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Full text of "Sex-education; a series of lectures concerning knowledge of sex in its relation to human life"

ALBERT R. MANN 

LIBRARY 

AT 

CORNELL LTNTVERSTTY 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 055 351 500 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924055351500 



SEX-EDUCATION 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

VBW YORK • BOSTON ■ CHICAGO • DALLAS 
ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO 

MACMILLAN & CO., Limited 

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA 
MELBOURNE 

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd. 

TORONTO 




CouTiesy of Dr. A. S. Alorrow. 

PRINCE A. MORROW 

Chief organizer of the American movement for sex-education. Physician, educator, 
author, social reformer. Born in Kentucky, December 19. 1846. Died in Now York 
City, March 17, 1913. 



SEX-EDUCATION 



A SERIES OF LECTURES CONCERNING 
KNOWLEDGE OF SEX IN ITS RE- 
LATION TO HUMAN LIFE 



BY 
MAURICE A. BIGELOW 

norsssoR of biology and director of the school 

OF PRACTICAL ARTS, TEACHERS COLLEGE 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Weto gork 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

1924 

Ail rights reserved 



CorvineHT, 1916, 
Bv THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 

Set up and electrotyped. Published June, 19x6, 



Votbiatili ^tsa 

3. S. GuBhlng Co. — Berwick A: Bmitli Co. 

N6rwood, MaBB., U.S.A. 



THE MEMORY OF 

DR. PRINCE A. MORROW 

WHOSE GREAT FAITH IN THE ESSENTIAL GOODNESS OF HUMAN 

NATURE LED HIM TO BELIEVE THAT THE PROBLEMS OF 

SEX HAVE ARISEN FROM IGNORANCE AND 

THAT EDUCATION IS THE KEY TO 

THEIR SOLUTION 



PREFATORY NOTE 

Many of the lectures printed in this volume have 
formed the basis of a series given at Teachers Col- 
lege, Columbia University, diu-ing the summer ses- 
sions of 19 14 and 1915, and during the academic 
year 1914— 1915. Others were addressed to parents, 
to groups of men, to women's clubs, and to confer- 
ences on sex-education. In order to avoid extensive 
repetition, there has been some combination and 
rearrangement of lectures that originally were ad- 
dressed to groups of people with widely different 
outlooks On the sexual problems. 

Several years ago the late Dr. Prince A. Morrow 
announced that a volume dealing with many of the 
timely topics of sex-education was to be prepared 
by the undersigned with the advice and criticism of 
a committee of the American Federation for Sex- 
Hygiene; but even before Dr. Morrow's death it 
became evident that this plan was impracticable. 
Three members (Morrow, Balliet, Bigelow) of the 
original committee collaborated in a report presented 
at the XV International Congress on Hygiene and 
Demography. Since that time the writer, working 
independently, has found it desirable to reorganize 
completely the original outline announced by Dr. 
Morrow. 



VUl PREFATORY NOTE 

In accordance with a declaration made voluntarily 
in a conversation with Dr. Morrow, the author con- 
siders himself pledged to devote all royalties from 
this book to the movement for sex-education. 

Among the many persons to whom is due acknowl- 
edgment of helpfulness in the preparation of this 
book, the author is especially indebted for sugges- 
tions to the late Dr. Prince A. Morrow, to Dr. 
William F. Snow, Secretary of the American Social 
Hygiene Association, and to Dr. Edward L. Keyes, 
Jr., President of the Society of Sanitary and Moral 
Prophylaxis ; for constructive criticism, to his col- 
leagues, Professor Jean Broadhurst and Miss Caro- 
line E. Stackpole, of Teachers College, who have 
read carefully both the original lectures and the 
completed manuscript ; and to Olive Crosby Whitin 
(Mrs. Frederick H. Whitin), executive secretary of 
the Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis, who 
has suggested and criticized helpfully both as a 
reader of the manuscript and as an auditor of many 
of the lectures delivered at Teachers College. 

M. A. B. 

Teachers College, 

Columbia University, 

December 28, 1915. 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS 



I. The Meaning, Need, and Scope or Sex- 
education 1 

§ 1. Sex-education and its relation to 
sex-hygiene and social hygiene. § 2. The 
misunderstanding of sex. § 3. The need 
of sex-instruction. § 4. The scope of sex- 
education. 

II. The Problems for Sex-education . . 28 
§ 5. Sex problems and the need of spe- 
cial knowledge. § 6. First problem : Per- 
sonal sex-hygiene. § 7. Second problem : 
Social diseases. § 8. Third problem: 
Social evil. § 9. Fourth problem : Ille- 
gitimacy. § 10. Fifth problem : Sexual 
morality. § 11. Sixth problem: Sexual 
vulgarity. § 12. Seventh problem: Mar- 
riage. § 13. Eighth Problem: Eugenics. 
§ 14. Summary. 

III. Organization of Educational Attack on 

THE Sex problems 90 

§ 15. The task of sex-education. § 16. 
The aims of sex-education. § 17. The aims 
as the basis of organized sex-instruction. 

IV. The Teacher of Sex-knowledge . . 108 

§ 18. Who should give sex-instruction ? 
{ 19. The child's first teachers of sex- 



CONTENTS 



TAB* 



knowledge. § 20. Selecting teachers for 
class instruction. § 21. Certain undesira- 
ble teachers for special hygienic and ethical 
instruction. 

V. Books as Teachers Concerning Sex and 

Life 121 

§ 22. Value and danger of special sex- 
books for young people. § 23. General 
literature and sex problems. § 24. Dan- 
gers in literature on sexual abnormality. 

VI. Sex-instruction for Pre-adolescent Years 133 
§ 25. Elementary instruction and influ- 
ence. § 26. Hygienic and educational 
treatment of unhealthful habits. 

VII. Sex-instruction for Early Adolescent 

Years 146 

§ 27. The biological foundations. § 28. 
Scientific facts for boys. § 29. Scientific 
facts for girls. 

VIII. Special Sex-instruction for Adolescent 

Boys and Young Men .... 156 

§ 30. Developing attitude towards wom- 
anhood. § 31. Developing ideals of love 
and marriage. § 32. Reasons for pre- 
marital continence. §33. Essential knowl- 
edge concerning prostitution. § 34. Need 
of refinement of men. § 35. Dancing as a 
sex problem for men. § 36. Dress of 
women as a sex problem for men. § 37. 
The problem of self-control for young men. 
§ 38. The mental side of a young man's 
sexual life. 



CONTENTS 



IX. Special Instruction for Maturing Young 

Women 184 

§ 39. The young woman's attitude 
towards manhood. § 40. The young 
woman's attitude towards love and marriage. 
§ 41. Reasons for pre-marital continence 
of young women. §42. Need of optimistic 
and aesthetic views of sex by women. § 43. 
Other problems for young women. 

X. Criticisms of Sex-kducation . . . 203 
§ 44. A plea for reticence — Agnes 
Repplier. § 45. A plea for religious ap- 
proach — Cosmo Hamilton. § 46. The 
conflict between sex-hygiene and sex- 
ethics — Richard Cabot. § 47. The arro- 
gance of the advocates of sex-education — 
William H. Maxwell. § 48. Lubricity in 
education — W. H. Taft. § 49. Conclu- 
sions from the criticisms of sex-education. 

XI. The Past and the Future of the Sex- 
education Movement .... 227 

§ 50. The American movement. § 51. 
Important steps. § 52. The future of the 
larger sex-education. 

XII. Some Books for Sex-education . . . 238 



Index 



249 



The Meaning, Need, and Scope or Sex- 
education 

§ I. Sex-education and Its Relation to Sex-hygiene 
and Social Hygiene 

Sex-education in its largest sense includes all 
scientific, ethical, social, and religious instruction 
and influence which directly and in- Dggajtjon 
directly may help young people pre- of ser- 
pare to solve for themselves the prob- •^>«=»*'»"- 
lems of sex that inevitably come in some form 
into the life of every normal human individual. 
Note the carefully guarded phrase "help young 
people prepare to solve for themselves the problems 
of sex", for, like education in general, special sex- 
education cannot possibly do more than help the 
individual prepare to face the problems of life. 

Now, sex-education as thus defined is more ex- 
tensive than sex-hygiene, which term was originally 
applied to instruction concerning sex. More than 
Sex-hygiene obviously refers to health sex-hygiene, 
as influenced by sexual processes, and as such it is 
a convenient subdivision of the science of health. 
It would be quite satisfactory as a name for popular 
instruction concerning sex if that were strictiy, or 

B I 



2 SEX-EDTTCATION 

even primarily, hygienic; but in a later lecture it 
will be shown that the most desirable sex-instruction 
is only in a minor part a problem of hygiene. I 
realize that this statement may be declared heretical 
by many of the present-day advocates of sex- 
hygiene, because they have approached this latest 
educational movement from the standpoint of 
physical health, and especially because their atten- 
tion has been drawn to the very common occurrence 
of pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the sexiial 
problems of our times do not all affect physical 
health, which hygiene aims to conserve; and the 
sex-educational movement will be quite inadequate 
without great stress upon certain ethical, social, 
and other aspects of sex. Young people need in- 
struction that relates not only to health but also 
to attitude and to morals as these three are influenced 
by sexual instincts and relationships. This idea 
will be developed later, but I anticipate here simply 
to suggest the point of view of the statement that 
"sex-hygiene" is altogether too limited as a general 
designation for the desirable instruction concerning 
sex. The continued use of the term " sex-hygiene," 
now that the scope of the desirable sex-instruction 
has been extended far beyond the accepted limits of 
the science of health, is tending to cause confusion. 
The educational problems wUl be more definite 
and the support of the intelligent public more as- 
sured if we limit the use of "sex-hygiene" to the 
specific problems of health as affected by sexual 
processes and cease trying to make it include those 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE 3 

phases of sex-instruction which have nothing directly 
to do vdth. health. 

Two general terms, "sex-instruction" and "sex- 
education," are available as all-inclusive designa- 
tions of the desirable instruction concerning any as- 
pects of sex. They are quite free from the above 
objections to "sex-hygiene," and it is highly de- 
sirable that they should be used in all educational 
discussions where there is no specific reference to 
the problems of health. Sex-hygiene will be used 
in these lectures only when there is some direct 
reference to health as influenced by the sexual 
functions. 

Social hygiene in its complete sense means the 
great general movement for the injprovement of 
the conditions of life in all lines in social 
which there is social ill health or need Jvgiene- 
of social reform ; but it is often limited to the sexual 
aspect of the imfortunate and imfavorable condi- 
tions of life, and it has been proposed to adopt the 
term "social hygiene" as a substitute that avoids 
the word "sex" in sex-hygiene. For this reason 
it has been incorporated into the names of several 
societies that are interested in sex-hygiene {e.g., the 
American Social Hygiene Association). Probably 
the relation of sex-hygiene to the so-called "social 
evil" has suggested the use of social hygiene in its 
most limited sense. It will be unfortunate if this 
usage becomes so prominent that we think of the 
health problems of society as chiefly sexual, for the 
larger outlook of Ellis's "Task of Social Hygiene" 



SEX-EDUCATION 



is desirable. Likewise, the phrase "social evil" 
in the sense of sexual evil misleadingly suggests 
that the only evil of society is the sexual one, but 
this evasive designation is being supplanted by the 
more definite and franker word "prostitution." 

It should be noted that "social hygiene" as a 
substitute for "sex-hygiene" is narrower in that it 
does not include the personal problems of health 
as affected by sexual processes. This is a serious 
omission, for certainly all sex-hygiene taught be- 
fore the later adolescent years should be personal 
and not social. 

Phases of '^^ relation of sex-hygiene or social 

■ex-educa- hygiene as a limited phase of sex-edu- 
cation is shown by the following outline: 



tion, 



In the broadest out- 
look, sex-education 
(or sex-instruction) 
includes: 



sex-hygiene (per- 
sonal, social) 

biology (including 
physiology) of 
reproduction 



heredity and eu- 
genics 



ethics and sociol- 
ogy of sex 

psychology of sex 



nBthetica of sex 



for sexual health 



for attitude re- 
garding sex, 
and for im- 
portant scien- 
tific facts 

for sexual con- 
duct leading 
to race im- 
provement 

for sexual con- 
Siduct 

for sexual health 
and conduct 

for attitude 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE 5 

Since the original purpose of sex was perpetua- 
tion of plant and animal species, and since in the 
study of biology the idea of sex is illus- sex and re- 
trated and developed by examination of production, 
the reproductive processes in various types, it has 
been customary for many writers on sex-education 
to use the terms "sex" and "reproduction" as if 
they were synonymous. This is no longer so in 
human life ; for while reproduction is a sexual pro- 
cess, sexual activities and influences are often quite 
unrelated to reproduction. In fact, most of the 
big problems that have made sex-education desir- 
able, if not necessary, are problems of sex apart from 
reproduction. It therefore seems clear that, while 
studies of reproduction are prominent in sex-educa- 
tion, they should be regarded as introductory to the 
problems of sex, especially for young people. 

§ 2. The Misunderstanding of Sex 

Some educators have expressed the wish that 
some one might suggest a satisfactory substitute 
for the terms "sex-hygiene" and "sex- objection to 
education," omitting the word "sex." word "sex." 
This word and its companion "sexual" are objec- 
tionable because they are associated in the minds 
of most people with vulgar interpretation of the 
physical aspects of the beginning of individual life, 
and much of the opposition to the proposed sex- 
instruction in home and schools is evidently based 
on the feeling that the very word "sex" involves 
something inherently vulgar. 



6 SEX-EDUCATION 

It is probable that many decades will pass before 
the majority of intelligent people cease to feel that 
Definite ^^^ words "sex" and "sexual" have 
words had such vulgar associations, that they 

necessary, should be kept out of our everyday 
vocabulary, but I can see no hope of developing an 
improved attitude towards the sexual aspect of 
human life if we continue to admit that we are 
afraid of the necessary words. It seems to me that 
in one decade there has been a great advance in 
that the scientific writers and speakers on problems 
of sex have been using words which definitely and 
directly express the desired meanings, and have 
avoided the suggestive circumlocutions which char- 
acterize many modern reahstic novels. One who 
does not aheady appreciate the serious impressive- 
ness of cold scientific language in discussion of sexual 
problems should take one of the indecently sugges- 
tive paragraphs from stories in the most notoriously 
vulgar of the fifteen-cent magazines, and translate 
the meaning of the paragraph into direct and definite 
words. The result wiU be complete loss of the 
stealthy suggestiveness which has made concealed 
sexuality so dangerously attractive to the type of 
mind that revels in the modern sex-problem novels. 
We want no such suggestive concealment in a scheme 
of sex-education, for it aims at a purer and higher 
understanding of sex in human life. We must 
have direct and definite and dignified scientific 
language, and among the necessary words none 
are as essential as "sex" and "sexual." We must 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE 7 

use them freely if attitude towards sex is to be 
improved; and their dignified and scientific usage 
will gradually dispel the embarrassment which many 
unfortunate people now experience when these 
words remind them that the perpetuation of life 
in all its higher forms has been intrusted to the 
cooperation of two kinds, or sexes, of individuals. 

Thus viewing the objections which have been 
raised against the use of the word "sex" in 
the educational movement, I have shifted my first 
stand with the opposition until now I favor the 
frank and dignified use of this and similar words 
on appropriate occasions. I believe that those 
interested in the search for solutions of the vital 
problems of sex should quietly but systematically 
work to include the words "sex" and "sexual" in 
the dignified and scientific vocabulary needed by 
all people to express the newer and nobler interpre- 
tations of the relationships between men and women. 
Of course, this does not mean that sex, either as 
a word or as a fact of nature, should be over-em- 
phasized with people who are too young so " sex " 
to appreciate the fundamental facts of studies, 
life. As already suggested, it is not desirable that 
any parts of the curricula for schools should be known 
to the pupils as "sex" studies; but we need such 
terms as "sex-hygiene" and "sex-instruction" to 
indicate to teachers and parents that certain parts of 
the education of the children are being directed 
towards a healthy, natural and wholesome relation 
to sex. 



8 SEX-EDTJCATION 

It is absurd to suppose that the free, dignified, 
and scientific use of the word "sex" is going to 
"Sex "and make people more sensual, more uncon- 
"love." trolled, and more immoral. There is 
much more reason for fearing the free use of the 
word "love," which has both psychical and physical 
meanings so confused that often only the context 
of sentences enables one to determine which mean- 
ing is intended. In fact, many writers and speakers 
seek to avoid aU possible misunderstanding by using 
the word "affection" for psychical love. Now, in 
spite of such confusion, and the fact that to many 
people the word "love" in connection with sex 
suggests only gross sensuality, we continue to 
use it freely and it is one of the first words taught 
to children. Why then do we not hear protests 
against using the word "love " ? Simply because we 
have been from childhood accustomed to the word, 
first in its psychical sense, and it is only later that 
most of us have learned that it has a sensual mean- 
ing to some people. In short, famiharity with 
the word " love " in its psychical sense has bred in 
us a contempt for those who mistake the physical 
basis of love for love in its combined physical and 
psychical completeness. 

To many it is surprising to find that the word 
"sex" has never been used in such degraded con- 
Meaning of nections as has the word "love," and 
''*'• that it has not been half so much mis- 

understood. There is no obvious vulgarity in the 
lexicographer's definitions of the word "sex." It 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE Q 

simply means, as the science of biology points out 
so clearly, that the perpetuation of human life, and 
of most other species of life, has been intrusted 
to pairs of individuals which are of the two kinds 
commonly called the sexes, male and female. Why 
nature determined that each new life in the vast 
majority of species should develop from two other 
lives has long been a biological puzzle, and most 
satisfactory of the answers given is that bi-parental 
origin of new individuals allows for new combina- 
tions of heritable qualities from two lines of descent. 
However, such a biological explanation of the rela- 
tion of the two sexes to double parentage is of rela- 
tively little practical significance in present-day 
human life when compared with the fact that out of 
the necessity for life's perpetuation by two cooperat- 
ing individuals there has groAvn psychical or spiritual 
love with all its splendid possibilities that are evi- 
dent in ideal family life. Moreover, the influence 
of sex in human life has extended far beyond the 
family (that is, that group of individuals who stand 
related to one another as husband, wife, parents, 
and children), for it is a careless observer indeed 
who does not note in our daily life many social and 
psychical relationships of men and women who have 
no mutual interests relating to the biological pro- 
cesses of race perpetuation. Of course, the psychol- 
ogist recognizes that far back of the platonic con- 
tact of the sexes on social and intellectual lines 
is the suppressed and primal instinct that provides 
physical unions for race perpetuation. However, 



lO SEX-EDUCATION 

this is of no practical interest, for, as a matter of 
fact, the primal instincts are quite subconscious in 
the usual social relations between the sexes. 

There is grandeur in this view of sex as originally 
a provision for perpetuation of life by two cooperat- 
The larger ing individuals, later becoming the basis 
view of sex. of conjugal affection of the two individ- 
uals for each other and of their parental affection 
for their offspring, and finally leading to social and 
intellectual comradeship of men and women meet- 
ing on terms which are practically free from the 
original and biological meaning of sex. 

Instead, then, of trying to keep sex, both word and 
fact, in the background of the new educational 
movement, I beUeve it is best to work definitely for 
a better understanding of the part which sex plays 
in human life, as outlined in the preceding para- 
graph. Hence, in these lectures I shall never go 
aside in order to avoid either the word or the idea 
of sex; on the contrary, I shall attempt to direct 
the discussion so as to emphasize the larger and 
very modern view of the relationship of sex and 
human life. 

In this first lecture I want to make it clear that 
the rfile of sex in human life is vastly greater than 
that directly involved in sexual activity. I shall 
in several lectures touch the big problems from the 
standpoint of the sexual instincts as these play an 
important part in social, psychical, and aesthetic 
life even if they are rarely exercised, physiologically, 
or if, as in millions of individuals, they never come 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE II 

to mean more than possibilities of sexual activity for 
which opportunities in marriage do not come. I 

am especially anxious to avoid the nar. t«, 

^ •' rne many- 

row viewpoint of numerous writers on sided bear- 
sex-hygiene who seem to overlook the '"ssofsex. 
fact that sexual functioning is only a prominent 
incident in the cycle of sexual influences in the lives 
of most people. Human life, and especially mar- 
riage, should no longer be regarded from the mere 
biological point of view as for the sole purpose of 
reproductive activity. It is a far more uplifting 
view that the conscious or unconscious existence of 
the sexual instincts, with or without occasional 
activity, affords the fundamental physical basis for 
states of mind that may profoundly affect the whole 
course of Ufe in every normal man and woman. 

Supplementary to this section on the "Misun- 
derstanding of Sex," I suggest the reading of Chap- 
ters I-VI of "Sex" by Geddes and Thomson, the 
"Problems of Sex" by the same authors, and Chap- 
ter VI in "The Wonder of Life" by Thomson. 

§ 3. The Need of Sex-Instruction 

The time-honored poKcy has been one of silence 
and mystery concerning all things sexual. Every- 
thing in that line has long been 'con- _„ ,. 

Xdic old 
sidered impure and degraded and, there- silence and 

fore, the less said and the less known, ^lenewen- 
' . „ J. T lightenment. 

the better, especially for young people. 

Such has been the almost universal attitude of 

parents until within the present century, when many 



12 SEX-EDUCATION 

have awakened to the fact that the policy of silence 
has been a gigantic failure, because it has not pre- 
served purity and innocence and because it has 
allowed grave evils, both hygienic and moral, to 
develop under the cloak of secrecy. 

"I don't believe in teaching my boys and girls 
any facts concerning sex. I prefer to keep them 
innocent until they have grown up." In these 
decisive words a prominent woman closed a state- 
ment of her firm conviction that the world-wide 
movement for the sex-instruction of young people 
is a stupendous mistake. Poor deluded mother! 
How does she expect to keep her children ignorant 
of the world of life around them? Is she planning 
to transplant them to a deserted island where they 
may grow up innocently? Or is she going to keep 

^^.,^ the children in some cloister within 

Childreii 

will not whose walls there will be immunity 

remain from the contamination of the great 

Ignorant. , 

busy world outside? Or is she going 

to have them guarded like crown princes, and if 
so, where are absolutely safe guards to be found? 
Such are the questions which rush into the minds 
of those who have studied the problem of keeping 
children ignorant of the most significant facts of 
Ufe. It is usually an easy matter to protect chil- 
dren against smallpox and typhoid and some other 
diseases, but no parent or educator has yet found out 
how we may be sure to keep real live children igno- 
rant of sex knowledge. They seem to absorb such 
forbidden facts as naturally and as freely as the air 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE I3 

they breathe. Ask any large group of representa- 
tive men — ministers, or doctors, or teachers, or 
men of business, or the world's toilers — whether 
any of them knew the essential facts of sexual life 
before they were twelve years of age, and ninety- 
seven in every hundred will answer quickly in the 
affirmative. Ask any large group of women, 
excepting those whose girlhood has been guarded 
with exceptional care, and the overwhelming ma- 
jority will acknowledge that they knew the essential 
facts before they were fifteen years old. Once 
more, ask these same men and women whether their 
early knowledge of sex came from pure and reliable 
sources or from vulgar plajanates and depraved 
servants ; and with rare exceptions it is found that 
vulgarity made the strongest impression in the first 
lessons concerning the great facts of life. Such 
being the truth, it is nonsense for parents to sit in 
complacency because they feel sure that their 
children are safely protected against any vulgar 
first lessons concerning sex; for no one can know 
that children are safely guarded from others who 
may corrupt their innocent minds. As an illus- 
tration, a few years ago the mothers of a group of 
little girls in one of the best-managed private schools 
felt that with careful supervision both in school and 
home there was no danger of forbidden knowledge 
reaching the children. But one day a new pupil 
innocently exhibited to her mother a miniature 
notebook with unprintable notes on sexual topics. 
The resulting investigation revealed a secret club 



14 SEX-EDUCATION 

organized by the pupils for the purpose of passing 
to each member through notebooks all newly ac- 
quired information, which had a peculiar value 
because it must be kept secret from teachers and 
parents. That club had been in existence during 
two school years. This is only a sample case of 
many which have proved that if children are allowed 
the freedom that developing individuality deiliands, 
their mothers must not feel too sure that their 
darlings are protected against knowledge of life, 
and perhaps of life in its most degraded aspects. 

Here, then, is the fact that every parent should 
ponder seriously: Normal children are almost 
The vital certain to get sexual information not 
question for later than the early adolescent years, 
parens. ^^^^ usually from unreliable and vulgar 
sources. It is, therefore, not a question whether 
children of school ages should be taught the impor- 
tant facts of sex, but whether parents and trained 
teachers rather than playmates and other unreliable 
persons should be the instructors. Which will 
parents choose for their own children? Thousands 
of intelligent parents have already faced this ques- 
tion, and have decided that their children shall 
have early sex-instruction in home or school or 
both in order that there will be Uttle danger of vul- 
gar impressions taking a deep hold on child minds. 

Granted, then, that children should be given 
some reliable instruction concerning things sexual, 
who should be the teacher, what should be taught, 
and when should the instruction be given? These 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOJ'E 1 5 

are the fundamental questions now being considered 
by the parents and educators who have accepted 
sex-education as necessary. Upon the final answers 
to such questions the decision of many parents wiU de- 
pend. I shall attempt to answer them in later lectures. 
The policy of maintaining mystery and secrecy 
concerning sex has failed with adults even more 
sadly than with children. Health and morals 
have suffered incalculable injury. The sexual 
evils of our time are not as bad as were those of the 
ancient civihzations, but we have Uttle reason to 
be proud of the slight progress made. 
But why should we expect the human haspre- 
race to make progress when sexual vented 
problems have been kept in darkness? 
The wonder is that, with the prevaiUng dark out- 
look on sexual life throughout the past nineteen 
centuries, the world has not developed more sexual 
vice. Innate animahstic appetites have tended 
to lead downward, and surely the policy of silence 
has offered no counteracting influence towards 
higher living. While religion and ethics, by means 
of certain rules of conduct, have maintained certain 
sexual standards, they have not kept vast numbers 
of humans from falling far below those standards 
into utter degradation. The modern teachers of 
religion and ethics have prevented general sexual 
degradation, but they have failed to give human 
sexuaUty any decided upUft. The reason for this 
failiure is the policy of mystery and silence. The 
teachers of religion and ethics have preferred to 



1 6 SEX-EDUCATION 

let general and more or less abstruse rules govern 
conduct in sexual lines. Until recent years there 
have been few sermons in which common sexual 
problems have been presented so that the preacher's 
meaning has been clear to all. On the contrary, 
there has been universal mystery and evasion 
concerning the greatest facts of life. 

Many people have justified the mystery thrown 
around sexual processes on the theory that the 
Sexual in- reproductive instincts of mature people 
Btincts offer are sufficient guides for conduct. This 
nogui ance. jjjyolves a misunderstanding of sexual 
instincts of the higher mammals which are often 
unscientifically cited as models for human imitation. 
In these animals sexual union is instinctively deter- 
mined, because normally the sexual hunger or excite- 
ment of both sexes is stimulated and controlled 
by the physiological condition of the female at the 
times favorable for fertilization (i.e., at the cestrual 
periods). For example, a pair of dogs living in 
close companionship show signs of mutual sexual 
desires only for a few days at the semi-annual 
cestrual or fertile periods of the female. It occa- 
sionally happens that the males of various wild and 
domesticated mammals exhibit signs of automatic 
sexual excitement (i.e., not caused by the stimulus 
arising from the physiological condition of the fe- 
male) ; but in such cases of male excitement out- 
side of the mating or cestrual periods, the normal 
females invariably offer instinctive opposition to 
attempted union by abnormally or automatically 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE 1 7 

excited males. Thus, directly and indirectly, there 
is instinctive control and limitation of sexual union 
among the animals that are most closely related to 
the human race. 

It is biologically possible that similar conditions 
may have existed in the earliest human life, but that 
is pure speculation and has no bearing on the practi- 
cal problems of sex in human life to-day. The 
fact is that the simple physiological stimuli which 
produce sexual excitement in both sexes of animals 
have practically no influence in determining human 
sexual vmion. On the contrary, memory associa- 
tions consciously connected with the opposite sex, 
especially those associations that are centered in 
affection, may at any time in the normal individ- 
ual of either human sex afford the basis for a 
chain of mental states leading to sexual excitement 
and union. There is not, as in the animals, in- 
stinctive dependence on the physiological condi- 
tions that are favorable for fertilization. In fact, 
spontaneous physiological demands play in civilized 
human life a minor part in initiating sexual excite- 
ment. The reason why some humans seem to 
have unusual sexual intensity is not so much a 
matter of exceptionally strong sexuaUty as of 
susceptibihty to the numerous sexual stimuli 
with which modern life abounds. For this reason, 
a man who has formed lewd memory associations 
is more susceptible to sexual stimulations, e.g., 
by obscene pictures, vulgar words, unusual dress 
or actions of women, close physical association as 
c 



1 8 SEX-EDUCATION 

in dancing, and certain forms of music. It is not 
at all uncommon that individuals who are hyper- 
sensitive to sexually suggestive stimuli are really 
functionally weak. 

It follows from the facts outlined above that in- 
stinctive control of sexual actions applies to animals 
but not to human life. On the contrary, human 
control must be on the basis of inteUigent choice. 
This means the greatest task of human life, for it 
Intelligent requires voluntary control of instinctive 
control only, demands which are intensified by nu- 
merous stimuli or temptations that are exclusively 
human. No wonder that natural sex hunger left 
uncontrolled leads human beings to excesses and 
degradation that no species of animals with their 
guiding instincts could possibly reach. 

The absence from human life of any instinctive 
control of sexual actions leaves a great responsibility 
Individual °^ ^^^^ individual whose natural desires 
responsi- lead impulsively and insistently towards 
^' sexual union and must be restrained, 

controlled, and directed by voluntary choice. In 
short, all individuals who are inteUigent beings 
are personally responsible for voluntary control of 
their sexual desires with reference to the ethical, 
social, and eugenic interests and rights of all other 
individuals now and in the future. 

With such an understanding of instincts in rela- 
tion to human sexual actions, we cannot wonder 
that the old policy of mystery has failed so com- 
pletely. Since human beings are left to control 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE I9 

the most powerful appetite by intelligence, it is 

evident that a policy based on silence, ignorance, 

and mystery must fail. The only safe and sure 

road to the needed control of sexual actions is to 

be found in knowledge, and the wide- gexual 

spread recognition of this fact has led knowledge 

to the new movement for general en- °<"=«ss"y- 

lightenment regarding sexual processes in their 

various relations to human life. 

It is not surprising that we have turned to seek 

an educational solution for the problems of sex. 

Education has become the modern 

J. . .„ , . . Education 

panacea for many of our ills — hygienic, as a solution 

industrial, political, and social. We ofsexprob- 
have found people losing health for vari- 
ous reasons and we have proposed hygienic instruc- 
tion as a prophylactic. We have analyzed many 
problems of the industries, and now we are beginning 
to seek their solution in industrial education. We 
have noted that numerous social and political mis- 
understandings check progress of individuals and 
nations, and we are coming to think the pathway 
upwards is to be found in better knowledge of social 
and political science. And, in Uke manner, in every 
phase of this modern life of ours we are looking to 
knowledge as the key to all significant problems. 
It is truly the age of education, not simply the 
education offered in schools and colleges, but edu- 
cation in the larger sense, including the learning 
of useful knowledge from all sources whatsoever. 
With such unbounded confidence in the all- 



20 SEX-EDUCATION 

sufladency of education, it is most natural that we 
should turn to it in these times when we have come 
to reaUze the existence of amazing sexual problems 
caused either by ignorant misuse, or by deUberate 
abuse, of the sexual functions which biologically 
are intrusted with the perpetuation of human life 
and which psychologically are the source of human 
affection in its supreme forms. If education is to 
solve the civic, hygienic, and industrial problems of 
to-day and to-morrow, why should it not also help 
with the age-old sexual evils? So reasoning, we 
have naturally turned to education as one, but 
not the only, method of attack on the sexual prob- 
lems which have degraded and devitalized human 
life of all past times, but which somehow have kept 
out of the UmeUght of publicity until our own times. 

§ 4. The Scope of Sex-education 

It is well to make clear in this first lecture that 
no one proposes to hmit sex-instruction to schools 

and colleges. We may safely leave 
tionisnot mathematics and writing and even 
primarily for reading to schools, but sex-education 

will faU unless the schools can get the 
cooperation of the homes, the churches, the Y.M. 
C.A., the Y.W.C.A., the W.C.T.U., the Boy Scouts, 
the Camp Fire Girls, and other organizations 
which aim to reach young people socially, religiously, 
and ethically. The part which these have already 
taken in the sex-education movement is in the 
aggregate far more important than what the schools 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE 21 

have been able to accomplish. Sex-education, 

then, should be understood as including all serious 

instruction — no matter where or when or by whom 

given — which aims to help young people face the 

problems that normal sexual processes bring to 

every life. 

In a later lecture I shall urge the importance of 

beginning sex-instruction in the home. There are 

some parents who wish that it were possible not 

only to begin but also to end it there, for they fear 

that pubUc instruction will lead to a weakening 

of a certain sense of reserve and privacy that has 

long been considered sacred to the best „ . 

, 1-1 Sex-instruc- 

family life. Perhaps this has some tionimpos- 

truth, but we must remember that only sibleinmost 
in rare homes are there such ideal rela- 
tionships of parents to each other and to their off- 
spring that matters of sex are sacred to the family 
circle. The fact which parents and educators must 
face is that there are now relatively few homes in 
which there is one parent able to begin the elemen- 
tary instruction of young children ; and, therefore, 
as a practical matter for the best interests of the 
vast majority of young people, we must consider 
ways and means for instruction outside of most 
homes. This need not interfere in the least with 
the parents who are able and willing to give sex- 
instruction to the children, for the home instruction 
will naturally anticipate that which the schools 
must give for the pupils who are not properly 
instructed at home. It seems to me to be a situa- 



22 SEX-EDUCATION 

tion like that of children learning to read at home 
and later continuing reading at school. Sex-instruc- 
tion begun at home will form the child's attitude and 
give him some elementary information, and later 
he may profitably learn more in the same lines in 
the class work of school, especially in connection 
with science instruction for which few homes have 
facilities. Moreover, it is quite possible that one 
instructed at home in childhood may gain from later 
school instruction something of great social value, 
for we must remember that the problems of sex 
which most demand attention are not individual, 
but social. Hence, it may be worth while for the 
home-instructed individual to learn through class 
instruction that people outside the home look 
seriously upon knowledge concerning sexual pro- 
cesses, and that every individual's life must be ad- 
justed to other lives, that is, to society. 

Summarizing, it appears that however desirable 
home instruction regarding sex may be, the majority 
of parents are not able and willing to undertake the 
work, and so the public educational system and 
organizations for social and reUgious work should 
provide a scheme of instruction which will make sure 
that all young people will have an opportunity to 
get the most helpful information for the guidance of 
their Uves. 

In order to gain the serious attention of those 
who believe themselves unalterably opposed to 
school instruction regarding things sexual, I an- 
ticipate a later discussion and mention in this 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE 2$ 

connection that there must be great caution in 
all attempts at school teaching that directly touches 
human sexual life. It would be a dan- caption in 
gerous experiment to introduce sex-in- school in- 
struction into all schools by sudden ^*"«=*'°°- 
legislation. There must be specially trained teachers 
of selected personality and tact. No existing high 
school has enough such teachers, and in the grammar 
schools where the pupils are at the age when proper 
instruction would influence them most, the problem 
of general class instruction is absolutely unsolved. 
Only here and there in schools below the high school 
has a teacher or principal of rare quality made 
satisfactory experimental teaching. So uncertain 
are we at present regarding how we should approach 
the problem of teaching grammar-school children 
that the only safe advice for general use is that 
teachers, or preferably principals, should begin 
with parents' conferences led by one who is a 
conservative expert on sex-instruction. Were I 
principal of a school with pupils from, say, two 
hundred and fifty homes, I should begin at once to 
organize conferences designed to awaken the parents 
to the need of sex-instruction for their children, 
and to the importance of making at least a begin- 
ning in the homes. I should expect, Parents' co- 
according to the experience of others, operation, 
that of the five hundred parents, two hundred 
mothers and fifty fathers would take an interest in 
the conferences, and that at least one hundred 
fathers too busy for meetings would approve heartily 



24 SEX-EDUCATION 

after hearing reports from their wives. Thus, I 
should try to reach the majority of homes repre- 
sented in my school. I should be in no hurry to 
introduce class instruction — I mean instruction 
related directly to human life; but, of course, I 
should encourage my teachers to emphasize the life- 
histories of animals and plants in the nature-study, 
and so lay in the pupils' minds a firm foundation 
for later connection between human life and all 
life. At the same time, I should keep my teachers 
on the lookout for individual pupils or groups that 
might need special attention and, if such be found, 
I should seek the cooperation of their parents. And 
finally, after a year or two of co-working with par- 
ents, I should hope to get permission for special talks 
based on nature-study and hygiene. These talks 
should first be given to limited groups of pupils, pref- 
erably in the presence of some parents who are in- 
terested and who have given their children some 
home instruction. Working along such con- 
servative lines, I beUeve a tactful principal of a 
grammar school might succeed in developing 
much of the needed instruction for pre-adolescent 
pupils. 

With regard to high-school pupils, we should 
remember that nine-tenths of the desirable informa- 
Instruction *^°° ^^ akeady included in the biology 
in high of our best high schools. The remain- 

schools, jj^g ^gjj^j^ jg ^^^^ ^j^.^j^ connects all Ufe 

with human life ; and this requires tact and excep- 
tional skill. However, the high schools no longer 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE 25 

offer an insoluble problem, for many teachers have 
succeeded in giving the desirable instruction to the 
satisfaction of critical principals and parents. 

There is a widespread impression that sex-instruc- 
tion should begin with the approach of adolescence 
and soon be completed. This idea is sex-educa- 

often expressed by parents and even by tionfrom 

. , , , , early child- 

prominent educators who say that the hood to 

father or teacher ought " to take the boy maturity. 

of thirteen aside and tell him some things he ought 

to know." Still others have the same point of 

view when they advocate that a physician should 

be called for a lecture to high-school boys. In fact, 

most people who have not seriously studied the 

problems of sex-education seem to believe that one 

concentrated dose of sex-instruction in adolescent 

years is sufficient guidance for young people. 

Such limited personal instruction might suffice 
if sex-education were limited to sex-hygiene. A few 
hygienic commands in pre-adolescent years and 
one impressive talk in early puberty might teach 
the boy or girl how not to interfere with health; 
but it is improbable that such brief instruction 
will make a permanent impression which will insure 
hygienic practice of the precepts laid down. If 
we hold that sex-hygiene is important, then it must 
be drilled into the learner from several points of 
view. An isolated lesson on any topic of general 
hygiene is of very doubtful efficiency. 

The most important reason why sex-instruction 
should not be concentrated in a short period of 



26 SEX-EDUCATION 

youth is that it is impossible to exert the most 
desirable influence upon health, attitude, and morals 
Brief in- except by instruction beginning in early 
struction childhood and graded for each period of 
fix aW- life up to maturity. Most young people 
tude. ^ho in early adolescence receive their 

first lessons from parents and teachers have already 
had their attitude formed by their playmates. 
Even their morals may become corrupted and their 
health irreparably injured several years before 
puberty. The only sure pathway to health, atti- 
tude, and morals is in beginning with young chil- 
dren and instructing them as gradually as the 
problems of sex come forward. 

The greatest possible good of sex-education 
will not be secured if it stops with early adolescent 
Sex-instruc- Y^a^rs. There are many problems of 
tion after sex Ln relation to society, particularly in 
youth. relation to monogamic marriage, that 

young people should be led to consider in the late 
teens and early twenties. Our sex-education system 
will not be completely organized until we find ways 
and means for carrying the instruction by lectures, 
conferences, and books beyond the years commonly 
occupied by pubUc-school education. Colleges and 
other higher educational institutions may contribute 
somewhat to this advanced sex-instruction; but 
obviously the great majority of maturing young 
people cannot be reached personally except by 
instruction arranged in churches, the Y.M.C.A., 
and the Y.W.C.A., evening schools, and other 



THE MEANING, NEED, AND SCOPE 27 

such institutions. In many respects this proposed 
instruction for maturing young people is of very 
great importance and deserves encouragement such 
as has not yet been given by those who have written 
and lectured in favor of a movement for sex-educa- 
tion of young people. 

In conclusion of this introductory lecture, let me 
say that I have tried to suggest in a general survey 
that sex-education in its largest outlook touches 
great problems of life in very many ways. I have 
also tried to convince that it is far more than merely 
a school subject, limited entirely to a curriculum 
extended over a few years. This is the common 
misunderstanding arising from the famiHar use of 
the word "education." As opposed to this narrow 
conception, I understand sex-education, the larger 
sex-education, to be a collective term -ibelaieet 
designating all organized effort, both in sex-educa- 
and out of schools, toward instructing °°' 
and influencing young people with regard to the 
problems of sex. Here we have returned to the 
central thought of the definition with which this 
lecture opened, and which I emphasize because it 
is the f oimdation of all future lectures : The larger 
sex-education includes aU scientific, ethical, social, 
and reHgious instruction and influence which in 
any way may help young people prepare to meet the 
problems of life in relation to sex. 



n 

The Problems for Sex-education 

§ 5- Sex Problems and the Need of Special Knowledge 

In these lectures I shall discuss the great sex prob- 
lems towards the solution of which knowledge con- 
Areuments veyed by special education may help, 
for sex- These problems offer reasons or argu- 
e ucahon. mgnts in favor of sex-education, and I 
shall attempt to present them from this point of 
view. I shall at the same time point out in prelim- 
inary outline how organized instruction may apply 
more or less directly to the sex problems that seem 
to show the need of educational attack, but in later 
lectures the organization of instruction will be con- 
sidered more specifically. 

