. three in 
a \vhorl, oval-oblong, pubescent, h. 5ft. to 10ft. South America, 
1752. (B. M. 2553.) 

H. ventricosa (swollen). Jl. yellow, almost lin. long, campanu- 
late, ventricose, on long* pedicels ; racemes terminal. September. 
I. three in a whorl, glabrous, oval-oblon£^. k. 8ft. South 
America, 1778. (B. M. 1894; B. R. 1195.) 

HAMIIiTONIA (named after William Hamilton, an 
eminent American botanist). Stn. Spermadictyon. Ord. 
Ruhiacece. A genus comprising three or four species 
of ornamental stove evergreen shrubs, natives of tropical 
and sub-tropical India, China, and the Indian Archipelago. 
Flowers white or blue, fascicled or umbellate ; corolla 
funnel-shaped. Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, shortly 
petioled. A loam and peat compost is most suited to 
Hamiltonias. Half-ripened cuttings root freely in sand, 
under a glass, with a moist bottom heat. 

H, scabra (rough). Ji. azure-blue, deliciously fragi-ant ; inflo- 
rescence densely villous. November to March. I. ovate-lanceolate, 
short-acuminated, scabrous on both surfaces, h. Mi. to 6ft. 
Nepaul, 1823. Syn. Spermadicty on azure um. (B. R. 1235.) 

H. spectabilis (showy). Jl. lilac-blue, in large, much-branched 
panicles, agreeably scented. Winter. I. ovate-lanceolate, green 
and smooth above, paler and rough beneath. /;. 4ft. to 6ft. 
(R. H. 1872, 191.) 

H. suaveolens (sweet-smelling). /. pure white, sessile, in ter- 
minal coryrab-formed heads, very fragrant. October. I. broad- 
lanceolate, 3in. to 6in. long. h. 4ft. to 6ft. India to China, 1818. 
(B. R. 348.) 
HAMMER, GARDEN. Hammers are principally 

used in gardening for nailing wall trees. The head 

should be rather short, and quite flat at the end used for 

Fig. 168. Garden Hammer. 

driving nails. The other end should be shaped like a claw, 
and turned back sufficiently to serve as a fulcrum for 
drawing out nails that are useless or misplaced. See 
Fig. 168. 

HAMULOSE. Covered with little hooks. 

HANCORNIA (a commemorative name). Obd. Apocy- 
nace(B. A monotypic genus. The species is a small, loosely 
or pendulously branched tree, from Brazil. For culture, 
see TabernEeiuontana. 

H. speciosa (sliowy). fl. sweet-scented, resembling thoso of 
Jasmine ; cymes terminal, few-flowered, sliortly pedunculate. 
Jr. yellow, marked with red spots, about the size of a plum, 
edible, l. opposite, small, oblong, sharp at the base, and rounded, 
but shortly pointed at the apex, penniveined. h. 20ft. The tree 
yields a milky juice, which, when exposed to the air, hardens 
mto a kind of caoutchouc. 

HAND BARROW. See Barrow. 

HAND GLASSES. These are very useful as tem- 
porary coverings for j)lants that are too tender for being 
fully exposed. They are also utilised in x^ropagating various 
subjects, as the top part may be readily removed and easy 
access thus secured for attending to whatever is inside. 
Various shapes are made, the bases being generally square, 
hexagonal, or octagonal. The first-named is the most con- 

FiG. 169. Hand Glass. 

venient shape (see Fig. 1G9), and if the framework is con- 
structed with copper or cast iron and kept painted, it lasts 
a long time, and answers well. Air may be admitted by 
tilting up the movable top, or the latter may be taken off 
and replaced at wilL Hand Glasses, when employed for 
propagating purposes, should be glazed airtight, by having 
the glass fitted into the framework without laps. 

HAND-PLANT. See Cheirostemon. 

HAND-WEEDING. The necessity of Hand-weeding 
is now obviated, in a considerable degree, by the general 
insertion of seeds in lines, and the occasional passing of 
the hoe between them. This only misses a few weeds by 
the sides of plants that may readily be removed when 
thinning takes place ; whereas, under the old system of 
sowing broadcast, whole seed beds of any description had 
to be Hand-weeded, to prevent the proper plants from 
becoming smothered. Hand-weeding gravel walks should 
be practised after a storm, if there are any weeds about, 
as they may then be easily pulled up and destroyed. 

HANGING. A term applied to plants or cuttings 
when only partially inserted in holes, previously made by 
a dibber, the ends not being placed in contact with the 
earth at the base. It is very important that Hanging 
should be avoided, especially with cuttings ; failure to emit 
roots, under such conditions, being almost a certainty. 

HAFLOFAPPUS (from liaploos, simple, and pappos, 
down ; in reference to the absence of the outer pappus). 
Syn. Aplopap2m.s. Oed. Compositce. A genus contain- 
ing sixty species of perennial herbs or sub-shrubs, 
natives of North America, from California to Texas and 
Mexico, Chili and Patagonia. Flower-heads yellow, large 
or medium ; pappus often reddish, rarely white ; achenes 
glabrous or silky-villous. Leaves alternate, entire, or 
rigidly ciliate-dentate, rarely pinnatifid. H. spinidosus, 
perhaps the only species yet in cultivation, is a very 
ornamental sub-shrub, of easy culture in ordinary garden 
soil. It may be increased by divisions, or by seeds. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Haplopappus— fo7iiiw/6'rZ. 

H. spinulOSUS (spiny). jL-lieads bright golden yellow, lin. or 
more across. August. I. hoary, deeply piniiately cut into 
linear segments, h. 6in. to 18in. Rocky Mountains, 1874. 
(B. M. 6502.) 

HAFLOFHYIiLUIVt. Now included under Ruta 

(wLiola see). 

HAKDENBERGIA (named in honour of the Countess 
of Hardenberg-, sister to Baron Hueg-el, the celebrated 
traYelle?). Ord. Leguminosce. A small g-enus {three 
species have been described) of g-reenhonse', glabrous, 
twining' herbs or under-shrubs, limited to Australia. 
Flowers violet, white, or pinkish, with a yellowish or 
greenish spot un the standard ; in axillary racemes. 
Leaves of one, three, or five entire stipelate leaflets. 
The species succeed in a compost of two x^arts peat 
and one loam, with the addition of a little sand and 
charcoal, to keep the soil open. Propag'ated by seeds, 
or by cutting's, made of firm young- side shoots in 
April, inserted under a bell g-lass, and placed in a 
warm frame or pit, without bottom heat. Hardenbergias 
are well adapted for planting- out, and training- up 
rafters in a greenhouse, where there is a little shade in 
summer, and a temperature of 40deg. to 45deg. in 

H. Gomptonlana (Compton's).* fi. closely resembling those of 
//. iiionophiiUa in size, colour, and structure ; in pairs or clusters 
of three or'four along the racemes. March. I., leaflets three or 
five, varying from ovate to linear-lanceolate, rather obtuse, 
roiuuled or truncate at the base. 1303. Sy ns. II, diciitala 
(B. R. 1840, t. 60), //. Hii^gelu, H. LiviUeiii, II. Makoymui, 
Glycine Corn-pi on i an a (A. B. R. 601^; B. R. 298)» Kennedya 
viacrophylla (B. R. 1862). 

H. cordata (heart-shaped). A synonym of H. monopltylla. 

H. digitata (digitate). A synonym of B. Comptoniana. 

H. Hiiegelii (Huegers). A syuonym of H. Comptoniana. 

H. Lindleyi (Lindley's). A synonym of II. Comptoniana. 

H. lVIakoyana(M;ikoy's). A synonym of H. Comptoniana. 

H. monophylla (one-leaved).* fl. purple, usually numerous, in 
pairs or rarely three together, the upper racemes often forming 
a terminal panicle. April. /., leaflets always solitary, usually 
ovate or lanceolate, more or less cordate or rounded at the base, 
often coriaceous andstronoly reticulate, but varying from broadly 
cordate-ovate to naiTow-lanceohite. 1790. 8yns, //. cordata, 
II. ovata, Gli/cine bimaculata (B. M. 263), Kennedya cordata 
(B. R. 944), k. longiracemom (L. B. C. 1940), K. monophylla 
(B. R. 1336; L. B. C. 758), K. nra/a (B. M. 2169). 

H. ovata (ovate). A synonym of //. 'inviiophyUa. 

HAK.DENING-OFP. This refers to tlie process of 
gradually inuring plants to a cooler temperature, after they 
have been subjected to heat, either for the encouragement 
of growth, for propagating purposes, or for forcing. It is 
most largely practised in spring, with bedding and other 
plants, that are to be cultivated throughout the summer in 
the open air. To avoid sudden checks to tender foliage or 
flowers, it is important that Hardening-off should be 
conducted by gradual steps, in preference to direct 
changes from high to low temperatures. 

HARBWICEIA (named after General Hardwicke, 
once of the East Indian Company). OcD. Leguminosa'-. 
A genus containing three species of stove evergreen 
trees. Flowers small, racemose ; racemes slender, pani- 
culate. Leaves abruptly pinnate, one to three-jugate, 
coriaceous. Hardwickias thrive in a rich sandy loam. 
Ri[jened cuttings will root in sand, in a brisk heat. 

H. binata (twin-leaved). Jl. yellow, in axillary and terminal 
panicles. I. with one pair of leaflets ; leaflets opposite, oblic^uely 
ovate, semi-cordate, h. 100ft. India, 1818. This species yields 
an excellent timber. (B. F. S. 26.) 

H. piiuiata (pinnate), fl-. dirty yellow. I., leaflets alternate, 
uvLLte-Ianceulate, acuminate, one-nerved in the middle, the ulti- almost terminal, h. 40ft. to 50ft. India 1818. (B. F. S. 

HARDY PLANTS. Although this title may refer 
to all jjlants sutHciently hardy to withstand the winters 
of our variable climate unprotected, it more particularly 
applies to those which are herbaceous and of various 
heights, and to others of dwarf dimensions introduced 

Hardy Plants — continued. 
from alpine regions. They may, in either case, be of 
annual, biennial, or perennial duration. A collection of 
Hardy Plants should form part of the occupants of every 
garden. The treatment of many of the most popular 
and useful is of the easiest description, provided due 
preparation be made in the first place, and ordinary atten- 
tion bestowed afterwards in jkeeping the borders cleaned 
and the cultivated plants properly tied up, to protect 
them from rough winds. A large numl>er of species of 
this class of plants are of botanical interest only ; but, 
apart from these, a numerous selection, unsurpassed in 
beauty and usefulness when in flower, may be obtained for 
garden embellishment. Some are well adapted for massing 
in large or small beds, according to the several habits of 
plants so employed; the majority, however, most suitable 
for cultivation in private gardens may be better arranged 
in mixed borders, reserving the dwarf and more delicate 
kinds for special culture, if possible, on rockwork. A 
general display at any particular season is not usually the 
rule with Hardy Plants of a varied description, if we except 
that made by Narcissi and numerous other bulbs in spring. 
The flowering period of a mixed collection extends, with 
one or another genus, nearly throughout the year ; spring 
and autumn being the seasons when most are represented — 
their requirements being more fully met by a somewhat 
cooler temperature and moister atmosphii^re than those 
experienced in summer. Various select perennials, grown 
in quantity, afford an invaluable supply of cut blossoms, 
especially in early autumn, when there is a scarcity, under 
glass, of flowers adapted for cutting. Their culture is a 
matter of great importance for this purpose alone. A large 
number of Hardy Plants, particularly the bulbous section, 
flower very early in spring, and these are additionally at- 
tractive on that account. We are indebted to the latter, 
and to a selection of hardy annuals and x>erennials, for fur- 
nishing flower beds in spring, and making them interesting, 
long before it is possible to plant the summer occupants. 
Spring gardening deserves considerably more attention 
than it at present receives ; at least, in localities where the 
climate is favourable, and where there is room in the 
reserve ground for the preparation of plants. Some few 
gardens have a space specially set apart for hardy spring 
flowers, in which the latter are kept all the summer, and 
invariably succeed much better for not being mrrch dis- 
turbed. Hardy bulbs, planted permanently, may be left 
alone with advantage, in such positions ; and annual or 
perennial plants can be renewed as becomes necessary. 
A number of plants for spring gardening may be pro- 
pagated annually from seed, or by division of old i^lants, 
in autumn, according to the different habits, or period 
of duration, belonging to each. Hardy spring-flowering 
subjects, such as Myosotis, Primroses, Polyanthus, Silenes, 
and Wallflowers, in variety, should be sown during the 
middle or latter part of summer, and be prepared, in the 
open ground, for placing out permanently in autumn. 
Dwarf perennials secured in quantity for associating 
with these, are : Alyssum saxatile, Arahis alhida and its 
variegated variety, Aubrietias, Daisies, and dwarf si:iecies 
of Phlox. All these latter may be divided, and the stock 
largely increased, if desired, after flowering is over, or, 
better still, in August, on account of dry, hot weather. 
In geometrical summer flower gardening, perennials oan 
scarcely be appropriately introduced ; but, where bedding 
is of a mixed description, suitable positions may fre- 
quently be found for whole beds or masses of such plants 
as Anemone japonica alha, some of the dwarf species of 
Aster, Border Carnations, tall-growing Lobelias, Pcnt- 
stemons, Phloxes, Pyrethrums, &c. Those are all attractive 
in their flowering seasons, and materially reduce the supply 
of more tender subjects, by filling the space in their stead. 
The majority of Hardy Plants may be readily raised from 
seeds, which may be sown in pots, and placed in a frame 
with a very slight heat, from the montb of February 
throughout the summer ; or they may be sown outside, 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Hardy Plants — continued. 

after the middle of March, when g^ermmation is tolerably 
certain. Forwarding in frame.s sometimes has advantages ; 
but it is important that the young plants thus treated be 
fully exposed to light, and not allowed to become drawn 
for want of air. A large proportion of perennials may be 
more readily propagated by division, and this is best iter- 
formed early in antumn. or at the commencement of new 
growth in spring. 

Preparation and Plantvug of Mi.ved Borders. In the 
preparation of a border for Hardy Plants, it is important 
that the soil be deeply trenched, so far as it will allow, 
the autumn previous to planting. If it is moderately 
rich and heavy, rather tliaii light and sandy, it will be 
all the better, as many of the vigorous-growing" species 
require a strong soil. Manure should be added at 
trenching time, to insure its proper incorporation amongst 
the soil ; and, if the surface is laid rough for the winter, 
tlie border will be in good condition for planting early 
the following spring. Herbaceous subjects, in general, are 
not well suited for planting alone in a border. Mixed 
borders should not be less than 10ft. or 12ft. wide, and 
a greater width allows of a better arrangement being- 
provided for the taller-grOwing sorts. Evergreen shrubs, 
planted irregularly according to their height, are advisable 
for permanently furnishing the border in winter, when 
the primary plants have died down, and they also afford 
protection from wind and strong sunshine in summer. The 
obiect in planting should be to dispose of the different 
colours, varieties, heights, &e., of the material at command, 
so that the whole shall prove equally interesting at all 
seasons, without a freciuent repetition of similar effects in 
different parts. A knowledge of the habit, height, time of 
flowering, and other points in connection with the various 
plants employed, will be requisite on the part of the 
cultivator, to enable him to fix proper positions for each, so 
th-at a gradual rise in the heights is secured, at flowering 
time, from the front line to the back. This cannot always 
be secured during the first season, on account of the nature 
of the soil, and its effect on the growth of different plants ; 
but any that are misplaced may be marked, and the error 
remedied the following season. Tall Asters, Delphiniums, 
Heliauthus, &c., should be planted near the back; otlier 
plants, reaching a height of 2ft. to 3ft., placed about the 
middle; and dwax'f ones, such as Aubrietias, Tberis, Pinks, 
Saxifrages, &c., near the front margin. Mixed borders may 
be utilised for the cultivation of an endless variety of 
plants in summer. Spring bulbs may be inserted at 
intervals, and allowed to take care of themselves ; their 
positions should be marked by sticks or labels, to avoid 
injury being caused when the tops cannot be ^een. Vacant 
spaces may be utilised for seeds of annuals, eitlier hardy or 
tender, and these may be sown where the several heights 
will correspond, at the latter end of March. The general 
keeping of the mixed border consists in frequently tying 
up any tall-growing plants that require it ; but only those 
of an erect-growiiig habit should be thus treated, the 
stakes not being allowed to exceed the height of the 
plants, and inserted so as to be hidden by the foliage as 
much as possible. In moderately heavy soils, watering- 
will not be much required; but, where the ground is light, 
almost any quantity may be applied in summer. The 
usual method of annually digging mixed borders, is not to 
be recommended, as many plants are surface-rooting, and 
are, consequently, much injured by the process: a slight 
forking over, to break the surface, and an addition of 
some leaf soil or light manure, about March, are bene- 
ficial. Sufficient space should be allowed each plant with- 
out overcrowding, and any subjects which spread beyond 
their limits — some of the Asters, for instance — should be 
considerably reduced each year. If alpines are intro- 
duced, they should be kept to the front line, and have 
stones placed round them, to keep the crowns above the 
ground line, and special soil added round their roots. 

Hardy Plants — coatiunfd. 
A large number of these interesting dwarf plants may 
be successfully grown in mixed borders, if a little extra 
attention is bestowed on their cultivation, especially in 
raising the crowns somewhat, to prevent their damp- 
ing off. 

Hardij Aquatic and Bog Plants. Numerous beautiful 
Hardy Plants succeed best in a very moist situation, and 
many require entire submersion in water. Where a pond 
or lake exists, advantage should be taken for providing 
some accommodation for them, and planting accordingly: 
or artificial preparation may be made for a limited 
quantity. Bog plants should, in most cases, have their 
crowns kept a little above the surface. They may either 
be planted out, or grown in pans, and plunged. Hardy 
aquatics, such as Aponogeton distachyon, Nitphar advena 
and N. lutea, Nymphcea alba and iV. odorata, with several 
others, may be planted where there is a considerable space 
and depth of water. Ccdla palustris, Iri.-^ psendacorus^ Ly- 
thrmn Salicaria, and Sagittaria sagiltijolia, are examples 
of such as succeed near the edge, or in shallow water. 
Amongst others worthy of culture, and which succeed in 
moist, boggy situations, are : Anagallis tenella, Galtha 
palustris and its double form, Droseras, Parnassia palus- 
tris and other species, Priniala ro^ea, Sarracenia pur- 
purea, and Spiroia palmata. 

HAREBHIiIi. A name given to Campanula 
rotundiflora and Scilla nutans (which see) ; also 
spelt Hairliel], 

HARE'S EAR. Sep Bupleui^um. 

HARE'S FOOT. See Ochroma Lagopus. 

HARE'S-FOOT FERN. See Davallia cana- 

HARE'S TAIL. -S'e^ Lagnirus ovatus. 

HARICOT. The ripe seeils of Pkaseulus vulgaris 
and other siifcies of Phaseolus. 

HARINA. See Wallicliia. 

HARONGA (the native name in Madagascar). Ord. 
Hypericinece. A monotypic genus. The species is an 
evergreen stove shrub. It thrives in a compost of sandy 
loam and peat. Propagated by cuttings, made of young 
shoots, and inserted in sand, under a glass, in heat. 

H. madagaseariensis (Madagascar). /. yellow ; corymbs 

terminal, very large and l^ranchy. I. ellipticdanceolate, entire 

Stem round, brunchiug. h. 10ft. Tropical Africa and Mada 

gascar, 1822. 

HARPAGOPHYTUM (the English name— Grapple 

Plant — translated into Greek). Syn. Uncaria. Ord. 
Pedaline(B. This genus comprises about four species of 
procumbent canescent perennial herbs, natives of South 
Africa and Madagascar. Flowers axillary, solitary, shortly 
pedicellate ; pedicels glandular at base. Leaves opposite 
or alternate, incised. 

H. procumbens (procumbent), fl., corolla tube pale; lirab 

puvpk'. /. stalked, tive-nerverl, palmatitid, with coarsely-incised 
sinuate lobes. Stems many, prostrate. Cajie of Good Hope. 
A very handsome herb, with large fruit, beset w ith lone,- branches 
armed with powerful hooked spines ; but probaldy not^in cultiva- 
tion in this country. Syn. Uncaria procidn/irn.s. 

HARFALIUIVE. Now included under Helianthus 

(which see). 

HARRACHIA. Spe Crossandra. 

HARRISONIA. This genus is now included, by 
the authors of the '' Genera Plantarum." under Mars- 
denia (which ^s-^'^^). 

HARTOGIA (named in honour of J. Hartog, an early 

Dutch traveller in South Africa and Oeylon). Syn. 
Schrebera. Ord. (Jelastrlneo'.. A monotypic genus. The 
species is an ornamental greenhouse evergreen shrub, 
allied to Cas.sine. It proves hardy in sheltered spots. 
For culture, see Cassine. 

H. capensis (Cape). _/?. yellow ; pedicels few-flowered, axillary, 
drooping. June. /. opposite, oblons, crenated, smooth, hardy 

Stalked. Cape of Good Hope, 1800. A small tree. 



The Dictionary of Gardening, 

HARTSTONG-UE. See Scolopendrium. 

HARTWEG-IA (named after Theodor. Hartweg-, once 
a botanical collector for the Horticultural Society). Ord. 
OrchidecB. A genus containing about a couple of species 
of curious little stove epiphytal orchids, closely allied to 
Epidendrum: For culture, see Odontogclossnin. 

H. gemma (twin), fi. brilliant araethystine-pnrple. /. thick, 
semi-terete, channelled, acute, blotched with blackish violet. 
Central America (?), 1878. 

H. purpurea (purple). Jl. purple ; perianth spreading ; lateral 
sepals drawn out at the base, adnata to the lip ; lip connate with 
the column, ovate. Angns^t. //. 1ft. Mexico and Guatemaki, 
1837. (Ref. B. 94.) 

tisia faginea. 

Fig. 170. Hastate Leaf. 
HASTATE. Formed like the bead of a halbert. A 
Hastate Leaf is shown at Fig-. 170. 

HASTINGIA. A synonym of Holmskioldia (which 

HAULM. A term often applied to the stems of such 
plants as Beans, Peas. Potatoes, &c. 

HAUTBOIS. or HAUTBOY. See Prag^aria 

HAW. The fi-ult of the Hawthorn, Cratcegus Oxy- 

HAWKBIT. See Leontodon. 
HAWKSBEARD. See Crepis. 
HAWKWEED. See Hieracium. 
HAWORTHIA (named after A. H. Haworth, a dis- 
tinguished authority on succulent plants, died 1833). Ord. 
Liliacece. A genus of about sixty species of small, curious- 
looking- and very interesting greenliouse succulent Aloe- 
like plants, all — with the exception of a single species 
from Angola — natives of Southern Africa. Flowers 
small ; peduncle naked, simi:)le or branched, loosely race- 
mose ; bracts small, persistent. Rosette leaves never 
pedunculate, short, broad, thick, fleshy. For culture, 
&c., see Aloe. 

H. albicans (whitish). Jl. about -^in. long ; racemes nearly 1ft, ; 
peduncles strong, 1ft., often branched. /. about thirty, dense, 
deltoid-lanceolate, 2iin. to Sin. long, lin. to l^in. broad ; face 
slightly concave ; back round, distinctly keeled. l'795. (JB. M. 1452, 
under name of Aloe albicans. ) 
H. arachnoides (cobweb-like). Ji. about iin. long ; raceme loose, 
about 1ft. ; peduncles simple, nearly or quite 1ft. /. thirty to 
forty, oblong-lanceolate, IMn. to 2in. long, scarcely more than 
Mn. broad, pale glaucous-green; back round, one or two-keeled. 
1727. (B. M. 756, undername of Aloe arachnoides.) 
H. atrovlrens (dark -green). U. about Ain. long ; raceme loose, 
few-flowered ; peduncle simple, slender, about 1ft. I. thirty to 
forty, dense, oblong-lanceolate, ^in. long, about h;Uf as much 
broad, dark green ; face swollen ; margin armed with small teeth. 
1825. (B. M. 1361, under name of Aloe arachnoides ■/nnnila.) 
H. attenuata (attenuated). /. Jin. long; raceme loose, 6in.; pe- 
duncles less than 1ft., simple or branclied. I. thirty to forty, 
deltoid-lanceolate, acumijiate, 2iin. to 51n. long ; face flat, back 
swollen. Pievious to 1790. (B. M. 1345, under name of Aloe 
H. cymbiformls(boat-foniied). jl. |iu. long; raceme loose, 6in. 
long ; peduncles simple, under 1ft. I. twenty to twenty-five obo- 
vate, acute, lin. to liin. long, ^in, broad, pale gTeen ; face slightly 
concave; back keeled upwards. 1795, (B, M. 802.) 
H. fasoiata (banded). Jl. Jin. long; raceme loose, 6in. long ; pe- 
duncles nearly 1ft., simple or branclied. I. forty to sixty, (lenae, 
ascending, deltoid-lanceolate, l^in. long, ;Un. wide ; face glaucous- 
green, spotted ; back swollen. 1816. 
H. margaritifera (pearl-bearing), jl. ^in. long ; raceme 6in. long ; 
peduncles 1ft. or more in length, branched. I. thirty to forty," 
dense, ascending, lanceolate-deltoid, 2in. to Sin. long, about lin! 
broad at base ; face swollen ; back round, keeled above ; both 

Haworthia — continued. 

.sides endowed with irregular series of large pearly tubercles. 
1739. Syn. Aloe margaritifera. 

H. m. granata (grained) is a smaller-growing form, with 
somewhat different tubercles. (B. M. 1360, under name of Aloe 
margaritifera w/inima.) 

H. Beinwardtli (Reinwardt's). Jl. about ^in. long ; raceme loose, 
few-flowered, 6in. long ; peduncles simple, 6in. long. I. ascend- 
ing, ovate -lanceolate, lin. to l^in. long, ^in. broad; face swollen, 
shining ; back round ; apex obscurely keeled. 1820. 

H. retusa (retuse). //. ^in. long; raceme loose, 6in. ; peduncles 
.simple, less than 1ft. long. I. ten to fifteen, patent, oblong, acute, 
lin. to Uin. long, ;}in. broad ; face swollen, bright green ; apex 
cuspidate. 1720. (B. M. 455, under name of Aloe retiisa.) 

H. rigida (rigid), ft. about Mn. long ; raceme loose, 6in. ; peduncle 
6in. to I2in., simple or branched. I. ovate-lanceolate, brownish-red, 
lin. to l:lin. long, about }jh\. broad ; face concave ; back round, 
with minute tubercles. 1795. (L. B. C. 1430, under name of Aloe 
expansa. ) 

H. tortuosa (twisted), ft-, slightly over iin. long ; raceme loose, 
sub-secund, 6in. to 9in. long ; peduncle simple or forked. I. spirally 
arranged, ovate-lanceolate, all ascending, l^in. to 2in. long, ^in. 
broad, dark green ; face hollowed out ; back swollen ; apex sub- 
pungent. 1794. (B. M. 1337, under name oi Aloe rigida.) 

H, viscosa (clammy), ft. |in. long ; raceme loose, 6in. to 9in. long, 
few-flowered ; peduncles simple, slender, 6in. long. I. ascending, 
imbricate, ovate, acute, dark green, lin. to IJin. long, ^in. broad ; 
face profoundly hollowed out ; back swollen. 1727. (B. M. 814, 
under name of Aloe visi-vsa.) 

HAWTHORN. See Cratsegus Oxyacantha. 


or Whitethorn, is attacked by the Caterpillars of numerous 
species of insects, considerably over 100 having been 
recorded as feeding on it; but, among these, only a few 
do sufficient damage to require a detailed account of 
their ravages. They belong to various groups of insects, 
and most of them are hurtful to several other plants ; 
hence, in this place, references will be given to other 
headings for some of the insects named. Several belong 
to the Lepidoptera^ or butterflies and moths ; others to 
the Tenihredinidce, or sawflies. The more injurious 
Lepidoptera are as follows : Aporia Oratcegi (Black- 
veined White Butterfly), an in.sect not unlike a large 
Cabbage White Butterfly, but with the wing-veins black, 
and the wings almost semi-transparent and unspotted. 
The caterpillars, while young, live together in a web spun 
over the leaves and branches ; but, when full-grown, they 
separate and live singly. They are then bluish-grey, with 
black head, legs, anal lobes, and spiracles, and three 
bands on the back, alternating with two yellow-brown 
bands. The pupae are fixed to the branches. These 
insects, in some parts of England, are common enough 
to do harm. Liparis chrysorrhea (Brown-tail Moth) and 
L. aurijlua (Gold-tail Moth) are thick-bodied moths, 
about l^in. in spread of wing, white, with a coloured 
tuft of hair in the tail; and in L. aurifiua there are 
dark spots on the front wings. The eggs are laid on the 
branches, and are covered with the coloured hairs of the 
tuft. The larvEe live in slender webs among the leaves; 
they are hairy, with tufts of coloured hairs on tubercles 
on certain segments. L. auriflita, in particular, is often 
common and destructive (see Iiiparis). Looper Cater- 
pillars (see Hybernia and Winter Moth). Hypono- 
meuia padella (Small Ermine Moth), and one or two 
other species of the same genus, though small moths, 
are often so numerous as to do great injury to trees and 
shrubs. Fig. 171 will suflioiently indicate the appear- 
ance of the insect, and of the web spun by the larva? 
for protection. The varieties of moths in the genus are 
much alike, their front wings being white or grey, with 
numerous small black dots ; the lower wings are darker, 
and uniform. H. padella is scarcely lin. in breadth 
of wings ; the others are sliglitly larger. The females 
deposit their eggs on branches, in autumn, covering 
them with a gummy substance, to protect them. The 
larviB emerge in spring, and, for a time, feed between 
the surfaces nf the leaves. Afterwards, they eat the 
epidcrm also ; and subsequently spin a web in common 
around new leaves, on which they then feed in safety. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Hawthorn Caterpillars — continued. 

