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The Seventeen Towns 


Rensselaer County 


Colonization of the Majtor of Rensselaerwyck 
to the Present Time. 


A. J. Weise, a. M., 


TROY; N. Y. 


History of the Towns of Rensselaer County. 


Peculiar Colonization Scheme of the Dutch — Purchases of Kilian 
Van Rensselaer — Extent of the Manor of Rensselaerwyck — 
Names of Freeholders in 1720 — Public Whipping of Slaves — 
The Province of New York divided into Counties — Courts of 


— The first Court held at Platt's Inn — County Officers — 
First Censuses. 

The history of Rensselaer county properly 
begins with the first purpose of the Dutch to 
colonize the attractive and fertile country which 
bordered the river explored by Henry Hudson, 
the English navigator, in 1609. The project. If 
we except a possible fear of the Indians inhab- 
iting this inviting region, was one that would 
readily captivate the attention of speculators, 
esi>ecially those living in a land where the labors 
of agriculturists were of an extremely arduous 
character. A people whose vigilance and 
work preserved their fields and homes from the 
constant danger of inundation from the high 
tides of a troublesome ocean, we may suppose, 
would look with favoring interest npon a 
scheme of emigration that would release them 
from such continuous cares and give them 
larger and more satisfying rewards for their in- 
dustry and thrift. 


In Holland there was in 1639 a guild of 
wealthy merchants known as the West India 
company. Conscious that by right of discovery 
the country adjacent to the river explored by 
Hudson 20 years previously was a possession 
of Holland, the association petitioned the legis- 
lative bodies of the United Provinces to grant 
it the exclusive privilege for 34 years of taking 
charge of this territory and of developing by 
means of emigrants its agricultural and mineral 
products. This petition was granted, and by 
the powers conferred by it the West India com- 

pany issued its charter of liberties and exemp- 
tions under which the colonization of the pos- 
sessions of the Dutch in North America began. 
Inquiring persons will find in this charter of 
the West India company valuable information 
regarding the inducements offered to emigrants 
and what gave the patroons the proprietary 
right to such extensive tracts of land, as that 
of the manor of Rensselaerwick, from which 
Rensselaer county was erected. This important 
instrument provided that any person who 
wished to become a patroon would be obliged 
to give notice of his intention to the company, 
and that he would not be entitled to the abso- 
lute property right of such lands on which he 
intended to settle colonists, if, during the four 
years following the giving of this notice, 50 
souls, upwards of 15 years of age, were not 
living thereon ; one-fourth of the above number 
during the first year and the remainder the suc- 
ceeding three years. The patroons were allowed 
for these colonies a tract of land on 
one side of a navigable river, four Dutch or 
twelve English miles in extent, or two Dutch or 
six English miles on each side of a river, and 
which tracts were to extend so far into the 
country as the situation of the occupiers per- 
mitted. The West India company also agreed 
to transport emigrants and their effects from 
Holland at a stipulated price ; and the animals 
and instruments necessary for farming, free of 


The company also granted to allpatroonswbo 
should desire the same the right to hold the 
tracts of lands settled by them as an eternal 
heritage, which they could transmit to their 
heirs by testament. The charter further pro- 
vided that the patroons aind colonists should in 
particular and in the speediest manner endeavor 
to find out ways and means whereby they might 
support a minister and schoolmaster, that the 
service of tiod and zeal for religion might not 
grow cold and be neglected among them. 

All the colonies were required, at least once 
in every 12 months, to make an exact report of 
their condition to the West India company. 

The company also stipulated, on certain con- 
ditions, that it would use its best efforts to 
supply the colonists with as many blacks as it 
conveniently could after the land had been oc- 
cupied by a colony. 

As a means to protect the manufacturers of 
Holland, the colonists were not permitted to 
make any woolen, linen or cotton cloth, nor 
weave any other stuffs, on pain of banishment. 


It was under the liberal provisions of this 
charter that Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a dealer 
in pearls and diamonds in Amsterdam, and one 
of the wealthy directors of the Dutch West 
India company, became a patroon and acquired 
by right of settlement a property right to the 
extensive territory known as the manor of 
Rensselaerwyck, lying on the east and west 
banks of the upper Hudson. 

The charter of liberties also provided that any 
one who should settle any colony out of the 
limits of Manhattan island would be obliged to 
satisfy the Indians for the land upon which be 
should place colonists, and that a patroon 
might extend or enlarge the limits of his colo- 
nies if he settled a proportionate number of 
persons thereon. 

Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, in order to perfect a 
claim to a large extent of land in New Nether- 
land, made purchases of the Indians of several 
tracts of land, which in time embraced a terri- 
tory a miles long and 48 broad, containing as 
estimated more than 700,000 acres of land, over 
which the present counties of Albany, Rensse- 
laer and a portion of Columbia now extend. 
The persons who acted as agents of Kiliaen Van 
Rensselaer were Sebastian Jansen Krol, who 
made the first purchase, April 8, 1630 ; Gillis 
Hassett, the second, July 27, 1630, and Brandt 
van Slechtenhorst, the third, March 13, 1652. 

