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in Iceland in 1771, died at Brunswick in 
1817. German school ; landscape painter, 
pupil at Salzdahlum, Brunswick, of Joiiann 
Friedrich Weitsch, -whom he even surpassed 
in the treatment of trees. He was the six- 
teenth son of his parents, was shipwrecked in 
Denmark, and wandered under great priva- 
tions to Poland, and thence to Brunswick. 
Studied diligently the famous works in the 
Salzdahlum Gallery, and in 1802 visited 
Dresden, where he painted two landscapes 
in the manner of Euisdael that excited the 
admiration of connoisseurs. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xii. 383. 

HLAVlCEK, ANTON, born in Vienna in 
1842. Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Steinfeld and Albert Zim- 
mermann ; made a study trip to the Bava- 
rian Alps in 1863, then went to Worms, 
whence he visited the banks of the Rhine 
and the Odenwald. Works : From Environs 
of Vienna (1859) ; View near Gastein (1860) ; 
Mountain Landscape (1861) ; View near 
Salzburg (1862) ; Morning on Hintersee 
(1863) ; View of Worms from Meerstadt 
Height ; Lindenf els in the Odenwald ; De- 
parture of Burgrave of Rodenstein from 
Burg Schnellerts ; Morning in Rhenish Pa- 
latinate, Vienna Museum ; Konigsee (1869); 
The Imperial City on the Danube (1884). — 
Allgem. K. Ch., ix. 147 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
XX. 269, 495. 

HOBBEMA, MEYNDERT (Minderhout), 
born at Koeverden or at Amsterdam (?) in 
1638, died at Amsterdam, buried Dec. 14, 
1709. Dutch school ; landscape painter, 
formed himself under the influence of 
Jacob van Euisdael. Much neglected in 
his life-time, and little esteemed, this paint- 
er now takes rank as one of the greatest 
masters of landscape art, thanks to the initi- 
ative of England, where nine-tenths of his 
works are to be found. With less inventive 
genius and less poetic feeling than Euisdael, 
Hobbema surpassed him in truth to atmos- 
pheric effect, in tone, and in brilliancy of 
colour. These qualities give a magical 

beauty to the generally prosaic scenes which 
he habitually treated. Some of his land- 
scapes are enlivened with figures by Pieter 
Bouts, Adrian van der Velde, Berghem, Lin- 
gelbach, Storck, Helt-Stokade, B. Gael, and 
Helmbreker. Works ; Showery Weather, 
Avenue at Middelharnis, Ruins of Brederode 
Castle (1667), Village with Water-Mills, 
Forest Scene, Woody Landscape, Castle in 
Rocky Landscape, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; landscapes in Buckingham Palace (3), 
Bridgewater (3), Dulwich (2), and Gros- 
venor (2) Galleries, Hertford House, Baring, 
Dudley, Wynn Ellis, Holford, Lord Over- 
stone's Collections, ib. ; Glasgow Gallery 
(5) ; National Gallery, Edinburgh (2) ; Lou- 
vre, Paris ; Museums of Bordeaux, Antwerp, 
Brussels (1663), Amsterdam (3), Rotterdam 
(2), Berlin, Darmstadt (1649), Dresden (2), 
Gotha, Konigsberg, Leipsic (?), Stuttgart 

fWie/um)^ht f\ 




(2), Vienna, New York ; Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort (2) ; Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg (1663) ; Historical Society, New York 
(2). — Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 516 ; Dohme, 

lii.; Gaz.desB. Arts (1859), iv. 28; (1864), 
xvi. 214 ; Immerzeel, ii. 41 ; Kramm, iii. 
693 ; vii. 77 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 475 ; 
Eichter, 76. 

HODGSON, JOHN EVAN, born in Lon- 
don, March 1, 1831. Subject painter, stu- 
dent in 1855 of the Eoyal Academy, where 
he first exhibited in 1856. Painted at first 
domestic subjects, then historical pictures 
from 1861 to 1865 ; and, after a visit to 
North Africa, subjects of Moorish life, to 
which he has since mostly confined his ef- 
forts. Became an A.E.A. in 1873 and E.A. 



in 1879. Works : Arrest of a Poacher 
(1857); Canvassing for a Vote (1858); Pa- 
triot Wife (1859); 
Sir Thomas More's 
Daughter in Hol- 
bein's Studio (1861) ; 
Return of Sir Fran- 
cis Drake from Cadiz 
(1862); First Sight 
of the Armada 
(1863); Queen Eliza- 
beth at Purileet 
(1864); Taking 
Home the Bride (1865) ; Jewess accused of 
W^itchcraft (1866); Even Song (1867); Ro- 
man Trireme at Sea (1868) ; Arab Storj'- 
TeUer (1869) ; Pasha's Black Guards (1870); 
Snake Charmer (1872) ; Barber's Shop in 
Tunis (1875) ; Relatives in Bond (1877); The 
Pasha (1878) : Bound for the Black Sea— 
1854 (1881); Painter and Critic (1882); 
Egypt (1882) ; The Water Dance (1883) ; 
Flat Perjury, There Nelson Fell, The Drowsy 
East, Gate of the Sea, Church Afloat (1884) ; 
Don Quixote and the Galley Slaves (1885). 
—Portfolio (1871), 18. 

HOECGEEST, C. (CorneHs?), born at 
The Hague, flourished about 1610-51. 
Dutch school ; architecture painter, perhaps 
son of the portrait painter Joachim H., at 
The Hague, who entered the guild there in 
1610 ; painted chiefly interiors of churches 
with a masterly brush. Works : Interior of 
New Church in Delft, Interior of Protestant 
Church, Antwerp Museum ; Interior of New 
Church in Delft (1650), Monument of WiU- 
iam of Orange in same Church (1651), 
Hague Museum ; Choir in Delft Cathedral 
(1655), Interior of Flemish Church, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Interior of Basilica, Olden- 
burg Gallery ; Church Interior, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. — Immerzeel, ii. 43 ; Kramm, 
iii. 699. 

at Klingenau, Switzerland, Oct. 19, 1754, 
died in Vienna, Jan. 1, 1832. History, 
genre, and portrait painter, pupil at St. 
Blasien of Morat, and in Augsburg of Hart- 

mann ; settled in Munich in 1780, acquired 
reputation through historical paintings, and 
was made court-painter to the Elector 
Charles Theodor, after whose death in 1800 
he settled at Vienna, where also he became 
court-painter in 1802. Works : Meeting of 
Charles Theodor and Emperor Francis in 
Munich (1793) ; Coronation of Emperor 
Francis, Banquet in the Romer at Frankfort 
(1801), Wedding of Emperor Francis, Wed- 
ding Banquet, Laxenburg Palace ; Suit of 
Prince Berthier for the Hand of Marie Lou- 
ise, Marriage of Marie Louise, Harrach Gal- 
lery, Vienna ; Old Peasant, Old Woman, 
Vienna Museum. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xii. 
522 ; Wurzbach, ix. 89. 

MIIK, born in Munich in 1790, died in Vi- 
enna, Dec. 12, 1835. History painter, pupil 
of Munich Academy under Kobell, and of 
Vienna Academy under PUger and Dies. 
In 1815 went to Paris with the Austrian 
Emperor, and in 1819 to Rome and Naples. 
In 1833 he succeeded his father, Johann 
Baptist, as court-painter at Vienna. Works : 
Battle at Aspern, The AlUed Armies cross- 
ing the Vosges, Vienna Museum ; Rudolf 
von Hapsburg and the Priest ; Battle-Pieces, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xii. 523 ; Wurzbach, ix. 90. 

HOECKE, JAN VAN DEN, born in Ant- 
werp, baptized Aug. 4, 1611, died there in 
1651. Flemish school ; history and portrait 
painter, son and pupil of Kasper van den 
Hoecke (master of Antwerp guild, 1603), 
then pupil of Rubens. He visited Italy, and 
on his return executed many works for the 
court at Vienna. Settled in Antwerp as 
court-painter to Archduke Leopold William 
in 1647. Good draughtsman and pleasing 
colourist. Works : St. Francis adoring the 
Child, Museum, Antwerp ; Holy Family, St. 
Willebrordus Church, ib. ; Christ bearing 
the Cross, Entombment, Notre-Dame, Mech- 
lin ; Entombment, St. John's, ib.; do., St. 
Quentin's, Louvain ; Christ on the Cross, St. 
Salvator's, Bruges ; do., Dunkirk Museum ; 
Martyrdom of St. Mary of Cordova, Dijon 



Museum ; Resurrection, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Madonna and Angels, Allegory on 
Transitoriness, January and February, July 
and August, September and October, Day 
and Night, Archduke Leopold William in 
Prayer, do. on Horseback, Museum, Vienna ; 
Samson and Delilah, Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, Cimon and Pera, Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, ib. — • 

Allgem. d. ^ y^li^ L^ 
Biogr.xii. J[/^ JTO^CK 
549; Ch. ^^ y, , \^ 

Blanc, ficole I iO ^ f-t 

flamande ; Cat. du Musee d'Anvers (187-4), 
429 ; Immerzeel, ii. 42 ; Kramm, iii. 699 ; 
Michiels, viii. 97; Eooses (Reber), 317; 
Van den Brnnden, 794. 

in Antwerp, Nov. 30, 1622, died after 1695. 
Flemish school ; genre, landscape, and bat- 
tle painter, son and pupil of Kasper, and 
half-brother of Jan ; master of the guild in 
1645. His style was evidently influenced 
by Teniers the younger, and his pictures 
are admired for great delicacy of tone, 
splendid colouring, and richness of compo- 
sition. While controller of the fortifications 
of Flanders he painted many military camps 
and scenes, executing the figures on a small 
scale and with great minuteness. Works : 
Skating in Town-moat at Brussels (1649), 
View of Ostend, Military Camps (3), March 
of Troops, Halt of Travellers by an Inn, 
Flemish Store-room (1695), Nocturnal Con- 
flagration, Vienna Museum ; Military Camp 
(1665), Dunkirk Museum. — Allgem. d. 
Biogi'., xii. 549 ; Immerzeel, ii. 43 ; Kramm, 
iii. 700 ; Van den Branden, 797. 

at JonkOping, Aug. 26, 1826, died inGoteburg, 
Sept. 16, 1866. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Stockholm Academy under Boklund, 
with whom he went to Munich in 1846. 
After his return (1849) he visited Lapland, 
went in 1853 to Paris, where he allied him- 
self with Max Hess, travelled in 1857 tlirough 
Holland, Belgium, and England, in 1858 
made studies in Dalecarlia, and in 1861 vis-. 

ited Spain, Italy, and North Africa, Medals 
in 1857, 1866 ; Orders of Wasa and North 
Star. Works : Bandits (1846) ; Queen Chris- 
tina ordering Execution of Monaldeschi 
(1853); Divine Service in Lapland Chapel 
(1855); Return from Chase in Lapland ; 
Interior of Lapland Hut (1857), Lapland 
Wedding (1858), Stockholm Museum ; Res- 
cue of Gustavus Vasa (1858); Peasant Wo- 
man at the Hearth (1862); Portraits of Bey 
of Tunis (1861), and Charles XV.; Burning 
of Palace in Stockholm in 1697 ; Bellman 
in Sergell's Studio ; Dead Body of Charles 
XL— Taflor. 

in Pesth in 1786, died in Vienna in Feb., 
1864. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of EJrafft and of Vienna Academy', where he 
won the great prize in 1811 ; visited Italy 
in 1818, and after his return painted many 
altarpieces for churches in Austria and Hun- 
gary. Works : ^geus recognizing Theseus 
by his Sword (1811); Sons of Diagoras as 
Victors at Olympia (1820) ; Series of Twenty- 
Four Figures for Imperial Palace ; Portrait 
of Ladislaus Pyrker. — Wurzbach, ix. 97 ; 
Hormayr, Archiv., 623. 

HOEFNAGEL, JORIS, born at Antwerp 
in 1545, died in Vienna after 1618. Flem- 
ish school ; genre, landscape, portrait, and 
miniature painter, mostly self-taught, but 
for a time pupil at Mechlin of Jan Bol, after 
having travelled through France and Spain 
in 1563-65, where he made many drawings 
of notable objects. Returned to Antwerp, 
and uniting with his art the business of a 
jewel dealer, he and his father were pillaged 
of everything on the invasion by the Span- 
iards in 1576, and went to Augsburg, thence 
to Munich, where, after a visit to Italy, he 
spent eight years, patronized by the elector; 
visited England about 1582 ; worked tem- 
porarily for the Archduke Ferdinand at 
Innsbruck, then entered the service of Em- 
peror Rudolph at Prague, for whom he illus- 
trated four books on natural history, and 
finally settled at Vienna. Works : Minia- 
ture View of Seville (1573, masterpiece). 


Burgundian Library, Brussels ; Eoman 
Missal (1582-90), Imperial Library, Vienna. 
His son Jacobus, born at Frankfort in 1575, 
became court-painter to the Emperor Eu- 
clolph in 1607. In the museum at Valencia 
there is a fine water-colour drawing by him : 
Samson slaying the Philistines (1600). — 
Fetis, Les artistes beiges a I'etranger, i. 85 ; 
Michiels, vi. 239 ; Nagler, Mon., iii. 564. 

HOEGG, JOSEF, bora in Coblentz in 
1826. Genre painter, pupil of Dusseldorf 
Academy, paints chiefly mournful subjects. 
Works : Farewell of Emigrant Wine-Grow- 
ers (1846) ; At Mother's Coffin (1847); Boy 
reading Letter (1848) ; Blind Grandmother, 
Eeturn from Cemetery (1849); Grandfather 
and Grandchildren (1850) ; Blind Man 
(1852).— Wiegmann, 327. 

HOEEBEEG, PEHE, born at Oefra-Oe, 
Smftland, Jan. 31, 1746, died at Oelstorp, 
East Gothland, Jan. 24, 1816. History 
painter, self-taught jjeasant. While serving 
asashepherd (1783)he frequented the Stock- 
holm Academy, and obtained two prizes. 
' Made member of the Academy and court- 
painter in 1797, and received a pension 
from Charles XIV. in 1812. Over six hun- 
dred paintings by him are known, among 
which are eighty-seven altarpieces. His 
best fresco paintings are the Combats of 
Titans at Castle FinspSng. He was an ac- 
complished musician, and -invented a new 
kind of violin ; his musical compositions are 
original and full of sentiment. — Pehr Hoer- 
berg's Lebens beschreibung (Greifswald, 

HOEETEE, AUGUST, born in Germany ; 
contemporary. Landscape painter in Carls- 
ruhe, pupil of Leasing ; draws his subjects 
mostly from the high mountains of Germany 
and Switzerland. Works : Courtyard of 
Magdeburg ; View of Eeichenbach Falls ; 
Landscape about the Hohentviel ; Oak Land- 
scape ; Wood Brook ; Approaching Storm 
with Mediaeval Horsemen ; Eosegg Glacier ; 
Landscape in the Hijhgau (1868). — Mtiller, 

HOET (Hoedt), GEEAED, born at Bom- 

mel, Aug. 22, 1648, died at The Hague, 
Dec. 2, 1733. Dutch school ; history painter, 
son and pupil of the glass painter Moses 
Hoet, then pupil of Warnard van Eysen and 
of Poelenburg ; went to The Hague in 1672, 
travelled in Holland and France, and settled 
in Utrecht, where, with H. Schook, he found- 
ed a school of painting ; returned to The 
Hague when sixtj% and there painted in a 
hall the Seven Christian Virtues. Works : 
Landscapes with Figures (2), Marriage of 
Alexander and Eoxana, Homage to Alex- 
ander, Family Scene, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Pyramus and Thisbe, Eotterdam Museum ; 
Queen of Sheba before Solomon, Pyramus 
and Thisbe, Cassel Gallery ; Death of Dido, 
Alcestis at Death-bed of Admetus, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Woman and Children by 
Euined WaU (1667), Dresden Museum ; 
Samson and Delilah, Solomon's Idolatry, 
Leipsic Museum ; Mneaa and Dido, An- 
tony and Cleopatra, Ulysses recognizing 
AchiUes, The Wooers Feasting, Male Por- 
trait, Schleissheim Gallery ; Moses striking 
Cm the Eock, Vi- 

L I -I. >5 T" enna Museum ; 
• * tOfm-- Callisto's Guilt, 
Glasgow Gallery ; Adoration of the Magi, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Immerzeel, ii. 
44 ; Kramm, iii. 705. 

HOFF, JAKOB, born in Frankfort in 
1838. Genre painter, pupil at Frankfort of 
the sculptor Zwerger, then at the Stadel In- 
stitute of Jakob Becker, spent two years in 
Belgium and Holland, and subsequently 
visited Hungary and North Italy. Works : 
Kirmess Dance (1861) ; Under the Linden ; 
Eepose at the Chase. — MuUer, 261. 

HOFF, KAEL, born in Mannheim, Sept. 
8, 1838. Genre and landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Carlsruhe Art School under Schirmer 
and Des Coudres, and of Dcisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Vautier ; visited Paris in 1862, 
settled in Dtisseldorf, whence he made jour- 
neys through Germany, France, Italy, and 
Greece, and in 1878 went to Carlsruhe as 
professor at the art-school. Medals in Ber- 
hn (1872), Vienna (1873) ; honorary mem- 


ber of Eotterdam Academy. Since 1865 
he has painted all the figures in his genre 
scenes in the cos- 
tume of the times 
of Louis XIV. and 
XV. Works: Gyp- 
sies before Bailiff 
(1861) ; Last Een- 
dezvous ; The Petti- 
fogger ; Noblesse 
Oblige ; On the Old 
Field ofBattle; Visit \ 
of the Bride (1865); 
Repose during Flight in Time of Louis 
XIV. (1866); First Criticism (1868); Return 
Home (1870); Tartuffe and Elmire (1872) ; 
Draught on Horseback (1873) ; Baptism 
of Posthumous Son (1875), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Son's 'Last Greeting (1878) ; 
Before Departure (1880); Young Lady at 
Balustrade of Garden-Stairs in Moonlight, 
Schwerin Gallery. — Miiller, 262 ; Leixner, 
Mod. K., i. 93 ; ii. 70 ; Zeitsch., xii. (Mittheil- 
ungen, v. 6) ; D. Rundschau, ix. 326; xvii. 312. 
HOFF, KONRAD, born in Schwerin, 
Nov. 19, 1816, died in Munich, Feb. 18, 
1883. Architecture painter, pupil of Dres- 
den and Munich Academies ; travelled ex- 
tensively in Germany and later in North 
Italy. His architectural views and interiors 
are distinguished for poetic conception and 
briUiant colouring. Works : Rococo Cham- 
ber, View in Church of Oar Lady — Munich, 
Renaissance Chamber with Lady Writing 
(1860); Sacristy (1861); Interior of Old 
House in Neuburg ; Staircase in Castle 
Schleissheim (1862); Hall of Country Man- 
sion, Room of a Cardinal (1863), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Morning after Banquet ; Interior 
of St. Zeno's — Verona, Santa Maria dei 
Miracoli in Venice (1864) ; Basilica on Isle 
of Torcello (1865) ; Scuola di San Rocco in 
Venice, Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, 
Bedroom of Charles VH. in Schleissheim 
(1867); Ancestral Hall in Schleissheim ; Last 
Meeting ; Canal Grande ; Riva degli Schia- 
voni; Doge's Palace. — Kunst-Chi'onik, xviii. 
368 ; Miiller, 262, 

HOFFMANN, JOSEF, born in Cologne, 
Oct. 28, 1764, died there, March 6, 1812. 
German school ; history painter, son of and 
first instructed by Valentin Hoffmann (a 
painter of Mentz, who had settled at Cologne 
before 1764), then pupil of Dilsseldorf Acad- 
emy under Krahe and Langer ; won the 
first prize for decorative painting, then 
twice (1800-1801) the Goethe prize in Wei- 
mar, and another in 1805 ; visited Paris in 
1797. Works : Ulysses and Diomed sur- 
prising Camp of the Trojans (1800) ; Achilles 
at Court of Lycomedes (1801); Hercules 
cleaning Stables of Augeas (1805); Diana 
with Hunting Suite, Ceiling in Audience 
Chamber, Weimar (sketch of this in Cologne 
Museum) ; Ceiling in Choir of St. Martin's, 
Diisseldorf (1793-94).— Mercure du Depart- 
ment de la Roer (1812), 151-60 ; Merlo, 

HOFFMANN, JOSEF, born in Vienna, 
July 22, 1831. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Rahl ; went in 1856 to Venice and in 
1857 to Greece. From 1858 to 1864 he 
lived in Rome, perfecting himself by study 
and intercourse with masters of the German 
school. Member of Vienna Academy since 
1867. Works : Remains of Sanctuary of 
Venus; Anacreon's Grave (1865); Athens 
in Time of Pericles ; Athens from Gardens 
of the Queen ; Sabine Mountains near Ole- 
vano ; Eight Landscapes, Palace Epstein, 
Vienna ; Drama ; Idyl and Tragedy ; Five 
Views of Ancient Athens (1876), Palace 
Sina, Vienna ; Decorations to Magic Flute, 
Freischtitz, and Romeo and Juliet (1866), 
Vienna Opera House ; Four Joys of Life, 
Kursalou, Vienna ; Burning of Ringtheatre 
in Vienna (1881); The Hour of Death on 
Golgotha (1882); Cycle of Landscapes illus- 
trating the Geological Epochs (1884), Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Vienna ; View of 
Helgoland (1885).— Allgem. K. Cb., ix. 434 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 259, 467 ; xx. 636 ; 
MtUler, 262 ; Wurzbach, ix. 174 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., ix. (Mittheilungen, ii. 47). 

FRANZ, born in Weimar, May 19, 1855. 



Landscape painter, pupil of Dtisseldorf 
Academy and of Weimar Art School under 
Theodor Hagen ; visited the Baltic coast, 
Westphalia, Hanover, and Thuringia, and 
settled in Dasseldorf. Works : Giant's 
Grave, By a Woodland Cemetery (1877); 
Solitude, After Storm-Tide (1878); Twilight, 
Enchanted Castle (1879); Ancient German 
Offering Grove, At the Forest-Border (1880). 
—Mailer, 263. 

HOFMANN, HEINRICH, born in Darm- 
stadt, March 19, 1824. History and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Dilsseldorf Academy 
under Theodor Hildebrandt and Schadow, 
then of Antwerp Academy (1845); visited 
Holland and Paris, and returned to his 
native city, where he painted portraits ; was 
in Munich in 1847, in Darmstadt and Frank- 
fort in 1848-51, and in Dresden in 1851-53. 
Went in 1854 to Italj', where he spent four 
years, mostly at Rome, and was much in- 
fluenced by Cornelius. Removed to Dres- 
den in 1862, became honorary member of 
the Academy in 1868, and professor in 1870. 
Works : Scene from History of Longobards 
(1844), Wurtemberg Art Union ; Entomb- 
ment (1846), Rhenish Art Union ; Scene 
from Romeo and Juliet (1847), Cologne Art 
Union ; King Enzio in Prison (1851), Frei- 
burg Gallery; Taking of Christ (1858), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Othello and Desde- 
mona ; Shylock and Jessica ; St. Cecilia ; 
Venus and Cupid ; Christ and the Adulter- 
ess, Christ in the Temple, Dresden Gallery ; 
Christ's Sermon on the Lake, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Apotheosis of Ancient Heroes, 
Court Theatre, Dresden ; Betrothal of Al- 
brecht the Brave with Princess Sidonie 
(fresco), Albrechtsburg, Meissen; Dornro- 
schen, Leda. — Brockhaus, ix. 305 ; Miiller, 

HOFMANN, RUDOLF, bom in Darm- 
stadt in 1820, died there in 1882. Genre 
and history painter, pupil in Darmstadt of 
Lucas, then of Dilsseldorf and Munich Acad- 
emies ; studied for three years in Rome, and 
became professor in Darmstadt and inspec- 
tor of the JIuseum there. Works : Scene 

from Peasants' War, Darmstadt Museum ; 
twenty-three scenes from History of the 
House of Ysenburg-Biidingen (1852). Fres- 
cos : Minstrels' War, Scenes from Niebelun- 
gen Lied, Parsifal, Tristan and Isolde, all at 
Wartburg near Eisenach. — Mtiller, 264. 

HOFMANN, SAMUEL, born in Zurich in 
1592, died in Frankfort in 1648. Portrait 
painter, pupil in Zurich of Gotthard Ringli, 
then in Antwerp of Rubens ; worked at Am- 
sterdam, Zurich, and Frankfort after 1638. 
Works : Equestrian Portrait of Peter Konig 
(1631), Freiburg Museum ; Duke Bernhard 
of Weimar (1639), Entry of Gustavus 
Adolphus into Frankfort, Birth of Erich- 
thonius. Female Portrait, Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; The Zinsgroschen, Still Life, 
Portraits, Zurich City Library and Art 
Union ; Portrait of a Lady, Stiidel Gallery, 
Frankfort.— Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 637 ; 
Fiiessli, i. 155. 

Zeitz, Nov. 11, 1832. Genre painter, pupil 
in Munich of Schwind. Works : Bhie Flow- 
eret ; Ruined and Dead ; Francesca da Rim- 
ini and Paolo ; Surprise. — Miiller, 264. 


HOGARTH, "WILLIAM, born in London, 
Dec. 10, 1697, died 
there, Oct. 26, 1764. 
Son of Richard Ho- 
garth, schoolmaster ; 
apprenticed to Ellis 
Gamble, silversmith, 
to learn to engrave 
arms and cyphers on 
plate ; when his time 
liad expired (1718), 
became a student in 
St. Martin's Lane Academy, where he 
learned to draw. About 1720 he set up in 
business as a silversmith, and began to en- 
grave book-plates, the first of his j)rints to 
attract notice being a series of illustrations 
for Butler's Hudibras (1726). In 1730 he 
clandestinely married the daughter of Sir 
James Thornhill, serjeant-painter to the 


king, whose studio he had frequented. As 
his book-plates were not profitable, he set 
up as a portrait painter and met with con- 
siderable success. In 1733 he completed 
his series of six pictures entitled the Har- 
lot's Progress (5 burned at Fonthill, 1755 ; 

1, the sixth jaicture, Earl of Wemys, Gos- 
ford House), which was followed by the 
Rake's Progress (8 pictures), and Marriage 5, 
la Mode (6), in which he reached the height 
of his art, his more ambitious works, such 
as the Good Samaritan (1736), Paul before 
Felix (1748), Moses brought to Pharaoh's 
Daughter (1752), and others, being less suc- 
cessful. Among his other pictures painted 
especially for engraving are : Southwark 
Fair (1733), Duke of Newcastle ; Midnight- 
Modern Conversation (1734) ; Distressed 
Poet (1735) ; The Four Times of the Day 
(1738) ; Strolling Actresses Dressing in a 
Barn (1738, burned at Littleton House, 
near Staines, 1874) ; The Enraged Musician 
(1741); Calais GaiB (1749); March to i^me/i- 
ley (1750); The Election (1755), Soane Mu- 
seum, London. In 1758 he published a 
work entitled " The Analysis of Beauty " ; 
in 1757 he was appointed serjeant-painter 
to the king. Hogarth painted several por- 
traits of himself ; the best of them, in which 
he is represented with his dog Trump (1745), 
is in the National Gallery, London. Other 
pictures in the National Gallery are : Mar- 
riage a la Mode (G), Portrait of his sister, 
Mary Hogarth (1746), Sigismonda (1763), 
Family Group, Polly Peachum, Shrimp Girl ; 
Garrick as Richard IH., Earl of Feversham. 
— Dobson, Biogr. Great Ar- . ^ . 
tists ; Boydell, "Works, etc. YVC^y^ . 
(London, 1792, new ed. 

1849); Home, Works (London, 1866); L' Ar- 
tiste (1882), ii. 365, 463 ; PortfoHo (1872), 
146 ; AthenEeum, Dec, 1874, 888 ; G. A. 
Sala, Hogarth (London, 1866) ; Eedgrave, 
Century, i. 44 ; Trusler, Works (London, 
1821) ; Zeitschr., vii. 1, 44. 
HOGEK, JOSEF, born in Vienna, Nov. 

2, 1801, died there, May 13, 1877. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of the Vienna Academy 

under Mossmer, and then much influenced 
by Eebell, and later by his brother-in-law, 
Fritz Gauermann. Studied nature in Styria, 
Tyrol, and Upper Austria. In 1843 he be- 
came member of the Vienna Academy, and 
took an active part in its reorganization in 
1865. He was in great demand as a teacher 
in the highest circles of Vienna, and gave 
the emjpress lessons in water-colour paint- 
ing. Works : Chapel in the Ramsau (1835), 
Count Beroldingen, Vienna ; View near Lun- 
denburg ; Wood with Stags (1847) ; Land- 
scape in Styria (1850), Austrian Art Union ; 
View near Berchtesgaden (1852) ; Entrance 
to Woods (1853), View in Patschkau— Mo- 
ravia (1857), Views near Patschkau (3, 1858), 
Landscape with Storm Atmosphere, View 
near Lundenburg, Count Saint Genois, Vi- 
enna ; Wood Landscape in the Mountains 
(1856), Museum, ib. — Kuust-Chronik, xii. 
721 ; Wurzbach, ix. 110. 

HOGUET, CHARLES, bom in Berlin, 
Nov. 21, 1821, died 
there, Aug. 4, 1870. 
Landscape, genre, 
and marine painter, 
pupil of Krause,and 
in Paris of Ciceri ; 
went in 1841 to 
England, and in 
1842 studied again 
in Paris under Isa- 
bey. Gold medal 
in Paris (1848) and Berlin. Member of 
Berlin Academy in 1869. Works : The 
Cook ; Rue Pirouette in Paris ; Coast near 
Yport ; From Normandy ; Gust of Wind ; 
Last Windmill on Montmartre (temporarily 
in Stettin Museum), Still Life (1852), The 
Wreck (1864), National Gallery, Berhn ; 
Rocky Landscape, Woodland (1854), Land- 
scape with Water, Ravene Gallery, ib. ; Mar- 
ket Scene at Rouen, Marine, Lighthouse 
near Boulogne, Mill on Montmartre, Store- 
room, Windmill, Winter Landscape, Saar- 
dam, Stettin Museum. — Dioskuren (1870), 
293 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 102 ; Rosenberg, 
Berl. Malersch., 343. 


HOLBEIN, AMBEOSIUS, born in Augs- 
burg about 1494 (?), died after 1518. Ger- 
man school ; history painter, son and pupil 
of Hans Holbein the elder, whom he prob- 
ably assisted in his works, and with his 
brother, Hans the younger, went to Basle 
before or in 1515, to which year their first 
activity there can be traced, and where both 
were engaged chiefly in designing title-pages. 
Ambrosius was admitted into the guild "Zum 
Himmel " in 1517, and acquired the citizen- 
ship in 1518, but all trace of him is lost in 
1519. Works : Christ as Mediator, Two 
Bust-portraits of Boys, Two Skulls in Grated 
Window, Portrait of Jorg Schweiger (?), 
Basle Museum ; Portrait of Young Lady, 
Ambras Collection, Vienna ; do. of Young 
Man (1518), Hermitage, St. Petersburg.— 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 724 ; Woltmann, Hol- 
bein u. s. Zeit, i. 101, 110, 133, 202-212 ; ii. 
31, 45, 48, 79, 92, 205 ; W. & W., ii. 461 ; 
Eepertorium f. K., i. 251 ; Zahn's Jahr- 
biicher, v. 197. 

HOLBEIN, EDUAED, born in Berlin in 
1807, died there, Feb. 19, 1875. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Karl Begas, with 
whose works his first picture in 1836 was 
ranked. He took his great namesake, Hana 
Holbein the younger, for his model ; became 
professor at Berlin Academy, where his most 
famous pupil was Gustav Eichter. Works : 
Aged Pilgrim dying in Sight of Jerusalem 
(1836) ; Madonna (1838) ; Twelve Patri- 
archs, Eoyal Chapel, Berlin. — Eosenberg, 
Berl. Malersch., 69. 

HOLBEIN (Holbain), HANS, the elder, 
born in Augsburg 
about 1460, died 
there in 1524. Ger- 
man school ; history 
painter, influenced 
by Martin Sclion- 
gauer, if not his 
pupil at Colmar, 
and the chief rep- 
resentative of re- 
alistic tendency in 
the school of Suabia ; in his later works 

under the influence of Italian renaissance. 
Works : Four Altar-panels (1493), Augsburg 
Cathedral ; Madonna Enthroned, do. (1499), 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Death of 
the Virgin (1490), Basle Museum ; Basilica, 
S. M. Maggiore (1499), Coronation of the 
Virgin and Scenes from Passion (1500), 
Transfiguration (1502), Basilica of St. Paul 
(1504), four Altar-panels (1512), Augsburg 
Gallery ; Seven Scenes fi-om Passion (1501), 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; six others, Mu- 
seum, ib.; Last Supper, St. Leonard's, ib.; 
twelve scenes from Passion (1502?), Do- 
naueschingen Gallery ; sixteen panels with 
Episodes in Life of Mary and Scenes from 
Passion (1502), Altar of St. Sebastian (1516, 
masterpiece). Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Vis- 
itation of the Virgin, National Museum, ib. ; 
Two Altarwings with Saints, Prague Gallery; 
Christ bearing the Cross (1515), Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Entombment (attributed to Sigis- 
mund H.), Portrait of Young Man (1515, 
attributed to Hans the younger), Darm- 
stadt Museum ; two portraits (1512), Hamp- 
ton Court Gallery. His brother, Sigismund, 
who appears in the rate-books of Augsburg, 
first in 1504, and who moved in 1519 to 
Berne, where he died in 1540, probably 
worked conjointly with him on several 
works. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xii. 713 ; Cun- 
dall, H. Holbein ; Forster, ii. 213 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 140 ; Nagler, Mon., iii. 157; Wolt- 
mann, Holbein und sein Zeit, i. 41-100; ii. 7, 
61 ; W. & W., ii. 116, 456 ; Graph. K, i. 110. 
HOLBEIN, HANS, the younger, born in 
Augsburg in 1497, 
died in London be- 
tween Oct. 7 and 
Nov. 29, 1543. Ger- 
man school ; history 
and portrait painter, 
son and pupil of 
Hans Holbein the 
elder. After com- 
pleting his appren- 
ticeship he went to 
Basle with his brother, Ambrose, in 1515, 
served as journeyman under Herbster, Koch, 






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or Dig, matriculated in 1519, when he joined 
the painters' guild. Two years before, he 
decorated the house of Jacob von Harten- 
stein at Lucerne with frescos no longer ex- 
tant (copies in Lucerne Library). His fres- 
cos in the City Hall at Basle were painted 
in 1521-22, and The Passion, in the Basle 
Museum, about the same time. It is pos- 
sible that Holbein made a short visit to 
Northern Italy before 1523, when he painted 
the fine portrait of Erasmus at Longford 
Castle, which the great humanist sent to Sir 
Thomas More in 1525 as a specimen of the 
painter's ability and as a recommendation 
to his patronage. Probably in September, 
1526, Holbein visited Antwerp to see Quin- 
ten Massys, and spent some time there, after 
which he went to England, where Sir Thomas 
More lodged him in his own house near Lon- 
don. There he painted the Chancellor and 
his family (original lost, sketch in Basle 
Museum), and many fine portraits. From 
August, 1528, Holbein lived at Basle until 
1532, when he returned to England, where, 
despite the earnest invitations of the magis- 
trates of Basle, he remained, with the ex- 
ception of a visit in 1538, during the rest 
of his life. At what time Holbein became 
painter to Henry VIQ. is not known (1536 ?), 
but probably not until after the death of 
Anne Boleyn, whose successor. Lady Jane 
Seymour, he represented in the family pict^ 
ure of the two Henrys, which was burned 
at Whitehall in 1698. (Copy at Hampton 
Court.) In March, 1538, when Holbein is 
first mentioned as the recipient of a quar- 
terly salary from the king, he was sent to 
Brussels, and then revisited Basle. In Au- 
gust, 1539, Henry again sent him to Flan- 
ders to paint Anne of Cleves (Louvre). The 
wonderful series of 89 portraits in red chalk 
and India ink by Holbein in the royal col- 
lection at Windsor are in themselves suf- 
ficient to stamp him as one of the greatest 
of all masters in portraiture. As a designer 
he shines most brightly in the woodcuts of 
the Dance of Death, executed by Hans 
Ltitzelburger, and published at Lyons in 

1538 and 1547. Works : Head of the Vir- 
gin (1514), do. of a Saint, Christ on Mount 
of Olives, Taking of Christ, Pilate washing 
his Hands, Last Sujjper, Flagellation, Writ- 
ing Lesson, A School, Portrait of Burgo- 
master Jacob Meyer and Wife (1516), Basle 
Museum ; Portrait of H. Herbster (1516), 
Baring Collection, London ; Hartenstein 
House Frescos (1519), Lucerne ; Frescos, 
Town Hall, Basle (1521-30); Designs for 
glass windows, Adam and Eve (1517), Last 
Supper, 8 Scenes from Passion, Dead Christ 
(1521), Christ crowned with Thorns, Mater 
Dolorosa, Fragments (7) of Frescos in Town 
Hall, Basle Museum ; Birth of Christ and 
Adoration of Magi, Cathedral, Freiburg in 
Breisgau ; SS. George and Ursula, Altar- 
wmgs (1522), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Madonna 
and Saints (1522), Solothurn Gallery ; Ma- 
donna of Burgomaster Meyer (1526), Prin- 
cess Charles of Hesse, Darmstadt ; do., copy 
with changes, Dresden Gallery ; Male Por- 
trait (1515 ?), Darmstadt Museum ; Portrait 
of B. Amerbach (1519), Basle Museum ; do. 
of Domherr Angerer (1519), and three oth- 
ers, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; Portraits of 
Erasmus, Longford Castle, England (1523), 
Louvre and (2) Basle Museums, Parma Gal- 
lery ; Portraits of Man and Wife (1525), 
Vienna Museum ; Lais Corinthiaca (1526), 
do. as Venus with Cupid, Holbein's Wife 
with two Children, Male Portraits (4), Basle 
Museum ; Archbishop Warham (1527), Lam- 
beth House ; duplicate, Louvre ; Male Por- 
trait, do. (1527), Thomas Godsalve and his 
Son John (1528), Dresden Gallery ; Sir H. 
Guilford, Windsor Castle ; Nicholas Kratzer, 
and Sir Henry Wyatt, Louvre ; Sir Brj^an 
Tuke, Grosvenor House, London ; do.. Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Hans of Antwerp, 
Goldsmith (1532), Windsor Castle ; George 
Gisze (1532), two others (1533, 1541), Ber- 
lin Museum ; Artist's Family, Portrait of a 
Lady, Male Portraits (3), Cassel Gallery ; 
The Ambassadors (1533), Lord Eadnor, 
Longford Castle ; Derick Born (1530), Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; do. (1533), Windsor ; 
Deryck Tybis (1533), Vienna Museum ; Rob- 



ert Cheseman (1533), Hague Museum ; Me- 
lanchthon, Edward, Prince of Wales (1538), 
Hanover Gallery ; Henry VIH., miniature, 
Althorp House ; Ambrose of the Steelyard 
(1533), Brunswick Museum ; English Lady 
and Gentleman (1534), Ambras Collection, 
Vienna ; Lady Vaux (1539), Prague ; rep- 
lica, Hampton Court ; Southwell (1538), 
Uffizi; The Goldsmith Hubert Morrett 
(1538), Dresden Gallery ; Anne of Cleves 
(1539), Louvre ; Duke of Norfolk (1539), 
Windsor ; Male Portraits (1541), Vienna 
Museum ; do. (1542), and Female Portrait, 
Hague Museum ; Portrait of Holbein (1542), 
Uffizi, Florence ; do. of Hieronymus Sulczer 
(1542), Butts, Pole Carew Collection ; Lady 
Jane Seymour, John Chambers, Female Por- 
trait, Vienna Museum ; Family of Count 
Valkeniers at Prayers, Portrait of a Profes- 
sor, Historical Society, New York ; Male 
Portraits, Gotha, KOnigsberg, Madrid, and 
Weimar Museums, Kunsthalle, Hamburg. 

-Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xii. 
715; Cun- 
dall, Hans 
1879); Doh- 
me, 1', xiv. 
47; Forster, 
Denkmale, i. 11 ; v. 13 ; vii. 17 ; do., Gesch., 
ii. 224 ; Grimm, Holbein's Geburtsjahr (Ber- 
lin, 1867) ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 198 ; Mantz, 
H. Holbein (Paris, 1879); Nagler, Mon., iii.; 
Schaefer, iii. 779 ; Woltmann, Holbein und 
seine Zeit (Leipsic, 1874-76) ; W. & W., ii. 
462 ; Wornum, Life and Works (London, 
1867) ; Christl. Kunstbl. (1870), 97 ; (1871), 
177 ; Comhill Mag., March, 1860 ; Edin- 
burgh Review, April, 1867 ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1860), ix. 60, 270 ; (1869), i. 15, 366, 425 ; 
(1870), iv. 481, 516; (1879), xix. 86; xx. 
13; (1880), xxi. 323; xxii. 525; Kunst- 
Chronik, vii. 206, 271 ; Zahn's Jahrbucher 
(1870), 147 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., i. 198 ; ii. 
63 ; iii. 12 ; vi. 349 ; vii. 28, 55 ; ix. 201 ; x. 
315 ; xiv. 254 ; xvi. 99. 


HH mm: 

H^N7 .HOio 

LYTE, born in Paris, Nov. 22, 1804, died 
there, Jan. 13, 1872. History painter, pu- 
pil of Abel de Pujol and of Hersent. His 
pictures, though graceful, are uninteresting. 
Medals : 3d class, 1841 ; 2d class, 1842. 
Works : Infant Jesus adored by Angels 
(1841); Rembrandt as a Child (1842); Par- 
able of the Mustard Seed, Religious and 
Moral Education (1844); Virgin with Sleep- 
ing Infant (1846) ; Family Prayer (1852) ; 
Bread of Heaven (1855); Christ appearing 
to Disciples at Emmaus (1859) ; Happy Moth- 
er, First Principles of Education (1861) ; 
Choristers (1863) ; In the Name of the Father 
(1868).— Bellier de la Chavignerie, i. 773 ; 

HOLIDAY, HENRY, born in England ; 
contemporary. Genre painter and sculptor. 
Works : Quiet Family Meal, Yellow Tulips, 
Breeze in St. George's Channel (1881) ; Dante 
and Beatrice (1883). Mr. Holiday's pictures 
have been chiefly exhibited at the Grosvenor 
Gallery. To the Royal Academy he con- 
tributed in 1881 a recumbent statue en- 
titled Sleep ; a bas-relief — Nymph and Cu- 
pid — in 1882 ; and in 1884, Jacob's Ladder. 
HOLL, FRANK, born in London, July 
4, 1845. Genre and 
portrait painter, son 
and pupil of F. HoU, 
engraver, and student 
of Royal Academy, 
where in 1863 he won 
the gold medal for the 
best historical paint- 
ing. The Sacrifice of 
Abraham. In 1869, 
for his picture entitled 
The Lord Gave and the Lord hath Taken 
Away, he was awarded the two years travel- 
ling studentship, and went to Italy. His 
No Tidings from the Sea (1871) was painted 
for the Queen. Elected an A.RA. in 1878, 
and R.A. in 1883. Works : Village Funeral 
(1872) ; Seat in a Railway Station (1873) ; 
Deserted (1874) ; Her First-Born (1876) ; 
Gone, Going Home (1877) ; Newgate— 





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Committed for Trial (1878) ; Gifts of Fairies, 
Daughter of the House, Absconded (1879) ; 
Home Again (1881) ; Did you ever kill Any- 
body, Father ? (1884) ; and many portraits. 
— Meynell, 167 ; Art Journal (1876), 9 ; 
Meyer, Con v. Lex., xviii. 498. 

HOLLAND, JAMES, born at Burslem, 
England, in 1800, died in London in 1870. 
Landscape and flower painter ; went to Lon- 
don in 1819, and devoted himself to flower 
painting, but after a visit to Paris in 1831 
took up landscape painting. He made many 
sketching tours on the Continent, and ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy, the Society 
of Painters in Water Colours, and the So- 
ciety of British Artists, of the last two of 
which he was a member. Works : Nj^mwe- 
gen. Near Blackheath, and several in water 
colours. South Kensington Museum ; Port 
of Genoa, Liverpool Gallery ; Interior of 
Milan Cathedral, Tomb of the Scaligers at 
Verona, St. Mary's Chapel at Warwick, 
Views in Venice (6), Gresham College ; 
Greenwich Hospital, Bridgewater Gal- 

Bart., born in London in 1734, died at 
Carnborough House, near Winchester, Oct. 
15, 1811. Real name Nathaniel Dance, son 
of George Dance, architect ; took name of 
HoUand on his marriage with a wealthy 
widow in 1790, was an M. P. for many 
years, and created a baronet in 1800. Pu- 
pil in art of Frank Hayman ; spent eight or 
nine years in Italy, and on his return won 
success as a painter of portraits and of his- 
torical subjects. In 1768 he was one of the 
foundation members of the Royal Academy. 
Works : Portraits of Earl Camden, Lord 
Clive, Arthur Murphy, Lord North, National 
Portrait Gallery, London. — Redgrave ; F. 
de Conches, 311. 

HOLLINS, JOHN, born in Birmingham, 
June 1, 1798, died in London, March 7, 1855. 
Subject and portrait painter ; went in 1822 
to London, where, with the exception of two 
years spent in Italy (1825-27), he was a con- 
stant exhibitor. Elected an A.E.x4l. in 1842. 

Work : Lord Tenterden, National Portrait 
Gallery, London. — Cat, Nat. Port. Gal. 

HOLM, PER DANIEL, born at Malings- 
bo, Dalecarlia, Sept. 11, 1835. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Nils Anderson and of 
Stockholm Academy, where in 1862 he re- 
ceived a medal ; visited the north of Scan- 
dinavia in 1864, and later, Dilsseldorf, Mu- 
nich, Carlsruhe, where he studied under 
Gude, and Paris. Works : View of Qvick- 
jock in Lapland ; Saggatsen in Lapland ; 
From the Mountains of Westmanland (1869), 
Stockholm Museum.— Mtiller, 264. 

HOLMBERG, AUGUST, born in Munich, 
Aug. 1, 1851. Genre painter, pupil of the 
Munich Academy under AVilhelm Diez, vis- 
ited subsequently Berlin, Dresden, and Vi- 
enna, in 18T5 Italy, and in 1878 Paris. His 
genre pieces are well composed and coloured. 
Works : Huntsman's Still Life ; Windmill 
in a Storm ; Difference of Opinion (1873) ; 
Choir in a Church at Florence, Tobacco 
College of Frederick William I. (1879) ; The 
Recovered Monogram (1880).— Mtiller, 264; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xviii. 403. 

HOLSTEYN, CORNELIS, born at Haar- 
lem about 1620. Dutch school ; history 
painter, son and pupil of Pieter (glass 
painter and engraver, born in Schleswig 
about 1580, died in Haarlem in 1662); flour- 
ished in Amsterdam about 1651, and was 
dean of the guild at Delft in 1661-62. 
Works : Triumph of Bacchus ; Lycurgus 
making his Nephew his Heir, Orphan Asy- 
lum, Amsterdam ; Pyramus and Thisbe, 
Parable of the Vineyard (1647), Haarlem 
Museum ; Bath-room, Cassel Gallery ; Angel 
commanding St. Philip to baptize Queen 
Candace's Chamberlain, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery. — Immerzeel, ii. 46 ; Kramm, iii. 714 ; 
Van der Willigen, 179. 


HOLY FAMILY, Mariotto AlbertineUi, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, round, 2 ft. 
9 in. diameter. The Virgin kneeling in 
adoration ; Jesus lying on ground, receiving 
a cross from a kneeling angel ; in back- 



ground, to right, St. Joseph leading the ass 
from a stable ; above, three angels singing 

Holy Family, Federigo Baroccio, National Gallery, London. 

from a scroll. Painted about 1503-6. En- 
graved by S. Martelli.— Gal. du Pal. Pitti, i. 
PI. 1. ; C. & C, Italy, iii. 486 ; Meyer, Kfinst. 
Lex., 219. 

By Federigo Baroccio, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. The 
Virgin, seated in an apartment, v?ith Jesus 
in her lap, clasps with her right arm St. 
John, vs'ho holds up a bird in his hand to 
protect it from a cat, watching it from left- 
hand corner ; behind, at right, St. Joseph. 
Sometimes called Madonna del Gatto (of the 
Cat). Painted for Count Antonio Brancar 
leoni ; belonged to Cesarei family of Peru- 
gia, and later (1805) to Buchanan and to 
Kev. W. H. Carr, who bequeathed it in 1831 
to the National Gallery. Several old copies. 
Engraved by C. Cort (1577) ; A. Cardon ; 
J. F. Leybold. 

By Fra Bartolommeo, Palazzo Corsini, 
Eome; wood, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 2 in.; 
signed, dated 1516. The Virgin, seated in 
a flowery meadow, holds Jesus, who strug- 
gles to cast his arms round the little Bap- 
tist's neck ; St. Joseph looks on, smiling. 

A likeness between the Virgin and Kaphael's 
portrait of Maddalena Doni in the Pitti 
warrants the assumption that this is the 
picture which Vasari says was painted for 
Agnolo Doni. Copy in Musee Fabre, Mont- 
pelUer.— Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 183 ; C. & C, 
Italy, iii. 468. 

By Fra Bartolommeo, Panshanger House, 
England ; wood, H. 3 ft. 5 in. X 4 ft. 3 in. 
The Virgin seated, holding Jesus, who is 
taking the reed cross from the infant St. 
John standing at right ; at left, St. Joseph 
seated, smiling ; background, a beautiful 
landscape with a bright horizon and a palm- 
tree. Painted about 1509, probably for 
Filippo Salviati. "The colouring," says 
Waagen, who considers this the finest pict- 
ure of the artist, " is of extraordinary warmth 
and depth."— C. & C, Italy, iv. 449 ; Waa- 
gen, Treasures, iii. 10. 

By Fra Bartolommeo, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. The Vir- 
gin, seated, holds Jesus, who embraces the 
infant Baptist kneeling ; behind, SS. Eliza- 

Holy Family, Fra Bartolommeo, Panshanger House, England. 

beth and Joseph ; background, a green cur- 
tain. An inverted replica, with changes, of 
the Holy Family of the Palazzo Corsini.- 


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Engraved by G. Kossi. — Gal. du Pal. Pitti, 
i. PI. 29 ; C. & C, Italy, iii. 470. 

By Sebastien Bourdon, Louvre ; canvas, 
H. 1 ft. X 10 in. The Virgin, seated, her 
left arm on a broken column, holds on her 
knees Jesus, to whom the infant, St. John, 
kneeling, offers a dove ; above, an angel 
with a crown of flowers. Engraved by 
Avril pere in Musee frangais. — Larousse, 
viii. 78. 

By Gorreggio. See Madonna della Cesta. 
By Domenichino, Louvre ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 
2 in. X 1 ft. 7 in. The Virgin, seated on the 
ground near a spring, at right, catches the 
water in a shell, while Jesus, whom she 
holds in her arms, takes fruit from the in- 
fant St. John ; behind them Joseph unloads 
the ass. Called also Madonna of the Shell 
(Vierge a la Coquille). Collection of Louis 
XVI. Engraved by Mtiller. — Musee royal, 
i. ; Filhol, ii. PI. 82 ; Landon, Vies, PI. 104. 
By Garofalo, Vatican, Rome. The Vir- 
gin, with Jesus standing in her lap, is seat- 
ed in front of ruins ; at right, St. Joseph, 
standing ; at left, St. Catherine, kneeling, 
with palm-branch in hand ; in background, 
a city. EngTaved by Gius. Morghen. — Vat- 
icano descritto, vi. PI. 80. 

By Giulio Eomano, Louvre ; wood, H. 4 
ft. 10 in. X 3 ft. 6 in. The Virgin, seated 
under a tree in a garden, with Jesus on one 
knee ; he has one foot in his cradle, and 
turns to his mother as if to ask the meaning 
of the words Ecce Agnus Dei, which are on 
a scroU held by the infant St. John beside 
him ; behind, at right, St. Joseph leans in 
meditation on the fragment of an ancient 
altar. Painted for Cardinal Gonzaga. — 
Filhol, X. PI 662 ; Ch. Blanc, :ficole ro- 

By Ludwig Knaus, Miss Catherine L. 
Wolfe, New York ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 3 
ft. The Virgin, sitting, withdraws the veil 
from Jesus lying on her knees, while a little 
angel clasps his hands in adoration beside 
her ; above, cherubs descending from clouds 
lighted by the moon, and in background, 
St. Joseph, leading the ass, gazing upward 

at them. Painted in 1876. Photogravure 
in Art Treasures of America, i. 120. 

By Bernardino Luini, Louvre ; wood, H. 
1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. The Virgin, half- 
length, sustains Jesus, who, standing on a 
pedestal, has his arm around her neck ; be- 
hind her, to right, is St. Joseph, leaning on 
a staff. Carefully modelled and delicately 
coloured. — Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Michelangelo, Tribune of the Ufiizi, 
Florence ; round, painted in tempera. The 
Virgin, kneeling, raises Jesus over her right 
shoulder and presents him to St. Joseph 
behind her. In background, various nude 

Holy Family, Michelangelo, Tribune of the Uffizi, Florence. 

figures, upright, recumbent, and seated. 
Painted in 1502-4 for Agnolo Doni. The 
only easel picture by Michelangelo the au- 
thenticity of which has never been doubted. 
— Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 158 ; Lasinio, i. PI. 
43 ; Larousse, viii. 77. 

By Murillo, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, H. 9 in. X 7 in. St. Joseph standing 
with Jesus in his arms ; the Child stretches 
his arms toward the Virgin, who, seated on 
left near a basket, extends her arms to re- 
ceive him ; in background, arches and car- 
penter's tools ; in foreground, a basket of 
tools. Due de Tallard sale (1776), to M. 
de Thiers, 802 livres. Engraved by J. B. 
Tilliard. — Curtis, 172 ; Hermitage Cat. 



By Murillo, Louvre ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 11 
in. X 6 ft. 3 in. The Virgin, seated on a 
hillock, holds Jesus standing in her lap ; he 
receives a reed cross from St. John, who 
stands beside them, supported by St. Eliza- 
beth, kneeling ; above, the Father and the 
Dove, surrounded by cherubs ; in fore- 
ground, a lamb. Sometimes called Vierge 
de Seville. Painted about 1670 ; in Collec- 
tion of Louis XVI. ; valued, inventory of 
1816, 60,000 fr. Engraved by Boilly, Allais; 

Holy Family. Murillo, Louvre. 

lithographed by Weber, A. Demoine, A. 
Bry, A. Maurin, and others. — Ch. Blanc, 
ficole espagnole ; Curtis, 180. 

By Murillo, Metropolitan Museum, New 
York ; canvas, 6 ft. 8 in. x 5 ft. 1 in. The 
Virgin, seated, on right, extends her hands 
to receive the Child, whom St. Joseph, 
standing, holds towards her ; at left of Vir- 
gin, a white dog lying on floor beside a 
basket of linen ; at left, a curtain. Bought 
about 1835 by Joshua Coit from Convent of 
Buena Muerte, Peru ; sold in 1843 to Henry 

Brevoort, New York, for $1,200 ; presented 
to Museum in 1874 by John Jacob Astor 
Bristed.— Curtis, 174. 

By Murillo, formerly at Leigh Court, 
Somerset ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. 
The Virgin sitting, with Jesus asleep on her 
lap ; on right, St. Joseph standing under a 
tree ; both look at the Child. Calonne sale 
(1795), £535 10s. ; Henry Hope sale (1816), 
£320 5s. ; Leigh Court sale (1884), to Messrs. 
Agnew, London, for £3,150. Engraved by 
J. Heath. — Curtis, 174 ; British Gallery of 
Engraving (London, 1807) ; Waagen, Treas- 
ures, iii. 184. 

By Murillo, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 9 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 10 in. Infant 
Jesus, standing on a ruined column in cen- 
tre, gives one hand to Virgin, seated on his 
right, the other to St. Joseph, who kneels on 
his left, holding lilies ; above, the Father 
and the Dove, with three cherubs on each 
side. Formerly belonged to Marques del 
Pedroso ; taken to England about 1810 ; 
bought for National Gallery, in 1837, from 
T. B. H. Owen, with Brazen Serpent of Ru- 
bens, for £7,356. Engraved by Bridoux ; 
C. McRae, the Father omitted. — Palomino, 
iii. 422 ; C. Bermudez, iv. 278 ; Buchanan, 
Memoirs, ii. 202 ; Edin. Review (No. 173), 
208 ; Curtis, 170. 

By Murillo, Duke of Rutland, Belvoir 
Castle, Leicestershire ; canvas, figures life- 
size. The Virgin, seated, holding Jesus, 
who is embraced by infant St. John stand- 
ing before them ; behind, St. Joseph stand- 
ing ; on right, a lamb ; background, land- 
scape. Carried to England about 1729 by 
Colonel William Stanhope (Lord Harring- 
ton), on returning from his embassy to 
Spain. Considered by Waagen "one of 
the finest by the master in all England." 
• — Waagen, Treasures, iii. 402 ; Curtis, 

By Parmigianino, Louvre ; wood, H. 1 ft. 
4 in. X 1 ft. 1 in. The Virgin, seated in a 
rocky landscape, with Jesus on her knees ; 
the latter embraces the infant St. John, who 
is standing on a cradle ; behind, to right, 



SS. Joseph and Elizabeth. Collection of 
Louis XrV. Engraved by Blomaert. — Vil- 
lot, Cat. Louvre ; Pilhol, ii. PI. 121 ; Lan- 
don, Mus6e, i. PL 43. 

By Sebastian del Piombo, Baring Collec- 
tion, London ; wood, H. 3 ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. G 
in. A donor kneels before the Virgin, who 
rests one hand on his shoulder, while with 
the other she holds on her lap Jesus, who 
points to John Baptist with his cross, to the 
left ; to the right, St. Joseph asleep. Painted 
about 1512. Formerly in the Stratton Col- 

Holy Family (La petite Salnte FamlUe), Rapliael, Louvre. 

lection.— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 324 ; Waagen, 
Treasures, ii. 172. 

By Raphael, Louvre ; wood, H. 1 ft. 3 in. 
X 11 in. (La petite Sainte FamUle). Jesus, 
standing in his cradle, leans across the Vir- 
gin's knees, and caresses the cheeks of St. 
John, whom St. Elizabeth, kneeling, presents 
to him ; background, landscape with ruins. 
Painted in Rome about 1517-18 ; given by 
Eaphael to Adrian Gouffier, Cardinal de 
Boissy, papal legate in France in 1519 ; 
passed to Due de Eouanez, and bought 
finally by Louis XIV. Engraved by Fr. 
Poilly ; P. Drevet ; W. de Gutwein ; J. B. 

L. Massard ; S. Simonneau ; A. B. Desnoy- 
ers ; and others. Probably painted by Giu- 
Uo Romano, after Raphael's design. — Passa- 
vant, ii. 2, 63 ; Felibien, ii. 335 ; Gruyer, 
Vierges de Raphael, iii. 362 ; Cab. Crozat, 
i. PI. 17 ; Landon, Musee, ii. PI. 5 ; Villot, 
Louvi-e ; Filhol, i. PI. 56. 

By Bembrandl, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 2f in. x 3 ft. 4^ in. ; 
signed, dated 1645. The Virgin, seated in 
a rustic apartment, dressed in a red robe 
and dark-coloured skirt, holding a large 
open book on her knees, is raising the cov- 
erlet of a cradle in which Jesus lies asleep ; 
a fire, over which is a pot, bums on a hearth 
near her ; in background, St. Joseph chop- 
ping wood ; above, a group of angels hover- 
ing. — Smith, vii. 29. 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 5 in. x 4 ft. 9 in. 
The Virgin, holding the infant Christ, and 
Joseph seated at base of a stone pedestal 
under a tree ; at left, infant St. John with 
standard of the lamb ; background, a land- 
scape. Painted for Mr. Macklin, who sold 
it to Lord Gwydyr ; purchased at his sale 
(1828) and presented to National Gallery ; 
copy by J. E. Powell at Somerley, seat of 
Earl of Normanton, which Waagen mistook 
for a genuine Sir Joshua. Engraved by W. 
Sharp (1792) ; G. Presbury in Jones's Na- 
tional Gallery. — Cat. Nat. Gal. ; Eng. Paint- 
ers of Georgian Era, 4 ; Art Journal (1860), 

By Rubens, Blenheim Palace. See Return 
from Egypt. 

By Rubens, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
wood, H. 9| in. x 13|^ in. The Virgin seated 
on the ground, holding Jesus, who is caress- 
ing a lamb, across the neck of which St. 
John is standing ; behind, St. Elizabeth, 
standing. Engraved by Earlom. Formerly 
in Houghton Gallery. — Smith, ii. 156. 

By Rubens, Hertford House, London ; 
wood, H. 4 ft. 2 in. X 3 ft. 1 in. Virgin and 
Child, with SS. Joseph, John, and Elizabeth. 
Formerly one of chief ornaments of the Bel- 
vedere Gallery, Vienna ; presented in 1784 



by Emperor Joseph to M. Burtin, of Brus- 
sels ; afterward iu Lapeyri^re Collection, 

Holy Family, Rubens, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 

whence sold for 2,500 guineas ; bought by 
Lord Hertford for 3,000 guineas. — Waagen, 
Treasures, ii. 157. 

By Rubens, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, 
H. 2 ft. 7 in. X 3 ft. 10 in. Jesus, lying in a 
cradle, caresses St. John, who stands behind 
it ; the Virgin, in scarlet vest and blue man- 
tle, is seated near, with her hand on the cover 
of the cradle ; at her left, St. Elizabeth; be- 
hind her, St. Joseph. Taken to Paris by 
French ; returned in 1815. Engraved by Vos- 
terman ; Langlois ; Paradisi ; C. Mogalli. — 
Musee ffanfais ; Smith, ii. 143 ; Filhol, ii. 
PI. 140 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, iv. PL 87. 

By Rubens, Vienna Museum ; wood, H. 7 
ft. 4 in. X 11 ft. The Virgin, in a scarlet 
vest and blue mantle, is seated at the foot of 
a tree, with Jesus in her arms; before them, 
St. John held by his mother Elizabeth, at 
whose left stands Zachariah offering the 
Saviour a branch of fruit. Painted on cov- 
ers of altarpiece of St. Ildefonso. Engraved 
by Deroy. — Smith, ii. 92. 

By Rubens, Windsor Castle ; canvas, H. 8 
ft. X 8 ft. The Virgin, seated at left, sup- 
ports Infant Jesus standing in her lap ; In- 
fant St. John stretches out his arms towards 
the Saviour, before whom St. John of Assisi 
bows in adoration ; behind the Saviour St. 
Elizabeth, and at left Joseph. Eeplica (H. 
5 ft. 8 in. X 6 ft. 7 in.), Leigh Court; at sale 
(1884), bought in at 5,000 guineas. — Waa- 
gen, Treasures, ii. 435 ; iii. 182 ; Smith, ii. 

By Andrea del Sarto, Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg. Autotype by Ad. Braun & Co., 

By Andrea del Sarlo, Louvre ; wood, H. 
4 ft. 7 in. X 3 ft. 5 in. The Virgin, seated 
on the ground, holds Jesus, who turns his 
head toward St. Elizabeth ; the latter sup- 
j)orts the infant St. John, who stands with 
his right hand raised towards heaven ; be- 
hind the Virgin, two angels. From collec- 
tion of Francis I. Old copy in Vienna Mu- 

Holy Family, Andrea del Sarto, Louvre. 

seum. — Landon, Musee, vi. PI. 67 ; Villot, 
Cat. Louvre. 

By Andrea del Sarto, National Gallery, 



London ; wood, H. 3 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft 8 in. 
The Virgin seated, with the Child on her 
knees ; Elizabeth with infant St. John seated 
at her right hand. Formerly in Palazzo Al- 
dobrandino, Eome ; taken to England in 
1806, and passed through hands of Mr. 
Ii-vine and Mr. Buchanan to Eev. W. H. 
Carr, who bequeathed it in 1831 to the Na- 
tional Gallery. — Eeveil, iv. 254. 

By Andrea del Sarto, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 4 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. The 
Virgin, kneeling, looks at Jesus, who smiles 
as he lies before her ; behind him infant St. 

Holy Family, Andrea de! Sarto, National Gallery, London, 

John standing. St. Joseph, to left, leans 
his head on his hand. Landscape back- 
ground. Painted about 1521 for Zanobi 
Bracci. Engraved by Paradisi. — C. & C, 
Italy, iii. 576 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 35 ; Gal. 
du Pal. Pitti, ii. PL 117. 

By Andrea del Sarto, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 4 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Jesus, 
astride on the knee of the Virgin, who sits 
on the ground, turns to infant Baptist, sup- 
ported by St. Elizabeth ; in foreground a reed 
cross. ' ' Perfectly handled in Andi-ea's fused 

transparent manner" (C. & C). Painted 
about 1529 for Ottaviano de' Medici. Ancient 
copy in Dulwich Gallery, St. Joseph being 
added. This figure, different in style, recalls 
the manner of Vasari, Andrea's scholar. En- 
graved by Guzzi.— C. & C, Italy, iii. 576 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 51 ; Gal. du Pal. Pitti, 
iv. PI. 114; Richter, Cat. Dulwich Gal., 

By Girolamo Savoldo, Turin Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. X 4 ft. 6 in.; signed, dated 1527. 
The Virgin, with hands joined, behind a 
cradle or cushion on which Jesus is lying ; 
at left a donor — a man in a furred cloak — 
lifting a cloth from the waking Child; at 
right, St. Francis, in prayer. Eephca, long 
attributed to Pordenone, at Hampton Court, 
in which a second donor, a woman, is sub- 
stituted for St. Francis.— C. & C, N. Italy, 
ii. 427 ; Law, Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 43. 

By Andrea Solario, Casa Poldi, Milan ; 
wood, figures one-fifth Ufe-size ; signed, 
dated 1515. The Virgin, sitting, holding 
Jesus, to whom Joseph is presenting fruit ; 
in backgi-ound, the ass in a glade. — C. & C, 
N. Italy, ii. 59. 

By Titian, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 8 in. x 
3 ft. 6 in. The Vu'gin, seated under a tree 
to the left, holds Jesus on her lap ; St. John 
coming forward with his lamb and St. Joseph 
looking on ; in distance a servant leads the 
ox and ass, and two angels in the air carry 
the cross ; landscape background. Painted 
in 1530 ; belonged to Cardinal Mazarin, 
bought of his heu-s for Louis XIV. Eep- 
hca of Titian's time in Escorial ; another 
fi-om Orleans Gallery, now in Holford Gal- 
lery, London ; engraved by Teniers, consid- 
ered by Waagen and Miindler superior to 
that in Louvre ; others in Eoyal Institution, 
Liverpool, and Modena Gallery ; later adap- 
tations in Stockholm and Berlin Galleries. 
— C. & C, Titian, i. 341 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vii. 429 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 194 ; Miind- 
ler, Essai, 207 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole venitienne. 

By Paolo Veronese, Uffizi, Florence ; can- 
vas, figures Ufe-size, half-length. The Vir- 
gin seated, with Jesus asleep in her lap ; at 



right, infant St. John kissing the foot of the 
child ; behind him, Joseph restraining him 
with one hand ; at left, St. Catherine, mak- 
ing a gesture as if of silence. Bought in 
1654 by Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici, from 
collection of Paolo del Sera, Venice ; placed 
in Uffizi in 1798. — Lasinio, Gal. de Florence, 
i. PI. 71; Eidolfi, Marav., i. 325; Molini, 
Gal. di Firenze, ii. 85 ; Soc. Ed. and Paris, 
Gal. di Firenze, PI. 83. 

Attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg ; wood, H. 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 
ft. 3 in. Composition similar to the Ma- 
donna of the Bas-relief, but infant St. John 
is omitted, and a young woman reading 
takes the place of Zacharias. This young 
woman is commonly called St. Catherine ; 
it is probably a portrait of the sister-in-law 
of Leo X., who became the wife of Giulio 
de' Medici in 1518. Painted after 1490 ; 
belonged to Dukes of Mantua, and was lost 
when their palace was pillaged by the Ger- 
mans. About 1770-77 it came into posses- 
sion of Abbe Salvadori, secretary of Count 
Firmian, then Governor of Mantua. He 
concealed it, lest he should have to return 
it to the palace, and after his death it was 
sold by his heirs to agents of Catherine H. 
— Heaton, 232 ; Eigollot, Hist, des Arts, etc., 
i. 272 ; Kugler, ii. 283 ; Gal. de I'Hermitage ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 63. 

DELLA CATINA (of the Basin), Giulio 
Bomano, Dresden Gallery ; wood, H. 5 ft. 4 
in. X 4 ft. The Vii'gin, three-quarters length, 
standing, holding Jesus, who stands in a 
basin, into which the infant St. John is 
pouring water from a vase ; at left, St. Eliza- 
beth with a towel ; at right, in background, 
head of St. Joseph. Painted for Duke Fed- 
erigo of Mantua, who gave it to his mistress, 
Isabella Buschetta ; purchased from Modena 
by Augustus III. Engraved by M. Ferx-y ; 
G. G. Hipart— Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 545; 
Hubner, Dresden Gallery, i. 2 ; Morelli, 
212 ; W. & W., ii. 677. 

LESS JOSEPH (Joseph imberbe), Raphael, 

Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; wood, trans- 
ferred to canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 9| in. 
Figures half-length. The Virgin seated in 
a marble hall, with Jesus on her knee ; St. 
Joseph standing near, resting both hands 
upon a staff; on the right, a landscape 
through an arched window. Painted in 
1506 probably for Guidobaldo da Monte- 
feltro, though C. & C. think it cannot be 

Holy Family, Del Bacino, Giulio, Romano, Dresden Gallery. 

the picture of the Urbino inventory, but 
may be the second one painted for Taddeo 
Taddei, said to have belonged in 17th cen- 
tury to Due d'Angouleme in Paris ; sold to 
one Barroy, and finally came into the Crozat 
Collection ; bought of Crozat by Empress 
Catherine. Engraved by J. Chereau ; C. W. 
Ketterlinus; A. Pistchalkine.— Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iv. 322 ; Passavant, ii! 44 ; C. & C, 
Eaphael, i. 284; Gaz. des B. Arts, xvii. 
(1864), 317 ; xix. (1879), 187 ; Cab. Crozat, 
i. PI. 30 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Eaphael, iii. 
272 ; Descr. de I'Ermitage, PI. 1 ; E6veil, xi. 

Canigiani), Raphael, Munich Gallery ; wood, 



H. 4 ft. x3 ft. 3 in.; signed. The Virgin, 
seated in a meadow at right, with a book in 
her left hand, supports Jesus with the other ; 
he, resting upon her knee, with one foot on 
the ground, reaches toward the infant St. 
John, who is sustained at left by St. Eliza- 
beth, kneeling ; behind, St. Joseph, standing, 
leaning on his staff, completes the pyramidal 
group; background, a landscape. Painted 

Canigiani Holy Family, Raphael, Munich Gallery, 

about 1506 for Domenico Canigiani, of Flor- 
ence ; passed into hands of the Medici, and 
given by Cosmo HE. to his daughter, Anna 
Maria Luisa, on her marriage in 1690 with Jo- 
hann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine ; transferred 
to Munich from Dusseldorf Gallery, whence 
.sometimes called Dusseldorf Madonna. 
Much repainted ; the angels in the sky were 
so much injured by a restorer named Colin, 
that Krahe, director, caused them to be 
painted out. Sketches in Albertina Collec- 
tion, Vienna, and in Due d'Aumale's Collec- 
tion, Chantilly. Copy in Corsini Gallery, 
Florence, formerly in Casa Rinuccini, Flor- 
ence ; probably by a disciple of Raphael, 
though landscape looks like the work of a 
Fleming. Another copy in sacristy of S. 

Frediano, Florence. Engraved by Bona- 
sone, Rene Boirin, Calendi, Prestel, Cosse, 
K. Russ, Carl Hess (1804), S. Amsler (1836). 
— Vasaj-i, ed. Mil., iv. 326 ; Passavant, ii. 
53 ; Muntz, 191 ; C. & C, Raphael, i. 294 ; 
GiTiyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 282 ; Kug- 
ler (Eastlake), ii. 420. 

the Lamb), Raphael, Madrid Museum ; wood, 
H. 11^ in. X 8 in. ; signed, dated 1507. The 
Virgin, half kneeling, holds Jesus on a lamb ; 
St. Joseph, standing and leaning on his 
staff, looks on ; background, landscape with 
castle on a hUl and church on low ground, 
with flight into Egypt, very small figures. 
: Painted in Florence ; long unnoticed in 
Oratorio of the Escorial until one day Don 
Sebastian, the Infante, examining it, was 
surprised to find Raphael's signature. A 
fine copy of Raphael's time sold in 1840 by 
Signor Baldeschi, of Rome, for 12,000 scudi, 
to Count Castelbarco, of Milan, who sold his 
collection in Paris in 1870. Many other 
copies. Engi-aved by R, Morghen ; Sade- 
ler. — C. & C, Raphael, i. 337 ; Passavant, 
ii. 55 ; Mtintz, 188 ; Gruyer, Vierges de 
Raphael, iii. 296 ; Madrazo, 184. 

AMORE (of Divine Love), attributed to 
Raphael, but probably by Giulio Romano, 
Naples Museum ; wood, H. 1 ft. 11 in. x 1 
ft. 7 in. The Virgin sitting -with clasped 
hands ; Jesus on her lap, with right hand 
raised as if blessing St. John, who kneels, 
holding a cross ; behind is St. Elizabeth 
seated, and in the background Joseph. 
Painted about 1513 for Leonello Pio da 
Carpi; in possession of Cardinal Ridolfo 
Pio da Carpi in 1558 ; thence passed to 
Farnese family and was taken to Parma, 
whence carried to Naples by lung Ferdi- 
nand I.; in 1805, on the approach of the 
French, Queen CaroUne took it with her 
to Palermo, Vienna, and Constantinople, 
and finally brought it back to Naples. Orig- 
inal sketch in Naples Museum. Engraved 
by Marc Antonio, with variations, from an 
original sketch. Passavant mentions many 



copies, one in St. Petersburg attributed by 
Waagen to Eaifaello dal Colle, though oth- 
ers believe it to be the original ; but Kug- 

Holy Family of Francis 1., Raphael, Louvre. 

ler thinks the Naples picture a genuine 
Raphael. — Vasari, ed. MiL, iv. 348 ; Passa- 
vaut, ii. 121 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, 
iii. 323 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 375. 

Holy Family del Pajarito. 

ael, Louvre ; wood, transferred to canvas, 
H. 6 ft. 6 in. X 4 ft. 7 in. ; signed, dated 
1518. The Virgin, bending forward, is 
raising Jesus from the cradle ; at left, SS. 
Elizabeth and John kneeling ; on right, be- 
hind the Virgin, Joseph in contemplation ; 
on left, two angels, one with crossed arms, 
the other scattering flowers. Painted in 
Rome for Lorenzo de' Medici, who pre- 
sented it, with the large St. Michael of the 
Louvre, to Francis I. of France, in hope of 
gaining his support in his pretensions to 
the Duchy of Urbino. Much of it painted 

by Giulio Romano. Many copies. En- 
graved by G. Edelinck ; Virg. Solis ; Ri- 
chomme ; G. Rousselet ; P. Drevet ; J. Che- 
reau ; PoUly.— Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 389 ; v. 
525 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 393 ; 
Passavant, ii. 257 ; FiUiol, x. PI. 709 ; Lan- 
don, Musee, i. PI. 31 ; Klas. der Malerei, i. 
PI. 34 ; Musee royal, ii.; Cab. Crozat, i. 
PI. 5. 

Raphael (?), Madrid Museum ; wood, H. 4 
ft. 9 in. X 3 ft. 8 in. The Virgin seated 
under an oak, with one arm resting on an 
antique altar decorated with bas-reliefs, sus- 
tains Jesus on her knees with the other ; he 
looks up into her face and bends forward to 
put his arm round St. John, who stands near 
offering him a scroll inscribed "Ecce Agnus 
Dei ; " each child rests one foot on a cradle ; 
on right, St. Joseph, leaning upon the altar. 
Probably painted about 1517 by Fr. Penni 
after a design by Raphael In Royal Alca- 



Holy Family — del Lagarto, Raphael (?), Madrid Museum. 

zar, Madrid, time Charles H.; removed by 
Philip V. to Palace of S. Udefonso, thence by 
Charles HI. to new Palace. Taken to Paris ; 



returned to Madrid in 1822. Many copies : 
one by Giulio Eomano in Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence, has a lizard in foreground, whence 
called Madonna della Lucertola ; another, 
attributed to same, at Hampton Court, with- 
out lizard, called M. della Quercia (of the 
Oak), a name applied sometimes also to the 
Madrid example. Engraved by G. Bona- 
sone, Diana Mantovana, Ag. Carracci (etch- 
ing), Carattoli, and others. — Gruyer, Vierges 
de Raphael, iii. 382 ; Passavant, ii. 249 ; 
Madrazo, 194. 

Holy FamUy del Cordero. 

original lost ; figure to knees, Ufe-size. 
Virgin, standing behind couch of Jesus, 
lifts the veil which covers him ; St. Joseph, 
leaning on a staff, behind in contemplation. 
Painted in Rome about 1512-13 by order 
of Cardinal Riario for S. M. del Popolo ; 
supposed to have been given in 1717 to the 
shrine of Loreto, whence its present name. 
It disappeared at the close of the last cen- 
tury, and is only known now through its 
many copies. Discovery of original often 
annoimced, but without good evidence. 
Poor copy in Louvre ; better example lately 
placed in South Kensington Museum by 
Dr. AxeU Lamm, of Stockholm. This is 
probably the copy mentioned by Passavant 
as " pen remarquable," in the possession of 
the sculptor Bystroem at Stockholm. En- 
graved by Michele Lucchese (1553) ; Paulus 
Caronni. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 339 ; Passa- 
vant, ii. 100 ; Miintz, 375 ; Gruyer, Vierges 
de Raphael, iii. 310 ; Springer (Dohme 2ii.), 
191 ; Filhol, iv. PI. 230. 

Holy Family del Divino Amore. 

Holy Family — del Lagarto. 

the Bird), Murillo, Madrid Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 4 ft. 9 in. X 6 ft. 2 in. St. Joseph, 
seated in a room, supports Jesus, who stands 
at his right holding a goldfinch, with which 
he amuses a dog sitting before him ; on 

left, the Virgin looking on while winding 
yarn from a reel. Called also Sacra Fa- 
milia del Perrito (of the Dog). From Pal- 
ace of S. ndefonso ; carried by the French 
to Paris, where injured by cleaning and re- 
pairing. Engraved by J. A. S. Carmona ; B. 

Holy Family — del Pajarito, Murillo, Madrid Museum. 