They are smooth, have a row of dark spots on the gides, 
and the head is brown. The nosts are often extremely 
conspicuous. The Sawflies that do most harm to Haw- 
thorn are : DDieiira stilata, Eriorompa liinni'iiKt {E. achiw- 
bnil'o), and Lyda ■piinctoio. The larvas of Lijila want 
prolegs, and feed in a web, spun over the branches. 
Each larva also makes a special silken case for itself 
(see Lyda). The larvas of E. liumriun eat away the 
upper surface of the leaves, often stri[iping- it entirely 
off; and the leaves, in consequence, become marked with 
brown, scorched spots, or, maybe, completely killed. 
Frequently, great injury is done by these attacks. The 
larvae usually feed in groups of three or four. They 
resemble small greenish-yellow slugs, covered with a 
slimy secretion and are commonly known as '' Shig- 

\ / 

Small Ermine Moth and Web ok CATERrii.r.ARS. 

worm." Several oultivated trees are subject to their 
attacks. Dineura stilata is very similar to the last 
species in the mode in which the larvfe feed ; but the 
latter are uniformly green, have the legs quite visible 
Avhile on the leaves, and they emit a disagreeable smell. 
Further information will he given under Sawflies 
(which see). The best means of prevention, or of cure, 
in respect to these insects are as follows : Larvas living 
socially in webs are easily removed and destroyed with 
the webs. The larviB on the exposed leaves are readily 
kiUed by dressing- the plants with the powder of Helle- 
bore in water, or by using Paris Green. The foUage of 
Hawthorn is frequently mined by the larvae of various 
small insects, chiefly moths, but the plants do not suffer 
much real injury in this way. 

B Prankenia. 

A name given hy Lindley to the 

HAZEL. «?(■ Corylus Avellana. 

HAZEL, WITCH. Sr,- Hamamelis. 

HEADIITG, or HEARTING. A term applied to 
various members of tlie Cabbage tribe, when their central 
leaves cease to unfold and commence forming what is 
usually known as the heart. The closeness of the latter 
is regulated by exposure to light. Summer is favourable 
to Heading, even when the plants are in a yoirng state, 
and winter time against it. 

HEADING-DOWN. This applies to the severe prun- 
ing of trees and shrubs that have become overgrown. 
In some cases, it is practised for the encouragement of 
a better and cleaner growth when signs of declining 
vigour are apparent. Heading-down will be requisite 
with fruit-trees which it is intended to graft by any of the 
methods usually employed, except inarching. 

HEARTSEASE. See Viola tricolor. 

HEARTWOOD. The central jiart of the timber ot. 
exogens, hardened or altered by age. 

HEATH. See Erica. 
HEATHER. SVe Calhina vulgaris. 
HEATH, ST. DABEOC'S. s e Daboecia poli- 



order Erirnreir. 

HEATING. This, in connection with horticultural 
structures, is an absolute necessity for securing and regu- 
lating temperatures artificially, to suit the requirements 
of exotic plants ; and for the production of flowers, fruits, 
and vegetables out of their natural season. Its efi^ects 
may be derived from fermenting material placed inside 
the strnctnie, or from causes which arise as the product 
of combustion by fire in the immediate vicinity, trans- 
mitted, by means of Avater or air. to wherever it is de- 
sired. These sources of heat, either used separately or 
in combination, afford the requisite temperatures for 
different plants, according as their admission is regu- 
lated to the various houses in which the latter are 
grown. Fermenting material evolves a considerable 
amount of heat, but by a slower process than combus- 
tion, as usually understood. A more genial and moist 
temperature may be secured from the former than 
from fire heat, but it cannot be so readily regulated. 
A fermenting mixture of litter and leaves greatly 
encourages the groAvth of young plants in spring, 
and is also preferable for starting early Vines and 
fruit-trees. It is adA'isable, in case of severe weather, 
to make provision for adding fire heat as Avell. Gentle 
hotbeds are also very useful for forcing vegetables, 
and for the raising of seeds generally. Heating by 
hot air is not adapted for horticultural purposes, on 
account of the consequent drying of the atmosphere 
being very injurious to plant life. Flues are but little 
better ; still, means may be adopted for moistening the 
heated air transmitted by them, where it is imprac- 
ticable with a continned influx of dry air. Both of 
these systems may, therefore, be dismissed in reference 
to all glass houses of modern construction, and one of 
the various methods of Heating by hot water should 
be, in all cases, adopted. Before proceeding to notice 
some of the most approved boilers for requirements on 
a large or small scale, it may be well to refer to the 
principles applied to Heating, as on these being properly 
understood and carried out in the construction of any 
hot-water apparatus, success or failure in its action ma- 
terially depends. Heat always has a tendency to equalise 
itself, by communicating part of its properties to sur- 
rounding substances rmtil they are raised to an eqnal 
temperature, so far as the original intensity admits. If 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Keating' — continued. 

generated by the combustion of fuel inside a boiler, heat 
may be conveyed, by water or air. to a considerable dis- 
tance ; the more remote it is, the less will be the amount 
that reaches the further extremity. Heated air or water 
becomes lig-hter than when cold, and naturally ascends in 
conseqtience. Either may be conducted in an upward 
incline, or in a perpendicular or horizontal direction, but 
not readily downwards, on account of the disposition of 
all heated substances to ascend. This transmission of 
heat in pipes containing water is usually termed circula- 
tion, and the arrangement of the pipes thron,q:hout, to 
allow an unimpeded circulation, is one of the main prin- 
ciples of Heating, but is not sufficiently recognised in 
many instances. The boiler must be placed below the 
level of any point the heat from it is intended to reach, 
the upper, or flow pipe, being connected on the top. The 
return pipe, by which the cold water enters, .should be 
rendered free from the action of the tire by connecting 
it near the base— at the front preferably — and on both 
sides, if this is convenient. Dips in the pipes at any 
point should be specially avoided, as they freqiiently im- 
pede free circulation — generally more so when extra heat 
is applied. Houses erected for various purposes may have 
their quantity of pipes in proportion to the heat re- 
quired, and still be in connection with the same mains 
conducting heat to others having much higher tempera- 
tures. There are no special rules applicable, in all cases, 
as to how many pipes a certain house will require, so 
much depending on stoking, and upon the amount of 
heat that may be available. It is best to provide for 
emergencies, in the first place, by insuring a sufficiency 
of piping, and inserting valves in the flow and return 
pipes, for regulating the admission of heat. In the 
arrangement of a Heating apparatus, an important 
part should be taken by the gardener in charge, as, 
although tho workmen employed may understand the 
X>rinciples on which the success of their work depends, 
they do not similarly understand the requirements of 
plants. A proper system must be adopted where there 
are several houses to be heated and kept at different 
temperatures, by one or more boilers set and connected 
together. Main flow and return pipes should be fixed, 
with a gradual rise, at a point below all others in con- 
nection, and near the central part of the distance the 
heat is intended to reach, so that branches may be taken 
on either side. All houses or pits intended for Heating 
separately, and irrespective of the one adjoining, should be 
provided with check valves near the junction with the main 
pipes. As heat always rises most rapidly to the highest 
points, it should be arranged that tliese are in the houses 
required at the highest temperatures. Pipes 4in. in 
diameter are those most largely used for top heat ; 
others, only 3in., are well adapted for beds or for small 
houses. In houses specially devoted to plants requiring 
a somewhat dry atmosphere in winter — Pelargoniums, 
for instance-— an extra 2in. pipe is sometimes fixed along 
the lower part of the rafters for drying the air, this 
being generally attended with excellent results in the 
production of large, clean flowers, free from damj). 

Bo Hern. Of these, there are numerous forms isi use. 
Some are composed of one or two series of cast-iron 
pipes placed in an upright or horizontal direction, and 
exposed to the action of the fire. Others are made 
of welded or wrought iron, and as they can be pur- 
chased in such a variety of sizes, and invariably answer 
well, their nse is somewhat extensive. The more simple a 
boiler is in construction, and the greater surface it ex- 
poses to the direct action of fire used, the better. Tubu- 
lar boilers frequently become choked with fuel amongst 
the pipes or tubes, and, it this is not prevented, a great 
loss of heat is sustained. Boilers having complicated 
arrangements of any sort are seldom so eft'ective as 
those of a simple form, the divisions between the 

Keating' — continued. 
parts in the furnace soon becoming choked with soot. 
The requisite size of boiler depends on its approximate 
Heating power, the length of pipes connected, and the 
amount of heat required. It is advisable to make pro- 
vision, in the first place, by fixing a Heating power con- 
siderably higher tlian that absolutely necessary. A great 
deal depends on the sort of fuel used, the rapidity of 
draught, and the manner of stoking. The plain Saddle 
Boiler is well known as being one of the oldest types, 
but, when properly set, still amongst the most efficient. 
There are various modifications of it, which claim various 
advantages, such as economising fuel, heat, &c. One 
of the most useful and efficient forms is the Flue and 


Fiu, 172. Flue akh TERJiiXAt. Enp Sadi'I.e Boiler. 
a, Flow Pipe ; b, b, Return Pipes ; c, Flue. 

Terminal End Saddle (see Fijr. 172). It is a wrought 
welded holler, made in sizes varying in length from 
2ft. to 51t., heights and transverse inside measure- 
ments being in proportion. The appro.^imate Heating 
power of one of these boilers, 2ft. long, is given as 500ft. 
of 4in. piping ; 3ft. long as 800ft. ; and 5ft. long as 2000tt. ; 
the unetiual proportion, in results corresponding with 
length, being accounted for by the enlargement of all 
parts, and the variation in height and width. The flue 
extends nearly to the back, and through it the whole of 
the heat must pass from the firc. Sometimes, another 
iiue is formed with bricks on the outside surface, as with 
the ordinary Saddle ; at others, the whole is covered with 
an arch without any division. As the full surface of the 
boiler on both sides is exposed to heat, nearly the fullest 
possible amount is absorbed before reaching the chimney. 
The Gold Medal Boiler (see Fig. 173). so named from that 
award being conferred on it after a working competition at 
the Birmingham Exhibition in 1872, is of wrought iron, 
and virtually a flued Saddle with a terminal end, the flue 
being in the form of three chambers instead of one, 

Fig. 173. The Gold Meual Boiler. 

as in that previously noticed. This boiler maintains a 
high position, and a large number are in use. Various 
sizes are made, ranging from 2ft. to 6ft. long, and pro- 
portionately large in all parts. The approximate Heating 
power of one 2ft. long, is oOOtt. ; that of 4-t't., 1700ft. ; and 
that of 6£t. in length, 3500£t. — all of 4in. piping. 



Heating — m ntinued . 

Another modification of a saildle buik'r \h the C'riud- 
forra {see Fig. 174). It uonibinos groat Heating power 
with economy of fuel ; the formation of its flues, in the 

Kk;. 174. C'RuciKiKM Saddle: Boiler. 
a, Flow Pii-ie ; b, b, Return Pipes; c, c, c. Triangular Flues. 

shape of a crows, being such as conduces to a free circu- 
lation of water, without the disadvantage of resting-places 
being in them for sediment. Approximate Heating 
power is much the same as in the Gold Medal Boiler. 

The Climax is a wrought-iron saddle boiler, somewhat 
like the Gohl Medal, Imt having only two chambers in 
the interior, instead of three. It has a waterway both 
at back and front, and is fed from the top instead of the 
furnace door. This latter arrangement has now been 
introduced into other forms of saddle boilers, it being 
considered advantageous in saving labour in stoking. 
There are various other modifications of the saddle in 
use, where more chambers are made in tlie crown part 
or on the sides. Those already noticed will be found 
thoroughly efficient, and, not being complicated in con- 
struction, are much to be preferred. 

A powerful boiler for Heating great lengtlis of piping, 
on account of its form being specially adapted for sus- 
taining heavy pressure, is the Improved Cornish or 

Fig. 175. IinrRovED Cornish or Trentham Boiler. 

a, Flow Pipe ; &, Return Pipe ; c, Furnace Door ; d. Upper 
Flue Door ; e, Lower Flue Dooi and Front Stand ; /, 
Back Stand. 

Trentham Boiler, represented in Fig. 175. It consists of 
two wroug-ht-iron cylinders, strongly riveted together, 
about 2in. of water space being allowed between them. 
The door frame is attached to one end, and the fire 
bars are inside the cylinder near the bottom, which 
forms an ash-pit, the upper, or larger, portion being the 
furnace. In fixing, the boiler is stood on two cast-iron 
stands, the front one forming a frame for the lower flue 
doors. Walls are built clear of the boiler on either side, 
and upper and lower flues formed by a course of fire 
bricks being fixed against the side of the cylinder about 
half-way up , an arch spanning the top from this. The 
heat is" conducted through the centre, over the top by 
the upper flue, and then returns by the bottom one to 

Heating* —r.ontut aed. 
the chimney, thus exposing the fullest possible amount 
of water space to the action of the fire. The minimum 
approximate Heating power of this boiler, 5ift. long by 
3ft. diameter, is given as 2000ft. of 4in. piping ; and 
one 8ft. long by Sift, diameter is calculated to heat 
5500ft. of the same sized pipes. 

Tubular boilers are composed of a series of cast-iron 
tubes placed either in an upright or a horizontal direction, 
and connected together for the free circulation of water in 
all parts. Some are cast in one piece — an objectionable 
system, as any defect in casting, or an accident, may cause 
a leakage at any time, which, if serious, would render the 
whole useless. To meet this objection, and effect further 
improvements, Messrs. Weeks and Co., of Chelsea, have 
provided, in their notable and widely-used Duplex Upright 
tubular boilers with diai^hragm, a system by which the 
whole may be worked together, or, in the event of an acci- 
dent to one part, that half of the boiler may be removed 
and the other still kept working until repairs are finished. 
Duplicate parts are kept for replacing those which be- 
come defective, without the necessity of substituting a 
new boiler. Water tubes inclose the furnace, and small 
horizontal ones are placed as fire bars. The fuel is 
admitted at a circular hole in the top, which is provided 
with an iron cover. Rivers' Patent is a rather expen- 
sive, but a powerful, tubular boiler, which may bo prac- 
tically termed indestructible. It has a double row of 
horizontal tubes, forming a semicircle above the fire, 
which is fed from tho furnace door. On any one of 
the tubes becoming defective, it can be replaced by a 
duplicate in a very short time, and the Heating con- 
ducted as before. These boilers are in use, in some in- 
stances, where enormous lengths of pipes are connected ; 
but it should be stated that they have not been sufficiently 
tried to prove whether they would be equally satisfactory 
in all cases. They arc noted for rapid circulation. 

Fig. 176. Upright Cylinder Boiler. Front Elevation. 

For Heating a small or moderate-sized house, such as 
those frequently possessed by amateurs, a portable Upright 
Cylinder Boiler and Furnace, similar to that shown in 
Figs. 176 and 177, is v/ell suited. It may be placed near 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Heating — confAnned. 
one end, or even inside a honse, as no bricks are required 
for setting, and the .smoke may be condncted from the fine 
to tbe outside by a circular pipe or cbimney. The exterior 
view of these independent boilers presents a neat appear- 
a.Tioe; but it is not advisable to place them inside the 

Fig. 177. Upright Cyllnlier Boiler. Vertical Section. 

a, Flow PiiJe ; (', Return Pipe ; c, Fire Door ; d, Ash-box Door, 
with Ventilator ; c. Smoke Flue. 

plant house if it can be avoided, on account of their 
drying eifect on the air. Independent cylinder boilers 
are made both with and without an extended top for 
adding fresh fuel. 

Small greenhouses are occasionally heated with boders 
warmed by gas instead of ordinary fuel. This method is 
rather expensive to keep sufficient water in circulation 
for raising or maintaining a medium temperature in a 
large glass house. It is, however, a convenient mode of 
excluding frost from small structures in places where a 

Fig. 178. Wright and Co.'s Gas Boiler. 

a. Boiler, consisting of Heating Coil, inclosed in a case ; h, Con- 
nection of Burners with Gas-pipe ; c. Flow Pipe ; d, Return Pipe. 

plentiful supply of gas can be obtained. It has an ad- 
vantage tor those who do not rciuire much heat, and 

Heating* — continued. 
who are unable to attend to fires. When once started 
at the proper rate, the water will continue to warm and 
circulate so long as the gas keeps burning. A little 
additional water^is necessary in the supply cistern occa- 
sionally. Gas boilers, of which Messrs. Wright and Co.'s 
is a good arrangement (see Fig. 178), consist of a heating 
coil of pipes arranged above one or more Biuisen burners 
inside an inclosed case, and having a flow pipe attached, 
which branches into another, as shown in the illustration, 
and retiuns to the lower part of the boiler. With a small 
flue attached, the whole apparatus can stand in the house 
it has to warm, and thus the fuU amount of heat will 
be utilised. The product of combustion from a Bunsen 
burner is merely a slight vapour, sufficient oxygen being 
incorporated with the gas, so soon as it leaves the pipe, 
to cause its whole consumption by the fire without any 
soot being left. Two stoves heated by gas, and answering 


Ritchie's Lux Calor. 

A, Door, which opens on a Buns-en burner ; B, B, Tubes, In which 
the products of combustion are condensed (with the exception of 
the carbonic acid) into fluid form. 

without flues, are Ritchie's Lux Calor (see Fig. 179) and 
Clark's Syphon Condensing Stove, represented in Fig. 180 ; 
both having Bunsen burners attached. In the Lux Calor, 
the products of combustion, with the exception of carbonic 
acid, are condensed in tubes on either side of the burner. 

Fig. ISO. Clark's Syphon Conuensino Stove. 

There is little fear of the small amount of carbonic acid 
•i-as doinn injury, as. being heavier than atmospheric air, 
it falls to the lowest point, and is removed by any feeble 
current. This stove is calculated to warm any fairly 
good structure, not too much exposed, with an interior 
capacity not exceeding 1000 cubic feet. The Syphon 
Condensing Stove is constructed on somewhat tho same 
lines as the Lux Calor; but, unlike it, the warm air is — 
after parting with the products of combustion — conveyed 
through a tube over the liamc and into the space to bo 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Heating-— fi.uHiiiied 
warmed; an additional amonnt of purity in the air being- 
claimed by the inventor in consequence of tliiR procesR. 
The Syphon Condensing Stove is considered useful and 
available for small lean-to or other houses, containing- a 
cubic capacity of from COOft. to SOOft., in places inacces- 
sible to a hot-water apparatus. 

Fig. 181 Miner.u. Oii, Stove, -n'lTH Double Burners. 

Mineral oil stoves (see Fig. 181) are perforce used by 
amateurs for excluding frost from small houses in winter. 
They are objectionable on account of the strong- smell 
caused by the oil when burning-, but are useful where no 
other means of Heating can be procured, or as a sub- 
stitute at times when a permanent apparatus gets out 
of order. Large oil stoves with double burners emit a 
considerable amount of heat, and materially raise the 
temperature in a small house. 

All boilers should be provided with a tap near the 
bottom, for emiitying, in case of repairs, or for removing 
sediment that coUeots inside. Air taps must be fixed in 
the highest points of the flow pipes, or, better still, a small 
lead tube may be connected and carried up the inside of 
the house, higher than the level of any part of the 
apparatus. Hot-water pipes .are usually made of cast iron, 
and the joints may be connected with ^-arious compositions, 
such as cement, red and white lead mixed, steel tilings, &c. 
Each substance is largely used by different Heating- 
engineers, the last-named being ];)erhaps the oldest, and — 
when mixed with the proper proportion of sal-ammoniac, 
and a little sulphur, to cause rusting — the most sub- 
stantial method ; it is, however, more diificnlt to dis- 
connect joints made with this preparation than when red 
lead is employed. Strong hemp packing-, in addition, will 
be requisite in either case. Some persons prefer joints 
made with flanges, and screwed together, with "vulcanised 
indiarubber washers between. These occupy more space 

Heating- lunlinued. 
than ordinary sockets, but have the advantage of being 
easily replaced. Indiarubber rings also make good joints, 
and are quickly renewed or removed in cases of neces- 
sity. They are made of the proper size, and placed on 
the smaller end of one pipe, which is then pushed into 
the socket end of the other. All pipes in use should rest 
on flrm walls or stands prepared for tliem ; sufficient room 
for expansion being allowed on each side, and at the ends. 
To insure a free circulation, the interior must be kept 
free from air, and all valves should be capable of open- 
ing a waterway as nearly as possible the full size of 
the pipe. A water cistern must be provided, and fixed 
at a liigher level tlia.n any part of the apparatus it 
has to keep supplied. 

HEBECLADUS (from ftebe, pubescence, and Idados, 
a Ijrancli ; in referoice to the hairiness of the young 
shoots). Ohd. Sulmiacece. A genus containing about five 
species of stove perennial herbs or sub-shrubs, natives of 
Western tropical America. They thrive in a rich sandy 
loam and leaf mould. Propagated by nuttings, made 
from half-ripened wood, and inserted in sand, under a 
bell glass, in bottom heat. 

K. biflorus (two-flowered), jl, peduncles axillary, solitary, 
forked or trifid, bearing two (rarely three) handsome drooping* 
flowers ; calyx jjlabrous, with tive spreading segments ; corolla 
of two colours, lin. or more long ; tube conico-cyliudrical, purple; 
hairy, stri.ated ; limb of five spreading, green, narrow-lanceolate 
seg-ments ; stamens much exserted ; anthers blue-purple, 
L, lo-wer ones solitary, alternate; upper ones in unequal pairs, 
sub-ovate, shortly petiolate, acute. Branches more or less 
spreading, terete, glabrous. Andes of Peru, 1814. Sub-shrub. 
(B. M. 4192.) 

H. ventrlcosus (ventricose). fl. one or two together, on short 
di-oopins' iicdiuK-les from the axils of the leaves; calyx finely 
pubescent, tootlied ; corolla pale yellow, .Un. broad and deep'; 
limb tootlied. Summer. Jr. a large, glabrous, poisonous berry. 
I shortly stalked, ovate, acute, entire, or slightly sinuate- 
dentate ; upper surface l)right medium green ; the lower paler. 
//. 3ft to 4l't. Peru. Shruh. (Hef. B. 208.) 

HEBECLINIUra. ,s< e Eupatorium. 

HEBENSTKETIA (named in honour of .John Ernest 
Hcbenstreit, 17l);M7.';7, Professor of Botany in tlie Uni- 
versity of Leipsic). Oku. Selagiiiew. A genus contain- 
ing about twenty species of greenhouse evergreen shrubs, 
sub-shrubs, or annual herbs, natives of South Africa 
(one extending to Abyssinia), few of wdiiob are seen in 
cultivation. Flowers white or yellow, sessile; spikes 
terminal, often dense, short or elongated. Leaves alter- 
nate or scattered. The species thrive in a compost of 
sandy fibry loam, with the addition of a little peat. 
Propagated by cuttings, made of short young shoots, and 
inserted in sandy peat, under a bell glass, in spring. 
H. denlata is increased by seed. 

H. dentata (toothed). rf. white ; spikes smooth. May to 
September. (, linear, tootlied. h. 1ft. 1739. Annual (B ,-\I 

483.) ^ ■ ■ 

H. fruticosa (shi ubby). ft. wliite, in oblong spikes, disagreeably 
scented at night ; calyx, bipartite ; corolla tulie longer than 
calyx, filiform ; bracts entire, ovate, acuminate, sometimes clliate. 
August. I. linear-lanceolate, dentate or rather pinnatifld-dentate, 
smootli when full grown ; young ones somewhat hairy along the 
luidrih oil the uiidi'r side. Stems slindihy. /,. Uft 1816 
(B. M. 1970.) 

H. integrifolia (entire-leaved), fl. white. May and .lime I. 
linear, quite entire. A. 1ft. 1792. (A. B. R. 252.) 

HECHTEA (named after .J. H. G. Hecht, a Prussian 
Counsellor, who died in 18;17). Oed. Bromeliacew. A 
genus containing about six species of pretty greenhouse 
herbs. Flowers small, disposed in a compound spike. 
Leaves long, spiny, crowdeil, recurved, subulate, linear. 
For culture, see Tillandsia. 

H. argentea (silvery).-* fl. white, small, in globose clu.steis I 
ill a dense rosette, sharply recurved, rigid, Uft. to 2ft. luuo- 
Ceneral hahit of Tl. nine.ihrecihtii, but very distinct by lea^.m of 
the dense silver) coating of both leaf surfaces. Mexico. 

H. cordylinoldes (Cordyline-Iike). II. numerous, small, in a 
much-liranched panicle. I. lanceolate, recurved, remotely and 
strongly saw-toothed. Mexico, 1881. Habit tufted. (B. M. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Hechtea — contin iied. 

H. Ghiesbreghtil (Ghiesbreght's). fi. whitish, insignificant, 

small, clustered on tall slender scapes. I. rosulate, recurved, 
spiny, very ornamental, purple and green, silvery below. Mexico, 
1865. (B. M. 5842.) 

HUDAROMA. See Darwinia. 

H£SI!BiA (the old Latin name for . the Ivy, used 

by Yirgil and Pliny). Ivy. Obd. Araliacece. A genus, 
as now limited, containing but a oouple of species of 
tall climbing- shrubs, of wliich the one — in one or other 
of its numberless forms — is widely distributed throughout 
the Northern hemisphere, and the second confined to 
Australia. Flowers polygamous ; umbels paniculate. 
Leaves undivided, lobed or pinnate, compound. Few 
plants are more serviceable in both large and small 
gardens than the old-fashionod Ivy, scarcely any situa- 
tion being unsuitable for it. In a good rich soil, growth 
is much more rapid than in a poor one ; aixd strong 
plants, grown first in pots before placing out, well repay 
for the extra preparation thus made, by covering their 
allotted space in a much shorter time. Ivy is now ex- 
tensively used to cover open railings, as an arbour, as 
an edging plant, as a " screen " for a drawing-room, 
for hanging baskets, and in several other ways. When 
established, it is advisable to clip off all the old leaves 
annually, about April, as a close growth is thereby in- 
duced, and the old foliage is soon replaced by new. 
Propagation is readily effected by cuttings of any 
moderately firm young shoots, inserted in pots, or in the 
open ground, preferably in autumn. The tree forms and 
their numerous sports are grafted, any (iommon strong- 
growing climbing form being used as a stock. The others 
may also be grafted, and the rarer variegated ones usually 
are, as this method of increase is a much more rapid one 
than crrttings. If cuttings are inserted in heat, and kept 
shaded until roots are formed, good plants are obtained in 
much less time than when placed in a cold frame, or in the 
open air. 

H. australiana (Australian). //., umbels pedunculate, with the 
peduncles alnntst verticillate aluu;; the eli>ii^-ated bratuJies of a 
large, luu.':;e, terminal panicle. /. hirge, pinnate, the rachis 
articulate ; leaflets few, i>v;ite, u\;Ll-<ibli>ng or (ivate-lanceolate, 
shortly acuminate, often above 6in. Imii;, suiootli and shining, Imt 
prominently veinetl. queenshiml. A small, quite glabrous, green- 
house tree. 
H. canescens (hoar>). A synonym of If. Hdix ahjeriensi^. 
H. Cavendishii (L'aveudisli's). A sym.nym of 11. Ilrh'.v mar- 

•jiiiata inlnvr. 
H. cordata (heart-shaped). A synonym of //. lldix ficid'i folia. 
H. elegantissima (most elegant). A synonym of H. Hdix 

1)1(1 I'll ill a I a luhra. 
H, grandifolia (large -leaved). A synonym of H. Hdix 

H. Helix. Common Ivy. fl. yellowish-green; borders of the 
calyx entire; petals five, broad and short; stamens five. Autunuj. 
/. thick and shining, ovate, angular, nr three or five-lobed ; those 
of the barren stems usually much nmre divided than the upper 
ones. Western and Southern Knrope, Northern Africa, and West 
Central Asia; extending over tlie whole of Britain. Of tlie 
innumerable forms, the following are the best : 

Uedera — continued. 

gTeen, Syn. H. viridls (S. H. Ivy, 99). There i3 a variegated 
form of this, which, although not particularly attractive in 
a young state, is handsome when thoroughly e.stablished. 