The English confirmation of a patent to Kili- 
aen Van Rensselaer given by Gov. Thomas 
Dongan, dated November 4, 1685, describes 
the boundaries of the several purchases made 
by the agents of Van Rensselaer as follows : 

Beeinnlne at the south end of or part of Berrent 
island on Hudson's river and extending northwards 
UD along both aides of the said Hudson's river unto 
a place heretofore called the Kahoos. or the great 
falls of the said river and extending itself east 
and west from each side of the said river 
backwards into the woods 34 English miles, 
as also a certain tract of land situate 
lying and being on the east side of Hud- 
son's river, beginning at the creek by Major Abra- 
ham Staet's and so along the said river southward 
to the south side of Yaxtrix island by a creek 
called Waghankasigh, stretching from thence with 
an easterlv line into the woods Zi English miles to 
a place called Wawanaquiaslck, and from thence 
northward to the head of said creek by Major 
Abraham Staet's as aforesaid. 

Tbis patent excepted Fort Albany and tde 
town of Albany, from the southernmost end of 
the pasture lying over against the north end of 
Martin Garrittson's island to the post on the 
north side of the said town, where it was 
formerly marked by Gov. Stuyvesant, and so 
backward into the woods northwest 16 English 


It should be remembered that the English dis- 
possessed the Dutch, in 1664, of New Nether- 
land, as their possessions in America were 
called. However, the Dutch, in turn, wrested 
the province from the English in 1672, but who, 
by the treaty of Westminster, restored it again 
to the English in 1674. 

Major Edmund Andros, having received the 
appointment of governor of the province, he, 
in 1678, made a report respecting the condition 
and growth of the province of New York, 
which, although it shows that little attention 
was paid to orthography and punctuation, is so 
full of important information as makes It quite 
interesting. The governor says : 

Albany is a smale long stockadoed forte with 
foore bastions in it, 12 gunns, sutScient agt In- 

The Militia is about 3,000, of wch about 140 
horse in three troopes the foote formed into com- 
panyes, most under 100 men each all indifferently 
armed with fire-annes of all sizes. 

Our principal places of Trade are New Torke and 
Sonth'ton except Albany for the Indyans, our 
buildings most wood, some lately stone & brick, 
good country houses & strong of their several! 

Wee have about 34 townes, villlages or parishes 
in Six PreclnotB, Divisions, Rydelngs. or Courts of 

Our Merch'ts are not many but with inhabitants 
A planters about 2,000, able to beare armes, old 
inhabitants of the place or of England, Except in 
& neere New Torke of Dutch Extraction A 
some few of all nations, but few serv'ts, much 
wanted & but very few slaves. 


Ministers have been soe scarce and Religions 
many that noe acot eann be (riven of Children's 
births or christenings. 

Scaroity of Ministers and Law admitting mar- 
riages by Justices, noe acct can be given of the 
numtier marryed. 

Noe acct can be given of burialls, formes of burlalls 
not being generally observed & few ministers 
till very lately. 

A mercht worth 1,000 lb. or SOD lb. is accompted a 
good substantial! merchant and a planter worthe 
haUe that in moveables accompted with all the 
Estates may be valued att about £1SO,000. 

There may lately have traded to ye CoUony In a 
yeare from tenn to fifteen shipps or vessells of about 
together 100 tunns each, English new England and 
our owne buUt of wch 5 small shipps and a Ketch 
now belonging to New Torke foure of them built 

There are Religions of all sorts, one Church of 
England, Several Presbiterians and Independents, 
Quakers & Anabaptists of Several sects, some 
Jews but presbiterians & Independts most nu- 
merous & Substantiall. 

The Duke malntaines a chapllne woh is all the 
certaine allowance or Church of England, but peo- 
ples free gifts to ye Ministry, and all places ob- 
Udged to build Churches & provide for a minis- 
ter, in woh most very wanting, but presbiterians 
& Independts desierous to have and maintaine 
them if to be had. There are abt 30 Churches or 
Meeting places of wch above halfe vacant their al- 
lowance like to be from 40Ib to 701b a yeare and a 
house and garden. Noe Beggars but all poore 
cared ffor. If good Ministers could be had to go 
thelther might doe well & galne much upon 
those people. 

It has been estimated that in proportion to 
the number of militia that the population of 
the province in 1678 must have been about 
20,000. A few years afterward the shipping 
numbered 10 three-masted vessels, 20 sloops, 
and several ketches. 


, The first assembly convened in the province 
of New York, then a dependency of Charles 
II. of England, held its first session at Hamp- 
stead on the 17th of October, 1683. 

"The act to divide this province and de- 
pendencies Into shires and countyes" was 
passed by tUs assembly. The preamble to the 
bill reads: 

Having taken into conslderacon the necessity of 
dividing the province into respective countys for 
the better governing and settling courts in the 

Bee it enacted by the Govemour, Counoell, and 
Representatives, and by the authority of the same, 
Thatt the said province be divided into twelve 
countys, as followeth : 

The counties as mentioned in the act were : " The 
oltty and county of New Torke ;" " the county of 

Westchester;" "the county of Ulster;" "the 
county of Albany;" "the Butchesses county;" 
" the county of Orange ;" " the county of Rich- 
mond;" "King's county;" "Queen's county;" 
"the county of Suffolk ;" " Duke's county ;" and 
" the county of Cornwall." 

