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3 1924 052 094 251 




The Author, in his Preface, has exhausted the material for an 
introductory notice to this little work, for the scope of which I 
must refer the reader to Mr. Lydekker's own words. It is a 
significant fact that in the present day no author pretends to 
write a complete account of his subject, who does not take 
some notice of its Palsontological aspect, and I feel myself 
very fortunate in having secured the assistance of such a well- 
known Palaeontologist as my friend Mr. Lydekker for this 
record of our British Mammalia, past and present. 

Mr. Lydekker is not an advocate for the adoption of the 
Scomber scomber principle in zoological nomenclature. I feel 
convinced, however, that the absolute justice of retaining 
every specific name given by Linnaeus will some day be recog- 
nised. Thus, in my opinion, the correct title of the Badger 
should be Meles meles (L.) ; of the Otter, Lutra lutra (L.) ; of 
the Roe-deer, Capreolus capreolus (L.) ; of the Common Por- 
poise, Phoccsna phoccena (L.); of the Killer, Orca orca (L.). 



Although memoirs relating to particular groups have from 
time to time made their appearance, no Monograph of the 
British Mammals as a whole has been published since the 
second edition of Bell's "British Quadrupeds" in 1874. Since 
that date considerable advances have been made with regard to 
our knowledge of the geographical distribution of our Native 
Mammals, while the careful study of nomenclature instituted of 
late years, has rendered it necessary that many of our Mammals 
should be known by scientific names different from those by 
which they have been commonly designated in the older works 
on Natural History. These two circumstances would alone 
justify the issue of the present volume ; but there is a further 
justification for its appearance, in that it contains, for the first 
time in a work of this nature, brief notices of the species ex- 
terminated within the historic period, with a further section 
devoted to the fossil forms. 

The Author makes no claim to being an observer of the 
habits of British Mammals ; and he has accordingly drawn 
largely from Macgillivray's excellent "Manual," published in 
the original issue of the " Naturalist's Library." Indeed, the 
present volume may be regarded almost as a new edition 
of that excellent, although now somewhat antiquated, work. 
When necessary, Macgillivray's observations have, however, 
been added to or modified; and the Author's best thanks 
are due to Mr. A. Trevor-Battye and Mr. W. E. de Winton for 

vi author's preface. 

many original observations on the subject of habits. Thanks 
are also due to Mr. J. E. Harting, from whose numerous papers 
on British Mammals, especially his volume on the species 
recently exterminated from our islands, and also his Report on 
the " Vole-Plague,'' a large amount of matter has been culled. 
My acknowledgments must likewise be tendered to Mr. A. G. 
More, of the Dublin Museum, for much important informa- 
tion kindly communicated by letter on the subject of Irish 

Although attention has been especially directed to ■ the sub- 
ject of distribution, it has not been deemed necessary to give 
the name of svery county from which the more uncommon 
species have been recorded. 







I. Rhinolophus, Desm 17 

1. ferrum-equinum (Schreber) 18 

2. hipposiderus (Bechst.) 20 


I. Plecotus, Geoffr 22 

I. auritus (L.) 22 

II. Synotus, Keys, and Bias 25 

I. barbastellus (Schreber)... ... ... ... ... ... 26 

III. Vesperugo, Keys, and Bias. 27 

1. serotinus (Schreber) 28 

2. discolor (Natt.) 30 

3. noctula (Schreber) ,., 31 

4. leisleri (Kuhl) ... ., ... 35 

5. pipistrellus (Schreber) 36 

IV. Vespertilio, L 41 

1. dasycneme, Boie 42 

2. daubentoni, Leisl. ... ... ... ... ... ... 43 

3. nattereri, Kuhl ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 45 

4. bechsteini, Leisl. 48 

5. murinus, L. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 49 

6. mystacinus, Leisl. ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 



I. Erinaceus, L ... ., ., ., 55 

I, europceus, L ,„ .,. .;, 56 



I. Talpa, L 

I. europoea, L, 



1 . vulgaris, Ij. 

2. minutus, L. 

II. Ceossopus, Wagl. 

I. fodiens (rail.) ... 



I. Felis, L. 

I. catus, L. ... 


I. Canis, L. 

1. lupus, L. 

2. vulpes, L. 



1. martes, L. 

2. putorius, L. 

3. erminea, L. 

4. vulgaris, Erxl. ... 

II. Meles, Storr 

I. taxus (L), 

III. LuTRA, Erxl 

I. vulgaris, Erxl. ... 


I. Ursus, L. 

I. arctos, L. 


I. Halichcerus, Nilss. ... 

I. grypus (Fabr.) ... 


II. Phoca, L 

1. vitulina, L. 

2. hispida, Schreber 

3. groenlandica, Fabr. 

III. Cystophora, Nilss. ... 

I. cristata(ErxI.) ... 


I. Trichechus, L. 

I. rosmarus, L. 




I. vulgaris, L. 


I. Castor, L 

I. fiber, L. ... 


J. Muscardinus, Kaup. 
I. avellanarius (L.) 


I. Mus, L. ... 

I. minutus, I'all. ... 
z. «ylvaticus, L. 

3. flavicoUis, Melchior 

4. musculus, L. 

5. rattus, L. 

6. decumanus, Pall. 

II. MiCROTUS, Schrank ... 

I. agrestis (L.) 

3. glareolus (Schreber) 

3. amphibius (L.) ... , 




I. Lepus, L. 220 

1. europoeus, Pall. 221 

2. timidus, L. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 225 

3. cuniculus, L. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 229 



I. Eos, L 23s 

1. taiirus, L. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 235 


I. Ckrvus, L 239 

1. elaphus, L 240 

2. dama, L. ... 246 

II. Capreolus, H. Smith ^49 

I. caprea, Gray 249 

III. Rangifer, H. Smith 252 

I. tarandus (L.) 253 

I. Sus, L 




I. scrofa, L. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 255 



I. Bal.'Ena, L 260 

I. australis, Desm. 260 

II. Megaptera, Gray " 262 

I. bbops (Fabr.) 262 

III. Bal^noptera, Laci5p 264 

1. sibbaldi (Gray) 264 

2. mu.iculus (L.) 266 

3. borealis, Less. ... 268 

4. rostrata (Fabr.) 271 


yseter, L 

I, macrocephalus, L 274 


I. Physeter, L 273 


II. IIyperoodon, Lacep. 

I. rostratus (Mlill.) 

III. Mesoplodon, Gerv. 

I. bidens (Sowerby) 

IV. ZiPHius, Cuv. 

I. cavirostris, Cuv. 



I. monoceros, L. ... 

II. Delphinapterus, I/acep. 

I. leucas (Pall.) 

III. Phoc^na, Cuv. 

1. communis, Less. 

IV. Orca, Gray 

I. gladiator (Bonn.) 

V. Globicephalus, Less. 

I. melas (Traill.) ... 

VI. Grampus, Gray 

I. griseus (Cuv.) ... 

VII. Lagenorhynchus, Gray . 

1. albirostris (Gray) 

2. acutus (Gray) 

VIII. Delphinus, L. 
I. delphis, L. 

IX. TuRSlOPS, Gerv. 

I. tursio (Bonn.) 


I. The Cavern and Brick-earth Period ... 

II. The Forest-bed and Crag Periods 

III. The Lower Tertiary Period 



— Greater Ilorse-shoe Bat 

... Rhinolophusferrum-eqiiint 


—Long-eared Bat 

... Plecotus auritus. 


— Pipistrelle 

Vesperugo pipistrellus. 


—Reddish-Grey Bat ... 

Vespertilio nallereri. 


— Common Hedge-hog 

... Erinaceus europceus. 


— Common Shrew 

. . . Sorex vulgaris. 


— Water-Shrew 

... Crossopus fodiens. 


-Wild Cat 

... Felts cuius. 


-Fox ... 

... Canis valpes. 



... Mustela martes. 



. . . Mustela putorhis. 


—Stoat in summer dress 

... Mustela erminea. 


—Stoat in winter dress ... 

.... Mustela erminea. 



... Mustela vulgaris. 


—Common Badger 

. . . Meles taxus. 


—Common Otter 

. . . Lutra vulgaris. 


—Common Seal 

. . . Phoca viiulina. 



. . Phoca grmilandica. 


-Common Squirrel 

. . . Sciurus vulgaris. 


—Common Dormouse ... 

... Muscardinus avellanarius . 



... Mus minutns. 



. . . Mus sylvaticus. 


-Black Rat 

... Mus ratius. 


—Common Field- Vole ... 

. . . Microtus agrestis. 


-Bank -Vole 

. . . Microtus glareolus. 



... Microtus amphibius. 


— Common Hare 

... Lepus europaus. 



-... Lepus timidus. 


-Chillingham Cattle ... 

... Bos taurus. 


-Red Deer 

... Cervus elaphus. 


—Fallow Deer 

... Cei-vus dama. 


—Common Roe 

■ . ■ Capreolus caprea. 



According to the admirablf? classification proposed by Dr. 
A. R. Wallace, the British Islands come under the category of 
" Continental " Islands ; that is to say, they are islands of large 
size, composed to a great extent of sedimentary rocks, and 
situated near to a continent, with the fauna and flora of which 
their own animals and plants agree to a greater or less extent. 
Many islands of this class have evidently been united to the 
continents to which they are adjacent, at no very remote 
epoch ; and this is attested in our own case not only by the 
shallowness of the English Channel and the North Sea, but 
likewise by the similarity of the geological formations on the 
two sides of the Channel, as well as by the fact that there is 
not a single indigenous species of British Mammal that is not 
likewise met with on the Continent. That there are certain 
continental Mammals now unknown in a living condition in 
our islands is, indeed, true, but of this we have an adequate 
and sufficient explanation. Before discussing this point it may, 
however, be well to mention that the second group of islands 
in Dr. Wallace's classification are termed " Oceanic " Islands. 
These are generally of small size, situated either in mid-ocean, 
where they rise abruptly from great depths, or, if near to a conti- 

5 B 


nent, separated therefrom by exceedingly deep water. Instead 
of largely consisting of ordinary sedimentary rocks, formed in 
seas of moderate depth, they are in most or all cases composed 
of coral or igneous rocks ; and as their fauna and flora are of a 
totally different type from that of the continents to which they 
are nearest, it is evident that they have always existed as 

To unite the whole of the British Islands to the Continent 
would require an elevation of one hundred fathoms at the 
most ; and that these islands formerly stood at a much higher 
elevation than is at present the casCj we have abundant evi- 
dence. There occur, for instance, on many parts of our coasts, 
submerged forests belonging to a comparatively late period, 
which are now only partially exposed at very low spring-tides 
after stormy weather, when they are seen to contain stumps of 
trees rooted in their natural position in the soil, mixed with 
deposits, containing remains of existing kinds of plants and 
animals. Such submerged forests occur near Torquay in 
Devonshire, and Falmouth in Cornwall, as well as on various 
parts of the coast of Wales, and in Holyhead Harbour. In 
the case of Falmouth it is estimated that the submergence has 
been close on seventy feet. Again, on the east coast of Eng- 
land, at Cromer in Norfolk, we have another submerged forest 
of older date, which belongs either to the base of the Pleisto- 
cene, or the upper part of the Pliocene period, and is known 
as the "forest-bed," Moreover, the occurrence of thousands of 
teeth of the Mammoth, as well as remains of other Mammals 
which lived during the Pleistocene epoch, or the one imme- 
diately preceding our own, on the Dogger Bank, in the North 
Sea, affords further testimony that this area formed at no very 
distant epoch a connecting land-link between Britain and the 

If we need further evidence of this subsidence, we have it 


hi the nuniefous ancient valleys and river-channels ■which are 
met with in various parts of the country, running at depths of 
from one hundred to more than two hundred feet below the 
present level, and frequently cutting right across the present 
lines of drainage, and connecting valleys now completely 
separate. Completely choked with deposits of sand and mud, 
and showing no evidence of their existence in the present con- 
figuration of the country, these ancient drainage channels have 
been revealed to us by the borer, and afford incontestable 
evidence of a very extensive subsidence. The evidence of this 
submergence indicates, therefore, that at no very distant epoch 
portions, at least, of the land must have stood at least two 
hundred and fifty feet higher above the sea than they do at 
present, and probably considerably more ; and such an eleva- 
tion would, in the opinion of Dr. Wallace, have been amply 
sufficient to unite England with the Continent. 

We may admit, then, that during, or about, the period when 
the Norfolk forest-bed (which, we may state, antedates the 
Glacial epoch) was deposited, the British Islands were connected 
with the Continent, and doubtless also with one another. And 
it would appear from the researches of palaeontologists that 
their Mammalian fauna was then in all probability identical, 
or nearly so, with that of the Continent. For instance, apart 
from a host of extinct species, into the consideration of which 
it will be unnecessary to enter on this occasion, it appears that 
during the forest-bed period there existed in England the 
Russian Desman {Myogaie moschatd), the Continental Field- 
Vole {Microtus arvalis), and the more arctic Glutton {Gulo 
luscus) and Musk-Ox {Ovibos mo..haius). And there is evidence 
that at the later period of the caverns and brick-earths there 
were many other Continental forms, such as the Lemming 
(Cuniaiius torquatus), two species of Suslik {Spermophilns), the 
Elk (Alces machlis), the Reindeer {Ratigi/er tarandus), &c., &c. 

B 8 


It should be added that the evidence of the non-existence of 
these forms during the period of the forest-bed is merely of a 
negative nature. 

On the other hand, at the present day, Britain lacks a very 
large number of the species of Mammals now inhabiting the 
Continent, and this deficiency is much more marked in the 
case of Ireland than it is in England and Scotland; while 
if we take into consideration Reptiles and Amphibians, which 
are much less readily dispersed than are Mammals, the dis- 
crepancy is still more marked. 

In dealing with the Mammals, we must of course omit all 
the purely aquatic forms, such as Seals, Whales, Porpoises, 
Dolphins, &c., and confine our attention to those which pass 
the whole or a large portion of their time on land. - On the 
other hand, it is obvious that we have no right to exclude species 
like the Wolf and Wild-Boar, which have been exterminated by 
human agency, during the historic period ; and we accordingly 
reckon all such as part and parcel of the present British fauna. 

The following list includes the various species of terrestrial 
Mammals which are known to have inhabited the British 
Islands during the historic period, the writer being indebted to 
Mr. A. G. More, of Dublin, for those found in Ireland. 

1. Greater Horse-shoe Bat {Rhinolophus ferrum-equinunC). 

2. Lesser Horse shoe Bat (i?^w/i?/,^«j /^«j>/i7«i:f«-«j). I. 

3. Long-eared Bat (Plecotus auritus). I. 

4. Barbastelle Bat {Synotus barbastellus). 

5. Serotine Bat ( Vesperugo serotinus). 

6. Noctule Bat ( Vesperugo noctula). 

7. Hairy-armed Bat ( Vesperugo leislert). I. 

8. Y\^\%\x€i\s.'&'3i.iyesperugo pipistrellus). I. 

9. Daubenton's Bat ( Vespertilio daubentoni). I 

10. Reddish-grey Bat ( Fw/«^////(? «a//d/-m). I. 

11. Bechstein's Bat {Vesperiilio bechsteini). 


12. Whiskered Bat {Vespertilio mystacinui). I. 

13. Hedge-hog {Erinaceus europxus). I. 

14. Mole (Talpa europxa). 

15. Common Shrew [Sorex vulgaris). 

16. Lesser Shrew {Sorex pygmaus). I. 

17. Water-Shrew {Crossopus fodicus). 

18. Wild Cat {Felis catus). 
i9.*Wolf {Cams lupus). I. 

20. Fox {Canis vulpes). I. 

21. Yme.-M.&ntn. {Mustela martes). I. 

22. Polecat {Mustela putorius). 

23. Stoat {Mustela erminea). I. 

24. Weasel {Mustela vulgaris). 

25. Badger {Meles taxus). I. 

26. Otter {Lutra vulgaris). I. 
27.*Brown Bear ( Ursus arctus). I. 

28. Squirrel {Sciurus vulgaris). I. (? introduced.) 
29.*Beaver {Castor fiber). 

30. Dormouse {Muscardinus avellanarius). 

31. Harvest-Mouse (J/w minutus). 

32. Wood-Mouse (J/?^^ sylvaticus). I. 

33. Yellow-necked Mouse {Mus fiavicollis). 

34. Common Mouse (^«x musculus). I. 
SS-jBlack Rat (^«/!j rattus). I. 
36.tBrown Rat (J/w decumanus). I. 

37. Common Field- Vole {Microtus agrestis), 

38. Bank- Vole {Microtus glareolus). 

39. Water-Vole {Microtus amphibius). 

40. Common Hare {Lepus europceus). 

41. Mountain-Hare {Lepus timidus). I. 
42.tRabbit {Lepus cuniculus). I. 

43. Wild Cattle (^^j taurus). 

44. Red Deer {Cervus elaphus). I. 
45.tFallow Deer {Cervus dama). \. 

6 Lloyd's natural history. 

46. Roe Deer {Capreolus caprea). 
47.*Wild Boar {Sus scrofa). I. 

In this list No. 1 1 has but little right to a place, having only 
been taken once in Britain. Three other Bats, namely Ves- 
perugo discolor, Vespertilio dasycneme, and Vesperiilio murinus, 
which have been recorded from England, are altogether omitted, 
since the first was almost certainly introduced, while the other 
two have no claim to be regarded as habitual denizens of our 
area. The four species marked with a * are extinct, and per- 
haps Wild Cattle should be included under the same heading. 
The Reindeer is not mentioned, since its existence within the 
limits of the British Islands during the historic period is very 
doubtful. Those species which have been introduced have a 
t prefixed to their names ; while such as occur in Ireland have 
the affix " I." It is not improbable that the Common ^f ouse 
should be included under the former heading. 

Omitting the latter, together with those forms which are cer- 
tainly known to have been introduced, and likewise disregard- 
ing Bechstein's Bat, we thus have a total of forty-one terrestrial 
Mammals which can be regarded as indigenous inhabitants of 
Britain during the historic period ; five, or perhaps six, of these 
being extinct. Out of these only twenty-three are found in Ire- 
land ; and since the Squirrel was probably introduced into that 
island, while three species are now exterminated, the list of 
truly indigenous living Hibernian terrestrial Mammals is re- 
duced to nineteen. On the other hand, it is stated by Dr. 
Wallace that Germany possesses nearly ninety species, and 
even Scandinavia as many as sixty; although it is probable 
that these numbers include the introduced sjirecies mentioned 

We have now to account for this discrepancy between the 
British and Continental Faunas ; and here we may state that 
the Glacial period, during which the greater part of Britain 


appears to have been covered with an ice-sheet similar to that 
now enveloping Greenland, occurred subsequently to the 
deposition of the Norfolk forest-bed, but attained its maximum 
before that of the brick-earths of the Thames Valley and the 
loam filling our caves. The relations of these later deposits 
are, however, far from being fully understood ; and it is quite 
probable that some of the beds indicating a comparatively 
mild climate were laid down during warm interludes in the 
Glacial period, which would account for the curious oscillations 
of southern and northern forms of Mammals met with in our 
later deposits. 

With regard to the date when the last union of Britain with 
the Continent took place. Dr. Wallace, in his " Island Life," 
writes that this "was comparatively recent, as shown by the 
identity of the shells [found in the later deposits] with living 
species, and the fact that the buried river-channels are all 
covered with clays and gravels of the Glacial period, of such a 
character as to indicate that most of them were deposited 
above the sea-level. From these and various other indications 
geologists are all agreed that the last continental period, as it 
is called, was subsequent to the greatest development of the 
ice, but probably before the cold period had wholly passed 

In referring to the poverty of Britain as compared with the 
Continent in species, the same author observes that " the for- 
mer union of our islands with the Continent is not, however, 
the only recent change they have undergone. There is equally 
good evidence that a considerable portion, if not the entire 
area, has been submerged to a depth of nearly two thousand 
feet, at which time only what are now the highest mountains 
would remain as groups of rocky islets. This submersion must 
have destroyed the greater part of the life of our country ; and 
as it certainly occurred during the latter part of the Glacial 

8 Lloyd's natural history. 

epoch, the subsequent elevation and union with the Continent 
cannot have been of very long duration, and this fact must have 
had an important bearing on the character of the existing 
fauna and flora of Britain. We know that just before and 
during the Glacial period we possessed a fauna almost, or quite, 
identical with that of adjacent parts of the Continent and 
equally rich in species. The submergence destroyed this 
fauna ; and the permanent change of climate on the passing 
away of the Glacial conditions appears to have led to the ex- 
tinction or migration of many species in the adjacent continen- 
tal areas, where they were succeeded by the assemblage of ani- 
mals now occupying Central Europe. When England became 
continental, these entered our country; but sufficient time 
does not seem to have elapsed for the migration to have been 
completed before subsidence again occurred, cutting off the 
further influx of purely terrestrial animals, and leaving us with- 
out the number of species which our favourable climate and 

varied surface entitle us to The depth of the 

Irish Sea being somewhat greater than that of the German 
Ocean, the connecting land would there probably be of small 
extent and of less duration, thus offering an additional barrier 
to migration, whence has arisen the comparative zoological 
poverty of Ireland." 

It will be apparent from this that Dr. Wallace attributes the 
clean sweep, which he considers to have been made of the an- 
cient British fauna, not to the ice-sheet at the epoch of maxi- 
mum glaciation, but to a submergence of much later date. 
It does not appear, however, that the evidence that the sub- 
mergence in question took place at such a late date is by any 
means decisive; and other geologists attribute the disappear- 
ance of the greater part of the fauna to the ice-sheet itself, a 
view with which we ourselves are more inclined to agree. On 
the other hand, as we shall presently see, another writer disputes 


the clean sweep of the fauna altogether, and thinks it may have 
survived in the southern part of England, whence it again 
spread northwards with the return of more favourable con- 
ditions ; although with the loss of such forms as were unable 
to withstand a considerable amount of cold. On this latter 
view it is considered that Britain was never connected with 
the Continent after the passing away of the Glacial period. 

To make matters more intelligible, we may give a summary 
(taken from Mr. Horace Woodward's " Geology of England ") 
of what Prof. James Geikie considers to have been, the 
sequence of physical changes in Britain subsequent to the 
deposition of the Norfolk forest-bed, arranged in chronological 

1. Deposition of Norfolk forest-bed, and indications of ap- 
proaching cold. 

2. " Till " deposits of Cromer, and the lowest Boulder Clay 
(an ice-formation) of other parts ; this being a period of eleva- 
tion of land, accompanied by severe glacial conditions. 

3. Period of considerable submergence, during which marine 
sands and gravels were deposited in many parts, reaching nearly 
to the summit of Moel Tryfaen ; this epoch being apparently 
equivalent to Dr. Wallace's great period of submergence. 

4. Period of elevation of land, during which a large portion 
of Britain was covered with sheet-ice, and the greater part of 
the Boulder Clay was deposited ; this being the period when, 
according to the more general view, the country was unin- 
habited by the greater part of the Mammals with which it is 
now populated. 

5. A period of less severe climatic conditions, during which 
the brick-earths and cavern deposits were laid down, and the 
climate gradually changed from intense cold to temperate and 
genial; Arctic and Southern animals visiting Britain, according 


as the conditions were the more favourable to the one or the 

6. A period of severe glacial conditions, with glaciers and 
coast-ice, chiefly affecting Scotland, and the north of England 
and Wales. 

7. Period of the retreat of the ice, when a few mountain- 
glaciers alone remained, and Britain was probably insulated. 

8. Britain again continental ; summer and winter tempera- 
tures more excessive than now ; great forests largely prevalent. 
Incoming and spreading of the existing fauna. 

9. Period of final insulation of Britain ; the cUmate being 
moist, the great forests tending to disappear, and peat-mosses 

10. The present condition of things. » 
Whether, therefore, the disappearance of the continental 

fauna in Britain be attributed to submergence or to the direct 
action of the ice-sheet, it will be apparent that both Mr. 
Wallace and Professor Geikie are at one in considering that 
Britain has been connected with the Continent at two distinct 
epochs, and that the present fauna did not make its appearance 
till the second continental period. 

While admitting that both these high authorities are right in 
regard to the disappearance of the original continental fauna 
from the greater part of the islands, Mr. G. W. Bulman, 
however, in a paper contributed to Natural Science for 
October, 1893, disputes the contention that its disappear- 
ance was total, and consequently urges that there is no need 
for a second connection with the Continent after the first 

This writer bases his contention of the survival in our 
islands of a part of the original fauna from the southern extent 
of the ice during the period of maximum intensity of the 


Glacial epoch, apparently agreeing with Professor Geikie in 
regarding the subsidence that has taken place in Britain as 
not being sufficient to have exterminated either the fauna or 
flora, and consequently attributing such extermination as he 
admits to have taken place, solely to the ice-sheet. He is of 
opinion that during the Glacial period the ice-sheet did not, at 
most, extend further south than the latitude of London, and 
that it very possibly stopped short of this. Taking the former 
view, he remarks that " this would leave the counties of Kent, 
Surrey, Sussex, Hants, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, 
and part of Wiltshire free from ice. As far as space, then, is 
concerned, we have an area capable of affording an asylum to 
a considerable number of our plants and animals. If, however, 
the Boulder Clay was not formed beneath the ice, then the 
latter probably did not extend so far south as the latitude of 
London, and the area fitted to form an asylum for our pre- 
glacial flora and fauna increased." 

After going into the consideration of the nature of the 
climate of countries lying on the borders of ice-sheets, and also 
noting that the limit of the ice-sheet marked by the Boulder 
Clay would be the extreme winter extension of the ice, which 
must have receded to a certain extent during the summer, 
while mention is made of the circumstance that the Gulf- 
stream probably then, as now, warmed our western and south- 
ern shores, Mr. Bulman adds that during the greatest glacia- 
tion of Britain there may have been areas fitted to preserve 
temperate forms of life besides the southern counties already 

After referring to certain instances in our flora and fauna 
which are considered to prove survival from the pre-glacial 
epoch, the author proceeds to argue that, had the alleged 
second continental connecLion been a fact, it must in all 
probability have been of such duration as would have per- 

12 Lloyd's natural history 

mitted the whole of the post-glacial continental Mammals to 
have reached Britain. And he adds that if it can be shown 
that the continental forms missing from our present fauna are 
those most likely to have been exterminated by the cold, or 
least likely to cross the separating sea — and if, in addition, they 
are species calculated to migrate as quickly as those which 
are common to this country — then there will be a further argu- 
ment against the second continental period. 

Without offering a definite opinion on a question so bristling 
with difficulties as the above, we may say that, so far as Mam- 
mals are concerned, we do not think that anything decisive 
one way or the other can be deduced from the considerations 
referred to in the last sentence. If the ancestors of our pre- 
sent Mammals did survive the whole Glacial period in the 
south of England, there would of course be no difficulty in 
regarding them as having repopulated England and Scotland 
at its close. The case is, however, more difficult with regard 
to Ireland, which, on this hypothesis, must at the same time 
have been separated from the sister-island, since here, too, we 
must have had an area in which the present Irish Mammals 
survived the cold period. If, however, those that now exist 
there then survived, why did not at least as many persist there 
as in England, seeing that the Irish climate was probably then, 
as now, milder than that of England ? It can hardly be urged 
that the area free of ice in Ireland was too small for all the 
species, seeing that animals of the size of the Red Deer and the 
extinct Irish Deer are known to have lived in Ireland within the 
recent period, and must, consequently, on the hypothesis under 
consideration, have been among the survivors ; it being evident 
that an area of land sufficiently large to have supported such 
creatures would perfectly well have also maintained such existing 
English Mammals as are unrepresented in the Irish fauna. 

The great objection that Mr. Bulman seems to have to the 
alleged post-glacial connection of Britain with the Continent ig 

Bats. 13 

the amount of earth-movements which it must necessarily have 
entailed. Although we are averse to calling in such movements 
unnecessarily, we confess that, in our opinion, his theory does 
not account for the poverty of the Mammalian fauna of Ireland 
as compared with that of the rest of Britain in the perfect 
manner in which that of Mr. Wallace does; and until this 
is done we prefer to incline towards the latter, which, it must 
be remembered, is to a considerable extent supported by the 
submerged forests and ancient deserted river-channels of Eng- 

Whether, however, the one theory or the other of the re- 
population of England be adopted, we have to remember that 
the present impoverished Mammalian fauna of Britain, as com- 
pared with the Continent, is due to the direct or indirect 
action of the Glacial period, the effects of which have been so 
far-reaching both on inanimate and animate nature in the 
Northern Hemisphere. 


The special modification of the bones of the fore-limb for 
the purpose of flight, coupled with the presence of a leathery 
flying-membrane extending from the front of the fore-limb, 
connecting together the toes, or fingers, of the same, then 
joining the hind-limbs, and likewise connecting together the 
two latter, with or without the intervention of the tail, at once 
serves to distinguish sharply the Bats from all other members 
of the Mammalian class. They are likewise the only Mammals 
endowed with the power of true flight, like birds; the long 
flying leaps of the Flying Squirrels and the Flying Phalangers 
being nothing more than a prolongation of an ordinary leap by 
the aid of a parachute-like expansion of the skin of the flanks, 
without any special modification or elongation of the bones of 
the fore-limbs. 

Referring in some detail to the structure of the fiare-limb, 


Lloyd's naIuraL history. 

which in this group it will be convenient to designate as the 
arm, and its extremities as fingers, it will be seen from the 
accompanying figure of the skeleton of the same that all the 
bones are characterised by their slenderness and elongation. 
The first finger, or thumb, remains, however, comparatively 
short, and is furnished with a well-developed claw ; but the 
remaining four fingers are greatly elongated, so that the third, 
fourth, and fifth, which are devoid of any trace of a claw, are 

Skeleton oi the Right Fore-limb ot a Bat. h, bone of upper arm, or 
humerus; ?-.«., bones of thefore-trm, or radius and ulna; px., thumb iph., 
claw of same ; mc. , metacarpus ; //;. /A'. , bones of second and fifth fingers. 

absolutely longer than the fore-arm ; the elongation attaining 
its maximum in the third, or middle, finger. Between these 
long spider-like fingers the wing-membrane is tightly stretched 
when the hmb is expanded; while when at rest the whole 
structure can be compactly folded along the sides of the body. 
Apart from the total absence of feathers, those who have even 
the most elcnentary acquaintance with anatomy will not fail 

MfS. IS 

to see how totally different is the structure of a Bat's wiHg from 
that of a bird. 

Another peculiarity connected with these animals is that the 
knee is directed backwards, instead of forwards in the ordinary 
manner. Moreover, in the great majority of the members of 
the Order, a cartilaginous process or spur extends from the 
inner side of the ankle to aid, after the manner of a yard-arm, in 
supporting .the membrane connecting the two hind-legs. 

In all the Bats with which we have to deal in the present 
work the cheek-teeth are furnished with sharp cusps, admirably 
adapted to seize and pierce the insect-prey on which these 
little animals subsist ; these cusps being generally arranged on 
the crowns of the upper molars in the form of the letter W. As 
the number of the teeth is of considerable importance in the 
systematic arrangement of the members of the order, it may 
be w^ell to mention here that the maximum number of teeth 
present in the Order is thirty-eight. When the whole of these 
thirty-eight teeth are present there are always two pairs of 
incisors in the upper, and three in the lower jaw ; while in each 
jaw there is a single pair of canines, three pairs of pre-molars , 
and three of molars.* 

All Bats are nocturnal and crepuscular in their habits, the 
majority of the insect-eating species (to which group all the 
British forms pertain) spending the greater portion of the time 
during which they are active on the wing, in search of their 
prey; and crawling slowly and with apparent difficulty. During 
their flight they are aided in finding their way in the dark by the 
peculiarly sensitive nature of the wing-membranes, or of cer- 
tain leai-like appendages growing from the upper surface of the 
nose. Throughout the day-lime they usually hang suspended 

* II may be well to mention here that the pie-molai's are those teelh of 
the cheek -series (that is those situated behind the tusks, or canines) which 
have deciduous predecessors, or baby-teeth, while the molars arc not so pre- 
ceded. The incisor teeth are those in the front of the jaws in advance if 
the tusks. 


head-downwards from the claws of the hind feet in dark and 
sequestered situations, although they are also capable of hang- 
ing in an upright position suspended by the claws of the 
thumbs. In the winter, the whole of the British species 
hibernate, generally in the former posture, although they 
occasionally venture out on warm e'i'enings. 

Since Bats are essentially animals characteristic of the 
warmer regions of the globe (where the great group of Fruit- 
Bats is alone represented), it is not surprising to find the 
number of British species comparatively small. As a matter 
of fact, there are fifteen species of Bats reputed to occur in the 
British Islands, but several of these are of rare occurrence, 
while of two, only single examples (which in one case may 
have been accidentally imported) have been taken Avithin 
our limits. Only twelve species can therefore be regarded as 
in any sense thoroughly British. Out of the whole fifteen, 
thirteen belong to the large and widely-distributed Family 
Vespertilionida, while the remaining two are referable to the 

As regards their reproduction. Bats are slow-breeding ani 
mals, the female producing, at most, two young at a birth. 
These are carried about by their parent, tightly clinging to the 
fur of the body, and protected during the periods of quiescence 
by the enfolded wings, until they are able to fly about by them- 
selves in search of their own nutriment. 

Since Bats are, on the whole, less interesting than many 
other British Mammals, our notices of the various species will 
be comparatively brief. 



The Bats of this family derive both their scientific and 

popular names from the presence on the muzzle of a number 

of leaf-like processes of skin around the nostrils, which form 


their most characteristic feature, and one by which they can 
be distinguished at a glance from all the other British represen- 
tatives of the Order. It may be added that the ears are large 
and generally separated from one another, while they are 
devoid of an inner earlet, or tragus. There are several other 
peculiar features connected with these Bats, but since these are 
not required to distinguish them from their British cousins of 
the next family, we shall content ourselves by observing that 
the two pairs of upper incisors are quite rudimentary, while 
the anterior pre-molar tooth in the upper jaw is reduced to an 
extremely minute size. 

From the great development of the nose-leaf (which must be 
regarded as a highly sensitive organ of perception), coupled 
with other features in their organisation, the Leaf-nosed Bats 
must be considered as the most highly organised and special- 
ised members of the insect-eating division of the Order. Un- 
known in the New World, as well as in a large part of Oceania, 
these Bats are distributed over the temperate and tropical 
regions of the Eastern Hemisphere, where they are represented 
by several genera, and a large number of species. The two 
British members of the family belong to the under-mentioned 
and typical genus. 

Rhinolophics, Desmarest, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xix. p. 
383 (1803)- 

First hind-toe with two joints, and each of the others with 
three ; a distinct anti-tragus (or secondary eariet) separated by 
a notch from the outer margin of the ear. 

These two features serve to distinguish the members of this 
genus from all the other representatives of the Family, but a 
few additional peculiarities may be noticed. 

The incisors comprise two upper and three lower pairs, and 

S ^ 

1 8 Lloyd's natural history. 

the same numbers hold good for the pre-molars j the molars 
being three pairs in each jaw. The nose-leaf consists of three 
portions, of which the anterior is horse-shoe shaped, usually 
with a deep median incision in front, the posterior is erect and 
pointed, while the middle one, which is situated between and 
behind the nostrils, is flat in front, and bent up behind into an 
erect process, usually consisting of two flat moieties, of which 
the front one is placed transversely, and the hinder one longitu- 
dinally. The ears are lateral and free ; and the tail (which, as 
in all British Bats, is enclosed in the membrane connecting the 
hind-limbs) is relatively short. 

The members of the genus have a distribution co-extensive 
with that of the family. 


Vespertilio ferrum-equinum, Schreber, Saugethiere, vol. i. p. 174 

Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum. Leach, Zool. Miscell. vol. iii. p. 
2 (1817); Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 12 
(1874); Dobson, Cat. Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 119 

(Plate I.) 

Characters Size medium; second upper pre-molar tooth 

placed close to the canine, and the minute anterior upper 
pre-molar placed externally to the line of the two teeth just 
mentioned ; second lower pre-molar very minute, and placed 
externally to the line of the other teeth. Ears acutely pointed, 
and rather shorter than the head ; posterior nose-leaf without 
a large internal hollow ; lower Up with a single median vertical 
groove. General colour reddish-brown with a greyish tinge ; 
under-parts pale grey, approaching white. Length of head and 
body about 2^ inches ; of tail i^ inch. 

Although there is no difficulty ii» distinguishing this species 










by its superior size from the other British representative of the 
genus, the above-mentioned minute characteristics are necessary 
to differentiate it from its foreign allies, some of which approach 
it very closely. 

Distriliiitioii. — This species has a very wide geographical dis- 
tribution, ranging over the greater part of Europe, Africa, and 
Asia north of the Himalaya. Its northern range is, however, 
not so extensive as that of the next species. In Britain it 
appears to be essentially a southern form, being seemingly 
very rare even in the midland counties, and quite unrepre- 
sented in the north, as well as in Scotland. First discovered as 
a British species at Dartmouth, it has been taken in many 
localities in the south and west of England, such as Bristol, 
Colchester, Rochester, and the Isle of Wight. Its favourite 
haunts are old stone buildings, such as castles and churches, 
and caves ; and it is especially common in the well-known cave 
of Kent's Hole, near Torquay, of which it has probably been an 
inhabitant ever since the age of the Mammoth, since its fos- 
siUsed remains have been found there in association with those 
of the latter and other extinct animals. It may be mentioned 
that, on the Continent, this Bat is also very generally found in 
caves, sometimes in enormous numbers, and, what is more 
remarkable, usually in colonies composed entirely of either 
male or female individuals. This Bat is not recorded by 
Thompson from Ireland, and is probably unknown there. 

HaMta. — The Greater Horse-shoe Bat makes its appearance 
rather late in the evening; and when on the wing shows a 
preference for the neighbourhood of trees, and flies high in 
the air, though its flight is not so powerful as that of its 
smaller cousin. Its favourite food is said to be fern-chafers. 
On the wing this Bat appears nearly, or quite, as large as the 
under-mentioned Noctule, but it is said to be easily dis- 
tinguished from the latter by the relatively wider wings. 

c 2 



Noctilio hipposideros, Bechstein, Naturgeschicte Deutschland's 

p. 1194 (1801). 
Rhinolophus hipposideros. Leach, Zool, Miscell. vol. iii. p. 2 

(181 7); Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 96 (1874) j 

Dobson, Cat. Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 117 (1878). 
Rhinolophus hipposiderus, Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind. Mamm. 

p. 277 (1891). 
Characters — Size small ; second upper pre-molar tooth sepa- 
rated from the canine by a distinct interval, in the middle of 
which is the minute anterior pre-molar; second lower pre-molar 
placed nearly in the line of the other teeth, in the angle 
between the two adjacent teeth. Ears rather shorter than the 
head, sharply pointed, with the outer margin deeply excavated^ 
and separated from the large anti-tragus by a deep angular 
notch; posterior nose-leaf longer than broad, with the sides 
slightly emarginate, and the extremity blunt ; lower lip with a 
single median vertical groove. General colour light brown, 
with the under-parts light greyish-brown; young individuals 
being frequently darker than the adult. Length of head and 
body about \% inch; of tail, i^ inch. 

Distribution — The range of this species is not quite so ex- 
tensive as that of the last, since in Africa it appears to be only 
known from the north-eastern regions ; in Europe it extends, 
however, somewhat more to the north, reaching as far as the 
Baltic. First recognised as an English species in Wiltshire, 
this Bat resembles the last in being mainly confined to the 
southern counties. Unlike the last, however, it has been 
taken in Ireland, where it occurs in the counties of Galway 
and Clare. In the latter county it was found hibernating in 
caves among plantations, the entrances to which were more or 
less thickly hung with plants ; and in all cases the two sexes 
occurred in separate colonies. 


Inhabiting caves and buildings in the daytime, this species 
is so similar in its mode of life to the last, that scarcely any 
observations on this point are necessary. It is, however, 
stated to fly stronger and at a higher elevation, and not to be 
so partial to the neighbourhood of trees. 


The members of this, the largest family in the whole Order, 
are readily distinguished from the Rhinolophidm by the absence 
of a leaf-like expansion on the nose, and by the presence of 
an earlet or tragus in the ear. These characters suffice, there- 
fore, to distinguish them from the other British Bats, and 
likewise to differentiate them from the allied family of the 
Nycteridm, in which both the appendages in question are 
present. Since they fail, however, to distinguish them from the 
other two famihes of insect-eating Bats, we have to add certain 
other characteristics. These are that the tail is either contained 
completely within the membrane connecting the hind legs, or 
is produced but a very short distance beyond its free margin ; 
while, when the wings are folded and at rest, the first joint of 
the third or middle finger is extended in the line of the arm, 
instead of being folded back upon its metacarpal bone. 

All these Bats have comparatively long tails, and minute 
bead-like eyes, while their ears take origin from the sides of 
the head, and not from the forehead. Although there are 
always three pairs of lower incisor teeth, in the upper jaw 
there may be either one or two pairs of these teeth, which are 
in either case widely separated from one another in the middle 
line. As regards the pre-molars, the number of pairs of these 
teeth in the upper jaw varies from one to three, the anterior 
ones being always small, and in some instances situated in- 
ternally to the general line of the teeth ; in the lower jaw there 
may be either two or three pairs of these teeth. 

2 2 Lloyd's natural history. 

The typical Bats have a cosmopolitan distribution, so far as 
the temperate and tropical regions of the world are concerned. 
The majority of the species are included in the two genera, Ves- 
pertilio and Vesperugo, and although the more typical representa- 
tives of each of these are markedly distinct from one another, 
yet there are certain intermediate forms which connect them 
so closely, that their definition is a matter of some difficulty. 
Under these circumstances, the obvious course would be to 
unite the two genera, were it not that the number of species is 
so great that, if this plan were adopted, each genus would be in- 
conveniently large and unwieldy. 

Flecotus, GeofTr., Descript. de I'Egypt. p. 112 (181 2). 

Crown of the head flat, or only slightly elevated above the 
line of the face ; upper incisor teeth closely approximated to 
the canines, and thus widely separated in the middle line. 
Ears very large, with the inner margins united at the base, and 
the outer borders severally terminating behind the angles of 
the mouth ; earlet, or tragus, very long, narrow, and tapering. 
Nostrils placed at the extremity of the muzzle, in form elon- 
gate, narrow, and crescentic ; upper surface of muzzle hairy, 
flat and depressed in the middle line, but swollen and elevated 
at the sides — sometimes to such a degree as to form a roof 
behind the nostrils over the middle region ; no grooves in the 
front of the muzzle below the nostrils. Two pairs of both 
incisor and pre-molar teeth in the upper jawj and three of the 
latter in the lower. 

There are but two species of Long-eared Bats, one of which 
is an Old World, and the other a North American form. 


Vespertilio auriius, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 47 





Pkcolus auritus, Geoffr. Descript. de I'Egypte p. ii8 (1812); 
Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 72 (1874). 
(Plate II.) 

Characters. — Ears enormous, not greatly inferior in length to 
the head and body, sub-oval, with the tips broadly rounded, 
and their inner margins joined near the base, above which is a 
prominent rounded lobe. Wings arising from the base of the 
toes ; feet slender ; tail as long as the head and body, with its 
tip just projecting beyond the margin of the membrane ; * fur 
soft. General colour brown, usually becoming fawn-coloured 
or light brown above, and whitish beneath ; at least the basal 
halves of the hairs being black. Length of head and body 
about I ^ inch ; of tail slightly less, or the same. 

Oistribution. — This species has a very wide geographical dis- 
tribution, extending from Ireland through Europe and Nor- 
thern Africa to the Himalaya, and probably inhabiting the 
greater portion of temperate Asia. In the British Islands it is 
one of the most common and widely-distributed members of 
the Order, ranging over the greater part of Scotland, and re- 
ported to occur through the Inner Hebrides, where it has been 
taken, at least, in Mull and Islay. It lias been doubtfully 
recorded from Lochabar, and has been once taken at Tor- 
castle. In Ireland it appears to be distributed in suitable 
localities throughout the island. A specimen obtained many 
years ago by the late Leonard Jenyns (afterwards Blomefield) 
in the Isle of Ely, was described as a distinct species under 
the name of Plecotus brevimanus, on account of certain 
differences in the relative proportions of the limbs and 
coloration ; it is now known to be nothing more than an 
individual variety. 

HaMts. — Essentially an inhabitant of the open country, and 

* In the relative length of the ears and tail, the illustration is not quite 
tiue to nature. 


not resorting to the neighbourhood of trees and plantations, 
this Bat, writes Macgillivray, in the original issue of the 
" Naturalists' Library," flies, like the Pipistrelle, " but it pos- 
sesses considerable agility, and turns with ease in every direc- 
tion. It rises with facility from the ground, or even from the 
bottom of the box in which it may be kept. When it alights, 
it clings by the hooks of its fore-limbs and by its hind-claws. 
In climbing it moves the fore-feet alternately, advancing 
slowly, and in an awkward manner, which is still more apparent 
when it crawls on a level surface. It adheres to the slightest 
asperities, and retires to the corners of the deserted apart- 
ments of old buildings, steeples, and the crevices of rocks, 
where it suspends itself by the hind-feet, which are, as in other 
Bats, eminently adapted for the purpose, the claws being very 
acute, and of nearly equal length. When springing off frond a 
wall, it raises its fore-legs first, stretches out its head, and 
erects its ears, which had been folded down, and it retains 
them erect when flying. When preparing for repose, it brings 
the fore-feet close to the body, the cubital- [elbowj joint pro- 
jecting and in contact with the knee, incurvates the tail, folds 
up the lateral membranes neatly, and brings the ears back- 
wards, curving them along the sides of the head and body, 
so as to resemble a ram's horn ; the tragus, or small anterior 
appendage, projecting forward. Its voice is a low chirping 
squeak ; and when teased or frightened, it ulters a querulous 
note, like the wailing of a very young child." 

To this it may be added, that when the great ears are laid 
back in the manner described, the upstanding earlets look 
exactly as though they were the real ears. On the Continent 
this species is described as frequenting hollow trees for repose 
fully as much as buildings ; and everywhere its long winter 
sleep generally seems to be continuous and unbroken, so that 
it is only seen abroad from the late spring to the early autumn. 


Thompson states, however, that a specimen he once obtained 
from an uninhabited house in the month of January did not 
exhibit any symptoms of torpidity, flying readily in the room 
in which it was placed. The same writer observes that " when 
the roofs of old houses are being repaired or taken down in 
the north of Ireland, numbers of these Bats are often dis- 
covered. The Pipistrelle frequents similar places, but is prob- 
ably less gregarious, as I have not known it to be found so 
plentifully under similar circumstances, although it is more 
frequently seen flying about." 

In connection with the shrill cry of this species, it may be 
mentioned that many persons, whose ears are not attuned to 
receive such high-pitched sounds as those of others, are totally 
unable to hear them. It may, therefore, be that when a num- 
ber of Bats are on the wing, while the air will be rent with 
their piercing cries to one person, to another absolute silence 
will reign. 


Synoius, Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelthiere Europ. p. 55 

Ears united by their inner margins on the forehead, rather 
large, and with their outer margins also carried forward in 
front of the eyes to terminate on the upper lips, so that the 
eyes are enclosed within the bases of the ears ; earlet triangular 
above and narrowed towards the tip ; nostrils opening on the 
upper surface of the extremity of the muzzle, in front of a 
naked space, margined by the raised edges of the face ; upper 
lip divided on each side by a deep vertical groove passing 
down from each nostril; the space between these grooves 
being swollen. Feet slender, with long toes ; tail nearly equal 
to, or exceeding the body in length; skull considerably 
elevated above the plane of the short muzzle ; the upper 

26 Lloyd's natural history. 

incisor and pre-molar teeth numerically the same as in Plecotus ; 
but two pairs of lower pre-molars present instead of three. 

This genus, as now restricted, is represented only by the 
under-mentioned species and an allied Indian form, known as 
the Eastern Barbastelle {Synotus darjilingensis). 


Vespertilio barbastellus, Schreber, Saugethiere vol. i. p. i68 

Barbastellus daubentonli. Bell, British Quadrupeds p. 63 

(1837); 2nd ed. p. Si (1874). 
Barbastellus communis. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. 

p. 494 (1838). 
Synotus barbastellus, Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelthiere 

Europ. p. 55 (1840). 

Characters.— Ears broad, and when laid forward, extending to 
a point midway between the eye and the end of the muzzle, 
tips shortly truncated, inner margin regularly convex and 
slanting much backwards ; outer margin concave, with a small 
projecting lobe at the junction of the upper with the middle 
third; earlet broad at the base, then narrowed opposite the 
middle of the straight inner margin, and thence thinning to 
the acute tip. Fur soft, deep black, with an indistinct greyish 
tinge on the tips of the hairs. Length of head and body about 
i§ inch; of tail the same. 

Distrilintion. — The Barbastelle ranges over Southern and 
Central Europe, Northern Africa, and the greater part of 
temperate Asia north of the Himalaya. In Britain it is a 
comparatively rare und local species, seemingly not known to 
the north of the Lake District, and unrecorded from Ireland. 
First discovered in our islands at Dartford, Kent, it was sub- 
sequently taken in a chalk-cave at Chiselhurst, in the same 


county; while it has also been recorded from Warwickshire 
(where it is not uncommon), Cambridgeshire, Northampton- 
shire, Norfolk, and Suffolk. According to Mr. Montagu 
Browne, a single example was taken in Leicestershire about 
the year 1876 ; and the Rev. H. A. Macpherson informs us 
that a few examples were captured many years ago near Car- 
lisle, which seems to be the northern limit of its range in 
Britain. Their presence in Cumberland, writes the observer 
last mentioned, can only be accounted for on the supposition 
that they are summer migrants into the district ; the fact that 
Bats do migrate, either occasionally or periodically, being well 
ascertained on the testimony of several trustworthy observers. 

Hatits.— Nearly allied to the Long-eared Bat, the Barbastelle 
is a species of delicate constitution, and becomes torpid very 
early in the autumn. It appears early in the evening, and flies 
higher and more rapidly than the Long-eared Bat. The Indian 
Barbastelle is remarkable for its habit of squeezing itself into 
chinks and crevices, which are so narrow as to render it a 
marvel how the creature gets in. 

Bell states that he has seen a white and also a parti-coloured 
individual of this species ; while a variety from Warwickshire 
had, when fresh, the fur of the under-parts tinged with purplish- 
red or rose-colour. 


Vesperugo, Keyserling and Blasius in Wiegmann's Archiv. fiir 
Naturg. 1839 p. 312 (1840). 

Ears separate, never very long, and generally shorter than 
the head, with the outer margin ending behind the angle of the 
mouth, and some distance in advance of the base of the ear- 
let ; end of outer margin usually consisting of a rounded lobe, 
or anti-tragus, and the inner margin turned in near its base, 
where its rounded edge forms another lobe ; earlet or tragus 

28 Lloyd's natural history. 

generally short and obtuse, with the outer margin more or less 
convex, and the inner one either straight or concave. Muzzle 
usually short, broad, and blunted, with prominent glandular 
swellings between the eyes and nostrils, giving an abnormal 
width to the face; sides of hinder part of head and tip of 
muzzle sparsely haired. Tail shorter than head and body ; a 
small additional membranous expansion behind the spur on 
the ankle, and the membrane connecting the hind-legs ter- 
minating in a salient angle. Number of incisor teeth generally 
as in the preceding genus ; but the upper pre-molars sometimes 
reduced to a single pair, although there are always two pairs of 
these teeth in the lower jaw. Wings generally arising from 
the bases of the toes. 

The numerous species of this, the largest genus of the Order, 
have a cosmopolitan distribution, except as regards the Polar 
Regions ; but they are most numerous in the temperate and 
sub-tropical parts of the Eastern Hemisphere. 


Vespertilio serotinus, Schreber, Saugethiere vol. i. p. 167 

Scotophilus serotinus, Gray, Mag. Zool. vol. ii. p. 497 (1838); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 44 (1874). 
Vesperugo serotinus, Keyserling and Blasius in Wiegmann's 

Archiv. fiir Naturg. 1839 p. 312 (1840); Dobson, Cat. 

Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 191 (1878). 

Characters. — Ears moderate, with broadly rounded tips, which, 
when laid forwards, are nearer to the nostrils than to the eyes ; 
their inner margins slightly convex, with a rounded basal lobe; 
outer margins straight, or very slightly concave in the upper 
half, then convex, slightly emarginate opposite the base of the 


earlet, nnd ending in a convex lobe behind the angle of the 
mouth ; earlet, or tragus, broadest immediately above the base 
of the inner margin, thence gradually narrowing to the rounded 
tip, the inner margin straight or slightly concave, and the outer 
convex, with a small lobe at the base. Head flat ; muzzle flat 
and thick, with swollen glandular sides ; front of face nearly 
naked, but a slight fringe of hairs on the upper lip. Thumb 
with a callosity at the base ; wings arising from the metatarsus 
close to the base of the toes ; extra membrane near spur very 
narrow. Upper inner incisor teeth, when unworn, with bifid 
extremities ; all the lower incisors trifid, and closely crowded 
together. Colour generally dark smoky-brown, with the under- 
parts varying from yellowish-brown to yellowish-white ; but in 
examples from desert-regions the upper-parts are buffish-brown 
and the lower surface paler. Length of head and body about 
2^ inches ; of tail 2 inches. 

Distribution. — This species is rare and local in the British 
Isles, but is one of the most widely distributed members of 
its Order, ranging over temperate Europe, Asia, and North 
America, being likewise found in North Africa, as well as in 
Kashmir and Yunnan. It also occurs in parts of South 
America. It has been said to occur in the neighbourhood of 
London, and has been taken at Folkestone and the Isle of 
Wight, and probably occurs in several of the other southern 
counties, although it is most likely often overlooked and 
mistaken for the Noctule. It is not recorded from Ireland. 

Habits. — As indicated by its specific name, the Serotine is a 
Bat which makes its appearance late in the evening, but differs 
from the majority of its genus in the slowness of its flight, 
which is, moreover, fluttering. Then, again, whereas most of the 
members of the present genus differ from the majority of Bats 
in producing two young at a birth, the Serotine is peculiar in 
that but a single offspring is born at a time. A late hiberna- 


tor, it is never seen abroad in cold and damp evenings, or at 
such times as a strong wind is blowing, preferring for its 
aerial peregrinations those nights which are warm and still; 
when, in the full summer, its favourite haunts are gardens, 
orchards, and the outskirts of woods. During the daytime it 
generally takes up its abode in the hollow stems of trees, and 
even in winter never congregates in large colonies, As its 
slow and fluttering flight lacks the sharp turns and twists 
characterising the members of the genus Vesperugo generally, 
it is evident that, as regards habits, the Serotine is an alto- 
gether aberrant and peculiar species. It may be added that 
it is the only truly British representative of the sub-genus Ves- 
perus, in which the upper pre-rnolars are reduced to a single 
pair, and the wings arise from the base of the toes ; the next 
species being scarcely entitled to rank as a member of^he 
British fauna. 


Vespertilio discolor, Natterer in Kuhl's Deutsch. Flederm. p. 43 

Scotophilus discolor, Gray, Mag. Zool. vol. ii. p. 297 (1838); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 31 (1874). 
Vesperugo discolor, Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelthiere Europ. 

p. 50 (1840) ; Dobson, Cat. Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 204 

Belonging to the same sub-division of the genus as the 
Noctule, the Parti-coloured Bat may be distinguished not only 
by its inferior dimensions, but likewise by the earlet, or tragus, 
being relatively shorter and expanded above, so that its greatest 
width is above the margin of its inner margin. The additional 
lobe of membrane near the spur on the ankle is also broader 
and more distinct. Colour of upper-parts dark brown, with 


the terminal fourth of the hairs shining yellowish-white; under- 
parts similar, with the terminal fourth ashy. Length of head 
and body about 2 inches ; of tail, i ^ inch. 

An inhabitant of the mountainous regions of Continental 
Europe and temperate Asia, as well as Northern Africa, the 
sole claim of this species to be recognised as British appears to 
rest on a single example obtained many years ago by the late 
Dr. W. E. Leach at Plymouth, now preserved in the British 
Museum. As suggested by Bell, it appears highly probable 
that this specimen may have been imported in the rigging of 
some vessel from the Continent. 


Vespertilio noctula, Schreber, Saugethiere vol. i. p. 166 

Vespertilio magnus, Berkenhout, Synops. Nat. Hist. Gt. Britain 

p. 2 (1789). 
Vespertilio altivolans. White, Nat. Hist. Selborne, letter 37 

ScotopUlus noctula, Gray, Mag. Zool. vol. ii. p. 497 (1838); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 17 (1874). 
Vesperugo noctula, Keyserling and Blasius in Wiegmann's 

Archiv. fiir Naturg, 1839 p. 117 (1840); Dobson, Cat. 

Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 212 (1878). 

Characters. — The Noctule is our first representative of the 
second or typical sub-division of the genus, differing from the 
last in the presence of two pairs of upper pre-molar teeth, of 
which the front pair are very minute. This species, together 
with the next and two Malayan forms, is further distinguished 
from all other members of the genus by the wings arising from 
the ankle, instead of from the bases of the toes. The following 
are the specific characters of the Noctule, as distinct from the 
other members of the sub-genus. 


Size large, ears thick, bluntly rounded, nearly as wide as 
long, and when laid forwards extending but little in front of 
the eyes; their outer margin convex and turned backwards, 
slightly notched below the base of the earlet, then forming a 
thick convex lobe in front of the notch, and ending behind the 
angle of the mouth ; inner margin nearly straight above, and 
convex inferiorly ; basal lobe somewhat rounded ; earlet, or 
tragus, short, expanded above, curved inwards, with a broad, 
rounded tip ; outer margin highly convex, with a small pointed 
projection at the base, inner margin concave. Head very 
broad and flat, with the swellings at the sides of the muzzle very 
prominent, and the projecting nostrils directed outwards and 
downwards, with a hollow space between them. Thumb short, 
with a short callosity at the base ; feet thick, with short toes ; 
origin of wings as above; only the tip of the tail projecting be- 
yond the margin of the membrane connecting the hind-legs. 
General colour light yellowish-brown, only slightly paler on the 
under-parts, and the hairs of the back and sides becoming 
paler at the base ; in some examples the general colour red- 
dish-brown. Length of head and body about 3 inches ; of 
tail, 2 inches. 

Distribution. — The Noctule is spread over the greater part of 
temperate Europe and Asia, and likewise ranges over a con- 
siderable portion of Africa. In Britain it is mainly a southern 
form, being abundant in many of the southern and midland 
counties of England, and ranging as far west as Cornwall, but 
becoming gradually more scarce as we proceed northwards, and 
being quite unknown in Scotland. The most northern locality 
which Bell was able to ascertain for this species was North- 
allerton, in Yorkshire, but it has been recorded by the Rev. 
H. A. Macpherson from Carnforth, on the coast of Lancashire, 
and it is possible that certain large Bats observed at Bowness- 
on-Solway during the summer of 1888 may have pertained to 


the present species. In Wales the Noctule appears to be un- 
known; and it is not recorded by Thompson among the Mam- 
mals of Ireland. There is, however, reason to believe that it 
is an inhabitant of the latter island, as may be gathered from 
the following extract from a paper on Bats by Mr. Harting, 
who writes that in the Zoologist for 1874 "Mr. Barrington 
gave a very interesting account of the discovery, in June, 1868, 
of a colony of large Bats in the demesne of the Duke of Man- 
chester at Tandragee, county Armagh, and of the subsequent 
capture of several (presumably of the same species) at the same 
place in May, 1874. Mr. Barrington identified them as V. 
leisleri, observing ' they were all of the hairy-armed species. I 
have presented two specimens to the British Museum.' These 
two specimens were examined by Dr. Dobson in 1876, and he 
pronounced them to be immature examples of V. noctula." 
This seems to establish the occurrence of the latter species in 
Ireland, where, however, it may well be accompanied by the 
Hairy-armed Bat. In England it appears to be more common 
in some of the midland counties than elsewhere. 

Habits. — The first notice of the habits of this species in 
Britain was from the pen of Gilbert White, who remarks that 
in Hampshire it is a rare species, flying at a great height in the 
air when in pursuit of its food, and retiring early in the sum- 
mer. In his native village, this observer states, indeed, that he 
never saw the Noctule abroad before April nor after July ; but 
subsequent observations have shown that in the same neigh- 
bourhood it may frequently be seen in August and September, 
while in Cambridgeshire it has been recorded as late as 

AVith the exception of the Mouse-coloured Bat, the Noctule 

is the largest of the British members of the Order, and it is 

essentially a gregarious species, collecting in large numbers for 

its winter sleep. Upwards of one hundred and eighty-five 

5 n 


Bats, taken from beneath the roof of Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge, on a single night very many years ago, and sixty-five on 
the following evening, were, indeed, referred to this species ; 
but, as Bell remarks, it is probable that these were not sub- 
mitted to a careful examination, and may, therefore, have in- 
cluded members of other species. Generally frequenting well- 
wooded districts, and feeding chiefly on cockchafers and other 
large beetles, the Noctule usually selects a hollow tree for its 
diurnal resting-place in summer. Indeed, Bell states that he 
has never known one taken from any other situation. A later 
observer states, however, that he has known these Bats select 
thick ivy as a place of concealment ; while Mr. Harting 
records having seen them resort to the thatched roofs of 
cottages in Sussex, where they crept up beneath the eaves. 
For their winter haunts they select indifferently either hollow 
trees or the roofs of buildings. 

Since this Bat appears early in the evening, its title of "Noc- 
tule " is somewhat misleading, although it is too well established 
to be changed ; the name of Great Bat being decidedly no 
better. In the high regions of the air, where it delights to fly, 
on account of the abundance of beetles to be met with there, 
its flight is powerful and sustained ; and when on the wing it 
gives utterance to a sharp and harsh cry. As mentioned by 
White, these Bats have a strong and offensive odour, which 
renders a colony of them exceedingly unpleasant to have any- 
thing to do with. Although in some English examples which 
were kept in captivity it was found that only a single offspring 
was produced at a birth, the experience of continental observers 
shows that there is more commonly a pair. When first intro- 
duced into the world, the young are perfectly naked, as well as 

It is stated that when hibernating in winter, the Noctule 
generally associates, after the manner of many of its kindjced, 


in separate colonies of males and females ; such, at least, being 
the experience of Mr. J. Gurney, who further states that the 
number of females is greater than that of the males. Mr. 
Harting mentions, however, that he knew of an instance where 
a solitary pair of Noctules, taken from a hollow tree in the 
Bishop of London's park at Fulham, proved to be male and 
female. The same observer also draws attention to the cir- 
cumstance that during repose, while the tail of the Horse-shoe 
Bat is carried bent upwards and forwards over the back, in the 
Noctule it is carried bent downwards and backwards between 
the legs. 


Vesperiilio leisleri, Kuhl, Deutsch. Flederm. p. 38 (1817). 
Scotophilus leisleri. Gray, Mag. Zool. vol. ii. p. 497 (1838) ; 

Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 26 (1874). 
Vesperugo leisleri, Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelthiere Europ. 

p. 46 (1840)5 Dobson, Cat. Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 

215 (1878). 

Characteis. — Closely resembling in external form a small in- 
dividual of the preceding species, the Hairy-armed Bat may be 
distinguished by the following characters. Thus, whereas in 
V. noctula the outermost pair of upper incisor teeth have their 
basal transverse diameters equal to only half those of the outer- 
most lower incisors, in the present species the two dimensions 
are equal. Moreover, in the present species the lower incisor 
teeth are arranged in a regular semi-circle, with scarcely any 
overlapping of one over another, in place of being closely 
crowded. Length of head and body about 25 inches ; of tail, 
if inch. 

In common with the Noctule, the present species has a band 
of fine short hair running down the under side of the fore-arm 

D ? 



to the wrist, and it is from this character that the Hairy-armed 
Bat derives its common English name. 

Sistrilmtiou. — Ranging over the greater part of Europe and 
temperate Asia, the present Bat appears to be a rare species 
in Britain, although this rarity is doubtless owing to its being 
frequently mistaken for the Noctule. In the main, it appears 
to be confined to the western counties of England, having 
been recorded from Worcester, Gloucester, and Warwick ; 
but, according to Mr. Montagu Browne, it is unknown as far 
north as Leicestershire, as also in the Lake District. It has been 
obtained from more than one Irish locality — notably Belfast. 

Habits. — Much apparently remains to be learned regarding 
the habits of this Bat, there being a discrepancy in the accounts 
given by Continental and British observers. While ail are 
agreed that it makes its appearance early in the evening, 
Blasius, for instance, states that it also resembles the Noctule 
in frequenting the neighbourhood of trees, and flying at a con- 
siderable altitude with a similar powerful flight. On the other 
hand, Bell writes that its flight is totally different from that of 
the latter, observing that " whilst the Noctule may, throughout 
the whole of the summer, be seen taking its regular evening 
flight, night after night, near the same spot, the Leisler's Bat, 
on the contrary, will be seen once, perhaps for a few minutes 
only and then lost sight of. It appears to affect no particular 
altitude in its flight, any more than it preserves any regular or 
prescribed beat. When the weather is fine, you may see this 
Bat passing on in a kind of zig-zag manner, apparently uncertain 
where to go, generally, though not always, at a considerable 
elevation, and in a few minutes it is gone," 


VesJ>ertilio pipisirelltts, Schreber, Saugethiere vol. i. p. 167 


v^^^ ^ 



Vesfertilio pygmcEus, Leach, Zool. Journ. vol. i. p. 560 (1825) j 

Bell, British Quadrupeds p. 31 (1837). 
Scoiophilus pipistrellus, Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. 

p. 34 (1874). 
Vesperugo pipistrellus, Keyserling and Blasius in Wiegmann's 
Archiv. fiir Naturg. 1839 p. 321 (1840); Dobson, Cat. 
Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 223 (1878). 
[Plate III.) 
Characters. — Although belonging to the same sub-generic 
group as the two preceding species, the Pipistrelle is at once 
distinguished from both of the latter by the membrane of the 
wings arising from the base of the toes, in the manner charac- 
teristic of the genus generally. The present species belongs 
to a section of the typical sub-genus, characterised by the earlet 
being widest at a point slightly above the base of the inner 
margin. The following are its special characters. 

Ears sub triangular, with the tips rounded, and the outer 
margins nearly straight for one-third the length below the tips, 
and then suddenly curving out into a prominent lobe, there 
being a slight concavity opposite the base of the earlet, in 
front of which is a prominent convex lobe. Earlet as above, 
a little inclined forwards, the tip rounded, the inner margin 
very slightly concave, and the outer one convex with a small 
lobe at the base, above which there is a very shallow concavity. 
Muzzle blunt, with well-developed lateral glandular swellings, 
behind which the face is depressed ; the whole of the region 
of the muzzle as far back as the eyes, sparsely haired. Feet 
small, with the lobe of membrane behind the spur well de- 
veloped. Inner pair of upper incisor teeth with bifid crowns, in 
which the outermost cusps are smaller and more posteriorly 
situated than the inner ones ; the outer incisors either longer or 
shorter than the external cusp of the inner pair. General 
colour of fur rather deep rufous brown, becoming paler on 

38 Lloyd's natural history. 

the under-parts, the basal half or three-fourths of every hair 
being black. Length of head and body, about if inch ; of tail, 
1 1 inch. 

Sistribation. — The Pipistrelle ranges from Northern Africa, 
over the greater part of temperate Europe and Asia, as far 
south as Kashmir and Gilgit ; it is replaced in India and the 
adjacent countries by the closely allied Indian Pipistrelle ( F. 
atramus), distinguished by its more completely naked muzzle 
and the form of the incisor teeth, which ranges eastwards as 
far as Northern Australia, and, in summer at least, is found in 
Central Europe, and even in Sweden. In the British Islands the 
Common Pipistrelle appears to be universally distributed, being 
found from one end of Ireland to the other, and ranging from 
the south of England to the extreme north of Scotland, in- 
habiting even the outer Hebrides. 

It may be mentioned here that, although the Pipistrelle is 
the smallest of the British Bats, it was long confounded with the 
much larger Vespertilio murinus, which, as being the com- 
monest Bat on the Continent, was not unnaturally assumed to 
be the most abundant species on this side the Channel, where, 
however, it happens to be rare. After persisting for a long 
period, this error was finally rectified many years ago by the 
late Rev. Leonard Jenyns (Blomefield), who was one of the 
pioneers in British vertebrate zoology. 

Habits. — Writing of the habits of the Pipistrelle, or, as it is 
called in many parts of the country, the "Flitter-mouse," Mac- 
gillivray observes that, " from the middle of spring, but earlier 
or later according to the warmth of the season, to the middle 
of October, sometimes commencing as early as March, and 
continuing till November, this Bat may be seen after sunset 
in the neighbourhood of towns and villages, over the streets of 
cities or the roads, in the alleys and lanes, or along the course 
of brooks and rivers, fluttering with an unsteady motion, and 


apparently undetermined course. Its flight is not rapid, like 
that of a bird, but rather resembles that of a large Moth or 
Butterfly. It turns and winds in all directions, flying at 
various heights from ten to twenty or more feet, and some- 
times as high as the tops of the trees, but more commonly ^t 
an elevation of about fifteen feet. It is attracted by a white 
handkerchief, or any other body, thrown up in the air, for 
which reason boys are fond of tossing their caps at it. Some- 
times it has been caught upon the fly-hooks of a fishing-rod 
hung over a bridge. It continues its flight until dark, and 
probably during the night, as well as in the morning twilight ; 
and reposes through the day in the corners and crevices of old 
buildings, towers, and steeples. As its food consists entirely 
of insects, and especially the nocturnal Lepidoptera, it is forced 
by the increasing cold of winter to relinquish its pursuits, and 
betake itself to some secure retreat in a ruined building or 
cavern, where it remains until the returning heat arouses it 
from its torpor. In this state it is found suspended by its feet 
in chimneys, crevices, or corners, or jammed into a hole or 
fissure. A frequent place of retirement is under the roofs of 
houses, and especially churches ; but it presents great variety 
in its selection, and I have obtained specimens from the hollow 
of a decayed tree near Duddingston." 

" The Pipistrelle rises with facility from a flat surface, and is 
capable of advancing on the ground with considerable celerity, 
and ascends a vertical plane, provided it be somewhat rough, 
without much difficulty. In confinement it feeds on flies and 
raw meat." 