In reviewing the literature that during the past 
decade has advocated sex-education, it has seemed 
Propazan- '° °^^ ^^^ there is left Uttle possibiUty of 
dism any decidedly new and important con- 

°*' * ■ tribution to the arguments favoring such 
instruction, for the whole case has been splendidly 
presented by eminent writers in the fields of medi- 
cine, biology, sociology, and ethics. It now ap- 
pears that the great majority of educators, scientists, 
and intelligent citizens in general have accepted the 
28 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 29 

arguments for sex-instruction, so far as they have 
been informed concerning the meaning and need of 
the movement ; and this leads me to the belief that 
in the future we need not new arguments but fre- 
quent restatements of the established facts which 
indicate the importance of widespread knowledge 
regarding the function that is inseparably connected 
with the perpetuation of life. In short, we now 
need a propagandism for extending the sex-education 
movement among the masses of people. 

For those who have already accepted sex-educa- 
tion, a survey of the facts that created a demand for 
sex-instruction will give a clearer outlook on the 
movement. The rapid increase of interest in sex- 
education has been the result of widespread dissemi- 
nation of convincing facts concerning some common 
disharmonies that grow out of the sexual problems 
of the human race. These facts which have led to 
sex-education should be kept in mind by all who 
wish to understand or to play a part in the instruction 
of young people. 

It is quite unnecessary, and still more undesirable, 
to recite at length in these lectures the social, medical, 
and psycho-pathological facts concerning abnormal 
or perverted sexual processes. Fortimately, the 
educational ends may be gained by a general review 
that points out the bearings of the main lines of the 
sexual problems, the misunderstandings and mis- 
takes that education may help prevent and correct. 

It is important that the general public, especially 
the parents, should understand the reasons which 



30 SEX-EDUCAHON 

have induced numerous physicians, ministers, and 

educators to become active advocates of systematic 

sex-instruction for young people. Although the 

Parents movement has made extensive progress 

should know in the ten years of propagandic work, 
reasons for . . , , , , , • -^ 

sex-instruc- it IS probably true that the majority 

tion. of even intelligent parents are not yet 

convinced that their children need sex-instruction. 

This is due largely to the fact that the parents 

have not yet been shown the reasons why it is now, 

and always has been, unsafe to allow children to gain 

more or less sexual information from unrehable 

and vulgar sources. In fact, it is surprising to find 

many parents, especially mothers, who seem unable 

to grasp the idea that their "protected" children 

can possibly get impure information. 

There are other parents who know that their chil- 
dren are almost sure to get vulgar information re- 
garding sexual matters, and that some young people 
are likely to make sexual mistakes; but they 
calmly look upon such things as part of the estab- 
lished order of the world. 

Still another type of parents who should know 
the reasons for sex-instruction are those who accept 
the traditional idea that their daughters must 
be kept "protected" and "innocent" while their 
sons are free to sow a large field of "wild oats," con- 
cerning which society in general, and such parents in 
particular, will care little as long as social diseases, 
bastardy suits, or chronic alcoholism do not result 
from the dissipations. These are the fathers and 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 3 1 

mothers who need the most enlightenment concern- 
ing the importance of such sex-instruction as will 
make clear the far-reaching consequences of "wild 
oat sowing." Perhaps most such parents are igno- 
rant, but some are simply thoughtless. As an 
illustration of the latter, the editor of a well-known 
magazine was recently talking with a prominent 
author and made some reference to the immoral 
habits of young men. Their conversation was es- 
sentially as follows: The author remarked, "I 
assume that my boys will be boys and will have their 
fling before they settle down and marry." The 
editor quickly replied, "Yes, and I presume that 
you expect your boys to sow their wild oats with my 
daughters, and that in return you will expect my 
sons to dissipate with your daughters. At any 
rate, you have damnable designs on somebody's 
daughters." This put on the wild-oat proposition 
a light which was apparently new to the literary 
man, for he repUed, "That is a phase of the young 
man's problem which never occurred to me. It does 
sound startling when stated in that personal way." 

All these classes of parents who have not yet 
learned the facts which point to ignorance as the 
cause of the abundant sexual errors of young people 
and those who do not understand that sexual 
promiscuity or immoraUty is an error of gravest 
significance both to the individual and to society, 
should have set before them time and again some of 
the startling facts which in the first five years of the 
American sex-education movement were promul- 



32 SEX-EDUCATION 

gated among physicians, ministers, and educators. 
All such ignorant or indifferent parents wiU not take 
an interest in the proposed sex-instruction unless 
they are convinced by frank and forcible statements 
regarding the great need of special safeguarding of 
young people. 

Since there are so many people who still need the 
most elementary knowledge concerning the sexual 
Snedalas- problems that demand educational 
Bociations attack, it is important that there 
°'® ® ■ should be local associations which can 
manage lectures, publications, conferences, and other 
means of informing the pubhc as to the gravity of 
the sexual problems of our times, and as to the part 
which sex-instruction may play in the attempt at 
finding a solution. Such work is now being done 
splendidly by the societies named in § 51. The mag- 
nitude of the problem of reaching the public is such 
that there is abundant work for numerous branches 
of such societies or for local groups willing to take 
a part in the needed work. As suggested elsewhere, 
the success of the movement for sex-instruction of 
children of school ages will depend largely upon the 
attitude and coSperation of parents ; and hence it is 
important that parents should be led to understand 
the reasons or arguments for sex-instruction. In 
other words, they should know the problems that 
indicate the importance of enUghtening the rising 
generation concerning the great facts of sex and life. 

Among the numerous publications that seem to 
me adapted for convincing parents that their chil- 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 33 

dren need instruction, I commonly mention the 
follovsdng: Lowry's "False Modesty" and "Teach- 
ing Sex Hygiene," Howard's "Start your Books for 
Child Right," Wile's "Sex Education," P^ents. 
Galloway's "Biology of Sex," March's "Towards 
Racial Health," Lyttleton's "Training of the Young 
in Laws of Sex," and pamphlets by Dr. Prince 
Morrow. See also pages 241-243. 

There are eight important sex problems of our 
times that offer reasons or arguments for sex- 
instruction, because ignorance plays Knowledge 

a large part in each problem. I shall needed 

1 1 • n 1 If 1 concerning 

state them briefly here and discuss each eight sex 

in succeeding lectures: (i) Many peo- proWems. 
pie, expecially in youth, need hygienic knowledge 
concerning sexual processes as they afifect personal 
health. (2) There is an alarming amount of the 
dangerous social diseases which are distributed 
chiefly by the sexual promiscuity or immorality of 
many men. (3) The uncontrolled sexual passions of 
men have led to enormous development of organized 
and commercialized prostitution. (4) There are 
living to-day tens of thousands of unmarried mothers 
and illegitimate children, the result of the common 
sexual irresponsibility of men and the ignorance 
of women. (5) There is need of more general 
following of a definite moral standard regarding 
sexual relationships. (6) There is a prevailing 
unwholesome attitude of mind concerning all 
sexual processes. (7) There is very general mis- 
understanding of sexual life as related to healthy 



34 SEX-EDUCATION 

and happy marriage. (8) There is need of eugenic 
responsibility for sexual actions that concern future 
generations. 

Here are the eight sexual problems of our times. 
Any one of them has significance great enough to 
demand the attention of educators and social re- 
formers. One and all they point to the need of 
better imderstanding regarding the sexual functions 
and their relation to life. I shall now turn to out- 
line the main facts concerning each of these sexual 
problems so far as it seems likely that they will 
concern educators, and social workers. For con- 
venience I shall use the following brief headings: 
(i) Personal sex-hygiene, (2) social diseases, 
(3) social evil, (4) illegitimacy, (5) sexual morality, 
(6) sexual vulgarity, (7) sexual problems and 
marriage, (8) eugenics. 

These sexual problems toward whose solution 
special instruction of young people may help are 
Historical stated here in the order in which they 
order. have attracted attention as reasons for 

sex-education. Thus, for instance, personal sex- 
hygiene was the chief reason recognized twenty 
years ago; social diseases began to attract public 
attention ten years ago; commercial prostitution 
has been especially prominent in the discussions of 
the past five years; and only recently has there 
been emphasis on sex-education with reference to 
eugenics. 

The historical order which I follow in this lecture 
is not now the order of greatest importance. For 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 35 

example, sexual morality (s) and vulgarity (6) are 
probably of far greater significance than any of the 
other sexual problems that offer arguments for sex- 
education. 

To avoid possible misunderstanding, let me repeat 
from the first lecture the proposition that sex- 
education should extend in home and 
school from childhood to maturity. It problems 
follows that these lectures concerning <:o"»=e™ 
the problems of sex that seriously affect 
the human race are not all applicable as arguments 
for instruction in schools or for children of school 
age. Some of the problems of sex point to the 
need of special instruction in pre-adolescent or in 
adolescent years, but some of them concern directly 
only those who are approaching maturity. 

§ 6. First Problem for Sex4nstrucHon: Personal 
Sex-hygiene 

It is convenient to group under personal sex- 
hygiene all hygienic knowledge concerning sexual 
processes in their personal as distin- pejgonal 
guished from their social aspects. The andsocial 
distinction between these two aspects of '8*®°*- 
sex-hygiene is essentially on the same basis as that 
between personal and pubHc hygiene. For example, 
indigestion and overwork are matters of personal 
hygiene, whUe tuberculosis and t)rphoid are problems 
of public hygiene because the individual case leads 
through infection to disease of others. Similarly, 
such individual disorders as masturbation and 



36 SEX-EDUCATION 

deranged menstruation concern personal health 
directly, while venereal diseases are clearly included 
in social sex-hygiene. 

If there were no other reasons for sex-instruction, I 
beUeve that it would be worth while to teach such 
Personal hygienic knowledge of self and sex as 
sex-hygiene would guard young people against harm- 
needed, f^j jj^ijj^g ^^^ unhealthful care of their 

sexual mechanisms; and which, moreover, would 
guide them across the threshold of adolescence 
with some helpful understanding of the significance 
of the metamorphosis. Many men and women 
suffer from injured, if not ruined, health because 
they did not know, especially between ten and four- 
teen years, the laws of personal sex-hygiene, which 
concern health in ways not involving sexual relation- 
ship. Many boys and some girls are injured both 
physically and mentally by the habit of masturba- 
tion. Numerous girls are injured physically and 
many mentally because they have not learned in 
advance the nature and hygiene of menstruation. 
Many boys are injured both in mind and character 
because they have no scientific guidance which helps 
them understand themselves during the stormy 
transition from youth into manhood. Moreover, 
there are certain simple hygienic commands that 
children under twelve should receive from parents and 
teachers. In all these lines the bearings of personal 
hygienic instruction are so obvious that we need not 
at this time stop to consider in more detail this first 
reason or problem for sex-instruction of young people. 



THK PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 37 

§ 7. Second Problem for Sex-instruction: Social 
Diseases 

During the past decade the general public has 
received some astounding revelations concerning 
the enormous extent of ilHcit sexual pro- 
miscuity, which is immorality according ud^regMd- 
to our commonly accepted code of wgviceand 
morals. Along with the evidence as to 
the existence of widespread promiscuity, has come 
the still more alarming information from the medical 
profession that sexual promiscuity commonly dis- 
tributes the germs of the two highly infectious and 
exceedingly destructive diseases, syphiUs and gonor- 
rhea, known in medical science as venereal or social. 
When these are acquired by individuals guilty of sex- 
ual promiscuity, they seriously and often fatally affect 
the victim ; but of far greater social-hygienic impor- 
tance is the medical evidence that they are very often 
transmitted to persons innocent of any transgression 
of the moral law, especially to wives and children. 

The medical revelations concerning the relation of 
sexual immorality to the plague of social diseases, 
has come from certain eminent physicians, notably 
the late Dr. Prince A. Morrow. His translation of 
Fournier's "Syphilis and Marriage" (1881), his own 
"Social Diseases and Marriage" (1904), and sev- 
eral of his pamphlets published by the American 
Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis, have 
been authoritative statements of conditions as the 
medical world sees them. 



38 SEX-EDUCATION 

The extent of social diseases is a fairly accurate 

measure of the minimum amoimt of immoraUty, 

„ . . for nothing is better established in 

Social ,. , . , , ... 

diseases medical science than that promiscuity in 

""*™- sexual relations is directly or indirectly 
responsible for spread of the micro- 
organisms which cause the diseases. If for several 
generations all men and women limited their sexual 
relations to monogamic marriage, and the relatively 
rare cases of non-sexual and prenatal infection were 
treated so as to render them non-contagious, the 
social diseases would probably disappear from the 
human family. Such a statement is significant only 
in showing the relation of social diseases to sexual 
promiscuity, for of course, there is no reasonable 
hope that the venereal germs will ever be anni' 
hilated by universal monogamy. 

Reduction of the amount of venereal disease must 
depend upon (i) hygienic and moral education 

which will lead people to avoid the 
Attack by . , 

education sources of infection and (2) sanitary 

and sanita- a^^j medical science which works either 
by applying antiseptic or other prophy- 
lactic methods for preventing development of the 
causative microorganisms, or by using germicides 
for destroying those germs which have already 
produced disease. Thus the educational and the 
sanitary attack on the social diseases lie parallel. 
Both are needed, for, even with all the possible 
metlSads of attack, the progress against these 
diseases will be exceedingly slow. 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 39 

Those who are interested in the facts relating to 
social diseases which point to the need of sex-educa- 
tion as one method of prevention, are referred to 
the pamphlets published by the American Society of 
Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis; Morrow's "Social 
Diseases and Marriage"; Creigh ton's "The Social 
Disease and How to Fight It"; Dock's "Hygiene 
and Morality"; Henderson's "Education with 
Reference to Sex"; and certain chapters in War- 
basse's "Medical Sociology." 

With regard to the accuracy of the commonly 
quoted statements concerning the prevalence of 
social disease, and therefore of immo- Estimated 
raHty, it must be said in all fairness amount of 
that there has been much guesswork °"*"®^- 
and some deliberate exaggeration. We learn from 
various books and lectures that fifty, sixty-five, 
seventy-five and even ninety per cent of the men in 
the United States over eighteen years of age are at 
some time infected with at least one of the social 
diseases. The fact is that there is no scientific 
way of getting accurate statistics, for unUke other 
contagious diseases, the venereal ones are kept more 
or less secret, and numerous cases cannot be dis- 
covered by health officers. All the pubHshed figures 
regarding the prevalence of such diseases are merely 
estimates based upon the experience of certain 
physicians with special groups of men, especially in 
hospitals. There is no reliable scientific evidence 
as to the prevalence of venereal disease in the ^hole 
mass of our American population. 



4© SEX-EDUCAnON 

However, so far as education is concerned, there 
is nothing to be gained by dispute as to the possible 

inaccuracy of the higher percentages,^ 
not con- for it is generally admitted that probably 
cemed with over fifty per cent of the men in America 

and Europe become infected with 
gonorrhea or syphilis, or both, one or more times 
during their hves, especially in early manhood. 
This conservative estimate is sufficient to show that 
the sexual morals of probably the majority of men 
are at some time in their lives loose. There is 
reason to believe that with most such men the 
period of moral laxity is in early manhood before 
marriage, which, though not excusable, is explainable 
on physiological grounds. It is important to correct 
the wrong impression which is now widespread, 
especially among women who have read the more or 
less sensational statements in certain books and 
magazines, that the quoted figures on social disease 
mean that from fifty to ninety per cent of all men 
are immoral from time to time for many years. If 
that were true, the situation represented by the 
highest estimates would be hopeless, and we might 
as well start out to adjust society to a system of 
recognized sexual promiscuity. Fortxmately, it is 
far from true, for a great many men included in 

' In the American Journal ofPubUc Health for July, 1913, Dr. John 
S. Fulton, Director General of the XV International Congress on 
Hygiene and Demography, criticized severely the extremely radical 
statistics that were presented on charts at the sex-hygiene exhibit 
of the Congress, and were later published in Wilson's "Education of 
the Young in Sex-hygiene." 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 4 1 

even the conservative statistics of social disease 
were infected because they strayed from the moral 
path very few times and in many cases only once. 
This fact makes the outlook for improved sexual 
morals and health more hopeful, for probably the 
majority of young men need help in controlling 
themselves for a few years only, especially between 
eighteen and twenty-five.* 

The reports of medical men regarding the dam- 
age done by the social diseases are inaccurate 
chiefly when they attempt to state per- EstabBshed 
centages of the whole population. They ^^''^^■ 
are reUable when they state observed facts, such 
as the following : It is now estabhshed in medical 
science that (i) gonorrheal infection results in 
tens of thousands of cases in complications, such 
as heart disease, gonorrheal rheumatism, sterility 
of both men and women, bhndness of infants, in- 
flammatory diseases of female reproductive organs, 
and other well-marked sequelae of the disease; 
and (2) that S3^hilis is responsible for a large 
majority of cases of locomotor ataxia, paresis and 
certain types of insanity, and also for numerous 
aneurisms of arteries, many apoplexies, and much 
disease of hver, kidneys, and other organs. More- 
over, syphilis is charged with being the greatest race 
destroyer. Fournier, the great French specialist, 

' There is danger in quoting to young men the estimates as to 
prevalence of sodal diseases and, therefore, of promiscuity. Fear of 
consequences will not control one who is led to believe that he is 
doing what most men do. (See Parkinson in Educational Review, 
Jan. 1911, pp. 44-46-) 



42 SEX-EDUCATION 

noted that only two children survived from a series 

of ninety pregnancies of S3^hilitic women of the 

well-to-do class. It is probably true that much less 

than ten per cent of syphilitized embryos ever grow 

into mature men and women, and even these few 

survivors are likely to carry in their bodies the 

germs or the " virus " of syphilis which may affect 

the next generation. 

Such direct statements as the above may be 

accepted as not exaggerated. However, it Uttle 

„ . . „ matters in sex-education, except for the 

Social (Us- . . 

eases ad- purposes of sensational writers, whether 

mittedly statistics regarding the damage done by 
dangerous. , ,. , . 

venereal diseases are more than esti- 
mates; for it is sufficient to remember that every 
physician of large experience agrees that syphilis 
and gonorrhea are so common and so destructive 
of health and life that they must be classed among 
the most dangerous diseases that now threaten 
the human race. This ought to be sufficient to 
attract the serious attention of every thinking man 
and woman. 

Thus, in general survey, we see the great problems 
of social-sexual hygiene caused by diseases that 
Double ^^^ widely distributed because sexual in- 

standard of stincts are uncontrolled. In short, the 
moraUty. alarming problem of the social diseases 
results from masculine promiscuity or the failure 
of men to adhere to the monogamic standards of 
morality. In other and famiUar phrasing, there is 
widespread acceptance and practice of the so-called 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 43 

"double standard of sexual morality," a monogamic 
one for respectable women and promiscuity for many 
of their male relatives and friends. (See writings 
of Morrow, especially "The Sex Problem"; also 
Creighton's "The Social Disease.") 

Our brief survey of the hygienic problems 
caused by sexual promiscuity and its characteristic 
diseases is sufficient to indicate one oneprob- 
great problem for sex-education. Such lem for sei- 
social-hygiene problems have been most ^"l"***'""- 
responsible for the recent and rapid rise of the move- 
ment for sex-education, and they must be recognized 
in any adequate scheme for instruction of young 
people. 

Can scientific education hope to solve the sexual 

problems of society by inculcating such fear of 

venereal diseases that men will remain ,. .„ 

Is sex- 
true to the monogamic code of morality? hygiene 

Many cynical disbelievers in sex-hygiene ' *i"*** 

answer this question negatively by asking in bibUcal 

phrase, "Can the leopard change his spots?" In 

other words, these doubting ones believe that 

sexual instincts are so firmly fixed in the nature of 

many men and some women that there is no hope 

of radical change through education.^ There is 

something in this point of view. It is probably 

true that even the most radical advocates of sex- 

1 Many writers have discounted the value of warnings involved 
in sex-instruction concerning social disease (see especially Cabot's 
papers referred to in § 46, and Parkinson in Educational Renew, 
January, iQii). 



44 ' SEX-EDUCATION 

education do not hope to secure universal monogamy 
and consequent disappearance of social diseases. A 
conservative and rational answer to the above ques- 
tion whether sex-education can solve the problem of 
social diseases, is that a large percentage of even 
civilized people are not yet ready to have their most 
powerful instincts controlled by scientific knowl- 
edge. Hence, there is no hope that the hygienic 
task of sex-education will be finished soon after 
instruction becomes an estabUshed part of general 
education in homes and schools. At the very best 
there will be incomplete returns for the social- 
hygienic aspect of sex-instruction, but already we 
know for a certainty that enough young men will be 
influenced to make the teaching justifiable. I feel 
sure of this because I have met personally many 
such men and my friends know many more. 

According to the investigations made by Dr. 
Exner, the medical secretary of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, a great reduction of venereal 
disease has followed sex-hygienic campaigns in 
college towns. 

In another way hygienic teaching may reduce the 
amount of venereal diseases, and that is by leading 
Medical infected individuals to seek thorough 
treatment, medical treatment without delay. This, 
of course, will render the diseased person non-in- 
fectious to others. Physicians report that there is 
now a marked movement in this direction and, 
moreover, that many infected young men volun- 
tarily seek medical examinations before marriage. 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 4$ 

Even if we refuse to believe that social-hygienic 
teaching will protect many young men from sexual 
diseases, there is the woman's need of Ty„_g„. 
information to be considered. As said need of in- 
before, women more than men suffer the *°™*''<"'- 
consequences of venereal infections. Therefore, 
every young woman who considers marriage should 
know the possibility of danger to herself and her 
children, and be able to decide accordingly. Of 
course, even with much knowledge she may marry 
the wrong man, for correct diagnosis of social 
disease is not always easy ; but if her confidence is 
betrayed and she becomes infected, she ought 
to know the importance of immediate and radical 
medical treatment. Let me illustrate these state- 
ments that women should know the danger of 
venereal disease. One of my college friends neg- 
lected an important legal case to travel seven 
hundred miles in order to tell face to face another 
college friend that she was about to marry-a danger- 
ous man. Being utterly ignorant of the existence 
of sexual diseases, the girl and her mother charac- 
terized my friend's statement by a short and ugly 
word, and ordered him to leave their home instantly. 
The marriage occurred and some months later the 
young woman went to her grave, a victim of gonor- 
rheal salpingitis and peritonitis. 

Another case which illustrates the danger of a 
woman's ignorance: One of my students of many 
years ago married a minister who infected her with 
syphilis and kept her from medical attention luitil 



46 SEX-EDUCATION 

the disease was in a highly developed stage, and even 
then conspired with an inefficient doctor to keep her 
ignorant of the nature of the disease. 

These are not extreme cases, for any physician 
with large experience knows that such things are 
The right to Common. Medical literature is full of 
knowledge, gych painful recitals of venereal trage- 
dies. It is not desirable that all , young women 
should know the details of such tragedies, but they 
should know that dangers exist. Parents and 
educators will not have done their duty until they 
cooperate to give all young women the protective 
knowledge they have a right to demand.' 

There is another way of looking at the possible 
effect of the social side of sex-hygienic instruction. 

It is sure to make a decided impression 
musUead * upon many young people of the type that 

we regard as the best in every way. 
These will be the leaders of the future and they in 
turn will help improve conditions. Perhaps it may 
all work out as the drug problem is being solved. 
Widespread social and hygienic information regard- 
ing the harmful effect of alcohol, cocaine, opium, 
and other drugs has first of all impressed leading 
citizens ; and these are beginning to control by laws 
those who cannot be reached directly by education. 
In some such ways those who are impressed by 

1 Louise Creighton, in her excellent little book on "The Social 
Disease and How to Fight It" (Longmans), has well presented the 
problems of social impurity from woman's point of view. 

Dr. W. S. Hall, in "Life's Problems," has given in a few pages 
the necessary protective knowledge. 



THE PROBLEMS FOE SEX-EDUCATION 47 

formal sex-education may lend a hand in influencing 
many who could not be touched directly by hygienic 
education. 

There is no doubt that public enhghtenment re- 
garding the dangers of social diseases wiU soon lead 
to legislation and public medical work Legislation 
which will contribute greatly towards needed, 
reduction of the diseases. For example, legislation 
with reference to venCTeal disease should require 
doctors to report cases to health oflBcers, should 
forbid "quack" advertising of fake "cures," should 
forbid sale by drug stores of nostrums for personal 
treatment, should provide dispensaries and hospitals 
for reliable treatment at reasonable cost, should 
require medical examinations for marriage licenses 
and provide for such examinations at moderate 
charges or at public expense, should require certain 
sanitary precautions in care of eyes of new-bom 
infants, and should provide for discovery and treat- 
ment of congenital syphilis in school children. These 
are lines in which good laws might help vastly in the 
war against the social diseases. Moreover, it is ob- 
vious that all laws which help control the social evil 
will work indirectly against the social diseases. 

In conclusion, it seems probable that popular 
knowledge of the social side of sex-hygiene will 
reduce the amount of venereal disease probaWe 
(i) by teaching some people the dangers results of 
of promiscuity, (2) by adoption of certain *'""' °°' 
sanitary precautions that lessen danger of infection, 
(3) by leading people to seek competent medical aid 



48 SEX-EDUCATION 

which, while often failing to restore the victim's 
health, will probably eliminate the danger of con- 
tagion for others, and (4) by intelligent support of 
laws that directly or indirectly affect the social 
diseases. 

I have given great prominence to the social-sexual 
diseases in their relation to sex-education because 

along this hne there has been developed 
Social dis- , . , , . , . . , 

eases not the Widespread mterest m sex-mstruc- 

most im- jjon as one method of protecting young 
portant. , . ^ . ^.^ c * 

people against promiscuity. So far as 

the questions of teaching are concerned, my personal 

view is that some of the other reasons or problems 

for sex-instruction are more important, because I 

believe that educational emphasis on them wiU give 

the greatest results in improved sexual conditions 

of society. 

§ 8. Third Problem for Sex-instruction: the Social 
Evil 

So far as the problems of sex-education are con- 
cerned, there is nothing to be gained by an extensive 
review of commercialized prostitution. It is gener- 
ally accepted that the social evil or prostitution 
is increased by the common ignorance of young 
people of both sexes regarding the physical and 
social relations of sex. 

Of course, it is not true that all prostitution is due 
to ignorance, for it often involves enlightened men 
and women. However, there seems to be good 
reason for believing that large numbers of people 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 49 

of both sexes might be kept out of prostitution by 
very simple sex-instruction. Let us look ior a 
moment at some facts concerning the relation of 
the ignorance of the women to their entrance into 
the underworld, and later consider certain reasons 
why many men patronize the social evil. 

With regard to the women victims of prostitution, 
it seems to be generally accepted that economic 
pressure, feeble-mindedness, bad social ^^hy women 
environment, and unguided instincts, in- enter pros- 
dependently or combined, are the chief ***""°°- 
causes of their downfall. However, there is a. 
deeper reason why numerous women enter prostitu- 
tion, for all of these factors commonly operate 
because of inadequate sexual knowledge. In short, 
ignorance is the fundamental cause of much prosti- 
tution on the part of women. Many a girl with 
starvation wages, bad social surroundings, sub- 
normal mentality, or even intense instincts is able 
to keep her womanhood because she knows the 
awful dangers of sexual promiscuity. For our 
present educational purposes, it is sufficient to point 
out the opinion of competent social workers that 
knowledge might often counteract the forces that 
lead women from virtue and down into prostitution. 

A large number of men patronize prostitution 
because they are ignorant in one or more of the 
following respects. Some of them have Men also 
drifted into abnormal sexual habits ienorant. 
when they were boys, and later into illicit relations. 
Some of them did not know the effect of alcohoKc 



50 SEX-EDUCATION 

drinks in leading many young men to their first 
immoral sexual acts. Some of them have de- 
liberately patronized prostitution because they have 
accepted as truth the monstrous he that sexual 
activity is necessary to preserve the health of men.' 
Most of the men do not realize that prostitution 
offers great danger to their own health, still greater 
danger to the health of innocent wives and children, 
and a greatly shortened life for many women 
who are the victims of sexual slavery. Most 
men do not know that dark tragedies are often 
concealed beneath the apparent gay life of the 
women who are victims of sexual degradation. 
These are some of the things of which many young 
men I have known were very ignorant, and it has 
been no difficult task to trace a close connection 
between their ignorance and their vice. 

Looking at the social evil from any point of view, 
it seems to me that ignorance, dense ignorance, is 
Ignorance largely responsible for the existence 
the chief of that darkest blot on our boasted 
"™*' civilization — the social-sexual evil. 

No matter how we look at the estabUshed facts 
regarding prostitution, they all point to the need 
of sexual instruction for the protection of the youth 
of both sexes. The Chicago Vice Commission con- 
cluded that "the lack of information, education 
and training with reference to the function and con- 
trol of the sexual instinct, and the consequences of 
its abuse and perversion, appears at every point of 
' See "The Sexual Necessity, " by Drs. Howell and Keyes. 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 5 1 

our inquiry for the sources of the supply of the 
victims of vice, either as the cause of the perversion 
of children and youth or as a compUcation of all 
other causes." ^ Of course, we dare not dream 
that any sex-instruction that now seems possible 
will completely eradicate prostitution; but we do 
know of thousands of boys and girls who have been 
directed to safety by knowledge of some funda- 
mental sexual facts. 

Concerning presentation of the social evil by fic- 
tion and the drama, there is much honest disagree- 
ment. My personal opinion is that little Sex plays 
good is done by the theater or by such and novels, 
publications as Reginald Kaufmann's "House of 
Bondage," and Elizabeth Robin's "My Little 
Sister." They all leave the unsophisticated reader 
with an exaggerated and even hysterical notion that 
white slavery is exceedingly common and the main 
cause of prostitution. Certainly the great majority 
of the army of prostitutes, both pubHc and clandes- 
tine, in America, and a still higher percentage on the 
continent of Europe, did not become novitiates of 
vice in prisons of prostitution. 

It seems to me that a very Hmited reading re- 
garding the social evil is sufficient for one who is 
not engaged in medical or social work Limited 
that requires scientific knowledge of this reading 
darkest side of human life. Certainly, ®*"* *" 
the indiscriminate reading of vice investigations 
is dangerous for many young people, — for young 
' See also, He^udeison's " Education with Reference to Sex." 



52 SEX-EDUCATION 

men because some of them are allured into personal 
investigations, and for young women because 
they get an exaggerated and pessimistic view of 
all sexual problems. For the intelligent reader 
who wants the general information that every 
public-spirited citizen should have, the well-known 
book by Jane Addams wUl serve both as an out- 
line and an encyclopedia of the social evil. Social 
workers and some educators will find use for the 
other books mentioned below. 

Jane Addams. — "A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil." 
(Macmillan). 

Seligman, E. R. A. (Editor). — "The Social Evil." (Put- 
nam.) Contains bibliography on the subject. 

Sumner, Dean W. T., and others. — "The Social Evil in Chi- 
cago." Vice-Commission Report, iQir. NowpubUshedby 
the American Social Hygiene Association. The "introduc- 
tion and summary" (pp. 25-47) deserves careful reading. 

Cocks, O. G. — "The Social Evil" (Association Press). 
" Vigilance,"a journal devoted to attacking the social evil, has 

been discontinued and replaced by bulletins of the American 

SocialHygiene Association, 105 West 40th Street,New YorkCity. 

§ 9. The Fourth Problem jor Sex-education: 
Illegitimacy 

Most awful of all the results of the sexual mistakes 
of men and women are the unmarried mothers and 
Society con- ^^^^^ illegitimate children. Of course, I 
demnsille- know that there are well-meaning people 
gitunacy. ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ motherhood is the supreme 
fact and that the formaUty of a marriage ceremony 
is merely a medievalism in our laws and customs ; 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION S3 

but the inexorable truth remains that our modern 
social system is centered around the home which 
is strictly regulated by church and state and public 
opinion.* Whatever may be the philosophical 
rights and wrongs of individual freedom in sexual 
relationship, the facts of practical life are that an 
overwhelming majority of the most intelUgent people 
are united in support of our estabhshed laws and 
customs demanding legitimacy of motherhood and 
birthright. As a result of this age-old stand for 
legitimacy, illegitimate mothers and children do not 
have a square deal at the bar of public opinion. 
Everybody knows that the vast majority of illegiti- 
mate children do not have a fair chance in the world's 
work. Professor Cattell, in' Science, March, 1914, 
points out that since illegitimates occur one in 
every twenty-five births in the United States, and 
since they are on the whole equal to other children 
in mentaUty, there ought to be forty of them among 
the thousand leading men of science designated in 
the directory of the "American Men of Science;" 
but none are known. The conclusion must be that 
illegitimate children do not have an equal chance 
at education which leads to prominence in science. 
But it is not simply a matter of Hmited education, for 
in every way the fate of most illegitimate children 
is usually pitiful. Only now and then one born 
under a lucky star is adopted and educated by 
large-minded foster parents who recognize that the 

•See chapter on "Motherhood and Marriage" in Foerster'i 
"Marriage and the Sex Problem." 



54 SEX-EDUCATION 

illegitimate is not responsible for having come into 
this world under conditions opposed to ithe best 
interests of society. 

It seems to be generally accepted that in the vast 
majority of cases, unmarried mothers and illegiti- 
Ignorance mate children are due to ignorance of the 
the cause. women. Women who are professionally 
immoral do not bear many children."- In fact, ex- 
cepting the feeble-minded prostitutes, the general rule 
is that those who are mothers have only one child 
and that one the result of the first sexual errors. It 
is a safe general conclusion that ignorance of sexual 
laws is responsible for the great majority of cases of 
illegitimacy. 

Edith Livingston Smith, of Boston, in an article 
on "Urmiarried Mothers" in Harper's Weekly for 
September 6, 1913, expressed views of the causes of 
illegitimacy that many a social worker will indorse 
heartily : 

"I see shop girls and waitresses, factory girls and 
maids, chorus girls, stenographers, and governesses, 
each with a different story, each with the same terror 
of the consequences of their folly. 'I never knew,' 
they tell me, 'I never knew there were such tempta- 
tions.' . . . 

"Let us go back to the question of sex-education of 
the public. Silence has been the poUcy in the past. 
We have taught our children biology and natural 
history, we have taught them physiology, carefully 

' As an illustration of this fact, out of ss8 Pittsburgh professional 
prostitutes, 406 had never had children. Of the 152 who were 
mothers, only 24 had two or more children. 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 5 J 

ignoring the organs of reproduction; we have 
warned 'the young to make use of their senses and 
their brains, but we have refused to recognize the 
very force that guides all these instincts, the vital 
power of sex. Yet, in the face of this stupidity, 
acknowledging the call of the age, girls are sent 
out into the industrial world, where they fight 
shoulder to shoulder with men. Here they find po- 
tential worth of their individuaHties ; here they 
meet with the same — no, greater — temptation 
than their brothers, but with no knowledge to guide 
them, no traditions to give them poise, no ameliorat- 
ing factor of social tenderness or tolerance when 
inexperience fails to temper their emotions and their 
femininity. . . . 

"A girl's protection must come from without, a 
boy's from within. Every boy who reaches the 
age of adolescence knows his nature. It asserts 
itself. His sex instincts are dominant, aggressive. 
He is man, the father of the race, and the laws of 
procreation are to him an open book. AjgirLstays 
i imocent imtil she is awakened . It is the kiss, the 
touch, the senses stirred, that make her, in the glory 
of her womanhood or in her shame, acknowledge 
her sex. 

— ^'The very frailty of such a girl, her dependence 
upon her intuitions and emotions, the triumph of 
feeling over intellect, place her in greater danger 
than her brothers, even were their responsibility 
to society the same. But, add to this the fact 
that in )delding to sexual temptation she has the 
burden of child-bearing — how much more nec- 
essary that she should have some knowledge of 
what she is to meet in the world, or what she 
must combat, lest her emotions forestall her in- 
telligence as physical development precedes mental 
appreciation." 



56 SEX-EDUCATION 

Illegitimacy is often due to ignorance of men as 
well as of women. Prominent physicians have 
Men also cited from their notebooks cases of "pro- 
ignorant, tected " children in early adolescence who 
instinctively entered into sexual relationship in 
utter ignorance of the natural result. Such cases 
where the boy is entirely ignorant must be very 
rare ; but there are probably many boys who do not 
really understand that the sexual act is very Ukely 
to lead to a ruined Ufe for the girl companion and 
her offspring. Arthur Donnithorne, in "Adam 
Bede," did not forecast that his act would lead to 
the ruin of Hetty Sorrel and her condemnation for 
infanticide. 

It is obvious that something more £han the or- 
dinary biological facts of reproduction must be in- 
More than eluded in sex-instruction that tries to 
biology prevent such tragedies. In another 

needed. lecture we shall consider moral teaching, 
but here let us look at the cold facts of Ufe that ought 
to be taught at some appropriate time to yoimg 
people. Not only should they know the simple 
biological probabiUty that sexual relationship will 
lead to reproduction, but they should be led to 
consider the relentless consequences of illegitimate 
propagation. On this latter point general literature, 
e.g., "Adam Bede" and "The Scarlet Letter," 
teaches some impressive lessons. 

Another point needs emphasis with the numerous 
young people, especially men, who are not controlled 
by moral laws, who know the probabilities of illegiti- 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION $7 

macy occurring, but who have acquired the popular 
impression that the order cf nature is easily changed. 
Many physicians and social workers know girls 
who have gone down because they were persuaded 
to trust the efficiency of popular ways and means 
of avoiding the natural outcome of the sexual act. 
Hence, young people of both sexes should somehow 
learn that under the conditions that usually attend 
illicit union there is always a strong probability 
that the ways of nature cannot be easily circum- 
vented. It is unlawful to explain, except to medical 
audiences, why this is so; but much illegitimacy 
will be prevented if it can be made widely known 
among young men and women that, according to 
reliable physicians, tragedies of illegitimacy are 
often due to misplaced confidence in popular methods 
of contraception. 

There is yet another Une of information that if 
widely known might have some bearing on the 
problem of iUicit sexual relations : Physi- criminal 
cians and social workers report that many operations, 
young men and some women know the possibility 
of illegitimate pregnancy, but feel safe because they 
know the addresses of doctors and midwives who 
will perform criminal operations. The great danger 
of the operation, especially at the hands of such 
third-class doctors as would attempt to terminate 
pregnancy criminally, should be widely known by 
the general public, which only now and then gets a 
hint in the newspaper reports of a tragedy involv- 
ing some unfortunate girl. 



58 SEX-EDUCATION 

There is the widespread misunderstanding among 
young men that sexual hunger is as insistent in 

virtuous young women as in themselves 
Relfltive -' o 

passion of and that therefore illicit gratification is a 
men and mutual gain and responsibility. Some 

young men may be guided by the infor- 
mation that there is much reUable evidence indicat- 
ing that, while an innate tendency towards general 
emotions of affection is strong in the average young 
woman, there is general absence of the locaUzed 
passions that naturally and automatically develop 
in young men. In other words, the first definite 
sexual temptation is Ukely to come to a young woman 
from outside herself, and young men should be im- 
pressed with their responsibility for allowing even 
the beginning of situations that may arouse dormant 
but dangerous instincts. 



§ 10. The Fifth Problem for Sex-edttcation: Sexual 
Morality 

In this lecture I shall set forth the proposition 
that a definitely organized scheme of education 
should aim directly at making young people strict 
adherents of the established code of sexual moraUty. 
For brevity, I shall occasionally speak of moraUty 
and immorality, omitting the qualifying word 
"sexual." 

This lecture, in fact this entire series of lectures 
on sex-education, is based on the fundamental 
proposition that sexual morality demands that 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDtTCATION 59 

sexual union be restricted to monogamic marriage, 
and conversely, that such sexual relation outside of 
marriage is immoral. Such a definition Definitsonof 
of sexual morality is accepted by church sexual 
and state and the chief citizens in every ™°'"'**y- 
civilized country. It is the only practical defini- 
tion which is satisfactory to the vast majority 
of educated American men and women, even to 
those who believe in freedom of divorce and in 
forgiveness for youthful transgressions of the ac- 
cepted moral code. Sexual morality has had 
changeable standards, and in other times and 
countries custom has made polygamy and promis- 
cuity acceptable as moral ; but the monogamic ideal 
of moraHty now prevails in the world's best life. 

Monogamic morahty as a protection for family 
life means much more in America than in Europe. 
It is true that there is an astounding MoraUtyia 
amount of prostitution in America, but America and 
we should be grateful that our ideals of ^°^^- 
the monogamic family have not been seriously in- 
fluenced and seem to be slowly but surely improving 
among our best people. As illustrations of our 
adherence to monogamic law, let me give some facts 
for comparison of America and continental Europe. 
In America, illegitimate births are not accurately 
reported but are probably less than five per cent 
of the total number for the whole country. Lo- 
cally the proportion is often very much higher. 
Thus in Washington, D.C., where (1914) over ten 
thousand, chiefly negroes, Hve in alleys between 



6o SEX-EDUCATION 

the streets and under extremely unhygienic and 
immoral conditions, fifty per cent of the children are 
illegitimate, while but twenty per cent of the colored 
children bom of mothers living outside the alleys, 
and less than eleven per cent of the total bom of all 
races in the city are illegitimate. In various small 
American regions with a white population the pro- 
portion of illegitimacy is astoundingly high, but the 
average for the entire country is hopefully low. 
In many German towns statistics show above 
twenty-five per cent, and in the whole empire, more 
than half the legitimate first-born children are con- 
ceived before marriage. All writers, the German ones 
included, seem to agree that the majority of Teutonic 
men and women enter into free unions before marriage 
and public opinion does not severely condemn. 

