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Cornell University 

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ST. martin's lane, LONDON, W.C. 2. 


The Collection of Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum 
comprises neariy fifty thousand objects, and many of its 
sections are unrivalled in completeness. It illustrates, in 
a more or less comprehensive manner, the history and civiliza- 
tion of the Egyptians from the time when their country was 
passing out of the Predynastic Period under a settled form of 
government, about B.C. 4500, to the time of the downfall of 
the power of the Queens Candace at Meroe, in the Egyptian 
Sfldin, in the second or third century after Christ. The 
monuments of Christian Egypt also form a very important 
series, and illustrate Coptic funerary sculpture and art 
between the sixth and eleventh centuries A.D. 

The present Guide has been prepared with the view of 
providing the visitor to the British Museum with information 
of a more general character than can be conveniently given 
in the Guides to the several Galleries and Rooms of the 
Department. An attempt has here been made to present 
a sketch of the origin, the manners and customs, the 
language, the writing, the literature, the religion, and the 
burial rites of the peoples of Egypt, and of their history 
under the successive dynasties ; embodying references to the 
several objects of the Collection which illustrate the different 
branches of the subject. The text is supplemented by an 
abundant selection of cuts and plates of the most important 
of the antiquities. 


Department of Egyptian and Assyrian 

Antiquities, British Museum, 

September 29, 190S. 

A 3 


PREFACE ■•..,. 






FANE ...... 

















A 4 

























Vignette from the papyrus of Queen 


Text and vignettes from the sarcophagus 

of King Nekht-Heru-hebt 
False door from the tomb of Shesha 
Sepulchral tablet of Thetha 
Sepulchral tablet of Sebek-tetep 
Sepulchral tablet of Pai-nehsi 
Sepulchral tablet of Bak-en-Amen . 
Sepulchral tablet of Nes-Heru 
Painted relief from the tomb of Ur-ari-en 


Painted sepulchral tablet of Kahu . 
Columns in the temple of Seti I 
Head of a priestess .... 
Seated figures of Kha-em-Uast and his 

wife ...... 

False door from the tomb of Asa-ankh 
View of a painted chamber in the tomb of 


Wall painting from a tomb 

General view of the sarcophagus of Nekht- 

Ueru-hebt ..... 
General view of the sarcophagus of Nes 

Qetiu ... . . 

Sepulchral tablet of Ban-aa 
The Great Pyramid and Sphinx 
The " Shekh al-Balad "... 
Tablet of Antef .... 
Tablet of Sebek-aa .... 
Tablet and figure of Sa-Hathor 












































Statue of Usertsen III 

Head of Amen-em-hat III 

Statue of Sekhem-uatch-taui-Ra 

Stele of the reign of Sekhem-ka-Ra . 

Memorial cone of Sebek-hetep . 

The Hall of Columns at Karnak 

Head of a colossal statue of Thothmes III 

Statue of Amen-hetep III . 

The Colossi of Amen-hetep III 

Letter of Amen-hetep III 

Letter of Tushratta, king of Mitani, to 

Amen-hetep III . 
Lion of Tut-ankh-Amen . 
Statues of a priest and his wife 
The temple of AM Simbel 
Head of a colossal statue of Rameses II 
Sepulchral stele of Qaha . 
Vignettes from the papyrus of Queen 

Netchemet ..... 
Hathor-headed capital 
Relief of Queen Ankhnes-neferab-Ka 
The goddess Nut .... 
Statue of Uah-ab-Ra 
Obelisk dedicated to Thoth, Twice-great 
Vignettes and text from the sarcophagus 

of Nekht-Heru-heb 
Relief of Ptolemy II 
The temple of Edfa. 
Granite shrine from Philae 
Tablet of Tiberius .... 
Tablet of Tiberius .... 
Tablet of Apa Pahomo . 



Map of Egypt , 

The Delta of Egypt 

The Entrance to the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings a 
Thebes i . . 

• 2, 3 


The Nile-gods and their cavern 


The Nile-god in his cavern 


The Nile-god bearing offerings 

The Nile-gods of the South and North . 



The Nile from sea to source 


Statue of Hapi the Nile-god 

Egyptian hunters of the Archaic Period, Nos. i-6 . 


Ivory figure of a king 

Bone figure of a dwarf 


Bone figure of a woman carrying a child 
Bone figure of a woman with inlaid eyes 


Figure of Nefer-hi . . .... 


Fox playing the double pipes 

Mouse seated on a chair 


Cat herding geese 

Lion and unicorn playing draughts . . . 



The spearing of Apep 

A page of writing from the Great Harris Papyrus . 


Demotic writing 

Coptic inscription 

The Rosetta Stone 




Two wooden writing palettes 

Slab of limestone inscribed in hieratic .... 




Vignette and text from the papyrus of Ani 

Vignette and text from the papyrus of Nu 

Vignette and text from the papyrus of Heru-em-heb 

Text from the Book " May my name flourish " 

The ceremony of " Opening the mouth " 

Marble sun-dial . 

Head of a priestess 

Relief, with a hippopotamus 

Green schist bear 

Egyptian house . 

Egyptian hut 

Ivory head-rest . 

The Bull Apis . 

The Bull Mnevis . 

Flint cow's head .... 

Jewellers drilling and polishing beads 

Pylon and court of the temple of Edffi 

Gateway to the temple of Rameses III 

Gateway of Ptolemy IX at Karnak 

Granite obelisks at Karnak . 

Pillars at Philae . 

Statue of An-kheft-ka . 

Figure of a priest . 

Head of a statue of Neb-hap-Ra 

Statue of Sebek-nekht . 

Figure of a king . 

Queen Teta-Khart 

Head of Amen-hetep III 

Statue of I sis 

Figure of Qen-nefer 

Statues of Mahu and Sebta . 

The principal gods and goddesses of Egypt (57 figures) 

Khnemu fashioning a man on a potter's wheel 

Osiris rising from the sarcophagus 

Osiris in his shrine 

Thoth weighing the heart 



Maat weighing the heart 


Osiris on his Judgment Throne . . 


Ra at sunrise 


Ra at sunset . . 


Flint amulets (4 figures) ... 


The step pyramid at Sakljarah 


A group of mastaba tombs . 


Tablet for offerings .... 


An Egyptian tomb .... 


The soul visiting the body . 


Section of the Second Pyramid . . . , 


Entrance to the tomb of Khnemu-hetep 


Entrance to a royal tomb 


Plan and section of the tomb of Seti L (2 cuts) 


Wall painting from a tomb 


Coffin of Hes-Fetan-Ast .... 

. 176 

Figures of Ka-tep and Hetep-heres 

• 177 

King Semti dancing before a god . 


Relief from the tomb of Shera 


Relief from the tomb of Suten-abu 


King Khufu 


Section of the Great Pyramid .... 

• 197 

King Khaf-Ra 


King Menkau-Ra 


Section of the Third Pyramid 


King Usr-en-Ra An ... . 


Shrine of Pa-suten-sa 

. 219 

Stele of Tatiankef .... 


Lion of Khian • 

• 225 

Statue of Amen-hetep I 


The Temple of Luxor 

• 233 

Scarabs of Amen-hetep III (2 cuts) 

• 235 

Kneeling statue of Rameses II ... . 

. 241 

Fa9ade of the Ramesseum 

■ 243 

Statues of Rameses II (2 cuts) . ... 


Statue of Kha-em-Uast • 




Statue of Seti II . 

Statue of Ankh-renp-nefer . 

Head of Psammetichus II . 

Stele of Ptolemy II . 

Head of a statue of a Ptolemy 

Limestone window 

" Pharaoh's Bed " 

Coptic sepulchral tablet 

Tablet of PlSinos . 

Tablet of David . 

Tablet of Abraam 

Tablet of Rachel . 















which they brought down with them, and thus the soil of 
Egypt was gradually built up. Near Esna begins the layer 
of sandstone, which extends southward, and covers nearly 
the whole of Nubia, and rests ultimately on crystalline rock. 

The part of Egypt which lies to the north of the point 
where the Nile divides itself into two branches resembles in 
shape a lotus flower, 


a triangle standing on its 
apex, and because of its 
similarity to the fourth 
letter of their alphabet, the 

Greeks called it Delta, A . 

The Delta is formed of 
a deep layer of mud and 
sand, which rests upon the 
yellow quartz sands, and 
gravels and stiff clay, which 
were laid down by the sea 
in prehistoric times. The 
area of the Delta is about 
14,500 square miles. 

The Oases of Egypt 

The Delta of Egypt. 

are seven in number, and all are situated in the Western 
Desert. Their names are: i. Oasis of Siwah or Jupiter 
Ammon ; 2. Oasis of Bahariyah, i.e., the Northern Oasis ; 

3. The Oasis of Farafrah, the Ta-ahet of the Egyptians ; 

4. The Oasis of D^khlah, i.e., the "Inner" Oasis, the 
Tchesti of the Egyptians; 5. The Oasis of Kh^rg-ah, 
i.e., the " Outer Oasis," the Uaht-rest or " Southern Oasis " of 
the Egyptians ; 6. The Oasis of Dailah, to the west of 
Farafrah ; 7. The Oasis of Kurkur, to the west of Aswan. 

The principal Lakes of Egypt are: i. Birkat al-Kurun, 
a long, narrow lake lying to the north-west of the 
Province of the Fayyum, and formerly believed to be 
a part of the Lake Moeris described by Herodotus ; 2. The 
Natron Lakes, which lie in the Natron Valley, to the north- 
west of Cairo ; from these the Egyptians obtained salt and 
various forms of soda, which were used for making incense, 
and in embalming the dead; 3. Lake Menzilah, Lake 
Burlus, Lake Edku, Lake Abukir, now almost reclaimed, 
and Lake Mareotis; all these are in the Delta. Lake 
Timsah {i.e., Crocodile Lake) and the Bitter Lakes, which 
were originally mere swamps, came into existence with the 
making of the Suez Canal. 


The Fasryum which was in ancient times regarded as one 
of the Oases, is nothing more than a deep depression 
scooped out of the limestone, on which are layers of loams 
and marls covered over by Nile mud. The district was 
called by the Egyptians " Ta-she," or " Land of the Lake " ; 
at the present time it has an area of about 850 square miles, 
and is watered by a branch of the Nile called the " Bahr 
Yusuf," which flows into it through an opening in the 
mountains on th6 west bank of the Nile. The Bahr Yusuf, 
or " River of Joseph," is not called after the name of the 

The Entrance to the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes. 

patriarch Joseph, but that of some Muhammadan ruler. It 
is not a canal as was once supposed, but an arm of the Nile, 
which, however, needs clearing out periodically. In the 
Fayytim lay the large body of water to which Herodotus 
gave the name of Lake Moeris. He believed that this Lake 
had been constructed artificially, but modern irrigation 
authorities in Egypt have come to the conclusion that the 
mass of water which he saw and thought was a lake was 
merely the result of the Nile flood, or inundation, and that 
there never was a Lake Moeris. 

Deserts. On each side of the Valley of the Nile lies a 
vast desert. That on the east is called the Arabian Desert, 


or Red Sea Desert, and that on the west the Libyan Desert. 
The influence of the latter on the climate of Egypt is very 
great, as for six months of the year the prevailing wind 
blows from the west. At many places in the Eastern and 
Western Deserts there are long stretches of sand scores of 
ftiiles in length, and immense tracts covered with layers of 
loose pebbles and stone, and the general effect is desolate in 
the extreme. The hills which skirt the deserts along the 
Valley of the Nile are usually quite low, but at certain points 
they rise to the height of a few hundred feet. Nothing grows 
on them, and more bare and inhospitable places cannot be 
imagined. The accompanying illustration gives a good idea 
of the general appearance of the stone hills on the Nile. In 
the fore-ground are masses of broken stone, sand, rocks, etc., 
and these stretch back to a gap in the range of hills just below 
the letter A, whence, between steep rocks, a rough road winds 
in and out along the dreary valley which contains the sepul- 
chres of the great kings of the XVIIIth, XlXth and 
later dynasties. Under the light of a full moon the Valley is 
full of weird beauty, but in the day-time the heat in it 
resembles that of a furnace. 

The chief characteristic of Egypt is the great river Nile, 
which has in all ages been the source of the life and prosperity 
of. its inhabitants, and the principal highway of the country. 
The Egyptians of the early Dynastic Period had no exact 
knowledge about the true source of the river. In their hymns 
to the Nile-god they described him as the " hidden one," and 
" unseen," and his "secret places " are said to be "unknown." 
The river over which he presided formed a part of the great 
celestial river, or ocean, upon which sailed the boats of the 
Sun-god daily. This river surrounded the whole earth, from 
which, however, it was separated by a range of mountains. 
On one portion of this river was placed the throne of Osiris, 
according to a legend, and close by was the opening in the 
range of mountains through which an arm of the celestial 
river flowed into the earth. The place where the Nile 
appeared on earth was believed to be situated in the First 
Cataract, and in late times the Nile was said to rise there, 
between two mountains which were near the Island of Ele- 
phantine and the Island of Philae. Herodotus gives the 
names of these mountains as " Krdphi " and " M6phi," and 
their originals have probably been found in the old Egyptian 
" Qer-Iiapi " and " Mu-Hapi " ; these names mean " Cavern 
of Hapi " and " Water of Hapi " respectively. 

The underground caverns, or "storehouses of the Nile," 


from which the river welled up, are depicted in the illustra- 
tions here given. In the first the cavern is guarded by a 
hippopotamus-headed goddess, who is armed with a large knife 
and wears a feather on her head. Above are seated two 

The two Nile-gods and their Cavern, and the The Nile-god in his cavern, under 
hippopotamus goddess, who is armed with a the rocks at Philae, pouring 

huge knife, their protectress. out the waters which formed" 

the two Niles. 

gods, one wearing a cluster of papyrus plants on his head, 
and the other a cluster of lotus flowers ; the former represents 
the Nile of the South, and the other the Nile of the North. 
Each god holds water-plants in one hand. In the second 
illustratio^n the god is depicted kneeling in his cavern, which 


is enclosed by the body of a serpent ; he wears a cluster of 
water-plants on his head, and is pouring out from two vases 
the streams of water which became the South and North 

The Egyptians called both their river and the river-god 

"Hap" or "Hapi"|-^ ^ "^"^^ " 

the meaning is unknown 
god was called " Hep-ur 
The name « Nile," by which the " River of Egypt " is 


, a name of which 
in very early dynastic times the 
^5 , i^., the " great Hep." 

generally known, is not of Egyptian origin, but is probably 
derived from the Semitic word nakhal "river"; this the 
Greeks turned into "Neilos," and the Latins into " Nilus," 

The Nile-god bearing 
oflerlngs of bread, wine, 
fruit, flowers, etc. 

The Nile-gods of the South and North tying 
the stems of a lily and a papyrus plant 
round the symbol of " union," symbolizing 
the union of Upper and Lower Egypt. 

whence comes the common form " Nile." The river appears 
in the form of a man wearing a cluster of water-plants on his 
head, and his fertility is indicated by a large pendent breast. 
In the accompanying illustration the gods of the South and 
North Niles are seen tying stems of the lotus and papyrus 
plants round the symbol of "union"; the scene represents 
the union of Upper and Lower Egypt. 

The ideas held by the Egyptians concerning the power of 
the Nile-god are well illustrated by a lengthy Hymn to the 
Nile preserved on papyrus in the British Museum (Sallier H, 
No. 10,182). " Homage to thee, O Hapi, thou appearest in this 
" land, and thou comest in peace to make Egypt to live. Thou 
" waterest the fields which Ra hath created, thou givest life 


" unto all animals, and as thou descendest on thy way from 
" heaven thou makest the land to drink without ceasing. Thou 
" art the friend of bread and drink, thou givest strength to the 
" grain and makest it to increase, and thou fillest every place 
■' of work with work . . . Thou art the lord of fish . . . thou art 
" the creator of barley, and thou makest the temples to endure 
" for millions of years . . . Thou art the lord of the poor and 
" needy. .If thou wert overthrown in the heavens, the gods 
" would fall upon their faces, and men would perish. When 
" thou appearest upon the earth, shouts of joy rise up and all 
" people are glad ; every man of might receiveth food, and 
" every tooth is provided with meat . . . Thou fillest the store- 
" houses, thou makest the granaries to overflow and thou 
" hast regard to the condition of the poor and needy Thou 
" makest herbs and grain to grow that the desires of all 
" may be satisfied, and thou art not impoverished thereby. 
" Thou makest thy strength to be a shield for man." Else- 
where he is called the " father of the gods of the company of 
" the gods who dwell in the celestial ocean," and he was 
declared to be self-begotten, and " One," and in nature in- 

In another passage of the same hymn it is said that the 
god is not sculptured in stone, that images of him are not 
seen, " he is not to be seen in inscribed shrines, there is no 
" habitation large enough to contain him, and thou not 
" make images of him in thy heart." These statements sug- 
gest that statues or figures of the Nile-god were not commonly 
made, and it is a fact that figures of the god, large or small, 
arc rare. In the fine collection of figures of Egyptian gods 
exhibited in the Third Egyptian Room, which is certainly 
one of the largest in the world, there is only one figure of 
Hapi (No. io8. Wall-case 125). In this the god wears on his 

head a cluster of papyrus plants Jf, before which is the 
Utchat, or Eye of Horus, ■^;, and he holds an altar from 

which he pours out water. The only other figure of the god 
in the British Museum collection is the. fine quartzite sand- 
stone statue (Southern Egyptian Gallery, No. 766) which was 
dedicated to Amen-Ra by Shashanq, the son of Uasarken 
and his queen Maat-ka-Ra. Here the god bears on his 
out-stretched hands an altar, from which hang down bunches 
of grain, green herbs, flowers, waterfowl, etc. The statue was 
dedicated to Amen-Ra, who included the attributes of Hap 
among his own. 







Atbara, the Astaboras of Strabo, a torrential stream which 
brings into the Nile an immense quantity of dirty red water 
containing valuable deposits of mud. The Cataracts, or 
series of rapids, on the Nile are six in number : the first is 
between Aswan and Philae, the second is a little to the south 
of Wadi Halfah, the third is at Hannek, the fourth is at 
Adramiya, the fifth is at W^dl al-HamSr, and the sixth is at 
Shablukah. On the White Nile is a series of cataracts known 
as the " Fola Falls," and on the Blue Nile there are cataracts 
from Rus^res southwards for a distance of 40 miles. 

The most important characteristic of the Nile is its annual 
flooding or Inundation. By the end of May, in Egypt, the 
river is at its lowest level. During the month of June the 
Nile, between Cairo and Aswan, begins to rise, and a quantity 
of "green water" appears at this time. The cause of the 
colour is said to be myriads of minute algae, which subse- 
quently putrefy and disappear. During August the river 
rises rapidly, and its waters assume a red, muddy colour, 
which is due to the presence of the rich red earth which 
is brought into the Nile by the Blue Nile and the 
Atbara. The rising of the waters continues until the middle 
of September, when they remain stationary for about a fort- 
night or three weeks. In October a further slight rise occurs, 
and then they begin to fall ; the fall continues gradually until, 
in the May following, they are at their lowest level once 
more. The cause of the Inundation is, as Aristotle (who 
lived in the fourth century B.C.) first showed, the spring and 
early summer rains in the mountains of Ethiopia and the 
Southern Sudan ; these are brought down in torrents by the 
great tributaries of the Nile, viz., the Gazelle River, the Sobat 
(the Astasobas of Strabo), the Giraffe River, the Blue Nile, 
and the Atbara. The Sobat rises about April 15, the Gazelle 
River and the Giraffe River about the iSth of May, the Blue 
Nile at the end of May, and the Atbara a little later. The 
united waters of these tributaries, with the water of the 
Upper Nile, reach Egypt about the end of August, and cause 
the Inundation to reach its highest level. The Nile rises from 
21 feet to 28 feet, and deposits a thin layer of fertilizing 
mud over every part of the country reached by its waters. 
Formerly, when the rise was about 26 feet, there was sufficient 
water to cover the whole country ; when it was less, scarcity 
prevailed ; and when it was more, ruin and misery appeared 
through over-flooding. In recent years, the British irrigation 
engineers in Egypt have regulated, by means of the Aswin 
Dam, the Barrage at Asyiit, and the Barrage near Al- 


Manashi, a little to the north of Cairo,^ the supply of water 
during the winter, or dry season, with such success, that, in 
spite of " low " Niles, the principal crops have been saved, and 
the people protected from want. 

In connection with the adoration of the Nile, two 
important festivals were observed. The first of these took 
place in June and was called the " Night of the Tear," 

p=J=l<ww^Aw'^^'^, OO'llir-^^. Qerh en Hatui, because it 

was believed that at this time of the year the goddess Isis 
shed tears in commemoration of her first great lamentation 
over the dead body of her husband Osiris. Her tears fell 
into the river, and as they fell they multiplied and filled the 
river, and in this way caused the Inundation. This belief 
exists in Egypt, in a modified form, at the present time, and, 
up to the middle of last century the Muhammadans celebrated, 
with great solemnity, a festival on the nth day of Paoni 
(June 17th), which was called the " Night of the Drop," LHat 
al-Nuktdh. On the night of this day a miraculous drop of 
water was supposed to fall into the Nile and cause it to rise. 
The second ancient Nile-festival was observed about the 
middle of August, and has its equivalent in the modern 
Muhammadan festival of the " Cutting of the Dam." A dam 
of earth about 23 feet high was built in the Khalig Canal, 
and when the level of the Nile nearly reached this height, a 
party of workmen thinned the upper portion of the dam at 
sunrise on the day following the " completion of the Nile," 
and immediately afterwards a boat was rowed against it, and, 
breaking the dam, passed through it with the current. 

The history of Egypt shows that in all periods the country 
has suffered from severe famines, which have been caused by 
successions of " low " Niles. Thus a terrible seven years' 
famine began in A.D. 1066, and lasted till 1072. Dogs, cats, 
horses, mules, vermin fetched extravagant prices, and the 
people of Cairo killed and ate each other, and human flesh 
was sold in the public markets. In Genesis xli, we have 
another example of a seven years' famine, and still an older 
one is mentioned in an inscription cut upon a rock on the 
Island of Sahal in the First Cataract. According to the text, 
this famine took place in the reign of Tcheser, a king of the 
Ilird dynasty, about B.C. 4000, because there had been no 
satisfactory inundation of the Nile for seven years. The king 
says that by reason of this, grain was very scarce, vegetables 

' To these must now be added the Barrage at Esna. 


and garden produce of every description could not be obtained, 
the people had nothing to eat, and men were everywhere 
robbing their neighbours. Children wailed for food, young 
men had no strength to move, strong men collapsed for 
want of sustenance, and the aged lay in despair on the 
ground waiting for death. The king wrote to Matar, the 
Governor of the First Cataract, where the Nile was believed 
to rise, and asked him to enquire of Khnemu, the god of the 
Cataract, why such calamities were allowed to fall on the 
country. Subsequently the king visited Elephantine, and was 
received by Khnemu, the god of the Cataract, who told him 
that the Nile had failed to rise because the worship of the 
gods of the Cataract had been neglected. The king promised 
to dedicate offerings regularly to their temples in future, and, 
having kept his promise, the Nile rose and covered the land, 
and filled the country with prosperity. 

Egyptian Geography. — From time immemorial Egypt 
has been divided into two parts, viz., the Land of the South, 

Ta-Resu, 1®, and the Land of the North, Ta-Meht, 

f" . The Land of the South is Upper Egypt, and its 

northern limit in modern times is Cairo ; the Land of the North 
is Lower Egypt, i.e., the Delta, and its southern limit is Cairo. 
The ancient Egyptians divided the Land of the South into 
twenty-two parts, and the Land of the North into twenty parts ; 

each such part was called Hesp | ffifE, a word which 

the Greeks rendered by nome. Each nome was to all intents 

and purposes a little complete kingdom. It was governed by 

A ' or chief man, and it contained a capital town in 

/leq, j. 

which was the seat of the god of the nome and the priesthood, 
and every /leq administered his Aesp as he pleased. The 
number of the nomes given by Greek and Roman writers 
varies between thirty-six and forty-four. In late times Egypt 
was divided into three parts. Upper, Central, and Lower 
Egypt ; Central Egypt consisted of seven nomes, and was 
therefore called Heptanomis. The nomes were : 






God or Goddess. 



Abu.i Elephantine. 




Teb. Apollinopolis 
Magna. Ed/A 




Nekheb. Eileithyias- 
POLis. Al-Kdb. 




Uast. Thebes (or Hermon- 
THls). Luxor, Karnak. 




Kebti. COPTOS. Kuft. 

Amsu, or 



Taenterert. Tentyris. 




Ha. DiosPOLis Vkky A. Hau. 




Teni. This. 

An- Her. 


Apu. Panopolis. Ahkmim. 

Amsu or 



Tebu. Aphroditopolis. 


I [. 


Shas-hetep. Hypselis. 



Tu- . . . . 

Nut-ent-bak. Hierakon- 





Saut. Lykopolis. Asyilt. 




Kesi. Kusae. Al-Kustyah. 




Khemennu. Hermopolis. 







Anpu (?). 

Kasa. Kynonpoijs. 




liet-suten. Al-Hibah. 




Pa-Matchet. Oxyr- 
RHYNCHUS. Bahnassd. 




Suten-henen. Herakle- 
OPOLis Magna. Ahnas. 
(The Han^s of the Bible.) 








Tep-Ahet. Aphrodito- 
polis. Atfth. 


^ Names printed i 

in heavy type are Egyptian ; those in capitals are Greek, and 

those «■« italics are 1 

;he names by which the places are known by the modern 







God or Goddess. 



Men-nefert. Memphis. 




Sekhem. Letopolis. 




Pa-neb-Amt. Apis. 








Saut. Sais. Sd. 




Khasut. Xois. 





Metelis (?). 




Thekaut (Succoth), Pa- 

Atem, or 

Tem (Pithom). Patu- 


MOS. Tall al-Maskhiitah. 


Athi (?). 

Pa-Asar. Busiris. 





Het - ta - her - abt. 






Hesbet (?), Ka-Hebset (?). 

Isis, or .Sebek, 


Theb- .... 

Theb-neter(?). Sebenny- 
TOS. SammanM. 




Annu (The On of the Bible). 
Heliopolis. Matartyah. 




Tchal. Tanis. Sdn. 




Pa-Tehuti. Hermopolis 




Pa-Ba-neb Tet. Mendes. 
Tmai al-AmdM. 




Pa - Khen - en Amen. 





Pa-Bast. PiBESETH 
BubastiS. Tall Bastah. 




Pa-Uatchet. Buto. 




Kesem. Phakussa. 


The Sudan was divided into 13 nomes : 



The region south of Meroe. 



Meroe. Bagrawtr. 







Nome. Capital. God or Goddess. 

4. Peten-Heru. Pontyris. Horus. 

5. Pa-Nebset. Pnups. Thoth. 

6. Ta-Uatchet. Autoba (?). 

7. Behent. Boon. Wadi Halfah. Horus. 

8. Atefthit. Tasitia (?). 

9. Nehau. Noa. 

10. Mehit. Meae. Horus. 

11. Maamet. Ibrim. Horus. 

12. Bekt. Bok. Kubban. Horus. 

13. Het-Khent. P-alek. Philae. Biiak. Isis. 

Under the Ptolemies, the district between Elephantine and 
Philae was called Dodekaschoinos, because it contained 
twelve schoinoi, or measures of land, but later this term was 
applied to the whole region between Elephantine and Hiera 

Under the late Roman emperors many of the nomes were 
subdivided, probably for convenience in levying taxes, and in 
still later times the governor of a nome, or province, bore the 
title of Duke {£i.ov^). 

Modern Egypt is divided into 14 provinces : 





I. Baherah. 


2. Kaiyfibiyah. 


3. Sharklyah. 


4. Dakhaiiyah. 


S. Manfiftyah. 


6. Gharbtyah. 






I. Gizah. 


2. Beni-Suw6f. 


3. Minyah. 


4. Asyiit 


5. Girgah. 


6. Kena. 


7. Nilba. 


8. Fayyflm. 

Madtnat al-Fayyfim, 


The towns of Cairo, Alexandria, Port Sa'id, Suez, 

Damietta, etc., are generally governed each by a native ruler. 
The provinces of the Stidin are as follows : 
I. Bahr al-Ghaz^l. 2. Berber. 3. Blue Nile Province. 

4. Dongola. 5. Halfah. 6. Kassala. 7. Khartum Province. 

8. Kordofi.n. 9. Mongalla. 10. Red Sea Province. 

II. Sennaar. 12. Upper Nile Province. 13. White Nile 




Ethnography. The Land of Punt. National 
Character. Population. Language. Forms of 
Writing. Decipherment of Egyptian Hiero- 
glyphics. Young and Champollion. Hieroglyphic 
Alphabet and Writing. Writing Materials. 

The Egyptians.— The evidence of the monuments and 
the literature of Egypt proves that the Egyptians were of 
African origin, and that they were akin to the light-skinned 
peoples who inhabited the north-east portion of the African 
Continent. Further evidence of this fact is supplied by the 
" table of natiojis " preserved in the tenth chapter of Genesis, 
where it is stated that Cush and Mizraim were the sons of 
Ham Now this Cush, or Ethiopia, is not the country which 
we call Abyssinia, but the Northern Sudan, or Nubia ; there- 
fore the Nubians (Cush) and the Egyptians (Mizraim) were 
brethren, and they were Hamites, or Africans. The relation- 
ship between the Nubians and the Egyptians is also asserted 
by Diodorus, who declared that the Egyptians were descended 
from a colony of Ethiopians, i.e., Nubians, who had settled in 
Egypt. And there is no doubt that from the earliest to the 
latest times a very close bond existed between the Northern 
Nubians and the Egyptians, which manifested itself in the 
religion and religious ceremonies of both peoples. The 
Cushites were dark in colour, sometimes actually black, but 
there is no evidence which proves they were negroes ; and 
the Egyptians were red, or brown-red, or reddish yellow 
in colour. On the west of the Nile Valley lived the fair- 
skinned Libyans ; on the east the remote ancestors of the 
Blemmyes and the modern Bishari tribes, who were of a light 
brownish colour, and on the south, near the Equator, were 
negro tribes, which formed part of the great belt of black 
peoples that extended right across Africa, from sea to sea. 

The dynastic Egyptians appear to have regarded a 

country, or district, called Pun ^^ as their original 

home, and they certainly preserved down to the latest times 


some of the peculiarities in dress of the primitive inhabitants 
of that region. That Punt was situated a considerable 
distance to the south of Egypt is certain, and that it could be 
reached by land, and also by water by way of the Red Sea, is 
clear from the inscriptions, but there is no evidence available 
which enables the exact limits of the country to be defined. 
The despatch of several expeditions to Punt by the Egyptians 
is recorded, for the purpose of bringing back anti spice, 

, or myrrh, which was used freely for embalming 

purposes. They started from some point on the Red Sea 
near the modern town of KusSr, and sailed southwards until 
they reached the river of the port of Punt which was situated 
on the east coast of Africa, probably in Somaliland. The 
expedition despatched by Queen Hatshepet about B.C. 1550 
brought back boomerangs, a huge pile of myrrh, logs of 
ebony, elephants' tusks, sweet-smelling woods, eye-paint, 
various kinds of spices, dog-headed apes, monkeys, leopard 
(or panther) skins, " green " {i.e., pale) gold, and gold rings 
which are to this day used as currency in East Africa and are 
known as " ring money." Now, all these things are products 
of the region which lies between the southern end of the 
Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Valley of the Nile, and 
it is impossible not to conclude that Punt was situated some- 
where in it. The Egyptian expeditions probably sailed up 
a river for a considerable distance, to a point where the 
products of Punt were brought by trading caravans for 
export, and there the Egyptians bartered for the myrrh, etc.,'' 
which they required. The market place must have been 
inland, for the huts of the natives are represented in the bas- 
reliefs as standing close to the river. 

The men of Punt wore a pointed beard and a loin cloth, 
which was kept in position by a kind of belt, from which hung 
down behind the tail of an animal. The beard of the 
Egyptian was also pointed, and gods, kings, and priestly 
ofificials on solemn, ceremonial occasions, wore tails. Thus 
in the Papyrus of Anr (Judgment Scene) the gods Thoth and 
Anubis wear tails, and the priestly official in the same scene 
wears the leopard's skin, the tail of which is supposed to be 
hanging behind him. In two statues of Amen-hetep III 
(Northern Egyptian Gallery, Nos.412, 413), the tail is supposed 
to be brought forward under the body^of the king, and its 
end is carefully sculptured on the space between his legs. 
The custom of wearing tails is common in Central Africa 

B 2 


at the present day, even the women, in some places, wearing 
long tails of bast (Schweinfurth, Heart of Africa, I, p. 295) ; 
and a recent traveller reports that the Gazum people wear 
tails, about six inches long, for which they dig holes in the 
ground when they sit down (Boyd Alexander, From the 
Niger, I, p. 78). Many other points of comparison between 
the Egyptians and the peoples of Central Africa could be 
mentioned in proof of the views that the indigenous dynastic 
Egyptians were connected with the people of Punf, and that 
Punt was situated in the South-Eastern Siiddn. 

As to the succession of peoples in the Nile Valley, or rather 
of that portion of it which is called Egypt, many theories 
have been formulated in recent years. Some of the most 
competent authorities think that the earliest dwellers in 
Egypt were black folk, who were driven out or killed off by 
a race of people who possessed many of the characteristics 
of the Libyans, and who came from the west, or south-west, and 
took possession of Egypt. It is thought that the next 
invasions of the country were made by peoples who came 
from the east, or south-east, and, having settled down on the 
Nile, mingled with the inhabitants. After these it seems very 
probable that Egypt was invaded by tribes whose home was 
some part of Western Asia, probably the country now called 
Southern Babylonia. Some think that they entered Egypt by 
the Isthmus of Suez, and others that they crossed from Arabia 
to Africa by the straits of Bab al-Mandib at the southern end 
of the Red Sea. Another view is that the invaders entered 
Egypt by the W^di Hammfimit, and that they arrived on 
the Nile at some place near the modern town of Kena. 
Little by little the invaders conquered the country, and in- 
troduced into it the arts of agriculture, brick-making, writing, 
working in metals, etc. Wheat, barley, and the domestic 
sheep seem to have been brought into. Egypt about this time. 
The manriers and customs of the new comers were very 
different from those of the men they conquered, and their 
civilization was of a much higher character than that of the 
primitive Egyptians ; but, among the great bulk of the 
population, the beliefs, religion, and habits continued to pre- 
serve unchanged their characteristic African nature. 

What the physical form of the primitive, pre-dynastic 
Egyptian was cannot be said, but it is probable that he 
resembled the dynastic Egyptians whose pictures are seen by 
hundreds in the tombs. If this be so, he was tall, slender of 
body, with long thin legs, small hands, and long feet. His 
hair was black and curly, but must not be confounded with 


B 3 



the " wool " of the negro, his eyes black and slightly almond- 
shaped, his cheek-bones high and often prominent, his 
nose straight — sometimes aquiline — and inclined to be fleshy ; 
his mouth wide, with somewhat full lips, his teeth srnall and 
regular and his chin prominent, because his under jaw was 
thrust slightly forward. The women were yellowish in colour, 
probably because their bodies were not so much exposed 
to the rays of the sun as those of the men. The general 
character of the physique of the Egyptian has remained 

7 Bone figure of a dwarf, 

g. 1st dynasty (?) Archaic Period. 

[No. '197, Table-case L, Third Egyptian [No. 42, Table-case L, Third Egyptian 

Ivory figure of a king. 1st dynasty (?) 


, Room.] 

practically unchanged to the present day, and no admixture 
of foreign elements has affected it permanently. 

The physical features and dress of the primitive dynastic 
Egyptians are well illustrated by the accompanying drawings 
and photographs. From Nos. 1-6 (page 23) we see that their 
hair was short and curly, their noses long and pointed, their eyes 
almond-shaped, their beards pointed, their arms and legs long, 
their hands large, and their feet long and flat. They wear in 
their hair feathers, probably red feathers from the tails of 
parrots, such as are worn at the present day, and their loin cloths 



are fastened round their bodies by belts, from which hang short, 
bushy tails of jackals '?). No. i bears a hawk-standard, the 
symbol of the god of the tribe, and is armed with a mace 
having a diamond-shaped head. No. 2 bears a hawk-standard 
and wields a double-headed stone axe. No. 3 is armed with 
a mace and a bow. No. 4 is shooting a flint-tipped arrow 


I ■ ^ 


Bone figure of a woman carrying a child 

on her shoulder. Archaic Period. 

[No. 41, Table-case L, Third Egyptian 


Bone figure of a woman, with inlaid 

lapis-lazuli eyes. Archaic Period. 

[No. 40, Table-case L, Third Egyptian 


from a bow. No. 5 is armed with a boomerang and a spear, 
and No. 6 with a mace and a boomerang. The above illus- 
trations are drawn 'from the green slate shield exhibited m 
Table-case L in the Third Egyptian Room. 

To about the same period belongs the ivory figure of a kmg 
here reproduced (No. 7). He wears the Crown of the South, and 
a garment worked with an elaborate diamond pattern. The 



nose is flatter and more fleshy than in the drawings from the 
slate shield, and the lips are fuller and firmer. In figures 8-10 
we have representations of the women of the Archaic Period, 
about B.C. 4200. No. 8 is a female dwarf, or perhaps a woman 
who belonged to one of the pygmy tribes that lived near the 
Equator. No. 9 is a most interesting figure, for it illustrates 
the hair-dressing and dress of the period. The features of the 
child, who is carried partly on the back and partly on the 
left shoulder, as at the present day, are well preserved. ^No. 10 

Figure of Betchmes, a royal 


[Vestibule, South Wall, No. 3.] 

Painted limestone figure of Nefer-hi. 

[No. 150, Wall-case 99, Third Egyptian 


Portrait Figures of Officials of the IIIrd or IVth Dynasty. 
About b.c. 3700. 

represents a woman of slim build, with blue eyes, and wearing 
an elaborate head-dress, which falls over her shoulders. 

National Character. — Herodotus, who was an acute 
observer of the manners and customs of the Egyptians, states 
(ii, 64) that the Egyptians were " beyond measure scrupulous 
" in all matters appertaining to religion," and the monuments 
prove hirh to be absolutely correct. The Egyptian worshipped 
ifiis God, whose chief symbol to him was the sun, daily and 



regularly, and prayed to him morning and evening. His 
attitude towards his Maker was one of absolute resignation. 
The power of God, as displayed by the Sun, and the River 
Nile, and other forces of nature filled him with awe, and 
made him to realize his helplessness. His views as to the 
dependence of men on the sun are well illustrated by the 
following extract from a hymn to Aten, the god of the Solar 
Disk : " When thou settest in the western horizon of heaven, 
"the earth becometh dark with the darkness of the dead. 
" Men sleep in their houses, their heads are covered up, their 
"nostrils are closed, and no man can see his neighbour; 
"everything which they possess could be stolpn from under 
"their heads without their knowing it. All the lions come 
" forth from their dens, every creeping thing biteth, the smithy 

The fox playing the double pipes for a flock of goats to march to. 

[From a papyrus in the British Museum, No. 10,016.] 

" is in blackness, and all the earth is silent because he who 
" made them {i.e., all creatures) resteth in his horizon. When 
" the dawn cometh, and thou risest and shinest from the Disk, 
"darkness flieth away, thou givest forth thy rays, and the 
" Two Lands {i.e., Egypt) are in festival. Men rise up, they 
" stand upon their feet — it is thou who hast raised them — they 
" wash their bodies, and dress themselves in their clothes, and 
" they [stretch out] their hands to thee in thanksgiving for thy 
" rising." To the god of the city, or local deity, he also paid 
due reverence. He worshipped Osiris, the type and symbol 
of the resurrection, most truly, for on his help and succour 
depended his hope of eternal life. The Egyptians, who were 
men of means, spent largely during their lifetime in making 
preparations for their death, and they spared neither money 



nor pains in their endeavours to secure for themselves hfe in 
the Other World. They observed the Religious and Civil 
Laws most carefully, and any breach they might make in 
either they thought could be amply atoned for by making 
offerings or payment. 

The Egyptian was easy and simple in disposition, and 
fond of pleasure and of the good things of this world. He 
loved eating and drinking, and he lost no opportunity 
of enjoying himself. The literature of all periods is filled 
with passages in which the living are exhorted to be happy; 
and we may note that in the famous Dialogue between a man 
who is weary of life and his soul, the latter tells the man that 

A mouse seated on a chair, with a table of food before it. A cat is presenting 
to it a palm branch, and behind it is a mouse bearing a fan, etc. 

[From a papyrus in the British Museum, No. io,oi6.] 

to remember the grave only brings sorrow to the heart and 
fills the eyes with tears. And after several observations of 
the same import, the soul says : " Hearken unto me, for, 
" behold, it is good for men to hearken ; follow after pleasure 
" and forget care." ^ In the Song of the Harper we read : 
" Bodies {i.e., men) have come into being in order to pass 
" away since the time of Ra, and young men come in their 





places. Ra placeth himself in the sky in the morning, and 
'' Temu setteth in the Mountain of Sunset. Men beget 
' children and women bring forth, and every nostril snuffeth 
' the wind of dawn from the time of their birth to the day 
' when they go to the place which is assigned to them. Make 
' [thy] day happy ! Let there be perfumes and sweet odours 
' for thy nostrils, and let there be wreaths of flowers and lilies 
' for the neck and shoulders of thy beloved sister who shall 
' be seated by thy side. Let there be songs and the music of 
' the harp before thee, and setting behind thy back unpleasant 
■ things of every kind, remember only pleasure, until the day 

■ y - ■ ' ■ 

1 ' 




i' ■■' 




^ .'^ 







A cat herding geese. 
[From a papyrus in the British Museum, No. I0,0l6.] 

" Cometh wherein thou must travel to the land which loveth 
" silence." 

The advice to eat, drink, and be happy, is also given to a 
high-priest of Memphis by his dead wife That-I-em-hetep on 
her sepulchral tablet (Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 29, 
No. 1027). She says: "Hail, my brother, husband, friend, 
" .... let ^ not thy heart cease to drink water, to eat bread, to 

TN> = ii^'i:Sil 









" drink wine, to love women, to make a happy day, and to 
" seek thy heart's desire by day and by night. And set no 
" care whatsoever in thy heart : are the years which [we pass] 
" upon the earth so many [that we need do this] ? " 

The morality of the Egyptians was of a high character, 
and certainly higher than that of Oriental nations in general. 
Many of the Precepts of Ptah-hetep, Kaqemna, and Khensu- 
hetep bear comparison with the moral maxims of the Books of 
Proverbs and Ecclesiasticus. The view of the Egyptian as 
to his duty towards his neighbour is well summed up by 
Pepi-Nekht, an old feudal lord of Elephantine, who 
flourished under the Vlth dynasty, and said : " I am one who 
" spoke good and repeated what was liked. Never did I say 

The lion and the unicorn playing a game of draughts. 

[From a papyrus in the British Museum, No.. lo,oi6.] 

" an evil word of any kind to a chief against anyone, for I 
" wished it to be well with me before the great god. I gave 
" bread to the hungry man, and clothes to the naked man. I 
" never gave judgment in a case between two brothers 
" whereby a son was deprived of his father's goods. I was 
" loved by my father, favoured by my mother, and beloved by 
" my brothers and sisters." Love of parents and home was 
a strong trait in the character of the Egyptian ; and it was one 
cause of his hatred of military service and of any occupation 
which would take him away from his town or village. He 
prayed, too, that in the Other World he might have his 
parents, wife, children, and relatives, with him on his farm in 



the Fields of Peace, and that when his spirit was on the way 
thither, the spirits of his kinsfolk would come to meet him, 
armed with their staves and weapons, so that they might 
protect him from the attack of hostile spirits. Like all 
African people he loved music, singing, and dancing, and 
was attracted by ceremonials, processions, and display of 
every kind ; the satirical papyri (see the illustrations on 
pages 27-30), and even the wall-paintings in the tombs, 
show that he possessed a keen sense of humour. The 
peasant was then, as now, a laborious toiler, and as he was 
literally the slave of Pharaoh for thousands of years, the 
ideas of freedom and national independence, as we under- 
stand them, were wholly, unknown to him. 

All classes were intensely superstitious, and they believed 
firmly in the existence of spirits, 
good and bad, witches, and fiends 
and devils, which they tried to 
cajole, or wheedle, or placate with 
gifts, or to vanquish by means of 
spells, magical names, words of 
power, amulets of all kinds, 
etc. The magician was the real 
priest, to the lower classes at least, 
as he is to this day in Central 
Africa, for by the use of magical 
figures he assured his clients that 
he could procure for them the 
death, or sickness, of an enemy, 
riches, the love of women, dreams 
wherein the future would be re- 
vealed to them, and above all, the 
assistance of the gods. We find 
that about B.C. 312 a service was 

reo-ularly performed in the temple of Amen-Ra at Thebes to 
make the sun rise. In the course of it a figure of the monster 
Apep, who was supposed to be lying in wait to swallow the 
Sun-god, was made of wax, then wrapped in new papyrus on 
which the " accursed name " of the fiend was written in green 
ink, and solemnly burned in a fire fed by a special kind of 
herlD, whilst the priest spurned it with his left foot and poured 
out curses on each of the thirty " accursed names " of the evil 
one As the wax melted and was consumed, together with 
the papyrus and the green ink with which his name was written, 
so the body of Apep was believed to be consumed in the 
flames of the rising sun in the eastern sky. 

The spearing of Apep. 


From the evidence given at Thebes about B.C. 1200 
against certain officials who were implicated in a case of 
conspiracy against Rameses III, it appeared that a certain 
man had stolen a book of magic from the temple library. 
From this he obtained instructions how to make the wax 
figures which caused the sickness, quakings of the limbs, 
and death of those in whose forms they were made. An 
example of the wax figures which were used in the Ptolemaic 
period is exhibited in Table-case C in the Third Egyptian 
Room, No. 198. The core is made of inscribed papyrus, and 
in front, in the centre, is a piece of hair, presumably that of 
the person on whom the magician who made the figure sought 
to exert his influence. Every act of daily life had some 
magical or religious observance associated with it, and every 
day, either in whole or in part, was declared to be lucky or 
unlucky, in accordance with a series of events which were 
represented by the Calendar of lucky and unlucky days. 

Superstition played as prominent a part in medicine as 
in religion. The practice of dismembering the dead in 
primitive times must have taught the Egyptians some 
practical anatomy, and the operations connected with 
mummification in the later period must have added largely to 
their knowledge of the arrangement of the principal internal 
organs of the body. The Egyptians were well acquainted 
with the importance of the heart in the human economy, and 
they appear to have had some knowledge of the functions of the 
arteries. A considerable number of medical prescriptions 
have come down to us, e.g., those which are inscribed on a 
papyrus in the British Museum (No. 10,059) and are said to be 
as old as the time of Khufu (Cheops), a king of the IVth 
dynasty, and those of the Ebers Papyrus, of the XVIIIth 
dynasty ; from these it is easy to see that they closely 
resemble in many particulars the prescriptions given in 
English medical books printed two or three hundred years 
ago. Powders and decoctions made from plants and seeds 
were largely used, and the piths of certain trees, dates, 
sycamore-figs, and other fruits, salt, magnesia, oil, honey, 
sweet beer, formed the principal ingredients of many 
prescriptions. With these were often mixed substances of an 
unpleasant nature, e.g., bone dust, rancid fat, the droppings of 
animals, etc. In order that certain drugs might have the 
desired effect it was necessary for the physician to recite a 
magical formula four times (Ebers Papyrus CVIII). Other 
medicines again owed their efficacy to the belief that they 
had been actually taken by one or other of the gods whilst 



they reigned upon earth, and the authorship of certain 
prescriptions was ascribed to Ra. Thus according to the 
Ebers Papyrus (XLVI) Ra suffered from attacks of boils of 
a most malignant kind, and he made up a salve, containing 
sixteen ingredients, which gave him instant relief, and which 
was therefore certain to cure ordinary mortals. The following 
is a characteristic example of a prescription which, as is 
evident, contains a number of substances which are well 
known to be good for inflamed eyes, and also some others 
the special value of which is not clear : — 




(2 \ 


O I 







" Another [prescription] foi 
■ a 1 

driving inflammation from the eye 


' (Ireat Protectors ' seed 

Oxide of copper 

Citron pips 

Northern cypress flowers 

Gazelle droppings 
Oryx offal 
White oil 



[Directions for use.] 



"Place in water, let stand for one 
"night, strain through a cloth, and 
"smear over [the eye] for four days; 
"or, according to another prescription, 
"paint it on [the eye] with a goose- 
" feather." 

/WWW /VVAA/SA -^ 1 

m £21 

The Egyptian physician was called upon not only to heal 
his patients, but to beautify them, and we find prescriptions 
for removing scurf from the skin, for changing the colour of 
the skin, for making the skin smooth, and the following for 
removing wrinkles from the face : — 

____, O V " Another [prescription] for driving away 
wrinkles of the face. 





Ball of incense 

^ — 

Fresh oil 
I Cypress berries 

[Directions for use.] 


"Crush, and rub down and 
"put in new milk and apply it 
"to the face for six days. 
"Take good heed [to this]." « 

' For the hieratic text see Papyrus Ebers, Plate 56. 
' Ibid., Plate 87. 


The population of Egypt was, in 1897, 9,734,405 persons, 
of whom 8,978,775 were Muhammadans, 25,200 Jews, and 
730,162 Christians. The last census was taken on the 29th 
April, 1907, and the entire population of the country consisted 
of 11,272,000 persons, or nearly 16 per cent, more than in 

The Egyptian Language is not Semitic, although it 
possesses many characteristics which resemble those of the 
Semitic languages, but in a less developed form. Of all the 
views on the subject which have been held in recent years, 
the most plausible one is that which makes Egyptian belong 
to the group of Proto-Semitic languages. The Egyptian and 
the Semitic languages appear to have sprung from a common 
stock, from which they separated before their grammars and 
vocabularies were consolidated. The Egyptian language 
developed rapidly under circumstances of which nothing is 
known, and then, apparently, became crystallized ; the Semitic 
language developed less rapidly, but continued to develope 
for centuries after the growth of the Egyptian language was 
arrested. To the period when Egyptian separated itself from 
the parent stock no date can be assigned, but it must have 
taken place some thousands of years before Christ. Later, 
under the XVlIIth and XlXth dynasties, B.C. 1550 to 1300, 
a large number of Semitic words were introduced into the 
language, and in such compositions as the " Travels of an 
Egyptian " (see page 70) a great many are transcribed into 
Egyptian characters. 

The Egyptian language as known to us appears in four 
divisions, viz. : — 

1. The Egyptian of the Early Empire, which was studied 
and employed for literary purposes from about B.C. 4400 to 
about A.D. 200. 

2. The Egyptian used in the ordinary business of life and 
for conversation, from about B.C. 2600 to 650. 

3. The popular speech of the country, from about 600 or 
500 B.C. to the end of the Roman Period. 

4. The ordinary language of the country, after Christianity 
was introduced into it ; this is called Coptic. It ceased to 
be used in Egypt as a spoken language, probably about the 
twelfth century, but the Holy Scriptures and the Services are in 
several places in Egypt read in Coptic on Sundays and Festivals, 
although very few people understand what is being read. Four 
dialects of Coptic are distinguished: (i) That of Upper Egypt, 
called "Sahidic." (2) That of Lower Egypt, called "Boheiric." 
(3) The dialect of SQhak and its neighbourhood. (4) The 


dialect of the district of the Fayyum. It is a noteworthy fact 
that, from the beginning of the second century of our era 
to the twelfth, the language of ancient Egypt was preserved, in 
a modified form, chiefly through the translations of the Holy 
Scriptures, which were made from Greek into Coptic. 

Egyptian Writing was of three kinds, which are called 
" Hieroglyphic," " Hieratic," and " Demotic." The oldest form 
is the hieroglyphic {i.e., sacred engraved writing), or purely 
pictorial, which was employed in inscriptions upon temples, 
tombs, statues, sepulchral tablets, etc., and for monumental 

A page of hieratic writing from the Great Harris Papyrus. 

purposes generally. At a very early period it was found that 
the hieroglyphic form of writing was cumbrous, and that in 
cases where it was important to write quickly on papyrus, 
the pictorial characters were inconvenient. The scribes, 
therefore, began first to modify, and secondly to abbreviate 
the pictorial characters, and at length the form of .writing 
called hieratic (i.e., the priests' writing) was developed. 
Hieratic was a style of cursive writing much used by the 
priests in copying literary compositions on papyrus from the 
IVth or Vth dynasty to the XXVIth dynasty. This form 
of writing is well illustrated by the above reproduction of 



a page from the Great Harris Papyrus in the British Museum 
(No. 9999), which was written about B.C. 1 200. The text is 
read from right to left, and the following is a transcript into 
hieroglyphic characters of the first two lines : — 



£lL I w 7S>^ III s''^ 2iii 



I Q I ^1 c 111 


lis IS 


III © 


' °-kkflM^:ii^ifl- 

-^5-1 1 1. 


I H 

Between the end of the XXI Ind and the beginning of' 
the XXVIth dynasty the scribes, wishing to simplify hieratic 
still further, constructed from it a purely conventional system 
of signs from which most of the prominent characteristics of 
the hieroglyphic, or pictures, that had been preserved in the 
hieratic characters, disappeared. This new form of writing 
was called demotic (i.e., the people's writing), but it was 
known among some of the early Egyptologists as enchorial 
(t.e., native writing, or writing of the country). On the 
Rosetta Stone (Egyptian Gallery, No. 9C0) the visitor will 
see an example of the hieroglyphic and demotic forms 
of writing placed one above the other, and in the text 
we find that the hieroglyphic portion is called " the writing of 

the divine words," or letters, '{i ^A™w^i I 1, and the demotic 


" the writing of books," ie., rolls of papyrus. 

The invention of the art of writing was assigned to the god 
Thoth, who was the great scribe of the gods, and who is 
frequently represented holding a writing palette and a reed 
pen, and the hieroglyphics, or picture signs, were, therefore, 
called "divine, sacred, or holy." Hieroglyphics were used 
for monumental purposes until about the end of the third 



^: -.^ife?/^-- 


Demotic Writing. 


century A.D., but it is tolerably certain that very few people 
could read them or understand them. 

During the Ptolemaic Period, though Greek was the 
language of the kings and the upper classes of the country, 
the temples were covered with inscriptions in hieroglyphics, 
and the Ptolemies and the Romans adopted old Egyptian 
titles, and had their names transcribed into hieroglyphics and 
cut in cartouches like the Pharaohs. In the reigns of 
Euergetes I (B.C. 267 to 222) and Epiphanes (B.C. 205 to 181) the 
priests promulgated decrees in honour of their kings which 
were cut on slabs of basalt in the hieroglyphic, demotic, and 
Greek characters, but on the sepulchral tablets of the period 
the inscriptions are usually in hieroglyphics alone, because 
the natives throughout the country clung to these characters, 
which had, from time immemorial, been associated with their 
religious beliefs and ceremonies. In the Southern Egyptian 
Gallery, however, are exhibited several tablets which are 
inscribed in demotic as well as in hieroglyphics, and of these 
may be noted the tablet of Tut-i-em-hetep (No. 1028, Bay 25), 
who died B.C. 118; the tablet of Kha-em-hra (No. 997, Bay 25); 
and the tablet of Peta Bast (No. 1030, Bay 27). In the Roman 
Period we find that the use of demotic sometimes superseded 
that of hieroglyphics in public documents, and as an example 
of this may be mentioned the fine sandstone tablet inscribed, 
wholly in demotic, with a decree recording the dedication of 
certain properties to the gods who were worshipped at Karnak 
(Thebes) in the first century of our era (No. 993, Bay 27). 
This tablet was found at Karnak, in the Hall of Columns, 
where, no doubt, it was set up originally, and its inscription 
was cut in demotic, because, at that period, that form of 
writing was better understood than hieroglyphics. In the 
Roman Period hieroglyphic inscriptions were sometimes 
accompanied by renderings into Greek and Latin, e.g., No. 257, 
Third Egyptian Room, Wall-case No. 109. This is a portion 
of a statue of a priest bearing a shrine of Osiris. On the back 
of the plinth is an inscription in hieroglyphics containing an 
address to Osiris by a priest of the " fourth order," and on one 
side of the plinth are cut in Latin and Greek " priest bearing 

Osiris." . , „ , , , , 

Coptic is written with the letters of the Greek alphabet, 

and seven signs (ffl, q, i>, &, 2£, (T, t) derived from 
.demotic characters, the phonetic values of which could not be 
expressed by Greek letters. A fine collection of sepulchral 
tablets inscribed in Coptic is exhibited in the Southern 
Egyptian Gallery (Bay 32), and a long and most instructive 


THE lord's prayer IN COPTIC. 

series of drafts of documents on potsherds and slices of lime- 
stone will be found in Table-case M in the Fourth Egyptian 
Room. In the copy of the Lord's Prayer (St. Matthew vi, 9) 
here appended the reader will find all the signs which are 
peculiar to Coptic save one ( (f). The dialect is that of 
Lower Egypt. The two words marked by asterisks are Greek, 
not Egyptian. 


Our Father 


entche pekran. 
thy name. 

Thy will 

who art in 


the heavens, 


may be hallowed 


May come 


let it be 




entche tekmetouro. 
thy kingdom. 





the earth. 


Our bread 




the heaven 


rasti . 

AJLHiq ni.rt jui.4)Oot. 

meif nan emphoou. 

give it to us to-day. 

it<i.rt eE.oX xJCi^pH'f ^fi^rs. 

nan ebol emphreti hon 

we also 

to us 


those who 






orto^ yj^ nexepon 

Ouoh kha neteron 

And forgive our debts 

ftT-ettxt« eB.oX Hkh 

entenkho ebol ennt 




are our debtors. 

e nip^.cju.oc.* 

e pirasmos, 

temptation ; 


that which is evil. 




bring us not 

deliver us 



Decipherment of Egyptian Hieroglyphics.— Before the 
close of the period of Roman rule in Egypt, the hieroglyphic 
system of writing fell into disuse, and its place was gradually 
taken by demotic, i.e., a conventional form of the hieratic, 
or cursive writing. When the Egyptians became converted 
to Christianity, they adopted the Greek alphabet, adding to it 
seven signs derived from demotic, to express the sounds 
peculiar to their language. The priests appear to have 
prosecuted some study of hieroglyphics until the end of the 
fifth century A.D., but soon after this the power to read and 

ri Krv, 

Coptic inscription on a slice of limestone. 
[No. 10, Table-case M, Third Egyptian Room.] 

understand them was lost, and until the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, no Oriental or European could read or 
understand a hieroglyphic inscription. During the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries many attempts were made by 
scholars to read and translate the Egyptian inscriptions, but 
no real progress was made until after the discovery of the 
Rosetta Stone. This " Stone" is a portion of a large black 
basalt stele measuring 3 feet 9 inches by 2 feet_4i mches, and 
is inscribed with fourteen lines of hieroglyphics, thirty-two 



Hieroglyphic Text. 

Demotic Text. 



Greek Text. 


lines of demotic, and fifty-four lines of Greek. (See Southern 
Egyptian Gallery, No. 960.) It was found in 1798 by a French 
officer of artillery named Boussard, among the ruins of Fort 
Saint Julien, near the Rosetta mouth of the Nile, and was 
removed, in 1799, to the Institut National at Cairo, to be 
examined by the learned ; and Napoleon ordered the inscrip- 
tion to be engraved and copies of it to be submitted to the 
scholars and learned societies of Europe. In passed 
into the possession of the British, and it was sent to England 
in February, 1802. It was exhibited for a few months in the 
rooms of the Society of Antiquaries, and then was finally 
deposited in the British Museum. 

The first translation of the Greek text was made by 
Du Theil and Weston, in 1801-02, and they rightly declared 
that the stone was set up as the result of a Decree passed 
at the General Council of Egyptian priests assembled at 
Memphis to celebrate the first commemoration .of the 
coronation of Ptolemy V, Epiphanes, king of all Egypt. 
The young king had been crowned in the eighth year of 
his reign, therefore the first commemoration took place in the 
ninth year, in the spring of the year, B.C. ig6. The Decree 
sets forth that, because the king had given corn and money 
from his private resources to the temples, and had remitted 
taxes and released prisoners, and had abolished the press- 
gang and restored the worship of the gods, etc., the priests 
decreed that : Additional honours be paid to the king and his 
ancestors ; an image of the king be set up in every temple ; 
a statue and shrine be set up in every temple ; a monthly 
festival be established on the birthday and coronation day 
of the king ; this Decree be engraved upon a hard stone 
stele in the writing of the priests (hieroglyphic), in the writing 
of books (demotic), and in the writing of the Greeks (Greek), 
and set up in every temple of the first, second, and third class, 
by the side of the image of the king. 

In 1802 Akerblad succeeded in making out the general 
meaning of sisveral lines of the demotic text, and in identifying 
the equivalents of the names Alexander, Alexandria, Ptolemy, 
etc. In 1 8 19 Thomas Young published in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, vol. IV, the results of his studies of the texts, 
and among them was a list of several alphabetic 
Egyptian characters to which, in most cases, he had assigned 
correct values. He was the first to grasp the idea of a phonetic 
principle in the reading of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and he 
was the first to apply it to their decipherment. Warburton, 
De Guignes, Barth^lemy and Zoega all suspected the existence 


of alphabetic hieroglyphics, and the three last-named scholars 
believed that the oval, or cartouche [ J, contained 

a royal name ; but it w^as Young who first proved both points 
and successfully deciphered the name of Ptolemy ^on the 
Rosetta Stone, and that of Berenice on another monument, 
and it was Bankes who first identified the name of 
Cleopatra. The list of aJphabetic characters was much 
enlarged in 1822 by the eminent scholar Champollion, who 
not only correctly deciphered the names and titles of most of 
the Roman Emperors, but drew up classified lists of the 
hieroglyphics, and formulated a system of grammar and 
general decipherment which is the foundation upon which all 
subsequent Egyptologists have worked. The discovery of the 
correct alphabetic values of Egyptian signs was most useful 
for reading names, but, for translating the language, a 
competent knowledge of Coptic was required. Now Coptic 
is only another name for Egyptian. The Egyptian Christians 
are called " Copts," and the Holy Scriptures, Liturgies, etc., 
which they translated from Greek soon after their conversion 
to Christianity, are said to be written in " Coptic." The 
knowledge of Coptic has never been lost, and a comparatively 
large sacred literature has always been available for study by 
scholars. Champollion, quite early in the nineteenth century, 
realized the great importance of Coptic for the purpose of 
Egyptian decipherment, and he made himself the greatest 
Coptic scholar of his time. His knowledge of Coptic was 
deep and wide, and to this important qualification much of 
his success is due. Having once obtained a correct value of 
many alphabetic and syllabic characters, his knowledge of 
Coptic helped him to deduce the values of others, and to 
assign meanings to Egyptian words with marvellous accuracy. 
The method by which the greater part of the Egyptian 
alphabet was recovered is this : It was assumed correctly 
that the cartouche always contained a royal name. The 
only cartouche on the Rosetta Stone was assumed to contain 
the name Ptolemy. An obelisk brought from Philae 
about that time contained a hieroglyphic inscription, and 
a translation of it in Greek, which mentioned two names, 
Ptolemy and Cleopatra, and one of the cartouches was filled 
with hieroglyphic characters which were identical with those 
in the cartouche on the Rosetta Stone. Thus there was 
good reason to believe that \!a& cartouche on the Rosetta Stone 
contained the name of Ptolemy written in hieroglyphic 
characters. Here is the cartouche which was assumed to 


represent the name Ptolemaios, or Ptolemy, the hieroglyphics 
beirig numbered (A) — 

1 D 


and here is the cartouche which was assumed to represent the 
name Cleopatra (B) — 

Now in B, the first sign, A, must represent K ; it is not 
found in A. No. 2 sign, _&&, is identical with No. 4 sign in A. 
This was assumed to be L. No. 3 sign, l| , represents a vowel, 
and doubled, [](], is found in A, No. 6. No. 4 sign, -fl, is 
identical with No. 3 in A, and it must have the value of O in 
both A and B. No. 5 sign, n, is identical with No. i in A, 
and as A contains the name Ptolemy, the first sign, n, must 
be P. No. 6 sign, ^ , is wanting in A, but its value must 
be A, because it is the same sign as No. 9, which ends the 
name Kleopatra. No. 7, ==>, does not occur in A, but we see 
it in other cartouches taking the place of ^, the second letter 
in the name of Ptolfemaios, and it must therefore be some kind 
of T. No. 8, «=-, we assume is R, because it is the last letter 
but one in the name of Kleopatra. Nos. 10 and 11 signs, q, 
we find after the names of goddesses; the first of them 
is T; and the second is a "determinative." We now insert 
the alphabetic values in the two cartouches and obtain the 
following results : 

a[?0^I1(1|1] B (il« OPATRWA^] 

In the case of A it is quite clear that Ptol is the first part 
of the name of Ptolemaios, therefore <=. I]l] P must represent 
the second part of the name, or Maids. We may then say 
that ^=: is M, and the last sign P is S, and that l](j represents 



some «-sound, or «-sound ; in the case of B we are certain of the 
values of all the signs except a, <=- and O, but it is clear from 
their positions in the name that the first two must represent K 
and R. We have seen that the signs § are added to the 
names of goddesses, and as Kleopatra was regarded as a 
goddess, they are added to her name. They do not affect the 
name itself. The two royal names may now be taken out of 
the cartouches, and the values written under the characters 
thus : 

A □ ^ fl -Sa, .= (][] P 
P T O L M (I or E) S 

K L E(?)OP A T R A 

Taking another cartouche i i"*^ ^I^^ * ^ ^ ( * '^"'^ ^ '^^^~^ 1 

we already know the signs, ]^ _ga, |l (j ciss <=>, which repre- 
sent A. L. S. E (?), T. and R. The only Greek name which 
contains these letters in this order is Alexandres, or 
Alexander, and we therefore conclude that the last sign, — »— , 
is S. that ^czPB is K. that I| is A. and that «wwv is N- 

A common title of the Roman Emperors was ^c^[jl]|l<=--*-, 
and as we know all the signs but one IM\ with certainty we 
write down K-l^-S-R-S. which can only be "Kaisaros," or 
" Caesar." From this we again see that (]() represents the at 
in Kai(rapo<i and UroXefiaiof, or ae in Caesar. 

In this way the Egyptian alphabet was recovered. 

Now if we look at the last line of the Egyptian text on 
the Rosetta Stone we shall find that in the cartouche 


jp\ Ofl l-TT^l fi''^:x.(( 1 there are several signs 

which have not been explained above, viz., ■¥■ ^1 ^ ^ 


These signs, it is clear, form no part of the name of Ptolemy, 
and the position in which they are found suggests that they 
represent titles. A reference to the Greek version (line 49) 
shows that Ptolemy is there called "everliving, beloved of 
Phtha," and it now remains to see if the hieroglyphics mean 
anything like these words. The sound and meaning of the 
first sign, ■¥•, were well known from the statements of Greek 
writers who said that it was pronounced anch, and that it 
meant " living," or " life." Two of the three characters in the 

group, X, we know to be P and T, and we are justified in 
assuming that X represents the name of the god Phtha, or 
as it is now read Ptah. Now, if ■¥• means " living " or " life," 
and \ means " Ptah," ^1 must mean " for ever," and 

"^3:1 (1(1 must mean "beloved." Of the first group, ^1, we 
alreddy know the value of the second sign c^, T, and of the 
second group we know that 0(1 has the value of I, Recourse 
must now be had to Coptic, so that the Coptic {i.e., Egyptian) 
words for " for ever " and " beloved " may be compared with 
the hieroglyphic originals. The common word for " for ever," 
" eternity," etc., is eneh, but there is no n in ^1 , so this will 

not suit. We do, however, find the word CTeT, djet, which 
means "an age," "a long undefined period of time," and this 

agrees well with the sound of ^^,and shows that the sound of 

^1 was something like DJ, and that =?s= must have a T 
sound. The common word in Coptic for " to love " is juuep, 
mer, and we may therefore transcribe ■''csl (1 (1 by meri, and 
assume that it means something like "beloved." As the 
meanings here deduced for "T ^1 t'"'^^^(](l ™ake good 
sense in every text in which they occur we are justified in 
assuming them to be correct. 


The Egyptian alphabetic characters are as follow : — 

A The Hebrew aleph b<. 


A Pronounced like the Hebrew y. 

or \\ 1 The Hebrew yodh i . 

or P U or W ^^^ Hebrew ^ and \ It had some- 

times an «?-sound, like the Hebrew *\. 

I B Hebrew 3- 


P „ C 


M „ n- 


ra H 


R and L 


X (KH) 


^n^ K 

A Q 


-, and \. 


, !^- 




3, without the Dagesh, 


D orto- 




ZS K Hebrew 3. 



TH(?) „ n(?)- 

T „ tfl. 

TCH or S (?) „ 2- 

Hieroglyphic writing.— The hieroglyph is a picture of an 
object, animate or inanimate, e.g., <o>- an eye, ^^ a ram, 
.^i, a hare, '^ a vulture, "^ a duck, i< a star, || an obelisk, 

§" a face, 3 a leg. 

Now pictures may also represent ideas, e.g., 'SSj, , a wall 

leaning on one side represents "falling"; T, a musical 
instrument, symbolizes " joy, happiness, pleasure," etc. ; 
Q, a seal, represents something of which great care is 

taken, i.e., "treasure"; %<., a man holding a vessel placed on 

his head, symbolizes "to bear, to carry''; '=^, the sky with a 
star hanging from it, suggests " night "; and so on. Hiero- 
glyphs used in this way are called ideographs. Every object 
had a name, therefore each picture, or hieroglyph, was a 
word-sign, and a list of these would have made a dictionary 
in the earliest times. At one time all hieroglyphs were 
syllabic, and the Egyptians had no alphabetic hieroglyphs ; 
and if scribes had needed to write down letter by letter 
the name of some foreign product, or the name of a foreign 
king, supposing they did not possess syllables suitable in 
sound, they would have been unable to do so. In fact the 
Egyptians needed an alphabet, and the oldest inscriptions of 
any length show that they already possessed one. 

About the origin of alphabetic hieroglyphs opinions 
differ. They probably arose in this way. The sounds of the 
first letters of the names of certain objects were given to the 
pictures of such objects, and henceforward the pictures, or 
hieroglyphs, bore those phonetic values, and so became the 
letters of an alphabet. Each name chosen for this purpose 
appears to have consisted of a syllable containing an initial 


consonant, and one or more vowels. The vowel, or vowels, 
was dropped, and the name of the object, or the syllable, 

passed into a purely alphabetic value. Thus 1 is an 

alphabetic hieroglyph with the phonetic value of B, and it may- 
well represent the consonant of some word like Bu " a place," 
or Baa "iron." Similarly <r=>, which has the phonetic value 
of R, probably represents the consonant of some word like 
Jiu " mouth," in Coptic Ro ; and '<^> with the phonetic value 
of F probably represents the consonant of some word like /a 
" to carry." Thus we have a series of alphabetic characters or 
letters. Signs having alphabetic values are used to form 
words without any reference to their pictorial or ideographic 
meanings. One of the words for " knife " is s/nt, which is 

thus spelt l~v^~vv. Now I s_ is a picture of a chair-back; 

=^.=^ / is a picture of a snail (?) ; ^^vy^ n is a picture of the 
wavy surface of water ; and c"=^ ( is a picture of a human 
hand stretched out fiat ; in the word s/ni the picture meanings 
of the characters play no part, and the signs are used to 
• express alphabetic sounds only. 

As long as the Egyptians used picture writing pure and 
simple its meaning was easily understood, but, when they 
began to spell their words with alphabetic signs and syllabic 
values of picture signs which had no reference whatever to 
the original meaning of the signs, it was found necessary to 
indicate in some way the meaning and even the sounds of 
many of the words so written. This they did by adding to 
them signs which are called determinatives. Thus the word 

d/id I means both " to stand " and " boat," but when the 

writer wished the reader to give it the former meaning he 
added to the word a pair of legs /s, thus | ^ , and when 
the latter he added the picture of a boat MM, thus | ^^. 
Similarly 7Men ^^ means "to abide, be stable," and also "to 
be ill," and the meanings are distinguished by the use of the 
determinatives r=±^ and '^, the former signifying "an 
abstract idea," and the latter "discomfort," or "evil." The 
following words show the use of the determinatives ; ^ a god, 
^ actions performed with the mouth, J a woman, (^£^^ a 



country, Itl the skin of an animal, a^j^ water, '■^^^ actions 
performed with a knife, and ^ a pot of unguent or liquid. 

ThegodKhnemu Q^^j^ 

Metu " to speak " |^ c:s> ^ ^ 

Sat " daughter " 

Kesh "Nubia" 

Pennu " mouse " 



Mdu " cat " 

Qebh " libation " 
Sma " to slay " 


Heqt " beer '' 


Hieroglyphs are written in perpendicular or horizontal j , 
lines as in A and B. In these examples the words are to be 
read in the direction in which the birds face, i.e., from left to 

1 ^ 




' These words mean : " If thou wouldst be a perfect man make thou 
[thy] son well pleasing to God." 



The writing materials consisted of papyrus, palette, 
reed-pens, ink and ink-pot. Papyrus was made from the 
stem of the papyrus plant {Cyperus Papyrus), which grew in 
the marshes and pools near the Nile ; it is no longer cultivated 
in Egypt, but is found in the Sfidan, where it grows to a 
height of from 20 to 25 ft., and has very thick stems. The 
exact meaning and derivation of " papyrus " are unknown, 
but the word is probably of Egyptian origin.^ A sheet of 
papyrus was made in the following way : The stem was cut 
into thin strips, which were laid side by side perpendicularly, 
and upon these another series of strips was laid horizontally ; 
a thin solution of gum, or paste, was run in between them, 
after which the sheet was pressed and dried. By joining a 
number of such sheets together rolls of almost any length 
could be made. The longest papyrus in the Egyptian 
Collection in the British Museum, No. 9999, is 135 ft. long 
and I ft. 5 in. wide ; the Papyrus of Ani measures 78 ft. by 
I ft. 3 in. ; the Papyrus of Nebseni, 76 ft. by 8| in. ; the 
Papyrus of Nu, 65 ft. 6 in. by i ft. \\ in. ; the Papyrus of 
Nekht, 46 ft. 7 in. by i ft. ij in. 

The palette, in Egyptian mestha '' \ (1 -^7=-, usually 

consisted of a rectangular piece of wood, from eight to sixteen 
inches long, and from two to three broad, at one end of which 
were sunk a number of oval or circular hollows to hold ink or 
paint. Down the middle was cut a groove, sloping at one end, 
in which the writing reeds were placed ; these were kept in 
position by a piece of wood glued across the middle of the 
palette, or by a sliding cover, which also served to protect the 
reeds from injury. A very good collection of palettes is 
exhibited in the Third Egyptian Room, Table-case C. Of 
special interest are the palettes of Ba-nefer, of the (reign of 

' ' These words mean : " I have given bread to the famishing, water to 
the thirsty, clothes to the naked, and a boat to him that was shipwrecked." 
'■* A recent view makes "papyrus" to be derived from the conjectural 
name pa-p-ior " that which is of the river." 

