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University of Texas Bulletin 

No. 1869: December 10, 1918 

Okla. Geol 





DiTision OP Ecoirowio OEozioaT 

J. A. VDDEN, Director of tHe Bureau and Head of the Division 




The benefits of education and ot 
useful knowledge, generally diffused 
through a community, are essential 
to the preservation of a free govern- 

Sam Houston 

Cultivated mind is the guardian 
genius of democracy .... It is the 
only dictator that freemen acknowl- 
edge and the only security that free- 
men desire. 

Mirabeaa B. Iiamar 




Preface 1 

CHAPTER I — Introduction 3 

The Region 3 

Literature 5 

CHAPTER II — Pre-Cretaceous 11 

Cretaceous 13 

Lower Cretaceous^Comanchean 14 

Trinity 14 

Fredericksburg ■. . 15 

Washita 16 

Comanchean Sections 18 

•J!v6nts at Close of Comanchean 19 

Salt Basins 20 

Upper ■ (Cretaceous 20 

Woodbine , 21 

Eagleford 21 

Austin Chalk ■ 22 

Taylor and Navarro 23 

Upper Cretaceous Sections 23 

Events at Close of Upper Cretaceous 24 

Folds and Domes 25 

Sabine %Peninsula 26 

CHAPTER III — Tertiary 28 

Introduction 28 

Tertiary Formations of East Texas 29 

Tertiary Sections 29 

Eocene ■ 30 

Midway 30 

General Character and Thickness 31 

Deposition and Relation to Underlying Beds 31 

Area of Outcrop 32 

Details of Section • 33 

Fossils 36 

Wilcox 37 

Deposition and Areal Distribution 38 

Correlation with other Areas 39 

Sabine Phase 40 

Sabine River Section 40 

Lignitic Phase 45 

General Character and Area 45 

Brazos River Section 48 

Mapped Area 49 

Santa Fe Railway Section 50 

Fo^ils ^2 

Close of Lower Eocene 54 

iv Table of Contents 

CHAPTER IV — Eocene, continued: 

Claiborne 56 

Introduction 56 

Deposition and Character 57 

Distribution 59 

Topography 5^ 

Correlation with other Areas •. 60 

Carrizo ■ ■ 61 

Name 61 

Character 61 

Area of Outcrop 62 

Marihe 64 

Mt. Selman ,. 65 

Name and Occurrence 65 

Character and Relations 66 

Cook's Mountain 66 

Name and Occurrence 66 

Character and relations 67 

Nacogdoches 67 

Sabine River Section 67 

Santa Fe Railway Section 74 

San Augustine Section 75 

H. E. & W. T. Ry. Section 78 

Nacogdoches Beds 79 

St. L. & S. W. Section 86 

Trinity River Section , 89 

Cook's Mountain Section 92 

Wheelock Section 94 

Brazos River Section 97 

CHAPTER V — Eocene, continued: 
Claiborne, continued: 

Yegua 102 

Name 102 

Type Section 102 

Age 106 

Mapped Area 108 

General Character '. 108 

Sabine River Section 110 

Santa Fe Railway Section Ill 

T. & N. O. R. R. Section Ill 

St. L. & S. W. Ry. Section 112 

H. E. & W. T. Ry. Section 117 

Texas Southeastern Ry. Section 119 

I. & G. N. Ry. Section ; 122 

Trinity River Section 125 

Brazos River Section ; 129 

Rio Grande Section 130 

Table of Contents v 

_ Page 

CHAPTER VI — Eocene, continued: 

Claiborne, continued: 

Fayet|e 134 

Name 134 

Type Section 134 

Rio Grande Section 136 

Mapped Area 139 

Close of the Claiborne 143 

CHAPTER VII — Eocene continued: 

Jackson 145 

Name 145 

General Character and Thickness 145 

Distribution 146 

Deposition and Relation to Underlying Formations 147 

'Subdivisions 148 

Correlation with other Areas 148 

Details of Section 149 

Brazos and Grimes Counties .' 149 

Madisonville Branch 153 

Trinity River Section 157 

I. & G. N. Ry. Section 163 

Groveton Section 165 

H. E. & W. T. Ry. Section 170 

Manning Section 176 

Caddell's Section 177 

Santa Fe Ry. Section 180 

Sabine River Section 181 

Volcanlcs. . 182 

Close of Eocene 183 

Salt Pans 

CHAPTER VIII — Introduction 185 

Oligocene 185 

Deposition and Character 186 

Corrigan '. 187 

General Character and Relations 188 

Area and Thickness 189 

Sabine River Section 189 

Santa Fe Ry. Section ' 192 

Angelina River Section 194 

T. & N. O. R. R. Section 195 

Neches River Section 197 

H. E. & W. T. Ry. Section 200 

Kickapoo Creek Section 207 

Trinity River, Section 210 

I. & G. N. Ry. Section 213 

Brazos River Section 218 

vi Table of Contents 


CHAPTER IX — Neocene 219 

Introduction 219 

Fleming 221 

General Statement 221 

Sabine River Section 222 

Burkeville Section 223 

Santa Fe Ry. Section 225 

T. & N. O. R. R. Section 226 

H. E. & W. T. Ry. Section 22Y 

Trinity River Section 229 

Cold Springs Section , 230 

I & G. N. Ry. Section 233 

Grimes County Section 235 

Brazos River Section 238 

Oakville 238 

General Statement 238 

Brazos River Section 238 

Lapara 243 

General Statement 243 

Lagarto 244 

General Statement 244 

Lafayette 246 

Character and Deposition 246 

Details of Section 248 

Santa Pe Ry. Section 250 

Angelina-Neches Section 251 

T. & N. O. R. R. Section 253 

H. E. & W. T. Ry. Section 255 

I. & G. N. Ry. Section 259 

West of Trinity 259' 

Close of Neocene 260 

CHAPTER X — Quaternary 264 

Pleistocene. ; 264 

General Character •. . . .264 

Angelina-Neclies 265 

Trinity River 266 

Beaumont Clays 269 

Surface Features 272 

Salines and Mounds 272 

CHAPTER XI— Lignite 275 

General Character 275 

Methods of Utilization 276 

Lignites of the Wilcox 277 

Lignites of the Yegua 283^ 

Lignites of the Jackson 289' 

Table of Contents vii 

CHAPTER XII — Petroleum and Natural Gas 292 

Origin 292 

Occurrence 294 

Cretaceous Oil and Gas 298 

Eocene Oil and Gas 303 

CHAPTER XIII — Salt and Gypsum 307 

Salt 307 

Domes 307 

Salines 309 

Origin of Salines 310 

Mounds in Association with Salines 311 

Salines of the Wilcox , 311 

Salines of the Yegua 312 

Salines of the Jackson 313 

Salines as a source of Salt 315 

Gypsum 315 

CHAPTER XIV — Iron 318 

Shelby County ores 322 

Nacogdoches County Ores 322 

Rusk County ores 323 

Cherokee County ores 323 

Anderson County ores 331 

Henderson County ores 335 

Houston County ores 336 

CHAPTER XV — Clays 338 

Clays of the Midway 340 

Clays of the Wilcox 341 

Clays of the Marine 352 

Clays of the Fayette and Yegua 354 

Clays of the Jackson 355 

Clayp of the Fleming 357 

CHAPTER XVI — Fuller's Earth, Volcanic Ash and Glass Sand. .360 

Puller's Earth 360 

Volcanic Ash 362 

Glass Sand 365 

CHAPTER XVII — Building Stone and Gravel 367 

Building Stone 367 

Sandstones of Marine 367 

Sandstones of Fayette 369 

Sandstones of Jackson , 370 

Sandstones of Corrigan 373 

Gravels 377 


J- of Back 



Plate I Geologic Map of Texas. 

II Sketch Map showing distribution of forma- 
tions West of Navasota 

III Map of Iron Ore Regions, Cherokee County. 

IV Pendleton Bluff, showing Wilcox formation 40 

V Patroon Bayou, showing Wilcox formation 49 

VI 1 — Aaron's HiU, Nacogdoches, showing Marine 

formation 81 

2 — Westmoreland Bluff, showing Yegua formation 81 

VII 1 — Clay Pit, Homer, showing Fayette formation. . 145 
2— Cut, HE&WT Ry., eross-hedded sands of 

Jackson formation 145 

VIII I — White Rock Creek, volcanic ash of Jackson 

formation 177 

2 — Volcanic Ash Bed, Jackson formation 177 

IX Trinity River, contact of Jackson- C or rigan 193 

X 1 — White Rock Creek, Corrigan formation 209 

2 — Riverside, Corrigan formation 209 

XI 1 — Jasper County Quarry, Corrigan quartzite .... 225 

2 — Smith's Ferry, Fleming clays 225 

XII Colmesneil, Lafayette formation 249 


The great importance of the Tertiary beds of southeastern 
Texas from an economic point of view is now beginning to be 
realized and appreciated. During the existence of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Texas, 1888 to 1894, the prevailing opinion 
of the people of eastern Texas was that geological work might 
benefit western Texas but could be of little assistance to them, 
and this opinion had much to do with the opposition that led 
to the discontinuance of the survey. The passing years, how- 
ever, have shown the erroneous nature of this idea and have 
proved something of the true value of the mineral resources 
of the beds underlying the region. In them is stored, in the form 
of beds of lignite, a vast amount of material which must be our 
hope for fuel throughout the coast country after the present 
oil supply has been depleted. Associated with them are deposits 
of iron ores which, probably, are only second in quantity to those 
of the Great Lakes Region and are the equal in quality of any 
brown ores found anywhere. The accumulations of oil that, 
beginning with the Lucas well at Spindletop, have been found 
by the drill and have played an important part in the develop- 
ment of this region, are all within their sediments. The domes 
of the Coastal region are an integral part of them and contain 
possibly as large an amount of salt as is known within a like 
area in the world. From the known extent and thickness of 
beds as proved by drilling it has been estimated that there is 
here at least one ton of salt for every inhabitant of the earth 's 
surface. These domes also hold a vast amount of sulphur and 
they are today supplying more than 90 per cent of the sulphur 
produced in the United States. There are also numerous other 
substances of value within these formations. 

With this potential wealth of mineral resources now only 
partially developed it is essential that a careful study be made 
of the deposits in order that every assistance possible may be 
given to the development of the area. 

The Geological Department of the Southern Pacific Lines in 
Texas and Louisiana, in the course of its work on the oil con- 
ditions and mineral resources of the territory tributary to its 

2 University of Texas Bulletin 

lines in southeastern Texas, has made detailed investigations of 
a portion of the area and the general results are deemed of suf- 
ficient interest to warrant publication. 

Upon the request of Prof. J. A. Udden, Director of the Bureau 
of Economic Geology of the University of Texas, the matter of 
such publication was taken up with the President of the Southern 
Pacific Lines in Texas and Louisiana, Mr. W. B. Scott, and the 
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Southern Pacific 
Company, Mr. J. Kruttsehnitt. The request met with their 
approval and the accompanying "Eeport on the Geology of East 
Texas" has been prepared as a contribution from the Southern 
Pacific to the increase of knowledge of the region. 

To assist in the development of this region and that lying 
south of it, it seemed best to give briefly the character of all un- 
derlying beds, to combine with the reports of the geologists work- 
ing under the writer the observations of other workers in the 
same field and the broader results of his own personal investiga- 
tions, and to add his interpretation of them, in order that a full 
resume of our present knowledge of the geology and mineral re- 
sources might be available to those who may desire such infor- 
mation for the direction of future exploration and drilling. 
By treating the subject in this way the writer has gone some- 
what further into the matter than was at first contemplated. 

The personnel of the Geological Department of the Southern 
Pacific Lines, whose work has contributed to this report, is as 
follows : 

E. T. Dumble, Consulting Geologist 1897-1918. 

W. F. Cummins, Geologist... 1902-1918. 

W. Kennedy, Assistant Geologist 1902-1916. 

Lee Hager, Assistant Geologist 1903-1904. 

L. P. Garrett, Assistant Geologist 1903-1908. 

C. L. Baker, Assistant Geologist 1912-1913. 

J. R. Suman, Assistant Geologist 1912-1917. 

J. W. Bostick, Assistant Geologist 1916-1918. 

"W. "W. Kelley, Assistant Geologist 1917. 

E. T. D. 


By E. T. Dumble, Consulting Geologist, 
Southern Pacific Company. 

Chapter I 

The special area covered by this report^ is a strip of country 
over 100 mjles in width lying between parallels of 30° 30' and 
32° and extending from the Sabine to the Brazos or the line 
of the Houston & Texas Central Railway. 

The mapped area includes, in whole or in part, the following 
counties : 

Anderson Leon Robertson 

Angelina Limestone Rusk 

Brazos Madison Sabine 

Cherokee Montgomery San Augustine 

Freestone Nacogdoches Shelby 

Grimes Navarro Trinity 

Houston Newton Tyler 

Hardin Panola Walker 

Jasper Polk 

A proper presentation of its geological features, however, in- 
volves a consideration of a more extended region. Consequently, 
the report embraces more or less detail of a very considerable 
portion of Texas and parts of Louisiana and Arkansas. 


The region is a part of the Gulf Coastal Plain. This plain is 
composed of sediments laid down in former extensions of what 
are now the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, and began with the 
submergence at the commencement of the Cretaceous. These 
deposits required longer or shorter periods for their accumu-- 
lation and alternated with periods in which there was little or 
no deposition and others when parts of the deposits already, laid 
down were carried away through erosive agencies and redis- 

^Mss. of this report was submitted Aug. 10, 1918, published Feb. 

4 University of Texas Bulletin 

tributed over the land or deposited in bodies of fresh water. 
This was brought about by the fluctuations of the levels of the 
land surface as compared with those of the waters of the 
Gulf. Deposition continued intermittently through the Cre- 
taceous and Tertiary to the present, with but few interrup- 
tions of major importance. 

Our present land surface is due to the gradual recession of 
the strand line of the Gulf, and the Plain itself does not even 
now terminate at the water's margin, but stretches outward to 
the one hundred fathom line of sea depth. That this is its true 
structural limit is shown by the fact that beyond this line the 
bottom of the sea slopes downward with great rapidity. 

For the most part the sediments forming this plain in eastern 
Texas are in beds of rather loosely compacted materials which as 
a whole slope gently toward the Gulf. Thus, as we travel eoast- 
ward, we come upon successively later and later formations, the 
surface exposures of which form a series of belts of varying 
width roughly paralleling the present shoreline. 

As the waters slowly receded from these various formations 
and they were exposed as land surfaces they were seized upon by 
erosive agencies and gradually sculptured into their present 
topographic forms. 

The alternations of broad bands of clays and sands with other 
bands of more compact sandstones and clays which extend west- 
ward from the Sabine are reflected in the topography by belts of 
comparatively level country bounded to the south by lines of 
hills more or less abrupt on their northern faces and dipping 
southward with a gentle slope to the succeeding plain. 

These belts are in turn dissected by the many streams crossing 
them and this results in a hilly or gently rolling country. Prac- 
tically all the elevations are directly due to erosion, and earth 
movements have had little effect on the present surfieial aspect 
of the region. 

While there is comparatively little evidence at the surface 
today to show the effects of erogenic action we do find unmis- 
takable evidence that there were at least three periods in which 
earth movements of considerable extent affected this area and 
that two of these were accompanied by active volcanic eruptions. 

Of these movements one began toward the close of the Austin 

The Geology of East Texas 5 

Chalk deposition, a second is known in connection with the upper 
Eocene and the third occurred during or at the close of the 
Upper Pliocene. 

The effects of these movements are often masked by the level- 
lying succeeding deposits. Only a few of the volcanic necks of the 
Cretaceous are known and those of the Eocene are as yet undis- 
covered, although the ejectae which form so large a portion of 
the upper Eocene and Oligoeene deposits indicate that they may 
have been within our own borders. 

The area of our report includes only a portion of the Tertiary 
deposits of this great plain. 


There have been published numerous reports and papers, some 
not now accessible to the general public, which treat to some 
extent of the geology of this region. Eeviews of earlier pub- 
lications have been given by HillS Penrose^, Dumble', Veatch*, 
Deussen", and others. 

Among the publications of special interest as descriptive of 
this area and of the same formations in contiguous territory the 
following may be mentioned: 

The existence of lignite and iron in this region was referred 
to by several of the early voyagers, and in 1839 Dr. J. L. Riddell 
published in the American Journal of Science a description of 
the lignite beds on the Trinity below Hall's Bluff. 

B. P. Shumard in his First Report of Progress" gives briefly 

^Hill, R. T., Present Condition of Knowledge of the Geology of 
Texas. Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur. No. 45, 1887. 

"Penrose, R. A. F., First Ann. Rep. Geol. Sur. Tex. 188 9. 

^Dumble, E. T., Iron Ore Districts of East Texas. Second Ann. 
Rep. Geol. Sur. Tex. 1890. Report on Brown Coal and Lignite, 
1892. Problem of the Texas Tertiary Sands, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 
Vol. 26, pp. 447-476, 1915. 

*Veatch, A. C, Geology and Underground Water Resources of North- 
ern Louisiana and Southern Arkansas. U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 
No. 46, 1906. 

'Deussen, Alex. Geology and Underground Water-Supply of 
Southeastern Texas. Water-Supply Paper No. 335. 

'First Report of Progress of the Geological & Agricultural Survey 
of Texas, 1859. 

6 University of Texas Bulletin, 

the results of his reconnaissance of the region. He made two 
general sections. The first began at Sour Lake and passed 
through Hardin, Tyler, Jasper, Sabine, San Augustine, Nacog- 
doches and Eusk counties to Marshall in Harrison county. The 
second was from Henderson in Rusk county through Cherokee, 
Anderson, Freestone and Limestone counties to Waco. In this 
report he calls particular attention to the deposits of brown coal 
or lignite and iron ores and to the occurrence of petroleum at 
Sour Lake. 

Buckley'', in his Preliminary Report, gives some details of these 
and in his First Annual Report goes more into particulars regard- 
ing the various deposits of iron ores and lignites in several 
counties and the petroleum near Melrose in Nacogdoches county. 
He also mentions the oil seep in the Gulf near Sabine Pass and 
the oil at Sour Lake. 

In his Second Annual Report Buckley also refers to the lig- 
nites of this area. 

Loughridge gives a very concise statement of the geology of 
this region in his Report of Cotton Production in Texas in Re- 
ports of the Tenth Census. 

The first publications to deal particularly with this area were 
those of Penrose in the First Report of Progress and First An- 
nual Report of the Geological Survey of Texas. In these the 
broader features were mapped out clearly and a beginning was 
made in the work of securing detailed geological knowledge of 
East Texas. The general geologic section is given together with 
descriptions and analyses of the different deposits of iron, 
lignites, marl, oil, salt, etc. 

In the Second Annual Report of the Geological Survey of 
Texas the work so well begun by Penrose is continued and ex- 
panded. Under the general title Report on the Iron Ore Dis- 
tricts of East Texas there appears as comprehensive a statement 
of the general geology and mineral resources as was possible 
under the conditions existing at that time. In the Introduction 

'Preliminary Report of the Geological & Agricultural Survey of 
Texas, 1866. 

First Annual Report of the Geological & Agricultural Survey of 
Texas, 1874. 

The Geology O'f East Texas 7 

Dtunble gives an historical sketch of the iron industry of East 
Texas, a general statement regarding the topography of the iron 
ore districts, an adaptation of the geology as given by Penrose 
and his conclusions regarding the character and mode of occur- 
rence of iron ores. The possible fuels and their utilization are 
briefly treated by Birkenbine and Lerch, followed by a descrip- 
tion of the counties where workable iron ores were thought to 
occur. These reports on counties ga,ve what details of geology 
were obtainable but were mainly devoted to a description of the 
location, character and quality of the iron ores and other eco- 
nomic minerals. Kennedy reported on Cass, Marion, Harrison, 
Gregg, Morris, Wood, Upshur, Van Zandt and Henderson coun- 
ties; Herndon on Smith county; "Walker on Panola, Shelby. 
Rusk, Nacogdoches and Cherokee counties, and Dumble on An- 
derson and Houston counties. Accompanying the report was a 
map which showed the general distribution of the ores. 

In the Third Annual Report, published during the following 
year, Kennedy makes a special report on Houston county, and 
gives quite fully the general geological features and mineral re- 
sources so far as they were understood or could be determined at 
that time. Our later studies enable us to better classify some of 
the formations described by him but otherwise the report needs 
little change. 

This report is followed by a description of a general section 
made from Terrel to the Gulf directly across our region. This 
section has been the basis of much of our later work. In this 
description the Timber Belt beds of Penrose are divided into two 
members called the Lignitic and Marine and the latter is sub- 
divided into the basal or Mt. Selman and the upper or Cook's 
Mountain. Similarly the Fayette beds of Penrose are separated 
into three members. 

He defines the Luf kin or Angelina county deposits, later found 
to be the same as those described as the Tegua, the age of wMch 
was definitely fixed by the accompanying fossils. He describes 
the sands around Corrigan and correlates them with those called 
Fayette because of certain fossils found near them. He also 
describes the overlying clays which form so large a portion of 
the surface of the area mapped and gave them the name Fleming. 

In tlie Eeport on Brown Coal and Lignite Dumble maps and 
describes the lignite deposits of this area. 

In the Fourth Annual Eeport Kennedy makes a report on the 
geology of Robertson and Grimes counties and gives a general 
description of the various formations. Later discoveries of fossils 
necessitate some change in the references of these beds. 

During the fifth year of the work of the Geological Survey 
Harris was employed in the study of the large collections of Ter- 
tiary fossils which had been brought in by the members of the 
survey. The paper he prepared for publication in the Fifth 
Annual Report described and figured all of these forms. The 
drawings for this report were beautifully done and the plates 
made from them were very fine. Unfortunately, the State did 
not publish the report nor any other portion of the Fifth An- 
nual. Harris then selected the forms that were new and pub- 
lished them in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia^. A paper on the fossils from the Deep 
Well at Galveston was published in the Bulletin of American Pal- 
eontology and in the same publication he has since described and 
figured the marine fauna of the Midway and Wilcox formations 
of the entire Coastal Plain, with which he has included all forms 
belonging to these two formations found in our Texas region 
prior to publication. A similar report on the Claiborne fauna is 
now in process of publication. 

Kennedy in a paper, Iron Ores of East Texas'*, brings to- 
gether a good description of the iron ores of* East Texas with 
many analyses taken from the reports of the Survey. 

He also published a paper entitled The Eocene Tertiary of 
Texas Bast of the Brazos River^", in which he gives a more de- 
tailed account of the beds with sections and lists of fossils and a 
resume of the history as he interprets it. 

Hayes and Kennedy, in Oil Fields of the Texas-Louisiana 
Coastal Plain^^, furnish a map showing distribution of the Ter- 
tiary in southeast Texas and general statement of the geology 
followed by details of the coastal oil fields. 

»Proc. Phil. Ac. 1S95. 
'Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng'., 1894. 
'°Proc. Acad. Nat. So. Phila. 1895. 
"Bulletin U. S. G. S. 212. 

The Geology of East Texas 9 

In United States Geological Survey Bulletin No. 260 Fenne- 
man covers some of the same ground. 

In the publications of the University of Texas Mineral Sur- 
vey Phillips has a Bulletin which gives analyses and microscopic 
studies of the Coastal Oil, and another on Coal, Lignite and As- 
phalt Rocks, to which Brooks and B. F. Hill contributed a por- 
tion of the descriptive matter and Harper a valuable chapter on 
the analyses of Texas asphalts. 

Simonds in his list of Mineral Localities of Texas brings to- 
gether the reported localities of all East Texas minerals. 

Ries, in Clays of Texas", describes a number of the clays found 
in this region and gives analyses of them. 

Phillips, in connection with Worrell and Drury McN. Phillips, 
published as a Bulletin of the Bureau of Economic Geology "The 
Composition of Texas Coals and Lignites" and the use of Pro- 
ducer Gas in Texas, which should be of value in future utiliza- 
tion of the lignites of East Texas. 

Harris, in his work as State Geologist of Louisiana, was as- 
sisted by Veatch, who was studying the artesian water conditions 
of Louisiana and Arkansas. The examinations were extended 
into parts of East Texas aijd among the fossils collected at the 
locality four miles north of Corrigan and at one or two other 
localities between that point and the Sabine, as well as on that 
river, species were found which indicated the Jackson or Upper 
Eocene age of the beds. This was announced by Harris^^ with 
other results of these examinations. Veatch^* later also described 
the occurrences. To the Corrigan sands of Kennedy he applied 
the name Catahoula and correlated them with the "typical 
Grand Gulf ' ' which immediately overlies the Vieksburg and is of 
Oligoeene age. He also refers the Fleming beds to the Oligocene. 

Deussen embodies the results of his examination of this region 
in his report "Geology and Underground Water-Supply of 
Southeastern Texas '.'i^. 

From this report and the geological maps accompanying it, his 

"University of Texas Bulletin 102. 
"Geol. Sur. La. 1899-1902. 
"U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper No. 46. 

"U. S. Geological Survey "Water-Supply Paper No. 335. 


10 University of Texas Bulletin 

understanding of the geology appears to differ somewhat from 
that of Veatch and Harris, and he apparently uses the names 
given by Veatch to cover very different series of beds from those 
to which they were originally applied. "While this may 'be some- 
what confusing, the change of name of a sand need have no 
effect on its water-bearing quality and the report is of very prac- 
tical value. 

Dumble, in a paper entitled "Problem of the Texas Tertiary 
Sands "^"j attempts to clear away as far as possible the various 
misunderstandings as to the ages of the several sands involved 
in the description of this area. He reviews the earlier work and 
uses that of later geologists working under his direction to give 
the broader features of the geology of the region. 

It is this view that is adopted in the following report which is 
therefore, in part, an expansion of the above paper, but includes 
many details which could not be given in it and treats the entire 
subject in a much broader way as it utilizes information taken 
from many other sources. 

"Dumble, Bui. Geol. Soc. Am. Vol. 26, 1915. 

Chapter II 

The entire pre-Cretaeeous history of the whole east Texas re- 
gion is probably that of a land area. 

From the beginning of geologic time until late in the Mesozoic 
it was a part of the ancient land mass, known as Llanoria, orig- 
inally of great- extent, and of which the primordial rocks of the 
Llano-Burnet region with their fringe of earlier Paleozoies, are 
now the only visible remnant east of the Pecos river. Supposedly 
it stretched southwestward into Mexico, connecting directly with 
the Columbian area of that region. It spread westward and 
southward an unknown distance. Branner holds that it ex- 
tended across the Mississippi basin to a direct connection with 
the Appalachian belt in Ala;bama. Shuchert^, however, con- 
siders the two areas as separate throughout the entire Paleozoic 
except in middle Cambrian and upper Silurian time. His 
eastern border of Llanoria is just west of the Mississippi Eiver. 
It probably extended over all of east Texas and Western 
Louisiana, reaching also into southern Arkansas. 

In the Texas area this land mass formed the southern and 
eastern boundaries of the epicontinental seas of Paleozoic, early 
and middle Mesozoic times, and it furnished much of the ma- 
terials that entered into the formations laid down in them. 

While no remnants of this land are known either in eastern 
Texas or in the Coast country, evidences of its former existence 
are sufficiently numerous and plain <to warrant these positive 
statements cDncerning it. 

In all the region east of Llano the earliest Mesozoic rocks 
known, either from surface exposures or from drilling, belong 
to the lower Cretaceous. The latest Paleozoic rocks are those of 
the Bend formation, which is basal Pennsylvanian, and these 
are only known contiguous to the Llano border. 

Along the southeastern border of the Llano region the Cre- 
taceous in places overlaps the Bend and lies upon the older 
Paleozoies. Along the southern line the Bend seems to be entirely 

'Bull. Geol. See. Am. vol. 20, p. 427, 1910. 

12 University of Texas Bulletin 

absent. The evidence of the further westward extension of the 
underlying Bend is found in its exposures along the western 
border of the Llano area and is obtained from well drilling. 
A well southwest of Uvalde passed entirely through the Cre- 
taceous into black shale which is believed to represent the Bend. 
Wells north and west of Uvalde have encountered similar ma- 
terials below the Cretaceous. The Bend is also well developed in 
the Paleozic area west of the Pecos. This would indicate that 
during the Bend the Llano area was a peninsula extending 
northward from the Llanoria land mass. 

To just what extent the Bend may underlie the entire coastal 
region east of the Colorado can not now be told. It is, however, 
probably confined to its extreme western and northern borders. 
That it does not underlie all of it is known, because materials 
derived from certain wells sunk east and south of Llano, where 
the drill has passed through the Cretaceous into the underlying 
beds, have been studied microscopically by Udden and have 
proved to be of pre-Cambrian age and of apparently schistose 

Drake stresses the fact that a large part of the sediments of' 
the Carboniferous and Permian of the central Texas area must 
have been derived from a land mass lying to the east^. 

Branner in ' ' The Former Extension of the Appalachians across 
Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas''^ brings together many facts 
to corroborate his views and gives proof that the Ouachita sedi- 
ments as well as those of the Carboniferous of Arkansas, Okla- 
homa and Texas were similarly of southern and eastern origin. 

This Llanoria land of southern and eastern Texas was, there- 
fore, a controlling factor in building the Paleozoic formations of 
the interior and furnished much of the material which entered 
into them. 

On the interior slope of Llanoria, streams, instead of flowing 
gulfward as at present, flowed northward or northwestward and 
emptied their waters, burdened with sediments derived from 
the erosion of its surface, into the Mediterranean sea that lapped 
its shores. It was an area of erosion and not of desposition. 

'Fourth Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Tex. p. 
=Amer. Jour. Sc. Vol. 4, 1897, p. 357. 

The Geology of East Texas 13 

Therefore, the probability is that over a very considerable por- 
tion of this coastal area no clastic deposits earlier than those of 
the Mississippi embayment series were ever laid down. 

Since we have no evidence at all tending to show the existence, 
east of the Pecos, of deposits of Triassic or Jurassic age contig- 
uous to Llanoria it may be that during the early Mesozoie the 
land was base-leveled and stood at only a slight elevation above 
the sea. 

The only Mesozoie beds of marine deposition, earlier than the 
Cretaceous, known in Texas are of upper Jurassic age and are 
found in the Malone Mountain region between El Paso and 
Sierra Blanca. Their continuation, or deposits contemporaneous 
with them, are found only in Mexico and western United States. 
It was probably at this time that orogenic forces began to shape 
the final destruction of this land. 

Beginning at El Paso and extending gradually eastward to- 
ward Austin there was apparently a downward warping of the 
old land surface toward the east and south. From Austin the 
inner border of the zone of warping changed its direction from 
eastward to northeastward and the subsidence appears to have 
been toward the south and east permitting the incursion of the 
Comanchean sea to the eastward of the Llano area. 

Whether this movement was simply a gradual sinking of the 
land or whether it was accomplished by folding, faulting or vol- 
canic action is not known. It is probable, however, that it was 
of such character that it established in some way the main lines 
of weakness which have later been further developed within this 
area. This was the beginning of the submergence that resulted 
in the Mississippi embayment during the early part of which our 
east Texas land area finally succumbed to the encroachments of 
the sea. 

This movement also marked the birth of the present Gulf 
Coastal Plain a part of whose sediments are probably older than 
the Gulf itself. 


The positive geological history of our east Texas region, as 
written in the sedimentary strata which occupy it, began with the 
first approach of the waters of the Comanchean sea. The incur- 

14 University of Texas Bulletin 

sion of this sea was greatly facilitated by the flatness of the low 
featureless plain which was the final stage of the old land area 
as the result of the long continued erosion of its surface. 


Coming from the south the Cretaceous sea first reached the 
Texas borders in the region of Presidio del Norte on the Eio 
Grande. Here were deposited the gravel and sand which con- 
stitute the lowest beds of this age of which we have knowledge 
in the Texas area, but which the Mexican geologists claim are^ 
somewhat higher in the section than the lowest Cretaceous beds 
existing there, thus indicating that some interval of time was 
required after the beginning of the Cretaceous deposition for the 
advancing sea to reach our territory. 


The lowest division of the Texas Cretaceous is known as the 
Trinity. In its greatest development it consists of three mem- 
bers called in their ascending order Trinity or Travis Peak sand, 
Glen Rose limestone and Paluxy sand. When the members are 
all present they indicate the gradual deepening of the sea in that 
locality to the end of the Glen Rose followed by shallower waters 
during the Paluxy. There are, however, many places where 
only sands are' found, and it is sometimes difficult to determine 
whether these are Travis Peak or Paluxy. Where fossils occur 
there is less trouble, since those in the Travis Peak are oysters 
or other marine forms, while the Paluxy is usually characterized 
by plants and fossil wood. 

The base leveling of the east Texas area permitted the rapid 
encroachment oi: the water so the Trinity sea probably covered 
the land with considerable rapidity. The gradual extension of 
the waters to the north and the deepening of the sea to the south 
is beautifully told in the sediments exposed along the Colorado 
river on the eastern border of the Llano region. 

The erosion of the Colorado and its affluents has channeled 
through the entire thickness of the early Cretaceous beds and 
■clearly shows the basal sands of the Trinity with the overlying 
arenaceous limestones of the Glen Rose. These limestones attain 

The Geology •of East Texas 15 

their maximum thickness north of Austin and thin toward the 
northwest ; by following the outcrops of the various beds of lime- 
stone in that direction we 'find that they finger out into the un- 
derlying sands, showing that they are but deposits in the deeper 
waters of the sea of which some portion of the Travis Peak sands 
are the contemporaneous littoral sediments. Just as the Travis 
Peak grades imperceptibly upward into the Glen Rose, so do 
these limestones in their turn grade upward into the sands of the 
Paluxy, where it is present, and at many localities there is no 
apparent sedimentary break between them. 

The thinning of the beds continues to the north and west of 
the Llano region until the Glen Rose beds entirely disappear 
and the Paluxy sands are directly superposed upon the Travis 
Peak, while further north it is probable that the Travis Peak 
itself is entirely lacking. It is also probable that the basal sands, 
if present, represent only the Paluxy or even some later stage. 

Page* calls attention to the fact that the entire Trinity is 
missing at several places in Burnet county, apparently because 
of non-deposition, and that the Walnut clays and Comanche 
Peak limestone directly overlie the Ordovician limestone. Thus 
the 500 feet of Travis Peak and Glen Rose sediments exposed 
in the Colorado near the Burnet-Travis county line has entirely 
thinned out in the distance of 25 miles, due to the fact that 
parts of the land at the more northern locality, stood too high, 
even at that date, for the sea to engulf them. 

In Oklahoma the Trinity occurs along the southern front of 
the paleozoic rocks striking eastward from Tishomingo by 
Antlers and Murfreesboro almost to Antonio, where it is covered 
by later beds. The Glen Rose member is absent throughout most 
of its exposure along the line. However, Hill reports its occur- 
rene near Murfreesboro. He uses the name Antlers sand for 
the northeastern phase of the Trinity formation. 


The Fredericksburg, which followed the Trinity, also presents 
different facies in different localities. In its typical development 
it comprises three members — ^the Walnut clays, the Comanche 

•Page. U. S. G. S. Geological Folio No. 183. 

16 University of Texas Bulletin 

Peak beds and the Edwards limestone. These three divisions are 
clearly recognizable over a very large area east of the Pecos 
which includes the line of buttes that forms the Callahan divide 
and the outcrops south of the Llano region. 

Throughout the gi.e.iter portion of the Texas Cretaceous area 
the Edv/aids JiiJiostone consists of deposits laid down in clear 
water of considerable depth and far enough from shore to es- 
cape the adniixlurc of terrigenous sediments. In the region of 
shallower water along the Red River it shows an. increase of 
coastal debris and many of the fossil forms characteristic of its 
purer phase do not occur in it. It is in fact no longer separable 
from the underlying Comanche Peak beds, and the two, there- 
fore, are considered as the Goodland limestone, which at its best 
attains a thickness of only a few feet. 

North of Red River and east of Denison the entire Fredericks- 
burg is represented by this Goodland limestone which varies in 
thickness from 10 to 40 feet. 


The Fredericksburg, with its extensive development of deep 
sea limestones and comparative poverty of shallow water sedi- 
ments, was followed by the Washita, in which these conditions 
are largely reversed. It is in the littoral regions of Red River 
and El Paso .that the deposits of the Washita show their widest 
differentiation and greatest thickness, while in the deep-sea area 
they are less variable and in most eases of less thickness. In its 
simplest expression the Washita is composed of a toasal limestone, 
the Washita or Georgetown, overlain by the Exogyra arietina or 
Del Rio clays and the Buda limestone. This is the section at 
Austin and south and west to the trans-Pecos region. 

The fossils of these various subdivisions of the Washita are 
very numerous and characteristic. Many of them are seemingly 
confined to the nearer shore deposits of the northern border, 
but others are as wide-spread as the f omation. By far the greater 
number and the greater variety of species found within the sev- 
eal beds of this division are those of the shallower water. In 
the deeper sea more stable conditions prevailed and there were 
fewer changes of form — so little, in fact, that in the vicinity of 

The Geology €>f East Texas 17 

Devil's river and further west certain aberrant forms which are 
characteristic of the Edwards limestone throughout its extent 
have persisted or recur and are also found in the Washita 
(Georgetown) limestone. 

The Washita limestone, with a thickness of 80 feet at Austin, 
shows a separation into several members when followed north- 

In the Red river section the Kiamitia clays form the base, 
succeeded by the marls and chalky limestones of the Duck Creek 
beds, capped by the Fort Worth limestone and these, together, 
show a thickness twice as great as the Georgetown limestone at 
Austin, which they represent. 

The Del Rio clay, also called the Arietina clay, from the name 
of its most abundant fossil, has a thickness of 80 feet at Austin 
and consists principally of clays with some gypsum and thin 
slabs of shell breccia and, at the top, thin layers of arenaceous 
limestone. In the Red river section the basal clays are practically 
missing and the Arietina is probably represented only by the 
Main street limestone of the Denison bed which has a thickness 
of 15 to 25 feet. 

■The Buda limestone, with a thickness of 80 feet on the Col- 
orado, also gradually thins to the northward and beyond the 
Brazos is represented by lime marls and thin limestones. Taff", 
tracing these beds and using the zone of the characteristic oyster 
Gryphaea mucronata as the base of the Buda. found that they 
continued in marly form to Red river and eastward along that 
stream to Pottsboro and Denison. These marls were described 
as the Grayson marls by Cragin^ and occupy a stratigraphic po- 
sition above the Arietina or Del Rio and below the Woodbine, 
thus corresponding to the Buda further south, but whether they 
cover the whole of Buda time is not yet determined. The con- 
ditions are fully stated by HilF, who correlates the Buda, in 
part at least, with the Grayson marls. 

In the Denison region the Washita has a total thickness of 
some 400 feet consisting of the Preston, Fort Worth and Denison 

"Fourth Annual Report Geol. Sur. Tex. p. 277 et seq. 
■•Colorado College Studies, 1894, p. 43. 
'Twenty-first Annual Report, U. S. G. S., Vol. 6, p. 266 et seq. 


University of Texas Bulletin 

formations while near Cerro Gordo, Arkansas, the entire series 
is represented by calcareous clays containing thin beds of lime- 
stone with a total thickness oJE about 250 feet which to this time 
has not been found susceptible of such division as is used further 

The marked difference in the character of the upper members 
of the Comanchean as we pass from the sediments of the deeper 
waters on the south into the zone of littoral deposition in the 
Red river region is thus clearly shown. This condition becomes 
even more pronounced as we go eastward into Arkansas. 

Another view of the age of the Buda is that "there are good 
reasons for believing that the Buda limestone may be repre- 
sented in the north by at least part of the "Woodbine formation. 
According to the fossil fauna in this latter formation, its age 
can not be far from that of the Buda limestone. ' '* 

"With the close of the Buda sedimentation came the end of the 
Lower Cretaceous and the emergence of these deposits from be- 
neath the sea. There was probably a gradual withdrawal of 
water from the land, and, as the Red river region formed for a 
long period the littoral zone of the formation and probably was 
subjected to movements of smaller range than more southern 
regions, it is possible that a portion of the materials now in- 
cluded in the "Woodbine sand, which has been supposed to mark 
the beginning of the Upper Cretaceous deposits, may have been 
laid down as shore line deposits at this time and thus mark the 
final stage of the Comanchean, but the stratigraphic evidence 
seems to indicate that, taken as a whole, the Woodbine belongs 
to the Upper Cretaceous. 


Colorado River 


Louisiana Line 





Del Rio 

Port Worth 

Fort Worth 






Comanche Peak 



Walnut Clays 

Walnut Clays 



Glen Rose 

Antlers Sands 


Travis Peak 

■Bull. Univ. of Texas, No. 44, p. 65. 

The Geology af East Texas 19 


While there is little evidence of deformation by faulting or 
folding in the Red river area at the close of the Comanchean, 
erosion was somewhat active and unconformities occur between 
the \ipper Denison beds, comprising the Mainstreet limestone 
and Grayson marls, and the succeeding "Woodbine. This uncon- 
formity is clearly shown on the south side of Cedar Mills where 
the Buda has been entirely removed in places and soft false- 
bedded sandstone of the Woodbine is in direct contact with the 
Arietina limestone. The basal clays of the Woodbine are present 
only occasionally and occur as thin wedges or lenticular masses. 
At other places the clays seem to lie upon the Buda blue lime- 
stone with perfect conformity. " 

While the erosion of the Lower Cretaceous of northeastern 
Texas was not extensive and while there may be in places ap- 
parent conformity between the Grayson marls and the basal 
elays and sands of the Woodbine in the Red river region, and 
the beds show but little evidence of discontinuity of deposition, 
the fact that there was a long interval of time between the last 
deposition of the Comanchean and the beginning of the Upper 
Cretaceous is clearly brought out in their relations as seen south 
of the Brazos. Here the Woodbine is absent and the Eagle Ford 
rests directly upon the Buda limestone and this condition con- 
tinues through the whole sweep of the contact between Waco 
and Del Rio. They appear conformable everywhere, and yet 
we know that between the two we had the deposition of the 
Woodbine. In this area since no erosive action is discernible 
it is probable that during the interval between the deposition 
of the Buda and the Eagle Ford the former must have remained 
very near the water level if not below its surface, since even 
where very long contacts are observable the two formations ap- 
pear to be in perfect conformity. 

West of the Pecos, however, in certain areas, the beds of the 
Comanchean were elevated a sufBcient length of time for the 
complete erosion of the entire Washita series and the channeling 
of the Edwards limestone into deep canyons. This surface was 

•Taff. Fourth Ann. Rept. Geol. Surv. Tex., p. 282. 

20 University of Texas Bulletin 

again submerged during the Eagle Ford and these channels filled 
with its shales. 

We thus have a central zone in which the movement was prac- 
tically negligible, with very gentle movements in the northeast 
bringing the upper beds to the surface, ibut not so as to com- 
pletely destroy them, while in the west the elevation must have 
amounted to hundreds of feet with" consequent impetuous erosive 
action destroying a whole series of beds. 


The low-lying coast and shallow waters prevailing in the 
southern and eastern regions were very favorable for the exist- 
ence of sea basins from which evaporation could remove the 
water more rapidly than the fresh-water streams could renew it 
and thus precipitate both gypsum and salt. That such condi- 
tions existed may be reasonably inferred from the bodies of salt 
which are now found in connection with the Cretaceous salt 
domes. Thus, in the Palestine dome the salt is known to be di- 
rectly overlain by the Woodbine. Harris, in his section of the 
formations at Drake's saline in Louisiana shows the salt stock 
uplifting the Cretaceous limestone and overlain by it and the 
test well passing through the salt bed into gypsum at 2842 feet. 
At Grand Saline a somewhat similarly bedded condition exists. 
It is, therefore, probalble that all of the salt now found in these 
Cretaceous salt domes or islands was deposited during this in- 

There is, however, a possibility that the salt is somewhat older. 
As we have seen, the Lower Cretaceous sediments of this North- 
eastern Texas area are comparatively thin and we know that 
the Trinity sands in Arkansas contain heavy beds of gypsum. 
It may be, therefore, that these beds of rock salt were laid down 
about the same time as the Trinity gypsum and it may be that 
these conditions continued through the greater portion of the 
Comanchean. At any rate it is Cretaceous. 


With the beginning of Upper Cretaceous time a shallow sea 
invaded our region and spread northward beyond Red river and 

The Geology of East Texas 21 

westward to the Brazos. Its first sediments were the Woodbine 
formation which is not found further south than Waco, but 
extends eastward as far as Clarksville. To the eastward in Ar- 
kansas the "Woodbine is represented by the lower part of the 
Bingen sands composed of sands with bituminous, laminated 
clays containing leaf impressions and lignite beds. 


The Woodbine formation is one of great economic value. On 
the western border it furnishes a supply of artesian water over 
a considerable area and in its eastern extension it is the principal 
oil-bearing horizon of Northeastern Texas and Western Louis- 

In the Red river region the Woodbine has at its base the varia- 
ble bed of impure clay, which is often lignitic and sandy, called 
the Basal clay, overlain by an extensive deposit of brown and 
yellow ferruginous sandstone carrying siliceous ironstone, known 
as the Dexter sands. These are capped by a series of lignitic 
sandy clays with numerous moUuscan fossils called the Timber 
Creek or Lewisville beds^". 

In east Texas the formation has an. estimated thickness of 600 
to 800 feet. 


As the waters became deeper the shales of the Eagle Ford 
were deposited. On the Colorado it consists of bluish and gray 
shales and arenaceous laminated shales. In the northern part 
of the State it is composed of blue and black laminated bitu- 
minous clays with large septaria, sands, clays, shales and thin 
layers of brown sandstone. The clays grade upward into brown 
sandy ferruginous glauconitic beds interlaminated with beds of 
clay. These clays carry fossiliferous concretionary masses of 
limestone and the brown sands, which are locally fossiliferous, 
are called the Blossom sand^^- 

While these distinctions hold for the Texas exposures of these 
beds the outcrops in Arkansas are not similarly separable and 

"Fourth Ann. Rept. Geol. Surv. Tex. pp. 2 93-294. 
"Gordon, Water-Supply Paper 276, p. 19. 

22 , University of Texas Bulletin 

the Eagle Ford as a whole is represented by the upper portion 
of the Bingen sand which thus covers the entire time interval 
of both Woodbine and Eagle Ford in that locality. 

Of all the upper Cretaceous deposits, the Eagle Ford seems 
to be the most uniform and constant. While it has its near 
shore phase of sands and clays, the bulk of the deposits are limy 
shales, and these not only encircle the Edwards plateau, but 
stretch southward into Mexico for 200 miles or more, where they 
attain a very much greater thickness than anything we know in 
Texas. Furthermore, Ihese deposits, wherever we find them, 
whether sands or clays or lime, are usually shales and carry a 
characteristic fauna throughout their entire extent. 


During the deposition of the Chalk, which followed, a condi- 
tion of clearer waters existed, and in the main the Chalk is fairly 
free from materials derived from the land area and is an almost 
pure chalk, but there are localities where the clays were carried 
out and deposited with it, occasionally to such an extent as to 
make it merely a chalky marl. 

In its relation to the underlying Eagle Ford it shows the same 
variations noted in other similar contacts. In the central part 
of the State the division is quite clearly defined and the line of 
separation can be fairly well made out even on the Kio Grande 
east of Del Rio. Further west the distinction is not so readily 
apparent, and in the region of the Big Bend of the Rio Grande^ 
where the Eagle Ford takes on a more marly character and the 
Austin chalk is marly also, it is difficult to find the dividing line 
without careful examination of the fossils. 

This is noticeable also in northeastern Texas where it loses 
its chalky character and from Sherman eastward it assumes more 
and more the character 'of a clay marl or marly clay in its basal 
portion, the chalk condition persisting only in the uppermost 
portion of the beds, and, finally, in southwestern Arkansas 
giving way entirely to marl. In eastern Texas the lower marly 
member is known as the Brownstown marl while the chalk is 
called the Annona and is one of the best known lithologie units 
of the Caddo oil-field. 

In the south hundreds of feet of this formation are made up 

The Geology of East Texas 


of ehalk and chalky marls, tout toward the end of the period more 
and more terrigenous sediments were incorporated with these, 
and the upper margin of the Chalk is not so well defined, since 
at most places it grades almost imperceptibly into the base of 
the overlying Taylor marls, there becoming simply limy clays 
with some sand, and 'finally passing into the more sandy beds of 
the Navarro which form the top of our upper Cretaceous series 
in the eastern field. 


On the Colorado the Taylor consists of a calcareous clay or 
marl which, while yellow in fresh exposures, weathers to a black 
waxy ' soil. In its lower portion it is ' comparatively free from 
sand, but higher in the section the sand increases and quantities 
of glauconite occur. The fauna also changes with the appearance 
of the glauconitie and to this portion of the beds the name Na- 
varro is applied. 

In Arkansas the Taylor and Navarro are represented by three 
members known in ascending order as the Marlbrook marl, 
Naeatosh sand and Arkadelphia clay with a total thickness of 
1200 feet. Throughout the Caddo field the Naeatosh sand is a 
well recognized horizon and furnishes a considerable quantity 
of gas. 

While these are the latest sediments of the Cretaceous found 
in east Texas they are not as late as others occurring in the Big 
Bend region of the Rio Grande or along that river southeast 
of Eagle Pass. If these latest beds were ever laid down in east 
Texas they disappeared in the general erosion at the close of the 


Colorado River 



Louslsana Line 













Eagle Ford 

Eagle Ford 

Eagle Ford 

Bing^n Sand 



24 University of Texas Bulletin 


The close of the Cretaceous in North America was marked by 
the Laramide elevation which was the main factor in the forma- 
tion of the Eccky mountains. This great movement not only 
affected the rock materials of the trans-Pecos region but was ap- 
parently active also in .eastern Texas. The beginning of this 
movement is generally placed in uppermost Cretaceous time if 
not at its close. The Texas area contains proof not only of sim- 
ilar movement at this time but also of a Cretaceous movement 
which took place earlier, beginning during the deposition of the 
Austin Chalk and either, continuing to, o'r being renewed at, 
the end of the Mesozoic. 

As affecting the Texas region this earlier movement began 
by the formation of a folded area starting in northern Mexico 
about the 102d meridian and striking south southeast. The 
evidence is clear that this elevation took place during the period 
of the Austin Chalk. It has been called the Sabinas barrier and 
formed the beginning of the Rio Grande embayment. To the 
north of this barrier the succeeding Gulf Coast Cretaceous sedi- 
ments are largely clays and sands and include the coal beds of 
the Rio Grande region, while to the south we find only a great 
thickness of blue and black shales. The beds of the embayment 
area are frequently very fossiliferous "while the shale beds are 
practically destitute of fossils. 

The Sabinas movement, or that which formed the Sabinas 
barrier was marked in Texas by Pilot Knob and other volcanoes 
northeast and southwest of Austin which were active during the 
close of the Chalk deposits and the beginning of the Taylor Marls 
as is proven by the ash and other ejectse from them which are 
interstratified with and included in these deposits. Some of 
these volcanoes were certainly submarine. 

At the close of the Cretaceous, that is, during the time of the 
Laramide elevation proper, this movement was intensified in the 
Mexican region and resulted in raising a land barrier which is 
now marked by the disconnected. ranges and groups of hills that 
form the eastern border of the valley lying at the foot of the 
Mexican Cordilleras. This barrier, known as the Tamaulipas 
range, reaches the present Gulf shore in the vicinity of Tordo 

Tke Oeology of East Texas 25 

bay some 50 miles north of Tampico and forms the southern 
limit and boundary of the Gulf Coast Eocene. The Eocene de- 
posits found west and south of the barrier are not only of dif- 
ferent character, but the fossils they contain are unlike those 
to the north. 

During the Laramide movement in the western Trans-Pecos 
region the country was folded and faulted with the production 
of mountain ranges which are our representatives of the Eocky 
Mountain chain. There was also great volcanic activity in this 
region which probably continued well into the Eocene. Outside 
this region, however,' the movement was gentler and the entire 
Texan area was raised along its northern and western borders 
giving the surface as a whole a gentle tilt in a southeastwardly 
direction toward the Gulf of Mexico. It is possible that some 
igneous activity accompanied this movement, especially in south- 
west Texas. 


In eastern Texas and Louisiana the effect of the movement tak- 
ing place at approximately the time of the Laramide elevation 
was the formation of folds and domes in the newly deposited ma- 
terials of the Cretaceous, like those in Freestone county, at Pal- 
estine, Drake's and Steen's salines which ha^ maintained their 
individual characters and now appear as inliers in the Tertiary 

So far as is now known these uplifts were not accompanied 
by the intrustion of basalts or other igneous rocks the only in- 
trusives known being stocks of salt, anhydrite and gypsum. 

Some idea of the extent of the uplift may be had from the 
conditions at the Palestine dome. The Woodbine is the surface 
formation fifty miles northwest of Corsieana. A well drilled at 
Corsicana found the base of the Woodbine at a depth of 2460 
feet. This would give the base of this formation a dip of 50 
feet to the mile. The Palestine dome is fifty miles southeast of 
Corsicana and the Woodbine in place of being 5.000 feet below 
the surface as its average dip would imply, forms a part of the 
surface rock. Even with a greatly decreased dip the vertical 
displacement of these beds at this place must have been from 
2500 to 3000 feet. While a part of the present displacement is 


26 UiHversity of Texas Bulletin 

due to later uplifts than that at the end of the Cretaceous, these 
were very slight in comparison with the earlier one. 

The Palestine dome was unquestionably an island in the early 
Tertiary sea. The sediments of the Midway or earliest stage of 
that period are not found on it. Those of the "Wilcox occur 
around it and probably covered it as did the succeeding Claiborne 
and it is now uncovered because of the erosion of these later beds. 

To the north of the Palestine dome, about six miles, is the 
Keechi island which is, in all probability, eonneeted directly 
with the Palestine dome but which shows at least 1400 feet less 
displacement since the Navarro beds are at the surface and it is 
1460 feet to the top of the Woodbine as proved by weUs drilled 
near it. 

In alignment approximately parallel to the present boundary 
between the Cretaceous and Tertiary and forty-five to fifty miles 
from it we find to the north of the Palestine-Keeehi island domes 
the Brooks and Steens salines in Smith county. These are domes 
similar to the Palestine with Cretaceous rocks at the surface. 
Whether these are all connected and simply represent peaks of 
an anticlinal or are isolated upraises is not positively known, but 
the ehai'acter and structure of the Midway deposits lying be- 
tween them and the Cretaceous border seems to favor the former 

Sabine Peninsula 

To this period also must be referred the formation of the 
Sabine Peninsula, which was first recognized by Harris and 
which is a very important physiographic unit of eastern Texas 
arid western Louisiana. It is probable that the Laramide 
elevation outlined this Cretaceous table-land and was the priii- 
cipal agent in its elevation, although later movements may have 
also had something to do with its present condition. 

On the surface this Peninsula is a belt of the Lignitic phase 
of the Wilcox, in places more than thirty miles in width. Ptom 
the Cretaceous border north of Texarkana it extends southward 
along the Texas-Louisiana line to Sabinetown, a distance of 130 
miles. It is flanked east, west and south by bodies of Lower 

The Geology oj East Texas 27 

The elevation of its surface at Texarkana is 300 feet and 
at Sabinetown is 200 feet, a fall of less than one foot per mile. 

The rocks underlying this Lignitic Peninsula, as shown by 
wells, comprise about 450 feet of Lignitic and 250 feet of Mid- 
way followed by the Northeast Texas section of the Upper Cre- 

The sections from north to south as made, based on drilling 
records, show the Upper Cretaceous beds dipping southward 
from Eed River at about 50 feet per mile to the vicinity of 
Vivian, Louisiana. Here the Sabine uplift begins which brings 
the Cretaceous beds up again to within 500 to 700 feet of the 
surface thus creating a Cretaceous plateau the southern border 
of which has not yet been accurately determined but is near 
Sabinetown, so that it has a length of about 100 miles. It is 
evident that the displacement at the southern end of this plateau 
may be even greater that that at the Palestine dome. The eastern 
and western borders are not definitely known, but it extends 
westward into Panola and Shelby counties. 

Basing the estimate on the top of the Annona Chalk the dip 
of the Cretaceous betwen Vivian and Sabinetown is 300 feet or 
about 3 feet per mile. A weU on the Jesse Low survey below 
Sabinetown encountered the Chalk at 1900 feet whUe deeper 
wells further south did not find it at all. 

West of the line between Vivian and Sabinetown a well on the 
Jane Thorp survey in Panola county reached the Chalk at 1315 
feet, the top of the Cretaceous being put at 265 feet below the 
surface. Thirty miles south of this well at Flat Fork entered the 
Chalk at 1690 feet, the top of the Cretaceous in this well appear- 
ing to be at 960 feet, indicating either a thinning of the beds 
above the Annona or their erosion prior to the deposition of the 

The well records also show that the Cretaceous rocks have been 
folded first along northeast-southwest lines and later at right 
angles to this. 

To the east of this plateau there are a number of domes which 
are Cretaceous islands similar to those found west of it in the 
Texas area.* 

*For details of these domes see reports in Geol. Sur. Louisiana, 
1899-1902 and Bulletin No. 7 of Louisiana Geological Survey. 

Chapter III 


At the close of the Upper Cretaceous the waters of the Missis- 
sippi embayment receded to an unknown distance southward 
and the former sea bottom emerged and became a land area. 
This land area was probably of the nature of a broad plain the 
flatness of which was broken by the domes, ridges and plateaus 
arising from the Laramide uplift. The plain itself was probably 
but little above the sea-level for there is no evidence of extensive 
erosion in the sands and clays of the Cretaceous which formed its 
surface. The emergence, however, was of sufficient duration to 
make a most complete break in the paleontological column. Every 
species and even many genera of mollusks which inhabited the 
Cretaceous sea completely disappear at the close of the Creta- 
ceous and we find an entirely new fauna beginning in the Ter- 
tiary. The same is true of the plant remains so far as they are 

With the incoming waters of the first Tertiary sea there began 
the deposition of the sediments which cover the whole of Eastern 

The Tertiary deposits of this region are sediments laid down, 
for the most part, in comparatively shallow water, during periods 
of slow and gentle oscillations. Apparently the conditions sur- 
rounding their deposition were not greatly different in character 
from those now existing along the Gulf Coast although the indi- 
cations are that some phases had much greater extension than at 

The first deposits are those of marine waters alternating with 
those of lagoons and swampy areas followed by others which 
were laid down by streams and wind in land areas similarly 
alternating with lagunal deposits. They consist principally of 
lightly compacted clays and sands with some limestone. Inter- 
bedded with or included in these are considerable amounts of 
gypsum, beds of lignite, deposits of oil, salt and sulphur and 
much ferruginous material in the form of glauconite, siderite. 

The Geology of East Texas 


pyrite and limonite. The formation, as a whole, dips gently 
seaward at the rate of 5 to 40 feet per mile with occasional 
variations in direction and amount. 

On the basis of these differences in mode of deposition and of 
their fossil contents the beds have been separated into several 
groups. The following table gives the subdivisions of this series 
as it applies to eastern Texas: 











Fleming Burkeville 





















Queen City 










The special region considered in this report is forested and in 
places densely wooded. The best opportunities for study are the 

30 University of Texas Bulletin 

sections found along the various rivers crossing it from north 
to south and the cuts along the railroads which traverse it in 
the same direction. 

These rivers from east to west are the SaJbine, Angelina, 
Neches, Trinity, Navasota and Brazos. The railways include the 
Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, Jasper to Carthage; the Dallas 
Branch of the Texas & New Orleans ; The Houston, East & West 
Texas; the International & Great Northern; Trinity and Brazos 
Valley ; Madisonville Branch of International & Great Northern, 
and the Houston & Texas Central. In addition to the roads 
crossing it, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, Cotton Belt and others 
give valuable sections. The sections made along these lines show 
clearly the general composition of the beds entering into the 
different formations and the changes which occur in the deposits 
as we pass from the eastern border to the interior of the State. 


The earliest period of the Tertiary is known as the Eocene 
and is divided into the Midway, Wilcox, Claiborne and Jackson 
stages. Of these the Midway and, Claiborne are composed prin- 
cipally of marine deposits while the Wilcox and Jackson com- 
prise deposits both of marine and palustrine character, the pal- 
ustrine portions representing inshore deposits approximately 
contemporaneous with the offshore deposits of the marine por- 
tions, and in places interlapping with them. 

The Midway and Wilcox together form the Lower Eocene. The 
Claiborne is the Middle Eocene and the Upper Eocene has sim- 
ilarly only one member, .the Jackson. 


The Midway formation, first named by Smith and Johnson 
from an Alabama locality, was more fully described by Harris in 
his report on The Tertiary Geology of Southern Arkansas in the 
second volume of the Annual Report of the Geological Survey of 
Arkansas for 1892 and in his American Bulletin of Paleontology 
under the title of the Midway Stage, where he has also described 
and figured the fossils which characterize it. These beds or parts 
of them had been described previously in connection with other 

The Geology of East Texas 31 

deposits and by various authors. Deussen^ gives a fair resume 
of publications treating on the beds now referred to the Midway 
with their equivalencies as understood at this time. 


The Midway beds are marine sediments and comprise in their 
area of outcrop a series of interbedded clays &nd sands usually 
dark bluish or black but occasionally light yellow in color, mica- 
ceous, frequently laminated, and sometimes gypsiferous, inter- 
bedded with limestones or calcareous nodules and boulders. 
Fossils are abundant both in the limestones and in the beds of 
sands and clays. 

In the eastern part of the State where there is no outcrop and 
the beds are known only from materials encountered in drilling 
wells these beds are found to be predominatingly clayey with 
glaueonite and sand in thinner layers and with thin beds of 
sandstone and limestone. 

In thickness they vary from 200 to over 400 feet. 

Deposition and Relation to Underlying Beds 

The Midway sea swept inland from the south gradually sub- 
merging the Cretaceous land but in our Texas area ceased its 
encroachment before it had reached the limits of its predecessor, 
the Ripley sea. It swept around the domes and ridges but its 
rather shallow waters, though they may have been somewhat 
deeper than those of the Ripley, did not engulf them all. 

To the northeastward in Arkansas, it reached inland entirely 
across the Cretaceous and its beds overlap the Bingen sand and 
are in direct contact with beds of Paleozoic age which underlie it. 

The highest beds of the Cretaceous whjch formed the sea bot- 
tom on which the basal Eocene or Midway deposits were laid 
down were of sands and clays and at no place were there any 
limestones at the surface. It is probable that much of the ma- 
terial of the Midway was directly derived from these and, there- 
fore, the two series of soft materials coming together frequently 

>Deussen, A. Water-Supply Paper No. 335, 

32 University of Texas Bulletin 

fail to register any unconformity. Consequently, at many places 
where the contact has been observed there is no apparent strati- 
graphic break and in weathered surfaces it is at times very 
difficult to distinguish the two formations. As a whole, however, 
the Cretaceous beds are massive and the basal Tertiary are dis- 
tinctly stratified and this aids in separating them in the absence 
of fossils. 

While this lithologie similarity between the Upper Cretaceous 
and basal Eocene largely obscures it in places, there is an actual 
erosional unconformity between as seen in Georgia and on the 
Frio and Rio Grande rivers in Texas. 

Area op Outcrop 

The contact of the Midway and Cretaceous on the Brazos river, 
which for our present purpose we may use as our southwestern 
boundary, is found in a bluff in Falls county, one and one-half 
miles north of the line of Milam county. 

To the south and west of this point the beds cross the Colorado 
below Webberville and the Rio Grande in southern Maverick 
county and their final exposure in North America is found about 
30 miles east of Monterey in Mexico, near Eamones, on the Pes- 
queria or Salinas river. 

Northeast of the Brazos the Midway outcrop is found in a belt 
stretching along the Cretaceous front in a northeasterly direction 
to the southwestern portion of Hopkins county, a distance of 
about 175 miles. In its narrowest part it is less than five miles 
in width but in the vicinity of "Wills Point it broadeiis out to 
some 15 miles. 

North and east of this it is covered by the Wilcox overlap until 
it again appears at the surface in the vicinity of Malvern, Ar- 
kansas, resting directly upon the Paleozoic beds and overlain by 
the Wilcox. It here forms a belt from one to four miles in width 
and extends northeastwardly by way of Little Rock to Indepen- 
dence county. 

In northeastern Texas the Midway underlies a stretch of un- 
dulating prairie country with interspersed patches of timber 
land. The timber is mostly black jack and post-oak with a few 
black ash and sycamore trees along the creeks. 

The Geology of East Texas 33 

Details of Section 

Kennedy found the contact between Midway and the under- 
lying Cretaceous at only two places. 

At the bluff on the Brazos river in Falls county one and one- 
half miles above the Milam county line he found at the base a 
massive bed of blue clay 14 feet thick, with Baculites and other 
Cretaceous fossils. Eesting upon this was a bed one foot thick 
of blue clay which he considered transitional between the Cre- 
taceous and the overlying five feet of blue clay and sand break- 
ing into nodules and conchoidal fragments and weathering into 
a grayish yellow. This bed contained such caracteristic Midway 
fossils as ApporJiais sp., Aid. Ostrea pulaslcensis, Har. Veneri- 
cardia alticostata, Con. Gucullaea macrodonta "Whit, etc. 

The other contact appears about four miles west of Elmo, Van 
Zandt county, where the dark blue laminated clays of the Midway 
rest upon the bluish weathering yellow marls of the uppermost 

The basal Midway clays here are thinly laminated, have occa- 
sional nodules of limestone and broken bivalve shells in the up- 
per portion. They have a thickness of 30 feet and are overlain 
by brownish gray sands also carrying limestone boulders. 

In the Brazos section, half a mile below the contact, a bluff 
at Blue Shoals has at the base laminated blue or black fossilifer- 
ous clay overlain by blue indurated clay with boulders or concre- 
tions of limestone containing Ostrea pnlaskensis. Harris Encli- 
matoceras ulriclii "White, Cucxillaea macrodonta "Whitf. Veneri- 
cardia alticostata, Con. and other forms. 

Milam bluff or Black bluff on the Milam county line is forty 
feet in height and composed of clays and calcareous beds, black 
at bottom, but yellow or greenish at top, with many fossils. 
Cribbs bluff further south shows the dark blue laminated clay 
overlain by interbedded limestones and yelow clays with many 

The uppermost portion of the beds in this section is seen in 
Smiley 's or Oyster bluff two miles north of the mouth of Pond 
Creek where laminated sands are interbedded with laminated 
clays, concretions and hard limestones, carrying such fossils as 
Ostrea crenuUmarginata, Pleurotoma anacon<i, P. ostranipis 

34 Umversity of Texas Bulletin 

Plejona praecursor, Pseudoliva ostrarupis, Cerithium penrosii, 
C. WJiitfieldi, Leda milamensis, etc., which Harris says represent 
the equivalent of the Naheola or Matthews Landing beds of the 
Alabama section. 

This is overlain by beds which are referred to the "Wilcox. 

Going northward exposures are found along Salt Branch of 
the little Brazos and, in the vicinity of Tehuacana, Midway lime- 
stones are found which, from the fossils, Harris considers to be 
about the middle of the formation. 

The contact of the Midway and Cretaceous is well shown on 
the steep western and northwestern faces of the Tehuacana es- 
carpment northwest of the Mexia gas-field. Baker's section is: 

1. Possiliferous, hard brown Midway limestone, irregular, 

and nodular-bedded, forming tbe cap rock of the 
Tehuacana hill, , 4 ft. 

2. Fine, loose, massive yellow sand,. . . ; 22 ft, 

3. Clay, mottled green-gray and brown, coarsely laminated 

otherwise like (5) below, 70 ft- 

4. Yellow, very sandy, massive clay with small calcareous 

nodules 12 ft. 

5. Light brown vfcry thinly laminated paper shale for the most 

part, although some of the shale is coarsely laminated 
and nodular, plastic when wet, and small white calca- 
reous concretions. When wet the shale is clayey and 
has a greenish-brown color. Small flakes of selenite 
are found along seams. This clay weathers into black 
soil _ _ 15 ft. 

6. Black Cretaceous clay, dense, with small calcareous 

nodules 15 ft. 

All the beds except No. 2 are fossiliferous, and all beds above 
No. 6 are Midway Eocene in age. 

The Midway beds occur in the region of Mexia covering an 
area extending as far west as Tehuacana, a distance of ten miles 
and east of Mexia something like six miles. On the north these 
beds occur near Wortham and southward the line of contact be- 
tween the Midway and Lignitic crosses the railroad near Mile 
Post 157, or a short distance south of the town of Thornton. 

These deposits are made up mostly of dark blue shaly clays 
with occasional streaks of a reddish to yellowish brown shale 

The Geology 0/ East Texas 35 

with small white calcareous concretions and crystals or thin 
flakes of selenite, the whole weathering into black soil. The cal- 
careous concretions and selenitic flakes, however, are not persist- 
ent throughout the beds, but appear to lie in patches irregu- 
larly distributed throughout the territory. Some of the shale 
appears to be nodular and some of the nodules have a brownish 
granular appearance. 

The general dip of these beds is toward the southeast at the 
rate of about 100 feet to the mile. In places this dip is inter- 
rupted by a slight folding, which, while in a general way agreeing 
with the trend of the dip, often appears to lie across it. A cut- 
ting in a creek about six miles east of Mexia shows one of these 
cross folds. The southeastern dip is somewhat modified by a 
fold which appears to have a northwest-southeast axis along the 
strike of the beds. The dips as shown in this fold are about 10 
degrees northeast on the eastern side and approximately 10 to 15 
degrees on its southewestern limb. The overlying material in 
this section is red and brown sands with flattened boulders of 
ferruginous sandstone belonging to the basal Lignitic. 

From the structural conditions shown in this section and an- 
other near Shiloh on the Trinity and Brazos Valley Eailroad, it 
would appear that at the close of the Midway stage there were 
orogenic movements that folded these deposits before the over- 
lying Lignitic was laid down. 

Kennedy gives the following general section of the beds in 
their exposures around Wills Point^. 

1. Yellowish brown sand containing calcareous boulders of 

sandstone, limestone with thin veins or seams, occa- 
sional nodules of crystalline calcite, and fossil remains, 30 ft. 

2. Yellow laminated clay with thin particles of yellow sand 

and boulders of silicious limestone 90 ft. 

3. Massive bedded clay, showing no signs of lamination, con- 

taining numerous boulders similar to those of No. 1,. . 30 ft. 

4. White limestone with great numbers of fossil casts, chiefly 

TuriteUa (?) Cardita planioosta, Ostrea (f) and other 

bivalve shells, 8 ft. 

5. Brown sand 2 ft. 

6. Limestone similar to No. 4 10 ft. 

7. Bluish gray sand 30 ft. 

'Third Ann. Kept. Geol. Surv. Tex. p. 49. 

36 University of Texas Bulletin 

S. Dark blue laminated and much jointed clays with thin 
sandy partings, containing small bivalve shells chiefly, 
and having a thin pavement of siliceous nodules near 
its upper surface, 62 ft. 

9. Ponderosa marls 

262 ft. 

A characteristic feature is the presence of mimerous boulders 
of gray limestone containing thin veins or seams of crystalline 
ealcite and fragments of gasteropods. While occasionally occur- 
ring in the upper brown clays, the boulders are mostly imbedded 
within the gray sands of the formation near the contact of the 
lower beds with the Cretaceous. In places they are seen lying 
in the sands, forming an irregular bed. 

Another feature of the yellow clays is the numerous nodules or 
concretions of carbonate of lime found in them, throughout the 
whole of the area traversed by the section as well as in the thinly 
laminated brown clays or their accompanying overlying brown 

The Midway is not exposed at any point within the region 
covered by our map, but eastward in Louisiana it has been 
brought to the surface by the elevation of the Many and King 
domes and certain black prairies west of Mansfield are thought 
to be underlain by it. 


The fossils identified by Harris as having been found in these 
beds in eastern Texas and Louisiana are : 

Bnclimatoceras ulrichi White 
Ostrea pulaskensis Harris 
Ostrea crenulimarginata Gabb 
Venericardia planicosta Lamarck 
Venericardia alticosta 
CucuUaea saffordi 
Crassatella gabbi 
Volutilithes limopsis Conrad 
Turritella mortoni 
Pleurotoma anacona 
Modiola stubbsi 

TJie Geology of East Texas 37 

Fusus harrisi 
Leiostoma ludoviciana 
Volutilithes rugatus 
Flabellum conoldeum 

This fauna is very meagre as compared with that of the for- 
mation as found east of the Mississippi. 

West of San Antonio the Midway appears to carry plant re- 
ifiains and Berry* has identified 10 species from collections made 
at Earle by Deussen and L. W. Stephenson from beds referred 
to this formation. These are: 

Pourouma texana Berry, n. sp. 
Pious denveriana Cockerell 
Ficus occidentalis Lesq. 
Picus sp. 

Platanus aceroides latifolia Knowlton 
Clnnamomum afflne Lesquereux 
Laurus wardiana Knowlton 
Asimina edcenica Lesq. 
Dolichites deusseni Berry, n. sp. 
Terminalia hilgardiana Lesq. 


The name Wilcox (from Wilcox county in Alabama where 
the formation is well exposed) was proposed as a formation name 
by Crider to take the place of the term Lignitic, which was in 
use previously for the same beds, because of the present rule to 
use geographical names for such purposes. 

While the Wilcox is largely lignitic in character even in Ala- 
bama, it contains, interbedded with these materials, strata con- 
taining marine or estuarine fossils by means of which it has been 
separated into four formations. These are, beginning at the 
bottom, the Nanafalia and the Tuscahama, which includes the 
beds at Gregg's and Bell's landings on the Alabama. Above the 
Tuscahama are the Bashi or Wood's Bluff and Hatchetigbee. 

The beds here referred to this stage were described by Penrose 
in the First Annual Keport of the Geological Survey of Texas 

''Harris, Paleontology of Midway Formation, Bui. Am. Paleon- 
tology, Vol. 1, 1896, p. 117. 

=U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 91, p. 9 etc. 

38 ' UMversity of Texas Bulletin 

as part of the .Timber Belt or Sabine Eiver beds. Kennedy- 
first differentiates them in his Tertiary Section* where the Tim- 
ber Belt Beds of Penrose are divided into the Lignitic and Ma- 
rine. The line there drawn between the Lignitic and Marine 
placed the Queen City beds of white and red sands and clays 
with the lower member, but later investigations show that it 
does not belong with the Lignitic but with the Marine. 

The term Wiloox will be used here in this sense for the series 
of beds which is found in this region lying above the Midway 
and below the Queen City sands which are the basal member of 
the Middle Eocene. 

Deposition and Aeeal Distribution 

At the end of the Midway a large portion of the area covered 
by its deposits was transformed into land by the recession of 
the sea and there are many indications of a long interval of . 
erosion between its close and the beginning of the "Wilcox deposi- 
tion which followed. The exposures of the contact of the two 
formations on the Rio Grande give positive eviderice of this." 

As before, the deeper waters were to the south and the ap- 
proach of the Wilcox sea was from that direction. At the max- 
imum of its transgression it submerged most if not all of the 
Midway land and portions of the Cretaceous. Along the entire 
coastal portion of this embayment the waters formed a broad 
belt of lagoons and shifting seas with littoral and palustrine de- 
posits. Marine conditions, as shown by character of the sedi- 
ments and fossils, usually are only , found many miles to the 
seaward of the inner border. 

Both of these phases of the Wilcox occur in east Texas. 

The marine phase is found outcropping on the Sabine river 
in the northeastern part of Sabine county. The name Sabine has 
been suggested for these beds by Veatch from the "typical de- 
velopment of the formation along Sabine river in Sabine 
county, Texas and Sabine Parish, Louisiana, and from note- 
worthy exposures at Sabinetown Bluff". 

'Third Ann. Rep. Geol. Sur. Tex. p. 50. 
'Durable, E. T. Jour. Geol. vol. XXIII p. 488. 
Stephenson, L. W. TJ. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 90, p. 73. 

The Geology of East Texas 39 

The exact limits, of this area of interbedded marine deposits 
existing west of the Sabine is unknown but can not be very 
extensive, unless it spreads seaward below the succeeding Clai- 
borne, as the great area lying north and west of this, in which 
the formation is exposed, is occupied by deposits representing 
the other phase of the Wilcox which we know as the Lignitic. 

These Lignitic deposits represent a period when the coastal 
plain was made up of swamps, lagoons and bayous, the extent 
of which will be best understood when we say that within the 
limits of east Texas the present main surface exposures of these 
deposits extend over an area 140 to 200 miles from north to 
south and from 100 to 250 miles from east to west and that the 
beds continue indefinitely coastward beneath the succeeding 
formations, but in that direction possibly merge into or are re- 
placed by the marine deposits of the Sabine phase. 

The topography of the country occupied by the Lignitic beds 
is but little broken and consists of gently rounded hills of no 
great elevation. Where more broken country appears, as it does 
in places, it is usually due to the fact that the Claiborne which 
formerly overlay the greater part of it, owing to the resistant 
quality of some of its beds, has not been entirely eroded and thus 
forms belts of higher hills. 

Correlation With Other Areas 

Prom the marine fossils found in the Sabine river at Pendle- 
ton Harris determined the age of the beds at that locality to be 
the same as the Nanafalia substage of the Alabama section 
which belongs to the Lower Wilcox of that region. The fossils 
from Sabinetown, four or five miles south of Pendleton, were 
found to belong to the fauna of the Woods Bluff (Bashi) substage 
which is part of the upper Wilcox. 

Berry" says of the Lignitic beds that within the area occupied 
by them no fossils representing the animal life of the period 
either Of land or sea have ever been found with the exception 
of the teeth of a Wasatch species Crocodylus grypus Cope, re- 
cently found in Texas, and a few fish scales. So far as the fossil 

•U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper No. 91, p. 37. 

40 ZJmversity of Texas Bulletin 

flora of the Texas area has been determined it indicates that the 
Lignitic beds are not older than the Holly Springs sand or middle 
Wilcox and well logs in western Lousiana indicate that the beds 
of the lower "Wilcox have been transgressed and covered by these 
later beds and do not appear at the surface. 

This implies a gradually deepening sea making successive in- 
roads over the land surface and that contrary to the conditions 
of the Midway where the lowest beds may be found at the inner 
margin of the outcrop, the marginal beds of the Wilcox, as found 
here, are nearer the medial portion of its general section. Such 
gradual encroachment of the sea argues similar long exposure 
of the coast lands of the Midway with consequent opportunity 
for considerable erosion. 

Sabine Phase 

sabine river section. 

The exposures along the Sabine river described by Harris and 
Veatch' seem to correspond in large measure to the Alabama 
section and show an interbedding of 'the lignitic and marine 

Passing down the river from Logansport the outcrops were 
small and unsatisfactory until Hamilton was reaehed, 30 miles 
below. No fossils were found and contradictory dips were ob- 
served so that it was impossible to determine the exact strati- 
graphic relation of these outcrops to those further down the 
river. Veatch's impression was that they were lower Lignitic 
and lower that the Nanafalia beds at Pendleton, and the sections 
and structure seem to fully warrant this conclusion. 

The sections given show finely laminated dark lignitic clays 
with large calcareous concretions overlain by sands and clays 
with lignite. These materials correspond with those found at 
the base of the Wilcox in the wells of the Caddo field. 

These sandy clays with calcareous concretions continue down 
the river and apparently compose the line of hills below Hamil- 
ton and are again exposed in Eock Bluff between Hamilton and 

'Geol. Rep. La., 1899.1902. 

University of Texas Bulletin No. 1869. 

Plate IV. 

Pendleton Bluff. 

The Geology af East Texas 41 

Chambers Ferry where the concretions contain imprints of 

The first marine fossils on the river were found near Moran's 
landing, above the mouth of Patroon bayou, where, Jbelow 10 feet 
of light yellow sand with fine clay partings, there was 8 feet of 
blue laminated sandy clay with Venericardia pkmicosta and an 
undetermined Anomia. 

Near Moran's landing the river turns eastward and in these 
southwesterly dipping beds, goes down the section again with 
exposures of the sandy laminated clays, calcareous concretions 
and lignites. 

On Mason Creek, a tributary of Patroon bayou. Baker found 
the following section: 

1. Pine sandy light gray clay, well laminated, with large 

blue-gray clay ironstone concretions ellipsoidal in form 
and as large as 10 ft. in longest diameter, good ripple- 
marks. Upper lialf stained yellowish-brown with 
limonite, 35 ft. 

2. Medium-grained greensand with a small percentage of 

oolitic glauconite; fossils 2i ft. 

3. Lignitiferous brown sandy clay with small lenses of impure 

lignite 2 ft. 

4. Cholocate-brown carbonaceous clay, 3 ft. 

A few marine foesils were found in the lower portion of (1) 
and also in (2). 

There are good exposures of Wilcox along Mason Creek from 
its head to its junction with Patroon Bayou. 

Carter's Bluff on the river shows 15 feet of dark blue lam- 
inated unfossilferous sandy clay. A ledge of -limestone boulders 
extends almost across the river above the ferry and below it a 
6-inch bed of lignite appears capping the clay. Another bed of 
calcareous concretions appears in the clays 30 feet above it. At 
this point the river again turns west. 

This section is probably repeated in part or extended at mouth 
01 Patroon bayou where two small beds of lignite occur. This 
is only a short distance north of Pendleton where we again come 
up into the interstratified marine and lignitic deposits. The 
following section may be seen one-fourth mile above the ferry, 
just above the mouth of a small stream. 


42 University of Texas Bulletin 

9. Light gray to brownish laminated clay, 7.5 ft. 

8. Ledge of impure limestone concretions, 2.5 ft. 

7. Greenish brown and light blue clayey sand, with iron con- 
cretions and fossils, 4.5 ft. 

6. Blue joint clay, fossiliferous, 2.5 ft. 

5. Limestone boulders, fossiliferous, in dark gray sand 1. ft. 

4. Dark gray sand, . • ■ 2- ft. 

3. Stratified lignitic clay 1- ft. 

2. Yellow and gray sand, 5. ft. 

1. Wavy, alternate layers of blue sand and clay, 6. ft. 

The dip is here to the westward about 1 to 50. 

Baker's section of Pendleton Bluff is as follows: 


1. Coarse Lafayette orange sand with a few quartz and chert 

pebbles, imperfectly laminated. The surface color is 
yellowish-brown. The top member is mottled and more 
clayey 15 ft. 

2. Sticky laminated chocolate-brown clay interbedded with 

with brown micaceous sand carrying plant fragments. .15 ft. 

3. Laminated brown and dark blue sand and clay, con 

oretionary and with greensand. Oolitic greensand 
mainly distributed in thin layers, more or less con- 
tinuous, 4 ft. 

4. Fossiliferous bed containing an abundant fauna. Fossils in 

a soft medium-grained dark gray sand, locally with green- 
sand, containing small particles of clay and very small 
lenses of lignite. Contains abundant sphaeroslderite 
concretions, especially near the top. Weathers dark 
greenish-brown, 6 J ft. 

5. Medium to coarse-grained sand with numerous thin in- 

terbedded wavy and Irregular layers of lignitiferous clay. 
Sand either brownish or more often, when containing 
pyrite, dark greenish-gray. Contains elliptical concre- 
tions of clay ironstone. Sometimes the layers of un- 
consolidated sand will be as thick as from 4 in. to 1 ft. 
and then will become an alternation of thin bands of 
sand and lignite averaging less than % inch in width. 

Limonite staining common. Sand micaceous 8 to 10 ft. 


Fossils are numerous at each of these exposures, but are some- 
what better preserved in the first mentioned section. Harris' list 
is as follows: 

The Geology of East Texas 43 

Modiola alabamensis Mazzalina plena 

Barbatia cucuUoides Tritonldea pachecci 

Leda corpulentoides Nassa exilis 

Cardium tuomeyi. Aid. Cassidaria brevidentata 

Ceronia, Turritella mortonl 

Turritella praecincta 

Pleurotoma silicata, Natica eminula 

Pleurotoma Natchi Natica aperta 

Cancellaria quercollis, var. greggi, Natica alabamensis 

Pseudoliva velusta, var. Solarium bellense 
Pseudoliva petrosus 
Levifusus indentus, 
Levifusus supraplanus 
Levifusus pagoda 
Levifusus trabeatus 

Such typical lower Eocene species as Levifusus supraplanus, 
Buccinanops elUpticum, Turritella praecincta, Natica aperta, N. 
alabamensis, Solarium hellense and Pleurotoma silicata, show 
the equivalency of these beds to the Nanafalia horizon in the 
Alabama section. 

Down the river about half way from Pendleton to Sabine- 
town, but' on the Louisiana side there is a 3 ft. ledge of lignite 
cropping out near the water level. It is overlain by gray sands 
of recent river origin. 

A short distance below the Sabinetown ferry and on the Texas 
side of the Sabine there is a most interesting section. This bluff 
is from 115 to 120 feet high, counting from the surface of the 
river at a medium stage of water. It is located on a bend of the 
river where the latter, pursues a nearly east-west direction. 
Though the dip is locally very considerable here as shown in 
little side gorges, often as much as 1 to 50 it appears light along 
the bluff as a whole, for the direction of the latter is nearly on the 
line of strike. 

The main features of the various component strata of Sabine- 
town bluff are as follows: 

8. Sands and ferruginous conglomerates, 9 to 16 ft. 

7. Ferruginous sandstone, ' 1 ft. 

6. . Lignitic clay 15 ft. 

5. Yellow sand, 25 ft. 

44 UmversUy of Texas Bulletin 

4. More or less alternating shaly lignitic clay and sand. The 
latter weathers yellowish; the shaly clay sometimes light 
brown or pinkish, 40 ft. 

3. More or less clayey sand, often greenish and fossiliferous 

in concretions; with a hard layer above 15 ft. 

2. Fossiliferous blue sand with concretions, 6 ft. 

1. Brittle, shaly, drab clay, 2 ft. 

Baker says of the bluff: 

"The banks of the Sabine river in the vicinity of Sabinetown 
are of light brown or light gray sand, 20 or 25 feet in height. 
This river sand is probably derived from the Wilcox formation. 
A layer of pebbles cemented by iron oxide into a conglomerate is 
seen on the Louisiana bank 300 yards above the, Sabinetown 
ferry, also at Sabinetown and in the bluffs between the mouth 
of Low's creek and Columbus. 

"In the Sabinetown bluff the basal layer is chocolate sandy 
and shaly clay, overlain by medium-grained dark green fossil- 
iferous sand with many large and small blue iron carbonate con- 
cretions. The fossils in the sand are soft ; those in the concretions 
not so well preserved. Above comes a layer with oolitic green- 
sand overlain by chocolate sandy carbonaceous clay. The upper 
bed of this section of the Wilcox is structureless light brown 
sand, 15 feet or more in thickness." 

The fossils collected from this locality as well as from Pendle- 
ton were identified by Harris and are figured in his Louisiana 
Eeport for 1899. 

The list is as follows: 

Leda aldrichlana, var. Pleurotoma huppertzi, 

Venericardia planicosta, Volutilithes petrosus, 

Kellia prima, Levifusus trabeatus, 

Mactra bistriata, Nassa exilis, 

Corbula alabamensis, Calyptraphorus trinodiferous, 

Ceronia, Fusoficula juvenis, 

Pholas alatoideus, Natica eminula, 

Sigaretus decllvus. 

The Sabinetown fossils are those of the horizon of the Woods 
bluff beds in Alabama. 

The bluff section on the Palagauche a few hundred yards 
above its mouth is virtually the same as on the Sabine river at 

The Geology of East Texas 45 

Sabinetown. At a second exposure, about one mile above the 
mouth of the Palaguache, the dip is at least 10 degrees in a south 
of east direction. Dip observations here vary all the way from 
10 to 17 degrees. The beds are very fossiliferous greensands 
and 20 feet thick. 

The general section seems to show that t£e basal Wilcox in this 
immediate region belonged to the Lignitic phase and was suc- 
ceeded in the upper Nanafalia portion of Lower "Wilcox time by 
the Sabine phase and this persisted until the Claiborne. 

Unless fossils have been found in wells drilled west of the 
Sabine river which indicate the beds of this phase, they are not 
known elsewhere in east Texas. Baker, however, found marine 
Wilcox fossils southwest of San Antonio. 

Lignitic Phase 
general character and aria 

These beds comprise a series of sands, sandstone, clays and 
lignites having an aggregate thickness of 1200 feet or over. 

The sands are variously colored, being yellow, brown, gray or 
blue, with occasional thin beds of black, often shading into one 
another in endless variety, and, with the exception of the dark 
blue or black beds, present no uniformity of coloration for any 
distance. In structure they are mostly coarse-grained with irreg- 
ular deposits of fine-grained silty sand, laminated or thinly 
stratified, massive, cross-bedded and frequently interlaminated 
with clay. 

The clays occur interstrati'fied and interbedded with the 
sands or, as irregular deposits, usually laminated. Massive and 
stratified beds also occur in portions of the area, sometimes 
nearly free from sand, but the greater portion occur as sandy or 
micaceous clays. Plastic potter's clay and refractory clays occur 
in abundance. In color they are generally dark blue, gray or 
black, although deposits of red, brown and yellow clay occur. 

The lignites belonging to this stage, and from which these beds 
derive their name, occur widely spread throughout the whole 
area ; they lie in beds of varying thickness, from two to four feet 
being most common, although deposits of six, nine and ten feet 

46 TJwversity of Texas Bulletin 

are by no means of rare occurrence. Beds of even greater thick- 
ness have been reported as being found in well-borings. Tbe 
actual number of lignite beds existing in these deposits is not 
known. Six have been recorded as underlying each other at 
distances varying from 2 to 120 feet. 

Thjroughout the Texas area the lignite beds everywhere form 
conspicuous objects in this formation but no attempts have yet 
been made to correlate them with each other. 

Entering the State from northwestern Louisiana and south- 
western Arkansas the Wilcox is found overlapping the Midway 
and resting directly on the Cretaceous. From the first appear- 
ance of the uncovered Midway in Hopkins county the contact 
between the Midway and WUqox is found along a line running 
southwesterly through Eains, Van Zandt, Harrison, Navarro, 
Freestone, and Limestone counties to the Brazos. South of the 
Brazos the Wilcox overlaps the Midway in places to the Colorado 
river, beyond which a narrow belt of Midway is usually found 
between it and the Cretaceous. The broad expanse of the Wilcox 
exposure in eastern Texas is narrowed to 15 miles where it crosses 
the Brazos and to 10 miles on the Colorado. 

In the northeastern portion of the State tEe Lignitic is still 
covered in interstream areas by uneroded areas of the Claiborne, 
the inain body of which formation is found overlying it to the 

In thickness these beds vary from 800 to 1200 feet. 

The areas in east Texas in which the Lignitic beds form the 
surface material are usually comparatively level or only gently 
rounded in contour. This slight relief does not afford very good 
opportunities for detailed study of the different beds comprising 
it and it is only from observations made over a rather vride field 
and comparison with well log;s that a definite idea can be ob- 
tained regarding them. 

Kennedy, in his study of the iron ore deposits of northeastern 
Texas, examined in detf^il Cass, Marion, d;regg an4 Harrison 
counties. His generalized section of the Lignitic b^ds of Har- 

TJie Geology of East Texas 47 

rison county gives us perhaps our clearest knowledge of the beds 
in the eastern portion of the State^. 

The lowest beds of this section are composed principally of 
stiff black micaceous saAds and clay containing numerous de- 
posits of iron pyrites. In the deep well at Marshall these sands 
and clays had a reported thickness of 953 feet and rested on 
blue limestone which was in all probability a boulder such as 
thpse seen in similar deposits in the Sabine river section and 
which are found at base of formation in wells drilled in the 
Caddo oil fields east of this. 

Overlying: this are yellow and white sands ; micaceous, black 
sand or clayey sand, irregularly laminated and with interbedded 
lignites; black clay passing upward into blue clays interbedded 
with lignite, the series having a total thickness of 100 feet. 

Vaiughan's section at Port Caddo Landing* east of Marshall 
shows below the Queen City beds 55 or 60 feet of interbedded 
grayish sands and bluish clays with one small lignite seam, 
underlain by low-grade lignite associated with iron ore, fer- 
ruginous sandstone and calcareous concretions. The concretions, 
when broken, showed fossil leaves which were identified by 
Knowlton. These beds correspond to part of the upper member 
of Kennedy's section. 

Harris^" states that the hard boulders of the Wilcox are of 
common occurrence in Caddo well sections, and as they are not 
o:^ten found below 450 feet, the dividing line between the Wilcox 
and Midway in that field has been drawn at that depth. 

To the westward as we near the old shore line our records 
show a much larger admixture of sands and more lignite. The 
section of the well at Mineola, which is given in full in the Third 
Annual Eeport of the Geological Survey of Texas, page 82, shows 
below the upper gray water-bearing sand, nearly 600 feet of 

'For details of surface exposures of these beds in nortlieaptern 
Texas reference may be made to Kennedy's reports on Cass, Marlon, 
Gregg and Harrison counties in Second Annual Rept. Geol. Sur. 
Texas, Robertson County, Fourtl Annual Report, and The Eocene 
Tertiary east of Brazos river. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sg. Phila. 1895, and 
Bumble's Report on Brown Coal a»d Lignite. 

•Am. Geologist, vol. 16, 1895, p. 308. 

»U. S. G. S. Bui. 429, pt 121. 

48 University of Texas Bulleiin 

interbedded sands and clays, at times micaceous or pyritiferous 
with beds of lignite and some limestone, (probably in form of 

A somewhat different condition is noted in the section of the 
deep well at Sulphur Springs as given by Gordon". This well 
passed through 810 feet of materfals assigned by him' to the Wil- 
cox, and 324 feet of Midway, into the underlying Cretaceous. 
The beds referred to the Wilcox in this section are apparently 
more nearly akin to the Marine phase of the Wilcox than to the 
Lignitic. By far the greater part are shales with which are in- 
terbedded some clays and sands and two small seams or boulders 
of limestone. Toward the lower portion of the section the shales 
carry fossils and in the black shale with iron concretions, which 
forms the basal member of the supposed Wilcox, Venericardia 
planicosta was found. The other fossils are not enumerated and 
it is possible that the line between Midway and Wilcox should 
be drawn at 684 feet, or below the second limestone and the fos- 
siliferous material referred to Midway. This would be more in 
accord with the general Lignitic section. 


A contact between the Wilcox and Midway is found at 
Oyster Bluff of Penrose on the Brazos River, better known as 
Smiley 's Bluff, two miles above the mouth of Pond Creek. Ken- 
nedy 's section shows at the base 9 feet of blue and gray sand, 
partly laminated, overlain by a thin bed of hard fossiliferous 
limestone. Four feet of laminated clay immediately overlying 
this was filled with Midway fossils including Centliium pen- 
ros&i Har., Psmdoliva ostrarupis Harris, Leda milamensis Har, 

This bed forms the top of the Midway and the basal Wilcox 
overlying it consists of ten feet of thinly stratified yellowish 
gray clay, sand and blue clay with occasional rounded boulders 
of calcareous sandstone. 

Good sections of the Lignitic can be seen on the Brazos below 
this point at the various shoals and bluffs. Among them may be 

"U. S. G. S. Water-Supply Paper 276. 

University of Texas Bulletin No, 1869 

Plate V. 

Patroon Bayou, Sabine County. 