From its hardy nature, as indicated by its northern range in 
Britain, the Pipistrelle is by no means continuous in its winter 
slumber, any unusually warm day being sufficient to awaken 
the little creature. During the mild winter of 1893-94, I 
observed on the evening of January the 20th one of these 


Bats flying near my own house in Hertfordshire ; and in the 
north of Ireland Thompson states that it may frequently be 
seen abroad in mid-winter. Occasionally it may be observed 
fluttering about in a half-dazed state in the full sunlight. Al- 
though, in the passage above-quoted, Macgillivray states that its 
chief food consists of moths, we should rather be disposed to 
consider that flies and gnats of various kinds form its main 

With regard to the number of young produced at a birth, 
there appears to be a marked difference between Continental 
and British examples. Thus, while Blasius states that all the 
females with young examined by him on the Continent had 
two, British specimens seem, as a rule, to produce but one ; 
this being confirmed by the observations of Daniell in Eng- 
land, and Hyndman (as quoted by Thompson) in Ireland. * 

Bell has noted the interesting fact that the tip of the tail in 
this, and certain other Bats, affords assistance in climbing. 
After mentioning that a small portion of the tail, in most mem- 
bers of the present Family, projects beyond the edge of the 
membrane connecting the hind-legs, he proceeds to observe 
that " not only does the animal employ the tail in horizontal 
progression — in which case it assists in throwing forward the 
body, by being brought into contact with the ground on either 
side alternately, corresponding with the action of the hinder 
foot on the same side,— but in ascending and descending a 
rough perpendicular surface, this little caudal finger holds by 
any projecting point, and affords an evident support. This is 
particularly conspicuous when the Bat is traversing the wires 
of a cage, in which situation the fact was first observed." 

When flies or moths are offered to a captive Pipistrelle, 
ihese are seized by the mouth alone without any aid from the 
wings. The creature, after seizing its prey, bends down its 
head upon the chest as if for the purpose of preventing their 


escape. Every portion of such insects, including even the 
wings, is consumed. 


Vespertilio, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 47 (1766). 

This genus, in which are included the whole of the six re- 
maining British Bats, may be at once distinguished from Ves- 
perugo by the presence of three pairs of pre-molar teeth in the 
upper jaw, the number of teeth on each side behind the canine 
being thus six, in place of five or four. Together with certain 
allied genera, it is further distinguished from Vesperugo and ' 
its allies by the outer margin of the conch of the ear com- 
mencing abruptly nearly opposite the inner margin of the ear- 
let, or tragus, instead of near the angle of the mouth. The 
thin and narrow ears are also, generally at least, as long as the 
head, instead of being triangular or rhomboidal, and shorter 
than the latter ; while the long and narrow tragus, if curved at 
all, is inclined outwards instead of inwards. Then, again, the 
muzzle is narrow and hairy in front, instead of being nearly 
naked, with lateral glandular swellings. From its nearest 
allies of the same group, Vespertilio is distinguished by the 
simple and scarcely projecting nostrils, the aperture of which 
is crescentic, as well as by the small size of the two an- 
terior pre-molar teeth, as compared with the last tooth of the 
same series. 

Although containing fewer species than the last, the present 
genus has a wider geographical distribution than any other in 
the entire Order, its range including the whole of the temper- 
ate and tropical regions of both hemispheres. From their 
close similarity to one another, the majority of the species are 
exceedingly difficult to distinguish. The Old World species 
may, however, be thrown into two groups, or subgenera, 
according as to whether the feet are relatively large or of 

43 Lloyd's natural history. 

moderate size ; two of the British species belonging to the 
former, and four to the latter group. 


Vespertilia dasycneme, Boie, Isis 1825 p. 1200; Dobson, Cat. 

Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 295 (1878). 
Vespertilio limnophilus, Temminck, Monogr. Mamm. vol. ii. 

p. 176(1839). 
Characters. — Belongs to the group in which the feet are 
relatively large, measuring from the wrist to the end of the 
claws more than one-fourth the length of the fore-arm, and 
the heel-spur also long, extending fully three-quarters the 
distance from the ankle to the tail. This species is also readily 
distinguished from the other members of the same group by 
the form of the earlet, which has a blunt rounded tip, the inner 
margin slightly concave, and the outer convex, thus resem- 
bling the same appendage in the typical sub-genus of Ves- 
perugo. The ears also are shorter than the head, and the face 
less hairy than in other species, — characters which again recall 
the last-named genus. On the upper surface, the fur is dark at 
the base and light brown at the tips of the hairs ; while 
beneath, the hairs are black at the base and white at the tips. 
Length of head and body about 2|- inches ; of tail, 2 inches. 

Distribution. — The Rough-legged Bat has long been known 
as an inhabitant of Continental Europe, whence it extends 
eastwards through temperate Asia, and has often been stated 
to be a visitor to the south of England, although it is not 
mentioned in the second edition of Bell's " British Quadru- 
peds." Its right to be regarded as a British species appears to 
rest on the evidence of a specimen captured on the banks of 
the Stour, which was noticed by Backton in the " Proceed- 
ings " of the Linnean Society, for 1853, p. 260, and regarded as 
a variety of V. daubentoni, although subsequently referred by 


Tomes {Zoologist, 1854, p. 361) to the present species. It is 
probably this example which is entered in Dr. Dobson's " Cata- 
logue of Chiroptera in the British Museum," as being of British 

II. daubenton's bat. vespertilio daubentoni. 

Vesperlilio daubentonii, Leisler, in Kuhl's Deutsch. Flederm. 
p. 51 (1817); Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd. ed. p. 60 
(1874) ; Dobson, Cat. Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 297 

Vespertilio emarginatus (nee Geoffr.), Jenyns, Brit. Vert. p. 26 

Vespertilio cedilis, Jenyns, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1839 p. 73. 
Vespertilio daubentoni, Blanford, Mamm. Brit. India p. 331 

Characters. — This, the second representative of the long- 
footed group, has the wings arising from the sides cf the feet 
just below the ankle, while the ears when laid forward extend 
to the tip of the nose. Ears with the tips rounded, but not 
very broadly, and the inner margin regularly convex, and the 
outer straight or slightly concave for nearly the upper half of 
its length, below which it becomes suddenly convex. Earlet 
moderately pointed, about half the length of the ear, its inner 
margin straight, and the outer slightly convex, with a rounded 
lobe projecting just above the base. Face in front of eyes 
partially naked, and a rather tumid area between the eyes 
and nostrils. Upper incisor teeth nearly equal in size, with 
widely divergent cusps; middle upper pre-molar clearly visible 
externally, and about one-third the height of the first. Colour, 
brown above and dirty white beneath ; at least the basal half 
of all the hairs being dark brown. Length of head and body 
about i^^ inch ; of tail, i f inch. 

Distrilintion. — Daubenton's Bat is an inhabitant of Northern 

44 Lloyd's natural history. 

Africa and tho greater part of temperate Europe and Asia. It 
appears to have been first recognised as a British species by 
the late Rev. Leonard Jenyns (Blomefield), who provisionally 
identified it with the Vespertilio emarginatus of Geoffroy— an 
identification which was subsequently corrected by Bell. In 
Britain it appears to be pretty widely distributed, although 
more common in the southern and midland counties than 
further north, and very variable in this respect, even in the 
former districts. Thus, whereas Bell speaks of it as being 
very common in some parts of Warwickshire, Mr. Montagu 
Browne records only one specimen known to him from 
Leicestershire. Only a single example appears to have been 
recorded from Yorkshire {Zoologist, 1891, p. 395). At an 
early period of its British history it was obtained from near 
Winchester ; and Bell records it from Durham, while the R%v. 
H. A. Macpherson notices one specimen captured on the 
Carlisle canal in 1852, and a second near Ulswater, eleven 
years later. Although somewhat rare even in the Lake District, 
this Bat extends into Scotland, having been long known from 
Aberdeenshire, and recently recorded from the extreme north- 
east of Banffshire. Some years ago, as the writer is informed by 
Mr. Harvie-Brown, great numbers of these Bats were discovered 
in an old vault in the castle of Gight, in Aberdeenshire, but 
immediately after their discovery and disturbance they forsook 
their old quarters, and their new habitation has not been 
discovered. Since this species is not mentioned by Messrs. 
Harvie-Brown and Buckley as occurring either in Sutherland, 
Caithness, Argyllshire, or the Hebrides, it may be presumed 
that its range does not include the extreme north of Scotland. 
In Ireland it has been recorded from Kildare, Derry, and 
Donegal, and probably occurs elsewhere, although it is rare. 

HaMts. — The essential peculiarity in the habits of Dauben- 
ton's Bat is its extreme partiality for water, on the surface of 


/ I 



which it skims in the evening in a manner not unlike that of a 
Swallow by day. Thus, in describing the appearance of some 
Bats which he believed referable to this species, the Rev. H. A. 
Macphersou writes that "they flew actively over the water, 
frequently dipping, sometmies two or three times in succession, 
apparently feeding, their shadows being reflected as they hovered 
over the water, and the motion of their wings recalling the flight 
of the Common Sandpiper. They flew uniformly low over the 
water. Sometimes one would approach the margin of the lake, 
but they seemed to obtain most of their prey in the centre of 
the latter." Generally making its appearance soon after sun- 
set, this Bat, after hawking for a short time for flies and gnats, 
usually returns to the shore to rest for a time before con- 
tinuing its flight in quest of food. During the period of its 
active life, its favourite haunts for repose are trees ; but, as we 
have seen above, it may retire for its winter torpor to under- 
ground or deserted chambers of old buildings. 


Vesperlilio uatUreri, Kuh], Deutsch. Flederm. p. 33 (181 7); 
Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 54 (1874) ; Dobson, 
Cat. Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 307 (1878). 

{Plate IV.) 

Cliaracters. — This species brings us to the second or short- 
footed group of the genus, in which the foot is of mod&'atc 
size, measuring less than one-fourth the length of the fore-arm, 
while the spur on the foot extends only about one-half the dis- 
tance from the ankle to the tail. The present species may 
be characterised as follows. — Earlet narrowing above, sharply 
pointed, and curved outwards ; wings arising from the base of 
the toes ; fur of neck and shoulders scarcely longer than that 
of head and body ; ears longer than the head ; membrane 

46 Lloyd's natural history. 

connecting the hind-legs with its posterior margin fringed 
with stiff hairs ; tail as long as the head and body. Fur very 
long and dense, on the upper-parts dark brown with light 
reddish tips ; on the under surface, darker at the base, with 
the terminal third of the hairs white. Length of head and 
body about i|- inch ; of the tail the same. 

The fringed inter-femoral membrane serves to distinguish the 
Reddish-grey Bat not only from all the other British species, 
but likewise from all other members of the genus, with the 
exception of the West African Welwitsch's Bat, which is re- 
markable for its orange-and-black wings. 

Distribntion. — The Reddish-grey Bat seems to be an exclu- 
sively European species, ranging from Ireland in the west to 
the Ural Mountains in the east, and from the southern 
districts of Sweden in the north to the Alps in the south. In 
England, although somewhat local, it appears to be not un- 
common in several of the southern and midland counties, but 
seems to get scarcer as we go north. It is recorded by Bell 
from near London, Essex, Cambridgeshire, Hampshire, Kent, 
and Norfolk; Mr. Montagu Browne notes its presence in 
Leicestershire; and in the Lake District a colony was dis- 
covered, according to the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, in the 
summer of 1886, in an old outhouse at Castletown. In the 
second edition of Bell's " British Quadrupeds," this species 
was-fjid to be unknown in Scotland, but there is a specimen 
in the British Museum from Inverary, Argyllshire, presented 
by the Duke of Argyll, showing that the statement in question 
is incorrect. In Ireland it has been taken at least in the 
counties of Dublin, Cork, Longford, and Wicklow, but is very 

Habits. — When on the wing above the observer's head, this 
Bat may be easily recognised by the light colour of its under- 
parts ; its whole coloration being, indeed, of a lighter shade 


than in any other British member of the order. This charac- 
teristic is noticed by Mr. Montagu Browne, who captured one 
of these Bats among a colony of Pipistrelles in a church in 
Leicestersliire. Thus he writes that "the flight of the two 
species varied much, the Pipistrelles flying quicker, and con- 
stantly changing the direction of their flight in a zig-zag kind 
of manner, whereas the flight of Natterer's Bat was more fully 
sustained, and much more direct, though somewhat slower. 
A marked difference between the flight of the two species was 
not so much the greater spread of wing as the evident breadth 
of the wing-membrane. Most noticeable, however, was the 
greyish-white tint of the under-part of the body ; and this was 
readily observed, not only when flying in the light of the 
lamps, but when the animal was high up, or in the darkest 
parts of the church — so much so, indeed, that the people who 
were assisting constantly exclaimed ' Here comes a white- 
waistcoated one.'" Essentially a gregarious species, the 
Reddish-grey Bat seems invariably to select either buildings — 
and preferably their roofs — or caverns for its retreat. Bell 
records the discovery of an enormous colony in the year 1848 
between the ceiling and roof of Arrow Church, near Alcester. 
" Here," he writes, " the Bats were seen adhering, by all their 
extremities, to the under surface of the row of tiles which 
forms the crest or ridge of the roof, and others clinging to them 
until a mass was made up three or four inches thick, six or 
seven wide, and about four feet in length.'' Instead of the 
repose which ordinarily characterises such an assemblage, 
these Bats were in a constant state of unrest and turmoil, those 
on the outskirts of the mass striving (probably for the sake of 
warmth) to make their way into the interior, which was as 
strenuously resisted by the occupants of the inside places. 
Numbers of dead and dried young ones, which had probably 
fallen from their mothers, strewed the floor of the chamber. 

48 Lloyd's natural hiSTorv. 


Vesperiilio bechsteinii, Leisler, in Kuhl's Deutsch. Flederm. p. 
30 (1817); Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 52 
(1874); Dobson, Cat. Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 308 

Characters — From the preceding species, Bechstein's Bat may 
be readily distinguished by the posterior margin of the mem- 
brane connecting the hind-legs being naked j and by the 
length of the tail being less than that of the head and body. 
Ears oval, and considerably longer than the head. Fur light 
reddish on the upper-parts, and greyish- white beneath ; the 
bases of the hairs, both above and below, being dark brown. 
Length of head and body about 2 inches ; of tail, i J^ inch. 

Dobson remarks that in general form this species resembles 
Vespertilio murinus, "but is readily distinguished from that 
species by the proportionately much longer ears, by the very 
different form of the tragus, by the wing-membrane extending 
quite to the base of the toes, and also by its considerably 
smaller size." 

Distribation. — Like the last species, this Bat appears to be 
confined to Europe, its range extending in one direction from 
the south of England to the south of Russia, and in the other 
from Sweden to the Alps. So far as we are aware, this species 
is only known as British upon the evidence of some specimens 
captured many years ago in the New Forest, and now pre- 
served in the British Museum, and it has therefore a very 
doubtful claim to rank in our fauna. 

Habits. — In marked distinction to the Reddish-grey Bat, this 
species is described as being an exclusively forest-haunting 
form, taking up its winter quarters in hollow trees, and never 
resorting to buildings or' caves. Never associating with other 
members of its order, it generally flies about in small parties, 
which seldom exceed a dozen in number. 



Vespertilio murinus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 47 
(1766 J in parte); Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 48 
(1874); Dobson, Cat. Chiropteira Brit. Mus. p. 309 
Vespertilio myotis, Kuhl, Deutsch. Flederm. p. 36 (1817). 
Vespertilio blythii, Tomes, Proc. Zool. See. 1857 p. 53. 
Vespertilio africanus, Dobson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4 
vol. xvi. p. 260 (1875); id. Cat. Chiroptera Brit. Mus. 
p. 310 (1878). 
Characters. — Although, as already mentioned, the Mouse- 
coloured Bat closely resembles the preceding species in general 
external characters, it belongs to a sub-group distinguished by 
having the earlet or tragus straight, and sharply or bluntly 
pointed, instead of being sharply pointed and curving out- 
wards. The following are the essential characteristics of the 
present species : — 

Crown of head slightly elevated ; muzzle blunt ; a somewhat 
swollen area between the eye and the nostril, and the sides of 
the face and the end of the upper surface of the nose nearly 
naked, although the upper lip carries some long hairs. Ears 
large, generally reaching, when laid forwards, just beyond the 
end of the muzzle; their tips bluntly pointed; the inner 
margin moderately convex to the base, where it is joined at a 
right angle to the basal lobe ; outer margin concave below the 
tip, with a shallow notch opposite the base of the earlet, suc- 
ceeded by a convex lobe, terminating opposite the base of the 
inner margin. Earlet of moderate length, narrowed above, and 
sub-acutely pointed, with the inner margin more or less nearly 
straight, and the outer with a small convex basal lobe, then con- 
vex for about half its length, and finally straight. Wings arising 
from the metatarsus ; only the extreme tip of the tail projecting 
beyond the edge of the membrane connecting the hind legs, 
5 E 


the basal part of whicli is well haired on its upper surface. 
Anterior upper pre-molar tooth about half the height of the last ; 
and the middle one small and generally placed somewhat 
internally to the line of the other teeth. General colour vary- 
ing from greyish- to reddish-brown, the under-parts being pale 
brown, with a suffusion of white, and the bases of all the hairs 
dark. Length of head and body about 2 J^ inches ; of tail z}i 

Distrilntion.— The Mouse-coloured Bat — the largest represen- 
tative of the Order recorded from Britain — is an inhabitant of 
the greater portion of temperate Europe and Asia, as well as 
northern Africa. Eastwards it ranges as far as tlie north- 
western Himalaya and Kashmir, the variety from the latter 
region being distinguished by its shorter ears; while, its 
northern range includes Denmark and the southern districts 
of England. The claim to rank as a British species originally 
rested upon the evidence of certain specimens captured in the 
gardens of the British Museum in Bloomsbury, some time 
previously to the year 1835. It is suggested, indeed, in the 
second edition of Bell's " British Quadrupeds " that, owing to 
the confusion which, as remarked above, formerly existed 
between the Mouse-coloured Bat and the Pipistrelle, the speci- 
mens in question did not pertain to the present species at all. 
If, however, a skin in the British Museum entered in Dr. 
Dobson's "Catalogue of Chiroptera"as of English origin, be, as 
is most probably the case, one of the specimens in question, 
and if there be no doubt as to the bon&-fide British origin 
of the latter, then we cannot refuse to admit the right of 
the Mouse-coloured Bat to a place in the English fauna. The 
alleged occurrence of the species in Dorsetshire was subse- 
quently contradicted {Zoologist, 1887, p. 234). It has in- 
deed been subsequently recorded by Mr. A. G. More, from 
Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight, on the evidence of certain 


large Bats shot there by Mr. F. Bond, which have been 
referred to the present species ; but in a " Guide to the Isle 
of Wight," pubHshed in 1S76, Mr. More pointed out that the 
identification was incorrect, and that the Bats in question were 
really Noctules. 

HaT)its. — On the Continent, where this Bat is one of the 
most abundant species, it appears abroad late in the evening, 
and flies at a low elevation. Never associating with other 
species, it congregates by hundreds in the roofs of churches 
and other buildings, as well as in caves ; and is reported to be 
extremely quarrelsome in disposition — so much so, indeed, 
that many individuals in a colony are often found with the 
membranes of their wings torn to rags, and some of the bones 
broken. Although its proper food is insects, specimens kept 
in confinement in India have been known to kill some of their 
fellows and eat a portion of their flesh. But a single offspring 
is produced at a birth, and the little one may be found cling- 
ing to the body of the female from the latter part of May till 
about the middle of July, after which it is able to shift for itself. 


Vespertilio mystacinus, Leisler, in Kuhl's Deutsch. Flederm. 

p. 58 (1817) ; Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 67 

(1874) ; Dobson, Cat. Chiroptera Brit. Mus. p. 314 

Vespertilio siligorensis, Hodgson ; Horsfield, Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist. ser. 2 vol. xvi. p. 102 (1853). 

Characters. — Whereas in the preceding species the wings 
arise from the metatarsus, or sides of the feet between the 
ankle and the toes, in the Whiskered Bat they take origin from 
the base of the outer toe. This feature, coupled with the 
absence of any accessory lobe of membrane near the spur on 

E 2 


the ankle, and the presence of a number of long haii^ on the 
face, extending down to and covering the upper lip, will suffice 
to distinguish the present species from all the other British 
Bats. The ears are as long as the head, and their outer margins 
strongly convex in the lower half In colour the fur is brown, 
with a more or less rufescent tinge above, and greyish on the 
under-parts; the bases of all the hairs being dark brown or 
black. Length of head and body usually about i| inch ; of 
tail, if inch. 

Bistribntion. — This Bat ranges over the greater part of Europe, 
extending from Ireland in the west, to Central Russia in the 
east, and from Finland in the north to Spain in the south ; it 
is likewise found over a large portion of Asia, having been 
recorded from Syria, Nipal, Sikhim, and Pekin. It likewise 
inhabits Africa north of the Sahara. In England, although 
local, it does not appear to be rare, having been recorded by 
Jenyns from Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire, by Yarrell 
from Colchester, by Bell from Chiselhurst in Kent and from 
Warwickshire, by Montagu Browne from Leicestershire, and by 
Macpherson from the Lake District ; while in Dobson's " Cata- 
logue of Chiroptera " examples are mentioned from the Isle of 
Wight and Hastings. Although not included by Thompson 
in his account of Irish Mammals, it is stated by Kinahan to 
have been obtained from county Clare ; but it appears to be 
unknown in Scotland. 

Hatits. — Essentially a solitary species, although occasionally 
seen in small companies attracted by an abundance of food, 
the Whiskered Bat appears to frequent, for the purposes of 
hibernation, either hollow trees, the roofs of buildings, or 
caverns; the specimens alluded to above from Colchester 
and Chiselhurst having been taken in chalk-caves. It makes 
its appearance early in the evening, and flies swiftly in a mannei 
very similar to the Pipistrelle; it often exhibits a preference 


for the neighbourhood of water, over the surface of which it 
skims. Towards the latter part of June, or the commencement 
of July, the female produces a single young one. 


Closely allied in the structure of their teeth and many othei 
portions of their organisation to the Bats, the small and mostly 
terrestrial Mammals, commonly known as Insectivores, may be 
distinguished from the Chiroptera on the one hand, by the 
absence of wings and the normal conformation of the fore 
limb, and from the land Carnivora on the other by the circum- 
stance that a pair of teeth in each jaw are not specially modified 
to act one against each other with a scissor-like action. Their 
feet, which are always more or less nearly plantigrade, are 
generally furnished with five toes, carrying claws, and, with the 
exception of an aberrant West African genus, collar-bones, or 
clavicles, are invariably present. As a rule, the distinction 
between incisor, canine, pre-molar, and molar teeth is less well 
marked than in the majority of Mammals ; but such distinctions 
do exist. The number of incisor teeth in the lower jaw is 
never reduced to a single pair, and the molar teeth have well- 
developed roots and short crowns — the latter surmounted with 
sharp cusps, which may be arranged either in the form of the 
letter W (as in all the British representatives of the Order), or 
in a V. 

Although there is a remarkable difference in the external 
form of the various members of the Insectivora, some being 
robust, while others are slim, and some, again, having a coat 
of softest velvet, and others a covering of hard spines, yet 
nearly all are characterised by the elongation of the muzzle, 
which projects considerably beyond the extremity of the lower 
jaw. Unlike the Bats, where they are situated on the breast, 
the Insectivores invariably have their numerous teats placed 

54 Lloyd's natural history. 

on the abdomen ; and the number of young is always large. 
Their low degree of organisation is indicated by the circum- 
stance that the main lobes, or hemispheres, of the brain are 
perfectly smooth, and do not extend backwards so as to cover 
the hinder portion of the brain, or cerebellum. Indeed, it 
appears that the Insectivores are the most lowly organised of 
all the placental Mammals, exhibiting many signs of affinity 
with the Marsupials, of which they may prove to be the direct 
descendants. It may be added that their structural resem- 
blances to the Bats point to the conclusion that the latter are 
the highly modified descendants of some very primitive and at 
present unknown members of the Order. 

With the exception of the Tree-Shrews of India, the whole 
of the Insectivores are nocturnal creatures, skulking during the 
day in obscure corners or holes, or even, as in the case of the 
Mole, being entirely subterranean in their habits. Save for 
the so-called Flying-Lemur of the Malayan region, which is but 
doubtfully included in the Order, Insectivores, as their name 
implies, feed exclusively on insects, worms, molluscs, and such- 
like creatures. The majority are purely terrestrial in their 
habits, although a few, like the British Water-Shrew, are 
aquatic, while the Oriental Tree-Shrews are arboreal, and the 
Flying-Lemur takes flying leaps from tree to tree in the manner 
of a Flying-Squirrel. 

Their geographical distribution is somewhat peculiar, from the 
fact that while they are abundant in Africa, and still more so 
in Madagascar, both of which are well-known harbours of 
refuge for creatures of a low type, yet they are totally unknown 
in South America, which is another haven for such feeble 
animals. Although unknown in Australia, they are otherwise 
fairly well distributed over the remaining regions of the 

The British representatives of the Order, all of which, as 


already mentioned, belong to the group characterised by the 
W-like arrangement of the cusps of the upper molar teeth, are 
classified under three families, of which the first is 


Although the well-known spiny covering of the Hedge-hogs 
would, by non-zoological readers, be regarded as the most 
characteristic feature of the Family to which these creatures 
belong, yet, as a matter of fact, it is of no real importance. 
Thus, for instance, while similar spines occur in the Tenrecs of 
Madagascar, which belong to another family of the Order (per- 
taining to the group with a V-Iike arrangement of the cusps on 
the upper molars), in the so called " Gymnuras " of the Oriental 
region, which are included in the present Family, such spines 
are totally wanting. Under these circumstances naturalists 
have to resort to other characters by which to define the 
Family. Since, however, these are somewhat technical, and 
require a certain amount of anatomical knowledge for their 
proper comprehension, we shall not allude to them here, as it 
is sufficient for the purposes of this work to state that in 
Britain the Family is represented solely by the Hedge-hog, 
which cannot possibly be confounded with any other of our 
native animals. 

Erinaceus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 75 (1766). 

The genus may be shortly defined as including those mem- 
bers of the family in which the back and sides are covered with 
short spines, and the tail is short and rudimentary. 

Hedge-hogs have a total of thirty-six teeth, there being ten 
pairs in the upper and eight in the lower jaw. Of these, there 

56 Lloyd's natural history. 

are three pairs of incisors, one of canines, three of pre-molars, 
and three of molars. In the lower jaw, while the number of 
canines and molars is the same, there are but two pairs 
both of incisors and pre-molars. In the upper jaw, the inner 
pair of incisors are conical and vertically-placed teeth, widely 
separated from one another in the middle line, while the 
lower incisors incline almost horizontally forwards. 

The spines clothing the bodies and sides of the Hedge-hogs, 
which are generally marked with fine longitudinal grooves, are 
inserted in a layer of tissue beneath the skin by small knob-like 
terminations resembling pins' heads, and may thus be likened 
to pins stuck through a piece of soft leather. Beneath the skin 
lies a thick layer of muscle — the panniculiis carnosus — which 
is much more developed than in any other Mammal, and by 
its contraction enables the creatures to roll themselves up into 
the well-known ball-like form, when the head and limbs are 
completely concealed from view, and only a uniformly formid- 
able array of radiating spines exposed. 

Hedge-hogs are exclusively Old World animals, and are 
distributed over the main portion of the three great continents, 
although they are unknown in Madagascar, Ceylon, Burma, 
and the Malayan region. As a rule, the numerous species are 
exceedingly like one another, both as regards external appear- 
ance and their general structure, although, somewhat curiously, 
the European species differs in certain respects from the whole 
of the rest. 


Erinaceus suropxus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 75 
(1766); Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 102 (1874). 
(Plate V.) 
Characters. — Both the third upper incisor and the canine in- 
serted by single roots; the fur usually long and coarse. 





Length of head and body, about lo inches; of tail, i>^ 

The two characters above-mentioned at once serve to dis- 
tinguish this species from the whole of the other members 
of the genus, in all of which the third upper incisor and canine 
teeth each present the rare and remarkable peculiarity of being 
inserted by two distinct roots ; while the fur is shorter and 
much less coarse. 

Differing from all other British Mammals by its coat of 
spines, the Hedge-hog is the largest indigenous representative 
of the Order to which it belongs. The muzzle is conical, and 
the body oblong and convex above, while the legs are so short 
and the feet so completely plantigrade, that the abdomen 
almost touches the ground when the creature is walking. The 
short, broad, and rounded ears are less than half the length of 
the head ; the eyes are of moderate size; and while the whole 
of the back and sides are protected by spines, the face and 
under-parts are clad with stiff and brittle fur, the tip of the 
muzzle being naked and black. In colour the spines are dirty 
white, with a brown or blackish ring somewhat above the 
middle, while the hair on the face and under-parts is yellowish- 
white. The rather long claws are moderately curved, and 
much compressed, but are evidently not adapted for burrowing. 
The female has six pairs of teats. 

Distrilration, — The common Hedge-hog ranges over the greater 
part of Europe, and extends eastwards through Asia as far as 
Amurland. In England-it is generally distributed, although in 
many parts the fashion so prevalent of grubbing up hedgerows 
to make large fields has resulted in a considerable diminution 
in its numbers. Abundant in the Lake District, it crosses the 
border into Scotland, where it is mainly characteristic of the 
southern and central counties, and some years ago it seemed 
to be chiefly confined to Clackmannan, Stirling, Dumbarton, 

58 Lloyd's natural history. 

and Perth, in the counties north of the Firths of Forth and 
Clyde. Now, however, according to Messrs. Harvie-Brown 
and Buckley, its range seems to be extending somewhat, pro- 
bably owing to artificial introduction ; but it is quite unknown 
in the Isles — that is to say, at least, as an indigenous animal. 
In Sutherland and Caithness it is, according to the testimony 
of the same writers, " still unknown in the west, and, so far as 
known to us, in all other parts of the counties. Though pet 
specimens have been introduced, and have escaped, there is 
no evidence that they have established themselves in a wild 
state." In Ireland, Thompson says that the Hedge-hog is found 
everywhere in suitable localities. 

Habits. — Like nearly all the members of the Order to which 
it belongs, a purely nocturnal animal, the Hedge-hog, or Urchin, 
as it is termed in many parts of England, reposes during the 
day in some snug and safe retreat, generally situated beneath 
the roots of some old tree or stub, in a hedge-bank, thicket, or 
a crevice in a rock or wall. During the winter the Hedge-hog 
passes its time in a state of complete torpor, apparently never 
awakening, and therefore requiring no store of food, which in 
the case of an animal subsisting on insects and other creatures 
it would be impossible to accumulate. Although insects com- 
pose a considerable portion of its diet, the Hedge-hog by no 
means subsists entirely on them, nor, indeed, on invertebrates 
generally, since almost all animals that it is able to kill, appear 
to be equally acceptable as food. As Mr. Harting remarks, while 
the animal under consideration exhibits a partiality for slugs, 
snails, worms, and beetles, it has been ascertained that it like- 
wise consumes eggs, chickens, young landrails and game-birds, 
mice, young rabbits and hares, frogs and snakes, not even 
the noxious viper being safe from its attack. With regard to 
their depredations on young game-birds a recent writer in 
Land and Water states that a few years ago he lifted some 


pheasants' eggs from the road-side and put them under a hen. 
The coop was placed outside the poultry-yard and near an old 
summer-house which stood among shrubs, and was thickly 
covered with creepers. The birds came out in due time, but 
soon began to disappear. Rats were at first blamed, but as no 
traces of their presence could be detected, the keeper was set 
to watch, with the result that Hedge-hogs were proved to be 
the delinquents. 

A writer in the Field bears testimony to the egg-stealing pro- 
pensities of these animals. He states that on a certain date there 
was a duck's nest near his house containing five eggs. " On the 
following morning," he writes, " there were only two. On the 
following night I put down a common rabbit-trap at the nest, 
let into the ground, and covered over. About ten p.m. I heard 
something crying out (similar to the noise made by a hare 
when in distress). Upon going there 1 found a very large 
Hedge-hog in the trap. I took it out, killed it, and set the 
trap again. About eleven there was another large Hedge-hog in 
the same trap, which I killed, and set the trap again. I went 
again the next morning at five and found another Hedge-hog 
in the trap, making three Hedge-hogs caught the same night in 
the same trap. Since then the duck has been sitting in the 
same nest undisturbed by anything." This evidence, although 
circumstantial, appears to be pretty conclusive, and it is con- 
firmed by another instance narrated by the same writer. In 
this second case a pheasant's nest with fifteen eggs was found 
to have nine destroyed ; each of the damaged eggs having been 
apparently bitten half through. The six remaining sound eggs 
were taken home and a small quantity of strychnine inserted 
into each through a small perforation, after which they were 
sealed up and returned to the nest. The next morning two of 
the eggs were partially eaten, while near by lay a Hedge-hog. 
stone dead. 


In attacking a snake a Hedge-hog proceeds with extreme 
caution, seizing a favourable opportunity to give the reptile a 
bite, and then immediately rolling itself up into a ball till it is 
enabled to repeat the attack, and so on till the snake finally 
succumbs. " If the snake happens to be a viper," writes Mr. 
Harting, " still more caution is displayed ; for the latter in- 
variably strikes at the Hedge-hog on being bitten, and it requires 
a remarkably quick ' shut up ' to avoid the viper's fangs. The 
result in this case is very different ; the viper repeatedly strikes 
against the sharp spines of the Hedge-hog, and in so doing be- 
comes lacerated to such an extent that it eventually succumbs 
to its self-inflicted injuries." Frogs, according to the same 
observer, are boldly attacked at once without the slightest 
hesitation, and torn almost limb from limb. 

In gardens frequented by Hedge-hogs, these animals ni'ay 
often be observed on the paths and lawns in the dusk of a 
summer's evening in search of beetles or worms. The latter 
are seized as they issue from their holes, and are eaten in a 
methodical manner, the Hedge-hog commencing at one end and 
working steadily on till he reaches the other. 

It is not often that the observations of Gilbert White on the 
habits of British animals are incorrect, although this is the case 
with regard to one on the food of the Hedge-hog. He states 
that these animals were in the habit of eating the roots of the 
plantains growing in his garden at Selborne; and the state- 
ment has been admitted into the works of other writers on 
British animals, although it has been shown that the destruc- 
tion of the plants in question is due to a nocturnal cater- 

Although generally a silent creature, the Hedge-hog gives 
vent to a peculiar sound, which has been described as some- 
thing between a grunt and a squeak; and the cry of these 
animals when trapped has been already incidentally mentioned. 


In regard to its senses, it appears from the observations of the 
late Colonel J. Whyte that although the power of vision is not 
very highly developed, hearing and smell are extremely acute. 
From observations made by the same gentleman on a captive 
specimen, it would seem that these animals keep on the move 
throughout the night, travelling the whole time at the rate of 
some six miles an hour in search of their prey, except of course 
during those intervals in which they are engaged in devouring 
the latter. 

With regard to the breeding-habits of Hedge-hogs, some 
difference of opinion has prevailed among naturalists. Writing 
from observations made on continental specimens, Blasius 
states that the number of young produced at a birth varies 
from four to eight, and that these are usually born during the 
months of July or August. On the other hand. Bell writes 
that " the female produces from two to four young ones early 
in the summer, though the difference in their size in the 
autumn, when they are often found by sporting dogs, would 
seem to point out a somewhat variable period of birth." The 
latter discrepancy was explained by Dr. Dobson, who ascer- 
tained that a second litter is often produced in the autumn ; 
and the same observer further came to the conclusion that the 
number of young in a litter does not exceed four, in which 
respect he is in accord with Bell. Mr. Harting, however, in 
an interesting paper published in the Journal of the Royal 
Agricultural Society iox. 1892, under the title of "Vermin of 
the Farm," states that the number of young in a litter is more 
frequently five or six, and that he has known two instances 
where seven were produced. The period of gestation does 
not exceed a month. At birth the young are blind, and 
covered with soft and flexible white spines, which, however, 
soon harden and assume their adult coloration. The young 
are bom in a comfortable, well-roofed nest of dried leaves, 


grasses, and occasionally moss ; the same or a similar nest 
being used for the winter-slumber 

In conclusion, it may be mentioned that, in spite of its 
spiny armour, the Hedge-hog has two deadly enemies in the 
persons of the Fox and the Badger ; and where those two 
animals abound, the number of Hedge-hogs, ns Mr. Harting 
observes, will be small. 


Since the sole British representative of this Family is the 
Common Mole, we shall not spend much time in pointing out 
the distinctive Family characters, merely stating that all the 
Talpidce may be distinguished from the Erinaceida by the 
absence of the central fifth cusp found on the two anterior 
molars of the latter; while from the Soricidm they diifer in 
that the first pair of lower incisor teeth are not hook-like and 
directed forwards; and likewise by the presence of zygomatic 
arches, or cheek-bones, to the skull. 

Although the Desmans, which formerly inhabited England, 
but are now confined to the Continent, are aquatic in their 
habits, the great majority of the members of the Family have 
their fore-limbs more or less specially modified for digging in 
the ground. This modification shows itself especially in the 
very forward position of the fore-limbs, which in the most 
specialised types are extremely short, and furnished with very 
wide and powerful feet. Their forward position is brought 
about by the shortness of the collar-bones and the anterior 
extension of the breast-bone; while the shortness of the 
limbs is due to the extraordinary form of the arm-bone, or 
humerus, which, in place of being long and slender, in the 
True Moles is almost square, and about as unlike its represen- 
tative in ordinary Mammals as can well be conceived. The 

MOLES. 63 

Desmans, it should be observed, which depart from the typical 
Mole type, may be regarded as connecting links between the 
Moles and Shrews. 

Taljia, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 73 (1766). 

Body almost cylindrical, and passing imperceptibly into the 
head without any well-defined neck ; limbs, especially the front 
pair, completely modified for digging; fore-feet normally 
turned outwards, instead of downwards, very broad and flat, 
and furnished with large, nail-like claws, their breadth being 
increased by a large sickle-like bone on the inner side. All 
the bones of the fore-limb very short ; and the collar-bones 
frequently as broad as long. Tail short; no external ears; 
eyes very minute and entirely hidden by the fur, which is 
short, soft, and velvety, with its component hairs set vertically 
in the skin, and not directed backwards. Usually forty-four 
teeth,* of which in each jaw three pairs are incisors, one 
canines, four pre-molars, and three molars ; incisors chisel-like 
and set in a semi-circular row ; upper canines long, conical, and 
inserted in the jaw by double roots ; the lower canines similar 
in character to the incisors. 

Moles are among the few existing placental Mammals which 
retain the typical number of forty-four teeth, though this fea- 
ture was not uncommon among their extinct ancestors of the 
early portion of the Tertiary period. 

The True Moles are an exclusively Old World group, where 
they are represented by eight species, which are confined to 
Europe and Asia. In addition to the Common Mole, a second 
species is found in Europe to the south of the Alps ; while ot 
the Asiatic forms only two occur to the southward of the 

• In some species the first pair of upper pre-molars is- absent, thus 
reducing the number of teeth to forty-two. 

^4 Lloyd's natural history. 

the common mole. talpa europcea. 

Talpa europxa, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 73 (1766); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 115 (1874). 
Talpa vulgaris, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm. p. 19 (1846). 

Characters. — Tail about one-fourth or one-fifth the length of the 
head and body, slender, nearly of equal diameter throughout, 
and haired ; upper surface of hind feet thinly clothed with fur ; 
eyelids open. Fourth upper pre-molar tooth without distal 
internal basal process, and the corresponding lower tooth 
imaller than the first of the same series. General colour some 
shade of black, varying from bluish-black to sooty-black, but 
occasionally grey, cream-colour, or even white. Length of 
head and body about 5^ inches ; of tail, if inch. 

It may be noted that as the European Hedge-hog differs from 
all its congeners in the characters of its teeth, so the Common 
Mole is distinguished from all the other members of its genus 
in that its minute eyes are not covered with a continuous mem- 
brane ; and it is, therefore, capable of receiving impressions of 
light. In this respect it is accordingly a rather less specialised 
creature than its kindred ; and the existence of these perfect, 
although useless, eyes, is of itself a sufficient proof that Moles 
are descended from animals which lived on the surface of the 
earth, and that their completely subterranean habits have been 
gradually acquired. 

Although some shade of black, generally with a more or less 
well-marked greyish sheen, is the normal colour of the Mole, 
variations from this are by no means uncommon ; and Bell 
records grey, dark olive-brown, pied, yellowish-white, and 
wholly or partially orange Moles, while he notes some speci- 
mens with an orange patch on the chest, although elsewhere of 
the normal hue. Albino spetiimens are also from time to time 
met with ; while there is almost every transition between the 

MOLES. 65 

colours mentioned above. Piebald specimens appear to be the 
most uncommon of the normal variations. A white Mole with 
a red throat is on record ; and Mr. Harting mentions a speci- 
men captured in Fifeshire in 1880, which had a white head, 
while elsewhere it was of the normal colour. 

Distribution. — Although unknown in Ireland, the Mole ranges 
over the greater part of Europe and Asia north of the Hima- 
laya, occurring as far eastwards as Japan, aud it is also found in 
the Altai mountains. In England it is so universally distributed 
as to require no special mention ; and it probably occurs in 
most or all parts of Wales, being common even in the ex- 
treme west of Anglesea. Always more or less abundant in the 
Scottish lowlands, the Mole appears to have been formerly 
very rare or unknown in the more northern districts, but during 
the latter decades of the present century has been gradually 
extending its northward range. In Sutherlandshire, according 
to Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley, it is still steadily on the 
increase, having been very rare about 1 840 in Durness, where it 
is now common, as it is, in suitable localities, throughout Caith- 
ness. Although unknown in 1791 in the Lismore district, it 
subsequently made its way into the Kintyre isthmus of Argyll- 
shire, and is now found in many parts of that county. The 
writer last mentioned further states that " the Mole is said to 
have been accidentally introduced into Mull — where it is now 
quite common — about eighty years ago— say about 1808 — in a 
boat-load of earth brought from Morven. The earth was a 
peculiarly fine loam, intended for making the floor of a cottage 
when mixed with clay and smithy ashes." Quite recently it 
has made its appearance in the adjacent island of Ulva. It 
appears, however, still to be absent from the other islands. 
Similar testimony might be adduced as to the gradual spread 
of this animal in other northern counties of Scotland, but the 
foregoing is sufficient to show that ere long it will probably be 

5 • ^ 

66 Lloyd's natural history. 

found everywhere on the mainland, where suitable conditions 
for its peculiar mode of life exist. The increase of cultivation 
and of communication between remote districts will probably 
account for this widening distribution of the Mole ; for it is 
almost impossible to believe that its introduction into certain 
districts can be due, as in the case of Mull, to accidental im- 
portation by human agency. 

In Ireland, as already mentioned, the Mole is quite unknown. 

Geologically, the Mole is a comparatively ancient animal, 
dating at least from the period of the so-called forest-bed of the 
Norfolk coast, which is assigned by some geologists to the top 
of the Pliocene, and by others to the base of the succeeding 
Pleistocene epoch. 

HaMts.— Every writer who has described the organisation 
and habits of the Mole has commented on the admirable 
adaptation of the creature to the necessities of its surroundings. 
Passing nearly the whole of its time beneath the ground, the 
Mole leads an existence of continuous labour — an existence to 
our ideas which appears dull enough, but which nevertheless 
may not be devoid of enjoyment of a certain kind. So swift 
and rapid, when in suitable soil, are its subterranean move- 
ments, that the creature has been not inaptly said to swim 
through the earth. Such rapidity of movement through such 
a resisting medium necessarily entails, however, an enormous 
drain on the Mole's vital powers, to sustain which a vast and 
almost continuous supply of food is essential to its well-being. 
Hence even a very short period of deprivation of food speedily 
results in death. 

As special instances of adaptation we may note the following 
structural peculiarities in the Mole. In the first place, the 
cylindrical body, sharp muzzle, and short limbs, present the 
'east possible impediments to the creature's subterranean pro- 

MOLES. 67 

gress ; while the absence of external ears, and the rudimentary 
condition of the eyes, are likewise subservient to the same pur- 
pose. Not less important is the vertical position of the hairs of 
the fur, which admits of either backward or forward progress in 
the tunnel with equal facility. Then, again, the broad, shovel- 
like fore-paws, armed with strong claws and turned outwards, 
are the very best instruments we could possibly conceive for 
tunnelling and shovelling backwards the earth; these being 
worked by muscles of immense power, attached to bones which, 
by their shortness and width, are calculated to afford the 
maximum development of strength. Lastly, we must not omit 
to mention the long, pointed, and mobile snout, furnished 
with an extra bone at its tip, and the large series of small but 
sharp teeth, which are equally well adapted for seizing and re- 
taining the worms and grubs which form its food. 

Regarding the general mode of life of the species, we may 
quote from the summary given by Macgillivray in the original 
edition of the " Naturalist's Library." He says that its food 
consists mainly of earth-worms, "in quest of which it burrows 
its way in the soil, extending its subterranean excursions in 
proportion as its prey diminishes in number ; but the excessive 
and unremitting labour required in this pursuit, were it carried 
on at random, is rendered unnecessary by an instinct which 
compels it to excavate a series of runs or galleries, along which 
it can walk without inconvenience, and from different points 
of which it proceeds, forcing its way into the hitherto unper- 
forated soil. In forming its subterranean paths, it works with 
its fore-feet, which, as has been seen, are admirably adapted 
for scraping away the earth and throwing it backwards, pro- 
pelling itself forward by its hind-feet, which are disposed in the 
usual manner. When it has thus excavated an extended series 
of walks, it can run along them to any point without difficulty, 
and finds security in them from the pursuit of many enemies, 

F 2 

68 Lloyd's natural history. 

although man employs them as a sure means for entrapping 
it." * 

After mentioning that we are mainly indebted to the obser- 
vations made many years ago by Le Court for our knowledge 
of the construction of the Mole's runs and habitation, the 
author proceeds to say that "each individual appropriates 
to himself a district, or space of ground, in which he forms 
a kind of fortress under a hillock in some secure place, as 
beneath a bank or near the roots of a tree. In this eminence, 
of which the earth is rendered very compact, is formed a 
circular gallery, communicating with a smaller gallery, placed 
above it, by several passages. On the level of the lower, or 
larger, gallery is a roundish cavity, or chamber, communicating 
with the upper by three passages. From the outer gallery 
branch off a number of passages, which run out to a variable 
extent, and, forming an irregular curve, terminate in what may 
be called the high-road, which is a long passage proceeding 
from the outer circular gallery, and at the same time communi- 
cating directly with the central cavity. It extends to the 
farthest limit of the domain, is of somewhat greater diameter 
than the body of the animal, has its walls comparatively 
compact, and communicates with the numerous passages by 
which the domain is intersected. By this principal passage the 
Mole visits the various parts of its hunting-ground, burrowing 
to either side, and throwing out the earth here and there, so as 
to form heaps or mole-hills. As it traverses this path several 

* I am indebted to Mr. Aubyn Trevor-Battye for some observations on 
British Animals, which will be read with interest. Concerning the pre- 
sent species he writes as follows : — " With regard to the question of vision, 
I can state that a Mole which I kept for some time in captivity would take 
worms from my fingers. When I swung a worm about in front of his face 
he would — nose in air — follow it backward and forward with his head. 
Whether he saw it or only smelt it (in which case his quickness of scent 
was simply marvellous), I am unable to say." 

MOI.ES. 69 

times daily, it is in it that snares are laid for its capture. The 
excavations vary in their distance from the surface according to 
the nature of the soil and other circumstances. In deep, rich 
earth they are sometimes nearly a foot in depth, while in 
gravelly or clayey ground, covered with a thin layer of soil, they 
are often scarcely an inch. Often, also, the Mole burrows 
quite close to the surface of rich, loose soil which has been 
ploughed, and sometimes runs along it, forming merely a 
groove or trench. The principal object of its pursuit is the 
earth-worm, but it also feeds on larvae, and occasionally 
devours frogs, lizards, and even birds.* Its voracity is excessive, 
insomuch that hunger urges it to exhibit a kind of fury, and it 
is found to perish in a very short time if deprived of food. It 
drinks frequently, and forms passages to brooks or ponds in 
the vicinity of its residence. During winter, when the cold forces 
the worms deeper into the ground, it follows them in their re- 
treats, driving its galleries and alleys to a corresponding depth." 
On the above notes Mr. Trevor-Battye observes : — " Mac- 
gillivray's remarks require some modification. It is not strictly 
true that ' each individual appropriates to itself a district,' for 
Moles have often, I think generally, a common system of runs 
used by various individuals from many diiferent points. Thus 
I have known as many as twenty-four full-grown Moles to be 
taken in a single trap in one position, in a single run through a 
gateway.'' As to its feeding on larvae, he says : — " A curious 
case came under my notice where some Moles had made a raid 
on the larvae of cockchafers. Here they had been working 
half their time above ground, driving short shafts down into 
the roots of the sward, so. that a friend thought at first that 
Rooks had been at work." 

* We have ventured to make a verbal alteration in this and a subsequen 
sentence, where statements given hypothetically are now known to be 

70 Lloyd's natural history. 

It may be mentioned here that, as a general rule, the Mole 
exhibits a marked preference for light soils, such as old 
pastures, warrens, downs, or recently manured ploughed lands, 
in all of which the earth can be tunnelled with comparative 
facility. Occasionally, however, it frequents clayey or barren 
districts. A peculiarity in its habits is that it works during the 
day at certain regular hours, which are observed with extra- 
ordinary punctuality. Continuing his account, Macgillivray 
observes that during the winter the Mole " retires at intervals 
to its fortress, in which it has formed a bed of dry leaves 
or grass, to enjoy a profound repose ; but in spring it quits 
this habitation, and rests during the warm season in a mole- 

" On the surface, to which it sometimes makes its way, if 
can run with considerable speed, but, if not in the immediate 
vicinity of its hole, is easily overtaken. It is more especially 
in the early part of the day that it is thus occasionally met 
with. When a meadow which it has frequented has been 
inundated, the Mole has been seen to swim with great vigour ; 
and instances are known of its making its way to islands in 
lakes and rivers. 

" The males are more numerous than the females, and the 
former sometimes engage in desperate combats. The number 
of young produced at a birth varies from three to seven, 
and the period of parturition is from April to the end of 
summer ; but whether more than one litter has been produced 
in a year has not been ascertained. The nest is generally 
found beneath a large mole-hill, and is formed of a mass 
of leaves, grass, fibrous roots, and other vegetable sub- 

With regard to the appearance of the Mole above ground, 
Mr. Trevor-Battye sends me a note : — " This often happens 
in the evening, especially in July and August, when the animals 

MOLES. 71 

are searching for white slugs and larvae of Tipulx, &c., in 
damp places, and this always occurs when the season is dry. 
Moles pair as early as February and commonly in March, and 
any mole-catcher will tell you that the latter month is the best 
time for Moles to run." 

In reference to the number of young produced at a birth, it 
may be added that four or five is the most usual complement, 
as few as three or as many as six being rare ; and we are not 
aware whether more than one instance of the occurrence of as 
many as seven is on record. The period of gestation is given 
by Bell at two months or more, while by Jesse it is set down 
at one month only. Naked, and of course blind, at birth, 
the young are able to follow their parents in about five 
weeks, when they have attained nearly three-fourths their 
full dimensions. 

The voracity of Moles almost surpasses belief, their stomachs 
being frequently found absolutely crammed full of worms, 
some of which show every appearance of having been swallowed 
whole. Writing of a captive specimen, Alston states that it 
would devour an amount of food which he estimated as exceed- 
ing its own weight in the course of a single day. During the 
first three days of its captivity it consumed three or four dozen 
earth-worms, a large frog, a quantity of raw beef, the body of a 
turkey-poult, and part of a second, as well as one or two black 

From the testimony of more than one person well acquainted 
with their habits, it has been thought that, in some cases at 
least. Moles will accumulate a store of worms for use during 
those portions of the winter when the ground is too hard for 
tunnelling, except at great depths. These are said to be kept 
in a basin-shaped cavity in clayey soil, with the bottom beaten 
hard so as to prevent the worms from making their escape by 
boring; while according to one statement the worms themselves 


are partially disabled by a bite from the teeth of their captor. 
More information is, however, required as to these stores of 
worms, and when they are consumed. In regard to the latter 
point, Mr. Harting observes that it seems doubtful whether 
the worms could live long in such a state of confinement, for 
if unable to make their escape they themselves would die for 
lack of nourishment. There is, moreover, another circumstance 
connected with the winter-life of a Mole. Thus, if it be true 
that during a frost the animal descends lower down in the soil 
until it comes to the level where worms are to be found, we 
should like to know how it disposes of the soil dug out in 
making its tunnels, as it would be clearly impossible to 
throw up the ordinary mole-hills through the frozen earth 

Concerning these worm-basins, Mr. Trevor-Battye writes to 
me : — " I strongly doubt this statement. I think it has arisen 
from the fact that during the winter the Mole does drive down 
tunnels almost, and sometimes quite, perpendicularly. These 
are frequently found to end (sometimes at depths of four feet) 
in a circular expansion, of which the inside is certainly smooth. 
I have always supposed that Moles lay up for the winter in 
these ; but the whole question of their hibernation wants making 
clear. As you dig down to these chambers with a spade, you 
will notice that all the earth is not removed from the shaft, nor 
is this necessary. A Mole can work backwards and forwards 
underground quite easily, without removing earth in the form 
of a mole-hill. There are numerous questions regarding the 
history of the Mole still to be settled. Why, for instance, 
should this species and a Badger die from a slight tap on the 

Some difference of opinion has long obtained as to whether 
the Mole is injurious or beneficial to the agriculturist, al- 
though it is pretty generally admitted that to the gardener it ig 

MOLES. 73 

an unmitigated nuisance. On this subject Macgillivray writes 
that " by destroying vast quantities of worms and grubs, the 
Mole may be considered as conferring a benefit on the agricul- 
turist; and by perforating the soil, and throwing up the 
earth, it has been by some alleged to improve the natural pas- 
tures, especially in hilly districts, but in the cultivated grounds, 
and particularly in gardens and nurseries, the injury which it 
inflicts by its incessant labour is more obvious than any benefit 
that is derived from them, and, in fact, sometimes very great." 
. This was written in pre-Darwinian days, when the importance 
of worms in improving and renovating the soil was quite un- 
recognised, and it is therefore perhaps more than an open ques- 
tion whether their destruction is an advantage. On the other 
hand, the quantity of grubs and other noxious creatures which 
the Mole consumes undoubtedly renders the creature service- 
able to the farmer. On the whole, some of those best entitled 
to give an opinion on the subject, are in favour of not destroy- 
ing the Moles on agricultural land. It is, however, essential 
that on pasture land the mole-hills should be knocked about 
and spread in the early spring, before the grass is allowed to 
stand for hay, when the fine earth of which they are composed 
forms an excellent top-dressing. 

The Mole has several enemies which do not reHect whether 
or not it is valuable to man, and kill it ruthlessly whenever they 
have the opportunity, the chief of these being Weasels, Owls, 
and Buzzards. That Weasels kill Moles has been demonstrated 
on more than one occasion, when they have been seen carry- 
ing off the bodies of their victims ; while in the case of Owls 
the occurrence of the remains of Moles among their castings 
affords decisive evidence. In the case of the Buzzard, Mr. 
Harting remarks that the bird, "in the vicinity of mole-hills 
will take up a position on some tree and watch until it sees a 
Mole working near the surface, when it will instantly drop 

74 Lloyd's natural history. 

down and seize it. In this way {i.e., by watching and jumping 
down) Buzzards destroy numbers of Rats and other vermin, for 
which good service they deserve to be protected, instead of 
being shot and trapped at every opportunity." 

In conclusion, it may be mentioned that in the north of 
England the Mole is still very often des'gnated by its Saxon 
name of Mouldiwarp (or earth-turner), while in the west it is 
more commonly known as the Want, and in the midland 
counties as \he IToont, or Woont ; these names being doubtless 
synonyms derived from the old Danish designation Wand. 


Different as is the appearance of the Moles from the Shrews, 
the two groups, as already stated, are so closely connected by 
the Desmans, that we have to resort to details of structure to 
differentiate them. The Shrews may, however, be distinguished 
by the circumstance that the skull has no bony zygomatic 
arches, or cheek-bones, and that its auditory bulla, at the base 
of the region of the internal ear, is imperfectly, instead of fully, 
ossified. A more ready means of recognising a member of 
the present Family is afforded by the characters of the first 
pair of incisor teeth, which, in both jaws are very much 
larger than any of the others. In the upper jaw these teeth 
are curved and hook-like, with a more or less strongly marked 
basal cusp on the hinder edge ; while in the lower jaw they 
are elongated and project nearly horizontally forwards, some- 
times with a slight upward curvature at the tip. Canine teeth 
are totally wanting in the lower jaw, and in the upper they are 
similar in character to the outer incisors and anterior pre- 
molars, so that a Shrew has no tooth which can be termed a 
tusk. In the lower jaw there are invariably six pairs of teeth, 
of which the first two are incisors, the third a pre-molar, and 





the remaining three molars. On the other hand, in the upper 
jaw the number is variable, ranging from seven to ten pairs. 

The Family, which contains a large number of representatives, 
has a wider geographical distribution than any other of the 
Order, ranging over the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, 
Africa and North America, as well as many of their islands. 
In habits, most of the Shrews are terrestrial, although a few, 
and among them one British species, are aquatic. 

In popular estimation these animals (as their common 
designation of Shrew-Mice indicates) are often confounded 
with Mice, although the two groups have not the most remote 
affinity with one another. A glance at the dentition will, of 
course, at once serve to decide to which group any given 
specimen pertains. 

Sorex, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 73 (1766). 

Teeth thirty-two in number, with their tips coloured reddish- 
brown ; ear well-developed ; tail long, and covered with more 
or less nearly equal hairs ; limbs normal, and adapted for 
walking. Habits terrestrial. 

The genus is represented by a large number of species, 
ranging over Northern Africa, Europe, Asia north of the 
Himalaya, and North America, but unknown in India and 
the adjacent regions. 


Sorex vulgaris, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 73 (1766) ; 

Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 141 (1874). 
Sorex araneus, Bell, British Quadrupeds p. 109 (1837, nee 

Sorex tetragonurus, Herman, Obs. Zool. p. 48 (1870). 
{Plate VI.) 
Characters — Ear small, rounded, and scarcely projecting 

76 Lloyd's natural history. 

above the level of the fur; tail, although somewhat variable 
in length, always shorter than the body, four-sided, with the 
angles rounded off, its width nearly equal throughout, and its 
whole length clothed with short, close, and somewhat stiff 
hairs. Fur usually of a reddish mouse-colour on the upper- 
parts, and greyish beneath. Length of head and body, 2^ 
inches ; of tail, i Y^ inch, or rather more. 

In common with the other members of the genus to which 
it belongs, the Shrew is an elegant little creature, with thick, 
soft fur, a long, slender and pointed muzzle, and a short body 
— the latter being more or less arched when the animal is at 
rest, though capable of being depressed when in motion. Al- 
though the term "reddish mouse-colour" perhaps best expresses 
the more usual tint of the fur ol the upper-parts, there is a 
considerable amount of individual variation in respect of 
colour, some examples tending to a more decidedly rufous 
hue, while others incline to blackish. The grey of the under- 
parts is likewise variable in shade, being in some cases darker, 
and in others lighter than usual, while it has been known to 
show a yellowish tinge. Not very uncommonly the fur has a 
faint suspicion of white, giving a somewhat speckled appear- 
ance ; and spotted or pied Shrews have been met with. 

In the older works on British zoology the common Shrew 
was described under the name of Sorex araneus, under the 
impression that it was the same as the so-called Spider-Shrew 
of the Continent. The latter, as was pointed out by the late 
Rev. Leonard Jenyns (Blomefield), who contributed so largely 
to our knowledge of British vertebrated animals, is, however, a 
totally different creature, and is now assigned by zoologists 
to a distinct genus. 

In size the common Shrew may be roughly compared to an 
ordinary Mouse, although in build it is more slender and 
delicate. On each side of the body is situattd a gland 


covered by two rows of coarse hairs, which secretes the well- 
known odour so characteristic of Shrews in general, and which, 
in one Indian species, is so strongly developed as to render 
uneatable any article of food with which the creature may 
have come in contact. 

Distribution. — The common Shrew is one of the comparativeh' 
few Mammals which have an almost circumpolar distribution, 
its range extending from England across Europe and Asia, 
north of the Himalaya into North America. It is, however, 
not a little remarkable that an animal with such an exceedingly 
wide geographical range should be totally unknown in Ireland. 
In England and Wales it appears to be universally distributed, 
and it likewise ranges throughout the mainland of Scotland. 
Although it has been recorded from lona, it now appears 
that throughout the Hebrides the genus is represented only by 
the Lesser Shrew. Fossil remains, originally assigned to the 
Water-Shrew, appear to indicate the existence of the present 
and perhaps also the next species in the Norfolk forest-bed, 
which, as we have seen, is at least as old as the early part of 
the Pleistocene epoch. 

Habits. — Nocturnal and retiring in its habits, the Shrew is 
but seldom seen in a living slate, although in summer even- 
ings its shi ill squeaking cry may often be heard in woods, hedge- 
rows, and dry meadows, which are its favourite haunts. We 
say in a living state advisedly, since, in the autumn, numbers of 
dead Shrews are often to be seen on garden-paths and lanes, 
which have succumbed to a mortality, the cause of which is 
by no means clear. During the summer months these little 
creatures form well-marked runs among the stalks of grass of 
meadows ; and, although they are generally found in those in 
which the soil is dry, they are by no means wanting in damp 
and marshy situations. During the winter they retire beneath 
the roots of trees or bushes, to the deserted holes of other 

78 Lloyd's natural history. 

small Mammals, or other secure nooks, where they pass the 
cold months in a state of profound torpor. Although their 
chief food consists of worms, insects, and grubs, they also con- 
sume many of the smaller slugs and snails, while Jesse states 
that they will occasionally kill and eat young frogs. In the 
spring the female Shrew (perhaps with the aid of her mate) 
constructs of grass, leaves, and other herbage, a dome-shaped 
nest, with an entrance on one side, which is generally placed 
in a hedge-bank or some hollow in the grass. Here in due 
course she usually brings forth from five to seven naked and 
blind young, although occasionally there may be as many as 
ten in a litter. The breeding-season extends from the end of 
April to early in August. In disposition the Shrew is one of 
the most combative and pugnacious of animals ; and mfiny 
fights, probably between rival males, terminate fatally ; while, 
if two or more of these animals be confined in a cage or box, 
they invariably fight to the bitter end. 

It might be supposed that to such combats are due the 
number of dead Shrews so often encountered in autumn, 
although it is pretty evident that their death is due to some 
other cause. It has been suggested that Owls and Cats, which 
are supposed to kill, but not to eat. Shrews, are the cause of the 
destruction ; but it is now ascertained that Shrews are eaten 
by the former, while from the situation in which their bodies 
are frequently found, it is scarcely likely that Cats are 
the murderers. In addition to those destroyed by Owls, it is 
said that a certain number of Shrews fall victims to the 
voracity of their cousin the Mole. 

Perfectly harmless to man, both as regards his person, his 
cattle, and his crops, the Shrew was long the victim of a 
curious superstition, as is illustrated in a well-known passage 
from the writings of Gilbert White, which will bear one more 
repetition. Writing of his native village of Selborne, this 


charming and quaint chronicler observes : — " At the south 
corner of the plestor, or area, near the church, there stood, 
about twenty years ago a very old, grotesque, hollow pollard 
ash, which for ages had been looked upon with no small 
veneration as a Shrew-ash. Now a Shrew-ash is one whose 
twigs or branches, when applied to the limbs of cattle, will 
immediately relieve the pains which a beast suffers from the 
running of a Shrew-Mouse over the part afflicted ; for it is 
supposed that a Shrew-Mouse is of so baneful and deleterious 
a nature, that wherever it creeps over a beast, be it Horse, Cow, 
or Sheep, the suffering animal is afflicted with cruel anguish, 
and threatened with the loss of the hmb. Against this 
accident, to which they were continually liable, our provident 
forefathers always kept a Shrew-ash at hand, which, when once 
medicated, would maintain its virtue for ever. A Shrew-ash 
was made thus : Into the body of the tree a deep hole was 
bored with an auger, and a poor devoted Shrew-Mouse was 
thrust in alive, and plugged in, no doubt with several quaint 
incantations long since forgotten." One touch from the twig 
of such an ash was suflScient to restore an afflicted animal to 


Sorex minutus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 73 (1766). 
Sorex pygmceus, Pallas, Zoog. Rosso- Asiat. vol. i. p. 134 

(1831); Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed.. p. 148a 


Sorex rusticus, Jenyns, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1838 p. 417. 

Characters. — Size smaller than that of the last species, from 

which it may be distinguished by the following characters : The 

third upper incisor is not longer than the canine,* and by the - 

proportionately shorter fore-arm and foot. Tail usually shorter 

* It should be noted that the Shrews are now considered to differ from 
other placental Mammals in having four pairs of upper incisors, the outer- 
most being the one here reckoned as the canine. 

So Lloyd's natural history. 

than the head and body, with a thick covering of hairs. General 
colour brown above, and white on the under-parts. Length 
of head and body about 2 inches ; of tail, i yi inch.* 

Distribution. — Although far less abundant in England than 
the common Shrew, the Lesser Shrew has a wider distribution in 
the British Islands, being found not only in Ireland, but like- 
wise in the Hebrides, in both of which localities it is the sole 
representative of the genus. Elsewhere it extends through 
Europe and Northern Asia as far eastward as the island of 
Saghalin, although unknown in North America. In the north 
of England it appears to be even more uncommon than in the 

This Shrew is the smallest British Mammal, and indeed, with 
the exception of another member of the same genus, the smallest 
Mammal in Europe. In habits it appears to agree in all' re- 
spects with its larger relative. 

Crossopus, Wagler, Isis 1832 p. 275. 

Teeth thirty in number, with their summits stained brownish- 
red. Ears small, but not truncated ; tail with a fringe of long 
hairs on its lower surface, and the feet also fringed. Habits 

The genus is represented solely by the under-mentioned 


Sorex fodiens, Pallas, in Schreber's Saugethiere, vol. iii. p. S7i 
(1778) ; Bell, British Quadrupeds p. 115 (1837). 

Sorex remifer, Geoffr. Ann. Mus. vol. xvii. p. 182 (181 1); 
Bell, British Quadrupeds p. 119 (1837). 

Sorex daube?itonii, Geoffroy, loc. cit. 

* Mr. De Winton says that the best distinctive character for recognising 
the species is the extremely small size of the teeth, which require a lens to 
detect them. 







Sorex bicolor, Shaw, Nat. Miscell. vol. ii. pi. 55 (1791). 
Sorex ciliatus, Sowerby, Brit. Miscell. p. 103 pi. xlix. (1805). 
Crossopus fodiens, Waaler, Isis 1832, p. 275; Bell, British 

Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 149 (1874). 
Crossopus remifer, Wagler, torn. cit. 

Amphisorex pennanti at A. linneaiius. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist. vol. ii. p. 287 (1838). 

(Plate VII.) 
Characters. — Larger than either of the British species of Sorex, 
with the tail about two-thirds the length of the head and body. 
In colour, typically black above and white beneath, with a 
sharp division between the two, but frequently with the black 
of the back extending to a portion or the whole of the inferior 
surface, while in some cases the latter may be tinged with 
rusty. The stiff fringing hairs of the tail and feet white. 
Length of head and body about 3^ inches ; of tail, 2ili5- inches, 
The great variation in the colouring of the Water-Shrew gave 
rise to the idea that there were two British representatives of 
the genus, although it is now well ascertained that such varia- 
tions are merely individual. 

DistriTration. — The Water-Shrew is met with in suitable 
localities in many parts of Europe, whence it extends eastwards 
through Northern Asia as far as the Altai Mountains. Through- 
out most districts in England and Wales it is far from uncommon 
in the neighbourhood of brooks and streams, although, from the 
nature of its habits, it is not often seen, unless special search be 
made. According to the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, although 
they seem to be rare in the Lake district, yet the number of 
specimens killed by Cats, together with the presence of their 
remains among the dkbris rejected by Owls, shows that this is 
not really the case. Both the dark and pied varieties are met 
with in this part of the country. In Scotland, as a whole, the 
Water-Shrew appears to be a less common animal than in 

5 "^ 

82 Lloyd's natural history. 

England. In Sutherland it is, however, said to be far from rare, 
although the dark variety appears to be less common there 
than in other parts of the country. Hitherto its presence has 
not been detected in the Hebrides or any of the other Scotch 
islands ; and it is quite unknown in Ireland. 

Habits. — Residing in long winding burrows excavated by itself 
in the banks of rivulets, brooks, ditches, or ponds, the Water- 
Shrew is fully as active in the water as a Water- Vole or 
Otter. In search of food, writes Macgillivray, " it makes 
excursions upon the water, and dives with ease to the bottom. 
In swimming, it presents a singular appearance, its sides being 
apparently expanded, its body lying so lightly as to be two- 
thirds out of the water, its tail extended along the surface ; and 
it paddles away seemingly with little effort, scarcely causing a 
ripple, although its speed is considerable. I have seen it 
sporting as it were in the water, several individuals swimming 
about in different directions, sometimes shooting along in 
curves at an accelerated rate. It is a very timorous animal, 
and on the least apprehension of danger, dives and gets close 
to the bank, or swims directly to its hole." 

An earlier writer, Dovaston, describes the graceful move- 
ments of this Shrew as follows. Lying close to the bank of the 
pool in which one of these creatures was disporting itself, he 
writes : — " I repeatedly marked it glide from the bank, under 
water, and bury itself in the mass of leaves at the bottom ; — 
I mean the leaves that had fallen off the trees in autumn, and 
which lay very thick over the mud. It very shortly returned, 
and entered the bank, occasionally putting its long sharp nose 
out of the water, and paddling close to the edge. This it 
repeated at very frequent intervals, from place to place, seldom 
going more than two yards from the side, and always returning 
in about half a minute. I presume it sought and obtained 
some insect or food among the rubbish and leaves, and retired 


to consume it. Sometimes it would run a little on the surface, 
and sometimes timidly and hastily come ashore, but with the 

greatest caution, and instantly plunge in again 

WhenWinder water, it looks grey, on account of the pearly 
clusters of minute air-bubbles that adhere to its fur, and 
bespangle it all over. It swims very rapidly; and, though 
it appears to dart, its very nimble wriggle is clearly discernible." 