C 2 




li 1 1 l<i 





Wooden palette inscribed with the 

name of Aahmes I, B.C. i6oo. 

[No. 2, Table-case C, Third 

Egyptian Room.] 

Wooden palette of Rameri, an 

official of Thothmes IV, 

B.C. 1470. 

[No. 3, Table-case C, Third 

Egyptian Room.] 



Pepi II, B.C. 3200 (No. 12,782); the palette of Aahmes I, 
the first king of the XVIIIth dynasty, about B.C. 1600 
(No. 12,784) ; the palette of the scribe Pa-mer-ahau, who lived 
in the reign of Amen-hetep III, about B.C. 1450 (No. 5513); 
and the palettes of Amen-mes (No. 12,778) and a scribe 
(No. 55x4), who lived in the reign of Seti I and Rameses II 
respectively. The hollows for the ink, or paint, generally 
black and red, are usually two in number, but some 
palettes have a dozen. The inscriptions on palettes 
usually contain prayers to the great gods of the Other 
World for sepulchral offerings ; but sometimes they are 

dedications' to the god Tehuti, or Thoth ^^ J, to whom 
the invention of the art of writing is attributed. The writing 
reed, in Egyptian qesh ^ ^ k , which served as a pen, was 

about 10 inches long, and from J^th to ^th of an inch in 
diameter ; the end used for writing was bruised and not cut. 
After the XXVIth dynasty, an ordinary reed, similar to that 
used in the East at the present day, was employed, and the 
end was cut like a quill, or steel pen. The ordinary palette will 
hold about ten writing reeds easily. The ink was made of 
mineral or vegetable substances mixed with gum and water. 
The earths, or ochres, or preparations of copper, were rubbed 
down on slabs with little mullers, several of which may be 
seen in the Third Egyptian Room, Table-case C. The 
ink-pot was called pes ° \7. and was usually made of 

faience or porcelain. The hieroglyph jiii represents the 

palette, an ink pot, and a reed, united by a cord ; the whole 
stands for " scribe " and " writing." 

Besides papyi-us, scribes frequently used slices of white 
limestone of a fine texture, or boards plastered with lime, 
for writing purposes. On these they wrote drafts of literary 
compositions, hymns, school exercises, and sketches in outline 
of the figures of kings, gods, etc., made to scale. As examples 
may be mentioned No. 22, inscribed with the draft of a legal 
document which was drawn up in connection with a robbery of 
weapons from the Royal Arsenal by the Chief of the Treasurj^, 
about B.C. 1 100, and No. 41, inscribed in the hieratic character 
with a draft of a part of a famous work called the " Instruc- 
tions of Amen-em-hat I," king of Egypt, about B.C. 2500 
(Third Egyptian Room, Table-case C). In the Ptolemaic 
Period pieces of broken earthenware vessels, or potsherds, 



commonly known as ostraka, were much used for writing 
purposes. The inscriptions on these are chiefly of a business 
character, receipts or acquittances, etc.; but certain of them 
contain extracts from literary works, e.g., a school exercise 
consisting of lines 105-117 and 128-139 of the Phoenissae of 
Euripides (No. 88, Third Egyptian Room, Table-case C). 
After the introduction of Christianity into Egypt, the Copts, 
or Christian Egyptians, imitated their pagan ancestors, and 
wrote letters, lists of objects, prayers, extracts from the 
Scriptures, etc., on slices of white limestone. A fine collection, of 
such Coptic inscriptions is exhibited in the Fourth Egyptian 

Skb of limestone inscribed with a draft of a deed. Dated in the reign 01 

Heru-em-heb, about B.C. 1400. 
[No. 22, Table-case C, Third Egyptian Room.] 

Room, Table-case M ; and of special interest are : No. 3. 
Liturgical fragment. No. 5. An undertaking by Abraham 
to take charge of a camel. No. 8. ReHgious exercise, Coptic 
and Greek hymns. No. 17. Extract from Psalm xcviii, "Sing 
unto the Lord a new Song," etc. No. 19. Part of the Alex- 
andrian Canon of the Mass, written in corrupt Greek by Apa , 
Eihannes. No. 20. Fragment containing part of a Greek hymn 
and a letter in Coptic, conveying the salutations of Dioskoros 
to his brother Ounaref and his mother Tnouba. No. 26. 
Letter from the priest Victor and Matthaios, to Germanos 
and Isak (Isaac), authorizing them to sow their share of a 
field, and specifying the rent. No. 28. Document referring 
to the sale of a camel. It is dated on the second of the month 
Pashans, and witnessed by three persons : — Dioskle and 


Ouanafre^ of Pallas, and Gergorios of Remmosh. No. 41. 
Part of a letter requesting some monks to bless the writers, 
and to send holy water to them that they might sprinkle 
their sick beasts with it. No. 53. List of measurements of 
land, in which Greek arithmetical signs, etc., are employed. 
No. 57. Receipt for a holokotinos (solidus) paid as tax or 
rent by Za61 for the " camels' field " for the ninth year. 
No. 60. School exercise in Greek and Coptic grammar ; on 
the obverse is a portion of a letter addiressed to the authorities 
of a monastery. No. 61. Reading exercise. No. 62. Frag- 
ment of a school exercise, with rough drawings of animals. 
No. 65. Acquittance of Mizael Konstantinos for the first 
instalment of taxes for the year, signed by Severus. No. 66. 
Writing exercise for the formation of letters. The Copts 
sometimes covered the outside of an unbroken jar with lists, 
etc., e.g., the amphora. No. i66f. Fourth Egyptian Room, 
Wall-case No. 163. On this are written six lists of names 
of men, with those of their fathers and mothers, and it is 
probable that the inscriptions were written not later than the 
eighth century. 

A form of the old Egyptian name Un-neker 


c 4 



Egyptian Literature, Sacred and Profane. 

Egyptian Literature. — The literature of Ancient Egypt, 
written in the hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic characters, 
is large, and the contents of the principal divisions of it may 
be thus summarized : — 

Relig-ious literature : first and foremost is the great 
compilation of texts, partly magical and partly religious, to 
which was given the name " Per-em-hru," i.e., the " Book of 
Coming Forth by Day," or, as it is now generally called, the 
Book of the Dead. This work is extant in three great 
Recensions, viz., the Heliopolitan, Theban, and Saite. The 
Heliopolitan Recension consists of a series of formulas of a 
semi-magical character, written in hieroglyphics, which were 
collected by the priests of An, or Heliopolis, about B.C. 3300. 
A large number of these formulas were in existence long before 
this period. The oldest copies of texts of this Recension are 
found in the Pyramids of kings Unas, Teta, Pepi I, Mehti- 
em-sa-f, and Pepi II at Sakkirah, but series of the formulas 
from it were copied on coffins and sarcophagi down to about 

B.C. 200. Among such is the coffin of Amamu in the British 
Museum (First Egyptian Room, No. 6654). On this mag- 
nificent coffin are written some hundreds of lines of text in 
black ink, and a list of canonical offerings, according to the 
Liturgy of Funerary Offerings, is appended. The coffin itself 
was intended to represent the chamber of a mastaba tomb, 
and on the inside are painted pictures of doors and panels, 
similar to those which are found in the tombs about B.C. 3500. 
It is one of the finest of its class, and it was probably made 
before the Xlth dynasty (B.C. 2600). In connection with this 
must be mentioned the portion of a wooden coffin of 
Menthuhetep, a king of the Xlth dynasty, on which is in- 
scribed a version of a part of the XVI Ith Chapter of the Book 
of the Dead (Second Egyptian Room, Wall-cases 86-88). 

The Theban Recension was generally written upon papyri 
in hieroglyphics, and was divided into sections, or chapters, 
each of which had its distinct title, but no definite place in the 
series. It was much used during the XVI I Ith, XlXth, and 
XXth dynasties. In the first half of the XVIIIth dynasty the 
custom grew up of adding vignettes to certain chapters of 
this Recension, and before another century had passed so 


many coloured illustrations were added to the papyri that 
frequently chapters had to be abbreviated, and the scribes 
were obliged to omit some of them altogether. This 
Recension contained about i8o chapters, but no extant papyrus 
contains them all. The chapters represent the theological 
opinions of the colleges of On (Memphis), Herakleopolis, 
Abydos, and Thebes, and are of the first importance for the 
study of the Egyptian Religion. In the Rubric to the 
LXIVth Chapter are mentioned two traditions which are very 
valuable for the history of the Recension. In the one it is 
stated that the chapter was " found " in the reign of Semti, 
a king of the 1st dynasty, and in the other that it was " found " 
in the reign of Menkaura (Mycerinus), a king of the IVth 
dynasty, by Heru-tata-f, a prince, the son of King Khufu, or 
Cheops. Thus it is certain that in the XVIIIth dynasty it 
was believed that the chapter was in existence in the earliest 
dynasties. Now we find from the Papyrus of Nu that there 
were two forms of this chapter extant, and that one of these 
was twice as long as the other. The longer one is entitled 
" Chapter of Coming Forth by Day," and the shorter, " Chapter 
of Knowing the ' Chapters of Coming Forth by Day ' in a 
Single Chapter." The rubric to the latter attributes the chapter 
to the 1st dynasty, and thus it seems that even at this remote 
period the " Chapters of Coming Forth by Day " were widely 
known, and that the priests found it necessary to produce for 
general use a chapter which'contained the essence of them all. 
The British Museum possesses the finest collection in the 
world of papyri containing the Theban Recension, and of these 
may be specially mentioned : The Papyrus of Nebseni/ with 
vignettes in black outline (No. 9900); the Papyrus of, 
Ani, a magnificently coloured papyrus containing texts and 
vignettes not found elsewhere^ (No. 10,470); the Papyrus 
of Nu, with coloured vignettes, rubrics, etc., containing a good 
text throughout, and a large number of chapters not found 
elsewhere^ (No. 10,477); the Papyrus of Hu-nefer, a scribe 
who flourished in the reign of Seti I, with a fine series of 
brilliantly painted vignettes' (No. 9901); and the Papyrus 

' Photographs of this Papyrus have been published by the Trustees 
of the Britisli Museum, £,2 2s. per set. , , , .^ , , 

^ A full coloured facsimile has been published by the trustees ot the 
British Museum, in 37 plates, portfoho, £1 lis. 6d., half bound £1 i6s. 
The Egyptian Text is also issued with an Enghsh translation, etc., 410., 

' Also published by the Trustees ot the British Museum ; "Facsimiles 
of the Papyri of Hunefer, Anhai, Kerasher and Netchemet, with supple- 
mentary text from the Papyrus of Nu,'' fol., £2 los. 


Vignette and text of the Theban Book of the Vignette and text of the Theban Book of the 

Dead from the Papyrus of Ani, 

Dead from the Papyrus of Nu. 

[Brit. Mus., No. 10,470.] XVIIIlh dynasty. [Brit. Mus., No. 10,477.] XVIIIth dynasty. 

{See page 6i.) 

Plate I. 


w. 4 

•S >:■ 

-^ in 


■^ " >;> 

S C in 

i3 '53 ^3 







Vignette and Chapter of the Book 
of the Dead written in hieratic 
for Heru-em-heb. 

[Brit. Mus., No. '10,257.] 

XXVIth dynasty, or later. 

' See Note 

of Mut-hetep, most valuable 
because it contains correct copies 
of early texts (No. 10,010). 

Out of the Theban Recension 
grew another Recension, to 
which no special name has been 
given. It was written on papyrus 
both in hieroglyphics and hiera- 
tic, and its Chapters havenofixed 
order. It came into existence 
in the XXth dynasty, probably 
under the growing influence of 
the priests of Amen. Fine 
examples of the papyri of this 
Recension are the Papyrus of 
Queen Netchemet (see Plate 
I), the wife of Her-Heru, 
the first high priest-king of the 
XXIst dynasty (exhibited in the 
Southern Egyptian Gallery), and 
the Papyrus of Anhai, a priestess 
of Amen.^ In the latter an 
entirely new style of decoration 
is employed, and gold is used 
in decorating the disk of Ra 
Harmachis for the first time. 

Of the history of the Book 
of the Dead between B.C. 1000 
and 650 little is known. Under 
the influence of the great renais- 
sance, which took place in the 
XXVIth dynasty, another Re- 
cension came into use, called the 
Saite. In this the chapters had 
a fixed order, many new ones 
being inserted. The text was 
written both in hieroglyphics and 
hieratic, and it was decorated 
with a series of vignettes, in which 
all the figures were drawn in 
black outline. The appearance 
of papyri of this Recension is 
monotonous and dull, and both 
the drawings and the hiero- 
3 on page 59. 


glyphics are stiff and spiritless. Good examples of papyri 
of this Recension are the Papyrus of Heru-em-heb, written 
in hieratic (No. 10,257), and the Papyrus of Heru, written 
in hieroglyphics (No. 10,479). The vignettes usually occupy 
small spaces at the top of the columns of text. The 
Recension in use in the Ptolemaic Period was the Saite, 
but before the Roman Period it was customary to write 
other and newer funerary works on papyri, and little by 
little the Book of the Dead, as a whole, became obsolete. It 
seems as if an attempt was made to extract from the old work 
the texts which were regarded as absolutely necessary for 
salvation, and as if the older mythology was unknown to the 
Egyptians of the period. It is quite certain that many of the 
scribes copied texts without understanding them, and that the 
meanings of many vignettes were lost. 

About the beginning of the Ptolemaic Period the following 
works came into general use : I. The Shait en Sensen 
ac3/if|^ I -^ — _^l 

„Uu_^~~^^ "Sr^i. or Book of Breathings. 

Like the great Book of the Dead, this work was declared 
to have been written by Thoth, the scribe of the gods, the 
" Heart of Ra." It contains a number of prayers for offerings, 
a series of declarations that the deceased has not committed 
certain specified sins, a statement that he has neither sin nor evil 
in him, and a demand that his soul be admitted into the heaven 
because " he gave food to the hungry, water to the thirsty, 
" clothes to the naked, and offerings to the Gods, and to the 
" Khu (beatified spirits)." A fine copy of this work is that 
written in the hieratic character for Kerasher on a papyrus in 
the British Museum (No. 9995). In the first part are copies 
of vignettes from the Book of the Dead, but the details are 
modified to suit the religious beliefs of the period. Thus 
Thoth and not Horus introduces the deceased to Osiris, and 
Anubis and Hathor lead him into the Judgment Hall instead of 

2. The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys, a work in 
which these goddesses lamented the sufferings and death of 
Osiris, and proclaimed his resurrection, and glorified him in 
the heavens. It was recited by two priestesses, who were 
ceremonially pure, on the 2Sth day of the month Choiak 
(December), and the words in the book were believed to be 
those which Isis and Nephthys actually .said at their first. 
mourning for their brother Osiris. Copies of them were 
written on papyrus and buried with the dead to ensure their 
resurrection and future happiness and glory, 



3. The Festival Songs of the Two Tcherti, i.e., of the 
Two Weepers, Isis and Nephthys, a work similar in character 
to the preceding. It was recited on five days of the month 
Choiak (December), during which the great annual festival of 
Osiris was celebrated. The priestesses who sang the verses 
of the work wore lambs'-wool crowns on their heads, carried 
tambourines which they beat from time to time, and bore on 
their arms bandlets with the names of Isis and Nephthys 
written upon them. The recital of the work was preceded by 

an address by the K/ter 


A copy of a Book of the Dead entitled " May my 

name flourish ! " 
[Brit, Mus., No. 10,304.] Roman Period. 

kei, or " Lector," and 
then the two priestesses 
sang the rhythmic sec- 
tions of the composi- 
tions alternately. 

4. The Litanies of 
Seker, a short com- 
position of about TOO 
lines, containing two 
series of addresses to 
Seker, the god of the 
Other World. Fine 
copies of this and the 
preceding work are 
given in the Rhind 
Papyrus (No. 10,188). 

5. The Book of 
traversing Eternity 
{Shdti en sebebi heh 

^ w 



O ), a work in 

which the happiness 
of the blessed dead 
is described, and an 
account given of a 
journey through the 
Other World by the 
deceased, who visits 
the shrines of the gods, 
and takes part in the 
services of praise which 
are performed there 
by the spirits and souls 



of the righteous, and enjoys the offerings which are made to 
them by the faithful on earth (Papyrus No. 29, at Vienna). 

6. The Book of May my Name Flourish,^ a work which 
was very popular in the Roman Period. It is, in reality, a 
development of a long prayer which is found in the Pyramid 
Texts of the Vlth dynasty. Its object was to make the name 
of the deceased permanent in heaven and on earth, for it was a 
common belief, from the earliest to the latest times, that the 
man whose name was blotted out had no portion or existence 
in the other world. A nameless soul possessed no identity, 
and could not be introduced to Ra and the company of the 
gods. The British Museum possesses several copies of this 
work, written generally on narrow strips of papyrus, in a kind 
of hieratic, containing many demotic characters. (Nos. 10,108, 
10,111, 10,112, 10,109, etc.) 

7- Another work which obtained some popularity in the 
late period is the so-called Ritual of Embalmment. In this 
composition is given a large number of the formulas that 
were recited over the unguents, spices, and swathings during 
the process of embalming the body. 

8. In all periods the burial of the dead was accompanied 
by the presentation of series of offerings. Up to the end of 
the Vth dynasty a 
comparatively small 
number of names of 
offerings was inscribed 
on the walls of the 
tombs, and in the 
presentation of such 
offerings consisted the 
ceremony of Opening 
the Mouth of the 
dead. Under the Vlth 
dynasty a new and 
enlarged list of offer- 
ings was drawn up, 
and a series of formulas 
was added to it for 
recital by the priest 

as object after object was presented to the mummy. In many 
of these formulas there were plays of words upon the names 
of the offerings, each of which was symbolical of some divine 
being, or object, or act. Several new ceremonies connected 


The ceremonies of " Opening the Mouth." 



with the purification and censing of the mummy, and the use 
of instruments in "opening the mouth and eyes" of the 
mummy were introduced at this time. To this List of 
Offerings, with its rubrics, the name of Liturgy of Funerary 
Offerings may be given. Under the XVIIIth dynasty a 
further development of the List of Offerings took place, and 
new ceremonies were added, and the work was henceforth 
known as the Book of Opening the Mouth. The visitor will 
see on the west wall of the Second Egyptian Room a large 
coloured drawing in which the performance of ceremonies 
connected with the opening of the mouth is represented. 
One priest is supposed to be touching the mouth of the 
mummy with the Ur-heka instrument, and is holding 
other instruments ; the other priest is presenting vases of 
water. Behind them is the Kher heb, or Lector, who is 
pouring out water from a libation vase and burning incense. 
The object of the Book of Opening the Mouth was: i. To 
give the deceased a new body in the Other World, and 
to make him to be divine. 2. To establish communion 
between the living and the dead. In later days a statue 
of the deceased took the place of his mummy in the 
ceremonies, and then the chief object of the ceremonies, 
formulas, and offerings, was to provide a dwelling place for 
the Ka or " double " of the deceased, and to make his soul 
to take lip its abode in the statue. The Book of Opening 
the Mouth was in general use from the Vth dynasty to the 
first or second century of our era, that is, for a period of 4,000 
years, and copies of it made in the Roman Period are almost 
identical with those found in the Pyramids of Sakkarah of 
the Vlth dynasty. 

9. An important section of the Religious Literature of 
Egypt is formed by works which were intended to be used 
as Guides to the Other World. The oldest of these is a 
work in which pictures are given of portions of Restau, in 
the kingdom of the god Seker, and of several parts of the 
Sekhet-hetep, or Elysian Fields, and their positions in respect 
of the celestial Nile are shown. The descriptions of these 
places and the formulas which were to be recited by the 
deceased are written in hieratic, and these were to be learned 
by men oh earth so that their souls might recognize the 
various regions as they came to them, and repeat the sacred 
words at the right moments. This "Guide" may be called 
the Book of enabling a man to travel over the ways of the 
Other World, but recent writers have named it the Book of 
the Two Ways. The finest and fullest copies of the work, 


with illustrations in full colour, are found in the coffins of 
Kua-tep and Sen, or Sena, the "chief physician," in the 
British Museum (Nos. 30,841, 30,839). 

A second work of this kind is the Book of what is in theTuat, 

or Other World, or Shat dm Tuat,'=^^:>^\\-L^^ ^. 

In this the Other World is divided into Twelve Sections corre- 
sponding to the Twelve Hours of the Night, and pictures are 
given of the various gods, demons, and fiends who were 
supposed to obstruct the way of those who were passing from 
this world to the kingdoms of Osiris and Ra. The texts 
contain the speeches of the Sun-god of night, called Afu-Ra, 
and describe the conditions of the beatified, or the damned, in 
each section, and give the names of the principal gods. The 
work is very lengthy, and complete copies of it must have 
been cumbrous, as well as costly. The priests therefore 
prepared a Summary of the Book of Am-Tuat, which was 
supposed to contain all that was absolutely essential for the 
soul to know that had to travel from this world to the next. 
The most complete copy of the larger work is given on the 
walls of the chambers in the tomb of Seti I, at Thebes, but 
one half of it is cut on the outside of the magnificent 
sarcophagus of Nekht-Heru-hebt, king of Egypt about B.C. 378 
(Southern Egyptian Gallery, No. 923). (See Plate II.) Of 
portions of the " Summary " there are several copies in the 
British Museum, both with and without illustrations (Nos. 9975, 
9979> 99^ I -998 S , etc.). The pictures of this work were believed 
to be endowed with the same magical powers as the texts. 

In the Book of Gates, a somewhat similar work, the road 
from earth to heaven is marked by a series of Gates through 
which the deceased hoped to pass. The texts, which are fully 
illustrated, describe the progress of the Boat of the Sun-god 
to the Kingdom of Osiris, the Judgment in the Hall of Osiris, 
the life of the beatified in the Elysian Fields, and the punish- 
ment of the wicked and of the foes of the Sun-god by 
dismemberment and burning. Following these comes a set of 
magical texts and pictures which describe and illustrate the 
ceremonies which were performed daily to make the sun to 
rise. They show that the Egyptians used to make a model , 
of the sun, and place it in a boat, and then bring to it 
arrows to represent rays, and disks to represent the hours ; 
fire was next kindled with the fire-stick and applied to the 
model, and appropriate formulas having been recited, the 
body of the sun was believed to be reconstituted. 

Plate II. 

(See page 66/ 






■S m 

a d 

,„ » 




J< ^ 


^ -^ 


■5 M 

^ q 



{/I WJ 

J3 rC 

cH " 


V en 

■s .. 


- o 




10. As an example of Rituals may be mentioned the famous 
Daily Ritual of the Divine Cult, the texts of which were 
inscribed upon papyrus and cut on the walls of temples, 
e\g., Abydos. From this we learn that the king was supposed 
to perform daily a series of elaborate ceremonies in connection 
with the statue of Amen, and to present to it unguents, 
wine, incense, articles of sacred apparel, etc. By means of 
these he entered into communion with the god, who bestowed 
upon him his vital power, strength, and spiritual qualities. 

11. Hymnology is well represented by the hymns to the 
gods Ra, Ka-Harmachis, Temu and Osiris, which are found in 
the great Papyrus of Ani in the British Museum (No. 10,470), 
and by the fine Hjrmn to the Nile, of which two copies are pre- 
served in the British Museum (Sallier II, No. 10,182, and 
Anastasi VII, No. 10,222). Of somewhat different character, 
though equally interesting, are the Hymns to Amen contained 
in the Anastasi Papyrus 11 (No. 10,243). Under this head 
may be grouped the Litany of Osiris in the Papyrus of Ani, 
and the Addresses of Horus to his father Osiris in the Papyrus 
of Nebseni (No. 9900), 

12. Service books are represented by the Book of Over- 
throwing Apepi, a work which contains a series of spells and 
incantations that were recited in the great temple of Amen-Ra 
at Karnak (Thebes) on certain days of the month. These 
were directed against Apepi, the great foe of the Sun-god, and 
enemy of all goodness and- truth, who took the form of a 
monster serpent, and waged war against all the gods daily. 
The rubrics contained directions for ceremonies, in which 
wax-figures were burned in the temple fires, whilst the priests 
recited the spells in the Book. There is a complete copy of 
the work in the British Museum (No. 10,188), which also con- 
tains a list of the accursed names of Apepi, and the text of 
the hymn of praise which was sung when the arch-fiend was 

13. Exegesis is represented by two valuable copies of a 
.work which forms the XVIIth Chapter of the Book of the 

Dead in the Papyrus of Ani (No. 10,470), and the Papyrus of 
Nebseni (No. 9900). In it a text treating of the origin of the 
gods and their relation to Ra, and of the doctrine of the union 
of Ra and Osiris, etc., is dissected, and each sentence of the" 
work is followed by a statement of the opinions of the various 
great religious Colleges of Egypt. 

14. An example of a rare class of work is found cut on 
a black stone slab in the Southern Egyptian Gallery (No. 797). 
The tejft states that it wa3 copied from an inscribed board 


which had become worm-eaten in the reign of Shabaka, king 
of Egypt, about B.C. 700. From what is legible on the slab 
we are justified in assuming that the work contained a sort 
of philosophical statement of the religious beliefs of a priest 
who was trying to systematize certain of the old traditions 
of the country, and to evolve a system of belief which should 
be consonant with the special traditions current at Memphis 
at that time concerning the god Ptah. 

15. Another ihost important section of religious literature 
consists of the funerary inscriptions cut on sepulchral tablets, 
or grave-stones, which form so large a portion of the Egyptian 
collections of the British Museum. In the vestibule and 
galleries is exhibited a splendid series of such monuments, 
the oldest dating from the IVth dynasty, about B.C. 3800, and 
the most recent from the first century A.D. ; thus the series 
represents a period of about four thousand years. The value 
of these monuments is very great, for they not only give the 
various forms of the prayer to the gods for sepulchral 
offerings in the different periods of Egyptian history, but 
they afford a great deal of information about the attributes 
of the gods, and they illustrate the growth and decay of many 
forms of belief, details of ritual, etc. On Plates III-VIII are 
reproduced good typical examples of sepulchral tablets of the 
IVth, Xlth, Xllth, XVIIIth, XlXth, and XXXth dynasties. 

The number' of the religious works of the Egyptians was 
very large, and in each great temple a small chamber was 
set apart as a library ; here the papyrus rolls, or books, were 
kept in boxes, and, in some cases, the names of the works 
were inscribed on the walls of the chamber. The number of 
the rolls in a temple library seems to have been comparatively 
small, for the list of books which is cut on the wall of the 
" House of Books," of the temple of Edfu, only contains the 
names of thirty-seven works. 

Profane Literature. — Among works of a didactic and 
moral character may be mentioned the Precepts of Kaqemna 
and the Precepts of Ptah-hetep. The first of these contains 
a short series of admonitions as to general behaviour, which 
were written towards the end of the Ilird dynasty, about B.C. 
3900, and the second a group of aphorisms of high moral 
worth, by a high official who flourished in the reign of Assa, 
a king of the Vth dynasty, about B.C. 3360. A late copy of 
the latter work is preserved in the British Museum. Other 
works of this class are The Instructions of Amen-em-hat I, 
a complete copy of which is given in the First Sallier Papyrus 
(No, 10,185), and the Maxims of Ani, preserved in th? 

(^^(7 fage 6S. 

Plate III. 

False door from the tomb of Shesha, a royal scribe, who flourished in the reign of 
Khufu (Cheops), about B.C. 3700. 
[Vestibule, North Wall, No. 18.] 

Plate IV. 

{See page 68. ) 



Sepulchral tablet of Thethi, an official who flourished in the reign of Antef-uah-ankh 
rivT .1, ^ ■ ^,W°f*eXIthdynasty, B.C. 2600. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 4, No. 100.] 

(See page 68. ) 

Plate V. 

Painted sepulchral tablet of Sebek-hetep, scribe of the wine-cellar. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 12, No. 513.] XVIIIth dynasty. 

Plate VI. 

{Seepage 68.) 

Sepulchral tablet of Pai-nehsi, the overseer of the storehouse of gold from 

the SCidan. 

[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 7, No. 399.] Xllth dynasty. 

{See page 6i.) 

Plate VII. 




Sepulchral tablet of Bak-en-Amen, a scribe of the table and wine-cellar. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 22, No. 751.] XlXth or XXth dynasty. 

Plate VIII. 

{^Seepage 68.) 

8^ - 

if? is. ._i 

*""" '" " ' ' ' ■■"■' ■ ' ■ ■■ — ■ ■■■ ■- -^^ . . , 11 ■■ ■ r i -'-rn 

Sepulchral tablet of Nes-Heru, a priest. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 26, No. 941.] About B.C. 350. 


Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The latter work inculcates the 
highest standard of practical morality, and contains a lofty 
idea of the duty of the Egyptian to his god and his neighbour ; 
many of the counsels embody shrewd common sense and 
experience, and are similar to portions of the Book of Proverbs 
and the Book of Ecclesiasticus. The language in which the 
maxims are written is sometimes very difficult, for many of 
them are in the form of short, pithy proverbs. 

A work of a somewhat similar character is the very interest- 
ing set of " Instructions" given by a high official to his son 
Pepi, which we know from the Second Sallier Papyrus and the 
Seventh Anastasi Papyrus in the British Museum (Nos. 10,182, 
10,222). The writer entreats his son to adopt the profession 
of letters, which he points out leads to rich emoluments, ease, 
comfort, and dignity, and he begs him to " love letters as thy 
mother." He then compares the toil and unpleasantness of the 
life of the blacksmith, carpenter, stone-cutter, barber, waterman, 
fisherman, farm-labourer, gardener, fish-seller, sandal-maker, 
laundryman, etc., and urges him to devote himself to his 
books. This work is commonly known as the Hymn in 
Praise of Learning ; it was very popular in schools under the 
XlXth and following dynasties, and portions of it, written 
on slices of limestone, were set as "copies" for school-boys. 

The Egyptians greatly loved works of Fiction and Travel, 
and the copies of such which have come down to us show 
that they were full of marvellous incidents, and that they 
greatly resembled some of the sections of the "Arabian 
Nights " of a later period. The Tale of the Two Brothers, 
in the British Museum (No. 10,183), is one of the best ex- 
amples of Egyptian Fiction. In the first part of the story we 
have a faithful description of the life of the peasant farmer 
in Egypt. Anpu, the elder brother, lives with his wife on a 
small farm, and Batau, his younger brother, acts as his com- 
panion, steward, and servant. The wife of Anpu conceived 
great affection for Batau. One day, when he returned to the 
farm on an errand, she told him of her love ; Batau rejected 
her overtures, left the house, and went about his ordinary 
work in the fields. When Anpu returned to his house in the 
evening, he found the rooms in darkness, and, going inside, 
he discovered his wife lying sick upon the floor and in a 
state which suggested she had been ill-treated and beaten. 
In answer to his questions she told him that Batau had 
attacked her and beaten her, and that she was sure when he 
next came back to the farm he would kill her ; she did not 
tell him that she' had made herself sick by eating rancid 


grease, and Anpu did not suspect her untruth. Anpu then 
took a large grass-cutting knife and went out to kill his 
brother when he arrived. As Batau came to the byre to lead 
his cattle into their stalls, the oxen told him that his brother 
was waiting behind the door to kill him ; looking under the 
door he saw Anpu's feet, and then, setting his load on the 
ground, he flefi from the barn as fast as he could, pursued by 
his brother. Whilst they were running, the Sun-god Shu 
looked on, and, seeing that Anpu was gaining on Batau, 
caused a river full of crocodiles to spring up between them, 
so that Anpu was on one bank and Batau was on the other. 
When Batau had explained the truth of the matter to Anpu, 
he departed to the Valley of the Acacia, and the elder brother 
went home, murdered his wife, and threw her body to the 

The second part of the story is not so easy to follow. 
Batau went to the Acacia Valley, and placed his heart on 
the top of the flower of a tree, and passed some years in 
hunting the wild aninials of the desert. Whilst there the 
gods made for him a wife, who was, however, subsequently 
carried off to be the queen of Egypt. By her orders the 
tree on which was the heart of Batau was cut down, and the 
heart fell to the ground, where, after some time, it was found 
by Anpu, who went in search of it. Batau having recovered 
his life, took the form of a bull, and, after a series of marvellous 
transformations, became the father of a king of Egypt. The 
papyrus containing this story was written by the scribe 
Anna, and it was one of the rolls in the library of Seti II 

The Story of the Doomed Prince is another good example 
of Egyptian Fiction, though the unique copy in the British 
Museum (Harris, No. SooJ is incomplete at the end. In the 
story of the Possessed Princess of Bekhten we have a short 
but interesting account of the driving out of a violent devil 
from the body of one of the sisters-in-law of the king of Egypt, 
by means of a statue of the god Khensu. The stele contain- 
ing the text is in Paris., Travel is well represented by the 
Adventures of Sa-Nehat (papyrus at Berlin); the Story 
of a Shipwrecked Sailor, who was cast up on an enchanted 
island, and conversed with a serpent of fabulous length 
(papyrus at St. Petersburg) ; the Journey of Unu-Amen, who 
went to B^rCit to buy cedar wood for the Boat of Amen-Ra at 
Thebes, but was robbed on his way there, and shipwrecked on 
his way back, being cast up on the Island of Cyprus (papyrus 
at St. Petersburg) ; and the Travels of an Egyptian, in a 


papyrus in the British Museum (No. 10,247). In the last 
work we have an account of the journey of an ofiicial who 
travelled in Syria and Palestine, and of the misfortunes which 
overtook him. He was robbed, his servants ran away, the 
pole of his chariot was smashed, and he suffered from heat by 
day, cold by night, and want of food and drink. For stealing 
fruit from a garden near the road he was haled before the 
local magistrate and fined heavily. 

Stories of Magicians were as popular as books of travel, 
and of these may be mentioned the group contained in the 
Westcar Papyrus in Berlin. In one of them we are told of a 
famous magician who made a figure of a crocodile in wax 
which, when thrown into the river, became a huge, living 
crocodile, and devoured the man who had done the magician 
an injury. In another the magician cut off a goose's head, 
and placed it in one part of the room, and the body 
of the bird in another ; he then recited certain words of 
power, and the head and body approached each other little 
by little, and at length the head sprang up on the neck, and 
the goose cackled. In another story we are told how one 
of the maidens who was rowing the royal barge on a lake 
dropped one of her ornaments into the water. A magician 
having been brought, stood up and recited words of power, 
whereupon the half of the lake on which was the boat 
transferred itself above the other half, and remained there 
whilst the maiden stepped out of the boat and picked up 
her ornament which was seen lying on a shard. This done, 
the magician repeated words of power, and the water, which 
had been standing up like a wall, flowed back into its place. 

Under the head of Science must be included the inscrip- 
tions which deal with Astronomy, and contain lists of the 
Planets, the thirty-six Dekans, the Signs of the Zodiac (see the 
coffin of Heru-netch-tef-f, First Egyptian Room, No. 6678), etc.; 
Calendars (Papyrus No. 10,474) ; Geometry illustrated by the 
famous Rhind Papyrus in the British Museum (No. 10,057) ; 
Geography and Cartography, illustrated by the papyrus at 
Cairo in which the religious divisions of the Fayyum are 
described, and by the famous map of the district of the gold 
mines preserved in the Museum of Turin ; Chronology, as 
represented by the Turin Papyrus, which, when complete, 
contained the names of about 300 kings of Egypt, and 
the lengths of their reigns in years and months, or days. In 
connection with this branch may be mentioned the King List 
of Thunurei, found at Sakkarah, and the King Lists of Seti I 
and Rameses II found at Abydos (Tablets of Abydos, 



I and 2); the remains of the List made for Rameses II are 
preserved in the British Museum (Southern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay 6, No. 592). ,,,..• u 

A number of valuable books dealing with Medicine have 
come down to us, and of these one of the most mteresting is 
the papyrus in the British Museum, No. 10,059. It contains 
copies of a number of prescriptions which date from the reign 
of Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid, about B.C. 3730, 
and several of the time of Amen-hetep III (B.C. 14S0). The 
largest work on medicine is contained in the Ebers Papyrus 
at Leipzig, and there are medical papyri in the Museums of 
Paris, Leyden, Berlin, and California (Hearst Medical Papyrus). 

Marble Sundial. Ptolemaic Period. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 29, No. 976.] 

In all these we find that magic was considered to be as 
efficacious as drugs ; many of the prescriptions are to all 
intents and purposes magical formulas, and several suggest 
charlatanism. Oil, honey, and tinctures or decoctions of 
simple herbs were largely used, and the long list of names of 
plants, herbs, seeds, etc., in the Ebers Papyrus proves that, 
though the Egyptians had little idea of scientific Botany, they 
had a very wide knowledge of the properties of plants, etc. 
Anatomy was studied in a practical manner, especially for the 
purposes of embalming and bone- setting, but as no treatises 
on the subject have come down to us, it is impossible to say 


whether the Egyptians deserved the great reputations which 
they enjoyed as physicians. It is tolerably certain that they 
made no experiments in dissection, for the body was sacred 
to Osiris, and might not be dismembered, at all events in the 
later times. The commonest diseases among the Egyptians 
seem to have been ophthalmia, fever, maladies of the stomach, 
ulcers, " Nile boils," epilepsy and anaemia. 

Biographical inscriptions form a very important section 
of the Literature, and they throw much light, not only on the 
social condition of the people, but also on the history of the 
country. Thus, the inscription of the official Ptah-shepses, 
who was born under the IVth dynasty, besides enumerating 
the various high offices which he held, proves that he lived 
through the reigns of eight or nine kings, and thus iixes 
the order of the succession of several of them (see Egyptian 
Vestibule, No. 32). The official Antef lived under three 
kings, whose names he gives, and thus fixes the order of 
their succession (Bay 4, No. 99). (Plate XXII.) The stele ^ 
of Erta-Antef-Tatau says that the deceased was " Governor 
of the South" in the reign of Usertsen I, and thus we 
know that an Egyptian viceroy governed the Sddan as early 
as B.C. 2433 (Bay 4, No. 196). The stele of Sa-Menthu 
describes how he went to the Sud^n to bring back gold 
for the king of Egypt, and tells us that he made men, 
women, and children to work in digging out the quartz, 
and in crushing the ore and washing the gold from it 
(Bay 6, No. 145). From the biographies of the great Egyptian 
officials much of the history of Egypt can be pieced together. 

The Egyptians did not write history in the modern sense 
of the word. Some of the kings, e.g., Thothmes III, inscribed 
annals on the walls of their temples, and many others set up 
inscriptions to commemorate great events. Thus Usertsen III 
set up at Semnah in the sixteenth year of his reign a stele to 
mark the frontier of Egypt on the south, and to proclaim his 
conquest of the Northern Sfldan. Amen-hetep III, B.C. 1450, 
set up a stele at Semnah to record his conquest of the country 
of Abhat, and the slaughter of a number of Blacks (Bay 6, 
No. 411). Rameses II caused copies of his account of his 
fight against the Kheta, or Hittites, to be cut on stelae, and 
set up in various places throughout the kingdom, e.g., at, 
Am^rah and AbCl-Simbel. Some of the Nubian kings also 

' The word stele, from the Greek ari\Kr], means literally an upright stone, or 
pillar, or column, which was set up over a grave, like our tombstone, or in a. 
public place as a memorial of some public event. 


caused good detailed accounts of their wars to be cut upon 
stelae, which were set up in their capital, and in many cases 
these are the sole authorities for the history of the period. 
Thus Piankhi (B.C. 740) gives a really fine account of his 
invasion and conquest of Egypt, even taking the trouble to 
describe the military operations connected with the siege 
of great cities like Memphis, his love for horses, and his 
devotions at Thebes and Hehopolis. Heru-sa-atef, another 
Nubian king, gives on his stele a careful summary of his 
expeditions to various parts of the SudS.n, and lists of the 
tribute which he received. Casts of both monuments are 
exhibited in the Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 18, No. 815, 
and Central Saloon, No! 793. The Stele of Nastasen (B.C. 525) 
at Berlin is another good example of this class of monument, 
and the text, which seems to mention Cambyses, is of great 
interest. Finally may be mentioned the stele of the Decree of 
Ptolemy I (B.C. 325), granting certain properties to the temple 
of Buto (see the Cast in Bay -28, No. 950). The finest general 
account of the reign of a king is that given by Rameses III 
(B.C. 1200) in the Harris Papyrus No. i, in the British Museum 
(No. 9999) ; but even in this more care is devoted to the 
glorification of the king than to the facts of history. The 
inscription of Menephthah (B.C. 1250), which is cut on the 
back of a stele of Amen-hetep III in the Egyptian Museum 
in Cairo, though containing useful historical indications 

and mentioning the name of the Israelites (1(1 " (J ^^, 

I I ^ ^I I *-^^"^ ^^''' '^^""°* ^^ regarded as a serious state- 
ment of fact, and must be classed with the panegyric written 
by the court scribe Penta-urt on the exploits of Rameses II. 

The Historical Romances of the Egyptians are represented 
by the narrative of the Capture of the town of Joppa (Harris 
Papyrus, No. 500), and by the Dispute between Seqenen-Ra, 
King of Thebes, and Apepi, King of Avaris (Sallier Papyrus, I, 
No. 10,185). Books of Magic are numerous, and of these may 
be mentioned Papyrus Salt, No. 825, and Harris Papyrus, 
No. 10,051. Several Mythological Legends are extant, viz., 
of the Resurrection of Osiris and the birth of Horus (on 
a stele in Paris) ; of the Creation of the World, Gods, and 
•Men (British Museum Papyrus, No. 10,188); of the Wars 
of Heru-Behutet, or Horus, the War-god of Edfu (on the 
temple of Edfu) ; of the Destruction of Mankind (in the tomb 
of Seti I) ; of how Unas killed and ate the Gods (in the 
Pyramid of Unas) ; of the Poisoning of Ra the Sun-god 


(papyrus at Turin) ; of the Death of Horus by a scorpion's 
sting, and his resurrection through Thoth (text on the Metter- 
nich Stele) ; and of the Wanderings of Isis, with her son 
Horus and the Seven Scorpion-goddesses, in the Delta (text 
on the Metternich Stele). The History of Osiris, and of his 
murder by Set, has not yet been found in Egyptian texts in 
a complete form, but there are frequent allusions to this 
history in the inscriptions of all periods, and it is clear 
that we have a tolerably accurate version of it in the 
narrative written by Plutarch {De hide et Osiride). 

Among the Legal Documents in the British Museum may 
be mentioned the papyri containing accounts of the prose- 
cution of the robbers who broke into and plundered the 
royal tombs under the XXth dynasty (Papyri Abbott, 
Nos. 10,221 and 10,052), and the process against a man who 
was charged with stealing a quantity of silver (Nos. 10,053, 
10,054). Songs and Poetry are represented by the Love 
Songs contained in the Harris Papyrus, No. 500 ; the Song 
of Antuf, which was sung to the accompaniment of the harp 
(Harris Papyrus, No. 500) ; and the Song of the Harper, 
written on the wall of a tomb at Thebes, in which the hearers 
are enjoined to be happy, to anoint and scent themselves, and 
to rejoice with music and song, until the day cometh when 
they must depart to the land "which loveth silence." The 
mutability of things, and the fleetingness of the world are 
also dwelt upon. The works enumerated in the above para- 
grap hs are written in hieroglyphics and hieratic. The litera- 
ture written in demotic is considerable, and it consists ot 
books of magic, tales and stories, collections of moral 
aphorisms, legal documents, marriage contracts, etc. 



Manners and Customs. Marriage. Polygamy. 
Honour paid to the Mother. The Child and 
ITS Name. Toys. Education. Dress. Food. 
Amusements. Dwelling Houses and Furniture. 
Agriculture and Cattle Breeding. Trade. 

Manners and Customs. — The views of the Egyptians 
about marriage closely resemble those held by many African 
tribes, for they married their sisters and nieces, and sometimes 
indulged in polygamy. It is probable that the views as 
to marriage which obtained generally in Egypt were less 
rigid than those of Western nations. According to an 
ancient legend Osiris married his sister Isis, who became by 
him the mother of Horus, and he was also the father of 
Anubis by his other sister Nephthys. Generally speaking, 
the Egyptian was the husband of one wife, who was the 
mistress of his house and the mother of his children, whether 
she was his sister, or his niece, or a stranger. Kings and 
noblemen married several wives, and became fathers of children 
by many of the women of their households. The Ptolemies, 
curiously enough, seeing that they were Greeks, married their 
sisters and nieces, like the Egyptians. Marriage in Egypt was, 
no doubt, arranged in the way common to the East, i.e., it was 
practically a business transaction, great care being taken to 
provide for the maintenance of the woman in the event of 
misbehaviour either on her part or that of her husband. 
Whether any religious ceremony was performed at the 
marriage is unknown. Girls were married before they were 
fourteen years of age. The legitimate wife of a man is called 

" Nebt pa," ^^~~^'~~'> «>-. "lady of the house,'" and she might 

of course, be " his beloved sister " ; frequently, however, the 
latter title is a euphemism for " mistress," or " concubine." 
To divorce or eject the "lady of the house" was a very 

1 The Muhammadan speaks of his wife as his " house," and the determinative 
to the Egyptian word shows that the ancient Egyptian held the same idea about 
his wife as the modern Arab. 


difficult matter, and it was probably the fear of possible 
pecuniary complications which caused the Egyptian in so many 
cases to marry his sister or the woman whom he called by 
that name. Moreover, it was thus easier to keep the property, 
in the husband's family. 

The legal wife was one of the freest women in the 
world. She went about the house, and outside it, at will, 
and, unlike the modern Egyptian women, she wore no veil. 
If she pleased, she held converse with men in the village 
or market, and she suffered from none of the restrictions 
which are placed upon women in the East in modern 
times. When the wife became a mother her power and 
influence were greatly increased, and the literature of 
ancient Egypt contains many passages which illustrate the 
honour and esteem in which the " mistress of the house " was 
held by her children, and on scores of stelae in the Egyptian 
Galleries the name of the mother of the deceased is given, 
whilst that of his father is not mentioned. The Egyptians, 
like many African tribes, traced their descent through their 
mothers, and the views which they held concerning the affec- 
tion due to the wife from her husband, and the love which a 
son should give to his mother, are well illustrated by two 
passages. In the Precepts of Ptah-hetep (b.c. 3200) : " If 
"thou wouldst be a wise man, rule thy house and love thy 
" wife wholly and constantly. Feed her and clothe her, love 
" her tenderly, and fulfil her desires as long as thou livest, for 
" she is an estate which conferreth great reward upon her lord. 
" Be not hard to her, for she will be more easily moved by 
" persuasion than by force. Observe what she wisheth, and that 
" on which her mind runneth ; thereby shalt thou make her 
" to stay in thy house. If thou resistest her will it is ruin." 
In the Precepts of Khensu-Hetep (B.C. 1500) we read: 
" When thou art grown up, and art married, and hast a house, 
"never forget the pains which thou didst cost thy mother, 
"nor the care which she bestowed upon thee. Never give 
" her cause to complain of thee, lest she lift up her hands to 
"God in heaven, and He hearken to her cry [and punish 

The life of the woman in the lower classes was a hard one. 
She cooked the food for her husband and children, she wove 
the flax into linen, attended to all matters in the house, and 
usually managed to have a large family. She was a mother 
at the age of fifteen, or earlier, and a grandmother at thirty, 
by which time her body was bent, her forehead wrinkled, and 
her face withered. Among the upper classes the process of 

D 2 


physical deterioration was, of course, slower, but the results 
were the same. 

Soon after a child was born a name was given to it, which 
usually had reference to some physical characteristic ; thus a 

boy might be called "Nekht" l^-^UJ "Strong," and a girl 

"Nefert" To "Beautiful," or "Netchemet" |o "Sweet." 

Pious folk introduced the name of some god or goddess into 

the child's name, e.g., " Ra-hetep " t^ "^^ ^ " Ra is satis- 

tied," and loyal folk the narne of the reigning king, e.g., 

" Pepi-nekht " (1(1 ^^^ ^_J] " Pepi the strong one." Several 

members of a family often bore the same name, but in these 
cases each was distinguished by some " little name " (i.e., pet- 
name). As a pet-name may be mentioned " Mai-sheraui," 

ie., " Little Cat," or " Pussy," ^ I]!] ^Ij ^^^ I" well-to- 
do families a special day was set apart for naming a child 
and this name-day was usually celebrated with rejoicings. 

For the first three years of its life a child was wholly in its 
mother's care, and she carried it about on her back or left 
shoulder (see the ivory figure No. 41 in Table-case L in the 
Third Egyptian Room). For the next three or four years of 
its life it went about naked, whether boy or girl, gentle or 
simple ; indeed a grandson of Khufu, the builder of the Great 
Pyramid, went to school unclothed. The heads of children 
were clean-shaven, with the exception of a lock of hair on 
the right side of the head. Little girls sometimes wore an 
amulet on their breast or body in order to avert the "evil 
eye," and perhaps a cheap bracelet or necklace. They played 
with dolls, numerous examples of which have come down 
to us (see Standard-case C in the Fourth Egyptian Room). 
Like all children, Egyptian children loved toys of all kinds. 
As examples of these may be mentioned the cat with a mov- 
able lower jaw, the elephant and his rider, each having 
movable limbs, the negro being pursued by an animal, the ape 
drawing a chariot, the cat-headed dwarf, the lion killing its 
prey, the toy dog, hippopotamus, etc. The balls they played 
with were made of porcelain, papyrus, leather stuffed with 
chopped straw, etc. (See Standard-case C.) 

Education. — It is doubtful if the children of peasants and 
of the lowest classes went to school, or received any education 
at all ; both boys and girls were probably sent to herd the 


geese, to drive the sheep and goats to pasture or to the canal 
or river to drink, to look after the cows, to collect fuel for 
the fire, etc. It is unlikely that girls or women generally were 
taught to read and to write, but little is known about this 
matter. The boys of the professional and upper classes 
undoubtedly received a certain amount of instruction, for 
learning was highly esteemed throughout Egypt ; but speak- 
ing generally, the learning of the country was in the hands 
of the scribes. The profession of the scribe was one of 
great dignity and importance, and the highest offices in the 
land were open to him. The temples and certain offices of 
the Government maintained schools in which scribes were 
trained, and pupils were, of course, promoted according to 
their proficiency and ability. In the temple-schools boys 
were trained to copy religious texts both in the hieroglyphic 
and hieratic characters, and they studied religious literature, 
exegesis, the legends of the gods, funerary texts, etc. In the 
schools of the Government Departments the teaching was 
devised to suit the requirements of the Treasury, the Public 
Granaries, the Crown Lands' Department, etc., and the pupils 
studied arithmetic, the keeping of accounts, geometry, mensu- 
ration, the writing of reports, etc. In all schools boys were 
taught to be clean, diligent, obedient, respectful and well- 
behaved. Lessons began early in the morning and lasted till 
noon, when, as a papyrus in the British Museum says : " the 
" pupils left the school with cries of joy." The daily allowance 
of food for a boy was three bread-cakes and two jugs of beer, 
which were brought to the school-house by his mother every 
day. Corporal punishment was administered freely, and the 
back of the lazy boy who would not get up early, and that 
of the inattentive boy, received many stripes ; in one case a 
very bad boy was locked up for three whole months in a strong 
room in one of the temples. 

School exercises were written on small whitewashed 
boards, slices of white limestone, and papyrus with a reed, 
and they usually consisted of extracts from ancient texts, 
religious or poetical, the contents of which were intended 
to improve the mind and form the morals and manners of 
the reader and copyist. (See Standard-case C in the Third 
Egyptian Room.) The education given in the colleges 
of the Priests was of a different character. There the 
young men studied magical and religious texts, several 
Books of the Dead, the doctrines of the cosmogony, and the 
histories and legends of the gods. They read the ancient 
writings with the priests whose duty it was to instruct them, 

D 3 



and learned by heart their expositions of the traditions 
accepted in the temples. One would expect the colleges to 
have possessed glossaries, or dictionaries, and grammars, but 
it is doubtful if they did, for nothing of the kind has hitherto 
been discovered. History in the modern sense of the word 
was unknown, though some of the great kings caused Annals 
of their reigns to be written ; and recent excavations have 
shown that even the King Lists which were drawn up under 
the XVIIIth and XlXth dynasties are incomplete, and that 

Head of a seated figure of a priestess wearing a full-plaited 

wig, bandlet, etc. 

[Wall-case 103, Third Egyptian Room.] XVIIIth dynasty. 

they contain the names of some kings wrongly spelt. 
Astronomy was studied with some success by the priests, 
and the maps of stars which were compiled by them were 
undoubtedly used for practical purposes in connexion with 
the agriculture of the country. 

Dress and ornaments. — The garments worn by the 
Egyptians were made of linen, for wool was regarded as 

y:iee page 8i.) 

Painted relief with scenes representing dancing, the slaughter of cattle, 

preparations for a feast, etc. From the tomb of Ur-ari-en-Ptah. 

[Assyrian Basement, No. 80.] Vlth dynasty. 

D 4 

Plate X. 


Painted sepulchral tablet of Kahu, a scribe of a storehouse of Amen. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 12, No. 514.] XVIIIth dynasty. 


unclean. The earliest masculine garment was the loin-cloth, 
the primitive form of which was preserved for ceremonial pur- 
poses until a late period. Above it a girdle, or belt, was 
usually added, and to this a tail, either that of some animal, 
or an imitation made of leather, was fastened. The tail is 
worn by many African peoples to this day. As time went on 
and fashion changed the loin-cloth developed into a sort of 
skirt, which varied in length, fulness, and folds, or a short 
kilt projecting in a peak just above the knees. Later 
both men and women wore a sort of shirt, and over this a 
loose flowing garment which reached from the neck to the feet. 
The linen worn by women of the upper classes was of very 
fine texture, and in the luxurious period of the XVIIIth and 
XlXth dynasties their apparel was often very voluminous. 
The dress of men and women under the Vlth dynasty is well 
illustrated by the scenes from a mastaba tomb (see the 
Assyrian Saloon) reproduced on Plate IX, and under the 
XVIIIth dynasty by the figures on the stele of Kahu (Bay 12, 
No. 5x4) (Plate X). Both men and women wore wigs, which 
were sometimes very full and heavy, but women plaited their 
natural hair. Sandals were made of papyrus and palm-fibre, 
neatly woven or plaited, and sometimes of goat skin, or gazelle 
skin, well tanned and stained a pink colour. (See Table-case A 
in the Third Egyptian Room and Standard-case L in the 
Fourth Egyptian Room.) The " cone" was worn on the head 
by men and women, sometimes with a lotus flower or lily 
attached to it. According to some it contained a ball saturated 
with oil or pomade of some kind, which ran slowly into the 
hair, and so spread over the head and shoulders, causing 
pleasing sensations to him on whose head the ball was. The 
headdresses of the king and queen were very elaborate, 
whilst those of ordinary folk -consisted of a bandlet, more or 
less decorated. Men of position always carried a staff or 
walking stick as a sign of authority, and those whom the 
king had honoured by the gift of a gold collar wore it on 
every important occasion. Both men and women wore rings, 
anklets, bracelets, armlets, necklaces, elaborately ornamented 
collars, pectorals, pendants, amulets, .and earrings, just as they 
do in Egypt and the Sfidin at the present time. Egyptian 
women stained the nails of their fingers and toes a yellowish 
red with the juice of the henna plant ; they painted their faces 
with a sort of rouge, and their eyelids and eyebrows with 
a preparation of antimony (stibium, or kohl), and they added 
under the eyes thick lines of paint to make them appear 
large and full. Both men and women sometimes decorated 


their bodies with tattoo markings, which originally probably 
had a rehgious, or tribal, import. The burning winds and 
heat made the use of unguents an absolute necessity, and 
oils and pomades were very largely used in all periods. 
Strong scented woods and herbs were pounded and mixed 
with oil, and rubbed into the body, and scents were in 
ancient days, as now, in great demand. Often women carried 
a fan and a mirror. A fine collection of mirrors is exhibited 
in Wall-cases Nos. 182-187 '" the Fourth Egyptian Room. 

Food. — The food of the lower classes consisted chiefly of 
bread and vegetables. The bread was made of a kind of 
millet, like the modern dhurra, barley, and rarely of wheat. 
The grains were rolled and crushed on a stone and then both 
the flour and the bran were mixed with water into a stiff 
paste ; from this pieces were broken off and flattened out by 
the hand into cakes of various degrees of thickness, which 
were baked on hot stones, or in mud-lined ovens. (See the 
examples in Table-case H in the Third Egyptian Room.) 

Bread-cakes were made in a variety of shapes, e.g., c^, j^, Q, 

g^=D, C3CD, g=o, 0, ©, Q, etc. Among vegetables may be 

mentioned onions, cucumbers of various kinds, beans, peas, 
lentils, radishes, pumpkins, water-melons, leeks, garlic, 
roots of the turnip and carrot class, and vegetables belonging 
to the class of the modern b&mia, bddingdn (egg-plant), 
melilkhiyah (spinach), etc. All these grew in great abun- 
dance, and, in growing, needed little attention, and formed 
very important items in the food of all classes. (Compare 
Numbers xi, 4, 5 : " And the children of Israel also wept 
"again, and said. Who shall give us flesh to eat? We 
" remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely ; the 
" cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, 
" and the garlick.") Milk was drunk in large quantities by 
the living and was offered to the dead, and cheese was 
everywhere a common article of food. Among fruits may 
be mentioned figs, dates, mulberries, grapes, and probably 
pomegranates. From both figs and dates syrups and 
sweetmeats must have been made. Fish was largely eaten 
by the poorer classes, but from various passages in the texts 
we learn that the " eaters of fish " were unclean ceremonially. 
The animal food eaten consisted of the flesh of the sheep, goat, 
ox, gazelle, ariel, the antelope and other animals of that 
class, etc. ; domestic animals intended for human food 
were often fattened artificially. Groups of swine are repre- 
sented on the monuments occasionally, but the pig must have 


been regarded as an unclean animal. Among the birds eaten 
were the goose, duck, pigeon, dove, and the several kinds of 
birds which were found in the marshes all over Egypt in 
ancient days. Geese also were fattened artificially, and the 
trade in them must have been very large. (See the wall 
painting in Standard-case I in the Third Egyptian Room, 
where the inspection and counting of geese are represented.) 
Salt was obtained from the lakes on the sea-coast, and rock- 
salt from several places in the Western Desert. With cooked 
meats, stews, etc., various kinds of seeds of the spice class were 
probably eaten, as modern nations eat mustard and pepper. 

The common drink of the country was beer, heqt S , 

made from barley, and probably flavoured with plants of 
various kinds which took the place of hops ; in the earliest 
Liturgy of Funerary Offerings mention is made of three or four 
kinds of beer. A sweet beer was made from honey. Wine 
made from grapes was drunk by the upper classes, and the 
lower classes drank date wine. This was, and still is, made by 
pouring water on ripe, fleshy dates, and letting it stand for a 
number of days, according to the strength of the wine re- 
quired ; after standing for a week or so the liquor becomes 
an exceedingly strong intoxicant. 

Mode of eating. — The peasant sat, or squatted, on the 
ground and dipped his bread-cake into the mess of lentils or 
boiled vegetables which was in a bowl resting either on the 
ground or on a poor wooden stand. Well-to-do folk either sat 
on low stools, or lay on reed mats or cushions, and dipped 
their hands into the various bowls of boiled grain, meat, and 
vegetables which were placed on the small low stand that 
served as a table, round which they were grouped. Water was 
drunk from earthenware vessels, which were probably like 
the modern kula, or water-bottle, and wine and beer from 
bowls. The joint was roughly cut or broken into small pieces, 
probably before it was brought into the eating-chamber, but 
birds were pulled to pieces by the head of the house and 
his family or guests as they sat at meat. Fingers were wiped 
on the thin, flat bread-cakes, but after the meal a member of 
the household brought a jug and basin and poured water 
over the hands of those who had eaten. The chief meal of 
the day was eaten about the time of sunset. The Egyptians 
were careful to inculcate moderation in eating and drinking. 
Kaqemna, the sage, said: "If thou art sitting in company 
" hate the food which thou likest ; restrain thy appetite, for 
" greediness savoureth of the beasts. Since one cup of water 



" will quench the thirst, and a mouthful of vegetables stablish 
" the heart, and one kind of good food is as satisfying as 
" another, and a small quantity [of food] is as good as 
" a large quantity, the man yvho permitteth his appetite to 
" guide him is an abomination." On the other hand, the guest 
must take what his host gives him, and must eat it, for to 
leave it uneaten is indeed an unmannerly ' act. And Ptah- 
hetep said : " When thou art seated among the guests of a 
"great man, accept what he giveth thee gracefully. Look 
" before thee, nor stare [at the food], nor look at it often ; he 
" who departeth from this rule is a boorish fellow. And speak 
" not to the great man more than is necessary, for one knoweth 

Relief with a hippopotamus. From the temple of Neb-]bap-Ra Menthu-hetep. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 3, No. no.] Xlth dynasty. 

" not what word will displease him. Speak when he speaketh, 
" and thy word shall give pleasure." 

Amusements. — The children of the poor were employed 
as soon as possible in tending the animals in the field, and 
they had few toys to play with ; the children of well-to-do 
folk had painted wooden dolls, with hair made of strings of 
mud or porcelain beads, and movable joints, models of 
animals, etc. The chief amusement of men was hunting, 
and fishing, and fowling. Fish and water-fowl were usually 
caught in nets, but as bronze fish hooks have been found 
(see Table-cases B and J in the Third Egyptian Room) the 


rod and line must also have been used. The Egyptian 
sportsman set out on the marshes in a shallow boat with low 
bows and stern, taking with him his short fishing spears, 
harpoons, boomerangs (see Table-case E in the Third 
Egyptian Room), nets, his hunting-cat (see the wall-painting 
in Case I in the Third Egyptian Room), servants, and 
sometimes a favourite wife or daughter. Nets were cast for 
fish in certain parts of the marshes, and che boat was poled 
in among the high reeds and bulrushes where the birds 
congregated. The skilled boomerang thrower soon brought 
down many birds, and his efforts were ably seconded by his 
hunting cat. Among the birds may be mentioned the 
vulture, eagle, hawk, falcon, buzzard, kite, crow, lark, 
linnet, sparrow, quail, pelican, ibis, swallow, heron, goose, 
pigeon, etc. Occasionally the hippopotamus was attacked 
among the dense papyrus growths, and the animal was 
usually harpooned to death, as was the custom in the Siidin 
until recently, for the sake of the flesh. The crocodile was 
also sometimes caught. No hippopotamus has been seen 
living in Egypt in a natural state for very many generations, 
and the crocodile retreated south of Khartum soon after 
paddle steamers were placed on the Nile. The crocodile was 
considered to be a sacred animal for thousands of years, and 
a sacred crocodile was kept and worshipped as the God of 
the Nile at Khartum so recently as the year 1829. The 
numerous ivory objects found in Predynastic graves prove 
that the primitive Egyptians hunted and killed the elephant 
(see Table-case L in the Third Egyptian Room), and it seems 
as if a considerable amount of ivory passed into Egypt proper 
by way of the First Cataract, for the ancient Egyptian name 

of the old frontier city was Abu f J^^^^vJ^' ^A 

" Elephant City " (hence " Elephantine "). At a very early 
period, however, the elephant must have retreated far to the 
south, for he plays no part in Egyptian mythology, and figures 
of the animal are rare. (See the carnelian elephant in Table- 
case F, in the Fourth Egyptian Room.) The bear also seems 
to have been hunted. (See page 86.) 

The deserts on each side of the Nile were hunted in all 
periods, and if we may trust the paintings in the tombs 
excellent sport was always to be had. The animals most 
commonly hunted were the lion, lynx, leopard, panther, wolf, 
jackal, wild-dog, fox, hyaena, hare, gazelle, oryx, ibex, ariel, 
and many other animals of that class. In primitive times the 


Egyptians caught many animals with the lasso (see the 
green slate shield exhibited in Table-case L in the Third 
Egyptian Room). The rope was thrown over the horns, or 
round the legs, of the animal, which was then easily pulled 
down: The weapons used in hunting were clubs, bows, flint- 
tipped arrows, boomerangs, and doubled-headed axes, all of 
which are shown in the illustrations on page 23. The indi- 
genous ancestors of the dynastic Egyptians probably hunted 
the elephant, rhinoceros, and giraffe, but it is unlikely 
that many of these creatures remained in Egypt in the 
Historical Period. Dogs were employed largely in hunting, 
and several species are known. The most useful and valuable 
was the large dog, something like the greyhound, with 

_ Green schist bear. 
[No. 10, Table-case L, Third Egyptian Room.] Archaic Period. 

prick ears and a long curling tail, of the same species 
which is used in Mesopotamia and Persia and the Siid&n at 
the present day, and is called SalMt. The boldness of 

this kind of dog, called in Egyptian theseni ^\ ^^ , 

is marvellous, for he will attack panthers and lions, and his 
fleetness is almost incredible. His speed is compared with that 
of a flash of light in the Book of the Dead (Chapter XXIV). 
The kings of the XVHIth dynasty were great hunters, 
and Amen-hetep HI, who hunted from the Euphrates in the 
North to the Blue Nile in the South, states on his scarabs 
that he killed with his own hand no fierce lions during the 
first ten years of his reign. (See D, Fourth 
Egyptian Room, Nos. 925-929.) 
-J Next to hunting dancing was perhaps the most favourite 
amusement of the Egyptians, and from Pyramid times the 
Egyptians delighted in watching men and women perform. 


The dances were accompanied sometimes by youths who 
played a reed pipe or flute, single or double, or twanged 

the strings of an instrument of the harp, ^, or lute class. 

(See the fine examples in Table-case A m the Fourth 
Egyptian Room.) The kings of the Ancient Empire loved 
a dance called the " dance of the god " which was danced by 
the Pygmies in Central Africa ; and two of them, Assa and 
Pepi, caused a Pygmy to be brought from his remote country 
to Memphis to dance before them. Dancing women danced 
and sang to the accompaniment of the tambourine, which 

was also used, together with the sistrum S , cymbals, and 

bells, in musical services in the temples. The drum, both 
the large drum which was beaten with tabs of leather, and the 
small hand drum, was a very favourite instrument of music, 
and was largely used in festivities by every class. Tumblers, 
acrobats, and buffoons afforded amusement to the spectators, 
and the drawings found on the walls of some of the tombs 
at Beni Hasan (B.C. 2300) show that many of the tricks 
exhibited at the present day were performed at that time. 
The well-to-do Egyptian hired dancers, singers, gymnasts, and 
musicians, and entertained his guests, both during and after 
feasts, with their performances. 

The Egyptian loved to play draughts on earth, in 

Egyptian sent 'vww> t^iii^, and he earnestly hoped that he would 

do the same in heaven. (See Standard-case F in the Third 
Egyptian Room, where the scribe Ani and his wife are repre- 
sented playing draughts in the Other World.) How the game 
was played is not known, but there must have been several 
kinds of games, for the draughtboards are not all arranged in 
the same way. (For examples of them see Standard-cases C 
and H in the Fourth Egyptian Room.) The top of the 
box which held the draughtsmen formed the board on 
which the game was played. The Egyptians played a 
number of games with counters, but the methods are un- 
known. Numbers of dice have been found in the tombs, but 
it is doubtful if the die was known among the Egyptians of 
the Early Empire. Many of their games were, no doubt, 
games of chance. The modern equivalent of the draughts and 
counters of the ancient Egyptians is dominoes. The poor 
man, it seems from the texts, sometimes betook himself to 

"the house for swilling beer" I ^^ H A«^A/^A =^ ^ , 



where he got drunk, and babbled about his affairs, and fell 
about and hurt himself, and was then cast out of the door by 
his fellow drinkers who said : " out with this swiller," 

^I^^^VPSeii- Wh.„hisf,i.„ds 

came to seek him and upbraid him, they found him lying 
on the ground as helpless as a child (Maxims of Khensu- 
hetep, XIII). During the dark, moonless nights, after long 
weary days spent in hauling up water from the river, the 
peasant villager had little to amuse him, except games played 

Egyptian house, with inner chamber and two flights of steps leading to the roof. 
[No. 292, Wall-case 107, Third Egyptian Room.] About B.C. 4000. 

with counters and draughts, and the converse of his companions 
in the " beer-house." 

Dwelling Houses. — The king usually lived in a palace or 
large building within the precincts of some temple, or at a very 
little distance from one. His palace was probably like the 
large houses of modern times in Egypt, i.e., it had a court- 
yard with trees in the middle of it, and a large garden round 
about it. In the garden were fish-ponds . and groves of fruit 


trees, palms, acacias, flowering shrubs with scented blossoms, 
and a limited number of flowers. There were arbours, too, 
covered with creepers and vines, and the gardeners watered 
the ground daily by means of small channels into which water 
was poured from the shddAf, or the water wheel. The court- 
yards were paved, or tiled, or covered with floors made of 
inlaid painted porcelain work. The walls and ceilings of the 
rooms were painted with rich and intricate designs, and in a 
few of the rooms there were openings near the roof which 
served as windows. The royal furniture was probably richly 
painted and inlaid with ebony, ivory, porcelain, and, under the 
New Empire, metal vases of all shapes and sizes would be 
seen everywhere in the dwelling rooms. Certain large rooms 
were set apart for receptions and entertainments, and these 
probably contained large raised benches placed along the walls 
for the guests. The kitchen, pantr)?^, stables, and general 
servants' quarters were outside the house, but the personal 
attendants on the king and queen, the steward, the master of 
the chambers, etc., had their apartments in the palace. The 
storeys were rarely more than two in number, and the roof, 
which was flat, was approached by a flight of steps, either from 
the courtyard or from the roof of the storey on the ground 

The houses of nobles were built on the same lines as the 
palace, but with le^s magnificence, and they seldom consisted 
of more than two storeys. There was a courtyard, with sets 
of small rooms built on three sides of it, and a portico on the 
fourth. On the flat roof were wind shafts by which the north 
wind was brought into the rooms, and a small amount of light 
was also admitted into them through openings in the upper 
parts of the walls, close to the ceiling. Then as now, at 
certain seasons of the year, some of the members of the family 
slept on the roof or in the courtyard, the remainder on 
the upper floor. Near the house were the wine-press, beer- 
house, stable, byres for cattle, bins for various kinds of 
grain, etc., and chambers for storing the fruit and vegetables 
from the estate. The garden contained a small lake, and in 
the ground round about, which was divided into oblong beds, 
were fruit trees and flowering shrubs with scented blossoms, 
vines, etc. The whole was enclosed within a thick mud wall 
built probably of crude brick. The farmhouse of one storey 
usually contained one living-room, one bed-room, and a 
number of small chambers in which grain was stored. On the 
roof was a small chamber to which the master retired in the 
cool of the evening ; this was approached by means of a flight 



of solid mud steps. The corn was ground and the bread baked 
in the courtyard, where also were kept the large porous 
earthenware jars, like the modern zir, containing the supply 
of water which was brought to the house from the Nile each 
morning and evening. The house and yard were enclosed by 
a strong mud wall, with one door in it ; in times of danger the 
cattle of the farm were driven from the fields into the yard. 
A good model of this kind of house is exhibited in Standard- 
case C, in the Fourth Egyptian Rooiji. Here are seen the 
master sitting in the chamber on the wall, or roof, with a plate 
of food before him, and the wife rolling the dough for the 
bread-cakes of the evening meal. The house of the peasant 
labourer was a mere hut made of mud, the roof of which was 

Egyptian hut. 
[No. 293, V^'all-case 108, Third Egyptian Room.] 

About B.C. 4000. 

formed of layers of palm branches or straw. Small huts 
were made of reeds or palm trees bound together with twigs, 
and perhaps daubed with mud in the cold weather, and in 
the northern districts of mud ; in the summer a shelter of 
reed mats probably sufficed. 

Furniture. — The Egyptians did not fill their houses with 
furniture like Western Nations. Their bedsteads were made 
of wood, which usually came from the Sudin, and consisted of 
a strong rectangular framework, about 15 or 20 inches high, 
across which was stretched plaited palm fibre, or rope ; the 
ankarib of the Siidin is the modern equivalent. The covering 
of such beds was formed of thick padded linen sheets, and the 



pillow was a support made of wood, or ivory, more or less 
ornamented, with a curved top for the neck to fit into. (See 
Wall-cases Nos. 97, 98, in the Third Egyptian Room.) Carpets 
were unknown, but plaited palm leaf or straw mats took their 
place. Chairs (see Standard-case H in the Fourth Egyptian 
Room) and tables were found in the houses of the wealthy, 
but only low stools were known in poor abodes. (For 
examples ,of a painted table, chairs inlaid with ivory and 
ebony, a couch-frame, stools, inlaid box, etc., see Standard- 
case L in the Fourth Egyptian Room.) Men, women, and 
children squatted or sat on the floor, or reclined upon mats, 
and in later days upon cushions made of padded linen. In 
houses of moderate 
size there was probably 
a raised mud bench, 
covered with mats in 
the receiving or eating 
room, for the use of the 
male members of the 
house, or their guests. 
There was also, pro- 
bably, a raised mud 
bench built against the 
outside of one of the 
walls of the house for 
the use of friends who 
sat there in the cool of 
the evening and for the 
men of the house to 
sleep on during hot 
nights. Niches, or square cavities cut in the walls, served 
as cupboards, and in one of these the lamp (see Wall-case 
No. 176 in the Fourth Egyptian Room), usually made of 
earthenware, stood. 

The stores of clothing, etc., were kept in a very small room 
provided with a stout wooden door with a bolt-lock and 
key of simple pattern. (For examples of bolts and keys, 
see Wall-cases Nos. 180, 181, in the Fourth Egyptian 
Room.) The mistress of the house usually possessed a small 
strong box in which she kept jewellery, ornaments, and 
amulets, and perhaps also her toilet requisites ; in some cases 
the latter were kept in a special toilet box, which held eye- 
paint (stibium, or antimony, kohl), comb, hair-tweezers, 
pumice-stone, unguents and pomades, both scented and 
plain. (See Standard-case L in the Fourth Egyptian Rooui.) 

Ivory head-rest, or pillow, of Kua-tep. 
[No. 69, Wall-case 98, Third Egyptian Room.] 
Xllth dynasty. 