The Geology of East Texas 49 

mentioned Bee or Black shoals and Calvert BlufE. In all these 
sections the formation is shown to be more sandy than in Bast 
Texas and the prominence of the lignite beds is striking. 
The section at Gibson gin near Calvert shows this clearly: 

1. Surface soil and gray and brown sand 25 ft. 

2. Alternate strata of blue clay and calcareous sandstone. .. .42 ft. 

3. Brown coal ■ ■ ." 2 ft. 

4. Bluish-gray sand, blue clay and calcareous sandstones 46 ft. 

5. Brown coal 1 % ft. 

6. Bluish gray sand 2S % ft. 

7. Brown coal 5 ft. 

8. Blue sands and sandstones 55 ft. 

9. Brown coal 2 ft. 

10. Red clay . 8 ft. 

11. Bluish-gray calcareous sandstones and blue clay 22 ft. 

12. Brown coal 2 ft. 

13. Blue sand 76 ft. 

14. Brown coal 10 ft. 

15. Blue sand with thin seams of sandstone 265 ft. 

As an indication of the thickness of the beds in this section 
it may be stated that a well at Franklin obtains its water supply 
from these beds and is 1208 feet deep. The well is wholly in 
Lignitic strata. 


In the region mapped the materials of the Lignitic are at the 
surface over the northern parts of Sabine and San Augustine 
counties, all of Shelby and Panola and the eastern portions of 
Nacogdoches and Rusk, besides a broad belt along the western 

For the most part this country is gently rolling. The ridges 
are of moderate elevation and their summits are usually cov- 
ered with remnantal patches of the ferruginous sandstone or 
iron ores of the Claiborne, or with the iron conglomerate de- 
rived from them, Therefore, throughout this area it is usually 
only the lower portons of the ridges and the valleys which 
yield exposures of the Lignitic. The beds are similar to those 
of the upper portion of the formation as described by Kennedy : 
Carbonaceous clays and sands with beds of lignite. 

50 JJiviversity of Texas Bulleiin 

The section along the Sabine River has already been given. 
The last outcrops described which are positively Wilcox are 
those of the Sabinetown bluff and a small exposure about one 
mile farther down the river. 

The final appearance of the Wilcox consists of four feet of 
the fossiliferous greensand of the bluff section overlain by brown 

and chocolate laminated clay. 



For comparison with the Sabine River section, the uplands 
section along the Santa Fe railway from Duff Siding to Flat 
Fork as made by Baker may be given : 

1. Thin-bedded grayisji-brqwn sands of the Wilcox, containing 

limonite-stained layers overlain by mottled Lafayette. 

2. Very much decomposed oolitic nodular greensand of rusty 

brown color, blue-black on fracture planes. 

3. Chocolate-gray sandy clay, carbonaceous, thinly laniinated, 

seamed witla limonite-stained and cemented streaks, which 
run along cracks and joints at various angles with the 
bedding. The weathered surface is grayish or brownish, 
depending on the amount of iron present. 

4. Shaly chocolate-brown and grayish carbonapeovis cla,y. 

5. Coarse sand, cross-bedded, angular to subangular, containing 

specks of greensand and greensand in thin layers. It oxi- 
dizes to various shades of brown and reddish brown. 

6. Laminated sands and clays, generally gray or brownish in color 

and containing thin layers of hard material lirnonlte-stained 
and cemented. A portion of tlje clay is light yellowist-gre^n 
in color and quite plastic. In places there is a grayish 
mottling. It weathers a light greenish brown with a cracked 
earthy surface or rounded slopes. The maximum thickness 
is 10 ft., most of which is laminated chocolate carbonaceoug 

7. Laminated clayey sand, ma,inly gray in color, thoi^gh much of 

it is stained with limonite. 

8 A Dark blackish-brown carbonaceous laminated clay, above which 
lies 1 % feet of chocolate-brown clay. 

9. Greenish-gray thinly lamii^a,ted sand. 
10.; Thin lay;ers of cross-bedded coafse sand lnterbedd.ed with 
grayish sandy clays. The thin layers of clay have a wave- 
like bedding. The maximum thickness Is 6 ft. The clays 
are cream-colored sandy and loose, weathering into miniature 

The Geology of East Texas 51 

11. Surflcial light yellowisli-red mantle rock, 2 to 3 ft. The 

weathered Wilcox resembles the Lafayette even in the mot- 
tling, but it does not contain the pebbles.* 

12. Thinly laminated brownish and grayish sand grading down- 

ward into 5 ft. 

13. Light brownish-drab shelly-bedded clay fine-grained sand, 

blotched with yellow sulphur 5 ft. 

Local unconformity with irregular contact: 

14. Light yellowish-brown medium-grained cross-bedded sand with 

its upper surface exceedingly irregular. 2 to 4 ft. 

15. Laminated brown clayey sands. The clays quite carbonaceous, 

ranging in color from chocplate-brown to black and laminated 
enough to be called a shale. It is probably never entirely 
free from sand and there are partings of brown sand layers 
and thin plate-like beds cemented by iron oxide, 
le. Dark brown carbonaceous shaly clay with large crystals of 
selenite. This clay is thinly laminated. 

17. Much cross-bedded light brown sands capped by 3 feet of ligbt 

brick-red soil, which maintains its average depth irrespective 
of the surface irregularities. It is simply weathered Wilcox, 
and contains no Lafayette gravels Some of the Wilcox 
sand layers are indurated into a medium-hard sandstone. 
Some of the sandstone is in very thin plates in which the 
cementing material is most generally iron oxide. Other indu- 
rated aggregations are rather irregular in shape and have for 
the most part a thin "shelly"' irregular bedding. The sand 
grains are medium-coarse and sub-angular. Mica is present 
and probably also magnetite. 

At the south end of this cut the cross-hedding gives way 
to a persistent southeastward dip of 7 or 8 degrees, which 
may, however, be a depositional dip. Within this general dip 
is minor cross-bedding between the major layers. Some of 
the sand beds are massive, but most of them are very thin- 

18. T^e cut at Flat Fork exposes at a maximum 15 ft. of cross- 

*It is notable that we see no undoubted Lafayette between Tenaha 
and Center. These lower lying areas have undergone more post- 
Lafayette erosion than the ridges of rnore resistant formations, 
and the Lafayette, in all probability once present, ha? been almost 
entirely removed. The red surflcial weathering of mantle rock 
suggests that the formation of the red color in the Lafayette may 
have taken place subsequent to Its deposition. At any rate, the 
red coloration of this weathered zone of the Wilcox ig of recent date. 

52 TJniversity of T&xas Bulletin 

bedded clayey sands, generally light yellowish-brown in color, 
with some limonite concretions and the more clayey portions 
weathering into semi-badlands, streaked and mottled with 
light gray. There are also fragments of silicified wood and 
thin-bedded lenticular and laminated limonitic layers. The 
sand is micaceous, thin-bedded, and rather light-grained. The 
surface soil of the region traversed is bright brick-red in 

In the vicinity of the 145 th Mile Post some of the surficial 
sandy clay is light cream-colored on the surface. A feature 
here is the presence of irregularly shaped "pipe" concretions 
averaging about one inch in diameter, solid, and composed of 
clear quartz sand firmly cemented by calcium carbonate. The 
exterior surfaces of these are irregular and cavernous. 

The deeper or lower beds of the Wilcox are known in this 
vicinity from a well drilled just north of Flat Fork, which 
passed through the Lignitic and Midway and well down into 
the Upper Cretaceous. 

The log of that portion of the well which belongs to the Lig- 
nitic shows simply alterations of sands and clays with occa- 
sional boulders or shells of limestone and a single seam of 
lignite. These beds have a thickness of 850 feet. No sign of 
fossils was found in this series. 

The underlying Midway beds are 230 feet thick. 

In all this section, therefore, there is nothing similar to the 
f ossiliferous greensand beds found in the river valley only 20 
miles east of it, although the two sections quite surely carry 
beds of like age. 


From Berry's reports on plant-bearing outcrops of the Wilcox 
Port Caddo Landing gave the following species as revised: 

Apocynophyllum tabellarum (?) 
Asplenium eolignitica 
Canna eocenica 
Cinnamomum afBne 
Combretum ovalis 
Dryophyllum moori 
Picus planicostata maxima 
Ficus schimperi 
Ficus vaughani 

The Geology of East Texas 53 

Grewiopsis tennesseensis 
Meniphylloides ettingshauseni 
Metopium wilcoxianum 
Nectandra lancifolia 
Nectandra sp. 
Oreodaphne obtusifolla 
Persea longipetiolatum 
Saballtes grayanus 
Terminalia hilgardiana. 

■He states: 

"None of these are species peculiar to tlie Ackerman forma- 
tion or lower Wilcox of the eastern Gulf region ; 3 occur in the 
Ackerman formation and the Holly Springs sand; 2 are known 
only from the Holly Springs sand; 1 is found in the Ackerman 
formation and Holly Springs sand as well as in post-Wilcox de- 
posits; 1, the characteristic Meniphylloides ettingshauseni, is 
peculiar to the Grenada formation or uppermost "Wilcox. The 
conclusion is inevitable that the deposits at Port Caddo are of 
late Wilcox age. 

"From the Sabine river leaf remains are reported from cal- 
careous concretions just below Harts Bluff on the Louisiana bank. 
A short distance below Hamilton and just above Chambers Ferry 
similar materials carry leaf impressions, and a small amount of 
rather poor material was collected. This was deposited at the 
New York Botanical Garden, where I have studied it. The 
only identifiable forms are Orewiopsis tennessieensis Berry, which 
also occurs south of Grand Junction, Tenn., and Legurmnosites? 
arachioides Lesquereux of the Denver and Fort Union formations 
of the Eocky Mountain province. This outcrop is 7 or 8 miles 
along the dip above Sabinetown, where, according to Harris, the 
marine fossils indicate the Bashi formation. The fossil plants, 
though top few for precise correlation, indicate a horizon not 
older and probably younger than the Holly Springs sand or 
middle Wilcox of Mississippi".* 

"Alexander Deussen discovered an outcrop containing Wil- 
cox plants on Calaveras Creek about 500 yards east of the San 
Antonio & Aransas Pass Railway in Wilson county, Texas. 

"The small clay lens at the base of the section contains much 

♦U. S. G. S. Prof, paper No. 9 p. 58. 

54 University of Texas Bulletin 

eommimited vegetable matter and rather poorly preserved im- 
pressions of leaves, among whicli the following are recognizable : 

Bumelia pseudotenax (?) 
Calycites ostryaformis 
Cassia bentonensis 
Dlospyros brachysepala (?) 
Ficus vaughani 
Grleditsiophyllum eocenicum 
Mespilodaphne eolignitica 
Rhamnites bercbemiaformis 
Sabalites grayanus 
Sapindus bentonensis 
Sapindus linearifolius 
Terminalia lesleyana ( ? ) 

Of the 12 species 2 are new and therefore without stratigraphic 
significance. In comparison with the floras of the Wilcox of 
the eastern Gulf area it may be noted that none of the species 
from Calaveras Creek are confined to the Ackerman formation 
or lower Wilcox. Three species are confined to the Ackerman 
formation and Holly Springs sand ; 1 to the Holly Springs sand ; 
and 6 to the Holly Springs sand and Grenada formation. It 
seems evident that the outcrop is of about the same age as those 
at Benton and Malvern in Arkansas, or somewhat younger, and 
is certainly not older than the Holly Springs sand or middle 
Wilcox of Mississippi. 


The Lower Eocene closed with the deposition of the last sedi- 
ments of Wilcox age. As the waters withdrew, a broad fringe 
of new land was added, not only to the Texas coast, but through- 
out the entire Mississippi embayment area. The proofs of this in- 
terval of emergence are found in the physical evidence of erosion 
of the Wilcox beds prior to the deposition of the basal beds of 
the Middle Eocene. This is known at several localities in Georgia 
as well as in the Texas area. It is further indicated by the fact 
that there are localities in which the Queen City beds are missing, 
probably from non-deposition on areas of higher ground and the 
Mt. Selman beds rest directly upon the Lignitic. 

Tim Geology of East Texas 55 

Further evidence of it is found by Berry^ in the littoral charac- 
ter of the basal beds of the Claiborne (Queen City-Carrizo in 
Texas and Tallahatta or Buhrstone in Georgia), in the great 
overlap of the Claiborne, and in the vast changes which took 
place at that time in the fauna and flora of the region. 

It is probable that the withdrawal of the sea at the close of the 
Lower Eocene and the consequent emergence as land of the area 
of the coastal marshes was accompanied by some folding or by 
renewal of the upward movement of the Cretaceous-Tertiary 
interval. This is indicated by the conditions surrounding the 
various domes of northeastern Texas and western Louisiana. 

The evidence is that the deposits of the Midway failed to cover 
some if not all of these domes or islands but that it did cover 
the lower-lying Sabine Peninsula. The Lignitic, on the contrary, 
seems to have mantled them all and their existence today as Cre- 
taceous islands in this Tertiary terrain is due to the erosion 
which has removed this mantle and brought the older rocks again 
to light. 

Away from the islands the Lignitic strata have usually a very 
slight dip but on their flanks the Lignitic dips away at consid- 
erable angles although somewhat less than those of the under- 
lying Cretaceous. In the immediate vicinity of the mound these 
dips may be as great as 60 degrees but this rapidly decreases 
with distance until within two miles or less the dip has again 
become normal. 

Just how great these movements were is not yet known but it. 
is thought most probable that the dome materials were forced 
upward through or into the overlying "Wilcox at this time and 
prior to the deposition of Lower Claiborne. This may represent 
only a part of the movement which has taken place since the 
initial elevation at the close of the Cretaceous as there is evi 
cience of other movements of less extent at still later date. 

'Prof. Paper, U. S. G. S. No. 91, p. 37. 

Chapter V 



Following the interval of elevation and erosion of the Wilcox 
the seas again transgressed the land area, and in them there was 
deposited a series of formations "which contain the most per- 
sistent and widely developed marine beds of the Coastal Plain", 
and which have been found to extend from Maryland to the 
Tamanlipas mountains in Mexico. These are known as the Clai- 
borne Group. 

This group, which includes all of the deposits of the Middle 
Eocene, takes its name from the bluff at Claiborne on the Ala- 
bama river, where some of its beds are extremely rich in well pre- 
served fossils. These were first studied by Lea and Conrad, 
who established the Eocene age of the fauna. 

The section at the type locality has at the base nearly three 
hundred feet of unfossiliferous sands and sandstones which were 
originally called the Buhrstone, but later were given the local 
name of Tallahatta sands. The beds overlying them and con- 
'stituting the fossiliferous portion of the exposure have a thick- 
ness of 150 feet. This has been separated into two portions and 
each of these again subdivided. Immediately overlying the Tal- 
.lahatta sands are the Lisbon beds, followed by the Ostrea sellae- 
formis beds, the three divisions forming the Lower Claiborne. 
The two upper divisions, known as the Claiborne or Gosport 
sands, and the White Bluff marl which overlies it, are the Upper 

The surface exposure of the Claiborne in Alabama rarely ex- 
ceeds 15 miles in width. 

In Texas the narrowest part of the normal exposure of the 
Claiborne is found on the Colorado river and has a width of 
twenty-five miles. In eastern Texas, on the Sabine the entire 
exposure is less than 10 miles in width, on the Neches river it has 
a width of 90 miles, and along the Rio Grande, which crosses the 
formation obliquely to its dip, the belt has an exposure of 150 

The Geology of East Texas 57 

At Claiborne Bluff the f ossiliferous beds are of marine origin. 

In the Texas region the representatives of the Lower Claiborne 
have been expanded into formations showing alternations of 
marine and swamp or lagunal conditions, but the fact that they 
are all correlative of the Claiborne is fully proven by the iden- 
tity of the great numbers of fossils they contain. 

To distinguish these formations the following names have been 
given, beginning with the bottom: 

Carrizo, called Queen City beds in East Texas, and being the 
lithologic and stratigraphic correlative of the Tallahatta. 

Marine, a subgroup which includes the Mount Selman, Cook's 
Mountain and Nacogdoches formations, and which contains not 
only the most highly fossiliferous of the beds, but which is es- 
pecially valuable for its deposits of iron ores. 

Yegua. This formation, largely palustrine and lignitic east 
of the Nueces, becomes partly marine in southwestern Texas. 

Fayette. Deposits of white sands and clays with plant re- 
mains east of the Colorado, but partly marine on the Rio Grande. 

Frio. Clays and sands largely palustrine in origin, but with 
some marine sediments^. 

Deposition and Chaeactek 

The Claiborne sea coming in from the south and east covered 
all of east Texas northward to Red river and westward beyond 
the line of the Cretaceous islands, which it probably covered, 
as it certainly covered a part of the Sabine Penincula to the 
eastward. It thus extended over by far the greater part of the 
Lignitic land area of northeastern Texas and northwestern 

'Of the few marine fossils found by us in the Frio there were 
none characteristic of beds later than the Lower Claiborne and it 
was accordingly referred to that group. There is a possibility, 
however, that further collections may make jt necessary to change 
this reference and that the Frio may belong to the Upper rather than 
the Middle Eocene. 

'Harris suggests that it is probable that De Soto parish in Louisi- 
ana and Shelby, Panola and Harrison counties in Texas may have 
constituted an island in Claiborne time. U. S. G. S. Bulletin No. 
429, p. 121. 


58 University of Texas Bulleiin 

The earliest sediments laid down in the Claiborne sea were 
the sands and clays of the Queen City beds. These were fol- 
towed by the great body of greensands, sands and clays of the 
Marine. The deposits of both of these stages probably extended 
over this entire area, and the broad exposure of the Lignitic 
now found at tfie surface in this region is due to the fact that so 
large a portion of these overlying beds has been removed by 

While marine conditions prevailed in the Texas area and 
over the Sabine Peninsula to or beyond its eastern boundary, 
they were there replaced, in part at least, by palustrine condi- 
tions somewhat similar to those of the preceding Lignitic. This 
resulted in a great embayment area bounded on the east by 
the Peninsula and on the west by the Islands and extending 
from Red river on the north southward to the 32d Parallel, or 
below, in which the deposits of the Marine substage present a 
marked ' difference from their continuations eastward or south- 

The whole of the sediments of this substage were characterized 
by a considerable percentage of greensand and other iron-bear- 
ing minerals, the decomposition of which gave rise to some lean 
iron ore, but principally to ferruginous sandstones. It was 
within this embayment, however, that the greater quantities of 
these iron-bearing materials were deposited and where they 
were decomposed, altered, recombined and segregated into the 
very extensive beds of workable iron ores which make this pre- 
eminently the iron ore region of the State. Practically all 
deposits of workable brown ores are confined within the bounda- 
ries of this embayment. 

Here and there, within the Marine, lignitic conditions existed 
for a short time, but probably 700 to 800 feet of marine sedi- 
ments were laid down before the shallowing seas finally brought 
back the sea marshes and lagoons similar to those of the "Wilcox. 

This marked the beginning of the Yegua, the deposits of which 
form a belt along the Marine front, but do not extend up into 
the embayment. The Tegua in this area becomes more and 
more sandy toward the top and finally gives way to the white 
sands and joint clays of the Fayette, a lagunal of fresh water 

The Geology of East Texas 59 

deposit with fossil palms and other plants. This completed the 
cycle of the Claiborne or Middle Eocene. 

There is evidence here of local movements during the Lower 
Claiborne deposition and of more general movement at its close. 


From its very narrow exposure on the Sabine, the northern 
boundary of the Claiborne strikes northwestward, passing east 
of San Augustine, Nacogdoches and Henderson to the eastern 
line of Smith county. It there turns westward to Athens-, then 
south to the Trinity river west of Palestine, and from its cross- 
ing of that river southwestward to the Brazos between Calvert 
and Hearne. To the northeast of this main body there are 
remnantal bodies of considerable area in Gregg, Harrison, 
Upshur, Marion, Morris, and Cass counties and there may be 
other outliers in the Lignitic area which have not yet been 

From the Brazos the southwestern course of the northern 
boundary is continued to the Atascosa river north of Floresville 
in "Wilson county, where it turns west to Zavalfe county and 
then south to the Rio Grande. 

Its southern border, which is its contact line with the Jackson, 
is more regular and more nearly parallel to the present Gulf 


Between the Trinity and the Sabine the eounti'v in which the 
Marine forms the surface varies in elevation from two hundred 
to six hundred feet above the Gulf and sometimes, though 
rarely, the hill tops are seven hundred feet or more in height. 

The highest points in the region, like Mount Selman and 
Gent Mountain, in Cherokee county, Hynson's Mountain, in 
Harrison county, and many others, have their summits capped by 
a horizontal, or almost horizontal, bed of iron ore or sandstone, 
and to this covering they owe their existence, it having protected 
them from the erosion which has worn down the surrounding 
country. It has also given rise to a striking topography very 
much like that of the western lava plains on a small scale. The 

60 TJiviversity of T&xas Bulletin 

hills, locally called "mountains," sometimes occui' us flat-topped 
hills— the "butte" and "mesa" of the west— and at others 
spread out in broad plateaus, sometimes covering an area of 
twenty or thirty square miles, deeply cut by the steep sided 
canyons, and often showing an almost perpendicular slope. 
Such regions afford a beautiful upland country, with a soil far 
different from the surrounding lowlands, and a climate excel- 
lently adapted to the cultivation of fruit. Gent Mountain, in 
the western part of Cherokee county, is a beautiful example of 
this plateau country. It comprises over twenty square miles of 
area, is largely underlaid by iron ore, capped by a sandy soil, 
and thickly covered with oak and hickory. From its summit, 
looking south and west, can be seen the lowlands of the Neches 
river bottom, and beyond, the rolling country of Anderson 
county. To the north can be seen Gray's mountain. Grimes 
mountain, Ragsdale mountain, and many other iron-clad hills. 
To the east looms up a similar range, constituting the iron ore 
plateau of Rusk and New Birmingham.^ 

This bold topography, however, is practically limited on the 
west by the Trinity river. Beyond that stream the heavy 
deposits of iron are unknown, and unless beds of ferruginous 
sandstones occur, there is nothing to bring about such differences 
of elevation as those found between the Trinity and the Sabine. 
Between the Trinity and the Brazos, therefore, the Marine 
beds, while hilly, are not so rugged as further east. 


. The Claiborne is the most highly fossiliferous deposit of the 
Texas Tertiary. The marine fossils occur in quantities very 
generally distributed through the area and may of them in ex- 
cellent preservation. Large collections were made at various 
localities by the Geological Survey of Texas and these were care- 
fully studied by Harris, who prepared a full report on them. 
Unfortunately this failed of publication, but his lists were pre- 
served and are now at the University of Texas. In this study 
he had for comparison collections made by himself at the type 

'R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. Geol. Surv. Tex., 1st Ann. Rept. pp. 8, 9. 

TJie Geology of East Texas 61 

localities of Lower and Upper Claiborne, Jackson and Vicksburg, 
and he visited Philadelphia and "Washington for study of type 
specimens in the collections there. Therefore, when our collec- 
tions were sufficient to decide his reference should hold. 

As the writer understands the correlation made by Harris on 
the basis of the marine faunas found in our Texas beds, all of 
our Claiborne up to and including the Fayette sands belong to 
the Lower Claiborne series of Alabama and nothing he found in 
the marine fauna indicated an Upper Claiborne age for any of 
these beds. 

Berry, however, considers the plants of the Tegua the equiva- 
lent of those found in the Gosport and of Upper Claiborne age. 



Owen described a large area of sands occurring in Maverick 
and Dimmit counties and found in typical development around 
Carrizo Springs.^ 


These comprise sandstones of varying color, texture and thick- 
ness. The prevailing color is a grayish-yellow, weathering light- 
brown. Some of the beds are white when freshly broken. In 
texture they range from fairly hard sandstone, lying in beds of 
two to four feet or more in thickness, to thin slabby, fairly soft 
and almost shaly structure. No fossils except a few plant re- 
mains have been found in them. 

These sands have a broad area of outcrop on the Rio Grande, 
where at times they overlap the entire Lower Eocene and stretch 
northward over the later Cretaceous. In this region not only is 
their unconformity evidenced by this overlap, but by actual 
erosion of the underlying Wilcox as well. 

The Queen City beds^ of Bast Texas are the eastern equiva- 
lent if not the direct extension, of the Carrizo. They are well 

^Geol. Sur. Tex. First Rept. Progress, p. 70. 
"Kennedy, Third Ann. Rept. Geol. Sur. Texas p. 50. 

62 TJniversiiy of Texas Bulleiin 

developed in the vicinity of Queen City in Cass County, where 
they show a thickness of 65 feet. They comprise a series of 
laminated or thinly stratified white and red sands and sandy 
clays frequenty merging into one another and forming a mottled 
sandy clay or clayey sand. 

Where the surface contact has been observed between the 
Queen City and Wilcox no erosional unconformity has been seen, 
but evidence of erosion is found in the occurrence of water-worn 
boulders of clay and of laminated clay and. sand derived from 
the Wilcox in the basal member of the Queen City as at Port 
Caddo Landing,^ and also in the fact that at times the Queen 
City is missing and the contact is between the Lignitic and 
Mount Selman. 

The deposits are of littoral character and, so far as known, 
contain no organic remains. 

The beds are economically important, because they form one 
of the best water-bearing horizons of the region underlain by 
them, as the water is of excellent quality and free from mineral 


Because of the apparent conformity between the two, the 
Queen City was for a long time considered the upper portion of 
the Wilcox formation, and is so described in most of the re- 
ports on East Texas. On this account, the areas of outcrop of 
the Queen City have not been separately outlined. 

The beds occur on the surface at various localities in Cass 
county. In Marion county, near Jefferson and in Harrison 
county, the Queen City appears at numerous localities imme- 
diately underlying the yellowish-brown sandstone here forming 
the base of the Marine. The same beds are found at Willow 
Switch near Longview, at Gladewater in Gregg county, in the 
vicinity of Tyler and at Wilkins Mill in Upshur county. 

Kennedy states that the Queen City in Harrison talies on a 
more argillaceous character than in Cass, and the individual 
beds are heavier, the white beds at times attaining a thickness of 
two or three and occasionally of even five and six feet. When 

'Vaughan, T. W. Am. Geologist, Vol. 16, p. 308. 

The Geology of East Texas 63 

these beds outcrop along water courses the stream bed and banks 
are generally strewn with pellets of pure white clay ranging 
from the size of a pea to that of an egg. The beds are variable 
in thickness and in some sections seem to be absent and the Ma- 
rine beds are found in direct contact with the "Wilcox. This is 
exempli'fied in Kennedy's Mt. Selman section, which seems to 
show the base of the Mt. Selman resting upon 2 feet of worked- 
over material of the Lignitic and this on lignitic clays. 

Four miles north and one mile west of San Augustine there 
is another section exposed which may indicate a similar con- 

1. streaked light green and yellowisTa lirown clayey sand 

showing little structure, but containing large concretions 
of limestone, the same being exceedingly hard and con- 
taining some fossils , 9 ft. 

2. Dark blue or blackish green clayey sand weathering, dark 

brown. Containfe some fossils and abundant small pyrite 
crystals. Structureless at bottom, but toward top is 
poorly laminated. Locally contains lenses of laminated 
chocolate colored clay, pieces, of lignitized wood and 
green colored siliceous concretions of iron carbonate 
which weather reddish-brown. Locally ferruginous con- 
cretions and also considerable gypsum are to be 

noted 8 to 10 ft. 

3. Streaked light brown and chocolate colored somewhat 
clayey sand containing numerous minute flakes of sele- 
nite. This sand weathers Kght brown to yellowish 
brown and locally yellowish patches resembling sulphur 
occur. In places the sands are carbonaceous as evi- 
denced by small angular fragments of lignitized wood. 
This member is for the most part structureless, but in 
places it shows poor wavy bedding 15 ft. 

It is very probable that between No. 2 and No. 3 of the above 
secton that we have the contact between the Lignitic and Ma- 
rine. The lower member here is certainly Lignitic. 

In the section made along the Houston, East & West Texas 
Railway between Garrison and Nacogdoches the Queen City 
was not recognized. This, however, may have been simply 
because of its comparative thinness and lack of exposures. 

On the Sabine river the final appearance of undoubted Wil- 
cox, as has been stated, is about one mile below Sabinetown 

64 Umversity of Texas Bulletin 

bluff. The first beds showing fosils of Claiborne age are found 
at Bayou Negreet. The general course of the river is apparently 
very nearly along the strike of the beds, so that the distance 
between the two, stratigraphically, is rather small. Nothing 
was observed here to show the possibility of the occurrence of the 
Queen City between them, and it is probably not exposed on the 
river. It occurs, however, in the interstream areas. 

At Duff siding near Mile Post 128 on the Santa Fe Railway, 
the Queen City is made up of thinly laminated sands with sep- 
arate laminae usually less than % inch in thickness. They are 
alternately striped light gray, stained brown and yellow by 
limonite, and pink. The material is mainly fine sand with a 
very few thin streaks of blue-gray clay. The bedding is not par- 
allel, as layers pinch out or enlarge and one bed locally trans- 
gressed over the planes of several others. The Queen City here 
is unconformably overlain by the Lafayette. 

These beds also outcrop apparently in the middle reaches of 
Low's creek. 

In Leon county Baker found the Queen City beds well exposed 
north of Flynn on the Houston & Texas Central Railroad, where 
the top of the grade is a region of sand hollows and dunes. 


This term was used by Kennedy to designate the beds of ma- 
rine origin which are found overlying the Queen City and under- 
lying the Yegua. They form the uppermost division of Pen- 
rose's Timber Belt or Sabine River beds and are the iron ore 
bearing beds of east Texas. In this area they have a thickness 
of 700 feet or over. 

The Marine comprises an extensive series of greensands, green- 
sand marls more or less altered and containing large quantities 
of iron carbonates and limonite, glauconitic sandstones and clays, 
green fossiliferous clays, black and yellow clays with limy con- 
cretions, brown and yellow sand, occasional deposits of black 
sand containing gypsum crystals, pyrite, and at wide intervals 
small deposits or thin seams of lignite. The prevailing deposits 
are greensand in their several characters. 

The deposits are largely of marine origin. Even the beds of 

The Geology of East Texas 65 

lignite do not always indicate such marsh conditions as those of 
the Lignitic, since the largest deposit known in the entire forma- 
tion, which is found north of Laredo, is a true cannel coal and 
was deposited along a sea beach. 

Kennedy's, division of the Marine into two phases or forma- 
tions was based largely on lithologie grounds. 

The lower or Mount Selman is generally heavier bedded and 
made up for the most part of dark green and brown sands and 
sandstones, the iron carbonates and limonite being distributed 
through the beds or occurring as thin seams. "While fossiliferous 
to some extent the fossils are much fewer than in the upper 
phase and occur almost altogether in the form of casts. The 
upper or Cook's Mountain is to a great extent looser sands and 
clays with heavy beds of laminated brown ore. It contains a 
larae and beautifully preserved fauna. 

While this lithologieal difference may not hold good at all 
points and while even in this area it may be difficult to draw a 
definite line between the two, the great paucity of life in the 
lower beds is in marked contrast with the vast assemblages of 
forms in the upper, and the leaching out of the shell material 
in the lower beds is an added characteristic. 

To these phases a third has now been added to include the 
transition between the Cook's Mountain and the Yegua. These 
will be called the Nacogdoches beds. 

While these phases are recognized, owing to the difficulty of 
making a satisfactory division of them in the area mapped, they 
will not be treated separately in the description. 


Name and Occurrence. — The section along the St. Louis & 
Southwestern Eailway between BuUard and Jacksonville is quite 
typical of the basal portion of the Marine, and Kennedy used 
Mount Selman, the name of the town about the center of the sec- 
tion to designate it. 

The Mount Selman, although occurring almost everywhere 
below the Cook's Mountain, is the only portion of the Marine 
found north of the Sabine river, and it appears there now only 
in remnantal areas of a former widespread cover. It forms the 

66 TjMversity of Texas Bulletin 

tops of the table lands and occurs in isolated patches covering 
small hills and is underlain by the Queen City. South of the 
Sabine it is found in Eusk, Cherokee, Smith, Henderson and 
Anderson counties and is overlain and succeeded to the south 
by the Cook's Mountain. 

Character and Relation to Underlying Beds. — The Mount Sel- 
man comprises brown sands, blue clays, greensands, glauconitic 
sandstones, and nodular and laminated iron ores. 

Throughout their extent in east Texas the beds are iron-bear- 
ing, but the workable deposits, as now known, are confined to 
Cass, Marion, Gregg, Harrison and Upshur counties. 

The ores comprise both brown ore or limonite and iron car- 
bonate. These occur in nodular or geodal forms in the glauco- 
nitic sands, in thin lenses and irregular ledges, as more or less 
honeycombed thin sheets and layers, and in irregular masses. 

Fossils occur but sparingly and usually as casts only, the ma- 
terial of the shell having been entirely removed or replaced. 
At the base and throughout the beds the form most generally 
distributed is Venericardia planicosta, Lam., but other bivalve 
shells occur and shark teeth, usually of small size, are also found. 

Where the Mount Selman is found overlying the Queen City 
there is usually found a ferruginous parting ranging from one 
inch to a foot and a half in thickness. This parting is generally 
present in some one of its may forms of gravel, ferruginous 
sandstone, bands or fragments of laminated ore. This is the 
basal bed of the Marine in northeast Texas. 

When the Queen City is lacking and the Mt. Selman rests 
directly on the Lignitic, this ferruginous bed is not found and 
the basal bed is usually a greensand or dark clayey sand with 
pyrite and some casts of fossils. 

Jn the Kio Grande area the Carrizo is always present and 
apparently grades upward into the base of the Marine with no 
ferruginous parting such as is found at the Queen City-Marine 

cook's mountain 

Name and Occurrence. — Cook's Mountain lies two miles west 
of Crockett and furnishes such an excellent section of a part of 
the upper member of the Marine that Kennedy applied this name 

The Geology of East Texas 67 

to it. The Mount Selman and Coot's Mountain divisions grade 
into each other so imperceptibly that a line of separation would 
be but an arbitrary one. Kennedy used the state of preserva- 
tion and condition of inclosed fossils in an attempt to indicate 
approximately the limits which might be assigned to each. On 
this basis he placed the northern border of the Cook's Mountain 
along a line beginning near Mount Enterprise in Rusk county, 
striking west and passing south of Jacksonville and then south- 
west by Palestine, Centerville and Franklin to the Brazos river 
about where the north line of Burleson county begins. From 
this rather indefinite boundary the Cook's Mountain outcrop ex- 
tends southward to the Yegua contact. 

Character. — The prevailing deposits of the Cook's Mountain 
are the greensands in their various characters, but with these 
there are intenbedded black and gray sandy clays, black and 
yellow clays with calcareous concretions, brown sands and black 
sands with gypsum crystals. They also carry large quantities of 
ferruginous material occurring principally as heavy beds of lam- 
inated bown ore. 

The bods are highly fossiliferous and the fossils occur in well 
preserved condition. Some two hundred species have already 
been determined from the beds, but it is not probable that all 
have been identified even yet. 


Under this name are grouped the transitional beds which lie 
between the well recognized Cook's Mountain greensands and 
the massive gypsiferous clays of the Yegua. They are fully de- 
scribed in the section along the Houston, East & West Texas 
Railway. The top of the series is placed where the last marine 
fossils are found. Some fossil plants are also found in it. 


Harris describes the beds at the mouth of Low's creek as fol- 
lows^ : 

"One and one-half miles to the south of Sablnetown bluff in the 
bed of Low's creek at the ford, Lower Claiborne fossils are ficund. 

•Geol. Sur. La. 1899. p. 67. 

f)8 University of Texas Bulletin 

But beneath the same in what is presumably Lignitic material, a 
vast number of Pecten cornuus occur. The beds at the water-mill 
are of this lower layer. They are replete with oolitic iron ore, 
greenish when freshly exposed, reddish when weathered. 

Ajbout a mile above this point there is an exposure of fossil- 
iferous and pyritiferous greensand with many soft and poorly 
preserved fossils, most of which are lamellibranchs. This must 
be just below Veatch's locality 18, which he states is the last 
appearance of the Wileox on the river and resembles the section 
of his No. 19, of which he says ■} 

"Low Greek beds. The peculiar beds described from Low's creek, 
near Sabinetown, in 18 99 and referred provisionally to the Lignitic 
show a much better development on the Sabine near the mouth of 
Low's creek at stations 19 and 2 0. The beds here furnish a much 
more complete fauna, especially at the Negreet outcrop, and Harris 
is inclined to regard the material as having a decided Lower Clai- 
borne aspect. Directly above it is a well marked Lower Claiborne 
fauna and the position of these beds at or near the line -of parting 
between the Lower Claiborne and Lignitic is fully proven. 

Section at 19. 

Feet In. 

1. Gray sand 5 

2. Gray and yellow unstratifled clay containing ferruginous 

gravel.- Beds 1 and 2 lie unconformably on those 
below 25 

3. Dark green limestone filled with large grains o.f green- 

sand. Characterized by great numbers of Pecten 
cornuus and crustacean remains 5 

4. Fossiliferous oolitic greensand with occasional spots of 

green clay, weathering red 7 

5. Ledge of green limestone containing small rounded 

greensand grains. Weathers red 4 

6. Fossiliferous green clay with much greensand 10 

The fossils are all small and rather poorly preserved. Dip S. 50° 
W. 1:60. 

Just above ,the mouth of Bayou Negreet a low ledge is exposed 
under a bed of gray and yellow sands and clays. Here twenty- 
five feet of the same material seen in foregoing section is ex- 

'Geol. Sur. La. 1902. p. 172, 

The Geology of East Texas 69 

The section at mouth of Bayou Negreet shows the continua- 
tion of these beds^ : 


1. Light gray and yellow sandy clay with gravel at base. 

Extends over whole outcrop 20 

2. Dark greenish brown clay with greensand grains. About 

four feet from base is a harder portion of the bed form- 
ing a little terrace 13 

3. Very fossillferous indurated green marl weathering brown. 

Contains among other shells Ostrea falciformis 4 

4. Hard limestone with many large Venericardia planicosta . ■ . i 

5. Covered. (Mouth of Bayou Negreet) 20 

6. Laminated, chocolate colored clay 2 

7. Hard, gray limestone with Imperfect shells and bowlders 

of the underlying material. Contains Ostrea falciformis 
Similar In every respect to Lower Claiborne outcrop 
described in 1899 from Low's creek. Shows large masses 
of coral 3 

8. Same material as that occurring In ibasal beds of the 

Claiborne as shown at locality 19, described above, but 
here containing a greater percentage of clay. This out- 
crop has more of the appearance of normal greensand 
marl. It weathers Into six distinct shelves because of 
difference of hardness In different portions of the bed.... 25 
Layer 7 of this section crosses the river at right angles giving 
rise to a very marked Shoals. The river flows against the Inclined 
edges of the strata. Dip from a long exposure, S. 20° W. 1:25. 

"In the middle of the river opposite the mouth of Bayou Negreet 
there Is a rocky Island, 7 feet high, made of ferruginous con- 
glomerate. The conglomerate shows casts of Venericardia plani- 
costa, Volutilithes and Unio." 

Following this distinctly marine deposit there appear beds of 
a lignitic character. 

At the first bluff, on the Texas side below McClauahan's 
Shoals, Baker found: 

Feet In. 

1. Mottled bluish-gray to reddish-brown clayey sand, 

structureless, light brick-red in upper 10 ft. and In 
places light buff and cream colored. Mottling in- 
distinct 25 

2. Flint and quartz gravel, rounded, averaging from size 

of a pea up to an inch in diameter 4 

>Geol. Sur. La. 1902, p. 128. 

70 University of Texas Bulletin 


3. Brownish-black lignitiferous clay, interbedded witb 

medium grained brownish-gray sand, and wavy- 
bedded and laminated lignitiferous sand and clay. 
The alternations are frequent. The beds contain 
hard local aggregations of reddish-brown ferruginous 
sandstone. In the upper part is laminated brown- 
Ish-blaok lignitiferous clay, with some layers up to 
9-inches thick of dark brown lignitiferous sand con- 
taining patches of lignitiferous clay 6 

4. Medium-grained light gray sand weathering light yellow- 

ish-brown, with flakes of mica forming an almost 
perpendicular bank at 1 ow water stage 12 

Two hundred yards below the bluff 6 feet of chocolate-brown 
lignitiferous sand and shaly clay overlies 3 feet of coarse green- 
ish sand. In the upper portion of the coarse sand are thin cross- 
bedded layers of lignitiferous clay. Above the lignitiferous clay 
is 2 feet of post-Eocene ferruginous pebble conglomerate at the 
usual "spring line". Near the base of the chocolate-brown clay 
are numerous irregular-shaped clay ironstone concretions, none 
of which are larger than 1 foot in diameter. The beds dip to the 
southeastward at the rate of about 1 foot vertical to 50 feet hori- 
zontal, but this is perhaps not the absolute amount or direction 
of dip. 

The next exposures one-fourth mile lower down show the re- 
currence of hiarine conditions, the beds dipping 8% degrees 
South 4 degrees "West. Here six feet of chocolate brown sandy 
and shaly clay is overlain by very fossiliferous concretionary and 
oolitic greensand. 

One-fourth mile farther down the river, thin layers of oolitic 
greensand are interbedded and overlain by chocolate-brown sandy 
clay. The fauna carried by the greensand layers is of Cook's 
Mountain age. The chocolate-brown shaly clay carries irregular 
blotches of sulphur and limonite. About 20 feet of this clay 
overlies the fossiliferous greensand. The dip is southward. 
Lenses and poctets of greensand and small concretions are found 
in the clay. Ferruginous conglomerate is strewn along the banks. 
A well defined terrace on the west bank of the river marks the 
' ' spring line ' ' at the contact of the bedrock and surficial forma- 

TJie Geology of East Texas 71 

The fossils at these two last localities are very abundant and 
well preserved. 

A little less than two miles below the mouth of Bayou Negreet 
there begins a great oxbow bend in the river, deflecting it tem- 
porarily toward Columbus nearly two miles from its general 
southerly course. The beds forming the banks of this bend are 
very fossiliferous and Veateh has given the following sections 
of the exposures. He states^: 

"Along the east and west reaci above Columbus, on the Texas 
bank, there are a number of outcrops of very fossiliferous Lower 
Claiborne. At 21 a long shelf, ten feet high, shows the following 
section : 


1. Gray and yellow sands and clays 15 

2. Very dark gray fossiliferous laminated clay with lines of 

concretions. Contain a characteristic Lower Claiborne 
fauna. Among other forms Belosepia ungula, Turritella 
nasuta var. hou^tonia. davilithes pennosei, Cornulina 
aurmigera (small) 9 

3. Covered 3 

4. Very fossiliferous greensand. Many fossils silicified 2 

5. Finely laminated bluish gray sandy clay with traces of 

vegetable matter 6 

Dip here seems to be due south. 

A quarter of a mile below this outcrop, at 22, the following sec. 
tion is shown: 


1. Unexposed to top of bank 14 

2. Pebble conglomerate 2 

3. Laminated, dark brown clay and yellow sand, containing 

fossils irregularly through the whole mass. Anomia 
epMppoides is very common 23 

Dip a little west of south. 

The best collecting in the Lower Claiborne occurs at 23, two 
miles by river, above Columbus. 

Feet In. 

1. Gray and yellow sandy clay with small ferruginous 

gravel. Clayey portions weather into little pinnacles. .20 

2. Bluish gray laminated clay with sand partings and oc- 

'Geol. Sur. La. 1902, p. 129-130. 

72 University of Texas Bulletin 

casional patches of sand. Marked ledge of concre- 
tions in upper part of bed 11 

3. Dark green shell limestone weathering red. Contains 

many specimens of ArcavrTiomboidella 6 

4. Same as 2 but much more fossiliferous 4 

Dip southwest. 

The lower layer is filled with a great variety of beautifully pre- 
served Lower Claiborne forms. 

Columbus. The bluff at Columbus is much complicated with 
landslips and it is impossible to get a very satisfactory section. 
The following is from the best exposures: 


1. Fine gray sand, tinged with yellow 8 

2. Pebble conglomerate 2 

3. Drab clay with small concretions. 4 

4. Ledge of fossiliferous dark grey limestone with PUcatula 

fllamnentosa, PeCtunculus idonev^, Area rhomhoidella 1 

5. Light green, laminated, fossiliferous clay 20 

6. Light green, laminated, fossiliferous clay with large numbers 

of Ostrea Johnsoni, var. and 0. falciformis 4 

7. Ledge of calcareous concretions 1 

8. Same as .5 3 

Bluff so complicated with landslips that dip observations are un- 
satisfactory; dip seem to be south, a little east." 

The last fossiliferous exposure referred to the Marine by 
Veatch is found just where the oxbow is completed and the river 
resumes its normal southeasterly course. At this point the dip 
changes from West of South to Southeast and so continues. Only 
a short distance below, the beds referred to the Tegua (Cock- 
field) make their appearance with this same dip. It is, there- 
fore, probable that the beds at Veatch 's locality 24 are the basal 
Tegua rather than the uppermost Marine. 

The width of the surface exposure of the Marine where it is 
cut by the Sabine river is about four miles. The average dip of 
the beds throughout their exposures on the river is about S. 
20° W. 

Taken as a whole the pre-Yegua, Lower Claiborne section 
found on the Sabine river differs considerably from those farther 

The Queen City beds seem to be entirely wanting. 

The Geology of East Texas 73 

The Marine here begins with highly fossiliferous strata which 
give place below Bayou Negreet to lignitic beds with a small 
amount of iron in the form of carbonate nodules. This soon 
passes upward into other greensands and sands with many well 
preserved fossils and those form the bulk of the section. The Mt. 
Selman phase of beds marked by fossil casts "is not apparent, and 
except for the lignitic member below the middle of the section, 
the fossils are present in abundance from bottom to top. The 
iron contents are negligible, while five miles northwest, the hill 
at Irona gives a typical Mount Selman iron-bearing section. 

Going westward from the river we find on Low's creek some 
good exposures of the Lignitic beds capped by the greensands. 
At the lower wagon bridge the section shows : 

Carbonaceous clays and sands, most typically with thin leaves 
of brown, black, or dark-blue clay interbedded with 
medium-grained sands, brown or gray in color. Some 
of the sand layers are a foot or more in thickness. 

Sections higher up the creek show greensand marls overlain 
by chocolate brown sandy clay and greenish-brown clay with 
oolitic greensand and small calcareous concretions. These up- 
per beds contain fossils. 

The Wilcox- Claiborne contact is apparently shown on a small 
creek tributary to the Paloguacho on the Gaines survey. 

At the base are structureless drab clays, which are followed by 
glauconitic sands carrying some fossil casts and in turn overlain 
by laminated drab and chocolate colored sandy clays, carbona- 
ceous and gypsiferous, with partings of gray sand. In this mem- 
ber there occurred large concretions up to 3 feet in diameter of 
carbonate of iron, extremely hard and containing veins of calcite. 
Above this the deposits get rather more sandy and gypsum and 
pyrite occur abundantly, a dark blue color being imparted to the 
clayey sands. The thickness along the creek here is something 
like 30 feet. The dark blue sandy clays, which are probably 
Wilcox, are directly overlain by a layer of iron ore which forms 
the capping of several small hanging valleys and also seems to 
be the cause of a terrace which runs along some 20 feet above 
the creek. This is probably the base of the Queen City or of the 
Marine if the Queen City is not present. This was not deter- 

74 University of Texas Bulletin 

mined here. Nothing excepting boulders of iron ore and sands 
are exposed from here to the top of the hill some 135 feet above 
the blue clayey sand. 

The Irona iron deposit is located on the top of the Claiborne 
escarpment which rises immediately south of this creek to a 
height of more than 200 feet. A large part of the slope is talus 
strewn and the hill is covered with a dense forest growth of oak 
hickory, sweet-gum and short-leaf yellow pine. The section iJ> 
as follows: 

1. Loose sand. 

2. Iron 4 ft. max. 

3. Covered 135 ft. 

4. Laminated iron "ore" 

5. Dark green coarse, loose sand witli abundant small crystals 

6. Sandy light brown clay with flaky selenite and abundant 

small particles of lignitiferous matter; unconsoli- 
dated and structureless. 

7. Shaly light chocolate-brown sandy clayey with large 

roundish concretions of blue sphaerosiderite seamed 
with crystalline calcite. 

8. Loose, coarse sand, some grains of which are coated, 

probably with silicate of iron and potassium. Weath- 
ers dark greenish-brown and contains casts of Ven- 
ericardia, Oorbula, Leda, etc. On seams and cracks 
the color is dark reddish brown. 

9. Light gray sand clay. 


The section made along the Santa Fe Railway gives a more 
complete series of the T)eds. The Queen City is present at Duff, 
as has been stated. South of Duff the Mount Selman is first 
seen in the form of brown sands, in which thin beds of laminated 
ores are interstratified. Few exposures were seen between this . 
point and Bland Lake, where there occurs a loose sand of light 
buff color which is also found at Arenosa 10 miles northwest of 
San Augustine. This is practically the top of the Mount Selman 
in this section, as just south of it, the fossiliferous greensands 
begin, and these continue at the surface to a point between Mile 
Posts 118 and 117, some four miles south of San Augustine. 
South of this the exposures along the railroad are of the tran- 

The Geology of East Texas 75 

sitional clays and sands and are unsatisfactory, The final ap- 
pearance of Cook's ]\Iountain greensand is at Birdwell Siding 
one-third mile south of -Mile Post 109. This gives the Marine 
beds an exposure along this line of nineteen iniles. 

Baker says of this section : 

"There are four phases of the Lower Claiborne (exclusive of 
the Tegua) along this line of traverse. At the base are the 
Queen City beds, succeeded by the iron-bearing, generally un- 
fosiliferous Mount Selman sands and clays. Next in upward 
succession comes the member of fossiliferous greensand known 
as Cook's Mountain, overlain by the sands and clays of the 
Cook 's Mountain,Yegua transition, in which there are a few thin 
layers of greensand. The iron-bearing Mount Selman forms the 
dominating ridge." 


The details of the beds around San Augustine are of interest. 
The following is the section at Mile Post 121, G. C. & S. F. Ky. : 

1. Dark reddish-brown altered greensand with concretionary 
limonit'j, both in laminated and concentric forms. The 
iron in concretionary form is found mainly at the con- 
tact of the weathered a.nd unweathered greensand. Small 
calcareous concretions are rather abundant in the 
altered zone. Although these occur in the top of 
the less altered zone they are comparatively rare there, 
suggesting their possible origin from the gypsum of 
the unaltered greensands. 
This grades downward into: 

2 Greensand — green clay containing secondary selenite in crys- 
tals often as large as half an inch. Abundant dark green 
oolites; all smaller in diameter than the head of a pin, 
also small fakes of "clastic" selenite. The oolites in 
the weathered specimens are set in a whitish matrix, 
probably calcareous. The green clay is in very small 
balls and nodules which in unweathered specimens form 
a matrix for the oolites 10 ft. 

3. Light gray, fine grained, thin-bedded, sandy clay with 
small flakes of selenite and a minor percentage of 
oolitic greensand in small, very dark green concretions. 
Poorly preserved fossils 3 ft. 

The material taken from a well close at hand is a grayish-blue, 

76 University of Texas Bulletin 

rather light oolitic greensand clay with fossils. This represents 
less altered material than any mentioned in the foregoing sec- 

There is 15 feet of the clayey greensand exposed in a cut 200 
yards north of Mile Post 121. This exhibits various degrees of 
alteration. It has gypsum and calcareous concretions. The 
limonite is mainly distributed in thin, irrregularly-laminated 
layers runnng at various angles with the horizontal, but nearer 
the horizontal than the vertical. The greensand exhibits a very 
imper,fect shaly lamination. The superficial, unconsolidated, 
weathered product is dark brownish-green below, becoming a 
dark reddish-brown above. The gravel in the surficial layer is 
mainly composed of irregular angular pieces of ferruginous con- 

Section on creek joining Ayish Bayou just north of railroad 
station -. 

1. Greensand. 

2. Chocolate-brown clay withi thin flakes of selenite 7 ft. 

3. Greensand with thin local layers of iron ore 15 ft. 

Dodecahedrons and cubes of pyrite were found in the top of 
member No. 1 of the above section. 

At the falls on this creek member No. 1 is a dark green, very 
clayey greensand. The clay balls have a fibrous structure like 
slickensides. Member No. 2 is on the whole rather badly frac- 
tured and when wet has a bluish-green color. 

Detailed section at San Augustine from the top of the hill at 
Little Rock to the G. C. & S. F. Railway north of the station : 

1. Very ferruginous reddish-brown Lafayette locally with 

pebbles or with hard coarse sandstone cemented by limonite. 

Unconformity : 

2. Beach or reef bed of hard silicified and calcified greensand 

marl containing Gcutella, Ostrea, Pecten and large gas- 
teropods. This layer forms a ledge at the first Baptist 
Church, around the top of the circum-valley of White 
Rock and elsewhere on the top of the hill. Layer ap- 
pears to be almost entirely made up of comminuted 
shells 10 ft. 

TJie Geology of East Texas 77 

3. Altered greensand with local ferruginous layers 24 ft. 

4. Altered greensand with small calcareous nodules. Horn 

corals, yenericardia, Cortula, and other fossils 5 ft. 

5. Thinly and irregularly laminated ferruginous layers with 

interbedded greensand lenses. Two feet below the top is 

a thin, harder concretionary layer 7 ft. 

6. "Shelly" layered fossiliferous greensand with slickensides SVz ft. 

7. Thinly-laminated, shaly, chocolate-brown sandy clay, sul- 

phurous and limonitic, with thin black carbonaceous lenses, 
flakes of selenite, and crystals of pyrite. Clay, stickier 
and less sandy than lower, varying from light bluish-gray 
and light chocolate to rusty in color. Upper layer is fine 
and bluish-black in color like material seen in the well on 
the upper Nacogdoches road 5 miles west of San Augustine. 
At the contact of this clay with the overlying greensand 
are falls on all three creeks of this vicinity 9% ft. 

8., Thinly, and irregularly, laminated limonitic layers with 

small lenses of greensand 4 ft. 

9. Altered oolitic greensand clay, dark green below, dark brown 
above with Gortnla and Yenericardia. Has nodular 
limonite coated greensand clay ironstone ait base. Mas- 
sive, jointed, with slickensides common along joint planes, 
slickensides coated a dark purplish color 9 ft. 3 in. 

10. Layer of ferrufginous concretions, non-continuous, with con- 

centric structure of shells of iimonite around the outside 
with a. hard compact brown center, perhaps of iron car- 
bonate, dotted with oolites of greensand. Averages 
about 6 in. 

11. Altered clayey greensand like (9). Fosillferous 4 ft. 

These beds are exceedingly fossiliferotis and are notable for 
the number of echinoderms they contain in comparison with beds 
of similar age at other localities. 

The Cook's Mountain around San Augustine is unconforma- 
bly overlain by dark reddish-brown sandy and clayey alluvium 
containing many small angular fragments of iron oxide. Some 
of this is Lafayette, some is residual from Lafayette, and an- 
other portion is either residual from the Cook's Mountain or is 
recent alluvium. These accumulate to a thickness at least as 
great as 15 feet. The beds of the Cook's Mountain dip very 
slightly southward and have a total thickness of 100 feet or 

The road from San Augustine to Nacogdoches runs over the 

78 University of Texas Bulletin 

Cook's Mountain beds and there are numerous localities where 
fossils are found in abundance. 


The line of the Houston, East & West Texas Railway does not 
afford as good exposures of the Mount Selman and Cook's Moun- 
tain as are found either east or west of it. 

The contact of the Lignitic and Claiborne is near Fitze, the 
first station south of Garrison, where deep cuts on the ridge 
expose red cross-bedded sand with some ledges of ferruginous 
material. This does not appear to belong to the Queen City, but 
to the Mount Selman. 

A mile south of this the greensands come in and are seen in 
the cuts between that point and Nacogdoches. 

The scarp which usually marks the line between the Mount 
Selman and Cook's Mountain does not appear in this section and 
the section does not show any dividing line. 

In the lower lands, along the lower slopes of the hills, and in 
the stream valleys in the vicinity of Nacogdoches and south, east 
and west of that town the surface rock is f ossiliferous greensand 
marl. Where unaltered, the greensand marl shows various 
shades of green in color and contains an abudant fauna of gas- 
teropods, lamellibranchs, corals, echinoids, cephalopods, and 
shark's teeth. The shark's teeth belong to the genvis Sipiecodus. 
A single species of the eephalopod, Belosepia, was found at 
several localities. About seventy-five species were found in all, 
fifty of which were collected from one locality. Much of the 
fresh greensand has a finely oolitic texture. Ferruginous con- 
cretions occur abundantly in the greensand. Where unaltered 
these concretions are composed of sphaerosiderite. The iron in 
the greensand oxidizes readilj^, imparting to the altered green- 
sands various shades of brown and brownish-red. In the altered 
greensands the fossils are in the form of easts, but when the 
rock is fresh the original shells are preserved. Nodules of clay 
are locally abundant in the greensand member. The strata of 
this member are thinly bedded and locally vary much in degree 
of consolidation, the concretionary portions being very hard and 
compact while the greater part of the formation is comparatively 

The Geology of East Texas 79 


On Aaron's Hill, on El Camino del Rey, 200 yards west of 
Houston, East & West Texas Railway passenger station at Nae- 
ogdoehes, the following section is exposed: 

Nacogdoclies : 

1. Mottled sandy clay, brick-red to bluish-gray, weathers under 

grass roots to buff sand 6 % ft. 

2. Unconsolidated but finely laminated fine-grained sand, flesh 

colored to chocolate, unfossiliferous. Contains small ag- 
gregations of limonite, cross and wavy bedding very notice- 
able in upper part 17 ft. 3 in. 

Unconformity with difference of 3 feet in verticality along the irreg- 
ular line of contact. 

Cook's Mountain: 

3. Alternating layers of argillaceous sandstone and arenaceous 

clay (both are "greensand marl") thin bedded for most 
part. Weathers rusty brown in outcrop, greenish in color 
when fresh. Contains fossil casts and varies in degrees of 
compactness. Contains much material resembling oolite or 
rolled small clay balls varying in size up to 1-10 inch 
diameter 22 ft. 5 in. 

4. Dark drab, arenaceous, clayey greensand with abundant 

fossil casts, weathering to earthy-brown, and seamed by 
thin bands of earthy yellow limonite 2 ft. 8 in. 

5. Very friable light green greensand, weathering to brownish 

or reddish-brown 2 ft. 

6. Dark green arenaceous and clayey greensand, dark-purple 

in color, with fossil casts. Very oclitic 1 ft 6 in. 

7. Better indurated, dark green sandstone, alternating with pur- 

ple with much iron carbonate and many casts of shells 2 ft. 5 in. 

8. Dark bluish, clayey, greensand, thinly laminated and con- 

taining many fossil remains. 3 feet from base is a bed of 
oyster shells 2 inches thick. Alters to a reddish-brown 
ferruginous surface rock 6 % ft. 

At Orton's Hill on El Camino del Rey one mile east of the 
last described locality and jnst east of the wagon bridge over 
Lanana creek, the following is the section : 

1. Sand mottled in places, but mainly reddish-brown in color, 
with some cress-bedding. 35 feet above the base Is a layer 

80 University of Texas Bulletin 

of medium-coarse, and for the most part angular, con- 
glomerate with boulders up to 6-inches in diameter. The 
smaller particles are much better rounded than the larger. 
The pebbles are ferruginous sandstone. They may not all 
be detrital, but some may be concretions in the bed.... 45 ft. 

Cook's Mountain: 

2. Fine-grained sand, less consolidated than in (1), bluish-white 

when fresh; where altered, exhibiting various shades of 
yellow and brown, depending on the percentage and form 
of the iron contained. Upper 30 feet structureless, lower 
10 feet rather finely laminated 40 ft. 

3. Finely laminated, fine, unconsolidated sand, with nodules of 

clay, chocolate brown and greenish-gray to black in color. . 6 ft. 
4 Greensand marl, thin-bedded, friable, with abundant fossil 
casts, oolitic structure, with layers containing nodular 
iron. Mainly clayey, but with a minor amount of sand 
which increases in percentage towards the top. The least 
altered rock is a dark bluish-green, where most altered and 
nearest the surface it is rusty yellowish-brown 28 ft. 

There is no unconformity apparent in tlie Orton's Hill sec- 
tion, but the angular conglomerate in the upper member is 
noticeable. The above sections have been selected as typical. 
They also indicate that the clay and sand Eocene member is both 
conformable and unconformable on the underlying greensand 
and that there are layers of greensand containing characteristic 
fossils interbedded with the clay and sand Eocene member. In 
the harder ferruginous beds and nodules of this transition mem- 
ber casts of Claiborne fossils are found. Since no fossils or 
greensand have been found in this region in the lithologically 
very different lower Yegua, it is .judged most logical to group 
the sand and clay Eocene member in the Marine as an upper 
and shallower water phase. 

In places it rests on the Marine greensands with an irregular 
contact ; in other localities the member appears to rest with con- 
formity on the Marine. The sand and clay member exhibits 
much cross-bedding and frequent alternation of sand, clay, 
shale and gravel. The individual beds are not persistent, but 
notably lenticular. These structural characteristics and the 
relatively clastic composition of the deposits, point to a shallow- 
insr of the site of sedimentation after the epoch of greensand 

University of Texas Bulletin No. 1869 

Plate VI. 

Exposure on Aaron's Hill, near Nacogdoches. 

Westmoreland Bluff, Trinity County. 

The Geology of East Texas 81 

deposition and the coming on of littoral, estuarine and partly 
terrestrial conditions. This sand and clay member is considered, 
therefore, as distinct frrom the light-colored gypsiferous beds 
of the Yegua, although the sand and clay member is, in places, 
gypsiferous. It is regarded as a distinct lithologic unit, consti- 
tuting the end of a cycle of Marine deposition, and to distinguish 
it the name of Nacogdoches is suggested for it. The occurrences 
noted above are outliers capping the Cook's Mountain. 

The greensands of the Cook's Mountain are found to the 
south as far as Climax, where the transitional beds between the 
Cook's Mountain and Yegua begin. These Nacogdoches beds 
occupy nearly seven miles of the section passing under the more 
massive clays of the Yegua near Davidson. 

A cutting on the Houston, Bast & West Texas Railway 100 
feet north of Culvert 129A and 150 yards north of Mile Post 
128, 11/4 miles south of Climax siding, southern Nacogdoches 
county, is interesting. There are two unconformities shown in 
this one section, the one between the Nacogdoches and the 
partially consolidated post- Yegua surficial member and one in 
which the Lafayette overlies with marked discordance both the 
Nacogdoches and the post- Yegua partially consolidated surficial 

In the base of the section is exposed some 35 feet of Nacog- 
doches sands and clays thinly laminated, dipping 10 degrees to 
the southeast. The Nacogdoches is here mainly a thinly lam- 
inated medium-fine light gray sand carrying small broken flakes 
of selenite. The sand is interbedded with thin layers of blue- 
gray clay of a thickness of from 1/32 inch to 2 inches. There 
are also some layers of limonitie stained sands and sandstone 
varying in thickness from the neighborhood of 1/32 inch to 
about 8 inches. Some of these layers are cemented into a 
medium-hard sandstone by limonite. 

Among the plants collected from this locality,' Berry identified 
a new species of Citrophyllmn. 

The upturned edges of the tilted Nacogdoches sti-ata are 
bevelled off to a horizontal plane and unconformably overlain, 
by horizontally bedded red and light gray sands and sandy clay 
partially consolidated, which exhibit mottling in lenticular 

82 ■ Umversity of Texas Bulletin 

laj^ers rather than in the irregular blotches more characteristic 
of .the Lafayette. In composition it is mainly medium-grained 
sand with a considerable proportion of clay, containing 
tiny flakes of selenite. On freshly broken surfaces the 
color of the reddish portions is seen to be pink or old 
rose. About 10 feet of this member is exposed at the top 
of the cut. On the south this entire thickness is cut off 
by an angular unconformity, the plane of which dips a"bout 40° 
to the southward. The exact relationship of this member is 
not known. 

Overlying this plane of unconformity is uiicousolidated and 
structureless material which belongs to the Lafayette, varying 
in texture from medium-grained clayey sand through coarse 
grit to medium-coarse conglomerate; in color, from whole 
patches which are dark red or light gray, to irregular mottling 
in blotches of these two colors; in structure, from absolutely 
structureless to an imperfect sorting in layers of finer and 
coarser pebbles, the layers of which are not always horizontal, 
while the conglomerate exists in small to large irregular 
bunches ; in composition, from clay to quartz with some flakes of 
selenite, and to conglomerate mainly of subangular or rounded 
ferruginous pebbles with a few well-rounded quartz pebbles; 
and in induration, from loose unconsolidated sands to ferrugi- 
nous cemented, fairly hard conglomerate with most of the sand 
exhibiting on the surface a casehardening which gives it a 
noticeably solid appearance. Some of the material has very 
contorted laminae, thin layers of red and white being inter- 
spersed. Where it overlies the Nacogdoches next above the 
irregular contact, it includes small pieces of thinly-laminated 
Nacogdoches shales, with their bedding or lamination planes 
running in every direction and angle. 

The Nacogdoches beds are well shown in the exposures along 
streams flowing southward into the Angelina river in Nacog- 
doches county and in some of the river bluffs. They also appear 
in the lower reaches in the tributaries on the south side of the 

Atove the interbedded greensands, carbonaceous and gypsif- 
erous clays already described, the following beds were foand 

TTie Geology of East Texas 83 

in Durazno or Wills creek, whicli rises east of Lufkin and flows 
northward into the Angelina. 

Above the higher beds of greensand found on this creek 
comes, first, a structureless, massive sand weathering on the 
surface to a light buff, but underneath the surface of a light 
brownish-gray. The sand contains black and brown plant frag- 
ments and is at least 12 feet in thickness. 

Higher up the creek and higher stratigraphically the next 
rock exposed is fine sand, alternating in thin layers of dark 
brown and gray, about 1/16 inch in thickness and containing 
plant fragments. A thickness of 8 feet is exposed. 

The next exposure gives the following section : 

1. Laminated and shaly light brown sand. 

2. Light brown, massive, medium-fine sand 1ft. 

3. Sandy clay, light chocolat"? brown 1 2.3 ft- 

4. Laminated light gray-brown sand with thin non-continuous 

streaks of dark chocolate-brown. Blotches of yellow sul- 
phur. Plant fragments 1 % ft. 

5. Brown clay 2 in. 

6. Laminated brcwn layers limonite-stained and cemented .... 1 in. 

7. Light brown finely laminated fine sand with dark brown 

seams and plant fragments % ft. 

8. Very thinly laminated light grayish-blue fine sand containing 

thin layers of dark brown and chocolate-brown. Contains 
plant fragments, has wavy laminations, and weathers 
brown on surface 4 ft. 

The next higher exposure consists of : 

1. Drab laminated sand with limonite-stained seams 6 ft. 

2. Brown laminated sand with plant remains 3 ft. 

3. Chocolate-brown sand with black plant fragments and yellow 

blotches of sulphur. The upper foot gives way along 
bedding planes to dark Mue-gray sandy clay 2% ft. 

Above this then, is 5 feet of laminated, fine to medium, drab 
sand with thin seams stained brown with limonite and contain- 
inw selenite flakes and brown plant fragments. The sand con- 
tains a considerable proportion of clay. 

The next exposure shows 4 feet of gray to brown sand with 
yellow sulphur and brown plant remains, while the highest 
exposure examined in this creek gives 7 feet of. coarse loose 

84 University of Texas Bulletin 

sand, light gray when unweathered, but light yellow when 
weathered. The sand contain flakes of selenite up to 1/16 inch 
in long dimension. 

Similarly, on the west of the railroad a creek on the northern 
boundary of Angelina county, tributary to the Angelina river, 
gives the following sections going up-stream : 

Lowest section exposed gives : 

1 . Covered with surflclal material 15 ft. 

2. .Alternating layers of light-brown sand and light-gray sandy 

clay. The sand layers relatively and absoUuely increase 
in thickness toward the top until they are 2 to 3 inches 

in thickness 10 ft . 

.3. Gray medium-grained sand inter-bedded with thin layers 
of chocolate-brown clay and with thin layers of limonite. 
hardened sand. The percentage of clay gradually in- 
creases toward the top. Where the sand and clay come 
in contact the sand is stained brown with a thin film of 
limonite 10 ft. 

4. Chocolate-brown clay with small fragmentary remains 2 ft. 

5. Same as (3) but without hardened sand layers 22 ft. 

The bedding planes are wavy and the beds correspond very 
well with those overlying the f ossilif erous greensands at Aaron 's 
and Orton's hills, Nacogdoches. 

About 2 miles up-stream there is an exposure of 15 to 20 feet 
of thinly-bedded alternating sand and clay. At the base the clay 
is very dark brown, almost black, with very thin layers of gray 
sand separating the clay layers. In the middle portion of the 
section chocolate-brown clay predominates, while toward the top 
2 inch beds of chocolate-brown clay alternate with layers of the 
same thickness of light gray or light brown sand. The basal 
member here corresponds to the strata found at the base of Tre- 
wiek's Bluff, 21^ miles east of the Texas & New Orleans Railroad 
bridge across the Angelina river, and to the beds lying above the 
greensand on Orton's and Aaron's hills, Nacogdoches, and to 
those found on Procella and Mill creeks, respectively, northwest 
and northeast of Lufkin, Angelina county. 

One of the best sections of the upper Nacogdoches found is 
that of the next exposure about 100 yards up-stream from that 
last noted. There is here a perpendicular bank 60 feet in height. 

Tke Geology of East Texas 85 

The lower 40 feet is made up of thin alternating layers of light 
gray to light brown sand and chocolate-brown clay. The upper 
20 feet is mainly a light brownish buff loose sand. The laminated 
sand layers in the lower part of the section exhibit wavy laminae. 
The upper 20 feet is also thinly bedded, especially in its middle 
portion. The upper 20 feet differs in reality very little from the 
lower 40. It has a larger percentage of light brown sand an an 
occasional thin layer of chocolate clay. 

Mill creek north of Lufkin repeats the section even more in 

The lower horizon exposed on Mill creek has thin-bedded alter- 
nating sands and clays containing carbonized material at base 
and thin seams of very impure lignite. The dip is from 5 degrees 
to 7 degrees to the southward. The sand varies in color from 
gray-blue through brownish-gray to 'reddish-brown, depending on 
the amount and state of the contained iron. One exposure shows 
8 feet of finely laminated brownish-gray sands seamed with yel- 
low limonite stains and containing thin films and blotches of 
carbonized leaves. One hundred yards farther upstream thinly 
laminated, alternating dark brown clay and light brown sand 
layers are exposed. Fourteen feet above the base of the section 
is a layer varying from a knife edge to 6 inches in thickness, con- 
taining carbonized fragments of plant remains which are also 
found in the strata above and below. The individual layers are 
at the maximum not much more than an inch in thickness and 
most of them are about % inch thick. The beds lie practically 
horizontal and are cut by a normal fault of 10 inches vertical 

This is followed by a section giving 3 feet of blue-gray clay 
at the base succeeded by 6 feet of very carbonaceous brown sandy 
laminated clay, in turn succeeded by 3 feet of laminated fine 
sand stained with limonite and sulphur, and containing brown 
plant fragments. The brown clay middle member is in places 
so carbonaceous as to exhibit a very thin seam of brown coal. 

The next exposure shows at the base 2% feet of blue gray 
clayey sand, overlain by 8 feet of thinly laminated gray-brown 
crossbedded sand, having at base 4 feet of alternating laminated 
sand and layers containing thin bands of alternating sand and 
black carbonaceous matter from 2 to 6 inches in thickness and 

86 University of Texas Bulletin 

separated by layers of the laminated sand several times their 
own thickness. 

The next section has a thickness of 15 feet. The lower 3 feet 
is mainly chocolate-brown shale, but inter-bedded with thin sand 
layers. The upper 12 feet is mainly sand with streaks and 
blotches of brown carbonaceous matter. Above this, in next sec- 
tion, 12 ft. of light blue laminated sands containing brown 
blotches of carbonaceous matter. 

In upward succession in the next exposure comes 4 feet of 
soft, chocolate brown, loose sand with carbonaceous matter, and 
streaks and blo'tches of sulphur. It is overlain by 4 feet of light 
gray sticky clay. 

The next exposure upstream is probably the base of the Yegua. 

From the sections given it will be apparent that the marine 
conditions of the earlier Nacogdoches gave way slowly to the 
palustrine. The transition beds between the two formations 
show some alternation of conditions with, however, on the whole, 
a gradual shallowing of water at the site of deposition, passing 
from the typical marine conditions with the greensand. faeies 
through shallower water, lagunal, and estuarial conditions with 
the carbonaceous and lignitic sand and clay faeies into littoral 
or true terrestrial conditions in the light buffi gypsiferous sands 
and clays containing the great abundance of silieified wood. 

The exact line separating the Marine .from the Yegua is some- 
what difficult to draw on this account. We have drawn it here as 
at the type locality, where the more massive gypsiferous clays 
begin. Here these clays come in above the highest fossiliferous 
beds of the Nacogdoches (which contain remains of both marine 
animals and plants) and in place of the abundant marine fauna 
characterizing the typical Yegua we have found between the 
Sabine and Trinity only occasional nests of poorly preserved 


This was the line of Kennedy's section as published in the 
Third Annual Report of the Texas Geological Survey^. The 
Mount Selman section as given by him is as follows: 

"Third Ann. Rept. Geol. Sur. Tex., p. 53. 

The Geology of East Texas 87 

1. Gray surface sand : 10 ft. 

2. Brown sand, ferruginous pebbles and iron ore 15 ft. 

3. Mottled sand 10 ft. 

4. Brownish-yellow sand 4 ft. 

5. Brownish-yellow sandstone 10 ft. 

6. Alternate strata of laminated iron ore and brown sand, the 

ore generally from twO' to ten inches and the sand from 
one to twiO' feet thick 8 ft. 

7. Dark green sand containing casts of small bivalve shells.. 5ft. 

8. White clayey sand .' 1 ft. 

9. Dark green, nearly black, sand containing thin seams of fer- 

ruginous material near top, and also- containing small fish 
teeth and Venericardia planicosta and SpJiaerella antipro- 
ducta in very small numbers 12 ft. 

10. Brown sand • 10 ft. 

11. White sand 10 ft. 

12. Alternate strata of brown sand and laminated iron ore, ore 

generally wavy and not more than two to six inches with 
sand from one to two feet thick 20 ft. 

13. Pale-blue and brown clay mottled in places and laminated 

in others 15 ft. 

14. Alternate strata of glauconitic brown sand and iron ore, the 

ore generally irregularly deposited, laminated and silicious 
and not exceeding six inches to one foot, the sand from 
six inches to two feet thick 55 ft. 

15. Brown sand forming surface at Bullard, altered greensand 

changing to yellow a few feet underground 40 ft. 

16. Dark green sand containing a few fossil shells and flsh 

teeth 24 ft. 

17. Lignite or "black dirt" containing leaves 2 ft. 

18. Dark lignitic clay 5 ft. 

Nos. 17 and 18 of this section belong to the Lignitie beds. 

This is generalized from the many sections made between Bul- 
lard and Jacksonville and brings out in some measure the ex- 
tremely ferruginous character of this portion of the Marine. 
This is further shov?n in the section three miles north of Rusk, 
as given by Penrose^. This section also includes the lignitic 
member of the Mount Selman, which is apparently near the same 
position in the section as that seen on the Sabine river. At the 
top we have beds belonging to the Cook's Mountain series. The 
section is as follows : 

■ First Ann. Rept. Geo). Surv. Tex. p. 31. 

88 University of Texas Bulletin 

1. Gray and buff sands 8 ft. 

2. Hard brown sandstone 1 to 3 in. 

3. Brown resinous laminated hematite 1 to 3 ft. 

4. Altered fossiliferous greensand 30 ft. 

5. Gray clay, stained by iron in places 5 ft. 

6. Dark gray sand, with glauconite specks arid rusty pyrites, 

giving rise to many ferruginous springs 20 ft. 

7. Gray and chocolate clays, ferruginous in places 35 ft. 

8. Interbedded seams of gray and chocolate clay and fosslllfer- 

ons glauconite marl, sometimes indurated and partly 
altered; nodules and lenses of clay ironstone 40 ft. 

9. Gray clay, with seams of sand, and some clay ironstone. ... 5 ft. 

10. Interstratifled gray and chocolate clay 5 ft. 

11. Lignite 1 ft. 

12. Chocolate clay '. 1 to 1% ft. 

13. Lignite 1 ft 

14. Chocolate clay "ft. 

15. Interbedded chocolate clay and small seams of lignite, 1-8 to 

1-2 inch thick, at base of section. 

The upper portion of the Cook's Mountain is well shown in 
Kennedy's Alto section: 

This section embraces a series of greensands and altered glau- 
conitic sands and sandstones lying close to the top of the "Cook's 
Mountain" beds. The section combines the whole of the green- 
sand deposits from Alto, 8 or 10 miles eastward, to the edge of 
the Angelina river "bottom lands", and the whole, or the greater 
portion, of the section may also be taken as representative of the 
structure of the country from Alto southwestward to the Neches. 
The section shows: 

1. Gray sand 5 to 20 ft. 

2. Ferruginous sandstone 1 ft. 

3. Iron pyrites and lignite 1/, to 1 ft. 

4. Laminated iron ore and brown sand 10 to 15 ft. 

5. Brown and yellowish-brown altered glauconitic sand with 

streaks and nodules of calcareous matter and containing 
Terebra houstonia Harris, n. sp., Pleurotoma (Surcula) 
gaW Conrad, Ostrea sellaeformis, var. divaricata Lea, 
Pinna, sp., Trigonarca pulchra Gabb, P^eudoUva vetusta 
Con., Volutilithes petrosa Con., Latirus vvoorei Gabb, Cor- 
tula texana Harris, Corbula aldricM, var. smithvlllensis 
Harris, Dentalium minutistriatum Gabb, Venericardia 
planicosta Lam., Venericardia rotunda Lea, Glavilitfies 

The Geology of East Texas 89 

regexa Harris, n. sp., Plws texana Gabb var., Distortrix sep- 
temdentata Gabb, Solarium, acutum, var. meekanum Gabb, 
TerelieUum, Calyptrophorus velatus Con., Mesalia claibor- 
nensis Con., Anomia ephippioides Gabb, Cerithium vinctum 
Whitf., Pecten claibornensis Conrad, Pecten deshayesii Lea, 
PUcatula fllamentosa, Con., Cytherea texacola Harris, 
Crassatella texana Heilp., Turriteila nasuta Gabb, and 
many of these in profusion." 6 ft. 

6. Yellowish-brown and grayish-brown, often grayish-green, in- 

durated greensands containing most of the fossils found in 
No. 5 and an additional fauna of Pleurotoma (Drillia) 
nodocarinata Gabb, Yolutilithes petrosa var. indenta Con- 
rad, Cariceila sWbangulata var. cherokeensis Harris, Cas- 
sidaria hrevicostata Aid., Pholadomya claiiornensis Aid., 
Byssoarca cucuUoides Con., Martesia texana Harris, n. sp., 
Dentalium, minutistriatum var. dum'bjei, n. var., Natica 
newtonensis Aid., Natica limula var., Rimella texana, var. 
plana, new var., Cancellaria panones Harris, n. sp., Clavili- 
thes {Papillina) dumosa, var. trapaquara Harris, G. hume- 
rosa, var. texana Harris, Cassidaria irevicosta Aid., Turri- 
teila dutexta Harris, Scutella caput-sinensis Heilpr., and 
fish teeth ... > 20 ft. 

7. Greensands with casts of fossils 6 ft. 

8. Brown altered glauconitic sandstone with casts of fossils . . 30 ft. 

9. Greensand with fish teeth and Conns saniridens Con., 

Anonfvia ephippioides Gabb, Byssoarca cucuUoides Con., 
Trigonarca pulchra Gabb, Tolutilithes petrosa Con., Vol- 
utilithes precursor Dall, and others belonging to Nos. 
5 and 6 8 ft. 

These beds are at the surface until covered by the Nacogdoches 
some three miles north of Wells. The transition beds continue 
along this line to one mile south of Pollock, where the massive 
clays of the Yegua are found. 


The exposures along Trinity river and its tributaries west of 
the International & Great Northern Eailway are very numerous 
and characteristic. 

The Wilcox-Marine contat't crosses the river in the vieinitv 

'The lists of invertebrate fossils given in this and succeeding sections 
of the Claiborne are based on Harris' Mss. Catalogue of Tertiary Fos- 
sils made in 1893 and now at the University of Texas, and have not 
had the benefit cf his later revision. 


■90 University of Texas Bulletin 

of tlie north line of Leon county. A series of bluffs on ther east 
bank of the river give the following sections : 

Wooier's Bluff: — This bluff is on the Thompson headright 
about four miles above the mouth of Elkhart creek, and is prob- 
ably ten to twelve miles below the Wilcox-Marine contact. The 
Mount Selman beds are here found to be unfossiliferous, al- 
though the higher grounds lying some distance away from the 
river show brown sandstones and altered greensands with a few 
fossils. The section at the bluff appears to be more of a lignitic 
nature toward the base. 

1. Brown and yellowish-brown sand 10 to 15 ft. 

2. Clay ironstone 1 to 3 in. 

3. Dark gray micaceous clay, weathering brown on outside. .. .20 ft. 

4. Clay ironstone 1 to 2 in. 

5. Dark blue 'or bluish-black micaceous clayey sand 2 to 6 ft. 

Hall's Bluff: — On the Murehison headright just below mouth 
of Elkhart creek: 

1. Gravel and sand 25 to 30 ft. 

2. Fossiliferous sandstone containing Ostrea sellaeformis, var. 

divaricata Lea. CeritMum vinctum Whitf., and casts of 
others 4 ft. 

3. Red sandstone 10 ft. 

4. Yellowish-white sand 2 ft. 

5. Brown clay with gypsum crystals 6 in. 

6. Yellowish-white sand 5 ft. 

7. Irregular stratum of clay ironstone boulders 8 in. 

8. Dark greensand, weathering brown, containing fish teeth, 

but no invertebrates 6 ft. 

9. Brown sand 4 ft. 

Brookfield's Bluff :— A bluff a little south of west from Crock- 
ett, on the Brookfield headright, three miles below the mouth of 
Hurricane bayou: 

1. structureless greenish drab clays containing white calcareous 
nodules up to one inch in diameter. Contains 5 feet from 
base a 3-inch sandy layer that is packed with gasteropod 
and lamellibranch remains. Also near the top there is 
a layer of fossiliferous indurated greensand containing 
oysters, etc. This clay weathers out to brown and black 
soil and underlies the post-oak country encountered for 

TJie Geology of East Texas 91 

some ways back from the bluff on the road to Porter 

2. Concretionary limestone layer of yellow to buff color exhibit- 

ing the structure very well 1 ft. 

3. Structureless drab and yellowish brown clay 25 ft. 

4. Laminated chocolate shaly clays with intercalated layers of 

yellowish brown sand; contains at the top a 3-inch layer 

of concretionary clay ironstone 20 ft. 

5. Brown sandstone in heavy bed 10 ft. 

6. Clay ironstone 1 ft. 

7. Laminated dark blue sand and light gray clays with iron 

pyrites 8 ft. 

8. Lignite 2 in. 

9. Same as No. 7 5 ft. 

10. Thin seam of ferruginous sandstone 6 in. 

11. Same as No-. 7, getting darker in lower portion of the beds 

and covered with a yellowish efflorescence of sulphur. 
Water issuing from these beds is sulphurous and the 
springs show considerable quantities of hydrogen sulphide 
to level of river 15 ft. 

No. (1) is probably the lowest member of the Cook's Mountaiij 
and the fossiliferous beds beginning at this locality are mucli 
more prominent farther down the river. 

This would give the Mount Salman beds an outcrop on the river 
of at least twenty miles. 

The small amount of iron in these sections compared with 
those east is very noticeable. 

Alabama Bluff: — This bluff is about six miles below Brook- 
fields in an air-line. It was originally considered to mark the 
top of the Marine beds on the river, but we find overlying it 
a broad expanse of the Nacogdoches, so that it is now regarded 
as the top of the Cook's Mountain only: 

1. Fossiliferous greenish-blue clay 4 ft. 

2. Greensand altered to a brownish-yellow sand with thin 

strata of ferruginous material interstratified and contain- 
ing Tolvula conradiana Gabb, Conns sauridens Conrad, 
Pleurotoma (.Surcula) gabdi Con., PI. (Cochlespira) en- 
gonata Con., PI. {Swrcula) moorei Gabb, PI. (DrUHa) 
nodocarinata Gabb, PI. -sp., AnciUa {OUvula) staminea 
Con., Anomia epMppioides Gabb, PHcatula fllamentosa Con., 
Trigonaroa pulchra Gabb, T. coriuloides Con., Leda hous- 
tonio Harris PseudoUva vetusta Con. var., YolutiUthes pe- 

92 University of Texas Bulletin 

trosa Oon., Caricella demissa, var. texana Gabb, Turricula 
(Conow.itra) texana Harris, T. polita Gabb, Latirus moorei 
Gabb, Cortula alabamensis Lea, Gadulus subcoarcuatus 
Gabb, Fusus mortoni, var. mortoriopsis Gabb, Glavilithes 
penrosei Heilprin, Phos texana Gabb, Distortrix septemden- 
tata Gabb, Gassidaria planotecta Aid., Solarium tellastria- 
tum Con., Natica arata Gabb, N. limula Con., Mesalia clai- 
iornensls Con., Turritella nasuta Con., Spirorhis leptostoma 
Swain, TuriinoUa pharetra Lea 5 to 6 

3. Ferruginous sandstone with iron ore 1 to 2 

4. Green sand and ferruginous material same as No. 2, and 

containing same fossils with addition of Pleurotoma heiU 
priniana Harris, Ostrea sellaeformis, var. divaricata 
Lea, Pinna sp., Byssoarca cuculloides Con., Lapparia pac- 
tilis, var. moorea»KS Gabb, yenericardia planioosta Lam., 
Grasatella texana Harris, Cytherea texacola Harris, Glav- 
ilithes (PapilUno) dumosa, var. trapagtiara Harris Natica 
sp., Turritella nasuta var. houstonia Harris, Belosepia 
ungula Gabb, Eriphyla trapaquara Harris 4 ft. 

cook's mountain section 

Cook 's Mountain, a hill about two miles west of Crockett, rises 
460 feet above sea-level and shows a more or less precipitous face 
on every side. Its face, however, is marked by a series of 
benches, and Kennedy made the following section on the eastern 
side from Milam branch to top of mountain: 

1. Brown ferruginous sandstone with occasional casts of a 

small bivalve 10 ft. 

2. Yellow-colored cross-bedded altered glauconitic sand 40 ft. 

3. Brown sand and sandstone with occasional seams of fer- 

5. Iron ore 1 ft. 

6. Brown sand containing BuUmella kellogii Gabb, Terelira 

texagyra var. Harris, T. houstonia HaiTis, n. sp., Conus 
sauridens, Con., Pleurotoma (Surcula) gaiM Con., PI. 
(GocUlespira) engonata Con., PI. (Drillia) nodocarinata 
Gabb., PI. {Drillia) texana var. pleboides Harris, PI. {Maiir 
{jelia) infans var., PI. sp., lAncilla (Olivula) staminea 
Con., Ostrea alabamensis Lea., 0. sellaeformis var.' divari- 
cata Lea, Anomda epMppioides Gabb., Plicatula fllamentosa 
Con., Avicula sp.. Pinna sp., Pseudoliva vetusta Con. var.. 
yolutilithes petrosa Con., V. petrosa, var. indenta Con., y. 
precursor Dall var., Garicella sWb-angulata var. cTierofceen- 
sis Harris, Lapparia pactilis var. mooreana Gabb., Latirus 
moorei Gabb., Gornulina armigera Con., Gorhula alatamen- 

The Geology of East Texas ' 93 

sis Lea, Yenericwrdia planicosta, Lam., Gytherea texacola 
Harris, Glavilithes regexa Harris, n. sp., Phos texana Gabb. 
var., Distortrix septemdentata Gabb., Scala, Natica arata 
Gabb., N. limula var., Sigaretus decUvis Oon., Calyptrop- 
horus veiatus Con., Turritella nasuta var. houstonia, 
Harris, T. nasuta Gabb., Belosepia ungula Gabb., and the 
corals Occulina Heilpr., TurMnolia pharetra Lea., Trochos- 
milia mortoni Gabb and Horn, and Endopachys maclurii 
Lea. A number of fisb teeth also occur in this bed 15 ft. 

This description is amplified by Suman in his section along 
Navarro road from point in creek bottom, approximately one 
mile east of Cook's Mountain, to top of mountain, the creek bot- 
tom being about 160 feet below top of mountain : 

1. Creek bottom. Red sandy alluvial clay 7 ft. 

2. Light bluish gray or drab massive sticky clay containing 

aggregations of small gypsum crystals. Covered at sur- 
face by mottled dark red and light gray sandy clay 
until the upper 1 ft. containing gravel. Also contains 
one foot below the surface rounded concentric limonitic 
concretions up to 2 feet in diameter 8 ft. 

3. Dark purplish brown finely laminated clayey shale. Is gyp- 

siferous and carbonaceous. Contains partings of yellowish 
brown sand, and one sand layer 3-inches thick was noted. 
In one place there is a sand dike about four feet deep in 
the clayey shale 15 ft. 6 in. 

4. Mottled material. Maximum exposures of about 10 ft. along 

road. Is covered by ferruginous and quartzitic gravel 
along surface in places. Is mainly a mottled reddish 
brown and gray sandy clay 50 ft. 

5. Pine sand, gray when unweathered, but stained reddish on 

surface. Is cross-bedded and gypsiterous and contains 
layers of laminated gray shaly clay and laminated iron 
ore. Shaly clay layers are from few inches to 1 foot thick. 
The bedding planes are for the most part wavy, and len- 
ticular sand layers are noticeable. The sands are locally 
laminated with limcnitic layers and chocolate colored clay 
layers are to be noted. Ferruginous seams are notice- 
able along joint planes. The gypsum occurs as small 
flakes of selenite 1-32" in diameter and less. Mottled 
towaird top 26 ft. 3 in. 

6. Ferruginous dark red sandy clay. Contains some laminated 

gray and brown clayey layers 19 ft. 

7. About one half of this member consists of a coarse-grained, 

dark red, very ferruginous, slightly gypsiferous, friable 

94 University of Texas Bulletin 

sandstone. Concretionary and pisolitic ferruginous ma- 
terial in places witli warts up to 2 inches in diameter. 
These layers of sandstone are up to 1 foot in thickness, 
and are interbedded with a cross or wavy irregularly thin- 
bedded sandy clay which is alternately streaked gray and 
reddish brown in thin streaks. The sandstone which has 
a yellowish green or yellowish brown color when freshly 
broken forms the flat rocky surface of Coiok's Mountain. 
At the northwestern rim of the mountain a medium- 
grained, dark brown sandstone containing casts of 
lamellibranohs in abundance is found. It is massive but 
may, in all probability, be the equivalent of the member 

above described which occurs on the southern rim 35 ft. 

8. Covering the flat top of Cook's Mountain is a thin veneer 
of gravel made up of quartzose and granitic well rounded 
pebbles of even grain and averaging 1% inch in diameter. 

To the south of Cook's Mountain and Alabama bluff the 
Cook's Mountain beds are succeeded by the Nacogdoches, which 
extends along the river to the vicinity of Robbing Ferry east of 
the Leon-Madison county line, where it is finally overlain by the 

Prom beds of the Nacogdoches on Cane creek, five mUes south- 
west of Crockett, Berry identified the following species of plants: 

Cladasporites fasciculatus Berry 
Cuprusinoyglon dawsonl Penh. 

The last appearance of the fossiliferous Marine beds on the 
Trinity is near the mouth of Boggy creek in southeastern Leon 
and in northeastern Madison counties. 


Among the more noted fossil localities of the Cook's Moun- 
tain are those around Wheeloek in Robertson county. 

The fossils described by Gabb were obtained from Cedar 
creek near Wheeloek. In the list of species described by that 
writer we find Belosepia ungula Gabb, Mwex (Odontopolys) 
compsorhytis Gabb, Fusus mortonopsis Gabb, Neptunea entero- 
gramma Gabb, Pleurotoma, Turris kellogii Gabb, T. texana Gabb, 
T. retifera Gabb, T. nodocarinata Gabb, EucTieilodon reticulata 
Gabb, Scohinella, crassiplicata Gabb, S. leviplicata Gabb, Dis- 

TJie Geology of East Texas 95 

tortrix septemdentata Gabb, Phos texana Gabb, Psendoliva fusi- 
formis Con. mss., P. linosa Con., mss., P. carineta Con. mss., 
P. perspectiva Con. mss., Gastridium vetustum Con., Agaronia 
punctulifera Gabb, Fasciolaria moorei Gabb, Cymiiola texana 
Gabb, M^ra mooreana Gabb, M. erctMs Gabb, JBrafo semenoides 
Gabb, Neverita arata Gabb, Monoptygma crassiplica Con. mss., 
Architect onica meekana Gabb, Spirorbis leptostoma Swain, Tur- 
ritella nasuta Gabb, Dentalium minutistriatum Gabb, Ditrupa 
subcoarcuata Gabb, Bulla kellogii Gabb, Volvula conradiama 
G&hh,Corbula texana Gabb, Cibota mississippiensis Con., Anomia 
epMppioides Gabb^. 

The whole, or nearly the whole, of these species were obtained 
by the Texas Survey during the course of the work in that 
region, and several others have been added to the above list. 

The section shown on Cedar creek and in the immediate vi- 
cinity is as follows: 

1. Brown prairie sandy soil with occasional blocks or frag- . 

s ments of ferruginous sandstone containing great quantities 
of Plicatula filamentosa. Gabb, and SpirorMs leptostoma 
Swain • 5-15 ft. 

2. Brown altered greensand and clay 4 ft. 

3. Thin seam of ferruginous sandstone 1ft. 

Nos. 2 and 3 contain quite an extensive fauna comprising 
Actaeon punctatus Lea, Bulimella kellogii GaJbb, Terebra Jious- 
tonia n. sp., Harris, Conits suaridens Conrad, Pleurotoma {Sur- 
cula) gabbi Con., PI., PI — , PI. {Cochlespira) engonata Gabb, 
PI. bella Con., PI. (S'urcula) moorei var., Gabb, PI. {Drillia) 
nodocarinata Gabb, PI. terebriformis Mr., n. sp., Pi. {Drillia) 
texacona Harris, PI. (Borsonia) plenta Harris, Cancellaria tor- 
tiplica Con., Ancilla {Olivula) staminea Con., Pseudoliva ve- 
tusta, var. pica, P. vetusta Con., var. fusiformis Lea, Ostrea ala- 
bamensis Lea, 0. sellaeformis, var. divaricata Lea, Anomia eph- 
ippoides Gabb, Plicatula filamentosa Conrad-, Byssoarca cucul- 
loides Con., Trigonarca pulcJira Gabb, T. corbuloides Con., Nu- 
cula magnifica Con., Leda opulenta Con., Yoldia claibomensis 
Conrad, Marginella semen Lea, Volutilithes petrosa Con., V. pre- 

' Journal Acad, of Nat. Sci. of Phlla., Second Series, Vol. 4, pp. 
376-389 and plates 67 and 69. 