In many rural districts of England, France, and 
Sweden, and even in London and Paris, a large 
percentage of the marriages are simply legalization 
of free unions. In shorty in all these countries the 
monogamic ideal is not followed by a large per- 
centage of people. It must be remembered that the 
great majority of people involved in the above figures 
are of the peasant and laboring classes ; conditions 
are qviite different among women of the educated 
classes. These must ultimately set the moral stand- 
ards for the masses. 

Our American conditions are quite different, es- 
pecially outside of the large cosmopolitan cities. 
It is impossible not to beUeve in the moral integrity 
of the great majority of unmarried women in 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 6l 

America. Certainly even in our worst communities 
we have no such general immoraUty of women as 
above European figures suggest. Perhaps wholesale 
prostitution in which one pubUc woman may 
be the mistress of ten, twenty, or even fifty men, 
may tend to protect any equal number of Ameri- 
can women ; whereas in Europe a peasant woman 
would probably be for a time the paramour of one 
man, thus tending to make equal numbers of im- 
moral men and women. 

However, it matters nothing for our present pur- 
poses what may be the ejcplanation of conditions of 
sexual promiscuity here or abroad. The one great 
fact is that our national code of morality is a mono- 
gamic one, approved as ideal even by many of those 
who fail to live strictly in harmony with its dictates. 
Hence, all Americans who are prominently interested 
in sex-education believe that it should aim to make 
our yoimg people more ready to accept and under- 
stand moraUty according to the monogamic ideal. 

Those who are interested in this problem of 
morality as related to marriage should read Foerster's 
"Marriage and the Sex Problem." 

Among those who see the need of teaching sex- 
ethics as a part of the larger outlook of sex-education, 
there are two points of view: (i) those Relation of 
who favor the teaching of sex-ethics sex-hy^ene 
with the hope of preventing the hygienic °° **'"'^^' 
problems arising from immoraUty, and (2) those who 
believe in sexual morality for its own sake or as an 
accepted code of conduct. 



62 SEX-EDUCATION i 

The founders of the American Society for Sani- 
tary and Moral Prophylaxis placed sanitation first 
in the name and stated in the constitution that 
"the object of this Society is to limit the spread of 
diseases which have their origin in the Social Evil. 
It proposes to study every means, sanitary, moral, 
and administrative, which promise to be most 
effective for this purpose." Most of the papers that 
have been read at the meetings of the Society have 
emphasized the sanitary aim as primary, and the 
moral aim as a means to the hygienic end ; but in 
the past three years there has been a decided 
tendency towards placing emphasis upon morality, 
and recently the executive committee of the Society 
voted to propose the following revised statement: 
"The aim of this Society is to promote the appre- 
ciation of the sacredness of human sexual relation, 
and thereby to minimize the moral and physical evils 
resulting from ignorance and vice." This change 
of emphasis is well expressed in President Keyes's 
report to the Society {Journal, Vol. V, No. i). 

As to the relation between sex-hygiene and sex- 
ethics as phases of the larger sex-education, there 
has been much discussion. Several writers have 
contended that there is some conflict between sani- 
tary and moral ends, but have failed to convince 
most readers that hygiene and ethics should not 
be associated in teaching. In fact, the most im- 
pressive sex-hygiene is that relating to social disease, 
and its value is chiefly in the ethical appeal for pro- 
tection of innocent wives and children. 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 63 

Most prominent of those who have declared that 
hygienic and moral teaching should be dissociated 
is Dr. Richard C. Cabot, of Boston. I Dr. Cabot's 
shall discuss his point of view in connec- '^*^- 
tion with a later lecture on "Criticisms of Sex- 
education" (§ 46). In the present discussion 
of sexual morality as an important reason for sex- 
education, it is suflScient to say that Dr. Cabot 
seems to disagree with other teachers on the ques- 
tion of the influence of formal instruction on the 
morals of people. 

Sex-education is now commonly understood to 
be attempting to solve the moral as well as the 
hygienic problems of sex. As suggested ^^^^ ^^^ 
before, these two lines of problems are hygienic 
clearly related but not coincident; for *"° *°'*' 
sexual health and morals are not entirely coordinated. 
We must not overlook the possibility that the mar- 
vellous progress of bacteriological and medical 
science may some day largely reduce the health 
problems of sex without improving morality. In 
fact, sexual immorality that is hygienic does actu- 
ally exist to a limited extent. Such facts indicate 
that while sex-education was first planned to solve 
health problems, the ultimate sex-education must 
attempt to guide sexual conduct by moral principles. 
This coming need of more emphasis on the moral 
problems of sex should be clearly foreseen by those 
who are interested in sex-education. 

Now, while sexual morality as commonly under- 
stood is a direct aim of sex-education, it is not, 



64 SEX-EDtrCATION 

in the opinion of many people, the ideal and ulti- 
mate goal of sex-education in its broadest outlook. 
Super- There is something higher than conven- 

morality tional moraUty for the reason that, while 
desirable. natural sexual union in monogamic mar- 
riage is never legally or ecclesiastically immoral, it 
is very often far from ideal. It is not ideal if it is 
unethical, unhygienic, or unaesthetic. It is un- 
ethical, if it is not a bi-personal desideratum {i.e., 
based on mutual love ^ ; it is unhygienic when not 
promotive and conservative of health; and it is 
unaesthetic if the concomitant psychical reactions 
are not in harmony with the beautiful in nature and 
life. In all these ways, moraUty as commonly 
and legally and ecclesiastically understood may faU 
very far short of the ideal sexual relationships. Such 
an ideal is now held by many men and women 
who wish that moraUty might mean to all the world 
not simply the hmitation of sexual union to mono- 
gamic marriage, but also that it might be made to 
mean an all-satisfying monogamic affection and 
comradeship based on certain physiological, psychi- 
cal, aesthetic, and ethical laws that underlie himian 
sexual potentialities. Such would be a moraUty so 

' Many thinking men and women now agree with Ellen Key that 
"marriage is immoral without mutual love," that "love is the sole 
decisive point of view in questions concerning this relationship," 
that "it will come to pass that no finely sensitive woman will become 
a mother except through mutual love," that "everything which is 
exchanged between husband and wife in their life together can only 
be the free gift of love, can never be demanded by one or the other 
as a right." (Key — "The Morality of Woman. ") 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 65 

far beyond the accepted standards that for con- 
venience we may call it super-morality, or the new 
morality. This, I sincerely believe, is the ultimate 
goal of sex-education in its largest outlook. 

Among those who have contributed to the sex- 
education movement there are none who have prop- 
erly emphasized this super-morality, 
which, I beHeve, is the ultimate goal of moraiTty 
the larger sex-education for the most deserves 
enlightened people. The definition that 
sex-education means all instruction which aims to 
help young people prepare to solve for themselves 
the sexual problems that inevitably come to every 
iiormal individual, is broad enough to include all 
questions of hygiene, morality, and super-morality 
that may come into one's life. The third aim of 
sex-education (§ i6) which refers to the "social, 
ethical, and psychical aspects of sex as affecting the 
individual life in relation to other individuals," 
should be understood as meaning first a stand for 
moraUty and then, this having been attained, super- 
morality is an easy stage forward. The same idea 
was touched by the writer in a paper on "Biology 
in Sex-Instruction" (Journal of Society of Sanitary 
and Moral Prophylaxis, October, 191 1) in these 
words: "If the great questions of sex relationship 
are ever satisfactorily solved, it must be through 
the direct application of the four sciences which 
are centered around human life, namely, psychology, 
ethics, sociology, and last, but far from least, 
aesthetics. As we have seen, biology teaches much 



66 SEX-EDUCATION 

directly bearing on the purely physical aspects of 

the perpetuation of human life, and its study is 

absolutely necessary for mental attitude and basal 

facts ; but the keystone of the arch of sex-education 

must be contributed by these four sciences which 

touch human life much deeper than the merely 

physical, to which the science of biology is limited. 

Above all we must look to these sciences for the 

solution of the problems of sex in relation to society, 

which more than any physical ills have led to our 

present problems concerning sexual disharmonies." 

But while there is something attractive in this 

larger interpretation of sex-education as looking 

forward to the highest adaptation of 
Super- J i-i- T 1- 1 

morality sex and Me, I realize that as a practi- 

not for the cal matter we must first of all work 
masses. .,, , r , 

with young people for sexual morauty 

as defined by the accepted code. We must remem- 
ber that the vast majority of people are not yet 
ready, and will not soon be ready, for a code of 
super-morality. Confusion might result from an 
attempt at wholesale teaching of such idealism of 
sex relationship. Certainly, so far as sex-education 
aims to help immature young people, there is 
nothing to do but hold up monogamic marriage as 
the basis of our accepted moraUty ; but the higher 
view of super-morality should be promulgated as 
rapidly as possible among people who are advanced 
enough to understand that morahty as defined by 
church and state is not the best interpretation of 
life's possibilities. To many it is a significant fact 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 67 

that we now find numerous young men and women 
ready to stand for super-morality as a foundation 
for monogamic marriage. Fortunately, such indi- 
viduals need not wait for the world to grasp the idea 
of super-morals ; and already there is many a home 
in which the higher view of life and sex prevails. 

Immorality in sexual Unes should not be overstressed 
when teaching young people. Rather should there 
be emphasis on the moral, the normal, . ^ 
the healthful, the helpful, and the aesthetic teaching 

processes in hirnian hfe. We should foneeminE 
*■ inuziorauty. 

emphasize sexual health and morals, not 

disease and immorality. Concerning immoral Uving 
in general, young people should know only enough 
for necessary warning. Curiosity derived from ex- 
tensive knowledge of immorahty has drawn many a 
young man into the whirlpool of sexual depravity. 
It is beyond question that in sexual lines there is the 
danger that Pope saw when he declared that vice 
is a monster that seen too oft, we first endure, then 
pity, then embrace. Sex-education should guard 
against such dangerous familiarity with vice. 

§ II. The Sixth Problem for Sex-education: Sexual 
Vulgarity 

Even a limited study of the prevailing attitude 
towards sex and reproduction convinces one that 
back of the greatest sexual problems Present 
of our times is the almost universal attitude, 
secrecy, disrespect, vulgarity, and irreverence con- 
cerning every aspect of sex and reproduction. 



68 SEX-EDUCATION 

Even expectant motherhood is commonly concealed 
as long as possible, and all reference to the develop- 
ing new life is usually accompanied with blushes 
and tones suggestive of some great shame. Nothing 
sexual is commonly regarded as sacred. Love 
and marriage, motherhood and birth, are all freely 
selected as themes for sexual jests, many of them 
so vulgar that no printed dictionary supplies the 
necessary words. And I am not simply referring 
to the great masses of uneducated people, for 
the saddest fact is that a very large proportion of 
intelligent people have not an open-minded and 
respectful attitude concerning sex and reproduction. 

Now, unless we can devise some way to counter- 
act the prevaiUng narrow, vulgar, disrespectful, and 
Vast chanee irreverent attitude towards all aspects of 
of attitude sex and reproduction; unless we can 
needed. make people see sexual processes in aU 
their normal aspects as noble, beautiful, and splendid 
steps in the great plan of nature; unless we can 
substitute a philosophical and aesthetic view of sex 
relationship for the time-worn interpretation of 
everything sexual as inherently vulgar, base, 
ignoble, and demanding asceticism for those who 
would reach the highest spiritual development; 
unless we can begin to make these changes in the 
prevailing attitude towards sex and reproduction, we 
cannot make any decided advance ui the attempt to 
help solve sexual problems by special instruction. 

First of all, sex-education must work for a purified 
and dignified attitude which sees vulgarity and 



THE PROBLEMS TOR SEX-EDUCATION 69 

impurity only when the functions of sex have been 
voluntarily and knowingly misused and thereby de- 
based. Sex-education must work against the idea 
that sexual processes are inherently vulgar, degraded, 
base, and impure. Such an interpretation is correct 
only when sexual instincts are uncontrolled and 
thereby out of harmony with the highest ideals of 
life. But control does not mean asceticism which 
aims at complete subjugation of sexual instincts 
and would annihilate them if that were biologically 
possible. The early Christians, disgusted with the 
sexual degradation of the paganistic and materialis- 
tic Romans, preached a doctrine of sexual asceticism 
as the ideal for those who would rise to the heights 
of spiritual life. This pessimistic interpretation of 
the relation of sex and Hfe has persisted even in 
some ecclesiastical teachings of the twentieth 
century, and probably has had not a Uttle responsi- 
bility for the widely accepted and depressing view 
that sex is a necessary but regrettable fact of human 
life. 

Fortunately, the old ascetic point of view is 
passing rapidly. Nineteenth-century science has 
given us a nobler view of the physical Attitude 
world. Scientifically considered, matter changmg. 
is no longer base and degraded. Especially has the 
biological science of the past fifty years made living 
matter and its activities profoundly impressive. 
And of the life-activities none are so significant and 
so all-important as those relating to the perpetuation 
of the human species. Biological science has 



70 SEX-EDUCATION 

taught this emphatically, and the processes con- 
nected with sex have been lifted to a place of dignity 
and purity. 

The old asceticism, with its uniformly dark outlook 
on life, has no lessons worth while in our modem 
iEsthetic problems relating to sex. ^ We need se- 
attitude vere control and not annihilation of 
desirable. our most powerful instincts. The bright 
outlook of aesthetics rather than the dark one of 
asceticism should prevail, for sex-instincts and 
processes are essentially pure and beautiful phases 
of that wonderful something we caU "life." Sex- 
education should aim to give this attitude by pre- 
senting life as fundamentally free from the degrada- 
tion arising from misuse and misunderstanding of sex. 

The assthetic interpretation of sex is no new ideal. 
Canon Lyttleton, formerly Head Master of Eton 
Not a new College and later Canon of Westmin- 
ideal. gter, believed that "viewed rightly, the 

subject of sex, the ever-recurring miracle of genera- 
tion and birth, is fuU of nobleness, purity, and 
health." The late Dr. Prince A. Morrow wrote, 
"the sex function is intimately connected with the 
physical, mental, and moral development. Its right 

' Foerster, in his "Marriage and the Sex Problem," urges that 
self-control over sexual passions is the working of the old idea of 
ascetidsm, which he believes "should be regarded, not as a negation 
of nature nor as an attempt to extirpate natural forces, but as prac- 
tice in the art of self-discipline. Its object should be to show hu- 
manity what the human will is capable of performing, to serve as 
an encouraging example of the conquest of the spirit over the animal 
Belf." My personal view is that nothing is gained by confusing 
Belf-control and the old asceticism. 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-fiDUCATION 7 1 

use is the surest basis of individual health, happi- 
ness and usefulness in life, as well as of racial per- 
manence and prosperity. Its abuse and misuse is 
the cause of a vast deal of disease and misery." And 
finally, we may quote President-Emeritus Eliot of 
Harvard University: "Society must be reUeved by 
sound instruction of the horrible doctrine that the 
begetting and bearing of children are in the sUghtest 
degree sinful or foul processes. That doctrine lies 
at the root of the feeling of shame in connection with 
these processes and of the desire for secrecy. The 
plain fact is that there is nothing so . sacred and 
propitious on earth as the bringing of another nor- 
mal child into the world in marriage. There is 
nothing staining or defiUng about it, and therefore 
there is no need for shame or secrecy, but only for 
pride and joy. This doctrine should be part of the 
instruction given to all young people." 

If sex-education succeeds in giving young people 
this enlightened attitude, there will be little difiS.- 

cultv in solving most of the ethical and 

. . ,T p A Attitude all- 

hygiemc problems of sex. A young important in 

man who has caught a ghmpse of the sex-educa- 
highest interpretation of sex in its rela- 
tion to human life, in short a young man to whom 
all natural sexual processes are essentially pure and 
noble and beautiful, is not one who will make grave 
hygienic mistakes in his own life, and he will not be 
personally connected with the social evil and its 
diseases, and he will avoid almost intuitively the 
physiologic and psychologic mistakes that most 



72 SEX-EDUCATION 

often cause matrimonial disaster. Everjrthing, then, 
in successful sex-education depends upon the atti- 
tude formed in the minds of learners ; and towards 
this our major efforts should be directed. 

The prevailing vulgar attitude towards sex will 
not be greatly improved by repeated emphasis 
upon the animal nature of reproduction 
^th hi attempts at supporting the thesis 

ai^alBnot that propagation is the sole function 
of sexual processes in human life. 
Such an interpretation of human sexuality as purely 
animaUstic in function is impUed, if not expressed, 
by some workers for the "purity" movement. I 
sincerely beUeve that such a view will inevitably 
tend to increase the feeling that sexual processes 
are heritages from the beasts which unfortunately 
must be tolerated because nature has provided 
no other way for perpetuating human life. 

An intelligent woman, a happy wife and mother, 
who had accepted this ascetic and pessimistic 
Sexual view of sex, said the other day: "Oh, 

pessimism. Jove and marriage and motherhood 
would be so beautiful were it possible to escape 
the unspeakably vulgar facts of physical life!" 
Poor woman ! It must have been some fiend incar- 
nate who in the guise of a prophet of purity 
preached to her the animalistic interpretation of 
sex, which made her overlook the fact that the very 
beauty which she could not quite grasp had its 
origin in her emotions arising from the despised 
sexual nature. 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 73 

This is not an isolated case. Several young 
women who have graduated from college within 
ten years vouch for the statement that many 
thoughtful students are strong in the behef that ideal 
marriage is platonic friendship and that it is a sad 
fact of hfe that husband and wife must lay aside 
their high ideals in order to become parents. 

Such depressing interpretations of life are bound 
to come from the radical type of "purity" preaching 
based on the sexual mistakes of the past and on the 
Hves of animals. A similar pessimistic view regard- 
ing the function of eating might be based on mistakes 
of drunkards and gluttons and on the habits of the 
porcine family. If these are to guide our conduct, 
then food-taking is to be regarded as a necessary but 
vulgar habit inherited from our animal ancestors; 
and if we are to be logical and attempt to rise to 
ideal purity in eating, we must hasten to dispense 
with the culinary science and all the aesthetics 
which have made civilized eating a fine art. Of 
course, this is just what the strict ascetic does; 
but such radical disbeKevers in the pleasures that 
we have associated with eating would be declared 
lunatics in any civilized country. 

I have chosen eating for illustrating my point, for 
the demands for food and for sexual activity are 
the two primal and necessary forms of Two kinds 
hunger. The hunger for food has led of hunger, 
to the refinements of civilized dining, but there has 
been great evolution. The animals feed (German, 
fressen) in order to satisfy hunger only; civilized 



74 SEX-EDUCATION 

humans eat (essen) not only to satisfy the himger 
appetite inherited from the animals, but also for the 
sake of the concomitant social aesthetic pleasures 
that add much to the joy of Uving. Now, if we are 
logical, we must interpret on parallel lines the 
sexual hunger that is necessary for the perpetuation 
of human hfe. Like eating, it is a necessary function 
inherited from the animals ; but there has been an 
evolution of greater significance. In the animal 
world, sexual activity has only one function, re- 
production; but human hfe at its highest has 
superadded psychical and social meaning to sexual 
relationships, and the result has been affection and 
the human family. If we reject this higher view 
of the double significance of sexuality in human 
life, and insist that only the necessary propaga- 
tive function is worthy of recognition, it is almost 
inevitable that most people will continue to accept 
the hopeless view that human sexuality is on the 
same vulgar plane as that of the animals ; in short, 
that it is only an animal function. This, I insist, 
is a depressing interpretation that will never help 
overcome the prevaihng vulgar attitude toward 
sex. 

It *is only by frankly recognizing and developing 
the psychical and eesthetic meanings that are dis- 

„ tinctly human and superadded to the 

Human ... , , 

sexuality merely propagative function of the am- 

more than mals, that people can be led far away 
anunal. . ' , , , , 

from the vulgar outlook on sex and re- 
production in human life. 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 75 

There is no question that wholesome attitude 
towards sex and reproduction is closely associated 
with the problems of sexual morality, n-i.« f 
and especially so far as educational pro- attitude and 
cedure is concerned. It is true that large °^°'^^- 
numbers of moral people hold the vulgar attitude 
towards sex and reproduction; but for people who 
do not accept the moral code without question there 
is probably no better way of teaching sexual morality 
than by influencing the individual's attitude. There 
are many people who stand for sexual moraUty 
for no other reason than that they have a dignified 
and aesthetic attitude towards sex. 

There is much evidence that the world is rapidly 

improving in this respect. Sexual vulgarity seems 

to represent a stage in the evolution of 

human life from the barbaric to the vulgarity a 

fully civilized. The sexual vulgarity of stage in 

... , , , . , evolution, 

primitive peoples, both ancient and 

modem, has been aU too frequently recalled by 
writers whose pseudo-scientific superficiality leads 
them to believe that knowledge concerning barbaric 
and ultra-bestial sensuaUty will help solve modern 
sex problems. In the classical days when Venus 
and Bacchus and other deities of sensuaUty were 
worshipped by their devotees, there was sexual vul- 
garity in action and language such as now exists 
only among the most ignorant or depraved people 
in civilized lands. The advent of Christian civiUza- 
tion in Europe left no place for temples and worship 
of sensuality, but still the age-old tendency towards 



76 SEX-EDUCATION 

a crude and barbaric kind of sexual vulgarity and 
obscenity has continued in folklore, in colloquial 
language, and in literature. However, there has 
been a vast change in the attitude of the best people 
within the last two centuries. Once many English 
writers, many of them now deservedly obscure, 
pubUshed prose and poetry that would now be 
criminal. An unexpiu:gated edition of Shake- 
speare's "Complete Works," or of Boccaccio's 
"Decameron," could not be circulated through the 
United States mails, and there are many good people 
who are asking how long we shall continue to 
allow the unexpurgated "Old Testament" the 
privilege of circulation. It is not simply prose and 
poetry that has been purified. Scientific literature 
has shown the influence of the reaction against 
obscenity. Linnaeus and other naturalists of the 
past were fond of giving scientific names that per- 
petuated vulgar comparisons with sexual organs, but 
no naturalist of the present day would dare suggest 
such designations for unnamed animals and plants. 
The older medical literature contains abundant 
obscenities ; but scientific dignity, as well as the re- 
finement of modem medical writers, has tended to 
compel the eUmination of vulgarity. However, 
there are still too many physicians, especially those 
working with venereal and genito-urinary diseases, 
who go out of their way to illuminate their con- 
versations, lectures, books, and magazine articles 
with veiled vulgarity. Even high-class medical 
journals occasionally contain illustrations of this 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 77 

tendency. However, the medical profession as a 
class stands for dignified scientific presentation of 
facts, and obscenity will soon be tabooed in medical 
and all other reputable Uterature. Save for occa- 
sional emanations privately printed by and for 
degenerate persons, pubUc obscenity will soon be 
unknown. Its complete disappearance will have a 
vast influence upon the problem of sexual attitude. 

§ 12. The Seventh Problem for Se«-instruction: 
Marriage 

It is the consensus of opinion of numerous physi- 
cians, ministers, and lawyers that a very large pro- 
portion of matrimonial disharmonies . 
have their foundation in the common andpsy- 
misunderstanding of the physiology and ecology of 
especially of the psychology of sex. In 
the opinion of many students of sexual problems, 
this is the strongest reason for sex-instruction. It 
is certainly a Une in which limited spread of infor- 
mation has already given some definite and satis- 
factory results. Many of my friends and former 
students have helped me accumulate a long Hst 
of cases in which scientific knowledge regarding sex 
has prevented and corrected matrimonial disagree- 
ments; and having easily found so much definite 
influence of sex-science upon marriage, I am forced 
to believe that sex-instruction specially organized 
for people of marriageable age is already giving 
results of tremendous importance to very many in- 
dividuals. Large numbers of young people are 



78 SEX-EDUCATION 

already awake to the need of scientific guidance 
in marriage, and there is a great demand for helpful 
information. 

Advanced sex-instruction with reference to the 
problems of marriage need not wait for general 
estabhshment of elementary instruction for children 
of school ages. Lectures and books are already 
reaching large numbers of adults. Such enlighten- 
ment will help in two ways, by the influence on 
marriage and by preparing adults to teach children. 

There is another side to the problem of marriage 
that points to need of the larger sex-education. 
Other Physiology and psychology of sex are 

knowledge fundamental; but they alone are not 
°** ® ■ sufficient to complete that mutual adjust- 
ment and understanding which marriage at the full 
development of its possibilities involves. Matri- 
monial harmony cannot be entirely a problem of 
applied science, as some superficial devotees of 
science seem to think ; for science can never analyze 
those subtle and ever-varjdng quahties that go to 
make up what we call personality, and marriage 
in its largest outlook is the intimate blending of 
two personahties. Psychological and physiological 
knowledge will undoubtedly help the two married 
individuals in their progress towards the harmonious 
adjustment of their individuaUties ; but there are 
many little, but often serious, problems that the 
physiology and psychology of sex cannot solve. 
They are problems that involve mutual affection, 
comradeship, sympathy, unselfishness, cooperation. 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 79 

kindliness, and devotion of husband and wife. Ob- 
viously, these can never be developed by any 
formal instruction. 

Probably there is no better way to help young peo- 
ple reahze the possibiUties of matrimonial harmony 
than by suggesting wholesome litera- Helpful 
ture. Some of this is a part of the world's literature, 
general treasure of books that in prose and poetry, 
in history and romance, hold up a high ideal of love 
with marriage. There is much such hterature that 
gives young people inspiration, but too much of it, 
like college hfe, ends with a commencement. "And 
then they were married and Hved happily ever 
after" — is the familiar closing as the noveUst rings 
down the curtain after reciting only the pro- 
logue in the hfe drama of his two lovers. We need 
more literature that does not end with the wedding 
march, but which gives young people the successful 
solution of the problems after marriage. Some 
such is available in history and biography ; some in 
essays. As I write there come to my mind several 
books that have impressed me : Professor Palmer's 
"Life of Alice Freeman Palmer" ; Leonard Huxley's 
"Life and Letters of T. H. Huxley," which gives 
many intimate glimpses of the ideal home life which 
the great biologist centered around Mrs. Huxley; 
William George Jordan's "Little Problems of Married 
Life" ; Orrin Cock's "Engagement and Marriage" ; 
and that much misunderstood * but helpful book 

1 Misunderstood, it seems to me, because her philosophy demand- 
ing that marriage begin with, exist with, and end with love means 



8o SEX-EDUCATION 

"Love and Marriage" by Ellen Key. Many of the 
stories by Virginia Terhune Van de Water, published 
in the magazines and collected in a book entitled 
"Why I Left my Husband" (Mofiatt, Yard), deal 
with real problems of married life. 

The problems of co-education and coordinate 
education have not a little bearing on the adjust- 
Similar ment of the two sexes in marriage. In 
education of these days when vocational education is 
the sexes. fashionable in theory and is attracting 
attention in practice, we are told that co-education 
and coordinate education are mistakes because 
they provide the same training for both sexes. We 
are told that girls must be educated for their voca- 
tion of home-making, while boys must be educated 
for business, trades, or professions. Ever)rwhere in 
this current movement for vocational education we 
find the emphasis placed on making education for 
the two sexes just as dissimilar as possible. For- 
tunately for the educational adjustments of the two 
sexes to each other, much of the present-day discus- 
sion that demands extensive sex specialization of 
education cannot be made practical and the training 
of the two sexes will inevitably continue to be quite 
similar, with at most a Umited amount of time spent 
on application of certain knowledge to practical 

freedom in love, and this has been misinterpreted as "free love" in 
the sense of promiscuity. I know of no writer who stands for 
marriage on a higher plane than that advocated by EUen Key. Her 
lecture on "Morality of Woman" (Seymour Co., Chicago) is a good 
condensed statement of her largest ideas and a helpful introduction 
to "Love and Marriage." 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCAlION 8 1 

ends that are chiefly of interest to one sex only. 
By far the greater part of education from kinder- 
garten through the university is in the nature of 
the fundamentals of knowledge and will continue to 
be essentially similar for both sexes. For illustra- 
tion, the writer happens to be connected with a col- 
lege which offers a four-year course and graduate 
work specially arranged with reference to household 
arts. Surely here is an opportunity for education 
far different from that of the t3rpical college for men. 
As a matter of fact, there is great similarity. The 
greater part of the four years is filled with general 
courses in English, modern languages, chemistry, 
biology, physics, sociology, economics, and fine 
arts, while a minor part of the curriculum consists 
of courses in cookery, clothing, and household ad- 
ministration. The general courses are in essentials 
not different from courses in colleges for men. Here 
and there instructors select materials and in other 
ways relate the general courses to household arts, 
but after all a girl who completes these courses has 
acquired the same educational fundamentals that 
her brother gets in Columbia College or in any other 
standard college for men. It is only, then, in the 
cookery, clothing, and administration that there is 
sex-differentiated education, and even in these the 
practice necessary to acquire proficiency in technique 
is the chief pecuHarity. So far as fundamental 
knowledge is concerned, cookery is chiefly an appU- 
cation of chemistry, physics, and physiology that 
could easily be made clear to one who had completed 



82 SEX-EDUCATION 

courses in these sciences in a college for men ; dress 
design is an application of fine arts and its con- 
struction is a mechanical problem. The mental 
problems ifivolved in dress design and making 
cannot be far different from house design and 
construction which are supposed to be primarily 
adapted to men. 

On the whole, then, there is really little possibility 
of sex-differentiated education. This, I insist, is a 
Little dif- fortunate fact of vast importance in the 
ferentiatioii. mutual adjustment of the two sexes in 
marriage. There could be no adjustment on an in- 
telligent basis if education could be utterly dis- 
similar. There can be perfect adjustment only 
when the two individuals are adjusted harmoniously, 
and that means similar outlooks on life's problems. 

Many of the problems of the modem feministic 

movement are such as to demand rational education 

of both women and men with reference 
Need of sex- , 

education to sex and marriage. Let me quote 

forfemin- Q_ Gasquoine Hartley, whose suggestive 

Chapters VIII and IX in her "Truth 

About Woman" (Dodd, Mead) deserve to live long 

after the readable but unscientifically applied earlier 

chapters are consigned to obUvion : 

"To hear many women talk it would appear that 
the new ideal is a one-sexed world. A great army of 
women have espoused the task of raising their sex 
out of subjection. For such a duty the strength 
and energy of passion is required. Can this task 
be performed if the woman to any extent indulges in 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 83 

sex — otherwise subjection to man? Sexuality 
debases, even reproduction and birth are regarded 
as 'nauseating.' Woman is not free, only because 
she has been the slave to the primitive cycle of 
emotions which belong to physical love. The re- 
nunciation, the conquest of sex — it is this that must 
be gained. As for man, he has been shown up, 
women have found him out ; his long-worn garments 
of authority and his mystery and glamour have 
been torn into shreds — woman will have none of 
him. 

"Now obviously these are over-statements, yet 
they are the logical outcome of much of the talk 
that one hears. It is the visible sign of our inco- 
herence and error, and in the measure of these f oUies 
we are sent back to seek the truth. Women need 
a robuster courage in the face of love, a greater faith 
in their womanhood, and in the scheme of Life. 
Nothing can be gained from the child's folly in 
breaking the toys that have momentarily ceased to 
please. The misogamist type of woman cannot 
fan to prove as futile as the misogamist man. Not 
' Free from man ' is the watch-cry of women's eman- 
cipation that surely is to be, but 'Free with man.'" 

And further on the same author, considering the 
problem of the women of the common tj^e that are 
classified as a "third sex," that of temperamental 
neuter, says: 

"Economic conditions are compelling women 
to enter with men into the fierce competition of 
our disordered social state. Partly due sex and 
to this reason, though much more, as I intellectu- 
think, to the strong stirring in woman »lism. 
of her newly-discovered self, there has arisen what 
I should like to call an over-emphasized Intellectu- 



84 SEX-EDUCATION 

alism. Where sex is ignored there is bound to 
lurk danger. Every one recognizes the significance 
of the advance in particular cases of women to- 
wards a higher intellectual individuation, and the 
social utility of those women who have been truly 
the pioneers of the new freedom; but this does 
not lessen at all the disastrous influence of an 
ideal which holds up the renunciation of the nat- 
ural rights of love and activities of women, and 
thus involves an irreparable loss to the race by 
the barrenness of many of its finest types. The sig- 
nificance of such Intellectuals must be Umited, 
because for them the possibiUty of transmission by 
inheritance of their valuable qualities is cut off, and 
hence the way is closed to a further progress. And, 
thus, we are brought back to that simple truth from 
which we started ; there are two sexes, the female 
and the male, on their specific differences and re- 
semblances blended together in imion every true 
advance in progress depends — on the perfected 
woman and the perfected man." 

One who studies carefully the various aspects of 

the extreme feministic movement must admit that 

there are many signs of the dangers 

en misled which the above quotations point out so 

by sexual clearly. Of course, we cannot beheve 
pessimists. . ., . ., c n c ^j. 

m the smcerity of all of the numerous 

women of thirty-five to fifty years who pretend to 
ignore sex completely. Probably most of them have 
discovered that they have misunderstood them- 
selves; but it is also probable that they have dis- 
covered too late for making a readjustment in their 
own lives. However, it matters httle whether such 
women have really succeeded in ignoring sex. The 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCAXION 85 

real problem for educational attack lies in the fact 
that such women often succeed in proselyting young 
women under twenty-five, and these in turn may not 
come to see the real truth about sex and life until 
ten or fifteen years later. Clearly, organized edu- 
cation must protect young women against such 
influences. 

The greatest good which may come from the sex- 
education movement is not prevention or elimination 
of social diseases, it is not improved The greatest 
health, it is not general acceptance of the good in sex- 
moral law of sex, it is not one or all «'l"<=«t'°°- 
these that are devoutly to be hoped for; but far 
greater than such possible results from sex-education, 
it will bring to many a man and woman a deeper, 
nobler, and purer knowledge of what sex means for 
the coming race and of what it means now to each 
individual who reaUzes life's fullest possibilities in 
conjugal affection which culminates in new life and 
new motives for more affection. Such an under- 
standing of sex in relation to home life will help this 
old world more than anything else which sex-educa- 
tion may accomplish. 

The problems of sex and marriage deserve far 
more attention than can be given in this lecture. I 
am convinced that knowledge of sex in ,^^ 
its physical, psychical, social, and assthetic greatest 
aspects is the only sure foundation for ^"P" *™- 
harmonious marriage under modem conditions. 
Therefore, I believe this to be the greatest sex 
problem open to educational attack. 



86 SEX-EDUCATION 

§ 13. The Eighth Problem for Sex-instruction: 
Eugenics 

Eugenics, or the science of human good breeding, is 
just now the most popular of the problems concerning 
Meaning of human sex and reproduction. In recent 
eugenics. years, the biological investigators of 
heredity have pubUshed some startling facts which 
show that the himian race must soon check its reck- 
less propagation of the unfit and encourage reproduc- 
tion by the best t3^es of men and women. This is 
not the place for a review of the eugenic propositions. 
Those interested will find them in non-technical 
form in many books (see the bibUographical chapter 
of this book, page 248). 

Some of the chief facts of eugenics should be a 
part of every well-organized scheme of sex-instruc- 
Eugenics in tion, and taught through biology (§17). 
biology. Probably no other topic in biology is so 
likely to make an ethical-social appeal, for the central 
point of eugenics is the responsibility of the indi- 
vidual whose uncontrolled sexual actions may trans- 
mit undesirable and heritable qualities and bring a 
train of disaster to generations of descendants. 

At this point we digress to correct the widespread 

error in confusing sex-hygiene and eugenics. Many 

people who ought to know better use the 
Relation of f ^ , ,. . 

eugeirics two terms synonymously, perhaps be- 

andsex- cause they are afraid of that compara- 
ygiene. tiyely novel but frank prefix in "sex- 
hygiene." The fact is that eugenics and sex- 
hygiene have little in common. Eugenics is the 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 87 

science of reproducing better humans by applying 
the established laws of genetics or heredity. In 
brief, it means, on the positive side, selecting de- 
sirable people as parents; and, negatively, pre- 
venting propagation by the undesirables. This is 
the sum total of the task of eugenics in the accurate 
sense of the term. 

So far as we know, each coming generation will 
inherit only qualities that the parents inherited 
from their parents. It is a weU-known Facts of 
principle of biology that changes in the iieredity. 
bodies of human beings during their lifetime (dating 
from the fertilized egg that produces the individual) 
are never in any noticeable degree inherited by 
descendants. In short, acquired characteristics of 
the body tissues do not influence the germ plasm, the 
living matter concerned with heredity and reproduc- 
tion, but the germ plasm that determines what 
the next generation will inherit is fixed at birth. 
Thus tuberculosis, alcoholism, gonorrhea, and syphilis 
may be acquired during the life of an individual, 
but do not become fixed in the germ plasm. If the 
infants show effects of any of these diseases, it is 
not because of true heredity but because they were 
infected or influenced before birth. Rarely does this 
happen to children of a tuberculous mother, but 
often to those of a syphiHtic mother. In a gonor- 
rheal ophthalmia neonatorum ( specific inflammation 
of infants' eyes) it is a case of infection during birth. 

Thus, it appears that sex-hygiene either personal 
or social (concerned with venereal diseases) is not 



88 SEX-EDUCATION 

a part of eugenics. It is, however, a phase of 
euthenics, which deals with the environmental 

factors that afiect the individual life, 
a^d' ^^^'^^ It is clear, then, that sex-hygiene (in the 
eugenics strict medical sense) and eugenics are 

parallel and not conflicting. Eugenics 
aims to select better parents who wiU transmit their 
own qualities genetically. Sex-hygiene in its per- 
sonal and social aspects will make healthier parents 
able to give their offspring a healthier start in life, 
especially because the offspring is free from the 
prenatal effects of disease. 

The teaching of heredity and eugenics is intended 
to develop a sense of individual responsibility for 
the transmission of one's good or bad inherited 
qualities to offspring. The teaching of sex-hygiene, 
either personal or social, looks towards improving 
personal health and preventing infection and in- 
jurious influence on the unborn next generation. 
Obviously, we need both sex-hygiene and eugenics 
as part of the larger sex-instruction. 

§ 14. Summary of Lectures on Sex Problems 

We have made a general survey of the problems 

that offer reasons for sex-instruction. We have 

„ „ ^ noted that some of the problems are 
Problems of , . 1 , , t 11 ■■• 

health, atti- Concerned with health and, hence. He 

tude.and within the scope of sex-hygiene in the 

morals. . , , -^ , , 

stnct sense of that term; but some of 

them have only the remotest relation to health and 

hygiene. On the contrary, they relate to the ethi- 



THE PROBLEMS FOR SEX-EDtTCATION 89 

cal, social, and aesthetic attitude of individuals to- 
wards sex and reproduction. Obviously, these 
touch problems not of sex health, but of sex moral- 
ity. In their educational importance I believe them 
as great, perhaps even greater, than those of sex- 
hygiene. In fact, I have come to beUeve that many 
individuals can best solve all their own sexual 
problems on the basis of moral and aesthetic attitude. 
Considering, as we have done, the sex problems 
in their many aspects, we are forced to the con- 
clusion that sex-education will prove i/iaDy-sided 
adequate only when it combines in- instruction 
struction from the several points of °**°'"- 
view. It must be much more than the sex-hygiene 
with which the sex-instruction movement started. 
We need sexual knowledge that will conserve 
health, that will develop social and ethical and 
eugenic responsibility for sexual actions, that will 
lead to increased happiness as well as to improved 
health, and that will give a nobler and purer view 
of life's possibihties. In all these Hues in which 
sex influences human life profoundly, sex-education 
holds out the hope of help towards a better life 
for all who receive and apply its lessons. 



in 



Organization of Educational Attack on the 
Sex Problems 

§ 1$. The Task of Sex-education 

In the preceding series of lectures we have sur- 
veyed eight important sex problems that can never 
be solved, even in part, unless by wide- 
solution of spread information that specifically 
sexprob- guides the individual and organized so- 
ciety in the adjustment of sexual instincts 
to the peculiar conditions that obtain in our modem 
civilized Ufe. To spread the knowledge that will 
help civilized humanity on towards the best pos- 
sible adjustment of sex and life, and therefore to a 
pragmatic solution of sexual problems, is the task 
or the chief aim of sex-education.' 

Of course, only the ultra-Utopian dreamer claims 
that sex-education can solve all the sexual problems 
Wo hope for °^ civilized life, but even the most pessi- 
compiete mistic disbeliever in the new movement 
so ution. admits that knowledge of sexual life will 
be helpful to the great majority of people. Hence, 
it is worth while to organize the educational attack 

• To avoid misunderstanding, let me repeat from the first lecture 
that I am constantly thinking of sex-education in' the larger sense; 
and instruction in schools can be, at best, only a part. 
90 



EDUCATIONAL ATTACK ON THE SEX PROBLEMS 9 1 

on the sex problems which we have considered in 
the preceding lectures. It seems to me that we 
may gain an advantage by frankly admitting that 
the educational attack is not expected to solve all 
sex problems for aU people, for by such admission 
we put to flight those shallow cynics who have 
opposed the sex-education movement because they 
think (and probably correctly) that immoraUty and 
social diseases and all other sexual disharmonies 
will continue to exist as long as the human species 
does. Likewise, there will be dishonesty and 
murder and preventable diseases and all other 
human troubles in spite of education; but the 
advancement of learning has slowly and progres- 
sively reduced the sum total of all the dishar- 
monies of life until now civilized people are largely 
free from many of the original or barbaric condi- 
tions. Along similar lines we may confi- „ 

, . , . Constant 

dently think of sex-education as makmg advance 

a constantly advancing and victorious ^^^^ 
attack on the problems of life that have 
grown out of our primitive sexual instincts. Sex- 
education, like all other education, strives towards 
ideals that individuals and society may always 
approach but may never reach. It is only another 
case of Emerson's advice, "hitch your wagon to 
a star," which means the adoption of high ideals 
that lead ever on and on towards better life. 