The county of Albany, erected by this act, 
embraced the following portion of the territory 
of the province : 

The county of Albany to conteyne the towne of 
Albany, the colony of Bensselaerwyck, Schonecte- 
da, and all the villages, neighbourhoods and Chris- 
tian plantacons, on the east side of Hudson's 
river, from Roelef Jansen's Creeke, [six miles be- 
low Hudson city] and on the west side from Saw- 
yer's Creeke to the Saraagbtoga, [Saratoga.] 

As the county of Rensselaer is part of the 
territory embraced in the manor of Rensselaer- 
wyck, it is interesting to know what methods 
were first adopted to give the manor a repre- 
sentation in the general assembly, and to pro- 
vide for its inhabitants the necessary officers 
for the management of its local affairs. "An 
act tor defraying the common and necessary 
charge, in the manor of Rensselaerwyck, in 
the county of Albany, passed August 4, 1705, 
permitted the freeholders of the manor to elect 
and choose yearly, and every year, one super- 
visor, one treasurer, one assessor and one col- 
lector for the said manor." 

The second section of the same bill recites 
" that the wages and charge of their representa- 
tive, or deputy in general assembly," should be 
"ten shillings per diem," and that the inhabit- 
ants should " be liable to defray the wages and 
charge of their own representative or deputy." 

In 1714 there were in the manor of Rensselaer- 
wyck 427 white persons and 181 slaves ; making 
a popolatidn of 608 persons. 

In a return made on the 11th of Jane, 1720, 
by Gerrit Van Schaick, sheriff of the city and 
county of Albany, is preserved the names of all 
the freeholders in the colony of Rensselaer- 
wyck, As many of the present residents of 
Rensselaer county are descendants of the per- 
sons named in this early census report, it may 
be well to mention them in this connection: 
Wouter Barheyt, Andries Huyck, 

Johannis Valkenburgh, Maes Van Buren, 
Jno. Barheyt, Com'lis Van Vechten, 

Isaac Van Alstine, Jonat. Wltbeek, 

Jacob Schermerhom, Martin Vanburen. 
Jacob Schermerhorn, jr., Barent Geritse, 
Johns Ouderkirk, Jan Witbeck, 

Claes Oardineer, Jonas Dow. 

Andries Gardinier, FolcortDow, 

Hend. Valkenburgh, Jno. Van Vechten, 

Jacob Valkenburgh, Gerrit Lansen, 

Tho. Witheek. Volcort Van Vechten, 

Luykas Witbeek, Melgert Vandense, 

Solomon Van Vechten, Rut Vandense, 
Cap. Hendrick Van Ren- Daniell Winne, 

selaer, Gerrit Van Wie, 

Philip Foreest, Jan Van Wie, 


SCartln Van Alstine, 
Albert Roolifae, 
Haite Van AJstme, jnnr. 
Jno. Fonda, 
Derrick Yanderhyden, 
Qerrit Yandenbergb, 
Albert Brat, 
ComellB Yan Alstlne, 
Johns. Wendell, 
Jan Yan Alstyne, 
Adrian Oothoat, 
Peter Coyeman, 
Barent Staats, 
Andries Coyeman, 
Samnell Coyeman, 
Jno. Wltbeek, 
Coonrod Hoophteellng, 
Storm Backer, 
Jno. Backer, 
Hendrick Yan Wyen, 
Wm. Yan Alen, 
Jaac. Falkenburgh, 
Phillip Wendell, 


GeiTit Yandenbergb, 
Hendr. Dow. 
Albert SUneerlant, 
Svert Banker, 
Wouter Vanderse, ' 
KllUan Yanderse, v 
Johannis Appel, 
Peter Hnsyele, 
Derrick Bagodom, 
Andries Brat, 
Storm Brat, 
Ome. Legrange, 
Jotms. Legrange, 
Johannis Simouse, 
Nicos. Grewsbeek, 
Jno. Oothont, 
Mindert Harselis, 
Jacob Lansen. 
Abram Ouderkirk, 
Peter Sohnyler. Esqr., 
Abram Wendell, 
William Eetlyne, 
Francs Pryn, 
Bo vie. 