96 University of Texas Bulletin 

cursor Dall, V. dalli Harris, n. sp., Turricula polita GaJbb, Lat- 
ins moorei Gabb, Gornulina armigera Gabb, Petropsis conradi 
Dana, Corbula aldricM, var. smithvillensis HarriS; C. texana 
Gabb, C. alabamensis Lea, Dentalium minutistriatum Gabb, Deru- 
talium minutistriatum Gabb, var. dumblei, n. var., Venericardia 
planicosta Lam. Ci/therea tomadonis Harris, G. bastropensis 
Harris, Fusus mortoni var. mortonopsis Gabb, PJios texana Gabb, 
var., Distortrix septemdentata Gabb, Tuba antiquata, var. texana 
n. var., Solarium, scrobiculatum Con., S. vespertinMm Gabb, Natica 
arata Gabb, N. limula Con., N. semilunata, var. janthinops n. 
vax. Sigaretm inconstans Aid., S. declivis Con., Pyrula {Fusofi- 
cula) penita Con. var., Mesalia daibornensis Con., Turritella 
nasuta Gabb, T. dumblei flarri^ n. sp., Aturia near zic-zac. 
Belosepia ungula Gabb, Flabellum sp., Twrbinolia pharetra Lea 
and LunuUtes sp. 

4. Pale to purplish-pink clay found 200 yards farther down 

Cedar Creek than No. 3. Very few fossils found in this 
bed 4 to 6 ft. 

5. Dark grayish-green sand containing, in addition t O' the 

greater number of the fossils found in No. 2, the following: 
Pleurotoma childreni, var. Mtota Harris, Cancellaria pan- 
ones, var. junipera Harris, Cancellaria gemmata Con., Yol- 
utiUthes petrosa, var. indenta Con., Gadulus sui-coarcuatus 
Gabb, Ghrysodomus enterogramma Gabb and Solarium 
acutum, var. meehanum Gabb 

6. Green sand with laminae of clay containing nearly the same 

fauna as in Nos. 3 and o with Aotaeon punctatus Lea and 

PI. retifera Gabb\ additional 4 to 6 ft. 

7. Dark brown and purplish-brown sand and clay, laminated 

with fossils in sand, to bed of creek 2 ft. 

The next section west of this is on Campbell's Creek, near 
Dunn's ranch and about six miles west of Wheelock. This 
shows : 1 

1. Black soil 2 to 4 ft. 

2. Brown sand with calcareous material 4 to 8 ft. 

3. Ferruginous brown sandstone and sands, altered greensands 

with Conus sauridens Con., Pleurotoma iSurcula) gaWi 
Con., PI., (Drillia) nodocarinata Gabb, PI. (Borsonia) 

' Harris Mss. 

Tlie Geology of East Texas 97 

plenta Harris, Ancilla {OUvula) staminea Con., Ostrea 
sellaeformis, var. divaricata Lea, Anomia ephippioides 
Gabb, Nuoula magnifica Con., Pseudoliva vetusta Con., var., 
P. v&tusta, var. fusiformis Lea, Yolutilithes petrosa, var. 
indenta Oon., T. precursor Dall, Latirus moorei Gabb, Cor- 
iula texana Gabb, Venericardia planicosta Lam., Fusus 
mortoni, var. mortonopsis Gabb, Pftos iesawi Gabb, var. 
Distortrix septemdentata Gabb, Sigaretus decUvis Con., 
Mesalia claihomensis Con., Turritella nasuta Gabb, Twr- 
ritella, dum'blei Harris n. sp., Belosepia ungula Gabb 4 tt. 

4. Black laminated clay, enclosing Conus samridens Con., Pleu- 

rotoma (Surcula). galiiii Con., PI. phildreni, var. Mtota 
Harris, PI. {Drillia) nodooarinata Gabb, PJ. (Borsonia) 
plenta Harris, Ostrea sellaeformis var. divaricata Lea, 
Pseudoliva vetusta Con. var., Yolutilithes petrosa Con., 
Latirus moorei Gabb, venericardia planicosta Lam., Cy- 
therea tornadonis Harris, Chrysodonvus entero gramma 
Gabb and Natioa arata Gabb 2 ft. 

5. Indurated greensand with Occulina, Turhinolia pharetra and 

Endopacliys maclurei corals and in addition to the fossils 
found in No. 4 Ancilla ancillops Heilpr., Byssoarea cucul- 
loides Con., Pseudoliva vetusta var. fusiformis Lea, Volto- 
tilithes precursor Dall., Cornulina armigera Con., Goriula 
aldrichi, var. smithvillensis Harris, G. texana Gabb, Den- 
talium, minutistriatum Gabb, Fusus mortoni, var. morton- 
opsis Gabb, Phos texana Gabb, Distortrix septemdentata 
Nabb, Solarium scrotiiculatum Con., S. acutum, var. meck- 
anum Gabb, Pyrula (Fusoficula) texana Aid., Mesalia clai. 
tornensis Con., Turritella nasuita Gabbi 1ft. 

6. Laminated fossiliferous blue clay 10 ft. 

7. Alternate strata of yellowish sand and blue clay, clay 6-inches 

and sand from 4 to 8 inches thick 4 ft. 

8. Brown sand 1 % ft- 


The Brazos river section of the Marine begins two miles south 
of Calvert blufif, but the lower beds are largely obscured by the 
river deposits. 

A section at the International Eailway bridge across the 
Brazos river shows: 

' Harris Mss. 

98 University of Texas Bulletin 

1. Yellow sandy clay, with nodules of lime ,20 ft. 

2. Brown sandstone, interstratified witli brown sand 4 to 6 ft. 

3. Dark green, almost black, micaceous unfossiliferous sand.. 5ft. 

4. Thinly laminated dark green sand 6 ft. 

5. Irregular belt of ferruginous sandstone Vz to 1 ft. 

6. Dark green, almost black, sand, to water 3 ft. 

From this point to CoUard's Ferry the exposures are unsatis- 
factory and no fossiliferous beds were found. 

The blujff at CoUard's ferry extends nearly a mile along the 
river and is twenty to twenty-five feet high. The section is : 

1. Brown sand 10 ft. 

2. Indurated brown altered greensand 8 in. 

3. Brownish-green altered greensand 4 to 6 ft. 

4. Grayish-green sand 10 to 15 ft. 

Nos. . 3 and 4 of the section contain Pleurotoma (Surcula) 
gabbi Con., PI. childreni Lea, var. bitota Harris, Cancellari'a 
minuta Harris, Oliuella bonibylis, var. burlesonia Harris n. var., 
Ostrea sellaeformis var. divaricata Lea, Plicatula filamentosa 
Conrad, Pecen desJiaye'sii Lea, Pinna sp., Byssoarca cucullovdes 
Conrad, Leda opulenta Con., Pseudoliva vetusta Con., variety 
Volutilithes petrosa, var. indenta Con., Lapparia pactilis, var. 
mooreana Gabb, Latins moorei Gabb, Corbula aldrichi, var. 
smithvillensis Harris, Dentalium minutistiratum Gabb, D. min- 
utistriatwm, var. dumblei Harris n. Ya.r.,V enericardia rotunda 
Lea V. alticosta, var. perantiqua Con., V. planicosta Lam., Cy- 
therea sp., C. texacola Harris, C. bastropensis Harris, Clavilithes 
{Papillina) dumosa, var., trapaquara Harris, Fusus mortoni, 
ver. mortonopsis Gabb, Clavilithes penrosei Heilprin, C. hume- 
rosa, var. texana Harris, Pleurotoma (ClathureUa) fannae Har- 
ris, n. sp.. Solarium scrobiculatum Con., S. alveatum Con., Natica 
^emilunata, var. jantkinops Harris n. var., JV. newtonensis Aid., 
Sigaretus declivis Con., Pyrula {FusoflcuLa) penita Con. var. 
Bimella texana Harris, n. sp., R. texana, var. plana Harris n. 
var., CalyptropTiorus velatus Conrad, Turritella, sp., Belosepia 
ungula Gabb, TrocMta, sp. and coral Turbinolia pJiaretra Leo. 

5. Dark blue laminated clay .- 6 to 8 ft. 

6. Brown coal in river 4 ft_ 

The Geology of East Texas 99 

At Niblett's shoals, two miles and a half below. Collard's we 
find twelve to fourteen feet of lignitie shales, sands and lignites 
lying beneath twenty feet of river loam. 

Moseley's Ferry is an historic place in the Texas Tertiaries. 
It was visited by Dr. Ferdinand Roemer in 1847 and described 
in his book on Texas. He speaks of it as "consisting of alter- 
nate strata of brown ferruginous sandstones and of dark colored 
plastic clays, both teeming with fossils". The bluff here extends 
along the river a distance of about 1,500 feet and is from 25 to 
30 feet high. With the exception of the upper 15 feet of brown 
sand it is fossiliferous throughout. The fossils are very well 
preserved, exceedingly plentiful and easily obtained. The dip 
of the beds as shown in this bluff is between 50 and 55 feet per 
mile, but it may be said that throughout this region as well as 
other portions of the older Eocene reliable dips are very hard 
to oibtain. 

Section at Moseley's Ferry, Brazos River: 

1. Brownish yellow surface loam 15 ft. 

2. Thin stratum of fossiliferous iron ore in boulder form.... Bin. 

3. Blue laminated fossiliferous clay 3 ft. 

4. Fossiliferous iron ore, running under the river about 100 

yards below the ferry 2 ft. 

Nos. 2, 3 and 4 contain an extensive fauna, comprising Levi- 
fusus trabeatoides Harris, n. sp., Conus sauridens Con., in great 
numbers, Pleurotoma (Surcula) gabbi Con., PI. {Gochlespira) 
engonata Con., PI., (DrUUa) nodocarinata Gabb, PI. terehri- 
formis Mr., PI. (Borsonia) plentaHarris, Ostrea sellaeformis Yax. 
divaricata Lea, Anomia ephippioides Gabb, Byssoarca cuculloides 
Lea, Pseudoliva vetusta var. Yolutilifhes petrosa Con., Volutili- 
thes precursor Dall., Turricula polita Gabb, Latirm moorei Gabb, 
Corbida texana Gabb, Dentalium minutisMattim Gabb, Denta- 
lium minutistratum var. dumblei new variety, Venericardia 
planicosta Lam., Cyt-lveria texacola Harris, Cyfheria tornadonis 
Harris, Chrysodomus enterogramma Gabb, Phos texana Gabb, 
var., Distortrix septemdentafa Gabb, Tuba antiqiiata var., tex- 
ana new var.. Solarium acutum var. Meekanum Gabb, Sigaretus 
declivis Con., Mesalia daibornensis Con., Tivrritella nasuta Con., 

100 University of Texas Bulletin 

T. dumblei Harris, n. sp., Pyrula {Fusoficula) texana Aid., and 
several corals. 

5. Laminated fossiliferous blue clay containing Conus sauridens 

Con., Pleurotoma (Swrcula) galMi Con., PI. (Cochlespira) 
engonata Con., PI. {Borsonia) plenta Harris, PI. (Hurcula) 
moorei var. Levifusus trabeatoides Harris n. ap., Ancilla 
(OUvula) staminea Con., PseudoUva vetusta var., Voluti- 
lithes petrosa Con., Dentalium minutistriatum Gabb, Ven- 
erioardia planioosta Lam., Leda opulenta Con., Cytherea 
texacola Harris, Distortrix septemdentata Gabb, Mesalia 
claiiomensis Con., Turritella nasuta Fabb and Belosepia 
ungula Gabb 6 ft. 

6. Fossiliferous iron ore 2 ft. 

7. Altered fossiliferous greensand found at north end of bluff. 10 ft. 

8. Fossiliferous iron ore ^ ft. 

Nos. 6, 7 and 8 contain Conus sauridens Con., Pleuroioma 
iSurcula) gabbii Con., PZ. {Drillia) nodocarinata Gabb, PL {Bor- 
sonia) plenta Harris, Levifusns trabeatoides Harris n. sp., Ano- 
mia epiiippioides Gabb, PseudoUva vetusta Con. var., Latirus 
moorei Gabb, Venericardia planicosta Lam., Distortrix septem- 
dentata Gabb, Turritella dumblei Harris n. sp., Byssoarca cucul- 
loides Con., Solarium acutum, var., msekanum Gabb. 


9. Green sand, dark green near ferry, but altering to a brown 

near north end, and morging into No. 7, measuring at 
ferry 5 ft. 

This bed contains Conus sauridens Con., Pleurotoma {Sur- 
cida) gabbi Con., Ancilla (Olivida) staminea Con., Ostrea sellae- 
formis, var. divaricata Lea, Anomia epJiippioides Gabb, Pseudo- 
Uva vetusta, Con. var., P. vetusta, var. carinata Con., Peropsis 
conradi Dana, Corbula texana Gabb, Venericwrdia planicosta 
Lam., GytJierea texacola Harris, Fusus mortoni var. mortonopsis 
Gabb, Phos texana Gabb, var. Distortrix septemdentata Gabb, 
Turritella nasuta Gabb, and Tenuiscola trapaquara Harris n. 
sp.,^ Turbinolia pharHra Lea, Endopachys maclurei Lea and 
other corals. 

10. Thinly laminated blue clay, changing into brown near top, 
and weathering to a light blue toward the bottom; the 

' Harris Mss. 

The Geology of East Texas 101 

upper brown portion contains fossils similar to tbose in 
No. 9, and the lower blue contains occasional crystals of 
selenite 15 ft. 

11. Dark, almost black, fossiliferous sandy clay 10 ft. 

12. Thin seam of black clayey sand, jointed and stained brown 

along joints and on outside, apparently unfossiliferous. . 1ft. 

13. Same as No. 11, extending into river and forming a ledge in 

bottom of river 14 ft. 

Nos. 11 and 13 contain Pleurotoma childreni Lea, var. Mtota 
Harris, Yoldia claibomensis Aid., Pseudoliva vetustai Con., var. 
Tellina mooreana Gabb, Venericardia planicosta Lam., CytJierea 
Imtropensis Harris, Turritella nasuta Gabb. 

The contact of the Marine and Yegua is seen in a bluff on the 
Brazos river about 500 yards south of the mouth of the -Little 
Brazos, with the following section.^ 

1. Black soil 2 ft. 

2. Brown loam with limy concretions 25 ft. 

3. Fine brownish-yellow sand with occasional streaks or pockets 

of gravel 15 ft. 

4. Gravel, with rolled cretaceous shells 2 to 4 ft. 

Yegua Clays: 

5. Pale blue clay, unfossiliferous 5 ft. 

Marine beds: 

6. Dark greensand showing fossils in lower portion 2 to 5 ft. 

7. Dark colored laminated sandy clay containingTere&ra hous- 

tonia Harris; Levifusus irabeatoides Harris n. sp.; Pseu- 
doliva vetusta var.; Pseudoliva vetusta var. pica; P. ve- 
tusta, var. clausa; Trigonarca corl}Uloides; Con.; Pleuro- 
toma {Pleurotomella) guasites, Harris; Nucula magniflca, 
Con.; Leda opulenta, Con.; Latirus moorei, Gabb; Gorhula 
alaiamensis, Lea; Venericardia planicosta. Lam; Phos tex- 
ana, Gabb., var.; Natica arata, Gabb.; Natica semilunata, 
var. janthinops new var.; Sigaretus inconstans. Aid.; 
Yoldia aldricMana 4 ft. 

8. Ferruginous sandstones 8 in. 

9. Same as No. 7. 

In this section the gypseous clays are not seen nor do they 
appear anyvs^here in the river banks. This, however, may be 
expected as their position is obscured by broad, deep deposits 
of river alluvium which cover wide areas and form the bottom 
lands of the Brazos. East of the little Brazos these clays are 
found occupying their proper position at several places. 

•Fourth Annual Report Geol. Sur. of Texas, 1892. 

claibobne, continued: 



The lowest member of the Fayette beds o£ Penrose was a 
series of clays and lignites. Their inclusion in his Fayette was 
due to the fact that he found no marine fossils in them, and as 
he had made the final fossil-bearing beds of the Marine the top 
of his Timber Belt beds, these were excluded. When we found 
Claiborne fossils in this basal clay member it became necessary 
to separate it from the Fayette and the Tegua formation was 
institiited to include the series of gypseous and salif erous clays, 
sands and lignites overlying the Cook's Mountain greensands 
and underlying the Fayette white sands and clays. 


The original differentiation resulted from an examination 
made by the writer and party in 1892, starting from Giddings 
and going northeastward along Elm creek, a branch of the 
Yegua. This creek runs in a general northeasterly direction, 
which is about the strike of the formations in this vicinity, 
and thus the course of the creek very nearly coincides with the 
line of parting between the Cook's Mountain and overlying 
Yegua clays. 

Owing to the numerous twists and turns of the creek the two 
sets of beds are found first on one side of the stream and then 
on the other. In some localities nothing but Marine is seen, 
but within a few hundred feet the Yegua is the only series 
exposed. Under these conditions it is extremely difficult to 
give any idea of the thickness or dip of the beds. The general 
structure of the territory, however, appears to be : 

1. Thin scattering gravel in places. 

2. Thinly bedded and in places laminated sands and clays with 

'lignitic sands and thin streaks of lignitic material. 

3. Thinly stratified blue and brown clay weathering to a brownish 

The Geology of East Texas 103 

yellow, the layers from % to 2 inches thick. 

These beds show also in places laminated dark blue and 
pinkish colored clays carrying large blocks of selenite enclos- 
ing small fossil forms. 

4. Thin streaks of ferruginous material, probably originally 
carbonate of iron. This streak lies in the form of a pave- 
ment of kidney shaped or ellipsoidal flattened bowlders from 
one to three feet in length and from six inches to one 
foot In thickness. These bowlders are usually concentric 
in structure and break in thin layers, but in some portions 
toward the head of the creek into square blocks. A thin 
streak of ferruginous or altered glauconitic sand underlies 
this pavement and is generally associated with it. This 
sand is highly fossiliferous and the fossils are usually fairly 
well preserved. These appear to have a strong Claiborne 

6. Laminated dark almost black clay. This clay breaks up Into 
nodules or cuboidal blocks with rounded ends and carries a 
considerable fauna and also a small quantity of .selenite. 
The fauna is usually found in nests or a large number in one 
place, while a considerable portion of the clay is barren. 
The bed is jointed and broken in places appears to be faulted. 
The joints are usually within a few degrees of perpendicular 
and are filled with thin sheets or plates of selenite. These 
beds are broken by a thin streak of ferruginous material 
similar to No. 4. 
6. Pale bluish gray clay carrying fossils and gradually changing 
to a slightly altered glauconitic sand. 

This appears to be the lowest bed visible in this section and 
is thought to be the top of the Marine beds. 

Beginning near the head of the .creek and going eastward, or 
down the creek, the details of the section are as follows : 

On the northeastern corner of the Thornton Kuykendall Sur- 
vey the surface of the country is covered with a heavy deposit 
of chocolate colored clay carrying a considerable quantity of 
selenite crystals, and in the stream there appears a small ex- 
posure of hardened brownish, somewhat green-shaded, sand 
or soft sandstone carrying Anomia epMppoides and other Cook's 
Mountain fossils. 

The next exposure is about half a mile down the creek, where 
the section seen is as follows : 

1. Pale blue and brown clays weathering a brownish-yellow 

with nodules of iron ore at base 20 ft. 

104 University of Texas Bulletin 

2. Thin sheet of ferruginous sandstone with dark colored 

greenish to black sand carrying fossils (Loc. 206),. . 6 to 8 In. 
3. Thinly laminated dark-blue, almost black, clays with streaks 
of sulphur between the laminae. These clays carry 
fossils in nests, 15 ft. 

Coming down the creek to about a quarter of a mile west of 
Orell's Crossing the only deposits seen consisted of pale blue 
to brown clays carrying selenite. These do not appear to be 
more than ten to fifteen feet in thickness at exposure, but no- 
where could the base be seen until the locality heue mentioned 
was reached. The section (Loc. 205) seen at this place was: 

1. Surface soil, 1 % ft. 

2. Laminated or thinly stratified sands of a yellowish gray 

and brownish yellow color with strata from a half to 
two inches in thickness 8 ft. 

3. Laminated dark-blue and pinkish colored clays carrying 

large pieces of selenite. Occasional fossils, mostly 
UHstortrix septemdentata and Turritella are seen, but 
these are generally in a poor state of preservation, .... 6 ft. 

4. Thin streaks of ferruginous material lying in flat kidney 

shaped concretions with a half to one inch of fossiliferous 
sand on lower side 6 to 10 in. 

5. Laminated dark blue, almost black, clays, carrying fossils 

in nests. This clay breaks up into cuboidal blocks or 
nodules with rounded ends and the bed is joined with 
almost perpendicular joints filled with thin sheets of 
selenite. It also appears to be faulted in places 5 ft. 

6. Thin streaks of ferruginous material similar to No. 4 of 

above section, 6 in. to 1 ft. 

7.- Laminated clays similar to No. 5 to creek 4 ft. 

A peculiarity about the fauna found in this section is the 
smallness of the fossils and the dwarfed appearance of the 
Turriiella, Pleurotoma and VolutHitkes. 

A short distance below Orell's Crossing the blue clays carry- 
ing selenite, No. 3 of above section, appear and these form 
the only exposure seen until a short distance above Price's 
Crossing, where a small exposure of ferruginous sand was 
seen. At this locality (Loc. 84-K) a few small corals were ob- 
tained. Here and there the belt of ferruginous sandstone with 
fossiliferous sand occurs, but in most of the exposures the 

The Geology of East Texas 105 

fossils were poorly preserved or existed only in the form of 
casts. The material overlying these beds is chiefly brown fer- 
ruginous sand of recent age intermixed with scattering pockets 
of gravel. 

A short distance below Price's Crossing a section (Loc. 204) 
shows : 

1. Black soil, 1 to 2 ft. 

2. Thinly stratified blue and brown clay weathering to a 

yellowish brown, carrying considerable quantities of 
selenite and casts of fossils. These beds also carry a few 
badly decayed specimens of Distortrix septemdentata, and 
Turritella 15 ft. 

3. Ferruginous sandstone or kidney shaped bowlders of fer- 

ruginous material in a concentric form, 6 in. 

4. Altered fossiliferous greensand carrying a considerable 

fauna of Uower Caliborne fossils 4 in. 

5. Pale blue laminated clays carrying some fossils, to creek,. . 5 ft. 

The dip of these beds appears to be S. B. 6 degrees. 

A bend in the creek here brings the clays and ferruginous 
sands to the other side of the creek, but the general section 
remains the same. About 100 yards further down the creek 
the section is clearer and the greensand at base much thicker 
and carries a larger fauna with much better preserved fossils. 
The section (Loc. 203) at this place shows: 

1. Drift material, brown sand with gravel and flint pebbles. . 5 ft. 

2. Laminated blue clay with brown sandy streaks. This bed 

carries badly decomposed Distortrix septemdentata and 
Turritella 10 ft. 

3. Ferruginous sandstone in thin pavement and streaks 1 ft. 

4. Dark green slightly altered greensand carrying well pre- 

served fossils of Claiborne age, 2 ft. 

B. Heavy bed of ferruginous sandstbne bowlders, seen, 2 ft. 

The course of the creek at this place turns sharply towards 
the southeast and al)0ut five himdred yards, farther down the 
gypsum-bearing cla.ys are found overlying the fossiliferous 
blue clays unconformably. 

At Evergreen Crossing a bluff of about 30 feet shows lami- 
nated clays and sands with some show of sulphur near the base. 


106 University of Texas Bulletin 

Near the mouth of Elm creek on the Yegua river at Bluff 
crossing a section is as follows : 

1. Gray sand soil = 1 to 2 ft. 

2. Orange sandy loam, gravel on top or mixed in through it, 

some platy iron 5 to 8 ft. 

3. Chocolate clays interbedded and laminated 6 to 8 ft. 

4. Brown sand, micaceous, 1 to 1 ^ f t. 

5. Lignitic clays: chocolate brown to black, with sulphur, 

pyrites, mica and plant remains, Nucula magniftca, Phos 
and Gardita planicosta, etc 6 ft. 

The line between the Cook's Mountain and Yegua in this, 
the type locality, is drawn at the base of the massive selenite- 
bearing clays. The Yegua here, as shown by its fauna, is, be- 
yond question. Lower Caliborne in age, and apparently marks 
a shallowing of the Cook's Mountain seas and a much broader 
area of lignitic deposits than is seen during the Marine. 

From Elm creek the Yegua continues five or six miles south- 
eastward to the vicinity of Nail's creek, where it is overlain by 
the Fayette sands and joint clays. 


The original collections of fossils made from these beds were 
studied by Harris, who determined the following forms : 

Ostrea sellaeformis, Lea. 

Plicatula filamentosa, Con. 

Pinna sp. 

Pectunculus .idoneus, Con. 

Trigonarca pulchra. 

Nucula magnifica, Con. 

Leda opulenta. 

Leda houstonia, Har. 

Venericardia planicosta, Lam. 

Chama sp. 

Crassatella trapaquara, Har. 

0. antlstriata, Gabb.« 

Cytherea bastropensis, Har. 

Corbula alabamiensis, Lea. 

Dentalium minutistriatum var. 

dumblei, Har. 
Terebra texagyra var., Har. 

T. houstonia, Har. 

Conus sauridens. Con. 

Ringicula trapaquara, Har. 

Volvula minutissima, Gabb. 

Pleurotoma gabbi. Con. 

P. nodooarinata, Gabb. 

P. bitota var. Harris. 

P. texacona, Gabb. 

P. plenta, Har. 

P. crassiplicata, Gabb. 

P. reticulata, Gabb. 

Pleurotoma sp. 

Cancellaria gemmata, Con. 

C. tortiplica. Con. 

C. panones var. smithvillensis, Har. 

G. minuta, Har. 

Ancilla stamlnea, Con. 

The Geology of East Texas 107 

Pseudoliva vetusta, Con. S. scrobiculatum, Con. 

Volutillthes petrosa, Con. S. alveatum, Con. 

V. petrosa var. indenta, Con. S. acutum var. meekanum. 

Lapparia pactilis var mooreana, Natica arata, Gabb. 

Gabb. N. limula, Con. 

Turlcula polita, Gabb. N. semilunata var. janthinops, Har. 

Latirus moorei, Gabb. Natica sp. 

Fusus mortoni mortonopsis, Gabb. Pyrula texana, Aldrich. 

Pbos texana, Gabb. Triforis sp. 

Distortrix septemdentata, Gabb. Mesalia claibornensis. Con. 

Cassidaria planotecta, Aldrich. Turritella nasuta var. houstonia, 
Tuba antiqua var. texana, Har. Har. 

Solarium bellastriatum. Con. T. duxtexta var. Har. 

Vaughan lists the following corals from ciJllections made on 
this creek and the "West Yegua^ : 

Corals from Elm Creek. 

Plabellum cuneiforme var. pachypbyllum, Gabb & Horn. 
Turbinolia pharetra. Lea. 
Madracis sp. 
Endopacbys maclurii. Lea. 

From West Yegua. 

Balanophyllia irrorata var. mortoni, Gabb & Horn. 

In 1908 Kennedy and Garrett made further examinations 
along Elm Creek, from the report of which the foregoing de- 
scription was made. The collections furnish additional species, 
as follows : 

Flabellum cuneiforme Gabb and Anomia ephippioides. 

Horn Area sp. 

Turbinolia pharetra. Lea. Clavilithes penrosei, Har? 

Endopachys maclurii. Lea. Syrnola trapaquara, Har. 

Cadulus subcoarcuatus. Solarium huppertzi, Har. 

East of the Brazos few fossils are found in the Yegua*, but 
on the Rio Grande, where the series of beds referred to this 
formation are more sandy, fossils are very abundant. From the 
collections made at exposures of these beds in the banks of this 

•Vaughan, T. W. Eocene and Lower Oligocene Coral Faunas. 
U. S. G. S. Monograph 39, p. 28. 

108 University of Texas Bulletin 

river by Penrose and Durable^ between a point 10 miles south of 
Laredo and one four miles north of Zapata (Carrizo), where 
these beds are overlain by the Fayette, Harris determined the 
following f orms^ : 

Ostrea alabamensls. Lea. Volutilithes petrosus var. indenta, 

O. alabamensis var. divaricata, Har. 

Lea. Levifusus trabeatus, Con. var. 

Amomia ephipioides, Gabb. Lacinia alveata. Con. 

Venericardia planicosta. Lam. Cornulina armigera. Con. 

Cythera texacola, Heilp. Certhium sp. 

Tellina mooreana, Gabb. C. webbi, Har. 

Corbula alabamensis, Lea, Natica recurva var dumblii, Heilp. 

Conus sauridens, Oon. Turritella nasuta var. boustonia, 

Pleurotoma nodocarinata, Gabb. Har. 
Volutilithes petrosus. Con. 


The lignitie clays and sands of the Tegua are exposed over 
an extensive area between the Brazos and the Sabine. 

The belt has an average width of 12 miles. Its greatest 
width, 22 miles, is found along the Neches river, while on the 
Sabine it narrows to 5 miles. In dip it varies from 40 feet to 
the mile to more than 100, and has a thickness of 400 to 800 


The clays are laminated, thinly stratified, and massive in 
structure, and chocolate, dark blue, brovra, and gray in color. 
The eone-in-cone structure first noted on Atascosa creek in the 
Nueces section, is also found in the basal beds of tftis area. 
The sands and sandy iclays, which are sometimes micaceous, 
are brownish drab, buff and gray. They range from laminated 
to massive and are often cross-bedded. Laminated clays and 
sandy clays, sometimes leaf-bearing, frequently occur as 
lenses, pockets, and nodules in the sands, even when the latter 
are cross-bedded. Similarly, lenses of sand are found in the 
laminated, jointed clays. 

^Penrose, First Annual Report Geol. Snr. Tex. p. 
Dumble, E. T. Geology of Soutbwestern Texas. Trans. Am. Inst. 
Min. Eng., 102, p. 

The Geology of East Texas 109 

In the lower portion of the beds the clays seem to predomi- 
nate. The middle portion seems to carry the most lignitic 
matter, and the sands prevail in the upper beds. 

Both clays and sands weather to light colors, mostly yellow 
or dirty white, and some of the sandy clays show typical bad- 
land weathering. The topographic expression is generally flat. 

In the upper beds, referred to this formation by Baker and 
Suman, some of the sands have a poreelaneous cement, others 
limonitic, and still others contain streaks and balls of white 
clay having the appearance of porcelain. 

Lignitic material is abundant, disseminated through the beds 
in fragmentary form, as carbonaceous coatings, and in len- 
ticular beds; but only a few deposits of workable lignite are 
known to occur in the Yegua east of the line of the Interna- 
tional & Great Northern Railwaj^ in Houston county. 

Gypsum is very abundant. In the lower portion of the beds, 
where it predominates, it occurs as large masses of selenite of 
irregular form. Elsewhere it occurs as crystals of selenite, 
sometimes of large size, or as fragments intermingled with the 
sands and clays. 

One of the most unusual and characteristic features of the 
Tegua in this area is the quantity of clastic selenite which oc- 
curs. At times the particles of this mineral equal or exceed 
in amount the quartz grains in the sandstones. Saliferous 
strata also occur. 

The cannon-ball concretions of the Rio Grande are found 
here in abundance. While some of these are of spherical shape, 
as on that stream, many of the clay-ironstone concretions are 
in the form of flattened masses, some of them 2 to 3 feet in 
diameter. They are usually altered to limonite, and these 
limonite concretions and impregnations are characteristic of 
the beds east of the Trinity. Occasionally the limonitic con- 
cretions have streaks of calc-spar through them, but true cal- 
careous concretions are apparently absent. Silicified wood is 
plentiful as logs of large size and as fragments scattered 
through the formation from bottom to top, but none of it is 

Marine invertebrate fossils occur occasionally as poorly pre- 
served casts in connection with pockets or concretions of 

110 University of Texas Bulletin 

greensand marls. Fossil plants are found abundantly at many- 

The relation of the Yegua to the underlying Marine was dis- 
cussed in the description of the Nacogdoches beds which con- 
nect the two. 


On the Sabine river the outcrops of the Yegua are unim- 
portant: According to Veateh they are characterized by un- 
fossiliferous lignitic clays with large calcareous concretions and 
are the lithological counterparts of beds of the Lignite phase 
of the Wilcox. 

His only section is that of a bluff nearly four miles south- 
west of Columbus, which shows: 

1. Fine white sand, 2 ft. 

2. Dark gray to blue sandy clay with fine sand partings and 

occasional beds of yellow sand, in many places a foot 
thick. Contains many poor plant impressions and a 
few calcareous concretions, 28 ft. 

Dip S. 20° B. 1:20. 

A quarter of a mile south of the above outcrop, at Lawhorn's 
bluff, 26 feet of laminated sandy clay, containing many large 
calcareous concretions, is exposed. A bed of impure lignite, a 
foot thick^ occurs about three feet above low water-level. Dip 
S. E. 1:70. 

Three shelves of dark colored clay appear near water level 
between Lawhorn's bluff and Robinson's ferry. At one of 
these the bed is 6 feet thick and has the usual covering of light 
colored sands. 

Deussen, in his plat of section^ shows a series of clays or 
shales one-fourth mile below Robertson Ferry carrying such 
Yegua forms as Fleurotoma terebrifomiis, Marginella semen 
and Gorbulat oniscus. This is the uppermost bed of Yegua 
known on the river, as half a mile below it Veateh found the 
Jackson well exposed. 

^Water-Supply Paper 335, Plate W- 

The Geology of East Texas 111 


The exposures along the Santa Fe Railway are not very sat- 
isfactory. The last Cook's Mountaia was seen at Birdwell 
siding. A mile and a half south of Brunson there is an out- 
crop of lignite which is also found in wells drilled in the 
vicinity. Between Mile Posts 106 and 101 the interbedded clays 
and sands appear in the cuts. The contact with the Jackson is 
supposed to lie between Mile Posts 101 and 100. 


On the Texas & New Orleans Railroad the base of the Yegua 
is found in a cut about one mile south of Piatt. 

Near the base of this section there is exposed 5 feet of a 
chocolate-brown thinly laminated shale stained yellow with sul- 
phur. Next in upward succession comes 3 feet of light biiff or 
gray, cross-bedded, medium-coarse material, which has the tex- 
ture of sandstone, but is made up for the most part of angular 
fragments of platy selenite. It is much cross-bedded. In up- 
ward succession it is found that the selenite clastic is inter- 
bedded with light gray sandy shale containing many frag- 
ments of silicified wood. The materials of this formation 
weather mainly to a light creamy buff, although locally they 
are yellowish brown from limonite. The soils of the formation 
are either of a light buff color, or are grayish and brownish 
mottled, or rather uniformly reddish-brown. Strike N. 60° E. 
Dip 2° S. E. 

In the cuts to the south evidence of local folding was ob- 
tained, one small anticline being noted. 

The following section was noted south of Bridge 135-F: 

1. Chocolate colored, laminated shale 4 ft. 

2. Gray to brown gypsiferous sandstone, 2 ft. 

3. Drab and reddish-brown mottled clay, 3 ft. 

4. Drab colored, soft, clayey shale. Contains a layer of hard 

limonitic shale, 25 ft. 

South of Manton a thin-bedded sandy shale seemingly cal- 
careous and rather resistant to weathering is exposed in a few 

112 University of Texas Bulletin 

small lOuttings. It is of a gray to drab color. This same mate- 
rial was noted near Dunagan and here it is covered by about 
2 feet of a dark-gray sand, which carries much silicified wood 
in large fragments and a thin layer of gravel made up of 
rounded pebbles of quartz, jasper, and clay iron ore. 

Between Dunagan and Pluntington cuts expose thin-bedded 
gray gypsif erous clayey sandstone overlain by a gray sand which 
contains gravel lenses and many fragments of silicified wood. 
There is a brown limonite layer occurring in the thin-15edded 
material here that is fairly persistant. 


The upper portion of the Yegua section in this vicinity is 
shown along the St. Louis Southwestern Railway between Broad- 
dus and Monterey. 

Broaddus in San AugTistine county is located about the middle 
of, the Yegua section and the line runs southwestward to Monte- 
re^, where it strikes the contact of the Yegua and Jackson. 

Light brown laminated sands outcrop ^ mile southwest of 
Broaddus. These contain brownish carbonaceous fragments and 
thin plates of limonite-cemented sand. Silicified wood is abun- 
dant. These beds have a thickness of about 4 feet. They weather 
light greenish-gray and brown, and contain a variable percentage 
of clay. The brownish layers are in association with films of 

At the cut 200 yards south of Mile Post 668 and between that 
Mile Post and Broaddus station is the following section: 

1. Very light gray-brown sandy clay with thin non-con- 

tinuous films of limonite varying from 1-32 tloi 1-8 
inch in thickness, 4 ft. 

2. Light chocolate-brown carbonaceous clay, sandy, 4 in. 

3. Dark chocolate-brown carbonaceous clay 6 in. 

4. Light brown sand, 2 - 3 ft. 

The same section in general is found at Bridge 310, one-fourth 
mile south of Broaddus, where the very dark brown carbona- 
ceous shaly clay II/2 feet thick, is underlain by 2 feet of very 
light brown clayey sand fracturing into compact rectangular 

The Geology of East Texas 113 

blocks, and carrying plant fragments. A silicified log was found 
in place in the brown layer. In the lower sand thin plates of 
light gray indurated sandstone are found locally. Thin non- 
continuous layers of limonite are common and one long cylinder- 
shaped concretion made up of concentric layers of limonite- 
eemented sandstone was found in the lower clayey sand. 

A good section is found in a gully to the south of the north 
end of this bridge. Here the laminated, clayey sands are ex- 
posed for a thickness of 8 feet. The laminae are plainer and 
finer at the base, while above, the blocks fracture semi-conehoi- 
dally into irregular fragments. The color is light brown, and 
large, concentric limonitic concretions (2 or 3 feet in long 
dimension) are found. 

Under Bridge 309 there is about 5 feet of clay, light chocolate- 
brown at the base and light sulphur-yellow above. The clay con- 
tains in places thin, non-continuous, brown carbonaceous layers 
and little balls and lenses of sand. It is speckled and streaked 
with rusty limonite which also coats fracture pilanes. 

At Bridge 308 are streaks of yellow sulphur in the clays. 
Above are about 10 feet of light-brown case-hardened sands 
with streaks and blotches of yellow sulphur and brownish limo- 
nite. Thin, irregular and non-continuous contorted beds of 
more compact sand are scattered thz'ough the section. This 
passes into a partially "shelly" gypsiferous sandstone at the 

In the superficial layers overlying the clay in the next cut to 
the southward (Mile Post 666) are rough boulders of a ferru- 
ginous-cemented hard conglomerate made up of pebbles of 
quartz, chert, and silicified wood. This is the local representa- 
tive of a Lafayette ferruginous conglomerate which is wide- 
spread in southwestern San Augustine county, extending at 
least from north of the Marine outcrop as far south as the Cata- 
houla outcrop. The basal bed in this cut is shaly dark-drab 
sulphurous clay, 5-7 feet thick, and weathering a light yellow. 
The sulphur is in streaks, blotches, or small roundish concretions 
which are rough, sometimes mammillary, on the surface. The 
dip is 3° S. 15° W. (Mag.). The section is: 

114 University of Texas Bulletin 

1. Surficial Lafayette; light buflf to dark-brown, mottled, 

mainly sand, but with gravel and rough rounded 
bowlders ot ferruginous-cemented sand-matrixed con- 
glomerate, some of which are 6-8 inches in diameter, . . 4 ft. 

2. Light brown, medium-grained sand, speckled brown and 

whitish, laminated. Whitish grains, perhaps decom- 
posed gypsum, 3 ft. 

3. Fine light, gray-brown, clayey sand, impregnated with salt, 

making semi-badlands, imperfectly laminated through- 
out, but with better laminae at top. Top layers 
sulphurous 8 ft. 

4. Light drab clay, weathering dark, dirty-green, with con- 

cretions and thin, non-continuous lenses of clay iron- 
stone S ft. 

5. Brown medium-grained, gypsiferous sand with sulphur con- 

cretions, plant fragments, and limonite. Weathering 
into pinnacled semi-badlands, 10 ft. 

6. Gray-drab clay, weathering dark dirty green, with whitish 

concretions, . 2 - 4 ft. 

7. Layer with white rounded concretions, perhaps calcareous 2 in. 

8. Black to dark brown clay ironstone, amorphous, compact, 

with dendritic markings, probably of manganese dioxide. 
Iron in form of limonite 1 ft. 1% in. 

9. Clay like (6), but without concretions, 2 ft. 

10. Clay ironstone like ( 8 ) 1 ft. 2 % in. 

11. Clay like (9) 3% ft. 

12. Thin-bedded, shaly limonite-stained clay...... 2 in. 

13. Brown limonite-stained clayey sand; at top consisting of 

thin bands of dark-green clay, alternating with sand. 
Contains thin bands of dark-brown ferruginous sand- 
stone 2 ft 

14. Shaly, dark-drab, sulphurous clay, weathering light 

yellow, 7 ft. 

The two top members of the Yegna section are approximately 
horizontal. The dip varies from 3° to 0° within 300 yards, go- 
ing southward. 

In the small cut just to the south of the one last described, 
there is 6 feet of Tegua which either belongs on top of No. 2 of 
the last section, or else grades into Nos. 2 and 3 horizontally. 
The lower 3 feet is rather massive, laminated sand, alternating 
layers of light-buff to brown, succeeded above by 6-inches of 
very dark-brown carbonaceous shale, overlain by 3-inches of 
whitish to brownish-yellow laminated clay, with 3 feet of dart- 

TJie Geology of East Texas 115 

brown clay on top. There is a small anticline in the central 
portion of the outcrop of the carbonaceous layers and the entire 
length of the cut forms a low anticline which includes the 
email one. At the south end of the cut No. 2 of this section 
comes down below the track level for its entire thickness of 3 
feet. It is here more indurated than in the last section, but the 
induration is irregular and produces a rather "shelly" appear- 

The southern limb of the anticline probably brings these strata 
below Bridge 307, where there is 6 to 8 feet of brown and gray, 
laminated, soft sands under a 6-inch carbonaceous brown shale, 
overlain by 2 feet of brown, shaly clays, capped with 6 feet of 
light drab, laminated sand. Sulphur is found just above the 
carbonaceous layer. 

The cut at M^ile Post 665 shows 4 feet of light brown, sandy 
clay with limonitie concretions, weathering light buff. There is 
some sulphur, especially in juxtaposition with the concretions. 

At the cut 200 yards south of Bridge 304 and 400 yards south 
of Mile Post 665 there is at the base 3 feet of light brown sulphur 
and limonite-blotched sand passing upwards into 3 feet of car- 
bonaceous, brown clay, weathering dark reddish-brown. 

In the cut 200 yards south of Mile Post 664, at the north end, 
is 4 feet of the dirty green clay with white nodules. The un- 
weathered portion is lighter green, or light grayish-brown. As 
the dip is northward, this clay ovei'lies the beds farther south, 
which are light green, clayey sand, at least 10 feet thick. Small 
balls and lenses of light-gray sandstone are found. These clayey 
sands weather very gray and are approximately horizontal at 
the south end of the cut. 

In the cut at Mile Post 663 the dip is 11/2° S. 45° W., but 
somewhat variable. The section here is : 

1. Light gray clay, weathering dirty green, with large, dark 

brown, lenticular ironstone concretions coated on 
fracture planes with black oxide of manganese, 5 ft. 

2. Light, greenish and grayish, sandy clay with irregularly 

distributed brown plant fragments 10 in. 

3. Dark brown carbonaceous clay 2 in. 

4. Light green sticky clay, 4 in. 

6. Light gray, medium-grained sand, with clastic gypsum 

116 University of Texas Bulletin 

flakes. The lamination is imperfect, but is apparent 
from local, thin, indurated layers of sand. Weathers 
into semi-badlands, 6 ft. 

Some of the concretions in the upper member are 20 feet in 

Two hundred yards southeast of Mile Post 663, with its top 
6 feet below the track level, is 6 feet of loose sand varying in 
color from light buff to light yellowish-brown, depending on 
amount of iron present. The sand weathers into semi-ibadlands 
with rain-erosion monuments from 1 to 2 inches in heaight. At 
this locality is a small prairie 4 or 5 acres in extent and having 
a small "saline" on its western border. 

The Lafayette has a thickness of 7 feet at Warsaw. The long 
trestle over the Attoyac and Angelina just above their junction 
is over % mile in length. No terraces are to be seen in this flood 
plain, although there are several flood-channels cut into the 
general bottom level. Both banks of the flood-plain are com- 
posed of red and gray Lafayette sands and both rise gradually 
to 25 or 30 feet above the general level of the flood-plain. A 
very flat country begins to the west of the Angelina river and 
continues westward across Angelina and Trinity counties, under- 
lain in part by the Yegua and in part by the Jackson clays. 

Light gray sands, succeeded above by 8 feet of brown, car- 
bonaceous sandy clay, varying in color, on account of the 
amount of carbon present, from light chocolate to nearly black, 
is found in the flrst cut west of Mile Post 659. The light sandy 
layers break with a semi-eonchoidal fracture and contain plant 
fragments. Unconformably overlying the brown clay, is 4 feet 
of light gray, friable, cross-bedded sandstone, hardening along 
joints. This sandstone is composed of coarse, subangular grains 
of quartz, grains of the same size and contour of a light colored 
mineral and some black chert. It contains streaks and balls of 
a white clay-like substance which gives the appearance of porce- 
lain. It contains pebbles or emulsion balls of white clay and its 
contact with the underlying clays forms a line of small springs. 
It is probably the base of the Jackson at this point. The maxi- 
mum thickness is 6 to 7 feet, 4 feet being an average. Its basal 
2 inches, in the middle of the cut, is partially quartzitic. 

The Geology of East Texas 117 

Although, in the east of the cut, its contact with the underlying 
Tegua runs as a plane surface for 300 yards, to the west, it 
occupies an erosion channel in the Yegua clays and is much 
more cross-bedded. Cross-bedding and contorted bedding is 
very common in the middle of the cut. 

Three hundred yards east of Monterey and 200 yards east of 
the west end of the cut, is a lens of light-brown clay coming in 
between two cross-bedded layers and dipping eastward. The 
general color of the cross-bedded material is very light gray. At 
one place it is overlain by shaly porcelaneous sandstone re- 
sembling the Jackson. 


The Houston, East & "West Texas Railway is somewhat barren 
of good exposures but from the divide near Lufkin there are 
creeks running northward into the Angelina and southward 
into the Neches which parallel the line of road and these give 
better views of the formation. 

East of Lufkin, where the Angelina and Neches river railroad 
crosses Durasno creek, we find an exposure which has at the base 
a layer mainly composed of clay ironstone concretions from 2 
to 5 feet in diameter and from 4-inches to a foot in thickness. 
The material of these gray concretions is very fine-grained and 
is well compacted into an amorphous mass of hard rock. In 
color it is a light greenish-gray in the interior, but the outside is 
covered with a 1,4 inch film of brown or reddish limonite stain. 
Some of the concretions have good cone-in-cone structure. This 
concretionary layer- is overlain by 6 feet of thinly laminated 
light gray sandy clay shale. 

This is near the base of the Yegua and lithologically is similar 
to the basal beds on Elm creek. 

The next exposure in upward succession shows 4 feet of choco- 
late-brown, carbonaceous shale, with medium-grained, limonite- 
stained sand at the base. Higher up, an exposure gives 6 feet 
of light gray sand, fine-grained and thinly laminated, with filmy 
partings of brown carbonaceous matter. The highest exposure 
on the creek exhibits 3 feet of dark chocolate-brown, thinly- 
laminated clay shale. 

118 University of Texas Bulletin 

From the head of Durasno creek we cross the divide between 
the Angelina and the Neches and seven miles south of Lufkin 
find the headwaters of Bear creek, a tributary of the Neches 
river, which flows in a general southerly direction and gives 
other sections of the upper Yegua. 

The highest exposure on this creek shows 2% feet of brown 
friable sandstone containing flakes of selenite. The bedding is 
not very conspicuous and the beds are of medium thickness. The 
rock is irregularly stained with limonite and contains small cl ay 

The next section below has, at the base, one foot of blue, fine- 
grained sand, streaked with yellowish-brown limonite stain, 
overlain by 3 feet of thinly-bedded, brown clayey sand carrying 
brown plant fragments. The limonite seams have sometimes the 
form of slender cylinders. Where these cross each other on the 
surface they weather out into figures resembling the fillings of 
the cracks in sun-cracked muds. The limonite-stained layers are 
locally hard enough, because of their iron-stained content, to 
be called sandstone. This 4-f t member outcrops in its full thick- 
ness for a considerable distance along the stream. It is a friable, 
thin, and irregular-bedded sandstone, predominantly brown in 
color, but mottled with little contrasting shades of brown. The 
color is due to carbonaceous material or limonite, or to local 
leaching. In texture it is fine to medium-grained angular sand. 
Flakes of selenite are found sparingly. Locally, a thin non- 
continuous lens of brown carbonaceous clay or sand is noted. 
Much of it is stained and seamed with yellowish irregular 
blotches, probably of sulphur or alum. All of it carries plant 
fragments of a dark chocolate-brown color: 

Farther down comes in 3 feet of thinly laminated chocolate 
brown clay with numerous leaf impressions. The clay is very 
soft and friable. It is underlain by 1 ft. 3 inches of thinly 
laminated, gray, carbonaceous, fine-grained sand, which has 
small non-continuous layers of brown carbonaceous matter and 
abundant plant fragments, sometimes carbonized, but generally 

The next exposure exhibits the following section : 

The Geology of East Texas ' 119 

1. Light drab to chocolate clayey sand, carbonaceous and 

gypsiferous, 4 ft. 

2. Very carbonaceous, fine, soft clay with streaks of sandy 

clay, and many leaf impressions 1 ft. 

3. Chocolate-brown to greenish-gray, gypsifer.ous and car- 

bonaceous clayey sand and sandy clay, 1 ft. 6 in. 

Farther down is 7 feet of fine-grained sand, brownish-cream to 
light chocolate-brown in color, containing sparsely distributed 
selenite flakes. The lowest 3 feet is more massive than the upper 
portion, which is more leached than the lower beds and weathers 
a lighter cream color. This member outcrops for about a mile 
along the creek. In places 10 feet of it is exposed in nearly per- 
pendicular banks, weathering creamy-buff. Underneath the 
surface the sand is a light blue-gray. 

Next is 4 feet of thin-bedded, laminated, carbonaceous, brown 
and drab clayey sand with plant fragments, weathering light 

The lowest beds downstream are soft, fine, light-gray sand, 
gypsiferous and carbonaceous, exhibiting more or less lamina- 

These sections bring out plainly the sandy character of the 
upper beds of the Yegua. A short distance south the fossilif- 
erous clays of the Jackson appear. 


The sections exposed along the Texas Southeastern and 
Groveton, Lufkin & Northern railroads between Lufkin and 
Apple Springs give a fair idea of this portion of the Tegua. In 
the first cut west of the junction of this road with the St. Louis 
Southwestern Eailroad at least one-half mile east of Mile Post 
15 and near Lufkin, are the following beds : 

At the east end of the cut is 2 feet of chocolate clay weath- 
ering on the surface to light-gray. This disappears 100 feet 
farther west, where the overlying surficial sands come down to 
meet it in a line diagonal to the bedding. At the very base of 
this lower member is a light sulphur-yellow, compact clay very 
similar to that noted in exposures in the lower reaches of 

120 University of Texas Bulletin 

Procella creek. "Westward in the same cut the section is made 
up entirely of Lafayette material, and, at the extreme west end, 
a maximum of 3 feet of T)lue-gray sandy clay is unconform- 
ably overlain by this Lafaj'ette. 

One-fourth mile west of Mile Post 1&, and 8 feet below the 
track-level, there is at the base 2 feet of light-gray, medium- 
grained sand, weathering buff. Immediately to the west is 2 
feet of brown to drab clay, apparently "underlying the sand. 
Here are large fragments of silicified wood. Some of the. clay 
is compact, brittle, light-gray, and probably calcareous. There 
is 4 feet of this clay in the southwestern portion of the cut. 
■ At cut one-fourth mile east of Mile Post 14 there is 4 feet 
of thin-bedded, compact sandstone, very light-gray in color. 
Most of it is a medium-coarse grit with a large proportion of 
eroded crystals of selenite. In some of the sand there are 
small clay balls less than one-third inch in diameter. 

The cut at Mile Post 14 shows 4 feet of cross-bedded and 
laminated sand with clastic selenite and sandy clay overlain 
by 7 feet of amorphous, mottled dark-blue-gray and red clayey 
sand of the Lafayette. There is much petrified wood here. 

At the second cut one-half mile southwest of Mile Post 14 
there is at the base ten feet of typical light-gray, contorted 
and cross-bedded sands, overlain unconformably by 5 feet of 
mottled sandy clay of the Lafayette. The lowest beds, as 
usual, contain petrified wood. The sand, in places, is thin- 
bedded, in other places, massive. In induration, it varies from 
quite compact to very friable. Some of it has elastic selenite 
and quite a large proportion of clay. 

The long cut at Mile Post 12 exposes 10 feet of thin-bedded 
or shaly sand with thin-bedded lenses of clay ironstone, the 
largest of which are 5 to 6 feet in diameter. At the west end 
of the cut, near the base, two small layers of thin-bedded fer- 
ruginous sandstone are separated by 1 foot of cross-bedded 
laminated sand. 

Directly west of Mile Post 12 the following section is ex- 
posed, beginning 10 feet below the track level: 

1. Gray surface sandy soil with humus, 4 ft. 

2. Light sulphur-yellow laminated sandy clay 4 in. 

The Geology of East Texas 121 

3. Thinly laminated, cross-tedded, medium.grained, light 

brownisli-gray, lenticular sands, 6 ft. 1 in. 

4. Blue sandy clay , 6 in 

5. Sand like (3), 6 in. 

6. Shaly clay, 3 in. 

7. Sand like (3), but containing ttiin seams of brown carbo- 

nous matter 2 ft. 

8. Thinly laminated sandy, blue-gray clay 3 in. 

9. Sand like (3), (5) and (7) 1 ft. 

All members weather buff. All the sands are cross-bedded 
and, locally, vary in thickness. The strata are apparently 
horizontal. In one place thin seams and lenses of brown 
limonite sandstone were noted. There is much petrified wood. 

In cut just west of Pery flag station and section house 2 
feet of light-gray clayey sand with just a faint tinge of green 
is overlain by 2 feet of sticky, gray-blue clay with roundish 
clay ironstone concretions. Overlying is 18 inches of Lafa- 
yette mottled clay. 

One hundred feet west of Bridge 2.87 and 20 feet below the 
rail,, there is at the base 10 feet of laminated, light-blue clay 
with small spherical ironstone concretions up to a foot in dia- 
meter. These beds weather as typical liadlands, forming light 
buff colored, sharp gully and rounded knob exposures. Over- 
lying them .ire 10 feet of very thinly laminated light brown 
shales, limonite-stained and carrying seams of brown carbo- 
naceous matter, and becoming sandier toward the top. Then 
come, in upward succession, 2 feet of very dark-brown choco- 
late, carbonaceous, thinly laminated shales, followed above by 
6-inches of compact, sulphur-yellow clay with carbonaceous 
matter, overlain by surficial rounded pebbles of granite, quartz, 
chert, and metamorphic rocks. Two hundred and fifty yards 
farther west the dip is 40° S. to 60° "W. and there is exposed 
about 20 feet of thin-bedded, carbonaceous sandy clay, weath- 
ering buff. 

In the long cut one mile east of Blix is exposed about i5 
feet of thin-bedded, sandy shale carrying very thin seams of 
sulphur-yellow color and of limonite. On surface exposures 
the color is light buff. There is considerable cross-bedding and 
much silieified wood. 


122 University of Texas Bulletin 

Just south of Vair the cut at Mile Post 21 exposes 5 feet of 
dark drab to chocolate-brown carbonaceous shale. 

At a cut 20-1-2 miles from Groveton there is at the base 3 
feet of light-gr.ay, laminated clay with layers about 1-16 inch 
thick of linionite-stained hard clay. Above is a 6-inch layer of 
brown carbonaceous clay, overlain by 4 feet of clay similar to 
that at the liase. Fragments of silicified wood are found in 
thfi clay. 

Then, to the westward, begins a series of light gray sandy 
clays which weather into badland forms very light buff in 
color. In these clays are nodules and disc-like concretions of 
clay ironstone and fragments of silicified wood. 

Eighteen and three-quarter miles from Groveton, a cut ex- 
poses 3 feet of light brown, laminated clay, overlain by 2 1-2 
feet of soft, medium-grained, gray sandstone. The clay 
is gypsiferous. The dip is 3° to the northeast. 

About 150 yards northeast the rock is mainly gray sand in- 
terbedded with very thin clay seams. The sand, which is 
mottled in many places, is more massive and predominant at 
the top. There is 6 feet of this probable Lafayette surfieial 

For 1% miles northeast of Apple Springs cream-colored 
clays containing fragments of silicified wood and weathering 
into semi-badlands form the surface exposures, but, not over 4 
feet are found in any one section. There is in these beds a 
considerable amount of iron occurring as disc-shaped concre- 
tions and in thin layers. These are the top of the Tegua beds 
in this traverse. 

This section, beginning not far from the base of the last, 
runs southwest instead of south. Apparently the middle por- 
tion of the section is more sandy than was found east of the 
Attoyac, and the upper portion carries large quantities of silic- 
ified wood and flattened cannon ball concretions which were 
not observed there. 


The Cook's Mountain-Tegua contact crosses the Interna- 
tional & Great Northern Railway about half way between Mile 

The Geology of East Texas 123 

Posts 41 .and 42, or 3^^ miles south of Crockett. Here the 
light colored gypsif erous clay of the Tegua is seen for thei first 
time in this section. 

One-fourth mile north of Mile Post 42 is 4 feet of Yegua 
dark-gray sticky clay, weathering cream-colored and crack- 
ing on surface. Here are petrified logs, the largest of which is 
1% feet in diameter. 

The cut one-fifth mile north of Mile Post 44 (just north of 
Cut siding) exposes 10 feet of Tegua coarse sand. The quartz 
grains are subangular and the sand contains grains of clastic 
selenite. There are also fragments of silicified wood. The 
whole exposure is lightly mottled. The original color of the 
sand is buff or cream. Now it is colored in blotches and 
patches with light brick-red. There are a few angular frag- 
ments of black material, perhaps chert. Some of the wood 
contains veinl'ets and botryoidal incrustations of hyalite. 

Prom these localities Prof. Berry had determined the follow- 
ing species of wood: 

I. & G. N. Ry. Cut. Between Crockett and Lovelady: 

Lower Yegua 

Other Gulf States. 

Phoenicites occidentalis Berry 

Dryophyllum n. sp. 


Myristlca catahoulensis Berry 

Cedrela n. sp. 


Mespilodaphne n. sp. 


Nectandra n. sp. 


Nectandra n. var. 

Nyssa n. sp. 


Carpolithus n. sp. 

Prom here to Wooters Station (one-fourth mile west of the 
coal mine and just south of Mile Post 48) the topography is 
typically flat Yegua. Some small exposures of Yegua clay 
weathering light yellow are seen. The cut at Mile Post 48 and 
south of there to Wooters Station shows 20 feet of Yegua drab 
sandy, partially laminated clay, weathering cream-colored and 
containing thin flakes and concretions of limonitic-cemented 
material. Petrified wood is found here in abundance. 

A specimen collected at "Wooters was sent Prof. Berry who 
identified it as Cupressinoxylon dawsoni Penh. 

124 University of Texas Bulletin 

Tegua light drab clay with limonitie plates and concretions 
is found underlying the extensive flat at Lovelady and also 
between Mile Posts 53 and 54. Fragments of silicified wood 
are found in .all these exposures. The flat surfaces are cov- 
ered with a plentiful sprinkling of Lafayette-derived gravel 
. similar to that about Huntington and elsewhere in Angelina 
county. These gravels probably once occupied a higher eleva- 
tion than they do at present, but their position has been suc- 
cessively lowered by the erosion of the more easily transported 
materials under them, leaving them as a more or less permanent 
surface capping in a region of low relief and consequently of 
streams with low powers of transportation. 

Between Mile Posts 53 and 54 a large portion of the material 
exposed is medium-grained, gypseous sand stained yellow 
locally, perhaps with sulphur. Just north of Mile Post 54 the 
drab clay contains thin plates of very light gray opaline-ce- 
mented sandstone. Between Mile Post 54 and 55 coarse 
Bands, sometimes partially consolidated, contain flakes of clas- 
tic selenite. 

Overlying this the Jackson is first encountered to the south 
of Mile Post 55 as thin, irregular and shelly-bedded, friable, 
creamy and buff sandstone. 

Nevil's Prairie, which lies southwest of Lovelady, is under- 
lain by the beds of the upper Yegua which, in this vicinity, 
carry great quantities of silicified wood and numerous limoni- 
tie concretions. At the southeast margin of the prairie on 
Cedar creek is five feet of chocolate imperfectly laminated 
jointed clay with a few small lenses of sand, overlain by lami- 
nated grayish sand. Three-fourths mile downstream from the 
last mentioned exposure on Cedar creek is the following sec- 

1. Brown carbonaceous shaly clay, locally li^itlc 2 ft. 

2. Greenish-drab sticky ball joint clay with leaves 1 ft. 

3. Poor quality brown lignite 1ft. 

4. Brown carbonaceous clay 

From these localities Berry identified the following forms : 

The Geology of East Texas 


Near Antioch, 4 miles southwest of Lovelady. 

Upper Yegua. Other Gulf States. 
Anemia eocenica Berry Wilcox 

Mimosites georgianus Berry Claiborne Jackson 

Cupanites n. sp. Claiborne 

Sapindus georgiana Berry Claiborne Jackson 

Sapindus formosa Berry Wilcox Claiborne 

Laurlnoxylon n. sp. Claiborne 

N evil's Prairie, 5 to 1 miles sowfhwest of Lovelady. 

Upper Yegua. 

Arundo pseudogoepperti Berry 
Lygodium kaulfussi Heer 
Momisia americana Berry 
Ficus n. sp. 
Inga n. sp. 

Mimosites georgianus Berry 
Sophora wilcoxiana Berry Wilcox 
Citrophyllum n. sp. 
Sapindus georgiana Berry 
Sapindus formosa Berry Wilcox 
Sterculia n. sp. 
Persea n. sp 
Oreodaphne n. sp. 
Mespilodaphne n. sp. 
Nectandra n. sp. 
Apocynophyllum n. sp. 

Other Gulf States. 

Claiborne Jackson 

Claiborne Jackson 

Claiborne Jackson 

Claiborne Jackson 


Claiborne Jackson 
Claiborne Jackson 
Claiborne Jackson 
Claiborne Jackson 


On the Trinity river the exposures referred to the Yegua 
extend from Robbins Ferry, northwest of the mouth of Kel- 
lison creek, to Calhoun's Ferry, just south of the line between 
Houston and Walker countie.s. The width of the beds at this 
point is about eleven miles and along the river there are bluffs 
that give excellent exposures of the formation. 

It will be seen from these sections that with the exception 
of the very top, the beds are much more argillaceous than in 
the Neehes basin and that they carry beds of lignite of work- 
able thickness and quality. This condition continues to the 

Kennedy placed the contact at Alabama bluff, several miles 
up the river, where the first selenitic clays are seen, but Baker 
and Suman decided that this was part of the Nacogdoches or 

126 • University of Texas Bulletin 

transition beds between the Cook's Mountain and the Yegua 
and placed the line at the base of the more massive clays which 
are unfossiliferous. 

No exposures were found below the final appearance of the 
Nacogdoches just above Robbins Ferry and the mouth of Kel- 
lison creek, where the following section occurs: 

1. Blue gray, clayey sand with a few small calcium carbonate 
cemented sandstone concretions; structureless, change 
in color to lighter shades as top is approached. Top 
5-10 feet is a reddish brown color 20 25 ft. 

2. Dark blue-gray, very sandy, muscovitic joint clay, with 

small lignitic lenses and black carbonaceous plant 
fragments and clay ironstone concretions. Imperfectly 
laminated, 15 ft. 

3. Cross-bedded sand, carrying lumps of clay and with erosion 

unconformity between it and underlying clay which is 
believed to be local. Sands, medium^-grained, light 
greenish-gray in color, containing a number of lignitized 
wood fragments and at top a thin layer of limonitic 
sandstone, 3 ft. 

4. Clay like (2). Upper 2 feet sandier than lower portion, 8-10 ft. 

Spring creek, or Spring branch, enters the Trinity river be- 
tween Kellison creek and Westmoreland Bluff. It has steep, 
deep, and narrow, gully-like banks cut in the present river 
flood plain. The main creek and its branches have sent arms 
with cuspidate margins up into the second bottom terrace. The 
lowest exposure forms a falls. The section here is: 

1. Grayish-brown, sandy, terrace alluvium, with the calcareous 

nodules characteristic of the terrace alluvium in this 

2. Br(Oiwnish-black to brown, carbonaceous, shaly clay. At 

least 1.5 ft. 

3. Lignite, good quality, hard, firm, of dull lustre. (In all 

probability the same bed as that exposed in Westmoreland 
Bluff) 4.5 ft. 

4. Gray drab sticky clay 1.5 ft. 

"Westmoreland Bluff is four miles west of the tovm of 
Weldon. The section is as follows : 

1. Mottled; grayish and rusty, river alluvium with the usual 
ferruginous cemented gravel layer at the base. Very 

The Geology of East Texas 127 

sandy and gravelly. Has calcareous concretions and 
_ represents the second bottom of tlie Trinity River 

2. Carbonaceous, black, finely laminated shale, locally 
lignite, with petrified logs, one of which measured three 
feet in diameter, 3 ft. 

S. Blackish carbonaceous shale with small selenite crystals, 
thinly laminated. Much of it dark.brown in color. 
Greenish-drab, sticky, laminated clay. This member is 
represented at the east or upper end of the bluff by 
25 feet of sandy clays, interbedded with dark, car- 
bonaceous shales. The clays are mainly light drab in 
color. At one place were found in situ the lignitized 
roots of a tree. Between the east and west ends of the 
bluff this horizon is occupied by a very much cross- 
bedded, laminated, iron-stained and concretionary, brown 
sand containing large trunks of trees and lenses of clay. 
The large petrified logs are black in color and silicifled, 
in places changed to finely fibrous brown calcite. The 
outer surfaces of the logs are rough and ribbed as if they 
had undergone partial decay .before being buried. The 
concretions are mostly flat disks or imperfect, sometimes 
tuberous, and "cannon balls". They are composed of 
fibrous calcite and iron carbonate 7 25 ft,. 

4. Grayish-brown, interbedded sands and clays. One foot 

of bluish-black carbonaceous sandy clay in middle of 
lower sand member. Upper three feet yellowish-brown 
clay, 16 ft. 

5. Black and brown, carbonaceous clayey sand with small 

black leaf fragments 9 in. 

6. Laminated, dark-brown sand 1 ft, 

7. Greenish-drab, compact, sticky clay, 6 In. 

8. Chooolate-brown, thinly laminated, carbonaceous shale.... 1ft. 

9. Lignite. Middle of bed compact, hard, of dull lustre, and 

good quality. Top and bottom badly checked and slaked 
by weathering. Covered with water at overflow 
stages 3 1-2 - 5 ft. 

10. Dark drab, fine clay, fracturing into small fragments. 

Unctuous and polished on fracture surfaces, 2 ft. 

11. Sand, more compact, laminated, brown in color, with 

small crystals of selenite. Lower one foot with greenish- 
blue cast. Stained rusty with limonite along lamination 
planes and, locally, yellowish with sulphur 5 ft. 

12. Unconsolidated, fine-grained, dark gray, micaceous sand. .4.5 ft 

The two upper shoals at the bluff are made by the lignite bed, 
which lies at low water level. At the southern or lower end of 
the bluff the coal bed forms a low broad anticline with its 

128 University of Texas Bulletin 

shorter axis in an east-west direction, in which direction it out- 
crops above low water level for about four or five hundred 
yards. On both limbs where it dips below the low water level 
it forms a shoal. 

Lying above (2) farther upstream is plastic slaty gray clay, 
above which is loose, coarse to medium-grained gray and 
brown loose porous sand in which are limonitic concretions. 
There are balls and lenses of blue clay in the lower portion of 
the sand with their longer axes arranged as various angles 
with the horizontal, indicating local unconformity and erosion 
of underlying clay before the deposition of the sand, similar 
to conditions at the lower plane of the cross-bedded sand layer 
in Westmoreland Bluff. 

The following section is shown at Hyde or Spanish Bluff on 
the Trinity river. The elevation of the second bottom terrace 
surface is here 30 feet above the first bottom surface. At the 
lower end of the bluff there is at the base 4 feet of greenish, 
micaceous, fine clayey sand, carrying lignitized logs, above this, 
seams of lignite interbedded with grayish sand, and at the top 
1 foot of drab joint clay. The section at the main bluff is : 

1. Reddish-brown, loose, loamy sand of the second bottom 

with fossil Vnios. 


2. Dirty green, fine, micaceous sand, very imperfectly lami- 

nated, locally brown with carbonaceous matter, more 
laminated and jointed in the lower 6 feet, where it is 
brown, carbonaceous and more clayey 15 ft. 

3. Impure lignite, 1.5 ft. 

4. Lignite, very irregular In thickness 2 ft. 

A section at the lower end of Pine Bluff, Trinity river, one 
mile below the mouth of Negro creek, follows : 

1. Alluvium with calcareous nodules, light gray at base, but 

brown above 15 20 ft. 

2. Ferruginous-cemented Lafayette-derived conglomerate 

with casts of Unias 3 ft. 

Unconformity, involving and bevelling beds (8) to (3). 

3. Greenish-gray sandy joint clay, 3 ft. 

The Geology of East Texas 129 

4. Lignite, very irregular in thickness, 2. ft. 

5. Lignite, very irregular in thickness 2 ft. 

6. Gray, laminated, cross-bedded, fine sands with thin, inter- 

bedded layers of dark gray clay 3 ft. 

7. Dark gray sandy Joint clay with fragments of lignitized 

logs 1 - 2 ft. 

8. Compact, laminated, dark gray-brown, fine sand, 

lenticular, % - 1 ft. 

9. Clay like (7) 1 1-3 ft. 

10. Sand like (8) 1 1-3 ft. 

11. Lignite, lenticular, soon pinching out 1 ft. 

12. Lignitiferous shaly clay, brownish and black 1 ft. 

1.3. Laminated, fine-grained, gray to brown sand, very car- 
bonaceous, with knife edge, thin, alternating, dark gray 

and black layers, 4 ft. _ 

The beds dip 2 degrees N. E. at the north end of the bluff. 

There is another bluff about three-quarters of a mile down- 
stream from Pine Bluff on the Madison county side. Here there 
is about 25 feet of Yegua, cross and wavy-bedded, laminated 
gray sand, with interbedded layers and pockets of drab joint 
clay. It is overlain by light brown, sandy alluviiim, with a 
surficial black sand layer. Three-fourths of a mile farther 
downstream, also on the Madison county side, is .a second bluff, 
having exposed at its base 10 feet of Yegua, gray, laminated, 
clayey sand, dipping about 30 to the east. Above is 20 feet of 
yellow, sandy, .alluvial clay: One mile farther downstream, on 
the Madison county side, is a third bluff with 10-15 feet of 
laminated, light-gray, Yegua, sandy clay in a series of very 
low folds. 


The base of the Yegua on the Brazos river is found in the 

bluff about 500 yards south of the mouth of the Little Brazos 

■ river, where, overlying the fossiliferous Marine beds, there is 

5 feet of unfossiliferous, pale blue clays. At Munson's Shoals 

the section shows : 

1. Brown river loam of sand and fine gravel, 18 ft. 

2. Black sandy loam and clay loam mixed with brown sand 

containing gravel and a few drift pebbles 2 ft. 

3. Pale blue clay 8 ft. 

4. Bluish-green lignitic clay, breaking into blocks and con- 

130 Vmiversity of Texas Bulletin 

taining broken plant remains, extending- across the 
river and forming shoals 6 ft. 

At Jones ' bridge we have : 

1. Yellowish gray sand, 32 ft. 

2. Bluish-green, sandy clay, containing fragments of lignite and 

breaking into ovoid blocks, 46 ft. 

Penrose's section at Sulphur Bluff is as follows: 

1. Light brown, hardened, sandy clay, 10 ft. 

2. Lignite, 1 ft. 

3. Gray sand 1 ft. 

4. Lignite, % ft. 

•5. Interbedded gray sand and chocolate and greenish clay, 

turned white in places on the surface, 20 ft. 

The whole bluff is coated with sulphur. 

The contact between the overlying sands and these clays is 
seen on the south side of the James Hope Survey in a section 
showing : 

1. Gray sand and gravel 1 ft. 

2. Gray sand containing great quantities of silicified wood. 

The wood is usually in large pieces — four to six feet in 
length, and bleached white 5 ft. 

3. Gray, indurated sand, with ledges of soft sandstone 10 ft. 

4. Gray sandstone, joined and thinly bedded, forming base of 

Wellborn sand, 8 ft. 

5. Dark brown lignitic clay, showing yellow bands from % to 

1-2 inch in thickness and coated with an efflorescence of 
sulphur, to water, 20 ft. 

No. 5 corresponds to the upper brown clay of Penrose's sec- 
tion of Sulphur bluff. 

For the purpose of comparison and as showing the Marine 
fossils of this formation, the section as observed in the Rio 
Grande may be given : 


Ten miles south of Laredo, and about the same distance by 
river, above the Webb-Zapata county line, we find the first de- 
posits which, from their fossil-contents, we can, with certainty 

The Geology of East Tex'as 13] 

refer to the Tegua clays. This is a bluff, nearly a mile in 
length, on the Texas side of the river. Here are exposed a 
series of interbedded greensands, brown sand and chocolate 
clay, with lenticular masses of red sandstone. Near the top 
of the hill there is a bed of altered greensand containing quan- 
tities of fossils, among which Mr. Harris determined: 

Lacinia alveata, Con. 

Natica var. dumblei, Heilp. 

■Cerithium sp., 

C. webbi, Har. 

Anomia ephippioides Gabb. 

Ostrea alabamiensis Lea. 

Cornellna armigera Con. 

The round concretionary masses, called cannon-balls, are 
abundant, both in the bed of greensand and in the red sand- 
stone. The chocolate, sandy clays are cross-bedded. 

A mile below this, a bluff on the Mexican side shows more 
clearly the characteristically clayey nature of the Tegua. This 
bluff is nearly 2 miles in length, and is composed of indurated 
blue or gray clay, interbedded with altered greensand and 
gray-hrown sands. It contains a thin bed and seams of lignite. 
Beyond this, a bluff', 75 feet high, shows the chocolate sands and 
clays, highly variegated in color — purple, red, pink, yellow and 
brown — and capped by a brown sandstone . which weathers 
black in places. A considerable amount of iron pyrites and 
gypsum are present. 

About the line of Webb and Zapata counties there is a bluff 
60 to 100 feet high, which is a half mile or more in length. The 
beds are nearly horizontal, as seen from the river, which here 
flows east. The base of the hill shows a band of buff and green- 
ish sands, slightly calcareous, with large concretions — 8 to 10 
feet in diameter. This is overlain by an extremely hard, limy 
band of grayish color, which shows on its upper surface a 
breccia of a very large gasteropod. 

Overlying this is a series of sand of varied colors and a 
second limestone layer, very rich in fossils, including such 
forms as Conus sa/uridens, Con.; Ostrea, alabamiensis, Lea; 0. 

Geol. S. "W. Texas, Trans-Am. Inst. Min. Bng., pp. 961-964. 

132 University of Texas Bulletin 

divaricata, Lea ; Volutilithes petrosus, Con. ; V. petrosus vax. 
indenta, Con.; Tellina mooreana, Gabb; CorbuLa alabamiensis, 
Lea; Cytherea texacola, Heilp. ; Natica recurva var. dumllei, 
Heil. -jTwritella nasuta var. Tioustoma, Har. ; Yenericwrdia plam- 
costa, Lam. 

The next bluff, 2 miles below, on Texas side, showed only- 
brown sands, without fossils, for a height of 60 feet, but at the 
mouth of Dolores creek we again find the greensands in hill 20 
to 35 feet high, with beds of oysters from bottom to top. • 

Four miles below this there is a low reef of hard, gray lime- 
stone, weathering to a greenish-gray color. It is concretionary 
in places. Four miles above San Ignacio there is a bluff 300 
y.ards long and some 60 feet high. Below the alluvial deposits 
it is composed of buff sands and sandstones, with seams of 
lignitic clays, sands and greensands. 

At the top of the sandstone there is a fossil-stratum about 8 
inches thick. This gave: 

Pleurotoma nodocarinata, Gabb (?), 

Levifusus trabeatus, Con., var. 

Tellina mooreana, Gabb. 

Corbula alabamiensis, Lea. 

Venericardia planicosta, Lam. 

Cytherea sp. 

Natica recurva var. dumblei, Heilp. 

(Volutilitbes petrosus. Con. 

Ostrea alabamiensis. Lea. ' 

Gypsum and cannon-balls occur, as well as numerous white 
calcareous concretions. The bombshells contain traces of lig- 
nitic materials. The dip here is normal — S. B. Two miles below, 
a bluff on the Mexican side of the river, composed of the gray 
sandstones with calcareous concretions, shows .a distinct north- 
east dip. The same sandstone, still dipping northeast, appears 
as a reef at San Ignacio. The exposures at the mouth of Sali- 
dita creek, about 2 miles below San Ignacio, show a bed of 
siliceous limestone, with beds of altered greensands. This is 
overlain by a buff sandstone which, in its next appearance, is 
seen to be cross-bedded and jointed. 

Four miles below San Ignacio the river bluff shows this same 
buff sandstone underlain by greensands. The buff sandstone 

The Geology of East Texas 133 

is quite calcareous, carries gray nodules .and shows concentric 

A mile below this exposure the dip changes from northeast to 
northwest, and shows somewhat greater angles than is usual in 
these beds, amounting to .as much as 10°. The materials ex- 
posed are semi-indurated sands, with more compact boulders of 
the same material. This is overlain by blue and green fer- 
ruginous clays, which weather a deep-red and show concentric 
weathering. White, calcareous concretions abound in this bed. 
Yellow, sandy clay, becoming more compact toward the top, 
succeeds the heavy clays. No gypsum was seen, and but little 

Two miles below, the dip again changes to southeast, and the 
buff sandstone shows beds of flagstone, which are somewhat 
calcareous and contain black, chert grains. These beds con- 
tinue to a point 4 miles north of Carrizo, where we find the 
contact of the clays of the Yegua with the Fayette sands. 




The name was originally used by Penrose^ for the entire 
series of deposits lying between the top of the Marine beds and 
the Orange Sand or Lafayette. As has been already shown, the 
basal member of these beds was separated under the name 
Yegua. Further investigation proved that the name still em- 
braced deposits of different ages, and it was finally restricted 
to the sands and light colored clays overlying the Yegua and, if 
the Frio belong in the Upper Eocene, the uppermost bed of the 
Middle Eocene of the Texas section. 


The type locality of this sub-stage is on the Colorado river, in 
the extreme western corner of Fayette county. 

"White Marl Bluif at Shipp's Ford, near the county line be- 
tween Fayette and Bastrop counties, forms the final fossilifer- 
ous exposure of the Cook's Mountain beds. 

The railroad bridge crossing the river two miles north of 
West Point rests upon an excellent exposure of the chocolate 
clays and sands of the Yegua with its characteristic sideritic 
concretions. The first high bluff down the river from this 
location was called by Penrose Chalk bluff from' its color. The 
base of this bluff is made up of beds belonging to the Yegua, but 
higher up a different formation comes in which is character- 
ized by light colored sands and joint clays which belong to 
the Fayette. 

Criswell creek just east of "West Point gives excellent expos- 
ures of the Yegua-Fayette contact. The uppermost Yegua 
in this locality is a chocolate sandy clay splotched with yel- 
low and containing plant remains. The basal Fayette is a 

'■ First Annual Report Geol. Sur. of Texas, p. 47. 

The Geology of East Texas 135 

white sandstone, rather fine grained, with a few yellow ferru- 
ginous markings. Overlying this sandstone are white sandy 
shales with yellow ferruginous sand laminae. 

The difference between the two formations is striking. Not 
only are the colors distinct, but the lignitic or carbonaceous 
matter so prevalent in the Yegua is missing' entirely in the 
lower Fayette and the siderite or limonite concretions are re- 
placed by a few knobs of ferruginous sand. 

The Fayette beds are well shown, in Pine Bluff, which is at 
the sharp bend of the Colorado at west end of Old River, about 
four miles northeast of West Point. 

At this exposure there is at the top 70 feet of gray and white 
sand interbedded with white and watery green clay. This is 
underlain by beds of similar clay alternating with thin seams 
of lignite and with chocolate clays. Penrose's section is as 
follows : 

1. Quaternary drift. 

2. Interbedded gray and white sand, white and watery-green 

clay 70 ft. 

3. Hard water-green clay, like in (2) 4 ft. 

4. Lignite 2 It. 

5. Similar strata to (2), light chocolate color on surface 3 ft. 

6. Lignite 1 ft. 

7. Similar strata to (5) 7 ft. 

8. Chocolate clays, with black leaf and reed impressions % ft. 

9. Hard watery-green clay 4 ft. 

10. Lignite 1 ft. 

11. Hard light green clay , 5 ft. 

12. Similar strata to (8) V2 to 1 ft. 

13. Hard, light green clay 6 ft. 

14. Lignite 1 to 2 ft. 

15. Hard, light green clay 10 ft. 

Gates ' Bluff, two and a half miles east of Pine bluff gives the 
top of the Fayette and its contact with the Jackson. At this 
place a bed of lignite is just at top of water level in river. It 
is overlain by ten feet of interbedded clayey sands, shaley to 
thin-bedded, with some carbonaceous streaks and is strongly 
jointed. Its top is an old land surface and the section shows a 
line of silicified stumps standing upright and evidently in place 
as they grew. Between them are pot-holes filled in with the 

136 University of Texas Bulletin 

darker sands of the overlying impure lignitic band, which is here 
taken to be the base of the Jackson. 

No marine fossils were found in the Fayette beds, but leaf 
impressions were seen in abundance, and gypsum and sulphur 
were present in nearly all the beds. 

Nowhere in the Colorado section were any sands seen which 
appeared to- represent the Wellborn beds. All of the sediments 
apparently referable to the Jackson belong to its lignitic and 
fresh water phases, and are presumably later than the Welborn, 
which seems wanting in this section. 


As in the ease of the Yegua, the Rio Grande section gives a 

clearer idea of the charac1;pr and fossil contents of these beds. 

While the sediments are largely of marine deposition on the Rio 

Grande, the materials entering into them are similar to those of 

'the Colorado section. 

The Rio Grande beds may be divided into two parts. The 

lower part extends from Zapata to the northern line of Starr 

county and is made up of greenish clays and sands interbedded 

.with buff sands with some calcareous matter and greensands. 

These beds are very fossiliferous. 

The upper part, extending from the Starr county line to 
Roma, while not differing so much lithologically from the lower, 
has a larger proportion of the buff sands and its only fossil 
seems to be the very large oyster called by Penrose Ostrea geor- 
giana, but identified by Harris as 0. alabamiensis var. contracta 
of Conrad. 

The fiirst exposure of the Fayette beds in the Rio Grande 
region is described by Dr. Penrose as follows : 

"Four miles above the Texas town of Carrizo, and on the Mexican 
side of the river, is seen a bed of woody lignite 1% to ft. thick, over- 
lain by 10 ft. lof buff sands and underlain to the water's edge by 4 ft. 
of greenish-gray clay. The Rio Salado flows into the Rio Grande from 
the Mexican side opposite Carrizo. The town of Guerreno is on this 
river 6 miles from the mouth, and in this distance are seen many 
outcrops of buff sandstone, often rising in abrupt ledges through the 

Geol. S. "W. Texas, pp. 37-8-9-40. 

The Geology of East Texas 137 

river alluvium. Most of the houses, churches and fences of the town 
are built of it." 

At Carrizo the beds yielded the following fossils: 

Lacinia alveoata, Con. 

Ostrea alabamiensis var. oontracta, Con. 

Similar exposures are seen just below Carrizo, wliere the river 
runs more nearly in the strike of the beds. After it again turns 
southeast the blnff sands iorrn low bluffs for 2 or 3 miles, when 
we find, on the Mexican side of the river, in a long, low line of 
exposures, a .cireenish, sandy clay, partly indurated, but variable, 
with harder green concretions, which are more or less calcareous. 
Here we found : Lacinia alveata, Con. ; Voluiilithes petrosus, 
Con.; CornuUna armigera, Con.; CytJierea iastropensis, Har. ; 
Tellina mooreana, Gabb. A similar exposure, just below, on 
American side, was a mile or more in length, and showed many 
undulations. This was in turn succeeded by exposures of buff 
sandstones, which here seem to dip about 6 degrees to the SE. 
This condition continues to the mouth of a small creek just north 
of Rancho Ramireno, which ' ' cuts through a series of low bluffs, 
ledges of interstratified buff sandstones containing gray con- 
cretions and septaria, and chocolate, black and greenish-blue, 
semi-indurated clays, dipping 1 to 2 degrees southeast." 

The forms identified by Prof. Harris are: Ostrea contracta, 

Con. ; Conus sauridens, Con. ; Volutilithes, sp. ; Venerica/rdia 

*planicosta, Lam. ; Semele lienosa, Con. ; CytJierea bastropensis, 

Har.; Lacinia alveata, Con. var.; Pseudoliva vetusta, Con.; 

Natica recurva var. diimblei. 

Thei'e is a I'ossililerous l-iyer near the mouth of the creek and 
forming its bed. This shows a mass of shells much comminuted. 
The few specimens wheich we found entire had, doubtless, 
weathered from the softer buff sands, as we found them in place 
in that material. These clays and sands are highly colored, and 
as usual show considerable cross-bedding. In the drift we found 
many beautiful agates, chalcedony and petrified wood — which 
here made its first appearance on our trip. The buff sands and 
interbedded materials form a reef below the mouth of the creek 
and continued down the river several miles, when a bluff was 


138 University of Texas Bulletin 

found on the Mexican side which showed "interbedded hard and 
soft, calcareous sandstones and clay seams," and containing 
Volutilithes petrosus, Con., Turritella nasuta, Gabb, ; Lacinia al- 
veata, Con.?; Anomia ephippioides, Gabb; Leda opulenta, Con.; 
Venericardia planicosta, Lam.; Tellina mooreana, Gabb; Cy- 
therea hastropensis, Ear. 

Numerous calcareous concretions are found, and the sand oc- 
casionally contains coarse, black and gray siliceous grains the 
size of mustard-seed and larger. 

Just below the mouth of Tigre creek there is another exposure 
of the buff sandstone and its interbedded clays and sands, with 
grayish, limestone concretions of all shapes and sizes. Some of 
these concretions seem to contain masses of decomposed iron- 
pyrites only, but the most of them are fossiliferous. In the buff 
sandstone we find only specimens of oysters, all other forms being 
confined to the concretionary beds or particular masses. Some 
of these contain all their fossils (except oysters, which remain as 
shells) simply as rusty casts, while in others all the forms are 
fairly preserved. 

Among these are: Venericardia planicosta, Lam.; Turritella 
nasuta, Gabb; VolutUitJies petrosus, Con.; Crassatella rotexta, 
Con. var. ; Cytlierea hastropensis, Har. ; Pseudoliva vetusta, 
Con. ; Conus saiiridens, Con. ; Cornulina armigera. Con. var. 

A very short distance above the Zapata-Starr county line there 
is a long exposure, on the Mexican side, of bluish-gray clays, 
capped by a bed of fossiliferous greensand. The next exposure, 
however, is again of the buff sandstone, with very large concre- 
tions, and showing a distinct synclinal structure. In appearance,^ 
it closely resembles the materials of the Fayette beds on the Col- 
orado river, north of LaGrange. Then follows the bluff, of which 
Dr. Penrose gives the following section: 

1. Indurated, light-brown sand 3-6 ft. 

2. Loose, light-brown sand 10 ft. 

3. Gray clay 5 ft. 

4. Oyster-bed. Ostrea alalximiensis var. contracta 1 ft. 

5. Gray clay 1 ft. 

6. Oyster-bed 1 ft. 

7. Detritus to water's edge 4 ft. 

In this section the oysters, some of which are a foot or more 

The Geology of East Texas 139 

in length, occur not only in the oyster-beds, but scattered 
through the buff sands also. Two miles below, the beds are 
still more clayey in their nature, as is shown by the following 
section made at Las Guerras bluff, the point at which the river 
makes its sharp turn to the northeast, 5 miles or more west 
of Roma: 

1. Greenish-yellow clays, indurated, thin-lDedded, and carrying 

gypsum and sulphur ' ... 20 ft. 

2. Oyster-reef. 0. alaiamiensis, var. contracta, 1-2 ft. 

3. Calcareous bed 1-2 ft. 

4. Buffl clays, partly indurated. Oysters 8-10 ft. 

5. Bright-colored, sandy clays,, with gypsum, sulphur and lig- 

nitic' matter '• 8 ft. 

6. Very hard sandstone, bedded and banded in brown, yellow 

and red colors 12 ft. 

The gypsum in No. 1, of above section, was of yellow color, 
and occurred in seams %-inch thick, .and in crystalline masses 
of considerable size. I suspect that this bed will be found to 
be the base of the Frio clays, since my notes state that its dip 
is only 4 degrees, while that of the calcareous and underlying 
beds is about 7 degrees. The lower beds are referred to the 
Fayette on the strength of the persistence in them of the large 
oyster, which has been used as one of the characteristic fossils 
of this sub-stage. 

The buff sands continued toward Roma, and the oyster-reef, 
with the same large oyster, was seen in the river-jbank at that 
town. One mile below, however, where the final exposure of 
the buff sands was observed, no oysters were found. 

Between the Colorado and the Brazos, the Fayette was found 
along Nails creek north of Ijedhetter overlying the Yegua and 
underlying the fossiliferous "Wellborn sandstone of the Jackson. 


Bast of the Brazos river the Fayette has been found only in 
detached bodies overlying the Yegua north of the Jackson 
border. These are simply remnantal portions left by an erosion 
interval which separated the Middle froln the Upper Eocene. 

The Fayette does not appear along the Sabine river. 

The most easterly area recognized was a mile southwest of 

140 University of Texas Bulletin 

Huntington, Angelina county, on the Texas & New Orleans 
Railroad. A hill on the Renfroe place which rises twenty-five 
feet above the surrounding Yegua clays is made up of a light- 
gray quartzose sandstone ranging in consolidation from a 
hard sandstone to a well indurated quartzite. 

Some four miles west of this locality there is a larger area 
surrounding the town of Homer. This town is underlain by 
a light bluish-gray, cross-bedded sandstone. North of the town, 
it changes to a white sandstone of medium grain, evenly bedded, 
and is moderately hard. It is quarried for local use. 

To the southward the sandstone is overlain by light cream- 
colored clay, thin-bedded to massive and showing cross-bedding 
in places. 

About one-fourth mile north of Homer, at the head of a small 
creek, is the first exposure noted. Here there is about 2^^ 
feet of black surface loam, containing much carbonaceous ma- 
terial and very much resembling a poor grade of peat. At the 
base of this loamy material there is a thin layer of gravel, made 
up of fragments of silieified wood, ferruginous clay-stone, 
quartz, and quartzitic material, all of the fragments being sub- 
angular to rounded. Below this is a brown limonitic layer 
about six inches thick and made up of hard, concretionary 
limonitic clay. This member of the section was found to occur 
only in a few places. Underlying and forming the base of the 
section is a white to cream colored clay, sometimes, when damp, 
dull gray, hard, compact, fine-grained, which breaks with a 
semi-conchoidal fracture. This clay is jointed and in the joints 
a black carbonaceous material resembling lignite occurs. It 
evidently has washed in 'from the overlying loam. Little could 
be seen of the bedding of the clay, but in some places it seemed 
to be thin-bedded, while in others it was more massive- with 
cross-bedding showing in a freshly broken piece. 

Going down the creek, the clay outcrops along the banks and 
makes up the creek bottom. In one little gully the clay is ex 
posed to a thickness of five feet and several four foot sections 
were noted. In no place, except at the east .and west ends of 
the deposit, could the bottom of the clay be seen. Here it was 
seen to rest unconformably upon a gray, thin-bedded sandstone 
which tilted locally at an angle of about 2& degrees. The clay 

TKe Geology of East Texas 141 

was unconformable on this sandstone in all respects as regards 
dip, and the plane of contact was found to be much warped. 
The clay thinned out to the east and west, which showed that 
the deposit was of a lenticular nature. 

In an east-west direction this deposit extends for about 2000 
feet. To the north and south its extension is not very well 

Two similar areas occur along the line of the Houston, East 
& West Texas Railway. One of these is north of Burke, the 
other southeast, extending almost to the Jackson contact. The 
hill north of Burke is about three miles long north and south. 
The northern end is made up of a gray to white sand or sand- 
stone, and a measured thickness of 20 feet was observed. The 
sandstone is thin-bedded in places, and varies locally from 
soft to hard. Pieces of silicified wood are found in the sand- 
stone, which is fine-grained throughout. Lamination planes 
can be seen in the apparently massive, well indurated material. 
Some of the beds are up to one foot thick. 

The topography here is gently rolling. On top of the hill 
a log of silicified wood was found, which was about 25 feet in 
length and 2^4 feet in diameter. 

On this low hill near Burke, is an exposure of grayish-white, 
soft sandstone with blotches of black material. The quartz 
grains are rounded and the black blotches seem to be due to 
some kind of stain on the quartz grains. About one-fourth 
mile farther north on side of hill is found a thin-bedded, green- 
ish-gray, shaly clay with partings of grayish sand. In the sand 
small shining crystals resembling selenite were found. 

On the west side of Jacks Bayou, just east of Blix, in Ange- 
lina county, there is a ridge of sandstone of light gray color. 
The ridge is 20 feet in height, and a well 50 feet deep found 
only the same sand. The rock is a fine grade of very light gray 
sandstone, with medium-sized quartz grains and grains of 
magnetite. It is medium hard and lies in layers of about one 
foot in thickness. 

Suman found an isolated outcrop of similar rock at Huston 
Park, one and a half miles southeast of Alto, in a hill rising 
about 75 feet above surrounding country, which contains about 
60 feet of a hard, indurated, massive, white to gray, or cream- 

142 University of Texas Bulletin 

colored sandstone. This material does not resemble any other 
encountered in this vicinity, and is hard to account for. Litho- 
logically, it seems to resemble the Payette sandstone as ob- 
served near Burke, but no fossils were seen. There is a ridge 
running for about three miles through the country that is 
capped by this rock. 

Baker considers this a remnant of the Fayette, ' which indi- 
cates that in this region the Fayette originally not only over- 
lay the Yegua, but overlapped upon the Cook's Mountain beds. 

To the west of the localities described, there are other areas 
of the Fayette which are similarly related to the Tegua and 
the Jackson. Three of these are found along the Houston- 
Trinity county line northwest of Groveton, and in the vicinity 
of Pennington. The description of one will serve for all. 

On the north side of Bast Prairie on the farm of Mrs. BlufE- 
ington on the D. Ashworth Survey, two miles north of Penning- 
ton, there outcrops a fine-grained gray to whitish colored sand- 
stone varying in hardness from soft to almost that of a quartz- 
ite. It contains an abundance of .a black mineral resembling 
magnetite in small specks. It varies from massive to cross- 
bedded and very locally may be thin-bedded. Near the top 
of the hill there is 8 feet of the harder rock outcropping over 
about five acres. The rock varies rapidly in this area from 
hard to soft. It is underlain down the hill by ten or twelve 
feet of cross-bedded, fine-grained, soft, white sandstone. In 
the creek bed below this there outcrops some lignite. The sand- 
stone is used locally for building chimneys. 

West of the Trinity similar exposures are found along Bedias 
creek north of the Yegua-Jackson contact as far west as the 
northeast corner of Grimes county. 