Gallart ; etched by B. Maura ; lithographed 
by L. Zoellner ; A. Lemoine ; J. Vallejo. — 
Curtis, 172 ; Madrazo, 466. 

au Palmier), Baphael, Bridgewater House, 
London; wood, transferred to canvas; round, 
3 ft. 4 in. diameter. The Virgin, seated 
under a palm, holds Jesus astride of her 
knee by means of her veil, one end of which 
is swathed around his body ; St. Joseph, on 
one knee, offers flowers to the child, who 
stretches out both hands to receive them. 
Probably the second of two painted in Flor- 
ence in 1506 for Taddeo Taddei. Belonged 
before 1680 to Countess de Chiverni in 
Paris, then to Marquise d'Aumont, who sold 
it for 5,000 livres to M. de la None ; from 
his coUeetion passed to President Tambon- 
neau, and thence to the Orleans collection, 
at the sale of which (1798) bought by Earl 
of Bridgewater for £1,200. Two vertical 
splits in the panel have necessitated re- 
painting. Drawing in the Louvre. Copied 
by Philippe de Champagne for the Abbey of 
Port Royal. Engraved by E. Rousselet 
(1656), Jean Reymond, Felix Massard, and 
Achille Martinet (1844).— Vasari, ed. Mil., 
iv. 321 ; Passavant, ii. 38 ; Mtlntz, 188 ; C. 


& C, Raphael, i. 285 ; Gower, Hist. Gal. of 
England (London, 1881) ; Felibien, Entre- 
tiens, i. 228 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, 
iii. 259 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 26 ; Cab. 
Crozat, i. PI. 23. 

Pearl), Raphael, Madrid Museum ; wood, 
transferred to canvas, H. 4 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 10 
in. The Virgin, sitting near a cradle, hold- 
ing Jesus on her knees ; he has one foot on 
the cradle, and is reaching for fruits which 

Holy Family — La Peria, Raphael, Madrid Museum. 

St. John, dressed in a sheep skin, presents 
him ; on right, St. Elizabeth kneeling ; in 
background, St. Joseph among ruins. Paint- 
ed about 1517 for Pederigo H., Gonzaga, 
Duke of Mantua, according to Passavant, 
but probably identical with the Nativity 
described by Vasari as painted for Bishop 
Lodovico da Canossa ; passed from Canossa 
family, Verona, to Duke of Mantua, and sold 
in 1628 to Charles I. of England ; bought 
after Charles's death, for £2,000, by Don 
Alonzo de Cardenas, Spanish Ambassador, 
for Philip IV. of Spain, who is said to have 
exclaimed when he saw it : " This is the 
pearl among my pictures ! " Carried in 1813 

to Paris, where transfeiTed to canvas ; re- 
turned to Madrid in 1822. Many copies. 
Engraved by Gio. Baptista Franco, L. Vor- 
sterman, and others. The M. della Gatta, by 
Giulio Romano, Naples Museum, is a repe- 
tition of the Perla, with a change of acces- 
sories ; derives its name from the cat (gatta) 
crouching at St. Elizabeth's feet. Engraved 
by G. B. Franco ; L. Vorsterman. Giuho 
Romano had perhaps some hand in painting 
the Perla. — Gruyer, Vierges de Raphael, iii. 
348 ; Passavant, ii. 250 ; Kugler (Eastlake), 
ii. 375 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 351 ; Muntz, 
513 ; Springer, 351 ; Gaz. des B. Arts, xviii. 
(1878), 211 ; Madrazo, 192. 

cavallo, Bologna Gallery ; wood, H. 6 ft. 2 
in. X 4 ft. 5 in. The Virgin, seated ; Jesus, 
standing in his cradle, leans across her lap 
to reach flowers offered by St. Joseph ; be- 
hind, standing, SS. Benedict, Mary Magda- 
len, and Paul ; in background, the nativity. 
Formerly in S. M. Maddalena, Bologna. 
Engraved by G. Asioli. — Pinac. di Bologna, 
PI. 16. 

EIAS. See Madonna with Cherries. 

at Burgeis, Tyrol, in 1709, died at Clemens- 
werth, Hanover, July 21, 1740. German 
school ; history and portrait painter, pupil at 
Meran of Nicholaas Auer ; went afterwards to 
Augsburg, where he worked conjointly with 
Johann Geo. Bergmiiller,and later independ- 
ently in oil and fresco. Works : Finding 
of the Cross, Sketch to Mythological Fresco 
Painting in Augsburg, Faith, Hope and 
Love, Emperor Heraclius divesting himself 
of the Purple, Artist's Portrait, Ferdinan- 
deum, Innsbruck ; Ecce Homo ; Peasant 
Wedding ; Two Altarpieces, Dominican 
Church, Augsburg ; Fall of Angels, Jesuit 
Church, ib. ; Portrait of Elector Clemens of 
Cologne (1740).— AUgem. d. Biogr., xiii. 27 ; 
Wurzbach, ix. 248. 

HOLZER, JOSEF, born in Vienna, March 
20, 1824, died there, Jan. 17, 1876. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of the Vienna Academy, 


first under Klieber, then under Thomas 
Ender and Franz Steinfeld ; travelled (1846) 
in Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium, and 
■went in 1856 for three years to Munich. 
His landscapes show deep feeling for nature 
and poetical sentiment, delicate treatment 
and good drawing, but somewhat dull and 
hard colouring. Member of the Vienna and 
Venice Academies. Works : Quiet Wood- 
Nook, Emperor of Austria ; Stag-Hunt ; In 
the Wiener Wald ; View in the Ramsau ; 
In the Beech-Grove ; View in Carpathian 
Mountains (2) (1854) ; Wood Landscape 
(1859) ; Landscape with Oaks, Vienna Mu- 
seum. — Kunst-Chronik, xi. 833 ; Wurzbach, 
ix. 250. 

HOLZHAB, ADOLF, bom in ZiUich in 
1835. Architecture and landscape painter, 
pupil of Dilsseldorf Academy under Gude 
and Pulian ; travelled through the Ehine 
countries. Southern Germany, Belgium, 
Holland, France, and Italy. Works : View 
near Tangermiinde, Sag Alp on Reichenbach, 
Medifeval Town on North Sea, Zurich Gal- 
lery ; Costumes in Switzerland ; Ruin of 
Convent in Black Forest ; Town of Leuk 
and the Gemmi ; The Wetterhorn. — MtlUer, 

Ingres, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 8 
in. X 16 ft. 10 in. ; signed, dated 1827. Ho- 
mer, seated, with figures representing the 
lUad and the Odyssey at his feet, is crowned 
by Fame, and receives the homage of all the 
great men of Greece, of Rome, and of mod- 
ern times. Painted for a eeUing of the Mu- 
see Charles X., Louvre, but replaced now 
by a copy. Paris Exposition, 1855 ; after- 
vrards in Luxembourg. Engraved by A 
Martinet. Original sketch also in Louvre. 
— ViUt)t, Cat. Louvre ; Ch. Blanc, Life, 91 ; 
Larousse, i. 497. 

von Kaidbach, New Museum, Berlin ; mural 
painting, staircase hall. Homer, in a boat 
steered by the Cumeean Sibyl, approaches 
the shores of Greece while Thetis and the 
Nereids rise fi-om the sea to listen to his 

song ; on the shore are gathered the great 
men of Greece — Orpheus in the centre, 
then Hesiod, .3Eschylus, Sophocles, Euripi- 
des, Aristophanes, and Pindar ; Phidias, 
and other sculptors and painters ; the 
prophet Bacis, and Solon, Pericles, and Al- 
cibiades, while from forest and field the 
people approach to partake of the new cult- 

Bouguereau, Mrs. A. T. Stewart, New 
York ; canvas. The blind bard, led by 
a boyish guide, is attacked by dogs set 
on by rude Ionian shepherds ; in the 
background, the curs rush on in full 
cry, but one, in the foreground, which 
has reached the poet, has come under his 
influence, and fawns upon him in submis- 
sion. Salon, 1874. — Art Treas. of Amer., 
i. 44. 

HOMER, WINSLOW, born in Boston, 
Mass., Feb. 24, 1836. 
Genre painter, pupil 
of the National Acad- 
emy and of F. Rondel. 
During the civil war 
sketched for Harper's 
and other periodicals, 
and also painted works 
in oil and water-col- 
ours. Elected an AN. A. 
in 1864, and N.A in 1865. Member of So- 
ciety of Painters in Water Colours. Has vis- 
ited Europe, and in 1884-5 made a sketch- 
ing tour in the West Indies. Studio in New 
York. Works in oil : Prisoners from the 
Front ; Cotton Pickers; Home, Sweet Home; 
Zouaves Pitching Quoits ; Bright Side ; As 
You Like It ; Milking-Time ; In the Field ; 
Snap the Whip (1876); Rab and the Girls, 
Breezing Up, Charles Stewart Smith, New 
York; Sundown, Upland Cotton (1879); 
Visit from the Old Mistress, Sunday Morn- 
ing (1880) ; Coming Away of the Gale 
(1883) ; Uncle Ned's Happy Family, Life- 
Line (1884). Water-colours : Fly-Fishing ; 
Gardener's Daughter ; After the Bath ; In 
the Garden ; Manchester Coast ; Launching 



of a Boat, Wrecking of a Vessel (1884). — 
Sheldon, 25. 

HOMME AU GANT (Man with a 
Glove), Titian, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 4 
in. X 2 ft. 11 in. ; signed. A young man, 
dressed in black, holding a glove in left 
hand. A noble portrait of Titian's middle 
period. Copy in Brunswick Gallery. Be- 
longed to Louis XIV. — C. & C, Titian, ii. 

Antwerp, died at Amsterdam (?) after 1637. 
Flemish school ; landscape and bird paint- 
er, pupil at Utrecht of Eoelant Savery, and 
at Amsterdam of David Vinckeboons ; a 
descendant of the Brabantine Marquises of 
Westerloo. At first painted portraits ; re- 
moved to Amsterdam, where he lived al- 
ready in 1615, and contracted a second 
marriage in 1G28. Works : Mountainous 
Landscape, Berlin Museum ; do. (1609), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Bird Concert, Cas- 
sel Gallery ; do. (1620), Ftirstenberg Gal- 
lery, Donaueschingen ; Dead Birds (1655 ? 
attributed), Eotterdam Museum. — AUgem. 
d. Biogr., xiii. 67 ; Kramm, iii. 717 ; Meyer, 
Gem. kongl. Mus., 209. 

in Utrecht in 1636, 
died in Amster- 
dam, April 3, 1695. 
Dutch school; ani- 
mal painter, son 
and pupil of Gys- 
bert H, and of his 
uncle, Jan Baptista 

■ ,^J«l{v; Weenix, 

birds with singular 
truthfulness, and 
had a poetic feeling for their varied habits. 
In 1659-63 member of Hague guild ; in 
1688 took the freedom of Amsterdam. 
Works: Birds in a Park, White Turkey, 
Peacock and Turkey, Louvre ; Crow stripped 
of Borrowed Feathers (1671), Menagerie 
of Prince William IH. at Loo, two others, 
Hague Museum ; Floating Feather, Hen 
defending Chickens, Parrots and Other 

Birds, Dead Birds, Birds and Hare, four 
others, Amsterdam Museum ; Peacock and 
Poultry in a Park (1672), Cock Crowing, 
Still Life, Brussels Museum ; Foreign Water- 
Fowl, Berlin Museum; Noah's Ark, Vessel 
with Fish (1661), Brunswick Museum ; Poul- 
try Yard (1668), Cock-Fight, do. (1686), 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; White Peacock and other 
Fancy Birds, Cock-Fights (2), Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Chickens, do. and Cock defying Bird 
of Prey, Bird Concert, Dead Game-Birds by 
a Gun, Dresden Museum ; Domestic Poul- 
try, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort; do., Cologne, 
Gotha (3), Hanover, Leipsic, Stuttgart (3), 
Vienna (2) Museums, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence, Venice Academy, Copenhagen and 
Oldenburg Galleries, National Gallery, Lon- 
don (2), Liverpool Institution, Leuchtenberg 
Gallery, St. Petersburg ; Cock-Fight, Cock 
and Hen defending Chickens against Turkej', 
Barn Yard, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Water- 
Fowls (2), Dead Game and Hunting Imple- 
ments (2), Bird Park, Schleissheim Gallery; 
Cock-Fight (1668), Hen Family, Turkish 
Ducks, Dead Poultry (1678), Poultry Yard 
(1681), Schwerin Gallery; Poultry Yard, 
Pelican, Cassowarj', etc.. Dead Game, Her- 


mitage, St. Petersburg. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xiii. 67 ; Burger, i. 161, 280 ; Immerzeel, ii. 
47 ; Kramm, iii. 717 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 
457 ; De Stuers, 50. 

HONDIUS, ABEAHAM, born in Eotter- 
dam in 1638, died in London in 1695. 
Dutch school ; animal and genre painter ; 
went early to London, where he painted 
bear and boar hunts, conflagrations, and 
nocturnal gatherings by torchlight. The 
truthfulness, boldness, and vigour of this 
master would give him a high place were 



his drawing correct and his colouring more 
harmonious. Works : Sow defending her 
Young, Rotterdam Museum ; Christ as 
Gardener (1662), Oldenburg Gallery ; Noc- 
turnal Carnival Scene in Eome (1660), Dogs 
starting Swan (1670), do. chasing Water- 
Fowl (2), Bear-hunts (2), Schwerin Gallery ; 
Boar-hunt (1661), Dresden Museum ; 
Wounded Heron pursued by Dogs, Avignon 
Museum ; Starting for the Chase, Uffizi, 
Florence ; Wild Boar attacked by Dogs, 
Bear do., Rotterdam Museum ; Swan at- 
tacked by Dogs, Glasgow Gallery ; Party 
of Ladies and Officers (1668), Guard-House, 
Bear-Hunt, Stag- 
Hunt, Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg; 
Boar-Hunt, New 
York Museum. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xiii. 69 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 455 ; Burger, ii. 313 ; 
Immerzeel, ii. 48. 

HONINGHAUS, ADOLF, born at Cre- 
feld, Rhenish Prussia, in 1811. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Dusseldorf Academy under 
Schirmer ; went in 1843 to Italy, where he 
studied from nature four years ; removed to 
Dresden in 1853. Works : View of Terra- 
cina (1851), Dasseldorf Gallery ; St. Peter's 
and the Vatican (1852), Cologne Museum. 
— Miiller, 265. 

HONORIUS, Jean Paul Laurens, D. O. 
Mills, New York ; canvas, H. 6 ft. x 4 ft. 
The Emperor Honorius, son of Theodosius 
the Great, who became Emperor of the West 
on the death of his father, a.d. 395. Repre- 
sented crowned, in a purple robe, seated 
upon a throne, with the sword of state in 
his right hand, and his left hand resting on 
the globe crested with Victory. Salon, 1880. 
— Art Treas. of Amer., ii. 110. 

Utrecht, Nov. 4, 1590, died there, April 27, 
1656. Dutch school; history, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Abraham Bloe- 
mart, but spent several years in Rome, 
where he studied the pictures of Caravaggio, 
and found a patron in the Marchese Giusti- 
niani. As he painted many night scenes 

lighted by torches or candles, he was sur- 
named Gherardo dalle Notti. After his re- 
turn he worked 

(1619-20) at the 
court of King 
Frederic in 
Prague, later for 
Charles I. in 
England, where 
in 1628 he exe- 
cuted portraits 
and historical 
paintings for the 
Banqueting Hall, Whitehall. He was free 
of the Utrecht guild in 1623, and at The 
Hague in 1637. In 1645-50 he worked 
chiefly for the princes of Orange, but also 
painted a series of pictures from Danish 
history for the King of Denmark, and in 
his later years a number of portraits for 
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. 
His early pictures are preferable to those 
painted after his journey to Italy (1612- 
15), where he imitated Caravaggio and 
Correggio in his night pieces, Rubens in 
his historical paintings, and Mierevelt in 
his portraits. He worked very rapidly. His 
numerous works are markedly realistic, show 
skilful arrangement, good drawing, and pow- 
erful chiaroscuro, but they are deficient in 
elevation. Works : Lute-Player (1614), Con- 
cert (1624), PUate washing his Hands, Young 
Shepherd, Triumph of Silenus, Man tuning 
Mandoline, two portraits. Louvre ; St. Mary 
Magdalen, Bordeaux Museum ; Soldier sleep- 
ing on a Drum, Aremberg GaUery, Brussels ; 
Portrait of Stadhouder Willem II., Portraits 
of two young Princesses (1653), do. of Fred- 
eric William I. Elector of Brandenburg and 
Louise Henriette of Nassau, do. of Prince 
Frederik Hendrik and Wife, Nude Child 
plucking Pears, Hague Museum ; Merry 
Musician, Portrait of Princess Amalia van 
Solms (1650), do. of Prince Frederik Hen- 
drik, do. of Prince Willem H. (2), Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Maria de' Medici (1638), New 
Town Hall, ib.; Tete-a-tete, Soldier — Male 
Portrait (1647), Rotterdam Museum ; Singer, 



Haarlem Museum ; Flea-hunt by Candle- 
light, Basle Museum ; Liberation of Peter, 
Esau selling his Birthright, Backgammon 
(1624), Berlin Museum; Boy with Flute, 
Musical Party, four others, Brunswick Mu- 
seum ; Man with Wine-Glass, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Old Woman weighing Money, St. Ce- 
cilia at the Organ with Angels Accompanying, 
Satyr and Old Woman, Magdalen Penitent, 
Musical Entertainment, Cassel Gallery ; Na- 
tivity, Cologne Museum ; Queen Margaret 
and King Albrecht (1690), Family Concert, 
Rich Old Man with his Son, Diana adorned 
by her Nymphs (1650), Female Portrait, 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Christ with Nicode- 
mus at Night, Portrait of Princess Sophie 
of the Palatinate, Lute-Player Singing, Male 
Portrait, Female do. (1641), Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Dentist (1622), Old Woman with 
Coin, do. with Candle, Female Portrait (?), 
Dresden Museum ; Peter's Denial, Peter 
Penitent, Woman Undressing, Burial of St. 
Sebastian (?), Gotha Museum ; Deliverance 
of St. Peter, Cimon and Pera, Prodigal Son, 
do. (1623), Christ in the Temple (?), Ceres 
seeking her Daughter Proserpine, Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Dutch Tavern Scene, Ol- 
denburg Gallery ; Flute-Player, Schwerin 
Gallery ; Portrait of a Princess (1652), Wei- 
mar Museum ; Christ before Caiaphas, Pe- 
ter's Denial, Woman Spinning, The Concert, 
Old AVoman in Prayer, Man with Wine-Glass, 
Guitar-Player, Girl adorning Herself, Pala- 
tine Charles Louis, Prince Rupert of the 
Palatinate, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Old 
Man Reading, National Gallery, Pesth ; 
Christ before Pilate, St. Jerome, Boy with 
Dog, Vienna Museum ; Supper Party (2), 
Fortune-Teller, Holy Family, Adoration of 
Shepherds, Artist's Portrait, Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Lot and his Daughters, Borghese Pal- 
ace, Rome ; Incredulity of St. Thomas, Mad- 
rid Museum ; Christ before Pilate, Stafford 
House, London ; Duke of Buckingham and 
Family, Hampton Court Palace ; Elector- 
Palatine Frederick as King of Bohemia, His 
Queen, Charles I., Prince Rupert, Artist's 
Portrait, Combe Abbey (Earl of Craven) ; 

Countess of Bedford, Woburn Abbey ; Mu- 
sic Lesson, Sealing the Letter, Historical 
Society, New York ; Conflagration, Pennsyl- 




vania Academy, Philadelphia ; Ceres trans- 
^,.y. forming a Boy into a Lizard, Mu- 

I y^J nich Gallery; Dentist, Dresden 
^/^J Gallery. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xiii. 
^ 94 ; Gower, Figure Painters, 5, 

81 ; Burger, Musoes, i. 63 ; ii. 200 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 347 ; Immerzeel, ii. 50 ; Kramm, 
iii. 723 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 172 ; Sandrart, 
ii. 303. 

born at Utrecht in 1604, died there in 1666. 
Dutch school ; history and portrait painter, 
brother of Gerard H., pupil of Bloemart ; 
accompanied the Princess Louisa Henrietta 
of Orange, wife of the Great Elector, to 
Berlin in 1650, and returned to Holland in 
1664. The portraits by him, mostly pre- 
served in the Prussian royal residences, re- 
semble those of his brother, but are smooth- 
er and colder in tone. Works : Portrait of 
WiHiam H. of Orange (1647) and his Wife, 
and of Amalie von Solms, Berlin Museum ; 
Portraits of two Countesses of Nassau, Gotha 
Museum ; Prince Frederik Hendrik of Or- 
ange (1647), William H., Three little Sisters, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Portrait of Mary of Or- 
ange, Rotterdam Museum ; Portraits of Will- 
iam H. (2), Amsterdam Museum. — Kramm, 
iii. 728 ; Schlie, 280. 

HOOCH (Hooghe), PIETER DE, born in 
Rotterdam, baptized probably Dec. 12, 1632, 
died in Haarlem (?) in 1681. Dutch school ; 
genre painter, formed himself under the in- 
fluence of Karel Fabritius and Rembrandt ; 
worked at Delft, where he entered the guild 
in 1655, perhaps also at Haarlem. One of 
the most original artists of the Dutch school; 
painted domestic scenes, especially in the 





Ciia . Da-m,, Fiit^^Ut. d£,l . 

i"^/!'"-' J^frrra./Zi ft- 


open air, and is considered the best painter 
of clear sunlight. His prevailing local col- 
our is red, repeated 
with great delicacy in 
various planes of dis- 
tance. Works : Court 
of Dutch House 
(1658), Courtyard of 
do. (1665), Interior of 
do.. National Gallery, 
London; A Court- 
yard, Card-Players 
(1658), Buckingham 
Palace ; Woman and Child, Lord Ashbur- 
ton ; Door of Ale-House, Lord Overstone, 
London ; Lady and Gentleman at Cards, 
Dutch Interior (2), Louvre ; Artist's Por- 
trait (1651), The Cellar, Couple engaged in 
Music, The Letter (1670), Woman combing 
Girl's Hair, Married Couple before Country 
House, Mother and Child, Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Dutch Interior, Rotterdam Museum ; 
do., Lille, Berlin, Darmstadt, Nuremberg 
Museums, Carlsruhe, Cassel, and Schleiss- 
heim Galleries, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Minuet, Family Concert, Domestic 
Scene, Copenhagen Gallery ; Lace-Maker, 
Lady and Cook-Maid, Lady and Cavalier 
Singing and Playing, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; The Letter, Leuchtenberg Gallery, 
ib. ; Consultation, formerly Narischkine Col- 
lection, ib. ; Paints 
|\ I "DTi // er in his studio, 
X^ I JriJ.n Czernin Gallery, 

p. D . HO OC H Vienna.— Bur ger, 
(7) ">v<7 k Musees, i. 98; ii. 

ci O0U?0Cn/ 56; Dohme, lii.; 

^ Gower, Figure 

Painters, 69; Havard, A. & A. holl, iii. 61; 
Immerzeel, ii. 51 ; Kramm, iii. 732 ; Kug- 
ler (Crowe), ii. 385. 

Dordrecht about 1625, died in Vienna in 
1654. Dutch school; history and genre 
painter, brother and pupil of Samuel, with 
whom he travelled and worked at the im- 
perial court in Vienna. Work, Two Wo- 


men with Pipe and Pitcher, Vienna Museum. 
— Immerzeel, ii. 53. 

at Dordrecht in 1627 
(?), died there, Oct. 19, 
1678. Dutch school ; 
son and pupil of Dirk 
H., and in 1640 entered 
school of Rembrandt. 
Painted at first chiefly 
portraits at The 
Hague and Dordrecht, 
later painted land- 
scapes, marines, ani- 
mals, and still-life. Resembled Pieter de 
Hooch in the light and cool tone of his pict- 
ures. In 1651 he went to Vienna, Rome, 
and London, finding admirers everywhere. 
He also wrote a book, called " Introduction 
to the High Art School." Works : Portrait 
of Matheus van den Broucke, Sick Girl, 
Amsterdam Museum; Lady 
walking in Court- Yard, Hague 
Museum ; Male Portrait (1651), 
^ 7 Berlin Museum ; Old Jew (1653), 
^1 -[ Inner Court of Imperial Castle 
Hj)V^ I (1652), Vienna Museum.— All- 
•*" gem. d. Biogr. , xiii. 99 ; Burger, 
Musees, i. 222 ; ii. 51 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. ; 
Immerzeel, ii. 53 ; Kramm, iii. 739 ; Stuers, 
54 ; Kunst-Chronik (1865), 60. 

HOOK, JAMES CLARKE, born in Lon- 
don, Nov. 21, 1819. 
History, marine, and 
genre painter, pupil 
of Royal Academy in 
1836; exhibited first 
picture. The Hard 
Task, in 1839; won 
in 1845 gold medal 
for best historical 
picture. Finding of 
the Body of Harold, 
and in 1846 the travelling studentship by 
his Rizpah, and went to Italy. Painted at 
first principally Italian subjects, but in 1854 
began his series of "Enghsh pastorals" 
which have brought him fame. Elected an 


A.R.A. in 1850, and EA. in 1860. He has 
since visited Brittany, Norway, and Holland 
in search of subjects. Works : Rest by the 
Wayside (1854); Birthplace of the Streamlet 
(1855) ; Passing Cloud, Welcome Bonny 
Boat (1856) ; Widow's Son going to Sea, 
Signal on the Horizon (1857); Gathering 
Eggs (1858) ; Luff Boy ! (1859) ; Whose 
Bread is on the Waters, Oh ! Well for the 
Sailor Lad, Stand Clear (1860) ; Sea Urchins 
(1861) ; Breton Fishermen's Wives, Mack- 
erel Take (1865) ; Mother Carey's Chickens 
(1867) ; Morning after a Gale (1868); Fish 
from the Doggerbank (1870) ; Market Girls 
at a Fjord (1871) ; Jolly as a Sand-Boy 
(1872) ; Jetsam and Flotsam, Kelp Burners 
—Shetland (1874) ; Hearts of Oak (1875) ; 
Seaside Ducks, Crabbers (1876) ; Word 
from the Missing (1877) ; Coral Fisher 
(1878) ; Tanning Nets, Mushroom Gather- 
ers (1879) ; Diamond Merchants (1881) ; 
Devon Harvest Cart, CaUer Herriu' (1882); 
Catching a Mermaid, Surrey Stream, Wily 
Angler (1883) ; Wild Harbourage, Mirror of 
the Sea-Mew, Catching Sand-Launce (1884). 
His son, Bryan Hook, was awarded the Tur- 
ner gold medal and scholarship at the Roy- 
al Academy in 1882.— Meynell, 160 ; Art 
Journal (1856), 41 ; Portfolio (1871), 181. 

lin, March 17, 1807. History painter, pupil 
of Ruscheweyh, then of Berlin Academy 
under DahUng, Niedlich, and Wach ; won 
a prize in 1825, studied in Rome (1827-32), 
then decorated two ducal chajsels in Wies- 
baden, and in 1835 returned to Berlin, 
where in 1854 he became professor and 
member of the Academy. Works : Raphael 
finding Model for Madonna della Sedia ; 
Dressing the Bride ; Girls feeding Swans ; 
Finding of Moses ; Boaz and Ruth ; Sara- 
cen Robbers ; Tasso and Leonora of Este 
(1839), Female Head, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Roses of St. Elizabeth, Thorwaldsen 
Museum, Copenhagen ; Youth of Bacchus 
(1865), Konigsberg Museum. Fresco: Com- 
ing of the Holy Ghost, Chapel of Royal 
Palace, Berlin. — Cotta's Kunstbl. (1834), 

170 ; Kunstbl. (1854), 401 ; Muller, 266 ; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 31. 

Laivson, private gallery, England ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. X 7 ft. Scene in neighbourhood of 
Wrotham, Kent, in September, when the 
hops are ripe and ready for picking. The 
small circular buildings at left are the oasts, 
or kilns, for drying the hops over heated 
flues. The machine in the foreground is 
an instrument for clearing the weeds be- 
tween the rows. Painted in 1874 ; rejected 
by Royal Academy, 1875 ; Grosvenor Gal- 
lery, 1879. Engraved by J. Sadeler ; etched 
by Hubert Herkomer. — Art Journal (1880), 
4 ; Gosse, Cecil Lawson, 24. 

HOPPNER, JOHN, born at Whitechapel, 
London, April 4, 1758, died there, Jan. 23, 
1810. When young was a chorister in the 
Royal Chapel, but in 1775 became a pupil 
of Royal Academy, and, by the patronage 
of the Prince of Wales, became a fashion- 
able portrait painter, finding a rival only 
in Lawrence. The Prince, the Duke and 
Duchess of York, and many other notable 
personages were among his sitters. Became 
in 1793 an A.R.A., and in 1795 R.A. Pub- 
lished, in 1803, " A Select Series of Portraits 
of Ladies of Rank and Fashion," painted by 
him. Works: William Pitt, "Gentleman" 
Smith the Actor, Countess of Oxford, Na- 
tional Gallery ; others in National Portrait 
Gallery, and at Hampton Court. — Redgrave ; 
F. de Conches, 359, 370 ; Ch. Blanc, tcole 
anglaise ; Sandby, i. 308 ; Bygone Beauties, 
eng. by Wilner after Hoppner (London, 
1883) ; Art Journal (1886), 54. 

HORATH, OATH OF THE, Louis David, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 10 in. x 14 
ft. ; signed, dated Rome, 1784. The three 
brothers, their hands extended towards 
their father, receive from him the arms 
with which they are to contend with the 
three Curiatii (Livy, i. 24-5). Camilla, the 
betrothed of one of the Curiatii, overcome 
with grief, leans her head upon the shoulder 
of Sabina, wife of the eldest of the Horatii, 
while the mother of the Horatii embraces 



.1 (ID EiTT H Cu PIP ITE ]R /E § (I^ , ]R .^. 


her two grandchildren in the background. 
Salon, 1785. Sketch, -with changes, in 
Louvre. Engraved by Morel. — Landon, 
Musee, vii. PI. 61. 

HOKCICKA, FRANZ, bom in Prague, 
June 29, 1776, died there, April 5, 1856. ■ iels, vi., 406 ; Nagler, Mon., ii 37. 
History and portrait painter, pupil from HOREiLA.XS, JAN JOZEF, the elder, 
178C of Ludwig Kohl, and from 1800 of bom at Antwerp, baptized Nov. 16, 1682i 

^liniatures, National Museum, Munich ; 
Hortulus Animse, and several Codices, Im- 
perial Library, Vienna ; Psalter and Offici- 
um in three FoHo Volumes, Vatican, Rome. 
Immerzeel, ii. 55 ; Kramm, iii. 747; Slich- 

Bergler in the Academy. At Prague he 
was the first portrait jDainter of the day un- 
til Jacob Ginzel supplanted him in 1822. 
Invented a valuable way of restoring pict- 

died there, Aug. 7, 1759. Flemish school ; 
genre painter, fii-st instructed by the sculp- 
tor Michiel van der Voort, then pupil of 
Jan van Pee ; master of the guild in 170G. 

ures, and in 1811 started the first pubhc art His pictures were skilfully composed, but 
exhibition in Prague. 
Works : St. TVenceslaus de- 
stroying the Idol Swan- 
tovit ; St. Albert blessing 
the Country, St. George 
and the Dragon ; Holy 
Trinity ; Portraits of Ig- 
natius Cornova, of the 
Mathematician Gerstner, 
of Abbe Dobrowsky, of the 
Philosopher Bolzano, the 
Historian Pelzel, the Phy- 
siologist Pui-kyne. — All- 
gem. deutsche Biogr., xiii. 

HOREBOUT (Hooren- 
bout, Horebault, Home- 
bold), GERARD, bom in 
Ghent (?) about 1480, died 
in London in 1540. Flem- 
ish school ; history painter, supposed pujjil 
of Memling, and one of the great masters 
of the old Flemish school, excelling espe- 
cially as a painter of miniatures, of which 
the famous breviary of Charles V. may be 
taken as an example. He was in Ghent in 
1510-11, worked for the Princess Margaret 
of Austria in 1516-21, and Albrecht Diirer 
knew him in the latter year at Antwerp. 
Having afterwards gone to England, he was 
appointed painter to Heniy VHI. Works : 
Double Diptych (attributed to Memling), 
Antwerp Museum ; Madonna Enthi-oned (?), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Madonna, Christ tak- 

ing Leave of his Mother, Prayer Book with 

Oath of the Horatii, Louis David, Louvre, Paris. 

heavy and untruthful in colouring. Works : 
Admission of an Abbot into Fencing Com- 
pany, Antwerp Museum ; Musical Company 
(1715), Brunswick Museum ; Company 
around Table, Lady making Dog Dance, 
Dutch Peasant Room, Company of Peasants, 
Interior of Gardener's Dwelling, Cassel Gal- 
leiy ; Peasants' Frolic in a Tavern, Brawl in 
a Tavem, Darmstadt Museum ; Tavern 
Scenes (2), Copy after Hogarth's Harlot's 
Progress, Historical Society, New York ; 
Shoemaker in his Shop, ^Mother by a Cradle 
Sewing, Dresden Museum ; Peasant Family 
at Table (2), Hanover Galleiy ; Village 
School, Shoemakei-'s Shop (1712), Vienna 


Museum ; Shoemaker's Family, Tea Seller, 
Card Players, Saying Grace, Uf&zi, Florence; 
Tavern Scenes (2), Historical Society, New 
York ; Country School, Pennsylvania Acad- 


emy, Pliiladelphia. — Kramm, iii. 748 ; 
Eooses (Reber), 449 ; Van den Branden, 

HOREMANS, JAN JOZEF, the younger, 
born at Antwerp, Jan. 15, 1714, died after 
1790. Flemish school ; genre painter, son 
and pupil of Jan Jozef the elder ; entered 
the guild in 1767. Subjects similar to those 
of his father, but drawn from a higher 
grade of society. Works : Antwerp) Family 
at Table (1758), Cavalier and two Ladies in a 
Landscape, Theodor van Lerius, Antwerp ; 
Signing the Marriage Contract (1767), Wer- 
brouck Family (1785), P. J. Taeymans, ib. ; 
Reading the Marriage Contract (1768), 
Flemish Kirmess, A. Verachtert, ib. ; Fish 
Market, Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, 
Landlord and his Tenant, Horse Pond, Re- 
turning from the Hunt, New York Muse- 
um. — Kramm, iii. 749 ; Van den Branden, 

Antwerp, baptized Oct. 26, 1700, died in 
Munich in 1776. Flemish school ; genre 
and portrait painter, brother and pupil of 
Jan Jozef the elder ; went in 1725 to Mu- 
nich, where two years later he was made 
court painter to Elector Charles Albrecht 
(Emperor Charles VII.). Works: Fruit- 
piece (1768), Augsburg Gallery ; Woman 
and two Children, Brunswick Museum ; 
Violin Player, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; 
Fruit-pieces (2) (1766), Male Portrait, Fe- 
male do. (2), Germanic Museum, Nurem- 

berg ; Artist's Portrait, Sculptor Grooft 
(1766), Male Portraits (2) (1774), Emperor 
Charles VH., Duchess Maria Anna, Duchess 
Theresa Benedicta, Duke Clemens August 
(1743), Duke Johann Theodor (1743), Duch- 
ess Maria Anna Caroline (1738), Duke Fer- 
dinand Maria Innocenz (1735), Duke Maxi- 
milian Franz de Paula (1738), Electress 
Theresa Kunigunde, Electress Maria Anna, 
Elector Max Emanuel, Empress Marie 
Amalie, Duchess Marie Antonie (1742), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Peasant Kitchen, 
Children's School, Bowlers, Game at 
Draughts, Tavern Scenes (2), Uffizi, Flor- 
ence. — Kramm, iii. 749 ; Repertorium f. K., 
ii. 425 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 141 ; Van den 
Branden, 1192. 

born at Hanover, May 19, 1813. Genre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academj' under 
Cornelius, whom he assisted in the fresco 
paintings in the Ludwigskirche ; lived then 
for several years in Paris and Hamburg ; 
visited Southern Russia in 1855, became 
honorary member of St. Petersburg Acad- 
emy, and in 1867 settled in Diisseldorf. 
Works : Pere David (1856), Children teas- 
ing Magpie (1857), A Cardinal (1858), 
Russian Officers in Circassian Captivity 
(1859), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Wedding 
Banquet ; Wandering Musicians ; Morning 
Greeting ; Vaccination in the Country (1868); 
Return of Landwehrman ; Grandmother's 
Birthday ; Forgive my Sin (1875) ; Thou 
my Love, A Monk, Rural Dance (1880). — 
Miiller, 266. 

HORNUNG, JOSEF, born in Geneva in 
1792, died there, Feb. 3, 1870. History 
jDainter, instructed by a painter of the clas- 
sical French school ; tried first landscape 
painting, but, by advice of Toepffer the 
elder, turned to genre, and soon made a 
name, especially in France, with his scenes 
from Savoyard life ; finally took up histori- 
cal subjects, which he treated with a pro- 
found knowledge of the spirit and condi- 
tions of the 16th century. Works : Feasting 
Savoyards; Merry Shoemaker ; Little Chim- 



ney Sweep ; Last Moments of Calvin (1835), 
Catherine de' Medici receiving Coligny's 
Head, Prisoner, Study for Head of Coligny, 
Musee Eatb, Geneva ; Savoyai-d (1843), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Last Visit of Farel 
to Calvin ; Calvin working on Fortifications 
of Geneva ; Sei-vetus led to Execution ; 
Fromment's Sermon on the Molard ; Beza 
reading Bible before Joanna d'Albret ; Morn- 
ing after St. Bartholomew's Night ; Luther 
at Worms.— niust. Zeitg., March 18, 1865. 

HORNY, FRANZ, born in Weimar in 
1797, died in Olevano in 1819. Pupil of 
Johann Heinrich Meyer in Weimar, and 
Joseph Anton Koch at Rome in 181G. Com- 
missioned to paint fruit and flower decora- 
tions in fresco about the Dante frescos of 
Cornelius at the Villa Massimi. He was an 
artist of great promise, whose career was 
cut short by an early death. — Riegel, 337 ; 
Seubert, ii. 254. 

HOROSCOPE, Giorgione (?), Dresden 
Gallery ; wood, H. 4 ft. 5 in. x 3 ft. An old 
man in Oriental costume, with a disc and ' 
compass in his hand, sits at a marble table 
in front of a ruined building ; to the left, a 
woman lying on the ground, playing with a 
naked chUd, while a man in armour stands 
by ; background, a landscape, with warriors 
reposing under a tree. Looks as if it might 
have been painted by Girolamo Pennacchi. 
Formerly in Palazzo Maufiini, Venice. — C. 
k C, N. Italy, ii. 153. 

HOROWITZ, LEOPOLD, born at Eoz- 
gony, Hungai7, in 1839. Portrait and 
genre painter, pupil of Vienna Academy 
under Meyer, Wurzinger, and Geiger ; won 
first prize and went in 1860 to Paris, where 
he remained eight years, acquiring consid- 
erable reputation ; moved iu 1868 to War- 
saw to study Polish and Jewish life, wliich 
he has since treated in a number of success- 
ful pictures. Works: Mourning of the 
Jews over Jerusalem; Polish Tutor; Harm- 
less War ; The First-Bom (1885).— AUgem. 
K. C, ix. 664 ; MilUer, 266. 

nich, March 16, 1829, died there, April 3, 

1871. Battle painter, pupil of Munich Acad- 
emy under Anschiitz, and o f Albrecht Adam ; 
painted first hunting 
scenes and horses, vis- 
ited Spain and Algiers 
in 1853, and in 1858 
went to the Caucasus 
and took part in the 
Russian expedition. In 
1863 returned to Mu- 
nich via Moscow and 
St. Petersburg, and 
painted many military 
scenes in oils and water-colours. In 1870 
he made sketches during the siege of Stras- 
burg. Member of St. Petersburg Academy 
in 1860, of the Vienna Academy in 1868, 
honorary member of the Munich Academy 
in 1865 ; first prize iu Paris in 1867, gold 
medal in Munich in 1869 ; military decora- 
tions iu 1858-59, for his campaigns in the 
Caucasus. Works : Poacher (1850) ; Halt 
before Algiers (1854); Caravan iu the Desert; 
Seizure of Shamyl; Taking of Eai-thwork on 
Mount Gunib ; Cossacks returning from a 
Razzia ; Russian Artillery in the Tschet- 
schina ; Flight of Lesghian Horsemen ; 
Street in Tiflis ; Attack of Circassians. — 
AUgem. d. Biogr., xiii. 160 ; Allgem. Zeitg., 
April 18, 1871 ; Beilage, 108 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, vi. 115; Miinchner Propylaen (1869), 
798 ; Regnet, M. K, i. 195 ; Theod. Hor- 
schelt. Life and Works (Munich, 1876). 

HORSE FAIR (Marche aux Chevaux), 
A. T. Stewai-t Collection, New York ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. X 15 ft. 7^ in. A drove of horses, of 
various colours and sizes, some with riders, 
and some led by men, trotting to right ; in 
background, left, the dome of the Invalides 
in distance ; at right, an avenue of trees 
with spectators. A masterpiece ; cost eigh- 
teen months' labor. Salon, 1853 ; sold to 
Gambart & Co., London, for 40,000 francs, 
and exhibited in London and in Manchester 
in 1856; purchased in 1857 for about $6,000 
by Wm. P. Wright, Weehawken, New Jer- 
sey, and exhibited in New York in October 
of that year ; thence passed to Mr. Stewart. 



Engraved, -when in Gambart's possession, 
by Thomas Landseer, for whose use the 
artist painted a reduced copy (H. 3 ft. 11 in. 
X 8 ft. 2^ in.), with some changes in details. 
This copy passed to Jacob Bell, who be- 
queathed it in 1859 to the National Gallery, 
London. Mile. Bonheur, preferring to be 
represented by a better work, painted a 
third Horse Fair, which she offered to the 
National Gallery in place of the hastily ex- 
ecuted sketch bequeathed by Mr. Bell, but 
the trustees deciding that they had no power 
to make the exchange, she contented her- 
self with retouching the Bell picture. The 
third picture was sold lately in London. A 
fourth replica in small (water-colour), with 
changes, is owned by C. F. H. Bolckow, 
Middleborough, England. — Harper's Week- 
ly (1857), 645 ; London Times, April 27, 
1865, 12. 
Brompton, Jan. 
29,1817. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
Royal Academy ; 
first exhibited 
work, Rent Day 
at Haddon Hall 
(1837). He re- 
ceived prizes in 
the "Westminster 
Hall Compe- 
tition in 1843, and painted the Spirit of 
Prayer, in the House of Lords, and Satan 
touched by Ithuriel's Spear, in the Poets' 
Hall of the Palace of Westminster. Elected 
an A.R. A. in 1855, and E A. in 1866. Works : 
Pride of the Village (1839), in National Gal- 
lery ; Malvolio i' the Sun (1849); Hospitality 
(1850) ; Madrigal (1852) ; Lady Jane Grey 
and Roger Ascham (1853); Morning of St. 
Valentine (18G3) ; Waiting for an Answer, A 
Pleasant Corner (1866); Gaoler's Daughter 
(1869); Old Folk and Young Folk (1870); 
Stolen Glances (1873) ; Page in Waiting, 
Waiting Maid (1875); Under Lock and Key 
(1876) ; Fashions Change (1877) ; Salute, 
Cupboard Love (1878) ; A Trespasser (1879); 

Leading Strings, Le Jour des Morts (1880); 
Chateau Gardens at Fontainebleau (1881); 
A Merry Chase (1882); Wedding Kings 
(1883); Hide and Seek (1884).— Art Journal 
(1857), 181 ; Sandby, ii. 335. 

HOEST, G., flourished about 1640-50. 
Dutch school ; history painter, follower, 
perhaps pupil, of Eembrandt in his zenith. 
Works : Isaac blessing Jacob, Continence 
of Scipio, Berlin Museum. — Meyer, Ge- 
malde der kongl. Mus., 214. 

Antwerp about 1598, died at Brussels in 
1646. Flemish school ; history and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Rubens, travelled ex- 
tensively in Germany, France, and Italy, 
and settled at Brussels, where he became 
engraver to Archduke Albrecht, and the 
Infanta Clara Eugenia. The only known 
painting by him is Jephtha's Daughter in 
the Berlin Museum, but it is not exhibited 
at j)resent. — Eooses (Reber), 325 ; Van den 
Branden, 800. 

HOSEMANN, THEODOE, born at Bran- 
denburg, Sept. 24, 

1807, died in Ber- 
lin, Oct. 15, 1875. 
Genre painter and 
illustrator, pupil of 
the Dilsseldorf 
Academy ; emploj'ed 
at an early age in 
the lithographic in- 
stitute of Amz & 
Winckelmann, with 
whom he went to Berlin, where he acquired 
great fame as an illustrator of books. His 
little genre pieces in oil and water-colour 
are equally excellent, though few in num- 
ber. In 1857 became professor in the Ber- 
lin Academy. Works : Shoemaker's Appren- 
tices ; School-Girls ; Sub-Officers ; Milk- 
maid ; Sand-Carters ; Labourer Politicians ; 
Boy playing Violin, Peasant Girls and Lads, 
Eavene Gallery, Berlin ; Horse-Dealers, Hour 
of Eest, Rural Scene, Host and Guests, 
Stettin Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xiii. 
180 ; Dioskuren (1860), 397 ; Kunst-Chron- 


ik, xi. 90 ; Ulustr. Zeitg. (1875), ii. 483 ; 
Rosenberg, Beii. Malersch., 171. 

HOSKESfS, JOHN, died in London in 
February, 1661. Painted first in oil, but 
afterwards devoted himself to miniature, in 
which he excelled. Painted Charles I., his 
queen, and many of the nobility. His 
nephews, Alexander and Samuel Cooper, 
were his pupils. His Prince Rupert, paint- 
ed on card (3 in. x 2^ in.) is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London. — Redgrave. 

bom in Plehedel (C6tes-du-Nord), Sept. 
30, 1801. Landscape painter. A once ad- 
mired but now forgotten painter of views 
from the northwestern coast of France, the 
Rhine, Switzerland, and Italy. Medals : 
3d class, 1835 ; 2d class, 1837 ; 1st class, 
1841 ; L. of Honour, 1845. "Works : Fish- 
ing Vessels at Grandville, Valley of Re- 
Adam (1835) ; The Meuse, Abbey of Val- 
Dieu (1837); Forest of Saverne (1838), 
Lyons Museum ; View on Lake of Geneva 
(1840), Amiens Museum ; Fir-Trees of the 
Black Forest, Ruins at Baden-Baden, Lake 
Nemi, Cottage at Touque (1840); VaUey 
of the Saone (1844), Avignon Museum ; 
Forest of Compiegne, Valley of Pierrefonds, 
Camp of St. Maur, Plain of Ariccia, Girls 
bathing in a River (1834 to 1853); The 
Seine (1855); Toulon, Pine Woods (1857); 
Versailles (1859); Entry of Charles VH. into 
Acquapendente, 1494, Versailles Museum. 
— BelUer, i. 776. 

vas, bom in Paris in 1680, died at Ai-pajon 
(Seine-et-Oise), Sept. 30, 1730. French 
school ; history and landscape painter, son 
and pupil of Rene Antoine H. Called to 
Spain by Philip V., he painted many his- 


torical pictures, landscapes, and portraits. 
Member of Paris Academy, 1707. Works : 
Two Bacchanals, Holy Family, View of Mon- 

astery of San Lorenzo, two portraits, Madrid 
Museum.— Bellier, i. 777. 

Paris in 1645, died there. May 27, 1710. 
French school ; genre and history painter, 
pupil and imitator of Lebrun. Member of 
Academy, 1673 ; professor, 1680 ; du-ector 
of French school of art in Rome from 1698 
to 1704 ; then rector and treasurer of the 
Academy in Paris. Called to Spain by 
Charles H., he executed important works 
there, and returned in 1692. Works : The 
Virgin's Journey ; ceilings in Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Artist's Portrait (1687), Grenoble 
Museum ; Female Portrait, Madrid Mu- 
seum.— Bellier, i. 777 ; Jal, 687 ; Graz. des 
B. Arts (1860), vii. 174 ; (1864), xvi. 465. 

drecht in 1660, 
died in Amster- 
dam in 1719. 
Dutch school; 
pupU of Samuel 
von Hoogstraten, 
and perhaps of 
Jacques le Vecq ; 
fellow-scholar of ,.' 
the first under 
about whom he published many absurd 
stories. Works: Female Model Posing, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Ecce Homo, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Virginia's Body brought to 
^» y Rome, Schleissheim Gallei-y ; 

yOfi Male Portrait, Stadel GaUery, 
t/ 'D Frankfort.— AUgem. d. Biogi-., 
xiii. 209 ; Burger, Musees, i. 53 ; Immer- 
zeel, ii. 56 ; Kramm, iii. 753. 

HOIJEL, JEAN, bom at Rouen in 1735, 
died in Paris, Nov. 13, 1813. Landscape 
painter and engi-aver, pupil of Descamps, 
Lemire, and Casanova. Is best known as 
an engraver of Italian subjects. Works: 
Coast of St. Catherine from Pre-aux-Loups; 
View of a Cave at Dieppedalle ; Gargantuas 
Seat near Duclair ; Hill of St. Catherine, 
View of the Old Porte Cauchoise in Paris, 
1 since demolished, Rouen Museum ; Land- 



scape with Pigurei3, Augers Museum. — Bel- 
lier, i. 779 ; Larousse. 

HOUZfi, FLORENTIN, born at Tournay 
in 1812. History and genre painter, pupil 
at Liuge of Hennequin, and of Antwerp 
Academy under Nicaise de Keyser, then 
studied in Paris, and returned to Tournay 
in 1844 ; received a medal in 1842 ; lives in 
Brussels. He paints also good portraits. 
Works : Last Moments of Lord Percy (1839); 
Entering the Convent (1846) ; St. Vincent 
de Paula and the Inundated ; St. Charles 
Borromeo with People infected by the 
Plague, St. Augustine healing a Sick Man ; 
Cardinal's Visit to Hospital, Tournay Mu- 
seum ; Crucifixion ; Return from Masked 
Ball ; Italian Beggars. — Journal des. B. Arts 
(1860), 143; Mfiller, 267. 

VAN, born at The Hague, Oct. 28, 1790, 
died in 1880. Painter of city views and 
church interiors, pupil of Ereckenheimer ; 
medal, 1842. Member of Amsterdam Acad- 
emy and several others ; won great reputa- 
tion and several medals from art associa- 
tions, and received costly presents from 
several potentates. Subsequently was the- 
atre painter at The Hague. Professor at 
Hague Academj'. Order of Oaken Crown, 
1847. Works : View of Musee Royal at The 
Hague, City Views (2), Amsterdam Museum; 
Dutch City by Moonlight, Ghent Museum ; 
do., Rotterdam Museum ; City on a River, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg. — Immerzeel, ii. 59 ; 
Kramm, iii. 760 ; vii. 86. 

HOVE, HUBERTUS VAN, born at The 
Hague in 1814, died at Antwerp in 1865. 
Architecture and landscape painter, son and 
pupil of preceding, and pupil of Hendrik van 
de Sande Backhuyzen ; settled at Antwerp. 
Gold medal, 1852 ; Order of Leopold, 1857. 
Painted afterwards also good kitchen-pieces. 
Works : View on Sea-Shore, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum ; Pishing Expedition, Museum Fodor, 
Amsterdam ; Interior, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Chamber in City Hall at Amsterdam 
(1837), Leipsic Museum ; Vestibule, New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Kitchen Interior, His- 

torical Society, New York. — Immerzeel, ii. 
60; Kramm, iii. 760. 

HOVE, VICTOR VAN, born at Renaix, 
East Flanders, in 1825. Genre painter, was 
at first a sculptor. His affecting scenes 
from popular life are painted in a pleasing 
manner. Order of Leopold, medals in 
Paris (1863) and Vienna (1873). Works: 
Orphans going to Church (1863) ; Protes- 
tant Girl's Sunday (1864) ; On Way to School 
(1865) ; Fisherman's Return on Coast of 
Flanders ; The Present ; Sunday Morning 
in Holland (1869).— Jour. desB. Arts (1860), 
158 ; Mtiller, 268. 

HOVEMEYER, AUGUST, born at Biicke- 
burg, Oldenburg, Sept. 23, 1824, died in 
Munich, Jan. 13, 1878. History painter, 
pupil of the Munich Academy under Kaul- 
bach and Schwind, but formed himself 
chiefly after the works of Genelli, and was 
one of the last representatives of the school 
of Cornelius. In 1856-58 he was employed 
upon extensive fresco paintings in Wiirz- 
burg, Berne, and Leipsic. In 1864-65 vis- 
ited Italy, where he copied Raphael's School 
of Athens, and Titian's Venus ; worked in 
1867-69 in Stuttgart and Munich, and exe- 
cuted in 1872-74 ten lai'ge compositions in 
oil and fresco for the Railroad Directors' 
building in Ludwigshafen. Works : Alle- 
gorical Figures (1851), Royal Villa, Bercht- 
esgaden ; Expulsion from Paradise (1854) ; 
Christmas Night, Start for the Alp (1855). 
Frescos : Allegories in the Railway Station 
at Wiirzburg (1856) ; in the Federal Palace, 
Berne (1856-57); Eight compositions from 
Cupid and Psyche (1858), Leipsic Museum; 
The Flood, 1860 (cartoon) ; Three historical 
pictures (1863), National Museum, Munich; 
Prometheus (1866), in America ; six ceiling 
paintings in oil, and four Allegories in 
fresco (1872-74), Ludwigshafen. — AUgem. 
d. Biogr., xiii. 215 ; Jour. des. B. Arts, Jan. 
15, 1863 ; Kunst-Chronik, xiii. 302 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xvii. 454. 

HOVENDEN, THOMAS, born at Dun- 
manway, Ireland, in 1840. Genre painter, 
pupil of the School of Design, Cork, and of 



the National Academy, New York, in 1863. ^ 
Visited Paris in 1874, and studied six years 
under Cabanel, and at tlie ]5cole des Beaux 
Arts. Elected N.A. in 1882. Studio in 
Plymoutli Meeting, Pa. Works : Two Lilies 
(1874); Brittany "Woman Spinning, Pleasant 
News, Image-Seller (1876) ; Thinking of 
Somebody, News from the Conscript (1877) ; 
Loyalist Peasant Soldier of La Vendee — 
1793 (1878); Breton Interior— 1793 (1878), 
G. A. Drummond, Baltimore ; Challenge 
(1879) ; Dat 'Possum smell pow"ful Good 
(1881), Chloe and Sam (1882), T. B. Clarke, 
New York ; Elaine (1882) ; In from the 
Meadows, Village Blacksmith (1883) ; Who 
shall eat the Fruit thereof? John Brown 
(1884) ; Taking his Ease (1885).— Sheldon, 

HOWARD, GEORGE, born in England ; 
contemporary. Landscape and portrait 
painter. Exhibits chieflj' at Grosvenor Gal- 
lery. Works : Pine Wood near Pisa, San 
Gimignano, Near the Torre dei Eiccardi 
(1877) ; Best in the Perjola, Path among 
Olives, Olive-Gathering on the Eiviera 

(1878) ; Crab-Fishers, Venetian Archway 

(1879) ; Banks of Irthing — Cumberland, 
Walled Garden— Naworth (1880); Curlew's 
Pool, Autumn Twilight, By the Beck, Start 
Point— South Devon (1881) ; Path under the 
Ohves — Bordighera (1882) ; Vale of Mentone, 
Autumn in the Old Garden (1883) ; Walls of 
Rome from ViUa Medici, Rookery in Spring 
(1884) ; The Gatehouse— Naworth (1885). 

HOWARD, HENRY, born in London, 
Jan. 31, 1769, died at 
Oxford, Oct. 5, 1847. 
History and porti'ait 
painter, pupil of Philip 
Reinagle and of the 
Royal Academy (1788), 
where in 1790 he won 
the two first medals of 
the yeai-. Studied in 
1791-94 in Italy, and 
afterwards contributed 
many subject pictui-es and portraits to the 
Academy ; became an AR.A in 1801, R.A 

in 1808, secretary in 1811, and professor of 
painting in 1833. Though distinguished by 
Academy honours, the promise of his youth 
was not fulfilled ; his works are graceful 
and pretty, but his style is feeble. His 
Flower Girl, a portrait of his own daughter, 
is in the National Gallery, London. — Red- 
grave ; F. de Conches, 435 ; Frank Howard, 
Memoir (1848) ; Sandby, i. 329. 

HOWLAND, ALFRED C, born in Wal- 
pole, N. H, Feb. 12, 1838. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Schultz and of 
Eppindale in Boston ; in 1860 visited Eu- 
rope, and studied five years, in Diisseldorf 
under Professor Flann, and in Paris under 
Lambinet. Elected an A.N.A. in 1874, and 
N.A. in 1882. Studio in New York. Works: 
SunUt Path (1871) ; Old Mill on the Bush- 
kill (1874) ; Ford's Glen (1878) ; Monday 
Morning (1879) ; The Gossips (1880) ; Driv- 
ing a Bargain (1882) ; Horse-Trade (1883) ; 
Rendezvous of the Veterans, A Pot-BoUer 
(1884) ; The Coming Circus (1885). 

at Antwerp in 1626, died in Vienna in 1710. 
Flemish school ; history, battle, and por- 
trait painter, pupU of Matheus Matheusz ; 
went to Vienna, where he became court- 
painter. Works : Battle-pieces (2), Vienna 
Museum ; Physician making Examination, 
Fiirstenberg Gallery, Donaueschingen. — 
Kramm, iii. 707. 

at Middletown, Ct., in 1817. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Professor Morse and Dan- 
iel Huntington. Studied and painted in 
France in 1840. Elected N.A. in 1858. 
Studio in New York. Works : Meadows 
near Utica (1869); High Peak— North Con- 
way (1871) ; Vermont Hills (1874) ; Along 
the Sound (1877) ; Autumn— Lake George, 
C. P. Huntington, New York ; Coming 
Storm, Early Autumn, Judge Benedict; 
Glimpse of the Adirondacks (1876), R. M. 
Olj-phant; Hilltop (1878) ; Connecticut Pas- 
toral (1880) ; Distant View of Hartford 
(1882) ; Lake in the Adirondacks (1883) ; 
Cat Mountain— Lake George, Afternoon in 


Summer (1884) ; "Watering Place, Down in 
the Meadows (1885). 

Glattfelden, Canton Ziiricli, in 1752, died 
at Ziirich, April 17, 1825. Landscape and 
marine painter, pupil of Johann Heinrich 
Wust ; studied four years in Frankfort, 
then in the Dusseldorf Gallerj', where he 
devoted himself to marine painting, and 
after two years in Amsterdam, returned to 
Dusseldorf in 1784, and to Switzerland in 
1789. Member of Dusseldorf Academy. 
Works : Surge, Landscape with Castle, 
Storm at Sea, Zurich Gallery.— Nagler, vi. 

Basle in 1668, died 
there, Feb., 1748. 
Portrait painter, pu- 
pil in Basle of Kaspar 
Meyer, then in Berne 
of Jos. Werner; went 
to Italy when nine- 
teen, and for six years 
studied Giulio Eoma- 
no at Mantua, and 
Titian at Venice, where 
he painted figures in the landscapes of Pie- 
ter de Molyn (Tempesta) ; in Eome he prof- 
ited much by the advice of Maratti, then 
visited France, and returned to Basle in 
1698. In 1696 he became court-painter to 
the Duke of Wiirtemberg, but resigned 
after four j'ears. With his growing reputa- 
tion he could scarcely satisfy the demands 
made upon him by princes and persons of 
the highest standing. He is said to have 
painted 5,000 portraits. Works : Dr. Thomas 
Platter, portrait of himself, Basle Museum ; 

Family of Margrave Frederic Magnus of 
Baden-Durlach (1693) ; Envoys to the Peace 
Congress in Baden (1713) ; Joseph I., and 

many other Sovereigns. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xiii. 231 ; Fiiessli, ii. 257. 

HUBEE, EUDOLF, born at Schleinz, 
Nether Austria, about 1844. Animal and 
portrait painter, pupil of Vienna and Diis- 
seldorf Academies ; took part in the Italian 
campaign of 1866 as an officer, visited 
Egypt repeatedly after 1870, and brought 
back numerous studies of Abyssinian types. 
Professor at Vienna Academy. Works : 
Cows in Pasture ; Caravan ; Maternal Joys, 
Cows Fighting, Equestrian Portraits of 
Duke Charles of Lorraine and of Count 
Stahremberg (1883) ; Washington on Horse- 
back (1884).— MiiUer, 268 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xviii. 372. 

HUBEET, ALFEED, born in Brussels 
(or Liege ?) ; contemporary. Genre and 
animal painter ; at first made his mark with 
pen-and-ink drawings of military life, but 
began to paint in water-colours in 1854. Is 
especially skilful in painting horses. Works : 
Horses and Cattle in Stable; Peasant Women 
in Town ; Dog-Team ; Camp-Scene ; New 
Year's Presents ; Coachmen ; Umbrellas ; 
Militaria ; Eailroads ; Masked Ball ; Horses 
in Gypsy Camp (1870) ; Artillery Eesting 
(1872) ; Marine (1873) ; Evening after Bat- 
tle (1874) ; Mounted Artillery (1875).— Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1876), xiii. 458 ; Miiller, 269. 

HUBEETI, ISDOUAED, born in Brussels 
in 1818, died there in 1880. Landscape 
painter in the manner of Corot ; his pict- 
ures commanded high prices in Belgium and 
England. Member of Society beige des 
Aquarellistes. Works : Heath in the Cam- 
pine, King of Belgium ; Harvest ; On Border 
of Forest ; Pond of Eamee ; Spring ; Gloomy 
Weather at Wilryk ; Valley of Jehoshaphat 
in Morning Light ; Autumn ; Snow Land- 
scape on the Scheldt. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xix. 473. 

HtJBNEE, EDUAED, born in Dresden, 
May 27, 1842. Genre painter, son of Julius, 
pupil of Schurig, then of Dresden Academy, 
and in 1860-67 of Dflsseldorf Academy un- 
der Bendemann ; repeatedly visited Italy, 
spent three winters at Eome, and (1869-70) 



in Paris. Professor at Berlin Academy. 
Works : Marguerite Le Kiche consoling her 
Fellow-Prisoners ; Gi-aziella ; Toilet in Ca- 
pri ; Two Girls on a Eoof ; First Age of the 
World; Iphigenia ; Girl Asleep (1881); 
Cui-tain for Koyal Theatre at Dresden (1882). 
— Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 659 ; MuUer, 269. 

HUBNEE, KAEL (WILHEL:\1), bom in 
Konigsberg, June 17, 
1814 died in Dussel- 
dorf, Dec. 5, 1879. 
Genre painter, pupil in 
KOnigsberg of I. Wolf, 
and from 1839-41 at 
the Dusseldorf Acad- 
emy under Karl Sohn 
and Schadow. Estab- 
lished his reputation by 
painting subjects relating to the social prob- 
lems of the day, but after 1848 he treated 
subjects of more general interest, which met 
with great success, particularly in Holland 
and America, and caused his being made an 
honorary member of the Amsterdam and 
Philadelphia Academies. On a visit to 
America in 1874-75 he was warmly received 
by American artists in the principal cities of 
the Union. He was one of the most active 
founders, in 1844, of the Dusseldorf Union 
of Artists for mutual aid, and in 1848 of 
the Malkasten, to which he gave its name. ' 
Works : Angry Old Man, Sick Child (1839); ' 
New Apprentice, Baired Well (1843) ; The 
SUesian Weavers (1844) ; Help to Need, 
Sleeping Wood-Thief, Charity in the Cot- ' 
tage of the Poor (1845) ; Shooting-License 
(1846), Ravene GaUery, BerUn ; The Emi- , 
grants (1846), Christiania Museum ; The 
Forsaken (1846) ; Little Wood - Thieves 
(1847) ; The Pouters (1847), Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Birthday ; Seizure for Debt (1848), 
Konigsberg Museum ; Midday Best of Peas- 1 
ants duiing Harvest (1849), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Orphans at Parents' Grave, Ees- 
cue from Fire (1853) ; Old AVarrior telliug | 
of his Deeds (1854), Labourer rescuing 
Child fi-om burning House, Provinzial Mu- 1 
seum, Hanover ; Surprised Lovers ; The | 

Orphans; The Outcast (1867), National 
Galleiy, Berlin ; The Twins, Sailor's Eetm-n, 
Sinner at the Church Door, Comfort in 
Prayer, The Widow, Dusseldorf Galleiy ; 
Shelter from the Storm (1874) ; Consolation 
in Prayer (1875), Dttsseldorf Gallery ; Quar- 
tering in the Yineland (1876); Depressed 
Mood (1877) ; An Ai-tist on the Dutch Coast, 
Happy Union (1878) ; The Eecovei-y, Penn- 
sylvania Academy, Philadelphia. His son 
and pupil Julius (born at DUsseldorf in 
1842, died there, Dec. 30, 1874) was a prom- 
ising genre painter of humorous subjects. 
Works: The Great Bootjack; The New 
Barometer ; Sci-ubbing Day ; Bad Memory. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., xiii. 270; Elustr. 
Zeitg. (1880), i. 36 ; Kunst-Chronik; Wolfg. 
Midler, Dusseldf K., 292 ; Wiegmann, 329 ; 
Blanckarts, 81. 

NO), bom at Oels, Si- 
lesia, Jan. 27, 1806, 
died at Loschwitz, 
Nov. 7, 1882. History 
painter, pupil of Ber- 
lin Academy under 
Schadow, whom he fol- 
lowed to Dusseldorf 
in 1826 ; having re- 
turned to Berlin, he 
married Bendemann's 
sister in 1829, and going in the same year 
to Italy was in Eome with Schadow in 1830, 
in Berlin in 1831, and in Diisseldori in 1833. 
In 1839 he followed Bendemann to Dresden, 
where he became professor at the Academy 
in 1841, and director of the Eoyal Grallery 
in 1871. Member of Dresden, Berlin, and 
Philadelphia Academies. Great gold medal 
in Brussels (1851). Numerous Orders. 
Works : Boaz and Euth (1825); The Fisher- 
man (1827) ; Eoland liberating Princess Isa- 
bella (1828); Euth and Naomi (1830), 
Guardian Angels (1836), Infant Christ 
(1837), Golden Age (1849), National GaUery, 
Berlin ; Samson breaking the Columns 
(1832) ; Holy Family (1833), Leipsic Muse- 
um ; Chi-ist and Evangehsts (1834) ; Ecce 



Homo (1836), St. Andrew's, Diisseldorf ; 
Job and his Friends (1838), Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; Consider the LiUes (1839) ; Mel- 
usina, Raczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Felicitas 
and Sleep (1841), Breslau Museum ; Em- 
peror Frederic III. (1842), Emperor's Hall, 
Frankfort ; St. George, Christ Enthroned 
(1843) ; Eesurrection (1844) ; Annunciation 

(1845) ; Christ with Chalice and Bread 

(1846) ; Jew's Head (1834), Golden Age 
(1848), Lansquenet (1848), Portrait of Actor 
Forth (1853), Dispute between Luther and 
Eck (1863-66), Dresden Gallery ; Memorial 
to Gontard, Samuel and Eli, Magdalen 
(1849) ; The Angel of the Lord showing the 
Evangelist Babylon's great Whore (1850) ; 
Stephanas before the Council ; Charles V. 
at St. Yuste ; Frederic the Great at Sans- 
Souci ; Cupid in Winter ; Magdalen beside 
Body of Christ (1864) ; Christ in the Tem- 
ple ; Hagar and Ishmael ; Portraits of Prin- 
cess Margaret of Saxony, of Dr. Carus, 
Count and Countess Kanitz, Prince Hatzfeld, 
Gottfried Schadow ; J. von Keller (1860), 
Diisseldorf Gallerj'. — Brockhaus, ix. 427 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1882), ii. 474 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, sviii. 242, 415 ; Miiller, 269 ; Wolfg. 
MuUer, Dusseldf. K., 22 ; Reber-Pecht, ii. 
114; Wiegmann, 112. 

HUCHTENBUEG. See Hughtenburgh. 

HUDSON, THOMAS, born in Devonshire 
in 1701, died at Twickenham, Jan. 26, 1779. 
Pupil of Jonathan Richardson ; succeeded 
Jervas as the fashionable portrait painter of 
the day, though he was soon eclipsed by bis 
pupil, Reynolds. He generally painted only 
the head, leaving the accessories to his as- 
sistant. Van Haaken, of Antwerp. Works : 
Portraits of Handel, Lord Chief Justice 

1^ . Wi lies. National 

Marlborough, Blenheim ; Mary Coke, Bute 
Collection. — Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 85, 

Albert Bierstadt, House of Representatives, 
Capitol, Washington ; in panel near south 

doors. Companion-piece to Settlement of 
California. The artist received $20,000 for 
these two pictures. 

HUE, JEAN FRANgOIS, bom at Saint- 
Arnould-en-Yvelines (Seine-et-Oise), Dec. 1, 
1751, died in Paris, Dec. 24, 1823. Land- 
scape and marine painter, pupil of Joseph 
Vernet. A famous painter in his day. Em- 
ployed by the government to paint the seven 
French seaports wanting to complete the 
series of fifteen begun by Vernet. Member 
of Academy, 1782. Works : Taking of Isle 
of Granada in 1779 (1787), Naval Battle near 
Isle of Granada (1788), Napoleon visiting 
Camp of Boulogne (1806), Versailles Muse- 
um ; French Seaports (7); Port d'Orient at 
Sunset (1801), Cherbourg Museum ; Com- 
bat of the Ship Le Formidable (1808), An- 
gers Musetim ; Cascade under Rocks, Nan- 
tes Museum; Port of Genoa (1810); Ship- 
wreck of the Virginia (1812); Echo bewailing 
Narcissus (1814); Port and Tower of Terra- 

cina. View in 

Bois de Sa- 

, ^ ~ - w tory at Ver- 

X"^ P /^ sailles (1819); 

g Ip L>L Landscape 

f\ y J J M IP with Beli- 

^-^ C/ .^0/ CAt^ sarius and his 

Guide (1822); 

Coast with 
Agitated Sea, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — 
Bellier, i. 785. 

HUET, JEAN BAPTISTE, born in Paris, 
Oct. 15, 1745, 
died there, Aug. 
27, 1811. Land- 
scape and animal 
painter, pupil of 
Boucher, and 
Leprinee. His 
paintings of ani- 
mals are of great 
merit. Member 
of the Academy in 1769. Works : Dog At- 
tacking Geese, Caravan, Fox in Chicken- 
Yard (1769) ; Wolf pierced with Lance, 







Farmer's Wife (1771); Europe, Asia, Fidel- 
ity tearing the Bonds of Love, Morning, 
Noon, Afternoon, Evening (1773) ; Shep- 
herd with his Dog (1775), Orleans Museum ; 
Holy Family with Shepherds, Return from 
Market (1775); Pastoral Trophy, Farmer's 
Wife feeding Chickens (1777) ; Hercules 
and Omphale (1779); View of Eonce Pond 
at Sevres, View of Walls and Fortress of 
Molle, Annunciation to the Shepherds (1787); 
Washing on Banks of a Pond, View of Oven 
at Bougival, Herdsman watching his Herd 
(1800); Bulls in a Stable, Donkey with 
Chickens (1801) ; Lion and Lioness with 
their Young (1802); Landscape with Birds, 
Rouen Museum ; Dog pointing at Partridges, 
Animals Grazing, Horses and Sheep at Past- 
ure, Nantes Museum ; Ram and Two Ewes, 
Two Dogs killing a Lamb and Chickens, 
Robillard Collection, Rheims. His son and 
pupil, Nicolas (born in Paris, 1770, still liv- 
ing in 1827), was commissioned by the gov- 
ernment to paint for the Museum of Natural 
History one hundred and twenty water-col- 
ours, to continue the collection begun in 
1650 by ^^ 
the Duke Ij • • , 

L ' A r t / -^ 

(1876), vii. 124 ; Bellier, i. 787 ; Ch. Blanc, 
]£cole frangaise ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 236 ; 
iii. 130. 

HUET, PAUL, born in Paris, Oct. 5, 1804, 
died there, Jan. 9, 1869. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Paul Guerin, of Gros, and of 
the ificole des Beaux Arts. In 1831 he be- 
came the founder of a new school of roman- 
tic landscape painting, in which he was the 
precursor of Theodore Rousseau and of Jules 
Dupre. Frequently visited Italy and Hol- 
land. Had many pupils. Medals : 2d class, 
1833 ; 1st class, 1848, 1855, 1867 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1841. Works : View of La Fere (1827); 
Storm at Close of Day, Interior of a Park 
(1831); Entrance of Forest of Compifegne, 
Guard-House (1833) ; Views of Eu and of 
Honfleur (1834) ; Morning Calm in Forest 

(1835), Luxembourg Museum; Autumn Even- 
ing (1836) ; Gust of Wind (1838), Avignon 
Museum ; Chateau of Arques (1840), Orleans 
Museum; Torrent of Etolie (1841); Castle 
of Avignon (1843), Avignon Museum ; Val 
d'Enfer, Mare and Foxes (1848) ; Col de 
Tende (1849); Private Park of St. Cloud, 
Children in the Wood, Enchanted Shores 
(1850); Calm in the W^oods (1852); Break- 
ers of Granville (1853), Marshes of Picardy, 
Inundation of St. Cloud (1855), Louvre ; 
Ford, Thatched Cottage, Betwixt Rain and 
Sunlight, Pastures (1859); Sunset near Trou- 
ville, Equinoctial High Tide near Honfleur 
(1861); Cliffs of Houlgatt, Bordeaux Muse- 
um ; do.. Lower Meudon (1863); Torrent in 
the Alps, The Uriage Road (1864); Creek on 
the Pyrenees Frontier (1865), Montpellier 
Museum ; Park of The Hague at Sunset 
(1866), Orleans Museum ; Fontainebleau, 
Ruins of Castle of Pierrefonds (1868); Fish- 
ermen drawing a Seine on the Shore at Houl- 
gatt (1869); View near Naples, Caen Muse- 
um ; Toucque Valley, Luxembourg Museum. 
— L'Art (1878), ii. 15 ; BeUier, i. 788 ; Burty, 
Maitres, 179 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1869), i. 297 ; 
Larousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 741. 

HUFFEL, PEETEE VAN, born at Gram- 
mont. East Flanders, baptized April 17, 1769, 
died at Ghent, Aug. 12, 1844. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Ghent Academy, 
where he won several prizes ; then studied 
seven years at Mechlin under Herreyns, and 
in Paris ; after his return to Ghent was 
appointed director of the Academy and 
conservator of the Museum. Gold medal, 
Ghent, 1817. Court-painter to Queen Anna 
Pavlovna of Holland. Works : Holy Virgin 
in the Temple (1817), Abbey of Dooreseele ; 
Miracle of St. Landvald, St. Bavon's, Ghent ; 
SS. Peter and Paul, St. James's, ib. ; Resur- 
rection, Museum, ib. ; Portrait of Napoleon 
as Consul, Antwerp Museum ; do. of John 
Quincy Adams (1814). — Cat. du Mus. d'An- 
vers (1874), 474 ; Immerzeel, ii. 61 ; Kramm, 
iii. 763 ; vii. 87. 

SfiBASTIEN, born at Cluses (Haute- Savoie), 



in April, 1818. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Diday. Medals: 3d class, 1844; 2d 
class, 1846. Works : Morning in the Alps 
(1844) ; Sunrise, Cool Valley (1846); View of 
Montblanc (1853), School of Mines, Paris ; 
replica reduced in Museum at Bagneres-de- 
Bigorre ; Ascent of Mer de Glace by Em- 
peror and Empress in 1860 (1861); Entry 
to Forest of Bellem, After the Kain (1870); 
View in Forest of Compiegne, do. near Trou- 
ville (1874) ; Cirque de Cavarni, Lake of 
Thiinn, Bagneres -de - Bigorre Museum ; 
Spring-banks of Seine (1884) ; Sunset in 
Valley of Faucigny (1885), Prince de Lu- 
cinge-Faucigny. — Bellier, i. 789. 

HUGHES, ARTHUR, born in London in 
1832. Genre and portrait painter, student 
of Eoyal Academy, where he exhibited his 
April Love in 1854. Belongs to the Pre- 
Raphaelite school Woi-ks : Eve of St. Ag- 
nes, Music Party, Sunbeam in Church (1864); 
Home from Work, The Mower, Silver and 
Gold (1865); Good Night (1866); Sir Gala- 
had, Endymion (1870); Lady of Shalott, 
Convent Boat (1873) ; Woodman's Return ; 
King's Garden ; Burial of the Good Knight ; 
Vanity, Uncertainty (1878); The Old Neigh- 
bour gone Before (1879); The SaiUng Signal 
Gun, Mittagsschliifchen (1881); Summer is 
a-coming In, Skipper and his Crew (1882) ; 
Memories, Home Quartette (1883) ; Ripe 
Corn, Corner of the Common (1884); Sun- 
day Morning, Autumn, Rest by the Way 
(1885).— Portfolio (1870), 113. 

HUGHTENBURGH (Huchtenburg), JA- 
COBUS VAN, born at Haarlem in 1639 (?), 
died in Rome about 1670 (?). Dutch school ; 
landscape painter, brother of Jan van Hugh- 
tenburgh, pupil of Nicolaas Berchem. Trav- 
elled in Italy and lived long in Rome. Land- 
scapes with Cattle (2, 1670), Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Roman Landscape, do. (1670), 
Schwerin Gallerj'. — Tmmerzeel, ii. 62 ; 
Kramm, iii. 765. 

HUGHTENBURGH (Huchtenburg), JAN 
VAN, bom in Haarlem in 1646, died in 
Amsterdam in 1733. Dutch school ; battle 
painter, pupil of Thomas Wyck, in Rome of 

I his brother Jacob, and in Paris (1667) of 
I Van der Meulen. Before 1670 he returned 
I to Haarlem and began to deal in pictures. 
The fame of his collection of battle-pieces, 
hunts, etc., led in 1708 to commissions from 
Prince Eugene, for whom he painted battle- 
pieces. First manner best ; afterwards be- 
came melodramatic and empty. Works : 
Battle, National Gallery, London ; Cavalry 
Charge, Siege of Fortified Town, Louvre, 
Paris ; Prince Eugene on Horseback (1692), 
Two Skirmishes, Hague Museum ; Skirmish, 
Portrait of Prince Willem HI., Amsterdam 
Museum ; Horse Market, Skirmish and Land- 
scape, Rotterdam Museum ; Cavalry Charge, 
Episode of a Battle, Brussels Museum ; Boar- 
hunt (1674), Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Attack 
of Robbers, Basle Museum .: Plundering of 
a Village, Stag-Hunt (1674), Berhn Museum ; 
Skirmish on a Bridge, Attack of Robbers, 
Brunswick Museum ; Piazza Colonna in 
Rome, Siege of Namur, Cassel Gallery; Street 
Life in Italian Town (1707), Market Square, 
Cavah'y Skirmish on Hill, do. about Battery, 
Review, Frolic at Sutler's Tent, Cavalry 
Fight, Copenhagen Gallerj' ; Cavalry Fights 
(6, two dated 1718, 1720), Dresden Museum; 
Storming of a Fortress, Festive Drive of 
Louis XIV. over the Pontneuf (1674), Gotha 
Museum ; Cavalry Skirmish, KiJnigsberg 
Museum ; Cavalry Skirmish, Attack upon 
Convoy, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Hunting 
Party Resting, Germanic Museum, Nurem- 
berg ; Battle-pieces (2), Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Camp-Scenes (2), Attack of Robbers, 
Visitors in Military Camp (1694), Battle 
(1695), Cavalry Fight, Schwerin Gallery; 
Surprisal of Wagon by Horsemen, Siege 
of Namur, Vienna Museum ; Skirmish by 
Ruins, Czernin Gallery, ib.; The Riverside, 

Historical Society, New York. — Immerzeel, 
ii. 63 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 434 ; Kramm, 



iii. 765 ; Eiegel, Beitrage, ii. 426 ; Van der 
WUligen, 184. 