Slaves were first brought into the New Neth- 
erland by the Datcb, under the granting power 
of the charter of liberties of 1629. When the 
English became possessed of the territory, they, 
by importations from Africa, further perpetu- 
ated slavery and protected It by different laws. 
"Forasmuch," reads an act passed by the gen- 
eral assembly, October 89, 1730, " as the num- 
ber of .slaves in the cities of New York and 
Albany, as also within the several counties, 
towns and manors within this colony doth daily 
increase, and that they have oftentime been 
guilty of confederating together in running 
away, and of other ill and dangerous practices," 
it is unlawful "for above three slaves to 
meet together at any time," or " at any other 
place than when it shall happen they meet in 
some servile employment for their masters' or 
mistresses' profit, and by their masters' or mis- 
tresses' consent, upon penalty of being whipt 
upon the naked back, at the discretion of any 
one justice of the peace, not exceeding forty 

The act further provided that each town and 
manor might appoint a common whipper for 
their slaves, who was to be paid a sum of money 
" not to exceed three shillings per head." Five 
pounds was the penalty for harboring a slave 
for every 24 hours. Free negroes for entertain- 
ing slaves had to pay a penalty of £10. This 
was in the fourth year of the reign of George 


In the act for granting to his majesty the 
several duties and importations on goods, wares 
and merchandises imported into the colony, 
passed December 12, 1753, it was provided there 
should be paid " for every negro, mulatto or 
other Slave, of four years old and upwards, im- 
ported directly from Africa, five ounces of 
Sevil, FiUar or Mexico plate, or forty shillings 
in bills of credit made current in this colony." 

To avoid and clear up disputes that might 
happen concerning this duty on slaves, it was 
further provided ' ' that all slaves imported from 
Africa, in the same vessel which took them on 
board on any part of that coast," should pay 
no duty greater than 40 shillings, " tho» such ves- 
sel had stopp'd at, or entered in any other port 
or ports, before her arrival at New York," pro- 
vided the master or mate, and some other offi- 
cer which came in such vessel from A&ica, 
" made oath before the treasurer of the colony 
that the slave or slaves so imported had been 
actually taken on board of that vessel on the 
coast of Africa." 


The holding of fairs and markets In each 
city and county throughout the province of 
New York was as early as the year 1692, com- 
manded by law. An act passed by the general 
assembly March 8, 1773, directed that there 
should be held in the city and county of Albany, 
two fairs yearly ; the first fair to be kept at 
Albany, commencing on the third Tuesday of 
July and ending on the Friday following ; the 
second to be held at CrawUer in Rensselaer- 
wyck, commencing on the third Tuesday in 
October and ending on the Friday following. 
These fairs or public markets brought together 
the country people, and were made not only 
occasions of pleasurable reiinions and of re- 
laxation from toil, but also opportunities for 
the sale of produce, cattle, clothing and other 
articles. The fair was kept open from 10 o'clock 
in the morning until sunset. 

The governor of the province issued a com- 
mission to a proper person who acted as ruler 
of the fair and who was also delegated to hold 
courts of pypowder, as was the custom at fairs 
in England. 

As explained by Blackstone the lowest and at 
the same time the most expeditions court of 
justice known to the law of England was " the 
court of piepoudre, ewria pedis pulverizati; sa 
called from the dusty feet of the suitors ; or ac- 
cording to Sir Edward Coke, because justice is 
there done as speedily as dust can fall from the 
foot; upon- the same principle that justice 
among the Jews was administered in the gate 
of the city, that the proceedings might 
be more speedy as well as public. But 
the etymology given us by a learned mod- 
em writer is much more ingenious and satisfac- 
tory ; it being derived, according to him, from 
pied piddreavx (a peddler, in old French), and 
therefore signifying the court of such petty 
chapmen as resort to fairs or markets. It is a 
court of record, incident to every fair and mar- 
ket ; of which the steward of him who owns or 
has the toll of the market is the judge, and its 


juriBdlction extenda to administer justice for all 
commercial injuries done in that very fair or 
market, and not in any preceding one. 


When the province of New York in 1683 was 
divided Into counties, Albany county embraced 
more territory than all the remaining portion of 
the province. By an act of general assembly, 
passed March 12, 1772, Albany county was 
divided into three counties : Albany, Tryon and 
Charlotte. On the 24th of the same month it 
was divided into districts, among which were 
the district of Rensselaerwyck, Schactekoke dis- 
trict and the Hoosic district. 

By an act, dated March 7, 1788, entitled " An 
act for dividing the state into comities," 16 
counties were included within the boundaries 
of New York, namely : New York, Albany, 
Suffolk, Queens, Kings, Richmond, Westches- 
ter, Orange, Ulster, Dutchess, Columbia, Wash- 
ington, OUnton, Montgomery, Cumberland and 

The state convention which assembled at 
Poughkeepeie on the 17th of June, 1788, took 
into consideration the ratification of the pres- 
ent constitution of the United States. On the 
a6th of July the question was voted upon and 
was carried by a majority of three. The poli- 
tics of this body of delegates was distinguished 
by certain principles known as federal and anti- 


Rensselaer county was erected under "An 
act for apportioning the representation in the 
legislatore according to the rules prescribed by 
the constitution, and for dividing the county of 
Albany," passed February 7, 1791. 

The act provides " that the towns of Cam- 
bridge and Easton, in the county of Albany, 
shall be and hereby are annexed to and shall 
hereafter be considered as part of the county of 
Washington, and that all that part of the 
leaidue of the said county of Albany which is 
on the east side of a line drawn through the 
middle of the main stream of Hudson's river, 
with such variations as to include the islands 
lying nearest to the east bank thereof, shall be 
one separate and distinct county, and be called 
and known by the name of Rensselaer." 