With this understanding that the task of sex-edu- 
cation is the ever-advancing improvement of sexual 
conditions in individual as well as in social life, let 



92 SEX-EDUCATION 

US turn now to consider the possible lines for definite 
educational attack on the chief problems of sex. 
It will be most helpful if we first analyze the general 
task of sex-education into some specific aims that 
may definitely guide instruction, and then in later 
lectures consider the methods and detailed subject 
matter of sex-instruction. 

§ i6. The Aims of Sex-education 

Since the revelations concerning the disastrous 

physical effects of sexual immorality, especially as 

^ ..,. it exists in the commercialized condi- 

Empnasis 

on social tions of the social evil, have had the chief 
sease. influence in awakening intelligent people 
from their age-long ignorance and indifference con- 
cerning the great sex problems, it was natural that 
those who first proposed special instruction should 
have emphasized the social evil and its diseases 
so much as to create the widespread but erroneous 
impression that the great aim of sex-education is to 
teach the distressing facts concerning the patho- 
logical consequences of immorality. 

Now, without in the least underestimating the 
vast importance of the emphasis placed on sexual 
Other prob- immorality and social diseases in the 
lemsneed splendid pioneer work of the late Dr. 
emp asis. Morrow and others for the sex-education 
movement, and without suggesting that these topics 
should be neglected while reorganizing the educa- 
tional attack on sex problems, I beUeve that so far 
as formal instruction in homes, schools, and col- 



EDUCATIONAL ATTACK ON THE SEX PROBLEMS 93 

leges is concerned, we may gain a decided advantage 
if we now recognize and declare boldly that the 
physical effects of the diseases arising from the 
social evil constitute only one of several groups of 
sex problems that organized education should 
attempt to solve. 

Concerning the other problems that sex-education 
should touch with great definiteness, it is my per- 
sonal view that most of those outlined in the pre- 
ceding lectures will be affected by instruction along 
five important Unes, as follows : 

(i) The scientific truths that lead to serious 
and respectful attitude on all sex questions. (2) 
The personal sex-hygiene that independ- Five lines of 
ent of social diseases conserves individual instruction, 
health directly or indirectly through sexual normal- 
ity- (3) The ethical responsibility of individuals 
for the physical or social or psychical harm of their 
sexual actions upon other individuals, e.g., in prosti- 
tution and illegitimacy. (4) The hygienic, ethical, 
and psychical laws that promote physical and mental 
health in monogamic marriage. (5) The estab- 
lished principles of heredity and eugenics which 
foretell the possible coming of a better race of hu- 
mans. I beUeve that in these five hues there are 
educational problems of present and future greater 
significance to human health and happiness than 
are found in the social evil and its diseases, com- 
mandingly important though these be. Therefore, 
in viewing the field of sex-education with reference 
to the possible usefulness of knowledge in helping 



94 SEX-EDUCATION 

individuals solve the vital problems that have grown 
naturally out of the reproductive function, I believe 
that we are logical only when we organize our edu- 
cational aims so as to give scientific instruction 
concerning the problems of sex in the several lines 
in addition to the physical or hygienic aspects of 
the social evil and its diseases. 

As I now see in the large the sexual problems 

which scientifically organized education 

should attack, the educational aims may 

be grouped under four general headings as follows: 

First and most important, sex-education should 
aim to develop an open-minded, serious, scientific, 
and respectful attitude towards all problems of 
human life which relate to sex and reproduction. 

Second, sex-education should aim to give that 
knowledge of personal hygiene of the sexual organs 
which is of direct value in making for the most 
healthful and efficient life of the individual. 

Third, sex-education should aim to develop 
personal responsibihty regarding the social, ethical, 
psychical, and eugenic aspects of sex as affecting 
the individual life in its relation to other individuals 
of the present and future generations; in short, 
sex-education should consider the problems of sexual 
instincts and actions in relation to society. 

Fourth, sex-education should aim to teach briefly 
to young people, during later adolescence, the essen- 
tial hygienic, social, and eugenic facts regarding 
the two destructive diseases which are chargeable 
to sexual promiscuity or immorality. 



EDUCATIONAL ATTACK ON THE SEX PROBLEMS 95 

For emphasis, let me briefly summarize these 
aims of sex-education: (i) Serious, scientific, and 
respectful attitude of mind on sex ques- o^derof 
tions; (2) personal sex-hygiene; (3) importance 
social and ethical and eugenic responsi- " *' 
biUty for sex actions; (4) relation of immorality 
and social diseases. I have dehberately, placed 
these educational aims in this order because it is 
the order of greatest permanent importance in the 
sex-education movement ; it represents the greatest 
value to the largest number of individuals who may 
learn the scientific truth; and it is the order most 
natural, most logical, and most effective in peda- 
gogical practice with young people. 

Sex-education organized with regard to these 

four aims will touch definitely all the eight problems 

of sex that have been discussed in preceding lectures. 

The first aim will directly affect the problem of 

vulgarity and indirectly touch those stated under 

the third aim. The second aim is obviously directed 

to the problem of personal health as it „ . . 

, ■ ^ , , , 1 Relabonof 

may be mfluenced by the sexual pro- aimsto 

cesses of one individual independent of problems 

, o' sex. 

others. Of course, there is also the per- 
sonal aspect of social diseases, but it is clearer to 
consider both personal and social aspects of these 
diseases as a unit in the fourth aim. The third aim 
is based on five of the eight great problems which 
involve individual responsibihty for the social 
evil, for illegitimacy, for sexual immoraUty, for 
matrimonial harmony, and for eugenics. The social 



96 SEX-EDUCATION 

aspects of the venereal diseases obviously involve 
personal responsibility of the individual in relation 
to society as well as a personal hygienic problem. 
Thus, six of the eight great sex problems are essen- 
tially social and only those relating to personal 
hygiene and individual attitude are so distinctly 
personal as to have only an indirect relation to 
other individuals, as might be true in case of un- 
harmonious marriage of individuals who are vulgar 
minded or who have been injured by unhygienic 
personal habits. Finally, the fourth aim provides 
for teaching the essential facts that may help indi- 
viduals protect themselves directly, and society 
indirectly, against the diseases that awakened the 
world to the need of sex-education. 

Let us turn now to analyze the aims of sex-edu- 
cation and consider how they may be connected 
with a definite scheme for sex-instruction. 

§ 17. The Aims as the Basis of Organized Sex- 
instruction 

I have placed first the aim to develop a serious 
and respectful attitude toward sex and reproduction 
because at the root of the sexual problems of our 
times is the prevailing vulgar interpretation of sex 
and hfe discussed in a preceding lecture (§11). 

Recognizing the great importance of attitude, 
how may it be influenced by instruction in home 
or school? The most widely accepted answer is 
that the best beginning may be made through study 
of biology (including botany, zoology, and physi- 



EDUCATIONAL ATTACK ON THE SEX PROBLEMS 97 

ology) and through nature-study and hygiene taught 
on a biologic basis. No other method of introduc- 
tion to sex-instruction is so natural and Biology and 
so likely to lead to a serious, scientific} »t*it"<le- 
and open-minded attitude concerning sex. In fact, 
a large part of the study of reproduction of plants 
and animals in courses of biology in schools and 
colleges has its value chiefly in the overwhelming 
evidence that problems of sex and reproduction 
are natural and dignified aspects of life. Such 
biological study determines attitude in no small 
degree. This is the chief justification for study of 
the reproductive processes in a series of animals 
and plants representing stages between the complex 
development of the highest animals which parallel 
human life and the lowest forms which the micro- 
scope reveals. In all my classes of twenty years 
in high school and college I have noted a marked 
development of serious, scientific, and open-minded 
attitude in response to natural and frank presenta- 
tion of animal and plant life-histories. Moreover, 
I have many times requested large groups of students 
to write freely and frankly concerning the influence 
of biological courses upon their own attitude; and 
their papers have strongly supported my observa- 
tion that study of animal and plant life-histories 
exerts a profound influence upon the attitude of 
students towards the human problems of sex and 
reproduction. If I were stating a defense for biology 
as one of three or four essential science courses 
for general education, I should place the greatest 



gS SEX-EDUCATION 

emphasis upon the study of animals and plants 
as a foimdation for sex-instruction. Certain critics 
would reply that all the biological facts that are 
actually used in the direct human application of 
sex-instruction could be taught in a few lectures 
without a year's course in biology ; but it is a demon- 
strated fact that a few isolated lessons do not give 
the attitude that comes from a good course of biol- 
ogy taught with the view to culminating in special 
sex-instruction. 

Only recently has it been pointed out that one's 
attitude towards sex may be profoundly influenced 
Literature ^^ reading certain general Uterature that 
andatti- holds up high ideals of love and sex 
*" *■ and life. It will be most convenient to 

consider the influence of literature on sex-instruc- 
tion in another lecture (§ 23). 

Now let us consider the general bearings of the 
personal sex-hygiene demanded by the second aim. 
Teaching ^°^ children under ten and twelve the 
personal necessary hygiene should be presented 
sex- ygiene. pej-gonaUy (see § 25). For young people 
of adolescent years there are four possible ways of 
instruction in personal sex-hygiene : (i) It may be 
added naturally to a course or series of lessons in 
general hygiene including the problems of health 
for all systems of organs. (2) It may be included 
in a study of vertebrate and human reproduction 
in a course of biology or zoology. (3) It may 
be presented by a special lecture that is inde- 
pendent of all regular courses of study. (4) Spe- 



EDUCATIONAL ATTACK ON THE SEX PROBLEMS 99 

cial booklets may be put into the hands of young 
people. Let us now examine each of these ways : 

(i) Sex-hygiene as a natural part of a series of 
lessons in general hygiene is most satisfactory 
when preceded by biological nature-study g^^ ^ .^^^^ 
or high-school biology in which lif e-his- in general 
tories of organisms have been studied ''y^iene. 
for the sake of attitude. At present we lack satis- 
factory textbooks for this kind of correlation. 
There is a strong reaction against independent 
courses of hygiene in high schools, and the next 
plan is becoming more common. 

(2) The inclusion of the necessary hygiene of all 
organs in courses of biology or zoology that have 
emphasized physiology and its bearings Hygiene in 
on health is the best arrangement so far biology, 
proposed and tested in practice. It has been tried 
with success by Dr. W. H. Eddy in the High School 
of Commerce, New York City, and by other high- 
school teachers working along the same lines. The 
arguments for teaching general hygiene on a bio- 
logical basis have been presented in the last chapter 
of "The Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools" 
by Lloyd and Bigelow, and put in textbook form 
in the "Applied Biology" and "Introduction to 
Biology" by M. A. and Anna N. Bigelow. How- 
ever, personal sex-hygiene is not included in these 
textbooks, because educational and public opinion 
do not yet stand for such radical lessons in books 
for schools. 

(3) Special lectures on sex-hygiene independent of 



lOO SEX-EDUCATION 

biology or general hygiene are at best makeshifts, 
and not without dangers. I fear the effect of the 
Special abrupt introduction to sex problems by 

lectures on special lectures, especially for girls who 
ygiene. ^^^ ^^ shocked much more than the 
average boys can be. I heartily sympathize with 
parents and school officials who object to special 
lectures that suddenly focus attention on problems 
of sexual health. It seems to me that special lec- 
tures should be given only when no other method 
of teaching is possible. This applies especially 
to young people who are not in schools. While 
I have stressed biological nature-study as offer- 
ing the ideal basis for the broadest kind of 
sex-education, I reaUze that there are cases where 
such study cannot be held prerequisite to some 
aspects of sex-hygiene that young people should 
know. However, we should aim to make such 
cases the exceptions and not the rule. Some good 
may be accompUshed by teaching certain facts 
of sex-hygiene frankly and directly to those who 
have absolutely no knowledge of nature-study 
and biology; but after watching the reactions of 
groups of boys who were receiving such infor- 
mation, I have been convinced that even with a 
limit of one hour for instruction a biological setting 
is decidedly important in that it gives an indirect 
approach. 

(4) Special books and pamphlets are useful when, 
and only when, the above methods are impossible, 
but certain cautions are desirable (see § 22). 



EDUCATIONAL ATTACK ON THE SEX PROBLEMS lOI 

The third aim involves some difficult educational 
problems. Since we confess that we know so 
little concerning efficient methods for 
ethical, moral, or social teaching, it is eaucai-^'" 
evident that we must be far from a satis- s°'=>"'. 
factory plan for dealing with instruction '" ^' 
which is intended to oppose most powerful in- 
stinctive tendencies and long-established habits of 
sensuality. Clearly the third aim sets no easy 
task for the educator; but since the possible solu- 
tion of sex problems must turn on the sex actions 
of the individual in relation to society, the ethical- 
social aspects of sex-education must not be evaded 
because the way is not yet entirely clear. The 
fact is that a good beginning has been made, espe- 
cially in teaching concerning social diseases, heredity, 
and eugenics. 

The value of all the proposed teaching concern- 
ing the relation of immorality and social diseases 
is more ethical than hygienic. Read any gojjgi 
of the standard literature on the social hy^eneand 
side of venereal diseases, especially the * '^' 
masterly writings of the eminent physician and 
chief organizer of the American movement for sex- 
education, the late Dr. Prince A. Morrow, of New 
York City ; and one notes that the medical facts 
have bearings in two directions. First, they indi- 
cate the desirability of morality as a protection of 
personal health ; and second, they teach that the 
pathological results of the individual's immoral 
living may be passed on later to innocent wives 



I02 SEX-EDUCATION 

and children. The first is as clearly personal hy- 
giene as teaching that impure water may cause 
typhoid; but the second is social hygiene and 
ethics. The second is more impressive to all but 
the most selfish people. 

There is good reason for beUeving that information 
concerning the social diseases is more likely to 
impress the average young man through the social- 
ethical appeal much more than as a matter of per- 
sonal health. Therefore, a biological lesson on. 
social diseases, which may be presented most logi- 
cally in connection with other germ diseases, may 
have its chief value in that its meaning is social 
and ethical. 

As another illustration of biology touching ethics, 
I have recently come to beUeve that the teaching 
Biology and concerning heredity and eugenics, which 
ethics. should be a standard part of the best sex- 

instruction, has its greatest value in the ethical 
appeal, and not in the direct biological application 
of the laws of heredity which underlie eugenics. 
I realize that this statement is likely to be disputed 
by those biologists who see in eugenics only the 
possibility of controlling heredity so as to propagate 
better strains of humans, just as breeders of plants 
and animals have produced better domesticated 
varieties. A biologist naturally believes that the 
ultimate aim of eugenics is improvement of physical 
and psychical qualities ; but considering the ethical- 
social-biological complications of human sex-prob- 
lems, it seems improbable that any decided and 



EDUCATIONAL ATTACK ON THE SEX PROBLEMS IO3 

extensive improvement is likely to come if we con- 
tinue to limit our interpretation of the principles 
of eugenics to the purely biological standpoint of 
the breeder of plants and animals. Let me illus- 
trate by some concrete facts from eugenics : 

There is a widespread opinion among science 
teachers that higji-school biology should present 
some of the best established facts of heredity ; and 
that these should be eugenically applied to human 
life by means of such illustrations as those afforded 
by the histories of certain degenerate families, such 
as the well-known Jukes and Kallikaks. A brief 
sketch of the history of the latter family, as de- 
scribed in Dr. Goddard's interesting book, "The 
Kallikak Family" (Macmillan), will make clear my 
point as to the ethical appeal of eugenics. 

A young man of good ancestry broke the moral 
law about one hundred and forty years ago and 
became the father of an illegitimate son £„„„{„ 
by a feeble-minded mother. Of 480 and ethical 
descendants of this son, there have been '^*'='""b- 
46 normal, many immoral, many alcoholic and 143 
feeble-minded. The same man who back in the 
revolutionary days made a moral mistake which 
led to such awful consequences, later married a 
woman of good family and became the progenitor 
of a second line of 496 descendants of whom 494 
have been normal mentally, while two were affected 
by alliance with another family ; and all have been 
first-class citizens, many of them prominent in 
business, professions, etc. 



I04 SEX-EDUCATION 

Even making due allowance for the depressing 
influence of the environment in which most of the 
down-and-out descendants in the degenerate line 
Uved, the comparison between the normal and the 
abnormal Unes from the same ancestor gives the 
most convincing eugenic evidence that has been dis- 
covered in the human race. Doubtless it will long 
be used as a basis for attempted biological control 
of the propagation of the unfit. Many similar cases 
of hereditary degeneracy are recorded in books on 
eugenics. 

Such a eugenic record as that of this Kallikak 
family should be reviewed in every high school 
and college in connection with the topic "heredity" 
in a course of biology, for it will teach two important 
lessons: (i) The biological principle that defects, 
both physical and mental, are highly heritable, 
even for many generations; and (2) the ethical 
responsibility for the sex actions of the individual 
who may start a long train of himian disaster that 
may visit the children unto even later than the 
third and fourth generations. The first lesson is a 
purely biological one which suggests the eugenic 
argument that defective humans, like undesirable 
animals and plants, should not take part in the 
perpetuation of the species. The second lesson 
is not biological but ethical, suggesting individual 
responsibiUty for conduct which may disastrously 
affect other individuals' lives. It seems to me that 
so far as general education is concerned, the ethical 
lesson is the more impressive and more likely to 



EDUCATIONAL ATTACK ON THE SEX PROBLEMS I05 

lead to voluntary eugenic practice by individuals. 
It is my observation that even many intelligent 
people are not seriously impressed by the biological 
evidences for eugenics considered as a general prob- 
lem, but their reaction is one of interest when one 
begins to present the question of ethical responsi- 
bility for the transmission of physical and mental 
defects to future generations. Such considerations 
have led me to the view, already suggested, that 
eugenic studies in courses of biology have their 
greatest practical value in their ethical implications, 
which, of course, by influencing individual responsi- 
bility for reproduction may lead to the desirable 
biological improvement of the human race. Teach- 
ers of biology should present, as an economic prob- 
lem, the facts which will make better breeds of 
plants and animals by direct application of the 
biological laws of heredity ; but they should present 
and apply parallel facts to human life in order to in- 
fluence first of all individual responsibility for ethical 
control of reproductive activity, and thus indirectly 
work eugenically for an improved human race. 

Thus the aim of eugenics is most likely to be 
attained through ethical rather than biological 
application of the teaching which our Aim of 
schools can give. The men and women e^eenics. 
who view life selfishly with no feelings of ethical 
responsibility towards others of the present or future 
will take no practical interest in the biological 
problems of human eugienics, although the economic 
problems of plant and animal breeding may interest 
some of these same people. 



I06 SEX-EDUCATION 

In addition to the ethical-social bearings of 

biological teaching, our sex-education will be in- 

Education complete until we learn how to attack the 

and oUier gg^ problems directly and effectively with 
aspects of ^ ■'.-'. 

sexprob- reference to the ethical, social, psychical, 

'®'°'" and aesthetic aspects. Perhaps we may 

be able to do this only with mature people; prob- 
ably it is too much to hope that even a serious 
impression wiU be made on all intelligent people; 
but somehow sex-education must be completed 
by adequate presentation of these aspects, for the 
problems of sex are satisfactorily solved only in 
the lives of those fortunate individuals whose vision 
of the relation of sex and life combines the view- 
points of biology, hygiene, psychology, ethics, 
religion, and last — but far from least — aesthetics. 
Finally, the educational application of the fourth 
aim demands some explanation. Sometime in the 
Only essen- adolescent period all young people should 
tiai knowl- leam the essential facts regarding the two 
social social diseases and their relation to im- 

diseases. moral living. There is the widespread 
impression that those advocating sex-education 
believe in giving great prominence to the social 
diseases ; but in opposition to this I cite the report 
of a committee of the American Federation for Sex 
Hygiene, published in the Journal of the Society of 
Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis, January, 1913, 
and later reprinted as a pamphlet by the American 
Social Hygiene Association. In that report there 
are twenty-three recommendations concerning sex- 



EDUCATIONAL ATTACK ON THE SEX PROBLEMS I07 

instruction; but only one mentions social diseases 
and in these words: "During the later period of 
adolescence . . . there should be given . . . special 
instruction as to the character and dangers of the 
venereal diseases." That seems sufficient. It is 
not desirable that young people should review the 
horrible facts relating to perverted sexuality. Ten 
or twenty brief and authoritative statements quoted 
impressively from medical and social literature 
ought to give fair warning of lurking dangers in im- 
moral living. More extensive information has often 
proved dangerous. I would gladly advocate that 
this dark side of Ufe be kept in sealed books if I did 
not know that so many young people need forewarn- 
ing and definite guidance. Our educational system 
will not do its full duty if it fails to offer the needed 
help so that it may be obtained by all adolescent 
young people who are not so fortunate as to be 
guided by parents and other personal teachers. 



IV 

The Teacher of Sex-knowledge 

§ i8. Who Should Give Sex-instruction? 

A large number of people have been convinced 
that young people need knowledge which will help 
them face the great problems of sex ; but they with- 
hold their approval of the sex-education movement 
because they are not satisfied that proper teachers 
exist. It is, therefore, evident that we cannot 
make permanent progress by emphasizing the need 
of sex-education unless we can give assurance that 
qualified teachers are available. 

The situation as regards teachers of sex-instruc- 
tion is very different from that of all other subjects 
The teacher Concerning which young people should 
mostim- be taught. We cannot safely plan the 
portant. teaching regarding sex until we know the 

teacher. This wiU be evident, I think, after some 
general considerations concerning selection of teach- 
ers and some discussion of problems such as the 
fijrst teacher, teachers for classes, and some undesir- 
able teachers. The general rule should be, first, 
find the safe and sure teacher and, second, select 
the facts and plan the lessons that the chosen teacher 
may give effectively. 

io8 



THE TEACHER OF SEX-KNOWLEDGE I09 

So far as young children are concerned, the needed 
instruction is so general in character that the sex 
of the competent teacher is of little im- Teachers of 
portance, but the information that ought same sex for 
to prepare for and guide through the '^""°"°- 
mazes of adolescent youth should come to young 
people from teachers of the same sex. If exceptions 
must be made rather than omit instruction alto- 
gether, some very mature women may safely guide 
both boys and girls through adolescence ; but men, 
even physicians, should not undertake instruction 
of adolescent young women, unless parents and 
other mature people are present to help with atti- 
tude. That women may weU instruct boys I know, 
because the most impressive sex lecture I ever heard 
was given by the late Dr. Mary Wood- Allen to the 
boys of the freshman class when I was a college 
student. But note that I have said "some very 
mature women." The fact is that I fear danger for 
some boys if they are frankly instructed by attrac- 
tive young women who are only ten to fifteen years • 
older than their pupils. Hence, I urge great caution 
if there must be any exceptions to the general rule 
that teachers and pupils should be of the same sex. 

I realize the difficulty of applying this rule in 
many high schools where the foundations of sex- 
education are well laid on the biological coejuca. 
basis. There is no reason why the bio- tional 
logical studies should not be coeduca- '^*^^®^- 
tional through nature-study and biology as far as 
the development of frogs and birds and, in a general 



no SEX-EDUCATION 

way, of mammals. In fact, both of my textbooks, 
the "Applied Biology" and the "Introduction to 
Biology," which emphasize reproduction of or- 
ganisms more than other high-school books, have 
been used throughout in coeducational classes. 
However, these books stop where the problems of 
human life begin and should be supplemented by 
lessons for sex-limited classes. There are writers 
who suggest that segregation of the sexes for teach- 
ing concerning human life may be at present a 
necessity because complete frankness on sexual 
questions is certainly obstructed by tradition; but 
we must not ignore the deep social reasons why, 
in general, there must be maintained a certain 
amount of reserve between the sexes in the consid- 
eration of some important problems of life. No 
educational theory or practice can possibly alter 
the fundamental physical or psychical relations of 
the sexes which nature seems to have fixed immu- 
tably. 

One other point that deserves attention in this 
connection is the common statement that only 
Maiiied married women, preferably mothers, 
women as can be competent instructors of young 
teac era. women. This strikes me as more than 
absurd. Personal experience is not always necessary 
for teaching in any line. The greatest medical 
teachers have not had the diseases they describe 
so clearly. The best elementary teachers and 
specialists on the care of children are not always 
mothers ; on the contrary, some of these are men. 



THE TEACHER OF SEX-KNOWLEDGE III 

The fact is that these teachers have learned, not from 
personal experience, but from the great accumulations 
of scientific knowledge of medicine, hygiene, and edu- 
cation. There is an abundance of such knowledge 
relating to sex that may be clearly understood by 
bright women who have no bi-personal knowledge of 
sex. Therefore, I believe that it is nonsense to insist 
that only women with complete sexual experiences 
can be eflScient guides for other women. 

§ 19. The Child's First Teachers of Sex-knowledge 

The fijst instruction which may begin to lay the 
foundation for the individual's sex-education should 
be given in early childhood by parents, or 
by other adults, who happen to be on the and other 
most intimate personal terms with the ^^' 
child. Usually this means the mother; 
but there are numerous cases of teachers, gov- 
ernesses, grandmothers, and even fathers who have 
greater personal influence with certain children than 
their mothers have. The essential point is that the 
child should be instructed only by an adult who can 
exert the greatest personal influence. 

Many parents who believe in sex-education for 
their children hold that the mothers should give 
all necessary hygienic guidance and mothers 
teach the elementary facts of life to the andadoles- 
children of both sexes in the pre-adoles- '®°* °^^' 
cent years, but that with the dawn of adolescence 
the girls should continue to be instructed by their 
mothers, while the boys should be guided by their 



112 SEX-EDUCATION 

fathers. So far as girls are concerned, this seems 
to be a fairly good plan ; but nine times out of ten 
it is not best for the boys for several reasons : First, 
the sudden change of attitude on the part of the 
mother will surely impress upon the boy that there 
is something about sex in boys that even his mother 
dares not talk over with him. At about this same 
time when the mother begins to avoid the sex ques- 
tion with her boy, he will surely begin to get vulgar 
information arid impressions from his boy compan- 
ions. He will in all probability begin to hear the 
impure and obscene stories and vulgar language 
that are so common among many men and boys, and 
he will be sure to learn that the vulgarity which 
he hears must not be repeated in the presence of 
his mother and sisters. It is a most critical time 
in the mental attitude of the boy. His mother has 
so far been directing him towards purity and then 
suddenly sets him adrift. If there is ever a time 
in a boy's life when he needs intimacy with his 
mother, it is in the early adolescent years of twelve 
to fourteen. A strong mother's heart to heart 
guidance at that time will influence the boy more 
than all the sex-education which the schools and 
colleges combined can ever hope to offer. Such is 
the problem of home teaching for adolescent boys. 
I emphatically protest against the foolish and even 
dangerous idea that because a boy is beginning to 
metamorphose into a man his mother should cease 
to help him with the problems of sex. Lucky is 
that adolescent boy whose mother realizes her duty 



THE TEACHER OF SEX-KNOWLEDGE II3 

and her opportunity and holds him as intimately as 
if he were a girl of corresponding age. 

§ 20. Selecting Teachers for Class Instruction 

The references to "the teacher" in the following 
are primarily applicable to those who may be called 
upon to give sex-instruction as class work in schools, 
colleges, churches, the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.C.A., and 
other educational organizations. 

The chief question for discussion in this lecture 
is that of selecting the teacher of those phases of 
sex-instruction that are directly related to human 
life, that is, personal sex-hygiene and sex-ethics. 
So far as biological facts of sex are concerned, there 
are no special problems such as may not be handled 
by teachers of biology in general according to the 
accepted methods (see Lloyd and Bigelow, "Teach- 
ing of Biology in the Secondary School" and Bige- 
low, "Teacher's Manual of Biology"). 

As aheady suggested, a large part of the sex-in- 
struction is simply an extension of biological science, 
hygiene, and ethics; and in secondary Repjar 
schools and colleges should be given by teachers if 
selected teachers of the regular staff and ^°^^ *' 
whenever possible as a part of regular courses. 
There may be some necessary modifications to this 
plan; for example, in Teachers College the course 
on sex-education and another series of lectures on 
sex-physiology and hygiene for women are open to 
students who do not take the biology courses in 
which the sex-instruction logically belongs. 



114 SEX-EDUCATION 

The culminating stages of any complete scheme 
for formal sex-education of young people will be 
Sex- sex-hygiene considered in its strict sense 

hygiene as that special phase of sex-education 
and ethics, ^j^j^j^ ^^^^^ ^^ problems of health, 

and sex-ethics which determines the responsibility 
of individuals for control of sexual instincts. While 
nature-study and biology and general hygiene may 
be organized so as to present the major portion of 
the facts which should be included in a complete 
scheme of sex-instruction in schools and colleges, 
the application of these facts to personal life is the 
most difficult problem of sex-education. In fact, 
it is the only real problem, for long before sex-edu- 
cation became a definite movement the most effi- 
cient science teachers were presenting the funda- 
mental facts on which we now propose to build with 
certain hygienic and ethic instruction which directly 
touches the personal life of the student. As already 
said, the human application will require only a few 
lessons, preferably in connection with nature-study, 
biology, ethics, or hygiene. But although brief, 
such instruction is the keystone in the arch of sex- 
education, and it is very important that there be 
no serious mistakes in selecting the teachers. 
I have mentioned special teachers as necessary 
for instruction with direct reference to 

Sfix 

specioUsts human life. I hasten to add that I still 
°S*M agree with the report of the special com- 

mittee (Morrow, et d.) of the American 
Federation for Sex Hygiene that it is not desirable 



THE TEACHER OF SEX-KNOWLEDGE II5 

that any teacher shovild make a specialty of this type 
of instruction and of no other. We do not want "sex 
specialists" in the schools (see pp. lo and 20-23 of 
the Report of the Committee). It is important 
that all teachers should have general information 
regarding the sex problems of young people in order 
to be able to help individual pupils. 

§ 21. Certain Undesirable Teachers for Special 
Hygienic and Ethical Instruction 

It will be most helpful if we consider the problem 
of selecting teachers with a view to rejecting those 
who certainly should not undertake the special 
hygienic and ethical teaching, for teachers who are 
good in other subjects and who are fortunately 
free from certain disqualifications discussed in the 
following, may by means of study adapt themselves 
for the final and most important stages of sex-edu- 
cation. 

There are five types of teachers who should be 
reg3.rded as disqualified for teaching personal sex- 
hygiene and sex-ethics. 

First, those men and women who are unable to 
speak of sex-hygiene as calmly and seriously as 
they do of any other phase of hygiene ^^ 
had better not undertake the instruc- barrassed 
tion of young people. There are many *®"'^ "^" 
such men and women among teachers who, 
so far as scientific training is concerned, ought to 
be good teachers of sex-hygiene. As an illustration 
of this attitude that leaves the wrong impression 



1 1 6 SEX-EDUCATION 

with students, it is reported that a good teacher of 
hygiene recently prefaced a brief talk to college 
girls as follows : " I shall now consider a process that 
no cultured woman ever mentions except with bated 
breath. I refer to menstruation." 

The second kind of people who should not teach 
sex-hygiene are the men and women who are the 
unfortunate victims of sexual abnormality, either 
physical or psychical, that more or less influences 
their outlook on Ufa. Certain neurotic and hysteri- 
cal men or women who lack thorough physiological 
training and whose own sexual disturbances have 
Abnormal led them to devour omnivorously and un- 
teachers. scientifically the psychopathological lit- 
erature of sex by such authors as Havelock ElUs, 
Krafft-Ebing, and Freud, are probably unsafe 
teachers of sex-hygiene. Especially is this true 
of the women of this type whose introspective 
morbidity has led them to diagnose their own func- 
tional disturbances as the direct result of "over- 
sexuality" and restraint from normal sexual ex- 
pression — a diagnosis that is probably wrong nine 
times in ten cases. Such a woman is a very dan- 
gerous teacher of sex-hygiene for adolescent girls; 
and a positive menace to older unmarried women 
who, if free from absorbing work, may spend their 
leisure in becoming more or less restless under the 
unsocial, if not imphysiologic, conditions of unwel- 
come ceUbacy. This is no imaginary danger. The 
reader of this will not be interested in details, but 
the author has received from physicians and others 



THE TEACHER OF SEX-KNOWLEDGE II7 

reliable information concerning several extremely 
abnormal women of the above-described type who 
are taking an active interest in the sex-instruction 
of young people and are actually suggesting to their 
friends among young women the dangerous and un- 
true doctrine that prolonged ceHbacy for women 
results in repressed sexuaUty that surely leads to 
ill health. Such ideas, it is true, are traceable 
to certain well-known radical writers on the psycho- 
pathology of sex ; but we must remember that the 
great majority of physicians and other scientific 
investigators who have studied such problems re- 
fuse to believe that repressed sex instincts in either 
men or women do the harm that a few extremists 
have claimed. But even if it were known beyond 
the shadow of a doubt that repressed sex instincts 
may injure people, it would be unwise to intrust 
young people to instruction by teachers who have a 
hypochondriacal interest in such a doctrine of repres- 
sion. Such suggestions can do only harm to the 
vast majority of persons who receive them. To 
say the least, it is unfortunate that the psycho- 
pathology of sex has become so widely circulated 
among those who are not well trained in physiology 
and psychiatry. 

The third kind of people who should not be 
intrusted with teaching sex-hygiene are the men 
and women who, without a scientific perspective, 
have plimged into the literature of sexual abnormal- 
ity until they have come to think that knowledge 
concerning pen^erted life is an important part of 



1 1 8 SEX-EDUCATION 

sex-education for young people, especially for those 
of post-adolescent years. I know of teachers and 
Teachers physicians who advise young people not 
yrho em- much over twenty years of age to read 
sexual ab- such psychopathological works as those 
nortnaUty. of Krafit-Ebing, Ellis, and Freud, and 
various works dealing with commercialized vice. 
Here is a grave danger. The less that people 
without professional use for knowledge of sexual 
pathology know concerning it, the better it will 
be for their peace of mind and possibly for their 
morals. Therefore, I urge that he who enthusias- 
tically studies the abnormalities of sex life without 
reference to scientific research or professional de- 
mands, is not likely to be the kind of teacher 
who will present abnormal life only so far as is 
necessary to an understanding of the perfectly 
normal. 

The fourth kind of people who ought not to in- 
struct the young in personal problems of sex-hygiene 
Pessimistic are the men and women whose own un- 
teachera. happy romances or married life, or whose 
knowledge of vice conditions, have made them 
pessimistic concerning sex-problems. There are 
in our schools and colleges to-day some such men 
and many such women, and there wiU be danger 
for young people when the growing freedom of 
expression allows these sexual pessimists to impress 
their own hopeless philosophy of sex upon students. 
The educational world does not need such teachers, 
but rather those who can follow the late Dr. Morrow 



THE TEACHER OF SEX-KNOWIEDGE II9 

in seeing a bright side of life that ahnost dispels 
the darkness of sexual errors. 

The fifth kind of persons who ought not to teach 
the personal side of sex-hygiene are those who can- 
not command the most serious respect of 
their pupils. This applies especially to not 
many men teachers whose flippant atti- reBpected 
tude and even questionable Kving are not 
likely to help their pupils, especially boys, towards 
a satisfactory interpretation of sex problems. Of 
course, such teachers ought not be in schools at all, 
but the fact is that for various reasons they some- 
times get there and stay there; and so they must 
be weighed by the school official who selects the 
teachers to be intrusted with special problems of 
sex-education. 

Smnmarizing, I have in this lecture aimed to 
warn the school administrator, and others who must 
select teachers of classes, against the kinds of teachers 
who ought not be chosen for presenting the special 
problems of sex-education, especially those of sex- 
hygiene and sex-ethics. I have pointed out that 
there are five serious disqualifications; and it is 
probable that if strictly applied when ko in- 
choosing teachers for special sex-instruc- straction 
tion, there will be elimination of three or satisfactory 
foiur in every ten of those whose training teachers, 
in science might be expected to qualify them as 
teachers of this special line. It is a fair question 
as to what a school or other institution should do 
if it has no teachers who are free from the above 



I20 SEX-EDUCATION 

disqualifications. My own belief is that it is better 
to get an outsider for the handling of the special 
problems. If this is impracticable, then suggest 
to the students that they read certain books such 
as are recommended in the last sections of this 
book. Even entire omission of the study of the 
personal and social aspects of sex-hygiene and sex- 
ethics is far wiser than intrusting a class to a teacher 
with one or more of the negative qualifications that 
we have been considering in this lecture. The 
effect of sex-education upon individual lives will 
in no small degree depend upon the impression made 
by the living teacher who deals with the difficult 
problems of sex in relation to hygiene and ethics. 
Hence, the greatest care should be taken when select- 
ing the teacher for this all-important part of the 
student's sex-education. 



V 

Books as Teachers Concerning Sex and Life 

§ 22. Value and Danger of Special Sex Books for 
Young People 

There are many parents and teachers who believe 
that young people should get their sexual informa- 
tion by private reading, and numerous 300^.3 f^r 
books for boys and girls have been pre- private 
pared to meet such a demand. The ^^^ ^' 
desire for such "private" reading undoubtedly 
exists, especially in boys; but this is part of the 
general air of secrecy and vulgarity that has en- 
shrouded the truth about sexual matters. Many 
eminent physicians agree that there are elements 
of physical and perhaps moral danger when a boy 
reads a sex-science book secretly, but that there 
are few such possibiUties in frank and scientific 
teaching by a competent instructor. This is recog- 
nized by leaders in the Y.M.C.A., and they prefer 
to read books with the boys in study classes. Many 
scientific women think there is no such danger for 
average girls, but agree that girls as weU as boys 
will gain in respect for the subject of sex if the 
atmosphere of secrecy can be avoided. Hence, 



122 SEX-EDUCATION 

while books for private reading are better than 
ignorance, they alone wiU not solve many of the 
problems at which sex-education is directed. We 
must cease to foster the secrecy created by an 
atmosphere of obscenity, and the study of sex must 
be brought into the light of day. Let good books 
be recommended through parents and with their 
approval be issued freely by Hbraries and without 
restrictions which suggest something dark and 
wrong. Let parents and teachers encourage such 
reading, but not as something requiring secrecy. 
Rather let such books be read as freely as any other 
good books, and let parents and competent teachers 
follow the young readers closely so as to explain 
facts and help develop the desirable attitude of 
mind. Especially let parents encourage the idea 
that approved sex-science books may be read at 
the family fireside as properly as any other books. 
Above all, let parents and teachers work in every 
possible way against the time-worn idea that prob- 
lems of sex are essentially vulgar and demand se- 
crecy even in scientific study. We must have a 
nobler and healthier outlook on human life than 
that which so commonly prevails, and we can never 
get it by secret study of sex-science by young people. 
Such study may do some good by warning against 
unhygienic habits and social diseases; but it is 
certainly inadequate to give the open-minded 
attitude needed so much for appreciating the ethical, 
social, and aesthetic bearings of human life as it is 
influenced by normal sexual fimctions. 



BOOKS AS TEACHERS 1 23 

It has been urged by well-known teachers that, 
for sex-instruction, pamphlets are better than 
books in that they do not hold the at- Pamphlets 
tention too long on topics that may be w. books, 
exciting to some young people. On the other 
hand, books usually make a stronger appeal, while 
pamphlets are likely to be regarded lightly, as are 
magazines and newspapers. There is no doubt 
that most sex books for young people are too ex- 
tended, and there is need of condensed forty-and 
fifty-cent booklets in place of the books commonly 
sold at one dollar. Three or four small booklets 
by different authors read at widely separated inter- 
vals will interest and influence a young man more 
than one large and comprehensive book. There is 
besides great value in the points of view of various 
authors. 

At present there are no thoroughly satisfactory 
books for adolescent boys and girls. In my opinion, 
W. S. Hall's books for boys are the most reliable, 
and his "Life Problems" is the best selection of 
facts for girls; but some mature readers criticize 
the style of presentation. Some other ggttgj 
books for adolescent young people are books 
mentioned with critical notes in the "*"' * " 
bibliography at the end of this book. There is 
still plenty of chance for authors to experiment in 
writing books of this class. 



1 24 SEX-EDUCATION 

§ 23. General Literature and Sex Problems 

In the world's best literature there is much that 
teaches important lessons in the field of the largei 
Sex in sex-education. In the guise of love, sex 

literature. problems have always held the prominent 
place in all literature. Many a great book teaches 
direct or positive lessons by holding up high ideals 
for inspiration and imitation ; but some of the most 
impressive lessons are in negative form, especially 
in fiction that deals with the tragedies of life. 

As examples of Uterature of direct influence in 
helping many young people solve the problems of 
ReBgious sex, we think first of that which holds up 
books. iiigii ideals of personal purity, such as 

the Bible and other reUgious books. There is no 
doubt that such Uterature has a tremendous influ- 
ence on many yoimg people ; but it has little influ- 
ence on others, probably in part because the some- 
what mystical style of most reUgious writings is 
meaningless to many people. 

It is a fact that many young people who refuse 
to be interested in reUgious Uterature may be influ- 
Appeal of enced for sexual purity by the emotional 
poetty. appeal of some general Uteratiure. This 

is especiaUy true of romantic poetry. I beUeve 
that the high "idealism" of love inspired by Tenny- 
son's "The Princess" and "Idylls of the Kmg," 
by LongfeUow's "EvangeUne" and "The Hanging 
of the Crane," by some of Shakespeare's plays, and 
by other great poetry with similar themes has had 



BOOKS AS TEACHERS 125 

and will continue to have greater influence on the 
attitude and ethics of many young people than all 
the formal sex-teaching that can be organized. 
Hence, I believe that teachers of literature should 
be led to take interest in the larger sex-education 
to the end that by selection and interpretation of 
great masterpieces they may contribute in a valu- 
able way to the solution of some of the problems 
that have their center in the deeper nature of sex. 
Interpretation of Uterature by teachers is very 
important for the purposes of sex-education of 
young people. As an example, take importance 
Teimyson's "Idylls of the King," whose ofiuterpre- 
movement centers in the life problems °°' 
that turn around love. The average reader is 
likely to miss the great lessons if the poem is not 
critically interpreted either by Hving teachers or 
by such critical essays as those by Henry van 
Dyke in his "Poetry of Tennyson" and Newell 
Dwight Hillis in his " Great Books as Life-Teachers." 
Without interpretation "The Idylls" may teach 
false as well as true lessons of Ufe. Some of the 
Knights of the Round Table (Galahad and Perci- 
vale) were worthy followers of the good and pure 
King Arthur, and some of them (like Lancelot and 
Tristram and Merlin) proved unable to live up to 
the vow of chastity to which Arthur swore aU his 
knights. And on the part of the ladies of Arthur's 
court, there was purity and devotion and true 
womanhood in Elaine and Enid, while Guinevere 
and Ettarre and Vivien were unchaste and faithless. 