The Fayette has not yet been certainly identified on the 
Brazos, owing to the presence in that vicinity of the Wellborn 
sandstone of the Jackson, which has been confused with it. 
Whether both are present here, or whether the Fayette was 
entirely eroded before the deposition of the Wellborn, has not 
been determined. That the two are separate and distinct sands 
is fully proven by their general character and fossils. 

The Fayette in East Texas consists. of very light colored sands 
and clays with some lignite, and only plant remains as fossils. 

The Geology of East Texas 143 

The Wellborn is predominatingly a brown sand with remains of 
marine invertebrates. 

There are no materials in any of the Jackson beds east of 
the Brazos corresponding to those of the Fayette inliers in the 
Yegna which have been described. 

The stratigraphic relations are such that the two could not 
belong to the same horizon. 


At the close of Claiborne deposition, the sea again receded, 
thereby adding a broad belt of land to the growing terrane of 
the Coastal Plain. How far this recession may have reached is 
unknown, but the indications are that the period of the reces- 
sion was not as great as that between the Lower and Middle 

In ^ast Texas this recession was accompanied by an eleva- 
tion of the beds which, while extending from the Sabine to 
the Brazos, attained its maximum east of the Neches. This is 
indicated clearly by the fact that the Fayette beds, which are 
normal on the Colorado, begin to show erosion west of the 
Brazos, on which stream they are doubtfully present, and east- 
ward are only known by remnantal areas to the Neches drainage, 
beyond which they are entirely unknown. In this area not only 
has the Fayette been entirely removed, but the underlying Yegua 
has also been scored. 

While a large portion of this erosion must have taken place 
during the interval between the recession of the Claiborne sea 
and the transgression of the Jackson, it is possible that a part 
of it belongs to that period of the early Jackson in which 'the 
Wellborn beds were laid down between the Brazos and the 
Trinity-Neehes divide. The greater erosion eastward, however, 
was in all probability due to greater elevation above sea-level. 

Veatch finds evidence of a post-Claiborne movement in con- 
nection with the salt dome at Winfield and there are indications 
of similar movement around the Palestine dome. 

These movements evidently had their beginning in the Sabine 
region during the Marine, as is shown by the conditions at the 
base of the Nacogdoches in the type locality. It was the move- 

144 University of Texas Bulletin 

ment beginning then which changed the shore line of the Clai- 
borne sea from the northeasterly trend which it had had in 
common with the Midway sea and with the waters of the Wilcox 
to the east-west line which has prevailed east of the Neclies 
river from that time to the present. 

University of Texas Bulletin No. 1869 

Plate VII. 

Near Homer, Angelina County. 

<rst:i>w» s'i^-i^'"-ii 

Cross bedded sandstones on H. E. & W. T. R. R. Mile Post 100. 

Chapter VII 



Conrad found at Jackson, Mississpippi, a series of deposits 
which carried a large and well preserved fossil fauna which 
was intermediate in age between the Claiborne and Vicksburg, 
and which he described and called the Jackson. The beds are 
described as calcareous marls and lignitiferous clays, but later 
descriptions add a bed of siliceous sands at the top. 

In the bluff at Yazoo City, 180 feet of the calcareous clay is 
exposed. It carries crystals of gypsum and many marine fossils 
in addition to bones of the Zeuglodon which characterize the 
Jackson of the embayment area. 

The entire thickness in Mississipppi is estimated at 350 to 450 

The marine fauna of the Jackson has been found to contain 
nearly as many species as that of the Claiborne, and, although 
the number common to both is comparatively small, they are of 
Eocene types and the formation is considered to be. the upper- 
most division of that series. 

The discovery of the Jackson in Texas was due to Harris and 
Veatch'', who found and recognized Jackson fossils in the vi- 
cinity of Corrigan, on the Sabine, and in material gotten from 
an oil well at Sour Lake. 

Later, Vaughan, on the basis of a restudy of the fossils found 
near Wellborn, referred the "Wellborn sands to the basal Jackson, 
but it was left for Baker and Suman to work out the extent and 
character of the beds referable to this horizon lying between the 
Sabine and the Brazos. 

General Character A>fD Thickness. 

The Jackson, like other divisions of the Eocene in Texas, while 
made up largely of marine deposits, has also its share of those 

Crider, Bui. U. S. Geol. Sur. 283, p. 35. 
' Louisiana Geol. Sur. 1902, p. 25. 

146 University of Texas Bulletin 

laid down in lagoons and swamp areas. In some regions, in fact, 
it is the principal lignite-bearing formation. In addition to these 
deposits, which it has. in common with the underlying Claiborne, 
it is especially characterized by terrestrial deposits and by ma- 
terials derived front volcanic flows and eruptions. 

The lowest beds are fossiliferous sands and clays. These are 
followed by calcareous clays and sands, also fossiliferous, lignitic 
sands and clays, beds of volcanic ash and other materials of 
igneous origin, and some limestones and sandstones. , Of the 
sandstones, some are quartzitic in character and some have a 
porcellaneous cement. The fossils of the sandstones are largely 
casts, but in the clays they are well preserved. Zeuglodon 
bones were found at one or two localities. 

The Jackson is distinguished by the fact that in it the clay 
ironstone and limouitic concretions of the underlying Yegua 
are replaced by calcareous concretions and by a greater propor- 
tion of sands and sandstones. Some of the Jackson sands are 
very hard, even quartzitic, but are always light gray in color and 
are fossiliferous in places. Volcanic ash beds are also character- 
istic. The top of the Jackson is placed where the chocolate lam- 
inated clays and carbonaceous sands give place to coarse "rice" 
sands or sandstones and yellowish green, structureless clays and 

These beds, have a thickness in Angelina county of between 
400 and 600 feet and are probably thicker on the Trinity, and to 
the west of that stream. 


The outcrop of the Jackson on the Sabine has a width of about 
four miles. As it strikes westward, it gradually becomes wider 
until it reaches the divide between the Neches and the Trinity in 
the vicinity of Groveton. In this region it attains its maximum 
surficial width, which is about eighteen miles. The belt then 
strikes soiithwestward, crossing the Trinity west of the town of 
Trinity. The outcrop on the river along the line of dip narrows 
to five miles. Between the Trinity and the Brazos it has an aver- 
age width of eight to nine miles and crosses the latter stream 
southwest of Wellborn. 

TJie Geology of East Texas _ 147 

Disposition and Relation to Underlying Formations 

So far as can be determined from the contacts we have seen 
between the Claiborne and the Jackson, the newly emerged Mid- 
dle Eocene sediments which formed the surface of the coastal 
fringe at the beginning o£ the Upper Eocene showed little change 
in condition in the vicinity of the Colorado. The Jackson sea, 
coming in from the southward, in the vicinity of the Brazos, 
transgressed the Claiborne land to the northeastward rather 
slowly at first, but more rapidly later. The basal or Wellborn 
sands and their overlying lignitic deposits are well developed on 
the Brazos and eastward to the Trinity river. These basal de- 
posits, however, do not extend beyond the divide between the 
Trinity and the Neches rivers. From the Neches eastward these 
sands are replaced by the medial or Caddell clays, which form 
the basal beds" between the Neches and the Sabine. 

Between the emergence of the Claiborne and the deposition of 
these basal beds the greater part of the Payette east of the Brazos 
was removed by erosion arid in consequence the Wellborn sands 
are in immediate contact with the Yegua between the Brazos and 
Trinity, while east of the Neches the contact is between the 
Tegua and the Caddell clays. The Yegua shows an eroded sur- 
face at the contact at some localities, as at Mile Post 659 on the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Eailway. 

In this area, therefore, the Jackson began with the. marine con- 
ditions on the Brazos and land in the east. The marine condi- 
tions gradually extended to the Sabine and were succeeded to 
the. westward by those which permitted the deposition of lig- 
nitic beds. Finally, littorat conditions prevailed along the en- 
tire front. 

During the period there were volcanoes in active eruption. 
Some of these were probably located to the seaward of our area, 
while others were within the region now occupied by its sedi- 
ments, and furnished volcanic tuff and ash for its beds. To this 
source is also due tlie large amount of opaline matter now occur- 
ring as opalized wood and as the porcellaneous cement of the 
many sand beds. 

148 University of Texas Bulletin 


At the base of the Jackson we find sandstones of rather fine 
grain, gray and brown in color, interstratified with lignitie clays 
and sands and overlain by sandy carbonaceous shales carrying 
silicified logs. These are the "Welborn beds, and are followed by 
greenish clays and sandy clays with calcareous concretions and 
greensand, and other clays with gypsum and sulphur. They 
have been called the Caddell beds. West of the Groveton divide 
these clays are also lignitie and not fossiliferous. The upper 
member consists of a series of lignitie clays and sands with which 
are interbedded brown sandstones, some of which have a por- 
cellaneous cement while other are quartzitie, the uppermost 
portion being carbonaceous sandy clays with gypsum and sul- 
phur. These are called the Manning beds. 

In connection with the Caddell beds and continuing up into 
the Manning we have extensive beds of volcanic ash and some 
volcanic tuff. 


Kennedy found a number of fossils in the sandstones of Wil- 
liams Quarry on the Stephenson League three miles east of Well- 
born, which Harris identified as follows, classing them as Lower 
Claiborne. These were found near the base of the sands : 

Yoldia claibornensis 
Venericardia planicosta 
Cy.therea bastropeasis 
Siliqua sinrondsi 
Mactra sp. a 
Corbula alabamlensis 
Turritella sp. 
Cancellaria penrosei 
Pleurotoma Quassalla 
Cylinchna kellogii 

Deussen made f uther collections in this vicinity and says^ : 
"Vaughan is of the opinion that the horizon represented by 
the hard fosiliferous sandstone of the section on the Robert 

' Water-Supply Paper 335, p. 72. 

TJie Geology of East Texas 149 

Stephenson League is probably very low in the Jackson. ' ' 

He does not enumerate the fossils, but as he probably had a 
fuller collection than that which Harris examined and as the 
Wellborn is apparently the continuation of the sands forming 
the base of the Jackson to the east, the Wellborn sands are re- 
moved from equivalency to the Fayette, as was formerly held, 
and placed at the base of the Jackson. 

The fossils of the Caddell clays which occur on Tar Kiln creek 
four miles northwest of DiboU are well preserved and represent 
an horizon considerably higher than the Wellborn. The only 
Zeuglodon bones found were in connection with the Caddell. 
The Manning sands which overlie these contain many imprints 
of fossils, mostly lamellibranchs, but they are somewhat poorly 

It is probable that when the present collections are properly 
studied it will be found that practically all of the Jackson time is 
represented in our section. 

Details of Section 

brazos and grimes counties 

Wellborn: — Kennedy^ describes these beds as follows: 

These sandstones, with their accompanying gray sands, al- 
though here tentatively denominated the Wellborn beds, belong 
to and help to form a part of, the series of gray sands and sand- 
stones extending across the State from the Neches river in Polk 
county as far west as Sunnyside church, in Lee county^. 

In Grimes county these beds have been narrowed down to a 
belt occupying an irregular area lying between the calcareous 
sands and sandstones of the Navasota beds and the underlying 
dark gray sands and lignites of the Yegua group, and appear 
only as isolated patches. 

In Brazos county the gray sands and sandstones form an ir- 
regularly defined belt of varying width extending across the 
county from the edge of the Navasota bottom lands on the east 
to the Brazos river on the west. They are hard, close-grained. 

fourth Annual Report, Geol. Sur. Tex. p. 45. 
' Probably not Wellborn, but Fayette. 

150 University of Texas Bulletin 

and compact, occasionally showing a tendency to become quartz- 
itie. The country occupied by them is generally flat and prairie- 
like, covered by gray sand, and few outcrops of continuous ledges 
of the sandstone can be seen anywhere. 

Small outcrops occur at several places on the Sam Davidson 
and James Hope leagues, on the western side of the county, 
where the belt has an apparent width of nearly three miles. 
These outcrops are irregular in areal extent and thickness, 
and appear usually as isolated patches or "knobs" surmounting 
the small rounded hills forming the uplands of this region. The 
sandstones here rest upon the upper beds of the lignitic sands 
and clays found farther north. A section on a small creek on 
the south side of the James Hope headright shows: 

1. Gray sand and gravel 1 ft. 

2. Gray sand, with great quantities of silicified wood 5 ft. 

3. Gray indurated sand, witli ledges of soft sandstone 10 ft. 

4. Gray sandstone, jointed and thinly bedded : . . . . 8 ft. 

.5. Dark brown lignitic clay, showing yellow streaks and sulphur 

efflorescence 20 ^t. 

Near the mouth of White 's creek the gray sandstones are seen 
capping the higher grounds. Here these rocks are arranged in 
three ledges, showing an aggregate thickness of 20 feet, and rest 
upon the dark brown clays of the lignitic deposits. No fossils 
have been obtained from them, except a few small dicotyledenous 
leaves, but their direct continuity with the fossil-bearing sand- 
stones has been traced along a series of small outcrops across the 
county by way of Minter Springs and Wellborn to the junction 
of the two on the E. Stephenson league. 

Going east from Wellborn, light gray laminated sandy clays 
and thin beds of sandstones appear in the cuttings and washouts 
along the south side of the R. Stephenson league for a distance 
of several miles. About three miles to the southeast of the sta- 
tion, at Dr. Williams' quarry^, on the same league, an exposure 
of regularly bedded gray sandstones appears along the north bank 

' Thia is locality from which fossils were collected, the list of which 
was given in connection with the correlation of these beds. 

The Geology of East Texas 151 

of a small stream. The general section at this place appears 
to be: 

1. Gray sands, showing some distance down the cre^....2 to 8 ft. 

2. Thinly laminated, light gray (almost white) sandy clays 2 to 8 ft. 

3. Broken deposit of sandstone, containing fossils 2 ft. 

4. Regular and even bedded gray fossiliferous sandstone 6 ft. 

On the Brazos river Kelly found what he considers the hase 
of the "Wellborn in a bluff just north of Koppe's bridge west of 
Wellborn. His section shows: 

1. Dirty brown clay with a layer of dark brown limonitic con- 

cretions five feet from base. Fossils at base 1& tO' 20 ft. 

2. Brownish-gray, fossiliferous clay, showing limonitic layers 

1-16 to 1-4 inch thick. Toward top it contains beds of sand 
1-inch thick 6 ft. 

3. bignitic clay interbedded with yellow clay. Some limonite 

concretions. Balls and lenses of lignite showing manga- 
nese in cracks. A few light to dark gray concretions of 
siderite 4 ft. 

4. Interbedded sands and clays. Beds of clayey sandstone mark 

the base of this section. The layers are one to' three inches 
thick, well bedded, poorly indurated, coarse to medium 
greensand, color dirty white to greenish white. The middle 
is more argillaceous, whiter, thin-bedded, with layers of 
lignite an Inch thick. The upper 3 feet more sandy, thin- 
bedded and showing stains of limonite. Silicifled wood Is 
plentiful In these beds 10 ft. 

Members one and two are probably "Wellborn. 
A mile and a half south of Batte's ferry, he found the fol- 
lowing : 

1. Thinly bedded sand and sandstone, some beds colored deep 

yellow by iron. Bedding very thin, but persistent. Nodules 

of pyrite are present 3 ft. 

2. Very soft sandstone with fine laminations, yellow to reddish 

brown in color 1 ft. 

3. Interbedded white sands and dirty gray shales. Sands in 

beds less than 1-inch thick, breaks In flags and rings when 
struck • • • • ' 2 ft. 

4. Blue, fine-grained sandstone, poorly indurated 1 ft. 

Below this some two miles, Penrose found : 

152 University of Texas Bulletin 

1. Cross-bedded, gray sand, hardened in places 10 ft. 

2. Hard greenish clay, -with seams of chocolate clay.. 12ft. 

3. Lignite »•..-■ 1 *'*■ 

4. Hard greenish clay •. 6 ft. 

5. Lignite • • ^ ft. 

6. Calcareous, gray sand, with indurations 6 ft. 

Dip of the strata 1 to 5 degrees soiath. Many imperfect leaf 
impressions and considerable amounts of iron pyrites are found 
in the elay^ These beds probably belong to the Caddell clays, 
which are also shown in a section on the river five miles west of 
Millican and one mile above the mouth of Boggy creek, as follows : 

1. Thin-bedded, fine-grained sandstone, dirty -white in color and 

locally stained with limonite. Silicified tree trunks 6 in. 

2. Massive yellow sandy clay, weathering bluish white 3 ft. 

3. Sandy clay with small flakes of sandstone 10 ft. 

4. Interbedded sandstones and lenticular sand beds 3 ft. 

5. Loose, cross-bedded, coarse to medium grained sandstone 

with clay band at top and bottotn • • . . 1 ft. 

6. Medium grained, massive sands 3 ft. 

7. Light yellow sandy clay, white siliceous scale partings.... 7ft. 

8. Lignite 9 in. 

9. Light green clay, weathers to powder 1 ft. 

10. Lignitic clay 6 in. 

11. Light green <:lay like (9) 9 ft. 

12. Fine and coarse grained, gritty clay, weathing into Irregular 

fragments 5 ft. 6 in. 

13. Volcanic ash bed. In places pure ash, cross-bedded, in others 

mixed with clay; has lenses and one small bed of lignite; 
pyrites 15 to 20 ft. 

The Manning beds were not identified in the river section, but 
the contact between the Jackson and Corrigan occurs about one 
mile above the Santa Fe bridge. 

The base of the Jackson crosses the Houston & Texas Central 
Railroad at lola. 

In the barrow pit, extending south from Bridge No. 143.04 of 
the Trinity & Brazos Valley Railroad, the following section is 
exposed : 

1. Laminated, gray-brown and greenish-gray to light brown 

sandy shaly clays 10 ft. 

2. Gray brown, soft, shelly sandstone stained with iron and in 

places taking on a reddish-brown color 4 ft. 

The Geology of East Texas 153 

This section is very probably of Jackson age and represents 
the northern limit of that formation in this Ticinity. From this 
point south all of the cuttings are in the Jackson, until we get 
about 23 miles south of Singleton. 

The cutting one-half to three-fourths of a mile south of lola 
exposes 10 feet to 15 feet of a yellowish-gray to light greenish- 
brown structureless, somewhat sandy, ball clay. -It weathers out 
a dirty, gray-brown, and has calcareous nodules in places near 
the surface. These nodules are, however, very scarce. The ma- 
terial is more sandy, locally, and a soft, fine-grained, gray sand- 
stone may be noted in places. This sandstone shows up better 
just south of the cut. 

About one mile north of Grimes Station the following section 
is exposed, dipping 1° S. 60° E.: 

1. Gray-brown, lamjnated and shelly sandstone, fine-grained, 

and varying from soft to hard, the whole being much 
stained with iron 8 ft. 

2. Laminated, gray and gray-brown, fine-grained sands 3% ft. 

The dip flattens out towards the middle of the cut. The sec- 
tion is covered by a dark, reddish-brown clayey soil. 

The section is typical Wellborn. In the barrow pit 10 to 25 
feet below Bridge No. 136.82 these shelly and laminated to thin- 
bedded gray sandstones still continue. 

Immediately north of Grimes a cutting exposes the following 
section : 

1. Yellowish-brown clay, containing gravel and petrified wood. .2-3 ft. 

2. Cross-bedded, medium grained, gray sandstone, for the most 

part soft and stained brown on the surface 4 ft. 

3. Brick red clayey layer, probably formed by water acting on 

No. 4 3 In. 

4. Laminated, sandy, chocolate brown shaly clay 8 in.-l ft. 

In the gray sandstone, large pieces of petrified wood are to be 

These beds all belong to the "Wellborn. 


The Tegua-Jackson contact on the Madisonville branch of 
the International & Great Northern Railway comes in the bot- 


154 University of Texas Bulletin 

torn of Big Bedias creek. Loose, fine-grained, brown Wellborn 
sands 3 feet thick occur in a cut half way between Mile Posts 

35 and 36. A section in a cut one-third mile north of Mile Post 

36 exhibits the following: 

1. Shelly bedded, light brown, very friable, clayey sandstone . . 6 ft. 

(Contact between (1) and (21 not seen.) ■ 

2. Very light gray, coarse grained sand with angular fragments 

of flint. The lower 1 inch to 1 foot is irregularly indu- 
rated and contains small masses of white clay 1 ft. 

3. Light brown sandy ball clay ^ 5 ft. 

4. Light brown, shelly bedded sandstone. Passes into loose 

creamy laminated sand to the north along the strike.... 2ft. 

At Mile Post 35 is 4 feet of light brownish cream clay carry- 
ing volcanic ash and very similar to the clay exposed on the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Eailway between Willard and Grove- 
ton, in Trinity county. Locally, there are thin white shelly 
layers of claystone. When at all consolidated it is thinly 
laminated. Underlying it in downward succession .are, (1) very 
light gray, loose, thinly laminated, medium grained sand 3^^ 
feet thick; (2) compact, light gray-drab ball clay stained with 
sulphur and limonite, much jointed and broken into small frag- 
ments, 2 feet thick. 

One-half mile north of Mile Post 34 is 6 feet of white im- 
perfectly bedded volcanic ash mixed with coarse angular trans- 
parent quartz sand. 

Between Mile Post 34 and Bedias thin, shelly-bedded, light- 
brown sandstone outcrops. In a cut one-fifth mile north of the 
34th mile post is the following section. 

1. Thin, shelly-bedded, light brown sandstone. 

2. Medium grained, light gray-brown, very friable sandstone 

with leaves 2 ft. 

5. Thinly and irregularly laminated nodular light brown sandy 

clay 8 tt. 

4. Laminated brown and gray sand 3 ft. 

5. Chocolate-brown carbonaceous shale with thin interbedded 

layers of gray sand In middle 1 tt. 

The two basal layers have a dip of 6° south, or a little east 
of south. Silicified logs with veins and incrustations of hyalite 
are found in the section. 

The Geology of East Texas 155 

About 2-3 miles some south of west of Bedias along a high 
ridge, overlooking South Bedias creek bottom to the south, 
there outcrops a sandstone of medium to fine grain and of vary- 
ing degrees of hardness. In places the sandstone is white in 
color and tends to be soft. In others it is bluish gray in color 
and indurated to a c^uarzite. The matrix of the sand grains is 
in places of an opaline nature, in others it is fine granular, and 
the color is for the most part white or gray, but local discolora- 
tions to yellowish-brown and reddish-brown occur. This sand- 
stone has been prospected extensively along the ridge and pits 
are to be found in it everywhere. The greatest thickness that 
could be measured from' these was 5 to 6 feet. The rock mass 
is probably from 25% to 30% quartzite. 

On this same ridge about 2% miles south of west of Bedias 
on the lola road the sandstone is found locally to be packed 
with fossil casts. The fauna includes gasteropods, as well as 
lamellibranchs. Venericardia planicosta is very prominent, to- 
gether with a Cyfheria, Turritella and a fusiform east. While 
this material is apparently identical with that found along the 
Houston, Bast & West Texas Eailway two miles north of Cor- 
rigan, Polk county, it belongs to the basal or Wellborn beds 
and corresponds to the Stephenson League locality. 

From the 32nd to the 27th mile posts there are shallow ex- 
posures of the characteristic brown shelly-bedded Jackson 
sandstone, quite friable, with more massive friable sandstone 1 
foot thick. At the 27th mile post are light, greenish-yellow, 
clayey, fine-grained', unconsolidated sands about 3 feet in 
thickness. The topography is a very gently rolling, dissected 
peneplain. One-third mile south is brown, irregularly lami- 
nated clay 1 foot thick, underlain by 2 feet of greenish-brown 
drab, waxy-lustred clay, much fractured and plastic. 

The following section is at Mile Post 26: 

1. Dark brown, sandy loam with Lafayette-derived pebbles and 

silicified wood fragments '. 4 ft. 


2. Brown sandy shale, locally partially indurated 1 ft. 

3. Greenish-brown drab, much fractured, plastic clay 4 ft. 

4. Brown shale 3 in. 

156 University of Texas Bulletin 

5. Dark brown carbonaceous shale 6 in. 

6. Brown shale 3 ft. 

The characteristic weathering color of the Jackson is dark, 
reddish-brown. Southward in the alDove section a bed of dark- 
brown, carbonaceous shale 1 foot thick is found in No. 3, 
arched in the shape of a low anticline 100 feet across and 4 
feet high, which to the southward dips beneath the surface. 
This carbonaceous layer lies between two layers of No. 3 and 
is equivalent to No. 5. Below No. 6 is a layer 3 feet in thick- 
ness similar to No. 3. Still farther south, 100 yards north of 
Mile Post 26, .No. 5 again appears at the surface in a low 
anticline. These clays are apparently a part of the Caddell 

One-half mile to the west is an old pottery works. Here 4 
feet of shelly-bedded, brown, sandy shale is overlain by the 
same thickness of cream-colored, cross-bedded, contorted 
bedded and thinly laminated, volcanic ash. The section is un- 
eonformably overlain by dark gray sandy loam 1-2 foot thick 
with Lafayette-derived pebbles and fragments of silieified 
wood. One hundred yards upstream the volcanic ash is over- 
lain by 2 feet of brown carbonaceous shale. 

The Manning beds in this section are first found at Mile 
Post 25 as a brown, cross-bedded sand 5 feet thick, locally 
ease-hardened and with a much fretted surface, which is over- 
lain by four inches of dark gray, sandy loam, with Lafayette- 
derived pebbles and fragments of silieified wood. At Lorimer 
siding the above mentioned bedrock section is overlain by light- 
brown, poorly laminated clay 2 feet in thickness. One-third 
mile south of Mile Post 25 is the following section. 

1. Dark brown soil, residual and alluvial with Lafayette-derived 

pebbles and wood fragments 2 ft. 


2. Light gray, clayey sand with white calcareous nodules 3 ft. 

3. Gray, cross-bedded fine sand 3 ft. 

Light gray, medium well indurated sandstone, weathering 
brownish, 3 feet thick, is exposed one-fourth mile north of 
Singleton. Wells at Singleton penetrated 10 feet of lignite at 

The Geology of East Texas 157 

depths approximating 50 feet. There is a parting of brown 
carbonaceous clay at a depth of 8 feet below the top of the bed. 
The lignite has a roof of rather hard sandstone about 13-16 
feet thick. The water af Singleton is very poor. One-fifth 
mile south of the Singleton station, exposed in cuts on both 
the International & Great Northern and Trinity & Brazos Val- 
ley railroads, is light gray, cross-bedded, medium-grained sand 
2 feet thick. Associated with this, is very light gray, or cream 
colored, volcanic ash cemented on fracture planes by light 
gray opaline silica, giving the rock a breeciated appearance, 
the fragments of white powdery ash, being 1-8 inch or less 
in diameter. At Mile Post 23 the ash, which is here thin- 
bedded and gritty, while the ash 200 yards north is not appre- 
ciably gritty and is finer, is underlain by brown, shelly-bedded 
sand and sandstone 2 feet thick. 

The contact between the Jackson and Corrigan is found be- 
tween the 23rd and 22nd mile posts. 

From the Madjsonville branch to the Trinity river the Yegua- 
Jackson contact follows the course of Bedias creek, which 
fiows about one mile south of the line between the two forma- 


The Trinity river affords one of our best sections of the 
Jackson. Its most northern exposure on this stream is found 
about one-fourth mile north of Calhoun's Ferry, at the corner 
of Madison, Houston and Walker counties. Here indurated 
Wellborn sandstone forms two large rapids, with an estimated 
combined fall of at least 6 feet. The rapids are formed by 
massive medium-grained, opaline-cemented, light gray sand- 
stone. Interbedded with this is the usual "shelly," brown, 
clayey sandstone. The sandstone contains many carbonaceous 
leaf imprints. The lower fall has a 4 ft. drop over a ledge of 
sandstone at least 6 feet thick. Overlying the sandstone is a 
foot of lignite, overlain unconformably by blue-gray and brown 
mottled, sandy, alluvial clay. Just above the upper shoals, 
second bottom terraces are present on opposite banks of the 
river. Natural levees, sometimes 10 feet in height and form- 

158 University of Texas Bulletin 

ing very perfect embankments, are found along the Trinity. 
Alluvial deposits extend from Calhoun's Ferry almost to Kit- 
trell on the Calhoun's Ferry-Trinity road. The Jackson is 
found on this road just south of Dillard's creek. 

The section at Calhoun's ferry follows. The dip at this ex- 
posure is from 21/2 to 4% degrees to the southward. This ex- 
posure is on the "Walker county side, or the north bank: 

1. Light brown, clayey, alluvial sand. Gravel at base, whicli 

forms terrace at the north end of the blufC 10 ft. 

Unconformity : 

i. Shelly-bedded, dark, grayish-brown clay, sandy and yellow- 
stained In middle, with plant fragments. Poorly consoli- 
dated 15 ft 

3. Lignite, impure, with carbonaceous clay. Lignite of poor 

quality. Upper seam of greenish, waxy clay. Forms shoal 

in river 5 ft. 

4. Dark brown, shelly clay at north; farther south changes to 

plastic, slickensided, greenish-brown clay . . ■ ■ 1 1-4 ft. 

5. Lignite, good quality, dull lustre, forming shoal in the 

river 4.5 ft. 

6. Light greenish and yellowish-green joint clay, waxy and non- 

plastic, with black oxide of manganese. Laminated, sandy, 
cross-bedded, and with carbonaceous fragments in middle. 
Weathers light gray to cream colored. Upper 3 feet darker 
when un weathered than the lower portion 7 ft. 

7. Sandy, gray clay, poorly laminated, with plant fragments . . 2 ft. 

8. Poor lignite and blackish, carbonaceous shale 1.5 ft. 

9. Hard, firm lignite, locally burned 2.5 ft. 

10. IJght brown sand, with carbonaceous fragments % ft. 

11. Light greenish, fine-grained sand, pyritlferous and sulphur- 

ous, thinly and irregularly laminated 6 ft. 

12. Light gray sand, fine-grained, micaceous, irregularly and 

shelly-bedded, much jointed, with small black fragments 

of Salix and other leaves 2.5 ft. 

13. Dark gray-drab clay, jointed and imperfectly laminated 5 ft. 

14. Chocolate-bPown, carbonaceous, sandy clay 1 ft. 

15. Pine-grained sand, thin and irregularly laminated, yellow- 

ish-stained light gray, with thin plates of dark brown 
carbonaceous matter and small lignitic fragments 7 ft. 

16. Dark greenish-gray, laminated, joint clay with lignitized 

fragments, and with irregular lenses of fine light gray 
sand. Sand locally in irregular pockets with cross-bedded 

The Geology of East Texas 159 

■structure. Weathers grayish and light brown and oontains 
lignitized fragments. Sand in upper half 15 ft. 

17. Dark greenish-gray, sandy, sticky, joint clay, mainly sand 

in upper half Y f t. 

18. Dark brown, carbonaceous clay with lignitized fragments. . 1 ft. 

19. Lignite 1 ft. 

20. Dark gray, fine-grained sand, clayey, thinly laminated 2 ft. 

Total of Jackson in this section is 86 feet. 
One-fourth to one-half mile below the end of the above bluff 
is the following section: 

1. Irregularly laminated sandy clay, yellow-stained brown 7 ft. 

2. Hard, firm, dull-lustred lignite with thin lenses of brown 

carboneaceous . clay. Lignite makes shoals 2 % ft. 

3. Dark brown, carbonaceous shaly clay 1 ft. 

4. Laminated, gray, fine-grained, yellow stained sand 3 ft. 

1. Grayish-brown, carbonaceous, shelly sandstone 5 ft. 

2. Laminated, sulphurous, chocolate clay B ft. 

3. Like (1) and sulphurous 4 ft. 

4. CpoBs-bedded, loose, gray sand, fine-grained. Laminated and 

more indurated at the base. Locally indurated to a fine- 
grained, thin-bedded sandstone 25 ft. 

5. Poorly laminated and shelly sands, somewhat clayey, highly 

sulphurous and carbonaceous. Gray brown in color 12 ft. 

6. Sandy clays and sands, dark brown to black, highly carbo- 

naceous and sulphurous, poorly laminated. Lignitiferous. 
Locally contains sandy pipe concretions 8 ft. 

The bluff here is 63 feet high, measured with hand-level. The 
sandstone carries fairly good plant fragments and casts of 
marine lamellibranchs were noted on one piece of sandstone on 
top of the bluff. The sandstone also shows selenite flakes. In 
almost all of these bluffs streams with exceedingly steep sides 
are to be found. These are canyon or gully like in form. At 
Weiser's Bluff, springs highly charged with sulphur issued 
from the bottoms of the gullies. 

Just below Weiser's Bluff, in a stretch where the river flows 
N. 30° W., there is a bluff on the Walker county side which 
exposes some 60 feet of Jackson. Here there is no perceptible 
dip. At the base is JO feet of bluish-gray, laminated, shaly 
clay, overlain by grayish-brown, shelly sands, 40 feet in thick- 
ness, and this is covered by 10 feet of gray sandstone. 

160 University of Texas Bulletin 

Cincinnati Bluff, about one mile downstream from Weiser's 
Bluff, is also on the Walker county side, .and is slightly higher 
than Weiser's Bluff. The section at Cincinnati Bluff is very 
similar to that of Weiser's Bluff, except that the upper 15 feet 
is composed of light reddish terrace material. 

About 4 feet of lignite is exposed in a shaal on the south 
bank of the river just above" the mouth of Wright's creek. 
Just below the mouth the following section is exposed on the 
north bank: 

1. Alluvium with calcareous nodules, light brown in color, but 

blackish towards top 20 ft. 

2. Lafayette-derived gravel 2 ft. 


3. Light brown, shelly, sulphur-stained, clayey sand l%,ft. 

4. Impure lignite 2/3 ft. 

5. Light brown, gray, laminated and cross-bedded carbonaceous 

sand 10 ft. 

One-half mile below the mouth of Nelson creek there is a rock 
shelf on the south bank which juts out into the water and rock 
shoal extending across the river with a 4 ft. fall. The follow- 
ing is the section : 

1. Brownish, irregularly laminated and "shelly" clayey sand.. 10 ft. 

2. Lignite . . • • .• ; 3 ft. 

3. Indurated gray sEuidstone layer forming rapids 1 ft. 

4. Irregularly, cross-bedded and laminated sands 6 ft. 

No perceptible dip was noted in this section. The bed of 
lignite and other strata of the above section outcrop upstream 
continuously to slightly above the mouth of Nelson creek. 

The next shoal downstream is made by lignite. At the base 
of this exposure is thinly laminated, gray, carbonaceous sand 
3 feet in thickness, locally partially indurated into irregular 
surfaced shelly sandstone. Above is dense black lignite 2 feet 
in thickness, with top ol the bed not seen. One-fourth mile 
farther downstream, the next shoals exposed 3 feet of thin, 
shelly-bedded, brown, carbonaceous sandstone. The next ex- 
posure one-half mile downstream is situated on the south bank 
like the last two. The section is: 

TJie Geology of East Texas 161 

1. Light brown, sandy clay with, whitish calcareous nodules, 

dark gray on the surface — alluvium 20_25ft. 

Unconformity : 

2. Light grayish-brown, clayey sand, poorly laminated, carbo- 

naceous 6 ft. 

3. Dark brown, carbonaceous shale, forming a fairly good roof 

for the lignite 6 ft. 

4. Lignite, non-lustrous, not waxy, much weathered, varying in 

thickness, light in weight 5 ft 

5. Sandy, dark brown, carbonaceous shaly clay with many black 

plant fragments ■ • 3 ft. 

Below the above section, at the east end of the bluff, is the 
following section. The dip here is 2° S. 70° W. 

1. Laminated sand, like basal member of section last given. 

2. Poor grade lignite 1 ft. 

3. Brown carbonaceous sand 1 ft. 

4. Gray, thinly laminated violcanic ash, sandy and carbonaceous 3 ft. 

5. Volcanic ash, very fine-grained, cream-colored, laminated. .2-5 ft. 

6. Brown clayey sand, highly sulphurous and carbonaceous. 

shelly ... I 3 ft. 

7. Shelly brown sandstone 3 ft. 

8. Brown clayey sand 3 ft. 

At the east end of the bluff the lignite is overlain conform- 
ably by a layer of Lafayette-derived gravel. 

One-half mile downstream, on the south bank, is another bed 
of lignite. The section here is : 

1. Light brown, sandy, alluvial clay with calcareous nodules. 

2. Limonite-cemented layer of Lafayette-derived gravel. 

3. Brown carbonaceous, imperfectly laminated sand 7 ft. 

4. Dark brown, shaly clay, sandy, firm, carbonaceous and highly 

sulphurous 2 % ft. 

5. Dense, dull black lignite 5 % ft. 

6. Shelly, compact, sticky dark brown carbonaceous clay, with 

lignitized fragments • % ft. 

7. Laminated blue sand, cross and contorted bedded, and with 

layers and lenses of blue clay, pyritiferaus 5 ft. 

The dip here is 2° West. This exposure is opposite the 
mouth of Dillard's creek. The partially indurated sand be- 
neath the lignite forms shoals. 

162 University of Texas Bulletin 

At the bluff 2 miles south of the town of Trinity the Thomp- 
son Brothers Lumber Company have a pumping plant. This 
bluff is about one-half mile long and affords quite the finest 
exposure of Jackson yet seen. The dip is 2l^° to the south- 
east. The section is: 

1. Alluvial sandy clay with, calcareous nodules, mainly light 

brown in color, but is greenish-gray near the surface at 

a short distance from the river 25 ft. 

2. Lafayette-derived gravel layer. 


3. Thin and shelly-bedded, brown and gray sand 15 ft 

4. Massive, fine-grained gray or brown sand, loose, imperfectly 

laminated or cross-bedded locally 11 ft. 

5. Chiocolate-brown, sandy clay banded towards top and of drab 

color. Thin-bedded and laminated. Contains one 5 ft. 
drab, clayey sand layer about 8 feet above base. The upper 
portion is very sandy and well stratified 16 ft. 

6. Clayey, brownish, sulphur-stained, shelly-bedded sands 

Clayey layers, dark gray in color. Some of the sands are 
also cross-bedded and of gray color. Contains lignitized 
stumps with marks of borers 31 ft. 

7. Lignite l'2"-2 % ' 

8. Dirty-green, sticky clay, locally oopp eras-stained 4 ft. 

9. Lignite 2 % ft. 

10. Dirty-green clay, unctuous, much fractured 2 ft. 

11. Dark blue-gray, medium-grained sand, laminated 3 ft. 

12. Dark greenish-gray, compact clay with plant fragments 

weathering light gray 2 ft. 

13. Dark brown, sandy, carbonaceous shale 11 ft. 

Total Jackson exposed in above section 100 feet. 

A bed of lignite outcrops in a low bluff on the west bank, 
one-half mile below Clegg's shoals. This bluff trends east and 
west along the strike of the beds. The same bed of lignite 
outcrops on the east bank about one-half mile farther down- 
stream, where the dip is one degree or less in a southward or 
southeastward direction. The section is: 

1. Yellowish, sandy alluvium, generally with Lafayette-derived 

pebbles at base. 

Unconformity : 

2. Laminated, medium-grained brownish sands. 

TJie Geology of East Texas 163 

3. Lignite, hard, firm, dull lustre, semi-conchoidal fracture.... 4ft. 

4. Brown sand, carbonaceous, locally clayey 4 in. 

5. Lignite 6 in. 

6. Dark gray, carbonaceous clay 4 i:t. 

7. Laminated gray, medium-grained sands, contorted and cross- 

bedded 6 ft. 

The next two exposures farther downstream are about 2 miles 
distant from each other. They consist of 15 feet of thinly lami- 
nated light gray, fine sand. The upper exposure has 2 thin seams 
of carbonaceous matter within 4 or 5 feet of the top. It is folded 
in broad, very low waves with one abrupt vertical downfold of 
2 ft. in the same horizontal distance. The lower exposure is lo- 
cally stained with yellow, has slightly contorted bedding and is 
overlain unconformably by 2 feet of ferruginous cemented La- 
fayette-derived conglomerate. 

A bluff two miles north of Riverside and about 200 yards west 
of the International & Great Northern Railway may present in 
its basal member, the upper part of the Jackson formation and 
the contact between it and the overlying Corrigan. 


There are few exposures of the Jackson on the International & 
Great Northern Railway. On the line between Trinity and 
Houston counties the base of Jackson shows thin, irregular and 
shelly-bedded, friable, creamy to buff sandstones. 

There is 8 feet of volcanic tuff exposed just north of Mile Post 
16, with its base not seen. When pure this tuff is of a light 
yellowish-cream color, but when mixed with sand it is grayer. 
The whole is much cross-bedded, with sharp planes of demarka- 
tion between beds dipping at different angles. Another pecu- 
liarity is small ellipsoidal bodies of very fine clay or tuff in- 
cluded within the main deposit. The plane between beds dipping 
in different directions are flat or irregular surfaced. Another 
peculiarity is the cross-laminae in which coarser grains form 
lighter-colored laminae, interbedded with laminae of darker 
Francisco. The purity of these ash beds would naturally lead 
gray, finer materials. This deposit is almost certainly of eolian 
origin. It duplicates almost exactly sections of sand dunes to 
be seen south of the Presidio and near the Cliff House at San 

164 University of Texas Bulletin 

one to the conjecture that they must be wind-blown deposits, and 
the cross-bedded stj-ucture of this exposure renders the view 
rather certain. The volcanic ash is overlain a short distance to 
the south by poorly indurated, medium-grained, gray sandstone, 
locally mottled. 

Tyler and East Prairies, northwest of Groveton, are in reality 
one large prairie with a narrow neck of timber reaching across 
near the middle. Together they approximate six miles in an 
east-west direction by 2% to 3 miles in a north-south direction. 

The surface of the ground on these prairies is very rolling and 
they do not present the smooth surface noted in other prairies to 
the east. For the most part the prairies are well drained by 
shallow, broad gullies emptying into Little White Rock and 
Louisville creeks. 

The town of Pennington is situated about the middle of the 
prairie, near the south line of the Prado League, Trinity county. 
Near the central northern end of the prairie a deep gully cuts 
into the underlying formations and the following section is ex- 
posed : 

1. Surface sand and soil of the prairie, a gray sand for the most 

jjart containing abundant gravel of red color and large size, 
together with large l)lo«ks of petrified wood 2 to 3 ft. 

2. Cross-bedded clayey sands of varying thickness and often 

missing from section. Petrified wood 2 ft. 

3. Limoriitic concretionary layer 2 in. 

4. Drab clay, somewhat sandy, weathers out whitish about the 

same as No. 6 except that No. 6 is somewhat stained with 
iron 3 ft. 6 in. 

5. Yellowish-brown, limonitic, concretionary layer, for the most 

party very continuous 2 to 3 in. 

6. Yellowish-brown to drab sandy clay, with layers of gray sand, 

sometimes 1-16 of an Inch thick. The clay is gypsiferous 
and tastes of alum. Weathers out whitish 2 ft. 

The materials of the section above given weather along the 
gully in badlands form. No dip was noticed.' 

These beds are near the base of the Jackson. 

The wood found in No. 2 of this section was identified by 
Berry as Cladas'porites fasciculatus Berry, which is found in 
both Claiborne and Jackson beds in the Coastal area. 

While it is certain that the sections as given between the 

The Geology of East Texas 165 

Brazos and central Trinity county contain deposits which are the 
equivalents in time of the Caddell clays, the mottled gray and 
brown fossiliferous clay with fossiliferous limestone nodules 
which constitute these beds eastward from the divide between the 
Trinity and Neches rivers are entirely absent, being replaced by 
lignitic clays and sands. 


The relationship of the three stages of the Jackson are found 
in the Groveton section which was made along the Groveton, Luf- 
kin & Northern Railroad between Apple Springs, where we found 
the top of the Yegua, and Groveton, and on Caney creek south 
of Groveton. 

The first section south of Apple Springs shows: 

1. Sticky,, bluish gray clay co-ntaining sandy ferruginous con- 

cretions In places 1 % t't. 

2. Clayey sand, massive, grayish tO' light brown, fine-grained, 

gypsiferous 2 It. 

Cutting 2200 feet north of Mile Post 15 exposes the following : 

1. Thin bedded, gray to white and light brown sandy clay and 

shaly clay, similar to No. 4 5 ft. 

2. Highly carbonaceous clay, or poor grade lignite chocolate -, 

brown in outcrop 6 ft. 

3. Gray, thin-bedded to miasslve, slightly gypsiferous sand 10 ft. 

4. Dark chocolate brown shaly clay with noi visible structure, 

except near the top, where thin bedding is seen. Con- 
tains sulphur along joint planes 8 ft. 

The third member is made up of even-grained small rounded 
clear quartz pebbles stained slightly with iron. 

Dip of beds in direction S. 25° E. is from 1° 20' to 2°, being 
higher in northern end of cutting. 

Between 800 and 2000 feet north of Mile Post No. 14 the fol- 
lowing section is exposed: 

1. Light brown clayey sand 5 ft. 

2. Thin bedded, fine-grained, gray sandstone alternating with 

a laminated mauve sandy shale, slightly gypsiferous 7 ft. 

3. Massive, fine-grained, sandstone, gray in color 2 ft. 

166 Univet'sHy of Texas Bulletin 

i. Thin-bedded, light brown, slightly carbonaceous, sandy shale, 

containing local incrustations of a gypsiferous nature 25 ft. 

The fourth member contains large fragments of silicified wood 
having a dull earthly lustre. Dip on the second member 
measured at S. 25° W. was 1° 20'. This member in the north 
end of cut grades into a slightly carbonaceous sandy clay, dark 
brown in color. Covering all is a thin veneer of quartzitie gravel. 
At Mile Post No. 15 the fourth member is seen to carry a hard 
ferruginous layer about three inches thick. 

Near Mile Post No. 12, a section of 4% feet shows alternating 
bluish-gray, laminated, shaly clay and dark red ferruginous 
sandstone about equally developed in layers averaging 9-inches 

Cutting 800 feet north of Mile Post No. 11 (Alabama creek) 
exposes about 8 feet of a light brown and bluish-gray, sticky 
sandy clay containing numerous rounded limestone concretions 
which are up to 2 feet in diameter. These concretions are fos- 
siliferous and a collection, mostly casts, was made. Among the 
genera might be mentioned : Cardita, Leda, Dentalium, Natica, 
Turrit ella and numerous other gasteropods and lamellibranchs, in 
addition to a species of coral, which belong to the Caddell clays. 

Cutting 1750 feet south of Mile Post 9 exposes the following 
section : 

1. Brown surface sand up to 1 ft. 

2. Dark gray toi black sandy clay, mottled reddish brown in 

places 1 ft. 

3. Yellowish brown to brown clayey sand containing gravel, but 

pebbles are of noticeably smaller size, although of same 
material as (4) 3 ft. 

4. Yelowish brown clayey sand containing quartzitie pebbles 

and fragments lof silicified-wood. Pebbles are rounded and 

of all sizes from 1-8" to 2" in diameter 3 in. 

6. Light brown to chocolate brown, carbonaceous shaly clay 

containing leaf impressions 5 ft. 

At Mile Post 8 and immediately to the south there is a cutting 
exposing about 10 feet of a chocolate brown, carbonaceous shaly 
clay, thin bedded, and containing leaf impressions. Near the 
middle of the section is 3 inches of a grayish to yellowish brown 
cross-bedded sandstone. Some few tiny flakes of selenite show 

The Geology of East Texas 167 

upon the surface of sand partings in the clay. At Mile Post 8 
the clay seems to butt up against 3 feet of gray, highly cross- 
bedded sandstone. Limonitic concretions, oval in shape, and 
with a concentric structure, were observed scattered through the 

Immediately north of the bridge over Piney creek (Bridge 
7.32) there is a bank about 20 feet high which exposes a very 
good section as follows. 

1. Brown carbonaceous, thin-bedded shale 4 ft. 

2. Medium grained sandstone, much cross-bedded. Irregularly 

interbedded with a thin-bedded sandstone and a. sandstone 

bedded in layers up to 4 inches thick 7 ft. 

S. Alternating beds of medium grained, rather soft, yellowish 
brown to gray sandstone and a grayish brown, carbo- 
naceous, fine-grained rather hard sandstone, successive lay- 
ers being about 2 inches thick 4 ft. 

To the south of Caney creek (Bridge 4.75) about 100 yards 
and on the eastern side of the track, there is a low ridge running 
down to the track. It is made up of a very resistant, fine and 
even grained, gray sandstone. The sandstone is made up of small 
rounded quartz grains with a matrix of a quartzitic nature. The 
sandstone is very hard, breaks with a splintery fracture, and 
contains large fragments of silicified wood. The silicified wood 
has a dull earthy lustre and the grain shows up very well. This 
ridge does not rise more than 5 feet above the surrounding 
country and the rock is only seen exposed over a limited area. 

Near the section house about three quarters of a mile north- 
east of Mile Post No. 3 the following section was observed : 

1. Yellowish brown sand containing quartzitic pebbles, rounded 

and up to 2-inches in diameter 1 ft. 

2. Mottled dark bluish gray and reddish brown clayey sand . . 3 ft. 

3. Gray, rather hard, even grained and rather fine-grained, 

cross-bedded sandstone 2 ft. 

In the creek bottom the gray sandstone is seen to be thin- 
bedded and cross-bedded and to contain thin layers of choco- 
late brown clay containing fragmentary plant impressions. 

Just north of junction of the Groveton, Lufkin & Northern 
Railroad with the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway, one mile 

168 University of Texas Bulletin 

northwest of Groveton, is a cutting exposing 5 feet of .a highly 
cross-bedded, even grained, gray sandstone overlain by about 

4 feet of brown sand carrying many quartz pebbles up to 1% 
inches in diameter. 

Cutting one-eighth mile north of the above section exposes 
at the bottom 5 feet of the gray, even grained sandstone which 
is locally cross-bedded, thin-bedded, or massive, and contains in 
some places limonitic concretions, while in others a slight yel- 
lowish brown mottling is noticed. At one point the sandstone 
contains angular fragments of volcanic tuff up to 2-inches in 
diameter. Clay nodules are contained in the sandstone and also 
in the overlying sand which covers the sandstone to a depth of 

5 feet. The sand here is yellowish brown to gray in color and 
carries quartz pebbles. 

Three miles east of Trinity, on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
Eailway at the crossing over White Rock creek, there is an 
exposure in the creek bottom of about 1 foot of a white, soft, 
volcanic tuff, underlain by at least 3 feet of a calcareous soft, 
stiff clay, which is irregularly bedded and mottled chocolate 
brown and gray. This material is carbonaceous and fragments 
of wood were found in it. Immediately overlying the tuff is a 
layer of gravel about 6 inches thick, and the whole is covered 
by about six feet of gray sand. 

Up the creek, and oh its eastern side, about one-fourth mile 
from bridge there is a bluff rising about 80 feet above the 
creek made up mostly of a gray, rather resistant, even and fine- 
grained sandstone, containing a few casts of fossils. This rock 
stratigraphieally overlies the tuff. 

The top of the hill is covered by a quarzitic gravel made up 
of rather coarse pebbles of quartzose and chalcedonie material. 
In one place, about one-fourth mile east of the bluff, gravel was 
seen to a thickness of 7 feet and was being excavated for local 
use. This high bluff extends up the river for two miles. 

Carrying the section southward along creeks south of the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas Railway, some two miles southwest of 
Westville on "White Oak creek, the following section was ob- 
served : 

Thin-bedded, laminated and wavy, cross-bedded, clayey 
sands and sandy clays grading in places into only slightly are- 

The Geology of East Texas 169 

naeeous clays. The colors are for the most part grayish and 
brownish, but all graduations from yellowish to buish or drab 
were seen. 

This material weathers honey yellow locally, but in most 
places weathers yellowish-brown. Contains abundant organic 
matter in shape of leaves, stems, etc. The dip here was in one 
place 2 degress to the south. This dip is believed to be local. 

A hill 70 feet in height with a summit area of 2i/2 to 3 acres 
is found in the bottoms of Dean creek. The creek flows along 
the northern and northeastern base of this hill. In the bed 
and banks of the creek is found the following section : 

1. (a) At the south, directly under the northeast base of 
the hill, there is 12 feet of thinly laminated brownish to 
buff sand carrying thin streaks of brown carbonaceous 
material, but becoming sandier and thicker bedded toward 
the top. The bedding here is also slightly irregular. 

1. (b) At the north, along the creek banks is exposed 10 

feet of thinly laminated, light brown to drab 'sandy clay 
carrying plant fragments. The bedding is not very regu- 
lar and the individual beds aje not of uniform thickness. 
At the eastemm'ost locality examined the beds dipping 
3-1-2° to the southward, 50 yards south the dip is 8° to the 
southward, while 100 yards south of the latter locality, the 
dip Is apparently 4 or 5 degrees to the westward, but this 
apparent dip may have been caused by slumping. 

2. Dark brown, carbonaceous clay, gradually becoming lighter 

with a lessening in the amount of carbonaceous matter 
towards the top 1 ft. 

3. Lignite, poor in quality 1 ft. 

4. Base, dark brown carbonaceous clay, total thickness unknown. 

Above the bed 1 (a) the surface of the hillside is strewn with 
blocks of sandstone. A rim of sandstone in place surrounding 
the top of the hill is in places a massive bed 3 to 4 feet thick. 
Locally, these sandstone blocks are quartzitic; in places they 
exhibit imperfect lamination and break in blocks thick enough 
to be suitable for dimension stone. The sandstone contains 
thin flakes of selenite and much of it case-hardens on the sur- 
face on exposure to .air. 

About one-half mile above the A. Wicker Survey there is ex- 
posed 5 feet of medium to fine-grained gray sands poorly lami- 
nated and cross-bedded, the same being clayey in places. These 


170 University of Texas Bulletin 

sands dip 2° S. 20° W. and they are underlain in the creek bed 
by chocolate shaly clays. 

On the A. Wicker Survey there outcrops a fine-grained, gray 
sandstone containing casts of lamellibranchs and also showing 
ripple-marks. The fossils are probably brackish-water forms. 
The sandstone is underlain by 2 feet of lignite coal and this in 
turn is underlain by black, carbonaceous clay. 

One-half mile belowthis place there is exposed 6 feet of choc- 
olate colored, shaly, sandy clay with layers up to 2^^ inches 
thick of gray sandstone. 

Much fossil wood was collected along this creek. 

For the first half mile upstream from the Beaumont & Great 
Northern Railroad bridge, on the east bank of White Rock 
creek and below mouth of Caney creek is the following section: 

1. Grayish brown, fine-grained, fairly compact sandstone, In 
some places in one large layer and in other places in sev- 
eral layers, full of plant remains, mainly Palmetto 4 ft. 

3. Yellowish and brown laminated sandy clay stained with 

sulphur and limonite 12 ft. 

Above ths was found opaline-cemented sandstone resembling 
that of the Catahoula, and the beds are practically the top 
of the Jackson in this region. 

The plant remains from these beds identified by Berry are as 
follows : 

Caney and White Rock creeks, 6 to 10 miles east of Trinity : 

Uppermost Jackson at Corrigan Contact Other Gulf States. 

HiygiO'dium mississippiensis Berry Catahoula 

Sabalites vicksburgensis Berry Vicksburg Catahoula 

Dryophyllum n. sp. Claiborne 

Anona texana Berry 

Myrcia catahoulensis Berry Catahoula 

Apocynophyllum n. sp. Claiborne Jackson 


Tarkiln creek flows into the Neches about four miles north- 
west of the Houston, Bast & West Texas Railway crossing of 
that river. Suman found on the Hobbs Survey exposures of a 
mottled-brown and bluish-gray, sandy and highly gypsiferoua 

The Geology of East Texas 171 

clay containing Eocene fossils in a fair state of preservation. 
Locally, the clay contained limestone concretions with concen- 
tric structure and these contained an abundant fauna of lamel- 
libranchs, gasteropods and corals. A good collection was made. 
This material resembles very much that found on the Groveton, 
Lufkin & Northern Railroad 800 feet north of Mile Post No. 11 
at an elevation of 300 feet. The following forms were iden- 
tified : 

Ostrea c. f. contracta Telllna sp. 

Area sp.? Turricula sp. 

Venericardia planicosta Lam. Bulinella kellogii Gabb 

Venerioardia rotunda Lea Turritella nasuta Gabb 

Peetunculus idoneus Con. Turritella houstonia Har. 

Pectunculus sp.? Solarium alveatum Con. 

Crassatella texana Hellp.? Solarium huppertzi Har. 

Crassatella flexura Volutilithes petrosus 

Corbula alabamiensis Lea Cassidaria sp. 

Oorbula oniscus? Calyptrea sp. 

Cytherea tOTnadonIs Har.? Dentalium dumblei Har. 

Tellina mooreana Plabellum wailesii Oon. 

In the yellow, sandy concretions are many large Pinna, PJiol- 
odomya, EcMnoderms, small Haminea grandis, etc. 

The exposure on rail line in south bank of Neches river 
shows the lignitic clays and sands of the Caddell. There is a 
succession of clays and sands, brown to grayish-brown in color, 
apparently massive in places, but for the most part laminated 
or shaly. The clay breaks into nodular pieces. It grades into 
more or less sandy clay and is interbedded with laminated 
lignitic sands. A band of lignitic material is overlain by cal- 
careous sandy beds which carry numerous impressions of lamel- 

The clays are overlain in the vicinity of Fant by massive, 
cross-bedded sands which are apparently unconformable with 
them. Just south of Mile Post 100 these sands are in turn 
succeeded by sandy shales which also seem unconformable on 
the Fant sand. In these shales there are bands of volcanic ash, 
and by the side of the road there are several opalized stumps 
standing upright in the ash with their roots spread into the 
shales underlying as though in situ. The trunk of one of these 
has a diameter of twelve inches and is solid. Another is 

172 University of Texas Bulletin 

twenty inches in diameter with .a hollow center. It was partly 
rotted before being buried and the opalization filled the joints 
and hollows. The Fant sands carry some siliceous gravel and 
the shale has a few ferugiaous concretions. 
Baker's section here is as follows: 

1. Much cross-bedded, light cream colored sand containing 

irregular, non-continuous lenses and layers of light drab 
clay. The lenses and layers of clay have curved, irregular 
outlines and lie in the sands often at attitudes a.t vari- 
ance with the horizontal. The sand is medium-coarse in 
grain and sub-angular to ro-unded in contour. Some of the 
seams and lenses of clay are dark brown from the included 
carbonaceous matter. The sand shows imperfect lamina- 
tion, which lamination effect is aided by thin layers stained 
with sulphur and llmonite. At the south end of the cut 
there is at the top about 2% feet of thin-bedded, light 
cream sandy clay alternating with thin layers of light 
brown, much like the clay at Potomac (Mile Post 99). 
Maximum thickness 15 ft. 

Unconformity with irregular contact, suggesting the erosion of a 
channel before the deposition of the overlying beds. 

2. Nodular, sandy clay, light brown in color, weathering to a 

light buff ior a light drab, sulphurous. Locally carbo- 
naceous about 1 foot above base. Upper 10 feet of light buff 
color. Thickness varies, up to 20 ft. 

3. Thin-bedded, unconsolidated, light 'brown sandstone with 

small dark, drab clay nodules and thin irregular lenticular 
layers of clay with thickness up to 1-4". Irregularly stained 
with sulphur and limonite. Carries also brown plant frag- 
ments and locally exhibits case.hardening with a light pur- 
plish-blue tinge 12 ft. 

In the gully immediately to the south of this cut is exposed 
a maximum of 27 feet of the light drab, sulphurous, sandy clays 
unconformably overlain by light gray to cream colored, cross- 
bedded sands similar to those described under (1) above. At 
the north end of the cut at Mile Post 100 small grains of tuff 
(?) were mingled with the quartz grains. These sands are 
locally indurated and then are light bluish or purple-gray in 
color. The induration is irregular and gives a nodular aspect 
to the rock. The spaces between jointed blocks are seamed 

The Geology of East Texas 173 

with the cementing material and these seams standing out as 
ridges give a cavernous or honeycombed appearance to weath- 
ered surfaces. It is only the top layers from 1 to 2 feet in 
thickness which are so indurated and locally some of the over- 
lying gravel of the surfieial member has also been cemented. 
The surfieial indurated layer projects over the underlying less 
resistant sands. The induration follows the contour of the 
present surface and the indurated zone is a broad low dome in 
shape. In the vicinity of Mile Post 100 cross-bedding is very 
greatly developed. 

At the extreme south end of this cut, near the road crossing, 
there is exposed at the track level 1 foot of very fine white 
ash with base not seen. This ash is locally indurated on the 
surface exposures. Some of the cross-bedding, especially at 
the south end of the cut, with planes meeting each other at 
abrupt angles, suggest either a sand dune, a bar or spit, or the 
downstream side of a river "towhead." 

Between Mile Post 100 and Mile Post 99 sands similar to 
those at Mile Post 100, and locally case-hardened, are exposed. 

In the cutting about one-fourth mile north of Potomac, on 
the Houston, East & "West Texas Eailway, the following sec- 
tion was noted : 

1. Case-hardened, Indurated, perhaps calcareous-cemented, light 

gray to light cream colored sandstone weathering in cavern- 
ous or large honeycomb form and dontaining in the sur- 
fieial layer, in situ, rounded pebbles of Quartzitic and gra- 
nitic rocks. Massive. Thickness 1 ft. 4 in. 

2. Friable, fine-grained, somewhat cross-bedded sand with sel- 

enite flakes. Color is light cream to light brown 3 ft. 

In both members were noted small clay balls and fragments 
of what resembled volcanic tuff. The matrix here may be tuff. 
The general dip of the lower member was southward at low 
angle. This surfieial member (No. 1) may represent re-ce- 
mented, both residual and transported material, .and may be- 
long to the Lafayette. The cementation of this member is ir- 
regular and it shows a tendency, locally, to be more indurated, 
along joints, which gives it the cavernous .appearance. Locally 
it is compact and is a medium hard sandstone. 

In the creek bed immediately west of Houston, Bast & "West 

174 University of Texas Bulletin . 

Texas Railway, about 200 yards north of signal board "Poto- 
mac," there outcrops a stratum of lignite 3.5 feet thick, which 
burned in the camp fire. On exposure to the air' it slacks. The 
stratum is covered by about 4 feet of chocolate colored, shaly 
clay and two feet of surficial material. It is black in color, of 
light weight, and breaks with an irregular fracture. This ma- 
terial outcrops along the creek for a distance of about 60 feet. 

Cutting in creek bed immediately northeast of signal board 
"Potomac" shows 8 feet of a light cream colored sandy clay, 
case-hardened and standing with vertical walls. It is gypsifer- 
ous and slightly carbonaceous, often containing leaf imprints. 
The material shows imperfect lamination and locally it may be 
stained yelowish brown by limonite. The sand in this clay is 
very fine-grained. 

Section exposed 1000 feet south of Potomac shows 3 feet of 
medium grained sand, gray and yellowish brown to cream col- 
ored, thick bedded at bottom of exposure, but grading into- 
thin-bedding and lamination at top. Covered by 3 feet of a 
chocolate brown, highly carbonaceous clay, sandy locally. This^ 
is in turn covered by about 1 foot of gravel. The sand member 
is clayey locally and contains mud balls. About 300 feet 
farther south the sand member is exposed up to 3 feet and is- 
finely laminated and cross-bedded. Contains plant remains. 
At Bridge 99-C, 7 feet of the sand member is exposed in the- 
creek bank. Locally, it contains sandy clay layers and layera 
of chocolate brown, carbonaceous, shaly clay up to 1-8 inch 
thick. The dip here is 3° S. 

Three hundred and fifty feet north of Mile Post No. 97 the- 
following section is exposed: 

1. Lafayette. Light mottled reddish brown and gray, locally, 

and dark brown elsewhere, sandy clay. Contains much 
gravel made up of quartz, chalcedonic and metamorphic 
pebbles and small angular blocks of a hard sandstone, 
probably derived from a local source. Large siliceous wood 
fragments up to 2 feet in length are found' here too. Case- 
hardening on surface g ft.- 

2. Fine, dark brown clay 2 ft 

3. Laminated, fine sand, light gray to light brown and contain- 

ing plant fragments and tiny flakes of selenite 3 ft.. 

TTie Geology, of East Texas 175 

An excellent collection of marine invertebrate fossils in a 
fine state of preservation was made from well dug about 200 
feet west of Bridge 96-C along the Benford tram. These shells 
came from a, blue clay at a depth of 28 feet. 

A very interesting locality is that on the northwest corner 
of the J. M. Deane League, Trinity county, about 5 miles due 
west of Potomac. 

On the northwest corner of this League, near the Trinity 
county line, in the bed of Rocky creek, the following section is 
exposed : 

1. Chocolate colored, laminated shaly clay 2 It. 

2. Thin-bedded, soft, gray to yellowish brown sandstone con- 

taining casts of fossils, both lamellibranchs and gasteropods I'ft. 

3. Alternating thin-bedded chocolate to drab shaly clay and 

yelloiwish brown sand 1 ^/i ft. 

4. Gray to white clayey sand standing with perpendicular walls. 

Contains abundant poorly preserved lamellibranch shells 
for the most part of only about three species 8 ft. 

5. Cross-bedded!, coarse, dark gray and bluish gray angular 

grained sand. Some few green giuins resembling glau- 
conite were seen in this sand. Locally almost a shell marl 
and locally contains lignitized wood. Shells of Ostrea 
abundant in places 3 ft. 

6. Greenish blue, shaly clay, thin-bedded and massive and grad- 

ing locally into chocolate brown colored clay. Contains 
many fairly well preserved lamellibranch remains 3 % ft. 

Approximately one-half mile below the above locality there 
is a hill rising about 50 feet above the creek, on the eastern 
bank. It is capped by a white sandstone containing a few easts 
of fossils. Locally, the sandstone is indurated to a quartzite, 
but for the most part it is of medium hardness. Some few 
leaf impressions were noted. The material underlying this 
sandstone, found outcropping in the creek bed, is a buff clayey 
carbonaceous sand underlain by laminated drab to chocolate 
colored shaly clay with parting of yellowish brown sand. 

In the creek bed were picked up teeth and spines of sharks 
and rays Synecodus, Odontaspis, etc., scutes of a marine 
turtle and fragmentary limb bones of small mammals. From 
this locality there was also collected a jaw fragment of what 

176 University of Texas Bulletin 

was possibly a creodont carnivore. A good collection of marine 
invertebrates was secured here. 


The section in eastern Angelina county is similar. The 
Caddell clays with fossils are found at Donovan. Between 
Donovan and Manning chocolate clays with gypsum and sal- 
phur-buff compact, unctuous clays and dark clays with limo- 
nite are found. 

Shawnee prairie is three miles north of Manning. The prairie 
is covered with a good growth of grass and is said to be good 
farming land. The clay underlying the prarie is very gypsif- 
erous. The following is the section of the clays underlying 
Shawnee prairie: 

1. Light chocolate brown, plastic clays containing sulphur and 

fibrous gypsum, stained with reddish and brownish limo- 
nite on joint planes. Contains numerous casts of Bocene 
fossils, among them a, large Pinna, also yolutilithes, 
Venericardia, Gorhula texana, and several other lamel- 
libranchs and gastenopods. These casts are found in the 
clays and in thin sandy layers, in some places well lami- 
nated and medium well indurated. 10 ft. 

2. Light bufE, compact unctuous clay often breaking with a 

conchoidal fracture. Stained yellowish brown on joint 
planes with limonite. Weathers cream colioired 6 ft. 

The upper member is the base of the Manning beds. 

The rocks exposed in the gullies in the lower portion of Man- 
ning are gypsiferous sands and chocolate clays with plant frag- 
ments. These two rocks frequently alternate in thin beds. In 
some of the sands are small fragments of fibrous pumice and a 
light greenish clay directly overlying this tuffaeeous sandstone 
under the bridge west of the church contains some fine ash. 

In cutting about 100 yards southeast of the depot at Manning 
there is exposed about 3 feet of a dark gray to brown, irregularly 
thin-bedded sandstone containing casts of fossils. The casts occur 
in a layer near the bottom of the section and quite a few of the 
same forms found in the cutting at Mile Post 101-G on the Hous- 
ton, East & West Texas Railway were recognized. In these 
"shelly" bedded sands are often found clay inclusions in the 

University of Texas Bulletin No. 1869 

Plate VIII. 


Volcanic ash on White Rook Creels, Trinity County. 

v^ •• 

t,- \ 

Volcanic Ash 2 miles east of Corrigan. 

TJie Geology of East Texas 177 

form of thin small lenses or lumps, in color generally dark gray 
or brown. 

The country north of Manning is one of very low relief, but 
to the south and east the topography becomes gently rolling and 
a series of low hills is to be seen. 

On the sides and top of the low hill east of Manning a coarse- 
grained, medium hard, light gray sandstone is found in massive 
beds. This stone has a whitish granular cement which resembles 
some phases of the Catahoula. 

Some three miles south of Manning, along the tram and to east 
and west of it, there outcrops a sandstone of various degrees of 
induration, gray to brown in color, fine-grained, and for the most 
part massive, but in places thin-bedded. This sandstone contains 
numerous easts of fossils, for the most part lamellibranchs, but 
some gasteropods were found. This sandstone resembles in every 
way that found in the vicinity of Potomac on the Houston, East 
& West Texas Railway. 

The creek beds here expose soft sandstones and arenaceous 
clays of a prevailing light brown color and massive to thin- 

A section down a creek flowing south and emptying into the 
Neches some 3 miles above the place where the Manning train 
crosses the river exposes, along the banks, brown carbonaceous 
sands and clays, massive to thin and irregularly bedded, which 
continue to within 2 miles of the river. These materials un- 
doubtedly belong to the Jackson as exposed near Potomac. On 
the tops and edges of hills are sandstones of various degrees of 
induration, from soft to hard and quartzitic and usually con- 
taining casts of fossils. This sandstone varies from thin-bedded 
to massive, but it is for the most part fine-grained with a cement- 
ing material of a more or less porcelaneous nature. These sand- 
stones are for the most part of white to grayish-brown color, the 
brown shales being irregular and caused by iron stain. Locally, 
there is a prevalence of "pipe concretions" in this material. 
Lignitiferous sandy clays were to be found along the creek in 
some places. 


The type locality of the Caddell clays is in the vicinity of the 

178 University of Texas Bulletin 

town of that name in western San Augustine county near the 
Angelina river. It was at this place that Veatch found some 
of his Jackson fossils, including the specimen of Zeugledon. In 
the immediate vicinity the ordinary Jackson non-fossiliferous 
clays, weathering brownish and containing calcareous fossilifer- 
ous nodules, outcrop for an estimated thickness of 30 feet. The 
larger nodules are dark brown in color and are calcareous sand- 
stones in composition. These calcareous rocks in places form a 
thin continuous bed, and near the top of the bluff rising above 
the Angelina bottom a solid thickness of at least five feet was 

Near the foot of the hill on which James Mott's house is built 
are dark chocolate clays, succeeded above by greenish, coarse 
sands and greenish clays weathering purplish. Ten feet higher 
in the section are clays with calcareous nodules. 

Bridge creek, which flows southward from White City, six 
miles east of Caddell, shows the following: 

In the first exposure on this creek is about 4 feet of Yegua, 
interbedded light greenish-gray, loose, medium grained sands and 
light chocolate, sandy clays containing sulphur. The clay is also 
in balls and small lenses in the sand. 

These beds continue until opposite "White City station, where 
basal Jackson clay with large calcareous nodules is found. Far- 
ther down the Jackson brown friable sand and sandstone come in 
with local hardenings, probably with calcareous cement. The 
hardest sandstone seen was almost quartzitic and light green in 
color. Farther down still are fossiliferous green clays, weather- 
ing brown, and resembling greensand. In these are fossils and a 
great amount of selenite. In places the Jackson contains limo- 
nitie concentric concretions 1 foot in diameter. 

Lower down on the creek the clay becomes unctuous, in color 
gray-drab, and breaks with a semi-concentric fracture. Separat- 
ing the clay layers are thin films of fine, light brownish gray 
sand, while towards the top of one 12 foot section is a light buff, 
finely-laminated, fine, clayey, brittle, but not well consolidated 
sandstone. In the continuation of this same section a hundred 
yards downstream the clay is chocolate-brown and sulphurous, 
with apparently a slight northward dip. 

The Jackson basal clays are found along Clear Creek for at 

The Geology of East Texas 179 

least two miles. Very dark green grains, probably greensand, 
are irregularly distributed through the clays, some portions of 
which are entirely free from them, wHle others in immediate 
juxtaposition will have many. There is a great deal of sand in 
much of this clay, but still a large percentage of it is quite free 
from sand. In the creek just below the last section described are 
some fragments of a 3-ineh light gray sandstone layer containing 
casts like those noted on the old tram southeast of White City 
and on Shawnee Prairie. The thin sandstone comes from above 
the clay. Above the thin sandstone layer in the same section 
comes in a very light buff, compact clay. In less than one-fourth 
mile downstream we run into the Jackson sandy clay with green- 
sand, outcropping in the bed of the creek. 

Two thin sandstone dikes, of 1-inch and 2i/^ inches in width, 
were noted in the first deep cut in the brown clays. These cut 
the clays in a nearly perpendicular position almost at right 
angles to the bedding planes. Two other dikes were noted. 

Just east of the east line of the Lucas headright is a hard sand- 
stone, fine-grained, light gray, and well cemented, which is prob- 
ably a lo'oal lens, similar to exposure near Huntington and Burke 
and on Stovall creek. , 

The exposure at McGilbery Bluff on Bug creek near the east 
line of the John Lucas headright and 1 mile from the Angelina 
river at the edge of the Angelina bluff, carries a rich fauna of 
the Caddell, mainly of large Pinna and small gasteropods. A 
lens of grahamite measuring about 2 inches across was found in 
the dark purplish, ferruginous, fossiliferous sandstone. The 
section follows: 

1. Chocolate clay 35 ft. 

2. Greenish-brown, sticky clay with thin films of sand of green 

color", greensand, and ferruginous concretions, blackish or 
brownish on surface and dark purplish red inside, contain- 
ing an abundant fauna. Much of the clay resembles that 
of the basal Jackson near the head of Clear creek 7 ft. 

3. Dark green sandy clay, very sulphurous. Sand layers often 

brownish-yelloiw. Contains much gypsum. Fossils found 
in the clay. Characterized by large rounded ellipsoidal 
clay ironstone concretions of a length of 3 feet and over. . 3 ft. 

All members contain abundant selenite. The concretions of 

180 University of Texas Bulletin 

number 2 are in thin layers 3 to 6 inches thick and run in definite 
planes, but are not continuous. The chocolate clay (1) is of the 
same bed as is seen higher up on this creek. As usual, it is sul- 
phurous. It also contains ferruginous concretions, both of the 
concentric and flat-layered types. 


On the line of the Santa Fe railroad the Tegua- Jackson con- 
tact was not determined closely, but is probably between Mile 
Posts 100 and 101. 

There is 8 feet of thinly laminated clay, mainly dark chocolate- 
brown in color, but the more sandy layers grayish, with some 
thin limonite-stained layers. There is about 8 feet of light brown 
sand in cut just north of Mile Post 100. 

Between Mile Posts 99 and 100 the friable thin, shelly-bedded 
light brown sandstones resemble those on the Houston, East & 
"West Texas Eailway between Potomac and Hammock, in northern 
Polk county, and in the vicinity of Manning, southern Angelina 

Light, yellowish-green, sticky clay 2 feet thick and containing 
small masses of limonite is exposed one-fourth mile south of Mile 
Post 99. The top of the section at Mile Post 99 consists of 5 feet 
of thin-bedded, light brown, very friable sandstone stained with 
sulphur, underlain by about 15 feet of light brown, carbonaceous, 
laminated clay, weathering reddish-brown and interbedded with 
thin friable sandstones, some of which are cross-bedded. 

At the south end of the cut at Mile Post 97 a layer one foot 
thick of soft sandstone outcrops, made up of medium sized sub- 
angular quartz grains and carrying clastic flakes of selenite. 
The sandstone shows a very imperfect lamination, mainly brought 
out by thin films of iron oxide. It contains also small fragments 
of a black mineral, which is perhaps magnetite. This sandstone 
is lenticular, passing along its bedding into unconsolidated 
clayey sand. It is underlain by sandy, light bluish-gray clay, 
weathering on the surface to cream-color, forming semi-badlands, 
and about 6 feet thick. There is considerable cross-bedding, es- 
pecially in the more sandy portions. The sandy clays and clayey 
sands are thinly laminated. The section here much resembles 

TJie Geology of East Texas 181 

that at Mile Post 100 on the Houston, East & West Texas Rail- 
way in northern Polk county, in structure, composition and 
materials. The two exposures belong to the Jackson and lie at 
nearly the same horizon. Close to the north end of the cut 
there is a marked concentric structure in the clayey sands. The 
core is a massive sand, 3-5 feet in diameter, and is surrounded by 
a concentric shell 1-2 feet thick, made up of alternate, irregular 
and wavy rings of sand layers stained with limbnite separated 
by layers not so stained. Three such core structures are seen. 
They may very likely have been formed since the deposition of 
the beds and may be of the nature of concretions. 

Th same general characteristics are seen in the several Jackson 
exposures south to half way between Mile Posts 96 and 97. 

One-half mile north of Mile Post 94 there is 5 feet of Jackson 
sulphurous, light chocolate-brown clay, underlain by 1% feet of 
light gray laminated sands. The clay is rather coarsely lam- 
inated and when unmixed with sand is plastic. Often, however, 
they are intermixed with sand and are stained with limonlte 
along the platy layers. The base of the section is about 10 feet 
below track level. 

The soil of the Jackson is dark brown, tinged with red, the 
color being characteristic of the foundation. This color is only 
a thin surface veneer seen in recent cuts. The Jackson topog- 
raphy is very gently rolling. 

The last Jackson clay is seen at Mile Post 94. It is thinly 
laminated and a light yellowish-green to greenish-gray in color 
with thin irregular and small plates of harder limonite-cemented 
clays. The maximum thickness of the exposure is 4 feet. It is 
overlain by the same thickness of Lafayette. The Jackson clay 
here is plastic and when damp has a bluish-drab color. 


Our knowledge of the Sajbine river section of the Jackson is 
limited to Veatch's sections, which are as follows^: 

About three-fourths of a mile below Robin's Ferry, at 30, 
there is an outcrop of 5 feet of blue fossiliferous clay on the 
Texas side of the river. It shows at this stage of the river two 

> Geol. Sur. La., 1902, pp. 131-2. 

182 University of Texas Bulletin 

large concretions of hard white fossiliferous limestone. The out- 
crop yielded a rather extensive Jackson fauna, including Um- 
brella planulata and many large Gapulus americanus. 

At 31, a shelf of the same fossiliferous clay shows on the 
Louisiana side. The fossils here are not so well preserved. Dip 
S. 20 degrees E. 

Between this outcrop and' the outcrop of the Grand Gulf near 
Anthony's Ferry, ledges of Tertiary clays show at 32, 33, 34, 
and 35. At 34 a few fossils are exposed. 

Section , at 33 

1. Dark gray and brown mottled sandy clay ("buckshot clay") .18ft. 

2. White and yellow pebbly sand 5 ft. 

3. Blue-clay, weathering brown 10 ft. 

4. Irregularly bedded, laminated, slate colored clay and yellow 

sand 3 It. 

5. Laminated chocolate-colored clay with occasional thin seams 

of yellow sand and small calcareous concretions 8 ft. 

The layers 3, 4, and 5, show a southward dip of 1:25. Near 
the northern en,d of the exposure is a small fault with a throw of 
about 6 feet. 

North of Anthony's Ferry, according to Veatch, these clays 
are succeeded by the Catahoula sandstone, giving the Jackson 
outcrop on the Sabine a width of between three and four miles. 


Beds of volcanic ash in this area have been known and utilized 
commercially for many years. More recently the fuller's earth 
derived from the alteration of the ash has also come into use. 

The ash occurs in several ways. Principally it forms beds 
two feet or more in thickness, some of which are traceable for 
many miles and form excellent working horizons in the forma- 
tion. These beds are usually pure ash without admixture of 
other sediments and must, therefore, have been laid down 
very quickly or in very quiet waters. In some localities, as 
near Corrigan, the ash is mixed with diatomaceous material 
as though laid down in ponds or lakes, and at others it shows 

The Geology of East Texas 183 

the dune like structure of deposits by aeolian agencies on land 

The fuller's earth is met with also under various comiitions. 
Sometimes it occurs as a part of the same stratum as the ash, 
in which case the ash is usually found at the base and the 
fuller 's earth at the top, but this is occasionally reversed. Most 
frequently, however, the fuller's earth occurs in separate beds 
and in lenses and balls in the sands." Owing to the flayey 
nature of the fuller's earth its true character has not been 
recognized as fully as it should have been, and many occur- 
rences have been regarded as clay. Our more recent investi- 
gations indicate that these showers or floods of volcanic ash 
and tuff have furnished a much greater proportion of the ma- 
terials constituting the beds of our Coastal area than has ever 
been suspected. This is true not onlj' of the Jackson, but of 
the succeeding formations as well. 


In the uppermost beds of the Jackson we see the last forma- 
tion of strictly marine deposition which is now found exposed 
within the Texas Coastal Plain. The close of the Eocene, 
therefore, marks the final withdrawal of the sea from this area 
as the major medium of sedimentation and the substitution of 
flixvial and aeolian agencies and deposits upon low coastal lands 
and their continuations in deltas and lagoons. 

In this particular region the story of the emergence is not 
so well told as it is further south. Our investigations below the 
Eio Grande prove that the Gulf Coast Eocene extends south- 
ward in Mexico to the Conchos river, which flows along the 
northeastern face of the Tamaulipas range, reaching the Gulf 
east of San Fernando in Tamaulipas. 

The beds of the Tegua are characteristically exposed on the 
Conchos near Angeles as lignitie shales capped by yellow clays 
with shaly sandstones and clays with cannon-ball concretions. 
Down the river at Sonada there are blue and yellow gypsifer- 
ous clays interbedded with sandstones. The top of the Yegua 
is found in a hill one mile west of Mendez, where it is capped 
by the Fayette. Directly east of San Lorenzo creek, which 

184 University of Texas Bulleiin 

flows into' the Conchos near Mendez, rises the Sierra de Pomer- 
anes, a range of high hills trending northwest and southeast. 
The western slope of these hills is composed of sandstone of 
Fayette and possibly of Jackson age and the top and eastern 
face is formed of the Frio clays overlain on the coastal margin 
by beds of marine Oligocene. The upper portion of the Frio 
in the Pomeranes hills, as well as in exposures on the river west 
of Tepetate, is made up of greenish clays and soft sands inter- 
stratified with heavy beds of gypsum. In the hills the deposits 
of gypsum include beds of alabaster and selenite, as well as 
massive gypsum. These extensive deposits of gypsum inter- 
bedded with the greenish clays and soft sands prove that the 
end of the Eocene was marked in this region by slow emergence 
and by dessication. That this emergence was pre-Oligo- 
cene is clearly shown by the relations of the beds of the two 

Similar conditions are believed to have existed in eastern 
Texas and to have resulted in the deposition of a large part of 
the beds of salt and gypsum which are now found in such 
abundance in connection with the Coastal Domes of the region. 


Practically all of the deposits of post-Eocene age of the 
Coastal Plain of Texas, so far as their outcrops show, are non- 
marine. They consist of fluviatile and aeolian deposits and of 
sediments laid down in lagoons, estuaries or deltas, marked 
only by very scant remains of plants, land animals, fishes and 
brackish water invertebrates. The only vestiges of possible 
sea-shore conditions found are a few occurrences of a coquina 
in which the fragmentary shells are too comminuted to permit 
identification. In certain localities the conditions of sedimen- 
tation apparently remained the same .through successive epochs, 
so that there is no lithologic break to mark the parting, and in 
others the formations are connected by transitional beds. 

Such fossils as have been gathered from various localities in 
these beds show that they include deposits of Oligocene, Mio- 
cene, Pliocene and Pleistocene age, but in many places it is dif- 
ficult, if not impossible, to fix a line between the beds of. one 
of these series and those- of the others, or to separate the 
deposits into satisfactory groups, such as will serve as dis- 
tinctive in different areas- Until some basis can be found on 
which to make such division, it will be necessary to use group 
names, each of which will, where possible, include a mappable 
unit, and refer it to its nearest series. 


In Mississippi, the Jackson is followed by a series of lime- 
stones alternating with beds of sandy fossiliferous marl, which 
is called the Vicksburg. In the fossils of these beds, which are 
abundant and well preserved, we find very few of the forms 
occuring in the Claiborne or Jackson Eocene, and encounter 
many that are new. This formation is considered to be of 
Lower Oligocene age. 

Overlying the fossiliferous clays and limestones of the 
Vicksburg there is a series of sandstones and greenish clays 


186 University of Texas Bulletin 

of different lithological aspect from any of the beds of the 
Mississippi Eocene. The only fossils found in them are re- 
mains of land plants and fresh water shells. These were first 
observed by Wailes at Grand Gulf, Mississippi, and were given 
that name. Owing to the confusion that has arisen in the use 
of this name through its application to beds of somewhat sim- 
ilar lithological character, which occur at other localities and 
have been found to be of different ages, and, in order to furnish 
a name not likely to be misunderstood, Veateh proposed the 
name "Catahoula" as a synonym for the "typical Grand 
Gulf" from Catahoula Parish in Louisiana where the beds are 
counterparts of those at the original locality. These are also 
considered to lielong to the Oligocene. 

Further eastward the Catahoula, or Upper Oligocene, is 
replaced by marine deposits and is represented by several sub- 
divisions which are based on fossil contents. 

Southward in Mexico the Lower Oligocene is present as beds 
of yellow sandy clays with quantities of the large foraminifer 
Orbitoides papyracea Bou. which is characteristic of the Vicks- 
burg. The upper Oligocene with similar yellow sandy clays 
includes heavy beds of nummulitic limestone and a consider- 
able fauna of eehinoderms, corals and other marine inverte- 
brates, proving its position in the Oligocene column. 

Deposition and Chaeacteb 

At the beginning of the Oligocene, that part of Bast Texas 
which was later covered by its deposits was a land surface, on 
the higher portions of which were exposed not only sands and 
clays, but probably very consideraltle bodies of volcanic ag- 
glomerates, tuffs and ash which had accumulated during Jack- 
son time. Along the coastal belt, occupying large basins or de- 
pressions, there were probably great deposits of salt and gyp- 
sum. So far as present surface conditions indicate this land 
condition continued through the entire period of Lower Oligo- 
cene, and not until its close did the lagunal and estuariiie 
waters take possession of this territory. 

Therefore, no trace of any marine deposits referable to the 
Vicksburg have been found in Bast Texas, nor is there any in- 

The Geology of East Texas 187 

dication that the sandstones overlying the Jackson and referred 
to the Oligocene are, in any part, representative of Vicksburg 
time. Such deposits, however, may exist to the seaward and 
be overlapped by thfe later beds. 

"With the beginning of the Upper Oligocene, erosion seem- 
ingly became more .active, especially in the area occupied by 
the tufE and ash, and these furnished the principal part of the 
large quartz grains which make up the present rice sands and 
of the clays and fuller's earth which are interbedded with 
them. Apparently volcanic action had not entirely ceased, for 
there are beds of ash interbedded in the Corrigan which are 
original deposits and not derived from earlier ones. 


In the Texas region Veatch applied the name Catahoula to 
the sands and clays which overlie his Jackson and underlie his 
Fleming. According to his map, the base of his Catahoula on 
the Houston, East & West Texas Railway is over four miles 
north of Corrigan. This would include the beds which fur- 
nished the Jackson fossils mentioned by Harris^ as coming 
from Kennedy's original locality, "a cutting on the Houston, 
Bast & West Texas Railroad 4 miles north of Corrigan, Polk 
County," earlier referred to the Claiborne, and whieJi now 
forms the base of our Manning beds. Veatch 's Catahoula, 
therefore, as mapped included the sandy formations lying be'- 
tween the Caddell clays and the Fleming clays, a part of which 
are Jackson and a part later. 

Matson^ calls attention to this and correlates the Jackson 
member (Manning sands) with the Fayette, with which it has 
really nothing in common, being a marine formation while the 
Fayette of East Texas is a fresh or brackish water deposit, 
underlying instead of overlying the Caddell clays. 

Veatch expressly limited the use of the term Catahoula to 
such beds as were of true Grand Gulf age and his name is 
therefoj-e retained for such beds as can be clearly referred to 
the Grand Gulf. Overlying the beds to which the name Cata- 

^ Geol. Sur. La. 1902, p. 25. 

= U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 98, p. 224. 

188 University of Texas Bulletin 

houla can thus apply, we find a series of transitional beds con- 
necting the Catahoula and the Fleming, which cannot well be 
separated from it, and we will use Kennedy's older name of 
Corrigan for the entire group of non-marine deposits which 
lie between the Jackson and the Fleming and together consti^ 
tute our only mappable unit. They are supposedly, for the 
most part, of Upper Oligocene age. 

General Character and Relations 

The Corrigan comprises coarse "rice"^ sands and sand- 
stones with some clays at the base, overlain by finer sands 
and by yellowish green clay and claystones. The clays and 
claystones carry pyritic nodules and streaks of lignite and 
weather yellow to cream color. The sands are coarse to fine- 
grained and may be friable, cemented with opaline or por- 
cellaneous matter, or hardened to a dense gray-blue quartzite. 
There are local unconformities between the sands and clays 
and the sands often carry clay balls and are occasionally 
cross-bedded. Volcanic ash occurs abundantly, both unaltered 
and in altered forms as fuller 's earth and clays. The Corrigan 
is noted for the abundance of fossil palms, and the fossil wood 
which occurs in it is often opalized. Remains of animal life, 
are almost unknown. 

These are the beds to which Vaughan's name of Catahoula 
properly applies. 

In the exposures of the Trinity river region, while the basal 
beds or Catahoula are the same as those to the eastward, there 
appears to be at the top a transitional zone, in which sands of 
the Corrigan type are interbedded with calcareous clays similar 
to those of the overlying Fleming. On this account the limit 
is not as well defined as further east, and the upper line is 
drawn where the sands with porcelaneous cement cease and the 
clays weather entirely dark brown or black, instead of show- 
ing the characteristic yellow weathering of the Corrigan clays. 
These also carry plant remains and an occasional fragment 
of bone. 

^ So called because of the resemblance of the grains to. those of rice. 

The Geology of East Texas 189 

These upper beds maintain their character and thickness 
some distance west of the Trinity river. While they appear to 
be later than the Catahoula proper, they are definitely con- 
nected with it by the character of the sands and clays of which 
they are composed. 

For this portion of the Corrigan the name Onalaska has been 
proposed, from the name of a town in Polk county which is 
located on them. Excellent exposures may be found on Eocky 
and Kickapoo creeks east of Onalaska and on Harmon creek 
northeast of Huntsville. 

Stratigraphically, this group lies unconformably upon the 
Jackson; Lithologically, the base corresponds closely with the 
typical Grand Gulf, while the top is very similar to some of 
the Oakville beds of the Nueces section, but is older. 

It seems probable that the Corrigan represents some portion 
or all of the Oligoeene above the Vicksburg, and that while the 
base may be Grand Gulf, the upper portion is possibly Miocene. 

Area and Thickness 

As mapped, the Corrigan is broadest on the Sabine river, 
where its outcrop has a width of over twelve miles. It ex- 
tends westward as a belt of irregular width, narrowing to 
three miles in the northeast corner of Polk county. It widens 
again on the Trinity where the outcrop swings to the south- 
west. At the crossing of the Navasota river north of Nelleva 
Junction it is less than three miles in width and is but little 
more on the Brazos. 

Tht thickness of these beds is estimated at 450 feet. 


The only details we have of the Corrigan on the Sabine are 
those given by Veateh^ : 

The Grand Gulf sandstones extend along the Sabine from 
Anthony's ferry to near Burr's ferry. The southeastward dip 
observed in the Coeksfield ferry beds and the Jackson continues 
to a point below Hattan's ferry with a tendency to show an 

' Geol. Sur. of La. 1902, p. 133. 

190 University of Texas Bulletin 

increased dip. Near Burr's ferry the dip becomes much less, 
being 1 :300. ^ 

A shelf of soft, fine, gray sandstone with a slight amount of 
calcareous matter is exposed on the Louisiana side a little more 
than one mile above Anthony's ferry. 

Half a mile below, a much larger shelf occurs near low water 
level. It extends well across the river, producing a decided 
acceleration of the current. The section is: 

1. Yellow and trown silty sand to top of bank 8 ft. 

2. White to grey sand with, faint traces of stratificatiion. Con- 

tains pebbles at base 10 ft. 

3. Hard, flne-grained quartzitic sandstone 2 ft. 

4. Greyish-blue, jointed sandy clay becoming lighter and more 

sandy above 15 ft. 

5. Soft, white, fine-grained sandstone 8 ft. 

6. Coarse-grained quartzitic sandstone 3 ft. 

7. Grey to drab, jointed sandy clay 3 ft. 

Dip S. B. 1 :50. 

At Anthony's ferry a small flat-topped bluff on the Texas 
side shows no rock. On the Louisiana side, a little below, 4 
feet of fine-grained Grand Gulf sandstone shows near water- 

Just above Snell's landing, a flat-topped bluff 35 feet high 
shows at its base 8 feet of .blue sandy clay. 

At Snell's landing high bluffs appear on the Texas side and 
extend for two miles down the river. 

Section at Snell's Landing: 

1. Fine white sand with pebbles at base 25 ft. 

2. Covered • • 12 ft. 

3. Coarse, indurated white sand, capped with a layer of sand- 

stone about a foot thick 8 ft. 

Water level. 

Dip S. E. 1 :25. 

A mile below this exposure there is a good exposure : 

1. Unexposed to top of bluff 40 ft. 

2. Yellow sand, containing boulders of bufE colored, laminated, 

leaf-bearing clay 35 ft. 

3. Coarse, white, cross-bedded, rather quartzitic sandstone. 

The Geology of East Texas 191 

mottled with yellow " ft- 

4. Greenish-yellow sandy clay 20 It. 

5. Unexposed 10 ft. 

Water level. 

Bed 2 shows a phenomena almost Identical with that shown 
in the K. C. P. & G. R. R. cut near Shreveporc, where the beds 
are presumably of lower Eocene age. Five hundred yards be- 
low this section, this bed is much more f ally developed. Here 
the bed is covered with a regularly bedded, laminated, brown 
to slate-colored clay, three feet ihiek, with abundant plant 

This line of bluffs extends along the river half way to the 
mouth of Bayou Toro. The quartzitic sandstone increases in 
thickness, reaching a maximum of 10 feet near the lower end. 
This sandstone layer indicates that the line of bluffs are about 
on the line of strike and hence the dip is S. E. 

Near Hattan's ferry on the Louisiana side the following sec- 
tion is shown : 

1. Drab, iron-stained clay, crumbling into small irregular 

pieces ("Buckshot clay") 17 ft. 

2. Fine white sand with many small pebbles 3 ft. 

3. Blue clay weathering yellow (Grand Gulf) 5 ft. 

A flat topped bluff on the west side of the river 2 miles below 
Hattan's ferry, shows a ledge of green jointed clay about five 
feet thick. The great southward dip, 1:25, exposes about 20 
•feet of this bed. 

Sandstone ledges cause several shoals in the river below this 
outcrop but afford no good exposures. Four miles below, a ledge 
of fine-grained, porous sandstone shows a slight southward dip 
1 :300. 

About half way between this and Burr's ferry, a range of 
high hills, rising over a hundred feet above the river, approach 
the river on the Texas side. One hill-point just reaches the river 
and exposes a ledge of sandstone near the water line. Foi-ty feet 
above water level a ledge of sandstone 25. feet thick outcrops in 
the hillside, in many places forming a protruding ledge and giv- 
ing rise to a number of small waterfalls where little streams from 
the hills flow over it. 