The food of the Water-Shrew consists mainly of various 
kinds of water-insects, their larvse, crustaceans, and fresh-water 
snails. In the spring it appears to be specially fond of the 
larvse of the Caddis-fly j and in searching for fresh-water Shrimps 
the animal is in the habit of turning over the stones at the 
bottom of clear streamlets. It will also prey at times on the 
fry- of fish, one of the Duke of Sutherland's gamekeepers having 
watched one of these Shrews attack a shoal of young Salmon 
which had just been liberated from the hatching-house into a 
small brook. This fish-eating propensity is likewise proved 
from the observations of Mr. Buckley ; while there is also 
evidence that this Shrew will at times eat the flesh of dead 
mammals or birds. Mr. Trevor-Battye tells me that a colony 
of these animals, which he found in Kent, inhabited a garden- 
pond for a great number of years, where they showed a great 
partiality for frog-spawn. 

The long, winding burrow already alluded to, which is ex- 
panded at its extremity into a rounded chamber, serves not 
only as a dwelling-place, but likewise as a nursery. In this 
grass-lined chamber the female, early in May, gives birth to 
from five to ten young ones ; five or six being apparently the 
most usual number. When able to run about, the young are 
described as most sportive and amusing little creatures, chas- 
ing one another up and down the small paths radiating from 
the entrance to the burrow. 

It is said that at times the Water-Shrew will seek its food, 

G 2 

84 Lloyd's natural history. 

which probably then consists mainly of terrestrial insects, 
at a considerable distance from the water. That it cannot 
long exist without its favourite element is, however, evident 
from a statement quoted by the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, that in 
the Lake district during the droughts of 1859 and 1863 these 
animals suffered severely. 

Although the Water-Shrew was not definitely recorded by 
naturalists as a native of Caithness till the year 1872, yet there 
seems a strong probability that it was long known to the in- 
habitants of that county under the somewhat remarkable name 
oi Lavellaii. What was really the animal thus designated was 
long a disputed point, although Pennant inclined to the 
opinion that it was the one under consideration, his view being 
confirmed by Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley. Othe^ 
writers have, however, assigned the name to a Lizard. That 
the Water-Shrew does inhabit Caithness was proved during a 
flood in the autumn of 1872, when several were seen carried 
down the river near Wick on bundles of corn and hay. 


Formerly included in the same order as the Insectivores, the 
Carnivora form a very well-defined natural group, which, so 
far as existing forms are concerned, may be distinguished from 
the preceding Order by the following characters. In the case 
of the more typical representatives of the Order, a pair of 
cheek-teeth is specially modified to act one against the other 
with a scissor-like action, at least the anterior outer portion of 
both the upper and lower tooth being converted into a cutting 
blade ; this blade in some cases, as in the Cats, forming the 
whole of the tooth, while in others, as among the Bears, it 
constitutes but a small moiety thereof. On the other hand, in 
those members of the Order such as the Seals and Walruses, 
which do not possess these specially modified and so-called 


flesh-teeth, and are aquatic and mainly marine in their habits, 
the limbs are converted into paddle-like flippers. Accordingly, 
we may define the Order as including Carnivorous Mammals 
having either a pair of specially modified flesh-teeth in each 
jaw, or with both pairs of limbs converted into flippers. 

In connection with these flesh-teeth, it may be observed 
that while in the upper jaw the pair thus named form the last 
of the pre-molar series, that is to say, they are preceded by 
milk-teeth, in the lower jaw they form the first of the molar 
series, or those which have no such predecessors. 

Mentioning a few of the leading characteristics of the Order 
generally, it may be observed that the feet frequently have five 
toes each, and never less than four ; such toes (except in the 
case of some of the Seals, where they are reduced to more or 
less well-developed nails) being furnished with claws. In no 
case is the first toe of either the fore- or hind-limbs capable of 
being opposed to the other. The teeth are always divided 
into incisors, canines, pre-molars, and molars; the incisors 
almost always comprising three pairs in each jaw, of which the 
outermost are larger than either of the others, and the canines 
being well-developed and assuming the form of distinct tusks. 
The pre-molars always have sharply-pointed crowns, and in 
some cases, as in the Seals, the whole of the cheek-teeth are 
thus acuminate. Among the Bears and Badgers, however, the 
molar teeth (with the exception of the first, or flesh-tooth, in 
the lower jaw) have the crowns broad and flattened, and more 
or less adapted for grinding ; although in such cases they never 
have folds of enamel penetrating the crown. Owing to the 
fact that the lower jaw is articulated to the skull by means of 
a half-cylindrical hinge, or condyle, the motions of the jaws are 
limited to a vertical plane, and they are thus incapable of a 
lateral grinding action. In all Carnivores the stomach is simple; 
and the teats are placed on the abdomen. Unlike the Insecti- 

86 Lloyd's natural history. 

vera, the collar-bones, or clavicles, are never complete, that is 
to say, they never articulate with both the shoulder-blade and 
the breast-bone, while they are frequently altogether wanting. 
In place of the smooth brains of the Insectivora, the Carnivora 
have the cerebral hemispheres indented by complex convolu- 

The typical, or terrestrial. Carnivores (inclusive of the Otters), 
have an almost cosmopolitan distribution, although unknown in 
New Guinea, and represented in Australia only by the Dingo. 
The members of the group now living in Britain belong mostly 
to the MustelidcR ; other families being represented only by the 
Fox and Wild Ca't. The Seals and their allies are mainly 
characteristic of the colder seas. 


With the exception of Australasia and Madagascar, the Cats 
are cosmopolitan in their distribution, and are distinguished 
from other Carnivores by the following collective characters. 

In the skull the hollow bone found at the base of the hinder 
region below the entrance into the internal ear is bladder-like, 
rounded, and divided into two chambers by a vertical internal 
partition, while the tube leading into the chamber of the 
internal ear is very short. The head is characterised by its 
short and rounded form, and the small number and specialised 
character of the cheek-teeth, of which there are only three or 
four pairs in the upper jaw, and three in the lower. Of these, 
the flesh-teeth are the most characteristic ; that of the upper 
jaw consisting of a large three-lobed external blade, and a 
rather small inner tubercle situated at the internal front angle 
of the tooth, while the opposing lower tooth is simply a 
cutting two-lobed blade, without any tubercular heel or ledge 
at its hinder extremity, or any trace of a cusp on its inner 
border. Behind the upper flesh-tooth, which is the last of the 

CATS. 87 

pre-molar series, there is a minute transversely elongated 
molnr, which appears to be quite functionless ; while in the 
lower jaw the flesh-tooth, which is here a molar, forms the last 
of the whole series. The toes, of which there are five in the 
front, and four in the hind, limb, are provided with long, 
sharp, and curved claws, capable, except in the Hunting- 
Leopard, of being completely retracted within protecting 

Skull of Wild Cat. 

sheaths. In the intestine the blind appendage, or caecum, is 

In walking, these animals tread solely on their toes, which 
are provided on the soles with soft pads, and they are accord- 
ingly described as digitigrade. 

In habits they differ from the Dogs and Foxes in that they 
never combine in packs for the purpose of hunting their prey, 
while thay are mostly expert climbers. 

Felis, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 60 (1766). 

Including the whole of the representatives of the family, 
with the exception of the Hunting-Leopard {Cynmlurus\ this 
genus is characterised by the complete retractibility of the 

88 Lloyd's natural history. 

claws, and the full development of the tubercle on the inner 
side of the upper flesh-tooth. 


Felis caius, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. 1. p. 62 (1766); 
Bell's British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 220 (1874). 
(.Plate VIII.) 

Characters. — General colour yellowish-grey, with an inter- 
rupted longitudinal dark stripe down the back, two dusky 
bands on the cheeks, and numerous obscure transverse stripes 
of the same colour on the body and limbs ; tail of uniform thick- 
ness throughout, eqiul in length to less than half the head and 
body, and ringed and tipped with black. Length of head and 
body of male about 34 inches; of tail, 11^ inches. 

In general aspect, form, and coloration, the Wild Cat rfe- 
S3mbles large "Tabbies" of the domestic breed; many speci- 
mens of the latter which have escaped from captivity and 
taken to a roving life in the woods, being frequently mistaken 
by the inexperienced for true Wild Cats. From the domestic 
species, the Wild Cat differs, however, by the proportionately 
longer body and limbs, and the shorter and thicker tail ; the 
fur being also more abundant than in the old original English 
breed, when not crossed with the Persian. Conforming in 
general external configuration and appearance to the type 
characteristic of the great majority of the members of the 
Family to which it belongs, the Wild Cat has the general 
ground-colour of the soft and long fur yellowish-grey, tend- 
ing in some individuals to pale reddish-brown. In addition 
to some black spots near the muzzle, the face is marked 
with two black stripes, commencing between the eyes, and 
gradually increasing in width, and diverging as they pass 
backwards between the ears to the hinder part of the 
neck. Commencing between the shoulder-blades, a broad, 
irregular black or blackish longitudinal stripe traverses the 


whole length of the back, from which diverge numerous 
paler transverse bands, gradually becoming lighter in tint as 
they descend the flanks, until they are finally lost in the 
nearly white area of the under-parts. Usually the tail is 
ringed with nine black bands upon a grey ground ; the first 
five of these bands being the narrower, and not meeting 
below, while the terminal black area is the largest of all, 
being often as much as two inches in length ; it is at the same 
time the deepest in tint. Barred externally with horizontal 
bands of black, the limbs have their inner surface yellowish- 
grey, like the upper surfaces of the feet, while the soles of the 
latter are black. The claws are yellowish-grey. 

Writing in the volume on British Mammals in the original 
issue of the " Naturalist's Library " of the coloration of the 
hairs themselves, Macgillivray states that in the Wild Cat "the 
softer hairs or fur are, in general, of a pale purplish tint, and 
pale reddish at the extremity ; the longer hairs white at the 
base, then black, afterwards yellowish-red, with the tip black. 
Others, however, are first white, then black, yellowish-black, 
and finally reddish. There are a few very long white hairs on 
the loins inferiorly and laterally. On the white parts the hairs 
are of that colour from the base ; on the bright red inter-crural 
part they are for a short space at the base bluish. The ter- 
minal rings of the tail have the hairs entirely black, but the 
black hairs of the feet have their base paler." 

In addition to her considerably smaller dimensions, the 
female Wild Cat may be distinguished from the male by her 
generally paler coloration. 

Distribution. — Ranging over a considerable portion of Con- 
tinental Europe, namely, France, Germany, Poland, Switzer- 
land, Hungary, Southern Russia, Spain, Dalmatia, Greece, 
and part of Turkey, and thence extending eastwards into the 
forest regions of Northern Asia, the Wild Cat was formerly 


widely distributed in Britain, although it appears never to have 
been a native of Ireland. At the present day it is restricted 
only to the northern districts of our islands, and is there be- 
coming year by year more rare. This sole British representative 
of the feline family is proved, both by tradition and by the dis- 
covery of its fossilised remains in cavern and superficial de- 
posits, to have originally ranged over the whole of such parts ot 
England as were suited to its habits. Such remains have been 
discovered in the Pleistocene brick-earths of Grays, in Essex, 
in company with the remains of Mammoths, Hippopotami, 
Rhinoceroses, and other Mammals now either totally extinct, 
or long since banished from Britain to warmer climates. 
They also occur, in association with similar creatures, in the 
caves of Bleadon (in the Mendips), Cresswell Crags (Derby- 
shire), Kent's Hole (near Torquay), Ravenscliff (Glamorgan- 
shire), Uphill (in the Mendips), and the Vale of Clywd, while 
quite recently they have been discovered in a fissure in the 
Wealden rocks near Ightham, in Kent. 

When the Wild Cat disappeared from the south and mid- 
land counties of England, appears to be quite unknown ; but 
there is evidence that it lingered till a comparatively late date 
in the wooded parts of the Lake district, although it does not 
seem ever to have been numerous there during the historical 
period. According to the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, there is 
historical evidence of the existence of this animal in the Lake 
district in the year 1629, and again as late as 1754; while in 
the intervening period there are to be found in the parish 
records numerous entries of the sums disbursed for the de- 
struction of these marauders. At a still later date, Gilpin, when 
describing a tour made through the district in 1772, says that 
the mountains around Helvellyn, " and indeed many other 
parts of the country are frequented by the Wild Cat, which 
Mr. Pennant calls the British Tiger, and says it is the fiercest 


and most destructive beast we have. He speaks of it as being 
three or four times as large as a common Cat. We saw one 
dead, which had been hunted on the day we saw it ; and it 
seemed very little inferior, if at all, to the size he mentions." 
By 1795 Wild Cats seera to have become very scarce in the 
mountains of Cumberland and Westmoreland; and the last 
authentic occurrence of one of these animals in the district 
appears to have been in 1843, when a fine specimen is stated 
to have been killed near Loweswater. It is true that the 
occurrence of the Wild Cat has been recorded in these 
districts in quite recent years —even as late as 1871 — but all 
such records appear to have been based on large feral speci- 
mens of the Domestic Cat. 

In Scotland, though still lingering, the Wild Cat is rapidly 
decreasing in numbers. According to Messrs. Harvie-Brown 
and Buckley, while it has become extremely rare in Assynt 
during the last few years, it is still not uncommon in the Reay 
Forest, where it is preserved by the Duke of Westminster. 
These authors write that " one keeper in Assynt killed no less 
than twenty-six Wild Cats between 1869 and 1880, but of 
these only three during the last six years. Another keeper 
killed ten between 1870 and 1873, but no more until the 
winter of 1879-80, when he killed four, one of which is 
described as a monster." In Caithness the Wild Cat is still 
more rare, only four having been recorded as being killed 
during some ten years before 1880. Writing in 1882 of its 
present limits in Scotland, the former of the two authors just 
quoted said that the Wild Cat is "extinct all south and 
east of a line commencing, roughly speaking, at Oban, in 
Argyllshire, passing up the Brander Pass to Dalmally, follow- 
ing the boundary of Perthshire, and including Rannoch Moor. 
Thence continued north-eastward to the junction of the three 
counties of Perth, Forfar, and Aberdeen ; thence across the 


sources of the Dee northward to Tomintoul in Banffshire j and 
lastly from Tomintoul to th3 city of Inverness. Northwards 
and westwards of this line the animal still keeps a footing." 
In Argyll at this date it had receded to the more mountainous 
districts, where, however, it was not very uncommon. In the 
Hebrides the Wild Cat is unknown. 

Although existing in North Wales till a comparatively late 
period, it does not appear that the animal is now found within 
the limits of the Principality. 

In spite of many assertions to the contrary, it may now, 
owing to the careful investigations undertaken by Dr. 
Hamilton, be taken as certain that the Wild Cat was never 
an inhabitant of Ireland; all the records of its occurrence 
there being based on specimens of the Common Cat ■v^hich 
had reverted to a wild state, the latest of such supposed 
instances of the occurrence there of the true Wild Cat having 
been published in 1885. The first writer to dispute the 
existence of the Wild Cat in Ireland was the late William 
Thompson, of Belfast, who, in his " Natural History of 
Ireland," published in 1856, wrote that the creature in question 
" cannot be given with certainty as a native animal." Never- 
theless, in the second edition of Bell's " British Quadrupeds," 
which appeared in 1874, the statement from the first edition 
that the Wild Cat exists in " some parts of Ireland " was 
allowed to reappear without note or comment ; and it was not 
till the appearance of Dr. Hamilton's paper in the " Proceedings" 
of the Zoological Society for 1885 that the Wild Cat can be 
said to have been authoritatively removed from the list of Irish 

Habits. — Like the rest of its family, truculent and savage in 
its disposition, and endowed with, in proportion to its size, 
singular strength and activity of body, the Wild Cat is now the 
only really formidable wild animal to be met with in the 


British Islands, where it ahvays inhabits wooded, and generally 
mountainous, districts. In the most secluded and inaccessible 
parts of such regions the Wild Cat makes its lair, which may 
be situated either in some dense thicket, in the hollow stem of 
a decayed tree, or in a cleft or crevice of the rocks, and there it 
rears its young. Sometimes, however, the female selects in pre- 
ference the deserted hole of a Badger or Fox in which to litter ; 
and we have heard of the nest of one of the larger birds being 
chosen as a nursery. The young, which are born during the 
early summer, are usually five or six in number, and closely 
resemble ordinary domestic kittens. After being suckled by 
the female till such a period as milk no longer satisfies the 
needs of their appetites, they are fed by her on mice and small 
birds till such time as they are capable of taking care of them- 
selves and capturing larger prey, when they are freed from 
parental control. 

All who have had any experience of game and game- 
preserving are well acquainted with the enormous amount 
of damage that an ordinary Domestic Cat, which has taken 
either to occasional poaching or to a thoroughly wild life, will 
inflict on the denizens of their coverts, moors, or warrens. 
From its larger size and more powerful build, the Wild Cat is 
a still more serious enemy to game of all kinds ; while in the 
neighbourhood of human habitations it is likewise a foe to 
poultry and pigeons. No wonder, therefore, that game- 
keepers wage incessant war against the Wild Cat, shooting and 
trapping it whenever the opportunity presents itself ; indeed, 
the wonder is that the creature has managed to survive as long 
as it has. From the extreme boldness and ferocity of its 
disposition, an angry and wounded Wild Cat, when brought to 
bay, is no mean antagonist, even for an armed man ; and 
several instances are on record where these creatures have 
inflicted considerable harm on their assailants before finally 

94 Lloyd's natural history. 

Eelation to Domestic Cats. — It has long been a question whether 
the Domestic Cat is a descendant of the Wild Cat, or whether 
its origin is to be traced to some other species of the Felida. 
On the whole, the available evidence is in favour of the latter 
view ; and it is probable that the Caffre or Egyptian Cat 
(Felis caffra) of Northern Africa is the real progenitor of 
" Pussy." It is, however, a well-ascertained fact that the 
various smaller wild species of Cats will interbreed with the 
Domestic Cats of their respective countries ; and it is accord- 
inglyhighlyprobable that the prevalence of "tabbies' among the 
Domestic Cats of Europe generally, and England in particular, 
may be largely due to intercrossing with the Wild Cat. On the 
other hand, in India, where Domestic Cats are frequently 
spotted, it is quite likely that the whole race may have OBgin- 
ated from a wild spotted species very markedly distinct from 
the striped Caffre Cat. It may be added that during the 
Pleistocene period the range of the latter species extended into 
South-western Europe, so that there were ample opportunities 
for its domestication, even if this did not take place in 



Easily distinguished therefrom externally by their long, 
sharp muzzles, as well as general appearance, the Dog-tribe 
dilfer from the Felida in many important structural features. 
In the skull, for instance, the auditory bulla, although bladder- 
like and rounded, is not divided into two chambers by a 
vertical partition; while the teeth are much more numerous 
and different in form. Then, again, the blind appendage, or 
caecum, of the intestine is of considerable length, and generally 
folded upon itself. Except in the Hunting-Dog {Lycaon) of the 
Cape, the toes are numerically the same as in the Cats ; but 

WOLF. 95 

the claws are blunt and non-retractile, the feet being digiti- 

As regards the teeth, the upper flesh-tooth, or last pre- 
molar, differs from that of the Cats in having only two lobes to 
its external blade ; while the lower flesh-tooth, or first molar, 
has a large tubercular heel at its hinder extremity, and generally 
a small cusp on the inner side of the second lobe of its blade. 
The pre-molars (inclusive of the upper flesh-tooth) are four in 
number on each side of both the upper and lower jaws ; and 
there are two upper molars, of triangular form, and generally 
three lower molars, although in certain Asiatic species the 
hindmost of these, which is always minute, may be absent. 

Comprising several genera, the Family has an. even wider 
distribution than that of the Cats, since it is represented by a 
species in Australia, which may, however, have been introduced 
by human agency. In habits, many of the Canida differ from 
the FelidcB by hunting their prey in packs ; while none are 
climbers in the proper sense of the word. 

Canis, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 58 (1766). 

Although the Indian Wild Dogs are often separated as Cyclic 
while the Foxes are divided off under the title of Vulfcs, the 
genus Canis is here taken to include the great majoriiy of the 
members of the Family, with which its distribution is co- 
extensive. Under these circumstances it will be unnecessary 
in a work of the present nature to give its distinctive 


Canis lupus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 58 (1766). 

Characters. — Belonging to the typical group of the genus, in 
which the skull is characterised by the presence of air-cells in 


the region of the forehead, and the smooth and convex form 
of the triangular process marking the hinder border of the 
socket for the eye, while the tail is less than half the length of 
the head and body and is only moderately bushy, the Wolf 
possesses the following special features. Size large ; fur long 
and thick, with a woolly under-fur. General colour rufous or 
yellowish-grey, more or less mingled with black in some 
specimens ; under-parts whitish j tail frequently tipped with 
black ; under-fur of back pale slaty or light brown, with coarse 
whitish hairs intermingled. Length of head and body, from 3j^ 
to 3^ feet J of tail, 18 or 19 inches, inclusive of the hair at the 
tip. Great individual variation obtains as regards colour, 
some specimens being much paler than usual, while others are 
nearly, or quite, black. 

Extinction in Britain, — The fate which is impending over the 
Wild Cat in Britain has long since befallen its canine cousin 
the Wolf, on which account the latter species, together with the 
Bear and the Beaver, is generally omitted in works on the 
Mammals of Britain. If, however, ornithologists are right in 
including the Great Auk, now totally extinct, and the Caper- 
cailzie, which, after complete extermination, has been reintro- 
duced into our islands, in works on British birds, there can be 
no question as to the claim of the above-mentioned Mammals 
to a place in the British fauna, since whether the extermination 
took place forty or four hundred years ago is a matter of no 

Distributed over the greater part of Europe, and ranging 
eastwards through Asia north of the Himalaya, while the North 
American form is apparently not specifically distinct, the Wolf, 
during the Pleistocene period, seems to have occurred over the 
whole of the British Islands. The earliest horizon in which its 
remains occur is the so-called "forest-bed" of the Norfolk coast, 
which belongs to the very earliest portion of the Pleistocene 

WOLF. 97 

period, if, indeed, it should not be assigned to the preceding 
Pliocene epoch. Lupine remains are also commonly found in 
the brick-earths of the Thames Valley and other parts of the 
south of England ; while they likewise occur in most or all of 
the British caverns, inclusive of those of the Pentland Hills in 
Scotland, and of Shandon in Ireland. 

Although the records of the gradual extermination of the 
Wolf from Britain are unfortunately far from complete, such as 
exist have been carefully examined by Mr. J. E. Harting, from 
whose writings the following extracts are taken. During the 
Saxon period so numerous were these animals in England, and 
so terrible were their devastations during the winter, that 
January was commonly designated the " Wolf-month," and the 
attempts of the pre-Norman sovereigns to reduce their num- 
bers appear to have made but comparatively small impression 
upon them. During the twelfth century Wolves were still 
abundant in the New Forest and other districts of Hampshire, 
while in the "Book of St. Alban's," written about 1481, wolf- 
hunting during the winter months is mentioned as a royal and 
noble sport. Comparatively soon after this date, that is to 
say, some time between the years 1485 and 1509, during the 
reign of Henry the Seventh, it appears, however, that, under 
the inducement of rewards for their destruction. Wolves finally 
became extinct in England. In Scotland, on the other hand, 
as might have been expected from the nature of the country, 
they flourished to a much later date, the numbers of these 
animals during the reign of James the Fourth, at the close o'' 
the fifteenth and commencement of the sixteenth centuries 
being very great, and at times increasing to an alarming extent. 
By 1620, if we may judge from the price {^6 13s. 4d.) paid 
for a single skin, it would appear, however, that they had be- 
come scarce, and for many years it was commonly believed 
that the last Scottish Wolf was killed in the year 1680. This, 
5 H 

gS Lloyd's natural history. 

howtver, is now known to be incorrect, it being well ascer- 
tained that these animals survived to a much later date, not 
improbably, indeed, nearly to the middle of the eighteenth 
century in Sutherland, where tradition points to the last Wolf 
having been slain in the year 1743. 

Much the same story is told with regard to Ireland, where 
in the middle of the seventeenth century, a special Order in 
Council was promulgated in Dublin relating to the destruction 

Skull o. Fox. 

of Wolves, on account of their apparently increasing numbers 
at that date. Even as late as about the year 1700 they still 
existed in the great forests on the borders of counties Wicklow 
and Carlow. When their final extermination was accomplished 
history telleth not, although it was probably some time between 
the years 1766 and 1770, inclusive. 

As being no longer an inhabitant of Britain, it will be un- 
necessary to enter into the consideration of the habits of the 


Cams vu/pes et C. alopex, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 59 

Vulpes monfamis, Blyth, Journ. Asjat- 3pc. Bengal vol, %\. 

p. 589. 




FOX. 99 

Vulfies flavescens. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xi. p. i8 

Vulpes vulgaris. Bell (ex Brisson), British Quadrupeds p. 25? 

(1837); 2nded. p. 225 (1874). 
Vulpes a/(5>«:«:, Blanford, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1887 p. 635; id 

Mammals of British India p. 153 (1888). 
{.Plate IX.) 
Characters. — As the typical representative of the Vulpine 
group of the genus, the Fox differs from the Wolf in the ab- 
sence of air-cells in the forehead of the skull, as well as in the 
upper surface of the triangular process defining the hinder bor- 
der of the socket for the eye being concave. This group is 
further characterised by the more slender build of the body, 
the longer and more bushy tail, which always considerably ex- 
ceeds half the length of the head and body, and the pro- 
portionately shorter limbs. The ears are large ; the pupil of the 
eye, when seen in a strong light, forms a vertical ellipse, and 
the number of teats is only six, against ten, or more rarely 
eight, in the Wolf group. 

The present species may be defined as a large, and in winter 
richly coloured, Fox, its general colour in Britain being reddish- 
brown above and white beneath, with the backs of the ears 
black, and the tip of the tail white. Length of head and body 
from about 27 to 34 inches; of tail, from 12 to 15 inches. 

In the ordinary British Fox there is no great amount of 
variation in colour ; the upper-parts being reddish-brown, 
mixed with some white hairs on the shoulders, thighs, flanks, 
rump, and tail. The muzzle is blackish, the inner surfaces 
and edges of the ears whitish, their outer surfaces black, with 
slight spots of white ; the tail pale reddish, with the tips of the 
long hairs brownish-black, and the extremity white. The 
lower portion of the cheeks, the under part of the neck, as 
well as the chest and under-parts generally, together with the 

H 2 

100 Lloyd's natural history. 

inner surface of the thighs, a narrow line down the front of the 
hind- legs, and the hinder and inner surfaces of the fore-legs, are 
white. The front portion of the feet is black, that colour 
extending upwards nearly to the elbow and knee ; the whiskers 
are likewise black; while the hair on the soles of the feet is 
deep red, the claws being light brown. 

There are, however, certain racial or individual variations in 
the colour even of the British Fox. Macgillivray, for instnnce, 
observes that the largest race, " or that which occurs in the 
Highland districts, has the fur of a stronger texture and of a 
greyer tint, there being a greater proportion of whitish hairs on 
the back and hind-quarters, while two or more inches of the end 

of the tail are white. The Fox of the lower districts is consider- 


ably smaller, more slender, of a lighter red, with the tail also 
white at the end. Individuals of a smaller size, having the 
head proportionately larger, the fur of a darker red, the lower 
parts dusky or dull brownish-white, and the tip of the tail 
either with little white or none, occur in the hilly parts of the 
southern division of Scotland. The skull of the Highland Fox 
appears remarkably large and strong beside that of the ordinary 
kind, and the breadth is much greater in proportion." 
Occasionally Foxes are killed in England with the tip of the 
tail grey or black; and a pure white Fox was killed in 1887 
by the Taunton Vale Hounds, in the West Somerset country. Of 
more interest is the circumstance that some time previous to 
1864, a young Fox was killed in Warwickshire in which the 
whole of the under parts were of a greyish-black hue. The 
coloration of this individual resembled that obtaining in the 
Foxes of Southern Europe ; and assuming it to have been a 
native-bred animal, the occurrence of an individual of this 
southern race in England is a matter of some importance from 
a distributional point of view. In Wales, as Mr. W. E. de 
Winton tell? me, a blackish-brown form of Fox sometimes 


Regarding the Warwickshire specimen, Mr. Trevor-Battye 
remarks : — " I agree about the interest of this specimen, but it 
raises a question. By this time the native blood must be pretty 
well diluted, and I suspect that we should find, had we proper 
means of enquiry, that our Foxes are now larger than they were, 
say, thirty years ago. The Swedish Fox, imported of late years 
into this country, is a decidedly larger animal than the native 
English Fox — larger even, I believe, and I have seen many 
examples of both forms, than the 'Greyhound' Fox, as the 
gillies call the inhabitant of the Scottish hills." 

Sistribntion. — The ordinary variety of the Fox extends over 
the whole of Northern and Central Europe, being replaced in 
the south by the above-mentioned black-bellied race. In 
Central Asia we meet with a third variety, known as the Yellow 
Fox, and characterised by its general pale yellowish coloration, 
and the thickness of the tail, although it still retains the black 
ears and white tip to the tail of the English race. Nearly 
allied to the last is the handsome Himalayan variety, commonly 
termed the Mountain-Fox, which differs so remarkably in its 
winter dress from the typical form as to have been long regarded 
as a distinct species. In this variety the colour of the fur of 
the back varies from chestnut to iron-grey, and the shoulders 
are frequently ornamented by a dark transverse stripe, while 
the throat and under-parts are more or less dusky. In its 
black-backed ears and white-tipped tail it resembles, however, 
the South European race. Yet another race, commonly known 
as the Nile Fox, inhabits Egypt. 

In North America we have other Foxes, now regarded merely 
as geographical races of the British species ; one of these being 
the well-known Cross-Fox, taking its name from the presence 
of a more or less well-defined dark shoulder-stripe. Lastly, 
the beautiful and valuable Silver Fox of the same regions is 
nothing more than a dark-coloured variety of the same widely- 
spread and variable species. 


In Britain, as we learn from the evidence of its fossilised 
remains, the Fox is one of the oldest Mammalian inhabitants 
of the country, its earliest occurrence being in the sandy beds 
of the Red Crag of the East Coast, which belong to the upper 
portion of the Pliocene period. Its remains are likewise met 
with abundantly in the brick-earths of the Thames valley and 
other parts of England, as well as in nearly all the English 
caverns and some of those of Ireland. They do not appear, 
however, to have been recorded in a fossilised state fromScotland. 

To a large extent, owing to its preservation for the purpose 
of hunting, the Fox is still a common animal throughout 
England ; but had it not been for this artificial protection it 
would doubtless, in the more cultivated and open southern 
portions of the country, have shared the fate that has befallen 
the Wild Cat. In Scotland the Fox, according to Messrs. 
Harvie-Brown and Buckley, is almost universally distributed 
on the mainland ; but is absent from all the islands, with the 
exception of Skye. There is, indeed, a statement that " the 
Fox was at one time common in Mull, but has been long since 
killed out " ; even, however, if this be true, it is most probable 
that its occurrence there was due to accidental or intentional 
importation. Of its occurrence in Ireland, Thompson, 
writing more than forty years ago, observes that "the Fox, 
like the Otter, is still found in suitable localities throughout 
the island, wherever it can remain in spite of man. In many 
parts of the country this species is abundant, but in no district 
of which I am aware have so many been taken as on the 
mountains in the south of the county of Down." 

It may be added that in the north of England the short- 
legged race inhabiting the open low grounds is commonly 
termed the "Terrier-Fox"; while to the larger long-legged and 
long-muzzled mountain race the name of " Greyhound-Fox " is 



Habits. — The habits and history of the Fox, or rather the 
British variety of the same, are so well-known as to require 
but brief notice ; and we shall accordingly content ourselves 
with extracting Macgillivray's admirable suramary from the 
original edition of the " Naturalist's Library." The Fox, he 
writes, "resides in burrows, which it excav.Ues for itself in 
sandy or gravelly soil, in woods or thickets, or on shady 
banks or the slopes of hills, remaining concealed all day, and 
coming abroad towards evening. Its food consists chiefly of 
the flesh of Mammals, birds, and reptiles. In the wilder 
parts it often destroys lambs, and in the more populous 
frequently commits great havoc among poultry ; but its 
favourite game are Partridges, Grouse, Rab'.its, and Leverets. 
Insects and worms have also b;en found in its stomach, and 
in the maritime districts it has been known to frequent the 
shores in quest of crustaceous and molluscous animals." 

" It is said to live in pairs, and the young, from three to 
five in number, are born towards the end of spring. The 
female exhibits great courage and address in defending them. 
The sagacity of the Fox is proverbial, and frequently enables 
it to escape the snares laid for it. Marvellous stories are 
related respecting the stratagems which it employs to elude 
pursuit; and although many of these may be exaggerated, 
there can be little doubt that its instinctive vigilance and 
cunning are great. When obtained young, it may be domes- 
ticated so far as to allow a person with whom it is acquainted 
to handle it, but cannot be depended upon, as it exhibits no 
gratitude towards benefactors, forms no strong attachment, 
and is ever ready to embrace the opportunity of making its 
escape. It is said to attain the age of fourteen or fifteen years 
in captivity." 

It may be added that the habit of burrowing is by no means 
universally characteristic of the species, the Himalayan variety 


living in thickets or on cultivated land in such shelter as it can 
find ready to hand. 

In conclusion, it may be mentioned that there has besn 
much discussion as to whether the Fox will interbreed with the 
Domestic Dog. On this point Mr. Trevor-Battye write* : " I 
admit that this is hard to prove. But I myself believe in such 
instances. I know a Dog at this moment at Pett, near Has- 
tings, which is credited with being the offspring of such a 
combination. And anyone who saw him would, I will under- 
take to say, believe it without proof. It leans to the Fox in 
its habits, the texture of its hair, its brush, and its voice, which 
it seldom uses. It is beyond question that the North Ameri- 
can Indians, the Crees for example, with whom I stayed for 
some time, are in the constant habit of tying up their 4ogs 
away in the bush, in order that they may pair with the Wolves, 
and the morose result of this alliance every hunter knows." 
On the other hand, although such interbreeding has often been 
asserted to have occurred, several such alleged instances having 
recently been recorded in the sporting papers, in the opinion 
of some of those best qualified to give an authoritative judg- 
ment on the subject, such unions are quite unknown. Mr. W. 
E. de Winton, however, writes to me on this subject : " In the 
pack of Otter-hounds hunted by the late Hon. Geoffrey Hill, 
there was one which, he told me, was a cross by a Prairie 
^Volf. In the Worcester Museum is an animal, killed near 
Ledbury about two years ago, which is undoubtedly a cross 
between a Fox and a Dog. It was shot wild, and can only be 
the result of such an union." 


The third great Family of Carnivores represented in the 
British Isles, which includes the Martens, Weasels, Badgers, 


Otters, and their allies, differs widely both from the Felida 
and the CanidcB in the structure of the base of the hinder 
part of the skull. In place of the bladder-like and rounded 
auditory bulla characterising the two latter groups, in the 
present family this portion of the skull is depressed, with no 
dividing partition, its inner border being the most prominent, 
and thence it gradually slopes away towards the tube conduct- 
ing to the internal ear, of which tube the lower lip is prolonged. 
The intestine is devoid of any blind appendage (caecum) ; and 
the toes are always five in number on each foot. 

The present Family is specially distinguished from others, 
in which the above features occur, by the following points: 
The upper molar teeth are reduced to a single pair, which are 
peculiar in that their inner border is wider than the outer ; 
while (with the exception of the Indian and African Ratels, 
where they are reduced to one) there are two pairs of molar teeth, 
the first of which is the flesh-toolh. The number of pre-molar 
teeth is very variable, even within the limits of a single genus. 

Having, with the exception oF Australasia, a world-wide 
distribution, the members of this Family present none of that 
external similarity of form so characteristic of the repre- 
sentatives of the two preceding families ; and they exhibit a 
similar diversity of habit ; some, like the Martens and Weasels, 
being more or less fitted fur climbing, while others, like the 
Badgers, are burrowing animals, and others, again, like the 
Otters, aquatic. 

Mustela, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 66 (1766). 

The members of this genus, together with certain allied 
forms which are generally separated and have no representa- 
tives in the British Isles, collectively constitute a special sub- 
family of the Mitslelidce. Terrestrial and more or less arboreal 

io6 Lloyd's natural history. 

in their habits, all these animals have short and partially-webbed 
toes, with short, sharp, compressed, curved, and frequently 
partially retractile claws. The upper molar tooth is trans- 
versely elongated, and consequently wider than long. In all 
cases the body is much elongated, while the limbs are short. 

In the genus Mustela the relative length of the body and 
limbs, like that of the tail, is subject to considerable variation ; 
the feet are nearly or completely digitigrade ; and the claws are 
partially retractile. Whereas in the typical forms, or Martens, 
the number of pre-molar teeth is four pairs in each jaw, in the 
Polecats and Weasels they are reduced to three. 

On account of this difference in the number of their teeth, 
coupled with their more elongated and snake-like bodies, many 
naturalists separate the Polecats, Stoats, and Weasels from th^ 
Martens as a distinct genus (jPutorius) ; although, to our think- 
ing, such a sub-division is quite unnecessary. 


Mustela martes, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 67 (1766). 
Maries sylvatica, Nilsson, Skand. Fauna vol. i. p. 41 (1820). 
Martes abietum, Fleming, British Animals p. 14 (1828); Bell, 
British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 217 (1874). 
{Plate X.) 

Characters. — Four pre-molar teeth; tail, with the hair, as 
long as the body; general colour rich brown ; throat and chest 
yellow; upper flesh-tooth with its outer margin concave; upper 
molar (last tooth) simply rounded externally. 

It was long thought that two species of Marten inhabited 
the British Islands, namely, the present species and the Beech- 
Marten {M. foind), the latter being distinguished by its white 
throat and chest, narrower skull, the convex outer border of 
the upper flesh-tooth, and the notch on the outer side of the 
upper molar. It was, however, definitely shown by Alston in 




It V il^^"' 




the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society for 1869, that the 
Beech- Marten is not found within our limits. 

The Marten has the body of moderate elongation and slen- 
derness, and the tail relatively long ; the head being somewhat 
triangular in form, with the muzzle pointed, the eyes prominent, 
and the ears large and rounded. The body is covered, during 
the winter at least, with fur of two kinds, the outer fur being 
very long, glossy, and ash-coloured at the base, with some shade 
of brown at the tip, but varying m intensity on the different 
regions of the body, the middle of the back, the tail, and the 
outer surfaces of the limbs being darker than elsewhere. The 
throat and chest are yellow, and the remainder of the under- 
parts are greyish ; while the edges and insides of the ears are 
whitish. The under-fur is yellowish-grey. The length of the 
head and body is about 18 inches ; and that of the tail, inclu- 
sive of the hair at the tip, about 13 inches. 

SistribTitloii. — The range of the Pine-, or, as it is sometimes 
called, the Yellow-throated, Marten includes the whole of Nor- 
thern Europe; but it is replaced in North-eastern Asia by the 
closely-allied Sable {M. zibellina), in which the fur is still longer 
and silkier, and consequently of greater value. On the other 
hand, the Beech-Marten occurs throughout the greater part of 
Europe, although not in the extreme north, and ranges east- 
wards into Western Asia, where it extends probably through- 
out a large portion of the higher Himalaya. 

Occurring in a fossil state in the Norfolk forest-bed, as well 
as in the caves of Bleadon, Long Hole, Ravenscliff, and Sprit- 
sail Tor in England, and in that of Shandon in Ireland, the 
Pine-Marten was probably at one time a common animal 
throughout the forest-clad districts of the country. It has, 
however, now practically disappeared from the greater part of 
the southern and midland districts of England, although occa- 
sional stray examples are now and then met with. Even, 

io8 Lloyd's natural history. 

indeed, in a county with so much wild country in it as Leices- 
ter, the Marten, according to Mr. Montagu Browne, appears to 
have been completely exterminated, although it v^as at one 
time exceedingly abundant there. It still lingers, however, in 
Suffolk and North Devon, and, it is believed, in Epping 
Forest, and has been lately recorded from Hampshire. In the 
Lake district of Cumberland the species is, however, still fairly 
common, and is regularly hunted during the winter with a few 
couples of Beagles or Foxhounds, accompanied by several 
Terriers. Although most numerous in Cumberland, the Marten 
is also found occasionally in the mountainous districts of 
Northumberland, Durham, Westmoreland, and around Furness 
in Lancashire. It is likewise found in North Wales. 

In Scotland, Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley write that 
the Marten now appears to be scarcer than the Wild Cat, "being 
extinct in many places frequented by the latter, but, curiously 
enough, it has survived over a larger area up to a later date, that 
is to say, that while the boundaries of the country at present 
inhabited by the Wild Cat are easily defined, and are gradu- 
ally contracting, the occurrences of the Marten are more 
sporadic, often turning up in localities, far distant from one 
another, where no records had previously occurred for many 
years.'' Mr. W. E. de Winton tells me that there is no doubt 
that it existed on the islands of Lewis and Harris up to about 
twenty years ago. 

In Thompson's time the Marten was found all over Ireland 
in suitable localities, but was even then becoming scarce, and 
its numbers have doubtless considerably diminished since that 
date, although it is not uncommon in Kerry. 

Commenting on a note relating to the distribution of the 
Marten, by Mr. J. E. Harting, Mr. Barrett-Hamilton writes 
that " I have been for some time collecting notes on the 
distribution and life-history of this animal in Ireland, and 


indeed of all our native Irish Mammals. I had at first contem- 
plated the publication of a list of localities in Ireland where 
the Marten has been found of late years, but an accumulation 
of notes has convinced me that this animal is much more 
common in the wooded parts of Ireland than is generally 
supposed, and consequently that such an article would be 
almost as unnecessary as one on the distribution in Ireland of 
such common Irish Mammals as the Otter or Badger. I think 
the statement that ' at one time, in all probability, the Marten 
must have been generally distributed in Ireland, but as civilisa- 
tion has extended inland from the east and south, and as 
woods have been cut down, and the country opened up by 
railways, drainage, and cultivation, so has this animal been 
gradually driven into the wilder portions of the north and west,' 
needs considerable modification. No doubt the Marten is now 
being driven out from the east and south, but it is only of late 
that this has been the case, and I contend that even in the 
more highly-cultivated parts of the eastern counties of Ireland 
it would be an impossibility to name a county in which the 
animal has not occurred recently. Taking the eastern counties 
from north to south, Mr. Harting's own notes establish its 
occurrence more than once in Antrim in 1893, while in Down 
(again quoting from the same article), ' amidst the wild and 
broken ground of the Mourne Mountains, . . - the Marten 
will probably for some time yet to come defy the efforts of its 
would-be exterminators.' From Louth and Meath I have no 
records by me, but there is little doubt that stragglers are still 
occasionally found in those counties, since they lie quite close 
to more favoured counties. From the small county of Dublin 
there is no recent record, but the outer parts of the county are 
not so far from the woods of Wicklow, which are still one of 
the strongholds of the Marten ; and even in Wexford, ' the 
model county ' of Ireland, its occurrence has been noted as 


late as June, 1892, a fact which is not at all surprising 
when we consider that Wexford comes next to Kilkenny, a 
county in some parts of which the Marten is still plentiful." 

Habits. — An excellent climber, the Marten during part of the 
year is a denizen of woods and plantations ; but, as we shall 
see below, in some districts at least is to be found in the open 
rocky country. Occasionally it has been known to take up its 
abode near a farmyard, and to wage war on the smaller denizens 
thereof. As a rule four or five young form a litter, but the 
number may vary from two to seven; and as at least two litters 
are produced in a year, the Marten may be regarded as a 
prolific animal, so that it is only as the result of continual 
persecution that it is so rapidly becoming exterminated* Its 
usual food comprises such birds as it can kill, together with 
their eggs, the smaller mammals, and reptiles. 

Writing of the habits of these animals in the north of 
England, Mr. F. Nicholson says that when hunted, " they 
usually make at once for the rocks and crevices, going at a 
great pace at first, but are soon run into unless they succeed 
in reaching some hole in a crag where hounds and huntsmen 
cannot follow. They fight desperately with both claws and 
feet. When before hounds on level and snow-clad ground they 
proceed with a succession of astonishing long leaps, often six 
or seven feet apart. They do not usually come down to the 
wooded parts of the country except for breeding purposes, but 
the greater part of the year they follow the screes and higher 
fell-ground. Though they generally come down to the woods 
in the valleys in April ;; J May to have their young ones, 
selecting some old Magpie's nest or Squirrel's drey for a home, 
still they sometimes breed in the rocks near the tops of the 
highest hills. It is only at such times that the Marten is 
easily trapped, for, unlike the Polecat, it does not approach a 
given spot by one track. They do not seem so suspicious of 

H I 

ft I 


traps as some wild animals, or as the Polecat. If you find 
traces of, or see the latter about a building, you will most likely 
find a run near by which it frequents, and a trap has only to be 
set, and it will be taken ; not so with the Marten, as it is only 
by accident that it is captured in this manner." The writer 
then goes on to say that, owing to their partiality for Rabbits 
and their unsuspiciousness of baited traps, where the latter 
animals are systematically trapped, a considerable number of 
Martens are accidentally caught. 

If taken at a sufficiently early age, Martens can be readily 
tamed, when they display considerable attachment to their 
owners ; and since they lack the disgusting odour of the Pole- 
cat and most other members of the Weasel tribe, they form 
rather agreeable pets. 

Although much less valuable than that of the Sable, the fur 
of the Pine-Marten is of considerable commercial importance, 
an average of about three thousand skins being yielded annually, 
according to Mr. Poland, by Courland and Lithuania alone. 
Although of late years considerably depreciated in price, good 
Marten skins even now fetch about ten shillings each in the 


Mnstela puiorius, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 67 (1766); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 203 (1874). 
Fxtor'.us piitjrius, Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelthiere Europ. 

p. 62 (1840). 
Piitorius fxtidus. Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 64(1843). 
Putorins vulgaris, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm. p. 112 (1846). 
{Plate XI.) 
Character. — Size medium ; body very long and slim ; tail and 
limbs relatively short ; three pairs of pre-molar teeth in each 
jaw ; fur long, dark brown, with the under-fur yellowish ; 
head blackish with white markings in the neighbourhood of 


the ears and mouth. Length of head and body about 1 7 
inches ; of tail, including hair at the end, 7 inches. 

The Polecat, Fitchet, Fitchet-Weassl, or Foumart (= Foul 
Marten), as it is indifferently called, is the largest British re- 
presentative of the sub-genus Putorius, which includes the whole 
of the remaining species of Mustela. Macglllivray, in the 
original edition of this work, describes it as follows : " The head 


Polecats and Moorhen. 

is of moderate size, oblong, or oval-triangular, when viewed from 
above, with the muzzle rather rounded ; the ears short, and 
broadly rounded ; the neck of moderate length and very thick ; 
the body very long ; the feet short and strong. On the 
anterior limb the first toe is very short, the fifth or outer a litde 
longer, the fourth next, the second a little shorter than the 
latter. On the hind-foot the first toe is also very short, the 


second longer than the fifth, the third longest, but the fourth 
almost equal. The eyes are small, with the iris dark brown ; 
the claws rather long, compressed, arched, and a greyish- 
yellow tint. The under-fur is very soft and woolly ; the pile 
long and rather coarse, but smooth and glossy. The general 
colour is dark brown, the long hairs brownish-black, the under- 
fur yellowish ; the lower parts of the neck and body, with the 
feet and tail, darker than the rest, the sides yellowish-brown ; 
the lips white, as are the ears anteriorly and along the tip 
behind j and between the eye and ear is a brownish-white 

Distribution. — The geographical range of the Polecat includes 
the greater portion of Europe, its northern limits extending 
to the south of Sweden, and in Russia to the White Sea ; it is, 
however, unknown in the extreme south, and its predilection 
for a cool climate is indicated by the circumstance that during 
the summer it ascends in the Alps far above the forest limit. 
In England, owing to the relentless persecution of gamekeepers, 
it is one of those species fast approaching extinction, being 
now but rarely met with in most of the southern and midland 
counties. Mr. Montagu Browne, for instance, writes that in 
Leicestershire and Rutlandshire it is becoming increasingly 
rare, and will soon be exterminated. In the Lake district, 
where these animals were once so abundant that in one unusually 
good season as many as thirty-nine were killed, we are told by 
the Rev. H. A. Macpherson that within the last thirty years, 

* Mr. W. E. de Winton writes : — " 'fhe winter fur becomes pale and 
faded before it is shed in May. By the first of June the fur is entirely 
changed in both sexes. The female, or 'Jill.' changes her entire coat 
directly she has young, at the end of April or beginning of May. The 
male, or ' Hob,' changes his more leisurely throughout the month of 
May. He is then known as the ' Black Ferret,' and has a beautifiil 
purplish-black coat. As in all Mustelida, the male is half as big again as 
the female. I have kept Polecats alive, and know where they are still 
fairly plentiful." 

5 , « 

114 Lloyd's natural history. 

mainly owing to the employment of steel traps, they have 
become very scarce. The narrow strip of marshy and heavily- 
timbered country extending from Bowness is, however, still a 
stronghold for this much-persecuted creature, and one from 
which it will with difficulty be completely exterminated. Al- 
though to southern ears the idea of hunting such an insig- 
nificant animal with hounds appears absurd, yet Foumart- 
hunting was at one time a favourite sport of the Westmore- 
land dalesmen; the hunts generally taking place during the 
night in midwinter. Much the same story is told with regard 
to Scotland, in many parts of which it has become well-nigh 
exterminated. Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley observe 
that the causes which have operated in the case of the Marten 
have likewise reduced the numbers of the Polecat. " Rabbit- 
trapping has proved fatal to it; for whilst the increase of 
Rabbits has provided abundance of food, it has been the 
indirect means of causing the decrease of the species by the 
agency of steel traps. Inland localities, formerly inhabited by 
Polecats, have been deserted by them, for, drawing down 
towards the sandy burrows to prey upon the Rabbits, they 
themselves became an easy prey." In the Hebrides and other 
islands the Polecat seems to have always been unknown. 

Although Thompson had doubts of its occurrence, there 
appears good evidence that the Polecat, in his time at least, 
was an inhabitant of the woods of Kerry, Down, and other 
parts of Ireland. 

Hatits. — A dreaded enemy to all game-preservers, the Pole- 
cat possesses, for its size, a remarkable combination of strength 
and agility. Dwelling generally in woods and copses, or thicket- 
clad hills, it selects as a retreat and hiding-place either an 
empty Rabbit-burrow, a crevice among the rocks, or even the 
cavities in a heap of stones. In such a spot the female, during 
May or June, gives birth to from four to six young. Remaining 


quiet during the day, and issuing forth towards evening, the 
Polecat, writes Macgillivray, when settled in the neighbourhood 
of a farm-yard, will, at times, commit " great depredations 
among the poultry, sucking the eggs, and killing the chickens, 
grownup fowls, and even turkeys and geese. Not satisfied 
with obtaining enough to allay its hunger, it does not intermit 
its ravages until it has destroyed all within its reach, so that 
the havoc it makes is not less subject of surprise than of 
indignation to those on whom it has inflicted its unwelcome 
visit. It generally perforates the skull of its victim, and is said 
to devour the brain first, as well as to suck the blood. If un- 
disturbed it sometimes satisfies its hunger on the spot, and in 
the midst of its slaughtered victims, but in general it carries its 
prey to some safe retreat. Its ferocity, cunning, and extreme 
agility, render it a great enemy to game of all kinds ; and it 
destroys the eggs of Pheasants, Grouse, and Partridges, seizes 
the birds on their nests, pursues Rabbits into their burrows, 
and frequently seizes on young Hares. Besides birds and 

Skull of Polecat. 

mammals, it also feeds on fishes and frogs, which have, in 
some instances, been found in its nest." Our illustration, which 
is taken from Bewick, commemorates an instance when a 
Polecat was frequently seen to resort to the bank of a river 
for the purpose of catching Eels, which were carried off to its 
retreat, where no less than eleven were discovered. 

Mr. Trevor-Battye writes :— "The Polecat is an expert 

I 2 

ii6 Lloyd's natural history. 

swimmer. Kept in captivity it shows a great fondness for 
water, and will not hesitate to plunge in and pick up food 
from the bottom of a bath full of water. Captive Polecats 
are frequently early overtaken by blindness." 

Although both the Polecat and the Stoat are regarded — and 
on the whole rightly — as unmitigated vermin, to be ruthlessly 
destroyed whenever met with, there can be no doubt, as Mr. 
Harting remarks, there was a time, before the days of strict 
preserving, when both these animals lived among game of al] 
kinds without causing any diminution in the numbers of the 
latter. Indeed, it is by no means improbable that they were 
an actual advantage, since by killing off all the weakly and 
maimed individuals of the various kinds of game they led to a 
survival of the fittest. 

The Ferret is a pale-coloured and almost albino domesticated 
variety of the Polecat, which is, however, much improved by 
crossing with the dark-coloured wild race. Mr. Trevor-Battye 
says : — "A wild-caught Polecat, though always difficult to 
handle, can easily be worked like a Ferret for Rats; and in this 
work they are far superior to Ferrets, owing to their extreme 
agility. They do not delay in the hole, but, on the Rat bolting, 
follow it out and catch it in a couple of bounds." 


Mustela erminea, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 68 
(1766); Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 191 

Fcetorius erminea, Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelthiere Europ. 
p. 69 (1840). 

Puterius crmineus, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm. p. 116 (1846). 

{Plates KIl. and XIII.\ 










Characters. — Size considerably smaller than the lastj fur 
short ; tail shorter than the 'body ; colour reddish-brown 
above, with the chin and under-parts, as well as the inner 
surfaces of the hmbs and the feet, yellowish-white j tip of tail 
black. In winter, in high latitudes and altitudes, the colour 
is yellowish-white, with a black tip to the tail. Length of 
head and body of male about lo^ inches ; of tail, 6% inches ; 
female considerably smaller. 

Although by non-zoological persons the Stoat or Ermine is 
often confounded with the Polecat, it is, in addition to its 
smaller size, such a very different-looking animal that there 
ought not to be the slightest difiSculty in distinguishing between 
the two. Macgillivray, in the original edition of the "Na- 
turalist's Library," describes it as having the body " much 
elongated, and of nearly equal thickness in its whole length ; 
its neck rather long and nearly as thick as the body; its head 
oblong, flattened above, with a rather obtuse muzzle ; the tail 
of moderate length, and the fur short. On the fore-foot the 
first toe is very small, the second longer than the fifth, the 
third longest, the fourth a little shorter ; under the last joint 
of each is a bare tubercle. On the hind-feet are also five bare 
tubercles, and the toes have nearly the same proportions as 
those of the fore-feet ; the soles covered with hair. The ears 
are rather large, broad, and rounded, with a slit in the pos- 
terior margin, forming a lobe there. The pile is shortish and 
soft; the hairs acuminate, a little flattened, and slightly 
curved or undulated ; the under-fur very soft and woolly ; the 
moustache-bristles long ; the coarse hairs on the terminal half 
of the tail very long." 

The most remarkable peculiarity about the Stoat, and one 
whereby it differs widely from all its congeners, is the assump- 
t'on, in the colder portions of its habitat, of the yellowish-white 

ii8 llovd's natural history. 

winter-dfess. Universal in the higher regions of Scotland, 
this change takes place comparatively seldom in the south of 
England, while in the northern counties, although frequent, it 
is by no means general. Somewhat curiously, the change 
from the brown to the white dress does not appear by any 
means always coincident with the advent of winter, or even 
the approach of cold weather. Stoats having been often killed, 
even in the south of England, which had undergone a partial 
change of colour during the early autumn. Mr. Harting states, 
indeed, that he knew an instance of a pure white Stoat being 
killed in Monmouthshire in the beginning of August. It is 
possible, however, that this may have been a case where the 
white coat was retained throughout the year ; since, according 
to Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley, the Stoats on the sum- 
mit of Ben Nevis are to be seen at all seasons in their white 
winter-dress. Much discussion has arisen how the change 
from brown to white in the fur takes place. Bell observing that 
" this is effected not by the loss of the summer coat and the 
substitution of a new one for the winter, but by the actual 
change of colour in the existing fur," This theory has, how- 
ever, been called in question ; and it is now generally admitted 
that Macgillivray was right when he attributed the change to 
growth of new hairs differing in colour from those of the old 
coat. With regard to the spring change, he writes that "so 
early as the end of March, and the beginning of April, if the 
weather be mild, the colour of the upper-parts changes to a 
dull brownish-red, but the lower remain white, and the black 
hairs of the extremity of the tail are the same at all seasons. 
This change is not effected by an alteration in the colour of 
the same hairs, but by the gradual substitution of brown for 
white hairs. ... On the whole, it appears to me that in 
spring, and the beginning of summer, when the animal had 
assumed its white colour in winter all the red hairs that 


appear are new. Towards December, earlier if the weather be 
very cold, later if less so, the hairs of the upper-parts become 
white. In an individual obtained in December, 1834, the 
colour was a mixture of white and brownish-red. The hairs 
of the latter colour were not in the least degree faded, and 
those of the former were much shorter, and evidently just 
shooting ; so that the change from brown to white would seem 
to take place by the substitution of new white hairs for those of 
the summer-dress. But in mild winters the hairs retain their 
red colour, and if new hairs come in, they are also red ; if the 
weather become colder, the new hairs that appear are white, 
although the old hairs do not vary ; and, if there are alterna- 
tions of severe cold and temperate weather, the animal becomes 
mottled." Owing to the mild climate in Ireland, the Stoat, 
which is there very common, does not, according to Thompson, 
undergo a seasonal colour-change.* 

Distribution. — Unlike the two preceding representatives of 
the genus, the Stoat is a circum-polar animal, ranging through 
Northern Europe, Asia, and America. Commonly distributed 
throughout the British Islands, it appears in England to be 
less abundant than the Weasel, although the reverse of this 
obtains in Scotland. In the latter country this animal is an 
inhabitant of the Hebrides and other islands, but, according to 
Mr. de Winton, it is absent in Lewis. In common with those 
of the Polecat and Weasel, fossilised remains of the Stoat have 
been found in several of the English caverns. 

Habits. — As regards its mode of life, Macgillivray writes that 

* I have received the following note from Mr. W. E. de Winton : — 
" The changes of fur are the same in all the Mustelida. The Stoat is, 
normally, yellow in winter and brown in summer. The' female turns 
white in winter more often than the male, and is generally flecked 
with white, even in summer, in old animals. White males are hardly 
known in England. The male has a yellow stain through the whole 
pelage, and is paler than the female." 


" the Stoat frequents stony places and thickets, among which 
it finds a secure retreat, as its agility enables it to outstrip even 
aDog in a short race, and the slimness of its body allows it to 
enter a very small aperture. Patches of furze, in particular, 
afford it perfect security, and it sometimes takes possession of 
a Rabbit's burrow. It preys on game and other birds, from the 
Grouse and Ptarmigan downwards, sometimes attacks poultry 
or sucks their eggs, and is a determined enemy to Rats and 
Voles. Young Rabbits and Hares frequently become victims to 
its rapacity, and even full-grown individuals are sometimes 
destroyed by it. Although, in general, it does not appear to 
hunt by scent, yet it has been seen to trace its prey like a Dog, 
following its track with certainty. Its motions are elegant, 
and its appearance extremely animated. It moves by leaping 
or bounding, and is capable of running with great speed, al- 
though it seldom trusts itself beyond the immediate vicinity of 
cover. Under the excitement of pursuit, however, its courage 
is surprising, for it will attack, seize by the throat, and cling to 
a Grouse, Hare, or other animal strong enough to carry it off, 
and it does not hesitate on occasion to betake itself to the 
water." The young, usually from five to eight in number, are 
born in April or iMay, and are blind for nine days after birth. 
They remain with the mother till the autumn, and are full- 
grown by the following spring. It may be added that the 
Stoat is an expert climber, having been known to ascend trees 
for the purpose of attacking birds on their nests and eating 
their eggs or young. Mr. de Winton writes : — " Old Stoats 
whose teeth are worn are inveterate egg-eaters. I took forty- 
two Pheasant's eggs from one hole in May, 1894, and have 
got the skin of the old ' Hob ' who amassed this larder." 

In the autumn large parties of Stoats have, on several occa- 
sions, been encountered on the march, as though they were un- 
dertaking a kind of migration, and at such times they are stated 




Martens, polecats, and weasels. 121 

to be actually dangerous to man, as the whole body will, with 
but slight provocation, proceed to attack anyone who attempts 
to bar their progress. They have also been observed to com- 
bme m hunting Rabbits and Hares, which they follow by scent 
like a pack of hounds in full cry. The curious kind of para- 
lysis which seizes a Hare or Rabbit when a Stoat, or even the 
dimunitive Weasel, is on its track, is too well known to need 
more than passing mention. At such times the hunted Rodent, 
after running a short distance, stops, incapable of further 
movement, until its relentless foe comes up and speedily puts 
a term to its existence. If taken in such a paralysed con- 
dition, a Rabbit will be found to have its eyes closed, its heart 
palpitating violently, and its limbs almost useless ; and it is 
not till left alone for several minutes that it w^ill revive. 

Although, owing to the shortness of its fur, the British Stoat 
in its winter-dress is of no great commercial value, the longer 
furred skins from Northern Europe and America, constituting 
the "ermine " of the fur-trade, have a very high value indeed, and 
are imported in enormous numbers. The Russian skins are 
sold in bundles of forty, constituting a " timber," of which the 
present market price varies from twenty to thirty shillings, al- 
though as much as nine pounds has been realised. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Poland, to whose work on " Fur-bearing Animals," 
we are indebted for the foregoing details, over 5,000 Ermine 
skins were sold in London in 1891 by the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany alone ; while in 1836 the enormous number of 264,606 
were imported. 

Of late years Stoats have been introduced into New Zealand 
for the purpose of checking the spread of Rabbits ; no less 
than 3,0°° Stoats and Weasels having been sent out from 
Lincolnshire in 1885. 

An albino Ermine with a white coat in summer, and lacking 
the usual black tip to the tail, is on record. 

122 LLOYD'S NAttJRAL tttSTOftV. 


Mustela vulgaris, Erxleben, Syst. Rdg. Animale p. 471 (1777); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 182 (1874). 
Fatorius vulgaris, Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelthiere 

Europ. p. 69 (1840). 
Putorius vulgaris, Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer. vol. i. p. 

145 (1829). 

[Plate XIV.) 

Characters. — Smaller than the last species, from which it is 
readily distinguished by the absence of a black tip to the re- 
latively shorter tail ; no seasonal change of colour.* Average 
length of head and body of male about ?>% inches j of tail, 2 J^ 
inches ; the corresponding dimensions in the female being 
about 7 and 2 inches. 

To describe iu detail the form and general coloration of 
the Weasel would be but to repeat the statements given under 
the heading of the Stoat, although the Weasel is a redder ani- 
mal than the latter. 

Distribution. — Having, like the Stoat, a circum-polar distribu- 
tion, the Weasel, although common throughout England, 
Wales, and Scotland, appears to be unknown in Ireland, 
where, however, the first-mentioned animal has usurped its 
name. It is true that in the Zoologist for 1877 the occur- 
rence of the Weasel in county Mayo is reported ; but even if 
the animal seen were rightly identified, it is possible that it may 
have been introduced. In the north of Scotland, Messrs. 
Harvie-Brown and Buckley state that Weasels are common on 
the mainland ; " and there is not much reason to believe that 
their numbers have sensibly decreased, though kept, no doubt, 

* Mr. de Winton writes to me :— " The Weasel is paler in colour in 
winter. I believe that none of the Mustelidcs shed their hair in autumn. 
The white dress is assumed by a change of pigment, as well as by an 
accession of white hairs." 

MARtENS, fOLfiCATS, ANt) W£as£LS. 123 

in wholesome check by the efforts of keepers and trappers." 
The species is, however, qiiite unknown in the Hebrides and 
other Scottish islands. 

Habits. — Nearly akin to the Stoat in its mode of life, the 
Weasel, from its inferior dimensions, has the advantage over 
the latter of being able to pursue in their tortuous underground 
runs both the Field- Vole and the Mole ; and from its relent- 
less pursuit both of the former and the common Rat, this little 
Carnivore ought to receive all encouragement at the hands of 
the farmer, more especially in districts subject to seasonal 
"Vole-plagues." We by no means intend to imply that the 
Weasel, like other benefactors of the human race, has not its 
faults — quite the contrary; but, taking all in all, we have little 
hesitation in saying that the benefits it confers far outweigh 
the injuries it inflicts. That it has a partiality for small birds, 
and that it may make an occasional onslaught on the smaller 
denizens of the poultry-house, may be freely admitted ; but the 
former depredations are necessarily limited to a few weeks in 
the year, while the latter are few and far between. 

In addition to hunting Voles and Rats in their subterranean 
retreats, the Weasel will likewise pursue them if they attempt 
to escape by ascending trees or shrubs, as, among his other 
accomplishments, he is an excellent climber. Whether the 
Weasel is of sufficient size to carry off hens' eggs in the same 
manner as the Stoat, that is, by taking one between the chin 
and chest, and holding it there safely by bending down the 
head, we are unaware. 

Writing in the original edition of the " Naturalist's Library,'' 
of the habits of this species, Macgillivray states that it will 
pursue Rats and Mice " into barns, granaries, and corn-stacks, 
despatching them generally by a single bite which perforates 
the brain. In the fields and pastures it has been seen follow- 
ing its prey by scent, turning and doubling on the track, and 

124 Lloyd's natural historV. 

pursuing it even into the water. Among grass or herbage it 
frequently raises itself on its hind-legs to look around, and in 
a place of security will sometimes allow a person to make a 
near approach to it. . . . When its nest is plundered, it 
defends itself against all assailants, springs upon the Dogs, and 
even attempts to vent its fury upon their masters. It produces 
five or six young ones, and is said to litter two or three times 
in the year." The extreme playfulness and activity of a litter 
of young Weasels is well described by Bell. 

" To the extreme boldness of the Weasel on occasion," writes 
Mr. Trevor-Battye, " the following fact bears witness. In Sep- 
tember, 1892, at about one o'clock in the afternoon, when 
walking along a high road in Kent, a Weasel ran across the 
road in front, and disappeared in a hole. In a moment it re- 
appeared, and began quartering the ground with that undu- 
lating rapidity characteristic of this creature. It was quite 
regardless of my presence, and presently disappeared again. 
I moved down the bank, and noticing a movement at the 
mouth of a little hole, put my hand quickly down and caught 
a large Field- Vole. As I picked it up, the Weasel followed my 
hand, and would I am sure have jumped at it for the Vole : but, 
without thinking, I stupidly threw down the Vole, which the 
creature seized instantaneously, and carried off into the hedge." 

That the Weasel will take to the water when in pursuit of 
its prey is mentioned in Macgillivray's account, but it does not 
appear that it will voluntarily swim for any long distance. An 
instance is, however, recorded by the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, 
of one of these little animals being taken while swimming across 
Ulleswater, at a point where the lake is three-quarters of a mile 
in width. 

Occasionally, though very rarely, the Weasel is stated to 
turn white in winter, the tail then retaining its reddish hue, 
although becoming paler than ordinary. 

BADGER. 125 

The Weasel is sjbject to considerable variation in size, 
which once gave rise to the idea that there might possibly be 
two species. Thus Gilbert White wrote that " some intelligent 
country people have a notion that we have, in these parts, a 
species of the genus Musielinum, besides the Weasel, Stoat, 
Ferret, and Polecat ; a little reddish beast, not much bigger 
than a Field-Mouse, but much longer, which they call a Cane.'' 
It iS; however, now ascertained that the so-called Cane, or 
Kine, is nothing more than an unusually small female Weasel. 
Such very small, although fully adult, females have been re- 
corded not only from Hampshire, but likewise from Kent and 

As an example of the pugnacious habits of the Weasel, we 
may mention that (as we are informed by Mr. Harvie-Brown) 
there is in the Banff Museum an extraordmary mummified 
group of these animals, found in a hole of an old tree-stump, 
all the members of which evidently perished while fighting 

Meles, Storr, Prodromus Method. Mamm. p. 34 (1780). 

The Badgers and their allies, which are assigned to several dis- 
tinct genera, represent the second sub-family of the MusUlidce, 
and are characterised as follows. The feet are elongated, with 
straight toes, and the claws non-retractile, slightly curved, 
rounded, and blunt, those on the fore-feet being especially 
elongated. The upper molar tooth, although variable, is gener- 
ally very large and elongated longitudinally. In habits the 
members of the sub-family are mostly terrestrial and burrowing 
animals, and the group has a wide geographical distribution, 
although unrepresented in South America. 

From their plantigrade feet, short ears and tail, and some- 
what Bear-like general appearance and gait, the more typical 
Badgers were long classed with the Bears, and even in the 

126 Lloyd's natural history. 

second edition of Bell's " British Quadrupeds " the Common 
Badger will be found described as the sole existing British 
representative of the family Ursidm. It is, however, now well 
ascertained that such resemblances as these animals present to 
the Bears are for the most part superficial, and that their true 
affinities are with the Weasel tribe. 

As a genus, the true Badgers, or those included under the 
head of Meles, may be defined as follows : — Upper molar tooth 
very large and longer than broad, exceeding the flesh-tooth in 
length ; bony palate not greatly produced backwards ; head 
pointed, with the nose prominent, and the ears small and 
rounded ; body thick and heavy ; limbs short and stout ; feet 
plantigrade ; tail short. Number of teeth 38, of which foiir on 
each side of both the upper and lower jaws belong to the pre- 
molar series. 

The members of the genus are confined to the northern 
half of the Old World, and do not range into India, although 
represented in Persia. 

It may be mentioned as a peculiarity of the Badger group in 
general, although the feature is more developed in some genera 
than in others, that the lower jaw is so strongly articulated to 
the skull, by means of overhanging processes from the latter, 
that it is almost or quite impossible to disarticulate it without 
fracture. This is the secret of the terrible biting power of 
these animals. 


Ursus meles, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12 vol. i. p. 70 (1766). 
Meles taxus, Boddaert, Elenchus Animal, vol. i. p. 80 (1785); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds 2nd ed. p. 158 (1874). 
Meles vuliraris, Desmarest, Mammalogie p. 173 (1820). 
(Plate XV.) 