126 SEX-EDUCAnON 

In fact, all phases of the relations of men and women 
in the struggles and perplexities of life are pictured ; 
and therefore it is important that a well-trained 
teacher should be the guide and interpreter if the 
"Idylls of the King" are to be read with the idea 
of understanding their true bearings on life, which 
includes their contribution to the' larger sex-educa- 
tion. 

I have used "The Idylls of the King" as an 
illustration because they are so many-sided in sex 
problems ; but much other great literature may be 
made to help young people to high ideals of rela- 
tionships between men and women. I have em- 
phasized the place of such literature in the larger 
sex-education because I have come to believe that 
interpretation of life either real or in great Uterature 
may have profound influence in the development 
of one's philosophy of life. As a matter of edu- 
cational procedure insuring that young people 
will learn to interpret life, especially those aspects 
that the larger sex-education touches so definitely, 
there appears to be no more natural and unobtrusive 
way of approach than that offered by the study of 
literature. I am convinced that many teachers 
of literature may be eflScient workers in the cause 
of the larger sex-education, supplementing the 
scientific teaching in the ethical lines where science 
is admittedly weak, if not helpless. It is to be 
hoped that numerous teachers will soon grasp this 
opportunity. If they will study the sex-educa- 
tion movement in order to get its general bearings 



BOOKS AS TEACHERS ^i^ 

and will teach the sex aspect of literature on a basis 

of high ideals of life and love, we need have no fear 

as to the culmination of the instruction which 

properly begins with study of the biological facts 

of life in its sexual aspects and leads on and on to 

its climax in the ethical aspects of the individual's 

sex life in relation to other individuals, that is, to 

society. 

I take it for granted that no teacher of literature 

who contributes to sex-instruction will let the students 

know that the emphasis placed on great „ 

,.. , , • ^ r • c Nottobe 

Me problems is part of a conspiracy of labeled 

parents and educators to give in the name " sex-educa- 
of sex-education instruction that will 
help prepare the individual for facing the prob- 
lems. Here, as elsewhere, the young people had 
better be left unaware that their elders are so 
interested in giving them instruction regarding 
sex problems that they have organized, for study 
of ways and means, a movement known as sex- 
education. 

The abundant literature that points to the moral 
to be drawn from sexual tragedies has doubt- 
less influenced thousands of young people. I have 
talked with many educated people g^^ 
who confessed to having been pro- tragedies of 
foundly influenced by such books as 
Eliot's "Adam Bede," Hawthorne's "Scarlet 
Letter," Goethe's "Faust," Hardy's "Tess of the 
dlJrbervilles." One might go on and compile an 
extensive bibliography, for fiction of all languages 



128 SEX-EDUCATION 

of all times is full of the errors into which insistent 
sex instincts have drawn men and women who were 
not masters of themselves. All standard fiction 
in which sexual errors and their penalties are 
associated may do good as a part of the larger sex- 
education, but the teacher should make sure that 
the young readers arrive at the correct interpreta- 
tion. 

Against that type of fiction which presents sex 
problems that do not clearly "point a moral," the 
Fiction with- average so-called "problem novel" of 
out a moral, recent time, there should be general 
opposition by workers for the larger sex-education. 
Many of the modern novels and magazine stories 
seem to introduce sexual situations for the same 
reason that Boccaccio did in some of his tales, 
namely, the attractiveness of lasciviousness. Unlike 
the commendable novels, it is characteristic of the 
equivocal ones that no penalty is demanded or paid 
and no moral conclusion is suggested. In fact, 
the way is very often left open to an immoral 
interpretation. All such literature certainly tends 
to work against the aims of sex-education. Perhaps 
parents and teachers may cooperate to keep much 
of this kind of Uterature out of the hands of young 
people, but the safest procedure is in cultivating 
taste for literature that does teach helpful lessons of 
life. If young people do read books and maga- 
zines that seem to stand for uncertain morals, it is 
best that parents and teachers should point out the 
moral interpretations. 



BOOKS AS TEACHERS 1 29 

I 24. Dangers in Literature on Abnormal Sexuality 

The opinion is spreading among those who are 
studying the educational problems relating to sex 
that there is great danger, even for many adults, 
in much of the literature describing psychopatho- 
logical and abnormal social-sexual facts. There 
are enormous quantities of such literature, partic- 
ularly concerning the social evil. It is extremely 
doubtful whether the reader who is not directly 
engaged in medicine, psychiatry, or social reform 
will profit by filling his mind with facts from the 
darkest side of life. No doubt it is important that 
all intelligent men and women should know enough 
about sexual immoraUty and the life of the under- 
world so that they will reaUze the necessity of 
protecting young people from vice in all its forms ; 
but this does not mean that everybody should read 
extensively in the mass of printed matter that sets 
forth the most awful details concerning human 
depravity. There is a real danger in this line. 
The sex-education movement has already brought 
the problems of sex out of the old-time secrecy, and 
no other topics of the times are so freely read and 
discussed. This might be well if the reading and 
discussion always took constructive lines Danger in 
leading towards improvement of sexual present 
relationships; but unfortunately, much theab- 
of the present popular interest in sexual "o"""!- 
problems seems to be a morbid craving for the ab- 
normal. We find this tendency in the demand for 



13© SEX-EDUCATION 

a certain t3rpe of sex-problem novels, we see it fre- 
quently on the stage and in motion pictures, and 
we hear it in general conversation. The adver- 
tised suggestion of sexual immorality in a forth- 
coming serial novel often raises surprisingly the 
circulation of certain magazines. A few hints 
of sexual irregularity in certain plays have brought 
crowded audiences. A scandalous divorce case, 
reported as freely as the law allows, is a choice 
morsel for average readers of newspapers. Every- 
where it is the sexual abnormality, perversity, and 
even bestial vulgarity, that seems to attract the 
most attention. Books and magazines and theaters 
and preachers who extol the normal and bright 
side of sex-life are not now extremely popular with 
the masses of people. As a well-known magazine 
recently sununarized the present situation, "it 
has struck sex o'clock in America." There is no 
denying the fact that in recent years the popular 
interest in sex problems has taken a dangerous turn. 
It is time for those who are active in the sex-edu- 
cation movement to note the signs of the times, 
for an effective educational scheme for young people 
must take into account the present tendency towards 
a dangerous interest in literature relating to sexual 
abnormaUty, especially immorality. All this tend- 
ency towards interest in the abnormal or irregular 
sexual problems must cause not a Httle worry to 
those whose interest is primarily in securing wide- 
spread recognition of the advantages of normal and 
moral living. 



BOOKS AS TEACHERS I31 

Perhaps those who are seriously interested in 
sex-education may help stem the tide towards in- 
terest in sexual abnormality by using 

• <.!. 1 ^- r !•/ ^ Heed of in- 
greater care m the selection of Uterature, terestin 

both for young people and for their "onnal 
elders. I recently met a superintendent 
of schools who had carefully read certain large 
volumes on the medical, psychical, and social ab- 
normalities of sex, and many books and pamphlets 
on the social evil. Altogether he had read more 
than five thousand pages on the immoral and ab- 
normal aspects of sex. He wanted to know where 
he might find a book on the normal side of sex in 
its physiological, psychological, and ethical aspects. 
Unfortunately, there is no such treatise by an 
author whose scientific standing equals that of 
several of those who have written extensively on 
the abnormal side; and probably this is in part 
the reason why so many young men and women 
are now molding their ideas of sexual life according 
to the patterns described by the authors of works 
on social and sexual pathology. Not a month 
passes in which I am not astoimded to find men and 
women who have plunged deeply into studies of 
sexual vice and pathology and who know less of 
the normal biology of sex than is contained in such 
books as W. S. Hall's "Sexual Knowledge" or the 
last chapter of Martin's "Human Body, Advanced 
Course." This is indeed a strange situation, and 
we might compare it with reading extensive works 
on insanity before learning the elements of normal 



132 SEX-EDUCATION 

psychology. It is certainly a useless, if not a dan- 
gerous line of approach to the information concern- 
ing sex which intelligent people need. The leaders 
in the sex-education movement will do well to pro- 
mote the circulation of some brief and authoritative 
statement of the chief facts relating to the problems 
of abnormal sexual life and then to discourage the 
popular circulation of the extensive works which 
only certain physicians and social reformers need. 
I know that there is some difference of opinion as 
to the effect of such literature. I know many promi- 
nent educators and physicians who would keep the 
extensive works on the psychopathology of sex 
out of the hands of all general readers; but I also 
know a few who see no possibility of danger in wide- 
spread circulation of such books. 

Looking at all sides of the present situation, 
it is my personal conclusion that every one should 
. . learn first the scientific facts regarding 

knowledge normal processes connected with the 
oftheab- sexual system; and then for the general 
reader there should be only a limited 
amount of warning knowledge regarding the dan- 
gers of sexual abnormalities. 



VI 

Sex-instruction for Pre-adolescent Years 

In § 8 of the Report of the Committee of Three 
of the American Federation for Sex-hygiene, by 
Morrow and others, the Ufe of the child Periods of 
was divided into four periods, namely, — early life, 
under six years, from six to twelve, twelve to six- 
teen, sixteen to maturity. This division now seems 
to me to be too arbitrary, and I have come to believe 
that it is more helpful to consider sex-instruction for 
three periods as follows : pre-adolescence (ending at 
eleven to fourteen years) ; early adolescence (twelve 
to sixteen years for girls, thirteen to seventeen for 
boys); later adolescence (sixteen to twenty-one for 
girls, eighteen to twenty-five for boys). 

§ 25. Elementary Instruction and Influence 

The life-histories of plants and animals as taught 
in the best nature-study ^ are important in forming 
attitude towards reproduction and giving Nature- 
a basis for simple and truthful answers to study, 
the child's questions as to the origin of the indi- 

' See books on nature-study, e.g., Holtz's "Nature-Study," 
Hodge's "Nature-Study and Life," Comstock's "Handbook of 
Nature-Study." Morley's "Renewal of Life," March's "Towards 
Racial Health," and Hall's "The Doctor's Daughter" suggest the 
main lines of the nature-study approach to sex-education. 
133 



134 SEX-EDUCATION 

vidual human life. The publications listed in the 
last section of this book under the headings "For 
Girls" and "For Boys" will help parents and 
teachers. 

There is need of Uttle private hygienic instruction, 
but of much guidance away from harmful habits. 
This wiU be indicated in the next section which 
considers masturbation as it concerns children of 
both sexes and all ages. 

The protection of children from corrupting influ- 
ences is an important work of sex-education in pre- 
adolescent years. Probably the greatest safety 
lies in parents giving simple facts regarding repro- 
duction and in cultivating confidence so that any 
. accidental contact of their children with 
vulgarity will be coimteracted in ad- 
vance. Many parents, especially mothers, have 
found this possible. 

In the years between ten and twelve every child 
should learn from a parent or other adult confidant 
Girls' prep- some general facts regarding their 
arationfor approaching puberty. This is especially 
pu erty. important in the case of girls, for many 
a girl has been physically and mentally injured 
because a prudish mother has procrastinated too 
long the giving of information regarding the first 
menstrual period. The facts in the first thirty 
pages of W. S. Hall's "Life Problems" should be 
known by many girls of eleven and by the great 
majority before thirteen. Some books for young 
girls are defective in that they avoid reference to 



PEE-ADOLESCENT YEARS 135 

the coming changes. I see no excuse for a sex- 
hygiene book for girls who are too young to be 
trusted with the simplest knowledge regarding 
menstruation. Such children should be interested 
in nature studies and perhaps the elements of gen- 
eral hygiene, but certainly not in books with curi- 
osity-stimulating titles. 

Since boys entering puberty pass through no 
such sharply defined beginning as girls do, the 
information they need in advance is not so specific. 
At the same time, we must recognize that the 
average boy under twelve years picks up more 
information regarding sexual life than a girl does, 
and so the problem of teaching self-control comes 
earlier, although the average girl enters gpeciai 
puberty a year or two before the boy. needs o£ 
Parents and teachers must recognize the °^^' 
fact that sexual tendencies come to many boys 
several years before puberty, and masturbation 
and even premature sexual intercourse are possible 
problems with many boys long before the tweKth 
year. The boy's early gathering of sexual informa- 
tion is not without advantage, for it becomes pos- 
sible for parents and other adult confidants to ex- 
plain many important truths as to the proper use 
of his sex organs and as to his conduct towards 
girls. All this can be done with the average boy 
of eleven or twelve and with hundreds of even nine 
and ten without any fear of giving information that 
is startlingly new and without any danger of giving 
a nervous shock. 



136 SEX-EDUCATION 

It is not SO with average girls of equal ages, if 
we may accept the opinion of many women who 
Cautious ^® trained in science and medicine, 
teaching Specific information as to the functional 
of girls. relationships of the two sexes is said by 
many educated women to have been absolutely 
new and startUng to them at twenty and twenty- 
five years. Evidently there is a special reason for 
gradual and cautious teaching of girls, and so it is 
probably best, as many parents urge, that in pre-ado- 
lescent years the girl's instruction in sodal-sexual 
lines be training in modest deportment and a proper 
reserve towards boys. This ought to be sufl&cient 
for the girl's protection until gradually in adolescent 
years she learns the whole story of life, probably sev- 
eral years later than her boy friends whose natural 
leadership in sexual activity makes their early in- 
formation desirable as a protection to both sexes. 

In the pre-adolescent years parents and teachers 
should cooperate in developing a spirit of group 
Children's fellowship between boys and girls and 
friendships, at the Same time instill into the boys 
something of that chivalrous and protective atti- 
tude of boys towards girls such as one finds in the 
families of the highest culture. I emphatically 
mean "group fellowship," for it is certainly undesir- 
able to encourage in pre-adolescents any tend- 
ency towards paired comradeship. It is certainly 
best that boys and girls should have many good 
friends of both sexes. The real truth back of the 
old adage "two is company and three is a crowd" 



PRE-ADOLESCENT YEARS 137 

makes the "crowd" highly desirable for both pre- 
adolescence and early adolescence, for in these years 
it is friendship and not romantic love that will be 
most helpful in the later life. As one step in this 
direction, all sensible adults should show their dis- 
favor to the abominable habit of teasing small chil- 
dren concerning their best friends of the other sex. 
Parents and teachers will do some of the best work 
in the larger sex-education if they begin in pre- 
adolescent years to develop the social life of the 
children along lines similar to those suggested above. 
Summarizing, it is evident that there is very 
little direct sex-instruction suitable for pre-adoles- 
cent years. So far as the child's own 
life is concerned, it now seems clear that 
parents or other adult confidants must instruct in- 
dividuals, or possibly small uniformly selected groups. 
Class instruction seems out of the question except 
for life-history studies of animals and plants. On the 
whole, then, there is nothing radical or impossible in 
the proposition that there should be a beginning of 
sex-education before the advent of adolescence. 

§ 26. Hygienic and Educational Treatment of Un- 
healthful Habits 

All adults should take a sane and scientific view 
of the sex problems that are likely to come even 
to normal children. We must remember Problems of 
that they are bom with sexual mechan- <:liJl<Jren. 
isms that may easily and automatically lead into 
harmful habits unless parents and teachers guide 



138 SEX-EDUCATION 

hygienically and mentally along the lines that are 
known to offer safety. ■ 

Concerning habitual manipulation of the sexual 
organs of either sex, known in medical Hterature as 
Masturba- masturbation or self-abuse (often errone- 
tion- ously called "onanism"), there are cer- 

tain facts that are important for the guidance of 
all parents and teachers. I discuss it in this con- 
nection since the problem often arises in the later 
years of the pre-adolescent period. 

It is absurd to suppose that the tendency towards 
the habit means degeneracy or innate viciousness 
Does not °^ children. Young horses, dogs, mon- 
indicate de- keys, and other animals sometimes form 
generacy. ^ similar habit, the stimulus being some 
irritation of the sexual organs. Hence, it is not at 
aU unnatural when children attempt to relieve 
their irritated organs by friction, and then it is 
inevitable that the sensitive nerve endings will 
give sensations that are more or less pleasurable and 
satisfying, depending upon the sex, age, and emo- 
tional pecuUarity of the individual child. This 
fact suggests to parents and teachers the methods 
of prophylaxis ; namely, avoid (i) irritation of sexual 
organs and (2) opportunity for manipulation. 

With regard to irritation, the first sign of such 

disturbance may appear in babyhood. In the 

, . . case of boys, whose structure renders 

iTntation. , , ,. , , , 

them vastly more uable than girls to 

external irritation, the family physician should 

make sure during infancy whether circumcision 



PEE-ADOLESCENT YEARS I39 

or a stretching of the prepuce (foreskin) may be 
desirable. According to Dr. Emmet Holt, the 
eminent pediatrician, about one male baby in four 
or five is bom with an elongated or tight prepuce 
that needs surgical attention. A corresponding 
abnormaUty of the clitoris is sometimes found in 
baby girls. Some radical surgeons advocate uni- 
versal circumcision of boys because they circmn- 
beheve that it reduces local irritation, "sion. 
favors cleanliness, tends to prevent masturbation, 
and reduces susceptibiUty to the venereal diseases. 
There is certainly some truth in these claims; but 
some conservative surgeons point out that for the 
great majority of boys all these advantages may be 
obtained by reasonable attention to hygienic habits, 
that orthodox Jewish and other circumcised boys 
are by no means free from harmful habits, that 
some boys are more irritable after circumcision, 
that preputial stretching is often a good substitute 
for circumcision, and that the taunts of other boys 
often make circumcised boys too conscious of their 
own mutilation. A scientific doctor who has no 
special financial interest in the increase of surgical 
operations and who carefully reviews both the radi- 
cal and conservative hterature relating to circum- 
cision, will not hasten to submit boys to this opera- 
tion tmtil it is certain that their sexual organs happen 
to have congenital deformity that only radical 
surgical treatment can correct. 

In addition to making sure that uncleanliness or 
structural abnormality are not responsible for irri- 



I40 SEX-EDUCATION 

tation of sex organs, there are some spedal hygienic 
rules useful for parents and teachers who have charge 
Hygienic of children. Most important is avoid- 
roiM. ance of habit formation. Clothing 

should be well adjusted to avoid pressure and 
friction of the sexual organs, and so constructed 
(especially night clothing) that it is not convenient 
for the hands to reach the organs. Normal boys 
require pockets, but they should open at the waist- 
band and not at the side of the hips. The reason 
for these suggestions is evident. When we recall 
that little children naturally tend to explore them- 
selves, such as by putting fingers into the mouth, 
feeling their toes, inserting foreign objects into nose 
and ears, and when we also recall how quickly a 
child may learn the habit of sucking its thumb, 
we must realize the importance of guarding the child 
from extending such activities to its sexual organs, 
which, because they possess the most sensitive 
nerve endings in the body, are most liable to lead 
to habitual manipulation. In the light of such 
facts, it is nonsense to assume, as so many good 
mothers have done, that only innately vicious chil- 
dren learn masturbation. The truth is that in the 
case of most children under twelve this habit has 
an origin no more vicious than such habits as 
thumb-sucking ; and in all cases of habits, parents 
Other sue- ^^^ Others responsible for the children 
gestions for should be given the blame. 
paren s. -pj^g following suggestions in addition 

to those above are likely to help parents do much 



PEE-ADOLESCENT YEARS I4I 

towards avoiding or solving the early sex problems 
of their children. These facts apply also to later 
years. 

Have children sleep on a hard mattress. The 
old-time feather bed was dangerous. There should 
be light-weight covers, and the room cool. Chil- 
dren should sleep on either side, rardy in the un- 
natural back position. Aim to have regular sleep- 
ing hovurs ; but do not send children to bed unsuper- 
vised when they are excited and not tired enough 
for immediate sleep. Have them arise as soon as 
wide awake in the morning. Never punish children 
by sending them to bed. 

Do not leave children to their own devices ; they 
may naturally fall into dangerous play. Privacy 
is often demanded by the moods of Dangers of 
adults, but it is dangerous for children, privacy. 
A certain camp for boys has the commendable rule 
that the boys have no privacy during the entire 
summer. Many educators and physicians con- 
demn private bedrooms or cubicles iu schools for 
boys. 

A strenuous life of physical and mental activity 

is the best solution of personal control of sexual 

instincts. Reasonable athletics and .... 

. , , , . . , Athletics, 

study make an ideal combmation for 

both boys and girls. And yet we must not trust 

absolutely to athletics or other physical work, for 

there are certainly many individuals whose sexual 

desires are not controlled by muscular exercise. 

Much of the formal athletic training may have 



142 SEX-EDUCATION 

no more influence on sexual control than dogmatic 
creeds. 

Strong condiments and alcoholic drinks are known 
to be sexual excitants for many people, and for this 
and other hygienic reasons should be 
forbidden to children. There is a wide- 
spread, but still undemonstrated opinion that tea, 
cofiee, tobacco, and strong condiments have an ex- 
citing effect. However, there is plenty of scientific 
authority, based on other hygienic grounds, for 
avoiding these at least during the years of growth. 

Constipation is likely to cause sexual irritation, 

and hence this is an additional reason for sub- 

. mitting children to competent doctors 

' for treatment of this distiurbance which 

so seriously affects general health, especially by 

auto-intoxication. 

Cool bathing in the morning, especially of the 
sexual organs, is hygienic, except for girls during 
the monthly periods (including two days 
before the expected menstrual onset). 
For various reasons, bathing in very warm water 
should be very hmited, and then only for cleansing. 
In hygienic instructions to children, avoid giving 
them any ideas concerning the supposed prevalence 
of the habit of masturbation. There is a 
sl^tion" dangerous tendency to follow the crowd. 
Also, the habit should never be de- 
scribed to children except as "unnecessary handling 
of the sex organs." It is dangerous to suggest to 
children, as certain books do, that there is any 



PEE-ADOLESCENT YEARS 143 

pleasurable sensation resvilting from manual manip- 
ulation of the organs, for the force of suggestion 
or curiosity has led some children to experiment 
with themselves xmtil they formed the habit. 

There are no absolutely certain signs or symptoms, 
and those suggested by certain authors, especially by 
quack doctors, make young people and 
even parents and teachers judge some 
individuals in an unfortunate way. Especially^ 
should parents and teachers remember that there is 
absolutely no scientific basis for supposing that 
great diffidence, indigestion, pimples on the face, 
boys' lack of interest in girls, and numerous other 
popular "signs," are indications of the masturba- 
tion habit. Like the symptoms in patent-medicine 
advertising, the above "signs" are so general that 
they are sure to fit some cases. 

Do not tell children the ancient falsehood that 
insanity will surely result from handling the sexual 
organs. It is true that masturbation is 
a common habit of certain t3^es of 
insane people and of some neurotics ; but it is prob- 
able that the habit is more often one of several 
factors rather than the direct cause of the nervous 
breakdown. However, it is scientific to say that 
the habit may weaken the nervous system and 
indirectly affect general health, especially in pre- 
adolescent and early adolescent years. Probably 
the greatest nervous damage comes because there 
is often greater excess than is possible in natural 
sexual relations; the strain of all sexual excess is 



J44 SEX-EDUCATION 

more in loss of nervous energy than of secretions. 
The safest advice one can give children is that the 
doctors agree that unnecessary touching of sexual 
organs has interfered with the health of many chil- 
dren and that those who avoid this are most likely 
to grow up strong in body and mind. This is the 
truth and practically the whole of the known truth 
that might have influence with young people. 
, Mental masturbation or "day dreaming" con- 
cerning sexual functions is probably more harmful 
Mental than mechanical manipulation. It is 

habit. believed to be more common in young 

women than in men. However, there is little reli- 
able evidence as to the prevalence of the habit. 
As an educational problem, there is nothing to be 
done beyond informing all adolescent young people 
that allowing their minds to dwell on sexual affairs 
may interfere with nervous health, scholarship, 
and future efficiency in life. Hard mental and 
physical work and strenuous play as a daily routine 
will avoid or solve most such difficulties of young 
people. 

In all dealing with this problem of young people, 
we must beware of overemphasis or exaggeration. 
Not hope- Parents and teachers should do all pos- 
less. sible to prevent and cure the habit ; but 

there is still hope for most young people who, in 
spite of warning, occasionally lapse into their old 
habits. Both men and women of this type have 
led their classes through college and won success 
afterwards. Probably they would have done still 



PRE-ADOLESCENT YEARS I45 

better if entirely free from the habit. On the other 
hand, men and women of neurotic inheritance com- 
bined with the habit have sufEered nervous collapse 
during college years; and it is scientific to assume 
that the additional nervous strain produced by 
masturbation was a contributing factor. Evidently, 
we dare make no definite prophecy as to what will 
happen to one who in early life forms the habit of 
masturbation. There is no excuse for excessive 
alarm in any ordinary case; but, as we have seen, 
there are good reasons why parents and teachers 
should calmly and yet firmly help young people 
avoid unnatural sexual activity. 

To those who must consider the problem of 
masturbation in boarding schools, I recommend 
Hime's "Schoolboys' Special Immorality." 



vn 

Sex-instruction for Early Adolescent Years 

§ 27. The Biological Foundations 

In discussing instruction for the pre-adolescent 
years I have stressed biological nature-study as 
important for the purpose of giving general knowl- 
edge of how new living things come into the 
world. This will develop a good attitude concerning 
the origin of the individual human life. In this 
lecture I wish to direct attention to the scientific 
facts which are foundations for the sexual knowledge 
that is important for other phases of sex-instruction 
during early or late adolescence. 

I believe that the best introduction to advanced 
sex-instruction is through biological ideas which 
Biological may be presented in popular lectures 
foundations, and books ; but, of course, wiU be best 
taught in courses of biological science. My own 
view as to the selection of materials for such bio- 
logical studies is expressed in the sections on repro- 
duction connected with the account of each animal 
or plant type in the "Applied Biology" and in the 
last chapter of the "Introduction to Biology."* In 
these books the study of life-histories of plants and 
animals leads up through vertebrates to mammals, 

' Both books by M. A. and Anna N. Bigelow. 
146 



EARLY ADOLESCENT YEARS 147 

and there are a few remarks suggesting that human 
development is like the mammals.* At this point 
these books should be supplemented by a brief 
survey of the essential structure, physiology, and 
embryology of human reproduction. 

Biological studies of human reproduction should 
not be coeducational in high schools or Mixed 
the early years of college. Mature col- 'lasses, 
lege students who have passed through extensive 
biological studies, may, without apparent embarrass- 
ment, study hinnan embryology in mixed classes; 
but after experience with many such groups I have 
begun to think that separate classes are desirable 
if the course is made to include all the important 
facts that college graduates should know concern- 
ing human reproduction. At any rate, there should 
be special lessons or reading deahng with detailed 
information that directly concerns one sex only. 

I certainly do not beUeve in completely revamping 
biological science for the purposes of sex-education. 
It is better not to "spoil" a course by impersonal 
overemphasis on sex, for much of the value approach of 
of biology as a basis for sex-education is "" °^" 
the fact that sex appears gradually and naturally 
and far away from human relations. This imper- 
sonal approach will be lost if the course in biology 
seems to revolve around sex-education, for that will 
make sex too prominent. 

' Sets of drawings and lantem slides for the biological introduction 
to sex may be obtained from the American Social Hygiene Associa- 
tion, los W. 40th St., New York City. 



148 SEX-EDUCATION 

It is Still debatable as to how much should be 
taught in high schools or in public lectures concern- 
ing the biological facts of human reproduction. I 
think that I can make my own views clearer if I 
discuss this first for boys, then for girls. 

§ 28. Scientific Facts for Boys 

First, it is generally agreed that boys of high- 
school age may profit by learning their own sexual 
structure by means of diagrams such as the one in 
Hall's "Sexual Hygiene." There is no harm, 
and also no gain, in minute description, especially 
histological. 

The chief technical names of the parts of the male 
organs — testicle (spermary or testes), sperm duct 
Scientific (vas deferens), scrotum, prostate, seminal 
names. vesicles, penis, glans, prepuce (foreskin), 

urethra — should be taught; and the scientific 
dignity of these words as substitutes for vulgar 
words should be emphasized. In dealing with 
boys and young men I have noticed that these 
and other scientific words have a great influence 
on their attitude. The scientific names of the sex 
organs should be made part of popular vocabulary 
for the reason that there are no established common 
names corresponding to lungs, liver, stomach, arm, 
leg, brain, and so on for aU prominent organs except 
the sexual. These have been left without authorita- 
tive names except in scientific language, and as a 
result dozens of ordinary words have been vulgarly 
applied and imprintable ones invented by unedu- 



EARLY ADOLESCENT YEARS 149 

cated people. Such usage of vulgar terminology 
is widespread, especially among men and boys. 
An editor of schoolbooks recently called my atten- 
tion to the necessity of changing some ordinary 
words in certain books because in some localities 
the boys appUed the words to sexual organs. Even 
the little words "nuts," "stones," "balls" accom- 
panied by the adjective "two" mean testicles in 
the widespread vulgar language; and a physician 
told me that a college graduate used one of these 
words the other day when seeking medical advice 
concerning her baby. Here is an intolerable situa- 
tion that must be improved by estabUshing in popu- 
lar usage the dignified scientific words for the chief 
sexual organs. We must begin to do so by teaching 
the words frankly to boys of adolescent years, and by 
persuading parents to teach their children correctly. 
Having learned the structure and names of their 
sexual organs, boys may easily understand the 
function of each part if explained in Sex-physi- 
simple language. Ten or twenty min- oiogy- 
utes ought to be enough time for stating the impor- 
tant facts. One printed page could state them clearly. 
Here is the time for personal hygienic advice, es- 
pecially such topics as : rules for self-control ; harm- 
ful habits (see discussion of masturbation in § 26) ; 
sexual activity not necessary for health ; occasional 
nocturnal emissions not pathological.^ 

' The instructor of young men should not allow confusion to arise 
from the recent contention of some medical men that emissions are 
abnormal or unnatural because they are not known to occur in 
animals. Certain it is that they are adaptations to changes caused 



150 SEX-EDUCATION 

I believe it is well for boys of adolescent years 
to know a few leading facts regarding female struc- 
Femaie ture and function, but such knowledge is 
organs. ^est learned from oral description by a 

weU-balariced teacher. Diagrams and (in some 
schools) a demonstrated dissection of a cat or other 
animal wiU be helpful. The meaning of the ovaries 
as sources of the egg-cells and of the uterus as the 
place for development of the fertilized egg-cell 
should be explained in a serious way that will help 
boys get some fundamental ideas as to what mother- 
hood means. Boys, moreover, should be informed 
concerning the existence of the periodic disturbance 
in the other sex, for unless they know they are sure 
at times to misunderstand their sisters and other 
girls. Professor W. S. Hall has stated the essential 
information ia "Chums" (for boys twelve to six- 
teen), but his comparison of periodicity in the two 
sexes is not strictly accurate, for there are not in 
men any sexual cycles that are strictly comparable 
with the menstrual cycles of women. 

by enforced sexual restraint after the seminal secretions begin with 
puberty. Such restraint is, of course, abnormal or unnatural if 
we compare with animals ; but many of our acts are unnatural and 
not necessarily unhealthful. For instance, the sedentary life of the 
student or professional worker is abnormal or unnatural, but it need 
not be unhealthful, if hygienic adaptations are made. Likewise, 
seminal emissions are imnatural for primitive men or animals 
without sexual restraint, but this does not mean that they are un- 
healthfixl for self-controlled men. Here, as in many other cases, 
comparison with animals is misleading and does not teach us useful 
facts concerning human sexual functioning. The truth is that 
physicians have no evidence of harm from emissions that are not 
caused by voluntary activity, 



EAELY ADOLESCENT YEARS 151 

It is probably best, as urged by several writers, 
that the life-Uke illustrations, some of them photo- 
graphic, in books of human anatomy be 
kept away from boys of early adolescent 
age. Diagrams can be made to explain aU that is 
necessary, and without the danger of stimulation 
that might come from the illustrated medical books. 

The embryological facts of human biology are 
very impressive to boys and young men who know 
Uttle of science. I believe that no other Embry- 
line of scientific facts is so likely to claim a °'°ey- 
serious and respectful attitude. The ideal way for giv- 
ing a popular ghmpse at human development is with a 
small series of lantern slides or photographs from em- 
bryological works. Unfortunately, there is no avail- 
able popular treatment of the main facts of human de- 
velopment, but teachers trained in biology can easily 
glean the facts for the preparation of a short lecture. 

Since the venereal diseases are due to micro- 
organisms, I believe that they should be introduced 
in connection with the study of bacteria social 
and other germs, either in school courses diseases, 
or in popular lectures. Such instruction should be 
very brief. 

§ 29. Scientific Facts for Girls 

I discussed first the problem of selecting scientific 
facts for boys because there is little dispute as to 
the advisabiUty of giving them as much Girls more 
scientific information as may possibly "moment, 
replace the vulgar knowledge that the average 
boy is likely to possess. I know that there are a 



152 SEX-EDUCATION 

few men and many women who will disagree with 
this because they believe in the absolute ignorance 
of their boys; but I doubt whether one healthy 
adolescent boy in a hundred belongs in the "inno- 
cent" class. So we need not worry much con- 
cerning any supposed danger of treating facts too 
frankly, provided that they are given a dignified, 
scientific setting. In the case of numerous adoles- 
cent girls there is certainly dense ignorance, and 
so there must be more difficulty in getting approval 
of parents and teachers concerning facts proposed 
for girls. Often when talking with groups of par- 
ents I have heard them say that they would hke 
to have their boys learn the scientific truth regard- 
ing certain facts, but they feel that it would be 
too startling and unnecessary for their daughters. 
Such is the widespread feeling which must be seri- 
ously considered in all planning of advanced sex- 
instruction for girls. No doubt there wiU be much 
honest disagreement with the suggestions here 
offered. 

The biological introduction based on plants and 
animals should be the same as for boys (§ 27). 

An adolescent girl of fourteen to sixteen should 
know the general plan of her own sexual structure, 
structure She should know the scientific names of 
and names, hej. organs, not because there are many 
vulgar names as in the case of boys, but because 
dignified names help attitude. Ovaries, uterus 
(womb), vagina, Fallopian tubes, and vulva wiU 
be sufficient. Detailed description of the external 



EARLY ADOLESCENT YEARS 153 

organs (vulva) might arouse curiosity that leads 
to exploration and irritation, and hence many 
women physicians think that a girl under sixteen 
or possibly eighteen needs only the name vulva for 
the external parts surrounding the entrance to the 
vagina. 

Some books for girls perpetuate the ancient but 
absurd emphasis on the virginal significance of 
the hymen; and a recent book from a An ancient 
prominent pubUsher goes so far as to try l>eUef. 
to frighten girls into remaining chaste by stating that 
a physician could discover if they have been un- 
chaste. This is far from being always true, for the 
structure may be congenitally absent, may some- 
times remain after sexual union, or may be acci- 
dentally destroyed in childhood ; and reliable physi- 
cians have stated that proving unchastity by the 
hymen is by no means easy. Hence, the less said 
about the ancient behef , the better for young women. 
The truth is that the hymen is a worse-than-useless 
relic of embryological development, and it is neither 
an indicator nor a dictator of morality. 

With regard to the physiology of the female 
organs, the following topics should be considered: 
The meaning of puberty as the beginning Physiology 
of a long fertile period of about thirty of women, 
years; the nature of menstruation as a periodical 
process preparing the lining of the uterus for re- 
ception and attachment of an embryo if a sperm- 
ceU meets a liberated egg-cell near an ovary, and 
not as a season of illness invented by the powers of 



154 SEX-EDTJCATION 

darkness; the possibility of fertilization following 
sexual relations at any time during the fertile life 
of a woman; the essential facts of sexual relation 
as a method of depositing sperm-cells so that they 
can swim on the way to meet an egg-cell ; and the 
nature of the close blood relationship of mother and 
embryo. These are physiological topics which many 
parents would hke to have taught to their daugh- 
ters of fourteen to eighteen by some careful woman 
or by some good book. 

With regard to the social diseases and the social 
evil, I have long sympathized with the conservatives 
. • who hold that extremely limited knowl- 

edge is sufficient for the average girl un- 
der eighteen or twenty. No doubt that many work- 
ing girls in cities need more protective knowledge 
than do school girls of the same age. Hall's "Life 
Problems" seems to me to give the important facts. 
As in the case of boys of adolescent years, there 
should be enough teaching to warn against harmful 
habits. Such knowledge may possibly 
be of personal appUcation to a few girls 
and it will be of use to many girls who will later as 
mothers or teachers have the care of small children. 
I find that many thoughtful mothers and women 
physicians think that girls in late adolescent years 
Knowledge should learn from some reliable source 
concerning the most general facts regarding male 
'°*°" structure and function. Here again the 

strong argument is that the majority will have the 
care of small children. Such instruction has often 



EARLY ADOLESCENT YEARS 1 55 

been given as part of courses in biology and physiol- 
ogy and also in special lectures. It is certain that 
some parents will favor such instruction, and others 
will regard it as indecent to suggest that girls should 
have any such knowledge. There will always be 
some parents who will let their daughters face life- 
problems blindly. 

Sometime in adolescent years girls should learn 
the scientific facts regarding mothercraft or the 
care of small children. This phase of the Mother- 
larger sex-education is rapidly attracting "^^ 
attention from those who are interested in practical 
arts education, and before many years pass it will 
probably be treated adequately in connection with 
household arts in schools and colleges. I have 
already referred to household arts in general as 
making a decided contribution to the larger sex-edu- 
cation which works for harmonious adjustment of 
the sexes in the home. 



vin 

Special Sex-instruction for Adolescent Boys 

AND Young Men 

In this lecture I shall discuss a number of prob- 
lems in the relations of men to women which 
Methods ought somehow to be made dear to 
and boys who are in transition to maiJiood. 

eac ers. j ^^^ ^^ jj^^j^ jjjQjg ^jjg^jj point out the 

lines along which it is desirable that young men 
should be informed and influenced ; for I confess that 
I do not know any guaranteed pedagogical method 
for teaching along these hnes. So far as I can now 
see, it seems to me that a good beginning would con- 
sist in getting the best ideas before young men by 
lectures, books, and personal conversations. Here 
more than in any other phase of sex-education the 
influence of personaUty is of great importance. 
Many an ordinary teacher or lecturer may well 
present the cold facts of biological science that help 
interpret sex, but one who does not by his personal 
quaUties command the entire confidence of his 
hearers is worse than useless in presenting to young 
men such problems as those outlined in this lecture 
under the following subheadings: Developing 
young men's attitude towards womanhood; de- 
is6 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 157 

veloping ideals of love and marriage; reasons for 
pre-marital continence; essential knowledge con- 
cerning prostitution; need of more refinement in 
men; dancing as a sex problem for men; dress 
as a sexual appeal; the problem of self-control; 
the mental side of a young man's sex life. 

§ 30. Developing Attitude towards Womanhood 

Many there are among the believers in the larger 
sex-education who feel sure that a young man's 
greatest safety Ues in having high ideals influence of 
of womanhood. I have known a num- ideals, 
ber of men who passed unscathed through the 
storm and stress of early manhood because each 
of them could say, as Tennyson makes the lover con- 
fess to Princess Ida, "from earUer than I know, im- 
mersed in rich foreshadowings of the world, I loved 
the woman." Some of these men learned to love 
"the woman" in the abstract, in the dream world, 
perhaps as the " brushwood girl" of Kipling. Others 
first loved "the woman" through boyhood sweet- 
hearts. Still others came to love her through 
mothers who inspired them with reverence for 
womanhood and motherhood. 

. . . . " Happy he 

With such a mother ! faith in womankind 
Beats with his blood, and trust in all things high comes easy 
to him." (Tennyson) 

But it matters httle for the future purity of the 
boy on the threshold of manhood whether he has 



158 SEX-EDUCATION 

learned to love "the woman" in the dreamland of 
youth or in the very real world of life. It is simply 
a question of the intensity of the devotion and of the 
loftiness of the ideals which She has aroused within 
him. 

Now, we of the older generation, who as parents 
and teachers are largely the makers of the boy's 

Who may ^^^ °^ ^^' ^^^ P^^^ ^ ^^^^ important 
influence part in developing in him a love for 
°^^- "the woman," a reverence for woman- 

hood. The greatest opportunity falls to the lot 
of that mother whose natural gifts and education 
adapt her for impressing her son profoundly with 
appreciation of womanhood. The next greatest 
opportunity comes to the woman who as an instructor 
in school, church, or other institution comes into 
intimate relations that sometimes give the teacher 
greater influence than the mother is able or willing 
to exert. Finally, we must not discount the value 
of men's cooperation ia this problem, for many a 
boy's attitude towards women is largely the reflection 
of what he has seen in his father and in other men, 
particularly in his teachers both secular and reUgious. 
Now, while the direct influence of personality 
is most important in this problem of developing a 
young man's attitude towards women, organized 
educational effort should not be neglected. It is 
important that both men and women help by en- 
couraging young men to read good literature that 
unobtrusively tends to introduce them to the best 
in womanhood (see § 23) ; and by discussing with 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 159 

them, as opportunity offers, the higher ideals of the 
relationships between men and women. 