192 University of Texas Bulletin 

About a mile above Burr's ferry, there is a small outcrop of 
soft white sandstone. This is covered with the usual pebble- 
bearing sands and pinnacled clays. 


On the line of the Santa Fe Railway in Jasper county, the 
base of the Corrigan is found just south of Brookland and it 
passes under the Fleming about 5 miles north of Jasper. 

Between Mile Post 94, where the last exposure of Jackson was 
noted, and Brookland the railroad runs in a flat swampy country 
showing only Lafayette sediments in one small cut. 

The Catahoula light green sandy clays outcrop in the long 
shallow cut which begins one fourth mile north of the 89th mile 
post, where there is a Ihin layer of porcellaneous sandstone over- 
lying them. There are thin lenticular layers of hardened clay 
within the looser clay and an irregular lens of sand overlies it. 
The sand is cross-ibedded and carries thin streaks of sulphur- 
yeUow clay. 

Southward, porcellaneous-cemented sandstone is encountered, 
but only as relatively thin layers interbedded with clay, and the 
first exposure north of the 86th mile post is of light drab, con- 
solidated clay. 

In the next cut to the south and beyond it the Catahoula 
greenish-drab clay contains calcareous nodules similar to those 
of the Fleming. Similar clay with similar concretions is found 
within the Catahoula outcrop on the road between Bevilport and 
Aldridge in western Jasper county. 

The north end of a cut south of Mile Post 86 is in Catahoula 
drab, or grayish-green, clay, and in the next cut just north of 
Mile Post 85 the unconformity between the Catahoula and La- 
fayette is well shoMii. At the base 7 feet of light gray, sandy 
Catahoula clay. Above lies 10 feet of cross-bedded Lafayette. 
The contact between the two is irregular, and small lenses and 
ridges of the Catahoula project up into the Lafayette, which is 
light brick-red in color. 

The last Catahoula outcrop is three-fourths of a mile north of 
the 79th mile post, where thin, irregularly-bedded, coarse, por- 
cellaneous sandstone at the base is overlain by 5 feet of yellow- 

University of Texas Bulletin No. 1869 

Plate IX. 

View on Trinity River near Trinity. 

TJie Geology of East Texas 193 

ish-green clays with sulphur. On surface exposures these clays 
are bluish or grayish-green. 

The fossil plant Palmoxylon texense, which was described by 
Berry, was collected from the Corrigan at this locality.. 

In northern Jasper county, between the Angelina river and the 
line of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway, the area of the 
outcrop of the Catahoula forms the usual high sandy ridge of 
much dissected, mature topography, overlooking the lowlands 
of the Tegua and Jackson to the north and of the Fleming to 
the south. In this region the differential relief is 200 feet at 
a maximum and the surface is practically all reduced to slopes, 
forming hills and ridges dissected by deep valleys, which are 
narrow and steep in their upper courses. Recent rejuvenation, 
also noted farther westward on the Catahoula ridge, is very 
apparent at the headwaters of Beef creek, which lie in Sec- 
tions 146 and 151 of the land of the Houston Oil Company. The 
heads of the valleys have the broad, shallow and gently convex 
profiles characteristic of early to middle old-age erosion stages. 
Lower down the stream courses, the valleys abruptly break 
away into narrow, deep, box gorges, characterized by recent 
and still effective gully erosion. Some of the inner gorges are 
50 feet, or more, deep. Above the recent trenches the gently 
sloping profiles of the old valleys are easily distinguished. The 
amount and thickness of Lafayette on the summits of some of 
the hills and ridges is surprisingly large. Locally, it is not less 
than 100 feet thick. It contains a large amount of ferruginous- 
cemented, coarse grit and conglomerate, more of which was 
noted here than anywhere else where the Lafayette has been 
examined. Mossy Hill, northeast of the old Truitt Place, near 
the head of Beef creek, is a ridge several hundred yards long, 
made up of ferruginous conglomerate at least 20 feet in thick- 
ness, and probably thicker. The hill-sides throughout the 
region of Catahoula outcrop are covered with fine gravel, 
which averages about one inch in diameter. The hydrated iron 
oxide locally cementing the pebbles into conglomerate was most 
likely deposited as bog-ore in springs and ponds. 

In many localities the upper slopes of the hillsides are thickly 
strewn with large fragments of silicified tree trunks. No- 

194 Vnivei'sUy of Texas Bulletin 

where else has the writer^ noted silicified wood in as great 
abundance and in as large pieces as on the hillsides at the 
head of Beef creek. It is found in the Lafayette deposits 
and may have been indigenous to that formation, although that 
is by no means certain. Fragments two feet or more in 
diameter and ten or twelve feet long exhibit no signs of round- 
ing by rolling or water wear, but it must be remembered that 
all this silicified wood is very brittle and is easily broken with 
a sharp fracture along annual growth rings, .and at right angles 
to these rings. Large fragments in the beds of the present 
creeks, where they are subjected to attrition are nearly as 
angular and sharp on fractured edges as the silicified wood of 
the upper hillsides. 

The more resistant beds of sandstone or hardened clay in the 
Catahoula, when underlain and overlain by loose clays, often 
form terrace-like benches on the sides of hills. 

Numbers of small mounds were seen on the Barney Land and 
Robert Stone grants south and southeast of the wagon bridge 
over Beef creek and between Beef and Alligator creeks. 

Soft, greenish clays, partially indurated clays, mixed sands 
and clays are present in large amounts; sandstones, in all de- 
grees of consolidation from those easily broken with the 
fingers to hard quartzites; of all textures, from very fine to 
coarse grits; in structure, massive, thin-bedded or cross-bedded; 
and in color, from brownish or yellowish limonite-stained to 
white porcellaneous and silicified, are all found in the Cata- 
houla of this vicinity. 


Immediately below Bell's ferry on the Angelina river near 
its intersection with the Ayish bayou, the distinct shoals and 
rapids commence. The first outcropping noted was of a clay, 
blyish-green in color and usually somewhat arenaceous. This 
clay is .always yellow to yellowish-green on the outcrop. It 
forms shoals and also outcrops in the banks of the river to 
15 feet above the water level. At the top of the clay a series of 
springs issue forth. 

' Baker. 

The Geology of East Texas 195 

Between the B. C. Lowe and the J. Conn surveys a series 
of bluffs begin which . determine the course of the river and 
cause the deflection noted on the map. The first bluff rises 
some 50 feet above the water and the strata dip some 3-4 
degrees S. 50 "W. The section here is as follows: 

1. Lafayette, clayey sand, lightly mottled for the most part. A 

film Immediately overlying the clay 1-3 inch in thickness is 
a contorted limonitic iron ore cementing the sand grains 
and gravel. This layer is probably caused by springs. 
Overlain by gravel which passes upward into mottled 
clayey sand 15 to 20 fti 


2. Dark dirty green, gypsiferous clay, fractured with llmionite 

stains on fracture planes, which vary from yellowish 
brown to brick red in color. Selenite is in small fibres 
and Is common. Member becomes more indurated toward 
the top and here it passes into a sandstone much like 
No. 4 12 ft. 

3. Ferruginous layer, botryoidal, mammillary 4 ft. 

4. Sandstones, well indurated, light buff bo yellowish brown 

in color, depending on the percentage of iron. Occasion- 
ally shows psuedolamlnation caused by seams of limonlte. 
Medium-grained in texture. Matrix fine granular to por- 
cellaneous. Mainly massive, locally cross-bedded. Is in- 
durated sufficiently to form a perpendicular cliff and the 
top is a bench 6 ft. 

5. Sandstone, cross.bedded, varying in Induration from me- 

dium-hard to loose sand, containing ferruginous concre- 
tidns, local layers having porcellaneous cement. Harder 
layers form benches between softer. Medium ,to coarse- 
grained. Color light brown when wet and light buff when 
dry. Stained by limonite 

6. Yellowish green and greenish brown clay, compact and much 

fractured and where wet often dark copperas blue. Weath- 
ers dirty white 4 ft. 


The outcrop of the Corrigan on the Texas & New Orleans 
Railroad does not exceed six miles in width, with Rockland 
nearly in its center. It has about the same width here as on 
the Houston, East & West Texas Railway. 

196 University of Texas Bulletin 

It would appear that the outcrop of this formation is wider 
both to the east and west of these railway lines, where an 
upper member composed almost entirely of greenish clay is 
exposed on Rocky creek and on the Angelina river between 
Bell's and Bohler's ferries, which does not seem to be repre- 
sented in the sections along the railroads. 

The Jackson-Corrigan contact is south of Mile Post 107. 

In the first cut north of Mile Post 106 clays are interbedded 
with the porcellaneous sandstone. The section is: 

1. Massive, medium indurated, porcellaneous cemented sand- 

stone ■ ■ 2 It, 

2. Dark sulphur-yellow shaly clay, tasting of sulphur 4 ft. 

3. Very shaly and "shelly" friable porcellaneous cemented sand- 

stone 1 ft. 

4. Dark green sandy clay, irregularly stained dark-brown. Up- 

per 4-inches almost entirely dark-brown 2 ft. 

5. Whitish, poorly indurated, porcellaneous cemented sandstone 6 ft. 
Dip 21/2° S. 10° E. Strike S. 80° SW. 

At the cut just south of Mile Post 106 the porcellaneous 
sandstone comes down to the track level and overlies the 
green clay. This sandstone is very shaly and thin-bedded. The 
top layer of the sandstone is more massive and typical. At the 
south side of the cut there were noted two small lenses of green 
clay interbedded with the porcellaneous sandstone. The maxi- 
mum thickness of the underlying compact, dark yellowish- 
green clay is 4% feet. The sandstone contains fragments of 
the underlying clay. 

The last bedrock exposed north of the Neehes river is at 
106-B, where about 3 feet of green, compact, sticky Catahoula 
clay is associated with local indurations of light brown, fine- 
grained sandstone, small blocks of which are found on the sur- 

Light green, sticky, Catahoula clay, 7 feet in thickness, 
locally sandy, and with thin sandy layers, and small limonitic 
concretions and layers is found in the first cut north of the 
Angelina-Jasper county line. It is overlain by 18-inches of 
case-hardened, light gray, alluvial sandstone with pebbles. 

The bluffs at Rockland are capped by massive, light gray 

The Geology of East Texas 197 

porcellaneous cemented sandstone breaking into large blocks. 
Under the Texas & New Orleans Railroad bridge over the 
Neehes is a rapids formed by a layer of light brown, hardened, 
sandy clay. Between these two rocks is greenish clay with 
local sandstones which sometimes, but not always, shov.^ porce- 
laneous cement. ' 

At Eockland, the section between the track and the oil load- 
ing rack is as follows: 

1. Porcellaneous cemented sandstone capping the Hill 

2. Light green clay, sticky, compact, fractured into very small 

blocks. More than 10 ft. 

3. Compact, horizontal massive layer of coarse sandstone with 

large grains of quartz and metamorphic rocks, rounded 

to subangular, with a fine whitish granular matrix 4 ft. 

4. Clayey sand, partially indurated, yellowish green, coarse... 8ft. 

The first cut south of the water tank at Rockland gives : 

1. Porcelaneous cemented sandstone. 

2. Clay, green, sandy, loose, weathering light gray 10 ft. 

3. Compact sandstone layer, otherwise same as No. 4 . . . . 5-18 in. 

4. Thin-bedded clayey sand, friable, light brown, locally 

limonite stained, with whitish granular matrix. Very 
poorly and irregularly laminated 3 ft. 

At the base of the next cut, porcellaneous cemented sand- 
stone lies on greenish Catahoula clays. The lower beds here 
are light greenish-gray sands and clays, very poorly consoli- 
dated, and Aveathering into semi-badland forms. There is a 
thickness of about 15 feet of these in the cut 1 1-8 mile south 
of Rockland. These clays are overlain by porcellaneous sand- 
stone in the first cut within the mile limit south of Rockland. 

The Catahoula formation is last seen at Mile Post 101, where 
the porcellaneous cemented sandstone is found. 


The Neehes river fiowing southeastwardly through the Cor- 
rigan furnished the following sections: 

To the west of the point where the Carter-Kelley Lumber 
Company tram crosses the Neehes and along the southern 

198 University of Texas Bulletin 

bank, a series of high bluffs rise above the river. They expose 
at the top and well down the sides a medium to coarse-grained 
sandstone having a porcellaneous matrix. Underlying this is 
a white elaystone, somewhat arenaceous and of various degrees 
of induration. The sandstone is in places indurated to a 
quartzite and would make a good rock for concrete work. 

Approximately one-fourth mile down the Neehes from the 
point where the Manning tram crosses there is an outcrop of 
Corrigan sandstone in the bed of the river. This rock causes 
a shoaling of the Neehes at this point and rapids are produced. 
There is exposed here 15 feet of a medium to coarse grained, 
rather soft, sandstone with a distinctly porcellaneous matrix. 
The sandstone is much cross-bedded. 

Near the mouth of Shawnee creek, in southern Angelina 
county, two isolated hills of porcellaneous cross-bedded sand- 
stone are entirely surrounded by the bottom lands of the creek. 
The locality is within one-half mile of the confluence of the 
creek with the Neehes. One of the hills is about 50 feet high 
and covers some 4 or 5 acres, the other" being smaller. The 
sandstone is medium-grained, medium hard, locally quartzitic, 
and breaks with a splintery fracture. 

About one-fourth mile east of this there is a big bend in the 
Neehes, known locally as the Devil's Bend. A bluff rising 
some 35 feet exposes the following section: 

1. Soft sandstone, fine to coarse-grained, and constaining 

plant fragments and clay balls. Porcellaneous matrix. . 8 It. 

2. Yellowish green to greenish-brown clay, weathering yellow to 

cream colored, and, when indurated, breaking out in 
cuboidal blocks. Shows thin bedding on weathering. In 
an east-west direction these beds lie horizontally 15 ft. 

3. Greenish brown to chocolate brown clay, weathering dirty 

brown, the upper 6-inches indurated to elaystone so that 

it stands out as a ledge. Structureless 4 ft. 

4. Lignite, ignites with a match 8 ft 

5. Thin-bedded, sandy clays and clayey sands, greenish- 

brown to bluish-green in color when fresh, but all weath- 
ering cream colored. Contain an abundance of sulphide 
of iron nodules, the origin of which is evident from the 
fact that some of the nodules are still in the form of stems • 
of plants, showing that the iron sulphide was precipitated 
from solution by organic matter partly derived from the 

The Geology of East Texas 199 

overlying lignite seam. The occurence of the iron sulphide 
here explains the origin of the bluish green color that is 
seen everywhere in these clays at the water-level 5 ft. 

The dip on No. 5 in E-W direction was 2% degrees at one 

The rapids on the Neches 1% miles west of Aldridge have a 
fall of about 4 feet. They are caused by resistant porcellane- 
ous cemented layers of sandstone overlying a light brown, 
compact, fine-grained sandy claiy with plant fragments. The 
porcellaneous sandstone is in places finely conglomeratic with 
subangular fragments of quartz and chert. Large fragments 
of clay in this conglomerate, together with cross and irregular 
bedding, indicate channel conditions of deposition and local un- 

At Feces Ferry, some 2-3 miles up the river from Smith's 
Ferry, there outcrops in the bed of the river a bluish-green 
clay, somewhat arenaceous, slightly plastic, which weathers 
cream colored to yellow. This clay forms a shoal which ex- 
tends out half way across the river at low water. Overlying 
this clay is a collection of angular boulders up to 1% feet in 
diameter consisting of sandstone, fine to coarse grained, and 
varying, in hardness from soft to quartzite. This sandstone has 
a porcellaneous matrix, and could not have been transported 

Three hundred yards upstream from Smith's ferry there is 
another outcrop of Corrigan, which runs half the way across the 
bed of the river. The banks of the river in both these localities 
are made up of alluvium, but west of the river clays outcrop 
which lithologically resemble those of the Corrigan, and are 
succeeded on the higher land by typical Fleming calcareous 

Near the top of hill overlooking Smith's ferry, the following 
section is exposed along the road: 

1. Clay, weathering white and containing calcareous nodules. .15 ft. 

2. Indurated, non-calcareous, arenaceous claystone 1 ft. 

3. Green clay, weathering dirty yellowish green and containing 

calcareous nodules 10 ft 

The upper part of this section may be Fleming, as may also 

200 University of Texas Bulletin 

be the lower member; but such material as the indurated layer 
has not yet been observed above the Corrigan. A good develop- 
ment of arenaceous claystones that belong to the Corrigan was 
observed in this vicinity and it may be that this section marks 
the transition between it and the Fleming, such as is found 
further west at Onalaska. 

Rapids on the Neches river, on the eastern boundary of the 
Ph. Baldwin grant, northeastern Tyler county, 12 miles east- 
northeast of Colmesneil, and one-half mile below Smith Ferry, 
are well exposed at a low-water stage. The rapids are formed 
of medium-hard Corrigan sandstone, carrying plant remains 
and a large amount of silicified wood. Structure and bedding 
is very poorly developed, but cross-bedding is present, striking 
N. 60 deg. E. and varying in dip from 9 to 27 deg. southeast, 
in a distance of 25 feet normal to the strike. Below the sand- 
stone is two feet of soft, blue-gray, sandy clay. The sandstone 
surfaces are perforated with long borings elliptical in cross 
sections with the peripheries of the ellipses flattened. These are 
made by a small, light green, fresh water crustacean. The 
Neches river at its low-water stage, is nowhere over 6-inches'in 
depth over the rapids. 

The rapids will probably explain the partially drowned con,- 
ditions on the Neches flood plain above them quite as well as 
Veatch 's postulate of the Angelina-Caldwell flexure. 


On the Houston, East & West Texas Railway the first ex- 
posure of the Corrigan sands is found at Bridge 95-Gr, where 
yellow and brown sandy shales are overlain by a mottled sandy 
clay carrying fragments of the shale. The relations of the 
two formations is better shown at Mile Post 94. Here the 
mottled red and brown sands, shales and clays of the Jackson: 
are overlain by a light yellowish brown sandstone with white 
markings. The contact shows that the Jackson was eroded 
prior to the deposition of the basal Corrigan sands and the 
sandstone contains large fragments of the underlying shale. 
There is also apparently a difference in dip. The Jackson 
seems to have an easterly dip, while sandstones dip south. 

The Geology of East Texas 201 

Between this point and Corrigan, brown sandstones are 
found and the country is covered with a coarse gray sand. 

The quarzitic character of the sands is shown in the old 
quarry one-half mile north of Corrigan and one-quarter mile 
east of the Houston, East & West Texas Railway. At the 
western end the sandstone is medium to fine-grained, medium 
hard, white to gray and yellowish brown in color. It is for the 
most part massive, but exhibits some cross-bedding. Locally 
the sandstone contains hard rounded clay balls. In the eastern 
end of the quarry the hard sandstone grades into a thin-bedded, 
softer, rock. 

South of Corrigan a white sandy clay with a yellowish tinge 
is exposed 100 to 200 feet south of Bridge 93-D. In seams this 
clay has a drab color and small nodules of pure clay in it are 
brownish gray. Stains of limonite are common. The sand 
grains are white and being enclosed in a resinous gray to yel- 
lowish clay impart to the rock a spotted appearance with many 
of the white spots no larger than pinheads. The surfieial soil 
is creamy- white sand. 

The same material is exposed in the north end of the next 
cut south. In the center and south end of this cut is seen 3 
feet of , light brownish-gray, thinly bedded, nodular clay, which 
weathers white. 

In the third cut south of Corrigan there is exposed a foot of 
broken, cream-colored sandstone of very fine texture with 
seams and geodie linings of milky-white opal. In this sand- 
stone are nodules of pale yellow clay and a few small flakes 
of selenite. The Corrigan in this locality is mainly composed of 
coarse to medium sized angular transparent quartz grains with 
a few well rounded fragments of black chert and dark erup- 
tive rock cemented together with a milky-white porcellaneous 
cement. Just M-est of the track an old quarry, opened to use 
the rock as ballast, gives an exposure of beds of this typical 
Corrigan sandstone one foot in thickness. The hill 20 feet or 
more high directly west of Mile Post 92 is littered over the 
surface with large blocks of sandstone. 

Underneath Bridge 92-C there is 3 feet of light greenish-yel- 
low, greasy, fine nodular clay fracturing with a smooth, unctu- 
ous surface, containing sulphur, and carrying large plates of 


■202 University of Texas Bulletin 

selenite. Overlying this clay is fine cream colored volcanic 

sh, 7 feet in thickness, friable, and carrying thin seams and 
lenses of gypsum. This section has below it an outcrop of 
Corrigan sandstone, but the contact between the two is not 

Rather fine conglomerate, bluish on the surface exposure and 
cream colored or light gray in the interior is found 300 yards 
south of Bridge 92-B. This conglomerate has pebbles as large 
as 1-8 inch in diameter of rounded quartz and angular pebbles 
of local sandstone ranging up to twice that size. This rock 
weathers cavernous and honey-combed like the topmost layer at 
Mile Post 100 and is a fair representative of the case-hardened 
layers which, locally, are quite common at the surface. 

A light bluish gray, very porous, coarse sandstone, 4 feet in 
thickness, with a calcareous ( ?) cement outcrops 100 feet east 
of the tract at Mile Post 91. Just south of Mile Post 91 the 
Lafayette with quartz, jasper and chert pebbles and sandy 
clay, exhibiting a faintly pronounced mottling into brownish- 
red and gray, overlies the Corrigan. 

At Mile Post 90 there are yellow and white sandy shales 
dipping 20° N. 70° W. 

Bear creek rises Sy^ miles southwest of Corrigan and flows 
northeastward to the Neches, crossing the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Railway just west of Corrigan. It is nowhere more than 
a mile and a half from the line of the Houston, East & West 
Texas Railway and gives some interesting sections which are 
inserted here for comparison with those along the railway 
which have just been given. 

At the crossing of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway it 
shows about 12 feet of laminated thin and wavy bedded choco- 
late colored carbonaceous clays with partings of gray sand. 
On the outcrop these clays weather a dirty white. 

One mile, approximately, up the creek from railroad bridge 
there is a section of 8 feet exposed along the creek bank as 
follows : 

1. Light brown clay lor fuller's earth. Thin hedded 4% ft. 

2. White, ilne-grained, volcanic ash 3 in. 

3. Greenish brown, structureless, gypsiferous clays weathering 

yellowish 3 % ft. 

The Geology of East Texas 203 

No. 3 of above section resembles clay outcropping on Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas Railway between Corrigan and Benford. 

Approximately 1^/4 miles above the railroad bridge the fol- 
lowing section is exposed : 

1. Gray, flne-grained volcanic ash. Irregularly bedded and 

fairly well Indurated. Ck)ntains yellow and yellowish, 
brown limonitic streaks. Forms the bop member of the 
ledge outcropping in creek and is only resistant member 
in section 1 % f'l^- 

2. Brown fuller's earth (No. 1 of previous section) 3% ft. 

3. Chocolate colored, carbonaceous, structureless, plastic clay.. 2tt. 

Immediately beyond, tbe following exceedingly interesting 
section is exposed : 

1. White claystone, thin-bedded, sandy, shaly and seemingly 

non-calcareous, breaking very easily into angular and 
spheroidal blocks. Upstream grades into a massive soft 
sandstone 9 ft. 

2. Fine-grained, soft, sandstone, yellow to buff in color and ex- 

tremely irregularly wavy and cross-bedded. Grades horizon- 
tally into a highly gypsiferous clayey sand colored brown- 
ish green, structureless, and containing a great abundance 
of small selenite flakes averaging 1-8 inch in diameter. 
Soft sandstone stands with vertical walls, but clayey sand 
takes an angle of repose of about 60 degrees. Locally the 
sandstone contains limonitic concretions up to 1% inches 
in diameter • 10 ft. 

3. Drab to chocolate and dark brown slightly arenaceous shale, 

thin-bedded to laminated, containing minute cavernous 
spaces filled with a mineral hardness about 3. This material 
is brittle and breaks out in angular fragments where thin- 
bedded ; not caleite 3 % ft. 

4. Yellowish brown, structureless clay, weathering yellow to 

cream colored • ■ 6 ft. 

.Overlying the section on top of the hill there is a sandstone 
with a distinct porcellaneous cement, medium to coarse-grained 
thin-bedded to massive. The dip on No. 3 member was 3 deg. 
S., measured north-south. 

A short distance further up the creek, the yellowish brown, 
highly gypsiferous member grades back into the cross-bedded,j 
soft sandstone and within the distance of 8 feet is seen to be 

204 , University of Texas Bulletin 

overlain unconformably by No. 1 of above section, which here 
is 9 feet thick and massive, the material breaking out in 
spheroidal forms. 

Under road bridge 1% miles southwest of Corrigan and up- 
stream for a short way, there is exposed 8 feet of a fine-grained, 
white, soft sandstone with a white powdery cement. In the 
creek bed it is massive, then comes 3 feet of thin-bedded and 
laminated, and the upper 4 feet is massive. 

Approximately 2% miles southwest of Corrigan along the 
creek there is exposed the following section : 

1. Buff to light drab sands, irregularly bedded 4 ft. 

2. Clayey saud, dark blue and greenish, blue 1 ft. 

3. Green to bluish green structureless clay with small patches 

of pyrite 2 ft. 

Upstream from here the greenish blue sand and clayey sand 
is found in sections up to 6 feet and locally it is much cross- 
bedded. Weathers cream to buff. 

In the last 50 feet of the section up the creek the surround- 
ing country becomes rather flat and the only material exposed 
is a gray colored sandstone, coarse to fine-grained, soft to 
quartzitic, thin and cross-bedded to massive, its most character- 
istic feature being the porcellaneous matrix in which the 
quartzitic grains rest. The smaller sand grains are usually 
angular to sub-angular and consist, for the most part, of clear 
quartz grains, but many angular to sub-angular grains of 
fiints and jasper are to be seen. The sand grains are by no 
means all small in size for locally angular to sub-angular peb- 
bles of quartzose, chalcedonic, and schistose nature are to be 
seen which are as much as 1^^ inches in diameter. Pebbles of 
black color, conchoidal fracture, and vitreous lustre, resem- 
bling obsidian, are somewhat common. Clay balls are very com- 
mon in the sandstone, and they are more common in the im- 
mediate vicinity of contact with underlying clay. 

This section is remarkable as being one of the very few of 
the east Texas Tertiary below the Lafayette to show conglom- 
erates of this character. 

One noticeable thing in the section up this creek was that no 
quartzitic and chalcedonic well rounded and sub-angular 

The Geology of East Texas 205 

pebbles were to be noticed in tbe creek bed in its lower 

Continuing the railroad section, we find at Laurelia : 

1. Doose, coarse, white quartzitic sand. 

2. Bright red sandy clay 3 ft 

3. Mottled red and brown clayey sand 30 ft. 

4. Red and yellow sandy shales interbedded with coarse 

grained sand. Some cross-bedding and mottling in more 
massive portion 7 It. 

Unconformity : 

5. Coarse-grained, bright orange and red sand with opaline 

pebbles and opalized wood 3 f t- 


6. Gray, yellow and brown clayey sands. The more clayey being 

laminated, the sandy, massive and mottled. Harder layers 

at top streaked yellow and white as at Mile Post 90 25 ft. 

The cut at 89-D shows at the base a bed of dark gray, mas- 
sive sands overlain uncomf ormably by mottled sandy clay. This 
has a very irregular surface and is overlain by a shaly con- 
glomerate carrying fragments of the mottled sandy clay. 

This in turn is overlain by a yellow clay carrying calcareous 

In no other section of the Corrigan with which we are 
familiar are there so many local unconformities as in the one 
under consideration. 

In the cut just south of 89-D is Corrigan sandstone, higher 
than the clays described in the preceding paragraph. 

There is about 6 feet of light gray, compact, fractured, sandy 
clays in the first cut north of Moscow, Mile Post 88. They 
weather cream-colored and are overlain by 2 feet of brown 
sandy clay with rounded pebbles, belonging to the surficial 

On the hillside between the town of Moscow and the railway 
station there is below, brownish-drab compact clay stained ir- 
regularly by limonite and weathering light gray on the surface. 
Locally, this is sand and not clay. Above, is clay weathering 
brown which swells up into a pimpled and cracked surface. 
The top of the hill at IMoseow, on the dividing ridge between 

206 University of Texas Bulletin 

the Trinity and Neehes drainages, is capped with the porcel- 
laneous cemenled Oorrigan sandstone overlain by the uncon- 
solidated surficial mottled sand, clay and gravel member. The 
thickness of the Corrigan sandstone on top of the Moscow hill 
is 15 feet. Immediately under this, with probable unconform- 
able relationship, is a light grayish-green clay. 

The topography between Corrigan and Moscow is for the 
East Texas Coastal Plain and for a region near a drainage 
divide decidedly hilly. South of Laurelia the relief is not so- 
great as to the north. The higher elevations are capped by 
the relatively resistant Corrigan sandstone overlying non-re- 
sistant clays. 

On the Trinity road, one-fourth mile west of Moscow railway 
station, a hillside gives the following section : 

1. Very calcareous, light green clay, imperfectly laminated, 

with nodules of hard, dense, very finely textured whitish 
limestone, some of which are as large as a foot in diameter. 
The surficial weathering of this clay makes the "black 
land." At least 6 ft._ 

2. Fuller's earth, creamy white, laminated, non-plastic, becom- 

ing gritty towards the top 10 ft._ 

3. Pine textured, laminated, cross-bedded light yellow clayey 

sand, weathering whitish to light blue, and with thin seams 

up to 1-4 inch in thickness of cream colored clay 3% ft.- 

4. Light gray to light green drab clay weathering cream color 

on surface 3 ft. 

5. Fuller's earlh like (2) 1/2 ft. 

6. Clay like (4) . • 3 ft. 

Probably the most striking characteristic of all these section^ 
of the Corrigan between the Neehes and. the Trinity is the 
large proportion of tuffs, ash and fuller's earth which occur in 
them. A large portion of these were in all probability de- 
rived from the deposits of the Jackson volcanoes. These would 
include the rice sands, the obsidian of the Bear creek section 
and elsewhere, the many deposits of fuller's earth and similar 
materials, such as the swelling clays, and probably a portion of 
the unaltered ash, etc. But it also seems highly probable that a 
part of these beds of ash, tuff and the spheroidal weathering 
clays are original deposits coming from volcanoes active dur- 
ing Corrigan time. 

The Geology of East Texas 207 


Kickapoo creek rises north of Groveton and flows southward 
to CanarVj where it is joined by Rocky creek and then flows 
easterly, passing a mile or more south of Onalaska to its junction 
with the Trinity. 

About seven miles south of Groveton, Kickapoo creek emerges 
from a rather thick and broad bottom land into the open cut- 
over land of the Trinity County Lumber Company. Here, on 
the W. H. Raspberry headright, there outcrops on the bluffs 
overlooking the creek a fine-grained sandstone, fairly hard, cross- 
bedded to massive, white to gray in color. Its thickness ranges 
from two to three feet and it caps the bluff and is underlain by 
thin-bedded and cross-bedded sands. The sandstone in places 
contains clay balls and in one place an abundance of easts of 
fossil leaves was found. 

This is near the base of tht Corrigan, and two miles below this 
locality Kickapoo unites with its east branch heading near Wil- 
lard, and here the clays of the Corrigan outcrop. 

The first thing noted along this creek below the junction of 
its Bast Fork was the immense sand bars of almost pure white 
sand derived from the erosion of the Catahoula sands upstream. 
This sand is in all probability the source of the sands of the 
Trinity river noted at the Houston, East & West Texas Railway 
crossing over that river and elsewhere. 

This creek has many exposures of Catahoula sandstones and 
claystones along the banks and as shoals in the river bed. The 
sandy clays usually yhow up as yellowish on the weathered sur- 
face. It contains much iron as shown by the bluish green color 
in many places. 

Near the middle of the section the quartzose sandstone ap- 
peared containing rather large and angular grains of quartz, 
flint and jasper, aU set in a porcellaneous matrix. 

Rocky creek, near iis confluence with Kickapoo creek, flows 
through but little bottom land, and has high banks cut into the 
claystones and sandstones of the Catahoula. The members pre- 
sented in the section examined of up to 15 feet show for the most 
part a fine-grained, clayey, soft sandstone or arenaceous clay- 
stone of yellowish color on the weathered surface. It resembles 

208 University of Texas Bulletin 

very much impure volcanic ash. One section just upstream from 
the road crossing below the store at Canary is as follows : 

1. Irregularly thin-bedded to massive, yellowisli, soft, fine- 

grained sandstone containing at the base some fuller's 
earth up to 6" thick. More massive towards the top. Re- 
sembles very much an impure volcanic ash 8 ft 

2. Fuller's earth, a fine grained or unctuous yellowish green 

clay having a semi-conchoidal or spheroidal fracture when 
dried out 2 ft. 3 In. 

3. Light yellowish colored to grayish, fine-grained, soft sand- 

stone ■ ■..■• • ■ 8 in- 

4. Puller's earth, same as N'o^. 2 2 ft. 

5. Irregularly thin-bedded, or laminated and contorted, alter- 

nating laminae of a fine-grained, brownish green, clayey 
sand and a rather pure, unctuous, brownish-green clay 
resembling fuller's earth. The clayey sand, when in .the 
stream bottom is a bluish green (copperas) color due to 
the action of the water on the iron in the sand 5 ft. 

Dip here of 10° to the south, although in other places it is 
almost horizontal. 

Locally, the Corrigan has large, rather angular, calcareous 
nodules. By far the greater part of the fomation here, especially 
the upper portion, is made up of yellowish green clay. There is 
also non-plastic clay (fuller's earth) and some fine volcanic 

The creeks in the vicinity of Colita and Canary exhibit long 
stretches of slack water held back by a resistant layer outcrop- 
ping farther downstream. Terraces along the streams are ap- 
parently due to the same cause. Below a rapids or waterfall, 
caused by the outcrop of a resistant layer, a gorge, sometimes 
20 feet or more deep, is cut which comes to an end downstream 
at the next rapids or wafcorfall. The Catahoula in the middle 
reaches of these streams consists of cream-colored, light gray, 
light blue and mainly yellowish green sandy clay with locally 
semi-consolidated layers, and higher up the stream courses 
nearer the base of the formation with local lenses of opaline- 
cemented sandstone. Locally white calcareous concretions are 
found in the clays. Some of these are potato-like, or irregular 
in form, but most are long, generally branching pipes with 

i i 

University of Texas Bulletin No. 1869 

Plate X. 

White Rock Creek, Polk County. 

Exposure of sandstones near Riverside. 

TJie Geology of East Texas ^ 209 

irregular outside surfaces, sometimes very indistinctly ribbed. 
A cross-section generally shows them to be porous and some 
of them appear to have been built up of a growth in a concen- 
tric manner around a small central cavity. A number of these 
cavities may be found in the same "pipe." 

Below the mouth of Kocky creek there were exposures of 
sands, some of which were cemented with the porcellaneous 
matrix of the Catahoula, interbedded with greenish clays in 
which calcareous concretions were found in increasing num- 
ber until finally some two miles southeast of Onalaska these 
graded up into the green and brown clays of the Fleming that 
contain quantities L,f calcareous concretions and weather into 
black soil. Some of the concretions were long pipes with concen- 
tric cellular structure resembling slightly the structure of bone. 
These may be due to the replacement of rootlets. 

These transition beds between the Catahoula and the Flem- 
ing are the beds we have called the Onalaska. 

Going downstream below the Beaumont & Great Northern 
Railroad bridge the Fleming continued for about two miles. 
Here the stream makes a N. W. bend and again enters the 
Catahoula, some excellent exposures being noted. One notice^ 
able thing was the appearance of two very large, black petri- 
fied logs. 

On White Rock creek in Trinity county east of the Inter- 
national & Great Northern Railway the contact between the 
Jackson and Corrigau is found near the mouth of Caney creek. 
About one-fourth mile above the Beaumont & Great Northern 
Railroad bridge fossil leaves are found in a medium to coarse- 
grained, massive to cross-bedded, opaline cemented sandstone 
believed to form the lowermost Catahoula. Immediately be- 
low the sandstone there outcrops along the creek about 7 or 8 
feet of laminated chocolate colored, sandy, shaly clays with 
some fine-grained sands. This lower member in all probability 
belongs to the Jackson beds and we have the contact here. 
The contact seems to follow along Caney creek in this vicinity 
for quite a distance, as the above section is repeated in another 
place one-half mile above where Caney flows into White Rock 

At Chita postoffice, situated on the J. R. Parker Survey, 

210 University of Texas Bulletin 

there is a high ridge trending through the country iu a south- 
west-northeast direction and it also probably marks the con- 
tact between the Catahoula and the Jackson. This ridge is 
covered with a very coarse sand made up of angular sand 
grains, some of which are as much as Vs to 1/4 inch in diameter. 
The grains are mostly pure quartz, but occasionally a fliat or 
jasper grain is noticed. Grains . resembling rose quartz oc- 
curred locally. 


Between Riverside and the mouth of White Rock creek the 
Trinity river flows easterly, meandering along the strike of the 
Corrigan and gives a number of good sections of the lower 

Immediately downstream from the bridge at Riverside there 
outcrops, on the south bank and back from the river, a coarse- 
grained, cross-bedded, opaline cemented sandstone, for the 
most part rather soft. This same stone outcrops on the tops 
of the hills overlooking the river and some 40 to 50 feet above 
it. On the top of the hill there is an old quarry in this material. 
Here it is rather massive, but still rather soft. This stone has 
been used extensively by the International & Great Northern 
Railway in the building of culverts, approaches and abut- 
ments. It dresses well and seems to be admirably adapted for 
this use. 

About one-half mile downstream from the bridge the fol- 
lowing section is exposed on the south bank : 

1. Alternations of sandstone and claystone in 2 It. layers.... 8 fit. 

2. Claystone, -weathering whitish 3 tt. 

3. Coarse-grained, gray colored, rather soft sandstone 4 ft. 

4. Greenish-brown, sandy clay, weathering yellowish and cream 

colored. The clay contains many pyritic nodules and, 
where the water has acted on it, the characteristic "cop- 
peras" color is to be seen. Towards the top the clay he- 
comes indurated to a claystone. Structureless 40 ft. 

Approximately one-half mile below the mouth of McGee 
creek, on the south bank, there is exposed at the waters edge 
8 to 10 feet of a gray to yellowish, structureless, fine-grained, 

TJie Geology of East Texas 211 

fairly well indurated sandstone. This sandstone weathers out 
in cavernous forms. 

About one mile below the mouth of McGee creek, on the 
south bank, there is a bluff overlooking the river in which the 
following section is exposed: 

1. Yellowisli sandy clays and clayey sands, for ttie most part 

structureless, but showing some cross-bedding. Contain 
some pyritic nodules 25 ft. 

2. Highly cross-bedded, gray, coarse-grained, porcellaneously 

cemented sandstone, for the most part soft 20 ft. 

At Gibson's store, which is about one-half mile above the 
mouth of Carolina creek, there is a bluff on the Trinity county, 
side. It is hardly .any higher than the banks of the river, but 
at the base about 10 feet of gray sands are exposed. 

Immediately below the mouth of Carolina creek and along 
the eastern bank of the creek for quite a ways back from the 
river there is a bluff rising some 60 feet above the river. The 
section exposed here is as follows: 

1. Greenish-brown clays, weathering yellowish, structureless . . 2 ft. 

2. Structureless, Indurated, grayish brown, sandy layer 2 ft. 

3. Clay and sandy clay, greenish-brown when fresh, but weather- 

ing yellowish, cream colored and yellowish brown. When 
near the water it takes on a blue color, due to change in 
the composition of the iron cement. Contains an abun- 
dance or iron sulphide nodules, which are crystalline in 
places and take on octahedral forms. The clay smells 
sirongly of sulphur and H^S. In the Carolina creek bed 
just above the mouth there are a number of springs highly 
charged with sulphur 10 ft. 

4. Upper part consisting of a cross-bedded, fine-grained, gray to 

white. sandstone, medium-hard to soft. Bottom 15 feet cov- 
ered with sandstone blocks 45 ft. 

About 11/2 miles below old Carolina there outcrops near the 
water's edge on the south bank of the river about 6 feet of a 
medium to coarse-grained, hard gray sandstone, for the most 
part massive. The sand grains have an opaline cementing 
material. This rock varies from medium hard to the hardness 
of quartzite. 

In the creek there is a section exposed which shows excel- 

212 University of Texas Bulletin 

lently the nature of some of the unconformities within the 
Catahoula. Here there has been a trough cut into the yel- 
low-weathering structureless sandy clays and in it 10 feet of 
coarse-grained, cross-bedded sands have been deposited. These 
sands are bedded so as to show the trough, and the cross- 
bedding appears as the minor structural feature. The sands 
vary locally from fine to coarse-grained, but some coarse 
angular quartz grains up to % inch in diameter were found 
and rounded clay balls up to one inch in diameter were also 
included. In color, the sands are, for the most part, gray and 
reddish brown, but in one place they were carbonaceous and of 
a brownish hue. A layer of 2 ft. of arenaceous claystone is 
also to be included near the base of the section. The sands 
are considerably iron stained locally. 

One-fourth to one-half mile above the Government Lock and 
Dam at White Rock Shoals there is a shoal extending across 
the river. The rock making up the shoal is a medium to fine- 
grained, partly indurated, massive, gray sandstone, stained 
reddish-brown locally and having many vertical joints. There 
is about five feet of this material overlain by five feet of gray 
sands containing some pyritic nodules. 

Prom, this point the river turns more nearly south across the 
strike of the beds. 

Chalk Bluff, on the Trinity river, is on the north bank about 
200 yards downstream from the mouth of Mill creek. The sec- 
tion is as follows : 

1. Cross-bedded, medium-coarse sandstone, some of it with 

opaline cement, other parts mixed with fine clay. Also 
contains coarse-grained quartz and rounded clay balls. Buff 
in color 25 ft. 

2. Much fractured "mudstone" with curved fracture. Stained 

brown and red on fracture planes by iron oxide. 20 ft. 

3. Greenish-yellow loose clay 70 ft. 

Between this exposure and the Beaumont & Great Northern 
Railroad over Mill creek the east bluffs of Mill creek are 
strewn with fragments of Catahoula sandstone of sizes up to 
3 or 4 feet by 10 or 12 feet and of all degrees of induration 
from that so friable it can be broken to pieces in the hand to 

The Geology of East Texas 213 

hard indurated quartzite. There is some fine conglomerate and 
palmetto leaves and opalized or ehalcedonized trunks are 
rather common. Three thin ledges of the sandstone, separated 
by clay, outcrop on these hillsides None of these appear to be 
over six feet in thickness. The upper one is friable and the 
lower one has thinned out at Chalk Bluff, where its place is 
taken by clay. The hillsides are covered with its debris for 
over a mile along the east side of Mill creek and much of this 
debris is workable stone. 


There are good exposures of the Corrigan along the line of 
the International & Great Northern Railway. 

Two miles north of Riverside, the International & Great 
Northern Railway runs close to the outside of a meander curve 
in the Trinity river. The section follows : 


1. Shelly and thin-laminated, light, brown sands, in places in- 

durated to a friable rough-surfaced sandstone 10-12 ft. 

2. Dark brown and brownish-black carbonaceous shale 3 ft. 

3. Dark gray, compact, clayey, fine sand, fractured into small 

pieces and with a dull waxy appearance 7 ft. 

4. Friable, rough-surfaced, much jointed, light-brown sand- 

stone with plants 4 ft. 

5. Cream colored, very sandy, clay 2 ft. 

6. Sandstone like (4) 1 ft. 

7. Laminated sand, cross-bedded, medium-grained, light gray 

sands 10 ft 

All exposures on the Trinity river above this point belong 
to the Jackson, and the Jackson-Corrigan contact comes in No. 
7 of this section. All beds above it belong to the Corrigan. 

One-fourth mile downstream from the above section is 25 
feet of light brown and gray sand and sandstone, varying in 
degree of induration from friable to hard opaline-cemented^ 
locally quartzitic. Most of the sandstone shows an irregular 

The following sections are exposed as we go dovnistream : 

The first of these for the distance of a quarter of a mile or 
more exposes contorted bedded and thin-bedded light drab clay 

214 University of Texas Bulletin 

about 10 feet in thickness. One-fourth mile downstream there 
is 15 feet of gray and greenish-gray sandstone of various de- 
grees of induration, from very friable to hard quartzite. Some 
of it is clayey and then it is fractured into small pieces and 
presents an irregular surface. The bedding is contorted. Plant 
impressions and leaves are plentiful. For three-fourths of a 
mile above the International & Great Northern Railway bridge 
yellowish-green clay and blue laminated sands are locally ex- 
posed in thin sections on the south bank of the river. 

The top of the hill at Riverside is capped with yellowish- 
green clay with calcareous nodules. This clay is about 20 feet 
in thickness. It is underlain ;by a ledge 10-15 feet of light 
gray, friable cross-bedded sandstone with large grains of pel- 
lucid quartz which we have called rice sand. These have their 
edges partly rounded and their surfaces clouded by abrasion. 
Underneath the sandstone is 10 feet of light brown hardened 
clay, much jointed. 

Just out of town is a -small gully with steep sides excavated 
in the' sandstone and underlying clay. Locally, the sandstone, 
has opaline cement. There is a southward dip of 2 degrees. 
Underneath the hardened clay is 15 feet of light yellowish-green, 
loose clay. In the sandstone at the top are pockets, lenses and 
small nodules of clay. 

The first exposure on railroad is 200 yards south of Mile Post 
72, which whows 10 feet of poorly bedded, light yellowish-green, 
sandy clay. The dip is 3° S. "W. At the next exposure one-fourth 
mile south of Mile Post 72 the dip is 2° to the southward. The 
section is : 

1. Hardened, light gray clay 4 ft. 

2. Light yellowish-green clay earring a few calcareous concre- 

tions • • • • 13 ft. 

3. Partly a'S a continuation of the same stratigraphic level as 

(4) and partly coming in above are thin non-oontinuous 
beds of friable light gray, coarse-grained, opaline-cemented, 
sub-angular, fragmented, quartzose sandstone, interbedded 
with loose, cross-bedded, coarse and medium-grained sands 
with small nodules of light yellowish-green clay 8 ft. 

4. Loose, cross-bedded, friable, light gray, medium-grained, 

quartzose sand with biotite, selenite, and jasper as acces- 
sories 9 ft. 

The Geology of East Texas 215 

Cream colored sandy clay 5 feet in thickness is exposed ia the 
cut at Mile Pose 63. One hundred yards south of Mile Post 75 
is the following section : 

1. Friable sandstone, fine-grained, opaline-cemented with plant 

impressions 4 ft. 

2. Loose, fine-grained, light gray sand 2 ft. 

Stratigraphically above the last section in the cut at Mile 
Post 75 is the following section: 

1. Opaline-cemented coarse and medium grained light brown 

and gray sandstone locally cross-bedded and stained with 
limonite. It is locally quartzitic and contains rounded 
nodules of clay and larger lumps of hardened clay more 
irregular in outline. Varies greatly in degree of induration 5 ft. 

2. Light yellowish-green clay with calcareous nodules 5 ft. 

At Mile Post 76 is 6 feet of light gray, loose, poorly lami- 
nated sand. The Onalaska beds seem wanting in this section. 

The top of the Corrigan is seen on Harmon creek west of • 
the railroad. 

The first exposure, which is near the middle of the Catahoula 
section, is just aljove the abutments of the old bridge on the 
road from Riverside to Smither's farm. It consists of 10 feet 
of light green clay, much fractured. The second exposure is 
250 yards upstream from the last and has 40 feet of light 
yellowish-green clay, the upper 5 feet partially indurated, 
overlain by 5 feet of opaline-cemented, cross-bedded, medium- 
grained sandstone with plant remains. The next exposure 
shows 25 feet of light yellowish-green clay. The heads of 
the tributary creeks and gullies have broad bare surfaces of 
light greenish or cream colored Catahoula clay. 

One mile upstream from the last mentioned exposure is the 
following : 

1. Light gray hardened clay 2 ft. 6 in. 

2. Unconsolidated, light yellowish-green clay 3 ft. 

3. Hardened, light yellowish-green clay 1 ft. 

4. Medium-grained, opaline-cemented, cross-bedded light gray 

sandstone 4 ft. 

216 University of Texas Bulletin 

At the contact of the sandstone and clay are sulphur springs 
emitting sulphuretted hydrogen gas. 

The next exposure is one-fourth mile upstream: 

1. Light gray, cross-bedded, opaline-cemented coarse-grained 
grit. The particles of the grit are, suhordinately, angular, 
dark colored chert, up to 1-4 inch in size, predominatingly 
angular, transparent quartz, with a minor amount of small 
rounded, light gray-drab clay balls, probably derived from 
the underlying clay. There is a very irregular, uncon- 
formable contact between (2) and (1) ; at one place a lense 
of medium-grained, light gray sandstone is found in the 
clay (2) and has an unconformable lower contact with the 
clay. This is at the top of the clay and is separated from 
the overlying sandstone by clay from 1 ft. to 6 ft. in 
thickness 10 ft 

2., Very light gray clay, hardened and much jointed, rusty on 

joint planes 8 ft. 

Three-fourths mile upstream is 4 feet of light yellowish-green 
hardened clay. One-fourth mile farther upstream is at the 
base 8 feet of light yellowish green clay. On the hill above, 
with a covered vertical interval between it and the clay of 
about 10 feet is light gray, cross-grained, opaline-cemented 
sandstone 5 feet in thickness. Then after several exposures 
0''' a few feel each of Lyb.t yellowish-green, unconsolidat;;.! 
clay, there comes one with 4 feet of yellowish-green hardened 
clay with irregular-surface, overlain by 3 feet of loose, light 
green clay. At an old cotton gin there are 6 feet of very 
friable sandstones, fine-grained, light gray, and much cross- 
bedded. The two exposures next upstream have 8 feet of light 
yellowish-green, unconsolidated, clay. The next exposure has 
6 feet of light green, unconsolidated, laminated, fine-grained 
sand at the base, overlain by 3 feet of fine-grained, light gray 
sandstone, in which were found two palmetto leaves, as large 
as the modern palmetto, and resembling it. Another quarter 
mile upstream is the following section which belongs to the 
Onalaska beds : 

1. Gray, medium grained sandstone, locally quartzitic 7 ft. 

2. Coarse sand packed full of small white porous cylindrical 

calcareous concretions a It. 

3. Yellow-green, fine sand 10 ft. 

The Geology of East Texas 217 

Further upstream the exposures at the top of the Corrigan 
are blue .and gray clayey sand, locally indurated, with irregular 
surfaces and, locally, with a few small calcareous concretions. 
It forms rapids in the creek. The line between the Corrigan and 
Fleming is very poorly defined here. 

West of the Trinity there are good exposures of the lower 
Corrigan .along Nelson creek in the northern part of "Walker 

A traverse of Nelson creek from Moffitt Springs to the head, 
showed that it flows in the Corrigan. About one-eighth mile 
above the springs, a rock hill comes down to the creek. It is 
composed of medium to coarse-grained, massive gray sand- 
stone. An exposure of the same sandstone is to be seen about 
one-eighth mile above this point, where a rock shoal occurs in 
the creek. On the Wm. Roock League on the south side of the 
creek and about one-fourth mile back from it there is ex- 
posed, in a bluff overlooking the creek bottom, 8 to 10 feet of 
medium to coarse grained, massive, white sandstone containing 
pyritic nodules and having a fine granular matrix. The creek 
heads just south of the Bedias road. Exposures near the 
head give 5-6 feet of the yellow weathering, structureless, some- 
what sandy Catahoula clay. 



The Jackson-Corrigan contact comes between the 22nd and 
23rd mile posts. A sandstone quarry was formerly worked in 
the beds near the base of the Corrigan a short distance west of 
the track. Quartz sand as coarse as rice is reported from a 
locality 400 yards east of the Trinity & Brazos Valley Railway 
track a short distance south of Singleton and this is undoubt- 
edly derived from the Corrigan. One-third mile north of Mile 
Post 21 Corrigan light gray, irregularly indurated, sandstone 
2 feet in thickness is overlain by much cross-bedded, opaline- 
cemented sandstone 6 feet in thickness. White and yellowish- 
green clays 3 feet in thickness are found 300 yards south of 
Mile Post 21. 

Roans Prairie has blackland soil underlain by light greenish- 


218 University of Texas Bulletin 

yellow clay. At depths of from 20 to 30 feet good water is 
obtained in Corrigan sand or sandstone. There is a small hill 
of Corrigan sandstone 1 mile south of Eoans Prairie station; 
light greenish-yellow clay between Mile Post 17 and 16 ; 5 feet 
of cream-colored clay badland, clayey sand, locally indurated 
to sandstone, at Mile Post 16. At Mile Post 15 and two-thirds 
of a mile south there is 3 or 4 feet of cross-bedded friable 
sandstone, which belongs to the uppermost Corrigan. Three 
hundred yards south of Mile Post 14 is 2 feet of light gray 
claystone, the upper 1 foot indurated and fractured. Under- 
neath the last is 5 feet of lowermost Fleming dirty green 
sandy clay, very poorly laminated and with calcareous ce- 
mented nodules of sandstone. 

The Corrigan-Fleming contact occurs, therefore, near Mile 
Post 14. 


Our Brazos river sections include only the upper beds of the 
Corrigan and their contact with the overlying formation. As 
the bulk of the materials belong to the Neocene, the sections 
will be given later. 

Four hundred yards below the line between the E. Clampit 
and Wm. Kerr tracts, Corrigan quartzite outcrops in the river 
bank. The rock is 22 feet .above low water level. 

As here exposed the Corrigan is a medium hard, brownish- 
gray sandstone with lenses of hard brown quartzite. These 
quartzitic phases make up at least fifty per cent of the rock 
mass in this exposure. No estimate can be made regarding 
the thickness because of cover. The bedding is highly com- 
plex, ranging from thick and massive strata to thin-bedded 
phases with all degrees of cross-bedding and lenticular struc- 

Two hundred yards south of this, along the river bank, an 
exposure shows 23 feet of sandstone. The lower 7 feet of this 
is present in last exposure, but the 16 foot interval above this 
shows no quartzite. 

Chapter IX 


The Miocene and Pliocene, which, taken together, form the 
Neocene, are represented to the east and west of us both by ma- 
rine and by non-marine deposits. Using the marine fossils as a 
basis, each of the two series has been divided into a lower, mid- 
dle and upper stage. The character of the vertebrate remains 
also permits a tripartite division of each series, but the exact 
equivalency of the Lower, Middle and Upper stages of each as 
shown by vertebrates and invertebrates has not been ascertained. 

All of the materials of Miocene and Pliocene age which occur 
at the surface in our Texas Coastal area are, as we have said, 
land or fresh water deposits, but weUs drilled to the seaward of 
these exposed bodies show that they do not continue indefinitely 
in that direction as land deposits, but that they are replaced by 
brackish water or marine beds. None of these, however, have 
given us a clear basis for a division of the beds. Even in the 
Galveston deep well, which affords us our best marine section, the 
beds, except those above 458 feet, which are clearly Pleistocene, 
and those below 2100 feet which carry a distinctly Miocene 
fauna, are of indeterminate age beyond the fact that they are 
Upper Tertiary or Lower Quarternary or both. At Saratoga 
and Batson about 70 miles a little east of north from Galveston 
the fossiliferous marine Miocene beds are found in wells at 
depths from 350 to 1200 feet. These are the only inland occur- 
rence of these beds now known and the presence of any of the 
post-Miocene beds of the Galveston well has not been recognized 
anywhere in East Texas. 

The conditions of the brackish water fauna is somewhat sim- 
ilar. At Burkeville a fauna was found which Dall' pronounced 
Upper Miocene or Lower Pliocene. The vertebrate remains 
found in same beds Matthew ascribed to the same age. Sixty- 
five miles south of Burkeville a deep well encountered the Burke- 
ville fauna at 3100 feet and continued in it to 4000 feet, but there 

220 University of Texas Bulletin 

is nothing in the overlying beds to definitely fix their age. Nor do 
the vertebrate faunas east of the Navasota give us much better 
data for classification. The collections from the vicinity of Nava- 
sota and from Cold Springs, according to Matthew, are of Middle 
Miocene age. Those at Burkeville are of Upper Miocene or 
Lower Pliocene — ^none are distinctly Pliocene. 

Furthermore, east of the Trinity there does not seem to be 
any lithological basis for the division of the beds lying between 
the Oligocene and the Orange Sand, or Lafayette. Therefore, 
these clays with calcareous concretions and their interbedded 
sands, which together give us our only mappable unit, are 
grouped under the name Fleming and treated as undifferen- 
tiated Neocene covering the time from the Oligocene, or rather 
from the close of the Corrigan, into the Pliocene. 

The Neocene deposits in the East Texas Region, then, consist 
of only two mappable units: The Fleming beds and the La- 
fayette or Orange sand. The former comprises such deposits as 
occur between the Corrigan and Lafayette and covers parts of 
both the Miocene and Pliocene time. The Lafayette is Upper 
Pliocene in age. 

"West of the Brazos a better differentiation is possible and was 
made in the Nueces river section. In this region the Frio which 
is of Eocene age is overlaia in the neighborhood of Oakville by 
a body of brown sands lightly compacted and unfossiliferous. 
Overlying these are f ossilif erous sands which were grouped with 
the lower beds as the Oakville sands. The vertebrate fossils 
proved to be of Upper Miocene age. The brown sands may rep- 
resent the Middle Miocene or even earlier deposits. Overlying 
the Oakville we find the Lapara sands with vertebrate fossils 
of Lower Pliocene (Blanco) age and these are succeeded by the 
unfossiliferous Lagarto clays. The deposits west of the Brazos 
are much sandier than those east of that stream, the Lagarto 
clays being the only portion that corresponds lithologically with 
the main body of the Fleming. 

This would seem to imply that while east of the Brazos lagunal 
conditions prevailed from the beginning they did not extend 
westward until near the end of the period. 

The Geology of East Texas 221 



General Statement 

The deposits which succeed the Corrigan in East Texas prob- 
ably have no exact counterparts in. other portions of the Gulf 

They consist of a broad belt of clays with calcareous concretions 
which are interbedded with sands. The texture and composition 
of the component strata indicate that they were deposited in the 
quiet waters of inland lakes, lagoons or bays beyond the imme- 
diate shcreliue of the sea and as terrestrial deposits on a compar- 
atively flat coastal plain. The sands show the remains of palms 
and palmetto. The invertebrate fauna is that of brackish water 
only while the bulk of the fossil remains are those of land ani- 

These deposits are connected with the underljdng Corrigan by 
transition beds and are overlain uneonformably by the Lafayette 
or Upper Pliocene. 

The fossils found in them indicate that these deposits cover 
Middle and Upper Miocene and possible Lower Pliocene time. 
No forms indicative of the Middle Pliocene have yet been found, 
but may occur in or near the Woodville horizon. 

These deposits, — the Fleming in the east, and the Oakville- 
Lapara-Lagarto in the west, — are the coastal and terrestrial sedi- 
ments laid down contemporaneously with those of marine origin 
seen in the Galveston d#ep well and in deep wells in the Louisiana 
area which have yielded remains of Miocene and Pliocene marine 
invertebrates, no trace of which have, up to this time, been found* 
outcropping in this area. 

The Fleming clays were so named by Kennedy from the ex- 
posures near Fleming on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Eailway 
east of Corrigan. His description follows: 

The deposits are best seen in the neighborhood of Fleming, 
where, a little west of the station, the Trinity and Sabine Rail- 
way line passes over a high hill made up entirely of them. The 
same clays also occur in a cut on the line of the Southern Pacifio 
Railway about a mile and a half north of Summit station, in 
Tyler county. 

222 University of Texas Bulletin 

The clays are dark blue, pale blue, brown, red, yeUow, and 
pale green in color. They occur thinly laminated, or partially 
stratified and massive and have a strong tendency to joint or 
break into cuboidal blocks with a eonchoidal fracture. The most 
important bed of clay in this group is a blue clay, partially 
stratified, but showing a tendency to break up into blocks, and 
containing numerous concretions of carbonate of lime. This clay 
is perfectly smooth in texture and graduates into the underlying 
bed of red clay without any break except that of color, and the 
absence of the limy concretions which apparently do not occur 
in the red clay. At least where the beds were examined none 
were found. The red clay is in every other respect similar to the 

Pale green, pale blue and brown clays are found overlying the 
blue limy clays at the different exposures, but occur most abun- 
dantly to the north of Summit station. These colors are not so 
persistent as the blue, and are probably due to some local cause. 

These clays in this portion of the State are overlain by and 
associated with a series of gray sands, which are mostly coarse 
graiued, sometimes massive ,and in localities cross-bedded an^ 
stratified. The typical exposure seen at Fleming shows them to 
be gray stratified sand containing fossil palm in great quantities, 
with numerous quartz, jasper and other pebbles, and to have at 
that locality a thickness of twenty feet 

These clays and sands occupy a belt from 15 to 25 miles in 
width and are followed by the deposits referred to the Lafayette. 


The occurrence of the Fleming on the Sabine is thus descrbed 
by Veatch, who suggests the name Burkeville beds for it : 

Outcrop near Burr's Ferry: — A small outcrop of the greenish- 
yellow clays of this stage occurs at the water 's edge a quarter of 
a mile from Burr's ferry 

Bluff at mouth of Boggy branch : — Bluff just below the mouth 
of Boggy branch shows the following section : 

1. Stiff black soil 1 ft. 

2. Fine white sand 37 ft. 

The Geology of East Texas 223 

3. Light yellow, sticky clay, containing large irregular white 

calcareous concretions. Weathers into a stiff black clay..26f1!i 

4. Covered to water level 17 ft. 

The blackland soil which caps this bluff is an erosion frag- 
ment of a much thicker bed which shows in the hiUs west of this 
exposure. This is a continuation of the blackland belt in which 
fossils occur at Burkrille. 

Near Columbia : — Shelf of clay exposed just below the ferry 
shows the following : 

1. Yellow sandy loam mottled with gray 7 ft.. 

2. Fine white and yellow sand containing gravel in the basal 

portion 13 ft^ 

3. Light brown, slick-looking clay, streaked white. Contains 

small calcareous concretions 2 ft.. 

Water level. 

The flat-topped bluff on which New Columbia is situated con- 
tinues down the river half a mile Near its lower end a ledge of 
green calcareous clay, two feet thick, is exposed near water level. 

Outcrops below New Columbia: — The first exposure of Frio 
(Fleming) clays below New Colunlbia is at the log-slide at 
Knight's landing 

1. Brown sandy silt, stained with red and yellow 7 ft. 

2. Stratified white sand with gravel at base 17 ft. 

3. Green sandy clay 10 ft. 

Two feet of green sandy clay is exposed at base of low pine- 
clad bluff on the Louisana side between Droddy's landing and 
Bearden's ferry. 

On the map, Plate XXXIV, he places the southern limit of 
the Fleming at Armstrong's bluff just south of the line be- 
tween Vernon and Calcasieu parishes, at which point it passes 
below the Lafayette. 


Baker describes the beds at Burkeville thus : 

The general facies of the beds at Burkeville resemble much 

224 University of Texas Bulletin 

the Fleming of the type locality .and others farther west. Good 
exposures are most often found in recent gullies in old fields 
and prairies and these may or may not have a superficial black 
soil. The walls and promontories of a gully system have 
rounded outlines, for the material is fine and unconsolidated. 
In color the Fleming is most generally a light shade of grayish 
or yellowish-green, often weathering brown on the surface. 
The surface, when dry, is cracked like ordinary plastic clay. 
The material is fine clay and clayey sand with' small whitish 
limestone concretions. However, there are at Burkeville 
larger grayish-brown very fine grained limestone concretions 
with dendritic markings of manganese dioxide, concretions of 
large size and rough irregular outline of fine to medium- 
grained sandstone, and the fossiliferous breccia or beach lime- 
stone conglomerate known only from one-half mile east of 
Burkeville and south of Little Low creek, where fragmentary 
bones of land mammals and brackish water molluscs were 
found. In many places the, small white concretions are ar- 
ranged in thin beds parallel to the imperfect lines of strati- 
fication. The fine sands are also locally finely laminated and 

Collections of fossils, both vertebrate and .invertebrate, 
were made at this locality. The invertebrates collected by us 
were sent to Dr. W. H. Dall, who studied them in connection 
with other collections from the same locality and others of 
similar age from Louisiana and Georgia. Matson^ gives the 
results of this study and lists 10 species from Burkeville. He 
states that the character of the fauna led Dr. Dall to refer it 
to the Pliocene. 

The list given by Matson" includes the following forms: 

Ostrea Virginia Gmel. 

Anomla sp. 

Potamides Matsoni Dall. 

Potamides Matsoni var gracillior Dall. 

Cerlthiopsis burkevillensis Dall. 

Pachychellus anagramatus Dall. 

Pachyclieilus satilensis Aldrich. 

'U. S. G. S. Water-Supply Paper 335, p. 72. 
'U. S. G. S. Water-Supply Paper 335, p. 73. 

University of Texas Bulletin No. 1S69 

Plate XI. 

Quarry in Jasper County, exposing quartzites. 

Typical exposure near Smith's Ferry. 

The Geology of East Texas 225 

Pachycheilus sauvls Dall. 
Paludestrina plana Aldrich. 
Neritina sparsalineata Dall. 

The mammalian remains were sent to Dr. W. D. Matthew. He 
reports as determinable: 

Tibia of a young rhinocerous, with the proportions of Teleoceras. 
Upper molar of a horse, either Proto-hippus or a long-crowned 

He states that both these specimens indicate late Miocene or 
possibly early Pliocene age, the horse tooth being pretty cer- 
tain evidence. 

It is therefore evident that in the vicinity of Burkeville the 
base of the Fleming is not earlier than late Miocene nor 
younger than early Pliocene. 


On the Santa Fe railroad the contact of Corrigan and 
Fleming was not seen, but judging from the topography it 
should be just north of Mile Post 76. From this point to 
Jasper the exposures show only Lafayette and even south of 
Jasper the Lafayette is more abundantly exposed in the cuts 
than is the Fleming. At Mile Post 73 light greenish-gray 
Fleming clay with calcareous nodules is exposed. This weath- 
ers on the surface to dark russet brown. Its maximum 
thickness is 10 feet. Bight feet of Fleming yellowish-green 
clay with calcareous nodules is to be seen in the first cut 
south of Mile Post 72, and at Mile Post 71. At the culvert 
between Mile Posts 71 and 70 the Fleming is greenish to 
yellowish-gray and weathers brownish. In the cut rimning 
north of Mile Post 70 is 8 feet of Fleming clay with calcareous 
nodules, weathering dark brown, but greenish-gray when \m- 

There is at least 15 feet of Fleming with calcareous nodules 
in the cut at Mile Post 70. 

The Fleming is well exposed on both sides of Bridge 69-C. 
At the south end of the exposure a thickness of 12 feet is seen 
and this exhibits a very imperfect arrangement of the ealcare- 

226 University of Texas Bulletin 

ous nodules in layers, recalling similar conditions at Town 
Bluff on tlie Neehes in easternmost Tyler County. 

In the cut on the curve north of Mile Post 69 is 15 feet of 
light grayish-brown Fleming with calcareous nodules and some 
flattish concretions of sandstone like those found in the same 
formation at Burkeville. 

The Fleming outcrops at Bridge 68-B, at Green's Mill, and at 
Bridges 67-B and 66. 

The southernmost exposure of Fleming seen during this 
traverse consisted of bluish-gray clay situated 15 feet below 
the track level at Bridge 57-C. 

A section of Fleming clay, 100 feet in thickness, outcrops 
between the lowest Lafayette beds and low water level in Town 
Bluff on the Neehes between Jasper and WoodvUle. The 
lowest Fleming exposed, at the water's edge, 5 feet in thickness, 
is dirty green in color. Above is 10 feet of dark brown clay, 
the unweathered color being green or bluish gray, but seamed 
with brown limonite on joint and cleavage planes. In this 
layer were found fragmentary bones of fossil turtles and a 
well preserved mammal vertebra, which may be fossil, was 
found on the surface of this clay. Next above is 30 or 35 feet 
of light bluish and greenish clay. The upper 50 feet is mainly 
clayey sand, cross-bedded and laminated, in color dirty green 
or dark brown. There are calcareous nodules throughout the 
section and in its middle portion these are imperfectly arranged 
in more or less wavy and not always parallel layers which give 
to the beds the appearance of a rude stratification. The top of 
the Fleming forms a terrace like bench, interrupting the steep 
profile of the bluff. This bench has been formed by numerous 
springs which issue from the top of the impervious Fleming 
and have undermined and washed away the overljdiig Lafa- 


On the Texas & New Orleans Railroad the first exposure of 
Fleming is at Bridge 101-E, where 18 to 20 feet of yellowish- 
green clay with a few calcareous nodules is seen. In the first 
cut above the 100th mile post 7 feet of dark green clay is found 
and outcrops southward to Bridge 99-D. At 99-C there is at 

The Geology of East Texas 227 

the base 1 foot of friable fine clayey sandstone, slightly case- 
hardened, overlain by 4 feet of loose "shelly" clay. Then 
there comes in under the Lafayette a light gray sand and clay 
locally case-hardened and having a strongi taste of alum. From 
99-B the Lafayette forms the sole surface exposure. 

Thin wavy laminated medium grained sand layers alter- 
nating with light brown or light cream clay with whitish cal- 
careous nodules to a thickness of 8 feet overlain by faintly 
mottled clayey sand mainly yelowish brown in color with 
small spots of darker red 2 to 3 feet in thickness covered with 
"black-land" soil to depth of from 6 inches to a foot, are 
found in a cut on the Moscow, Camden and San Augustine 
Railway, one-fourth mile northeast of Moscow. The beds 
here dip almost due east at an angle of 7°. 


On the Houston, East & West Texas Eailway the Corrigan- 
Fleming contact occurs near Moscow. The first exposure of the 
Fleming, is under Bridge 89-B 1% miles north of the town. 

Blue-gray case-hardened sandy clay 2 feet in thickness 
underlies 3 feet of light mottled surficial member of a light 
yellow color with a faint mottling of slightly darker yellow or 
red ill the second cut south of Mile Post 86. 

One mile north of Seven Oaks 2 feet of case-hardened gray, 
coarse sandstone is unconformably overlain by the Lafayette. 
Occasionally the sandstone contains a small bunch of clay or 
the clay forms the lining of tubes. 

One mile north of Leggett and 4 feet below the track level 
is 1 foot of soft gray clay with blotches of black oxide of man- 
ganese along joint faces. 

Dark gray, sandy, sticky clay with small white calcareous 
concretions is found 4 feet below the track level at the north 
end of second cut south of sign post 1 mile north of Leg- 
gett. In these clays were seen several masses (6 or 8 inches 
long and 1 or 2 inches wide) or compact, hard, light yellow, 
very fine grained limestone with dendritic markings of black 
oxide of manganese along cracks. These clays are 3 feet 
thick. The surficial sandy and clayey member, mottled in its 

228 University of Texas Bulletin 

upper 5 feet, has maximum thickness of 10 feet, but the lower 
5 feet in the center of the cut is sticky gray sandy clay be- 
longing to the Flemiag. 

In the north end of the cut just south of Bridge 81-B and 
below the track level is exposed 12 feet of medium grained 
loose sand with just clay enough in it to enable it to stand up in 
typical badlands forms of buttresses built up of small spires. 
The surfleial layer, not sharply demarked from the underlying, 
is mottled grayish and red. In the light gray sand close to the 
section's base was noted local concretion-Uke hardenings of the 
sand, colored black, probably with wad or some other form of 
black oxide of manganese. The last three cuts are in the side 
of the hill north of Leggett station. 

The highest point in Polk County is a hill rising 95 feet 
above its base and situated 2 miles south-southeast of Leggett. 
The top of this hill is covered with the Lafayette member, with 
its usual characteristics. Not far below the summit of the hill 
are 4 springs of good water. The porous sandy Lafayette is 
underlain by the calcareous Fleming clay and the water stored 
in the surficial member seeps out when it strikes the top of the 
underlying impervious clay. 

A well drilled for oil 2 miles west of Leggett penetrated 10 
feet of lignite at 1000 feet below the surface — probably Ja.ckson. 

A well three quarters of a mile northeast of the high hill 
gives water containing sulphur, lime and salt. It penetrated 
dark cream colored clay with limestone concretions to a depth 
of 47 feet. So at a minimum there is 125 feet of the gray clay 
with calcareous nodules in this vicinity. 

The colors of these clays probably are largely dependent on 
the amount of hydroscopic and interstitial water which they 

In the first cut south of 79-E' is found, the clay with calcare- 
ous nodules weathering to a dirty green on the surface. The 
blue gray clays with calcareous nodules outcrop in the south 
part of the town of Leggett and underlie a "black-land" 
prairie one-half mile south of the town. 

Clay with calcareous nodules outcrops 20 feet below Trestle 
73-A for a thickness of 5 feet, succeeded by 3 feet of mottled 
surficial member. 

The Geology of East Texas 229 

There are 6 to 8 feet of the gray clays with calcareous 
nodules exposed in a cut at Mile Post 72, where some beds are 
quite sandy and consolidated enough to form thin flaggy fri- 
able sandstone. 

These Fleming, clays extend at least as far south as Livings- 
ton, giving the outcrop a width of 28 miles on this railroad. 

The contact of the Oorrigan and Fleming near Onalaska has 
already been noted. Southwest of Onalaska the Fleming out- 
crops half way between Pointblank and Patrick's Ferry over 
the Trinity. It shows up here as greenish clays with calcare- 
ous concretions, weathering out into blackland. This Fleming 
runs up to within a mile or so of Pointblank. 

The Fleming was also found outcropping in a gully about 
one mile east of Canary postofftce. 


At Eed Bluff on the Trinity River on the James Eankin 
Survey Fleming greenish-gray clay with calcareous nodules 
and cross-bedded sands contains a few bone fragments. The 
beds have a maximum thickness of 15 feet. In the middle of 
the exposure is a one foot layer of oolitic shore-line limestone 
conglomerate, containing a very few jasper and quartz peb- 
bles of small size and an occasional bone fragment. 

At Pine Island on the N. Amory Survey, in the Trinity bot- 
toms, a portion of the bluff land is now included within the 
bottom which entirely surrounds it, being bordered by Duck 
Creek on the south and the river on the north. The northeast 
corner forms a low bluff on the river at the base of which is 6 
feet of dirty green sandy clay with calcareous nodules. 

Just east of Camilla there is a considerable body of gray 
medium-grained friable sandstone in the Fleming. 

Similar beds are found a short distance below at Johnson's 
Bluff, where they also include fresh-water moUusks. These 
deposits extend along the river to a point south of Drews 
•Landing, near Smithfield. Here an outcrop of Fleming, 10 
feet in thickness, shows friable fine-grained gray sandstone in 
lenticles at the base, with 5 feet of greenish-gray, russet- 
brown, mottled clay with small, white calcareous nodules over- 

230 University of Texas BuUetin 

lying it. Fragments of bone were found in this. The Flem- 
ing is here overlain by the Port Hudson, with the usual layer 
of Lafayette-derived pebbles at the base. 

A mile below Drews Landing, is a section showing 5 feet of 
light-gray Fleming clay with calcareous nodules. 


Coldsprings, west of the river, is in the midst of an impor- 
tant outcrop of the Fleming. In this region the Fleming 
brown and gray clay has a considerable portion of brown, 
buff, and white sand. In places there are large boulders of 
grayish brown, soft sandstone, some of which are 10 to 12 feet 
in length. There is also a fine-grained, hard, brown claystone 
and numerous calcareous nodules. Crystals of selenite are 
found loeaUy. Pure white sand, with only a minor amount of 
clay, is also found. Fossils of mammals were found in the 
region extending from 2 miles north to 2 miles west of Cold- 
springs. The bones, with the exception of a mastodon's skull 
(TrUophodon) , are fragmentary and are scattered through the 
clays. Planorbis was also found at this locality. 

Two miles west of Coldsprings on the Coldsprings-Dodge 
road there is quite a development of Fleming gullies or "bad- 
lands." The exposures here show 25-30 feet of Fleming drab 
to pearly gray colored clay mottled with brown towards the 
top and on the surface all brown, but the soil is always black 
and waxy. These clays contain layers up to 2 feet thick of 
cross-bedded gray to white, fine grained, medium hard, opaline 
cemented sandstone. The clay also contains an abundance of 
calcareous nodules. 

These "badlands" extend from the above point northeast- 
erly until they reach a point about 1^/4 miles north of Cold- 

These exposures were searched diligently for 'fossils and 
quite a few vertebrate remains were found. Among other 
things might be noted the jaw bone of a mastodon {Tetrabele- 
don), equus teefth, camel, numerous rodents, alligator (?), tur- 
tle, etc. etc. The fossils were collected under the locality num- 
bers of Nos. 344 and 345. 

The Geology of East Texas 231 

At Evergreen postoffice small lenticular masses of gray fine- 
grained sandstone are found in blue and green clays carrying 
calcareous nodules. Three hundred yards from the south line 
of the Euth Miller Survey, at Evergreen, brown lignitized 
wood and bones were found in a well at a depth of 70 feet. 
Blue clay was penetrated for practically the entire depth. 

Collections of vertebrates secured from the Coldsprings 
horizon, which is above the center of the series of deposits in 
the Trinity drainage here referred to the Fleming, were sent 
to Dr. W. D. Matthew, who reports as follows: 

344. Two miles west of Coldsprings. 

"Trilopkodon sp., parts of lower jaws and separate molars, 
mostly well preserved. 

The best specimen shows a large part of the lower jaw with mi-| 
and the molars of the opp'osite side. Part of the symphysis is pre- 
served, and apparently a little of the alveolus for the lower tusk. 
Symphysis is moderately long, slender; not decurved. The species is 
a very small and primitive one in most respects, but the retarding 
of the posterior teeth so that m- does not come into use until m' is 
worn out and dropped is suggestive of Upper Miocene species, such as 
T. euphypodon. The small size and primitive construction of the teeth 
are more suggestive of Middle Miocene. 
Indicated age, probably Middle Mi'ocene. 

"Pecary, gen. indet., jaw fragment, m'. 

This, might be anything from Perchoerus (Oligocene) to ProstJien- 
nops (Upper Miocene). It is small and primitive, so far as the tooth 
gioes, but this is not conclusive, as the progressive characters of this 
phylum are in the front teeth. I can not identify it with certainty as 
belonging to any known genus or species. 

Indicated age, Oligocene to Upper Miocene. 

"MerycMppv.s sp., upper and lower teeth. 

A lather small and moderately progressive species; it might be 
Upper or Late Middle Miocene. 

" lAlticameliis, distal ends tibia and metapodial. 
Indicated age. Middle Miocene to Lower Pliocene. 

232 University of Texas Bulletin 

"Crocodile and Tortoise fragments. 

345. Pointblank road, north of Coldsprings. 

"Cervid," ef. Dromomeryx, horn fragment, calcanemn. 

"Camelid, gen. indet., jaw fragments, proximal phalanx. 

"Rhinoceros, ef. Aphelops, several fragments limb bones, 

"Large Ehinoeeros, ef. Teleoceras or large Aphelops, frag- 
ments of limb bones. 

"Proboscidean, ef. TrilopJiodon, unciform. 

Indicated age of the above specimens, Middle Miocene to Lower 

345. One and one-fourth miles north of Coldsprings. 
"Eystricops sp., upper jaw with m^; lower molar. 

This is more primitive than the one known species of this genus, 
which is Upper Miocene and Pliocene. It is intermediate between it 
and the supposed ancestral type, the Steneofiier group of the Upper 
Oligocene and Dower Miocene. 

Indicated age, probably Middle Miocene. 

"Blastomeryx sp., last lower molar. 

This is apparently distinct from any known species, decidedly niore 
progressive than those of the Lower Miocene, less soi than the Upper 
Miocene species B. wellsi, more perhaps than the Middle Miocene 
species B. gemmifer. 

Indicated age, late Middle Miocene or Upper Miocene, 

"Oreodont, gen. indet., upper canine and premolar. 

Indicated age, Miocene or Lower Pliocene. 

' ' Carnivore, indet., scapholunar and head of metatarsal. 

"Proboscidean, ef. Trilophodon, fragments of teeth. 

Indicated age, middle Miocene to Pliocene. 

' ' Trionychid fragments. 

"Garpike scales. 

' ' ?Snake vertebra. 

"Merychippus sp., cf. seversus, upper and lower teeth and 
fragmentary foot bones; part of right lower jaw, Piffij. 

The Geology of East Texas 233 

This is a Middle Miocene stage, although small and primitive Mery- 
chippi do survive into the Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene. No 
trace of any of the distinctively Upper Miocene horses among these 

Indicated age, Middle Miocene. 

351. Two miles north of Coldsprings. 
"Cervid (IDromomeryx) radius. 

Indicated age, DroTnomeryx is Middle Miocene to Lower Pliocene, 
but this evidence is very slight. 

352. Red Bluff, Trinity River. 
"Protohippine horse, lower tooth. 

Indicated age. Middle Miocene to Pliocene; nothing more definite. 

"The Coldspring material lacks any of the characteristic 
Upper Miocene Lower Pliocene Equidae, it has two or three spe- 
cies that appear to be in a Middle Miocene stage of evolution, and 
it has nothing recognizable as of the distinctively Upper Mio- 
cene types. The best specimen is the little Mastodon (Tril- 
opliodon) which is the smallest and most primitive species I 
have seen, except for a few very fragmentary specimens out 
of the Middle Miocene of Colorado (which have been called 
proavMs • and may represent the same species). 
■ "I do not see. anything to modify my former correlation of 
the fauna' with the Middle iliocene (IMascall, Deep River and 
Pawnee Creek beds) : it is rather confirmed by the Triloj^ho- 
don. But, as I wrote before, the survival of the Middle Mo- 
eene fauna of the Central Plains to a somewhat later age in 
Southern Texas would not be unexpected." 

Bluish-gray and dirty green Fleming clay outcrops at the 
town of Oakhurst. There are only two exposures of Fleming 
on the Trinity Valley Southern Railroad between Oakhurst 
and Dodge, where most of surface is gravel-covered. 


On the International & Great Northern the Fleming clay has 
its base about 10 miles north of Phelps. On the Huntsville branch 


234 University of Texas Bulletin 

between the 5th and 6th mile posts west of Phelps is a dirty green 
clay, cracked into small fragments which harden when dry. One- 
fourth mile west of the 6th mile post is 10 feet of dirty green clay, 
weathering light cream and with many calcareous nodules. At 
the base is a few inches of thin flaky, fine-grained sandstone, light 
gray in color, containing calcareous nodules. 

The uppermost Fleming on the International & Great North- 
ern is found between one and two miles north of Willis, Mont- 
gomery County. It is generally dirty greenish-gray clay, weath- 
ering brown. It also has small calcareous nodules and local lenses 
of poorly indurated sandstone. 

The lower exposure of Fleming on Harmon creek west of I. & 
Gr. N. Ry. in Walker County is about two miles below the junc- 
tion of the east and west forks. It consists of bluish green sticky 
clays which weather brown and have calcareous nodules. In the 
lower Fleming on this creek are local lenses of opaline-cemented 
coarse-grained sandstone. Near the mouth of the east fork and a 
short distance above it this sandstone is interbedded with the 
dirty green sticky clay. One mile above the forks is light gray 
nodular hardened clay, 7 feet in thickness and forming a rapids 
on the east branch one-fourth mile farther upstream. The base 
of the section is 5 feet of greenish-gray medium and coarse- 
grained sand with calcareous nodules locally poorly indurated 
and with an irregular surface. Above this is 5 feet of greenish 
gray consolidated and structureless clay. At the top is 5 feet 
of dirty green sticky clay with white calcareous nodules. The' 
top clay weathers russet-brown. For three-quarters of a mile 
above this point semi-indurated sandstone forms a series of shoals 
and backwaters. The rock forming the shoals is full of potholes. 
Above the shoals the valley narrows and becomes gully-like. 
One-half mile above where the gorge begins gray, thin, opaline 
cemented, medium-grained sandstone layers dip southward at an 
angle of about 15°. Between these sandstone layers are thin beds 
of a vitreous-lustred fine ball clay, the original color of which 
appear to have been light greenish-gray, although it is now al- 
tered to a yellowish-brown. This clay is non-plastic. The south- 
ward dip lessens within 10 feet and is probably one of deposition 
and not one of deformation. Then the beds dip steeply in the op- 
posite direction at an angle of about 10°. A good section is seen 

The Geology of East Texas 235 

where the Phelps road crosses near the head of the creek. Here is 
about 10 feet of partially laminated greenish-gray clay with a 
very few calcareous nodules. A local lens 5 feet thick, of cross- 
bedded medium-grained, subangular quartz sand is found in the 
clay. The clay is sandy towards the top. The surficial soil is 
mottled gray and brick red. 

The west fork of Harmon creek, also called Penitentiary 
branch, heads at Huntsville, where there are good exposures of 
Fleming clays. 

Near the State Farm and on the Midway road li^ mUes north- 
west of Huntsville, the Fleming consists of light green structure- 
less clay with white calcareous nodules, local indurations of light 
gray sandstone, and local indurations of light yellowish-green 
clay with or without calcareous nodules. The clay weathers to 
russet-brown. The sandstone locally has opaline cement. About 
one-half mile north is the folowing section: 

1. Black land soil with calcareous nodules 1-2 ft. 

2. Puller's Earth containing very little grit, hut a large number 

of calcareous nodules. Varies In color from cream at the 
. base to light dirty green at top 15 ft. 

3. Light brownish-drab or cream-colored plastic clay 8 ft. 

This section is near the base of the Fleming, although what 
is probably Fleming is found on this same Midway road about 
3y2 miles northwest of Huntsville. 


On the MadisonviUe branch of the International & Great 
Northern Railway the lowermost Fleming is exposed in the cut at 
Mile Post 14 (14 miles northeast of Navasota) where there is 5 
feet of green sandy clay, very poorly laminated and with cal- 
careous cemented nodules of sandstone. All of the nodules were 
small save one, which was very irregular in shape, resembling the 
top roots of a tree and 4 feet in length. At the south end of the 
cut is the characteristic russet-brovra weathered soil of the 

One-third mile south 2 feet of light gray friable sandstone at 
a lower level than the Fleming mentioned above may be upper- 

236 University of Texas Bulletin 

most Corrigan. Two-thirds of a mile north of Anderson there is 
a total thickness of 4 feet of gray friable sandstone in the Flem- 
ing. These are merely locally indurated blocks. Two hundred 
yards north of the Anderson station there is more of this sand- 
stone, but here the concretions are more rounded and possess ne 
appearance of bedding. The elevation of Ajiderson Court House 
is 368 feet, according to the United States Geological Survey. 

From Anderson to Navasota the railroad passes over Fleming, 
mainly clays, but locally with gray brown sands and sandstone. 
Seven miles northeast of Navasota and one-half mile east of 
Becker, on this railroad, flat topped mesas, capped by sandstone 
and very arenaceous limestone begin and continue nearly all the 
way to Navasota. These are entirely to the south and east of the 
track and rise about 100 feet above the track level. The Fleming 
in this vicinity consists of the following materials: (1) sands 
of all texture from the finest up to coarse grit or fine conglom- 
erate, (2) brown and dirty green clays with calcareous nodules; 
(3) very arenaceous thin and irregularly bedded concretionary 
limestone; (4) clay ball conglomerate in a coarse sand matrix. 
These materials are either channel or littoral deposits. Mammal- 
ian bones are found in a layer of coarse grit or fine conglomerate. 
They are fragmentary, sometimes water worn, and are associated 
with rolled Cretaceous fossils. Petrified wood, differing from 
that of the older formations in being less consolidated, lighter 
in weight and duller in lustre, is found with the bones and shells. 
Fresh water TJnios are found in abundance in the clays between 
the 3rd and 4th mile posts of the Madisonville branch in shallow 
gullies just to the east of the right of way. The bones are found 
in the deeper gullies to the east of the second mile post. 

South of Navasota the Fleming continues to 1% miles beyond 
Crooks, where the Lafayette begins, the tippermost Fleming be- 
ing made up of dirty green claj's with white calcareous nodules. 
"West of this it continues southward and is exposed at the Hous- 
ton & Texas Central Eailroad crossing of Clear creek, just east of 
Hempstead, where it has the appearance of the Lagarto of the 
Niieces section and, like it, carries manganese as fragments of 

Of the fossils collected from this vicinity, Dr. Matthew makes 
the following statement: 

The Geology of East Texas 237 

349. Two and one-fourth miles north of Navasota. 

"Meryckippus, small species, of. M. seversus, but probably 
not identical, upper molar and fragments of foot bones. 

"Rhinoceros, cf. Aphelops, fragments of teeth, head of radius. 

Indicated age, Miocene. 

' ' Camelid, , cf . Protolabis or Procamelus, fragment lower mo- 
lar,, astragalus, navicular, unciform, fragments of foot bones, ? 
symphysis of jaw. 

Indicated age, Miocene or Pliocene. 

"Testudo, large species, carapace fragments. 

"Crocodilian, fragments of skull. 

Indicated age. Middle Miocene, but Upper Miocene or Lower Plio- 
cene is not excluded. 

"General conclusions: Fauna ot Navasota and Cold Springs locali- 
ties appears to be the same. It is certainly not earlier than Middle 
Miocene of Osborn's correlation, nor younger than Lower Pliocene. 
Absence of all characteristically Upper Miocene or Lower Pliocene 
mammals points to Middle Miocene as the proper correlation. But 
there are two points which should be considered as making for a pos- 
sible later date than the comparison indicates: (1) Our land faunas 
are mostly derived from the north and northwest, and older types may 
have lingered longer along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts than in the 
northwest, thus making the fauna seem older than it is; (2) Knowlton 
regards the Mascall on plant evidence as Upper Miocene. This, if 
accepted, would set our whole scale of continental Neocene horizons a 
little higher than does Osborn's correlation. If you give much weight 
to these considerations, they might serve to set the correlation up to 
Upper Miocene. The fauna is quite decidedly older than the Blanco." 

So far as reported, no vertebrate fossils have been found in the 
Fleming which are referable to the Blanco or other later Pliocene 

The horizon from which the Navasota fossils were taken and 
that of the Burkeville fossils are similarly related to the Cor- 
rigan-Fleming contact and are near the present surficial base of 
the Fleming beds. The Coldsprings horizon is much higher and 
is in the upper half of the Fleming. It would, therefore, appear 
that the base and evBn the middle of the Fleming west of the 
Neches is older than the base of the Fleming east of that stream. 

238 University of Texas Bulletin 


On the Brazos river we seem to have the meeting point of the 
eastern and western phases of the Neocene, and in Hidalgo bluff 
we find overlying the Corrigan, beds which seem clearly referable 
to the Fleming, and others that are characteristically Oakville. 


General Statement 

The deposits at the type locality on the Nueces river are those 
of rapid currents, of shallow water, grits and coarse sand, cross- 
bedded, with some beds of clay, but oftener with balls, nodules 
or lenses of clay imbedded in the grit. Some of the sand forms, 
a sand-rock which is apparently firm and hard, but much of 
it is so feebly coherent as to fall apart on a slight blow of the 
hammer. Local beds of conglomerate occur. 

Only a few fossils have so far been found in these beds, but 
such are determinable— Pro if oMppMs medius, Cope; P. perditus,. 
Leidy; P. placidus, Leidy; ApJielops meridianus, Leidy, etc. — 
are sufficient to determine its age as Loup Fork. 

In their eastern extension the base of the Oakville is marked 
by its conglomerate of rolled Cretaceous fossils, oysters, gryphaea 
and other bivalves, sometimes unbroken but often ground almost 
to sand. 


On the Brazos the Oakville, or basal divsion, consists mostly 
of soft sandstones and sands which are coarse, gritty, angular 
grained. These are sometimes laminated and regularly bedded, 
at others fine-grained and eross-bedded, somewhat lenticular, and 
often badly contorted, slightly calcareous, yellow to gray colored. 
In places they carry small white clay pockets and pockets of yel- 
low to grayish ■ white clay. Streaks or lentils of gravel occur 
throughout the beds. The gravel is usually small, not more than 
an inch in diameter at any place, but is usually much finer. It 
may be made up of quartz and chert pebbles, or of rolled Creta- 
ceous shells. The lenticular beds are very irregular in structure 
and texture, showing the sorting of water action. At one end these- 

The Geology of East Texas 239 

beds may be fine sand, -whicli is gradually replaced by fine gravel 
towards tbe other, or both ends may be sand, while gravel occu- 
pies the center of the lens. These lenses are frequently partly 
laminated, but the laminae are not regular, being often wedge 
shaped and of different texture, the coarser and finer material 
intergrading with each other. Towards the base the beds appear, 
so far as seen, to be more regular in their texture, hard, close 
grained and quartzitic in places and interbedded with a bluish 
colored clay. The quartzitic phase of these lower beds is not 
uniform but usually interrupted, fine sands often occupying 
large spaces between the quartzitc portions. 

These beds present the appearance of having been deposited 
in rather shallow, turbulent waters, such as might occur along an 
open coast line subject to violent storms or active tidal work. 
Or, they may have been deposited in stream channels where the 
waters have been intermittently rapid and slow. They appear 
to be mostly of fresh water origin. 

Kelley 's section of Hidalgo bluff is as follows : 


1. Interbedded sandstone and clay, with loose sands. The sand- 

stone ranges from very fine grained to coarse. Is massive 
in one place and laminated in another. There is no regu- 
larity in ithe beds along their horizontal extension and falls 
have obscured the vertical section in places. This rock is 
characterized by the following points: It is light gray to 
yellow in color, generally coarse, beds 2" to 6" thick, well 
indurated when exposed to the air. It forms the caprock 
of ithe bluff ■ • 29 ft. 

2. Dirty yellow or grayish clay, very massive. Weathering to 

badland forms. No nodules were found in this member, 
but the clay is highly charged with lime 16 ft. 

3. Loose sand, medium-grained, with several lenses of sand- 

stone exposed in a small area. These lenses have a parallel 
arrangement, the long axis extending east and west. Rolled 
Cretaceous fossils were noted and one bone fragment col- 
lected on the surface 11 ft. 

4. Clay with lime nodules. Color dirty yellow to gray. Local 

lenses of reddish-yellow sand. The clay is otherwise 
massive 17 ft. 

5. Coarse, loose sand capped with 6 Inches of indurated sand- 

stone. Rolled Cretaceous fossils and fragments of silicified 

240 University of Texas Bulletin 

wood are present, but no vertebrate remains were noted. 
The base of the sand carries enough pebbles to constitute 
a conglomerate ^ ^''• 

6. CroBs-bedded sandstone ranging from a conglomerate with 

pebbles of sandstone and clay to fine sand. Color gray 

to yellow • • ■ ■ 26 ft. 

7. A cociuina sand formed of small fragments of shell, little or 

no cement or fine sand. Would make good road material 
for surface. Color white to gray. Rolled Cretaceous 
fossils noted 5 ft. 


8. Pine grained sandy clay, colored buff or dirty yellow. The 

material stands in vertical faces along gullies 20 ft. 

9. Massive light bluish gray clay with streaks and nodules of 

lime. The interval is so covered by slumping that it is 
impossible to give a detailed section. The base is less limy 
than the upper part 54 ft. 


10. Massive clay, slightly sandy with root casts, color dirty gray 

ito yellow. "Will not effervesce with hydrochloric acid. 
Very similar in all other lespects to the overlying 
Fleming . • 15ft. 