Kitchen utensils were comparatively few in number. Fresh 
and sour milk (or curds), soft cheese, sheep-fat, etc., were kept' 
in earthenware pots, some of which were undoubtedly glazed ; 
bowls made of earthenware or gourds were common, as were 
large open saucers. The cooking pots were usually of 
earthenware, or, among well-to-do people, of metal. Knives 
made of flint, stone, or metal, were common, and rough flesh 
forks ; in the later period spoons were used. Plates, in the 
modern sense of the word, were unknown ; the thick bread- 
cake served as a plate for those who squatted round the bowl 
of cooked vegetables with pieces of meat on the top, and the 
thin flat cake was frequently used as a napkin. A stone 
corn-grinder and a kneading-stone were foun^ in every house. 
The stock of grain for the family was kept in large earthen- 
ware jars, or in a kind of bin made of mud. Every house 
contained a figure of the god under whose protection the 
family lived, and to this adoration was offered at regular 
intervals ; it took part in the family councils, its lot was bound 
up with that of the family, and it prevented wandering spirits 
of evil disposition from entering the house. There being no 
chimney to the house, the fire was lit wherever it was most 
convenient, and the smoke went out through the roof and the 
aperture in the wall which served as a window. The fuel was 
animal dung, and such refuse from the straw as could not be 
eaten by the cow or goat of the house, and, occasionally, pieces 
of wood. As matches were unknown, care was taken to keep 
a small amount of fuel smouldering under the ashes, so that 
whenever it was necessary to boil lentils, etc., the fire could be 
revived ; if the fire was out, recourse was had to the striking 
of flints, or to some neighbour, or to the temple fire. In 
primitive times the Egyptians seem to have used a fire-stick, 
like some of the tribes of Central Africa. 

Agriculture and Cattle-breeding. — By far the larger 
part of the population of Egypt and the Egyptian Siidin 
has been for many thousands of years past connected with 
the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of cattle, and on 
the success of the farmer and the cattle-breeder the 
prosperity of the whole country has always depended. 
In remote ages, before the estuary of the Nile was filled 
up by the mud which came down in flood-time from 
the mountains of Ethiopia and Nubia, and while still the 
sea flowed up the Nile as far as Esna, the primitive Egyptians 
were shepherds and herdsmen. The great cattle-breeding 
district was situated in the neighbourhood of the country now 
called Dar Fflr, or the " Home of the Ffirs," and even to the 



present day the exportation of the beautiful cattle of the 
district forms a very important item of Sadin trade. The 
natives who lived by breeding cattle were called by the 
Lgyptians "Menti" U, "cattle-men," and their modern 
descendants are called "Bakkarah," which also means « cattle- 
men. In all times they have been a wild and lawless folk, 

The bull Hap (Apis), with the triangular blaze on his 
forehead, and the scarabs, etc. , on his back. 
[Table-case H, Third Egyptian Room.] 

ferocious, blood-thirsty, and cruel. The early cattle-men 
worshipped the bull, and this animal played a prominent 
part in later Egyptian mythology. Several kinds of bulls 
were worshipped in Egypt: Apis at Memphis, Mnevis at 
Heliopolis, and Bachis at Hermonthis, and one of the greatest 
of the titles of Osiris was " Bull of Amentet," or " Bull of the 



Other World." The cow also was worshipped under the name 
of Hathor, and a flint cow-head in the British Museum (Table- 
case M in the Third Egyptian Room) proves that her cult 
dates from the latter part of the Neolithic Period. Ihe 
paintings on the walls of early tombs show that several kinds 
of cattle were known to the Egyptians, and the inscriptions 
make it clear that the old feudal lords and gentry of 
Egypt devoted much attention to cattle-breeding, and that 

The bull Mer-ur (Mnevis). 
[Table-case H, Third Egyptian Room.] 

they made a regular trade of it. (See the models of cows in 
the Wall-cases on the Landing of the North-West Staircase, 
No. 140, and the wall painting in Standard-case I in the 
Third Egyptian Room.) Oxen and cows were fattened like 
the smaller animals and geese, and, before they were turned 
out for the season into the deserts to browse upon the growth 
which followed the rains, they were branded, or marked in 
some way with their owner's name. 


for ti^ ^*T^ r^ certainly known in the Predynastic Period, 
AhvJo f °^ ^" earthenware figure of one was found a 
Abydos a few years ago ; but this animal cannot have been 
used for transport purposes, or bred by the early Dynastic 
iigyptians, for otherwise we should find pictures of him on the 
walls of the tombs One of the earliest mentions of the camel 
IS contamed m the " Travels of an Egyptian" (Brit. Mus. 
Papyrus No. 10,247), where we find the Semitic word for 

camel under the form kamadl - 

The camel plays no part in Egyptian mythology. The 

commonest beast of burden was the ass, which was bred 

in large numbers, and was employed like oxen for treading 

out the corn and for riding. One of the desert caravans 

of Her-Khuf, an old feudal lord of 

Elephantine under the Vlth dynasty, 

contained 300 asses. The ass was ad- 
mired for his strength, endurance, and 

virility, and he appears in Egyptian 

mythology as a form of the Sun-god. 

Sheep and goats were always bred in 

large numbers. The horse may have 

been known in Egypt in the Xllth 

dynasty, but he was not bred there 

until the experience gained by the 

Egyptians in their Asiatic campaigns 

showed them his value in military 

operations. Horses must have been 

plentiful in Egypt under the XXIInd 

dynasty, " for Solomon had horses 

" brought out of Egypt," and " a chariot 

"came up and went out of Egypt, for six hundred shekels 

" of silver, and an horse for an hundred and fifty" (1 Kings 

X, 28, 29). Excellent representations of horses are seen in 

the wall-painting in Standard-case D in the Third Egyptian 

Room, and in the battle-scene of Rameses II on the South 

Wall of the Fourth Egyptian Room, above the cases. 

The pig is not often represented on the monuments, but a 
painting in a tomb at Thebes shows that swine were used on 
farms for treading out the corn. From a very early period 
the god of evil, Set, was believed to have appeared in the form 

Flint Cow's head. 

[No. 86, Table-case M, 

Third Egyptian Room.] 

of a " black pig " ^jl^ 

, when he smote the Eye 

of Horus {i.e., the Sun). The gods then decreed that pigs 


should be sacrificed to Horus, with bulls, sheep, and goats. 
In one form of the Judgment Scene the pig is the emblem of 
evil, and also in the Book of the Dead (see Chapters XXXVI 
and CXII). On the other hand, the sow was an animal 
sacred to Isis, and small figures of sows were worn as amulets 
attached to necklaces. (See the figures of sacred animals in 
Wall-case No. 121 in the Third Egyptian Room.) Under 
the early dynasties a species of ram, which became the symbol 

of the god Khnemu 3, with flat horns projecting at right 

angles from the sides of his head ^^, was common in Nubia, 
but it appears to have died out before the end of the Xllth 
dynasty. Another kind of ram >y^i apparently indigenous 
to Nubia, became the symbol of the god Amen of the Sudan. 
The principal instrument used in farming was the plough 

"N^, the share of which was made of a piece of wood tied to 
a long pole ; at the other end of the pole was fixed a bar, 
which was made fast to the horns of the cows which drew 
the plough. This primitive instrument was little more than 
a stout stake tied to a pole which was drawn over the ground, 
and made a very shallow furrow. The stiff Nile mud was 

further broken up by the hoe \^, of which examples may be 

seen in the Wall-case No. 102 in the Third Egyptian Room 
(No. 281, etc.). As soon as the fields were ready to receive 
the seed, the sowing took place, and when the seed had been 
cast into the furrows it was trodden in by the animals on the. 
farm being driven over it. The sowing was done by hand, 
and no drill appears to have been used. The fields were 
watered either by allowing the water to flow from a large 
basin or reservoir on to them, or by machines which lifted the 
'water from the canal to their level, or from the Nile itself. 
The commonest water-raising machine resembled the modern 
shaduf, which was worked by one or two men. Two stout 
stakes were driven firmly into the ground at the edge of the 
stream, and between them was tied a long pole, heavily 
weighted with a mass of mud or stone at one end. To the 
end of the longer half of the pole a rope and a leather bucket 
were tied. The labourer drew the pole down until the bucket 
entered the stream, and the weight of the counterpoise at the 
other end helped him to raise the water to the surface of the 
field, where he poured it into the channel leading to the 
growing crop. 


At the harvest the crops were cut with the small sickle ^ 

(see Table-case K in Third Egyptian Room, Nos. 1-4), which 
in primitive times was made of flint or a series of flints set in a 

wooden frame ^^^, and in later times of iron or bronze. The 

wheat or barley was tied up into small bundles by the 
reapers, and carried to the threshing floor, where the grain 
was trodden out by animals — donkeys, swine, etc. The thresh- 
ing floor, as we may see from the wall paintings and pictures 
on papyri, was circular in form, and its edges were raised, 
^ — ^ , thus preventing the animals, as they ran round and 
round in it, from scattering the grain with their feet. The 
operations of ploughing, reaping, and treading out the corn 
are well illustrated by the Vignette No. 35, from the Ani 
Papyrus. (See Standard-case G in the Third Egyptian Room.) 
When the grain had been trodden out, it was thrown up 
by hand into heaps, the wind blowing away the chaff 
whilst it was in the air. It was next carried in baskets, or 
bags, to the store or granary, which was usually near the 
house. Here it was either piled up in heaps on mud stands 

with raised edges ^r\/\ , or poured into large bins built in 

the walls along a rectangular courtyard. (See the models of 
granaries in Standard-case C in- the Fourth Egyptian Room.) 
Trade. — The trade of Egypt appears to have been chiefly 
in the hands of the seafaring folk of the Delta, who probably 
worked the imports and exports of the country in connection 
with the Semitic merchants who traded in the seaports of 
Phoenicia and the Mediterranean generally. The chief 
export of Egypt was corn, which was carried all over the 
Mediterranean, and we know from Genesis xii, xli-xliii, that 
when grain was scarce in other countries, the merchants 
were in the habit of going to Egypt to supply their 
wants. At intervals, however, serious famines came upon 
Egypt (Genesis xli, 55, 56), and when corn could not be 
imported, the mortality among the people was very great. In 
the reign of Ptolemy III (B.C. 247) there was a famine in 
Egypt, and the King expended much gold in purchasing grain 
at a high price to save the lives of the people of Egypt, and 
he caused corn to be brought to Egypt from Eastern Syria, 
and Phoenicia, and Cyprus. Next in importance came the 
linen of Egypt, which, in the form of byssus, was famous 
throughout Western Asia. Under the XVIIIth dynasty 
considerable quantities of gold were exported from Egypt to 
Northern Syria, Assyria and Babylonia. The gold came 


from the Eastern Sudan and Punt, where at that time 
(B.C. 1500) it was produced in such large quantities that 
Tushratta writing to Amen-hetep III says : " Send me so much 
" gold that it cannot be measured, more gold than that thou 
" didst send to my father; for in my brother's land {i.e., Egypt), 
" gold is as common as dust " ! (Tell al-Amarna tablet. No. 8.) 
According to Diodorus (ed. Didot, p. 41) Rameses II received 
from his gold and silver mines in one year metal to the 
value of 32,000,000 minas, or ;^8o,ooo,ooo sterling. Another 
article of export was paper manufactured from papyrus. 

Among the imports may be mentioned copper and tin 
from Cyprus and Northern Syria, cedar wood from the 
Lebanon Mountains, lapis-lazuli paste from Babylonia, 
myrrh and spices for embalming, skins, cattle, ebony, ostrich 
feathers, bows, pillows, chairs, couches, fans, mats, 
shields, etc., from the Sudan ; and a number of the products of 
India and Arabia must have found their way into Egypt by 
means of the caravans which crossed the desert to some place 
near the modern Suez or Kantarah, and some sea-borne goods 
entered Egypt by the route from the Red Sea to the Nile, vid 
Kuser and Kena. The importance of Egypt as a trading 
centre, and as the natural market half-way between the East 
and the West, was not fully recognized until the Ptolemaic 
Period, about B.C. 250. Business was carried on chiefly by 
barter, so much wheat, barley, or millet being the value of a 
sheep, bull, cow, or goat, linen, etc. The Egyptians used weights 
and measures, e.g., the royal cubit of 7 palms or 28 fingers, 
the little cubit of 6 palms or 24 fingers, the palm of 4 fingers, 
the hand of 5 fingers, the fist of 6 fingers, and the finger ; of 
dry measure, the hen, the tenat, the apt, etc. ; of weight, the 
teben ( = i^ ounces), the ket:=yLth of a teben, etc. The use of 
the scales was well known, but there is no evidence that the 
steelyard was employed before the Roman Period. Stamped 
money was unknown among the Egyptians, but they appear 
to have used a currency which consisted of pieces of wire 
made of copper, iron, or gold, and gold-dust. Ring-money, 
made of gold, is represented in the painting on the south wall 
of the Fourth Egyptian Room ; and also the little bags 
containing gold dust. Ring-money in gold is in use at the 
present day along the east coast of Africa, and in certain 
parts of the SfidSn copper wire still possesses great purchasing 

Handicrafts. — The Egyptian of all periods was a skilled 
potter. In the earliest times the potter's wheel was unknown, 
and every vessel was shaped by the potter's hand or foot. 


Vessels of all sorts, shapes, and sizes were made with great 
Skill,. and in later periods were decorated with linear and other 
designs. The art of the potter throve until the advent of 
the conquerors from Asia, when it began to languish ; and 
in a iew centuries earthenware vessels were superseded by 
stone Good examples of Predynastic and Archaic pottery 
will be found in the cases on the Landing of the North- 
west Staircase, and of the pottery of the later periods in 
the i-ourth Egyptian Room. The Basket-weaver wove 
rush matting, plaited mats and sandals, and made ropes and 
baskets of all kinds. Specimens of his work will be seen in 
Table-case A in the Third Egyptian Room, and in Wall- 

Jewellers drilling and polishing beads, etc. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 12, No. 518.] XVIIIth dynasty. 

cases 182-187 i" the Fourth Egyptian Room. Owing to the 
abundance of flax in Egypt the trade of the linen-weaver wias 
in all periods most flourishing, and the " fine linen of Egypt " 
was famous throughout Western Asia and the seaports of the 
Mediterranean. A staff of linen weavers appears to have 
been attached to each temple, and the sale of their work 
produced a large revenue ; a portion was paid to the king, 
and the rest was kept by the priests. The city of Apu 


(Panopolis, the modern Akhmtm) was one of the chief seats of 
the linen industry, and to this day the dyed curtains of 
Akhmtm are used throughout Egypt. The craft of the 
jeweller was very important, for, in addition to the rings, 
bracelets, necklaces, pendants, earrings, etc., which he made 
in gold and silver, he cut the amulets and ornaments in 
amethyst, garnet, agate, onyx, chalcedony, carnelian, jasper, 
mother-of-emerald, lapis-lazuli, turquoise, rock-crystal, basalt, 
porphyry, haematite, obsidian, coral, mother-of-pearl, etc. 
(See Table-cases F, J.) The finest work of the jeweller 
belongs to the Xllth dynasty, and the workmen of that period 
brought the art of inlaying precious stones and metals to 
a, very high pitch of perfection. Some think that the Egyptians 
understood the art of enamelling', but authorities are not 
agreed on this point. 

The glass-maker's craft is a very old one in Egypt, 
and it is probable that the Phoenicians borrowed it frorh 
that country. Fine specimens of it in the British 
Museum are the turquoise - blue opaque glass jar of 
Thothmes III (Table-case H, No. 50, Third Egyptian 
Room), a blue glass bowl, and a variegated glass bowl from 
the tomb of Amen-hetep II (Nos. 57, 59, in the same case), 
and an opaque glass stibium pot with a gold rim (Wall- 
cases 182-187, No. 29). The porcelain maker produced the 
little figures, amulets, bowls, vases, ushabtiu-figures, tiles, 
beads, pendants, etc., in the beautiful blue, green, purple, 
violet, and brown glazed ware to which the name Egyptian 
porcelain is usually given. An exceedingly fine collection of 
objects in this material is exhibited in Wall-cases Nos. 151- 
156 in the Fourth Egyptian Room. The leather worker pre- 
pared parchments for writing materials, and made the harness for 
horses and trappings for chariots, soldiers' belts (Table-case B, 
No. 193), sheaths 'for daggers (No. 37), nets of fine meshes 
(Wall-case No. 187, Fourth Egyptian Room), seats for chairs 
(No. S Standard-case L, same room), bags in which barbers 
carried their razors, etc. (Wall-case No. 184, Fourth Egyptian 
Room.) Examples of the tools of the carpenter, blacksmith 
and coppersmith, stonemason, house-painter and decorator, 
etc., will be found in Table-case K and Wall-case 103 in the 
Third Egyptian Room. 

Of the brickmaker's work specimens belonging to the 
reigns of Amen-hetep III, Thothmes I, Thothmes III, 
and Rameses II are exhibited in Wall-case 175, Fourth 
Egyptian Room. Examples of the craft of the furniture 
maker in the form of tables, chairs, stools, couches, toilet 


boxes, altar-stands, etc., are seen in Standard-case L and 
Wall-case No. 190 in the Fourth Egyptian Room. The work 
of the ivory carver went hand in hand with that of the 
carpenter as regards the inlaying of chair frames, jewel-boxes, 
etc. (see Nos. 13 and 16 in Standard-case L). Specimens of 
the highest form of his skill are seen in the chair-legs, human 
figures, spoons, etc., in Table-case A in the Fourth Egyptian 
Room. The caster-in-metal produced the splendid series of 
figures of the gods in Wall-cases 1 19-132 and Table-case H 
in the Third Egyptian Room ; fine examples are the silver 
figure of Amen-Ra (No. 42), gold figures of Thoth, Ptah 
and Ra (Nos. 21, 25, 26), and the gold figure of Osiris 
(No. 34). The wood-carver made the models of men, boats, 
animals, etc., which were placed in the tombs (see Wall-case 
Nos. 192, 193, Fourth Egyptian Room), and dolls and 
children's toys (see Standard-case C, Fourth Egyptian Room). 
The dyer produced the salmon-coloured linen coverings for 
mummies (see Case L, First Egyptian Room), the brown 
mummy-swathings (see Wall-cases 93-96, Third Egyptian 
Room), and coloured wearing apparel (see Table-case E, 
Third Egyptian Room), etc. 

The baker and confectioner found constant employment 
in every town and village in Egypt, for the Egyptians 
loved cakes made with honey, and fruit of all kinds, and 
bread and buns made into fanciful shapes. A great 
business was done in bread and pastry which were intended 
to serve as funerary offerings. Specimens of the bread 
and the stands on which the flat loaves were placed, will be 
found in Table-case H, Third Egyptian Room. The terra- 
cotta cones A which are exhibited in large numbers in Wall- 

cases no, in, are supposed by some to represent the loaves, 
of a pyramidal shape, seen in the hands of kings and others 
who are represented offering to the gods. The barber also 
found constant employment, for many had their whole 
heads and bodies shaved every two or three days. He 
also dressed the hair of ladies on ceremonial occasions, and 
made wigs (see the fine example in Wall-case H, Third 
Egyptian Room). The barber often united to his trade the 
profession of physician, just as was the case in Europe in the 
Middle Ages. The craft of the boat-builder was very 
important in a country where a river was the chief highway. 
Flat-bottomed boats and punts used in fishing in the 
canals, or fowling on the marshes, were made of bundles of 


reeds, or papyrus, tied together, like tlie modern tdf in the 
Sfldin. Boats for carrying merchandize on the river were 
made of planks of wood pegged together, which were some- 
times kept in position by being nailed on to ribs, and others 
were merely tied round with ropes made of papyrus. One of 
the earliest known pictures of an Egyptian boat is seen on vase 
No. 1 60, in Wall-case No. 5, on the landing of the North- 
West Staircase. Models of funeral boats, and barges and war 
boats are exhibited on the upper shelf of Wall-cases 
Nos. 99-1 10, in the Third Egyptian Room. The Egyptians 
were skilful boat builders, and they made rafts capable of 
carrying enormous blocks of stone, e.g., the obelisks which 
Queen Hatshepset set up at Karnak. They had equivalents 
of the modern broad ferry-boat, barge, lighter, etc., which they 
worked with oars or " sweeps " and sails, or towed, when going 
upstream, and when there was no wind. 


Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, etc. 

Architecture. — The history of the eariiest form of Egyptian 
architecture cannot be written because, with the exception of 
the ruined tombs of the Archaic Period, all the remains of the 
earliest temples have been destroyed or have perished. The 
oldest form of the house was, no doubt, a hut built of reeds, 
the roof of which was supported by a pole, i.e., a tree trunk, or 
poles ; its shape was round or oblong. The cold winds of 
winter prompted the Egyptian to make the walls of his abode 
of Nile mud ; this he mixed with water until it acquired the 
consistence of stiff paste, and then piled it up with his 
hands until the walls were as thick and high as he wanted 
them to be. All the walls inclined inwards, and so each 
helped to support the other ; the roof was made of a layer of 
mud which rested on a number of pieces of palm trunks or 
small trees. The door probably faced the south, and an 
aperture, which served as a window, was cut high up in the 
north wall. (See the model of an early house, No. 174, North- 
West Staircase Landing.) Before the house was a small yard 
enclosed by thick walls made of mud, which inclined inwards, 
and a flight of solid mud steps led up to the roof. (See 
the models of early houses in Wall-cases Nos. 105-108 in 
the Third Egyptian Room.) Walls made of mud in this way 
are unsatisfactory, for they sag or bulge, and soon fall down. 
The invention of the brick marked a great improvement in the 
stability of buildings; and its use in the construction of houses, 
granaries, government buildings, forts, etc., became universal. 
A theory has been recently put forward that brickmaking was 
introduced into Egypt from Mesopotamia, but there is no 
reason why, in a land where all the soil is mud, which when 
well sun-dried becomes exceedingly hard, the idea of making 
bricks should not have been indigenous. Few things in the 
East last as long as a well-made brick, especially if it has 
been carefully baked ; and buildings, even when made of 
crude bricks, last for several hundreds of years, unless they 
are destroyed by the hand of man. The invention of the 
brick permitted the Egyptians to build the elliptical arch, 


which is frequently found in brick-built biiildings ; the know- 
ledge of the arch is of ancient standing in Egypt. The early 
mud or brick house of the man of means was provided with a 
portico (the modern raMbah), which was supported on palm 
trunks ; this portico suggested the colonnade of later days, 
and the palm trunks the stone pillars with palm-leaf capitals. 
The " house of the god," or temple, was at first built of mud, 
but what such a building was like is not known. Under the 
Ancient Empire the Egyptians built their temples of stone, 
and the oldest known example is that called the " Temple of 
the Sphinx" at Glzah. It is built on a simple plan, and con- 

Pylon and court of the Temple of Edfu. 

Ptolemaic Period. 

sists practically of a large hall, in the form ]_[> containing 
1 6 pillars, each about i6 feet high ; the materials used were 
granite and limestone. It had neither formal door, nor 
windows, and such light as entered must have made its way 
in through oblique slits in the roof. It has no inscriptions,, 
or bas-reliefs, or paintings, and even in its present state its 
massiveness, dignity, and solidity greatly impress the beholder. 
Of the temples of the Xllth dynasty nothing is known, but 
of the New Empire several temples exist, and their general 
characteristics may be thus summarized. A broad path 
brought the worshipper to the gateway in the wall which 



enclosed the temple precincts ; on each side of the path was 
a row of sphinxes, or rams, which symbolized the guardian 
spirits of the place. Passing through the gateway he soon 
reached the main pylon, which consisted of a massive door- 
way and two towers. During festivals long painted poles, 
flying coloured streamers, were attached to the face of. the 
pylon at regular intervals. On each side of the gateway was 
a colossal statue of the { king, and statues of the king were 

Gateway in the Temple of Rameses III, at 
Madlnat Habii, in Western Thebes. 

About B.C. 1200. 

often arranged at intervals along the front of the pylon. 
Before the pylon stood a pair of obelisks, and sometimes a 
pair of sphinxes, or sacred animals. The original significa- 
tion of the obelisks is unknown ; it is probable that they were 
connected with a solar, or even phallic cult, but as the texts 
afford no explanation of their meaning it is useless to theorize. 
Beyond the great pylon was an open court, with a colonnade, 




which was used as a sort of bazaar where holy objects, amulets, 
and things for offerings could be bought by the public. Here, 
too, the sick were laid that alms might be given to them, and 
here beggars of all kinds congregated, as they do in a modern 
mosque. Passing through a second pylon, the hypostyle hall, 
or hall of columns, was entered, and here the priests made 
their processions, and received the offerings of the faithful. 
Beyond the ball, or halls of columns, the laity were not per- 

Gateway of Ptolemy IX at Karnak. 

mitted to penetrate. The other chambers of the temple formed 
the sanctuary of the god, and contained his shrine. The 
little rooms round about the shrine contained the temple 
library, and the dresses, jewellery, and other sacred properties 
of the god, or gods, worshipped in the temple. At the 
extreme end of the temple was the shrine of the god, which 
was entered by no one except the king and the priests ; in it 
were kept a sacred boat, or ark, and a figure, or symbol, of 
the god, or animal sacred to him. 

(See page 107.) 

Plate XI. 



E ^ 



The temples of Egypt from the XVIIIth dynasty to the 
Roman . Period vary greatly in detail, but the general plan 
is always the same. The great temples of Karnak (see 
Plate XXX), Luxor, Abydos (see Plate _XI), etc., awe 
the spectator by their size and majestic dignity ; the smaller 
temples of the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods are less grand, 
but are much more graceful buildings. The severity of the 
interiors of the older buildings is moderated by the reliefs and 

Granite flbelisks at Karnak. That on the right bears 

the name of Queen Hatshepset, and that on 

the left the name of Thothmes I. 

XVIIIth dynasty, B.C. 1550. 

inscriptions with which walls, pillars, pilasters, architraves, etc., 
are covered profusely, and the bright colours, reds, blues, 
greens, and yellows, in which many of the painted scenes were 
executed, added greatly to their general effect. The massive 
square pillars were replaced in later times by pillars with 


1 08 

.eight sides, and the whole character of the simple round 
column was changed when its shaft was made to resemble a 
papyrus or lotus stalk, and its upper part was sculptured in 
the form of the flower of either plant. Both pillars and 
pilasters were sometimes decorated with figures of Osiris, cut 
on the front face in high relief, as at Abfl-Simbel, and the 
capitals were often sculptured in the form of the head of 
Hathor (the Cow-goddess), surmounted by a sistrum. The 

Pillars with ornamental capitals in the Temple 
of Isis at Philae. 

Ptolemaic Period. 

pillar with the Hathor-headed capital was suggested by 
the pole, or small tree trunk, surmounted by the head 
of a bull, ox, or cow, which the primitive Egyptians set 
up over the graves of their chiefs, a custom which sur- 
vives to the present day among certain of the tribes 
of Central Africa. Every temple had a sacred lake 
within its precincts, just as every large house possessed 

E 3 



a garden with an ornamental lake in it. Each temple 

also was surrounded by 
a girdle wall, which was 
usually made exceedingly 
strong and was provided 
with fortified gateways. 
The space between the 
temple buildings and this 
wall was occupied by gar- 
dens and storehouses for 
the property of the priests, 
and also by the dwellings 
of private folk. Thus the 
girdle wall of the temple 
actually enclosed a small 
city, which in cases of 
popular panic or invasion 
became a city of refuge. 

Painting and sculp- 
ture. — The Egyptians, 
from the IVth dynasty 
downwards, were in the 
habit of painting the bas- 
refiefs in their temples 
and tombs, and also their 
statues, and they seemed 
to have relied greatly upon 
paintings in bright colours 
to enhance the effect of the 
work of the sculptor. The 
earliest wall decoration 
consists of series of figures 
of men, animals, etc., traced 
or cut in outline, or sculp- 
tured in low relief, on 
tolerably smooth slabs of 
limestone ; sometimes the 
surfaces of the slabs were 
prepared with a sort of 
limewash, and the paint- 
ings painted upon it. The 
p,. . J . . V » . . , ^^ill of the painter, even in 

Pa.need P^-^'atue^^of^ An-kheft-.a, .the remote^eriod of the , 

IVth dynasty, about B c ^700 ^^th dynasty, is marvel- 

[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay i, tio. 33.] loUS, and the accuracy with 



which he represented every detail and characteristic of animate 
and inanimate objects is beyond praise. At all periods, how- 
ever, general scenes are more or less hard, a fact due to want 
of perspective. The Egyptians loved colour, and they used it 
wherever it could possibly be employed. A striking instance 
of this is afforded by the elaborately painted papyri of the 
Book of the Dead, which when once buried in the tomb were 
intended to be seen by no other eye than that of the spirit 
of the deceased ! 

Alabaster figure of a priest seated on a throne 
with steps. 

IVth-VIth dynasty. 
[No. 156, Wall-case 99, Third Egyptian Room. ] 

Head of a painted statue 

of Neb-hap-Ra Men- 


Xlth dynasty. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, 
Bay 3, No. 104.] 

The wall sculptures were of two kinds, the bas-relief 
and the sunk relief. In the bas-relief the sculpture is 
raised a little above the surface of the slab, and m the sunk 
relief it is a little below. The sunk relief is one of the most 
characteristic features of Egyptian sculpture. Of the first 
kind there are many examples in the Egyptian Galleries of 
the British Museum, especially in the Vestibule at the north 
end of the Northern Gallery, where the slab from the tomb 

E 4 



of Ra-hetep at Med6m (Egyptian Vestibule, No. 40), of the 
IVth dynasty may be specially noted. Several portions 
of fine and delicately painted bas-reliefs from the temple of 
Neb-hap-Ra Menthu-hetep, of the Xlth dynasty, at D^r 
al-Bahari, which are exhibited in Bay 2 of the Northern 
Gallery, are worthy of careful study. The sepulchral tablet of 
Sebek-aa, of the Xlth dynasty, should be noted (Bay 4, No. 120; 
see Plate XXIII). Examples of the 3unk relief will be found 
in the Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay i. Both paintings 

Diorite statue of Sebek-nekht. 

Xllth dynasty. 
[No. 164, Wall-case 100, Third Egyptian Room.] 

and reliefs, however, are unsatisfactory from the modern 
point of view, for while the head is given in profile, the eye 
is represented as if the figure were in a full-faced position. 
A front view is given of the shoulders, but the view of the 
other portions of the body is a mixture of profile and full face. 
These facts are calculated to give a false impression of the 



skill of the painter and sculptor, which, as is admitted on 
all hands, was very great. 

The artist was at a very early period fettered by tradition 
and conventionality, but sufficient proofs have survived to show 

Figure of a king. 

Xlllth dynasty. 
[No. 178, Wall-case 102, Third Egyptian Room.] 

that when free to give rein to his fancy he could produce even 
caricatures and comic pictures of the most amusing character. 
Thus in Papyrus No. 10,016, we see the lion and the unicorn 



playing a game of draughts, a fox playing a double pipe while 
animals of the gazelle class strut in front of him, a cat driving 
geese, and a cat presenting a palm branch to a mouse which 
is seated on a chair and holding a lotus. Behind the chair is 
another mouse bearing a fan and a bag with toilet requisites 
(see pages 27-30). In the reign of Amen-hetep IV, about 
B.C. 1420, there was a revolt against the 
conventional forms of painting and 
sculpture approved by the priests. For 
about twenty-five years, new designs 
and new colours were introduced, but 
they did not find favour among the 
people generally, and, when the king 
died, traditionalism promptly re- 
asserted itself, and the new capital 
which he founded near the modern 
village of Tell al-Amarna fell into ruin, 
and its splendours were forgotten. 

The sculptured reliefs of the 
IVth and Vth dynasties, and the 
statues and portrait figures 
were in beauty and fidelity 
rarely equalled in later times, 
and certainly neyer surpassed. 
The chief employers of both 
painter and sculptor in the later 
dynasties were the priests, who 
required statues of gods and 
kings for the 
temples ; massive 
strength, an ex- 
pression of impass- 
ibility, and close 
adherence to exist- 
ing models were 
the traditional 
characteristics of 
such works. With 
private employers 

the case was different, for they demanded of the sculptor 
portrait figures which should be representations of their friends 
at once faithful and pleasing. Among early portrait figures 
of fine work in the British Museum may be mentioned the 
ivory figure of a king, wearing a robe of elaborate pattern 
(Table-case No. 197, in the Third Egyptian Room ; see 

Queen Teta-Khait, about B.C. 1600. 
[No. 187, Wall-case 102, Third Egyptian Room.] 


page 24, No. 7; ; the statue of the official Nefer-hi of the Ilird 
dynasty (No. 1 50, Wall-case 99, Third Egyptian Room) ; the 
statue of Betchmes, of the Ilird dynasty (No. 3, in the 
Egyptian Vestibule, see page no), and the statue of An- 
kheft-ka, of the IVth dynasty, (Bay i. No. 33, in the 
Northern Egyptian Gallery, see page 109). 

On the second shelf of Wall-cases 99-109 in the Third 

Head of a colossal statue of Amen-hctep III, B.C. 1450. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 4, No. 416,] 

Egyptian Room is exhibited a typical series of portrait 
figures in stone which illustrate the work of the period 
between the Ilird dynasty and the Roman Period. Special 
attention may be given to the head of an official No. 186) in 
crystalline limestone ; the figure of Queen Teta-Khart, a wife 
of Aahmes I, B.C. 1600 (No. 187, see page 113) ; the portion 

Plate XII. 

[Seepage Ii5-) 

Head of a stone figure of a priesless of the XVIIIth dynasty. 
[From the cast, No. 38,430, Wall-case 102, Third Egyptian Room.] 

{See ■bage 115.) 

Plate XIII. 

Limestone seated figures of Kha-em-Uast and his wife. 

[No, 41, 603, Wall-case 105, Third Egyptian Room.] 

XlXth dynasty. 



of the head of a figure, the " heretic king," Amen-hetep IV, 
or Khu-en-Aten, B.C. 1420 (No. 212); the figure of Queen 
Amenartas, of the XXVth dynasty, B.C. 700 (No. 232) ; the 
seated figures of Kha-em-Uast and his wife (Wall-case 105, 
Third Egyptian Room; see Plate XIII); the 
seated figure of Harua, one of the oiificials of 
Amenartas (No. 234) ; the two figures of officials 
of the Roman Period (Nos. 269 and 270) ; and 
the head of a priestess (see Plate XII). 

In the Northern and Southern l!:gyptian 
Galleries among the finest examples of large 
statues may be mentioned the three grey granite 
statues of Usertsen III, B.C. 2330, each of 
which represents the king at a different 
period of his life (Nos. 158, 159, 160; 
see Plate XXV) ; the dark granite head 
of Amen-em-hat III, of the Xllth 
dynasty (No. 774 ; see Plate XXVI) ; 
the red granite statue of Sekhem- 
uatch-taui-Ra, a king of the Xlllth 
dynasty (No. 276, Plate XXVII) ; the 
head of Thothmes III, B.C. 1 5 So(Np. 360 ; 
Plate XXXI); the heads of Amen- 
hetep III, B.C. i4eo(Nos. 416, 417) ; the 
white limestone statues of an official and 
hiswife,of very fine work (No. 565) ; 
and the granite statue of isis hold- 
ing a figure of Osiris between her 
wings (No. 964). The statues and 
portrait figures of the latter 
partof the XVIIIth, XlXth 
and XXth dynasties lack the 
fidelity to nature of those 
of the Ancient and Middle 
Empires, and it is clear that 
about B.C. 1200 both statues 
and figures were kept in 
stock by funerary masons, 
who merely added the names 
of deceased persons to them 
after they were sold. 
Under the Saite kings of the XXVIth dynasty a Renais- 
sance took place, and for a short time painters, sculptors, 
and scribes modelled their works on examples drawn chiefly 
from the monuments of the Ancient Empire. 

Statue of Isis, holding a figure of Osiris. 
Dedicated by Shashanq, a high official. 
Ptolemaic Period, 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay 28, No. 964.] 



The King and his Chief Officers of State and 
Subjects. Military Service. 

■ The King of Egypt was absolute master of the country, 
which had been given to him by the gods, and of every 
man, woman, and child, and of everything in it from one 
end to the other. He was the son of Heru-ur, i.e., Horus 
the Great, the oldest of all the gods of Egypt, whose 
attributes were, at a later period, usurped by Ra, the Sun- 
god, and was declared to be of the very substance and 
essence of the god. He was believed to be a god, and 
was worshipped as a god, and his statues and figures were 
placed among the statues of the gods, and with them 
received the adoration of men. His word on any subject 
was final, his authority limitless, in his person he united the 
intelligence and strength of all beings in heaven and on earth ; 
men lived by his grace only, and at a word from him they 
were slain. In short, the Egyptians were serfs and bondmen 
of the king, the counterpart, image and symbol of the god of 

He possessed five great names or titles: i. A Horus 
name, as the descendant of Horus. 2. A Nebti name, as 
representative of Nekhebit and Uatchit, the great goddesses of 
the South and North. 3. A Horus of gold name. The blood 
of the sun-god was supposed to be made of gold, and as the 
divine blood ran in the king's veins, a " name of gold " was 
given to him. 4. A Suten Bat name, as king of the South 
{Suten) and King of the North {Bat). 5. A Son of Ra name, 
or personal name of the king. Thus, the five names of 
Usertsen III were : 

Horus name, Neter Kheperu. This was placed ^^t 
in a serekh thus : — 

The Horus name is sometimes called the 
" banner name " ; the serekh, however, is not 
a banner, but a representation of a building 
of a funerary character. ^^ 



Nebti name, Neter Mestu J^ 1 
Horus of gold name, Ankh Kheper 

Suten Bat name, KhS-kau-Ra 1^ fosLJUljl • 

Son of Ra name, USERTSEN ^= ( 1 P "^Z^ ,w!wv j • 
The oval in which the fourth and fifth names are placed, 
r 1 is called in Egyptian Shennu, and is commonly 

known as the ''cartouche." It was originally circular in 
form, Q, like a signet ring, and Besh, a king of the Ilnd dynasty, 
appears to have been the first to use the cartouche. Another 
common title of the king was Per-aa ^^, i.e., " Great House," 
meaning the " house in which all men live," or the " Asylum of 
the Universe," "Sublime Porte," etc., which we find in the 
Bible under the form of " Pharaoh." The king being god 
never died, and he owed the property of immortality which he 

possessed to the " fluid of life " ¥ 'ww>a -^^ saen ankh, which he 

obtained from Ra before his birth, for the god was believed to 
become incarnate from time to time, and to consort with queen 
after queen, so that his son might always sit on the throne of 
Egypt. The statues of Ra, being inhabited by his doubles, 
were endowed with the " fluid of life," and this they transmitted 
to their human counterpart, the king, by resting their hands 
upon his head, or by drawing them over the back of his head 
and down his back. The king performed the ceremonies of 
the '■ divine cult " daily, and as a result he drew from the god 
each day a new supply of the " fluid of life," which justified 
him in adopting the title " Endowed with life, like Ra, for ever," 

The Queen was called either the " woman of the 
, or the " woman of the king,'' 1 , but she 
possessed several other titles. 

The official to whom the king entrusted the adminis- 
tration of the country was called Erpa d , and of 

almost equal authority was the Tchat ^^ ^ , whose 
equivalent in modern times is the Kadi, or Judge. 


Other high offices were Chief Councillor, "^55^ |T , the Town 

, , the Chancellor, w> Q > and, of course, the 

chiefs of the nomes, the officers of the Treasury, Army, Works 
Depiartment, Police and Law Courts, and Temples, each of 

Seated figure of Qen-nefer, a prince and overseer 
of the palace, about B.C. 1450. 
[Central Saloon, No. 556.] 

whom had his own staff. Titles often bestowed by the king 
were Ha —^ , Prince, and Smer^^, Smer-uat ^^^ ^, 
which mean something like "friend," and "only friend." 
Picturesque titles appear occasionally ; thus one official calls 



himself " the eyes of the king in the South, and his ears in the 
North," " the eyes of the king in Thebes," etc. In the priest- 
hood were the following grades : i. The neter hen, or servant 

of the god 10 ; 2. The tef neter, father of the god |^_ ^i 
3. The ab, libationerr I ^ ^ ; 4. The Kherheb, or " Lector. 

or "precentor' 



etc. There were several 

kinds of minor priests, e.g., 
the hen ka, or priest of the 
Ka, the sem, or setem, the 
dmm as, the dmm khent, 
and the ministrants in 
general. The title of the 
high priest of Memphis 
was " Ur-Kherp-hem," i.e,, 
" Great Chief of the ham- 
mer," in allusion to his 
being priest of Ptah, the 
Blacksmith-god of Mem- 
phis ; that of the high 
priest of Heliopolis was 
" Ur-maau," i.e., " great 
seer " ; and that of the 
high priest of Thebes was 
" Chief prophet of Amen- 
Ra." Among the civilians 
the Scribes played the 
most prominent part in 
Statues of Mahu, a director of Works, and the administration of the 
Sebta, a priestess of Hathor, B.C. 1350. ^^^^^ ^nd in all periods 

[Central Saloon. No. 637.] ^oth "royal scribes " and 

" scribes " held many high 
oiifices, especially in connection with the Treasury, and with 
institutions which possessed large properties, such as the great 
temples of Heliopolis, Memphis, Sais, Bubastis, Abydos and 

Military service.— The Egyptian was neither a fighting 
man nor a soldier by nature, and except for a few compara- 
tively short periods in her history, Egypt never had an Army in 
the sense in which the word is used by Western Nations. 
The Egyptian hated military service, and in any conflict 
which resembled war he generally ran away. When a hostile 
force threatened the country, the head of each nome 


collected a number of men from his district, and armed them 
as well as he could, and then sent his contingent to some 
place appointed by the king. Individual nobles also, no doubt, 
sent companies of men more or less armed from their estates 
to fight the king's battles. The peasant, ox fellah, was then, as 
now, a formidable opponent in a fight, when armed with a 
stout stick, or club, especially when he could fight under 
cover or behind a wall ; but anything like organized resistance 
terrified him, and rendered him useless. On the other hand, 
the native of the Sudin was a very fine fighter, and whenever 
it was possible Pharaoh stiffened his troops with regiments 
of Blacks. Thus, if we may believe the account of Una, the 
commander-in-chief of Pepi, a king of the Vlth dynasty, his 
army contained Blacks from every great province of the Sild^n, 
and numbered " many times ten thousand." In the Asiatic 
campaigns, which produced such great spoil for Egypt, the 
organizers of these wars, which are better termed "military 
raids," and the finest fighters in them were either Blacks, or 
of Sudani origin. Egypt had only need of soldiers in the 
strict sense of the word when it was necessary to suppress 
sudden rebellions in the provintes, or to compel tributary 
kings to pay what was due from them, or to provide escorts to 
Government trading expeditions. In times of peace the 
troops of the militia laid down their clubs, bows, daggers, 
and spears, and worked at their trades or cultivated 
the fields. Military exercises, drillings, manoeuvres, etc., there 
were none. 

The Predynastic Egyptian warrior armed himself with a 
short, stout stick ; later it was weighted at one end with a 
piece of flint or stone, and so became a kind of club. A flat 
piece of flint, or stone, with a roughly-formed cutting edge, 
bound to a stick by thongs of leather, served as an axe. 
Double-headed axes were also known, and knives, spear- 
heads, arrow-heads, etc., were commonly used. 

The equipment of the soldier of the Ancient Empire was 
simple. He wore a sort of skull cap, of leather (?), with 
a feather or two stuck in the top; he fought with a 
dub ?, or mace, and a bow '=7, carrying his flint-tipped 

arrows in a leather quiver slung over his back, and he 
caught the blows and arrows of his foe on a large leathern 
shield which was sometimes ornamented with the badge of 
his ma'ster or his family. At a later period he wore a leathern 
shirt to protect his body, and he added to his arms a long 
spear, a knife, or dagger, with a curved blade -h-^, and some- 


times a battle-axe. The equipment of the mercenaries of a 
still later period differed in many details from that of the 
native Egyptian. (For examples of bows, arrows, daggers, 
spears, etc., see Table-case B in the Third Egyptian Room.) 

The horse and chariot were unused in Egypt before the 
kings of the XVIIIth dynasty began to make conquests in 
Western Asia. At a comparatively early period the Egyptians 
began to fortify their towns with walls and strong gates, and 
in the Xllth dynasty King Usertsen III erected a series of 
forts in the Second Cataract to prevent the Nubians from 
descending the river and laying Egypt waste. One strong 
fort was built near Buhen (Widi Halfah), another on the 
island now called Jazirat al-Malik, one at Semnah, and 
another exactly opposite at Kummah. The walls were built 
of mud bricks, many feet thick, and long slopes cased with 
stone were built against them. Within each enclosure were 
series of chambers for storehouses and barracks, and at one 
corner a small temple, dedicated to the chief god of the 
district. Another series of forts was built on the frontier 
between the north-east line of the Delta and Syria, generally 
of great strength. 

The geographical position of Egypt made it unnecessary 
for her to possess a navy, and, moreover, the peasants were 
as little fitted to become sailors as soldiers. The most 
important sea-fight in which the Egyptians took part was the 
engagement in which Rameses III (B.C. 1200, or later) van- 
quished the confederation of Libyan tribes. This king built 
war-ships, and manned them with crews from the seafaring 
peoples of the Mediterranean, and he succeeded in gaining a 
signal victory by sea and land over his enemies. 



Egyptian Religion. Early belief in Spirits, 
Fetishes, Companies of , Gods. The Word for 
God and " GOD." List - o-f— gods. Polytheism. 
Oneness of God. Eegends of the gods. Gsiris 
and "the ■ Resurrection. The Judgment. The 
Other World. Doctrine of Retribution. Amu- 

Predynastic Religion. — From the evidence derived from 
a number of Predynastic graves it is perfectly clear that the 
Predynastic Egyptians believed in a future life ; for otherwise 
they never would have buried with the dead food and flint 
weapons, etc., for the chase in the Other World. Whether 
they believed that the future life would be eternal cannot be , 
said; but they certainly hoped that it would resemble the life ! 
on this earth. ; 

Dynastic. — The religion of the ancient Egyptians was of 
African origin, and in the earliest times had much in common 
with that of many of the peoples and tribes who live in 
Equatorial Africa at the present day. Earth, air, sea and 
sky were believed to be filled with spirits, some of whom were 
occupied in carrying on the works of nature, and others in 
aiding or injuring man upon earth. Every object, both 
animate and inanimate, was inhabited by a spirit, which could 
assume any form it pleased, and occupy the body of any man, 
woman, quadruped, bird, fish, insect, reptile, tree, etc. The 
incarnations of certain of these spirits became gods at a very 
early period, e.£^., the hippopotamus,^ crocodile, lion, bull, ram, 
dog-headed ape, dog, wolf, jackal, ichneumon, h^wk, vulture, 
ibis, swallow, dove, and heron, certain kinds of snakes, uraeus, 
frog, beetle, grasshopper, mantis, and several kinds of fish. 
All the above were regarded as powers of good from the 
earliest to the latest times. On the other hand, certain 
animals, e.g., gazelle, the animal which is the symbol of Set, 

V^]. oi" ^$^) ^^^ hyaena, the lynx, the scorpion, the 

turtle, were incarnations of powers of evil. The heavenly 
bodies were regarded as powers of good, probably, in the 

' See the flint hippopotami, crocodile, cow's head, fish, etc., in Table- 
case M (Third Egyptian Room). 



earliest times ; but the scorching heat of the sun, lightning, 
hurricanes, storms, flood, darkness, mist and fog were 
regarded as manifestations of spirits hostile to man. 

'\ha addition, the primitive Egyptians fashioned symbols 
of spirits, much in the same way as the native of 
Central Africa makes "fetishes."' All these they wor- 
shipped because they admired some quality or attribute in 
them, or because they feared them ; and the religion of the 
earliest period consisted of the performance of rites and 
ceremonies which had for their object the propitiation of them. 
Men gave gifts to the incarnations of the spirits to persuade 
them to withhold the evils which they might inflict upon 
them, and to protect them from every calamity ; moreover, 
they appealed to them as possessing the same feelings anjd 
passions as human beings. The dead were assumed to enjoy 
a renewed existence in the Other World, probably with 
benevolent spirits ; it is quite certain that this belief was 
current among the primitive Egyptians, at least among 
those Avho. lived during the latter half of the Neolithic 
Period. jEvery district and every large city or town had its 
own spirit or object of worship, and most of the gods of 
Egypt of the Dynastic Period were selected from them ; often, 
no doubt, their names were changed, and their attributes 
added to. 

At a very early period an attempt was made to 
group the gods into families containing husband, wife, and 
son ; these are usually called triads, examples of which are : 
Amen-Ra, Mut and Khensu at Thebes ; Ba-neb-Tet, Hat-mehit 
and Heru-pa-khart at Mendes ; Ptah, Sekhet and 1-em-hetep 
at Memphis. Another attempt to group the gods resulted in 
the Ennead or Company of nine or more gods. 




Asar Asar 

(Osiris). (Osivis). 

1 The word " fetish" is derived from the Portuguese /««ft'co, " a charm." 



Hapi. Horus. Heru-pa-khart Khepeia. 


Khnemu. Khensu. 

Menthu-Ra. Nefer-Tem. Ptah. Ptah-Seker. Qebhsennuf. 

Ra-Heru-Khuti . Reshpu. Reshpu. 








Het-Heru Het-Heru 

(Hathor). (Hathor). 




Tehuti Tuamutef. 



Ast Het-Heru 

(Isis). (Hathor). 

Qetesh. ,Maat. 

















At Heliopolis, the On of the Bible, the priests proclaimed the 
existence of three Companies of the gods. The first Company 

was called the " Great 


the second the 

and the third had no special 

title ; these Companies represented the gods of heaven, 
earth, and the Other World respectively. When all three 
companies were invoked they were represented thus : 

unmnmmnnmnm- -"= ^°^^ »' -^^ 

Great Company were : Temu, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, 
Isis, Set, Nephthys ; Khenti-Amenti, Ra, Horus, and 
Uatchit were sometimes added. The gods of the Little 
Company were : Ra, Am-Annu, Am-Antchet, Am-Het- 
Serqet, Am-neter-het, Am-hetch-paar, Am-Sah, Am-Tep, 
Am-Het-ur-Ra, Am-Unnu-resu, and Am-Unnu-meht. 

The common Egyptian word for God and god is NETER 

'=^ , which is symbolized by the sign ; goddess is 


NETERT '^ ^' the plurals are NETERU ^^ j or 

<=> "f ^ ' " g°^^'" ^"'^ ^' ETERIT -= i| '] "=" ^ I " goddesses," 
The original meaning of the word jslETER is unknown, but 
in the Dynastic Period it, probably meant "high, exalted, 
sublime, divine, godlike," etc. 

The following are some of the principal gods and god- 
desses, and the visitor will find an unrivalled series of figures 
of most of them in bronze, wood, stone, etc., exhibited in 
Wall-cases 1 19-132 in the Third Egyptian Room. Full 
descriptions will be found in the Guide to the Third and 
Fourth Egyptian Rooms, pp. 11 6- 168: — 

AsAr, Osiris, r| Jj , the man-god who rose from the dead, 

was deified, and became the king of the Other 
World and judge of the Dead. 

AsT, Isis, j|^ J), the sister- wife of Osiris. 

Set 1 %, the principle of Evil, and opponent of Osiris. 

Nebt-het, Nephthys, TT^ J|, the wife of Set. 

Anpu, Anubis, (1 ^ '^, the Dog-god, or Jackal-god, 

son of Set. 

Ap-UAT \/ ^~, the Wolf-god, a friend and companion 
of Osiris. 

Heru, Horus, *^ 3, existed in several forms, e.g., Horus 

the Elder (Aroueris), Horus the Blind, Horus the 
Child (Harpokrates), Horus, son of Osiris, Horus, 
son of Isis, etc. 

Nu jj. god of the primeval watery mass out of 

which the world was made. 
Hapi \ ~^^ J, the Nile-god. 


Khepera □^'=*0. the creator of the universe 
whose dwelling was Nu. 

Tehuti, Thoth, ^^^, who created the world and all 
things in it by a word. 

Khnemu ^ V\ ^ 3, who assisted in carrying out the 
work of creation. 

Ptah n|' ^h° assisted Khnemu in the work of 

Ra ""^^^ 9 J, the Sun-god. 

Seb(Keb) "^^ J, the Earth-god. 

Shu P % ^, the god of the air. 

Het-Heru, Hathor, 1^1, a sky-goddess, who existed in 
seven forms. 

Nut ^^, a sky-goddess. 

Tefnut j^^^Jw, a rain-goddess. 

Nekhebit a. J), the great goddess of the South. 

UatCHIT I fl^ rl|) the great goddess of the North. 

Net, Neith, j\, the self-created goddess of Sals, who 

existed in four forms, 

Bast "W"^ J|, the great goddess of Bubastis. 

Menu, or AmsU ^T" J]' g°^ of virility and generation, 





Anoet '-'■^^^ 



Merul * 



_2^, or 

/NAAA^r^ .. tf^gfi , 

gods of the Sudan. 

VKKv. V' ^^^ Man-god, who always appears 
in human form. 

Hap 8^ 

Mestha ^1t|^' 
Qebhsennuf |vii»^ 
Tuamutef i< 

The divine sons of 
Horus, son of Osiris, 
who assisted their 
father in performing 
the ceremonies con- 
nected with the 
mummifying and 
burial of Osiris. 


, or Amen-Ra \\^^^^ 

1 ^AA/VV\ 

O I 

the great 

god of Thebes. 
Mux ^^ '^ Jj, the female counterpart of Amen-Ra. 

Khensu 1^ J|, the son of Amen and Mut. Like 

Horus he had seven forms. 



i J|, a goddess of Heliopolis. 

a a 

I-EM-HETEP (Imouthis) 
sician of Memphis. 

Seker '^^^^^r^. god of the dead of Memphis 

, a deified phy- 


Nefer-Tem J^^^|, a god of Memphis. 
The lotus was his symbol. 

Maat ^^„ J. goddess of wisdom, right, truth, law, 
order, etc. 

Sesheta T^r||> goddess of literature. 
Meskhenit [JiP ^ "^ J, goddess of birth.. 
Renenit A^/vw^ J|, goddess of fertility, the harvest, etc. 

Meh-URIT °^ S <=>, a very ancient sky-goddess. 

Sekhet I Y^T' ^ fire-goddess, the female counterpart 
of Ptah. 

Ta-TENEN 4-4* ~^^' ^ ^^''^ ancient earth-god. 

Menthu ^^ s=3 ^ Jj , an ancient war-god. 
Aten (1 /wvwv, the god of the solar disk. 

AnthAt I '] ^ (m ' ^ goddess of Syrian origin. 

Anthretha P^ I '] W\ ' goddess of the Kheta. 

ASTHARETHIT =i^ ^^^001' ^S^**"'^*''' ^ goddess 
of Syrian origin. 

QetesH i '^~^ p. , goddess of Syrian origin. 
Kent ^^P«., a goddess of Syrian origin. 


Aasith -^ Hw 1|P„ , a goddess of the Eastern Desert. 

Bairtha J ""u^I 1 (] ^' ^•^•' ^^1*^'^' counterpart of Ba'al 

Bar J ° 4vl , i.e., " Baal," a Syrian war-god. 

Reshpu ""^ n %> ^ , god of the lightning and thunder- 

SUTEKH 1 ^•^'w, one of the chief gods of the Kheta 
and Syrians. 


I^AP ^ ^, the if^pis Bull. 
Mer-ur ^^m ^^, the Mnevis Bull. 
Bakha J^-="^3. the Bachis Bull. 
Ba "^:tt|, the Ram-god. 

Sebek- P J ^^=y(> '^\ , the Crocodile god. 
Ta-URT q 

The Hippopotamus-goddesses. 

rerit *^^^^n, 
apit (1°]:^ 

Shepuit ^ 

Ma-HES J^lyO-^^, the Lion-god; lion-goddes-ses 
were numerous, e.g., Sekhet, Pekhth, Tefnut, etc. 


Maftet ^'^^'5^, the Lynx-goddess. 
Bast y ^>. ^, the Cat-goddess ; the word for "cat'' was 

Anpu (| ^^, the Dog, or Jackal-god. 

Apuat jjVy '^, the Wolf-god. 

Khatru T"^ "^ ^, the Ichneumon-god. 

The following birds were sacred : The phoenix, Bennu 
o'K ^s; the vulture, Nerdu \\ V\ V\ ; the hawk, 

Bdk J (I ^3^ ^^"i ; the hawk of gold, Bdk en nub 

1 (I ■^z:^ VN^ "^wvA ['•n^y ; the divine hawk, Bdk netri, 

■^ 1 JSSi> o III 

the swallow, Ment ^^-^^ ; the goose^ "^^ , of which 
there were several kinds ; etc. 

The following reptiles and insects were sacred : the turtle, 

Apesh n ^^^ , or Sheta *^ «^^ ; the snake, Sa-ta 

^^ ; the scorpion, Serk [I M ; the Z/j,4«2V beetle, 

"^ liM ^/)(| i^ ; the "praying mantis," Abit 
T J || N Q "^^ ; the grasshopper, Sanehemu, ^^ ^ 
; Kheprerd the beetle, Scarabaeus sacer, 


The following fish were sacred : The Abtu 7j<Jc=>^'^ J 
the Ant \\ ^^ '^ , which announced the rise of the Nile ; 
the J^aQ^^"^^; theyf/ ^<&i; the £^^«|^^; 

^\s.^ Mehit°'=>\\m\?,, the Ndr D^e^i ; etc. Classical 

writers mention the Oxyrhynchus, the Phagrus, the Latus, 
the Lepidotus, the Silurus, the Maeotes, etc., but authorities 
differ in their identifications. 

Number of the gods. — As every district, city, town, and 
village possessed a god, with a female counterpart and a son, 
and also a being of evil, or devil, to say nothing of the creatures 
who, in modern times, would be called vaguely " spirits," or 
" fairies," it follows that the " gods " of the Egyptians must 
have been very numerous. The names of a great many have 
been lost, but about 200 gods are mentioned in the Pyramid 
Texts, about 480 in the Theban Recension of the Book of the 
Dead, and about 1,200 in the various works which deal with 
the Other World ; a total of about 2,200 names has been 
noted. The Egyptians tried to reduce the large number of 
their gods by declaring that their gods were merely forms of 
the great Sun-god Ra, who was said to have " created the 
" names of his members, which became the gods who are in the 
"following of Ra " (Book of the Dead, xvii, 1 1). The Egyptian 
system of Polytheism (not Pantheism) appears to have been 
well suited to the early conditions of the country, but several 
facts make it certain that attempts were made by the priests 
to give their religion a distinctly monotheistic character. The 
results of their endeavours in this respect find expression in 
many texts. Under the Ancient Empire we read in the 
Pyramid Texts of a God who was the lord of heayen, who gave 
life to the dead, and ^yho was entirely different in every way 
from the "gods." In Moral Precepts we have such phrases as : 
" The things which God doeth cannot be known." " The eating 
" of bread is according to the plan of God," i.e., a man's food 
comes to him through the Providence of God. " Labour in 
" the field which God hath given thee." " God loveth obedience 
" and hateth disobedience." " Verily a good son is the gift of 
" God." " God is the righteous Judge." ^ " Wrong not thy 
" mother lest she lift up her hands to God, and He hear her 

' From the Precepts of Ptah-ljetep and the Maxims of Khensu-hetep. 


" complaints (and punish thee)." " The multiplying of words 
" is an abomination to the sanctuary of God." And the official 
Paheri says in his Biography (line 42 j: " I never told lies to 
" another man, for I knew that God dwelt among men, and I 
" recognised Him " : — 

In funerary texts the god referred to may possibly be Osiris, 
god and judge of the dead, but in the Moral Precepts quoted 
above this is impossible, and it follows that the Egyptians 
believed in a God Who was wholly apart from the " Companies 
" of Gods," and in His wise, inscrutable, and kindly Providence. 
The doctrine of Oneness, or Unity, we find in connection 
with the great God who created the universe and all that is 
in it, by whatsoever name he be called, Ra, or Tem, or 
Khepera, or Ptah, or Khnemu, or Aten. Thus Ra is the 
" Lord of heaven, lord of earth, maker of beings celestial, and 
" of beings terrestrial, the One God, who came into being in 
" primeval time, maker of the world, creator of men, maker 
" of the sky, creator of the Nile, fashioner of whatsoever is in 
" the waters, and creator of their life, maker of mountains, 
" creator of men, and women, and beasts, and cattle, and the 
" heavens and the earth" (Book of the Dead, Chapter CLXXH). 
In another passage it is said of this same god : " He is the 
" divine matter which produced the Two Companies of Gods, 
" every god came into being through him, God One alone, 

"1 I pjf. He made what is when the earth began in 
- fl W ill 

" primeval time, his births are hidden, his transformations 

" are multitudinous, and his similitude cannot be known." 

It has been argued that the Egyptian idea of the Oneness 

of a god is a totally different thing from Monotheism, but, 

taking the facts as they stand, we are justified in saying that 

when the Egyptian declared that his god was One, neter ua 

I Jf I , his meaning was identical with that expressed by 

the Hebrew in the words, "The Lord our God is one" 
(Deuteronomy vi, 4), and by the Arab in his declaration, 
" God, He is one " (Kur'in, Surah cxii). 

The principal religious beliefs of the Egyptians may be 
summarized thus: The Creation.— In the beginning there 




existed an immense mass of water wherein lived the god Nu. 
He felt the desire to create this universe, and his heart, or 
intelligence, who was called Thoth, spake a word expressing 
this desire, and the world came into being. The first act 
of creation was the appearance of the sun from out of the 
water ; the light separated the heavens from the earth, and 

the sky was placed upon four pillars 1 1 1 j , which marked 
the cardinal points. 

The god Khnemu fashioning a man on a potter's wheel which he works 

with his foot. Behind stands Thoth, marking the years of his 

life on a notched palm branch. 

Creation of gods. — According to the priests of On, 
the god Khepera, a form of Ra, who was self-begotten and 
self-produced, fashioned a god and a goddess out of the 
matter of his own body, and these became the parents of 
a number of other gods and goddesses, e.g., Osiris and Isis, 
Set and Nephthys, Horus and Anubis, etc. The priests 
of Hermopolis declared that Thoth was the primeval god, 
and that the gods he created were Nu and Nut, Hehu 


and Hehut, Kekui and Kekuit, Kerb and Kerhit. The first 
pair represent the watery mass out of which everything came ; 
the second, indefinite time, or eternity ; the third, darkness ; 
and the fourth, night. The priests of Sais taught that their 
goddess Net (Neith) was self-begotten and self-produced, that 
she was the mother of Ra, the Sun-god, and at the same time 
a virgin-goddess. 

Crea.tiQH_flf_men. — According to a very old legend, 
mankind was divided into four races : i. Re'ih, or 

Remt, i.e., " Men," ^^^^j ; these were the Egyptians. 

2. Aamu I ^^ ^ I . o*" the peoples of the Eastern Desert. 

3. Themehu ^^i, i-e., the Libyans. 4. Nehesu 

W^ A n I ' ^■^■' ^^^ black and brown peoples, and Negroes 

and Negroids, of the Sfldan. The Egyptians or " Men," were 
formed out of the tears which fell from the Eye of Ra ; these 
dropped upon the members of his body and then turned into 
men and women. The Libyans came into being through 
some act of the Sun-god in connection with his Eye, and the 
Aamu and the Nehesu were descended irregularly from Ra. 
Another legend declared that man was made out of potters' 
mud on a wheel by Khnemu, the ram-headed god of Philse. 

Destruction of mankind. — After Ra had been reigning 
for a considerable time, men and women began to speak 
contemptuously of him, and to blaspheme him. Ra assembled 
the gods and took counsel with them, and, as the result, he 
sent forth his Eye among mankind in the form of the goddess 
Hathor, who destroyed men from off the earth with the 
exception of a small company. The goddess Sekhet assisted 
in the slaughter, and for several days wandered about Egypt 
wading in pools of men's blood. At length Ra was 
appeased, and he stopped the work of slaughter ; but he was 
weary of man, and determined to withdraw himself from 
the management of his affairs. After taking further counsel 
with the gods he retreated to a newly-constituted portion of 
heaven, and created there the Sekhet-hetepet, or Elysian 

According to another legend preserved in the CLXXVth 
Chapter of the Book of the Dead (Papyrus of Ani, No. 10,470), 
a general destruction of mankind was caused by the Flood, 
which was brought upon the world by the god Temu, who 
announced his intention of destroying everything in it, and of 

F 2 


covering the earth with the waters of the primeval ocean Nu. 
The flood appears to have begun at Henensu, in Upper 
Egypt, the Khanes of Isaiah xxx, 4, and the Heral<leopolis 
of the Greeks, and to have submerged all Egypt. All life 
was destroyed, and the only beings who survived were those 
who were in the " Boat of Millions of Years," i.e., the Ark of 
the Sun-god, with the god Temu. The mutilated state of a 
large portion of the text makes it impossible to piece the 
details together, but it seems that, after the earth was covered 
by the Flood, Temu sailed over the waters to the Island of 
Flame, and took up his abode there. Subsequently he was 
succeeded by Osiris, whose authority was disputed by Set, 
the god of evil; but eventually Set was overthrown, and 
Osiris ruled triumphantly. 

The Legend of Horus and Set. — In very early times 
legends were current concerning the great fight which took 
place between Horus the Great, the Sun-god, the god of day, . , 
light, life, and of all physical and moral good, and Set, the 
god of night, darkness, death, and of all physical and moral 
evil. Set succeeded in carrying off the Eye of Horus, i.e., the 
Sun, and tried to devour it, but the Eye of Horus inflicted a 
deadly wound on Set, and cut off and carried away one of 
his thighs. At length Thoth, the intelligence of Ra, inter- 
fered, and made an arrangement between the two combatant 
gods, whereby the day (Horus) was to be a certain length, 
and the night (Set) likewise, and neither was to destroy the 
other. Because of this decision Thoth was called " Ap rehui," 
or "Judge of the Combatants." Now the moon was the 
second, or left, eye of Horus the Great, and it was much 
persecuted by Set during fourteen nights of every month. 
Each night Set succeeded in cutting off a piece from it, and at 
length no moon was left. Thoth, however, made new moons, 
which he placed in the sky month by month, and thus ■ 
frustrated the evil deeds of Set. On one occasion Set was 
wandering about the sky in the evening and found there the 
crescent, or new moon, which he immediately swallowed, but 
he was eventually made to disgorge it by Thoth, who was 
watching over it. At a later period, when the moon was 
identified with Osiris, the enmity of Set was transferred to 
Osiris, and the legend entered upon a new phase; Osiris 
became the symbol of moral good, and Set of moral evil and 

The views held by the Egyptians about Osiris from 
about B.C. 3800 to the Roman Period may be thus 
summarized : — Legend of Osiris. — Osiris, in Egyptian ASAR 



ri , was once a king who reigned in the south of Egypt ; 
his sister-wife was called Isis, in Egyptian AsT r|c>, and 
their son Horus, in Egyptian Heru ^i. . He did great 

good to all his people, and taught them the arts of agriculture, 
and made good laws for them, and ruled them justly. Now 

Osiris had a twin brother called Set , the S£th of 

Plutarch, who was very jealous of him, and who lost no 
opportunity of undermining his authority and reviling him, 
for he wished to see Osiris removed from his path, so that he 
might seize his brother's throne and wife. At length, by a 
stratagem, he managed to kill Osiris, by drowning him in the 

Osiris rising from the sarcophagus with " life " in each hand, 
are two of the children of Horus. 

On each side 

Nile. The river, however, carried the dead body of Osiris to 
the papyrus swamps in the Delta, where the waters deposited 
it on the lower branches of an acacia tree, which grew up 
round it and concealed it. Isis discovered, by magical means, 
where her husband's body was, and went to the place and 
took possession of it. Wishing to visit her son Horus, so that 
she might urge him to take vengeance on Set, she hid the 
body in a secret spot, and went off to the city of Buto to 
Horus. During her absence, Set found the body one night 
when he was out hunting, and recognizing it, he tore it into 
fourteen pieces, which he scattered about the country. Isis, 
having heard what Set had done, set out and collected the 
portions of the body of Osiris, and wherever she found one 
of thfem she buried it, and built a shrine over it. 

F 3 


Now I sis was a great enchantress, and she learned from 
Thoth the knowledge of magical ceremonies and of most 
potent words of power. She was able to transform herself 
into any kind of creature, and to travel through earth, air, fire, 
or water with equal ease. Instructed by his mother, Horus, 
with the assistance of a number of his " followers," performed 
a series of ceremonies connected with the burial of his father, 
which had the effect of raising Osiris from the dead, and of 
establishing him as king in Amenti, i.e., the " Hidden Place," 
or the Other World. When this was done, Osiris appeared to 
Horus and urged him to avenge him on Set, and shortly 
afterwards a great fight between Horus and Set took place. 
Set was defeated and, according to the XVI Ith Chapter of 
the Book of the Dead, mutilated by Horus, who suffered 
no injury whatsoever. The great fight took place near the 
modern city of Asyfit, and lasted three days ; each god fought 
in the form of a wolf or bear. (Fourth Sallier Papyrus in the 
British Museum.) 

The cult of Osiris is as old as Dynastic Egyptian civiliza- 
tion, and, from the earliest to the latest times, he was regarded 
as the god-man who suffered, died, rose again, and reigned 
eternally in heaven. He was the " King of eternity, lord of 
" the everlastingness, the prince of gods and men, the god 
" of gods, king of kings, lord of lords, prince of princes, the 
" governor of the world, whose existence is everlasting " 
(Papyrus of Ani, Plate I). To the Egyptians Osiris was the 
god who " made men and women to be born again," 

from the dead, and bestowed upon them everlasting life ; 
he was, in all times, the cause of their resurrection, and 
was also the resurrection itself He was both god 
and man, and could sympathize with them in sickness 
and death, and the idea of his human personality brought 
them comfort. The confidence with which men looked to 
him as a being who knew neither decay nor corruption is 
best expressed in the words of a text on coffin No. 22,940 
(Wall-case No. 40, First Egyptian Room). " Homage to 
" thee, O my father Osiris ! Thy flesh suffered no decay, 
" worms touched thee not, thou didst not moulder away, 
" withering came not on thee, and thou didst not suffer 
" corruption ; and I shall possess my flesh for ever and ever, 
" I shall not crumble away, I shall not wither, I shall not 
" become corruption." 



The King-dom of Osiris was situated in Sekhet-hetep 
®, i.e., the "Field of Peace," a division of Sekhet- 

Aaru, or the " Field of Reeds." 
From the pictures of this region 
given in papyri we see that it 
was surrounded by a stream 
of water, and intersected by 
numerous canals, and, judging 
by the descriptions given in 
these pictures, it must have been 
considered to be a very fertile 
place. The wheat and the barley 
there grew to a great height, 
and plants, vegetables, and fruit 
trees abounded. The idea of 
the Sekhet-hetep was no doubt 
Osiris in his shrine. suggested by the fertile regions 

of the Delta and the Oases in the Western Desert. 

In one part of this kingdom was placed the Judg- 
ment Hall of Osiris, and there sat the great judge 
of the dead. The soul of every man was brought 
there and weighed in the " Great Balance " in his 
presence, by Thoth, the scribe of the gods. The soul 
was represented by the heart O, and was weighed against the 

Thoth in the form of an ape weighing the 
heart in the presence of Osiris. 

The goddess Maat weighing the 
heart in the presence of the ape 
of Thoth. By her side is the 
Eater of the Dead. 

feather f), symbolic of righteousness {maat). If the heart 

failed to counterbalance the feather it was cast to an animal 
monster called Am-mit, i.e., " Eater of the Dead," which was 
part crocodile, part lion, and part hippopotamus. When the 
heart and the feather balanced exactly Thoth announced the 

F 4 



fact to the gods of his company, and then the soul of the 
deceased was taken by Horus into the presence of Osins, who 
rewarded him according to his deserts. Before the weighmg 
of the heart took place the deceased was obhged, presumably, 
to pass along the Hall of" Osiris, and to make the Negative 
Confession before the Two and Forty Assessors of the 
Dead, "who tried sinners, and fed upon their blood, on the 
" day when the lives of men are reckoned up in the presence of 
" the Good Being " (Osiris). Apparently each of these beings 




The Judgment of Osiris, from the Book of Gates. 

Osiris seated on a throne with nine steps. 
B The scales in which the hearts of the dead were weighed. 
C The pig, symbol of evil, in a boat under the charge of an ape, the companion of 

D Anubis, the god of the tomb. 
E Heads of gazelle, typical of the enemies of Osiris. 

asked him the question : "Hast thou committed such and such 
" a sin " ? For his answers, as given in the Book of the Dead 
(Chapter CXXV), take these forms : — 

" Hail, Long-strider, coming from Annu, I have not 

" committed iniquity. 
" Hail, Eater of shades, coming from Qerti, I have not 

" stolen. 
" Hail, Bad-face, coming from Re-stau, I have killed 

" neither man nor woman. 


" Hail, Flame, advancing and retreating, I have not 

;' robbed God. 
" Hail, Uamemti, coming from the house of slaughter, I 

" have not committed adultery. 
" Hail, Two-horns, coming from Sals, I have not 

" multiplied words overmuch." 

The forty-two sins enumerated in the Negative Confession 
represent the chie!" sins abominated by the Egyptians under 
the XVnith dynasty. 

The texts connected with the examination of the 
dead show that the Egyptian idea of sin was diiferent from 
that of Western nations. With the Egyptian the com- 
mission of sin was regarded merely as a breach of the ritual 
law, or of the law of the community, and could be atoned for 
by the payment of goods or possessions ; this payment once 
made, the law-breaker considered that he was free from all 
obligation, real or moral. The idea of rgBje ntance fi nds no 
expression in Egyptian texts, and, curiously" enough, there 
is no word in Coptic for " repentance.'' The translators of 
the New Testament from Greek into Coptic were obliged to 
use the Greek word fierdvoia. From the earliest times the 
Egyptians appear to have believed firmly that the righteous 
would be rewarded in the Other World, and the wicked 
punished, but there is no definite statetnent on this point in 
the texts until the XlXth dynasty, when th e doctrine of 
retri bution is cl earlyexpresse d. In the Second . J:'art ^o|_ Jhe^ 
" Book of Gates " a number of beings are described as " those 
" who worshipped Ra upon earth, who spake words of power 
" against the Evil One (Apep), who made offerings to Ra, and 
" burnt incense to their own gods." Other beings are described 
as "those who spake truth upon earth, and who did not 

" approach false gods " ^ (J (1 ^^ • In return for this Ra 

gave to them food and drink which should never fail, and 
decreed that their souls should never be hacked in pieces. 
Close by, in the same section of the work, are mentioned the 
"rebels against Ra, who blasphemed the god when they were 
" upon earth, who thrust aside right, and cursed the god of the 
" horizon." As punishment for these deeds Ra decreed that 
they should be bound in chains, that their bodies should be 
cut in pieces, and their souls destroyed. 

The rewards of the righteous were, moreover, graduated, 
for when Osiris decreed that such and such a soul was to 
receive an estate in his kingdom, the land measurers of 


heaven took their measuring ropes with them, and going 
into the Elysian Fields measured out for those who were 
deemed righteous plots, which varied in size accordmg to 
their merits. According to another view the blessed lived 
always with the .Sun-god in his boat, and travelled with 
him across the sky day by day. The "gods" in heaven 
spent their lives in ministering to their god Osiris, or Ra, 
and in performing his commands, and the duty of a certain 
number of them consisted in singing to him and praising 
him at dawn and at sunset. The spirits and souls of 

The holy Ape-gods singing hjmans 
of praise to Ra at sunrise. 