§ 31. Developing Ideals of Love and Marriage 

Closely associated with high ideals of womanhood 
is necessarily a pure understanding of love, even in 
its physical basis. While preparing this lecture I 
discovered that James OUphant (in the International 
Journal of Ethics, Vol. 9, pp. 288-289, 1898) has 
well expressed some of the views that in a more or 
less unformulated shape have been in my mind 
for years. 

" If the true preparation for love and marriage is, as 
I hold it to be, to learn to associate physical passion 
with the higher emotions developed by ideals of 
social sympathy — with a single-hearted love in art. 
devotion tiiat demands courage, and self-sacrifice 
and considerate forethought and tenderness; if we 
wish to bind all these quaUties together in the im- 
agination of the young and clothe the conception 
with every attribute of beauty that fancy can de- 
vise, how can we forego the precious opportunities 
that he to our hand in the persuasive witchery of 
art? The power that may be exercised in the for- 
mation of character by the presentment of ideal 
t)^es is as yet very imperfectly utUized. Love is 
par excellence the theme of the artist, and young 
people will soon find this out for themselves; but 
there is a wide difference in the degrees of idealiza- 
tion, and, while we concern ourselves to exclude the 
grosser forms, we neglect the only effective means of 
accomplishing this, namely, the persistent pres- 
entation of the sentiment in its noblest examples. 
It is the prevalent idea that the longer we can keep 



l6o SEX-EDUCATION 

all notions of love, even in its romantic guise, out 
of children's heads, the better it will be for them. 
Surely it would be a wiser poUcy to fill their minds 
as soon as they are able to receive them, with the 
creations of art in which love is represented in its 
sublimest aspects. The youth who is famiKarwith 
the love-stories of Shakespeare, and George Eliot, and 
Meredith, will sufEer little harm from the gilded 
sensualism of the Restoration drama. Let us hasten 
to implant the images of beauty that will keep the 
soul sweet and wholesome, and free from the taint 
of any later influences, however sordid these may be." 

In the lecture on marriage as offering one of the 
problems for the larger sex-education (§12) and in 
the reference to general literature in § 23, I have 
called attention to hterature which will be suggestive 
and useful to those who are considering the yoimg 
man's attitude towards love and marriage. 

§ 32. Reasons for Pre-marital Continence of Men 

Recognizing the fact that moral considerations 
fail to reach many people, the following points 
should be emphasized in trying to show young men 
practical reasons why they should avoid pre-marital 
sexual relations. 

(i) Young men ought to know that many eminent 
physicians and physiologists agree that it has not been 
Continence proved that continence injiures the health 
and health, of men who make an effort to avoid 
sexual temptations. Physicians of the highest stand- 
ing never advise extra-marital or immoral relations, 
for they are far more likely to injure health than to 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN l6l 

improve it, and they surely injure character and 
reputation. On this question of continence young 
men should read such pamphlets as "Sexual 
Necessity" by Howell and Keyes; "The Young 
Man's Problem" and "Health and Hygiene of 
Sex" by Morrow; "The Physician's Answer" 
and "The Rational Sex Life for Men" by Exner.' 
Also, see pp. 183-190 in Geddes and Thomson's 
"Sex." 

Dr. Exner's "Physician's Answer" is based on 
the following declaration which was signed by 
about three hundred of the foremost physicians of 
America : 

"In view of the individual and social dangers 
which spring from the widespread belief that con- 
tinence may be detrimental to health, and of the fact 
that municipal toleration of prostitution is sometimes 
defended on the ground that sexual indulgence is 
necessary, we, the undersigned, members of the 
medical profession, testify to our beUef that conti- 
nence has not been shown to be detrimental to health 
or viriUty ; that there is no evidence of its being in- 
consistent with the highest physical, mental, and 
moral efficiency; and that it offers the only sure 
reliance for sexual health outside of marriage." 

(2) It ought to be significant to young men that 
many men who are now in the thirties or forties 
look back upon their youthful errors with pro- 
found regret. Many such men testify that unfor- 

1 The first three pamphlets are published by the Society of Sanitary 
and Moral Prophylaxis (New York) ; the Exner pamphlets by the 
Association Press (New York). 
u 



l62 SEX-EDUCATION 

getable immoral experiences keep them from reach- 
ing the heights of love with their wives. One of 
my friends, a well-known physician, recently met 

„ ... in his oflSce within two or three months 

Psyclucal , , . , ,. , 

results of seven men of high standing who are now 

inconti- happily married, but who feel that con- 

nence. , . . 

jugal hfe is short of its full aesthetic 

possibilities because of the ever-present remem- 
brance of early sexual mistakes. 

(3) While the above refers to the psychical efiect of 
youthful errors, young men should learn that there 
Physical is also a physical side to the same prob- 
resuits. lejjj Eminent physicians assert that 
many men have completely and permanently de- 
stroyed their sexual functions by extensive dissipa- 
tions, either by masturbation or by natural relations ; 
and that very many more have injured themselves so 
that perfection of the physical basis of love and 
marriage is impossible. 

(4) The probabihty of venereal infection by pre- 
marital relations and the danger of transmission 
Possible to innocent wives and children should 
diseases. ^g presented to all young men as a 
strong ethical appeal for continence (see § 7). 

(s) The "fair play" or "square deal" appeal 
to young men should be based on the fact that most 
Purity for young men who are unchaste demand 
purity. purity of the girls they claim as sisters, 

friends, or sweethearts ; and yet they help drag down 
other women. An honorable man should be willing 
to play fairly and give purity for purity. 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOE BOYS AND MEN 1 63 

(6) The grave responsibility of young men 
whose unchastity is connected with illegitimacy or 
with the organized social evil should Responsi- 
be made a strong point in appeals for '''^*y- 
pre-marital abstinence. 

(7) Young men should be impressed with the idea 
that their sexual functions should be held sacred 
to affection ; in other words, that sexual gexuaUty 
union is moral only as love interchange, andaffec- 
In so far as young men may be led to °°" 

this interpretation of the relation of sexuality to the 
best conceptions of Ufe, there will be no danger of 
prostitution and there will be a guarantee of mar- 
riages that give completeness to affection. The 
men who are safeguarded against unchastity are 
those who have learned to think of love and mar- 
riage and sexual functioning as interdependent and 
coincident elements in the great drama of life and 
who feel the impossibiUty of their personal interest 
in marriage without love or in sexual union except 
as expression of deep affection. Such men are by 
no means as rare as the sensational reports of the 
social evil lead many people to beUeve. 

I realize that all these seven reasons for continence 
will fail with that large group of young men who 
have persuaded themselves that they will ^^^^ ^^^ 
never marry and thus they shake off all beyond 
responsibility such as appeals to the ^^^^ " 
man who looks forward to love that culminates 
in marriage. No one has yet suggested any line 
of appeal to the men who are physically or psychi- 



164 SEX-EDUCATION 

cally or morally so abnormal that they have no 
interest in the possibiUty of marriage; but for- 
tunately such individuals constitute an insignificant 
minority. 

§ 33. Essential Knowledge Concerning Prostitution 

(i) The adolescent boy should be safeguarded by 
the knowledge that in every city and in most towns 
Safeguard- there are women who for financial gain 
ingboys. a^g constantly seeking to entice young 
men into immoral sexual relations ; and that many 
unwary men are involuntarily entrapped, especially 
when influenced by alcohol. 

(2) The young man should know that the selUng 
of woman's virtue is an organized business known 
Prostitution as "prostitution" or "the social evil," 
a business, y^ords which stand for indescribable 
degradation and degeneracy that no beast could 
possibly imitate. Moreover, the young man should 
be informed that all immoraUty is not prostitution, 
but that most of the immoral relations of men are 
purchased directly or indirectly by money or its 
equivalent. 

(3) The young man should know that the great 
majority of prostitutes do not wiUingly imdertake the 
gjjjjjg shameful business of seUing their virtue, 
causes of He should know that the majority have 
pros tu on. ^^^^ downward for such reasons as 
follows: Many a woman has been betrayed by 
some detestable man who pretended to love her. 
Poverty has forced many other women to the first 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 165 

downward step. Many are easy victims because 
they belong to the feeble-minded class. Others 
have been driven into immoral Hfe by parents and 
even husbands. Still others have been drugged, 
and raped while insensible. A limited number 
have begun prostitution as "white slaves" kept 
as prisoners until all hope of a better life has 
vanished. A few have deliberately begun to accept 
the attentions of lewd men in order to get money 
for luxurious dress and finery. And relatively very 
few have started downward because of sexual passion 
such as commonly influences men. In short, every 
young man should be informed that most women 
living by prostitution have begxm innocently or 
unwillingly; but having made one false step, 
society has shunned them, even near relatives have 
cast them off, and a career of prostitution has ap- 
peared the only way of making a living, vulgar and 
imspeakably sordid thougjb it be. It is evident that 
the responsibility for prostitution rests almost entirely 
upon men. Unfortunately, society does not recog- 
nize this fact and has no way of dealing legally with 
both men and women found associated in houses 
of prostitution. At present the women arrested 
for prostitution are treated as criminals, while 
their male associates in vice are allowed to depart as 
if they were respectable citizens. 

Tell young men these facts as to why women 
become prostitutes. Help them to realize that 
most of these women are pitiful victims of man's 
worse than brutal sexual passions. Then add the 



1 66 SEX-EDUCATION 

astounding fact that very many of the women of 
the underworld have short lives, their health being 
Appeal undermined rapidly by dissipation, by 

to men. alcohol used to bury their shame or to 
stimulate their flagging energies, and by the two 
loathsome diseases, gonorrhea and syphilis, which 
relatively few prostitutes escape — tell young men 
such facts which eminent physicians and soci- 
ologists have often verified, and there are good 
chances of striking sjonpathetic notes in their young 
manhood. 

(4) And there is one other line of facts concerning 
prostitution that the developing young man should 
Danger of ^°^ weH, namely, that every prostitute 
social is likely at any time to be infected with 

sease. ^^ social diseases, and that no ordinary 
medical examination can prove that she will not 
transmit these awful diseases to men who consort 
with her. In fact, within an hour after most careful 
medical examination she may become infected by 
some diseased man, and then she is capable of 
inoculating other men. Such facts, for which the 
greatest of special physicians vouch, will eradicate 
from the young man's mind the widespread notions 
that prostitutes are safe if they carry a physician's 
certificate, or one of the official cards given in some 
European cities. Many a young man of sixteen to 
twenty has not heard that prostitutes as a class are 
universally dangerous as distributors of the most 
terrible diseases, and his education is incomplete 
until he knows the exact truth from reliable sources. 



SEX-mSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 167 

(s) It is not desirable that the young man should 
be set to read the numerous books packed with 
more or less sensational reports on the Limited 
social evil, for these may sometimes "ading. 
tend toward morbidity. Any young man who is not 
efEectively appealed to by the above facts will not be 
influenced by the most voluminous reports on prosti- 
tution ever published. Such reports are not useful 
for young men. They serve a good purpose by in- 
forming mature men and women and awakening 
them to the necessity of legislation, education, and 
other weapons with which we may fight the great 
black plague of social vice. For the average young 
man the books recommended in § 8 will give suffi- 
cient information and viewpoint. 

(6) Finally, the young man of adolescent years 

should be made to understand his responsibility 

for immoraJity that is not prostitution, ,. . 
, . . , , . . , , . Liaisons, 

that is, extra-marital relations with his 

girl friends and without pecuniary considerations. 

He should know the probabiUty that he wiU ruin 

a girl's life, either because illegitimacy occurs 

or because her reputation suffers. Even if such 

immoral liaisons are kept private, both persons 

concerned are likely in after years to regret their 

illicit intimacy, especially if either marries another 

person. 

§ 34. Need of More Refinement in Men 

While refinement is a part of general culture, it is 
beyond doubt an important phase of the problems 



1 68 SEX-EDUCATION 

for the larger sex-education. Elsewhere I have 
referred to the need of better understanding and 
better adjustment between men and women, es- 
pecially in marriage. Towards such a desideratum 
refinement of men will contribute immensely. 
Many cultured women avoid marriage and many 
are unhappy in marriage because men, sometimes 
even educated men, lack refinement in manners, 
language, , and personal habits. In fact, "lack of 
refinement" is altogether too mild an expression, 
for many men are positively crude in manners, 
coarse and vulgar in language, and disgusting in 
personal habits. 

In referring to manners, I am including not only 
the thousand and one little customs of everyday 
Manners ^^ among refined people, but also 
and chivalric attitude towards all women. 

c ivairy. j^^ world has changed vastly since 
knighthood was in flower, but many men of to-day 
might well take lessons in the art of courtesy to women 
as practiced by the famous knights of the age of 
chivalry. This problem of manners will be an in- 
creasingly important one, for here in America there 
is growing up a generation of boys who are far 
from chivalrous even to their mothers and sisters; 
and at the same time, the industrial competition 
and daily association of the two sexes is making 
young men realize that women are simply human 
beings and not super beings. 

With regard to language, I am thinking not so 
much of the general need of speech that is grammati- 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 1 69 

caUy, rhetorically, and vocally polished, which no 
doubt determines many a woman's estimate of a 
man, as I have in mind the repelling 
effect upon sensitive women of language 
that is coarse, vulgar, and profane. Hence, quite 
apart from the effect of low language on character, 
I believe it worth while to work for refinement of 
language of young men. 

And now with reference to personal habits, in- 
cluding cleanliness and refinement of actions, the 
average women of all classes set splendid Personal 
examples for men of the same groups, habits. 
It seems scarcely necessary to explain in detail con- 
cerning unclean personal habits and vulgar actions. 
It requires no keen observer to find plenty of 
examples. Those who have the training of boys 
should lose no opportunity to impress them with 
the importance of refinement, and especially in all 
phases of their home life. It is in the most intimate 
life of the home that refinement of personal habits 
of husbands may mean much to sensitive wives. 

§ 35. Dancing as a Sex Problem for Young Men 

It is more than useless to discuss the question 
whether dancing ought to be eliminated from 
the social Hfe of young people, for it Dancing not 
has physical, social, and aesthetic or to be 
dramatic values which will make dancing * * * ' 
in some form or other coextensive with human life. 

Those who deal ivith adolescent boys and girls 
ought to have some understanding of the facts for 



170 SEX-EDUCATION 

and against dancing as it may influence the sexual 
control of young people, men especially. It is no 
Young longer sufi&cient to say, even to the young 

people and members of certain religious denomina- 
ancing. {ions, that "good people must not dance 
because it is wicked," for in this doubting age young 
people will ask first what we mean by the word 
"wicked" and then for proof that dancing is wicked. 
The time has come when young people must be 
shovm the scientific reasons if we want them to 
avoid dancing or to dance with certain approved 
movements. 

It seems to be an accepted opinion among physiol- 
ogists that dancing of any of the types that involve 
Dancing a ^oie or less closeness of contact between 
sexual men and women in pairs is likely to lead 

stun ant. ^^ sexual Stimulation that at times may 
be consciously recognized by normal men, but prob- 
ably is not identified other than as general excite- 
ment by most women. 

The frank admission that dancing may sometimes 

stimulate sexual emotions is no condemnation 

of dancing, as many writers seem to 

reason for think. We must know first whether 

condemning guch emotions lead to good or harm, 
dancing. o i • 

Sexual emotions are not m themselves 

wrong from any except a strictly ascetic point of 

view. The fact that most iniblligent men who in 

general are frankly truthful confess that dancing 

may sometimes arouse sexual emotion simply 

raises the question whether such emotions lead 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 171 

directly to immoral relations with women or whether 
they lead, as does the best social life of men and 
women together, to a higher aesthetic appreciation 
of life as it involves the relations of the two sexes. 
After discussing this with many — yes, with more 
than a hundred — men and women, I am now con- 
vinced that dancing may have both results, depend- 
ing upon the individuals. Dancing, then, has its 
dangers, but so have many other things that go to 
make up the most complete Ufe. Eating may lead 
to gluttony, mountain-cUmbing may lead to a broken 
neck, swimming to drowning, music and art to 
sensuaUty, and even love is not without danger of 
bestial degradation. Life is full of dangers and 
we are coristantly striving to reduce them to a 
minimum. So we must refuse to condemn dancing 
because of its admitted sexual dangers for young 
people, unless it can be shown that the danger is so 
great and so unconquerable as to outweigh all the 
physical, social, and aesthetic considerations in favor 
of the pastime. 

That dancing is a strong incentive to immorality 
is contended by many writers. A prominent 
physiologist has said that "the dance is D^j^^^g 
the devil's procession so far as the andim- 
young man is concerned." Others have ™" ^' 
pointed to the immorality that is connected with the 
dance halls, and to the fact that waves of immoraUty 
of young men have often followed the annual balls 
given in some high schools and colleges. Contrary 
to the view which I formerly held, I am now in- 



172 SEX-EDUCATION 

clined to think that it is not fair to charge such im- 
moral tendencies entirely to dancing, and therefore 
condemn all dancing as immoral. It is no secret 
of sociology that similar epidemics of irmnorality 
have been known to occur in connection with 
Sunday-school picnics, camp meetings, expositions, 
poKtical and other conventions, and religious re- 
vivals. Shall we condemn aU these along with danc- 
ing on the ground that they lead to immorality? 
We say "no " because immorality is only an incident, 
not a result in these cases. Likewise, I believe that 
dancing is but one of several factors that have led to 
immoraUty at the time of annual balls in high school 
and college. These are times of general tendency 
towards dissipation. Regular duties are cast aside, 
all the hygienic rules for eating and sleeping are 
broken, there is unusual freedom of speech and 
manners, available alcohol is freely used, emotions 
and not reason rules — these are characteristic of 
the college festivals that center around grand 
balls. In short, at such times there is a general 
let-down of usual standards and a swing back 
towards the barbaric festival of the ancients. It 
is not surprising, then, that pent-up sexual instincts 
assert their force at such times, and dancing, if 
it occurs under such conditions is, of course, likely 
to increase the danger of moral coUapse because it 
incites sexual emotions. 

Our conclusion, then, is that it is unscientific to 
charge dancing with being the direct cause of im- 
moraUty, when it has been only one in a series of 



SEX-INSTRUCTION TOR BOYS AND MEN 173 

events. The facts warrant not condemnation of 
dancing as something utterly bad, but rather of 
allowing dancing to be associated with r ~ji « 
conditions that are Ukely to lead to dis- of dancing 
sipation and immorality. Unless some °*®^*^- 
argument other than that arising from the coinci- 
dence of dancing with dissipation and immoraUty is 
brought forward, we must conclude that dancing 
should be regulated and associated so that the ad- 
mitted dangers will be reduced to a minimum. Rec- 
ognition of the dangers will lead mature people to 
see the importance of supervising and regulating 
dancing as a phase of the social life of young 
people. It will lead to dancing that is improved 
along social and aesthetic lines. 

While improvement of dancing will reduce its 
dangers, it will not eliminate the problem of self- 
control for normal young men. They self-control 
must learn to imderstand their own necessary, 
emotions. They should be forewarned that others 
have found danger in dancing. They should know 
that some strong-willed men have given up dancing 
when they found that it made more intense the prob- 
lem of sexual self-control, both mentally and physi- 
cally. They should know the increased danger if 
dancing is associated with alcohol, vicious women, 
immodest dress, extreme freedom of conduct, and 
other morally depressing influences . Such knowledge 
along with general sex-education will do much to 
make dancing not only safe for average young men, 
but also helpful along social and aesthetic hnes. 



174 SEX-EDUCATION 

With regard to the extreme dances of the past 
five years, those who are well informed concerning 
Extreme sexual problems know that many of 
dances. these dances which polite society has 
copied from the dens of the imderworld are vastly 
more dangerous than the standard dances. 

§ 36. Dress of Women as a Sex Problem for Men 

Some of the students of sex problems assert with 
great emphasis that dress is the responsible factor 
Dress and ^ ^^ sexual immorality of many men. 
immo- Accepting the probabiUty that there is 

"^*^* some truth in the assertion, what is the 

solution of the problem? Should women in gen- 
eral adopt a style of dress which in lines and 
color is as repellently ugly as the oflScial garb of 
women devotees of certain reUgious organizations? 
In short, should women make their dress decidedly 
unobtrusive and unattractive in order that the sexual 
temptations of some men may be reduced? The 
answer must be an emphatic negative. We need 
more beauty in this life of ours, and we cannot afford 
to omit any beauty which women express in dress. 
The pity is that economic conditions so often set a 
limit to such expression. We must believe in making 
every possible application of the beauty of nature 
and art to human Ufe; and beautiful dress on all 
women, and especiaUy beautiful dress on attractive 
women, is the most important of such relations of 
beauty and life. 

Accepting, then, beauty of dress as worthy of 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 1 75 

encouragement, what shall be done about its sexual 
attractiveness? This is a difficult question in these 
days with ever-changing fashions whose jj^^^g ^^^ 
novelty makes extreme modes more sexual 
dangerously attractive than they would "pp*"'- 
be if universally adopted for a long term of years. 
But permanency of extreme styles or general adap- 
tation of modest ones are absolutely impossible for 
the average woman of to-day. Hence, we must 
look forward to one extreme style following another. 
Young men must face the problem and fight their 
own battles. Like certain widespread diseases, 
there is constant danger of infection, and the only 
hope for young men is in special education as a kind 
of protective inoculation against temptation. This 
means that young men should be taught to see 
beauty in woman's form, face, and dress without 
allowing themselves to get into habits of sensual or 
physical emotions. Of course, for the normal young 
man there is sure to be more or less consciousness of 
emotions stimulated by the beautiful associated 
with women, but the individual man may train 
himself to turn such emotions into aesthetic or psy- 
chical lines instead of into those which are sensual, 
animaUstic, or physical. In this connection, I have 
long been of the opinion that training in art appre- 
ciation, especially of sculpture, may help many men 
to an aesthetic attitude towards the human form. 

It is well known that beauty of woman's face or 
form or dress has sometimes led men into im- 
morality ; but I often wonder whether such men of 



176 SEX-EDUCATION 

weak control would not have fallen sooner or later 
at the command of some other form of stimulation. 
At any rate, such men do not lead us to general 
conclusions, for there are many more men who have 
been led upward and not downward by the com- 
bined beauty of form, face, and dress of women. 

While we refuse to excuse men who allow the sexual 
suggestiveness of women's dress to overcome their 
Duty of self-control, we should at the same time 
women. recognize that women have themselves 
to blame for much of the existing situation. I 
believe it is true that the average woman does not 
understand how dress that makes unusual exposure 
of the body may make a sexual appeal to men; 
but there is no such innocence on the part of the 
demi-mondes by whom many of the most dangerous 
styles are introduced. Perhaps women of intelli- 
gence and good standing may some day come to 
realize their responsibihty for wearing clothing 
that means unusual temptation for men. However, 
this seems Utopian in these years when even women 
of the best groups are wearing equivocal dress; 
and so men must learn to fight their own battles 
against natural instincts stirred to greater intensity 
by dress invented to increase the trade of the women 
of the imderworld. 

§ 37. The Problem of Self-control for Young Men 

The problem of control of the insistent passions 
of normal young men has been unscientifically 
minimized by numerous writers and lecturers. It 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 177 

should be noted that many of these are men who 
have long smce forgotten the storms and stresses of 
their early manhood, and others are pjg 
women who do not know the facts in- between 
dicating that the sexual instincts of ^"^^' 
young men are characteristically active, aggressive, 
spontaneous, and automatic, while those of women 
as a rule are passive and subject to awakening 
by external stimuli, especially in connection with 
affection. Such forgetful men and xminformed 
women are prone to regard the lack of control of 
many young men as simply due to "original sin," 
"innate viciousness," "bad companions," or "ir- 
resistible temptations"; and they overlook the 
great fact that maintaining perfect sexual control 
in his pre-marital years is for the average healthy 
young man a problem compared with which all 
others, including the alcohoUc temptation, are of 
Uttle significance. Such being the truth about 
young men, nothing is to be gained and much is to 
be lost if older people fail to take an understand- 
ing and sympathetic attitude. I question whether 
any yoimg man has ever been helped through his 
adolescent crises by such oft-repeated assertions as 
that "there is no more reason that a young man 
should go astray than that his sister should," or, 
in other words, that "continence is as easy for a 
young man as for a girl of similar age." An observ- 
ing young man will doubt such statements, and if 
he has had access to scientific information, he will 
feel sure that there has been an attempt to influence 



178 SEX-EDUCATION 

him by the kind of exaggeration commonly adopted 

by specialists in moral preachments. The plain 

truth is that there is a physiological "reason" or 

explanation, although not a justification for failure 

of self-control. Even if we accept the improbable 

statement of some writers that boys and girls are in 

early adolescence potentially equal in 

arousing sexual instincts and assuming that they 

of boys' juay be protected equally against vicious 
instincts. , ^.^ ^ ^ \ t Z. ^u ^ 

habits, we must not forget that every 

normal boy passes in early puberty through peculiar 
physiological changes that arouse his deepest in- 
stincts. I refer especially to the frequent occurrence 
of involimtary sexual timaescence and to the occa- 
sional nocturnal emissions, which processes leave the 
boy in no doubt whatever as to the nature, source, 
and desirability of sexual pleasure. Especially is this 
true of the automatic emissions that usually follow 
continence of healthy young men, for in connection 
with such relief of seminal pressure every nerve 
center of the sexual mechanism seems to be involved 
in the culminating nerve storm of which the awaken- 
ing individual is often quite pleasurably conscious. 
In short, as men looking backward to their early 
manhood well understand, the physical sensations 
that come into the normal sexual experience of the 
adolescent boy are difierent only in degree of in- 
tensity from those which later are concomitants of 
sexual union. Such, in brief, is the physiological 
history of the normal adolescent boy, and one who 
has fallen into even most limited masturbation will 



SEX-mSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 1 79 

probably be still more conscious of the fact that the 
ordinary sequence of events in the activity of the 
sexual organs leads to intense excitement that has 
almost irresistible attractiveness. 

Now, most scientifically-trained women seem to 
agree that there are no corresponding phenomena in 
the early pubertal life of the normal 
young woman who has good health. A young 
limited number of mature women, some women 
of them physicians, report having ex- 
perienced in the pubertal years localized timies- 
scence and other disturbances which made them 
definitely conscious of sexual instincts. However, 
it should be noted that most of these are known to 
have had a personal history including one or more 
such abnormalities as dysmenorrhea, uterine dis- 
placement, pathological ovaries, leucorrhea, tubercu- 
losis, masturbation, neurasthenia, nymphomania, 
or other disturbances which are sufficient to account 
for local sexual stimulation. In short, such women 
are not normal. Such facts have led many physi- 
cians to the generalization that the average healthy 
adolescent gjrl does not undergo normal spontaneous 
changes which make her definitely conscious of the 
natiure, source, and desirability of locaUzed sexual 
pleasure. On the contrary, such consciousness 
commonly comes to many only as the result of 
stimuli arising in connection with affection.' Clearly 
it is nonsense to claim that the sexual temptations 

* This is really not surprising if we remember the peculiarities of 
human instincts mentioned in an earlier lecture (§ 3). 



l8o SEX-EDUCATION 

arising within the individual are equal for the two 
sexes. Potentially, girls may have passions as strong 
as boys, but they do not become so definitely and 
spontaneously conscious of their latent instincts. 

Thus considering the available facts regarding 
the physiological reasons for the sexual tendencies 
Helping the of men, it seems to me that we gain 
young man. nothing in trying to minimize the yoimg 
man's sexual problems, for he is quite conscious that 
they are insistent. Far better it is that mature men 
who know life in its completeness should make the 
young man feel that his problems are not new, not 
insignificant, and that many another man has met 
and solved them in such a way as to make life more 
full of real happiness. Such sympathetic helpfulness 
will mean something to a young man, but he cannot 
be led far by one who in his own early experience 
has not learned both the strength and the mastery 
of the sexual instincts. 

In another lecture I have discussed the proposition 
that it would be better for aU concerned if women 
Women could have scientific understanding of the 
should physiological facts concerning the sexual 

°°^' tendencies of men, not to make women 

more lenient or forgiving towards the mistakes of men, 
but rather to enable women to play an important part 
in the necessary adjustments through helpful com- 
radeship. This last phrase wiU mean nothing to many 
people, but in many a modern home a well-informed 
wife has been able to lead the way to the satisfactory 
solution of the fundamental problems of life. 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOE BOYS AND MEN l8l 

There is another and an all-important phase 
of the problem of teaching self-control which is 
commonly overlooked by those who are self-control 
trying to help young men solve their in marriage, 
greatest problems. I have in mind the need of self- 
control in marriage. Most writers and lecturers 
who emphasize the arguments for absolute self- 
control or continence before marriage, omit all refer- 
ence to marital life. The natural inference, and one 
widely followed, is that the only moral duty of a 
young man is to control his intense desires and avoid 
illicit relations until sexual abandon is permitted 
under the license of the law and the benediction of 
the church. Such, I submit, is a fair conclusion 
for young men to draw from at least ninety per cent 
of the sex-education literature that is current to- 
day. 

Now, I believe this is all wrong. In fact, I am so 
radical as to beUeve that the intelligent women of 
the world would gain more from temperance and 
unselfishness and deUcacy of men in sexual fvmc- 
tioning in marriage than from sexual continence 
before marriage. Of course, I do not propose that 
ideal sexual conditions in marriage may justify pre- 
marital incontinence, but I make this sharp contrast 
simply to emphasize the belief that sexual intemper- 
ance and selfishness of men in marriage causes more 
mental and physical suffering of women than does 
sexual incontinence of men before marriage, and I 
am not forgetting the vast problem of social diseases 
and prostitution. 



l82 SEX-EDUCATION 

I urge, then, that those who attempt to direct 
young men through the mazes of sexual life should 
hold up ideals not only of pre-marital continence, 
but also of post-nuptial temperance and harmonious 
adjustment between husband and wife. This post- 
nuptial problem is far more diflScult to solve, for 
the intimacy of married life, especially in the 
earlier years, is sure to offer stimuli that are likely 
to make sexual iastincts more iasistent than those 
that come from cehbate repression. However, 
self-control and temperance in marriage is no new 
and unattainable ideal, and harmonious adjustment 
of men and women in marriage is far more common 
than the pessimists would have us believe. 

§ 38. The Mental Side of the Young Man's Sexual 
Life 

Most of the discussions of the education of young 
men for moral living have centered around the 
Effect of problem of keeping him from physical 
mentid sexual activity. So far as society is con- 

magery. cemed, this is the great desideratum. 
So far as the individual life is concerned, it is im- 
portant that self-control should extend to mental 
imagery. Professors Geddes and Thomson have 
weU said, in "Sex," that "while anatomical chastity 
is a moral achievement, it is not the deepest virtue. 
The incisive declaration: 'Whosoever looketh on 
a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery 
with her already in his heart' expresses an even more 
searching standard, and modem science brings home 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS AND MEN 1 83 

to US the radical importance of our reflex thought 
and deep-down impulses, which appear to bulk 
largely in molding our lives and the lives of those 
who may spring from us." In language adapted 
to the miderstanding of average young men, this idea 
should be emphasized. 

In the opinion of some physiologists the greatest 
harm done to the individual who has long been a 
victim of masturbation is in the centering of the 
attention on imaginary sexual situations. This is 
especially true of mental masturbation. Hence, the 
relation of masturbation to the possible establish- 
ment of a disordered mental state should be known 
by adolescent boys and young men. 

It appears from the experience of many men that 
strenuous work and play are the only efficient 
weapons for driving sexual images into control of 
the background of the mind. This ap- thoughts. 
pUes not only to sordid and lewd thoughts of un- 
chaste sexual situations, but also to the mental 
images that are inevitably associated with the purest 
affection and which should be trained to obey when 
calm reason so orders. 

The following Kterature will be especially helpful 
to yovmg men : W. S. Hall's " Sexual Hygiene for 
Men," or his "Sexual Knowledge"; Exner's "The 
Rational Sex Life for Men " ; Morrow's " The Young 
Man's Problem," and "Health and Hygiene of Sex 
for College Students"; King's "Fight for Charac- 
ter" (Y.M.C.A.); and the chapter on Ethics of 
Sex in "Sex" by Geddes and Thomson. 



IX 



Specul Sex-instruction for Matxjring Young 
Women 

It was my original plan to make this lecture 
parallel with the preceding one for young men, 
Parents but much discussion with parents and 
would limit -^yitJi scientifically trained women whose 
of suggestions and criticisms I value has 

daughters, shown me that there is no consensus of 
opinion as to what should be taught to young 
women between eighteen and twenty-two years of 
age. I have found many fathers and mothers who 
think that their boys of fourteen or fifteen should 
be informed as suggested in the preceding lecture; 
but concerning some of the facts for boys these 
same parents were doubtful whether their daughters 
ought to know before twenty, and some of them 
have said twenty-five and even thirty. Some of them 
have said that they see no reason why an unmarried 
young woman of the protected group should know 
much more than a very limited amount of personal 
hygiene; but most of these people were decidedly 
hazy as to how the young woman about to marry 
may be sure of getting belated knowledge. In 
short, all along the line I have found intelligent 
184 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR YOUNG WOMEN 185 

parents and others who beUeve in very thorough 
sex-instruction for boys, but that "nice" girls 
should be kept as ignorant and innocent as possible. 
With such disagreement existing, it is evidently 
not possible to make such specific recormmendations 
as have been made for boys. 

§ 39. The Young Woman's Attitude towards Man- 
hood 

Among those who agree heartily with the proposi- 
tion that by education the young man's attitude 
towards womanhood (§ 30) should be y^omgn 
cultivated I find, to my surprise, many should have 
who object to any parallel attempt to ' * ^' 
influence young woman's ideals of manhood. I say 
that I am surprised because it has long seemed to 
me that many of the faults of men are largely trace- 
able to the fact that women as a sex have not been 
able to hold a high standard for manhood; and, 
therefore, I wonder when some thinking women 
question the desirability of trying to influence 
yoimg women by organized instruction. Of course, 
we must not forget that before the coming of the 
economic and social freedom of women there were 
very few of them who were able to maintain a stand 
for their ideals of manhood; but this is no longer 
true in a great and rapidly increasing group of the 
individuaUzed and educated classes. Therefore, it 
seems clear that if the better groups of women want 
a higher type of manhood capable of better adjust- 
ment in marriage, it is important that they consider 



1 86 SEX-EDUCATION 

ways and means of molding the minds of young 
women with, reference to ideal manhood. 

Occasionally I have met a strange view of life in 
some men and women who have grown pessimistic 
Ideals and ^om revelations concerning the sexual- 
disappoint- social problems and who think that true 
"'*"'■ manhood is so rare that emphasizing it 

with young women wiU lead to ideals that can 
rarely be realized in actual life ; and therefore, for 
women so influenced there will be increasing dis- 
content and disappointment in marriage or deliberate 
ceUbacy. No doubt this is in part true, as witness 
the many highly educated women who have written 
or said that there seem to be few attractive marriage- 
able men of their own age. However, it is rare 
indeed that such women say that life would have 
meant more without the higher education and its 
resulting ideals that have stood in the way of mar- 
riage such as might be happy for uneducated women. 
This is in line with the fact that many cultivated men 
and women find that education has given unattained 
ideals and unsatisfied ambitions and strenuous life 
and disappointments, but it is rare that they long 
' for the care-free and animal-like happiness of the 
tropical savage. We must remember that education 
gives us keener feeUhg for life's pains, but it also 
compensates by giving soul-satisfying appreciation 
of its joys. So it seems reasonable to beheve that 
while educating yoimg women to beheve in and de- 
mand a higher ideal of manhood in its natural rela- 
tions to womanhood wiU certainly make disappoint- 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR YOUNG WOMEN 187 

ments more heart-pressing for some, it will just as 
surely make realization the supreme happiness of 
others. And as adjustment of manhood and wom- 
anhood through the larger sex-education becomes 
more and more abundant and more and more per- 
fected, the sum total of hiunan happiness will in- 
crease. 

Looking thus towards the ultimate good, I must 
refuse to accept the hopeless and depressing view that 
aU young women should be kept ignorant of their 
relation to men and life in order that the absence of 
ideals of manhood may protect some women against 
possible disappointment by men. 

§ 40. The Young Woman's AUitude towards Love and 
Marriage 

In the preceding lecture to the parents and teachers 
of young men I emphasized the importance of de- 
veloping the young man's ideals of love ^^^^^^ ^^ 
and marriage primarily because such same as for 
ideals have so often helped men morally '°®°' 
in character-formation and character-protection. I 
feel sure that this is not the chief reason why the 
ideals of young women should be developed along 
parallel lines. On the contrary, it seems to me that 
those representative women are right who think that 
the first reason why ideals of young women should 
be influenced is that there is need of a radical change 
in the attitude of a very common tj^e of young 
women who are flippant and disrespectful concern- 
ing love and marriage, and whose influence on the 



1 88 SEX-EDUCATION 

morals of men is decidedly bad because they often 
give unguided young men their first and strongest 
impressions concerning women. A second reason, 
which is equally applica,ble to both sexes, is that 
advance understanding of the relations of love and 
marriage is likely to lead to happy and satisfactory 
adjustment in marriage. 

Perhaps the flippant and disrespectful attitude con- 
cerning affairs of the heart develops in many young 
Mennatu- women because they do not consciously 
rally lead feel in advance of experience the demand 
in ove. £^j. aggctjon which comes so naturally 

and spontaneously to many, possibly to all, normal 
young men whose views of life have not been 
artificially twisted. I fully realize the treacherous 
nature of the ground on which walks one who tries 
to compare the two sexes concerning their relative 
attitudes towards love, but certain it is that the 
noveUst's descriptions of men as the leaders and ag- 
gressors in love is not fiction but the common fact 
of real life. Man's tendency towards leadership in 
love is not scientifically explained by any superficial 
assiunption that estabUshed social conventions have 
repressed an original spontaneity of women. On 
the contrary, there are the best of physiological and 
psychological reasons for believing that the social 
conventions have arisen as an expression of mascu- 
line aggressiveness and natural tendency towards 
leadership in affairs of the heart. The accepted 
fact is that many yoxmg women have no under- 
standing of or demand for afiection until experience 



SEX-mSTRtrCTION FOR YOUNG WOMEN 1 89 

has taught them its place in life. In the records of 
real life, as well as in fiction, many a young woman's 
possibilities of happiness have been lost because she 
did not understand herself when love came into her 
experience. 

Another side to the problem of the young woman's 
relation to love and marriage is brought to our 
attention by the lamentable fact that Affection in 
many wives lose interest in devoted marriage, 
husbands when the children come. This is probably 
true in at least half the famiUes; and many mat- 
rimonial disharmonies are the result. This is 
really one of the greatest problems of marriage which 
cultured women should consider seriously ; for even 
more than in most other sex problems, it is one for 
the solution of which women are in a position to 
take the leading part. This problem is especially 
important in these days when the household in- 
efficiency, personal extravagance, and desire for 
social position of numerous young women of eighteen 
to thirty are having an enormous influence in ad- 
vancing the age of marriage because many of the 
best types of young men pause and consider seriously 
the impossibiUty of adjusting a small salary to the 
ideas of their women friends as to what is the mini- 
mum of a family budget. Add to such facts a 
growing pessimism of young men regarding in- 
constant affections of wives with children, and the 
need of special educational attack is evident. 

From whatever side we look at the question 
whether the larger sex-education should somehow 



190 SEX-EDTJCATION 

try to mold the ideals of young women with regard to 
love and marriage, we see reasons why parents should 
The duty of encourage their maturing daughters to 
parents. get some advance understanding of such 
relation. If parents are themselves unable to help 
their daughters to this understanding, they can at 
least exert great influence by their own attitude, 
and they can approve the reading of books, and 
perhaps there may be opportunity for hearing lec- 
tures by women who understand life. 

With regard to good literature that will help in 
this line, there are chapters in many of the books 
mentioned at the end of this lecture, 
and in more or less indirect form ia the 
general literature suggested in the preceding lectures 
concerning young men, and in § 12 which deals with 
the general educational problem of marriage. 

§ 41. Reasons for Pre-marital Continence of Women 

Many women who have lived protected Hves have 

declared themselves unable to imderstand why a 

young woman should need reasons for 
Many . , 

women do pre-mantal contmence ; and these women 

not need are probably right so far as the great 
reasons. .. ., _ , ...... 

majority of the daughters of families m 

good social conditions are concerned. As pointed 
out in earlier lectures, there is abundant evidence 
that the average adolescent girl who is protected 
against external sexual stimuli and influenced con- 
stantly by the prevailing ideals which demand 
chastity of women, is not likely to need any argur 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR YOUNG WOMEN I9I 

ments why she should avoid pre-marital incontinence. 
Moreover, there seems to be little danger that the 
average girl with good social environment will ever 
question her ideals of chastity imless under the 
stress of overwhelming affection; in other words, 
there is Uttle possibility that such women will be 
interested in the strictly mechanical, non-affectionate, 
and unsentimental sexual relations which must inev- 
itably characterize the common prostitution of men. 

Note that I am referring to the average young 
woman in good social environment, and for the 
moment omitting the vast class of so- unprotected 
called "unprotected" girls. Moreover, «"'*• 
I am speaking of the "average," and I am not for- 
getting that medical journals and books record 
many exceptions. Nevertheless, we must not be 
misled by medical Uterature, for naturally the 
physidan sees the women whose lack of health 
leads them to seek professional advice, and it is 
well known that in sexual lines women commonly 
become decidedly unhealthy before they consult 
physicians. As testimony concerning the average 
normal women, I have the greatest confidence in 
the statements of thoughtful women with sound 
scientific attitude; and such are my authority for 
the view that maintaining pre-marital continence 
is not one of the serious problems for the average 
young woman with good domestic and social en- 
vironment. 