HUGUENOT, Sir John Everett iMillaif, 
Mrs. Miller, Preston, England ; canvas, H. 
3 ft. 2 in. X 2 ft. 1 in. Incident founded on 
the order of the Due de Guise, that eveiy 
Catholic should bind a strip of white linen 
round his arm on the morning of St. Bar- 
tholomew's Day (Aug. 15, 1572), when the 
bell of the Palais de Justice should give the 
signal for the massacre. The Huguenot of 
the picture gravely refuses to permit his 
Eoman Catholic mistress to bind a white 
scarf around his arm, as he takes a last em- 
brace ; at the same time the rose in her 
bosom falls to the ground, shedding its 
leaves. Royal Academy, 1852 ; painted for 
David T. White, a dealer, for £150, to which 
£50 was added after the engraving by T. O. 
Barlow had proved remunerative. This pict- 
ure brought Mr. Millais to the height of 
his reputation. The Huguenot was painted 
from Mr. Arthur, now General Lempriere, 
and the Catholic from Miss Ryan, who sat 
also for the Puritan Maiden in the Proscribed 
Royalist. Sketch in water-colours. Mi-. C. 
Langton, Liverpool. 

Lude (Sarthe); contemporary. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of £mile Loubon ; 
paints pleasing though sketchy Eastern land- 
scapes and scenes. Medals : 3d class, 1873 ; 
2d class, 1882. Works: Caravans; Wells 
in Algiers ; Camels Grazing, Ruins of Ro- 
man Aqueduct in Algeria (1868); Hunting 
with the Falcon in Algeria (1874) ; River 
Cheliff in Algeria (1879); Wandering Tribe 
in Algeria (1882) ; Evening in the Douars 
near Biskra (1884). 

Ghent in 1594, died about 1668. Flemish 
school. Real name Anselmus Hebbelynck. 
History and portrait painter, master of the 
guild at Ghent in 1620, subdean in 1632 ; 
settled early in Holland, where his talent 
was much appreciated. Prince Frederik 
Hendrik sent him to Mtinster in 1648 to 
paint the portraits of the envoys to the Con- 

gress there at the close of the Seven Years' 
War, and after Prince Frederik 's death he 
was appointed court-painter to the Emperor 
Ferdinand HI. Works : Pieta (2), Ghent 
Museum. — Immerzeel, ii. 64 ; Ejramm, iiL 

HULSMAN, JOHANN, flourished in Co- 
logne about middle of 17th century. Ger- 
man school ; history and portrait painter, 
pupil of Augustin Braun ; possessed of 
great inventive power, and an able colourist, 
worthy to be ranked with the best masters 
of Rubens' school Works : View of Castle 
and City of Heidelberg (1630), Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Legend of St. Nicholas (1643), St. 
Ursula Church, Cologne ; Assumption, Apos- 
tle Church, ib. ; Portrait of General Johann 
von Werth, St. Veronica, Museum, ib.; Ele- 
gant Assembly at Meal Out-of-Doors (1644), 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., xiii. 335 ; Nagler, Mon., iii. 981. 

HULST, FRANS DE, died in Haarlem, 
Dec. 29, 1661. Dutch school ; landscape 
painter, master of the guUd at Haarlem in 
1631. Resembles in his early manner Salo- 
mon van Ruysdael, in his later, Roelof de 
Vries. Works : Dutch City on a Canal, 
Berlin Museum ; Village on Downs of 
Scheveningen (1644), Gotha Museum ; View 
of Eastern Gate at Hoorn, View of Nym- 
wegen, Rotterdam Museum. — Meyer, Ge- 
malde d. kOngl. Mus., 218. 

at Louvain, March 2, 1790, died at Brussels 
in June, 1862. History and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Louvain Academy under J. G. 
Geedts ; went in 1819 to Paris, and in 1826 
to Rome, whence he visited Naples, Flor- 
ence, and Venice ; was made court-painter 
to the King of Holland in 1830, and subse- 
quently member of Amsterdam Academy. 
Works : Miracle of the Holy Sacrament, St. 
James's, Louvain ; Series of Family Por- 
traits, Duke of Arenberg, Brussels. — ^Immer- 
zeel, ii. 65 ; Kramm, vii. 87. 

HULST, PEETER VAN, died in Antwerp 
in 1628. Flemish school ; landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Ghielis Vinbons in 1583 ; his 


pictures, enlivened with figures, are vividly 
conceived and powerful in tone. Not to 
be confounded with Peeter Verhulst, alias 
Ploris, of Mechlin, who became master of 
the guild at Antwerp in 1589, and took Jan 
Wildens as a pupil in 1596, nor mth Pieter 
van der Hulst, called Zonnebloem, landscape 
and still-life painter (born at Dordrecht, 
Feb. 25, 1651, died in 1708), by whom there 
is a Village View (1652) in the Stiidel Gal- 
lery at Frankfort. Work, Flemish Kirmess 
(1628), Brunswick Museum. — Eiegel, Bei- 
trage, ii. 88. 

HULSWIT, JAN, born at Amsterdam, 
April 11, 1766, died there, Aug. 8, 1822. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Pieter Barbiers, 
the younger (born in 1749) ; member of 
Royal Institute of the Netherlands and of 
Amsterdam Academy. "Works : Landscapes 
(2, 1807, 1813), City Gate (1807), Amsterdam 
Museum ; Landscape, Stadel Gallery, Frank- 
fort. — Immerzeel, ii. 66. 

Paris, Oct. 8, 1842. 
Genre and portrait 
j)ainter, pupil of 
Picot, Cabanel, and 
Eugene Fromentin. 
A skilful realist, and 
vigorous colourist. 
Medals: 1866, 1867, 
1869; 3d class, 1878; 
L. of Honour, 1878. 
Works: Flight of 
Nero (1865) ; CEdipus and Antigone Find- 
ing the Bodies of Eteocles and Polynices 
(1866), AuriUae Museum ; Ambroise Pare 
and the Duke de Nemours (1868) ; Dr. Nela- 
ton ; Massaouda (1869) ; John Baptist and 
the Fortune-TeUer (1872) ; Delilah (1873) ; 
Madonna and St. John (1874), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Christ at the Column (1875), Or- 
leans Museum ; Woman taken in Adultery 
(1877); Rape of Dejanira (1878); Salome 
(1880) ; Child's Portrait (1884) ; The End of 
the Day (1885).— Bellier, i. 794 ; Larousse, 


NAND, born at Dardagny, near Geneva, in 
1813, died at Geneva, March 20, 1881. Ani- 
mal and landscape painter, pupil in Paris 
of Ingres and of Diday, but studied chiefly 
from nature. Medal, 3d class, Paris, 1842 ; 
honorary member of St. Petersburg Acad- 
emy, 1860 ; Russian Order of Stanislaus, 
1860 ; Italian Order of St. Maurice and 
Lazarus, 1863. Works : Cattle Drinking, 
Basle Museum ; Herd Crossing River (1846), 
Berne Museum ; The Ford, Musee Rath, 

HUMMEL, KARL, born in Weimar in 
1821. Landscape painter, pupil of Preller, 
with whom he visited Holland, Norway, 
Riigen, and Tyrol ; lived in Italy in 1842-46, 
and painted many landscapes in the ideal 
style of Claude Lorrain. Professor at the 
Weimar Art School since 1859. Works : 
Mountainous Landscape (1854) ; Gardens 
of Armida, View of Brienz Lake (1858), 
View in Lauterbrunn Valley (1859), Ger- 
man Landscape (1860), Leipsic Museum ; 
Rape of Hylas ; Seneca's Tower in Corsica ; 
Flight to Egypt ; Garden of Belriguardo ; 
Tyrolese Landscape ; View of Miihlberg ; 
Views of Bohemian Forest ; Monte Rotondo 
in Corsica ; Ajaccio seen from Campo dell' 
Oro ; Capo di Sorrento ; Civita Castellana ; 
Monte-Soracte.— MiOler, 269 ; Nagler, Mon., 
iii. 271. 

HUMPHREY, OZIAS, born at Honiton, 
Devonshire, Sept. 8, 1742, died in London, 
March 9, 1810. Studied drawing in the 
school of William Shipley, London, and 
miniature painting under Samuel Collins, 
at Bath. In 1764 he settled in London, and 
gained much reputation as a miniature 
painter. In 1773 he accompanied Romney 
to Italy, and in 1785 went to India, where 
he painted many illustrious natives. His 
crayon portraits were much esteemed. He 
became AR.A. in 1779, and R.A. in 1791.— 
Redgrave ; Cat. Nat. Port. Gal. ; Cat. S. 
Kensington Mus. ; Nat. Port. Exhib. (1867) ; 
Sandby, ii. 214. 

Bregenz, Nov. 11, 1806, died there, March 



28, 1878. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Vienna Academy. Returned in 
1828 to his native town, painted altarpieces, 
and in 1832 went to Munich, where he soon 
acquired reputation as a portrait painter. 
After 1835, when he had moved to Augs- 
burg, he devoted himself exclusively to 
religious subjects, and executed many altar- 
pieces ; after 1839, decorated several church- 
es in fresco ; returned to Bregenz in 1876. 
Works: Portrait of Dillis (1832), New Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Portrait of Eigner (1835), 
Augsburg Gallery; Portrait of Bishop Al- 
bert Eieg ; Christ on Mount of Olives ; St. 
Peter on the Waters. — Kunst-Chronik, xiii. 

at Mechlin, Dec. 7, 1808, died there, Feb. 
27, 1855. Genre painter, son of, and first 
instmcted by, the engraver Mathieu Hunin, 
then pupil of Braekeleer, and in Paris of 
Ingres and Cogniet. Medals : Brussels, 
1839, 1845 ; The Hague, 1841 ; Order of 
Leopold. Works : Girl praying for her 
Mother (1834) ; Young Draughtsman (1836) ; 
Paternal Lesson, Marriage Ceremony (1839); 
Mother's Anxiety (1840) ; Eeturn of Wound- 
ed Soldier (1841) ; Eeturn from Baptism 
(1842) ; Father's Last Advice (1843) ; Open- 
ing of the Will (1845), Berlin Museum; 
Maria Theresa visiting Poor Family ; Dis- 
tribution of Alms. — Immerzeel, ii. 67 ; 
Kramm, iii. 771. 

HUNS, BATTLE OF THE, Wilhelm von 
Kaulbach, New Museum, Berlin ; mural 
painting, staircase hall. In the background, 
Eome ; before it a field strewn with dead 
bodies gradually awakening, rising, and ral- 
lying ; among them wailing women. At the 
heads of the two ghostly hosts are AttUa, 
carried on a shield by the Huns, and wield- 
ing a scourge, and Theodoric with his two 
sons, behind whom is raised the banner of 
the Cross. 

Liverpool in 1831. Landscape painter, pu- 
pil of his father, a drawing teacher of Liver- 
pool ; is a graduate and a fellow of Corpus 

Christi College, Oxford. First picture to 
bring him into notice was Stream from Uyn 
Idwal, Caernarvonshire, exhibited at Eoyal 
Academy in 1856. Paints in both oil and 
water-colours. Among the former are : De- 
batable Ground (1862) ; Morning Mist on 
Loch Maree (1870) ; Goring Lock on the 
Thames (1871) ; From Moor to Mount 
(1874) ; Summer Days for Me ! (1876) ; On 
the Coast of Yorkshire (1877) ; Norwegian 
Midnight, Leafy June (1879) ; Safe in the 
Mud, Golden Night (1881) ; Sonning— Mid- 
day (1882) ; North Country Stream (1883). 

London, March 28, 1790, died there, Feb. 
10, 1864. Landscape, still-life, and genre 
painter in water-colours ; pupU of John 
Varley and of the Eoyal Academy, where he 
exhibited, in 1807, Scene near Hounslow, 
and View near Eeading ; became, in 1827, 
a member of the Society of Painters in 
Water Colours. Among his best works are : 
The Laboratory, The Attack, The Defeat, 
The Orphans, The Itinerant, Mulatto Girl, 
BaUad-Singer, Study of Gold — A Smoked 
Pilchard, Study of Eose Grey — A Mushroom 
(1860) ; Dead Humming-Bu-d (1864) ; StUl 
Life, W. T. Walters, Baltimore.— Ottley ; 
Euskin, Notes on S. Prout and Wm. Hunt 
(London, 1879). 

London, April, 1827. 
Pupil of John Varley, 
and in 1845 of the 
Eoyal Academy, 
where he exhibited 
his first picture. Hark ! 
in 1846. In 1849 he , 
took his stand vdth 
Millais and others of 
the so-called Pre- 
Eaphaelites, and has 
since been one of the most earnest apostles 
of that school of painting. In 1854-55 he 
visited Egypt and Syria, and has since spent 
much time in the East, especially in Jeru- 
salem, where several of his pictures were 
painted. Works : Little Nell and her Grand- 



father, Dr. Eochcliffe performing Divine 
Service in Cottage of Jocelyn Joliffe (1847) ; 
Flight of Madelaine and Porphyro (1848) ; 
Rienzi vowing to avenge his Brother's Death 
(1849) ; Converted British Family sheltering 
a Christian Missionary from Druids (1850) ; 
Valentine rescuing Sylvia (1851) ; Hireling 
Shepherd (1852) ; Claudio and Isabella, Our 
EuglishCoasts (1853) ; AwakenedConscience, 
Light of the World (1854) ; Scapegoat, Find- 
ing of the Saviour in the Temple (1860) ; 
King of Hearts (1863) ; Afterglow in Egypt 
(1865); London Bridge on the Entry of 
Princess Alexandra, Isabella and the Pot of 
Basil (1868) ; Shadow of Death (1873), Man- 
chester Art Gallery ; Flight into Egypt, Ital- 
ian Child, Plains of Esdraelon, Street Scene 
near Cairo (1877); The Ship (1878); Miss 
Flamborough (1882); Portrait of Dante 
Gabriel Eossetti (1884) ; Bride of Bethle- 
hem, Triumph of the Innocents (1885). — 
Portfolio (1871), 34 ; Art Journal (1860), 
158, 182 ; Eossetti, Fine Art, 233. 
Vt., March 31, 
1824, died at the 
Isles of Shoals, 
Sept. 8, 1879. 
Portrait, land- 
scape, and figure 
painter ; studied 
at the Eoyal 
Academy, D ti s - 
seldorf, in 1846, with the intention of be- 
coming a sculptor. Nine months later be- 
came the pupil for a short time of Couture 
in Paris, after which he went to Barbizon to 
study with Millet, who influenced his work 
through life. In 1855 returned to the 
United States, opened a studio in Newport, 
and a little later settled permanently in 
Boston, where he had many scholars. Vis- 
ited Paris in 1867. Works : Head of a 
Jewess ; Priscilla, Thomas Wigglesworth, 
Boston ; Farmer's Eeturn (1849) ; Sheep 
Shearing at Barbizon ; Fortune-Teller ; 
Prodigal Sou ; Girl with a Kitten ; Girl 

Eeading ; Girl Spinning ; Violet Girl ; Mar- 
guerite ; Hurdy-Gurdy Boy ; Drummer-Boy 
(1861) ; Bugle-Call (1864) ; Gloucester Har- 
bour ; Newton Lower Falls ; Coast Scene at 
Magnolia — Mass. ; Dead in the Snow ; The 
Lambs, Mrs. G. W. Long. Portraits : Chief 
Justice Shaw, Essex County Bar ; Allan 
Wardner ; Horace Gray (1865), Chief Jus- 
tice Gray ; Mrs. S. G. Ward (1867) ; of the 
Artist (1879), Peter C. Brooks, Jr. ; of his 
Wife ; Mrs. Charles Francis Adams ; Mrs. 
G. W. Long ; Wm. H. Gardiner ; Hon. W. 
M. Evarts, Miss Mason. The Flight of 
Night, and the Discoverer, mural decorations 
in the Capitol at Albany (1878). — Am. Art 
Eev. (1880), 49, 93 ; Tuokerman, 447 ; Talks 
on Art, by W. M. H., edited by Helen M. 
Knowlton, two series (Boston, 1875, 1882). 
Paris, Jan. 19, 1827. 
Battle painter, pupil 
of Flandrin and of 
Ecole des Beaux Arts 
under Vernet, then 
in Antwerp under 
Wappers and Dyck- 
mans ; settled (1851) 
in Diisseldorf, and 
became a pupil of 
Camphausen. In 1864 
he accompanied the army during part of the 
winter campaign in Schleswig, and the 
Army of the Main in 1866 ; in 1870-71 he 
visited many of the battle-fields in France. 
Medals in Berlin (1872), Vienna (1873). 
Member of Berlin Academy since 1878. 
Works : Prussian Cuirassiers dashing over 
a Bridge (1852-53) ; Skirmish near Hen- 
nersdorf (1855) ; Skirmish at Eeichenbach 
(1856), Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Battle 
of Zorndorf (1858) ; Patrol of Cuirassiers, 
General von Nostitz at Oeversee, Austrian 
Officer with Flag of Truce, Storming Dflp- 
pel Earthworks (1865) ; Eeconnoitring at 
Sadowa (1866) ; Episode from Battle of 
Crefeld, Bliicher, Kiel Gallery ; From the 
Time of Frederic the Great, Stettin Muse- 
um ; Skirmish of Patrol near Thorstedt ; 



Prussian Hussars against Danish Dragoons ; 
Cavalry Fight near Elsasshausen (1877), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Guard-Dragoons 
at Mars-la-Tour ; Engagement near St. 
Privat ; Chasseurs d'Afrique at Sedan ; Epi- 
sode from PaU Manoeuvres on the Khine 
(1879); Battle near Loigny, 1870 (1882), 
Bremen Gallery.— Milller, 272. 

HtJNTEN, FEANZ, born in Hamburg in 
1822. Marine painter, pupil of Dilsseldorf 
Academy under Schirmer, and studied from 
nature on the coasts of Holland, Belgium, 
France, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, 
Italy, and the Levant. Works : Shipwreck 
on Coast of Scotland (1870), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Surge on Norwegian Coast, 
Schwerin Gallery. 

HUNTER, COLIN, born in Glasgow in 
1842. Marine 
painter, self-taught; 
worked for several 
years in Glasgow, 
but now resides in 
London. Exhibits 
chiefly at Royal 
Academy and Royal 
Scottish Academy. 
Elected an A.E.A. 
in 1883. He is one 
of the best living painters of water in mo- 
tion. Visited America in 1884 to study 
Niagara Falls. Works : Herring Trawling 
(1872), Mr. Arthur Lewis, Moray Lodge; 
Trawlers waiting for Darkness (1873), Phil- 
adelphia Exposition, 1876, Paris, 1878, 
Alexander Stevenson, Tynemouth ; Salmon 
Stake-Nets (1874), Sidney Gallery, Australia ; 
Stitch in Time, Daily Bread (1877) ; Stores 
for the Cabin (1878); Lee Shore, Village of 
Aroch (1879) ; Their Only Harvest (1879), 
purchased by Royal Academy ; The SUver 
of the Sea (1880), Sir Donald Currie ; In 
the Gloaming (1881); Mussel Gatherers, G. 
C. Schwabe, Henley-on-Thames ; The Island 
Harvest, Waiting for the Homeward-Bound 
(1882) ; Lobster Fishers (1883) ; A Pebbled 
Shore (1883), Wm. Pearce, Glasgow ; Sum- 
mer Twilight, As they roar on the Shore, 

The First Arrivals, Herring Market at Sea 
(1884) ; Rapids of Niagara (1885). 

York, Oct. 14, 1816. 
Portrait and genre 
painter, pupil of Pro- 
fessor Morse in 1835, 
later of Inman. Vis- 
ited Europe in 1839, 
and again in 1844, 
painting some of his 
most important 
works in Florence 
and Rome. Elected 
an A.N.A. in 1839 and N.A. in 1840. Presi- 
dent of the National Academy in 1862, 
1869, and 1877, and still holds the office. 
Studio in New York. Works: Florentine 
Girl, Early Christian Prisoners (1839) ; 
Shepherd Boy (1840) ; Black Penitents. 
Sacred Lesson (1844) ; Woodland Scene, 
Coast near Newport, Swiss Lake, Christiana 
and her Children, Mercy's Dream (1850), 
Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; replica, 
Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia ; Piety 
and Folly, Henry VHL and Catherine Parr 
(1850) ; Chocorua (1860), Mrs. R. L. Stu- 
art, New York ; Venice, J. P. Morgan, ib. ; 
Study in the Woods, C. P. Huntington, ib. ; 
St. Jerome, T. B. Clarke, ib.; The Sibyl, 
Historical Society, ib. ; Juliet on the Balcony 
(1870); Titian, Clement VH. and Charles 
V. at Bologna (1874) ; Eepublican Court 
(1876), A. T. Stewart Collection, New York; 
Philosophy and Christian Art (1878) ; Gold- 
smith's Daughter, Lady in White and Red 
(1884). Portraits : Presidents Lincoln 
(Union League Club, New York) and Van 
Buren (State Library, Albany) ; Governor E. 
D. Morgan ; Wm. E. Dodge ; Chancellor 
Ferris, New York University ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Tayloe, Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; 
James Lenox ; John Taylor Johnston ; Bish- 
op Whipple ; Rev. Morgan Dix ; Bishop 
Potter ; Commodore Stringham ; Judge 
Blatchford (1879), U. S. District Court; 
Sir Charles Eastlake, Earl of Carlisle, Gen- 
eral John A. Dis (1880), Historical Society, 



New York ; Hon. John Sherman (1881), 1 
Chamber of Commerce, ib.; Kev. Dr. Adams 
(1883), Union Theological Seminary ; Hon. 
E. C. Winthrop, U. S. Congress; Julius 
Hallgarten, founder of the HaUgarten Prizes 
(1884), National Academy, New York ; Pro- 
fessor Edward North (1885).— Am. Art Kev. 
(1881), 223 ; Tuckerman, 321. 

dormi), Gabriel Metsu, Sir Kichard Wallace, 
Hertford House, London ; wood, H. 1 ft. 3 
in. X 1 ft. 1 in. A tired and sleeping hunts- 
man in front of an inn, the host of which is 
disencumbering him of part of his game ; a 
woman bringing a jug of beer. Formerly 
in Pesch Gallery. Bought by Lord Hert- 
ford for £8,000. — Waagen, Treasures, ii. 

born in London in 1800, died there, June 
10, 1869. Portrait and subject painter, pu- 
pil of Sir William Beechey, of Sir T. Law- 
rence, and of Haydon, and in 1820 student 
of the Eoyal Academy, where he won the 
gold medal in 1823 for the best historical 
picture. In 1835 he visited Italy, in 1841, 
1851, and 1852 Spain, and in 1854 Mo- 
rocco, and the themes of his pictures were 
largely drawn from those countries. Dur- 
ing the thirty-four years preceding his de- 
cease he was president of the Society of 
British Artists. Works : Prisoner of Chil- 
lon (1837); Scene in St. Peter's ; Enchanted 
Gai'den of Armida ; Constance and Arthur ; 
Venetian Page ; Italian Boy with Mandolin ; 
Boabdil el Chico ; Game of Mora ; Colum- 
bus asking Alms ; Haidee roused from her 
Trance by Music— Art Journal (1869), 271. 

CONSTANCE, Karl Friedrich Lessing, Stii- 
del Gallery, Frankfort ; canvas. Huss is 
standing, speaking, with his left hand upon 
a large book resting on a stand ; at his left 
sits the Pope's legate, leaning over whose 
shoulder is Gerson, supposed author of Imi- 
tatio Christi ; and grouped on each side are 
the Cardinal of Cambria, the Archbishop of 
Prague, the Bishop of Lodi, and other ec- 

clesiastics. Painted in 1842. Eeplica, in 
small, J. Longworth Collection, Cincinnati. 
— Ai-t Treasures of America, iii. 71, 73. 

rich Lessing, Berlin Museum ; canvas, H. 11 
ft. 9 in. xl8 ft. 1 in.; signed, dated 1850. 
Huss, kneeling on a hiU in centre, having 
refused to abjure, is about to have the yel- 
low cap, painted with devils and inscribed 
"heresiarch," placed upon his head by a 
man-at-arms ; near by Ziska, grasping a 
staff, and the Eeformer's converts — John of 
Duba and John of Chlum — watch the scene 
with painful sympathy ; in foreground, right. 
Palatine Louis of Bavaria on horseback, 
accompanied by a standard-bearer, looking 
back at two Italian prelates, also mounted ; 
at left, crowd of spectators ; in background, 
left, the stake and executioners with ropes 
and torches. Eeplica, in small, J. Long- 
worth Collection, Cincinnati. — Art Treas. of 
Amer., iii. 71, 73. 

HUTIN, CHAELES, born in Paris, July 
4, 1715, died in Dresden in 1776. French 
school ; genre painter, pupil of Franjois Le 
Moine. Won the grand prix de Eome in 
1735 with his Eebekah receiving Abraham's 
Presents, and at Eome studied sculpture for 
seven years under Slodz. Member of the 
Academy in 1747. In 1748 went to Dres- 
den, where he designed most of the decora- 
tions of the Gallery, and became director of 
the Academy in 1768, and court-painter. 
Works: Girl holding a 
f l-J /l!^ Letter (1769), Dresden 
/7fe% Museum ; Woman light- 

» ^^ ing a Fire, Man carrying 

Wine in a Cart, Madrid Museum. — BeUier, i. 
798 ; Larousse ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 373. 

HUYS, PEETEE, second half of 16th 
century. Flemish school ; genre painter in 
the realistic style of Quinten Massys ; mas- 
ter in 1545 of the guild at Antwerp, where 
he was still living in 1571. Works : Bag- 
piper robbed by Old Woman (1571), Berlin 
Museum (temporarily in Stettin Museum); 
Grotesque Fantasy on Torments of Hell, 
Madrid Museum. 


maas of Mechlin, born in Antwerp, April 
2, 1648, died 
in Mechlin, 
June 1, 1727. 
school; land- 
scape painter, 
pupU of Kasper 
de Witte in 
Antwerp, and 
of Jacques d'Ar- 

thois in Brus- ' ' i ' ' "V/ 
sels, whence he went to Mechlin. Van der 
Meulen, on a visit to Brussels, tried in vain 
to attract him to the court of Louis XIV., 
but persuaded him to paint backgrounds 
for his Environs of Luxembourg and Di- 
nant, now in the Louvre. Works : Wood- 
land with Chateau, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Landscapes in National GaUeiy, Edia- 
burgh ; Louvre, Paris (5) ; Museums at 
Berlin (3), Brunswick (2), Brussels, Cologne 
(3), Dresden (2), Hanover, Nantes, New York 
(3), Rouen, Stockholm, Stuttgart (4), Vienna 
(2); Galleries at Augsburg, Carlsruhe (2), 
Cassel (2), Copenhagen, Hamburg, Olden- 
burg, Schleissheim (5), Schwerin ; Old Pi- 
nakothek, Munich (2) ; Historical Society, 
New York (2) ; Hermitage, St. Petersburg 
(2). — Ch. Blanc, Ecole flamande ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1870), iii. 361 ; Immerzeel, ii. 69 ; 
Kramm, iii. 777 ; Michiels, ix. 142 ; Neefs, 
i. 508 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 133 ; Rooses 
(Reber), 414 ; Van den Branden, 1077. 

HUYSMANS, JACOB, born in Antwei-p 
in 1656, died in London ia 1696. Flemish 
school ; portrait and history paiater, pupil 
of GUles Backereel, and completed his artis- 
tic education in England, reign of Charles 
n. Painted the most distinguished ladies 
of the court. Works : Portrait of Queen 
Katharina of Portugal, Buckingham Palace ; 
Portrait of Izaak Walton, National Gallery, [ 
London ; Lady Byron, Hampton Court ; 
Catharine of Braganza, Colonel W. Legg, 
National Portrait Gallery, London ; Altar- 1 
piece, German chapel, St. James's. — Immer- 1 

zeel, ii. 69 ; Kramm, iii. 778 ; Redgrave, 
223 ; Schai-f, 420. 

Antwerp, baptized Oct. 7, 1654 , died there, 
July 14, 1716. Flemish school ; landscape 
painter, brother and pupil of Cornelis ; mas- 
ter of the Antwerp guild in 1676. His pict- 
ures show even more elevated feeling for 
nature than those of his brother, and were 
often sold for Ruysdaels. Works : Great 
Landscape (1697), Brussels Museum ; Oth- 
ers, Dijon Museum ; Ruins of Corinthian 
Temple (1695), Old Pinakothek, Munich.— 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1870), 363, 366 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, x. 683; Michiels, ix. 146, 150; 
Rooses (Reber), 414 ; Van den Branden, 

HUYSUM, JAN VAN, born in Amster- 
dam, AprU 15, 
1082, died 
there, Feb. 8, 
1749. Dutch 
school ; flower 
and fruit paint- 
er, son and pu- 
pil of Justus 
van Huysum, 
whom he assist- 
ed in executing 
various subjects, but his great talent for 
flower and fruit painting caused him to de- 
vote himself exclusively to this branch of 
art, in which he formed himself after De 
Heem and Mignon. BriUiant effects of light, 
masterly drawing, high finish of detail. 
Works : Vase with Flowers (1736-37), do.. 
National Gallery, London ; Bunches of 
Flowers, Bridgewater Gallery ; Rich Flower- 
Piece, Fruit-piece, Lord Ashburton ; Bou- 
quet, Fruit-Piece, Mr. Hope's Collection ; 
Two, Dulwich Gallery ; Landscape (1717), 
do. (3), Flower and Fruit-pieces (6), Louvre, 
Paris ; Landscape, The Offering, Flowers 
(1723), do., Fi-uit-pieces (2), Amsterdam 
Museum ; Iiandscapes and Flower-pieces in 
Museums at The Hague (3), Berlin (4, one 
dated 1722), Berne, Boston, Brunswick (4, 
one dated 1724), Dresden (3), Hanover (2), 



Nuremberg, Stockholm, Stuttgart, Vienna 
(2), Weimar ; Galleries at Carlsruhe (3, one 
dated 1714), Copenhagen, Hamburg (2, one 
dated 1706), Munich (3, one dated 1735), 
Oldenburg, Schwerin (5, three dated 1728, 
1742, 1743), Hermitage, St. Petersburg (4, 

two dated 1722, 1723).— Ch. Blanc, :ficole 
hoUandaise ; Gool, ii. 13 ; Immerzeel, ii. 
70 ; Kramm, iii. 780 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 

HUYSUM, JUSTUS VAN, born in Am- 
sterdam, June 8, 1659, died there in April, 
1716. Dutch school ; landscape and genre 
painter, pupil of Berchem. Besides land- 
scapes with animals after the manner of 
Berchem, he painted portraits, hunts, cav- 
alry skirmishes, and coast-views Vfith great 
technical skill. Pictures sketchy but effec- 
tive. He was only inferior to his son Jan 
as a flower and fruit painter. Works : Bou- 
quet, Antwerp Museum ; Landscapes with 
Animals, Hague Museum ; Battle with Cav- 
alry Skirmish in foreground, Brunswick Mu- 
seum ; Flower and Fruit-pieces (5), Land- 
scape, Schwerin Gallery. — Immerzeel, ii. 70 ; 
Nagler, Mon., iv. 179 ; Kiegel, Beitrage, ii. 
428 ; Schlie, 292. 

Garracci, Louvre ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 2 in. x 7 
ft. 3 in. St. Hyacinth at prayer before a 
marble tablet sustained by an angel, in a 
temple adorned with columns ; above, the 
Virgin and Child upon clouds, accompanied 
by a choir of angels and cherubim. Painted 
in 1594 for chapel of Turrini family in S. 
Domenico, Bologna. Lodovico modelled 
the composition in clay, and the casts from 
it long served as studies in the schools of 

Bologna. Engraved by Agostino Carracci. 
— Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Landon, Musee, ii. PI. 

IAIA (Laia, or Lai a), portrait painter, 
from Cyzicus on the Propontis, lived 
in Home about beginning of 1st cen- 
tury, B.C. Her female portraits, painted 
both with the pencil and with the cestrum 
on ivory, commanded higher prices than 
those of Sopolis and Dionysius, the most 
renowned portrait painters of the time. 
She painted her own portrait by the aid of 
a mirror. — Pliny, xxxv. 40 [147]. 

Masham, Yorkshire, Dec. 29, 1759, died 
there, Oct. 13, 1817. Landscape, marine, 
animal, and figure painter, mostly self- 
taught ; went to London about 1778, first 
exhibited at the Eoyal Academy in 1785, 
and after having accompanied, as a drafts- 
man. Colonel Cathcart's embassy to China 
in 1788, was for many years a large con- 
tributor to its exhibitions ; returned to his 
native place in 1801. Benjamin West called 
him the Berchem of England. Works : 
Tigers in a Jungle, Jack in his Glory, Land- 
scape with Rustic Bridge, The Mermaid's 
Haunt, Sailor's Return Home, View in Isle 
of Wight, South Kensington Museum, Lon- 
don. — Redgrave, 232. 

IDYL, Jean Jacques Henner, Luxem- 
bourg Museum, Paris ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 5 
in. X 2 ft. Nude figures. A young girl, 
seated beside a fountain shaded by trees, 
playing a reed pipe, and a second one stand- 
ing, intently listening. Salon, 1872. 

bens, Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 17 ft. x 
12 ft. 6 in. St. Ignatius Loyola, standing 
on the steps of the altar in a magnificent 
temple, healing the sick and the possessed, 
who are grouped around him ; above, an- 
gels hovering, and in background, demons 
escaping. Painted for Jesuits' Church, Ant- 
werp ; bought in 1774 by Empress Maria 



Original sketch 

Engraved by 

ii. 19 ; Gal. de 

Theresa for 18,000 florins, 
also in Vienna Museum. 
Marinus ; Langer. — Smith 
Vienne, iii. PI. 317. 

TTTTi^iE, EDUAKD, born in Cassel in 
1813, died there, Feb. 16, 1885. German 
school ; history painter, pupil of Friedrich 
Miiller, then of Dusseldorf Academy under 
Schadow, and of Stadel Institute, Frankfort, 
under Veit, whose daughter he married. 
Visited Italy, where he studied the old 
masters and painted from nat- 
ure. Professor at Cassel Acad- 
emy. Works : St. Louis founding 
Hospital at Compiegne (1845), 
Mentz Gallery ; Judith, Emper- 
or Henry IV., Homer, Frankfort ; 
Finding of Moses, Stuttgart Mu- 
seum ; Altarpiece for Warmbrunn, 
Silesia ; Two Evangelists ; Christ 
blessing Little Children ; Christ at 
Simon's House ; Monk ; Roman 
Woman in Gala Dress ; Convent 
Garden with Monks ; Copies after 
Italian Masters, Cassel Gallery. — 
Kunst-Chronik, xx. 365 ; MiOler, 

ILDEFONSO, ST., Murillo, 
Madrid Museum ; canvas, H 10 ft. 
2 in. X 8 ft. 3 in. The Virgin, 
seated in an arm-chair on a plat- 
form beneath a canopy, attended 
by four angels, delivers a chasuble 
to the kneeling Saint, behind whom 
kneels an old woman in white cap 
and red mantle ; above, cherubs 
and heads in a glory. Last man- 
ner. Collection of PhUip V. Engraved by 
F. Selma ; etched by C. Alabern. — Curtis, 
242 ; Madrazo, 476. 

By Rubens, Vienna Museum ; wood, three 
parts, each 11 ft. high ; centre 7 ft. 6 in. 
wide ; sides, each 3 ft. 6 in. Centre panel : 
•The Virgin, seated on a golden throne, with 
two female saints standing on each side, in- 
vests St. Ildefonso, Archbishop of Toledo, 
with the chasuble of his Order ; above, three 
angels, with wreaths and flowers, hovering 

in celestial light. Left panel : Ai-chduke 
Albert, then Governor-General of the Neth- 
erlands, on his knees in prayer, in presence 
of his patron, St. Albert. Eight panel : His 
wife. Archduchess Clara Isabella Eugenia, 
on her knees in prayer, in presence of her 
patron, St. Clara. Painted for the Chapel 
of the Order of St. Ildefonso, in the Church 
of St. Jacques de Candenbergh, near Brus- 
sels. — Smith, ii. 91 ; Gal. de Vienne, iii. PI. 

Miracles of St. Ignatius, Rubens, Vienna Museum. 

ILLE, EDTJARD, bom in Munich, May 
17, 1823. History painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy under Schnorr and Schwind ; at 
first painted altarpieces, then took up paint- 
ing in water-colours and drawing on a large 
scale, and made numerous illustrations for 
periodicals and poetical works. Professor 
since 1868. Works : Lohengrin ; Tann- 
hiiuser ; Parsifal ; History of Hans Sachs ; 
Cycle of Twenty-two from Niebelungen Sa- 
ga ; Scenes from Thirty Years' War (1868) ; 



Prince Eugene; Watch on the Rhine.— 
Miiller, 274. 

ILLUSIONS, LOST (Illusions perdues), 
Charles Gabriel Gleyre, lately in Luxem- 
bourg, Paris ; canvas, H. 4 ft. G in. x 7 ft. 11 
in. A man, seated in the twilight on a de- 
serted shore, sees pass before him on the 
river a boat filled with young men and 
maidens crowned with flowers— lost illusions 
which the current is hurrying into the 
night. Salon, 1843 ; conceived, according 
to the painter's diary, on the Nile, opposite 
Abydos, in 1835. EepUca (2 ft. 10 in. x 4 
ft. 11 in.), W. T. Walters, Baltimore.— Sir 
Ai-thur Helps, Friends in Council ; Art 
Treas. of America, i. 89. 

IMEE, fiDOUARD, born in Avignon, 
Dec. 25, 1820, died in Haarlem, June 13, 
1881. Landscape painter, self - taught. 
Painted truthful landscapes, usually taken 
from central France ; travelled in the East, 
especially in Egypt and Algeria. Medals : 
1865; 2d class, 1873. Works: Eoad in 
Provence (1850); Rhone Plain in Provence, 
Landscape near Marseilles (1853) ; Ponds 
of Soumabre, The Rhone (1855) ; Pond of 
Soumabre (1857), Neuchatel Museum ; Syc- 
amores on the Road to the Pyramids, 
Island of Philte, Woods of Doums, Syca- 
mores at Ghizeh, Environs of Cairo (1857) ; 
Hills of St. Marguerite, Mas de Barcme, 
The Rhone (1859) ; Pond of Soumabre, The 
Pont du Gard, Edge of the Woods of Mon- 
tespin (1861) ; Island of Lerins, Gulf of 
Juan, Masdes Aubes (1863) ; Sycamores at 
Ghizeh, View in Berry (1864) ; Pond of 
Fourdines (1865) ; Ruins of Crozant (1865), 
Neuchatel Museum ; Island of St. Honorat, 
The Creuze (1866) ; Valley of Venasque, 
Ramparts of Aigues-Mortes (1867) ; Circus 
of Frejus, Road of Crozant (1868) ; Environs 
of San Raphael, Bridge of San Raphael 
(1869) ; Sluice of the Pond of Sault, View 
in Berry (1870) ; The Creuze, Quay of Zat- 
tere in Venice (1872) ; Oak-Tree of Voul- 
liers. Sea View (1873) ; Pond of Hiot, Piedi- 
monte. Shore of St. Jean d'Orbeiter (1874) ; 
The Creuze, Plain of Cayeux, Marshes of 

the Bay of the Somme (1875) ; Oaks of 
Dauphiny, Bay of the Somme (1876); Bridge 
of Saint-Benezet, Avignon Museum ; Even- 
ing on Lagunes of Venice, Rocks near Cassis 
—Provence, Neuchatel Museum.— Bellier, i. 
802 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xx. 505. 


IMOLA, GIOVANNI DA. See Ferrelti. 

IMOLA, INNOCENZO DA, born at Imola 
in 1494, died at Bologna about 1550. Bo- 
lognese school. Real name Innocenzo di 
Pietro Francucci ; pupil in Bologna of Fran- 
cesco Francia, and in Florence of Mariotto 
Albertinelli, in whose style he painted 
(1517) the Madonna with Angels and Saints, 
Bologna Gallery. Later he became an imi- 
tator of Raphael. On his return from Flor- 
ence, executed many works at Imola and 
Bologna. Among the latter the most im- 
portant are frescos of the Death and Assump- 
tion of the Virgin (1519), in S. Michele in 
Bosco ; Madonna in Glory with Saints and 
Angels, Gallery; Annunciation, Servi; Cru- 
cifix (1549), S. Salvatore ; Madonna with 
Saints, S. Matteo ; Madonna with Kneeling 
Donors, Gallery; Marriage of St. Catharine 
(1536), S. Giacomo Maggiore. There is an 
altarpiece (1526) by Imola in the Duomo, 
Faenza ; another in the Berlin Museum ; a 
third in the Munich Gallery ; and a Madonna 
in the Carlsruhe Gallery. — Vasari, ed. Mil., 
V. 185 ; Lermohefif, 65, 282 ; Gualandi, 
Guida di Bologna ; Lanzi, iii. 36 ; Ch. Blanc, 
;ficole bolonaise ; Liibke, Gesch. der. ital. 
Mai., ii. 377. 


Stanza dell' Incendio, Vatican ; fresco, arched 
top. The district of St. Peter called the 
Borgo Vecchio in flames (a.d. 847), the fire 
even threatening the Church of St. Peter, 
the old fa9ade of which is seen in back- 
ground ; all efforts to stay the conflagration 
are vain until Leo IV. appears in the Log- 
gia of the Vatican (now destroyed) and 
makes the sign of the cross, when, accord- 


ing to the church tradition, it miraculously 
ceased. A typical conflagratiou, suggestive 
of the burning of Troj', witK ^neas, Anchi- 
ses, Creusa, and Ascanius in the group at 
left. Painted in 1515 ; almost entirely by 
Raphael. Studies in Uffizi, Florence, and 
Albertina Collection, Vienna. Eugraved by 
P. Thomassin ; P. Anderloni ; Volpato. — 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 359 ; Passavant, ii. 158 ; 
Miintz, 425 ; Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 43G ; 
Perkins, 175. 

Smugglers ; Bread and Tears ; The Beggars ; 
Soldier's Grief ; Conflagration ; Dispatch ; 
The Rosary ; Pawnbroker's Shop ; Victor 
Emmanuel laying Corner- Stone of Milan 
GaUery (1878).— L'Ulustrazione ital. (1878), 
Xo. -±5 ; Lai-ousse, ix. 669 ; Vapereau (1880), 
971 ; Wurzbach, x. 201. 

INDUNO, GIROLAjSIO, Cavaliere, born 
in Milan in 1827. Genre painter, pupil of 
Milan Academy ; fu-st exhibited in Paris in 
1855, pictures of milittiiy life and humor- 

Incendio del Borgo, Raphael, Stanza dell' Incendio, Vatican. 

mDUNO, DOMEXICO, born in Milan. 
March 15, 1815, died there, Nov. 5, 1878. 
Genre painter, pupil of Milan Academy 
under Luigi Sabatelli and of Hayez ; won 
the great prize in 1837, and went to Rome. 
After painting classical and romantic sub- 
jects, finally devoted himself entirely to the 
representation of Milanese popular life. 
Implicated in the revolution in 1848, he fled 
to Switzerland, then went to Tuscany, and 
returned to Milan in 1859. Works : Alex- 
ander ; Oath at Pontida ; Samuel anoint- 
ing David (1840), Vienna Museum ; The 

ous scenes of the Rococo period which have 
gained him a prominent place among mod- 
ern Italian artists. Works : Garibaldi's Sol- 
diers, Sutler (1855) ; Letter from Camp ; 
Tale of the Garibaldian ; Salutes between 
Gianduia and Meneghino, Garibaldian Sen- 
tinel, Farewell of the Conscript (1868) ; Mu- 
seo Civico, Turin ; Battle of Magenta ; Gal- 
lant Friend of the Family ; Lady Artists 
Overheard ; Expectation ; Return of Gari- 
baldian ; Bridal Pairs ; Eleonore d'Este 
grieving about Tasso (1870); Bivouac near 
Capua ; First Snow ; Battle of Palestro ; 



Battle of Cernaia ; Entry of King of Italy 
into Venice ; Dancing Lesson in Last Cen- 
tury ; Domestic Scene ; Amateur of An- 
tiquities (1873); Savoyard Woman (1878); 
Emigrants, Italy in 1866 (1878) ; Visit of 
Garibaldi to Victor Emanuel at Rome in 
1875, Dear Eemembrance, II marito gentil 
queto sorride (Parini), Souvenir of Eome, 
Brera, Milan ; Sentinel, Fondazione Poldi- 
Pezzoli, ib. — L'lllustrazione ital. (1876); Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1867), xxiii. 224 ; Wurzbach, x. 
205 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., iii. 125 ; x. 288. 

INFIDELITY, Paolo Veronese, Cobham 
Hall, England ; canvas, 5 ft. 10 in. sq. A 
woman, nude, seated between two men, to 
one of whom she gives her hand while put- 
ting a letter into the hand of the other ; be- 
low, two cupids. From collection of Queen 
Christina of Sweden to Orleans Gallery ; 
valued at sale in 1793 at £150, sold for 46 
guineas. Engraved by S. Vallee. — Waagen, 
Treasures, ii. 499 ; iii. 20 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. 
PI. 28 ; Ch. Blanc, lilcole vcnitienne. 

INGANNI, ANGELO, born at Brescia in 
1807. Architecture painter, member of Mi- 
lan Academy ; lives at Brescia, and enjoys 
reputation in North Italy. Works : View 
of Cathedral and Square at Milan (1839), 
Vienna Museum ; Harbor of Como (1846) ; 
Piazza Fontana, Piazza Borromeo (1847) ; 
Arco della Costa in Verona (1851); Fa9ade 
of Milan Cathedral (1852); Municipal Pal- 
ace at Brescia (1857); Blessing the Weather 
(1858).— Wurzbach, x. 206. 

INGEGNO, L', born in Assisi, flourished 
end of 15th and early part of 16th century. 
Umbi'ian school. Eeal name Andrea Luigi, 
Alovigi, or Lovigi, but called L'Ingegno (the 
Cunning), on account of his pictorial ability 
and his versatility. Vasari's account of him 
is full of errors. He was more probably the 
pupil of Niccolo Alunno, who opened a school 
at Foligno in 1460, than of Perugino, whose 
school at Perugia did not begin until about 
1499, and is first heard of in 1484, painting 
coats-of-arms in the Council Hall and on the 
city gates of Perugia. He was proctor in 
1505, justice in 1507, assistant in 1510, and 

Papal cashier iii 1511, undei- Po^e Julius H. 
His name is attached to several pictures in 
European galleries, evidently painted by a 
master who was at the school of Fiorenzo di 
Lorenzo, and a companion of Pinturicchio. 

C. & C, Italy, iii. 161 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 
iii. 595, 617; Burckhardt, 566; Eumohr, 
Italienische Forschungen, ii. 324 ; iii. 29 ; 
Kunstblatt (1821), No. 73 ; (1837), 94. 

Bonn in 1830, died in Dusseldorf, June 3, 
1878. Genre painter, pupil in Munich of 
Correns, then studied in Dusseldorf. Works : 
BlindFiddlerand his Child ; After the Storm ; 
Bad Tobacco ; Barred Way Home ; Poach- 
ing ; Study in the Woods ; Dream-King and 
his Love ; Surprise, Cinderella ; Uninvited 
Guests. — Kunst-Chronik, xiii. 598. 

born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1796, died in 
New York in 1863. Figure and portrait 
painter, pupil of Dublin Academy ; went to 
the United States in 1817, and soon acquired 
reputation by his portraits of the reigning 
beauties of New York, where he was one of 
the founders of the National Academy of 
Design, and for years its vice-j)resident. 
Works : Death of Cleopatra ; Flower Girl ; 
Day Dream ; The Black Plume, Portrait of 
Lafayette (1825), do. of Gulian C. Verplanck 
(1830), Historical Society, New York. 

mGHIRAMI, TOMMASO (Phasdra), por- 
trait, Raphael, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, 
H. 2 ft. 11 in. X 2 ft. Half-length, without 
beard, in a cap and red dress, sitting, pen 
in hand, behind a table, on which are an 
inkstand, a book, and a casket. He was 
Secretary to the Conclave ; called Phjedra, 
because, having once taken part in the per- 
formance of Seneca's Hippolytus, he impro- 
vised some Latin verses about Phsedra to 
avert a panic when the theatrical machinery 
gave way. Painted in Eome about 1513 ; 
carried to Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815. 
Eeplica in Casa Inghirami, Volterra. En- 
graved by Tlieo. della Croce ; T. Vercruys ; 
Ferrerii ; Bardi.— Gal. du Pal. Pitti, i. PI. 
93 ; Mtlntz, 276 ; Passavant, ii. 137,; Spring- 



lu.pLuniluei ^dll 

Fiuit. hill Dliotuv 

///if^^^^-r^ Uc / ^af/77^ 


Gruyer, Raphael Peintre de Por- 


er, 252 


NIQUE, born at 
Montauban (Tarn-et- 
Garonne), Aug. 29, 
1780, died in Paris, 
Jan. 14, 1867. His- 
tory and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Eoques in Toulouse, 
and of David in 
Paris (1796); won 
the second grand prix in 1800, and the 
grand prix de Eome in 1801, but being un- 
able to go to Italy on account of the war he 
spent the next five j'ears in Paris studying 
the pictures in the Louvre, supporting him- 
self meanwhile by making designs and book 
illustrations. After living from 1806 to 
1820 in Eome, where he studied the works 
of Eaphael with devotion, and from 1820 to 
1824 in Florence, he returned to Paris to 
take rank as one of the greatest artists of 
his time, and to produce an immense num- 
ber of works, many of which are of great 
excellence. As a colourist he is cold and 
unsympathetic, but as a draughtsman he is 
perhaps the first of French artists. Some 
of his portraits, as, for instance, that of M. 
Bertin, are masterpieces in character and in 
drawing. He had many distinguished pu- 
pils, such as Hippolyte Flandrin, and was 
familiarly known in Paris as "Le pere In- 
gres." Member of Institute, 1826 ; director 
of the French Academy in Eome, 1834-41 ; 
L. of Honour, 1824 ; Officer, 1826 ; Com- 
mander, 1845; Grand Officer; Medal of 
Honour, 1855 ; Senator, 1862. Works : 
Antiochus sending back Scipio's Son (1800); 
Arrival of Agamemnon's Ambassadors in 
Tent of Achilles (1801), ificole des Beaux 
Arts ; Philemon and Baucis (1802), Puy Mu- 
seum ; portraits of his father, of himself, of 
the sculptor Bartolini, of Bonaparte as First 
Consul (1804), liidge Museum ; Napoleon at 
the Bridge of Kehl, Venus wounded by Di- 
omed (1804, both lost); Woman Bathing, 

Copy of Eaphael's Farnesine Mercury, Mar- 
seilles Museum ; Copy of Eaphael's Adam 
and Eve, (Edipus and the Sphinx, Napoleon 
on his Throne (1806), Invalides ; Portraits 
of M. Philibert Riviere, do. of Mme. Eivicre 
(1806), Louvre ; Portrait of Mme. de Vaucay, 
Portrait of Granet Member of Institute 
(1807), Woman Bathing (1808), Pius VII. 
holding Chapel, Jupiter and Thetis (1811), 
Aix Museum ; Portrait of M. Bochet (1811), 
Louvre ; Portrait of a Lady (1812), Nantes 
Museum ; Odalisque, Eomulus Conqueror 
of Acron, Palace of St. John Lateran ; Raph- 
ael and the Fornarina (1813) ; Don Pedro 
of Toledo kissing the Sword of Henry IV., 
Cardinal Bibiena betrothing his Niece to 
Eaphael, Odalisque, Portrait of Ingres' first 
Wife (1814) ; Virgil reading the iEneid 
(1815); FrancescOr da Eimini (1818); Eoger 
rescuing Angelica (1819), Louvre ; Death 
of Leonardo da Vinci in the Arms of Fran- 
cis I., Henri TV. and the Spanish Ambassa- 
dor, Philip V. of Spain and Marshal Ber- 
wick, Odalisque, Portrait of M. de Pressigny, 
Bishop of St. Malo, Duke of Alva and Pius 
V. (unfinished) ; Christ giving Keys to Peter 
(1820), Louvre ; Mercenary Soldiers (1821); 
Charles V. reentering Paris (1822); Vow of 
Louis Xm. (1823), Cathedral of Montau- 
ban ; Portraits of Charles X., of Marquis de 
Pastoret, of Cardinal de Latil, of M. Martin 
(1825); Apotheosis of Rome?; Apollo crown- 
ing the Ihad and the Odyssey (1827), Lou- 
vre ; Martyrdom of St. Symphorien (1834), 
Cathedral of Autun ; Virgin with the Host 
(1836), Hermitage, St. Petersburg; Oda- 
lisque and her Slave, Stratonice (1839, vari- 
ation in 1859); Portrait of Cherubini (1842), 
Louvre ; Christ among the Doctors (1844, 
unfinished, bequeathed to city of Montau- 
ban); Aretino receiving a Gold Chain from 
Charles V., Tintoretto and Aretino, Venus 
Anadyomene, Golden Age (1848, unfinished). 
Due de Luynes ; Portrait of Mme. de Eoth- 
schild (1848); Jupiter and Antiope, Lesueur 
among the Monks of Chartreuse, Molicre in 
the Morning, Eacine in Court Dress, La 
Fontaine out Walking (4 sketches, 1851); 


Portrait of the Princess de Broglie, Apothe- 
osis of Napoleon I. (1853); The Virgin (1854, 
variation of Virgin with Host), Ministry of 
State ; Joan of Arc holding the Oriflamme 
(1854), Louvre ; Virgin of Consolation (1856); 
La Source (1856), Louvre ; Saint Germaine 
de Pibrac (1857), Church of Sapiac ; Virgin 
of the Adoption (1857); Moliere dining with 
Louis XIV. (copy at Comedie-Franyaise), 
Birth of the Muses (water-colour), The 
Spring (1858); portraits of his second wife 
and of himself (1859), Uffizi, Florence ; In- 
terior of a Harem (18G4); Portrait of Mile. 
Flandrin (1866); Sketch of Stratonice (1867). 


— Merson, Ingres, sa vie et son ceuvre 
(Paris, 1867); F. de la Genevais (de Mercey), 
Peintres et sculpteurs modernes (Paris, 
1846) ; Ch. Blanc, Ingres et son ceuvre ; 
Delaborde, Ingres, sa vie et ses travaux 
(Paris, 1870); Chesneau, Peinture fran9aise 
au XIX. siecle (Paris, 1883) ; Perrier, iStudes, 
15 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1861), ix. 343 ; (1861), 
X. 257 ; xi. 38 ; (1867), xxii. 105, 415 ; xxiii. 
54, 193, 442 ; (1868), xxiv. 5, 340 ; xxv. 89, 
228 ; (1870), iii. 112 ; iv. 495 ; Mirecourt, 
Ingres (Paris, 1858); Silvestre, LApotheose 
de M. Ingres (Paris, 1862); Eey, Biographic 
d'Ingres (Paris, 1867) ; Montrond, Ingres 
(Paris, 1869); Hamerton, French Painters; 
Macmillan's Mag., xxiv. 52 ; Contemporary 
Eeview, v. 458 ; Once a Week, xvi. 221 ; Art 
Journal (1867), 105, 151 ; LArtiste (1867), 
i. 102 ; Zeitschr. f. h. K., ii. 170. 

Elizabeth Butler, London ; canvas. Scene 
— Soldiers returning over the crest of the 
hill after the battle of Inkerman. A strag- 
gling column of wearj', wounded, and dying 
men, painfully marching along a rough hill- 
side ; to the right, slightly in advance, rides 
a young staff officer with a wounded bugler 
clinging to his stirrup to help himself along. 

Engraved by W. T. Davey.— Portfolio (1877) 
100. ^' 

INMAN, HENEY, born in Utica, N. Y., 
Oct. 20, 1801,' 
died in New 
York, Jan. 17, 
1846. Portrait, 
landscape, and 
genre painter, pu- 
pil of John W. 
Jarvis, in New 
York. In 1844 
visited England, 
where he painted 
the portraits of Wordsworth, Dr. John Chal- 
mers, Lord Chancellor Cottenham, Macaulay, 
and other noted men ; among his American 
portraits are Bishop White, Chief Justice 
Marshall, Jacob Barker, and the two sons of 
Bishop Doane. Works : Eydal Falls — Eng- 
land ; Newsboy ; Eip Van Winkle ; Boy- 
hood of Washington ; Euins of Brambletye 
House (1876), Wm. E. Dodge, New York ; 
Student, L. L. Stuart, ib.; October After- 
noon ; Portraits of Henry Eutgers and 
Fitz Greene Halleck (1828), Historical So- 
ciety, New York. At the time of his death 
Inman was engaged on a series of histori- 
cal pictures for the Capitol at Washington. 
His son, J. O'Brien Inman, genre painter, 
has lived in Eome since 1866 ; is an Asso- 
ciate of the National Academy, but rarely 

INN, THE (L'Estaminet), Jan Steen, 
Hague Museum ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 2 
ft. 8 in. Twenty or more persons gathered 
in the tap-room of an inn, eating oysters, 
drinking, smoking, and playing trick-track. 
The upper part is covered with a large vio- 
let curtain, partly drawn up, beneath which 
is seen a balcony, and under that an ele- 
vated stage, on which a boy is lying down, 
blowing soap-bubbles. Sometimes errone- 
ously called Picture of Human Life. Bout 
sale, Hague (1733), 515 florins ; Benjamin 
dAcosta sale, Hague (1764), 1,745 florins, 
to William IV. Engraved by Oortman in 
Mus6e frangais. — Eeveil, x. 688. 


INNESS, GEOKGE, born at Newburgh, 
N. Y., May 1, 1825. Landscape painter, 
pupil for one month 
of Eegis Gignoux ; 
has visited Europe 
three times for 
study, the last time 
in 1871-76. Elected 
an A.N.A. in 1853 
and N.A. in 1868. 
Studio in New York. 
Works : American 
Sunset (1867); Joy after the Storm (1869); 
Twilight (1870) ; View near Eome (1871); 
Scene near Perugia (1874) ; Pontine Marsh- 
es, H. P. Kidder, Boston ; Mountain Stream, 
the Homestead (1877); St. Peter's — Eome, 
View near Medfield — Mass., The Afterglow, 
Morning Sun, Landscape (1878) ; Spring 
(1881), Old Eoadway, Long Island Histori- 
cal Society ; Niagara Palls 
(1883) ; Day in Jtme, Sun- 
set (1885) ; Gray Lowery 
Day — Pompton, N. J., 
Winter Morning — Envi- 
rons of Montclair, Sun- 
burst — Greene County, 
Sunset — Montclair, N. J., 
Twilight— Medfield, Mass. 
(1884), T. B. Clarke, New 

JE., born in New York, 
July 5, 1854. Animal paint- 
er, pupU. of his father, 
George Inness, and for a 
few months of Bonnat in 
Paris. Sketched in differ- 
ent parts of Europe. Studio in Mont- 
clair, N. J. Works: The Ford, Patience 
(1877); The Brook, Pride of the Dairy 
(1878) ; Coming Storm ; Surf Horse ; Past- 
ure at Watchung (1879), Eoswell Smith; 
Coming Storm (1880); Huntsman (1882); 
Mother of the Herd (1883).— Sheldon, 203. 
INNOCENT X., POPE, portrait, Velas- 
quez, Palazzo Doria, Eome ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 
7 in. X 3 ft. 11 in. Three-quarters length. 

seated in a crimson chair, on the arms of 
which his arms rest ; dress, a white linen 
robe, white sleeves trimmed with lace, white 
linen collar, red velvet cap and cape ; back- 
ground, a red curtain. Painted in Eome in 
1649. Sir Joshua Eeynolds pronounced this 
the finest picture in Eome. Eepetition : 
Marquis of Bute, London. Etched by A 
Lalauze after copy by Ternante in Versailles 
Museum. — Palomino, iii. 337 ; Curtis, 76. 


INTEMPEEANCE, Thomas Slolhard, 
staircase of Burghley House, seat of the Mar- 
quis of Exeter, Northamptonshire, England. 
Mark Antony and Cleopatra, with various al- 
legorical figures. The original sketch (can- 
vas, H. 1 ft. 8 in. X 2 ft.), which was en- 
graved by T. Chevalier, is in the National 
Gallery, London. Stothard was occupied 
four years in the decoration of this staircase 

The Inn (L'Estaminet), Jan Steen, Hague Museum. 

(1780-83), and received for it £1,293.— Mrs. 
Bray, Life of T. S. (London, 1851). 

IPHIGENIA, picture. See Timanlhes, 


IPHION, painter of Corinth, date uncer- 
tain. Mentioned by Simonides (ccxxi., 
Schneidew), but whether the elder (died 
about 468 e.g.) or the younger (died about 
431 B.C.) poet of that name is unknown. 



lEENE (Eirene), painter, daughter and 
pupil of Cratinus. Among lier works were 
a Calypso, an Aged Man, and Alcisthenes 
the Dancer. — Pliny, xxsv. 40 [147] ; Clem. 
Alex., and Strom., iv. 124, 620, Pott. 

lEIAKTE, IGNACIO, born at Azcoitia, 
Guipuzcoa, in 1620, died in Seville in 1685. 
Spanish school ; landscape painter, pupil of 
Herrera el Vie jo ; frequently worked in con- 
junction with Murillo, who painted the fig- 
ures while Iriarte executed the backgrounds. 
Was an original member and first secretary 
of the Academy of Seyille. Works : Land- 
scapes (4), Madrid Museum ; Landscape, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Stirling, ii. 931; 
Ch. Blanc, !^cole espagnole ; Madrazo ; Cur- 
tis, 344 ; Washburn, 164. 

lEMEE, KAEL, born at Babitz, Branden- 
burg, Aug. 28, 1834. Landscape painter, 
piipil in Dessau of August Becker, then of 
Diisseldorf Academy under Gude ; after trav- 
elling through Germany, and visiting Vienna, 
Paris, and Brussels, he settled in Diisseldorf. 
Court-painter to the Duke of Anhalt. Medal 
in Vienna (1873). Works : Moonrise ; Land- 
scape with Cows ; Dicksee in Holstein 
(1876), National Gallery, Berlin ; View in 
Etigen (1876).— Miiller, 275. 

lEMINGEE, VALDEMAE, born in Co- 
penhagen, Dec. 29, 1850. Animal and mili- 
tary genre painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy, where he won a prize in 1879 ; 
visited Paris in 1880, and Germany, Switzer- 
land and Italy in 1882. Works : Geese 
Driven Home (1874); Brown Mare with Foal, 
Proclamation in War Time (1879); Dragoons 
returning from Eeconnoitring, Dragoon 
making Inquiry of Old Woman, Dragoon 
Trumpeter (1880) ; Foot-Guards Eesting in 
the Woods (1881); Battery Changing Posi- 
tion (1882); Infantry at MancEuvre, Puppies, 
Wounded Lioness (1883).— Sigurd Miiller, 

lEVING, J. BEAUFAIN, born in Charles- 
ton, S. C, in 182G, died in 1877. Genre 
painter ; in 1851 studied with Leutze in 
Diisseldorf, and after painting there several 
years, lived in Charleston until he finally set-. 

tied in New York about 1865. Elected an 
A.N.A. in 1869 and N.A. in 1872. Works : 
Disclosure, L. W. Jerome, New York ; The 
Sphnter (1867); Wine- Tasters (1869), August 
Belmont, New York ; Portrait of Mrs. Au- 
gust Belmont (1871) ; End of the game 
(1872), J. H. Sherwood; Book-Worm, Mus- 
keteer of the Seventeenth Century (1874); 
Connoisseurs ; Cardinal Wolsey and his 
Friends (1875) ; Oflf the Track (1876) ; Af- 
ter the Siege, Banquet at Hampton Court 
in the Sixteenth Century (1877), J. J. As- 
tor. New York; Waiting an Audience, E. L. 
Stuart Collection, ib. 

ISAAC, HISTOEY OF, Raphael. See 
Raphael's Bible. 

3Iurillo, Duke of Wellington, London ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 6 in. X 5 ft. Isaac, seated in 
bed under a canopy, blesses Jacob, who 
kneels ; on left, Eebekah ; near centre, a girl 
carrying a basket of linen with pigeons 
around her ; background, a valley and ruined 
castle. — Curtis, 118. 

By Murillo, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, H. 8 ft. x 11 ft. 9 in. Isaac, seated 
in bed before an archway nearly filled by a 
red curtain, blesses Jacob, who kneels and 
is presented by Eebekah as Esau ; beside 
the bed, a table with bread, game, and a 
bowl ; opposite, a landscape and well ; a 
servant-maid enters with a water-jar ; in 
background, Esau is seen with a dog re- 
turning from the chase. Companion to Jor 
cob's Dream, in Hermitage ; the two belonged 
to Marques de Santiago, Madrid ; pui'chased 
in Paris in 1811 for Hermitage. — Curtis, 118. 

OF (Gen. xxiv.), Claude Lorrain, Palazzo 
Doria, Eome ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 1 in. x 6 ft. 
6 in. In centre, a river with its waters ar- 
rested by the dam of a mill situated at left, 
whence the picture is commonly called II 
MoHno (Le Moulin, The Mill). In fore- 
ground, the marriage festival of Isaac and 
Eebekah. Liber Veritatis, No. 113. En- 
graved by Gmelin (1804), Vivares (1766). 
Sketch, dated 1647, Seymour Haden, Lon- 


don. Eeplica of picture in National Gallery, 
London ; sent to England by C. S. Evard 
and sold to Angerstein, with Embarkation 
of Queen of Sheba, for 200,000 franca ; pur- 
chased for National Gallery in 1824. En- 
graving in Gallery Angerstein, in Cabinet 
Gallery, in Mason's National Gallery, and by 
Goodall (1834). — Pattison, Claude Lorrain, 
51, 227 ; Cat. Nat. Gal. ; Waagen, Treasures, 
i. 341. 

ISAAC, SACEIFICE OP, Tintoretto, Scu- 
ola di S. Eocco, Venice ; oval, on ceiUng of 
upper room. " One of the least worthy of 
the master in the room, the three figures 
being thrown into violent attitudes, as inex- 
pressive as they are strained and artificial." — 
Euskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 349 ; Eidolfi, 
Marav., ii. 198. 


ISAACSZ (Izaalisz, Ysaacx), PIETEE, 
born at Helsingdr, Denmark, in 1569, died 
at Amsterdam probably in 1631. Dutch 
school ; history and portrait painter, pupil 
at Amsterdam of Cornells Ketel, afterwards 
of Johann von Achen ; after travelling in 
Germany and Italy settled at Amsterdam, 
and temporarily (1618-23) worked at Co- 
penhagen as court-painter to Christian IV. 
Works : Portrait of Christian IV., Berlin 
Museum ; Allegory on Vanity (IGOO), Basle 
Museum ; Princely Banquet, Copenhagen 
Gallery. — Archief v. nederl. K., ii. 135 ; 
Kramm, iii. 786. 

wife of Philip IV., Velasquez, Mrs. Henry 
Huth, Wykehurst, Surrey, England ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft. 7 in. X 3 ft. 8 in. Full-length, stand- 
ing, wearing a black head-dress with white 
feather, white rufl', close-fitting under-sleeves, 
and black hooped dress, with a border of 
leaves of gold around the bottom and up 
the front, and on the bodice and long open 
sleeves ; in left hand, a fan ; right hand on 
back of a chair ; background, pink draperj'. 
Louis Philippe sale (1853), £300, to Mr. 
FaiTar, who sold it in 1863 to Mr. Huth. 
Companion to Mrs. Huth's Philip IV. Eep- 

etitions, with variations : Hampton Court; 
Francis Clare Ford, London. — Curtis, 92 ; 
Athenffium (1862), 623. 

By Velasquez, Madrid Museum ; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. 10 in. X 10 ft. 3 in. About twenty- 
five years old, on. a white horse, which walks 
left ; brown dress ; landscape background. 
Probably painted in 1644 ; companion to 
Philip rV. of same size in Madrid Museum. 
Etched by F. Goya. — Palomino, iii. 332; 
Curtis, 91 ; Madrazo, 609. 

ISABEL, SANTA, llurillo. See Elizabeth 
of Hungary. 

ISABELLA, Sir John Everett Blillais, 
Eoyal Institution, Liverpool ; canvas, H. 3 
ft. 3 in. X 4 ft. 7^ in. Scene from Keats's 
poem — "Isabella, or the Pot of Basil" — 
founded on Boccaccio's story ; descriptive 
of the feelings of the two brothers on dis- 
covering the mutual love of Isabella and 
Lorenzo. This, the first Pre-Eaphaelite 
picture by Millais, represents two rows of 
persons seated at table, nearly all seen in 
profile, and most of them portraits of friends. 
At right, Lorenzo (William Eossetti) holds a 
plate, on which he offers half of a cut blood- 
orange to Isabella (Mrs. Henry Hodgkinson), 
who is caressing a hound. At left, one of 
the brothers (Mr. John Harris), enraged at 
her reception of Lorenzo's courtesy, viciously 
kicks the hound, while the other (Dante Ga- 
briel Eossetti), looking over his glass, watches 
the lovers with cruel eyes. A guest (the 
artist's father) wipes his Hps with a napkin ; 
another (Mr. W. Hugh Fenn) pares an 
apple ; a serving-man (Mi-. Wright), with a 
white napkin over his arm, stands behind 
Isabella and Lorenzo. Painted in 1848-9 ; 
Eoyal Academy, 1849 ; bought by B. G. 
Windus, of Tottenham ; at his sale (1868), 
£672 10s., to Thomas Woolner, E.A; his 
sale (1875), £892 10s., to Constantine A. 
lonides, London ; sold at Christie's (1883) 
for £1,102 10s. Engraved in Art Journal 
(1882) by H. Bourne.— Eraser's Mag. (1849), 
xl. 77 ; Art Journal (1882), 188. 

ISABELLA, EMPEESS (wife of Charles 
v.), portrait of, Titian, Madrid Museum : 



canvas, H. 3 ft. 10 in. x 3 ft. 3 in. Tlie Em- 
press, seated in a chair near a window, hold- 
ing a book in her left hand. Painted in 
1544, after her death, from a picture by a 
supposed Flemish artist. Among the pict- 
ures taken by Charles V. to Yuste. En- 
graved, with alterations, by D. de Jode. — C. 
& C, Titian, ii. 103. 

renzo Costa, Louvre ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 2 in. X 
G ft. 4 in. ; signed. Isabella, Marchioness 
of Mantua, crowned by Love, who stands on 
the knees of a woman seated in a garden on 
the banks of a river ; around her, musicians 

Court of Isabella d'Este, Lorenzo Costa, Louvre, 

make music and poets compose verses ; in 
foreground, two women seated, one crown- 
ing a bull, the other a lamb ; on right, a 
nymph with bow and arrow ; on left, a 
knight who has decapitated a hydra ; in 
background, a cavalry fight. Painted about 
1510 for the Marquis of Mantua ; passed at 
sack of that city (1630) to Chuteau Riche- 
lieu, France.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 548 ; Ro- 
sini, iv. 157 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre, 102. 

Holman Hunt, Mr. James Hall, Tynemouth, 
England. Scene from Keats's poem — " Isa- 
bella, or the Pot of Basil." Isabella, full- 
length, standing, bending over the vase in 
which she has buried the head of her lover, 
slain by her brothers. Her tearless black 

eyes have the light of madness in them, and 
her luxuriant dark-brown hair is flung lov- 
ingly over the relic, which is placed on her 
prie-dieu, on a silken altar-cloth. Exhibit- 
ed in 1868 ; sold to Mr. Gambart ; origi- 
nal sketch sold at Christie's, 1871, for 525 
guineas. Replica, J. W. Garrett, Baltimore. 
Engraved by A Blanchard. — Art Journal 
(1868), 97 ; AtheniBtim, Sept., 1873, 374. 

born in Paris, July 22, 1804, died in Paris, 
April 26, 1886. Landscape and marine 
painter, son and pupil of Jean Baptiste 
Isabey. In 1830 he accompanied the expe- 
dition to Algiers as royal 
marine painter. Medals : 
1st class, 1824, 1827, 1855 ; 
L. of Honour, 1832; 
Officer, 185 2. Works: 
Hurricane at Dieppe, Har- 
bour of Honfleur (1827) ; 
Port of Dunkirk (1837); 
The Old Barks (1836); Bat- 
tle of the Texel (1839), 
Versailles Museum ; View 
of Dieppe (1842), Nancy 
Museum ; View of Bou- 
logne Harbour (1843), 
Toulouse Museum ; The 
Alchemist (1845) ; Louis 
Philippe receiving Queen 
Victoria at Treport (1846) ; Departure of 
Queen of England (1846) ; Ceremony in the 
Church of Delft (1847) ; Marriage of Henry 
IV. (1848) ; Embarkation of De Ruyter and 
De Witt (1850), Luxembourg Museum ; De- 
parture of the Huntsmen under Louis XIII. 
(1855) ; Church Interior with Worshi23pers 
(1856), Ravenc Gallery, Berlin ; Burning of 
the Steamer Austria (1859), Bordeaux Mu- 
seum ; Wreck of the Shi^D Emily in 1823 
(1865), Nantes Museum ; The Alchemist 
(1865) ; Temptation of St. Anthony (1869) ; 
Bois de Varangeville, Ango Manor at Varan- 
geville. Roadstead of Saint-Malo, Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Smugglers shipping Goods, 
Douai Museum ; Beach of Villerville, Laval 
I Museum ; Village on the Cliffs, Marseilles 

320 pliotc 

Imp Leraercier & C- i'-ins 





Museum ; View of a Creek, Perpignan Mu- 
seum; Marine (1825), Storm, Montpellier 
Museum; Marine, Neucliatel Museum; Ships 
at Anchor (1830), Konigsberg Museum; 
Entrance to Cathedi-al, Stettin Museum ; 
Laden Boat boarding Coaster, Coast of En- 
tretat— Normandy (1851), Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; French Hospitahty, W. H. Vander- 
bilt. New York ; Marines (2, 1836, 1862), 
After the Storm (1842), W. T. "Walters, Bal- 
timore.— Bellier, i. 805 ; L'Art (1875), i. 39, 
59 ; Lai-ousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 271. 

Nancy, April 11, 
1767, died in Par- 
is, April 18, 1855. 
Miniature paint- 
er, pupil at Nancy 
of Girardet and 
Claudot, then in 
Paris of Dumont 
and David ; paint- 
er to the Empress 
Josephine, 1805 ; 
L. of Honoui-, 1817 ; Officer ; Commander, 
1853. Also painter to Charles X. Apart 
from their intrinsic merit, his works are of 
great value from their historical interest. 
His portraits of Napoleon I. are among the 
best in existence. Works : General Bona- 
parte in Gardens at Malmaison, NajDoleon 
visiting Factory at Eouen (1804), do. at Jouy 
(1806), Vei'sailles Museum ; Review before 
First Consul in Courtyard of Tuileries 
(1801), Staircase of the Must'e du Louvre 
(1817), Louvi-e, Paris ; Congress of Vienna 
(1815), Windsor Castle ; Portrait of Napo- 
leon (in oil), do. of King of Rome, Nancy 
Museum ; do. of Grand-duke of Baden, Ba- 
den-Baden Gallery ; King Jerome, Dresden 

/-* ">| - r Museum. — 

J. J Sol be/y / 8// Bemer, i. SO^ ; 

^ Biog.univ.,xx. 

382 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole franjaise, iii. ; jMey- 

er, Gesch., 104 ; Larousse, ix. 801 ; Lenor- 

mant, B. A. et Voy., i. 218 ; Jal, 698. 

ISAIAH, Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, 
Rome ; fresco on ceiling. 

ISENMANN, CASPAR, died in 1466. 
German school. Became citizen of Colmar 
in 1436. His pictures, influenced by the 
Flemish school, are realistic in feehng, with 
expressive heads and powerful though sober 
colouring. In 1462 he contracted to paint 
an altarpiece for the church of St. Martin at 
Colmar. Works : Seven Scenes from Life 
of Christ (1465), Colmar Museum.— Wolt- 
mann, Deutsche Kunst im Elsass, 213. 

ISIDORO, ST., Blunllo, SeviUe Cathedral ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 2 in. x 5 ft. 6 in. Seated, 
robed in white, with a mitre, with a crook 
in right hand and an open folio in left ; on 
right, other books and a column ; behind, a 
curtain. Painted in 1655 for D. Juan Fe- 
derigui, Archdeacon of Carmona, who pre- 
sented it, with its companion, St. Leandro, 
to the Cathedral. — Curtis, 243. 

ISMENTAS, painter, of Chalcis, 5th cen- 
tury B.C. Plutarch, in his life of the Athe- 
nian orator Lycurgus (Vit. x., Orat. 37), says 
Ismenias painted, for the Erechthaeum, a 
picture in which were represented the priests 
of Poseidon of the family of Lycurgus. 

ISRAELS, JOZEF, born at Grouingen in 
1824. Genre painter, 
pupil in Amsterdam 
of Cornelis lii-useman, 
then in Paris of Picot. 
His genre scenes from 
Dutch maritime life 
are superior to his ear- 
lier historical pieces. 
At present resides at 
The Hag-ue. Medals : 
Paris, 3d class, 1807 ; 
1st class, 1878; L. of Honour, 1867 ; Officer, 
1878; Order of Leopold. Works: William 
of Orange defying Decrees of King of Spain 
(1855) ; Village Scene ; Prepai-ation for the 
Future (1855), Walk along Cemetery (1856), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Children of the Sea ; 
Peaceful House ; Fishing Boats shipwrecked 
off Scheveningen (1862); Sick Mother, Moth- 
er in Health, Orphan Asylum at Katwyk, 
Last Breath, True Support, Madonna in the 
Hut, Age and Lifancy (1872) ; First Sail, 



Poor of the Village (1873) ; Expectation, 
Anxious Family (1874) ; "Waiting for the 
Herring Boats (1875) ; Eeturning from the 
Field (1878) ; Alone in the World (1878), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Breakfast Time, Din- 
ner of Cobblers, Anniversary (1878); Frugal 
-y Meal, W. H. Vander- 

/oi/ 7 a ^^^' ^^^^ ^°^'^' ' ^°*^" 

/ JStXStJ^^^ • ing more ! Sewing 
School at Katwyk 
(1881); Silent Interview (1882); Fair Weath- 
er, Child Asleep (1883) ; Eeturn (1884). 