11. Sand cemented with a clayey material. The color is a dirty 

yellow or buff. Casts of roots and balls of clay were noted. 
The lower two feet of this section is honeycombed with 
worm holes. This same zone is noted under K-24 at 
Hidalgo Falls 10 ft. 

12. A very complexly bedded sandstone \^■ith no^ quartzite. Color 

same as above. Grain medium to coarse. A bed of clay 
6-inches thick divides 12 and 13 16 ft. 

13. Corrigan sandstone containing lenses of quartzite. Massive 

to thin-bedded with marked cross-bedding. The color is 
gray to reddish-brown. Grain medium to coarse 22 ft. 

There is a marked difference in the exposure at the south and 
north ends of the bluff. Beds were found in the north end which 
are identical with beds found just north of Erwin, Grimes 
County, but the^se do not outcrop in the south end of the bluff. 

East of Hidalgo bluff about half a mile another bluff shows 

' The Corrigan is considered to be limited by the lime test in sep- 
arating it from the overlying Fleming. 

The Geology of East Texas 241 

the Corrigan-Fleming contact with what is probably a repre- 
sentative of the Oakville overlying it. 

The entire section as exposed here is as follows : 

Oakville : 

1 At top the bluff face shows about 80 feet of interbedded clay 
and sand with some beds of sandstone, the entire section 
being highly calcareous. Bone fragments may be found in 
the sands, but so far have not been taken from the clay 

or sandstone ..•■..•■ 80 ft. 

2. Coarse loose sand, conglomeritic at the base. The sand is 
capped with 6-inches of well indurated sandstone. The 
sand shows marked cross.bedding. Rolled Cretaceous fos- 
sils were noted, but no bone fragments were present.... 5ft. 

3. Goquina sand composed of comminuted shell fragments, 

rolled Cretaceous fossils are present in plenty and a few 
bone fragments were noted. The rock falls to pieces 
under the hammer, and the weathered parts can be crushed 
in the hand. Color dirty white 5 ft. 

4. Interbedded clay and sand. The sand is fine-grained, locally 

indurated and stands in vertical faces due perhaps to 
some clay being present 15 ft 

Contact — Conformable ? 


5. Massive clay, blue-gray in color, carrying many calcareous 

nodules! No fossils were noted in this interval 50 ft. 


6. Sandy clay, or sandstone, cemented with clay. This rock 

fractures under the hammer into small cuboidal forms 
showing the effect of the clay content. One zone shows 
many worm-borings, with oblate cross-section. Color is 
yellow to greenish yellow 15 ft. 

7. Thin flaggy sandstone, highly cross-bedded and lenticular 

in places. The color is dirty white. No opalized wood and 
very few fragments or pebbles of clay 16 ft. 

8. Interbedded quartzite and sandstone, grayish brown in color. 4 ft. 

Beginning at the top of No. 3 there is a marked change in 
the nature of the sediments present. Sand and sandstone be- 
come more plentiful as we go up in the series, the Cretaceous 

242 University of Texas Bulletin 

fossils are more plentiful and better preserved, and bone frag- 
ments are increasingly abundant. 

On the Brazos river near Old Washington a section shows : 

1. Altered brown sandy loam 5 ft. 

2. Bluish-gray sand showing lines of stratification in places 1 to 2 ft. 

3. Indurated gray sand with pockets of white clay 4 ft. 

4. Clay % to 1 ft. 

5. Coarse gray sand 1 tt- 

6. Sandy clay 1 1'- 

7. Fine bluish gray sand 4 ft. 

8. White clay in pockets 2 to 6 in. 

9. Gray sand and sandstone 3 ft. 

10. Clay 6 in. 

11. Coarse angular sand with vertebrate fossils 10 ft. 

12. Gray sandy clay 1 % ft. 

13. Sandstone with streaks of clay to water 3 ft. 

In digging a well at Old Washington a piece of a jaw and 
teeth were found in the sand No. 11 of this section. This is 

It was from similar beds in this vicinity that the collection 
of vertebrate fossils was made on which Shumard based his 
statement of the discovery of an extensive Miocene formation 
in Texas^ : 

"The Texan strata consist of calcareous and siliceous sand- 
stone, and white, pinkish and grayish siliceous and calcareous 
marls. The calcareous beds are often almost wholly composed 
of finely comminuted and water worn shells, chiefly derived 
from the destruction of Cretaceous strata, and in places abound 
in fossil bones and plants, usually in a fine state of preserva- 
tion. The bones have been usually found in excavations for 
wells at depths ranging from 20 to 60 feet below the surface, 
and consist of genera closely allied to, or identical with, Tit- 
anotherium, Rhinoceros, E'quus and Crocodiles." 

The Fleming beds occurring in these Brazos river exposures 
belong to the basal horizons as found at Coldsprings and 
Navasota and these, as has been shown, are probably of Mid- 
dle Miocene .age. Succeeding them we have, in place of the 

'Trans. Academy Sciences, St. Louis, Vol. 2, p. 140, 1868. 

The Geology of East Texas 243 

Burkeville beds with brackish water fauna, such as occur in 
the Sabine section, the Oakville beds of Southwest Texas with 
a vertebrate fauna of Loup Fork age. The stratigraphie 
equivalence of the Oakville and Burkeville is, therefore, indi- 
cated, although the two groups of deposits may not, as a 
whole, cover an identical time interval 


General Statement 

The close resemblance, both in texture and structure, of tha 
Oakville and Lapara formations makes it exceedingly difSeult 
at times to say which is Oakville and which Lapara. The 
Oakville deposits have been described as those of rapid cur- 
rents of shallow water, chiefly grits, coarse sand, cross-bedded, 
with some beds of clay, but oftener with balls, nodules or 
lenses of clay interbedded in the grit. Some of the sands 
form a sand-rock. Local beds of conglomerate occur. The 
description of the Lapara corresponds to this very closely. 
This has been described as sands and clays interbedded and 
cross-bedded. The sands are coarse and sharp, often forming 
grits and including pebbles of clay and calcareous concre- 
tions. The clays are jointed and parti-colored, light red, 
green, etc., and in some localities appear as a conglomerate of 
clay pebbles. Fragments of bone are common in them, but 
they are so worn as to prevent recognition^. Nowhere 
throughout the whole area under consideration are these Lap- 
ara sands in a mappable condition. While it may be said 
they are present at many localities, they occur only in very 
small areal patches or within the limits of a vertical section in 
which they are often overlaid by sands and gravels of a later 
age, or are overlain by the clays of the succeeding Lagarto. 

Throughout the eastern portion a number of Unios are 
found, together with a number of pieces of bone, but these 
bones are usually in such comminuted fragments that no iden- 
tification is possible. The presence of Unios would appear to 
indicate that a portion of these beds at least were of fresh 

' Dumble, Journal of Geology, September-October, 1894, p. 560. 

244 University of Texas Bulletin 

water origin. Fragments of bone are common in the beds on 
the Nueces but they are often so worn as to prevent recogni- 
tion. The fossils collected there were submitted to Prof. Cope, 
who pronounced the horizon to be Blanco, and states that 
nothing from either locality indicates a horizon as low as 

Loup Fork. 


General Statement 

The Lagarto beds of the Nueces were described as a series 
of sands and clays of a different character from the Lapara, 
and overlying them. These beds comprise light colored clays 
— lilac, lavender, sea-green, greenish-brown, and mottlings of 
these colors, jointed and showing many slips. In places the 
upper portion contains a considerable amount of sand, gravel, 
and lime, and the change in a single stratum from one kind 
of rock to another takes place within a very few feet. Where 
the limestone or calcareous sandstone caps the clays, strings 
of limestones extend downwards into them for a distance of 
Six or eight feet. The clays contain quantities of semi-crystal- 
line pebbles with manganese dendritions, and indeed, man- 
ganese appears to be one of the characteristics of the clay 
wherever found. The upper portion of the beds is usually a 
sandstone. No fossils have been found in them^. 

Although somewhat' changeable in some localities, the gen- 
eral description of the Brazos Lagarto may be given as heavy 
deposits of clay. These clays are brown, weathering snuff 
colored," yellow, blue and sometimes gray. The general struc- 
ture appears to be massive, but when dry they break into 
small blocks. They are all highly calcareous, in places show- 
ing nodules of lime, particularly in the darker colored bands. 
In the yellow, the lime is completely disseminated throughout 
the whole mass. . At irregular intervals, particularly in the 
yellow colored clays, we find thin seams of a fine-grained more 
or less laminated sandstone. These seams are rarely more 
than eight inches to a foot thick, and in places not very con- 
tinuous. These sandstone bands lie usually from ten to twenty 

' Dumble, Journal of Geology, September-October, 1894, p. 560. 

The Geology of East Texas 245 

feet apart, but are somewhat closer at the base of the clays 
These sandstones also partake of the calcareous nature of the 
clay in which they are enclosed. 

There appears to have been a considerable time interval in 
this region between the deposition of the uppermost Lapara 
beds and the succeeding Lagarto. These two are totally dis- 
similar to each other. The Lagarto is essentially a clay deposi- 
tion, evidently laid down in much deeper water carrying a 
great amount of lime. The waters from these beds are usually 
slightly saline in their nature. On the other hand, the Lapara 
is essentially a sand, which, with its vertebrate remains and 
Unip and fresh water shells must have been laid down under 
fresh or brackish water conditions, and is evidently a coastal 
or lagunal beach formation. The Lapara appears to have been 
considerably eroded before the deposition of the overlying 
Lagarto and the Lagarto itself appears to have been highly 
eroded before the deposition of the overlying gravels and 
sands. In some localities these Lagarto clays appear undulat- 
ing or wavy, but whether this is due to erosion and rounding 
of the remaining portions of the surface has not as yet been 
satisfactorily explained. 

These clays appear as a wide belt extending from the Brazos 
river westward to and beyond the Colorado river. They go 
much farther east than the Brazos, as they tie up with the blue 
calcareous clays seen south of Navasota and in the vicinity of 
Howth. They also appear on the eastern side of this river in 
the neighborhood of Hempstead. A section on the Brenham- 
Hempstead road between Hempstead and the river shows : 

Lagarto : 

1. Dark soil 1 ft. 

2. Yellowish-brown sand with pebbles 5 ft. 

3. Yellow clay with limy concretions 3 ft. 

4. Gray, soft sandstone pitted and water worn to bed of creek . . 8 ft. 

On the western side of the Brazos these clays are divided into 
blue and brownish clay with nodules of lime forming the upper 
division, and a yellow clay with streaks of sandstone and the 

246 University of Texas Bulletin 

lime disseminated through the whole mass forming the lower 
division. Nodules of lime are rare in this lower division. 
Broken sandstones, or thin flat bowlders of lenticular form, 
appear in the upper blue clay, but these, while occupying a 
definite horizon, are by no means plentiful. The sandstones in 
the lower yellow clays, while irregular as to their longitudinal 
extent, are much better developed than those in the blue. 

The equivalence of the Lagarto to some portion of the 
Fleming found in the vicinity of Woodville has been suggested 
and is considered probable but there is at this time no means 
of positively determining this. 


This name, which was agreed on by Hilgard and McGee to 
replace the older name of Orange Sands, is here used for those 
deposits of gravels, sands, and clays often of characteristic 
orange color, which occupy the belt between the Fleming to 
the north and the Coast Clays on the south, between the 
Sabine and the Brazos, their stratigraphic position being be- 
tween the two formations named. To the northward of this 
main belt the continuation of these deposits are found in the 
uplands overlying the older deposits as a mantle and are there 
usually characterized by the presence of gravel foreign to the 
sediments which they overlie. Other deposits are found within 
the upland area which are of the same color and more or less 
of same lithologic character, except that the gravels are want- 
ing in them. Some of these are separated from the older sedi- 
ments by an erosion interval while others seem to grade grad- 
ually downward into the underlying beds. These may, biit 
probably do not, belong to the Lafayette. 

Chaeacteb and Deposition. 

The materials of the Lafayette are primarily sands and 
gravel of varying degrees of coarseness, with variable amounts 
of clay, locally pure and lying in thin layers, but, more often, 
clays mixed with sands. Graduations from pure clays into 
pure sands through all intermediate stages of sandy clays and 

The Geology of East Texas 247 

clayey sands are met with, but the larger part of the deposits 
are of sands and clays mixed in various proportions. 

Deposits, which can be referred with certainty to the Lafa- 
yette, are practically never well stratified and seldom well as- 
sorted. Cross-bedding and pockety structures are common. In 
many places the bedding is irregular and wavy, exhibiting a 
structure resembling minor intra-stratal crumbling as is seen 
often in sub-aerial and lacustral sediments. This crumbling 
is seldom recognized except when thin layers of clays are inter- 
bedded with sandy materials. Gravels, when found, are either 
unsorted and unstratified, or are found in pockets in the clays or 
sands, or else exhibit rude stratification often in thin layers 
running out into the other materials, in some places there being 
but single lines of pebbles running out into the clays and 

In the gravel is found quartz, chert, igneous rocks and silici- 
fied wood. Concretions of limonite varying in size from that 
of small shot to masses several feet across are common. Grav- 
els, sand, and clays are often cemented by limonite, derived 
either from process of secondary precipitation or from chaly- 
beate springs which deposit bog iron ore. 

The color of these deposits is very distinctive. The un- 
altered body color is red of various shades from orange to dark 
brick or Indian red. The purer clay portions are light blue or 
gray but the clays as noted above are subordinate in amount. 
The surface zone is frequently leached a lighter color than the 
underlying less weathered portions. Mottlings of gray and 
red are very characteristic of the clayey sands. When such 
mottling is encountered the gray, shades are confined to more 
clayey portions, while the sandier portions are red. This is, 
perhaps, equivalent to saying that the more pervious materials 
have their contained iron in the oxidized state and that the 
less porous contain iron in the reduced state, probably in the 
form of carbonate. Thin lenses of clay are gray in color when 
the interbedded sands are red. Balls of clay are gray and the 
enclosing sands red in many localities. 

Whether the red color was originally possessed by the sedi- 
ments before being deposited in their present situations or is 
secondary and subsequent to their deposition is a perplexing 

248 Univei'sity of Texas Bulletin 

question. It may be that part of it is original and part is 
secondary, for we find residual soils of such older formations 
as the Wilcox and the Cook's ilountain that are as red as the 
typical Lafayette and the mottling would suggest that a part 
at least of the coloration is secondary, since in the mottled beds 
it is apparently only the more porous portions which have the 
red color. Roots of plants penetrating the "Lafayette" ma- 
terials decolorize the red beds, changing the iron back into the 
carbonate form. It is difficult to see how the red color can be 
assumed to be primary in that portion of the "Lafayette" 
which is undoubtedly transported detritus, for the red color is 
merely a surface coating of the individual grains and this 
would be worn off during any considerable transportation. 

The formation of red residual soils at the present time in the 
east Texas region would seem to indicate that the "Lafa- 
yette" sediments were laid down under climatic conditions es- 
sentially similar to those of the present. 

The Lafayette gravels were deposited on a peneplained sur- 
face. In places, as shown by the unconformity between these 
gravels and the underlying bed rock formations on the higher 
hilltops and divides, the peneplained surface was produced by 
denudation. In other places the peneplain may have been 
formed by deposition. That monadnocks of more resistant 
rock persisted above the general peneplain surface is demon- 
strated by the fact that hills and ridges like those of Irona, 
Sabine county. Mount Selman and other prominences near 
Rusk were never covered by the gravels. 

While it is possible that the Lafayette might have been laid 
down in a retreating sea to the littoral of which a constant sup- 
ply of proper sediment was furnished by fluviatile agencies 
there is an absolute lack of any evidence of this and the char- 
acter of the lieds rather indicates that the deposition was, for 
the most part at least, subaerial and the result of fluviatile 

Details op Sections 

On the Sabine we find in the top of Sabinetown bluff a ves- 
tige of the Lafayette depositional peneplain, the composition of 
which has already been given in connection with the Claiborne 

University of Texas Bulletin No. 1869 

Plate XII. 

View near Colmesneil. 

The Geology of East Texas 249 

section below MeClanahan 's shoals. This shows a basal gravel 
made up of flint and quartz pebbles from the size of a pea to 
an inch in diameter overlain by structureless clayey sand in 
mottlLngs of bluish-gray, reddish-brown, red and buff colors. 
The quartz pebbles are more abundant here than in similar 
deposits west of the Palaguache. 

Going westward from the Sabine to Milam, Geneva and San 
Augustine there is found a great thickness of Lafayette sand, 
often with ferruginous pebbles. In places the orange or red 
sand is interbedded with thin leaves of gray sandy clay. 

Two and a half miles sOuth-southwest of Geneva in the valley 
of Borregas creek, which is the principal tributary of the Pala- 
guache, there is another portion of the Lafayette depositional 
terrace consisting of three large remnants the tops of which 
cover several acres. These are made up of typical Orange 
Sands carrying large boulders of ferruginous conglomerate. 

The Lafayette has a thickness of 20 feet and probably more 
between Price Creek and Calcote postoffice, where the super- 
ficial 3 feet is dark red and the underlying material orange-red. 
It is characterized by the presence of many fine ferruginous 
pebbles and by cross-bedding. It is sandy but has the prop- 
erty of standing, up in perpendicular gullies 10 feet or more in 
height. The country is flat and most likely is a remnant of the 
original Lafayette depositional peneplain. 

The Lafayette under the west end of the bridge over the 
Attoyac is partially stratified and cross-bedded. Thin partings 
of gray clay separate massive and imperfectly laminated light- 
gray coarse loose sands stained yellowish-brown on the sur- 
face. Thin sheets and laminated layers of ferruginous-ce- 
mented sand are seen. The thickness of this section is 10 feet. 
A spring issues at its base and it is capped with soft ferrugi- 
nous-cemented dark brown conglomerate of ferruginous pebbles. 

The Lafayette in the vicinity of Arenosa postoffice consists 
of deep sand leached at the surface, but reddish underneath. 
There is much ferruginous conglomerate, sandstone and peb- 
bles in the Lafayette in this vicinity. 


250 University of Texas Bulletin 


Between San Agustine and Jasper the Lafayette is found in 
many cuts, overlying the Marine, Jackson, Corrigan and Flem- 
ing in turn. The exposures through the level Jackson country 
are but few. They are more numerous in the Corrigan and well 
shown in the Fleming. 

The unconformity between the Catahoula and Lafayette is 
well shown in the first cut north of Mile Post 85. At the base 
is 7 ft. of light gray sandy Catahoula clay. Above lies 10 feet 
of cross-bedded Lafayette. The contact between the two is 
irregular, small lenses and ridges of the Catahoula projecting 
up into the Lafayette. The latter is light brick-red in color. 

On and near the top of the ridge near Horton siding there 
are bodies of Lafayette ferruginous conglomerate. These are 
found at various places from north of Mile Post 81 to 1-5 mile 
south, mostly in rather thin layers some of which are laminated 
with thin layers of nearly pure limonite adhering to the thicker 
layers of grit or conglomerate. Some of the ferruginous con- 
glomerate is concretionary. At the summit, about 400 yards 
north of Horton, is a cut 20 feet deep in the Lafayette, which 
here is cross-bedded, with a minor amount of .gravel, and small 
balls and lenses of a light purplish clay running as curved 
laminae or as cross-beds. A few fragments of silicified wood, 
some of which are larger. portions of large trunks, may have 
been derived from the Catahoula, or may belong properly to 
the Lafayette. The Lafayette sand in many places is coarse 
and angular like that of the Catahoula. The presence of peb- 
bles indicates that at least some of the Lafayette was not de- 
rived from the underlying Catahoula, but was transported 
from some other places, and therefore that the Catahoula could 
not have formed a high ridge above the general level at the 
time the Lafayette was deposited, unless such ridge finally 
came to be completely covered by Lafayette sediments. 

Some of the silicified wood may really be indigenous to tha 
Lafayette. A number of the fragments are large and are not 
rounded as if rolled or water-worn but are splintered with 
sharp fractures. 

A mile and a half north of Jasper the road enters a gently 

TTie Geology of East Texas 251 

rolling country covered by Lafayette with its usual character- 
istics of composition and structure. Occasionally some Lafa- 
yette pebbles are encountered in the swampy area. Irregular 
masses of small pebbles showing little evidence of sorting or 
stratification are embedded in a coarse cross-bedded sand. The 
pebbles are subangular to well rounded, average about an inch 
in diameter, .are arranged with the'ir longer axis and flat sides 
in a horizontal direction, and are composed of quartz, chert, 
quartzite, some igneous and metamorphic rock, mainly- fine- 
grained, and occasionally a pebble of ferruginous-cemented 
sandstone and "iron-ore." The surface one foot or more of the 
ten feet exposed in this cut is leached light brownish gray and 
the lower portion has light shades of yellowish-red with 
mottling between an irregular network of dark red and various 
shades of gray, the latter color being present especially where 
the composition is clayey. 


In Jasper county east of Bevilport Ferry on the Angelina, 
the second bottom terrace is nearly 1^^ miles in width. Its river- 
ward limit is sharply defined from the first bottom or present 
liver plain, while its bluffward limit is obscure and merges grad- 
ually into .the upland. Between the eastward limit of the Port 
Hudson terrace and the town of Jasper the sole surface rock is 
the Lafayette with its usual composition and color. Pockets of 
quartzose and cherty gravel are numerous in the Lafayette in the 
neighborhood, and along the Jasper-Bevilport road there are 
cuts of ten feet or more in thickness. The depositional peneplain 
of the Lafayette, so well shown on top of the bluff 140 feet above 
the Neches river at Town bluff, is also well developed in the 
vicinity of Jasper and between that town and Bevilport and 
Bohler'g ferries in broad flat uplands separated by rather deep 
and sharp valleys. 

In the angle between the confluence of the two rivers it is dif- 
ficult to separate Lafayette from terrace deposits. Here the 
original Lafayette surface was reduced to a rolling one of smaU 
differential relief by the time the terrace epoch came on and there 

252 University of Texas Bulletin 

is no abrupt break in profile at the line of contact of the two 

There are high bluffs of 100 feet or more just east of the 
Attoyac on the Huntington-Hemphill road. These bluffs are 
capped by Lafayette ferruginous conglomerate, here overlying 
the Yegua, but farther south on the Angelina bluffs, near Old 
Zana post office (Caddell of ¥eatch's map) it caps the Jackson, 
while on the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railroad between Jasper 
and Horton, Jasper county, it rests upon the Catahoula. The 
materials on the Attoyac bluffs are quartz and chert, subangular 
to rounded, and silicified wood, which is angular. The cement 
is dark brown limonite and is locally quite hard. 

Town bluff on the eastern boundary of the James Perkins and 
Wesley "W. Hanks grants, central eastern Tyler county, rises 140 
feet above the low water-level of the Neehes river. Its top, capped 
with Lafayette, is very fiat and has evidently suffered no erosion 
since the time of the formation of the Lafayette, depositional 
peneplain. The thickness of the Lafayette capping the bluff is 
approximately 40 feet. It is mottled, gravelly, clayey sand, with 
the surface one to four feet leached buff or gray sand and the 
underlying beds various shades of red with the lowest portions 
of an Indian red shade. At the edge of the buff cirque-like gul- 
lies or "gulfs", blunt-headed and perpendicular-walled or over- 
hanging, often have depths at their very heads of from 20 to 40 
feet. This property of the Lafayette of forming perpendicular 
or overhanging cliffs is partly because of case-hardening, caused 
by the redeposition of iron salts, leached from its body, on sur- 
face exposures, possibly partly because of the deposition of sec- 
ondary silica, partly because of the Lafayette being clays or 
clayey sands which gives it tenacity and plasticity and probably 
partly because of the compact packing together of the constituent 

Rejuvenation and deforestation, jointly or separately, have 
been responsible for the formation of these deep, steep and nar- 
row gullies in the unconsolidated clays and sands of the Corri- 
gan, Fleming, Lafayette, Port Hudson, and the later superficial 
accumulations. Black land prairies, never covered by timber 
growth, areas from which most of the timber has been cut, and 
cultivated or abandoned cleared fields are places where gullies 

The Geology of East Texas 253 

have been formed within the memory of man and where they are 
still forming. They are also well developed in railway cuts and 


South of Rockland and just north of Bridge 99-B there is a 
light gray sand and clay locally case-hardened and having a 
strong taste of alum. At the cut just north of Bridge 99-C 
there is at the base one foot of friable fine clayey sandstone, 
slightly case-hardened, overlain by four feet of loose shelly clay. 
The stratigraphic position of this member is not known. Beds 
lithologically similar are known to overlie all formations from 
the Yegua to and including the Fleming and to be overlain by 
the Lafayette. It may belong either to the underlying formation, 
or it may be later, representing the Oakville or some other forma- 
tion, or it may belong to the Lafayette, being a residually de- 
rived portion of that formation. 

From here the Lafayette forms the sur'face to Colmesneil. 

In the cut immediately north of Cima siding the Lafayette 
contains thin layers of laminated earthly iron oxide and perhaps 
carbonate. Here the Lafayette sands are cross bedded. The thin 
bands of dark brown, fine-grained, compact iron minerals 
are irregular in their distribution and do not run parallel to any 
one plane, but are rather irregularly waving beds not always in 
the horizontal plane. The structure of the iron minerals is 
botryoidal, mamillary, or laminated, often enclosing gravel or 
sand when nearest the pure state, or it may form only a blackish 
or reddish cementing material for the sand. 

The lower portion of the section, below the iron-bearing mem- 
ber, is cross-bedded sand often with a purplish red tinge on the 
surface. In places it is mottled and in all respects resembles 
the sand above the iron-bearing member. This upper bed is 
mottled red and gray and contains small brown concretions of 
sand cemented by iron oxide. The color of this bed is predom- 
inantly orange. 

Between these two is the laminated iron-bearing member oc- 
cupying an irregular zone from 3 inches to 3 feet in width, the 
individual layers averaging from 1 to 2 inches in thickness and 
being separated from each other by mottled sands like those above 

254 University of Texas Bulletin 

and below the iron-bearing member. A concretion 3 feet in 
length and with regular surface was noted. 

In the cut and fill at Cima siding there is a 30 foot section 
of Lafayette case-hardened clayey sand, standing in perpen- 
dicular walls. The surface leached zone, yellow buffi below to 
light creamy gray on the surface, is from 1 to 6 feet thick. The 
underlying sand is dark brick-red. Some cross-bedding and 
mottling is noted in the upper portion. 

The Lafayette is well exposed between the top of the grade 
at Cima siding and Colmesneil. The gravel is arranged in 
patches of small size or rather uniformly distributed for short 
distances through the clayey sand. It is in brief, quite ir- 
regular in its distribution and amount. Long deep railway 
cuts will be seen that are free from gravel and again there may 
be local lenses and pockets almost. entirely made up of gravel. 
Or, it may be sparsely distributed or arranged along lines of 
stratification. The pebbles are rounded or subangular and are 
principally quartz, chert, and silicified wood. 

Iron-sand concretions, representing local secondary deposi- 
tion of iron, and varying in size from that of a pea up to ir- 
regular friable masses of several square feet are locally found. 
These generally have a darker shade of red than their surround- 

Sometimes tilted layers, simulating dip and parallel with 
each other, are encountered, in some places their structure 
showing a local unconformity with the underlying or overlying 
structureless or imperfectly bedded Lafayette. These may 
represent channel deposits. 

In the region between the Texas & New Orleans and Houston, 
Bast & West Texas Railroads the surfieial gravel and unconsol- 
idated structureless reddish clays and sands capping the tops, 
and sides of elevations are referred to the Lafayette or Orange 
sand. Overlying and contiguous to the outcrops of the Marine 
f9rmation the gravels contain many of the ferruginous sand- 
stone concretions of the Marine but elsewhere the gravels ar& 
mainly round, subangular, or egg-shaped pebbles of quartz or 
acidic igneous rock, with here and there a fragment of meta- 
morphic rock. The pebbles occur in great abundance near the 
confluence of the Bayou Attoyac and the Angelina river, both 

The Geology of East Texas 255 

mantling the surface of the triangular shaped area between the 
streams and southeast of the Angelina bertween Warsaw and 
"White City, Angelina county. 

While many of the contacts between the Yegua and the La- 
fayette are unconformable one was found in a creek in north- 
ern Angelina county in which no unconformity appeared. The 
bluff is made up of alternating layers of gray and brown sands 
and chocolate clays belonging to the Yegua. 

Overlying these beds without apparent unconformity is 
found the mottled surfieial member. The lower 3 feet is a 
layer of brick-red loose sand with very small non-continuous 
disc-like streaks of very light gray clay. It is overlain by 4 
feet of medium-indurated reddish brown on surface and yel- 
lowish-brown underneath, medium- grained, rather finely lami- 
nated sandstone. The upper 1 foot of this 4 feet is laminated, 
concretionary, and contorted very ferruginous sandstone with 
its least altered portions composed of thin seams of black iron 
11/4 inches and less in thickness grading out into dark brown 
sandstone to yellowish-brown sand as leaching and oxidation 
gradually becomes more prevalent. The whole transition takes 
place generally in less than an inch. 


The southernmost exposure north of the Angelina river on 
the line of the Houston, East & West Texas Railroad gives a 
section of about 20 feet of apparently horizontal strata. The 
lower portion of the section is made up of thinly laminated 
arenaceous chocolate-colored and drab shales containing leaves, 
among which were noted Salix and Ficus (?). These belong 
to the Nacogdoches.^ Overlying the shales are Lafayette gray- 
ish structureless arenaceous clays, which, when exposed to 
surfieial weathering, are generally mottled with streaks and 
blotches of bright brick-red. Interspersed with the clay layers 
are clayey sands, in general unconsolidated but locally ce- 
mented by ferruginous material, which, in common with the 

' A fuller description of these beds was given in connection with 
the Nacogdoches heds. 

256 University of Texas Bulletin 

clays, locally contain ferruginous concretions and small 
rounded pebbles coated with dark purplish iridescent iron 
oxide. When unaltered the clay and sand member is bluish- 
gray to buff in color, but, on weathering, its contained iron 
stains the rocks various shades of brown either in a uniform 
manner or in streaks and blotches which impart to the surface 
exposure a characteristic mottled appearance. The sands are 
fine in texture. The description of the sand and clay series 
with interbedded lenses of chocolate and drab shale, will serve 
as a general one for the uppermost series of beds exposed in 
southern Nacogdoches county, and as far south in Angelina 
county as a point half way between Piatt siding and Mantoi\ 
station on the Texas & New Orleans railroad. 

The Lafayette gradually looses its red color, becoming more 
grayish,- as the distance from the outcrop of the ferruginous 
Marine group increases. There is also another notable change 
as one goes southward and that is in the constitution of the 
materials of the gravels. Before the Neches river is reached 
on the southward journey all pebbles of Mariae ferruginous 
sandstone have disappeared and it is only the more resistant 
materials such as quartz, crystalline rock, chert and silieifled 
wood, that remain. On the northwest corner of the J. M. Deane 
league a chert pebble with a Paleozoic fenestelloid bryozoan 
was noted. 

At Cleveland, Liberty county, the reddish-colored Lafayette 
is exposed in low knolls of small extent which are inliers com- 
pletely surrounded by Port Hudson. Similar inliers are found 
on the Houston, Bast & West Texas railroad from Shepherd 
to Splendora and the Lafayette probably extends some' dis- 
tance south of Splendora. A cut one-half mile north of Splen- 
dora shows 2y2 feet of light buff fine sandy clay full of small 
rounded concretions containing a very small percentage of 
iron. The exposure is lightly mottled. At Mile Post 39 (1% 
miles south of Nimrod) there is 4 or 5 feet of Lafayette, very 
faintly mottled and having small rounded pebbles of quartz 
and igneous rocks. This cut is on a low ridge just south of 
the San Jacinto river. Lafayette is found in a cut on a low 
hill one mile south of Cleveland as 6 feet of mottled gray and 
red clayey and gravelly sand. The gravel is fine and is almost 

TM Geology of East Texas 257 

entirely composed of fine rounded pebbles of brownish fer- 
ruginous sandstone. There are a very few pebbles of quartz. 
In a flowing well at Gladstill, one-half mile south of Nirarod 
the following strata were encountered: 

Thickness Depth 

Feet Feet 

Surface soil 2 2 

Red and yellow clay ■ • 8 10 

Gravel and sand 12 22 

Red clay 3 25 

Sand and gravel 9 34 

Yellow clay ■ ■ . . . 12 46 

Sand 19 65 

Clay 6 71 

Sand and gravel 17 88 

Clay 9 97 

Sand 8 105 

Clay 7 112 

Hard shale 18 130 

Gumha 9 139 

Hard shale and sand 8 147 

Sand and gravel 16 163 

Rock ; 3 ie« 

Gumho 27 193 

Red shale and sand 20 213 

Rock 1 214 

Gumbo 9 -IZZ 

Sand 29 252 

Rock and shale 13 265 

Sand 18 283 

Rock 1 284 

Hard shale 14 298 

The first 163 feet of this well section is Lafayette. Coarse 
brown sand and fine pebbles of Lafayette were found in the 
drillings scattered about the well. 

In a well at Cleveland, 390 feet deep, an abundant supply of 
water is found which rises to within 5 feet of the surface. The 
Lafayette is about 150 feet thick in this well, giving it a south- 
ward dip between here and Nimrod of about 18% feet per mile. 
Alternating layers of rock (probably sandstone) and softer ma- 
terial of the Fleming were found between 150 and 390 feet. The 
water stratum yielding the present supply was found at 350 feet. 

258 University of Texas Bulletin 

Overlying the Tegua west of the Houston, Bast & West Texas 
railway the Lafayette is usually brown or orange colored ferru- 
ginous and gravelly sands underlain locally by shaly light brown 
clay with fragments of gray clay possible derived from the un- 
derlying Tegua. In places the sand carries small pellets of dark 
brown limonite concretions and at times is cemented with limo- 
nite. Cross-bedding occurs and occasionally very thin lenses of 
grayish clay are embedded in the sands. 

There is a covering of Lafayette at Kennard Mill (Central 
Coal & Coke Company) and at the town of Ratcliff. Overlying 
the Yegua is 5 feet of cross-bedded sand, the unconsolidated por- 
tions reddish-brown in color with thin streaks and beds of more 
sonsolidated light gray sand. Overlying this is 4 feet of lam- 
inated brown clays and sands. 

Roark's gravel pit is 3 miles north of Cleveland and about the 
some distance from the Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe and Houston, 
East & "West Texas Railroad tracks. This gravel is fine and 
similar to that found at Coldsprings and Urbana. The gravel is 
mixed with coarse whitish sand. The Lafayette is exposed in a 
cut at Mile Post 53 on the Houston, East & "West Texas Railway. 
Wells at Napier get a good supply of fresh water in sand and 
gravel at a depth of 65 feet. Gravel is also found on land be- 
longing to C. B. Udell four miles southwest of Shepherd on the 
Evergreen road and also on adjoining land belonging to Mr. 
Bird. It has a coarse brown sand matrix, but will require pros- 
pecting to show its depth and areal extent. Gravel was noted 
at a place between 3 and 4 miles west of the Houston, East & 
West Texas Railway near Westcott and Normanville. There are 
also gravels on the surface- at various places on the Shepherd- 
Everett road. Local deposits of gravel are found all the way 
between Shepherd, S,an Jacinto county and Willis, Montgomery 
county. A Lafayette ridge is followed by the road between 
Kelly's switch (Bareda) and Huntsville. It consists of fine 
deep-white sand and mottled red and gray clayey sand. 

The high ridges in the vicinity of Coldsprings, San Jacinto 
county are covered with Lafayette sand ancJ gravel, locally ce- 
mented with limonit]e into grit and conglomerate. The dividing 
ridge between the Trinity .and San Jacinto drainages between 
Oakhurst and Coldsprings is covered with Lafayette gravel. The 

Th'e Geology of East Texas 259 

south bluffs of the Trinity valley, north of Camilla, San Jacinto 
county, are covered with coarse reddish and mottled Lafayette 
sand containing small fragments of whitish clays and petrified 
logs. The upper course of San Jacinto river in southern San 
Jacinto county is incised to a depth of 10 feet below the Lafa- 
yette surface. The Lafayette begins a short but undertermined 
distance south of Coldspriiigs and consists of the usual mottled 
sandy and gravelly facies. At the head of Town creek at Cold- 
springs there is fine very plastic sandy clay of a dark hematite- 
red color. Springs issue from the plane of contact between the 
Fleming and the Lafayette. Here the bluffs of Lafayette are 
from 35 to 50 feet in height recalling the "Gulf" of McGee. 


On tbe International & Great Northern Railway there are sim- 
ilar occurrences of the Lafayette. Mottled red Lafayette sand 
with much gravel is found on the summit of the grade on the 
International & Great Northern Railway at Mile Post 78 in 
southern Walker county. Much Lafayette is found on the 
Huntsville branch of this railroad between Phelps and Hunts- 

In its more southerly exposures the Lafayette has flat, very 
gently rolling, often swampy surfaces. The southern limit of its 
outcrop can be distinguished from that of the adjoining coast 
clays by a low rise, with light undulations, but resembling, on 
the whole, a maturely dissected terrace. The Lafayette-Port 
Hudson contact on the International & Great Northern Railway 
is just north of Spring, approximately at the north line of Harris 

Wpst of the Trinity river outliers of Lafayette are more 
numerous yphere they overlap the Fleming than they are on the 
other formations. The materials of the Lafayette proper are 
finer-textured in the region of their outcrop between the areas 
of the Fleming and the Port Hudson (coast clays) than they are 
in the isolated outliers farther north. This decrease in coarseness 
is very gradual, but it is undoubtedly true in a general way. 
The contact between the Lafayette and Port Hudson is hard to 
define owing to the extensive overlap of the latter on the eroded 

260 ' University of Texas Bulletin 

surfaces of the former. At the west near the Brazos, where the 
country is mere or less open the contact can be traced by the 
topography for the Port Hudson peneplain is' succeeded by a 
very low rolling Lafayette country of appreciable, though slight, 
relief. To the eastward, however, the country is more thickly 
timbered and the tracing of the contact is more difSeult. 

On the International & Great Northern Railway, Madisonville 
branch, the southern limit of the Lafayette is at Willow, 34 miles 
from Houston and 11 miles northwest of Spring. The topogra- 
phy northeast of Willow is very gently rolling with undrained 
depressions. The stream gullies are sharp and 10 to 12 feet deep. 
Some of the Lafayette is very light buff or creamy clayey sand, 
mottled with red and with small ferruginous concretions. 

On the Houston & Texas Central Railroad the first Lafayette 
is found at Mile Post 30 northwest of Houston. This is the site 
of the first appreciable rise from the coast prairie. To the west- 
ward the Sun Mounds are inliers of Lafayette in the Port Hud- 
son. The more marked rolling topography begins between Mile 
Posts 39 and 40, just south of the south line of Waller county. The 
relief gradually increases northward. The northern line of the 
Lafayette is a short distance south of Howth. 

There is a fine exposure of Lafayette sands on the Texas & 
Brazos Valley Railroad where it crosses the International & Great 
Northern Railway. 


In this region the surface of the Lafayette shows considerable 
erosion prior to the deposition of the fossiliferous marls referred 
to the Equus beds horizon, which is srupposedly basal Pleistocene, 
and it is involved in the diastrophic movements which preceeded 
the deposition of the Port Hudson. For these reasons the Lafa- 
yette is here made the uppermost member of the Neocene, al- 
though it is sometimes referred to the Pleistocene or regarded as 
bridging the Pliocene and Pleistocene. 

North of the Lafayette-Port Hudson contact, the amount of 
movement apparent is not very great and seems to have been 
simply a gradual regional elevation. To the seaward, although 
the surface is a great peneplain, drilling shows that the orogenic 

TJie Geology of East Texas 261 

movements were intense before the deposition of the .mantling 
clays. It indicates in fact that at the close of the Tertiary we 
had a repetition, perhaps on a somewhat grander scale, of the 
movements which accompanied the close of the Cretaceous. 

As has been stated, the movement at end of Cretaceous timq 
was sufficient to create the Cretaceous domes and the Sabine 
Peninsula through local elevation of the Upper Cretaceous sed- 
iments 2500 to 3000 feet. These elevations were all in the sea> 
ward margin of the Cretaceous land mass which in itself showed 
comparatively little change of level. These domes were almost 
without exception subsequently mantled by clays and sands of 
the Tertiary, which entirely masked their character and but for 
later erosion or the searching enquiry of the drill their presence 
might not have been suspected. 

The same is true in great measure of the Coastal domes. Some 
few of them may now make themselves known by a slight eleva- 
tion at the general surface, the Sun Mounds near Hockley and 
Damon Mound being the highest of them, but for the most part 
they are either little distinguishable above the general level of 
the prairies, or only found by drillng. The Sun mounds and 
Damon Mound, which are typical domes and rise from 70 to 100 
feet above the prairie, are capped by Lafayette. Some of the 
buried domes also show beds of gravel which are properly refer- 
able to that formation. These buried domes are covered by va- 
riable thicknesses of the Coast clays, ranging from one hundred 
to several hundred feet, while between the domes we find as much 
as 2500 feet of materials referrable to the Coast clays of the Port 
Hudson. The irregularities of the substructure is therefore fully 
as great as in the case of the Cretaceous domes. 

Possibly nothing could bring out the differential movements 
that have taken place in this coastal area since the Miocene dep- 
osition more clearly than the fact that while the Pliocene ( ?) 
brackish-water fauna which occurs at Burkeville 150 ft. above 
sea level is found in abundance at Terry, 66 miles south, at a 
depth of from 3,000 to 4,000 ft., the marine Miocene fauna 
which occurs at Saratoga at a depth of 1,000 ft. is only 2400 ft. 
deep at Galveston, 74 miles south of it. 

It seems clear, therefore, that at the close of the Neocene the 
coastal area of east Texas was subject to extensive oscillation. 

262 University of Texas Bulletin 

and it is these movements rather than those of earlier date that 
are directly connected with the formation of the domes and folds 
found here. 

There are a number of these Coastal Domes already known 
and they appear to occur in somewhat regular alignments along 
general northeast-southwest courses, which is approximately the 
direction of the chain of Cretaceous domes which has been men- 

/ That they are of orogenie origin is fully proven by their com- 
position and by their relation to adjacent deposits. They are 
in all cases, so far as now known, composed of a core of salt or 
of gypsum or anhydrite (with which deposits of native sulphur 
are sometimes associated) which plugs have been forced up 
through beds of Miocene and later age. This relationship has 
been definitely shown to exist by the drilling done at Humble 
and similar domes. 

The relation of the bodies of salt, gypsum, and sulphur of 
these domes to the surrounding sediments indicates that these 
masses have certainly penetrated 2,000 or 3,000 ft. of the sedi- 
mentary strata. The clays sands, and limestones immediately 
adjacent to or overlying them are tilted at comparatively high 
angles for this region, the surrounding sedimentaries dip away 
from them at lower angles, and beds or sills of salt and gypsum 
extend from the main mass out into the surrounding beds, as 
sometimes happens with plugs of basalt coming up through sim- 
ilar materials. 

Up to this time basaltic matter has not been definitely proven 
to exist in connection with these domes. Its place is taken by 
the salt, gypsum and anhydrite. In connection with the close of 
the Eocene attention has been called to the probability of the 
accumulation of considerable deposits of these substances at that 
time. Salt becomes plastic at temperatures far below those 
necessary for the production of siliceous lavas and would lend 
itself much more readily to the work of filling any voids caused 
by crumpling or assisting such crumpling. Salt stocks of this 
character have long been recognized in the Carpathians and else- 
where in Europe. 

In this connection, the following suggestions regarding the 
domes are made: 

The Geology of East Texas 263 

The domes are separable into two series: The Interior domes 
and the Coastal domes. 

The bodies of salt found in connection with the Cretaceous 
domes were probably deposited during the Lower Cretaceous or 
the interval between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous and the 
uplift which formed the domes occurred at the close of the Cre- 

The salt of the Coastal domes was deposited at the end of the 
Eocene or beginning of the Oligocene and the movement which 
resulted in these domes took place at the end of the Tertiary. 

The connection of the Coastal domes with the oil fields of the 
region is in some measure accidental. 

The close association of the oil, gypsum, salt, and sulphur in 
some of the domes has naturally suggested the' idea of a common 
origin or a close relatonship in origin, and this has been widely 
discussed. "Were this true, the oil should be found in connection 
with all such domes, and such is not the case. We have oil pools 
where there is no dome and where no salt has been found, and 
we have numerous domes and bodies of salt, gypsum, and sul- 
phur without any accumulations of oil. 

Chapter X 

The Pleistocene of East Texas includes the river deposits of 
the inland belt belonging to the Columbia and their coastward 
continuation, the Coast clays or Port Hudson, which Kennedy 
called the Beaumont clays. 

They rest unconf ormably on the Lafayette. 

The Columbia phase embraces those deposits which form the 
second bottom terraces of the main streams. On the Sabine, An- 
gelina, Neches and Trinity rivers they extend well toward heads 
of the streams. The upland deposits of this stage are of the 
character of the loess. At the base of these deposits there is 
usually a layer of gravel derived from the erosion of the Lafa- 
yette. The deposits themselves are clays and silts of various col- 
ors containing small limy concretions and some gravel. Shells of 
the Unio or fresh-water dam are found in them and blocks and 
logs of cypress, which are but little altered, together with the 
bones of the mammoth, horse, ground sloth, etc. 

Nearing the coast these beds grade into clays of the Port Hud- 
son. These are heavy clays of various colors with small lime 
concretions and local lenses of sand and sandy clays. In places 
cypress logs are found in these clays at considerable depth and 
shells, similar to those of the present bay shore, oecur in them 
at places. 


As one travels from north to south from Nacogdoches to Polk 
counties, he passes gradually from a region which is mostly bed 
rock upland to one that is mostly alluvial lowland. 

The divides and interstream ridges of Polk county stand out 
as much promintoried peninsulas in the bottom lands of the 
creeks and ridges — the sea of their ovni debris. South of the 
Nechse-Trinity divide the southward sloping interstream ridges 
lie above the bottoms as partially sunken headlands on a sub- 

The Geology of East Texas 265 

merged sea coast. Between the uplands and the bottom lands 
there is in most places a noticeably abrupt break,, a break in the 
profile rather too sharp to be explained solely as brought about 
by the processes of an uninterrupted cycle of erosion. The bed 
rock formations are not sufficiently resistant to cause this 
break. The valleys are too broad to explain the almost contin- 
uous fringe of steep bluffs between the broad bottoms as entirely 
the product of lateral planation of meandering streams. There is 
a mature, in some cases even a youthful, topography of the upland 
areas with an extreme old age topography of the lowland areas. 
The topography is partially drowned. It is not all the product 
of one cycle of erosion or there would be more of a continuous, less 
perceptible, graduation between the divides and the stream 
courses. This apparently implies a former base level higher than 
the present and especially a rising of the base at a rate greater 
than the down-cutting of subaerial agencies. A former base level 
lower than a succeeding one, which was responsible for a differ- 
ential relief greater than the present one between alluvial bottom 
and bed-rock divides is apparently implied. This epoch of rais- 
ing of base level is the Columbia-Port Hudson. 


In the upper portion of the Trewick's bluff, and comprising 
the whole of the exposures in Perigue and Carlisle bluffs, as well 
as the low knobs outcropping above the level of the "saline" 
crossed by the Angelina river one mile east of the Texas & New 
Orleans Eailroad bridge over the river there is a hard conglom- 
erate, with pebbles mainly of quartz and igneous rocks, and sub- 
ordinately of ferruginous sandstone in a matrix of coarse sand 
grains, cemented by iron carbonate and iron oxide. The occur- 
rence of this conglomerate in these bluffs together with the great 
amount of loose gravel found farther down the valley of the same 
river may indicate that we have here a formation somewhat simi- 
lar to the Columbian of the southwestern Atlantic States derived 
from the surficial beds referred to the Lafayette and deposited by 
the Angelina during a former time of alluviation of its flood- 


266 University of Texas Bulletin 

The upper limits of the river terraces (Port Hudson?) are hard 
to define in the triangular region between the Angelina and 
Neches rivers just above the junction of these two streams, be- 
cause the upland is very low and only very moderately rolling 
and merges insensibly into the second bottoms. The second bot- 
tom can be distinguished from the first and lower bottom by its 
superior height and its covering of "piney woods" probably sig- 
nifies better drainage than is possessed by the first bottom. But 
east of the Angelina, in Jasper county, east of Bevilport Ferry, 
the second bottom, terrace is nearly li^ miles in width. Its river- 
ward limit is sharply defined from the first bottom or present 
river flood-plain, but its bluffward limit is obscure and merges 
gradually into the upland. 


Three terraces, including the pesent fiood-plain, are well de- 
veloped on the Trinity, at Westmoreland and Clarke bluffs. The 
height of each will average probably close to 25 ft. The prairie 
level terraces ae still higher and there are traces of a still lower 
one being developed in the present fiood-plain. 

At Westmoreland bluff in western Houston county the second 
bottom alluvium overlying the Tegua is mottled grayish and 
rusty sand containing gravel with the usual ferruginous-cemented 
gravel layer at the base. The first bottom below this bluff is 
black waxy calcareous alluvium derived from the Cretaceous. It 
appears probable that the second bottom alluvium was laid down 
before the Trinity river had cut back into the Cretaceous. 

Just to the west of the head of Spring creek, near Westmore- 
land bluff, a minor terrace level between the first and second 
bottom is noted in a poorly developed bench with its surface 
about 8 feet below that of the second bottom. It is narrow but 
has a distinct step downward from the second bottom and heads 
of gullies have cut back into it nearly to the second bottom. The 
total number of terraces at Westmoreland bluff is either five or 
six, five if the proirie level is not counted and six if it is counted. 
Of these, three or four are main terraces and two are minor 

The remainder of the Spring creek exposures, near its head, 

The Geology of East Texas 267 

are in brown sandy alluvium, containing Lafayette-derived peb- 
bles. This gravel layer is almost universal at the base of the 
terrace alluvium along the Trinity river from Alabama bluff to 
Liberty county. The creek shortly comes to an end in a blunt- 
headed gully. Above the head of this gully is the usual vestige 
of an older valley with the gentler slopes and gradienf of an 
older erosion sub-cycle. 

The first and second bottoms are very well developed in the 
vicinity of Hyde's bluff. The second bottom soils are either 
brown sand or black sticky clayey laminae. The underlying ma- 
terial of the second bottom is dark brown with small white calcar- 
eous nodules. Underneath this subsoil layer the alluvium is light 
buff in color. 

Negro creek which heads at Volga postoffice, shows some inter- 
esting exposures of terrace materials. The exposures near the 
head show 4 feet of light creamy-gray sandy clay with a very few 
white calcareous nodules. The lower portions of the creek's 
course show exposures in terrace material, one of which is 20 feet 
thick and composed of light gray, medium-grained sand, with 
very poor bedding. There are contained in it a few Lafayette- 
derived pebbles. It weathers to brick-red near the surface and 
locally is mottled. The upper one foot is leached to .a brown 
color. At another exposure farther down the creek the base is 
very plastic slaty blue clay, cracking much when dried. It is 
overlain by mottled brown and gray blue sticky clay weathering 
russet brown, above which is light brown sand. There are a num- 
ber of small flood-plain lakes in this region as well as lakes and 
swamps on the higher terraces and valleys of the larger creeks. 

The top of Pine bluff below the mouth of Negro creek shows : 

1. Alluvium with calcareous nodules, light gray at base but 

brown above 15-20f t. 

2. Ferruglnous.cemented Lafayette-derived conglomerate with 

casts of Unios 55 ft. 

Dark brown and brownish gray plastic clay with calcareous 
nodules outcrop on the edge of the terrace where the railroad 
spur to White Eock Locks enters the Trinity first bottom one 
mile south of its junction with the main line of the Beaumont 
& Great Northern Railroad and a section 10 feet thick is ex- 

268 University of Texas Bulletin 

posed. In the western end of the third cut on the Beaumont & 
Great Northern Railroad west of the bridge over White Rock 
creek is a brown elay with small calcareous nodules belonging to 
the second bottom. 

At White Rock Shoals on the Trinity river excavation for the 
base of the lock on the north bank resulted in the unearthing of 
remains of mammoth (Elephas) and of a large horse (Equus), of 
Pleistocene age. The largest tusk of the mammoth measured 9 
feet 6 inches in length and 14 inches in circumference at the base. 
•The podial bones were 12-13 inches in diameter at the socket. 
The scapula, ribs, teeth, limb bones and both tusks of the mam- 
moth were found, but these were very friable and rapidly crum- 
bled on exposure to the air. These remains are important since 
they give evidence of the Pleistocene age of the first bottom of 
the Trinity river. The fact that a number of bones of the mam- 
moth were found together indicates that the position in which 
they were found was the original resting place of the remains. 
They indicate that the portion of the first bottom in which they 
were embedded is neither older nor younger than the stage of 
the Pleistocene in which these mammals lived. 

The reddish clayey sand exposed in the higher banks of Kicka- 
poo creek near its mouth is alluvium of the Trinity second bot- 
tom. Brownish clay with calcareous nodules, probably second 
bottom material, is found between Mile Posts 15 and 16 of the 
Beaumont & Great Northern Railroad. 

At Eastham's Plantation, 13,000 acres in extent, and situated 
in the southwestern corner of Houston county, the alluvium of 
the second bottom, here so far down stream and so high as not 
to be subject to overflow, is locally 30 feet in thickness with 
the usual gravel layer at the base. The level of the second 
bottom terrace is 55 to 60 feet above that of the first bottom. 
Both terraces are covered with black land and underlain by 
brown sandy clays with calcareous nodules. 

The Columbia is well exposed further south on the Trinity 
river in the vicinity of Drews landing, eastern San Jacinto 
county, where it unconformably overlies the Fleming with a 
basal layer of Lafayette-derived pebbles overlain by brown 
clayey second bottom alluvium. Sections of light yellowish- 
brown sandy clay 5 or 6 feet thick are seen along Big Creek 

The, Geology of East Texas 269 

on the Shepherd-Drews Landing road. The Columbia or second 
bottom has a wide area west of Drews Landing. The following 
section was made on the west bank of the Trinity one mile below 
this place: 


1. Light yellowish-brown, fine, sandy alluvial clay, gray at top. 

Mastodon remains, consisting of limb bones, lower jaw 
bones, and 19 teeth were found near the base of this 
member 30 It. 

2. Much cross-bedded, medium-grained yellowish-brown sand 

locally indurated. Its base marks a line of springs 4 ft. 

One mile upstream from this locality the Port Hudson second 
bottom bluffs face each other on opposite sides of the river. 
Between these two places there are stagnant ox-bow. lakes on 
the first bottom. Portions of the surface of the Port Hudson 
depositional peneplain may be seen between Drews Landing 
and Shepherd. 

The Coast Prairie is a depositional peneplain of the Port 
Hudson group. 


Kennedy 's description of these clays is as follows : 
Overlying the Lafayette gravels and sands there is a series of 
yellow, gray, blue, brown and black clays with brown sands. 
There are also occasional deposits of red clay. These beds are 
sometimes thinly stratified or laminated, but frequently massive. 
The laminated beds are usually interstratified with thin beds of 
blue and gray or grayish-white sand. The clays carry considera- 
ble quantities of calcareous nodules irregularly distributed, in 
many places shells of Pleistocene or Recent age, and great quan- 
tities of decaying wood in the form of tree trunks, bark and 
leaves. Among these the cypress appears as the most prominent, 
and among the invertebrate fauna found the Rangia cuneata 
(Gray) and an undetermined oyster are the prevailing forms, 
in these clays the calcareous nodules do not appear to have any 
definite position. It is true that they always accompany the blue 
clays, but they are always found scattered in small pockets and 
occupying irregular patches a few acres in extent. It is pos- 

270 University of Texas Bulletin 

sible that by some chemical action during or after the deposition 
of the clays the lime had been segregated into small depressions 
or softer portions of the clays.^ 

The generally low flat condition in which tljiese Beaumont clays 
occur render attempts to unravel their structure with any degree 
of certainty somewhat diiBcult. They, however, are by no means 
structureless, as the whole of the beds carry sands occupying 
very irregular positions and lying in very irregular forms. 
Drilling has shown some of these sand deposits to lie in the shape 
of short, rather dumpy, or mound-like lenticles, others 
elongated and rather thin, while yet others form regular beds 
extending a mile or more in length. The clays themselves are 
also irregular. In places these occur in a massive form, giving 
rise through their toughness and tenacity to the term "gumbo" 
so frequently used by drillers. Often within the middle of these 
' ' gumbo' ' deposits there occur pockets of thinly laminated shaly 
looking clays, sometimes intermixed with laminae of sand and 
frequently carrying small quantities of oil. These are the shales 
and oil shows so frequently recorded in the logs of wells drilled 
throughout the region. These pockets of "shale", while nu- 
merous, are by no means regular as to extent or horizon. In some 
wells they may occur several times, while in the neighboring wells 
they are absent. 

Another peculiarity regarding these Beaumont clays is tha 
form of the lime found in them. Towards the upper surface and 
throughout several hundred feet of these clays the lime appears 
almo'st altogether in the form of carbonate. At depth this car- 
bonate gives place to sulphate and small isolated nodules of 
amorphous gypsum are by no means rare. At some localities 
drilling has shown the gypsum to be in beds from two to fpur 
feet thick, but its areal extent is usually circumscribed. 

Decayed wood is abundant throughout these clays. This often 
shows in an almost fresh condition as if it had only been buried 
a short time. In other localities the decay may be said to be 
complete, and in some places, particularly in the vicinity of the 
domes, the wood may be described as carbonized, but not lig- 
nitized. Wood brought up in several of the drill holes at Bryan 
Heights from a depth of over 300 feet was in this condition. 
Throughout the whole formation the wood is never silicified. In 

^U. S. G. S. Bulletin No. 212. 

The Geology of East Texas 271 

this respect it is entirely different from any fossil wood found 
in the underlying- formations, and any silicified wood found may 
be considered as extraneous and has reached its position in asso- 
ciation with the gravel in which it is usually found. 

Throughout the whole of the area occupied by these Beaumont 
clays the only means of obtaining any information regarding 
their structure or the thickness is by means of wells drilled in the 
search for oil. Unfortunately, few of the logs are kept with any 
degree of precision, the records rarely showing the color of the 
material passed through or the character of the rock encountered 
when such is met with. These conditions render it often difficult 
to determine to what division the materials passed through belong. 
However, as the Beaumont clays carry but little gravel and the 
sands are usually thin, in all probability the appearance of heavy 
gravels, sands and rock shows that the drill has encountered some 
underlying formation. 

Attention must, however, be drawn to the fact that as the 
Lafayette extends seaward it loses much of its landward struc- 
ture. In its seaward extension it assumes a more clayey and 
sandy phase, the gravel deposits gradually become thinner and 
finally disappear, the sands thicken to some extent, but even 
these, in a great measure, lose their identity and become sand- 
stones which eventually grade into a clay. 

The Coast Clays are found on the Coldsprings- Cleveland road 
four or five miles northwest of Cleveland where they occupy a 
low flat country whose surface is interrupted here and there by 
small low knolls of Lafayette. The soil of the Coast Clays is a 
very light buff, very fine, sandy clay loam, forming, when dry, 
deep, loose and powdery dust of light weight. 

Tarkingfton Prairie east of Cleveland is a portion of the Coast 
depositional peneplain; It extends from four miles north of Pel- 
ican Station on the Gulf Colorado & Santa Fe Railroad southward 
to the Gulf and is cut into minor prairies by many peninsulas 
of forest. 

The Coast Prairie, on the Galveston-Longview branch of the 
International & Great Northern Railway extends as far as Spring 
creek on the Harris-Montgomery county line. It has in this vi- 
cinity its usual characteristics, a monotonous flatness, broken 
only by low circular mounds and smaller lower ant hills; open 

272 ' University of Texas Bulletin 

spaces densely covered with grass and low herbs; with patches 
of post oak and scrub pine. 

Between Grapeland and Mile Post 17 the exposures are mainly 
gray or buff, loose, fine sand or silt, which resemble the loess. 
They are underlain by Lafayette which is found at the top of 
the grade in the two cuts north and south of Salmon, the southern 
cut being at the Houston-Anderson county line. The loess-like 
exposures are of fine materials. They are soft and have the 
property of standing in perpendicularly cut banks, such as would 
hardly be characteristic of other materials of such fine texture. 
The difficulty is to distinguish between this loess and loose fine 
leached residual sand derived from the older formations. At any 
rate, it can only be expected to be found on these high divides 
overlying deposits of Lafayette in situ. 

Since the deposition of Port Hudson the deposits have been 
greatly eroded as a consequence of regional uplift. The first, 
second and third bottom terraces so comimon to the Trinity from 
Houston county southward and southeastward are cut in the 
Port Hudson deposits. Whether these terraces mark definite 
■stages in the physiographic history of the coastal plain can not 
be determined until the lower river valleys and the country south 
of the Lafayette outcrop have been investigated in more detail. 



Two striking features occurring throught this region and 
which are probably of Pleistocene age are the salines and 

The salines are depressions of greater or less areal extent and 
of varying depths which are usually ponds, lakes or marshes 
during the wet seasons but form dry spots more or less salt- 
incrusted during the dry seasons. Some are entirely barren, 
others support a scattered growth of tufts of short grass or salt- 
loving plants, whilfe the larger ones form palmetto flats. A few 
have their surfaces dotted with small mounds. Even when dry 
at the surface the salines are moist a few inches below and the 
■efflorescene is largely sodium chloride or common salt. 

The Geology of East Texas 273 

These salines appear to be entirely wanting in the area occu- 
pied by the Mt. Selman and Cooke Mountain formations and are 
found only in connection with the palustrinal deposits of the 
Wilcox, Yegua, Jackson and Fleming: 

The mounds of the salines are low, varying from two to four 
or five feet in height, circular to elliptical in outline and from 
ten to forty feet in diameter. The soil of the mounds is a loose 
fine sand which is more loose and porous than that of the lower 
surface from which it apparently does not diifer in other re- 
spects. The mounds persisting above the general level have bet- 
ter drainage. The mounds are frequently a mass of ant-hills and 
on the lower surface are conical ant-hills from a foot to fifteen 
inches in height. 

Four and a half or five miles southwest of Burke, about seven 
miles from the Neches river, is a low swampy area with "quak- 
ing bogs" which are locally called "sucks". Judging from the 
bones scattered thereabout, the bogs have been the graves of a 
number of cattle and other animals. The quaking portions of 
the bog are elevated from four inches to a foot above the sur- 
rounding surface. They will shake when one treads over them 
or stamps upon them. The surface layer is hardened and 
cracked. Underneath there is a light blue liquid mud mixed 
with a small quantity of sand, in which a pole was easily pushed 
to a depth of twelve feet without striking bottom. In the dried 
surface portions of one of them a sticky elastic substance re- 
sembling gelatinous silica was noted. The quaking portions are 
from four to twenty-five feet across. On the surface of some of 
the mounds small ferruginous pebbles were found. A brownish 
fine sand (perhaps quicksand) was brought up to the surface on 
the end cf. a pole. On stirring up the liquid mass bubbles of 
non-inflammable gas rises to the surface. The blue mud has the 
odor of sulphur. 

Small mounds in actual process of formation were noted one 
and a half miles southeast of Lovelady on the John Forbes grant 
in the postoak upland near the h'ead of a small western tributary 
of Gail creek, known as San creek. Here, in a space some sixty 
feet in length, underlain by Yegua sand and light gray badland 
clay, are a half dozen small mounds close together and making 
up an elongated compound mound. From a half dozen small 

274 University of Texas Bulletin 

crater-like vents forming the summits of the mounds water in 
small quantities slowly oozes out, bringing upward with it ma- 
terials varying in composition and texture from very fine clay 
to medium-grained sand, dark blue in color when fresh and a 
tawny yellow on the surface. The phenomena resembles closely 
those of a very quiescent stage of mud volcanoes. Forty feet of 
2-inch pipe was pushed by hand down one of these vents without 
reaching bottom. A resident of the vicinity informs me that the 
locations of the vents have migrated during the last thirty years 
and a few yards to the westward of the present vents are traces 
of former vents which have now dried up. The vents are ten 
feet to fifteen feet in diameter and rise two or four feet above 
the general level. They have been the graves of animals which 
have bogged down in them. At the time of visit no gases could 
be seen escaping from these vents, but it is reported that in 
, former times bubbles of gas were seen to escape from them. It 
is possible, however, that these bubbles were merely of air, which 
came to the surface as one trod on the quaking ground of the 
immediate vicinity The "suck" in the Neches river bottom near 
Blix, western Angelina county, is similar in characteristics to 
the more pronounced mounds near Lovelady, but it is worthy of 
note that the one locality is on the uplands and the other in the 
river bottom. 

Chapter XI 

General Character 

The various grades of Brown coal which are found in the 
United States are known under the general name of Lignite. 
These are forms of coal which are intermediate in the trans- 
formation series between peat on the one hand and bituminous 
coal on the other. They contain a higher percentage of carbon 
and much less water than peat, but usually, less carbon and 
more moisture than bituminous coal. 

In color, Lignite varies from brown to a brilliant jet black, 
but the majority of our deposits are dull black changing to 
brownish black or brown on exposure. It breaks with a splintery 
to subeonchoidal fracture and normally has a specific gravity of 

The water content is very variable in amount and it exists in 
the lignite both as combined moisture and as free water. Upon 
exposure most, if not all, of the latter may evaporate but the 
water in combination will not do so and even if the coal he heated 
and this moisture driven oif, its equivalent will be re-absorbed or 
recombined upon exposure to the air. 

Prior to the finding of oil at Spindletop in 1901 the mining 
of lignite was assuming considerable importance in Texas, but 
the advantages of oil in convenience of use and cheapness in 
price caused most, if not all, of the mines to be closed down for 
the time. 

As the supply of oil available for fuel uses has decreased and 
the price increased the use of lignite is again beginning to 
expand, and the time is near at hand when the disadvantages ac- 
companying t£e use of lignite will be more than offset by the 
economy which can be effected thereby and we may, therefore, 
look forward to a constantly growing demand for it. 

' For fuller description see Dumble, E. T., Brown Coal and Lignite, 
Geol. Sur. Texas, 1892. 

276 University of Texas Bulletin 

While not equal to bituminous coal in heating power it is 
nevertheless an excellent and acceptable fuel under proper con- 
ditions and will in time be one of the principal sources of supply 
for our entire Gulf Coast region. 

Methods of Utilization 

The principal use of lignite is, of course, for fuel purposes, 
and includes direct firing under boilers and furnaces, ■conversion 
into artificial fuel by briquetting to fit it for household and other 
uses, charring to produce a fuel between charcoal and coke, gas 
and by-products, and the manufacture of producer gas and eon- 
version into electric energy through gas engines. 

The details of these methods have been given more or less 
fully in the Report on Brown Coal and Lignite, the Bulletins of 
University of Texas Mineral Survey and the U. S. Geological 
Survey Report of Coal Tests at the St. Louis Exposition. 

In direct firing success can only be had by proper attention to 
the character of the fire-box, style of grate and draught arrange- 
ments. When these are properly designed for the character of 
fuel it can be burned very satisfactorily either with hand firing 
or mechanical stoking. Where the conditions are properly regu- 
lated the inconvenience and loss formerly caused by its property 
of slacking as it dried is practically done away with and the 
slack coal itself is a good fuel. 

Briquetting has also been attempted as a means of overcoming 
this disadvantage to its general use as a household fuel but ap- 
parently no great commercial success has as yet been attained in 
the manufacture. Up to the present the material used has been 
the raw lignites, from which most of the moisture has been evap- 
orated by heating, combined and compressed with various per- 
centages of coal tar pitch or asphaltum. A satisfactory fuel of 
this character demands considerable experimentation to find just 
what condition of dryness and percentage of pitch will yield, 
when pressed, a strongly coherent block of proper burning 

In place of simply drying the lignite it may be subjected to 
a charring process which provides for the recovery of the by- 
products consisting of gas, oils, and tar. The charred product 

The Geology of East Texas 277 

briquetted with coal tar pitch forms an excellent fuel for all 
purposes. While no commercial installation of this character has 
been attempted here estimates, based on experimental runs which 
show the extent and value of the by-products, seem to indicate 
the entire practicability of such a scheme,^. 

These various methods have to do with the use of lignite by 
direct firing and it is probable that each of them will in time 
play its part in the utilization of this fuel. The demand for 
electric power at a reasonable price cannot be fully met by such 
method but it is entirely practical by the use of the gas from 
the charring process or through the manufacture of producer 
gas to secure a fuel for gas engines by means of which electric 
power can be generated at a minimum cost. Careful estimates 
indicate that at such plants erected in the immediate vicinity of 
the lignite mines electricity can be generated at a price to com- 
pare favorably with those plants in the west using water power, 
with the advantages, of a smaller investment in plant. Or it may 
be possible to pipe the gas to certain centers for such use: This 
in the writers opinion, will be one of the chief methods of lignite 
utilization in the future. 

As will have been seen from the various sections we have given 
conditions favorable for the deposition of Lignite occurred dur- 
ing nearly every stage of the Eocene, but, within the area map- 
ped, it was only during the Lignitic phase of the Wilcox and in 
the Tegua and Jackson that beds were laid down of sufBcient 
extent and purity to constitute valuable deposits. There are a 
few beds known in the Marine and it is possible that one or more 
of these may be of value locally, but extensive deposits such as 
are found in the beds below and above the Marine are not to be 


The deposits of Wilcox age include the lignite beds in Shelby 
and Nacogdoches Counties, these occurring in the comer of Free- 
stone, Limestone and Leon counties and in the northern part of 
Robertson county. 

The beds of lignite which occur in the vicinity of Center and 

• University of Texas Bulletin 307. Fuels used in Texas. 

278 University of Texas Bulletin 

Timpson in Shelby county and extend southwestward to Garri- 
son, Nacogdoches county, are of considerable extent and of ex- 
cellent quality. 

A bed of good grade of lignite, 51/2 feet in thickness, outcrops 
along the beds of two creeks in the southern portion of the town 
of Center. An opening has been made on this bed at one place 
and two inclines sunk on the seam. The lignite is used locally 
for the production of electric power and for fuel in a cotton seed 
oil mill. It is reached in most of the shallow wells in the southern 
portion of the town, in which it forms the impervious layer 
above which surface water percolating down through the pervious 
sands accumulates in considerable quantity. 

There is a deeper coal seam underneath the town, but this 
lies somewhere between the depths of 300 and 570 feet, since a 
well 300 feet deep did not reach it but the 570 ft .well penetrated 
it although exact depth was not given. The two wells are only a 
few hundred yards apart, but abundant water was secured from 
a sand at 300 feet in the one, while the other, having substan- 
tially the same elevation, got no water above a depth of 570 feet. 
The water in the three deep wells here rises to within 80 or 100 
ft. of the surface. 

Two exposures of the lignite were examined. The more north- 
erly shows from bottom upward; 

1 Laminated gray sand. 

2. Carbonaceous shale with thin streaks of lignite. 

3. Solid bed of hard lustrous lignite, 5 ft. 

4. Laminated sand. 

At the mine the dip in a S 70° B. direction is 2°. The roof 
and floor are both laminated sand, although a few inches of car- 
bonaceous shale directly underlies the coal. The thickness of the 
solid lignite is 5' 6". Small lenses of sand are found locally in 
the lignite bed. At the time of visit the mine was not in opera- 
tion and was flooded with water. The water and a poor roof 
makes mining difficult at this incline. It may be possible to find 
a better location by prospecting. 

At Timpson the lignite was successfully mined by the Timpson 
Coal Co. The mine was one and one-half miles south of Timpson 

The Geology of East Texas 279 

and the lignite seam averaged a little over six feet in tMckness. 
The floor was a white clay while the roof was a hard black 
bituminous clay. 

South of Garrison about half a mile mines on opposite sides of 
the railroad were operated during the years 1900 and ]901. One 
of these was worked by the East Texas Coal Co., the other by the 
South Texas Coal Co. Each mine worked out about seven acres 
of ground. The shaft of the East Texas Coal Co. was 54 feet 
deep and the lignite seam averaged four and one-half feet in 
thickness. The roof was blue shale and very little water was en- 

East of Timpson lignite is reported from several wells dug for 
water in seams four to six feet thick at depths varying from 55 
to 70 feet. Six miles southeast of Timpson on the Attoyac a 
seam of lignite four to five feet in thickness is exposed. It is 
therefore evident that these seams of lignite are found pretty 
generally through an area twenty-five miles in length by six to 
twelve miles in width and even though they may not all belong 
•to one bed they are all of the same horizon and are similar in 

"We have the following analyses on these lignites : 

Ajttoyac Timpson 

Moisture 18.26 31.96 

Volatile matter 43.51 39.53 

Fixed carbon ^9.53 23.v)5 

Ash 8.70 5.46 

Total 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 2.46 1.46 

The difference in moisture in the two analyses is due to the 
Attoyac samples having been partially air-dried. 

West of Garrison the beds of the Wilcox are overlain by those 
of the Claiborne until we reach the Trinity river. West of that 
stream the Wilcox again makes its appearance and beds of lig- 
nite may be looked for in it. They occur in good development 
north and west of Jewett. 

About eight miles north of Jewett there are two mines which 
are now in operation; The mine of the Houston Coal Co. at 

280 University of Texas Bulletin ' 

Evansville has a spur from the Nelleva cut-off of the Houston & 
Texas Central E. E. while the mine of the Beargrass Coal Com- 
pany has a spur to the Taylor & Brazos Valley E. R. 

The Evansville mine has been in operation for several years 
and they are now working from the third shaft. The holdings 
comprise several thousand acres, most of which has been pro- 
spected with drilling machines. The mine is operated from a 
shaft 66 feet deep. The lignite seam is 12 feet thick with one 
parting at 7 feet. On account of the sandy nature of the forma- 
tions overlying the lignite, all of the lignite above the parting is 
left in the mine for a roof. Very little water is encountered in 
the mine. The coal is shot from place with black powder and 
shoveled into cars. The lignite as it comes from the mine is 
dumped from the cars and passes over grate bars which screen 
it into the lump, nut and slack grades. The capacity of the mine 
at the time of our examination was about ten cars per day. 

The Beargrass mine is about three miles north of the Evans- 
ville mine and is operated from a shaft 125 feet. The lignite is 
9 ft. thick with a parting 2" to 4" thick, 5 to 6 feet from the bot- • 
tom. Another stratum of good lignite 7 feet thick is known to 
exist at a depth, of 350 feet. The holdings of the Company com- 
prise 1100 acres held in fee and 1200 acres under lease, with 
possibly 150 acres worked out. Some water is encountered in 
the mine. 

Similar coal is known at other places in the vicinity and there 
is every reason to believe that this will prove one of the best 
producing distracts of the Lignite belt. 


Mine No. 1 

Moisture 29.96 

Volatile 41,68 

Fixed Carbon 22.24 

Ash 6.12 

Sulphur ^ 

The lignite beds of Eobertson county extend from its eastern 
boundary entirely across it in a general southwesterly direction 


Houston Co. 

Mine No. 2 

Goal & Mfg. Co. 











The Geology of East Texas 281 

and underlie approximately the northern one-third- of the 
county. The northern boundary of the lignite beds is approxi- 
mately coincident with, but extends across the northern line of 
the county, and the southern limit of the field lies along a line 
extending from the Navasota river westward to OwensvUle, and 
then along the northern bank of Muddy creek to the Brazos river, 
near the mouth of Little river, in Milam county. This region 
embraces Tidwell, Beck, Heard, and Bald prairies, together with 
a series of other small prairies lying across the centre and 
throughout the northern portion of the county. 

Throughout the prairie regions the brown coals appear near 
the surface at various localities, and are exposed in several of 
the creeks and washouts traversing these regions. At Headville, 
on the C. C. Seal headright, the exposure is from four feet to six 
feet thick, and the deposit on "Wilson creek is about the same 
thickness. Many of the surface exposures, however, are thin and 
of no economic value. Thus the exposure on the Captain Orvis 
farm on the southwest corner of the George Robertson league, is 
not more than two feet of broken crumbly coal. Another out- 
crop of a similar nature occurs in a creek near the centre of the 
Joseph Fisher leauge. The coal at this locality is broken and 
crumbly at the south end, or toward the head of the creek, but 
as it extends northward it becomes dark brown in color and as- 
sumes a woody or peaty structure, having all the characteristic 
odor of the later material when freshly broken, and also con- 
tains numerous fragments of leaves. 

The heavier deposits of brown coal found throughout the 
prairie regions all lie at a depth cif forty-five feet and over. A 
number of borings on the southwest corner of Beck's prairie, on 
the Wm. FuUerton league, show section of: 

1. From surface to first brown coal 46 to 55 ft. 

2. Brown coal 4 to 4 % ft. 

I. Parting of sandy clay ■ • 10 to 12 ft. 

4. Brown coal 7 ft. 

5. Parting clay and sand 6 to 10 ft. 

6. Brown coal 3 ft. 

Brown coal also occurs in the neighborhood of Owensville, 
where it is overlain by a red sandstone. This appears to be the 

282 University of Texas Bulletin 

last exposure of the brown coal deposits oecurrmg in the south- 
ern portion of the county. At Heame this coal is found at 408 
feet, while in the neighborhood of Wheelock, and at places be- 
tween this place and Franklin, wells, fifty to sixty feet fre- 
quently cuts brown coal. 

Throughout the valley of the Brazos and in the region lying 
between the two rivers, brown coal occurs in the well borings 
generally at a depth of thirty feet to four hundred feet. 

The exposure on the Brazos river west of Calvert is one of the 
best known of the entire region. This locality furnished the ma- 
terial for some of the earlier experiments in the use of lignite not 
only under boilers or for household purposes but also for the 
manufacture of briquettes. The earliest experiments of this char- 
acter were those of the writer who in 1881 made a shipment of 
this lignite to Havre where it was briquetted with coal tar pitch 
as a binder and a serviceable fuel secured. The cost of the pitch, 
however, and the fact that the air-dried lignite carried ten per 
cent of moisture (decreasing its heating power to that extent) 
acted as a bar to the further prosecution of the scheme. 

The success of the mines at Rockdale finally brought about 
the opening of these beds and a number of mines were started, 
some of which became regular producers and mined over con- 
siderable areas. 

While some mining was carried on in a small way previously 
the most active exploitation of the Calvert coal followed the pub- 
lication of the Report on Brown Coal and Lignite in 1892. The 
use of suitable grate bars increased its efficiency and later the 
application of the plans there suggested for locomotive firing to 
the engines of the Houston and Texas Central Railway made it 
possible for them to use it acceptably as a locomotive fuel. The 
records of company show that during a period of more than one 
year it was used in large quantities and at a considerable saving 
in cost over the Territory coal then available. 

With the coming of oil and cheapening of bituminous coal the 
use of lignite was discontinued and these mines ceased opera- 

At the' time of our examination the Southwestern Fuel Co. 
was operating a mine four miles west of Calvert with a spur 
to International and Great Northern Railway. Two seams of 

The Geology of East Texas 283 

lignite are worked from one shaft here, one being at 75 feet 
and one at 175 feet in depth. The upper stratum of lignite is 
7% feet thick and the lower has a thickness of 12 feet. But 
little timber is used in the mine, a coal roof being carried. 
"Water is encountered in the mine in considerable amount, 
pumps being installed on both levels, the pumps on the lower 
seam handling about 30 gallons per minute and that on the 
upper seam handling over 200 gallons per minute. The lig- 
nite is shot from place with black powder. All lignite shipped 
is screened to about one inch in diameter. The capacity of the 
mine is 1000 tons per day. About 110 miners are employed. 
The . holdings of the company comprise 1200 acres, of which 
about 50 acres from the upper seam have been worked out. 
Analysis of Calvert coal: 

Southwestern Southwestern Calvert Bluff 

Fuel Co. Fuel Co. aid-dried 

Moisture 25.64 30.'60 16.45 

Volatile Matter 35.55 30.19 40.24 

Fixed Carbon 30.28 34.07 35.89 

Ash 8.53 5.14 8.95 

Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.96 0.86 1.17 

The lignites of the Wilcox are represented west of the Brazos 
by the beds in the vicinity of Rockdale. 


While no mining has been done on any of the lignites which 
occur in connection with the Yegua beds of the area mapped, 
there are a number of localities at which it is known to occur 
in beds of sufficient thickness for exploitation. 

In the vicinity of Huntington lignite is found in a number 
of shallow wells and in an excavation made at this town by the 
Texas & New Orleans Ry. for a water well a bed of lignite 
was encountered 25 feet below the surface which had a thick- 
ness of twelve feet. To the east of this on GiUand creek lig- 
nite outcrops which may be a continuation of the bed. 

Lignite was also found in wells drilled near Homer and 

284 University of Texas Bulletin 

beds of four to seven feet in thickness occur 15 feet beneath 
the surface at Burke. 

In Brown Coal and Lignite two analyses are given of lig- 
nites from this belt. A brown coal of the variety pitch coal, 
from the Angelina river, sent in by E. G. Blount of San 
Augustine, is of distinctly lamellar structure, black in color, 
with pitchy lustre, without any traces of plant structure re- 
maining. It is hard, firm, does not soil the hands either on 
edge or face, and contains particles of jet-like blackness. 

The following is the proximate analysis: 

Moisture 12.15 

Volatile matter 37.14 

Fixed carbon 41.19 

Ast 6.50 

Sulphur 3.02 

The Angelina county brown coal has the following compo- 
sition : ^ 

Water 12.40 

Volatile matter 36.37 

Fixed carbon 37.77 

Asb 13.46 

Sulphur Not determined 

In Houston county similar lignites are reported by Ken- 
nedy^ from Cochina bayou and westward to Big Piney creek 
and they are also known to occur at other localities between 
that creek and the Trinity river, in beds which are in places 
six feet in thickness. 

About three jniles north of Lovelady at Wootters Station on 
the International and Great Northern Railway is situated one 
of the mines of the Houston County Coal and Manufacturing 
Company. The same company is also operating the E'vans- 
ville mine 6 miles S. "W. of Jewett on the Houston and Texas 
Central Railroad. 

The main coal seam at Wootters has been prospected rather 
thoroughly and averages 5' 10" in thickness over some 5500 
acres. The coal seam dips S 10 E at 2° in the workings and 

' Geo. Sur. Tex., Third Ann. Rep. p. 34. 

The Geology of East Texas 285 

it is worked from a two compartment shaft 58 feet deep by 
the Eoom and Pillar method of coal mining. 

In compliance with the state mining law there is an auxili- 
ary shaft situated 100' from the main shaft. It is a two com- 
partment shaft also, each compartment being 5'x6'. One of 
these is used as a runway and the other is an air shaft for 
ventilating the mine. For this purpose a 10' fan with curved 
blades is used, and a very perfect system of ventilation is 
maintained. The mine is, however, not troubled with gas. 

The main roof of the coal is a 3" seam of fine, grained, unctu- 
ous, stiff clay.,, This affords an excellent protection from 
water and only a minor amount of trouble comes from this 
source. Three sumps are provided, one of which is at the 
bottom of the main shaft. These are drained with pumps two 
of which are operated with gasoline engines and the other 
by a steam engine: 

The coal is usually picked out, very little shooting being 
necessary. The mine has been particularly free from acci- 
dents only one fatality being recorded in l;hirteen years of 

Tho output of this mine averages about 300 cars per month 
during the summer and 350 ears per month during the wiliter, 
the cars having an average capacity of 60,000 lbs. each. The 
coal is used for power generating purposes and by packing 
companies, particularly in Houston. 

One mile north of Lovelady the same seam of coal as that 
worked at the mine is found at 120 feet. Overlying the main 
seam some 30 feet there is a thin seam of worthless coal. 

An analysis of the coal from the mine is given in the report 
of the U. S. Fuel Testing Laboratory at St. Louis in 1904. The 
coal has also been analyzed by Dr. Wm. B. Phillips, at the 
State Testing Laboratory. It is given below: 

Moisture 25.58 per cent. 

Proximate analysis, Dry Basis : Per cent. 

Volatile and combustible matter 52.90 

Fixed carbon 33.00 

Ash 13.11 


286 University of Texas Bulletin 

Sulphur 0.80%. 

Ultimate analysis, Dry basis. 

Carbon 57.20 

Hydrogen ^-'^^ 

Oxygen 21.67 

Nitrogen 1-S*<> 

Sulphur 80 

Ash lii.ll 


Heating power, dry B. T. U. 10,120. 

Kennedy describes the outcrops on the Trinity as follows : 
The southwestern lignite field is best developed at Hydes' 
and Westmoreland bluffs, on the Trinity river. At Hydes' 
bluff the outcrop extends from near the ferry nearly half a 
mile in a southeasterly direction. The section of bluff shows: 

1. Yellow sandy loam changing into an ashy gray on top, where 

cultivated 8 tt. 

2. Conglomerate of ferruginous and siliceous pehbles, broken 

'pieces of nodular iron ore, ferruginated and silicifled wood 
and brown, sand 2 ft. 

3. Dark blue sandy clay, having one foot of laminated brown 

sandy clay on top, in contact with the conglomerate the 
dark blue clay containing more or less of iron pyrites. . . .10 ft. 

4. Soft lignite very friable and mixed with sand, in deposition 

very irregular, and extending from two inches to 2 ft 

5. Light gray sandy clay, the clay becoming more prevalent 

towards the base of the bed 10 ft. 

6. Lignite 2 to 6 ft. 

7. Dark purple clay , -IVz ft. 

8. Gray sand, containing nodules of sandstone 4 ft. 

The lower bed of lignite at this place is very pronounced, 
and forms a ledge in some places six feet wide along the face 
of the bluff. In texture, it is strong and solid, of a dark glossy 
luster when first mined, which it retains for some time, but 
ultimately becomes a dead black, with pitchy streaks. No 
woody structure visible, Compact uneven to even fracture, 
shrinkage cracks parallel with and perpendicular to plane of 

This bed averages four feet thick, is from six to fifteen feet 

The Geology of East Texas 287 

above low water level, and is easy of access. It breaks in 
large cuboidal blocks, and disintegrates slowly when exposed 
to the air. Its composition is very variable, changing mate- 
rially at different portions of the bed. One analysis given 
shows it to have 16.70 per cent of ash, but another determina- 
tion of a specimen not many yards distant showed only 7 per 
cent of ash. It is probable that the brown coal from this 
deposit may, with the good facilities for transportation at 
hand, be utilized. 


Moisture 11.80 

Volatile matter 36.06 

Fixed oarljon 32.56 

Sulphur .88 

AsbL 16.70 

There are in Madison county extensive beds of lignite coal 
but the thickness seems to vary considerably locally and hence 
no attempt will be made here to indicate workable deposits. 
The outcrops of coal noted which would stand prospecting 
with bore holes are given below: 

In western Madison county on the James M. Harbor survey 
along Shepard's creek, on the farm of Mr. Nash, there is ex- 
posed 21/^ feet to 4 feet of black lignite of light weight and 
only fair grade as it tends to break out in a shaly manner. It 
is overlain by 3 feet of laminated chocolate colored, sandy, 
shaly clays and underlain by 2i/2 feet of lignitiferous to highly 
carbonaceous brown to black sandy clays. This outcrop 
caught fire a few years ago and burned for a long time. It 
became so troublesome that Mr. Nash was compelled to haul 
water to extinguish the fire. Lignite coal is found outcropping 
both below and above the above mentioned locality along 
Shepherd's creek. 

On Cottonwood Prairie in the northwest corner of the Amy 
Boatwright League on the place of Mr. John McMahon in 
digging a well 10 feet of lignite coal was encountered at 20 
feet. This coal is black and lustrous and seemingly of a very 
good grade. No data could be obtained as to what overlay 
the coal. 

288 University of Texas Bulletin 

Two miles north of the above place on the farm of Mr. Y7ill 
Fannin in the northwest corner of the Simon Jones league in 
digging a well Mr. Fannin encountered 20 feet of lignite coal 
at 40 foot depth. He claims that this coal was black and lus- 
trous and was used by the local blacksmiths for forging. Lig- 
nite coal outcrops along Iron Creek, south of Mr. Fannin's 
house, but nothing over 3 feet thick could be found. This de- 
posit would warrant careful prospecting. 

On the Wm.- Curry Survey on Larrison creek there is found 
outcropping along the creek 2'-3' of a fair grade of lignite. 

The Yegua beds occur only in a limited area in Grimes 
county and we know of no lignite in them. 

In Brazos county seams of lignite are found at many places 
at depths ranging from 30 to 60 feet. 

The brown coal deposits are usually found in digging wells, 
and no reliable information can be obtained regarding their 
quality or thickness. In the northwestern part of the county 
a deposit crops out in the bank of the Brazos river near Nebelt 
or Black shoals. It stretches across the river into Burleson 
<30unty, and on the Brazos county side has a thickness of 
from 12 to 14 feet, as shown ia the following section: 

1. Bluff loam or river deposits 6 ft. 

2. Brown clay 3 ft. 

3. Yellow sand, with gravel near bottom 10 ft. 

4. Brown coal, shaley near top, but becoming compact at base 

of bed 12 to 14 It. 

5. Lignite sand 

An analysis of the brown coal in this bed made by Dr. W. 
H. Melville, chemist of the Geological Survey, shows it to have 
the following composition:. 

Moisture 18.33 per ceijt 

Volatile matter • • 52.62 per cent 

Fixed carbon 24.88 per cent 

Ash 4.17 per cent 

Sulphur 87 per cent 

Of the Brazos river brown coals of Tegua age this deposit 

The Geology of East Texas 289 

can probably be utilized the most economically. The coal can 
be readily obtained by stripping, and the transportation facil- 
ities are exceptionally good. The Hearne and Brazos Valley 
Railway passes within two miles, and the level tract of country 
between the river and the railway line would greatly facilitate 
the construction of a siding or branch to the mine, which 
might be built at the minimum cost allowed for this grade of 


Lignite in the Jackson is known from White Eock creek in 
western Trinity county, near Potomac in northern Polk county, 
and on Cameron creek in southern San Augustine county. Beds 
of lignite have been found in wells at Groveton; Trinity county. 
The exposures on White Rock creek, Trinity county, are situ- 
ated 1% miles north of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Rail- 
road bridge over that creek. It is reported that the lignite 
bed is 6 or 8 feet thick at a minimtim with its base not seen. 
The bed is in the bottom of the creek. On the eastern portion 
of the Jacobs League about ^ mile north of Potomac and 
about 250 yards Avest of the Houston Bast and West Texas 
Railroad 31/2 feet of lignite is overlain and underlain by 
brown carbonaceous shale. Near the southwest corner of the 
Nathaniel Hyden League in southern San Augustine county a 
thin seam of lignite varying from 8 inches to 2 feet is over- 
lain and underlain by soft clay. In the Groveton wells nine feet 
of lignite was found at 52 feet, seven feet at 81 feet, four 
feet at 101 feet, and seventeen feet at from 337 to 354 feet. 
The Groveton Light and Ice Company's well at Groveton 
found beds of lignite as follows: Two feet of lignite at 73 
feet, twenty-two feet of shale and lignite at 98 feet, and ten 
feet of lignite at 120 feet. Other localities in Trinity county 
where lignite was reported but not examined are: (1) about 
the middle of the north line of the M. B. Mancha League, 
where there is said to be also an oil seepage. (2) One half 
mile southeast of Cochino bayou on the J. Bethea grant on 
the north line of the county, and (3) near the southwest line 
of the James Hanley League. 

A lignite bed, 5 feet in thickness, outcrops in the bed and 

290 University of Texas Bulletin 

the lower portion of the west bank of the Angelina river ort 
the Aaron Ashley Survey, 15 miles east of Zavalla, Angelina 
county, and is visible only at low water stage. At the time 
of low water, when the prospect was examined, the lower 2% 
feet was submerged. Extreme low water would cover only the 
lower foot or foot and a half. 

The lignite is of a fair quality and breaks in large hard 
blocks. Samples were secured from the entire five feet of 
thickness and the entire bed appeared from the physical ex- 
amination to be fairly uniform in quality. The top of the bed, 
which is exposed for some 200 yards along the channel of the 
river, was characteristically checked by weathering, the sur- 
face exhibiting a thin whitish effloresence irregular in extent 
and thickness, but never thicker than a thin film. The weath- 
ered coal is in fresh, bright, and hard condition. 

The coal bed is directly underlain by 3 inches of brownish 
carbonaceous clay which is itself underlain by at least 6 inches, 
with total thickness unknown, of a blue clay. The clay is 
entirely submerged at extreme low water. All known expos- 
ures of the coal are in the alluvial bottom lands of the river. 
Therefore, the exposure may only represent a local isolated 
outlier forming an island-like mass flanked on all sides by 
river alluvium. 

There is, of course, the possibility that a workable deposit 
may be found underlying the higher lands west of the river 
bottoms. Unfortunately, no wells have been put down on 
these higher lands which would serve to prove or disprove the 
presence of workable coal. 

The exposure visited is distant some & miles from Turpen- 
tine, the. terminus of a railroad (The Burrs Ferry, Browndel 
and Chester Railroad) connecting with the Texas and New 
Orleans Railroad at Rockland. It is also distant about five 
miles from the St. Louis, Southwestern Railway at Monterey. 
The coal outcrop could be reached by a spur down the river 
bottom from either of these railroads. 

Lignites are also found along Chalk creek in northern 
Walker county. 

On Kelso creek near the middle of the S. Young Survey 
about on the line between Walker and Grimes counties there 

The Geology of East Texas 291 

is a hill where the Brooks Brothers prospected for lignite. In 
this hole at present one can see only about 8' of rather soft 
medrim grained, gray sandstone, the rest of the hole%eing 
filled with sand. Immediately underneath the sandstone, ac- 
cording to Mr. Thomas J. Brooks, there occurs 10' of excellent 
lignite with a black color and lustrous appearance. A short 
ways down the creek another hole was dug and here only 4% 
feet of lignite was encountered. 

In Grimes county thin seams of brown coal occur in the 
neighborhood of Kellum Springs, and stretch across the county 
in a northeasterly direction as far as the Bedias postofSce, near 
the northeastern corner of the county. A seven foot deposit of 
brown coal also occurs in Tanyard creek, on the Boatright head- 
right, near Piedmont Springs. This coal as exposed is of the 
brown grade throughout the upper three feet and is mixed with 
a brown clay, while the lower four feet, of blacker coaL is too 
much mixed with a black sand to be of any economic value. 

In the record of a boring at Lamb Spring, fifteen miles north 
of Navasota, brown coal has been reported at various depths and 
having various thicknesses. Koughly, the section of this well 
shows : 

1. Brown coal, first seam at 12 feet 2 ft. 

2 Brown coal, second seam at 34 feet 2% ft. 

3. Brown coal, third seam at 38 feet 2 ft. 

4. Brown coal, fourth seam at 41 feet 7 ft. 

5. Brown coal, fifth seam at 52 feet 10 ft. 

Several deposits of brown coal are reported as occurring 
deeper in the boring, but all are accompanied by water. A small 
deposit of coal also occurs in the bank of the Navasota near Sul- 
phur Springs. 

The lignites of the Jackson have not been mined to any extent 
nor have we many analyses of them. It is probable that in the 
region west of the Trinity- Angelina divide in which volcanic ash 
is so abundant that some, if not all, of these lignites will show 
considerable ash. 

Chapter XII 


Two widely divergent theories have been advanced in regard 
to the origin of petroleum and natural gas. 