The Jackal-gods and the Hawk- 
gods singing hymns of praise 
to Ra at sunset. 

the righteous, in their glorified bodies, became " beings and 
messengers " of God, and they sat on the great throne by his 
side. They wore the finest raiment, and white linen garments 

and sandals, they ate of the " tree of life " --sr^ 


and sat with the great gods by the side of the Great Lake in 
the Field of Peace, their bread and drink never grew stale, 
they neither thirsted nor hungered, and they enjoyed celestial 
figs and wine. In one portion of the kingdom of Osiris the 
blessed cultivated the divine plant Maat, whereon both they 
and Osiris lived, and eating the same food they became one 
with him, and shared with him his attributes of divinity, 
incorruptibility, and immortality. 

The wicked who were in the Other World consisted of 
two classes: i. The enemies of Ra, the Sun-god. 2. The 


enemies of Osiris, i.e., the souls of sinful men and women. 
The former were gathered together each night and did their 
utmost to prevent the sun rising morning by morning, but they 
were always seized by the angels of Ea and dragged by them to 
the eastern portion of the sky, where they were cast into the fiery 
caldrons of the god and consumed in their flames. The heavy 
mists and clouds of the morning represented the smoke of 
these caldrons, and the red glare of dawn was the reflection of 
their flames. Opinions differed as to the way in which the 
enemies of Osiris were disposed of According to some, those 
who were condemned in the Judgment were devoured by the 
monster Am-mit, the " Eater of the Dead " ; but others held 

that they were dragged to the divine block of doom 
where they wfere beheaded by the headsman of Osiris, called 
Shesmu ¥i^ v^rJi- Sometimes their bodies were hacked 

limb from limb by him, and sometimes they were seized upon 
by the " Watchers," who " carry slaughtering knives, and have 
cruel fingers," and cut the dead into pieces, which were 
thrown down into pits of fire, or into the great Lake of Fire. 
Here at one corner sat a monster who swallowed hearts and 
ate up the dead, himself remaining invisible; his name was 
" Devourer for millions of years." 

The judgm ent of souls took place at midnight, and 
the righteous were rewarded, and the condemned punished 
before a new day began. The souls of all those who had 
died during the day were judged that day, and their cases 
disposed of finally ; eternal happiness was decreed for the 
blessed, and annihilation, not everlasting punishment, 
for the wicked. In late times there are passages in the texts 
which suggest that certain souls who set out from this world 
for the kingdom of Osiris failed to reach it, either because the 
amulets which were buried with their bodies were not suffi- 
ciently powerful, or because their offerings to the gods were 
too few when they were on earth. There is no evidence 
that such souls were believed to suffer, or that the portion 
of the Other World beyond which they had been unable to 
pi;oceed was a sort of purgatory. They dwelt in darkness 
during the greater part of each day, but the Sun-god passed 
among them each night, and spake words on which they 
lived until the next night ; when he departed they wept as 
the doors of their abode closed on them, and shut him from 
their sight. 


The views of the Egyptians about the position of heaven 
PET ° ", and the Other World changed in different periods. 

In the earliest times heaven was believed to be situated above 
the large, flat rectangular slab of iron (or alabaster ?) which 
formed the sky. This slab was supported on four pillars, 
which were kept in position and presided over by the four 
sons of Horus, Mestha, Hapi, Tuamutef, and Qebhsennuf. 
These four gods sat on pillars, which, subsequently, were 
regarded as the four cardinal points. The stars were 
believed to be hung from the slab by hooks through holes, 
""^^ , like lamps from a ceiling. The righteous ascended to 
this heaven by means of a ladder. Osiris himself was 
obliged to use a ladder, and Horus and Set held each one 

side of the ladder 0, and assisted him to mount with their 

fingers. The models of ladders and of the two forefingers 
which are found in tombs commemorate this event. 

The name given to the Other World was Tuat >lr >\ 

This region was not under the earth, or deep in it, but ran 
parallel with Egypt, which formed one side of it. A river 
flowed through the whole length of it. On the other side of the 
river was a range of mountains, and outside this was the great 
celestial ocean which surrounded the world. The Tuat was 
a valley which in the XlXth dynasty was believed to laegin 
near Thebes, at Manu, the Mountain of Sunset, and, stretching 
northwards as far as Sals, bent round towards the east until 
it reached the region of Annu (On), when it turned to the 
south and continued until it ended at Bakhet, the Mountain 
of Sunrise. The Tuat was divided into ten sections, and 
had a vestibule at each end of it, and in the XlXth dynasty 
it included the local kingdoms of the dead of Thebes, Abydos, 
Herakleopolis, Memphis,, Sals, Bubastis, and Annu. Each 
section was guarded by a massive gate, with battlements, but 
its door flew open before the Sun-god as he traversed the 
Tuat nightly in his boat. According to one legend there was 
a small passage at Abydos called " Peka," i.e., the Gap, which 
connected this world with the Tuat ; and according to another 
there was a similar passage at Thebes. Be this as it may, the 
souls of all those who had died during the day assembled in 
the passage each evening and endeavoured to obtain a seat 
in the solar bark as the god passed by. In its passage the 
boat passed the kingdom of Osiris ;. those who preferred a 


material heaven disembarked at that spot, and those who 
desired to become like Ra and to be with him remained in 
their places in the boat. For all souls, however, there was an 
examination of their credentials, and those who were not 
provided with amulets, and with formulas and words of 
power, were ejected. 

Recognition of Friends. — From the statements made in 
papyri and on coffins there is no doubt that the Egyptians 
believed that they would know and recognize each other in 
the Other World, and would enjoy intercourse with their 
relatives and friends. In the Papyrus of Anhai (B.C. 1040), 
we see this lady meeting her father and mother in the Sekhet- 
hetep, or Elysian Fields, and sailing with her husband in a 
boat on one of the canals ; in the Papyrus of Ani (B.C. 1 500) 
we see the deceased seated with his wife Thuthu playing 
draughts; and the scribe Nebseni (B.C. 1550) says: "I have 
" seen the Osiris {i.e., his father), and I have recognized my 
" mother." In the Book of the Dead (Chapter LI I) the deceased 
prays : " May my ancestors, and my father and mother be given 
" unto me as guardians of my door, and for the ordering of 
" my territory," and in Chapter LX VI 1 1 he declares that he 
shall have authority over his workmen and workwomen just 
as he had upon earth. On a coffin of the Xlth dynasty 
(B.C. 2600) at Cairo the gods Ra, Tern, Seb, and Nut are 
implored to grant the " gathering together of the ancestors 
" and kinsfolk of Sepa in the Other World," in the following 
words : " Let him traverse heaven, and earth, and the waters, 
" let him meet his ancestors, and his father, and his mother, 
" and his sons and daughters, and his brethren and his sisters, 
" and his friends both male and female, and those who have 
" been as parents to him (i.e., uncles and aunts), and his 
" kinsfolk {i.e., cousins or connexions), and those who have 
" worked for him on earth, both male and female, and the 
"woman whom he hath loved and known." ^ In the second 

' The text of this extract reads : 

Grant ye this Sepa, he may traverse heaven, he may 


p-, Ir-V -A '^'^ Z. -^ 


traverse earth, he may traverse the waters, he may meet 



portion of the text it is declared that all these shall come 
forth to meet Sepa on his arrival in the Other World, and 
that they shall bear in their hands their staves, and their 
mattocks, and their ploughshares, and their clubs, so that in 
the event of any attack being made upon him by any hostile 
god, they may deliver their kinsman forthwith. 

The use of a mu lets played a very larg e part in the 
Egyptian religion^^JThey were generally ma^e^of stones and 
otlreT'materialsBeireved to possess magical properties, which 
their wearers were supposed to acquire. A fine collection of 
Egyptian amulets is exhibited in the Fourth Egyptian Room 
(Table-case F), where examples of every authorized shape 
and kind will be found. In connexion with these the 
unrivalled collection of scarabs should be examined (Table- 
cases D, E, G, I). 

The following are the principal amulets mentioned in 
funerary texts or found in tombs with, or on, the bodies of 

the dead : The scarab, or beetle, kheprer ^ ^^ , 

was the symbol of the god Khepera, and represented 
generation, new life, virility, and resurrection. The Heart, 
ab iCj symbol of the seat of life in the bodies of gods. 

his ancestors, 


t his children a 


he may meet his father, he may meet his mother, 
Ml n '■'^^^ ,2 ?\ M I — "— J\ 


he may meet his children and his brothers and sisters, he may meet 

his friends, 

I I I 

his connexions, 

D ® I 

this Sepa upon earth, 

<- > ftA/SAAA 

he may meet his uncles and aunts, he may meet 

^ ^ ""^XL.C g\ I I I ^ 

I I 

who did things for 


he may meet his friends , 

AAA/WN ^ — «^ A O ill c^ 

he may meet his woman [whom] he loved 

and knew, etc. 



The Crocodile. 

The Oryx. 

A Fish. 

Flint amulets of the Predynastic Period. 
[See Table-case M, Third Egyptian Room.] 


animals, and men, and emblem of the conscience ; it broiight 
to the wearer the protection of both Osiris and Ra. The 
heart was associated with the scarab, and the same hekau, 
or words of power, were written on both. The importance of 
this amulet is shown by the fact that in the Book of the Dead 
six chapters are devoted to formulas for the protection of the 

heart. The Girdle of Isis, thet f\, assured the wearer of the 

divine protection of the holy blood of the goddess. The Tet 

ff, a fetish, the original significance of which is unknown. In 

later times it symbolized the tree trunk in which the body of 
Osiris was hidden by Isis, and also the upright, consolidated 
back-bone of the god. Its general meaning is stability. The 

Pillow ^ typified the raising up and preservation of the 

head. The Vulture ^k\ brought with it the protection of 

the great " Mother " Isis. The Collar ^^ gave strength and 
power to the breast, heart, and lungs, and symbolized the 
dominion of the wearer -over all Egypt. The Papyrus 

Sceptre T represented the strength, vigour, and virility of 

youth, and abundance of every kind. 

The human-headed Hawk ^\ ensured to the deceased 

the power of uniting his body, soul and spirit at will. The 

Ladder h symbolized the ladder by which Osiris ascended 

from the earth to heaven. Models of this were buried with 
the dead in the tombs, and when the deceased needed a 
ladder he uttered the Chapter of the Ladder, and the 
model ladder became as long as he wanted. The Two 
Fingers > c I . index and medius, represent the fingers 
which Horus used when he helped his father Osiris up the 
ladder which reached from earth to heaven. 

The Utchat "^^ typified the strength and power of the 
Eye of Horus, or Ra, i.e., the Sun-god, the two eyes ::^S-^p 
gave to the wearer the strength and protection both of the 
Sun and Moon. The Ankh ■^, or symbol of "life." What 

object this amulet represented is unknown. The Nefer I, 
or lute, signified "happiness, good luck," etc. The Serpent's 


Head ".^^ protected its wearer when alive against snake 
bite, and when dead against the attacks of worms and serpents 

in the tomb. The Menat ^ represented nutrition, and the 
union of the male and female powers of nature, generation, 
etc. The Sma IT symbolized animal pleasure. The Shen Q 

was the emblem of the orbit of the sun in heaven. King 
Besh, of the Ilnd dynasty, wrote his name within this circle, 
which in an elongated form CZ3I became the cartouche of the 
later kings. The shen was the symbol of the eternal pro- 
tection of the name by Ra. 

The Steps /^ symbolized the throne of Osiris, and 
procured for the wearer "exaltation" to and in heaven. 
The Plumes M symbolized Isis and Nephthys, who had 
their seat on the forehead of Ra, and the Maati goddesses, 
or goddesses of Right and Truth. The Frog ^ was 

typical of teeming life and the resurrection. It was the 
symbol of the goddess Heqt, the wife of Khnemu, who 
made the first man on a potter's wheel, and when laid on 
a dead person transferred to him the new life which was in the 

body of the goddess. The Pesesh-Kef ^ suggests the 

idea of second birth in connexion with the ceremonies of 
Opening the Mouth. The mouth of the mummy, or of a 
statue, was touched with this amulet, or instrument, whilst the 
priest recited words of power ; as a result of that the mouth was 
"opened," i.e., the deceased could henceforth talk, think, walk, 
eat, drink, etc., in the Other World. A fine example of this 
amulet in flint (Table-case M, Third Egyptian Room) of the 
Neolithic Period proves that the idea of " opening the mouth " 
is older than the dynasties of Egypt. The Solar Disk on 
the horizon [Oj symbolizes life which renews itself, resurrec- 
tion, virility, strength, etc. The Neterui "n]"!] , or jl, 

represent the two iron instruments used in the ceremony 
of " opening the mouth " ; their presence among the swathings 
of the mummy, or in the tomb, secured for the deceased the 
protection of the gods of the South and the North. 

On rare occasions all the amulets mentioned above have 
been found in one tomb, or on a single body. A good 
example of a collection of amulets found on a single body is 
No. 4 (Table-case K, Fourth Egyptian Room). Here will 


be seen uraei, the mendt, the utchat, the scarab, the shen, the 
triad of Isis, Nephthys, and Harpokrates ; the papyrus sceptre, 
the heart, the plumes, the two fingers, tets, etc. ; the places 
on the body on which they were found are indicated by the 
labels. Another class of amulets is represented by the figures 
of gods, goddesses, and sacred animals, which were either 
worn as pendants to necklaces, etc., during life, or placed 
among the swathings of the mummified body. Of these the 
British Museum possesses very large collections, and the 
finest examples of them will be found in Wall-cases Nos. 
119-132, in the Third Egyptian Room. A very remarkable 
group of amulets or objects, which were intended to give 
protection to the tomb of the priestess for whom they were 
made, is exhibited in the Second Egyptian Room (Wall- 
case No. 73). It consists of a Tet u, a human figure '^^ a 
jackal ^v , and a reed, and each object stands on a small 

inscribed brick of Nile mud. The ceremony in which these 
were used is described in the Book of the Dead (Chapter 
CXXXVII). The text is only found in the Papyrus of Nu 
(No. 10,477), and the group of objects which illustrates it 
appears to be unique. 

In connexion with the numerous ceremonies which found 
a prominent place in the cult of Osiris must be mentioned 
two classes of magical figures. It has already been said 
that the righteous who lived in the kingdom of Osiris were 
employed in the cultivation of the Madt wheat, on which both 
they and Osiris lived. Now, before this wheat could be grown, 
it was assumed that the land of the celestial fields had to be 
prepared and watered, and renewed with top-dressing, just 
like the fields on earth. These laborious agricultural works 
were performed by a celestial corvee, which was under the 
general control of the " Henbiu," or gods of the Celestial 
Domain Lands. These gods provided estates for the blessed, 
and carefully watched the land measurers to see that they 
carried out their orders. They also provided gangs of beings 
to work these fields, and set taskmasters (Tchatchaiu) and 
time-keepers (Kheru ahau) over them, so that they might 
make them toil their appointed time. Why these beings 
were condemned to forced labour cannot be explained, for not 
a word fs said which would suggest that they were sinners, and 
that their work was a punishment. The Egyptian theologians 
appear to have been incapable of conceiving a heaven in 
which there was no corvee to perform menial tasks, and equally 


incapable of imagining the existence of a corvee which did 
not need the constant supervision of time-keepers and gangers. 

Be this as it may, the Egyptians, as a people, hated 
forced labour, and the priests foUnd a way for them to 
escape from it. The means chosen was the Shabti, or 
Ushabti figure.^ The meaning of the word Ushabti is 
unknown. Some associate the name with that of the persea 
tree (shab, or shabt), but others connect it with the word 
ushab, •' to answer," and think the figure was called Ushabti, 
because in the text cut upon it the figure "answers" and 
says : " Verily I am there," etc. , The Ushabti figure was a figure 
made j)fLffiood, stone, porcelain, metal, etc., which was intended 
to represent the^persmron-whose' behalf it was fasMoned,- and 
it was supposed to carry a digging tool and a basket in which 
to remove earth or sand from one place to another. In short, 
the— Ushabti figilfe is a model- of a farm -labourer or _/«//i^A. 
On the figure it was customary fo cut 'aTormula" which was 
supposed to be said by the deceased in the Other World, to 
this effect : " In the event of my being condemned to spread 
" dust {i.e., sebakh or top-dressing) on the fields in the Tuat, 
" or to fill the*vater-courses with water from the river, or to 
" reap the harvest, such work shall be performed for me by 
" thee, and no obstacle shall be put in thy way." Below this 
formula were cut the words with which the figure was supposed 
to answer : " Verily I am there, wheresoever thou mayest 
" speak " (or call me). When , the deceased found himself 
in the Other World, and condemned to work in the celestial 
corvee, he was supposed to utter the words rendered above, 
and if they had been spoken in a correct tone of voice, the 
figure would change into a full-grown man, who was provided 
with a digging tool and basket, and who was capable of 
performing field labours. 

The dread of forced labour in the minds of the 
Egyptians resulted in the production of the immense 
numbers of Ushabti figures which are seen in all great 
museums. The number found in some tombs is very large ; 
thus, Seti I caused 700 to be buried with him, and, 
at the present time, there are 149 figures in the Ushabti- 
box of Ankh-f-en-Khensu in Wall-case 116, in the Third 
Egyptian Room. The collection of Ushabti figures in the 

■In Egyptian, Shabti |j^ \ J "^ | , or Ushebti ^ c3a j "^ | , 

or Shauabti ^\-fll^J'^|. MflJ^I'""*^ P'""'' Sl'^'^ti"' 
or Ushabtiu. 


British Museum (Second Egyptian Room) is unrivalled, and 
contains fine specimens of every period from about B.C. 
2600 to B.C. 600. Worthy of note are the limestone figure of 
Aahmes I, the fine diorite figure of king Amen-hetep II, the 
granite figure of Amen-hetep III, the porcelain and wooden 
figures of Seti I, and the figures of Rameses III, Rameses V, 
Psammetichus I, and Uah-ab-Ra (Pharaoh Hophra). 

Other figures which were highly esteemed as possessing 
magical powers were those to which the name of Ptah-Seker- 
AsSr, or Ptah-Socharis-Osiris, has been given (see Second 
Egyptian Room, Wall-cases 89-92). Ptah was the creator 
of the world, according to the doctrine of Memphis ; Seker 
was the god of the Other World of Memphis ; and Asar, or 
Osiris, has already been discussed ; these three gods were 
united in the later theology, and the resultant god was 
regarded as the lord of Heaven, Earth, and the Other World. 
Figures of this triune god were made of wood, painted or 
gilded, and fixed on a rectangular stand, in which two cavities 
were usually hollowed out, one in front of the figure and one 
at one side. In the cavity in front a little piece of the body of 
the deceased was placed, and a cover was fitted over it, with 

a figure of the hawk of Seker ^\^ upon it ; in the cavity in 

the side of the pedestal a small roll of papyrus inscribed with 
prayers was inserted. The figure and pedestal were often 
inscribed with formulas in which the triune god Ptah-Seker- 
Asar was invoked, and it was believed that so long as the 
portion of the dead body that was in the pedestal of the 
figure was preserved, the body in the tomb would be kept in 
its integrity and everlasting life would be assured for the soul. 
Typical examples of these figures are Nos. 9870 and 9736 
(Wall-cases ^o and 91, Second Egyptian Room). Originally the 
figure on the pedestal was that of Osiris himself, standing upon 
the symbol of Maat, or Truth ^=i; a good example is 
No. 20,868, which is hollow ; it contained the fine copy of 
the Book of the Dead of the priestess Anhai, which is in the 
British Museum (No. 10,472, Wall-case 90, Second Egyptian 

We have already seen that, after the murder and mutilation 
of the body of Osiris, the Man-god of the primitive Egyptians, 
by Set, the god of evil, Horus the son of Osiris, assisted by a 
number of beings who are called the Followers of Horus, 
performed a number of magical ceremonies, whereby the 
rejoining of the limbs of the god was effected, and the pre- 
servation of his body was secured for ever. The Egyptians 


argued : Certain ceremonies were performed by Horus on the 
dead body of Osiris, and he was mummified, and as a result 
he rose from the dead ; we therefore will have the cere- 
monies which were performed over Osiris performed over our 
dead bodies, which shall be mummified, as wa§ the body of 
Osiris, and we also shall rise from the dead. /Every Egyptian 
from the time of the IVth dynasty, a%out B.C. 3600, 
believed that his existence in the Other World depended 
upon the mummification of his body in this world, and 
during his lifetime he made provision for his embalmment, 
and, when his means permitted, prepared a tomb in 
which his mummified body should be placed. Now the 
Egyptian had several reasons for mummifying the dead : 

1. He wished the souls of the dead to enjoy everlasting life. 

2. He wished to maintain dwelling places for the Kau or 
" doubles " of the dead, so that they might not be obliged 
to wander about in the deserts in search of food. 3. He 
wished the dead to form a bond of union between the gods 
and himself. 4. He believed that the soul came back to the 
body from time to time. 5. He believed in the resurrection 
of the material body itself, and that at some future time it 
would be united to its soul for all eternity. This last was 
the chief reason why he preserved the bod)' with spices, 
unguents, bitumen, etc., and, in spite of the very high state 
of civilization to which the Egyptians attained, the belief in 
the supreme importance of mummification was never wholly 
eradicated from the minds of ordinary folk, even after they 
had embraced Christianity. 

In the most primitive times the dead were mutilated to 
prevent their returning to their native places to live upon 
the food needed for the living, but in the Dynastic Period 
the utmost care was taken to prevent the mutilation of 
the body, and to preserve it from destruction caused by 
damp, dry rot, or worms. The texts state plainly that after 
the resurrection the body was to live upon earth, whilst the 
soul dwelt in heaven. In the Vth dynasty it was written : 
" The soul belongeth to heaven, and the body to earth," and 
in the Vlth dynasty it is said to king Pepi : " Thy essence 
" belongeth to heaven, and thy body belongeth to earth." 
The same idea occurs in all dynasties down to the Ptolemaic 
Period, when we find in the " Lamentations of Isis " the 
words addressed to the deceased, who is identified with 
Osiris : " Heaven hath thy soul, and earth hath thy body." 

Before an account of the process of mummification 
is given, it will be well to note briefly the views 


which the Egyptians held as to the relationship of the 
component parts of the material and spiritual man. Most 
peoples have divided man into three parts, body, soul, and 
spirit ; but the Egyptian system of the human economy was 
more complex. The material part of a man was the khat 

"^O, or body. Through mummification, and the prayers 

which were recited over it after that process, the body obtained 
a degree of knowledge, and power, and glory, whereby it 
became henceforth lasting and incorruptible. This glorified 

body was called a Sahu ^ |"^g. When a man was 

born into the world there was also born with him an abstract 
individuality, or personality, which remained with him all the 
days of his life, and could only be separated permanently 
from him by death. To this personality is given the name 

Ka '-'> a word which has been translated by ''double, 

" genius, image, character, person, self," etc. 

When the Ka left the body at death it was necessary for 
the living to find a habitation, and to provide meat, and drink, 
and shelter for it. Otherwise it would be obliged to wander 
about in search of food, and if it failed to find it, would 
return and wreak vengeance on the living. Provision was 
therefore made for the Ka in the tomb of the dead person of 
whom it had once formed a part. First a statue was made 
in stone, or wood, and fashioned to represent the deceased. 
Over this a long series of ceremonies was performed, and at 
the end of them the deceased Was declared to have obtained 
the powers of talking, thinking, walking, etc., and the statue 
was supposed to be in a fit state to receive the Ka should it be 
pleased to enter into it and dwell there. A special chamber 
was set apart in the tomb for the statue, and through an 
opening in one of the walls which communicated with the 
hall of the tomb wherein the offerings were made, the Ka 
inhabiting this statue was able to enjoy the smell of the 
incense, meat, wine, and other offerings. It had power to 
leave the statue and to wander about at will on earth and in 
the Other World ; and there are suggestions in the texts that 
it might take up its abode in the body of a living man from 
which his Ka had temporarily gone forth for some purpose 
of its own. 

With the Ka was closely connected the Ab "^ , or heart, 

which was regarded as the seat of life and the source of the 


emotions ; it possessed two phases, one material and the other 
spiritual. It corresponds with the " dual soul " of many 
tribes in the Sfidftn at the present day. The spiritual 
heart could be stolen from a man by the exercise of magical 
powers ; and this belief survives among certain peoples in 
Central Africa at the present day. Another attribute of a 

man was the Sekhem 10 ^. Y' °^ ^^**^ power, which was 

intimately connected with the Ka, and seems to have possessed 
a form similar to it. The mental and spiritual attributes of 

man were grouped in the Khu ® ^^ v\, the exact meaning 

of which it is very hard to define. The Khu seems to have 
been a shining, translucent, transparent, intangible essence of 
a man, and the word is on the whole perhaps best rendered 
by spirit. The Khu escaped from the tomb and made its 
way to heaven, where it joined the "imperishable spirits" 
who lived with Ra. It is probable that the Sahu, Ab, Sekhem, 
and Khu were all attributes of the Ka. 

That part of a man which was, beyond all doubt, 
believed to be everlasting and to enjoy eternal existence 

in heaven in a state of glory, was the Ba (<^^ , or 

soul ; it was associated with the Ka, and, like the heart, 
appears to have possessed a dual nature. It could live 
in a state of invisibihty, and yet could take form at 
pleasure ; it is often depicted as a human-headed hawk. 

The object of all the ceremonies which were performed 

over the mummy or the statue in the tomb was to bring back 
the soul from heaven to the body in which it dwelt on earth, 
and when the priest told the kinsfolk of the deceased that 
" Horus had recovered his eye," i.e., that the soul had returned 
to the body, they felt that everlasting life and happiness were 
secured for him. The souls of the blessed lived with the 
" spirits " in the heaven of Ra, and when they appeared in the 
sky they did so under the form of stars. 

The soul was usually accompanied by the Khaibit 

T or shadow, which may be compared with the a-icia 

I Ici' 

of the Greeks, and the umbra of the Romans. It had 
an independent existence, and was able to separate itself 
from the body at will, but hostile fiends might attack it, 
and therefore the deceased prays in the Book of the Dead 


(Chapter XCII) : "Let not be shut in my soul, let not 
" be fettered my shadow, let a way be opened for my soul and 
" for my shadow, and let them see the Great God." It is very 
difficult to know where the functions of each of these parts 
of a man began and ended, for even the Egyptians became 
confused in dealing with them, and the texts often contradict 
each other. The main facts are, however, quite clear. The 
Egyptians believed in the existence of body, double, spirit, 
soul, and shadow, at all periods, and the views which they 
held about each are best understood by reference to the 
religious beliefs which exist at the present time among the 
A-Zand6, or Nyam-Nyam, the Bantu, the Maiibattu, and 
cognate tribes in Central Africa. Under the influence of 
foreigners the primitive views became modified as time went 
on, but in all essentials the Egyptians who served under 
the Romans believed what their ancestors believed 5,000 years 
before. ' 



Embalming. The Egyptian Tomb. 

Mummy is the name given to the body of a human 
being, or creature, which has been preserved from decay by 
means of spices, gums, natron, bitumen, etc. ; strictly speaking 
it should only be given to the body preserved by bitmneji, 
for " mummy " is derived from a word which appears in 
Arabic under the form m^mid, and means " bitumen." The 
oldest preserved bodies known were prepared with salt and 
soda, and bitumen was certainly not used on a large scale for 
embalming purposes before the XXIInd dynasty, about 
B.C. 900. The embalmed body, swathed in linen, was called by 

the Egyptians qes t , & 5 > or q^^d^i' ^ V (*; ' 

which has passed into Coptic under the form kds. The word 
" mummy " is not of Egyptian origin. 

In the latter part of the Neolithic Period the Egyptians, 
in some places at least, decapitated and dismembered the 
dead, but subsequently, probably as a result of change in 
religious thought, they took steps to preserve them. At first 
bodies were merely dried in the sun, and then placed in a hole 
in the ground, in a sitting position, just as they are to this 
day by the A-Zande ; later they were laid on one side, with 
the legs bent upwards, and their knees near the chin. Evisce- 
ration of some kind appears to have been practised, but not 
of a very elaborate character. The finest and most complete 
example of the class of preserved bodies which were buried 
in a crouching position is exhibited in the First Egyptian 
Room, Case A. Here we see, lying on his left side, a Pre- 
dynastic Egyptian, with hair of a reddish tint ; the knees 
are bent to a level with the top of the breast, and the hands 
are placed before the face. He was dolichocephalic, or 
long-headed, and he was both physically and mentally 
entirely different from the Dynastic Egyptians, whose skulls, 
in respect of measurements, occupy a middle position 
between the dolichocephalic and the brachycephalic, or 


short-headed. Round about the body are vessels which 
held food, flint weapons, etc. At this period the body was 
sometimes wrapped in the skin of some animal, or rolled up 
in a reed mat. 

Soon after the beginning of the Dynastic Period, pr6- 
bably as the result of the growth and development of the 
cult of Osiris, the Egyptians began to devote more care to 
the preservation of the bodies of the dead, and the earliest 
known examples prove that the brain and viscerae were 
removed, and that the placing of bodies in a crouching 
position in graves was abandoned, at all events among the 
ruling classes. The doctrine of Osiris taught that the human 
body was a precious thing, and men took care to embalm it 
and swathe it in linen, so that it might be ready for the return 
of the soul to it, when it would begin a new life in the kingdom 
of Osiris. 

The Egyptian texts supply no details of the methods 
employed in embalmment, but classical writers describe the 
processes at some length, and the mummies which have been 
unrolled and examined prove that their statements are on the 
whole correct. According to Herodotus (ii, 85) there were 
three methods of embalming in use in his time. In the 
first or most expensive way, the brains and viscerae . were 
removed from the body, which was carefully washed with 
palm wine, and then sprinkled with powdered spices. The 
cavities in the head and body were next filled with pounded 
myrrh, cassia, etc., and the opening in the abdomen through 
which the viscerae were taken out was sewed up. A tank con- 
taining a solution of salt, or soda, was prepared, and the body 
was steeped in it for seventy days. At the end of this period 
it was taken out of the solution, dried, and anointed with 
sweet-smelling unguents ; then the swathing with linen strips 
was begun. Sometimes, in the case of women, the cheeks 
and lips were painted, the eye-lids smeared with eye-paint, 
and other attempts made to give to the face the semblance 
of life before swathing. The fingers and toes were each 
swathed separately, then the legs and arms, and finally, 
when pads and wads of linen had been fixed in various 
places to keep the swathings in position, and to give to the 
mummy the traditional form of the mummy of Osiris, the body 
and head were wrapped up in large sheets of linen, which were 
held in place by stout bands. As each swathing was placed 
on the body, a priest who was specially appointed said the 
formula which applied to it, and in cases where a large 
number of amulets were used, these objects, which were 


intended to give to the mummy the protection of the various 
gods, were inserted, under his directions, in their proper 
places between^ the swathings. When the swathing of the 
body was ended, the name of the deceased was usually 
written in ink on one of the outer coverings. 

In the second method of embalming, the viscerae were 
removed by means of oil of cedar, and the flesh was dissolved 
off the bones by a preparation of soda ; mummies which were 
prepared by this process consist of nothing but skin and bone. 
The third method was used almost exclusively for the poor ; 
the body was steeped in a preparation of soda for a period of 
seventy days, and then handed over to the relatives for burial. 
The period which elapsed between death and burial varied in 
length. From the inscriptions we learn that in one case the 
embalming lasted i6 days, the swathing in linen 35 days, 
and the burial 70 days, i.e., 121 days in all. In another, 
the embalming occupied 66 days, the preparations for burial 
4 days, and the burial 26 days, in all 96 days. According to 
the Bible (Genesis 1, 3), the embalming of Jacob occupied 
40 days, but the period of mourning was 70 days. Certain 
stelae in the British Museum^ mention 70 days, and we may 
assume that this period was commonly observed, at all events, 
in Graeco-Roman times. 

Cost of embalming. — According to Diodorus, who lived 
about B.C. 40, the methods of embalming were three in 
number; the first cost one talent of silver, about ;£^25o ; 
the second, twenty minae, about ;£'6o ; and the third very 
little indeed. In the description of the first method given 
both by Herodotus and Diodorus, it is said that the 
intestines were removed from the body previous to embalm- 
ing, but neither writer says what was done with them after- 
wards. We know, however, that they were cleansed, and 
wrapped in linen with powdered spices, salt, etc., and placed 
in a series of four jars, or vases, to which modern writers have 
given the name Canopic Jars. They were thus named by 
the early Egyptologists, who believed that in them they saw 
some confirmation of the legend handed down by certain 
ancient writers to the effect that Canopus, the pilot of 
Menelaus, who is said to have been buried at Canopus, in 
Egypt, was worshipped there under the form of a jar with 
small feet, a thin neck, a swollen body, and a round back. 
Each " Canopic " jar was dedicated to one of the four sons 
of Horus, or sons of Osiris, who were also the gods of the 

1 E.g., Nq. 1031 (389), Bay 27. 


four cardinal points ; and each jar was provided with a lid 
made in the shape of the head of the deity to whom it was 
dedicated. The names of the four gods were : — 

I. Mestha |^(l]y,or Amset (]^[1-| ; he was 

2. Hapi A D (1 ^ ; he was dog-headed. 

3. Tuamutef ic \\ jj ; he was jackal-headed. 

4. Qebhsennuf -^ J § JV '"'^111 '''"^ rVf > ^^ ^^^ hawk- 


These gods represented the south, north, east, and west 
respectively, and the goddesses with whom they were asso- 
ciated were Isis, Nephthys, Neith, and Serqet. Mestha 
protected the stomach and large intestines ; Hapi, the small 
intestines ; Tuamutef the lungs and heart ; and Qebhsennuf 
the liver and gall bladder. The custom of mummifying the 
intestines separately is as old as the Vlth dynasty at least, 
and the gods of the cardinal points who presided over them 
are mentioned several times in the texts of Unas, Pepi, and 
other kings of the Vth and Vlth dynasties. The four jars 
were usually placed in a coffer, or chest, specially prepared for 
the purpose ; and. this is frequently depicted in representations 
of funeral processions. The Ani Papyrus shows the four 
sons of Horus standing by the coffer containing the 
mummified intestines of the deceased, and his renewed body 

rising through the cover of it, holding "life" •?■ in each 

hand (see page 138). Among the fine collection of 
"Canopic" jars in the British Museum may be specially 
mentioned the set. made for Kua-tep, Xlth dynasty. 
No. 30,838 (Third Egyptian Room, Wall-case No. 112), 
and the sets Nos. 22,374-7, and 9,562-5, of the later period, 
in Wall-cases Nos. 74 and 75 (Second Egyptian Room). 

The custom of mummifying the dead appears to have 
been unknown in the Predynastic Period. ■ In the earliest 
attempts made to preserve the body, the plan followed was to 
remove the intestines, and then to dry it in the sun, or to rub 
it with salt The skulls found in the tombs are usually empty, 
a fact which proves that the embalmers were able to remove 
the brain and membranes without injury to the bridge of the 


nose ; sometimes they contain bitumen, or some kind of resin, 
which must have been introduced into them by the way 
through which the brains were extracted, i.e., through the 
nostrils. Mummies cured with unguents and spices do not 
last long when unrolled ; the skin of those cured with natron, 
t.e., a mixture of carbonate, sulphate, and muriate of soda, is 
hard, and comparatively durable, but it hangs loosely from 
the bones, which are white and somewhat friable ; bodies 
from which the intestines have been removed, and which have 
been preserved by being filled with bitumen, are quite black 
and hard, and practically speaking, last for ever. The dead 
poor were sometimes merely salted and laid in a common 
pit or cave. At one period the dead were embalmed in 
honey : the treatment of the child who was found in a sealed 
jar of honey, mentioned by the Muhammadan writer 'Abd 
al-Latif, and the body of Alexander the Great being well- 
known instances of the custom. 

Under, or soon after the XXVIth dynasty, the Egyptians 
began to place their mummified dead in brightly painted 
cartonnage cases, decorated with inscriptions containing 
the pedigree of the deceased, religious texts, figures of 
gods, etc., and to set them upright in the halls of their houses. 
The faces were painted to resemble those of the dead, and 
attempts were made to reproduce the natural colour of their 
skins, hair, and eyes, and even to represent small physical 
peculiarities. A man's immediate ancestors formed a part of 
his household. 

About the beginning of the Graeco-Roman Period, or 
in the first century after Christ, it became the custom 
among the ruling class in Egypt to insert painted 
portraits of the dead in the linen swathings over their faces. 
Specimens of such portraits may be seen in Case Y in the 
Second Egyptian Room, and in Wall-cases Nos. 70 and 71. 
A century or two later further attempts were made to abolish 
from mummies the funerary swathings, etc., and the dead 
were placed in papyrus cases, which were moulded to their 
forms, and were painted with coloured representations of 
their clothes and ornaments. Very fine examples of such 
painted papyrus cases are exhibited in Wall-cases 64 
and 65 in the First Egyptian Room, and they are of special 
interest as showing what kinds of garments and jewellery 
were worn by the Graeco-Egyptian ladies of Egypt, and 
how they were decorated. In the case of men, painted 
portraits were inserted over the faces, and the rest of the 
mummy was covered with plaster, usually coloured pink or 


red, and ornamented with faulty imitations of the scenes 
found on the old cart onnage. cases. The best example of this 
kind of mummy is that of Artemidorus, exhibited in Wall- 
case 63 in the First Egyptian Room. The figures of the 
gods, etc., are painted in gold, and the mistakes in them prove 
that the artist did not understand the signification of the 
scenes which he was copying. The old theology of Egypt 
was forgotten, the meanings of the old funerary texts and 
scenes were lost, and the artist found himself obliged to use 
the form of address to the dead customary among the Greeks, 
i.e., " O Artemidorus, farewell ! " 

The Egyptians, even after their conversion to Christianity, 
continued for a time to mummify their dead, and to bury 
them with the old ceremonies ; but before the end of the 
third century A.D. the art of embalmment had fallen into 
general disuse. The pagan Egyptian embalmed his dead 
because he believed that the " perfect soul " would return to 
the body after death, and that it would enter upon a new 
life in it ; he therefore took pains to preserve the body 
against the corruption of the grave. The Christian Egyptian 
believed that at the Resurrection he would receive back his 
body, changed and incorruptible, and that it was unnecessary 
for him to preserve by means of spices and unguents that 
which he would obtain, without any trouble on his part, by 
faith through Christ. Little by little, as a result of this belief, 
the observance of the old pagan ceremonies ceased, and with 
them embalmment in the Egyptian fashion. The views which 
Anthony the " Father of the Monks of the Egyptian desert " 
(a.d. 250-355), held on this matter are of importance. 
According to Athanasius : " The Egyptians were in the habit 
" of taking the dead bodies of righteous men, and especially 
" those of the blessed martyrs, and of embalming them and 
" placing them, not in graves, but on biers in their houses, 
" for they thought that by so doing they were paying honour 
" to them." Anthony besought the Bishops to preach to the 
people, and to command them to cease from this habit, and 
he showed " That it was a transgression of a command for a 
" man not to hide in the ground the bodies of those who were 
"dead, even though they were righteous men. Therefore 
" many hearkened and were persuaded not to do so, and they 
" laid their dead in the ground, and buried them therein." 
When he was dying he entreated his monks, saying : " Permit 
" no man to take my body and carry it into Egypt, lest 
" according to the custom which they have, they embalm me 
" and lay me up in their houses And ye know that I 


"have continually made exhortation concerning this thing 
'' and begged that it should not be done, and ye well know 
"how much I have blamed those who observed this custom. 
'' Dig a grave then, and bury me therein, and hide my body 
" under the earth, and let these my words be observed care- 
" fully by you, and tell ye no man where ye lay me until the 
" Resurrection of the Dead, when I shall receive this body 
"without corruption from the Saviour." (See The Life of 
Anthony, by Athanasius, in Migne Patrolosriae, Ser. Grace, 
tom. XXVI, col. 972.) 

The linen mummy swathings must now be mentioned. 
These were made from flax, and were of various thicknesses. 
Surviving examples vary in length from a few inches to 
about 15 feet, and in width from 2 to 10 inches; some are 
made with fringe at each end. Mummies are often found 
wrapped in linen sheets, several feet square, and the out- 
side covering of ail is sometimes of a purple or salmon 
colour. Under the Ancient Empire, mummy swathings were 
quite plain, but under the Middle Empire, blue stripes 
occasionally appear at the ends, and the sheets in which 
the mummies of kings were wrapped, e.g., Amenhetep III 
and Thothmes III, were covered with hieroglyphic texts from 
the Book of the Dead. At a later period texts in the hieratic 
character appear on the swathings, accompanied by vignettes 
drawn in outline. The principal seat of the linen industry 
in Egypt was Panopolis, the modern Akhmim, and, at a 
very early period, the weavers attained to such skill, that in 
a square inch 540 threads may be counted in the warp 
and 1 10 in the woof About the third century of our era, 
the mummies of wealthy people were wrapped in "royal 
cloth" made wholly of silk and decorated with figures of 
gods, animals, etc. The visitor will find a large collection of 
mummy swathings and sheets exhibited in Table-case E, in 
the Third Egyptian Room. Here are the fringed linen 
winding-sheet of Tehuti-sat, a singing woman of Queen 
Aahmes-nefert-ari, B.C. 1550 (No. i) ; two swathings inscribed 
with texts from the Book of the Dead (Nos. 11, 12) ; a roll 
of linen inscribed with the names of Piankhi Seneferef-Ra, 
B.C. 700 (No. 13); grave shirts from Akhmim (Nos. 18-27); 
and specimens of embroidered linen, with figures of saints, 
etc. (No. 39 ff.) ; a portion of a Coptic stole embroidered with 
scenes from the life of Christ, and squares of linen worked 
with coloured figures of birds (doves ?), and the Cross and 

symbol of "life" ■¥■ within wreaths (Nos. 40-51). 


In the same case is a good general collection of reels, 
spindles and spindle whorls, and carding instruments, etc., 
used by workers in linen. In Table-case J is a fine 
collection of pieces of linen ornamented with patterns and 
designs woven in coloured threads, or worked in wools, from 
the tombs of Egyptian Christians, dating from A.D. 300 to 900. 
Of special interest are the squares with figures of Adam and 
Eve (No. 4), St. George slaying the Dragon (No. 18), and 
God the Father among the Seraphim (Nos. 21-24). The 
fine pieces of yellow silk, one with arabesque designs and 
an Arabic inscription in the Kufi character, are remarkable 
(Nos. 25-27). Of bier-cloths, the finest example in Europe 
is probably that seen in Wall-cases 70 and 71, in the Second 
Egyptian Room. This cloth is embroidered in coloured 
wools, with a frieze of cherubs holding necklaces, baskets of 
fruit, flowers, etc. In the centre two cherubs are supporting 
a crown, within which is worked a cross, and the rest of the 
cloth is ornamented with doves, vases of fruit and flowers, 
rosettes, etc. It belongs to the period after A.D. 350. 

The Egyptian Tomb.^ — ^The care taken by the Egyptians 
to preserve the bodies of their dead would have been in vain 
if they had not provided secure hiding places for their 
mummies. The mummy had to be guarded against the 
attacks of thieves and of wild animals, and placed beyond the 
reach of the waters of the Inundation., In primitive times 
the dead of all classes were buried in graves which were dug 
on the skirts of the desert, in the sandy or rocky soil ; this 
custom was dictated by economical considerations, for the 
mud soil of the country, every yard of which was cultivated, 
was too valuable to the living to be devoted to the dead. 
The graves were usually oval in shape, and comparatively 
shallow, and they were covered over with slabs and layers 
of sand (see Case A, First Egyptian Room) ; it is probable 
that they were marked by some kind of stone or stake 
driven into the ground near the head of the grave. The 
graves, in which bodies were buried in a sitting position, 
were, of course, deeper than those in which they were 
laid on their sides. Over the graves of chiefs, huts made 
of reeds and grass were built, and offerings of food and drink 
were probably placed in .them, as well as in the graves. At 
a later period mud houses took the place of the reed huts, 
and, still later, such houses were built of stone. In the 
Archafc Period the buildings over the graves of the kings 
were rectangular in form, and they contained many chambers, 
wherein, no doubt, the ceremonies connected with the burial 


1 66 

of kings were performed, and stores of provisions of all kinds 
for the use of the deceased were placed. At this time men 
and women of lower rank were buried in shallow graves, the 
sides of which were protected with crude bricks, and the 
poorest folk of all were buried together in pits, which belonged 
to the community. 

In the Ilird dynasty, king Tcheser ( ^^ 1, whose 
name a late tradition coupled with a very severe Seven 

The Step Pyramid at Sakkarah. 

Years' Famine, built himself, at Sakkarah, a magnificent 
tomb in the form of an oblong pyramidal building with six 
steps, to which the name of Step Pyramid has been given. 
Its total height is about 197 feet, and the length of its sides at 
the base is: south and north 352 feet, east and west 396 feet. 

A common name for the tomb is Pa tchetta ^\ > " House 

of eternity," and tombs were endowed with estates by wealthy 
folk in perpetuity. The commonest form of tomb made for royal 
personages and nobles at this time, and for several centuries 
afterwards, was the heavy, massive building of rectangular 
oblong shape, the four sides of which were four walls sym- 
metrically inclined towards their common centre. To this 
building the name of mastaba, i.e., " bench," has been given. 


Plate XIV. 

{.Seepage 167.) 

False door from the Mastaba tomb of Asa-ankh, a high official, who 
flourished in the reign of King Assa, about B.C. 3400. 
[Vestibule, South Wall, No. 53.] 



It was thus called by the Arabs, because all the examples 
with which they were familiar, being more than half buried 
in sand, resembled the long low seats which are common in 
oriental houses. The exterior surfaces of the mastaba are 
not flat, for the face of each course of masonry, formed of 
stones laid vertically, is a little behind the one beneath it, and 
if these recesses were a little deeper, the external appearance 
of each side of the building would resemble a flight of steps. 
The height of the mastaba varies from 1 3 feet to 30 feet, the 
length from 26 feet to 170 feet, and the width from 20 feet 
to 86 feet. The plan of the mastaba is an oblong rectangle, 

A group of Mastaba tombs at Sakkarah. 

and the greater axis of the rectangle is usually in the direc- 
tion from south to north. Mastabas were arranged in rows 
symmetrically on all sides of the Pyramids at Gizah. The 
mastabas at Sakkarah are built of stone and brick. The 
entrance to the mastaba is usually on the east side. Near the 
north-east corner is sometimes found a series of long vertical 
grooves, or a " false door " (see Plate XIV), which is some- 
times called the stele. Near the south-east corner is generally 
another opening, but larger and more carefully made ; in this 
is sometimes found a fine inscribed limestone false door, and 
sometimes a small architectural facade, in the centre of which 
is a door. The top of the mastaba is quite flat. 

The interior of the complete mastaba consists of: i. A 
chamber. 2. The Serdab. 3. A pit. 4. A mummy-chamber. 
The walls of the mastaba chamber may be ornamented with 
sculptures or not. In it, facing the east, is a false door, which is 

Q 3 

1 68 


Tablet for offerings, or altar, of Heru-sa- 
Ast, a scribe. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 14, 
" No. 1034.] 

An Egyptian tomb of the mastaba 

' A. — The hall pf the tomb in which 

offerings were made. 
B, C. — The pit, or shaft, leading to the 

mummy chamher, 
D. — A small corridor. 
E. — The mummy chamber. 

The soul, in the form of a human- 
headed bird, descending the 
pit of the tomb to visit the 
mummy in the mummy 


usually inscribed. At the foot of the false door, on the bare 
ground, is often seen a tablet for ofiFerings, made of granite, 
alabaster, limestone, etc., on which are sculptured figures of meat 
and drink offerings — cakes, loaves of bread, geese, a haunch of 
beef, vases of unguents, fruit, vegetables, flowers, etc. In 
many tablets for offerings small tanks, or hollows, with channels, 
are cut, and in these libations of wine were supposed to be 
poured. A large collection of such tablets for offerings of all 
periods, from the IVth dynasty to the Roman Period, is 
exhibited in the Egyptian Gallery, Bays 14 and 16. Some- 
times" a pair of stands for offerings, made of stone, is found 
by the stele ; examples of these are exhibited in Wall-case 
No. 200, in the Fourth Egyptian Room. In the south or 
north wall of the mastaba chamber is usually a narrow 
chamber built of large stones, partly hidden in the masonry, to 
which the name of Serdab ^ has been given. Sometimes the 
serdab is isolated from the chamber, but usually it is con- 
nected with it by means of a rectangular passage, or slit, so 
narrow that the hand can be inserted in it with difficulty. 
Inside the serdab the statue of the deceased, which was 
intended to serve as a dwelling-place for the Ka, or double, 
was placed, and the passage was made in order to conduct 
to it the smoke and smell of the burning incense and 
offerings. The serdab is sometimes called the " Ka-chapel," 
and persons of means and position generally appointed a 
" priest of the Ka " to offer up offerings morning and evening. 
The pit, or shaft, of the mastaba was rectangular, square, 
or oblong, but never round, and it varied in depth from 
40 to 80 feet. It led to' the chamber below the ground where 
the mummy was laid. At the bottom of the pit, on the 
south side, was an opening into a passage from 4 to S feet 
high; this passage led obliquely to the south-east, in the 
same direction as the upper chamber, and then expanded 
on all sides and became the sarcophagus chamber, or 
mummy chamber. When the dried or mummified body 
had been placed in the sarcophagus, and the cover of the 
sarcophagus had been sealed, the pit was filled with stones, 
mud, and sand, and the deceased was thus preserved from 
all ordinary chances of disturbance. 

The ornamentation of the mastaba consisted of sculptured 
scenes of three classes : i. Biographical. 2. Sepulchral. 
3. Those referring to the cult of the dead and funerary gifts. 
In them we see the deceased hunting, fishing, making pleasure 

^ Strictly speaking the serddb is a lofty, vaulted, subterranean chamber, with 
a large opening in the north side to admit air in the hot weather. 

G 3 


excursions by water, listening to music and watching women 
dance, overseeing building operations, or the work of 
ploughing, sowing and reaping on, his estate, the manage- 
ment of cattle, the bringing of offerings to his tomb, etc. 
The reader will gain a good idea of the general arrangement 
of the false doors inside the mastaba chamber, and the 
painted decorations and sculptures of an ordinary mastaba, 
by examining the complete monument exhibited in the 
Assyrian Saloon. This was built originally on the side of a 
small spur of the mountain near Sakkirah for Ur-ari-en- 
Ptah, a royal scribe and councillor who flourished in the 
reign of Pepi II Nefer-ka-Ra, about B.C. 3100. It is inter- 
esting to note that two "false doors" are found on the 
south wall of this mastaba, one for Ur-ari-en-Ptah and one 
for his wife Khent-kaut-s, and that the former contains a 
list of names of about ninety canonical offerings. The 
decorations of mastabas never include figures of gods, or the 
emblems which at a later period were considered sacred. 

The next form of the tomb was the pyramid,^ which is to 
all intents and purposes merely a mastaba built on a square 
base, with the greater part of it above the surface of the 
ground. It contained a long passage, with a sarcophagus 
chamber, or mummy chamber, at the end of it. The place of 
the mastaba chamber was taken by a small temple, or chapel, 
built outside the pyramid, in which funerary gifts and offerings 
were made ; the pit of the mastaba was represented by a long 
passage, which sloped either upwards or downwards ; and the 
mummy-chamber in each case was substantially the same. 
The principal pyramids of Egypt are those of Abii Roash, 
Gizah, Ziwyet al-' Aryan, Abu- Sir, SakkSrah, Lisht, Dahshftr, 
Al-Lih(jn, Hawarah, and Kulla. In the Egyptian Sfidan 
there are pyramids at Kurru, Zuma, Tankisi, Gebel Barkal, 
Nflri, and Bagrawir, but all these are inferior in design and 
construction to the pyramids of Egypt. The latest of the 
pyramid tombs in the Sudan were built probably during 
the first or second century A.D. by a series of native queens, 
each of whom bore the name of " Candace." A great many 
theories, chiefly of an astronomical character, have been 
formulated about the Pyramids of GJzah : but it is now 
generally thought that they were tombs and nothing else, 
and there is no evidence to justify us in believing that they 

'The word "pyramid" seems to be derived from the Egyptian Peremcs 
<^ ^v, ^ '~~^ ' ■^^''^'^ probably means "a building with a sloping side." 

G 4 


were built by any of the Hebrew patriarchs, or that they 
were the "Granaries of Joseph," or that they contain chambers 
filled with gold and precious stones, which have not yet been 
discovered or cleared out. The kings of the Xllth dynasty 
followed the example of their predecessors of the Vth and 
Vlth dynasties, and built pyramids for their toinbs, but they 
were on a much smaller scale. The pyramids of Amenemhat I 
and Usertsen I were at Lisht, those of Amenemhat II and 
Usertsen III were at Dahshur, the pyramid of Usertsen II 
was at Al-Lahun, and that of Amenemhat III was at Hawarah. 
Nobles and high officials built pyramidal tombs, usually about 

Entrance to the tomb of' Khnemu-hetep, an official, at Beni Hasan. 

Xllth dynasty. 

30 feet high, which were supposed to contain the three 
essential parts of the tomb, the upper chamber, the pit, or 
shaft, and the mummy chamber ; but as a matter of fact, the 
body was buried in the brickwork which formed the base of 
such a pyramid ; there was no pit, and the pyramid itself 
represented the upper chamber. 

Rock-hewn tombs. — The pyramid tomb was suitable for 
regions where the ground was flat, but the Egyptians who 
dwelt in places near mountains began at an early period of 
history to hew tombs in them. Thus at Aswan (Syene) the 
mountains on the west bank of the Nile contain three tiers 


of tombs, the oldest being those of nobles and governors of 
Elephantine under the Vlth and Vllth dynasties. These are 
approached by means of a staircase cut in the slope of the 
hill, down the middle of which a smooth path was made for 
the purpose of drawing up the coffins and sarcophagi of the 
dead. At the top of the staircase the hill was scarped, and 
here the chambers of the tombs were hewn. The "false 
doors " were cut in the solid rock, and were above the mouth 

Entrance to a royal tomb in the Valley of the Tombs 
of the Kings. 

of the shaft, or pit, at the bottom of which, in chambers made 
for the purpose, the mummies were placed. Some of the 
tombs of the Xllth dynasty on the north side of the hill have 
long corridors leading to the mouths of the pits, and above 
these are the " false doors," before which statues were some- 
times placed. 

Under the XVIIIth dynasty rock-hewn tombs of great 
size were made, and the finest examples of these are 



undoubtedly the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes. The 
annexed plan and section of the tomb of Seti I will give 
an idea of the extent of the largest of them. A is a 
flight of steps, B a corridor, C a second flight of steps. 




■Sot .^ 

H ° 5 
OJ a S 


D a corridor, E, F, and G are rectangular chambers, H and I 
corridors, K an ante-chamber, L the large six-pillared hall in 
which stood the king's sarcophagus and mummy, and M, N, 
O, P, Q are chambers in which funerary ceremonies were 
performed. Under the sarcophagus is another staircase, which 

{See page 175.) 

Plate XV. 

View of a painted chamber in the tomb of the scribe Nekht. 

XVIIIth dynasty, about B.C. 1450. 

Plate XVI. 

{Seepage I7S-) 

Wall-painting from a tomb. 
Scene : Payment of tribute. Sfldinl men bearing rings of gold, logs 
of ebony, panther-skins, apes, etc. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 13, No. 520.] 



leads to an unfinished passage, its entrance being about 
150 feet below the entrance to the first staircase; the total 
length of the tomb is about 700 feet. The walls of the 
corridors and of most of the chambers are decorated with 
hieroglyphic texts and vignettes which illustrate mythological 
legends and the funerary ceremonies, all painted in bright 
colours, and on the roof of the great hall are painted lists of 
the thirty-six Dekans and other stars, and several figures of 
solar and stellar gods. The Tombs of the Kings were all 

Wall-painting from a tomb. 
Scene ': Servants of a high official bearing offerings to the tomb. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 12, No. 517.] 

built on practically one and the same plan ; the modifica- 
tions which are found in the details are due partly to struc- 
tural difficulties, and partly to the variation in the length of 
the time which was devoted to their making. They cover a 
period of about 550 years, i.e., B.C. 1600-1050. At the 
entrances to some of the tombs of nobles and high officials 
gardens were laid out and trees planted, and these were, of 
course, maintained out of the endowments of the tombs. 



Limestone coffin of Hes-Petan-Ast. 

Ptolemaic Period. 

[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 26, 

No. 968.] 

Under the XX Vlth dynasty 
attempts were made to re- 
produce tombs after the 
plans of the XlXth dynasty, 
and a few very remarkable 
tombs, e.g.., that of Peta- 
Amen-aptat Thebes, were 
the result. The decoration 
was, however, inferior, and 
the scribes who drafted the 
texts for the walls con- 
tented themselves with 
making extracts from the 
old funerary compositions, 
and invented few that were 
wholly new. 

The poor were buried 
in shallow graves made in 
the desert, or in caves and 
hollows in the mountains. 
Some of the caves in the 
Theban hills are literally 
filled with skulls and bones 
and the remains of badly 
made mummies, and the 
same maybe said of several 
" mummy pits," in many 
parts of Egypt, which were 
the common property of 
the neighbouring towns. 
Among such remains are 
found cheap porcelain 
scarabs and poorly moulded 
figures of the gods, and 
sometimes coarse papyrus 
sandals, which prove that 
the equipment of the poor 
for their journey to the 
Other World was cheap 
and meagre. 

Tomb Equipment. — 
To describe here in detail 
all the varieties of objects 
which may be fittingly 
grouped under this head is 

[Seepage 177.) 

Plate XVII. 

Plate XVIII. 

[See page 177. ) 

p w 

■^ « 




a . 






13 "3 



S o< 






(See page 177.) 

Plate XIX. 

Sepulchral tablet of Ban-aa, a scribe. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 9, No, 474.] XVIIIth dynasty. 



impossible, but the principal requirements of the dead of well- 
to-do folk may be thus enumerated : I. Coffin, or coffins, 
painted and decorated according to the means of the relatives. 
A fine collection of coffins, which illustrates all the important 
varieties between B.C. 2600 and A.D. 300 is exhibited in the 
First and Second Egyptian Rooms. Fine sarcophagi in wood 
and stone will be found in the Second Egyptian Room and in 
the Southern Egyptian Gallery (see Plates XVII and XVIII). 
2. A stele, or sepulchral tablet, recording the name and 
pedigree of the deceased, and containing usually a prayer to 
certain gods for sepulchral offerings (see Plate XIX). 
Examples of almost every kind of sepulchral tablet in stone 

will be found on the shelves 
in the Egyptian Galleries, 
and brightly painted wooden 
tablets are exhibited in the 
Third Egyptian Room (Wall- 
cases Nos. 99-1 1 3). 3. A set 
of Canopic Jars (see above 
page 160). 4. A statue, or 
figure, seated or standing, 
usually inscribed, which was 
intended to form a dwelling 
place for the " double " (Ka) 
of the deceased, and to re- 
ceive the offerings of .his 
friends and relatives. (See 
the double statue of Ka-tep 
and Hetep-heres from their 
mastaba at Glzah, and Third 
Egyptian Room, Wall-case 
99 ff.) 5. A ushabti figure, 
i.e., a figure which was sup- 
posed to transform itself into 
a living man in the Other 
World at the command of the deceased, and to perform any 
agricultural work which he might be condemned to do. In 
some tombs scores of ushabtiu have been found, and when a 
large number was buried in a tomb, a special box to hold them 
was provided. (For examples see Second Egyptian Room, 
Wall-cases Nos. 77-82.) 6. A Heart-scarab, «>., a model of 
a beetle (of the Goliath species ?) usually in hard green stone, 
which was either inserted in the breast of the deceased, where it 
was intended to take the place of his heart which had been 
removed during the process of mummification, or was fastened 

Painted limestone figures of Ka-tep 
and his wife Hetep-heres. 

IVth dynasty, B.C. 3750. 
[Vestibule, East Doorway, No. 14.] 


on the breast over the heart. It was inscribed with the text 
of Chapter XXXb of the Book of the Dead, in which the 
deceased prays that his heart may be victorious in the judg- 
ment, that no hostile or lying witnesses may appear against 
him, etc. This prayer is very old, and a Rubric to the 
LXIVth Chapter proves that it was in existence early in the 
IVth dynasty. Frequently the heart-scarab was inserted in 
a rectangular temple-shaped plaque, or pectoral (see Table- 
case I, in the Fourth Egyptian Room). 7. A copy of some 
religious text or texts (Book of the Dead), written upon stone, 
wood, or papyrus. In the Vth dynasty such texts were cut 
on the walls of pyramid chambers, corridors, etc. In the 
Xlth dynasty they were traced in ink on the stone mummy 
chambers and on the sides of wooden sarcophagi. (See the 
coffin of Amamu in the First Egyptian Room, Case C.) 
In the XVIIIth-XXVIth dynasties they were written on 
rolls of papyrus which were placed in the coffin with the 
mummy, or between the legs of the mummy, or in a niche in 
the wall of the tomb. Sometimes the mummy was wrapped 
wholly in inscribed papyrus, and sometimes the texts were 
written on the linen swathings. 8. A set of vessels (bowls, 
jars, vases, bottles, etc.) for holding unguents, oils, astringent 
liquids, etc., for use in the Other World. These were made 
of granite, diorite, breccia, alabaster, etc., and their shapes 
are often exceedingly graceful. A very complete collection 
of them will be seen in the Fourth Egyptian Room ; the 
oldest date from the Archaic Period, and the series continues 
to the XXVIth dynasty at least. 9. Royal ladies and 
priestesses were usually provided with a toilet box containing 
combs, mirror, hair-pins, hair-tweezers, sandals, tubes of 
eye-paint, flasks of sweet unguent, etc. ; for an example see 
Standard-case L, in the Fourth Egyptian Room. 10. A 
Pillow made of wood, ivory, alabaster, etc. 

The tombs of the wealthy were provided with chairs, tables, 
couches, stools, boxes, painted and inlaid to hold jewellery, 
scents, etc., and many articles which the Egyptians used daily 
in their professions. The sistrum, cymbals, and bells which the 
priestess used in the temple were buried with her ; the bow and 
arrows of the hunter, the favourite inscribed staff of authority 
of the official, the spear, dagger and axe of the warrior, the 
palette and colour-pots of the artist, the sceptre or symbol of 
office of the governor, children's toys and dolls, dice, draughts, 
and counters used in games — all these things went to form 
the equipment for the tomb in individual cases, and examples of 
them are to be seen in the Third and Fourth Egyptian Rooms. 


Of personal ornaments of the dead the variety is endless,, 
but a very good general idea of them may be obtained from 
the collections in the Table-cases in the Fourth Egyptian 
Room. In Case F, one side is filled with amulets, many of 
which were worn for decorative purposes during life by their 
owners, and the other side contains a collection of necklaces 
and beads belonging to various periods between B.C. 1700 
and A.D. 100. The beads are made of gold, amethyst, 
garnet, carnelian, mother-of-emerald, lapis-lazuli, agate, topaz, 
glass, etc., all which materials were believed to possess 
magical properties, and the pendants were intended to bring 
luck, long life, health, etc., to their wearers. The necklaces of 
the early period will be found in Case J, some of which 
belong to the period of the Early Empire ; the porcelain beads 
and necklaces are in Case B. At one period unpierced, round 
and conical beads were made in Egypt. (See Table-case L, 
Second Egyptian Room.) They were found placed in semi- 
circular rows on a layer of clay, which was intended to serve 
as a necklace or breastplate for a mummy. A fine display 
of gold rings, pendants, bracelets, etc., will be found in 
Table-case J in the Fourth Egyptian Room. Worthy 
of special note are : the gold bracelets of Nemareth (Nos. 134, 
135), the gold urseus (No. 105), the " heart-scarab" in massive 
gold setting (No. 132), the hawk of gold (No. 133), gold 
pendant (No. 137), gold pectoral (No. 138), gold bangle with 
figures in gold and silver alternately (No. 140), gold lion 
(No. 17s), Scarab of Sebekemsaf, a king of the XlVth 
dynasty (No. 195), gold rings inscribed with the names of 
Thothmes III, Hatshep.set, Shishak I, Amen-hetep III, and 
Ptolemy III (Nos. 198, 201, 217, 237, 266), silver rings 
inscribed with the names of Amen-hetep IV, Shishak, and 
Psammetichus (Nos. 390, 392), and a very fine collection of 
64 scarabs in agate, onyx, lapis-lazuli, etc., from the tomb of 
a princess of the Xllth dynasty,, about B.C. 2400 (No. 382). 



Numbers Cardinal and Ordinal. Divisions of Time : 
The Calendar, Sothic Period. Chronology. 

Numbers. — The numbers i to 9 are expressed by short 

perpendicular strokes, ^.^., I = I, \\=2, ||| = 3, ''=4, '"=5, 

'" A "" ^ I'll e o«^ '" r. TU u 

=0, =7, =8, and m =9. The number 10 is 

expressed by n, 100 by (g, 1,000 by T , 10,000 by ], 100,000 

by ^ , 1,000,000 by "^ , and 10,000,000 by Q ; tens up to 

90 are expressed by repeating the sign for ten, Pi , so many 
times ; hundreds up to 900 by repeating the sign for 
hundred, Q. , so many times ; thousands up to 9,000 by 

repeating the sign for thousand, J , so many times, and so on. 

The following extract will illustrate the use of these signs : — 

LRU geese J||JJ| gj| m = 6,8.0 

Khet-aa geese i ^| "^ ~ ^''^^° 


Tchau geese (» ^'J^ = 150 

Mest geese JJJJ , fjf^f] = 4.060 

Waterfowl ll THX^' ^"^ — 25,020 


Pat birds ]] I ^lll = .1,700 

Paash birds J ©<£ [^C^ = 1^240 

T.,d No. of birds ^ 11 llUll -^^ "m 11 = "'■■'» 


Large loaves 992,750. 

Fractions ^^= h ^= = h "^ = h ^ = tV, 

(3 = TTo-' I = ttW. [ pnn = jV, etc. Ordinal numbers 

are indicated by °^ placed before the figure, or by 

placed after it; e.£: °=s!!' = "sixth," ""o = "seventh." 

Divisions of Time. — The smallest fraction was the dnt, 

, one third of a second, or " the twinkling of an eye." 

/WWW Cl) 

Then came the /tai ^ "^ ^ , second ; the at '^ ^ , minute; 
and the unnut ^^ f^ 9=^ hour. Twenty-four hours made 



one day, kru __^ ^ 9 ' t^" days made one week, and 
thirty days one calendar month, ^5. Twelve months plus 
the five epagomenal days made one vague or calendar year, 
renpii ^^ ^ | . Longer periods of time were : — 

Set period P "^ 02 =30 years. 

Two-Henti period ft ft® = 120 „ 

yeh J0| = An Age. 

Tchetta ^]|^ = Eternity. 


We also have : — 

Mm = Millions of years, 

jjjjjj = 10,000,000 years. 

= 1,000,000,000,000 years. 

= 10,000,000,000,000 years. 

= 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 years. 

In late times the Sothic Period and the Phoenix Period 
were used by the Greeks, but there is no evidence that' either 
was known to the Ancient Egyptians. 

Chronology, and the ancient Egyptian Year. The 
Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days indicate that in very 
early times the Egyptian Year consisted of 12 months each 
of 30 days, i.e., that the primitive year contained 360 days. 
Whether the Egyptians ever tried to use the lunar year of 
354 days there is no evidence to show. Now the progress of 
the seasons would, in a few years, soon convince those who 
used the year of 360 days that their year did not agree with 
the solar year, and that it was too short, and they would be 
obliged to add to its days in some way. The inscriptions 
prove that even at so early a period as the reign of Pepi II of 
the Vlth dynasty, the Egyptians were in the habit of adding 
five days each year to their year of 360 days, and that before 
B.C. 3000 the year in common use contained 365 days. These 
" five days " are known as " the days over the year " 

epagomenal days," and they were said to be the days on 
which Osiris, Horus, Set, Isis, and Nephthys respectively were 
born. The primitive year of 360 days was divided into three 

seasons. The first season was Shat, or Akhet, |^|tt ; it 
began about July 19 and ended about November 15, and 
corresponded practically with the period of the Inundation. 

The second season was Pert <r=> ; it began about November 
15 and ended about March 15. The third season was Shemu 
;;X;^ ; it began about March 15 and ended about July 13. 




These seasons to the Egyptians represented roughly Winter, 
Spring, and Summer. Each season contained four months, 
which were in early times called the first, second, third, and 
fourth month of that season ; in later times a name was given 
to each month. The following was the early calendar : — 

T<T)T , I St Month of sowing 
II IM2' ^'^'^ " 

Coptic Name.^ 
Thoth. >, 

I I 




I -^^ 

, ist Month of growing 

II o 

, 2nd 

I I 1^ © 


I I I |Q 



... Choiak. 
... Mechir. 

> -5 

, /VVV^A^ 

', ist Month of inundation ... Pachons. ~] 


I I 1: 

, 2nd 



Mesore. J 



1 The Coptic names are derived from the ancient Egyptian names ; thus 

"Thoth" is from ^^^fjj, whose festival was celebrated in that month. 

" Choiak " is from the name of the festival Kahraka I— i Y Li ^^'-^ ^^^ gp on. 


' We should naturally expect J^JJ^ to represent the whole period of the 

Inundation, and not merely the first two 6r three weeks of it ; and IHH 

cannot originally have referred at all to the period of the Inundation. This 
subject, however, is one of difficulty. 


To these twelve months, as already said, five days were 
added, and the year thus formed is generally known as the 
" vague (or wandering) year," and the " calendar year." Now 
it is clear that since this vague year of 365 days was shorter 
than the true year, or "solar year," of 365:^, by nearly a 
quarter of a day, every fourth vague year would be shorter 
than the true year by nearly a whole day. Moreover, given a 
sufficient number of years, the vague year would work 
backward through all the months of the year, until at length 
the first day of the vague year would coincide with the first 
day of the solar year. Thus, supposing the first day of the 
vague and solar years to have coincided on January i, 
B.C. 2000, two hundred years later the first day of the 
vague year would have worked back about 50 days ; 
and five hundred years later, i.e., about B.C. 1300, the first 
day of the vague year would fall in the height of the 
summer instead of in the depth of winter. This defect 
in their year of 365 days would soon become apparent, 
and we may be sure that they were not long in discovering 
some means for correcting it. According to some authorities 
the Egyptians knew the length of the true, or solar, year ' 
with considerable exactitude, and if this be so they were 
well able to plan their farming operations without any 
reference • to the vague year. According to others the 
Egyptians were ignorant of the solar year, but were 
acquainted with a Sothic year, which is so called because 
it began on the day when the star Sept (or Sirius, or Sethis, 
or the Dog Star) rose heliacally, that is to say, with the sun. 
This happened on July 19 or 20, and as this date was very 
near the time when the Inundation began, the Egyptians 
considered it most convenient for their year and the Inunda- 
tion to begin at the same time. The Sothic year contained 
practically 365^ days, i.e., a few minutes more than the true, 
or solar, year ; and the Sothic Period, i.e., the length of the 
time which must elapse between two risings of Sothis 
heliacally, contained 1,460 Sothic years, or 1,461 vague, or 
calendar, years. 

It has now to be considered how the above facts bear upon 
Egyptian chronology. To make a complete scheme, of 
Egyptian chronology we need a complete list of the kings of 
Egypt, and to know the order in which each succeeded, and 
the number of years which each reigned. Now, such a list 
does not exist, for the lists we have only contain selections of 
kings' names ; and of many a king neither the order of his 
succession nor the length of his reign is known. The facts at 


present available do not permit the making of a complete 
detailed scheme of chronology, but one which is approximately 
correct in many parts of it can be framed. As authorities for 
the names of the kings there are :— i. The Royal Papyrus of 
Turin, which, when complete, contained over 300 royal names. 
2. The Tablet of Abydos,^ made for Seti I, containing seventy- 
six names. 3. The Tablet of Sakk^rah, containing fifty 
names. 4. The Egyptian monuments of all periods. 5. The 
King List of Manetho.^ The Turin Papyrus, which was com- 
piled about B.C. 1500, gave the lengths of the reigns of the 
kings, but unfortunately most of them are broken. Manetho 
compiled his King List, it is said for Ptolemy II Philadelphus, 
in the first half of the third century B.C., but, as the work in 
which it appeared is lost, we only know it by the copies 
which have come down to us in the Chronicle of Julius 
Africanus (third century A.D.), in the Chronicle of Eusebius, 
Bishop of Caesarea, who died about A.D. 340, and in the 
Chronography of George the Monk (eighth century A.D.). 
Eusebius himself also compiled a King List, but his results 
differ materially from those of Manetho as given by Africanus. 
Manetho divided the kings of Egypt into thirty dynasties, 
which he arranged in three groups : Dynasties I -XI, XII- 
XIX, and XX -XXX. He also gave the lengths of the reigns 
of the kings, and the cities of their origin, Memphis,' Elephan- 
tine, Thebes, etc. 

Now, although a great many credible facts are to be 
gathered from the above authorities from which we are 
justified in making the general deduction that the period of 
dynastic civilization lasted between four and five thousand 
years, they none of them help to fix an exact date for the 
reign of the first dynastic king of Egypt, who, by general 
consent, is said to have been Mena or Menes. If Manetho's 
List were trustworthy, the difficulty would be settled, but 
unfortunately one version of it makes 561 kings reign in 
5,524 years, whilst another gives the number of the kings as 
361, and their total reigns as 4,480 or 4,780 years. Many 
Egyptologists have accepted Manetho's statements with 
modifications, but others have tried to work out more accurate 
results, astronomically, by the use of the Sothic Period. It 
has already been said that the Sothic Period of 1,460 years is 

' A second Tablet of Abydos, made for Rameses II, is exhibited in the 
Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 6, No. 592. 

^ To these may be added the fragment of a stele (now preserved at Palermo), 
from which the names of a few of the Predynastic kings of Lower Egypt have 
been recovered. 


1 86 

equal to 1,461 vague, or calendar, years, and it is argued that, 
if we can find mentions of the risings of Sothis (Sirius, or the 
Dog-star) expressed in terms of the vague year, and if we can 
also fix a date for the beginning or end of a Sothic Period, it 
will be possible to arrive at fixed points in Egyptian chrono- 
logy. Fortunately some three or four mentions of the rising 
of Sothis are known in the inscriptions, and thanks to 
Censorinus, who wrote his work {De Die Natali) A.D. 238, it 
is known that a Sothic Period came to an end A.D. 139.^ If 
this be so, it is clear that the Sothic Period to which he refers 
began in B.C. 1321, the one before that in B.C. 2781, the one 
previous in B.C. 4241, and so on. The next step is to work 
out the mentions of the risings of Sothis which are expressed 
in terms of the vague, or calendar, year, and, provided that the 
statement of Censorinus be trustworthy and the calculations 
of modern investigators be correct, it is possible to assign a 
date in ordinary Julian years to such risings of Sirius. 