John E. Millais, Bart., John Graham, Esq., 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 1 in. x 5 ft. 7 in. 
An ancient knight, clad in golden armour, 
who has attained all the glories of this life, 
has laid aside his pride to help two wood- 
cutters' children over a river ford upon the 
saddle of his gi-and war-horse. The land- 
scape, a sunset in the forest along the riv- 
er's bank, was painted on the Tay. The 
verses in the Academy Catalogue, ascribed 
to the "Metrical Eomance of Syr Ysum- 
bras," were written by Tom Taylor. Eoyal 
Academy, 1857. Satirized in a caricature 
of the time entitled "A Nightmare" (by 
Frederick Sandys ?), representing the artist 
on an ass, carrying Dante G. Eossetti and 
Holman Hunt, with Michelangelo, Eaphael, 
and Titian on the distant bank, in atti- 
tudes expressive of horror of this last Pre- 
Eaphaelite attempt. The picture was pur- 
chased originally by Charles Eeade, the 

ITTENBACH, FEANZ, born at KiJnigs- 
winter, near Cologne, April 18, 1813, died 
in Diisseldorf, Dec. 1, 1879. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of the Diisseldorf 
Academy under Thcodor Hildebrandt and 
Schadow ; with the latter and Karl Mtiller 
he visited Italy in 1839-41, and resided for 
a time in Munich before returning to Diis- 
seldorf. For several years he was occupied 
with fresco paintings in St. Apollinaris 
Church at Eemagen, and in 1864 in St. 
Quirinus Church at Neuss. Professor ; 
Member of Vienna Academj'. Medals in 

Cologne (1861), Berlin (1868), and Besan- 
9on. Prussian Order of the Crown, Belgian 
Order of Leopold. Works : Christ Cruci- 
fied—with Mary and St. John (1845), Eo- 
man Catholic Church, Konigsberg ; Bap- 
tism of Christ (1849), Garrison Church, 
Dusseldorf ; Christ Crucified (1850), Prague 
Gallery ; Altarpiece in five Panels (1851), 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Mary Medi- 
atrix (1852) ; Virgin Enthroned, Assump- 
tion (1858-61), St. Eemigius Church, Bonn ; 
Holy Family (1861), Prince Liechtenstein's 
chapel, Vienna ; Holy Family (1862), Duke 
of Hamilton's chapel, Baden-Baden ; Ma- 
donna (1862); Madonna (1864); 4 Altar- 
pieces (1865-68), St. Michael's Church, Bres- 
lau ; Holy Family in Egypt (1868), National 
Gallery, Berlin ; Portraits of Archbishop 
Clemens August of Cologne, and of Queen 
Stephanie of Portugal (I860).— AUgem. d. 
Biogr., xiv. 644 ; Kunst-Chronik, xv. 178 ; 
Art Journal (1865), 133 ; W. Mtiller, Diis- 
seldorf K., 48 ; Wiegmann, 172. 

VICH, born in St. Petersburg in 1806, died 
there, July 18, 1858. History painter, son and 
pupil of Andrei Ivanoff (1775-1846) and of St. 
Petersburg Academy. During a twenty-seven 
years' residence in Eome he occupied him- 
self almost exclusively in painting a colossal 
Christ appearing to the People. Work : 
Christ and Magdalen (1832), Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg.— Zeitschr. f. b. K., xvii. 160. 

JABIN, CH. G. GEOEG, born at Bruns- 
wick, Aug. 18, 1828, died at Harz- 
burg, Jan. 14, 1864. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Diisseldoi'f Academy under 
Schirmer in 1850-55 ; visited Switzerland 
in 1857, and Norway in 1863 ; painted 
mostly Swiss scenes in style of Euysdael. 
Works : Waterfall in Lin Valley, Brunswick 
Gallery ; Murchsee Fall ; Forest Mill in West- 
phalia ; The Brocken by Moonlight ; Ecker- 
fall, Eegenstein ; Palkenstein ; Oker Valley ; 
Use Valley. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xiii. 522 ; 
Dioskuren (1864), 5L 

.ckson,K,A. pinx. 

Mathilde Teyssonnieres sc 



at Blieskastel, Bavaria, ilarcli 6, 1786, died 
in Paris, July 17, 1863. Fruit and flower 
painter, pupil of Gerard van Spaendonck ; 
became naturalized in France. Employed 
at Sevres from 1823 till 1825, and of high 
repute in his branch of art. Medals: 2d 
class, 1831 and 1834 ; 1st class, 1839 ; L. of 
Honour, iat3. Works: Fruits and Flow- 
ers (1839), Luxembourg Museum ; do. in 
Salons of 1822-55.— BelUer, i. 809 ; Nou- 
velle biogr. generale, Paris, 1855. 

JACK IX OFFICE, Sir Edwin Landseer, 
South Kensington Museum ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 
8 in. X 2 ft. 2 in. An itin- 
erant dealer in dog-meat 
has left his barrow in an 
alley in charge of a sati- 
ated mongrel, who, seated 
upon the top, receives un- 
moved the courtier-like a,i- 
tentions of his hungiy and 
less fortunate feUow- creat- 
ures. Somewhat similar 
in treatment to Alexander 
and Diogenes. Royal 
Academy, 1833.— Black- 
bum, Pictures at Kensing- 
ton ; Stephens, 69. 

at Lastingham, Yorkshire, 
May 31, 1778, died in Lon- 
don, June 1, 1831. Son 
of a tailor, but enabled by friends to study 
in schools of Royal Academy; elected A.E.A 
in 1815, and R.A. in 1817. Became famous 
as a portrait painter, both in water-colours 
and in oils, and had many distinguished sit- 
ters. In 1819 he visited Rome, where he 
painted Canova, and was elected a member 
of the Academy of St. Luke. One of his 
best works is a portrait of Flaxman, painted 
for and in possession of Lord Dover. Por- 
traits of Miss Stephens, Sir John Soane, 
and Rev. William Holwell Carr, National 
Gallery ; portrait of himself. National Por- 
trait Gallery ; do., at Dover House, White- 
hall, and at Castle Howard. — Redgrave ; 

Cat. Nat. Gal ; Ch. Blanc, ificola anglaise ; 
Sandby, i. 359. 

JACOB, JULIDS, bom at BerUn, April 
25, 1811, died there, Oct. 20, 1882. History 
and portrait painter, pupil in Berlin of Wach, 
of Dilsseldorf Academy, and in Paris of De- 
laroche. Travelled in Europe, North A&ica, 
and Asia Minor ; spent eleven years in Eng- 
land, and in 1865 went to Vienna, where, 
after painting twenty-six portraits of dis- 
tinguished persons within a year, he re- 
turned to Berhn. Medals in Paris, Lyons, 
Rouen ; member of many artistic societies. 
Works : Scenes from History of St. Louis ; 

Blessing of Jacob, Rembrandt, Cassel Gallery. 

Artist Life ; Portraits of Princes Mettemich, 
Schwai'zenberg, Liechtenstein, Kinsky, Win- 
dischgraetz, Lobkowitz, Field-Marshal Hess, 
Count Apponyi ; Male Head (1845), Nation- 
al Gallery, Berlin. — MiiUer, 277 ; Jordan 
(1885), ii. 106 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 41 ; 
Leixner, Mod. K, i. 56 ; ii. 100, 119 ; Ro- 
senberg, Berl. Malersch., 54. 

nelisz, Jacob. 

JACOB AND THE ANGEL (Gen. xxxii.), 
Eugene Delacroix, St. Sulpice, Paris ; mural 
painting in chapel of Saintes-Anges. The 
struggle of Jacob with the angel. One of 
Delacroix's best works. — Larousse, ix. 862. 



JACOB, BLESSING OF (Gen. xlix.), 
Rembrandt, Cassel Gallery ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 
6 in. X 6 ft. 8 in. ; signed, dated 1656. Ja- 
cob, on bis death-bed, supported by his son 
Joseph, extends his hands to bless his two 
grandsons, who kneel on the further side of 
the bed ; beside them stands the mother, 
with her hands united. One of the artist's 
best pictures. Carried to Paris in 1806-7, 
and returned in 1814. Engraved by Claes- 
sens and Oortman in Musee f ranyais ; lin- 
ger ; Massaloff.— Filhol, vi. PI. 374 ; Musue 
franyais ; Smith, vii. 6. 

JACOB, DREAM OF (Gen. sxviii.), Mu- 

Dream of Jacob, Spagnoletto, Madrid Museum. 

rillo, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; canvas, H. 
8 ft. X 11 ft. 9 in. Jacob asleep, with his 
head on a stone, his staff near him on a cruse ; 
at left, an angel pointing to the ladder, on 
which two angels are ascending and three 
descending. Same history as Isaac blessing 
Jacob, of Hermitage, its companion. — Cur- 
tis, 118 ; Hermitage Cat., 127. 

By Raphael, Stanza d'Eliodoro, Vatican ; 
fresco on ceiling. Jacob asleep on some flat 
stones ; in the clouds a ladder with five an- 
gels, and above, God the Father in glory 
with outstretched arms, Shows hand of 
Giulio Eomano. Painted in 1513-14. En- 
graved by J. Bos (1560) ; Joh. Alessandri 

(1718); Pr. Aquila.— Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 
346 ; Muntz, 370 ; Passavant, ii. 129. 

By Spagnoletto, Madrid Museum ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. 10 in. X 7 ft. 4 in. Jacob, in a long 
dark robe, somewhat Uke a Capuchin's, lies 
asleep on the ground, at the foot of an over- 
turned tree ; in the background, at right, 
the mysterious ladder with angels ascending 
and descending. Prom collection of Philip 
IV. Lithographed by C. Eodriguez. — Ee- 
veil, xiv. 980. 

Bj' Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; 
oval, on ceiling of upperroom. "The painter 
has tried to overcome the awkwardness of 
winged angels ascending 
and descending steps by 
throwing them into ex- 
travagant attitudes, but he 
has evidently not treated 
the subject with dehght." 
— Euskin, Stones of Ven- 
ice, iii. 347. 

Raphael. See Raphael's 

OF LABAN (Gen. xxx.), 
Murillo, Sir John Hardy, 
Bart., Dunstall Hall, Staf- 
fordshire, England ; can- 
vas, H. 8 ft. X 11 ft. 9 in. 
Jacob, on right, enters pool 
and lays peeled rods before 
the sheep on the left ; behind him, his dog 
asleep ; on left, a sheepfold ; on right, a 
servant leading a mule is driving flocks 
away ; rock in centre divides the landscape. 
Probably belonged to Marques de Santiago, 
Madrid ; bought at Lord Northwick sale 
(1859), £1,480.— Curtis, 119. 

(Gen. xxxi.), Murillo, Grosvenor House, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 8 ft. x 10 ft. 1 in. In cen- 
tre, Jacob and Laban conversing ; on left, 
the family of the former in two tents ; on 
right, horses and men ; background, land- 
scape of trees and mountains. Probably 
belonged to Marques de Santiago, Madrid ; 



said to have been bought in Madrid in 1808 
for Lord Overstone, and sold to Marquis of 
Westminster for two Claudes, a Poussin, 
and £1,200 in money. — Buchanan, Memoirs, 
ii. 221 ; Curtis, 120. 

JACOB AND EACHEL (Gen. xxix.), Gi- 
ordano, Dresden GaUery ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 8 
in. X 7 ft. 6 in. Jacob, gone into Mesopota- 
mia to take a wife from the daughters of 

Jacob and Rachel, Giordano, Dresden Gallery. 

Laban, meets Eachel with her flocks near a 
well, and hastens to remove the stone from 
the well's mouth. Engraved by Joseph 
Wagner. — Keveil, vii. 435. 



CHAEL), born in Antwerp, May 19, 1812, 
died there, Dec. 13, 1879. Marine painter, 
pupil of Antwerp Academy under Van Bree 
and Wappers ; studied especially Claude 
Lorrain, Joseph Vernet, and Willem van de 
Velde ; visited the Mediterranean Coast, 
Greece, Egypt, Cyprus, Asia Minor, Eussia, 
and Scandinavia, and in 1843 became pro- 
fessor at the Antwerp Academy. Order of 
Leopold, 1849 ; Officer, 1864. Several med- 
als. Works : Outlook from Cape Colonna 
— Greece (1846), Weimar Museum ; Grecian 
Archipelago (1848), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Shipwreck of Floridian (1849), Sunrise 
in the Archipelago (1852), Harbour of Con- 

stantinople, New Pinakothek, Munich ; Ar- 
abs resting in the Desert (1849) ; Golden 
Horn (1852); WaterfaU of the Glommen in 
Norway (1853), Bmssels Museum ; Euins of 
Karnak (1857) ; Sogne Fjord (1857), Cara- 
van in Flight, Euins of Philse, Breeze on 
Finland Coast, Bay of Lepanto (1864); Cat- 
aracts of the Nile, Caual Grande in Venice, 
Entrance to Bergen Harbour (1867).— Im- 
merzeel, ii. 75 ; Kunst-Chronik, xv. 211. 

JACOBS, PAUL EJHL, born in Gotha, 
Aug. 18, 1802, died there, Jan. 6, 1866. 
History painter, pupil from 1818 of the 
Munich Academy under Langer, father and 
son ; visited Ui^per Italy in 1824, and in 
1825-28 studied in Eome. Settled in Frank- 
fort, painted chiefly portraits, and in 1830 
went to St. Petersburg, where he became 
member of the Academy. Eeturned to 
Gotha in 1834 ; he painted in Hanover for 
the king in 1835-38, visited Greece and 
Eome, and settled in Gotha in 1840 ; was 
in Eome again in 1844-45, and in 1853-57. 
Member of the Berlin Academy, and court- 
painter and aulic counsellor to Duke of Co- 
burg-Gotha. Works : Mercury and Argus 
(before 1825) ; Eaising of Lazarus (1825) ; 
Venus Asleep (1826), Heads of Eoman Wom- 
en (2), Gotha Museum ; Prometheus (1829); 
Portrait of General Diebitsch-Sabalkanski, 
Ascension, Last Supper (1830-34). Fres- 
cos : Venus rising from Sea, Triumph of 
Bacchus, Argonauts (1835-38), Eoyal Pal- 
ace, Hanover ; Crucifixion (1840), St. Angus- 
tin's, Gotha ; Scheherazade, Wilhelma, Stutt- 
gart ; replicas in Manchester, KiJnigsberg 
Museum (1840), and Gotha ; Presenting of 
the Silk Cord (1844), ViUa Eosenstein, near 
Stuttgart ; Samson and Delilah (1845) ; Ju- 
dith and Holofernes (1850) ; Oriental Slave 
Market, Eape of Proserpine, Munich Gal- 
lery ; Luther at Worms, City Hall, Stral- 
sund ; Christ, Madonna, Catholic Church, 
Gotha ; Ecce Homo (1853), Museum, ib. ; 
Descent from the Cross, Susanna (1856) ; 
Germania Mourning, Germania Victorious, 
Day and Night, War and Peace. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xiii. 615 ; Kunst-Chronik, i. 3. 



JACOBSEN, SOPHUS, born at Freder- 
ikshalcl, Norway, Sept. 7, 1833. Landscape 
painter, pupil of DUsseldorf Academy under 
Gude ; has travelled in Norway, Germany, 
and Italy. His landscapes with rain, snow, 
or moonUght effects are painted with great 
truth to nature. Works : View in the Eifel 
(1861) ; Moonlight on Norwegian Coast 
(1867) ; MoonUght in Venice (1872) ; Win- 
ter Landscape (1873); Autumn Landscape, 
Christiania Museum ; Laplanders on Eein- 
deer Hunt (with Tidemand); Rhenish Land- 
scape, Dilsseldorf Gallery. — Milller, 277. 

JACOBSZ (Jacobsen), JUEL^lEN, born 
in Hamburg about 1610 (?), died at Amster- 
dam in 1664 (?). Flemish school ; history 
and animal painter, pupil at Antwerp of 
Frans Snyders ; said to have travelled ex- 
tensively, especially in Switzerland ; after- 
wards lived at Amsterdam and at Leeuwar- 
den, Friesland. Works : Boar attacked by 
Dogs (1660), Dresden Museum ; do. (1677?), 
Copenhagen Gallery. — Immerzeel, ii. 76 ; 
Ba-amm, iii. 790 ; Schaefer, iii. 1141. 

JACOBSZ, LUCAS. See Leijden. 

JACOBY, VALEEIAN, born in 1834. 
History painter, pupil of St. Petersburg 
Academy. Settled in Rome. Works : Death 
of Robespierre ; Seizure of Biron ; Cardinal 
de Guise receiving Coligny's Head (1869); 
Beggar's Easter Day ; Orange Seller. — 
Kunst-Chronik, iv. 68 ; Midler, 278. 

Paris, Jan. 3, 1843. Genre painter ; medal 
at Philadelphia Exhibition, 1876. Works : 
Faust and Mephistopheles (1869), James H. 
Stebbins, New York ; Bilboquet and his 
Companion, Armourer of 17th Century 
(1876) ; A Baptism (1877) ; Magic Mirror 
(1878) ; Indisposed (1879) ; Old Clothes 
Dealer (1880); Father Robin's Forge (1881); 
Blacksmith's Shop, Bit of Jarnac (1882); Job 
(1883); The King's Ordinance (1885). 

in Paris ; contemporary. Landscape painter. 
Medal, 3d class, Paris, 1883. Works : Bois 
noirs in Forest of Marly (1878); Moonrise 
in Forest of Fontainebleau (1879); End of 

Winter Day (1880); Route of ChGne au Chat, 
Hut in Saint Germain Forest (1881); Gruye 
VaUey in Forest of Marly (1882); Oak of 
Vierge-Noire, Chestnut Grove (1883); View 
at Montcheureuil, Pere Gillot's Cabin (1884); 
Views in Forest of Saint Germain (2, 1885). 

Jacopo de'. 


tury, born in Prato Vecchio, died there, 
aged eighty. Florentine school. Met Tad- 
deo Gaddi while the latter was decorating a 
chapel in the church of Sasso della Veruia 
in Casentino, and followed him to Florence. 
He painted many frescos in that city, both 
as a subordinate and as a master, and was 
one of the founders, in 1349, of the Com- 
pany of St. Luke. About 1354 he went to 
Arezzo, where he reconstructed the water- 
works of the Fonts Guinizelli, and executed 
a great number of frescos. His work is 
weakly Giottesque and feeble in execution. 
Among the few extant examples of his style 
are a St. John Evangelist with predella in 
the National Gallery, London ; a predella 
in the Uffizi, Florence ; and a Dead Christ 
(fresco) in S. Bartolommeo, Arezzo. — C. & 
C, Italy, ii. 2 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., 669 ; W. & 
W., i. 454. 

Lorenzo di San Severino. 

TINA, Venetian school, end of 15th and be- 
ginning of 16th century. Pupil of Barto- 
lommeo and Luigi Vivarini, whose faces and 
figures he frequently reproduced. He was 
a second- or third-rate journeyman, devoid 
of feeling as a colourist, who rivalled Pal- 
mezzano and Filippo of Verona in dulness. 
Earliest work, a half-length Madonna, dated 
1485, at Belluno. He probably became a 
master, beginning of the 16th century, in 
Serravalle, where he received frequent com- 
missions. Two Madonnas by him (one 
1508) are in the Cathedral of Ceneda, and 
another (1509) is in the Venice Academy. — 
C. & C, N. Italy, i. 73. 



JACOPO DI VENETIA. See Bellini, Ja- 

JACQUAND, CLAUDIUS, bom in Lyons, 
Dec. 6, 1805, died in Paris, May 3, 1878. 
History painter, pupil of Fleury Ricbard. 
First exbibited in 1824, and in 1838 settled 
in Paris. His pictures, tbougb well com- 
posed and drawn, are somewbat monotonous 
and dull in colour. Medals : 2d class, 1824 ; 
1st class, 1836 ; Pbiladelpbia Exposition, 
1876 ; L. of Honour, 1839 ; Order of Leo- 
pold of Belgium. Works : Prison Court- 
yard (1824) ; Sir Tbomas More (1827), 
Lyons Museum ; Deatb of Adelaide de Com- 
minges (1831) ; Presentation of Louis Labbe 
to Francis I. (1834) ; Cinq Mars and De 
Tliou (1835), Voltaire arrested at Frankfort 
(1835), Neucbatel Museum ; Comminges 
recognizing Adelaide (1836), Lyons Muse- 
um ; Four Ages of a Woman (1836) ; Joce- 
lyn, Laurence waiting for Jocelyn (1837) ; 
Deatb of Young Gaston de Foix (1839), 
Leipsic Museum ; Cbarlemagne crowned 
King of Italy (1838), Cbapter of Order of 
St. Jobn at Ebodes (1839), Versailles Muse- 
um ; Tbe Avowal (1840), Lyons Museum ; 
After Dinner (1841) ; Henry of Burgundy 
invested witb Portugal (1842), Versailles 
Museum ; At once Minister and Doctor 
(1842) ; Tbe Right of Higb and Low Juris- 
diction (1845); Autumn Rents, Capture of 
Jerusalem (1846), Versailles Museum ; Cbarles 
V. in Convent of St. Just (1847) ; The Or- 
phans, Tbe Blessing, Hamburg Museum ; 
Christ on Golgotha (1850) ; St. Bonaventm-a 
refusing the Insignia of the Cardinalate 
(1852), formerly in Luxembourg Museum ; 
Mayor of Boulogne refusing the Terms of 
Henry VIH. (1852), Hotel de ViUe, Bou- 
logne-sur-Mer ; L' Amende Honorable (1853), 
formerly in Luxembourg Museum ; Sacri- 
lege (1853) ; Last Interview of Cbarles I. 
with bis Children (1855), formerly in Lux- 
embourg ; Clemency of Peter the Great 
(1855) ; German Troopers (1857), Sir Rich- 
ard Wallace ; Perugino painting for Monks 
(1859), Dijon Museum ; WiUiam tbe Silent 
selling his Jewels (1859), King of Holland ; 

Convalescent Priest, Crust of Pastry, Pres- 
entation in Temple (1863), Ministry of Inte- 
rior, Paris ; La Vierge du Travail (1863), 
Cambrai Museum ; Dante in Rome (1864) ; 
Easter, Two Misers (1865) ; Gableo before 
his Abjuration (1867), Amiens Museum ; 
Guido d'Arezzo and bis Pupils (1868) ; Bo- 
naparte at Nice (1869) ; Christopher Colum- 
bus on his Death-Bed showing his Chains to 
his Son (1870) ; Death of St. Joseph (1872) ; 
Ransom of Sicilian Family captured by a 
Barbary Pirate (1873) ; Sacrilege, Chiefs of 
German Mercenaries (1874) ; Death of tbe 
Virgin, Monthly Collection (1875) ; Grief 
and Compassion (1876) ; Stella in Rome in 
1698 (1877); Maria de Medici visiting Studio 
of Rubens, Cardinal visiting Ribera in bis 
Studio, Nantes Museum ; Maid of Palaiseau, 
Cambrai Museum ; Rousseau taking Leave 
of Marshal de Luxembourg's Family, Neu- 
cbatel Museum ; Gypsy Gang in Court-room, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Frescos in St. 
Philippe du Roule, St. Bernard, Paris, and 
ChapeUe de St. Ferdinand, Neuilly. — Bel- 
lier, i. 811 ; Larousse ; Meyer, Gescb., 155. 
Paris, May 23, 
1813. Animal and 
landscape painter, 
engraver, and 
etcher. Few 
French artists 
have a more wide- 
ly extended or 
better desoryed 
though more not- 
ed as an etcher 
than a painter, his colouring being some- 
what crude. He paints farmyard scenes in 
perfection, and excels in accurate knowledge 
of sheep and poultry, of which be is a fan- 
cier ; has also been called Le Raphael des 
Porceaux, from bis truthful pictures of pigs. 
Medals: 3d class, 1861, 1863; Medal, 1864; 
L. of Honour, 1867. Works : Herd of Oxen 
driven to Watering Place (1849), Angers 
Museum ; Landscape witb Cattle (1856), 



Chalon-sur-Saone Museum ; Flock of Sheep 
in a Landscape (1861), Luxembourg Muse- 
um ; Chicken Yard, Group of Sheep (1862) ; 
Enclosure at Barbison (1863) ; Ploughing 
(1864) ; Country Scene (1865) ; Landscape 
(1866) ; In a Sheepfold, Border of Wood 
with Animals (1870) ; Girl Knitting (1872) ; 
Sheep, Chickens (2), The Village Poor, Pas- 
toral (3), W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; Land- 
scape and Sheep, H. C. Gibson, Philadel- 
phia ; Horses in Stable, Sheep and Chickens, 
Ducks, A. E. Borie Collection, ib. ; Sheep 
Stable, W. H. Vauderbilt, New York ; Sheep, 
Hawk Collection, ib. ; Fowls, T. A. Havemey- 
er, ib. ; Eock, Aug. Belmont, ib. ; Coming 
Storm, Young Shepherdess, Landscape with 
Horses, do. with Sheep, and others, J. C. 
Euukle, ib. ; Poultry, Sheep in Stable, D. O. 
Mills, ib. ; Poultry, John Hoey, ib. ; Sheep and 
Shepherdess, R. L. Cutting, ib. ■ — Claretie, 
• -^ Peintres, 


11. 2 9 7; 
Q^uvres de 

Ch. Jacque (Paris, 1867) ; Meyer, Gesch., 
760 ; Hamertou, French Painters ; Sept., 
1875, Portfolio. 

JACQIIEMART, N^LIE, born in Paris 
in 1845. History and 
portrait painter, pupil 
ofCogniet. In 1864 she 
decorated the church 
at Suresne, near Paris, 
but her high reputa- 
tion was gained by 
such portraits as those 
of Drury (1869), Du- 
faure and Canrobert 
(1870), Thiers (1871), which when exhibited 
attracted much attention. Medals : 1868,- 
1869, 1870 ; 2d class, 1878. Works : Father 
of the Orphans, Moliore with the Barber 
Geny at Pozenas (1863) ; Supper at Emma- 
us. The Pine-Apple Tavern with Moliere 
reading " Les Femmes Savantes " to Cor- 
neille and Boileau (1866) ; Portrait of Gen- 
eral Aurelle de Paladines (1877), Luxem- 

bourg Museum ; Landscape (1870), W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore.— Bellier, i. 812 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, x. 367. 

Paris, May 25, 1846. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Bouguereau. His genre 
pieces are original and fine in colour ; his 
portraits have strength, charm, and expres- 
sion, as well as delicacy of tone. Medals : 
1868 ; 1st class, 1875 ; 3d class, 1878 ; L. 
of Honour, 1879. Works: Modesty, Sad- 
ness (1865) ; M. Guillemin in Dress of 16th 
Century (1866); Call to Arms in the 16th 
Century (1867); Departure of Army with 
German Mercenaries (1868); Judith, Gar- 
den in Lesmacs (1869) ; Girl holding a 
Sword (1872); Festival in Touraine about 
1565 (1873); The Mysterious Studio (1874); 
Mercenaries Halting, Eevery, Vidette (1875); 
Countrywoman (1876); Poor Girl (1877); 
Joan of Arc praying for France (1878); The 
First to An-ive (1879); Minuet (1880); Glo- 
rious France (1882) ; La Pavane — Dance of 
16th Centuiy (1884); The Wag, Queen of 
the Camp (1885). 

in Paris ; contemporary. Genre and ani- 
mal painter, son and pupil of Louis Gode- 
froy Jadin and of Cabanel. His late hunt- 
ing scenes are better painted than his early 
genre pieces. Medals : Philadelphia Expo- 
sition, 1876 ; 3d class, Paris, 1881. Works : 
Sheik Salah dead in his Tent (1876); Eais- 
ing of Lazarus (1877); Eeturn from the 
Cemetery in Venice (1878); Emigrants on 
a Steamer (1879) ; Vision of St. Hubert 
(1880); Deer in Forest of Fontainebleau, 
Boar Hunt (1881); Group of Boars in Sum- 
mer, Greyhound (1882) ; Foal of an Ass 
(1883) ; Monkey showing Magic Lantern 
(1884); Too Late! (1885). 

Paris, June 30, 1805, died there in June, 
1882. Landscape painter, pupil of Abel de 
Pujol and Hersent. Paints spirited hunt- 
ing scenes, eight of which in panels deco- 
rate the diniug-room of the Ministry of 
State. Medals : 3d class, 1834 ; 2d class, 


1840 ; 1st class, 1848 ; 3d class, 1855 ; L. 
of Honour, 1854. Works : Plain of Mont- 
fort-1'Amaury (1834); Factory of Poussin 
near Home (1837); The ViUa d'Este (1838); 
Castle of St. Angelo (1839); Hunting at 
Fontainebleau (1844); Deer Hunt (1848); 
Stag at Bay (1852), Ministry of Interior, 
Paris ; lielay of Dogs at Chateau de Mailly 
(1855), Arras Museum ; The Seven Deadly 
Sins (1857) ; View of Eome, Vision of 
St. Hubert (1859) ; Victim of Despotism 

Madrid, 3d class, 1871, 1876; 2d class, 1878 ; 
Vienna, 1873. Works : Charles V. at San 
Yuste (1878), Madrid Museum ; Interesting 
Beading ; Cisneros presented to Queen Isa- 
bella.— La Ilustracion (1879), i. 43. 

JAFFA, PLAGUE OF, Antoine Jean 
Gros, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 17 ft. 6 in. 
X 23 ft. 7 in.; signed, dated Versailles, 1804. 
General-in-Chief Bonaparte, in order to in- 
spire confidence in his army, visited, March 
11, 1799, his plague-stricken soldiers in the 

Plague of Jaffa, Antoine Jean Gros, Louvre, Paris. 

(1861) ; Twelve Dogs of Virelade Breed 
(1864); Women of Isle of Sein burning Sea- 
weed (1868); Aurora, ceiling in Salon d'Her- 
cule, Palais du Sonat, Paris ; Eight Panels 
with Hunting and Falconry Subjects, Min- 
istry of State, ib. — Bellier, i. 816 ; Chronique 
des Arts (1882), 186 ; Larousse, ix. 875 ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 762. 

born at Valladolid ; contemporary. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Valladolid art-school, 
where he won the first prize. Medals : 

hospitals at Jaffa. Scene — The interior of 
a mosque surrounded by a large court, con- 
verted into a hospital ; near the centre, 
Bonaparte, followed by Berthier and Bes- 
sieres, and attended by physicians, touches 
without fear the body of a plague-stricken 
sailor ; the dying, the sick, and the conva- 
lescent on all sides. Salon of 1804. Gros 
received 16,000 francs for the picture, which 
was very successful. Engraved by Laugier, 
and by Qiieverdot and Pigeot. — Landon, 
Musee, xii. PI. 1-2 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; 


Gal. de Versailles, No. 655 ; Norvins, Hist, 
de Napoleon, i. 486. 

JAGER, GUSTAV, born in Leipsic, July 
12, 1808, died there, April 19, 1871. His- 
tory painter, studied at first in Leipsic and 
at the Dresden Academy, and from 1830 in 
Munich under Julius Schnorr, whom, after 
visiting Rome in 1836-37, he assisted in 
painting frescos in the new palace. In 
1846-48 he decorated the Herder room at 
the castle in Weimar with frescos, and in 
1850 painted one of tlie frescos in the Nie- 
belungen Hall at Munich. He was made 
director of the Leipsic Academy in 1847. 
Works : Entombment, Burial of Moses, 
Leipsic Museum (Cartoon in Weimar Mu- 
seum); Job (1833); Prayer of Moses during 
the Battle (1835); Balaam with the Angel 
(1836) ; Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine 
(1855), Dresden Museum. Frescos : Char- 
lemagne driving the Longobards from Ger- 
many, Conquest of Saragossa, Battle with 
the Huns, Death of Charlemagne in Aachen, 
Charlemagne taking Pavia, Council at Frank- 
fort, Coronation of' Charlemagne in Eome, 
Frederic Barbarossa proclaimed Emperor, 
Barbarossa's Entry into Milan, Peace Treaty 
with Alexander III. in Venice, Death of Bar- 
barossa at Seleucia (1837-45), all in the 
Konigsbau, Munich ; Allegories illustrating 
Herder's Works (1846-48), Herder room, 
Weimar ; Entombment, Leipsic Museum ; 
Dream of Sophronius, Magdalen at the Feet 
of the Saviour (1859); Circumcision of St. 
John. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xiii. 649 ; Allgem. 
Zeitg., April 27, 1871, Beilage, 117 ; Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1836), 54 ; D. Kunstbl. (1850), 
328 ; (1851), 19 ; (1858), 291 ; Forster, v. 
101 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 423. 

JAGER, KARL, born at Nuremberg in 
1838. History painter, pupil of Eeindel, 
Kreling, and Munich Academy. Professor 
at Nuremberg Art School. Works : Golden 
Age of Nuremberg ; Birth of Dtirer ; Fair 
Rothtraut (1877); twelve portraits of Ger- 
man Kings ; Portrait of Director Essenwein, 
Nuremberg Museum. — Mliller, 279. 


Prague, June 4, 1739, died there, July 20, 
1802. History painter and writer on art ; 
son and pupU of Jacob Jahn (died in 1767), 
and for several years assistant of Palko in 
fresco and oil painting. Visited Holland, 
France, and Germany, and was made associ- 
ate of the Academy at Vienna. After his 
return to Prague in 1796 he painted altar- 
pieces for Bohemian and Schleswig churches. 
Works : S. Felippo Neri (1772), Church of 
St. Veit, Prague ; St. Stephen (1775), St. Ste- 
phen's, ib. ; masterly copy of Correggio's La 
Notte, Church at Liebesnitz. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xiii. 686 ; Wurzbach, x. 47. 

JAIRUS, DAUGHTER OF (Mark, ch. v.), 
Gustav Eiclder, National Gallery, Berlin ; 
canvas, H. 11 ft. 10 in. x 9 ft. 5 in. ; signed, 
dated 1856. Christ, accompanied by three 
apostles, stands beside the bed of the maid- 
en, who raises her head and looks up to him, 
while the mother bends listening over her ; 
the father, standing behind the couch, has 
laid his hand on his child's pillow and looks 
in mute astonishment at the miracle. — Jor- 
dan (1885), i. 102. 

born at Nimes, Jan. 1, 1819. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Paul Delaroche. 
After competing for the prix de Rome three 
times without success, he spent three years 
in Italy, and returned with a picture which 
was bought by the State. His figures are 
well grouped, but not free from affectation. 
This is especially applicable to his religious 
pictures. Medals : 3d class, 1847 ; 2d class, 
1851, 1867; 1st class, 1853, 1855; L. 
of Honor, 1855; Officer, 1867. Works: 
Virgil, Horace, and Varius at the House of 
Maecenas (1847), Luxembourg Museum ; 
St. Luke, Villanello (1852) ; Annunciation, 
Nymphs listening to Orpheus (1853) ; Christ 
on Mount of Olives (1855); Farewell of Ro- 
meo and Juliet, Raphael at work on the Ma- 
donna San Sisto (1857); A Widow (1861); 
Christ walking on the Sea, Maria Abruzze 
(1863); The Awakening (1872); CEdipus and 
Antigone, Nimes Museum ; Christian Mar- 
tyr, Italian Girl, Orpheus (1853); The Morn- 

(Pr m (i^ 1§ QPr 1 1? JTA IMT IE ;? (IT) M . 

[.< 1 N II (1 N . 

hlr.l.r.l l.V Ji'lm Mii|nr .') O Kk c 
Nuv' -H'.'''' I.SJ(; 


ing (1863), W. T. Walters, Baltimore.— 
Bellier, i. 818 ; Nouv. biog. genurale ; Ch. 
Blanc, Ai-tistes de Mon Temps, -ITi ; Ham- 
erton, Pain ting in Fi-ance ; Meyer, Gesch., 

JALEO, EL, Eaimundo de Madrazo, 
Henry C. Gibson, Philadelphia. A gypsy 
gii-l, mounted on a table in the court of the 
Casa de Pilatos, Seville, dancing the jaleo ; 
behind her are several torreros, one plajdng 
a guitar, and in front, seated under the 
banana trees, is a female companion, watch- 
ing the performance. — Ait Treas. of Amer., 
i. 70. 

JALEO, EL, John S. Sargent, T. Jefferson 
Coolidge, Boston. El Jaleo, or Dance of 
the Gitanos. In foreground, a gypsy girl 
is executing a slow, measured, voluptuous 
dance, the principal movement being with 
the arms and body ; in background, ranged 
against a white wall, on which their shadows 
are thrown by strong lamplight, are a row 
of black-robed musicians. Original subject, 
strongly rendered in manner of Velasquez. 
Paris Salon (1882). Engraved by Hel. Du- 
jardin.— Art Journal (1882), 217. 

JALYSUS, picture. See Profogmcg. 

S. Lio, Venice ; canvas, arched, figure life- 
size ; signed. St. James receiving the ray 
from heaven ; in the distance, the Baptist 
kneeling, and a knight to the left, sitting. 
Painted about 1565. Injured by time and 
repainting. — C. & C, Titian, ii. 355. 

Matt. iv. 21), Marco Basaiti, Venice Acad. ; 
wood, arched, H. 15 ft. x 8 ft. 6 in. ; signed, 
dated 1510. Christ, with Peter and Andrew 
on a rocky shore (Sea of Galilee) ; James 
kneeling to receive a blessing ; John step- 
ping out of boat in which Zebedee is sitting. 
Painted for S. Andrea della Certosa, on one 
of the islands of Venice. — Zanotti, Pin. dell' 
Accad. Ven., PL 17 ; C. & C, N. Italy, i. 263. 

JAMES, ST., Guido E«ni, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. i ft. 5 in. x 3 ft. Figure 
half-length, life-size. Collection of Dona Isa- 
bel Farnese. — Madrazo. 

JAMESONE (Jamieson), GEORGE, born 
at Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1586, died in Ed- 
inburgh in 1644. History, portrait, and land- 
scape painter, student of Rubens at Antwerp, 
where he was a fellow-pupil of Van Dyck ; 
returned to Aberdeen in 1G20, but removed 
to Edinbui-gh about 1630-35. Charles I. 
sat to him in 1633 for a f uU-length. His 
manner is so much like that of Van Dyck 
that he is sometimes called the Scottish 
Van Dyck. Many works in the houses of 
Scottish nobility. — Redgrave ; Taylor, 135 ; 
Fine Arts in Great Britain and Ireland, ii. 
326 ; F. de Conches, 21. 

JAN MET DEN BAARD. See Vermeyen. 

JAN VAN CALCAE. See Ealkar, Hans 

nelisz, Jacob. 

JANET. See Cloud. 

born in Paris, Nov. 26, 1815, died there, 
Nov. 25, 1872. History painter, pupil of 
CoHn, Ingres, and of Horace Vemet, who of 
the three especially influenced his style. He 
was a careful painter, of no great talent, and 
often employed as a decorator and illustra- 
tor. Medal, 3d class, 1859. Works: The 
Stud (1836); Chi-ist in the Garden (1839); 
Isaac blessing Jacob (1843); Abdication at 
Fontaiuebleau(1844), Tours Museum; Good 
Shepherd (1845); Kiss Given and Returned 
(1846); Pilgrims of Emmaus (1849); Nero 
in the Chariot Race (1855); Napoleon HX 
helping the Sufferers .by the Inundation at 
Lyons (1857) ; Incident of the Battle of 
Koughil (1859); Napoleon HI. and his Staff 
at Solferino (1861); Battle of Altesco (1864); 
Pheasant Shooting at Compiegne (1865); His 
Last Friend, Going to the Ambulance (1866); 
Incident of Siege of Puebla (1868); Crossing 
the Gemmi (1870).— Athemeum (1872), ii. 
738 ; Larousse. 

JANK, CHRISTIAN, born in 1833. Ar- 
chitecture painter, jjupU in Munich of Emil 
Kirehner. His architectural views in Ger- 
many, Italy, France, and Spain are well 
conceived, excellent in perspective, and 


bold in execution. Works : Castle Ellkofen; 
Ai-ena in Verona ; Canal Grande with S. M. 
della Salute in Yenice ; Amphitbeatre in 
Pola ; Courtyard of Palazzo Cicogna in 
Venice ; Entrance to San Giovanni e Paolo 
in Venice ; Cathedrals of Bourges and 
Rouen ; Portals of Chartres Cathedral ; 
Synagogue in Prague ; Study of Interior. — 
Miiller, 280. 

JANMOT, LOUIS, born in Lyons, May 2, 
1814. History painter, pupil of Orsel in 
Lyons and of Ingres in Paris. Medals : 3d 
class, 1845 ; 2d class, 1859, 1861. Works : 
Raising of the Widow's Son (1840) ; Flower 
of the Fields, Assumption (1845) ; Eucharist 
(Hospital of Antequaille, Lyons) ; Christ in 
the Garden (1849) ; Poem of the Soul 
(1854, series of 18 cartoons) ; Virgin and 
Jesus, Holy Women at the Tomb ( 1859) ; 
Daniel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel (1861) ; 
Christ between Virgin and Saints, Ophelia 
(1863) ; Living Man bound to a Corpse 
(1865) ; St. Stephen before the Sanhedrim, 
Stoning of St. Stephen (1866) ; Madonna, 
Holy Family (1868) ; St. CeciUa, Virgil 
(1869) ; Head of John Baptist presented 
to Salome (1872) ; Dante's Dream (1875) ; 
Shooting of Father Captier (1876) ; Portrait 
of General Gemeau (1850), Lyons Museum. 
— Bellier, i. 821 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), 
xvi. 258 ; Larousse ; MiUler, 280. 

at Gratz, Styria, Oct. 4, 1703, died in Vien- 
na in 1761. German school ; landscape, 
history, and genre painter, pupil of Mathias 
Vangus, an artist little known ; worked for 
some time at Frankfort, and afterwards 
went to Vienna, where he became assessor 
at the Academy. Works: Wooded Land- 
scape with Peasants, Forest with Hunts- 
men, Museum, Vienna ; Wedding, View in 
Poland, Liechtenstein Gallerj', ib. ; Christ 
and the Samaritan, Harrach Gallery, ib.; 
Christ with God the Father in Paradise, 
Trinity and Angels, Hilly Landscape with 
Castle, Prague Gallery ; Rocky Landscapes 
with Shepherds (2), Bruckenthal Museum, 
Hermannstadt ; Assembly in a Garden, do. 

making Music, Schleissheim Gallery ; Land- 
scapes with Figures (2), Darmstadt Museum ; 
Interiors (2), Bordeaux Museum ; Portrait 
of a Scholar, Wiesbaden Gallery ; Depart- 
ure of Prodigal Son, Prodigal Son in Riot- 
ous Living, New York Museum. In fresco : 
Appearing of the Holy Ghost, Ave Maria, 
Holy Trinity, Baptism of Christ, Chapel of 
the Holy Ghost, Generalcommandoi Gratz. 
— Wurzbach, x. 81. 

JANSCHA, LORENZ, born at Rodein, 
Carniola, in 1744, died in Vienna, April 1, 
1812. Landscape painter and etcher, pupil 
of the Vienna Academy under Weirotter 
and Christian Brand ; went to Rome in 
1790, and was appointed in 1801 corrector, 
and in 1806 professor at the Vienna Acad- 
emy. Works : Panorama of Vienna, Brigit- 
tenau (1790), Imperial Library, Vienna ; 
Gathering in the Prater, City Library, Vi- 
enna ; Scene in the Prater about 1790 ; 
Outlook towards the Landstrasse in Vien- 
na. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xiii. 709 ; Wurzbach, 
X. 90. 

JANSENIUS, portrait, Titian, Palazzo 
Doria, Rome ; canvas, figure to ankles, life- 
size. Much retouched. — C. & C, Titian, ii, 

JANSON, JOHANNES, born at Amboyna, 
East Indies, April 17, 1729, died at Leyden, 
Aug. 1,1784. Landscape and animal painter, 
was brought to Holland when eight years of 
age, became an engineer officer, but resigned 
his career to take up painting. Works : 
Castle of Heemstede (1766), Amsterdam 
Museum. By his son and pupil, Johannes 
Christiaan (born at Leyden in 1763, died at 
The Hague, Oct. 17, 1823), there are in the 
same museum : Woman cutting Bread, Good 
Neighbours. — Immerzeel, ii. 77 ; Kramm, 
iii. 793. 

JANSSEN, PETER, bom at DUsseldorf, 
Dec. 12, 1844. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of Dflsseldorf Academy under Bende- 
mann. Having visited Munich, Dresden, 
and Holland, he attracted attention by his 
first painting in 1868. Has since executed 
decorative pictures in public buildings at 


Crefeld, Bremen, Erfurt, and in the National 
Gallery of Berlin. In 1877 he became pro- 
fessor, and in 1880 director, of the Dtissel- 
dorf Academy. Medals : Diisseldorf, 1880 ; 
Vienna, 1882 ; Munich, 1883. Member of 
Berlin Academy, 1885. Works : Peter's 
Denial (1868) ; Seven Scenes from History 
of Ai-minius the Cheruskian (1869-73), City 
Hall, Crefeld ; Foundation of Eiga (1872), 
Exchange, Bremen ; Prayer of the Swiss 
before Battle of Sempach (1874) ; Portrait 
of Fieldmai-shal Herwarth von Bittenfeld 
(1883), Twelve Scenes from Myth of Prome- 
theus (fresco). National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Battle at Fehrbellin (fresco), Ai-senal, ib. ; 
Cycle from History of Ei-furt, City Hall, 
Erfurt ; Cycle of Frieze Paintings (1885), 
Aula, Dusseldorf Academy. — Jordan (1885), 
ii. 108 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 159 ; vii. 206 ; 
ix. 613 ; xii. 498 ; Miiller, 280. 

See Ceulen. 

JANSSENS, H. (Hieronymus), born at 
Antwerp, baptized Oct. 1, 1624, died there, 
summer 1693. Flemish school ; genre 
painter, pupU of Christoffel Jacob van der 
Lamen ; master of the guild in 1644. The 
pictures by this artist were formerly attrib- 
uted to Victor Honore Janssens, who was 
not born until 1664. The subjects are taken 
from Flemish court life of the times, and 
are treated in an original, truthful, refined 
manner ; drawing correct, colouring excel- 
lent. Works : La Main Chaude, Louvre 
(attributed to Victor Honors) ; Ball at Court 
(1658), Lille Museum ; Trictrac (1659), La 
Main Chaude (1660), ]\L Le Brun Dalbanne, 
Paris ; Prince of Orange (1663), Misses Gie- 
bens, Antwerp ; Ladies and Gentlemen es- 
corting Married Couple to Travelling Coach, 
Theodor van Lerius, ib.; "Women fighting 
about a Pair of Trousers, Ghent Museum ; 
Assembly of Noblemen before a Palace 
(1672), Dunkirk Museum. — Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1865), xviii. 524 ; Kooses (Eeber), 384 ; Van 
den Branden, 1024. 

Brussels in 1664, died there in 1739. Flem- 

ish school ; history painter, pupil of Lance- 
lot Volders, became master in 1689, then 
spent four- years at the court of the Duke of 
Holstein, who sent him to Eome, where he 
stayed eleven years, imitating Albani and 
allied in friendship with Tempesta, in whose 
landscapes he supplied the figures. Re- 
turned to Brussels, and executed many altar- 
pieces ; in 1718 went to Vienna as court- 
painter to the Emperor Charles VI., and 
thence to London in 1721. His small his- 
torical pictures are superior to his large 
works. Works : Appai'ition of the Vu'gin, 
St. Charles Borromeo, Sacrifice of .Slneas, 
Dido building Carthage, Brussels Museum ; 
Assembly of the Gods, Allegory of Events of 
1708, City HaU, , 

ib.; St.Rochcur- l/Z /Cl/n/i0n6 
ing the Diseased, '/• / /i^'Jn 

St. Nicholas, ib. ; y -/'/^^ 

Venus and Adonis, Copenhagen Gallery. — 
Ch. Blanc, Ecoleflamande;Immerzeel, ii. 79. 
HAM, born in Antwerp in 1575, died there, 
buried Jan. 25, 1632. Flemish school ; 
painter of religious subjects and allegories, 
pupil of Jan Snellinck, and studied in Italy ; 
in 1601 admitted to the guild, its dean in 
1606-7. After Rubens, he was one of the 
most famous of the great Flemish painters 
of the 17th century. According to recent 
documentary discoveries the accounts of his 
enmity against Rubens, and the misery into 
which he fell, are devoid of truth. Works : 
Madonna, Adoration of Magi, River God of 
the Scheldt, Museum, Antwerp ; Entomb- 
ment, Madonna and Saints, CarmeUtes, ib.; 
The Four Fathers of the Church, Cathedral, 
ib.; St. Luke painting the Virgin, St Eom- 
bold's, Mechlin ; Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, Bruges Cathedral ; Descent from the 
Cross, Ecce Homo, St. Bavon's, Ghent ; 
Miraculous Draught of Fishes, St. Peter's, 
ib. ; Allegory on Age, Brussels Museum ; 
Descent from Cross, St, Bavon's Church, 
Ghent ; Meleager and Atalanta, Vertumnus 
and Pomona, Berlin Museum ; Venus and 
Adonis, Vienna Museum ; Tobias and the 


Angel, Brunswick Gallery ; Diana, Cassel 
Gallei-y ; St. Cecilia, Christ as Saviour, The 
Four Roman Fathers of the Church, Cologne 
Museum. — Ch. Blanc, ificole flamande ; Cat. 
du Mus. d'Anvers (1874), 213 ; Immerzeel, 
ii. 80 ; Kramm, iii. 796 ; Michiels, viii. 306; 
Eiegel, Beitriige, ii. 54 ; Eooses (Reber), 156; 
Van den Branden, 478. 

Finnstrom, Aland, July 7, 1846, died there, 
June 1, 1874. Genre painter, -pupil at Abo 
of Ekman and in Stockholm of Boklund 
(1862-68), then until 1870 at Diisseldorf of 
Vautier. Medal, Vienna, 1873 ; member of 
St. Petersburg Academy. Works : Court- 
ship in Aland ; A Copper in the Contribu- 
tion Box ; Ace of Clubs. — Taflor. 

JAPy, LOUIS AIM:^, bom at Berne 
(Doubs) ; contemporary. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Franfois. Medals : 1870 ; 3d 
class, 1873. Works : Before the Storm ; 
Valley of Nantuis ; Twilight ; Spring Land- 
scape (1873), Corcoran Gallery, Washing- 
. ton ; Aurora, SiJring-time in the Mountains, 
A River (1874); Spring-time in the Valley 
of the Somme, In the Woods in April (1878); 
End of April, Valley of the Lomont (1879); 
On the Plain at Villers Cotterets (1880) ; 
Autumn Evening (1881) ; A Morning in 
May, October Evening (1882) ; Moonrise, 
The Shepherd and the Sea (1883); After 
the Storm, Morning in May (1884); Pools 
of Beauval, Summer Evening (1885). 

JARDIN, KAREL DU, born in Amster- 
dam about 1625, 
died in Venice, 
Nov. 20, 1678. 
Dutch school; 
landscape and ani- 
mal painter, pupil 
of Berchem, and 
perhaps of Paul 
Potter, whose style 
he adopted. Vis- 
ited Rome early, 
and there conceived 
a preference for Italian scenery. On his re- 
turn from Italy settled at The Hague, where 


in 1656 he was one of the founders of the 
new guild Pictura; removed to Amsterdam in 
1659, whence, after 1670, he went to Rome, 
and thence to Venice. He painted also do- 
mestic scenes, portraits, and historical sub- 
jects. His Italian landscapes are harmo- 
niously treated. His animals are true to 
nature and well drawn. His large figures 
are extremely weak. Works: Figures and 
Animals Resting (1656), Fording the Stream 
(1657), Landscape with Cattle, Sheep, and 
Goats (1673), National Gallery, Loudon ; 
Landscapes (4), Buckingham Palace ; do. 
(1), Bridgewater Gallery ; do. (2), Lord 
Ashburton ; do. (2), Mi-. Hope's Collection, 
London ; Halt of Horsemen at Italian. Inn, 
Farrier's Shop, National Gallery, Edinburgh ; 
Calvary (1661), Italian Charlatans (1657), 
Landscapes and Cattle Pieces (6), Male Por- 
trait, Louvre ; Italian Landscape (1673), 
Woman Spinning, Hague Museum ; Peas- 
ant winnowing Corn (1655), Regent-piece 
(1869), Ai-tist's Portrait (1660), Horseman 
before Inn, Muleteers, Male Portrait, do. 
(1670), Landscapes (2), Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Italian Landscape, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum ; Vanguard, Returning to Stable, 
Brussels Museum ; Stirrup Cup, Basle 
Museum ; Dog and Horse Studies (2), 
Christ on the Cross, Musee Rath, Geneva ; 
Portrait of Young Man (1652), Tasting 
Wine (1664), Morning, Evening, Berlin 
Museum ; David after slaying Goliath, 
Brunswick Museum ; Shepherdess Spinning, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Mountebank with Dogs, 
Cassel Gallery ; Allegory on Human Life 
(1663), Copenhagen Gallery ; Peasants and 
Shepherds with Sheep and Goats (?), Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Diogenes and Boy, Maid 
milking Goat, Ox and Goats, Dresden Mu- 
seum ; Shepherd Boy with Goats and Sheep, 
Sick Goat attended by Girls, New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Parody on Art Criticism 
(1677), Animal Piece, Schwerin Gallery; 
Landscapes with Animals and Figui-es (2), 
Stuttgart Museum ; Herd and Boy^ Vienna 
Museum ; Landscapes with Cattle (7), Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; Portrait, Land- 



scapes (2), Holy Night, Farm Yard (1667), 
Historical Society, New York.— Ch. Blanc, 
£cole holland- ^ . 

zeel, ii. 81 ; sj 

Ki-amm, iii. 805 ; Kugler, ii. 449 ; Eiegel, 

Beiti-age, ii. 385 ; Schaefer, ii. 375. 

JARDINlfcEE, BELLE. See Madonna 
Belle Jardiniire. 

JAEENUS, second half of 15th centui-y. 
German school. This name was first sug- 
gested by Passavant, who probably read as 
Jarenus the fragment of the inscription Jesus 
Nazarenus on a Pieta at Wilton House. The 
Soest triptych at Berlin shows the growing 
influence of the Flemish school. Works : 
Triptych, with Scenes from the Passion, 
Berlin Museum ; The two wings of this are 
now in the Provinzial Museum at Miinster. — 
Kugler (Crowe), i. 133 ; Meyer, Gemiilde 
d. kongl. Mus., 436 ; Passavant, Kunstreise, 
141, 402 ; Rep. f. Kunstwissenschaft, ii. 422 ; 
Waagen ; Schnaase, \iii. 370 ; W. & W., ii. 

JAEVIS, JOHN WESLEY, born at South 
Shields -on- the -Tyue, England, in 1780. 
Brought to Philadelphia by his father in 
1785. Portrait painter, chiefly self-taught ; 
one of the earliest of American painters to 
attend to the study of anatomy. Painted 
in New York and the chief Southern cities, 
where his portraits were very popular. 
Works : Governor FiUmore, Commodores 
Perry, Swift, Hull, Bainbridge, McDon- 
ough. General Brown, City HaU, New York ; 
Dr. Alexander Andrews, Museum, ib.; De- 
Witt Clinton, C. D. Colden, Christopher 
Colles, Rev. Dr. Stanford, Egbert Benson, 
Robert Morris, John Randolph, and others. 
Historical Society, New York ; HaUeck ; 
Bishop Moore ; Hon. Stephen Van Rens- 
selaer. A head of Tom Paine, in plaster, 
by Jarvis, is in the New York Historical So- 
ciety. — Tuckerman, 58. 

JEAN, AMAN EDMOND, bom at Chevty- 

Cossigny (Seine-et-Oise) ; contemporaiy. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Henri 
Lehmann, Hebert, and Merson. Medal, 3d 
class, 1883. Works: Portraits (1880); St. 
Julian the Hospitaller (1883); Paiis, Peace 

JEANNE D'ARC. See Joan of Arc. 

JEANNIN, GEORGES, born in Paris; 
contemporary. Flower and fruit painter, 
pupil of Viucelet. Medal, 3d class, 1878. 
Works : Flower Store (1876) ; After the 
Rain (1877) ; Wheelbarrow with Flowers, 
Basket of Flowers (1878); Cart with Flow- 
ers, Flower StaU (1879); Shipping of Flow- 
ers (1880), Luxembourg Museum ; Chrys- 
anthemums (1880) ; Green-house Interior 
(1881); Jour de Fete (1882); Parisian Gar- 
den (1883); Gardener Girl, Autumn Gather- 
ing (1884) ; Summer Morning, Ajaple Study 

born at ChampUtte (Haute Saone), May 28, 
1826. Landscape and portrait painter, pu- 
pU at Geneva of Diday and of Calame ; Di- 
rector of Ecole des Beaux Arts at Dijon. 
Works : View of Mont Blanc (1852); Views 
in Savoy, Burgandy, Cote-d'Or, etc. (1857- 
67); Return of the Herd (1868); Portraits 
of Himself and Son (1872); Views of Dijon 
Castle (3), Dijon Museum ; Lake d'Annecy, 
Nancy Museum. — BeUier, i. 826. 

at Geneva ; contemporary. Landscape, 
genre, and portrait painter, son and pupil 
of Pierre Alexandre Jeanniot. Medal, 3d 
class, 1884. Works r Hoar-frost in Park of 
Dijon (1875); Stream in do.. Banks of the 
Seine near Troyes (1876) ; Summer near 
Toul (1878); Passing the Bridge (1879); 
Derniers Tambours (1881) ; Pupil Corpo- 
rals, Haulers (1883); Flankers (1884); Les 
Pays (1885). 

at Boulogne-sur-Mer, May 10, 1810, died in 
the Castle of Comborn in Correze, April 10, 
1877. Genre and history painter, pupil of 
Sigalon and Souchon. When appointed by 
Ledru Rollin durinj? the Revolution of 1848 


director-general of the national museums, 
lie opened new galleries and classified pict- 
ures according to schools at the Louvre, and 
reorganized many provincial museums. In 
1863 he became director of the Marseilles 
Museum. Medals : 2d class, 1833 ; L. of 
Honour, 1855 ; CoiTesponding Member of 
Institute, 1863. Works: Little Patriots 
(1830), Caen Museum ; Smugglers Halting, 
Workmen on a Strike (1833); Peasants of 
Limousin (1834); Blacksmiths of Corr^ze 
(1836) ; Criminals collecting Upas Poison 
(1840); Gypsies (1846); Abandoned Har- 
bour of Ambleteuse (1850), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Plight into Egypt, Due de Luynes ; 
Harbour of Andresselles, Establishing the 
Telegraph at Cape Gris-Nez (1850); Fisher- 
men at the Perry, Susanna (1852); View of 
Cape Gris-Nez (1853), Boulogne Museum ; 
Dead Low Tide (1853), Douai Museum ; 
Camp of Equihem (1855), Chartres Muse- 
um ; Camp of Ambleteuse (1855), Aix Mu- 
seum ; Tintoretto and his Daughter in the 
Campagna, Era Bartolommeo, Eaphael and 
the Fomarina, Sea-Birds, Long Absence 
(1857); Phoenician and Slave (1859); Banks 
of the Seine (1859); Arras Museum ; Valley 
of Posavera, Eeturn of the Fishermen, Bat- 
tle of Solferino, Zouaves by the Sea (bought 
by State), French Soldiers at Solferino, 
French Soldiers near Genoa (1861) ; Old 
Willows of Hy^res, Baths of Bonnettes 
(1863); Marseilles Lighthouse (1864), Notre 
Dame de la Garde and the Castle of If 
(1865); Pond of Belmont (1868); Cape Cou- 
ronne (1869); Stone Terrace at Comborn 
(1870) ; Notre Dame des Anges, Cape Gris- 
Nez (1874); Waiting, Stubble, Eiver Dur- 
ance (1875) ; From Genoa to Marseilles 
(1876); View in the Limousin, Lille Mu- 
seum ; Portrait of Mirabeau, Versailles Mu- 
seum.— L'Art (1877), vi. 189; (1878), ix. 
96 ; Bellier, i. 827 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1865), 
xix. 24, 535 ; Larousse. 

JEAUEAT, ISTIENNE, bom in Paris, 
Feb. 8, 1699, died in Versailles, Dec. 14, 
1789. French school. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Vleughels, whom he accompanied to 

Eome when that painter was appointed di- 
rector of the French Academy in that city 
(1724). On his re- 
turn to France, 
he was elected a 
member of the 
Academy, and 
produced pictures 
of great merit. 
Many of his works 
have been en- 
graved. Member 
Academy 17 33; 
professor, 1743 ; 
rector, 1765 ; chancellor, 1781 ; custodian 
of the Versailles Gallery. Works : Diana 
and Actseon, Esau and Jacob (1737) ; Di- 
ana Eesting (1738) ; Departure of Achilles 
(1738), Cambrai Museum ; Boy Playing with 
Syringe (1739); Daphnis and Chloii (1741); 
Seamstress, Woman in Confinement, After- 
noon, Taking Harlots to the Hospital, Paint- 
er Moving, Village Wedding, Painter's Stu- 
dio, Diogenes breaking his Bowl (1747), 
Louvre ; Achilles going to avenge Patroolus, 
Two Savoyards, Woman dressing Salad 
(1753); An Arrest (1755); Lemon Trees of 
Javotte (1763); Wine-Press in Burgundy, 
Peasant Women keeping a Vigil (1769); 
Cook returning from Market, Besan9on Mu- 
seum ; Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter, 
Kitchen Interior, Van- 
dy ck (attrib. ), Male 
Portrait (attrib.), Or- 
leans Museum ; Famil- 
iar Scene (1774), Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg. 
— Bellier, i. 828 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole frangaise ; 
Wurzbach, Fr. Maler des xviii. Jahrh., 32 ; 

JEBENS, ADOLPH, born at Elbing, 
West-Prussia, March 19, 1819. Portrait 
painter, pupil of Berlin Academy, and, 1836- 
39, in Paris of Delaroche ; afterward visited 
Paris again and Italy. In 1845-63 he 
painted in St. Petersburg large military 
portraits for the Czars Nicholas and Alexan- 
der ; since 1863 in Berlin. Member of St. 


Petersburg Academy.— Leixner, D. mod. K., 
i. 23 ; Midler, 281. 

JEHAlSf DE PARIS. See Ferreal. 


born at Leeuwarden, Sept. 24, 1770, died at 
Amsterdam, Oct. 6, 1836. Landscape and 
city views painter, son and pupil of Rienk 
Jelgerhuis (1729-1806), and pupil of Pieter 
Barbiers, the younger ; became an actor in 
1806. Works : Gate of Leyden at Amster- 
dam (1813); Publisher's Warehouse, ib. 
(1820); View of Delft (1826); Little Fish- 
Market at Amsterdam (1828), Amsterdam 
Museum. — Immerzeel, ii. 84 ; Ki-amm, iii. 

JENA, BATTLE OF, Horace Vernet, Ver- 
sailles Museum. Battle fought Oct. 14, 
1806. In centre. Napoleon, Berthier, Murat ; 
at right, the Imperial Guard. The Em- 
peror, observing that his wings were men- 
aced by cavalry, galloped forward to give 
orders. Some of the Imperial Guard, im- 
patient of inaction, cried out, "En avant ! " 
Napoleon, hearing the words, rebuked them, 
saying : " It must be some beardless young 
man who thus seeks to prejudge my actions. 
Let him wait until he has commanded in 
thirty battles before he pretends to give me 
advice." Painted in 1836. Engraved by 
Friley. — Gal. de Versailles, iv. No. 812. 

don in 1811, died there in 1885. Genre 
painter, son and pupil of the engraver D. 
Jenkins ; joined the new society of painters 
in water colours in 1842, seceded from it 
and became in 1850 an associate and in 1851 
a member of the older society, of which he 
was the secretary in 1854-64. Works : Go- 
ing with the Stream ; Going against the 
Stream ; Both Sides of the Channel ; Happy 
Time ; Sleeping Companions ; Love, Royal 
Collection, London ; Shrimpers, South Ken- 
sington Museum, ib. 

ons ; contemporary. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of the ficole des Beaux Arts, 
at Lyons, of FeUx Clement, Gustave Bou- 

langer, and Jules Lefebvre. Medal, 3d class, 
1883. Works; Portraits (1878-82); Novem- 
ber (1883); Cyane (1884); Judith meditat- 
ing DeHvery of Bethulia (1885). 

at Bredsted, Schleswig, June 26, 1792, died 
at Copenhagen, July 13, 1870. Portrait 
painter, pupil of Copenhagen Academy, 
where he won a medal in 1814, studied at 
Rome and Venice in 1818, and in the year 
following copied at Dresden Raphael's Ma- 
donna and Titian's Venus. Member of Co- 
penhagen Academy in 1824 ; Professor in 
1835. Works ; Portrait of Artist's Mother; 
Male Portrait, Gallery, Copenhagen ; Por- 
trait of Painter Fritzsch, Thorvaldsen Mu- 
seum, ib. — Weilbach, 322. 

Gjentofte, Copenhagen, March 8, 1800, died 
there, March 26, 1856. Flower and still- 
life painter, pupO. of Copenhagen Academy 
under Fritzsch, where he won medals in 
1817 and 1818, went in 1822 to Paris, and 
thence to Sevres, where he studied porcelain 
painting ; visited Rome and Naples. Mem- 
ber of Copenhagen Academy in 1825. He 
also painted kitchen-pieces. Works : Dead 
Game (1847); Fruits and Flowers (2), Co- 
penhagen Gallery ; Flowers and Blossoms, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg. — Weilbach, 326. 

Schwerin, June 13, 1815. Architecture 
painter, pupil of BerUn Academy under 
Gropius and Kraus; then studied architect- 
ure for three years in Munich ; taught 
drawing at the court of Mecklenburg ; visit- 
ed Italy in 1855. Works : Cloister in Mon- 
astery of Steingaden (1846), View in Stifts- 
kii-che at Quedlinburg (1847), Magdeburg 
Cathedral, Interior of Schwerin Cathedral 
(1878), Grand Ducal Palace at Schwerin 
(1881), Schwerin Gallery ; Interior of Church 
in Schwerin Palace ; Cloister by Torchlight ; 
do. by Moonlight ; View near Gerolstein ; 
Beilstein on the Moselle ; Courtyard of Hei- 
delberg Castle in Winter ; Corridor of City 
Hall in Liibeck.— MiiUer, 282. 

JEREMIAH, Washington Allston, Yale 



College Gallery ; canvas, H. 7 ft. x 6 ft. 
Jeremiah, full-length, seated in the court of 
the prison, dictating his prophecy of the fall of 
Jerusalem to Baruch the Scribe, -who sits at 
his feet (Jer. i. 17, 18). Painted about 1820; 

Jeremiah, Washington Allston, Yale College Gallery. 

belonged to Miss Gibbs, of Newport, of 
whom bought for $7,000 by Professor Morse 
and presented to Yale College. 

By Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Eome ; 
fresco on ceiling. 

SALEM, Eduard Bendemann, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; canvas, H. 13 ft. 7 in. x 16 ft. 
9 in. Signed and dated, Dilsseldorf, 1872. 
In the foreground the prophet in speechless 
grief sitting among the ruins ; at his side, 
Baruch, kneeling in prayer ; at right, a group 
of despairing women and children from 
whom a Babylonian warrior has snatched a 
bag ; in the middle, Nebuchadnezzar in royal 
attire upon his chariot accompanied by fe- 
male satellites, preceded by the army laden 
with booty ; behind him, the blind king 
Zedekiah, feeling his way with his staff, sur- 
rounded by women and followed by priests 
with the ark of the covenant ; in the back- 

ground, left, the smoking ruins of the tem- 
ple.— Jordan (1885), i. 11. 

LAJ), born in Copenhagen, Aug. 17, 1852, 
died in Eome, March 6, 1878. Landscape 
painter, son of the sculptor Jens Adolf and 
of Elizabeth Jerichau ; pupil of his mother, 
then in Eome of Bunouville, but studied 
chiefly from nature, travelling in Switzer- 
land, Greece, Turkey, and Asia Minor. 
Works : Ponte Molle, View from Velletri 
(1870); Coast of Sorrento ; Caravan of Sar- 
des, Copenhagen Gallery ; The Acropolis at 
Athens, Greek Convent on Isle of Paros 
(1874).— Ulustr. Tidende (1878), No. 971 ; 
Weilbach, 330 ; Sigurd MuUer, 178. 
born in Warsaw, Nov. 
21, 1819, died in Co- 
penhagen, July 11, 
1881. Genre painter, 
pupil in Dilsseldorf of 
Karl Sohn and Stilke ; 
went in 1845 to Eome, 
where she married 
the Danish sculptor 
Jerichau, whom she 
accompanied to Co- 
penhagen. In 1852 she visited England, 
France, and Eussia, and afterwards Eome, 
Greece, Constantinople, Asia Minor, and 
Egypt. Member of Copenhagen Academy, 
1861. Works : Young Bride going to Church 
(1840), Polish Mother with Children leaving 
their Destroyed Home (1844), Eaczynski 
Gallery, BerUn ; Polish Peasant Family re- 
turning to Euins of Burnt House (1844), 
Lord Lansdowne, London ; Girls at the 
Well in Ariccia (1845); Portrait of her Hus- 
band (1846), Copenhagen Gallery ; Peasant 
Girl reading Bible, Girl playing with Sheep, 
Carnival Scenes, Home Devotion, Allegory 
of Denmark (1847); Stranded ; Orphans ; 
Finis Polonise ; Danish Fisherman ; Ice- 
landic Girl (1852), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Wounded Soldier niu'sed by his Betrothed 
(1866), Copenhagen Gallery ; Portraits of 
the Brothers Grimm ; Hans Christian An- 


dei-sen reading bis Fairy Tales to a Child ; 
Shipwrecked ou Coast of Jutland ; Italian 
Fishermen on Mediterranean ; Hai-em in 
Constantinople (1875) ; Christian Martyrs ui 
Catacombs at Rome. — Art Journal (1860), 
168 ; (1871), 165 ; Blustr. Zeitg. (1881), ii. 
103; Kunst-Chi-onik, xvii. 160 ; Sigurd Miil- 
ler, 168 ; W. Midler, Ddsseldf. K. 313 ; Weil- 
bach, 334 ; Wiegmann, 268. 

JERICHO, BLIND MEN OP ^latt. sx.), 
Nicolas Foussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 11 
in. X 5 ft. 9 in. At right, Christ, coming out of 
Jericho with Peter, James, and John, touches 
the eyes of one of the blind 
men kneehng before him ; 
at Jesus's right, several 
men looking on in aston- 
ishment, and further on, 
a woman with a child in 
her arms ; in back-ground, 
fine buildings, behind 
which rises a wooded moun- 
tain. Painted in 1651 ; 
Collection of Louis XTV". 
Engraved by L. Audran ; 
G. Chasteau ; E. Picart ; 
F. Gamier ; ]\Iecon. — Cat. 
Louvre ; FiUiol, x. PI. C55. 

born in Stockholm, Sept. 
16, 1826. Genre painter, 
pupil of Stockholm Acad- 
emy. Li 1851 studied and settled in Diis- 
seldorf. After painting scenes from Swed- 
ish history, took up genre, especially village 
scenes, which he represents in a very realis- 
tic manner and with great humour. Paints 
also excellent stdl-life pieces. Works : Do- 
mestic Happiness, The Clai-inettist, The 
Broken Pipe, Stockholm Museum ; Kitchen 

born at Oldenburg, Jan. 24, 1846. History, 
landscape, and portrait painter, son of Just 
Ulrik Jerndorflf (1806-47, landscape and 
portrait painter, court-painter at Oldenburg), 
pupil of his uncle Just Holm (bom in 1815), 
of Christian Hetsch, of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy, and of Skovgaard ; visited Germany, 
Tj-rol, and Yeuice in 1875, tlien went to 
Rome, and in 1878 to Paris. After his re- 
turn he was entrusted with the restoration 
of Constantin Hansen's frescos in the Uni- 
vei-sity of Copenhagen. Medal, 1871. Hou- 

Blind Men of Jericho, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre. 

ourable mention, Paris, 1S78. Works : 
Street in Country Town (1866) ; Episode in 
Exodus of Israelites (1871) ; Cain before 
the Lord after the Death of Abel (1871), 
Aarhus ^Museum ; Christ and the Childi-en 
(1873); Yiew of Roskilde Fjord, Shore of a 
Creek (1S74) ; The Deluge (1877) ; Simset 
in Venice (1879) ; Christ among the Roman 
Interior (1870) ; Preparations for the Fes- Soldiers (1880) ; Summer Landscape (1881) ; 

tival (1874) ; Pereuasion ; Letter- Writer ; 
Fii-st Walk to School ; Bear at the Fan- ; 
Grandfather as Nurse ; Hai-vest in West- 
phalia ; Sunday Afternoon ; Council Meet- 
ing, Market-Day in Diisseldorf. His son 

Triptych with Christ before the High Priest 
(1883).— Sigurd Miiller, 180. 

JEROi\IE, ST., Lorenzo Lotto, Louvi-e ; 
wood, H 1 ft. 11 in. X 1 ft. 4 in. ; signed, 
dated 1500. The Saint, kneehng in arockv 

Olaf, a talented landscape painter, received landscape, strikes his bi'east with one hand 
medals in London in 1878-79. — Miiller, 28:?. | while holding a cracifix in the other; at 



left, a cavern, a hermit, and a lion ; in dis- 
tance, a horseman at foot of a mountain. 
Acquired in 1857 for 995 francs at Maret 
sale. — Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

By Tintoretto, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. C in. X 3 ft. 2 in. St. Jerome, read- 
ing. The Saint, seated in a cavern, reads a 
book placed on his knee, and presses a cru- 

Communion of St. Jerome, Agostino Carracci, Bologna Gallery. 

cifix to his bosom. A lion crouches at his 
feet ; to left, glimpse of a landscape. 

By Titian, Brera, Milan ; wood, arched at 
top, H. 7 ft. 4 in. x4 ft. 4 in.; signed. St. 
Jerome, bearded and bald, with the lion 
on the right. Painted in 1563 for S. M. 
Nuova, Venice. Replica, made for Philip 
n., vfifh lion on the left, in the Escorial. 
Small copy of original, of 17th centuiy, 
in Accademia di S. Luca, Rome. — Ridolfi, 

Maravigli, i. 267; C. & C, Titian, ii. 

By Titian, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 8 in. 
X 3 ft. 4 in. The Saint, old and bearded, 
kneeling before a crucifix fastened to the 
trunk of a tree. Painted probably about 
1531. Replica, painted for Marquis of Man- 
tua (1531), has disappeared. Many copies, 
with changes. Collection of 
Louis XIV.— Vasari, ed. Mil., 
vii. 440 ; C. & C, Titian, i. 348, 
351 ; Landon, Musee, 2d Col., 
ii. PI. 5. 

By Leonardo da Vinci, Vati- 
can, Rome ; wood, H. 8 ft. 4 in. 
X 2 ft. 5 in. The Saint, kneel- 
ing in a grotto, with the lion 
by his side. Sketch in grisaille ; 
about 1480-83. Belonged to 
Cardinal Fesch, who had only 
the head of the Saint, which 
had been cut out of the panel ; 
but he found the rest at a deal- 
er's in Rome, and joined the 
parts. Preparatory drawings 
for this picture in Windsor Col- 
lection. — Richter, Leonardo, 10 ; 
Clement, 341 ; Burckhardt, 627. 
ION OP, Agostino Garracci, 
Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 10 
ft. 9 in. X 6 ft. 5 in. The dying 
St. Jerome, kneeling, under a 
Corinthian portico, receives his 
last communion in the presence 
of several priests and other spec- 
tators. Painted for Church of 
the Certosini, Bologna ; carried 
to Paris in 1796 ; returned in 1815. Agos- 
tino's masterpiece, and one of the best pic- 
tm-es in Bologna. Engraved by Fr. Paria ; 
G. Trabalesi ; G. Guadagnini. — Lanzi, iii. 
76 ; Landon, Musee, ii. PI. 24 ; Pinac. di 
Bologna, PI. 58. 

By Domenichino, Vatican, Rome ; signed, 
dated 1G14. The dying Saint, half nude, 
sustained by three men, at the foot of an 
altar, in a building adorned with Corinthian 



columns and pierced by an arcade opening | By Parmigianino, National Gallery, Lon- 
on a landscape, attempts to join his trem- don ; wood, H. 11 ft. 6 in. x4 ft. 11 in. 
bling hands to receive the Host which St. | The Virgin and Child in glory ; below, St. 
Ephraim of Syria extends to him on a gold- \ John Baptist pointing upwards, as announc- 
en patine ; the deacon, in a dalmatica, holds j ing Christ, and St. Jerome sleeping. Painted 
the chalice, and in front, a young clerk | at Rome in 1527, by order of Maria Bufo- 
kneels with a closed book in his 
hands ; in background, St. Paul- 
ina, kneeling, kisses the hand of 
the Saint, while two other per- 
sons, one wearing a turban, stand 
behind ; in foreground, left, the 
lion, the Saint's faithful compan- 
ion, Mes with his head on his 
paws ; above, a group of four 
angels. Painted for 50 Eoman 
crowns for a priest, who present- 
ed it to the Church of S. Gi- 
rolamo deUa Carita. It excited 
violent criticism, Guido, Lan- 
franco, and the ChevaHer d'Ar- 
pino accusing Domenichino of 
having copied the picture of 
Agostino Carracci. Poussin de- 
clared it one of thethree best pic- 
tures in Eome, ranking it with E 
Raphael's Transfiguration and 
Volterra's Descent from the 
Cross. Taken to Paris (1729) ; 
returned in 1815. Engraved by 
P. Perrier ; Cesare Testa ; J. 
Frey (1729) ; B. Farjat (1702) ; 
Alex. Tardieu ; Chataigner, and 
others. — Vaticano descritto, L 
PI. 23 ; Larousse, iv. 755 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ficole bolonaise; Landon, 
tEuvres ; FUhol, viL PI. 433. 

Guercino, Louvre ; copper, H. 1 
ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 7 in. St. Jerome, 
lying on a mat in a grotto, 
awakes in terror on hearing the sound of 
the last trump, which is blown by an angeL 
Near him are two books and a skull. Be- 
longed to Comte de Brienne in 1662 ; bought 
in 1685 for Louis XIV. Engraved by Nico- 
let ; P. Chauveau ; PasquaUni. — ViUot, Cat. 

Louvre ; Musee franjais ; Pilhol, x. PL 712, 

Communion of St. Jerome, Domenichino, Vatican, Rome. 

Una, for S. Salvatore del Lauro, in Citta di 
Castello. Probably the picture which so 
engrossed the j)ainter that he knew nothing 
of the sack of Rome by the troops of the 
Constable de Bourbon till some soldiers 
burst into his room. It was sold after the 
earthquake of 1790 to M. Durno ; afterward 



to Mr. Hart Davis for £6,000, and finally 
presented to National Gallery. Engraved 
by G. Bonassone. — Waagen, Treasures, i. 
330 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 224 ; Eichter, 64. 

JEEKIGH, E., born in Flanders, 16th 
century. History and portrait painter, 
studied in Antwerp, and spent the greater 
part of his life in Cologne, where he stood 
in high repute, and where Johann von Achen 
was apprenticed to him in 1568. Work, 
Annunciation (1601), Cologne Museum. — 
Merlo, Nachrichten, 211 ; Van Mander, ii. 