Syn. H. canescens. See Fii:. 182. 

Fig. 183. Hedera Helix arborescens aurea m.aculata. 

H. H. arborescens (arborescent). This is the " tree " form of the 
common native Ivy of our woods and hedge banks. There are 
sub-varieties, with' golden (see Fig. 183) and silver variegation, 
and one with yellow berries. 

H. H. aurantia (orange).-^ /. like those of H. H. d,n/socarpa. but 
fruits of a heactifal reddisli-orange colour. (R. H. 1884, 8^.) 

Fig, 181 Hedera Helix conglomerata. 

H. H. canariensis (<.'anary Islands). Irish Iw. This is the 
common large-leaved climbing Ivy— the best of all for quicklv 
clothing walls, or for ftirming a green carpet under trees or on 
banks where grass, Ac, refuses to gTow. /. deep green, usually 
five-lobed; terminal lobe largest. The fertile state of this, i.e', 
that which has outgrown the climbing stage, and produces flowers 
Lud tiuit has entneo\ate leaves, and is propagated by grafting 
on the t\pe it i-^ genei dly known in nurseries under the name 
ol H H atboifbiens S\\. H. (irandiJvUa. There is a variegated 
t imoftlus but it IS \ en apt to revert to the type. 

Ftg, 182. Hetiera Helix algeriensis variegata. 

H. H. algeriensis (Algerian).* I. yellowish-green, varying from 
entire broad-ovate or orbicular to a jieculiar rounded three-lobed 
form. A fine rapid-growing variety, with large leaves of a cheerful 

Fig. 185. Hf.dera Helix dentata. 

An Encyclopaedia of Horticulture. 


Hedera — conlinucd. 

H. H. chrysocarpa fc'ililc-ii-fniiled).* I. smallisli, simiutiiiies 
iiearly triaiigului- iiinl tlnvc-hibed ; central lobe frequently pii.- 
longed, with a lew aliarp lolies or nutelies ; colour gTeyish-green ; 
principal veins lined witli markings of a lighter shade. A quick- 
growing climber. 

H. H. oonglomerata (crowdeil).* A marked, slow-grnwing, erect 
vaiiety, with small, wavy leaves, and very short internodes. An 
excellent subject for rockwurk. See Fig. 184. 

H. H. cusptdata minor (smaller cuspidate). I. uniformly thrce- 
lobed, the lolies equal and crcliated ; colour a deep ridi" glossy 
green, with whitish veins. .V pretty small-leaved variety,' witii 
bright rediUsh-purplc leaf-stalks, and stems purplish wlieu' young. 

H. H. deltoldea (deltoid). I. bluntly deltoid, lilaekisli-green, 
changing in antuuui to a dull pur])lisii-ln'onze. Stem [ini[disli, 
rather stceit. A distinct wall Ivy. (S. H. Ivy, 75.) 

H. H. dentata (toothed). A large handsome Ivy, souu'ivhat like 
IJ. II. Uiriiiieriiiiia, liut with less leaves, wliich are luit 
unfroqueutly iHstinctly tonlhed. See Vh'. 135. 



Fig. 186. Hedera Hf.ux digit iii 

H. H. digitata (digitate). I. more decidedly digitate than in most 
other Ivies, blackish-green, with whitish veins. A rather vigorous 
grower, and an excellent Ivy for widls. Sec I'lg. lob. 11. U. 
Caemmodiana is a plant which scarcely differs (if at all) from 
H. a. diyiuaa. 



FIG. 187. Heder.a Helix Doxerailensis. 

H. H. Donerallensis (l>onerairs).» A very prcU>-, small-leaved 
form, with leaves which assuuie a dull jnup e-bro« c U. 
winter. A neat, compact plant, of medium rate ot gieutli, good 
for walls, or tor pot culture. See Fig. IBY. 

Fig. 188. Hedera Helix lobata majuk. 
VoL II. 

Hedera— cu /(///( /(f.L 
H, H. Glymii ((.Jlym'tt). l. viiryiiij; ia form fruiii re,i;iiJar ovate 

to loii^; wt^dyu-sIuLped, many of them being obscurely thrfe-lohed ; 

colour a very j;liissy, deep dull gTcen, A tine and distinct form, 

of a wiry habit of growth. One of the best for pot culture. 
H. H. g^racilis (.slender). I. usually three-lobed; colour rather 

light dull ij,roi.'n, vichly bronzed in autumn. Stems wiry, purplish. 

A vci y pretty variety for covering a wall or a tree stump, 

(S. H. Ivy, 66.) 
H. H. lobata major (larger-lnbcd). I tin t h\c 1 U 1 (m - II 

plants, large), dorp yldssy green. A g d \\_, i us i w i St 
Fig. 18o. 


I'lG. 189. Hedera IIei 

l.\ T.UCIDA. 

H. H. lucida (glossy). I. frequently deltoid, glossy ; larger ones, 
in vigorous plants, with from three to live smnewhat indtstinct 
lobes" A fast grower, suitable for clothing walls and tree stumps, 
or for pot culture. See Fig. 189. 

H. H. luteola (yellowish-tinted). I. from broadly ovate to irregular 
rhombuid, occasionally three-lobed; stems and petioles usually 
green, sometimes slightly purplish ; central parts dark green, 
mottled with grey ; margin broad, of a yellowish cream colour. 
A fine tree Ivy, of robust habit, and an excellent form for pot 

H. H. marginata (margined). (. bluntly triangular; ground 
colour dell gnen, margined with creamy-white, brilliantly striped 
with ri'd or piiik in autumn. A somewhat slow-gTOwing form. 
(S. H. Ivy, 73, 88.) 

H. H. marginata aurea (golden-margined). I. elongate tri- 
angular, bordered with faint orange-yellow, turning to red. An 
excellent ivy for walls. 

H. H. marginata minor (lesser maigined). A pretty but slow- 
growing form, with siii.aller leaves than U. E. marginata. Not 
vigoroirs enough for walls, but a desirable plant for cultivation in 
pots. Syn. II. Vavcndi^hil. 

H. H. marginata rubra (red-margined). This differs from 
tl. II. uianiiiiala in the bright deep rosy-red hue of the extreme 
edge of the leaf ; the red colour does not appear until autumn. 

and disappears in spring 
//. elegantuftinia, H. tricolor. 

A slow-growing variety. Sv.N'S. 

Fig. 190. Hedera Helix makskirata mikor. 

H. H. marmorata (m.arblcd), A large-leaved form, of vigorous 
habit, \\ith irregular blotches of a cicamy-white colour. Good 
for walls or rough rockwork. Another and very distinct sub- 
variety is iiianit'jrala minor, witti mnili smaller leaves. The 
vaiic'jatiiin of this, too, is less apt t(.i '■run rait" than that of 
the larger form. See Fig. ISO. 

H, H. palmata (palmate). I. medium-sized, three to five-lobed; 
colour a dull tleep green. This, in a young state, much resembles 
H. dif/ihita, but, wdien mature, is distinct enough to deserve a 
varietal name. A neat, but rather slow grower. (S. H. Ivy, 75.) 

H. H. pelluclda (translucent), I. medium size, bluntly quad- 
rangular, mottleil with gi-een and wliite, or white and semi- 
transparent. Young stems red. Habit robust. 

H. H. purpurea (purple). A climbing Ivy with leathery leaves 
like those of II. lia'gneriana, but of a purplish colour. 

H. H. Rsegnerlana (Ra?gner's).* I. large, dark green, leathery, 
broadly cordate. A handsome and distinct variety, of vigorous 
habit. The arborescent form of this is the most striking of all 
the tree I\ies. See Fig. 191. 



The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Hedera — conlinaed. 

Fjg, 191. Hedera Helix R-f.gneriana. 

H. H. rhombea (iliomlKjid)."'- I. rhomboid, gi-een. narrowly mar- 
gined \\ith creaiiiy-w liite. A distinct form of medium, or, rather, 
small ,^iz0, and of somewhat slow growth. 

H. H. sagltt£efolia (arrow-leaved). I. usually hlnntly three- 
lobed, the central lobe projecting forward in the form of a letter 
V; colour a dull dark green, with a few patches of blackish- 
bronze, which change, in autumn, to a rich purplish-bronze ; prin- 
ciual veins liiiht green. A free grower, of wiry habit. (S. H. 
Ivy, 69.) 

H. H. scutifolia (shield-shaped-leaved). I. medium size, roundish 
triangular, or obscurely three-lnbed, dull green ; veins obscurely 
marked. A distinct vVrietv, but nut a robust grower. Sy.n. 
H. cordata. (S. H. Ivy, 74.) 

Fig. 192. TTepeha Heeix variegata. 

H. H. variegata (variegated). This, one of the numerous 

variegated forms of our native Ivy, has lighter green leaves, 
margined and blotched with creamy-white. It keeps very con- 
stant, and, although not so quick a gi'ower or so handsome as 
some others, is well worth a place against a wall or an old tree 
trunk.v See Fig. 192. 

H. H. Willseana (Wills's). This is a dark-leaved form, nearly 
allinl b> JJ. //. hihata major, from -which it differs in the veins 
being less distinctly marked, and in the colour lieing nuich 
darker in the summer, and in winter deepening to "almost 
black. Syn. //. nigra. (S. H. Ivy, 62 and 72.) 

H. nigra (black). A synonym of II. IMix Wiliscaiut,. 

H. tricolor (three-coloured). A synonym of II. Helix mfii-'ihiala 

H. viridiS (green). A synonym (if IJ. Helix iii<h-rii'i)!<i.s. 

HEDEI&ACE.S:. A name given to the ordur Araliacew-. 

HEDGEHOG THISTLE. *SVe Echinocactus. 

HEDGE HYSSOP. Hrr. Gratiola. 

HEDGE MUSTARD. Hee Erysimum. 

HEDGES* Hedges of various descriptions arc exten- 
sively planted in connection with gardens. They may 

'H.edLg&s— continued. 
either form the boundary fence, or be intended for screens, 
shelter, &g. Various shrubs and plants are available for 
utilising, according as any one may succeed better than 
another, or to suit the special requirement for which the 
Hedge is intended. Different soils and localities must also 
be taken into consideration. Box, Privet, Thuja, &c., suc- 
ceed almost anywhere as Hedges, the last-named doing best 
on rather heavy soil ; but neither is suited for anything 
beyond a screen where there is a paling as well, or lor 
dividing one part of a garden from another. As a 
boundary fence. Whitethorn and Beech, i^lanted together 
when young, and afterwards kept frequently cut in, form, 
eventually, a Hedge which is practically impassable. Black- 
thorn may also be similarly used, but it has the dis- 
advantage of throwing up quantities of suckers from 
creeping roots. The Myrobalan, or Cherry Plum {Prunus 
cerasifeva) is sometimes used, and forms, when esta- 
blished, an excellent Hedge. It is, moreover, very attrac- 
tive when in flower. Hornbeam grows quickly, and makes 
a capital deciduous Hedge, either for a boundary or for 
shelter. Common Laurel may also be planted for the 
purpose, but it is liable to injury from severe frosts. Yew 
and common Holly make the thickest and best Hedges for 
shelter. The former is rather slow^-growing, and both suc- 
ceed best on a rich, rather heavy soil. Hollies transplant 
readily in April or September, when of a good height; 
consequently, a full-sized, thick Hedge may be at once 
secured in necessary cases. When inserting young 
plants, autumn or early sx^ring should, be selected for 
the operation ; the ground should be x->T-"eviously well pre- 
pared by trenching, and by the addition of a little manure, 
if it is poor. In the case of a Hedge which is eventually to 
be a boundary division for keeping cattle, &c., out of a 
garden inclosure, a wooden fence will be requisite for some 
time as well. This may be made of rough posts, with 
long bars fitted in them. Thorns should be cut nearly 
to the ground the first year, and stopped enough after- 
wards to keep them thick at the bottom. They should 
be trimmed once or twice each summer after becoming 
established. Holly and Yew Hedges are usually clipped, 
with shears, in September, w^ien growth is completed. 
Broad-leaved shrubs, such as Laurels, should be cut in 
with a knife, in i)reference to shears, which sever the 
leaves, rendering them unsightly, and the Hedge ex- 
ceedingly formal. Young Hedges are much improved, 
and their growth encouraged, w^hen the soil is kept open 
round their roots with a hoe or fork, which also destroys 
weeds at the same time. 

HEDWIGIA (named after John Hedwig, 1730-1799, a 

celebrated muscologist and Professor of Botany, at Leipsic). 
Syns. Caproxylon, Tetragastris. Ord. Burserace(B. A 
genus containing four or five species of glabrous trees, 
natives of the West Indies, Northern Brazil, and Guiana. 
H. halsamifera, the species best knowai to cultivation, is 
a tall-growing stove evergreen tree, yielding an exudation 
of a balsamic nature. It requires a sandy loam soil, with 
a little peat added. Propagated by ripened cuttings, in- 
sorted in sandy soil, in a rather strong heat. 

H. balsamifera (balsam-ltearing). _/l. whitish, small, in paniclod 
racemes. I. inipari-iiinnate. with stalked, quite entire, coriaceous 
leaflets, h. 60rt. We^t Indies, 1820. 

HEDYCHIUM (from liedyg, sweet, and chion, suow ; 
referring to the sweet-scented snow-white flowers of 
IL i:oriin<rri}n)i, which w^as the first species introduced). 
Indian Garland Flower. Ord. ScLiaminea\ A genus of 
about twenty-five species of handsome stove herbaceous 
plants, all natives of tropical Asia. They have terminal 
spikes of white, scarlet, or yellow flowers, and fine foliage. 
Some of the species, particularly H. GardneriaiiiDn, thrive 
well planted out in a wide conservatory border, in a com- 
post of good loam enriched with a little thoroughly decayed 
manure, and the whole rendered porous by the addition of 
some sharp sand. Hedychiums arc exceedingly ornamental. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Hedychium — continued. 
Occasioniil supplies of liquid manure are beneficial in 
securing streng-th and vigour. These plants are also 
valuable for sub-tropical gardening-, and for thiB purpose 
may bo treated similar to Canna (which see). For pot 
culture, they may be placed in largo pots or tubs, in 
spring, using rich soil, and applying plenty of water and 
liquid manure when established. When flowering is over, 
the spikes may be cut down. In spring, when the plants 
are repotted, the rhizomes can bo divided. The second 
season, the spent earth can be partly removed, and the 
plants repotted into pots or boxes only an inch or two 
larger. Where a heated tank is used for growing tropical 
water plants, place the bottom of the pots or tubs, con- 
taining the Hedychiums, in the water to a depth of 2in. 
or Sin. ; where such a convenience does not exist, w-ater 
the plants two or three times daily during the season of 
growth. Of those now in cultivation, H. Chinhicrianum 
is by far the commonest ; and, with the exception of 
that species, and of H. Jiavmn, the ones mentioned below 
are stove jilants. 

H. acuminatum ttaper-puinted). jl liaiulsoine, frat>mnt ; spike 
loose, 9in. m- move long; two outer segments of corolla limb 
linear, patent ; of the three inner, two are pale yellow, the tliird 
pure white ; lamina deeply cut into two segments ; Hlanients red. 
October. I. broadly lanceolate, with an almost tilifia-ni pnint, 
glabrous above, slightly silky beneath, h. 3ft. to 5ft. East 
Indies, 1820. (B. M". 2969.) 

H.angustifolium (nan-ow-leaved). jl. did! red, small, generally 
four til a fa>^i.'irl(.\ expanding in succession ; corolla tube slender, 
cylindric, about lin. long ; calyx same length, superior, cylindiai; ; 
spikes turuhual, erect, rigid, open, 6in. to 18in. long, smooth. 
June. /. lineardanceolate, lOin. to l^in. long, lin. to 2in. broad, 
bifarious, sessile on their smooth sheaths, pointed, smootli on 
both sides. Stems erect, 5ft. to 6ft. high. India, 1S15. (D. M. 

H. carneum. (rtesh-coloured). ./f. ilesh-coloured, scentless ; bracts 
ciliated, one-tiowered, convolute ; calyx snb-tomentose. August. 
I. bifarii)us, (jver 1ft. long, very slender, acuminate, h. 3ft. to 1ft. 
East Indies, 1S25. (B. M. 2637.) 

H. chrysoleucum (gold and white). Jl. pure wliite, with a 
l.Tight orange-coloured blotch on the lip, very fragrant ; filaments 
long, very deep orange. August, h. 5ft. East Imlics. (B. M. 

H. coronarium (garland).* jt. snow-white, sweet-scented ; lip 
nearly 2in. wide. May. h. 5ft. East Indies, 1791. (B. M. 70S.) 

H. flavosum. (yellow), yf. yellow, numerous, fragrant; corolla 
tube slender ; lacinite linear ; lip erect, large, obcordate ; spike 
terminal, solitary, erect, 6in. to 8in. long. July. l. hmceolate, 
very fine-pointed, pubescent and pale beneath; sheaths slightly 
pubescent. /;. 2ft. to 5ft. Silhet, Bengal. (B. .M. 2573, under 
name uf //. jhifuut.) 

H. flavnm, (yellow).'*' jl. bright orange, large, fragrant. 
July. I. 12in. to 14in. long. '^ /;. 3ft. Nepaul, 1822. In 
many Cornish gardens, this handsome species has proved 
nearly hardy. (B. iM. 2039.) 

Hedychium — coniinued. 

in two rows. h. 5ft. to 5ft. East Indies, 1819. This very Bne 
species is nearly hardy in England, if provided with a slight win- 
ter protection. I'he crowns, may, however, be lifted aiid .stored 
similar to those of tlie Dahlia or Canna. See Fig. 195. (B. R. 774.). 

H. gracile (slender), jl. white, with the filament red ; calyx 
tulndar, menibriuious ; corolla tube l^in. to .^in. long ; loTjes three, 
filiform ; staminodes linear, acute ; lip linear-oblung, two-Joln-d ; 
spike 5in. t<i 7in. long. September. L 5in. to 9in. long, 2iii. to 
Sin. broad, fincdy acuminate ; base acute, narrowed into a petiuln 
=^in. to 'I'ln. brtjad. Jt. 2ft. to 3ft. Sikkim-Himaku'a and 
khasia :\lountains, 1820. (B. M. 6638.) 

H. spicatum (spike-tlowered). /?. yellowish ; corolla- tube ex- 
tending lin. beyond the sheath ; lip two-b.ibed, emarginati'. 
October. L, spathe erect, one-flowered, two-valved. h. 5ft. 
India, 1810. (B. M. 2303.) 

cypselum campanuliflorum. 

HEDYSARUM {Hedij-'^arun, the C4rcek name used 
by Dioscorides). OiiD. Leguminoscn. This genus includes 
about fifty species of eleg^ant hardy perennial herbs or sub- 
shrubs, which are distributed throughout Europe, North 
Africa, and the temperate and mountainous parts of Asia, 
two species being- North American. Flowers purple. 
white, yellowish-white, or rarely yellow ; peduncles bear-^ 
ing racemose spikes of large flowers. Leaves impari- 
pinnate ; leaflets entire, often pellucid-dotted, exstipel- 
late. Very few species are grown in our gardens, with 
the single exception of H. coronarium. They are all of 
very easy culture in ordinary gardens, but open, sunny 
spots, and good deep soil, arc most calculated to insure 
success. Increased by seeds. 

H. coronarium (garland).* French Honeysuckle. .//. deep reil ; 
spikes or racemes ovate, crowdeil. Summer. I. with three to 
live pairs of elliptic or roundish leaflets, which are clothed with 
pubescence beneath and on the margins. Stems diffuse, h. 3ft. 
to 4ft. Soutli-west Europe, 1596. Perennial herb. There is also 
a white-flowered \'aricty. If.Jlcxuosujii, a closely allied species, 
from Southern Spain, has red flowers, tinged with blue. 

H. Mackenzil (Mackenzie'.s). jl. red, large, disposed in long 
racemes. Summer. I., leaflets oblong, clothed on both surfaces 
with hoar>' puliescence. North America, 1878. Plant decuudicnt. 
Perennial'herli. (B. M. 6386.) 

H. Obscurum (obscure). Jl purple, in long s]iikcs. Sumnu^v. 
I. \\ith five to nine pairs of ovate-glabrous leallets. Stems erect. 
h. bin. Eurupe, 1640. Perennial herb. (B. M. 282.) 

H. sibiricum (Siljeriim). /. purple ; racemes long, axillary ; 
bracts shorter than the peduncles. June and July. I. piniiLite, 
ovate-laneeolate, .smooth, h. 4ft. Siberia, 1798. Perennial herb. 
(B. M. 2213 ; B. R. 808, under name of H. alpinum.) 

Fig. Iy5. Hedychium GARr'>;ERi.4NUM, showing Habit 
and detached Flower-spike. 

H. Gardnerianum (Gardner's).* rf. lemon-coloured, large, 
fragrant. Summer. I. broadly lanceolate, stem-clasping, 

Fig. 194. HiJL'YscEri: CAMER]iURV.\.NA. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

HEDYSCEFE (from hedys, sweet, and slepe, a 
covering). Ord. Puhnr. A mouotypio genus, the 
Bpecies being a tall stove palm. For culture, see 

H. Canterburyana (Vtscount Canterlnu-y'.s).* fl,, panicle branch- 
ing into .spreading spikes of about 6in., the rachis thick and 
flexuose, the notches not immersed and not close ; male periantli, 
outer segTnents narrow-lanceolate, about two lines, the inner ones 
broader and striate ; female perianth, outer segments three lines 
broad, and almost as long, inner ones ovate and rather shorter. 
fr. ellipsoid, the pericarp hard when dry. I. long, pinnate, in a 
dense head ; segments numerous, nearly equal, and acuminate. 
A. 32ft. Lord Howe's Island. S\'X. Kcniia Canterhurjiana. See 
Fig. 19*. 

HIiHIi. The base of a young cutting, when removed 
fronr the junction formed by its connection witli the parent 
plant. Many cuttings, especially those of a hard-wooded 
nature, root better when inserted with Heels, that part of 
the wood being just sufficiently solidified ; and, if removed 
from the side of a branch, a larger surface is secured for 
placing in contact with soil than wdicn a horizontal cut 
is made. 

HIi!EiLlNG--XN. The temporary insertion of cuttings, 
or the roots of plants, in soil, to preserve them until their 
permanent quarters are p>repared. Heeling-in also applies 
to crops that are lifted, and their roots temporarily covered 
with soil in a cool situation, to prolong the season of 

HIililMA (named in honour of Oswald Heer, a cele- 
brated Swiss botanist of the present century). Syns. 
Heterocentron, Scliizocentron. Okd. Melasto-inacece. A 
genus comprising about four species of erect or pros- 
trate, pilose or glabrous herbs and sub-shrubs, inhabit- 
ing the mountains of Mexico and Guatemala. Flowers 
white or pink ; petals four, ovate or obovate, obtuse or 
acuminate. Leaves cordate, lanceolate, or obovate-lanceo- 
late, membranaceous. H. rosea, the only species yet 
introduced, is a very rare but ornamental stove ever- 
green shrub, which can be grown out of doors, iu warm 
localities, during part of the summer. It is a valuable 
stove winter-flowering plant, and succeeds best in sandy 
loam and peat. Cuttings of young shoots may be struck 
in February and March. 

H. rosea (rosy). /., panicle compound, terminal, spreading, com- 
posed of the numerous flowering branches, each of whicli forms a 
corymb of many bright rose-coloured flowers, nearly lin. in 
diameter ; petals four, spreading, rhomboid-orbicular, a little 
concave, shortly unguiculate. Autumn and early winter. I. 
opposite, slightly scabrous above, elliptical, obtuse, entire, penni- 
nerved, tapering at the base into a moderately long petiole. 
h. 1ft. or more. INIexico. Plant suff ruticose. (B! M. 5166, under 
name of Heterocentrum inexicanuvi.) 

HEIMIA. This genus is now included under Nessea 
(which see), 

HEINSIA (named after the celebrated philologist, 
Heinsius, wlio translated the writings of Theophrastus). 
Ord. Ruhiacecv. A genus including three or four species 
of evergreen shrubs, natives of tropical Africa. Flowers 
white, largish, pedicellate, solitary, or disposed in three 
to six-flowered terminal cymes. Leaves opposite, shortly 
petiolate, oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate. II. 
jasminifiora, the only species yet introduced, is a Ijeau- 
tiful, much-branched, unarmed, glabrous, stove slirub. 
For culture, see Gardenia. 

H. jasminifiora (Jasmine-flowered i.» Jl. ivhite, salver-shaped, 
numerous, tln-ee or four together at the tops of the hranchlet.s' 
pedicellate, somewhat racemose. February, l. opposite, oval' 
oblong or ovate, acuminated, on short petioles. /(. 5ft to 8ft 
Sierra l.eone, 182*. (U. M. 4207.) 

HEINTZIA. This genus is now included under 

HEISTERIA (named after Laurence lleister, 16S3- 
17.58, Prole -sor of liotany at Helmstadt). Partridge Pea ■ 
Pois - Perdrix. Syn. Ilesioda. Okd. Olacmew. This 
genus comprises about ten species of glabrous trees or 
shrubs, one from Western tropical Africa and the rest 
from tropical America. Flowers small, sessile or pedi- 

Heisteria — conlinved. 
eellate, in the axils of the leaves. Leaves entire, coriaceous. 
Probably the only species yet introduced is the one 
described below. It is a stove evergreen tree, thriving 
in a of loam, sand, and peat. Firm cuttings 
will root in sand, in brisk bottom heat. 

H. coccinea (scarlet), fi. white, small, twin or numerous, 
axillary: calyx dark purple or scarlet. Winter. L alternate, 
entire, lanceolate, rounded at the base. /(. 15ft. "West Indies, 

HEIiCIA. Included under Trioliopilia (which see). 

HELENIUM (Ilelenion, an old Greek name used by 
Hippocrates, and ptrobably derived from Helen of Troy). 
Ord. Com2:)osita3. A genus containing about eighteen 
species of ornamental hardy herbaceous annuals or peren- 
nials, inhabiting Central and North America. Ecoeptaole 
chaify, between the ray-florets only ; i^appus of five 
bristles ; involucral bracts in one series, united at the 
base ; ray-florets toothed at the apex. Leaves alternate, 
often decurrent, entire or few-toothed. The species are 
more or less strong-growing, and are, consequently, best 
suited for the margins of shrubberies or the back of 
herbaceous borders. In such situations, they may be 
extensively grown, and the abundance of flowers which 
they produce will prove valuable for decorative purposes. 
Propagated by divisions, or by seed. 

H. autumnale (autumnal).* Jl.-heads pure yellow, large, with 
long four to five-cut ray-florets. Autumn. I. smooth, lanceolate, 
3in. to 4in. long, -Ain. broad, acute at both ends. Stem branching 
at top. h. 4ft. to 6ft. North America, 1729. Perennial. A very 
showy and elegant species. (B. M. 2991.) 

H. Hoopesii (Hoopes's). _il. -heads bright orange, about 2in. across ; 
iiu'olucral segments loiig, narrow, acuminated. Summer. I. 
lanceolate, acuminated, smooth, stem-clasping. Stem simple. 
h. 2'rft. North America. Perennial. 

H. nudiflorum (naked-flowered). Jl.-heads pure yellow, loosely 
disposed, medium-sized, fragrant. Summer and autvmin. I. alter- 
nate, linear-lanceolate, h. 2ft. to 3ift. South Unit. .1 States. 
Perennial. H. n. atropurpureurn (dark purple) is a variety with 
purple ray-florets. 

H. quadridentatum (four-toothed), fl. -heads yellow ; disk- 
florets four-toothed. May to October. ?., lower ones pinnatifld ; 
upper entire, smooth. Louisiana, 1790. Annual or biennial. 
(B. E. 598.) 

HELIAMFHOSA (from lielios, the sun,andami)7!ora, 
a pitcher ; iu reference to the circular asoidia). Ord. 
SarraceniaceiB. A monotypic genus. The species is a 
greenhouse herbaceous perennial. Probably this plant 
only yet exists in a single establishment in this country. 
Most likely it requires similar treatment to Sarracenia 
(which see). 

H. nutans (nodding), fl. white, or ])ale rose-coloured, nodding, 
on an erect, few-flowered scape ; sepals five, rarely four, spreading. 
(. radical, tubular, in the form of a pitcher with an oblique 
mouth, bned with deflexed hairs, h. 1ft. to 2ft. Eoraima, 
1883. (T. L. S. xviii. 29.) 