Want of space renders it impossible to discuss here the 
various systems of chronology which have been formulated by 
Egyptologists and others, but the dates proposed by the 
principal authorities for some of the dynasties may be thus 
grouped : — 


Dates proposed. 



















































1 183 





Of these systems the one proposed by the late Dr. H. 
Brugsch (No. 5) agrees best with the general evidence of the 
monuments as to the length of the period of Dynastic 

' He says : " The Egyptians in the formation of their Great Year had no 
■ regard to the moon. In Greece the Egyptian Year is called ' cynical ' (dog-like), 
' and in Latin ' canicular ' because it commences with the rising of the Canicular 
' or Dog-star, to which is fixed the first day of the month which the Egyptians 
' called Thoth. Their civil year had but 365 days without any intercalation. 
' Thus with the Egyptians the space of four years is shorter by one day than the 
' space of four natural years, and a complete synchronism is only established at 
' the end of 1,461 years." (Chapter XVIII.) " But of these [eras] the beginnings 
' always take place on the first day of the month which is called Thoth among 
' the Egyptians, a day which this present year corresponds to the Vllth day of 

' the Kalends of July (June 25), whilst a hundred years ago this same 

' day corresponded to the Xllth day of the Kalends of August (Jjily 21), at 
' which time the Dog-star is wont to rise in Egypt." (Chapter XXI.) 


civilization ; it is therefore used, with some modification of the 
dates of the XVIIIth dynasty, in this book. It has been declared 
that the intervals which he placed between the Vlth and the 
Xllth, and the Xllth and the XVIIIth dynasties are too long, 
but, on the other hand, many objections can be urged against 
the reductions recently suggested. . It is proposed to reduce 
the date given by Brugsch for Menes, B.C. 4400, to 
H.C. 3315 ; but there is no evidence in support of the reduction. 
The view has been steadily growing for years that some of 
the dates proposed by Brugsch for the kings of the XVIIIth 
dynasty must be reduced, and as this view is supported by 
the evidence derived from the recently published Babylonian 
Chronicles, and the general testimony of recently excavated 
monuments, the datiss of the reigns of the early kings of that 
dynasty may well be brought down nearly one hundred years. 
The other evidence on the point, being of an astronomical 
character, can only be dealt with by experts. Egyptian 
chronology is a difficult subject, chiefly because of an 
insufficiency of facts about the reigns of the kings of the 
Vllth-XIth, and the Xlllth-XVIIth dynasties. Every year, 
however, witnesses the removal of a certain number of 
difficulties, and as long as excavations are made in Egypt a 
steady increase in the knowledge of the subject may 
reasonably be hoped for. 

1 88 


Palaeolithic Period. 

The only remains of this Period in the British Museum 
are flint axes, borers, scrapers, etc., typical examples of 
which are exhibited in Table-case M in the Third Egyptian 

Neolithic Period. 

Towards the end of this Period Egypt was divided 
into two kingdoms, of the South and of the North ; of the 
kings of the latter a few names are known from the Palermo 
Stele, e.g., Seka, Khaau, Tau, Thesh Neheb, Uatch-nar 
or Uatch-ant, Mekha, etc. No date can be assigned to the 
rule of these kings, but they probably all reigned before 
B.C. 4500. Whilst Egypt was divided into two kingdoms 
the country was invaded, probably more than once, by a 
people who made their way thither from the East, or South- 
East, and settled as conquerors in the Nile Valley and Delta. 
They brought with them a civilization superior to the African, 
and appear to have introduced wheat, barley, the sheep, the 
art of writing, a superior kind of brickmaking, etc. After a 
time, length unknown, there arose a king who succeeded 
in uniting the Kingdoms of the North and South under his 
sway ; that king was Mena or Menes. 

First Dynasty. From the city of This. 

About B.C. 4400. 

Mena, the Menes of the Greeks, was the first dynastic 
king of Egypt, and has been identified by some with king 
Altia Q£X, whose tomb was discovered in .1897 at Abydos 



Nothing is known of his reign from the monuments, but a 

tradition preserved by Greek writers declared that he 

^ altered the course of the Nile, and so redeemed from 

the river a large tract upon which he built the 

first city of Memphis. Among the objects in the 

British Museum bearing the name of Aha may be 

^ ^ mentioned some clay sealings for small wine-jars, a 

^*' portion of an ivory box, and parts of two ebony tablets. 

(Table-case L in the Third Egyptian Room.) 

Teta, or Atet, was the successor of Mena according 
to the King Lists. In recent years this king has 
been identified by some with' a king whose name 
is provisionally read Nar-mer ; others, however, 
take the view that Nar-mer is one of the names 
of Betchau, a king of the Ilnd dynasty. 





The next two kings were Ateth and Ata, 
but of their reigns nothing is known ; accord- 
ing to some authorities we are to identify King 
Khent with the former, and King Tcha with 
the latter. There are several small objects in 
the British Museum inscribed with the name 
Khent. Tcha. of Tcha (Table-case L), and several jar- 
sealings (Wall-case on Landing). 

The reign of the next king Semti ^^ , or Ten, formerly 

known as Hesepti ^^, was important. A legend preserved 

in the Book of the Dead states that the short form of 
the LXIVth Chapter of that work was " found " during 
his reign ; and on the tablet exhibited in Table-case L, 
Third Egyptian Room (No. 124), the king is repre- 
sented dancing before a god, who wears the White 
Crown and is seated within a shrine placed on the 

Ten. top of a flight of steps. As in later texts Osiris 
is called " the god on the steps," and the White Crown 
is one of his most characteristic emblems, we are probably 
justified in identifying the figure in the shrine with that of 
Osiris. It is probable that the worship of Osiris assumed 
an importance in the reign of Semti hitherto unknown, 
and that it was at this period that the cult of this god 
began to displace the worship of ancestors, which, up to 



that time, appears to have been general. It is clear that 
tradition assigned to his reign a period of literary activity. 
The name of Semti also occurs in connexion with a recipe 
in a book of medicine for driving the disease ukhedu out 
of the body. (For objects bearing his name see Table-case L, 
and for wine-jar sealings see Wall-cases on Landing.) 

The sixth king of this dynasty was Atab, or Atchab, 
otherwise known as Merpeba, or Merbapen. (For a number of 
objects bearing his names see Table-case L and Wall-cases 
on Landing.) 

The next king, according to the King Lists, was called 

King Semti dancing before the god who wears the White Crown. 

Semerkha, or Hu, or Nekht, or Semsu, the Semempses of 
Manetho. (For objects bearing his name see Table- 
case L and Wall-cases on Landing.) 

This dynasty was brought to a close by the reign 
of a king called Qebh in the later Lists ; the correct 
form of his name is, however, Sen, and his Horus name 
is Qa, (For objects bearing his name see Table- 
case L and Wall-cases on Landing.) 


Second Dynasty. From the city of This, 

About B.C. 4133. 
The first king of the Ilnd dynasty was Kha-Sekhemui 
Q Y Y ' °ther names of whom were Betchau, Neter-baiu, and 


Besh. From the reliefs on the statues of this king which 
were recovered from his tomb at Abydos, we may assume 
that Besh fought many battles, and conquered his enemies. 
From a design on one of his vases we learn that he was 
probably the first to enclose his personal name within the 
Shennu sign Q, which was afterwards elongated into the 
cartouche ( ] when royal names became longer. In 

this design we see the vulture-goddess Nekhebit uniting the 
South and the North, and holding in one claw the sign Q , 

with the name Besh written v/ithin it thus : 

Betchau, or Besh, has been identified by some with Narmer. 
There are no objects bearing the name of Nar-mer in the 
British Museum, but a good cast of a green slate shield of 
Betchau is exhibited in Wall-case lo on the Landing of the 
North- West Staircase. The designs on this remarkable object 
are reproduced in the Guide to the First and Second Egyptian 
Rooms, p. 40 ff. The objects found in the tomb of Besh prove 
that the Egyptians were, even at this early period, skilled in 
stone-cutting, statue-making, and working in metals, and that 
their religious and social institutions must have been estab- 
lished for many generations. (See the copper vases and wine- 
jar sealings on the Landing, and the interesting group of 
objects, fragments of vases, etc., in Table-case L.) 

Besh was followed by Hetep-Sekhemui r-^VY' °^ 
whom we have a fragment of a stone vase (Table-case L, 
No. 162); and by Ra-neb and En-neter (see the fragment 
of a bowl in Table-case L, No. 163). During the reign 
of Ra-neb, who was also called Ka-kau, the worship of the 
Apis Bull of Memphis, the Mnevis Bull of Heliopolis, and 
the Ram of Mendes was either reconstituted, or addi- 
tional shrines were founded or old ones repaired (For 
typical figures of these gods see Table-case H, Third 
Egyptian Room.) After Uatchnes, ot whom nothing is 
known, came a king who as the representative of Horus was 
called Sekhem-ab, and as the representative of Set, Perabsen. 
In Table-case L are a jar-sealing and a fragment of a stone 
vase, and in the Wall-case on the Landing a fine, hard grey 
granite stele, inscribed with his Set name. 

Sent or Senfa fs mentioned in connexion with a certain 
medical work which was either written or edited in the reign 



Slab from the tomb of Shera, a Priest 

of the Ka of Sent, a king of the 

Ilnd dynasty, B.C. 4000 

[Vestibule, South Wall, No. i.] 

193 SEVEN years' famine. 

of Semti, the fifth king of the 1st dynasty. Nothing is 
known of Sent's reign, but we find from the tomb of Shera, a 
priest, that services were performed on behalf of his Ka or 
" Double " and that of his predecessor Perabsen. Shera the 
priest probablv lived at the end of the Ilnd, or at the 
beginning of the Ilird, dynasty. A fine slab from his tomb is 
exhibited in the Egyptian Vestibule, No. I. 

Of the remaining kings of the Ilnd dynasty, Neferkara, 
Neferkaseker, Hetchefa, and Bebi, or Tthatchai, their 
names only have survived. 

Third Dynasty. From Memphis. 

About B.C. 3966. 

The greatest of the kings of this dynasty was Tcheser, or 
Tcheser-sa, who is renowned as the builder of the famous 
Step Pyramid at Sakkirah. This pyramid is about 200 feet 
high, and has six "steps," 38, 36, 34^, 33, 31, and 2g\ feet 
high respectively ; the lengths of its sides at the base are : 
north and south, 352 feet, east and west 396 feet. A tomb of 
Tcheser, who has been identified with this king, was 
discovered at Bet Khallaf in 1901. Details of his reign 
are wanting, but, according to a legend preserved on a 
rock stele on the Island of Sahal in the First Cataract, a 
Seven Years' Famine came upon Egypt in his time, and 
want and misery were universal. Greek tradition ascribed to 
Tcheser great medical knowledge, and he is said to have been ■ 
a patron of literature. Among the objects of this king in the 
British Museum may be mentioned the fragment of a slate 
vase (Table-case L, No. 169), and the very interesting small 
glazed tiles (Nos. 208, 209, in the same case; and see Table- 
case K in the Fourth Egyptian Room, Nos. 863-869), which 
were found inlaid in the wall of the doorway in the pyramid 
of King Tcheser. 

The other kings of this dynasty, Hen-Nekhtor, Sa-Nekht, 
Tcheser - Teta, Setches, and Nefer-ka-Ra Huni were 
unimportant ; the last named is mentioned in the famous Book 
of Moral Precepts known as the Prisse PapyrusJ where he is 
said to have been the predecessor of the great king Seneferu; 
With the ending of the 1 1 Ird dynasty the period of Egyptian 
History called the Archaic Period closes. During these 
dynasties civilization had advanced greatly in Egypt. The 
habitations of the living were now built of brick, with wooden 
foofs supported on pillars ; and the dead were provided with 



stone-built tombs, called mastabas, in which they were laid 
at full length, instead of in contracted positions. The art of 
writing had been introduced, and the beginning of the hiero- 
glyphic system invented. Sculptors and metal workers had 

Relief from the tomb of Suten-abu. 

Ilird or IVth dynasty, B.C. 
[Vestibule, South Wall, No. 5.] 


attained considerable skill, and potters had learned how to apply 
glaze. The progress made during the Archaic Period can be 
successfully studied by the visitor from the valuable collection 
of objects exhibited in Table-case L in the Second Egyptian 



Room, and in the Wall-cases on the Landing of the Nqrth- 
West Staircase. Special attention should be given to the 
green slate shields, sculptured in relief with hunting scenes, 
and to the fine display of vases and bowls, in diorite, granite, 
porphyry, jasper, breccia, limestone, alabaster, etc., in Wall- 
cases 137-142, 194-204, in the Fourth Egyptian Room. To 
the same period probably belong :— I. The portion of a 
sculptured stele, with the Horus name of a king, which was 
found at Wadi Magharah in the Peninsula of Sinai (Egyptian 
Vestibule, No. 2). 2. The very interesting red granite statue, 
of a most archaic character, of Betchmes, a royal kinsnian 
and axeman who was attached to the body-guard of the king 
(Egyptian Vestibule, No. 3)- 3- The text on a limestone 
slab in which the hieroglyphics are not divided by lines 
(Egyptian Vestibule, No. 4). 4. Relief from the tomb of 
Suten-abu (Egyptian Vestibule, No. 5). 

Fourth Dynasty. From Memphis. 

About B.C. 3733. 

With the accession of Seneferu one of the most important 
periods in the history of Egypt opened, and it was marked by 
the conquest of the Sud^n and the Sinaitic Peninsula, by 
the building of the Pyramids, and by the production of bas- 
reliefs, sculptures, wall-paintings, etc., which for fidelity to 
nature and delicacy of execution were never surpassed 
Several of the earlier kings of Egypt had trade relations with 
the natives of Sinai who worked the famous copper and 
turquoise mines ofWadt Maghirah ; but Seneferu invaded the 
country and conquered it, and cut reliefs on the rocks in 
which he is represented clubbing the rebellious natives. He 
was the first to group four of the royal titles within 

a ca«o„che .h„, : (MM^^^Pl^ l 

He also raided the Sudan, and captured, as we learn from 
the Palermo Stele, 7,000 men, i.e., slaves, and 200,000 animals, 
i.e., oxen, cows, goats, etc. The men were, no doubt, brought 
to Egypt and made to labour there on the king's works. 
During the reign of Seneferu, Egypt was invaded by certain 
Eastern tribes by way of the desert ; and the country seems 
td have suffered from a famine. Seneferu was probably 
buried in the Pyramid of M^dum, which is called the " False 
Pyramid," and is of an unusual shape; it is about 115 feet 



high, and consists of three stages, which are 70, 20, and 25 
feet high respectively. He also built a pyramid at Dahshur. 

His queen was Mert-tefs <=:=> "^ H , who survived him 

and was living during the reigns of Khufu and Khafra ; a 
limestone false door from her tomb is exhibited in the 
Egyptian Vestibule, No. 7. The 
governor of Seneferu's pyramid 
at Medum was Ka-nefer (for his 
sepulchral stele see the Egyp- 
tian Vestibule, No. 8), to whose 
memory a pious son set up the 
memorial tablet No. 9. 

Seneferu was succeeded by 
Khufu, the Cheops of the 
Greeks, the son of Shaaru 

f c^g^:^ ^]!, the greatest 

king of the dynasty; he is said 
to have reigned sixty-three years. 
He may have been a great warrior, 
like Seneferu ; and a relief on the 
rocks at Wadi Magh^rah in the 
Sinaitic Peninsula represents him 
in the act of clubbing a typical foe 
in the presence of the ibis-headed 
god Thoth. He was, however, a 
far greater builder, and he has 
been known to fame for some 
thousands of years as the builder 
of the Great Pyramid (see 
Plate XX). This wonderful 
building, which the Egyptians 

called "Khut," '^®A' stands 

on the edge of a ledge of rock 
forming the " skirt " (hence the 

name Gtzah) of the desert, on the western bank of the Nile, 
about 5 miles from the river, near the village of Al-Gizah. 
It covers an area of 12^ acres. It is 451 feet high, and 
the flat space at the top is about 30 feet square. The 
length of each side at the base is 755 feet; but before the 
outer layers of stone were removed and used in Cairo for 
building material each side was 20 feet longer, and the 
pyramid itself was about 30 feet higher. It was originally 

H 3 

King Khufu (Cheops). 
[Vestibule, South Wall, No. 13.] 

Plate XX. 

{.Seepage 196. 


H 4 


covered with inscribed slabs of smooth limestone or polished 
granite, and it is calculated that it at present contains 
85,000,000 cubic feet of masonry. The illustration on 
page 197 illustrates the general arrangement of the chambers 
and corridors inside the pyramid, and the corridor and mummy 
chamber beneath it. The stone used in building was quarried 
at Tura, on the eastern bank of the Nile, about 8 or 9 miles 
from the pyramid site. It was rolled down to the river 
on a made road, and ferried across in barges, and then 
rolled up the embanked road and causeway to the rock. 
According to Diodorus (i, 63), the building occupied at least 
twenty years, and some 300,000 men were employed in the work. 
Herodotus says (ii, 64) that ten years were consumed in the 
quarrying of the stone, and ten more in building, and that the 
men worked in gangs of ten thousand, each gang working 
three months at a time. A group of three casing stones 
from the Great Pyramid are exhibited in the Egyptian Vesti- 
bule, Nos. 10-12, and also a plaster cast of a statue of Khufu 
(No. 13). Attached to the Great Pyramid was a funerary 
temple in which commemorative services were performed; and 
either towards the end of the king's reign, or soon after his 
death, one of the chief priests in it was Ka-tep, who held the 

office of " Prefect of the sa " ^ ^^"^S" • «-^-. of the " fluid of 

life." Ka-tep was a "royal kinsman," and his wife Hetep- 
heres was a " royal kinswoman." For the statues of Ka-tep 
and his wife, see page 177, and for " false doors " from his 
mastaba tomb, see Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 14-171 and for 
his censers, see Wall-case 200 in the Fourth Egyptian Room, 
Nos. 52, 53. Another official who flourished about this period 
was Shesha, from whose tomb came the limestone stele in 
the Egyptian Vestibule, No. 18. 

During the reign of Khufu a large number of fine tombs 
were built round about the Great Pyramid, and in some of 
them fine monolithic sarcophagi were placed. An ^ excellent 
idea of this class of monument may be gained from an 
examination of the cast of the sarcophagus of Khufu-ankh 
(Egyptian Vestibule, No. 19). 

Here, because tfie monument is associated with the name of 
Khufu in the inscription of Thothmes IV, must be mentioned 

the Sphinx, in Egyptian Hu | ^ .^as . The early history 

of this wonderful man-headed lion is unknown, but it seems 
that some work upon the rock out of which it was fashioned 
was undertaken by Khufu. Under the Xllth dynasty the 



headdress, called nemmes, was cut, and it is possible that an 
attempt was made to give the face some resemblance to that 
of Amen-em-hat 1 1 1, or one of his predecessors, about the same 
time. At a later period the Sphinx was identified with Ra- 
Harmachis, probably under the influence of an ancient 
tradition which connected it with the Sun-god. It is 150 feet 
long and 70 feet high; the head is 30 feet long and the 

face 14 feet wide. Origi- 
nally the face was painted 
a bright red, and traces of 
the colour are still visible. 
Traditions and supersti- 
tions have gathered about 
it in all ages, and it is 
probable that the rock out 
of which it was made was 
regarded with veneration 
in primitive times. In the 
Middle Ages the natives 
believed that the Sphinx 
kept the sands of the 
Western Desert from 
swallowing up the village 
of Gizah. A portion of 
the painted limestone 
uraeus, or asp, from the 
forehead and a portion of 
the beard of the Sphinx 
are exhibited in the 
Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 
20 and 21. 

Khufu was succeeded 
by Tet-f-Ra, of whom 
nothing is known ; and he 
again was succeeded by 
Kha-f-Ra, the Chephren 
of the Greek writers, who 
is famous chiefly as the 
builder of the Second 

King Khafra (Chephren). 

Pyramid at Gizah, called in Egyptian " Ur " "^^ A , i.e., the 

" Great." Its height is about 450 feet, the length of each 
side at the base is 700 feet, and it is said to contain 
about 60,000,000 cubic feet of masonry, weighing some 
4,883,000 tons. It was first opened by Belzoni (born 1778, 



died 1823) in 18 16. It was originally cased with polished 
stone, but only towards the top has the casing been pre- 
served. The illustration on page 171 shows the arrangement of 
the corridor and sarcophagus chamber, which is very different 
from that of the Great Pyramid. A funerary chapel was 
attached to the pyramid ; and among those who ministered 
in it was Rutchek, the chief of the libationer priests, who 

calls himself a "friend of 

Pharaoh " I ¥ ~v%a 

(For an architrave and 
an inscription from his 
tomb see Egyptian 
Vestibule, Nos. 22 and 
23.) The Pyramid it- 
self was in charge of 
the " royal kinsman " 
Thetha, who was the 
royal steward, and "over- 
"seer of the throne of 
" Pharaoh," and priest of 
Hathor and Neith. Two 
fine doors from the 
mastaba tomb of Thetha 
are exhibited in the 
Northern Egyptian 
Gallery (Bay i, Nos. 24 
and 25), together with a 
short inscription refer- 
ring to the burial of his 
father and mother (No. 
26). The perfection to 
which the sculptor's art 
had attained at this 
period is well illustrated 
by the casts of statues 
of Chephren, from the 
hard stone originals in 
the Museum in Cairo, 
exhibited in the Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 27 and 28. A 
fragment of an alabaster vessel from the king's tomb, 
bearing his name, is in Wall-case 138 in the Fourth Eevptian 
Room, No. 56. . ^^^ 

Men-kau-Ra, the Mykerinos of Greek writers, reigned, it 
is said, about sixty-three years ; no details of his reign are 

King Menkaura (Mykerinos). 
[Vestibule, South Wall, No. 30.] 


known, and he is chiefly famous as the builder of the Third 
Pyramid at Gizah, which the Egyptians called " Her " 

^X^ A. This pyramid is between 210 and 215 feet high, and 

the length of each side at the base is about 350 feet. The 
illustration on page 202 shows the position of the corridors and 
the mummy chamber, which is 60 feet below the surface of 
the ground, and also indicates the damage which was done to 
the pyramid by the Khalifa Al-Mamiin, who, believing that it 
was full of gold and precious stones, tried to demolish it. The 
pyramid was originally cased with slabs of granite, many of 
which still remain in position. In the mummy chamber v/ere 
discovered a stone sarcophagus, a wooden coffin, the cover 
of which was inscribed with the king's names and titles and 
an extract from a religious text, and the remains of a 
mummy wrapped in a cloth. These were despatched by 
ship to England in 1838, but the ship was wrecked, and the 
sarcophagus was lost ; the fragments of the coffin and the 
mummy were recovered, and are now exhibited in Case B in 
the First Egyptian Room. In the reign of Men-kau-Ra 
certain Chapters of the Book of the Dead were revised or 
composed by Herutataf, a son of Khufu, or Cheops, who 
was renowned for his learning. A cast of a statue of 
Men-kau-Ra, and a sepulchral stele of Khennu, a " royal 
kinsman " and councillor of the king, are exhibited in the 
Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 30 and 31. 

In the reign of Men-kau-Ra was born a child to whom 
the name of Ptah-Shepses was given, and who was a play- 
fellow of the princes and princesses in the palace. In the 
reign of the next king, Shepseskaf, he married the royal 

-^ S 
princess Maat-kha ~°^/i , and lived on through the 

reigns of Userkaf, Sahu-Ra, Nefer-ari-ka-Ra, and two or 
three other kings of the Vth dynasty. Under each king 
he filled a number of important offices, and at his death 
was probably considerably more than 100 years old. He 
was buried in a fine large mastaba tomb at Sakkirah, 
from which the great door in the Egyptian Vestibule, 
No. 32, was taken. The fagade is inscribed in fine bold 
hieroglyphics, and the sculptured decorations on the sides 
are good examples of the best funerary reliefs of the 
period. The upper parts of each of the main perpendicular 
lines of text contained the name of a king, but of these only 
two now remain. 


{See page 203. ) 

Plate XXT. 

An Egyptian official of the IVth dynasty. 
Cast of the wooden statue of the Sh^kh 
al-Balad, or " Shekh of the Village," 
[Egyptian Vestibule, No. 35.] 


The beauty of the statues of the IVth dynasty is 

well illustrated by the painted limestone portrait statue of 
An-kheft-ka, a royal kinsman, which was found at Dahshilr 
(Bay I No 33), and the headless statue of an official 
found afGizah (Vestibule, No. 34)- The standing figures 
of the Sh^kh al-Balad (see Plate XXI) and the Scribe are 
wonderful examples of fidelity to nature (see the casts in the 
Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 35 and 36). The finest bas-relief of 
the period is that from the tomb of Ra-hetep at Medum 
(Egyptian Vestibule, No.' 40) ; and the wall decorations of 
the ordinary mastaba tomb of this time are illustrated by the 
sculptured slabs from the tombs of Ari (Egyptian Vestibule, 
Nos. 41-43), and Afa, a steward and head-gardener (No. 44), 
and Ankh-haf, the scribe (No. 45), etc. 

Fifth Dynasty. From Elephantine 

About B.C. 3566. 

The kings of this dynasty are: - Userkaf, _ Sahu-Ra, 
Kakaa, Nefer-ari-ka-Ra, Shepses-ka-Ra, Kha-nefer-Ra, 
User-en-Ra An, Men-kau-Heru, Tet-ka-Ra Assa, Unas. 

The reigns of all these kings, from a historical point of view, 
are comparatively unimportant. During the reign of Userkaf 
a great development of the cult of Ra took place in Egypt, 
and the worship of the Sun-god, according to the form 
established by the priests of Heliopolis, became dominant in 
the land. In the reign of Userkaf, or in that of one of his 
immediate successors, the title of " son of Ra " was added to 
the other royal titles, and, as the son of the Sun-god, the king 
took a special name. Userkaf built at Abu-Sir the pyramid 

called " Ab-ast " /^ H d jj A . Sahu-Ra appears to have 

made a raid into Sinai, for he is represented in a rock-relief at 
Wadi Maghdrah in the traditional attitude of clubbing a native 
of the country. He built, at Abu-Str, the pyramid called 

" Kha-ba " Q 1'^^ A . For an alabaster vase inscribed with 

the Horus name of this king, Neb-khau, see Wall-case 138, 
No. 58 ; and there is in the British Museum also a 
cylinder seal inscribed with his name (No. 48,023). The 
next important king of this dynasty is User-en-Ra, 
whose name, as son of Ra, was An. He carried on 
mining operations in Sinai, and probably suppressed 



revolts there among the natives; but details are wanting. 
He built at Abfl-Sir the pyramid called " Men-ast " 

AA~w. Jjjjjj A' ^^°'^ ^^'^' probably, came the fine grey granite 

funerary vase inscribed with his name ^'i^r^iP<=>l 

(See Fourth Egyptian Room, Wall-case 194, No. 51.) 

Usertsen I, a king of the 
Xilth dynasty, wishing for 
some reason to commemorate 
User-en-Ra, dedicated to him 
a black granite statue, the 
lower portion of which is in 
the Egyptian Vestibule, No. 
48. On one side of the throne 
is the royal prenomen, and on 
the other the nomen, which is 
repeated on the king's belt. 
A plaster cast of a stone 
statue of User-en-Ra is also 
exhibited in the Vestibule, 
No. 49. 

Assa, the next king of im - 
portance, worked the quarries 
in W&di Hamm^mat, near 
the old high road which ran 
from Kena on ,the Nile, in 
Upper Egypt, to a place near 
the modern Kuser (Cosseir) 
on the Red Sea, and the 
copper and turquoise mines 
in the Peninsula of Sinai. 
He built at Abu -Sir the 

pyramid called " Nefer " I A • 

King User-en-Ra An, B.C. 3433. 
[Vestibule, South Wall, No. 49.] 

During the reign of Assa a 
development of tradp be- 
tween Egypt and the Sfidan ensued, and an Egyptian 
official called Ba-ur-tet succeeded in reaching the " Land_of 

the Spirits " and bringing thence a pygmy fenk 

whom he gave to the king. The pygmy actually came from 
the land of Punt, which tradition declares was the original 
home of the Egyptians. He was employed to dance the 
" dance of the gods " before the king. It seems to have been 


the custom in still earlier times to import pygmies from the 
Sudan, for skeletons of two were found near the tomb ot 
Semempses, a king of the 1st dynasty, at Abydos. 

Unas, the last king of the Vth dynasty, the Onnos of 
Manetho, carried on the usual mining operations, and it is 
said, built a temple to Hathor at Memphis. He is chiefly 
famous as the builder of the first of a very remarkable series 
of pyramids at Sakkarah, the corridors and chamber walls of 
which were covered with series of formulae of the greatest 
value for the study of the Egyptian Religion. The pyramid 
of Unas was about Go feet high, and the length of each side at 
the base was 220 feet ; in front of its door stood a portico 
which rested on granite columns with palm-leaf capitals. One 
of these columns now stands in the Egyptian Vestibule, 
No. 50. (For an alabaster vase from his mummy chamber, 

inscribed with his name and titles ( "^^-^^l I ]> 


Wall-case 138 in the Fourth Egyptian Room, No. 57.) 

The funerary reliefs of the Vth dynasty are very fine. 
Those worthy of note are : a " false door," from the tomb of 
Khnemu-hetep, a councillor and libationer and an officer of 
the palace of Userkaf (Egyptian Vestibule, No. 51) ; a 
portion of the fagade of the tomb of Neka-ankh, a priest who 
ministered in the tomb of Userkaf (No. 52) ; a massive " false 
door " from the tomb of Asa-ankh, from Sakkdrah (No. 53) ; 
a slab sculptured in low relief with a figure of the royal 
kinswoman Thetha (No. 60) ; and a slab from the tomb of 
Khnemu-hetep, a chief of Nekheb (No. 61). 

Sixth Dynasty. From Memphis. 

About B.C. 3300. 

The kings of this dynasty were : — 

1. Teta. 4. Mer-en-Ra. 

2. Userka-Ra. 5. Nefer-ka-Ra Pepi II. 

3. Ra-meri Pepi I. 6. Mer-en-Ra Tchefau(?)- 


Teta, the first king of this dynasty, was neither a warrior 
nor a great builder ; and details of his reign are wanting. He 
built a pyramid at Sakkirah, the interior of the chambers and 
corridors of which are covered with inscriptions of a religious 



character ; it is commonly known as the " Prison Pyramid." 
Of the monuments of this king in the British Museum may be 
mentioned a grant of land to the god Khenti Amenti 
of Abydos (Egyptian Vestibule, No. 74) ; an alabaster vase 
from his pyramid, inscribed with his name and titles (Wall- 
case 138 in the Fourth Egyptian Room, Nos. 59 and 60); and 
a fine breccia bull, to which the royal names and titles have 
been added in recent times (No. 61). 

Ra-meri, or Pepi I, was probably the greatest king of this 
dynasty. He worked the granite quarries at Elephantine, or 
Syene, and in the Widi Hammamit, and he established 
his power in the Peninsula of Sinai, where he ruled the local 
tribes with a strong hand. His reign was one of industrial 
progress ; and trade and handicrafts flourished thoughout the 
country under his fostering care. Under the leadership of a 
favourite official named Una, he despatched a very large army 
composed of men drawn from all parts of the Sfidan, to put 
down a wide-spread revolt which had broken out among the 
dwellers in the Eastern Desert called " the Aamu, who lived 
on the sand." Una gained a decisive victory, and was 
promoted to very high honours. Pepi I built a pyramid at 
Sakkirah, the walls of the chambers and corridors of which 
were covered with inscriptions of a religious character ; from 
this comes the fine alabaster vase, inscribed with his name and 
titles, in Wall-case 138 in the Fourth Egyptian Room, No. 66. 
(For two fine " false doors ' from the tomb of Qarta, a high 
official of Pepi I, see Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 75, 76.) 

Pepi I was succeeded by Mer-en-Ra I Tchefau(?)-em-sa-f, 
who carried on the works begun by his father, and built a 
pyramid at Sakkirah, from which came the fine alabaster vase 
in Wall-case 1 38 in the Fourth Egyptian Room, No. 66. He 
was succeeded by Nefer-ka-Ra Pepi II, who according to 
tradition lived to the age of 100 years. During his reign 
Egypt was in a state of prosperity, and there was great 
activity in trade and handicrafts. At this time flourished the 
famous official Her-khuf, who was the master of a caravan 
which traded between Egypt and the Sudan, which country 
he visited four times. On the last occasion he brought back a 
pygmy from " the land of the Spirits," which King Pepi 1 1 
bade him bring to Memphis. Detailed orders were sent 
to the effect that the pygmy was to be watched during 
the day so that he might not fall into the water, and 
his sleeping place was to be visited ten times each night by 
properly qualified people, for, said the king : " I wish to see 
" him more than all the tributes of Sinai and Punt." Other 


prominent traders in the Sfidan on behalf of the king at this 
time were Pepi-nekht, Mekhu, who died there, and whose 
body was brought back to Egypt by his son Sabben, etc. 

Among the objects of the time of Pepi II may be mentioned 
a portion of a doorway made by him at Abydos, and a 
sepulchral stele of Nefer-Senna, from his tomb at Denderah 
(Egyptian Vestibule, Nos. 77 and 78). Among the priests 
who ministered in the chapel attached to the pyramid of 
Pepi 11 was Heb-peri, whose stele is exhibited in the 
Egyptian Vestibule, No. 79. The most important monument 
of his reign is the mastaba tomb of Ur-ari-en-Ptah, a royal 
kinsman and scribe, libationer, and councillor, from Sakkarah, 
which has been re-built in the Assyrian Saloon (No. 80). 
It is a good typical example of the tomb of noblemen 
and high officials of the period. The painted reliefs are 
interesting, and are typical of the wall decorations of tombs 
towards the close of the Vlth dynasty. The inscriptions 
show that both Ur-ari-en-Ptah and his wife were buried in the 
chamber beneath the mastaba ; the list of offerings, some 90 
in number, is exceptionally long. 

Of the last king of the Vlth dynasty, Mer-en-Ra II 
Tchefa-em-sa-f, nothing is known. 

The funerary art of this period is well illustrated by the 
stelae and "false doors" of: Sennu (Bay i. No. 81), Ptah- 
hetep, a priest (No. 82), Hrta-en-ankh, a royal kinsman and 
councillor (No. 83), Uthenaa, whose " good name " was Pena 
(a very interesting relief. No. 84), Atu, a scribe and 
superintendent of the " Great House of the Six " (No. 85), 
Behenu, a priestess of Hathor (No. 88), and a portion of a 
slab from the roof of a tomb, with flutings, which are probably 
intended to represent tree trunks (No. 90). All these, . with 
the exception of No. 81, are in the Egyptian Vestibule. To 
this period also probably belong the libation tanks, and 
tablet for offerings of Antkes, Khart-en-Khennu, and 
Senb (Bay 14, Nos. 93-95). 

Besides the larger remains of this period, the scarabs 
in the Table-cases in the Fourth Egyptian Room should 
be examined. Several of them are inscribed with names 
of the kings of the first six dynasties, but it is not certain 
how many, or if any, of such scarabs are contemporaneous, 
and for this reason they have not been described in 
the preceding paragraphs. On the other hand, of the fine 
collection of scarabs of officials, inscribed with their titles, 
scores certainly belong to the period of the first half of the 


Anciqnt Empire, and are of the greatest interest and 
historical value. 

The monuments prove that between the IVth and Vlth 
dynasties the Egyptians lived in a state of serfdom, and 
that they regarded their king as the owner of both their 
souls and bodies. He was the very essence of God in human 
form upon earth, and his power was absolute ; even in the 
Other World his authority was held to be equal to that of 
the great gods of the dead. The Pharaohs of this period 
were masters of the Peninsula of Sinai, and of the Eastern 
Desert between Egypt and the Red Sea ; and the memory 
of the raid which Seneferu made in the Sddin probably 
induced the warlike tribes of that country to permit Egyptian 
caravans to pass from Syene to the Blue and White Niles 

At the close of the Vlth dynasty a period of general 
disorder appears to have set in, the chiefs of cities such as 
Suten-henen (Herakleopolis), AsyQt and Thebes contending 
among themselves for supremacy. Of the history of this 
period nothing is known. According to Manetho (version 
of Africanus) we have : — 

Seventh Dynasty. From Memphis. 

Seventy kings in seventy days. 

Eighth Dynasty. From Memphis. 

Twenty-seven kings in 146 years. 

The Tablet of Abydos supplies after Neter-ka-Ra, the 
name of the last king of the Vlth dynasty, the following 
sixteen names, which represent, presumably, the kings of the 
Vlllth dynasty:— 

1. Men-ka-Ra. 9- Nefer-ka-Ra Tererl. 

2. Nefer-ka-Ra. 10. Nefer-ka-Heru. 

3. Nefer-ka-Ra Nebi. ii- Nefer-ka-Ra Pepi senb. 

4. Tet-ka-Ra 12. Senefer-ka Annu. 

5. Nefer-ka-Ra Khentu. 13 kau-Ra. 

6. Mer-en-Heru. 14. Nefer-kau-Ra. 

7. Senefer-ka. 15. Nefer-kau-I^eru. 
$ N-k^-R?i. 16. Nefer-ari-ka-Ra. 


Under the rule of these kings the princes of Herakleopohs 
succeeded in gaining their independence, and thus the seat of 
the government of Egypt was removed from Memphis up the 
river to Suten-henen, the modern Ahnas, about 6o miles 
south of Cairo. 

Ninth Dynasty. 

Nineteen kings in 409 years. 

Tenth Dynasty. 

Nineteen kings in 185 years. 

The Turin Papyrus contains a series of fragmentary 
names, which may represent those of the kings of one or the 
other of these dynasties ; the fourth of these is Khati, whose 
name is also found on a rock in the First Cataract, and 
on a bronze bowl in the Museum of the Louvre in Paris. 

Among the kings of the Tenth Dynasty may be placed 
king Ka-meri-Ra in whose reign lived Khati, prince of Siut, 
or Asyut. About this time war appears to have been going 
on between the princes of Herakleopohs and the princes of 
Thebes, and the prince of Siut sent troops to support the 
Herakleopolitans against the Thebans. For a time the 
Thebans were beaten, but at length they gained the mastery 
over the princes of the North, and founded a new dynasty. 

Of the period represented by dynasties VII-X there 
are no monuments in the British Museum, with perhaps the 
exception of a few scarabs. 

Eleventh Dynasty. From Thebes. 

About B.C. 2600. 

The founder of this dynasty was, most probably, Antefa, 
a local chief of the Thebaid, whose titles were ErpA d 
and HS __g^ , and " great prince of the nome of the Thebaid, 

" the satisfier of the heart of the king, the controller of the 
" Gates of the Cataract, the support of the South, making 
" the two banks of the Nile to live, chief of the Priests, the 
"loyal servant of the Great God, the Lord of Heaven." 
He was probably succeeded by two or three chiefs of similar 


name who made no claim to the sovereignty of the Northern 
Kingdom, which was then in the hands of the princes of 
Herakleopolis. The first of Antefa's successors who claimed 
to be " King of the South and of the North," and " Lord of 
the two Lands," i.e., all Egypt, was Uah-ankh Antef-aa, who 
was succeeded by Nekht-neb-tep-nefer Antef, and he was 
followed by Sankh-ab-taui Menthu-hetep I. These facts 
are derived from the important stele of Antef, a priestly 
official, which is exhibited in the Northern Egyptian Gallery, 
Bay 4, No. 99 (see Plate XXII). Among the officials who 
flourished in the reign of Uah-Antef and his son was 
Thetha, whose sepulchral stele, inscribed with a biographical 
notice, is exhibited in the same Bay (No. lOO). From his 
tomb also came the inscription which formed the fa9ade 
No. lOl), and the reliefs (Nos. I02, 103), on which are 
represented members of the family of the deceased bearing 
offerings. The order of the remaining kings of the dynasty 
is doubtful. Several of them were called Menthu-hetep, 
and they may be distinguished by their prenomens thus : — 

Neb-hapt-Ra Menthu-hetep. 
Neb-taui-Ra Menthu-hetep. 
Neb-hap-Ra Menthu-hetep. 
S-ankh-ka-Ra Menthu-hetep. 

The first ' of these kings, Neb-hapt-Ra Menthu-hetep, 
probably Menthu-hetep II, appears to have been an able 
ruler, who reigned for about 46 years. He was a great 
warrior, and established his authority from one end of 
Egypt to the other. Among his other achievements was the 
pacifying of the Aamu, or the tribes of the Eastern Desert 
and Sinai. He built a fine temple at Der al-Bahari, the 
remains of which have been recently discovered and excavated. 
This building is unique in being associated with a pyramid- 
tomb. The fragments of the painted limestone reliefs which 
have been found among its ruins lack nothing in finish, 
fidelity to nature, and execution, whilst in design and 
general treatment they may be compared with some of 
the best funerary reliefs of the Vth dynasty. In the 
Northern Gallery, Bay 3, an interesting collection of such 
fragments is exhibited, and worthy of note are : Head of 
a painted limestone statue of Neb-hapt-Ra Menthu-hetep, 
wearing the crown ' of the South (No. 104) ; portion of a 
painted relief, with a figure of the king being embraced by 

Plate XXII. 

[See page 210.) 

(See page 21 1.) 

Plate XXIII. 

Sepulchral tablet of Sebek-aa, an overseer of transport, sculptured with scenes 

representing the presentation of offerings, etc. 

[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 4, No. 120.] Xlth dynasty, B.C. 2600. 


Ra (No. 105) ; relief, with a seated figure of the king and his 

prenomen fo^^l (No. I06) ; relief, with a figure of a 

king grasping an Aamu foe by one leg (No. I08) ; relief, with 
a figure of a hippopotamus (No. IIO) ; relief, with a figure 
of a prince called Menthu-hetep (No. ill); slab, inscribed 
Sma-taui, the Horus name of the king (No. 117); and a 
gortion of an inscription referring to the overthrow of the 
Aamu by the king (No. Il8). 

To the period of the Xlth dynasty may be attributed 
the following interesting tablets and reliefs: Relief, from 
the tomb of Sebek-aa at Kurnah (see Plate XXIII), on which 
are represented the preparations for a funeral feast, the 
figure of the deceased lying on his bier, etc. (Bay 4, No. I20). 
The cutting of the figures and design is of a most unusual 
character; and for the general treatment of the subject this 
stele is probably unique. Other tablets, probably somewhat 
later in date, are : Tablet of Khensu-user, set up by his son 
Sehetep-ab (Bay 3, No. I2l), tablet of Sa-Menthu (Bay 2, 
No. 122), tablet of Menthu-hetep (Vestibule, North Wall, 
' No. 123), and tablet of Mer-shesu-Heru and his friends 
(Bay 2, No. 124). The portion of a wooden coffin inscribed 
in hieratic with part of the XVIIth Chapter of the Book of 
the Dead, in Wall-case 87 in the Second Egyptian Room, 
belongs to this period ; the text was written for one of the 
Menthu-hetep kings. 

During the reign of Sankh-ka-Ra Menthu-hetep, who 
was probably the last king of the dynasty, an expedition, 
under the command of a general, Hennu, was despatched to 
Punt, by way of the Red Sea. The object of the expedition 

was to obtain a supply of anti ^ , or myrrh, which 

/w\^yw fin. Ill 

was largely used for purposes of embalming. Hennu succeeded 
in reaching Punt, and in bringing back large quantities of all 
the products of that remote country. Details of the reign 
of Sankh-ka-Ra are wanting, but with, or soon after, his 
death the Xlth dynasty and the Ancient Empire came to 
an end. The length of the period which elapsed between 
the close of the Vlth and the close of the Xlth dynasty 
is unknown. Some authorities make the interval between 
the Vlth and the Xllth dynasty to be about 650 years 
others less than 500 years, and others less still. 

The following monuments probably belong to the period 
which immediately preceded the rise to supreme power of 


Amenemhat I, the first king of the Xllth dynasty : Black 
granite seated statue of Menthu-aa, or Aa-Menthu, an 
Erpa and Ha Prince, son of the lady Mert (Vestibule, 
No. 127) ; tablet of the lady Nefert-tu, set up in her honour 
by her son Menthu-hetep (Bay i, No. 128), and the tablets 
of User (Bay i, No. 129), and Aqer (Bay 1, No. 130). 
The tablet of Antef, son of the lady Qehet, or Heqt, and 
overseer of the king's cattle and preserves of water fowl 
(Vestibule, No. 133), and the important inscription of Antef, 
the son of the lady Mait (Bay 4, No. 134), and the Prayer of 
N-Antef-aqer to Anpu, lord of Sepau (Vestibule, No. 135), 
are all interesting, and are characteristic productions of this 



Twelfth Dynasty. From Thebes. 

About B.C. 2466. 

Amenemhat I, the first king of the Xllth dynasty, appears 
R r 2 66 '■° ^^^^ ascended the throne after a period of 
2400. ^j^a^j-chy, and, even after his accession, 
the members of his own household conspired against 
him. The king tells us, in his Instructions, how one 
night, after he had composed himself to sleep, a number of 
armed men burst into his chamber and tried to murder 
him. Leaping from his couch he attacked his assailants, and 
put them to flight. (See Sallier Papyri I and III, and 
the slice of stone No. 41 in Table-case C in the Third 
Egyptian Room.) Amenemhat drew up a survey of the 
country, and set boundaries to each nome, or province, 
and he framed a set of regulations for the supply of 
water for irrigation to the different towns. Work went 
on in the quarries of Hammimit and Tura, and the king 
restored the temples at Tanis, Bubastis, Abydos, etc., and 
founded a temple to Amen at Karnak. He built the fortified 

palace of Thet-taui ^^^^^^^, near vMemphis, and a pyramid 

tomb called " Qa " ^ |i A , at Lisht. He invaded the Sudan, 

conquered the four great tribes there, viz., the Matchaiu, the 
Uauaiu, the Satiu, and the Heriu-sha, and made himself 
master of their country as far as the modern Korosko or 
Ibrim (Primis). His reign was prosperous, and in his time 
" no man went hungry or thirsty." He associated his son 
Usertsen I with him in the rule of the kingdom in the 20th 
year of his reign. 
Usertsen I was a great builder, and he rebuilt, or re-founded, 

B C 2d'?T ^^^ famous temple of Annu, the On of the 

Bible and the Heliopolis of classical writers, the 

sanctuary of the Bull. Mer-ur (Mnevis). Before the temple 


he set up two obelisks, the pyramidions of which were cased 
in copper ; the one now standing is 65 feet high. He set up 
an obeHsk at Begig in the Fayy5m, and carried on the works 
of restoration of the temples which his father had begun. 
In the 43rd year of his reign he invaded Nubia, and com- 
pelled the tribes to pay him tribute, which the official Ameni 
collected and brought safely to Egypt. Ameni was despatched 
twice subsequently to Nubia to bring back gold and other 
products of the S(idan. The nkme given to Nubia in the 

inscription which records these facts is Kash 

hence the Biblical Cush, which does not, however, mean 
Ethiopia in the modern sense of the term, but Nubia. 
Usertsen I built a fort and a temple at Behen, the modern 
Wadi Halfah, and appointed a " Governor of the South " to 
rule over Nubia, or the Northern Slid^n. The old copper 
mines in the Wadi Magharah were reopened, and new ones at 
Saribit al-Kh^dim were also worked ; the king built his 
pyramid tomb at Lisht, and associated his son with him in 
the rule of the kingdom a year before he died. 

Among the monuments of his reign may be mentioned : A 
fine red granite stele on which are sculptured figures of Khnemu 
and Sati, gods of the First Cataract, and his Horus name, from 
Philae (Bay 5, No. 136) ; head of a colossal granite statue of 
Usertsen I, wearing the Crown of the South (Bay i, No. 137) ; 
and a fragment of a chalcedony vase inscribed with the king's 

prenomen f o ^ U 1 (No. 67, Wall-case 138, Fourth Egyptian 

Room). Of his officials there are the painted stele of Athi, 
who died in the 14th year of the king's reign (Bay 3, No. 138) ; 
the stele of Neferu, the overseer of the royal water-transport 
at Behen, or Widi Halfah (Bay 3, No. 139), and two stelae 
and a statue of Antef, the son of Sebek-unnu and the lady 
Sent. Antef was a confidential servant of the king and 
superintended the royal private apartments in the palace ; 
he died four years before his master, i.e., in the 39th year of 
the reign of Usertsen I. (See Bay i, No. 140 ; Bay 3, 
Nos. 141 and 142.) 

The reign of Amenemhat II was prosperous, but uneventful ; 
_ „ and no military expeditions of importance 

2400. ^gj.g necessary either in the Peninsula of 
Sinai or in Nubia. There was a large colony of 
Egyptians at Saribit al-Khadim, and a temple was built 
there in this reign to Hathor, the goddess "of the land of 

Plate XXIV. 

(See page 21'i-) 

Sepulchral tablet and seated portrait figure of Sa-Hathor, a mining 
inspector in the Sfldin, in the reign of Amenemhat II, B.C. 2400. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay i, No. 143.] 


the turquoise." The search for gold was carried on actively 
in the Sftdin, under the direction of Sa-Hathor, who tells 
us on his stele (Bay i, No. 143; see Plate XXIV) that he 
worked in the mining districts when he was a young man, 
and that he made the chiefs wash out the gold ; he brought 
back turquoises and went to the Land of the Blacks, or 
Siidan, and collected the products of the country for his 
master. His knowledge of stone working induced the king to 
send him ^o superintend the hewing of the ten royal statues 
which he placed before his pyramid tomb. An interesting 
event of this period was the despatch of an expedition to 
Punt under the direction of Khent-khat-ur, who returned 
safely with his men in the 28th year of the king's reign. In 
the third year of Amenemhat II died the Erpa Sa-Menthu, 
a royal scribe and overseer of works. He was born in the 
reign of Amenemhat I, and was appointed scribe, etc., by 
Usertsen I. His sepulchral stele is a fine example of its class 
(Bay 6, No. 145). Another interesting stele of this reign is 
that of Khenti-em-semti, a royal official, and confidential 
servant and treasurer to the king ; he visited Elephantine 
and Abydos (Bay i, No. 146). The official Khenti-em-semt-ur 
was a libationer priest who ministered in the chapel attached 

to the royal pyramid called " Kherp " (| A (Bay i. 

No. 147). The door socket (Bay 5, No. 148), dated in 
the 30th year of the reign of Amenemhat II, comes from a 
royal building in Lower Egypt, and the seated figure of 
Hathor (Bay i. No. 149), dedicated to the goddess by Seneferu, 
the overseer of the boats, from Sarabit al-Kh&dim, dates from 
the time of the opening of the new mines in the Peninsula of 
Sinai. The three dated stelae of Amenemhat (13th year), 
Sehetepab (19th year), and Menu-Nefer (29th year) are 
valuable examples of the funerary stelae of this reign (Bay i, 
No. 150 ; Bay 7, No. 151 ; arid Bay 5, No. 152), and the stelae 
of Seneferu (Bay 3, No. 153), and Sen-atef (Bay i. No. 154). 

The reign of Usertsen II was long and prosperous, but 

uneventful. Active labour went on in the turquoise and gold 

mines, and the quarries at Elephantine were worked under 

R C 9irtrt ^^^ direction of Sa-Renput, the Governor of 

' ■ ^ ■ Nubia. Usertsen II built a pyramid tomb at 
Al-L&hfln, of wonderful design and construction. It seems 
that he developed trade in the Red Sea, and took care 
to keep in check the tribes of the Eastern Desert. Classical 
writers call him " Sesostris " and describe him as a great 


conqueror and traveller, but up to the present the Egyptian 
monuments have not justified these assertions. Among the 
monuments of his reign may be mentioned the stele of 
Sebek-hetep, the boat-builder, and Tchaa, a palace official 
(Bay 9,' No. 155, and Bay i, No. 156), each of which is dated 
in the 6th year of Usertsen II, and the lower portion of a 
black granite figure of Sa-Renput, the "Great Chief in 
Ta-Kenset" {i.e., Nubia), the "great father of the King of 
the South, and the great one of the King of the North." 
Sa-Renput held many high offices at Elephantine and was one 
of the greatest of the feudal chiefs of his time (Vestibule, 
No. 157). 

Usertsen III, who was associated with his father in the rule 
R r ■>■,■,■, °f *^ kingdom, was probably the greatest king 
o-'-2333- of the Xllth dynasty. The principal events 
of his reign were the conquest and occupation of all the 
Northern Sfidan. As a preparation for this work, he made, or 
cleared out, a canal about 250 feet long, 34^ feet wide, and 
26 feet deep, in the First Cataract, so that he might pass boats 
through it to the south. In the 8th year of his reign he sailed 
up to Wadi Halfah, and, passing on to one of the great 
" Gates " in the Second Cataract, he built two forts, one on 
each bank, at the places now called Semnah (west bank) and 
Kummah (east bank). He also built a fort to the north, on 
the Island Gazirat al-Malik, and others probably on the 
islands in the Nile to the south. In fact, he occupied the 
whole of the gold-producing country of the Northern Sudin. 
He set up a stele at Semnah to mark the limit of his kingdom 
on the south, and caused to be inscribed on it a decree in 
which the Blacks were prohibited from entering Egyptian 
territory without permission. Eight years later he set up two 
inscribed stelae in which he vaunted his own boldness, prompt 
action, and invincibility, and abused the Blacks, calling them 
cowards, runaways, etc. He says : " I have seen them, I made 
" no mistake about them. I seized their women, I carried off 
" their men and women when I came to their wells, I slew their 
" bulls, I destroyed their grain, and set fire [to their houses]." 
U.sertsen III established a line of forts at regular intervals 
along the River Nile between Elephantine and the famous rock 
called Gebel Dosha, and garrisoned them with Egyptian troops ; 
and was thus able to ensure the safe transport of gold into 
Egypt, where the precious metal was required in ever-increasing 
quantities. He repaired and added to many of the great 
temples of Egypt, ^.^., Tanis, Bubastis, Abydos, Herakleopolis, 
Thebes, Elephantine, etc., and he built a pyramid tomb for 

(See page 217.) 

Plate XXV. 

Granite statue of Usertsen III, B.C. 2330. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay i. No. 159.] Xllth dynasty. 


himself at Dahshur. Among the monuments of this king and 
his reign may^ be mentioned : Three grey granite statues of 
Usertsen III (Nos. 158, 159, 160) which were found m the 
South Court of the temple of Neb-hap-Ra Menthu-hetep at 
D^r al-Bahari. These fine statues appear to represent the kmg 
at different periods of his life, and in finish and execution they 
stand unrivalled among the monuments of the period. On 
the plinth of No. 158 (Bay i) are cut the king's Horus name 
Neter Kheperu, and his name as king of the South and North 

(see above, page 116) [oqULJU (see Plate XXV). Head 

of a colossal granite statue of Usertsen III (Bay i, No. 161) ; 
a portion of a seated figure of the king from Sarabit al-Khidim 
(Bay I, No. 162); and the lower portions of two quartzite 
statues of the king (Vestibule, Nos. 163, 164). No. 164 was 
usurped by Uasarken II, of the XXI Ind dynasty, who cut his 
cartouches upon the pedestal. The building activity of the 
king at Bubastis is marked by the granite slabs from that 
site in Bay 23 (Nos. 166 and 167) on which is cut the 
royal prenomen. No. 167 is of interest, for here we see 
part of the prenomen of Rameses II cut over that of 
Usertsen III. Of the prominent officials who flourished in 
this reign we have the stele of An-her-nekht, the overseer of 
the granaries, dated in the 7th year (Bay i, No. 168) ; the 
stele of Ameni, who carried out certain works at Elephantine 
in connexion with the king's expedition into Nubia, dated in 
the 8th year (Bay 3, No. 169) ; and the stele of Sebek-hetep, 
a warder of a temple, dated in the 13th year (Bay S, No. 170). 
Amenemhat III reigned about fifty years, and devoted all 
R r pinn ^'^ energies to improving the prosperity of his 
■ ■ ^ ■ kingdom. Art, sculpture, architecture, and trade 
of all kinds flourished under his fostering care ; and the remains 
of his buildings and inscribed monuments bear witness to the 
activity which must have prevailed among all classes of handi- 
craftsmen during his reign. The mines of Sinai, the Wadi 
Hammamat, Tura, and elsewhere were diligently worked, and 
the king carried out large irrigation works in connexion with 
the great natural reservoir in the Fayyiim, which is commonly 
known by the name of Lake Moeris (from the Egyptian Mu-ur, 

or Ma-ur) '^•'^^ ■^^ , i^=r -'^* "-'wva . The circumference of 

this reservoir was 150 miles, and its area 750 square miles ; its 
average level was 80 feet above the Mediterranean. In Nubia 
also he appears to have undertaken irrigation works, for several 


" levels '' are cut on the rocks near the Forts of Usertsen III 
at Semnah and Kummah, with the years of the king's reign in 
which they were cut. They show that the level of the river 
during the inundation was about 26 feet higher than it is at 
the present time. Amenemhat III is also thought to have 
built the Labyrinth, which Herodotus says (ii, 148) contained 
twelve courts, and 3,000 chambers, 1,500 above ground and 
1,500 under ground, and covered an area about 1,000 feet long 
and 800 feet broad. It was dedicated to the crocodile-god 
Sebek ; and many sacred crocodiles were buried in a place 
specially set apart for them. Amenemhat III built a pyramid 
at HawSrah, and he and his daughter Ptah-Nefert were buried 
in it. From the ruins of the chapel at the entrance to this 
pyramid came the limestone slab inscribed with the king's 
names and titles exhibited in Bay 5 (No. 171)- 

Foremost among the monuments of this reign must be 
mentioned the colossal grey granite seated statue, and the 
head, which probably belongs to it, exhibited in the Southern 
Egyptian Gallery (Bay 22, Nos. 774, 775 ; see Plate XXVI). 
The inscription on the pedestal of the throne was cut there by 
order of Uasarken II, a king of the XXIInd dynasty ; but it 
is certain that an earlier inscription existed, which was erased 
to make room for the new one. The features of the face 
and the general treatment of the head resemble those of all 
other extant inscribed statues and figures of Amenemhat III ; 
compare the cast of the statue in the Hermitage at 
St. Petersburg (Bay 2, No. 172), and the cast of a head from 
a statue of the king (No. 172, in Wall-case loi, in the Third 
Egyptian Room). To his reign also belong the famous 
sphinxes which were found at San (Tanis) in 1861, and were 
for many years attributed to the Hyksos, because the name of 
Apepa was cut on a shoulder of one of them. On the cast of 
one of these ex'hibited in the Central Saloon (No. 173) are 
inscribed cartouches of Rameses II, Mer-en-Ptah II, and 
Pasebkhanut. Of officials who flourished in this reign we 
have the fine white limestone shrine of Pa-suten-sa, from 
M^dum, surmounted by the figure of a hawk (Bay i. No. 174) ; 
the ' stele of Nebpu-Usertsen, one of the king's personal 
attendants (Bay 2, No. 175) ; the stele of Usertsen-senbu 

I I Q I 1 I ' ^ veritable royal kinsman, and 

a commissioner of the revenue, dated in the 25th year of the 
king's reign (Bay i. No. I77) ! and the stele and altar of 
Sebek-her-heb and Kemen, dated in the 44th year of the 


Plate XXVI. 

[See page 218.) 

Head of a colossal seated statue of Aipenemhat III {?), B.C. 230Q, 
J^Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 22, No. 774.J 


king's reigni (Bay 3, Nos. 179, 180). The stele of Tati-ankef 
(Bay 5, No. 181), the son of Tenauit, is of peculiar interest, for 
it was found in Malta (see page 220). 

The reign of Amenem^at IV was short, and monuments 
of his reign are few. His name is found on the rocks in the 
copper mines in Sinai, and on 
a rock at Kummah in Nubia, 
but details of his reign are 
wanting. An interesting glazed 
steatite plaque, bearing his 
name and that of Prince 
Ameni, will be found in Wall- 
case 150 in the Fourth Egyp- 
tian Room, No. I. 

The last ruler of this dynasty 
was Sebek-neferut-Ra, the 
Skemiophris of Manetho, and 
sister of Amenemhat IV ; her 
reign was short, and her 
monuments are few. The 
most important is the glazed 
cylinder-seal inscribed with 
four of her royal names, ex- 
hibited in Table-case D, Fourth 
Egyptian Room, No. 134. 

In connexion with theXIIth 
dynasty must be mentioned 
King Her, who may have been 
a son of Amenemhat III, or of 
Usertsen III (see his scarab, 
No. 37,652), and an Usertsen 
with the prenomen of 
Seneferab-Ra, who is some- 
times called Usertsen IV. 

The rule of the Xllth 
dynasty was long and pros- 
perous ; and art, and sculpture, 
and literature flourished. The 
art of the period is developed 
directly out of that of the 
Ancient Empire, but one of the most prominent character- 
istics is an increased tendency towards realism which is 
especially seen in the designs and workmanship of small 

' The name of the king is not given, but Amenemhat III must be referred to. 

I 2 

Shrine dedicated to Osiris by Pa- 
suten-sa, scribe, who flourished 
in the reign of Amenemhat III, 
B.C. 2300. 

[Northern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay I, No. 174.] 



objects. The Scarabs of the Xllth dynasty are particularly 
interesting and beautiful, and a splendid set of examples is 
exhibited in the Fourth Egyptian Room. The sepulchral 
stelae of the period are also very interesting, and many of 
them exhibit clearly the transition stages between the ' false 

Sepulchral stele of Tatiankef, the son of Tenauit. Found in Malta. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 5, No. 181.] Xllth dynasty. 

door " of the mastaba tomb of the Ancient Empire and the 
stele, or tablet, which stood by itself in the tomb. The 
British Museum Collection is rich in Xllth dynasty stelae, 
comprising examples of every important variety. The 
inscriptions upon them usually open with the formula suten- 

ta-hetep 1 A , which is followed by a prayer to one or 


more gods for sepulchral offerings and for " glory in heaven, 
"strength upon earth, and triumph in the Other World." 
Opinions differ as to the meaning of the formula suten id 
hetep. Some think that it is a prayer to " the king to give 
an offering " ; and others that it is a prayer for " an offering 
like that of a king " ; and many different renderings have 
been proposed by Egyptologists, it is of course possible 
that, under the IVth dynasty, the formula may have been a 
prayer that an offering might be given by the king, for the 
king was regarded as the equal of Anubis and Osiris and other 
gods of the dead ; but it is manifestly impossible that every 
man throughout Egypt could expect the king to send him an 
offering at his death, and we are therefore driven to conclude 
that the original meaning of the formula was forgotten at a 
very early period, and that it was only prefixed to funerary 
texts at the dictates of custom or tradition. If it had any 
meaning at all in the later dynasties, it would probably be 
that of a petition to one or more gods for the gift of an 
offering like unto that made for a king after his death. 
Sepulchral stelae are also valuable because they give the titles 
of the offices held by deceased persons, and because they often 
supply biographies of men who played important parts in the 
history of their country. 

Among stelae and other monuments of historical value 
of this period may be mentioned : Stele from the tomb of 
Khnemu-hetep at Beni-Hasan (Vestibule, No. 182) ; statue of 
Amenemhat, a veritable royal kinsman,' and master of the 
robes (Bay i, No. 183) ; seated figure of Ameni, inscribed 
with a prayer for offerings (Bay i, No. 184) ; stele of Nekhta, 
a Ha Prince (Bay i, No. 185) ; stele of Anher-nekht, chief 
clerk of gfrain supply (Bay i. No. 186); stele of Antef, an 
overseer of priests (Bay i, No. 187) ; stele of Sa-Anher, a 
deputy keeper of the seal, with figures of eighteen of his children 
and relatives bearing offerings (Bay i, No. 189) ; stele of the 
lady Khu, with figures of her two husbands and twelve 
children (Bay i, No. 190) ; stele set up to the memory of 
sixteen persons and their mothers (Bay 2, No. 191) ; stele of 
Sebek-aaiu, with hieroglyphics inlaid with blue paste (Bay 2, 
No. 193) ; stele of Ameni, of unusual style (Bay 2, No. 194) ; 
stele of Erta-Antef-tatau, a governor of the Sudin (Bay 4, 


suten rekh, "royal kinsman." The title of "royal kins- 
man " was often bestowed upon officials by kings as a reward for faithful services ; 
Amenemhat means that his title was not honorary. 

I 3 


No. 196) ; and stele of Antef, ^vith an inscription of twenty 
lines in which the deceased describes his virtues and abilities 
(Bay 7, No. 197). As examples of the wall-paintings on the 
tombs of this period may be mentioned the slabs from the 
tomb of Tehuti-hetep, a high official who flourished during 
the reign of Amenemhat II (Bay 2, Nos. 198-200; Bay 7, 
No. 201). To the same period, or a little later, belongs the 
sandstone obelisk which was set up to the memory of an 
Egyptian official of the copper mines at Sarabit al-Khidim in 
the Peninsula of Sinai (Bay i, No. 202). 

The other monuments of the Xllth dynasty consist of 
altars, or tablets for offerings, of which a considerable 
number are exhibited in Bays 14, 16, and 17. Among the altars 
of the Xllth dynasty may be noted that of the Ha prince 
Usertsen, a superintendent of the prophets, sculptured 
with figures of vases and two tanks, and inscribed with an 
address to the living (Bay 17, No. 269). The altar is a 
rectangular, flat slab of stone, with a projection which was 
intended to serve as a spout, from which the drink offerings 
were supposed to run off into a vessel placed to receive 
them. In the altar small rectangular tanks were sometimes 
cut, but usually the surface was sculptured with figures of 
haunches of meat, bread-cakes, fruit, flowers, unguent vases, 
libation jars, etc., and on the edges and sides were inscribed 
prayers for funerary offerings of meat and drink and for 
things which were deemed necessary for the dead. The 
Egyptians believed that the material things! placed on such 
altars possessed, like animated creatures, two bodies and 
spirits ; their bodies were consumed by the priests and others, 
and their spirits by the gods. Some believed in the trans- 
mutation of offerings. 

We now come to a period, i.e., that of the Xlllth, XlVth, 
XVth, XVI th, and XVIIth dynasties, which is full of diffi- 
culties. Not only is the order of the succession of the kings of 
these dynasties unknown, but authorities differ greatly in their 
estimate of the length of the period of their rule. Some say 
that the interval between the Xllth and the XVIIIth dynasties 
consisted of more than 500 years, and others that it was less 
than 200 years. The figures given by Manetho are as follows : — 

Xlllth dynasty. From Thebes. 60 kings in 453 years. 
XlVth „ „ Xols. 76 „ in 1 84 (or 484 years). 

XVth „ Shepherds. 6 „ in 284 years. 

XVIth „ Shepherds. 32 „ in 5 18 years. 
XVIIth Shepherds. S (?) kings in 151 years. 

{See page 223. ) 

Plate XXVII. 

Granite statue of King Sekhem-uatch-taui-Ra. 

Xlllth or XlVth dynasty, B.C. 2000. 
[Northern jEgyptian Gallery, Bay i, No. 276.] 

I 4 

Plate XXVIII. 

{See pa^e 223.] 

> ii»« 


■ 1 1 ■" 

Stele of the reign of Sekhem-ka-Ra, a king of the Xlllth dynasty, about B.C. 2000. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 2, No. 277.] 

{See page 223.) 

Plate XXIX. 

[Memorial cone of Sebek-hetep, a scribe, who flourished in the reign of 

Sebek-em-sa-f, B.C. 2000. 

Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay i. No. 280.] Xlllth dynasty. 


The total of these years is 1,590 according to one reckoning 
and 1,290 according to another, but it is impossible to accept 
either, and we must therefore assume that the total of 1,590 
or 1,290 years represents the length of the reigns of the 
kings at Thebes, and of those who ruled in the Delta. In 
fact it is clear that, except at rare intervals, between the 
Xllth and the XVIIIth dynasties a king of the North arid 
a king of the South were always reigning at the same time in 
Egypt, and that neither was sufficiently strong to make him- 
self master of the whole country. The evidence derived from 
the monuments seems to indicate that the power of the 
Theban kings declined steadily at the beginning of this 
period, and that, as it declined, the power of the nomad 
Semites from the east, who are known as Hyksos or Shep- 
herds, increased until the end of the period, when the Theban 
kings became strong enough to make themselves masters of 
the whole country. The names of a considerable number of 
kings, who may be assumed to have reigned during the 
XII Ith and XlVth dynasties, are known from scarabs and 
larger monuments, but nothing is known of their reigns. 

Of the monuments of the period in the British Museum 
may be specially noted : Red granite seated figure of Sekhem- 
uatch-taui-Ra, a king of the Xlllth or XlVth dynasty. This 
is a fine piece of sculpture, and is unlike any other statue in 
the gallery. The body lacks the heaviness of the statues of 
the earlier period. On the throne are cut, in outline, figures 
of two lions placed back to back. Above them are the signs 

sa dnkh =S«!8» •¥•, i.e., the " fluid of life," which the king derived 

from Ra, the Sun-god (see Plate XXVII ; Bay i. No. 276). Of 
interest also are three stelae of private individuals, each of 
which mentions the name of a king, viz., Sekhem-ka-Ra (see 
Plate XXVIII), with the Horus name of Sankh-taui (Bay 2, 
No. 277), Sebek-hetep, with the prenomen of Kha-nefer-Ra 
(Bay 5, No. 278), and Ab-aa (Bay 5, No. 279). To this 
period belongs the axe handle of Sekhem-uatch-taui-Ra 
(Sebek-hetep) a king (Table-case E, Third Egyptian Room, 
No. 104). To a somewhat later period belong the interesting 
memorial cone of the scribe Sebek-hetep, who flourished 
in the reign of Sebek-em-sa-f (see Plate XXIX), of the 
XlVth dynasty, a unique object (Bay i. No. 280), and the 
royal inscribed green stone scarab, with a human face, set 
in a gold plinth, which probably came from the tomb of this 
king at Thebes (Table-case J, Fourth Egyptian Room, 
No. 195). Of interest, too, are the royal stele of the little- 


known king Ap-uat-em-sau-'f (Bay 3, No. 281) ; the stele of 
Fletep-neteru and Tehuti-aa, which mentions another hitherto 
unknown king (Bay 4, No. 282) ; the stele of Ptah-sankh, 
mentioning king Ra-ljetep (Bay 5, No. 283) ; and the slab 
from the temple of Osorkon II at Bubastis, inscribed with 
the name of Sekhem-khu-taui-Ra (Bay 23, No. 284). 

To a great many stelae of private individuals, who flourished 
between the Xllth and the XVIIIth dynasties, it is difficult 
to assign exact dates, for very few of them mention royal 
names, and the inscriptions cut on them afford no clue. Fine 
examples of the transition period of funerary sculpture, stelae, 
etc., are : Stele of Neba, an inspector (Bay i, No. 285) ; grey 
granite portrait figure of an official of Athribis (Bay 2, 
No. 288) ; granite figure of Nefer-ari, from Bubastis (Bay 2, 
No. 289) ; stele of Pai-Nehsi, the store keeper of the gold 
which came from the Sudin (Bay 7, No. 299) ; stele of 
Antef-Aqer-ankh-khu (Bay 7, No. 301) ; stele of Queen 
Mer-seker (Bay 9, No. 330). 

The Hyksos. — Comparatively soon after the down- 
fall of the Xlllth dynasty, the Delta and northern 
parts of Egypt were little by little occupied by a con- 
federation of Semitic nomad tribes to whose leaders, on the 
authority of Flavius Josephus, the historian (who died about 
A.D. 100), the name of Hyksos or Shepherd Kings has been 
given. The word Hyksos is derived from two Egyptian 

words Hequ-Shasu |^^j Mil ^^ | _y tLi | > ^■^■' the 

Sh^khs or Governors of the Shasu,^ or nomadic tribes of the 
Eastern Desert, Syria, etc. It is extremely unlikely that 
they fought for the possession of 5gypt ; and we may assume 
that they migrated into the Delta, and that, after a few 
generations, they found that their power and numbers were 
sufficiently great to enable them to assume the mastery of the 
whole country of Lower Egypt. The Hyksos, who had settled 
in the Delta, adopted, little by little, the manners and customs 
of the Egyptians ; and at length their chiefs adopted the 
Egyptian language and religion, and assumed the titles of the 
old Pharaohs, and became to all intents and purposes Egyptian 
kings. They apparently worshipped several gods, the chief 

^ The word Shasu means primarily ' ' robber, '' and \\\^\ 4 y> iv/"v/i is the 
"land of the robber," i.e., the nomad desert man, who plundered caravans at 
every opportunity. - Later, Shasu UmT J^ ^ _^ ^ ${[ I ' '"^^"S merely 
" pastoral desert tribes.'' 


qf whom was Sutekh l^^^j^, and him they identified 

with Set p^'y, or Suti 1^"%], the old Egyptian 

god of darkness and evil. 

According to Josephus the chief kings of the Hyksos 
were : Salatis, who reigned at Memphis, and fortified the 
city of Avaris, near Tanis, and garrisoned it with 250,000 
men ; he reigned 1 3 years. He was succeeded by Beon, 
who reigned 44 years, and Apachnas, who reigned 36 years 
and 7 months, and Apophis, who reigned 61 years, and 
Jonias who reigned 50 years and i month, and Assis, who 

Granite lion inscribed with the name of Khian, a Hyksos king, about B.C. 1800. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay S, No. 340.] 

reigned 49 years and 2 months. Of the objects in the British 
Museum which belong to the Hyksos Period may be 
mentioned : I. The famous Mathematical Papyrus (No. 
10,058), which was written in the reign of Aa-user-Ra 

f O^^"] 1 , or Apepa I ; 2. A red granite slab from the 
temple of Bubastis, inscribed with the name of Apepa 
[11 ^ ° D I (Bay 23, No. 339) ; 3. A scarab inscribed Aa-peh, 

the prenomen of Nubti, a king whose cartouches appear on 
the famous Stele of 400 years ^ (No. 32,368) ; 4. The granite 

^ It was discovered at San (Tanis) by Mariette, who had the inscription 
copied ; the stele was then carefully buried, and it has not since been seen. 

lion (Bay 5, No. 340) on the breast of which is cut the 
cartouche 1 1 ( © ^ '■'■'^^ | Suser-en-Rd, i.e., the prenomen of 

King Khian f®l](^wwvvj. This lion was purchased at 

'Qdt.^d^.d, hut its provenance is unknown. Besides these the 
British Museum possesses a large number of scarabs of the 
Hyksos Period inscribed with the names of kings and royal 

Another Hyksos king, Aa-qenen-Ra Apepa II, is made 
known to us by Sallier Papyrus II (No. 10,185), which shows 
that he was a contemporary of one of the Theban kings 
called Seqenen-Ra, According to this document there was 
enmity between Apepa II and Seqenen-Ra, his vassal, but as 
the papyrus is mutilated the result of their enmity is unknown. 