JEESEY ULY, Sir John Everett Ifillais, 
H. Martyn Kennard, Esq., England; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 9 in. Portrait of Mrs. 
Langtry, three-quarters length, three-quar- 
ters view to left, in a black silk dress. Eoyal 
Academy, 1878. Engraved by T. O. Bar- 

Wilhelm von Kaulbach, New Museum, Ber- 
lin ; mural painting, staircase hall. Above 
the burning Temple appear in the clouds 
the prophets of the Old Testament, while 
Titus enters the destroyed city ; the High 
Priest, standing among the flying multi- 
tude, kills himself ; at left, demons flogging 
the Wandering Jew ; at right, a congrega- 
tion of Christians peacefully leaving the 

JEEVAS, CHAELES, born in Ireland 
about 1675, died in London, Nov. 2, 1739. 
Pupil of Sir Godfrey KneUer, and a pleasing 
painter in the vigorous style of the school 
to which he belonged. A Dr. Clark, for 
whom he copied Eajshael's Cartoons in lit- 
tle, sent him to France and Italy to study 
art. After his return he married a rich 
widow, frequented the society of Pope and 
Addison, and filled the office of court-painter 
to George I. and George H. He paid a sec- 
ond visit to Italy the year before his death. 
His portraits of Queen Caroline, Pope, and 
Martha Blount, the Duchess of Queensbury, 
and Dean Swift, are in the National Portrait 
Gallery. There is a second portrait of Pope 
by him at Lansdowne House, and one of 

Newton at the Eoyal Society. — W. B. S. 
Taylor, Fine Arts in Great Britain and Ire- 
land ; Eedgrave. 

JESUS, HISTOEY OF, Sistine Chapel, 
Vatican ; a series of frescoes on the right 
wall, each having a typical reference to a 
corresponding picture opposite, from the 
life of Moses. 1. Baptism of Christ, by Pie- 
tro Perugino. 2. The Temptation, or Christ 
overcoming the Power of Satan, by Sandro 
Botticelli. 3. Calling of the Apostles from 
the Lake of Gennesareth, byDomenico Ghir- 
landajo. 4. Christ preaching on the Mount, 
by Cosimo Eosselli. 5. Christ's Charge to 
Peter, by Pietro Perugino. 6. Last Sup- 
per, by Cosimo Eosselli. 7. Eesurrection, 
by Domenico Ghirlandajo. — Kugler (East- 
lake), i. 230. 

By Eaphael. See Baphael's Bible. 

JESUS, SLEEP OF, Annibale C'arracci, 
Louvre ; canvas, H. 1 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. 
The Virgin sustains Jesus, who is sleeping 
upon a table covered with a cloth, and 
makes a sign to St. John, who is about to 
touch the Child, not to disturb him. Col- 
lection of Louis XTV. Engraved by E. Pi- 
cart (1681) ; Poilly ; Eeindel ; Eichomme ; 
Hainzelmann. — Musce royal, i. ; Filhol, iv. 
PI. 242 ; Landon, Musee, ii. PI. 22. 

By Bernardino Luini, Louvre ; wood, H. 
3 ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. 4 in. The Virgin, stand- 
ing, with Jesus asleep in her arms ; at left, 
an angel offering a cloth to cover him ; be- 
hind, two other angels, one holding a roll, 
the other a cushion. Collection of Louis 
XTV. Attributed formerly to Solario and 
to school of Leonardo da Vinci. — Villot, Cat. 

JETTEL, EUGEN, born at Johnsdorf, 
Moravia, March 20, 1845. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil in Vienna of Albert Zimmermann ; 
travelled in France, Italy, and Hungary, and 
has for some years worked in Paris under 
the influence of the modem French school. 
Gold medal in Munich (1869). Works: 
Wood Landscape in the Eamsau ; Hintersee 
(1869), Vienna Academy ; Mountain Forest, 
View near Dieppe (1870) ; Herd by the 







1 2 














Water, Views in Bavaria, At Dieppe, Eoad 
in Holland (1875); Birch Trees in Holland, 
Plateau de Belle-Croix (1877) ; Swamp in 
North Holland, Bathers on Eiver-Bank 
(1878); Turf-Pit in Holland (1879); Marshes 
in Holland (1881); Canal and Eiver Views 
(3, 1884).— MiUler, 283 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
viii. (Mittheilungen, i. 89). 

JEWISH BEIDE (Fiancee Juive), Rem- 
brandt, Amsterdam Museum ; canvas, H. 8 
ft. 10 in. X 5 ft. 4 in. ; signed. A man, in 
yellow dress and mantle, and black hat, 
stands with his left hand 
on the shoulder of a woman 
dressed in red, with jewels, 
pearls, and lace on her 
arms and neck Nothing 
to justify calling it Jew- 
ish ; surmised to be por- 
traits of Eembrandt and 
his wife. Painted about 
1660 ; in his last manner. 
De Heer Vaillant Collec- 
tion, Amsterdam (1825), 
5,000 florins. — Van der 
Hoop Cat. ; Mollett, Eem- 
brandt, 73 ; Vosmaer, 300, 
491; Smith, vii. 144. 

in Seville, Spain, June 21, 
1845. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Eduardo Cano ; re- 
moved in 1875 to Paris. 
Works : Drummers of the Eepublic (1877); 
A Patio in Seville (1878); Music at the Inn 
(1879) ; Anteroom of a Minister in 18th 
Century (1880); Young Girls to Marry 
(1881); Master's Visit (1882); Expecting 
the Cardinal (1882) ; Competition on the 
Violin, At Tea (1888); Chorus Eehearsal 
(1884); Old Bachelor (1885).— La Ilustra- 
cion (1880), ii. 251 ; (1882), ii. 251 ; (1883), 
ii. 130. 

JIMENEZ t AEANDA, JOSfi, born in 
Seville, Spain, in 1832. Genre painter, 
brother of above, pupil of Seville fine arts 
school ; was in Eome from 1872 to 1875, 
when he established himself in Seville. 

Medal, 2d class, Munich, 1883. Works: 
Boutique of Figaro (1875), W. T. Walters, 
Baltimore ; The Morning Eosary ; Sermon 
in Courtyard of Seville Cathedral (1879); 
Emotions of a Cogida, Accident at Bull- 
fight, Book-Lovers (1880); Botanist, An Af- 
ternoon at Seville (1881) ; Old Castilian ; 
Eeading the Newspaper (1882) ; Consulta- 
tion at the Lawyer's, Invalids of the First 
Eepublic, Orchestra Eehearsal of an Anthem 
(1884); News from Scene of War (1885).— 
La Eustracion (1880), ii. 83 ; (1881), i. 91, 

Sleep of Jesus, Annibale CarraccI, Louvre, 

267 ; (1882), i. 6, 371 ; ,(1884), ii. 98, 179, 
299, 315 ; (1885), ii. 202 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
xix. 317. 

EEICO, born in Spain ; contemporary. 
Animal painter, especially of poultry, which 
he represents humourously. Works : Eagle 
and Beetle, Poultry Yard, Will He Come 
In? (1881) ; Attack and Defense (1882) ; 
General Dispersion (1883) ; Judgment of 
Paris, Mother and Children (1884).— La II- 
ustracion (1881), ii. 82; (1882), ii. 66; (1888), 
ii. 362 ; (1884), ii. 355. 

JOAN OF AEC, Baslien-lieTpage, Erwin 
Davis, New York. The heroine, represent- 



ed as a iieasant girl, standing under the 
trees, gazing upward with a rapt expression ; 
behind, in the clouds, are spectral figures 
illustrating different phases of her career. 
Never engraved. 

By Sir John Everett Millais, Bart., W. C. 
Quilter, Esq., M.P. ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 7 in. x 
2 ft. Eepresented at the crisis of her fate, 
clad in armour, and kneeling. Eoyal Acad- 
emy, 1865. 

CHAELES Vn., Pierre Charles Comte, 
Eeims Museum. As the king, crowned and 
with his sceptre, descends the steps of the 
altar, in the midst of the cardinals, bishops, 
and dignitaries of the realm, Joan, wearing 
a cuirass and a white mantle, and bearing 
the Oriflamme, kneels to him. Salon, 1861 ; 
Universal Exposition, 1867. — Larousse, vi. 

By Dominique Ingres, Versailles Museum. 
Standing on the steps of the altar of the 
Cathedral of Eeims, in full armour, bearing 
in one hand the Oriflamme and pointing 
with the other toward the altar ; behind her 
stands Doloy, her esquire, Paquerel, her 
confessor, and some pages. The corona- 
tion scene is out of sight of the spectator. 
Painted in 1854 — Larousse, vi. 114 

roche, Duke of Padua ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 7 in. 
X 6 ft. 10 in. Joan, lying upon a pallet in 
a prison cell, with chains on her wrists and 
her hands clasped, is interrogated by the 
Bishop of Winchester, seated in an arm- 
chair ; behind him a clerk, standing, records 
her answers in a book. Salon, 1824. En- 
graved by Eeynolds. — Annales du Musee 
(1824), i. PI. 32 ; Larousse, vi. 114. 

JOANES, VICENTE, born in Fuente de 
la Higuera, Valencia, in 1523-24^ died in 
Bocairente, Dec. 21, 1579. History and 
portrait painter ; real name Vicente Juan 
Macip ; called also Juan de Juanes. Studied 
in Eome, probably imder the disciples of 
Eaphael, of whose style he was one of the 
ablest imitators. Painted chiefly religious 
compositions, but was famous for his por- 

traits. On his return from Italy he opened 
a school at Valencia, where he spent most 
of his life. Works : Life of St. Stephen (5 
pictures). Last Supper, Visitation, Martyr- 
dom of St. Agnes, Coronation of the Virgin, 
Ecce Homo, Saviour of the World, Melchis- 
edec, Aaron as High Priest, Christ bearing 
his Cross, Christ with the Host, Descent 
from the Cross, Christ in the Garden, por- 
trait of Don Luis de Castelvi, Madrid Muse- 

Joan of Arc in Prison, Paul Delaroche, Duke of Padua. 

um ; Baptism of Christ, Conversion of St. 
Paul, St. Thomas of Villanueva, Cathedral, 
Valencia ; Conception, Jesuits' Church, ib. ; 
Assumption, Museum, ib. ; Visitation of 
Mary, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Death of the Vir- 
gin, Dresden Gallery ; St. Anna, St. Domi- 
nic, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Stirling, i. 
354 ; Viardot, Peintres de I'Espagne, 88 ; 
Washburn, 89 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole espagnole. 
JOANNA OF AEAGON, portrait, Raph- 
ael, Louvre ; wood, transferred to canvas, 
H. 4 ft. X 3 ft. 3 in. Daughter of Ferdinand 
of Aragon, Duke of Montalto, and grand- 
daughter of Ferdinand I., King of Naples, 
married to Ascanio Colonna, Prince of Tag- 
liacozzo ; one of the most famous wits and 
beauties of the sixteenth century. Seated 



in a magnificent saloon, in a red velvet 
dress, with sleeves of yellow silk and under- 
sleeves of gauze, with her long hair confined 
by a red velvet cap ornamented with pearls 
and precious stones ; in background, at left, 
a woman leans over a balustrade between 
two columns ; in distance, a garden. Painted 
about 1518 for Cai-dinal da Bihhiena, who 
presented it to Francis I. when papal legate 
to France (1518-19). According to Vasari, 
the head only is by Eaphael, the remainder 
by Giulio Eomano. Copies in Warwick 
Castle ; Collection of Baron Speck, Lutsch- 
ena, near Leipsic ; Berlin Museum, by Sas- 

literated. 5. Job visited by his friends. 
6. Job's return to prosperity. Attributed 
by Vasari to Giotto, but proved by the 
records of the Campo Santo to have been 
executed by Francesco da Volterra, who be- 
gan them in 1370.— Vasari, ed. Mil., i. 380 ; 
C. & C, Italy, i. 392 ; Kugler (Eastlake), i. 
154 ; Larousse, ix. 992. 

F£LIX, born at Carhaix (Finistere), July 
16, 1821. Genre jjainter, pupil of Dela- 
roche, Gleyre, and of Ecole des Beaux Arts ; 
belongs to a small school of painters, called 
Neo Greeks, whose style is refined and 

i A 

Job visited by his Friends (History of Job), 

sof errato ; Palazzo Doria, Rome, by pupil of 
L. da Vinci. Engraved by J. Chereau ; R. 
Morghen ; M Leroux. — Vasari, ed. MU., v. 
525 ; Cab. Crozat, i. PL 8 ; Cat. Louvre ; 
Passavant, ii. 265 ; Musee royal, ii. ; Ger- 
hard, Johanna von Arragonien, Tiib. Kunst- 
blatt (1833), Nos. 15, 16 ; Miintz, 533 ; 
Springer, 349 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole ombrienne; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1880), xxiL 465. 

JOB, HISTORY OF, Francesco da Vol- 
terra, Campo Santo, Pisa. A series of six 
frescoes, painted in a double course at the 
west end of the south wall. 1. Job feasting 
with his friends. 2. Satan pleading before 
God for permission to torment Job. 3. 
Attack of the Sabeans and destruction of 
Job's house. 4. Unknown scene, now ob- 

-^r Jrtn^irni--- 

Francesco da Volterra, Campo Santo, Pisa. 

whose prevaUing tone of colour is quiet. 
Medals : 3d class, 1851, 1857 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1861. Works : Rest, The Coffin (1843) ; 
Marguerite in Martha's Garden (1845) ; 
Holy FamUy (1848) ; Virgin Fainting, Har- 
vest (1849), Mans Museum ; Winter, Spring- 
time, Sick Girl (1850), bought by State; 
Betrothal at Corinth (1852), Rennes Muse- 
um ; Theological Virtues, Plague at Milan, 
Death, St. BoiTomeo's Apology (1853), St. 
Severin, Paris ; Bride Dressing (1855), Lyons 
Museum ; Oaristis (1855); Jews expelled 
from Spain, Calvary, Dream (1857) ; Martha 
and Mary Magdalen at Tomb of Christ 
(1863) ; St. Francis converting the Protest- 
ants at Thonon, St. Francis helping the 
Poor, Church of St. Louis-en-l'He, Paris ; 



Conscience sustaining Duty (1865); Gentle- 
ness, Descent from Cross (1866); Bouquet 
of Eoses (1872) ; Mysteries of Bacchus 
(1873) ; The Sea (1878) ; Electra (1883) ; 
Office of Municipal Council of Paris (1885) ; 
and many portraits and decorative works. 
— BelUer, i. 830 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1862), 
xii. 202 ; (1866), xx. 366, 513 ; Larousse. 
JOCONDE, LA. See Blona Lisa. 
JODL, FERDINAND, horn in Munich in 
1805. Architecture painter, pupil of Do- 
menico Quaglio. Works : Interior of Frau- 
enkirche in Munich ; Castle Hohenschwan- 
gau, View of Maria Hilf Church, and two 
other Views in Munich (1828), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Interior of Ulm Cathedral ; 
St. Sebaldus in Nuremberg. — Muller, 284. 

JODOCUS OF GHENT. See Justus of 

JOEST, JAN, born probably at Calcar 
about 1460, died at 
Haarlem in 1519. His- 
tory painter, first in- 
structed at Calcar, 
then formed himself 
undoubtedly in the 
school of Haarlem, 
whence he seems to 
have returned to Cal- 
car in 1505, and began 
"' to paint the great al- 
tarpiece in the parish church of St. Nicho- 
las, representing, in twenty panels, the Life, 
Passion, and Triumph of Christ, containing 
216 figures, which was completed in 1508. 
This shows him to have been a skilful mas- 
ter, trained in the old school of ihe Nether- 
lands. In all probability he then returned 
to Haarlem, where he seems to have spent 
the remainder of his life, and where he was 
buried in the cathedral of St. Bavon. A 
Holy Family, attributed to him, is in the 
Brussels Museum. — Allgem. Zeitg. Oct. 28, 
1874; Forster, ii. 156; Hotho, Gesch., ii. 188; 
Kunst-Chronik, x. 74 ; Wolff, Die Nicolaip- 
farrkirche zu Calcar (Calcar, 1880), 17, 58 ; W. 
& W., ii. 492 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K.,xi. 339, 374. 
JOHANN VON KOLN, German school, 

15th centurj'. History painter, joined the 
brotherhood of Agnetenberg, near ZwoU, in 
1440 ; was an artist of much inventive power. 
Work, Adoration of Magi, Berlin Museum. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., xiv. 460 ; Merlo, Nach- 
richten, 219. 

FRED, born at Offenbach on the Main, 
March 21, 1800, died in Paris, Dec. 7, 
1837. History painter, brother and pupil 
of the engraver Charles Johannot (1788- 
1825). First known as an engraver of the 
works of Ary Scheffer and Vernet. His 
f)ictures are distinguished for their good 
colour and careful elaboration of detail. 
Gold medal, 1831. Works : Arrest of Jean 
de Crespierre (1831); Entry of Mile, de 
Montpensier into Orleans during the War of 
the Fronde, Announcement of the Victory 
of Hastenbeck (1833) ; Francis I. and Charles 
V. (1834) ; Cromwell, Mme. d'Ancre (1834); 
Henry H. and Catherine de Medicis with 
their Children, The Courier Verner bled by 
the King (1835) ; Mary Stuart leaving Scot- 
land (1836) ; St. Martin giving away Half 
of his Cloak ; Anne of Este arriving at Court 
of Charies IX. (1837) ; The Battle of Brat- 
telen, 1444 (1838), Battle of Rosebecque, 
1382 (1839), Funeral of the Victims of July 
28, 1835, Versailles Museum.— Bellier, i. 
831 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole fran9aise, iii. ; Lenor- 
mant. Beaux- Arts, i. 233 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
435 ; Nouv. biog. gen., xxvi. 785. 

JOHANNOT, TONY, born at Offenbach 
on the Main, Nov. 9, 1803, died in Paris, 
Aug. 4, 1852. History painter, brother and 
pupil of Alfred, whom he assisted in engrav- 
ing the illustrations to the works of Walter 
Scott, Cooper, and Byron. Though some- 
what weak in drawing, his first Salon pict- 
ures (1831) were attractive and solid in ex- 
ecution. Works : Woman giving Soldier a 
Drink (1831) ; Death of Duguesclin (1835); 
Battle of Fontenay (1837), Battle of Rose- 
becque (1839), Versailles Museum ; Boyhood 
of Duguesclin (1840); The Siesta, Halt, 
Louis Vn. forcing the Passage of the Me- 
ander (1841), Versailles Museum ; Louis 



Philippe giving two Gobelins Tapestries to 
Queen Victoria (1846); Happy Mother, Un- 
happy Mother, Little Poachers, Spanish 
Smugglers, Little Fishermen, Death of St. 
Paul, Fisherman's Family, River Scamander 
(1850) ; Scene of Pillage (1852).— BeUier, i. 
832 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole fran9aise ; Lenor- 
mant. Beaux- Arts, i. 233 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
435 ; Nouv. biog. generale, xxvi. 786. 

S. Giovanni Elemosinario, Venice ; canvas, 
figures life-size. St. John, bishop and pa- 
triarch of Alexandria, seated on a raised po- 
dium, gives alms to a beggar at the foot of 
the steps. Painted in 1533 in rivalry with 
Pordenone, according to Vasari. One of 
the finest works of the master's middle time 
(C. & C.).— Vasari, ed. Mil., vii. 441 ; C. & 
C, Titian, i. 379. 

JOHN BAPTIST, ST., Guercino, Capitol 
Gallery, Rome. Half-figure of the Saint, with 
one hand resting on his breast and his eyes 
raised to heaven. Fine head. — Lavice, 331. 

By Murillo, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
4 ft. X 3 ft. 3 in. St. John, about seven 
years old, wearing a red tunic and sheep- 
skin robe, seated beside a large rock, look- 
ing towards a ray of light descending from 
heaven ; his right hand is on his breast, his 
left holding a cross and a scroll, inscribed 
" Agnus Dei ;" background, rocks and trees. 
Collection of Marqu6s de la Ensenada. 
Etched by B. Maura ; lithographed by Ca- 
maron, A. Lemoine, Lafosse, A. de Belve- 
dere, L. Maurin. Repetitions : Heytesbury 
House, Wiltshire ; "Western Wood, North 
Cray, Kent ; G. Delahante, Paris. — Curtis, 
245 ; Liibke ; Madrazo, 473. 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 
7 ft. 4 in. X 4 ft. 1 in. The Saint, about 
thirty years old, partly clothed, standing 
front, with joined hands, leaning against a 
large rock ; a cross rests on his left arm ; a 
lamb stands beside him on his left. Painted 
about 1676 for high altar of church of Capu- 
chin Convent, Seville. Companion to St. 
Joseph and Infant Jesus (Seville Museum). 
—Curtis, 249. 

By Andrea del Sarlo, Palazzo Pitti, Flor- 
ence ; wood, H. 3 ft. X 2 ft. 2 in. Half- 
length, nude, with a skin about the loins; 
background, a rock ; reed cross in fore- 
ground. One of two mentioned by Vasari, 
who says that Andrea painted a St. John for 
Giovanni Maria Benintendi, who gave it to 
Duke Cosimo, and also a St. John which he 
intended to send as a propitiatory offering 
to Francis I., but afterwards sold it to Otta- 
viauo de' Medici. — Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 36. 

By Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre ; wood, H. 
2 ft. 3 in. X 1 ft. 10 in. Half-length, with 
lamb-skin about the loins ; holds a cross in 

St. John Baptist, Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre. 

left hand and points to heaven with right. 
In collection of Francis I. ; presented by 
Louis Xni. to Charles I. of England, who 
sent him in return a portrait of Erasmus by 
Holbein and a Holy Family by Titian ; 
bought, after death of Charles, for £140 by 
banker Jabach, who sold it to Louis XIV. 
Copy in the Ambrosiana, Milan, attributed 
to Salai. Engraved byBoulanger. — Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iv. 58 ; Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Cab. 
de I'Amateur, iii. 31 ; RigoUot, Hist, des 



Arts, etc., i. 248 ; Clement, 222, 376 ; Hea- 
ton, 248. 

vico Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; canvas, H. 
12 ft. 11 in. X 8 ft. 1 in. Engraved by G. 
Wagner ; G. Tomba. — Pinac. di Bologna, 
PI. 44. 

By Tintoretto, Hermitage, St. Petersburg; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. 1 in. x 8 ft. 9 in. St. Anne 
presents the child to a nurse ; in back- 
ground, St. Ehzabeth in bed is taken care 
of by an attendant woman ; to right, Zacha- 
rias, who raises his eyes to heaven. 

St. John Baptist on Jordan, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre. 

rillo, Leigh Court Collection, Somerset, Eng- 
land ; canvas, H. 2 ft. x 2 ft. 5 in. The 
bearded head in a charger, placed on a table 
covered with drapery. Etched by J. Young 
in Miles Gallery Catalogue.— Curtis, 250. 

rillo, Hospital de la Caridad, Seville ; wood, H. 
2 ft. 9 in. x 2 ft. The child St. John, stand- 
ing front, his left hand, holding a cross and 
scroll, on the back, and his right hand on 
the breast of a lamb which stands by his 
side. Painted for Hospital about 1674. 
Eugraved by A. Boilly. — Curtis, 244. 

By Murillo, National Gallery, London ; 

canvas, H. 5 ft. 5 in. x 3 ft. 7 in. About sis 
years old, in sheepskin garment, standing 
front, embracing a lamb which stands on a 
rock ; his left hand on back of lamb, fore- 
finger pointing upward ; on ground, a cross 
and a scroU ; background, a hilly landscape 
with trees. Companion to Chi-ist the Good 
Shepherd (Baron Eothschild), which see for 
history. Repetitions : Earl of Lovelace, East 
Horsley Towers, Sun-ey ; Dudley House, Lon- 
don. Copy by Tobar in S. Isidore, Seville ; 
contemporary copy in Hermitage. Engraved 
by F. Bacon, L. Stocks, A. H. Payne, J. Rog- 
ers, J. Stow, Casenave, and 
others. — Curtis, 245; Notes 
and Queries, S. 6, iv. 427 ; 
Portfolio, 1876. 

By Murillo, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 5 f t. x 3 
ft. 6 in. The child, cross 
in left hand, standing 
front, with right hand on 
lamb standing by his side. 
Engraved by J. Blaschke 
(2), P. Gleditsch; etched 
by W. Unger, Prenner. — • 
Curtis, 246 ; Gal. de Vien- 
ne ; Gemiilde Gal. in Wien. 
ON JORDAN, Lodovico 
Carracci, Bologna Gallery; 
canvas, H. 11 ft. 6 in. x 6 
ft. 8 in. St. John, in a 
wood, on the banks of the Jordan, preach- 
ing. Formerly in church of the monastery 
of the Certosa, Bologna. Engraved by G. 
"Wagner ; F. Rosaspina. — Pinac. di Bologna, 
PI. 47 ; Lanzi, iii. 70. 

By Nicolas Poumn, Louvre ; canvas, H. 3 
ft. x 4 ft. St. John, standing on the bank 
of the river, is baptising two men who kneel 
before him ; at one side, a woman, kneeling, 
presents her infant ; at the other, men remov- 
ing their garments ; further back, three old 
men and a young man on horseback looking 
on ; on the other side of the river, a bark ; 
in background, mountains. Painted in 1640 
for Chevalier Cassiano del Pozzo, whence 


passed to Collection of Andre le Notre, and 
finally to Louis XIV. Engraved by G. Au- 
dran. Poussin painted this subject a second 
time in 1648. — Landon, Musee, iii. 37 ; Ke- 
veil, xi. 791. 

Dolci, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, oval, 
H. 1 ft. 4 in. X 1 ft. 10 in. The infant St. 
John asleep, with the reed cross beside him ; 
behind him, St. Elizabeth in prayer, and St. 
Zacharias reading ; above, left, three vpinged 
cherubs' heads. Painted for the Grand 
Duchess Vittoria della Eovere ; carried to 
Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815. Many 
copies. Engraved by L. MarteUi ; Lang- 
lois.— Gal. du Pal. Pitti, ii. PI. 43 ; Pilhol, 
iv. PI. 266 ; Landon, Musee, xvi. PL 64. 

NESS, Guido Eeni, Dulwich GaUery, Eng- 
land ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 2 in. Life- 
size figure, nearly nude, sitting on a rock, 
with gray-coloured drapery about the hips ; 
right arm raised, left band holding a cross 
of reeds. In distance a group of eight fig- 
ures ; a wood in the background ; cloudy 
sky. Bought by M. Desenfans from Mr. A. 
Wilson for 1,000 guineas. Engraved by K 
Morghen (?). One of three pictures by 
Guido, mentioned by Malvasia, of the same 
subject. — Malvasia, Felsina Pittrice, iv. 31, 
90 ; Leslie, Constable's Life and Letters, i. 
107 ; Dulwich Cat., 129. 

By Raphael, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 5 in. 
X 4 ft. 7 in. A young man, nearly nude, 
crowned with leaves, sitting astride of the 
trunk of a tree, holding a scroll in one hand 
and pointing with the other to the reed cross. 
This picture, which had been long buried in 
the Magasins du Louvre, and had suffered 
gi-eatly, was placed in the gallery under 
Napoleon HI. Engraved by S. Vallee — Vil- 
lot. Cat. Louvre ; Cab. Crozat, i. PI. 14. 

By Raphael, Ufifizi, Florence ; canvas, H. 
5 ft. 9 in. X 5 ft. A youth, nude, with a 
panther-skin about his loins, seated fronting 
the spectator, pointing to a cross erected 
near him ; background, a desert landscape. 
Painted for Cardinal Colonna, who gave it 

to his physician Jacopo da Carpi ; in Va^ 
sari's time it was in possession of Francesco 
Benintendi ; passed to XJftizi before 1589. 
Original sketch in Uffizi. Copy, formerly 
in Orleans CoUection, sold to Lord Berwick 
for £1,500, now at Tintern Abbey, near 
Chepstow, England. Others in Bologna, 
Darmstadt, and Berlin. Engraved by Ber- 
vic, Biondi, Gutenberg, Leperier, and oth- 

"'' "^>0^^^ 

St. John Baptist in Wilderness, Raphael, Uffizi, Florence. 

ers. — Vasari, Ed. Mil., iv. 370 ; Passavant, 
i. 258 ; ii. 287 ; Molini, Gal. di Firenze, i. 
1 ; Kugier (Eastlake), ii. 461 ; Cab. Crozat, 
i. PI. 19. 

By Titian, Venice Academy ; canvas, H. 6 
ft. 6 in. X 4 ft. 4 in. ; signed. St. John Bap- 
tist alone at the foot of a rock, where the 
lamb is asleep. Painted before 1557 for S. 
M. Maggiore, Venice. Replica, with varia- 
tion, in sacristy of Escorial. — Vasari, ed. 
Mil., vii. 487 ; C. & C, Titian, ii. 251 ; Gil- 
bert, Cadore, 36. 

JOHN EVANGELIST, ST., Domenichino, 
Leigh Court Collection, England ; canvas, 
H. 8 ft. 7 in. X 6 ft. 8 in. St. John in a 
vision, supported by two angels. Formerly 
in Giustiniani Collection ; passed to Dela- 
hante in Paris, thence to Loudon, where 



bought by Mr. Miles for £1,000 ; bought in 
at Leigh Court sale (1884), £735.— Waa- 
gen. Treasures, iii. 182. 

By Murillo, Leigh Court Collection, Som- 
erset, England ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 
11 in. The Saint, full-length, seated in a 
reclining posture on a rock, with a pen in 
right hand and a book in left, looks up as if 
he heard a voice from heaven ; on his right, 
an eagle. Kobit sale (1801) ; Bryan sale 
(1801), £525, to Henry Hope; Hope sale 
(1816), £115 10s. Etched by J. Young in 
Miles Gallery Catalogue. — Curtis, 251 ; Bu- 
chanan, Memoirs, ii. 51. 

By Velasquez, Sir Bartle Frere Collection, 
London ; H. 4 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. 4 in. Seated, 
in white robe and violet drapery, writing the 
Apocalypse ; an eagle on his right ; above, 
the Virgin in a glory. Same history as Con- 
ception by Velasquez. — Curtis, 12. 

Alonso Gano, private gallery, Paris ; canvas, 
H. 2 ft. 11 in. xl ft. 5 in. One of a series 
of subjects from the Apocalypse. St. John 
is represented in one of his visions, when 
one of the seven angels, who were ordered 
to pour out the vials of wrath, takes him to 
a high mountain and shows him the hea,venly 
Jerusalem which " lieth foursquare " (Eev. 
xxi. 9-16). 

JOHN FEEDERICK, Elector of Saxony, 
portrait, Titian, Vienna Museum ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. 7i in. X 3 ft. 1 in. The Elector, 
clad in black, seated in an arm-chair ; has 
the scar of the wound received at Muhlberg 
on the left cheek. Painted for Charles V. 
in Augsburg in 1548. Copy by Teniers at 
Blenheim ; engraved by L. Vorstermann in 
Teniers Gallery. Another portrait of John 
Frederick in armour, carried to Spain in 
1556 by Mary of Hungary, burned in Palace 
of Pardo in 1608.— C. & C, Titian, ii. 181 ; 
Revue universelle des arts, iii. 140. 

JOHNSON, DAVID, bom in New York, 
May 10, 1827. Landscape painter ; studied 
for a month with J. F. Cropsey, but other- 
wise self-taught. Elected an A. N. A. in 1860, 
and N.A. in 1861. Studio in New York. 

Works: Echo Lake (1867); View at Barry- 
town, N. Y. (1871); Lake George, Mrs. 
William H. King, New York ; View at Dres- 
den—Lake George (1874), Courtlandt Pal- 
mer, ib. ; Scenery on the Housatonic, Brook 
Study— Orange County (1876); Housatonic 
River (1877), L. A. Lanthier, New York ; 

Vision of St. John Evangelist, Alonso Cano, Private Gallery, Paris, 

Sunset on the Walkill River (1879); On the 
Unadilla at New Berlin (1881), F. W. 
Thomas; Study of Oaks (1883); Summer 
Afternoon, View on the Weinockie River, 
Oak Grove (1884). 

JOHNSON, EASTMAN, born in Lovell, 
Me., July 29, 1824. Genre painter, studied 
in Dtisseldorf in 1849-51 ; later studied and 




/ '' 

'. I ,'/ ! / / . I 


painted in Italy, Paris, Holland, and four 
years at The Hague. His most popular 
works are those depict- 
ing American life, 
many of which have 
been engraved and lith- 
ographed. Elected 
N.A. in 1860. Studio 
in New York. Works : 
Old Kentucky Home 
(1867), R. L. Stuart, 
New York; Chimney- 
sweep, T. R Butler, 
ib. ; Old Stage-Coach (1871), George Whit- 
ney, Boston; Woodland Bath (1873); Pris- 
oner of State (1874) ; Milton dictating to his 
Daughter (1875); Husking-Bee (1876); Lul- 
laby (1877) ; Tender Passion (1859), Span- 
ish Woman (1862), W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more ; Cranberry Harvest — Island of Nan- 
tucket (1880); Funding Bill— Portraits of 
two Men (1881) ; New England Pedler, In 
Kind Hands (1884). Portraits : Of a Gen- 
tleman (1883), Sir Edward Archibald, Eng- 
land ; Dr. McCosh (Alexander Maitland), 
Hon. C. J. Folger (1884) ; Hon. William M. 
Evarts (1885).— Sheldon, 166 ; Tuckerman, 

JOHNSON, FKOST, born in New York 
in 1885. Genre painter, pupil of the Na- 
tional Academy, New York, under Professor 
Cummings, in 1859 ; studied at the Diissel- 
dorf Academy, in 1861, at the Antwerp 
Academy, and in 1863 at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, Paris. Painted under fidouard 
Frere, at £couen in 1865-69, and lived for 
some time in London. Studio in New York. 
Works: First Whiflf; Caught at It: Arith- 
metic Lesson ; Study of an Interior, Les 
Pommes (1869); Roasted Chestnuts; La 
Petite Flaneuse, Alvah Hall, New York ; 
Last and Best ; The Bouquet — Portrait of 
Lady Helena Blackwood, Gallery of Earl 
Dufferin ; Neglected Lesson ; Love Me, 
Love Me Not; A Thirsty Party, Good- 
Night (1876); Young Ornithologist (1879); 
After Eain (1880); Moorland Landscape 

Edinburgh in 1816. History painter ; pu- 
pil of Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh, and of 
Eoyal Academy, London ; first exhibited at 
Royal Academy in 1838. Works : Gentle 
Shepherd (1840) ; Covenanter's Marriage 
(1842); Highland Home (1843); TiUotson 
administering Sacrament to Lord Russell 
(1845), National Gallery ; Burial of Charles 
I. (1847); Trial of Laud (1849); Covenant- 
er's Burial (1852); Tyndale translating Bible 
(1854); Abdication of Mary Queen of Scots 
(1855); Bunyan in Bedford Gaol (1861); 
Press Gang Sixty Years Ago (1862); Billet- 
Doux (1868); 11 Penseroso, Juliet (1870); 
Isaac Watts and his Mother (1871); Turning 
Point (1873); Bonnie Lesley (1876); Waif 
(1877) ; Preparing for Conquest (1878) ; 
Reginald (1884). — Ottley; Art Journal 
(1857), 57 ; Cat. Nat. Gal. 

JOLIVARD, ANDRE, born at Le Mans, 
Sept. 15, 1787, died in Paris, Dec. 8, 1851. 
Landscape painter, pupU of Bertin. Studied 
law at Paris, made the campaign of 1813, 
admitted to the bar in 1816, and then gave 
himself up to painting. Medal, 1827 ; L. 
of Honour, 1885. Works : A Torrent (1819) ; 
View of St. Leonard-les-Bois (1834); River 
winding through a Forest, River Veyre 
(1839); Torrent in Woods (1844); River 
Sarthe (1845); View in Brittany (1846); Au- 
tumn Evening (1847); Ubaldus and Dunois 
stopped by Nymphs (1850) ; Works in Mu- 
seums at Bordeaux, Lisieiix, and Mans. — 
Bellier, i. 833 ; Larousse. 

Paris, June 27, 1794, died there, Sept. 7, 
1871. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Gros and De Juinne. Medals : 2d class, 
1833 ; 1st class, 1885 ; L. of Honour, 1851. 
Works : Bull-Fight at Madrid, Interior of 
an Alcalde's House at Madrid (1881); Gita- 
nos halting in the Mountains of Ronda 
(1838); Brigands of Valencia (1833), Valen- 
ciennes Museum ; Christopher Columbus 
discovering America, Quentin Durward 
(1833); Guerrilla Woman (1834); Trial of 
Joan of Arc, Byron's Lara (1835); Christ and 



the Samaritan ^Yomarl, Descent from the 
Cross (1839); Byron's Corsair, Crown of 
Thorns (1840); Sx^aniards Threshing, Ee- 
turning from the Fields (1841); Spanish 
Gypsy Women Bathing, Massacre of Inno- 
cents (1845), Eouen Museum ; Gypsies and 
Spanish Smugglers, Tomb of Les Enerves at 
Jumieges (1847) ; Perseus rescuing Androm- 
eda (1849) ; Pieta (1850) ; Establishing the 
Magistracy (1855), bought by State ; Virgin 
with SS. Joseph and Simon, Greek Woman 
Bathing (1863); Christ among the Doctors 
(1865), Prefecture de la Seine, Paris ; Cor- 
nelia's Jewels, Art in the Time of Peri- 
cles (1869); Combat of Hooglide, 1794, 
do. of Aicha, 1805 (1836); Louis XK 
in Battle of Agnadel, 1509, Takmg of Cha- 
teau de Foix (1837); Godfrey de Bouillon 
holding the first Assizes in Jerusalem, 1110 
(1839), Louis le Gros capturing the Ori- 
flamme at St. Denis, Battle of Seminara, 
Battle of Tourcoing, Portraits of Philip in. 
and Marshal Catinat, Versailles Museum ; 
Portraits of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, 
and others. — Bellier, i. 834 ; Larousse, ix. 
1006 ; Nou. biog. gen,, xxvi. 850. 

JONAH, Michelangelo, Sistinc Chapel, 
Eome ; fresco on ceihng. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Eocco, Venice ; 
oval, on ceiling of upper room. The whale, 
whose mouth is as large as a cavern, has 
lifted Jonah out on his tongue, so that it 
forms a kind of red cushion for him to kneel 
on in his submission to the Deity. — Euskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 348 ; Eidolfi, Marav., 
ii. 198. 

JONAS, EUDOLF, born at Goldapp, 
East-Prussia, in 1822. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Konigsberg Academy under Beh- 
rendsen ; went in 1851 to Munich, whence 
he visited the Bavarian Alps, Tyrol, Switzer- 
land, and North Italy ; taught in Dantzic 
from 1852 to 1854, when he moved to Mu- 
nich. In 1856 made a four months' journey 
through Corsica, and settled in Berlin in 
1860. Works : View of Ajaccio ; High 
Plain on Bay of Ajaccio ; Burial Hill in 
Corsica ; View near the Haff ; Oliva Monas- 

tery near Dantzic ; Deserted Saw MiU ; Inn 
Valley in Southern Bavaria ; Monastery 
near Elbing ; Mountain-Brook ; Strait of 
Bonifacio.— MiiUer, 285. 

JONES, GEOEGE, born in London, Jan. 
0, 1786, died there, Sept. 19, 1869. Battle 
painter, son of John Jones, engraver ; stu- 
dent of Eoyal Academy in 1801, and an ex- 
hibitor in 1803 ; was an officer of militia in 
Peninsular War, and was in Paris in 1815. 
Painted battle and subject pieces on return 
of peace, and became A.E.A. in 1822 and 
E.A. in 1824 ; Ubrarian in 1834-40, and 
keeper in 1840-50. Works : Battle of Boro- 
dino (1829), Town-haU at Utrecht (1829, 
lent to Corporation of Oldham), The Fiery 
Furnace (1832), Lady Godiva (1833), Belief 
of Lucknow, Cawnpore— Passage of the 
Ganges (1869, last three lent to Corporation 
of Coventry), National Gallery, London ; 
View in Eotterdam, Grosvenor House, ib. ; 
Nelson boarding the San Josef at St. Vin- 
cent, Greenwich Hospital ; Battle of Water- 
loo, Chelsea Hospital ; do.. National GaUery, 
Edinburgh ; Orleans, Woburn Abbey ; Be- 
lief of Lucknow, Cawnpore, Glasgow Gal- 
lery ; others in South Kensington Museum ; 
portrait of Sir Charles Napier, National 
Portrait Gallery. — Redgrave ; Cat. Nat. Gal.; 
Sandby, ii. 36. 

JONES, HUGH BOLTON, born in Balti- 
more, Md., Oct. 20, 1848. Landscape 
painter, studied in Baltimore. In 1877 vis- 
ited Europe, and studied there four years, 
sketching in Spain and Brittany. Elected 
an AN. A. in 1881 andN.A. in 1883. Studio 
in New York. Works : Ferry Inn, Summer 
on the Blue Eidge (1874) ; Twilight on Bean 
Creek, J. W. McCoy, Baltimore ; Tangier, 
W. T. Walters, ib. ; Eeturn of the Cows- 
Brittany, Heath in Bloom — Brittany (1878); 
French Landscape (1880) ; The Kasba from 
Moorish Cemetery — Tangier (1881); Octo- 
ber, Early Spring (1882) ; Near Annisquam 
—Massachusetts Coast, Landscape — South 
Orange (1883); Near Plymouth Meeting- 
Pa., On Hei-ring Eun— Baltimore (1884). 
Frank C. Jones, brother of the preceding, 



occupying the same studio, has exhibit- 
ed : Grandmother's Tales (1881) ; Left in 
Charge (1882) ; Cup of Cold Water (1883) ; 
Lost (1884) ; Day in March, Afternoon 

JONGE (Jonghe), LUDOLF DE, born 
at Overschie, South Holland, in 1616, died 
at Hillegersberg in 1697. Dutch school ; 
porti-ait, genre, and landscape painter, pu- 
pil of Saftleven, Stevens, and Bylert. Ke- 
sided seven years in Fi-ance, where he met 
■with success, as he also did on his return, 
at Rotterdam. Painted portraits and arch- 
ery pieces in style of Van der Heist, also 
battles, hunts, pastures with cattle, pleasing 
and warm in colour. Works : Female por- 
trait (1660), Haai-lem Museum ; Portraits 
of Yice-Admiral van Nes (1666), and Wife 
(1668), Amsterdam Museum ; Portrait of 
Lady (1653), Dresden Gallery ; Mythologi- 
cal Subject, BerHn Museum ; Huntsmen in 
Peasant's Cottage, Leuchtenberg Gallery, 



St. Petersburg. — Bode, Studien, 168 ; Bur- 
ger, Musees, i. 170 ; ii. 222 ; Immerzeel, ii. 
87 ; Kramm, iii. 816. 

JONGHE, GUSTAVE DE, born at Cour- 
tray, Feb. 4, 1828. Genre painter, son of 
Jan Baptist, pupil in Brussels of Navez. 
Has successively painted portraits and sacred 
history, historical genre, and family scenes. 
Gold medals in Amsterdam (1862) and Paris 
(1863). Works : Notre Dame de Bon Se- 
cours (1854) ; Orphans and their Grand- 
mother (1862) ; Piety (1864) ; Convalescent 
(1869) ; Bii-thday Congratulations ; Lady 
before Mirror ; Declai-ation of Love (1884) ; 
Giving Alms, Ghent Museum. — Art Journal 
(1866), 301 ; Ulus. London News, 1869. 

Coui-tray, Jan. 8, 1785, died in Brussels in 
Oct., 1844. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Om- 
meganck and of Cour- 
tray Academy ; won 
first prize in Ghent in 
1812, gold medal at 
Courtray, and silver 
medals at Douay, 
Brussels, aiid Bruges ; 
visited Holland, 
France, and England, ■ 

and was professor atCourtray Academy (1826) 
and at Antwei-p Academy (1840). Works : 
Travellers Besting ; Farm in Flanders ; In- 
terior of Farm ; View of Chateau d'Audei-me ; 
Market Day at Coui-tray (1828), Amsterdam 
Museum; Environs of Tournay, Brussels Mu- 
seum ; View near Courtray, Stream with Cat- 
tle, Ghent Museum ; Flock of Sheep, Tour- 
nay Museum. — Biog. nat. de Belgique, v. 
211 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. (1844), 436 ; Immer- 
zeel, ii. 89 ; Larousse, ix. 1013 ; Sunaert, 

at Latrop, Holland, in 1822. Mai-ine and 
landscape painter, pupil in Paris of Isabey; 
lives in Brussels. Medal, 3d class, Paris, 
1852. Works : Harbour of Harfleur (1850); 
Tr6port (1852); Course of the Seine, Souve- 
nir of Havre (1853); Notre Dame from Pont 
de la Tournelle, Quai d'Orsay, Moonrise in 
Paris (1855); Dutch Landscape ; Dutch Ca- 
nal near Eotterdam by Moonlight ; The Maas 
near Dordrecht by Moonlight. — Bellier, i. 
837 ; Lai-ousse, ix. 1013 ; Miiller, 286. 

in London in 1831. Figure, fruit, and flower 
painter, self-taught ; spent three winters in 
Rome in studying old masters. Studio in 
London. Works : Tea Rose ; Joan of Arc 
at her Trial ; Fair Florist ; In the Conser- 
vatory, Artist and Model, ^^'aUflowers (1877); 
Raspberries, Strawberries, Chrysanthemums 
(1878); Lady Hildred, Azalea (1879); Spring 
(1880); Yellow Jessamine, Sweet Peas (1881); 
Almond Blossoms (1882) ; Daughter of Eve, 


Interrupted (1883) ; Mai-echal Niel Eose, York 
and Lancaster Eoses, Lost Chord (1884). 

JOPLESfG, LOUISE, born in Manches- 
ter, Nov., 1843. Born Louise Goode ; mar- 
ried Mr. Eomer (died 1872), Secretary to 
Baron Nathaniel de Eothschild, Paris, where 
she studied art under Charles Chaplin in 
1867-68 ; returned in 1868 to England and 
married second in 1874 Mr. Joseph Middle- 
ton Jopling. Exhibited her first picture at 
Eoyal Academy, Bud and Bloom, in 1871. 
Works: Five O'clock Tea (1874); Elaine, 
Modern Cinderella (1875) ; Five Sisters of 
York (1876); Weary Waiting, It might have 
Been (1877); Pity Akin to Love (1878); Fair 
Eosamond, Children in the Wood (1881) ; 
Phyllis, Ellen Terry as Portia (1882); Daisy, 
Phyllis, Summer Snow, Saturday Night 
(1883) ; Christabel, From my Gondola, Fair 
Venetian (1884) ; Little Bo-Peep (1885). 

JOEDAENS, HANS, the younger, sur- 
named de lange Jordaens, born in Antwerp 
about 1595, died there after July 14, 1643. 
Flemish school ; history painter, probably 
son and pupil of Hans Jordaens, the elder, 
who entered the guild at Antwerp in 1582, 
and by whom there is a Banquet Scene in 
the Dresden GaUery ; master of the guild 
in 1620. Not to be confounded with the 
different Jordaens of Delft. Works : Cross- 
ing the Eed Sea, Antwerp Museum ; do., 
Hague Museum ; do., Oldenburg Gallery ; 
do. (2, one dated 1624), Berlin Museum ; 
do.. Hermitage, St. Petersburg; do., Hamp- 
ton Court GaUery ; do., Pinacoteca, Turin ; 
Art-Cabinet, Vienna Museum. — Meyer, Ge- 
malde d. Kongl. Mus., 223 ; Eiegel, Bei- 
triige, ii. 293 ; Eooses (Eeber), 352. 

JOEDAENS, JAKOB, bom in Antwerp, 
May 19, 1593, died there, Oct. 18, 1678. 
Flemish school ; history painter, scholar of 
Adam van Noort, whose daughter he mar- 
ried ; received as master in the painters' 
guild in 1615, and in the following year 
mamed Katherine, his master's daughter. 
Instead of going to Italy, he studied the pic- 
tures of the great Italian masters, especially 
Titian, at home, and becoming intimate with 

Eubens, assisted him in preparing cartoons 
for the tapestries of the king of Spain. With 
a fine feeling for 
colour and chiaro- 
scuro, great facility 
and skill in com- 
position, Jordaens 
wants taste and ele- 
vation of style, is 
often but a vulgar 
Eubens. In 1641 
he built a fine 
house at Antwerp, 
where he spent the greater part of his 
life. Works : Judgment of Solomon, 
Marriage of St. Catherine, Christ and St. 
John, Meleager and Atalanta, Holocaust to 
Pomona, Diana's Bath, Family Scene in a 
Gai-den, Wandei-ing Musicians, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Christ driving out the Money Chan- 
gers, Last Judgment (1653), The Four Evan- 
gelists, Infancy of Jupiter, Twelfth Night, 
As the Old sing so the Young Twitter, Por- 
trait of Admiral Euyter, Louvre, Paris ; 
Christ and the Pharisees, Distress of the 
Prodigal, The Apostles, Twelfth Night, Su- 
sanna and the Elders, Lille Museum ; Visi- 
tation, Nativity, Lyons Museum ; Miracu- 
lous Draught of Fishes, Marseilles Museum ; 
Christ and the Woman taken in Adultery. 
Eennes Museum ; Christ with Martha and 
Mary, An Elder, Eouen Museum ; Last Sup- 
per, Sisters of Charity, Entombment, Ado- 
ration of the Shepherds, Pegasus, Commerce 
and Industry protecting the Arts, Human 
Law based on Divine Law, Lady's Portrait, 
Museum, Antwerp ; Martyrdom of St. Apol- 
lonia, Augustine's, ib. ; St. Charles Borromeo 
intei'ceding for the Plague -stricken at Milan, 
St. James's, ib. ; Christ on the Cross, St. Paul's, 
ib. ; St. Martin expelling an EvilSpirit (1630), 
AUegory on Fertility, Satyr and Peasant, 
Triumph of Prince Frederik Hendrik of 
Nassau, Allegory on Vanity, Eliezer and 
Eebekah, Museum, Brussels ; As the Old 
Sing so the Young Twitter, Arenberg Gal- 
lery, ib. ; St. Ambrose, Eeconciliation, Christ 
and the Woman taken in Adultery, Ghent 


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': <-t^ r'K * t-^«»-, i2«.»»rs/;*: /(ff 


Museum ; Calvary, Tournay Museum ; Satyr 
and Peasant, Amsterdam Museum ; Faun 
and Nymph, Venus in a Grotto (copy after 
Rubens), Museum, Hague ; Triumph of 
Prince Frederik Hendrik of Nassau, Huis 
in't Bosch, ib.; Adoration of the Magi, 
Christ bearing the Cross, Rotterdam Mu- 
seum ; Convocation of the Four Fathers of 
the Church, Basle Museum ; Feast of the 
Bean (sketch to painting in Munich Pinako- 
thek), Berne Museum ; As the Old sing so 
the Young Twitter, Berlin Museum ; Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds, Holy Family, Christ 
at Emmaus, Feast of the Bean, Democritus 
and Heraclitus, Male Head, Brunswick Mu- 
seum ; Moses striking the Eock, Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Pan and the Peasant (2), Artist's 
Family, Bacchus with Bacchantes, The Pap- 
Eater, Education of Bacchus, Twelfth Night, 
Merchant and Moor, Cassel Gallery ; Pro- 
metheus, Neptune, Cologne Museum ; Nai- 
ads changing the Horn of Achelous (1642 
or 1649 ?), Christ and the Children, Susanna 
at the Bath (1653), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Allegory on Virtue, Solomon's Judgment, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Ariadne, Silenus, Di- 
ogenes seeking an Honest Man, Visit to the 
Sepulchre, Presentation in the Temple, As 
the Old sing so the Young Twitter, Satyr 
and Young Girl, Male Portrait, Hercules 
with Bacchantes and Satyrs (after Rubens), 
Dresden Museum ; Merry-Making, Dussel- 
dorf Gallery ; Cupid assisting at Toilet of 
Venus, Gotha Museum ; Abraham and Isaac, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Nymphs and Satyrs 
ill the Woods, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; 
Faun, Konigsberg Museum ; Christ among 
the Doctors, Last Supper, Mentz Museum ; 
Satyr and Peasant, Feast of the Bean, Christ 
among the Doctors, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
St. Jerome, Diana and Nymphs Bathing, Mir- 
acle of St. Dominik, Oldenburg Gallery ; St. 
Jerome, Holy Family, Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Nocturnal Apparition, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Vertumnus and Pomona, Daedalus and Ica- 
rus, Stuttgart Museum ; Twelfth Night, 
Vienna Museum ; Meleager and Atalanta, 
Wiesbaden Gallery ; St. Paul and Barnabas 

at Lystra, St. Peter, Madonna, Diana and 
Nymphs disturbed by Satyrs, Mercury and 
-Argus, Satyr and Peasant, Artist's Family, 
Family Group in a Garden, Artist's Portrait, 
Portrait-Heads (4), Hermitage, St. Peters- 
bui-g ; Ammon and Thamar, Incident in Life 
of Paris, Academy, ib. ; Venus in a Mirror, 
Neptune, Uffizf, Florence ; Abraham's Sac- 
rifice, Milan Academy ; Resurrection, Dutch 
Burgomaster, Pinacoteca, Turin ; Prince 
Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Consort, 
Devonshire House, London ; Holy Family, 
Theology, National Gallery, Dublin ; Artist's 
Portrait, National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Fruit 
Seller, Glasgow Gallery ; Triumph of Bac- 
chus, Visit of St. John to Infant Christ, 
Sketch from Sacred Historj-, New York Mu- 
seum.— L'Art (1882), iv. 241 ; (1883), i. 41 ; Ch. 


Blanc, ificole flamande ; Cat. du Musee d'Au- 
vers (1874), 217; Engerth, Belvedere Galerie, 
ii.217; Fetis,Cat.duMus.Royal,350; Genard, 
Notice sur J. J. (Ghent, 1852) ; Immerzeel, ii. 
91 ; Kramm, iii. 821 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 310; 
Michiels, vii. 360 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 100 ; 
Rooses(Reber), 352; Schaefer, iii. 1165, 1170, 
1183, 1196, 1204, 1206, 1248; Van deu Bran- 
den, 814 ; Wauters, Peinture flamande, 245. 
JORDAN, RUDOLF, born in Berlin, May 
4, 1810. Genre paint- 
er, studied first from 
nature on the isle of 
Riigen, then at the 
Diisseldorf Academy 
under Schadow and 
Karl Sohn ; has re- 
peatedly visited Hol- 
land, Belgium, France, 
and Italy. Member 
of Berlin, Dresden, 
Amsterdam, and Brussels Academies. Med- 
als : Berlin,.1866, 1878 ; Vienna, 1873 ; Phila- 
delphia, 1876. Works : Fisherman's Fam- 



ily (1832); Proposal of MaiTiage in Helgo- 
land (1834), Windlass in Normandy (1843), 
Death of the PUot (1856), Old Sailor's Home 
on Dutch Coast (1866), Widow's Comfort 
(1866), National Gallery, BerHn ; Forgotten 
Boots, Evening iu Helgoland, Return of the 
Pilots (1835); Pilot's Alarm-BeU (1838-39); 
Pilot's Examination (1842); Scene on the 
Downs after Storm (1844); Women calling 
Men to the Eescue of Ship (1845); Saved 
from Shipwreck (1848), Dresden Gallery ; 
Fkst Lie (1849); Burial of Youngest Child, 
Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Women pray- 

Chastity of Joseph, Johan Bilevelt, Uffizl, Florence. 

ing in the Storm (1852) ; Helgoland Pilot 
Family burying Child (1857), Ravene Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Return of the Fisherman ; 
Morning after Wedding (1861), Leipsic 
Museum ; Soup for the Sick (1862), Expec- 
tation, Diisseldorf Gallery ; Soup-Day in 
French Convent (1868), Cologne Museum ; 
Coast-Watch, Frauenhuys in Amsterdam, 
Burial of Old Sailor, Shipwrecked People 
in Tavern on Coast (1872) ; Waiting-House 
near Scheveningen ; Happiness and Labour ; 
Missing Boat (1876) ; Tavern on Dutch Coast 
(1884).— D. Kunstbl. (1858), 287 ; Diosku- 
ren, 1866-69 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 109 ; Mid- 
ler, 307 ; Wolfgang Mtiller, Diisseldf. K., 

215 ; Rosenberg, Berliner Malerschule, 45 ; 
Wiegmann, 287. 

JORIS, PIO, born in Rome in June, 1843. 
Genre and landscape painter, pupU of Acad- 
emy of San Luca and of Fortuny ; visited 
Venice, Munich, and Paris iu 1869, London 
in 1870, and Spain in 1871-72. President 
of Societa d' acquereUisti in Rome, honorary 
member of Societe beige des aquareUistes, 
member of several Art-Unions ; Italian 
Crown Order, Bavarian Order of St. Mi- 
chael ; Gold medal, Munich, 1869 ; twelve 
medals in 1878-81. Works : Roman Peas- 
ant Girl and Shepherd 
(1866); Greeting of the 
Virgin Mary (1867) ; Wed- 
ding in Palombara, Sabi- 
na. Hasty Meal, Concert 
in Genazzano (1868) ; Sun- 
day Morning before the 
Porta del Popolo (1869); 
Via Flaminia in the Rain 
(1870); Saladad, Spanish 
Dance (1872); Art Ama- 
teurs, Beggar in Toledo 
(1872), Reitlinger Gallery, 
Paris ; Return to Convent 
(1873); Young Greek Wo- 
man, Poet after Festival 
in Villa d'Este (1874); Par- 
son as Antiquary (1875) ; 
Return of Orphans, Bap- 
tism in Roma Priora 
(1876); After Vespers, Forio d'Ischia (1877); 
Baptism in Ischia (1878) : Replica, Neapoli- 
tan Head (1879) ; Pastime in Last Century, 
At the Antiquary's (1880); Arch of Titus in 
Rome, Woman of Sonnino, Woman of Jeru- 
salem, Cardinal going to Consistory (1881); 
Odalisque (1882) ; Flight of Pope Eugenius 
IV. (1883), National Gallery, Rome ; Poor 
Soldier as Ballad Singer (1883).— L'lllustr. 
italiana (1875-77); Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 
531, 629 ; xix. 574 ; xxi. 549, 564. 

Sir Richard Wallace, Bart., London; canvas, 
H. about 5 ft.x7 ft. In centre, four figures, 
among them, Joseph, in a scanty white gar- 



ment, borne by two of Lis brethren to tlie 
mouth of the pit; on left, three other 
brothers ; at right, four others and a dog. 
Bought from Capuchin Convent, Genoa, for 
Mr. Buchanan in 1803-6 ; sold to John Cave, 
£800 ; W. Cave sale (1854), £1,764, to Mar- 
quis of Hertford, whence by bequest to Sir 
E. Wallace. — Buchanan, Memoirs, ii. 144, 
171 ; Curtis, 121. 

JOSEPH, CHASTITY OP (Gen. xxxix), 
Johan Bilevelt, Uffizi, Florence ; wood, fig- 
ures life-size. Potiphar's wife, seated on 
the edge of a bed, endeavours to detain Jo- 
sei^h, who is struggling to free himself from 

Chastity of Joseph, Lionello Spada, Lille Museum. 

her grasp. Painted in 1624 by commission 
from Cardinal Carlo and Lorenzo de' Medici. 
— Rosini, vi. 93 ; Molini, Gall, di Fu-enze, 
v. 1. 

By Carlo Cignani, Dresden Gallery ; can- 
vas, octagonal, 3 ft. 6 in. diameter. Figures 
half-length. Joseph flying from the impor- 
tunities of Potiphar's wife. Painted for Con- 
tarini. Procurator of S. Mai-co, Venice ; 
bought for 600 sequins in 1754 from Casa 
Contaiini, Venice. Eestored by Palmai-oli 

and Renner in 1827. Engraved by Monaco ; 
P. Tanje.— Gal. Roy. de Dresde, i. PI. 46. 

By Lionello S'pada, Lille Museum ; canvas, 
H. 5 ft. 6 in. X 4 ft. 6 in. Potiphar's wife, 
sitting upon a couch, endeavours to detain 
Joseph, who flees, leaving his mantle in her 
hands. Formerly in Modena Gallery.— Lan- 
don, Musoe, viii. PI. 47 ; Filhol, iii. PI. 152. 

JOSEPH, COAT OF, Velasquez, Escorial, 
Spain ; six figures, life-size. Jacob sits on 
right in the shadow of his house ; before 
him stand five of his sous, two of them hold- 
ing Joseph's coat, the white Hning of which 
is stained with blood ; on left, another son 
tearing his hair; at Jacob's feet, a white 
dog, bai-king. Painted by Velasquez on his 
first journey to Rome (1629-31) and sent, 
with the Forge of Vulcan, to the King. 
Never engraved. — Curtis, 2. 

Raphael's Bible. 

Rembrandt, BerUn Museum ; canvas, H 3 
ft. 8 in. X 2 ft. lOf in. Potiphar's wife, in 
a red-silk robe, sitting beside a bed in a 
richly furnished apartment, with her hus- 
band standing behind her chair, accuses Jo- 
seph, who stands on the opposite side of the 
bed with hands and eyes upraised. For- 
merly in collection of Lord Willoughby ; 
passed about 1820 to Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
after whose decease sold (1830) for 570 
guineas to Joseph Neeld, M.P. ; purchased in 
1884 for Berlin Museum. Similar composi- 
tion, yfith. changes (2 ft. x 1 ft. 9 in. ; signed, 
dated 1657, engraved by Exshaw), in Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg. — Smith, vii. 8 ; 
Athenteum, Nov. 8, 1884, 598 ; Vosmaer, 

Guido Reni, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. St. 
Joseph, dressed in a grayliuen tunic and 
3'ellow mantle, carries in his arms the Infant, 
who holds a flower in his left hand ; in back- 
ground, to right, the Virgin is seen riding 
on an ass led by an angel. Bought for 7,900 
florins from the gallery of William H., King 
of the Netherlands. — Cat. Hermitase. 



By Murillo, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. 3 in. x 1 ft. 8 in. The Saint, 
in dark robe and yellow mantle, with lily 
branch in right hand, embraces with left the 
Child, who stands, partly draped, before him, 
looking front. Purchased about 1820, prob- 
ably in Paris. Engraved by J. G. Navia. — 
Curtis, 255 ; Cat. Hermitage. 

By Murillo, HeiTnitage ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 
3 in. X 1 ft. 8 in. The Saint, with lily branch 
in left hand, leads Jesus with right ; above, 
two angels ; background, landscape. Pre- 
sented to Emperor by Mr. Coesvelt. — Curtis, 
255 ; Cat. Hermitage. 

By Murillo, Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 
7 ft. 5 in. X 4 ft. 1 in. St. Joseph, standing 
on right, embraces Jesus, who stands, draped, 
on a iDedestal, with a lily branch in left hand ; 
both look front ; background, landscape. ! 
Painted about 1676 for high altar of Church 
of Capuchin Convent, Seville. Companion 
to St. John Baptist (Seville Museum). En- 
gTaved by A. Lurat. — Curtis, 252. 

By Murillo, Mrs. Lyne Stephens, Lyn- 
ford Hall, Brandon, Norfolk ; canvas, H. 3 
ft. 1 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. St. Joseph, seen to 
knees, seated front, with Jesus, standing, on 
his left ; his right hand holds the Child's 
left, the two holding a lily branch, which 
rests on Joseph's right shoulder. Louis 
Philippe sale (1853), £440. Engraved by 
Lemoine ; Cottin ; lithographed by Geoffroy 
(2), E. Lasalle (2), ]M. Lavigne, L. Maurin, 
Llanta (3), and others. Repetitions : Sir 
John Leslie, Bart., London ; Francis Cook, 
Richmond Hill ; D. Roberto Kith y Somera, 
SeviUe.— Curtis, 253. 

By Murillo, Earl of Strafford, Wrotham 
Park, Herts ; canvas, H. 7 ft. 2 in. x 5 ft. 2 
in. The Saint, in violet robe and brown 
mantle, holding a lily branch, bends towards 
the Child, whom he holds with right hand ; 
they walk to left looking at each other; 
background, landscape. Repetitions : Pour- 
tales sale (1865), 15,000 francs; D. Antonio 
Zulueta, Cadiz. — Curtis, 253. 

JOSEPH IN PRISON (Gen., xl.), Spagn- 
oletto, Escorial, Spain. Joseph, when in 

prison, interpreting the dreams of the chief 
baker and the chief butler of Phai-aoh's 
household. Engraved by Bannerman. — 
Reveil, ii. 105. 

Damd, Versailles Museum ; canvas, H. 20 ft. 
2 in. X 33 ft. Ceremony in Notre Dame, 
Paris, Dec. 6, 1804. Originally entitled the 
Coronation, and though intended to recall 
the crowning of Napoleon, the scene repre- 

Joseph in Prison, Spagnoletto, Escorial, Spain. 

sented is the coronation of Josephine by Na- 
poleon himself. The Emperor, descending 
from the altar, holds aloft the crown which 
he is about to place on the head of the Em- 
press, who is kneeling. Behind Napoleon is 
the Pope, and near him several cardinals 
and bishops ; further back are the ambassa- 
dors, and in front, at right, are Princes Le- 
brun, Cambaceres, Berthier, and Talleyrand- 
Perigord. Behind the Empress is Joachim 
Murat, and near him Marshals Serrurier, 
Moncey, Bessieres, and General d'Harville ; 
to the left sits the Archbishop of Paris, and 
near him General Junot, the Queens of Na^ 
pies and of Holland, and the Emperor's 
brothers ; behind them are Marshals Le- 
febvre, Kellerman, Perignon, and General 
Duroc. In the lower gallery sits the Em- 
peror's mother, with other ladies ; in the 
upper gallery stands David himself, sketch- 
ing. Salon, 1808. Engraved by Frilley. — 
Reveil, viii. 557 ; Gal. de Versailles, iv. 743. 
Mercer County, Ky., April 22, 1788, died at 



Lexington, Ky., Aug. 10, 1827. Portrait 
painter ; educated a lawyer, served in war 
of 1812-14, and at its close opened a studio 
in Lexington ; in 1816 studied four months 
in Boston under GUbert Stuart. He painted 
dui-ing his short career more than 300 por- 
traits, including among his sitters many 
distinguished persons. His full-length por- 
trait of Lafayette is in the capitol at Fi-ank- 
fort, and a bust portrait of same is owned 
by Mrs. Pauline Kodes, Eichmond, Ky. 
Other good examples of his work are in 

Medals : 3d class, 1879 ; 2d class, 1881. 
Works : The Customer (1879) ; Towing 
(1881); Departure of the Fishermen, Cai-pet 
Bazaar in Cairo, Venice ; Baby's Sleep 
(1884); Lime-Kiln, A Cloud (1885). 

JOURDAN, ADOLPHE, born at Nimes, 
Aug. 4, 1825. Genre painter, pupil of Jala- 
bert ; skilful ui painting flesh. Medals : 
1864, 1866, and 1869. Works : Leda (1864) ; 
Cupid's Secrets (1866) ; Venus and Cupid 
(1869) ; Meditation, Young Itahan Mother, 
Pursuit (1874) ; Little Girl (1875) ; Parting, 

Coronation of Josephine, Louts David, Versailles Museum. 

possession of Landon Thomas, Frankfort ; 
John Mason Brown, Henry Pindell, W. C. 
Humphrey, Henry Sanders, Blanton Dun- 
can, Shelby Todd, E. J. Menefee, Louisville ; 
Mrs. Margaret Preston, Mrs. Judge Wood- 
ward, Mrs. Benjamin Gratz, Miss Mary 
Bullock, Robert Peter, Mrs. Oliver Frazer, 
Mrs. George W. Norton, Lexingion ; Robert 
J. Breckenridge, Danville ; A. J. Alexander. 
Spring Station, Ky. 

Louviers (Eure), in Dec, 1845. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupU of Cabanel and Pils. 

Three Friends (1876) ; Breakfast at St. Ho- 
norat (1877) ; On the Banks of the Gardon 
(1878) ; Venus, Nurse (1879) ; Mother and 
Child (1880) ; The First Step (1881) ; Girl 
with a Shell (1882) ; Woman Charming a 
Bu-d (1883) ; First Smiles, Study (1884) ; 
Une Loge, Brindisi (1885) ; The Betrothed, 
Wm. Astor, New York. — BeUier, i. 841. 

JOURDAN, THEODORE, born at Salon 
(Bouches du Rhone), July 29, 1833. Genre 
painter, pupil in Paris of Loubon ; professor 
of design in the Marseilles School of Art. 
Works : Winding Cocoons near Aries, 


Melon Market in Cavaillon (1865) ; Little 
Thieves (1866); Girl with a Frog (1868); 
Brotherly Help (1869) ; Collecting Cocoons 
in Salon (1870) ; Departure of a Herd to 
the -Mountains (1872) ; Eetumiug to the 
Farm (1873) ; Grandmother (1875) ; Walk 
by the Sea in Provence (1876) ; Faithful 
Guardian (1877) ; Infant and Lamb (1879) ; 
Herd in Provence (1880) ; Sheep at the 
Drinking Place (1882); Corner of the Fold, 
Sheep on the Mountain (1883). 

JOUEDY, PAUL, born in Dijon, Dec. 15, 
1805, died in Paris, Oct. 28, 1856. History 
painter, pupil of Lethiere and Ingres ; won 
grand prix de Rome in 1834, and became a 
painter of merit. Medals : 2d class, 1842 ; 
1st class, 1847 ; from 1851 till his death he 
was president of the central committee of 
artists in Paris. Works : Homer chanting 
his Verses (1834); Eve Tempted (1836); 
Girl fastening her Earring (1839), King of 
Holland; Prometheus Chained (1842), Dijon 
Museum ; Chi-ist with the Doctors (1843), 
Public School, Bourges ; Baptism of Christ 
(1846), Church of the White Friars, Paris ; 
Good Samaritan (1847), bought by State ; 
Seven Sacraments (1850, fresco). Church of 
St. Elizabeth, Paris ; Woman Bathing (1852); 
Joys of Peace (1857) ; Achilles and Sca- 
mander, Theseus recognized by his Father, 
Dijon Museum ; Portrait of Nicolas Male- 
branche, Versailles Museum. — Bellier, i. 841. 

JOLWENET, JEAN, born at Eouen, April, 
1644, died in Paris, April 5, 1717. French 
school ; history painter, son and pupil of 
Laurent Jouvenet (1609-81), completed 
his education in Paris, where he was sent 
at seventeen, and took Poussin for his 
model. His picture of Moses striking the 
Rock won for him the favour and good offi- 
ces of Lebrun. He became a member of the 
Academy in 1675, professor in 1681, direc- 
tor in 1705, and rector in 1707. In his old 
age, having lost the use of his right arm 
by palsy, he painted the Magnificat, now in 
Notre Dame, with his left hand. Many of 
his works have been engraved. Works : 
Christ healing a Paralytic (1673), Visitation 

(called Magnificat), Notre Dame ; Esther 
swooning before Ahasuerus (1675),, painted 
for Academy ; Christ with Mary and Mar- 
tha, Christ healing the Sick (1689), Mirac- 
ulous Draught of Fishes (1706), Raising of 
Lazarus (1706), Christ driving out the 
Money Changers (replicas in Lyons Muse- 
um and Schwerin Gallery) (1706), Descent 
from the Cross (1697), Ascension (1711), 
Pilgrims of Emmaus, Feast in House of Si- 
mon, Extreme Unction, View of High Altar 
in Notre Dame at Paris, Portrait of Fagon 
— Physician of Louis XIV., Louvi'e, Paris ; 
Pentecost, Versailles Chapel ; Twelve Apos- 
tles, Invalides; Isaac blessing Jacob (1692), 
Presentation (1692), Vision of St. Theresa, 
St. Cecilia, Death of St. Francis, Apotheosis 
of St. Luke, Apotheosis of St. John, Annun- 
ciation (1685), Ascension (1716), and others, 
Rouen Museum ; others in Grenoble, Nancy, 
Toulouse, Caen, Nimes, Mans, Lille, Reims, 
Rennes, Orleans, and other provincial gal- 
leries; St. Peter healing the Sick, Basle 
Museum ; Apollo appearing to Priestess, 
The Virgin bending over the sleeping Infant 
Christ, Darmstadt Museum; Portraits of 
Priests (2), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; St. 
Ann and the Virgin, Uffizi, Florence; Visita- 
tion of St. Isabel, Madrid Museum. — BeUier, 


JouiwmL'pun .cs^ 

i. 843; Ch. Blanc, iScole frangaise; Jal, 709; 
Revue des Beaux Arts (1859), 357; Larousse; 
Momoires inedits, ii. 23. 

Paris, Sept. 11, 1809. History and battle 
painter, pupil of Deveria, Lethifere, and 
Ingres. First painted portraits and then 
several battle pieces for Versailles ; has also 
treated religious subjects. Medals : 3d 
class, 1834 ; 2d class, 1835 ; 1st class, 1839. 
Works: Portrait of a Young Greek (1833); 
Combat of Heilsberg (1838), Versailles Mu- 



seum ; Grandier's Apology (1839), Bordeaux 
Museum ; Adoration of the Magi (1843), 
Prefectiu-e de la Seine, Paris ; Captain Tron- 
5on du Coudray, Battle of Kocroy, Siege of 
Landau, Battle of Pozzolo, Skirmish of Tirle- 
niont, Capture of Furnes, Assault of Sierk, 
Surrender of Dunkirk, Versailles Museum ; 
The Crib (1852) ; Holy Family (1859) ; 
Beethoven with Peasants, Prayer (1865) ; 
Inspiration (1868) ; Isaac and Eebekah 
(1869); Holy Family (1870); Mozart in the 
Sistine Chapel, Debrey Mill on Montmartre 
(1879); Virgin and Child (1880).— Bellier, i. 
815 ; Larousse. 

JOVEK, FEANCISCO; contemporary. 
History painter, studied in Madrid and Eome ; 
devoted himself specially to fresco painting, 
■which he revived in Spain. Works : Colum- 
bus as a Prisoner on board his Ship (1862); 
Philip H. blessing his Children (1864); Car- 
dinal Ximenes delivering Christians in Oran 
(1871) ; Treaty of Cambray ; Papal Court 
and Capuchin Saint. 

Pai-is, Aug. 16, 1803, died there, July 6, 
1854. Landscape and architecture painter, 
pupil of Bidauld, Lethifere, and of the archi- 
tect Huyot. His pictures are well composed 
and correctly drawn, and the colouring is 
rich and agreeable. His masterly pen-and- 
ink sketches are much sought after. Medals : 
2d class, 1835 ; Brussels, 1845 ; L. of Hon- 
om-, 1852. Works : Palace of the Doges in 
Venice (1835); View of S. M. della Salute in 
Venice (1835), Nantes Museum ; Ponte Ei- 
alto (1841), Amiens Museum ; Campo Vac- 
cino in Eome (1843), Dijon Museum ; Eiva 
dei Schiavoni (1844) ; Old Palace of the 
Popes at Avignon (1845) ; Square of S. 
Marco in Venice. — Bellier, i. 845 ; Larousse. 

Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 7 in. x 4 
ft. A buffoon, called Don Juan de Austria, 
or the Artillerist, standing, looking fi-ont ; 
dress, black jacket, red stockings, and black 
hat with red feather; ground strewn with 
weapons and armour ; through a doorway, 
the sea and a burning ship. Latest manner. 

Engraved by Fosseyeux; AUais ; E. Lingde 
(as portrait of F. Cortes). Etched by F. 
Groya ; B. Maura ; Eajon. — Curtis, 32 ; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1880); xxi. 126 ; Madrazo, 628. 


JUAN DE DIOS, SAN, Murillo, Hospital 
de la Caridad, Seville ; canvas, H. 11 ft. 7 in. 
X 8 ft. 10 in. The Saint, sinking to his knees 
under the weight of a half-naked pauper 
whom he bears on his back, beholds with 
awe an angel who assists him to rise. Com- 
panion to St. Elizabeth of Hungary. Painted 
for La Caridad in 1G74, and still in original 
position. Copy by Dauzats in LouisPhilippe 
sale. — Curtis, 251 ; StirHng, ii. 855 ; Davies, 
Murillo, 81, 94. 

frage de Don Juan), Eugene Delacroix, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 4 in. ; 
signed, dated 1840. Illustration of Byron's 
" Don Juan " (Ch. ii. 74-75). Don Juan and 
his companions in an open boat at sea. Pre- 
sented to State in 1883 by Mme. Adolphe 
Moreau, who was once offered 300,000 francs 
for it. Salon, 1841 ; Exposition Universelle, 
1855. Lithographed by Fran9ais; engraved 
by Desmadryl in 1' Artiste. — Eobaut, Dela- 
croix, 190. 

Ji)-ancis of Assisi, St. 

JUDAS, KISS OF, Ernest Hebert, Lux- 
embourg Museum, Paris ; canvas, H. 8 ft. 4 

Payment of Judas, Fra Angelico, Florence Academy. 

in. X 6 ft. 1 in. Christ, in the Garden of 
Gethsemane, surrounded by soldiers, one of 
whom is ready to seize him, whilst another 


holds up his lantern so that the light falls 
directly on the face which the false disciple 
is about to kiss, all the surroundings being 
wrapped in mysterious shadows. Salon of 

JUDAS, PAYMENT OF, Fra Angelica, 
Florence Academy. One of the series of 
eight panels, containing thirty-five subjects 
from the life of Christ, formerly on the 
presses in SS. Annunziata, Florence. Judas 
receives the money from the high-priest in 
foreground ; in background, six other fig- 
ures. Kugler (Eastlake), i, 182 ; Eeveil, 
xiii. 901. 

JUDGMENT, LAST. See Last Judg- 



JUDITH, Cristofano Allori, Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 7 in. x 3 ft. 8 
in. Scene from apocryphal book of Judith. 

who had deserted Allori for a richer lover, 
the servant, her mother, and the severed 
head the painter, who thus sought to re- 
venge himself. AUori's masterpiece. Painted 
for Cardinal Alessandro Orsino. Carried to 
Paris in 1799 ; returned in 1815. Several 
repetitions, best in the Hermitage, St. Pe- 

Judith, Cristofano Allori, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 

Judith, with the head of Holofernes in one 
hand and a sword in the other ; behind her 
a servant. Judith is said to represent La 
Mazzafirra, a beautiful Florentine courtesan 

Judith, Philip van Dyck, Hague Museum. 

tersburg ; another in Vienna Museum ; study 
for head of Judith in Eath Museum, Geneva. 
Engraved by Tardieu ; M. Gandolfi ; Gio. 
Cantini ; L. A. Claessens ; J. Carter ; Jazet ; 
J. L. Leronge, and others. — Gal. du Pal. 
Pitti, i. PL 3 ; Ch. Blanc, :ficole florentine ; 
Filhol, V. PI. 819 ; Lasinio, i. PI. 56 ; Lan- 
don, Musue, vi. Pl. 59 ; Meyer, Ktinst. Lex., 
i. 509 ; Larousse, ix. 1071. 

By Philip van Dyck, Hague Museum ; 
wood, H. 11 in. x 12 in.; signed, dated 1726. 
Figures half-length. Judith, leaning with 
her right hand on the sword with which she 
has slain Holofernes, is about to put his 
head, held in her left hand, into a sack pre- 
sented by her attendant, an old woman, at 
left. Passed from Palace of Leeuwarden to 
cabinet of William V. ; carried to Paris by 
the French. Engraved by C. Normand ; H. 
Guttenberg, in Mus6e Napoleon. — Landon, 
Musee, viii. 14. 

By Andrea Mantegna, Berlin Museum ; 
wood, H. 16 in. X 11 in. ; tempera, dated 
1488. Judith, standing, followed by her 
sei-vant bearing head of Holofernes in a 
charger upon her head. Formerly in Giusti- 


niani Gallery. Another Judith by Mantegna 
in Collection of Earl of Pembroke. — La- 
rousse, ix. 1071. 

By Pdma Vecchio, Uffizi, Florence ; can- 
vas, life-size, half-length. With a scimetar 
in right hand and head of Holofemes in left. 
Much injured by restoration. — C. k C, N. 
Italy, ii. 476. 