HELIANTHEMUM (from liclios, the sun, and antlie- 
mon, a flower). Sun Px,oso. Including Fumana. Ord. 
Oistinece. A genus of showy, hardy, annual or perennial 
herbs or sub-shrubs, often prostrate. Nearly 150 forms 
have been described as species ; but, according to Beutham 
and Hooker, only about thirty are entitleal to specific 
rank. They are natives of North, Central, and South 
America, and the Mediterranean region ; a few extend 
to other parts of Europe and Western Asia, four species 
being members of the British Flora. Kacemes secund, 
sometimes corymbose, sometimes paniculate ; and before 
tlie flowers expand, the racemes at the top are bent or 
twisted backwards, boooming gradually erect as the 
flowers open. Leaves opposite and alternate. All the 
species are of easy culture in a saudy-loam soil, and 
are best adapted for banks and rockwork. The annual 
species must be raised frmn seed. The perennials 
may bo similarly increased; but it is bettor to trust to 
cuttings, which root readily iu a sandy soil if kept 
sjiadcd until established. The following is a selection 
of the more important spooios and varieties. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Heliantlienium — coniiiuied. 

H, at riplici folium (A triplex-lea vcd). Jl., petals yellow, lavsc ; 

peduncles racemose, hairy. June. I. stalked, broad-ovate, 

bluntish, waved at the base, tomentose on both surfaces. 

Branches white from tomentnni. h. mt. Spain, 1659. Shrub. 
H. canadense (Canadian). _/?. pale yellow, minute, crowded; 

licduncles very sliovt, one to tliree-tiowered. Summer. I. oblong*- 

iiiiL'ar ; margins usually re volute ; under surface tomentose. 

Branches very erect, pul.ic-;cent. h. lit. Nurth America, 1825. 

Herbaceous. (S. C. 21.) 

H. carolinianum (Carolina), ./f. yellowy, lin. across. May ami 
-Tune. /. .slmrtlv stalked, lanceolate, denticulate, hairy. Base 
shtabl.y. h. bin. to 12in. South United States. (S. C. 99.) 

H, formosum (showy). ./?., petals yellow, marked with a black 
spot at t)ie base of each, lari;e ; peduncles villous. Summer. I. 
sliuitly stalked, oltuvate-laneenlate, tonientosely-villous ; voTuiG,fr 
ones hoary. BranrhfS raneseent. /;. 4ft. Puvtu;;al, 1780. ' Shiul-. 
U>. JI. 264 ; Un. xxvi., 420, under name of Ci^tui/onnosm.) 

H. Fumana (smoky). jL bright yellow. June. I. linear, fleshy, 
thinly hairy. South-western Europe. An elegant sub-shrub, of 
Uealh-like. habit. (S. C. 16.) 

H. globularire folium (Clnbularia-leaved). JJ. citron-yellow, 
blark-spt.itted, in dense racemes. Summer. I., radical ones lonj;- 
stalked, nvate-oliloug, hairy, upper surface furrowed; cauline 
ones sessile, lanceolate. Stems ascendins:, almost simple, herba- 
ceous, h. 9in. Spain and Purtugal, 1752. (B. M. 4873, under 
name of U. TuhcrarUt.) 

Fig. 195. Flowering Branch of Heliantiiemum guttatudI. 

H. guttatum (spotted), jl. yellow, with red spot at the base of 
each petal, in unilateral cymes. Summer. I. opposite, sessile, 
oblony-linear, hairy, h. 6in. Europe (Britain), North Africa, 
and West Asia. Annual. See Fig. 195. 

H. lialim,ifolium (Halimus-leaved). fi. bright yellow, larg'e, 
slightly spotted at the base of each petal. Summer. I. ovate- 
lanceolate, acute, wavy, pubescent, h. 5ft. to 4ft. Spain. Shrub. 
(S. C. 4.) 

H. italicum (Italian), fi. yeUow, small ; racemes simple, hispid. 
Summer. I., lower ones stalked, ovate; upper ones linear-oblong, 
almost sessile. Branches procumbent, long, hispid, shrubby. 
h. 3in. Europe, 1817. 

H, laevlpes (smooth-stalked), fi. yellow. Summer. I. linear, 
needle-like. /;. 1ft. South-western Europe. A beautiful little 
shrub, requiring shelter during severe weatber. (E. ]\I. 1782, 
under name of Cistus Icevipes.) 

H. lavandulsefoUum (Lavender-leaved), fi. yellow ; racemes 
crowded. Summer. I. oblong-linear, with revolute margins ; 
under surface tomentose, hoary. Stem shrubby, erect, branched; 

Helismfhexauxix— CO lit iiiaed. 

branches lon::^-, terete, canescent. /(. 1ft. IMediterranean region, 

H. ooymoides (Ocymum-like). y?., petals yellow, with a dark Ixisc, 
creuated ; peduncles somewhat panicled, pilose. Suniuu'r. I. 
sessile, ovate-kinceolate, obtuse. Stem branched ;_ branches, 
leaves, peduncles, and sepals beset with long loose hair.s. /;. 1ft. 
to 3ft. South-western Europe, 1800. Sub-shrub. (B. M. 5621.) 
II. algaruense (S. C. 40), //. candklum (S. C. 25), II. rago-suui 
(S. C.^65), represent forms of this variable species. 

H. polifollum (Polium-leaved). fi. white, marked yellow at the 
base; petals crenulated ; racemes terminal, secund. Sunnner. 
/. olilong-Iiuear, with revolute margins, tomentose on both sur- 
faces. Stem shrubby, branched ; branches procumbent, densely 
tomentose. Europe"(Britain), North Africa. Syn. //. pidvera- 
lentum. (S. C. 88.) H. roacuiii is a beautiful variety, with rosy- 
red flowers. (S. C. 55.) 

H. pulverulentum (powdery). A syn<-.nym of //. iH}]if>>\'nun. 

H. scoparium (broom). //. yellow, small, by twos or threes at 
ends of branches, on naked pedicels ; sepals tive, three of which 
are oval and pointed, and two subulate; corolla twice as long as 
calyx, ^b^y ami June. I. alternate, linear, without stipules. 
h. 3in. CaTiforiiia, 1843. Perennial. 

H, serpyllifolium (Thyme-leaved). A synonym of II. vuhjarc 

H. umbellatum (umbellate), fi. pure white, in a whorled raceme, 
endinu,- in an mnbel. June. I. linear-oblong, with revolute mar- 
gins, ciliate, viscid when young, /i. 9in. tolSin. Perennial. (S. C. 5.) 

H. vineale (vineyard), fi-. yellow ; racemes simple. Summer. 
I. variable, obovate, ovate, or elliptical, pilose. Stem sutt'ru- 
ticose, procumbent, branched, ascending, tomentose, evergTeen. 
Europe, 1772. 

H, vulgare (common), fi. yellow ; racemes loose ; pedicels pilose. 
Spring and summer. I. scarcely revolute at the margins ; under 
surface hoary ; upper surface green, pilose. Stem shrubby, pro- 
cumbent. Branches elongated. Europe (Britain), North Africa, 
and West Asia. (Sy. En. B. 168.) A curious variety, or (ac- 
cording to Bentham) an accidental deformity, occasionally seen 
in gardens, and supposed to have been originally found near 
Croydon, with small, narrow, deeply cut petals, has been 
figured under the name of H. surrcjanum. The Rock-roses of 
our gardens are chiefly varieties of this species, which, under 
cultivation, varies much in the colour of its flowers. The follow- 
ing are amongst the most distinct of the innumerable forms : 

H. V. barbatum (bearded). I. ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, clothed 
with long white hairs. (S. G. 73.) 

H. V. hyssopifolium (Hyssop-leaved), fi. coppery-red (S. C 58) 
or saffron-coloured (S. C. 92). I. flat, liueardanceolate or lanceo- 
late ; upper surface glossy. Of the one with coppery-red flowe^-s, 
there is a double form. 

H. V. macrauthum (large-flowered), fi. whitish, yellow at the 
base ; racemes terminal, secund, simple. Summer, l. flat, ovate- 
oblong, acutish, densely tomentose beneath, smooth above. 
Brancnes shrubby, procumbent, rather tomentose. 

H. V. m.utablle (changeable), fi. pale rose-colour, yellow at base, 
becoming almost white before petals fall. Summer. (S. C. 106.) 

H. V. ovallfolium (oval-leaved), fi-. yellow. I., lower ones round- 
ish or oval, glossy gTeen above, white beneath ; margins more or 
less revolute. Syn. U. serjnjllifoUu-m. (S. C. 60,) 

Fig. 196. Flower-head of Helianthus annuus globosus 

HEIJANTHUS (from helios, the sun, and anflws, 
■ flower). Sunflower. Including Harpalium. Ord. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Helianthus — cuntintied. 

Fig. 197. Helfa.ntiius annuus calii-'ojimcus pleiMssimus, 
showing- Habit ami detached Single Flower-head. 

ComposUm. A genus containing about fifty species of 
tall, hardy, annual or perennial herbs, natives, for the 
most part, of North America ; a few, however, are found 
in Peru and Ciiili. Flower-heads very large ; ray-florets 

Helianthus — continued. 
yellow ; disk-florets purple or violet. Loaves large, 
simple, scabrid. All the species are of easy culture in 
almost any moderately good garden soil. The taller- 
growing one;5 are best adapted for growing in a shrub- 
bery, or in the back rows of herbaceous borders, where 
they will require plenty of space to fully develop. Propa- 
gated by divisions ; or by seeds, sown either in pots, and 
the seedlings afterwards transplanted, or in the open 
ground, about March. 

H. angustifolius (narrow-leaved). Jl. -heads aboltt l^in. across, 
nuiiitriius];- di-sposed in a long, leafy raceme. September and 
Octuher. I. dark green, narrow, tufted, glossy. Stems slender. 
/'. 2Aft. l^erennial. 

H. annuus (annual).* Connnon Sunflower. Jl.-hi'aOs very large, 
varying in size and colour. Summer, /i. 6ft. "Western United 
States, 1596. (B. M. 2051.) Of the many varieties of this annual 
species, the finest is glohosiis fishdosus (see Fig. 196), the flowers 
of which are very large, and of a splendid, extremely double, 
globular form, when fully developed. It is best grown in a 
rich, deep soil. Other forms are : ealifornicus plenisslinus (see 
Fig. 197), cucuincf'/nlius, giganteus, ^nd grandijlorus. 

H. a. macrocarpus (large-fvuited). A cultivated race, with 
larger anil liglitcr-eoloured achenes, long cultivated in Russia, 
Ac', for food and oil. 

H. argophyllus (silver-leaved). Jl. -heads yellow. Autuum. I. 
clothed with a soft, silky, silvery down. h. bit. Texas. This 
species is closely allied to H. annuus, into which it appears to 
degenerate uniler cidtivation. Annual. See Fig. 198. 

H. atrorubens (dark-red). ./T.-Zicarfs scattered ; disk dark red or 
pnr]ile : rays yellow, aciniiinated, entire. I., radical ones flat, 
hairy ; upper ones twisted aiul waved, hairv, tuherculated. Stems 
imrple, rough, with whitish hairs, h. 2ft. to 3ft. United States, 
1732. Perennial. 

H. decapetalus (ten-petaled). rl-head.s about 2in. across, ter- 
mmal, solitary, on slender, twiggy branchlets. Autnmn. l, 
lower ones somewhat ovate-acuminate, hardly 6in. long ; upper 
ones 2in. to 3in. long ; all somewhat obscurely serrate. A. 6ft. 
Perennial. (B. 11. 3510.) 

Fig. 199. 

FLOWi:nixG Branch of IIki.iantiius decapetihis 


FLowiiLtiNo BiiAiMji 01- Helianthus AiiooriiYLUjs. 

H. d. multlaorus (niany.nowe,ed).« This is a very old garden 
plant, only known in eultivatum. It has firmer leaves lamer 
heads, and nioie nuinenuis bracts than demjvlalii.s. See ihg. 199. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Helianthus — contin ued. 

(B. M. 227, Hurler name of //. }n,at:ilnriis.) The common form 

IS of dwaif habit, with double Howeis; 
H. d. multiflorus major only ditt'ers fvom oidmM-y vnilHilorus 

in its buyer liower-heads. 
H. diftusus (ditEuse). A synonym of IJ. riiinjits. 
H. lenticularis (lenticulai). jl.-liea,lx yeUow, large, drooiiin;; ; 

scale of involucre cxpaiuled, scabrous on the back. August. "(. 

alternate, petiolate, ovate, three-nerved, serrate. Steni" hisjiid. 

h. 6ft. North America, 1827. (IS. E. 1265.) Thbs is a variety of 

the (.'onnnou Sunflower, 77. aiuiini.^. 
H. mollis (soft). fl.-lic<i.l-! yellow. .July to October. I. ovate, 

iLciniiiiiate, thiee-nerved, closelv-serrateil, scirbrous above, hoary 

and soft beneath. 7i. 4ft. North America, 1S05. (B. M. 3689.) 

Fig. 200. Upper Portion of Stems, and detached 
Flower-head, of Helianxhus orgyalis. 

H. orgyalis (nocturnal).* fl.-heads yellow, comparatively small, 
numerous, forming a large panicle. Autumn. I. alternate, nu- 
merous, very narrow and recurved, 5in. to Sin. long, ^in. to lin. 
wide. k. 6ft. to 10ft. United States, 1879. Very graceful, aud 
one of tlie best and most useful decorative autumnal-flowering 
plants. Perennial. See Fig. 200. 
H. pubescens (downy). See Wyethia angustifolia. 
H. rigidus (rigid).* jl.-heads glistening golden-yellow, about 4in., formed of a deep ray and small disk ; ray-florets l^in. long, 
^in. bioad, tips incurved, and edges reflexed ; disk-florets choco- 
late colour ; involucre scaly ; peduncles long, hairy. August. 
I., stem ones very hispid, lanceolate, slightly dentate; radical 
ones few, oval, 5in. or 6in. long. h. 3ft. North America. 
Perennial. Syn. H. dlffusus. (B. M. 2020.) 
H. tuberosus (tuberous). Jerusalem Artichoke, fl.-heads yellow. 
Sci)tend.)er and October. I. three-nerved, scabrous; lower cor- 
date-ovate, upper ovate-acrmiinate, alternate ; petioles ciliated 
at base. Roots creeping, and towards the end of autumn 
produce a number of round, irregular, reddish or yellow tubers, 
clustered together, and of about the size of an ordinary potato. 
h. 6ft. to 8ft. Upper Canada and United States, 1617. This was 
cultivated by the aborigiires, and the tubers developed. It is 
certainly not South American, as stated in so many books. Tlie 
connnon name of this species is supposed to be a corrniition of 
the Italiair Girasole articocco, or Sunflower Artichoke. For cul- 
ture, .VI Artichoke, Jerusalem. 
HEI'ICHKOA. Sfc Ruclbeckia. 
HELICHE.YSUM (an old Greek name used by 
Thcoijlirastas ; the latter part of tlie word, from cltrysos, 
g-old, refers to the oolonr of the flowers). Everlastings. 
Syn. Elichrysum. Okd. Convjinxitce. A genns comprising 
2G0 species of greenhouse or hardy, herbaceous or shrubby 
plants, natives, for the most part, of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Flower-heads large, solitary ; involucral bracts 
scarious, not silvery, spreading or recurved, or clustered 
and small with incurved bracts; pappus rough or sub- 

Helichrysum — eoutinved. 
plumose. Very few species are grown in our gardens. 
Helichrysuma succeed best in a rich loamy soil, either when 
grown in pots or planted out. The annual species, and 
the varieties (of which there are a g'ood number) of H. 
hracteatum, may be readily raised from seed, sown in a 
light heat, in March, aud afterwards transplanted, or in 
the open ground at the latter end of that month. The 
greenhouse and half-hardy perennial species may be 
propagated by cuttings, inserted in spring, in a close 
frame, without much heat. Flowers that are intended 
for drying should be gathered whi'ii jiartially unfolded, 
and suspended with their heads downward in a cool shed. 
Any that are required to ripen seed must be allowed to 
remain ou the plants until naturally developed. 

H. apiculatum (small-pointed), fl.-heads yellow, in small 
clastcred coryiiilis. lu V^it. Australia, 1804. Plant covered N\ith 
a silvery toniiiitnm. Half-hardy perennial. 

H. arenarium (s;urd-b>viug).* Yellow Everlasting, fl.-heads 
bright golden-yellow, disposed in a compound corymb. Summer. 
I. lanceolate, eidire, stem-clasping, blunt and recurved at tips, 
with revolute edges ; downy wlrite on both surfaces. Stem 
upright, simple, downy, h. 6in. to 12in. Europe, 1739. Hardy 
herbaceous. Tire flowers of this .species are very extensively used 
for decorative purposes, and are yiopul.irly known as Immortelles. 
They are also largely employed in the nmlving of funeral wreaths, 
crosses, &c. 

Fig. 201. Flowering BR:V>'cn of IIia.icnRvsrM dracteatfm. 

H. bracteatum (bracteate).* iL-]icads very various, solitary, ter- 
minal. .August. I. lanceolate, entire. //. '3ft. to 4ft. Australia, 
1799. Half-hardy annual. See Fig. 201. 77. acvminatuin, II 
ehri/.vintliinn, and II. inaene,<p]n,l ii m, arc mere forms of 'this 

H. b. aureum fgoldeu). fl-heads goblen-yellow. See Fig. 202. 
H. b. bicolor(two-coloured). fl.-heads y&Wow. August. 7. linear- 

lanceulatc, acuminate, obtuse at the base, roughly ciliated ; uinjer 

ones subulate. 1835. (B. E. 1814.) 

H. b. compositum (compound) is a fine "doulde" strain, with 
various-coUmred fluuer-heads. See Fig. 205. 

H. b. macranthum (large-flowered), fl.-heads white, rose 
coloured outside. (B. R. 1838, 58.) 

H. b. niveum (snowy).* fl.-heads white, yellow, large, solitary, 
terminal ; scab's of involucre white, conniving, ovate, nnicronate 
June. 1833. (B. M. 3357.) 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Helichrysum — continued. 

H. buphthalmoides (BuphtLnlimmi-lila'). A sjuouym of //. 

i^'iG. 202. Heltchhysum bracteatum aureum, showing 
Habit and detached Flower-head. 

Fig. 203. Flower-heads op Heliciirysum bracteatum 


H. erlcsefollum (Heath-leaved), fl.-heads, outer involucre rouRh ; 
inner Hesh-ciilonred. March to Aun'ust. i. sessile, linear. h.Ult. 
Cape of Good Hope, 1774. Greenhouse shruh. (B. M. 435, under 
name of Gnajilntlivm cn'covJc.^:) 

Fig, 204. Heliciirysum fietiddm, showing llaliit and detarlicd 
Single Flower-head. 

H. fellnnm (feline), fi.-lieads purple. May and June I 
lanceolate, sessile, three-norved, naked above, woolly beneath.' 

Helichrysum — continued. 

7i. 3ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1791. .shrub. (1!. E. 243, 
under name of Gnaplialiunb congcstmn.) 
H. fcetidum (ftetid). fi.-heads light yellow. June to Sep- 
tember. I. amplexicaul, entire, acute, downy beneath. Stem 
branched, h. 2ft. Cape of Good Hope, 1692. Greenhouse herb. 
See Fig. 204. (B. M. 1987, under name of Gnaphalium foetidum.) 

H, frigldum (frigid), fl.-heads silvery white, about iin. in 
diameter. i\lay. L small, silky-hairy. /;. 3in. Corsica, 1879. 
Plant elegant with decumbent branches. Half-hardy. (B. M. 

H. grandiflorum (large-flowered). Jt. -heads wljite ; corymb 
stalked: involucre cylinilrical. June to August. Z. amplexicaul, 
ovate-oblong, three-nerved, woolly above, h. 3ft. Cape of Good 
Hope, 1731. Greenhouse sub-shrub. (A. B. R. 489, under name 
of CTnaphalium f/randijlormn.) 

H. graveolens (strong-scented). yf.-7!ea(^s yellow, small, disposed 
in clusters. I. linear, sessile. Tauria, 1877. Plant woolly, half- 
hardy, herbaceous. (R. G. 889.) 

H, Gunnii (Gunn's). A synonym of H. scorpwidcs. 

H. Mannii (Mann's). Ji. globose, lin. across, numerous, disposed 
in a large convex \nnbel, 6in. to Sin. across, at the summit of the 
stem ; involucre white, of numerous closely imbricated scales ; 
disk-florets innumerable, bright yellow ; pappus hairs slightly 
thickened upwards. September. I. close placed, spreading, 
lanceolate, acuminate, slightly tortuose. Stem brown, woody, 
naked below, becoming gradually herbaceous, and clothed with 
leaves upwards, h. 2ft. or more (in cultivation). Fernando 
Po and Cameroons, 1863. Greenhouse shrub. (B. M. 5431.) 

H. plicatum (folded), jl.lieads white, corymbose, large. 
I. narrow, tapering into a long stalk. Macedonia, 1877. Plant 
woolly, forming prostrate, spreading, gi'eyish tufts. An excellent 
hardy herbaceous plant for clothing dry, stony banks. (R. G. 889.) 

H, scorpioides (scorpion-like). f. -heads, involucre broadly 
hemispherical ; bracts very numerous, the outer ones short, often 
tinged with brown, passing into the intermediate ones, of a bright 
yellow, usually narrow. I. from oblong-spathulate to linear, 
mostly acute, glabrous or scabrous above, loosely wooUy under- 
neath, the upper ones few and small. Stem ascending or erect, 
usually simple, often exceeding 1ft., and rather weak. Australia, 
1838. Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. Syns. H. iuphthal- 
moides, B. Gunnii. 

H. Stcechas. Goldy-locks. Ji.-hectds yellow, corymbose, crowded, 
shortly stalked. Summer. I. sessile, linear, obtuse, silvery under- 
Stems branching, spreading, covered with silvery down. 
South Europe, 1629. Hardy evergreen sub-shrub. 

UEIiICOSEA ZEBRINA. A synonym of Bill- 
berg'ia zebrina (which see). 

h. 1ft. 

HEIiICODICSBOS (from helix, helikos, spiral, dis, 
twice, and keras, a horn ; in aUusion to the basal divisions 
of the leaf twisting and standing- erect, and thus some- 
what resembling horns). Oed. Aroidece (Aracew). A 
hardy tuberous perennial herb, allied to Arum. It re- 
quires the protection of a frame in severe weather. For 
culture, see Arum. 

H. crinitus (hairy-spathed).* fl. dark purple-brown ; spadix 
cylmdrical, shorter than the ovate, flat, brown spathe, which is 
hau-y inside. April. I. pedate ; lobes entire. Ji. 1ft. to lift. 
Corsica, 1777. Syn. Arum crin il urn. See Fig. 205. 

HELICOID. Twisted, like a snail's shell. 
HEIiICOKTIA (from Helicon, a mountain in Greece, 
consecrated to the Muse.s). Ord. Scitaminece. A genus 
allied to Musa, containing about twenty-tivo species, all 
of -which are natives of the tropical regions of ' the 
Western hemisphere. They are ornamental, but rarely- 
grown, stove herbaceous perennials, with inconspicuous 
flowers, borne on short spathe.s, and handsome foliage. 
Heliconias may be propagated from seed, but the best 
method is by division of the root-stock when growth 
commences in spring. Separate pieces may be inserted 
in .'iin, pots, and grown on rapidly in a moist stove tem- 
perature, repotting into larger sizes as becomes requisite ; 
or they may be planted out in the stove, if desired. A 
rich, loamy, open soil is best, and plenty of water should 
be applied during the growing season, withholding it when 
the plants die down, in winter. Shade must bo given in 
summer, to prevent the sun injuring the foliage. 
H. aurop-strlata (goldcn-stri|ied).» (. deep green, with the 
course of the parallel-curved veins from the costa to the margin 
traced out by yellow lines; elongate-ovate, cordate at the ba'so 
Stems striated with green and yellow. 1881. A noble plant. 
(1. H. u. s. 4o4.) ^ 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture 

Heliconia — (.■ontinued 

Fig. 205. Helicodiceros ceinitus, sl]o^\in,c Haljit and Ytning Unopened ?!pr\the. 

Fig. 206. Heliconia bicolor, .-ihowing Habit and 
separate Inflorescence. 

H. bicolor (two-colonred). 
ovaries and spathes scarlet. 
BrazU. See Fig. 205. (R. G. 

Vol. n. 

/?. white, tipped with greenish ; 
l. long-stalked, gTacefully arching. 

H. Bihai (Eihai).* JJ. red or orange-colour. .Tuly and Angnst. 
1. on long petioles, ovate-lanceoliite, some of which are slightly 
curved towards the edges, h. 12ft. West Indies, 1786. A hand- 
some and graceful foliage plant. See Fig. 207. (B. E. 374.) 

H. brevispatha (short-spathed). fl. white ; spike short, of not 
more than four or five orange-red spathes, of which the inferior 
one is flowerless ; the rest are much smaller and gr-adually shorter 
upwards. Summer. I. oblong, rather obtuse at the base, much 
acuminated at the apex, quite glabrous; petioles short, h. 3ft. 
South Amerii'a, 1861. A very singular plant. (B. JI. 6416.) 

H. humills <humVjle). fl. whitish-green, sessile ; spathes five to 
seven, hroarlly boat-shaped, many-flowered, scarlet, l. oblong, 
ai nte at both ends ; petioles long, exceeding the scape. Guiana, 
1867. (B. JM. 5613.) 

H. metalllca (metallic). Z. elegantly drooping and recurved, 
broadly lanceolate ; central rib, margins, and curving veins of a 
dark bronzy-red, \\ hich is also the colour of tlie under surface ; 
lietioles distichous, bronzy-red. New Grenada, 1862. (B. M. 

H. psittacorum (parrot-beaked).* Jf. orange, in clusters upon 
short peduncles, w ithin a lanceolate spathe. August. I. smooth, 
shining, alternate, lancetilate-elliptic, acuminate, many-nerved ■ 
footstalks membranous, sheathing the stem. Stem "polished, 
straight, round ; upper part naked ; lower part clothed with 
leaves. 7i. 8ft. (in cultivation, 3ft). Jamaica, 1797. A beautiful 
plant. (B. JI. 502.) 

H. trinmphans (triumphant).* I. oblong-acute, dark green, picked 
out with narrow Idaekish stripes running from the midrib to the 
margin at distant intervals. Introduced to Europe from Sumatra, 
in 1883 (but probably of New World origin). (G. C. n, s., xix., 
p. 565.) 



The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Heliconia — coTitinued 

Fig. 207. Heliconia Bihai. 
H. vlnosa (wine-ved). I. large, broadly oblong, 14ft. long, 
acuminated, bright green above, purplish beneath ; upper surface 
transversely plicate or ridged. Stem slender, greenish. Columbia, 

HELICTEBiES (trom helikter, & twistedi bracelet; so 
called from the screiY-.shaped carpels). Obd. Sterculiacece. 
A genus comprising about thirty species of pubescent or 
tomentose, stellate or branched, stoye trees or shrubs, dis- 
tributed oyer the warmer regions of both hemispheres, 
the majority being American. Flowers axillary, solitary 
or fasciculate. Capsules often stellato-tomentose. Leaves 
entire or serrate. The undermentioned is the species best 
kno^yn to cultiyation in this country. Helicteres thriye 
in a mixture of loam and peat. Propagated by cuttings, 
taken off at a joint, and inserted in sand, under a glass, 
■ in heat. 

H. Isora (Isora). Jl. orairge-red, axillary. September. I. much 
resembling, in form and substance, those of the Hazel Nut ; 
when young, tomentose on both sides ; the old leaves lose their 
pubescence on the upper surface, h. 6ft. India, Australia, &c. 
(B. M. 2061.) 

HELINUS (from helinos, a tendril ; in reference to its 
climbing habit). Ord. Rhavvneai. A genus comprising 
two or three species of climbing shrubs, natives of 
Abyssinia and South Africa. Flowers umbelled. Leayes 
alternate, entire, cordate. Branches slender, angular. 
H. ovaivs is a greenhouse shrubby climber; it requires 
rich, sandy loam, and pjlenty of pot room. Increaserl 
by seeds; and by half-ripened cuttings, placed in sand, 
in gentle heat. 

H. ovatus (ovate). JL greenish, in umbels. I. stalked, snli- 
orbicular, mucronate, feather-nerved. Branches irregular; ten- 
drils spiral. Natal, 1362. 