Cliaracters. — General colour yellowish-grey, washed with black; 
under-parts and limbs black ; face white, with a black longitu- 
dinal streak on each side passing through the eye and ear. 
Length of head and body about 27 inches ; of tail, 7 J^ inches 

With regard to the nature and coloration of the pelage, 
Macgillivray writes as follows : — " On the "head and face the 
hairs are adpressed, and of ordinary texture ; on the lower- 
parts coarse, but of the nature of fur or under-hair ; on the 
upper-parts of two kinds, a coarse fur and still coarser and 
longer, stiffish, undulated, flattened, and pointed hairs. The 
head, chin, and hind-neck are white, with a broad brownish- 
black band on each side from before the eye over the ear, of 
which the tip is white, down the back of the neck. The throat, 
fore-neck, middle of the breast, fore-limbs, and hind-feet are 
brownish-black ; the upper-parts and sides light grey, variegated 
with black, a large portion of each hair near the end being of 
the latter colour ; the long hairs at the tip of the short tail 
whitish." It may be added that the long hairs of the body 
are three-coloured, namely reddish, white, and black, and it is 
the blending of these that produces the well-known " Badger- 
colour." The soles of the feet are completely covered with 

Distriljution. — Ranging over the greater part of Northern 
Europe and Asia, the Badger was formerly an abundant animal 
in the British Isles, where it has left its remains in the 
Pleistocene deposits of Kent, as well as in many English 
caverns, and likewise in Shandon Cave, Ireland. Owing to 
its shy and retiring habits, and the secluded nature of the spots 
in which it takes up its subterranean haunts, the Badger, or, as 
it used to be called in many parts of England, the "Brock," is 
very generally supposed to be an exceedingly rare, if not a 
nearly exterminated, animal in our islands. This, however, 
is very far indeed from being the case, and Badgers occur 

128 Lloyd's natural history. 

sporadically in most English counties ; while in some districts, 
owing to the protection they receive at the hands of land- 
owners, they are actually on the increase. Within the last 
thirty years the presence of Badgers has been recorded in up- 
wards of twenty-nine English counties. Its former abundance 
m England is attested by the frequency with which its title 
enters into the names of places, and it is curious that in all these 
cases it is the ancient name of "Brock,"and not the more modern 
one of "Badger,"that is employed in the compound word. Thus 
we have, as pointed out by Mr. Harting, the names of Brockhurst, 
Brockenhurst, Brockenborough, Brockford, Brockhall, Brock- 
hampton (in four counties), Brockbam Green, Brockholes (in 
two counties), Brock-le-Bank, Brocklesby, Brockley (in four 
counties), Brockmoor, and Brockworth. The name Brock, it 
may be observed, apparently refers to the striped face which 
forms such a characteristic feature in the animal under con- 
sideration. As an instance of the apparent increase in the 
number of Badgers in certain parts of England, we may mention 
that, in Leicestershire, according to Mr. Montagu-Browne, they 
now breed in several places and seem to be more abundant 
than formerly. On the other hand, in certain districts where, 
from the wild nature of the country, they might naturally have 
been expected to have survived, they have been more or less 
nearly, if not completely, exterminated. Thus in the Lake 
district, according to the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, Badgers 
appear to have been completely extirpated since the end of 
the first third of the present century, when a few individuals 
still survived on the fells of Windermere and Cartmell. It is 
true that a few solitary Badgers are now and then recorded 
from the districts in question, but these are all stated to be 
individuals that have escaped from confinement. We may 
mention, however, that Badgers have been re-introduced on 
one or two estates in Westmoreland, so that there is gome 

BADGER. 125 

hope that, under due protection, the county may be partly re- 
populated with these interesting animals. 

In Scotland Mr. Harvie-Brown states that the Badger occurs 
pretty generally throughout the mainland, but that it is not a 
native of any of the islands, although it has been introduced 
into Jura and upon Ailsa Craig. In all districts it appears, 
however, to be much less common than formerly. In 
Thompson's time {circiter 1855), the Badger was stated to main- 
tain its ground throughout Ireland, probably in every county, 
examples existing some ten years previous to that date within a 
few miles of the city of Belfast. 

Habits. — A nocturnal animal, living generally in pairs, though 
several have not unfrequently been observed in company, the 
Badger passes its days securely concealed in its burrow, which 
is generally excavated in some unfrequented part of a wood or 
thicket, in the side of a hill densely covered with bushes, or in 
a deserted quarry, whence it issues forth to feed in the evening 
or during the night. Although having but a single entrance, 
the "earth" is described as consisting of several tortuous pas- 
sages, opening out at their extremities into larger chambers. 
Its food consists mainly of roots of various kinds, fruits and 
nuts, birds' eggs, together with the smaller mammals, reptiles, 
frogs, and insects. It is also particularly fond of the grubs of 
wasps, which are dug out from the nests and extracted from 
the combs without any fear of the stings of the adult insects, 
against which the thick fur of the Badger appears to afford an 
effectual protection. Except that it may destroy a certain 
number of the eggs of game-birds, the Badger is harmless 
alike to the game-preserver and the farmer ; and the persecu- 
tion to which in this country it has always been subject at the 
hand of man, is due rather to the innate desire of killing and 
hunting, than on account of any actual damage inflicted. It is 
true, indeed, that these animals are frequently charged with 
5 K 

1 36 Lloyd's natural history. 

killing and otherwise interfering with young Foxes ; on which 
account a war to the death is too often waged against them 
by over-zealous huntsmen. This charge has, however, been 
effectually disproved, several writers recording instances where 
the cubs of Badgers and Foxes have been inhabitants of 
the same " earth," where they have lived together in perfect 
good-fellowship and harmony. Mr. Trevor-Battye says that 
the only harm the Badger does in the above direction is by 
re-opening Foxes' "earths" that have been stopped. Mr. 
de Winton writes : — "Badgers sometimes frighten sheep at 
night, when they are feeding on turnips in pens, and I have 
had some harm done by them, as the sheep are very fat and 
heavy-coated, and hurt themselves over the feeding troughs. 
This is the only damage which Badgers have done to me, and I 
have lived side by ade with them all my life, and have had* 
many as pets." 

Having formed a bed of soft grass at the bottom of the bur- 
row, the female Badger brings forth in the spring from three 
to four young ones, which do not make their appearance 
abroad until they have attained a considerable size. Writing of 
the breeding habits of some Badgers on his estate near Lough- 
borough, the late Mr. A. Ellis, who had especial opportunities 
of making observations, states that "the Badger breeds later than 
the Fox, and it was the middle of March this year [1877] before 
the preparations for the coming family were made. These 
consisted in cleaning out the winter-bed and replacing it by a 
quantity of dry fern and grass, so great that it would seem im- 
possible the earth could receive it. In June the first young 
Badger appeared at the mouth of the earth, and was soon 
followed by three others, and then by their mother. After 
this, they continued to show every evening, and soon learnt to 
take the food prepared for them. The young are now [Octo- 
ber] almost full-grown, and, forgetting their natural timidity. 

BADGER. t3l 

will feed so near that I have placed my hand on the back of 
one of them. The old ones are more wary, but often feed 
with their family, although at a more cautious distance. Their 
hearing and sense are most acute, and it is curious to see them 
watch, with lifted head and ears erect, then, if all is quiet, 
search the ground for a raisin or a date. But the least strange 
sight or sound alarms them, and they rush headlong to earth 
with amazing speed." As is so generally the case among the 
Carnivora, the young of the Badger are born blind, and remain 
so for several days after birth. It is generally stated, in the 
case of the Badger, that the young open their eyes on the 
ninth day; but Dr. A. Nehring records an instance where a 
litter, born in the Zoological Gardens at Berlin, did not do so 
until the eighteenth day after birth. 

A remarkable peculiarity in regard to the Badger is the 
length and variability of the period of gestation. The mini- 
mum duration of pregnancy does not appear to be fully ascer- 
tained, although Dr. Nehring is of opinion that it cannot be 
less than six months. Instances are on record where female 
Badgers that have been kept in solitary confinement have 
brought forth young after periods of ten and twelve months ; 
and one very important one is recorded by Captain F. H. 
Salvin, in which a Badger gave birth to one litter on February 
27th, and to another on the sixteenth of the same month in 
the following year, showing that in this case the period of ges- 
tation was about seventeen days short of a twelvemonth. In 
other instances, however, the period is much longer, reaching 
in two of these to at least fifteen months. The probable ex- 
planation of these discrepancies is that in certain cases, as in 
the Roe-deer, the impregnated ovum undergoes a period of 
quiescence before development ; such retardation of develop 
ment being not improbably induced by captivity, which nearly 
always interferes more or less with the reproductive process of 

K J 


On the gestation of the Badger Mr. Trevor-Battye sends me 
the following note : — " As a rule, no doubt, the Badger pairs 
in October and the young are born in March or April. I lived 
for many years close to a stronghold of Badgers and had un- 
usual opportunities for watching them. It has been said and 
written that Badgers do not breed till two years old. This is 
wrong. Some years ago I had a pair which were probably about 
six weeks old. They were called Gripper and Nancy. They 
would rest on my lap while feeding, and used to sit up and beg 
like Dogs. Their hearing and power of scent were remarkable. 
They were in a closed square yard, but if any of the dogs came 
near, even following a path which ran at a distance of about 
six or seven yards, they would instantly jump off my lap and 
disappear into a corner. These animals could walk and trot 
backwards with the greatest ease. I have never seen this 
mentioned ; yet it is worth noticing because the movement is 
characteristic of the Mustelida, not being shared to my know- 
ledge by any other Mammal — not, for instance, by the Bears. 
As I was leaving home I was obliged to send off my Badgers. 
They went to a friend in the New Forest. Here they escaped 
from confinement and took up their quarters under some 
faggots in an outhouse. They paired that October and made 
their nest (the contents of which would have filled a big wheel- 
barrow and more) in the beginning of April. But poor Gripper 
came back one night with a trap on his foot. The chain of the trap 
got wound round somehow in the burrow and held him prisoner. 
So he died ; and Nancy forsook the earth and went to breed 
elsewhere. In those days I did not understand maceration. 
But, as I wanted Gripper's skeleton, I boiled him in the copper 
outside, after he had been dead a month. Out of this Badger 
soup I collected even the smallest vertebra. ' To stink like a 
Badger ' is a lying libel on the living animal ; it was not over- 
stated in the case of Gripper dead — and boiling ! " 

BADGER. 133 

With reference to the carnivorous propensities of the Badger, 
Thompson writes that " one gentleman, who kept a young 
Badger in confinement, reports that it was very fond of Rats, 
Mice, and birds, and that it devoured a pet Blackbird which he 
highly prized. At Tollymore Park (County Down) and Glen- 
arm (County Antrim), where Badgers are numerous, they are 
sometimes taken in traps baited with Rabbits ; and I was in- 
formed by a gamekeeper, at the latter place, that they are 
destructive to young Rabbits in the nest, and, in such cases, 
do not make use of the Rabbits' entrance, but delve out a 

Skull of Badger. 

circular hole immediately above the nest. From the peculiar 
footprint of the Badgers, always to be seen about these holes, 
he knows that they were the depredators." While admitting 
the truth of this latter statement, and also that a Badger may 
occasionally get hold of a sitting Pheasant, Mr. Harting con- 
siders that the harm done by Badgers to game-preserves is 
almost infinitesimal. Pheasants, except during the breeding- 
season, being at roost in the trees, and the Rabbits feeding in 
the open outside the coverts, at the time when these animals 
leave their lairs for the nocturnal prowl. 

No account of this animal would be complete without some 
rn^ntion of the sport of Badger-baitin^j which, although no\y 

134 Lloyd's natural history. 

illegal, was formerly a favourite with our ancestors. The 
creature was placed in a tub lying on its side, and attacked by 
Terriers or other Dogs, whose object was to draw the Badger- 
from its place of security. As Bell remarks, it would be diffi- 
cult to say whether in this so-called sport, the cruelty were 
greater to the persecuted Badger or to his canine tormentors. 
Since, through the intervention of a London paper, the title of 
which need not be mentioned, a regular trade is even now 
carried on in live Badgers, the suspicion arises whether 
Badger-baiting is really as extinct as is commonly supposed. 
To procure Badgers for the above-mentioned sport or other 
purposes, the usual plan was to place a sack within the margins 
of the " earth," with its mouth upwards and secured by a 
running string, at such time as the owner was ascertained to 
be absent from his dwelling. The surrounding coverts were 
then drawn with a few couple of hounds, which generally suc- 
ceeded in finding the Badger and hunting him to his bote, on 
attempting to enter which he was of course securely bagged 
beyond the possibility of escape. 

Lutra, Erxleben, Syst. Rdgne Animale, p. 445 (1777). 

The Otters, all of which, with the single exception of the 
Sea-Otter, are included in the present genus, form the sole 
representatives of the last sub-family of the Mustelida, the 
characters of which are as follows : — The feet are short and 
rounded, with the toes webbed, and the claws small, curved, 
and blunt. The head is remarkably broad and flattened ; and 
the upper molar tooth is large and nearly square. In habits, 
all the species are thoroughly aquatic. 

The genus Lutra is chiefly distinguished from the Sea-Otter 
by the cheek-teeth being furnished with ?i number of sharp 



O ! 


OTTER. 13s 

cusps, instead of being smoothed and mammillated, as well 
as by the moderate development of the toes of the hind- 
feet. Retaining the elongated bodily form and short limbs 
characterising the more typical Mustelida, the true Otters 
generally have the feet completely webbed, and either clawed 
or clawless. The soles of the feet are for the most part 
naked, although in the hinder pair the naked portion does 
not extend backwards to the heel. The flattened head is 
elongated and furnished with very small ears ; and the fur is 
close, compact, and short, with a woolly under-fur ; the tail 
being of medium length. There are generally four pairs of 
pre-molar teeth in the upper, and three in the lower jaw ; the 
first of the upper ones is, however, always very small, and 
situated on the inner side of the canine, and in some species 
may be wanting. 

All Otters have such a strong family resemblance, that the 
distinction between the various species is in many cases a 
matter of considerable difificulty ; but, fortunately, there is but 
one, and that the typical, representative of the genus within 
the limits of our area. With the exception of Australasia and 
the extreme north, the genus is practically cosmopolitan; and its 
representatives are mainly fluviatile and lacustrine in their habits. 


Mustela Intra, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 66 (1766). 

Lutra vulgaris, Erxleben, Syst. Regn. Animal, p. 448 (1777); 
Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 167 (1874) ; Blan 
ford. Mammals of British India, p. 182 (1888). 

Ziitra nair, F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. xxvii. p. 247 

f.utra indica, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 580 (1837), 

[Plate ^VA) 

136 Lloyd's natural history. 

Characters. — Size large; claws well-developed on all the toes ; 
upper edge of naked portion of muzzle projecting backwards 
in the middle, and concave on either side, where it runs up to 
the hinder edge of the nostril ; tail more than half the length 
of the body General colour deep brown, with a more or less 
rufous tinge ; woolly under-fur white at the base, then brown, 
and usually paler at the tips, especially in Indian examples ; 
under-parts whitish j fur of chin and throat white throughout, 
elsewhere white at the base and tip, and brown in the middle. 
Length of head and body, from 25 to 29 inches; of tail, from 
15 to 16 inches. 

Distribution. — ^This species has a wide distribution in the Old 
World, ranging over the whole of Europe and Asia north of the 
Himalaya, while it is represented in India and some of the* 
countries on the east of the Bay of Bengal by a form which 
is now generally regarded as a mere variety. In the British 
Islands its fossilised remains are found in the Norwich Crag, 
belonging to the upper part of the Pliocene period, in the 
overlying forest-bed of the east coast, the brick-earths of the 
Thames valley, as well as in several of the English caves. At 
the present day it is still pretty generally distributed over the 
country, although becoming scarce in the more cultivated 
districts where the rivers are small. While, for instance, it is 
stated to be rare in Leicestershire and Rutland, as also in 
Hertfordshire, in the wild and rocky districts of Somerset, 
Devon, and Monmouthshire it is still abundant, as it is in the 
streams and lakes of Westmoreland and Cumberland. It 
would be difficult indeed, as observed by the Rev. H. A. 
Macpherson, to find any part of Britain more exactly suited to 
the needs and habits of this animal than is the Lake district of 
the two counties last mentioned. In the north of Scotland, 
according to Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley, the Otter, 
although scarce, frorn iricessant persecution, in the east qf 

OTTER. 137 

Sutherland, is still far from rare in Caithness, while it is 
abundant in Argyllshire and the Isles. Some idea of its 
former numbers may be gathered from the fact that between 
the years 183 1 and 1834 rewards were paid for upwards of 
263 .Otters killed on the estates of the Duke of Sutherland 
alone. In Ireland, forty years ago, Thompson wrote that the 
Otter still survived in suitable localities throughout the country 
and along the coast, in spite of persecution. 

Habits. — Feeding almost exclusively on fish, which it pursues 
not only in rivers and lakes, but also in the open sea, the 
Otter, writes Macgillivray, in the north of Scotland and the 
adjacent islands, " resides among the blocks, or in the caverns 
along the coasts, and subsists on marine fishes, seldom appear- 
ing in the streams or lakes except in winter, during very stormy 
weather. In the south of Scotland, and in many parts of 
England, it inhabits the fresh waters. On shore it runs with 
considerable speed, but does not bound like the Weasels, and, 
in fact, is rather plantigrade than digitigrade. In the water it 
exhibits an astonishing agility, swimming in a nearly horizontal 
position with the greatest ease, diving and darting along 
beneath the surface with a speed equal, if not superior, to that 
of many fishes. It is capable of remaining immersed for a con- 
siderable time, but on seizing a fish it cannot devour it in the 
water, but must bring it to shore for that purpose, not always, 
however, carrying it to its ordinary retreat, but generally to the 
nearest point that seems to afford temporary security. While 
eating, it holds its prey down with its fore-feet, or, if small, 
secures it between them, and commencing at the shoulders, 
devours the fish downwards, leaving the head and tail. While 
thus occupied it is sometimes visited by Gulls and Hooded 
Crows, which, however, do not venture to attack it, but wait 
until it has finished its meal, contenting themselves with the 
remnants. It is alleged that if 4estroys great (quantities qf 

138 Lloyd's natural history. 

Salmon, which may be the case when it inhabits rivers and 
estuaries, but in the open sea it feeds on a variety of fishes. 
Along the coast it generally finds a safe retreat in caves, of 
which the upper part is filled with blocks of rock, or beneath 
large stones; but in rivers and lakes it seeks refuge among 
the roots of trees, or burrows a hole for itself in the banks. 
Although properly piscivorous, it has been known to attack 
young domestic animals, and I found the stomach of one 
killed in June filled with a curious collection of larvae and 

The foregoing description, it will be observed, applies chiefly 
to the habits of the Otter in the rivers and on the coasts of 
Scotland; those of our readers desirous of becoming ac- 
quainted with the haunts and habits of the animal in the 
rivers of the south of England should peruse a graphic chapter 
in a little work entitled " Forest Tithes," by an author who 
writes under the notn-de-plume of " A Son of the Marshes." 
On the Upper Indus I have known a pair of Otters take up 
their abode among the timbers of a wooden bridge. In sport- 
ing phraseology, an Otter's lair is spoken of as its "holt." 
When a burrow is excavated by the animals themselves it may 
vary considerably in size and depth, but one described by Mr. 
Buckley, discovered on one of the Scottish islands, seems to 
be the longest and most complex on record. This tunnel, which 
was bored in peaty soil, amongst the burrows of the Storm- 
Petrel, was upwards of fifteen feet in length, with a diameter of 
about a foot, except near the extremity, when it became about 
four inches narrower. " Here and there it was widened out into 
most evident circular or oval chambers, and the sides and 
roof were smooth and glossy, rubbed and polished by the 
passage to and fro of the animals' fur. The habitation had a 
cunning and gradual incline from upwards into the peat-bank 
from the entrance. The latter was simply an uneven, rough, 

OTTER. 139 

grassy-edged, and semi-concealed doorway in the face of the 
peat slope." 

In the month of March or April, the female gives birth in the 
lair — whether this be a burrow as above described, or merely a 
hollow beneath the roots of some large tree, or a fissure among 
rocks — to from three to five young ones, after a gestation of 
only nine weeks. The young remain with their parents for a 
considerable period; and, in India at least, family-parties of 
six or seven nearly full-grown individuals may be seen to- 
gether, these sometimes contriving to drive a shoal of fish into 
shallow water, where they may be easily captured. Although 
in this country mainly nocturnal in its habits, in less frequented 
regions the Otter may often be seen abroad well on in the day- 
time. Everywhere these animals kill far more prey than they 
can possibly eat, which is one of the reasons why their presence 
in a river is so cordially detested by fishermen. 

When taken young, the Otter may be easily tamed, and may 
be trained without much difficulty to exercise its fish-catching 
skill for its owner's benefit. 

Otter-hunting, either with Otter-hounds or Fox-hounds, is a 
favourite sport in Devon and Somerset, in the Lake district, and 
also in Wales. The hounds should be laid on the trail, or 
" foil," of the Otter as soon as possible after daybreak, since 
on many soils the scent soon disappears under a strong sun. 
Formerly the Otter was struck at on every possible opportunity 
with a barbed spear termed an " Otter-grains," until finally 
despatched ; but the use of this weapon has happily been dis- 
continued in the Lake district, as we learn from the Rev. H. 
A. Macpherson, and elsewhere. 

Although from its comparatively small numbers the Otter is 
not much hunted in this country for the sake of its beautiful 
pelage, on the Continent this forms an important trade. 
According to Mr. Poland, Scandinavian skins, from their large 

14© Lloyd's natural history. 

size, thick fur, and dark colour, are among the most esteemed ; 
and some idea of the numbers of these animals killed and the 
importance of the trade may be gathered from the fact that 
upwards of about 10,000 skins are annually sold at the Easter 
fair at Leipsic, these varying in value from five to thirty shillings 
each, according to size, colour, and quality. The same authority 
tells us that during the winter of 1885-86 more than 4,000 of 
these animals were killed in Prussia alone. 


Although closely allied to the Mustelida in the structure ot 
the hinder part of the base of the skull, the Bear family (in 
addition to the vastly superior bodily size of the great majority 
of its members) may be readily distinguished therefrom by the 
greater number of their molar teeth, of which there are two 
pairs in the upper, and three in the lower jaw, or the san:e 
as in the Dogs. In character these teeth are, however, very 
different from those of the latter, the two upper ones being 
oblong and much longer than broad, with the crown finely 
tuberculated, and adapted for a mixed, rather than a purely 
flesh diet. Moreover, the flesh-teeth (the last pre-molar in the 
upper, and the first molar in the lower jaw) are exceedingly 
unlike those of the Dogs, being small in proportion to the 
molars, and having the suctorial structure so characteristic of 
Carnivora in general but little developed. All Bears are large, 
heavily-built animals, with thoroughly plantigrade feet, armed 
with strong curved claws, well adapted for digging, short ears, 
and a mere apology for a tail. 

Generally adepts in climbing, but, in spite of the fossorial 
characters of their feet, not excavating burrows for their own 
habitation, Bears are distributed over the greater part of the 
globe, with the exception of Africa SDUth of the Atlas mountains, 
and Australip, Sfive for one species from India and another 

BEAR. 141 

from Tibet, they are all included in the typical genus, the 
distinctive characteristics of which it will be superfluous to 
indicate in the present work. 

Ursus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 69 (1766). 


Ursus arctos, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 69 (17C6). 

The Brown Bear, being a species exterminated within the 
British Islands during the historical period, has the same claim 
as the Wolf to be regarded as a British Mammal. Being, how- 
ever, thus extinct within our area, and at the same time such a 
thoroughly well-known animal, we think that we shall best 
serve the interests of our readers by omitting all description, 
and confining ourselves to a brief notice of the records of its 
extermination. For these, as in the case of the Wolf, we are 
indebted entirely to Mr. J. E. Harting, who has so thoroughly 
investigated what remains of the history of the exterminated 
Mammals of our islands. 

We may premise that the Brown Bear (which is still far from 
uncommon in many parts of the Continent), under a variety of 
local races, has a wide distribution in the Old World, ranging 
over the greater part of Europe and Northern Asia, and ex- 
tending as far south as the Western Himalaya and the valley 
of Kashmir. In North America it is represented by the closely 
allied Grisly Bear. Although there is some difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing between the different species of Bears of this group 
by their skulls and teeth alone, it is now well ascertained that 
remains of the Brown Bear have been obtained from the 
brick-earths of the Thames valley, the fens of Cambridge- 
shire, various superficial deposits in Scotland and Ireland, and 
also from several of the English caves. It should be added 


that some Ursine remains, from English and Irish, haV6 been 
assigned to the Grisly Bear ( Urstis horribiHs), but the writer is 
by no means assured that this reference is correct. 

Documentary evidence proves the existence of ths Bear in 
England during the eighth century ; and it is likewise on 
record, that in the time of Edward the Confessor, the town of 
Norwich was compelled annually to furnish a Bear for royal 
sport, such Bears being in all probability native British animals. 
It is likewise probable that the performing Bears which were led 
about England during this period by itinerant minstrels were 
also captured in the British Islands. During both the 
Roman and Anglo-Saxon periods it would appear, however, 
that the great Caledonian forest of Scotland was the principal 
stronghold of these animals; Caledonian Bears being well- 
known in the Roman amphitheatre. There are even traditions 
still extant in the Highlands, together with certain Gaelic place- 
names, apparently referring to the former existence of Bears in 
these districts. 

At what precise period the Brown Bear became extinct in 
Britain, there is, unfortunately, no means of ascertaining. 
That it disappeared at an earlier date than the Wolf, is, how- 
ever, certain ; and it has been considered probable that it had 
ceased to exist before the tenth century. 

With regard to Ireland, Thompson writes that " I am not 
aware of any written evidence tending to show that the Bear 
was ever indigenous to Ireland, but a tradition exists of its 
having been so. It is associated with the Wolf as a native 
animal in the stories handed down through several generations 
to the present time." 


The whole of the Carnivora treated of above, together with 
their foreign allies, collectively constitute the typical group of 

S6ALS. 143 

the Order, and are known as the true Carnivores, or Carnivora 
Vera; of which the leading characteristic, as already mentioned, 
is the presence of a pair of specially modified flesh-teeth in 
each jaw, the fore-feet, and generally also the hinder pair, 
being of the normal type, although in the Sea-Otter the latter 
are flipper-like. On the other hand, in the Seals and Walruses, 
which now claim our attention, there are no flesh-teeth, and 
both pairs of limbs are modified into flippers. From the latter 
feature, this second great sub-ordinal group of the Order is 
known as Carnivora Pinnipedia, or Fin-footed Carnivores. 

The massive and more or less conical form of the body in 
the Seals and their allies is too well known to demand more 
than casual mention. The limbs, which are relatively short, 
have their upper segments more or less completely enclosed in 
the skin of the body ; while they are provided with five toes 
each, connected together by webs. Unlike the land Carni- 
vores, the first and fifth toes of each foot are stouter and 
generally longer than the three middle ones. The tail is 
always short. 

In regard to their teeth, it may be mentioned that, whereas only 
in the Sea-Otter among the true Carnivores are there less than 
three pairs of incisors in the lower jaw, in the present group 
such a reduction is invariably the case ; while very frequently 
also there are only two pairs of these teeth in the upper jaw. 
In the cheek-teeth the pre-njolars (generally four in number in 
e ch j w) are nearly similar to the molars ; the latter being 
generally reduced to a single pair, although in some instances 
there are two pairs in the upper jaw. The milk-teeth are shed 
at an exceedingly early age — sometimes even before birth, — 
and are consequently of no functional importance whatever, 
while collar-bones are totally wanting. 

In habits, the whole of these animals are thoroughly aquatic; 
?ind they are, as a rule, inhabitants of the sea, although some 


ascend rivers, and a few are found in land-locked lakes. Al- 
though their movements on land are awkward and ungainly in 
the extreme, the members of one family (the Eared Seals, of 
which there are no British representatives) pass the whole of 
the breeding season on shore, during which prolonged period 
they undergo a complete fast. 

The true Seals, or Phocidm, which are the most specialised 
representatives of the entire group, are characterised by the 
circumstance that the hind-flippers, when on land, are ex- 
.ended backwards parallel to the tail, and are thus incapable 
of taking any share in those movements which, by courtesy, 
may be termed walking ; this mode of progression being 
effected mainly or entirely by a kind of jumping movement of 
the "body. All these Seals are further characterised by the 
total absence of any externally projecting ear; the passages to 
the brain opening flat on the surface of the sides of the head. 
Although the number of incisor teeth is subject to some 
degree of variation, the pre-molars and molars collectively 
always form five pairs in each jaw; these teeth generally 
having three well-marked cusps arranged longitudinally, with 
sometimes a smaller fourth cusp posteriorly, but being occa- 
sionally simple. 

The British Seals, aHhough not numerous, include represen- 
tatives of three distinct genera. 

Halichmrus, Nilsson, Faun. Skandinav. vol. i. p. 377 (1820). 
Three pairs of upper, and two of lower incisor teeth; cheek- 
teeth {i.e., molars and pre-molars) mostly with single roots, 
and simply conical without accessory cusps. First and fifth 
toes of the hinder flippers not much longer than the three 
middle ones ; and the webs on their feet not projecting be- 
yond the extremities of the toes. 


The genus is represented solely by the undermentioned 


Phoca grypus, Fabricius, Skriv. af. Nat. Selksk. vol. i. pt. 2, p. 

167 (1791). 
Jfalichxriis griseus, Nilsson, Faun. Skandinav. vol. i. p. 377 

Phoca gryphus, Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 239 (1829). 
Halicharus gryphus, Bell, British Quadrupeds, p. 278 (1B37), 

and 2nd ed. p. 262 (1874). 
Halichxrus grypus, Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. Mus. 

p. 34(1866). 
Characters. — General colour yellowish-grey, becoming lighter 
on the under-parts, with dark grey spots and blotches ; but, 
as in most Seals, there is considerable of variation in tint 
according to age. Total length of male, about 8 feet. 

Distrihution — The range of this species is restricted to the 
shores of the North Atlantic Ocean, where it is far more com- 
mon and more widely distributed on the European than on the 
American side. Its chief haunts appear to be the British and 
Scandinavian coasts ; its northern limits being seemingly 
marked by the Baltic, the Gulf of Bothnia, and Iceland. This 
Seal was first recognised as an inhabitant of the British seas in 
the year 1836 ; and while rare on the southern coasts of Eng- 
land, it is exceedingly abundant on the western and southern 
shores of Ireland, as well as in the Hebrides and Shetlands. 
The specimens taken on our southern coasts must be regarded 
in the light of stragglers from more northern regions \ one of 
these having been taken many years ago in the Severn, while a 
second was captured on the Isle of Wight in 1857. It has 
likewise been recorded from the Welsh coast. On the more 
southern coasts of Scotland this Seal is likewise rare, but it be- 

5 »■ 


comes more numerous as we proceed north. Thus, although 
now diminished in numbers, a few are still to be found in 
suitable localities on the coast of Caithness, where they have 
been said to breed in the rocky caverns. According to Messrs. 
Harvie-Brown and Buckley, they " also occur in some num- 
bers on Eilean-nan-roan, off the Kyle of Tongue, where speci- 
mens have been seen over eight feet long. They are most 
numerous on the outer island. At Souliskeir, to the north of 
Cape Wrath, they were once abundant, and parties of fisher- 
men used to go from Orkney and the north Sutherland coast 

Skull 01 Grey Seal. 

to kill them in October." The same authors state that, al- 
though restricted and rare in the Inner Hebrides, it still fre- 
quents the more remote Outer Hebrides in some numbers, 
although, for obvious reasons, they refrain from mentioning its 
favourite haunts. They add that there are "few localities, 
even among the Isles, where they could be observed with any 
degree of regularity. We know of one single, very hoary, and 
very large individual, frequenting a portion of coast, and 
having done so unmolested for many years. What his age 
may be, it is vain to speculate upon, but he certainly has been 
known and recognised by natives for a very long series of 

SEALS. 147 

years, frequenting always the same reach of shore. That great 
Grey Seals breed also even far in among the Inner Hebrides 
seems to be perfectly certain from notes in our possession, but 
it is quite open to doubt if such an occurrence as the birth of 
a Grey Seal has ever taken place anywhere upon the coast of 
the mainland " of Argyllshire. 

On the southern and western coasts of Ireland these Seals 
appear to retain their hold more than elsewhere, and they like- 
wise seem to congregate in larger parties than in most other 
places, at least a dozen having been seen together. Even 
here, however, their numbers appear to be diminishing 
steadily, although the persecuted creatures have, fortunately 
for themselves, now become so shy and wary as to make it 
very difficult to approach within range. A large specimen 
shot by A. G. More, on a rocky island off the coast of Con- 
nemara, in 1869, measured exactly eight feet in length, and 
weighed close upon four hundred pounds; but Scottish 
examples are stated to reach fully nine feet from the tip of 
the nose to the extremity of the hind-flippers. 

Habits. — In habits the Grey Seal is essentially an insular 
and oceanic species, generally associating in pairs, although 
occasionally, as we have seen to be the case on the Irish 
coasts, consorting in small parties. In the Hebrides they take 
up their quarters in the most exposed situations ; and produce 
their young in September or October, or even as late as 
November. When first born, the young Seal is clothed with 
white hair, which is retained till such time as the creature is 
able to take to the water, when the adult dress is assumed. 
In Scandinavia, on the other hand, it is stated that the breed- 
ing season is not till February ; a difference which Bell sug- 
gests may be due to the difference in the climate of this region 
from Britain, although it does not appear to us that this ex- 
planation is adequate. 

L 2 

148 Lloyd's natural history. 

It may be mentioned that, like all the other British species, 
the Grey Seal has no under-fur, and therefore does not yield 

Phoca, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 55 (1766). 

Distinguished from the preceding genus by the relatively 
smaller and more pointed teeth, and by those of the cheek- 
series having accessory cusps, and mostly double roots. The 
head also is rounded, instead of flattened, and the muzzle 
naked and not truncated, while the brain-cavity of the skull is 
proportionately much larger. 

The short front-flippers are furnished with five stout, some- 
what compressed and curved, and rather sharp claws ; while, 
those of the hind-feet are narrower and less curved. 

The genus includes several species from the northern hemi- 
sphere, among which are the majority of those frequenting the 
British coasts. 


Phoca vitulina, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 56 (1766); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 240 (1874). 
Phoca variegata, Nilsson, Skandinav. Faun. vol. i. p. 359 

Callocephalus vltulinus, F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. xxix. 

p. 544 (1826); Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. Mus. 

p. 20 (1866). 

{Plate XVII.) 

Characters. — Considerably smaller than Halichcerus grypus, to 
which it closely approximates in general coloration, the upper- 
parts being yellowish-grey spotted with black and brown, while 
the under-parts are light silvery-grey. Cheek-teeth crowded 
together, and placed obliquely in the jaws. Total length, from 
4 to 5 feet. 









Distribution. — This Seal, the second of the two species which 
alone breed on the British coasts, has a wider and also a more 
northerly distribution than the Grey Seal, being found not 
only on both sides of the North Atlantic, but likewise in the 
North Pacific. Northwards its range includes Spitsbergen, 
Greenland, and Davis Straits; while southwards it is found 
commonly on the northern shores of France and Holland, but 
is stated to be rare in the Baltic. Formerly abundant, in 
such localities as are suited to its habits, throughout the 
British coasts, this Seal has now practically disappeared from 
those of the more southern and eastern counties of England, 
although even there an occasional straggler now and then 

Skull of Common Seal. 

makes its appearance, one such instance having occurred not 
many years ago at Brighton. On the more rocky shores of the 
western counties, as well as in Wales, it is, however, still far 
from uncommon ; the same being the case in the northern 
Enghsh counties. On the coasts of the Lake district, where 
the shore is generally sandy and without islands, it is, how- 
ever, decidedly rare, although, according to the Rev. H. A. 
Macpherson, a few old individuals occur now and again both 
in Morecambe Bay and in the main channel of the English Sol- 
way. On the coasts of the mainland of Scotland this species 


may be still met with in considerable numbers, although 
it is less abundant than formerly, even in the Hebrides and 
other islands. On the coasts of Sutherland and Caithness, 
Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley write that it is not un- 
common in some localities, especially in the Firths of the 
north coast, and occurring all along the coasts in the west. 
Another resort on the east coast is a sand-bank at the entrance 
of the Dornoch Firth, visible from the town of Tain, where 
Seals used to lie in large numbers, until persecuted by long- 
range punt-guns. Although it has long been known that this 
Seal will often ascend rivers for long distances in pursuit of its 
favourite Salmon, it is not so much a matter of common know- 
ledge that it will take up its residence for longer or shorter 
periods in inland fresh-water lakes. The authors last mentioned 
have, however, collected evidence of the occurrence of many 
of these Seals both in Loch Awe, in Argyllshire, and also in 
Loch Shiel. On the Irish coasts — and more especially on the 
west and east — the common Seal was formerly abundant in 
suitable localities, although even in Thompson's time they were 
becoming scarce in Belfast Bay, where a portion of the coast, 
where they were once common, bears the name of, " Craig-a-vad," 
or " Seal " rock. 

Habits. — Unlike the Grey Seal, the present species is essen- 
tially gregarious, congregating in herds of as many as two or 
three dozen individuals, which, when in repose, may be seen 
lying on the shore as closely packed as possible, with their 
heads all turned seawards. In spite, however, of its northern 
range it is not an Ice-Seal, never frequenting the ice-fields or 
ice-floes of the polar ocean, but generally resorting to sheltered 
fjords and caves, where food is abundant, and the depth of 
water not too great to render its capture a matter of difficulty. 
Macgillivray writes that it "frequents estuaries, sea-lochs, bays, 
and the channels between islands, where it may be seen 

SEALS. 151 

occasionally protruding its head above the surface, sometimes 
following a boat or vessel at a distance, but generally keeping 
beyond reach of shot. It feeds exclusively on fishes, in pur- 
suit of which it can remain several minutes immersed. At 
low water it often betakes itself to rocks or small islands, on 
which it reposes until the return of the tide ; and I have seen 
droves of twenty or more individuals thus basking in the sun. 
In estuaries they sometimes repose on the sands, where they 
are I'able to be surprised, if the water bs distant, for their 
movements on land are exceedingly awkward, and their hurry 
in endeavouring to escape when approached forms an amusing 
sight, as they seem to tumble about in a ludicrous manner, throw- 
ing themselves headlong into the water from the rocks. When 
there are caverns on the coast, they find a more secure retreat 
in them, since, if attacked, they can escape by diving." 

While in the sea, the Common Seal lives largely upon Floun- 
ders ; but it is also especially fond of Salmon and Sea-Trout, and 
it is in pursuit of these latter that it so frequently ascends long 
distances up rivers. The young — usually one, but occasionally 
two in number — are born in June, or thereabouts, after a gesta- 
tion of nine months. Although the new-born young are clothed 
in a coat of white hairs, as in the case of the Grey Seal, yet it 
appears that instead of being retained for two or three weeks, 
as in the latter, this is replaced by the adult coat very shortly 
after birth, the offspring at the same time taking to the water. 

The fondness of Seals for musical sounds is well-known, and 
the following account, communicated to Macgillivray by a 
resident in the Hebrides, illustrates this very graphically. ' ' In 
walking along the shore in districts where Seals were abundant 
in the calm of a summer afternoon,'' writes the narrator, "a 
few notes of my flute would bring half-a-score of them within 
thirty or forty yards of me ; and there they would swim about, 
with their heads above water, like so many black dogs, 


evidently delighted with the sounds. For half-an-hour, or, 
indeed, for any length of time I chose, I could fix them to the 
spot, and when I moved along the water's edge they would 
follow me with eagerness, like the Dolphins, which, it is said, 
attended Arion, as if anxious to prolong the enjoyment. I 
have frequently witnessed the same effect when out on a boat- 
excursion. The sound of the flute, or of a common fife, 
blown by one of the boatmen, was no sooner heard than half- 
a-dozen would start up within a few yards, wheeling round us 
as long as the music played, and disappearing, one after 
another, when it ceased. 

" Other occasions occurred during my residence in these 
islands of witnessing the habits of these creatures. While 
my pupils and I were bathing, which we often did in the 
bosom of a beautiful bay in the island, named, from the 
circumstance of its being the favourite haunt of the animal, 
Seal-Bay, numbers of them invariably made their appear- 
ance, especially if the weather was calm and sunny, and 
the sea smooth, crowding around us at the distance of a few 
yards, and looking as if they had some kind of notion that 
we were of the same species, or at least genus, with them- 
selves. The gambols in the water of my playful companions, 
and their noise and merriment, seemed, to our imagination, to 
excite them, and to make them course round us with greater 
rapidity and animation. At the same time, the slightest at- 
tempt on our part to act on the offensive, by throwing at them 
a stone or a shell, was the signal for their instantaneous dis- 
appearance, each, as it vanished, leaving the surface of the 
water beautifully figured with a wavy succession of concentric 

" On hot days in summer I have seen great numbers of them 
stretched in groups on the rocks at the bottom of Seal-Bay, 
which had been left dry by the receding tide. There they 

SEALS. 153 

would lie lazily along, basking in the warm sun, like so many 
large swine, and nearly of the same colour. 

" The fishermen on the island used to assert that, like many 
other animals both of the land and the water, they never repose 
without stationing a sentinel on the watch. I cannot posi- 
tively confirm this, but I have often observed that during the 
general slumber one of the number, but not always the same 
individual, would raise its head for a second or two, turning it 
half round, and again stretch itself in repose. Ever and anon, 
too, we would hear from some one of the group a melancholy 
moan coming slowly over the surface of the deep, wild and 
savage in the sound." 

The proportionately much larger capacity of the brain in the 
Common, as compared with that of the Grey Seal, would naturally 
suggest that the former is a far more intelligent creature than 
the latter ; and actual experience proves this to be the case. 
Thus, whereas the Grey Seal is a dull and phlegmatic animal, 
exhibiting no signs of pleasure in musical sounds and display- 
ing no attachment to its owner when in captivity, the present 
species can be readily tamed, and exhibits not only a high 
degree of affection for its master, but likewise great general 
intelligence. A well-known story is related in Maxwell's "Wild 
Sports of the West '' of a Seal which had been captured young 
in Clew Bay, on the west coast of Ireland, and tamed by the 
servants of a neighbouring landowner. There it remained for 
upwards of four years, and so great was its attachment to the 
house, that after being carried out to sea three times and there 
left, it returned home on each occasion. With unspeakable 
cruelty, on the last of these occasions, the poor animal had 
been deprived of its sight, but even then it returned after an 
interval of eight days. Another individual, which was tamed 
by an Irish gentleman in i8ig, appeared, according to Thomp- 
son's account, " to possess all the sagacity of the dog, and lived 


in its master's house and ate from his hand. In his fishing 
excursions this gentleman generally took it vith him, upon 
which occasions it afforded no small entertainment. When 
thrown into the water, it would follow for miles the track of the 
boat, and although thrust back by the oars, it never relinquished 
its purpose ; indeed, it struggled so hard to regain its seat that 
one would imagine its fondness for its master had entirely 
overcome the natural predilection for its native element." 

From the value of its skin, and the amount of oil yielded by 
its fat, this Seal is much hunted by fishermen, which has re- 
sulted in the diminution of its numbers already alluded to. 
Although the flesh of the adult is dark-coloured and somewhat 
rank, that of the young is tender and by no means unpalatable. 
Unless killed outright by the first shot, when in the water, they 
are liable to be lost, as they dive immediately on being struck, 
and are seldom seen again. Moreover, even if killed, unless 
the boat is rowed up speedily and the body secured, it will 
likewise be lost, as a dead Seal, more especially if it be in poor 
condition, immediately sinks to the bottom. 


Plwca hispida, Schreber, Saugethiere vol. iii. pi. 86 (?i776); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, znd ed. p. 247 (1874). ' 
Phoca fcetida, Fabricius, in Miillei's Zool. Dan. Prodr. p. 8 

(1766); without description, and the name subsequently 

withdrawn by its author. 
Fhoca annullata, Nilsson, Skandinav. Fauna, p. 362 (1820). 
Callocephalus discolor, F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. xxxix., p. 

545 (1826). 
Pagomys fxtidus. Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. Mus. p. 

23 (1866). 

Characters. — Very similar in external appearance to the last, 
but of somewhat smaller size, and the colour of the upper 


parts blackish-grey, generally marked with more or less distinct 
oval whitish rings ; under-parts whitish ; hair soft, and nearly 
erect. Cheek-teeth not crowded together, and placed in a 
straight line. Total length, generally from 3 to 4 feet. 

The skull may be distinguished by the pre-maxillary bones 
(those carrying the incisor teeth) running up some distance by 
the sides of the nasals, instead of not touching them at all, or 
only at the tips ; while the hinder foramina on the palate open 
either on or behind the suture between the maxillae and pala- 
tine bones, instead of in the maxillas themselves. 

Distribution. — But a very rare and casual visitor to the British 
coasts, the Ringed Seal is an essentially northern species, in- 
habiting the Arctic Ocean and the shores of the North Atlantic 
and North Pacific, being especially plentiful among the ice- 
floes of Davis Strait, but in Greenland mainly confined to the 
northern districts. An undoubted example of this Seal was 
taken on the Norfolk coast in 1846, and sold in a fresh con 
dition in the Norwich market ; and there is some evidence that 
the species occasionally visits the Hebrides. It is also stated 
by Mr. J. Cordeaux that an example occurred on the Lincoln- 
shire coast so recently as the year 1889. Sir William Turner 
records its remains from the glacial clays of various parts of 

Hatits. — On this point it will suffice to say that this species 
is an Ice-Seal, dwelling in the neighbourhood of the coast-ice 
of the northern oceans, and seldom visiting the open sea. In 
such situations it preys on fish which are captured in a hole 
kept open, by some means not fully known, in the ice; passing 
such portions of its time as are not occupied in fishing, in sleep. 
The single offspring is born late in the winter or early in the 
spring on the solid ice, and is stated to take to the water 
before shedding its baby-coat of light-coloured hair, which is 

iS6 Lloyd's natural history, 

usually retained for about a month after birth. The skin, 
although used for clothing by the natives of Northern Green- 
land, is not so much valued as that of the Common Seal. 


Phoca grxnlandica, Fabricius, in Miiller's Zool. Dan. Prodr. p. 

viii. (1766); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 252 

Callocephalus grcenlandicus, F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. xxxix. 

p. 54S (1826). 
Pagophilus grxnlandicus, Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. 

Mus. p. 25 (1866). 

(Plate XVIII.) 
Characters. — General colour lawny-grey or yellowish-white, 
sometimes spotted ; males with a somewhat harp-shaped or 
crescentic blackish mark crossing the shoulders and extending 
down each flank, and the muzzle also dark-coloured. Cheek- 
teeth separated, and arranged in a straight Une. Total length, 
from 4 to 5 feet. 

The skull may be readily distinguished from that of either of 
the preceding species by the circumstance that the free hinder 
margin of the bony palate is almost entire, instead of being 
deeply and acutely notched ; while the two branches of the 
lower jaw, in place of diverging at once, are nearly parallel in 

According to Jukes, the young of the Harp-Seal are white 
until they are six or seven weeks old, during which period they 
are termed "White-coats" in Newfoundland; at the age of one 
year, small spots make their appearance, and in two years 
larger spots ; while it is not till the third year that the males 
(then called "Saddle-backs") assume the characteristic dark 
harp-shaped markings. 





Distribution. — As arctic in its distribution as the preceding 
species, the Harp, or, as it is often called, the Greenland Seal, is 
an equally rare and casual visitor to the British Islands, and, 
indeed, it is only recently that a skull has been definitely 
identified as pertaining to a British specimen. The general 
distribution of the species is the same as that of the Ringed 
Seal, since it occurs in the northern seas of both hemispheres. 
As regards its occurrence in Britain, two Seals killed in the 
Severn in 1836 were referred to this species by Bell, and 
although doubts were subsequently thrown on the correct- 
ness of this identification, the same gentleman maintained its 

Skull of the Harp-Seal. 

accuracy. Gray also identified with this species the skin of a 
young Seal taken in the Thames at Isleworth in 1858; and 
Macgillivray provisionally did the same with another from the 
Firth of Forth. More satisfactory is the evidence with regard 
to an immature Seal captured in Morecambe Bay in January, 
1868, the skull of which is now preserved in the museum at 
Kendal ; Sir William Turner {Journ. Anatomy and Physiology, 
vol. ix., p. 163) confident ly assigning it to the species under 
consideration. Regarding its alleged occurrence in the Scottish 
Isles, Mr. H. D. Graham {^Proc. Nat. ffist, Soc. Glasgow, vol. i., 

iS8 Lloyd's natural history. 

P- 53) g^'^'e an account of three Seals seen by himself in West 
Loch Tarbet, off Jura, which he confidently identified with the 
Harp-Seal; and three others have been reported from Loch 
Scridain, in Mull. Mr. Harvie Brown records a Seal shot at 
Kintradwell some time previous to 1870 as referable in all pro- 
bability to this species ; while he adds that one killed, although 
lost, by himself in the Hebrides, was likewise a Harp-Seal. 
Finally, a Seal shot in county Galway, about the year 1856, 
is considered to indicate the right of this species to be included 
in the list of Irish Mammals. 

HaWts. — Like the Ringed Seal, the Harp-Seal is found chiefly 
on, or in the neighbourhood of, ice, frequenting both the solid 
ice-fields and the detached floes. It diifers, however, from that 
species in that it does not make a breathing-hole in the ice for 
fishing. Writing of its habits in Spitsbergen, Professor Alfred 
Newton writes that the Harp-Seal "is of a sociable disposition, 
and we saw it in herds of not less than fifty in number. These 
were very fond of swimming in line, their heads only above 
water, engaged in a game of ' Follow-my-leader,' for, on the first 
Seal making a roll over or a spring in the air, each Seal of the 
whole procession on arriving at the same spot did the like, and 
exactly in the same manner." In addition to consuming large 
quantities of Salmon and other fish, this Seal likewise feeds 
upon molluscs and crustaceans. During the month of March, 
while on the field-ice, the female Seal gives birth to her offspring 
which may be either one, two, or even, it is said, occasionally 
three in number. The white baby-coat is retained by the young 
Seal for two or three weeks ; and it is not till after losing this 
that it takes to the water. 

Cystophora, Nilsson, Skandinav. Fauna vol. i. p. 382 (1820). 
This genus differs from the two previously mentioned in that 


Ihe incisor teeth are reduced to two pairs in the upper, and to a 
single pair in the lower jaw; the total number of teeth thus being 
only thirty. The cheek-teeth, with the usual exception of the 
last, are inserted in the jaws by a single root each ; and the 
first and fifth toes of the hind-feet are much longer than the 
three middle ones, and are provided with small rudimental 
nails, while the webs connecting the toes project in the form of 
lobes considerably beyond the extremities of the latter. On 
the nose of the adult male is an inflatable sac lying beneath 
the skin, capable of being dilated so as to form a kind of hood 
extending backwards to cover the head. 


Pkoca cristata, Erxleben, Syst. Regne Animal, p. 590 (1777). 
Cystophora cristata, Nilsson, Skandinav. Fauna, p. 327 (1820); 

Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. Mus. p. 41 (1866); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 257 (1874). 
Cystophora borealis, Nilsson, op. cit, p. 383 (1820). 
Stemmatopus cristatus, F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. xxxix. 

p. 551 (1826). 

Characters. — In this, the only species of the genus, the general 
colour of the fur of the upper-parts is dark grey, marked with 
spots of a still deeper shade ; the under-parts being lighter and 
uniform. Total length, from 7 to 10 feet. 

DistriTration. — This large and curious member of the Seal 
family is an inhabitant of the colder regions of the North Atlantic, 
although not extending to the extreme north, which probably 
accounts for its not being circum-polar. Migratory in its habits, 
occurring in South Greenland from April till June, and again 
making its appearance in August, some few individuals straggle 
as far south as Iceland and Northern Scandinavia, while still 
more rarely others make their appearance now and then on the 

i6o Lloyd's natural history. 

coasts of Britain, or even of France. The first undoubted 
British example of this species was taken in the River Orwell 
during the summer of 1847 ; it was a very young animal, and 
its skin is preserved in the museum at Ipswich. A second 
young specimen was seen on a rock in the sea at St. Andrews 
in the summer of 1872, and was killed with stones. Other 
specimens are more or less vaguely reported to have been taken 
on the Scottish coasts ; while it is not improbable that a Seal 
seen many years ago near Westport, in Ireland, belonged to 
the present species. 

HaMts. — The Hooded, or, as it is often called, the Bladder- 
nosed Seal, is especially characterised by its migratory habits, 
to which allusion has already been made, and the extreme 
ferocity of its disposition. Not only do the males fight to- 
gether for the possession of females to add to their harem 
(this being one of the few species of true Seals which are 
polygamous), but when attacked on the ice they will boldly face 
their adversaries, instead of precipitately fleeing, after the 
general custom of their tribe. On such occasions the sac on 
the nose is inflated, as if with the purpose of terrifying the 
assailants. The chief food of this Seal is stated to consist of 
Cod and Flounders ; and the species spends the greater part 
of its time on the ice, upon which the young are born in the 


The Walruses, of which there is but a single existing genus, 
differ structurally from the true Seals in that, when on land, 
the hind-flippers are bent forwards under the body, and aid in 
terrestrial progression ; this being a feature in which they 
resemble the Eared Seals {Otariidcc). In the absence of 
external ears they agree, however, with the true Seals. Their 

WALRUS. 161 

dentition, on the other hand, is quite unlike that of either of 
the other two Famihes of the sub-order, the upper canines 
forming enormous downwardly directed tusks, while all the 
other teeth are inserted by single roots, and have very simple 
crowns, which in those of the cheek-series are flattened. 

Trichechus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 49 (1766). 

Size very large ; head rounded, with relatively small eyes, 
and the muzzle short and wide ; tail rudimental ; the five toes 
of the fore-feet of nearly equal length, and furnished with 
minute flattened nails ; in the hind-feet, the fifth toe slightly 
the largest, and, like the first, with a nail like those of the fore- 
feet, the nails of the three middle toes being long, narrow, and 
pointed ; the webs of the hind-feet projecting in advance of the 
toes in the form of lobes. In the adult only eighteen teeth, 
forming a pair of small incisors in the upper jaw, and another 
of enormous canines ; the lower canines being small, and very 
similar to the pre-molars, of which there are three pairs in each 


Trichechus rosmarus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 49 
(1766); Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. Mus. p. 36 
(1866); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 269 

Rosmarus arcticus, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso.- Asiat. vol. i. p. 269 

Odobanus rosmarus, Allen {ex Malmgren), North American 
Pinnipeds, p. 23 (1880). 

Characters. — Muzzle furnished on each side with a bunch of 
quill-like bristles ; hair short and closely pressed to the skin, of 
5 M 

1 62 

Lloyd's natural historv. 

a greyish-brown colour, but becoming lighter with age, and in 
very old individuals to a great extent disappearing, and leaving 
the body nearly naked. Total length, from 12 to 15 feet. 

Distrilration. — Essentially an inhabitant of the frozen regions 
of the north, the Walrus, or Morse, has but slight claim to be 
regarded as a British animal, so far at least as the historical 
period is concerned. Typically from the North Atlantic and 
Arctic Oceans, this species may probably be regarded as 
likewise an inhabitant of the North Pacific, since, in our 

opinion, the view taken by the American naturalists that 
the Pacific Walrus is entitled to rank as a distinct species is 
untenable. Apart from certain early references to its reported 
occurrence on the coast of Scotland, the first definite record of 
the occurrence of the Walrus within our limits is one given by 
Macgillivray, who states that the example in question was shot 
while reposing on a rock at Caolas Stocnis, in the island of 
Harris, during the winter of 181 7. This specimen, which was 
actually seen in the flesh by its describer, measured ten feet 

WALRUS. 163 

in length, and yielded two barrels of blubber. A second 
example was killed in the summer of 1825 on the island of 
Edday, in the Orkneys ; while two years later a third is stated 
to have been seen in Hoy Sound. A fourth was killed in the 
spring of 1841 on the island of East Haskar, near Harris; 
while two others are reported to have been seen in the 
Orkneys — the one in 1857; and the other somewhere about 
the same date. 

The discovery of a skull, now preserved in the Cambridge 
Museum, in the peat near Ely, would seem to indicate that in 
former times i he Walrus not only visited the shores of the 
eastern coast, but that it ascended the larger rivers. Its 
former occurrence on the same coast is confirmed by a lower 
jaw dredged from the Dogger Bank (where teeth of the 
Mammoth are so commonly obtained), now in the British 

At a still earlier epoch, when the climate was probably 
much colder than at the present day, Walruses (which have 
been referred to an extinct species) appear to have been by no 
means uncommon on our eastern coast, where they were 
doubtless resident. Fragments of the tusks of these animals 
have been disinterred not only from the so-called "forest-bed" of 
Cromer, in Norfolk, but likewise from the still older Red Crag 
of Suffolk and Essex, which belongs to the upper portion of 
the Pliocene epoch. 

HaMts. — In the case of animals like the Walrus, whose only 
claim to be regarded as British rests on the occurrence of some 
half-dozen stragglers which have wandered or been carried 
from their northern home, our notice of habits will be of the 
briefest. It may be mentioned, however, that Walruses are 
essentially gregarious animals, which in former days con- 
gregated on the ice or shores of the Arctic regions in herds 
often comprising hundreds of individuals. Their food con- 

M 3 

164 Lloyd's natural history. 

sists mainly of molluscs and crustaceans, grubbed up from 
the mud by the aid of the tusks ; and for crushing the hard 
shells of these the other teeth are most admirably adapted. 
Whether, as alleged, the tusks are also employed in aiding the 
creature to climb up on the ice, is a point in regard to which 
there is a difference of opinion among observers. The young, 
usually one, but occasionally two in number, are born on the 
ice from April to June, and are tended and defended by the 
female with remarkable solicitude and bravery. 


The possession of a single pair of chisel-like incisor teeth in* 
the lower jaw, which grow continuously throughout life, and are 
opposed by a similar pair of upper teeth, is of itself a sufficient 
character to distinguish the Rodents, or Gnawing Mammals, 
from all the other British representatives of the Class to which 
they belong. In the lower jaw only this single pair of incisors 
is developed, and the same is the case in the great majority of 
the members of the Order as regards the upper jaw, although 
in the Hares and Rabbits, as well as in their foreign cousins the 
Pikas, a small and functionless second pair of upper incisors is 
to be found behind the large ones. These chisel-like incisor 
teeth have, as an almost invariable rule, a coating of hard 
enamel only on their front surfaces, the result of which is that 
they have a cutting-edge formed and kept continually sharp by 
the action of gnawing food and other hard substances. Since 
these teeth form a segment of a circle and grow continuously 
throughout the life of their owner, if one by any chance happens 
to get broken it results that the opposing tooth, having nothing 
to wear against it, grows to a great length beyond the gums, 
curving round, and sometimes actually piercing the skull of its 


unfortunate owner. Although in many cases the enamel on the 
front of the incisor teeth of Rodents is of the ordinary white 
colour, in others it is stained some shade of yellow, brown, red, 
or even black. 

Behind these incisors there occurs a long tooth-less gap, 
owing to the total want of canines. Then follow the cheek- 
teeth, which are generally only four in number on each side 
of both the upper and lower jaws, owing to the loss of the 
anterior pre-molars, there being never more than three pairs of 
the latter teeth, while in some cases they are totally wanting. 
The cheek-teeth have flattened crowns adapted for grinding ; 
and while in some cases these are surmounted by blunt tuber- 
cles, they are more generally inter-penetrated by in-folds of the 
enamel from the sides or summits, or both, by which in the 
worn state they are divided into laminae, or have islands of 
enamel on the grinding surface. 

The lower jaw is articulated to the skull by a knob, or con- 
dyle, elongated longitudinally, and thus permitting of the back- 
wards-and-forwards " munching " movement so characteristic of 
these animals when eating. 

The feet are either completely, or almost completely, planti- 
grade, and are usually furnished with five toes, generally armed 
with sharp claws, although in a few instances these terminal 
appendages partake more of the nature of hoofs. In nearly 
all cases collar-bones are present, although these may be incom- 
plete, or even rudimentary. In no case is the socket for the 
eye in the skull surrounded by a ring of bone. 

In number the Rodents exceed any other of the Mammalian 
Orders; and they have likewise a wider geographical distribution, 
being practically cosmopolitan and represented even in Aus- 
.tralia. They are, however, by no means evenly spread over 
the globe, and attain their greatest development in South 
America. In accordance with this general numerical superi- 

1 66 Lloyd's natural history. 

ority, we find their British representatives exceeding in this 
respect the terrestrial members of any other Order belonging to 
our fauna. 

With the exception of one South American species, existing 
Rodents are mostly animals of comparatively small size, many 
being very minute. Although some are aquatic, and others 
arboreal in their mode of life, the majority are terrestrial. By far 
the greater number are exclusively vegetable feeders, and 
there are scarcely any which do not eat vegetable food of some 
kind or other. Consequently they are, of all Mammals, the 
most harmful to the agriculturist. 

Although the Order is divided into a very large number of 
Families, only four are now represented in the British Islands, 
two of which have but a single species each. Within the 
historic period a fourth Family — the Beavers — was, however, 
represented by its typical member within our area. 


Confining our attention throughout our description to the 
British representatives of the Order, the Squirrels may be 
defined as Rodents with cylindrical hairy tails, having cheek- 
teeth furnished with roots and carrying tubercles on their 
crowns, and by the presence of two pairs of pre-molars in the 
upper, and one pair in the lower jaw, the first pair of upper 
pre-molars being, however, often minute, and not unfrequently 
shed at an early age. 

With the exception of Australasia, this numerous Family is 
cosmopolitan in its distribution, and while its typical represen- 
tatives—the Squirrels— are arboreal, the Marmots are terres- 



Sciurus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 13,. vol. i. p. 86 (1766). 

Tail long and bushy; ears generally well developed and 
often tufted ; feet adapted for climbing, the front pair with the 
first toe rudimentary. Teats four to six in number. First pair 
of upper pre-molar teeth minute, and frequently shed at an 
early state. Collar-bones complete. 


Sciurus vulgaris, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. ig, vol. i. p. 86 (1766); 
Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 276 (1874), 
(Plate XIX.) 

Characters — General colour brownish-red on the upper-parts, 
and white beneath; tail very bushy and coloured like the body; 
ears tufted during a portion of the year ; first upper pre-molar 
tooth frequently shed. Length of head and body, about 8^ 
inches ; of tail, exclusive of hair, 7 inches, with the hair, 
8 inches. 

The Squirrel is subject to certain variations of colour accord- 
ing to age and the time of the year, and there seems likewise to 
be some difference due to locality. After mentioning that the 
female is smaller, and generally of a lighter colour than the 
male, Macgillivray writes on this subject as follows : — In 
younger individuals the colour is redder than in adults, in 
which it is seldom destitute of a grey tinge ; " and I have seen 
some in which the grey predominated over the red. In April 
and May the hair of the upper-parts assumes a singularly 
faded appearance, losing its gloss and assuming a light yellowish 
tint. In the latter month the process of depilation commences, 
to be completed by the end of June, when the ears are desti- 
tute of tufts. It appears that the long hairs which fringe the 
ears are not proportionately longer than the rest until Novem- 


ber, that tliey then gradually elongate, attain their extreme 
development in spring, and remain un-shed till June. In the 
northern regions of Europe the grey colour in winter is more 
decided, and the fur of denser and finer texture." Bell adds 
that towards the end of summer the tail not unfrequently 
becomes more or less decidedly cream-coloured. A variety 
inhabiting the Alps and Pyrenees is characterised by the back 
being dark brown, mottled with yellowish-white, while the 
under-parts are pure white. 

Distribution. — The distribution of the common Squirrel is 
extensive, ranging from Ireland across Europe and Asia, 

Skull of Squirrel. 

north of the Himalaya as far as Japan, while in the opposite 
direction it embraces Northern Italy in the south and Lapland 
in the north. It will be obvious, however, that, from the nature 
of its habits, the animal is only found in more or less well- 
timbered districts. Throughout the whole of England the 
Squirrel appears to be pretty generally distributed in suitable 
localities. According to the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, there 
appears, however, to be some degree of probability that the 
existing breed has not inhabited the Lake district for much 
more than a century. Whether, however, the animal was 
originally indigenous to the district, and was destroyed by the 
felling of the forests, and afterwards again introduced, or 
whether it was originally unknown there, has not been decided. 


Occurring throughout the lowlands, the Squirrel was formerly 
present in the north of Scotland, but, according to Mr. Harvie- 
Brown, appears to have become extinct towards the close of 
the last century — not improbably owing to the severe winter of 
1795. In Sutherland it seems to have reappeared in 1859, 
but it was not till ten years later that, by the construction of a 
railway bridge, it was enabled to enter the east of that county. 
Since that date these animals have thriven and multiplied ; 
although they are still unknown in Caithness, as they are in 
Argyllshire and the Hebrides. Apparently distributed over the 
whole or the greater part of Ireland, they seem to be in general 
less common there than in England ; and it is not improbable 
that the species was introduced. 

From the nature of its habits, remains of Squirrels are 
unlikely to be found in cavern-deposits, and it does not appear 
that any have hitherto been obtained therefrom. A limb-bone 
has, however, been disinterred from the "forest-bed" of the 
Norfolk coast, indicating the occurrence of the animal in our 
eastern forests at the comparatively remote epoch when that 
formation was deposited. 

HaMts. — Writing of its mode of life, Macgillivray observes : — 
" The agility of the Squirrel, its lively disposition, and beautiful 
form, render it a general favourite. It is amusing to watch it 
in its arboreal excursions, when you see it ascending the trunk 
and branches with surprising speed, running out even on 
slender twigs, always, when in motion, keeping its tail depressed, 
occasionally performing leaps from one branch to another, 
and when alarmed, scampering away at such a rate that you 
almost expect to see it miss its footing and fall down headlong. 
It feeds on nuts, beech-mast, acorns, buds, and the bark of 
young branches; generally, while eating, sitting on its haunches, 
with its tail elevated, holding the object between its paws, and 


dexterously unshelling the kernel, from which it even removes 
the outer pellicle before munching it. It does not reside 
entirely on trees, but frequently resorts to the ground, where it 
moves with nearly equal agility, leaping like a rabbit. The 
female produces three or four young ones about Midsummer, 
which are deposited in a nest, formed of moss, fibrous roots, 
grass, and leaves, curiously interwoven, and placed in a hole,* 
or in the fork between two large branches. 

" In autumn it lays up a store of provisions for winter, but 
usually in an irregular manner, depositing nuts in different 
places in the ground, and in holes in trees. When the cold 
weather commences, it becomes less active, and often dozes 
for days in its retreat, but it does not become completely 
torpid; and I have seen it abroad in the midst of a most, 
severe snow-storm. If the weather be comparatively mild, it 
exhibits its usual activity, feeding on ba.k and twigs." 

The latter sentences of this account show conclusively that it 
has long been a well-known fact that Squirrels do not hibernate 
in the proper sense of the word, and, therefore, render super- 
fluous a notice of a discussion which recently took place on 
this subject in the pages of the Zoologist. One observer, 
quoted by the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, states that even, 
during the severe snow-storms in the spring of 1881, Squirrels 
never failed to pay their accustomed daily visits to his house in 
Cumberland ; while a second mentions that in the same county 
he would feel sure of finding traces of these animals whenever 
snow lies on the ground, adding that they dread damp and wet 
far more than cold. 

That the Squirrel is decidedly a harmful creature to the 
owners of plantations, must, we think, be admitted; since the 

* With reference to this remark, Mr. Trevor-Battye writes : — " This, in 
my experience, is not an unusual position for a nest, but a fir-tree bough is 
much the commonest situation, though the nest is often fo"nd in a fork, 
where the branches of a beech-tree separate off," 


damage it does to the buds and bark of young trees, especially 
birch, sycamore, larch, and other conifers, is frequently very 
great. Mr. Harting states that " in plantations of Scotch fir, 
larch, and occasionally spruce, they attack the trees in spring, 
between April and June, when the sap is in full flow, biting off 
the outer bark and consuming the inner. This stops the flow 
of sap, which then becomes dry and resinous, and the first 
high wind blows the top off." Sometimes, indeed, the bark is 
peeled off in rings completely round the stems or branches of 
young trees, thus killing them at once. 

In addition to the various kinds of vegetable food already 
mentioned, it has been ascertained that Squirrels will eat 
bilberries, truffles, and other fungi ; truffles being searched out 
by scent and dug out. Oak-galls seem to be rather a puzzle to 
Squirrels, which have been observed opening one after another 
of these growths, as if in search of a kernel, although it is just 
possible that grubs may have been the object. Less generally 
known is the fact, that these Rodents will devour both young 
birds and eggs ; such nests as are situated in holes of trees 
being, according to Mr. Harting, those most generally plun- 
dered. One instance is on record where a Squirrel was seen 
to kill and partially eat a fully-fledged Starling ; while in another 
case one out of a flock of Sparrows was the victim. This 
carnivorous habit, however, is only a depraved taste on the 
part of certain individuals, as when a Kestrel visits the Phea- 

As is well-known, if taken at a sufficiently early age, Squirrels 
can be readily tamed and domesticated, when they form in- 
teresting and amusing little pets. 

Formerly, according to Mr. Poland, the fur of the common 
Squirrel was at one time largely employed in England for boas, 
no less than two-and-three-quarter millions of skins having 
been imported in the year 1839. Since that date, however, 

'72 Lloyd's natural history. 

the trade has gradually declined, and is now mainly carried on 
in Germany. The backs are used for several purposes, the 
whitish under-parts are employed for the linings of cloaks, 
while the tails are used in the manufacture of boas, and also as 
trimmings. The so-called " Camels'-hair" paint-brushes are like- 
wise made from Squirrel's hair. 


The members of this Family are aquatic Rodents, differingfrom 
the Sciuridm in having but a single pair of pre-molars in each 
jaw, and in all the cheek-teeth being rootless and having re- 
entering foldings of enamel on their crowns, which become 
perfectly flat by wear ; while, in the one existing genus, at 
least, the tail is broad, depressed, and naked, and the hind- 
feet are webbed. Moreover, the skull is devoid of projecting 
processes on its upper surface defining the hinder border of 
the socket of the eye. 

Castor, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 78 (1766). 

Upper molar teeth sub-equal in size, with one fold of enamel 
on the inner, and three on the outer side. Form massive ; 
fur soft and thick ; tail as above ; hind-feet with an additional 
rudimentary claw on the second toe. 