By Girolamo Romanino, Berlin Museum ; 
wood, H. 2 ft. 9 in. X 2 ft. 3 in. Judith, 
half-length, with the head of Holofernes in 
a charger ; her maid looking on, and a sol- 
dier in armour asleep. Painted about 1510 (?) 
From SoUy CoUection.— C. & C, N. Italy, 
ii. 370. 

By Paolo Veronese, Vienna Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 3 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. 1 in. Judith, figure 
to knees, giving the head of Holofernes to 
Abra, her black servant, who holds a bag to 
receive it ; in background, tent of Holofernes. 
Engraved by Passini. — Gal. de Vienne, i. PI. 


Judith and Holofernes, Artemisia Gentileschi, Palazzo Pitti. 

ryphal book of Judith), Ai'temisia Genii- 
leschi, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H. 3 
ft. 3 in. X 2 ft. 7 in. Judith, aided by her 

servant, is cutting off with a sword the head 
of Holofernes, who lies upon a couch in his 
tent. — Rosini, vi. 128. 

By Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Rome ; 
fresco on ceiling. 

By Henri Begnaidt, Marseilles Museum. 
Judith, on the point of striking Holofernes, 
who lies in a drunken sleep upon his bed, 
the upper part of his body nude. Painted 
in Home in 1869. Salon, 1869.— Gaz. des B. 
Ai-ts (1881), xxiv. 94 ; Moniteur, Aug., 1869 ; 
ChaumeUn, Art contemporain, 347 ; La- 
rousse, ix. 1071. 

By Tintoretto, Madrid Museum. Three 
pictures : 1. Judith, sword in hand, raising 
the covering of the bed on which Holofernes 
is lying ; behind her, the servant with a sack. 

2. Judith handing the head to the servant. 

3. Judith replacing the bed-cover while the 
servant puts the head into the sack. — ]Ma- 
drazo ; Larousse, ix. 1071. 

By Horace Verne f, Louvi'e, Paris ; canvas, 
H. 9 ft. 9 in. X 6 ft. 5 in. ; signed, dated Rome, 
1830. Judith, standing near the bed of 
Holofemes, is about to strike off his head. 
Salon, 1831. Collection of Louis Philippe. 
Formerly in Luxembourg. Study for head 
of Judith, J. H. Stebbins, New York. — La- 
rousse, ix. 1071. 

JUEL, JENS, born at Gamborg, Ftinen, 
May 12, 1745, died in Copenhagen, Dec. 27, 
1802. Portrait, landscape, and genre paint- 
er, pupil in Hamburg of Gehi-mann, then of 
Copenhagen Academy ; won first prize in 
1771, went to Rome in 1772, to Paris in 
1776, and to Geneva in 1777. Became 
court-painter in 1788 ; member of Copen- 
hagen Academy in 1782, its director in 
1795-98 and 1800-1. Works: Anointing 
of David (1771), Portraits of the Engraver 
Clemens (1776), of Artist and Wife (1791), 
of the Dwarf Bajocco, of Admiral Risbrick, 
of AbUdgaard's Mother, six other portraits. 
Painter at Work, Fi-uits in a Niche, Ap- 
proaching Storm, Copenhagen GaUeij ; 
Landscape, Young Seamstress, Schwerin 
Gallery ; Male Portrait, National Gallery, 
Christiania ; Portraits of Kai-1 Bonet, King 


Christian VII. and his Queen, the Poet 
Klopstock ; The Daughters of Consul-Gen- 
eral Pingel (1792-94); Family of Eaben- 
Levetzau (1796).— Weilbach, 239. 

born at Brest, Aug. 25, 1805, died at Eouen, 
Oct. 22, 1874. Marine painter, pupil of 
Gudin ; has made many voyages and gained 
distinction by his marine views. Medals : 3d 
class, 1836 ; L. of Honour, 1847. Works : 
Sunrise at Sea, Bay of Dinan (1831); En- 
virons of Brest (1833); Port of Havre, Hon- 
fleur, Mont St. Michel, Cliffs of £tretat 
(1835); A Fog, Harbour of Conquet (1836); 
Port of Toulon, Vera Cruz, Saint Jean 
d'Ulloa (1840); Christ stilling the Tempest 
(1845); VieviT of Noli, Environs of Dieppe, 
Dieppe Fishing-Boats (1847) ; A Storm, 
Island of Grand Be, Port of Genoa (1847), 
bought by State ; View of Cannes, Alassio 
near Nice (1852); Lookout at Koatven, Jetty 
at Dieppe, Entrance to Portsmouth (1859) ; 
Sorceresses, Harvest Festival, Wreck of Eng- 
lish Brig Lord Gough at Dieppe, Wreck 
of Sloop Goole (1861) ; Environs of Finale 
(1863) ; Marine, Study of a Tree (1864) 
Tidal Wave at Caudebec, Desert (1865) 
Cannes, Storm on Channel Coast (1868) 
Entrance to Brest, Environs of Plougastel 
(1869); Fight of the Arethusa with the Belle 
Poule, Versailles Museum ; Port of Havre, 
Sea Vie^Y (1870). — BelUer, i. 846 ; Larousse. 

JUGLARIS, TOMMASO, born at Monca- 
lieri. Piedmont, in 1845. Genre and por- 
trait painter ; pupil of Turin Academj' un- 
der Morgari, then in Paris, whither he went 
in 1871, of Couture ; accepted, in 1879, the 
position as artistic director offered him by 
Prang & Co., in Boston, but resigned it af- 
ter six months to practise his art independ- 
ently, and in 1882 was made professor at 
the Boston Academy. Works : Offering to 
the Lares (1878) ; Promenade in Venice in 
16th Century (1879) ; The Invasion— pre- 
historic scene (1880). — Gazetta del Popolo 
(1885), iii. 12. 

bom in Lyons, Nov. 14, 1806. Genre and 

portrait painter, pupil of P. Delaroche. 
Has painted many highly successful por- 
traits. Medals : 3d class, 1834 ; 2d class, 
1836 ; 1st class, 1841. Works : Beggar and 
Sleeping Child (1836); St. Elizabeth of Hun- 
gary picking up a Little Beggar (1841); Anne 
of Austria dressing St. Theresa d'Avila, The 
Widow Scarron, Child Dreaming (1846); 
Portraits of Marquise de Castel-Bajac, Due 
de la Rochefoucald, and others. — Bellier, i. 
847 ; Larousse. 

Hospitality of St. Julian, Cristofano Aliori, Palazzo PItti, Florence, 

milage, Livei-pool Art Gallery ; canvas. The 
emperor, presiding at a conference of sec- 
tarians, is seated at the end of a table, sur- 
rounded by his pagan courtiers, listening 
with an attentive and judicial air to the dis- 
putes of the eager Christians before him. 
Royal Academy, 1874 ; purchased for £1,500 
by A. W. Bennett, who presented it to Art 
GaUery.— Art Journal (1875), 250, 373. 

tofano Aliori, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; can- 
vas, H. 8 ft. 6 in. X 6 ft. 6 in. St. Julian, 



who had built a hospital on the banks of a 
dangerous river, in expiation of his involun- 
tary crime of slaying his parents, gives hos- 
pitality to a leper, who is landed from a boat ; 
in background, his wife, at the door of the 
hospital, gives bread to the poor. Scarcely 
had Julian put the stranger into his own 
bed when the sick man became radiant with 
light, and, informing his benefactor that his 
crime was forgiven, disappeared. Acquired 
by Ferdinand II. in 1653 ; carried to Paris 
in 1799 ; returned in 1815. Engraved by 
L. MarteUi Faentino ; F. Gregori ; G. R. Le 
Villain ; G. B. Gatti.— Gal. du Pal. Pitti, iv. 
PI. 5 ; Landon, Musee, xiii. PI. 7 ; Etruria 
Pittrice, ii. 72 ; Wicar, 4. 

JULIEN DE PAEME. See Julien, Si- 

JTLIEN, SIMON, bom at Toulon, Oct. 
28, 1735, died in Paris, Feb. 23, 1800. 
Genre painter, pupil of Dandre-Bardon, 
Carle Van Loo, and Natoii-e. When he 
joined Natoire's school the pupils of the 
other masters called him Julien the Apos- 
tate. He afterwards styled himself Julien 
de Parme, after his patron the Duke of 
Parma. His best works ai-e : Jupiter sleep- 
ing in Juno's Arms, Aurora leaving Tithonus, 
St. Anthony in Ecstasy, Triumph of Aure- 
lian (1783), and Portrait of Himself (1789), 
Toulon Museum. — Bellier, i. 849 ; Gaz. des 
B. Arts (1866), xxi. 397 ; Larousse. 

JULIUS n., POPE, portrait, Raphael, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 3 ft. 3 in. 
X 2 ft. 8 in. Nearly full face, with full 
white beard and moustaches, seated in an 
arm-chair, with a handkerchief in his right 
hand. Julius II. (1503-13), previously Car- 
dinal della Eovere, began present Church of 
St. Peter, Rome. Painted in Rome about 
1511 or 1512, formerly in S. M. del Popolo, 
Rome ; carried to Paris in 1799 ; returned 
in 1815. Replica in National Gallery, Lon- 
don, purchased in 1824 with Angerstein 
Collection ; another in the Uffizi, which 
came with Victoria della Rovere, when she 
married Ferdinand H. de' Medici. Passa- 
vant thinks the Pitti picture the original. 

but now many connoisseurs pronounce in 
favour of the one in the UfBzi. Cartoon in 
Palazzo Corsini, Florence. Engraved by 
Daverio ; G. Ghisi. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 
338 ; Miintz, 386 ; Passavant, ii. 93 ; Gal. 
du Pal. Pitti, i. PL 91 ; Filhol, i. PL 65 ; 
Springer, 191. 

JUNCKER, JUSTUS, born at Mentz in 
1703, died at Frankfort in 1767. German 
school; still-life, i^ortrait, genre, and land- 
scape painter, pupil at Frankfort of Hugo 
Schlegel ; subsequently formed himself after 
Thomas Wyck, De Heem, and Van Huysum ; 
worked some time in London, and settled 
at Frankfort in 1726. Works : Breakfast 
(2), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Scholar in his Study, 
Artist at his Easel, Old Man Reading, 
Kitchen-pieces (3), Cassel Gallery ; Fruit- 
pieces (3), Darmstadt Museum ; Scholar in 
his Study (1754), Stadel GaUery, Frankfort ; 
Calm Sea with Vessels and many Figures, 
Stuttgart Gallery. 

JUNDT, GUSTAVE, born at Strasburg, 
June 21, 1830, died May 14, 1884. Genre 
painter and caricaturist, pupU of Guerin, 
Drolling, and Biennourry. A clever and 
faithful delineator of Alsatian peasant life. 
First exhibited in Salon of 1856. Medals : 
1868 ; 3d class, 1873 ; L. of Honour, 1880. 
Works : Village Festival (1856) ; Near a 
Fountain ; Alpine Strawberries ; Mayflowers; 
Marguerites ; Church-Time (1868) ; Rainy 
Weather in the Swiss Oberland, St. Anne's 
Money, Returning from the Pilgrimage 
(1874) ; Cutting Hair at a Pair in Auvergne 
(1876) ; Sunday Morning ; Time for the 
Wedding; Billets of Wood, Philosopher's 
Walk at Monaco (1879); Returning from 
the Wedding, The Gleaner (1880) ; Return- 
ing, Nice surprised by Snow (1881) ; Aurora, 
Twilight (1882) ; The First Rays, In the 
Woods (1883).— Menard, L'Art en Alsace- 
Lorraine ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 531 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xix. 551. 

JUNGHEIM, KARL, born at Dtisseldorf, 
Feb. 6, 1830, died there, June 6, 1886. 
Landscape painter, pupU of Schirmer and 
Schadow; travelled in the Tyrolese and 



Swiss Alps and Italy. Medals in Paris, Vi- 
enna, and Philadelphia. Works: Land- 
scape with Stag-Hunt ; Waterfall in Ty- 
rol ; Uri-Eotstock on Vierwaldstatter Lake ; 
Lauterbrunn Valley ; Wallenstadter Lake ; 
Evening on Brienz Lake ; The Wetterhorn ; 
Keichenbach Falls near Meiringen ; Even- 
ing Landscape in Sakburg ; Gosau Lake ; 
Jacobi Garden near Diisseldorf ; Sorrento 
(1872), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Capri, Kon- 
igsee and the Watzmann. — Milller, 288. 

JUNKER, HERMANN, born in Frank- 
fort in 1838. Genre painter, pupil of Stiidel 
Institute under Jacob Becker and Steinle, 
then in 1860 of K. Hausmann, and in 1862- 
64 studied in Paris and Amsterdam. Works : 
Auerbach Cellar in Leipsic ; Artist's Pil- 
grimage ; Old Maid ; Committee of Exami- 
ners (1865) ; Poetry and Prose (1867) ; Proc- 
lamation of Peace of Versailles (1871); Cycle 
of twelve Scenes from Goethe's Life. — Miil- 
ler, 289. 

JUNO AND HEECULES, Giulio Eomano, 
Bridgewater House, London. Juno, awak- 
ing, snatches the infant Hercules from her 
breast ; background, a landscape, with boys 
and satyrs. Remarkably clear and warm in 
colouring. Orleans Gallery ; bought by 
Duke of Bridgewater for £300. — Waagen, 
Treasures, ii. 29. 

Milky Way. 

JUPITER, ancient picture. See Zeuxis. 

Dyck, Munich Gallery. The nymph asleep 
upon a bank beneath a drapery which Cupids 
are suspending from trees ; Jupiter, in form 
of a satyr, bending on one knee, is raising 
the covering from her bosom. Formerly in 
Diisseldorf Gallery. Replica, Earl of Coven- 
try. Engraved by Van Kessel ; Soutman ; 
Van der Steen ; Val. Green ; Ch. de Mechal. 
—Munich Gal., PL 22 ; Smith, iii. 23 ; ix. 
397 ; Gui&ey, 253. 

By Titian, Louvre ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 5 in. 
X 12 ft. 7 in. Antiope, nearly nude, asleep 
on a bed of skins under a tree ; Jupiter, as 
a satyr, lifts the drapery from her form. 

while Cupid aims an arrow at him from a 
branch above ; at left, sylvan gods and god- 
desses engaged in sport or conversation ; in 
the distance, a huntsman hastens with his 
dogs toward a glade where a stag is brought 
to bay. Painted about 1562 for Philip H. 
of Spain ; called in Spain the Venus del 
Pardo, from the Palace of Pardo, near Ma- 
drid, where it was injured in the fire of 1608 ; 
given to Charles Stuart when in Spain ; 
bought by Jabach at sale of the King's col- 
lection in London (1650-51) for £600, and 
sold to Cardinal Mazarin, from whose heirs 
it passed to Louis XIV. Injured by cleaning 
in the Louvre in 1661, afterwards restored by 
Antoine Coypel; again restored and trans- 
ferred to new canvas in 1829. Engraved by 
Baron and by Corneille. — C. & C, Titian, ii. 
317 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. PI. 143 ; Klas. der Ma- 
lerei, i. PI. 61 ; Mtlndler, 208 ; Villot, Cat. 

sel Gallery ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 5 ft. 10 in. ; 
signed. Jupiter, under the assumed form of 
Diana, is bending on one knee beside the 
nymph, who is seated on the ground, with 
her right hand on a quiver. — Smith, ix. 

olo Veronese, Louvre ; canvas, oval, H. 18 ft. 
5 in. X 10 ft. 10 in. Rebellion, Treason, 
Luxury, and Peculation, crimes punished by 
the Council of Ten, falling overturned at the 
sight of Jupiter, armed with thunderbolts, 
descending from Olympus on his eagle ; be- 
low the god, a genius with outstretched 
wings holds in one hand the book of laws 
and in the other a whip with which he 
scourges the Crimes. Painted for the ceil- 
ing of the Hall of the Council of Ten, Pa- 
lazzo Ducale, Venice ; carried to France in 
1797 ; in Musee Napoleon until 1810, when 
it was placed in the ceiling of the bed-cham- 
ber of Louis XIV. at Versailles ; removed in 
1858 to Louvre. Engraved by Maccham 
(1593).— Landon, Musee, xiii. PI. 58 ; Cat. 
Louvre ; Ridolfi, Mara v., ii. 23. 



Rape of. 





Jupiter destroying Crimes, Paolo Veronese, Louvre. 

mano, National Gallery, London ; wood, H. 
3 ft. 5 in. X 5 ft. 9 in. Sleeping infant in a 
cradle, attended by three women, on a small 
verdant island, on the further side of which 
are two groups of musicians (the Curetes). 
Formerly in the Orleans Gallery, then in 
that of Lord Northwick at Cheltenham, 
whence purchased in 1859. The landscape 
is possibly by Giambattista Dossi. — Cat. Nat. 

JUPITER AND 10, Correggio, Vienna 
Museum ; canvas, H. 5 ft. 1 in. x 2 ft. 3 in. 
lo, nude, sitting on a little hill, is embraced 
by Jupiter in a cloud ; in lower corner, a 
hind's head drinking from a stream. Painted 
about 1530-32 (?) for Emperor Charles V. 
(?). Passed from Spain to Milan, where it 
belonged to the sculptor Leone Leoni, 

whose son Pompeo sold it to Rodolph 11. ; 
was taken to Vienna, and thus escaped the 
fate of the Leda and the Danae. Old copy 
in the Berlin Museum ; mutilated when in 
the Orleans collection, like the Leda, by 
Louis the Pious, and passed with it to Ber- 
lin. Engraving of the Vienna original by 
G. Duchange (1705), by Bartolozzi, Van der 
Steen, Mayer, H. Cramer, Reveil, J. John- 
son. Berlin copy engraved by Desrochers. 
— Meyer, Correggio, 344, 489 ; Kiinst. Lex., 
i. 439 ; Landon, (Euvres, viii. PI. 62 ; La- 
rousse, ix. 777 ; Reveil, sii. 817. 

By Andrea Schiavone, Hermitage, St. Pe- 


Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 9 in. x 5 
ft. 11 in. Standing, looking front, holding 
between them a model of the Giralda, as it 
was before the Christian alterations ; each 

( -/ C^/^. '■ 

Jupiter and lo, Correggio, Vienna Museum. 

has a palm in left hand ; in front, vases ly- 
ing on ground. Painted about 1676 for 
high altar of Church of Capuchin Convent, 
Seville. Companion to SS. Leandro and 



Bona Ventura. Lithographed by Geoffi'oy. — 
Curtis, 258. 

JUSTA, ST., Murillo, Stafford House, 
London ; H. 3 ft. x2 ft. 2 in. Half-length, 
in yellow robe and blue mantle, standing 
three-quarters right, looking up. Compan- 
ion to St. Eufina (Stafford House). Proba- 
bly from Altamira sale (1827), £325 10s., 
though Lord Gower thiaks the two belonged 
to Marshal Soult. Engraved by Blanchard, 
pere. — Ciu'tis, 257 ; Gower, Hisi Gal. of 

JUSTICE, Raphael, Camera deUa Segna- 

Martyrdom of St. Justina, Paolo Veronese, S. Giustina, Padua, 

tura, Vatican ; fresco, medallion on ceiling. 
Female figure, crowned with diadem, holds 
sword in right hand and scales in left. 
Painted in 1512. Engraved by E. Mor- 
ghen, and others.— Muntz, 311, 31G, 350. 

Paul Pnid'hon, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 8 
ft. X 9 ft. 6 in. ; signed, dated 1808. At left, 
in a rocky desert place, lighted by the moon, 
a man, poniard in hand, flees from his vic- 
tim, a young man whose dead body, nude, 
is stretched on the ground ; above, flying, 
are Vengeance, with a torch, ready to seize 

the murderer, and Justice, with the sword 
and scales. Painted for the Palais de Jus- 
tice ; afterwards in Luxembourg ; placed 
in Louvre in 1826. Copy by Gericault in 
Louvre. Engraved by Roger, Hocquai't, A. 
Gelee. — Villot, Cat. Louvre. 

JUSTINA, ST., jl/ore«o, Vienna Museum; 
wood, H. 6 ft. 3 in. X 4 ft. 5 in. St. Justina 
standing, palm in hand, with unicorn by her 
side as emblem of chastity ; at the right, a 
knight kneeling ; background, picturesque 
landscape, a city and mountains. Painted 
about 1535 ; long in Hofburg, Innspruck, 
whence taken in 1662 to 
Castle of Ambras and after- 
wards to Vienna. Long at- 
tributed to Pordenone. — C. 
& C, N. Italy, ii. 404. 

TYRDOM OP, Paolo Vero- 
nese, S. Giustina, Padua ; 
canvas. St. Justina of Pad- 
ua, accused of being a 
Christian, is put to death 
by order of the Emperor 
Maximian. She is kneeling 
with outstretched arms 
while the executioner, 
standing behind, thrusts his 
sword into her bosom ; two 
other standing figures at 
right and two at left. Paint- 
ed about 1568. Replica in 
the Uffizi, Florence. En- 
graved by Agos. Carracci 
— Lasinio, Gal. de Florence, i. 
Soc. Ed. & Paris, 

(1582); Lasinio.. 
PI. 47 ; Bai-tsch, xviii. 78 : 
Gal di Firenze, PI. 73 ; Ridolfi, Marav., ii. 32. 
PANDECTS, Raphael, Camera delta Segna- 
tura, Vatican ; fresco, left of window. The 
emperor in a purple mantle, seated, giving 
the books to Tribonianus, kneeling ; behind 
the throne, six jurists, two of whom, Theoph- 
ilus and Dorotheus, hold the books of the 
new Institutions and the Constitutions. Il- 
lustrates the consecration of Civil Law ; 
companion piece to Gregory promulgating 



the Decretals. Painted in 1511. Engraved 

by Fr. Aquila, Fr. Giangiacomo.— Passavant, 



ari, ed. Mil., 

iv. 337. 

or JODO- 
GHENT, lat- 
ter half of 
15th century. 
school. Sup- 
p ose d by 
some to be 
with Justus 
de Allamag- 
na or Giusto 
who painted 
an Annunci- 
ation of the 
Virgin in the 
Convent of S. 
M. di Castel- 
lo, Genoa, in 
1451, but 
there is little 

if any evi- Justinian promulgating the Pandects, Raph- 
dence of it. ael, Vatican. 

Justus of Ghent, a contemporary of Van der 
Goes and of Van der Meire, and perhaps 
pupil of Hubert Van Eyck, was called to 
Urbino by Duke Federigo di Montefeltro to 
paint the portrait of his duchess, and to 
decorate his Hbrary. In 1470-7-4 he painted 
the Last Supper, an altarpiece for S. Agata, 
Urbino, now in the Town Gallery. In the 
Palazzo Barberini, Rome, and in the Louvre, 
are a series of panels representing poets, 
philosophers, etc., supposed to be the dec- 
orations of the libraiy at Urbino. If Justus 
painted them, he tempered in his later work 
the harshness of the Flemish style with 
Italian breadth and freedom. Works at- 
tributed to him : The Last Judgment, Chui-ch 

of S. Maria, Dantzic ; The Nativity, Bene- 
diction of the Holy Sacrament, Antwei-p 
Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 574 ; C. 
& C, Flemish Painters, 171 ; Dohme, li. ; 
Forster, Denkmale, xhii. 9; Kugler (Crowe), 
i. 89 ; Wauters, Peinture flamande, 76. 

JUTZ, KARL, born at Windschlag, Baden; 
contemporary. Animal painter, studied in 
Munich and Diisseldorf ; paints small do- 
mestic animals, fowls, and insects with mi- 
croscopic minuteness and much humour. 
Lives in Diisseldorf. Works : Chickens 
and Ducks ; Chickens and Peacock ; Chick- 
en Yard ; June-Bug Hunt ; At Place of Ex- 
ecution ; Much Ado about Nothing ; Chick- 
ens in Eainy Weather ; Poultry in a Stable, 
Weimar Museum. — Midler, 289. 

JUVENEL (Jouvenel), PAUL, born in 
Nuremberg in 1574, died at Pressburg, 
Hungary, in 1643. German school ; history 
and portrait painter, son and pupil of Nico- 
laus Juvenal (died at Nuremberg, 1597), then 
of Adam Elsheimer in Frankfort. He ex- 
celled in perspective ; decorated the ceilings 
of several houses in Nuremberg, and was a 
tolerable copyist of Dtirer's works. In 1638 
he went to Vienna, and afterwards settled at 
Pressburg. His three sons and a daughter 
were artists of repute. Works : Ceiling- 
j)anels. Portraits of Ferdinand H., Matthias, 
Kudolph 1 & H., Town Hall, Nuremberg ; 
Copy of Dtirer's Ascension of Virgin, Frank- 
fort Gallery. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xiv. 762 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 524. 

KAAZ, KARL LUDWIG, born in Carls- 
ruhe or Pforzheim in 1776, died in 
Dresden, July 14, 1810. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Stuttgart Academy under 
Johann Milller ; went in 1796 to Dresden, and 
studied in Italy in 1801-04. Works : Morn- 
ing Landscape ; Two Horsemen riding to- 
ward a Castle ; Tivoli ; View from Dresden ; 
Ideal Landscape (after Claude Lorrain), 
Carlsruhe Gal. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xiv. 778. 
born at Eyswick, near The Hague, in 1621, 


died at Lyons in 1695. Dutch school ; land- 
scape and marine painter, pupil of Jan van 
Goyen ; is said to have changed his real 
name, Touw (rope), into Kabel ; studied in 
Rome, and shows in his pictures the style 
of the Carracci, Salvator Rosa, and other 
Italian masters. Works : Treeless Country 
with Horseman and Woman (1652), Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Landscape with Peas- 
ants (?), Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 
others in Aix Museum. — Immerzeel, ii. 94. 

KADLIK (Tkadlik), PEANZ, born in 
Prague, Nov. 23, 1786, died there, Jan. 16, 
1840. History painter, pupil of the Prague 
Academy under Bergler, where, besides 
several other prizes, he won the grand prize 
in 1815 ; went in 1817 to Vienna, where he 
was influenced by Franz Caucig, and in 1825 
to Rome, after which he painted religious 
subjects only. Returned to Vienna in 
1832, and in 1836 became director of the 
Prague Academj'. Works : Hagar in the 
Desert (1815) ; Infant Christ Praying ; Re- 
turn of St. Adalbert to Bohemia, Prague 
Gallery ; Noah's Sacrifice, Departure of 
Tobias, Nativity, Enyo (1825), Harrach Gal- 
lery, Vienna ; St. Paul's Farewell of Miletus, 
St. Luke painting the Virgin, Vienna Muse- 
um ; Pieta ; Death of St. Rosalia ; Guardian 
Angel ; St. Ludmilla at Mass ; Conversion 
of Paul ; Calling of Peter ; St. John in the 
Desert, Czernin Gallery, Vienna ; Portrait of 
Francis 1; of the Slavophile Dobrowsky, 
Prague Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xiv. 
785 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. (1829), 40. 

DEIK, born at Ghent; 
contemporary. L a n d- 
scape and genre painter, 
pupil in Paris of Gerome. 
Medal, 3d class, Paris Sa- 
lon, 18 74. Studio in 
Paris. Works : Offering 
to the Lares, Distraction 
(1869); Incroyables 
(1870), Wm. H. Vander- 
bilt Collection, New York ; Dispute (1872), 
Wm. Rockefeller, ib.; The Quarrel (1873), 

Prank Work, ib. (J. S. Jenkins Collection, 
Baltimore, $2,675) ; Coast of Scheveningen 
(1874), Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; Win- 
ter-Day in Holland (1875) ; Game of Cro- 
quet (1877) ; Baptism under the Directory 
(1878), J. J. Astor, New York ; Wedding un- 
der the Directory (1879), Jay Gould, ib.; 
Portrait of the Marquise (1879); Ascension 
Day in the Year VHI. (1880) ; Under the Arch 
(1882); Charlatan (1883); The Swing (1884), 
S. P. Avery, New York ; Autumn Evening 
(1885) ; Toast to the Bride (Morgan Sale, 
1886), Charles Crocker, San Francisco ; 
Sleigh Ride (Seney Sale, 1885), Mr. Coe, 
New York ; Adam and Eve, H. M. Johnston, 
Brooklyn ; Mandolin Player, H. Nathan, New 
^^1^ York; Mating, 

'fH.KAEnntI^El\ -«,J7»- 

Harper Sale, 1880, $1,300) ; Autumn on 
Terrace of the Tuileries, David Jones 
Collection, ib. (M. S. Latham Sale, 1878, 
$1,125) ; Lover's Telegraph, Frank P. Os- 
born, ib. 

in Munich in 1566, died in Augsburg in 
1684. German school ; history painter, 
studied in Munich and in Rome. After 
his return to Munich he became court- 
painter to the Elector Maximilian of Bava- 
ria, but soon removed to Augsburg, where 
he was afterwards elected burgomaster. 
Painted in fresco, oil, and water-colour in 
a stiff but expressive style ; was also an 
engraver and an architect. Works : Adora- 
tion of Shepherds, Augsburg Cathedral ; 
Last Judgment, City Hall, Augsburg ; Find- 
ing of the Cross, Church of our Lady, Mu- 
nich ; St. Andrew, St. Martin's Church, 
Landshut ; St. John preaching in the Des- 
ert, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; David 
and Abigail, Vienna Museum. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., xiv. 794 ; Andresen, D. Peintre- 
Graveur, iv. 351. 

KAISER, ERNST, born at Rain, Bavaria, 
July 20, 1803, died in Munich, Dec. 26, 1865. 
Landscape painter, pupil of his father, a-still- 
life painter, then from 1822 at the Munich 



Academy. Studied nature in the TjtoI and 
the Bavarian Alps. Works : The Hintersee 
near Berchtesgaden (1835-40), KiJnigsberg 
Museum ; View in Bavarian Alps (1842), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Konigsee ; Hin- 
tersee and Obersee near Berchtesgaden 
(1858) ; At the Kochelsee, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; View at the Untersberg, Schack Gal- 
lery, Munich. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xv. 6 ; 
Kunstbl. (1851), 80 ; (1857), 218 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, i. 3 ; Yincenz Miiller, Handbuch f. 
Miinchen (1845), 144. 

KAISER, FRIEDEICH, born at Lon-ach, 
Baden, Jan. 21, 1815. History and battle 
painter, was first a lithogTapher ; went to 
Palis, where Horace Vernet's battle-pieces 
inspired him to take up the same line of 
art ; studied several j-ears in Munich, in 
1848 went to Caiisruhe, and in 1850 settled 
in Berlin. Painted also biblical scenes of 
elevated composition and fine colouiing. 
Works : Storming of Corftl ; Sm-prise of 
Conradin at Tagliacozzo (1863); Wounding 
of Prince Fi'ederic Charles at Wiesenthal ; 
Bivouac before Diippel (1864); Attack of 
Prussian Hussai'S ; Emperor William in- 
specting Ai'tillery-position before Paris 
(1879); Christ and the Sainaritan Woman ; 
MargTave Louis of Baden's Victory over the 
Turks at Szlankament in 1691, Carlsruhe 
Gallery.— Dioskui-en (1866); Chi-istl. Kunst- 
bl. (1867); Meyer, Conv. Lex.,xTii.485; Mtil- 
ler, 289 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 293. 

Count, born at Kozmin, 
Posen, Dec. 24, 1821. 
Landscape painter, pu- 
pil in Potsdam of Gustav 
Wegener, then in Berlin 
of Krause, and in 1846- 
47 of Diisseldorf Acad- 
emy under Schirmer, in 
whose studio he worked 
until the latter's removal 
to Carlsruhe in 1854. 
His firet pictures were so noteworthy that 
the King of Prussia nominated him profes- 
sor. Was director of the newly founded 

Ai-t School at Weimai- in 1860-76 ; visited 
Styria, TjtoI, Switzerland, Savoy, Italj', and 
the Pyi-enees, and since 1876 has lived at 
Kreuznach. Member of Berlin, Amsterdam 
(1852), and Rotterdam Academies. Medals, 
Berlin (2, 1868), Vienna (1873), and Bor- 
deaux. Works : Monastery of San Giovanni 
on Lake Como, Obersee near Berchtesgaden, 
Hintersee, View on the Aar, Morning Land- 
scape in Tyrol (1849-52) ; Lac de Gaube 
(1858), KiJnigsberg Museum ; The Wetter- 
horn, Stettin Museum ; Canigai Valley 
(1856), National Gallery, Berlin ; Castle of 
the Holy Grail, View of Pau (1863); View 
near Turin ; Lac d'Oo and Monastery Las 
Casas ; View near Bonn ; Rhine Valley near 
Ragatz ; Lake of Wallenstildt ; Rocky Land- 
scape (1869); Rosenlaui Glacier (1878), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; Views in Blier Val- 
ley ; Series of 25 Landscapes, Orangery 
near Potsdam. His son Leopold is a clever 
genre and landscape painter, and, since 1 885, 
professor at the Art School in Weimar. 
Among his works are : Funeral at Dachau 
(1883); Children at Tombstone of a Saint 
(1884).— Jordan (1885), ii. Ill ; Kunstblatt 
(1851), 126 ; (1855), 191 ; (1856), 408 ; (1858), 
57 ; Kunst-Cbronik, xviii. 545 ; Miiller, 290. 
E^ALF, WILLEM, born in Amsterdam 
before 1630, 
died there, 
July 31, 1693. 
Dutch school ; 
still-life paint- 
er, pupil of 
Hendrik Pot ; 
painted fruits, 
flowers, and 
vessels most 
truthfully and 
with fine colom-ing. Excellent arrangement 
of subjects is pleasing ; gi-eat success in ren- 
dering the lusti-e of metal, crystal, and 
mother-of-pearl. Occasionally painted genre 
subjects, especially kitchen scenes. Works : 
Hut Interior, Still Life, Louvi-e ; Costly Ves- 
sels, Amsterdam Museum ; Interior with 
Peasants, Rotterdam Museum ; Still life, 




Berlin Museum; do. (1643), Stadel Institute, 
Frankfort ; do. (1644), Warwick Castle ; do. 
in Museums of Berlin, Darmstadt, Dresden 
(1661), Gotha, Stuttgart, and Weimar (1680); 
in Galleries of Copenhagen and Schwerin 
(1658 and two of 1663) ; Barn Interior, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; Still Life (1658), and Cottage 
Interiors (2), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; In- 
terior of a Dutch School, Metropolitan Muse- 

>X^. KALF/6(J3 

um. New York ; Kitchen Utensils, Historical 
Society, ib. — Ch. Blanc, ficole hollandaise ; 
Bode, Studien, 229, 616 ; Burger, ii. 270. 
ICALKAB, HANS VON, 16th century, 
born at Kalkar, West- 
phalia, about 1510, died 
in Naples about 1546. 
Venetian school. Real 
name Johann Stephan, 
or Stevens, called by Va- 
sari, Giovanni di Kalkar, 
or Giovanni Fiamingo 
(the Fleming). Went 
early to Italy, studied in 
Venice in 1536-37 under 
Titian, and was one of his most successful 
imitators. At a later period he imitated 
Eaphael with equal skill. Afterwards went 
to Naples, where Vasari knew him in 1545. 
The Nativity, which was owned bj^ Rubens, 
who carried it with him on all his travels, 
and afterwards at Prague, is now in the Vi- 
enna Museum. Works: Male Portrait (1540), 
Louvre ; do. (1533), Berlin Museum ; Male 
Portrait, Vienna Museum. — AUgem. d. Bi- 
ogr., xiii. 692 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole vt'nitienne ; 
Brockhaus, iii. 830 ; C. & C, Flemish Paint- 
ers, 317, 358 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 266 ; Wolff, 
Die Nikolai Pfarrkirche zu Calcar, 20 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K., xi. 375. 

KALRAAT, BAREND VAN, born at Dor- 
drecht, Aug. 28, 1650, died there in 1721 (?). 
Landscape and figure painter, brother of, 
and first instructed by, Abraham Kalraat 
(figure and fruit painter, 1643-99), then 
pupil of Aelbert Cuyp, whose style he fol- 
lowed at first, but adopted afterwards that 

of Herman Saft-Leven, and painted cabinet 
pictures of Rhine views. A Cow Stable, 
by him, is in the Schwerin Galleiy, and a 
Mountainous Landscape in the Liechten- 
stein Gallery, Vienna. — Immerzeel, ii. 95; 
Kramm, iii. 884. 

Horb, Wiirtemberg, Dec. 25, 1806, died in 
Munich, March 7, 1867. Genre painter 
and lithographer, pupil of the Munich Acad- 
emy in 1830, but formed himself principally 
through study of nature in the Bavarian and 
Tyrolese Alps, Switzerland, and Istria (1843). 
Many of his views in the Black Forest are 
in America. Works : Landscape with Peas- 
ant's House (1831); Tyrolese Family by the 
Wayside (1832); Zillerthal Peasants Danc- 
ing (1833), Munich Art Union; Hunter's 
Family (1834); Gypsy Fortune-Teller (1835); 
Love Declaration of a Peasant Boy (1835); 
Scene in Suabian Cottage ; Gypsies, Suabian 
Peasant Woman with Child (1836); Suabian 
Girl, Christmas Eve (1837); Marriage Con- 
tract (1838), Taxis Gallery, Ratisbon ; Re- 
turn from Pilgrimage (1839); Zither Players 
in a Tavern (1840); Target Shooting in Upper 
Bavaria (1841), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Tav- 
ern Life in Meran (1842) ; From a TjTolese 
Inn (1844); Peasant House in Black Forest 
(1845), Munich Art Union ; Three Domestic 
Scenes from Black Forest (1846) ; Italian 
Family Scene (1847); Fair in Black Forest 
(1848); Bridal Couple at the Parson's (1849); 
Family in Istria (1850); Suabian Girls Spin- 
ning (1851); Domestic Scene in Istria (1854); 
Fruit Vender of Servola (1856); Despised 
Love-Gift (1857); Embroideress from Appen- 
zell(1858); Suabian Family (1861); Painters 
Kirner and Kaltenmoser among Peasants 
(1861); Suabian Tavern Scene (1864); Do- 
mestic Scene (1866); Trap Vender (1867). 
— AUgem. d. Biogr., xv. 46 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. 
(1843), 367 ; (1848), 219 ; D. Kunstbl. (1856), 
444 ; Kunst-Chronik, ii. 103 ; Forster, v. 196 ; 
Raczynski, ii. 401. 

KALTENMOSER, MAX, born in Mu- 
nich, Dec. 1, 1842. Genre painter, son of 
Kaspar, pupil of Munich Academy under 



Philip Foltz and Eamberg ; travelled in Sua- 
bia and the Tyrol, and spent the winter of 
1869-70 in Nice. Works : Grandmother's 
Admonition, The Foundling (1867); Birth- 
day (1868); Dice-Players (1873); Good- 
Morning, Papa! (1874); Leisure Hour; 
Noon-Day Rest; Country Life (1878); Im- 
provised Bowling-Alley, Preparations for 
Procession.— Milller, 290. 

NING) VON, born at Stolp, Pomerania, in 
1829. Landscape painter, studied first from 
nature at Rome in 1860-62, then at the 
Weimai- Art School under Bocklin and iSIi- 
chaelis ; next under Kalckreuth, and after- 
wards visited the Tyrol, Switzerland, and 
North Italy. Lives in Berlin. Works : Val- 
ley neai- Berchtesgaden ; Konigsee ; Vier- 
waldstiitter Lake ; The Wetterhorn ; Italian 
Landscape ; Thuringian Landscape ; Wen- 
gern-Scheideek ; Campagna ; Glacier Land- 
scape ; View in Lauterbrunn Valley ; View 
from Berniua Pass ; Glacier des Bois ; View 
on Lake Garda ; Eosegg Glacier ; Gosau 
Lake ; St. Gotthard Road, National Gallery, 
Berlin ; View on St. Gotthard, Dresden Mu- 
seum. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 487 ; Mill- 
ler, 201. 

KANDLER, WILHELM, born at Kratzau, 
Bohemia, Feb. 28, 1816. History p;unter, 
pupil of Prague Academy under Kadlik, 
then under Ruben ; went to Rome in 1843, 
and returned in 1850. Works : Duke 
Spitignew's Judgment ; Four Scenes from 
Life of Christ (1840); St. George ; Sermon 
of Jonah ; Discovery of Springs at Carlsbad 
(1849); Jacques dc Molay's Defence of the 
Knights Templars; Wall-Paintings in Castle 
Chapel at Reichstadt ; Frescos in Imperial 
Chapel at Prague.— Cotta's Kunstbl. (1846), 
123 ; D Kunstbl. (1850), 248 ; Milller, 201; 
Wurzbach, x. 429. 

Neustrelitz, Mecklenburg, in 1814. History 
painter, pupil of Berlin Academy under 
Ternite and Blecheu, then in 1834-41 of 
Dilsseldorf Academy under Sohu ; was in 
1842 at Munich, and then travelled three 

years in Italy, Sicily, and Greece, After his 
return he was made professor in 1846, and 
instructor of the Grand Duchess. Was in 
Rome and Paris in 1854-55. Works : 
Thisbe ; Riniddo and Armida ; Death of 
Cleopatra ; Sleeping Bacchante ; View of 
Athens ; Coliseum in Rome ; View of Paler- 
mo ; Queen Louise of Prussia ; Entomb- 
ment ; Ecce Homo ; Portraits of Grand Du- 
cal Family of Mecklenburg. — Christl. 
Kunstbl. (18G0); Midler, 291. 

born at Grossrudestedt, Saxe-Weimai-, ]\Iai-ch 
13, 1845. Landscape painter, pupil of Wei- 
mar Art-School under Preller ; went in 1869 
to Rome, where he was influenced by Franz 
Dreber ; settled in Carlsruhe, where Ferdi- 
nand Keller greatly influenced his further 
development. Works : Giant's Grave iu 
Riigen ; Canossa ; The Kyflliiiuser ; Ulysses 
hunting Goats, Weimar Museum ; Iphige- 
nia by the Sea ; Eight Pictures from Myth 
of Cupid and Psjxhe ; Cassandra and An- 
tigone ; Sabine Landscape (1873) ; SapjDho 
(1880); Iphigenia in Tauris (1881); Hero in 
a Landscape (1884).— Milller, 202 ; Leisuer, 
Mod. K., ii. 116 ; IMeyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 
490 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1881), i. 130 ; ii. 549 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., xx. 76. 

Imst, Tyrol, Feb. 22, 1761, died by suicide 
at Gratz, Styria, iu 1806. Historj' and por- 
trait painter, son of a painter ; pupil of Jo- 
hann Jacob Zeiler, at Reute, then of Vienna 
Academy under Filger and Maurer, where 
he won the first prize in 1786 ; lived at War- 
saw in 1787-94 as instructor in the famUy 
of Prince Jablonowski, and after his return 
successively at Imst, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt, 
Vienna and Gratz. Painted also excellent 
miniatures. Works: Sleeping Fauu (1786); 
Portrait of Kosciuszko (about 1790); do. of 
Field-Marshal Laudon ; Portrait of Walleu- 
stein (copy after Van Dyck), Ferdinan- 
deum, Lmsbruck. — Nagler, vi. 529 ; Wurz- 
bach, X. 448. 

KAPPES, ALFRED, boru in New York 
in 1850. Genre painter, self-taught. Ex- 



hibits at the National Academy. Studio in 
New York. Works in oil : His Pipe and 
His Paper (1879); Village Oracle (1880); 
Preparing Dinner (1881); Is this Life worth 
Living? (1882), T. B. Clarke, New York; 
An Interior (1883). Water-colours : Closing 
Hymn ; My Aunt Sapphira (1884). 

KAPPIS, ALBERT, born in Tubingen; 
contemporary. Landscape and genre paint- 
er, studied in Tubingen and in Munich ; in 
1880 was made professor at Art-School in 
Stuttgart. Works : Suabian Village Scene 
(18G3) ; Harvest Scene, Summer, View in 
Black Forest (1866); Vintage in Suabia; 
Hemp Harvest in Suabia (1868) ; Bathing 
Weather in Holland ; Potato Harvest ; 
Harvest Afternoon ; Idjl on Chiem Lake ; 
In Vintage Time ; Threshing Machine in 
Farm- Yard; Fish-Market (1877).— Kunst- 
Chronik, xv. 611 ; Miiller, 292. 

KAEGER, KAEL, born in Vienna, Jan. 
30, 1848. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy ; 
won the gold mo- 
dal in 1867, then 
studied under and 
assisted Engerth in 
the paintings for 
the new opera 
house ; moved to 
Munich in 1871 
and visited Italy in 1873. Works : Post 
Station (1873); Scene at Railway Station 
(1875), Vienna Museum ; Levying of Taxes, 
Street Scene in Venice, Graben in Vienna 
(1877), Emperor of Austria. — Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xxi. 491 ; Miiller, 292 ; Zeitsch., xiii. 

born in Pesth about 1830. Portrait, genre, 
and still life painter, daughter and pupU of 
the portrait painter Johann Tobias Kiirg- 
ling (born at Augsburg, Feb. 9, 1780, died 
at Pesth, AjjrU 11, 1845); studied after- 
wards in the Imperial Galleries in Vienna, 
where she settled after her marriage to the 
pianist Pacher, having worked for many | 

years in Pesth. Her portraits were in great 
demand. Works : Grandmother (1851) ; 
Garland with Religious Emblems (1852); 
Little Violet-Trader (1855) ; Grapes and 
Melon, Flowers around Crucifix (1855). — 
Wurzbach, x. 351. 

lOESSEN, KASPARUS, born at Amster- 
dam, April 2, 1810. Landscape and city 
views painter, pupil of Pieter George Wes- 
tenberg (born 1791) and of Hendrik Gerrit 
ten Cate (born 1803). Member of Amster- 
dam Academy in 1836. Visited Westphalia 
and the banks of the Rhine in 1837. Works : 
Interior of Old Exchange at Amsterdam 
(1837), Museum, Amsterdam ; City Views 
(2), Museum Fodor, ib. — Immerzeel, ii. 96. 

born in Potsdam, April 26, 1810. History 
painter, pupil of Berlin Academy under W. 
Hensel ; won first prize in 1836, went to 
Paris and studied under Cogniet until 1840, 
then to Rome, whence he visited Naples, 
Palermo, Florence, and Venice ; returned 
to Berlin in 1850 ; during the years follow- 
ing visited Spain, Greece, Turkey, and Eng- 
land, and then became jirofessor at the 
Berlin Academy. Works : Contest of Two 
Shepherds on the Flute (1836); Acquittal 
of Susanna ; Christ on Mount of Olives 
(1854), St. Andrew's, Berlin ; Baptism of 
Christ; Resurrection; Entombment (1860); 
Christ and Disciples at Emmaus ; Tobias 
and the Angel Raphael ; Cupid Listening ; 
Christ blessing the Children ; Albanian Wo- 
man at Prayer, Stettin Museum. Fresco : 
Prophets Elijah and Ezekiel, Chapel of Royal 
Palace, Berlin ; Paintings in New Berlin 
Museum.— Kunstbl. (1854)* 203, 361 ; (1855), 
270 ; (1856), 430 ; Miiller, 292 ; Rosenberg, 
Berliner Malerschule, 84. 

TEN, born at The Hague, Feb. 16, 1822. 
Genre painter, pupil in Amsterdam of Cor- 
nells Kruseman ; won a medal at the Acad- 
emy there when nineteen, went to Paris for 
one year, returned to Amsterdam, and set- 
tled at The Hague. Honorary member of 
Rotterdam Academy in 185G. Works : Cal- 


vinist Prisoners under Louis XTV. ; Paternal 
Blessing ; Political Discussions ; Kural Feast 
(1855); Dutch Fishermen (1857) ; From Siege 
of Alkmaar ; The Eight of the Stronger ; 
Levee of the Marquis ; Court Scene ; Guard 
Room ; Imprisoned Spies ; Ostade and his 
Models ; Persecution of Jews ; Tavern Scene ; 
Poacher ; Trial of the Sword ; Trial of the 
Brush ; Anteroom, Museum, Amsterdam ; 
In Church, Museum Fodor, ib.; Musical 
Tea Party in Time of Louis XV. (1854), 
Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; Dutch Village Inn, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Soldiers at the Inn, Stet- 
tin Museum. — Immerzeel, ii. 97 ; Kramm, 
iii. 840 ; Mtiller, 293 ; Meyer, Con v. Lex., 
xsi. 493. 

KATZENSTEIN, LOUIS, born in Cassel 
in 1824. Genre and portrait painter, pupil 
of Cassel Academy, and in Paris of Cogniet ; 
went to England to paint portraits, spent 
one year in Italy, and then some time in 
Portugal, where he was employed by the 
king. Works : Van Dyck and Charles I, 
Municipal Gallerj', Cassel ; Eubens and 
Brouwer ; Grandfather and Grandson ; 
Ostade in a Tavern ; The Widow ; Letter- 
Writer ; Don Sebastian ; Return from Mas- 
querade Ball ; Girls' School ; Cinderella ; 
Declaration of Love ; Fortune-Teller ; Pe- 
titioner ; Favourable Moment ; Interior of 
Lowenburg near Cassel. — Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1862), ii. 820 ; MuUer, 293. 
GELICA, born 
at Coire, Switz- 
erland, Oct. 30, 
1741, died in 
Rome, Nov. 5, 

iM^'^-^^^ M 18 07. History 

\N^_ "' ^%. j^v and portrait 
painter, daugh- 
ter and pupil of 
Joseph Kauff- 
mann, an infe- 
rior portrait painter, who was, at that time, 
employed by the Prince-Bishop of Coire. 
From 1742 until 1757 the family lived in 
North Italy, at Morbegno until 1752, at 

Como until 1754, where Angelica, at the 
age of eleven, attracted general attention 
by her portrait of the Bishop of Como, and 
finally at Milan, Avhere she copied the mas- 
terworks of the Lombard school, and painted 
portraits. After her mother's death, she 
went with her father to Schwarzenberg, 
Vorarlberg, his native place, and assisted 
him in decorating the parish church. Soon 
after completing this work, she returned to 
Italy, and having visited Milan, Bologna, 
and Parma, was in Florence in 1762, in 
Rome in 1763-64, whence she visited Naples, 
then in Bologna in 1765, and studied in Ven- 
ice Titian, Tintoretto, and Paolo Veronese. 
In 1776 she accompanied Lady Wentworth 
to England, where she met with the most 
flattering reception. An unfortunate mar- 
riage with an impostor who had passed him- 
self off for a Swedish Count Horn blighted 
her life, although she soon obtained a di- 
vorce. In 1769 she was elected one of the 
original members of the Royal Academy, to 
whose exhibitions she annually contributed 
until 1781, when she married the Venetian 
painter Antonio Zucchi, and went to Venice, 
and in 1782 to Rome and Naples, where she 
was in great favour with the royal family. 
On her return to Rome, the Emperor Jo- 
seph II. sought her acquaintance, and gave 
her commissions for his gallery. Her nu- 
merous compositions, although weak in 
drawing and often monotonous through 
repetition of the same subject, especially in 
her female figures, show in their warm col- 
ouring and graceful treatment the influence 
of Mengs. She painted her own portrait 
several times ; her bust was placed in the 
Pantheon in 1808. Works : Twelve Apos- 
tles (fresco, 1757), Church at Schwarzen- 
berg ; Female Figure allured by Music and 
Painting (1760) ; Death of Leonardo da 
Vinci (1781); Servius Tullius as a Child 
(1784, for the Czar Paul) ; Hermann and 
Thusnelda, Funeral of Pallas (both 1786, 
for Joseph H.), Vienna Museum ; Virgil 
reading his Jilneid to Empress Octavia, 
Augustus reading Verses relating to Death 


of Mai'cellus, Achilles in Female Attire dis- 
covered by Ulysses (for Catherine U.), Na- 
than and David, St. Joachim, St. Ann and 
Infant Christ (1785-88); Cupid, Holy Fam- 
ily, Circe and Heros, Telemachus received 
by Calypso, Adonis going to Hunt, Mother 
of the Gracchi, Brutus condemning his Sons 
to Death, Agrij)piaa with the Ashes of Ger- 
manicus, Venus and Euphrosyne, Cupid 
leading Bacchus to Ariadne, Pyrrhus car- 
ried by Nurse to Glaucias, Death of Alces- 
tis, Praxiteles giving to Phryne Statuette 
of Cupid, Phryne tempting Xenocrates, 
Egeria with Numa Pompilius, Nathan up- 
braiding David, Venus advising the Bride 
of Menelaus to love Paris, Ovid in Exile 
writing his Elegies, First Meeting of Hero 
and Leander, Nymph with White Veil, Abra- 
ham casting off Hagar, Annunciation, Christ 
and the Children (1788-98); Eeligion sur- 
rounded by Virtues (1798), National Gal- 
lery, London ; Ariadne and Theseus, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Scene from Ossian's Songs ; 
Madonna, AschafPenburg Gallery ; do. in 
Glory, Omnia Vanitas, Mary of Egypt 
(1798-1800); Christ and the Woman" of 
Samaria (1799), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Coriolanus going into Exile (1802); Cleo- 
patra and Augustus ; Birth of John the 
Baptist, St. Magdalen (1803); Orpheus and 
Eurydice ; Messalina's Sacrifice ; Memory 
■of General Stanwick's Daughter ; Interview 
between Edgar and Elfrida ; Unna and 
Abra, Samma at Benoui's Grave ; Cupid 
drying Psyche's Tears ; Yorick and the 
Monk of Calais, Yorick and Juliette (Sterne's 
" Sentimental Journey "), Adieux of Abelard 
and Heloise, Hermitage, St. Petersburg; 
Thetis bathing Achilles in Water from the 
Styx, Rinaldo and Armida, Subject from 
Ancient History, Academy, ib. ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Young Girl combing her Hair, Girl and 
Old Man, Female Figure, Museo Civico, 
Venice ; Sibyls (2), Pinacoteca, Turin ; Vir- 
tue directed by Prudence to avoid the So- 
licitations of Folly, Pennsylvania Academy, 
Philadelphia. Portraits : Monsignore Nev- 
roni, Bishop of Como (1752); Christian HI 


of Denmark (1767); Royal Family of Naples 
(1782-84); Prince Poniatowski (1785); Raph- 
ael Mengs (2)- Goethe ; Lady Hamilton ; 
Antonio Zucchi (2); Young Lady as Sibyl, 
do. as Vestal, Dresden Gallery ; Winkel- 
mann, Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort, and Ziirich 
Gallery ; Louis I. of Bavaria as Cro^vn Prince 
(1805), New Pinakothek, Munich ; do., 
Schleissheim Gallery ; A Lady, Stuttgart 
Museum ; Duchess of Brunswick, Hampton 
Court Palace ; Ai-ohitect Novosielski, Na- 
tional Gallery, Edinburgh ; Portrait of Her- 
self, National Portrait Gallery, London ; 
do., Beriin Museum ; do. (1784), Old Pin- 
akothek, Munich ; do. (3), Ferdinandeum, 
Innsbruck ; do., Pennsylvania Academy, 

phia. — All- 
g e m . d . 
Biogr., XV. 
4G6 ; Ch. Blanc, !lficole allemande ; Dohme, 
lii.; Forster, iv. 35; Goethe, Winckelmann 
u. sein Jahrh., ii. 135 ; Guhl, 163 ; Reber, 
i. 86 ; Riegel, 47 ; Sternberg, Berlilimte 
deutsche Frauen, i.; Weiuhart, Leben der 
A. K. ; Wurzbach, xi. 44 ; Rossi, Vita di A 
K. (Florence, 1810); Wessely, Kunstubende 
Frauen, 73. 

Hamburg, Nov. 7, 
1808. Genre and 
landscape painter, 
pupil in Hamburg of 
Gerdt Hardorflf, then 
of Munich Academy ; 
has visited the Bavar- 
ian and Tyrolese 
Alps, Norway, and 
North Germany ; lives 
in Hamburg. Works: 
On the Seashore (1842), Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Bavarian Mountaineers resting on 
Rocky Path (1841), Midday Rest during Har- 
vest, Freight Wagon be fore Smithy (1843), Re- 
turn from the Alp, Snow Landscape (1848), 
Road through the Heath, Ferry in Tyrol, 
Village View with Peasants, Wood-Carters 
in the Snow, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Postil- 











ion in Snowstorm, Hay Harvest, Provinzial 
Museum, Hanover ; Cemetery in Winter, 
Kouigsberg Museum ; Foraging Convoy in 
the Snow, Stettin Museum ; Interior of Post- 
Station ; Bear-Dance in a Village ; Leaving 
the Alps ; North German Heath ; Sleighing 
on the Elbe ; Hay Harvest (1869) ; Fishing 
Scene on the Ice. — Mtiller, 293 ; Zeitschr. f. 
b. K., ix. (Mittheilungen, ii. 2G). 

KAUFFMANN, HUGO, born in Ham- 
burg, Aug. 7, 1844. 
Genre painter, son 
of Hermann, pupil 
of Stiidel Institute, 
Frankfort, under 
Jacob Becker and 
Zwerger; studied 
then for a short time 
in Dtisseldorf, lived 
at Kronberg in the 
Taunus in 1863-71, 
during which period he spent a year and a 
half in Paris, and then settled in Munich. 
"Works ; Labourer Politicians (1868), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg ; Start for the Chase, Waltz 
for the Old People (1870); Tavern Scene ; 
Fortune-Teller ; Horses at Watering-Tank ; 
Loading Wood ; Master is Coming ! Pig 
Trade ; Auction (1873); Sick Pointer ; After 
School ; Return from Chase ; In the Fox 
Trap ; Jealous Dragoon ; Wandering Musi- 
cians (1876); Juggler (1880); Poachers sur- 
prised by Forester ; Excited Minds (1883); 
Good Beer! Bad Beer! (1884); Chicken 
Bobber Killed (1885).— Kunst-Chronik, v. 
xii. ; Midler, 298 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1884), i. 
105, 108. 

KAUFMANN, THEODOR, born at Uel- 
zen, Hanover, in 1814. Genre painter, pupil 
in Munich of Kaulbach ; took part in the 
revolution at Dresden in 1848, went to 
America in 1855, and fought on the side of 
the Union in the Civil War. In 1871 he 
published the "American Painting-Book." 
Works : Admiral Farragut entering Har- 
bour through Torpedos ; General Sherman 
in Camp ; Westward Course of the Union ; 
Indians attacking Train ; Slaves seeking 

Shelter under Flag of the Union ; Farragut 
in the Rigging ; Portrait of Senator Revels. 
—Mtiller, 293 ; Br. Meyer, Stud. u. Ki-it., 

Arolsen, Waldeck, 
July 8, 1822. Por- 
trait painter, neph- 
ew and pupil in 
Munich of Wilhelm 
Kaulbach in 1839- 
45, after which he 
visited Italy ; re- 
turned to Munich, 
and after some 
years went as court-painter to Hanover. 
Especially excels in female portraits. Mem- 
ber of Berlin Academy. Gold medal in Ber- 
Un (1872) ; medal in" Vienna (1873) ; Mu- 
nich, 2d class, 1883. Works : Abel found by 
his Parents ; Coronation of Charlemagne, 
Maximilianeum, Munich ; Portraits of Royal 
Family of Hanover, Gallery, Hanover ; Por- 
trait of Sculptor Gosser, Provinzial Museum, 
ib. ; Empress of Austria, Grand Duchess of 
Mecklenburg, Princess Alexandrine, German 
Crown Prince, Princess Wilhelmine of Hes- 
sen-Philippsthal, Count and Countess Stol- 
berg. Count and Countess Knyphausen, 
Sculptor Elizabeth Ney. — D. Kunstblatt 
(1855), 132 ; (1856), 35, 397 ; (1857), 245 ; 
Mtiller, 294. 

born in Hanover, June 
2, 1850. Genre and 
portrait painter, son 
and pupil of Friedrich 
Kaulbach, then pupil 
at Nuremberg of Kre- 
in Mu- 
in his portraits to imi- 
tate Holbein. Mem- 
ber of Berlin Acad- 
emy, Gold medal, Berlin, 1884 ; Bavarian 
Crown Order, 1885. Works : Mother's Joy ; 
Lute-Player ; Girl in the Woods ; Revery ; 
The Walk ; German Lady of 16th Century 

ling ; settled 
nich in 1872. 



(1875) ; May-Day (1879), Dresden GaUery ; 
Portrait of Johanna Lahmeyer (1876) ; Fe- 
male Portrait (1877) ; Summer Pleasure ; 
Lute-Players, Vienna Museum. — Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1876), ii. 4 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 
492 ; MiiUer, 294 ; Leixner, Mod. K., i. 107 ; 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1876), ii. 4, 561 ; (1883), i. 
79 ; ii. 293 ; Zeitscli., xiv. 32 ; xx. 75. 
nich, July 26, 1846. His- 
torical genre painter, 
sou of Wilhelm Kaul- 
bach, pupil of Piloty, 
then went to Italy. Me- 
dal in Vienna (1873). 
Honorary member of 
Munich Academy, 1885. 
Works: Monk Painting, 
Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg ; Louis XI. 
and his Barber at Peronne (1869); Children's 
Confession (1871) ; Hansel and Gretel with 
the Witch (1872); Mozart's last Moments 
(1873) ; From the Holy Land (1874) ; Sebas- 
tian Bach at Frederic the Great's (1875); Vol- 
taire at Paris (1876) ; With the Tower-Fal- 
cons (1879); Messalina (1882).— Miiller, 294; 
Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 538 ; Leixner, Mod. 
K, ii. 19 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1888), ii. 293. 

Arolsen, Oct. 15, 
1805, died in Mu- 
nich, April 7, 1874. 
History painter, 
pupil of Diisseldorf 
Academy under 
Cornelius, whom 
to Munich and con- 
tinued his studies 
in the Academy 
there. Though occupied from 1826 with 
several great decorative compositions in the 
Palace, the Odeon, and the Hofgarten, Mu- 
nich, he did not really learn to paint until 
he went to Eome in 1839. In 1847 he was 
called to Berlin to decorate the Treppen- 
haus (Staircase Hall) of the New Museum, 

which occupied him many years ; in 1849 
appointed director of the Munich Academy. 
He was an officer of the L. of Honour, Grand 
Commander of St. Michael, Commander of 
the Order of Francis Joseph, corresponding 
member of the Institute of France, and mem- 
ber of several academies. Kaulbach made 
many designs for book illustrations, among 
them those for Eeynard the Fox (1846), 
Goethe's Faust, The Gospels, Dance of 
Death, the works of Shakespeare and Schil- 
ler, and Wagner's operas. Despite his man- 
nerisms, he was one of the greatest modern 
German painters, and with his master Cor- 
nelius represents the new Munich school 
during the reign of King Louis of Bavaria. 
Works : Apollo and the Muses (1826), Ode- 
on, Munich ; Symbolical figures of four 
Bavarian Rivers, Bavaria, sixteen wall paint- 
ings from Fable of Cupid and Psyche, Palace 
of Duke Max, Munich ; Insane Asylum, Bat- 
tle of the Saxons (1834, cartoon). Battle of 
the Huns (1835-37, cartoon), Eaczynski Gal- 
lery, Berlin; Destruction of Jerusalem (1838, 
cartoon) (1842-47, in oil). New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Deliverance of Holy Sepulchre by 
the Crusaders ; Christ in Purgatory ; Anac- 
reon and his Love, Villa Eosenstein, near 
Stuttgart ; Artist's portrait from Masquerade 
Festival in 1840, Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg; Life-size Group after Goethe's 
Elegies, National Museum, Pesth ; Wall 
paintings in Treppenhaus, Berlin Museum : 
Fall of Babel, Homer and the Greeks, De- 
struction of Jerusalem, The Crusaders, Bat- 
tle of the Huns, The Reformation, and con- 
necting figures (1847-65) ; Aisotheosis of a 
Good King (1851), Schleissheim Gallery ; 
The Saga (1852), Shepherd Boy in Eome, 
Eaczynski Gallery, Berlin ; Oil Sketches (19) 
for Frescos (executed on outside of Pinako- 
thek by NUson and Barth) representing De- 
velopment of Modern Art in Munich, Por- 
trait of King Louis L of Bavaria (Sketch, 
1843), Portraits of the Painters Heinlein 
and Monten (1840), New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Battle of Salamis, Stuttgart Museum ; 
Portrait of Louis I. of Bavaria, Pennsylvania 











Academy, Philadelphia ; Otto m. in the 
Tomb of Charlemagne (fresco), Nuremberg 
Museum ; Meeting of Charlemagne and 
Wittikind, Assassination of Caesar (cartoon), 
Battle of Salamis, Maximilianeum, Munich ; 
Nero persecuting the Christians ; Peter Ar- 
bues — the German Michael ; Ciqnd and 
Psyche, Mrs. A. T. Stewart, New York; 
Charity, H. Probaseo, Cincinnati. — AUgem. 
d. Biogr., XV. 478 ; Art Journal (1865), 365 ; 
Brockhaus, x. 202 ; Dioskuren, 1865 ; Illust. 
Zeitg. (1872), i. 31 ; (1874), i. 9, 331 ; (1876), 
i. 310 ; Kugler, kl. Schriften, iii. 278, 421, 
549 ; Kunst-Chronik, vii. 356 ; yiii. 544 ; 
ix. 425 ; Mitterbacher, Kaulbach's Nero ; 
Pecht, ii. 54 ; Perrier, Etudes, 266 ; Eoset- 
ti, F. A., 123 ; Eeber, ii. 60, 186 ; Eegnet, 
i. 212; Schasler, D. Wandgemalde W. v. 
K's. ; Land und Meer (1874), i. 15 ; ii. 
751 ; Woltmann, Aus vier Jahrhunderten, 
288 ; Proceedings Amer. Acad., viii. 239 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, i. 37, 118 ; v. 129 ; xi. 257. 
KEHEEN, JOSEF, born at Htilchrath, 
Duchy of Berg, May 30, 1817, died in Diis- 
seldorf, May 12, 1880. History painter, pu- 
pil of the Dilsseldorf Academy, where he was 
Schadow's assistant. In 1839 he produced 
his first independent work, and afterwards 
assisted artist friends in the execution of 
frescos, viz.: Stilke at Burg Stolzenfels in 
1846, Miiller in St. Apolhnaris Church, Ee- 
magen, and Bethel in the cycle from the life 
of Charlemagne in the City Hall at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, which he completed (1862) after 
Eetliel became insane (1852). Works : St. 
Agnes, Count Trips (1839) ; St. Hubert 
(1841) ; Madonna (1842) Church at Weve- 
linghofen; Christ and Peter (1844); Loreley 
(1847) ; Joseph discovering himself to his 
Brethren (1849), Miss Mason, New York ; 
Christ and Disciples at Emmaus (1852) ; 
Good Shepherd, Christ Crucified, Mater 
Dolorosa (1872) ; Saul beside Body of St. 
Stephen (1873, cartoon). — AUgem. d. Biogr., 
XV. 528 ; Porster, v. 384 ; Kunstbl. (1854), 
371 ; (1857), 43 ; (1858), 56 ; Kunst-Chron- 
ik, XV. 624 ; Wolfgang Mtiller, Diisseldorfer 
K., 55 ; Wiegmaun, 175. 

KEIEmCX (Kerrincx, Kierings), ALEX- 
ANDEE, born in Antwerp, Jan. 23, 1600, 
died in Amsterdam after 1652. Flemish 
school ; landscape painter. Master of Ant- 
werp guild in 1619, bought freedom of Am- 
sterdam, January 30, 1652, probably lived 
for some time at Utrecht, and is not, as 
heretofore reported by Dutch writers, iden- 
tical with Jacob Keerincx who went to Eng- 
land to paint for Charles I. castles and 
landscapes in Scotland. Poelenburg often 
supplied the figures in his pictures. Works : 
Forest (1629), Hague Museum ; do. (1630), 
Eotterdam Museum ; Landscape with Flight 
into Egypt, Basle Museum ; Temple Euins, 
Leipsic Museum ; Temptation of Christ 
(1636), Schleissheim Gallery ; Landscapes 
in galleries at Aschaffenburg, Augsburg (3), 
Copenhagen (3, one dated 1630), Schwerin 
(2), in museums at Boston, Brunswick (3, 
two dated 1021, 1640), Cologne, Darmstadt, 
Dresden (4, one dated 1620), and Stock- 
holm ; in Old Pinakothek, Munich (1631), 
Gallery, Vien- 
na, and Her- 
mitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg (2).- 
AUgem. d. Biogr., xv. 539 ; Kramm, iii. 842 ; 
Eiegel, Beitrage, i. 89 ; ii. 162, 176 ; Van 
den Branden, 1059. 

KELLEE, ALBEET, born at Gais, Switz- 
eriand, April 27, 1844. 
Genre painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy under 
Lenbach, then under 
Eamberg, whose most 
gifted scholar he was ; 
studied the old masters, 
and visited Italy, 
France, England, and 
Holland. Medal, Vi- 
enna, 1873. Works: 
The Tipplers (1869) ; Audience of Louis 
XV. (1871) ; Chopin (1873) ; Sylvan SoU- 
tnde. Temptation (1876) ; Eendezvous ; 
Lady in Ball Toilet, Souvenir (1877) ; A Eo- 
man Bath ; Empress Faustina in the Temple 

CAte/v / 




of Juno at Praeneste ; Rising of Tabea, 
Judgment of Paris (1885). — D. illustr. Zeitg. 
(1885), i. 151 ; Leixner, Mod. K, i. 106. 
KELLER, FERDINAND, born in Carls- 
ruhe, Aug. 5, 1842. 
Landscape, bis- 
torj', portrait, and 
genre painter, pu- 
pil of Carlsruhe 
Art Scbool under 
Scbirmer, tben of 
Canon ; visited, in 
1866, and later, 
France and Italy. 
In 1858 he accom- 
panied his father and brother to Bi-azil, 
whence he brought studies for his tropical 
landscapes. His first historical painting, 
the Death of Philip 11., exhibited in Paris 
in 1867, excited general admiration, and won 
the first j)rize at Rio Janeiro. Professor 
and, since 1880, director of Carlsruhe Art 
School. Medal, Vienna, 1873. Works: 
From the Primeval Forest ; Bay of Eio de 
Janeiro ; Alchymist ; Caraer-Pigeon ; Nero 
at Conflagration of Rome (1873) ; Lohen- 
grin and Telramund ; Scene in Marriage of 
Figaro ; Humboldt on the Orinoco (1875); 
Sketch for Curtain in Royal Theatre (1875), 
Dresden Museum ; Entombment ; Victory 
of Margrave Louis William of Baden at 
Salankemen in 1691, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Hero and Leander (1880) ; Portrait of Grand- 
duchess of Oldenburg and little Daughter 
(1884). Fresco, Annunciation (1870), 
Jesuit Church, Heidelberg ; Classic and 
Romantic Art and Science (1885), cycle in 
staircase of United Collections at Carlsruhe. 
— Kunst-Chronik, x. 580 ; xx. 657 ; Kunst. 
f. AUe, i. 163 ; Miiller, 295 ; Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1874), i. 207 ; (1875), i. 13, 47 ; (1881), ii. 
368; Land und Meer (1878), i. 251. 

tenrath. Duchy of Berg, in 1758, died in 
Munich in 1830. Portrait painter, studied 
in Dusseldorf under Krahe, and in Antwerp; 
Avent to Vienna in 1779, and to Italy in 
1782. Made court-painter in 1784 to the 

Elector Charles Theodor in Munich, and 
first professor at the reorganized Academy 
there, in 1808. Works : Max I. of Bavaria, 
Munich University ; Gustavus Adolphus IV. 
of Sweden, and his Queen ; Archduke 
Charles of Austria ; Crown Prince Ludwig ; 
Augusta Amalia von Leuchtenberg ; Bishop 
von Streber ; Archbishop von Gebsattel ; 
Last Abbot of Steingaden, New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Portrait of a Singer, do. of a 
Prelate, Schleissheim Gallery. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., XV. 584 ; Cotta's Kunstblatt (1831), 
173 ; Nagler, vi. 553. 

KELS, FRANZ, born at Derendorf, West- 
phalia, in 1828. Genre painter, pupil of 
Dusseldorf Academy. Works : Girl with 
Goat (1849) ; Peasant Woman with Child 
before Madonna (1852); Westphalian Peas- 
ant Wedding (1856); Domestic Happiness 
(1857); Spring Offering (1860); Apple Har- 
vest (1862); Girls at the Brook.— D. Kunstbl. 
(1856), 405 ; (1857), 18 ; Miiller, 296. 
in Cheshire, Conn., 
March 22, 1818, died 
in New York, Dec. 
16, 1872. Landscape 
painter ; after study- 
ing engraving under 
Daggett, he spent 
seven years abroad 
(1840-47), painting 
in England, Rome, 
Naples, Switzerland, 
on the Rhine, and among the Italian lakes. 
First exhibited at Royal Academy, London, 
in 1845. Elected N.A. in New York, in 
1849. In 1859, appointed member of the 
commission to superintend the decoration 
of the Capitol at Washington. Professional 
life spent in New York. Works : Mount 
Washington from North Conway (1849) ; 
Sketch of Mount Washington (1851), High 
Bank on Genesee River (1857), October Af- 
ternoon (1864), Corcoran Gallery, Washing- 
ton ; Franconia Mountains (1853) ; Sunset 
on the Coast (1858) ; Sunset in the Adiron- 
dacks (1860) ; Twenty-four Landscapes and 


Sea Views, New York Museum ; Noon on 
the Seashore (engraved by S. V. Hunt); 
Bashbish ; Lake Conesus (Robert Hoe, New 
York), Coast of Massachusetts (S. Gandy, 
ib.), GHmpse of the White Mountains (1867); 
New Hampshire Scenery, Century Club, 
New York ; Afternoon on the Connecticut 
Shore, John Taylor Johnston sale, ib., 
1877; Lake George, Morris K. Jesup, ib.; 
Narragansett ; Prom the Meadows at Cold 
Spring ; Bass Rock — Newport ; Italian 
Lake, J. W. Drexel, New York ; Landscape, 
R. L. Kennedy, ib. ; On the Thames, J. W. 
McCoy, Baltimore ; Sunset, C. C. Perkins, 

KENT, W TTTJA M, born in Yorkshire in 
1685, died in London, April 12, 1748. Por- 
trait and decoration painter ; went about 
1704 to London, and in 1710 to Rome, 
where he gained a second-class medal. 
After a second journey to Rome he settled 
in London, under the patronage of Lord 
Burlington. He decorated Wanstead House, 
Raiuham, and painted several ceilings for 
Sir Robert Walpole at Hampton, but is best 
known as the architect of Devonshire House, 
Piccadilly ; the Earl of Yarborough's house, 
Arlington Street ; the Horse Guards, White- 
hall, and other buildings. He was a weak 
man and was caricatured by Hogarth, but 
had considerable influence on the taste of 
his day and held the appointment of master 
carpenter, architect, keeper of the pictures, 
and principal painter to the Crown. In 
Hampton Court Palace are pictures by him 
of the Interview and Marriage of Henry V. 
and Princess Catherine. — Redgrave ; F. de 
Conches, 90. 

bom in Bruges, May 4, 1667, died there, 
Aug. 8, 1724. Flemish school ; history and 
portrait painter, pupil at Bruges of Jan van 
Meunincxhove, then at Antwerp of Jan Ei-as- 
mus Quellin. Perfected himself on a jour- 
ney through France, lived for some time in 
Paris, and on his return founded with Duve- 
nede the Bruges Academy, of which he was 
appointed the first professor. Painted for 

churches and public buildings many histori- 
cal pictures, distinguished for good compo- 
sition and colouring and knowledge of archi- 
tecture and perspective. Works : Assembly 
of the Gods, Town Hall, Bruges ; St. Cath- 
erine of Siena (1716), Academy, ib.^Im- 
merzeel, ii. 102 ; Nagler, vi. 559 ; Weale, 
Cat., 90. • 

Bruges in Oct., 1862, died there, Aug. 12, 
1873. Landscape painter. This phenom- 
enal child began to paint, at the age of 
seven, landscapes on a diminutive scale, of 
which about 350 were exhibited in the great 
cities of Europe, calling forth a protracted 
controversy among the art-critics as to their 
authenticity. — Siret, L'enfaut de Bruges 
(Paris, 1876). 

IiERN, ANTON, born at Tetschen, Bo- 
hemia, in 1710, died in Dresden, June 8, 
1747. German school ; history painter, 
pupil in Dresden of Rossi, then for seven 
years in Venice of Pittoni ; returned to Dres- 
den a finished artist, went to Rome in 1738, 
and was made court-painter to Augustus HI. 
in 1741. Works : St. John Nepomuk, St. 
Joseph, St. Barbara, Trinity, St. John Evan- 
gelist, all in churches near Tetschen ; St. 
ApoUonia ; St. Barbara ; St. Augustin, Ab- 
bey of Strahow, Prague ; Adoration of the 
Magi, Circumcision, Mary the Vii'gin at the 
Cradle, St. Magdalen, Holy Family, Christ 
in the Temple, Czerniu Gallery ; Trinity, 
Prague Gallery ; St. Hubert ; Alexander 
and Diogenes ; Rachel and Jacob ; Rebecca 
and Eleazai- ; Fair Flower Girl ; Four Sea- 
sons ; St. Sebastian Dying, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Massacre of Innocents, Dresden Gal- 
lery. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xv. 630 ; Wurz- 
bach, xi. 184. 

in Antwerp, baptized April 22, 1682, died 
there, buried Jan. 7, 1745. Flemish school ; 
history painter, son of the sculptor WUlem 
Kerricx, and pupil of Godefroid Maes, the 
younger. He became master of the guild 
in 1703, and painted several excellent altar- 
pieces. Was also a sculptor, architect, and 



play-writer. Works: St. Luke, Adoration 
of the Lamb, Passover in Egypt, Antwerp 
Museum.— Cat. du Musee d'Anvers (1874), 
225 ; Kramm, iii. 850 ; Eooses (Reber), 439 ; 
Van den Branden, 1169. 

Antwerp, April 7, 1648, died at Breda in 
1696. Flemish school ; landscape, animal, 
and stiU-life paintei-, son and pupil of Jan 
van Kessel, the elder, whose style he fol- 
lowed. He also undertook to paint large 
historical subjects, as the Battle of Choc- 
zim, 1673, for the parish church at Zolkiew, 
Gahcia, by order of King John Sobieski, 
who took this artist into great favour and 
for whose Cabinet he painted the Pour Ele- 
ments and the Four Continents, and after 
both perished in the flames, repeated them 
on a grander scale. Left Antwerp before 
1688, and settled at Breda, where he painted 
for King William m. Works : Birds (minia- 
ture), Duke of Devonshire, Chatsworth ; 
Group of Animals, Ghent Museum ; Cats' 

>• shop, Mon- 
l^yl keys Smok- 
ing, Vienna 
Museum. — 
Engerth, Belvedere Gal., ii. 220 ; Kramm, 
iii. 851 ; Van den Branden, 1101. 