HELIOCARiFUS (from helios, the sun, and karpun, 
a fruit ; the valves of the capsule are elegantly ciliated 
around on all sides). Oed. Tiliacece. A genus com- 
pjrising four species of trees or shrubs, inhabiting tropical 
America. H. americaims, in all probability the only 
species yet introduced, is a stove evergreen shrub, 
thriving in sandy loam and hbry peat. Half-ripeucd 

Heliocarpus — continued. 

cuttings will root, during summer, in sand, under a bell 


H. americanus (American), fl. purple, small 'iisP^^f ^ i{» <^5'™!f ■ 
July. i. cordate, serrate, three-lobed, smiple. /i. 14ft. to dUtt. LIAi. 

HELIOMERIS. A synonym of Gymnolomia (which 


HELIOFHILA (from helios, the sun, and pliileo, to 
love; in reference to the plants growing in sunny situa- 
tions). Oed. Cruciferw. A genus containing (according 
to Sonder) sixty species of annual herbs or sub-shi-ubs ; 
but the number is considerably reduced by Bentham 
and Hooker. All are natives of South Africa. Eacemes 
elongated. Leaves very variable. Stem round, branched. 
The "annual species are the only sorts grown in our 
gardens; and these are of easy culture. Seeds should 
be sown in the open border, during March or Aprd ; or, 
for an earlier display, in March, in frames, and afterwards 
planted out. 
H. amplexioauUs (stem-clasping), fl. varying from white to 

purplish, small. June to September. I., lower ones opposite ; 

upper ones alternate, cordate, stem-clasping, oblong, entire. 

/!. 9in. 1774. 
H. coronoplfolla (buckhorn-leaved). /!. blue-violet, spreading. 

June to September. I. pinnate-parted ; lobes linear, quite entire. 

h. 1ft. to 2ft. 1778. 
H. pilosa (hairy). r(. blue. June and July. Z. haiiy ; lower ones 

lanceolate, piiinatifld ; upper ones linear, quite entire. Ii. Oin. to 

12in 1820. (B. M. 2526, under name of fl. rfi'ic'a-) 

Fig. 208. Hei.iophila pilosa incisa, showing Habit 
and detached Single Flower. 

H. p. incisa (incised). I. linear-cuneate, tritid at the point, 
rarely five-fid ; lobes linear or acuminate. See Fig. 208. (B. ^I. 
496, under name of H. arabtoides.) 

HELIOFSIS (from helios, the sun, and opsis, like ; 

in allusion to the appearance of the flowers). Oed. 

Compositce. A genus comprising about six species of 

hardy herbs, perennials — with the exception of a couple of 

spiecies of unintroduced annuals — two of which are from 

North America, and the third from Central and South 

America. Flower-heads rather large ; corolla yoUow. 

Leaves petiolate, all opposite or the upper ones rarely 

alternate. For culture, see Helianthiis. 

H. Ifevis (siiinoth). jl. -heads about 3iu. across, terminal, on long 

stalks. AuluuHi, i. ovate-lanceolate, coarsely serrate, /i. 3ft. to 

6ft. North America, 1714. (B. M. 3372.^ Tlieve is a variety, 

■\cahra, having a somuwhat hoary involurre and ruugliisli foliage". 

HELIOTBOFi:. See Heliotropium. 

HELIOTROPIEa:. A tribe of Boraginea;. 

HELIOTROPIUM (old Greek name used by Theo- 
phrastus, from helios, the sun, and trope, a turninq" ; 
according to the ancients, it tui'iied with the sun). Helio- 
trope; Turnsole. Ord. Boragiiiew. A large genus (about 
1.5U species have been described, although, in all pro- 
bability, not more than 100 are entitled to spocitic rank) 

An Encyclopvedta of Horticulture. 


Heliotropium — continued. 
of ornamental, strigose, greenhouse or hardy annual 
herbs or sub-shruha, rarely shrubs, widely dispersed 
throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions, with 
eight species reaching to Europe. Flowers blue or 
white, small, in circinate, seound spikes ; corolla salver- 
shaped. Leaves alternate, rarely sub-opposite. H. pern- 
vianuin and its varieties are amongst the most popular 
of cultivated plants, on account of the fragrant smell 
emitted by their flowers. The plants do not require any 
great amount of heat, but none are more quickly injured 
by cold, especially when this reaches the freezing point. 
They may be grown as dwarf decorative subjects, in 
small pots, or treated as large pyramid and standard 
specimens. Some of the varieties are very dwarf, and 
are useful for summer bedtling. Old specimens of taller- 
growing ones are frequently found trained on the back 
wall of a warm greenhouse. 

Cxiltivation. Heliotropinms, or Ht.'liotropes, as they 
are more popularly called, may be readily increased from 
seeds or cuttiugs ; the latter method being adopterl i 
with named varieties. Toung growing points make the 
host cuttings ; and early spring, or the month of August, 
is a good time for inserting them. If old plants are 
gro^~n in heat, cuttings from them root quickly in a 
close frame, and their points may afterwards be used 
for increasing stock in preference to others not growing 
so vigorously. The young plants should be potted olf 
singly, and grown on in a temperature of about GOdeg., 
repotting in larger sizes as becomes requisite, and ac- 
cording to the shape or size of plant required. Cuttings 
intended for standards should be inserted in the autumn, 
and kept growing all the winter, with a single stem, 
until they reach the desired height, when the points 
may be stopped, and the side branches will soon form a 
head. Old plants may be grown as standards sevei'al 
years in comparatively small pots, by reducing and pot- 
ting up again in new soil each year. The heads may 
be trained on trellises, or the branches merely tied in 
to each other. Large pyramids can be grown in one 
year by an autumn insertion of cuttings, and due atten- 
tion. They should be transferred to the full-sized pots 
as soon as possible, in proportion to their gro\vth, and 
each trained to a pyramid trellis of any ordinary size. 
Small decorative plants may be grown to flow^er in .^dn. 
or Gin. pots, by keeping them piinched wdien young. Out- 
tings of varieties used for bedding, should be taken about 
the middle of August, inserted rather thickly in pots 
or pans, and placed in a close frame. These should be 
kept as a stock for spring propagating, and may then 
be thrown away, as young plants are preferable. Being 
extremely tender, none should be planted out until June, 
when the bedding season is nearly over. Standards or 
others, intended for winter flowering, are best placed 
outside in a warm position, in summer, to thoroughly ripen 
them. They should be housed by September, and kept 
in a temperature of about -j.Sdeg. in winter. 

H. convolvulaceum (Con\ iilvulus-flowpred) * ,/f. white, sweet- 
scented, ujn'Miria- at niiht. ;;eneially oppnsite the leaves and 
tcrnunLil, slujrt-peduucled ; coiuUa limb auiiili', angulate-lobcd. 
Summer. I. lanceolate, or sometimes nearly ovate, and souie- 
timcs linear, short-petioled. h. 2ft. New Jlexico, 1867. An 
extremely showy hardy annual plant. (B. M. 5615.) 

H. corymbosum (corymbose).* rl lilac; spikes terminal, agsre- 
'■ate covvnihose ; sepals Ions, subulate. May to September. 
; oblune- lanceolate. 7i. 4ft. " Peru, 1808. Greenhouse shrub. 
(B. M. 1609.) I 

H. curassavicum (Curaijoa). fl., corolla limb ample, flve-lobed ; i 
throat wlnte, with a yellow eve, open ; spikes mostly in pairs or I 
twice-forked, densely flowered. June and July. (. linear-lanceo- 
late, claucous, smooth, opposite and alternate, h. 9in. ■\^ est 
Indies, 1731. Stove sub-shrub. (B. M. 2669.) 

H. indicum (Indian).* fl. bluish ; spikes mostly single, densely- 
flowered, becoming 9in. to 1ft. long. June to August. I. oxate 
or ov,al, rather cordate, on margined petioles, obscurely serrate 
or undulate. Stem herbaceous. h. 1ft. West Indies, 1713. , 
Stove annual. (B. M. 1837.) 

Heliotropium — continued. 

H. luteum (yellow). ;f. green, yellow, hypocraterifonn. June to 
October. (. stalked. Stem shrubby. Ii. bit. North Africa, &c., 
1779. Greenhouse. (B. R. 164, under name of TourneJ'ortia 
frul iajna.) 


,209. HeljotrOPIUM PEKUVJAKliIM. showing Hahit and 
detached Inflorescence. 

H. peruvianum (Peruvian).* Common Heliotrope ; Cherry Pie. 
fl.. very fragrnnt ; spikes tei-minal, branched, by threes and fours, 
rarely compound. L petiolate, obkmg-lnnceolate, wrinkled, repand, 
hairy. Stem shrubby. Peru, 1757. Greenhouse. See Fig. 209. 
(B. M. 141.) 
H. Voltaireanum (Voltaire's). /. violet. A fine dnarf-gron-ing 
hybrid. Greenhouse. 

Varieties. Of the numerous varieties in cultivation, the 
subjoined list is a good selection, most of them being of 
continental origin. For reference and selection, the list 
is further divided into classes, according to the colour 
of the flowers and foliage. Those majked with an aste- 
risk are recommended either for their general floriferous 
habit or for their highly-perfumed flowers. 

Adele, flowers dark lilac, trusses very large ; leaves light green, 
rough ; vigorous, free-flowering habit. Bouquet Perfume, 
flowers dark, trusses medium size ; very dwarf lloriferous habit ; 
an excellent variety. BurroN, flowers pale lilac, trusses medium 
size : tallfree-grow'ing hahit. Fleur d'Ete, flowers lilac, trusses 
medium ; foliage dark green ; rather shy-flowering. Madahie 
B.VHEEV, flowers pale-coloured, trusses small ; foliage pale green. 
IMadahie tie Blouav, flowers pale Idac, trusses large ; foliage 
pale green. Madame E. Schiller, flowers dark - coloured, 
trusses small ; leaves long, nairow. Madame Jubbinger, 
flowers and leaves very dark ; floriferous habit; good. Madame 
M. KOPFF, flowers whitish-lilac, trusses medium ; leaves rough. 
Madame P. Atiiles, flowers dark-coloured, trusses large, very 
freely produced ; foliage very dark ; good. Miss NrGH'UNOALE, 
flowers dark lilac; dwarf floriferous naldt ; one of the best for 
bedding. M. Viloraun, flowers pale lilac, trusses immense ; 
very free. Rose Clair, flowers dark, trusses rather small but 
very ]dentiful ; foliage intensely dark. White Lady, flowers 
whitish-lilac, becoming nearly wliite under glass, trusses very 
large, free ; tine variety for winter flowtriug. 

Class I. Foliage and Flowers dark-coloured. 'Madame 
Ji'BBi.NGER, "Miss Nightingale, "Eosi; c'laii; 

Class II. Foliage and Flowers pale-coloured. 'Euffo-\, 


'"M. YiLGRAiN, '"White Lady. 

Class III. Foliage green. Flowers dark-coloured. 

*Adele, "Bouquet Perfujie, Flluu d'Ete, Madame E. 
Schiller, *Madame P. Athles. 

HELIFTEKUIVE (from lielios, the sun. and pteron, 
a wing ; referring to plirmed pappms). Including Astelma 
and Bhodanthe. Oed. Compodta. A genus comprising 
forty-two species of half-hardy annual or perennial herbs, 
rarely small shrubs, of which twelve are from South 
Africa, and the rest from Australia. The genus is 
closely allied to Heliclirysum, but is distinguished from 
it by having the hairs of the pappirs plumose or feathery, 
instead of pUose (rough). Helipterums may be raised 
from seeds, sown rather thickly in the open ground, 
about the end of March. A rather rich soil and warm 
position should be selected. H. Manglesii is a pretty 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Helipterum — continaed. 
and useful subject for pot cultui'e. Seeds of it should be 
sown early in March, and placed in a warm house ; when 
the young- plants are large enough to handle, they should 
be pricked off, about eight in a Sin. pot, and grown on 
until they flower. This species may also be grown, with 
others, in the open ground. 

H. canescens (hoary). This is the correct name of the plant 
described in this work as Astelma canescens (which sec). 
(B. M. 420, under name of Xei-anthe mum canescens.) 

H. Cotula (Cotula-flowered). jl. -heads yellow, or white with a 
yellow eye ; involucral scales radiating, scarious, oblons or ob- 
long-lanceolate : pappus hairs thickened upwards, very plumose ; 
achenes smooth. May. i. scattered (opposite in very young, weak 
plants), lin. long, tiliforra, terete. Stem terete, generally much 
branched from the base, but sometimes single ; branches very 
slender, h. 6iri. to 24in. West Australia. Annual. (B. M. 5601.) 

H. gnaphalioides (Gnaphalium-like). Jl.-liearls, peduncles ter- 
minal, 2in. to 3in. long, cottony ; involucre broadly cylindrical, of 
several imbricated reddish scales, cottony ; receptacle faveolated ; 
florets yellow, tubular, perfectly tive-toothed. .Tune. I. altevtiate, 
2in. long, linear, almost filiform, waved, semi-cylindrical on the 
back, grooved in front, downy. Stems decumbent at base, 
throwing up numerous erect, downy branches, h. 1ft. to Ir^ft. Cape 
of Goofl Hope, 1824. Perennial. (B. M. 2710. under name of 
Gnuphaliion inode.^l.inn.) 

Fig. 210. Heupierum HajiBOLDTiANUJi, showing Habit and 
detached Inflorescence. 

H. Humboldtianum (Humboldt's).* /.-/icads small, numerous 
in dense tennnial corymbs; involucre cylindrical; outer bracts 
closely unbiicate, with very short, squarrose, scarious tips ; inner 
ones ^^lth slightly wt.olly-ciliate claws, and radiating, rather rigid 
petal- Ike lainime, of a bright yellow, passing (when dry) into a 
metallic green. (. linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, h. 1ft. to 2ft 
Western Australia, 1863. An erect woolly-white or at Ieii"-th 
nearly glabrous annual. See Fig. 210. Sy.v. a. Sandfordu (under 
which name it is hguved in B. M. 5350). 

H.Incanum (white). Jl.-heads large; involucral bracts yellow 
inn k, or wliite ; peduncles leafless. (. linear, crowded at tlie base 
.It tlie stem. A. 9in. Australia. Plant dwarf, tufted, branching, 
downy, lliilf-hardy annual. (B. M. 2881.) 

H. Manglesil (Mangles').* H.-hcads showy, on long peduncles 
bearing a few scarious scales ; involucre hemispherical, when 
fully out the outer bracts sessile and scarious, the inner ones 
with a narrow claw and oblong, radiating, petal-like lamina 
varying from a pale to a rich pink, and sometimes deep purple at 
the base; florets yellow or purple. I. ovate-oblong or broadlv- 
Janceolate, clasping the stem with rounded auricles. A 1ft to 
l^ft. Western Australia. An erect, glabrous, corynih.iselv 
branched annual. (B. M. 3483, 5283, 5290 ; "B. R. 1703 ■ S B " F ( i 
ser. 11. 296, under name of Ithodaiuhe Mamjlesii.) 

H. Sandfordli (Sandford's). A synonym of II, Ilitmboldtiiuiinn 

H. speciosissimum (very showy). This is the correct ninnc , if 
the plant descriijcd in this wnrk ;is Astelma speciosissimum 
which see). (A. B. U. 51, under name of Xerantl„i„,u,i sjiccntsiim.) 



HELLEBORINE. Sec Epipactis. and Serap as 

HELLEBORUS (from I-Iellehoro.% the old Greek name 
used by Tlicopiirastiis ; probably of foreig-n orig-iu). Heile- 

Helleborvis — continued. 
bore. Ord. RanunculacecB. A genus comprising about 
a dozen species of ornamental hard,y, erect, perennial 
herbs, inhabiting South Europe and Western Asia. Flowers 
white, greenish, yellow or purple, rather large, solitary, or 
paniculate ; sepals fiye, regular, usually persistent ; petals 
small, tubular. Leaves palmate or x^edate, leathery. 
Hellebores thrive in almost any ordinary garden soil, but 
a rich loam, with a moist, rather shady, perfectly drained 
situation, suits them best. A top-dressing of good rotten 
manure, aboat the end of March, after the plants have 
finished flowering, is very beneficial. Hellebores should 
be planted so that they may be conveniently shaded 
when in flower, as, being usually produced in winter and 
early spring, the blossoms — the white sorts especially — 
are damaged with mud splashes. H. niger and its varie- 
ties, popularly known as Christmas Eoses, are largely 
cultivated for the use of their flowers, in a cut state, in 
mid-winter. The roots may be lifted, and placed in a 
gentle heat, under glass ; but they should not be forced 
much. Tlie flowers will be better, if only the protection 
of a frame or hand glass is afforded them, in the open 
ground ; or they may be improved by cutting, and .allow- 
ing them to expand in water, in a warm house. AU are 
easily increased by root divisions, but the stock should 
be strong and healthy. Seeds may also be sown so soon 
as ripe ; but this mode of propagation is very slow, and 
scarcely worth the trouble involved, unless new varie- 
ties are desired. 

H. abchasicus (.Vbchasian). fl. green or purplish, nutant, about 
2iii. across ; sepals oval, waved, not overlapping each other ; 
petals numerous ; anthers yellow. January to March l. about 
1ft. in diameter, with five to seven spathulate-lanceolate, widely 
spreading, smootli, toothed leaflets, h. 1ft. Caucasus. Ever- 

H. atrorubens (dark-red), fl. deep purple when young, with 
the edges and centre ultimately dull purple ; sepals roundish, 
about lin. long. March. (., radical ones pedate ; cauline ones 
almost sessile, palmate. Stems branched, two to four-flowered 
II 13in. South Europe, 1820. (B. M. 4581.) 

H. caucasicus (i 'aucasian). fl. pale green ; sepals much im- 
liiicated, about lAiu. long. (. very glossy, oblong, 3in. to 4in. 
iiroad. h. l.'.ft. Caucasus, 1853. 


llaliit and detached Single Flower. 

":i,;it^"^fR"s,^'llg 211.^^"'^™ "^"'-'"^'' "■"■'' ™sy-colourcci 
H colchicus (Ci.l. hi, uii) ,7. deep bright purple ; sep.als some- 

M,n'l','/^"v ,-','• """" V»"'-H^=""^ ' Stamens yeiu^w'. faun" ; 
1 .M.iuli. ( ^el.^ large pedate, dentate, distinctly veined Stems 
tliri-e to six-Hi»vered. h. 18in. Asia Minor. (R. G. 293 ) 

H. foetidus (foitid). Bear's Font n .-.;.,=,-.„ „„.,,.i,. ,■ 
disposed in panicled cyme. : s,., ;.ls ed 'e I w?t^; ■ , "T-"^' 
turns tu a purplish tint. Hcc iiliei "t U i ]l "'''V* 

persistent, dull green, small, pedate ; Jegmeiit^ Unear, slubow?; 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 

Helleborus — conti)iiiefI. 

iuciso-serrate. h. 2ft. I':iirn|.n (r>ritaiii). Very distinct and 
ornamental. Sec Fi;^-. 212. (Sy. iCu. .11. 45.) 

Fig. 212. Fruit of HiiLHiBOiius F(t:tiuus. 

H. lividus (livid), yf. pale green, ten to twenty in a deltoiil 
corynil) ; sepals nearly flat and spreading. Miirch. l. tritid, 
g-labroiis ; se;2,-ments nhlon<j:-lanceolate, acute, .sliarply toothed. 
Stems erect, bearini; eight or ten leaves crowded near the base, 
below the inrtoiesceiice. h. IVft. Corsica. (B. M. 72.) 

Helleborus — continued. 

tral and Eastern Europe, Western Asia, 1596. The roots of this 
species are occasionally used in medicine. See Fig. 213. (B. M. 
8.) There are two or three varieties of tlii-s fine .species: aUi- 
foliiis (see Fig. 214), usually known as major, and also as maxi- 
ini.LS, has very large flowers, measuring about 4in. across; it is 
one of the best of the genus, annustifolius (Syn. viinor) has 
both foliage and flowers smaller than the typical species, and 
comes into bloom much earlier. There is also a form having 
foliage distinctly margined with white. 

H. odorus (sweet-scented), jl. green, sweet-scented, drooping, 
2in. across ; corymb three or four-flowered. February to April. 
I. pale green, veined with white, one or two in a tuft to a fllower- 
ing stem, pedate ; segments six to eight, lanceolate, regularly 
toothed, h. l^ft. Eastern Europe, 1817. (B. R. 1643.) 

H.o.purpuraacens (purplish). //. purplish -red, about 2in. across ; 
sepals roundislr, imbricated, incurved at the edges ; stamens and 
anthers creamy-white. Stem one or two-flowered, h. 6in. to lOin. 
Hungary, 1317. 

H. olympicus (Olympian).* fl. purplish ; sepals round, about 
lin. long and broad. Spring, t. digitate-pedate, or palmate, with 

riG 215. Helleborus niger. 

H. ntger ftilack).* Christmas Rose. /., when protected by glass, 
pure white, 2in. to 3in. across ; scapes stout, leafless, one to tour- 
flowered. Winter. I. radical, large, pedate, persistent ; segments 
oblanceolate-rhomboid, shallowly incised. A. 6in. to 18in. Cen- 


Fig. 215. HELLEBdKns olvmpicu.s, showing Habit, and fully 
and partially expanded Flowers. 

five to seven linear-oblong, smooth, dentate-serrate lobes Stems 
two or three-flowered. h. 2ft. Greece, 1810. See Fi»-. 215. 
(B. R. 1842, 58.) ° 

H. orientalls (Eastern). //. rose-coloured, large ; sepals much 
nnbricated, spreading ; flowering stems with two to si.x blossoms 
and large, deeply palmately cut, foliaceous bracts. February to 
Alay. (. shortly pedate, persistent, pubescent beneath ; seg- 
ments seven to nine, oblanceolate-oblong, not palmately cut 
serrate, h. 1ft. to 2ft. Greece, 1839. Several forms, usuaUy 
described as species, are mere varieties of II. orientalis. 
Among others, the following may be enumerated: antinmrum 
ditters from the type by its glabrous leaves, produced two in a 
tuft ; flowers white, softly toned with pink and grey, ijuttatus, 
flowers 2in. across, white ; sepals spotted with purple ; leaves 
two in a tuft, with a flowering stem. Some of the hybrids <-.f 
U. orientalis Sixe : eler/ans, irklescens, a.nd punctatus. 

H.virldis (green), fl. bright gi-een ; flowering stem with five '- 
SIX distinct blossoms, and large, deeply palmately cut, foliaceous 
bracts ; sepals roundish-ovate. Spring. (. pedate, with crowdet'; 
oblanceolate, serrated segments, h. Lift. Europe (Britain). <4c 
(Sy. En. B. 44.) 

HEIiMET FLOWEBi. A common name applied to 
Acouitum, Coryanthes, ami Scutellaria (which see).' 

HELMHOLTZIA (named after Hermann Helmholi-, 
a celebrated Prussian professor, born in 1821). Oed. 
Philydracece. A genus of a couple of species of green- 
house tufted herbaceous perennials, one of which is from 
Australia, and the other— the oue described below— from 
the Pacific I.slands. They thi-ive in a well-drained sandy 
loam and peat compost, and require plenty of wiiter. 
Increased by divisions, or by seodE. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Helmholtzia— CO /ttt/t tttfti. 
H. glaberrima (very glabrous), j!. -wlnte, panicled. May. L 
ensiform, acuminate, equitant, lin. broad, h. Sft. 1875. (B. I\I. 
6056, under name of Phii>jdnim glahcrrimwm.) 

HELMIA (named after C. Helm, a German cccIg- 
eiastic). Ord. Dioscoreacw. A stove evergreen climber, 
now included under Dioscorea (which see for culture). 

H. racemosa (raceme-flowered), fi. yellow, purple ; male ra- 
ceme axillary, solitary. I. scattered, cordate-ovate, acunnnate, 
i]ine-nerveil, glandular at base. Roots tuberous. /;.. 8ft. Central 
America, 1850. 
HEIiMINTHOSTACHYS (from lielmins, hehnin- 

thos, a little ^vo^m, and stachys, a spike ; in allusion to the 

arrangement of the sporangia). Ord. Filices. A curious 

and handsome stove fern, closely allied to Botnjcliium. 

Capsules in small crested clusters, which form a long loo^e 

spike. For culture, see Ferns. 

H. dulcis (sweet). A synonym of H. zeylanica. 

H. zeylanica (Cingalese), rhiz. thick, creeping, sfi. often 1ft. 
long, fronds, barren segments pahnato-pinnate, often in three 
principal divisions, which are stiilked jind again forked or pinnate, 
the ultimate divisions linear-oblong; Sin. to ^in. long, nearly 
lin. broad; fertile spike solitary, arising from the base of the 
barren segments, Sin. to ■ 4in. long, ^-in. broad. Himalaya to 
Queensland, 1861. SVN. R. dtdcis. (H. G. F. 28.) 

HISIiONIAS (from helos, a marsh; habitat of species). 
Obd. Liliacecc. A monotypic genus, the species being- 
a pretty hardy herbaceous ijerennial, from North America. 
It thrives in a sandy fibry loam and peat compost, and 
in a moist, shaded situation. Increased slowly by di- 
visions of the roots, or by seed. 

H. bullata (bullate). Jl. purplish -rose, small; lower ones with 
linear-lanceolate bracts ; spike oval. Summer. I. radical, ohlong- 
lanceolate, acute, veined, shorter than the flower stems, h. 1ft. 
to l;ft. 1758. Syn. H. iatifolia. (B. M. 747.) 
H. Iatifolia (broad-leaved). A synonym of H. bullata. 

HEIiWINGIA (named in honour of Georg. A. Hel- 
ping, a writer on the botany of Prussia). Ord. Aralincecr. 
A genus consisting of but two species, one Himalayan 
and the other Japanese. They are glabrous trees, 
more curious than beautiful, and scarcely worth culti- 
vating, except in botanical collections. 

H. rusoifolia (Ruscus-leaved). ./f. small, clustered on the midrib 
of the leaves ; perianth three to four-parted, with ovate spreading 
segments. ,fr. drupaceous. I. alternate, petiolate, acuminate, 
stipulate. Japan. A low tree. The young leaves are used in 
Japan as a vegetable (S. Z. F. J. 86.) 

HELWINGIACEa:. A tribe of Araliacem. 
HEMEROCALLE^. A tribe of Liliacem. 

HEMEB.OCALLIS (old Greek name used by Theo- 
phrastus, from liemero, a day, and hallos, beauty ; in 
reference to its short-lived splendour). Day Lily. Ord. 
Liliacece. Very ornamental hardy herbaceous perennials. 
Flowers corymbose ; segments of the perianth united at 
the base into a narrow tube, inclosing the free ovary. 
Leaves long, narrow, radical. Ail the species are of easy 
culture in ordinary garden soil, and are admirably adapted 
for shrubberies, or for clumps. The fl.owers are some- 
what ephemeral, but they are produced successively and 
in abundance. Increased by divisions. 
H. alba (white). A synonym of Fankia suhcordata. 
H. C£erulea (blue). A synonym of Funlcia ovata. 
H. cordata (heart-shaped). A synonym of Funlcia suhcordata. 
H. disticha (tv/o-ranked). A sjmonym of H. fulva. 
H. Dumortieri (Dumortier's). _fl. orange-yellow, tinged with 
brown on the outside, large, about 2in. long ; scape erect, two to 
four-flowered. Summer. I. long, narrow, tapering, 1ft. to l-\it. 
long. h. 1ft. to l^ft. Japan and Eastern Siberia. Very closely 
allied to //. minor. Syns. H. rutilans and //. Sieboldii. (Ref. B. 
H. flava (yellow). Jl. orange-^yellow, very fragrant, erect ; perianth 
segments flat, veinlei=s. Smnmer. I. numerous, narrow, 2ft. to 
2;'[ft. long, keeled, h. 2ft. to 3ft, South Europe to SVestern 
Siberia and Japan, 1596. (B. M. 19.) 
H. fulva (tawny).* Jl.. large,, about 4in. wide, inodorous, few in a 
cluster ; perianth se'„anents venous and wavy. Summer. I. broad, 
long, keeled. /*. 2ft. to 4ft. South Europe to Japan, 1596. 
Syn. H. disticha. See Fig. 216. (B. M. 64.) H. Kwamo is a 

Fig. 216. Uemerocallis fulva. 

vai'iety with large double bronzy orange-coloured flowers (It. G. 

500) ; of this form, there is also a sub-variety, with handsome 

variegated fohage. 
H. gramlnea (grass-like). A synonym of H. minor. 
H, japonioa (Japanese). A synonym of Funkia buhcordata. 

1 IG 217 llLMLi ocvLi is ■\IiDiUiM.)0]ii'ii, showing Habit and 
dLtdcliLd Hl id of Flowers. 

H. Mlddendorfii (Middendorf's). /. deep golden-yellow, three 
or four in a terminal head ; periantli segments flat, with branched 
veins. Summer. I long, rather broad. /(. 2ft. to 5ft. Eastern 
Siberia to Japan. See Fig. 217. (R. G. 522.) 