During one portion of the Hyksos Period a group of 
petty kings, or chiefs, each of whom was called Antef-aa, 
ruled either at Thebes or Coptos, and a few of their 
monuments have come down to us. In the British Museum 
are : i. Stone memorial pyramid of Antef-aa Ap-Maat 
(Vestibule, South wall. No. 341) ; 2. Slab sculptured with a 
figure of Antef Nub-kheper-Ra (Bay 4, No. 342) ; 3. Gilded 
coffin of Antef-aa (Wall-case 2, First Egyptian Room). 

It has been said above that there was enmity between 
Apepa II and Seqenen-Ra, but the monuments prove that 
there were three kings who bore the Seqenen-Ra prenomen, 
and it seems that all three waged war against the Hyksos in 
the north ; their full names were Seqenen-Ra (I), Tau-aa, 
Seqenen-Ra (II), Tau-aa-aa, Seqenen-Ra (III), Tau-aa-qen. 
The greatest warrior of the three was undoubtedly the last 
named, and it was he who determined to throw off the yoke 
of the foreigner. He was supported by all classes of 
Egyptians, for the Hyksos were hated, and especially by the 
priests of Amen-Ra at Thebes, who regarded the demand of 
the Hyksos king that Seqenen-Ra III should worship the 
god Sutekh as a grave insult to their god Amen-Ra. Seqenen- 
Ra III refused to worship Sutekh, and proclaimed his 
independence. Of the battles which were fought during the 
war that followed nothing is known, but it is clear that in one of 
them the brave leader in the struggle for national independence 
was slain. When his mummy was unrolled at Cairo, in 1886, 
it was seen that the lower jaw-bone was broken and the 
skull split ; there were also large wounds in the side of the 


head and over the eye, and one ear had been hacked away. 
Tau-aa-qen was succeeded by his son (?) Ka-mes, whose 
reign was, however, short. To him belonged the fine bronze 
axe-head inscribed with his names and titles exhibited in 
Table-case B in the Third Egyptian Room (No. 5), and the 
spear head, similarly inscribed, of which see a cast in the 
same case (No. 191). Ka-mes had several children by his 
wife Aah-hetep, and some of their sons may have ruled for 
a short time ; but the country was very unsettled, and the 
first to succeed in restoring law and order was Aahmes, 
or Amasis I, the founder of the XVIIlth dynasty, 




The Eighteenth Dynasty. From Thebes- 

About B.C. 1600. 

Under this dynasty Egypt formed her empire in Western 
Asia, and conquered and occupied the Egyptian SCldin, 
probably so far south as the Bahr al-Ghazal. The Hyksos were 
expelled from Egypt by the first kings of the dynasty, and 
the peoples in the Eastern and Western Deserts were held in 
check with a firm hand. King after king made frequent 
raids on a large scale into Syria and the Sudan, and on each 
occasion brought back untold spoils, a considerable proportion 
of which was expended on the building of great temples like 
those of Karnak, Luxor, and D^r al-Bahari. Trade developed 
to an unprecedented extent, and riches increased; and the 
king and his priests and nobles were able to gratify their love 
of splendid temples, colossal statues, lofty obelisks, large 
palaces, fine houses and gardens, decorated furniture, 
elaborate jewellery, costly tombs, etc. Under the patronage 
of the priesthood and the temple-schools education prospered, 
literature, art, painting and sculpture flourished, and the vast 
works which were undertaken by the Government encouraged 
handicraftsmen of every kind in the production of the best 
work. Among the kings of this dynasty were the greatest 
and most powerful sovereigns that ever ruled Egypt, viz., 
Thothmes III and Amen-hetep III. 

The . first king of the dynasty was Aahmes, or Amasis I, 
B r irtoo ^^° carried on the war against the Hyksos 
which Seqenen-Ra had begun. He captured 
the city of Avaris, the stronghold of the Hyksos, and 
turned the enemy out of the country, and in the fifth year of 
his reign he captured the city of Sharuhen (mentioned in 
Joshua xix, 6), in Syria. He subsequently invaded Nubia 
and compelled the tribes to pay tribute. Among the monu- 
ments of his reign are the massive granite altar inscribed 
with his name (Bay 16, No. 343) ; the head of a seated 



figure of Nefert-ari, his wife (Bay 
12, No. 344); the ushabti figure of 
the king (Wall-case 84, Second 
Egyptian Room, No. 129) ; and the 
portrait of the Queen (Case I, Third 
Egyptian Room, No. 3). 

Amen-hetep I, the son of 
Amasis I, continued the war in 
Nubia, and the rebuilding of the 
temple of Amen and other sanctu- 
aries ; he was the founder .of the 
great brotherhood of the Priests of 
Amen. From a building made by him 
at Der al-Bahari came the magnifi- 
cent painted limestone statue of the 
king, in the mummied form and with 
the White Crown of Osiris, exhibited 
in the Northern Egyptian Gallery 
(No. 346), and the stele on which 
are sculptured figures of Neb-Hapt- 
Ra Menthu-hetep and Amen- 
laetep I (Bay 9, No. 347). Other 
interesting monuments of this reign 
are : the stele of Pa-shet, a judge, 
who is seen adoring the king and 
queen (Bay 7, No. 348) ; and a stele 
with figures of the king and queen 
(Bay 9, No. 349). The inscriptions 
and scenes on several stelae show 
that Amen-hetep I and his queens 
were included among the gods ; see 
the stelae of Hui (Bay 8, No.~3S2), 
Pa-ren-nefer (Bay 8, No. 353), 
Amen-em-apt (Bay 10, No. 354), 
Amen-men (Bay 10, No. 355), and 
Hui, son of Nefert-itha (Bay 11 
No. 357). 
Tehuti-mes I, or Thothmes I, 

B.C ISSO *^ ^°" °^ Amen- 
hetep I, made Napata, 
Statue of Amen-hetep I, ^^ the foot of the Fourth Cataract, 
p.c. 1600, in the form of the border of his kingdom to the 
Osiris, jaringjhe Crown south ; and he waged war in Northern 

[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Syria. He added to the temple of 
Bay 3, No. 346.] 



hatshepset's expedition to punt. 230 

Amen, and set up obelisks at Karnak. Among objects 
bearing his name are two bricks and a steatite vase inscribed 
with his prenomen and name (Wall-cases 150 and 175 in the 
Fourth Egyptian Room). 

Thothmes II, the son of Thothmes I and Mut-Nefert, 
married his half-sister Hatshepset ; during his short reign, war 
was carried on in Syria and Nubia, and many temples in 
Egypt and forts in Nubia were repaired or rebuilt. Among 
the monuments of this reign may be mentioned the scarabs 
in Table-case D (Fourth Egyptian Room) and a portion of a 
slab inscribed with his Horus name (Third Egyptian Room, 
Wall-case 103, No. 937). 

After the death of Thothmes II, his widow Hatshepset 
reigned alone for some years, and she built the famous 
temple of Deral-Bahari, the walls of which she decorated 
with reliefs illustrating her Expedition to Punt. The temple 
was called " Tcheser-Tcheseru," i.e., " Holy of Holies," and 
the architect was Senmut ; it was built close to the temple 
of Menthu-Hetep Neb-hap-Ra, and was ranged in three 
terraces. It was enclosed by a wall, and was approached by 
an avenue of sphinxes, which led to the pylon at the entrance, 
where stood two obelisks. She also set up two great granite 
• obelisks in honour of her father Thothmes I. About twenty 
years before her death she associated her nephew Thothmes III 
with her in the rule of the kingdom. Many scarabs, a gold 
ring, a wooden cartouche, and an alabaster vase, inscribed 
with her names and titles, are exhibited in the Fourth 
Egyptian Room (Table-cases P and J and Wall-case 139). 

Thothmes III, the son of Thothmes II and the lady Aset, 
was the greatest of all the kings of Egypt ; he reigned for 
about 53 years, 21 years as co-regent with Hatshepset, and 
32 years alone. Soon after he became sole ruler of Egypt he 
began a series of campaigns in Palestine, Syria and other 
countries of Western Asia, and his arms were everywhere 
victorious. In the first campaign he captured the city of 
Megiddo, in Syria, and brought back an imrnense quantity 
of spoil. Subsequently he undertook some fifteen campaigns 
into different parts of Western Asia ; and towards the close 
of his reign he appears to have raided the Sud^n. The vast 
wealth which he drew from Asia enabled him to be ,a generous 
friend of the priesthood, and to repair, rebuild and enlarge and 
found sanctuaries for the great gods of Egypt. He carried on 
extensive building operations at Heliopolis, Memphis, Abydos, 
Denderah, Coptos, Der al-Bahari, Madinat HabO, Hermonthis, 
Esna, Edfu, etc. ; but his greatest work was the colonnade 

Plate XXX. 

(See page 211.) 

The Hall of Columns in the great temple of Amen-Ra, at Karnak. 

[See pa^e 231.) 

Plate XXXI. 

Head from a colossal granite statue of Thothmes III, B,c, 1550. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 2, No. 360.] 


which he built in the temple of Amen at Karnak, 150 feet 
long, SO feet wide, with 50 columns and 32 rectangular pillars 
(see Plate XXX). He founded the temple of Sulb (Soleb) 
near the Third Cataract, and dedicated a temple at Semnah 
to Usertsen III. At Karnak and elsewhere he set up 
magnificent granite obelisks, one of which, commonly called 
Cleopatra's Needle, now stands on the Thames Embank- 
ment. He was buried in the valley of the Tombs of the 
Kings at Thebes ; and his mummy was wrapped in a linen 
sheet inscribed with the text of the CLIVth Chapter of the 
Book of the Dead, and extracts from the Litany of Ra. 

Among the many monuments of Thothmes HI and his 
reign may be mentioned : I. The magnificent head, in red 
granite, from a colossal statue of the king, found by Belzoni 
at Karnak (No. 360, Northern Gallery ; see Plate XXXI) ; 
the total height of the head and crown is 9 ft. 5 in., and 
the width of the face is 2 ft. 7^ in. 2. Massive granite 
monument with figures of the god Menthu-Ra and Thothmes 
HI in relief (Bay 2, No. 363). 3. Fragment of the obelisk 
set up by the king at Heliopolis (Bay 12, No. 364); and a 
door jamb from a temple of Thothmes HI at Wadi Halfah 
(Bay 10, No. 365). Of interest, too, are the cast of a granite 
sphinx bearing the name of Thothmes III on its breast 
(Northern Gallery, No. 366) ; the cast of the famous granite 
stele inscribed with an address to the king by Amen-Ra, in 
which the god describes the exploits of Thothmes III (Central 
Saloon, No. 367) ; portion of a stele dated in the 35 th year ot 
Thothmes III (Bay 11, No. 368) ; slab with scenes of Amen- 
hetep I and Thothmes III adoring the gods (Bay 12, No. 369). 
Among smaller objects inscribed with his name may be 
mentioned the glass jug, gold rings, razor (?), tools and 
weapons in bronze, and bricks made of Nile mud, exhibited 
in the Third and Fourth Egyptian Rooms. There are also 
the stele of Messnau, a priest in his temple (Bay 8, No. 372), 
and the statue of Netchem, who prayed to the royal Ka 

of Thothmes III 1 "^ JJ f© |mmi, ^J (Bay g. No. 373). 

To the joint reign of Thothmes III and Hatshepset belongs 
the statue of Anebni, the master of the armoury, which was 
set up to his memory by his august master and mistress 
(Bay 9, No. 374). 

Amen-hetep II fought in Syria, and penetrated the Sudan as 

B.C. 1500. ^^'' ^^ ^^^ Ba-Nagaa, about 80 miles north of 

Khartilm ; he caused the body of one of the 


chiefs whom he had slain in Syria to be sent to Napata 
(Gebel Barkal), and hung upon the city walls to strike terror 
into the Nubians. Of monuments of his reign may be 
noted : The royal ushabti figure in diorite (Wall-case 84, 
Second Egyptian Room, No. 7) ; the glass and alabaster 
vessels (Table-case FI in the Third Egyptian Room), and the 
axe-head in Table-case B in the Fourth Egyptian Room ; 
the stele of Athu, second priest of the king (Bay 4, No. 375) ; 
and the portion of the bowl dedicated by the scribe Tehuti- 
mes (Bay 12, No. 376). 

The reign of Thothmes IV was short and unimportant. 
He made one or more raids into Nubia, an expedition into 
Syria ; and in the first year of his reign he set up a tablet 
between the paws of the Sphinx stating that the god of the 
Sphinx, Herukhuti-Khepera-Ra-Temu, appeared to him one 
day before he was king, and bade him remove the sand which 
had closed him in on all sides, and promised him that he 
should become king if he obeyed. Thothmes undertook the 
work, and in due course became king. His inscription 
mentions king Khaf-Ra (Chephren) in connexion with some 
work (probably a clearing of the sand) performed for the 
Sphinx. Among _ the monuments of his reign may be 
noted the stele of Amen-hetep, an officer who accompanied 
the king into Western Asia and the Sud^n (Bay 11, No. 377) ; 
and the stele of Nefer-hat, overseer of the works in the 
Temple of Abydos (Bay 8, No. 378). Thothmes IV married 
a lady named Mut-em-uaa, who became the mother of 
Amen-hetep HI. The granite boat which was dedicated 
to the queen as the counterpart of the goddess Mut, is 
exhibited in the Northern Gallery (Bay 7, No. 379). For a 
portion of the head of. her seated figure from the boat see 
Bay 7, No. 380. Some think that Mut-em-uaa is to be identified 
with the daughter of Artatama, king of Mitani.^ 

Amen-hetep III, the Memnon of the Greeks, declared 

himself to be an incarnation of the god Amen-Ra ; he 

reigned about 36 years. In the fifth year of his reign he 

marched into the Sfidan and crushed a rebellion at Abhat, 

F5 r T/icn taking 750 prisoners. He subsequently travelled 

■ ■ ^^ ■ in many parts of that country, and built a 
magnificent temple there, near the modern village of Sulb 
{Soleb), which he dedicated to himself as the god of the 
Sudan. He made many expeditions into Western Asia, and 
whilst there he enjoyed lion-hunting on a large scale ; on the 

' Tell al-Amama Tablet at Berlin, No. 24. 



large scarabs exhibited in Table-case D (Fourth Egyptian 
Room) he states that he shot with his own hand one hundred 
and two fierce lions during the first ten years of his reign. 
His frequent visits to Western Asia enabled him to continue 
the friendly personal relations with the kings and rulers which 
his father inaugurated ; and he married several of their 
daughters, e.g., a daughter of Kadashman-B^l, king of 
Karaduniyash ; a daughter of Shutarna, king of Mitani ; and a 
daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitani. He also married a 
sister of Tushratta called Gilukhipa, who arrived in Egypt 
with three hundred and seventeen of her principal women. 
The greatest and best beloved of his wives, however, was Thi, 

The Temple of Luxor, built by Amen-hetep III, B.C. 1450. 

who must also have been of foreign extraction. Judging by the 
appparance of the mummies of her father, luaa and her 
mother Thuaa, which have recently been found, it seems that 
the former was not an Egyptian, but a native of some part of 
the Eastern Desert or Southern Syria, while the latter was a 
native Egyptian woman. Their daughter Thi was a very 
remarkable woman in every way, and it seems beyond 
question that her son Amen-hetep IV derived from her 
the monotheistic views which he held. 

The building operations of Amen-hetep HI were on a very 
large scale, and extencled from one end of Egypt and 


Nubia to the other. He built the Apis chapels at Sakkarah ; 
at Thebes he built a pylon ; at Karnak the temple dedicated to 
the Theban triad, Amen-Ra, Mat and Khensu ; in the Southern 
Apt {i.e., Luxor), a temple to Mentha, and a temple to the 
goddess Mut, from which come the series of statues of Sekhet, 
a fire-goddess, exhibited in the Northern Egyptian Gallery, 
Nos. 381-410. All these buildings were on the east bank of the 
Nile. On the west bank he erected a great temple, the 
Memnonium, and in front of it set up two huge statues of 
himself which are generally known as the Colossi of Memnon 
(see Plate XXXIII). The northern statue was said to emit a 
sweet, sad note daily at sunrise, and for this reason was 
known as the " vocal statue of Memnon " ; the sound was 
never heard after the statue was repaired by the Emperor 
Septimius Severus (a.d. 193-21 i). Amen-hetep III also 
built a temple at Al-Kab, and another to the god Khnemu 
at Elephantine, and at Sadddnga in the Sfldan he built a 
temple in honour of his wife Thi, who was also probably 
worshipped there, as the king himself was worshipped in his 
temple at Sulb, which has already been mentioned. 

The reign of Amen-hetep III was long and prosperous, 

and his kingdom extended from the city of Ni, on the 

Euphrates, to Karei, in the Sfid^n. He developed the gold 

mines of the SfldSn to an unprecedented extent, and 

exported gold to the countries of Western Asia. The 

monuments of this reign are numerous ; among them may 

be specially mentioned : I. A tablet inscribed with an account 

of the crushing of the revolt in Nubia in the fifth year 

of his reign, set up by Meri-mes, governor of the Sfidin 

(Bay 6, No. 411). 2. Two colossal seated statues of Amen- 

Mep III (see Plate XXXII), from the Memnonium (Bay 8, 

No. 412 ; Bay 9, No. 413). 3, Upper portion of a colossal 

statue (Bay 6, No. 415), and two heads- from colossal 

sandstone statues of the king (Bay 4, No. 416; Bay 5, 

No. 417). 4. Head from the granite sarcophagus of the 

king (Central Saloon, No. 418). 5. Grey granite column from 

a temple built by him at Memphis (?). It was repaired 

by Menephthah I under the XlXth dynasty, and about 

100 years later Set-nekht inscribed his cartouches upon 

it (Bay 7, No. 419). The monuments of his officials are also 

numerous. The most interesting are: Granite coffin of 

Meri-mes, governor of the Sfidin (Bay 12, No. 420); stele of 

Sururu, a high official (Bay 7, No. 422), seated figure of 

Kames, a king's messenger (Bay S, No. 423) ; a slab, with 

cornice, from the tomb of Pa-ari, an overseer of the granaries 

Plate XXXII. 

(Seepage 234-) 

Colossal seated statue of Amen-hetep III, B.C. 1450. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 8, No. 412.] 

(Seepage 234.) 

Plate XXXIII. 


en .s 
O ed 

H a 




o" " 

o 3 




of Amen-Ra at Thebes (Bay lo, No. 424) ; stele of Apni, 
a master of transport (Bay 11, No. 425); painted statue of 
Pa-ser, an Erpa, from D^r al-Bahart (Bay 13, No. 427); 
granite statue of Amen-hetep, an Erpa, from Bubastis(Bay 12, 
No. 428), etc. Of special interest are the two fine red granite 
lions, which were found in the ruins of a temple at Gebel 
Barkal, at the foot of the Fourth Cataract. No. 430 dates 
from the reign of Amen-hetep III, and appears to have been 
made by him for the temple of Sulb ; No. 431 was, according 
to the inscription, made by Tut-ankh-Amen, a later king of 
the XVirith dynasty, who " repaired the monuments of his 
father Amen-hetep " (see Plate XXXVI). The name of a 
late Nubian king,'Amen-Asru, is found on each lion, and it is 

Scarab of Amen>tep III, recoidmg Scarab of Amen-hetep III, recording 

TW^Tno °L l"^'""'' °^ ^""" *« =l^"ghter of 102 fions by the kin| 

Thi. [No. 29,437.] in the first ten years of his reign^ 

[No. 12,520.] 

possible that he may have brought both lions to Napata from 
bulb, and placed them in his own temple. Stelae Nos 432 
(Bay 10) and 433 (Bay 9) are of a most unusual character. 
No. 432 IS a late (Ptolemaic) copy, written in hieratic, of 
the deed of endowment of the funerary chapel of Amen- 
Ijetep, the son of Hap, the famous ' architect who built the 


Colossi, dated in the thirty-first year of the reign of Amen- 
hetep III. No. 433 is inscribed with a series of addresses 
which can be read both perpendicularly and horizontally. 
Among smaller objects inscribed with the names of Amen- 
hetep III and Queen Thi maybe noted the bronze menat 
amulet, stamp, vase, brick, stibium pot, plaque, scarabs, 
etc., which are exhibited in the Third and Fourth Egyptian 

Of the greatest importance for the history of this reign 
are the Tell al-Amarna Tablets, a fine collection of which 
is exhibited in Table-case F in the Babylonian Room. They 
consist of a series of letters and despatches, etc., written chiefly 
to Amen-hetep III and his son Amen-hetep IV, by kings and 
governors of couritries, provinces, and towns in Western 
Asia. ' Nearly all are written in a Semitic dialect, and in the 
cuneiform character. They were found in a chamber to the 
east of the palace of Amen-hetep IV, in the city of Khut-Aten, 
near the modern Tell al-Amarna. Among the royal letters 
in the British Museum are : Draft of a letter from 
Amen-hetep III to Kadashman-B^l, king of Karaduniyash 
(No. 29,784); a letter from Kadashman-B^l to Amen-hetep III 
(No. 29,787) ; letters from Tushratta, king of Mitani, to 
Amen-hetep III (Nos. 29,792, 29,791); letter from Burra- 
buriyash to Amen-hetep IV (No. 29,785); letter from 
Tushratta to Thi, queen of Egypt (No. 29,794) ; etc.^ (see 
Elates XXXIV, XXXV). 

Amen-hetep IV was the son of Amen-hetep III and Queen 
B C linn ^^^' ^^^ reigned about 20 years. In his 

• • '* ' youth he became a warm devotee of the god 
Aten, whose visible symbol was the solar disc, and rejected 
the cult of Amen, or Amen-Ra, the king of the gods. During 
the first few years of his reign he lived at Thebes, and 

built there a Benben J J C3 , or shrine, dedicated to 


Harmachis ; and it seems that this was regarded by the priests 
with disfavour. The pretensions of the priests of Amen were 
unbearable to him, and he therefore decided to leave Thebes 
and build a royal capital elsewhere. The site chosen by him 

^ Full descriptions of all the tablets have been published by the Trustees of the 
British Museum, with summaries of the contents and the texts in The Tell al- 
Amarna Tablets in the British Museum, Autotype plates, 1892, 8vo. Price zSj-.; 
and see the Guide to the Babylonian and Assyrian Collections, Second 
Edition, 1908, pp. 177-192. 

Plate XXXIV. 

(See page 236.) 

Letter from Amen-hetep III, king of Egypt, to Kadashman-B^l, king of 
[No. I, Table-case F, Babylonian and Assyrian Room.] 

{See page 2.ji(s. ) 

Plate XXXV. 

Letter from Tushratta, king of Mitani, to Amen-hetep III, king of Egypt. 
[No. 8, Table-case F, Babylonian and Assyrian Room.] 


was on the east bank of the Nile, near the modern villages of 
Haggi Kandil and Tell al-Amarna. There he built a temple 
to Aten, a palace for himself, and houses for his officials. As 
the new capital grew, so the enmity between the king and the 
priests of Amen increased. This can hardly be wondered at, 
for he caused the name and representations of the god to 
be obliterated from the monuments. Having moved to his 
new city, which he called Khut-Aten, he abandoned his 
name of Amen-hetep, because it contained the name of the 
god he despised, and adopted the new name of Khu-en-Aten, 
t.e., the " Spirit of Aten." In his new capital he established 
a new form of the ancient cult of Aten, as he understood it, 
in the temple Het-Benben ; and the new worship was carried 
on with the forms and ceremonies which had been in use in 
Heliopolis for some two thousand years. Incense was burnt 
on the altars, offerings of all kinds were made, but no bloody 
sacrifices were offered up ; on certain occasions the king 
himself officiated. The followers of Aten declared that their 
god was almighty, and that he was the sole creator of the 
universe; they ascribed to him a monotheistic character, 
or oneness, which denied the existence of any other god. 
Their god was " One Alone," and different in nature from 
any of the other gods of Egypt. It was the intolerance of 
the followers of the cult of Aten as formulated by Amen- 
hetep IV which made them hated by the priests of Amen- 
Ra at" Thebes. 

The palace and houses of the new city were beautiful, 
and were richly decorated. Art developed in a new direction, 
and was characterized by a freedom and a naturalism 
which are never met with, before or after, in Egyptian 
history. It sanctioned the use of new colours and new 
designs. The reliefs and pictures of the king prove that his 
features were unusual in character. He had a high, narrow, 
receding forehead, a large aquiline nose, a thin mouth, 
projecting chin, a slender neck, rounded chest, and his figure 
in many respects resembled that of a woman (see Wall-case 
105, Third Egyptian Room, Nos. 213 and 214). Whilst the 
king was playing the priest in his new city, and making 
arrangements for building shrines to Aten in the Siidin, 
his Asiatic Empire was breaking up. The Tell al-Amarna 
letters show how rapidly the desert tribes began to harass the 
Egyptian garrisons in Syria and Palestine, and to hem them 
in. Amen-hetep IV made no attempt to maintain his 


authority in Asia, or to keep what his fathers had won in battle, 
and there is no record of any military expedition during his 
reign. Shortly after his death Egypt had lost her Asiatic 
Empire, his new city was destroyed, the cult of Aten died 
out, and the shrine of Harmachis which he built at Thebes 
was pulled down, and the stones rebuilt into the temple 
of Amen. Amen and his priests had prevailed. 

Among the monuments of this reign may be mentioned : 
I. Base of a statue of Amen-hetep IV, inscribed with the 
names and titles of Khu-en-Aten ; his cartouche as Amen- 
hetep IV has been mutilated (Bay 13, No. 435). 2. Base 
of a statue inscribed with the names of Khu-en-Aten and 
his wife Nefertith (Bay 1 3, No. 436). 3. Stele of Ptah-mai, 
inscribed with prayers to Aten and Ra (Bay 10, No. 438). 
The Tell al-Amarna letters to Amen-hetep IV will be 
found in Table-case F in the Babylonian Room ; the 
scarabs, rings, etc., in Table-cases D and J ; and a fine 
porcelain boomerang in Wall-case 150, in the Fourth 
Egyptian Room. (For a rough outline drawing of Queen 
Nefertith (?) see Table-case C in the Third Egyptian Room, 
No. 4.) 

The last kings of this dynasty were Tut-ankh-Amen, 
Ai, and Heru-em-heb; the first two of these married members 
of the family of Amen-hetep IV. Heru-em-heb was a wise 
and just king, and his reign was long and prosperous. Of 
the monuments of these reigns may be mentioned : the red 
granite lion inscribed with the name of Tut-ankh-Amen 
(Bay 10, No. 431 ; see Plate XXXVI) ; the stele of Thuthu, 
a steward of Ai (Bay 1 2, No. 439) ; the granite statue of 
Ileru-em-heb (Bay' 13, No. 441), and the statues of Heru-em- 
heb and the god Menu, or Amsu (Bay 12, No. 442); the 
stibium tube of Tut-ankh-Amen and his wife Queen Ankh- 
sen-Amen (Wall-case 183, Fourth Egyptian Room, No. 23). 

The statues, stelae, etc., of the XVIIIth dynasty are 
numerous, and many of them are of great interest as illustrating 
the perfection to which art attained under the patronage of 
wealthy kings and the priests of Amen. Among them may be 
noted the following: Figure and steleof Nekht-Menuor Nekht- 
Amsu, holding a stele (Bay 2, No. 443) ; figures of Ari-neferu 
and his wife Apu (Bay 3, No. 444) ; stele of Amen-em-hat, 
inscribed with adorations to Osiris (Bay 5, No 447) granite 
figure of Kamesu, a scribe (Bay 7, No. 452) ; stele of Pashet, 
guardian of the northern lake and northern pillars of Amen 

Plate XXXVI. 

{See page 238. ) 




























M ' 

[See page 2i<).) 

Platk XXXVII, 

re , J'eated statues of a priest, or high official, and his wife. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay i8, No. 565.] XVIIIth or XlXth dynasty. 



(Bay 8, No. 455) ; stele of Nefer-renpit, sculptured with a 
scene representing the ceremony of Opening the Mouth (iJay 8, 
No. 456) ; stele of Tehutimes, captain of the guard of the city 
gate of Memphis (Bay 8, No. 460) ; stele of lieru-em-heb a high 
official, and two door-jambs inscribed with a hymn to the bun- 
god (Bay 8, Nos. 461-463) ; stele of Neb-Ra, on which are 

sculptured four eyes and two ears _^,^^^ (^^^ 9. 

No. 467) ; stele of Ban-aa, a royal scribe (Bay 9, No. 474) ; 
stele of Hem and Sutui, twin brothers, architects and clerks 
of the works at Thebes early in the XVIIIth dynasty (Bay 9, 
No. 475) ; stele of Pashet inscribed with praises of the Syrian 
god Reshpu (Bay 10, No. 478); stele of Qaha (Bay 10, 
No. 483); stele of Mahu, captain of the king's bow (Bay 10, 
No. 487); stele of Anna (Bay 11, No. 503) ; stele of Sebek- 
hetep, scribe of the wine-cellar (Bay 12, No. 513) ; sepulchral 
monument of Thuthu, with pyramidal top and libation basin 
attached (Bay 13, No. 549); granite figure of Qen-nefer, 
a high court official (Central Saloon, No. 556); three small 
inscribed pyramids (Bay 18, Nos. 558-560) ; painted shrine of 
Ani, a gardener (Bay 18, No. 561), etc. To the period of the 
XVIIIth dynasty may probably be attributed the seated 
statues of a priest, or high administrative official, and his wife 
in Bay 18, No. 565 (see Plate XXXVII). This monument is 
undoubtedly one of the most beautiful examples of Egyptian 
sculpture in the British Museum. Here, too, must be noted 
a very rare object, viz., a complete woodeti door, from , the 
tomb of Khensu-hetep at Thebes, on which is cut a scene 
representing the deceased making offerings to Osiris-Khenti- 
Amenti, in the presence of Hathor, lady of Amentet 
(Vestibule, North Wall, No. 566). 

Nineteenth Dynasty. From Thebes. 

About B.C. 1370. 

Rameses I, the first king of this dynasty, appears to have 
ascended the throne when he was an elderly man. He made 
an attempt to enter into friendly relations with Sapalul, the 
chief of the Kheta, or Hittites ; and he seems to have raided 
the Sfid^n. Monuments of his reign are few (see the scarabs 
inscribed with his name in Table-case D in the Fourth Egyptian 


The early years of the reign of Seti I, the son and successor 
of Rameses I, were spent in fighting. He attacked the Shasu, 
or nomad tribes of the Eastern Desert and of Palestine and 
Syria, and defeated them with great slaughter, and advanced 
to the city of Kadesh, on the Orqntes, and conquered it. 
He returned to Egypt laden with spoil, including cedar wood 
from Lebanon for making a new barge for Amen-Ra at 
Thebes. He made raids in the Sudin, and forced the 
natives to assist him in reworking the old gold mines and 
opening up new ones. He reopened the copper mines in 
Sinai, and all the large quarries, for he needed much stone 
for his buildings. He began to build a great temple at 
Abydos, but did not live to finish it : the walls and pillars 
are ornamented with religious scenes and figures of the gods, 
and the sculptures and reliefs are among" the most beautiful 
of Egypt. In one of the corridors is the famous King List, 
or Tablet of Abydos, which contains the names of "jb kings, 
the first name being that of Mena or Menes. At Karnak 
he added 79 columns to the Hall of Columns (see 
Plate XXX) ; at Kdrnah (Thebes) he finished the temple 
begun by his father Rameses I ; and he built a splendid 
tomb in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings (see page 174). 
From this tomb came his magnificent alabaster sarcophagus 
which is now preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Seti I built a temple at Dulgo, near 
the Third Cataract, probably in connexion with the gold 
trade carried on by the government ; he opened up roads to 
the gold deposits in the Wadi Uliki, in the Eastern Desert ; 
and he built a temple at Radassiyah on the old caravan road 
which ran from Edfii to the emerald mines of Gebel Zabar^, 
near Berenice, on the Red Sea ; and dug wells at many places in 
the desert. His reign was comparatively short, 10 or 15 years 
at most, and he was succeeded by his second son Rameses II, 
whom he had made co-regent. Among the monuments 
of his reign are : Large wooden Ka-figure of Seti I, found in 
a chamber in his tomb (Central Saloon, No. 567) ; three 
painted slabs from the tomb of Seti I (Central Saloon, 
Nos. 568-570) ; and a grey granite clamp from a wall 
in Seti's temple at Abydos, inscribed with his prenomen 

ro^^Jl (Bay 18, No. 572). Among smaller objects may be 

noted the scarabs, glazed vase, and ushabtiu figures of the 
king exhibited in the Second and Fourth Egyptian Rooms 
(Wall-cases 78, 79, 150 and 152). A stele set up by him 
at Wadi Halfah in the first year of his reign is in Bay 13 

K 2 



(No. 574), and the stele of Ruma, a scribe and priest in his 
temple at Abydos, is in Bay 1 1 (No. 573). The beautifully 
illustrated Papyrus of Hunefer was written in this reign 
(No. 9901). 

Ramessu, or Rameses II, the Sesostris of the Greek 
writers, the son of Seti I, was associated with his father in the 

rule of the kingdom at 
an early age ; he was 
probably between 20 
and 30 years old when 
he became sole king of 
Egypt. He reigned 67 
years, and died aged 
about 100 years. He 
married many wives, 
among them being some 
of his own near relatives, 
and was the father of 
about III sons and 51 
daughters. During the 
first two or three years 
of his reign he made 
war on the tribes of the 
Sudan, and his victories 
over them were com- 
memorated by the rock- 
hewn temple at Bet 
al-Walt, near Kalabshah. 
Reproductions in plaster 
of the scenes of the 
paying of tribute to him 
are exhibited on the 
North and South walls 
of the Fourth Egyptian 
Room. In the fourth 
year of his reign Rameses 
was fighting in Syria, 
and so began the series 
of battles with the Kheta 
and their allies which 
lasted for fifteen or six- 
teen years. In the end neither side was victorious, and finally 
Rameses was obliged to make a treaty with the prince of the 
Kheta, in which it was agreed that Egypt was not to invade 
Kheta territory, and that the Kheta were not to invade 

Kneeling statue of Rameses II holding a 

tablet for offering. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay 17, No. 584.] 


Egypt. The Kheta admitted the sovereignty of Rameses 
over all territory south of the Nahr al-Kalb, or Dog River, 
near Berut, in Syria, and the region north of it was to be 
Kheta territory for ever. The most important among the 
long series of battles was the Egyptian attack on Kadesh, 
on the Orontes ; it was temporarily successful, but it cost 
Rameses dear. During the struggle, Rameses had charged 
among the enemy far ahead of his troops, who had either 
been killed or had run away. When the king realized 
his position, he found that he was surrounded by the 
foe, and was in the greatest danger of being slain. 
Undaunted, however, he girded on his armour, and in 

the strength of the gods Menthu and Bal (Baal, J^^t^) 

he turned on his foes, and cut his way through them, slaying 
large numbers as he escaped from their midst. " I was," 
said the king, "by myself, for my soldiers and my horse- 
" men had forsaken me, and not one of them was bold 
" enough to come to my aid." This epi.sode was treated in a 
highly poetical manner in a composition generally known 
as the Poem of Pentaurt. As a matter of fact Pentaurt 
was not the author, but merely the scribe who made the 
fullest copy of the work known, namely, that in the British 
Museum Papyrus, Sallier III. Thirteen years after the 
conclusion of the treaty with the Kheta, i.e., in the thirty- 
fourth year of his reign, Rameses 11 married the daughter of 
the prince of the Kheta, whose Egyptian name was Maa-Ra 

Rameses was a great builder ; his name is found every- 
where on monuments and buildings in Egypt, and he 
frequently usurped the works of his predecessors and inscribed 
his own name on statues, etc., which he did not make. 
The smallest repair of a sanctuary was sufficient excuse for 
him to have his name inscribed on pillars, architraves, door- 
jambs, and every prominent part of the building. His 
greatest works were : I. The rock-hewn temple of Abu- 
Simbel, dedicated to Amen, Ra-Harniachis and Ptah (see 
Plate XXXVIII); its length is 185 feet, its height 90 feet, 
and the four colossal statues of the king in front of it are each 
60 feet high. In the large hall are eight square pillars, each 
30 feet high, each with a colossal figure of Osiris, 17 feet 
high, standing against it. 2. The rock-hewn temple of Bfet 
al-Wali at Kalibshah. 3. The Ramesseum at Thebes, 
called by Diodorus the "Tomb of Osymandyas," and by 
Strabo the " Memnonium." The granite statue of the king 

K 3 


(See f age 242.) 






which Stood before the second pylon was 60 feet high, and 
weighed about 900 tons. He completed the Hall of Columns 
at Karnak ; added to the temple of Amen-hetep HI at 
Luxor ; and set up several statues of him.self and two granite 
obelisks, each about 80 feet high. In the Delta he rebuilt 
Tanis, which became a city of the first importance, and he 
built the city of Pa-Temu, the Pithom of Exodus i, 11, 
which is now called Tall al-Maskhutah ; from the latter 
place came the statue of the " Recorder of Pithom " 
(Bay 21, No. 776)- At Memphis, Abydos, and every im- 
portant city of Egypt and Nubia, he carried on building 
operations ; and he dug wells in WMi Ulaki, in the desert 

Fa9ade of the Ramesseum in Western Thebes. 

About B.C. 1330* 

to the east of Dakkah, and worked the gold mines there. 
His reign' was one of great material prosperity, and he 
lived long enough to carry out every work of importance 
which he planned. He was not a great soldier like 
Thothmes HI, or a great administrator and diplomatist 
like Amen-hetep HI ; and the glory and power, and the 
territory of Egypt were not so great as in the days of those 
kings. Few of the works carried out by Rameses can be 
compared with those of the great kings of the XVHIth 
dynasty in beauty of design, finish, and solidity. 

K 4 



The monuments of this reign are very numerous, and 
among them may be noted the following : Wooden Ka-figure 
of Rameses II, from his tomb at Thebes (Central Saloon, 

Statue of Rameses II, with the 
name of Mer-en-Plah I cut on the 

shoulders and breast. 
[Central Saloon, No. 577.] 

Upper part of a statue of Rameses II. 
Found on the Island of Elephantine. 
[Central Saloon, Bay 14, No. 582.] 

No. 575)- Upper portion of a colossal granite statue of 
Rameses II, which was originally painted red, and was 
one of a pair that stood in the Ramesseum in Western 

[See pa^ 2/^e,.) 

Plate XXXIX. 

Upper portions of a colossal statue of Rameses II b c 
[Central baloon, No. 576.] > ■ • 



Thebes (see Plate XXXIX) ; weight about 7 tons 5 cwt. (Central 
Saloon, No. 576). Colossal statue of Rameses II, on the 
shoulders and breast of which are cut the prenomen and 
nameof Seti Mer-en-Ptah (Central Saloon, No. 577)- Statue 
of Rameses II from Elephantine (Bay 14, No. 582). Kneehng 
statue of Rameses II, holding before him a tablet of offenngs 
(Bay 17, No. 584). Portion of a statue of Rameses II ; on 
one side of the plinth is sculptured a figure of a favourite wife 
called Batau-anth: from Sarabit al-Khadim in the Penin- 
sula of Sinai (Central Saloon, No. 587). With these should 
be compared the cast of the head of a colossal statue 
of the king which was set up before the temple of Ptah 
at Memphis (Central Saloon, No. 588), and the cast of 
another colossal statiie of the king at AbO-Simbel 
(Vestibule, No. 589). The width of the face of the latter is 
8 feet 9 inches, and the length from brow to chin is 9 feet 8 inches. 
From the temple built by Rameses at Abydos comes the 
famous King List, or Second Tablet of Abydos, which, when 
complete, contained the prenomens of 52 of his predecessors 
on the throne of Egypt (Bay 6, No. 592); from Athribis 
(Benha) comes the granite lion (Bay 14, No. 593); from 
Abii-Simbel the interesting pair of hawk-headed sphinxes 
(Bay IS, Nos. 594, 595); from Pithom the granite hawk 
(Central Saloon, No. 596) ; and from Memphis the fist of a 
colossal statue (Bay 16, No. 597). 

Of considerable interest, too, are the granite columns 
(Nos. 598, 599). The first is from the temple of Bubastis, 
and on it, in places, are seen the names of Osorkon II ; its 
total height is 20 feet 8 inches and its weight about 1 1 tons 
5 cwt. The second is monolithic and is from the temple 
of Heru-shefit, the Arsaphes of the Greeks at Herakleopolis ; 
in places the names of Menephthah I have been added. 
Its height is 17 feet 2 inches, and its weight about 6 tons 
12 cwt. The altar of Rameses. II is in Bay 16 (No. 600). 
In connexion with the colossal statues of this period may be 
noted the upper portions of two statues of Queens or 
goddesses, in the Central Saloon, Nos. 601, 6o2. They were 
found by Belzoni at Abii-Simbel, and most probably represent 
wives of Rameses II. 

The art of the reign of Rameses 1 1 is illustrated by several 
small objects bearing his name, e.g., the scarabs (Table-case D, 
Fourth Egyptian Room) ; gilded vase for eye-paint (Wall- 
case 143, Fourth Egyptian Room) ; a scribe's palette (Table- 
case C, Third Egyptian Room) ; a beautiful glazed bowl 
inscribed with the king's names and titles (Wall-case 151,. 



Fourth Egyptian Room) ; model for a relief, with a figure of 
the goddess Qetesh (Table-case C, Third Egyptian Room) ; 
glazed boomerang (Wall-case 151, Fourth Egyptian Room); 
bronze figure of the king (Wall-case 191, same room), etc. 

The statues and stelae of 
officials of Rameses II are 
numerous, and the inscriptions 
on them supply much infor- 
mation about the works and 
administration of the country. 
Thus we have : the statue of 
Panehsi, the scribe and director 
of the storehouse of gold from 
the Sudin (Central Saloon, 
No. 603) ; the kneeling figure 
of Paser, a Governor of the 
Siidcln (Central Saloon, No. 
604); the stele of Amen-em- 
ant, a scribe of the soldiers, 
who held several high offices 
(Bay II, No. 607); the stele of 
Setau, another Governor of the 
Sudan (Bay 17, No. 608-) ; the 
stele of Amen-hetep, a king's 
messenger (Bay 19, No. 610) ; 
the stele of Ptah-em-uaa, 
keeper of the king's stables 
(Bay 20, No. 611) ; and the 
stelae of Bakaa and Nefer-hra, 
who died in the thirty-eighth 
and sixty-second years of the 
king's reign respectively (Bay 
19, No. 612 ; Bay 20, No. 613). 
The inscribed statue of Kha- 
em-Uast (Bay 18, No. 615), a 
son of Rameses II, is of great 
interest, both historically and 
linguistically. Kha-em-Uast 
was a Sent priest in the temple of 
Ptah of Memphis, and a man of 
great learning, and he was held 
in high repute as a magician. 
He managed the affairs of the 
country for about twenty-five years before his death, which took 
place in the fifty-fifth year of the reign of his father. 


Statue of Kha-em-Uast, 
Rameses II. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay 18, No. 615.] 



Mer-en-Ptah, or Menephthah, was associated with his 
father in the rule of the kingdom for about twelve years before 
he became sole king. In the fifth year of his reign Egypt was 
attacked by a confederation of tribes from Libya and 
by certain peoples from the northern shores and islands 
■' ^ ^ Qf the Mediterranean. 

Menephthah fortified his 
towns and collected an 
army, and in the fierce 
battle which followed 
he was victorious. The 
Libyan king barely 
escaped with his life; but 
six of his brothers and 
sons and over 6,000 of 
his soldiers were slain, 
and 9,000 were taken 
prisoners. It is probable 
that the Exodus took 
place during the early 
years of this reign. In 
the year of his victory 
he caused a Hymn of 
Triumph to be cut upon 
the back of a stele of 
Amen-hetep III at 
Thebes, and among the 
peoples of ■ Palestine 
whom he conquered 
are mentioned the 



I. His 
1 I &!i VIi 
mummy was found in 
the tomb of Amen- 
hetep II at Thebes, and 
is now in Cairo. Like 
his father he caused his 
names to be cut on 
monuments which he 
had not made, e.g., the lion of Amenemhat III (No. 173), 
the pillar of Amen-hetep III (No. 419), and a statue (No. 577) 
and pillar of his father (No. 599). Among the monuments of 
his reign may be mentioned the door-jamb from his temple 

Statue of Seti II Mer-en-Ptah II, king of 
Egypt, B.C. 1266, holding a shrine sur- 
mounted by a head of the ram of Amen. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay 21, No. 616.] 


\ at Memphis (No. II69). The remaining kings of the XlXth 
, dynasty were : — 

I. Seti II Mer-en-Ptati. See his statue holding a shrine 
with a head of Amen (Bay 21, No. 6.16), a slab from his 
tomb at Thebes (Central Saloon, No. 617), and a plaque and 
a scarab in the Third and Fourth Egyptian Rooms (Wall- 
case 124 and Table-case D). The D'Orbiney Papyrus in the 
British Museum containing the Tale of the Two Brothers 
was written during the reign of this king. 2. Amen-mes, of 
whose reign nothing is known. 3. Sa-Ptah, of whom many 
reliefs are found at various places in Egypt. On his death 
a period of anarchy followed, and nothing like order 
prevailed in the country until Set-nekht, a relative of 
Rameses II, obtained supreme power. 

The smaller monuments of the XlXth dynasty in the 
British Museum are very interesting, and, though the work of 
the sculptor and engraver is not so good as that of the 
XVIIIth dynasty, it is important for illustrating the methods 
employed at a time when quantity was more valued than 
quality. The inscriptions too are valuable, for they afford 
much information on minor points of the Egyptian religion. 
Among the statues and stelae of this period may be noted : 
a finely sculptured relief from the tomb of Mes, a priest of 
the Ka (Bay 17, No. 635); the stele of Amen-Ra-mes, a 
priest of the statue of King Mer-en-Ptah (Bay 20, No. 636) ; 
the painted limestone statues of Mahu and his wife Sebta, fine 
work (Central Saloon, No. 637) ; the granite figure of Rui, of Amen (Central Saloon, No. 638) ; the stele of 
Ptah-mes, the comptroller of the grain supply of Egypt 
(Central Saloon, No. 642) ; the stele of Pa-ser, the scribe and 
master mason of all Egypt (Central Saloon, No. 643) ; the 
seated figure of Pa-mer-ahau, a commander-in-chief (Central 
Saloon, No. 644) ; the stele of the superintendent of all the 
priests and all the gold workers of the Siidan, from Wadi 
Halfah (Central Saloon, No. 645) ; the stele of Qaha, a master 
craftsman, on which are sculptured figures of the Syrian 
deities Kent and Reshpu and Anthat (Anaitis), and the 
Egyptian god Menu, an important monument (Bay 10, 
No. 646 ; see Plate XL) ; the stele of the god Reshpu 
(Bay 17, No. 647) ; stele of Heru, painted with a scene of 
the worship of Kent, or Qetesh, Reshpu and Menu (Bay 17, 
No. 650) ; the stele of Tata-aa, an overseer of scribes (Bay 12, 
No. 652) ; the granite coffin of a high-priest of Memphis 
(Bay i7,'.No. 654). 

Plate XL. 

(5«« page-i^^-) 

''^f^^- "'J^!!*., 

Sepulchral stele of Qaha, sculptured with figures of the foreign deities 

Kent, Reshpii, and Anthat, and the Egyptian god Menu. 
[Northern Egyptian Gallery, Bay lO, No. 646.] XlXth dynasty, 

Twentieth Dynasty. From Thebes. 

About B.C. 1200. 

We learn from the great papyrus of Rameses III that 
after the downfall of the XlXth dynasty the land of Egypt 
fell into a state of anarchy, every man acting according to 
his own judgment, and no one holding supreme authority for 
many years. The country was in the hands of the nobles and 
the governors of the cities who fought against each other. 
This continued for some years, and then " years of want " 

succeeded, and a certain Syrian called Arsu (] WS "^^^^ 1 (2] ^, 

rose to power. Gathering his followers about him, he levied 
tribute and seized the goods of the people. As he paid no 
honour to the gods of Egypt and did nothing for their 
temples, they in due course set him aside and placed on 
the throne Set-nekht, who brought the country into order, 
and re-established the worship of the gods, and provided 
the temples with offerings. His reign was short, and he 
was succeeded by Rameses III, the chief event of whose 
reign of 31 years was the victory of the Egyptians over 
a confederation of peoples from Philistia, Cyprus, Crete, 
and the northern shores of the Mediterranean, who attacked 
Egypt by land and sea. Rameses III collected an army and 
a fleet, and in the battle which followed on the coast of 
Southern Palestine, his forces were victorious. Multitudes 
of the enemy were slain on land, and those who succeeded 
in reaching their ships could not escape, for the fleet of the 
Egyptians hemmed them in, and a great slaughter ensued. 
Rameses then marched through Syria, and having collected 
much spoil, returned to Egypt. Soon afterwards the Libyans 
attacked Egypt on the west, but they were quickly defeated 
and spoiled. 

Rameses appears to have kept one fleet in the Mediter- 
ranean and one in the Red Sea, for trading purposes, and 
this "sea-power" was probably the source of the great 
material prosperity of Egypt under his reign. The peace 
and security of the country were such that he could 
boast : " I made it possible for an Egyptian woman to 
" walk with a bold and free step whithersoever she pleased, 
" and no man or woman among the people of the land would 
" molest her." Rameses built the so-called " Pavilion " and the 
great Temple of Madinat Habd at Thebes, and a small palace 
at Tell al-Yahfldiyyah (see the glazed tiles, etc., from it in the 


Fourth Egyptian Room), and he richly endowed the temples 
of.Heliopolis, Memphis, and Thebes, and gave them gifts of 
an almost incredible amount.^ Lists of all his benefactions 
and a valuable summary of his reign are preserved in the 
great Papyrus of Rameses III, the longest Egyptian 
papyrus in the world (see page 74). Among the monuments 
and small objects bearing his name may be mentioned : The 
base of a pillar from a shrine of Rameses III (Bay 18, 
No. 716) ; a slab from one of his buildings at Sakkarah (Central 
Saloon, No. 717); and the royal ushabtiu figures (Wall- 
case 85, Second Egyptian Room, Nos. 12, 13). 

On the death of Rameses III the power of Egypt began 
rapidly to decline, and the succeeding kings of the dynasty, 
each of whom bore the name of Rameses, found their authority 
more and more usurped by the high-priests of Amen, the 
great god of Thebes. Among the objects inscribed with the 
name of Rameses IV are scarabs (Table-case D, Fourth 
Egyptian Room), a fragment of an alabaster vase (Wall- 
case 137, same room), and the stele of Heru-a, a royal scribe 
(Bay 24, No. 719). 

Under the rule of Rameses V-VIII the people of 
Thebes became poor, and the living were driven to plunder 
the tombs of kings and queens for the sake of the gold 
ornaments on the mummies and in the coffins. Under 
Rameses IX the government undertook a prosecution of 
the principal thieves, and appointed a commission to report 
upon the extent of the robberies of the royal tombs. 
Part of the statement of the examination of the tombs 
is preserved in the Abbott Papyrus in the British Museum 
(No. 10,221). During the course of the enquiry a number 
of the accused were beaten on the hands and feet, and 
confessed to breaking into the tombs of Sebek-em-sa-f and 
queen Nub-kha-s. In the reign of Rameses IX, the high- 
priest of Amen, called Amen-hetep, held great power, and 
induced the king to authorize him to levy taxes on the 
people for the maintenance of his temple and priesthood. 
Under Rameses X further prosecutions of the tomb robbers 
took place, but the government was powerless to stop the 
depredations. Rameses XI and Rameses XII were weaker 
than their predecessors, and allowed the high-priest of Amen 
to rule the country. On the death of Rameses XII, the 

' E.g., 2,756 images of the gods, 113,433 men, 490,386 oxen and cattle, 
1,071,780 aruras of land, 514 vineyards, 160 towns, 71,000 bundles of flax, 
6.272,431 loaves of bread, 19,130,032 bundles of vegetables, 1,933,766 jars of 
honey, 5,279,552 bushels of corn, etc. 


high-priest, Her-I;Ieru, seized the supreme power, and 
assumed all the titles and functions of the king of Egypt. 
But the priests of Amen were as little able to maintain 
the power of Egypt as the kings Rameses, and they could 
not make their authority effective even in the Delta, or 
Northern Egypt. Thus it fell out that Egypt became once 
more divided into two kingdoms, viz., the Kingdom of the 
North, ruled from Tanis by Nessu-ba-neb-Tet, whose name 
was Graecized by Manetho under the form of Smendes, and 
the Kingdom of the South, ruled from Thebes by Her-Heru, 
the first of the priest-kings of Egypt. For some years, 
however, Smendes must have been king of all Egypt, for 
when repairs of an urgent character ' were needed for the 
temples of Thebes, it was he who had the quarries opened, 
and collected the workmen, and directed the building opera- 
tions which saved one of the temples from falling down. 

The monuments of the XXth dynasty are characterized 
by coarseness of work and lack of finish, but the inscrip- 
tions on them are of considerable value linguistically. 
Among large objects may be mentioned the granite coffin 
of Setau, a governor of the Sudin (Bay 19, No. 720) ; 
the libation basin (Bay 19, No. 722) ; the seated figures 
of Amen-Ra and Mut (Bay 18, No. 728); the stele of 
Pai, comptroller of a chief queen (Bay 22, No. 752) ; and the 
shrine of Amen-em-heb, a scribe of the king's bowmen 
(Bay 17, No. 754). 

Twenty-First Dynasty. 

B.C. 1050 (?) 
Kings of Tanis. Priest-kings of Thebes. 

Nessu-ba-neb-Tet (Smendes). Her-Heru. 
Pasebkhanut I. Paiankh. 

Amen-em-Apt. Painetchem I. 

Sa-Amen. Painetchem II. 

Pasebkhanut H. Masaherth. 


Painetchem HI. 

The reigns of all these kings are historically of little 
importance. As soon as Her-Heru had proclaimed himself 
king at Thebes, he assumed a series of titles indicating that 
he was the temporal as well as spiritual head of Egypt. One 
of the chief works carried out by the priest-kings was in 
connexion with the repair and removal of the royal mummies 


from their tombs to places of safety. The mummies of Seti I 
and Rameses II were removed from tomb to tomb, but 
the pillaging continued, and we read that many of the royal 
mummies required to be repaired, re-swathed, and provided 
with new coffins. The rule of the priest-kings was not 
successful, and several serious riots seem to have occurred 
at Thebes through their neglect of the temporal affairs of the 
country. One of the most important objects of the reign of 
Her-Heru is the copy of the Book of the Dead which was 
written for his wife Queen Netchemet ; an important portion 
of it was presented to the British Museum by His MAJESTY 
THE King in 1903, and this is exhibited in the Southern 
Egyptian Gallery, No. 758 (see Plates I and XLI). The 
vignettes are very fine examples of the work of the period, and 
the texts contain interesting hymns to Ra and Osiris, and a 
valuable version of one of the most important sections of 
the Book of the Dead, viz.. Chapter XVII. This papyrus was 
found at Thebes. A number of ushabtiu figures, inscribed with 
the names of Nesi-Khensu, Hent-taui, the Painetchems, 
Maat-ka-Ra, and other members of the families of the priest- 
kings, will be found in Wall-cases 153, 154, in the Fourth 
Egyptian Room. The largest monument of this dynasty in the 
British Museum is a lintel from a temple of Sa-Amen at 
Memphis (No. I170). In the First Egyptian Room are 
exhibited several very fine mummies and coffins belonging to 
the period of this dynasty, and in the Second Room several 
typical examples of ushabtiu figures and boxes, which 
illustrate the funerary art of the period. The monuments 
of the Tanite kings are few and unimportant. 

The history of the next two hundred and fifty years 
(B.C. 1050-800) is full of difficulty. When the rule of the 
priest-kings of Thebes came to an end the Kingdom of the 
South appears to have passed into the hands of a series of 
weak and incapable men, not one of whom succeeded in making 
himself " King of the South and North." On the death of 
the last Tanite king of the XX 1st dynasty (about B.C. 950), 
the Kingdom of the North was seized by Shashanq, a 
descendant of a Libyan chief, who established his seat of 
power at Bubastis. He and his descendants formed the 
XXIInd dynasty,, which lasted till about B.C. 760. About 
this time the priests of Amen departed from Thebes to Nubia, 
and soon afterwards the supreme power in the North was 
seized by local chiefs dwelling at Tanis (XXIIIrd dynasty), 
who made a league with all the feudal lords in the Delta, 
with the view of taking possession of the whole country. 

{Seepage 252.) 

Plate XLI. 


d M 

*o5 n 

O ^ 

oj i-Ih 





































1 — 1 






















When news of this reached Piankhi, king of Nubia, he 
forthwith invaded Egypt and conquered it. After his return 
to Nubia, a Nubian dynasty was estabhshed at Thebes, and 
a local chief of Sals became King of the North, about 
B.C. 733. He represents the XXIVth dynasty. The kings of 
the XXVth dynasty (about B.C. 700) were Nubians, and the 
kings of the XXV Ith dynasty were descendants of the 
chiefs of Safs who were conquered by the Nubian king 
Piankhi, about B.C. 740. 

Twenty-Second Dynasty. From Bubastis. 

About B.C. 950. 

The first king of this dynasty was Shashanq I, the 
Shishak of i Kings xiv, 25 ; 2 Chronicles xii, 5, 7, 9. He 
was of Libyan extraction, being descended from Buiu-uaua 

J^HH^fl^® J, a Libyan prince, who flourished 

about B.C. 1150, and one of whose descendants married 
Meht-en-usekht, high-priestess of Amen, and became the 
father of Nemareth, who in his turn became the father of 
Shashanq. A daughter of Nemareth owned the inlaid gold 
bracelets exhibited in Table-case J in the Fourth Egyptian 
Room (Nos. 134, 135). The principal event in the reign of 
Shashanq was the invasion of Palestine and capture of 
Jerusalem. He spoiled the Temple, and carried off much 
gold and silver, and took away the bucklers and shields of 
Solomon, and also the golden quivers which David had 
taken from the king of Zobah. He gave Jeroboam, king 
of Judah, one of his daughters to wife. On his return to 
Egypt he caused a record of this campaign to be cut upon 
the second pylon of the Temple of Karnak, and added a 
list of all the towns and villages which he had conquered 
in Palestine. Among them are the names of many places 
familiar from the Bible narrative, but the statement that 
" the king of Judah " is mentioned is incorrect. Shashanq 
repaired the Temple of Mut at Thebes, and set up in it a 
number of seated granite statues of the goddess Sekhet, 
two fine examples of which, inscribed with the king's names 
and titles, are exhibited in the Southern Egyptian Gallery, 
Nos. 7631 764. A son of Shashanq named Auputh was viceroy 
of the South, to whom is due the removal of the royal 
mummies from their tombs to the tomb of Ast-em-khebit 



at D^r al-Bahari, where, together with the coffins and 
funerary furniture, they were secreted, the pit being filled up 
with sand, stones, etc., and the entrance carefully walled up. 
This hiding place remained intact until 1872, when it was 
discovered accidentally by the Arabs. (For the inscribed base 
of a statue of Auputh, see Bay 19, No. 765.) 

Another son of 
Shashanq I, named Ua- _^ 

sarken, or Osorkon I, 
became king of Egypt, 
and married ' Tashet- 
Khensu, and Maat-ka- 
Ra, the daughter of 
Pasebkhanut II, the last 
of the Tanite kings of 
the XXIst dynasty. The 
son of Osorkon I and 
Maat-ka-Ra was called 
Shashanq, and was made 
high priest of Amen ; he 
dedicated to the god the 
fine quartzite statue of 
Hapi, the Nile-god, ex- 
hibited in the Southern 
Egyptian Gallery, Bay 
22, No. 766. Osorkon I 
was succeeded by The- 
keleth I, who was suc- 
ceeded by Osorkon II, 
famous for the works 
which he carried out in 
the Temple of Bast, the 
great goddess of Bu- 
bastis, the Pibeseth of 
the Bible. From this site 
came many important 
monuments, among 
which may be men- 
tioned : The massive 
granite Hathor-headed 
capital of a pillar (see 

Plate XLII ; Bay 16, No. 768) ; and the slabs sculptured with 
figures of Osorkon II and Bast, and figures of Osorkon II and 
his Queen Karama (Bay 23, No. 769). Osorkon II per- 
petuated the names of the great kings his predecessors, and 

Seated figure of Ankh-renp-nefer, the 

"Good Recorder" of the town of 

Pithom, who flourished in the reign 

of Osorkon II, about B.C. 900. 

[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 21, No. 776.] 

Plate XLII. 

(See page 254. ) 

■■' XXIInd dynasty, B.C. 866. 


accordingly we find on granite slabs from his temple the 
names of Khufu, Khafra, etc., and figures of Amen-hetep II, 
Seti I, etc. (Bay 23, Nos. 771-773). Like Rameses II, Mer- 
en-Ptah, and other kings, Osorkon II caused his name to 
be cut upon monuments of other kings, e.g., the statue of 
Usertsen III (Vestibule, No. 163) and the grey granite statue 
of Amenemhat III (Bay 20, No. 775). In his reign flourished 
the good recorder of Pithom, whose statue (Bay 21, No. 776) 
was found at Pithom. The reigns of the other kings of this 
dynasty, Shashanq II, Thekeleth II, Shashanq III, Pamai, 
and Shashanq IV were unimportant. 

Twenty-Third Dynasty. From Tanis. 

B.C. y66. 

The principal kings of this dynasty were Peta-Bast and 
Osorkon III, who reigned in the Delta. 

It seems that a short time before the reign of Peta-Bast, 
the priests of Amen had found it impossible to maintain 
their position at Thebes, and therefore, having hidden the 
mummies and coffins of the members of their order in a secret 
place, which was not discovered until 1892, they retreated to 
the South and settled at Napata, a city at the foot of the 
Fourth Cataract. (For examples of the coffins of the priests of 
Amen of this period, see First Egyptian Room, Wall-cases 
11-15.) A few years after their arrival, they appear to have 
persuaded Piankhi, the king of the Northern Sudan, to 
invade Egypt and to seize the kingdom of the South at least, 
to which, in view of the close relationship of the governing 
powers at Napata with those at Thebes, he might be assumed 
to have a just claim. For sometime Piankhi did nothing, but 
;at length, in the twenty-first year of his reign, hearing that all 
the princes of the Northern Kingdom had united their forces, 
.and were attempting to seize the country, he ordered his 
army to advance into Egypt. In a very short time great 
successes were reported. Thereupon he joined his troops, and 
jhis progress was victorious and rapid. City after city fell 
before his attack, and on the capture of Memphis, Egypt lay 
vanquished at his feet. The governors came in one after 
another, and at length Tafnekhth, their leader, sent in his 
submission accompanied by gifts. Piankhi filled his boats 
with spoil and returned to Napata, where he built a great 
temple to Amen, and set up a stele recording his victories. 


(For a cast of the stele see Central Saloon, No. 793-) After 
Piankhi's return to Nubia, Osorkon III, perhaps with 
Thekeleth III as co-regent, reigned at Thebes. To the 
latter half of this dynasty probably belongs the stele of 
Prince Auuaruath, son of Osorkon and high-priest of 
Amen (Bay 22, No 777), and the monument mentioning a 
king with the Horus name of Ka-nekht-kha-em-Uast 
(Bay 21, No. 778). 

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. From Sais. 

The principal king of this dynasty was Bakenrenef, the 
Bocchoris of the Greeks, the son of Tafnekhth of Sals. His 
reign was short, but tradition assert that he was one of the 
six great law-givers of Egypt. About this time a Nubian 
called Kashta ruled at Thebes, and married Shep-en-Apt, 
the high-priestess of Amen ; their son Shabaka became the 
first king of the XXVth dynasty. Among the monuments of 
this period may be mentioned : The altar, stand, and 
libation bowl, dedicated by Nes-Amsu to Kashta, Shep-en- 
apt, and Amenartas (Bay 20, No. 794) ; the base of a statue 
inscribed with the names of Shep-en-Apt I, Shep-en-Apt II, 
etc. (Bay 20, No. 795) ; and the alabaster vessel of Kashta 
and Amenartas (Wall-case 139, Fourth Egyptian Room, 
No. 84). 

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. From Nubia. 

B.C. 700. 

Shabaka, or Sabaco, whom some identify with So of 
2 Kings xvii, 4, was a contemporary of Sargon and Sen- 
nacherib, kings of Assyria. • With one or other of these 
kings he must have had correspondence, for two seals bearing 
the name of Shabaka were found among the tablets of the 
Royal Library at Nineveh. (See Nineveh Gallery, Table- 
case I, No. 32, etc.) Among the objects bearing his name are 
several scarabs, and an alabaster vase in the Fourth Egyptian 
Room (Table-case D and Wall-case 1 39), and a basalt slab 
(Bay 25, No 797) inscribed with a copy of a mythological 
text, copied by the king's order from an old, half obliterated 
document. The portion of the text surviving contains legends 
of Ra, Osiris, Set, Horus, Ptahand other gods ; and it seems to 

tirhAkAh and he^ekiah. 257 

imply that cill their powers were absorbed by Ptah, in whose 
temple the slab was set up. Of Shabaka's sister, the great 
Princess Amenartas, may be mentioned the following objects : 
A fine inscribed statue (Wall-case 107, Third Egyptian 
Room), her lapis-lazuli scarab (Table-case D, Fourth Egyp- 
tian Room), and a steatite cylinder inscribed with her 
names and titles (Wall-case 193, same room). This princess 
possessed great power in Thebes, and she repaired portions 
of some of the great temples of that city, and built a small 
chapel near the temple of Amen. She re-established the 
worship of the gods, and devoted a large proportion of her 
property to the restoration of their statues and the obser- 
vance of their festivals. 

Shabaka was succeeded by Shabataka (see a bronze 
shrine dedicated by him to Amen-Ra in Wall-case 123 in the 
Fourth Egyptian Room), of whom little is known. He 
was followed by Taharqa, the Tirhakah of the Bible, 
(2 Kings xix, 9), the son of a farmer and the lady Aqleq, who 
began to reign between B.C. 693 and 691. He was an ally 
of Hezekiah, king of Judah. About 6^6, Esarhaddon, 
king of Assyria, crushed the revolt in Palestine, and six 
years later he invaded Egypt, defeated Taharqa, captured 
Memphis, and appointed twenty governors over the various 
provinces of the country. After the death of Esarhaddon, in 
668, Taharqa returned and proclaimed himself king of 
Egypt at Memphis ; but Ashur-bani-pal, the new king of 
Assyria, marched against him and defeated his forces, 
which were assembled at Karbaniti, a city probably situated 
near the north-east frontier of Egypt. Taharqa fled, and 
Ashur-bani-pal marched into Egypt, crushed the enemy, and 
re-appointed the governors who had been appointed by his 

Taharqa repaired several temples at Thebes, and built 
a large temple to Amen at Napata, and a small one in 
honour of Usertsen HI at Semnah. For a bronze figure of 
the king, and two plaques and scarabs bearing his name, 
see Table-case K, Wall-case 193, and Table-case D in the 
Third and Fourth Egyptian Rooms. 

The successor of Taharqa was Tanuath Amen, the Tanda- 
manie of the cuneiform inscriptions, who had been co-regent 
with him. After the death of Taharqa, as the result of a 
dream Tanuath Amen invaded Egypt, and captured Helio- 
polis ; he tried to turn the Assyrians out of Memphis, but 
failed. Hearing that the king of Assyria was coming with 
a large army, he fled to Thebes, whither he was followed 


by the Assyrians, who sacked the city. Tanuath-Amen Red 
once more, and his subsequent history is unknown. A cast 
of the Stele of the Dream is exhibited in Bay 22, No. 799, 
and an account of the burning and pillage of Thebes is 
given on the great cylinder of Ashur-bani-pal (Table- 
case H, Babylonian Room), and the calamities which came 
upon the city are described by the prophet Nahum (iii, 10). 

Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. From Sais. 

Adout B.C. 666. 
Psemthek I, or Psammetichus, was the son of Nekau, 
governor of Sais, and married Shep-en-Apt, the daughter of 
Piankhi and Amenartas I. Thus, by marriage, he obtained a 
claim to the throne of Egypt. He appears to have fought 
against the Assyrians on every opportunity for many years, 
and at length by the help of Carian and Ionian mercenaries 
he succeeded in expelling them, and in making himself 
master of all Egypt. He established garrisons at Elephantine, 
Pelusium, Daphnae, and Marea. He protected the Greeks, 
a colony of whom he settled in the city of Naukratis. He 
encouraged trade of every kind, and embarked in many 
commercial enterprises. He rebuilt, or enlarged, the temple 
of the goddess Neith of Sais (see bronze figures of her in 
Wall-case 125, Fourth Egyptian Room), and built a gallery 
in the Serapeum at SakkSrah. Among the monuments of 
his reign are : An intercolumnar slab sculptured with a 
scene representing the king making an offering to the gods ; 
from the temple of Temu at Rosetta (Bay 24, No. 800). 
A shaft of a column, and a portion of a statue, insci'ibed with 
his names and titles (Bay 24, Nos. 801, 802). For smaller 
objects inscribed with his name see the Foundation Deposits 
and the figure of Isis (Table-cases K and H, Third 
Egyptian Room), his ushabti figure (Wall-case 78, Second 
Egyptian Room), and his scarabs (Table-case D, Fourth 
Egyptian Room). 

Nekau, or Necho, maintained an army of Greeks, and two 
B C 612 fleets, one in the Mediterranean and one in the 
Red Sea. He recut and enlarged the old canal 
which in the time of Seti I joined the Nile and the Red Sea, 
and is said to have employed 120,000 men in the work. He , 
led an army into Syria, and fought with Josiah, king of Judah, 
who attempted to bar his progress in the valley of Megiddo ; 
Josiah was struck by an Egyptian arrow which penetrated his 
disguise, and he c}ie4 (2 Kings xxiii, 29 ff. ; 2 Chrpri. j^jcxv, 22}, 



Necho advanced towards the Euphrates, but was met at 
Karkemish by Nebuchadnezzar II and his army, and in the 
battle which followed he was defeated. Among the small 
objects inscribed with his name are : A bronze shrine 
(Table-case H, Third Egyptian Room), a porcelain vase 
(Wall-case 157, Fourth Egyptian Room), an alabastron 
(Wall-case 139, Fourth Egyptian Room), and a limestone 
draughtsman (Standard- 
case C, Fourth Egyptian 

The reign of Psammeti- 
chus II, the son of Necho, 

o /-» £. was short and 

B.C. 500. . . 

•'^ unimportant; 

but he appears to have made 

a raid into Nubia. He 

repaired several of the 

large temples at Heliopolis, 

Memphis, Karnak, and 

Elephantine. Among the 

monuments of his reign is a 

head from a colossal statue 

of the king, found near the 

south end of the Suez Canal 

(Bay 23, No. 803). For 

small objects inscribed with 

his name see the scarabs in 

Table-case D, and a portion 

of a sistrum in Wall-case 

157, Fourth Egyptian Room. 

Under Haa-ab-Ra Uah-ab- 

Ra, the Pharaoh Hophra 

of Jeremiah xliv, 30 and the 

Apries of the Greeks, Egypt 

enjoyed a period of great prosperity, directly due to 
the encouragement he gave to commerce, and 
to the business qualities of the Greeks who 

had settled in Naukratis and elsewhere in Egypt. He made 

an expedition into Syria. Zedekiah, king of Judah, 

counted upon his help to repulse Nebuchadnezzar II ; 

but failing to do so, Hophra incurred the denunciations of the 

prophet Jeremiah : " And this shall be a sign to you, saith 

" the Lord, that I will punish you in this place, that ye may 

" know that my words shall surely stand against you for evil : 

" Thus saith the LORD : Behold, I will give Pharaoh-hophra 

Head of a colossal statue of 
Psammetichus II, about B.C. 596. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, 
Bay 23, No. 803.] 

B.C. 592. 


" king of Egypt into the hand of his enemies, and into the 
" hand of them that seek his hfe ; as I gave Zedekiah king of 
"Judah into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon 
" his enemy, and that sought his Hfe " (Jeremiah xViv, 29-30). 
Pharaoh Hophra was dethroned by his own soldiers, who 
made their general Aahmes (Amasis J I) king in his stead. 
Among monuments bearing his name are a limestone stele, 
on which is sculptured the figure of the king (Bay 22, 
No. 804), and a portion of a statue of Pefa-Net, the king's 
chief physician (Central Saloon, No. 805). 
Amasis II treated his former master with kindness, but, as 

B r ■;72 yophra persisted in raiding the country, 
■ ■ ^' ■ further fighting ensued. In the end, Hophra 
was slain by his own soldiers on board his boat. During the 
reign of Amasis II Nebuchadnezzar II attempted to invade 
Egypt, with what success is unknown. During this long reign 
of about 44 years the country in general enjoyed peace and 
prosperity, and the quarries were re-opened and many temples 
restored ; remains of his building activity are visible on the 
sites of all the great sanctuaries of Egypt. He was a 
generous patron of the Greeks, and granted them lands and 
many privileges. Among the monuments of his reign are : 
Two granite tablets for offerings, or altars (Bay 1 6, No. 806 ; 
Bay 1 7, No. 807) ; a stele, dated in his eighth year, recording the 
dedication of a building to Neith, goddess of Sais (Bay 24, 
No. 808) ; a weight inscribed with his prenomen (Wall- 
case 180, Fourth Egyptian Room), and handles of two 
sistra (Wall-case 187, same room). 

Amasis 1 1 married Thent-kheta, by whom he became the 
father of Psammetichus III. He was also the official husband 
of the famous high-priestess of Amen, Ankhnes-neferab-Ra, 
the daughter of Psammetichus II and the Lady Takhauath, 
and the adopted daughter of Nit-Aqert (Nitokris), high 
priestess of Amen.^ The magnificent sarcophagus in the 
Southern Egyptian Gallery was made for her (Bay 24, 
No. 811). It is undoubtedly one of ,the finest monuments of 
the XXVIth dynasty in the British Museum. (See Plates 




(See page 261.) 

Plate XLIII. 

Queen Ankhnes-neferab-Ra, daughter of Psammetichus II and 
Queen Thakhauath, wearing the head-dress of Isis-Hathor. 
From the cover of the sarcophagus of the queen. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 24, No. 811.] About B.C. 600, 

Plate XLIV. 


The Sky-goddess Nut. From the inside of the sarcophagus of 
Queen Ankhnes-neferab-Ra. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 24, No. 811.] 

(See page 261.) 

Plate XLV. 

MB *fJ» tt: 's^'ftm 

Kneeling statue of Uah-ab-Ra, a prince, governor, and 
commander-in-chief, about B.C. 6co. 
[goutliern Egyptian Gallery, B^y 21, No. 818.] J^XVIth dynasty. 