Castor fiber, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 78 (1766). 
Castor fossilis, Goldfuss, Nova Acta. Ac. Cses. Leop.-Car. vol. 

xi. p. 488 (1823). 
Castor europcEus, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm. p. 190 (1846). 

Characters. — Since the Beaver is no longer an inhabitant of 
the British Isles, it will be unnecessary to describe it, and it 

BEAVER. 173 

will suffice to point out that it differs from the North American 
Beaver (C. canadensis) by the greater length of the nasal bones 
of the skull, which extend upwards beyond the line of the 
anterior border of the sockets of the eyes. 

Distribution. — The Beaver was formerly distributed over the 
greater part of Europe, and extending from the British Islands 
through France, Germany, Austria, Russia, Poland, and Livonia, 
to Lapland, and thence through the Scandinavian Peninsula, 
but, through incessant persecution, it has been exterminated 
from most of its ancient haunts, although solitary individuals, or 
small colonies, are still met with in certain parts of the Continent. 
It might have been supposed that, in the remote regions of the 
north, the animal would still flourish in numbers, although such 
appears not to be the case, the last known Lapland Beaver hav- 
ing been killed previously to 1830. There is, however, still a 
thriving colony in Norway. In Northern Russia the rivers 
Dwina and Petchora, respectively discharging into the White 
Sea and the Arctic Ocean, were the resort of Beavers as late as 
1842, but there appear to be none left now. Formerly extend- 
ing as far east as Amurland, in the basin of the Ob, in Western 
Siberia, they are exterminated in the valley of the Irtish, 
although they lingered in the tributary of the Ob, known as 
the Pelyin, up to 1876. From the Yenisei, in Eastern Siberia, 
they have completely disappeared ; but information is required 
with regard to the Lena. 

In the British Isles the Beaver has long since been as com- 
pletely exterminated as the Wolf and the Bear, although evidence 
of its former existence within the historic period is afforded 
either by the names of places or documentary records or 
tradition ; while the abundance of semi-fossilised remains attests 
its existence in still earlier epochs. For most of this evidence 
naturalists are indebted to the researches of Mr. J. E. Harting 

174 Lloyd's natural history. 

Of its existence within the historic period in England, there 
appears to be neither documentary nor oral evidence ; and we 
are therefore compelled to rely on the circumstantial evidence 
of place-names. Among these, may be mentioned Beverage 
in Worcestershire, Bevercater in Nottinghamshire, Beverley in 
Yorkshire, Beverstone in Gloucestershire, and Beversbrook in 
Wiltshire. Moreover, about a mile to the north of Worcester 
a small brook enters the Severn known as Barbourne, or Beaver- 
bourne, while near by is an island known as Beaver Island, and 
higher up the river a second island called Beverege, or Beaver- 
age, likewise giving the name to an adjoining hamlet, which 
is the one alluded to above. 

Turning to Wales, we find Beavers' skins mentioned in the 
year 940 among the laws of Howel Dha; while Giraldus in 
1188 makes reference to the fact that Beavers were then living 
in one of the rivers of Cardiganshire. It may be added that 
the name of Llyn-yr-Afange, which is said to be applied to 
more than one piece of water in the Principality, means the 
Beavers' lake. 

With regard to Scotland, the historic evidence is unfortu- 
nately somewhat doubtful. Giraldus states, indeed, from hearsay, 
that Beavers were still occasionally seen in his time in Loch 
Ness, and Boethius made a similar statement in 1527; but 
Alston considered that by this date the Beaver had ceased to 
exist in Scotland. That it will flourish there, is demonstrated 
by the colony introduced by the Marquis of Bute into the island 
from which he takes his title. 

If the foregoing evidence is scant and somewhat unsatis- 
factory, the semi-fossilised remains of the Beaver found in 
many parts of England, and also in the south of Scotland, afford 
conclusive testimony as to its former abundance. In various 
superficial deposits, such as the fens of Cambridgeshire and 
Lincolnshire, the turbaries of the Lea valley at Walthamstow 

tlORMlCE. 175 

in Essex, such remains are of more or lees common occurrence, 
and are frequently found in a fine state of preservation. Some 
of these deposits, such as those of the Thames valley, un- 
doubtedly belong to the Pleistocene period, but at least a 
portion of the fen-peat may be pretty safely assigned to the 
pre-historic epoch. The counties from which such remains 
have been obtained include Berkshire, Berwickshire, Cam- 
bridgeshire, Dumfriesshire, Essex, Hampshire, Lincolnshire, 
Norfolk, Perthshire, Roxburghshire, Wiltshire, and Yorkshire. 
Remains of the Beaver have likewise been obtained from Kent's 
Hole, near Torquay, in company with those of the Mammoth, 
Hairy Rhinoceros, and other extinct animals ; and likewise from 
the so-called " forest-bed " of the Norfolk coast. 

In the case of Ireland, we have neither the evidence of history 
nor of fossil remains, and it is therefore quite likely that the 
range of the Beaver never included that island. 

Following our general rule with regard to exterminated 
species, we shall not give any account of the habits of the 
Beaver. It may be mentioned, however, that the use of the 
additional claw on the second toe of the hind-foot is at present 
quite unknown, and that those who have an opportunity of 
observing the American Beaver in its native haunts will do 
good service by ascertaining what this may be. 

The Dormice are small arboreal Rodents, with long Squirrel- 
like tails, large ears and eyes, and short fore-limbs, and may 
hi distinguished from all other British representatives of the 
Order by having a single pair of pre-molars in each jaw,and by all 
the cheek-teeth being rooted, and having their crowns inter- 
penetrated by transverse enamel-folds, which in some cases 
assume a very complicated pattern. Internally these Rodents 
are distinguished from all other members of the Order by the 

176 Lloyd's natural history. 

circumstance that the intestine is devoid of a blind appendage 
or csecum. The collar-bones are well- developed, and the first 
toe of the foot is rudimentary. 

Dormice are found only in Africa, Europe, and Asia north 
of the Himalaya. Although not numerous in species, they have 
been divided into several genera; but on the whole, it seems pre- 
ferable to retain only the under-mentioned one for the common 
Dormouse, and to refer the whole of the remaining members 
of the Family to the typical genus, Myoxus. 


Muscardinus, Kaup, Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierwelt, p. 136 (1829). 
Tail cylindrical _: cheek-teeth with flat crowns and comply 
infoldings of enamel ; lower end of the oesophagus thickened 
and glandular. 


Mus avellanarius, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 83 

Myoxus muscardinus, Schreber, Saugethiere, vol. iv. p. 835 

Myoxus avellanarius, Desmarest, Mammalogie, p. 295 (1820); 
Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 281 (1874).- 

Muscardinus avellanarius, Kaup, Nat. Syst. Europ. Thierwelt, 
p. 139 (1829); Flower, Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Sur- 
geons, pt. ii. p. 603 (1884). 

(Plate XX.) 

Characters. — General form rather stout ; colour of upper-parts 
light tawny, beneath paler and yellowish ; an elongated white 
patch on the throat and front of chest ; tail rather shorter than 
head and body. Length of head and body, about 3 inches ; 
of tail, 2% inches. 


This beautiful little animal, with its prominent black eyes, 
has a rather large head, a pointed muzzle, and rounded ears, 
which are equal to about one-third of the head in length. 
Both fore- and hind-feet are adapted for grasping, and although 
in the former the iirst toe, as in the Squirrel, is rudimentary, 
in the hind-foot all five toes are well developed. 

Distribution. — The Common Dormouse is distributed over 
the greater part of Europe, although not apparently ranging 
any distance into Northern Asia, even if it occurs there at all, 
and is the only British representative of the Family. In many 
continental countries the Fat Dormouse, or " Loire " {Myoxus 
git's), is, however, much more abiindant than the present species, 
which is known in France as the " Loirot." Generally found in 
woods, plantations, or hedge-rows, but occasionally met with in 
open fields, the Dormouse appears to be spread over the southern 
and central districts of England, although much more abun- 
dant in some localities than others. In the writer's experience, 
one of the districts where it may be found in great numbers 
is the country on the borders of Hertfordshire and Bucking- 
hamshire, between Hemel-Hempsted and Aylesbury, where one 
or more nests are almost sure to be met with, even in the 
open country, during a day's shooting. In the Lake district, 
according to the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, it occurs locally in 
the more thickly-planted portions of the country, but has not 
been detected in the eastern parts of Cumberland and West- 
moreland. In Scotland, certainly so far as the north is con- 
cerned, it appears to be unknown, and it is also stated by 
Thompson to be wanting in Ireland. 

Habits. — Deriving its specific name from its fondness for 
hazel-nuts, the Dormouse is especially partial to oak-woods 
with an undergrowth of hazels. In the stumps of the latter its 
winter-nest is very generally made, although; as already said, 

1 78 Lloyd's natural history. 

•this may be situated on the ground in an open field, while in- 
stances are on record where the deserted nest of a Thrush or 
Blackbird hai been taken possession of and fitted up to suit 
the requirements of its new occupants. In addition to nuts, 
its food, according to Mr. Harting, comprises " acorns, seeds 
of the hornbeam and other forest-trees, grain, and fruit of dif- 
ferent kinds, particularly grapes. In confinement, a bit of 
apple or pear is generally eaten with relish. The Dormouse 
will also suck the eggs of small birds, as a Squirrel will do, and 
it seems to be not generally known that it is insectivorous.'' 
In evidence of the latter habit the author quoted states that 
captive specimens have been known to eat aphides, nut-weevils, 
and caterpillars of various kinds. 

Although so much resembling a diminutive Squirrel, both 
in form and habits, sitting up on its haunches and grasping its* 
food with its fore-paws in true Squirrel-like fashion, the Dor- 
mouse is structurally much more nearly allied to the Mice, and 
its resemblance to the former animal is doubtless due to 
adaptation to a similar mode of life. Confirmation of this is 
afforded by the circumstance that certain arboreal Mice are 
exceedingly Dormouse-like in appearance. 

The most remarkable peculiarity connected with the habits 
of the Dormouse is the length of time occupied by its hiberna- 
tion, which sometimes extends uninterruptedly over a period 
of as much as six months. That this hibernation is, however, 
generally broken, is indicated by the circumstance that the Dor- 
mouse lays up a winter-store of provision ; and, according to 
Bell, an unusually mild day is sufficient to waken the little 
creature from i'.s slumbers, when it consumes a portion of its 
hoard, and once more curls itself to resume its sleep. Ex- 
tremely fat at the commencement of its hibernation, by the 
time spring comes round the creature is much reduced in 
bulk. While adult Dormice commence their hibernation as 


early as the middle of October, the young ones are much later 
in retiring from active participation in the affairs of the world. 
A full account of the hibernation of the Dormouse will be 
found in the Zoologist for 1882, in which the variation in its 
temperature, its loss of fat, and the number of respirations 
during its sleep, as well as the length of the period of torpidity, 
are fully recorded. 

The female Dormouse gives birth to her offspring in the 
spring, and the young, usually four in number, are born blind, 
but open their eyes in a few days, and are very speedily able 
to shift for themselves. Bell gives reasons for believing that 
in some cases a second litter may be produced in the autumn. 
In the first dress the young are of a mouse-grey colour, except 
on the head and flanks ; and it is only gradually that the red- 
dish-brown hue of the adult is required. 

If a sleeping Dormouse be found during the winter, and 
taken to a warm room, it soon awakens,* but after a short in- 
terval relapses into torpidity. Writing many years ago, Mr. 
Sahiion observes that on one occasion he chanced to find "a 
little ball of grass curiously interwoven, lying on the ground. 
It was about eight inches in circumference, and on taking it 
up I soon ascertained, by the faint sound emitted from the 
interior on my handling it, that it contained a prisoner. I 
bore my prize homeward for examination, and on making a 
slight opening, immediately issued forth one of those beautiful 
little creatures, the Dormouse. The heat of my hand and the 
warmth of the room had completely revived it from its torpor. 
It appeared to enjoy its transition by nimbly scaling every part 
of the furniture in all directions. It experienced no difficulty 
in either ascending or descending the polished backs of the 

* Mr. Trevor-Battye says that if warmed suddenly into waking, a Dor- 
mouse will die at the end of a minute or two, its heart beating with extreme 
rapidity, like a clock " running down." 

N 3 

i8o Lloyd's natural history. 

chairs, and when I attempted to secure it, it leaped from chair 
to chair with astonishing agility for so small a creature. On 
taking it into my hand, it showed not the least disposition to 
resent the liberty ; on the contrary, it was very docile. On 
being set at liberty, it sprang at least two yards on to a table. 
In the evening I placed my little stranger, with its original 
domicile, in a box, of which on the following morning I found 
it had taken possession, and again relapsed into a state of 

Even if fully adult when captured, Dormice are readily tamed; 
and in this state form, it is almost superfluous to add, favourite 
pets of children. 


The members of this extensive and cosmopolitan Family 
differ from all the other British representatives of the Rodents, 
in having only three pairs of cheek-teeth in each jaw, owing to 
the absence of pre-molars. These molar teeth are very variable 
in structure, being sometimes furnished with roots and sur- 
mounted with tubercles, while in other cases they grow through- 
out life and thus never develop roots, while their tall crowns 
are divided into semi-detached prisms by angular infoldings of 
enamel. The first toe of the fore-foot is rudimentary; the 
tail is generally nearly naked and scaly ; and complete collar- 
bones are present. The general bodily form of the more 
typical members of the family is so well known that the term 
" rat-like " forms a recognised standard of comparison in zoo- 
logical, if not in popular, language. 

The British representatives of the Family are divided into 
two great sections or sub-families, readily distinguished by the 
character of their molar teeth ; the first of these including the 


Mice and Rats, and the second the Voles. In Britain each 
section is represented by a single genus only, although there 
are several other foreign genera in both. 

In habits the majority of the British forms are mainly terres- 
trial, although one species is aquatic, and all are able to climb 
with more or less facility. 

Mus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 79 (1766). 

Molar teeth furnished with roots and surmounted by tuber- 
cles ; the latter forming three longitudinal rows in the teeth of 
the upper jaw ; incisors narrow, and devoid of grooves on their 
front surfaces. Eyes and ears large ; extremity of muzzle 
naked ; first rudimentary toe of fore-foot with a short nail in 
place of a claw ; tail long, tapering, and nearly naked, with 
overlapping scales arranged in rings ; fur soft, and (in British 
species) without an intermixture of spines. 

Light and active in their movements, and bright-eyed in 
appearance, the Mice and Rats, in addition to the distinctive 
character of their molar teeth, are specially distinguished from 
their British allies by their pointed muzzles, long scaly tails, and 
large ears. Purely terrestrial in their habits, they generally fre- 
quent houses, farm-buildings, stables, and corn-ricks, rather 
than the open fields, although the Harvest-Mouse is to a certain 
extent an exception to this rule. 

The genus includes a larger number of species than any 
other in the whole Mammalian class, and, with the remarkable 
exception of Madagascar, is distributed over the whole of the 
Old World. Its head-quarters aie, "however, the Tropical Re- 
gions of that Hemisphere, whence there is a gradual diminution 
in the number of species, as we proceed north and south, till, in 
the Sub- Arctic region, they become very few. 

102 Lloyd's natural history. 

i. the harvest-mouse. mus minutus. 
Mtis minutus, Pallas, Reise, vol. i. Append, p. 454 (1778); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 286 (1874). 
Mus messorius, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. ii. p. 62 (1801). 

{Plate XXI.) 

Characters. — Size very small ; tail and ears relatively short, 
the latter being about one-third the length of the head; 
colour of upper-parts yellowish-red, that of under-parts white ; 
the line of demarcation between the two being sharply defined. 
Length of head and body about 2% inches ; of tail nearly 
the same. The general form is rather more slender than in 
most members of the genus, and the head is rather narrow, 
with the eyes somewhat less prominent than is usually the 
case. • 

Distribution. — Ranging over the greater part of Europe with 
the exception of the extreme north, the Harvest-Mouse is an 
inhabitant of most districts in England, although much more 
abundant in some than in others. In the Lake district, it appears 
to have been only observed on two occasions, which leads the 
Rev. H. A. Macpherson to suggest that in both cases it had been 
accidentally introduced, and that it is not truly indigenous. 
In Leicester and Rutland, it is stated by Mr. Montagu Browne 
to be rare ; and the writer has never observed it in the dis- 
trict of Hertfordshire where he resides. On the other hand, 
in Cambridgeshire, Devonshire, Gloucestershire, Hampshire 
(where it was first recorded by Gilbert White as a member of 
the British fauna), Warwickshire, and Wiltshire, it seems to 
be fairly abundant. In Scotland it has been recorded by 
Macgillivray from Aberdeenshire, Fifeshire, and near Edin- 
burgh, but is unknown in the more northern counties. Al- 
though not definitely recorded by Thompson from Ireland, 
it has been subsequently stated to exist there, but the writer 







is informed by Mr. A. G. More that its reputed occurrence is 
based on young specimens of the Wood-Mouse. 

Habits. — Next to the Lesser Shrew, the smallest of British 
terrestrial Mammals, the Harvest-Mouse differs from the other 
British representatives of its genus in not frequenting gardens, 
or the neighbourhood of houses or other buildings, although 
it is often found in corn-ricks, to which it is carried in the 
sheaves of wheat. After mentioning his discovery of a nest in 
Fifeshire, Macgillivray states that this " was composed of dry 
blades of coarse grass, arranged in a globular form, and placed 
in the midst of a tuft of Aira cmspitosa, at the distance of about 
nine inches from the ground. It contained six or seven naked 
and blind young ones. The young are said to vary from five 
to nine; and as it litters several times in the season, it is 
occasionally numerous in corn-fields, on hedge-banks, and in 
dry pastures. Its food consists of seeds, especially of corn and 
grass, insects, and worms. In wheat-stacks it is often found in 
great abundance, but in general it forms burrows in the ground, 
in which it deposits provisions for the winter. Bingley relates 
that he fed one with insects, which it always preferred to 
any other food ; and the individual represented in the plate, 
here reproduced, devoured an earth-worm, which at first, by 
twisting round its body, upset it. Like the other species, it 
may be kept in confinement, but is said not to become so 
familiar as the Wood-Mouse." 

In connection with the latter point, it may be mentioned 
that Mr. Harting has been successful in getting these pretty 
little creatures to breed in captivity, and also to rear their 
young ones, which became so tame as to allow themselves to 
be handled without attempting to bite, and also to take food 
from their owner's hand. 

As a general rule, the nest is built between three or four 

184 Lloyd's natural history. 

cornstalks, to which it is firmly attached, at some little distance 
from the ground ; and so compact and firm in its structure, 
that, as Gilbert White tells us, when detached, it may be rolled, 
with its living freight, across a table without sustaining the 
slightest damage. So light is the Harvest-Mouse — its weight 
being only about one-fifth of an ounce — that it can ascend a 
wheat-stalk and feast on the corn in the ear ; its descent being 
facilitated by its partially prehensile tail. In possessing an 
imperfect power of prehension in that appendage, the creature 
is unique among British Mammals. The- nest generally has a 
small aperture on one side, through which the female gains 
access to her young; this aperture being carefully closed 
during her absence. Since, in a short time after birth, the 
young, when numerous, more or less completely fill the nest, 
it would appear impossible for the female to pass the periods 
of repose within it. 


Miis sylvaticus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 84 (1766); 
Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 293 (1874). 
(Plate XX 11.) 

Characters. — Size small ; ears more than half the length of 
the head ; tail nearly as long as the head and body ; colour of 
upper-parts bright reddish-grey ; under-parts whitish, with a 
patch of light brownish on the breast. Length of head and 
body about 4j^ inches ; of tail nearly the same. 

Resembling the Common Mouse very closely, as regards 
form, but slightly exceeding it in size, the Wood-Mouse may be 
readily distinguished by its coloration and longer tail, as well as 
by its very long hind-feet, which are white. It is very generally 
known as the Long-tailed Field-Mouse, but since the term "Field- 
Mouse," with or without a prefix, is applied indifferently to this 




species and to the Voles, we prefer the use of the name Wood- 

Distribution. — The general distribution of this species is prob- 
ably very similar to that of the Harvest-Mouse, although, per- 
haps, it may not range as far north as Siberia, where the latter 
is found. In the British Islands it is universally distributed, 
its range including the Inner and Outer Hebrides and the 
whole of Ireland. Many years ago the late Rev. Leonard 
Jenyns (Blomefield), called attention to a small dark variety 
from the mountains of Kerry, which it was thought might 
prove to be a distinct species. 

Habits. — Although its name would imply that woods were 
the favourite resorts of this species, yet, as a matter of fact, it 
is more commonly found, during the summer, in thickets, 
hedges, corn-fields, and gardens ; while in winter it resorts for 
shelter to barns or other out-buildings, as well as corn-stacks ; 
and Thompson records an instance where a specimen was taken 
in an inhabited house in Belfast. 

Feeding on corn of all kinds, as well as bulbs, nuts, acorns, 
and various smaller seeds, together with insects and grubs, the 
Wood- Mouse is an unmitigated nuisance to the farmer and 
gardener ; the amount of good it does by the consumption of 
such animal food as it devours, going but a small way to- 
wards recompensing the damage it inflicts on newly-sown 
crops of all kinds. Moreover, although this Mouse makes a 
regular winter retreat, it does not become torpid, — or at all 
events does so only for very short periods — and consequently 
needs a large supply of food during the cold season, so that the 
unfortunate farmer or gardener has to support the creature from 
one year's end to another. As a rule, the retreat ta^es the 
form of a burrow in the ground ; but instances are on record 
where deserted birds' nests have been occupied and fitted up, 
while regular nests are often made in hedge-banks, or even in 


Standing grass. At other times old Mole-runs are selected as 
dwelling places. In such safe retreats, of whatever nature 
they may be, the Wood-Mouse during the summer and autumn 
accumulates enormous stores of provender for its winter con- 
sumption ; acorns, beech-mast, nuts, peas, beans, and corn, 
being gathered in by the pint. It is not only the loss of 
these various seeds that the farmer has to deplore, for, in 
districts and seasons when Wood-Mice are very abundant, 
pigs learn to .hunt for and root up these hidden stores, and 
may then do much damage, both to pasture and arable land. 

Breeding several times in a season, after a gestation of only 
three weeks, and producing from five to seven young in a 
litter, the Wood-Mouse is one of the most prolific of Rodents, 
famous as are many of these animals for their rapidity of in- 
crease. Some idea of the rate at which they propagate may 
be gathered from some interesting observations published by 
Mr. R. M. Barrington in the Zoologist for 1881, by whom 
several of these Mice were kept in captivity. It is probable, 
however, that the number of young in a litter would not be so 
large as in the wild state. One of these captive specimen.s, 
when about five and a half months old, gave birth to a litter of 
three on the 7th or 8th of March. Observation was kept on 
this female (A), and a second one (B), with the following 
result : — 

Interval since 

last litter. 

March 7 or 8 .. 


3 young 





5 ,. 





3 .. 

24 days 




5 .. 

29 „ 




3 .. 

24 „ 




S .. 

23 „ 




4 ,. 

23 „ 



A(?) .. 

4 „ 

.. 26 „ 



A(?) .. 

4 i> 

27 „ 


Had not one of the adult females made its escape in the 
beginning of June this record of the number of young pro- 
duced by a couple of Wood-Mice in less than five months 
would probably have been still larger. " During April," writes 
the narrator, " we had twelve to twenty Mice, young and old, 
in the nest; they all slept together, and it was certainly a 
curious sight to see fathers, mothers, and children of all ages 
and sizes in the nest, the young of different ages suckling the 
same mother at the same time, and the mothers appearing to 
suckle each other's young indiscriminately.'' 

To counteract this extreme prolificness, it is fortunate that 
the Wood-Mouse has a large number of enemies. Foremost 
amongst these are Kestrels, Owls, Stoats, and Weasels ; while 
many of these Mice are killed by Foxes, which seem especially 
fond of them and their cousins the Voles. Rooks and Crows 
are also stated to aid in the extermination of these pests by 
digging up the nests and young with their strong beaks ; while 
several other of the larger birds probably occasionally assist in 
the destruction. 

Mr. Trevor-Battye writes : — " In the dry summer of 1893 the 
Black-headed Gulls breeding on Scoulton Mere (as I was as- 
sured by the keeper), frequently brought ' Mice ' to their 
nests, killing them by dropping them from a height. The 
Mice were probably of this species.'' 

The Wood-Mouse is as readily tamed as the Dormouse, 
and will soon learn to permit itself to be handled without re- 
sentment, although it always displays considerable timidity. 
Specimens have been kept in confinement for upwards of two 

It may be mentioned t^at some imperfect lower jaws ob- 
tained from the "forest-bed" of the Norfolk coast are apparently 
referable to the present species. 


true for many generations, if not permanently. There is like- 
wise some variation in size. 

With a tapering head and rather pointed muzzle, the Com- 
mon Mouse has smaller eyes and ears than the Wood-Mouse, 
the latter being rounded, and also shorter and narrower than 
in that species ; the limbs, tail, and whiskers are likewise 
relatively shorter than in the allied form. 

Distribution. — Although it has received a large number of 
synonyms, to which it is unnecessary to allude here, it appears 
that the Common Mouse has a practically cosmopolitan range, 
at least so far as regions inhabited by Man are concerned. At 
one time, indeed, it was thought that the Indian Mouse was a 
distinct species, but this has now been shown not to be the 
case. It is, however, somewhat curious that, according to Mr. 
Blanford, there are certain parts of India, namely, the Punjab, 
Sind, Rajputana, and portions of the North-West Provinces, 
where the Common Mouse is totally unknown. 

That the species had not originally its present cosmopolitan 
distribution, and that it has spread pari passu, with the ad- 
vance of Man, may be taken for granted. Which country con- 
stituted its original home, it seems, however, quite impossible 
to decide. It has been frequently urged that the Common 
Mouse is a comparatively late immigrant into the British Islands, 
but if palseontologists are right in assigning to it certain 
fossilised remains found in the Pleistocene deposits of the 
Thames Valley and some of the English caves, it is quite certain 
that this cannot be the case. 

Habits. — In the case of such a familiar animal as the Com- 
mon Mouse, it is unnecessary to say much in the way of its 
habits, and we therefore content ourselves with quoting Mac- 
gillivray's account, premising that, although generally found in 
human habitations, the creature also sometimes frequents gar- 

I go Lloyd's natural history. 

dens and fields in the neighbourhood of towns and villages. 
Macgillivray observes that, in spite of its sombre coloration, 
the activity of this little creature and its graceful movements 
render it not uninteresting to the observant naturalist. " It is 
pleasant to sit quietly at midnight watching one which has 
ventured from its retreat and stolen to the hearth in quest of 
crumbs. It glides along, now slowly, now by sudden starts, 
and on finding some fragment of food, sits on its haunches, 
lays hold of it in its fore-feet, and raising it up, nibbles it, or, 
if apprehensive of danger, runs off with it to its hole. Although 
extremely timid. Mice sometimes exhibit considerable boldness, 
and venture quite close to a person who does not molest them. 
Their agility is astonishing, and to escape when pursued they 
perform extraordinary feats. I have seen one leap from the 
top of a stair-case upon a table, a distance of twelve feet, 
apparently without receiving any injury. If seized in the hand 
they bite severely, but if caught by the tail and thus suspended, 
are unable to turn upon their persecutor. Although when in 
small numbers they are scarcely injurious to a house, yet, owing 
to their fecundity, they soon become very destructive, devour- 
ing meal, flour, bread, cheese, butter, tallow, in short, almost 
every article of food that comes in their way, and often gnaw- 
ing clothes, leather, and furniture. Their great enemy, the 
Cat, is not always able to extirpate them, so that the additional 
aid of traps and poison is required. The ravages of this 
species are not confined to houses, for it often betakes itself to 
the fields, and nestles in the corn-stacks, which are found 
towards the base traversed by its tortuous runs. The ground 
beneath is also filled with them, and on removing a stack num- 
bers almost incredible are often met with. Besides Man, and 
his allies, the Cat, the Dog, and the Ferret, the Mouse has many 
powerful enemies, all of which, however, are unable to extirpate 
it, for it litters many times in the year, producing from five to 





seven at a birth, and thus in favourable localities soon increases 
to a great extent. Its nest is composed of straw, hay, woollen 
cloth, linen, and other substances, generally gnawed into small 
fragments ; and the young are at first blind and naked, but 
grow so rapidly that in a fortnight they are able to shift for them- 

To this it may be added that subsequent observations have 
shown that the number of young in a litter may vary from four 
to seven, and that the female commences to breed consider- 
ably before a year old. 

When poisoned in houses, both Rats and Mice have an un- 
pleasant habit of retiring behind skirting-boards, canvased 
walls, and similar situations, to die. To detect their exact 
position when this happens, the best plan is to close the door 
and windows, and to introduce into the room two or three blue- 
bottle flies, which will soon settle on the spot behind which 
lies the defunct Rodent. 


Mus rat/us, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 83 (1766); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 302 (1874); Blan- 

ford, Mamm. Brit. India, p. 406 (i8gi). 
Mus alexandrinus, Geoffroy, Descr. de I'Egypte, vol. ii. p. 

753 (1812). 
Mus rufescens, Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 585 (1837). 
Mus nitidiis, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xv. p. 267 

(1845); &c., &c., &c. 

{Plate XX in.) 

Characters. — Size large ; build relatively light ; head slender 
ears large ; tail thin and exceeding the head and body in 
length. In the typical English variety the fur of the upper- 
parts is greyish-black, and below ash-colour. Size very variable ; 


in the English variety, length of head and body about 7 inches ; 
of tail, 7j^ inches. 

Having a wide geographical range, the Black Rat is an ex- 
ceedingly variable species, and, as is usually the case in such 
instances, has received an almost bewildering number of aliases. 
In addition to the typical form alluded to above, the following 
more important varieties may be noticed. 

The Alexandrine Rat {Miis akxandrinus), from Southern 
Europe, Egypt, Palestine, and Gilgit, is a southern variety 
characterised by its softer reddish or greyish fur, and by the 
under-parts being usually white. 

A third variety is the Tree-Rat {Mus rufescens), from India, 
Ceylon, and Burma, which is very similar to the preceding, 
but of inferior dimensions. 

Next we have the Hill-Rat {Mus nitidus), from Nipal and 
Sikhim, distinguished by its shorter tail. 

More remarkable than all is the Andamanese Rat ijdus an- 
damanensis), distinguished from the Tree- Rat by the intermix- 
ture of a number of spines with the fur. From the characters 
of the skull, which can alone be relied upon in distinguishing 
allied MuridcB, Mr. Thomas has, however, shown conclusively 
that this form cannot be specifically separated from the Black 

Distrilration. — The distribution of the typical variety of the 
Black Rat has been pretty fully worked out by Mr. J. E. 
Harting, who has devoted a chapter in a volume entitled 
" Essays on Sport and Natural History " to this species. It 
appears to be spread over the greater part of Europe, with 
the exception of the extreme north, being unknown in Lap- 
land. In Sweden, where it was formerly plentiful, it seems to 
be now nearly exterminated ; and the same is stated to be the 
case in most parts of Germany, although in certain districts it 
has been reported to be on the increase. In France and Spain 


we know little more than that it is uncommon ; while in 
Southern Italy it has been driven away by the Alexandrine 
Rat. In Northern Africa and Egypt, on the other hand, it 
appears still to hold its own. Further eastward it becomes 
more rare, but it occurs in the Caucasus, Georgia, and the 
Caspian district ; while it has been introduced by vessels 
into parts of India, the Philippines, and even New Zealand. 
It was introduced into the New World about 1554, and 
is now found in both continents, as it is in the West 

That the Black Rat was introduced into Britain from the 
Continent, appears to be evident from the circumstance that 
it is not mentioned as occurring here previous to the fifteenth 
century, coupled with the fact that its remains are unknown in 
the English cavern-deposits. It would seem, however, that 
subsequently to its introduction it became pretty generally dis- 
tributed in England and Wales until routed out by the Brown 
Rat, and was known even in the Orkneys. There, however, it 
is now completely exterminated, as it is in most districts of our 
area. In Argyllshire and Caithness it is unknown, but one 
specimen was taken in Sutherland in 1879; while a small 
colony was observed near Pitlochry in i860, and specimens are 
occasionally taken in old houses in Edinburgh. Unknown in 
Northumberland, a colony existed in 1879 at Stockton-on-Tees, 
in Durham ; and in 1883 it was stated still to linger among the 
farms of Westmoreland. It would be tedious to mention the 
isolated occurrences of specimens of this Rat which have been 
recorded from various English counties from time to time 
during the last few years, more especially as many of these — 
and notably such as have been taken in or near sea-port towns 
— have in all probability been imported by vessels.. It may be 
mentioned, however, that it still survived in Norfolk up to 
about 1834, while occasional specimens were met with for 

1 94 Lloyd's natural history. 

twenty years later. In Warwickshire, where it is now extinct, 
it was not uncommon even so late as 1850. 

In Ireland, remarks Mr. Harting, the Black Rat has been 
met with in various counties, and in localities widely distant 
from each other ; but there is no evidence to show that it was 
ever plentiful, and it must now be regarded as very rare. 

Habits. — Although a weaker animal than its supplanter the 
Brown Rat, the habits of the species appear in this country to 
be similar to those of the latter. In the East, where both the 
typical form (which has probably been introduced into India in 
ships) and the above-mentioned varieties occur, it frequently 
exhibits very different habits. Mr. Blanford, in his " Mammals 
of British India," observes, for instance, that "this Rat is 
found both on the ground, where it burrows, and in trees, 
where it builds nests among the branches. In the Laccadive 
Islands, and other places, it inhabits the crowns of cocoa-nut 
palms, and is said never to descend to the ground, but to live 
on the nuts, and to do great damage by biting them off when 
unripe. It is common in houses everywhere, often living on 
the roofs. It feeds chiefly on fruit, grain, and vegetables, but 
is more or less omnivorous, though less carnivorous than the 
M. decumanus." 

In England, when abundant, it used apparently to frequent 
the same situations as the last-named species, and was an equal 
pest to the farmer and owner of granaries. It is not in any 
way owing to its want of fecundity that it has been so nearly 
exterminated in this country, since it breeds several times 
during the year, producing from seven to nine blind offspring 
in each litter. 

" In feeding," writes Macgillivray, " this species holds the 
object, if small, between its fore-feet, sits on its haunches with 
the body bent forward, and the back arched, while its tail is 
curved along the ground. It runs with great agility, and 


exhibits much liveliness in all its actions; is remarkably 
cleanly, taking care to remove whatever may happen to adhere 
to its fur, feet, or head; and, although occasionally quarrel- 
some, it, for the most part, lives a peaceful life in its own com- 
munity. In affectionate concern for its young, it is not sur- 
passed by any other animal, and were it not an unwelcome 
guest in our dwellings and stores, but confined itself to the woods 
and pastures, we should place it among the most interesting 
of our native quadrupeds. Its voracity, however, and the 
ravages which it makes among our corn and provisions, and 
its prolificacy, render it injurious and therefore hateful ; at 
least, such it was when it abounded in the country, but in 
Britain its existence is, to appearance, nearly ended." 


Mus decumanus, Pallas, Glires, p. 91 (1779); Bell, British 

Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 308 (1874). 
Mus hibernicus, Thompson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 52; 

Eagle Clarke and Barrett-Hamilton, Zoologist, ser. 3 vol. 

XV. p. 1 (1891). 

Characters. — Somewhat larger than the last, from which it 
differs by the shorter head and more obtuse muzzle, smaller 
ears, and relatively shorter tail, of which the length is less 
than that of the head and body. General colour greyish- 
brown above, and whitish beneath. Length of head and body, 
about 9 inches ; of tail, 7 J^ inches. 

A Rat, of which the typical specimen measured 7j^ inches 
from the muzzle to the root of the tail, was described in 1837 
from Ireland by Thompson, under the name of M. hibernicus^ 
and had black fur on the upper-parts, with a white patch on the 
chest. By its describer it was regarded as nearly allied to the 
Black Rat, of which Bell was disposed to regard it merely as a 

o 2 


variety. Subsequently it was considered that it might be a 
hybrid between the present and the preceding species ; but, in 
the article referred to above, Messrs. Eagle Clarke and Barrett- 
Hamilton finally came to the conclusion that it must be 
regarded as a black, or melanistic race of the Brown Rat. 
This variety has been recorded from several counties in the 
east of Ireland, mostly from the neighbourhood of the coast. 
In addition to this form, pied and white varieties are known ; 
the latter being true albinos, with red eyes. 

Distrilratioii. — Being carried by vessels to all parts of the world, 
and thus having become a complete cosmopolitan, the Brown 
Rat was a later immigrant into Britain than its darker relative. 
As to the exact date of its arrival in our islands, there is still 
some uncertainty, and it is probable that the question will never 
be decided with exactness. Waterton, who detested this inter- 
ioper with a hatred only less cordial than that which he bestowed 
on the Hanoverian dynasty, maintained that the first specimens 
were brought over from the Continent by 'a vessel which reached 
our shores soon after the year 1688, even if they did not arrive 
in the very ship which carried the first of the line of Hanover. 
It is, however, probable that this date is considerably too early. 
From the testimony of Pallas, it may be taken as certain that 
large troops of the Brown Rat, migrating westwards from 
Central Asia, succeeded in crossing the Volga in the year 1727, 
whence they populated the whole of Russia, and subsequently 
the rest of Continental Europe. They are reported by Erxleben 
to have reached Paris in 1750, and to have been carried to 
England twenty years previously to that date. Professor Boyd- 
Dawkins is, however, of opinion that the Brown Rat had 
reached this country a little before 1730, and we may perhaps 
therefore put the date of its arrival as 1729, or 1728. Be this 
as it may, no sooner had the intruder obtained a foothold on 
British soil than it at once commenced an internecine war 


against the weaker Black Rat, with the calamitous results to 
the latter already described. 

There is another question connected with the migrations of 
the Brown Rat which has likewise given rise to a considerable" 
amount of controversy among naturalists, namely, as to the 
country which has the doubtful honour of being the original 
birthplace of this unmitigated pest. India was suggested by 
Pennant as being probably the parent-country, but Mr. Blanford 
states that the Brown Rat was certainly not indigenous there, 
and that Chinese Mongolia may with more likelihood be re- 
garded as its centre of dispersion. 

It may be added that the terms "Norway," and "Hanoverian" 
Rat, which used frequently to be applied to the present species, 
are pure misnomers. 

HaMts. — Not only is the Brown Rat a larger and more power- 
ful animal than its black cousin, but it is even more prolific, 
breeding several times in the course of a season, and com- 
monly producing from eight to ten young ones at a birth, 
v/hile the number sometimes rises to a dozen or even moi e, 
and never seems to be less than four. It is likewise a more 
carnivorous creature, frequenting slaughter-houses and such- 
like places, where it frequently swarms, and consumes, not 
only such offal as it can procure, but picks clean all the bones 
of animals left accessible to its attacks. 

Macgillivray observes that " in cities it frequently inhabits in 
great numbers the drains and sewers, whence it makes its way 
into the houses. In maritime towns it often takes up its abode 
in the quays, among piles of wood, in buildings along the 
shores, or wherever it finds a secure retreat. But it is not con- 
fined to cities and villages, but establishes colonies in farm- 
steadings, on the banks of canals and rivers, and even in 
islands at a. considerable distance from the mainland, or upon 

igS Lloyd's natural history. 

larger islands, to which it has been introduced by shipping. 
Thus, on many of the islets of the Hebrides it is found in 
considerable numbers, feeding on grass, shell-fish, and crusta- 
•ceans, and burrowing in the banks ; for although not essenti- 
ally amphibious, like the Water-Rat, it does not hesitate on 
occasion to betake itself to the water, and troops have been seen 
swimming from one island to another. 

" It is a very cleanly animal, for even when its residence is a 
ditch or sewer in the midst of all sorts of filth, it almost in- 
variably preserves itself from pollution; and in parts remote 
from towns its fur is often possessed of considerable beauty, 
although, on account of the injury it inflicts upon us, and the 
abhorrence with which in childhood we are taught to regard it, 
few persons will be apt to discover much beauty in a Rat. Its 
food consists of almost every kind of animal and vegetable sub- 
stance eaten by other quadrupeds. In granaries and corn- 
fields it is extremely destructive, committing its depredations 
in the former by night, and in the latter feasting at leisure in 
the heart of the stacks, where it produces its young, and whence 
it cannot be expelled until they are taken down, when the quan- 
tity of grain it has destroyed is sometimes found to be enormous. 
In houses it feeds on bread, potatoes, suet, tallow, flesh, fish, 
cheese, butter, and, in fact, almost everything that comes in its 
way, including leather and articles of apparel. It gnaws its way 
through planks, partitions and chests ; burrows with facility 
under the floors and walls ; nestles behind the plaster, or in 
the roofs ; and when numerous becomes a source of perpetual 
annoyance. In the poultry-yard it sometimes destroys the young 
chickens, and sucks the eggs ; and in game-preser\es commits 
similar depredations. Instances of its mutilating infants, and 
even of it attacking grown persons, are known ; and when 
hard pushed it will sometimes turn on a Dog or Cat, and 
defend itself with great vigour. In the fields it devours great 


quantities of corn, beans, peas, and other kinds of agricultural 
produce ; and, as it is extremely prolific, it often inflicts serious 
injury. When provisions fall short, it migrates, sometimes in 
large bodies, to a more favourable station ; and when settled in 
a place where its supply of food is ample, rapidly increases to 
an astonishing extent." 

On board ship Rats are, if possible, a greater nuisance than 
on shore, as all can testify who have had the misfortune to sail 
in a Rat-haunted vessel. Sometimes they will even enter the 
cabins and gnaw the toe-nails of the sleepers down to the quick, 
if their feet happen to be uncovered. Ivory would not at first 
sight appear a very tempting kind of food for Rats. Neverthe- 
less, according to the testimony of Frank Buckland, these 
animals do much damage to the tusks stored in the docks. As 
they select for their attacks those which contain the largest 
amount of animal matter, and as such are the most suitable for 
the purposes of the manufacturer, a Rat-gnawn tusk is sure to be 
one of the finest quality. 

It has been mentioned above that Rats will suck the eggs of 
poultry, and it is also well known that in many cases this is not 
done in the hen-house, but the eggs are bodily removed to 
safer quarters. How this removal is accomplished has not, 
however, at present been ascertained. Mr. Trevor-Battye 
writes to me : — " Rats move eggs along the ground by rolling 
them against their chests. How they move them unbroken 
from a height I have never been able to find out. The only 
Rat I ever had a chance of obtaining at this form of depredation 
dropped the egg and broke it." That these animals can display 
considerable ingenuity in overcoming mechanical difficulties is 
proved by an anecdote related by Mr. T. W. Kirk, of the 
Wellington Museum, New Zealand. In this instance two Rats 
combined their efforts in order to get a four-inch biscuit 
between the bars of a building which were only two inches 

zoo Lloyd's natural history. 

apart, which was effected by tilting the biscuit. What is equally 
notewoithy in this case, is the circumstance that after one of 
these Rats had in vain attempted the task single-handed, he left 
it, and soon returned accompanied by a comrade, thus showing 
that these animals have some rapid means of communicating 
their ideas. 

In addition to the various kinds of provender above 
mentioned, the Brown Rat will also eat snails — both land and 
fresh-water; the debris which it leaves of the latter being 
generally considered as the work of the Water-Vole. An 
instance is also on record of a Rat entering the water and 
dragging forth with some difficulty a young Eel. That these 
animals are- likewise chargeable with cannibalism is probably 
well known to most persons living in the country, as it is a 
common occurrence for one caught in a trap to be set upon 
and devoured by its companions. Mr. Trevor-Battye ob- 
serves : — " When Frogs are spawning, the Rat is fond of 
catching them, and eating the contents of their insides. A 
heap of dead Frogs, all treated in this way, may often be found 
at a Brown Rat's favourite resting-place by the side of a pond." 

With regard to the damage caused by the Rat to game- 
preservers, Mr. Harting, after many years' practical experience, 
is of opinion that not only is this animal one of their worst 
enemies, but is likewise very frequently the means of bringing 
unoffending creatures to death. " He is a great devourer ot 
Pheasants' food (to say nothing of young Pheasants), and when 
the latter are gathered under the foster-hen at sundown, the 
Rat may be seen issuing stealthily into the grass-ride, where 
the food has been scattered, helping himself to all he can 
find. This is the opportunity for the Brown Owl to render 
important service. Gliding off the low branch of a tree in the 
direction of the Pheasant-coops, the bird swiftly and noise- 
lessly approaches, and £^ Rat is carried off ere h^ has tim? to 

VOI.ES. 201 

realise the presence of an enemy." Too often, alas ! the Owl 
is rewarded by a shot from the keeper's gun, under the 
mistaken idea that it is after the Pheasants. 

As a final indictment against the Rat, it must be mentioned 
that, according to Jesse, it will sometimes inflict damage upon 
fruit-trees growing against walls by eating the buds and young 

Says Mr. Trevor-Battye, "Rats are remarkably clever 
climbers. I have seen a Rat more than once running nimbly 
all about the small branches of an oak-tree, and collecting 
lichen ; presumably for a nest-lining." 

Microtus, Schrank, Fauna Boica, vol. i. p. 72 (1798). 

Head with a blunt, rounded muzzle, and short ears, which 
are almost buried in the fur ; tail short and hairy ; soles of the 
feet naked ; molar teeth generally growing continuously, and 
thus not developing roots, and composed of two longitudinal 
rows of triangular prisms set alternately to one another. 

The Voles are more clumsily-built animals than the Mice, 
and have less agile movements; while, in addition to the 
points noticed above, their limbs are relatively shorter and 
their eyes smaller. They comprise a considerable number of 
species distributed over Europe, Njrth America, and Asia 
north of the Himalaya, a few just impinging on the north-west 
frontier of India. Instead of frequenting the neighbourhood 
of human habitations and other buildings, like the Mice, the 
Voles are inhabitants of the open country, burrowing and 
forming runs in meadows and fields, or dwelling by the sides 
of rivers and ponds. All of them appear to be strictly 
vegetable feeders. 

As to their affinities, the Voles shpw but distant kinship with 

202 Lloyd's natural history. 

the true Mice, but are closely allied to the Hamsters (Cricetus), 
of which there are no existing British representatives. 
Although the Hamsters have rooted and tuberculated molars, 
their tubercles, instead of forming three longitudinal rows, as in 
the Mice, are arranged in two such rows. By the develop- 
ment of such tubercles into prisms the root-less molars of the 
Voles have originated ; and it is interestmg to notice that in 
some of the extinct species of the latter these teeth, although 
composed of the same prisms, are shorter and show more or 
less distinct roots. We may accordingly regard the Voles 
as forming a highly-specialised side-branch which has taken 
origin from the Hamsters. 

Till within the last few years, the Voles have been almost 
universally known by the generic name of Arvicola ; but it has 
been discovered that the title under which they are here entered 
antedates the latter by one year, and, therefore, by the rules of 
zoological nomenclature, has to be employed. In this particular 
instance the substitution of a strange name for one which had 
become so well-known, is much to be deplored ; but it will be 
obvious that if exceptions are once made in enforcing the rule 
of priority in nomenclature, it cannot be logically maintained 


Mus agrestis, Linn., Fauna Suecica, p. ii (1761). 

Mus gregarius, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 84 (1766). 

Arvicola agrestis, Fleming, British Animals, p. 23 (1828) ; Bell, 

British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 323 (1874). 

Microtus agrestis, Lataste, Le Naturaliste, 1883, p. 349, id. 

Act. Soc. Linn., Bordeaux, vol. xxxviii. p. 36 (1884). 

{Plate XXIV.) 

Characters. — Size small ; tail one-third the length of the head 

and body ; soles of hind-feet with six naked pads ; colour of 




VOLES. 203 

upper parts dull greyish-brown; beneath greyish-white; feet 
dusky ; first and second upper molar teeth with five prismatic 
spaces, and the third with six ; in the lower jaw the first molar 
having nine such spaces, the second five, and the last three. 
Length of head and body about 3^ to 4^ inches ; of the 
tail, i}( inch. 

In the allied Microtus arvalis of the Continent, the second 
upper molar has only four prismatic spaces. 

Distribution. — This species ranges over the greater part of 
Europe, from Finland in the north to Northern Italy in the 
south, and from England and Spain in the west to Russia in 
the east. In the British Islands it extends all over England 
and Scotland, inclusive of the Hebrides, but it is not found in 
Lewis, and is unknown in Ireland. While abundant in the 
more northern districts of the Continent, in the south it is ex- 
ceeded in numbers by M. arvalis. 

Habits. — The Field- Vole, or, as it maybe generally termed, the 
Short-tailed Field-Mouse (in contradistinction to the Wood- 
Mouse, or Long-tailed Field-Mouse), is the most mischievous of 
all Rodents to the farmer, from the fact of its occasionally 
appearing in enormous numbers, as is likewise the case with 
its continental ally, M. arvalis. An exhaustive account of the 
habits of the latter has been given by Brehm, and since the two 
species appear to have somewhat similar modes of life, we can- 
not do better than quote therefrom. He observes that the food 
of the Voles " consists of every sort of vegetable substance. 
When they can obtain seeds, they feed only on these, but at 
other times they content themselves with fresh grass and herbs, 
roots and leaves, clover, fruits, and berries. Beech-mast and 
nuts, corn, turnips, and potatoes are badly attacked by them. 
When the corn begins to ripen, they assemble in hordes in the 
fields, bite the stalks through at the base till they fall over, then 


gnaw them through, above, and drag the ears into their burrows. 
During the harvest they follow the steps of the reapers from one 
crop to another, devour the corn that has dropped among the 
stubble, gatlier the ears up which have fallen in binding up the 
sheaves, and at last find their way to the stack-yard, where they 
find provision for the winter. In the woods they collect the 
fallen haws, juniper-berries, beech mast, acorns, and nuts in their 
burrows. During the hardest weather they fall into uninter- 
rupted hibernation, but when milder weather returns they rouse 
up, and feed on their stores. They are incredibly voracious, 
and require much to satisfy them ; but they cannot do without 

" Field- Voles are very gregarious, and live socially together, 
at least in pairs, but more commonly in great hordes, and Jjiere- 
fore they link one burrow to another. They multiply with 
extreme rapidity. Even in April we find from four to eight 
young in their warm nests, which lie from one to two feet below 
the surface of the ground, and are softly lined with fine frag' 
ments of grass or hay, and moss ; and in the course of the 
summer the female produces young from four to six times more. 
It is highly probable that the young of the first litter are them- 
selves ready to breed in autumn, and the amazing increase in 
their numbers is thus easily explained. 

" ' Under favourable circumstances,' says Blasius, ' the Field- 
Vole multiplies in an incredible manner. Many instances are 
known in which a large part of the harvest has been destroyed 
over large tracts of country by their inordinate increase, and 
more than a thousand acres of young birch-trees have been 
destroyed by their gnawing the bark. Those who have never 
experienced such a Vole-year can hardly form a conception of 
the almost incredible swarms of Voles in the fields and planta- 
tions. They often appear in a particular neighbourhood with- 
QUt their gradual increase having been observed, as if they had 

VOLES. 205 

suddenly come upon the earth by magic. It is possible that 
they sometimes migrate suddenly from place to place. But 
their rapid multiplication is generally foreshadowed for weeks 
beforehand by the increase of the Buzzards.' 

" During the twenties, the Lower Rhine was repeatedly visited 
by such a plague. The fields were so undermined in places 
that you could scarcely set foot on the ground without touching 
a Vole-hole, and innumerable paths were deeply trodden 
between these openings. On fine days it swarmed with Voles, 
which ran about openly and fearlessly. If they were approached, 
from six to ten rushed to the same hole to creep in, and un- 
willingly impeded each other's j)rogress by crowding together. 
It was not difficult in the crush to kill half-a-dozen with one 
blow from a stick. All seemed to be strong and healthy, but 
mostly rather small, and for the greater part were probably young 
ones. Three weeks after I revisited the place. The number 
of Voles had actually increased, but the animals were apparently 
in a sickly state. Many had mangy places or sores over the 
whole body, and even in those which appeared sound, the skin 
was so loose and delicate that it could not be roughly 
handled without destroying it. When I visited the place for 
the third time, four weeks later, every trace of them had 
disappeared ; but the empty burrows and passages awakened 
a much more dismal feeling than when they swarmed with life. 
People said that the whole race had suddenly disappeared from 
the earth as if by magic. Many may have perished from a 
devastating pestilence, and many have been devoured by their 
fellows, as happens in captivity ; but people also spoke of the 
innumerable hosts that had swum across the Rhine at several 
places in the open day. No extraordinary increase was noticed 
anywhere over a wide area ; but they seem to have disappeared 
everywhere at the same time, without reappearing elsewhere. 
Nature must have put a stop to their inordinate multiplication 

2o6 Lloyd's natural history. 

at the same period. It was fine warm autumn weather, 
apparently favourable to them to the last moment. 

" In order to give some idea of the hordes of Voles which 
sometimes appear in certain districts, it may be mentioned that 
in 1822, in the district of Zabern, 1,570,000 Voles were caught 
in fourteen days; in the district of Nidda, 590,427; and in 
that of Putzbach, 271,941. 

"In the autumn of 1856, says Lenz, there were so many 
Voles in one district of four leagues in circumference between 
Erfurt and Gotha, that about 1 2,000 acres of land had to be re- 
ploughed. The sowing of each acre at current wages 6s., and 
the ploughing-up was estimated at is. 6d. ; so that the loss! 
amounted to from ;£'2,ooo to ;^4,5oo, and probably much more. 
On a single large estate near Breslau 200,000 were caught in 
seven weeks, and delivered to the Breslau manure faftory, 
which then paid a pfenning (half-a-farthing) per dozen for them. 
Some of the Vole-catchers were able to supply the factory 
with 1,400 or 1,500 per day. In the summer of 1861, 409,523 
Voles and 4,707 Hamsters were caught and counted in the 
district of Alsheim in Rhenish Hesse. The local authorities 
paid 2,523 gulen (about ;£i64) for them 1 

"In the years 1872 and 1873 it was just the same, and local 
complaints arose in all parts of the country about the Vole- 
plague. It might be compared to one of the plagues of Egypt. 
Even in the day, on the sandy plains of the Mark of Branden- 
burg, thousands of Voles were counted in particular fields, arid 
in the rich corn-lands of Lower Saxony, Thuringia, and Hesse, 
they abounded to a fearful extent. Half the harvest was 
destroyed, hundreds of thousands of acres were left unlilled, 
and thousands of pounds were spent on their destruction. 
Agricultural Societies and Governments were implored to seek 
ways and means of staying the plague." 

In Britain " Vole-plagues," as they are called, have occurred 

VOLES. 207 

several times, and we cull the following particulars from the 
Government Report on the most recent of these. The first on 
record took place in the year 1580, in the hundred of Danesey, 
in Essex, when it is stated that the roots of all the pasture-grass 
were destroyed by these pests. The second occurred during 
the years 181 3 and 18 14, and extended over the Forest of 
Dean, in Gloucestershire, and the New Forest, in Hampshire. 
An account of this plague has been furnished by Lord Glen- 
bervle, from which it appears that about 98 per cent, of the 
Rodents composing the horde belonged to the present species, 
while the remaining 2 per cent, were Wood-Mice. Upwards 
of 30,000 Voles were destroyed by various means in the Forest 
of Dean, and 11,500 in the New Forest* In 1874 and 1875 ^ 
similar plague made its appearance in Wensleydale, and lasted 
till about 1876, during which time the Field-Voles appeared in 
such numbers in the pasture-farms of the hill-districts of the 
borders of England and Scotland, and parts of Yorkshire and 
Wensleydale, as to destroy the grazing-ground. Reporting on 
this irruption, Sir Walter ElHot writes that " the district most 
seriously affected consists of a cluster of farms at the head of 
Borthwick Water, which falls into the Teviot, three miles above 
Hawick. The centre of the group is Howpasley, which, with 
Craikhope, Wolfcleughhead, and part of Craik, all in the parish 
of Roberton, belong to the Duke of Buccleuch ; adjoining them 
are Ramsay-cleughhead and Hislop, in the parish of Teviot- 
head, and the estate of Tushielaw. Beyond them is Lang- 
shawburn; which was too close to escape such dangerous 
neighbours, as were other farms in Eskdalemuir parish ; while 

* Mr. W. E. de Winton writes to me: — "The Voles in the above-men- 
tioned plagues have, I think, been proved to be the ' Eanlc ' Voles. This 
animal is the only Vole which frequents woods, and its principal food, at 
all seasons, consists of seeds, bark, and shoots, and it is this species which 
does the damage in the woods. I have opened the bodies of many, and 
have invariably found the stomach filled with a yellow substance like pease 
pudding, while the stomach of the Field-Vole cont,iins chewed grass." 

2o8 Lloyd's natural historV. 

several in Ettrick-head and Tema Water were attacked in a 
greater or less degree, but not to be compared with the first- 
mentioned §ix farms. In Nithsdale and Western Dumfries, 
the parishes of Tynron, Penpont, and Durisdeer were among 
those that suffered most. 

"For two or three years previous to 1876, the Voles had 
been observed to be on the increase. In the spring of 1875 
the ground, which had been covered with snow since Decem- 
ber, was found to ,be riddled with holes under the wreath- 
drifts, and denuded of herbage, by the Voles that had found 
shelter there. Great numbers were seen throughout the sum- 
mer, when cutting the bog hay. The shepherd at Craikhope 
described the children as 'amusing themselves by hunting 
them from morning to night, as long as they could find nothing 
better to do, so that each day,' he believes, ' they destroyed 
hundreds, and the dogs devoured them till they made them- 
selves sick ! ' In the autumn of the same year they continued 
plentiful. The farmer of Howpasley, when cutting a four-acre 
field of corn, observed numbers to be driven inwards by the 
reaping-machine, so that when only a spot in the centre of about 
twenty feet by five remained, he made one of the men take a 
scythe and cut it slowly, a woman lifting behind. The others 
surrounded them, and killed the Mice as they came out ; and 
somewhere between eighty and a hundred were thus destroyed, 
most of which were eaten by six dogs present. ' I used to 
kill scores of them,' he adds, ' with a stick while walking over 
the hills.' 

" The same thing was observed, in a greater or less degree, 
wherever the conditions of the ground were favourable to 
them. A correspondent to a county paper relates that when 
' removing a two-years' crop of hay in the autumn of 1875 from 
a meadow sloping down to the Bowmont, on the farm of Sour- 
hope, near Yetholm, two to four nests were found under eveiy 

VolEs. ^09 

rick, each with six to nine young ones, the nest lying in a 
cavity from which runs diverged in every direction. Great 
numbers were killed by the boys assisting. One little fellow 
got seventy-nine full-grown ones for his share, and his straw- 
hat was brimful of young ones.' 

"Their numbers, already redundant, were augmented by 
the mild winter of 1875-6, and in the succeeding spring they 
made their presence felt in the doomed farms. During the 
three months from February to April they completely destroyed 
the pasturage of the bog-land in Borthwick water, and were 
then driven to the bents. Notwithstanding the means used for 
their destruction, which, however, were not very skilful, the 
swarms showed little diminution. The public journals sug- 
gested a trial of the plan which had been so efficacious in the 
New Forest, where holes were dug into which they fell, but 
the hint came too late. More efficient auxiliaries appeared in 
the shape of Hawks, Foxes, Weazels, &c., attracted by the 
abundant prey. Buzzards, which have long been strangers to the 
district, again made their appearance. A shepherd in Eskdale- 
muir saw seven of the rough-legged species {Archibuteo lagopus) 
on the wing at the same time, and the short and long-eared 
Owls were observed in still larger numbers. By the middle of 
April the herbage was so much impaired that the Voles them- 
selves began to feel the want of food, and the occurrence of 
severe frost, with a sprinkling of snow, about the middle of 
the month, completed their discomfiture. Many died of star- 
vation, and by the end of May they had mostly disappeared. 

" When the Committee of the Farmers' Club made their in- 
spection, they found that fully one-third of the pasture in the 
places visited had been destroyed. The true bog-grass espe- 
cially, on which the sheep mainly depend in April and May, 
had been eaten down to the roots. The ground was strewed 
with dried stalks and blades, mixed with tufts of fur. limbs, and 

5 P 

210 Lloyd's natural history. 

other remains of the depredators. The sheep were in deplor- 
able case; several had died; and the emaciated ewes, too weak 
to make good nurses, suckled their lambs with difficulty. 
Numbers of these had perished in consequence, and the sur- 
vivors were poor and weakly.'' 

In 1892 another alarming plague of Voles made its appear- 
ance in the south of Scotland, the districts chiefly affected 
being the northern boundary of Dumfriesshire, east of Thorn- 
hill, and the north-west of Roxburgh, where between 80,000 
and 90,000 acres are reported to have been affected. The 
border-districts in the south of Selkirk, Peebles, and Lanark, 
as well as the parishes of Carpshain and Dairy, in the extreme 
north of the stewardry of Kirkcudbright, suffered in a minor 
degree. Reporting r^n the plague in Roxburgh, Mr. R. F. 
Dudgeon writes as follows : — 

" The districts of this county affected by the plague are the 
west and south-west portions of Teviotdale adjoining the coun- 
ties of Selkirk and Dumfries, and the south-west portion of 
Liddesdale. The gross area of the farms seriously affected may 
be stated as between 30,000 and 40,000 acres. 

" The Voles, although more or less numerous than usual for 
the previous two years, multiplied to an alarming extent during 
the spring and summer of 189 1. A correspondent in Teviot- 
dale describes them as now swarming in miUions. They 
apparently first attack the deeper boggy and rough pasture- 
lands, which are destroyed to the extent of nearly four-fifths 
of their area ; one-half of the area of the hill-farms in the dis- 
tricts named may be said to be in bog or rough pasture, and I 
think that I should not be far wrong in stating that some 
12,000 to 15,000 acres have been rendered entirely useless by 
reason of the plague. As the bog or rough pasture becomes 
foul or exhausted, the Voles spread to the barer lea-land, and 
even to the heather, which they baik, at the same time biting 

V0LE3. 211 

off the young shoots. The grasses are first attacked close to 
the surface of the ground, and the stalk is consumed as far as 
it continues white or succulent ; young shoots are also nipped 
off; and grass tufts are to be seen completely eaten through, 
what is left by the Voles being absolutely valueless. Sheep are 
suffering severely in the districts affected ; large portions of 
many flocks have been removed to winterage, wherever that 
can be found, artificial food and purchased hay is being given 
to the stock on many hirsels ; the lightness of last year's hay- 
crop and the present high price of purchased fodder, cakes, 
and corn adds very considerably to the difficulties of the far- 
mers. Plantations are in some instances attacked, buds being 
nipped off, and bark peeled. The arable land attached to 
some of the farms is not appreciably affected, although I am 
informed by one of my correspondents that during the leading 
of his corn last autumn Voles were discovered under nearly 
every stook, nests were also found, as well as eaten. corn ; fears 
are entertained that the seed-corn may be attacked, espe- 
cially in lea land, where the Voles can work their way up the 

The reporter attributes the immediate cause of the outbreak 
to the unusual roughness of the pastures during the winter of 
1890-91, and the mildness of the weather at that time, whereby 
the Voles gained an extraordinary advantage in the shape of 
shelter from their natural enemies, as also in facilities for 

After various remedies had been tried, with more or less in- 
different success, the Voles seemed gradually to decrease in 
numbers, till by the beginning of 1894 affairs had resumed 
their normal conditions. In regard to the possibility of check- 
ing such epidemics, Brehm observes that, unfortunately, man is 
powerless ; and although various remedies, such as inoculation 
ff'.ch bacilli, have been tried, we are much inclined to agree with 

p 2 


him. He writes that "all the means of destruction which have 
yet been devised seem insufficient to check the inordinate 
multiplication of these greedy hosts. Only Providence and the 
useful predacious animals, to which man is so hostile, can help 
him. ' Borers ' have been used with good results, with which, 
where the soil permits it, holes are made in the ground 12-18 
cm. in circumference and 60 cm. deep. When the Voles fall 
in, instead of burrowing their way out, they devour each other. 
When the fields were being ploughed, children followed with 
sticks, and destroyed as many as possible. Smoke has been 
driven into the burrows, poisoned grain thrown in, whole fields 
saturated with a decoction of strychnine or spurge. In short, 
every means has been adopted to get rid of this terrible pest; 
but in general all these methods have proved nearly useless, 
and some of them, especially poisoning, highly dangerous. 
The most efficacious poison not only destroys all the Voles in 
a field, but likewise their worst enemies, and consequently our 
friends, Foxes, Martens, Stoats, Weazels, Buzzards, Owls, and 
Rooks, besides Partridges, Hares, and domestic animals, from 
Pigeons to Horses and Oxen — a sufficient reason for abstaining 
altogether from the use of poison. It is painful to all natura- 
lists and lovers of animals to see the enemies of the Voles, as 
in 1872, poisoned and destroyed instead of cared for and pro- 
tected. Short-sighted people — farmers who cared more for 
hare-hunting than for making the best use of the land — were 
delighted when they found, besides dead Voles, hundreds of 
poisoned Rooks, Buzzards, Owls, Foxes, Weasels, and Stoats ; 
but they did not consider what mischief they had entailed upon 
themselves in their senseless efforts to destroy the Voles. It 
was not the destruction of the useful but despised Vole-killers 
that concerned them, but when Hares, Partridges, and domestic 
animals were also poisoned, they were at last induced to give 
up the use of poison. Till then, the warnings of far-seeing' 



VOLES. 213 

advisers were disregarded. The hints which they had given, 
both verbally and in print, that laying poison in the fields might 
perhaps benefit the infected land, but not agriculturists, were 
not appreciated till too late. Besides poison, smoking out the 
Voles was tried on suitable ground with satisfactory result. 
All the holes were stopped up, and poisonous coal and sulphur- 
smoke (bisulphide of carbon) was allowed to pour into the 
burrows which the Voles reopened : but this efficacious mode, 
of destroymg them could not be employed everywhere, and 
was very expensive. People knew not what to do, because 
they had neglected to destroy the Voles at the proper time.'' 

It may be mentioned, in conclusion, that fossil remains of 
the Common Field- Vole have been obtained from the Pleisto- 
cene brick-earths of the Thames Valley, and likewise from 
Kirkdale Cave in Yorkshire, and Kent's Hole Cavern near 
Torquay. A fact of still more interest is the occurrence of 
jaws of the continental M. arvalis in the " forest-bed " of the 
Norfolk coast, and also in a fissure near Frome, in Somerset- 


Miis glareolus, Schreber, Saugethiere, vol. iii. p. 680 (1774). 
Arvicola pratensis, Baillon, in F. Cuvier's Hist. Nat., Mamm., 

vol. iv. Tabl. g^n. p. 4 (1834) ; Bell, British Quadrupeds, 

p. 230 (1837). 
Arvicola riparia, Yarrell, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 109; 

Jenyns, British Vertebr. p. 34 (1835). 
Arvicola glareolus, Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 327 

Arvicola {Evotomys) glareola, Newton, Geol. Mag. decade 2, 

vol. viii. p. 258 (1881). 
Microtus glareolus, Lataste, Act. Soc, Linn. Bordeaux, vol. 

xxxviii. p. 36 (1884). 

{Piatt XKV.) 

214 Lloyd's natural history. 

Characters. — Size nearly as in the last ; tail about one-half the 
length of the head and body, and thickly haired ; colour of 
upper-parts rich reddish-chestnut, the flanks grey, and the 
under-parts nearly white ; tail dark brown above and white 
beneath. Molars developing distinct roots in the adult ; the 
first and third upper molars with five prismatic spaces, and the 
second with four ; in the lower jaw, the first molar with seven, 
and the other two with three such spaces. Length of head 
and body about 3^^ to 4 inches; of tail, ij^ inches. 

In the rooted molars of the adult, this species differs widely 
from the preceding ; and, accordingly, while the latter is 
assigned to a separate sub-genus known as Agricola, the present 
form is sub-generically distinguished as Evotomys. 

Distribution. — First recognised as a British species by Yaitell, 
the Bank- Vole ranges through England and Scotland as far 
north as Morayshire, beyond which it does not appear to have 
been met with ; but, like both the other British members of the 
genus, it is unknown in Ireland. In England it is generally 
supposed to be a far less abundant species than the common 
Field- Vole; but among a large series of specimens of Voles 
recently collected for Mr. Oldfield Thomas, by far the greater 
majority proved to belong to the one under consideration. In 
Northumberland it occurs, but apparently not commonly ; in 
Cumberland it has been recorded only from two localities; 
while in Durham it has not been noticed, although it must al- 
most certainly occur. Mr. Montagu Browne also states that it 
is unknown in Leicestershire ; while in Devonshire it is either 
extremely rare or very local. These instances will suffice to 
show that the distribution of the species over the country is 
far from uniform. In a fossil state, the Bank- Vole occurs in 
the "forest-bed" of Norfolk,as well as in several English caverns, 
such as Kent's Hole near Torquay, Wookey Hole in Glamor- 
ganshire, Brixham Cave, and another cave near Bristol 


Abroad, this species ranges across Europe from France to 
China, while in North America its place is taken by a closely- 
allied form known as M.gapperi. Recent investigations have, 
however, rendered it probable that both the European and 
American forms will eventually prove to be local southern 
races of the Arctic Vole (M. rutilus), of the circum-polar 
Regions, in which case the latter name will have to be em- 
ployed for the species under consideration. 

HaTiits. — In habits the Bank-Vole, or Red Vole, as it is 
frequently, and perhaps preferably, called, is generally very 
similar to those of the preceding species ; but whereas the 
latter is essentially an inhabitant of the open fields, the former 
is more partial to sheltered situations, often frequenting gar- 
dens, where it does much damage by devouring the bulbs of 
crocuses and newly-sown peas and beans. Mr. Roper writes 
that its favourite haunts "are old rough ivy-covered hedge- 
banks, especially those from which the soil has been washed 
away in places, leaving the roots bare, and thus forming 
hollows behind them ; banks adjoining woods and plantations 
seem particularly attractive to them. In spots like this, pleas- 
ingly varied by a sprinkling of mossy old stubs, brambles, and 
bushes, with the roots of overhanging trees backed by deep 
cavernous recesses, the Bank- Vole makes its burrow, and forms 
runs in all directions, partly above and partly below the surface ; 
probably also making use of those of the Mole. I have caught 
them, too, among artificial rock-work, and in a plantation in 
which are banks thickly covered with the lesser periwinkle, 
among the roots and stems of which they had formed numer- 
ous runs." 