Now, while I admit in advance that the problem of 
pre-marital continence is not of great significance 



192 SEX-EDUCATION 

in the personal lives of the great majority of the 
type of women who are likely to hear or read this 
lecture, I do believe that this is the type of women 
who ought to think over the problem as it concerns 
the at)^ical girl of good social groups and the "un- 
protected" girl of more unfortunate groups. I can- 
not see, therefore, why it is not best and safest that 
all girls should learn from parents or reliable books 
or teachers the main reasons for pre-marital chastity. 
The atypical girls of good social groups who need 
guidance regarding pre-marital continence are of two 
The girl who types: either one with intensive sexuality 
needs help, ^yhich is often modifiable by medical 
or surgical treatment; or one of probably normal 
instincts but with radical sexual philosophy. The 
first type needs not only emphatic instruction re- 
garding continence, but more often medical help, 
either for general health or for correction of localized 
sexual disturbance. The second type must be 
treated exactly as suggested for young men, because 
they are the women whose anarchistic repudiation 
of laws and convention in general has led to their 
acceptance of a single standard of morality for men 
and women, but one of freedom from monogamic 
ideals. This type of women, long well known in the 
student groups of Paris and in Russian universities, 
is becoming more and more evident in America, 
especially among some well-educated young women 
who have dropped their ideals of chastity because 
they have found attractiveness in more or less super- 
ficial studies of radical socialism. Many of these 



SEX-mSTRUCTION FOR YOUNG WOMEN I93 

radical women frankly say that they would like 
to marry the "right man," but failing to find that 
rare species, they claim their right to sexual freedom 
in more or less capricious liaisons. Others of these 
women are so highly individualized that marriage 
is beneath their contempt, either because it will 
"interfere with a career" or because the legal aspects 
and ecclesiastical ceremonies still suggest the old- 
time subjection of the wife to the husband. Women 
who are in a position to know from personal knowl- 
edge of radical people declare that there are still 
relatively few educated women who deliberately 
cut loose from monogamic standards ; and that they 
are most commonly found among certain intimate 
and unconventional groups of students and profes- 
sional workers, especially those who are imited 
in "Bohemian life" by artistic or Kterary interests. 
But while such sexually anarchistic women are not 
common in America, there is reason for fearing that, 
vmless some unexpected check comes to this under- 
current towards sexual freedom, it may be found 
ten or twenty years hence that a surprisingly large 
number, but never a majority, of unmarried young 
women have fallen into the sexual promiscuity that is 
so common among unmarried men of the same ages. 
Chief of the influences that lead a certain number 
of well-educated young women towards sexual 
freedom is radical printed matter. We Radical sex 
are now getting in America a wide distri- literature, 
bution of bold literature of the "free love" type, 
some of it with a scientific superficiality that will 



194 SEX-EDUCATION 

convince many beginners in the study of sexual prob- 
lems. Much of this literature is translation or adap- 
tation of books and articles by European authors ; 
and I have previously remarked that abroad the 
ideals of sexual morality — and judging from the 
Great War, of morality in other lines — is frankly 
quite different from that upheld here. But some 
of this radical literature is American in origin. In 
addition to certain books and pamphlets, which 
might be advertised by giving names, I think of two 
New York medical journals, with a popular circu- 
lation, edited by a successful but much criticized 
physician, which rarely publish an issue without 
frank approval and even arguments for extra-marital 
relations other than prostitution, particularly for 
those who for one reason or another, unwelcome or 
voluntary, are leading celibate Uves. The influence 
of such writings on young women who are inclined 
towards radicalism in aU things is probably enor- 
mous, and it is unfortunate that vigorous opposition 
literature is not published and widely circulated. 

In conclusion, it is clear that the problem of pre- 
marital continence is not limited to young men. 
Same in- ^°^ *^® "unprotected" girl from a low- 
Btructionas grade home and environment, and the 
or men. uninformed girl from the best of homes, 
and the radical girl from the most educated circles 
may, innocently or deliberately, select the pathway 
to imchastity. For these kinds of young women 
the educational problem is the same as for young 
men. They should have essentially the same in- 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR YOUNG WOMEN ig$ 

struction. And, in the case of both sexes, it is only 
by contrasting the good and evil that education can 
point out the worth-whileness of chastity. 

There is a special aspect of the problem of pre- 
marital chastity of men that young women should un- 
derstand, and that is their indirect responsibility for 
the unchastity of many men. In discuss- jn^gj* 
ing dancing ( §35) and extreme dress ( §36), responai- 
it has been indicated that women as a sex *'*'*'• 
have a tremendous responsibility for the temptations 
of men. The same is true in the case of flirting or 
more extreme familiarities with men. However 
sure a young woman may feel of her own power of 
self-control, she should not consider lightly her pos- 
sible part in a chain of events which may lead men to 
unchastity with other women. Many a man driven 
into the white heat of passion by thoughtless or 
deliberate acts of a pure girl has gone direct to seek 
relief of tension in the underworld. Of course, the 
girl in this case is not directly responsible for the 
downfall of the man ; but I wonder if there is not 
moral, if not legal, responsibility for one who 
knowingly leads or helps another to the brink of a 
precipice from which he voluntarily falls. 

I am perfectly well aware that many good people 
will be horrified by the very suggestion that young 
women should be taught their responsibility for 
their men associates. Some will declare that the 
advocates of sex-education propose to destroy the 
innocence and romance in young women's lives. 
Others of the horrified ones will remain complacent 



196 SEX-EDUCATION 

because they beUeve that unchastity is caused by 
"innate depravity" of men. I am sorry to disagree 
with such people who are sincere, but the established 
facts point clearly to the conclusion that it is the 
duty of the mothers and teachers of girls to make 
them understand their relations to men and their re- 
sponsibility for helping young men avoid sexual 
temptations. This is necessary when iimocence 
stands in the way of the maximum safety and happi- 
ness of young people. 

§ 42. Need of Optimistic and /Esthetic Views of Sex 
by Women 

The most significant point in the sex-education 
movement at present is the fact that numerous 
Many women of the most intelligent groups are 

women tending rapidly towards accepting an 

concerning optimistic and aesthetic view of sexual re- 
sexuaUty. lationships so far as these are normal and 
ethical and guided by affection. However, this 
higher philosophy of sexual life is still very far 
from being universal among educated women, and 
it is probably true that to the great majority of 
them sexuality has no aesthetic meaning but is simply 
a very troublesome physical function and an animal 
method for perpetuating the human species. That 
such an attitude should be common is not surprising, 
for in recent years numerous educated women 
have gained abundant information concerning ab- 
normal sexuality, while very few have caught 
glimpses of the higher possibilities of the sexual 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR YOUNG WOMEN 1 97 

functions. The truth is that it has been and still 
is difficult for most women to get well-balanced 
knowledge of sexual normality. There are hundreds 
of books and pamphlets that deal with amazing 
boldness with the sexual mistakes of human life, 
but there is not in general circulation to-day any 
printed matter which deals with normal sexual 
life with anything like the frankness and directness 
that is common in widely circulated Uterature on 
social vice and its concomitant diseases. Likewise, 
it is difficult for women to get the true view of sexual 
life from personal sources, for the vulgar side of 
sexuality is the one usually discussed by most people, 
some of whom revel in obscenity, some have had 
personal experiences that have caused ineradicable 
bitterness, and some more or less sincerely beUeve 
that knowledge of vice is of value as a safeguard or 
an antidote. The bright side of the sexual story 
is rarely told in conversation, either because it is un- 
familiar or because it is the sacred secret between 
pairs of individuals who together have found life in 
all its completeness. 

Fortunately, this depressing emphasis on sexual 
abnormality is beginning to disappear, and we see 
sure signs of coming attention to sexual Esthetic 
health rather than to disease and to outlook, 
purity rather than to vice. Leading women are 
beginning to give, through the impersonal medium 
of science and general literature, some definite 
and helpfiil testimony concerning the pathway to 
the essential good that is bound up in sexuality. 



198 SEX-EDUCATION 

It is especially important that young women of 
culture should be helped to this point of view, and 
as far as possible before they learn much concern- 
ing the dark problems that have originated from 
failure to keep sexual functions sacred to affection 
and possible parenthood. The educated women 
of to-day who have acquired and retained faith in 
the essential goodness of human sexual possibiUties, 
and who at the same time have an understanding of 
the mistakes that weak humans are wont to make, 
are sure to play a most important part as teachers 
and mothers and leaders in the movement which 
is aheady guiding numerous inteUigent men 
and women to a purified and noble view of the 
sexual relationships. As I see the big problems 
that demand sex-education, the future will depend 
largely upon the attitude of women. It is an es- 
sential part of the feministic movement. In the 
past there have been many alarming signs of a de- 
structive sex antagonism that charged men with 
fuU responsibiUty for existing sex problems. But 
the advance guards of feminism are beginning to 
recognize that there are all-essential relationships 
between the sexes, and that only in sex cooperation 
can there be any permanent solution of the great 
questions. It is a great advance from the sex 
hostiUty of Christabel Pankhurst's "Plain Facts 
on a Great Evil" to the co- working attitude of Louise 
Creighton's " Social Disease and How to Fight It," 
of Olive Schreiner's "Woman and Labor," of Ellen 
Key's "Love and Marriage," and of Gascoigne 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR YOUNG WOMEN I99 

Hartley's "Truth About Woman," all of which 
give us hope that women with optimistic and 
aesthetic interpretation of sex are coming to take 
the lead towards a better understanding of the rela- 
tions of sex and life. 

§ 43. Other Problems for Young Women 

Concerning several other problems that have 
been discussed with special reference to young men, 
it seems best that all young women should be in- 
formed sometime between sixteen and twenty-two, 
the age Umit depending upon maturity of the indi- 
vidual, home life, and social environment. 

With regard to prostitution, it seems important 
that girls should know the essential facts recom- 
mended in the lecture concerning boys. Prostitu- 
The "improtected" girl of low-grade t"""- 
environment will often need some of this knowledge 
before she is fourteen (and in some cases, even 
twelve) years old. On the other hand, the average 
"protected" girl need not know until several years 
later. It seems possible that too early familiarity 
with the existence of sexual vice might tend to make 
some young women accept it as part of the estab- 
lished order of things; and, hence, the girl whose 
environment is protective and whose moral training 
has been complete will be perfectly safe without 
knowledge of vice and will be more likely to take 
an opposition attitude if she learns the facts concern- 
ing prostitution when she is approaching maturity. 
Even then the essential information should be given 



200 SEX-EDUCATION 

in such a way that the young woman will see the 
gravity of the social situation and, at the same 
time, not develop a spirit of sex hostility. Here, 
again, I must recommend Louise Creighton's "Social 
Disease and How to Fight It" as not only pointing 
out the nature of the great evil, but also recognizing 
that the existing situation can never be improved 
except by the sympathetic cooperation of the best 
men and women. 

With regard to dancing, young girls should be 
taught that certain forms of this exercise are not 
. approved by the most refined people. 

Before maturity, they should not know 
the physiological reason for this disapproval. In 
fact, I know many men and women who think it 
best that most women, even mature, should not 
have their attention called to the sexual dangers of 
dancing. For my part, I cannot see how women 
witJi such ignorance can cooperate with the best men 
in reducing the admitted dangers to a minimum. 

With regard to dress as a sexual problem, some 
mothers think they can handle the problem with 
their young daughters by emphasizing 
modesty and without further explana- 
tion ; but the drawing power of fashions is so great 
that most young women are quick to revise their 
ideas of modesty to suit the latest style. Is it too 
much to hope that large numbers of young women 
would accept such facts as were stated in the lecture 
for young men (§ 36), and woxild be sincere enough 
to dress so that their attractiveness may appeal more 



SEX-INSTRUCTION FOR YOUNG WOMEN 20I 

to the aesthetic and less to the physical natures of 
men? 

In this lecture concerning the special teachiug of 
young women, I have attempted nothing more 
than an outline of the impressions that I jjerely 
have gained from books and from rep- a man's 
resentative women who are interested '**''*• 
in the larger sex-education. I have not tried to 
make the discussion as extensive as that for young 
men, first, because I cannot believe that young 
women in general need so much special instruction ; 
and, second, because only women can adequately 
advise concerning the sex-educational problems of 
young women. However, since the women who 
migjht be expected to know the truth about women 
have failed to agree on so many points, it may be 
worth while for a man to contribute some sugges- 
tions based on the most scientific information 
offered by some very reUable women. 

Among the books which touch the special problems 

for young women, I am most favorably impressed by 

the following: Hall's "Life Problems" 

. Books. 

in the first thirty-two pages is adapted 

for girls of twelve to fourteen, and the remainder 

for older girls. Some parents are not enthusiastic 

about the story form, but the facts are well selected 

and presented. The last chapter of Smith's "Three 

Gifts of Life" is worth reading, but the first chapters 

are unscientific. For almost mature young women, 

there are chapters of Rummel's "Womanhood and 

Its Development," of Wood-Allen's "What a Yoimg 



202 SEX-EDUCATION 

Woman Should Know," of Lowry's "Herself," 
and of Galbraith's "Four Epochs of a Woman's 
Life." The last two are decidedly medical in point 
of view. The part for girls in ScharUeb and Sibley's 
"Youth and Sex," and some chapters of March's 
"Towards Racial Health," are good. The last 
two chapters of Geddes and Thomson's "Sex" 
will be appreciated by many intellectual young 
women. Hepburn's sentimental little story "The 
Perfect Gift" (Crist Co., 3ji) has helped many 
young people improve their aesthetic outlook. 
There are some helpful ideas in Henderson's "What 
It Is To Be Educated" (Houghton Mifflin Co.). 
While disagreeing (§ 46) with Dr. Richard Cabot's 
extreme emphasis on a mystical religious solution 
for problems of sex, I recognize that many young 
women have been helped by his "The Christian 
Approach to Social Morality" (Y.W.C.A.), and by 
his " What Men Live By." 



Criticisms of Sex-education 

In the preceding lectures we have considered the 
arguments for sex-instruction. It will now be 
helpful to review some of the writings of those who 
oppose or at least point out the defects of the com- 
monly accepted plan of sex-instruction. None of 
those writers whom I shall quote is known to be 
absolutely opposed to all sex-instruction, but some of 
them would limit the instruction so much that there 
would be little hope of the general movement having 
an important influence. 

§ 44. A Plea for Reticence Concerning Sex 

Miss Agpes ReppHer, the distinguished essa)dst, 
discusses in the Atlantic Monthly (March, 1914) the 
plain speech on sex topics that are before Agnes 
the public to-day. While she holds no Repplier. 
brief for "the conspiracy of silence," which she 
admits was "a menace in its day," she maintains 
that "the breaking of silence need not imply the 
opening of the flood-gates of speech." She goes 
on to say : 

"It was never meant by those who first cautiously 
advised a clearer understanding of sexual relations 
203 



204 SEX-EDUCATION 

and hygienic rules that everybody should chatter 
freely respecting these grave issues ; that teachers, 
Present lecturers, noveUsts, story-writers, mili- 
frankness. tants, dramatists, social workers, and 
magazine editors should copiously impart all they 
know, or assume they know, to the world. The 
lack of restraint, the lack of balance, the lack of 
soberness and common sense were never more appar- 
ent than in the obsession of sex which has set us 
aU ababbling about matters once excluded from the 
amenities of conversation. 

" Knowledge is the cry. Crude, undigested knowl- 
edge, without limit and without reserve. Give 
it to boys, give it to girls, give it to children. No 
other force is taken account of by the visionaries 
who — in defiance, or in ignorance of history — 
believe that evil understood is evil conquered. 

" We hear too much about the thirst for knowledge 
from people keen to quench it. Dr. Edward L. 
Keyes, president of the Society of Sanitary and 
Moral Prophylaxis, advocates the teaching of sex- 
hygiene to children, because he thinks that it is the 
kind of information that children are eagerly seek- 
ing. 'What is this topic,' he asks, 'that aU these 
little ones are questioning over, mulling over, fidget- 
ing over, worrying over? Ask your own memories.' 

"I do ask my memory in vain for the answer 
Dr. Keyes anticipates. A child's life is so fuU, 
One chad's and everything that enters it seems of 
•ife. supreme importance. I fidgeted over 

my hair which would not curl. I worried over my 
examples which never came out right. I mulled 
(though unacquainted with the word) over every 
piece of sewing put into my incapable fingers, which 
could not be trained to hold a needle. I imagined 
I was stolen by brigands, and became — by virtue 
and intelligence — spouse of a patriotic outlaw in 



CRITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION 20S 

a frontierless land. I asked artless questions which 
brought me into discredit with my teachers, as, 
for example, who 'massacred' St. Bartholomew. 
But vital facts, the great laws of propagation, were 
matters of but casual concern crowded out of my 
Hfe and out of my companions' hves (in a convent 
boarding-school) by the more stirring happenings 
of every day. How could we fidget over obstetrics 
when we were learning to skate, and our very dreams 
were a medley of ice and bumps? How could we 
worry over 'natural laws' in the face of a tyrannical 
interdict which lessened our chances of breaking 
our necks by forbidding us to coast down a hiU 
covered with trees? The children to be pitied, 
the children whose minds become infected with 
unwholesome curiosity are those who lack cheerful 
recreation, reUgious teaching, and the fine corrective 
of work. A playground or a swimming pool will 
do more to keep them mentally and morally sound 
than scores of lectures on sex-hygiene. 

"The world is wide, and a great deal is happening 
in it. I do not plead for igporance, but for the 
gradual and harmonious broadening of Personal 
the field of knowledge, and for a more teaching 
careful consideration of ways and means, approved. 
There are subjects which may be taught in class, 
and subjects which commend themselves to indi- 
vidual teaching. There are topics which admit of 
pkin-air handling, and topics which civilized man, 
as apart from his artless brother of the jungles, has 
veiled with reticence. There are truths which may 
be, and should be, privately imparted by a father, 
a mother, family doctor, or an experienced teacher ; 
but which yoimg people cannot advantageously ac- 
quire from the platform, the stage, the moving pic- 
ture gallery, the novel or the ubiquitous monthly 
magazine." 



2o6 SEX-EDUCATION 

There is much in Miss Repplier's paragraphs 
which will win hearty approval from those who 
have come to believe, as advocated throughout 
this series of lectures, in conservative teaching of 
sex-hygiene and a larger outlook for sex-education. 

No doubt there has been too great a loss of a 
certain kind of reticence and a substitution of crude 
Current frankness, but it has not been caused by 
fraitoess the sex-education movement. On the 
sex-educa- contrary, there are two evident sources 
t"""- of the plain speech of which Miss Rep- 

plier and others have complained : First, the com- 
mercializiag of sex by novelists, dramatists, theater 
managers, and publishers — many of whom are 
reaping a golden harvest and few of whom have 
any sincere interest in promulgating sexual informa- 
tion to any end except their own pocketbooks. 
Second, the development of the feminist movement 
which has its deepest foundation in the age-old 
sexual misunderstandings of women by men, and 
which has led on and on into social and political 
compUcations of gravest significance. The very 
nature of the feminist revolt from masculine domina- 
tion made plain speaking on sex matters inevitable. 

Neither of these sources of plain speech need 

give us cause for alarm, for a great reaction is already 

coming. The sensationalism of sexual 

against revelations has had its day, and the 

sensational intelligent public is recovering its bal- 
frankness. » , -j , , i.,. 

ance. A lund novel or play resembling 

"Damaged Goods" or "The House of Bondage" 



CRITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION 207 

or certain vice-commission reports would not now 
be accepted by some prominent publishers who 
recently would not have hesitated to seize a first- 
class commercial opportunity in this line. The 
fact is that sexual sensationahsm has ceased to 
pay because the inteUigent pubUc knows the main 
facts and has become disgusted with crude frank- 
ness that amounts to lasciviousness. On the side 
of feminism there is hope in the widespread disgust 
with Cristabel Pankhurst's "Plain Facts on a Great 
Evil" as compared with the very general approval 
of Louise Creighton's pohshed masterpiece, "The 
Social Evil and How to Fight It." This repre- 
sents exactly the present attitude of numerous 
men and women who calmly discuss together the 
great problems of Ufe fearlessly and without any 
elements of lasciviousness such as some people 
seem to think is necessarily associated with either 
unsexual or bisexual discussion of sex problems. 

Miss ReppUer's description of her own lack of 
youthful interest in things sexual is of value simply 
as applied to a Umited number of extra- jjota 
protected girls. Her experience teaches typical case, 
us nothing regarding boys or even girls under 
average conditions. We know beyond any doubt 
that average children in or near adolescence do 
seek the kind of information that Miss Repplier 
denies having thought about. It is not "pressed 
relentlessly upon their attention" by teachers, but 
by instinct and by environment. Playground and 
swimming pools and religious influence and work 



2o8 SEX-EDUCATION 

are all helpful in our dealings with young people, 
but all together they are inadequate without some 
information concerning sex. 

Finally, Miss ReppUer, like so many other critics 
of sex-instruction, has in mind only the physical 
„ . . consequences of wrong-doing. Here 

Conclusion. ■ ■ j.-. • a i ^^. 

agam is the mnuence of the pioneer sex- 
hygiene. However, she pleads for the "gradual 
and harmonious broadening of the field of knowledge 
and for a more careful consideration of ways and 
means" for sex-instruction. This makes us beUeve 
that she will favor the larger sex-education which 
gives a place to "the cheerful recreation, the rehgious 
teaching, the childish virtues, the youthful virtues, 
the wholesome preoccupation," as well as essential 
knowledge of physical facts; and all as factors in 
preparing young people consciously and uncon- 
sciously to face the inevitable problems of sex. 
On the whole, we must regard Miss ReppUer's 
discussion as a helpful contribution to the saner 
aspects of sex-education. 

§ 45. A Plea for Religious Approach to Sex- 
instruction 

Another prominent author who does not agree 
with the current tendencies of sex-instruction is 
Cosmo Cosmo Hamilton in his little book en- 

Hanuiton. titled "A Plea for the Younger Genera- 
tion" (Doran Co.). He agrees with the sex-educa- 
tion writers that children should be instructed 



CRITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION 209 

early, and as far as possible by their parents ; but 
he wholly disagrees with the method of biological 
introduction. He would have parents go straight 
to the heart of the matter and teU the child, as 
simply and truly as can be, just how he came into 
the world. And he would fill the teaching with 
reverence by using as an illustration the birth of 
the babe of Bethlehem. Referring to those who 
in recent years have been working for a scientific 
introduction to sex-education, Mr. Hamilton says: 

"I think that these professors and scientists are 
wasting their time, and I have written this smaU vol- 
ume not only in order to make a plea for _ ,. . 
the younger generation as to the way in ap*peal°"^ 
which they shall be taught sex truths, 
but also in order, if possible, to prove to the advanced 
thinkers of the day that it is not old-fashioned to 
beg that God may be put back into the Uves of His 
children, but a thing of urgent and vital importance. 
Without faith the new generation is hke a city built 
on sand. Without the discipline and the inspira- 
tion of God the young boys and girls who will all 
too soon be standing in our shoes will go through 
life with hungry souls, with nothing to live up to, 
and very little to live for." 

All this is very good so far as it appeals to the 

rehgious type of mind, but Mr. Hamilton seems 

to forget that vast numbers of people 

, T -I r 1 . . Many not 

cannot be approached from this pomt reached by 

of view. How can the illustration of religious 

appeal, 
the Christ-child help those who do 

not accept certain orthodox religious beUefs? 



2IO SEX-EDTJCATION 

§ 46. The Conflict between Sex-hygiene and Sex-ethics 

It has been said in an earlier lecture that several 
writers have declared that sex-ethics and sex-hy- 
giene are essentially conflicting and should not be 
associated in teaching ; that is to say, that hygienic 
facts should not be taught with the hope of improving 
morals. Most prominent of those who have de- 
Richard clared that hygienic and moral teaching 
Cabot. should be dissociated is Dr. Richard C. 

Cabot, of Boston. I shall give in this lecture atten- 
tion to his writings because they have tended to 
introduce confusion by critical attention to certain 
weak details and unessentials in the original sug- 
gestions for sex-education, and by wrongly assum- 
ing that the original "sex-hygiene" was aimed at 
improved morals, whereas it was aimed directly at 
health. In a paper entitled "Consecration of the 
Affections (often misnamed 'Sex-hygiene')," read 
at the fifth (1911) Congress of the American School 
Hygiene Association, Dr. Cabot attacked the kind 
of sex-instruction that is Umited to sex-hygiene. 
He has later returned to the attack on many occa- 
sions. I shall quote a number of his paragraphs 
and follow each with a discussion of its contents. 

(i) "The straight, right action in matters of hu- 
man affection has nothing to do with hygiene. For 
Hygiene hygiene has no words to proclaim as to 
and why you and I should behave ourselves, 

conduct. Hygiene has the right and the duty to 
make clear the perverted and the diseased conse- 
quences of certain errors. But these consequences 



CRITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION 211 

are far from constant. . . . Let us disabuse our 
minds, then, of the idea that there are always bad 
physical consequences of mistake, error, or sin in 
this [sex] field, and that those consequences are 
reasons for behaving ourselves. But even if there 
were such consequences, I think it even more mis- 
chievous for us to preach a morality based upon 
them." 

That hygienic knowledge makes many people 
control their sexual selves is beyond dispute. Be- 
cause the consequences of sexual error are far from 
constant is a weak argument against pointing out 
possible results. The consequences from pistols 
are far from constant, and yet I have no doubt 
that Dr. Cabot would teach small boys the danger 
of shooting themselves and other people. 

The last quoted sentence suggests Dr. Cabot's 
whole basis of contention against sex-hygiene. 
He seems to have inferred from the earlier 
papers, especially those by Dr. Morrow, that the 
hygiene of sex is to be taught as an approach to 
morality. On the contrary, the truth is that the 
aim of most of the first leaders in sex-instruction 
was to teach hygiene and ethics primarily in order 
to improve health. Dr. Morrow and Hygiene 
others believed that hygienic teaching and ethics 
would secondarily react on sexual moral- " * 
ity ; but the original aim of the Society of Sanitary 
and Moral Prophylaxis was to limit the spread of 
venereal disease by sanitary, moral, and legal 
means. In other words, moral appeals were to 
aid bi checking disease, and knowledge of disease 



212 SEX-EDUCATION 

was not claimed to improve morality, although 
such knowledge might react against immorality. 
It is this misunderstanding or overlooking of the 
real reasons for teaching concerning sex health that 
seems to have led Dr. Cabot into apparent opposi- 
tion to the general movement for sex-instruction. 
One infers from all his lectures that he believes it 
good to teach hygiene for health, ethics for morality, 
and biology for science; but that these should not 
be correlated because to him they are unrelated. 
It seems to me that he has simply been misled by 
the overenthusiasm of some of the first writers 
on sex-hygiene and by the widespread use of that 
limited term instead of sex-education. 

(2) "Now I say that the preaching about 

sex-hygiene that is going on in recent 
Is sex- books and in the periodical press is im- 

immoril? moral in its tendency. It is like say- 
ing, 'Don't lie, for if you do, you won't 
sleep at night, and insomnia is bad for the health.' " 

If insomnia often follows lying, then it should 
be taught as one reason why falsehoods should be 
avoided. This is not opposed to ethical teaching, 
for at the same time we can teach the other reasons 
for not telling lies. Likewise, sex-hygiene offers 
certain reasons for conduct and may be supplemented 
by sex-ethics. 

(3) "The attempts to consecrate affection and to 
safeguard morahty by teaching in public or private 
schools what is called 'sex-hygiene' will, I believe, 



CRITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION 213 

prove a failure. I have very little confidence in 
the restraining or inspiring value of information, as 
such. I have seen too much of its power- 
lessness in medical men and students. Information 
No one knows so much of the harm of morality, 
morphine as the physicians do, yet there 
are more cases of morphine habit among physicians 
than among any less informed profession. It is, 
of course, easy to make young children famihar 
with the facts of maternity and birth. Compared 
to the ordinary methods of concealment and lying 
by parents to children about these matters this is 
doubtless an improvement, but it does almost noth- 
ing to meet the moral problems of sex which come 
up later in the child's life. One may know all about 
maternity, without knowing anything of the diffi- 
culties and dangers of sex. Many have thought 
that by thorough teaching of the physiology of 
reproduction in plants and animals we can anticipate 
and to a considerable extent prevent the dangers 
and temptations referred to above." 

It is not proposed "to consecrate affection" or 
"to safeguard morality" by hygienic knowledge; 
but simply to protect health. Of course, informa- 
tion will not restrain everybody ; but if physicians 
did not know the dangers of morphine many more 
would be victims of the drug. Dr. Cabot overlooks 
the fact that physicians know how to use and obtain 
morphine, while other professional men do not. 
Teaching concerning maternity and birth will not 
directly meet the moral problems of sex, but it will 
help develop an attitude, "a consecration of the 
affections," that will guard against the dangers 
of sex. Such teaching to children is only one of 



214 SEX-EDUCATION 

many steps in the scheme of sex-education. No 
responsible advocate of sex-instruction claims that 
teaching children concerning the reproduction of 
animals and plants does anticipate and prevent 
sexual temptations ; but it is a foundation for practi- 
cal knowledge of human sex problems. I have else- 
where referred to the effect of such studies on 
attitude. 

(4) "The positive moral qualities which make us 
immune to the dangers of sex are obtainable not 
through warnings as to dangers, but 
per°OTMmtF through the more positive activities just 
alluded to. All that is most practical 
and successful in this field of endeavor may be 
summarized as the contagion of personality, human or 
divine. What is it that keeps any of us straight un- 
less it is the contagion of the highest personaUties 
whom we have known, in man and God?" 

We must admit that, perhaps, "positive moral 
qualities" are not obtainable through warnings, 
but in this pragmatic age we must have good social 
results gained by any honorable means. Many 
people are kept from crime by warnings of the law. 
Of course, this is not a "positive moral" result for 
the unethical individual who must be restrained by 
fear of legal consequences, but we do not worry 
about the individual when society gains. Like- 
wise, a man kept from sexual promiscuity by fear 
of disease is not more positively moral, but he is a 
better member of society. No one will deny the 
importance of personality in its influence on positive 



CRITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION 215 

moral qualities ; but there are many people who are 
not influenced by personality, either human or 
divine. Other kinds of control, such as hygienic 
and legal, are necessary for such people. 

(s) "A positive evil can be driven out only by a 
much more positive good. The lower Good and 
passion can be conquered only by a evil, 
higher passion." 

Here, again. Dr. Cabot seems to misunderstand 
the aim of hygienic teaching regarding sex. It is 
not expected "to conquer the lower passion" by 
hygiene, but to help keep it under control to the 
end that personal and social health will be improved. 
The opium evil (certainly a positive one) is being 
driven out of China by military methods that are 
good only in their results in suppressing the drug. 
Likewise, hygiene of sex wiU be a practical good in 
so far as it may reduce the venereal curse. "Posi- 
tive good" in Dr. Cabot's moral sense is only 
of limited application so far as the majority of people 
are concerned. In fact, the whole idea of solving 
the sexual problems by "consecration of the affec- 
tions" makes its strong appeal only to those who 
have already grasped the higher view of sex and do 
not need sex-instruction. Other people cannot 
understand the phrase. We must find some more 
direct and practical attack on the sex problems for 
the masses ; and I believe that this means scientific 
teaching which improves attitude, and hygienic 
teaching which protects personal and social health. 



2 1 6 SEX-EDUCATION 

It is worth while to get these results even if we do 
not succeed in improving morals. That, I believe, 
is another and quite independent problem. 

In an address published in the Journal of the 
Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis, Vol. 
. . V, No. I, January 1914, Dr. Cabot con- 
of hygienic tended that the hygienic and moral 
and moral aspects of sex-education should not be 
associated. It is possible that the 
following review and criticisms may be based upon 
a misinterpretation; but if so, I shall not feel 
lonely, for at the close of the discussion. Dr. Cabot 
said to his audience, "it is evident that I have 
not succeeded in touching even the surfaces of your 
minds, and have not made an atom of impression 
in making the distinction which I desired to make." 

Dr. Cabot's main points are quoted below, and 
my comments foUow each quotation. 

(i) "Sanitation can often be conveyed effectively 
by information, but morality cannot be conveyed 
by telling things." 

It is certainly true that sanitation can be taught 
Teaching by words. That words concerning 
morals. moral things have no value is a propo- 
sition which Dr. Cabot did not dearly and con- 
vincingly support. 

(2) "People often make sanitary mistakes from 
ignorance. So far as you are ignorant you cannot 
be immoral. MoraUty is conditioned upon knowl- 
edge of the right and wrong in question." 



CRITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION 21.7 

Of course, one who is ignorant is unmoral and 
not immoral, but this does not divorce sanitary 
and moral problems of social disease, immoral or 
An ignorant and unmoral man may have unmoral, 
imsanitary sexual habits, but enlighten him regard- 
ing venereal disease and his habits make him immoral. 

(3) "I cannot see that biology has moral value." 

But it may have moral influence just as Uterature 
and history and biography may have. Moral value 
Of course, pure biology alone will not of biology, 
make people more sexuaUy moral, but no responsible 
biologist has ever claimed that it will. 

(4) "In morals, we are dealing with the will, 
and if we believe that the wiU is guided by intelli- 
gence, we must beUeve that all people who know 
what is right will do what is right." 

It does not follow that to know what is right 
is to do what is right. All depends Knowledge 
upon the relative weight of opposing and will, 
factors. A medical student may know the facts 
regarding venereal disease; but he also knows the 
fact that his sexual instincts are insistent. The 
fact of his passion may be more weighty than his 
scientific knowledge; and his will may be guided 
by intelligent choice based on comparison of the 
two opposing facts. Hence, it is illogical to con- 
tend that knowledge may not influence moral con- 
duct and that the will is not guided by intelligence. 

(5) "Any good achieved in any branch of morality 
helps all morahty. A person who learns any kind of 



21 8 SEX-EDUCATION 

self control is helped toward all kinds. Anything 
that helps self control in one field will help in all 
Cultivation fields, the field of sex as well as others, 
of morality. Whatever makes a person more obedient 
to conscience in matters of truth or courage will 
help him in matters of chastity. We get morality 
not by consciously cultivating particular virtues, 
but by making ourselves useful men and women, 
by practice and by the love and imitation of our 
betters. Thus, morahty is cultivated in hundreds 
of ways all at once." 

This is sound, but it is in no logical way 
opposed to any other aspect of sex-instruction dis- 
cussed in this series of lectures. 

(6) "Wherever the conditions of intimacy and 
interest exist, — intimacy with the right person 
and interest in the right thing, — moral training is 
going on." 

This is Dr. Cabot's strongest point. He be- 
Influenceof Heves in the moral influence of indi- 
individuals. yiduals. So do all leading advocates 
of sex-instruction or of any other form of moral 
education. This is in no sense opposed to any 
accepted proposition of sex-education. 

(7) "Sanitation may increase inunorality. . . . 
I do care more for morality than for sanitation. 
Where the two conflict I want morality to lead and 
to govern." 

Right here is the basis for Dr. Cabot's repeated 
attacks on the sex-education movement. He be- 
Ueves that morality and sanitation are decidedly 



CRITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION SIQ 

conflicting. His address fails to support this idea 
with regard to a single point concerned with the 
proposed sex-education. He mentioned morals 
only two points wherein there is apparent rather than 
conflict, namely, prophylaxis that allows * 
immorality while avoiding venereal disease, and 
prevention of conception. Neither of these is di- 
rectly involved in the sex-education movement, and 
their immoral bearings are highly debatable. 

Venereal prophylactics may increase promiscuity 
of some unmoral and immoral men, but if uni- 
versally and scientifically used by such Etj^jgof 
men, there would be Httle or no infection venereal 
of innocent women and children. There- ""^'^^P^"- 
fore, I assert that the good that would come from 
the use of prophylactics by those who do not recog- 
nize moral control would be far more significant 
than the fact that venereal prophylactics might 
encourage immorality. Those who would use 
prophylactics would be no worse morally than they 
were before, but society would gain hygienically. 

Regarding the moraUty of prevention of ferti- 
lization, the best of people hold opposing views. 
A great specialist in tuberculosis who entered the 
discussion of Dr. Cabot's paper convinced most of 
his hearers that hygienic prevention of fertilization 
of tubercular women is a very moral act gthicsof 
for a physician to advise. The real contacon- 
question of morahty involved in the '^^ "'°' 
problem of contraconception is not whether it is 
immoral that sperm-cells should be prevented from 



220 SEX-EDUCATION 

swimming on towards an egg-cell, but whethet 
there is morality in a sexual union that has its 
meaning only in affection and is not definitely 
intended for propagation. It is obviously a com- 
plicated problem of hygiene, psychology, ethics, 
aesthetics, religious beliefs, social traditions, and 
personal prejudice; and it is absurd to allow it to 
become entangled in the general propositions of 
sex-education. As I have often said in this series 
of lectures, the larger sex-education aims at making 
the best possible adjustments of sex and life. If 
the aesthetic demands of affection are in real conflict 
with the animal function of propagation, then a 
pragmatically ethical solution is foimd in intelli- 
gent control of the original function. Ideally, the 
animal function of propagation should be associated 
with the possibilities of affection that have developed 
in the highest human Ufe ; but there are numerous 
cases in which there must be dissociation of the 
functions of affection and propagation, or the alterna- 
tive is sexual asceticism. Which is moral? This 
is a question concerning which the individual must 
weigh his personal views and decide. Only the 
bigoted victims of arrogance will see immorality 
in the one who disagrees with him on this question. 
I insist, then, that even if advanced sex-education 
for adults should some day come to involve the 
problem of contraconception, there will be no con- 
flict between hygienic knowledge and ethics, if the 
teaching leads to more perfect adjustment of sex 
and life. 



CRITICISMS or SEX-EDXTCATION 221 

Probably tbe great majority of workers in the 
sex-education movement do not in the least agree 
with Dr. Cabot's attempts to dissociate ^^ ^^^ 
hygienic and moral problems. A far mann's 
more helpful view is that expressed by ^^^' 
Dr. Henry Neumann, leader of the Brooklyn 
Ethical Culture Society: 

"Problems of hygiene, whether of sex, or nutri- 
tion, or temperance and the like, are no less moral 
problems. They are problems of habit ; and habits 
are impossible without strong incentives to start 
them and keep them going. . . . Ethical instruc- 
tion is often misunderstood to be barren preaching. 
It is nothing of the sort. It consists in clarif3dng 
views of life. It begins with the fact that there 
are certain tendencies in our nature which may work 
ill or good. Then it tries to show to what these lead. 
It uses what is best in us to make over what is worst. 
That is why problems of sex-hygiene should be re- 
garded as at bottom problems of sex-morahty." 

§ 47. The Arrogance of the Advocates of Sex-education 

In an article in the Educational Review, February, 
1914, Superintendent Maxwell, of New York City, 
writes concerning what he calls "the teaching of 
child hygiene" as follows : 

"There are those to-day who claim that sexual 
information and problems should be thrust upon 
the attention of boys and girls by the Dr. Mai- 
teachers in the public schools, that this well's 
teaching is necessary for the protection criticisms, 
of virtue and the prevention of disease, and that, 
if anyone hesitates to encourage the spread of such 



222 SEX-EDUCATION 

literature and the teaching of such knowledge, he 
is an arrant and presumptuous blockhead. The 
arrogance of the extreme advocates of child hygiene 
blinds them to certain all-important truths. The 
first is that our teachers are not prepared, and, in 
too many cases, are not the most suitable persons 
to teach the subject. The second is that to bring 
the adolescent mind face to face with sexual matters 
engenders the habit of dwelling upon the sexual 
passion, and in that may lie spiritual havoc and 
physical ruin. A premature interest in the sexual 
passion debases the mind and unsettles the will. 
The third is that parents have no right to ask the 
teacher to do the work that is peculiarly theirs. 

"And yet some good may emerge from this dis- 
cussion. Parents may be incited to do their duty 
in placing sex information before their children 
whenever conditions demand such knowledge. 
And principals and teachers, particularly principals, 
whenever they have the acuteness to detect the 
tendency to wrong-doing, will no longer hesitate 
to utter the word of warning in season. As for 
the extravagant claims made for the teaching of 
sex-hygiene, I have too much faith in the good sense 
of the American people to believe that it will ever 
be generally and regularly taught in American 
schools. Surely, we have learned something since 
the law compelled us to teach the untruths regard- 
ing the effects of stimulants and narcotics that 
were published in the early school manuals of 
physiology and hygiene." 

I comment as follows: (i) Dr. Maxwell refers 
only to the "extreme advocates." They did exist 
in abundance a few years ago, but are already rare 
in the group of well-known educators. (2) Most 



CSITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION 223 

teachers are not prepared and never can be pre- 
pared to teach the human aspect of sex problems, 
especially the hygienic in the strict Reply to Dr. 
sense. (3) Conservative sex-instruction Maxwell, 
such as was advocated by the advisers of the 
American Federation for Sex-hygiene (see "Report" 
by Morrow and others, 19^13) aims to guard against 
"premature interest in the sexual passion." (4) 
While I sympathize with Dr. Maxwell's view that 
teaching the elementary hygiene of sex is the parent's 
duty, I am forced to recognize the futility of advo- 
cating that all or even a respectable minority of 
parents should undertake their duty (see § 4). 
The truth is that most of them will not, and cannot 
if they will, try to do so. (5) Dr. Maxwell's idea 
that sex-hygiene should be taught only when an 
astute principal or parent "detects wrong-doing" 
is, to say the least, an educational theory that will 
astonish one who knows even the elementary facts 
regarding the secrecy of the sexual life of young 
people in general. Will he next be logically con- 
sistent and advocate that all moral education should 
be given only after children show signs of wrong- 
doing? (6) Sex-hygiene, as Dr. Maxwell under- 
stands it to be concerned directly and solely with 
human sexual problems, will never be taught in 
American schools controlled by people of good sense ; 
but sex-instruction from the larger viewpoint is 
taught in some of the best of Dr. Maxwell's high 
schools. (7) All advocates of sex-instruction who 
have a national reputation for educational sanity 



224 SEX-EDUCATION 

agree that legislation is most undesirable. (8) 
It is obvious that like so many others who have 
become confused regarding the sex-education move- 
ment, Dr. Maxwell has been impressed chiefly by 
the pioneer work that emphasized only hygienic 
teaching regarding sex. 