A court of common pleas and a court of gen- 
eral sessions of the peace were to be held at 
such places as should be designated by the 
judges of the court of common pleas 
and such justices of the peace as should 
be appointed. The first term of the 
courts of common pleas and general ses- 
sions of the peace were to begin on the first 
Tuesday in May and might "continue to be 

held until the Saturday following inclusive," 
and the second term, on the second Tuesday of 
November and " might continue to the follow- 
ing Saturday inclusive." 

The act also made it lawful for all courts and 
officers in the said counties, in all cases, civil 
and criminal, to confine their prisoners in the 
gaol of the county of Albany until gaols should 
be provided in the said counties. 

The act divided the state into four great dis- 
tricts, namely, southern, middle, western and 
eastern districts. The eastern district compre- 
hended the counties of Columbia, Rensselaer, 
Washington and Clinton. 

The senatorial representation of the districts 
was southern 8, middle 6, western 5 and east- 
em 5. 

The number of members of assembly to be 
elected in each county was : The city and coun- 
ty of New York 7, Suffolk 4, Queens 3, Kings 1, 
Richmond 1, Westchester 5, Dutchess 7, 
Ulster 5, Orange 3, Columbia 6, Rensselaer 5, 
Washington 4, city and county of Albany 7, 
Saratoga 4, Montgomery 7 and Ontario 1. 


The first officers of Rensselaer county as- 
sembled at Lansingburgh, at the inn of Ana- 
nias Flatt, on Tuesday, April 15, 1791, and 
there took the necessary oaths of office, and ap- 
pointed Tuesday, the third day of May, for the 
sitting of the first court. 

The following persons were the first county 
officers in 1791 : 

First Jtatye— Anthony Ten Eyok. 

Judgee—Sobn Van Rensselaer, Israel Thompson, 
Robert Woodworth and Jonathan Brown. 

Assistant Justices— Jobn Eniokerbacker, Jr., John 
W. Schermerbom, Jonathan Nlles, Benjamin 
Hicks, Nicholas Staats, Robert Montgomery, Hoss 
Kent and John E. Van Alen. 

Justices of the Peoee— Anthony Ten Eyck, John 
Van Rensselaer, Israel Thompson, Robert Wood- 
worth, Jonathan Brown, John Eniokerbacker, Jr., 
John W. Schermerhom, Jonathan Niles, Benjamin 
Hicks, Nichola^Staats, Robert Montgomery, Moss 
Kent, John E. Van Alen, Levlnus Lansing, Jonah 
Martin, Hosea Mofflt, Daniel B. Bradt, Joseph 
Spencer, Bavid Brown, Moses VaO, James Mo- 
Kbwn, Abner Newton, Stephen Gorham, Jacob 
Van Alstyne, Ephraim Morgan, Josiah Masters, 
Gerritt Winne, Jacob A. Lansing, Rowland Hall, 
Hezeklah Hull, William Douglas, Daniel Gray, 
Jonas Odell, Benjamin Randall, Benjamin Hanks, 
Barman Van Vecbten, Benjamin Milks, Ebenezer 
Darling, Jacob Van der Heyden, jr., John C. Scher- 
merhom and Nathaniel Jacobs. 

Sarroffote— Moss Kent. 

5?ie?^— Albert Pawling. 

7Vea»arer— Aaron Lane. 

Cawniy cfert— Nicholas Schuyler. 



C!iwwi«r»— Silas Weeks, Abraham Ten Eyok, 
John De Wandelaer, James Smith and Aaron 


There being no county buildings and no par- 
ticular site determined upon for their erection, 
tbe county clerk's office was first located in 
Lansingburgh in a house previously occupied 
by N. Jacobs, near that of Col. John Van Rens- 

The brief record of the minutes of the first 
session of the court of common pleas is the fol- 

Hat Term, 1791.— At a court of common pleas 
' held for the county of Rensselaer at Lansingburgh, 
on the first Tuesday in Hay, 1791, at the house of 
Ananias Flatt. Present: Honorable Anthony Ten 
Eyok, Esq., first judge ; John Van Bensselaer, 
Israel Thompson, Robert Woodworth, Jon'n 
Brown, Esq'rs., judges; Benjamin Hicks, Rob't 
Hontgomery, Hoss Kent, Esq'rs., assistant jus- 

On an application of Hr. John Woodworth to be 
examined as to his learning and ability to practice 
as an attorney and coimselor of this court— 

Ordered, That the said John Woodworth be ex- 
amined accordingly by Gnert Van Schoonhoven, 
John D. Diclcinson and Corn's Van Derbergh in the 
presence of the judges of this court. 

On motion of Hr. Ten Brook and others for 
leaye to be admitted to practice as a counsellor 
and attorney in this court on producing their com- 
missions from the supreme court, which commis- 
sions being produced, ordered that the following 
persons be admitted and they were sworn ac- 
cordingly : Dirck Ten Brook, Hoss Kent, John V. 
Henry, Peter D. V'n Dyck, Ab'm Hun, John Waters 
Yates, Nlch's Funda, Guert Wendall, JohnD. Dick- 
inson, Gnert V'n Sohoonhoven, Corn's V'n Der- 
bergh, John Lovett, Peter E. Elmendorf . 