Bell states that the Bank-Vole is more omnivorous in its 
habits than the common Field-Vole, and that it is less addicted 
to burrowing; while it is even more frequently seen abroad dur- 
ing the daytime. Its food comprises almost all kinds of vege- 


table substances ; and it is probable that insects are also occa- 
sionally eaten. In addition to the harm inflicted on roots and 
bulbs, the Bank- Vole often does much damage to the bark of 
fruit- and other trees, more especially in the spring and winter. 
In parts of Scotland these animals have seriously damaged 
young larch-plantations by their ravages on the bark and buds. 
In Switzerland the charge has been brought against this Rodent 
of robbing the nests of such small birds as build upon the 
ground ; but further evidence on this point is desirable. The 
breeding-habits appear to be identical with those of the pre- 
ceding species, from four to eight young being produced in a 

In ridding gardens of Voles, the writer has found a common 
4-trap made out of three pieces of lath and a couple of roofing- 
tiles the most eflfeciive ; either a split bean or a piece of cheese 
being used as a bait. 


Mus atnphibius, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 82 (1766). 
Microtus amphibius, Schrank, Fauna Boica, vol. i. p. 72 

(1798); Lataste, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xxxviii. 

p. 36 (1884). 
Arvicola amphibius, Desmarest, Mammalogie, p. 280(1820); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 316 (1874). 
Arvicola aquatica, Fleming, British Animals, p. 23 (1828). 
Arvicola ater, Macgillivray, Mem. Wern, Soc. vol. vi. p. 

424 (1832). 

Arvicola amphibia, Jenyns, British Vert. Anim. p. 33 (1835); 

Flower, Cat. Osteol. Mus Roy. Coll. Surgeons, pt. ii. p. 

610 (1884). 

(Plan XXVI.) 

Characters. — Size large ; tail about half the length of head and 
body ; hind-feet long, with five naked pads on the soles ; fur 





VOLES. 217 

long and thick, usually of a uniform greyish-brown, with a 
more or less distinct reddish tinge, but not unfrequently wholly 
black. First upper molar tooth with five, and the second and 
third with four, prismatic spaces ; in the lower jaw, the first 
molar has seven such spaces (of which the first three are 
generally imperfectly separated), the second five, and the third 
three. Length of head and body about 8^ inches j of tail 4j^ 

The Water- Vole, or, as it is generally incorrectly termed, the 
Water-Rat, is a member of the sub-genus Paludicola (as defined 
by the number of prisms in the molar teeth), and may be 
compared to the Brown Rat in point of size. As in the case of 
the so-called Irish Rat, the black, or melanistic variety, which is 
as common in many parts of Scotland as it is in the Cambridge- 
shire fens and in Norfolk, was at first regarded as a distinct 
species, under the name of Arvicola ater. 

The Water- Vole has the body full ; the neck very short ; 
the head short, broad, rounded, and convex above ; the limbs 
small ; and the tail rather long and slender. The short and 
rounded ears are entirely concealed among the thick fur, and 
are naked internally, and thinly covered with soft hairs exter- 
nally ; the aperture of the internal ear being capable of being 
closed by an operculum. On the fore-feet the claws are 
greatly compressed, but in the hind-limbs are longer ; while in 
neither are the toes webbed. The tail is cylindrical and 
slightly tapering, somewhat compressed towards the tip, and 
covered with short closely-adherent hairs. The fur is composed 
of two kinds of hairs, some being longer and a little thicker 
than the others. At the base all the hairs are bluish-black on 
the upper-parts, and bluish-grey below. The incisor teeth are 
brownish-yellow, the eyes black, the nose dusky, the soles of 
the feet pale flesh-colour, and the claws, according to Mr. de 
Winton, are "purple, as if dyed With black-currant juice." 

2i8 Lloyd's natural history. 

Distribution. — The geographical range of this species is very 
extensive, including nearly the whole of Europe and a large 
portion of Asia north of the Himalaya, but it does not appear to 
be known further east than China. Unknown in Ireland, it is 
souniversallydistributed inEngland and Scotland that no special 
notice is necessary on this point, except that, while found in 
Sutherland and Caithness, it is unknown in Argyllshire and 
the Isles. Although locally abundant in some districts, the 
black variety appears much more common in Scotland than in 

Not improbably occurring in the forest-bed of the Norfolk 
coast, in a fossil state, the Water-Vole is met with in the 
Pleistocene brick-earths of the Thames Valley, and likewise in 
a number of English caverns. 

Habits. — Of the mode of life of the Water-Vole, Macgillivray, 
in the original edition of the " Naturalist's Library," writes that 
" its residence is in the banks of rivers, brooks, canals, mill-dams, 
and ponds, in which it forms long and tortuous burrows. It 
frequently betakes itself to the water, swims and dives with 
ease ; and generally has an entrance to its retreat beneath the 
surface, so that in cases of danger it may effect its escape 
without appearing on land. In fine weather, especially in the 
morning and evening, it may often be seen sitting at the mouth 
of its hole, nibbling the grass or roots there ; but in the middle 
of the day it usually remains underground. It feeds entirely 
on vegetable substances, chiefly roots, and has been known to 
deposit a store even of potatoes for winter use ; for it does not 
appear to become torpid in the cold season, although in time 
of snow it does not come abroad. Five or six young are 
produced early in summer, and deposited in a nest composed 
of dry grass and other vegetable matter." 

Although generally found close to water, this Rodent occa- 
sionally wanders some distance away, and may make its burrow 


in a ploughed field ; an instance of this habit being recorded 
by Gilbert White. In the Lake district, according to the Rev. 
H. A. Macpherson, these animals have taken to burrowing in 
the sandhills of Ravenglass. In summer the soft succulent 
inner portions of the stems of flags and horse-tails, form their 
favourite food ; but when hard pressed in winter they will make 
raids on the farmer's store of root-crops, and will attack the 
bark of willows and osiers. The sins of the Brown Rat are 
often unjustly laid to the charge of the Water-Vole, in conse- 
quence of which it is often said to be carnivorous ; but there 
is little doubt, as stated above, that it is a purely vegetable 
feeder. The only offences of which it can be justly convicted 
are of tapping the banks of mill-dams, rivers, and canals by 
means of its burrows, of damaging osier-plantations, and the 
aforesaid raids on root-crops. 

When threatened with danger, the female Water-Vole has 
been observed to convey her young to a place of safety by 
taking them up in her mouth and carrying them, as a Cat does 
her kittens. One of the great enemies of this creature is the 
Weasel, which is able to enter its burrow and then attack it. 
In feeding, the Vole may often be observed sitting upon its 
haunches on the river-bank, and holding its food up to its 
mouth with its fore-paws after the manner of a Squirrel. 

Mr. Trevor-Battye writes to me : — " It is worth noticing that 
when the Water- Vole is not hurried it will make use of its 
hind-legs alone in swimming, carrying its fore-paws at its 
sides, as the Seals do their flippers. I mentioned this fact in 
my book ' Pictures in Prose ' ; elsewhere I have not seen it 
referred to ; yet it is one which anyone, given clear water, can 
attest for himself." 


The Hares and Rabbits, together with the Picas or Tailless 

Hares {Lagomys), of which there are no existing British repre- 

2 20 Lloyd's natural history. 

sentatives, form a group distinguished from all other Rodents 
by the presence of a second small pair of upper incisors placed 
immediately behind the large front pair. They are likewise 
peculiar in that the enamel on the large upper incisors, in place 
of being confined to their front surfaces, extends round to the 
back, although it is still thicker in front than elsewhere. 

From the presence of the additional pair of upper incisors 
this group is spoken of as the Duplicidentata, whereas all the 
other members of the Order are collectively classed as Simpli- 
ddentata. In the young of the present group there are three 
pairs of incisor teeth in the upper jaw, but the hindmost of 
these are soon lost. 

As a family, the Hares and Rabbits are distinguished from 
the Picas {Lagomyidce) by the collar-bones, or clavicles, feeing 
imperfect, by the length of the hind-limbs being much in 
excess of that of the front pair, by the presence of a short, 
upwardly-curved tail, and the long ears. There are three 
pairs of upper, and two of lower, pre-molar teeth ; and the 
whole of the cheek-teeth are devoid of roots, and are divided 
into parallel plates by transverse infoldings of the enamel. 
The Family, which includes but a single genus, has, with the 
exceptionof Australasia (where Rabbits have been introduced 
with most disastrous results), a cosmopolitan distribution. 

Lepus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 77 (1766). 

Since this is the only genus of the Family, it will suffice to 
add to the above-mentioned characters that the fore-feet are 
furnished with five, and the hind with four toes, and that the 
soles of the feet are furred like the legs, while the inner sur- 
face of the cheeks are likewise covered with hair. With the 
exception of the Hispid Hare (Z. hispidus), all the species are. 
very similar to one another in external appearance, and all are 

Hares and kABBiTS. 221 

terrestrial. Whereas, however, the majority are inhabitants of 
open fields, and produce furred and active young, the Rabbit 
and the Hispid Hare are pecuhar in dwelling in burrows and 
giving birth to naked and helpless offspring. By far the great 
majority of the species are confined to the temperate regions 
of the Northern Hemisphere. 


Lefus europxus, Pallas, Nov. Spec. Glirium, p. 30 (1778). 
Lepus timidus (nee Linn.), Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 
331 (1874). 

{Plate XXVII.) 

Characters — Size large ; hind-limbs and ears very long, the 
latter exceeding the head in length ; tail nearly as long as the 
head ; general colour of the upper-parts tawny-grey, more or 
less tinged with rufous ; under-parts white ; ears tipped with 
black ; tail black above and white beneath. Length of head 
and body about 21^ inches; of tail, 3^ inches; of ear, 
3I inches. 

Although the fur of the English Hare is usually of the 
colour mentioned above, there is considerable variation in this 
respect, depending upon the age of the animal, the season of 
the year, and locality, while there are also individual differences. 
As a rule, in Britain, the Hare becomes of a more pure grey in 
winter, while in more northern regions it tends to white at the 
same season. Leverets are more rufous than adult individuals; 
and in the south of Europe the prevailing colour tends to 
yellowish-red. Individuals occasionally assume a paler tint 
than usual, and sometimes resemble a Rabbit in colour ; while 
very rarely black Hares have been met with. 

As regards the general external form of the Hare, it may be 
added that the body is large, compressed, and deep ; the neck 
very short ; the head of moderate size, convex above, and 


broad and obtuse at the muzzle, with a depressed nose, and 
the upper lip tumid and divided by a vertical median cleft. 
The laterally-placed eyes are large and remarkably prominent ; 
and the long ears are narrow, deeply concave, and rounded at 
the tips. The somewhat long claws are slightly curved, com- 
pressed, and rather sharp; although on the hind-feet they 
become blunted in old animals. The fur, as in the other 
members of the genus, consists of two kinds of hairs, of which 
the one is long and coarse, and the other short, fine, and 
somewhat woolly. In addition to the usual " whiskersj" a few 
long bristly hairs are situated over each eye. A Hare generally 
weighs from seven to eight pounds when fully grown ; but 
much heavier specimens occur, Bell recording one of eleven 
pounds, while in another just over thirteen pounds was 

Sistribntion — Before discussing the distribution of this spe- 
cies, it should be mentioned that by all the older writers on 
British Mammals, the Common Hare is alluded to under the 
name of Lepus timidus. Since, however, this species does not 
occur in Scandinavia, there can be little doubt but that the 
latter name was applied by Linnaeus to the Mountain-Hare of 
that region, to which species the name in question must con- 
sequently be transferred. 

With the exception of the Scandinavian peninsula. Northern 
Russia, and Ireland, the Common Hare ranges over the whole 
of Europe. That it extends to the Caucasus, and that it is 
unknown in Siberia, are ascertained facts, but we are not aware 
that the actual easterly limits of its range have been defined. 
Distributed over the whole of England and the Lowlands of 
Scotland, the Hare is less abundant in many of the northern 
districts of the latter country, on the higher tracts of which its 
place is taken by the next species. It occurs, however, 
commonly in Caithness, and is also found in the east of 


Sutherland. In Argyllshire it is rare, and may have been 
introduced, as it has certainly been in Mull and some of the 
other islands. 

Habits. — The following account of the habits of the Common 
Hare is taken from Macgillivray, who writes that, like the 
other species of the genus, it feeds entirely on vegetable 
substances, such as grass, clover, corn, turnips, and the bark 
of young trees, sometimes inflicting great injury on the latter, 
especially in winter. Towards evening it comes abroad in 
quest of food, and continues to search for it during the night, 
in conformity with which habits the pupil of its eye is large 
and of an oblong form. It advances by leaps, and as its hind- 
legs are much longer than the front ones, it runs with more 
ease up hill than down, especially on steep declivities. 
During the day it reposes in a crouching or half-sitting posture 
in its " form," which is a selected spot to which it usually 
resorts, among grass, ferns, or bushes. Its senses of hearing 
and seeing are extremely acute ; its eyes, being placed directly 
on the sides of the head, take in a wide range, while its long 
ears can be readily turned in any direction, forwards, outwards, 
or backwards, so as to catch the smallest sounds indicative of 
hostility. Being in a manner defenceless, and having no 
burrow or fastness to which it may retreat, the Hare trusts to 
vigilance and extraordinary speed to enable it to elude its 
numerous enemies. 

It is chiefly to the lower and more cultivated districts that 
the Common Hare resorts, but it is also found in the upland 
valleys, and on the slopes of hills of considerable height. 
Timid and gentle as it is, yet it is by no means innocuous, 
for the injury it occasions to the young corn is often consider- 
able. In the winter it finds an abundant supply of food in the 
turnip-fields, and it sometimes visits gardens at night, more 
especially when pinched by hunger during continued frost. It 


has been observed to cross rivers by swimmingj and even to 
enter the sea for the purpose of gaining an island or point of 
land, on which food was more abundant. We may add, that, 
as a rule. Hares do not take to water except when compelled 
to do so to escape from pursuit. 

Mr. Trevor-Battye states, however, that as he was once wait- 
ing at evening for ducks by the side of the River Eden, in 
Kent, a Hare came quietly down the opposite bank through a 
copse, crossed about three feet of ice that fringed the stream, 
swam the open water, scrambled on to the ice on his side, and 
emerged close to him, shook itself, and, catching sight of him, 
ran off. This seemed quite a spontaneous act, as it was not 
being hunted. 

The female goes with young thirty days, and more than once 
in the season produces from three to five young ones, which 
are born covered with hair, having their eyes open, and capable 
of running. The young squat in the fields, remaining motion- 
less, like those of many birds, and are with difficulty perceived. 
Even the old Hares are not readily driven from their form, in 
which they will sometimes remain until a person is quite close 
to them, when they at length start off, exhibiting in their motions 
the haste and perturbation of extreme fear. The timidity of 
the Hare is, indeed, proverbial, as is its propensity to return 
when wounded, or even when hunted, to its usual place of 

In the foregoing account Hares are stated to skulk and lie 
close only when in their forms, but they will frequently do so 
— more especially in the early spring — on open fallows, or even 
on grass-land. From the similarity of their coloration to the 
surrounding clods of earth, they are then extremely difficult to 
detect, unless by a practised eye. When running away from a 
pursuer, the white under surface of the up-turned tail renders 
them, however, conspicuous in the extreme. The object of 






this white on the tail is supposed (as in the case of the 
Rabbit) to aid the young in following their dam to a place of 
safety ; but it is clearly a disadvantage to the animal when 
hunted by greyhounds, which follow only by sight, and in this 
have a conspicuous object to attract their eyes towards their 
quarry. The Hare, as Mr. Trevor-Battye has pointed out, 
does not, however, invariably carry its tail up, as the Rabbit 
does ; and when cantering generally carries it down. When 
coursed, the Hare, as is well known, seeks to elude her 
pursuers by frequent doublings, being able to turn in a much 
smaller space than the dogs ; and it is mainly for this reason 
that two greyhounds are invariably employed, as a single dog 
would have but a very poor chance. 

Hare-skins are largely used in the manufacture of felt, the 
fur, before removal from the skin, being treated with acid, 
when it assumes a reddish colour, and felts more readily ; this 
process being technically known as " carroting." 


Zepus timidus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 77 (1766); 

Sclater, Cat, Mamm. Indian Mus. pt. ii. p. 118 (1891). 
.Lejiiis variabilis, Pallas, Nov. Spec. Glir. p. i (1778); Bell, 

British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 338 (1874). 
Lepus ardicus, et L.glacialis, Leach in Ross' Voyage, pp. 151, 

170 (1819). 
Lepus albus, Jenyns, British Vert. Animals, p. 35 (1835). 
I^pus hibernicus, Yarrell, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 38; Bell, 

British Quadrupeds, p. 341 (1837). 
tepus borealis, et Z. canescens, Nilsson, Skandinav. Fauna, pp. 

19, 22 (1847). 

(Plate XXVIII.) 

Characters Size smaller than in the last ; the head relatively 

smaller and more rounded j and the ears, hind-limbs, and tail 

5 Q 

226 Lloyd's natural history. 

shorter. General colour fulvous grey, with black tips to the 
ears, changing during the winter in the colder regions of the 
animal's habitat to white, with the exception of the tips of 
the ears, which are black at all times. Length of head and 
body about 21 inches ; of tail, 2j^ inches ; of ear, 3^ inches. 

The reasons for applying the name of Lepus timidus to this 
form, instead of to the Common Hare, have been already 
given under the heading of the latter. 

DistritTitioii. — The geographical distribution of the Mountain, 
Alpine, Blue, Irish, or Polar, Hare, as the animal is variously 
called, is very extensive, embracing the circum-polar regions of 
both Hemispheres, and including a considerable portion of 
Europe and Asia north of the Himalaya. This is the only Hare 
found in Iceland and Scandinavia, and it ranges over Northern 
Europe generally, while it extends eastwards as far as Japan, 
and in Southern and Eastern Europe it is found in mountain- 
ranges, like the Alps, the Pyrenees, and the Caucasus, which 
have a climate and temperature suitable to its existence. Al- 
though unknown in England, the Mountain-Hare is spread over 
the whole of Ireland and the greater part of Scotland. In the 
latter country its range has of late years been steadily increas- 
ing, partly owing to artificial introduction, and partly to a west- 
ward immigration; it is, however, now unknown in the Orkneys, 
where it is stated to have formerly existed. According to Bell, 
it was introduced into Peebleshire, Lanarkshire, and Ayrshire; 
but in Argyllshire its increase of area is stated to be natural. 
Thus it appears that, while it was unknown in Inverary about 
1839, forty years later it was common there; and much the same 
is reported of the Loch Lomond district. In Mull it has 
been introduced. In Sutherland, from incessant shooting, the 
number of these Hares has been greatly reduced ; but of late 
years they are once more increasing in numbers. 

In Ireland, doubtless owing to the mild climate, the Moun- 


tain-Hare does not turn white in winter; and it is said that 
among those introduced into Ayrshire and the neighbouring 
counties, the change is much less complete and regular than in 
the north. Moreover, of those introduced into Mull, some be- 
come white in winter, while others do not ; and it is, therefore, 
not improbable that those in which the change does not take 
place, were imported from Ireland. Elsewhere in Scotland the 
assumption of the white winter-dress is regular and complete. 

Regarding this change, Macgillivray writes that "in Septem- 
ber the colours begin to assume a paler tint, many of the dusky 
hairs having disappeared. In October the change is further 
advanced, and towards the end of the month, the muzzle, hind- 
neck, and feet are white, of which colour there are spots and 
patches dispersed here and there. In December the fur seems to 
be entirely white, but has an intermixture of long blackish hairs 
on the back ; the anterior external part of the ear is brownish, 
and its tip black. The under-fur is light bluish-grey at the base, 

pale yellowish, or cream-colour towards the end 

From the examination of individuals at different periods of the 
year, I have inferred that in this species the hair is almost 
always changing ; that in April and May there is a general but 
gradual shedding, after which the summer-colours are seen in 
perfection; that towards the middle of autumn many new 
white hairs have been substituted for coloured ones, and that 
by degrees all the hair and under-fur are shed and renewed 
before the end of December, when the fur is in the perfection 
of its winter condition, being closer, fuller, and longer than in 
summer." Bell, on the other hand, believed that the change 
was due to an alteration in the colour of the hairs themselves; 
but we have every reason for regarding the former as the true 

Hatits. — In its general habits this species resembles the 
Common Hare, producing active, furred young, and not burrow- 

Q 2 


ing. Instead, however, of making a regular " form," it skulks 
among stones, or in the clefts of rocks, or hides among heather or 
fern. In summer keeping to the mountain-sides, although not 
frequenting the summits, it descends in winter to the bottom 
of the valleys, although even then generally avoiding the culti- 
vated or low flats. In Northern Europe it not unfrequently 
resorts to woods. When hard pressed by hunger in winter, it 
will not disdain to eat lichens, and even the seeds of pines. 
In point of speed, the Mountain-Hare cannot compare with the 
English species. Only two litters appear to be produced by 
the female in a season. The flesh is whiter and leaner, and 
therefore, of inferior quality to that of the Common Hare. 

Mr. Trevor-Battye writes : — "This animal has a habit that I 
have never seen explained. When running, it goes croekedly 
at more or less frequent intervals, twisting its hinder extremity 
in a curious way. I used to think it was only changing its legs, 
but the action is too marked for this." 

In addition to an enormous number of carcases, with the 
skins on, of the Mountain-Hare sent to this country for food, 
from two to five million skins are annually collected, a large 
proportion of which come from Siberia. According to Mr. 
Poland, " a large quantity of these skins are used for fur-pur- 
poses, both natural white, in imitation of White Fox, and dyed 
Lynx-colour, brown, dark brown, black, and 'snow-flake.' The 
peculiar dye called 'snow-flake' is effected by passing a solu- 
tion of wax over the points of fur, and then dying the under- 
fur a beautiful brown. The tips of the hairs thus retain their 
natural white colour ; the wax covering is removed, the skins 
are cleaned, and the fur hns then a beautiful appearance, some- 
what like that of the Silver Fox." 

It is noteworthy that fossil remains of this species have been 
obtained from a cavern in the Mendip Hills, as well as from 
two Irish caves. 



Lepus cuniculus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 77 (1766); 
Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 343 (1874). 

Characters. — Size small ; ears and hind-limbs relatively shorter 
than in the two preceding species, and the former with a very 
small or no black terminal patch. General colour brownish-grey 
mingled with tawny, the under-parts white, and the tail blackish 
above and white beneath. Length of head and body about 
16}^ inches; of tail, 3^ inches; of ear, 3^ inches. 

In form of body, the Rabbit is rounder and plumper than 
the Hare, and the flanks are less contracted, while the pro- 
portionately shorter ears and limbs give it a much more ordinary 
appearance. In this country pied, black, and fawn-coloured 
pure-bred wild Rabbits are not uncommon; and a wild albino 
specimen has been recently recorded from France. In weight, 
a wild Rabbit usually varies from between two-and-a-half and 
three pounds, but specimens which have turned the scale at 
five pounds are on record. 

Distribution. — Originally, so far as can be determined, a 
native of the countries around the western portion of the 
Mediterranean, the Rabbit appears to have gradually spread 
thence, partly by human agency, and partly by migration, 
to the more northern countries of Europe ; while the dis- 
astrous results of its introduction into Australia and New Zea- 
land are only too well known. The date of its introduction 
into Britain does not appear to be ascertained, even approxi- 
mately ; but it was probably first imported into England 
whence it was carried to Ireland, while its extension into 
Scotland was a gradual process, which is even now going 
on, this Rodent being now abundant in many districts where 
it was formerly unknown. As in the case of the northern 
isles, this widening of its distributional area in Scotland is 

230 Lloyd's natural history. 

largely due to human agency, although aided by the natural 
spread of the animal. 

Habits. — Similar as is the Rabbit in appearance and structure 
to the Hare, it presents one remarkable difference, namely, that 
its young are born blind, naked, and helpless; while to protect 
them the creature lives in burrows excavated by itself in the 
earth. Moreover, in place of being solitary animals, or consort- 
ing in pairs, Rabbits are social creatures, forming their burrows 
in continuity and connection with one another, and inhabiting 
such warrens in larger or smaller colonies. So far as we are 
aware, the only other member of the genus which resembles 
the Rabbit in producing naked and helpless young and in 
dwelling in burrows, is the Asiatic Hispid Hare. 

" The places most favourable to the Rabbit," observes Mac- 
gillivray, " are sandy heather or downs, overgrown with coarse 
grass and furze ; the latter plant not only affording shelter, 
but also food. There it congregates in vast numbers, digging 
burrows in the soil, in which it reposes, and to which it re- 
treats from danger. Although, on account of the compara- 
tive shortness of its legs, it is much inferior to the Hare in 
speed, it yet runs with great celerity ; and a number of Rab- 
bits scattered over a field afford a very pleasant sight, some 
scudding along in trepidation, others bounding over the shrubs 
or herbage, one disappearing here, another stopping a moment 
to look around before it plunges into its retreat, and perhaps 
a third peeping from the aperture. Early in the morning, 
when old and young are abroad, they may be seen gambolling 
in fancied security. If there are fields and pastures in the 
neighbourhood, they make excursions among the corn and grass, 
committing serious devastations when their numbers are great, 
so that the vicinity of a warren is a great nuisance to the farmer. 
Foxes, Polecats, Stoats, Weasels, and various Birds of Prey, 
destroy considerable numbers j but as their fecundity is great, 


they rapidly increase in spite of natural enemies." The passing 
of the Ground-Game Act has, of course, permitted the tenant- 
farmer to reduce the number of Rabbits on his land to such 
limits as he may think fit ; and, in spite of their rapidity of 
increase, we are never likely in this country to have swarms of 
Rabbits like those which have devastated some portions of 

Favourable seasons have something to do with abnormal 
increase, and Mr. Trevor-Battye observes : — " Last season 
(1893), owing to the extraordinary weather, was remaikable as 
a Rabbit-year. These animals almost amounted to a ' plague ' in 
some parts of England. Never can I remember in the palmiest 
days, before the Ground-Game Act, more Rabbits in districts 
with which I am familiar.'' 

The remarkable paralysis, and loss of all kind of bodily and 
mental power, which seizes a Rabbit or Hare when hunted by 
a Stoat or Weasel, has been already alluded to when treating of 
those Carnivores, and is one of the most curious physiological 
peculiarities of the members of the group under consideration. 
Although, when suddenly frightened, a Rabbit will plunge with- 
out hesitation into any water which may happen to be near, in 
which it will swim strongly and boldly, it appears that these 
animals take naturally to the water even less readily than the 

At the age of about six or eight months the doe Rabbit com- 
mences to breed; and as it produces several litters in a year, each 
of which comprises from five to eight young ones, the rate of its 
increase is very rapid. Although living in large colonies. 
Rabbits are not polygamous animals, but associate in pairs, and 
apparently remain thus attached for life. Before giving birth 
to her offspring, the female forms a separate burrow for their 
reception, at the termination of which is a soft nest lined with 
fur plucked from her own body. Blind and naked as they are 

234 Lloyd's natural history. 

sometimes the only ones remaining) are larger than the second 
and fifth, and are symmetrical to a vertical line drawn between 
them, thus forming the so-called "cloven hoof." Consequently 
the forms included in this group are spoken of as the Even- 
toed, or Artiodactyle, Ungulates. The more specialised repre- 
sentatives of this section are very generally characterised by 
the presence of a pair of transversely placed bony appendages 
on the skull of the male sex at least, which may take the form 
of horns, properly so called, or of antlers. 


The members of this Family may be briefly characterised as 
being even-toed ruminating Ungulates, without incisor or canine 
teeth in the upper jaw, in which the appendages of the head, 
when present, take the form of a pair of hollow horny sheaths 
investing conical bony projections from the skull, such sheaths 
being never shed. 

The function of rumination, which forms such an important 
portion of the foregoing -definition, and is popularly termed 
"cud-chewing," is too well known to need much more than pass- 
ing reference. It may be mentioned, however, that it consists 
of a regurgitation from the stomach of the hastily-swallowed 
grass or other vegetable food into the mouth, where it is sub- 
jected to a complete process of remastication, after which it 
is transferred into the true digestive portion of the stomach, it 
having been at first temporarily deposited in the paunch, or 
anterior chamber of the stomach. It will hence be evident 
that rumination is correlated with a complex form of stomach ; 
while it may be added that it is likewise always associated with 
cheek-teeth of which the crowns have the complicated crescent- 
like pattern already alluded to. Moreover, there is always a 
long toothless gap between the cheek-teeth of the lower jaw 

OXEN. 23s 

and those in the front of the latter ; the lower canine tooth 
being placed alongside the three incisors, which it closely 
resembles in the broad, spatulate form of its crown. In the 
present family there is no canine tooth in the upper jaw of the 

Although the Bovidce form a very extensive family, and one on 
which man chiefly depends for his food-supply, there is but a 
single representative entitled to be mentioned in the present 

Bos, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 98 (1766). 

Large, heavily-built "bovine" Ruminants, with horns gene- 
rally present in both sexes ; broad naked muzzles ; long and 
cylindrical tails, usually terminating in a tuft ; tall-crowned and 
complex cheek-teeth ; and the males usually furnished with a 
large dewlap. The large horns are placed far apart from one 
another on or near the summit of the skull, and, although either 
rounded or angulated, are more or less smooth, and diverge to a 
greater or less extent outwards, with an upward curve at the tips. 

Although the Bison and Buffaloes were separated as distinct 
genera, the whole of the Oxen are now included in the present 


Bos taitrus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i, p. 98 (1766); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 368 (1874). 
Urus scoticus, H. Smith, in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv. 

p. 411 (1827). 
Bos primigenius, Bojanus, Nova Acta Ac. Cses. Leop.-Car. 

vol. xiii. p. 422 (1827). 
Bos scotkuSj'&'nwcaoTi, Nat. Hist. Quadrupeds, p. 285 (1835). 
Bos longifrons, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm. p. 508 (1846). 
{Plate XXIX.) 

^3'' Lloyd's natural history. 

Characters. — Horns cylindrical and placed at the very apex of 
the skull ; no hump on the withers ; tail long and descending 
below the hocks ; colour frequently white, with black or red- 
dish ears and muzzle. 

History. — ^The numerous remains of gigantic Oxen specifi- 
cally identical with the common domesticated Ox of Europe, 
found in the brick-earths of the Thames Valley, the fens of 
Cambridgeshire, and the peat of many parts of Scotland, prove 
incontestably that such animals were abundant in Britain 
during the prehistoric and Pleistocene periods. Although the 
written evidence as to the existence of such absolutely wild 
cattle in our islands during the historic period, is far from being 
so conclusive as we might wish, yet it appears to leave little 
doubt that such creatures were inhabitants of Britain. Thus? 
as we learn from Mr. Harting's researches, FitzStephen, 
writing about the year 1174, of the country round and about 
London, states that "close at hand lies an immense forest, 
woody ranges, hiding-places of wild beasts, of Stags, of Fallow 
Deer, of Boars, and of Forest Bulls." There are somewhat 
similar records for other parts of the country ; and since it is 
quite evident (from the circumstance of their skulls having 
been transfixed by stone axes) that the absolutely wild cattle 
of the Cambridgeshire fens were in existence during the 
human period, it seems quite probable that these "Forest 
Bulls," their undoubted descendants, may have been equally 
wild. On the Continent there is decisive evidence that wild 
cattle existed in Caesar's time in the Black Forest, and also, at 
a much later date, both there and in Switzerland ; such cattle 
being known to the Romans by the name of Urus, and to the 
Germans as the Aurochs (the latter name being frequently 
incorrectly applied to the Bison). 

Having said thus much in regard to the dearth of historical 
evidence relating to the existence of absolutely wild cattle in 


OXEN. 237 

Britain, we proceed to mention that from time immemorial 
there have existed in certain British parks pecuHar races of 
half-wild cattle, which were long regarded as being directly 
descended from the original pre-historic Aurochs, without ever 
having undergone domestication. Although certain of these 
Park-Cattle (as they may be called), and more especially those of 
Chillingham Park, in Northumberland, are, in spite of their 
small size, evidently very nearly related to the gigantic wild 
Aurochs, there is now good reason for beheving that they 
cannot trace back their ancestry directly to the latter without 
the intervention of a period of domestication. Hence they 
may probably be regarded as derived from a very ancient race 
nearly related to the wild Aurochs, which had undergone some 
degree of domestication. 

Chillingham Cattle. — Although half-wild cattle were formerly 
kept in a considerable number of British parks, they remain 
now only in Cadzow Park, Lanarkshire, Chartley Park, Staf- 
fordshire, Chillingham Park, Northumberland, and Lyme 
Park, Cheshire. Since the wildest of these, and at the same 
time those which approach nearest to the wild Aurochs, are the 
Chillingham herd, our few remarks will be confined to these. 
These handsome animals have brown muzzles, and the insides 
and tips of the ears red, but are elsewhere milk-white ; there 
is, however, evidence that originally the ears were, in most 
cases, black. Many of the cows are hornless. Writing many 
years ago, Mr. J. Hindmarsh observed that the Chillingham 
cattle "have pre-eminently all the characters of wild animals, 
with some peculiarities which are sometimes very curious and 
amusing. They hide their young, feed in the night, basking 
or sleeping during the day ; they are fierce when pressed, but 
generally speaking very timorous, moving off on the appear- 
ance of anyone, even at a great distance." During the breed- 
ing season, the bulls are, however, very pugnacious, and it is 

23S Lloyd's natural history. 

then dangerous to approach the herd. To the effect of con- 
stant interbreeding may be attributed the small size of these 
cattle, and their slow rate of increase ; and on more than one 
occasion, when attacked by murrain, they have been in danger 
of extermination. 


The Deer tribe may be defined as Ruminants differing from 
the BovidcB in that the appendages of the head (which are al- 
most invariably restricted to the males), when present, take the 
form of antlers, which are usually more or less branched, and 
are invariably shed every year; while, at least when such 
appendages are wanting, there are well-developed canine teeth^ 
in the upper jaw. The cheek-teeth may have either tall or 
short crowns. Like the Bovidcs, the originally separate meta- 
carpal and metatarsal bones forming the lower part of the legs, 
and supporting the two middle toes, are each fused into a 
single cannon-bone; while the metacarpal and metatarsal 
bones supporting the small lateral toes are always incomplete; 
that is to say, they are represented only by their upper and 
lower extremities. This feature at once serves to distinguish 
the Deer from the Chevrotains, or so-called Mouse-Deer, in 
which the bones in question are always complete. In all Deer 
there is a large lachrymal gland, or " larmier," on the face ; 
and the tail is generally short. 

Although a few species, like the Asiatic Musk-Deer, are 
devoid of these appendages, the great peculiarity of the Deer is 
the annual reproduction of the antlers of the males. In spite 
of familiarity having produced the proverbial contempt, this 
process is really one of the most wonderful physiological 
effects to be met with in nature ; and if it had been described 
as occurring in some previously unknown fossil animal, it 

DEER. 239 

would have required all the talent of a palseontologist to have 
rendered it credible. Not only is this enormous mass of bone 
annually shed and renewed, but immediately after its com- 
pletion it becomes an absolutely dead structure, having no 
connection with the vascular system of its owner. Soon after 
the annual shedding of the antlers, there appear on the skull 
of a Stag a pair of velvety knobs, with a large number of blood- 
vessels traversing their tender and sensitive skin. These bony 
knobs grow very rapidly, and soon begin to branch into a 
larger or smaller number of tines according to the age and 
species of the Deer to which they belong. When the new 
antlers are fully formed, they develop at the base a rough ring 
of bone termed the "burr," which constricts and finallystops the 
supply of blood, thus causing the skin, or " velvet,'' covering 
the antler to dry up ; this dead velvet subsequently either 
peeling off by itself or being rubbed off by the animal against 
the stems or branches of trees. In young Stags the antlers are 
very simple, and in those species in which they are much 
branched in the adult, they gradually increase in complexity 
with advancing age, although this annual increasing com- 
plexity is not so regular as is often stated to be the case. 

The Family is divided into a large number of genera, two of 
which are still represented in the British Isles, where there is 
evidence that a third also existed within the historic period. 
Although distributed over the greater part of the world, with 
the exception of Australasia, Deer are quite unknown in Africa 
south of the Sahara Desert. 

Cervus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 92 (1766). 

Antlers rising at an acute angle from the middle line of the 
forehead, large, and either rounded or flattened ; skull without 
prominent longitudinal ridges on the forehead, and with the 

240 Lloyd's natural history. 

canine teeth relatively small ; lateral metacarpal and metatarsal 
bones of the feet represented by their upper extremities only. 
Muzzle narrow and naked; and tail of medium shortness. 
In most cases the young are spotted. 

This large and widely-spread genus may be divided into a 
number of groups, mainly distinguished by the characters of 
the antlers of the males ; such groups being regarded by some 
naturalists as entitled to rank as distinct genera. 


Cervus elaphis, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 93 (1766); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 348 (1874). 
Cervus barbarus, Bennett, List An. Gard. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 31. 
Strongyloceros spelmus, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm. p. 4^9 


{Plate XXX."). 

Characters.— Antlers rounded, and generally with a brow-, bez-, 
and trez-tine, above which are the cup-shaped sur-royals; tail 
short; general colour dark reddish-brown in summer, and 
greyish-brown in winter, with a large whitish patch on the 
rump including the tail. Height of adult male 48 inches, or 
more, at the withers. 

As regards general form, the body is moderately full and 
rounded, the neck of moderate length, and the graceful head 
tapering to the obtuse muzzle ; the liquid eyes are large and 
full ; the ears rather long and pointed ; and the limbs slender ; 
while the tail does not exceed half the length of the ear. The 
fur comprises both bristly and woolly hairs ; the former, which 
are much the more numerous, being moderately long and close, 
while the latter are short and fine. The fur is thinnest on the 
under-parts, longest on the rump and back, and more especially 
on the fore-part of the neck, while on the feet and face it is 
very short. The young are prettily spotted with white ; and 



242 Lloyd's natural history. 

Northern Africa. So closely, indeed, are these Deer allied to 
one another, that it is frequently difficult to say which should 
be regarded as species, and which as varieties ; and we ought, 
perhaps, to regard the whole number as local varieties or races 
of one widely-spread species. To point out how these various 
Deer differ from one another, would considerably exceed the 
limits of our space ; and we must, therefore, in the main, 
confine ourselves to the distribution of the species under 
consideration, although even this is a matter shrouded in some 
degree of uncertainty. 

Originally distributed over the greater part of Europe, the 
Red Deer extends some distance into Western Asia, being 
found in many parts of Asia Minor, as well as in Trans-Caucasia, 
although it, at most, only just impinges on the confines of 
Persia. From the Caucasus, Deer of the present type extend 
eastwards right away through Northern and Central Asia to 
Amurland and the North of China. How far the typical Red 
Deer extends in this direction, or where it is replaced by the 
so-called C. xanthopygus, and also whether the latter is any- 
thing more than a variety, are matters on which our judgment 
must be suspended. Southwards the Red Deer extends into 
Algeria and other parts of Northern Africa, the African race 
being distinguished by the absence of the " bez "-tine of the 
antlers. Of the allied species, we may mention by name the 
North American Wapiti (C canadensis), the nearly similar 
Thian Shan Stag (C. eustephanus), the Kashmir Stag (C cash- 
mirianui), represented by a variety in Yarkand, the Persian 
Maral (C marat), the Shou (C. affinis) of the inner eastern 
Himalaya, and the Lhasa Stag (C. thoroldt) of the Tibetan 
plateau ; the last-named species agreeing with the North 
African variety of the Red Deer in the absence of the " bez "- 

As regards their distribution in the British Isles, Red Deer 

DEER. 243 

are still to be found in the wild state in three districts of 
England, but are elsewhere confined to the Scottish Highlands 
and some of the wilder parts of Ireland. In the west of 
England there are a considerable number in Devonshire and 
Somersetshire, the herd being estimated at about two hundred 
and fifty head in 187 1. Martindale Fell, in Westmoreland, is 
likewise one of the last strongholds of the species, although the 
number of head now remaining is comparatively small ; and as 
these Deer are fed in winter they can hardly be considered as 
absolutely wild. According to the Hon. G. Lascelles, some 
fifteen or twenty head still remain in the New Forest. About 
a century ago there were wild Red Deer in Cornwall ; and all 
readers of Gilbert White must be familiar with his description 
of the Deer in Wolmer Forest, in Hampshire, which, in the 
time of Queen Anne, numbered about five hundred head. 
Tame Red Deer are now kept in eighty-six English parks, 
out of which Batminton has the largest herd. In most of thesei'' 
parks Fallow Deer are also kept, but in Blenheim (Oxfordshire), 
Bolton Abbey (Yorkshire), Barmingham (Yorkshire), and Calcot 
(Berkshire), Red Deer alone are kept. In a few English parks, 
namely, Alnwick, Ashridge, Langley, Welbeck, Windsor, and 
Woburn, there is a white or cream-coloured variety of the Red 
Deer, in which the nose is flesh-coloured, while the eyes are 
either pale blue or straw-coloured. The origin of this breed 
is quite unknown. It may be remarked here that formerly 
there was a prejudice against keeping Red and Fallow Deer in 
the same park, as it was thought they would disagree; but 
this is now ascertained to be a mistaken idea. 

It will be unnecessary to refer to the distribution of the 
Red Deer in the Scottish Highlands, but it may be mentioned 
that even in comparatively recent times the range of the species 
extended to the south-west of Scotland. Deer are indigenous 
to the island of Mull, though there have been several impor- 

R 2 

244 Lloyd's natural history. 

tations of fresh blood in order to counteract the ill-effects of 
in-and-in breeding ; and they likewise inhabit all the Hebrides, 
but are now unknown in Shetland and Orkney, although there 
is evidence of their former existence in the latter. Once 
abundant over the whole of Ireland, the Red Deer, even in 
Thompson's time, was confined to the wilder parts of Con- 
naught, as Erris and Connemara, and to a few localities in 
the south, more especially the neighbourhood of the Lakes of 

Habits. — Essentially gregarious in their habits. Red Deer, 
in common with most of their kind, divide themselves accord- 
ing to sexes for the greater portion of the year, the old Stags 
only consorting with the herds of does and young males 
during the breeding-season. During the summer the old 
Stags, while apart from the hinds, are in the habit of feeding 
singly or in small herds on the higher parts of the hills, while 
the hinds and young, unless much disturbed, prefer the 
valleys and lower ground. In September the Stags commence 
their rambles in search of the hinds, the breeding-season 
lasting for about three weeks from the latter part of that month 
or the beginning of the next. During this season of excite- 
ment they make the mountains ring with their loud bellowings, 
which are uttered at night and early morning ; and should two 
rival "monarchs of the glen" chance to meet, a deadly conflict at 
once ensues. During such conflict, the hinds, as so admirably 
depicted in some of Landseer's pictures, remain as silent 
spectators, awaiting the issue, and then betake themselves to 
the triumphant victor. After the excitement of this season, 
the old Stags become very poor, and seem dejected ; their 
mutual hostility ceases, and they set to work to recruit their 
energies before the severity of winter. The fawns are born in 
May or June, after a gestation of eight months and a few days; 
the hind retiring to some sequestered situation, where she 

DEER. , 245 

attends her offspring with the greatest care and solicitude. In 
the winter the hinds and fawns once more congregate in 
herds. It is but very seldom that more than a single fawn is 
dropped at a birth, and there are never triplets. 

A certain amount of variation occurs in the time of shedding 
the antlers, according to the age of the animals and the nature 
of the season. In unusually mild seasons they may be 
dropped in the latter part of February or early in March, but 
April is a more usual time, while if the spring be very late they 
may be retained till May. An instance is recorded by Mr. J. 
Hargreaves where a "Royal Hart" shed his antlers in December; 
but this seems to be quite unique. The rarity with which shed 
antlers of Deer are met with has often been noticed ; and it is 
now well ascertained that this is due to their being eaten by 
the Deer themselves ; although it is a little difBcult to under- 
stand how an animal devoid of upper front teeth can manage 
to gnaw so hard a substance. It should be added that young 
Stags retain their antlers longer than the old ones, and a two- 
year-old animal may frequently be seen with them in May or 
June. When in the velvet, the Stags keep to themselves in 
the most sequestered situations they can find. 

Like other members of the Family, and, indeed, like Rumi- 
nants in general. Red Deer are very fond of salt, and will travel 
long distances in search of "licks." Their feeding-time is 
chiefly the morning and evening, the middle of the day being 
spent in repose and cud-chewing among the heather. Their 
food consists chiefly of grass, leaves, young shoots, beech-nuts, 
and acorns ; and it is stated that they will also eat various fungi. 

Both in sight and hearing, the Red Deer is one of the most 
acute of animals ; nevertheless, Macgillivray states that he has 
succeeded in crawling within ten paces of one. "When you have 
fired from your concealment," he adds, "the herd immediately 
starts off, gathering into a close body as they proceed, and at 

246 Lloyd's natural history. 

the distance of from two to four hundred paces, invariably turn 
and stand for a few seconds, to discover whence the noise has 
come." In thus giving a chance for a second shot before 
their final stampede, Red Deer resemble nearly all other 
Ruminants. That they swim well, and may be seen crossing 
from island to island in the larger lakes, is a well-known fact. 

As regards its flesh, the Red Deer is less highly esteemed 
than the Fallow Deer. 


Cervus dama, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 93 (1766); 

Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 358 (1874). 
Dama vulgaris. Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 181 (1843). 
(Plate. XXX 1.) 
Ciharacters. — Belonging to a totally different group of the 
genus to that containing the Red Deer, the present species 
is readily distinguished from the latter by the form of the 
antlers, and may be characterised as follows. Antlers rounded 
at the base and flattened or palmated in the region of the sur- 
royals, with a " brow "- and "trez "-tine in front, and a third tine 
behind, above which the posterior margin carries a number 
of small points; no upper canine teeth (which are present 
in the adult Red Deer) ; tail rather long, exceeding the ear in 
length. General colour yellowish-brown, with rows of white 
spots on the body, but sometimes uniform dark brown, and 
in other cases milk-white. Height of adult buck at the withers, 
about 35 or 36 inches. 

Distribution. — As being apparently an introduced species, the 
Fallow Deer, strictly speaking, has no right to be included 
in the British Fauna, and on this account it is omitted 
by Macgillivray. If, however, this rule be enforced, the two 
species of Rats, as well as the Rabbit, would have to disappear 
from our lists. When or whence this pretty Deer was in- 




DEER. 247 

troduced jnto Britain is not definitely known, although it is 
commonly reputed to have been brought by the Romans from 
the Mediterranean countries. The dark variety was long 
considered to have been imported from Norway by James the 
First, but Mr. Harting has shown that it existed here long before 
his time ; while equally erroneous is the theory that the ordinary 
spotted form (which used to be known by the name of Menit) 
was imported from Manilla. Kept in a more or less com- 
pletely domesticated state in large numbers of British parks, 
Fallow Deer are found in an almost wild condition in the 
New Forest and Epping Forest ; those in the latter being 
''Characterised by the narrow palmation of their antlers. There 
■also a small remnant of a nearly wild herd in Rockingham 
^Irorest. Of the New Forest Fallow Deer, the Hon. G. 
''Lascelles, in a letter to Mr. J. Whitaker, quoted in the work of 
the latter on English Deer-parks, observes that, at the date of 
writing (January, 1892), there may be from two to three 
hundred head. " They are all precisely alike in colour, viz., 
very dark brown, with dun legs and bellies in winter, and in 
summer all ' fallow,' i.e., light red, with whitish spots on the 
sides. The brightness of the spots varies, but the colour 
never. They all change their coats simultaneously in May 
and October, just like Wild Roe, and in this respect of varying 
in colour are unlike any Park-Deer that I know. 

" These Deer are the pure Old English (or Roman) stock. 
They have always run perfectly wild in the forest and adjoining 
woods, and the stock has never been quite extinct." 

In a wild state Fallow Deer are met with in South-eastern 
Europe, while in Mesopotamian Persia the species is replaced 
by the closely-allied Mesopotamian Fallow Deer (C mesopo- 
tamicus). It is noteworthy that fossilised remains of Fallow 
Deer very nearly related to the common species are met with 
in the " forest-bed " of the Norfolk coast. 

248 Lloyd's natural history. 

Habits. — The general habits of nearly all Deer are so similar 
that it will be unnecessary to refer to those of the present 
species in any great detail. The period of changing the coat 
varies in most parks according to the nature of the season, and 
it is somewhat remarkable that while the brown variety is 
darker in summer than in winter, the reverse is the case with 
the paler spotted race ; some of these showing scarcely any 
trace in winter of the numerous spots with which they are 
adorned in the summer-dress. The antlers of the old bucks 
are shed in May, and the new ones begin to sprout in about 
ten days afterwards. The fawns are born early in June, and 
although occasionally there may be twins, Mr.Whitaker refus „s 
to accept the alleged occurrences of triplets. As a rare evfint, 
a fawn may be dropped in autumn. As regards food, i\is 
only necessary to mention that Fallow Deer show a speciSD 
partiality for chestnuts. 

Writing of the habits of Deer in parks, the author last men- 
tioned observes that these vary according to the season. " From 
May till October they rest from about 9.30 a.m. until 2 p.m. ; 
sometimes in the shade, sometimes on the top of a hill, where 
they catch what little breeze there may be. During the period 
of rest they get up occasionally to stretch themselves, and after 
standing up, or scratching their sides and necks with hoof and 
horn, they lie down again, but always on the other side. They 
pass their time in chewing the cud and sleeping, and if the day 
be hot and sunny, will lie with all four legs stretched out, ex- 
posing as much of their bodies to the sun as they can. About 
2 p.m. they feed, and wander about till 4, when they again lie 
down for about two hours, starting again about 6 p.m., and 
continuing until 9 p.m., when they rest until 5 the next morn- 
ing, feeding from that hour until 9 or 9.30 a.m. In the winter 
they feed most of the short days, but when well supplied with 
corn and hay, they rest during the middle of the day. 



ROE-DEER. 249 

" In parks which are heavily stocked, Deer have to work 
harder for their food, and rest for shorter periods. When 
rising from the ground, Deer get on their knees first, then 
raise their hind-quarters before getting on their fore-feet. In 
fact they get up as a Cow does, just reversing the actions of a 


Capreolus, H. Smith, in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v. 
p. 313 (1827). 

Antlers small, simple, and rounded, less than twice the 
length of the head, usually with only three tines each, of which 
the front one springs from the anterior surface of the upper 
half of the antler, and has an upward direction ; tail very 
short ; no upper canine teeth ; lateral metacarpal and meta- 
tarsal bones of the feet indicated only by their lower ex- 

Roe-Deer are comparatively small animals, represented by 
two or three closely-allied species ; the range of the genus being 
confined to Europe and Asia north of the Himalaya, one species 
extending as far eastwards as Mantchuria. 


Cervus capreolus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 94 

Capreolus caprcea, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus^ p. 176 

Capreolus caprea, Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 363 


(Plale XXXII.) 

Characters. — Size small; ears moderately hairy; general colour 
reddish-brown in summer and yellowish-grey in winter, with a 
relatively large white disc on the rump. Height of male at the 

25° Lloyd's natural history. 

withers about 25 inches. Fawn yellowish-red in autumn, with 
several longitudinal rows of whitish spots. 

In form the Roe has a moderately full body, long and slender 
limbs, the neqk of moderate length and considerable thickness, 
the head tapering, with a rather narrow muzzle, the eyes large 
and full, the ears long and pointed, and the rudimentary tail 
concealed among the fur. The hair is close, stiff, of moderate 
length, and structurally very similar to that of the Red Deer ; 
there being a slight intermbcture of woolly under-fur. For the 
greater part of their length the hairs are purplish-grey, then 
dusky, with the tips reddish-brown or yellowish-grey, according 
to the season. In addition to her considerably inferior stature, 
the doe is lighter coloured than the buck. 

Although the antlers, as already said, normally have only « 
three tiiies, they are very liable to " sport," and some remark- 
able specimens are contained in the collection of Viscount 
Powerscourt, at Powerscourt in Ireland, in which the antlers 
consist of a bushy mass of points. 

Distribution. — The Common Roe is widely distributed in 
Europe and Western Asia ; but is replaced in Turkestan and 
the mountains between Russia and China by the Tartarian Roe 
(C. pygargus), distinguished by its larger size, more hairy ears, 
and the smaller size of the white disc on the rump. 

That the Roe, although totally unknown in Ireland, was 
formerly distributed over the remainder of the British Islands, 
is attested by the occurrence of its remains in the Norfolk 
forest-bed, the brick-earths of the Thames Valley, the fens of 
Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire, and also in a number of 
English caverns. Although at the present day mainly re- 
stricted to Scotland, Wild Roe are still found sparingly in North- 
umberland, Cumberland, and Durham, while at the com- 
mencement of the present century they were reintroduced 


jnto Dorsetshire, where they are now fairly common in the 
woods on the south side of the Blackmoor Vale. A few like- 
wise exist in the woods about Virginia Water, as also in Pet- 
worth Park, Sussex, while in 1884 a number were turned down 
in Epping Forest, where the species had long ceased to exist. 
Regarding the Roes of Naworth, near Brampton, in Cumber- 
land, the Rev. H. A. Macpherson writes that only a few now 
remain, "and a few more wander through the plantations of 
the Netherljy property. On some rare occasions these animals 
have been known to cross the Eden, and even to wander up 
the valley of that river into the neighbourhood of Penrith." 
In Wales the Roe is stated to have lingered as late as the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Although in Scotland the Roe is less widely distributed than 
it was in former times, the increase of plantations in the south 
has led to its re-occupying districts where it was once exter- 
minated; and this steady enlargement of its distributional 
area is still going on. Into Mull it was introduced in the year 
1865. In Argyllshire, Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley state 
that these Deer are much more abundant in the recently- 
planted pine- and larch-woods than they are in the native 
copses of oak, hazel, or birch ; a birch-clad glen of three or 
more miles in length seldom containing more than from two to 
four Roe at a time. 

Habits. — Essentially a forest-loving species, the Roe is a non- 
gregarious Deer, usually consorting in parties of from two to 
four head, and the two sexes remaining together throughout 
the year. " Its agility," remarks Macgillivray, " is astonishing, 
for it will bound over a space of eight or ten yards with ease, 
and leap a wall five or six feet high with scarcely an appearance 
of effort. Its ordinary pace when not pursued is an easy 
canter, but when alarmed it bounds along with great spirit and 
grace. It feeds chiefly in the morning and evening, often also 

252 Lloyd's natural historv. 

at night, when it sometimes commits depredations on the corn 
fields in the neighbourhood of its haunts, and reposes by day 
among the heath or fern, often, when not liable to be much 
disturbed, selecting a spot to which it resorts in continuance." 
The Roe displays great curiosity in its disposition, and has been 
known to walk up within a short distance of a party of gentle- 
men seated on the grass, remain there walking inquisitively 
round in half-circles for more than a quarter-of-an-hour, and 
not taking its departure till it got wind of them, when it wheeled 
round and rushed off with a snort. 

Mr. Trevor-Battye writes : — " On two successive evenings 
when I was sitting sketching in a Perthshire glen, in September, 
189 1, a fine Roebuck came up and stood within twenty yards 
andchallengedme, snorting and stampinglikeaSheep,and some- 
times beating the ground with both fore-feet at the same instant." 

The most remarkable peculiarity connected with the Roe, 
relates to its breeding. The pairing-season is in July and 
August, and the young are born in the following May or June. 
The interval is, however, not entirely the true period of 
gestation, since the germ remains dormant till December, 
when it suddenly begins to develop, and passes through the 
usual stages. The doe usually produces two fawns at a birth, 
and in one case at least three have been observed. The fawns 
remain with their parent till the winter, and are most zealously 
protected by her from danger. The first antlers of the bucks 
are in the form of simple spikes, those of the second winter are 
forked ; while in the third season the three tines of the adult 
are developed. The flesh of the Roe is very dark coloured, and 
somewhat dry. 


Rangifer, H. Smith, in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v. p 
304 (1827). 


Distinguished from all the other members of the Family by 
the normal presence of antlers in both sexes. The antlers 
are very large, and have a rounded beam, with both "brow''- and 
'bez "-tines, both of which are either branched or palmated, 
while frequently one of the former is rudimentary, and the 
other greatly developed. At about the middle of its length the 
beam is suddenly bent forwards at an angle, a larger or 
smaller back-tine being frequently given off at this point, the 
main branch terminating in several snags. The main hoofs of 
each foot are very widely separated, to afford support by their 
divergence in walking on deep snow; and for the same object 
the lateral hoofs are likewise large.- 


Gervus tarandus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 93 

Rangifer tarandus, H. Smith, in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 

vol. V. p. 304 (1827). 

The claim of the Reindeer to be enrolled in the British 
Fauna being the same as that of the Wolf and Brown Bear, we 
shall not describe the animal, nor enter into a description of 
its habits and geographical distribution, merely mentioning 
that at the present day it has a circum-polar range, and in the 
Eastern Hemisphere extends about as far south as latitude 52°. 

That the Reindeer was an inhabitant of the British Islands 
during the Pleistocene and Prehistoric periods, is abundantly 
testihed by the occurrence of its fossilised remains in the 
brick-earths, fens, turbaries, peat-bogs, and caverns of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland ; some of the antlers bearing distinct 
marks of stone or other implements. The evidence of their 
occurrence within our limits during the historical period is, 
however, much less satisfactory, and rests solely upon a passage 
in Torfseus's " History of Orkney," written at the close of the 


twelfth century. As commonly translated, this passage states 
that " the jarls of Orkney were in the habit of crossing over to 
Caithness almost every summer, and there hunting in the 
wilds the Red Deer and Reindeer." If we could depend on 
this translation of the passage, which refers to the middle of the 
twelfth century, there would be little doubt that Reindeer did 
exist in Caithness. Unfortunately, however, the experts who 
have examined the original are by no means agreed whether 
Reindeer are really the animals intended ; and under these 
circumstances it must remain a matter of doubt whether the 
Reindeer was ever an inhabitant of Britain during the period 
taken into consideration in the present volume. 


From the two preceding Families and their allies, collectively 
constituting the true Ruminants, the Pigs are at once distin- 
guished by the presence of incisor teeth in the upper jaw, by 
the lower canine teeth being unlike the incisors and in the 
form of tusks, by the simpler structure of the molar teeth, 
which have comparatively short crowns surmounted by blunt 
tubercles, and by the simple character of the stomach and the 
want of the power of chewing the cud. To these character- 
istics it may be added that the third and fourth metacarpal 
bones of the fore-feet and the corresponding metatarsals of 
the hind ones are separate, and do not unite to form cannon- 
bones ; while the metacarpals and metatarsals of the lateral toes 
are complete. Since we have but a single species to deal with 
which does not exist at the present time in a wild state in 
Britain, we shall not give the characteristics or distribution of 
either the genus or species, but merely consider the claims of 
the latter to a place in the Fauna of the historical period of 


Sus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 102 (1766). 


Sus scrofa, Linn., loc. cit. ; Owen, Brit. Eoss. Mamm. p, 426 

Sus scrofa ferns, Ball, Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc. ser. 2, vol. iii. 
p. 339 (1889). 

Distributed at the present day over the greater part of 
Europe and Asia north of the Himalaya, but replaced in 
India by the closely allied Sus cristatus, the Wild Boar has 
long ceased to be a member of the British Fauna. The 
earliest formation in which its remains have hitherto been 
detected is the Norfolk forest-bed, belonging, as we have 
already had occasion to mention, either to the latter part of 
the Pliocene, or the early part of the Pleistocene period. Simi- 
lar remains are likewise of common occurrence in the brick- 
earths of the Thames Valley and the contemporary formations of 
other parts of England ; while they also occur in the fens and 
many English caves. They' have likewise been obtained from 
peat-bogs, as well as from caves, in Ireland. 

Of its existence in our islands to a comparatively late date 
of the historical period, we have abundant testimony, which, 
as in the case of the other Mammals exterminated during 
that epoch, has beeacarefully collected and arranged by Mr. J. 
E. Harting, in his work on " Extinct British Animals." , We 
there learn that a painting in a manuscript of the ninth century 
represents a Saxon chief, attended by his huntsman and a 
couple of hounds, pursuing Wild Boars through a wood. 
Further, it is enacted in the Welsh laws of Howel Dha, promul- 
gated towards the close of the tenth century, that the season 
for Wild Boar hunting should last from the ninth of November 
till the first of December; but it appears that later on, in 

a^je Lloyd's natural history. 

the reign of Edward II., the season was fixed to embrace 
the period between Christmas Day and Candlemas Day. We 
learn, moreover, from the testimony of William of Malmesbury, 
that in the time of Edward the Confessor the forest of Bern- 
wood, in Buckinghamshire, was infested by a notable Wild 
Boar, which was eventually killed by the King's huntsman, and 
its head presented to His Majesty. So delighted was the 
Sovereign with this exploit, that he presented a tract of land 
to his faithful henchman, who built upon it a mansion which 
he appropriately christened Bore-Stall. 

At the Conquest, Inglewood Forest, in the Border Country, 
was stated to contain Red and Fallow Deer, Wild Boars, and 
other beasts; and the Rev. H. A. Macpherson quotes a passage 
from the pipe-rolls of Henry II., which seems to indicate that 
Wild Swine existed there as late as his reign. Again, the foi^st- 
laws of William the Conqueror refer to the Wild Boar as being 
as well known as the Red Deer and the Roe; and it is stated that 
Henry I. was especially fond of Boar-hunting, while Edward I. 
made several grants of land held by the serjeanty of providing 
Boar-hounds. Between the years 1153 and 1165 we find Robert 
de Avenel, when granting to the monks of Melrose Abbey the 
right of pasturage over the lands of Eskdale, especially reserving 
to himself the right of hunting Wild Boar and Deer ; and there 
is actual evidence of a Boar-hunt taking place at this very time 
in the same district. 

Among the animals inhabiting the great forest around London 
mentioned byFitzStephen in 1 174, we find the Wild Boar occupy- 
ing a prominent place ; and from the fact that certain land in 
Oxfordshire was held on condition of furnishing the King with 
Boar-spears on the occasions of his visits, it may be inferred that 
Edward III. was in the habit of pursuing the Wild Boar in that 
county ; this would be about the year 1 340. Certain other docu- 
ments refer to Wild Boars in the year 15 73, and twenty years later 


Erdeswick, in his description of Chartley Park, Staffordshire, 
speaks of the number of these animals contained therein. Again, 
Leland tells us that at Blakeley, in Lancashire, "wild bores, bulls, 
and falcons bredde in times paste," and that near by is a place 
called Boar's Green. 

In Scotland Boethius speaks of a huge Wild Boar killed on 
land belonging to the See of St. Andrews ; while at an earlier 
dale a Latin MS., giving the history of the Gordon family, 
dated 1545, relates that in 1057 a Wild Boar had been slaugh- 
tered by a member of that family in Huntly Forest. In the 
Highlands there are many traditions referring to Wild Boars, 
whose former abundance is likewise attested by the names of 
many places ; and much the same may be stated in regard to 


The Whales, Dolphins, and their allies, collectively desig- 
nated Cetaceans, are distinguished from all other Mammals by 
their assumption of a remarkable fish-like form, the only other 
members of the order approaching them in this respect being 
the Sirenians, of which there are no British representatives, 
and which present marked structural peculiarities of their 

Fish-like in external appearance, with a spindle-shaped body, 
into which the head passes without any indication of a neck, 
Cetaceans have the front-limbs modified into simple ovoid 
paddles, devoid of any trace of division into segments or toes, 
while externally hind-limbs are completely wanting. Towards 
the hinder extremity, the body gradually tapers, until it becomes 
of very small diameter at the tail, which terminates in a hori- 
zontally-placed, fibrous, fin-like expansion, termed the "flukes"; 
this is deeply notched in the middle of its hinder border, 
and has sharp lateral angles. Relatively large in size, the head 
S s 

as 8 Lloyd's natural history. 

has the nostrils, which may be either single or double, placed 
near the top of the crown, and thus far removed from the 
muzzle; this feature at once serving to distinguish Cetaceans 
from Sirenians. Both the eye and ear are small; the latter 
merely forming a minute aperture in the skin, placed some 
distance behind the former, and showing no trace of a conch. 
The majority of Cetaceans have a vertical fin in the middle of 
the back, very similar in appearance to the fin of some fishes, 
although lacking the bony internal skeleton found in the latter. 
With the exception of a few fine bristles in the neighbourhood of 
the mouth, which are frequently lost in the adult, the skin is 
entirely naked, and smooth and glistening in appearance; 
while beneath it lies a thick layer of oily fat — the blubber 
— to protect the body from the chilling effects of submersion 
in the water. In all existing members of the Order in wTiich 
they are present, the teeth are of an exceedingly simple 

The foregoing characters being sufficient to distinguish the 
Cetaceans from all other Mammalian Orders, are all that need 
be mentioned here. 

As regards their mode of life, it is almost superfluous to 
observe that all Cetaceans are purely aquatic Mammals, pass- 
ing the whole of their time in the water, and becoming im 
mediately utterly helpless when once stranded on the shore. 
Whereas the majority are denizens of the ocean — some keep- 
ing exclusively to the open sea, while others more generally 
frequent the vicinity of the coast — a few are inhabitants of 
certain large rivers of the warmer regions of the globe, many 
of them, which are normally marine, occasionally ascending 
tidal rivers. Carnivorous in their diet. Cetaceans vary greatly 
in the nature of their food, some of the largest species feeding 
on organisms of the most minute size. While many of the 
smaller kinds live on fish, the ferocious "Killer" Whale alone 


consumes other Mammals, such as Seals and its own kindred. 
Hunting their prey either near the surface of the water, oi at a 
greater or lesser depth below, Whales are obliged to come up 
at stated intervals to breathe, when they renovate the air in 
their lungs by the well-known action of "spouting." 

Roaming at will through the trackless ocean, most Ceta- 
ceans apparently conform but little to laws of geographical dis- 
tribution; a large number of species being more or less cosmo- 
politan in their distribution. Certain species, such as the 
Greenland Whale, the White Whale, and the Narwhal, are how- 
ever, more or less, exclusively confined to the Arctic and Sub- 
Arctic Seas ; while others, like the Pigmy Whale {Neobaland), 
are equally characteristic of the Southern Seas. In conse- 
quence of these widely roaming habits of so many members of 
the Order, it is somewhat difficult to say how many species 
have a right to be included in the British Fauna. We must, 
however, regard all such as habitually frequent our coasts as 
entitled to a place in our Fauna ; while in the case of those 
occurring only now and again, we must rather look upon them 
as accidental visitors. Still, however, no "hard-and-fast line" can 
be drawn in this respect. 

This Family, which includes the whole of the larger Whales, 
with the exception of the Sperm- Whale, is at once distinguished 
from all the others by the total absence of teeth, and the 
presence of that peculiar substance in the palate known as 
whale-bone or baleen. The nostrils open by two slit-Uke 

Since the structure, arrangement, and mode of action of 
whale-bone has been described in so many works, it will be 
quite unnecessary that this should be recapitulated here; and 

s 2 


we accordingly at once pass on to the consideration of such 
members of the Family as habitually, or from time to time, visit 
the neighbourhood of the British Islands. 


Balxna, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 105 (1766). 

Whale-bone Whales of large size, in which the skin of the 
throat is smooth, the back-fin absent, the flippers broad and 
short, the head of enormous size, the whale-bone very long, 
narrow, highly elastic, and black in colour, and all the verte- 
brae of the neck immovably welded together. So far as 
can be ascertained, the genus includes only two well-defined 


BalcRna australis, Desmoulins, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat. vol. ii. 

p. 161 (1822). 
Balxna biscayensis. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. zoo ; Bell, 

British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 387 (1874) ; Southwell, 

British Seals and Whales, p. 62 (1881). 
Madeayius brittanicus. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. vi. p. 

198 (1870). 

Characters. — Distinguished from the Greenland Right Whale 
{B. mystacetus) by its relatively smaller head, shorter whale- 
bone, the difierent contour of the margin of the lower lip, and 
the greater number of ribs (15 instead of 12). The size is 
also stated to be somewhat less; and there is a marked 
difference in the form of the tympanic bone of the internal 
ear. In colour, this Whale appears to be wholly black, instead 
of having whit/^ on the lower lip, and at the roots of the flippers 
and flukes. 

Di3tril)iitioii.— Although they have received distinct specific 


names, it appears that the Right Whales of the North Atlantic 
the North Pacific, the South Atlantic, and the South Pacific, 
cannot be satisfactorily distinguished from one another, and they 
are accordingly included provisionally under one name. Such 
specimens as have been observed in the British seas belong to 
the North Atlantic variety, B. biscayensis. Formerly common in 
the North Atlantic, this Whale has long since been practically 
exterminated in these seas, such stragglers as have reached the 
European coasts during the last century or so having probably 
travelled from the opposite side of the Atlantic. 

Such few examples of Right Whales as are stated to have 
visited our coasts in the older works on British Mammals were 
believed to belong to the Greenland Whale ; but it is now 
pretty certainly ascertained that that species never by any 
chance wanders so far south, and they must accordingly be 
referred, in all probability, to the Southern Right Whale. 

The earliest record we have of the reported occurrence of 
Right Wales in British waters is one given by Sibbald, who 
states that in the year 1682 one visited Peterhead ; and there 
is some evidence that a young specimen was stranded at 
Yarmouth, in the summer of 1846. At an earlier date than 
the latter, namely in the year 1806, a female Right Whale with 
her calf, was seen off the coast of Peterhead ; the young one 
being killed by fishermen who started in pursuit. The only 
other instance is given on the evidence of Captain Gray, an 
experienced whaler, who, while walking at Peterhead in the 
autumn of 1872, saw what he believed to be a Right Whale 
within half a mile of the shore. It may be added that the 
united cervical vertebrae of a Right Whale dredged off Lyme 
Regis not later than the year 1853, belong to the present 

Since this Whale has so little claim to be regarded as 
British, it will be unnecessary to say anything concerning its 

262 Lloyd's natural history. 

habits, except that it is reported to be a swifter and more 
active animal than the Greenland Right Whale, being much 
more violent in its movements when harpooned, and con- 
sequently much more difificult and dangerous to capture. It is 
also characterised by being infested by a species of barnacle, 
more especially in the region of the blow-hole, or nostrils. 