One of these refers these substances to inorganic sources, that 
is, makes them the result of chemical action with mineral matter 
as a base. This theory is supported by the fact that hydrocar- 
bons of this character are found in certain meteorites and in vol- 
canic emanations. Its supporters also claim the presence of 
igneous rocks in certain fields as further evidence in its favor. 
We have no real evidence however to show that any oil field of 
importance has derived its oil from such a source, consequently, 
while there is no question that oil may be formed in this man- 
ner, the majority of geologists of the present day seem to be 
substantially agreed that the greater part, at least, of oil and 
gas in place of being of inorganic origin is derived from the re- 
mains of plant and animal life and therefore of organic origin. 

Apparently the first step in such formation of petroleum is the 
separation and segregation of the fatty materials of the remains 
of plants and animals by the action of bacteria and it is from the 
fatty matters thus produced that petroleum and natural gas are 
derived by natural processes of partial decomposition, distill- 
ation, rendering or refining. 

The transformation of this fatty material into petroleum and 
gas is ascribed by many, if not most, geologists to some form of 
temperature or pressure distillation, or some poeess of fermen- 
tion, (geodynamic or geoehemic agencies) acting on these ma- 
terials after they have been entombed in the rocks. That is, that 
the animal or vegetable matter, either as debris or altered into 
fatty matters such as resins, waxes or adipocere, is embedded in 
the sediments at the time of their deposition and later converted 
into petroleum or gas through some of the various methods in- 
cluded under the general statements above. 

On the other hand there are those who believe that this trans- 

The Geology of East Texas 293 

formation takes place before deposition. This would necessitate 
the decomposition of the organic bodies "elsewhere than in the 
strata themselves and yet in such a place that the oil would be 
retained and collected until it was liberated upon the surface of 
rivers which were depositing the sediment"^. 

We have here in contradistinction to the prevalent theory that 
the transformation of the fatty materials derived from organic 
remains into petroleum takes place after the burial of these ma- 
terials in the sedimentary rocks, through the action on them of 
pressure distillation, or by some geo-chemic process, one which 
postulates the formation of petroleum from similar material, by 
natural processes, at the surface of the earth, without the inter- 
position of geo-dynamic agencies, and its contemporaneous depo- 
sition as petroleum with those sediments with which it is origi- 
nally connected. 

The actual formation of petroleum and other bitumens at the 
surface of the earth in such relation to other sediments as might 
permit their deposition in the manner claimed for them seems to 
be fairly well established by observations in various parts of the 

Among the localities described may be mentioned the small 
bays of the Red Sea, the region of the Dead Sea, the Mediterra- 
nean between Cypress and Syria, the Gulf of Suez, sea marshes 
in Sardinia and Sweden and numerous peat-ibogs. 

The actual formation of petroleum and other bitumens in 
peat-bogs, at the bottoms of bays, along the margin of the sea 
and even on the sea-floor, would appear to be as well established 
as any of the facts upon which the pressure-distillation theory is 

The association of such petroleum with sediments in course of 
formation, and the readiness with which surface petroleum is 
carried down and deposited by muddy waters are facts in favor 
of contemporaneous deposition, which is further sustained by 
many field observations which seemingly admit of no other ex- 
planation. This is especially true of the coastal fields of Texas 
and Louisiana. 

' Murray Stuart, Geological Survey Imdia, Vol. XI, p. 239. 

294 University of Texas Bulletin 


The presence of oil and gas was recognized in East Texas 
many years before the drill made it available. Seeps of oil and 
beds of asphalt were known at Sour Lake, Saratoga and else- 
where. Gas springs, sulphur waters and mud volcanoes, all of 
which are evidences of oil and gas, were known, but no one sus- 
pected the vast stores which have been brought to light. 

Small wells were found near Nacogdoches, at Sour Lake and 
Saratoga during the fifteen years preceeding, but the real birth 
of the oil industry in the Coastal Area of Texas, was the bring- 
ing in of the Lucas well at Spindletop, three miles south of Beau- 
mont in January 1901. It has been said of this well that 
probably no other event in the development of the petroleum in- 
dustry in the United States caused such a profound sensation, 
reaching all of the interests concerned with the production and 
sale of this article, as the unexpected outburst of this well and 
not until it was found that the petroleum produced by this 
gusher was 22° Beaume and contained a large proportion of sul- 
phur (thus decreasing its value for refining purposes under proc- 
esses then in use) was confidence restored to the producers in 
the Eastern petroleum fields. 

The bringing in of the well was followed by the drilling of 
many wells in the Coast country, and from these we have learned 
something of the location and nature of the deposits, although 
there is much that is not yet clear. 

As the gusher oil was originally found in connection with the 
domes at Spindletop, Sour Lake, Humble, etc., it was at first 
believed that all domes might prove to be oil domes. This was 
soon found to be a mistaken idea, but even today it is not possi- 
ble to say, in advance of drilling, whether a given dome will or 
will not prove an oil producer. We do know, however, that oil 
is not confined to the domes proper but may occur where no 
doming is apparent at the surface, provided the underground 
structure is favorable. 

In the Coastal Area of East Texas oil occurs at several hori- 
zons beginning with the Cretaceous. 

The active deposition of Cretaceous oil began with the Wood- 
bine series. 

The Geology of East Texas 295 

From Woodbine the outcrop of the formation stretches east- 
ward into Louisiana, where it is known as the Bingen sand, and 
in the Caddo region the sands are highly petroliferous and fur- 
nish the best wells of that belt. The productive oil and gas of 
the Eagle Ford is confined to the "Blossom sand", which is un- 
known as such on the Colorado. Gas is plentiful in the Blossom 
sand in the Caddo field, but such oil as is found there is heavy, 
and producing wells are rare if not unknown. The bituminous 
and even petroliferous character of the shale is apparent, how- 
ever, at many places along its outcrop in central Texas, and it 
furnishes seepages of a heavy tarry oil from small wells near 
Waters Park, north of Austin. 

The Annona chalk, which is the eastern representative of a 
portion of the upper Austin or basal Taylor, is a good oil hori- 
zon, and the Nacatoch sand, probably the equivalent of part of 
the Taylor, is an excellent gas horizon. Thus, in Louisiana, there 
are four distinct horizons of gas and oil in the Upper Cretaceous, 
the principal of which is the Woodbine, or Bingen, as it is locally 
known, and it is probable that the oil and gas in these beds are 
largely indigenous. 

The deposits of commercial value occur in coimection with 
folds and domes, and at present are best developed in the area 
between Red River and the Sabine, but may extend to the west 
of the latter. 

The other occurrences of Cretaceous oil west ofthe Sabine 
river are confined to the Taylor beds. The pools at Powell, Cor- 
sicana, San Antonio, Thrall and other localities find their supply 
in these beds. In some of these the oil is possibly indigenous, 
but at Thrall it is probably migratory. 

The deposits of Eocene age, in spite of their wide areal distri- 
bution in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas and Louisiana, have 
yielded comparatively small amounts of petroleum. 

No oil whatever is known in the Midway or Wilcox of the 
Lower Eocene and only a few small pools have been found in 
the Marine beds which overlie them. In Nacogdoches county 
small bodies of oil were found, and another smaU amount of 
similar oil was found in these beds at Crowther in McMuUen 
county, some 300 miles southwest of the first. While oil indi- 

296 University of Texas Bulletin 

cations may occur at other points, no workable deposits are 

The Tegua sub-stage of the Claiborne, however, has proved 
to be a very valuable gas horizon in the region between the 
Sabine and the Eio Grande, and it may be that it will equal 
in productiveness some of the sands of the Cretaceous, or even 
those of the Carboniferous, when it shall have been properly 

Beds of the Jackson and Oligocene, which followed these, 
are equally destitute of oil. 

The probabilities are, therefore, that while the conditions 
were favorable for the formation and deposition of vast quan- 
tities of lignites and an abundance of other organic matter 
during the Eocene, the conditions for the formation or storage 
of petroleum were comparatively unfavorable. 

The Tertiary oil of the Gulf Coast proper all occurs in sedi- 
ments of Neocene age, often in or around domes, and fre- 
quently in connection with deposits of salt, gypsum and sul- 

While the shore deposits of the Fleming beds are non-bitu- 
minous and no sign of either oil or gas has ever been found 
in them, the seaward extensions are bituminous to a consider- 
able degree. Small pieces of lignite and asphaltic material 
have been reported from a widely extended series of wells. 
Shows of oil appear in these beds at various horizons and 
good wells have been obtained in them. Wells in the Sara- 
toga field drilled to a depth of over 2,200 feet obtained their 
supplies from sandy shales belonging to this series. 

The Lafayette, which closes the Pliocene in the area, shows 
in some wells a thickness of 500 feet of sands, gumbos, and 
clays. They carry water in abundance, but no oil. 

Of the overlying Pleistocene deposits the Beaumont clay, of 
Port Hudson age, is most characteristic. These clays and 
sands are very variable in thickness. In places the Pliocene 
beds are found in low hills, surrounded but not covered by 
the clays, while in others the Beaumont clays show a thick- 
ness of 2,500 ft. and more, above these beds. 

The probabilities are, as stated, that all the oil of the Louisi- 
ana and Texas coastal belt is of Neocene age. It is separable 

The Geology of East Texas 297 

into two classes, shale oil and dome oil. The first is regarded 
as indigenous to the beds in which it is found, and the second 
as migratory oil derived from it. 

The relations of these two classes of oil are particularly 
well shown in the Humble field. 

The dome oil was first discovered, and the field brought in, 
in 1904. The wells were comparatively shallow, being usually 
less than 1,400 feet and the oil, like that of the other dome 
fields, was of 20 to 24 gravity Beaume. The plug of under- 
lying salt was found at 1,400 to 1,600 ft. over an extenSive 

As the production of this central pool declined, wells were 
sunk at various distances from it; and the B'sperson wells, a 
mile south of the dome, found a pool of light oil in shales. 
Later, similar oil was found in shales north of the oil field, 
and more recently large producers were secured in the shales 
from 1 to 2 miles east. This oil has a gravity of over 30° 

The series of beds in which the oil is found here consists of 
shale and gumbo with some sand and dips away from the 
dome on all sides. Between the producing area on the dome 
and that of the shale oil belts on its flanks, there is a strip 
half a mile or more in width in which oil is not found in any 
quantity and in this belt the beds are apparently mucTi broken. 
The conditions indicate that a mass of salt and gypsum has 
come up through the sedimentary beds which are broken and 
tilted. This condition is repeated in other domes whether oil 
is present or absent, and it is probable that the origin and 
original distribution of the oil was entirely independent of 
the domes or dome material. The oil was formed in the usual 
manner and deposited in beds of Neocene age. The movements 
which gave rise to the domes permitted and facilitated the 
collection and concentration of this oil into pools. When the 
uplift which caused one of the domes was close to one of 
these pools it captured a part or all of its oil which naturally 
gravitated to the highest point possible. Where oil pools 
were absent the domes are not oil bearing. 


298 University of Texas Bulletin 


One of the first really productive oil fields of the State was 
that at Corsieana which found its oil in the Taylor marls. 
When the writer examined the field in May, 1897, there were 
six small flowing wells which got their oil at 1040 to 1050 
feet. Later the field had a wider development and a second 
field was brought in to the eastward known as the Powell 
field. This seemed to occupy the crest of a gentle fold with 
general northeast-southwest strike. While there is a possi- 
bility of other similar folds occurring between this and the 
line of Cretaceous islands none have yet been found. 

Gas and oil are found at Mexia and Wortham in the Taylor 
marls of the Upper Cretaceous. The horizon is substantially 
the same as that of the oil and gas at Corsieana and the oil 
at Powell. 

The Mexia field is situated in the northwestern portion of 
Limestone county. Most of the wells are located within the 
radius of a mile of the town of Mexia, mostly west and north- 
west, north and northeast of that town, but others have been 
put down to the south and between Mexia and Wortham on 
the north.. The elevation of Mexia is approximately 530 feet. 
The wells have depths ranging from 670 feet to 1500 feet. 

The Wortham wells are mostly within the town of that 
name, which is situated on the Houston & Texas Central Rail- 
road in the extreme northwestern corner of Freestone county. 
Wortham has an elevation of approximately 475 feet. The 
wells have depths ranging between 1000 feet and 1200 feet. 

Well No. 1 of the Mexia Oil & Gas Company tested 14,550,- 
000 cubic ft. of gas per 24 hours, with a rock pressure of 275 
pounds per square inch. The gas is entirely dry. It had the 
comparatively high fuel value of 965 B. t. u. Well No. 3 of 
the Mexia Oil & Gas Company had a rock pressure of 220 
pounds per square inch and produced half to three-quarters of 
a million cubic feet per day after being allowed to run for 
some months. 

At Wortham the gas emits a strong odor. The first notable 
well came- in during the latter part of May, 1912. The pres- 
sure appeared to be about 200 pounds and the production 

The. Geology of East Texas 299 

about two and a half million cubic feet per day. The well 
sprayed black oil claimed to be 28 degrees Beaume gravity. 
It rapidly went to salt water, claimed to give ofE an odor of 

Throughout the area eastward of these occurrences the beds 
of the Cretaceous are buried beneath the Tertiary sediments, 
so we cannot know the exact relations. 

On the western border of the Sabine pmbavment the Creta- 
ceous was uplifted and folded prior to the deposition of the Ter- 
tiary and similar uplifting occurred on the eastern margin. We 
have, as yet, found no evidence of such folding between the Cre- 
taceous islands and the Sabine peninsula. Any folding of the in- 
terior area at a later date would have involved Tertiary beds and 
would probably be evidenced by surface conditions. Since 
the Tertiary of this region §hows few structures of this kind, 
it is probable that such movements were either rare or of lim- 
ited extent. 

The occurrence of Cretaceous oil in commercial quantities 
in this area could only be expected in connection with such 
structure, and therefore the chances for productive pools from 
beds of this age within this Sabine basin seem few. 

The only occurrences of Cretaceous beds known in this area 
are those of the Cretaceous islands in Anderson and Freestone 
counties and along the western border of the Sabine Peninsula 
in Panola and Shelby .counties, and as yet no commercial pro- 
duction of oil has been secured from them. 

The Butler dome in southeastern Freestone county covers an 
area of about four square miles and the differences in elevation 
between the lowest and highest points are more than 100 feet. 
While it has not been studied as carefully as some of the 
better known localities it has been proven to be one of the 
chain of Cretaceous islands and the materials exposed are said 
to include beds from the Woodbine to the Taylor. No drilling 
has been done to test the oil conditions. 

The Palestine dome^ is located six miles west of Palestine. 
Here we find a depression of irregular shape, with a maximum 
diameter not exceeding three quarters of a mile. The bottom 

■U. S. G. S. Bull. 661, p. 253. 

300 University of Texas Bulletin 

of the depression is occupied by a shallow lake with its surface 
fifty feet below the general level. The banks on the eastern 
and northern sides slope upward gradually, but that on the 
west is more abrupt. 

The lowest rock exposed is a sandstone, which, as proved 
by its fossils, is of Woodbine age. Between this and the under- 
lying body of salt, 140 feet below, there is 85 feet of gray to 
yellow water sand, 40 feet of dark gray sandy clay, under 
which there is in places a eaprock of hard limestone of vary- 
ing thickness. Apparently, therefore, the Woodbine rests di- 
rectly upon the salt mass. 

The Woodbine, at its exposure, shows a dip of 46 degrees 
to the northwest. It is overlain by the Eagle Ford, Austin, 
Taylor (?) and Navarro beds, all of which dip northwest at 
angles varying from 40 to 50 degrees. No beds were found 
which can he referred either to the Midway or the Lower 
Wilcox, the lowest Tertiary beds being sands, clays and lig- 
nites belonging to the Middle or Upper Wilcox. According 
to Hopkins, these Wilcox beds in the vicinity of the dome 
show southeast dips of 38 to 57 degrees, which decrease within 
a mile and a half to 20 or 30 degrees, and within three miles 
become normal. On the_ northeast and southeast the Clai- 
borne beds reach within 3 to 5 miles of the dome, but show 
little, if any, change from normal dip. 

Six miles northeast of this locality, the Keechi dome shows 
the Austin Chalk at the surface, surrounded by the Navarro 
beds, and these are in turn encircled' by the Wilcox, which 
dips away from the dome at angles varying between 20 and 30 
degrees (Hopkins). As in the case of the Palestine dome, the 
Claiborne is 3 to 4 miles northeast of the Keechi dome. 

The thickness of the beds as interpreted from logs of the 
wells would be approximately 500 feet for the Navarro and 
Taylor, 800 feet for the Austin and Eagle Ford, and 400 feet 
for the Woodbine. The salt mass reached at 2200 feet was 
drilled into for 900 feet, a 30 foot bed of water sand being 
encountered in it at a depth of 2900 feet. 

Hopkins summarizes the possibilities of oil and gas in the 
Palestine dome as follows: 

"The highly folded, faulted, and eroded condition of the 

The Geology of East Texas 301 

Palestine dome and the general absence of oil and gas as sur- 
face seepages and in shallow wells in this area detract from 
its oil prospects. The tilting and faulting of the rocks prob- 
aljly provided outlets for the escape of oil, and as no evidence 
of oil exists the conclusion is suggested that no large amount 
remains here, even if it ever accumulated. It is possible, how- 
ever, that the soft and dominantly impervious nature of the 
formations involved in this fold closed up any possible lines 
■^f escape for the oil, as its absence at the surface may be in- 
terpreted to indicate. The eroded condition of the dome, as 
shown by the presence of Cretaceous rocks at the surface, and 
the presence of the salt core within 140 feet of the surface 
over a large area are also unfavorable conditions, as they 
eliminate the possibility that oil may be found on the crest 
of the dome, which might otherwise be the most favorable for 
its occurrence. Oil in commercial quantities has not yet been 
found in a salt dome so far removed from the coast as this one. 

"The most likely area for the occurrence of oil, if it is pres- 
ent in this dome, is within a belt about half a mile wide that 
surrounds the area in which salt approaches within a few 
hundred feet of the surface. The most favorable part of this 
belt is probably near its inner margin, where the underlying 
formations may be tilted up against the salt mass and prob- 
ably end against it. 

"So far as observed, there are no subsidiary folds on the 
flank of the domes that would serve to trap upward-migrating 
oil; if such a trap exists it is at a considerable distance from 
the dome or is produced by the pinching out of a porous bed 
or by a fault." 

The Keechie dome has been prospected to some extent. 

The Producers Oil Co. Barrett & Grenwood well No. 1 is ou 
the southern slope of the dome, near the contact of the Wilcox 
and Navarro formations. It is reported to have reached the 
Austin chalk at &86 feet and the top of the Woodbine (?j 
sand at 1,686 feet; it penetrated rock salt from 2,200 to 2,900 
feet, water-bearing sand from 2,900 to 2,930 feet, and rock 
salt from 2,930 to 3,130 feet, at which depth it was abandoned. 
The Woodbine ( ?) sand yielded 1 or 2 barrels of heavy tarry 
oil at 1,686 feet. A second well was drilled on the same lease, 

302 University of Texas Bulletin 

1,000 feet east of south of the first. The Austin chalk is re- 
ported in this well at about 1,400 feet, and the Woodbine (?) 
sand, which yielded salt water that could not be bailed below 
500 feet, at 2,297 feet. The dip from the first to the second 
well, as indicated by the Woodbine sand, is about 35'. The 
possibility of finding oil in this dome is considered better than 
in the Palestine dome because it appears to be less faulted, 
the salt core does not come so close to the surface, and the 
Woodbine (?) sand is within reach of the drill and also deeply 
enough buried to have retained its oil^. 

While the Navarro and Taylor do not appear to be oil- 
bearing at either the Palestine or Keechie domes, there may 
be some place along the general" line of uplift where more 
favorable conditions exist. 

Wells drilled along the western border of the Sabine Plateau 
from Carthage to Sabinetown have found Cretaceous beds at 
various depths with both oil and gas. 

In June, 1916, the Palmetto Petroleum Company, drilling a 
well on the Trosper farm in the northeastern corner of Panola 
county, had a blow-out from a sand found at 1050 feet. The 
flow was estimated at ten million cubic feet of gas and four 
thousand barrels of water daily. The gas not only came up 
from the well, but broke out at five different points, one of 
them a thousand feet away from the well. On June 25 th it 
was estimated that at least 25,000,000 cubic feet of gas was 
escaping from the six vents. 

A number of wells have been drilled in the vicinity, and the 
chalk has been found at depths varying from 1600 to 1800 feet. 
Apparently this is near the western border of the Sabine Penin- 
sula, and it is entirely possible that oil may be found here in 
commercial quantities. 

Another locality at which Cretaceous oil has been found is at 
Flat Fork between Center and Tenaha in Shelby county This 
is south of the Panola locality and like it, is apparently near the 
western border of the Sabine Peninsula. The surface formation 
belongs to the Lignitic phase of the Wilcox and in one of the 
wells drilled here this formation has a thickness of 840 feet and 

> Hopkins, U. S. Geol. Sur. Bull. 661, pp. 267.8. 

The Geology of East Texas 303 

carries some light showings of oil and gas. The underlying Mid- 
way is only 140 feet in thickness and overlies the Cretaceous at 
980 feet. The Annona chalk was found at 1690 feet and oil was 
found at 2020 feet. Kennedy reported that properly handled 
this well might be deyeloped into a producer giving 25 to 50 bar- 
rels per day, but that it should be deepened to the "Woodbine 
sands which he estimated would be found at about 2400 feet. 

In the vicinity of Sabinetown several wells have been drilled 
into the Cretaceous. 

One mile west of town, the Sabine Ore & Mineral Company 
drilled a 1500 ft. hole in which the top of the Wilcox was struck 
at 80 feet and showed a thickness of 980 feet. It was underlain 
by 200 feet of Midway beds and the top of the Cretaceus (Arka- 
delpha shales?) was reached at 1265 feet. Some showings of oil 
and gas were found in these wells. 

A well drilled on the Jesse Low Survey four miles south of 
Sabinetown is reported to have reached the Annona chalk at 1900 
ft. This well showed gas at 1100, 1500, 1900 and 2300 feet, and 
the gas burned for over two years. The total depth of the well 
was 2332 ft. 

Ten miles south of this locality a well was drilled on Housing 
bayou. The log shows: 580 feet of Tegua materials underlain 
by over 700 feet of Cook's Mountain with the Wilcox forming 
the bottom hole from 1315 to 1749 ft. If the Wilcox maintains 
the same thickness here as in the well west of Sabinetown, 12 
miles north, the top of the Cretaceous would be found at 2330 
feet, or nearly 1000 feet deeper than in that well. 


A number of wells drilled into or through the Wilcox and Mid- 
way^ formations, in different parts of this area, have furnished 
small showings of oil and gas and an occasional seep of oil occurs 
in them at the surface, but no productive wells have, yet been 
found in either formation, and it is not thought probable that 
there will be. 

In the Claiborne, however, the conditions are more favorable. 
The Marine beds have been found to be petroliferous in several 
localities, and while the fields are small, they may be worked 
with satisfactory results if properly handled. 

304 University of Texas Bulletin 

The Erst field to be developed in the Marine was that south of 
Nacogdoches, known as Oil City^, where operations began in 

The oil is found in shallow wells, practically all of them being 
less than 400 feet in depth, and the deposits occur near the mid- 
dle of the Cook Mountain beds. The oil sands are seemingly in 
small pockets and are irregularly distributed through the bed«. 

Seepages of similar oil occur in the valley of Bast creek 
two miles north of Oil City. 

A number of wells have been drilled at Chireno, one of 
which produced a few barrels of oil from a depth of only 14 
feet. Some of the wells in this locality were drilled to a depth 
of 1600 feet but such oil as is found usually lies near the base 
of the Cook Mountain beds and like the Oil City deposits occurs 
in small pockets. A well two miles south of Chireno reported 
a small amount of oil from what are believed to be Wilcox beds. 

The oil of this region has a gravity of 23 degrees Beaume 
and although used as a fuel oil has excellent lubricating qual- 

Near Enal, a station on the Texas and New Orleans Rail- 
road 40 miles south of Oil City, a well was drilled in search 
of oil. The generalized section of it shows 255 feet of sands, 
shales, lignites and gumbo of the Jackson underlain by 500 
feet of Tegua clays and sands. Beginning at 765 feet the 
fossiliferous beds of the Cook Mountain horizon were reached 
and drilled into for over 500 feet. Small amounts of oil were 
found at 767, 1205, and 1265 feet, but no production was 

Oil seepages occur in the Marine beds both northeast and 
east of Palestine and the asphaltic sands resulting from them 
were utilized at one time as street paving material at Pales- 
tine and elsewhere. Quite a number of wells were drilled in 
this region, one of them as deep as 2500 feet. Oil was reported 
in small quantities at 864 and 1010 feet. 

Southwest of Palestine, between Tucker and Oakwoods and 
south of the salt mine small seeps of heavy asphaltic oil have 

' Second Ann. Rep. Geol. Sur. Tex., p. 271, etc. 
Univ. Tex. Min. Sur. Bui. 1, p. 1, etc. 

The Geology of East Texas 305 

been found in water wells. These wells are in the Upper Wil- 
cox and presumably the oil is indigenous^. 

In northern Madison county several wells have been drilled 
for oil and' small shows were found at 300 to 400 feet. The 
indications are that deposits may exist here similar to those 
of Nacogdoches county. 

Other occurrences of oil or gas might be enumerated from 
these beds but they are all of the same character and while 
they may be locally valuable, can only be of limited extent. 

While the Yegua formation supplies the largest and most 
productive gas fields of the Texas Tertiary, there is at present 
no production within the area under consideration and we 
have but little information regarding prospective production 
in it. 

West of the Colorado heavy gas is found in wells drilled into 
the Yegua and the gas fields at Aguilares east of Laredo find 
their supply in these beds. Evidence of its former presence 
in Grimes county is found at several localities in fused and 
metamorphosed shales and clays which evidently owe their 
present condition to the heat of burning gases escaping through 
fault fissures. 

The possibilities of the Yegua in this region as a gas field 
are well worth investigation. 

No commercial deposits of oil or gas have been found in the 
Jackson although like the Marine it apparently carries both 
in small quantities at a number, of places. 

A well drilled in Grahams creek in eastern Angelina county 
found a little oil in the Jackson beds at 17 to 42 feet. A small 
amount of oil is still flowing from this well. Similar shows of 
oil are found in other wells drilled south of these. 

Along Pine creek southeast of Bedias in Grimes county 
small boulders of grahamite are found in the Jackson beds 
bordering the creek. At Weisers bluff on the Trinity a mass 
was found in the Jackson eight to ten feet in length and four 
feet in thickness. Similar material was found on surface at 

' A possibility exists that the oil is of Cretaceous origin and has 
reached its present location through breaks in the shales overlying 
the salt beds. 

306 University of Tsxas Bulletin 

well drilled in Little survey near Black creek in northeast 
Walker county. Three wells were drilled here. The first 
was between 1500 and 1600 feet deep. The second well blew 
out at 900 feet, the gas burning for several days. A small 
amount of oil came up with the gas. In the third well gas 
and hot water were found at 1800 feet. The gas from this 
well burns continuously when lighted. This oil and gas comes 
from the Claiborne and Lignitic. 

No oil or gas deposits are known in the beds of the OHgo- 
ene or in that part of the Neocene which occur in this area. 

Chapter XIII 


The salt deposits of the coastal region of Texas are of great 
extent and are scattered over a wide area. 


By far the most important deposits are found in connection 
with the domes which occur as Cretaceous islands in the Eocene 
of the interior and those of later age which are found nearer 
the Gulf scattered through the Neocene belt. In addition to 
the inexhaustible supply from these sources a large number 
of Salines or salt springs occur in connection with palustrinal 
deposits of the Eocene, many of which could be utilized for 
the production of salt as some have been during times when 
other supply was less readily available. 

The best known of the salt domes within our area is that 
southwest of Palestine, a brief description of which was given 
in connection with the Cretaceous formations of the region. 

The core of this dome is a body of rock salt of unknown 
extent, the presence of which was ascertained by wells drilled 
into it. The salt was found at a depth of 140 feet. The wells 
so far drilled indicate that the top of this salt mass or boss 
is elliptical in form, the major axis having a length of more 
than four thousand feet. The surface of the salt is somewhat 
irregular. In the vicinity of the lake the top of the salt 
seems to be nearly level but to the north and west the wells 
show a pronounced dip in it. Hopkins says of it^ : 

"Most of the wells reach rock salt at a depth of about 140 
feet, or about 160 or 170 feet above sea level the small differ- 
ences in the depth being due to the surface topography; the 
upper surface of the salt is thus fairly level in the area near 
the lake. In the second farthest well to the northeast from 
the lake, however, the top of the salt was found at 77 feet 
above sea level, thus showing that the salt mass has a pro- 

' Bulletin U. S. G. S. 661, p. 261. 

308 University of Texas Bulletin 

nounced dip to the north from the nearest well to the south- 
west. A well drilled near the western margin of the lake on 
the west side of the railroad penetrated a jumbled mass of 
rock and shale to a depth of 500 feet without reaching salt; 
another well near the northwest margin of the lake pene- 
trated 360 feet of rock without reaching salt. It thus seems 
that the salt mass dips strongly to the west and reaches a con- 
siderable depth near the western margin of the lake. No wells 
have been drilled on the east or southeast side of the lake, but 
it is inferred from the topography that this area is underlain 
by salt at no great depth. 

"The shallow salt wells penetrate about 85 feet of gray to 
yellow water sand and 40 feet of dark-^ray to black sandy 
clay, below which is in places a cap rock of hard limestone of 
varying thickness. The casing is set on this rock and the well 
deepened through sand until rock salt is reached at about 140 
feet. The main factor controlling the location of salt wells 
is the presence of a good cap rock which serves as a seat for, 
the casing and also holds up the overlying strata until a large 
cavity is dissolved out underneath it. "When the supporting 
salt is sufficiently removed this rock, being undermined, caves 
in, with the overlying formations, forming a large sink hole." 

The production of salt at this locality began many years 
ago, but was discontinued from tim£ to time. Recently it has 
been renewed and a modern plant has been erected which 
produces a large quantity of salt of various grades. 

The Keeehi dome is also underlain by salt but the body of 
salt is so far down that it can not be utilized under present 
conditions. The log of a deep-well drilled in this dome shows 
rock salt from 2200 feet to 3030 feet with 30 feet of water 
bearing sand at 2900 feet. 

The Butler dome has not yefbeen drilled. Consequently, we 
do not know what its possibilities as a salt producer may be. 

The salt of these Cretaceous domes probably had its origin in 
the evaporation of seawater in shallow bays during the period 
of Comanchean sedimentation or the Mid-Cretaceous interval. 

The Geology of East Texas 309 


Throughout the East Texas region there is a series of low de- 
pressions generally known as "Salines" or "Salt Licks". These 
• are irregular in size and depth — some cover only a few acres, 
while others cover extensive areas. Some are destitute of vege- 
tation, some have occasional tufts of short grass; others have a 
sparse covering of salt loving plants, while the more extensive 
ones generally develop into palmetto covered flats. Throughout 
the wet season these salines are mostly small ponds or marshy 
places, and during the summer or dry seasons they form bare 
spots. Some of these salines have small springs of salt water 
which flow during the driest season, and some of the larger ones 
have their surface dotted with small irregularly spaced mounds. 

Areally these salines extend over a wide stretch of country 
and the more important ones may be said to be associated 
with the main lines of drainage of the region. They lie in the 
low flat lands bordering the Sabine, Angelina and Neehes rivers. 
A few, such as the Saline on Texas & New Orleans Section 17 in 
Sabine county, another about three miles south of Jasper, in 
Jasper county; a Saline near Moscow in Polk county, and Mc- 
Kim's Prairie near Groveton, in Trinity county, appear to form 
the main exceptions to the rule of the salines being connected 
with the river drainage channels. 

The salines and salt springs occurring near Sabinetown on 
both sides of the Sabine and near the mouth of Bayou Negreei 
belong to the Wilcox, "Big Salt" northeast of Lufkin, Bluff 
Saline and two smaller salines on the Angelina and Attoyac lie 
within the limits of the Yegua beds and Bear Creek, McKim's 
Prairie with possibly Stiver, Graham's and a large saline near 
the mouth of Ayish Bayou are all within the limits assigned to 
beds of the Jackson age. Graham's and Stiver's are somewhat 
doubtful as they lie in depressions apparently eroded in the 
Catahoula sandstones but near the contact with the Jackson. A 
large salt water spring occurs near Rockland and the waters from 
this come up through broken beds of the hard gray sandstone 
found north of Neehes river in this region. The saline south of 
Jasper and probably the one near Moscow belong to the Fleming 

310 University of Tfixas Bulletin 

It may be remarked here that not a single saline has been seen 
anywhere in the territory occupied by the Cook's Mountain or 
Mount Sebnan divisions of the Marine beds and although pal- 
metto flats are common in the other divisions and more particu^ 
larly so within the limits of the Yegua and Jackson formations 
these are also entirely absent in the Cook's Mountain and Mount 
Selman divisions. Thus the Salines are practically restricted 
to those formations which are largely composed of palustrinal 


The source of these salts may be placed in the Lignitic, Yegua 
and Jackson formations, which formations are highly saliferous, 
while the marine formations of Cook's Mountain and Mount Sel- 
man divisions are much less so. The Lignitic beds, as well as 
those of the Yegua and Jackson, carry large quantities of selenite 
and sodium chloride. The greater number of these salines, es- 
pecially those occupying the higher grounds, are associated with 
springs of salt water. These springs often carry other salts, such 
as magnesia, lime and sulphur, and by underground erosion, if 
we may call it so, due to the solution and carrying away of these 
salts, the bottom of the saline has been gradually lowered until 
it has reached its present condition. The springs, while fairly 
numerous, are never very large, but in most instances only rise 
a few inches above the general level and the water bubbles over 
a few yards to be lost in the associated sands. Many of them 
bring up small pebbles, thus forming a small cone arpund their 
vent. The springs are, of ten intermittent, but some flow even in 
the driest period of the year. Efflorescence of saline matter is 
not so conspicuous in these salines as in the lower ones and it is 
possible that the greater portion of the salt is carried off by the 
running water. In the salines with springs portions of the floor 
is often covered with a sparse growth of coarse grass or 

Owing to the structure of some of the salt domes, such as 
King's and Rathbone's domes in northwestern Louisiana, it has 
been suggested that the larger of the salines may indicate the 
presence of similar salt domes. "Wells have been drilled to con- 

The Geology of East Texas 311 

siderable depths at these localities and no evidence of the pres- 
ence of salt beds has been observed. 


Many of thse salines have small mounds, or as they are some- 
times designated, "mud volcanoes", connected with them. Occa- 
sionally these mounds lie around the margins of the salines, but 
throughout the greater , number examined the mounds occupy 
prominent positions upon the surface of the saline. Mounds 
occur in connection with the Ayish bayou saline and here they 
dot the surface as well as occurring around the outer margin. 
On "Big Salt" Saline in Angelina county, Bluff Prairie, Mc- 
Kim's, Graham's and several other salines these mounds appear 
almost altogether to rest upon the surface of the saline. 

Although these mounds are frequently referred to as mud vol- 
canoes, there are no mud volcanoes, such as have been described 
as existing in some of the oil fields of the world, known in this 
portion of l"exas, nor in the adjoining portion of Louisiana. The 
only condition approaching these mud volcanoes are the so-called 
"suck holes". 

These suck holes or quaking bogs were observed n the Neches 
bottom four and five miles from Blix. Here the quaking por- 
tions of the bog are from four inches to one foot above the sur- 
rounding surface. The surface layer is hardened and cracked 
and underneath this is a light-blue liquid mud at least 12 feet 
deep. Beneath this was a brownish colored fine sand and upon 
stirring with a pole the mud gave off a few bubbles of non-in- 
flammable gas. The blue mud has an odor of sulphur. 


There are a number of small salines and salt springs belong- 
ing to this formation along the eastern side of the Sabine river, 
from which it is reported salt was obtained by the earliest set- 
tlers and during the Civil War. So far as our investigation go, 
there appears to be only one on the western bank of the river 
This is a saline on Section 17, Texas & New Orleans Railroad 

This saline occupies an area of approximately 10 to 15 acres 

312 University of Texas Bulletin 

surrounded by a slightly elevated sandy ridge. The surface ma- 
terial is a grayish while sand sparsely covered with a growth of 
short bunch grass. The bare spots show an efQorescence of salt 
during dry weather. Dotted over the surface there are a num- 
ber of sinall mounds rising to heights of 6 to 7 feet and having 
diameters ranging from a few feet up to 30 feet. A number of 
small springs of salt water rise from the bottom of the saline 
and a shallow pit dug for water for drilling purposes gives a 
fair supply of a strong brine. A weU drilled to the depth of 
1500 feet gives no evidence of the existence of a body of salt in 
this saline. 


"Big Salt Saline — This saline lies in Angelina rivep 
bottom about one mile east of the Texas & New Orleans 
Railroad bridge in northern Angelina and southern Nacogdoches 
counties. It occupies a depression along the stream which is 
from 12 to 15 feet below the level of the surrounding country. 
The depresssion is covered with cream-colored sand ijnpregnated 
with salt, which locally forms an incrustation on the surface. 
Its surface in places slopes down to the level of the water in the 
river, but in other places the river has cut a bank from one to 
three feet thick below its general level. 

Vegetation is sparse over the saline and there are patches of 
considerable extent where the glistening white sands are entirely 
bare. Some patches are covered by short grass to the exclusion 
of other vegetation. The palmetto is one of the abundant plants 
on the saline. Shallow depressions are occupied with ponds of 
turbid water. There are several island-like masses, some of which 
cover acres in extent and rise two or three feet above the general 

There would appear to be a perennial source of supply of the 
salt, otherwise the water flowing through the middle and covering 
it with its flood waters would have been likely to have long since 
dissolved out the salt. The depression occupied by the saline 
may have been caused by a leaching of the salt slightly faster 
than its precipitation. 

During the Civil War the saline was worked for salt to supply 

The Geology of East Texas 313 

the local demand. The salt water was secured from shallow wells 
and the salt evaported in iron kettles, wood being used for fuel. 

Bluff Prairie Saline :— This saline lies in the vicinity 
of Vair Station on the Texas Southeastern Railroad in eastern 
Trinity county and in the flood plain of the Neches river. The 
saline begins in the vicinity of Vair, 600 feet southwest of 
Vajr Station. On the south it extends about one half mile 
south of the tracks of the Texas Southeastern Railroad. On 
the east it merges into the second bottom of the Neches and 
on the north into a larger saline known as Bluff Prairie. The 
southern saline is known as Cedar Brake Prairie. Bluff Prairie 
extends almost to the river at a place 11/2 miles north of the 
railroad. The surface of Cedar Brake and Bluff Prairies is 
incrusted with salt during dry weather. The surface soil is a 
fine white sand. The saline supports a scanty growth of 
scrub trees and palmetto. In places the surface is entirely 
bare. The level surface of the prairie is interrupted here and 
there by low circular or elliptical mounds varying from 2 to 4 
feet in height and from 10 to 40 feet in diameter. Small 
pines or oaks grow on these mounds when the surrounding 
lower surface supports no arborescent vegetation, but here 
and there a hawthorn tree grows on the lower surface. 


Ayish Bayou Saline : — This saline lies about twelve miles 
north of Jasper between Ayish bayou and the Angelina 
river and covers only a few acres. The surface is bare and 
sandy and is surrounded by an elevated rim from five to seven 
feet high. The material forming this elevated margin appears 
to be the same as that forming the mounds found within the 
saline. The water found in small pools is saline. Small limy 
concretions occur in considerable quantities both on the 
mounds and surrounding high ground. 

GrwKum's Saline: — This saline is located near the Catahoilla- 
Jackson contact, but from its low level it has been 
considered as of Jackson age. The saline proper lies on the 
north side of the Neches river and along the banks of Gra- 


314 University of Texas Bulletin 

ham's creek and covers an area of probably twenty acres. The 
surrounding region is comparatively high and made up of 
brown sands and sandstones. The surface of the saline is a 
gray sand, bare in many portions, some of which are over 200 
yards in length and between 50 and 75 yards in width. Other 
portions are covered with palmetto. Some portions of this 
saline are covered with low mounds from 15 to 20 feet in 
diameter. These mounds are mostly covered with pine trees. 
Several salt springs appear in the bottom of the saline and a 
very strong bold spring of salt water occurs a short distance 
from its eastern end. 

Several wells have been drilled in and around this saline 
to depths ranging from 700 to 2900 feet, all of which showed 
heavy flows of hot salt water with a little oil. Well No. 3 
produced about 3 barrels of oil with several hundred barrels 
of water daily. "Well No. 9 produced about 10 barrels of oil 
and over 1,000 barrels of water daily for several weeks. These 
flows were always accompanied with heavy volumes of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen. No salt beds were found in any of the 

Well No. 3 and No. 4 provided a small fauna of Marine 
(Cook's Mountain) fossils. The first from about 800 feet and 
the second from a depth as near as could be ascertained of 
1200 feet. 

It is said salt was made here during the Civil War, but no 
record is obtainable as to its quality or quantity. 

Stiver's Saline: — This is a small saline near the mouth 
of Shawnee creek on the Neehes river. It is much smaller 
than Graham's Saline, but very much resembles it. No wells 
have been drilled in this saline, but it is reported salt was 
made from the brine from small wells sunk to a shallow depth 
during the Civil War. Shawnee creek runs across the western 
end of this saline and hard sandstones occur in the bottom of 
this stream. The ridge along the northern and eastern borders 
is made up of chocolate colored and grayish clays and sandy 
clays with thin seams of soft white sandstone near the top. 

McKim's Pra/irie: — McKim's Prairie is located in the 
southwestern portion of the Jose L. Lopez league in Trinity 

The Geology of East Texas 315 

county and close to the southern boundary line of the Jackson 
area. This prairie covers an area of 100 to 150 acres, the 
greater portion of which is covered with small mounds and 
spots of salt incrustation. Some shallow wells have been dug 
at various localities but none of them exceed 35 feet in depth. 


It is reported that by the earlier settlers and during the 
Civil War salt was made by boiling the salt water found at 
several places along the Sabine river. Hilgard mentions salt 
having been made in a flat two miles south of Myrick's Ferry, 
Sabine Parish. Salt was also made from the water of a saline 
near Stone Coal bluff and near the mouth of Bayou Negreet. 
Salt is also reported as having been obtained from "Big Salt" 
Saline near Lufkin. 


Throughout the Tertiary deposits in Eastern Texas, great 
quantities of gypsum, mostly in the form of selenite, makes its 
appearance. In some of the divisions it is more abundant than 
in others ; thus, it is plentiful in some portions of the Midway, 
present, but somewhat sparingly, in the Lignitic; entirely 
wanting in the Queen City beds; very sparingly distributed 
throughout the lower division (Mount Selman) of the Marine; 
abundant in the upper or Cook's Mountain division, particu- 
larly near the top of these beds. Selenite crystals are even 
more abundant throughout the Yegua, which succeeds the 
Cook's Mountain, but almost entirely absent in the Fayette 
sands, although in the overlying Jackson clays these crystals 
again appear in great numbers. 

Near the top of the Cook's Mountain beds there are large 
deposits of selenite and in some localities the crystals acquire 
a large size and most of them are almost, if not altogether, 
perfect in form. Many of them are twinned. Amongst the 
localities in which these crystals occur in great profusion may 
be mentioned a black sand near Forest in Cherokee county; 
near the contact between the Cook's Mountain beds and Tegua 
clays a few miles north of Bryan in Brazos county, where they 

aeeur in a yellowish sandy clay and associated with Claiborne 
Eossils ; near the southern base of Cook 's Mountain in Houston 
30unty, a few miles east of Crockett. Here the crystals occur 
plentifully scattered through a black sand and lie in bunches a 
cew inches apart. The crystals found in this region are as a rule 
perfectly formed and but rarely twinned. 

In addition to the greensand marls and pyrites, the water 
found throughout the region occupied by these Marine deposits 
s for the most part alkaline in nature. The destruction of 
ihe pyrites sets free more or less suphurous acid, which soon 
changes to sulphuric acid, and this, by attacking the lime car- 
Donate of the shells, forms gypsum which goes into solution, is 
5arried downward into dark carbonaceous sands and is there 
Jreeipitated in the form of selenite crystals. 

The Tegua is very prolific in selenite crystals ; almost every- 
where, where the clays of this division are found, these crys- 
;als are plentifully distributed through them, and it is difficult 
io find any source within this division from which these crys- 
;als may have been derived. These beds immediately overlie 
;he Marine beds with their abundant supplies of carbonate 
:>£ lime, sulphuric acid and alkaline waters, and it may be 
possible that the gypsums now found in the Yegua deposits 
went into solution in the Marine deposits and were carried up 
mto the Yegua and meeting with its carbonaceous matter 
were deposited in the form we now find them. It may also 
)e possible that particles of lime carbonate were distributed 
throughout these clays as original matter and that the de- 
struction of some of the iron pyrites occurring in them set free 
jnough sulphuric acid to form the crystals, but in the light of 
what is known of the structure of other clays of Miocene and 
Pliocene age carrying gypsums in another form, it is more 
ikely that the selenite crystals came into both this and the 
jverlying Jackson division in solutions carried by water. Dead 
pyrites in the form of what the lignite miners call sulphur 
balls occur in both divisions. 

Many of the Jackson clays are highly calcareous, the white 
colored ones especially so. The darker clays resemble the 

The Geology of East Texas 317 

Yegua clays, in that they are liberally sprinkled with selenite 
crystals. Sulphur water also occurs in this Jackson division. 
These Tertiary gypsums are interesting only from the pecu- 
liarity of their position and the conditions under which they 
occur. They are of no practical commercial value. 

M/ITU no A\Al 



Although much has been written regarding the extent and 
quantity of the iron ores of East Texas development has been 
very slow. 

General descriptions of the ores were given by several of the 
early writers and attention called to them by Shumard and 
Buckley. In 1890 the Geological Survey of Texas published 
as part of its Second Annual a report on the region subtitled 
"The Iron Ore Regions of East Texas" in which after a gen- 
eral historical introduction, as full and detailed a description 
of the ore beds, and deposits was given as the facilities afforded 
us could compass. It included a map giving, approximately, 
the location and area of deposits of workable ore, descriptions 
of the beds at many localities and analysis of what we believed 
to be average ores of the various localities. 

Kennedy summarized and discussed the results of this work 
and added later observations on it in a paper published in the 
Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers 
in 1894 entitled "Iron Ores of East Texas." 

Phillips republshed the map accompanying the report in 
the Second Annual Report of the Geological Survey with some 
additions and wrote several descriptive articles for journals 
devoted to the iron trade. 

Burehard in Bulletin 620 of the United States Geological 
Survey has a report on "Iron Ore, in Cass, Marion, Morris 
and Cherokee counties, Texas, ' ' in which he descril)es the work 
done in the investigation of the deposits preparatory to open- 
ing them tip in a larger commercial way. Prom the various 
openings made for testing the beds he was able to give a much 
clearer idea of their character and extent than was possible 
previously when only surface exposures were available. 

Probably the greatc'f Oitrt of the ores are limonites or other 
hydrated oxides of iron which are popularly known as brown 

The Geology of East Texas 319 

ore. There are, however, considerable bodies of carbonate ores 
(spathaic iron or sphasrosiderite) and the limonite and siderite 
are found grading one into the other. Both classes of ore are 
usually, if not universally, associated with glaueonitic sand. 
Burehard states that ore bodies of any extent are only found 
in such connection and are wanting in bodies of siliceous sand. 
When the glaueonitic beds are unaltered they frequently 
carry considerable amounts of spathic iron as nodules and 
boulders. In the beds of altered greensand these boulders of 
spathic iron are largely altered to limonite which also occurs 
through the sands in other than nodular forms. It is probable 
that a large part of these iron ores have their origin in the 
siderite and that the iron of the glaueonite and pyrite have 
contributed only a minor percentage to the mass of workable 

The origin of these ores has been discussed at some length 
by Penrose in the First Annual Report of the Geological Sur- 
vey of Texas and in his report on "The Iron Deposits of Ar- 
kansas" in volume one Qt the Report for 1892 of the Geological 
Survey of Arkansas. 

The workable ores are of two classes: The nodular, geode 
or concretionary and the laminated. 

Kennedy describes the nodular ores as follows^ : The nodular 
ore is usually found in the form of irregularly-rounded, oval 
and flattened or ellipsoidal nodules or boulders from a few 
inches to one or two feet in length. Outside, these present a 
smooth appearance and dull or earthy brown color. When 
broken, the shell presents a striated appearance of yellow and 
brown colors, formed by the alternate concentric rings of iron- 
ore and oeher. These striations usually do not exceed one- 
fourth to one-half inch in thickness, but in some of the larger 
nodules the iron has a thickness of over an inch, and in many 
the yellow ochreous concentric rings are absent, in which case 
the whole shell, with the exception of the brown outer covering, 
is dark blue. The interior coating of the shell is often 
a glossy black. Many of these concretions are hollow, a great 
number, however, have the interior filled with a core of brown 

' Iron Ores of East Texas, p. 14. 

320 Vniversiiy of Texas Bulletin 

or yellow ocher, similar to that forming the yellow, rings; 
others have dendritic formations of ore spreading through the 
center and having the ends fastened to the inner side of the 
shell. Some few, particularly of the flattened oval form, have 
the entire center filled with convolutions of the inner ring. 
Most of the rounded forms are either empty or filled with the 
same character of yellow sand and amongst which they lie. 

Buehard says^ : Both the brown ore and the iron carbonate 
occur in nodular and geodal forms segregated in glauconitie 
sand and clay in thin lenses and irregular ledges, and also as 
more or less honey-combed thin sheets and layers, fine frag- 
ments, crusts, small isolated nodules, and irregular masses of 
almost endless variety. Unconsolidated material, residual 
from the breaking down of such masses, is found in many 
places at the surface. 

Bowie Hill in Cass county^ ( 1) shows the manner of its occur- 
rence excellently: 

Generalized section or ore-bearing beds on Bowie Hill. 

Residual fragments of limonite in top soil, in places practically 

solid ore gravel . . ■ ■ 1-3 ft. 

Ledge of nodular limonite, more or less solid % to 1% ft. 

Scales and thin bands of limonite with a few thicker layers or 
ledges interlaminated with glauconitie sandy layers. The 
limonite in this condition, ranges from pieces of the thick- 
ness of small chips up to masses 1% feet thick and is 
scattered through yellowish to red sand and clay. It 
occurs in overlapping, roughly lenticular streaks, or broken 
and discontinuous seams. The limonite constitutes, in 
the sections observed, 20 to 30 per cent, by volume, of the 
dirt. Thickness of limonite sand and clay 12-15 ft. . 

Iron carbonate in nodular masses from the diameter of an acorn 
up to 6 inches, or in thin irregular lenses, embedded or 
interstratifled in glauconitie sand and greenish-black clay 
called "buekfat" clay. The iron carbonate is in general 
partly altered to limonite or to reddish hydrated oxides of 
iron, which form a scale or crust of varying thickness 
around the carbonate nucleus and along cracks which inter-, 
sect the masses. Thickness of exposed portions of unox- 
idized beds 1-5 ft. 

•- Bui. U. S. G. S. 620. p. 74. 3. Idem, p. 76. 

The Geology of East Texas 321 

The laminated ores* vary in appearance as well as texture and 
tKiekness. In places, these ores occur in thin laminse of dark 
brown or chestnut color, interstratifled with similar laminse of 
bright orange or yellow. These laminae rarely exceed a quarter 
of an inch in thickness. At other places, the ores become more 
massive, occur in beds from two -inches to as many feet thick, 
and vary in color from a dark chestnut-brown to a lighter shade 
of the same color, with small irregularly disseminated patches 
of yellow showing throughout the mass. This ore also occurs in 
thin wavy lamince of from chestnut-brown to black color, usually 
having the spaces between the laminfe filled with fine clayey ma- 
terial. This grade is usually of a very crumbly nature, hence 
the name given to it of "bufE crumbly." The laminated ores have 
also been made to include the botryoidal and mammillated forms 
frequently found intermixed with other ores. 

In addition to these two classes of ore there is a considerable 
quantity of iron ore of a conglomeratic character spread over 
the country which is not rich enough in iron to be considered an 
iron ore. 

While ores of both these classes are at times found together 
the workable bodies of nodular ore occur principally in con- 
nection with and interbedded in the Mount Selman deposits lying, 
between the Sulphur and Sabine rivers. Similar ores occur south 
of the Sabine in the same association as well as in the Cook's 
Mountain beds overlying them, but they are not present in such 
quantity and so far as now known are not so promising com- 

Laminated ores are also found in the Mount Selman in con- 
nection with the nndnlar ores but the bulk of this ore occurs as 
a blanket formation overlying the beds of the Cook's Mountain. 
The ore forms a practically continuous bed extending over con- 
siderable areas. It varies in thickness from a few inches to 6 
or 7 feet and is usually overlain by sands. By its resistance to 
erosion it has been the preserver of parts of the ancient plateau 
country in .Anderson, Cherokee, Kusk and Harrison counties. 

* Iron Ores of East Texas, pp. 14-15. 

322 University of Texas Bulletin 


Beginning four miles northwest of Timpson there is a broad 
ridge or plateau extending into southwestern Panola county. 
This ridge is capped by a deposit of iron ore that is apparently 
of workable thickness and this is underlain by beds of altered 
greensand with some nodular ore. 

The section is as follows: 

1. Sand 6 ft. 

2. Ferruginous sandstone 6 in. 

3. Laminated Iron ore ti in. 

4. BufC crumbly iron ore 3 ft. 

5. Altered greensand with nodular and geode ores 4 ft. 

6. Sandy clays. 

Analyses of these ores give the following: 

Sesquioxfde Silica Alumina Phos- Water Metallic 
of iron phoric iron 


Laminated Ore 64.23 21.20 11.77 0.80 1.80 44.96 

Buff crumbly ore 50.72 40.45 7.68 0.25 0.80 35.50 

While there has been no development at this locality, the 
presence of a body of ore of this area and of the quality indi- 
cated by the analyses should insure its proper investigation 
whenevej" a market for these ores is available. 


During the years 1863 and 1864 the McLain bloomary operat- 
ing in the vicinity of Linn Flat, ten or twelve miles north of 
Nacogdoches, produced 150,000 pounds of hammered bars from 
the ores of that vicinity. 

Seventeen miles northwest of Nacogdoches there is an elevated 
area kno^vn as the Brewer's Mountain region. This plateau 
stretches about four miles east and west vdth a width of two and 
one-half miles. This is apparently the southeastward extension 
of the plateau in Eusk county as Elkins or Iron Mountain of 
similar form and materials lies only seven miles to the north- 
westward. Brewer's Mountain is capped by a bed of buff 
crumbly ore which, where it is exposed, shows a thickness of 
from two to two and one-half feetl 

The Geology of East Texas 323 


In the southwestern portion of Eusk county there 
is a plateau area of which apparently fifteen square miles 
are capped by iron ores. This is known by the local names of 
New Salem, Iron Mountain at Gould and Iron Mountain at 
Glenfawn. The ore is laminated and buff crumbly and varies 
in thickness, sometimes, as at Glenfawn, being as much as forty 
inches thick. Taken as a whole the thickness will probably aver- 
age three feet. 

The New Salem area four miles north of the station of Eick- 
law, on the Texas and New Orleans Eailroad, has been pros- 
pected to some extent. It is estimated that some 6,000 acres are 
covered with the laminated ore, varying from one foot to five 
feet in thickness, and selected samples of the ore run as high as 
55 per cent of metallic iron. An average of 52 samples of lam- 
inated ore from this area gave: 

Iron 45.25 

Phosphorus .248 

Sulphur 057 

Silica • ■ • • 12.19 

Alumina 8.67 

Lime trace 

Magnesia • ■ iJ4 

Combined water, etc. 13.44 

Those ores, while high in alumina, will make an excellent 
foundry iron or one well suited to the manufacture of open 
hearth steel. 


The most extensive remnants of the limonite capped 
plateau are found in Cherokee county, forming the divide 
between the Angelina and Neches rivers. Beginning 
near Mount Melman this plateau extends thirty miles south- 
eastward to Alto with a width of more than ten miles, but it 
has been dissected by streams tributary to the rivers named 
into a number of flat-topped hills or mesas. These hills and 
mesas vary from a few acres to thirty square miles in area 
and aggregate approximately three hundred square miles. 

324 University of Texas Bulletin 

The ore districts of this county were mapped by Penrose and 
his general description of them was given in the First Annual 
Report of the Geological Survey of Texas from which the fol- 
lowing extracts are taken: 

The ore belt in this county begins at its southern end, about 
three miles north of the town of Alto, and runs in a north- 
westerly and north northwesterly direction through the county 
into the southern part of Smith county. Going north from 
Alto the ore is found capping small flat-topped hills and nar- 
row ridges, of limited extent, until we come within five miles • 
of New Birmingham. These ore-bearing areas show the ususal 
brown laminated ore, but near Alto, their extreme southern 
limit in the county, it has not reached its full development 
and continuity as seen to the north of it. The ore is thin, and 
the hills are scattered, small, and form isolated points, which 
though low in absolute elevation lock high and imposing in 
comparison v/ith the surrounding flat or gently undulating 
country. Such eminences are Collins Mountain, Taylor Moun- 
tain, Carter Mountain, and many others, varying from one 
hundred to one hundred and fifty feet above the surrounding 
drainage level, and some five to six hundred feet above the 
Gulf of Mexico. In this region, eight miles northwest of Alto, 
was situated the old Philleo furnace. It was worked during 
the Civil War, but abandoned immediately after that time, and 
it was from the immediately surrounding region that it drew 
its supply of ore. Five miles southeast of New Birmingham 
we ascend the southern extremity of the main iron range of 
central Cherokee County, which extends thence in an un- 
broken table land, running off to the northwest for over twelve 
miles, and varying from one-half to three miles wide. It bears 
to the north and east of the towns of Rusk and New Birming- 
ham, and finally ends abruptly at Doyle's Gap, seven miles 
above Rusk. Throughout this whole area the character of the 
ore and its associated beds is identically the same. The ore 
varies from one to three feet thick, is of the usual chestnut 
color, and is overlain by from three to ten feet of gray sand. 
The town of New Birmingham is built on the western slope of 
this range at a distance of one and a half miles southeast of 

The Geology of East Texas 325 

Rusk, the county seat of Cherokee County, and is the location 
of the furnaces of the Cherokee Land and Iron Company. 

.Doyle's Gap is a narrow break, half a mile wide, in the main 
range, and to the west of it we again ascend the northeast cor- 
ner of a similar iron-bearing plateau. This is the eastern part 
of what is known as the Gent Mountain country, which extends 
.hence in a southwesterly direction to within eight miles of the 
Neches river. Going west from Rusk we strike the southern 
part of tht Gent Mountain range in six miles, and in about 
four miles farther reach the village of Gent, situated on the 
southwestern corijer of the plateau. This range is almost cut 
in two by Horse Pen and One Arm creeks, running respectively 
north land south from the summit, but the two parts are con- 
nected by a narrow neck of ore-bearing land. This area is 
some six miles long by four to five miles wide and is almost 
continuously underlain by iron ore. From the Summit of Gent 
Mountain can be seen the sloping country to the west, running 
to the swampy bottom of the Neches, some eight miles distant. 
Beyond the river the country can be seen gradually rising into 
the forest-cLad hills of Anderson County. To the south the low, 
flat, or undulating country forming the Neches and Gum 
Creek bottoms spreads out in rich pine and gum tree thickets. 
To the east and north are seen the ore-bearing highlands of 
central Cherokee County, covered with a thick growth of 
hickory, blackjack, and post oak, and extending on the east 
beyond Rusk, and on the north to within five miles of Jackson- 
ville. Gent Mountain is some three hundred feet above the 
Neches River. For the first two hundred feet the slope is very 
rapid and then drops more gradually to the river. 

The following section on the slope of the plateau and just 
east of Gent shows the occurrence of the ore: 

1. Gray or buff colored sand 1 to 10 ft. 

2. Siliceous sandstone capping 1 to 2 in. 

3. Brown laminated iron ore 2 ft. 

4. Indurated greensand' with thin seams of clay and casts of 

fossils 45 ft. 

5. Coarse white clayey sand 20 ft. 

6. Dark blackish-brown sand, more clayey towards the base, 

nodules of rusty clay ironstone showing shrinkage cracks. 31 ft. 

7. Brownish-gray sand to base - of section 11 ft. 

326 University of Texas Bulletin 

To the west and northwest the Gent Mountain range is 
bounded by Grum Creek, and beyond it the iron-bearing plateau 
again becomes broken up into numerous flat topped hills and 
narrow ridges, extending from Gum Creek to the International 
and Great Northern Kailroad, and beyond. The railroad takes 
advantage of this break in the main range to pass through 
the plateau country, and it is the only east and west pass in 
a distance of over twenty-five miles. Among the most prom- 
inent of these isolated hills are Iron-Furnace Mountain (the 
location of the old Young furnace), Gray's Mountain and 
Grimes Mountain. Beyond we come to another iron-bearing 
plateau. It begins in its southern extremity at Ragsdale Moun- 
tain, three miles west of Jacksonville, and extends on the north 
to the old town of Larissa, where again it is cut off by Killough 
Creek. This range is over six miles long, and three miles wide 
in its widest part. On the east side it slopes off in a series of 
fertile red and mulatto soils into Gum Creek bottom, which 
separates it from the Mount Selman range. On the west slope 
of the plateau is a broad fertile agricultural country, with 
soils similar to those on the eastern slope, and reaching to 
the Neehes river, a distance of five to eight miles. The ore is 
of the same general character as that already described. It 
varies from one to three feet thick, is capped with the usual 
one to three inches of hard brown sandstone, and one to six 
feet of gray sand. 

The prosperous town of Jacksonville is beautifully situated 
three miles east of Kagsdale Mountain, and on the southwest- 
ern slope of the Mount Selman range. The International & 
Great Northern Railroad enters the town from the southern 
end of th.e range, and the Kansas and Gulf Short Line comes 
down the southwestern slope, intersecting the International 
& Great Northern at Jacksonville. Going northeast from the 
tovm, the summit of the plateau is reached in about one and a 
half miles. The ore shows itself in the gullies and breaks of 
the mountain slope, and is of the same character and thick- 
ness as that described on Gent Mountain and elsewhere. The 
range is of the customary plateau character, is twelve miles 
long, and varies in width from a hundred yards to a half mile. 
The sand cap overlying the iron here is much thinner than on 

The Geology of East Texas 327 

many of the other iron-hearing ranges, and often the bare ore 
bed is exposed directly on the surface of the ground, thus add- 
ing greatly to the value of the deposit, as the mining of it re- 
quires but little or no stripping. The absence of this covering 
is doubtless due to the narrowness of the range, which has 
made it easy work for the surface waters to wash away the 
loose sand, and also to a westerly dip of the iron ore, which 
has still farther facilitated the erosion of the surface deposits, 
by allowing the superficial waters to run off at a rapid rate, 
and all in one direction. This westerly dip is peculiar to this 
plateau, and extends along it throughout its whole length. It 
is doubtless due to a local sinking to the west of the underlying 
strata, prol)ably before the formation of the iron ore, and also 
before the plateau was cut out of the Tertiary strata. At 
Mount Selman, eight miles n'orth of Jacksonville, the ore on 
the eastern brink of the range is seventy feet higher than it 
is on the western side, less than one mile distant. Another 
result of this dip is to make the eastern slope of the range very 
steep, and in some places perpendicular, while the western 
slope drops off much more gradually toward Gum Creek bottom. 
Mount Selman is simply a part of this range, and the village 
of that name is situated directly on the summit of the plateau. 
To the north of it the ore extends for four miles, and reaches 
its terminus at a point one mile south of the Smith County 
line, and a little greater distance southeast of the village of 
Bullard. Here the range ends in a small flat-topped hill a hun- 
dred yards long by ten to thirty yards wide. The Kansas and 
Gulf Short line follows the crest of this ridge from below 
Bullard to within three miles of Jacksonville. 

A short distance south of this is McKee's Gap, which is a 
narrow break in the top of the plateau and is the only inter- 
ruption in the continuity of the iron ore throughout its whole 
twelve miles of extent. The ore of this area is of very regular 
thickness, varying from two to three feet. The following sec- 
tion on the eastern slope of the range south of Mount Selman 
shows the occurrence of the ore : 

1. Gray sand to 2 ft. 

2. Brown laminated ore 2 to 3 ft. 

328 University of Texas Bulletin 

3. Indurated greensand 30 ft. 

4. Detritus. 

This region forms the divide between the waters of the 
Nechcs River on the west and Mud Creek, the headwaters of 
the Angelina River on the east. It reaches its highest eleva- 
tion at Mount Selman, where it is seven hundred feet ahove 
the fiea. From here north to the limit of the iron ore there is 
hut little change in height, but from there to Tyler it drops off 
to 531 feet. To the south of Mount Selman the plateau main- 
tains the same elevation to within a mile northeast of 
Jacksonville, when it rapidly slopes off to 525 feet at that 
town. From Ihe .summit of the ridge the land slopes off on the 
east very abruptly for a hundred feet, and sometimes shows 
two or three successive benches ; thence the grade is more grad- 
ual down to the settlement of Little Arkansas and to Mud 
Creek bottom. To the west the grade slopes off in gently un- 
dulating hills, with a rich growth of pine, oak, and hickory, and 
watered by numerous creeks and springs. 

The hills on which the ore occurs are steep and show a 
broad flat plateau-like surface, heavily capped with post oak, 
blackjack and hickory, generally of a small size, but very 
dense. The ore crops out on the brink of these hills, forming 
a protruding rim or crown, and often covering the slopes 
with great masses which have broken off from the main bed. 
These plateaus are sometimes as much as twenty square miles 
and more in area. They are often deeply cut by the ravines 
of creeks which have originated in springs in the superficial 
sand and which flow away from the plateau in all directions, 
cutting deep gullies and exposing the ore bed along their 
courses. On top of these plateau areas the covering of sand 
often conceals the ore for a distance of several miles at a time 
but it is always found chopping out at the top of the slopes, 
and in wells, proving its continuity over very large areas. 

The ore occurs in a horizontal bed from one to three feet 
thick, and averages between eighteen inches and two feet in 
thickness. It is flat on top, but is bulging and mammillary 
below and lies at or near the summits of the highest hills in 
the region. In fact, it is to this protecting cap of hard material 

The Geology of East Texas 329 

that the hills owe their existen'ce,' as it has saved the 'undW- 
lying soft strata from the effects of erxreferas^Wliiohss^eMe^?^ 
would quickly have lowered them to the l^Wie©* -tfig' '§ffi?P^ffii#- 
ing rolling country.- The iron ore bed is directly undSrlaiiPby 
a deposit varying from thirty to forty feet thick of a' soft 
yellow indurated glauconite (greensand). This bed is some- 
times hardened into a soft rock, easily cut with a -saTv or axe, 
and locally used as a building stone. The interior of the bed, 
however, where it has not been exposed to the atmosphere, 
retains the dark green color of unaltered greensand. The main 
ore bed is usually directly overlain by a thin seam of dark 
brown and very hard siliceous sandstone, varying from one 
to six inches thick, and averaging about one and a half inches. 
It adheres closely to the iron ore bed, though the line of sep- 
aration is sharp and well defined. Above this is a gray sandy 
deposit, becoming more clayey and ferruginoiis towards its 
base, and varying from one to sixty feet thick: This latter 
thickness is, however, very extreme, and the average is about 
six to eight feet. As a rule the thickness of the- ore depends 
in a general way, on the thickness of the overlying sand bed, 
it being thicker where the sand is less than fifteen or twenty 
feet than where it is greater. 
Burchard reports on the development as follows^ : 
Among the best exposures are those where the ore has been 
mined, as, for instance, at the several State mines, 3% miles 
northwest, II/2 miles north, and 2I/2 miles northeast of. Rusk •, 
at the Star and Crescent mines, 1% miles east of Rupk; a;ad 
at. the mines 2% miles southeast of Rusk, worked in, connec- 
tion with the Tassie Belle furnace. 

The latest and most extensive of the State mines are on tt^e 
eastwest spur of the plateau, beginning about 2^2 miles north- 
west of Rusk. These workings, which have been . inactive since 
1909, consist of open cuts and extend westward for more than 
1 mile, interrupted by places where the cover of , sand is tog 
thick for stripping and by a ravine where the ore bed has been 
removed by, erosion. An unusually good opportunity w'as af- 
forded to the writer, in November, 1914, to examine the ore 

■' Bulletin, United States Geol. Sur. No. 620, p.'92'et sei 


330 University of Texas Bulletin 

bed at one place where it had been stripped over an area of 
about 1^ acres. The regular furrowed surface of the ore bed 
is particularly well displayed in. this, stripped area, and "Vvhen 
viewed from the top of a high bank of sand the surface re- 
sembles an abandoned plowed field in which the furrows are 
still faintly visible. The ore bed ranges in thickness from 15 
to 36 inches and probably averages at least 2 feet. Adjoining 
the tract where the stripped ore bed is still in place piles of 
lump ore about 4 feet high have been stacked up over an area 
of about an acre. 

Another locality where mining was done by the State is 2 
to 2% miles northeast of Rusk, around the west rim of a 
northward-extending lobe of the plateau. The open cut ex- 
tends around the edge of the hill for a mile or more, and the 
stripping was carried to a maximum of 10 feet, but averages 
much less. The ore bed ranges in thickness from 12 to 30 
inches. In places it contains a streak of sand, as is shown in 
the following section: 

Section 2 miles northeast of Rusk. 

Sand, fine grained, gray, with soil and grass at top 7 ft. 

Sandstone, hard, with streaks of limonlte 1 ft. 5 in. 

Llmonlte, compact 1 ft. in. 

Sand, yellow, soft 5 in. 

Limonite, compact 1 ft. 3 in. 

Clay, white; base not exposed. 

In this section the "sand cap" probably is merged into the 
ledge of limonitic sandstone above the ore. At other places the 
typical layer of sandstone, about 2 inches thick, is at the top of 
the ore. Near the north end of the workings the sand above 
the ore contains 3 to 4 feet of fairly hard concretionary sand- 
stone, which rendered the work of stripping more difficult. 
Ore was carried from this place to the State blast furnace by 
a steam tramroad. The last operations are reported to have 
been carried on in 1906. 

A good exposure of the ore bed was noted on the west mar- 
gin 1% miles east of Rusk, at the workings of the Star and 
Crescent furnace, where the last operations are said to have 
been carried on in 1907. The ore measured 32 to 38 inches in 

The Geology of East Texas 331 

thickness at this place. More ore is still available here, as 
the cover has not been stripped off to as great a thickness as 
at the State mines. Ore was trammed down to the blast fur- 
nace, a distance of about 1 1-3 miles. 

The old mines of the Tassie Belle furnace are 1 to 2 miles 
farther south along the west margin of the plateau, within a 
short haul of the furnace. These workings have lain idle for 
about 20 years. In one cut half a mile northeast of the fur- 
nace the ore bed is 27 to 29 inches thick and is covered by 3 
to 4 feet of sand at the margin of the stripping. A pile of 
lump ore 1% to 3 feet high, 50 feet wide, and about 300 feet 
long has been left here. 

Analyses of the various ores were published in connection 
with the descriptions in both the First and Second Annual 
Reports and others are given by Kennedy in his "Iron Ores 
of East Texas." These show the excellent quality of these 
ores which are very similar to those of Rusk county. 

An average of many analyses gives : 

Iron 45.87 

Silica 10.59 

Aluminia 9.64 

Phosphoric Acid 0.189 

Sulphur 0.063 

Lime 0.13 

Magnesia • 0.103 

Water and Loss 11.87 


The iron ore of Anderson County is identical in every re- 
spect to that of Cherokee, not only in its general character, 
but in its mode of occurence and its origin. In fact, it is 
simply the westerly continuation of the same belt as has been 
described in that county. Going north from Palestine, the 
county seat of Anderson County, the main iron-bearing range, 
is met at about three miles from the town, and extends in a 
great plateau, often broken up into separate flat-topped hills, 
from here northerly towards Beaver, Brushy Creek, Kickapoo, 
and the Henderson County line. To the east this plateau 

332 University of Texas Bulletin 

breaks into small hills extending to the Ne'ches River, and to 
the west it gradually disappears in the same way in the water 
shed of the Trinity River. This iron region forms the divide 
between the Neehes and Trinity, just as in Cherokee the Sel- 
man Range forms the divide between the waters of the An- 
gelina and the Neehes. 

The ore found here is continuous over large areas, and main- 
tains a very steady thickness of one to three feet. To the south 
of Palestine the same ore is found, but here the bed is gener- 
ally thinner and less continuous and the ore bearing hills are 
more scattered, though the ore is of very good quality. 

Just northwest of Palestine the first of the great range of 
iron bearing hills begins. Its longer axis extends nearly north- 
west, and it has a length of five miles by a width of about 
two miles, an area of nearly ten square miles. Its boundary 
begins in the northern part of the J. Snively survey, runs 
north through the western part of the S. G. Wells, crossing 
into the Wm. Kimbro near the northwest corner of the Wells 
tract. Following a general northwest course through the 
Kimbro tract it crosses the southwest portion of the S. Hopkins 
and G. W. Ford surveys into the M. Salisar tract. Its extreme 
northern limit is near the centre of the tract, where it turns 
south to near the southern boundary of the survey, and then 
sharply east to the corner of the Geo. Hanks, at which point 
it again crosses the Kimbro tract. From here it follows an ir- 
regular line, crossing the J. P. Burnet, G. W. Gatewood, and 
Jno. Shirely tracts, back into the J. Snively and to the place 
of beginning. The ore is of the laminated variety with some 
concretionary ore in places. 

Just east of this is a much smaller area of similar ore is 
found, beginning in the northeast corner of the W. Kimbro, 
crossing the Peter Hinds and David Faris surveys into the 
southwest corner of the H. Hunks tract. This deposit has a 
length of about two miles and is not more than one-half mile 
in width. The ore is similar to that just described (laminated) 
and has an average thickness of more than two feet. 

The third area of high grade ore lies to the north of the 
two just described and is more extensive than either. On its 

The Geology of East Texas 333 

c of the headwaters of the Mount Praii'ie Creek have 
cut deeply into it, giving it a very irregular outline. Its south- 
east corner is about the southwest corner of the Jno. McCrabb 
survey, and the line bounding it passes northward through the 
western part of that tract into the J. B. McNealy, of which 
the deposit covers probably about one-third (the western) part. 
The line is very irregular here, and crosses into the Elizabeth 
Grace League, of which it covers an area of about one square 
mile in the southwestern corner. The line then passes north 
and northwest through the J. Hendry, F. D. Hanks, and P. 0. 
Lumpkins tracts to its most northern point, on the Jno. Chase 
survey. From here it passes south through the Lumpkin tract 
and the eastern edge of the Geo. Andring league to its south- 
east corner, where it turns east through the Levi Hopkins, 
Danl. Parker, Jno. "Wright, and S. A. Mays tracts to the places 
of beginning. Its area is nearly fifteen square miles. The ore 
is similar to that of the other localities mentioned. 

Lying to the northeast of this are found two areas forming 
divides on the waters of Walnut Creek. One of these is on the 
James Hall survey, the other on the Adolph D. Latlin. The 
two together may aggregate one square mile. 

Six miles east we find another series of hills in the neighbor- 
hood of Kickapoo. The largest of these has probably an area of 
three to three and one-half square miles, lying principally in the 
Jose Peneda grant, but covering also the southern portion of the 
Jose Chireno. 

South of Kickapoo, on the W. F. Pool survey, is a large HU 
capped with laminated ore. Northeast of that town are two 
others on the Goss survey and one on the Timmons, and three 
miles east another hill is found, also on the Goss survey. 

Just north of Nechesville are two small hills containing ex- 
cellent ore. "With the exception of a few areas too small to be of 
economic value these are all the localities at which high grade 
ores exist north of the railway. South of the railway two areas 
of similar ore are mapped. These are, however, not very exten- 
sive. One of them is on the "W. S. McDonald tracts the other on 
the H. Anglin. 

There is, however, good ore on the high divide between Still's 
and lonie creeks. It has a length of thirteen miles and an aver- 

334 University of Texas Bulletin 

age width of a mile and a half, giving an area of say nineteen 
square miles. The ore on this is of a good quality, hut it is not 
as thick nor as continuous as the beds north of the railroad. The 
boundary of this bed, beginning in the western part of W. Frost 
league, passes in a direction northeast by east through the north- 
ern portions of the P. Martin, R. Erwin, and Geo. Clewis sur- 
veys, crosses the Fien Roberts, G. Killion, W. C. Carter, W. 
Foreman and S. Tarborough tracts to the T. Pate survey, where 
it has its eastern point. From here it returns to the place of be- 
ginning by a line passing west though the Yarborough league, 
the Webb and Bennett surveys, and thence southwest through. the 
W. E. Huddlestone, Neville, Killion, Webb, Thos. Hill, J. E, 
Palmer, Jno. Swearingen, J. W. Humy, T. H. Hamilton, J. H.' 
Gillespie, and Wm. Frost surveys. 

In addition to the areas described there are several others 
which, on account of the thinness and siliceous character of the 
ore, are not of as great economic importance. One of the largest 
of these areas is of rectangular shape and lies between the greater 
high grade ore at the head of Mount Prairie Creeks and those of 
Walnut Creek, and forming the divide between these creeks. It 
embraces parts of four surveys, the Elizabeth Grace, James Hall, 
J. B. McNealy, and John Little. Two other similar areas occur 
between the first two high grade areas described and the third, 
lying east and west of Beaver Postoffice respectively. 

On the Stephen Cirist survey, south, of Palestine, there is an- 
other area of this siliceous ore, covering more than a square mile ; 
ai n iust i^fiiith of lonie Creek are two other hills capped with 
similar ore. The most westerly of these covers parts of the Wm. 
R. Wilson, A. Killough, J. Gibson, C. Grigsby, and Jose M. Mora 
surveys, and the other, beginning in the southeastern portion of 
the Mora survey, covers parts of the Kennedy, Jno. Blair, C. 
Adams, R. Walker, B. H. Adams, and W. W. Pharr tracts. It is 
hardly probable that these ores, if they can be called such, will be 
utilized at present. 

The better ores are similar in composition to those of Rusk and 
Cherokee counties but apparently average a little higher in iron, 
as most of the analyses show over 47 per cent. 

The Geology of East Texas 335 


The ore districts of Henderson county were described by Ken- 
nedy in the Second Annual 'Report. They all belong to the class 
of laminated ores and the best are found in the eastern portion 
of the county. By far the most extensive ore region of this- 
county lies in its southeast corner in the district between Mul- 
berry creek on the north, and Caddo Bayou on the south. To- 
wards the east this field is limited by the broad bottom lands 
of the Neches Eiver, and on the west by a series of deposits of 
yellow sand. The boundary of this field, beginning at the south- 
east corner of the James McDonald headright, passes south 
through the Maria Trinidad Equis headright to the north side 
of the Juan Jose Martinez survey, then turns east to near the 
west side of the Thomas ChafBn headright. From this point the 
line curves around to the northeast corner of the E. Cazanova 
headright and thence with a gentle curve southwesterly to the 
southeast corner jDf the ^\. H. Caldwell headright. From there 
the ridge turns southeastward and crosses the Anderson County 
line on the Alfred Benge headright. The western boundary of 
the field passes northwesterly through the A. Benge and'D. M. 
Dickerson headrights into the east side of the Isaac Burton head- 
right. Turning northeast it reaches the southwest corner of the 
Juan Jose Martinez headright, and thence southwest to the 
southwest corner of the W. L. Scott headright. From here the 
ore boundary passes north along the W. L. Scott and Simon 
Boon headrights to Boon Mountain, on the northwest corner of 
the A. K. Jones headright; thence northeast to the southwest 
corner of along the south side of the James McDonald headright 
to the southeast corner. The total area of this field is nearly 
fourteen square miles. 

The region covered by this field presents a series of rounded, 
oval shaped, and long, narrow, steep-sided hills or ridges, having 
a general uniform elevation of from one hundred and forty to 
one hundred and sixty feet (bar.) above the bottoms of the creeks 
in the neighborhood. 

The deposits within the region and constituting the ridges are 
comparatively uniform in their positions, the ore deposit being 
found at a level of one hundred and forty feet, and where the 

336 University of Texas Bulletin 

elevation of the ridge does not exceed this height the ore covers 
the surface in the form of a flat cap, broken into large boulders, 
frequently measuring from six to ten feet in length and four to ■ 
six feet in width, and having a thickness equal to the whole depth 
of the ore deposit. Such points of the ridges as reach the higher 
elevations of one hundred and fifty and one hundred and sixty 
feet are covered with a light gray and yellow colored sand. 

The iron ores found throughout the different ore fields of the 
county are all of the laminated variety of Dr. Penrose's classi- 
fication, and belong to that division of the laminated ores known 
as buff crumbly ore. These ores have all a uniform appearance 
and thickness, and are overlain throughout the whole of the re- 
gion by a soft brown ferruginous sandstone. This sandstone 
thickens towards the northeast, and is found in greater quanti- 
ties in the ore fields around Battle Creek than in the region 
around Fincastle and Boon Mountain, in the southern field. 

While the quantity of ore found in the region forming this 
field may not show a thickness of more 'than three feet, and a 
great extent of the area may not exceed two and one-half feet, 
the sides of the hills all show a large quantity of debris from 
which vast quantities of workable ore may be readily and cheaply 
obtained. The enormous erosion which this region has under- 
gone has been the means of removing the soft underlying yellow 
colored sands and allowing the ore blocks and fragments to fall 
down along the sides of the hills and ridges, until now these 
accumulated blocks form deposits of ore many feet in thickness, 
and which will require years of steady mining to remove before 
the ore beds now in place will require to be touched. It may be 
estimated that within this ore field each square mile of ore de- 
posits carries in the neighborhood of seven million tons of ore. 

The analyses show that these ores are fully equal to any in 
the region in iron content. 


No detailed examination of the iron ores of this county has 
been made. The ore at localities visited northeast and northwest 
of Crockett were rather siliceous and lower in iron than ores of 
the district east and north. They can hardly be classed as com- 
mercial ores at present. 

The Geology of East Texas 337 

The deposits of iron ore briefly described above, all of which 
lie within the area mapped, and aggregate probably more than 
three hundred square miles of actual ore beds, are only a part and 
probably the smaller part of the iron ore deposits of Eastern 
Texas. Their distance from a proper supply of fuel and lime- 
stone and the lack of transportation facilities have retarded their 
development, but it is only a question of time when they will be 
opened up and form the basis of a very great industry. 

Chapter XV 

Among the papers prepared for publication ijn the Fifth An- 
nual Report of the Geological Survey of Texas was one by Ken- 
nedy on the Clays of Texas, in which he brought together all 
the information then available regarding these materials. This 
report was never printed. 

Nearly ten years later Prof. Ries of Cornell University took 
up the investigation of the clays for the University of Texas 
Mineral Survey and in Bulletin 102 of the University the results 
of his examinations are presented. In the preface to this report 
he says: 

"In the limited time available it was out of the question to 
work out in detail the geological relations of the different clay 
deposits, but still in most instances the geological age of the de- 
posit was known and the main point was to determine the char- 
acter and possible practical value of the clays in these different 

"The object of this is twofold, viz., to supply the land owner 
with some knowledge of the clay resources of his region, and to 
acquaint the prospective manufacturer with the character of the 
clays occurring in the State. To the former class a brief state- 
ment of the possible uses of the clay is most important; to the 
latter class a statement of the physical characters and chemical 
composition is the most useful. It should be understood that the 
report deals mainly with the use of clay for burned clay prod- 
ucts. Those seeking clay for the manufacture of Portland ce- 
ment will find the various analyses helpful. 

"The series of tests undertaken for this report are probably 
the most detailed ever undertaken by a State geological survey, 
and it is felt that the results obtained have warranted the time 
and effort spent. 

"Briefly summarized, it can be said that the work has de- 
veloped the presence of an extensive series of refractory and 
semi-refractory clays in certain of the Tertiary formations of the 
State. These are the Lignitie and Marine formations. They ex- 

The Geology of East Texas 339 

tend across the State in a northeasterly direction from Bexar 
county to Bowie county, and are crossed by a number of im- 
portant lines of railroad." 

This bulletin records a number of clays from the area under 
discussion and gives in the most satisfactory way their character 
and qualities. In the following statements it has been freely 
used together with the reports of the Texas Geological Survey 
and our later investigations. 

The clays found in this area may be classified as follows: 

Fire clay, Pottery clay, Brick clay, Slip clay. 

1. Fire clay. The term fire clay belongs to those clays which 
are capable of resisting fire to a marked degree, or, in other words, 
to those which are refractory and fuse only when exposed to a 
high temperature. 

Its use should be restricted to those clays whose fusion point 
is at least above that of cone 27 (3038°F. or 1670°C.) Good re- 
fractoriness is, therefore, the most important quality of a fire 
clay, whatever variation it shows in its other properties, such as 
plasticity, tensile strength, air shrinkage, etc. 

The main use of fire clay is for the manufacture of fire brick. 
These are made of many diflierent shapes to suit the conditions 
under which they are to be used. 

2. Pottery clay. The clays- employed under this head are 
those employed for the manufacture of common red earthenware, 
stoneware, white earthenware and porcelain. 

Earthenware Clays. These are used in the manufacture of 
the lowest grades of pottery, such as common flower pots, etc. 
The main requirement of them is sufficient plasticity to turn on 
a potter's wheel, freedom from an excess of grit, and adapta- 
bility to burn to a hard, dense body at a low temperature. 

Stoneware Clays. These differ from earthenware clays in their 
denser burning character and greater refractoriness. 

Stoneware is usually made from a refractory or semi-refrac- 
tory clay, and the best results are obtained by employing a mix- 
ture of materials. Where the two clays are mixed together, the 
one is selected on account of its dense burning qualities, the other 
because of its low shrinkage and possibly also its refractoriness. 
A stoneware clay might be as refractory as one used for fire 
brick, but differ from it in its denser burning qualities. 

340 University of Texas Bulletin 

3. Brick clay includes clays which can be used for common, 
pressed or paving brick. Many common brick clays can be used 
for drain-tile or red earthenware manufacture, and most of the 
sejni-refractory buff-brick clays found in Texas could be applied 
to the manufacture of common stoneware, No. 2 fire brick, terra 
cotta or floor tile. 

4. Slip clays are those containing so high a percentage of flux- 
ing impurities as to melt to a glass at the temperature at which 
stoneware is burned and are therefore used as natural glazes. 

The Tertiary beds of East Texas are largely composed of clays 
and sands but many of the clays carry too high a percentage of 
sand, lime or gypsum to be of much importance in the manufac- 
ture of clay products. Deposits of excellent clays do occur and 
are being utilized at many localities. 


While these clays carry a considerable admixture of lime and 
gypsum there are localities at which they are sufficiently free of 
these substances to furnish a satisfactory clay for the better 
grade of brick p.iaking Although these clays hnve not yet been 
studied the practical tests that have been made are sufficient to 
warrant further development of them. 

These clays are found very well developed in the country 
around Mexia, southward as far as Groesbeek and northward to- 
ward Wortham and whatever uses they may be available for may 
with equal facility be applied at either or all of these three 
places. At Mexia the shales are bluish with yellow and brown 
streaks, but when ground together present a yellowish brown 
appearance. These clays are quite plastic when wet. As the 
clays of this formation carry more or less lime and selenite they 
may be considered a non-refractory or, at best, only semi-re- 

No tests of these clays looking to their chemical or physical 
character have been made, so that very little is known regard- 
ing their uses, outside the fact that they make a fairly hard 
pressed brick burning to a bright red. ♦ 

The Geology of East Texas 341 


The Wilcox carries excellent deposits of clays fitted for 
nearly all uses except perhaps the finer grades of earthen- 
ware. Interbedded with the 'lignites there are beds of shale 
which are often semi-refractory and clays which, while non-re- 
fractory, possess excellent plasticity. In other portions of the 
beds a red-burning, tough shaly clay is found but the most 
valuable clays and those which seem to have the widest distri- 
bution are the grayish, highly plastic, refractory or semi-re- 
fractory clays which occur throughout its entire extent and are 
opened up at several localities between the Sabine and San 

These deposits include fire clays, pottery clays and brick 
clays and are well suited for the manufacture of a great variety 
of clay products. 


The better grade of fire clays are the grayish clays 
which seem to belong in the upper half of the Lignitic 
section. These were first developtd in the vicinity of Athens 
in Henderson county. The numerous openings show this bed 
of clay to be of a grayish white color and to have a thickness 
of from two to twelve feet. It rests upon a bed of white even- 
grained sand five feet or more in thickness. These sands and 
clays are found in association at numerous places. While the 
clay bed at Athens extends over an area of two square miles 
or more it is probably lenticular and one of several similar 
deposits as clay of the same character but of somewhat darker 
color is found at MalakofE, ten miles southwest of Athens, 
where it is mined and used. 

These clays are very refractory, the fusibility of them being 
those of Seger cones 27 to 30. They are used for the manu- 
facture of fire brick and pressed brick. 

While the beds of the Wilcox continue southwestward 
through Freestone county and it is entirely probable that clays 
of this character occur in them we have no record of their 
having been observed there. They are found again in Lime- 

342 University vf Texas Bulletin 

stone and Robertson counties and as far south as San Antonio. 
Along the line of the Houston and Texas Central Railway 
these clays are found about a mile east of Denny station in 
the banks of Grace Spring creek. They lie in a somewhat 
irregular form in association with a white sand, sometimes 
apparently underlying the sand, at other places interstratified 
with the sand, or lying in the form of a large lens within the 
sand. This clay and sand can be followed for more than a 
mile along the creek. At no place can this clay be said to 
have a uniform thickness. It varies from two to ten and some- 
times fifteen feet and at one or two localities the clay has a 
thickness of twenty feet. The clay is white with a very faint 
pinkish shade. The sands are white, very fine-grained, often 
indurated and carry numerous small scales of mica. In places 
it is stained with iron. 

South of this at a point five and one-half miles east of Bre- 
mond there is an occurrence of similar clay. 

"While the material is not classed as a high-grade china clay, 
still it is of a very refractory character. The physical proper- 
ties of the clay were as follows: Color when moist, whitish 
gray; soluble salts, 0.09 per cent. The material slakes fast 
and mixed up with 19.8 per cent of water to a mass of low. 
plasticity and very gritty feel. The air shrinkage was 4 per 
cent and the average tensile strength 48.5 pounds, per square 
inch with a maximum of 57.3 pounds. In burning it behaves 
as follows: 

Wet-molded Bricklets 

Fire shrinkage 

05 03 1 3 5 9 14 33 

per cent 

0.1 0.7 0.3 0.3 


"White White White White White Whitish 

per cent 

13.86 13.46 13.13 12.85 12.93 12.06 11.18 

The material even at cone 14 (2570 F.) was not steel hard 
and in spite of its low shrinkage its absorption was not high. 

This clay was so sandy that the material did not lend itself 
readily to dry pressing. It does not burn to the pure white 

The Geology of East Texas 343 

necessary for porcelain manufacture. The chemical composi- 
tion indicates the siliceous character of the clay and cause of 
its low shrinkage. 

Per cent 

Silica 83 

Alumina 7.4a 

Ferric Oxide 0.36 

Lime ; . trace 

Magnesia 3.01 

Soda 1.26 

Potash 0.30 

Titanic acid 0.70 

"Walter 3.70 

Total fluxes 4.93 

This is one of the most refractory of the Texas clays tested 
and is well worthy of careful investigation by fire brick man- 

Very little use has ever been made of this clay. A number 
of years ago Mr. Denny used it for the manufacture of common 
jugs and other pottery ware which he burned in a small down 
draft circular kiln close to the railroad. The ware burned 
hard and of a grayish color and readily took both the Albany 
black slip and salt glaze. Although this kiln is still standing, 
no ware has been made for several years. 

In the vicinity of Headville in Kobertson county there are 
several exposures of brownish colored and white clays. The 
whites are somewhat sandy and in places iron stained by the 
presence of ferruginous nodules. In places these white clays 
are overlain by a white sand. The deposits are irregular 
in thickness, varying from five to fifteen feet. On the J. W. 
Harper tract the thickness exposed is about five feet, but Mr. 
Harper says when burning brick in this locality he found the 
clay to extend downward below fifteen feet. On the Harper 
farm the white clay is overlain by a reddish sand. 

The areal extent of the clay in the Headville region was not 
ascertained, but from its appearance in a number of small 

344 University of Texas Bulletin 

creeks it apparently covers several hundred acres, or at least 
enough to justify its exploitation. 

This material v^hen moist is brownish gray in color and 
slakes slowly when thrown into water. It has 0.15' per cent 
soluble salts and some fine grit. When mixed with 19.8 per 
cent of water it gave a mass which was highly plastic to the 
feel, but which had a low air shrinkage and tensile strength. 
The former was 4 per cent and the latter averaged 64 pounds 
with a maximum of 70 pounds per square inch. In burning 
the clay behaved as follows: 

Wet-molded Bricklets 

Cone: 05 03 1 3 5 9 14 30 

Fire shrinkage 

per cent 17 4 6 1.4 2 3 

Color Whitish Whitish Whitish Whitish Light-Bufe 

Whitish Whitish BuS 

Absorption 17.20 17.18 15.97 15.82 13.83 11.92 10.71 

The chemical composition of this clay is: 

Per cent 

Silica 70.82 

Alumina • ■ 18.90 

Ferric oxide ' 0.40 

Lime trace 

Magnesia trace 

Soda : 0.50 

Potash .trace 

I'ltanic acid - 2.10 

Water • . , .' 6.80 

Total Fluxes 0.90 

Eegarding this clay Hies" s'ays: "This is rather an inter- 
esting clay and while it is a fair grade of fi're clay, it is not 
highly refractory, due to its high silica percentage, and no 
doubt also due in part to the high percentage of titanic acid." 

The white clay belonging to this region and ttnderlying the 
brownish gray clays is in many respects similar to the cky 

The Geology of East Texas 345 

found near Denny and belongs to tne same horizon. Ries 
classes it as a very lean sandy clay whose physical properties 
were as follows: Color, when moist, white; soluble salts 0.08 
per cent; water required 17.6 per cent, slakes fast; plasticity 
low, with much coarse grit. The air shrinkage of the molded 
brieklets was 3.3 per cent and the average tensile strength 40 
pounds, with a maximum of 46 pounds per square inch. In 
burning it behaves as follows: 


Cone: 05 03 1 3 5 9 31 32 

ii'ire sbinkage 

per cent 0.1 0.3 vis. 

Color, Pinkish Plnlcish Pinkish Pinkish 

white white white white 
per cenit, 14.71 14.71 14.16 13.06 13.05 12.29 

The chemical composition is: 

Per cent 

Silica 77.4 

Alumina 15.7 

Ferric oxide 0.7 

Lime • -trace 


Soda ,. trace 

Potash trace 

Titanic acid 0.7 

Water 5.7 lOO.Z 

Total Fluxes 0.7 

The clay burns to a good white color, and is very lean and 
sandy, but if it were to be used for pottery manufacture it 
would have to be mixed with a denser clay. It is to be classed 
as a fair grade of fire clay and if some of the sandy matter 
could be washed out of it, the refractoriness would undoubt- 
edly be increased 

This clay, together with the brownish gray clay, was used 
for pottery and brick making a great many years ago. 

It will be noted that all the analyses given are those of the 
raw clays, that is, the clays just as they came from the mine, 
without any preparation of any kind. The effects of careful 


346 University of Texas Bulletin 

washing or of mixing different clays to obtain material for 
special industries is practically unknown. 

At one time parties interested in the HeadviUe clay made 
an effort to secure its utilization. Some of the clay was mined 
and washed and sent to France where it was made into table- 
ware which was apparently of very good quality. ' At that 
time, however, the cost of preparation and transportation to 
potteries proved to be too great to warrant an attempt to open 
it up commercially. 