§ 48. Lubricity in Ediication 

Ex-President Taf t has expressed his views against 
the sex-education movement. The newspapers 
quote as follows from an address delivered in Phila- 
delphia in 1914 : 

"There is another danger in our educational in- 
fluences and environment. I refer to the spread of 
lubricity in literature, on the stage and indirectly 
in education, under the plea that vice may be 
avoided by teaching the awful consequences. By 
dwelling on its details and explaining its penalties, 
sexual subjects are obtruded into discussion be- 
tween the sexes, lectures are deUvered on them, 
textbooks are written, and former restraints of 
modesty are abandoned. 

"The pursuit of education in sex-hygiene is full 
of danger if carried on in general public schools. 
The sharp, pointed and summary advice of 
afim * mothers to daughters, of fathers to sons, 
of a medical professor to students in a col- 
lege upon such a subject is, of course, wise, but any 
benefit that may be derived from frightening stu- 
dents by dwelling upon the details of the dreadful 
pxmishment of vice is too often offset by awakening 
a curiosity and interest that might not be developed 
so early and is likely to set the thoughts of those 
whose benefit is at stake in a direction that wiU 



CRITICISMS OF SEX-EDUCATION 225 

neither elevate their conversations with their fellows 
nor make more clean their mental habit. 

"I deny that the so-called prudishness and the 
avoidance of nasty subjects in the last generation 
has ever blinded any substantial number of girls 
or boys to the wickedness of vice or made iJiem 
easier victims of temptations." 

The above requires little comment, for its misun- 
derstandings are obvious to one who has followed 
the sex-education movement. Clearly w 'd t ' 
Mr. Taft has been impressed by the misunder- 
social-hygiene side of the problems and ^**°^e- 
does not realize the existence of a larger outlook for 
sex-education. Like so many other writers who 
seem to know little concerning the sexual life of 
children, especially of boys, Mr. Taft fears "the 
awakening of curiosity and interest"! This, of 
course, depends upon the facts taught and the age 
of the learner, but it hardly apphes to children in or 
near adolescence who are taught along the lines 
suggested by the committee of the American Feder- 
ation for Sex-Hygiene (1913). The last paragraph 
quoted from Mr. Taft will be denied completely 
by all who are famihar with the problems of adoles- 
cent education. To say the least, it is unfortunate 
that a man prominent in law and statesmanship 
should have lent the weight of his name to such 
superficial conclusions that are so obviously based 
on exceedingly limited information regarding both 
the estabhshed facts of sex and the most approved 
methods of sex-instruction. 
Q 



226 SEX-EDUCATION 

§ 49. Conclusions from the Criticisms of Sex-education 

I have selected for discussion the criticisms of 
several of the most prominent people who have 
expressed opposition to the sex-education move- 
ment. I think that all the important lines of argu- 
ments against the movement are represented in 
the extracts that I have quoted. We have seen 
that all of the criticisms have decidedly vulnerable 
points. Most of them refer to the discarded sex- 
hygiene of ten years ago ; but some of them prove 
that the authors are quite ignorant of the sex prob- 
lems that must be faced by numerous young people. 

With the hope of locatiog the weaknesses of sex- 
education, I have for years examined carefully 
Criticisms every criticism pubUshed, and it seems 
important, ^q j^e thoroughly scientific to conclude 
that all the important criticisms have not harmed 
the essentials of the sex-education movement ; but, 
on the contrary, have been helpful in forcing recon- 
struction. In fact, the present-day conception of 
the larger sex-education must be credited to the 
severe critics more than to the friends of the original 
narrow movement for reducing venereal disease by 
hygienic instruction. 



XI 

The Past and the FuTxniE of the Sex- 
education Movement 

§ 50. The American Movement 

In America the movement for sex-education 
began with the organization of the American Society 
of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis on p^ Morrow 
February 9, 1905, under the leadership leaderln 
of Dr. Prince A. Morrow. It is true that *"«*»■ 
before this time there were various local and sporadic 
attempts at instruction concerning sexual processes, 
but such teaching was chiefly personal and there 
was no concerted movement looking towards mak- 
ing sex-instruction an integral part of general edu- 
cation. In 1892, thirteen years before the organi- 
zation of the Society of Sanitary and Moral Pro- 
phylaxis, a group of members of the National 
Education Association considered briefly the im- 
portance of instructing young people. However, 
this meeting was of ephemeral significance and had 
no genetic relation to the present-day movement. 
Other early interest in sex-instruction is indicated 
in Professor Earl Barnes's bibUography which was 
published in his "Studies in Education," Vol. I, 

p. 301, 1897. 

ai7 



228 SEX-EDUCATION 

The educational activities, especially the publi- 
cations of the American Society of Sanitary and 
Moral Prophylaxis, soon attracted the serious 
attention of numerous physicians, ministers, and 
educators in various parts of the United States ; and 
about twenty other societies for study and improve- 
ment of the sex problems were organized within 
a few years after the original society. 

The sex-education movement both in Europe 
and America had its origin as an attempt to check 
Original aim ^^ spread of the venereal or social dis- 
for sanitary eases. The idea that education should 
*° *' work for sexual morality for its own sake 

and not simply for protection against venereal 
diseases has only recently begun to appear in the 
literature of sex-education, and so far it seems to 
have made only a Umited impression on many 
of those who have been active in the prophylactic 
campaign against social disease. In fact, the tardy 
recognition of the moral aim of sex-education makes 
it seem probable that very Uttle interest would 
have been aroused in the movement if it had been 
organized on purely ethical grounds and without 
any reference to the sanitary problems of social 
diseases. To one who looks at sexual morality 
as a question of right conduct which brings its own 
rewards, it is a shock to find so many thinking 
people who accept calmly the traditional views of 
the relation of the sexes and seem to take no interest 
in the immoraUty of men except as it is likely to 
lead to venereal disease or to illegitimacy which 



PAST AND FUTTJEE OF SEX-EDUCATION 229 

demands forced marriage or monetary payments. 
The truth is that the civilized world at large is very 
far from a working code of sexual morals which will 
be practiced because of promised rewards rather 
than because of probable punishments. It is nat- 
ural, then, that the sex-education movement should 
have started with a proclamation of physical pun- 
ishments for immoraUty rather than an offer of 
ethical and psychical rewards for moraUty. 

However, the fact that sex-education, under the 
name of " sex-hygiene," was at first a sanitary prop- 
agandism need not interfere with the Bottsani- 
larger development of sex-education. It taryand 
now seems probable that before many ""^ ' 
years pass we shall learn how to make a satisfactory 
combination of both the sanitary and moral sides 
of sex-education, and so it is best that the educa- 
tional movement started on the foundation of the 
undisputed facts of sanitary science which have 
made a powerful impression on the people who do 
and who do not recognize a code of sexual morals. 

The deep interest of the medical profession is 
directly responsible for the close association between 
the beginning of the sex-education move- Medical 
ment and the diseases of immorality. At ""terest. 
the organization meeting of the American Society 
of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis, Dr. Prince 
Morrow in the opening paragraph of his address 
said : " We have met for the purpose of discussing 
the wisdom and the expediency of forming a society 
of sanitary and moral prophylaxis. The object 



230 SEX-EDtrCATION 

is to organize a social defense against a class of 
diseases which are most injurious to the highest 
interests of human society." Thus, the American 
Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis started 
as an avowed enemy of the social diseases and so it 
has continued to the present. The very name of 
its official journal, Social Diseases,^ indicated the 
central idea of the Society. Likewise, most of the 
local American societies for sex-hygiene have names 
including such phrases as "social hygiene," "pre- 
vention of social diseases," "sanitary prophylaxis"; 
and only one, the Massachusetts Society for Sex 
Education, has a name which does not directly 
suggest the medical problems of sex. 

In Europe, the sex-instruction movement has 
been concerned chiefly with spreading information 
concerning the social diseases. In 1902 
an international congress for considera- 
tion of the venereal diseases was held in Brussels, 
and this congress recommended that in all countries 
there should be organized sanitary, social, moral, 
and legal societies for the prophylaxis of these dis- 
eases. As a result of this recommendation, pro- 
phylactic societies were formed in France, Ger- 
many, Italy, Holland, the United States, and 
other countries. Of these, the German society 
for the prevention of venereal disease became the 
strongest, with over five thousand members and 
twenty branch societies. 

» The name was changed in igi3 to Journal of the Sockly oj Sani- 
tary and Moral Prophylaxis. 



PAST AND rUTtTRE OF SEX-EDUCATION 23 1 

The fact that the American Society of Sanitary, 
and Moral Prophylaxis was organized by a group 
of people in New York City tended from national 
the beginning to make it a local society, societies. 
While for several years it took the lead in sex-hy- 
giene and enrolled members residing in many parts 
of the United States, it was never a national organi- 
zation. In recent years the word " American " has 
been omitted from its name, and its work has been 
limited to New York City and vicinity.^ Many inde- 
pendent state and city societies were organized within 
a few years after the original sex-hygiene society in 
New York. This multiplication of societies called 
attention to the need of a national organization, and 
in 1910 the various societies were affiliated in the 
American Federation for Sex-Hygiene. Dr. Morrow 
was the leading spirit in the Federation until his death. 
In 1 9 13, the Federation and the American Vigilance 
Association (a society especially concerned with the 
social evil) were united in the American Social Hygiene 
Association. Its offices are at 105 West 40th Street, 
New York City. 

§ 51. Important Steps in the Sex-education Movement 
in America 

May 23, 1904. Dr. Prince Morrow's plea for the organi- 
zation of a sodety of sanitary and moral prophylaxis, read 
before the Medical Society of the County of New York. 

> While this book was in press, the name was changed to New 
York Social Hygiene Society. 



232 SEX-EDUCATION 

February 9, 1905. Organization meeting of the American 
Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaris, in New York. 

March, 1906. Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of 
Social Diseases organized. 

October, 1906. Chicago Society of Social Hygiene or- 
ganized. 

December, 1907. Portland (Ore.) Social Hygiene Society 
organized. 

October, 1908. Spokane Society of Social and Moral 
Prophylaxis organized. 

June, 1910. American Federation for Sex-Hygiene or- 
ganized. 

191 1. Oregon Social Hygiene Society organized. 

July 20, 1912. Resolution of the National Education 
Association favoring training of teachers with the view, ulti- 
mately, of sex-instruction in schools. 

September 23-28, 1912. Meeting of subsection on sex- 
hygiene. Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene and 
Demography. Washington, D.C. 

February, 1912. Organization of American Vigilance 
Association. 

October, 1913. Merging of the American Federation for 
Sex-Hygiene and the American Vigilance Association into the 
new American Social Hygiene Association. 

1913. Organization of Pacific Coast Federation for Sex- 
Hygiene, changed to. Pacific Coast Social Hygiene Association 
in June, 1914. 

July, 1914. The National Education Association, at Minne- 
apolis, adopted the following resolutions in line with the latest 
principles of the Society of Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis 
and the American Social Hygiene Association: 

"The Association, re-aflGirming its belief in the 
constructive value of education in sex-hygiene, 
directs attention to the grave dangers, ethical 
and social, arising out of a sex consciousness stimu- 
lated by undue emphasis upon sex problems and 



PAST AND FUTURE OF SEX-EDUCATION 233 

relations. The situation is so serious as to render 
neglect hazardous. The Association urges upon 
all parents the obvious duty of parental care and 
instruction in such matters and directs attention 
to the mistake of leaving such problems exclusively 
to the school. The Association believes that sex- 
hygiene should be approached in the public schools 
conservatively under the direction of persons 
qualified by scientific training and teaching experi- 
ence in order to assure a safe moral point of view. 
The Association, therefore, recommends that insti- 
tutions preparing teachers give attention to such 
subjects as would qualify for instruction in the 
general field of morals as well as in the particular 
field of sex-hygiene." 

§ 52. The Future of the Larger Sex-education 

I hear many questions as to the probable future of 
sex-education. I am asked: "Is it moribund?" 
"Is it a disappearing fad?" "Has not 
the high tide of interest passed?" No lost interest 
doubt such questions are inspired by the ^ sensa- 
oft-repeated statement that public in- 
terest in sexual questions has waned decidedly in the 
last few years. This is true, and it is a most fortunate 
indication of approaching sanity. The public interest 
in the last decade has been most deplorable, because it 
has centered in the abnormal and sensational aspects of 
sex. Authors have vied with each other in presenting 
the most lurid cases of social diseases, white slavery, 
sexual perversions, and every other available aspect 
of sexual degeneracy. Of course, the reading public 
was bound to grow tired of this, just as it wearies 



234 SEX-EDUCATION 

of a horrible murder trial or of a sensational divorce 
case. It is certainly true that there is a marked 
decUne of general interest in sexual abnormality and 
sensationalism ; but that does not mean that the sex- 
education movement is moribund. 

The wave of sensational revelation has passed; 
but the intelligent public is no longer ignorant of the 
SejE-educa- 'i^'ture and causes of the great problems 
tion per- of sex, and is well aware that young peo- 
manent. pj^ jj^^^j definite guidance for facing the 
facts of life. It is unthinkable that intelligent 
parents who are now well informed concerning sex 
will ever again stand for the old policy of mystery 
and silence. It is, therefore, impossible to believe 
that there is any danger of sex-education disappear- 
ing. Of course, we have not reached a permanent 
system of sex-education. There certainly will be 
vast changes in our approved subject matter and 
methods of teaching ; but the main idea of the sex- 
education movement is gaining support every day. 

There is another reason why sex-education will be 
permanent. In addition to the great need of educa- 
Sex-educa- clonal help with information and influ- 
tion ftinda- ence which will mold the individual life 
™™ with regard to the problems of sex, it 

must be evident to all that even the legislative, 
sanitary, social administrative, reUgious, ethical, 
and other attacks upon the problems depend upon 
knowledge and attitude, at least of the leaders. 
Look at the problems of sex outlined in the earlier 
lectures from whatever angle we will, and it appears 



PAST AND FUTURE OF SEX-EDUCATION 235 

that, in the final analysis, education offers the only 
key to a possible solution. Therefore, I assert that 
sex-education — the larger sex-education — is an 
absolutely fundamental factor in every phase of the 
social-hygiene and sex-ethical movement. 

In closing the last lecture of this series, let me 
state my confession of faith in sex-education : It is 
certainly only one of several possible lines nitimat f 
of attack on the alarming sex problems feet of sex- 
of our time; but it offers the most hopeful «^""t'o"- 
outlook towards improved sexual morals and health, 
|joth physical and psychical. However, we shall 
gain nothing of permanent value by extravagant 
claims or hopes as to the ultimate effect of sex-educa- 
tion. We must expect incomplete results. It will not 
entirely solve the sex problems for all individuals who 
receive instruction ; but it will solve all of the prob- 
lems of many individuals and help many others. It 
will not eradicate the social evil and its characteristic 
diseases, but it will protect many young people and 
so reduce the sum total of awful consequences. 
It will not prevent aU divorces and matrimonial 
disharmonies, but already the biological teaching 
is helping and some day the social-ethical problems 
will be understood and then most intelligent men 
and women will understand the fundamental 
principles for permanent and harmonious mono- 
gamic marriage. Finally, sex-education will not 
enforce universal sexual morality in conformity 
with our accepted code, but it will help many indi- 
viduals through decisive battles with sex-instincts. 



236 SEX-EDUCATION 

Such are some of the lines along which extreme 
claims and hopes for sex-education have been and 
are still being made. There is some truth 
tion and hi each ; in fact, there is more than enough 
general ^q justify the present movement for sex- 
education. To all those who see nothing 
in the movement because it will not solve all the sex 
problems which have created a demand for special 
instruction, we may reply by simply pointing to the 
fact that general education makes some better and 
more efficient citizens, but many times it fails to give 
desirable results. We believe in general education be- 
cause it aims to offer all individuals help in preparation 
for more efficient life, although it succeeds only in 
part. Likewise, we should stand for the instruction 
of all yoimg people in matters concerning sex because 
it is certain that such knowledge will function com- 
pletely in many lives and will work appreciable 
good in many others. 

I cannot believe that sex-education is one of the 
long line of modern educational fads which quickly 
pass their day, for no other phase of edu- 
and essen- cation SO closely touches life. History 
tial part of and geography and even a large part of the 
" three Rs " may be of Uttle use in the lives 
of numerous people, but sex-education deals with 
problems which the normal human life cannot possibly 
avoid and which each individual must be prepared 
to solve for himself. Therefore, we may confidently 
assert that instruction concerning the most impor- 
tant aspects of sex processes and relationships will 



PAST AND FtTTtTRE OF SEX-EDUCATION 237 

soon be recognized as an absolutely necessary part of 
a rational and ef&cient scheme for the education of 
young people. 

The larger sex-education is sure to have a per- 
manent place in the never-ending work of preparing 
coming generations for the highest de- 
velopment of life's possibiUties. Each ending prob- 
succeeding generation of young people lemof good 
must be prepared by educational pro- 
cesses to face intelUgently and bravely the problems 
of sex that are sure to come into every normal life. 
Of course, sex-education at its best development can 
do no more than give the individual a basis for inteUi- 
gent choice between good and evil ; but here, as in all 
other upward movements of human life, the decision 
must depend upon a clear and positive recognition of 
the advantages of the good as contrasted with the 
evil. Hence, the one essential task of sex-education 
in its broadest outlook is to guide natural human 
beings to recognition and choice of the best in the 
sexual sphere of Hfe. And in so far as each coming 
generation of individuals may be thus guided by 
the larger sex-education, the problems of sex will be 
pragmatically solved, for the social aggregate of 
human life will become better, happier, nobler, 
truer, more in harmony'with the highest ideals of 
life, more like our vision of perfected humanity. 



xn 

Some Books for Sex-education 

I have decided to publish only the names of se- 
lected books which seem to me to be the best for 
teachers, parents, and young people. In making 
the selection, I have considered several hundred 
books which bear on the sex problems in an edu- 
cational way, and have decided to reject the ma- 
jority of them. While there might be some value in 
a long list with critical notes on books that I can- 
not recommend, it would be a worse than thankless 
task to compile such an annotated bibliography; 
for the compiler would surely add to his collection 
of enemies many authors whose books deserve 
severe criticism. The sudden and sensational 
publicity concerning matters of sex and the possi- 
bility of commercial exploitation has produced an 
avalanche of sex books, some good, many bad, and 
the majority ordinary. Evidently, most of the 
authors, including numerous physicians, have written 
to order and without special preparation. 

The books of the following lists are not all deserv- 
ing of vmqualified recommendation. In fact, some 
of them are included because they are the least 
objectionable of their much-needed kind, and others 
because they have some good grains that the reader 
238 



BOOKS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 239 

will find worth picking from a mass of non-nutritious 
but, fortunately, non-poisonous chaff. 

I have not included many books which I recognize 
as important for readers thoroughly trained in 
science, but which are dangerous for the average 
reader of Hterature on sex. 

It is possible that I may have overlooked some 
very good books that I have not intended to ignore ; 
and I shall be glad to have my attention called to 
books which deserve recognition. 

Special bibliographies have been published in 
Wile's "Sex-Education," March's "Towards Racial 
Health," Geddes and Thomson's "Sex," and Fos- 
ter's "Social Emergency." 

PubHshers. — In most cases the first part of the 
names of well-known pubUshers has been given. 
Unless otherwise mentioned, they have offices in New 
York City. In addition, the following abbreviations 
have been used : 

A.M.A. = American Medical Association, Chicago. 

A.S.H.A. = American Social Hygiene Associa- 
tion, 105 West 40th St., New York City. 

S.S.M.P. = Society of Sanitary and Moral Pro- 
phylaxis, 103 West 40th Street, New York City. 

Association Press = press of the National Board 
of the Y.M.C.A., New York City. 

For Educators and Parents 

Addams, Jane. "A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil." 
Macmillan. $1.00. (Contains all the average reader 
needs to know concerning prostitution.) 



240 SEX-EDUCATION 

BoK, Edwakd, Editor. "Books of Self-Knowledge for Young 
People and Parents." Revell. $.25 each. 

BiGELOW, M. A. "Relation of Biology to Sex-Instruction in 
Schools and Colleges." Journal of Social Diseases, II, 4, 
October, 1911. 

Cabot, Richard C. "The Christian Approach to Social 
Morality." National Y.W.C.A., New York. $.50. 

Cabot, Richard C. "What Men Live By." Houghton 
Mi£3in. $1.50. (A book that has helped many people.) 

Cabot, R. C. "Consecration of the Affections." Proceedings 
of Fifth Cong. Amer. School Hygiene Assoc, III, 1911, 
p. 114. Also in Amer. Phy. Ed. Rev., XVI, 1911, 
pp. 247-253. (See "Criticisms of Sex-Education" in 
§ 46 of this book.) 

Cocks, Oerin G. "The Social Evil and Methods of Treat- 
ment." Association Press. $.25. 

Creighton, Louise. "The Social Disease and How to Fight 
It.-" Longmans. $.33. (A splendid essay on social 
impurity from a modem woman's viewpoint. Construc- 
tive and optimistic.) 

Eliot, C. W. " Public Opinion and Sex-Hygiene." A.S.H.A. 
J.OS. 

Eliot, C. W. "School Instruction in Sex Hygiene." Pro- 
ceedings of Fifth Cong. Amer. School Hygiene Assoc, 1911. 

Ellis, Havelock. "The Task of Social Hygiene." Hough- 
ton. $2.50. (Certain chapters concern sex-education.) 

Gallowav, T. W. "Biology of Sex." Heath. $.75. 

Geddes, Patrick, and Thomson, J. Arthur. " Sex." Holt. 
$.50. (Excellent.) 

Geddes and Thomson. "The Problems of Sex." Moffat. 
$.50. 

Foster, W. T. "The Social Emergency." Houghton. 
$1.35. (Twelve excellent essays by President Foster, 
Reed College, and nine others, on social hygiene and 
education.) 

Hall, Q, Stanley. "Adolescence." Appleton. 2 vols. 
$7-50. 



BOOKS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 24 1 

Hall, G. S. "Youth: Its Education, Regimen and Hygiene." 

Appleton. $1.50. 
Hall, G. S. "Needs and Methods of Educating Young 

People in Hygiene of Sex." Pedagogical Seminary, XV, 

March, 190S. 
Hall, G. S. "Teaching of Sex in Schools and Colleges." 

Journal of Social Diseases, II, 4, October, 1911. 
Hall, WiNFiELD S. "Sex Training in the Home." Richard- 
son, Chicago. $1.10. 
Henderson, Chas. R. "Education with Reference to Sex." 

University of Chicago Press. Part I, 78 cts. ; II, 80 cts. 

(Part I demonstrates need of sex-education; .II, the 

educational problems.) 
Herter, C. a. "Biological Aspects of Human Problems." 

Macmillan. $1.50. (Sexual instincts, pp. 182-252; sex- 
education, 306-316.) 
HiME, Maurice C. "Schoolboys' Special Immorality.'' 

Churchill, London. $.40. (For masters of boarding 

schools.) 
Hodge, C. F. " Social Hygiene in Public Schools." School 

Science and Mathematics, April, 1911. 
Howard, W. L. "Start Your ChUd Right." Revell. $.75. 

(Readable, sensible, helpful to parents.) 
LowRY, Edith B. "False Modesty: That Protects Vice by 

Ignorance." Forbes. $.50- (Arguments for sex-in- 
struction in home and school.) 
LowRY, E. B. "Teaching Sex-Hygiene in the Public 

Schools." Forbes. $.50. (Useful for parents and 

teachers.) 
Lvttleton, E. "Training the Young in the Laws of Sfit." 

Longmans, Green. $1.00. (Heartily approved by many 

educators.) 
March, Norah H. "Towards Racial Health." Routledge, 

London. $1.00. (Very helpful book for parents and 

teachers.) 
MoRLEY, Margaret W. "Renewal of Life." McClurg. 

$1.10. (Nature-study basis for teaching children.) 



2 42 SEX-EDTTCATION 

MosRow, Balijet, and Bigelow. " Report of Special Com- 
mittee on Matters and Methods of Sex-Education." 
A.S.H.A. $.05. 

Morrow, Prince A. " Teaching of Sex-Hygiene." A.S.H.A. 
$.03. (A splendid address.) 

Morrow, P. A. "The Boy Problem." S.S.M.P. $.05. 
(Helpful to parents.) 

Morrow, P. A. "The Sex Problem." S.S.M.P. $.03. 
(A fair statement of the double morality problem.) 

Parkinson, William D. "Sex and Education." Educa- 
tional Review, January, 1911. (Stands for ethical and 
esthetic teaching primarily.) 

ScHARLiEB and SiBLY. "Youth and Sex." Dodge. $.25. 

Seligman, E. R. A. "The Social Evil." Putnam. $1.50. 
(A good survey of the evil, based on the work of the 
Committee of Fourteen in New York.) 

Wile, Ira S. "Sex Education." Du£&eld. $1.00. (Avery 
useful book for parents.) 

Wood-Allen, Mary. "Teaching Truth." Crist Co. $.50. 
Suggestions for mothers' talks to yotmg children.) 

"Social Hygiene." A quarterly journal of the A.S.H.A. 
$2.00 per year, free to members. 

For Girls 

AoDAits, Jane. "Spirit of Youth and the City Streets." 

Macmillan. $1.25. 
Chapman, Rose Woodallen. " How Shall I Tell My Child ? " 

Revell. $.25. 
Dodge, Grace H. "A Bundle of Letters to Busy Girls." 

Fimk. $.50. 
Hall, Jeannetie W. "Life's Story." Steadwell, La 

Crosse, Wis. $.25. (Biological facts for girls of 10 

to 16.) 
Hall, W. S. "Life Problems : A Story for Girls." A.M.A. 

$.10. (A good pamphlet for gurls of 12 to 18 

years.) 



BOOKS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 243 

Hall, W. S. "The Doctor's Daughter : Studies about Life." 
A.M. A. S.io. (On nature-study basis, for girls under 
12 years.) 

Hood, Mary G. "For Girls and the Mothers of Girls." 
Bobbs-Merrill. $1.00. 

HowAED, W. L. "Confidential Chats with Girls." Clode. 
$1.00. 

Smith, Nellie M. "The Three Gifts of Life." Dodd,Mead. 
$.50. (A girl's responsibility. For girls 15 to 18, who 
have no more than grammar-school education. In gen- 
eral, sentimental and unscientific; but Chapter IV, 
"Gift of Choice," is excellent.) 

ToBELLE, Ellen. "Plant and Animal Children: How 
they Grow." Heath. $1.00. (Useful as a nature- 
study reader concerning reproduction of animals and 
plants.) 

Wood-Allen, Mary. "Almost a Woman." Crist Co. 
$.50. (A story for girls of 12 years.) 

Wood-Allen, Mary. "What a Young Girl Should Know." 
Vir Co., Philadelphia. $1.00. (For girls under 12 or 14.) 

For Boys 

Hall, W. S. "John's Vacation." A.M.A. $,io. (On 

nature-study basis, for pre-adolescent boys.) 
Hall, W. S. "Chums." A.M.A. $.10. (For adolescent 

boys.) 
Hall, W. S. "Developing into Manhood." Association 

Press. $.25. (Biological basis, for boys of 15 to 18 

years.) 
Hall, W. S. "Life's Beginnings." Association Press. $.23. 
Hall, W. S. "Youth." Association Press. $.25. (For 

boys 10 to 12.) 
Howard, W. L. "Confidential Chats with Boys." Clode. 

$1.00. 
Jenks, J. W. "Life Questions of School Boys." Association 

Press. $.25. 



244 SEX-EDUCATION 

Jewett. "The Next Generation." Ginn. $.75. (Elemen- 
tary eugenics.) 

ToKELLE, Ellen. "Plant and Animal Children." (See 
under books for girls.) 

Trewbv, Arthuk. "Healthy Boyhood." Longmans. $.40. 

Wood-Allen, Mary. "Almost a Man." Crist Co. $.50. 
(Similar to "Almost a Woman." For pre-adolescent 
boys.) 

Foe Women 

Drake, E. F. A. "What a Young Wife Ought to Know." 
Vir Co., Philadelphia. $1.00. 

Galbsaith, Anna. "Four Epochs of a Woman's Life." 
Saunders, Philadelphia. $1.50. (Medical in style. Cer- 
tain sections relating to heredity are not satisfactory.) 

Hall, W. S. "Sexual Knowledge." Intern. Bible House, 
Philadelphia. $1.00. 

Key, Ellen. "Morality of Woman and other Essays." 
Seymour, Chicago. $1.00. (Ideal morality as a basis 
for marriage. Good introduction to author's "Love and 
Marriage.") 

LowRY, E. B. "Herself." Forbes. $1.10. (In general, 
accurate. Medical style.) 

Martin, H. N. "Human Body — Advanced Course." 
Holt. $2.50. (Last chapter, on reproduction, excel- 
lent.) 

RuMMEL, LuELLA Z. "Womanhood and Its Development." 
Burton Co., Kansas City. $1.50. (One of the best books 
for mature women. Poorly printed.) 

ScHREiNER, Olive. "Woman and Labor." Stokes. $1.25. 
(Important for the feminist movement.) 

West, Mrs. Max. "Prenatal Care." Bulletin of Children's 
Bureau, U. S. Dept. of Labor. (A very practical pam- 
phlet.) 

Wood-Allen, Mary. "What a Young Woman Should 
Know." Vir Co., Philadelphia. $1.00. (The beSt- 
known book, preferred by the majority of mothers.) 



BOOKS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 245 

For Men 

ExNES, M. J. "Problems and Principles of Sex-Education." 
Association Fiess. $.10. (Study of college men, and an 
essay on principles.) 

ExNEEjM.J. "The Physician's Answer." Association Press. 
$.15. (Summary of opinions of numerous physicians con- 
cerning the problems of young men.) 

ExNER, M. J. "The Rational Sex Life for Men." Associa- 
tion Press. $.15. (Good, and helpful to many young men.) 

Hall, W. S. "From Youth into Manhood." Association 
Press. $.50. (Highly approved and widely used.) 

Hall, W.S. "Instead of WUd Oats." ReveU. $.25. (Bok 
Series, Biological and Sociological basis.) 

Hall, W.S. "Reproduction and Sexual Hygiene." Wynne- 
wood, Chicago. $.90. (Very useful book, but criticized 
by many who disagree with the hygienic part.) 

Hall, W.S. "Sexual Knowledge." Intern. Bible House. 
Philadelphia. $1.00. (Useful for both men and women. 
Includes the best of the above book.) 

HowAHD, William Lee. "Plain Facts on Sex Hygiene." 
Clode. $1.00. (Sensational and exaggerated statements 
concerning social diseases; language unnecessarily 
offensive in places; but discussion of "continence" is 
good.) 

Howell and Keyes. "The Sexual Necessity." S.S.M.P. $.03. 

LowRY, E. B., and Lambert, R. J. "Himself: Talks with 
Men concerning Themselves." Forbes. $1.00. (Accu- 
rate in facts; not well arranged; not " the best book," 
as the publishers claim.) 

Lydston, G. Frank. "Sex Hygiene for the Male." River- 
ton, Chicago. $2.25. (Readable, fairly reliable, but 
not worth the price.) 

Martin, H.N. "Human Body — Advanced Course." Holt. 
$2.50. (Last chapter, especially in 1910 edition.) 

Moore, H. H. "Keeping in Condition." iMacmillan. 
$1.00. (A physical training book.) 



246 SEX-EDUCATION 

Morkow.PmnceA. "Health and Hygiene of Sex." S.S.M.P. 

$.05. (The best-known pamphlet for college men.) 
Speer, Robert E. "A Young Man's Questions." Revell. 

S.80. 
Sperry, Lyman B. "Confidential Talks with Young Men." 

Revell. $.75. 
Stall, Sylvanus. "What a Young Husband Ought to 

Know." Vir Co., Philadelphia. $1.00. (This and the 

next are useful to men who piefei a religious approach to 

sexual information.) 
Stall, Sylvanus. "What a Young Man Ought to Know." 

Vir Co., Philadelphia. $1.00. 
Wilson, Robert N. "American Boy and the Social Evil." 

Winston. Si.oo. 

For tee Married 

Cocks, Okrin G. "Engagement and Marriage." Associa- 
tion Press. $.25. (Talks to young men, but young 
women should be interested.) 

Cowan, John. "Science of a New Life." 1869. $3.00. 
(Obsolete, unreliable, unscientific; but widely sold by 
magazine advertising.) 

Davidson, Hugh S. "Marriage and Motherhood." Dodge. 

$.2$. 

Davis, E. P. "Mother and Child." Lippincott. $1.50. 
Foerster, F. W. " Marriage and the Sex Problem." Stokes. 

$1.35. (An important book.) 
Holt, L. E. "Care and Feeding of Children." Appleton. 

$.75. (The well-known nursery guide by the famous 

pediatrician.) 
Howard, W. L. "Facts for the Married." Clode. $1.00. 

(Good, from a physician's standpoint.) 
Jordan, W. J. "Little Problems of Married Life." Revell. 

$1.00. (Essays which touch many problems of home 

life.) 
Key, Ellen. "Love and Marriage." Putnam. $1.50. 

(The greatest work of this famous Swedish author.) 



BOOKS FOR SEX-EDUCATION 247 

Saleeby, C. W. "Parenthood and Race Culture.'' Moffat, 

Yard. $2.so. (Popular eugenics.) 
SpERRY, Lyman B. "Confidential Talks with Husband and 

Wife." Revell. $1.00. 
Wood-Allen, Mary. "Ideal Married Life." Revell. 

$1.25. (Best book by this well-known physician and 

author.) 

Heredity and Eugenics 

Castle, W. E. "Heredity in Relation to Evolution and 
Animal Breeding." Appleton. $1.50. 

CoNKLiN, F. G. "Heredity and Environment in the Develop- 
ment of Men." Princeton University Press. $2.00. 

Davenport, C. B. "Heredity in Relation to Eugenics." 
Holt. $2.00. 

Dawson, G. E. "Right of the Child to be Well Bom." 
Funk. $.75. 

Doncaster, L. "Heredity in the Light of Recent Research." 
Putnam. $.40. 

Geddes, P., and Thomson, J. A. "Evolution." Holt. $.50. 

Guyer, M. F. " Being Well Bom." Bobbs-Merrill. $1.00. 

Kellicott, W. E. "The Social Direction of Human Evolu- 
tion." Appleton. $1.50. 

PtTNNETT, R. C. "Mendelism." Macmillan. $.50. 

Saleeby, C. W. "Parenthood and Race Culture." MoSat, 
Yard. $2.50. 

Thomson, J. A. "Heredity." Putnam. $3.50. 

Waiter, H. E. "Genetics." Macmillan. $1.50. 



INDEX 



AbnonnaUty, in literature, isg ff. 

Adolescence, and sex-instruction, 
146 ff. 

Adults, and special sex-instruc- 
tion, 26. 

Esthetics of sex, 4, 74, m)7. 

AfEection, 163 ; " consecration 
of," 210; in marriage, i8g. 

Aims, of sex-education, 92, 94; 
of sex-education societies, 228. 

Animals, and human sexuality, 

72- 
Arguments, for sex-instruction, 

28 ff. 
Asceticism, 6g. 
Athletics, and sex, 141. 
Attitude, towards sex, 26, 67 ff. ; 

and morals, 75. 

Bibliography, 238 ff. 

Biology, 56, 6s ; and ethics, 102 

ff. ; and sex-instruction, 147; 

moral value, 217. 
Books, as teachers, 121 ff., 241 

ff. ; see also literature. 
Boys, influence on, 158; special 

instruction, 148-iso. 

Cabot, R. C, 63, 210 ff. 
Childhood, 25. 

Children, ignorant of sex, 204. 
Circumdsion, 139. 
Coeducation, in sex-instruction, 

109 ; and sex adjustment, 80. 
Continence, 160 ff., 176 ff.; of 

women, 190 ff. 
Contraception, and ethics, 219. 
Control, of sex instincts, 18. 



Criticisms, of sex-education, ao3 
ff. ; conclusions regarding, 226. 

Curiosity, denied by Repplier 
and Taft, q.v. 

Dancing, 169 ff., 200. 

Diseases, social or venereal, 37 ff. 

Dress, of women, 174 ff., 200. 

Education, as a solution, 19, 88; 
coeducation, 80; sex-differen- 
tiated, 82. 

Eliot, C. W., 71. 

Emissions, 149. 

Ethics, and biology, 102; and 
sex-hygiene, 61 ff. ; of sex, 4. , 

Eugenics, 86 ff.; aim of, 105; 
and ethics, 103. 

Europe, and sex problems, 59 ff. ; 
morality in, S9; sex-hygiene 
in, 230. 

Evolution, and vulgarity, 75. 

Fiction, and sex tragedies, 127. 
Foerster, 70. 
Frankness, 206. 
Friendships, of children, 136. 
Fulton, J. S., 40. 
Future, of sex-education, 234- 
237- 

Genetics, 87. 

Girls, special instruction, iji; 

unprotected, 191. 
Gonorrhea, see Diseases. 
Good, and evil, 21s. 

Hamilton, Cosmo, 208. 
Hartley, C. Gasquoine, 82 ff. 



249 



250 



INDEX 



Heredity, 87 ; and sex-education, 

104. 
History, of sex-education, 227 fE. 
Homes, and sex-instruction, 21. 
Hunger, two kinds, 73. 
Hygiene, and ethics, 210 ff.; of 

sex, 1-4, 25. 

Ideals, of manhood, 185; of 
womanhood, 157 ; of love and 
marriage, 159, 187. 

Ignorance, 45, 50, 54; of chil- 
dren, 12-14. 

Illegitimacy, 52 ff., sg. 

Immorality, 38 ; danger in teach- 
ing, 67. 

Instincts, sexual, 16-18. 

Intellectualism, and sex, 83. 

Kallikak family, 103. 
Key, Ellen, 64, 79. 
Knowledge, and will, 217. 

Lectures, on sex-hygiene, 100. 
Legislation, and social diseases, 

47- 
Literature, general list, 241 S. ; 
for parents, 33; on marriage, 
79; on diseases, 39; on sex, 
II ; on social evil, 52 ; general 
and sex, 124 ff. ; general refer- 
ences, 238 5. ; for young men, 
161, 183; for young women, 
201 ; radical sex, 193. 

Marriage, 159, 187 ; a sex prob- 
lem, 71 ff. 

Masturbation, 137 ff. 

Maxwell, W. H., 221. 

Men, as leaders in love, 188; 
instruction for, 156 ff. 

Misunderstanding, of sex, 5. 

Monogamy, 59. 

Morality, 58 ff.; double stand- 
ard, 42. 

Morrow, P. A., 37, 70; leader, 
227. 



Mothercraft, 155. 

Mothers, and boys, lii; first 

teachers, iii. 
Mystery, and sex, 15. 

Names, of sex organs, 148 ff. 
National Education Assodation, 

resolution on sex-instruction, 

232. 
Nature-Btudy, 133. 
Need, of sex-instruction, 11, ig. 
Neumann, H., 221. 

Oliphant, James, 159. 
Optimism, sex, ig6. 
Organization, of sex-education, 
g6ff. 

Parents, and daughters, 184, igo; 
cooperation of, 23; responsi- 
bility, 14 ; attitude, 30. 

Parkinson, W. D., 41. 

Passion, 58. 

Pessimism, sex, 72, 84, 196. 

Poetry, 124 ff, 

Pre-adolescence, 25, 133 ff. 

Problems of sex, 28 ff., ge, 95. 

Promiscuity, 38. 

Propagandism, needed, 28 ff. 

Prophylactics, venereal, 2ig. 

Prostitution, 48 S., 164; protec- 
tive knowledge for women, igg. 

Reading, concerning perversion 
and vice, 51. 

Refinement, of men, 167. 

Religion, approach to sex-instruc- 
tion, 209. 

Repplier, Agnes, 203. 

Reproduction, and sex, 5. 

Responsibility, indirect of women, 
195; individual, 18; of parents, 
30. 

Sanitation, and morals, 32g; 

see also hygiene and ethics. 
Self-abuse, 137 ff. 



INDEX 251 



SeU-contToI, 70, 173, 176-182; 
of women, igo S. 

Sensationalism, 233. 

Sex-education, definition, i ; 
larger view of, 27 ; need of, 
11; problems of, 28 5.; rela- 
tions, 4. 

Sex-hygiene, i-s ; adequacy, 43 ; 
personal, 35 fi. ; social, 3 ; and 
eugenics, 86; and ethics, 114, 
212 fi. ; personal, g8 fi. 

Sex-instruction, in schools, 20, 
23 ; in homes, 21 ; in high 
schools, 24; many-sided, 8g. 

Sex, meaning of the word, 6-10. 

Social diseases, 166; essential 
knowledge to be taught, 107. 

Social evil, 4, 48 fi. 

Social hygiene, 3; and ethics, 

lOI. 



Societies, for sex problems, 231, 

232. 
Society for Prophylaxis, 63. 
Super-morality, 64 fi. 
Syphilis, see Diseases. 

Taft, W. H., 224. 

Task, of sex-education, go. 

Teachers, of sex facts, 108; for 
classes, 113; married women, 
no; same sex as pupils, log; 
undesirable, 115. 

Teaching, morals, 216 fi. ; per- 
sonal, 205, 214. 

Tennyson, and sex lessons, 125. 

Vulgarity, 67 fi. 

Women, and diseases, 45; in- 
struction for, 184 S. 



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