H. minor Oer^ser). Ji. yellow, slightly tinged with green, rather 
small, and slightly fragrant ; three inner perianth segments 
wavy. Summer. I. very narrow, keeled, pointed, h. Ain.'to Sin. 
Siberia, Northern China, and Japan, 1759. Syn. H. araminca. 
(A. B. R. 244.) 

H. plantaginea (Plantain-hke). A synonvm of Ftuil,ia suhcor- 

H. rutilans (ruddy). A synonym of R. Dumorflcri. 

H. Sieboldii (Sieliold's). A synonym of //. Dtnnorticri. 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


HIS MI AND K) A {from henii, a half, and a)idros, a 
male ; alluding to the dimidiate anthers). Ord. Lahiatce. 
A genus comprising three species of greenhouse shrubs 
or sub-shrahs, inhabiting" South-west Australia. Flowers 
white or pink, axillary, solitary, with a pair of bracts 
under the calyx. Leaves opposite, entire, narrow, rigid, 
pungent-pointed. The species thrive in a sandy loam and 
peat compost. Propagated by cuttings, made of half- 
ripened wood, and inserted in sand, under a bell glass, 
during April. 

H. pungens (stinging), fi. white or pink, with darker spots ; 
calyx two-lipped ; corolla tube exsevted and dilated into a broad 
throat. May. I. sessile, linear or linear-lanceolate, rigid, acute, 
with pungent points, h. 1ft. to 2ft. A diffuse or spreading rigid 
shrub. The following, according to Benthani, are but forms of 
above: H. brevii'oUa, H. emarainata, H. qlahra, H. hirsuta, and 
H. riipestris. (L. J. F. 126.) 

HEMICHiCNA {from liemi, half, and chaino, to 
gape; in allusion to the two-lipped corolla). Ord. Scro- 
'pliularinecB. A monotypic genus. The species is a hand- 
some haK-hardy shrub. It thrives in a loam and peat 
compost. Ripened cuttings will root, under a hand glass, 
in bottom heat. 

H. fruticosa (shrubby), ji., cymes usually three-flowered, much 
shorter than the leaves ; calyx iin. long, tubular ; corolla golden- 
yellow. July. I. opposite, iJin. to 8in. long, 2iu. to 2^in. broad, 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, irregularly or doubly toothed, dark 
gi-een, pubescent on both surfaces, h. 3ft. to 5ft. Guatemala and 
Costa Rica, 1873. (E. M. 6161) 

andra falcata (which see). 

HEMIDICTYUM. See Asplenium. 

HEMIMZIRIS (from hemi, half, and meris, a part; 
upper lip of corolla nearly obsolete). Ord. Scrophu- 
larinece. A genus comprising about four species of annual 
herbs, natives of Southern Africa. Corolla yellow, ex- 
panded, sub-bilabiate, four-fid, the upper segment very 
shortly emarginate, the lower segment very large, the 
lateral short and wide ; calyx five-parted ; peduncles axil- 
lary, one-flowered, deflexed after flowering. Leaves oppo- 
site. - H. Tnontana, perhaps the only species yet intro- 
duced, is a greenhouse herbaceous plant, of easy culture 
in loam and peat. Young cuttings root freely, in a sandy 
soil, in bottom heat. 
H. montana (mountain). Jl. scarlet, terminal and axillary; corolla 

rotate, ringeut. July. l. opposite, ovate, serrated. /;. 6iu. Cape 

of Good Hope, 1816. 

i'lO ^18 HEMIUMiE:^ P\LM\1A. 

HEMIONITES (old Greek name used by Dioscorides, 
I'rom hemionos, a mule ; supposed to be barren). Okd. 
Filices. A genus comprising eight species of stove ferns, 
found in both hemispheres. Sori continues along the 
veins, and copiously reticulated. The species are admir- 
ably suited for growing in Wardian cases. For culture, 
see Perns. 

H. cordata (heart-shaped), cau. erect, sti, of the barren fronds, 
2in. to 4in. long ; of the fertile ones, about 1ft. long, densely fibril- 
lose at base, fronds 6in. to 9in. long, lin. to 2^-in. broad, ovate or 
oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate, edge sub-entire, base nar- 
rowed, sort confined to the veins. India, &c. 
H. palmata (palmate), cau. erect, sti., of barren fronds, 4in. ; 
of the fertile one, 6in. to 12in. long, hairy, fronds 2in. to 6in. eacli 
way, palmate, with five nearly equal lanceolate divisions ; both 
surfaces villose. West Indies, ic, 1793. See Fig. 218. (H. E. F, 53.) 
H, pinnata (pinnate), sti. 6in. to 9in. long, glossy, dark chestnut- 
brown, clothed with soft yellowish hairs, fnmds bin. to 6in. long, 
3Ln. to 4in. broad, the apex deeply pinnatifid, below this two or 
three pairs of distinct junnae, the upper ones oblong-lanceolate, 
the lowest larger and forked at the base, all repand. Jamaica. 
H£MIFHRAGMA (from hemi, half, and phragma, 
a partition ; referring to the division of the capsule). Ord. 
Scro'phularinece. A monotypic genus, the species being a 
nearly hardy prostrate herb, often spreading to a great 
extent. It thrives in a well-drained loam, and, provided 
it is sheltered in a cold frame, during winter, succeeds 
without much care. 

H. heterophyllum (varialile-leaved). fl. piuk, small, usually 
sessile and solitary ; corolla campanulate, five-lobed. Summer. 
fr. fleshy, black. I., principal ones along the branches, small, 
rounded, cordate, with dense clusters of short, subulate, second- 
ary le:ives in their axils. Himalayas. 

H£MIST£]VIMA. Included under Hibbertia 
(which see). 

HEMITELIA (from heuii, half, and telia, a lid; in 
reference to the shape of the indusium). Ord. Filices. 
A genus of about thirty species of very beautiful stove 
and greenhouse tree ferns. Fronds ample, pinnate or 
decompound. Sori globose, dorsal, upon a vein or 
veinlet ; receptacle elevated ; involucre a scale situated 
on the under side of the sorus, of variable size, shape, 
and texture. For culture, see Perns. 

H. capensis (Cape), cau. 12ft. to 14 ft. high, scaly at base, often 
bearing multifid pinnae, fronds ample, sub-membrauaceous, bi- 
tripinnate ; primary pinnae petiolate, ovate-oblong ; pinmdes 
sub-sessile, 2in. to 3in. long, i^in. wide, oblong-acuminate, deeply 
pinnatifid or again pinnate ; lobes linear-oblong, acute, strongly 
serrated, sori frequently solitary at base of lobe or pinnule, 
rarely three or four ; receptacle large, prominent. South Africa, 
Brazil, Java. Greenhouse. 

H. grandifolia (large-fronded).* sti. aculeated. fronds ample, 
pinnated ; piiunte sessile, 1ft. to 1^-ft. long, elongate-oblong, 
acuminated, lin. to 2in. broad ; lobes broad-oblong, obtuse, 
serrated at the apex, sori on the free veins, in a continual line, 
intermediate between the costule and the margin. West Indie.s, 
&c., 1852. Stove. 

H. horrida (horrid), sti. strongly aculeated. fronds 7ft. to 
10ft. long, pinnate ; pinnai sessile, 1ft. to 2ft. long, broad, oblong- 
lanceolate, deeply pinnatifid ; lobes 3in. long, oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, sort on the free veinlets, forming a continued line 
just within the margin. West Indies, &c., 1843. Stove. 

H. Karsteniana (Karsten's). sti. muricated and scaly at 
the base, fronds ample, pinnated ; pinnae sessile, 6in. to l2iu. 
long, 2in. broad, sori in two oblique lines, meeting towards tlie 
rachis. Venezuela. Stove. 

H. multiflora (many-flowered), st i. muricated, scaly, fronds 
ample, tripinnatitid ; pinn« oblong-lanceolate, 1ft. to Uft long ; 
pinnules 3in. to 4in. long, hgulate, nine to ten lines broad, cut 
down to a naiTow wing, sort small, medial. South America, 
1824. Stove. 

H. setosa (bristly), sti. short, gTey, muricated ; basal scales dark 
brown ; rachises gTey -stramineous, naked, smooth, fronds ample, 
tripinnate ; pinnje oblong - lanceolate, 1ft. to lift, long, lower 
diminished, lowest dimorphous, with pinnated subulate seg- 
ments ; pinnules ligulate, 3in. to 4in. long, pn. broad, cut down 
to rachis below; segments ^iin. broad, bluntish, falcate, barren, 
broad, fertile, narrower ; both sides green, glabrous. .wri cos- 
tular ; mvolucre small, depressed, glabrous. Brazil. Stove. 

H. Smithii (Smith's).* sti. below densely crinite, with rigid, 
elongated, serrulated scales ; rachis and costa below sparsely 
pilose, with lax, rufous, deciduous scales above, strigoso-villous. 
fronds bipinnate ; primary pinnse linear-elongate, acute, sub-fal- 
cate, serrated or crenate, very glabrous, the costules beneath pale- 
aceous or pilose or glabrous, sort on the forking of the veins ; 
involucre hemispherical. New Zealand, Arboreous, unarmed. 
Greenhouse. SYiN. Cyathea Sinithii. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Fig. 219. Hemitelta speciosa. 

H. speciosa (showy).* can. 20ft. to 24ft. high. sti. tuhercu- 
late-submuvicate. fronds ample, pinnate, very long, pinnatifid 
at the extremity ; pinnie film, satiny, Sin. to i2in. long, 
lin. to l^^in. broad, elongato-ensiform, acuminate, sori 
arranged in a sinuous continued chain or line just within 
the margin. Tropical America. Stove. See Fig. 219. 

HEMLOCK. See Coniuni. 

HEMLOCK SPRUCE. See TsvLga, cana- 

HEMP. The name of various valuable fibres 
employed for manufacturings purposes. The com- 
mon name for Conncihis sativa. 

HEMP AGRIMONT. See Eupatorium 

HEN AND CHICKENS. A name given to 
a proliferous form of the Daisy, Bellis perennis 
(which see). 

HENBANE. .See Hyoscyamus niger. 

Asystasia scandens (which see). 

HENNA PLANT. See Lawsonia alba. 

HEP, or HIP. The fruit of the Dog Rose, 
Roi:a canina. and other species of Bosa. 

HEPATICA. .Sec Anemone Hepatica. 


HEFTAPLEURUM (from hepta, seven, and 
'pleuro^i, a rilj ; in allusion to the ribbed fruit). 
Stns. Paratropia and Sciadcphyllum. Okd. Ara- 
liacex, A large genus (about sixty species have 
been described) of tall shrubs or trees, widely 
distributed from Australia to Africa. Flowers 
pentamerous or hexamerous, collected into large 
panicles of racemes or umbels. Leaves alternate, digitate, 
compound or decompound. For culture, see Aralia. 

H. polybotrynm (many-clustered). Jl. green, small racemes 
1ft. and upwards loag, covered with minute, very deciduous. 

Heptapleurum— continued. 

stellate pubescence. Winter, fr. globose, five-celled, the size of 
a peppercorn. I. alternate, digitate ; petiole 5in. to Sin. long, 
slender, swollen at the base and apex, warted in the lower half ; 
leaflets five to seven, 6in. to Sin. long, oblong-ovate to obovate- 
oblong, caudate-acuminate, C[uite entire ; base rounded or cuneate. 
Stem covered with hemisplreric warts. Java, 1S60. A slender, 
sparingly-branched, large stove shrub. (H. M. 6238.) 
H. venulosum (veined). /. greenisli. ?., leaflets entire, acuminate. 
India. A small glabrous tree or climbing shrub. Stove. 

HERACLEUM (Heracleon, the old Greek name of 
the plant ; so called in honour of Heracles, or Her- 
cules). Cow Parsley ; Cow Parsnip. Ord. Umhelliferw. 

Fig. 220. Leaf of Heracleum setosum. 

A genus comprising about seventy species of strong, 
coarse-growing, hardy biennial or perennial herbs, from 


the mountains of Central and Southern 

cially Asia, with a single North Ameri 

white ; the petals of the outer ones of eacli umbel larger. 

Leaves dissected, with large segments. Although long 

Europe, and espe- 
rican one. Flowers 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Heracleum — (•o}ttiii}ieiJ. 
kiiown to cultivation, Heracleums are not possessed of 
any very special recommondations. They are best adapted 
for growing- in shrubberies, rough parts of pleasure 
grounds, or on the margins of water, being too coarse 
for the flower garden. They succeed in almost any kind 
of soil. Increased readily hy seeds, or by divisions. The 
species are much confused. 
H, giganteum (l;i,^,■^llii(■■). A synnnym of //. vlUx.'^uui. 

H. setosum (l.vistly). /. tumnte : UMtlcts ).(-'tioliite, aistnntlv Hve- 
luhed; lobfs .leiit;iU'. SU'iii, iietink-s, and leLives hispid. South 
Europe. Sec Fig. 220. 



Gerauinm Roberti- 

F^c,. 222. ITMni:i. or ITfr\ct.f,um siTurtiruni. 

H. sibiricum (Sil>evian). Jl yflli.wish, not radiutiug;; miiliels 
laviie. Suiuiiier. I. pinnate, viiUL;h li'oiu liuir.s ; leaflets ovate or 
uhionu-. h. 5ft. to bft, Kuroi.,', Asiu, 1789. See Fi^'s. 221 
and 222. 

H. Villosum (vIlloye\ /?. white ; uniltels mauy-rayed. /. 
pinnatiftd, deeply toutlied. Stem lOl't. to 12ft, high. CaiU'asus, 
1820. Thijjspeeies has, of late years. Iieeu exten.sively cultivated, 
on account of its large size aud couiiuauding ajjpearance. Svrs'. 
JJ . 'ligaideiiiii. 

HERBACEOUS. Thin, green, and r-ellular. as the 
tissue of membranous leaves. Also, producing an annual 
stem from a x^erennial root. 

HERBACEOUS PLANTS. A term generally ap- 
plied to any border perennials whinh are not shrubby 
in habit. 

HERBARIUM. A colh:^r'tion of dried plants, sys- 
tematic ■lally arranged. 

HERBERTIA (named after Dr. Wm. Herbert, 1778- 
1847, once IJean of Manchester, and a distinguished 
botanist, famous for his knowledge of bulbous plants). 
Oed. Iridece. A genus (now referred by Bentham and 
Hooker to Alophia) of some half-dozen species of pretty 
half-hardy bulbous plant.s, allied to TigrUlia; natives of 
Texas, Chili, and South Brazil. The species are rarely 
seen in gardens, and, in all probability, those described 
below are the only ones yet introduced. Flowers blue or 
yellow, pretty, produced at the top of a short scape : 
perianth short-tubed, six-parted, the outer segments tri- 
angular, acute, and reflexed, and the shorter inner ones 
rounded and erect. The species thrive in sandy loam and 
peat. Propagated by seeds, or by offsets. 

H. C£erillea O^hie).* /?., peduncles shorter than the bracts ; claws 
of sepals white, Idue-dotted ; segments Idue, spotted; petals blue, 
acute ; anthers aud stii;-mLLs short. I. grassdike, riltbed, narrowed 
to botli ends. //. 6in. "Texa.s. (B. M. 3862, Fig. 5.) 

H, Drummondiana (Drummond's). ,//. violet ; sejials spotted 

with wliite on claw.-; ; petals small, recurved. June to 

I. brLtad, plicate, 6in. long. Texas, 1839. 
B. pulchella (neat). Ji blue, purple ; perianth sei^iuents bearded 

at base. July. /. lin'ear-ensiforni, acute at botli ends, plicate. 

h. 9in. Chili and South Brazil, 1827. (1.1. M. 3862, Figs. 1 

and 2.) 

HERB or GRACE. Spp Ruta graveolens. 
HERB-FARIS. Srr Paris quadrifolia. 
HERB-FATIENCE. See Patience. 

HERBS. In many gardens, the cultivation of Herbs 
doe.s not receive the attention their usefulness deseryes. 
Some sorts are rarely required, beyond a small portion 
of their leaves for flavouring ; still, in many cases, the 
flavour cannot be obtained from any other material. Those 
which are herbaceoiis perennials — Horehound and Mint, 
for instance — should be cut oia a ilry day, in summer, when 
the flowers are just fully opened, and dried slowly in a 
cool shed for winter use. The anniials and evergreen 
perennials are best if procurable in a green state ; but 
several of them answer their purpose when di-ied, and 
some should, consequently, be kept in reserve. Herbs 
should always be dried slowly, and not placed in the 
sun nor in fire heat. The flavour may be preserved much 
better by rubbing off the leaves when they are quite 
dry, and corking them close in wide-mouthed bottles. A 
X^iece of ground specially devotetl to Herbs, is the best 
arrangement in any garden; at least, for the cultivation 
of those of which only a few plants need be kept. Plenty 
of room should be allowed for getting amongst them to 
gather any particular sort, and to keep the soil hoed. 
Part of the space might be devoted to the annual sorts, 
in preference to placing them amongst other crops in 
different parts of the garden. Parsley requires special 
treatment and attention, as it is always of great im- 
portance for garnishing. The following list comprises 
most of the useful Herbs in cultivation for flavouring 
purposes, &.q. : Angelica, Balm, Basil {Bush and Sweet), 
Borage, Burnet, Carraway, Chamomile, Chervil, Chives, 
Coriander, Dill, Fennel, Horehound, Hyssop, Lavender, 
Marigold, Marjoram (Sweet), Mint, Parsley, Pennyroyal, 
Purslane, Rosemary, Rue, Sage, Savory (Summer and 
Winter), Southernwood, Tansy, Tarragon, Thyme, and 

Spc Xauthoxylum Clava- 



HERITIERA (named after Charles Louis L'Heritier, 

IT-iG-lSOO, a celebrated French botanist). Looking-glass 
Tree. Syn. Balanopterls. Ord. SlerculiucecB. A genus 
comprising about three species of stove evergreen trees, 
found on the shores of tropical Asia and Australia. 
Flowers unisexual, small, disposed in axillary panicles. 
Leaves undivided, coriaceous, penninerved, silvery. white 
underneath (whence the common name). Heritieras thrive 
in sandy loam. Large ripened cuttings will root freely in 
sand, under a glass, in moist heat. 

H. littoralis (shore), fl. reddish. /. laige, coriaceous, oval- 
obbnm, rounded at the Itase, silvery lieneatb. Tropical coasta 
of Old World, 1780. 

H. macrophylla (largedeaved).* This resembles H. littoralis, 
but has larger leaves andsult-erect fruit. India, &c. 

HERMANNIA (named after Paul Hermann, 1646- 

1695. at one time Professor of Botany at Leyden). A 
large genus of ornamental greenhouse evergreen shrubs, 
generally clothed with starry tomentum. Flowers usually 
yellow, drooping ; peduncles axillary, and few - flowered. 
Leaves dentate or incised. About eighty species have 
been described, but very few are in cultivation. Three 
are natives of Mexico or Texas, four of tropical Africa or 
Arabia ; all the rest are extra-tropical South African. 
For culture, see MaKernia. 

H, althaelfolia (.Mallow-leaved). ./?. dark yellow or sulphm'- 
coloured ; peduncles solitary or twin, two or three-flowered, longer 
than the leaves. March to July. I. tomentose, obovate, plaited, 
crenate. h. 3ft. Capeof Good Hope, 1728. (B. M. 307.) 

H. flammea (flame).* _//. orange-coloured or red ; peduncles one or 
twit-flowered ; racemes terminal. Summer. L smooth, wedge- 
shaped, lanceolate, truncated, and toothed at the apes. k. lit. 
to 5ft. Cape of Good Hope, 179i^. (B. M. 1349.) 

HERMANKriE.a:. A tribe of Sterodiacece. 


female organs. 

Containing both male and 

Vol. II. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

HI! KM INI ERA {from herniine, a bedpost ; in allu- 
sion to the shape of tho stems). Syn. (Edemone. Ord. 
Leguminosa'. A monotypic g-enus, the species being a 
tall stove shrub. It thrives best if the pot be partially 
Rubmerg-ed in a warm-water tank. Propagated by seeds. 

H. Elaphroxylon (I''.]aphi-oxyIon). fl. lai-.s^e ; corolla yellow, 
p;ipiIion;ii-'f<iiis ; r;ilyx two4ippeil ; stainens in two bundles of five 
each, witli uiiifurin anthers. /. impari -pinnate ; leaflets exstipel- 
late. Tropical Africa. This pl;mt i^to\\s in the beds of shallow 
stagnant river.s of the Upper Nile' euuutry, somethne-'? in such 
thick masses as to impede navigation. It is the " Aml>as]i,_" or 
Pith-tree, so frequently mentinueil in Imoks of tropital African 

HEUMINIUIVI (from hermi7i, the foot of a bed; in 
allusion to the knobdike shape of the root). Musk Orchis. 
Ord. Orchider.e. A genus comprising bnt a few species 
of curions and interesting orchids, all natives of the 
temperate or alpine regions of Europe and Asia, They 
are olosely allied to OrchU, but the perianth has no spur, 
and the anther cells are distant at their base, the glands 
of the stalks of the pollen masses protruding below the 
cells. II. Monorchis, the commonest and most widely- 
spread species, is best gro\\'n on dry chalky banks. It 
may be propagated by divisions. 

H. Monorchis (one-bulbed). Jl. greenish-yellow, small, numerous, 
u'itli a musky (idonr; spike dense; lip withnut a spur, ileci)!y 
tln're-liihed. .Jiilv. /. radical, two, oVjlong" nr lancenlate. //. 3iu. 
t(i 6in. p:Hi(i[ie (lii'itain), Siberia, Himalaya. (Sy. En. Vj. 1466.) 

HERNANDIA (named after Francisco Hernandez, 
physician to Philip II. of Spain, and a writer on tho 
Flora of Mexico). Jack-in-a-Box. Ord. Laurinew. A 
g'cnus comprising five or six species of elegant stove 
evergreen trees, widely dispersed throughout the tropical 
regions of both hemispheres. Flowers yellowish, mono3- 
ciouR, in panicles ; sepals potaloid. Leaves cordate, pel- 
tate, smooth. Hernandias require a compost of sandy 
loam and peat. Eipened cuttings, with leaves intact, 
root freely in sand, under a glass, if placed in brisk 
bottom heat. Probably the only two species now in cul- 
tivation are those here described. 

H, Mcerenhoutiana (^herenliout's).-^- Jl. dirty yellow, three in 
eacli iu\'iliu.-ie, two mah_'s ;md one female; peduncles axillary, 
efjualliu.i; the heaves, nearly ,tilalirous. October, I. coriaceou.s, 
3iu. to bin. lojig, alternate, luni;-putioled ; young ones elliptic ; old 
one.s broadly ovate-cordate, obtuse, entire, glabrous above, the 
nerves and midrili beneath pilose. Pacilic Islands, 1869. A small 
tree. (B. M. 5359.) 

H. sonora (sounding). /?. whitish-green, corymbose. I. simple, 
riiuiulish, with a lively red centre, h. 50ft. India, 1693. This 
species forms a very liandsome plant for sub-tro]»ical gardening, 
for which purpose it is much employed on the Continent. The 
leaves produce a juice that is a powerful depilatory ; it destroys 
hairs without pain wherever it is applied. 

HERiNIAIMA (from hernia, a rupture ; in reference 
to the supposed effect of tlie plant in curing rupture). 
Ord. Illecehraceoe. A genus consisting of eight or ten 
species of herbs, either small, or with a perennial stock 
of short duration. They are natives of Central and 
Southern Europe, Western Asia, as far as North-west 
India and Nortliern Africa ; one species being also 
found in South Africa. Flowers green, small, granular, 
crowded in little axillary cymes. Leaves opposite. None 
of the species are of much interest from a horticultural 
point of view, aiul the only one wortli mentioning here 
is Jl. glabra., whieli is sometimes used for carpet-bedding. 
For culture, si-c Paronychia. 

H. glabra fi:lalir<ius). Ku)itnrew(irt. Jl. green, small. Sunnuer, 
l. snia]], n]i]M.sit,e, <iltl(ing-u]iovate, ni- rarely orbicular. Stems 
much Inanclieil, spniul alnng tlu' gruuud In the length nf a few 
inches. Kur<i])e ( Lliitaiu), Nortli anil West Asia. (Sv. Kn ]; 

HJGRON'S BILL. A goiieral name for the Pritish 
species of Ih-oi'limn and Geranium: 

HBRiPESTIS (from hp.rpr.^los, anything that creoi>s ; 
in allusion to tiie of tli<; species). Ord. Srroiihn- 
larineoB. This genus comprises about fifty species of 
erect, diffuse, prostrate, or aquatic perennial herbs. 

Herpestis — con I inn ^d. 

natives of various parts of America, Africa, Australia, 
or Southern Asia, few of which are in cultivation. 
Flowers axillary, sessile or pedicellate, one to tbn.^e 
together. Leaves opposite entire, toothed, or in the 
aquatic species submerged, capillaceous-multisect. In- 
creased by divisions, or by seeds. The species described 
below will grow in any loamy, well-drained soil, which 
must be kept constantly moist. 

H. Monnlera (Monnier's). Jl. pale blue, small, s(jlitary, opposite, 
nu loun' pedicels. Summer. I. cnneifrn-m, entire, or timthed at 
the apex. Tropics. Stove. (B. M. 2557.) 

H. reflexa (reflexed). A garden name for Myriophyllum 
proserpinacoides (which ■■^^cc). 

H£KiB(ANIA (named in honour of C-reneral Herran, 
a President of the Republic of New Grenada). Obd. 
Sterruliacece. A genus comprising three or four species 
of greenhouse evergreen trees, with palm-like heads, 
natives of tropical America. Flowers fasciculate, grow- 
ing directly from the trunk. Leaves digitate, five or 
six-foliolate. Few of tho species are yet in cultivation. 
For culture, see Sterculia. 

H. albiflora (whitc-flowcred). Jl. white, the thick concave petals 

terminated by a luug strap-shaped api:iendage. I. palmate, clothed 
^vith rusty-coloured hairs. Shrub. The seeds id this plant arc 
said to be mixed with those of tlie Cacan, and tlie prmluct therehy 

H£IM{rEIliIA (named in honour of Gabriel A. de 

Herrera, 11711-1530, a Spanish agriculturist). Oud. 
Liliaccts. A genus comprising three or four species of 
pretty greenhouse plants. Flowers small, scented, in 
many-flowered axillary racemes. Leaves whorl- fascicled, 
linear-lanceolate. Stems climbing. Rootstock tuberous. 
Herrerias succeed in peat, sand, and loam, mixed. In- 
creased by seeds, or by cuttings. Probably the only 
species in cultivation is the following: 

H. Sarsaparilla (Sarsaparilla). jl. green, yellow ; segments of 
perianth uvate-nlituse. .luue ami July. I. lanceolate, h. 8ft. 
Brazil, 1824. (B. R. 1042, under name of //. payvijlora.) 

HESIODA. Sre Heisteria. 

HSSFBRiANTHA (from licsperos, tho evening, and 
anthos, a flower). Evening Flower. Ord. Iridew. A 
genus of about twenty species of rather pretty dwarf green- 
house bulbous plants, natives of tropical and Southern 
Africa. Flowers very sweetly scented, opening in the even- 
ing (whence the common name), in loose spikes; perianth 
salver-shaped; limb equalling the slender txrbe ; segments 
equal, spreading. Leaves sword-shaped, curled. For cul- 
ture, .'<ef' Ixia (to which this genus is allied). 

H. angusta (narrow). Jt. uniform white. Spring ;. narrower 

than thnsecif il.J'ah-ata. ^ 

H. cinnamomea (Cinnamon-scented), ll. whitish. April and 

May. /., racUeal ones falcate, curled, h. 6in. 1787. (B. M. 1054.) 

H. falcata (sickle-shaped). jL, uutev perianth segments shining 
In-uwji nutsi.le ; inner se.n'ments and inside of outer ones pure 
white. Aprd. I. 3in. to 12in. long, striated, somewhat sickle- 
simp. ■il. //. 6iu. to 12in. (B. M. 566, under name of Ixia falcata.) 

H. graminifolia (i^rassdeaved). rl greenish-white. Anj-nst and 
Si'pteuilier. /. linear. Stem sumoth. h. 6in. 1808. (B.^M 1254 
under name of /i. pi/usn uudn.) 

H. pilosa ( Jl. whitisli; inner sei;nieuts pure white ; outer 
while withni, sprekrd with red outside. April and May / linear 
hairy. Stemsnuioth. h. bin. 1811. (B. M. 1475.) 