XLIII, XLIV). The reliefs and figures are carefully executed, 
and the hieroglyphics are well cut. In the Ptolemaic Period 
this sarcophagus was used for a royal scribe named Amen- 
hetep, or Pi-Menth, his name being inserted in the cartouches 
and. the feminine suffixes being changed to masculine. 
Ankhnes-neferab-Ra built a chapel at Thebes, from which 
came slabs Nos. 8l2, 813 (Bay 24). Worthy of note also 
are two fine bronze figures of Harpqkrates-Amen and 
Menu, which were dedicated to Queen Ankhnes-neferab-Ra 
by priests in her temple (see Table-case H, Third _ Egyptian 
Room). Amasis II had a daughter, Ta-Khart-Ast (for a 
portion of a statue of her see Bay 24, No. 814). 

The last king of this dynasty was Psammetichus III. 
During his short reign, which lasted six months only, the 
Persians under their king Cambyses invaded Egypt, and, 
having defeated the Egyptians at Pelusium, marched on to 
Memphis and captured it. After a short time Cambyses put 
Psammetichus to death, and Egypt became a province, or 
satrapy, of Persia. 

During the rule of the XXVIth dynasty over Egypt, it 
appears that several native Nubian kings ruled the Northern 
Siidan from Napata, the modern Gebel Barkal. Among 
these were Aspelta and Heru-sa-atef, the former of whom 
probably reigned about B.C. 625 and the latter about- B.C. 580. 
For casts of stelae recording the Coronation of Aspelta and 
the Annals of Heru-sa-atef, see Bay 18, No. 815, and Bay 20, 
No. 816. A cast of a stele inscribed with an edict against the 
eaters of raw meat is in Bay 20, No. 817. 

Under the XXVIth dynasty a great revival of art and 
learning took place, due partly to the settled condition of the 
country under a firm government, and partly to the material 
prosperity which obtained at that period. The painter and 
sculptor took for their models the reliefs and statues of the Early 
Empire, and the funerary masons and scribes cut or wrote on 
the stelae and tombs texts which were composed under the 
Vlth dynasty, or earlier. The monuments of the period are 
more often made of dark limestone, dark green or grey schist, 
and basalt than granite, which was so commonly used for 
coffins, statues, stelae, etc., under the Middle Empire. These 
substances give to the large monuments of the Saite Period 
a sad and sometimes heavy effect. Among the many fine 
examples of the sculpture of the period may be mentioned : 
The black basalt kneeling statue of Uahab-Ra, a prince and 
general of the army (see Plate XLV; Bay 21, No. 818) ; the 
portion of the kneeling figure of Khnem-ab-Ra-Men, prefect 


of Sals, holding a shrineof Neith (Bay 23, No. 819) ; the 
portion of a figure of Ankh-p-khart, a priest who had 
ministered in the temple for eighty years (Bay 24, No. 820) ; 
and the libation bowl dedicated to the goddesses Mut and 
Hathor (Bay 22, Nos. 821, 822). The casts of the Cow of 
Hathor and the Hippopotamus of Smetsmet are also very 
instructive (Bay 25, No. 823; Bay 26, No. 824). Of the 
massive stone sarcophagi and coffins, Nos. 825-829 are very 
fine important examples. On the two granite sarcophagi of 
Nes-qetiu (No. 825) and Hap-men (No. 826) are cut the 
figures of all the gods who were believed to protect the dead ; 
but the others (Nos. 827-29) are plainer. The sepulchral 
stelae are very numerous ; interesting examples will be found 
in Bays 21, 22, etc. 

Twenty-Seventh Dynasty. From Persia. 

B.C. 527. 

The rule of the Persians over Egypt lasted about one 
hundred and ten years. Cambyses, having established himself 
as king, set out on an expedition to the Sfldfin. On his way 
thither he despatched an army of 50,000 men to the Oasis of 
Jupiter Ammon, now known as Siwah, to secure the submission 
of the tribes ; but, after reaching Kh^rgah, these troops were 
never more heard of Cambyses continued his march into 
Nubia, where, it seems, he came in touch with a native army 
somewhere near the Third Cataract. According to the annals 
of Nastasenen, king of Nubia, his boats were captured on the 
river, and all his soldiers slain after a fierce fight. Greek 
tradition states that Cambyses committed many sacrilegious 
acts in Egypt ; but the inscription of Utcha-her-resenet, the 
chancellor of Sals, records that Cambyses cleared out the 
temple of Neith in that city, restored its revenues, and 
reinstated its priests. This done he went to the temple in 
person, and performed acts of worship, like the Pharaohs of 
old. The money which he gave the chancellor enabled him 
" to provide with a coffin the man who was too poor to buy 
" one, and he took care of the children." 

Darius I, Hystaspes, was a wise and enlightened king, 

and he tried to understand the religion and customs of the 

T, p Egyptians. He established a coinage, eh- 

521. couraged trade, subscribed money for expenses 




incurred in the discovery of a new Apis Bull, supported 
religious institutions, and commissioned the chancellor Utcha- 
her-resenet to found a school for the training of scribes. 
He was tolerant; and built a temple to Amen-Ra in the 
Oasis of AI-Khargah, on the walls of which is cut a remark- 
able hymn to Amen. He also completed the canal between 
the Nile and the Red Sea, which Necho began, and so added 
greatly to the prosperity of the country. In the latter part 
of his reign the Egyptians, led by Khabbesha, revolted 
against the Persian rule with some success. Darius 
determined to set out from Persia to put down the 
rebellion, but died before he could do so. The triumph 
of Khabbesha was short-lived, for Xerxes the Great 
marched against him, defeated his forces, and reduced the 
B C ^86 country to servitude worse than before. Xerxes 
■ ' ^ ■ did nothing for the gods or people of Egypt, 
and left few traces of his reign in the country. An 
alabaster vase inscribed with his name in four languages, 
Egyptian, Persian, Median and Babylonian, which was found 
at Halicarnassus, is exhibited in the Gold Room in the 
British Museum. For fragments of other vases, on which his 
name appears in Egyptian letters, within a 
cartouche, and with the additions " Pharaoh, the 
Great," as here given, see Wall-cases Nos. 28 
and 29, in the Babylonian Room. A cast of a 
stele, dated in his fourth year, with a bilingual 
inscription in Egyptian and Aramean, is 
exhibited in the Semitic Room (Second 
Northern Gallery, Wall-case 29). 
In the reign of Artaxerxes I another revolt, 
B C /166 headed by Inaros, a Libyan, who 
was assistedbythe Athenians.broke 
out, and at the battle of Papremis, the satrap of 
Egypt, Akhaemenes, was killed and his forces 
defeated. Subsequently the Persians defeated 
the Egyptians, and Inar6s was captured and 
taken to Persia, where a few years later he was 
impaled and flayed alive. 
Darius II, Nothus, repaired the temple of 

B C A2A Amen-Ra at Al-Khirgah, and 
added his name to its walls. In 



his reign the Egyptians at length succeeded in 
throwing off the Persian yoke. Their leader, 
Amyrtaios, has been thought to be Amen-rut-meri-Amen. 


Twenty-Eighth Dynasty. From Sais. 

B.C. 420 (?). 

According to the King List of Manetho the XXVIIIth 
dynasty consisted of one^ king, who was named Amyrtaios ; 
Julius Africanus and the Syncellus state that he reigned six 
years, and make Sais the seat of his rule. At one time 
authorities identified Amyrtaios with the kingAmen-rut, whose 


is found on a plank from a coffin preserved at Berlin. The 
form of the prenomen, however, proves that Amen-rut lived 
at a period anterior to Amyrtaios, and the identification must, 
therefore, be abandoned. 

Twenty-Ninth Dynasty. From Mendes. 

B.C. 399. 

Of the five kings of this dynasty only three appear to 
have left remains, viz. Naifaaurut (Nepherites), Haker 
(Achoris), and Psamut ; their reigns were unimportant, their 
total length being only about twenty-one years. 

Thirtieth Dynasty. From Sebennytus. 

B.C. 378. 

Nekht-Heru-hebt, the Nektaneb^s and Nektanebus I of 
R r -tS classical writers, succeeded in overthrowing the 
B.C. 378. ,jyfja^g(-y (jf Mcndcs, and made himself king of 
all Egypt, which he ruled with success for a period of 
eighteen years. He repaired several of the temples of Memphis 
and Thebes, and the temple of Darius I at Al-Kh^rgah, 
and revived the custom of setting up obelisks. He also 
founded the temple of Horus at Hebt, the modern Behbit-al- 
Hagarah. During his prosperous reign more attention was 
given to the performance of ceremonies connected with the 

L 2 

Plate XLVI. 

(See page ^lA 

Obelisk dedicated to Thoth by King Heru-nekht-]^ebt, B.C. 378. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 31, No. 919.] XXXth dynasty. 

{Seepage 265. ) 

Plate XLVIL 


c . 



o ^ 

JJ 01 

o o 
c S m 

3 ■£ M 






L 3 


dead, and, as a result, a considerable number of statues, 
stelae, etc., which may be attributed to his reign have come 
down to us. 

Among his monuments worthy of special note are: 
I. A pair of obelisks, inscribed with his names and titles, and 
dedicated to " Thoth, the Twice Great," before whose temple 
they were set up. They were taken from a town in the Delta 
during the eighteenth century, and stood for many years before 
one of the mosques of Cairo (see Plate XLVI). _ (Bays 31, 32, 
Nos. 919, 920.) 2. Portion of a statue of Amen-Ra (?), dedicated 
to the god by this king. (Bay 30, No. 921.) 3. Sarcophagus 
of Nectanebus I. (See Plate XLVII.) This most valu- 
able and interesting object is one of the most remarkable 
monuments of this king. The inside is decorated with 
figures of the gods, and on the outside are cut the texts 
and illustrations of a series of sections of the great 
funerary work entitled the Book of what is in the Tuat 
{i.e., the Other World). The Tuat was a long narrow valley 
which ran parallel with Egypt, and was neither above nor 
below this earth ; a river flowed through its whole length. 
It was entered on the left bank of the Nile near Thebes, 
ran due north as far as Sals, then curved to the east, and 
finally terminated where the sun rose. This valley was 
divided into ten sections, and at each end was a sort of 
ante-chamber or vestibule. Each section was filled with its 
own peculiar beings, many of whom were hostile to the dead 
who wished to pass through it in the Boat of the Sun-god, 
which traversed it nightly. The god himself could only do 
this by uttering words of power. The Book of what is in the 
Tuat was supposed to contain these words of power ; and 
copies of it were written on papyri, or cut on sarcophagi, so 
that their possessors or occupants might be able to recite 
them in case of need. The representations of the gods 
which accompanied the texts enabled the dead to recognize 
the several beings of the Other World when they met them,, 
and to recite the appropriate words of power. On the 
rounded head of the sarcophagus the First Section of the 
Tuat is sculptured, and on the foot the Ninth Section ; on 
the right hand side are the Second and Sixth Sections, 
and on the left are the Third and Eighth Sections (Bay 25, 
No. 923J. These Sections refer to the kingdoms of the dead 
of Thebes, Abydos, and Sais ; the other six Sections were 
probably sculptured on the cover, which was destroyed in the 
eighteenth century ; those relating to Memphis and Heliopolis 
are omitted. 


Nectanebus I was succeeded by his son Tchehra (Te6s, or 
Tachos), in whose reign the Persians led by Artaxerxes II 
made an attack upon Egypt, but failed to conquer it. 
Te6s was succeeded by his son Nekht-neb-f, or Nectane- 
B C "i^S ^^^ ^^' ^" whose reign the Persians, under 
Artaxerxes III, once again obtained possession 
of the country. The reign of Nectanebus II, who was the 
last native king of Egypt, was on the whole peaceful and 
prosperous ; he repaired many temples, and his name is 
found on buildings in all the great sanctuaries from Philae 
to Sebennytus in the Delta. The statues and stelae of the 
period are well-cut, and the work is tasteful and delicate. 
Among them may be mentioned : A granite statue of 
Nectanebus II (Bay 29, No. 924); the two intercolumnar 
slabs on which are representations of the king kneeling and 
making an offering (Bay 27, No. 926 ; Bay 28, No. 927) ; and 
a small gilded door from the model of a shrine, on which the 
king is represented kneeling and making an offering (Table- 
case C, Fourth Egyptian Room). 

The Persians, having succeeded in obtaining the supreme 
power once again, held it for a period of about eight years ; 
but their rule was hateful to the Egyptians, and when 
Alexander the Great (born B.C. 356, died 324), who had 
defeated Darius III at the Battle of Issus, B.C. 332, arrived at 
Memphis, he was welcomed as the saviour of the country. 
He marched to the Oasis of Siwah (Jupiter Ammon) and 
entered the temple of Amen-Ra, and worshipped the god, 
who acknowledged him to be his son and therefore the 
rightful king of Egypt. Soon after, in B.C. 331, Alexander 
founded the city of Alexandria. 

In the scramble for the provinces of Alexander's great 
Empire which took place at his death, Egypt fell to the 
share of one of his generals, Ptolemy Lagus, who adminis- 
tered the country in the name of Alexander's sons, Philip 
Arrhidaeus and Alexander II of Egypt, the former of whom 
never set foot in the country ; the latter was brought thither 
as a child of six years, and was murdered when he was 
thirteen years old (B.C. 311); but in spite of these facts 
Ptolemy Lagus caused buildings to be erected in their 
names, and ruled the country as their loyal servant. To the 
period B.C. 332-306 belong the portion of a clepsydra inscribed 
with the name of Alexander the Great (Bay 29, No. 948) ; 
the portion of a clepsydra inscribed with the name of 
Philip Arrhidaeus (Bay 29, No. 949) ; and the papyrus of 
Nes-Amsu, containing the Book of Overthrowing Apep, 

L 4 


which is dated in the twelfth year of " Pharaoh Alexander, the 
son of Alexander," i.e., Alexander II (No. IO,l88). In 
the seventh year of his reign Alexander II restored to the 
temples of the city of Pe-Tep (Buto) the property which 
had been wrested from it by Xerxes the Great : a cast of 
the stele which commemorates this fact will be found in 
Bay 28, No. 950. 




Under the capable rule of the earlier Ptolemies, Egypt 
became prosperous and powerful, and in the reign of Phila- 
delphus she was the wealthiest country in the world. Though 
they and their court were Greeks and spoke Greek, the 
language of the priesthood and people was Egyptian, and the 
native religion of the country remained practically unchanged. 
As time went on, however, Greek became more and more 
the official language, and Egyptian was only used officially 
for religious purposes. The Ptolemies worshipped the 
Egyptian gods, offered up sacrifices to them, and rebuilt and 
endowed many of their temples, e.g., at Denderah, EdfCl, 
Esna, Philae, Dakkah, etc. They adopted Egyptian names 
and titles, married their sisters and nieces, and in every way 
they adopted the habits of Egyptian Pharaohs ; many were 
crowned with all the ancient rites and ceremonies at 
Memphis. They did not, however, permit the priests to 
interfere in the government of the country, which was 
administered on Greek lines, and though at times their 
power was skilfully disguised, it was nevertheless ubiquitous 
and effective. The revenues which they drew from Egypt 
were very large, and no other monarchs in the world at 
that time possessed such vast wealth as the Ptolemies. This 
was due to the encouragement which they gave to com- 
mercial enterprises of every kind, and to the freedom to 
trade which was enjoyed by the Jews, who had settled in 
large numbers not only in Alexandria, but also in the rich 
provinces of the Fayyflm, and in the Thebald, and in Syene. 

Ptolemy I, Soter I, B.C. 304, founded the Alexandrian 
Library and Museum, settled a number of Jews in 
Alexandria, and introduced the worship of the god Hades, 
who was henceforth known in Egypt as Serapis, i.e., Asar- 
Hapi, or Osiris-Apis. (See Wall-cases 176-181, Fourth 
Egyptian Room.) For a relief and an inscription from his 
buildings at Terenouthis, see Bay 25, Nos. 951, 952. 

Ptolemy II, Philadelphus, B.C. 287 or 286, founded the 
cities of Berenice Troglodytica, on the Red Sea, and Arsinoe 

Plate XLVIII. 

Seepage 269.) 

Relief with figures of Ptolemy II, Philadelphus, and Queen Arsinoe, about B.C. 260. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 25, No. 953.] 



in the Fayyiim, and built the famous Pharos, or lighthouse, 
at Alexandria, one of the seven wonders of the world. In 
his reign the priest Manetho wrote a History of Egypt, of 
which .only the King List is extant, and the famous Greek 
version of the Old Testament, known as the Septuagint, 
was compiled. He added largely to the Alexandrian Library, 
which is said at that time to have contained 400,000 works. 
For stelae, sculptured with reliefs in which Ptolemy H and 
Queen Arsinoe are represented making offerings to the 

Stele sculptured with a scene representing Ptolemy II, Philadelphus, 

making offerings to Amsu, or Menu, Uatchet, etc., about B.C. 260. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 25, No. 954.] 

gods, see Bay 25, Nos. 953-955 (see Plate XLVIII); a 
portion of a royal edict is in Bay 28, No. 956. 

Ptolemy III, Euergetes I, B.C. 246, conquered the greater 
portion of Western Asia. He was a patron of the arts and 
learning, and he repaired and rebuilt many of the ancient 
temples. To commemorate his victories and the benefits 


which he conferred on Egypt, the priesthood assembled at 
Canopus in the ninth year of his reign, and passed a Decree 
conferring special honours on the king and his queen Berenice. 
It was ordered that the Decree be cut in the Greek and 
Egyptian languages on stelae to be set up in the most 
prominent places in temples of the first, second, and third 
class throughout Egypt, in order that all men might read of 
the king's bounty. The Egyptian version was inscribed in 
two kinds of writing, viz., in hieroglyphics and in demotic. 
The Decree also ordered that one day be added to the calendar 
every fourth year, thus anticipating the leap-year of modern 
times. For a cast of the Decree of Canopus see Bay 28, 
No. 957. Ptolemy III began to build the temple of Edfii 
(see Plate XLIX), B.C. 237, which was finished by Ptolemy XI, 
B.C. 57. Objects inscribed with his name are not common. 
(For a gold ring which was made in his reign see Table-case J, 
Fourth Egyptian Room.) 

Ptolemy IV, Philopator I, B.C. 222 or 221, added a hall 
to the temple which the Nubian king, Ergamenes, built at 
Dakkah, and dedicated a temple to Homer. He defeated 
Antiochus the Great at the Battle of Raphia, but did nothing 
further to break his power. He organized elephant hunts in 
the Sddan, and transported the animals by sea to Egypt for 
military purposes ; a Greek inscription set up by Alexandros, 
general of the elephant hunts of Ptolemy IV, is in Bay 26, 
No. 958. 

Ptolemy V, Epiphanes, B.C. 205, was a great benefactor 
of the temples of Egypt ; and to mark their gratitude to him 
the priests of all Egypt met in solemn assembly at Memphis 
in the ninth year of his reign, and passed a Decree ordering 
that increased honours be paid to the king and his ancestors, 
that a statue of him be set up in each of the temples, and that 
a copy of the Decree, inscribed upon a stone stele, in hiero- 
glyphic, demotic and Greek writing, be likewise set up in each 
temple of the first, second, and third class throughout Egypt. 
This Decree was duly carried out, for portions of three or four 
stelae, inscribed with the text of it, have been discovered. 
Most important of all is the stele which was found by 
M. Boussard in 1798, which, because it was dug up near Rosetta, 
is commonly known as the Rosetta Stone (see No. 960, 
Southern Egyptian Gallery). A special interest attaches to 
this monument, for from it Thomas Young, in 1816-1818, 
deduced the values of several letters of the Egyptian alphabet, 
and succeeded in reading the name of Ptolemy. Next with 
the help of this text and of an obelisk from Philae, the 

{See ^age 270.) 

Plate XLIX. 

Plate L. 

(See pa^e 211-) 

Granue monolithic shrine dedicated to the goddess Isis of Philae by 
Ptolemy IX (?), Euergetes II, B.C. 147-117. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 30, No. 962.] 



Frenchman Champollion read the name Cleopatra, and formu- 
lated a correct system of Egyptian decipherment. (For details 
see page 41 ff.) During the reign of Ptolemy V, the 
Egyptians invoked the protection of Rome. 

Ptolemy VI, Eupator, died the year he became king. 
During the reign of Ptolemy VII, Philometor (B.C. 173), 
the Jews were permitted to build a temple at Onion, Onias 
being high-priest. (For a stele on which are sculptured figures 

Head of a statue of one of the Ptolemies, about B.C. 300. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 27, No. 947.] 

of Ptolemy VII and the two Queens Cleopatra, see Bay 27, 
No. 961.) Ptolemy VIII was murdered. Ptolemy IX, 
Euergetes II, B.C. 147-I17, finished the temple of Edfft, and 
repaired many temples both in Egypt and Nubia. From one 
of these came the fine monolithic granite shrine (see 
Plate L) in which a sacred bird or animal was kept (Bay 30, 


No. 962). It was found lying on its side among the ruins 
of a Coptic church on the Island of Philae; it had been utilized 
by the builders of the church as the base of a Christian altar. 
Ptolemy X, B.C. 117, conferred great benefits on the temples 
of the First Cataract (see Bay 29, No. 963) ; Ptolemy XI 
and Ptolemy XII were killed in B.C. 87 and 81 respectively ; 
Ptolemy XIII, B.C. 80-51, began to build the temples of 
Denderah and Esna ; Ptolemy XIV, B.C. 51, and his sister 
Cleopatra were left by their father, Ptolemy XIII, under the 
guardianship of the Roman Senate, and Pompey was made 
their guardian. After the battle of Pharsalia, Pompey fled 
to Egypt, and was murdered at the instance of Ptolemy XIV, 
who had banished his wife Cleopatra. In B.C. 48, Julius Caesar 
landed in Egypt, defeated Ptolemy, who was drowned, and 
reinstated Cleopatra. Ptolemy XV was appointed co-regent ; 
but he was murdered by Cleopatra's orders in B.C. 45, and 
Ptolemy XVI, Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra, 
was named co-regent in his stead. After the defeat of Antony 
by Octavianus and the death of Antony and Cleopatra, 
Egypt became a Roman Province, B.C. 30. 

The Egyptian antiquities of the Ptolemaic Period in the 
British Museum consist chiefly of Stelae inscribed with 
funerary texts ; they are comparatively small in size, and are 
painted in bright colours. The reliefs, in which the figures of 
the gods are represented, are delicately cut,and the hieroglyphics 
have the slender form which is one of the chief characteristics 
of the inscriptions of the period. The texts often contain 
the ages of the deceased persons, and details concerning 
the length of time occupied in the process of rriummification, 
which are wholly wanting in the funerary monuments of an 
earlier period. Among the gods mentioned on the stelae is 
Serapis, who represents a fusion of the old Egyptian gods, 
Osiris and Apis. (For figures of this god in terra-cotta see 
Table-case M in the Fourth Egyptian Room.) The stone 
coffins of the period are in the form of a mummy, and are 
usually carefully cut and finished. We have already seen that 
two important edicts of the priests of Memphis and Canopus 
were cut on stelae in two forms of Egyptian writing, viz., 
hieroglyphic and demotic, and in Greek ; there are also several 
examples of funerary monuments in the British Museum in 
which the hieroglyphic text is followed by a rendering in 
demotic and Greek. In the case of small objects, ^._g-., mummy 
labels, the inscriptions are in demotic and Greek only. 

Among the noteworthy monuments of this period -are : A 
statue of the goddess Isis, holding before her a figure of Osiris, 



whom she protects with her wings, dedicated to the goddess by 
one Shashanq (Bay 28, No. 964); massive green granite beetle, 
symbol of Khepera, the self-produced god, the creator of the 
universe, and the type of resurrection (Central Saloon, No. 965) ; 
stone serpent, with the bust of a woman (Bay 32, No. 966) ; 
green basalt coffin of the lady Ankhet (Bay 29, No. 967) and 
the limestone coffin of Hes-Petan-Ast (Bay 26, No. 968) ; 
limestone window from the clerestory of the temple of 

Limestone window with mullions in the form of pillars with Hathor-headed 
capitals. From the temple at Denderah. 

[Southern Egyptian Galleiy, Bay 25, No. 972.] Ptolemaic Period. 

Denderah (Bay 25, No. 972); and a marble sun-dial from 
Alexandria (Bay 29, No. 976). An interesting group of stelae, 
with demotic inscriptions, is exhibited in Bay 27 (Nos. 983-990) ; 
and in Bay 29 (No. 994) is the stele of Euonymos, with an 
inscription in Greek and demotic. Among the stelae which 
give the ages of deceased persons may be noted those of 
Her-abu, a priest of king Sahu-Ra (?), who lived fifty years, 
seven months, and five days (Bay 30, No. 995) ; Tashermut, 


a priestess who died aged ninety-seven years (Bay 27, No. 996) ; 
and Berenice (?) who died aged sixty-four years, eight months, 
and twenty-six days (Bay 29, No. 998). 

Of all the stelae of this period the most interesting is that 
of the lady That-I-em-hetep, who belonged to a family that 
reckoned among its members several princes of Memphis and 
high priests of Ptah (Bay 29, No. 1027). She was born in the 
ninth year of the reign of Ptolemy XIII, about B.C. 71, and 
when fourteen years old she was married to her half-brother, 
the priest P-shere-en-Ptah (see his stele in Bay 27, No. 1026). 
During the first twelve years of her married life she gave birth 
to three' daughters, but no son, which caused her husband great 
grief She and her husband prayed to the god I-em-hetep, the 
son of Ptah, for a son, and the god, appearing to P-shere-en-Ptah 
in a dream, promised to grant his prayer if he carried out 
certain works in connexion with the temple. When the priest 
awoke he caused the works to be taken in hand, and soon after 
they were completed his wife gave birth to a son who was 
named I-em-hetep, and surnamed Peta-Bast (see his stele in 
Bay 27, No. 1630). Four years afterwards That-I-em-hetep died, 
and was buried with due ceremony by her husband, whom 
she addresses thus : " O my brother, my husband, my friend, 
" the Ur-kherp-hem {i.e., high priest of Memphis), cease not to 
" drink, to eat, to be drunken, and to marry wives, and to enjoy 
" thyself, and to follow the desire of thy heart by day and 
" by night ; and let not sorrow or sadness find a place in 
" thy heart during all the years which thou shalt live 
" upon earth. Amenti {i.e., the land of the dea.d) is the land 
" of stupor and darkness, and a place of oppression for those 
" who are therein. The august ones sleep in their mummied 
" forms ; they cannot awake to see their brethren, they cannot 
" look upon their fathers and mothers, and they are unmindful 
" of wives and children. The living water which the earth 

" hath for its dwellers is stagnant water for me I no 

" longer know where I am, now that I have arrived in this 
" valley [of the dead]. Would that I had water to drink from 
" a running stream, and one to say to me, ' Remove not thy 
" pitcher from the stream ' ! O that my face were turned 
" towards the north wind on the river bank that the coolness 
" thereof might quiet the anguish which is in my heart ! 

" He \yhose name is Universal Death calleth everyone to 
" him ; and they come unto him with quaking hearts, and they 
"are terrified through their fear of him. With him is no 
" distinction made between gods and men, and the great are 
" even as the little in his sight. He showeth no favour to those 


" who long for him ; for he carrieth away the babe from his 
" mother, as well as the aged man. As he goeth about on 
" his way, all men fear him, and, though all make supplication 
" before him, he turneth not his face towards them. Entreaty 
" reacheth not unto him, for he will not hearken unto him that 
" maketh supplication, and him who presenteth unto him 
" offerings and funerary, he will not regard." 

The ideas expressed in the above extract have their origin 
in the materialism which found its way into Egypt under the 
rule of the Ptolemies. 


Egypt, having become a province of the Roman Empire 
on the death of Cleopatra, B.C. 30, was forthwith placed under 
the rule of a Prefect, and administered like any other Roman 
Province. Under the strict but just rule of her new masters 
Egypt prospered, for trade flourished, and life and property 
were, on the whole, well protected by the laws of Rome. 
Reference has already been made (see page 255) to the Nubian 
kingdom founded by Piankhi, who made Napata his capital ; 
it must also be noted that at the same period, between 
• B.C. 500 and the end of the Ptolemaic rule, a second Nubian 
kingdom was founded by some unknown Siidani chief on 
the Island of Meroe, with a capital at Meroe, on the 
Nile, about 50 miles south of its junction with the Atbara. 
When the Romans began to rule over Egypt the Meroitic 
Kingdom was in a flourishing state, and the authority of its 
sovereign, who appears to have been Queen Amentarit^ (having 
also the title Candace, which was common to all the 
Queens of Meroe), probably extended northwards as far as 
the First Cataract. In B.C. 29 Candace made a treaty with 
Cornelius Gallus, the first prefect of Egypt; but, five years 
later, when JEhus Gallus was prefect, she invaded Egyptian 
territory and slew the Roman garrisons of Philae and Syene. 
In revenge the Romans invaded Nubia and marched to 

1 The hieroglyphic form of her prenomen is ( (I 1 t ^ j ' 

\^ 1 AAAAAA <: > ' I VJ^ 

and her nomen was Kenthahebit ( | (I KS^ (I (I 

, whence, prob- 


ably, the title Candace is derived. Her tomb is at Meroe (Northern Group of 
Pyramids, No. i). 



Napata, which they sacked and burned ; and Candace was 
forced to submit. From that time onward httle is heard ot 
the Kingdom of Meroe ; but the pyramids which still stand 
near Meroe prove that the Nubians observed the old Egyptian 
customs in connexion with the burial of their dead in chambers 
under the- ground. They offered sacrifices to Osiris, Isis, 
Nephthys,.Anubis, and other gods of the cycle of Osiris and 
recited the ancient formulas, which are also written in hiero- 
glyphics on the walls of the funerary chapels ; and in some 
instances"- they reproduced on the walls whole scenes, «.^., the 
Weighing of the Heart, and the Pylons of the Other World, 

The building at Philae commonly known as " Pharaoh's Bedi" 

Roman Period. 

from Ptolemafc copies of the Book of the Dead, as for example, 
on the sandstone relief from a pyramid chapel at Meroe 
which is exhibited in Bay 31, No. 1049. On the right Queen 
Candace is seated, her consort by her side, holding symbols 
of sovereignty, her feet resting on representatives of conquered 
tribes. Immediately in front of the large figure of the queen 
we see her pouring out libations to Osiris, and round about her 
are vases of wine, beer, unguents, bulls for sacrifice, etc., for 
the funerary feast. In her company are priests, officials, 
relatives, and others, who bear offerings, palm branches, etc, 
This relief was originally coloured red. Also may be mentioned 

(See page 2.'J1.) 

Plate LI. 

Tablet recording the restoration of the temple of Mut by the Emperor Tiberius 
Caesar, about A.D. 20. 
[Southern'Egyptian Gallery, Bay 27, No. 1052.] 

Plate LII. 

(See f age 277-) 







Tablet recording the setting up of a statue to the goddess Mut, and the restoration 

of certain buildings by the Emperor Tiberius Caesar, about A.D. 20. 

[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 29, No. 1053.] 


the two altars with Meroitic Inscriptions exhibited in 
Bay 30, Nos. 1050, 1051. The Meroitic character has not yet 
been deciphered. 

Nearly all the Roman emperors from Tiberius (a.d. 14) to 
Decius (a.d. 249) adopted Egyptian names and titles, and 
caused their names to be written within cartouches like those 
of the Pharaohs. The stele in Bay 27 (No. 1052) states that 
Tiberius rebuilt portions of the temple of Mut at Thebes (see 
Plate LI) ; and another stele (Bay 29, No. IO53) refers to 
the setting up by him of a statue of the goddess Mut, and the 
re-endowment of the portion of the temple wherein it stood 
.(see Plate LII). In the reign of Nero (a.d. 54-69) two 
centurions sent into the Sud4n to report on the general condition 
of the country reached the marshes near Sh^mbi, about 
700 _ miles south of Khartiim. Tradition asserts that 
Christianity was preached in Alexandria towards the close 
of his reign, and that St. Mark arrived in that city, A.D. 69. 
To this period belongs stele No. IO57 (Bay 32), which was 
set up to mark the gratitude of the Egyptians to Nero for 
appointing F. Claudius Balbillus, prefect of Egypt. Hadrian 
visited Egypt twice, and founded the city of Antinoopolis in 
memory of his friend Antinous who was drowned in the Nile ; 
when at Thebes he went with the Empress Sabina to view the 
Colossi(see PlateXXXIII). Marcus Aurelius (a.d. 161-180) 
was a just ruler and favoured Christianity in Egypt; in his reign 
the walls which surrounded the Sphinx at Gizah were repaired 
(see stele, No. 1058, Bay 32). Septimius Severus (a.d. 196) 
issued an edict against the Christians in Egypt, and his successor, 
Caracalla (a.d. 211), encouraged the pagan Egyptians and 
favoured their religion. Decius (A.D. 249) made a systematic 
attempt to destroy the Christians, and every person was called 
upon to offer sacrifice to the gods, or suffer death. In the reign 
of Diocletian (a.d. 284), the Blemmyes, a confederation of tribes 
who lived in the Eastern Sfid^n, became so powerful that they 
compelled the Roman garrisons to withdraw from the 
Dodekaschoinos/ and the emperor was obliged to hire the 
Nobadae, or tribes of the Western Desert, to keep them in 
check. He also agreed to pay the Blemmyes a fixed annual 
sum to refrain from raiding Roman territory in Egypt, and built 
a temple at Elephantine wherein representatives of all the 
peoples concerned might swear to observe the covenant in the 
presence of their respective gods. Diocletian in fact abandoned 

' I.e., the portion of the Nile Valley between Syene and Hierasykaminos, 
which was 12 schoeni (hence the name), or 70 miles, in length. 


the SGdan. In 304 he issued a savage edict against the 
Christians in Egypt, and the persecution which followed it was 
marked with ferocious cruelty. Many thousands of Egyptians 
fled to the desert monasteries to avoid conscription, and 
embraced Christianity. From one of his buildings on the 
Island of Philae comes the stone bearing the names of 
Diocletian and Constantine (a.d. 324) (No. 1059, Bay 26). 

In 378 Theodosius the Great proclaimed Christianity 
the religion of his Empire, and many temples in Lower 
Egypt were turned at once into churches ; but the ancient 
Egyptian gods were worshipped as usual in Upper Egypt. 
Marcianus (a.d. 450-457) invaded Nubia and punished 
the Blemmyes and Nobadae for raiding Roman territory ; 
they paid a huge fine, gave hostages for their future 
good behaviour, and made an agreement to keep the peace 
for one hundred years. In return they stipulated that they 
should be allowed to make pilgrimages annually to Philae, 
and to borrow the statue of Isis from time to time, so that 
they might take it about the country, and give the people 
the opportunity of invoking the protection and blessing of the 
goddess. In the first half, of the sixth century the Nubians 
embraced Christianity, and Silko, king of the Nobadae, 
founded a kingdom having its capital at Dongola. During 
the. reign of Justinian (a.d. 527-565) the hundred years' 
truce came to an end, and the Blemmyes and Nobadae again 
began to give trouble. Justinian, believing that the cause 
of the revolt was the annual pilgrimage to Philae, sent his 
officer Narses thither, with strict orders to close the temples 
of Isis. Narses threw the priests of Isis into prison, con- 
fiscated the revenues of the goddess, and carried off the 
statues of the gods of Philae to Constantinople. 

In the reign of Heradius the Persians, under Chosroes, 
invaded Egypt (a.d. 619), which they held for ten years. 
Owing to the desertion from the Persians of the Arab tribes, 
who had now attached themselves to the victorious troops of 
Muhammad the Prophet (born at Mekkah, Aug. 20, A.D. 570, 
died in June, 632), Heraclius was able to attack the Persians, 
in Syria, and defeating them became master of Egypt 
once more. In 640 'Amr ibn al-Asi, the general of the 
Khalifa Omar, conquered Egypt, and thus the country 
became a province of the newly-founded Arab Empire. 

During the rule of the Romans, which lasted from B.C. 30 
to A.D. 640, the Greek language entirely superseded Egyptian 
for official purposes, and it was also usually employed in the 
funerary inscriptions, Interesting examples are the stele of 



Politta, inscribed with a metrical text (Bay 26,- No. 1083), 
and the stele of Artemidorus (Bay 26, No. 1084). On the 
pillar altar (Bay 31, No. 1086) is a dedication in Greek to 
the god Serapis of the city of Canopus ; and on the square 
sandstone slab (Bay 26, No. 1087) is a very interesting but 
difficult text recording the cleansing and restoration of some 
public building near the town of Kom Ombo in Upper 
Egypt, whilst Gabriel was Duke of the Thebald. Other 
interesting inscriptions in Greek are found in ostraka, or 
potsherds, many of which are dated in the reigns of Claudius, 

Sepulchral tablet sculptured with figures of doves, 
pillars, leaf patterns, etc. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, Bay 30, No. 1156.] 

Nero, Vespasian, Trajan, Antoninus, Sabinus, Pertinax, etc., 
will be found exhibited in Table-case C in the Third 
Egyptian Room. During the early centuries of Roman 
rule the Egyptians continued to mummify their dead, and to 
bury them with the ancient rites and ceremonies. The use of 
the funerary stele or tablet continued down to the fourth 
century A.D. ; but the gods represented on them appeared in 
different forms, and Greek or demotic took the place of 
hieroglyphics. In the region about Thebes and to the south 
of that city the cult of Osiris and Isis continued until about 
A.D. 560, and a simple system of mummification was practised 
in connexion with the worship of the dead. 

The most important event during the rule of the Romans 
was the introduction of Christianity by St. Mark the 
Apostle, who, according to tradition, preached the Gospel 


in Alexandria about A.D. 69. The knowledge of the new 
religion spread rapidly, and converts multiplied and, though 
no direct proof is forthcoming at present, there is reason to 
think that before the middle of the second century an 
account of the life of Christ and His words and works existed 
in the Egyptian tongue. Men who had enibraced Christianity 
retired into the desert to lead a life of austerity and con- 
templation, among whom may be mentioned Frontonius, 
who collected seventy disciples, and withdrew to the Nitrian 
Desert between A.D. 138 and 161, and Paul the Anchorite, 
who died about A.D. 250, aged 113 years. The life and 
teaching of Anthony, born 250, died 355, induced thousands 
to become monks. Pachomius, in 320, systematized 
monasticism, but he required the recluses to work for their 
living whilst they cultivated spiritual excellences. Women 
as well as men flocked to the desert, and nunneries existed 
in many places in Egypt. The number of such recluses 
was great ; at Nitria alone there were 5,000 monks, and, 
in addition, 600 lived solitary lives in the neighbouring 
desert. At Oxyrhynchus there were 10,000 monks, and the 
bishop had charge of 20,000 nuns. In the monasteries of Nitria 
and Panopolis, and elsewhere, the Holy Scriptures were trans- 
lated from Greek into Egyptian {i.e., Coptic, see pages 35-39) 
and Syriac, and other Oriental languages ; and copiep 
of them were carried by monks and fugitive Christians into 
Nubia, and even into remote Abyssinia, by way of the Blue 
Nile. In the Oases of the Western Desert were numbers of 
Christians in the fourth and fifth centuries ; wherever the 
monk went he took Christianity with him. Still, in spite of 
the spread of the new religion, the beliefs which the Egyptians 
had received from their pagan ancestors also flourished in 
Egypt for centuries after the preaching of St. Mark, and people 
of all classes clung to their amulets, and words of power, and 
magical ceremonies, even after they had embraced Christianity. 
For a very long time the Cross was regarded as an amulet ' 
possessing the greatest magical power possible, and the 
Name of Christ was held to be the greatest of all words of 

The principal doctrine of the Egyptian Christians, or 
Copts, is that God the Father and Christ are of one and the 
Same nature ; Arius held that God and Christ are only 
similar in nature, and was declared a heretic. The Copts 
are called Monophysites, because they believed, and still 
believe, that Christ is of one nature only, and Jacobites 
because their views as to the nature of Christ are identical 



with those of one Jacob, a famous preacher of the Monophysite 
doctrine. The head of the Coptic Church is the Patriarch, 
who is chosen from among the monks of the Monastery of 
St. Anthony in the Red Sea Desert. The Copts attach great 
importance to Baptism, they face the East when praying, and 
they pray seven tim^s a day. They make use of Confession, 
and keep five Fasts and seven Festivals. The Copts were 
persecuted severely in the reigns of Hadrian, Decius, Diocletian, 
and Julian the Apostate (A.D. 361), but the cruellest of the 
persecutions of the Roman emperors was that of Diocletian 

Sepulchral tablet of Plein&s, a 
" reader." 

[Southern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay 32, No. 1 145.] 

Sepulchral tablet of David, an 
Egyptian Christian. 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay 30, No. 1 1 60.] 

in 304. The Copts commemorated the sufferings of their 
community on this occasion by making the Era of the 
Martyrs, by which they date their documents, begin with the 
day of Diocletian's accession to the throne, i.e., August 29th, 
A.D. 284. In the reign of Justinian the Copts split up into 
two great parties, i.e., the Melkites, or Royalists, which 
included all those who were in the service of the Government, 
and the Jacobites, or ordinary inhabitants of the country; 
henceforward each party chose its own Patriarch. The 


dissensions between them materially aided the Conquest of 
Egypt by the Arabs. 

Side by side with Christianity there also sprang up in 
Egypt, under Romfin rule, a number of sects to which the 
title 1" Gnostic " has been given. They derived many of their 
views and beliefs from the religion of the ancient Egyptians, 
and they admitted into their system many of the old gods, 
.e.g., Khnemu, Ptah. Ra, Amen, Thoth, Osiris, etc. The 
founders of Gnosticism, a word derived from the Greek 
gnosis, " knowledge," claimed to possess a superiority of 
knowledge in respect of things divine and celestial, and 
they regarded the knowledge of God as the truest perfection 
of knowledge. The characteristic god of the Gnostics was 
Abrasax, or Abraxas, and he represented the One who 
embraced ALL within himself. They attributed magical 
properties to stones, which, when cut into certain forms, and 
inscribed with legends, or mystic names, words, and letters, 
affordedj they thought, protection against moral and physical 
evil. An unusually fine collection of Gnostic Gems and 
Amulets is exhibited in Table-case N, in the Fourth 
Egyptian Room : No. i speaks of the " Father of the World, 
the God in Three Forms " ; No. l8 shows us the lion-headed 
serpent Knoumis and the mystic symbol ^SS '> N°- ^5 
makes the Osiris-Christ to be Jah of the Hebrews, and 
also Alpha and Omega ; Nos. 36, 37, and 44 have figures of 
Abraxas cut upon them ; No. 87 mentions Solomon's Seal, 
No. no, the six Archangels ; and of peculiar interest are 
No. 231, engraved with a representa/tion of the Crucifixion, 
and No. 469, engraved with a representation of the Birth of 


A.D.' 640-1517. 

As the Arabs were materially assisted in their conquest of 
Egypt by the Copts, the new masters of the country treated 
the latter with great consideration for about 100 years ; but, 
from A.D. 750 onwards, they persecuted their Christian sub- 
jects at intervals with great severity. The non-Christian 
inhabitants of the country embraced Isl^m, or the doctrine 
of Muhammad the Prophet, and, with the religion of the 
Muslims, the knowledge of the Arabic language spread 
throughout Egypt. It gradually superseded Egyptian, or 
Coptic, and about the end of the twelfth century it became 

(Seepage 283.) 

Plate LIII, 























n D. 





(A cd 





s ° 


c4 (-■ 


^ bJl 





dJ 4^ 



01 ^ 

.a (u 



i" s'^ 




i.T3 :: 

ca c 


P^ « 6 


rt >r^ 



< u 0" 









s ^ 

" 1 — 1 




B- c 



the common language of the country, Coptic ceasing to 
be spoken except in monasteries and remote villages. In 
642 the Arabs, under Abd-Allah bin Sa'd, occupied the 
Egyptian Sfidin, and ten years later they marched to Dongola, 
destroyed the church and the town, and levied an annual 
tribute, or Bakt, consisting of 360 or 365 "taen upon the 
Nubians, which' was paid with more or less regularity for 
nearly 500 years. On several occasions the Arabs invited the 
Christians of Nubia to embrace Islam, but the latter steadily 
rejected the offer, paid their tribute, and continued to 
worship God according to the teachings of their Jacobite 
priests, who were appointed to their office by the Patriarch 
of Alexandria. Many hundreds of churches were built in 
the Sudan between A.D. 540, when the Christian religion was 
established by Silko, king of the Nobadae, and 1450, when 
the Christian kingdom of Aiwa, on the Blue Nile, was 
destroyed. During the greater part of these 900 years the 
Liturgy was recited in Greek, and the services were con- 
ducted after the manner laid down by the spiritual authorities 
in Alexandria. Certain Books of the Bible and various 
Offices were translated into Nubi, the language of the 
country ; but of these few remains are extant. 

In Egypt the Copts founded and maintained many monas- 
teries, and built many churches ; and from these come two 
remarkable series of monuments, inscribed in Greek and 
Coptic, which are exhibited in Bays 28, 30, and 32 of the 
Southern Egyptian Gallery. The greater number of them 
belong to the period between 600 and 1000 A.D., and 
among them may be noted : — The stele of Isos (?), inscribed 
in Greek with a prayer to the " God of Spirits " (Bay 26, 
No. 1094) ; the stele of Pahomo (see Plate LIII), the father 
of a monastic settlement, with iigures of the military saints 
Apakene and Victor (Bay 30, No. 1103) ; the apse from the 
shrine of a saint, on which are sculptured vine branches, 
with doves seated on them, and figures of flowers, shells, 
fish, etc. : a very interesting object (Bay 32, No. 1104) ; the 
stele of John the Deacon, inscribed with a lament on the 
bitterness of death (Bay 30, No. II05); an altar slab from 
a church (Bay 32, No. II06) ; three stelae, inscribed with 
invocations to saints (Bays 30, 32, Nos. 1107-1109) ; apse 
from a shrine of a saint from a church at Philae (Bay 30, 
No. III3) ; and a group of stelae commemorating the holy 
women Helena, daughter of Peter, deacon and steward 
of the Church of St. John, in Esna, in Upper Egypt (Bay 30, 
No. 1 1 15), Sara, Rachel, Teucharis, Trois, and Rebecca 



(Bay 32, Nos. II16-I120). Many of the sepulchral stelae 
are richly sculptured with pediments of shrines, pillars with 
elaborate carvings, figures of doves, and everywhere are pro- 
minent the cross, which is assumed to be identical with the 

dnkh ■¥■ , the old Egyptian symbol of " life," and the crown. 

On several of them also are seen Alpha and Omega, A £l. 
The most elaborately decorated stele is that which was set 
up for the child Mary in the old church at SClhak. The 

Sepulchral tablet of Abraam, the 
" perfect monk." 
[Southern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay 30, No. 1136.] 

Sepulchral tablet of Rachel, a Christian 

[Southern Egyptian Gallery, 

Bay 32, No. 1 1 17.] 

design is good, the cutting excellent, and it is one of the 
finest examples extant of this class of monument (Bay 32, 
No. 1123).^ A very interesting group of Coptic documents, 
consisting of affidavits, letters, invoices, contracts, extracts 
from the Scriptures and from liturgies, hymns, etc., is exhibited 

^ Copies and translations of most of the Greek and Coptic inscriptions have 
been published by the Trustees of the British Museum in "Coptic and Greek 
Texts of the Christian Period from Ostraka, Stelae, etc., in the British 
Museum." With 100 plates. 1905. Foolscap. £2. 


in Table-case M in the Fourth Egyptian Room. In division 4 
of the same case is a good collection of Coptic crosses, 
pendants with figures of St. George, etc., from Panopolis. 
Several very fine examples of linenwork from Coptic graves 
and churches will be found in Table-cases E and J in the 
Third Egyptian Room, and a handsome bier cloth in Wall- 
cases 70 and 71, in the Second Egyptian Room. 

Soon after the Arabs had conquered Egypt, they found it 
necessary to keep a strong garrison at Syene, the modern 
Aswan. In order to relieve the soldiers of the garrison 
from the duty of a pilgrimage to Mekkah, an order was issued 
from Fostat, the first Arab capital in Egypt, near Old Cairo, 
that a pilgrimage to Aswin counted as a pilgrimage to 
Mekkah; hence for some two or three hundred years Aswin 
was regarded as a holy place, and pious Muslims were brought 
there from all parts to be buried. A collection of gravestones 
inscribed in Kufi, or Kufic, a form of Arabic writing, from 
the old Muhammadan cemetery at Asw^n, is exhibited in 
the Second Northern Gallery (Wall-cases 52-54). The 
oldest example is that of Azhar, son of Abd as-Salim, who 
died in the year of the Hejira 252 = A.D. 866. 

The Arab dynasties which ruled Egypt and the Sfldan 
between 656 and 1 5 17 are as follows : — 

'Omayyad Khalifas^ a.d. 661-750. 

'Abbasid Khalifas „ 750-868. 

Tulunid Khalifas „ 868-913. 

Fatimid Khalifas „ 913-1193- 

Ayyubid Khalifas „ 1 193-1249. 

Bahrite ManiMks „ 1249-1382. 

Circassian Mamluks^ „ 1382-1517. 

The Arab domination came to an end in 15 17, when 
Selim, sultan of Turkey, conquered the country, and Egypt 
became a Turkish Province, or Pashalik. 

' The word Kkaltfa means " successor," i.e., of the Prophet. 
^ The word MamlAk means " slave." 





Kings of Lower Egypt 

I u. 

6 Neheb. 

2 Seka. 

7 Uatch-nar, or Uatch-Ant. 

3 Khaau. 

8 Mekha. 

4 Tau. 

9 a. [10 ff. wanting]. 

5 Thesh. 


First Dynasty. 



B.C. 4400. 



Mena (Menes). 



Third Dynasty. 


B.C. 3966. 

Semti (Ten). 

Merpeba (At-ab). 
Sen (or, Qebh). 


Bebi (Tchatchai). 



Teta (Hen-nekht). 

Second Dynasty. 


Neferka-Ra Huni. 

B.C. 4133. 

Neterbaiu, or Betchau, or 

Fourth Dynasty. 


B.C. 3733- 






Khufu (Cheops). 






Khaf-Ra (Chephren). 
Menkau-Ra (Mykerinos). 

Fifth Dynasty. 

B.C. 3566. 






Useren-Ra An. 


Tetka-Ra Assa. 


Sixth Dynasty. 

B.C. 3330. 


Userka-Ra Ati. 
Pepi I. 
Meren-Ra I. 
Pepi II. 
Meren-Ra II. 

Eleventh Dynasty. 

B.C. 2600. 

Antef, the Erpa. 
Antef Uah ankh. 
Antef Nekht-neb-tep-nefer. 
Menthu-hetep I. 
Menthu-hetep II. 
Menthu-hetep III. 
Menthu-hetep IV. 
Menthu-hetep V. 
Menthu-hetep VI. 
Menthu-hetep VII, 

j.c. 1600. 

. B.C. 1550. 

Twelfth Dynasty. 

B.C. 2466. 

Amenemhat I. 
Usertsen I. 
Amenemhat II. 
Usertsen II. 
Usertsen III. 
Amenemhat III. 

Amenemhat IV. 
Usertsen IV. 

Eighteenth Dynasty. 

Aahmes I \-nc 

Amen-hetep I J 

Thothmes I 
Thothmes II 
Thothmes III 

Amen-hetep II, B.C. 1500. 
Thothmes IV 1 ^^ j^^^ 
Amen-hetep III J 

Amen-hetep IV ^ 

(or Khu-en-Aten) | 

Tutankh-Amen )>B.C. 1400, 



Nineteenth Dynasty. 

Rameses II, B.C. 1330. ^ 

Amenmeses, B.C. 1250. 


Seti II.' 

Arsu, the Syrian. 



Twentieth Dynasty. 


Rameses III, B.C. 1200. 
Rameses IV. 
Rameses V. 
Rameses VI. 
Rameses VII. 
Rameses VIII. 
Rameses IX. 
Rameses X, B.C. 1133. 
Rameses XI. 
Rameses XII. 

Twenty-first Dynasty. 

B.C. 1 1 00. 

At Tunis. 
Pasebkhanut I. 
Pasebkhanut 11. 

At Thebes. 
Pai-Netchem I. 
Men-kheper- Ra. 
Pai-Netchem II. 

Twenty-second Dynasty. 

B.C. 966. 

[Buiu-uaua, the founder.] 

Shashanq I (Shishak). 
Uasarken I. 
Thekeleth I. 
Uasarken II. 
Shashanq II. 
Thekeleth II. 
Uasarken III. 
Thekeleth III. 
.Shashanq III. 
Shashanq IV. 

Twenty-third Dynasty. 

B.C. 750. 

Uasarken IV. 
Tafnekht I. 

Twenty-fourth Dynasty. 

B.C. 733. 

Tafnekht II. 

Twenty-fifth Dynasty. 

B.C. 700. 



Shabaka (Sabaco). 


Taharqa (Tirhakah). 


Twenty-sixth Dynasty. 

B.C. 666. 

Psemthek I (Psammetichus). 
Nekau (Necho). 
Psemthek II. 
Uahab-Ra (Hophra). 
Aahmes II (Amasis). 
Psemthek III. 

Twenty-seventh Dynasty. 

B.C. 527. 


Darius I (Hystaspes.) 

Xerxes I. 


Darius II. 

M 2 



Twenty-eighth Dynasty. 


Twenty-ninth Dynasty. 

B.C. 399. 




Thirtieth Dynasty. . 

B.C. 378. 

Nekht - Hem - heb (Nekta- 

Tchehra (Teos). 
Nekht-nebf (Nektanebos). 

Thirty-first Dynasty. 
Darius III, B.C. 336. 


B.C. 340. 

Alexander the Great. 
Philip Arrhidaeus. 
Alexander II. 


B.C. 30S-3C- 

Ptolemy I. 
Ptolemy II. 
Ptolemy III. 
Ptolemy IV. 
.Ptolemy V. 
Ptolemy VI. 
Ptolemy VII. 
Ptolemy VIII. 
Ptolemy IX. 
Ptolemy X. 
Ptolemy XI. 
Ptolemy XII. 
Ptolemy XIII. 
Ptolemy XIV. 
Ptolemy XV. 
Ptolemy XVI. 




MenA. Sem-ti. Mer-ba-pen. 

(Mer-p-ba. ) 

T^ ( tt j Semsu, or ^\^ r ^ 1 ^" '""^ Nekht)? 

mC\W\ CH "' CffiD 

Neter-baiu, i.e., Besh, Betchau. 

Ka-kau. Ba-en-neter. 

Per-Ab-sen. SentA. 

m C3 M (3] " M CMID 



Nefer-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, HuNL 

Seneferu. Khufu. (Cheops.) 

Tet-f-Ra. Kha-f-Ra. 


Men-kau-Ra. Shepses-ka-f. 


M 3 







a V A^^\AA/< 



son of the Sun, 

e^^ yy I Men-kau-Heru. 

Tet-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, 





son of the Sun, 

oved of Ptah. ) 

(Teta beloved of Ptah.) 

Pepi (I.). 


¥ - C^krl 


son of the Sun, 


: the Sun, 

son of the Sun, Pepi (II.). 

Ra-mer -en-Tchefau-em-sa-f. 


son of the Sun, 





ERPA Ha Antef-A. 

The Erpa and Ha, Antef-A. 







son of Ihe Sun, 

son of the Sun, 





son of the Sun, 


son of the Sun, 
-9 O 


ra "^^ 

son of the Sun, 



\^^ ftAAAArt ^ D Ji 



Ra-seshesh-her-uer-maat, son of the Sun, Antef-aa (I.). 

aA/VAAAA ^\j 

son of the Sun, Antef-aa (II.). 

Ra-sesHesh-Apu-maat, son c 

m (¥lzil -°' _ 

Ra-sesHesh-Apu-maat, son of the Sun, Antef-aa (III.). 

the Sun, Antef-aa (IV.). 


U ¥ 


son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 


Amen-em-9at (I.). 
M 4 




soij of the Sun, 




usertsen (i.). 

M C^^yy] - 





son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 

Amen-em-?jat (II.). 


Usertsen {II. ). 



Usertsen (III.). 



Amen-em-uat (III.). 


son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 

AmEN-EM-gAT (IV.). 




son of the Sun, 


1 ICS=] 

/^^AAA^ ] AA-AB. 


Neter nefer Aa-Ab-tahi-Ra, son of the Sun, 
Beautiful god. 




Neter nefer Aa-qenen-Ra, son of the Sun, 






son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 

m CKW l ¥ 



son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 

Ra-sekhent-neb, son of the Sun, 



o \=^ 


Neb-peijti-Ra, son of the Sun, 
Tcheser-KA-Ra, son of the Sun, 




Aa-kheper-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, 

T^ ( ...=. m — J 

d d V <>■=• ^ ^ VI 

Aa-kheper-en-Ra, son of the Sun, 

^UBTI (?). 



I I c 




— 11 ^ ^ >W\AAA 




(Amasis I.) 

(Amenophis I.) 

(Thothmes I.) 


(Thothmes II.) 





son of the Sun, Hat-shepset-khnem-Amen. 
(Queen Hatshepsu.) 

O liti^ 







son of the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 


(Thothmes III.) 

Amen-?jetep neter ueq 
Annu. (Amenophis II.) 

(Mm : 

Men-kheperu-Ra, son of the Sun, Tejjuti-mes-kha-khait. 

(Thothmes IV.) 


S^l \^ 1 AAAWV\ ft y 


son of the Sun, Amen-ijetep ?jeq Uast. 
(Amenophis III.) 



(A Mesopotamian wife of AmenoFhis III.) 

Nefer-kheperd-Ra Ua- son of the Sun, Amen-uetep neter ueq 


Uast. (Amenophis IV.) 



^ ^ 

Suten uemt urt 
Royal wife, great lady. 





Nefer neferu-Aten Nbferti-ith. 



Ankh-kheperu-Ra, son of the Sun, Seaa-ka-nekht-kheperu-Ra. 






son of the Sun, Tut-ankh-Amen ijeq 

Annu resu. 

Kheper-kheperu-maat- son of the Sun, Atf-neter Ai neter 
Ari-Ra, BEQ Uast. 

Amen-meri-en Heru- 



MC5M] ^ Com;] 

Tcheser-kheperu-Ra- son of th 



son of the Sun, 

(Rameses I.) 


son of the Sun, Pta^-meri-en-Seti. 
(Seti I.) 

# Cimm 

Usr-maat-Ra setep-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Ra-messu-meri-Amen. 

(Rameses II.) 


mQES] ^ QMIMfl 

Usr-maat-Ra setep- son of 
en-Ra, the Sun, 

Amen mer-Ra-meses. 

Ba-Ra-meri-en-Amen, son of the Sun, Ptau-meri-en-?jetep- 



Usr-kheperu-Ra-meri-Amen, son of Seti-meri-en-Ptaij. 

the Sun, (Seti II.) 

Men-mA-Ra setep-en-Ra , 

son of 
the Sun. 







Khu-en-Ra setep-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Ptaw-meri-en-Sa-Ptaij. 

(Menephthah II.) 

Usr-khau-Ra setep-en-Ra son of the 
meri-Amen, Sun, 

Ra-meri Amen-merer 

(Rameses III.) 


Ra ijeq maat. 
(Rameses IV.) 



Usr-maat-Ra-meri-Amen, son of the Sun, 


Usr-maat-Ra setep-en- son of the Sun, 

Usr-maat-Ra s-kheper- son of the Sun, 

Ra-mes-meri Amen- 
Amen suten-f. 
(Rameses V.) 

son of the Sun, 

m (311] ¥ ClUlEl 


Ra-dsr-maa-Amen- son of the Sun, 


Ra-maat-usr-khu-en- son of the Sun, 



1 AAftAAA yi 


Neb ta S-kha-en-Ra Meri- neb khau 
Lord of the Am EN, lord of crowns, 


Ra-Amen-meses neter 


(Rameses VI.) 


(Rameses VII.) 




(Rameses VIII.) 


(Rameses IX.) 

Ci in \^ V I 1 1 AAAAAA J\ 




Nefer-kau-Ra setep- son of the Sun, 


Ra-kheper-maat setep- 

Men-maat-Ra setep- 



son of the 



(Rameses X.) 

Ra-mes suten (?) Amen. 
(Rameses XI.) 



son of the Ra-meses-merer-Amen kha 

Sun, Uast neter ijeq Annu. 

(Rameses XII.) 

son of the Amen-mer-Nes-ba-neb-Tettetet. 
Sun, (Smendes.) 

Ra-aa-kheper setep- son of the Amen-meri Pa-seb-kha- 
en-Mentu, Sun, Nu. (Pasebkhanh I.) 


Prophet first of Ame 


Neter-hen-tep-en-AMEN, son of the 
Prophet first of Amen. Sun, 





r~^ f^ \ f V-i ' VWAAAA KAMAA^ J\ 


son of the 

son of the 

son of the 


(Shishak I.) 

■ J. mini 

Amen-meri UasArken. 
(Osoekon I.) 

Ra-usr-maat setep-en- son of the 
Amen,- Sun, 

lERi UasArken. 
•soekon I.) 



Amen-meri sa-Bast 
■ Uasarken. 
(Osorkon II.) 



Seshesh-kheper-Ra son of 
setbp-en-Amen, the Sun, 

Hetch-Ra-setep-en-Amen, son of 
NETER UEQ Uast, the Sun, 




Amen-meri Aset-meri 


(Takeleth II. ) 

m Q^m) ^ QiMMTiii] 


son of 
the Sun, 

Amen-meri-Shashanq ijeq 


(Shishak III.) 

/NAAA/VA ^1 

Usr-maat-Ra setep- son of 
en-Amen, the Sun, 






son of the Sun, 

Amen-meri Pa-mAi. 

/V\AAAA ^\I 

mm ^} 

(Shishak IV.) 


son of the Sun, 





son of 
the Sun, 

son of the Sun, 

( iQt(, vwvAA •jo I [q] ^:3>i^ ' J 

Ra-Amen-meri UasarkbnA. 
(osorkon iv.) 






AmbU'MBRI P,ankhi, soRofttieSHn, Mnkhi; 

9 O 



CljMfetU^ . 

Men-khbper-Ra, son of the Sun, 



Nefer-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Shabaka. (Sabaco.) 


ra A_ 

Tahrq, or, 

son of the Sun, 

Ra-nefer-tem-khu, son of the Sun, 


Taharqa. (Tirhakah.) 



son of lord of Amen-ta-nuath. 
the Sun, Crowns, 




son of the Sun, 




son of the Sun, Nekau. (Necho II.) 








son of the Sun, 



son of the Sun, Ua^-Ab-Ra. (Apries.) 


son of the Sun, Aaijmes-sa-Net. (Amasis II. ) 

son of the Sun, 




M C°M>J] 





son of the Sun, 
son of the Sun, 


Lord of two lands, 


Senen-en-Ptaij-Tanen- $onofthe 
SETEP, Sun, 





Ra-meri-Amen, son of the Sun, 


Ba-EN-Ra NET! 


Ba-en-Ra neteru- son of the Sun, 


son of the Sun, 
-9 O 


(Darius Hystaspes.) 



(Xerxes the Great.) 



(Darius Nothus.) 





MCdES ¥ (H^ 

Ra-usr-setep-en-Ptaij, son of the Sun, 






son of the Nekht-Heru-(jebt-meri-Amen. 

Sun, (NEKTASEBfes.) 

' variants. Q^^^], Q^^^^g'] 






son of the Sun, TcHE-yRA-SETEP-EN-AN-lJER. 





-^l n., 

son of the Sun, 






son of the Sun, AleksAntres. 

(Alexander the Great.) 

Neb taui Setep-en-Ra- 


son of the 

(Philip Arrhidaeus.) 



1 AftAAAA/l 

MA^*/t I AftA/WS 

¥ C 


Ra-qa-Ab-setep-en-Amen, son of the 


(Alexander II.) 

m(MM) ¥ OMD 

Setep-en-Ra-meri son of the Sun, Ptulmis. 

Amen, (Ptolemy I. Soter I.) 

H RVOI ¥ ( TfWl 

Ra-usr-ica-meri-Amen, son of the Sun, Ptulmis. 

(Ptolemy II. Philadelphus. 


/V\AAAA ^ 




son 'of the Sun, Ptualmis ankh tchetta Pta?j meri. 

Ptolemy (IX. Euergetes II.), living for ever, beloved of Ptajj. 



getes II.), living for ever, beloved 


Nebt taui 
Lady of two lands, 

Ra sa 

son of the 


Qlapetrat tchettu-nes Trapenet. 
Cleopatra, called Tryphaena. 

neb khau 

lord of 




Kiseres ankh tchetta Ptaij Aset meri 
CiE|AR, living for ever, of Pta? and 
J Isis beloved. 



Aa 17 

Aa-ab, King 293 

Aa-ab-taui-lla .293 

Aah-hetep, Queen 227 

Aahnies I, 115, 153, 227, 228, 287, 294 

Aahmes II 260, 288, 300 

Aahmes-nefert-Ari 164 

Aa-kheper-en-Ra ... 294 

Aa-kheper-ka-Ra 294 

Aa-kheper-Ra 299 

Aa - kheper - Ra setep-en - Amen 

(Osorkon IV) ... 299 

Aa-kheper-Ra setep-en-Menthu ... 298 

Aa-kheperu-Ra 295 

Aamu 206, 210, 211 

Aa-peh (Nubti) 225 

Aa-pehti-Set 294 

Aa-qenen-Ra (Apepa II) ... 226,293 

Aasith, goddess 


Aa-user-Ra, King 

Ab-da, King 

Abai, River 


'Abbltsid Khalifas 

'Abd- Allah bin Sa'ad 


'Abd as-Salim 


Abraam, stele of 




Abu, Elephantine, island of 

Abflktr, lake of 

Abfl Roish, pyramids of 

• ■■ 131 
... 16 
... 22s 
... 223 
... II 
... 203 
... 285 
... 283 
... 162 
... 28s 
73. 232 
... 284 
... 282 
.. 282 
... 16 
I, 16, 85 
... 5 

... 170 

Ab(i-Simbel, temple of 73, 108, 242 
Abii-Slr, 17, 203, 204; pyramids 

of 170 

Abydos, 145, 188, 215 ; tablets of, 
2o8i 240, 245 ; temple of ... 240 

Ajbyssinia 20, 28Q 

Acacia 89, 138 

Achoris 264 

Acrobats 87 

Adam 165 


Adramtya, cataract of ... .. 13 

Addresses of Horus ... ... 67 

Aegyptus ... ... ... ... 4 

Aelius Gallus ... • • • 275 

Afa, relief of 203 

Affidavits, Coptic ... ... ... 284 

Africans ... ... ... ... 20 

Africanus, Julius ... 185, 208, 264 

Afu-Ra 66 

Agricultural implements ... ... 96 

Agriculture 22, 92 

Aha, tomb of 188 

AhnSs ... ... ... 16, 209 

Ai 238, 2S7, 296 

Aiguptos ... ... 4 

Akabah ... ... ... ... 4 




Akhet, season of 

Akhmlm 16, 100, 


Albert Nyanza 

Alexander I the Great, 162, 266, 

289, 302 

Alexander II ... 266,289,302 

Alexandria, 19, 277, 280; founded, 
266; patriarch of 283 

Alexandrian Library and Museum 268 









Al-Khirgah, Oasis of 


Al-Lihfln, 215 ; pyramids of 



Alphabet, the Egyptian 49 

Altar stands 

Altars, stone 


Amamu, coffin of ... 


Am Jrah 

16, 234 
... 16 

262, 263 
... 16 

170, 172 
... 201 

282, 284 
50, 270 
... lOI 
... 222 
... 283 
58, 178 
... 126 
... 126 
• ■• 73 




Amasis I 227, 228 

Amasis II, 260 ; and see Aahmes. 
Amen, god, 1 29 ; incarnation of, 

232 ; temple of, founded ... 232 

Amenartas, Queen... 115, 256, 257 

Amen-asru, King 235 

Amen-em-ant, stele of 246 

Amen-em-Apt, King, 251, 288; 

stele of . . . ... ... ... 229 

Amenemhat I, 172, 212, 213, 287, 

293 ; instructions of ... 68,213 
Amenemhat II, 172,214,215,287,293 
Amenemhat III 172, 255, 287, 293 
Amenemhat IV ... 219, 287, 293 

Amenemhat, an official 215 

Amenemhat, a royal kinsman ... 221 

Amen-em-hat, stele of 238 

Amen-em-heb, a scribe 251 

Amen-hetep I ... 229, 287, 294 

Amen-hetep II, 153, 231, 232, 

255, 287, 29s 
Amen-hetep III, 72, 153, 164, 179, 

232-236, 287, 29s 
Amen-hetep IV, 115,179,233,236, 

237, 287, 295 ; and see Khu- 

Amen-hetep, a high-priest ... 250 

Amen-hetep, an Erpa .. ... 235 

Amen-hetep, an officer ... ... 232 

Amen-hetep, a scribe 261 

Amen-hetep, son of Hap 235 

Ameni, an official ... ... ... 214 

Ameni, figure of 221 

Ameni, Prince 219 

Ameni, stele of ... ... ... 221 

Ameni, the builder 217 

Amen-men, stele of 229 

Amen-mes, King, 248; palette of 55 

Amen-meses 287, 296 

Amen-Ra, god, 123, 129, 266; boat 

of, 70; priests of, 226, 238, 251, 

252; temple of, at Karnak, 231 ; 

temple of, at Khargah, 263 ; 

temple of, at Napata ... ... 257 

Amen-Ra-mes, stele of 248 

Amen-rut-meri-Amen ... 263, 264 
Ament, Amentet ... ... 17, 239 

Amentarit, Queen 275 

Amenti 139 

Am-f-khent 16 

Am-f-peh 16 

Am-hetch-paar ... ... ... 126 

Am-Het-Serqet 126 

Am-Het-ur-Ra 126 

Am-Khent 16, 17 

Am-mit ... ... ... 140, 144 

Am-Neter-het 126 

Am-peh ..; 16, 17 

'Amr ibn al-Asi 278 

Am-Sah 126 

Amset 123, 161 

Amsu, 123, 128, 238; and see Menu. 

Am-Tep 126 

Amulets, 53, lOO, 179; list of, 147- 

150; pre-dynastic, 148; Gnostic 282 

Am-Unnu-meht 126 

Am-Unnu-resu ... ... ... 126 

Amusements 84 ff. 

Amyrtaios 263, 264, 289 

An 203, 287, 291 

Anaemia ... ... ... ... 73 

Anaitis 248 

Anatomy ... ... ... 32, 72 

Ancestors, worship of ... ... 189 

Aneb-hetch 17 

Anebni, statue of 231 

Anhai, papyrus of ... 61, 146, 153 

An-her-nekht, 217 ; ste)e of ... 221 
Ani, maxims of, 146 ; papyrus of, 

S3. 59; shrine of 239 

Animal food 82 

Anit ... 125 

Ankartb ... ... ... ... 90 

Ankh amulet ... 149 

An-kheft-ka, statue of 109, 114, 203 

Ankh-f-en-Khensu ... 152 

Ankh-haf 203 

Ankh-ka-en-Ra 300 

Ankh-kheperu-Ra ... 295 

Ankhnes-nefer-ab-Ra, sarcophagus 

_ of 260 

Ankh-p-khart, statue of ... ... 262 

Ankh-sen-Amen, Queen ... ... 238 

Anna, stele of ... 239 

Annals of kings 73 

Annihilation of the wicked ... 144 

Annu (On, Heliopolis) ... ... 17 

Anpu (Anubis), 127 ; of Sepau, 

212 ; brother of Batau ... 69, 7.0 

Anqet ... 125, 129 

Antef (dynasty XI), King 210 

Antef, inscription of ... 212,222 
Antef, an official ... 73, 210, 212 

Antef, a priest ... 221 

Antef, statue of ... 214 

Antef (Nub-kheper-Ra), relief of 

226, 292 
Antef Uah ankh. King ... ... 292 

Antefa, the Erpa ... 209, 210, 292 

Antef-aa I 210, 226, 292 

Antef-aa II 292 

Antef-aa III ... ... ... 292 

Antef-aa, coffin of, 226 ; pyramid 

of... 226 

Antef- Aqer-ankh-khu 224 

Antelope 82 

Anthat 125, 130, 248 

Anthony, St., the Great .,. 163, 280 



Anthretha 130 

Anti (myrrh) 21, 211 

Antimony 81 

Antinoopolis 277 

Antinous 277 

Antiochus the Great 270 

Antkes, tablet for offerings of ... 207 

Antoninus 279 

Antony 272 

Antuf, song of 75 

Anubis (see Anpu) 123, 127 

Apachnas, King 225 

Apakene, St. 283 

Apep 31, 142, 267 

Apepa I 218, 225, 293 

Apepa II 226,293 

Apepi 67 

Apepi, king of Avaris 74 

Apes, dog-headed 21 

Apesh 132 

Aphroditopolis ... ... ... 16 

Apis Bull 93, 131, 191, 263 

Apis Chapels ... ... ... 234 

Apit 131 

Apni, stele of 235 

•Apollinopolis Magna 16 

Apophisj King 221; 

Apries (Hophra) 259,300 

Apse 283 

Apshait 132 

Apt, a measure 98 

Apu (Panopolis) 16, 99 

Apu, figure of 238 

Ap-uat-em-sau-f, King 224 

Aqer, stele of 212 

Aqleq 257 

Arab Period ... 282 

Arabia 22, 98 

Arabic language, spread of ... 282 

Arabs conquer Egypt 278 

Arch, the elliptical 103 

Archaic Period 193 

Archangels, the Six 282 

Architecture 103 ff. 