Megaptera, Gray, Zool. Voy. of Erebus and Terror, p. 16 (1846). 

Skin of the throat thrown into longitudinal grooves, or 
puckers; a low back-fin; flippers very long and narrow, and 
their skeleton with only four digits (in place of the five in 
Baland) ; head of moderate size ; whale-bone plates short, 
broad, and black ; vertebrae of the neck free. 

In conformity with the shorter and broader baleen, thfe 
upper jaw is much less arched and much broader than in the 
Right Whales ; while the lower lip is not elevated into the 
curious arched form so characterisic of the latter. There is like- 
wise a marked difference in the form of the tympanic bone of 
the internal ear, which is more rounded and shell-like. So far 
as can be determined, there appears to be but a single existing 
representative of the genus. 


IBalxna boops, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 106 (1766). 
Balana boops, Fabricius, Fauna Grcenlandica, p. 36 (1780). 
Balcena longimana, Rudolphi, Mem. Ac. Berlin, 1829, p. 133. 
Megaptera longimana. Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, p. 

17 (1846); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 392 

(1874); Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 69 

Megaptera boops, Van Beneden and Gerrais, Ostdographie des 

Cdtacds, p. 120 (1869-1880); Flower, List Cetacea Brit. 

Mus. p. 4 (1885). 


Characters. — Body deep and somewhat humped near the 
middle ; the long flippers scalloped along their margins ; in 
colour, nearly the whole of the head and body black, and the 
flippers, except near the root, white. Total length of adult 
from 45 to 50 feet; of flippers from 10 to 14 feet. Females 
exceeding the males in size. 

Distriliration. — If zoologists are right in regarding all Hump- 
backs as referable to a single species, this Whale is found in 
nearly all the large oceans, specimens having been obtained as 
far north as Greenland and as far south as New Zealand. 

Although frequent in the higher latitudes of the North 
Atlantic, the Huinp-back is but a rare visitor to most of the 
coasts of the British Islands. Of the recorded specimens, one 
was washed ashore in 1839; while a young one, of which the 
skeleton is now in the museum at Liverpool, was captured in 
the estuary of the Dee in 1863 ; a third was picked up 
dead at sea by a Banff boat in April, 187 1, and was towed into 
Wick harbour ; and a fourth fuU-gvown individual entered the 
estuary of the Tay in the winter of 1883-4, where it was 
captured. According to verbal information communicated by 
Captain Gray to Mr. Southwell, it appears that in summer these 
Whales are by no means uncommon off the east coast of 
Scotland, and that several have been captured off Peterhead, 
no less than three having, it is stated, been killed in a single 

Habits. — In place of feeding, like the Right Whales, on minute 
pelagic animals, the Hump-back subsists mainly on various 
molluscs, crustaceans, and fish. In disposition it is neither 
very timorous nor very fierce, and it is consequently easy to 
capture. Its yield of blubber is, however, small, and its whale- 
bone of poor quality ; and in times, when the Greenland Right 
Whale was less scarce than at present, this species, like the 

264 Lloyd's natural history. 

Rorquals, was but seldom molested; although now, in common 
with the latter, it is frequently hunted, At times these Whales 
are met with in enormous " schools," so numerous, indeed, that 
ships have to be careful to avoid collisions. At other times, 
however, they may be seen singly or in pairs. During calm 
weather, Lilljeborg states that Hump-backs may often be seen 
resting quietly on the surface of the water, sometimes turning 
on one side and beating themselves with their long flippers, as 
if trying to rub off something that annoyed them. At times 
they will come and swim fearlessly round any boats that may be 
in their vicinity. 

Balcenoptera, Lacepfede, Hist. Nat. des Cdtacds, Table des 
Ordres, p. xxxvi. (1804). • 

Distinguished from Megaptera by the long and slender form 
of the body, the relatively small, flat, and pointed head, and 
the short, narrow, and pointed flippers, as well as by the more 
numerous and more closely approximated groovings in the skin 
of the throat. 

Rorquals include the largest of all Whales, and are repre- 
sented by four well-defined species, which appear to have an 
almost world-wide distribution, although not ranging into the 
polar oceans. All are characterised by their great speed, and 
as they are of much less commercial value than the Right 
Whales, they were but little hunted, until the increasing 
scarcity of the latter, coupled with the introduction of steam- 
vessels and firearms into the whaling trade, rendered their 
pursuit a profitable business. 


Physalus {Rorqualus) sibbaldii, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 
p. 92. 


Physalm latirostris, Flower, Proc. Zool. See. 1865, p. 28. 
Cuvieritts latirostris, Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. Mus. 

p. 165 (1866). 
Cuvierius sibbaldii, Gray, op. dt., p. 380. 
Balmnoptera^sibbaldii, Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 

402 (1874); Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 75 

(1881); Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 6 (1885); 

Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 243 


Characters. — Size very large; flippers relatively long, measuring 
one-seventh of the total length ; back-fin small, and placed far 
back; general colour dark bluish-grey, with a number of small 
whitish spots on the breast ; whale-bone black. Total length 
of adult from 80 to 85 feet. 

Distribution. — Sibbald's Rorqual, which is the largest of all 
Whales, has a very wide distribution, although it does not range 
so far south as some species. It has been split up into several 
nominal species, such as the " Sulphur-Bottom " of the 
American whalers. 

Although uncommon, several examples of this magnificent 
Cetacean have been taken in British waters; the first specimen 
on record being probably one stranded near Abercorn in the 
year 1692, and described by Sibbald himself, although the speci- 
fic determination is not absolutely free from doubt. A Whale 
found floating dead in the North'Sea, in 1827, which was towed 
into Ostend, is likewise referred by Sir William Turner to the 
present species ; and another example, of which the skeleton 
is preserved in the Museum at Edinburgh, was found dead 
near North Berwick in the autumn of 1831. More important 
than all is a young specimen taken in the River Humber in the 
year 1847, the skeleton of which is preserved in the Museum 
of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Hull, since it was 

266 Lloyd's natural history. 

on the evidence of this specimen that Gray gave the name by 
which the present species is known. Hence the type-specimen 
of the largest of all living animals is of British origin. Another 
large Rorqual belonging to this species was stranded in the 
autumn of 1869 on the shore of the Firth of Forth; while 
about the same date a female and calf were washed ashore in 
Shetland. A Whale, doubtless belonging to this species, 
and said to measure 90 feet in length, was found dead off 
the north shore of Coll, in the Hebrides, in June, 1887. 

Habits. — Since this Rorqual so seldom visits the British 
Seas, it will be unnecessary to say much about its habits. 
It appears that during the winter months it frequents the 
open northern seas between the North Cape and Spits- 
bergen, and that it is not till the latter part of April or 
beginning of May that it approaches the coasts of more 
southern districts, when it enters the Norwegian fjords to 
feed upon certain crustaceans which swarm in them at this 
season. An onshore wind, or stormy weather is, however, 
sufficient to induce the Whales, like prudent mariners, to at 
once turn their heads seawards. In spite of its enormous 
dimensions, it appears that this Whale feeds almost or quite 
entirely on crustaceans, and mainly on one particular species 
belonging to the genus Thrysanopoda. These little crustaceans 
are generally found in shoals, and when in pursuit of them, the 
Rorqual passes backwards and forwards over the spots where 
they are most numerous, closing, at intervals, its enormous 
mouth upon those which have been captured in its passage. 
The young are born in the autumn, and are occasionally two 
in number. In size, the female of Sibbald's Rorqual generally 
somewhat exceeds that of her partner. 


Balana physalus, et B. musculus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol, 
i p. 106 (1766). 


Balana physalus, Fabricius Fauna Groenlandica, p. 35 

Balcsnoptera rorqual, Lacdpbde, Cdtacds, p. 126 (1804). 
Balcena antiquorum, Fischer, Synops. Mamm. p. 525 (1829). 
Balcenoptera musculus, Companyo, Mem. de la Baleine 
^chou^e prbs de St. Cyprien, p. 20 (1830); Bell, British 
Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 397 (1874); Southwell, British 
Seals and Whales, p. 70 (1881); Flower, List Cetacea 
Brit. Mus. p. 5 (1885). 
Balmiwptera physalus. Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, p. 

18 (1846). 
Physalus antiquorum, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 90. 

Characters — Size smaller than in the preceding species, and 
the flippers relatively shorter ; general colour slaty-grey above, 
and white beneath; whale-bone slate-colour, with yellow or 
brown markings. Length of adult from 65 to 70 feet. 

Distribution. — Occurring in both the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans, this species has a more southerly range than the pre- 
ceding, and is commonly found in the Mediterranean, where the 
former species is rare. Specimens are stranded on the British 
coasts, more especially those of the southern parts of England, 
almost every year, generally after stormy weather, and very fre- 
quently during the winter. It will accordingly be quite unneces- 
sary to quote the instances of its occurrence on our coasts, and 
we may therefore content ourselves with mentioning a few 
specimens that have been recorded of late years. About the 
end of October, 1885, two dead Rorquals of this species were 
found floating in the Channel, and were towed into Plymouth, 
where they were exhibited. Another example was stranded at 
Skegness, in 1887 ; and it is probable that a Whale captured 
at Sea View, in the Isle of Wight, on the 21st of September, 
in the following year, likewise pertained to this species. Ano. 
ther specimen, which has been described by Mr. W. Crouch, 

268 Lloyd's natural history. 

was stranded in the River Crouch, Essex, on February i2th, 

Habits. — There is nothing specially noteworthy in the habits 
of this species, except that it feeds largely on fish, herrings 
being an especially favourite food. 


Balanoptera borealis. Lesson, Hist. Nat. Cdtacds, p. 342 (1828); 

Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 6 (1885). 
Balanoptera laikeps. Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, p. 20 

(1846); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 407 (1874); 

Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 77 (1881). 
Characters. — Size medium ; flippers very short, measuring 
only one-eleventh of the total length of the head and body ; 
general colour of the upper-parts bluish-black, with oblong 
light-coloured spots ; under-parts more or less white ; tail, 
flippers, and whale-bone black, but the curling bristly ex- 
tremities of the latter white. Total length about 50 feet, or 
rather less. 

Distribution. — In the Atlantic, Rudolphi's Rorqual is a more 
northern species than either of the preceding, being very 
abundant in summer in the neighbourhood of the North Cape, 
where at that season it is a regular visitant, and apparently not 
known to range further south than the coast of Biarritz. 

It will be found stated in the second edition of Bell's 
" British Quadrupeds " that a Whale stranded at Charmouth, 
Dorsetshire, in February 1840, not improbably pertained to 
this species ; but Sir William Turner (" Journ. Anatomy and 
Physiology," 1892, p. 473) is of opinion that it was more pro- 
bably an example of the Common Rorqual. A Rorqual 
stranded in the Isle of Islay in 1866, the skull and some other 


bones of which are perserved in the Zoological Museum at 
Cambridge, is likewise mentioned by Bell under the head of 
the present species ; but, as noticed by Sir W. Turner on the 
page cited, this specimen really belongs to the Lesser Rorqual. 
The first authenticated British example of this Rorqual is, 
therefore, one described by Sir W. Turner, which was stranded 
in the autumn of 1872, near Bo'ness, on the Firth of Forth. 
This specimen measured about 38 ft. in length, and its skeleton 
is preserved in the museum of the University of Edinburgh. 
Another example was found by some fishermen struggling in 
shallow water near the mouth of the River Crouch, in Essex, on 
the morning of Nov. i, 1883. This specimen, which was a 
male, was about 29 ft. in length, and is described by Sir Wm. 
Flower in the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society for 
1883, p. 513. When caught, the colour of the back was a rich 
glossy black, shading to a brilliant white below, the flippers 
being entirely black. In September of the following year 
(1884) a female specimen of this species was stranded in the 
Humber, the skeleton of which is now preserved in the 
British Museum. The entire length of this specimen was 
about 34 ft., and a brief reference to it will be found in the 
under-mentioned paper by Mr. Crouch. The fourth example 
was a -male, captured in the Thames at Tilbury on Oct. 19, 
1887. A brief notice of this Whale was given by Sir Wm. 
Flower in the " Proceedings " of the Zoological Society for 
1887, p. 567, and a fuller account by Mr. W. Crouch in the 
"Essex Naturalist," for 1887, p. 41. The length of this specimen 
was 35 ft. 4 in. It was described by a correspondent in a local 
paper as "measuring 35 ft. 4 in. in length, its mouth 6 ft. wide, 
and 18 ft. 6 in. round the shoulders; while its tail (flukes) is 8 ft. 
across, and its weight 6 tons 5 cwt. This surprising visitor 
was found soon after daylight, lying with its snout nearly level 
with the top of the river wall, so that it must have come up the 

270 Lloyd's natural history. 

river at high water. The dock was observed to be filled with 
a shoal of sprats, while the shrimps and eels were congregated 
in large numbers ; and no doubt while in pursuit of these it 
ventured too far up the river." Mr. Crouch adds that " it was 
subsequently towed off by a tug, and, with the aid of the Dock 
Company's derrick, was placed upon three trucks and taken 
to the engineer's yard, where it was exhibited for a few days, 
and whilst there was photographed (with its mouth open, 
showing the baleen or whale-bone) by Mr. Robert Hider of 
Gravesend." Finally, a sixth specimen of Rudolphi's Rorqual 
was captured in the Medway on Aug. 30, 1888, of which an 
account is given by Mr. Crouch on page 361 of the 
" Rochester Naturalist " for that year. Mr. Crouch states 
that this Whale, which was a female, was first seen swimming 
quietly along; soon, however, it got aground, but "managed 
to plunge into deeper water. Meanwhile Thomas Jewess of 
Gillingham, who was fishing, approached as near as he dared 
to try and cut off the retreat, and the animal, approaching too 
near the shore, was driven into shallow water, and as the tide 
ebbed, was left floundering on the mud. He then procured 
assistance, and several shots were fired into the blowholes and 
head, but the wounded creature only lashed up the mud more 
vigorously with his tail, and, according to the statement of one 
of the men, uttered sounds like the crying of a child. It was 
at last killed by Mr. Thomas Cuckow with a large butcher's 
knife. A rope was then inserted in the lower jaw, and as the 
tide rose in the afternoon it was towed to a small landing stage 
at the back of the White Horse Inn, where it was exhibited for 
several days, and attracted hundreds of visitors, such a catch 
having never before been recorded in the Medway." This 
specimen was 32 ft. 2 in. in length. 

Hatits. — The diet of this species is very different from 
that of the last, since, according to observations made by Dr. 


CoUett in the Norwegian seas, it feeds almost exclusively on 
small crustaceans, and never touches fish. 


Balana rostraia, Fabricius, Fauna Grcenlandica, p. 40 

Rorqualus minor, Knox, in Jardine's Naturalist's Library, vol. 
xxvi. p. 142 (1844). 

Balanoptera rosirata, Gray, Zool. Voy. of Erebus and Terror, p. 
50 (1846)5 Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 411 
(1874) ; Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 78 
(1881); Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 7 (1885). 

Characters. — Size small; back-fin (as in the last species) 
relatively tall, and placed far forwards ; colour of upper-parts 
greyish-black, with the exception of a broad white band across 
the flippers; under-parts, with the exception of the lower 
surface of the flukes, which is coloured like the back, but 
including the inferior aspect of the flippers, white ; whale-bone 
yellowish-white. Total length of adult about 30 feet, or 

Sistribntiou. — Typically, the Lesser Rorqual, or, as it is often 
called, the Pike-Whale, is an inhabitant of the North Atlantic, 
ranging as far north as Davis' Straits, and often found on the 
Scandinavian coasts, but seldom entering the Mediterranean. 
Like the other species, it is represented by a closely-allied 
form in the Pacific, which in our own opinion is probably 
specifically the same. 

To the British coasts this Rorqual is a comparatively 
common visitor, and there are several examples in our 
Museums which have been taken in our own seas. It will be 
unnecessary to allude to all the examples recorded from Eng- 
land; but we may mention that one was taken in Cornwall in 


April, 1880, while another was caught off the Scilly Islands in 
May, 1887. The latter specimen was a young female measvr- 
ing 12% feet in length; and it will be found described by 
Mr. Balkwill in the " Report " of the Plymouth Institute for 

As regards Scotland, Sir William Turner has published in 
the " Proceedings " of the Royal Society of Edinburgh a com- 
plete list of all recorded instances of this species ; from which it 
appears that between the years 1808 and 1888 a total of 
eighteen specimens visited the Scottish coasts. Of these, one 
was taken in Orkney in November 1808; a second in the 
Firth of Forth in May, 1832, and a third in February, 1834. In 
September, 1857, a small male was captured off the Bell Rock ; 
another specimen was taken in 1858 in the Firth of Forth, and 
the sixth in i86g on the coast of Islay. July, 1869, saw the 
capture of a small example at Arbroath; while in 1870 one 
was taken at Aberdeen, another at Hilswick, in Shetland, and 
a third in the Firth of Forth. Dunbar was the scene of cap- 
ture of a full-grown specimen in 187 1 ; while in the following 
year examples were secured at Anstruther and Stornaway. No 
other specimen was observed till 1877, when a half-grown 
female was caught at Bervie. Two examples were taken in 
1879, namely, one in the Firth of Forth during July, and a 
second four months later in Stromness, Orkney. The year 
1888 was likewise one in which two of these Whales were 
taken, both in the Firth of Forth ; and one of which formed 
the subject of a memoir by the celebrated anatomist whose 
name is mentioned above. 

Hatits. — The Lesser Rorqual is a species generally found 
solitary, more than two or three being seldom seen in com- 
pany. A large number of females, which seek the neighbour- 
hood of the coasts for the purpose of bringing forth their 


young, are annually captured by the Norwegian fishermen, who 
drive them into narrow fjords, the entrances of which they 
subsequently bar, ard there spear them to death. 


The members of this and the remaining Families of the Order 
are distinguished from the Balanidce by having no whale-bone 
in the upper, and by the presence of teeth in the lower jaw at least, 
although in some cases these may be reduced to a single pair. 
In consequence of this and other important structural differ- 
ences, the Balanida are regarded as constituting one sub- 
order — the Mystacoceti — by themselves, while the whole of the 
other existing Cetaceans collectively form a second sub-ordinal 
group, termed the Odontoceti. In all the members of the latter 
group, the upper surface of the skull is more or less a-sym- 
metrical ; the nasal bones are in the form of mere nodules, and 
never roof over the hinder portion of the nasal cavity in the 
manner characterising the Whale-bone Whales ; while the 
aperture of the nostrils is a single, more or less, crescent- like 

The members of the present Family are sufficiently chaiacter- 
ised by the absence of functional teeth in the upper jaw ; and 
by the hinder region of the skull being elevated in the form 
of a high crest or ridge behind the aperture of the nostrils. 


Physeter^ Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 107 (1766). 

Head enormously large, and truncated in front, with the 
upper surface of the skull forming a hollow pit, surrounded on 
the sides and behind by a tall semi-circular wall of bone; 
lower jaw long and narrow, with its two +)ranches united in 
front for more than half their total length; from twenty to 

5 I 

274 Lloyd's natural history. 

twenty-five pairs of stout, conical, recurved, and pointed lower 
teeth, which are of large size and have no enamel. Back-fin 

The genus is represented only by the- under-mentioned 
species, which has been greatly reduced in number owing 
to incessant pursuit on account of the spermaceti yielded by 
the cavity in the skull, and the high value of the oil obtained 
from the blubber. 


Physeter macrocephalus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 
107 (1766); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 415 
(1874) ; Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 85 
(1881); Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 8 (1885). 

Catodon vietcrocephalus, Lacdpfede, Hist. Nat. des C^acds, 
Tabl. des Ordres, p. x (1804) ; Gray, Cat. Seals and 
Whales Brit. Mus. p. 202 (1866). 

Characters. — Size very large (far exceeding that of any other 
member of the sub-order) ; general colour black above, and 
grey on the under-parts, without any clear line of demarcation 
between the two. Total length of adult male from 55 to 60 
feet. The female very much smaller. 

Distribution. — Formerly abundant in almost all the warmer 
seas of the globe, and associating in large "schools," the Sperm- 
Whale, or Cachalot, is but an accidental visitor to our shores, 
such specimens as have been recorded from the British seas 
being either stragglers, or those which have died in the southern 
oceans and been carried northwards and eastwards by the 
Gulf-Stream. None have been recorded of late years, doubt- 
less owing to the comparative rarity of the species at the 
present day. 

Of the specimens -recorded from the English coasts, we may 
notice the following. So far back as the year 1626, a Spenn 


Whale was cast on the shore near Hunstanton, in Norfolk ; 
while in 1646 a "school " comprising some eight or nine indi- 
viduals appears to have entered the Wash, one of them coming 
ashore near Wells, and a second, towards the close of the 
same year, at Holme. Another individual was stranded near 
Yarmouth, Norfolk, during or previous to 1652 ; and an 
ancient seat, made out of a Sperm- Whale's skull, now preserved 
in the church of St. Nicholas in that town, which is known to 
have been in existence in 1606, indicates that another example 
was stranded in the same neighbourhood at a still earlier date. 
In the year 1788, upwards of nine dead Sperm- Whales were 
washed ashore after a strong gale, while a living one, which 
was, doubtless, a member of the same " school," entered the 
Thames. Better-known is the large male stranded at Holder- 
ness, in Yorkshire, in 1825, of which the skeleton is preserved 
at Burton-Constable ; while, four years later, another male was 
washed ashore on the Kentish coast. According to the Rev. 
H. A. Macpherson, a large Sperm- Whale, measuring 58 feet in 
length, came ashore at Flimby, in Cumberland. 

Turning to Scotland, we find from Alston's " History " of the 
Mammals of that country that from eight to ten specimens 
have been recorded, of which the earliest was in 1689, and the 
latest in 187 1. Among these, one ran ashore in the Firth of 
Forth in 1769; and in May, 1829, another was stranded at 
Oban ; while a third, of which the skeleton now ornaments the 
Central Hall in the British Museum (Nat. Hist. Branch), was 
washed on shore near Thurso, in Caithness, in July, 1863,- 
being then in a much decomposed condition. The last 
Scottish specimen on record was one stranded in the Isle of 
Skye, during the summer of 1871, a description of which has 
been given by Sir William Turner in the "Proceedings" of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

In Thompson's " Natural History of Ireland " we find the 

T 2 

276 Lloyd's natural history. 

following record of Sperm-Whales observed on the coasts of 
that island. The first record relates to three examples taken 
during 1691 and the five preceding years on the western coast ; 
while some years before 1750 another was washed ashore near 
Castlehaven. A later writer, Young, states that about 1776, 
examples of these Whales were not unfrequently seen in the 
bays of the coast of Donegal ; while a large specimen was 
stranded near Dublin in 1766, from which a quantity of sper- 
maceti was obtained. Somewhere about 1773, aucther Sperm- 
Whale appears to have been taken or stranded at Youghal ; 
and yet another about 1822 in Connemara. 

In the case of such a casual visitor to our shores it will be 
unnecessary to say anything about habits. 


HyperSdon, Lacdpfede, Hist. Nat. des Cdtacds, Tabl. des 
Ordres, p. xliv (1804). 
Teeth reduced to a single pair in the front of the lower jaw, 
which are concealed by the gum during life ; skull with a tall 
curved crest, highest in the middle, overhanging the nasal 
aperture, and with elevated longitudinal crests in the front of the 
latter, which in old males are greatly developed, having flat- 
tened front surfaces, rising nearly at right angles to the beak, 
and almost meeting in the middle line ; beak short and rather 
broad J a falcate back-fin, placed rather far back ; aperture of 
the nostrils (as in all the remaining members of the Order) in 
the form of a distinct transverse crescent. 


Balcena rostrata, Miiller, Zool. Dan. Prodr. p. 7 (1776). 
Delphinus bidentatus, et Z>. buiskopf, Bonnatcrre, Cytologic, p. 
25 (1789)- 


Delphinus diodon, Lacepede, Hist. Nat. des C^tacds, p. 309 

Hyperoodon butzkopf, Lacdpfede, op. cit, p. 349 ; Bell, British 

Quadrupeds, p. 492 (1837); Grsy, Cat. Seals and 

Whales Brit. Mas. p. 330 (1866). 
Hyperoodon latifrons. Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, 

p. 27 (1846); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 425 

Hyperoodon rostratum^ Gray, Cat. Cetac. Brit. Mus. p. 64 

Hy/'croodon rostratus, Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 

421 (1874); Southwell, British Seals and Whales p. 

loi (1881) ; Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 9 


Characters — In this, the only well-defined, species, the 
general colour of the upper-parts is nearly black, while the 
under surface is greyish-black. Length of adult males 30 feet, 
of females 24 feet, or less. 

Great variation obtains in the form of the head and skull 
according to age and sex ; old males having the crests on the 
upper jaws greatly developed, and rising high above the beak ; 
while in the young of the same sex, as in females at all ages, 
they are much smaller. It was on the evidence of one of 
these aged males that the so called H. latifrons was named. 

Distribution.— The Bottle-nosed Whale (which must not be 
confounded with the Bottle-nosed Dolphin) is a common 
species in the North Atlantic, ranging in summer as far north 
as Spitsbergen, while during the winter it seeks warmer 
quarters in more southern seas. In Britain this species is of 
very common occurrence, especially in the spring and autumn, 
being met with off the Shetlands in considerable numbers at 
the former season while on its northward migration. Being 

278 Lloyd's natural history. 

thus common on our coasts, where specimens are captured 
almost annually, and at times entering our larger rivers, it would 
be impossible, even if it were desirable, to give a list of its 
occurrences ; but we may mention a few instances of speci- 
mens which have been observed during the last few years. 

In 1886, Sir W. Turner, in the "Proceedings " of the Physical 
Society of Edinburgh (vol. ix., p. 25), notices specimens cap- 
tured on the coasts of Scotland. In 1888, Mr. Baily, in the 
Naturalist, p. 114, mentions one captured on March 13 of 
that year at Flamborough. On Aug. 28, in the same year, 
several Whales were stranded near Hunstanton, in Norfolk, 
two of which were recognised by Mr. Southwell (Zoologist, 
1888, p. 387) as an old and a young female of this species. 
Sir W. Turner, in vol. x. of the serial in which his earlier 
notice appeared (p. 19), records one captured in 1889 in the 
Shetland Islands. During September, 187 1, a "school" of 
these Whales were observed in the Channel, some of which 
visited the coast of Normandy, while a pair entered the 
Thames, where they were killed, and their bodies were 
examined by Dr. Murie. In the summer of the following 
year the present writer had the good fortune to see a dead 
Bottle-nose, which was carried by the tide into Weymouth 

Habits. — In addition to their migrating habits, these Whales 
are characterised by going in "schools," comprising from four 
to ten individuals in each, several of such "schools" frequently 
swimming within a short distance of one another. They feed 
almost exclusively on Cuttle-fish, which they procure at great 
depths. A specimen, of which the skeleton is now preserved 
in the British Museum, is said, when killed, to have had more 
than half a bushel of the indigestible heavy beaks of those 
molluscs in its stomach. Since the skull of the male Bottle- 
nose contains spermaceti, while the blubber yields a consider 


able amount of oil, these Whales are now hunted to a large 
extent. Although their ordinary colour is, as stated above, 
blackish, in very old males it frequently fades to a yellowish 
hue; those of intermediate age b:ing light brown. Frequently 
the adult males separate themselves from the rest of the 
"school," to lead a more or less solitary existence. 


Mesoplodon, Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3, vol. xiv. p. 16 

The Beaked Whales of this genus present the following 
characteristics. Head produced into a long beak, supported 
in the upper jaw by an el ngated solid mass of ivory-like 
bone ; a single pointed and compressed tooth at each side of 
the lower jaw, generally situated at some distance behind the 
anterior extremity, and in one species attaining such an extra- 
ordinary development as to prevent the two jaws being opened 
to their i\3X\. extent. 

The genus is represented by a considerable number of 
species, which are mainly characteristic of the warmer, and 
especially the southern, seas, only one of them occasionally 
visiting our shores. 

sowerby's whale, mesoplodon bidens. 

Physeter bidens , Sowerby, Brit. Miscell. p. i (1804). 
Delphhms {Heterodon) sowerbiensis, Blainville, Nouv. Diet. 

d'Hist. Nat. vol. ix. p. 177 (181 7). 
Delphinus sowerbyi, Desmarest, Mammalogie, p. 521 (1822). 
Heterodon sowerbyi. Lesson, Man. Mamm. p. 419 (1827). 
Diodon sowerbi, Hamilton, in Jardine's Naturalist's Library 

Mamm. vol. viii. p. 192 (1839). 
Diodon sowerbce. Bell, British Quadrupeds, p. 497 (1837). 


Mesoplodon sowerhiensis, Gervais, Zool. et Pal. Frang. p. 291 

(;i849); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 431 (1874); 
"Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 105 (1881). 
Ziphius sowerhiensis. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 241 j id. 

Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. Mus. p. 350 (1866). 
Mesoploden bidens, Flower, Cat Osteol. Mus. Roy. Coll. Sur- 

geon.s, pt. ii. p. 559 (1884), and List Cetacea Brit. Mu5. 

p. II (1885), 
Characters. — Teeth relatively short, wide, and pointed, placed 
nearly in the middle of the lower jaw ; general colour white 
above, and black beneath, with vermicular white streaks on the 
flanks. Length of adult from 15 to 18 feet. 

Distritntion. — Originally described from a specimen stranded in 
1800 on the shores of Elginshire, this species, which enjoys 
such a multiplicity of names (by no means the whole of which 
are quoted above), probably has a wide distribution, although, 
until the distinctive characters of the other members of the 
genus are more accurately defined than is at present the case, 
the exact limits of its range cannot be indicated. This Whale 
is not only one of the rarest of British Cetaceans, but is likewise 
equally scarce on the coasts of other countries, only seventeen 
specimens, according to Sir William Turner, being known up 
to the year 1888, since which date another British example has 
been recorded, while a second, captured at Cape Breton, in 
August, 18S8, brings up the total number to nineteen. 

Of the British examples the first is the above-mentioned 
specimen stranded in 1800 at Brodie, Elginshire, th3 skeleton 
of which is now in the Museum at Oxford. The second was a 
male, taken in Brandon B.iy, Ireland, in 1864, the bones of 
which are now in Dublin ; while the fourth, which was likewise 
a male, was captured at the same place in 1870, and is also 
preserved in Dublin. In 1872 a female, of which the remains 


are in the Museum at Edinburgh, was taken on some part of 
the coast of Scotland; and in April, 1881, an adult exaraple, 
measuring 14 feet in length, was cast ashore near Burrafirth 
Voe, on the west coast of the main island of ihe Shetland 
group, this specimen being described by Sir W. Turner in the 
"Journal of Anatomy and Physiology," vol. xvi., p. 458 j 
while a second male was obtained from Shetland in May, 
1885. In September of the latter year another example was 
stranded in shallow water just inside the Spurn Head, at the 
mouth of the Humber, but subsequently managed to get away. 
This spec'men, which measured 15 feet g inches in length, is 
the first which has ever been seen on the English coasts ; it is 
noticed by Messrs. T. Southwell and Eagle Clarke in the 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History '{stnes 5, vol. xvii., 
p. 53). Yet another specimen visited the Firth of Forth in 
1888, of which mention is made by Sir W. Turner in the "Pro- 
ceedings" of the Physical Society of Edinburgh (vol. x., p. 5); 
while in the Field for the second half of 1892 (p. 1003), Mr. 
Tegetmeier records the stranding o^ a fine specimen of this 
Whale on the coast of Norfolk in December of that year. The 
latter specimen, we believe, his been secured for Mr. Roths- 
child's Museum at Tring Park. 

Hahits. — Unfortunately, scarcely anything is known of the 
mode of life of the Beaked Whales of this and the allied genera, 
all of which are mainly or entirely known only from stranded 
specimens. From this rarity it may, however, be inferred that 
these animals are essentially inhabitants of the open sea, 
and probably only visit the coasts when driven thither by 
bad weather. That they were formerly abundant in the seas 
surrounding our islands, is attested by the frequency with 
which their fossilised beaks occur in the so-called crag deposits 
of the east coast, which belong to the Pliocene period. 


Ziphius, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. v. p. 352 

This genus of Beaked Whales, apparently represented only 
by a single species, may be distinguished from Mesoplodon by 
the characters of the skull, and the circumstance that the 
single pair of lower teeth, which are directed upwards and for- 
wards, are placed at the anterior extremity of the jaw. 

cuvier's whale, ziphius cavirostris. 
Ziphius cavirostris, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, 2nd ed. vol. v. 
p. 352 (1823); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 428 
(1874) ; Southwell, British Seals and Wales, p. 102 
(1881) ; Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 10 (1885). 
This excesdingly rare Cetacean is so little known* that 
neither its characters nor distribution can be given with any 
approach to exactness. From the circumstance that it has been 
met with in regions so remote from one another as the Shetland 
Islands and New Zealand, it is probable that it has a nearly 
cosmopolitan distribution, although not ranging into the Polar 

The single British example of Cuvier's Whale hitherto 
recorded was taken off Hanno VoCj to the north-west of the 
mainland of Shetland, and has been described by Sir William 
Turner in the " Proceedings " of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh for 1872. 


The whole of the remaining British representatives of the 
Cetacean Order are included in the Family Delphinidce, most 
of the members of which are distinguished from the 
Physeterida by the presence of numerous teeth in both jaws. 


although in two instances the teeth are greatly reduced in 
number. The skull lacks the elevated crests behind the nasal 
aperture which forms such a characteristic feature in the 
Family last named ; while there are also differences in the 
arrangement of certain of the cranial bones, as there are in the 
conformation of the bones of the internal ear. In all cases 
the aperture of the nostrils assumes a perfectly crescentic form, 
with the horns of the crescent directed towards the muzzle. 

Monodon, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 105 (1766). 

Head rounded, without a distinct bsak; functional dentition 
usually reduced to a single, spirally-twisted tusk of enormous 
length in the left side of the upper jaw of the male, the 
corresponding right tooth usually remaining undeveloped in 
its socket, while, in the female, both such teeth are rudimental. 
No back-fin; and all the vertebrae of the neck either completely 
or partially separate from one another. 

The genus is represented solely by the under-mentioned 


Monodon monoceros, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 105 
(1766); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 435 
(1874); Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 106 
(1881) ; Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 14 (1885). 

Narwhalus vulgaris, Lacdpfede, Hist. Nat. des C^tacds, p. 142 
Characters. — Upper-parts dark grey, and under-parts white, 

both mottled with various shades of grey and greyish-black. 

Length of adult, exclusive of the tusk, from 14 to 15 feet ; of 

the tusk 7 feet, or more. 

Distribution. — Essentially a denizen of the icy Arctic seas, the 

Narwhal has but little claim to notice here ; the only instances 

284 Lloyd's natural history. 

of its occurrence on our shores being three in number. The 
first of these stragglers entered the Firth of Forth so long 
ago as the year 1648 ; the second was taken near Boston, in 
Lincolnshire, during 1800; while the third was found eight 
years later among the rocks in the Sound of Deesdale, in 

Delphinapterus. Lac^pfede, Hist. Nat. des Cdtaces, p. xli. 
General characters as in the preceding genus, but no long 
tusk, and from eight to ten pairs of rather small teeth in each 
jaw ; these teeth being conical and pointed when un-worn, but 
usually becoming obliquely truncated by use. 

Like the last, this genus is represented by a single species. 


Delphiiius leucas, Pallas, Reise, Russ. Reichs. vol. iii. p. 85 

Balmna albicans, Miiller, Zool. Dan. Prodr. p. 7 (1776). 
Delphinapterus deliiga, Lacepfede, Hist. Nat. des C^taces, p. 

243 (1804). 
Delphinaptents leucas. Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed., p. 440 

(1874); Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 108(1881); 

Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 14 (1885). 
Beluga leucas. Gray, Spicil. Zool. vol. i. p. 2 (1828); Bell, 

British Quadrupeds, p. 4S8 (1837). 
Beluga catodon. Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and I'error, p. 29 (1846); 

id. Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. Mus. p. 307 (1866}. 
Characters. — Adult of a pure glistening white colour; the 
young bluish-grey. Length of adult from 10 to 12 feet. 

Distribatba. — As Arctic an animal as the Narwhal, although 
ranging somewhat further south than the latter on the eastern 
coast of America, the White Wliale has equally slight claims 


to a place in the British Fauna, although a few individuals have 
been stranded on the Scottish coasts, and there is some 
evidence of one having been seen off Devonshire. The first 
record relates to two young specimens stated to have been 
washed ashore in the Pentland Firth in the summer of 1793. 
A second example was killed in the Firth of Forth, where it 
had been seen for three months, in June, 1815 ; and the third 
was found off dead on the Island of Auskerry, in the Orkneys, 
in the autumn of 1845. In June, 1878, a large white Cetacean, 
which could scarcely have been anything else than an example 
of this species, was seen in Loch Etive ; while a year later a 
fine example was found caught by the flukes between two posts 
to which a stake-net was attached, about three miles to the 
westward of Dunrobin, in Sutherlandshire, a description of 
which is given by Sir W. H. Flower in the "Proceedings " of the 
Zoological Society for 1879. According to Messrs. Harvie- 
Brown and Buckley, a White Whale was repeatedly seen in 
the Kyle of Tongue in August, 1880; and another was taken 
alive in the salmon-nets off Dunbeath in April, 1884, its skeleton 
being now preserved in the museum of Aberdeen University. 

Tlie only record of the occurrence of this species on the 
English coasts is on the authority of Gosse, who, when off 
Berry Head in the summer of 1832, reports having seen a 
White Cetacean which he regarded as a Beluga. 


Phocana, Cuvier, R^gne Animal, vol. i. p. 279 (i8i'7). 

Skull with the beak rather short, broad at the base and taper- 
ing towards the muzzle ; teeth small, with spade-like crowns 
marked off from the roots by a constriction, their number 
varying from sixteen to twenty-six pairs in each jaw, of which 
they occupy nearly the whole length ; neck short, and (as in 

:86 Lloyd's natural history 

all the following genera) at least some of its vertebrae united 
together ; back-fin absent or present. 


Delphimis phocana, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 108 

Phoccena communis, Lesson, Man. Mamm. p. 413 (1827); 
Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 458 (1874); South- 
well, British Seals and Whales, p. 120 (i88i)j Flower, 
List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 15 (1885). 
Characters. — Back fin triangular, situated nearly in the middle 
of the back, its height less than its basal length, and with a 
row of small tubercles on its front edge ; colour of back nearlj 
black, the flanks lighter, and the under-parts nearly white. 
Length of adult from 4 to 5 feet. 

Distribution. — The range of the Common Porpoise includes 
the greater part of the North Atlantic, extending northwards to 
Baffin Bay and westwards to America ; southwards, the Por- 
poise is found rarely in the Mediterranean. In the British 
seas the Porpoise is the commonest of all Cetaceans, and is 
found there at all seasons ; while not unfrequently it ascends 
our larger rivers for some distance. 

Habits. — The Porpoise is a gregarious Cetacean, associating 
in large " schools," which seldom wander far from shore, and 
whose sportive gambols as they roll along near the surface of 
the water, showing first the head, next the back, and finally the 
flukes, must be familiar to all. Exclusively or mainly a fish- 
eater, the Porpoise consumes vast numbers of pelagic fish, such 
as Herrings, Pilchards, and Mackerel, in its headlong pursuit 
of which it often becomes entangled in fishing-nets, where, 
from its size and power, it does much damage. It is likewise 
partial to Salmon, and it is probable that it is often when in 
pursuit of that fish that it enters some of our rivers. The 

KILLER. 287 

female produces a single young one at a birth. Formerly the 
flesh of the Porpoise was eaten by Roman Catholics as a 
Lenten dish ; but at the present day it is only valued for the 
oil yielded by its blubber. 

Orca, Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, p. 33 (1846). 

Beak of skull about equal in length to the remainder of the 
same, broad and flattened above, and rounded in front ; about 
twelve pairs of large, stout, recurved, conical teeth in each 
jaw ; flippers large, ovate, and nearly as broad as long ; back- 
fin very tall, sharply pointed, and situated nearly in the middle 
of the back ; whole conformation of body very stout, and the 
front of the head much depressed and flattened. 


Delphinus orca, Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 108 (1766). 
Delphinus orca, et D. gladiator, Bonnaterre, Cdtologie, pp. 22 

and 23 (1789). 
Phocana orca, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. des Cdtacds, p. 177 (1836); 

Bel', British Quadrupeds, p. 477 (1837). 
Orca gladiator. Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, p. 33 

(1846); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 445 (1874) ; 

Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 113 (1881); 

Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 18 (1S85). 
Orca stenorhyncha, et O. latirostris, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, 

pp. 71, 76. 
Characters. — Black above and white beneath, with a white 
spot above each eye. Length of adult 20 feet, or more. 

Distribution. — Owing to the uncertainty as to whether there is 
more than one existing species, the distribution of the Common 
Killer cannot be accurately defined, but it is not improbable 


that it may prove to be almost world-wide. To the British 
coasts, and more especially to the northern parts of our 
islands, the Killer is by no means an unfreqiient visitor, and 
at times ascends our larger rivers. For instance, in March, 
1864, no less than ten of these Cetaceans entered the River 
Parret, in Somersetshire, all of which were captured within a 
few miles of Bridgewater. More recently, three Killers swam up 
the Thames in the spring of 1890. They must have passed 
through the Pool during the night, since in the morning they 
were observed swimming rapidly up the open reach between 
Chelsea and Battersea bridges, where their movem;nts were 
watched by a number of spectators. After remaining there 
for several hours, apparently in a state of indecision, they were 
at length observed to continue their course down the river; 
and, since there is no record of their capture, they probably 
succeeded in making their way to the sea. 

Hatits — Easily recognised when swimming near the surface 
by its tall back-fin, the Killer may be regarded as the Tiger of 
the Cetacean order, in which it is the sole member that sub- 
sists on warm-blooded animals, killing and devouring not only 
Seals, but likewise such Porpoises and Dolphins as it can cap- 
ture. The Killer is, however, by no means content with such 
comparatively small game, three or four of these animals com- 
bining together to harass and attack the larger Whales, from 
which they tear huge masses of blubber and flesh, till the un- 
fortunate Whales eventually succumb from loss of blcod. 
Such an attack by a party of Killers the present writer had 
recently the opportunity of witnessing in the South Atlantic. 
Killers will, however, also catch various kinds of fish. The 
amount of food that a Killer will consume is perfectly 
appalling; a specimen having been killed with remains of 
more than a couple of dozen of Seals and Po; poises in its 


Glohicephala, Lesson, N. Tabl. Rfegne Animal Mamm. p. 200 

General form of skull somewhat as in OrcUy but the fore part 
of the head high and rounded, owing to the pre ence of a mass 
of blubber; teeth, small, conical, curved, and sharp, forming 
from eight totwelve pairs, which are confined to the anterior 
half of the jaws, in old age blunt, and sometimes wanting ; 
flippers very long and narrow ; back-fin short and triangular 
the height being much less than the basal length. 

As in the case of Orca, it is very doubtful whether there is 
more than a single existing representative qf this genus. 


DelpMnus melas, Traill, Nicholson's Journal, vol. xxii. p. 81 

Ddphinus globiceps, Cuvier, Ann. Mus. vol. xix. p. 14 

Phocmna melas, Bell, British Quadrupeds, p. 483 (1837). 
Glohicephala melas, Lesson, N. Tabl. Rbgne Animal Mamm. 

p. 200 (1840). 
Globiocephalus swineval, Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, 

p. 32 (1846); Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales, Brit. Mus. p. 

Globicephalus melas, Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 453 

(1874); Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 118 

(i88i); Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 19 (1885). 
Characters. — General colour black, with a whitish stripe along 
the middle of the under-parts, expanding on tlie throat into a 
heart-shaped patch. Length of adult from 1 6 to 20 feet. 

Distribution. — Typically occurring in the North Atlantic, it is 
probable that the Pilot- Whale has a nearly world-wide dis- 

5 U 

290 Lloyd's natural historv. 

tribution, specimens from Australia presenting no points of 
difference from British examples. To the Fareoe Islands, as 
u-ell as to Orkney, and, more rarely, to the Hebrides, the Pilot- 
Whale is a frequent, although irregular, visitor during its 
seasonal migrations from the Arctic to the Atlantic Ocean. 
In the southern parts of our coasts it is, however, of rare 
occurrence, although it has been recorded as far south as ihe 
Channel and Cornwall. 

HaTiits.— The essential feature of the Pilot-Whale, Ca'ing 
(that is. Driving) Whale, or Black-Fish, as it is vicariously called, 
is the large "schools" in which it associates, these frequently in- 
cluding hundreds of individuals. It is likewise remarkable for 
the persistence with which the other members of the school 
will follow the direction taken by their leader, even w^en this 
leads directly into d.inger. Advantage of this habit is taken by 
the hardy fishermen of the Faeroe Islands, who, immediately 
a school is sighted, ta\e to their boats and endeavour to get to 
seaward of the animals. Should they successfully accomplish 
this, it is generally an easy matter to drive the school into shal- 
low water, where its members can be slaughtered at leisure. If, 
however, the leading Whale manages to make his way to sea, 
all the labour is in vain, as the other Whales will be almost 
sure to make their way after him, despite the utmost efforts on 
the part of the boatmen. Some fifty years ago the numbers of 
these Whales taken during two seasons in the Faeroes ad 
Shetlands were to be reckoned by hundreds, if not by thousands, 
although it is to be wished that the statements as to the exact 
numbers were somewhat better authenticated than they appear 
to be. 

Grampus, Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, p. 30 (1846). 

Distinguished from all the oiher genera of the Family by the 


total absence of teeth in the upper jaw, the dentition of the 
lower jaw being reduced to from three to seven pairs of teeth 
which are confined to its anterior extremity. In general con- 
formation of the head and body the single well-defined repre- 
sentative of the genus comes very close to the Pilot-Whale, 
although the fore part of the head is less rounded, and the 
flippers are shorter. 


Dclphinus griseus, Cuvier, Ann. Mus. vol. xix. p. 14 

Delphinus rissoanus, Desmarest, Mammalogie, p. 15 (1822). 
Grampus griseus, Gray, Spicil. Zool. p. 2 (1828); Bell, 

British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 450 (1874); Southwell, 

British Seals and Whales, p. 115 (1881) ; Flower, List 

Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 21 (1885). 
Grampus aivieri, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xvii. p. 85 

(1846) ; id. Cat. Seals and Whales, Brit. Mus. p. 295 

Grampus rissoanus, Gray Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, p. 

31 (1846) ; id. Cat. Seals and Whales, Brit. Mus. p. 298 

Characters. — Colour very variable, from black above and 
white beneath, to a pale grey, passing into black towards the 
tail, everywhere marked with light spots and irregular streaks 
and stripes. Length of adult about 13 feet. 

Distribution. — Although rare in collections, Risso's Grampus 
appears to be a widely distributed species, since it has been 
taken not only in the British seas and the Mediterranean, 
but likewise in the Azores, the Cape of Good Hope, Japan, 
the North American coasts, and New Zealand (the specimen 
from the last-named country having been described as S, 

2g2 Lloyd's natural history. 

To our own coasts, this Cetacean is a very rare visitor, as 
is indicated by the following list of recorded examples. The 
first known specimen was taken in the spring of 1843 at Puck- 
aster, in the Isle of Wight, its skeleton being now in the 
British Museum. In February, 1870, a female was caught in a 
mackerel-net near the Eddystone Lighthouse ; its skeleton 
is likewise in the National Collection. A third example, 
also a female, was exposed for sale in Billingsgate Market in 
March of the latter year, having probably been taken in the 
Channel ; both its skin and skeleton have found a home along- 
side of the two preceding specimens. In July, 1875, a young 
male, which was kept alive for some hours in the Brighton 
Aquarium, was captured at Sidlesham, and in February, 
1886, a female was caught in a mackerel-net about^ twenty 
miles south of the Eddystone Lighthouse, and was exhibited 
at Plymouth, in the Museum of which town its skeleton is 
preserved. The last recorded English example was captured 
in the Solway, on September 30th, 1892, as mentioned in 
Land and Water for that year (vol. liv., p. 405). Lastly, six 
specimens were caught in Hillswick, in Shetland, in September, 
1889, one of which has been carefully described by Sir 
William Turner in the " Proceedings " of the Physical Society 
of Edinburgh, vol. xi., p. i. 


Lagenorhyuchus, Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, p. 35 

Head with a short but not very distinct beak, or beakless ; 
the beak scarcely exceeding the remainder of the skull in length, 
depressed, and gradually tapering from the broad base to the 
extremity ; teeth very small, and forming from 23 to 33 pairs 
in each jaw ; from 80 to 90 vertebrae in the hack-bone. This 


genus forms a kind of connecting-link between the preceding 
and following genera. 


Delphinus albirostris. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xvii. p. 
84 (1846); Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 472 

Lagenorhynchus albirostris. Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Ter- 
ror, p. 35 (1B46); Southwell, British Seals and Whales, 
p. 125 (188 r); Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 22 
Characters. — Colour of upper-parts deep purplish-black, cf the 

beak, lips, and under-parts pure creamy white j the two colours 

being sharply defined. Length of adult from 7 to 9 feet. 

DlstriTjution. — This Dolphin is a rare species inhabiting the 
North Atlantic, and was first recorded as British in 1846 by 
Brightwell, who wrongly identified a specimen captured in that 
year off Yarmouth, in Norfolk, with Tursiops tiirsio. It 
appears, however, that a Dolphin killed at Hartlepool in 1834, 
of which the skull is in the Zoological Museum at Cambridge, 
likewise belongs to the present species. The next recorded 
occurrence is in 1866, in which year a specimen was shot near 
Cromer ; while a fourth was taken at the mouth of the River 
Dee in December, 1862 j and a fifth on the south coast in 
1871. A young female was captured off Grimsby in Sep- 
tember, 187 s ; a male in March of the following year off 
Lowestoft; while both in 1879 and 1880 a young female was 
captured at Yarmouth. In the Zoologist for 1881, p. 41, 
Mr. J. M. Campbell records a young male caught by a fislier- 
man on September 11, 1880, near the Bell Rock, on th; west 
coast of Scotland. This specimen, which measured 5 ft. 8 in. 
in length, is the first recorded example from the Scottish 

2 94- Lloyd's natural HisTonv. 

coasts. On September lo, 1881, a very young example was 
landed alive by some fishermen at Yarmouth, but soon died ; 
an account of it is given by Mr. Southwell in the Zoologist 
for the sameyear, p. 420. In 1887 Mr. R. L. Patterson, in the 
"Report" of the Belfast Natural History Club for that year (p. 
114), mentions a specimen captured on the Irish coast, this 
being apparently the first record of the occurrence of the 
species in Ireland. The next example is one observed in the 
Colne in 1889, of which an account is given by Mr. H. 
Laver in the "Essex Naturalist " for that year (p. 169). Sir 
W. Turner, in the " Proceedings " of the Physical Society of 
Edinburgh, vol. x., p. 14, gives a notice of other Scotch speci- 
mens, namely, one caught off Berwick in July, 1881, a female 
captured at the same place in August, 1883, another, female 
taken, at Sutherland in 1882, and an adult female and young 
male taken together off Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, in July, 
1888. Of the habits of both this and the following species, as 
also of Risso's Dolphin, nothing definite is known.. 


Delphinus aattus, Gray, Spicil. Zool. vol. i. p. 2 (1828); Bell, 
British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 470 (1874). 

Delphinus eschrichtii, Schlegel, Abhandl. Geb. Zool. p. 23 

Delphinus leucopleurus, Rasch, Nova Spec. Descript. (1843). 

Lagenorhynchus acutus, Gray, Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, 
p. 35 (1846); Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 125 
(1881); Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 23 (1885). 
Characters. — Colour of upper-parts black, and of under-parts 

white, with a white stripe on the flanks continued anteriorly 

and posteriorly as a yellow or brownish band. Length of 

adult from 6 to 8 feet. 

Distrilititioii. — This is a rare North Atlantic Dolphin, originally 


described from an Orkney skull, and does not appear to have 
been recorded from the English seas, although stated to be not 
uncommon in the Orkneys. In addition to the typical skull, 
an adult female was captured in Orkney in 1835 ; while in 
1858 a school of some twenty head were secured in Scalpa Bay, 
near Kirkwall. In their work on the "Fauna of Argyll and the 
Hebrides," Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley state that a 
Dolphin captured at Ardiishaig has been identified as of the 
present species. 

Delphinus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 108 (1766) 

In common with the members of the next genus, the Typical 
Dolphins differ from all the foregoing representatives of the 
Family in having a distinct and more or less elongated beak to 
the head, generally separat.d from the fatty mass in front of 
the blow-hole by a V-shaped groove. In the skull the length 
of the beak exceeds that of the hinder portion ; while in the 
skeleton of the neck only the two first vertebrae are welded 
together. All of them have a well-developed back-fin, and 
numerous teeth, and they prey chiefly or entirely on fish. 

From their allies the Typical Dolphins are distinguishe J by 
the long beak of the skull being generally about twice the 
length of the hinder portion of the same, and carrying from 
40 to 60 pairs of teeth in each jaw; these teeth being of 
small size, conical, pointed, placed close to one another, and 
occupying almost the whole length of the beak. The narro\l 
and pointed flippers are of moderate length, and tend to 
assume a hook-like form ; while the number of vertebrae in 
the back-bone varies from 73 to 75. The genus is represented 
by several closely-allied species. 

296 Lloyd's natural history. 

the common dolphin. delphinus delphis. 
Delphinus delphis, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i. p. 470; 
1766; Bell, British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 462 (1874); 
Southwell, British Seals and Whales, p. 121 (1881). 

Characters. — Coloration somewhat variable, but the upper- 
parts black and the under surface pure white, with the flanks 
shaded, mottled, and streaked with various tints of yellow and 
grey ; the markings on the two sides of the body frequently 
displaying perfect symmetry. Length of adult from S to 8 

Distribution. — Frequent in the Mediterranean, and likewise 
occurring in the Atlantic, the Common Dolphin is represented 
by a closely-allied form in the North Pacific, and by a third in 
the South Seas. Although not uncommonly visiting our 
southern shores, it appears very rarely to range as far north as 
Scotland, but Sir William Turner, in the " Proceedings " of the 
Physical Society of Edinburgh for 1887 (p. 364), has re- 
corded the capture in that year of a specimen in the Firth of 

HaMts. — Like its allies, the Common Dolphin is essentially 
gregarious, and all who have made a voyage in the Mediterra- 
nean must be familiar with the sportive gambols of these beau- 
tiful Cetaceans as they frolic round a ship in large schools, 
which sometimes include hundreds of individuals. Their 
favourite prey seems to be Pilchards and Herrings, and they 
are consequently frequently taken in the nets of the Cornish 
fishermen. A single young one is produced at a birth, and 
is tended with marked solicitude by its female parent. Like 
that of the Porpoise, the flesh of the Dolphin formerly formed 
an article of diet. 

Tursiof)!, Gervais, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. ii. p. 323 (1855). 


Distinguished from the preceding genus by the beak of the 
skull tapering moderately from the base to the extremity, the 
shorter bony union of the two branches of the lower jaw in 
front, the stouter teeth, of which there are from 21 to 25 pairs 
in each jaw, and by the total number of vertebrae being only 


1 DelpMnus tursio, Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 49 (1780). 
Delphinus tursio, Bonnaterre, Cdtologie, p. 21 (1789); Bell, 

British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed. p. 467(1874); Southwell, 

British Seals and Whales, p. 124 (1881). 
Delphinus truncatiis, Montagu, Mem. Wern. Soc. vol. iii. p. 75 

Tursiops tursio, Gervais, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. ii. p. 323 

(185s); Flower, List Cetacea Brit. Mus. p. 26 (1885). 
Tursio truncatus, Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales, Brit. Mus. 

p. 258 (1866). 

Characters. — General colour of upper-parts black, gradually 
shading into white beneath. Length of adult from 8 to 10 

Distribution. — So far as can be determined from our present 
imperfect knowledge of the distribution of Dolphins in general, 
it would appear that the present one is a comparatively scarce 
species, ranging at least from the Mediterranean to the North 
Sea. To the British coasts it is but a rare visitor, although 
several instances of its occurrence are recorded in the second 
edition of Bell's "British Quadrupeds" from England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, the latest of these being a school which visited 
Holyhead Harbour in the autumn of 1868." Since that date, 
in the Zoologist for 1888, p. 346, Mr. W< Jeffery mentions 
that a specimen was stranded that year on the coast of Kirk- 

agS Lloyd's natural historv. 

cudbrightshiie; while Mr. J. Cordeaux, in the Naturalist for 
1889 (p. 6), records that two individuals had be;n seen to enter 
the Humber. 


I. The Cavern and Brick-Earth Period. 

Owing to various circumstances, among which denudation 
not improbably occupies a place, the geological record in 
Britain during the Tertiary Period is far more imperfect than 
usual, owing to the total absence in our islands of all traces 
of strata corresponding to the typical Miocene deposits of 
the Continent. Nevertheless, in spite of this imperfection, 
and the consequent absence of the remains of the species 
which lived during the missing epoch, Britain is remarkably 
rich in fossil Mammals, our caves, brick-earths, and river- 
gravels having preserved the bones and teeth of the later 
in almost endless profusion ; while tl«e so-called " forest- 
bed " and crags of the eastern coast are rich in those of a 
somewhat earlier epoch ; and the deposits of the Hampshire 
and London basins have yielded evidence of the Mammalian 
life of the lower portions of the Tertiary Period, In some 
respects it is, indeed, fortunate that we have not the hosts 
of Tertiary Mammals known from the Continent, as, if so, it 
would be absolutely impossible to give any adequate account 
of them within the limits at our disposal ; but as things are, 
the list of species is of manageable proportions. 

In giving a brief sketch of the ancient British Mammals, we 
shall practically omit mention of those found in the most 
superficial deposits, such as the fens and turbaries, since the 
majority of these belong to species which are cither still living 

* This section of the work originally appe.ired in Knowledge, and has 
been reproduced by the kind permission of the Editor of that journal. 


in the country, or are existing in other parts of Europe. Our 
regular survey will, therefore, commence with the Mammals 
found in the caverns and the various more or less nearly 
contemporary brick-earths and gravels, which generally form 
high-level plateaux in our river valleys, and are for the most 
part of more recent date than the epoch of maximum ex- 
tension of the ice of the Glacial Period. The whole of these 
deposits belong to the Pleistocene, or latest Geological Period ; 
and the next in point of age are the formations exposed on the 
east coast of England; in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, 
and Essex. The highest of those deposits to which we shall 
specially refer is the series usually denominated the " forest- 
bed," so called on account of the relics of an ancient forest 
which it contains in siiu. Although clearly antedating the 
Glacial Epoch, there is some doubt as to the precise geo- 
logical age of this deposit, some authorities referring it to 
the top of the Pliocene Period, while others consider that 
it forms the base of the Pleistocene. As the majority of 
the Mammalian remains yielded by this bed belong to exist- 
ing species, the latter view is the one which we feel inclined 
to adopt. Bdow the forest-bed come the crags, of which 
the Norwich crag belongs to the upper portion of the Pliocene 
Period, while the Red and Coralline crags may be assigned 
to the lower division of the same. The Tertiaries of the 
Hampshire and London basins belong solely to the Oligocene 
and Eocene Epochs; and t!]e mention of the ages of these 
different horizons may accordingly be reserved till we come 
to the consideration of their fauna. 

With regard to the epoch of our caverhs and brick-earths, 
it may be observed, in the first place, that by far the great 
majority of the species whose remains are entombed in the 
various deposits, are still existing, although most of the larger 
ones have disappeared from Britain, having been either 


destroyed by human agency, or because the climate became 
unsuitable to them. Of such existing species we shall only 
make mention when there is something of special interest 
connected with them, and the reader will therefore under- 
stand that we have no intention of attempting anything like a 
complete list of the Mammalian fauna of this epoch. The most 
remarkable feature connected with this fauna is the apparently 
contradictory evidence which it affords as to the nature of the 
climate then prevalent. The Glutton, Reindeer, Arctic Fox, 
and Musk-Ox are strongly indicative of a more or less Arctic 
climate ; many of the Voles (Microtus), Picas (Lagomys), and 
Susliks {Spermophilui), together with the Saiga Antelope, 
app:ar to point equally strongly to the prevalence of a steppe- 
like condition ; while the Hippopotamus and Spotted Hyaena 
seem as much in favour of a sub-tropical state of things. 
Many attempts have been made to reconcile these apparently 
contradictory circumstances ; one of the older views being 
that while the tropical types of animals lived during a warm 
interlude, they migrated southwards with the incoming of 
colder conditions to the Arctic type of Fauna. Since, however, 
it has now been ascertained that the remains of both Tropical 
and Arctic forms have been found lying side-by-side in the 
same bed, it is perfectly certain that such an explanation will 
not meet the exigencies of the case. We have, however, yet 
much to learn about the effects of climate on animals — our 
experience being, unfortunately, confined to a single epoch j 
and the fauna of the highlands of Tibet shows that many types 
of animals formerly regarded as more or less essentially tropical 
can withstand a winter climate of extreme severity. 

Among the forms that at first sight seem to indicate that 
Britain enjoyed a mild climate during the deposition of the 
brick-earths of the Thames Valley is a Monkey, more or less 
closely alUed to the existing Macaques {Macacus), but, unfor- 


tunately, only known to us by a small fragment of the upper 
jaw containing a single tooth, which was obtained many years 
ago from the brick-earth of Grays, in Essex. Although the 
majority of the Macaques, together with their allies the Langurs, 
ire now inhabitants of warm regions, it must not be forgotten 
.hat a representative of each is found in Tibet, where the 
winter cold is intense. This species is the only evidence yet 
snown of the occurrence of Monkeys in Britain. 

Passing by the Bats and Insectivores, as pertaining exclu- 
sively to existing species, we proceed to the Carnivores. Among 
these, the rarest is a species of Sabre-toothed Tiger (Machcer- 
odus latidens), of which specimens of the enormous serrated 
upper tusks have been obtained from Kent's Hole, near Tor- 
quay. These Sabre-tooths were widely distributed during the 
Pleistocene and Pliocene Epochs, having been discovered in 
Europe, Persia, India, and North and South America ; but 
they seem to have been a type less adapted for persistence 
than the ordinary and less specialised Cats. Side-by-side with 
this extinct species lived the Lion, whose remains have been 
found, not only in most of the English caves, but likewise in 
many of the brick-earths and river-gravels. Although we are 
accustomed to regard the Lion as essentially an inhabitant of 
the hot districts of India and Africa, it must be remembered 
that even in the historic period it was common in South-eastern 
Europe, while its near ally, the Tiger, ranges northwards into 
Siberia, where an unusually long and thick coat protects it 
from the winter-cold. The Lynx {Felts lynx) and the Leopard 
{F. pardus) were likewise British animals during the Cavern 
Period ; the former being to a great extent an inhabitant of 
northern regions. Although the great Cave-Hyaena was for- 
merly regarded as an extinct species only, it is now considered 
to be merely a large race of the Spotted African species {Hyana 
croaita), differing from the Striped Hyaena, not only in its 

302 Lloyd's natural history. 

superior size and coloration, but likewise in the structure of its 
teeth, the hindmost of which approximate to those of the Cats. 
Although the present habitat of the Striped Hyaena is tropical 
or sub-tropical, there does not appear any valid reason why the 
creature should not have been able to withstand a compara- 
tively cold climate. The Dog tribe, as we. might expect, is well 
represented during the Pleistocene, remains of both the Fox 
and the Wolf being common in all caverns ; the latter species 
having, indeed, been exterminated only at a comparatively re- 
cent date in our islands. More remarkable is the occurrence 
of the Arctic Fox {Canis lagopus), the remains of which have 
been recently identified from a fissure near Ighthara, in Kent. 
The nearest country to Britain where this species now lives is 
Iceland, and it is certainly very curious to find in the same de- 
posits remains of animals so widely separated at the present 
day as are the Spotted Hyaena and the Arctic Fox. Another 
compatriot of the former species is the Cape Hunting-Dog 
(Lycaon pidus), distinguished from the AVolves by the cha- 
racters of the teeth and the smaller number of toes on the 
fore feet ; and it is certainly remarkable to find this genus 
represented by an extinct species from the Glamorganshire 
caverns. Passing on to the Bears, we naturally expect to 
find the common Brown Bear, which was only exterminated 
at a late epoch of the Historic Period, common in the Pleisto- 
cene ; and in this we are not disappointed, its remains occur- 
ring not uncommonly in the English caverns as well as in those 
of Ireland. A large proportion of the ursine-remains found in 
the brick -earths of the Thames Valley have, however, been 
assigned to the Grizzly Bear ( Ursus horribilis) of North America ; 
but as this form is distinguished from its European ally merely 
by slight differences in the form of the skull and teeth, we are 
by no means assured that this reference is well founded. Mark- 
edly distinct, however, is the gigantic Cave-Bear ( U. spelcevs), 


'ihe skull of which may always be recognised by the sudden 
rise of the forehead above the eyes, while the crowns of the 
molar teeth display a more finely puckered structure than is to 
be seen in thoss of the existing species. This gigantic Bear 
was one of the inhabitants of the celebrated. Kirkdale Cave in 
Yorkshire, of which Spotted Hysenas were, however, by far the 
most numerous carnivorous denizens. Much rarer than those 
of either Bears and Hysenas, are the remains of the Glutton 
{Gtilo luscus), which have been obtained only among the de- 
posits now under consideration, from the caves of Banwell, 
Bleadon, Cresswell Crags, the Vale of Clwyd, and Yealm 
Bridge. The Glutton is now unknown further south than 
Scandinavia, and in drawing any conclusions as to climate 
from its occurrence in Britain, we must always bear in mind 
the comparative scarcity of the remains both of this species, 
the Arctic Fox, and the Musk-Ox. It is true that the rarity of 
these forms is discounted by the abundance of the remains of 
the Reindeer ; but the latter are somewhat local in their dis- 
tribution, being unknown to the east of London, and if the 
assertion that this animal still lingered in Caithness till a few 
centuries ago be true, no great change of climate would be 
necessary in order to admit of its existence in England. The 
other Carnivores of the Cavern Period are not of much import- 
ance, including species hke the Pine-Marten, Stoat, AVeasel, 
Polecat, and Otter, which still exist among us ; although it has 
been thought that some bones from the Ightham fissure indi- 
cate an extinct type intermediate between the Polecat and the 

Turning to the Hoofed Order, we find remains of the Horse 
common in all the Pleistocene deposits pertaining to the Cavern 
Epoch, and from the rude yet characteristic portraits of the 
animal engraved by our pre-historic ancestors it would appear 
that the Horse of this period was very similar to the Wild or 

304 Lloyd's natural history. 

feral Tarpan of the Russian steppes. Since the latter race, 
together with all the Horses that have reverted to a wild con- 
dition, are inhabitants of open plains, it may be reasonably in- 
ferred that similar tracts of country formed a prominent feature 
in Pleistocene Britain. Although Tapirs were wanting, Rhino- 
ceroses were abundant during the period in question, no less 
than three species having left their remains in the caverns and 
1 rick earths, all of which resembled the existing African repre- 
sentatives of the genus in having two horns and no front teeth. 
By far the best known of these is the Woolly Rhinoceros {Rhi- 
noceros an/iquitalis), which, while closely allied to the living 
Burchell's Rhinoceros of Africa, differed in having its body 
protected from the cold by a thick coat of wool and hair. 
Ranging to the cold " tundras " of Siberia, where its frozen 
carcases are met with, imbedded in the icy soil like those of 
the Mammoth, there can be no doubt that this species was 
capable of withstanding a considerable degree of cold, although 
we may perhaps admit that the climate of Siberia during 
the time that these animals flourished there may have been 
somewhat less rigorous than at the present day. As to the 
difficult question of how the carcases of these Rhinoceroses 
and Mammoths became preserved in their frozen sepulchres, 
we prefer to leave this to those fonder of argument than our- 
selves. If we admit that the Woolly Rhinoceros could with- 
stand a cold climate, there is no difficulty with regard to the 
other contemporary species, at least one of which has been 
met with in Siberia, although it does not appear that either was 
furnished with a woolly coat. Both the Leptorhine {R. lepto- 
rhinus) and Megarhine (R. megarhinus) Rhinoceroses, as these 
species are termed, differ essentially from the woolly kind by 
the simpler structure of their molar teeth, which are more 
like those of the prehensile-lipped, or so-called Black Rhino- 
ceros of Africa j and the skulls and teeth of the two are so much 


alike that it requires an expert to distinguish between them. 
Teeth of both species are found in the brick-earths of the 
Thames Valley, but while those of the former are common in 
most of the English caves, those of the latter appear to be only 
known as cavern-fossils from Gower, in Glamorganshire, and 
from a rock-fissure near Plymouth. 