On motion of Hr. Dickinson, in favor of John 
Woodworth that this court approve his examina- 
tion and he be admitted to practice as a counsellor 
and attorney therein. Ordered that he be ad- 
mitted and sworn. 

William Fenshaw vs. Joseph Kline : A plaint to 
the sheriff in this cause with a return of replevin 
was made and filed. 

On motion of Hr. Dickinson, attorney for plain- 
tiff ordered that this cause be entered and the de- 
fendant appear and answer, etc., or that an at- 
tachment issue against him. Defendant appeared 
by Hoss Kent, his attorney. 

Thirty-three rules and orders, at this point, 
were adopted by the court, to be " observed by 
all the officers thereof." The second cause be- 
fore the court was that of 

Nathaniel Hann vs. Aaron B. Himnan and Livi 
nus Lansing, administrators of Gideon HlnmiiTi 
Hr. Woodworth, attorney for the plaintiff. The 
defendants appeared by John D. Dickinson, their 

Tbe next actions were : 

John Harbeck vs. William Houlton. Hoss Kent 
for the plaintiff and John D. Dickinson for the de- 

Frederick Butler vs. Jehiel Galpln. John D. 
Dickinson for the plaintiff and Gnert Van Schoon- 
hoven for the defendant. 

It was directed by the court " that a seal be 
made for the county of Rensselaer and be af- 
fixed by the clerk of the court to all process and 
records thereof to authenticate the same, and 
that the device be a plough, with the words 
' Rensselaer county seal' engraved round the 
edge thereof." 

Court adjourned till 10 o'clock to-morrow morn- 

The court the next morning, the 4th of Hay, met 
according to adjournment, all the judges and Jus- 
tices being present. 

On motion of Hr. Dickinson, for leave that San- 
ders Lansing and Francis Silvester be admitted to 
practice as counsellors and attorneys in this conrt, 
on producing their licenses in the supreme oonrt, 
leave was granted accordingly and they were ad- 
mitted and sworn. 

The conrt then adjourned till 8 o'clock in the 
afternoon. The conrt having assembled it ad- 
journed tUl 10 o'clock in the next morning. 

The only business recorded on Friday was : 

Ordered, That this conrt stands adjourned to the 
second Tuesday in November next, then to meet 
at the house of Stephen Ashley In the town of 


On March 3, 1795, the legislature ordered a 
census to be taken of the freeholders in the 
state having property valued at £20 and up- 
wards, also of persons renting tenements at a 
yearly rent of 40 shillings. The census taken 
that year under the act was the first enumera- 
tion of the people in the county of Rensselaer. 
It was as follows : 

A general acoount of the number qf eUctori in M< 
counti/ of Setuseiaer motdejfom the returns deliv- 
ered mto the secretary's <mce of the slate <if New 
York pursuant to an act etMOed an act for vMng a 
census in this state, passed theSd<tf March, 1795 : 

^§ : 


•OOD • 



si : 

fi i 

S** : 










































In 1801 a second census was taken, which ex- 
hibits the number of freeholders as follows : 

A general account of the number of electors in the 
- " ■ • ■ .(tu ■ 

_. Jienfselaer, tnade from the returns deliv- 
ered into the secretary's office of the state qf New 
Tm% pursuant to an act entitled '■'■An act for 
teeing a cenms in this state." Passed 7th April, 




lectors n 
value of 
der £100 

lectors n 
of f reeho 
rent tene 
yearly va 




































2,79C 842 1,846 

The third census that of 1807 gives the follow- 
ing enumeration : 


•SS : 


a ' 

^2 2 : 


Soo : 

8, but w 
eiits of t 
e of 40s 


'A ■ 




lectors n 
of frecho 
rent tone 
yearly va 























































8,103 123 1,502 

The town of Nassau, formed March 31, 1806, 
was first known by the name of Philipstown, 
until April 6, 1808, when the former name was 

The fourth census of 1811 exhibits the fol- 
lowing enumeration : 


H 05 03 IB t» ►tj >fl a IT" a 



cc «o cc td to to M CO H> A3 i-t ts ^s ^s 
i-> aa •-' re » CO 00 o CO -} )&> CO w «s 

i(^ CO t-i CO CO CD •(• 3 K< ;o >i m • 


o *L> 3D «.i o CO c:i -1 CO -1 )^ a> C7I en 

gc )^«3 Cp to 1^ ;D U •j iF^ tC CO CD CR 

-.1 CO «k. •£> pi 1^ M >U ^S itk M CO GO CO 

03 CDOICJl £. 03 lO CO » Ur X Cb 2^ O 

h^ 33 X -^l CD p h-i «1 tC O CD 33 1(> if^ 

o o to M --1 cor^ to to ocn oo>t IE 

o) 1^ ut iCk ^ it. CO A. ^s oi >~* tC>- M CO 


*». » 03 to CO CO i-i to W M ^-i to tC M 

f^ i£. (s )[• CO p a: if>> m o ^ CO CO CJ1 
MOOD <i CO w H» -a o moD 03 com 

Electors possessed of 
freeholds of tbe value 
of £100 

Electors posBessed of 
freeholds of the value 
of £20 and under £100. 