Ari.reliefof 203 

Ariel 82, 85 

Ari-neferu, figure of ... ... 238 

Ar-Rafah 4 

Arrows, flint- tipped 86 

Arsaphes 245 

Arsinoe, Queen, 269; city of ... 269 

Arsu 249,287 

Artatama ... ... ... ... 232 

Artaxerxes I ... 263, 288, 301 

Artaxerxes II ... ... 266,301 

Artaxerxes III 266,288 

Artemidorus, mummy of, 163 ; 

stele of 279 

Asa.ankh 2 ■■ • • . 205 


Asar (Osiris) 124,127 

Asar-Hap (Serapis) ... 124,268 

Aset, Queen 230 

AshmAnen ... ... ... ... 16 

Ashur-bani-pal ... ... 257, 258 

Aspelta . ... 261 

Ass 95 

Assa... 68, 87, 203, 204, 287, 291 

Assessors, the Forty- two ... ... 141 

Assis ... ... 225 

Assyria . 97, 257 

Assyrians occupy Memphis, 257 ; 
sack Thebes ... ... ... 258 

Ast (Isis) 125, 127 

Astaboras ... ... ... ... 13 

Astapos ... n 

Astasobas ... ... ... ... 13 

Ast-em-khebit ... ... ... 253 

Astharethit ... ... 130 

Astronomy 71, 80 

AswSn, 16, 18, 285 ; the Dam at, 

13; tombs at 173 

Asyfit, 16, 18, 139, 209; Princes 

, of 208 

Ata 189,286 

Atab,King 190,286 

Atbara ... 13 

Atchab, King ... 190 

Atefthit 18 

Aten, the solar disk, 130; hymn 
to, 27 ; prayers to, 238 ; cult and 

temple of... ... 237 

Atet (dynasty I) 189 

Ateth 189,286 

AtfSh 16 

Athanasius 163 

Athenians ... ... ... ... 263 

Athi, 17 J stele of 214 

Athribis 17, 224, 245 

Athu, stele of 232 

Athyr, month of ... 183 

4'""." '.'.'. 12^ 

Au-ib-Ra, King 287, 293 

Auputh 253 

Autoba ig 

Auuaruath, Prince [ 256 

Avaris 74, 225, 228 

Ayyubid Khalifas 285 

Axe.. 178,188 

Axe-h&ndle of Sekhem-suatch-taui- 
^ '■• ■.. ... ... 223 

A-Zande ,57^ jjg 



Ba (Ram-god) 


Bab al-Mandib 

Babylonia ... 

... 131 

131. 242 

... 22 

22, 97, 98 



Bachis Bull 

Back -bone amulet ... 
Bad-Face ... 
Ba-en-Ra-neteru meri 
Bagrawtr, 17 ; pyramids of 
Bahaiiyah, Oasis of 
Bahr al-Abyad 

Bahr al-Gebel 

Bahr al-Ghazal, province of 


Bairtha (Beltis) 

Bakaa, stele of 


Bakenrenf ... 


Bakha (Bachis Bull) 


Bakkarah ... 


Balance, the Great.. 
Balbillus, F. Claudius 


Ban-aa, stele of 



Bankes, Mr. 

Bantu ... 


Bar (Baal) 


Barges ... 



Barrage at Al-ManashJ, 14 

Asyut, 13; at Esna 



Basket- weaver 

Bas-relief ... 

Bast, 128, 132 ; temple of 

Batau, brother of Anpu . . . 

Batau-anth ... 





Beard, the pointed 

Bebi, King 

Bedsteads ... 

Beer, barley, 83; honey ... 

Beer-house ... 

Beetle, granite 

Beetle amulet 












































22, 82 1 










69. 70 1 















Beetle-god ... 





Behbit al-Hagarah 






Behenu, relief of 



















Beni Hasan 







Beon, King... 


Berber, province of 


Berenice, Queen, 270 ; 



240; stele of 


Berenice Troglodytica 





Bes, god 



Besh, King 117, 150, 




B^t al-Walt, temple of 



Betchau, King ...189, 




Eetchmes, statue of 










Biiak (Philae) 




Birkat al-Kunln ... 


Btshart tribes 


Bitter Lakes 





Blacks, 120 ; edict against. 


land of 




Blacksmith-god (Ptah) 


Blemmyes ... 




Block of slaughter... 


Blood of Isis 


Blue Nile, province of 




Boats of different kinds 


Bocchoris (Bak-en-ren-f) 




Body, the material, 






Boheiric dialect 








Book of Breathings 


Book of coming forth by day 


Book of Ecclesiasticus 


Book of gates, 66, 142 ; ' 



Book of ' ' May my name 

flourish " 


Book of Opening the Mouth 





Book of overthrowing Apepi ... 67 

Book of Proverbs ... 69 

Book of the Dead, 178; editing of, 

189; recensions of 58 ff. 

Book of the Two Ways 65 

Book of traversing eternity ... 63 

Book of what is in the Tuat ... 66 

Books of Magic 74 

Boomerangs 21,85, 238 

Bo6n i8 

Borers, flint 188 

Botany ... 72 

Boussard 44, 270 

Bow and arrows 86,98,178 

Bowls, earthenware, stone, wood, 

etc. 92, 178 

Boxes 91, 178 

Bracelets 179, 253 

Bran 82 

Bread, bread-cakes, 82; imperisl^- 

able 1. 143 

Breastplate 1 79 

Brick, invention of, 103 ; brick- 
making, 22 ; brickmaker ... 100 

Bricks, inscribed 230, 231 

Brugsch, Dr. H 186 

Bubastis, 17, 216, 224, 245; temple 

of 254 

Buffoons 87 

Buhen 121 

Buiu-uaua ... ... ... ... 253 

Bull, Apis, 93, 131, 191 ; Bachis, 
93. 131 : Mnevis, 93, 131, 191 ; 
of Amen-tet, 93 ; worship of ... 93 

Bflrlfis, lake of 5 

Burraburiyash, letter of 236 

Busiris 17 

Bu-tchamui 16 

Buto, 17, 138, 267 ; temple of ... 74 
Buzzard ... ... 85 

Caesar, Julius 
Caesarion . . . 
Cairo, 19; Old 
Calendar, 32, 270; year 

272, 302 
... 185 
... 272 
... 285 

Calendars, 71; of lucky and un- 
lucky days 182 

Cambyses 74, 261, 262, 

288, 301 
Camel ... ... ... ... ge 

Canal in First Cataract 216 

Candace 170, 275, 276 

Canopic jars ... ... 160, 177 

Canopus, 160, 279 ; decree of ... 270 
Cap, the soldiers' 120 

Cardinal pointj 



Carding instruments 

... 165 


... 258 


... 112 


... 100 


... 91 


... 71 

Cartonnage cases 

... 162 

Cartouche, 45, 191 ; origin of 

... 117 


... 159 

Cat, 78, 132; hunting 

... 85 


... 132 

Cataract, Canal in the First 

... 216 

Cataracts, the Six on the Nile 

... 13 

Cattle-breeding, 92 ; men, 




Cedar oil 

... 160 

Censers ... 

... 198 


... 186 

Chairs 91 

98, 178 


45, 270 

Chapter of the Heart 178 

Chariot 121 

Cheese ... ... ... ... 82 

Cheops 59, 196, 286, 290 

Chephren ... 171, 199, 232, 287, 290 

Cherubs ' 165 

Chimney ... ... 92 

Choiak, season of .. . ... ... 183 

Chosroes ... ... ... ... 278 

Christianity in Egypt, 277 ; in 
Nubia ... ... ... ... 280 

Christians, persecution of . . . ... 277 

Chronicles of Africanus and 

Eusebius ... ... 185 

Chronography ... 185 

Chronology, 71, 184; systems of 187 
Churches in the Sddin ... ... 283 

Clay sealings ... ... ... 189 

Cleopatra, the Queens 271, 272, 

289, 302 
Cleopatra's Needle ... ... ... 23 1 

Clepsydra 266, 267 

Clerestory 273 

Clubs 86 

Coffins, classes of 177, 273 

Coinage 262 

Collar, amulet, 149; gold ... 81 

Colleges 79 

Colonnade 105 

I Colossi, the 234,236,277 

Colour-pot , 178 

Comb 91, 178 

Cone, 81 ; memorial ... ... 223 

Confectioner 101 

Confession .. 281 

Conscience ' 149 

Constantine 278 

Contracts, Coptic ... 284 

, Coojcing-pots 92 



mines, 204, 240 ; 

Copper, 98 ; 

vases igi 

Coppersmith 100 

Coptic, dialects of, 35; inscriptions, 

56; language 39. 280 

Coptos 16, 226, 231 

Copts, 45 ; doctrine of 280 

Corn, export of, 97 ; bin, 92 ; 

grinder ... 
Cornelius Gallus ... 
Coronation, stele of 
Corvee, the celestial 
Cosmogony ... 


Court of temple 
Cow, worship of .. 
Creation of the gods, 

136; of the world 


Crocodile amulet, 148 ; god, 131 ; 

lake, 5 ; mummies, 218 ; wax, 

71 ; worship of in modern times 

Cross, the 164, 280, 284 

Crosses, Coptic ... 284 


CrowA, the White 

Crucifixion ... 

Cubit, tile little, 98 ; the royal 

Cucumbers ... 

Cupboards ... 




Cylinder seals 

135 ; of men, 



98, 178 




189, 190 
... 282 
... 98 
... 82 
... 91 
... 92 
... 98 

20, 214 
... 20 
... 2ig 

87, 178 

70, 97, 98, 249 

Dagger 120, 178 

Dahshur, 172, 196,217; pyramids 

of 170 

Dailah, Oasis of S 

Daily Ritual of the Divine Cult ... 67 

DakhaUyah 18 

Dakhlah, Oasis of S 

Dakkah 243, 268, 270 

Damanhur ... ... ... ... 18 

Damietta 19 

Dance of the god 87,204 

Dancing, 31, 86; women 87 

Daphnae 258 

DarFftr 92 

Darius I 262, 288, 301 

Darius II 263, 288, 301 

Darius III 289 




David, 253 ; a monk 

Days, lucky and unlucky, 32, 182 ; 

the five epagomenal 

Dead, eater of ... 

Death, universal ... 


De Guignes... 
Dekans, the Thirty-six 

Delta 4, s, 

Demoniacal possession 

Demotic writing ... 

Denderah 16, 207, 230, 268, 272, 273 

Der al-Bahari, temples at, 210, 

230 ; royal mummies found at 

Deserts of Egypt 

Destruction of Mankind ... 




Dialogue between a, man and his 

soul ... 

Dice ... 87, 178 

Diocletian 277, 278, 281 

Diodorus Siculus 20, 98, 160, 198, 242 

Dioskle 56 

Dioskoros 56 

Diospolis Magna, 17 ; Parva ... 16 

Disk amulet 150 

Doctrine of retribution 142 

Dodekaschoinos ... ... 18, 277 

Dog-god 132 

Dog River 242 

Dog-star 184, 186 


... 44 

71. 17s 
138, 140 








78, lOI, 







87. 178 

. 258 








Arab, 285 ; Egyptian, 

188, 286 

Dogs, hunting 


Dominoes ... 

Dongola, 4, 278 ; province of 

Door, wooden, 239 ; socket 

Doomed Prince, story of . . . 

Double (Ka) 


Draughtboards and draughtsmen... 

Draughts .... 

Dream, stele of the 



Drunkard ... 



Du Theil ... 




Ears, on stele 

Eater of the Dead, 140, 

144 ; of 





Ebers Papyrus ^ ... 72 

Ebony, 21, 98; tablets of Aha ... 189 

Ecclesiasticus 30 

Edfu, 16, 68, 231, 240, 268, 271 ; 

temple of 104, 270 

EdM, lakeof S 

Education 78 

Egg-plant 82 

Egjyt, gods of, 122 ; history of, 
188 ff. ; land and divisions of, 
I ff. ; peoples of, 20 ; popula- 
tion of ... 35 

Egyptian, decipherment, 41 ff. ; lan- 
guage and writing, 35 ff. ; Travels 

of an 70 

Egyptians, African origin of, 20 ; 
manners and customs of ...76ff. 

Eihannes 56 

Eileithyiaspolis 16 

Elephant, 78, 85, 86; city, 85; 

hunts 270 

Elephantine, city and island of, 
1, 16, 85, 173, 206, 215, 

216, 258, 277 
Embalming, methods of . . . 1 58 ff. 

Embalmment, ritual of ... ... 64 

Embroidery ... 164 

Enamelling... ... ... ... 100 

Enchorial writing 37 

Enemies of Osiris and Ra 143 

Enneads ... ... ... ... 123 

En-neter, King 191 

Epilepsy 73 

Epiphanes 39, 44, 270 

Epiphi, month of ... ... ... 183 

Equatorial Africa, Negro tribes of 20 
Era of martyrs ... ... .... 281 

Ergamenes 270 

Erpa 117 

Erta-Antef-tatau, stele of ... 73, 221 
Erta-en-ankh, false door of ... 207 

Esarhaddon 257 

Esna, 4, 5, 92, 231, 268, 272; 

church of 283 

Ethiopia 13, 214 

Euergetes 1 39, 269 

Euergetes II 271, 302 

Euonymos, stele of ... ... 273 

Eupator 271 

Euphrates 86, 234, 259 

Euripides ... ... ... ... 56 

Eusebius 185 

Eve 165 

Eye amulet, 149 ; of Horus, 149 ; 
of Ra, 149; -paint, 81, 91, 

159 178 

Eyes on stele 239 

Exodus ... 247 

Exports ... ... ... ... 97 


Fairies ... • '33 

Fakfls •■ 17 

Falcon ''S 

False door, 173 ; gods, 142 ; pyra- 
mid •■• 19s 

Famine, a seven years' ... 166,193 

Famines '4' 97 

Fan 82. 98 

Farafrah, Oasis of S 

Farmer 9^ 

Farmhouse °9 

Fasts 281 

Fitimid Khalifas 285 

Fattening, artificial 82 

Fayyflm, 6, 18, 214, 268, 269; 

dialect of, 36 ; map of 71 

Feast, funeral 211 

Feather, symbol of Maat 140 

Feathers "O 

Feimh 120 

Ferry-boat 102 

Festival songs of Isis and Nephthys 63 
Festivals, 281 ; of the Nile ... 14 

Fetishes 123 

Fever , ... 73 

Fiction 69 

Field of Peace, 140, 143; of Reeds 140 

Figs 82, 143 

Figures, magical ... ... ... 3' 

Finger, a measure, 98 ; rings ... 179 
Fingers amulet ... ... ...149 

Fire, 92; Lake of, 144; stick ... 92 
Fish, 82 ; eaters of unclean, 82 ; 

amulet, 148; gods and goddes-^es, 

133 ; hooks, 84 ; ponds, 89 ; 

spears ... 85 

Fishing ... ... 84 

Fist, a measure ... ... ... 98 

Flame 142 

Flax 99, 164 

Fleets of Rameses III, 249 ; of 

Nekau 258 

Flints, fire struck from ... ... 92 

Flowers ... ... 89 

Fluidoflife 117,223 

Flute 87 

Followers of Horus ... 139,153 

Food 82 

Forced labour 152, 153 

Forks ... ... ... ... 92 

Fort St. Julien 44 

Forts 121 

Fostat 285 

Foundation deposits 258 

Fowling ... ... 84 

Fox 85 

Fractions ... ... ... ... 181 

Frog amulet ... ... ... 151 

Frontinus ... ... ... ... 280 




... 82 
... 92 
90, 100 



Gabriel, Duke 

Gall bladder, god of 

Games with counters 

Gap ... 




Gazelle River 

Gaztrat al-Malik ... 

Gebel Barkal, 232, 261 ; pyramids 

Gebel D6sha 

Gebel Sahaba 

Gebel Zabara 

Geese, various kinds of 

Geography ... 

Geometry ... 

George, St.... 

George the Monk ... 

Gergorios ... 

Germanos ... 

Gharbtyah ... 

Gilukhipa ... 

Giraffe, 86 ; river ... 

Girdle, 81 ; amulet, 149 ; wall 


Gizah, 18; pyramids of ... 

Glass, 100 ; glass beads, 
glass making, 100 ; jug 

Glaze for pottery ... 

Gnostic amulets 



God, Egyptian word for ... 

Gods, companies of, 126 ; creation 
of, 135 ; dance of the, 204 
enneads of, 123 ; number of, 
133 ; triads of 

Gold, brought from the Sudan, 214, 
215 ; export of to Assyria, 97, 
98; green, 21 ; map of gold 
mines, 71; mines, 240 ; gold 
rings, 179 ; gold ring-money, 
21, 98 ; trade in 

Goliath beetle 





Granaries, 217 ; of Joseph 

Grant of land 



Graves, predynastic 





























Gravestones, Kufi 285 

Great House of the Six 207 

Great House (Pharaoh) 117 

Greek language and writings 39, 268 
Greeks, 268 ; settle in Naukratis 258 

Green gold 21 

Green water in the Nile 13 

Gulf of Akabah, 4 ; of Solum ... 4 

Ha 16 

Ha Prince 118 

Haa-ab-Ra Uah-ab-Ra, King 259, 300 

Hades, god ... ... 268 

Hadrian ... ... ... 277, 281 

Haggi Kandil 237 

Hair, modes of wearing 81 

Hair-pins ... ... 178 

Hair tweezers ... ... 91, 178 

Haker, King ... 264, 289, 301 

Halfah Province ... ... ... 19 

Halicarnassus, vase of Xerxes from 263 

Hall, hypostyle 106 

Hall of columns ... ... 106,243 

Ham ... ... ... ... 20 

Hamites ... ... ... ... 20 

Hammamat, quarries of ... 213, 217 

Hand, a measure ... 98 

Hand drum ... ... 87 

Handicrafts ... ... 98 

Hanes ... ... 16 

Hannek Cataract ... ... ... 13 

Hap (Apis Bull) ... 93, 131, 191 

Hap (Hapi), son of Horus 124, 129, 161 
Hap (Hapi), the Nile-god, 9, 124, 

127, 254 
Hap-men, sarcophagus of . . . ... 262 

Hare ... ■ 85 

Harmachis ... ... ... ... 236 

Harness ... ... ... ... 100 

Harp 87 

Harper, Song of the ... ... 75 

Harpokrates-Amen ... ... 261 

Harpoons ... ... 85 

Harris Papyrus, No. i , 28, 74 ; 

No. 500 74 

Harua, figure of ■•• nS 

Harvest ... ... ... .... 97 

.Hathor ... 108, 125, 128, 205, 

214, 239 

Hatmehit 17 

Hatshepset, Queen, 21, 102, 107, 

179, 230, 287, 29s 

Hau 16 

HawSrah, 172,218; pyramids ... 170 

Hawk 85 

Hawk amulet ... ... ... 149 

Hawk-god ... 132 

Headdress ... ... ... ... 81 



Head-rest amulet I49 

Hearst Papyrus 72 

Heart, 155 ; god of the, 161; 

weighed in the balance 140 

Heart amulet I47 

Heart scarab 177.179 

Heaven, position of I44 

Hebennu 16 

Heb-peri, stele of 207 

Hebt, city of 265 

Hehu 13s 

Hehut 136 

Heicau I49 

iielene, stele of 283 

Heliopolis, 17, 93, 203, 237, 257 ; 

bull-god of, 191; high-priest of, 119 
Hen measure ... ... ... 9^ 

Hen period 181 

Henbiu-gods 151 

Henna plant 81 

Hen-nekht, King ... 193, 286, 290 
Hennu, expedition of, Lo Punt ... zii 

Hent-taui, Queen 252 

Heptanomis ... ... ... IS 

Hep-ur 9 

Heq-at 17 

Heqt, goddess 150, 212 

Her, King ... 201, 219, 287, 293 

Her-abu, stele of 273 

Heraclius 278 

Herakleopolis Magna, 16, 209, 
210, 216, 245; princes of ' ... 208 

Heretic-king 115 

Her-Heru, priest-king, 61, 251, 

288, 298 

Heriu-sha 213 

lier-khuf in the Sfidsln ... 95,206 
Hermopolis Magna, 16; gods of... 13S 

Hermopolis, Minor 17 

Hermonthis 16,93,231 

Herodotus quoted ... 26, 160, 198, 218 

Heron 85 

Heru, an architect 239 

Heru (Horus) 127,138 

Heru, papyrus of 62 

Heru-Behutet, Wars of 74 

Heru-em-heb, King, 287, 296 ; 
papyrus of, 61, 62 ; stele of ... 239 

Herui 16. 

Herukhuti-Khepera-Ra-Temu, the 

Sphinx-god 232 

Heru-nest (?)-taui (?), King ... 293 

Heru-netch-tef-f, coffin of. 71 

Heru-pa-khart (Harpokrates) ... 124 
Heru-sa-atef, cast of stele of 74^ 261 

Heru-shefit ... 245 

Herutataf 59, 201 

Heru-ur 116 

Hesbel 17 

^esepti. King 189 

Hes-Petan-Ast, coffin of 273 

Het-Benben 237 

Hetchefa, King 193,286 

Hetch-Ra-setep-en-Amen 299 

Hetch-kheper-Ra setep-en-Ra ... 298 

Hetep-heres ' I77. 198 

Hetep-neteru, stele of 224 

Hetep-sekhemui, King ... 191, 286 
Het-Heru (see Hathor) ... 125, 128 

Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis) 4 

Het-khent 18 

Het-suten 16 

Het-ta-her-abt (Athribis) 17 

Hezekiah 257 

Hierakonpolis ... ... ... 16 

Hiera Sykaminos 18,277 

Hieratic writing ... ... ... 36 

Hieroglyphic writing ... ... 36* 

Hippopotamus, 84, 85, 262; amulet, 

148; goddesses, 131; relief of... 211 
History, 73 ; of Egypt ... 188 ff. 

Hittites 73, 239, 241 

Hoe 86 

Holy water... ... ... ... 57 

Homer ... ... 270 

Honey, 72 ; used in embalming ... 162 

Honey-beer ... ... 83 

Hooks, fishing . . . ' 84 

Hophra (Apries) 288 

Horse ... , 95, 121 

Horus, birth of, 74 ; death of, 75 ; 
resurrection of, 75 ; followers of, 
153; four sons of ... ... 129 

Horus name ... 116 

Horus of gold name ... ... 116 

House of Books ... ... ... 68 

House of Eternity ... 166 

House-painter ... ... ... 100 

Houses 88ff. 

Hu, King igo, 286, 290 

Hui, stelae of ... 229 

Hu-nefer, papyrus of ... 59, 241 

Huni, King 193, 286, 290 

Hunting, 84; cat, 85; scenes ... 195 

Hyaena ... ... 85 

Hyksos, 218, 223 ff. ; period of ... 225 
Hymn in praise of learning ... 69 

Hymnology ... ... ... 67 

Hypselis 16 











Ideographs ... 




I-em-hetep 129, 287, 291 

Imports 97, 98 

Inar6.s • ... ... ... ... 263 

Incense ... ... ... ... 237 

India ... ... ... ... 98 

Ink, 55 ; green, 31 ; ink-pot ... 55 

Inlaying ,. 100 

Institut National ... ... . . \ 44 

Instructions of Amen-em-hat I ... \^68 

Intestines, gods of . . . r6 1 

Inundation of the Nile, cause of, 3 ; 

period of 165, 183 

lonians ... ... ... ... 258 

Iron sky ... ... ... 145 

Irrigation works ... ... ...218 

Isak 56 

Isis, 14, 125, 127, 161 ; history 

of, 138; temples of, closed, 278; 

wanderings of ... ... ... 75 

Islam 282 

Isos, stele of ... ... ... 283 

Israelites 74, 247 

Issus, battle of ... ... ... 266 

luaa 233 

lusaaset ... ... ... ... 129 

Ivory, 21, 189; carver ... ... loi 

Jackal ... ... ... ... 85 

Jackal-god ... ... ... ... 132 

Jacob, 160; the Monophysite ... 281 

Jacobites ... ... ... ... 280 

Jah 282 

Jazlrat al-Malik 121 

Jeroboam ... ... ... ... 253 

Jerusalem ... ... ... ... 253 

Jewel-boxes... ... ... ... loi 

Jeweller, the 100 

Jewellery i79 

Jews, 271 ; in Egypt 268 

John, St.. church of 283 

John the Deacon 283 

Jonias, King 225 

Joppa, legend of capture of ... 74 

Joseph, granaries of 170 

Josephus Flavius ... ... ... 224 

Josiah, king of Judah 258 

Judgment, the 140 

Julian the Apostate 281 

Julius Africanus ... 185, 208, 264 

Julius Caesar 272,302 

Jupiter Ammon, Oasis of ... 5, 262, 266 

Justinian 278 

Ka, 155; Ka-chamber, 155; Ka- 
chapel, 169 ; Ka-figure of 
Rameses II, 244; Ka-priest, 
155. 169 ; Ka-statues i77 

... 240, 




Kadashman-Bel (or 




Ka-kau, King 



Ka-meri-Ra, King 

Ka-mes, King ... 
Ka-mes, a king's messenger 

Kamesu, figure of 

Ka-nefer, stele of 

Ka-nekht-kha-em-Uast, King 



Kaqemna, Precepts of 
Karama, Queen 




Karnak, 16, 102, 213 

of, 230 ; temple of 


Kash (Nubia) 


Kassala, province of 

Ka-tep, statue of ... 






Kemen, stele of 

Kena 18,98, 

Kent, goddess 131, 

Kerasher, papyrus of 





Ket, a measure 


Khaau 188, 


Khabbesha 263, 


Kha-em-tJast, the magician, figure 

of IIS. 

Kha-f-Ra (Chephren) 199, 232, 
255. 287, 

Kha-kau-Ra, King 

Khalifa, meaning of the name 

Khallg Canal 

Kha-nefer-Ra (Sebek-hetep) 203, 




... 17 

... 183 

286, 290 

... 241 

... 18 









... 30,68,83 
... 233, 236 





... 230, 231 ff. 


... 214 
256, 288, 299 


• •■ 177. 197 
124, 128 























Khargah, Oasis of 5, 262 

Khart-en - Khennu, tablet for 

offerings of 207 

Khartum, 85, 231, 277; province 

of.'. 19 

Kha-sekhemui, King 190 

Khasut 17 

Khati, King 209 

Khati, Prince of Siut ... 209,291 
Khemennu ... ... ... ... 16 

Khennu 201 

Khensu ... 124, 129 

Khensu-hetep, door of, 239 ; Pre- 
cepts of 30,77,88 

Khensu-user, stele of ... ... 211 

Khent, ICing 189 

Khent-abt 17 

Khenti Amenti 206 

Khenti-em-semti ... 215 

Khenti-em-semt-ur, a priest ... 215 

Khent-lcaut-s 170 

Khent-khat-ur 215 

Khepera, god 124, 128, 147, 273 

Kheper-ka-Ra (Usertsen I) ... 293 
Kheper-ka-Ra (Nektanebos) ... 302 

Kheper-kha-Ra, King 293 

Kheper-kheperu-Maat-ari-Ra . 296 
Kheper-Maat-Ra setep-en-Ra ... 298 
Khephren, see Chephren. 

Kherp, pyramid 215 

Kheru-ahau • 151 

laeta 73, 239, 241, 242 

Khian, lion of 225,226 

Khnem-ab-Ra, King 300 

Khnem-ab-Ra-men, statue of ... 261 

Khnem-maat-Ra 301 

Khnemu 15, 96, 124, 128, 135, 

150,214; temple of ... ... 234 

Khnemu-hetep, 172; false door of, 

205; stele of 221 

Khnoumis ... ... ... ... 282 

Khu, 156; stele of 221 

Khu-en-Aten (Amen-hetep IV) 237, 295 

Khu-en-Ra Setep-en-Ra 297 

Khufu (Cheops), 59, 72, 78, 196, 

201, 255, 286, 290 
Khufu-ankh, sarcophagus of ... 198 

Khut ig6 

Khut-Aten, city of . . . ... 236, 237 

Khu-taui-Ra, King 293 

King, his divinity, Ii6f. ; his five 

names, ii7; his power 208 

King Lists ' ... 71,185 

Kings, cartouches of the, 290 ; . 

Tombs of the 231 

Kitchen utensils 92 

Kite •... 85 

Kneading stone 92 

Knives ... 92 

Kohl 81 

Kom Ombo 279 

Kordofan, province of ... • ... 19 

Korosko ••• •■■ 213 

Kr6phi 7 

Kua-tep, Canopic jars of, 161 ; 

' coffin of, 86 ; pillow of 91 

Kubban 18 

Kflf! writing, 285 ; inscription in 165 

Kuft 16 

KuUa 170 

Kummah i, 121, 216, 219 

Kilrkur, Oasis of 5 

Kurnah, temple of 240 

Kurru, pyramids of 17° 

Kusae 16 

Kuser 21, 98, 204 

Kynonpolis ... .■■ 16 

Labyrinth ... 

... 218 

Ladder amulet 

... 149 

Ladder of heaven 

... 145 


... 5 

Lake Albert 

... II 

Lake Albert Edward 

... II 

Lake Burlus 

... 5 


... 5 

Lake, Fiery 

... 144 

Lake Mareotis 

... 5 

Lake Menzllah 

... 5 

Lake Moeris 

6, 217 


... II 

Lake S4na 

... II 

Lake, the Temple ... 

... 108 

Lake Timsah 

... 5 

Lake Victoria 

... II 

Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys 62 

Lamp ... ... 91 

Land of the Blacks ... ... 215 

Land of the Spirits ... 204,206 

Lapis-lazuli paste ... ... ... 98 

Lark 85 

Lasso ... ... 86 

Latus ... ... 133 

Leap-year ... 270 

Leather-worker ... ... ... 100 

Lebanon ... ... 98 

Leeks ... ... ... ... 82 

Legal documents ... 75 

Legends, mythological 74 

LSlat al-Nuktah 14 

Lentils ... ... ... ... 82 

Leopard, 85 ; skins ... ... 21 

Lepidotus . ., ... 133 

Letopolis 17 

Letters, Coptic 284 

Libation bowl, 262 ; tank ... 207 

Library, Alexandrian ... ... 268 



Library, the Temple 106 

Libya 247 

Libyans ... ... ... ... 20 

Life amulet, 149; fluid of, 117, 

223; tree of 143 

Lighters ... ... ... ... 102 

Linen, 80 ; export of, 97 ; weavers 

^.°f 99 

Linen mummy swathings, inscribed 1 78 

Linenwork ... ... ... ... 284 

Linnet 85 

Lion, 85 ; gods, 132 ; hunts, 232 ; 

the Hyksos ... ... ... 226 

Lions, red granite 235 

Lisht, pyramids of... 170, 172, 213 

Litany of Osiris ... ... ... 67 

Litanies of Seker 63 

Liturgy 283 

Liturgy of funerary offerings ... 65 

Liver, god of 161 

Lock ... ... ... ... 91 

Loincloth ... ... ... 21,81 

Long-strider 141 

Lotus ... ... ... ... 130 

Lungs, god of 161 

Lute 87 

Luxor, temple of ... ... 16,243 

Lykopolis ... ... ... ... 16 

Lynx 85 

Lynx-goddess ... 132 

Maa-kheru-Ra, King ... ... 293 

Maa-Ra-ur-neferu, Hittite princess 242 

Maamet 18 

Maat, the goddess, 125, 130 ; the 

divine plant, 143, 151 ; symbol of 153 

Maali goddesses ... ... ... 150 

Maat-en-Ra, King... ... ... 293 

Maat-ka-Ra (Hatshepset)... ... 295 

Maat-ka-Ra, Princess ... ... 252 

Maat-ka-Ra, wife of Osorkon I ... 254 

Maat-kha 201 

Madinat al-Fayyiim ... ... 18 

Madtnat Habu, 105, 230 ; temple 

of... ... ... ... ... 249 

Maeotes ... ... ... ... 133 

Maftet 132 

Magic, books of ... ... ... 74 

Magical figures ... ... 151,152 

Magicians, stories of ... ... 71 

Mahes ... ... ... ... 132 

Mahetch 16 

Mahu, figure of, 248; statue of, 

119; stele of 239 

Mai-sheraui... ... ... ... 78 

Mait 212 

Mamluks, Bahrite, 285; Circas- 
sian 285 

Man, Creation of .. 

13s, 136 


I29> 153 


... 157 

Manetho, King List of, 185, 


208, 222 

, 264, 269 

Mankind, Destruction of ... 

... 74 


... 18 


... 132 


... 14s 



;:: 278 

Marcus Aurelius 

... 277 


... 258 

Mareotis, lake of 

•■• 5 

Mark, St 

277, 279 

Marriage, 76 ; contracts of 

... 75 

Martyrs, Era of 

... 281 


... 17 

Mary, stele of 

... 284 

Masaherth ... 

... 251 

Mastaba tomb 

167, 194 

Master of the robes 

... 221 


... 15 


... 17 

Matchaiu ... 

... 213 


... 16 



Matthaios ,apriest 

... 56 


... 99 


... 18 


... 98 

Meat, eaters of raw 

... 261 

Mechir, month of 

... 183 

Medicine, 32, 72 ; book of 

... 190 

Mediterranean Sea... 

... 97 

Medum, pyramid of 195 

203, 218 


230, 258 

Mehit .. ... • ... 

... 18 


... 253 


... 130 


188, 286 


... 207 



... 285 


.. 281 

Memnon, 232 ; the vocal . . . 

... 234 


234, 242 

Memphis, 17, 93, 206, 213, 


council of, 44 ; decree of. 


founding of, i8g ; government 

removed from, 209 ; high-priest 

of, 119; occupied by Assyi 


257 ; by Persians 

... 261 

Mena(Menes) ...185,188 

286, 290 

Men-ast ... 

... 204 

Menat amulet 

... 236 


... 181 

Mendes, 17 ; kings of, 264 ; 



... 191 


... 160 



Menephthih I (see Mer-en-Ptah) 234 

Menes 185,188,286,290 

Menhet ... 125 

Men-ka-Ra, King 208 

Men-kau-Heru, King 203, 287, 291 
Men-kau-Ra (Mykerinos), 59, 200, 

287, 290 
Men-kheper-Ra (dynasty XVIII) 29S 
Men-kheper-Ra (dynasty XXI), 

251, 288, 300 

Men-kheperu-Ra 295 

Men-Maat-Ra (Seti I) 296 

Men-Maat-Ra Setep-en-Ra ... 298 

Men-ma-Ra Setep-en-Ra 296 

Men-pehtet-Ra 296 

Men-nefert 17 

Menruil 129 

Menthu, 130, 242; temple of ... 234 

Menthu-aa, statue of 212 

Menthu-hetep I ... 210,287,292 
Menthu-hetep II ... 210,287,292 
Menthu-hetep III ... 210, 287, 292 
Menthu-hetep IV ... 210,287,292 
Menthu-hetep V ... 210,287,292 

Menthu-hetep VI 287 

Menthu-hetep VII 287 

Menthu-hetep, coffin of, 58 ; an 

official, 211; a prince 211 

Menthu-Ra 124, 231 

Menti 93 

Menu (Amsu) ...123, 128, 238, 248 

Menflf 18 

Menu-Nefer, stele of 215 

MenzSlah, lake of 5 

Mer-ankh-Ra 292 

Merawi (Napata, or Gebel Barkal) i 
Merbapen, King ... ... 190, 290 

Mer-en-Heru, King ... ... 208 

Mer-en-Ptah I 247, 296 

Mer-en-Plah II 218,297 

Mer-en-Ptah hetep-her-Maat ... 296 
Mer-en-Ra 1 ... 205, 287, 291 

Mer-en-Ra II . ... 205, 287, 291 
Meri-mes, prince of Cush .. . ... 234 

Meri-Ra (Pepi I) 205,292 

Meroe, island of 1,17,275 

Meroitic inscriptions, 277; king- 
dom 27s 

Merpeba 190, 286, 290 

Mer-Seker, Queen 224 

Mer-shesu-Heru, stele of ... ... 211 

Mert 125, 212 

Mert-tefs 196 

Merul 129 

Mer-ur (Mnevis Bull) 94, 131, 213 

Mes, a KA-priest ... 248 

Meskhenit 130 

Mesopotamia 86, 103 

Mesore, month of ... 183 


... 231 

129, 161 

... 288, 301 


22, 191 







82, 178 
232, 233, 236 


...' ... 20 

93. 131, i9«. 213 

6, 217 


Messnau, stele of ... 



Metal- working 


Metternich stele . . . 
Military service . . . 





Mnevis, Bull 
Moeris, Lake 

Money, stamped 

Mongalla, province of 



Month, the calendar 

Months, the twrelve 

Moon amulet 


Moral aphorisms 

Mother Isis 

Mother, povper of the 

Muhammad the Prophet 



Mummies, the royal 

Mummification, dynastic, 154, 159, 

160; predynastic .... ... 161 

Mummy, 158; chamber, 169; 

portraits, 162; swathings ... 164 
Museum, Alexandrian ... ... 268 

Music 31 

Muslims ... ... 282 

Mflt, goddess 125, 129, 232, 253, 

277; temple of... ... ... 234 

Mut-em-uaa, Queen ... ... 232 

Mut-hetep, papyrus of ... ... 61 

Mut-Nefert, Queen ... ... 230 

Mu-ur (Moeris) 217 

Mykerinos ... ... 200, 287, 290 

Myrrh 21, 98, 159, 211 

Nahr al-Kalb 242 

Naifaaurut I ... 264, 289, 301 

Nails, stained with henna ... 81 

Nakhal(Nile) ..' 9 

Name 78 

Name-day ... 78 

Name, the good 207 

Names, magical ... ... ... 31 











N-Antef-aqer, prayer of 212 

Napata ... i, 17, 229, 232, 235, 

-, , 25s. iSS7, 261, 276 

Napoleon 44 

Napt (Napata) 17 

Nar-mer 189, 191 

Narses 278 

Nastasen, stele of 74 

Natron Lakes 5 

Naukratis 258, 259 

Navy 121 

Neba, stele of 224 

Neb-hap-Ra I 84, no, in, 210, 

229, 230, 292 

Neb-hap-Ra II 210, 292 

Nebka-Ra 286 

Neb-khau, King ... 203 

Neb-kheperu-Ra 296 

Neb-Maat-Ra 295 

Neb-pehti-Ra ... 294 

Nebpu-ijsertsen, stele of 218 

Nebseni, papyrus of ... 53, 59, 146 
Neb-taui-Ra, King ... 210, 292 

Nebt-het (Nephthys) ... 125,127 
Nebti name ... ... ... 116 

Nebuchadnezzar II ... 259,260 

Necho 258, 288, 300 

Necklaces ... ... 179 

Nefer amulet, 149 ; pyramid, 204 ; 
Stele of ... ... ... ... 214 

Nefer-Abt 17 

Nefer-Ament 17 

Nefer-ari, figure of . . . ... ... 224 

Nefer-ari-ka-Ra, King 201, 203, 287 
Nefer-ari-ka-Ra (dynasty VIII), 

King 20S 

Nefer-hat, stele of 232 

Nefer-hi, statue of 114 

Nefer-hra, Statue of 246 

Nefer-ka Heru, King 208 

Nefer-ka-Ra (dynasty II) 193, 286 

Nefer-ka-Ra (dynasty III) 286, 290 
Nefer-ka-Ra (dynasty VIII) ...208 

Nefer-ka-Ra (Huni) 193 

Nefer-ka-Ra (Pepi II) 205, 206, 

287, 291 

Nefer-ka-Ra (Shabaka) 300 

Nefer-ka-Ra Khentu, King ... 208 

Nefer-ka-Ra Nebi, King 208 

Nefer-ka-Ra Pepi senb, King ... 208 
Nefer-ka-Ra Tererl, King ...208 

Nefer-ka-Seker 193, 286 

Nefer-kau-Heru, King 208 

Nefer-Kau-Ra, ICing 208 

Nefer-kau-Ra setep-en-Ra . . . 298 

Nefer-kbeper-Ra-ua-en-Ra ... 295 

Nefer-renpit, stele of ... 239 

Nefer-Senna 207 

Nefcrt-ari, head of figure of ... 229 


Nefer-Tem 124, 130 

Nefertith, Queen ot Amen-hetep 

IV '238,295 

Nefert-itha 229 

Neferttu, stele of 212 

Negative Confession 141 

Nehau 18 

Neheb 188, 286 

Neilos 9 

Neilh, 126, 128. 136, i6i, 258; 

shrine of ... ... 262 

Neka-ankh... ... 205 

Nekau, King ... 258, 288, 300 

Nekau, governor of Sais 258 

Nekheb 16, 205 

Nekhebit 125, 128, 191 

Nekht, King, 190, 290 ; papyrus of 53 

Nckhta, stele of 221 

Nekht-Amsu, figure of 238 

Nekht-Heru-hebt, 264, 265, 289, 

301 ; sarcophagus'of 66 

Nekht Menu, figure of 238 

Nekht-neb-f 266, 302 

Nekht-neb-tep-nefer, King 210, 287 
NektanebSs... ... 264, 289, 301 

Nektanebos 264, 289, 302 

Nemareth, 253 ; bracelets of ... 179 

Nemmes bandlet ... 199 

Neolithic Period 188 

Nepherites 264 

Nephthys 125, 127, 161 

Nero 277, 279 

Nes-Amsu, bowl of, 256 ; papyrus 

of 267 

Nes-Ba-neb-Tet 288, 298 

Nesi-Khensu 252 

Nes-qetiu, sarcophagus of. 262 

Nessu-ba-neb-Tet 251 

Net (Neith)... ' 126, 128 

Netchem, stele of 231 

Netchemet, 252; papyrus of ... 61 

Neter-baiu 286, 290 

Neter-en, King 191 

Neter-ka-Ra, King 208 

Neterui amulet ... 150 

Nets, fishing 84 

Nl 234 

Night of the Drop, 14 ; of the Tear 14 

Nile, the river, course of, altered, 

189 ; described, 7 ff. ; festivals, 

14 ; gods of, 8, 9 ; inundation 

of, 13; length of, 11; levels, 

218; tributaries of 13 

Nile, Blue 11 

Nile, Upper 11 

Nile, Victoria 11 

Nile, White n 

Nile boils 73 

Nile, Red Sea Canal ... 258, 263 




N-ka-Ra, King 

Nit-aqert, high-priestess 





Nome gods, list of... 

Nomes of Egypt, list of 

Nu, 127 ; papyrus of 



Nubia, 20, 214, 229, 
invaded by Arabs, 
Romans, 275 ; kings of 

Nubians, 20 ; funeral customs 





Nunneries ... 

Nflrl, pyramids of . . . 






• ■ 9 
.. 208 
.. 260 
.. 260 
.. '280 
.. 18 
278, 283 
16, 17 
16, 17 

... 18 
... 283 

■•• 253 
of... 276 

• •• 293 
... 292 

225, 294 
... 180 
... 280 
... 170 

126, 128 
... 16 
... 157 


Oases, the seven, 5, 140 ; Christi- 
anity in 

Obelisk from Sinai... 

Obelisk, the 

Obelisks 105, 107 

Obelisks of Nekht-Heru-Hebt 


Offerings, Canonical list of, 
tablet for 



Omar, Khalifa 

'Omayyad Khalifas 


On (Heliopolis), city of 

One embracing All 

Oneness of God 


Onion, city of 



Opening the Mouth, ceremony of, 

Ophthalmia. . . 

Ornaments ... 


Oryx, 85 ; amulet ... 

Osiris, 14, 27, 123, 127; enemies 
of, 143 ; history of, 138 ; king- 
dom of, 140; resurrection of ... 

Osiris- Apis 

Osiris Christ 





... 265 

... 272 


207, 222 

... 72 

82, 178 

... 278 

... 28s 

282, 284 

17, 126, 145 

... 282 

■ i34> 237 

... 271 

... 271 

... 82 



••■ 73 

80 ff. 

240, 242 

... 148 



Osiris-Khenti-Amenti 239 

Osorkonl ... 254, 2»», 298 

Osorkonll ... 254,288,298 

Osorkon III ... 255, 288, 299 

OsorkonlV 288,299 

Ostraka 56, 279 

Ostrich feathers 98 

Osymandyas •• 242 

Other World, 144, I45> 208 ; 

Book of the 66 

Ouanafre ... ... ... .•• 57 

Ounaref 56 

Ox 82 

Oxen 94 

Oxyrhynchus, 16, 280; the fish ... 133 


Pa-ari, tomb of 
Pa- Asar 




Pachomius ... 

Pachons, month of... 


Pahomo, stele of ... 

Pai, stele of 


Pai-nehsi, stele of ... 

Painetchem I 

Painetchem II 

Painetchem III 

Pa-Khen-en-Amen. . . 

Palaeolithic Period 


Palermo, stele of ... 



Palm, a measure ... 
Palm-tree ... 
Pa-mer-ahau, 45 
Pa-neb- Amt 
Pa-nebset . . . 
Panehsi, statue of 

Panther ... 

Pantheism .. 

Paoni, month of 

Paophi, month of . . . 


Papyri, painted 

Papyrus, the plant, 53 ; amulet 

149 ; cases for the dead, 162 

export of 

Papyrus Abbott 

Papyrus D'Orbiney 












... 251, 288 


251, 288 
... 251, 288 





185. 188, 195 
239. 240, 2S3 

S3, 178 




288, 299 


figure of ... 248 




16, 100, 164, 280, 284 
... 85 

••■ 133 

... 14 

... 183 

... 263 

... no 




Papyrus Harris 
Papyrus Mathematical 
Papyrus Prisse 


Pa-ren-nefer, stele of 

... 250 
... 225 
... 193 
... 100 

Pasebkhanut I ... 251, 288, 298 
Pasebkhanut II ... 251, 288, 298 

Paser, figure of 246 

Pa-ser, a chief mason 248 

Pa-ser, statue of 235 

Pashet, hymn of, to Reshpu, 239 ; 

stele of 238 

Pa-shet, stele of 229 

Pa-suten-sa, shrine of 218 

Pat-birds 181 

Pa-Tehuti ... ... 17 

Pa-Tem, Pa Temu ... 17, 243 

Patumos ... ... ... ... 17 

Pa-Uatchet 17 

Paul the Anchorite ... ... 280 

Pavilion ... ... ... ... 249 

Payni, month of ... ... ... 183 

Peas 82 

Pectoral ... ... ... 178, 179 

Pefa-Net, statue of... ... ... 260 

Peh-Qennes ... 17 

Peka . ... ... 145 

Peichth 132 

Pelican ... ... 85 

Pelusium 258, 261 

Pena, false door of... ... ... 207 

Pendants 17,9 

Penta-urt, poem of. 74, 242 

Pepi I 287, 291 

Pepi II 287, 291 

Pepi-nekht 30,78,207 

Per-aa (Pharaoh) ... 117 

Perabsen, King ...191, 193, 286, 290 
Per-em-hru ... ... ... ... 58 

Per-em-us 170 

Persia 86 

Persians, 261, 278; in Egypt, 262, 263 

Pert, season of 182 

Pertinax 279 

Peseshkef amulet ... ... ... 150 

Pet names 78 

Peta-Amen-apt, tomb of 176 

Peta-Bast, King ... 31, 255, 288, 299 
Peta-Bast, an official, stele of ... 274 

Peten-Heru 18 

Pe-Tep' 267 

Peter, deacon ... ... ... 283 

Phagrusfish 133 

Phakussa ... ... 17 

Phamenoth, month of ... ... 183 

Pharaoh, friend of 200 

Pharaoh Hophra 153, 259 

Pharaoh, meaning of the title ... 117 
Pharaoh Necho 258 

Pharaoh's Bed 276 

Pharmuthi, month of 183 

Pharos 269 

Pharsalia, battle 272 

Philadelphus 268, 302 

Philae, island of, 7, 108, 214, 266, 

268, 272, 27s ; obelisk of ... 45 

Philip Arrhidaeus ... 266, 289, 302 

Philistia 249 

Philometor ... 271 

Philopator ... ,. 270 

Phoenicia ... 97 

Phoenissae ... 56 

Phoenix ... ... ... ... 132 

Phoenix Period ... 182 

Physician ... loi 

Piankhi, 255, 275, 288, 299 ; 

invades Egypt, 253 ; stele of ... 74. 

Piankhi Seneferef-Ra ... ... 164 

Pibeseth ... 17- 

Pig 82,95 

Pigeon 83, 85 

Pilaster io8- 

Pillar 108 

Pillar-altar ... ... 279 

Pillars of the sky ... 145, 

Pillow 91, 98, 178 

Pillow amulet ... ... ... 149 

Pi-Menth 261 

Pit of the tomb ... ... ... 169. 

Pithom 17, 243 

Pithom, recorder of ... ... 255 

Planets, lists of ... ... ... 71 

Plague 178 

Plates 92 

Pl^m6s, stele of ... ... ... 281 

Plough ... ... ... ... 96 

Plumes amulet ... ... ... 150 

Plutarch quoted ... 138 

Pnups 18 

Poetry 75 

Politta, stele of 279 

Polygamy ... ... 76 

Polytheism ... 133 

Pomades 82 

Pomegranates ... 82 

Pompey 272 

Pontyris 18 

Porcelain, Egyptian 100 

Portico 104 

Portrait figures 113 

Portraits 162 

Port Sa'ld 19 

Potter 98 

Potter's Wheel 98,135 

Precepts of Ptah-hetep, 68 ; of 
Kaqemna ... ... ... 68 

Prescriptions, medical 72 

Priesthood, the 119 





Priest-kings, the .. 
Priests of Amen-Ra 
Prisse papyrus 
Prison pyramid 
Psammetichus I 
Psammetichus II .. 
Psammetichus III .. 

Psemthek I 

Psemthek II 

Psemthek III 


Ptah, 68, 124, 128 ; temple of, at 


Ptah-em-uaa, stele of 

Ptah-hetep, false door of 

Ptah-hetep, precepts of 30, 68, JJ. 




153, 258, 288, 300 

259. 288, 300 

261, 288, 300 

264, 289, 301 

258, 288, 300 

259, 288, 300 
261, 288, 300 



Ptah-mai,' stele of 238 

Ptah-mes, stele of 248 

Ptah-Nefert 218 

Ptah-Sankh, stele of 224 

Ptah-Seker 124 

Ptah-Seker-Asar figures 153 

Ptah-shepses ... ... 73, 201 

Ptah-Socharis-Osiris 153 

Ptolemaic Period 268 

Ptolemy I, Lagus, Soter, 266, 268, 

289 ; Decree of 74 

Ptolemy II, Philadelphus... 185, 

268, 289 
Ptolemy III, Euergetes I 97, 179, 

268, 289 
Ptolemy IV, Philopator ... 269, 289 
Ptolemy V, Epiphanes 236, 270, 289 
Ptolemy VI, Eupator ... 271,289 
Ptolemy Vn, Philometor... 271, 289 
Ptolemy VIII 
Ptolemy IX, Euergetes 

Ptolemy X 

Ptolemy XI 

Ptolemy XII 
Ptolemy XIII 
Ptolemy XIV 
Ptolemy XV 
Ptolemy XVI 


Punisihment, everlasting 

Punt, 20, 21, 98, 204, 206; expe- 
ditions to, 211, 215 



Pygmies ... 

Pygmy 204 

Pylon 165, 106 

Pyramid, Antef-aa 226 

Pyramid, False 195 

Pyramid, Great ... .. 196, 197 

271, 289 

271, 289 

272, 289 
272, 289 
272, 289 
272, 289 
272, 289 
272, 289 
272, 289 

... 91 
... 82 



Pyrarpid, meaning of the word ... 170 

Pyramid, MSdilm I95 

Pyramid, Prison 206 

Pyramidsof Gizah, 196; miniature 239 

Qa, King, 190 ; pyramid -213 

Qa-ab-Ra setep-en-Amen 302 

Qaha, stele of 239, 248 

Qarta, false door of 206 

Qebh, King 190. 286, 290 

Qebhsennuf. 124, 129, 161 

Qehet 212 

Qem, or Qemt ... ... ... 4 

Qen-nefer, figure of, 239; statue of 118 

Qer-Hapi ... 7 

Qerti' 141 

Qetesh 125, 130 

Qetesh, relief of 246 

Quail 85 

Queen, her titles ... 117 

Ra, 128; enemies of, 143; poison- 
ing of, 74 ; worship of . . . ... 203 

Ra-ari-en-Maat ... ... ... 302 

Rachel .. ... 283 

Radasstyah, temple of 240 

Radishes ... ... ... ... 82 

Rafts 102 

Ra-Harmakhis ... ... 124, 199 

Ra-Heru-khuti ... 124 

Ra-Hetep, King .., 224 

Ra-hetep of Mediim, 78, in; 

relief of ... ... 203 

Ra-ka-meri, King ... ... ... 292 

Ram of Amen, 96 ; of IChnemu, 

96; of Mendes ... 191 

Ram-god ... ... ... ... 131 

Ra-maat-neb-meri Amen ... ... 297 

Ra-meri (Pepi I) 205, 206 

Ra-meri-ab . . . ... 291 

Ra-meri- Amen ... 301 

Rameses I 239, 287, 296 

Rameses II 98, 218, 241-245, 

252, 287, 296 ; ICing List of ... 185 
Rameses III 153, 249, 250, 288, 297 
Rameses IV ... 250, 288, 297 

Rameses V 153, 250, 288, 297 

Rameses VI ... 250,288,297 

Rameses VII . . . 250, 288, 297 

Rameses VIII ... 250, 288, 297 
Rameses IX ... 250, 288, 297 

Rameses X 250, 288, 298 

Rameses XI ... 250,288,298 

Rameses XII ... 250,288,298 

Ramesseum ... 242, 243 

Ra-neb, King 191 

Ra-nefer-Tem-khu 300 



Raphia, battle of 270 

Ra-sekhent-en ... ... ... 294 

Ra-seshesh-apu-Maat 292 

Ra-seshesh-her-hev-Maat .. ... 292 

Reaping 97 

Rebecca 283 

Recognition of friends in the Tuat 146 
Red Sea — Nile route, 98; province 

of 19 

Reed-pens SS 

Reed pipe 87 

Reels 165 

Remmosh ... ... ... ... 57 

Renaissance ... ... 115, 261 

Renenet 126, 130 

Repentance ... 142 

Rerit „ ... 131 

Reservoir 217 

Reshpu 124, 131, 239, 248 

Re-stau 141 

Resurrection, the, 139; amulet of 150 

Rhind Papyrus ... 71 

Rhinoceros ... ... 86 

Rhinocolura ... ... ... 4 

Righteous, rewards of, 142 ; spirits 

and souls of ... ... ... 143 

Ring-money ' ... ... 21, 98 

Rings, finger ... ... ... 179 

Ritual of Embalmment 64 

River of Egypt 9 

River of the Tuat ... ... ... 145 

Rock-salt ..'. 83 

Romances, historical 74 

Rome 270 

Roof, portion of stone 207 

Ropes 99 

Rosetta Stone 41)27° 

Rosetta, temple of 258 

Rouge 81 

Royalists 281 

Rui, figure of 248 

Ruma, stele of 241 

Rutchek, a libationer 200 

Sa(Tanis) 17 

Sa, the 198 

Saa-ka-nekht-kheperu-Ra 295 

Sa-Amen, King 251, 288 

Sa-Anher, stele of 221 

Saank'h 223 

Sabaco 256, 288, 300 

Sabben 207 

Sabina, Empress Z77 

Sabinus 279 

Sacrifices 237 

Saddenga 234 

Sahal, island of H. I93 

Sa-Hathor, stele of 215 

Sahidic dialect 35 

Sahu 155 

Sahu-Ra, King ...201, 203, 287, 291 

Sailor, the shipwrecked 70 

Sais, 17, 136, 145, 256, 262 ; kings 

of, 258 264 

Saite Period 261 

Sakk^rah, pyramids and mastabas 
of, 166, 170, 205; step pyramid 

of, 193; tablet of 185 

Salatis, King 225 

Salt 83 

Salted bodies 161 

Salflkldog 86 

Sam-Behutet 17 

Sa-Menthu, an official 73 

Sa-Menthu, a scribe 215 

Sa-Menthu, stele of 211 

Sammanfld 17 

SSn, 17; sphinxes of ... ... 218 

Sandals 81,99,143,178 

Sa-Nehat 7° 

Sanekht 286 

Sankh-ab-taui, King 210 

Sankh-ka-Ra, King ... 210, 292 

Sankh-taui 223 

Sapalul 239 

Sapi Meht 17 

Sapi-Res't 17 

Sa-Ptah Mer-en-Ptah 248, 287, 297 

Sara...' 283 

Saribtt al-KhSdim, antiquities from 

19s, 214, 21S, 217, 222, 245 

Sarcophagi, classes of 177 

Sa-Renput, statue of ... 215, 216 

Sargon ... 256 

Sa-ta 132 

Satet 126 

Sati ... ..'. 214 

Satit 129 

Satiu 213 

Saut 16, 17 

Scales 98 

Scales, the Great 140 

Scarab amulet •■ I47 

Scarab, the heart 177 

Scarab, with human face 223 

Scarabs, 207, 220, 226, 233 ; neck- 
lace of 179 

Scents 82 

Sceptre 178 

School exercises 79 

Schools 79 

Science ... ••• 7' 

Scorpion-god 132 

Scorpion-goddesses, the Seven ... 75 

Scrapers, flint 188 

Scribe, figure of the 203 

Scribe of the gods ... 140 

N 2 



Scribes, power of the, 79; royal... 119 

Seal, Solomon's 282 

Sea power ... 249 

Seasons, the three 182 

Seb 124, 128 

Sebek 124, 131, 218 

Sebek-aa, stele of m, 211 

Sebek-aaiu, stele of 221 

Sebek-em-sa-f, King 223 

Sebekemsaf, scarab of 179 

■ Sebek-her-heb, stele of 218 

Sebek-lEietep, cone of, 223 ; stele 

of...' 216,217 

Sebek-hetep, scribe of the wine- 
cellar 239 

Sebek-hetep Kha-nefer-Ra, King 223 
Sebek-hetep Sekhem - suatch - taui- 

Ra ■ 223 

Sebek-ka-Ra 287,291 

Sebek. neferu-Ra 287, 293 

Sebek-neferut-Ra, cylinder seal of 219 

Sekek-nekht, statue of in 

Sebek-unnu... 214 

Sebeiinytus 17,264,266 

Sebta, figure of 119,248 

Second birth 150 

Sefekh-abui 126 

Seher-ab-Ra 299 

Sehetep-ab 211 

Sehetep-ab, stele of 215 

Sehetep-ab- Ra 292 

Seka 1S8, 286 

Seker 65, 125, 129, 153 

Sekhem 17, 156 

Sekhem-ab, King 191 

Sekhem-ka-Ra, King 223 

Sekhem-Kheper-Ra setep-en-Ra... 298 
Sekhem-khu-taui-Ra, King ... 224 
Sekhem - uatch - taui - Ra, statue of 

115, 223 

Sekhent-neb-Ra ... 294 

Sekhet, 126, 130, 253 ; statues of 234 

Sekhet-Aaru 140 

Sekhet-hetep 140 

Sem priest 246 

Semempses 190,205 

Semliki River 11 

Semnah, i, 121, 216 ; temple of... 257 

Semsu 190, 290 

Semti ... 59, 189, 193, 286, 290 

Sen, King 190, 286 

Sen, coffin of 66 

Sen-atef, stele of 215 

Senb, tablet for offerings of ... 207 

Seneferab-Ra 219 

Senefer-Ra, King ... 208 

Senefer-ka Annu, King 208 

Seneferu ... 193, 195, 208, 286, 290 
Seneferu, an official 215 


Seneferu, stele of 215 

Senen-en-Ptah Tanen-setep-en ... 3°! 

Senmut, architect 230 

Sennaar, province of I9 

Sennacherib ^5° 

Sennu, false door of ". 207 

Sent, King 191,192,286 

Senta, King ... IQI. 192, 290 

Sepa, coffin of Ho 

Sepau ^ - 212 

Sept 16,17,184 

Septimius Severus 234,277 

Septuagint 269 

Sepulchral stelae 08 

Seqenen-Ra I Tau-aa ... 226,294 
Seqenen-Ra II Tau-aa-aa... 226, 294 
Seqenen-Ra III Tau-aa-qen 226, 294 

Serapeum 258 

Seraphim '^S 

Serapis 268, 372, 279 

Serdab 1^9 

Serpent amulet, 150 ; stone, 273 ; 

talking 7° 

Serqet 126, 161 

Service books ... ... • • • 67 

Seshesh 16 

Seshesh-kheper-Ra setep-en-Ra ... 299 

Sesheta : 126, 130 

Sesostris (Rameses II) 241 

Sesostris (Usertsen II) 215 

Set ... 16, 95, 125, 127, 138, 225 

Set-name 19' 

Set-period 181 

Setau, coffin of 251 

Setau, stele of 246 

Setches, King 193. 286 

Setep-en-Ra meri Amen (Philip) 302 
Setep-en-Ra meri Amen 

(Ptolemy I) 302 

SSth 138 

Seti I, 152, 153, 240, 241, 252, 25s; 

ICing List of , 1 85 ; plan of tomb of 1 74 
Seti II Mer-en-Ptah 245, 248, 296 

Set-nekht, King . . . 234, 248,^ 249 

Settu-Ra 301 

Seven years' famine ... ... 1 65 

Seweneh ... ... ... ... i 

Shaaru, father of Cheops ... 196,286 

Shabaka 68, 256, 288, 300 

Shabatuka 257, 300 

Shablflkah cataract ... ... 13 

Shabti figure ... ... ... 152 

Shadow ... ... 156 

Shadflf 89,96 

Shait en Sensen ... ... ... 62 

ShSmbt 277 

Sharklyah ' ... 18 

Sharuhen ... ... ... ... 228 

Shashanq 1 253, 288, 298 



Shashanq II 288,299 

Shashanq III 289, 299 

Shashanq IV ... 255, 289, 299 

Shashanq, an official ... 115,273 
Shashanq, high-priest ... ... 254 

Shas-hetep ... ... 16 

Shasu, 240 ; governors of . . . ... 224 

Shat, season of ... 182 

Sheep 22, 82, 95 

Sheets, padded linen 90 

Shekh al-Balad, .statue of . . . .... 203 

Shemu, season of ... ... ... 182 

Shen amulet ... i Jo 

Shennu 117, 191 

Shep-en-Apt I ... ... ... 256 

Shep-en-Apt II 256 

Shepherd kings ... ... 224, 225 

Shepherds, dynasties of ... 222, 223 
Shepseskaf, King ... 201, 287, 289 
Shepses-ka-Ra ... 203, 287, 291 

Shepuit 131 

Shera, a Ka-priest . . . ... 192,193 

Shesha, stele of 198 

Shesmu ... ... ... ... 144 

Sheta 132 

Shield, green slate, 191, 19S; with 
badge ... ... ... ... 120 

Shirt 81, 120 

Shishak 179, 253, 288, 298 

Shrine 106, 272 

Shu 128 

Shutarna 233 

Shutb 16 

Sickle 97 

Silko 278 

Silurus 133 

Silver rings .. . ... ... ... I79 

Sinai, peninsula of, 4, 203, 205, 
206, 208, 210, 214, 217, 219, 

222, 240; conquest of 195 

Sin 140-142 

Sins, the Forty- two 142 

Singing 3' 

Sirius ... .. •■• ■•• 184 

Sistrum 87, 178 

Siut 209 

Slwah, Oasis of 5 

Six, Great House of 207 

Skeletons of pygmies 205 

Skemiophris 219 

Skha-en-Ra meri Amen 297 

Skins of animals 9^ 

Skulls of Egyptians 158 

Sma amulet JS° 

Sma-taui 211 

Smendes 251, 298 

Smen-Heru 16 

Smer "8 

gmejrkha. King ,,. .,, 19°. 286 


... 118 


... 262 

Snake god 

... 132 

Snetchem-ab-Ra . . 

... 301 


... 256 

Sobat, river... 

... 13 

Soil of Egypt 

... 4 

Soldiers, equipment of 

... 120 

Soleb, temple of 

231, 232 

Solomon, 95, 253 ; seal of 

... 282 

Solum, gulf of 



... 21 

Somerset, river 

... 11 

Son of Ra name 

117, 203 

Song of Antuf 

• ■• 75 

Song of the Harper 



... 75 


268, 302 

Sothic Period, 182, 184; Year, 182, 184 

Sothis 184, 186 

Soul, 156; symboHzed by the heart 140 

Sow ... 96 

Sowing of crops 96 

Sparrow ... 85 

Spear ... 178 

Spells 31 

Sphinx, 198, 199 ; repaired, 277 ; 
sand cleared from, 232 ; temple 

ofthe 104 

Sphinx (Thothmes III) i^i 

Sphinxes, 105 ; avenue of, 230 ; 

from SSn ... 218 

Spice ■ 83,98 

Spinach ... ... 82 

Spindle whorls 165 

Spindles ... ... ... ••• 165 

Spirit 156 

Spirits, 133; Land of 204 

Spoons ... ... 92 

Spring ... ■•• 183 

Staff, inscribed, 178; of office ... 81 

Staircase to tombs I73 

Stars 145 

Statues for the Ka I77 

Statues painted 110,113 

Stele of 400years, 225 j of the dream 258 

Stelae, sepulchral 220 

Step pyramid 166,193 

Steps amulet 150 

Steps, god of the 189 

Stibium ... ■■■ 81 

Stick, walking 81 

Stole 164 

Stomach, god of 161 

Stone-cutting 191 

Stonemason 100 

Stools 91. 178 

Strabo quoted 11,13.242 

Succoth ,,, ,-f ,,i ..■ '7 



Sudan, 73, 204, 205, 206, 221, 
228, 230, 237, 239, 240, 262 ; 
conquests of, 195, 213, 283 ; 
Roman centurions in, 277 ; the 
13 nomes of 17 

SfldSn, Modern, provinces of ... 19 

Suez, 19, 98 ; isthmus of, 22 ; 
Canal 6, 259 

Sflhik, 18 ; church of, 284 ; dialect 

■ of... ... 

Sulb, 232, 234, 235 ; temple of 


Sun amulet 




Sunrise, mountain of 

Sunset, mountain of 



Sururu, stele of 
Suser-en-Ra, King... 


Suten-abu, relief of 
Suten Bat name 





226, 294 
131, 225, 226 



Suten-Henen, l6, 209 ; princes of 208 

Suten rekh title 221 

Suten ta hetep prayer ... 220,221 

Suti 225 

Sutui, an architect ... ... 239 

Swallow 85 

Swallow-goddess 132 

Sweetmeats 82 

Swine 82 

Syene i, 172, 206, 268, 275, 285 

Syncellus, the 264 

Syria, 71, 240 ; wars in, 229, 232 ; 

garrisons of 237 

Syrups 82 

Ta-Ahet, Oasis of ... 





91, 178 

Tablet of Sakkirah 

71, 185 

Tablet for offerings 

... 169 

Tablets of Abydos... 

71, i8s 

Tablets, sepulchral 

... 177 


... 266 


... 16 


... 288 


... 288 



288, 300 


... 81 

Tails of animals worn 

by men 

... 21 


... 16 


... 216 

Ta-IChart-Ast, statue of ... 

... 261 


.... 260 

Tale of the two brothers , , , 


Tall al-Maskhutah 





Tanis, 17, 216, 225, 

sphinxes of 
TankSsi, pyramids of 















taniiath-Amen 257, 258, 288, 300 

Tashermut, a priestess 273 

Tashet-Khensu 254 

Tasitia 18 

Taskmasters 15' 

Tata-aa, stele of 248 

ta-tenen 130 

Tati-ankef, stele of 219 

Tattoo markings ... ... ... 82 

Tau 188,286 

Tau-aa (Seqenen-Ra I) ... 226, 294 
Tau-aa-aa (Seqenen-Ra tl) 226, 294 
Tau-aa-qen (Seqenen-Ra III) 226, 294 
- " ■ 18 




205, 291 


266, 289, 302 


14, 166, 193, 286 











- 239 
... 164 

113, 236 
... 250 
... 104 

129, 258 
.. 16 

189, 286 
... 98 



Taurt (Thoueris) ... 

Taxes levied by priests 

Tcha, King 

Tchaa, stele of 



Tchatchai ... 


Tchefau-em-sa-f I 
Tchefau-em-sa-f II 
Tchehra ... 
Tcheser-sa, King .. 
Tcheser-Tcheseru .. 
Tcheser-Teta, King 


Tchesti, Oasis of .. 


Teben, a measure . . 




Tehuti-aa, stele of . . 
Tehuti-hetep, wall paintings of 
Tehutimes, stele of 


Tell al-Amarna, tablets of' 
Tell al-Yahudtyyah 
Temple, the 


Ten, King ... 
Tenat, a measure 

17. 125 





Tenk (pygmy) 






Tet amulet ... 
Teta (dynasty I) 
Teta (dynasty II) .. 
Teta (dynasty VI) .. 
Teta (Hen-nekht) .. 
Teta-Khart, Queen 
Teta Mer-enPtah .. 
Tet-f-Ra, ICing 

... 219 

... 16 

... 204 

... 16 

266, 289 

... 16 

... 268 

... 16 

... 125 

... 149 

... 189 

... 286 

... 205 

286, 290 

113. 114 

287, 291 
199, 286, 290 

Tet-ka-Ra -.. . . . . , King ... 208 

Tet-ICa-Ra Assa ... 203,287,291 

Tet-kau-Ra 300 

Tetun 129 

Teucharis 283 

That-I-em-hetep, stele of . . . 29, 274 

Thebaid 269, 279 

Thebans ... 209 

Thebes, 16, 216, 226 ; high priest 

of, 119; princes of, 208, 209; 

sacked, 258; triad of 234 

Theb-neter 17 

Thekaut 17 

ThekelethI 254,288,298 

Thekeleth II ...255, 256, 288, 299 

Thekelethlll 288,299 

Thent-Kheta 260 

Theodosius ... ... ... ... 278 

Thesh 188,286 

Thetha, 2CX) ; relief of, 205 ; stele of 210 

Thet-taui 213 

Thi, Queen 233-236,295 

This, city of i6, 188 

Thoth, god, inventor of writing, 

55, 75, 128, 135, 139, 140, 183, 196 

Thoth, the Twice-Great 265 

Thothmes I ... 229, 287, 294 

Thothmes II 230, 287, 294 

Thothmes III 164, 179, 230, 231, 

287, 295 
Thothmes IV ...198, 232, 287, 295 

Thoueris 126 

Threshing floor 97 

Thuaa 233 

Thunurei 7' 

Thuthu, stele of 238 

Thuthu, stele and libation tank of 239 

Tiberius 277 

Tiles, glazed I93 

Time, divisions of .. . ... ••■ 181 

Timekeepers 15' 

Timsah, lake 5 


Tmai al Amdld 


257, 288, 300 




Toilet box, 178; requisites ... 91 
Tomb of Osymandyas .'. . ... 242 
Tomb, the pyramid, 166 ; the 
mastaba, 167 ; the rock-hewn, 
172; endowment of, 175; equip- 
ment 178 

Tombs of the kings ... I73ff., 231 

Top-dressing 151 

Toys 78, loi, 178 

Trade 97 

Trajan ... ... ... ... 279 

Travel 69 

Tree of life 143 

Tree-trunk amulet .. . ... ... 149 

Triads 123 

Troiis 283 

Tuamutef 125, 129, 161 

tuat, or Other World 145 

tWunid Khalifas 285 

Tumblers ... ... 87 

Tura, quarries of ... 198, 213, 217 

Turin Papyrus ... ... 71,185 

Turquoise ... ... ... ... 215 

Turquoise mines ... ... ... 204 

Turtle-god 132 

Tushratta 98, 233, 236 

Tut-I-em-hetep 39 

Tutankh-Amen ...235, 238, 287, 296 

Two-horns 142 

Tybi, month of 183 

Uah-ab-Ra (Hophra) 


288, 300 

Uah-ab-Ra, statue of 

... 261 

Uah-ankh, King ... 

210, 292 

Uah-ka-Ra (Bocchoris) 

... 299 

Uaht-rest, Oasis of 

- 5 


... 142 

Uasarken I . . . 


288, 298 

Uasarken II 217, 218 

, 254, 

288, 298 

Uasarken III 


288, 299 

Uasarken IV 

288, 299 


... 16 


188, 286 



126, 128 

Uatch-kheper-Ra ... 

... 294 

Uatch-nar ... 

188, 286 

Uatchnes, King 

191, 286 


... 213 


... 300 

Ukhedu disease 

... 190 

Umm Darman 

... 4 


120, 206 

Unas, King, 203, 205, 



legend of 

... 74 





Unu-Amen, travels of 


Upper Nile, province of ... 

Ur ... 


Ur-ari-en-Ptah, mastaba of 





User, stele of 

User-en- Ra _ 

User-en-Ra An 







... 6s 


... 119 

... 126 

... 212 
203, 204 
287, 291 



Wadi al-Hamar cataract 

4. 214. 

Userkaf, King, 201, 203, 205, 287, 291 

User-ka-Ra, King 205 

User-ka-Ra Ati 287 

User-ka-Ra meri Amen 302 

User-Kheperu-Ra meri Amen ... 296 
User-Maat-Ra Amen-meri Setep- 

en-Ra 297 

User-Maat-Ra Khu-en- Amen ... 297 
User-Maat-Ra-sekheper-en-Ra ... 297 
User - Maat - Ra Setep - en - Amen 

(Rameses III) 297 

User - Maat - Ra Setep - en - Amen 

(Rameses IV) 297 

User-Maat-Ra Setep-en-Ra Amen 

(Osorkonll) 298 

User - Maat - Ra Setep - en - Amen 

(Pamai) 299 

User - Maat - Ra Setep - en - Ra 

(Rameses II) 296 

User - Maat - Ra Setep - en - Ra 

(Shishaklll) 299 

User-Ra-setep-en Ptah 301 

Usertsen I ... 73, 172, 213, 287, 293 

Usertsen II 172, 215, 287, 293 

Usertsen III, 73, 115-117, 121, 

172, 216, 217, 255, 257, 287, 293 
Usertsen IV ... 219, 287, 293 


... 218 

152. 177 

262, 263 

... 149 

... 207 

... 70 

... 82 

... 77 

... 279 

... 178 

... 56 

... 283 

... II 

Usertsen, a prince . 
Usertsen-senbu, stele of 
Ushabti figure 
Utcha-Her-resenet . . . 
Utchat amulet 
Uthenaa, false door of 

Valley of the Acacia 




Vessels, funerary ... 
Victor, a priest 


Victoria Nyanza . . . 


Vulture, 85; amulet, 149; goddess 132 



Wadl Haifah 
WSdt Haifah camp 
Wadl HammSmSt . 
Widl Magharah . 






Water supply 

Wax, used for magical figures 

Wax figures 

Weaving, art of ... 




White Crown 

White Nile, province of ... 

Whorls ... 

Wicked, annihilation of ... 

Wife, status of 






Wine, imperishable 
Wine-jars, sealings of 
Winnowing of grain 






Wool-work ... 
Words of power 


Writing, art of, introduced 
Writing reeds 

... 231 

... 13 

216, 240 

... 4 

204, 206 

203, 214 

240, 243 

... 44 

... 144 

... 180 

... 82 

... 90 

... 31 

... 67 

... 99 

... 98 

... 44 

22, 82 

... 190 

... 19 

... 16s 

... 144 

... 77 

81, lOI 

... 85 

... 164 

■■■ 273 

... 83 

- 143 

... 189 

... 97 

... 183 

... 31 

... 85 

... 132 

... lOI 

... 16s 

31. 149 

... 22 
... 194 

- 53 

Xerxes I, the Great 263, 267, 288, 301 
Xois 17,222 

Year, the calendar, 184; the lunar, 
182 ; the primitive, 182 ; the 
solar, 182 ; the Sothic, 182 ; the 


Young, Thomas ... ... 44, 270 

Zael 57 

Zakazik ... ... ... ... 18 

Ziwyet al-'ArySn, pyramids of ... 170 

Zedekiah 259, 260 

Zobah 253 

Zodiac 71 

Zoega ... 44 

Zflma, pyramids of ... ... 170 

. ^^,^;^pg4^i#'!»p