KESSEL, JAN VAN, the elder, born in 
Antwerp, April 
5, 1626, died 
there, April 
17, 16 79. 
school ; flower, 
fruit, and ani- 
mal painter, 
son of Jeroom 
van Kessel, 
pupil of Simon 
de Vos and of Jan Brueghel, the younger ; 
master of the guild in 1644. Works : Gar- 
land around Holy Family, Louvre ; Fruit- 
piece (1653), Bordeaux Museum ; Concert 
of Birds, Antwerp Museum ; do., and Fable 
of Fox and Stork (1661), Baron de Pret- 

Thuret, Antwerp ; Landscape, Hague Mu- 
seum ; Bacchanale in a Landscape, Bruns- 
wick Museum ; Garland with Insects, etc. 
(1653); Rabbits by Vegetables, etc., Augs- 
burg Gallery ; Fruitseller in his Booth, Co- 
penhagen Gallery ; Fruits and Lobsters, etc. 
(1654, by Jeroom?), Dresden Museum ; Ma- 
donna in a Niche, Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg; America (1666), Europe (1664), 
Africa, Asia, Schleissheim Gallery ; Cats' 
Barber-Shop, Monkeys playing at Draughts, 
Schwerin GaUery ; Birds and small Animals, 
Weapons, Kettle-drum, etc., Stockholm Mu- 
seum ; Landscapes (2), Stuttgart Museum ; 
Boar-Hunt, Bear and Snake, Landscape with 
Birds, do. with Fox and Stork, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Garland around Infant Jesus and St. 
John (figures by Van Thulden), Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Fish, Fish and Fruits, do. with Three 
Infants, Studio of a Naturalist (1660), Fruits 
and Vegetables in Baskets, UfBzi, Florence ; 
Fruits and Flowers (2), Naples Museum. — 
. Ch. Blanc, 

iMX^SS^t /^.o£:colefla- 

"" •' / mande; 

Cat. du Mus. d'Anvers (1874), 476 ; Engerth, 
Belvedere Galerie, ii. 221 ; Immerzeel, ii. 
103 ; Kramm, iii. 852 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 
124 ; Rooses (Reber), 426 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 1098. 

KESSEL, JAN VAN, the younger, born 
in Antwerp, Nov. 23, 1654, died in Madrid 
in 1708. Flemish school ; history and por- 
trait painter, son and pupil of Jan the elder ; 
went to Madrid in 1680 ; made court -painter 
to Charles H., 1686. Works : Portrait of 
Philip IV., Madrid Museum ; History of 
Psyche, Landscapes, Alcazar, Madrid ; Two 
Dwarfs with Dog, Raczynski Gallery, Ber- 
lin. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xv. 654 ; Kramm, 
iii. 852 ; Van den Branden, 1104. 

KESSEL, JAN VAN, born in Amsterdam 
in 1641 or 1642, died there, buried Dec. 24, 
1690. Dutch school ; landscape painter, 
who in feeling and clearness of colouring 
approaches Jacob Ruisdael, of whom some 
call him a pupil. Particularly successful in 
winter landscapes ; painted also views of 


Amsterdam. Works : Northbrook Collec- 
tiou, London ; Forest, Torrent, Amsterdam 
Museum ; View near Haarlem, Sluice at 
Haarlem, Rotterdam Museum ; Landscapes 
in Antwerp and Darmstadt Museums, Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg, Old Pinakothek, Munich 
(1661); View of Haarlem, Cassel Gallery ; 
Canal of Haarlem, New York Museum. — 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 480 ; Immerzeel, ii. 104 ; 
Burger, Musoes, ii. 290. 

Antwerp, Sept. 10, 1677, died there in 1741. 
Flemish school ; genre painter, nephew and 
pupil of Ferdinand van Kessel, having first 
been apprenticed with Peter Ykens ; adoisted 
the style of David Teniers ; went eai-ly to 
Paris, where he acquired reputation by his 
village festivals, but on succeeding to his 
uncle's property fell into dissipation, and 
died in want. In 1704 he went to Antwerjj 
to buy his mastership. Works : Accesso- 
ries around " Soap-Bubbles " by Teniers, 
Louvre, Paris ; Guard Room, Sense of 
Smelling, LiUe Museum. — Van den Bran- 
den, 1103 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1873), i. 316. 

KESSEL, JEROOM VAN, bom at Ant- 
werp, baptized Oct. 6, 1578, died after 1636. 
Portrait, animal, and stUl-life painter, pupil 
of Cornells Floris ; worked fi'om about 
1606 in diiferent cities of Germany (Frank- 
fort, Augsburg, Strassburg), and was in 
great favor with the Archduke Maximilian 
of Austria, who employed him several years ; 
registered as master in Cologne in 1615, 
and still worked there in 1620 ; master of 
the guild at Antwerp in 1622. He supplied 
birds and animals in the landscapes of Jan 
(Velvet) Brueghel, and married his daughter. 
Works: Male Portrait (1620), Merlo CoUec- 
tion, Cologne ; Fruits with Lobster, etc. 
(1634 or 1654, attributed to Jan, the elder), 
Dresden Museum ; Family Group (1613), 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Male and 
Female Portrait (1618), Schleissheim Gal- 
lery. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xv. 653 ; Merlo, 
Nachrichten, 237 ; Van den Branden, 1097. 

KESSLER, AUGUST, born at Tilsit in 
1826. Landscape painter, pupil of Diissel- 

dorf Academy ; settled afterwards in Diissel- 
dorf. Works : Morning in the Woods 
(1846) ; Evening in Rocky Valley (1847) ; 
Evening Landscape in the Rain (1848) ; 
Summer Landscape (1849) ; Approaching 
Storm (1848) ; do. (1852) ; Morning in Ba- 
varian Alps (1860) ; View near Wallensee — 
Switzerland (1861) ; Landscape in Bavarian 
High Alps (1862) ; Approaching Storm 
(1863) ; Wood Landscape (1865) ; On Bri- 
enz Lake ; View on the Upper Ruhr ; Beech- 
Wood ; Ravine with Fir-Trees ; View on 
Gelmer Lake in Switzerland ; View on Ber- 
nina Glacier ; Swiss Landscape (1874) ; Hin- 
tersee in Thunder Storm (1879).— Miiller, 
297 ; Wolfg. Miiller, Dusseldf. K, 330 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K. (1869), (1873). 

KESSLER, FRANZ, flourished in Cologne 
about 1G15-29. German school ; portrait 
painter, probably pupil of Geldorp ; was 
registered in the Cologne guild in 1615, 
and travelled in 1620-24. Works : Portrait 
of a Man with Embroidered Doublet (1621) ; 
Female Portrait (1621), Cologne Museum ; 
Portrait of ^gidius Gelenius (1628) ; Male 
Portrait, National Gallery, Pesth ; Portrait 
of a Man with Long Beard (1629), Merlo 
Collection, Cologne. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xv. 
655 ; Merlo, 237. 

Mai-ch 15, 1548, died 
at Amsterdam, biu'ied 
Aug. 8, 1616. Dutch 
school ; portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Anthonie 
van Montfoort in Delft, 
thence went to Paris 
and Fontainebleau. 
Having returned to 
Gouda he went to Lon- 
don in 1573, painted 
Queen Elizabeth (1578), various personages 
of her court, and an allegory. After his re- 
turn to Amsterdam in 1581, he executed 
several ai-chery pieces which were distin- 
guished for their tasteful arrangement, like- 
ness of the heads, and fine and powerful 
colouring. Works : Portraits of Burgo- 

born at Gouda, 



master Jacob Bas and Wife, Museum, Am- 
sterdam ; Twelve Archers with their Cap- 
tain (1588), City Hall, ib.— Allgem. d. Biogr., 
XV. 664 ; Immerzeel, ii. 105 ; Kramm, iii. 
856 ; Nagler, Mon., ii. 102. 

KEULEN. See Ceiden. 

in Antwerp in 1544-90. Flemish school ; 
history and portrait painter, nephew of Wil- 
lem Key, pupil of Jan Hack ; master of Ant- 
■weriD guild in 1568. "Works : Two altar- 
wings with Last Supj)er, and portrait of Do- 
nors (1575), Museum, Antwerp ; Female 
Portrait, Van Lerius Collection, ib. ; Male 
do. (1672), Vienna Museum.— Engerth, Bel- 
vedere Gal., ii. 222 ; Immerzeel, ii. 106 ; 
Kramm, iii. 859 ; Nagler, Mon.,i. 357 ; Kie- 
gel, Beitrilge, i. 28 ; ii. 25 ; Eooses (Keber), 
110 ; Van den Branden, 271. 

KEY, "WILLEM, born at Breda about 
1520, died at Antwerp, June 5, 1568. Flem- 
ish school ; history and portrait painter, 
pupil of Lambert Lombard at Liege ; went 
to Antwerp, where he became master of the 
guild in 1542, and dean of the academy in 
1552. He was the first portrait painter of 
prominence at Antwerp after Quinteu Mas- 
sys and Joos van Cleve, and was called to 
Brussels to j^aint Cardinal Granvella and 
the Duke of Alva ; while painting the latter's 
portrait he accidentally overheard a conver- 
sation regarding the death sentence of Count 
Egmont, from which his nerves received 
such a shock that he died on the day of 
Egmont's execution. Works : Entombment, 
Six Collection, Amsterdam ; Elderly Man's 
Portrait, A Knight of Malta, Portrait of Gil- 
lis Mostaert, Vienna Museum ; Male Por- 
trait, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., XV. 692 ; Engerth, Belvedere, 
Gal., ii. 224; Van den Branden, 267. 

KEYSER, NICAISE DE, born at Sand- 
vliet, near Antwerp, Aug. 26, 1813. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Joseph Ja- 
cops (born in 1803), and of Antwerp Acad- 
emy under M. J. van Bree ; completed his 
studies in travels through Italy, France, Ger- 
many, and England ; painted at first biblical 

subjects, then acquired reputation with bat- 
tle-pieces, and finally took up historical 
genre. Medals : Great 
Gold Medal, Brussels, 
1836 ; Paris, 2d class, 
1840, and medals at al- 
most all exhibitions in 
Belgium and Holland ; 
Order of Leopold, 1839 ; 
Officer, 1855 ; Bavarian 
Order of St. Michael, 
1851 ; Order of Lion, 
1844 ; Commander of 
Order of Oaken Crown, 1857 ; Swedish Or- 
der of the Polar Star ; Wtirtemberg Crown 
Order; L. of Honour, 1862. Member of 
Brussels (1845) and several other acade- 
mies. Having settled at The Hague after 
1845, he successfully represented the Na- 
tional Dutch art-faction in opposition to 
Baron Wappers, Director of the Antwerp 
Academy, whom he succeeded in that posi- 
tion in 1855. Works : FiUal Love (1883) ; 
Crucifixion (1834) ; St. Dominick receiving 
the Eosary (1835) ; Battle of the Golden 
Spurs in 1302 (1836), Courtray Museum ; 
The Holy Women at Christ's Tomb (1836) ; 
Battle of Woeringeu in 1288 (1839), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Eoman Pifferari at Siesta 
(1840), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Monk sitting 
at Alms Box in a Cloister (1841), New Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Pieta, Return from Ma- 
donna Festival near Naples, Hans Memling 
in St. John's Hospital at Bruges (1841); The 
Antiquary (after Walter Scott); The Smith 
of Naarden ; Italian Robber in Prison pre- 
paring for Death ; Battle of Nieuport (1844), 
Battle of Suneffe, King of Holland ; Peter 
of Amiens preaching the First Crusade in 
1093 (1845); The Giaour, Death of Maria 
de Medici (1845), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Rubens painting the Chapeau de Paille 
(1847), Margaret of Austria and Maria of 
Burgundy visiting Memling at Bruges, 
Royal Palace, ib. ; Daughter of Jairus, East 
and West, King of Wurtemberg; Episode 
in Massacre of the Innocents (1855), Ghent 
Museum ; Elizabeth of Hungary distributing 



Alms, The Giaour, Marino Falieri, Milton 
dictating Paradise Lost, Dante at the Con- 
vent-gate, Last Moments of Karl Maria von 
Weber (last three, 1858), King of Belgium ; 
Francis I. visiting Benvenuto Cellini's Work- 
shop, Museum Fodor, Amsterdam ; Albert 
and Isabella attending Lecture by Justus 
Lipsius at Louvain, Baron van Heeckeren, 
The Hague ; Columbus with his Son leav- 
ing Barcelona ; Tasso in Prison ; Dante in 
the Studio of Giotto ; Invention of Plastic 
Arts ; Charlemagne vreeping at Sight of 
Norman Ships ; Entombment (1860) ; Cari- 
tas ; Charles V. after Taking of Tunis deliv- 
ering Christian Slaves, Lady's Portrait 
(1862), Antwerp Museum ; Portraits of King 
Leopold I. and Queen Louise, Senate Cham- 
ber, Brussels ; Fresco, Development of Art 
in Brabant (1864-66), Vestibule, Antwerp 
Museum. — Art Journal (1866), 5 ; Immer- 
zeel, ii. 108 ; Journal des B. Arts (1865), 
119 ; (1872), 17-4, 191 ; Kramm, iii. 865 ; 
vii. 94 ; Larousse, ix. 1198 ; Messager des 
sciences, etc. (1837), i. ; Eiegel, Wandmal- 
erei, 73 ; Soust, L'ecole d'Anvers en 1858, 
28 ; Vlaamsche school (1855), 49, 58. 

KEYSEE, THOMAS DE, born in Amster- 
dam in 1596 or 1597, died there, buried 
Nov. 19, 1679. Dutch school, history, 
genre, and portrait painter ; his small pict- 
ures are very characteristic, but the large 
ones less original. His portraits, which are 
truthful, and of warm clear colouring, ap- 
pear to have influenced Rembrandt when 
the latter came to Amsterdam in 1631. 
Works : Merchant and Clerk (1627), National 
Gallery, London ; Male Portrait (1631), Ver- 
sailles Museum ; Female Portraits (2), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Family Group, Admiral Hein, 
do. and Family, Pieter Sellout (1666), Mar- 
ten Eey and Wife (1627), Museum, Amster- 
dam ; Anatomy Lesson (1619), Members of 
Civic Guard (1633), Theseus and Ariadne, 
City Hall, ib.; Portrait of Claes Fabricius 
(1629), Haarlem Museum ; Portrait of a 
Magistrate (1631), Four Burgomasters of 
Amsterdam (1638), Hague Museum ; Fam- 
ily Group, Old Man and Son, Old Lady and 

Daughter (1628), Portrait of Cornelis de 
Graef, do. of Catarina Hooft, Berlin Muse- 
um ; Portrait of Man and Wife, Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Male and Female Portrait (1647), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Two Cavahers on 
Horseback, Dresden Museum ; Family 
Group iu a Landscajje, Gotha Museum ; 
Young Man's Portrait, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Clerk explaining Accounts to Lady 
(1650), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Married 
Couple in a Park, Schwerin Gallery ; Male 
Portrait, Oldenburg Gallery; do. (1632), 


Hermitage, St. . T . 
Petersburg ; do., I 
Gallery, Vienna. 
— Allgem. d. Biogi-., xv. 694 ; L'Art (1877), 
ii. 77 ; Burger, Musees, i. 231 ; Immer- 
zeel, ii. 107 ; Kramm, iii. 869 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 357; Nagler, Mon., v. 125 ; Eie- 
gel, Beitrilge, i. 146, 152 ; Stuers, 61. 

KICK, JAN, flourished about 1640-50. 
Dutch school ; genre painter, probably 
formed under the influence of Dirk Hals and 
Jacob Duck. Was perhaps the father of the 
flower painter Cornelis Kick of Amsterdam 
(1635-75). Works : Soldiers resting in a 
Stable (1648), Berlin Museum ; Similar Sub- 
ject, Wilhelm Gumprecht, Berlin ; Soldiers 
at Cards in a Barn (? attributed to Jan le 
Ducq), National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Young 
Officer in a Landscape, Peter von Semenofij 
St. Petersburg ; Eeturn from Falcon Chase 
(attributed to Van der Heist), Count Moltke, 
Copenhagen ; Travellers attacked by Ban- 
dits, Mrs. Hope, London. — Bode, Studien, 

Cologne, Sept. 15, 1809, died in Dtlsseldorf, 
April 4, 1850. History and portrait painter, 
pupil at Cologne of Kuntz and De Noel, and 
of the Dilsseldorf Academy (1832). His 
peculiar, chronicler-like style gives his works 
no little interest. Works : Charles V. at San 
Yuste (1835) ; Death of Jean de Lavalette 
(1840), National Gallery, Berlin; Emperor 
Frederick H. and Peter de Vincis (1844); 
Portraits of Henry V. (Frankfort), Plulip the 


Good, Charles the Bold, Emperor Maximil- 
ian, and Charles V. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xv. 
712 ; Merlo, 238 ; Wolfg., MiOler, Diisseldf. 
K, 149 ; Wiegmann, 217. 

KIELMANN, AJSfDEEAS, born at Wis- 
mar, Mecklenburg, in 1825. Genre painter, 
studied 1845-47 in Berlin, then in Paris, 
Brussels, Antwerp, and other cities, and set- 
tled in Scbwerin in 1860. Works : Dinner 
during Harvest (1861), Prussian Soldier 
quartered in French Peasant's Cottage 
(1871), Scbwerin Galleiy.— Scblie, 37. 

KIERINGS. See Keirincx. 

KIEES, PETEUS, bom at Groeneveld, 
Drenthe, Jan. 5, 1807. Genre painter, pu- 
pil in Amsterdam of Douvve de Hoop. Mem- 
ber of Amsterdam Academy in 1856. Works : 
Washerwoman (1840); Lady coming from her 
Eoom by Candlelight (1840); Eeading of Bi- 
ble ; Letter- Writer ; Interior of Dutch 
House (1855). His son, George Laurenz 
(born Jan. 26, 1838), is a good marine jDaint- 
er. — Immerzeel, ii. 110 ; Kramm, iii. 872. 

KIESEL, KONEAD, born in Dilsseldorf, 
Nov. 29, 1846. Genre painter, pupil in Ber- 
lin of Paulsen, then in Dilsseldorf of Wil- 
helm Sohn. Works : Mother and Child ; 
Italian Woman ; Still Life ; In the Library ; 
On the Balcony ; Birthday Morning (1878); 
Lady with Pigeons ; Studio ; Young Mother ; 
Welcome News ; Visit at the Studio (1884). 
— Mtaier, 298 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 495 ; 
lUustr. Zeitg. (1879), ii. 71, 391 ; (1882), i. 
31, 36 ; (1883), i. 63 ; ii. 209, 495 ; La Ilus- 
tracion (1880), i. 99 ; ii. 187 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, XX. 42. 

KIESSLmG, PAUL, born in Breslau, 
Jan. 8, 1836. History and portrait painter, 
pupU of Dresden Academy under Julius 
Schuorr ; won in 1856 the first prize, then 
studied for three years in Italy and was in- 
fluenced by Passini ; spent one year in Ant- 
werp and returned via Paris to Eome. 
Works : Ulysses recognized by Eurycleia 
(1855); Venus and Adonis ; Eape of Hylas ; 
Eape of Europa ; Maiden from Afar ; Dithy- 
rambus ; Triumph of Love ; Bottger in his 
Laboratory, Augustus the Strong visiting 

Bottger, Albrechtsburg, Meissen ; Three 
Sisters (1875), Girl's Head (1880), Dresden 
Museum.— Miiller, 298. 

Leipsic in 1815. Portrait painter, pupil in 
Paris of Delaroche, whose portrait he paint- 
ed ; in 1853 visited Malta, Constantinople, 
Athens, and Eome, then lived in Paris until 
1870, when he removed to Dresden. 
Works : Portrait of Eichard Wagner (1844), 
Mignet, Isabey, Johanna Wagner, Madame 
Viardot-Gfircia, Heinrich Heine, Tiedge, 
Oehlenschlilger, Frederick Kiicken. — Miiller, 

Schluckenau, Bohemia, in 1746, died in 
SchOnlinde, June 9, 1817. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Academy ; 
went in 1769 to Eome, where he studied 
for six years after Eaphael and the Carracci, 
under Mengs. In Naples he studied the art 
treasures of Pomjseii, returned to Vienna in 
1777 to paint portraits and altarpieces for 
churches, and in 1803 settled in Schonlinde. 
Works : Magdalen ; Christ and the Phari- 
sees ; St. John of Nepomuk ; JSneas and the 
Sibyl crossing the Styx, Prague Gallery ; 
Martyrdom of St. Lawrence ; Birth of 
Christ ; Death of St. Joseph ; Decapitation 
of St. James ; Martyrdom of Apostles Simon 
and Judas Thaddeus ; Emperor Leopold H. 
(1792), Strahow Abbey, Prague. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., XV. 756 ; Dlabacz, ii. 58 ; Wurzbach, 
xi. 266. 

KINDLEE, ALBEET, bom inAllensbach, 
near Constance, in 1833, died in Meran, Ty- 
rol, April 4, 1876. Genre painter, pupU of 
the Munich Academy, then from 1856 of 
Eudolph Joi'dan in Dilsseldorf. Acquired 
well-deserved fame after 1859, when his first 
large composition attracted much attention. 
Works : Young Girl reading to her blind 
Grandfather, Publication of New Decree, 
Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Expectation, 
Stettin Museum ; Bridal Procession on the 
Ehine (1859); Brautexamen ; Meeting of 
Common Council ; Tourists ; Poaching ; 
Village Theatre ; Tourists and Guides ; 


Opening of the Dance (1868). Unsuccessful 
Water Excursion ; Eafts on the Inn ; Alpine 
Hunterand his Sweetheart ; Fandango ; Am- 
bush. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xv. 768 ; Blanck- 
arts, 106 ; Kunst-Chronik, xi. 498 ; Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., svii. 494. 

KINDT, ADi;LE, born in Brussels in 
1805. History and genre painter, pupil of 
Sophie Fremiet, then of Navez ; won the 
first prize of the Ghent Academy when 
scarcely twenty-two, then received medals in 
Douai (1827, 'l831), Cambray (1828, 1834, 
1838), Ghent (1835), and Brussels (1836); 
member of Brussels (1827), Ghent (1835), 
and Lisbon Academies. Works : Last Mo- 
ments of Egmont, Ghent Museum ; Melanc- 
thon predicting Prince Willem's Future, 
Elizabeth sentencing Mary Stuart, Hague 
Museum ; Madonna ; Obstinate Scholar ; 
Flower Girl ; Happier than a King. — D. 
Kunstbl. (1850), 263 ; Immerzeel, ii. Ill ; 
Kramm, iii. 874 ; Miiller, 299. 


SEPHUS, born at Bruges in 1771, died there 
in 1839. History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Bruges Academy, where he won sev- 
eral prizes and a gold medal ; after painting 
portraits at Bruges, Ghent, and Brussels, 
went to Paris, where he acquired reputation, 
was naturalized, and in 1809 appointed chief 
painter to Jerome Bonaparte, King of Wes1> 
phalia. After the fall of the empire he re- 
turned to Paris and in 1817 became painter 
to the Duke of Angouleme. Medal, 1808 ; 
L. of Honour. Works : Behsaiius at the 
Death of his Wife Antonina (1817), Bruges 
Academy ; Portrait of Duke of Angouleme 
(1819), Bordeaux Museum ; Portraits of 
General Leclerc, of Bernadotte, King Je- 
rome, and Duke of Angouleme, Versailles 
Museum. — Bellier, i. 854 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. 
(1839), 404 ; Immerzeel, ii. 113. 

Kristiansfeld, Schleswig, in 1800, died atDi- 
jon, France, Jan., 1876. Animal painter. 
Member of Stockholm Academy in 1858 ; 
court-painter. Medals : Paris, 3d class, 1844 ; 

2d class, 1846 ; L. of Honour, 1860 ; orders of 
Wasa and Olaf. Works ; Dogs from Tar- 
tary, Foxes watching for Prey, Foxes de- 
vouring their Booty (1870), Charles XV. on 
Horseback, Stockholm Museum ; Mutual 
Surprise (1874) ; Inundation ; Jumping Pox ; 
Pony and Dog in a Stable, Raveue Gallery, 
Berlin.— Art Journal (1876), 106 ; Bellier, 
i. 855 ; Taflor. 

KIPRENSKY, OREST, born at Koporie, 
Government of Petersburg, in 1783, died in 
Rome in 1836. Portrait painter, real name 
Schwalbe ; pupil of St. Petersburg Academy, 
then spent some time in France and Italy, 
and revisited those countries in 1828. Is 
called the Russian Van Dyck. Works : Por- 
traits of his Father, Adam Schwalbe, of 
Thorwaldsen, of a Young Gardener, Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg. — Cotta's Kunstbl. 
(1836), 436 ; Waagen, Eremitage, 315. 

KIKBERG, OTTO, born at Elberfeld, 
May 16, 1850. Genre painter, pupil of 
Dusseldorf Academy in 1869, continued 
after the war of 1870-71, from which he re- 
turned wounded, under Wilhelm Sohn until 
1879 ; visited Holland, and has since taken 
his subjects from life of Dutch fishermen. 
Gold medal, BerUu, 1879. Works : Victim 
of the Sea (1879), National GaUery, Berhn ; 
Anxious Hours (1880) ; Dutch Kirmess 
(1883) ; Dutch Lovers (1884). — Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xxi. 499 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 

Leipsic, May 12, 1813, died in Munich, June 
4, 1885. Architecture and landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Leipsic Academy, then in Dres- 
den of Dahl and Friedrich, and finally stud- 
ied in Munich, whither he returned in 1 834 
with Genelli. Works: Bear-Pit (1840), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Tomb of Counts of 
Castelbanco in Verona (1845), View in Ve- 
rona (1851), Three Views in Heidelberg 
Castle (1852-54), Courtyard of Palace in 
Venice (1858), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
View of Verona, Piazzetta in Venice, Schack 
Gallery, ib.; Lichtenberg Castle in Adige 
Valley, Pompeii (1860); Cathedral at Worms, 



Saint Gall Museum ; View of Genoa, Stutt^ 
gart Museum ; Trent Cathedral (1861); Con- 
vent Yard on the Ehiue (1863); Foutana di 
Ferro in San Giovanni, Verona (1869); View 
in Benedictine Abbey ; Choir in Worms Ca- 
thedral ; Entrance to Cloister Maulbronn ; 
San Lorenzo in Trieste ; Montano and Arco 
in South Tj'rol (1873), Leipsic Museum ; 
View in Brescia. — Kunst-Chronik, xx. 616 ; 
Muller, 299 ; Regnet, i. 260 ; Scback, Meine 
Gemaldesammlung (1884), 230. 

KIEMESS (Village Fete), Bubens, Louvre, 
Paris ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 10 in. x 8 ft. 6 in. 

emy. Painted at first religious pictures. 
Lived in Rome in 1832-37, and again in 
1849, court-painter in Carlsruhe in 1842-44, 
then at Munich until 1864, when he returned 
to Furtwangen. Works : Nasenwirth ; Raph- 
ael and Michelangelo (1838); Improvisatore, 
Workmen in Campo Vaccino ; Sehweizer 
Gardist (1831), Italian Woman at Cradle 
(1835), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Improvisatore 
(1836), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Pilgrim Rest- 
ing, Old Italian with Dog, Mannheim Gal- 
lery ; Shepherds in Sabine Mountains, Ave 
Maria, Suabian Watchman, Camaldulensian 

Kirnness, Rubens, Louvre, Pans. 

At left, rustic houses and trees, and a table 
with groups of drinkers and women taking 
care of children ; in centre, a musician play- 
ing and a great round of dancers ; at right, a 
barrel and various utensils, ducks in a pond, 
and a dog ; in background, a landscape with 
hills. Engraved by Fessard ; Dupreel in 
Musee fran(;ais. — Rcveil, vi. 429 ; Larousse, 
ix. 1193. 

Furtwangen, Baden, June 24, 1806, died 
there, Nov. 19, 1866. Genre painter, pupil 
in Augsburg under Zimmermann and Ru- 
gendas in 1822-24, then of Munich Acad- 

Monks (1839) ; Hunting Scene ; Sunday 
Morning in Black Forest, Return from 
Agricultural Feast (1841), Guardia Civica, 
Cobbler with Child, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Maternal Joy, Country Physician, Fortune- 
Teller (1847), Badenese Insurgents in Flight 
(1849), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Episode 
from Hebel's Poem : Statthalter von Schopf- 
heim, PUrstenberg Gallery, Donaueschin- 
gen ; Suabian Civic Guard in 1848 (1849), 
Leipsic Museum. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 
26; Dioskuren (1867), 48; D. Kunstbl. 
(1858), 121 ; Kunst-Chronik, ii. 45 ; Reg- 
net, i. 266. 


KISS, THROWING A (Baiser Envoye), 
Jean Baptiste Greuze, Alfred de Rothschild 
Collection, London. A lady, seen half- 
length, at a •window hung with curtains, 
throwing a kiss with her right hand ; her 
left holds a paper lying on the window-sill. 
One of the painter's best works. — Art Jour- 
nal (1885), 217. 

KLEIN, JOHAiifN ADAM, born in Nu- 
remberg, Nov. 24, 1792, died in Munich, 
May 21, 1875. Genre, landscape, and ani- 

Throwing a Kiss, Jean Baptiste Greuze, Alfred de Rothschild, 

mal painter, studied first in Nuremberg 
under J. Caspar van Bemmel and A Gxibler, 
then from 1811 at the Vienna Academy ; 
after living in Frankfort, Vienna, Rome, 
Naples, and Nuremberg, settled in Munich 
in 1837. His compositions are full of life 
and variety. Member of Munich Academy 
in 1867. Works : On the Danube ; Market 
Scene ; Berchtesgaden ; Halt before an Inn ; 
Span of Oxen in Campagna (1821), Gotha 
Museum ; Hungarian Cai-ters (1828), Wal- 
lachian Freight- Wagon (1829), Animal- 
Tamers before Tavern (1830), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; (1821), Gotha Museum ; Field 
Smithy, View on Bridge of Salara near Rome 
(1821), Schleissheim Gallery ; View on the 


Tiber near Rome (1822), New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Russian Freight- wagon and Cos- 
sacks, Hunting Dog (1823), Wall Ruins, 
Freight-wagon with Seven Horses (1856), 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; WaUachian 
Carters Resting on the Danube (1884-38), 
Konigsberg Museum; 
Gypsy Camp (1856), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg. — | 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 
95 ; Dioskm-en (1862), 193 ; Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1875), i. 471 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 117 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xi. 270 ; Regnet, i. 287. 

in Vienna in 1823. Fresco painter, pupil 
of Vienna Academy under Ftihi'ich. Went 
for a short time to Venice, and then stud- 
ied Byzantine and mediaeval wall-paintings 
in monasteries and churches in the Buko- 
wina, in Carinthia, Soest, Brunswick, Cra- 
cow, and in and near Vienna. Member of, 
and professor at, Vienna Academy. Works : 
WaU-Paintings in Episcopal Chapel at Czer- 
nowitz and in St. Mary's on Capitol at Co- 
logne ; Glass Paintings in St. Antonio's, 
Padua, in St. Stephen's, Vienna, in Kemp- 
ten and Elten on the Rhine, in Mtlnster, 
Bochold and Ludinghausen, Westphalia ; in 
Cathedral at Linz, in Nancy, in Hungary, 
etc.— Mliller, 299 ; Wurzbach, xii. 50. 

KLEm, WILHELM, born in Dusseldorf 
in 1821. Landscape painter, pupil of Diis- 
seldorf Academy under Schirmer ; perfected 
himself on journeys through various parts 
of Germany, in Tyrol, Switzerland, North 
Italy, Belgium, and Holland. Works : Wood 
Landscape (1844); Mountainous Landscape 
(1845), Brunswick Art Union ; Winter Land- 
scape, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Rocky 
VaUey (1852), Dusseldorf Art Union ; Forest 
Brook (1853), Konigsberg Art Union ; King's 
Oak near Arnsberg, Inn Valley (1855); Road 
to Village, Cologne Art Union ; Carters' Tav- 
ern (1858), Berlin Art Union ; Lake Garda 
(1858); Inn Valley (1859); View in the En- 
gadin (1863); Sea-Coast, Liege Art Union ; 
Winter in Tyrol (1865), Bremen Art Union ; 
Weinbm-g (1868); Lake Hechtsee in Bavaria; 


Landscape after Eain. — Wolfg. Miiller, DUs- 
seldorfer K., 359. 

at Kesselsdorf near Dresden, May 5, 1751, 
died at Dresden, Dee. 19, 1824. Genre and 
landscape painter, pupil of Dresden Acad- 
emy iinder Dietrich, then studied in Italy 
(1790-92), and was for many years at the 
head of the Dresden landscape painters ; 
especially successful in giving morning and 
evening light-effects, and a close imitator of 
nature. Member of and professor at Dres- 
den Academy. Works : Apollo tending 
Herd of Admetus, Similar Subject, Dresden 
Museum ; Winter Landscape with Skaters, 
Shepherdess and Herd at Sunset, Gotha 
Museum ; Landscape with Herd (copy after 
Berghem), Leipsic Museum ; Cows in Pas- 
ture (1779), Schwerin Gallery ; Animals 
driven by Peasant Boy across Water, Shep- 
herd Family with Cattle Resting, Stuttgart 
Museum.— AUgem. Zeitg. (1825), Beilage 
No. 51 ; Nagler, vii. 51. 

KLENZE, LEO YON, born near Hildes- 
heim, Feb. 29, 1784, died at Munich, Jan. 
26, 1864. Architecture and landscape paint- 
er, pupil in Paris of Bourgeois, but more 
famous as an architect ; visited England, 
Italy, Greece, and seven times St. Peters- 
burg, where he built the Hermitage and St. 
Isaac's Cathedral. Works : View of Agri- 
gentum ; Zanthe in the 8th Century ; Ideal 
View of Athens under Hadrian, New Pin- 
akothek, Munich ; Interior of Saracen Pal- 
ace at Eavello, Schack Gallery, ib.; Pirano 
in Istria, Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen. 
— Brockhaus, x. 336 ; Dioskuren (1864), 49 ; 
Nagler, vii. 53 ; Regnet, i. 296 ; Schack, 
Meine Gemaldesammlung (1884), 232. 

KLEVEE, JULIUS VON, born at Dorpat, 
Jan. 19 (31), 1850. Landscape painter, pu- 
pil of St. Petersburg Academy under Michael 
Clodt and Warjabjoff, and studied from na- 
ture in the Baltic provinces. Member of 
St. Petersburg Academy in 1878, professor 
in 1881. Many of his best pictures are in 
the St. Petersburg Academy. Works : Es- 
thonian Fisherman's Hut ; Twenty Degrees 

Reaumur ; Russian Autumn ; Twilight by 
the Sea ; Calm ; Esthonian Mill ; Isle of 
Nargo near Revel ; Deserted Park in Livo- 
nia ; Russian Forest in Winter ; Still Life 
in the Woods ; Wilted Leaves. — Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xxi. 502. 

Demarara, British Guiana, in 1826. Histo- 
ry and portrait painter, pupil of Antwerp 
Academy and student of the works of the 
old masters in Amsterdam. Went in 1851 
to Italy, spent many years at Rome and, af- 
ter a sojourn in Stuttgart, returned to Hol- 
land in 1868. Works : Eliezer and Eebekah ; 
Samaritan Woman at the Well ; Hagar and 
Ishmael ; Banquet of Belshazzar ; Wedding 
at Cana (1864); Portraits of Princess Alex- 
andrine of Prussia and Pope Pius IX. — 
Christl. Kunstbl. (1864); Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xvii. 501. 

TIAAN KAREL, born at The Hague, Jan. 
14, 1852. Painter of city views, pupil of 
Christoffel Bisschop ; studio at The Hague. 
Works : Great Square at Nymwegen (1877), 
Episode in Siege of Leyden, Amsterdam 
Museum ; Fish-Pond at The Hague, Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Spanish Quay at Rotterdam, 
View at The Hague (1880); Old Women's 
Hospital at The Hague (1881). 

klOcker von ehrenstrahl, 

DAVID, born in Ham- 
burg in 1620, died in 
Stockholm in 1698. 
German school ; his- 
tory and portrait paint- 
er, pupil in Amster- 
dam of Georg Jacobs, 
i^ then in Italy of Pietro 
'f-)\ da Cortona ; became 
Swedish court-painter 
V- in 16G1, was ennobled 

by Charles XI. in 1674, and made court-in- 
tendant in 1690. Works : Descent from the 
Cross, Last Judgment (1694), St. Nicholas, 
Stockholm ; Coronation of Charles XI., 
Di'ottningholm ; Portrait of Charles XI. — 
Faber, iii. 378. 



KLOEBER, AUGUST VON, born iiiBres- 
lau, Aug. 21, 1793, died in Berlin, Dec. 31, 
1864. History painter, pupil of the Berlin 
Academy ; joined the volunteers in 1813 ; 
after tlie peace studied in Paris, and then 
lived four years in Vienna, where he painted 
the best known portrait of Beethoven. In 
1820 he went to Berlin, and in 1821 to Italy, 
whence he returned, in 1828, a confirmed 
imitator of Correggio. Member of the Acad- 
demy and professor in 1829. Works : Per- 
seus and Andromeda, Toilet of Venus (before 
1828); Greek Flower Girl (1833); Bacchus 
watering the Panther (1834); Sakuntala, Har- 
vest, Hiion among Herdsmen (1837); Jubal, 
Inventor of Flute (1839), Horse-Pond, Cupid 
and Psyche, Education of Bacchus (1860), 
in National Gallery, Berlin ; Psyche awak- 
ened by Cupid (1854); Cupid whetting his 


Arrows. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 200 ; Dios- 
kuren (1865), 8 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 118 ; Bru- 
no Meyer, Studien, 11 ; Eosenberg , Berliner 
Malerschule, 88. 

KLOMP, AELBERT, born at Amsterdam 
in 1618, died there, Dec. 20, 1688. Dutch 
school. Landscape and animal painter ; pre- 
cursor of Albert Cuyp and Paul Potter, who 
IDainted in his manner. He enlivened his 
pictures with figures, animals, and splendid 
fountains. Works : Landscapes with Cat- 
tle, in Museums at Amsterdam (3), Bor- 
deaux, Brussels, Dresden, Gotha, Stockholm; 
do. (1663), Copenhagen Gallery, Stiidel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort; Oldenburg (1688), Schleiss- 
heim, and Schwerin Galleries; Historical So- 


ciety. New York.^ — Dohme lii. ; Immerzeel, 
ii. 116 ; Kramm, iii. 878 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 440 ; Schlie, 315 ; Westrbeene, Paulus 
Potter, 15. 

KLOSE, WILHELM, born in Carlsruhe 
in 1830. Landscape painter, pupil of Mu- 
nich Academy, influenced by Eottmann ; 
visited the Tyrolese and Swiss Alps, went in 
1851 to Dalmatia, thence toEome, where he 
remained until 1855. After a short stay in 
Carlsruhe, he visited Sicily and Greece (1867 
-69), then in 1875 Egypt, Asia Minor, and 
Athens. Works : Fourteen Views in Greece 
and Italy ; Four Landscapes in South Etru- 
ria, Festhalle in Carlsruhe ; Four Italian 
Landscapes, Municipal Bath in Carlsruhe ; 
Five Italian Landscapes, Villa Klose at Thun, 
Switzerland.— Muller, 300. 

at Brunswick, Sept. 19, 1802, died at Co- 
penhagen, June 9, 1876. Landscape, marine, 
and portrait painter, pupil in Berlin of Schu- 
mann, then of Eckersberg in Copenhagen, 
whither he returned in 1828, having visited 
Prague, Breslau, and Dresden, in 1825-27 ; 
made a sea voyage with the cadets' ship in 
1830, and became instructor of drawing; 
went in the frigate Thetis to Italy in 1843, 
and to the Faroe Islands in 1844. Member 
of Copenhagen Academy in 1840. Order of 
Dannebrog, 1847 ; Professor, 1853. His 
principal works are in the royal collections. 
Works : Battle of Lyngorshavn ; Prince 
Christian after skirmish near Sjallandsodde ; 
Open Sea with Vessels.— Weilbach, 362. 

KLOTZ, JOSEPH, born in Munich in 
1795, died there in 1830. Landscape paint- 
er, son and pupil of Matthias Klotz (portrait 
painter, 1784-1821, and court-painter, first 
in Mannheim, then in Munich); then studied 
in Paris and Berlin, and succeeded his father 
as court-painter in Munich. In 1814 his 
picture representing the burning of Moscow 
was very popular. Works : View of Mu- 
nich in 1817 (figures by Albrecht Adam), 
View of Schwabinger Gate in Munich (1817), 
New Pinakothek, Munich. — Lipowsky ; Na- 
gler, vii. 68. 

KNAB, FERDINAND, born in Wurzburg, 
June 12, 1834. Architecture and landscape 
painter, pupil in Munich of Eamberg and 
Piloty ; visited Italy in 1868 and settled in 



Munich, where he painted for the Royal 
Winter Garden, and Villa Linderhof. Court- 
painter. Works : Court- Yard in Nurem- 
berg ; Court-Yard in Florence ; Ruins of 
Roman Palace (1866); Castle Ruin of the 
Renaissance ; Tomb in Roman Campagna 
(1866); Convent Yard with Well (1868); Ro- 
man Landscape (1872); View in Neglected 
Park (1874); Roman Hot Springs ; Corin- 
thian Ruin in the Campagna ; similar subject 
(1885).— Dioskuren (1872), 211; Kunst- 
Chronik, xx. 671 ; Leixner, D. mod. K., i. 
114 ; Land und Meer (1883), ii. 839. 

sen. History painter, pupil of Dilsseldorf 
Academy under Beudemann ; took part in 
the campaign of 1870-71, went to Rome in 
1875, and became professor at the Cassel 
Academy in 1880. Works : Attila's Queen 
receiving Presents from Byzantine Ambassa- 
dors (1876); Fu-st Fruits (1877); Capture of 
Frederick the Fair in Battle of Miihldorf, 
1322 (1883) ; Painter's Studio in 16th Cen- 
tury (1884). Frescos : Ceiling in new Gov- 
ernment Building at Cassel ; Two Episodes 
in History of German Empire (1884), Vesti- 
bule of Railway Station at Strassburg ; Bat- 
tle of Turin (in progress). Arsenal, Berlin. — 
Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 222 ; xviii. 435, 531 ; 
Leixner, Mod. K., i. 98; Miiller, 301. 

KNAPP, JOHANN, born in Vienna, Sept. 
5, 1778, died at SchOnbrunn, near Vienna, 
Feb. 18, 1833. Flower painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy under Drechsler ; called to 
arms in 1797, he returned, after the conclu- 
sion of peace, to his profession, and in 1804 
became painter to the Ai-chduke Anton. His 
most remarkable work is a bouquet (7 ft. x 
5 ft.), composed of flowers of all climes, 
painted for Baron Jacquin in 1820-21. Oth- 
er works : Flower and Fruit-Pieces, Vienna 
Museum ; Styrian Alpine Plants (2), Joan- 
neum, Gratz ; Roses, Hyacinths, Exotic 
Flowers, Flora Alpina (300 water-colors), 
for Archduke John ; Flower-Piece (1816), 
Weimar Museum ; Alpine Plants Exotic 
Plants, for the Grandduke of Weimar. — Hor- 
mayi-'sArchiv. (1821), 138; Wurzbach,xu. 137. 

KNAUS, LUD\\T;G, bom at Wiesbaden, 
Oct. 10, 1829. Genre painter, pupil of Dils- 
seldorf Academy un- 
der Sohnand Schadow 
in 1846-52, studied 
then in Paris until 
1860 ; visited Italy in 
1857-58; lived in Ber- 
lin in 1861-66, and at 
Dilsseldorf from 1866 
to 1874. Professor 
at the Berlin Academy 
from 1874 to 1884, 
when he resigned. He is one of the leaders 
of the younger Dilsseldorf school, and the 
foremost genre painter in Germany. Mem- 
ber of the Vienna, Berlin, Munich, Amster- 
dam, Antwei-p, and Christiania Academies ; 
Medals : Paris, 2d class, 1853 ; 1st class, 
1855, 1857, 1859 ; Medal of Honour, 1867 ; 
L. of Honour, 1859 ; Officer, 1867 ; Knight 
of Prussian Order of Merit, etc., and many 
medals. Works : Peasant Dance (1850) ; 
Cheaters at Cards (1851), Dilsseldorf Gallery 
and Leipsic Museum ; Bee-Keeper, Age does 
not protect against Folly (1851); Funeral in 
the Woods (1852) ; Countess Helfenstein 
begging for her Husband's Life, Pickpocket 
(1852) ; The Promenade (1855), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Woman playing with Cats (1856), 
two others, Ravene Gallery, Berlin ; The To- 
per, KunsthaUe, Hamburg ; Country-Town 
People in a Village Inn, Wiesbaden Gallery; 
Morning after Kirmess, Golden Wedding 
(1858); After the Christening (1859); Woch- 
enstube, Tyrolese Brawlers before their 
Parson (1864); Gypsies Resting (1865), Ko- 
nigsberg Museum ; Juggler ; Table in the 
Comer (1869); Children's Festival (1869), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Funeral in a Hes- 
sian Village (1870); Beggar Boy (1871); His 
Highness Travelling ; Child with Doll ; Old 
Woman with Cats ; Organ-Grinder ; Council 
of Peasants ; In a thousand Fears, Die 
Geschwister (1872); Holy Family (1875); 
Tavern Scene (1876); The Refractory Model 
(1877); Solomonic Wisdom (1878); Glimpse 
behind the Scene (1880), Dresden Gallery ; 


■^-m' '' 'A* iCrf^ 









H ^ 




























Little Pigs (1881); Portraits of Professors 
Mommsen and Helmholtz (1881), Nation- 
al Gallery, Berlin ; Student's Visit Home in 
Vacation (1884). Works in United States : 
Eoad to Ruin, Female Head, Eag Baby, 
W. H. Vanderbilt, New York ; Holy Fam- 
ily, None but the Cats, Miss C. L. Wolfe, ib.; 
Going to the Dance, August Belmont, ib. ; 
City Belle, M. Graham, ib. ; Little Scholar, 
Gretchen, Girl's Head, W. Rockefeller, ib. ; 
Priest and Poacher, T. R. Butler, ib. ; Ro- 
coco, J. C. Runkle, ib. ; Baby, D. O. Mills, 
ib. ; Little Gretchen, C. S. Smith, ib. ; Study 
of Head, J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Butcher 
Boy, Portrait, D. W. Powers, Rochester, 
N. Y.; City Girl, G. Whitney, Philadelphia ; 
Blacksmith, J. D. Lankenau, ib. ; Mud Pies 
(1873), W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; German 
Subject, Leland Stanford, San Francisco ; 
Unwelcome Visitor, Charles Crocker, ib. ; 
ChUd, R. C. Taft, Providence; Female 
Head, J. A. Brown, ib. ; Old Age and Child- 
hood, Longworth Collection, Cincinnati ; 
Head of Madonna, Hurlbut Collection, 
Cleveland; Wood-Chopper, S. A. Coale, St. 



Louis. — Gartenlaube (1869), 12 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, i. 137 ; v. 82, 143 ; vi. 141 ; xii. 19 ; 
Ulust. Zeitg. (1864), i. 115 ; (1881), ii. 368, 
374 ; Miffler, 301 ; Wolfgang Mtaier, Dus- 
seldorf K„ 253 ; Leixner, D. mod. K., i. 67 ; 
Nord und Siid, xiv. 117 ; Hecht, i. 124 ; 
Riegel, Kunst-Studien, 408 ; Reber, 618 ; 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 177 ; Vom Fels 
zum Meer, i. 302; Wiegmann, 333 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., iv. 17; vi. 148 ; x. (Mittheilungen, 
iii. 65); xii. 388. 

Bart., born in Liibeck, Aug. 8, 1646, died at 
Twickenham, Nov. 7, 1723. Dutch school ; 
portrait painter, reputed to have studied 
under Rembrandt and Ferdinand Bol at 
Amsterdam, and in Rome (1672-74) under 
Carlo Maratta and Bernini (?) ; went after- 
wards to Venice, where he was well received 
by the leading families, whose portraits he 


painted. On his return from Italy, lived 
for a time in Hamburg, but was induced to 
go to England 
in 1674, and re- 
ceived such a 
flattering re- 
ception from 
Charles H. that 
he determined \;/ 
to remain 
there. After 
the death of Sir 
Peter Lely he 
was made court-paiater, and he received 
equal favour from James H., William HI., 
who knighted him (1692), Queen Anne, and 
George L, who made him a baronet (1715). 
His forty-three portraits of the members 
of the Kit Kat Club, and his Beauties at 
Hampton Court, are examples of his facile 
and meretricious style and corrupt taste. 
That he was the leading portrait painter of 
his day shows the low state of art at the 
time. " Where," says Walpole, " he offered 
one picture to fame, he sacrificed twenty to 
lucre." The National Portrait Gallery con- 
tains fifteen portraits by him, including Ad- 
dison, Congreve, Watts, Wren, James H. 
(1685), and Lady Russell. Portraits of Ad- 
dison, Pope, Dr. Wallis, and of himself, 
hang in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
Other works : Portrait of the Engraver John 
Smith (1696), National Gallery, London ; 
William HI. landing at Margate (1697), 
Peter the Great, Queen Mary H., William 
Duke of Gloucester, John Locke, Sir Isaac 
Newton, The Hampton Court Beauties (8), 
Child with Lamb, Hampton Court Palace ; 
James H., The Converted Chinese, Windsor 
Castle ; Portrait of Canon Frangois de Cock, 
Antwerp Museum ; Male Portraits (3), Bruns- 
wick Museum ; Copernicus in his Study, 
Konigsberg Museum ; Queen Henrietta 
Maria, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; John 
Locke, Sculptor Gibbons, Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Man in Coat of Mail, Standard- 
Bearer (1648, copies after Rembrandt), 
Schwerin Gallery ; A Princess of Portugal, 


Princess de Barbensson, William Wake, 
Archbishop of Canterbury (1716), Vienna 
Museum. His elder brother, John Zachary 
KneUer (1635-1702), who went to England 
with him, painted architectural decorations 
in fresco, and portraits and still life in oil. 
A portrait of William HI. of Orange by him 
I is in the Schwerin 

/\nMl4riylO mann'poTtlfmt 
ler Sir G. K. ; Ch. Blanc, ificole allemande ; 
Engerth, Belved. Gal., ii. 226 ; Kramm, iii. 
878 ; Taylor, Fine Ai'ts ; Hamburg, Kiinst. 
Lex. (1854); Walpole, Anecdotes ; Cat. Nat. 
Port. Gal.; Redgrave. 

KNIGGE, OTTO, born in Berlin, Dec. 
14, 1835, died there, March 5, 1883. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Weimar 
Art School, then in Paris of Couture and in 
Berlin of Oskar Begas ; visited Italy in 1869. 
Works : Altarpiece, St. Peter's, BerUn ; 
Healing of Sick AVoman, Elizabeth Hospital, 
Berlin ; Loreley, Breslau Gallery ; Morning 
Dew ; Joseph of Arimathea bringing the 
Crown of Thorns to the Virgin. — Dioskuren 
(1866) ; must. Zeitg. (1867-68) ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xviii. 395 ; Miiller, 353. 

Philadelphia, Pa., contemporary. Genre 
painter, pupil of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, 
Paris, in 1872, of Gleyre, and of Meissonier 
in 1876. Exhibits at Paris Salon and at 
the National Academy. Studio at Poissy, 
France. Works: The Veteran (1870); 
Othello in the House of Brabantio (1871) ; 
Fugitives, Antiquary, Dividing the Profits, 
Old Beau (1873) ; Strolling in the Garden 
(1874) ; Washerwomen (1875) ; Market 
Place at Poissy, Harvest Scene (1877) ; Pot 
au Feu (1878) ; In Mourning (1882) ; Sans 
Dot (1883) ; Noonday Eest (1884) ; Chat- 
terboxes (1885), Eeichard & Co., New York. 

Stafford in 1803, died in London, March 28, 
1881. Portrait painter, pupil of H. Sass 
and George Clint, and of Eoyal Academy in 
1823 ; became an A.E.A in 1836, and E.A. 
in 1844. Was professor of perspective in 

Eoyal Academy in 1839-60, and secretary in 
1847-73. -Ai-t Journal (1849), 209 ; (1881), 
159 ; Sandby, ii. 174. 

KNIGHT EREANT, Sir John Everett 
Millais, Bart., Charles H. Wilson, Esq., M.P. ; 
canvas, H. 6 ft. x 4 ft. 5 in. A woman, made 
prisoner by brigands and stripped, is bound 
nude to a tree in a wooded rocky landscape ; 
near her, one of the robbers lies on the 
rocks dead, slain by a knight in armour, 
who is cutting her bonds with his sword ; 
in the distance, shadovyy figures flying in 
fear. The only example by Millais of a full- 
length, life-size, nude female figure. Painted 
in 1870 in six weeks. 

retto, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 11 
in. X 8 ft. 2 in. A knight in a gondola, 
which a helmsman steers, rescues two nude 
women from a tower. From the reserved 
pictures in 1861. 

KNIGHT'S VISION, Raphael, National 
Gallery, London ; wood, 7 in. sq. A youth- 
ful knight asleep upon his shield at foot of 
a laurel tree ; a lovely girl stands near his 
head, with a sword in one hand and a book 


, „o- , 

Knight's Vision, Raphael, National Gallery, London. 

in the other, while a second watches at his 
feet and presents a myrtle blossom ; back- 
ground, a landscape with a village, and a 
fortress on a hill. Painted in Perugia in 
1504-5 (?). Long in Borghese collection, 



aiul tt.ivtir.t \-.On./',ilm:.'.rlrr/<,m- 

G07^J^Y?i:nO KNJ^LLEN 

7' I T m?7: 

^ £ ^. jy 4^^7-2 . C' t-Z-f^i-JTl i-7 /^^ *:r7 *T -s' / . 

I, *-r /• / .T 4. ^ r ,' i/ ^-- /-f 7 . 


•whence passed to W. Young Ottley, who 
sold it in 1801 to Sir Thomas Lawrence for 
£470 ; next passed to Sir M. Sykes, whose 
heir, Kev. Thomas Egerton, sold it in 1847 
for £1,050 to National Gallery, which pos- 
sesses also the original sketch in pen and 
ink. Engraved by L. Gruner. — C. & C, 
Raphael, i. 199 ; Miintz, 95 ; Passavant, ii. 
16 ; Perkins, 60 ; Kichter, 53. 

KNILLE, OTTO, born at Osnabrilck, 
Sept. 10, 1832. History 
painter, pupU of Diissel- 
dorf Academy under 
Karl Sohn, Th. Hilde- 
brandt, and Schadow ; 
studied then ia Paris 
under Couture, lived 
four years in Munich, 
three years in Italy, and 
settled in 1866 in Ber- 
lin, where, in 1875, he 
became professor at the Academy. Senator 
in 1882. Gold medal, Berlin, 1881. Works: 
Death of Totila (1855) ; Corpse of the Cid 
frightening the Moors ; Nun led to be im- 
mured, Provinzial Museum, Hanover; Cycle 
from Thuringian Legends ; Piesole in Mon- 
astery of San Marco ; Tannhduser and Venus 
(1873), National Gallery, Berlin ; Emperor 
Hadrian and Antmous ; Four Friezes rep- 
resenting Antique, Scholastic, Humanistic, 
and Modern Culture, Berlin University. — 
Mtiller, 302 ; Leixner, D. mod. K., ii. 87 ; 
Rosenberg, Berliner Malerschule, 164 ; Wolf- 
gang Mtiller, Dusseldorfer K., 162 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., xvii. 55 ; xx. 94. 


Tilburg, Aug. 3, 1777, died at Berlicum, 
near Bois-le-duc, Oct. 1, 1847. Landscape 
painter, son and pupil of Nicolaas Frederik 
Knip (flower painter, 1742-1809); went in 
1801 to Paris, where he was befriended by 
Gerard van Spaendonck ; received a pension 
in 1808, from Louis Napoleon, King of Hol- 
land, and soon after went to Rome, whence 
he visited Naples and Calabria, and returned 
home with many sketches in 1813 ; lived at 

Amsterdam until 1821, went to Pai-is in 
1823, painted much for the royal family and 
received a gold medal, returned to Amster- 
dam in 1827, and became blind in 1832. 
Member of Amsterdam Academy. Italian 
Landscapes by him are in the Amsterdam 
(1818) and Rotterdam Museums. His sis- 
ter Henriette Geertruida (born at Tilburg, 
July 19, 1783, died at Haarlem, May 29, 
1842), was a skilful flower painter, pupil in 
Paris of Spaendonck and of Jan Frans Dael. 
Medals, Paris, 1819 ; Amsterdam, 1822.— 
Immerzeel, ii. 117 ; D. Kunstbl. (1852), 

KNOLLER, MARTm, born at Steinach, 
Tyrol, Nov. 8, 1725, died in Milan, July 24, 
1804. History and portrait painter, first 
instructed by an obscure artist in Innsbruck, 
then pupil of Paul Troger, who accidentally 
discovered his talent in passing through 
Steinach on his return from Italy in 1745, 
and took him to Vienna. Having obtained 
the great prize at the Academy in 1753, re- 
turned to Tyrol, and after two years went 
to Rome, where he studied the old masters, 
and freed himself from Troger's mannerism. 
He found an adviser in Raphael Mengs and 
a warm friend in Winckelmann. In 1755 
appointed professor at the Academy of Mi- 
lan, where he spent forty prosperous years. 
In 1790-92 he was in Vienna, and painted 
Leopold n. and Francis I. He excelled as 
a portrait and fresco painter, and decorated 
a number of churches in the villages of 
Tyrol, Bavaria, and Lombardy, and many 
palaces in Milan. Works : Young Tobias 
healing his Father's Eyes ; Stoning of St. 
Stephen (1754) ; Conception of Mary, Birth 
of Mary, Marriage of Mary ; Madonna, St. 
Joseph Dying ; Beheading of St. Catharine; 
St. Sebastian, Pieta (1790), Holy Family 
(1794), Kloster Ettal, Bavaria ; St. Charles 
Borromeo (1764) ; Raising of Lazarus ; Scipio 
at Carthage ; Christ at Emmaus ; Martyr- 
dom of St. Sebastian ; do. of John the Bap- 
tist ; Eight Altai-pieces in Stiftskirche at 
Gries, near Botzen ; Christ on the Cross 
(1796), Holy Family, Joseph and Potiphar's 



Wife, A Saint of the Servite Order, Portrait 
of Eaphael Mengs, do. of Himself (2), Count 
Firmian and Suite in a Landscape, two 
other Male Portraits, Ferdinandeum, Inns- 
bruck; Judgment of Paris (1786), Palais 
Taxis, ib. ; St. Benedict and St. Scholastica 
presented to the Trinity by the Virgin (1770), 
Schleissheim GaUery ; Male Portrait (1791), 
Vienna Museum ; Assumption, St. Sebastian 
restored by Irene, Portrait of Raphael 
Mengs, do. of Himself (1803), three other 
Male Portraits, Academy, MUau ; over thirty 
pictures in Eoyal Palace and Chapel, ib. ; 
others in Palazzo Groppi, Palazzo Melzi (4), 
Mainoni Collection (5), ib. ; Portraits of Em- 
perors Leopold n. and Francis U.; do. of 
Himself, Castle Leopoldkron, near Salzburg, 
and Sacristy of Stiftskirche at Giies. Fres- 
cos: The Heavenly Glory (1760, a model 
specimen of fresco painting), lOoster Ettal, 
Bavaria ; Five Ceilings, Royal Palace, Milan ; 
Aijotheosis of Alberich the Great, Eiualdo 
in Gardens of Ai-mida, Wedding of Eudiger 
and Eadamante, Palazzo Belgiojoso, ib. ; 
Eape of Ganymede, and two others, Palazzo 
Groppi, ib. ; Scenes in Life of St. Au.gustine, 
Stiftskirche at Gries ; Descent from the 
Cross, Campo Santo, Rome. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xvi. 321 ; Gothe, Winkelmann, 280 ; 
Hormayr's Ai-chiv. (1826), xvii. 800 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 557 ; D. Kunstbl. (1858), 99 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xx. 421 ; Wurzbach, xii. 

KNOEE, GEOEG, born at Lobau, West- 
Prussia, in 1845. Genre painter, pupil of 
Ki'migsberg Academy under Eosenfelder, 
studied then in Berlin and Dilsseldorf, and 
afterwards visited Italy. His subjects are 
mostly humourous. Works : Invitation to 
Tea (1867); In the Museum (1872); New 
Inmates (1874) ; At Boarding School (1875) ; 
Taken in the Act (1877). 

KNORR, HUGO, born in Konigsberg in 
1834. Landscape painter, pupil of Konigs- 
berg Academy ; won first prize and com- 
pleted his studies under Behrendsen, trav- 
elled in the Hartz Mountains in 1858, and 
in Norway in 1861. Professor at the Poly- 

technic School in Carlsruhe since 1873. 
Works : Before the Storm ; After the Storm ; 
View of Witches' Dancing-Ground in the 
Hartz ; Norwegian Glacier ; Norwegian 
Waterfall ; Fjord in High Plain ; Hai'danger 
Fjord ; Wreck on Norwegian Coast ; Surf 
on Norwegian Coast ; Flying Dutchman 
(1870).— Kaulen, 171 ; Miiller, 303. 

KNtJPFER, NICOLAUS, born at Leip- 
sic in 1603, died at Utrecht or at The Hague 
in 1660 (?). Dutch school ; history, genre, 
and portrait painter, pupil of Abraham 
Bloemaert at Utrecht, whither he came from 
Magdeburg in 1630, and where he soon be- 
came one of the best artists of the Dutch 
school, enjoj'ing the favour of distinguished 
patrons, especially of the King of Denmark. 
He was the first master of Jan Steen, and, 
according to Kramm, removed afterwards 
to The Hague. Works : Solomon sacrific- 
ing to Strange Gods, Brunsvsdck Museum ; 
The Seven Works of Mercy, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; Paul and Festus, Mercury and Psyche, 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Artist and his Wife 
making Music, Dresden Museum ; Venus 
asleep and Cupid, Oldenburg Gallery ; Es- 
ther before Ahasuerus, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; Allegory on Chase after Fortune 
(1651), Joseph explaining the Dreams, The 
Washing of Feet, Schwerin Gallery. — All- 
gem, d. Biogr., xvi. 331 ; Descamps, i. 293 ; 
Kramm, iii. 882 ; Riegel, Beitriige, ii. 188 ; 
Schlie, 319. 

ICNYFF, ALFRED DE, born in Brussels 
in 1819, died in Paris, March 22, 1885. 
Landscape painter. Lives at Fontainebleau. 
Medals : 3d class, 1857, 1859, 1861 ; L. of 
Honour, 1861. Works : Souvenir of Chen- 
neviures ; Dike of Champigny ; Storm in the 
Campine ; Old Willow ; Oak at Fontaine- 
bleau ; Sunset in the Campine in Belgium 
(1869); Moonlight ; Scotch Heath ; Evening ; 
Villiers sur Mer ; Clairvaux Village (1873) ; 
Mouth of the Meuse, Garden of Alfred 
Stevens, Marsh in the Campine (1875) ; 
Prairies of Lagrange, Forest of Stolen in 
the Campine (1877) ; Old Willow, Meadow 
(1880) ; Environs of Bruges (1883) ; Prairies 



of Mortefontaine, Isle of Cesambre (1884). 
—Journal des B. Ai-ts (1860), 150 ; Midler, 

KNYFF, WOUTEK, born at Wesel, of a 
Haaiiem family ; living in 1679. Dutch 
school. Painted city views and landscapes 
in the style of Van Goyen ; received into 
Haarlem Guild in 1641. Pictures very rare. 
"Work : View of a City on a Eiver, Ghent 
Museum. — Kramm, iii. 882. 

KOBEL, GEOKG, born at Worms in 
1807. Landscape painter, pupil of Dresden 
and Munich Academies ; visited North Italy 
several times, and Home in 1836 and 1838, 
and was greatly influenced by Marko ; re- 
turned to Munich in 1840. Works : Views 
of Lake Garda ; Views in the Eamsau ; San 
Gregorio in Sabine Mountains ; Cloister 
Andechs in Bavaria ; Passenhofen ; Ober- 
Ammergau ; Grotto of Egeria, Schack Gal- 
lery, Munich; Konigsee near Berchtesgaden ; 
Porta Nomentana ; View of St. Peter's, Eome, 
Carlsruhe Gallery.— Midler, 304. 

KOBELL, FEEDmAND, bom in Mann- 
heim, June 7, 1740, died in Munich, Feb. 1, 
1799. Landscape painter, pupil in Mann- 
heim of Verschaffelt. Studied from 1768 in 
Paris, and after his return became court- 
painter and professor at the Mannheim 
Academy. In 1793 he was made director 
of the Munich galleries. His landscapes, 
in the style of Berchem, are effective and 
truthful studies from nature. Works : Views 
in and near Aschaffenbui-g (6), Aschaffenburg 
Gallery ; Four Landscapes (one dated 1785), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Six do., Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Three do. (1784, 1791), Darmstadt 
Museum ; Five do., Stuttgart Museum ; oth- 
ers in Augsburg Gallery. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xvi. 350 ; Kugler, kl. Schriften, iii. 363 ; 
Kunstblatt (1858), 280 ; Lipowsky, 155. 

KOBELL, FEANZ, born at Mannheim, 
Nov. 23, 1749, died in Munich, Jan. 14, 
1822. Landscape painter, pupil of Mann- 
heim Academy, went in 1776 to Italy, where 
he spent nine years, chiefly at Eome, and 
on his return in 1785 settled in Munich, 
and was made court-painter and honorary 

member of the Academy; afterwards de- 
voted himself entii-ely to drawing, and is 
said to have left over 10,000 produetions of 
his pencil. Works : Eocky Landscape with 
Waterfalls, Bamberg Gallery; Morning 
Landscape, Evening Landscape, do. (1778), 
Cart-Horse and Figures, Boy feeding Horses, 
Horse Stable (1780), Mountainous Land- 
scape, Weimar Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xvi. 355; Goethe, Winkelmann, ii.; D. 
Kunstbl. (1822), 181. 

KOBELL, JAN, born at Delftshaven in 
1779, died at Amsterdam, Sept. 23, 1814. 
Animal and landscape painter, son of Hen- 
drik KobeU (landscape and marine painter, 
1751-99, by whom there is a Storm at Sea 
(1773) in the Gotha Museum); pupil at 
Utrecht of Willem Eutgaart van der Wall, 
and took Paul Potter for his model ; went 
in 1812 to Paris, where, in the same year, 
he won a gold medal, and rapidly attained 
popularity. His fellow-artists at Amsterdam 
honoured him as their foremost animal 
painter. In 1813-14 he lived in London 
until shortly before his death. Works : 
Landscape with Cattle, View in Gelders, 
Oxen at Pasture (1806), Museum, Amster- 
dam ; Landscape with Cattle, Horse and 
Goats by a Barn, Landscape with Peasants 
Milking, Museum Fodor, ib.; Oxen and 
Sheep in a Meadow, Eotterdam Museum. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 354 ; Immerzeel, ii. 
120 ; Ki-amm, iii. 885. 

KOBELL, JAN, bom at Eotterdam, April 
13, 1800, died there, Nov. 8, 1838. Animal 
and landscape painter, son of the engraver 
Jan Kobell (1756-1833, a brother of Hen- 
drik), pupil of Eotterdam Academy ; painted 
at the age of seventeen a Cow Stable, which 
was placed in the Hague Museum. His 
principal work, a life-size Cattle-piece (1830), 
was immediately sold in Paris. His sister, 
Anna (1795-1847), was also an esteemed 
artist, whose works are in private collec- 
tions in Holland.— Allgem. d. Biogi-., xvi. 

Mannheim, April 6, 1766, died in Munich, 


July 15, 1855. Landscape and battle paint- 
er, son and pupil of Ferdinand Kobell, stud- 
ied afterwards in the Mannheim and Dtissel- 
dorf Galleries, especially after Wouwerman ; 
went to Rome in 1778, became professor at 
the Munich Academy in 1808, and visited 
Vienna and Paris in 1809-10, to make stud- 
ies for his battle-pieces, which, containing 
many portraits of famous contemporaries, 
are of historical interest. Member of Ber- 
lin (1791) and Vienna (1808) Academies; 
Bavarian Civil Order of Merit in 1815 ; en- 
nobled in 1833. Works : Conquest of "Dim ; 
do. of Braunau ; Skirmish near Giinzburg ; 
Entry of French-Bavarian Troops into Mu- 
nich (1807); Third Day of Battle of Hanau 
(1808), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Skirmish 
near Polozk (1812); Siege of Breslau ; Sur- 
render of Brieg, Cavalry Skirmish at Arn- 
hofen (1809), Battles of Eckmiihl and Wag- 
ram, Banquet Hall, Konigsbau, ib. ; Siege 
of Kosel (1806); Storming of Glatz, At- 
tack of the Eussiana near Poglawi (1807) ; 
Battle at Bar sur Aube (1811); Cattle (1820), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Start for the Chase, 
Rocky Landscape, Bamberg Gallery ; Cows 
and Sheep on the Alp, Cattle in a River, 
Return from the Chase, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Loaded Donkeys on a Height, Horseman 
halting by Peasant Boy (1823), Darmstadt 
Museum ; Herd and Shepherd Boy, Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Horse-pieces (2), Prehn 
Collection, ib.; Landscape with Cattle, Fer- 
dinandeum, Innsbruck ; Peasant Family re- 
turning from Market, Leipsic Museum ; 
Mountain Road with Carter and Peasant 
Woman (1822), Lady and Gentleman dis- 
mounted on Lake-shore (1790), Two Horse- 
men Galloping, Schleissheim Gallery ; Hunt- 
ing Party (1822), Weimar Museum ; Land- 
scape with Ploughing Team ; do. with 
Freight Wagon, Wiesbaden Gallery ; Alpine 
Shepherdess and Chamois Hunter Convers- 
ing, Similar Subject (1827), Horsemen vidth 
Horses and Dogs near a Lake (1832), Fiirs- 
tenberg Gallery, Donaueschingen ; several 
in Mannheim Gallery. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xvi. 357 ; Andreseu, i. Ill ; SOltl. 


bom in Copenhagen, May 26, 1810, died 
there, Feb. 7, 1848. Landscape, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 
emy under Lorentzen and Eckersberg, went 
to Rome in 1838, and afterwards to Naples. 
In 1845-46 he painted frescos in the Thor- 
valdsen Museum, and, having painted his 
reception piece for the Academy, died of 
grief over its rejection. Works : Old Sailor 
(1832), Summer Morning near Osterbro 
(1836), From Dosseringen (1839), Coast 
View in Capri (1844), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Bay of Naples (1843), Leipsic Museum ; 
View in Aarhus Cathedral ; Antique Hall at 


Frederiksborg Castle 


Sunset— Weilbach, 890. 

KOCH, JOHANN KARL, born at Ham- 
burg in 1806. History painter, went in 
1827 to Munich, and thence visited Rome 
in 1836. Works : Madonna with St. John, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Miraculous Cure of 
Sick Boy, Departure of St. Bernard from 
Speyer, Speyer Cathedral. Frescos in 
Church of All Saints, Munich ; do.: Pope 
Gregory II. consecrating Boniface Apostle 
of the Germans, Consecration of Kloster 
Fulda, Murder of St. MaximiUan at Cilly, 
Styria in 284, Baptism of St. Ottilia, Bishop 
Wulfram in Friesland rescuing two Youths 
from the Sea, Murder of St. Kilian at Wiirz- 
burg, St. Walpurga saving by her Prayers a 
Sick Girl, Return of St. Willibald from Pil- 
grimage to the Holy Land, Baptism of Wit- 
tikind at Attigny, Charlemagne at the 
Council in Frankfort, Basilica, ib. — Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1836), 69. 

KOCH, JOSEF, born in Munich in 1819, 
died there, Feb. 17, 1872. Landscape and 
animal painter, pupil of Albrecht Adam and 
of Friedrich Voltz ; tried also portraits 
under Bernhardt, and studied in Antwerp ; 
after visits to Paris and Venice, returned 
to Munich in 1846. Works : Euin Kropf- 
berg in the Inn Valley (1849); View near 
Antwerp (1851) ; Animals in the Woods 
(1852); Grazing Cows (1853); Cattle Drink- 
ing (1855); Frauenchiemsee by Moonlight 



(1859); View near Felclwies (1862); Frauen 
Insel (1864); Morning in the Fields (1856), 
Pasture near Antwerp (1858), Harvest (1861), 
Munich Art Union. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 
392 ; Allgem. Zeitg., March 10, 1872, Bei- 
lage, 70. 

KOCH, JOSEF ANTON, born at Ober- 
giebeln, Tyrol, July 27, 
1768, died in Home, Jan. 
12, 1839. Landscape 
painter, pupil of the Karl- 
schule, Stuttgart ; w e n t 
in 1791 to Strasburg, and 
in 1793 to Basle ; in 1795 
travelled on foot to Na- 
ples, where he studied 
from nature, and in the 
spring following went to 
Eome, where he was closely allied with 
Carstens and Wachter, who greatly influ- 
enced his artistic development. In 1812-15 
was in Vienna, where he painted his best 
landscapes ; in 1815 returned to Eome. 
Aiming at the regeneration of historical 
landscape painting, as cultivated by Pous- 
sin, this master stands, together with Johann 
Christian Eeinhardt, midway between Cars- 
tens and Cornelius. Works : Rape of Hylas, 
Polyphemus, Nausicaa, Outlook on the Sea, 
Acis and Galatea, Macbeth, Diana and Ac- 
tseon, Orestes pursued by Furies, Apollo 
and Shepherds, Cadmus killing a Dragon, 
Judgment of Paris, Abraham visited by An- 
gels, Building of the Ark, Deluge, Boaz and 
Euth, Hercules, Rinaldo and Armida, Anti- 
gone and Polynices (1800-1812) ; Landscape 
with St. George (1809), Augsburg Gallery ; 
Schmadri Falls in Lauterbrunn Valley (1811), 
Noah's Sacrifice (1813), Ideal Landscape with 
Jacob's Return (1816), Leipsic Museum ; 
Monastery of S. Francesco di Civitella (1814), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Vigne de Belve- 
dere di Olevano (1815), After the Storm, 
The Schmadri Brook Falls in Switzerland, 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Italian Land- 
scape, Schack Gallei-y, ib.; Falls at Tivoli 
(1818), Darmstadt Museum ; Eape of Hylas, 
Balaam's Ass, Noah's Sacrifice, Stadel Gal- 

lery, Frankfort ; Landscape after Storm, do. 
with Eiver, Stuttgart Museum ; Night Land- 
scape with Adoration of the Magi, View in 
Bernese Oberland, Macbeth and the Witches, 
Euth and Boaz, Apollo among the Shep- 
herds, The Tyrolese Landsturm of 1809, 
Scene from Dante's Inferno, Ferdinandeum, 
Innsbruck ; Macbeth and the Witches (1829), 
Views of and near Olevano (2), View on the 
Tiber near Eome, Basle Museum ; Four 
Scenes from Dante's Inferno (fresco, 1829), 
Villa Massimi, Eome ; Tivoh, Grotta Fer- 
rata. View near Olevano with Greek Fig- 
ures, Maria Maggiore, Rape of Hylas, Tyro- 
lese View (1829-38); Diana Bathing (1833); 
Replicas of Macbeth, Apollo and Shepherds, 
Noah's Sacrifice (1834-36); Rape of Gany- 
mede (1838).— Allgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 388 ; 
Allgem. Zeitg. (1839), Beilage, 51, 382; 
Andresen, i. 9 ; Dohme, K. u. K. des XIX. 
Jahrh., 2 ; Forster, iv. 59 ; Haakh, Beitrage, 
11 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 122 ; D. Kunstblatt 
(1855), 37 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 213 ; Eac- 
zynski, iii. 300 ; Eeber, i. 166 ; Eiegel, i. 
107 ; Schack, Meine Gemaldesammlung 
(1884), — ; Wurzbach, xii. 184 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, X. 65. 

KOCKEET, JULIUS, born in Leipsic, 
June 5, 1827. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Prague Academy under Eubens ; 
went in 1850 to Munich, where he painted 
some of the frescos in the National Museum, 
and the greater part of the Battle of Sala- 
mis, after Kaulbach's composition, in the 
Maximilianeum ; likewise of Kaulbach's 
Otto in. in the Germanic Museum at Nu- 
remberg. Many of his works are owned in 
England and America. Medal at Teplitz, 
1879. Works : Haroun al Easchid, Maxi- 
milianeum, Munich ; Solstice Festival in the 
Alps ; Hay-Harvest on Chiem Lake ; Dance 
of Elves ; Hero and Leander. — Miiller, 305. 

KOEBEEGEE. See Gobergher. 

KOECK, MICHAEL, born at Innsbruck, 
Aug. 29, 1760, died in Eome in Nov., 1825. 
History painter, pupil of Peter Denifle, then 
in Milan (1777-86) of Martin KnoUer, whence 
he went as Imperial pensionary to Eome, 



where he became a member of the Academy 
of S. Luca, and in 1814 inspector of the 
Papal Cabinet of Mosaics. Works : History 
of Achilles (in 14 pictures, after which was 
executed the famous mosaic table presented 
by Pope Leo XIL to the King of France), 
St. Paul before King Agrippa, Ferdinande- 
um, Innsbruck; Frescos in Municipal Hall 
in Eome. — Hormayr's Archiv. (1826), xvii. 
206 ; Tyrol. K. Lex. (1830), 131 ; Wurzbach, 
xii. 207. 

KOEDYCK, NICOLAAS, bom in Zaan- 
dam in 1681. Dutch school ; portrait and 
genre painter, after the style of Pieter de 
Hooch. He was the last good Dutch painter 
of the old period, and the favourite of Peter 
the Great in Zaandam (Sardam). Works : 
Portrait of an Admiral, Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; Dutch Interior, Brussels Museum ; 
Man with Wineglass, in Background a Con- 
cert, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — Immer- 
zeel, ii. 122 ; Kramm, iii. 893. 

KOEHLEE, EOBEKT, born in Ham- 
burg in 1850. Brought to America in 1854. 
Genre painter, pupil of the National Acad- 
emy under Professor Wilmarth, and of the 
Art Students' League under Walter Shir- 
law ; afterward studied in Munich under 
Lceftz and Defregger. Exhibited first in 
National Academy in 1878. Works: Her 
only Support (1883) ; Socialist (1885). 

bom at IMiddelburg, Zeeland, Oct. 11, 1803, 
died at Cleves, April 5, 1862. Landscape 
painter, son and pupil of Johannes Her- 
manns Koekkoek (marine painter, 1778- 
1851, by whom there is a Sea View, 1847, 
in the New Pinakothek at Munich), and 
student of Amsterdam Academy under 
Schelfhout and Van Oos ; travelled in Bel- 
gium, in the Ardennes, on the Ehine, and 
Moselle, visited Paris, afterwards settled at 
Beck in Gelderland, and in 1841 founded 
an Academy of Design at Cleves. Member 
of Rotterdam and St. Petersburg Academies 
in 1840. Orders of the Lion (1839) and 
of Leopold (1842) ; L. of Honour ; gold 
medals in Amsterdam (1840), Paris (1840 

and 1848), and The Hague. Works : Wood- 
Interior (1840); do. (1843); Oak- Wood in 
Damp Weather ; Landscape on Nether 
Rhine ; Summer Landscape, Winter Laud- 
scape (1843), National Gallery, BerHn ; 
Landscapes (2, one dated 1853), Ravene 
Gallery, ib.; do. (1), Carlsruhe Gallery; 
do. (2, 1851, 1852), Leipsic Museum ; do. 
(1838, 1848), Museum, Amsterdam ; Land- 
scape with Cattle, City on a River, Four 
others. Museum Fodor, ib. ; Forest, View in 
Guelders, Winter, Rotterdam Museum ; 
View near Cleves (1846), Antwei-p Museum ; 
Marines (2), South Kensington Museum ; 
View on the Moselle, Historical Society, 
New York ; Dutch Landscape, W. H. Van- 
derbilt, ib. ; Landscape, J. W. Drexel, ib. ; 
_, Street in Antwerp, M. K. Jes- 

TkJ^^ up, ib.; Landscape, Market, 

X- ZT^L^a Church, E. L. Stuart CoUec- 
/^I^/Ij tion, ib. ; Landscape, J. T. 
Martin, Brooklyn. — Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1836), 187; (1840), 361; D. Kunst- 
bl. (1856), 52, 407 ; Immerzeel, ii. 123 ; 
Kramm, iii. 896 ; vii. 95 ; Larousse, ix. 1238. 

delburg, March 13, 1815, died at Haarlem, 
Nov. 5, 1882. Landscape and marine 
painter, son and pupil of Johannes Her- 
manus, and brother of preceding. Member 
of Amsterdam Academy in 1840. Works : 
Calm Water with Fishing Smacks (2), Eiver 
View, View on Zuyder-Zee, three others, 
Museum Fodor, Amsterdam ; Agitated Sea, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Sea on Dutch Coast, 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg. — Immerzeel, ii. 126. 