Electors not posses- 
sed of freeholds, but 
who rent tenements of 
the yearly value of 408. 

Free white males under 
18 years of age 

Free white males of the 
age of 18 years and un- 
der 45 years 

Free white males of the 
age of 45 years and up- 

Free white females un- 
der 18 years of age 

Free white females of 
the age of 18 years and 
under 45 years 

Free white females of 
the age of 45 years and 

All other free persons. . . 

Slaves. . 





The Great Meadow Ground of the Indians — Irs first Dutch Set- 
tlers Massacred — Peter Van Woggelum's Transport — Army of 
the North at Van Schaick's Island — The Nederduitsch of the 
Upper Hudson — The little Hamlet of Ferry Hook — Remark- 
able Prophecy concerning Troy — A Thousand Pounds for the 
County Seat — The Erection of the First Court House — A 
Public Whipping Post and Stocks. 

The art ot writing has become a great bles- 
sing to man. What innumerable controversies 
would arise to disturb his peace and to dis- 
possess him of his property had he not some 
written instrument providing him with the 
proper proof of his ownership and giving him 
the sole privilege of the use of the thing held 
by him. He is conscious that the details of a 
business transaction when written out and 
properly attested are of a more satisfying 
character than when they are intrusted to the 
remembrance of witnesses. It is this pecu- 
liarity of man that has left to our examina- 
tion in the offices of county clerks and the de- 
partments of state a multitude of well pre- 
served papers relating to the acquirement and 
the disposal of landed property from a very 
early period of our history to the present time. 
For onr further enlightenment respecting the 
situation, limits and designations of such estate 
. these valuable papers are frequently accom- 
panied with maps, some of which topographi- 
cally exhibit the special features of the terri- 
tory referred to. 


Washington Irving in his humorous descrip- 
tion of the early settlers of New Netherland 
misleads his readers into a belief that the Dutch 
were a very dull and ridiculous class of people. 
The radiant glory of the grand achievements of 
the Dutch nation which threw its effulgence 
over Europe in the seventeenth century is the 
contradiction to any error of opinion founded 
on the burlesque of this highly honored Ameri- 
can writer. The practical shrewdness of the 

Hollanders is most notable in the enormous 
profits of their great commercial companies 
— ^the East India and the West India com- 

Eiliaen Van Rensselaer and his associated 
partners, Samuel Goodyn, Samuel Bloemmaert 
and John De Laet, the proprietors of the terri- 
tory of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, were as 
enterprising in their efforts to settle colonists 
in America as any of the men in our day who 
have amassed wealth by speculations in landed 
property. And it is quite interesting to know 
how they accomplished their purpose and by 
what means they induced the people of Holland 
to emigrate to this newly discovered country 
and begin the cultivation of the wild land lying 
within the limits of the manor, which they named 
Kensselaerwyck. If we study the oldest and 
the rarest map of this particular tract, or rather 
tracts of land, made by Gillis Van Schendel in 
1630, we will perceive that they gave certain 
divisions of the territory possessed by them 
very flattering designations, and which no doubt 
captivated the minds of those persons who 
sailed from Holland to seek and settle upon the 
land whose fertility was so highly praised. 

Ihfraets dael, the paradise of a lazy man, is 
the attractive title they bestowed upon the ter- 
ritory now occupied by the city of Troy. The 
land on the west side of the Noord rivier they 
denominated Weelys dad, a valley of luxuri- 

There was, however, more of fact than of 
fancy in these names. The virgin soil was sur- 
prisingly fertile, game of all kinds abounded in 



the greatest plenty, fish of finest flavor were to 
be caught in the streams, and the woods were 
dark with the thick foliage of stately and use- 
ful trees. 

On the north side of an unnamed water course, 
fliat no doubt was Intended to Indicate the 
creek which we now call the Poesten Idll, is the 
marked site of an Indian stronghold, designated 
Umanatt Canteel, probably one belonging to the 
last of the Mohegans, a tribe of Indians once in- 
habiting the east bank of the Hudson river. 
On what appears to be Haver Island, is another 
Indian fortification, named Monomins Caateel. 
This stronghold may have been in the posses- 
sion of the Mohawks, dwelling along the Mo- 
hawk river, or rather the Maquas river, as it 
was then called. 

The three islands opposite the site of the 
Bessemer steel works, are named Bloemaert's 
Eylanden, Bloemaert's islands. Where now is 
the city of Albany, a mark is given, which is 
called Fort Orange. On the opposite and west 
side of the river, the site of Greenbush, is 
De iMtfii Eyland and just below is a stream, 
which was Jh LaePs Mauten kill ende watervall, 
De Laet's mill creek and waterfall. 

The second branch of the Mohawk river is 
called Smtidaer's kUl ende watervall, Rensselaer's 
creek and waterfall. The third and fourth 
aproDts of the Mohawk are each denominated 
teater vaU, waterfall. 