These clays are well worth a very thorough investigation. 
Their refractory character is fully established and there is a 
strong possibility that they can be prepared for use in the 
manufacture of the better class of white earthenware. 

These clays are also found in the Lignitie beds in the eastern 
portion of the State and may occur in Shelby county. While 
Walker does not mention the clays he speaks of the beds of 
white sand five and one-half miles north of Timpson. This 
would be about the proper horizon and it may be they will 
be found there. 


These include clays suitable for the manufacture of porcelain 
and white earthenware such as may possibly be found in the 
beds already described as well as those for stoneware and common 
red earthenware. 

Stoneware clays of excellent quality abound in the Lignitie. 

The general character of the stoneware clays is shown in 
the following descriptions: 

On the north side of the railroad track at Saspamco a num- 
ber of openings have been made in order to obtain clay for 
the manufacture of sewer pipe for a factory located at this 
point. The material is similar to that used for stoneware man- 
ufacture at Blmendorf, and the formation involves a series of 
speckled shaly clays interstratified with occasional beds of 
sandstone and ochreous clay. Owing to the somewhat lentic- 
ular character of the clay deposits, new beds have to be opened 
from time to time as the old ones are worked out. .The sec- 
tion in the bank, which was being worked at the time of the 
writer's visit, was as follows: 

The Geology of East Texas 347 

1. Sandy, laminated, iron-stained, surface clay 1 ft. 

2. Chocolate clay .'. i 8 It. 

3. Yellow, ferruginous clay (rejected) 1ft. 

4. Chocolate clay of dense, tough character 7 ft. 

The beds dip gently to the westward and the. deposit whose 
section is here given can be followed for at least 1500 feet to 
the north, where it dies out. Lying to the northeast and west, 
respectively, are two other pockets of clay, and one large 
pocket near the works has been exhausted. The physical prop- 
erties of the sample taken from the pit in operation were as 
follows. Clay dense and homogeneous with a few mica scales. 
Color, when moist, brown; soluble salts; 0.24 per cent. The 
material slakes slowly and works up with 30.8 per cent of 
water to a mass of high plasticity and great stickiness, but 
little grit. The average tensile strength was 257 pounds per 
square inch, with a maximum of 310 pounds per square inch, 
but was found difScult to obtain a series of briquettes free 
from flaws, as the clay cracked some. The behavior of the 
material in burning was as follows : 

Wet-molded Bricklets 

Gone: 05 03 1 3 5 9 12 28 
Fire shrinkage 

per cent 1.6 2.7 3.3 5.6 5.7 9.4 Swells vis. 

Color: Buff Buff Buff Buff Gray Gray Gray 

per cent 11.44 9.52' 6.57 2.35 2.83 0.82 Beyond 

Dry-press Bricklets 

Cone 1 » 

Fire shrinkage, per cent 2.75 8 

Color Buff Buff 

Absorption, per cent • • 10.20 2 

The clay burns steel hard at cone 05, and makes a good 
hard body of uniform color, which is buff, until cone 9, when 
it burned gray, due probably to reducing conditions. At cone 
12 it swelled somewhat and was slightly blistered. It gives 

348 University of Texas Bulletin 

good results when burned. iji dry press form. The chemical 
composition is as follows: 
Analyses of Pottery Clay from Saspamco, Bexar County : 

Per cent 

Silica 64.92 

Alumina • ■ 22.70 

Ferric Oxide > 0.80 

Lime 0.10 

Magnesia • • 0.74 

Soda 0.71 

Potasbi 0.12 

Titanic Acid 1.40 

Water 7.00 

Total 98.49 

Total Fluxes 2.47 

The material is being used by the San Antonio Sewer Pipe 
and Manufacturing Company for the manufacture of sewer 
pipes, conduits and hollow blocks. They also utilize the clay 
for the manufacture of fire bricks for use at their own works. 

Denny, Falls County : The pottery clay used at this locality 
is obtained from a bed about three and a half iniles South of 
Denny. The clay bed, which has a thickness of 12 feet, is ex- 
posed for a distance of several hundred yards up and down 
the ravine from which the sample was taken, and is underlain 
by a white clay similar to that described from the vicinity of 
Bremond. The physical properties of the clay are as follows : 
The material, when moist, is of light brown color and quite 
homogeneous in texture. When dry it is very hard and slakes 
slowly when thrown into water. It shows but little grit, and 
contains 0.14 per cent of soluble salts. It required 24.2 per 
cent of water to mix it up to a mass of high plasticity, and had 
6.3 per cent air shrinkage. The average tensile strength of the 
air-dried briquettes was 217 pounds per square inch, with a 
maximum of 251 pounds per square inch. It behaved as fol- 
lows in burning: 

The Geology of East Texas 349 

Wet-molded Bricklets . 

Cone: 05 03 1 3 5 9 14 28 
Fire shrinkage 

per cent 2 2 4 4.6 5 6.6 Beyond via. 

Color: Light Pink Buff Bute Gray 

Bute Buff 

per cent 12.51 12.41 9.29 6.73 5.53 1.38 

Dry-press Bricklets 

Cone • • 1 

Fire shrinkage, per cent 4 

Color BufE 

Absorption, per cent 12.25 

This clay is not imlike the regular run of Texas pottery- 
clays. As it will be noticed, it burns buff to cone 9, when it 
burns gray. At cone 14 it swells and shows slight blister- 
ing as well as the development of a few fused specks of iron. 

Five miles east of Henderson, in Rusk county, is a pottery 
clay pit showing the following sections: 

1. Gray sand 1 % ft. 

2. Yellow clay 1% ft. 

3. Pottery clay 4% ft. 

Parts of the pottery clay show some pockets of sand with 
slight variations in color. The color of the clay is similar 
to that used by Mr. Russell, whose pit is some four miles away, 
but it is not possible to say whether these two pits are different 
beds or parts of the same one ; but the clay here exposed in Mr. 
Hill 's pits is thought to be an extensive deposit. 

The physical properties of the material are as follows: Color, 
when moist, brown; soluble salts, 0.50; water required, 18.7; 
slaking, slow; plasticity, high; grit, very low; air shrinkage, 
6 per cent; average tensile strength, 89.7 pounds per square 
inch; maximum 110.8 pounds per square inch. In burning it 
behaved as follows: 

350 University of Texas Bulletin 

. Wet-molded Bricklets 
Cone: 05 03 1 3 5 9 14 27 

Fire shrinkage 

per cent 2.3 2.4 4 5 5 6.3 7.3 vis. 

Color: Pink Pink Llglit Liglit Buff Butt Gray 

Buff Buff 

per cent 18.70 18.17 12.22 10.42 9.22 6.34 2.27 

Dry-press Bricklets 

Cone 1 

Fire slirinkage, per cent 3.38 

Color Pink Buff 

Absorption, per cent 14.30 

The wet-molded bricklets burn steel hard at cone 1, as did 
also the dry-press ones. The fire shrinkage of the clay, it will 
be noticed, is only medium and the clay is to be classed as a 
low grade fire clay. This, clay does not burn to as bright a buff 
as many of the pottery clays tested. That burned at cone 5 
got flashed at one edge and showed a very much deeper color. 

Pottery clay is dug on the Henderson and Marshall dirt 
road, four aaid a half miles northeast of Henderson. The beds 
are at least 6 feet thick, but the base has not been exposed. 
The upper 1% feet is of reddish clay, but has considerable 
iron stain, which is pink when dry and blue when wet. Nothing 
definite can be stated regarding its extent. 

The physical qualities are as follows: The material is a 
hard, homogeneous clay, with a conehoidal fracture and some 
mica scales. It contains 0.06 per cent of soluble salts, and 
when thrown into water slakes slowly. With 29.7 per cent of 
water it works up to a mass of good plasticity containing a 
little fine grit. Its air shrinkage is 7 per cent and the average 
tensile strength 148 pounds per square inch, with a maximum 
of 177 pounds per square inch. In burning the material be- 
haved as follows: 

Tlie Geology of East Texas 351 

Wet-molded Bricklets 


05 03 1 

3 5 9 


Fire shrinkage 

per cent 

1.7 2.6 4.3 

4.7 6 6 



Pink Pink Pink 

Pink Pink Pink 


Buff Bute BufE 

Buff Buff Buff 

05 03 1 

3 5 9 




per cent 15.53 12.59 11.16 9.82 5.41 4.83 3.11 

Dry-press Bricklets 

Cone: 1 9 

Fire shrinkage 1.33 3.33 

Color Pink Pink 

Absorption, per cent 7.53 ... 

The wet-molded-brieklets burned steel hard at cone 1. In its 
general features this clay closely resembles the Athens and 
the Denton pottery clays. The chemical composition is as 
follows : 

Aanlysis of Pottery Clay from near Henderson, Rusk county 

Per cent 

Silica 67.84 

Alumina 21.80 

Ferric Oxide 1.00 

Lime trace 

Magnesia trace 

Soda ^ 1.11 

Potash 0.39 

Titanic Acid 1.48 

Water ■ • 7.37 

Total Fluxes 2.50 

In the neighborhood of Evansville, Leon county, clays of 
economic value are found in association with the lignite de- 
posits. At various localities on the Connelly league and Rejon 
grant blue and gray clays occur which are of a refractory or 
semi-refractory nature and compare favorably with the clays 

352 Vrdversity of Texas Bulletin 

used at Saspamco for the manufacture of sewer-pipe and drain- 
tile. These Evansville clays would take the necessary glaze. 

The Lignitic area of eastern Nacogdoches county, Shelby 
county, and the northern portions of San Augustine and Sabine 
will probably yield clays of similar character. 

The fact that certain clays are grouped here under the head 
of stoneware clays is not to be regarded as indicating that 
they can be used for this purpose alone, but the term is to be 
regarded as an index of certain physical qualities character- 
istic of stoneware clays. 

The most important use of stoneware clays is for the manu- 
facture of terra cotta, buff brick, floor tile, retorts, fire brick, 
in short, as an ingredient of many kinds of ware in which a 
refractory, plastic, more or less dense burning clay of good 
bonding power is required. 

Their value is never sufficiently high to permit of their ship- 
ment to distant markets, and consequently, tbey must be 
worked up near the point of production. 

The Texas stoneware clays have not, by any means, been 
developed to their full capacity, for at present they are utilized 
in the most limited manner by small potteries scattered here 
and there- over the State. The wares now being produced show 
that they can not only be made to yield a good stoneware 
body, but -vy^ill also take either a slip, salt or Bristol glaze- 
ware with good results. 


The Marine is prevailingly sandy but carries some clays of 
economic importance. As has been stated previously, beds of 
lignite occur in it ocasionsially and these are accompanied by 
clays or clay shales of good quality, some of which are refractory 
and others, while not sufficiently refractorjr to be classed as fire 
clays, are well adapted for the manufacture of bufl brick. The 
deposits occurring at Minera in Webb county in connection with 
the cannel coal of that region are of this latter class. The de- 
posits worked near Nacogdoches are of the former. 

A stoneware clay is dug near Carmichael's pottery six miles 
south of Nacogdoches. The material is a dark brown, finely 

The Geology of East Texas 353 

gritty clay, containing 0.10 per cent soluble salts. It slacks slowly, 
but with 25.3 per cent. water, works up to a mass of high plas- 
ticity whose air shrinkage was 9.6 per cent. The average tensile 
strength was 302 pounds per square inch, with a maximum of 
374 pounds per square inch. In burning it behave as follows. 

Wet-molded Bricklets 

Cone: 05 03 1 3 5 9 14 
Fire slirinkage, 

per cent 03 1 2.6 3 4 5.7 vis. 

Color: Bult Dark Deep Deep Gray Gray Gray 

Buff Buff Buff Buff Buft 

per cent 10.35 8.63 5.68 5.32 3.30 4.00 

Dry-press Bricklets 

Cone : 1 9 

Fire shrinkage, per cent 2.33 6 

Color Buff Light Gray 

Absorption, per cent • ■ • • 14.50 4.86 

The clay burned steel hard at cone 9, but was nearly so at 
cone 3; its fire shrinkage is low and it burns to a good d«nse 
body. The slight increase in absorption of the wet molded brick- 
let at once 9 is due to a slight blistering of the ware. 

The chemical composition of the sample tested is : 

Analysis of Pottery Clay from Nacogdoches, Nacogdoches County 

Per cent 

Silica 75.33 

Alumina 14.73 

Ferric Oxide . . ■• J .10 

Lime • ; 0.05 

Magnesia l-fil 

Soda 0.10 

Potash 0.64 

Titanic Acid 1.27 

Water . . .' 4.50 

Total : 99.33 

Total Fluxes 3.50 

354 University of Texas Bulletin 

This clay is at present used for making common stoneware. 
It burns to a deeper buff than the Athens stoneware clay. It is 
not sufficiently refractory to bfr used for fire brick manufacture, 
but could profitably be utilized for making buff brick, terra cotta, 
or at least for the backing of encaustic tile. 


These formations both carry numerous beds of clay. Some 
of the clays of the Fayette are white in color and are of good 
plasticity. They have been called kaolins but are probably not 
entitled to such classification. They vary very much in character 
and the specimens analyzed by Ries supposedly from these beds 
are not thought to be of especial value. 

A sample of the so-called kaolin was tested from the property 
of Mr. Lytenburg, southeast of Lena. This material is whitish 
in color, but contains heavy limonite stains on all of the joint and 
fracture surfaces. It slakes very slowly when thrown into water 
and forms a gummy mass of very low plasticity, but practically 
free from grit. Its tensile strength is so low that it was difficult 
to test the briquettes made from the clay. The material was so 
lean and cracked so when drying that no wet-mud bricklets were 
tested and the sample burned were all molded dry-press. When 
burned at cone 9 a sample ground to 60 mesh showed a fire 
shrinkage of 8 per cent and absorption of 9.44 per cent. Another 
sample ground to 100 mesh and burned at this cone showed a fire 
shrinkage of 12 per cent. A third sample ground to 60 mesh and 
burned at cone 12 showed a fire shrinkage of 13.33 and an ab- 
sorption of .61. The clay burned steel hard at cone 9, and al- 
though its general color was whitish, all of the samples burned 
showed small black specks. 

The material is not a fire clay for at cone 27 it fuses to a 
clear glass. Its ■chemical composition was as follows : 

Per cent 

Silica 73.00 

Alumina 15.79 

Ferric Oxide 63 

Limi ; 1.29 

Magnesia 1.53 

The Geology of East Texas 355 

Soda 16 

Potash. trace 

Titanic Acid 10 

Manganese Dioxide ■ trace 

Water 5.76 

Total 98.69 

Total Fluxes 3.71 

This is the only test of which we have record, and it should 
not be taken as characteristic of all Fayette deposits, for among 
them will be found clays of better grade than this. 

In the region under consideration the Fayette outcrop at 
Bomer in Angelina county may repay examination. 

This bed of clay is white to cream-colored, sometimes grayish 
when damp. It is hard, compact, fine-grained and breaks with 
a conchoidal fracture. Sections of four to five feet were found 
with bottom not seen. It appears to be a lenticular deposit with 
an east-west diameter of 2,000 feet or more. A commercial an- 
alysis gave the percentages of silica 64.85, alumina 17.01, with 
about 6 per cent of fluxing material. 

The shales and clays accompanying the lignites of the Tegua 
should yield some fair beds of plastic or semi-refractory clays but 
so far they have not been studied nor are there any localities 
within the area at which they have been utilized. 


While we have no analyses of clays belonging to the Jackson, 
there are beds occurring in the Caddell series which are appar- 
ently of good quality for the manufacture of bricks and common 
earthenware. Among, the clays of the upper portion of the Jack- 
son some of those which have been derived from the alteration of 
the sediments of volcanic origin will furnish good slip clay ma- 
terial and this is also true of similar clays in the Corrigan. Ries 
gives the analyses of one of .these. 

Two miles southeast of Carmona and 8 miles east of Corrigan 
clay is found outcropping for a distance of some five hundred 
feet on the bank of Bull Creek on the property of the Cameron 
Lumber Company. The thickness exposed is at least six feet 
but the base of the bed is hidden. The clay, when moist, is of a 

356 University of Texas Bulletin 

sky blue tint and very uniform color, but when dried is almost 
white. It appears to be slightly granular in texture, but is 
soft and can be easily crushed between the fingers. A sample 
of this clay was tested with the following results : Soluble salts, 
0.06 per cent; water required, 36.3 per cent; slaking fast; plas- 
ticity, low; texture, sandy. The air shrinkage is 1.3 per cent 
and the average tensile strength 61 pounds, with a maximum of 
62 pounds per square inch. 

Analysis of Clay from Carmona, Polk County: 

Per cent 

Silica 68.34 

Alumina 15.i!ii 

Ferric Oxide ii.44 

Lime ■ • 1.20 

Magnesia 0.88 

Soda 3.55 

Potash 2.47 

Titanic Acid 0.52 

Water . . • ■ 4.70 

Total 100.38 

To;al Fluxes 11.54 

Among the peculiar physical characteristics which the clay 
shows are its low air shrinkage and its remarkably high fire 
shrinkage, which at cone 1 is 16 per cent. It has no value what- 
ever as a brick clay and its chief use would be as a slip clay for 
decorating pottery. 

Clays of this character are rather common in both the Jackson 
and Corrigan of our area and they also occur in the Fayette west 
of the Colorado. 

Kennedy says of a clay of this character from Grimes county : 
An extensive deposit of a good clay occurs in the neighborhood 
of Piedmont Springs. In structure it is thinly stratified and 
breaks with a sub-eonchoidal fracture. Thin streaks or stains of 
iron occur at places throughout the partings, but in general the 
clay' is milky white. An analysis in the laboratory of the Survey 
shows : 

The Geology of East Texas 357 

Per cent 

Silica 58.50 

Alumina 18.39 76.89 

Ferric oxide ■■.•... 3.21 

Lime ii.34 

Magnesia 1.61 

Potash 2.70 

Soda 4.93 

Sulphuric acid trace 14.79 

Water and loss 8.70 8.70 

Specific gravity, 1.5 100.38 

The high percentage of the alkalies, iron, lime and magnesia 
contained in this clay places it in the anomalous position of 
midway between the grade of a good pottery clay and a ' ' slip ' ' 
clay. It might probably, with care, be utilized for certain 
grades of earthenware. In composition the Piedmont clay re- 
sembles the "Albany" slip so much used among the pottery 
manufacturers for glazing purposes. 


The prevalence of calcareous material in the Fleming clays 
is against their use as fictile material but there are oecasi9nal 
deposits of value. 

A sample of clay from the land of U. R. Shine, Hortense, 
Polk County, had the following physical properties: Color, 
pinknbrown; soluble salts, 0.15 per cent. It contains very 
little grit and works up with 30 per cent of water to a mass 
of high plasticity, whose air shrinkage is 8.1 per cent. The 
average tensile strength of the air-dried briquettes was 248.5 
pounds with a maximum of 269.5 pounds per square inch. Its 
burning qualities were as follows: 

Wet-molded Brichl&ts 

Cone: 05 1 3 5 9 

Fire shrinkage, 

per cent 


per cent 12.37 9.35 7.96 4.25 2.33 




6.7 8 




Gray Gray 



358 University of Texas Bulletin 

Its chemical composition was as follows: 
Analysis of Clay from Hortense, Polk County. 

Per cent 

Silica 70.00 

Alumina 18.60 

Ferric Oxide 4-50 

Lime trace 

Magnesia ' trace 

Soda 0.90 

Potash *race 

Titanic Acid >• 0-60 

"Water 6.10 

Total 100.70 

Total Fluxes 5.40 

Although this is a rather siliceous clay, as shown by the 
physical properties and the chemical analysis, still it bums 
to a rather dense body and becomes steel hard even at cone 1. 

At the present time it is not being worked for any purpose, 
but would, no doubt, lend itself to the manufacture of com- 
mon brick, or even, perhaps, dry-press brick, and is less sili- 
ceous than some clays which are being used in the State for 
molding in dry-press machines. 

There is a possibility that some of the more highly calcareous 
clays of the Fleming would furnish material for the manufac- 
ture of natural cement. 1 

An analysis of clay of this character from near Courtney in 
Grimes county shows: 

Per Cent 

Silica 40.69 

Alumina 12.68 

Ferric Oxide 3.90 

Lime 18.12 

Carbonic acid gas and water 18.91 

Alkalies Dy difference 1.14 

Magnesia .92 

Manganese trace 

Water at 100 degrees C 3.64 


The Geology of East Texas 359 

At many localities within this area there are deposits of 
clays suitable for the manufacture of red brick and pressed 
brick some of which are being utilized by local brick yards. 

Taken all together, therefore, the clay resources of the area 
appear to be ample for a great production of common brick, 
pressed brick and fire brick, common red earthenware and 
stoneware, sewer-pipe, drain-tile, encaustic tile and, in short, 
practically all clay products below the grade of white earthen- 
ware with a possibility of some clays suited for that use. 



Fuller's earth is a material having a chemical constitution 
similar to that of clay, but differing from ordinary clays in 
some of its physical properties. It possesses a high absorbent 
power for certain substances and by reason of this is very 
useful as a decolorizing agent. Its chief use is for filtering, 
bleaching and clarifying fats, greases and oils. The value of 
any deposit for these purposes cannot be determined by chem- 
ical analyses, but must be ascertained by practical test. To be' 
of commercial importance, the fuller's earth must not only 
bleach the substance treated, but it must leave no disagreeable 
taste or odor, must not absorb too much oil, must filter well 
and without cloggin'g filter press. 

Fuller's earth that gives excellent results with one class of 
fats or oils may be far less satisfactory with others, and that 
which is used for bleaching petroleum oils is seldom the best 
bleaching and clarifying agent for use with vegetable and 
animal oils. 

To fit fuller's earth for use it must be prepared by drying 
and grinding to the size best suited to that use. 

In preceding chapters attention was called to the prevalence 
of volcanic ash or tuff and fuller 's earth in the upper portion 
of the Jackson and the Corrigan throughout the region be- 
tween the Neches and the Brazos. The deposits are at times 
very closely associated and constitute a considerable portion 
of the deposits of the formations named. It is probable that 
the fuller's earth is simply altered portions of the ash or tuff. 

The relations of the volcanic ash or tuff and fuller's earth 
are shown by the occurrence on Lucas creek north of San An- 
tonio, where there is a bluff 18 feet in height, of which the 
lower 8 feet are fuller's earth and the upper 10 feet rhyolitic 
tuff or ash. There is a little selenite near the border line be- 
tween the two. Similar occurrences were noted south of Cor- 

The Geology of East Texas 361 

rigan, the fuller's earth being found in one or two instances 
overlj'ing the ash instead ot beneath it. 

In color, the fuller's earth of this region varies from a 
creamy white to yellow, brown and gray. 

Some typical exposures of fuller's earth occur in the vicinity 
of Corrigan and Moscow. 

About 1% miles southwest of Corrigan along Bear Creek, 
there is exposed a bed of fuller's earth. The section along 
the creek is as follows: 

1. Light-brown or drab colored plastic fuller's earth. Thin- 

bedded 4 % ft. 

2. White, fine-grained volcanic ash made up of minute white 

grains 3 in. 

3. Greenish brown, structureless gypsiferous clays, weathering 

yellow 3% ft. 

If this fuller's earth proves to be of good quality, the de- 
posit could be easily worked. 

A hill section one-fourth mile west of Moscow Station on 
the Trinity road shows fine, loose, imperfectly laminated clay, 
light to dark cream colored on surface exposures, but grayish 
to greenish-drab underneath. The layei-s which show the 
laminations are creamy white, non-plastic, clay and may pos- 
sibly be fuller's earth. The following is the section from 
bottom up: 

1. Light gray to light green drab clay 3 ft. 

2. Creamy white non-gritty laminated fuller's earth 1 % ft. 

3. Clay like No. 1 % ft. 

4. Pine and laminated cross-bedded light yellow clayey sand 

weathering whitish to light-blue and with very thin 
seams of whitish clay 3 % ft. 

5. Fuller's earth like No. 2, becoming more gritty towards 

the top where it has white limestone nodules • 10 ft. 

6. Light green clay with large and small calcareous nodules. 

A number of other' occurrences are noted in the description 
of the stratigraphy of the Jackson, Corrigan and 'Fleming 

We have no record of any of these earths having been util- 
ized commercially to any extent, but with the great number of 

24- ET. 

362 University of Texas Bulletin 

refineries so near them it would seem advisable to have the 
various localities studied and the material carefully tested. 


Volcanic ash is used as a polishing powder and in the man- 
ufacture of scouring soaps. 

Deposits of this material of considerable thickness are found 
throughout the region between the Neches and the Brazos in 
the Jackson and Corrigan and probably in the Fleming. 

In the Jackson there are two or more beds which are trace- 
able for a long distance and which are excellent horizon 

In the other formations the deposits are more local in their 
nature, but taken as a whole form a considerable part of the 
sediments composing them. 

Many of these occurrences have been referred to in the 
description of the stratigraphy of the region. 

Some of the other localities mentioned by Baker and Suman 
are Sulphur Springs, five miles north of Chester in .Tyler 
county, where there is a six foot bed of white volcanic ash; 
Chalk Bluff, northeastern Polk county, where there is an ex- 
posure of 8 feet of thin-bedded, medium grained volcanic ash. 

Around Potomac, Polk county, there are deposits of volcanic 
ash five feet and more in thickness. The ash is pure white in 
color and of very fine even grain. 

It also occurs at Groveton, where it contains pellets of 
cream-colored, non-plastic clay, probably fuller's earth. This 
bed of ash is cream-colored and pink. 

Kennedy, under the term "siliceous sinter," describes the 
various deposits of ash of the Piedmont Springs area in 
Grimes county: 

"In Grimes county these deposits are best developed in the 
neighborhood of Piedmont Springs. Small outcrops of sinter 
occur at Kellum Springs and on Mr. S. Smith's land, about 
two miles east of Union Hill. In the Piedmont Springs area 
the deposits consist of light gray sands, with great quantities 
of beautifully opalized wood, sandy clays, white thinly lami- 

The Geology of East Texas 363 

nated fine-grained clay, and extensive irregularly shaped de- 
posits of siliceous sinter. A section close to the springs shows : 

1. Light gray sand 5 ft. 

2. Light gray or pinkish gray sandy clay 2 ft. 

On the C. 0. Edwards headright, and about a mile northeast 
of the springs, another section shows: 

1. Gray sand ., 1 ft. 

2. Thinly laminated yellow and brown sands 5 ft. 

3. Pine-grained laminated white clay 4 ft. 

The surface of the country in this region is covered with 
grayish white or light gray sands, containing bowlders of 
coarse-grained flaky siliceous sinter and great quantities of 
opalized wood of different colors. While the greater portion 
of the pieces of opalized wood are small, many of them measure 
from four to eight feet in length and from one to three feet in 
diameter. These large trunks are very easily broken, and break 
with a glassy fracture, although longitudinal sections of from 
two to four feet are easily obtained. 

Two miles west of the springs, deposits of a very fine-grained 
siliceous sinter occur upon the southwest corner of the James 
Tuttle league and on the W. P. Zuber headright. A section 
on the Tuttle league shows: 

1. Coarse gravel Scattering. 

2. Dark gray sandy soil 1 % ft. 

3. Siliceous sinter 4 to 5 ft. 

This deposit of sinter underlies an area of from twenty-five 
to thirty acres. 

On the west side of the same league, and about a mile 
farther west of this deposit, the bank of a small creek running 
into Dry branch shows a section of: 

1. Gray surface sand with small quantities of pebbles 4 ft. 

2. Soft fine-grained sand 10 ft. 

3. Broken laminated bluish gray clay 3 ft. 

4. Lignite 3 ft. 

364 Vniversity of Texas Bulletin 

Southwest of the siliceous sinter deposits of the Tuttle 
league there is another deposit of the same class of material 
on the W. P. Zuber headright. The sinter in this area occurs 
in all the creeks and washouts along the east side of the 
headright, and is overlain by a. light gray sand and gravel 
made up of pebbles of quartz and jasper, and underlain by a 
gray sand, as seen in the following section: 

1. Light gray sand and gravel, the gravel scattering 2 to 5 ft. 

2. Siliceous sinter 4 to 5 ft. 

3. Gray sand, visible 2 to 6 ft. 

Two miles east of Piedmont Springs a cutting on the east 
side of Sandy creek shows a section of: 

1. Gray-sand with white opalized wood 3 to 5 ft, 

2. Thinly laminated gray sandy clay 2 to 6 ft. 

Going northward to Kellum Springs deposits of siliceous 
sinter occur on the Wm. Pitzgibbon league, and one mile west 
of the spring the following section occurs in Chalk branch, a 
small stream tributary to Gibbon's creek: 

1. Gray sand 1 ft. 

2. Lignitic sands and clays 5 to 12 ft. 

3. Siliceous sinter 2 ft. 

4. White sand 1 ft. 

5. Brown lignitic sandy clay. 

In this region the sinter lies in thin strata or seams between 
deposits of a coarse white sand, which rests upon a laminated 
brown sand. The section shown for nearly a mile southward 
along the creek is a succession of lignitic sands and clays, alter- 
nately dipping southeast and northwest. , These ligfiitic de- 
posits overlie the siliceous deposits. 

This siliceous sinter, which is locally known as chalk, is 
reported as occurring in small quantities at other places in 
this region and in the area between Piedmont and Kellum 

Five miles northeast of Kellum Springs, on a Mr. S. Smith's 

The Geology of East Texas 365 

land, near Union Hill church, there is an isolated deposit of 
siliceous sinter covering an area of nearly ten acres and having 
a thickness of over twenty feet. The greater portion of this de- 
posit is covered by a dark gray sandy soil, and gray sands 
form the prevailing characteristic of the surface of the whole 
surrounding country. 

Nowhere throughout the area occupied by these beds can 
the thickness of the deposits belonging to the Piedmont Springs 
group exceed thirty feet. On the northeastern border the 
gray sands and sinters either rest upon or are interstratified 
with the lignitic deposits; and toward the southwest, in the 
neighborhood of Piedmont, where they attain their greatest 
Thickness, wells dug to a depth of thirty feet pass completely 
through these beds and enter blue clays containing thin seams 
of an earthy brown coal. 

The siliceous sinter found in these deposits is a very fine- 
grained, soft, pulverulent, snow-white mass, amorphous in 
places and showing lines of stratification in others. It has a 
.specific gravity of 2. Under the microscope the grains are 
small, rounded, and angular, generally flattened and scaly, 
and all translucent, some of them being perfectly transparent. 
Many of the scales are striated and marked in such a manner 
as to resemble thin sections of the opalized wood. 


Sands for the manufacture of glass, especially that of higher 
grade, must be practically free of impurities. Iron oxide, 
even in small quantities, colors the glass green and any ad- 
mixture of clay tends to cloud it. Even sands of pure white 
color are sometimes not sufficiently pure for this use without 

The glass sands of East Texas are found in two horizons. 
The lower, geologically, are the white sands that come in con- 
nection with the gray refractory clays occurring above the 
middle of the Ligjiitic, and these have been reported both from 
the eastern and western portions of this area. The upper 
deposits are of Pleistocene age and occur in the drainage areas 
of Trinity and San Jacinto rivers. The Pleistocene sa^ds are 

366 University of Texas Bulletin 

derived from the disintegration of the rice sands of the Cor- 


In Shelby county, Walker calls attention to a pure white 
sandstone at Cave Spring 5% miles north of Timpson. TMs 
is a soft friable sandstone, in places stained with iron, but 
when washed as in the neighborhood of the spring, of pure 
white color and apparently well suited for glass making. 

Similar sands were noted at several localities to the north 
of this in Panola county, among which were a creek crossing 
one and one half miles northwest of Beckville on the Harmony 
road and Grand Bluff on the Sabine river. 

This sand is also found three miles north of Jacksonville in 
Cherokee county as a pure white siliceous sand. 

Along the lines of the Houston and Texas Central Railroad 
sands of the same character ar'e found from Dennys to Head- 
ville and with small preparation will yield glass sands of ex- 
cellent quality. 


In the drainage valleys of the Trinity and San Jacinto 
rivers south of the belt occupied by the deposits of the Corri- 
gan there are numerous bars and banks of a pure white sand 
derived from the disintegration of the rice sands of that forma- 
tion; These are good glass sands and can be had in abundance 
at or rtear the railway crossings on these streams. 

Chapter XVII 


Building stone is relatively scarce in our East Texas area and 
the only stone of value is sandstone, of which there are two 

Brown sandstones which are altered glauconitic sands or sands 
cemented by ferruginous cement. 

Gray sandstones with calcareous or siliceous cement. 

The brown sandstones are found almost entirely in connection 
with the Marine beds. In some places the altered greensands 
are of sufScient hardness to be quarried and are used occasionally 
where other rock is scarce for building foundations and chimneys. 
At other places the sand beds have been cemented by ferruginous 
solutions and hardened into good beds of sandstone. 

The gray sandstones are by far the most abundant and are 
found in Fayette, Jackson and Cbrrigan. Some of them have 
a calcareous cement, but probably the greater part have a si- 
liceous matrix. 

No limestones suitable for building are known in the area. 


The most important of these sandstones are a series of local and 
limited deposits formed by the action of ferruginous solutions 
on the original loose sands. This varies from a comparatively 
soft friable mass to a compact hard and flinty rock ; from yellow 
to very dark brown in color, and from one to twenty feet thick. 
Such rocks are found everywhere throughout the East Texas re- 
gion, and are often used for foundations and chimneys. They 
occur plentifully in the bluffs of the Angelina at the mouth of 
Walker creek, and on the Neehes river west of Gent, in the shape 
of a soft friable sandstone. The State Penitentiary at Eusk is 
built of a soft yellow sandstone, containing specks of altered 
glauponite and a few casts of fossils. This was obtained from a 

368 University of Texas Bulletin 

bed ten feet thick immediately underlying the main iron-bearing 
greensand bed It is soft and easily cut with a saw. A rock 
very similar to this is found capping Cook's Mountain, three 
miles west of Crockett, in Houston county. It is friable sand- 
stone, and composed of siliceous sand with specks of glauconite 
and mica, is of a yellow color, contains many fossil casts in places, 
and shows considerable cross-bedding. 

The greensand bed which directly underlies the brown lami- 
nated iron ore stratum has often become yellow and hardened to 
a sufficient degree to be utilized as a building stone. In the re- 
gion where it occurs it is very extensively used for 'fireplaces and 
such small structures. It is of a chalky or waxy consistency, 
dense and compact in structure, and easily shaped into the desired 
form by an ax or saw. On account of the ease with which it can 
be cut, and also a certain toughness which it preserves in spite 
of its softness depends its universal use wherever it can be 
found. The greensand bed varies from thirty to forty feet thick, 
but it is only in parts of it that he hardening process has gone 
on to a sufficient extent to make it available for building pur- 
poses. These indurated places vary from one to ten feet thick. 
Sometimes the greensand has become hardened without losing its 
green color, and in such cases we have a green rock of very sim- 
ilar nature to the yellow one just described. Such material is 
found in Doyle's Gap and on the slope of the Mount Selman 
iron range, in Cherokee county. The glauconite in this green 
rock is generally mixed with a large amount of clay of the same 
color, and in some places the clay almost entirely replaces that 
mineral. This presence of clay probably accounts for the hard- 
ening of the bed as it has acted as a cement in indurating the 
glauconite. Sometimes, also, finely disseminated carbonate of 
lime is the cementing material in such rock. 

These sandstones, although soft when first quarried, have a 
tendency to harden when exposed to the weather and are very 
durable, although they will not admit of fine dressing. 

The building stones of Robertson county are wholly of brown 
sandstone, and occur in many locations along the ridges extend- 
ing across the country from the Houston and Texas Central Rail- 
way eastward. They are rather coarse-grained, and contain fre- 

The Geology of East Texas 369 

quent streaks or pockets of coarse sand or fine gravel in the form 
of a conglomerate. 

The sandstones found along the top of the ridge on the Den- 
ver Jones headlight form a bed from two to four fee,t in thick- 
ness, and have been quarried for railway purposes, having been 
used as piers and abutments of bridges on the line of the Houston 
and Texas Central Railway. 

In the neighborhood of Franklin the hills near the town and 
surrounding Racetrack prairie contain soft brown sandstones, 
which may be utilized for building purposes They also occur 
to the west of the town, and at several other places in the central 
portion of the county. These sandstones are quarried only as 
needed and no regular quarries have been opened in them. 


Southeast of Alto in Cherokee county a hill at Huston Park 
75 feet in height has in the upper 60 feet a hard cream colored 
sandstone. It is fine-grained and in places approaches a quartz- 
ite in texture. It weathers irregularly with fretted forms. The 
outcrop of this rock extends a mile east of Huston Park and as 
far to the south. Penrose states that properly quarried it will 
be a valuable stone. 

The Fayette areas along the Houston, East and West Texas 
Railway north of Burke show similar sandstone. It is all fine- 
grained, some of it is laminated and it varies in hardness. 

A fine grade of light gray sandstone of medium grain occurs 
east of Blix on Jack creek in the Lavinge survey, Angelina 
county. It is of medium hardness and in layers of about one foot 
in thickness. To the west of the creek it outcrops in a ridge ten 
to twenty feet high and a well fifty feet deep was in sandstone 

In the Fayette at Huntington a small hill on the Renf ro place 
is composed of a very hard sandstone, almost a pure quartzite in 
places, breaking with splintery fracture. 

Similar sandstones occur near Homer where it was formerly 
quarried and used for lining walls and building chimneys and 
foundations. The quantity however is small as it is at Hunt- 

370 University of Texas Bulletin 


Sandstones of good quality are found in places in the Jackson 
area. No attempt will be made to enumerate them but of some 
those which came more directly under our notice will be 

On the sides and top of the low hill 1/4 mile east of Manning 
is found a coarse-grained medium-hard, light gray sandstone in 
layers averaging about one foot in thickness. The cement is 
whitish and granular. The sandstone overlies the flaggy shaly 
beds which outcrop in the town of Manning. This stone could 
be readily dressed. 

Three miles south of Manning, east and west of the Carter- 
Kelly lumber tram there outcrops along the tops of the lower 
ridges and in the middle slopes of the higher hills, a white, fine- 
grained, well indurated and rather heavy bedded sandstone. 
Several holes have been blasted in the vicinity. The rock is 
of good quality, but its thickness could not be determined. The 
harder rock is underlain by soft sandstones and arenaceous clays. 

About three and one-half miles slightly north of east of Po- 
tomac, near the southern line of the W. B. Hardin Survey, on 
the farm of Mr. Barch, is a ridge trending in a general east-west 
direction, capped by a hard dark gray quartzite outcropping in 
rough irregular blocks. This rock has a splintery to conchoidal 
fracture and should be admirably adapted for use as crushed rock 
in concrete work. The ridge was followed for % of a mile with 
continuous outcrop of sandstone. The thickness was indeter- 

Near the line between Section 40, International & Great North- 
ern Railroad land and the Rains Survey, some two miles west of 
the Houston, East and West Texas Railway is an outcrop of 
fine-grained, fairly resistant sandstone. There is a thickness of 
12 feet along a hillside and quarrying here would be a very 
simple matter. While this rock might possibly be a little soft 
for building purposes, it might be of use for ballast. 

A hill seventy feet in height with a summit area of two and 
one-half to three acres is found in the bottom of Dean Creek, 
Trinity county. The creek bows along the northern and north- 

The Geology of East Texas 371 

eastern base of this hill. In the bed and banks of the creek ia 
found the following section, detailed from the base upwards ; 

1. Base, dark brown carbonaceous clay, total thickness unknown. 

2. Lignite, poor in quality 1 ft. 

3. Dark brown carbonaceous clay, gradually becoming lighter 

with a lessening in the amount of carbonaceous matter 
toward the top 1 ft 

4. (a) At the north along the creek banks is exposed 10 feet 
^ of thinly laminated light-brown to drab sandy clay carry- 
ing plant fragments. The bedding is not very regular and 
the individual beds are not lof uniform thickness. At the 
easternmost locality examined the beds dipped 3 % " to the 
southward, 50 yards south the dip is 8° to the southward, 
while 100 yards south of the latter locality, the dip is ap- 
parently 4 or 5° to the westward, but this apparent dip 
may have been caused by slumping. 

4. (b) At the south, directly under the northeast base of the 
hill, there is 12 feet of thinly laminated brownish to buff 
sand carrying thin streaks of brown carbonaceous material, 
but becoming sandier and thicker bedded towards the top. 
The bedding here is also slightly irregular. 

Above the bed 4 (b) the surface of the hillside is strewn with 
blocks of sandstone. A rim of sandstone in place surrounding 
the top of the hill is in places a massive bed three to four feet 
thick. Locally these sandstone blocks are quartzitic; in places 
they exhibit imperfect lamination and break in blocks thick 
enough to be suitable for dimension stone. The rock last de- 
scribed splits readily along the bedding planes and could easily 
be shaped into rectangular blocks. In texture the sandstone is 
medium-grained. It contains thin flakes of selenite and much of 
it case-hardens on the surface on exposure to air. This property 
of ease-hardening is a valuable one in building stone of this kind, 
since the stone in the quarry is soft enough to be readily cut and 
shaped, and it becomes harder after removal from the quarry. 
All of the rock seen is suitable for crushed stone of a very fair 

Near the east corner of the John Veatch grant, approximately 
two miles north of Groveton, the sandstone outcrops on the north- 
west side of a hill. There is a vertical thickness of 30 feet in 
which the rock is found. At the base of this thirty feet, hard 

372 University of Texas Bulletin 

rock is found in place in layers varying from six inches to a foot 
in thickness. Above this outcrop hard sandstone blocks are 
found on the side and top of the hill, although no other ex- 
posures of rock actually in place were noted, save that mentioned 
above. The sandstone as* a whole varies in degree of hardness 
from a fairly hard rock, breaking with clean fracture, to a hard 
gray-blue silica-cemented rock which is really a quartzite. This 
quartzite is hard, compact, and brittle, and breaks into angular 
fragments. The softer varieties of rock vary from light brown 
to buff in color. Some of the reck is irregularly stained a brown- 
ish color with limonite. The rock contains small irregular flakes 
of selenite. All of the rock seen in this hill is suitable for 
crushed rock and some of it which lies in layers of ten inches and 
upwards in thickness is suitable for building stone. The blue- 
gray quartzite, with its pleasing color and great crushing 
strength would be especially suitable for building stone. 

West of the Trinity the sandstones of the Welborn division will 
probably furnish some good building material. 

In Grimes county, the hard, semi-quartzitic and close-grained 
. sandstones occur only in the north central portion of the county, 
where they appear as a narrow belt, extending from the L. J. P. 
Mammel headright northeasterly to the northwest corner of the 
Biggam White headright, and from this latter thin beds extend 
north and easterly to within a few miles south of Bedias post- 
ofiSee, on the D. S. Stone headright. They are best developed on 
the Biggam White headright, where they are repesented by a 
ledge from fifteen to twenty feet high. The rocks forming this 
ledge are stratified and lie in strata from six to eighteen inches 
in thicness, and change fom a soft gray colored to a hard gray 
and brownish gray colored sandstone, with occasional blocks 
showing the characteristic texture of quartzite. Some of the 
beds are very much broken and tilted in places, and lie mostly 
in the shape of boulders or blocks, many of them measuring from 
eight to ten feet in length and nearly as many feet in width. On 
the Mammel headright the same class of rocks occur along the 
northern edge of the Gibbons creek bottom lands. Here they lie 
in a very similar condition to that on the Biggam White land 
although the blocks are more irregularly formed and much 
smaller and are of less value as a building material. 

The Geology of East Texas 373 

Intermediate between these exposures the rocks belonging to 
this group are white and grayish white, evenly bedded, close- 
grained sandstones. This class occurs in quantities along the 
Upper division of Rock creek on the John Bowman headright. 
Another deposit is found in the Francis Holland headright, about 
a mile south of Anderson, on the Anderson and Navasota public 
road. These rocks lie close to and appear on the surface in many 
places. They have been quarried both on Rock creek and in the 
neighborhood of Anderson, and from the smoothness of their 
grain and closeness of texture admit of being dressed in a fairly 
good condition, although somewhat limited as to size. The stone 
'finishings of the court house at Anderson are from the quarry 
south of that place. 

The building stones of Brazos county are almost altogether 
confined to the hard gray sandstones of the Wellborn beds. 
Small deposits of a coarse, soft, brown colored sandstone occur 
on the McMillan and Williams headright, about four miles west 
of Bryan, but these deposits are of comparatively little value. 

Isolated patches of gray sandstone occur on the James Hope 
league, and on the Sam Davidson league much larger deposits 
occur. These have been quarried in the neighborhood of Well- 
born and Minter Springs for .building purposes. 

In the Rock prairie region, on the Stephenson and Robertson 
leagues, as well as on the N. Clampett headright, deposits of a 
close-grained, fi:rm sandstone occur, which can be obtained in 
blocks of large size and admit of fine dressing. A quarry on the 
N. Clampett headright supplied the foundation stones for some 
of the Agricultural and Mechanical College buildings a number 
of years ago. 


These are the beds best known of all the Bast Texas sandstones 
as the5^ furnished much of the material for the harbor improve- 
ments at Galveston and Sabine Pass and are now being worked 
to supply crushed rock for concrete work throughout South 

These sandstones are of various degrees of hardness, many of 
them being hard compact quartzites but the degree of induration 

374 University of Texas Bulletin 

varies very, much locally. Some strongly indurated sandstones 
have a white porcellaneous matrix while in others, which are less 
indurated, the cementing material, while white, is not lustrous. 

The deposits of the Neches river drainage, southern Angelina 
and northern Polk, Tyler and Jasper counties, are those which 
have received most attention. 

Two miles west of Aldridge in northern Jasper county Kyle'i 
Quarry in the Conn league has been opened on a deposit of the 
Corrigan sandstone. 

This quarry is in the quartzitic phase of the Corrigan with 
local lenses of greenish clay. 'The main layer quarried is from 
35 to 40 feet thick, but the superficial 10 feet is not indurated 
enough to produce crushed rock. The rock worked has hackly 
fracture with sharp edges. It is suitable only for rough masonry 
or for crushed rock. There is 10 to 12 feet of Lafayette over- 
burden to be removed. 

The hard rock is very light gray or gray blue in color. It con- 
tains angular fragments of hard whitish and greenish clays. The 
rock is made up mainly of quartz and chert, sometimes coarse 
enough to be conglomeratic, with a porcellaneous to translucent 
cement. Some specimens show an outside film of porcellaneous ce- 
ment which is about % inch thick, the interior of the rock being 
quartzitic, suggesting that the porcellaneous surface film may 
possibly be an alteration of the quartzitic interior. The inter- 
bedded lenticular clays are sulphurous. 

About two miles southwest of Rockland there outcrops on 
the sides of a large hill a porcellaneous-cemented sandstone 
showing a high degree of induration, and in places being a 
fine quartzite. A vertical thickness of 10 feet was exposed. The 
same rock again outcrops about % mile west of this place. 

To the west of the point where the Carter-Kelley Lumber 
Company tram crosses the Neches river, along the southern 
bank, a series of high bluffs rise above the river. They ex- 
posed at the top and well down the sides a medium to doarse- 
grained sandstone having a porcellaneous matrix. Underlying 
is a white, somewhat arenaceous claystone of various degrees 
of induration. The sandstone is in places indurated to a 
quartzite and would make a good rock for concrete work. 

The Geology of East Texas 375 

Near Mt. Hope church, some 2^^ miles north of Chester an 
exceedingly well indurated fine-grained sandstone, showing a 
splintery fracture wherever broken into, outcrops over an area 
approximately eight to ten acres, and along a bluff overlooking 
Russell creek. This quartzite is at least eighteen feet thick, 
as shown in outcrop along the public road. It is underlain by 
a clay, weathering cream colored. 

At Griswold, three quarters of a mile west of Stryker on 
the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad, a spur turns off 
south for the quarry of the Texas Grading Company. A ridge 
of sandstone commences near the Missouri, Kansas and Texas 
track and continues south along McManus Creek for nearly 
a mile. The rock in the northern end of the quarry is a soft 
to medium hard coarse-grained, gray to light brown sand- 
stone, for the most part massive but locally showing up as 
cross-bedded. The matrix is in places porcellaneous, but in 
other places it is fine granular. In the center of the area over 
which quarrying operations have been carried on there out- 
crops fifteen feet of a hard, medium-grained, sandstone, mas- 
sive in structure, and of a good quality for jetty work, rip- 
rap, etc. In the extreme southern end of the quarry where 
operations are being carried on at present, there is a ledge 
of very hard, almost quartzitic sandstone, bluish-gray in color 
and made up of fiue rounded quartz grains set in a porcellaneous 
matrix. In the eastern side of the quarry, the section is as 
follows from bottom up: 

1. Blue-colored massive arenaceous claystone, contains nodules 

of marcasite, not fit for quarrying 3 ft. 

2. Bluish gray fine-grained sandstone, almost a quartzite, mas- 

sive; has a splintery fracture and is very hard 2 ft. 

3. Fairly hard sandstone, grayish white In color and grading 

intoi thin bedded at top 4 ft. 

4. Gray sand, overburden to be stripped 8 ft. 10 in. 

In the southwestern end of the quarry there is ten feet of 
extremely hard, fine-grained, bluish-gray sandstone with por- 
cellaneous cement and splintery fracture overlain by twelve 
feet of loose clayey sand. The sandstone everywhere contains 
iiiany rounded drab to gray clay balls and the coarser sand- 

376 University of Texas Bulletin 

stone always contains abundant well preserved leaf impres- 
sions, reeds and palmetto leaves being predominant. Silicified 
wood fragments are also common. 

A quarry one-half mile north of Corrigan and one-quarter 
mile east of the Houston, East and West Texas Railroad 
shows at the western end a medium to fine-grained, medium 
hard, white to gray and yellowish brown, sandstone. This is 
for the most part massive, but exhibits some cross-bedding. 
Locally the sandstone contains hard rounded clay balls. In 
the eastern end of the quarry the hard sandstone grades into 
a thin-bedded softer rock. The rock in the western end of 
the quarry appears very well adapted for rip-rap and ballast, 
but in the ea.stern end it is too soft for these purposes. A 
graded spur connects this quarry with the Houston, East and 
West Texas Railroad. 

About one mile southwest of Corrigan there is a hill of por- 
ce]laneou.s sandstone. Tbei'c is a thickness of fully thirty-five 
feet of this sandstone exposed, but only half of it is said to be 
valuable. There are locally fragments of clay, some of which 
were rounded. The quartz grains of the sandstone are re- 
markable for their clearness, large size and angularity. Locally 
the rock is quartzitie. 

West of the Trinity no quarries have as yet been opened 
in the Corrigan quartzites in our area, but there has been 
some quarrying for' local use of the sandstone occurring in 
the upper portion of the Corrigan and the base of the Fleming. 
Kennedy says of the beds in Grimes county: These sand- 
stones are usually thinly bedded, rarely exceeding six inches 
in thickness, show a rough surface, and in quarrying break 
into irregular masses or slabs. Their texture is soft and coarse- 
grained, in places strongly calcareous, and often inclose small 
nodules or fragments of white clay. In color they vary from 
a soft gray to a white or creamy yellow. They are irregularly 
distributed in the beds, changing frequently from the consoli- 
dated sandstone to an unconsolidated mass of grayish yellow 
sand, and in this condition form a continuously alternating 
series of lenticular masses of sandstone and sand. The sec- 

The Geology of East Texas 377 

tions exposed in the several quarries are made up of alternate 
strata of sand and sandstone. 

Exposures of these rocks occur at numerous places through- 
out the southern central portion of Grimes county and in the 
neighborhood of Navasota. The exposures seen near this 
place form a ridge extending from near the Navasota river in 
a northerly direction, skirting; the river bottom to Holland 
creek, a distance of about four miles. This same ridge then 
passes up the south side of Holland creek to the crossing of 
the Navasota and Anderson public road, where the sandstones 
are exposed over an area ofi several hundred acres. These 
rocks also appear on Grimes prairie and near White Hall post- 
ofSee and several other points along the northern side of the 

Sandstones in the neighborhood of Navasota belonging to 
this group have been quarried for building purposes for a great 
number of years. They were used in Navasota as building 
material almost exclusively. 


All of the gravel of this area which is of any commercial 
value comes in connection with deposits of Lafayette age. It 
is frequently mixed with sand or with clay and the workable 
deposits are limited in number. 

At Urbana a mile or two south of the Houston, East and 
West Texas Ry. Company's bridge over the Trinity river a 
gravel pit has been opened. 

The pit lies in a flat area bordering the river bottom proper 
ftnd lies at a slight elevation above it in an area not subject to 
overflow, the same constituting what might be termed the 
. "second bottom." The gravel has been found by boring, to 
cover an area of from seventy to one hundred acres and the 
depth of the gravel ranges from twenty-two feet in the west 
side to thirty-three feet in the east side. This is practically 
all workable gravel, as there is only a surface covering of from 
eighteen to twenty-four inches of fine gray sand. The pebbles 
in the gravel are rounded and up to two and a half inches in 
diameter, but they probably average about haK an inch. The 

378 University of Texas Bulletin 

deposit runs about 40 per cent gravel, considering everything 
as gravel that remains on a one-eighth inch screen. The re- 
maining 60 per cent is a coarse-grained sand having angular 
grains. The gravel as loaded into the cars weighs 3,000 
pounds per cubic yard. 

West of the Houston, East and West Texas Eailv/ay there 
are gravel deposits on a ridge which strikes west from near 
Willard, in Polk county. At the Watts place on the John 
Lindsey league a well was dug for water. At four feet they 
entered a red sandy clay containing the gravel and went out 
of the same at 221/2 feet. Mr. Watts also had a prospect hole 
dug to the depth of seven feet and the material from this hole 
was examined. The gravel was about one-half flint pebbles 
and the other half a stifE sandy clay, which when it gets dried 
out is very hard to pick into. The flint pebbles in the gravel 
vary in size from two inches to half an inch in diameter, 
averaging about one inch. This material would make an 
excellent ballast although it contains too much clay to admit 
of being economically washed for use in concrete construc- 
tion work. 

Similar gravel occurs northwest on the Hood farm in north- 
west corner of Cartwright league. Here there is a hill cover- 
ing some five or six acres, the surface of which is covered with 
a gravel consisting mostly of rounded flint and jasper pebbles 
averaging three-fourths to an inch in diameter. At Mr.' Hood's 
house a well was dug some thirty-six feet deep and it is re- 
ported gravel was encountered all the way down, but that it 
became more clayey toward the bottom. 

There are probably other deposits on the interstream areas 
where the Lafayette overlies the Fleming. 

Between the Trinity and the Brazos gravel deposits are 
found in the Lafayette and will doubtless prove to be of im- 
portance locally but they will probably not be as extensive as 
those west of the Brazos. 



Ackerman formation 53, 54 

Actaeoh punctulatus Lea 95, 96 

Agaronia punctulifera Gabb 95 

Aguilares 305 

Alabama 11 

Alabama bluff 91, 125, 267 

Alabaster : 164 

/.Idridge 192, 199 

Alticamelus 231 

Alto 88, 141 

Analysis, of clays 343 

344, 348, 361, 353, 354, 356, 357 

of iron ores 322, 323, 331 

of lignite 

..279, 280, 283, 284, 286, 287, 288 

Ancilla ancellops Hulp 97 

Stamlnea Conrad 

91, 92, 95, 97, 100, 106 

Anderson 236 

Anderson County 3, 65, 146 

Anemia eocenica Berry 125 

Anseles. Mex 183 

y^n^elina and Neches River Rv..-.118 

Angelina-Caldwell flexure 200 

Angelina County 3, 6 

Angelina deposits 7 

Anhydrite 25. 261 

Annona Ohalk 22, 27, 295. 303 

Anomia ephlppoides Gabb 

71 89, 91, 95, 

97, 99, 100, 103, 107, 108, 131, 138 

sp 41, 224 

Annua texana Berry 170 

Anthony's Perry 182, 189 

Antlers ; 15 

Antonio 15 

Aphelops 232, 237 

meridianus Leidy . 238 

Apoctiophyllum tabellanum 52 

new .species 125, 170 

Appalachian belt 11 

Apple Springs 119, 122, 165 

Apporhais sp. 33 

Area rhomboidella 7-2 

sp : 107, 171 

Airchitectonioa meekana Conrad... 95 

Areal distribution ; . . 

32, 38, 45, 59, 62, 146, 189 

Arenosa 74, 249 

Arkadelphia clay 23 

Arkansas 31 

Arunijo pseudo'joeppertl Berry. . . .125 

Asnlenium eolignitica 52 

A^imira eocenica Lesquereux 37 

Athens 59, 341 

Aturia ,sp. near ziczac 96 

Austin 15 

Austin Chalk 5, 13, 9-> 

Avicula sp 92 

Ayish Bayou 76, 194 

Saline 313 

Baculites 33, 48 

Baker, C. L. 2, 34 

41, 44. 64, 67, 109, 142, 172 
Balonophyllialrrorata van. mortonl 

Gabb and Horn 107 

Baldwin granite 200 

Barbatia cuouUoides 43 

Basalt 262 

Bashi formation 37, 39, 53 


Basin 25 

Battls ferry isi 

Bayou Kegnet 64, 68, 73 

Bayou Toro 191 

Becker 2'36 

Bedias 154 

Bee shoals 49 

Bell's ferry .'194, 196 

Bell's Landing 37 

Belosepia ungula 71. 78, 

92, 93. 96, 97, 98, 100, 126, 128 

Bend formation 11, 12 

Benf ord Tram 175 

Berry. E. W 37, 39, 

55. 61, 81, 94, 123, 124, 164, 174 

Bethea, J., Grant 289 

Bevilport 192, 251, 266 

Bergen sand 21, 31, 295 

Rig Prairie saline 313 

Bi,s Salt saline 309, '312 

Bird Mountain ■ 258 

Birdwell siding '. | 75 

Birkinbine. J 7 

Black Bluff. . .• ZZ, 49 

Blanco beds 220, 244 

Bland lake 74 

Blastomeryx •232 

-a-emmifer. . . . . ; 9.ZI 

-wellsi '.'. 232 

Blos=om sand 21, 295 

Blount, B. G 284 

Blue shoals ' | . 33 

Bluff crossing 106 

Bluff saline '. '. .309 

BlufBngton, Mrs 142 

Rcatright headright 291 

Bogtry Creek 150, 222 

Bostick, J. W 2 

Branner, J. 11. 12 

Brazos County 3. 373 

Brazos section 33 

Brick 340 

Are 341 

Briquettes 282 

Briquetting 276, 282 

Broaddus 112 

Brookfield bluff 90 

Brookland 192 

Brooks 9 

Brooks, Bros '. !290 

Brooks S'aline 26 

Brown coal '.'6, 275 

Brown's Mountains 322 

Brownstown marl 1 . 22 

Buccinanoos ellipticum 43 

Buckley,. S. B 6, 318 

Buda limestone 16, 17, 18 

Buhlers ferry 196 

Building ,stone 367 

Bulimella kellogii Gabb 92, 171 

Bu"a Vellogii Gabb 95 

Bullard 65, 87 

Bumelia pseudotenax 54 

Buchard 31.8, 320, 329 

Burke 141, 179, 273 

Burkville 219, 261 

Burkeville formation 29 -222 

Buhrstone 5 55 

Burnett County ' 15 

Burr's Ferry 189, 222 

Butler dome 299, 308 

Byssoarca curuHoides Conrad.... 

89, 92, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100 


University of Texas Bulletin 


Caddell beds 

..29, 147, 148, 152, 165, 171, 187 

section 177 

Caddo 22, 147, 295 

Oadulus subcoarcuatus Gabb 

: 92, 96, 107 

Calcote 249 

Calhoun's ferry.' 125, 157 

Calvert 59, 282 

bluff 49 

Calycites ostreaf ormis 54 

Calyptrea sp 171 

Calyptrophorus trinodiferus 44 

valvatus Conrad 84, 93, 98 

Cambrian, middle 11 

Camilla 229, 259 

Canary 208. 229 

Cancellaria gemmata Conrad.. 9, 106 

minuto Harris 98, 106 

penrosei 148 

quercolis 43 

var. greggi 63, '89, 96, 106 

tortiplica 95, 106 

Capulus americanus 182 

Carboniferous 106 

Carium tuomeyi Aldrich 43 

Cardita planicosta 10 " 



Oaricella demessa var texanum 

Gabb. . 92 

subangula 89, 92 

Carlisle bulff 265 

Carmona 35$ 

Carpollthus n. sp '. '. 123 

Carrizo 108. 133,137 

sands 29, 55, 57, 61 

springs 61 

Carter'.s bluff '.'.'.' ' ' ' Vl 97 

Cass County . . 7, 46, 59^ 66 

Cassia bintonensis 54 

Cassidaria brevicostata 84 

brevidPntata 43 

planotecta Aldrich 92', 107 

sp 171 

Catahoula formation 

„ ^ 9, 29, 170, 177, 182,'l86 

Cedar Mills 19 

C«drela sp ' ' 123 

Center. . 277 

Centerville \[ 67 

Cerithiopsis burkevillensis ball ! . 224 

Cerithium penrosii Harris 34, 48 

sp. .^ 108, 113 

vmctum Whitfield 89, 90 

webbi Harris 1O8, 131 

whitfleldi 34 

Ceronia sp 43 45 

C«rro Gordo ' ' ' ig 

Chalk bluff 134', '-212 

Chama sp '.' 106 

Chambers' ferry 41 63 

Cherokee County 3 6 65 

Ohireno 3O4 

Chita ■...'.'.'! 209 

Chrysodomus enterogramina Gabb 

96 97 99 

Cibota mississippiensi's Conrad. . .' 95 

Cima 253 

Cincinnati bluff I59 

Cinnamonium affine Lesquereux.37, 52 

Citrophyllum sp . . . 81, 125 

Cladosporites fasciculatus Berry 

94, 164 

Claiborne 143 

fauna 8 

formation 26, 29, 56, 145 

lower 56, 61 

Mississipplan 56 

sands 56 

upper 56, 61 


Clampitt tract 218 

Clarke bluff 266 

Clavilithes dumosa var. trapaquara 

89, 92, 98 

humerosa var. texana 89, 98 

penrosei Harris. .... .71, 92, 98, 107 

Clays 9,45, 338 

brick •. 339 

china 342 

Are 339, 341 

pottery 339, 346 

slip 339 

Clegg's shoals 162 

Cleveland 256, 271 

Climax 81 

Close of Cretaceous 24 

of Eocene 183 

of Lower Eocene 54 

of Neocene 160 

Coast clays .246, 264 

prairie 269 

Costal domes 261, 262 

Cockfield beds .71, 189 

Colita 208 

CoUard's Ferry 98 

Cold S'prings . 220, 258 

beds 29 

Colmesniel 253 

Columia 223 

Columbian area 11,-44, 71, 110 

formation 204 

Columbus, La 44, 71, 116 

Comanche Peak limestone 15 

Comanchean 14, 18 

close of 19 

elevation 19 

erosion 19 

sea 13 

Combretum ovalis 52 

Concretions, calcareous 

35, 36, 41. 138. 146, 221 

cannonball 109, 122, 131, 183 


...109, 113, 116, 124, 146, 167, 178 

Cone-in-cone 117 

Conn Survey 195 

Conrad, T. A 56 

Contact, Corrigan-Fleming 

192, 218, 225, 241 

Cretaceous-Tertiary 34 

Fayette-Jackson 135 

Fleming-Lafayette 236 

Jackson-Corrigan.163, 196, 209, 213 
Lafayette-Port Hudson. .. .259, 260 


86, 101, 103. 106, 111, 122 

Midway-Lafayette. . ..34, 38, 45, 48 
Wilcox-Olaiborne. .62, 66, 73, 78, 89 

Yegua-Fayette 106, 133, 134 


112, 117, 122, 147, 153, 157, 178, 180 

Yegua-Lafayette .-. . . 255 

Conu,s sauridens Conrad. 89, 92, 95, 

97, 99, 100, 106, 108, 131, 137, 138 

Cooks Mountain 7, 91 

beds 57, 65, 66 

Cope, B. D 44 

Corbula, alabamensls Lea 

44 92 93 

96, 101, 106, 108', " '132, 148, 'l71 
aldrichi, var. Steithvillense Har- 
ris 96, 97, 98 

oniscus 110 171 

texana Gabb. . ..74, 97, 99, lOO' 176 

Cornelia armlgera 

71, 92, 96, 97, 108, 131, 13'7","l38 

Correlations 39, 60 

Corrigan deposits 7 

formation 9, 29, 145, 182, 187 

Corsicana 25, 295, 298 

The Geology of East Texas 



Cottonwood formation 287 

Courtney 358 

Cragtn, F. W 17 

Crassatella antistriata Gabb 106 

flexura 171 

srabbi 36 

rotexta Conrad var 138 

texana Heilprin 89, 92, 171 

trapaquara Harris- 106 


Alabama 166 

Alligator 194 

Ata-scosa 108 

Bedias 142 

Bear 118, 193, 202, 361 

Beef 268 

Boi-riBas. 249 

Bridge 178 

Bug- 179 

Calaveras ; 53 

Cameron 289 

Campbell 96 

Cane. . . » 94 

Cp,ney. . 165, 167 

Carolina 211 

Clear 178, 236 

Oriswell 134 

Dellards 158 

Dean 169, 370 

Dolores. . 132 

Durano 83, 117 

Elkhart 90 

Elm 102, 106 

Gail 273 

Harmon 189, 215, 232 

Kellison 125 

Kickapoo 189, 207, 268 

Louis-ville 164 

Little White Rock 164 

Lo-svs 44, 64, 67, 73 

L.UOUS 360 

Ma'on 41 

McGee 210 

Mill 84, 212 

Muddy 281 

Nails 106, 139 

Neg-ro 267 

N'elson 160, 217 

Patoquacho 73 

Penitentiary 226 

Piney 167 

Pond 33, 48 

Procella. . . ' 84 

Rocky 175, 189, 196, 207 

Salt Branch 34 

San Lorenzo 183 

S'ha-wnee 198 

SDrine- 126, 266, 271 

S'tovall 179 

Tak kiln 149 

Tia-re 138 

Town 269 

White Oak 168 

■WTiite Rock 168, 209, 2S9 

White's 150 


Wills S3 

WriKht=!' 160 

Cretaceous 13 

beds 14 

domes 261 

elevation 24 

fc^^ils 236. 238 

islands 55, 57, 58 

lower 11, IS 

.=ea ■ 14, 28 

submurgence 3 

UDOer 20, 23 

Crihb's bluff 33 

Crider 37 

Crockett 91, 122 


Crocodilus gryphus Cope 39 

Crowther 295 

Ciucullea macrodonata Whitfield.. 33 

saffordi 36 

Cummins. W. F 2 

Cupanites, n. sp 125 

Cupressinoxylon dawsoni. . .94, 123 

Cylichna Kellogi 148 

Cymbyola texana Gabb 95 

Cytheria bastropensis Harris 

96, 98, 101, 106, 137, 138, 148 

texacola Harris 

..89, 92, 93, 98, 99, 100, 108, 132 

tomadonis Harris 96, 97, 99, 171 

Dall. W. H 219, 224 

Damon Mound 261 

Davidson 81 

league 150 

Deane league 175, 266 

Deep River beds 231 

Del Rio 22 

clays 16, 17 

Denison 16 

beds 17 

Denny .station 134, 348 

Dentalium minutistriatum Gabb.. 

88, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100 

var. dumblii Harris 

89, 96, 98, 99, 106, 171 



Denver formation 53, 77 

Deposition 31, 38, 57. 186 

Deu-sen, A 5, 9, 31, 37, 53, 110, 148 

Devil's bend 198 

Dexter 28 

Diatomaceous material 182 

Dimmit County 61 

Diospyros brachyse^tata 54 

Dip 45i 122, 132, 195, 200, 234 

Distortrix septemdentata Gabb... 

89 92 93 

95,' '96,' '97, ' 99,' ' 166,' 'loi, 105, ' 

Ditrupa subcorculus Gabb 

Dolichites deusseni Berry 

Dome oil 

Domes 25, 27, 55, 184, 296, 


Drake. N. F 

Drake's ==aline 20 

Drew's Landing 229, 

Dromomeryx 232, 

Droddv's Landing 

Dryophyllum moori 

n. sp 123, 

Duck O-reek beds 

Duff siding 50, 64, 

Dumhle, E. T 2. 5, 7, 8, 10, 


Dunn's r^nch 



















Fagle Ford 21 

Faele Pass 23 

Farle 37 

Fa'st Prairie 164 

Fastham's plantation 268 

Fa-t Texas Coal Co 279 

Fchinoderms 77 

■J^d ward's limestone 15. 17, 22 

Flevations 236, 261 

Flkins mountain 322 

Flmendorf 346 

T^lmo 33 

Fl Paso 13. 16 

Fnal 304 

Fnplimatoceras ulrichi Wbitf..33. 36 
T^ndonachys maclurii. .93, 97, 100. 107 

Eocene 29. 30 

upper 57, 147 

middle , 38, 56, 134, 147 

lower 30 


University of Texas Bulletin 


Epicontinental seas H 

Equus 242 

Erato seminoides Gat>b 35 

Eriphyla trapaquara Harris 92 

Erosion 64, 143, 147, 187 

Erwin 240 

Euschistodon reticulata Gabb.... 94 

Evansville 280, 361 

Evergreen crossing 106, 231 

Exogyra arietina clays 16 

Falls County 32, 33 

Fasciolara juvinis 44 

moorii Gabb 96 

Pant 171 

• sand 171 

Fannin, W 288 

Fayette beds 

..7, 29, 57, 58, 102, 134, 149, 187 

overlap 142 

Ficus denveriana Coclierell 37 

n. sp 126 

occidentalis Le^quereux 37 

planico^tata maxima 52 

sciiimperi 52 




.62, 64 
... 9 

Flabellum conoideum 36 

cuneiforme Gabb and Horn 107 

var. pachyphyllum Gabb and 

Horn 107 

sp 96 

wailegii Conrad .171 


Grand Gulf 9, 186 

formation 182, 186, 187 

Grand Junction 63 

Grand Saline 20 

Grapeland 272 

Gravels 377 

Graif's mountain 60 

Grayson marls. 17 

Greensand 45, 58, 64, 81 

Gregg county 46, 59, 66 

Grenada formation 53, 54 

Grewiopsis tennesseensls 53 

Gregg's landing 37 

Grimes County 3, 8, 372 

Grimes Mountain 60 

Grimes station 153 

Ground sloth 264 

Groveton 122, 146, 164, 289, 371 

Grypliea mucronata 17 

Gulf coast sediments 4, 24 

eocene 25 

Gulf costal plain , 3. 13 

Gypsum 20, 25, 28, 109, 184 

crystals 67 

Hager, L 2 

Hall's bluff 5, 90 

Hatton's ferry 189 

Haminea gradis 171 

Hamilton 40, 53 

Hammock 180 

Hanks, W., grant 252 

Hardin County 3, 6 

Harper tract 343 

Harris County 259 

TTie Geology of East Texas 



Inga n. sp 125 

Irona 74, 248 

Interior domes 263 

International & great Northern 

Ry 282 

lola 153, 154 

Iron mountain 323 

Iron industry 7 

Iron ore,s 6, 58, 59, 66, 318 

carbonates 64, 66, 73 

conglomerate 49 


laminated 321 

nodular 319 

Jack's tayou 141 

Jackson 9, 145 

formation, . 29, 59, 110, 145, 184, 187 

Jacksonville 65, 66 87 

Jasper 192, 249 

Jasper County 3 

Jefferson 62 

Jewett 279 

Johnson 30 

Johnson's bluff 229 

Jones' bridge 130 

Jurassic 13 

Keechi dome 300, 308 

Keechl island 26 

Kelley, W. "W 2, 151, 239 

Kellum springs 291, 362, 364 

Kelley's .switch 258 

Kellia pruna 44 

Kennard mill 258 

Kennedy, W. . .-2, 7, 8, 33, 35, 46, 65, 

86, 91, 107, 125, 149, 269, 303, 319 

Kerr, W., tract 218 

Kiamitla clays 17 

King dome 36 

Kittrell 158 

Knight's landing 223 

Knowlton 47 

Koppe's bridge 151 

Kruttschnitt, J 2 

Kuykendall survey 103 

Kyles quarry 374 

Lacinia alveata Conrad 

108, 131, 137, 


..29, 64, 70, 77, 81, 113, 116, 

Lagarto 29, 220, 236, 

Lamb S'prings 

Land, Barney 

Lapara 29, 220, 

Lapparia pactilis var. mooreana 

Gabb 92, 98. 

Laramide elevation 24, 25, 26 

Las Guerreras bluff 

Latirus moorei Gabb 

. .88, 92, 96, 97, 98, 100, 101, 

Laurella. . 

Laurlnoxylon n. sp 

Laurus wardiana Knowlton 

Lea, Isaac 

Leda aldrichiana 


houstonia Harris 91, 

milamensls Harris 34 

opulenta Conrad 

95, 98, 100, 101, 106, 




Leguminosltes arachiodes Les- 


Leiostoma ludivlciana 


Leon County 3, 64. 

Lerch, Otto 




















Levif usus indentus 43 

pagoda 43 

supra planus 43 

trabeatoides 99, 100, 101 

trabeatus -....43, 44, 108, 132 

Liberty County 267 

Lignite 7, 28, 43, 45, 58, 109, 275 

Lignitic beds 37, 38, 39, 73 

fauna 62 

land 27 

stage 29, 45 

Limestone County 3, 6, 45, 277 

Limonite 29, 64, 66 

Lisbon beds 56 

Little Rock 32 

Llano 11, 12 

Llano-Burnet 11. 14 

Llanoria. 11, 1'2, 13 

Loess 264 

Lopansport 40 

Longbridge 6 

Longviewo 62 

Lorimer 156 

Lovelady 123, 273, 285 

Low, Jesse, survey 27 

Lowe, B. C., survey 195 

Loup Fork 238, 243 

Lucas headright 179 

Lufkin 83, 84, 117, 119 

Lufkin deposits 7 

Lunulites 96 

Lygodium kaulfussi Heer 125 

mlssissippiensis Berry 170 

Mactra sp. a 148 

bistriata 44 

Madracis sp 107 

Madison County 3, 129, 287 

Mainstreet limestone 17 

Malakoff 341 

Malone Mountain 13 

Malvern 32, 54 

Mammoth 264. 268 

Mancha league 289 

Manning 370 

beds 29, 148, 156, 187 

Manspeed 36 

Manton Ill, 256 

Many dome 36 

Mararinella semen Lea 95, 110 

Marion beds 38, 58 

county 46, 59, 62, 66 

front 58 

substage 29, 57, 64 

Marlbrook marl 23 

-Marshall 6, 47 

Martesia texana Harris 89 

Mascall beds 233 

Mastodon 233 

Matthew, Dr, W. D 219, 231, 236 

Matthews' landing 34 

Matson, 187. 224 

Maverick County 32, 61 

Mazzalina plena 43 

McClanahan's shoals 69, 249 

McGee, J. W 246, 259 

McGilreny bluff 179 

McKem's prairie 309, 314 

McLain 322 

Melrose 6 

Mendez, Mex 183 

Meniphylloides ettinghauseni 53 

Merychippus 225, 231 

seversus. . . ■ 232, 237 

Mesalia claibornensi,s Conrad 

89, 92, 96, 97, 99, 100, 107 

Mesozoic 11, 13 

Mespilodaphne n. sp 123, 125 

Metopium wilcoxianum 53 

Mexia 34, 35, 29& 


University of Texas Bulletin 


Mexico 11, 13, 22, 24 186 

Midway fauna 8, 26, 30 

stage. . ^^'„52 

Milam 249 

bluff; -oV ii 

county 'ooi 

Miller, R., survey ^^1 

Mimositeg georgianus Berry 1^6 

Mineral localities ^ 

Minter springs Ig^ 

Miocene • • ■ Ig^ 

Mis=is,sippi embayment, . . .13, 28, 54 
MToffltt Springs 217 

mooriana Gabb ^5 

Modiola alabamensis 43 

stubbsi 3 b 

Moffiitt Springs 217 

Monoptygma crassiplica Conrad. . 95 

Monterey, Mex 32 

Monterey, Tex 112 

Montgomery County 3 

Moran's landing 41 

Mormisia americana Berry 125 

Morris County 59 

iron 7 

Moscow 204. 227 

MOpSeley'"! Ferry _99 

Mo^sy Hill 193 

Mott, Jas 178 

Mounds 272, 311 

Mount Enteprise 67 

Mount Salman 59, 248 

M.ud volcanoes 294, 311 

Munsou's .shoals 129 

Murchison headriprht 90 

Murex compsorhytis Gabb 94 

Murfreesboro 15 

Myrcia catahoulensis Berry 170 

Myristica catahoulen,sis Berry.... 123 

Nacatosh sand 23, 295 

Nacogdoches 63, 78, 294 

beds 57, 65, 67, 89, 265 

N'acogdoches County 

3, 6, 49, 59, 81, -264, 277, 352 

iron ores 7, 322 

Naheola 34 

Nanafalia 37, 39, 40, 43 

Napier 258 

Nassa exilis 43, 44 

Natica alabamensis 43 

aperta 43 

arata Gabb. . . .92, 93, 96, 97, 101, 107 

eminula 43, 44 

limula Conrad 92, 93, 96 

Limula var 89, 107 

newtonensis Aldrich 89, 98 

recurva var. dumblii Heilprin. . 

108, 131, 132, 137 

pemilunata var. janthinops 

sp 36, 92, 107, 166 

Natural gas 292 

Navarro beds 23, 26, 29 

county 3, 45 

N'avasota beds 220 

Nectandra lancifolia 53 

n. sp 123, 125 

n. var 123 

sp 53 

Nelleva junction 1S9 

Neocene 29. 218, 219 

Nentunea enterogramma Gabb.... 94 

Neritira sparsalineata Dall 2'5 

>"e verita arata Gabb 95 

Nevil's prairie 123 

New Birmingham 60 

New Salem 323 

Newton County 3 

Niblett's shoals 99 


Nimrod 256 

Normanville 258 

N'ucula magnifica Conrad „„ 

95, 97, 101, 106 

Nueces section 105 

Nyssa n. sp 123 




Oakville formation 29, 189, 

Obsidian 204. 

Occulina sp 93 



Oil City ., : 

Olevilla bombylis var. burlesonis 

Harris ■ • • ■ • • ■ 

Oligocene 9, 24, 184, 

Onalaska 207, 209, 

beds 29, 189. 

Oolitic greensands 

Opaline matter 

Opaline cemented sandstone 

123 157 209 
Opalized 'wood'.'.'.'.'. .109, 147, 204] 

Orange sand 220, 

Orbitoides papyracea Bou 


Orell's crossing 

Oreodaphne n. sp 



Orogenic action 

Orasenic forces 

Orogenic movements. .35, 59, 143, 

yVustin chalk 

Upper Eocene 

Upper Pliocene 

Ostrea alabamensis Lea 

92, 95, 108, 131, 

var. contracta Conrad. . . . ; 

136, 137. 138, 139. 

crenulimarginata Gabb 33 


johnsoni var 

pulaskansis Harris. . . .33, 36, 69 

;=ellaefornis Conrad 56, 


var. divaricata Lea .". . 

88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 98, 99, 108, 

Virginia Gmelin 

Ouachita sediments 


Oyster bluff > 33, 

, 97 




















, 36 








Pachycheilus anaprramatis Dall...22'4 

saltilensis Aldrich 224 

sauvis Dall 225 

Page 15 

Palaganche 44, 249 

Paleozoic 11, 12, 31, 32 

Palestine 59, 67, 304 

dome 20, 25, 143, 299, 308 

Palmetto 221 

Palmoxylon texense 193 

Palm's fossil igg_ 221 

Paludestrina plana Aldrich 225 

Paluxy sand 14 

Panola Coimty 3, 27, 49 57 

iron .' 7 

Parker survey 209 

Patrick's ferry 229 

Patroon bayou 41 

Pawnee Creek beds .231 

Peces ferry 199 

Pecten claibornensis .' 39 

cornuus gS 

deshaysil Lea gg^ gg 

■sp .' 76 

Pelican station 271 

The Geology of East Teioas 


Pennington .'.142, 164 


Pendleton 40 

bluff 39 

Pennsylvanian 1] 

Penrose, R. A. F. Jr 

5, 6, 37, 60, 87, 102, 108, 134, 324 

Perchoerus 231 

PerlRue bluff 265 

Perkins grant 252 

Permian 12 

Persea longipetiolatuni 53 

n. sp 88, 92, 125 

Pery ' 121 

Petroleum 6, 292 

Petunculua idoneus 72, 106, 171 

.sp 171 

Phelps 231, 259 

Philleo furnace 324 

Phillips, Drurv McN 9 

Phillips, W. B 9, 285, 318 

Pholadomya claibornensis Aldrich 

P sp. 


Pholas alatoideus : 44 

Phos 106 

texana Gabb. var 89, 

92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 100. 101, 107 

Piedmont springs 291, 356, 362 

Pilot Knob.' 24 

Pine Bluff 128, 135, 267 

Pine island 2^9 

Pinna sn 106, 171, 176, 179 

Planorbi=i 231 

Plant remains 170 

Platanu"! latifolia Knowlton 55 

occidentalis. . . ., 37 

Plate * Ill, 256 

Plei."?tocene 264 

Plejona praecursor 34 

Plevo river 11, 13 

Pleurotoma 104, 106 

anacona 33, 36 

bela Conrad 96 

childreni Harris 96, 97, 98, 101 

crassiplicata 106 

enffonata Conrad.. 91, 92, 95, 99, 100 

faunae Harris : . . 98 

gabbi Oonrad 88, 

91, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 106 

huppertzi 44 

infans 92 

moorei Gabb 91, 95 

var 100 

natchi 43 

nodocarinata Gabb.... 89, 91, 92, 
95, 96, 97, 99, 100, 106, 108. 132 

ostrarupis Harris 33, 48 

Plenta Harris.. 95, 97, 99, 100, 106 

var. bitota 106 

quassalis 148 

quasitus 101 

reticulata 106 

retifera Gabb 96 

sulcata 43 

,?p 91, 92, 94, 95 

terebriformi"! 110 

texana var pleboldes Harris 92 

texicona Harris 106 

Plicatula fllamento'a 

72, 89, 91, 95, 98, 106 

Polk County 3, 264 

Pollock 89 

Pomeranes, Sierra de 184 

Porcellaneous cement 

109, r46, 147, ISS 

.oanflstone 192 

Port Caddo landing 47, 53, 62 

Port Hudson formation 230, 264 

Portamides mat=!oni Dall 224 

var. gracillior Dall 224 


Potomac 173, 180, 289 

Pottsboro 17 

Pouroma texana Berry 37 

Powell 295 

Prado leaigue 164 

Pre-Cambrlan 12 

Pre-Cretaceous 11 

Presidio del Norte 14 

Preston beds 17 

Prices crossing 104 

Procamelus 237 

Producer gas 9 

Prosthennops 231 

Protohippus 225 

medius Cope 238 

perditus Leldy 238 

placidus Leldy 238 

Pretolabis 237 


Pteropsis conradi Dana 96, 100 

Pvrite 29, 73, 76, 212 

Pvrula penita Oonrad var 96, 98 

'texana Aldrich 97, 100, 107 

Quaking bogs 273 

Quartzite 140, 142, 154, 175. 201 

Queen City 61, 65 

beds 29, 38, 47, 54, 58, 61, 71 

Raprsdale Mountain 60 

Ramireno ranch 137 

Ramones 32 

Ranem .survey 229 

Rapid=i 200 

Ra=:pberry headright 207 

Ratcliff 258 

Renfroe place 140 

Rhamnites berchemiaformis 54 

Rhinoceras 242 

Rice sands 146, 188, 206 

Ridden, J. C 5 

Ries, H 9, 338, 344 

Rimella texana var, plena Harris. 

89, 98 

Ringicula trapaquara Harris 106 

Rio Grande embayment 24 

Ripley sea 31 

Rivers: • 

Angelina. . 30, 82, 116, 117, 178, 265 

Atascosa 59 

Attoyac 116, 249 

Brazos 21, 29, 30, 32, 45, 67 

Colorado. . .14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 32, 45 

Conchos 183 

Devils 17 

Frio 32 

Litle Brazos 34, 101, 129 

Navasota 30 

N'eches 117 

Nueces ■ 

Old 135 

Pisquiera 32 

Red 16, 21, 27 

Rio Grande 14, 22, 23, 32, 107 

Sabine 29, 30, 38 

Palinas 32 

S'an Jacinto 266, 259 

Trinity 6, 29, 30. 266 

Tegua 102, 107 

Riverside 163, 210 

Roan's Prairie 217 

Roark'.s gravel pit 258 

Robbin's ferry 94, 110, 125 

Robertson County 3, 8 

Robin's ferry. 181 

Rock Bluft 40 

Rockdale 282 

Rockland 195, 253 

Rocky Mountain chain 24, 25 

province 53 


University of Texas Bulletin 


Roemer, P 99 

Roock league '217 

Roma 136, 139 

Rose quartz 210 

Rusk 60, 87 

county 3, 6, 49, 65 

iron 7, 323 

Sabalites grayanus 53, 54 

vlcksburgensis Berry 170 

S'alinas movement 24 

Saline embayment 299 

formation 38 

parish 38 


26, 55, 57, 68, 261, 299, 301 

phase 40 

stage 29 

Sabine Pass 6 

Sabine River beds 38, 64 

S'abinetown 26, 27, 63 

Sabinetown bluff 38, 39, 43, 248 

ferry ■_■ 43 

S'alinas barrier 24 

Saline 272, 309 

Salmon 272 

gait 25, 28, 261, 296, 307 

deposits 20 


licks 309 

rocks 262 

San Augustine 63, 76, 249 

San Augustine County 

3, 6, 49, 59, 74, 178 

S'an Fernando ° 183 

San Ignacio 132 





Sandstone 367 

Sandstone dikes 179 

Sapindus bintonensis 54 

formosa 125 

georgiana Berry 125 

lineariforlius 54 

Saratoga 294 

S'aspamco 346 

Scala sp 126 

S'chuchert, C 11 

Scobinella crassiplicata Gabb 94 

leviplicata Gabb 94 

Scott, W. B 2 

Scutella 70 

caput-leonensis 89 


Aaron's hill 79 

Alto 88 

Angelina river 194 

Bowie Hill 320 

Brazos and Grimes county 149 

Brazos river.. 48, 97, 129, 218, 238 

Burkeville. 223 

Cold Spring's 230 

Colorado river 

Cooks Mountain 91 

Gibson gin 49 

Groveton 165 

Groveton-Lufkin & Northwest- 
ern Ry 119, 165 

Hidalgo Blutt 239 

Houston East and Wast Texas 

Ry..63, 78, 117, 170. 200, 227. 256 
International and Great North- 
ern Ry.l22, 153, 163, 213, 217, 231 

Irma 74 

Kickapoo creek 207 

Man'ing 176 

Mt. S'elman 87 

Nacogdoches 79 


Neches river 197 

Orton Hill 79 

Pendleton bluff 42 

Rio Grande 130, 136 

Rusk 88 

Sabine river 

40, 67, 87, 110, 181, 189, 222 

S'abinetown bluff 43 

San Augustine 75, 76 

Santa Fe Ry 

. .50, 64, 74, 111, 180, 192, 225, 249 
St. Louis & Southwestern. .86, 112 

Tehuacana ; 34 

Te.xas and New Orleans Ry. . . . 

Ill, 195, 226, 253 

Texas Southeastern Ry 119 

Trinity Brazos Valley Ry 152 

Trinity river.. 89, 125, 157, 210, 229 

Westmoreland bluft 127 

Whellock 94 

Wills Point 35 

Selenite 81. 84, 

103, 109, 118, 122, 179, 184, 202 

clastic 109 

S'emele lienosa 137 

Sevenoaks 227 

Shale Oil 297 

Shawnee prairie 176, 179 

Shelby County 3, 27, 49, 57, 277 

iron 7, 322 

Shepherd 256, 258 

S'hiloh 35 

Shipp's ford 143 

Shreveport 191 

Shumard. B. F 5, 242, 318 

Slderite 28 

Sierra Blanca .• 13 

Sigaretus declivis Conrad 

44, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99 

incinstans /.Idrich 96. 101 

Silicified wood 109, 112, 

120, 122, 141, 154, 166, 194, 250 

Siliqua simondsi 148 

Silurian, upper 11 

Simonds 9 

Singleton 153, 156, 217 

Smiley's bluff 33, 48 

Smith County 26, 59, 65 

Smith, Eugene 30 

Smither's farm 215 

S'mlthfleld ■ 229 

Smith's ferry 199 

Snell's landing 190 



Solarium acutum, var. meekanum 

89, 96, 97, 99, 100, 107 

alvatum 98, 107, 171 

bellastriatum 107 

bellense 43 

huppertzi 107, 171 

scorblculatum 96, 97, 98, 107 

vespertinum 96 

Sonada, Mex 183 

Sophora wilcoxiana Berry 125 

Sour Lake 6, 145. 294 

South Texas Coal Company 279 

Southern Pacific Company 12 

S'outhwestern Fuel Company 282 

Spanish Bluft 127 

Rpharella antiproducta 49 

Sphaerodial weathering 206 

K'pindletop 275, 294 

Spirorbls leptostoma Swain.... 92, 95 

Splendora. 256 

Spring 259 

Spring Line '70 

Star and Crescent Mines 329 

Starr County 136 

.''tate farm 235 

State mines 329 

Tlie Geology of East Texas 



S'teen's Saline 25, 26 

Stephenson, L. "W 37 

Stephenson league 148 

Sterculia n. sp 125 

Stivers' Saline 309, 314 

Stone. Robert, grant 194 

Sucks 273, 311 

Sulphur 28, 261, 296 

Sulphur bluff 130 

Sulphur Springs 291 

S^iman, J. R 2, 93, 109, 141, 170 

Summit 221 

Sun Mounds 260, 261 

S'ymola trapaquara Harris. . .107, 144 
S'ynecodus 78, 175 

Taff, J. A 

Tallahatta 55, 

Tamaulipas range. 24, 56, 

Tampico .' 

Tarkington prairie 

Ta>T=ie Bell furnace 

Taylor marl 23, 


Teleoceras 225, 

Tellina mooreana Gabb 

101, 108, 132, 137, 138, 



Tepetate. Mex 

Terebellum sp 

Terebra houstonia Harris. .88, 95, 

texasyra var, Harris 92. 

Terminalia hildegardiana Lesau- 

ereux 37 

Terraces 208, 251, 266, 











Texas Grading Company quarry. . 

Thompson Bros. Lumber Co 

Thompson lieadright 

Thorp, Jane, survey 



Timber Belt beds 7, 31, 38, 




Topography 46, 49 

59, 109, 141, 177, 181, 193, -204, 

Tordo bay 

Town bluff 226, 251. 

Trans-Pecos 16, 24 

Transitional beds 33, 65, 188, 

Travis Peak sand 

Trewick's bluff 84, 

Triassic -. ■ 


Trigonarca corbuloides Oonrad. . . . 

pulihl-a' Gabb '.'.'.'AH 'sV, ' 9l', 95', 
Trilophodon 230, 231, 232, 


Tritonidea pachecci ■ . • ■ 

Trinity Ko. 

County • • ■ 

formation 14 

Trinity-Neches divide 

Troohita sp • • • ■ • 

Trochosmilla mortoni Gabb 

Trosper farm 

Truitt place 






, 53 

























, 25 













, 20 



, 93 



Tuba antiqua, var. texana. .96, 99, 107 

Turginolia pharetra Lea 

92, 93, 96, 97, 98, 100, 107 

Turpentine 289 

Turricula polita Gabb.. 92, 96, 99, 107 




















Turris kelloggi Gabb 



Turritella dumbli Harris.. 96, 97, 

dutexta 89, 

houstonia 107, 108, 132, 

mortoni 36, 

nasuta var 71, 

praecincta. . . /. 

»r 53, 98, 104, 105, 148, 155, 





Udrlen, J. A'. 2, 12 

Udell, C. B 258 

Umbrella planulata 182 

Unconformities 81, 82, 250 

Unio sp 69, 128, 236 

Union Hill 362 

Upshur County 59, 66 

iron. . 7 

Urbana 258 

Urbana gravel pit 377 

Uvalde 12 

Vair 122 

Van Zandt County 33, 45 

iron 7 

Vaughan, T. W 62, 107, 145 

Veatch. A. 5, 9, 38, 40, 47, 

68, 110, 143, 145, 178, 186, 187, 222 

Venericardia alticostata 33, 36 

var. perantiqua 133 

planicosto Lamarck 

36, 41, 44, 48, 66, 69, 88, 92, 93, 
96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 106, 
108, 132, 137, 138, 148, 155, 171 

rotunda Lea 88, 98, 171 

sp 74, 176 

Vertebrates 231, 236, 242 

Vicksburg formation 9, 145, 185 

Vivian 27 

Volcanic ash 

24, 146, 154, 182, 188, 202, 361, 362 

eruptions 4, 146, 187 

necks 5 

tuft 163, 168, 183 

Volcanoes. ' 147, 206 

Volga 267 

Volutilitbes 104, 137, 176 

dalli Harris 96 

limop.sis Conrad 36 

petrosa Conrad. 44, 88, 89, 92, 95, 
99, 100, 107, 108, 132. 137, 138, 171 

var. indenta 

89, 92, 96, 97, 98, 107, 108, 132 
praecursor Dall. . . .89, 92, 96, 97, 99 

rugatus 36 

sp 69 

Volvula conradiana Gabb 91, 95 

• minutissima Gabb 106 

"Waco 6, 24 

"Wailes 186 

Walker County 3 

Walker, J. B 7 

^V^alnut clays 15 

Warsaw 116, 255 

Washington 242 

Washita formation 16 


University of Texas Bulletin 


limestone 16 

Water supply 9 

Waters Park 295 

Webb County 131 

Webberville 23, 32 

Weiser's Bluff 159 

Weldon 126 

Welborn 145 

beds 29, 142, 147, 148 

Wells, Cleveland 257 

Espersa 297 

Flat Fork ' 302 

Groveton Light and Ice Co 289 

Lucas 294 

Marshall 47 

Mexico Oil and Gas Co 298 

Mineola 47 

Palmetto Petroleum Co 302 

Producer 301 

Sulphur Springs 48 

Wells, Texas 89 

West Point 134 

Westcott 258 

Westmoreland bluff 126, 266 

Westville 168 

Wheelock 94, 282 

White Bluff marl 256 

White City 178, 179, 255 

White Marl Bluff 134 

White Rock ghoals 212, 267 

"Wicker Slarvey 169 

Wilcox '. 37 

fauna 8, 25, 39, 45 


formation 29, 37 

Wilkins mill 62 

Willard 154 

Williams quarry 148, 150 

Willis 232, 268 

Willow switch 62, 260 

Wills Point 32, 35 

Wilson County 53, 59 

Winfield 143 

Wood County iron 7 

Woodbine 18 

formation 20, 21, 25, 29, 294, 300 

Woodville 246 

Wood's Bluff 37, 39,- 44 

Wooters Bluff 90 

station 123, 284 

Worril 9 

Wortham 34, 298, 340 

Yazoo City 145 

Yegua age 106 

beds .29, 8« 

deposits 7, 58 

substagc 57, 65, 102, 296 

Yoldia aldrichiana 101, 137 

claibornensis 95, 101, 148 

Young's furnace 321 

Zapata 108, 136 

county ,..131 

Zavalla 289 

Zana 252 

Zenyloda 145, 178