H. radiata (i^ayeilV* jl. white wilhin, nodding; ; (.nter se"inents 
striped with reildish-hruwn. Ajiril tn.hiue. /. H^tulous ^ I, 6in 
1794. (B. iM. 573, under name of l.yi.i nuUalu.) 

HESPEH.IS (the old Greek name used bj Tbeo- 
pbrastus, from h e fcperos, t\\Q evening; in reference to the 
flowers of most of the species being sweet-scented in tbc 
evening). Dame's Violet; Kocket. Ord. CnuJfvnv. A 
genus comprising twenty species of pretty hardy or half- 
hardy biennial or perennial erect berbs", indii-'enous' to 
Kurope, Asia Minor. Persia, and Siberia. ' Flowers 
various-coloured, loosely ra.-emose, obracteate, sweid- 
sceid-,nd. Loaves ovai-,e or oblong, entire, dentato. or 
lyrate. Only a iVw of the twenty species const,itutiu>^- 
this genus are mhivaded ; a,nd .A tlu's.v the double fornr^ 
of if. ■maicuualis are iiy far the best. They thrive in 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Hesperis — continued. 
a somewhat moist sandy loam. The ^^iiic^-lo sorts may 1)0 
increased freely by seeds; the double forms must be 
propagated by careful diviHions of the roots, or by cut- 
tings. The tlircc species described below are hardy. 

H. grandiflora (large-flowered).* Jl, racemes many-tl(iwi.'red, 
(_Tin\iled. L, radical ones oblong-ovate, o!">tiise ; cauliiiu imcs 
laiK-uulate. Native country uiikiiuwii. (B. M. 2tS3.) 

H. matronalis (matronly).* Damask Violet; Dame's Kockct ; 
Daiiiu's \'i(.ilot ; i'limmoii l^DL-ket. Jl. various, usually swn't- 
scented in the uvuniii;;-. Summrr. I. shortly stalked or tajiriin^ 
at the base, ovaU'-lauccolnti' or lanceolate, k. 2ft. to 5ft. SmiUi 
Kurope and all aeruss Riissiau Asia. (Sy. En. Ji. 103.) There are 
numerous double and single varieties of this liaTulsome peren- 
nial, all of whicli are very ornamental liorder jdants. 

H. tristis (sad).* Night-scented Stock, jl. whitish or cream- 
coloured, or brownish-red or tlark purple, fra.i;rant at ni.iiht ; 
pedicels very long. Spring and snnnner. /., railical ones stalkeil, 
upper ones sessile, ovate, acute, entire or toothed, 2in. to 4in. Ion,!;. 
Stem much )>ranched at the ttip. h. 1ft. to 2ft. Eastern Eurt.tpe, 
ttc, 1629. Biennial. This should be grown on old walls, ruins, 
and s\u:h like places, where the seeds uuiy he sown in crevices, 
^c. (D. M. 73U.) 

of Brodisea lactea (which see). 

HESSE A (so called in honour of Paul Hesse, a 
botanical traveller). IncUidiny: Imliojia. Syn. Pcri- 
jiliiines. Or-d. Awaryllidco:. A g'cnus comi)risin^ aboirt 
four or five species of g-reenhouse bulbs, from the Cape 
of Good Hope. Umbels many-flowered ; scape solid. 
Leaves linear or subulate. For culture, see Strumaria. 

H. crispa (curled).* Jl. pink; uniliels many-flowered; jierianth 

segments \vavy. Hat. April to August. /. hliforni, strai.i^ht. 

h. 3in. 1790. (li. M. 1365, under name of Struiriaria crispa.) 
H. filifolia (thread-leaved), fl. white; j3erianth segments acute. 

November. /. ttlil'orm. /(. 6in. 1774. SVN. Imhojia Jilijulia. 

(D. It. 4^0, umlcr name of Strttmaria jUi/olia.) 
H. gemmata (twin). .//. pale yellow ; perianth segments wavy, 

<ii:inurUcd ; iicduncles very long; scape ticxuose. Au,i;ast., 

/. lanceolate, ciliate. /(. 1ft. 1812. (B. M. 1620, under name of 

Strumaria nciiiniala.) 
H. StellariS (starry). }l. ]»iuk ; perianth segments spreading 

alternately, bcarrliug beneath the ends. (»ctul>cr ami November. 

t. linear-acute, entire. /(. 6in. 1794. SyiNS. Amari/llis bicUarii,; 

Strumaria .\icllari.s. 

HETERANTHERA (from hetero!<, variable, and 
anllier ■, tlie anthers are variable). Ord. Pontederacecc. 
A g-enus containing about eig'ht species of ornamental 
aquatic perennial herbs, one of which is tropical African, 
and all the rest American. Flowers blue or white, small, 
produced from a spathe in the axil of a sheathing leaf- 
stalk ; perianth salver-ahapcd, with a long-, slender tube, 
and a spreading-, six-lobed limb. Leaves roundish, long- 
stalked or linear. H. limosa may be growu by the sides 
of a pond or rivulet. The remainder require the same 
treatment as other tender aquatics. 

H. limosa (bog).* Ji.., perianth tube slender; limb bright violft- 
bhie ; segments linear-oblong, obtuse; peduncles one-flowered. 
From May onwards. I. erect, from orbicular-ovate to almost lan- 
ceolate, obtuse, pale bright green on both surfaces, striated -with 
numerous veins ; petiole 6in. to lOin. long, stout, fistular. 
America (in bogs and marshes), widely distributed. Half-hardy. 
(B. M. 6192.) 
H. reniformis (kidnev-shaped). Mud Plantain, fl. white. .Tuly. 
I. roundish, kidney-shaped. South America, 1824. Greenhouse. 

HETEROCENTRON. A synonym of Heeria 
(which see). 

HETEROCH.XTA. Now included irnder Aster and 

HETEROCrAMOXTS. When, in a flower-bead, tlie 
florets of the ray are either neuter or female, and those 
of the disk male. 

HETEROLOMA. >Seo Desniocluim. 

of Photinia arbiitifolia (which see). 

HETERONOMA. A .synonym of Arthrostemma 
(which see). 

HETEROPAPPUS (ffoin heteros. dissimilar, and 
pappos, down ; in reference to the pappus of the ray and 

disk florets being difl'ereiit). OrT). Umii in>.^ihr. A genus 
conqjrising aliout four species of erect hardy herVjs, natives 
of Japan, Formosa, or Mandschuria ; closely allied to As/er. 
Flower-heads rather large or medium, loosely and irregu- 
larly panieled, or solitary at the apices of the branches ; 
corolla rays white or Iduish. Leaves alternate, entire or 
largel}^ dentate. For culture, see Aster. 

H. decipiens (deceptive). Jl. -heads lai'-e ; ray purple, disk 
yellow. Autumn. I. oljlon,;;-linear, acute. Maudschuiia, 1863. 
(It. (;.425.) 

H. hispidus (hairy).* jl.-hrads white; scales of the involucre 
ob]oii,!j,-iHdnicated." September. I. oldoni^-lanceolate, scabrous, 
ciliated; Iowlh' ones ovate. Stem hisjiiil; branches one-headed. 

h. 1ft. 

[ind .Japan, 1804. Sv.v. A.^'e 

id a 

HETEROPTERYS (from /(f/cm.s', various, and ^-/crov;, 
a wing ; in allusion to the variou.s forms of tlio winged 
samaras). Ord. Malpiijliiaceai. A genus comprising about 
eighty species of ornamental stove shrubs, rarely climbing, 
natives of tropical, or rarely extra-tropical, South America, 
and a few Western tropical African. Flowers small, very 
often paniculate or racemose. Leaves opposite, and, 
for the most part, entire, usually glandular beneath ; 
petioles sluiirt ; stipules inconspicuous. The two species 
described below are stove climbers, closely allied to 
Banisteria (which see for cultivation). 

H. chrysophylla (goldendeaved). _//., corolla orange-coloured, 

becomiii.i;- (leeper aud almost red in ai;e ; peduncles axillary, 
bearin.o,- an umbellate panicle. March. I. opposite, oval or oval- 
olJ]on,'.,^ entire, somewhat acute and \\':LVed, coriaceous, dark^^reeji 
and glal)rous above, and clothed with a golden-brown sLitiny 
pubescence beneath. Brazil, 1835. (B. M. 3237.) 
H. purpurea (purple). Jl. purple ; racemes axillary and terminal, 
fe\v-flo\\'ered. I. oval, smooth, i^laucuus beneath. Tropical 
America, 1759. 

HETEROS. This, in Greek compounds, signifles 
varialdo, various. 

HETEROSPATHE (from helen>s, variable, and 
spathe^ a spatlie ; alluding to the inequality in the size 
of the spathes). Oi-;.l>. Valmew. A monotypic genus, the 
species being an elegant stove palm, with a graceful 
spreading habit, and remarkable for the length of the 
tapered segments of its pinnate fronds. It thrives in 
rich sandy loam and leaf mould, and may bo increased 
by imported seeds. 

H. elata (tall).* I. pinnatisect ; leaflets Km. broad, with somewhat 
wider intervals between them, bright green on iiotii surfaces, 
narrowing upwards into a long, slender, tapering point. Stems 
smooth, Amboyna, loSO. Svn. Metroxylon elatiun, of gardens. 

HETEROTHECA (from heteros, variable, and theca, 
a slieath ; in reference to the whapc of the achenes). 
8yns. Calyriaiii and Diplocoma. Okd. Composilcp-. A 
genus of hairy or glalirons, erect, hardy or half-hardy 
herbs. Seven species have been enumerated (which may 
probably be reduced to about five), natives of North 
America and Mexico. H. inuloides — probably the only 
one in cultivation—is a pretty plant, adapted for culture 
in ordinary garden soil, but requires protection in winter. 
Propagated by seeds, or by divisions. 

H. inuloides (Tnula-like). Jl. yellow, large ; involucre many- 
leaved, closely imbricate, villosely hairy ; receptacle honey- 
combed ; corymbs loosely spreading, branched ; peduncles very 
hairy. Summer. I. ovate-oblong, entire, hairy on both sides and 
fringed at the margins ; root ones ovate, obtuse, bluntly toothed ; 
stem ones sessile, somewhat amplexicaul, variable in shape. 
Stems 1ft. to l.Lft. high. Mexico, 1826. (8. B. F. G. 246, under 
name of DijAucvma villoma.) 

HETEROTOMA ifrom heteros, variable, and tvme, 

a cut; corolla unequally cut). OitD. Carnpanulacece. A 
genus containing four species of annual or perennial 
herbs, natives of Mexico. Flowers pedunculate, in ter- 
minal racemes ; corolla blue or golden. Leaves alternate, 
petiolatc. The species here described — perhaps the only 
one yet in general cultivation^is a very ornamental 
greenhouse or half-hardy plant. For culture, see half- 
hardy species of Iiobelia. 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Heterotoma — continued. 
H. lobelioides (Lobelia-like).* Bird Plant. /. purplish and ye]Icn\ , 
racemose ; corolla very curious, somewhat tubular, with a taper- 
ing base. I. l)niadly oviite, with distant teeth. Stem becominp; 
woody at the base. Mexico. 1861. (F. d. S. 1454.) 

HETEKOTRICKUIVE. A syuuiiym ot Saussurea 

(which i<ee). 

HETEKOTBiOFA {from heteros, various, aud IropCy 
a chanp'e ; in allusion to the variable nature of the 
plants). Ord. Ari^tolocliiacecc. A small g-enus of grecn- 
house or half-hardy perennial herbs, with creeping roots, 
natives of Japan ; now included, by Bentham and Hooker, 
under Asarmn. Flowers terminal, solitary, shortly pe- 
dunculate ; perianth dusky-purple or lurid ; lobes acute or 
caiidate-acmninatc. Leaves long, petiolate, cordate-rcni- 
form or almost hastate. For culture, &c., see Asarum. 

H. asaroides (Asarum-likiO- /. iui'lined or drnopin.i;-, on very 
short jieiluncles ; perianth dull purptish-j;reen, depresso-gloliost, 
contracted at base and uKmth ; limb of three triangular blunt 
segments, spreading horizontally ; internal surface deeply 
cellular. April and INIay. I. petiolate, deeply cordate, nearly 
ovate, entire, spotted ; petioles erect, as long as the leaves. 
Rhizome In-anched and nodose, h. 6in. 1836. Plant glabrous. 
*;recnhouse. Svn. Amrimt japonicinn. (B. M. 4953.) 

H. parvlflora (small-flowered). /. purple and sreen, solitar>-, 
bracteated, about half the size of those of H. amroides ; periantli 
urceolate ; tulm enti^itricted above the middle, oval-ventricose 
below ; segments df limb bi-oadly ovate ; bracts longer than the 
flowers. April. I. solitary, cordate. ^\'hitc-spntted, >\'itli a deep, 
narrow sinus. /(. 3in. 1862. Greenhouse. (B. M. 5580.) 

HEUCHERA (named after Johann Hcinrich Heiicher, 
1G77-17-17, Professor of Medicine at Wittenburg). Alum 
Koot. OiiD. Haxifyagew. This genus comprises about 
twenty species of elegant hardy |)ercnnial herbs, natives 
of temperate North America, from Mexico almost to the 
Arctic regions. Flowers rather small, spicate, racemose 
or paniculate, bracteate. glabrous or pubescent. Leaves 
radical, long-petiolate, broadly cordate or orbiculate, 
lobed or crenate. All the species are of easy culture 
in any ordinary garden soil, except stiff clay, and may 
be readily increased by dividing the crowns during spring. 
Most of the Heucheras have inconspicuous flowers, but 
H. sangainea is one of the handsomest of recently-in- 
troduced herbaceous plants. All are w^orth growing on 
account of their foliage, bat a couple of species will be 
sufficiently representative of the general character of 
the genus. 

H. amerlcana (Ameiican).* ,fl. reddish; thyrse elongated, 

panicled. Summer. /, mi Inng petioles, somewhat five to seven- 
lobed, toothed. /;. l\it. North America, 1656. Plant clothed 
with clannny pubescence. 

H. caulescens (caulescent). A synonym of H. viilosa. 

H. cylindrica (rylindi-ical). ;?. gi-eenish, rather large ; panicU^ 
compact, cylindrical. Sunnner. /. cordate, deeply and roundly 
lobed, crenated, ciliated, truncate at the base. k. 1ft. to l.'.ft. 
Oregon, &c 1830 (B E 1924 ) 

Fro. 225. Heuchera glabra. 

H. glabra (glabrous). //. white, small; panicle loose. Siinnnei', 
L cordate, acutely lobdd, glabrous, unequally au'l acutely tonthrd; 
lower stem ones or bracts toothed, h. Tft. North-we.-.L America 
1827. See Fig. 223. (H. F. B. A. i. 79.) 

Heuchera — continued. 

H. hispida (hispid).* Ji. veined with purple, more or less obliciue ; 
stamens soon exserted, longer than the spathulate petals ; 
p;inic]cs very narrow; scapes" 2ft. to 4ft. high. May to July. 
/. rounded, shghtly five to nine ■ lobed. High mountains of 
Virginia and Carolina, 1826. Plant hispid or hirsute, with long 
spreading hairs (occasionally almost glabrous), scarcely glan- 
dular. 8Vj\, //. lUchardsonii . 

H, Menziesli (r^Ienzies'). A synonym of Tuhnica MeiiziesH. 

H. mlcrantha (small-flowered). JJ. yellowish ; panicle loose. 
Summer. I. roundish - cordate, nearly naked, bluntly lobed, 
ci-enate ; teeth liovned. h. 2ft. North-west America, 1827. 
(B. R, 1302.) 

H, pubescens (downy), jl. pale red, variegated with yellow, 
large ; branches of panicle short, crowded with flowers. Summer. 
/.. somewhat acutely lobed, toothed ; teeth mucronate. h. 1ft. 
United States, 1812. Plant covered with powdery down. Svms. 
H. j'vlrcrulenta, II. rihifolia. 

H. pulverulenta (powdery). A synonym of //. puhehicens. 

H. ribifolia (Currant-leaved). A synonym of //. ■puheacens. 

H, Richardsonii (Richardson's). A synonym of //. hispida. 

H. sangulnea (blood-coloured).* Ji. deep red, paniculate, some- 
what cam]ianulate. Summer. I. cordate, orbiculate, five to 
sevendobed ; lobes dentate, ciliate ; petioles clothed with spread- 
ing hairs, h. 9in. to 18in. Northern Mexico, 1882. (Gn. xxvi. 

H, viilosa (villous). Jl. violet, small, loosely panicled ; petals 
spathnlate-linear, about as long as the stamens, soon twisted ; 
scapes 1ft. to 3ft. high, villous, with rusty hairs (as are also the 
petioles and veins of the leaves beneath). August and September. 
I. acutely seven to nine-lobed. United States and Canada, 1812. 
SvN. //. coAdesceihs. 

H£VX!A (from Heve, a vernacular name in Northern 
South America). Stns. Micrandra, Siplionia, Okd. Eu- 
■phorhiacem. A genus comprising nine species of tall 
stove trees, natives of the damp forests of tropical 
America. Flowers in dichotomous cymes. Leaves alter- 
nate, on .long petioles, digitately five-foliolate ; leaflets 
petiolulate, entire. Of the two or three sj;iecies yet in- 
troduced, the best-known is the one here described. It 
succeeds in a sandy loam. Propagated by cuttings, 
made of lialf-ripened wood, and inserted in sand, under 
a hantl glass, in heat. 
H. brazlliensis (Brazilian), /r green, white. May. I. lii;ht green, 

dignt;dely trifnliolate. A. 60ft. Tropical Soutia America, 1823. 

1'liis pla]it furnishes the welbknoA\n Para rubber of commerce. 

HEWARDIA. Now included under Adutnfum. 

HEXACENTRIS. This genus is now- ineluded. by 
the authors of the " Genera Plantarum," under Thun- 
bergia (which see). 

HEXAGI.OTTIS (from he.r^ six, and r,}nii„. a tongue; 
in rel'crencc bo the six spreading Inl.ies of the style). 
Ord. Iridem. A genus of two or three species of pretty 
greenhouse bulbous plants, from South Africa, rarely seen 
in cultivation. For culture, }<ee Ixia. 
H. longifolia (longdeaved). jJ. yelh>w ; segments nearly ennal, 

ulilong, spreading ; filaments united in a cylinder. May. /(. l^ft. 

1766. Syks. Ilomcria and Monca jlciiwia. (B. M. 695, under 

name of Morcaa Jle.xuosa.) 
H. virgata (twiggy), yi. yellow. May. /t. 2ft. 1825. 

HEXAGONAL. Six side 1 

HIBBEE.TIA (named after George Hibbort, a distin- 
guished pjitron of botany, who died in 1838). Including 
Cyclandra, Bemistenvma, and Pleurandra. Ord. Dil- 
leniacece. A genus of about seventy species of stove 
or greenhouse shrubs or under-shrubs, of which two arc 
from Madagascar, three or four from New Caledonia, and 
the rest from Australia. Flowers yellow or white, solitary 
and terminal, or apparently axillary, sessile, in a tuft of 
floral leaves, or pedunculate. Leaves entire, or rarely 
largely or remotely dentate, often Heath-liko, one-nerved 
or obscurely reticulate, ponniveined. Hihbertias grow- 
freely in peat or loam, either together or separate ; 
a snfiicient quantity of sand must, however, at all times 
bo added, to maintain the soil in a healthy, porous con- 
dition. The pruning of weak and straggling shoots will 
need attention. i\' insects appear, they must bo eradi- 
cated at once, or they will soon cause the plants to 
become both unhealthy and unsightly. Propagation may 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


lLihhei:tici— cold limed. 
be effected by cuttings, inserted in sandy peat, under 
a bell glass. The commonest and most useful species 
is H. dentafn. The undormentioned species require g-reen- 
house treatment, except where otherwise stated. 

H. Baudouinil (Baudouia'.s). Jl socund. sub-yesyile, 2in. in 
diameter ; sepals green, oblong;, concave, apiculate ; petals bright 
yellow, obovate-cuneate, retuse ; racemes axillary, equalling tlir 
leaves, stout, sub-recurved. Summer. I. crowded towards the 
ends of the branches, 1ft. long, sessile, narrow-lanceolate, acu- 
minate, entire or minutely serrulate. Stem grooved. New 
Caledonia. A small stove shrub. (B. M. 6053.) 

H. crenata(crenate). A synonym of H. gross^darimfoUa. 

H. Cunninghamii (Cunnini^liam's). fi. yellow ; sepals thin, 
broadly ovate, LIu> outer ones ninve acute; petals slightly notched ; 
peduncles axillary. July. /. linear, mostly pointed ; the edges 
si'arcely recurved, narrowed below the middle, but expanded 
again into a stem-clasping or sagittate base. Branches slender. 
Western Austraha, 1832. "(IJ, M. 5133.) 

Hibbertia— continued. 

H. pedunoulata (pedunculate), jh, sepals ovate, very obtuse, 
usually minutely pubescent outside ; petals obovate, slightly 
euiarginate. I. narrow-linear, rigid, obtuse ; margins revolute, 
numerous, hut not clustered. Stems diffuse, prostrate, or rarely 
erect. New South "WaleN. There is a variety, corifolia, figured in 
B. M. 2672. 

H. perfoliata (perfoliate)."' Jl. pale yellow. Summer. /. ovate, 
acute, I'dgrd with minute distant teeth, perfoliate near the base. 
Stem shnrtly trailing, procumlicnt or erect. West Australia. 
See Fig. 224. (B. R. 1845, 64.) 

H.stricta (upright).* jl. bright yellow, small, profusely produced, 
solitary, axillary, and tenuinal. l. linear. Australia. A wiry 
and iiiiirli-livanching species. There are several forms. 

H. volubilis (twining), jl. rather fcctid, sessile, the largest of the 
genus. Suuniier. I. obi.vatedanceolate, nearly entire, mucronate, 
3iu. to 4in. long. Stems twining. Queensland and New South 
Wales, 1790. (A. B. K. 126.) 
HIBISCUS (the old CU-cek name for the Marsh 

Mallow^ uscil by Dioscorides). " Including- Lagancva, Fa- 


Fig. 224. Fi.nwioRiN 


H. dentata (tn„tlie.l).* fl. dark ycll"« , Iji"- '" 2i' 
solitary, axillary. Spring am suniiner. /. '1^''°"% ''J" 
smootli, serraterl, aivned. 1811. riimhei'. (B. iM. 2338.) 

H erossularisefolla (Oooseherry-leaTed). jl. yellow, rather 
m!fl on Hlilnnu peduncles; sepals ovate o,;^la,u'eo ate, acm. - 
nate- petals ol.ov.itp, entire, or nearly so. May ' d'stinrt.h 
petioiate, ovate or oval-ohlnng, obtuse, undulat 

toothed, ' prominently pinnate," veined nnderneatli, glabrous 
rous above, or less pubescent or hairy beneath bt 


scabrous above, more or less pi 
weak and prostrate, or trailing, 1 
.\ustralia, 1816. Sv.ns. H. axnala 
H. lalifnlia. 
a. latlfolia (broad-leaved). A synon j m of ii. 'Jiom ulanajolia 

I. distinctly 

:ind coarsely 

labrous or 


Tiuliescent. Western 

K. 172 -, B. M. 121S), 

Fig, 225. FLO'n-ERiNG BrnNCH of Hibiscus coccineus. 

ritium, anil Tnonuin. Onv. Malvacecc. An extensive 
genus, compriLang about 150 species of stove, greenhouse, 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 



or barely herbs, yliralid, or trees, natives, for the most 
part, of tropical rci^'ions, but oceurriiig- also in temperate 
ones. Flowers variable iit colour, and usually showy. 
Leaves varialile, often partite. 

Cultivation. Stove or warm greenhouse species of 
Hibiscus succeed best either in large pots or when planted 
out. A compost of peat and ILbry loam, not broken too 
finely, in about equal proportions, with the addition of a 
little charcoal or sand, will suit them admirably. Those 
grown for their flowers should be rested, and kept tolerably 
dry, throughout the winter. In spring, they require a 
little cutting in, and starting in a brisk, moist lieat ; 
afterwards applying plenty of heat and water tlirougb- 
ont the summer. Some of the species, which succeed in 
a greenhouse all the summer, will require warmer iiuartors 
in winter. They are propagated from seed, and by 
cuttings, inserted in a close frame, in spring. H. r.-s. 
Coo'peri is a free-growing plant, with ornamental foliage, 
requiring the same treatment in winter as other stove 
subjects. The hardy species succeed in ordinary garden 
soil, preferably in that which is sandy, and in a warm 
position. H. Tricmtnn may be readily increased from seeds. 

H. africanus (Arriean). A synonym of //. Trlonum. 

H. Cameroni {< 'atneron's). Ji. rosy; calyx large, inflated, Hve- 
liilte.l ; in't;i].s (.lilii|uely cune ate- truncate, with a crimson lilntch 
at the I>ase of each. June and July. I. cordate, tive-lol»ed, 
coarsely serrated ; lobes acute, constricted at liase. h. 1ft. Mada- 
gascar, 1837. Stove shrub. (B. M. 3936.) 

H, coccineus (scarlet).* Jl. bri,i^ht scark^t. July and August. 
I. lunu-stalkcd, tlve-parted ; lolies lanceolate, renu'tely toothed, 
■with entire tips. //. 4ft. to 8ft. iMarshes of Florida and (Jeor^ia. 
Greenhouse perennial. See Vig. 225. (B. IM. 360, under name of 
R. speciotius.) 

H. elatUS (tall). Jl. purplisli-copper colour, large ; peduncles very 
short, one-tlowered ; invidncre ten-cleft. L vnundis)i-e<irdate, 
quite entire, downy-white lieneath. /;. 50ft. Wrst Indies, 1790. 
Stove. "Cuba iiast " is formed fr<.ini the inner liark of this tree. 
SvN. Faratiaiii elatum. 

H. ferox (fierce), ^'.yellow; calyx pentai>(inal, hispid, inflated in 
front ; peduncles axillary, twin, one-flowered. May to July. 
I. large, shinins, cordate, five to sevendobed, villous beneath ; 
stipules cordate, acunnuate. Ji. 3ft. New Grenada, 1844. 
A prickly stove shrub. (B. M. 4401.) 

H. Huegelii quinquevulnerus (Baron Huegel's five-spotted). 
A very handsome variety, with deep rose petals, paler below, and 
each i^etal having a black bh.iod-coloured spot on the claw. 
August. Swan River, 1855. Greenhouse. 

H. marmoratus (marbled).* .//. 2Mn. long, and as wide across the 
petals ; peduncles solitary, axillary, stiff, much longer than the 
petioles, articulate above the middle ; calyx tubiilav-campanulate, 
live-cleft almost to the middle ; petals white, reticulately 
mottled with bright rose-pink, longer than the calyx, convolute 
into a tube below, spreading above ; staminal column slender, 
exserted. February. I. on rather short petioles, variable in 
shape, Iduntly toothed, dark green on the upper surface, paler 
below, 3in. to 4in. long, 2in. to 4in. broad. Mexico, 1854. Green- 
house shrub. (B. M. 5702.) 

H. militaris (nnlitary).* Ji. rose-coloured; pedicels axillary, free 
from the iictioles, one-flowered, and jointed above the middle. 
Sunnuer. I. cordate, toothed, somewhat three-lohed, downy 
beneath, h. 2ft. to 4fb. United States. Hardy perennial. 
(B. M. 2385.) 

H. Moscheutos (Moscheutos). Jl. white, with a purplish 
centre, or sometimes pale purple, large ; petioles and peduncles 
joined together ; involucres and calyces downy. Summer. I. 
ovate, acuminated, serrated, downy beneath, h. 3ft. North 
America. Hardy. (8. B. F. G. 286.) 

H. pedunculatUS (pedunculate). /. deep rosy-reil, showy, cani- 
panulate ; petals cuneate-oblong, rounded at the apex ; involucre 
of about eight linear segments. I. three-lobed, the lobes blunt, 
with toothed margins. Stems hairy. Natal. Ii. 2ft. to 4ft. 
(.(reenhouse shnd). (B. R. 251.) 

H. radiatUS (rayed). Jl. axillary, solitary, short-peduncled, very 
Jar'^i' ; the ''xterior t\\'o-thirds of the petals yellow, aiul sjireading 
liiiri/.ontally ; the iiuier third deep crimson, and formed into a 
bell. Summer. I. alternate, palmate, rarely simple ; ])etioles 
armed, and nearly as long as the leaves. Branches armed with 
small |»rickles. India and .Tava. Stovd slirul.i. //. /•. Jlorr-pirr- 
■jiiirco is a variety liaviii;^' fine ros('-]]ur]ile llowers. (B. M. 5098.) 
JI. Jjindtel (B. E. 1395). another with deep purj.le corollas. 