One of the finest of the Pleistocene Mammals was the great 
Aurochs or Wild Ox (£os taurus), the ancestor of our domestic 
breeds of cattle, which was living in the Black Forest in 
the time of Caesar. Even then it was described as but little 
inferior in bulk to an Elephant, and those who have seen the 
gigantic skulls from the Ilford brick-earths, preserved in the 
British Museum, and have compared them with ordinary 
Oxen, will have some idea of the magnificent proportions 
of the Aurochs. Side-by-side with the latter lived Bison 
{Bos bison) of equally gigantic size as compared with their 
living Lithuanian and Caucasian representatives (to whom the 
name of Aurochs is persistently misapplied). Although the 
Bison was very abundant in Britain during the Cavern Period, 
it disappeared at an earlier date than its cousin the Aurochs, 
its remains being unknown from the fens and turbaries, where 
those of the latter are so abundant. If we except certain 
remains assigned to Sheep and Goats, the only other Hollow- 
hqrned Ruminants that occur in the deposits under consider- 
ation are the Musk-Ox {Ovibos moschatus), and the Saiga Ante- 
lope {Saiga tartarica), both of which are of extreme importance 
as pointing out the nature of the climate then prevailing. Re- 
mans of both these animals have hitherto been obtained only 
from the south-east of England, those of the former occurring as 
far east as Maidenhead, as well as in the brick-earths of several 
places in Kent, and on the Dogger Bank, while those of the 
latter are known only from Twickenham. It is thus very re- 
markable -that these species occur exactly where the Reindeer 
S X 

3o6 Lloyd's natural history. 

is unknown, and the suggestion naturally arises that conditions 
suitable for their existence may have occurred there and been 
wanting elsewhere. The Musk-Ox, which is now restricted to 
Arctic America, is such an essentially Arctic animal that it is 
hard to believe that it could have inhabited a country with 
a temperature suitable to the existence of the Hippopotamus ; 
while the Saiga is equally characteristic of the open steppes of 

Equally marked as the superiority of the fossil Bison over its 
living representative, was the excess in size of the Pleistocene 
Red Deer {Cervus elaphus) over its existing Scottish descend- 
ants, some of the antlers from the caverns and brick-earths 
being of enormous length and girth, and likewise notable for 
the number of points they carry. The Fallow Deer was 
certainly unknown from both the deposits last, mentioned, 
although it has been said to occur in a bed on the Norfolk 
coast ; but the superficial deposits of the same coast yield 
remains of the closely-allied Brown's Fallow Deer (C. browni). 
In cavern-deposits the place of the Fallow Deer was more than 
filled by the splendid Irish Deer (C. giganteus), generally by the incorrect name of the Irish "Elk," and the splen- 
did antlers of which are larger and more massive than those of 
any other member of the Family. Although deriving its name 
from the abundance in which it occurs in Ireland, remains of this 
Deer is met with in most of the cavern-deposits, brick-earths, and 
river-gravels of England ; and it should be mentioned that al- 
though in Ireland its remains are commonly stated to come from 
the peat-bogs, they really occur in the shell-marl underlying the 
peat. In the outward direction of its widely palmated antlers, 
the Irish Daer differs considerably from the Fallow Deer, but 
an extinct species recently described from the superficial 
deposits of Germany, under the name of Ruff's Deer, so 
closely connects the two as to show that they constitute but 


a single group. The Roe Deer {Capreolus capred), which is 
more a southern than a northern form, is found in many of the 
caverns, but is rare in the brick-earths; while the Reindeer 
{Rangifer tarandus), although comm'on in the caverns and 
superficial deposits both of England and Scotland, is, as 
already mentioned, quite unknown to the east of London. 
The Wild Boar, which is one of the most recently exterminated 
British Mammals, requires a mere mention ; but the Hippo- 
potamus of the British Pleistocene deposits, which is speci- 
fically inseparable from the common African species, is one of 
the most important of the whole Fauna, so far as climatic 
conditions are concerned. Occurring commonly in the river- 
gravels and brick-earths of the south and midland districts of 
England, its remains are less frequent in caverns, although 
found as far north as Yorkshire. In our opinion, more import- 
ance is attached to the occurrence of the remains of this animal 
in a deposit than those of any other Mammal, since we cannot 
conceive it possible that the creature could have existed except 
where the rivers were more or less open throughout the year. 

Elephants were represented by the Mammoth (_Elephas 
primigenius), which may be considered merely as a northern 
hairy representative of the existing Indian species, and the 
so-called Straight-tusked Elephant {E. antiquus), which 
approximated in the structure of its teeth more or less 
markedly to the African Elephant. Bounded to the south- 
west by the Pyrenees, and found but sparingly to the south 
of the Alps, the Mammoth ranged northwards to Siberia, 
where, as already said, its frozen carcases are from time to 
time discovered, and where it must have existed in vast herds. 
It has recently been attempted to show that the Mammoth 
lived and died befoie the Glacial Epoch; but although its 
remains undoubtedly occur on the old land-surfaces upon 
which the post-glacial deposits were laid down, the opinion of 

X 2 

3o8 Lloyd's natural history. 

many geologists is hostile to the new view, and it is probable 
that the Mammoth saw both the incoming and the waning of 
glacial conditions. 

The Rodents, or Gnawing animals, need not detain us long, 
more especially since the burrowing habits of some of them 
render the occurrence of their remains by no means trust- 
worthy evidence that they are contemporaneous with the other 
contents of the deposits where they are found. The Beaver, 
although very rare in caves, occurs in the brick-earths of the 
Thames Valley ; while the Siberian and South Russian Picas 
{Lagomys pusillus) have been found in three caves and the 
Ightham fissure. The northern Vole (Microtus rattkeps), and 
the Siberian Vole {^M. gregalis), both of which have been 
identified from the last-named deposit, are animalg essentially 
characteristic of desert or steppe regions ; and much the same 
is true of the Susliks (^Spermqphilus), several species of which 
inhabited England during the Cavern Period. 

It will thus be seen that the problems presented by the later 
Pleistocene Mammalian Fauna of Britain are so complex, and 
apparently so contradictory, that at present it is quite hopeless 
to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion. That so far as the 
larger Mammals are concerned, we live in an impoverished age, 
is perfectly true ; but whether, as Mr. Wallace supposes, this is 
due to the effects of the Glacial Period seems more than doubt- 
ful, if geologists are right (and we believe they are) in assigning 
a Post-Glacial date to our brick-earths, river-gravels, and cavern- 

II. The Forest-bed and Crag Periods. 

The fresh-water deposit on the eastern coast of England 
known as the Forest-bed, of which the age is Pre-Glacial, occupies 
a somewhat intermediate position in regard to its Mammalian 
Fauna between the Cavern and Crag Periods; some of the 


species characterising the former epoch extending downwards 
to the Forest-bed, while others are replaced by those of the 
Crag. Stiil, however, the percentage of existing species is high, 
and as but few of the genera appear to be extinct, we prefer to 
assign the formation in question to the Pleistocene rather thari 
to the Pliocene Epoch. 

Commencing with the Carnivores, we have evidence that the 
Forest-bed possesses a Sabre-toothed Tiger apparently specifi- 
cally distinct from the Cavern species, and not improbably 
identical with one {Machmrodus cultridens) from the upper 
Pliocene beds of the Val d'Arno in Tuscany ; while the Hyaena 
is identical with the Cavern form, that is to say, the existing 
South African species." The Wolf, and probably the Fox, as 
well as the Marten and the Glutton, are likewise existing species 
ranging as far down as the Forest-bed ; and the occurrence of 
the last-named is somewhat notable, as showing that even at 
this early epoch, northern types were capable of existing in 
England before we have any evidence of the incoming of 
strongly-marked Glacial conditions. The other land Carnivores 
of the Forest-bed are Otter and the Cave-Bear ; while the teeth 
of a smaller Bear have been tentatively assigned to the Ameri- 
can Grizzly, although we should think it more probable that 
they pertained to the Brown species. Of marine forms, a 
Walrus which has been regarded as specifically distinct from 
the living representative of the genus, and the Bearded Seal 
{Phoca barhatd), now inhabiting the North Atlantic, have been 
recorded from the formation under consideration. 

In the Hoofed Order we find the Bison and the Musk-Ox, as 
well as a large Sheep (Ovis savini) apparently allied to the 
Himalayan Argali, inhabiting East Anglia during the deposition 
of the Forest-bed ; while the Roe Deer, an extinct kind of Elk 
{Alces latifrons), and the Red Deer likewise lived at the same 
time. There appear also to have been several species of ex- 


tinct Deer, among which Savin's Deer {Cervus savini) is re- 
markable for the flattened form of the "brow"-tine, while in the 
magnificent species (C. sedgwicJit) named after the well-known 
Professor of Geology at Cambridge the spreading antlers 
attained a complexity of structure unknown in any other 
member of the genus. Of other Ungulates, the Hippopotamus, 
the Wild Boar, and the Horse, date from the Forest-bed ; and 
the occurrence in this formation of the former species in 
association with the Musk-Ox, Glutton, and Walrus, presents 
us with another of the puzzles which almost break the heart of 
the palaeontologist. In addition to the Common Horse, there 
was an extinct species known as Steno's Horse {Equus stenonis), 
and distinguished by the small size of the so-called front inner 
pillar of the upper molar teeth, or the portion occupying the 

Fig. I. Right upper molar tooth of Steno's Horse." 

middle of the lower border of the annexed figure. In this 
respect the species in question was less specialised than the 
modern Horse, and makes a step in the direction of the under- 
mentioned Hipparion. On the Continent Steno's Horse occurs 
in beds of upper Pliocene age, where it was accompanied by 
the Etruscan Rhinoceros {Rhinoceros etuscus), as was also 
the case in the Forest-bed. This Etruscan -Rhinoceros 
differs from the Leptorhine and Megarhine Cavern species 
in the much lower crowns of its molar teeth, and is like- 
wise, therefore, a more generalised type. So far as can be 


determined, the Mammoth does not appear to have come 
into existence at the period of the Forest-bed; but the so- 
called Straight-tusked Elephant (^Elephas antiquus) was abun- 
dant, as well as a third species (E. meridionalis), unknown 
in the higher deposits. This southern Elephant, which takes 
its name from its occurrence in the upper Pliocene strata of 
the Val d'Arno, attained enormous dimensions, and is charac- 
terised by the smallness of the height of the crowns of the 
molar teeth in comparison with their width, as well as by the 
large size and lozenge-like form of the discs of ivory enclosed 
by the enamel-plates on their grinding surface, and the width 
of the intervening spaces of cement. The enamel-plates them- 
selves are very thick and smooth, being almost completely 
devoid of the puckerings characterising those of the Mammoth. 
Although anyone can see the difference between a typical 
molar of the southern Elephant and one of the Mammoth, 
some teeth of the former are very like certain of those of the 
Straight-toothed Elephant, while some of the latter come very 
close to those of the Mammoth. It is, therefore, advisable in 
determining the teeth of fossil Elephants to seek the aid of a 
specialist. It may be added that remains of the southern 
Elephant have been met with in a remarkable deposit at Dew- 
lish, in Dorsetshire, which must consequently be correlated 
either with the Forest-bed or the upper Crags. 

Among the smaller Mammals we find the Rodents well re- 
presented in the Forest-bed, some of the species still existing in 
Britain, while others are now confined to the Continent, and a 
few are extinct. In the former class we have the Squirrel, the 
Wood-Mouse (Mus sylvaticus), and the Bank- Vole (Microhis 
glareolus) ; and in the second the Beaver, the continental Field- 
Vole {_M. arvalis), and the Siberian Vole (J/, gregalis) ; while 
of the extinct forms the Giant Beaver ({Trogontherium cuvieri) 
indicates a genus characteristic of this fortiiation ^nd the upper 


Pliocene, and a Vole {M. intermedius) intermediate in size 
between the Water- Vole and Field- Vole differs from both in 
having distinct roots to the molar teeth. In the Insectivorous 
Order we have the Mole, and the Common and Pigmy Shrews, 
as representatives of the existing British Fauna ; while the 
Russian Desman (Myogale moschata) is now found only in 
the districts between the rivers Don and Volga, where it leads 
an aquatic life, not unlike that of our Water- Vole, save that 
its habits are insectivorous instead of herbivorous. 

The few Cetacean remains from the Forest-bed appear all 
referable to existing forms, and indicate the same mixture of 
southern and northern forms as characterises the land Fauna. 
Among these are the southern Right Whale {Balcena australis), 
a large Fin-Whale (Balcsnopterd), the Sperm-Whale — which 
still occasionally straggles as far north as Britain — tlie Killer, 
or Grampus (Orca gladiator), the False Killer (Pseudorca cras- 
sidens) — originally described from a skull from the fens near 
Stamford, but subsequently found hving in the North Sea, — 
the Arctic Narwhal (Monodon monoceros), and White Whale 
{Delphinaplerus leucas), the Common Dolphin, the Bottle- 
nosed Dolphin, and the Porpoise. 

We now come to the shelly deposits of the east coast, locally 
known by the term of " Crags," a name which has been adopted 
into geological nomenclature. These beds admit of a three- 
fold division, namely, the Norwich, Fluvio-Marine, or Mam- 
maliferous Crag, the Red Crag, and the Coralline, or White 
Crag. The former, which is partly of fresh-water and partly of 
marine origin, shows a Molluscan Fauna of a decidedly northern 
type, and has at its base a bone-bed in which Mammalian re- 
mains occur in considerable quantities. The Red Crag takes 
its name from the colour of its sandy beds, and likewise con- 
tains a bone-bed in which the fossils are mainly converted into 
phosphate of lime, and are thus valuj^ble gs a source of arli- 


ficial manure. Although its Molluscs are generally of a northern 
type, this feature is less marked than in the Norwich Crag. 
The lowest, or Coralline Crag, which is generally of a light 
colour, takes its name from the number of species of Polyzoa 
found in these beds j its Molluscan Fauna indicating warmer 
conditions than those prevailing during the deposition of the 
upper members of the series. 

One of the features of the Mammalian Fauna of the crags 
is the occurrence of remains of Mastodons, which are quite 
unknown in the higher beds, and the comparative rarity of true 
Elephants ; while still more noticeable is the abundance of the 
remains .of Cetaceans, referable to many species and genera. 
Although some of the Crag Mammals belong to existing 
species, the great majority are extinct, and a small propor- 
tion belong to genera no longer existing. It is probable that 
the greater number of the Mammals found in these beds belong 
to species which were living during the time of their deposition, 
although a few may have been derived from antecedent Miocene 
beds. Certain specimens are, however, met with which have 
clearly been washed out from the London clay cr other older 
Tertiary formations ; and these, which may generally be recog- 
nised by their water-worn condition, will be omitted from our 
survey. Although the Mammals obtained from the different 
crags are by no means always the same, it will be convenient 
to treat of the whole series collectively. 

Among the most difScult fossils to determine specifically are 
detached teeth of the Cats, and certain such specimens from 
the Red Crag, which have been regarded as indicating an extinct 
species, are so like the corresponding teeth of the Leopard that 
it would be hazardous to say they do not belong to that animal, 
although, on the other hand, it would be equally rash to say 
positively that such was the case. Whether a Sabre-tooth occurs 
in these deposits is uncertain ; but there is no doubt as to the 


existence in that epoch of the Striped Hyaena (Hycena striata), 
of Northern Africa and India, as several well-preserved teeth 
have been obtained from the Red Crag. The occurrence of this 
species in the Crag, and its replacement in the Forest-bed and 
Cavern Period by the Spotted Hysena, is one of those remark- 
able facts in distribution which we have at present no means 
of explaining. Both the Wolf and the Fox appear to date 
from the period of the Red Crag, while the Polecat apparently 
occurs in the still earlier Coralline Crag. The Common Otter 
seems, however, to be of more modern origin, since a member 
of the same genus from the Norwich Crag, and a second from 
the Red Crag seem to be both extinct. By far the most remark- 
able of the Red Crag Carnivores is the Giant Panda {y£lurus 
anglicus), at present known only by an upper molar and a frag- 
ment of the lower jaw with the last tooth, since the^enus to 
which it belongs is represented elsewhere solely by the Panda 
or Cat-Bear {/E. fulgens) of the South-eastern Himalaya. The 
existing Panda, which is an animal about the size of a Fox, 
with a bright red coat and long bushy tail, is of especial interest 
as being the sole Old World representative of the Raccoons, 
and is characterised by the peculiarly complex structure of the 
upper molar teeth and the remarkably curved form of the lower 
jaw. Since the Crag fossils present precisely the same charac- 
ter, there can be no doubt of their having belonged to an ani- 
mal of the same genus, which was, however, double the size of 
its existing representative. That a creature so isolated and 
peculiar as the Himalayan Panda should be represented by a 
closely-allied but gigantic species which lived in Britain in 
company with the Wolf and the Fox, is one of the most un 
expected facts revealed by palaeontological investigation. 

So far as can be determined, there is no evidence of the 
existence of true Bears in the Crag, and it is probable that both 
the Cave-Bear and the Brown Bear do pot antedi-tte the Forest 


bed, although an extinct species occurs in the Upper Pliocene 
of the Continent. In the Red Crag the place of these animals 
is taken by a huge Carnivore known as the Hycsnarctus, which 
was in many respects intermediate between Bears and Dogs, 
the upper molar teeth, as shown in the accompanying cut, 
being shorter and squarer than those of the former, while the 
cainassial or flesh-teeth were of a cutting type more like those 
of the latter. Species of the same genus occur in the Pliocene 
and Miocene formations of the Continent, as well as in the 
Indian Pliocene. A Walrus {Trichechiis /iz^^/^jy/), apparently 
identical with the Forest-bed form, as well as two species of 
Seals, one of which is assigned to an extinct genus {Fhocanella), 

Fig. 2. Last upper molar tooth of the Hycmarctus. 

complete the list of the Carnivores of the Red Ciag ; and it may 
be added that the occurrence of the former is not out of har- 
mony with the climatic condition indicated by the Molluscs. 

Neither Oxen, Musk-Ox, Sheep, or Goats are known from 
the Crag ; but a Gazelle, apparently extinct, from the Norwich 
Crag is of considerable interest as indicating the probable 
existence in England at that period of open, more or less 
desert plains like those frequented by the majority of the exist- 
ing members of that group. In contrast to this paucity of 
Hollow-horned Ruminants is the abundance of Stags, which are 
especially common in the Norwich Crag, and for the most part 
belong to types unlike any now existing, although Falconer's 
Deer {C. fakoneri) was near akin to the Fallow Deer. Among 

3i6 Lloyd's natural history. 

the most peculiar is a species named C. verfkornis, character- 
ised by its short and thick antlers, in which the cylindrical 
" brow "-tine curves downwards over the forehead, while above 
it are two oval tines, and superiorly the beam becomes flattened 
and expanded into a crown of two points. The Pigs were 
represented by two extinct species, one of which was nearly 
allied to, if not identical with, the gigantic Sus erymanthius 
from the Pliocene deposits of Attica ; while the smaller one 
has been identified with another continental species known as 
S. palmocharus. 

Among the Odd-toed Ungulates, true Horses seem very 
rare, although Steno's Horse, alluded to above as char- 
acteristic of the Forest-bed, has been recorded from the 
Norwich Crag. Three-toed Horses of the genus Hipparion 
were, however, common in the Red Crag ; their upper 
molar teeth, as shown in the accompanying figure, being 

Fig. 3. Lell upper molar tooth of Three-toed Horse {Hipparion). 

always distinguishable at a glance by the isolation of the 
antero-internal from the enamel-folds of the centre of the 
crown. The Red Crag Rhinoceroses are quite distinct from 
those of the overlying beds, one being identical with the Horn- 
less Rhinoceros incisivus of the continental Pliocene, while it is 
possible that a second may be the same as a Two-horned form 
(/?. schleiermacheri), which is apparently nearly allied to the 
living Sumatran species, having, like the Hornless forms, large 
tusks in the lower jaw. The occurrence of a Tapir in the Red 


Crag assists in explaining the present anomalous distribution of 
these animals ; one species of which is Malayan, while all the 
rest are South American. Although the Straight-tusked Ele- 
phant occurs in the Norwich Crag, while the southern Elephant 
dates from the subjacent Red Crag, the commonest Probosci- 
deans of the period under consideration were Mastodons, 
which, it is scarcely necessary to mention, differ from Ele- 
phants in the much lower crowns of their molar teeth, which 
are surmounted by low tubercles, frequently arranged in a 
small number of transverse ridges, separated from one another 
by more or less completely open valleys, this type of tooth 
being much more generalised than that of the Elephants. In 
one of the Crag Mastodons {M. arvernensis) the tubercles of 
the molars were arranged alternately, and the lower jaw was 
short and devoid of tusks ; in a second {M. longirostris) the 
same tubercles were arranged in transverse ridges, with their 
worn summits showing a trefoil pattern like those of the Hip- 
popotamus, the lower jaw beirig at the same time greatly pro- 
duced and armed with a large pair of tusks j while in the 
third {M. borsont) the ridges in most of the teeth were three, 
instead of four, m number, and retained much less distinct 
evidence of their constituent tubercles. 

The Rodents need not detain us long, but the Giant Beaver 
of the Forest-bed was sparingly represented in the Norwich 
Crag, while a smaller member of the same gtriMS {Trogontherium 
minus) is found in the subjacent beds ; the only other named 
Rodent being the extinct Vole referred to above, which ranges 
downwards from the Forest-bed to the Norwich Crag. 

The Whales and Dolphins of the Crag are so interesting that 
they would afford ample material for an article by themselves, 
and can, therefore, receive but scant notice in the limits of 
space available. Among the Whale-bone group there appear to 
have been no less than four species of Right Whales, one of 

3i8 Lloyd's natural historV. 

which {Balcena affinis) resembled the Greenland Whale, while a 
second {B. primigenid) was more nearly allied to the southern 
Right Whale, and a third (5. balmnopsis) was ch iracterised by 
its small dimensions. Hump-backs (Megaptera) were likewise 
well represented, as were also the Finners {Balcenoplera) ; while 
an extinct genus {Cetotherium) allied to the last, contains 
several species from the Crag. It may be mentioned here that 
all these AVhales are represented by the shell like tympanic 
bones of the inner ear, which differ remarkably in form in the 
various genera, and thus prove unerring guides both for generic 
and specific determination. Another type of these bones, re- 
markable for its egg-like form, serves to differentiate yet 
another extinct genus {Herpetocetus) of Whale-bone Whales. 
Turning to the Toothed Whales, a remarkable featjire in the 
Red Crag is the number of teeth indicating the occurrence of 
large forms more or less closely allied to the Sperm-Whale, 
but mostly distinguished by the presence of small caps of 
enamel. There were likewise smaller forms, one of which has 
long been known under the name of Physodon, although it was 
only recently that the writer was able to determine from the 
evidence of a Patagonian specimen that it differed from the 
Sperm-Whale in having teeth in the upper as well as in the 
lower jaw, and thus indicates a distinct and more primitive 
Family connecting the Sperm-Whale with the Dolphins. That 
a Bottle-nosed Whale nearly allied to the existing Hyperoodon 
rostratus inhabited British water during the Red Crag Period, is 
proved by an earbone in the Ipswich Museum ; and the num- 
ber of Beaked Whales living at the same time must have been 
extraordinarily great, from the profusion in which their dense 
bony beaks occur in these deposits. Most of them belong to 
the same genus (Mesoplodori) as that rare visitor to the English 
shores, Sowerby's Whale ; although a few pertain to an extinct 
gznvLS {Cho7iezipkius) characterised by the presence of an un- 


ossified tubular perforation running through the centre of 
the beak. A species of the extinct Shark-toothed Dolphins 
(Squalodon), together with a Killer ( Orca), Black-Fish ( GloUceph- 
alui), Dolphin (Delphinus), and Bottle-nosed Dolphin (7'ur- 
siops), completes the list of Crag Cetaceans. It may be added 
that the Sirenians, that is to say the Order to which belong the 
living Manati and Dugong, are represented by a skull of the 
extinct genus Halitherium from the Red Crag, but it is quite 
possible that this specimen may have been washed out of the 
Miocene beds. 

Although the Fauna of the Crag would have appeared strange 
and foreign even to an inhabitant of Britain during the early 
historic period, when the Wolf, Bear, Aurochs, and Beaver 
still lingered in our islands, could a cave-man have seen 
Britain as it existed during the period of the Crags, he would 
not have found the Fauna very different to the one with which 
he was acquainted, Mastodons taking the place of Elephants, 
and the Hornless Rhinoceros representing the Two-horned 
Woolly species, which he had probably been accustomed to 

III. The Lower Tertiary Period. 

Between the Coralline Crag and the Hempsted beds of the 
Isle of Wight, which belong to the middle portion of the 
Oligocene Period, and are the next Tertiary deposits met with 
in Britain, is a long gap, owing to the complete absence of all 
representatives of the Miocene and Upper Oligocene strata of 
the Continent. In consequence nf this imperfection of the 
record, instead of finding a gradual transition from the 
Mammals of the Crag Period as we puss downwards through 
the Miocene bed till we reach the Oligocene, we notice that 
the Mammalian Fauna of the lower Tertiaries ot Britain is 
utterly unlike that of the upper beds, and shows not the 

320 Lloyd's natural histoky. 

faintest trace of a connection therewith. In place of Deer, 
Rhinoceroses, Horses, and Pigs, we have, even in the highest 
beds of the lower Tertiaries, Ungulate Mammals of strange and 
unknown types, all of which belong to genvera long since 
extinct, and differ widely in the structure of their low-crowned 
cheek-teeth from all modern Mammals, although some appear 
to have approximated in external form to the Tapirs and others 
to the Pigs. Elephants and Mastodons were entirely unknown, 
and the place of Monkeys was filled by primitive Lemur-like 
creatures. All the indications afforded by the Flora and the 
MoUuscan Flora of the Oligocene and Eocene beds point to 
the conclusion that during those epochs Britain enjoyed a 
tropical or sub-tropical climate ; and, in some respects, its 
Fauna may be compared to that of Madagascar at the present 
day, although, of course, the genera of the Mammals, and in 
many cases even the families, were different. Indeed, of the 
land Mammals inhabiting Oligocene and Eocene England, 
only two groups can be referred to genera that still exist, one 
of these being now relegated to the New World. 

Lest the reader should begin to think that the whole' of the 
strata whose Fauna we have to consider in this part of our 
subject belong to nearly the same geological period, we hasten 
to point out the various groups into which they are divided, 
preparatory to the consideration of their Fauna. The highest 
of the Oligocene beds in Britain are those forming the steep 
clay cliffs on the western side of the Isle of Wight, in the 
neighbourhood of Yarmouth, and termed the Hempsted beds, 
from a village of that name which is situated upon them. 
These belong to the middle portion of the Oligocene period, 
and have a Fauna similar to that of certain beds at Ronzon, 
near Puy-en-Velay, in the Haute Loire. Next in descending 
order are the Bembridge beds of the Hampshire basin, whose 
Fauna corresponds with that of the gypsum beds on which 


Paris stands, and which are consequently assigned to the 
lower part of the Oligocene ; the beds of Hordwell, in Hamp- 
shire, and Headon, in the Isle of Wight, likewise belonging to 
the same great division. The clays of Barton, in Hampshire, 
which, like those next mentioned, unfortunately yield scarcely 
any Mammalian remains, bring us to the upper portion of the 
Eocene Period ; while the older clays of Bracklesham, in 
Sussex, are assigned to the middle division of the same epoch. 
Better known than these is the London clay, forming the 
upper portion of the Lower Eocene, and yielding several types 
of Mammals ; beneath which are the unfossiliferous Woolwich 
and Reading beds, resting on the chalk. Before proceeding 
to the consideration of the Fauna of these various beds, it may 
be observed that Mammalian remains are for the most part 
rare and fragmentary, and that for a full knowledge of the 
extent of the Fauna of the period, and the structure of its com- 
ponent items, we have to depend largely upon the discoveries 
made on the Continent or in the United States, both of which 
are more favoured than Britain in regard to the preservation 
of early Tertiary Mammals. In our survey of the Fauna of all 
these beds, it will be more convenient to treat of the animals 
according to their zoological position, indicating the different 
horizons in which they severally occur. 

At the present day Lemurs are chiefly characteristic of 
Madagascar, although likewise occurring in Africa, and also 
represented in south-eastern Asia, but in the Oligocene Period 
they were abundant in Europe. One of these early Lemurs 
was described from the Hordwell beds as fir back as the year 
1844 under the name of Microchcerus, but it is only recently 
that its true affinities have been recognised. Not much larger 
than a Squirrel, this creature approximated in the structure of 
its skull to the African Lemurs known as Galagos, but differed 
from all the existing members of the group in that the lower 


tusk was formed by the canine tooth and not by the first tooth 
of the premolar series. Still more different from any living 
Lemur was the Oligocene Adapts, first described from France, 
and regarded as an Ungulate, but subsequently recognised 
from the Hordwell beds. It differs from all modern Lemurs 
in the presence of four pairs of pre-molar teeth in each jaw, 
and one of the species attained a comparatively large size, its 
skull measuring upwards of 4 inches in length. 

In Madagascar, Lemurs are now accompanied by many 
kinds of Insectivores, and it is, therefore, not surprising to find 
a member of that order in the Hordwell beds. This animal 
(Necrogymnurd), instead of being allied to the Malagasy Insec- 
tivores, appears, however, to have been related to the Gymnura 
of Borneo, which may be described as a long-tailed Hedge- 
hog without spines, and therefore somewhat Rat-like in general 
appearance. Civets likewise form an important element in the 
modern Malagasy Fauna, and the Hordwell Lemurs were ac- 
companied by a member of that group assigned to the existing 
African and Oriental genus Viverra, which includes the true 
Civets. With the exception of the Opossums, this Civet is 
the only terrestrial Mammal from the earlier British Tertiaries 
which can be referred to a still living genus. The other early 
British Carnivores belong to an extinct group known as the 
Creodonts, which disappeared with the close of the Oligocene 
Period. They differ from modern Carnivores in that all tfieir 
molar teeth were furnished with sharp cutting blades, instead 
of a single pair pf cheek-teeth in each jaw being specially 
modified for cutting with a scissor-like action. In their denti- 
tion these primitive Carnivores approximate, indeed, both to 
the Insectivores and the Marsupials, and they are undoubtedly 
far more generalised types than the existing members of the 
order to which they belong. While some were not larger than 
a Fox, others fully equalled the dimensions of the largest 
Bears. In Britain they are represented by one genus [Ilyceno- 


doii) from the Hordwell beds, by a second {Fferodon) from the 
Bembridge limestone, and a third {Argillotherium) from the 
London cla}'. The last is, however, only known by an imper- 
fect skull without the teeth, and may prove to be identical with 
one of the foreign genera. 

Passing on to the Hoofed Order, one of the most interesting 
of the Even-toed section is the Dichodon of the Hordwell and 
Headon beds, as being the only early British Ungulate having 
the upper molar teeth with the four crescentic columns char- 
acterising the true Ruminants, to the ancestors of which group 
it was probably more or less closely allied. Connecting these 
early Ruminant-like forms with the ancestors of the Pigs is the 
Hyopotamus of the Hempsted beds, in which the upper molars 
were of the same general type as those of the Anoplothere 
(represented in Fig. A of our illustration, p. 324), although the 
whole form of the creature was more Pig-like, the skull being 
long and narrow, with large tusks, separated by an interval both 
from the incisor teeth in front and the pre-molars behind. The 
Hyopotamus was doubtless a four-toed animal like the Hippo- 
potamus, but an apparently allied form from the Headon beds 
takes its name of Diplopus from the reduction of the toes to 
two in each limb. In the allied Anthracotherium, of both the 
Hempsted and Headon beds, the molars lose to a great extent 
the crescentic structure of those of the Hyopotamus ; and in the 
gigantic Elotherium from Hempsted, and the smaller Charo- 
potamus of the Bembridge series, we come to Ungulates, having 
tubercular molars of the same general type as those of the 
Pigs, although in the upper jaw they retain the five-columned 
arrangement characterising the Hyopotamus, and have much 
squarer crowns than those of the Pigs. There can, however, 
be little doubt that in this group we are very close to the an- 
cestral stock from which the modern Pigs and Ruminants have 
alike originated. 

On the other hand, the Anoplotheres (Anoplotheriurri), which 

Y 2 



occur in the Lower Oligocene of the Isle of Wight, and the 
upper molars of which are shown in figure A of the accom- 
panying illustration, belong to what is called an madaptive 
type-that is, one which has died out without leaving descen- 
dants. These long-tailed animals, some of which reached the 
dimensions of an average-sized Mule, were remarkable for the 

Upper clieek-teeth of [A) Anoplothcrc, [B) Tateothere. and (C) Cory- 
fkoJon. A is from the right, while B and Care from the left side. 

circumstance that the teeth formed a continuous series round . 
the jaws, without any interruption by large tusks ; and they 
were further peculiar among the group to which they belong in 
that in some cases there were three toes to each foot, althcugh 


in Others they conformed to the more normal type in having 
but two. In these animals the pre-molar teeth (two of which 
are shown on the right side of the figure) were only slightly 
compressed, but the nearly allied small and delicately-built 
Xiphodons take their name from the extreme compression and 
secant form of the teeth in question, in which respect they 
recall the modern Chevrotains, or Mouse-Deer. Whether the 
Xiphodons are really British it is not clear, although a skull 
from the Red Crag, evidently derived from an older structure, 
has been assigned to them. The large size of the " tear-pit," 
or lachrymal fossa in front of the eye, has suggested for another 
member of this group, having teeth of the Anoplothere type, 
the name of Dacrytherium, the English representative of the 
genus having been originally described from the Hordwell and 
Headon beds under the name of Dichobune. 

This completes our list of the Even-toed Ungulates, and we 
proceed to notice the few early Tertiary British representatives 
of the Odd-toed group, or those in which the toe corresponding 
to the human middle finger is symmetrical in itself and larger 
than either of the others. To this group belong the well-known 
Palaeotheres {Palceotherium), so abundant in the gypsum of the 
Paris basin, and more sparingly represented in the Headon and 
Bembridge beds of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. The 
structure of the cheek-teeth of a medium-sized representative 
of this genus is exhibited in figure £ of the illustration ; and 
in general form these animals somewhat resembled Tapirs, al- 
though the neck was relatively longer, and there were but three 
toes to each foot. It was long considered that the Palaeotheres 
were on the ancestral line of the Horse, but this view is now 
discarded, and tliey are considered, like the Anoplotheres, to 
represent an inadaptive type. A much smaller animal, de- 
scribed as Anchilophus, of which teeth have been found in the 
Bembridge limestone, is, however, either very close to, or ac- 


tually on the ancestral line in question. Its upper molar teeth 
are not very unlike those of the Palseotheres, but have the 
oblique cross-crests narrower, less inclined, and separated by a 
more open valley. Although very common in the Middle and 
Lower Eocene beds of the Continent, the large genus of Odd- 
toed Ungulates known as Lophiodon are represented in Britain 
only by a single species from the Bracklesham beds. While 
their teeth are of the same general type as those of the Palse- 
otheres and Anchilophus, the upper molars differ in having the 
outer wall formed by sub-conical columns instead of flattened 
lobes, thereby resembling the corresponding teeth of the modern 
Tapirs. Although most, if not all of these Lophiodons died out 
without giving origin to any posterity, the case is very different 
with the nearly allied little Hyracotherium, originally described 
upon the evidence of an imperfect skull from the London clay 
at Heme Bay, since this genus is one of the earliest to which 
the ancestry of the Horse can be traced. Thanks to the per- 
fect preservation of specimens discovered in the United States, 
where they were long known under a totally different name, we 
now know that the Hyracothere was a small four-toed animal, 
intimately connected with a still earlier five-toed type, while 
superiorly it leads on to the Anchilophus and certain allied 
Miocene continental forms, and thus to the modern Horse. 
The Hyracothere received its name from an idea that it was re- 
lated to the existing Hyrax; and it is a curious comment on the 
early history of palaeontology to notice that the lower teeth of 
a second species obtained from the Lower Eocene sand of 
Kyson, in Suffolk, were at first supposed to pertain to a 

If the pateontological riches of the United States have 
helped in the elucidation of the true affinities of the Hyraco- 
there, still more markedly is this the case with regard to the 
much larger Ungulate originally described on the evidence of 


detached teeth from the London clay under the name of Cory- 
phodon, in allusion to the strongly marked oblique crest sur- 
mounting their crowns. From nearly complete skeletons dis- 
covered in America, we know that the Coryphodons, which 
were animals with somewhat the proportions of a Bear, although 
furnished with a well-developed tail, differed from both the Odd- 
toed and Even-toed Ungulates in having five toes to each of the 
very short and wide feet, and likewise in the structure of the 
feet themselves. The molar teeth, too, as shown in figure Cof the 
illustration (p. 324), are likewise quite different from those of any 
living member of the Order, and are remarkable for the extreme 
shortness of their crowns. The nearest allies of these animals 
were the Uintatheres of North America, distinguished by the 
presence of a large pair of tusks in the upper jaw, and the 
two groups collectively constitute the order of Short-footed 

One remarkable palate of a skull from the London clay 
of Heme Bay, preserved in the museum at York, and described 
under the name of Platych(zrops, has given rise to some amount 
of discussion as to its serial position. It has been suggested, 
however, that it belongs to a peculiar group of Mammals from 
the North American Eocene, which combine many of the 
characteristics of the Ungulates, Carnivores, and Rodents. Of 
the latter order there are but small traces in the lower British 
Tertiaries J but some lower jaws from the Hordwell and Headon 
beds have been referred to the genus Theridomys, which is of 
common occurrence in the corresponding continental strata, 
and indicates an extinct Family of the Order Whales are like- 
wise rare, but from the Barton beds there has been obtained a 
skull belonging to the peculiar group of Zeuglodonts, which are 
not improbably the ancestral types whence the modern toothed 
Whales have been evolved. Unlike all existing members of 
the Order, these extinct Cetaceans had double-fanged moLir 


teeth, whose compressed cro.wns had the edges surmounted by 
well-marked serrations ; and, what is more remarkable, their 
bodies appear to have been invested with a bony armour com- 
parable to that of Crocodiles. 

The last of the Tertiary Mammals that we have to notice are 
Opossums {Didelphys), remains of which have been detected 
both in the Hordwell beds and in the Lower Eocene sand of 
Kyson. It is almost superfluous to add that Opossums, which 
in Oligocene and Eocene times were widely spread over 
Europe, are now confined to America, where they attain their 
greatest development in that half of the continent lying to the 
south of the isthmus of Darien. The relegation of the origin- 
ally European genus to the New World is somewhat analagous 
to the banishment of the nearest living allies of the British 
Jurassic Mammals to Australia, and is a well-marked instance 
of that gradual disappearance of the lower types of Mammalian 
life from the western regions of the Old World, with the 
development of higher forms, which seems to have been such a 
characteristic feature in the evolution of the presenf Faunas 
of the globe. 


abietum, Martes. io6. 
acutus, Delphinus. 294. 

Lagenorhynchus. 294 
Adapis. 322. 
iElurus anglicus. 314. 

fulgens. 314. 
affinis, Balxna. 318. 

Cervus. 242. 
africanus, Vespertilio. 49. 
agrestis, Arvicola. 202. 

Microtus. 5, 202. 

Mus. 202, 
albicans, Balsena. 284. 
albiiostris, Lagenorhynchus. 293. 
albus, Lepus. 225. 
Alces latifrons'. 309. 

machlis. 3. 
alexandrinus, Mus. 191, 192. 
alopex, Canis. 98. 

Vulpes. 99. 
altiyolans, Vespertilio. 31. 
amphibia, Arvicola. 216. 
amphibius, Arvicola. 216. 

Microtus. 5, 216. 

Mus. 216. 
Amphisorex linneanus. 81. 

pennanti. 81. 
Anchilophus. 325, 326. 
andamanensis, Mus. 192. 
anglicus, .lElurus. 314. 
annuUata, Phoca. 154. 
Anoplothere. 324. 
Anoplotherium. 323. 
Antelope, Saiga. 300, 305. 
antiquitatis, Rhinoceros. 304. 
antiquorum , Balsena. 267. 

Balsenoptera. 267. 

-Fhysalus. 267. 

antiquus, Elephas. 307. 
aquatica, Arvicola. 216. 
araneus, Sorex. 75, ^^• 
Arctic Fox. 300, 302. 
Arctic Narwhal. 312. 
arcticus, Lepus. 225. 
arcticus, Rosraarus. 161. 
arctos, Ursus. 141. 
arctus, Ursus. 5, 141. 
Argillotherium. 323, 
arvalis, Microtus. 3,203,311. 
Arvicola. 202. 

agrestis^ 202. 

amphii.a, 216. 

amphibius. 2 1 6. 

aquatica. 216. 

ater. 216. 

glareolus. 213. 

pratensis. 213. 

riparia. 213. 
ater, Arvicola. 216. 
auritus, Plecotus. 4, 22. 

Vespertilio. 22. 
Aurochs. 235, 305. 
australis, Bala:na. 260, 312. 
avellanarius, Mus. 176. 

Muscardinus. 5, 176. 

Myoxus. 176. 

Badger. 5, 125. 

Common. 126. 
Baleena. 260. 

albicans, 284. 

afHnis. 318. 

antiquorum. 267. 

australis. 260, 312. 

balsenopsis. 318. 

biscayensis. 260. 



Ealsena albicans. 2S4. 

longimana. 262. 

musculus. 266. 

physalus. 266, 267. 

primigenia, 318. 

rostrata. 271, 276. 
Batenidje. 259. 
balsenopsis, Baloena. 31 8. 
Balsenoptera. 264, 312, 318. 

borealis. 268. 

laticeps. 268. 

musculus. 266, 267, 

physalus. 267. 

rorqual. 267. 

rostrata. 271. 

sibbaldi. 264, 265. 
Bank- Vole. 5,213,311. 
barbarus, Cervus. 240. 
Barbastelle Bat. 4, 26. 
Barbastellus communis. 26. 

daubentonii. 26. 
barbastellus, Synotus. 4, 26. 

Vespertilio. 26. 
barbata, Phoca. 309. 
Bat, Barbastelle. 4, 26. 

Bechstein's. 4, 48. 

Common. 36. 

Daubenton's. 4, 43. 

Great. 31. 

Greater Horse-shoe. 4, 18. 

Hairy-armed. 4, 35. 

Lesser Horse-shoe. 4, 20. 

Long-eared. 4, 22. 

Mouse-coloured. 49. 

Noctule. 4. 

Particoloured. 30. 

Pipistrelle. 4. 

Reddish-grey. 4, 45. 

Rough-legged. 42. 

Serotine. 4. 

Whiskered. 5, 51. 
Bats, Leaf-nosed. 16. 

Typical. 21. 
Beaked Whales. 279. 
Bear, Brown. 5, 141. 

Cat. 314- 

Cave. 302. 

Grizzly. 302. 
Bearded Seal. 309. 
Bears, True. 141. 

Beaver. 5, 311. 

European. 172 

Giant. 311. 
Bechstein's Bat. 4, 48. 
bechsteini, Vespertilio. 4, 48. 
Beluga catodon. 284. 

leucas. 248. 
bicolor, Sorex. 81. 
bidens, Mesoplodon. 279, 2S0. 

Physeter. 279. 
bidontatus, Delphinus. 276. 
biscayensis, Batena. 260. 
Bison. 305, 309. 
Black Fish. 289. 
Black Rat. 5, 191. 
blythii, Vespertilio. 49. 
Boar, Wild. 6, 255. 
bbop'', Balcena. 262. 

I'.iegaptera. 262. 
borealis, BalEenoptera. 268. 

Cystophora. 159. ^ 

Lepus. 225. 
Bos. 235. 

bison. 305. 

longifrons. 235. 

primigenius. 235. 

scoticus. 235. 

taurus. S, 235, 305. 
Bottle-nose, Common. 276. 
Bottle-nosed Dolphin. 296, 297, 

Whales. 276. 
Bovidae. 23 1. 
brevimanus, Plecotus. 22. 
Brick-Earth Period. 29S. 
britannicus, Macleayius. 260. 
Brown Bear. 5, 141. 

Rat. S, 195. 
browni, Cervus. 306. 
Brown's Fallow Deer. 306. 
butzkopf, Delphinus. 276. 

Hyperoodon. 277. 

caffra, Felis. 94. 
Caffre Cat. 94. 
Callocephalus discolor. 154. 

groenlandicus. 156. 

vitulinus. 148. 
canadensis, Cervus. 242. 
canescens, Lepus. 225. 



Canidre. 94. 
Canis. 95. 
alopex. 98. 
lagopus. 302. 
lupus. 5' 95- 
vulpes. S, 98. 
Cape Hunting-dog. 302. 
caproea, Capreolus. 249. 
caprea, Capreolus. 6, 249, 307. 
capreolus, Capreolus. v. 
Capreolus. v. 
caprsea. 249. 
caprea. 6, 249, 307. 
capreolus. v. 
Carnivora. 84. 

Pinnipedia. 143. 
cashmiriensis, Cervus. 242. 
Castoridce. 172. 
Castor. 172. 
europaeus. 172. 
canadensis. 173. 
fiber. 5, 172. 
fossilis. 172. 
Cat, Caffre. 94. 
Domestic, 94. 
Egyptian. 94. 
True. 86,87. 
Wild. 5,88. 
Cat-Bear. 314. 
catodon, Beluga. 284. 
Catodon macrocephalus. 274. 
Cattle, Park. 235. 

Wild. S. 
catus, Felis. 5, 88. 
Cave-Bear. 302. 
Cave-Hyjena. 301. 
Cavern Period. 298. 
cavirostris, Ziphius. 282. 
Cervidje. 238. 
Cervus, 239. 
alfinis. 242. 
barbarus. 240. 
browni. 306. ■ 

canadensis. 242. 
cashmiriensis. 242. 
dama. J, 246. 
elaphus. 5, 240, 306, 
eustephanus. 242. 
falcoueri. 315. 
giganteus. 306. 

Cervus, maral. 242. 

savini. 310. 

sedgwicki. 310. 

tarandus. 253. 

thoroldi. 242. 

verticornis., 316. 

xanthopygus. 242.- 
Cetacea. 257. 
Cetotherium. 318. 
Chiroptera. 13. 
Choneziphius. 318. 
ciliatus, Sorex. 81. 
Common Badger. 126. 

Bat. 36. 

Bottle-nose. 276. 

Dolphin. 296, 312. 

Dormouse. 176. 

Field-Vole. 5, 202. 

Hare. 5, 221. 

Hedge-hog. 56. 

Killer. 287. 

Mole. 64. 

Mouse. S, 188. 

Otter. 135. 

Roe. 249. 

Rorqual. 266. 

Seal. 148. 

Shrew. 5, 75. 

Squirrel. 167. 
communis, Barbaslellus. 26. 

Phocaena. 286. 
Continental Field-Vole. 3,311. 
Coryphodon. 327. 
Crag Mastodons. 317. 
crassidens, Pseudorca. 312. 
Cricetus. 202. 
cristata, Cystophora. 159. 

Phoca. 159. 
cristatus, Stemmatopus. 159. 
crocuta, Hyaena. 301. 
Crossopus. 80. 
fodiens. 5, 80, 81. 
remifer. 81. 
cultridens, Machaerodus. 309. 
cuniculus, Lepus. 5, 229. 
Cuniculus torquatus. 3. 
cuvieri. Grampus. 291. 
Trogontherium . 311. 
Cuvierius latirostris. 265. 

Cuvierius sibbaldi. 265. 



Cuvier's Whale. 282. 
Cynoelurus. 87. 
Cystophora borealis. 159. 
cristata. 159. 

Dacrytherium. 325. 
dama, Cervus. 5, 246. 
Dama vulgaris. 246. 
darjilingensis, Synotus. 26. 
dasycneme, Vespertilio. 6, 42. 
daubentonii, Barbastellus. 26. 

Sorex. 80. 
daubentoni, Vespertilio. 4, 43. 
Daubsnton's Bat. 4, 43. 
decumanus, Mus. S' 'SS- 
Deer. 238, 239. 

Falconer's. 315. 

Fallow. 5, 246, 306. 

Irish. 306. 

Red. 5, 240, 306. 

Roe. 6, 249, 307. 

Savin's. 310. 
Uelphinapterus 284. 

beluga. 284. 

leucas. 284, 312. 
Delphinus. 295, 319. 

acutus. 294. 

bidentatus. 276. 

butzkopf. 276. 

delphis. 296. 

diodon. 277, 

eschrichtii. 294. 

gladiator. 287. 

globiceps. 289. 

griseus. 261. 

leucas. 284. 

leucopleurus. 294. 

melas. 289. 

orca. 287. 

phocsena. 286. 

rissoanus. 291. 

sowerbiensis. 279. 

sowerbyi. 279. 

truncatus. 297. 

tursio. 297. 
delphis, Delphinus. 296. 
Desmans. 62. 
Desman, Russian. 3, 312. 
Dichobune. 325. 

Didelphys. 328. 
diodon, Delphinus, 277. 
■Diodon sowerbii. 279. 
discolor, Callocephalus. 154. 

Scotophilus. 30. 

Vespertilio. 30. 

Vesperugo. 6, 30. 
Dogs. 94. 
Dolphins. 282,319. 

Bottle-nosed. 296, 297, 312. 

Common. 296,312. 

Shark-toothed. 319. 

Short-beaked. 292. 

Typical, 295. 

White-beaked. 293. 

White-sided. 294. 
Domestic Cats. 94. 
Dormouse. 5. 

Common. 176. 

Egyptian Cat. 94. • 
elaphus, Cervus. 5, 240, 306. 
Elephant, Straight -tusked. 307 ,311 
Elephas antiquus. 307, 

meridionalis. 311. 

primigenius, 307. 
Elk. 309. 

emarginatus, V:spertilio. 43, 44. 
Equus jtenonis. 313. 
Erinaceidse. SS> 62. 
Erinaceus. 55. 

europseus. 5, 56. 
Ermine. 1 16. 
errainea, Fxtorias. 116. 

Mustela. 5, 11 5. 
ermiaeus, Putorius. 11 5. 
eryminthius, Sus. 316 
eschrichtii, Delphinus. 294. 
etriscus, Rhinoceros. 310. 
europsea, Talpa. 5, 64. 
European Beaver. 172. 
europceus. Castor. 172. 

Erinaceus. Si S6- 

Lepus. 5,221. 
eustephanas, Cervus. 242. 
Evotomys glareola. 213. 

foetidus, Pagomys. 154. 
falconcri, Cervus. 315. 



Falconer's Deer. 315. 
Fallow Deer, Brown's. 306. 
Fallow Deer. 5, 246, 306. 
False Killer. 312. 
Felidse. 86. 
Felis. 87. 
Felis caffra. 94. 

catus. 5, 88. 

pardus. 301. 

lynx. 301 . 
ferox, Sus. 255. 
ferrum-equmum, Rhinolophus. 

Vespertilio. 18. 
fiber, Castor. 5, 172. 
Field- Vole, Common. 5, 202. 

Continental. 3,311. 
Tinners. 264,318. 
Fin-Whale. 312. 
flavescens, Vulpes. 99. 
flavicollis, Mus. 5, 188. 
fodiens, Crossopus. 5, 80, 81. 

Sorex. So. 
foetida, Fhoca. 154. 
foetidus, Futorius. 1 1 1. 
foina, Mustela. 106. 
Foetorius erminea. 1 16. 

putorius. III. 
vulgaris. 122. 
fossilis, Castor. 172. 
Foxes. 5, 94, 98. 
Fox, Arctic. 300, 302. 
fulgens, iElurus. 314. 

Giant Beaver. 311, 

Panda. 314. 
giganteus, Cervus. 306. 
glacialis, Lepus. 225, 
gladiator, Delphinus. 2S7. 

Orca. 287, 312. 
glareola, Arvicola. 213. 

Evotomys. 213. 
glareolus, Arvicola. 213. 

Evotomys. 213. 

Microtus. 52, 213, 311. 

Mus. 213. 
glis, Myoxus. 177. 
Globicephala melas. 289. 
Globicephalus. 289, 319. 

Globicephalus melas. 289. 

swineval. 289. 
globiceps, Delphinus. 2S9. 
Glutton. 3, 300, 303. 
Grampus. 287, 290, 312. 

cuvieri. 291. 

griseus. 291. 

richardsoni. 291. 

rissoanus. 291. 

Risso's. 291 
Great Bat. 31. 
4, Greater Horse-shoe Bat. 4, 18. 
gregalis, Microtus. 30S, 311. 
gregarius, Mus. 202. 
Grey Seal. 145. 
griseus, Delphinus. 291. 

Grampus. 291. 

Halicha;rus. 145. 
Grizzly Bear. 302. 
grcenlandica, Phoca. 156. 
grcenlandicus, Callocephalus. 156. 

Pagophilus. 156. 
grypus, Halichser'us. 145, 148. 

Phoca. 145. 
Gulo luscus. 3, 303. 

Hairy-armed Bat. 4, 35. 
Ilalichaerus. 144. 

griseus. 145. 

grypus. 145, 148. 
Hare, Common. 5, 221. 

Mountain. 5, 225. 
Harp Seal. 156. 
Harvest-Mouse. 5, 182. 
Hedge-hogs. 55. 

Common. 56. 
Herpetocetus. 318. 
Heterodon sowerbiensis. 279. 

sowerbyi. 279. 
hibernicus, Lepus. 225. 

Mus. 195. 
Hipparion. 316. 

hipposiderus, Rhinolophus. 4, 20, 
hispida, Phoca. 154. 
Hooded Seal. 159. 
Hoont. 74. 

horribilis, Ursus. 142, 302. 
Horse-shoe Bat, Greater. 4, 18. 
Horse-shoe Bat, Lesser. 4, 20. 



Horse, Steno's. 310. 
Hump-backed A/\Tiale. 262. 
Hump-backs. 318. 
Hunting-dog, Cape. 302. 
Hunting Leopard. 87. 
huxleyi, Trichechus. 315. 
Hyaena, Cave. 301. 

Spotted. 302. 

Striped. 301, 302, 314. 
Hyeena crocuta. 301. 

striata. 314. 
HyKnarctus. 315. 
Hysenodon. 322. 
Uyperoodon. 276. 

butzkopf. 277. 

latifrons. 277. 

rostratum. 277. 

rostratus. 276, 277, 318. 
Hyracotherium. 326. 

incisivus. Rhinoceros. 316. 
indica, Lutra. 135. 
Insectivora. 53. 
Insectivores. 53. 
Irish Deer. 306. 

Killer. 312. 
Common. 207. 
False. 312. 

Lagenorhynchus. 292. 

acutus. 294. 

albirostris. 293. 
Lagomys. 300. 

pusillus. 308. 
lagopus, Canis. 302. 
laticeps, Balzenoptera. 268. 
latidens, Machcerodus. 301. 
latifrons, Alces. 309, 

Hyperbodon. 277. 
latirostris, Cuvierius. 265. 

Physalus. 265. 
Leaf-nosed Bats. 16. 
leisleri, Scotophilus. 35. 
leisleri, Vesperugo. 4, 35. 
Lemming. 3. 
Leopard, Hunting. 87. 
LeporidiE. 219. 
Leptorhine Rhinoceros. 304. 

leptorhinus, Rhinoceros. 304. 
Lepus. 220. 

albus. 225. 

arcticus. 225. 

borealis. 225. 

canescens. 225. 

cuniculus. 5, 229. 

europiEUS. 5> 221. 

glacialis, 225. 

hibernicus. 225. 

timidus. 5, 221, 225. 

variabilis. 225. 
Lesser Horse-shoe Bat. 4, 20. 

Rorqual. 271. 

Shrew. 5, 79. 
leucas. Beluga. 2S4. 

Delphinapterus. 284, 312. 

Delphinus. 284. 
leucopleurus, Delphinus. 294. 
limnophilus, Vespertilio. 42. 
linneanus, Amphisorex. 81. 
Long-eared Bat. 4, 22. 
longifrons, Bos, 235. 
longimana, Balxna. 262. 

Megaptera. 262. 
Lophiodon. 326. 
lupus, Canis. 5, 95. 
luscus, Gulo. 3, 303. 
Lutra. J 34. 

indica. 135. 

lutra. V. 

nair. 135. 

vulgaris. 5, 135. 
lutra, Lutra. v. 

Mustek. 135. 
Lycaon pictus. 302. 
Lynx. 301. 
lynx, Felis. 301. 

Machoerodus cultridens. 309. 
machlis, Alces. 3. 
Macleayius britannicus. 260. 
macrocephalus, Catodon. 274 

Physeter. 274. 
magnus, Vespertilio. 31, 
Mammals, A-.cient. 298. 
Mammoth, 307. 
maral, Cervus. 242. 
Marten. 104, 105. 



Marten, Pine. 5, 106. 
Martes abietum. io5. 

sylvatica, 106. 
martes, Mustela. 5, 106. 
Mastodons, Crag. 317. 
Megaptera. 262. 

bbops, 262. 

longimana. 262. 
Megarhine Rhinoceros. 304. 
megarhinus, Rhinoceros. 304. 
meia'!, Delphinus. 289. 

Globicephala. 289. 

Globicephalus. 2S9. 

Phocaena. 289. 
Meles. 125. 

meles. v. 

taxus. 5> '^^' 

vulgaris. 126. 
meles, Meles. v. 

Ursus. 126. 
meridionalis, Elephas. 311. 
Mesoplodon. 279, 318. 

bidens. 279, 280. 

sowerbiensis. 280. 
messorius, Mus. 182, 
Microchaerus. 321. 
Microtus. 201, 300. 

agrestis. 5, 202. 

amphibius. 5, 216. 

arvalis. 3, 302, 311. 

glareolus. 5, 213, 311. 

gregalis.. 308, 311. 

ratticeps. 308. 
minor, Rorqualus. 271. 
minutus, Mus. S> '^2- 

Sorex. 79. 
minus, Trogontherium. 317. 
Mole. 5, 66. 

Common, 64. 
monoceros, Monodon. 283, 312. 
Monodon. 283. 

monoceros. 283, 312. 
montanus, Vulpes. 98. 
moschata, Myogale. 3, 312. 
moschatus, Ovibos. 3, 305. 
Mouldiwarp. 74. 
Mountain Hare. J, 225. 
Mouse, Common. 188. 

Harvest. 5, 182. 

Mouse, Wood. 5, 49, 184, 311. 

Yellow-necked. 5, 188. 
Muridae. 180. 

murinus, Vespertilio. 6, 38, 48, 49. 
Mus. 181. 

agrestis, 202. 

alexandrinus. 191, 192. 

amphibius. 216. 

andamanensis. 192. 

avelUtnarius. 176. 

decumanus. 5, 195. 

flavicoUis. 5, 188. 

glareolus. 213. 

gregarius. 202. 

hibernicus. 195. 

messorius. 182. 

minutus. 5, 182. 

musculus. 5, 188. 

nitidus. 191, 192. 

rattus. 5, 191. 

rufescens. 191, 192. 

sylvaticus. 5, 184, 311. 
Muscardinus. 176. 

avellanarius. 176, 
muscardinus, Myoxus. 176. 
musculus, Balsena. 266. 

Balffinoptera. 267. 

Mus. S, 188. 
Musk-Ox. 3, 300, 305, 309. 
Mustela. 105, 106. 

erminea. 5, 116. 

foina. I06, 

lutra. 135. 

martes. 5, 106. 

putorius. 5, III. 

vulgaris. 5, 122. 

zibellina. 107. 
Mustelidoe. 86, 104, 105, 135, 

Myogale moschata. 3, 312. 
myotis, Vespertilio. 49. 
Myoxidas. 175. 
Myoxus avellanarius. 1 76. 

glis. 177. 

muscardinus, 176. 
mystacinus, Vespertilio. 5> 5'' 

nair, Lutra. 135. 
Narwhal. 283. 



Narwhal, Arctic. 312. 
Narwhalus vulgaris. 283. 
nattereri, Vespertilio. 4,45. 
Necrogymnura. 322. 
nitidens, Mus. 191, 192. 
noctula, Scotophilus. 31. 

Vespertilio. 31. 

Vesperugo. 4,31,35. 
Noctule. 31. 

Bat. 4. 
Northern Vole. 308. 
Nycteridse, 21. 

oedilis, Vespertilio. 43. 
Odoboenus rosmarus. 161. 
Opossums. 328. 
Orca. 287, 289. 

gladiator. 287, 312. 

latirostris. 287. 

orca, V. 

stenorhyncha. 287. 
orca, Orca. v. 

Phocjena. 287. 
Otter. 5, 104, 134. 

Common. 135. 
Ovibos moschatus. 3, 305. 
Ovis savini. 309. 
Ox, Musk. 3, 300, 305, 309. 
Oxen. 235. 

Pagomys foetidus, 154. 
Pagophilus groenlandicus. 136, 
Palaeothere. 324. 
pateochoerus, Sus. 316. 
Panda, Giant. 314. 
pardus, Felis. 301. 
Park Cattle. 235. 
Particoloured Bat. 30. 
pennanti, Amphisorex. 81, 
Phoca. 148. 

annulata. 154. 

barbata. 309. 

fcEtida. 154. 

grcenlandica. 156, 

grypus. 145. 

hispida. 154. 

variegata. 148. 

vitulina. 148. 
Phocsena. 285. 

communis. 286. 

Phoca;na melas. 289. 

orca. 287. 

phocaena. v. 
phocoena, Phocxna. v. 
Phocidse. 142, 144. 
Physalus antiquorum. 267. 
physalus, Balsena. 266, 267. 

Balsenoptera. 267. 
Physalus latirostris. 265. 

sibbaldi. 264. 
Physeter. 273. 

bidens, 279. 

macrocephalus. 274. 
Physeterid:e. 273 , 
Picas. 300. 

Siberian. 308. 

South Russian. 308. 
pictus, Lycaon. 302. 
Pilot-Whale. 289. 290, 291. 
Pine-Marten. 5, 106. 
Pinnipedia, Carnivora. 143. 
Pipistrelle. 36. 

Bat. 4. 
pipistrellus, Scotophilus. 37. 

Vesperugo. 4, 36. 
Platychserops. 327. 
Plecotus. 22, 26. 

aurittis. 4, 22. 

brevimanus. 22 . 
Polecat. 5, 105, io6, ill, 115. 
Porpoise. 282. 285. 

Common. 286. 
pratensis, Arvicola. 213. 
primigenia, Balsna. 318. 
primigenius, Bos. 235. 

Elephas. 307. 
Pseudorca crassidens. 312. 
Pterodon. 323. 
pusillus, Lagomys. 308. 
Putorius ermineus. 1 16. 

foetidus. III. 
putorius, Foetorius. III. 

Mustek. 5, III. 

vulgaris, iii, 122. 
pygmoeus, Sorex. 5, 79. 

Vespertilio. 37. 

Rabbit. 5, 229. 
Rangifer. 252, 253. 
tarandus. 31, 253, 307. 



Rat, Black. 5, 191. 

Brown. 5, 195. 
ratticeps, Microtus. 30S. 
rattus, Mus. 5, 191. 
Red Deer. S, 240, 306. 
Reddish-grey Bat. 4, 45. 
Reindeer. 3, 252, 253, 300, 307. 
remifer, Crossopus. 81. 

Sorex. 80. 
Rhinoceros antiquitatis, 304. 

etruscus. 310. 

incisivus. 316. 

leptorhinus. 304. 

megarhinus. 304. 

schleiermacheri. 316. 
Rhinoceros, Etruscan. 310. 

Woolly. 304. 
RhinolophidiE. 16, 21. 
Rhinolophus. 17. 

ferrum-equiniim. 4, 18. 

hipposiderus. 4, 20. 
richardsoni, Grampus. 291. 
Right Whales. 260,313. 
Ringed Seal. 154. 
riparia, Arvicola. 213. 
rissoanus, Delphinus. 291, 

Grampus. 291. 
Risso's Grampus. 291. 
Rodentia. 164. 
Roe-Deer. 6, 249, 307. 
Rorquals. 264. 
rorqual, Balxnoptera. 267. 
Rorqual, Common. 266. 

Lesser. 271. 

Rudolphi's. 268. 

Sibbald's. 284. 
Rorqualus minor. 271. 

sibbaldi. 264. 
Rosmarus arcticus. 161. 
rosmarus, Odobsenus. 161. 

Trichechus. 161. 
rostrata, Balsena. 271, 276. 

Balaenoptera. 271. 
rostratum, Hyperbodon. 277. 
rostratus, Hyperoodon. 276, 277, 

Rough-legged Bat. 42. 
Rudolphi s Rorqual. 268. 
rufescens, Mus. 191,192. 
Russian Desman. 3, 312. 

rusticus, Sorex. 79. 

Sabre-toothed Tiger. 309. 
Saiga Antelope. 300, 305. 
Saiga tartarica. 305. 
savini, Cervus. 310. 

Ovis. 309. 
Savin's Deer. 310. 
schleiermacheri, Rhinoceros. 316. 
Sciuridse. 166. 
Sciurus vulgaris. 5, 167. 
scoticus, Bos, 235. 

Urus. 235. 
Scotophilus discolor. 30. 

leislefi, 35. 

noctula. 31. 

pipistrellus. 37. 

serotinus. 28, 
scrofa, Sus. 6, 255. 
Seal, Bearded. 309, 

Common. 148. 

Grey. 145. 

Harp. 156. 

Hooded. 159. 

Ringed. 154. 
Seals, True. 142. 
sedgwicki, Cervus. 310. 
Serotine. 28. 

Bat. 4. 
serotinus, Scotophilus. 28. 

Vespertilio. 28. 

Vesperugo. 4, 28. 
Shark-toothed Dolphins. 319. 
Sheep. 309. 

Short-beaked Dolphins. 292. 
Shrew. 74 

Common. 5, 75. 

Lesser. 5, 79. 

True. 75. 

Water. 5, 80. 
sibbaldi, Baljenoptcra. 264, 265. 

Cuvietius, 265. 

Physeter. 264. 

Rorqualus. 264. 
Sibbald's Rorqual. 264. 
Siberian Picas. 308. 
Siberian Vole. 308,311. 
siligorensis, Vespertilio. 51. 
Sorex. 75. 

araneus. 75, 76. 



Sorex bicolor. 8i. 

ciliatus. 8i, 

daubentonii. 80. 

fodiens. 8y. 

minutus. 79. 

pygmseus. 5, 79. 

remifer. 80. 

rusticus. 79. 

telragonurus. 75. 
, vulgaris. 5, 75. 
Aoricida^. 74. 

Southern Right Whale. 260. 
South Russian Picas. 308. 
scwerbse, Diodon. 279. 
sowerbi, Diodon. 279. 
sowerbiensis, Delphinus. 279. 

Heterodon. 279. 

Mesoplodon. 280. 

Ziphius. 280 
sowerbyi, Delphinus. 279. 

Heterodon. 279. 
Sowerby's Whale. 279. 
spelxus, Strongyloceros. 240. 

Ursus. 302, 
Spermophilus. 300, 308. 
Sperm-Whales. 273, 274, 312. 
Spotted Hyaena. 302. 
Squirrel. 5' 3"- 

Common. 167. 
Stemmatopus cristatus. 159. 
stenonis, Equus. 310. 
Steno's Horse. 310. 
Stoat. 5, 106, 116. 
Straight-tusked Elephant. 307, 311. 
striata, Hyoena. 312. 
Striped Hyrena. 301, 302, 312. 
.Strongyloceros speKmis. 240. 
Suidis. 254. 
?us. 258. 

erymanthius. 316. 

fero.f. 255. 

paliEOchEerus. 316. 

scrofa. 6, 255. 
Suslik. 3, 300, 308. 
swineval, Globicephalus. 289. 
sylvatica, Martes. 106. 
sylvaticus, Mus. J, 184, 311. 
Synotus. 25. 

barbastcUus. 4, 26. 

Synotus darjilingensis. 26. 

Talp^j. 63. 

europsea. 5, 64. 

vulgaris. 64. 
Talpidse. 62. 
tarandus, Cervus. 253. 

Rangifer. 3, 254, 307. 
tartarica, Saiga. 305. 
laurus, Bos. 5, 235, 305. 
taxus, Meles. 5, 126. 
tetragonurus, Sorex. 75. 
Theridomys. 327. 
Tig:er, Sabre-toothed. 309. 
timidus, Lepus. 5, 221, 225. 
Toothed Whales.. 273. 
torquatus, Cuniculus. 3. 
Trichechidse. 160. 
Trichechus. 161. 

huxleyi. 315. 

rosmarus. l6r. 
Trogontherium cuvieri. 311. 

minus. 317. 
True Bears. 141. 

Cats. 87. 

Moles. 63. 

Seals. 142. 

Shrews. 75. 
truncatus, Delphinus. 297. 

Tursio. 297. 
Tursio truncatus. 297. 
tursio, Delphinus. 297. 

Tursiops. 297. 
Tursiops. 296, 319. 

tursio. 297. 
Typical Bats. 21. 

Dolp'.iins. 295. 

Ungulata. 233. 
Ursidae. 140. 
Ursus. 141. 

arctos. 141. 

arctus. 5) I4I- 

horribilis. 142, 302. 

meles. 126. 

spelseus. 302. 
Urus scoticus. 235, 

variabilis, Lepus. 
variegata, Phoca. 




verticornis, Cervus. 316. 
Vespertilio. 41. 

africanus, 49. 

altivolans. 31. 

auritus. 22. 

barbastellus. 26. 

becbsteini. 4, 48. 

blythii. 49. 

dasycneme. 6, 42. 

daubentoni. 4, 43. 

discolor. 30. 

emarginatus. 43, 44. 

ferrum-equinum. iS. 

leisleri. 35. 

limnophilus. 42. 

raagnus. 31. 

murinus. 6, 38, 48, 49. 

myotis. 49. 

mystacinus. 5, 51, 

nattereri. 4, 45. 

noctula. 31. 

oedilis. 43. 

pygmseus. 37. 

serotinus. 28. . 

siligorensis. 5 1 . 
Vcspertilionid*. 16, 21. 
Vesperugo. 27, 41. 

discolor. 6, 30. 

leisleri. 4, 35. 

noctula. 4, 31, 35. 

pipistrellus. 4, 36. 

serotinus. 4, 28. 
vitulina, Phoca. 14S. 
vitulinus, Callocephalus. 148. 
Voles. 201, 300. 

Bank. 5, 213, 311. 

Common Field. 202. 

Northern. 308. 

Siberian. 308, 311. 

Water. 5. 
vulgaris, Dama. 246. 

Fcetorius. 122. 

Lutra. S, 135. 

Meles. 126. 

Mustela. 5, 122. 

Narwhalus. 283. 

Putorius. Ill, 122. 

Sciurus. 5, 167. 

Sorex. S, 75. 

vulgaris, Talpa. 64. 

Vulpes. 99. 
Vulpes alopex. 99. 

flavescens. 99. 

montanus. 98 

vulgaris. 99. 
vulpes, Canis. 5, 98, 

Walrus. 161, 315. 
Wand. 74. 
Want. 74. 
Water-Shrew. 5, 80. 
Water- Vole. 5, 216. 
Weasels. 5, 104, 105, 122. 
Whale-bone Whales. 259. 
Whale, Beaked. 279. 

Bottle-nosed. 276. 

Cuvier's. 282. 

Fin. 312. 

Hump-backed. 262. 

Pilot. 289, 290, 291. 

Right. 260, 312. 

Sperm. 273, 274, 312. 

Southern Right. 260. 

Toothed. 273. 

Whale-bone. 259. 

White. 284, 312. 
Whiskered Bat. 5, 51. 
White-Beaked Dolphin. 293 
White-Sided Dolphin. 294. 
White Whale. 284, 312. 
Wild Boar. 6, 255. 

Cat. 5, 88. 

Cattle. 5. 

Ox. 305. 
Wolf. 5,95- 
Wolves. 94. 

Wood-Mouse. J, 184, 311. 
Woolly Rhinoceros. 30^. 
Woont. 74. 

xanthopygus, Cervus. 242. 

Yellow-necked Mouse. 5, 1S8 

ribellina, Mustela. 107. 
Ziphius. 282. 

cavirostris. 282. 

sowerbiensis. 2S0.