KOELBL, ALOIS, born in Munich, Jan. 
14, 1820, died there, March 28, 1871. 
Genre painter, pupil of the Munich Acad- 
emy under Heinrich von Hess, then of Bern- 
hard in portrait painting ; visited Italy in 
Michael Echter's company, and finally de- 
voted himself to small genre subjects. 
Works: Clerks in a Sacristy (1852); Walk 
(1859) ; Preparing for a Sunday Walk (1860); 
Recruit in the Kitchen ; Palatine Rudolph I. 
and Duke Otto in the Battle of Gollheim 
(large fresco), National Museum, Munich. 



— AUgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 466 ; Allgem. 
Zeitg., April 2, 1871, Beilage, 92. 

KOETS, ROELOF, born at ZwoUe in 
1656, died there in 1725. Dutch school ; 
portrait painter, pupil of Gerard Terburg ; 
was much employed by Henry Casimir of 
Nassau, Stadtholder of Friesland, and after- 
wards by William HE., and is said to have 
painted five thousand portraits. Works : 
Portrait of Henry Casimir of Nassau, Am- 
sterdam and Antwerp Museums; Female 
Portrait, LiUe Museum. — Immerzeel, ii. 127. 

KOHL, LUDWIG, born in Prague, April 
14, 1746, died there, June 18, 1821. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, of 
which he was made member in 1769, and in 
1775 professor at the newly-erected Model 
School in Prague. Honorary member of 
Parma Academy, 1773. Works : Dido, 
Cleopatra, St. Aretius (1767) ; Virginius 
stabbing his Daughter (1769); Adoration of 
the Cross (1770), Prague Gallery ; Joseph's 
Dream, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (1771); 
Nativity (1773); Madonna (1775) ; St. James 
(1776); St. Barbara (1779); Tarquin and 
Lucretia (1780) ; Death of Lucretia, Solo- 
mon in Idolatry (1785) ; Trinity (1786) ; 
Hannibal's Oath, Cupid and Psyche, Temple 
of Hygeia, Three Graces, Socrates in Prison 
(1801) ; Abstinence of Scipio, Gothic Church, 
Eittersaal, Gothic Tomb, Schlosskirche in 
Prague, Coronation Hall at Prague, Interior 
of Schlosskirche (1803) ; St. Bartholomew 
(1812) ; St. Cecilia, Magdalen, Catherine, 
John Baptist, Susanna, Joseph in Egj'pt, 
Queen Zenobia, Crucifixion, Entombment 
(before 1818) ; Assembly of the Notables in 
Coronation Hall at Prague. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xvi. 428 ; Wurzbach, Biogr. Lex., xii. 

KOHLER, CHRISTIAN, born at Werben, 
Altmark, Oct. 13, 1809, died at Montpellier, 
Jan., 1861. History and portrait painter, 
pupil of the Diisseldorf Academy under 
Schadow, of whose school he became one of 
the foremost artists. Works : Eebekah at 
the Well (1833) ; Song of Miriam (1837), 
Cologne Museum ; Poetry (1838) ; Semira- 

mis (1843) ; Hagar and Ishmael (1844), 
Dusseldorf Gallery ; Finding of Moses ; Ex- 
posure of Moses ; Triumph of David ; Su- 
sanna ; Romeo and Juliet ; Gretchen at the 
Spinning- Wheel ; Mignon ; Germania with 
the Genius of Liberty (1849), New York 
Historical Society ; Semiramis (1852), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; Portrait of Ferd. 
HiUer.— Allgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 438 ; Wolfg. 
Mtiller, Diisseld. K., 34 ; Wiegmann, 139. 

KOHNHOLZ, JULIUS, born in Bremen, 
March 7, 1839. Landscape painter, self- 
taught in Munich and on travels in Italy, 
Tyrol, and in the Austrian and Bavarian 
Alps. Medal in London (1874). Works: 
Storm on Lake Constance (1871) ; Sirocco 
Storm on Coast of Genoa (1872) ; Evening 
on Riviera di Ponente, Traun Lake (1873) ; 
Storm on Italian Coast ; Lake Garda near 
Malcesine.— Mttller, 305. 

KOKEN, EDMUND, born at Hanover, 
June 4, 1814, died there, Oct. 30, 1872. 
Landscape painter, studied at the Polytech- 
nic School in Hanover and then in Munich 
(1836^4), where he was especially allied 
with Kreling and much influenced by Rott- 
mann. Works : Great Wood Landscape, 
Cottage on a Pond, Landscape with Fig- 
ures, Evening Landscape, Street about 
Christmas Time, Twelve Cartoons of Land- 
scapes, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Sev- 
eral in Royal Gallery, ib. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xvi. 455. 

KOKEN, GUSTAV, born in Hanover, 
Aug. 8, 1850. Landscape painter, pupil in 
Hanover of his uncle, Edmund Koken and in 
Weimar of Theodor Hagen. Works : Winter 
Landscape (1877) ; Heath (1878) ; Evening 
Landscape in Thuringia (1879) ; Wall 
Paintings in Villa Hiigel, Hanover. — Leix- 
ner, D. mod. K, i. 58; ii. 117; Mtiller, 

KOKEN, PAUL, born in Hanover, Jan. 2, 
1853. Landscape painter, son of, and first 
instructed by, Edmund Koken, then studied 
in Munich under the influence of Lier and 
in Weimar under that of Theodor Hagen ; 
travelled on the Rhine, in South Germany, 



and North Ital}'. Works : Evening in Au- 
tumn ; Wood Interior. — Milller, 305. 

KOLBE, KAKL WILHELM, the young- 
er, born in BerHu, March 7, 1 781, died there, 
April 8, 1853. History painter, pupil of Ber- 
lin Academy under Chodowiecki, formed 
himself chiefly after the works of Dutch 
masters. Member of Berhn Academy in 
1815, professor and senator in 1830. Works : 
Duke Albrecht AchiUes taking an Ensign ; 
Otto the Great in Battle ; Doge and Doga- 
ressa ; Battle at Fehrbellin ; Last Moments 
of Duke Wratislaw of Pomerania ; Scenes 
from Nibelungen Lied, Marble Palace, Pots- 
dam ; Ascension, Schlossku-che, ib. ; Medi- 
eval Street, Knights of Teutonic Order 
(1824), Marienburg, Charles V. in Flight, 
The Dead Frederick Barbarossa at Battle of 
Antioch, National Gallery, Berlin (lent to 
Stettin Museum). — Allgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 
463 ; Kunstblatt (1850), 177 ; (1851), 110 ; 
(1853), 142, 380 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Mal- 
ersch., 25. 

KOLITZ, LOUIS, born in Tilsit, April 5, 
1845. Military, genre, and battle painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy, then in Dilsseldorf 
of Oswald Achenbach ; influenced by Karl 
Sohn and Bendemann ; took part in the 
campaign of 1866 and 1870-71, and became 
in 1880 director of Cassel Academy. Medal 
in Vienna in 1873. Works : Decamping of 
Lansquenets (1868); Siege of a City (1869); 
Wood Border near Orleans, French Infantry 
before Metz (1872); Taking of French Bat- 
tery, Prussians at Mars la Tour (1873) ; Bat- 
tle of Gravelotte, Uhlan-Vedette, Great Army 
of Najjoleon in Winter ; Scene from Skir- 
mish at Vend('ime, From Scene of Action 
before Metz (1870), National Gallery, Ber- 
lin ; Funeral Procession (1884). — Kunst- 
Chronik, xx. 749 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii. 
558 ; Mailer, 306 ; Leixner, Mod. K, i. 51 ; 
ii. 88, 114. 

KOLLE, CLAUS ANTON, born at Sand- 
by, Laaland, Nov. 25, 1827, died in Copen- 
hagen, Sept. 2, 1872. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen Academy ; went in 
1854 to Dresden and Munich as a scene 

painter, then painted historical subjects and 
portraits before devoting himself to land- 
scape ; went in 1857 to Rome, where he 
spent several years ; was at Biarritz in 1867 
and at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1869. Member 
of Copenhagen Academy. Works : Christ 
at Emmaus (1857); Wood Section on Him- 
melbjerget (1860), Copenhagen Gallerj"^ ; 
View in the Colosseum, Temple of Vesta, 
View on Lake Nemi (1862); Forest of Vin- 
derod (1866) ; Rocky Precipices at Moen 
(1867); Rain in Oat-Fields (1870); Spring 
in the Woods ; Coast View at Oen Moen 
(1871), Copenhagen Gallery.— Sig. MiQler, 
212 ; Weilbach, 394. 

KOLLER, RUDOLF, born in Zurich in 
1828. Idyl and animal painter, pupU in 
Zurich of Ulrich ; studied then in Stuttgart, 
and one year at the Diisseldorf Academy, 
finally in Belgium and Paris after the old 
masters. In 1850-51 he lived in Munich, 
and in 1856 settled in Zurich. Medal, Paris, 
2d class, 1878. Works : Farming in Switz- 
erland (1869); Watering Place, Storm in 
the Mountains (1870) ; Cows in Cabbage 
Field ; Herd in the Alps, Musee Rath, Ge- 
neva ; Lake of Wallenstadt ; Idyl from 
Berner Oberland, Saint Gall Museum ; Mid- 
day Rest, Evening Landscapes (2), Alp in 
Engelberg Valley, White Horse in Stable, 
Zurich Gallery ; Stag-Hunt ; Cow and Calf 
run astray in the Mountains (1856), Berne 
Museum ; Cows in Fog ; Autumn Evening ; 
Cows with Maid ; Meeting (1875) ; After Sun- 
set ; Four Oxen Ploughing, Dresden Muse- 
um ; Siesta, Morning on the Alp (1885). — D. 
Kunstbl. (1853), 411 ; (1857), 227 ; Kunst- 
Chronik ; Midler, 306 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., 
XX. 115. 

KOLLER, WILHELM, bom in Vienna 
in 1829, died in Germany in 1885. His- 
torical genre painter, pupil of Vienna and 
Dusseldorf (1851-55) Academies ; lived in 
1856-59 in Antwerp, then settled in Brus- 
sels. A few years ago he removed to 
Paris, but became reduced in his circum- 
stances and went to Germany, where he is 
said to have succumbed to privations. 



Works : Place of Refuge ; Emigrants ; 
Scenes from Peasants' War ; Marriage of 
Archduke Ferdinand with Philippine Welser ; 
Tilly's Eetreat after Battle of Magdeburg ; 
Baptism of Luther ; Faust and Gretchen in 
the Garden ; Sunday Morning ; Diirer receiv- 
ing Message from Margaret of Parma ; Wed- 
ding Procession of Archduke Maximilian in 
Ghent ; Philippine Welser interceding for 
her Husband ; Charles V. at Fugger's ; 
Emperor Maximilian at Diirer's ; Departure 
for the War ; Almsgiving ; Hugo van der 
Goes painting Portrait of the Infanta Marie 
de Bourgogne, New York Museum. — Art 
Journal (1867), 9 ; Journal des B. Arts 
(1860), 114 ; Kunst-Chronik, sx. 605. 

KOLLOCK, MARY, born in Norfolk, Va., 
in 1840. Landscape painter, studied at the 
Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia, under 
Robert Wylie, and in New York with J. B. 
Bristol and A. H. Wyant. Studio in New 
York ; exhibits at the National Academy. 
Works : Midsummer in the Mountains 
(1876); On the Road to Mount Marcy 
(1877) ; Evening Walk (1878) ; Coming 
Home (1879) ; Two-hundred-and-twenty- 
year-old House in East Hampton (1880); 
Empty Chair (1881); On Eondout Creek, 
BUnd" Fiddler (1882); Brook (1883); Gath- 
ering WUd Flowers (1884). 

KOMPE (Compe), JAN TEN, born at 
Amsterdam, Feb. 14, 1713, died there in 
1761. Dutch school ; landscape and city 
view painter, pupil of Dirk Dalens, the 
younger (1688-1753), but took Jan van der 
Heyden and Gerrit Berkheyde for his mod- 
els. Works : Market in Haarlem, Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Country House near Ant- 
werp (1755), Street in Dutch City, Gotha 
Museum ; Landscape with Sheep (1757), 
Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; View of Dutch 
Gracht (1740), Moat of Dutch City, Schwe- 
rin Gallery. — Immerzeel, i. 144 ; Kramm, 
i. 258 ; Scheltema, Aemstels Oudh., v. 

Berne, April 5, 1760, died March 27, 1832. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Freudenberger 

at Berne. Lived at Interlaken in 1798-1800. 
Works : The Staubbach (1804), Beme Mu- 
seum ; Interlaken and Unterseen. — AUgem. 
d. Biogr.,xvi. 505 ; Cotta's Kunstblatt (1822), 
344; (1832), 212; Goethe, Ueber Kunst und 
Alterthum, ii. 132. 

KONIG, GUSTAV, born iu Coburg, April 
2, 1808, died in Erlangen, April 30, 1869. 
History painter, pupil of the Nuremberg 
Art School in 1830-32, then of the Munich 
Academy under Schnorr. Painted seven 
scenes from Saxon history for the Duke of 
Coburg, and thenceforth took his subjects 
principally from the Reformation period, as 
he is also called Luther- Konig. Works : 
Seven Scenes from Reformation in Saxony 
(1837, seq.); Elector John Frederic at Chess ; 
Nathan's Sermon before David (1861), New 
Pinakothek, IMunich ; Luther and Zwingli 
at Marburg (1862).— Allgem. d. Biogr., svi. 
512; Dioskuren (1870), 177; Forster, v. 
104 ; Reber, ii. 53 ; Regnet, i. 343 ; Ebrard, 
Gust. Kouig, sein Leben u. s. Kunst (Erlan- 
gen, 1870). 

KONIG, JOHANN, flourished at Augs- 
burg about 1600. German school, history 
painter ; executed for the town hall at Augs- 
burg a Last Judgment, the Story of Ananias 
and Sapphira, and three Allegories on the 
Manner of Ruling. He often painted on 
agate, marble, and other stones, e.g., the 
Last Judgment and the Passage of the Is- 
raelites through the Red Sea, painted on 
both sides of an agate, in the University 
Library at Upsala. In the Vienna Museum 
are four pictures of the Seasons, represented 
by children playing, harvesting, etc. If 
identical with the painter of a series of four 
landscapes in the Sienna Academy, and with 
Jacob Konig, by whom are four landscapes 
with figures in the Gallery at Wiesbaden, 
and several in the Stiidel Gallery at Frank- 
fort, he was in Rome in 1613, and there pos- 
sibly a pupil of Elsheimer, of whose well- 
known picture Contento he made a copy in 
1617, which is in the royal palace at Mu- 
nich. By his son, Niklaes, who flourished 
at Nuremberg about 1600 (?), there is a 



Eougli Sea in the Dresden Galler}'. — Bode, 
Studien, 317 ; Nagler, vii. 117. 

Bleiblreu, National Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, 
H. 4 ft. 11 in. X 9 ft. 11 in. On a small ele- 
vation in centre King William on a black 
horse with his suite, Bismarck, Moltke, 
Eoon, etc., watching the battle ; in fore- 
ground, a detachment of captured Austri- 
ans coming towards the spectator ; from the 
right the body-guard galloping forward ; in 
the middle-ground a cavalry combat ; on 
the height to the left the forest of Dub, and 
at the right the village of Problus on fire. 
—Jordan (1885), i. 16. 

ished second half of 16th century. German 
school ; pupil of Cranach, the younger, in 
Wittenberg, whither he was sent in 15.52 
by Duke Albert of Prussia. Work : Christ 
on Mount of Olives, Konigsberg Cathedral. 
— W. & W., ii. 433. 

born at Amster- 
dam, Nov. 5, 
1619, died there, 
buried Oct. 4, 
1688. Dutch 
school. Land- 
scape, history, 
and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Lingelbach and 
Dirk van Bergen painted the figures in some 
of his landscapes, which generally represent 
extensive views with surprising truth to nat- 
ure and grand atmospheric effect. Works : 
Landscapes (2), National Gallery, London ; 
Landscape (long attributed to Rembrandt), 
Lord Overstone, ib. ; Mouth of a Dutch 
River, Hague Museum ; Landscape (1676), 
Entrance to a Forest, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Landscape (1664), Rotterdam Museum ; 
View near Scheveningen, Museum, Brussels ; 
Landscape, Arenberg Gallery, ib. ; do. 
(1664), Rotterdam Museum ; Daughter of 

[ Jairus, Surgical Operation (1650), Old Wo- 
man with a Pot, Kunsthalle, Hamburg; 

I Merry Skippers at the Inn (1646), Schweiin 
Gallery ; Portrait of the Poet Joost van Von- 

a 'kmmjcic 

del (1656 and 1662).— Allgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 
535 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole hoDandaise ; Burger, 
Musees, i. 53 ; ii. 181 ; Immerzeel, ii. 128 
Kramm, iii. 901 : Kugler (Crowe), ii. 387 
Stuers, 65. 

KONINCK (Koning), SALOMON, born at 
Amsterdam in 1609, died there after 1663. 
Dutch school. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of David Colyns and Nicolaas 
Moyaert, and later a follower of Rembrandt. 
Became member of the Painter's Guild 
at Amsterdam in 1630. Works : Young 
Man Reading (1630), Bridgewater Gal- 
lery, London ; Joseph explaining Pha- 
raoh's Dream (attributed to Rembrandt), 
Lord Scarsdale, KeddlestonHall; The Gold- 
weigher (1654), Rotterdam Museum ; St. Je- 
rome, Basle Museum ; Portrait of a Rabbi, 
CaUing of St. Matthew (1646); Croesus and 
Solon, Berlin Museum ; Old Philosopher 
(1649), Brunswick Museum ; Lady at Toilet, 
Turkish Warrior, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Hermit Reading (1643), Old Man with Tur- 
ban, Old Bearded Man with Telescope, Dres- 
den Museum ; David playing before Saul, 
Stiidel Gallery, Frankfort ; Lady's Portrait, 
Gotha Museum ; Christ in the Temple, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Parable of the Vine- 
yard, Old Man, do. in Profile, Hermitage, St. 

^ • X. onml^ 

Petersburg ; Male Portrait, Schleissheim 

Gallery ; Saul and David, Joseph explaining 

i Pharaoh's Dreams (1655), Vision of Zacha- 

^ riah. Old Man's Poiirait, Schwerin Gallery ; 



Scholar in his Study, Stuttgart Museum ; 
Portraits, Madrid Museum. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xvi. 535 ; Ch. Blanc, :ficole hollan- 
daise ; Burger, Musees, ii. 181 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 393 ; Quellenschriften, xiv. 148 ; 
Stuers, 91. 

KONINGSLOO. See Gonincxloo. 

KONRAD VON SOEST, German school, 
flourished early part of 15th century. The 
most prominent master of the school of 
Soest, which he raised to a standard equal 
to that of Rhenish art. Works : Great Al- 
tarpiece at Nieder-Wildungen (1402); Pict- 
ures in Mtlnster and Soest. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xvi. 652. 

bom at AugTistinusga, Friesland, May 13, 
1768, died at Leewarden, July 14, 1836. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Frans 
Swart, Johannes Verrier (1721-97), and 
Hermanus Wouter Beckkerk (1756-96), at 
Leewarden ; in 1804 studied at Dusseldorf. 
Member of Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Ghent 
Academies. Works : Portraits of himself 
and Dirks Jacobs Ploegsma, The Love Let- 
ter (1808), Portrait of Johannes Kobell 
(1811), Piano-playing Interrupted, Portraits 
(3, 1804, copies after Van Dyek), Amsterdam 
Museum. — Immerzeel, ii. 131 ; Kramm, iii. 

KOPISCH, AUGUST, born in Breslau, 
May 26, 1799, died in BerUn, Feb. 3, 1853. 
Landscape painter, pupil of the Prague and 
Vienna Academies ; studied in Dresden in 
1819-22, and after visiting Rome, Naples, 
and Breslau, lived in Berlin in 1833—47, 
when he moved to Potsdam. Works : Falls 
at Terni ; Blue Grotto at Capri ; Pontine 
Marshes at Sunset (1848), National Gallery, 
Berlin. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xvi. 661 ; Kunst- 
blatt (1853), 70, 159 ; Rosenberg, Berliner 
Malerschule, 339. 

KORLE, PANGRAZ, born in Munich, 
Oct. 21, 1823, died there, April 23, 1875. 
Genre painter, pupil of the Munich Acad- 
emy, then of Bernhardt in portrait painting; 
went in 1845 to Vienna, where, through 
study in the galleries and under Waldmiil- 

ler's influence, he was led to take up genre. 
Returned in 1848 to Munich, where he soon 
devoted himself successfully to subjects 
from the Rococo period. Works : The Bro- 
ken Vase, Leipsic Museum ; Waitress ; Ap- 
plause ; Consolation; In the Ancestral Hall; 
Fettered ; Angry Lovers ; A Little Misfor- 
tune ; Ladies making Music ; CavaUer and 
Waitress. — Allgem. d. Biogi-., xvi. 705 ; All- 
gem. Zeitg., May 1, 1875 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
X. 507. 

KORNEK, ALBERT, born in Breslau, 
Jan. 11, 1813. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Berlin Academy under 
Kloeber, and of Dilsseldorf Academy under 
Karl Sohn ; returned to Berlin in 1840. 
Works : Faust and Gretchen ; Jacob and 
Rachel ; Holy Family ; St. Ann with her 
Daughter Mary ; St. Cecilia ; Italian Woman 
with Children before a Madonna ; Latest 
Despatch.— Muller, 307. 

KOENER, ERNST, born at Stibbe, 
West Prussia, Nov. 3, 1846. Landscape 
and marine painter, pupil of Eschke, later 
of Steffeck and Gottlieb Biermann ; visited 
the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas, the 
Hartz Mountains, Northern France (1868), 
Italy (1869), England and Scotland (1872), 
then Egypt and the entire East (1873-74), 
and Italy again in 1876. Medals in Vienna 
(1873), and Philadelphia (1876). Works: 
Douarenez in Brittany (1869); After the 
Storm, Faraglioni in Capri (1872); Grotto 
in Capri, Golden Horn (1873); Suez (1874), 
Stettin Museum ; Damascus (1874); Mah- 
mudieh Canal (1875) ; Baalbec on the Leba- 
non ; Sea near Alexandria ; Colossus of 
Memnon at Sunset ; Sioot in Upper Egypt 
in the Twilight.— Mliller, 308; Leixner, 
Mod. K., i. 93 ; ii. 119 ; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 341. 

KOSAREK, ADOLF, born in Heraletz, 
Bohemia, Jan. 6, 1830, died in Prague, Oct. 
30, 1859. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Prague Academy under Haushofer. Works : 
View near Parduleitz, Summer Day, In the 
Woods (1854); View in Middle Bohemia, 
Ideal Landscape (1855); Wood Landscape 



(1856); Cemetery by the Sea, Winter Niglit 
(1857); SoHtude, From the Valleys of Ko- 
korschin, Ideal Landscape (1858). — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., xvi. 737. 

born in Stockholm, Nov. 27, 1831. Genre 
painter, studied at first at home, then at the 
Diisseldorf Academy under Karl Sohn and 
Tidemand, and in Paris under Couture ; re- 
turned to Sweden in 1860, visited Germany 
in 1862, studying especially in the Berlin 
and Dresden Galleries. Member of Stock- 
holm Academy since 1868. Works : Beggar 
Familj' ; Prayer at Church ; Peasants before 
Church ; Chimney Sweep is Coming ! Sex- 
ton's Collection ; Morning after the Ball ; 
Girls on the Ice ; Oblation at Church ; Sa- 
voyard in Prison ; Household Work, Stock- 
holm Museum.— Mtiller, 308. 

KOSSAIv, JULIUS, bom in Lemberg, 
Galicia, about 1830. Genre and animal 
painter ; attracted general attention at the 
exhibitions in Lemberg when fifteen, stud- 
ied afterwards in Paris under Horace Ver- 
net, and became especially an admirable 
painter of horses. Works : Horse-Market 
at Prague ; Cossacks on the March ; Three 
Pictures illustrating the Polish Epic Mohort 
(1856) ; Poniatowski visiting Mohort's Stud 
in the Ukraine ; Potocki receiving the Staff 
Field - Marshal. — Wurzbach, Biog. Lex., 
xiii. 2. 

KOTSCH, THEODOE, born in Hanover 
in 1818, died at Munich, Nov. 27, 1885. 
Landscape painter, studied in Hanover and 
Munich, then from nature in the Hartz and 
Soiling Mountains, and about 1860 settled 
in Carlsrulie, chiefly attracted there by 
Schirmer. Works : Weser Landscape, Land- 
scape in the Hartz (1861) ; Under High 
Trees (1863); Late Evening (1865); The 
Eegenstein in the Hartz (1866), Carlsruhe 
Gallery ; Eoad with Horseman, Provinzial 
Museum, Hanover ; Kloster Michelstein in 
the Hartz, Trees by the Water at Sunset, 
Hartz Landscape, View in Upper Bavaria 
(1867); Oak Hill with Outlook on Ammen- 
see, German Wood Landscape, Saw-Mill, 

Evening in June (1874) ; Woody Land- 
scape (1877). — Kunst-Chi'onik, xx. 252 ; xxi. 
52 ; Miiller, 308. 
in Konigsberg, June 9, 
1815. History and bat- 
tle painter, pupil of St. 
Petersburg Academy 
under Sauerweid ; won 
great gold medal in 
1844, lived then in 
Paris until 1848, visit- 
ed the Netherlands and 
^ ' ('■ I I H^f'ly. ^iicl settled in 

' ' Munich. Medal, Paris, 

3d class, 1867. Works : Storming of War- 
saw (1844) ; Storming of Schliisselburg ; 
Battle of Poltava ; Storming of Nana ; 
Suvoroff crossing Panixer Pass ; Ejjisode 
from Battle on the Trebbia ; Skirmish at 
the Devil's Bridge ; Crossing the Bothnic 
Gulf ; Foundation of St. Petersburg, Maxi- 
milianeum, Munich ; General Scheremetjeff 
receiving for Peter the Great the Oath of 
Allegiance of City of Eiga. — D. Kunstbl. 
(1856), 40 ; (1857), 02 ; (1858), 60 ; Miiller, 
309 ; Land uud Meer (1870), i. 27. 

born in Warsaw, Poland; contemporary. 
History and genre painter, pupil of Warsaw, 
Dresden, and Munich Academies, at the lat- 
ter under Alexander Wagner and Joseph 
Brandt. Medal, 2d class, Munich, 1883. 
Many of his paintings are owned in England 
and America. Works : Battue in Poland ; 
Duel after the Ball ; Genre Scenes from 18th 
Century ; Militai-y Scenes among the Circas- 
sians ; Episodes from the Fights between 
Eussians and Mountaineers in Transcau- 
casia; Travelling in Eussia, Knoedler & Co., 
New York ; Hunting Scene (Morgan sale, 
New York, 1886, $2,225).— Miiller, 309. 

cow in 1844. Genre painter, pupil of Cra- 
cow Art School and Vienna Academy under 
Engerth ; settled in Munich. Works : Last 
Moments of a Leader (1869) ; A Eecovery 
(1870); Grandfather's Teacher (1871); 



Child's Delight (1872) ; Forsaken (1873) ; 
Preparing for Battle (1875) ; Bag-Piper 
(1876) ; Artist's Studio ; Soldier's Lot ; 
Night-Scene in Poland ; First Steps ; For- 
tune Teller (1884).— MtUler, 309. 

KRABBETJE. See A^selyn. 

Altona, April 27, 1798, died in Rome, Dec. 
29, 1829. Genre painter, pupil of the Dres- 
den Academy under Hartmann, went in 
1821 to Munich, and in 1825 to Vienna. 
Finally settled in Rome. Works : Roman 
Carnival (1828), Thorwaldsen Museum, Co- 
penhagen ; Old Beggar, Gallery, ib. ; Scenes 
from German life. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 
15 ; Andresen, ii. 345 ; Raczynski, iii. 318 ; 
Weilbach, 374. 

KEAFFT, PETER, born at Hanau, Sept. 
17, 1780, died in Vienna, Oct. 28, 1856. 
History painter, pupil of the Hanau Acad- 
emy, and in Vienna of Fiiger ; went in 1802, 
with Schnorr von Karolsf eld, to Paris, where 
he became an adherent of David's school. 
In 1806 he returned to Vienna, visited Rome 
in 1808, painted mostly portraits, but did 
not succeed until 1813 in establishing his 
fame by a subject from contemporary his- 
tory. Member of the Vienna Academy in 
1813, of the Hanau Academy in 1815 ; cor- 
rector and professor at the Vienna Academy 
in 1823 ; director of the Belvedere Gallery 
in 1828 ; honorary member of the Copen- 
hagen Academy in 1839. Works : Land- 
wehi-mann's Farewell (1813), Landwehr- 
mann's Return (1820), Vienna Museum ; 
Archduke Charles at Aspem (1815) ; Vic- 
tory at Leipsic (1816), Furstenberg Gallery, 
Donaueschingen ; Coronation of Francis I. 
(1822), Pesth Museum ; Count Nicolaus 
Zriny before Szigeth, Francis L giving Au- 
dience to a Widow (1837) ; Archduke Charles 
and Suite (1838) ; Meeting of the Allies 
after Battle of Leipsic (1839) ; Emperor 
Francis rowing a Man on Laxenburg Pond, 
Emperor Francis accompanying Poor Man's 
Hearse (1854) ; Belisarius as a Beggar ; 
Ossian and Malvina, Liechtenstein Gallery, 
Vienna ; Manfred ; Hermann and Dorothea ; 

St. Cecilia ; Rudolph von Hapsburg and the 
Priest ; Scenes from Tasso's Jerusalem. — 
Allgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 19 ; Eitelberger, 
Kunsthist. Schr., i. 61 ; Kunstbl. (1857), 4; 
Wurzbach, xiii. 106. 

Dusseldorf in 1712, died there in 1790. 
History painter, went to Italy and painted 
altarpieces for the Jesuits. Studied the 
antique, Raphael, and the Carraccis, and 
was made professor in the Academy of St. 
Luke in Rome, and the Academy in Flor- 
ence. Recommended in 1755 to the Elector 
of the Palatinate, he arranged the Diissel- 
dorf Gallery, later also the Munich Gallery ; 
took a very active part in the foundation of 
the Dusseldorf Academy, and was its first 
director. Works : Six Altarpieces, Jesuit 
Church, Mannheim ; The Virgin Sleeping, 
Mannheim Gallery ; Four Ceiling Paintings, 
Castle Benrath, near Dusseldorf. — Allgem. 
d. Biogr., xvii. 22. 

KRAMOLIN, JOSEF, born at Nimburg, 
Bohemia, in 1730, died in Carlsbad about 
1800. History painter, studied in Prague, 
became in 1758 a Jesuit lay brother ; paint- 
ed numerous pictures for Jesuit churches 
and colleges, and lived afterward in Carls- 
bad. Works : Last Suj)per ; Christ Cruci- 
fied ; David ; Abraham's Sacrifice ; Joseph in 
Egypt ; John Baptist ; Magdalen ; Lazarus ; 
St. Stephen ; St. Jerome. — Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xvii. 31 ; Wurzbach, Biogr. Lex., xiii. 128. 

KRANZBERGER, JOSEF, born atEatis- 
bon, July 10, 1814, died in Athens, Nov. 26, 
1844. History painter, pupil of the Munich 
Academy under Cornelius, for whom he ex- 
ecuted the cartoons for the fresco-cycle in 
St. Louis' Church. In 1840 he went with 
Halbreiter, Claudius Schraudolph, and oth- 
ers to Athens to paint in the Royal Palace. 
He died of the fever while working on a 
large altai-piece for the Royal Chapel. 
Works : Altai-piece, Ratisbon Cathedral ; 
Birth of Christ, Patriarchs, St. Louis 
Church, Munich ; Scenes from Greek War, 
Royal Palace, Athens.— Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xvii. 47. 


ItRAUS, FEIEDEICH, bom at Krottin- 
gen, East-Prussia, May 27, 1826. Genre 
and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Konigs- 
berg Academy ; 
studied then iu 
Paris (1852-54) 
and Rome (1855), 
and settled in Ber- 
lin in 1855. Works: 
Farm Yard with 
Children (1859), 
Ravene Gallery, 
Berlin ; Children playing with Young Dogs, 
Stettin Museum ; New Dress; Game of Chess; 
Reading Girl ; City News ; Sleeping Girl ; 
Burgomaster Six at Rembrandt's ; Potato 
Harvest ; Weekly Visit ; Driving to Dinner; 
Sebastiano del Piombo's Visit to Titian ; Ti- 
tian and his Sweetheart ; Morning Call 
(1872); Bacchante Awakening (1880).— Miil- 
ler, 309 ; Rosenberg, Berliner Malerschule, 

Frankfort, July 26, 1737, died in Weimar, 
Nov. 5, 1806. Landscape painter and en- 
graver, pupil at Cassel of Johann Heinrich 
Tischbein, and in 1761-67 at Paris of Greuze 
and Boucher. Went to Weimar in 1775, 
and in 1780 was made director of the Art 
Academy. Member of Vienna Academy in 
1768, afterward of Berlin Academy. Works : 
Mother feeding her Child (1762), Leipsic 
Museum ; Male Portrait, Weimar Museum; 
Portrait of Goethe (1776); Illustration of 
Wieland's Oberon ; Swiss Peasant Houses. 
— AUgem. d. Biogi-., xvii. 72 ; Nagler, Mon., 
iii. 62 ; Goethe, Au3 meinem Leben, Bk. 


KRAUSE, WILHELM, bom in Dessau, 
Feb. 27, 1803, died in Berlin, Jan. 8, 1864. 
Marine painter, studied in Dresden in 1821- 
24, then in Berlin under Gropius and Wach; 
made his first attempt at marine painting in 
1828, though he had never seen the sea, and 
then visited Rtigen in 1830, Norway, 1831, 
Holland 1834, Paris and Normandy in 1836, 
and at last the Mediterranean. Member of 

the Berlin Academy in 1832, and professor 
in 1834. Works : Strand of Scheveningen; 
Mouth of the Seine ; View of Arcona ; Re- 
turn of the Fisherman ; Coast of Pomerania 
(1828), Storm at Sea (1831), Scotch Coast in 
a Storm (1858), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Approaching Storm (1847), Ravene Gallery, 
ib. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 81 ; Cotta's 
Kunstblatt (1840), 264; (1842), 103; D. 
Kunstblatt (1852), 400 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 
126 ; Rosenberg, BerHner Malerschule, 333. 
KRAY, WLLHELM, born in BerUn; con- 
temporary. Landscape and genre painter, ' 
spent some time in Rome and Venice, and 
then settled in Vienna. Works : Young 
Italian Woman with her Child ; Fisherman 
and Mermaid ; Ave Maria ; Night in Bay of 
Naples ; Undine listening to Tale of a Play- 
mate (1879); Bathing Women ; Psyche 
(1884).— MuUer, 310. 
KRAYER. See Graeyer. 
nabriick, May 23, 
1819, died in Mu- 
nich, April 23, 1876. 
History painter, pu- 
pil in Munich of Cor- 
nelius ; visited Ven- 
ice in 1847 and be- 
y --^^^^^^ came, in 1853, director 
\ v^^? of the Art School in 
Nuremberg, which he 
thoroughly reorganized and brought into 
great repute. Works : First Harvest after 
Thirty Years' War ; Erwin von Steinbach in 
the Woods (1849), Provinzial Museum, Hano- 
ver; Coronation of Louis the Bavarian, Maxi- 
mUianeum, Munich ; Ceiliug in the Theatre 
at Hanover ; Huguenots on Night of St. Bar- 
tholomew, Nuremberg Museum ; Visit to 
Monastery ; Monk as Painter ; Monk as 
Sculptor; Blind Man's Buff; Education of 
Wolfram von Eschenbach (1853), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 
115 ; Illust. Zeitg. (1873), i. 271 ; (1874), ii. 
467 ; (1876), i. 468 ; Nagler, Mon., i. 350 ; 
Land und Meer (1872), No. 5 ; (1876), ii, 



KEELL, HANS, flourished in Leipsic in 
1533-73. Portrait painter, called by his 
contemporaries the Painter of Princes. 
Works : Portraits of the Elector Priedrich 
I. and his Bride (1584), City Library, Leip- 
sic— W. & W., ii. 434 

KEEMEE, PETEUS, born in Antwerp, 
May 9, 1801. Historical genre paintei", pu- 
pil of Antwerp Academy under Herreyns 
and Van Bree ; won a medal first year and 
afterwards all first prizes. Having formed 
himself after Eubens and Van Dyck, he vis- 
ited Germany, Italy, and France, and stud- 
ied especially the Netherlandish old masters 
in the Louvre. Member of Antwerp and 
Amsterdam Academies. Works : Peter the 
Great at Zaandam ; Mary Stuart and Eiz- 
zio ; Paul Potter sketching from Nature ; 
Brouwer taking farewell of Craasbeek ; Jan 
Steen and Maria Herkulens ; David Teniers 
sketching a Village Festival ; Eeading by 
Vondel ; Count van Buren captive in Spain ; 
Duke of Alva and Bishop of Ypern ; Van 
Dyck's Deathbed ; Brouwer at Craasbeek's; 
Lumey, Count van der Marck swearing to 
avenge the Death of Egmont and Horn, 
Brussels Museum ; Death of Jan van Marnix 
in Battle of Astruweel ; William I. at Ad- 
miral de Coligny's ; Daniel Seghers in his 
Studio ; Don Carlos and the Great Inquisi- 
tor ; Jacques Clement preparing for Murder 
of Henri IH. ; Visit of Eubens to Snyders ; 
Poacher and his Son ; Fruit Market ; Chil- 
dren feeding Birds, Bruges Academy. — Cot- 
ta's Kunstbl. (1840), 361; D. Kunstbl. 
(1855), 140 ; Immerzeel, ii. 136. 

HEINEICH, born at Brunswick, Oct. 17, 
1769, died in Berlin, March 2, 1847. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Johanu 
Friedrich Weitsch ; went ia 1789 to BerUn, 
where he studied at the Academy under 
Fiisch and Meil ; travelled through Ger- 
many, France, and Italy, and after his re- 
turn became member of the Academy in 
1806, professor in 1817, and senator in 1828. 
Works : The Great Elector pardoning the 
Prince of Homburg (1800) ; The Elector, 

as Crown Prince, returned from the Nether- 
lands (1802); The Elector haranguing his 
Troops ; Portrait of Wach, Christ and the 
Woman of Samaria, National Gallery, Ber- 
lin. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 141 ; Cotta's 
Kunstb. (1847), 100 ; Eosenberg, Berliner 
Malerschule, 24. 

MANN, born at Anclam, Pomerania, in 1811. 
History, genre, and portrait painter, jsupil 
from 1829, in Berlin, of Wach, and from 
1831, in Dusseldorf, of Schadow ; went to 
Eome in 1838, visited Sicily, and in 1840- 
41 'Greece, Egypt, and Constantinople, and 
in 1854-60 France and England. Lives in 
BerUn ; professor since 1856. Joined the 
campaigns of 1864-66, by order of King 
William, to paint battle pieces. Works : 
Eed Biding Hood ; Cinderella (1836) ; Cas- 
tle Yard ; Eepast in the Desert ; Involun- 
tary Embarkation ; Caravan surprised by 
the Simoom (1844), Leipsic Museum ; Gen- 
eral Seydlitz ; Landing of the Great Elector 
— Prince Waldemar (1850); First Pleasure 
Drive of Seydlitz as Page with the Margrave 
of Schwedt, Schwerin Gallery ; The Black 
Man ; The First Breeches ; The Cat's Child- 
bed ; Patience ; Country Physician ; Genre 
Pictures from the Spreewald (1870-74), 
Dantzig Museum ; Wedding at Gretna 
Green (1876) ; Portraits of Mehemet Ali, 
Abbas Pasha, Abdul Medschid, Queen of 
Greece, Prince Frederick Charles and Suite 
(1864).— MiUler, K. Lex. d. Gegenw., 310 ; 
Cotta's Kunstblatt (1841), 27 ; D. Kunst- 
blatt (1856), 15 ; Eaczynski, I 224 ; Eeber, 
483 ; Eosenberg, Berhner Malerschule, 
48 ; Wolfgang Muller, Diisseldorfer K., 

KARL), born at Ansbach in 1804. Portrait 
and genre painter, studied in the Art School 
at Nuremberg, a,nd at the age of twenty-two 
entered the Munich Academy. Had attained 
reputation in 1830. Works : Baker examin- 
ing Coin (1841), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Baker-Girls ; Peasant Women before a Hut ; 
Peasant Doctor ; Girl seUing Cherries. — 



Cotta's Kunstbl. (1839), 84, 131 ; (1840), 
400 ; (1847), 16 ; Kugler, Kl. Schriften. 

KREUZEE, FEAJSfZ, born in Salgen, 
near Mindelheim, Nov. 12, 1819, died in 
Munich, Jan. 25, 1872. Landscape painter, 
pupil of the Munich Academy under Zim- 
mermann, and from 1889 connected \\ith 
the Xylographic Institute. In 1849 he vis- 
ited America in company of Robert Eberle, 
and returned to ^lunich in 1852. "Works : 
View near Oberandorf (1863); Berchtesgaden 
(1865) ; Around SchOnau (1866) ; Hechtsee 
(1868);Hintersee (1871).— Allgem. d. Biogr., 
xvii. 144 ; Kunst-Chronik, vii. 236. 

KREVEL, LUDAVIG, born at Brunswick, 
Sept. 19, 1801, died at Treves, May 14, 1876. 
Portrait and genre painter, pupil of his 
father, Johann Wunibald ; studied in Paris 
in 1824-30, and settled in Cologne, whence 
he went to Treves in 1868. Works : Por- 
trait of Professor Eduard d'Alton (1834) ; 
Portrait of Christian Rhaban Euhl (1846) ; 
Emmy, Mannheim Art Union ; St. Sebas- 
tian, St. Alban's Church, Cologne ; Girl and 
Parrot ; Venetian Fisherman. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xvii. 149 ; KunstbL (1851), 126 ; 
Merlo, 244. 

KREYDER, ALEXIS, born at Andlau, 
Alsace, in 1839. Eruit and flower painter, 
pupil of La-sille of Strasbourg. One of the 
best living artists of his class. Decorated 
the Deiuidoff Palace and other buildings. 
Studio in Paris. Medal in 1867 ; 2d class, 
1884. Works : Offering to Bacchus (1865), 
Luxembourg Museum ; A Spring (1869); 
Appletree in Blossom (1872) ; Vineyard, 
Roses (1873); By a Grain-Field (1874); On 
the Banks of a Brook (1876); River in Alsace 
(1880); Roses and Peaches, Cherries and 
Flowers (1884); Park Corner, Branch of 
Roses (1885). — Larousse. 

born in Dresden, July 24, 1823. History 
and j)ortrait painter, pupil of Eduard Bende- 
mann, and his assistant in painting frescos 
in the Palace. Visited Germany, Belgium, 
and Holland, and spent some time at Munich, 
Antwerp, and Paris. Since 1866 professor 

at Dresden Academy. Works : Wall-Paint- 
ings in Church at Gersdorff (1869). — Miiller, 
311 ; Nagler, Mon., iv. 376. 

KRIEHUBER, JOSEF, born in Vienna, 
Dec. 14, 1801, died there, May 30, 1876. 
Portrait and landscape painter, pupil of the 
Vienna Academy under Fuger ; went in 1818 
with Prince Sangusko to Poland. After his 
return to Vienna in 1822 he again frequented 
the Academy, was a rival of DaflSnger as a 
miniature painter, and became famous for 
his portraits in lithograph. His landscapes 
in oil and water-colour are truthful iu con- 
ception and carefully studied. He painted 
more than seven thousand portraits. Works : 
Portraits of all the members of Imperial 
Family of Austria, of most of the Austrian 
statesmen, generals, church dignitaries, 
scholars, poets, and artists from 1830 to 
1860 ; Landscapes and Skirmish Scenes ; 
Storm in the Forest (1856), View on the 
Danube, Vienna Museum. — Allgem. d. 
Biogr., xvii. 166; Ulust. Zeitg. (1876), i. 
454 ; Kunst-Chronik, vi. 94 ; xii. 336 ; Land 
und Meer (1872), ii. No. 28 ; Wurzbach, 
xiii. 219. 

KRIGAR, HEINRICH, born in Berlin, 
May 7, 1806, died there, July 7, 1838. 
Genre painter, pupil of Bei'lin Academy and 
of Wach ; visited Holland, Belgium, and 
France, studied in Paris under Delaroche, 
and returned to Berlin in 1837. Works : 
Cinderella (1836) ; St. Cecilia ; Astrologer ; 
Knight and Shield-Bearer (1836), National 
Gallery, Berlin.— Cotta's Kunstbl. (1835), 
138 ; Raczynski, iii. 107 ; Rosenberg, Ber- 
liner Malerschule, 36. 

CAR, Count, born at Thine, Pomerauia, 
March 9, 1826, died in Berlin, Nov. 12, 
1871. Animal and landscape painter, pujjil 
in Berlin of W. Krause and iu Munich of Al- 
bert Zimmermann ; lived in Paris in 1856- 
59, visited Tyrol, Switzerland, Italy, and 

j Russia, and settled in Berlin. Works : 
Rocks in Lautesch Valley — Tyrol ; Bison- 
Cow defending her Calf against Wolves ; 

1 Bison-Hunt ; Evening on Banks of Narewka ; 


Wild Boars, National Gallery, Berlin. — Jor- 
dan, 183. 

KRODEL, WOLFGANG, IGth century. 
One of a family of artists that flourished in 
Saxony through several generations. Prob- 
ably pupil of Cranach. Works : Last Judg- 
ment (1528), Dessau Gallery ; Judith and 
Holofernes (1555), Darmstadt Museum. By 
his nephew, Mathias Krodel, who died in 
1605, there is a Male Portrait (1591) in the 
Dresden Gallery.— W. & W., ii. 433 ; Na- 
gler, Mon., v. 861. 

KEOGK (Krock), HENDRIK, born at 
Flensburg, July 21, 1671, died at Copen- 
hagen, Nov. 18, 1738. History and portrait 
painter, first instructed by a portrait painter 
at Husum, then studied in Copenhagen, and 
in 1693 went with Count Gyldenlove to Italy, 
which he visited again in 1698 and 1704, 
when he studied in Rome under Carlo Ma- 
ratti ; was also repeatedly in France. After 
his return he painted many pictures, espe- 
cially ceilings, for the royal j^alaces at Co- 
penhagen, Hirschholm, Fredensborg, and 
Frederiksborg. Works : Meeting of Jacob 
and Rachel, Gallery, Copenhagen ; Last 
Judgment, Palna Chapel, ib. ; Portrait of 
Frederik IV.— Weilbach, 381. 

KRONBERG, JULIUS, born at Karls- 
krona, Sweden, Dec. 11, 1850. History 
and genre painter, pupil of Stockholm Acad- 
emy ; won a prize in 1870, set out to travel 
in 1873, and has since lived in Paris and Mu- 
nich. Works : Slumbering Wood-Nymph ; 
Spring ; Queen of Sheba. — Miiller, 311. 

KRONBERGER, KARL, born at Frey- 
stadt, Upper Austria, March 7, 1841. Genre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Anschiitz and Hiltensperger. Many of his 
pictures are in America. Works : Law Pro- 
ceedings (1873) ; Raree-Show ; Politicians 
(1874); Last Will ; In Great Distress ; An- 
other Comet,, Harmless Waylayers (1875); 
At the Baptismal Feast, Aunt is Coming 
(1876); Theft discovered Too Late (1880).— 
MuUer, 311. 

at Rinteln, Hesse, Feb. 3, 1838. Animal 

painter, studied chiefly from nature in the Ba- 
varian Alps, also in Munich and Dttsseldorf. 
Gold medals in Berhn, 1876, 1879. Works : 
Deer-Hunt (1864); Deer-Troop (1865); Stag- 
Hunt (1866) ; Eed-Deer Hunt, After the 
Fight (1867); In the Morning, Stags Fight- 
ing (1868); Stags before the Fight, After 
the Fight (1872); Deer in Beech- Wood, 
Boar-Hunt (1874); Wood Landscape with 
Stags (1875), Dasseldorf Gallery ; Stag 
breaking from the Woods, Provinzial Mu- 
seum, Hanover ; Deer Grazing (1877); Au- 
tumn Landscape with Deer, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Winter Landscape with Boar- 
Herd ; Boar-Hunt, Winter (1878); Deer in 
Wood ; Scene during Pause in Hunting, 
File of Wild Boars (1882); Stags in Morn- 
ing Fog on the Brocken (1885). — Jordan, ii. 
128 ; Kunst-Chronik, xxi. 62 ; Miiller, 311 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., x. 160 ; xii. (Mittheilun- 
gen, V. 51); xxi. 52. 

Stavanger, Norway, 
June 24, 1851. 
Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academj', 
and in Paris of Bon- 
nat ; gold medal, 
1873, for cartoon of 
David before Saul 
after slaying Goliath ; 
studied from nature 
on his travels in Hol- 
land, Belgium, Spain, and Italy, especially 
in Southern Italy. Medals : Paris, 3d class, 
1881; 2d class, 1884. Works: Daphnis 
and Chloe (1879); Sardiniere at Concarneau 
(1880) ; Village Hatter (1881) ; Model Studio, 
Italian Workmen digging in Fields (1882); 
Portrait of Meldahl (1882); Portrait of the 
Flower Painter Ottesen ; Skagen Fishermen, 
Artists' Breakfast at Skagen (1884).— Sig. 
Miiller, 189 ; Weilbach, 386 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K., xvi. 295 ; xvii. 275, 352. 

KEUG, :fiDOUAED, born at Drubec 
(Calvados) ; contemporary. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Cogniet. ;\Iedal, 


3d class, 1880. Works : Good Samaritan 
(1863) ; Communion of Jeanne d'Arc in her 
Prison (1864); Vender of SUhouettes (1865); 
Portrait of Artist's Mother (1869); Entomb- 
ment (1870); Colonel Langlois (1876), Caen 
Museum; A Gamin (1877); Martyrdom of 
St. Philomene (1878); Genius of Christian- 
ity (1879); Death of Samt-Clair (1880); 
Symphorosus and his Seven Sons con- 
demned to Death by the Emperor Hadrian 
(1882) ; After the Storm (1888) ; CEdipus 
and Antigone (1885). 

KRUGEE, EUGEN, born at Altona, Dec. 
26, 1832, died at Dusternbrook, near Kiel, 
July 8, 1876. Landscape and animal painter, 
pupil in Vienna of Gurlitt (1852), with whom 
he visited Hungary ; then went with Adolf 
Sehreyer to Diisseldorf, where he acquired 
reputation as a painter of animals of the 
chase. In 1859 he moved to Hamburg, 
whence he visited Great Britain, France, 
Switzerland, Italy, and Sicily, returning to 
Hamburg in 1876. Eeceived a gold medal 
from the King of Prussia for his album, 
called Wood and Game, 1860. Wood with 
Brook in Morning Peg (last work), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg. — AUgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 
227 ; Kunst-Chronik, ii. 62 ; vi. 9 ; xii. 449 ; 
Meyer, Conv. Lex., xvii. 513. 

KRtJGER, FRANZ, born at Radegast, 
Dessau, Sept. 3, 
1797, died in Ber- 
lin, Jan. 21, 1857. 
Portrait and horse 
painter, self-taught; 
often called Pferde 
(Horse) K r ti g e r , 
for his skill as a 
painter of horses. 
Visited St. Peters- 
burg in 1844 and 
1850. Member of Berlin Academy in 1825, 
professor and court-painter. Works : Parade 
of Regiment of Cuirassiers in Berlin, with 
more than 100 portraits (1881, for the Czar); 
Parade of the Guards before Frederick Will- 
iam m. (1839), Homage to Frederick Will- 
iam IV. in 1840, Royal Palace, Berlin ; Czar 

Nicholas and Suite on Horseback (1834) ; 
Frederick William IV. with Suite (1842) ; 
Start for Chase, Return, Horse-Stable, Dead 
Rabbit, Sketch to Czar Nicholas and Suite 
(1834), National Gallery, BerUn ; Portrait of 
King Frederick William IV., Stable Interior 
(1855), Ravene Gallerj', ib. ; King Ernest 
August of Hanover, Provinzial Museum, 
Hanover; do., and other members of Roj'al 
Families of Hanover and Hoheuzollern, 
Royal Gallery, ib. — AUgem. d. Biogr., x\u. 
227; Jordan (1885), ii. 129; Kunstblatt 
(1857), 43, 50, 209; Kunst-Chronik, xxi. 
118 ; Rosenberg, Berliner Malerschule, 284 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., xvi. 387. 

at Liibbenau, July 18, 1834, died at Gohlis, 
near Dresden, Jan. 30, 1880. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Ott and Richard Zimmermann, then of Wei- 
mar Art School under Michels ; travelled in 
Germany and North Italy, and lived in Dres- 
den since 1870. Called Spreewald-Kriiger 
from the scene of many of his landscapes. 
Works : Spreewald (1866), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Mill in Spreewald, Stettin Museum. 
— Jordan, 187 ; Kunst-Chronik, xv. 310. 

sterdam, Sept. 25, 1797, died at Lisse, North 
Holland, Nov. 14, 1857. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Charles H. Hodges 
(portrait painter, 1764-1837), Ravelli, and 
of J. A. Daiwaille ; then studied in Paris 
and Rome, returned to Amsterdam, became 
member of the Academy, and afterwards re- 
moved to Lisse. Order of Lion in 1831 ; 
Commander of Oak-Crown Order ; gold 
medal in Brussels in 1851. Called the 
Italian Knaseman to distinguish him from 
his cousin, Jan Adam. Works : Praying 
Family ; Sermon of John Baptist ; Magda- 
len ; Belisarius as a Beggar ; Entombment ; 
Ecce Homo ; Scene from Dutch-Belgian 
War of 1831 ; Prince of Orange wounded at 
Bantersem ; Old Woman Reading, Happy 
Household (1817), Departure of Philip H. 
from Scheveningen (1832), Devotion, Of the 
same Opinion, Entombment (1830), Amster- 



dam Museum ; Male Portrait (1826), Leyden 
Museum.— D. Kunstbl. (1857), 424; Immer- 
zeel, ii. 138 ; Ki-amm, iii. 911 ; Larousse, 
ix. 1272. 

KRUSEMAN, JAN ADAM bom in Haar- 
lem, Feb. 12, 1804, died there, Mai-eh 17, 
1862. Histoiy and portrait painter, cousin 
and pupil in Amsterdam of Cornelis, studied 
then from nature and after the great mas- 
ters in Amsterdam Museum, and in Brussels 
under David ; returned to Amsterdam in 
1825, was co-director of the Academy in 
1831-35, and one of the founders of the So- 
ciety Ai-ti et Amicitise. Works : Portrait of 
Czar Alexander I. (1832); of Kings "William 
I. and William H, Count and Countess van 
Styrum ; Company of Dutch Poets, Portraits 
of King William U. (1840) and of Adriaan 
van der Hoop, Elijah and the Shunammite 
Woman (1825), Young Girl Resting (1827), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Christ and Woman of 
Samaria ; Prodigal Son ; Cain and Abel ; 
Noah's Curse ; Narcissus ; Joseph and Ben- 
jamin ; Abraham and Isaac ; Shunammite 
Woman ; Male Portraits (1822, 1848), Por- 
trait of Himself (1844), Haai-lem Museum ; 
Landscapes (2) (1850), Leipsic Museum ; 
Midday Nap (1855). — Burger, Musces, ii. 
160; Immerzeel, ii. 140; Kramm, iii. 914 ; 
vii. 97. 

at Alkmaar, Nov. 14, 1829. Landscape 
painter, pupil in Haarlem of Lieste, and 
student of nature in Germany, Switzerland, 
and Tyrol. Continued his studies in Brus- 
sels, and settled in Amsterdam, whence he 
moved to New York in 1865. Member of 
Rotterdam and Amsterdam Academies, and 
of Belgian Water Colour Society ; A.N.A. 
in 1871, and NA. in 1883. Medals : Am- 
sterdam, 1860 ; PhHadelphia, 1876. Studio 
in New York. Works in oil : Early Morn- 
ing in Woods, Queen of Holland ; Well on 
the Heath (1860); Summer Morning — Eso- 
pus Creek (1867) ; Morning in the Hai'tz 
(1871) ; Passing Shower near Pittsfield 
(1875) ; WindmiUs -Holland, Huilbut Col- 
lection, Cleveland ; Corn-fields, Clearing Ofif 

— Adirondaeks, Grove in the Heath, Russell's 
Falls— Adirondacks (1876); Hillside (1879); 
Grain Field— Connecticut, Summer in She- 
paug Valley (1880) ; Moming on River 
Banks (1881) ; Near the River, After the 
Rain (1882) ; Midday, Coming Storm (1883). 
Water-coloui-s : Sunday Morning in Holland 
(1867) ; Meadows near Farmington (1871) ; 
Evening on Long Island Sound (1875); 
Scene in Holland, Autumn in the "White 
Mountains (187G) ; Morning near- Gloucester 
—Mass. (1878) ; Bright Day in August, Old 
Settler, Summer Evening (1884).— Sheldon, 
196 ; MiiUer, 312. 

K"iJCHLEE, ALBERT, bom in Copenha- 
gen, May 2, 1803. 
History and genre 
painter, pupil of Co- 
penhagen Academy 
under Eckersberg ; 
received medals in 
1822 and 1825, gold / 
medal in 1829 ; went 
to Munich in 1830, 
and then to Rome, 
where he became a 
follower of Overbeck. In 1844 he embraced 
CathoHcism, and under the name of Fra 
Pietro became a Franciscan Monk (1851), 
since which time he has painted altai-pieces 
only. Member of Copenhagen Academy 
since 1877. Works : Young Fruit-Seller in 
Artist's Studio (1828), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Chi-ist healing the Sick (1829) ; Chi-ist ap- 
pearing to the Disciples ; Joseph relating 
his Dream (1833), Bride dressed by her 
Mother (1836), Copenhagen Gallery ; Family 
Scene on Lake of Nemi, Roman buying 
Priest's Hat for liis Child, Little Abbe ex- 
amined by his Sister, Family of Colonel 
Paulsen, Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen. 
—Sigurd MuUer, 198 ; Weilbach, 386 ; Land 
und Meer (1874), i. 366. 

Bacharach on the Rhine, Jan. 6, 1772, mur- 
dered near Loschwitz, Dresden, March 27, 
1820. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Zick in Coblentz, and of Fesel in Wiirz- 



burg ; went to Eome in 1791, thence to 
Munich, Riga (1795), and St. Petersburg 
(1799), retm-ning home in 1804 ; visited 
Paris, and in 1805 settled in Dresden, where 
he became professor at the Academy in 
1814. Member of Berlin and St. Peters- 
burg Academies. Works : Andromeda (1810), 
Ariadne in Naxos (1816), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Christ and the two St. Johns ; 
Prodigal Son, Dresden Museum ; Moses, 
Christ, Mohammed, Leipsic Museum ; Por- 
traits of Bliicher, Gneisenau, Goethe, Schil- 
ler, Wieland, and Herder. His son "Wilhelm 
(1802-67) studied at Dresden and Rome, 
and was court-painter to the last Duke of 
Anhalt-Bernburg. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 
305 ; Hasse, Leben G. v. K. ; Kaufmann, 
Bilder aus dem Rheinland (Cologne, 1884), 
3 ; Kiigelgen, Jugenderinnerungen ; N. Ne- 
crol. d. D. (1832), 17 ; Riegel, 171. 

born at Bacharach in 1772, died at Revel, 
Russia, Jan. 9, 1832. Landscape painter, 
twin brother of Gerhard, whom he followed 
to Russia in 1796. He became court-painter 
in St. Petersburg, visited the Crimea in 
1803 and 1806, by imj)erial order, and Fin- 
land in 1818. Settled in Revel in 1827. 
Works : Views in Crimea and Finland (85), 
Imperial Collection ; Ten Ideal Landscapes. 
— Allgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 307 ; Hasse, Le- 
ben G. V. K. 

KtJHLING, WILHELM, born in Berlin, 
Sept. 2, 1823, died in Berlin, Jan. 25, 1880. 
Laudscajje and animal painter, pupil of Ber- 
lin Academy ; visited Switzerland, France, 
and Italy, painted at first portraits, and after 
being employed at the Court of Schwerin in 
1844-52 settled in Berlin. Works : At the 
Brook ; In Autumn ; In the Meadow ; At 
the Ford ; Pasture (1874), National Gallery, 
Berlin.— MiiUer, 313 ; Rosenberg, Berl. Ma- 
lerseh., 345. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Feb. 14, 1812. Landscape 
painter, first instructed in his native city by 
J. Bastine, a pupil of Louis David, but most- 
ly self-taught by study of nature ; painted 

at first portraits, and in 1836 settled at 
Brussels. Medals : Brussels, 1841, 1845 ; 
Paris, 3d class, 1846 ; Bruges, 1850 ; Oporto, 
1805 ; Vienna, Order of Leopold, 1856. 
Works : Pilgrim in Prayer by Gothic Ruin 
(1831) ; Burning of Feudal Castle ; Even- 
ing Landscape (1841), do. (1846), King 
of Belgium ; Souvenir of Banks of the 
Meuse (1842) ; Landscape (1845), Brussels 
Museum ; Wooded Landscape (1847), Ra- 
vene Gallery, Berlin ; Pictures in Ai-emberg 
Gallery, Brussels, and other private collec- 
tions. — Immerzeel, ii 142 ; Kramm, iii. 918 ; 
D. Kunstbl. (1852), 389. 

KULMBACH, HANS VON, born at Kulm- 
bach, Franconia, flourished in Nuremberg, 
died there previous to Dec. 3, 1522. Real 
name Hans Suess, formerly erroneously 
given as Wagner, then as Fuess. German 
school. History jjainter, pupil of Jacopo 
dei Barbari, then of Albrecht Diirer be- 
tween 1511 and 1513, and also in 1518, 
and one of the representative masters of the 
German school. Works : Adoration of Magi 
(1511), Female Portrait, Berlin Museum ; 
Triptj'ch with Saints, Carlsruhe Gallery ; 
Figures of Saints (6), Old Pinakothek, ]\iu- 
nich ; Figures of Saints (5), Finding of the 
Cross, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 
Triptych with Coronation of the Virgin 
(1513), St. Sebaldus, ib. ; Male Portrait, 
Oldenburg Gallery ; The Trinity and Saints, 
Nativity, Schleissheim Gallery ; Two Por- 
traits (1513), Consul Weber, Hamburg ; 
Four Scenes in History of SS. Peter and 
Paul (? attributed to Schiiuffelin), Uffizi, 
Florence ; Series of Scenes from Legend of 

I — -^ -~-» St. Catherine, St. Mary's 

I j J^ I I j Church, Cracow. Others 

in Gallery. — Allgenj. d. 
Biogr., xvii 363 ; Forster, ii 312 ; 
Keane, Early Masters, 135 ; Kug- 
ler (Crowe), i. 176 ; Quellenschriften, x. 134; 
Rep. f. K, iii 213 ; W. & W., ii. 403 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. bild. Kunst., vi. 329 ; ix. 156 ; xi. 

Dresden, May 30, 1810. Landscape painter, 



self-tauglit on travels tlirough Tj'rol and in 
Italy, where be studied in 1831-37 ; during 
that period he also visited Dalmatia, Slavo- 
nia, and Croatia, and settled in Dresden in 
1843 ; visited Scotland in 1851, Portugal 
in 1859, Egypt in 18G7, and frequented the 
Alps. Honorary member of Dresden Acad- 
emy iu 1847, professor in 1859. Bavarian 
Order of Michael, Prussian Order of Red 
Eagle. Works : Hungarian Steppe ; Cat- 
taro ; View from Montenegro into Albania ; 
Lake of Scutari ; Castle Cintra ; Lisbon ; 
Storm on Coast of Palermo ; Views on 
Scotch Coast ; View near Arisaig, Scotland, 
Dresden Gallery ; Sunset in the Hebrides, 
Swiss Landscape, Leipsic Museum. — Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1869), ii. 391 ; Kauleu, 29 ; Midler, 

born in Leyden in 1493, died in Bruges in 
1544. Dutch school. History and portrait 
painter, son and pupil of Cornells Engel- 
brechtsen ; was one of the best artists of 
his native city ; moved afterwards to Bruges, 
where his works are highly esteemed. Had 
a brother Lucas, surnamed Kok (Cook), who, 
also a pupil of his father, went to England. 
"Works : Christ bearing the Cross, Sorrow of 
Mary, Descent from the Cross (all in Ley- 
den). — Allgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 388 ; Lnmer- 
zeel, ii. 143 ; Kramm, iii. 921 ; Van INIander, 
i. 99. 

KUNTZ, GUSTAV, born at Wildenfels, 
Saxony, Feb. 17, 1843, died in Rome, April 
2, 1879. Genre painter, pupil in Vienna of 
Angeli, who in 1871 met him in Rome, where 
Kuntz worked as a sculptor ; lived in Wei- 
mar in 1871-72, then visited England, 
France, Holland, and Belgium ; lived from 
1873 in Vienna, and in 1877 settled in Rome. 
Medal in Philadelphia in 1876. Works: 
Nun in Contemplation (1876), Roman Pil- 
grim (1878), do. Praying, Dresden Bluseum; 
Document Thief ; Denied Absolution ; The 
Widow's Mite ; Italian Pilgrims (1877), Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin. — Jordan (1885), ii. 
132 ; Kunst^Chronik, xiv. 525 ; Leisner, 
Mod. K, ii. 66. 

KUNTZ, KARL, born in Mannheim, July 
28, 1770, died in Carlsruhe, Sept. 8, 1830. 
Landscape and animal painter, pupil of 
Mannheim Academy under Ronger and 
Quaglio ; went iu 1790 to Switzerland and 
Milan, and in 1805 became court-jsainter, 
and in 1829 director of the Gallery in Carls- 
ruhe. Works : Pasture (1824), National 
Gallery, Berlin; Landscape, Cattle Pieces (2), 
Cattle Market, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Land- 
scapes with Cattle (3, 1802, 1815), Peasants 
Embarking on Lake, New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; others in Mannheim Gallery, and iu 
Paris and St. Petersburg. His sons and 
pupils, Rudolf (1798-1848, Baden court- 
painter in 1830) and Ludwig (born in 1810), 
were both able artists in the same line. By 
Rudolf there are in the Carlsruhe Gallery : 
View of Stutensee Hunting Lodge, Animal 
Piece, Horses Watering, Horse Race near 
Iffezheim. — Allgem. d. Biogr. , xvii. 397 ; 
Brockhaus, x. 674 ; Cotta's Kunstbl. (1830), 

Piesting, Nether Austria, Oct. 17, 1796, died 
in Vienna, Nov. 17, 1862. History painter, 
pupil of the Vienna Academy ; studied at 
Dresden in 1816-18, and after having estab- 
lished his reputation by a life-size portrait 
of the Emperor Francis, visited Italy in 1824 
-25. Especially attracted by the works of 
Fra Angelico, he devoted himself entirely to 
religious art, and after his return home ex- 
ecuted numerous altarpieces for churches in 
Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary, besides 
fresco paintings in Viennese churches and 
offtcial buildings. He co-operated with Fiih- 
rich in promoting religious art tendencies. 
From 1830 corrector, and from 1837 profes- 
sor, at the Academy; member of most of the 
European Academies, and received many 
decorations and honours. Works : Cruci- 
fixion ; Ascension ; Austria surrounded by 
Symbolical Figures ; Assumption ; Birth of 
Mary ; Moses praying for Victory (1836), Vi- 
enna Museum ; Prophecy to the Three 
Youths Adalbero, Altmann, and Gebhard 
(1856), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Annimci- 



ation; frescos Id Lerchenf eld Church, Vienna. 
• — AUgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 405 ; Dioskuren 
(1862), 384 ; Kunslbl. (1854), 464 ; (1856), 
174; (1857), 199; Wurzbach, xiii. 392; 
Eaczynski, ii. 553. 

KUPETZKY (Kopecky), JOHANN, born 
at Poesing, Upper Hungary, in 1667, died 
in Nuremberg, June 4, 1740. German 
school. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of the Swiss painter Klaus in Vienna, whence 
he went to Venice and Rome to study Cor- 
reggio, Guido, and Titian. After living in 
Italy twenty-two years, he went upon invi- 
tation of Prince Adam von Liechtenstein to 
Vienna, where he won the favour of Joseph 
I., Charles VI., and of Prince Eugene of 
Savoy, and became popular as a portrait 
painter. Later he went to Nuremberg. He 
was a capital draughtsman, and a powerful 
though often heavy colourist. Works : Por- 
trait of Peter the Great, Artist and his Son, 
Himself at the Easel, King Augustus of Po- 
land, A Hungarian Magnate, Two Female 
Portraits, Male Portrait, Two Head Studies, 
Brunswick Museum ; Portrait of Himself, 
Darmstadt and Dresden Museums ; do., and 
Portrait of Eakoczy, Gotha Museum ; Male 
Portrait (of himself ?), Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; Old Woman with Letter, Leipsic 
Museum ; Lady's Portrait, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Artist's Portrait, Milan Academy ; 
do. (2), and Portrait of Rakoczy, A Boy, and 
Male Portraits (4), Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg ; Dutch Genre Pieces (2), Artist 
and his Son, Artist's Wife, Count Zinzen- 
dorf, Man in Armour, Town-hall, ib. ; Bishop 
Baron von Hutten, Ai-tist and his Son, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; St. Peter, Artist's 
Portrait, Schwerin Gallery ; Portraits of 
himself and of his wife, Stuttgart Museum ; 
A Lady with her Boy, Artist before Easel 
(1706), Museum, Vienna ; Mythological Sub- 
jects, Saints, and Portraits, Liechtenstein 
^ y Gallery and 

fc/ ' ** I vate galler- 

ies, ib. ; Portraits (10-12), National Museum, 
Pesth ; Prince Eugene ^f Savoy, Versailles 

Museum. — Allgem. d. Biogr., xvii. 408 ; Dla- 
bacz, ii. 160 ; Fflssli, Leben des Geo. Phil. 
Eugendas u. des Joh. Kupeczky (Zurich, 
1758) ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 552 ; Lipowsky, 
i. 167, 193 ; Wurzbach, xiii. 396. 

Kaufbeuren in 1843. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy, where 
he took Kaulbach for his model ; studied 
then for two years in Nuremberg under 
Kreling, lived in Italy, especially at Venice, 
in 1869-72, and settled in Munich. Med- 
als in Vienna (1873) and London (1874); 
Order of Michael (1876). Works : Portrait 
(1872) ; ItaUan Concert (1873) ; Drunken 
Soldiers in Thirty Years' War ; After the 
Bath (1876); Farewell of Duke Albrecht IV. 
(1879).— Miiller, 314. 

Warsaw, Aug. 13, 1836. History painter, 
pupil of Warsaw Academy, studied then in 
Dresden under Schnorr and in Munich un- 
der Kaulbach ; went to Home and visited 
Paris, Brussels, Antwerp, and Berlin, where 
he was influenced by Cornelius ; returned 
to Munich, and studied at the Academy 
under Eamberg. Most of his works are 
bought in England. Works : Death of 
Moses ; Ferry in Poland ; Goldfish ; Swite- 
zianka; Polish Market (1875).— Miiller, 

KUETZ, KAEL, born in Stuttgart in 
1817. Portrait and genre painter, pupil of 
Stuttgai't Art School and of Vienna Acad- 
emy under Danhauser ; visited Hungary, 
Eome, Venice, Milan, and Florence (1842- 
44), also France and Belgium ; lived in 
Munich in 1844-45, in Dresden and Berlin 
in 1846, then visited England and Holland, 
afterwards repeatedly France and Italy, and 
in 1848 became professor at the Polytech- 
nic in Stuttgart. Gold medal, 1853 ; medal, 
1859 ; Order of Frederic. Work : Portrait 
of King WiUiam L (1853).— Miiller, 314. 

enna, May 2, 1840, died in Munich, Jan. 13, 
1879. Genre painter, pupil of the Vienna 
Academy in 1857-61, and in Munich of Pi- 



loty in 1868-70. His pictures show unusual 
powers of invention and characterization, 
with fine qualities of 
colour. Works : The 
Story-Teller (1867); 
Fugitives Overtaken 
(1868), Vienna Muse- 
um ; Eejected Suitor 
(1871) ; Old Mother ; 
Eural Feast (1873), 
New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; First Picture- 
Book, Stuttgart Mu- 
seum ; A Stormy Betrothal-Day, Tasting 
Wine, Groundless Jealousy (1874) ; Sunday 
Sportsman, Before Election, Christmas Tree, 
Fortune-Teller (1875); The First Step (1877); 
The Dispute (1877), W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more ; Spinning Boom in Black Forest, Dres- 
den Gallery ; Calumny (1878) ; Small Wash- 
ing ; Wreath Binders ; Before the Funeral, 
Vienna Museum. — AUgem. d. Biogr., svii. 
431 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1878), i. 156 ; N. ill. 
Zeitg. (1881), i. 46, 110 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
viii. 466 ; xiv. 302 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., ix. 32 ; 
ix. 556 ; (Mittheilungen, ii. 41) ; do., x. 
(iii. 1). 

KtiEZINGEE, MARIANNE, born in Mu- 
nich in 1770, died in 1809. History and 
genre painter, daughter and pupil of Franz 
Kiirzinger (history painter, 1730-90), then 
studied under Jakob Dorner with such suc- 
cess that she was caUed the Angelica Kauff- 
man of Bavaria. She married the actor and 
singer, Johann Kunz, in Munich. Works : 
Circassian Woman introduced to the Sul- 
tan ; Circassian Woman Dressing ; Death 
of French Grenadier Latour d'Auvergne ; 
Christ on Mount of Olives. — Lipowsky. 

KUWASSEG, KAEL, born in Trieste, 
March 16, 1802, died in Paris, Jan., 1877. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Gratz Academy 
under Stark ; painted in water-colours in Vi- 
enna, and after travelling with Count Schom- 
burg in Southern Europe and in America 
went to Paris, where he became a natural- 
ized Frenchman. About 1835 Louis Phil- 
ippe and Bai-on Eothschild bought some of 

his pictures and opened the road to success. 
Medals : 3d class, 1841, 1861, 1863 ; L. of 
Honour. Works: Landscape (1835) ; View 
of Eio de Janeiro (1837); Chamois-Hunting 
(1840) ; View of Villeneuve Saint-George 
(1841) ; View of Machemont (1842) ; Eiver 
Yeres (1844) ; Views of Ermenonville (1845) ; 
Souvenir of South America (1846) ; View of 
Guayaquil (1847) ; View of Treport (1848) ; 
Emdrons of Grenoble (1852) ; View in Ca- 
rinthia (1857); Valley of Angus (1859); 
Cliffs of Flamborough Head (1861) ; Cliffs of 
Scotch Coast (1863) ; Eeturn fi-om Hunting 
(1864); Moro Castle (1865); Cordilleras 
near Santiago (1866) ; Cliffs on the Mediter- 
ranean (1867) ; Souvenirs of Switzerland 
(1868) ; The Estrelle after a Storm, View in 
the Cordilleras (1869) ; Environs of Valauris 
(1870) ; View in the Tyrol (1872) ; Hohen- 
berg (1873) ; Huts of South American In- 
dians, Sea View (1874) ; Eocks of Stocksfel- 
sen-Tyrol, Glacier of Friolay (1876) ; View 
in the Canton of Grisons (1877). His son 
and pupil, Charles Euphraise, born at Dra- 
veil (Seine-et-Oise), pupil also of Durand- 
Brager, paints landscapes, city views, and 
sea-ports. — Bellier, i. 858 ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1861), xi. 191 ; (1866), xxi. 52 ; Larousse ; 
Wurzbach, xiii. 436. 

Antwerp in 1821, died there in 1875. Ani- 
mal painter, pupil of Antwerp Academy un- 
der Van Bree and Wappers ; painted at first 
genre scenes. Gold medal in Brussels in 
1866. Works : Flemish Inn Yard ; Horse 
Stable (1859), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; do. 
(1852), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Depart- 
ure for the Fields (1870), Antwerp Museum. 
—Art Journal (1866), 835. 

KUYP. See Guyp. 

TONTUS, born at Amersfoort, Holland, Nov. 
21, 1821. Landscape and animal painter, 
first instructed by his father, a skilful dilet- 
tante ; completed his studies during travels 
in Belgium and France, and settled in Brus- 
sels. Court-painter and member of Amster- 
dam Academy. Officer of Order of Oak 



Cro-wn. Works : Stags after Figlit ; Great 
Wood-Landscape (1855) ; Stag Hunt (1856), 
Brussels Museum ; Maternal Love, Little 
Crab-Catchers (1862) ; Stags Fighting; St. 
Bernard Dog and Badger Dog ; The Dragon- 
iiades under Louis XTV. ; Sunset Landscape 
■with a Train of Cavaliers ; Huguenots taking 
Refuge in the Woods ; View in Forest of 
Foutainebleau, Rotterdam Museum ; Cuiras- 
siers on their Way to Foutainebleau ; Two 
Hunting Pieces in Costumes of 16th Cen- 
tury ; Stag-Hunt in 16th Century ; Chase in 
Forest near Ghent (1856) ; Stag and Hind 
in Moonlight (1870) ; Herd of Stags (1873) ; 
Fox Terrier (1880).— Kramm, iii. 923 ; vii. 
97 ; MiiUer, 314 ; Nagler, Mon., iv. 504. 

born in Copenhagen, March 30, 1819. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Copenhagen Acad- 

emy ; member in 1870 ; visited France and 
Italy in 1850. Works : Coast on Isle of Born- 
holm (1843), Aarhus 
Museum; Coast at Sun- 
set after Rain, Ruins of 
Hammershus Castle 
(1844) ; Frederiksborg 
Castle, Woods in the 
Spring (1845); View 
near Jaegerspris (1848), 
Winter Evening in the 
Woods (1853), Coast 
View near Taarbeck 
(1855), View near Horsens (1858), Summer 
Evening (1863), Summer Day (1869), Late 
Summer Evening in Jutland (1874), Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Winter Afternoon on the 
Sound ; Moonlight Landscape (1876). — Si- 
gurd Miiller, 204 ; Weilbach, 389.