H. rosa-sinensis (Chinese llose).'^ .//. varied in colouration, 
lar,L;(', single, seuii or ■wholly ihiuljle ; i)cdicely len;^tli of leaves; 
invoUicre seven-leaved. Sunnuer. I. ovate, acuminated, smootli, 
entire at the base, but cnursely toothed at the apex. Stem 
unarmed, arboreous, h. 10ft. to 15ft. China, Japan, &c., 1731; 


Fig. 226. Flowering Branch of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 

cultivated foi' ornament throii^liont all tropical regions. Stove. 
See Fig. 226. Of the numerous varieties in cultivation, the follow- 
ing are the most noteworthy and desirable. 

H.r.-s. brilliantissimum (very lirilliant). fl. blm. across, spread- 
in.i;-, almost Hat, but liaving a short fnimel-shaped base, formed by 
tht: eoM\'er;j;enre of tlie l>ases of the petals, which are in that part 
stained \\ith a dei>i)er ri inist.m, and overlapping each other so that 
they form a circular flower. 

H. r.-s. Callerii ((.'allers). jl. liutf-yellow, with a crimson- 
scarlet liase. A very distinct andremarliable variety, with general 
character and haliit of type. 

H. r.-s. Cooperi (Cooper's).* Jl. scarlet. I. irregularly ovate- 
lanceolate, cuneate at the base, bluntly serrated, vivid .green, 
splashed and Idntched with dark olive-green, creamy-white, and 
crimson, and margined with a broad and irregularly feathery 
border of reddish-carmine. 

H. r.-s. fulgldus (shining).' Jl. 5iu. in diameter, of flne broad, 
rounded, and beautifully undulated petal.-;, of an intense carmine- 
scarlet, paler and somewhat rosy tinted towards L he base, where 
on each petal is an oblong blotch of deep crimson. I. broadly- 
ovate, serrated. 

Fig. 227. Fi.owiauNG JbUA^cii up llmtscus itosfini; 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture, 


ml ic 
(. It 

fl. vov. 

Hibiscus — nniU'ititrd. 

H. r.-s. mlniatus semi-plenus (hnlf .Ic.iil.lo vevmil 
liiili.iu-si-irl.'t,; iictals vi-iy iiniili \v:ivf,l 
funiiiiii; ;iTi iiicL;tilav uiiilnI,Ltt-il iii;iss 4ilt. itLTus^. 
.ivate, coavs.'ly l.,„tht'il. 

H. r.-s. vivicans (livelv). fl. )inlli:iiit c'limson-scarlet, 4iii. to 
.'lili. in .liium'ti'V, thr colitro l.eiiii; rniii|iletely filled up Willi 
Viiu;ul, i-iaivoliitu petaloid pruce^ye^. 

H.r.-s. zebrinus (zebra-stripea). Jl. alimit S.'.in. in .li;impti-r, ninl 
2,',iii. deeji, ilcmble; the five outer pet:Ll.s seailet, edged with 
ereauiy-yellow in the lower part ; staluiual column " entirely 
petaluid, with numerous irre,;;u]ar tufts at the apex, of a creamy- 
yellow colour, variously and irregularly striped and flakeil with 
scarlet. The flowers are very irregular and gi-otesqiie in form. 

H. roseus (rosy). /. rose-coloured, large, axillary, solitary. /. 
large, brtiadly oval-acuminate, covered with white tonientnm 
beneath, h. 3ft. Naturalised in marshy spots in France ami else- 
where. Probably of New World origin. Hardy. See Fig. 227. 

H. schlzopetalus (cut-petaled).* _//. brilliant orange-red, pendu- 
lous, (in slciidei [lednncles ; jietals deeply cut or laciniated ; the 
uniled lilauu'nts of the stamens closel.N' suironnil the style, and 
the latter projects about 2in. beyond the corolla. A remarlvalile 
stove species. (B. M. 6624.) 

H. speciosus (sin.wy). A synonym of It. mn-iurux. 

H. splendens (splendid). /(. rose-coloured, very largi^ ; pedicels 
as long as the i)etioles ; calyx lin. long, deeply divided, doisely 
tomentose nv hiy)iid. M;iv." /. on long petioles, broadly ovate- 
cordate, or lialmately tln-c'e or five-lobed, often 6in. or Tin. long; 
lobes oblong-acuminate or lanceolate, ofteu narrowed at basiv 
h. 12ft. to 20ft. Australia, 1823. .\ lieaulilid. densely tonientose 
greenhouse sinadi ; branches and ludiiiles bristly or loickly. 
(B. M. 3025; 1'.. R. 1629.) 

Fin. 223. FLOWEr.TNfi BRAxrir np Hiniscu.s .STni.icus. 

H. syriacus (Syrian).* ./'. varying much in colouration, large, 
single or double; pedicels hardly longer than the leaves; 
iuvidacre six or seven-leaved. August. L alternate, ovate, 
wi'dge-shaped, threedobed, toothed. A. 6ft. Syria, 1596. Hardy 
ileciduous shrub. See Fig. 228. Svx. Alllirea fridex. The fol- 
lowing are the most approved varieties : plemis, 

EEIJS PLENUS, Due T)E llRAP.AM', J)L!cm-;sSl'; \)l'. JiRAlt.VNT, EbR- 
CVNTIS-Sl^inS,, JiF.nROI.nil, iMo.NSTRirsua, Pompun 

R(ilh;e, Pi'.\ici;us pr.ivvrs Pprpiirep.s \ai;ieoatps, RANU.xctiLi- 


H. Trionum (Trionum). Bladder Ketniia. Jl. yellow, with a purple 
centre Sunnner. (. cordate, palniatelv lobed ; lobes linear. 
// 2ft Africa. Hardy annual. See Fig. 229. SVN. //. africamis. 

Hibiscus — coiiMnupd. 


Fro. 229. FLOAVKRiNri Bk.wcii of Hibiscus Trionum. 

V<'ln^^l ii'.<!. The varietieR of H. roi^a-siiiejis-is and 
11. fiyridciis are very lieautifii], especially tliosG of tlio 
former. For this reason, only a few of the tyiiioal 
species arc seen in our g-ardcns, and those arc mncLi 
inferior to the varieties. 

HICKORY. N'v Carya. 

HI£KACIUM (the Greek name used by Dioscorides 

for aiintli(.'r phuit. frmn liier<{.<\ a lia^vlc ; application doubt- 
fvil). Hawkweed. <.)iiri. ComjHi.^ilw. A g-cnus, comprising' 
about 15' I species of hardy perennial lierbs, from 
Europe, North Asia, and a few from America, very nearly 
allied to Crepis. Flower-heads yellow, or rarely orang^e- 
red ; involucre more or less imbricated. Loaves entire 
or toothed. Comparatively few of the species of this 
extensive genus are worth growing-. Those are of very 
easy culture in any ordinary g-arden soil. Some of the 
British ones do well on old walls, and in such positions 
are very ornamental. Propagated by divisions, in spring ; 
or by seeds. 

H. aurantiacum (>>v:m^j:o.y^j].-hca<?,\- orauge-roil ; corymb CMi;ht to 
ten-Hiiwcicil ; iii\iiliiiii' ^(.ivereil with lung- hair-s. June ami July. 
;. elli]itii;;il, aciiti', entire. Stem often lieariiii; one or two Icuve.s 
at tile Imttnni, liairy. //. 1ft. to l.'.ft. Scamliiiavia to thePvreiiees 
(naturalised in North of Kngkuul and Scotland). (Sy. lin. B. 823.) 

H. Pilosella (mouse-ear). Jl.-hea'lH lemon-eokiurtMl, often tinged 
with red (.in the outsiih-^ ; involucres and upper |iart of peduncle 
more ftv les.s clotlied witli minute aiul cl(».se whitisli duwn, mixed 
with short, stiff, spreading black liairs. /. ol)](Hig or lanceolate, 
entire, taiieriog at tlie base, and often stalked. I'^urnpe (Britain), 
Nnrtii uud Wvst Asia, North Africa. (Sy. Kn. B. 822.) 

HIEROCHIiOI! (from hieros. sacred, and cliloa, grass; 
in the North of Europe, these grasses are strewn before 
church doors, on saints' days). Holy Grass. Stns. Dis- 
arrenum, Savastana, Torresia. Oed. Graminece. A 
genus of about eight species of sweet-scented hardy pe- 
rennial grasses, inhabiting- the colder reg-ions of botli 
Northern and Southern hemispheres. Spikelets three- 
flowered, open-panicled ; flowers all with two paleas ; 
glumes equalling or exceeding the spikelet, scarious. 
Hierochloes grow freely in damp spots, in any ordinary 
g-arden soil. Propagated by seeds, which aro abundantly 

H. alpina (nlpine). //., pani(de contracted, lin. to 2iu. long; uiie 
of the .staioinate tinkers liarely puinted, or short-au'ned near t)ie 
tip, the (.ithev limg-awiied from liehiw the middle, .ruly. L, lower 
ones verv narrow. //. 1ft. Northern hemisphere (on alpine moun- 
tain tops), 1827. 

H. borealis (Northern). Jl., spikelets chestnut-eelour ; staniinate 
Hnwers .strongly hairy-fringed on tlie margins, with the hiwer 
palea niucrona'te or bristle-pointed jtt or near the ti]> ; iiauicle 
somewhat one-siiled, iiyramidal, 2in. to 5in. long ; jiedumdes 
smooth. jMay. I. slmrt, laiK-eohite. Culm 1ft. "to 2l't. high. 
Rootstock creeping-. Northern hemisphere (Caithness). 


The Dictionary of Gardening, 



A synonym of Hoffmannia (which 

HILIiIA (named after Sir John Hill, 1710-1775, a 

celebrated botanical author). Stns. Fereiria, Saldauha. 
Ord. RuhiacecE: A genus comprising about five species 
of ornamental stove evergreen shrubs, natives of tropical 
America and the West Indian Islands. Flowers white, 
large, terminal, solitary, sub-sessile, bracteate and brac- 
teolate. Leaves opposite, shortly petiolate, fleshy ; sti- 
pules intrapetiolar, membranaceous, caducous. For cul- 
ture, see Cinchona. 

H. longiflora ^lon.^-flowered). jl. white, very fragrant ; tube 

loTiff ; corolla with six twisted segments. February. /. ovate. 

h.2it. West Indies, &c., 1789. (E. iM. 721.) //. tetraudni is an 
allied species. 

HILUM. The scar produced by the separation of a 
seed from its placenta. 

HINDSIA (named after E. Brinsley Hinds, the botanist 
of the "Sulphur" Expedition). Syn. Macrosi'phon. Orj). 
RuhiacecB. A genus comprising about three species of 
email ornamental stove evergreen shrubs, natives of 
Brazil. Flowers violaceous, rather large, in terminal cymes, 
sessile ; pedicels short, bracteolate. Leaves petiolate, 
ovate, or o\'ate-lanceolate. For culture, .^ee BiOndeletia. 

H. longiflora (long.floweveil). fi. blue; panicle leafy, branches 

three-iiowRrcd. Mav. I. ovate-lanceolate, strigose beueatli. 

h. 2ft. 1841. (B. ]\I.'3977, under nitnie uf Jl<r,uU'h^l.ia (on;/ij!ura.) 

There is a wliite-flowered form. 
H. violacea (violet).* H. elegant ultvaniarine, disposed in clusters 

2in. long. May. l. broad-ovate, h. 3ft. 1844. Plant duwnv. 

(E. M. 4135.) 

HIFFEASTB.UIVI (from lilj>peus. a knight, and 
aslron, a star; referring to the shape of H. equexh-e). 
Equestrian Star. Obd. Amartjllidece. A genus of up- 
wards of fifty species of tunicated bulbous plants, natives 

Fir;. 230. IIvbrid HrpPEASTRUMS. 

of tropical and extra-tropical Soutli America. Perianth 
funnel-shaped, more or less declinate ; scape tistnlose, 
two or many-flowered. In most catalogues, the plants 
described below are classed under AwanjUiK. Few 
subjects are more gorgeous and attractive, in winter 

Hippeastrum — continued. 
and spring, than several of the species of Hippeastrwmf 
and the numerous beautiful hybrids (see Fig. 230) that 
have been obtained therefrom by the skill and perse- 
vering labours of the hybridist. Some of the flowers 
are of the richest deex) crimson and blood-red ; others 
are nearly white, or are striped, mottled, and blended, 
in a most effective manner, with a combination of 
colours. Distinct species and hybrids have been crossed 
and intercrossed, until breadth of petal, size, substance, 
and perfect form of flowers, have been attained far 
beyond the most sanguine expectations of the hybridisers 
themselves. When once established, and of sufficient size, 
the flowering of the bulbs annually is almost certain ; 
they do not recpiire much space, and their general culture 
is easy. Propagation is readily effected by seeds for 
raising new varieties, and this method is also largely 
practised for producing bulbs to flower for ordinary de- 
coration. Named species or varieties are perpetuated 
)jy offsets, which spring up from the base of established 

Seeds should be sown, as soon as rlj^e, in well-drained 
pots or pans of sandy loam, slightly covered, and placed 
in a temperature of about 65deg. When the seedlings 
are large enough to handle, pot off into very small pots, 
taking care not to insert too deeply, and afterwards plunge 
in bottom heat. If kept in a moist atmosphere, with a 
temperature ranging from Ondeg. to 7"deg., the young 
plants make rapid progress. 

Offsets. For increasing by offsets, it is necessary to 
take the old bulbs from the pots, and carefully separate 
with the least possible injury to the roots. The latter 
become much interlaced, and do not like disturbance ; 
consequently, it should not be resorted to more than is 
reqaisite. It is best to leave them until several offsets 
are i'ormed, as the la-tter increase in size faster when 
attached to the parent plant, and the necessity of fre- 
(juently disturbing the roots is avoided. The operation 
shotild be performed when the plants are at rest. Offsets 
should be placed singly in pots, but must on no account 
be overpotted, as they do not succeed in a quantity of 
soil, which is liable to become soured before being 
penetrated with roots. Keep the bulb about two-thirds 
above the level of the soil, dispose the roots evenly, and 
afterwards xjlnnge in bottom heat, in a position exposed 
to light. 

(! till irat ion. Hippeastrums are more or less ever- 
green, and, although they require a season of rest, water 
should never be entirely withheld. The growing season 
is from early spring, after flowering is over, until about 
September, when the plants should be kept cool and 
allowed to rest until February. They may then be 
placed in a minimum temperature of about tlUdeg., and 
more water and syringings applied. If the bulbs are 
large enough, and have been well matured, the flower 
scapes will soon appear, usually a little in advance of 
the leaves. Young bulbs should be repotted, if they 
require it, just when starting, shaking out some of the 
old soil, well filling in the new amongst the roots, and 
making it quite firm with a hand rammer. Established 
flowering bulbs in 7in., or larger pots in the case of 
extra-sized specimens, should have a top-dressing each 
year when starting ; this being generally sufficient for 
them, with the aid of manure water in the growing 
season. Rather heavy, loamy soil should be used, with 
the addition of some charcoal and crushed bones, and 
good drainage is very important. Hippeastrums require 
plenty of light and sunsljine, except during the flowering 
period, when a light shading will tend to preserve the 
blossoms. In some large nurseries, special houses are 
now devoted to their accommodation. They are made 
with a span-roof, tlius insuring plenty of "light. The 
pots are plnnged level in beds of tan "or coooanut fibre, 
and a magnificent display is made by the plants wheu 

An Encyclopedia of Horticulture. 


Hippeastnun — coitinned. 
flo-wering In a mass about the month of April. Plenty 
of air and water may be administered in summer, taking 
care to g-et them thoroughly ripened by autumn, when 
the pots, with their contents, may be stored and kept in 
a moderately dry, cool house until starting' time the 
foUowing' year. 

H, Ackermannl (Ackevmann's).* _/?. crimson, handyome, very 
large. Stove. The parent of many of the large -flowering- varieties. 
One of the best of these is pulcherrima, which has a deep crim- 
son throat, very handsomely streaked with green. 

H. Allierti (Albert's), fl. orange-red, yellowish towards the base 
of each petal, full double, about 6in. across. Cuba, 1867. A very 
handsonu^ variety, probably merely a double form of H. ecjucstre. 
Stove. (I. H. 1866,498.) 

H. amblgnnm (ambiguous). _fl., perianth tubulose ; segments 
striated with red within ; throat softly bearded. /. broad, strap- 
shaped, full gi-een. h. 2ft. Lima, 1836. A very handsome plant. 
(B. M. 3542.) 

H. aulicum (courtly).* /. large, extremely handsome; petals 
unequal, obovate, sharply acuniinated, patent, striated, within of 
a rich crimson, green at the base, and above the gi-een is a dark 
blotch of red-purple ; scape rounded, glabrous, 1ft. to l^ft. high. 
I. broadly strap-shaped, full gi-een, not at all glaucous, clrisoly 
striated; the apex rather obtuse, h. l.Lft. to 2ft. Rio Janeiro. 
Greenhouse, Syn. Amari/Ui-'^ auUca. (B. M. 2983, 3511.) 

H, breviflorum (short-flowered). /?. scentless ; perianth white, 
striated ; externally slightly tinged with yellow -green, and niarkei.l 
with a central broad, red streak ; \\ithiu, the same red ^treak i.s 
separated by a whitt- line down the middle ; scapi- runuiled, glau- 
cous. April. /,, spathe of two lauceolatt^, menibraiiuiis leaflets. 
h. 3ft. Bufuos Ayres, 1856. Stove. (B. M. 3549.) 

H. equestre (equestrian).'* Barbados IJlv. ff. orange -green. 
West Indies. Guiana, Chili, &c., 1810. Stuve. (B. M. 5U5.) There 
are several very handsunie forms of this nid sjiccies, including 
the following : j'uhiida, bright urauge, margined white ; iiuijor, 
large, bright orange, with green central .star ; lUnr-ph-nn, rich 
orange, quite double; and i(inescen.s, bright liglrt scarlet, with a 
white throat, wliicli runs out in bars to the centre nf the seg- 
viieuts. (R, <;. 1S74, ISO.) 

H. Jolinsoni (Jolnis.iu's). jl. dull red, with a white striiie down 
each segment. One of the eailiest hyljrids ; ll spei'ially haniy and 
robust gru^\'ei', and a very abundant "blosscjuier. 

H. mlniatum (scarlet), rf. red ; umbel two to tive-fluwered ; peri- 
anth campanulate ; liuib six-parted, thrice lunger than llie tulte ; 
scape very smooth, rather longer than tlie leaves. .Iiih'. /'. 1ft. 
Chili, 1832, Stove. (S. B. F. O. ser. ii. 213, under name of 
HahranUiHii mi n tat us.) 

H. pardinum (leopard-spotted).* _rf. upwards .,f 6iu. in diameter, 
very spreading, with .scarcely any tube ; ground c<.'li_Mn' rich laeA n, 
profusely dotted all over with crimson. Peru, 1866. A splendid 
greenhouse species. (B, M. 5645.) 

H. pratense (meadow), ji. brightest scarlet, sometimes feathered 
witii \ell.i\\ ;it the base ; disposed in umbels liu stems aliuut 1ft. 
hi^h, ■ (.'hili, IS-IO. Nearly hardy. This i.s closely allied to II. 
n>hhN<;. Sin. J„iar>dlis prcifeo.^ls. (B. K. 1842, 3!^ undornanie nf 

H. psittacinum niarrot-like). JJ. green and scarlet. Tt is unique 
and beautiful, and has been fruitful in .seedlings. (B. iM. 352t;,) 

H. pTllverulentum (po\\dery). Ji. red, four, ringent, \\ ith taper- 
pointed segments ; scape aliuut 2ft., purple at the Ijottoni. April 
and May. /. deep green, conspicutmslv covered w ith a cineretms 
bloom, purple at their base. A. 2ft. Brazil, 1819. (B. M. 
2273, under name of Amaryllis pulrerulcnta.) 

H. pyrrochroum (Hame-coloured). /. deep red, good size, four 
uv live on a scape ; throat shading to greenish-velhiw. Para, 
1363. Stove. (I. H. 1864, 420.) 

H. reticulatum (netted).* /?. a beautiful soft pink and white, 
about 3in. in diameter ; veins darker, and giving tlie whole Huwer 
an interesting netted appearance; scape live or six-tiowered. 
/. dark green, wttli a pure ivory-white midrib. Bi-azil, 1677. 
Stove. (B. M. 2113,) 

H, solandriflorum (Solandra-flowered). /.drooping, very large; 
perianth tube very long, slender, pale gTeen ; limb sdnu-what 
spreading; sepnents oblong, rather acute, dingy sulphur, or 
cream-coloured, greenish at the middle of the liack ; scape terete. 
May. I. rather narrow, ligulate, keeled below, blunt at the apex, 
about 1ft. long. A. 2ft. Guiana, 1839. Stove. (B. M. 2573, 3771.) 

H. stylosnm (long-styled). ./?., limb paJe fulvous-pink, veined _and 
speckled with a deeper colour ; anthers straw-coloured, striped 
with red ; pollen bright yellow ; style Iriin. longer than coroha. 
I. like those of II. eguestre, but more glossy, and purple at their 
base. h. 2ft. Brazil, 1821. Stove. (B. M. 2278.) 

H. sub-toarbatum (slightly-bearded). "This beautiful plant, 
from Rio Janeiro, occupies an intennediate place between H. 
fulgidum and II. fqticstre majpr, to which last it approximates in 
the colour and form of the limb, the shape of the star, and the 
vestige of a beard, which is inst distinguishable at the mouth of 
the tube." Stove. (B. M. 2475.) 

Vol. II. 

Hippeastrum — w at in ued. 

H. vittata (striped)." _/?. clear white, with double red stripes on 
each perianth-segTnen't. One of the most beautiful species ; it 
has proved the most fruitful parent of many of the finest varie- 
ties. Greenhouse. (B, M. 129,) 

HIPPIA (from h.i.pi>fn\ a horse ; application doubtful). 
Ord. Composifce. This genus comprises four species of 
slender greenhouse herb.^ or branching sub-shrubs, all 
natives of South Africa. Flower-heads yellow, minute, 
rayless, something like those of the Chamomile. Leaves 
alternate, pinnatifid or pinnatisect, rarely entire. Hippias 
thrive in a peat and loam compost. Propagated by cut- 
tings, or by seed.s. 

H. frutescens (shrubby), fl.-hcoil^ yeXlow, corymbose. February 
to ■Vu'-' l. pinnatitid. li. (An. 1710, Plant shrubby, villous. 
^B. .M, 1855,) 

HIPPION". A synonym of Gentiana (which see). 
HIPPOBROMUS ifrom liiiqjos,3, horse, and hromos, 
a bad smell ; reason for name not given by its author). 
It is the Paardepis of the Dutch colonists. Obd. 
SapindacecB. A monotypic genus, the species being- a 
greenhouse resin-bearing tree of considerable size. It 
thrives in sandy loam. Propagated by cuttings, inserted 
in sand, under a hand glass. 

H. alatus (winged), fl. reddish, small, from the axUs of the leaves, 
I'egular, polygamous ; sepals persistent, rotundate, concave, im- 
equal, broadly imbricate ; pettds five, ubuvate. glabrous. I. alter- 
nate, exstipulate, abruptiv jiiunate ; leaflets sessile, sub-opposite, 
dentate, seirate, cr .■ittire" Suuth Africa, 

HIPPOCASTANE.S. Included under ^apindcu-eie. 
HIPPOCENTAUKEA. A synonym of Erytlivsea 

(vvhioh y,:'f). 
HIPPOCRATEACEffi. A tribe of Celastrinecs. 
HIPPOCREPIFORM. Tlorseshoe-shaped. 

HIFPOCREPIS (t'l-unr Inpiwf:, a hor^-o, and krepis 
a shoe; in allusion to the shape of the pod). Horse- 
shoe Vetch. Oru. Li'ijiiini'iioso'. A genus comprising 
about twelve speeies uf pretty, usually hardy, herbs or 
low shrubs, inlialiitants of Kurope, North Africa, and 
Western Asia. Flowers yellow, nodding, honeyed ; pe- 
duncles axillary. Leaves impari-XDinnate ; leaflets entire, 
exstipellate. The species are of very easy culture in 
ordinary garden soil, and may be increased by division 
of the rout, or by soeils. H. halearica requires green- 
hou,se or frame prntoftion in winter, and thrives in a 
peat and loam soil. 

H. "balearica (Balearic), fl., peduncles longer than the leaves, 

hearing an umbel vf Huwers at the apex. Suninier. h. lit. to 2ft. 

iMiiiurca, 1776. Plant shrubby, erect, half-hardy. (B. M. 427,) 
H. comosa (tufted), fl. disposed sinnlar to those of //. balearica. 

Spring and suninn-r. /., leaflets seven to eleven, obovate, obtuse. 

Stem lierluaceiius, pnisti'ate. South ami West Europe (Britain), 

N(uth Africa. (S\ . Imi. Ii, 580.) 

HIPPOMANE (from Hi-ppomanPR. the old Greek 

name fur a kiml of spurge, used by Theoiihrastus, and 
meaning, literally, mad after bor.^es ; referring to its efl'ect 
on mares). Syn. MancAnella . (►rd. Euphuvhiarece. A 
monotypic genus, the species being a tall, milk-bearing, 
very poisonous tree. It thrives in a mixture of sandy 
loam and peat. Propagated by cuttings, inserted in 
sand, under a glass, in heat. 

H. Mancinella (I\binciiiueel). Manchineel-tree. fl. small, in- 
conspicuuiis, ;iiid of separate sexes. May. jr. a roundish, 
fleshy, yellow ish-green berry. I. stalked, shining - green, egg- 
shaped (.ir elli]itical, with the edges cut into saw-like teeth, having 
a single gland on the upper side, at the junction of the stalk and 
leaf. h. 40ft. to 50ft. West Indies, Central America, 1690. 
(R. (}. 510.) 

HIPPOPHAE (from Hippophaes, the old Greek name 
for a prickly spurge, used by Hippocrates). Sallow 
Thorn; Sea Buckthorn. Ord. Elo^agnacece. A hardy de- 
ciduous shrub. It is of easy culture in common garden 
soil, and is esiiecially useful for growing near the sea- 
coast. Propagated by layers, by suckers, by cuttings of 
the roots, or by seeds. 

H. rhamnoides (Rhamnus-like).* fl. yellow, dicecious, axillary, 
pedunculate, small. May. Berries of a biiglit urange-colour, 



The Dictionary of Gardening, 

Hippophae — conti)ived. 

I. linear-lanceolate, bluntish, dotted, silvery beneatli. Branches 
ending in a spine. /(. 2ft. to 20ft. Europe (England), North and 
Central Asia, Himalaya. //. salicifoUa, the Himalayan form of 
the species, is hardly different from the one wliicli is found on the 
English coasts. (Sy. En. E. 1245.) 

HIFFURIS (the old Greek name used by Diosco- 
ride^^, friim hippu.s, a horse, and oura, a tail; in allusion 
to the resemblance of the stem to a horse's tail). Ord. 
Haloragece. A genus comprising one or two species of 
glabrous aquatic herbs, natives of Europe, Central and 
Northern Asia, North and Antarctic America. H. vul- 
garis is the only species which calls for special men- 
tion. It is a perennial, and thrives in a bog, pond, or 
marshy situation. Propagated by division of the roots, 
or by seeds. 

H. vulgaris (common). Common Marestail. /. greenisli, minute ; 
anthiiirs red. Smumer. /. linear, strap-shapt^d, entire. Stems 
simple, erect ; u]jpec part projecting uut of tile water sonuHimes 
to the lieight of 8iii. or lOin., crowded by ^vhurls of frc»m eight to 
twelve leaves. Europe (Britain), Asia, &c. (Sy. En. B. 516,) 

HIRSUTE. Clothed with somewhat soft hairs. 

HISFID. Covered with rather stiff hairs. 

HOART. Covered with grey or whitish hairs, not 
readily distinguished by the naked eye. 

HODGSONIA (named after B. H. Hodgson, F.L.S.). 
Ord. Ovcv rhiiacece. A genus consisting of only one (or 
perhaps two) species. H. heteroclifa is a remarkable 
shrub, native of Eastern Bengal and the Malay Archi- 
pelago. It requires an almost tropical heat and damp 
in summer, but not in winter, when it ought to be kept 
more cool and dry. It has not yet flowered in this 
country. Propagated from imported seeds, or by cut- 
tings, inserted in sandy soil, under a bell glass, in 
bottom heat. 

H, heterodita (anomalous). /. yellow outside, white within, 
large, with long filiform twisted appendages hanging from their 
lobes ; very deciduous. May. fr. large, melon-like. l. per- 
sistent, coriaceous, ii:dmntelv lobed ; lobes entire. The stem.s are 
described by Sir JuM:pb lluukn as slender, frequently 100ft. long, 
climbing the forest U<