The Indians who claimed the territory, — the 
site of the city of Troy, — by right of posses- 
sion, it seems, could not resist the temptations 
which the acquisitive Hollanders placed before 
them In order to obtain the property right of 
their land, which they desired for agricultural 
purposes. In the oflice of the secretary of the 
Btate is preserved the record of the purchase 
from the Indians of the land now occupied by 
the city of Troy, and as it is a very brief instru- 
ment, and has never been published, as we be- 
lieve, it may be a pleasure to the readers of the 
Troy Itaily Times to peruse it : 

A Confirmacon Oraunted unto Sweer Theunissen of 
a P'ceU of Land lying neer Albany : 

Richard NichoUs Esq &c Whereas there is a Cer- 
tain P'ceU of Land lying neer Albany on the other 
side af the Creek or Kill beginning from the Mill 
on the Creek and to goe on over the Sd Creek unto 
the Qreat Meadow Qround whereabout sixty-six 
paces the Trees are markt which Sd F'cell of Land 
was In the Yeare 1659 Purchased of the Indyan 
Proprietrs by Jan Barentsen Wemp with the 
Leave and Consent o5-Jan Baptist Van Renselaer 
and Arent Van Corlaer Now the Title and Interest 
with Sd Land being devolved upon Sweer Theunis- 
sen who hath Harried the Widdow and liellct of 

the f orenamed Jan Barentsen Wemp Now for a Con- 

firmacon &c The Patent is Dated the 13th of Apr 


I do hereby Certify the aforegoing to be a true 
Copy of the Original Becord Compared there- 
witli By Me Lewis A. Scon, Secretary. 

Brodhead, in his history of the state of New 
York, referring to the last purchase of land 
made by the agent of Eiliaen Van Rensselaer, 
March 13, 1652, says : 

He [Brandt Van Slechtenhorst] had Just pur- 
chased for his patron two large additional tracts on 
the east side of the river ; one called " Paanpaack,' ' 
including the site of the present city of Troy, and 
another farther north, called " Par^Monc." 

Comparing this statement with the record in 
the office of the secretary of state, it is seen 
that the two contradict one another. The first 
asserts that Jan Barentsen Wemp purchased 
the ground from the Indian proprietors with 
the lease and consent of Jan Baptist Van Rens- 
selaer and Arent Van Corlaer, and that the pur- 
chase was made in the year 1659. 

Several writers, upon what authority it is not 
known, have accepted the word " Bianpaaek" aa 
being an Indian designation. Further, in using 
it, they assert that its meaning is, " the field of 
standing com." From personal inquiry, the 
writer of the present article, has found the per- 
sons employing the term unable to give any 
other reference than that which has already 
been carefully quoted from the history of the 
state of New York, by Brodhead. This writer 
makes no declaration that it is an Indian term, 
nor does he give it any interpretation. 

Instead of being an Indian designation it has 
every evidence that it is a Dutch compound of 
the two words I\mi, a ferry, and Bicht or i^<, 
a farm, a ferry-farm. The pronunciation of 
Bianpaaek and of Pantrpaeht is phonetically 
similar. The fact that from a very early date 
the farm of the Van der Heyden family, and, 
perhaps, when the same was previously owned 
by Peter Van Woggleum, had a ferry belonging 
to it, seemingly corroborates the correctness of 
a conclusion that the names used by Brodhead 
are of Dutch derivation. Apparently in the 
same way the word JbttAoosic had its derivation : 
Pont, a ferry, and Woestijne or Woexlenij, a wil- 
derness, a ferry in a wilderness, or where the 
country is uncultivated. 


In the clerk's office of Albany county are seven 
volumes of early records written in what is called 
"black Dutch." These unique volumes em- 
brace in their contents a variety of papers rela- 
ting to the transfer of real and personal prop- 
erty, contracts, proposals and other transac- 
tions made by the early inhabitants of Beaver- 



wyck and of the manor of Rensselaerwyck. 
Certain papers belonging to other records dis- 
close the manner in which the land acquired by 
Sweer Theunissen by marriage was subdivided 
and sold. It appears that a Hollander named 
Pieter Adriaens, either by inheritance or pur- 
chase, became owner of a piece of ground in 
Lubbede's land, as the territory whereon Troy 
now stands was called, which he on the 11th of 
February, 1669, conveyed to his son Reter 
Pieterse. It is designated as "a certain lot, 
with a part of a garden, and the fruit trees, 
standing and lying on Lubbede's land in the 
colony of Rensselaerwyck, according to the 
proofs of his title existing, stretching along and 
adjoining the lot of Barent Pieterse, the same 
in length and breadth, as it lies in fence." 

According to another record " Sweer Theu- 
nissen, husbandman, dwelling in the Colonic 
Bensselaerswyck," acknowledges that he is 
"indebted to Geertruyt Barents, wife of Jacob 
Heven, in the number of fourteen whole and 
merchantable beaver skins, for money disbursed 
and merchandise received." For the payment 
of this debt and interest thereon on the 27th of 
May, 1669, he pledges "his two lots lying at 
Lubberde land, in the occupation of Jacob 

Besides his former grant of land, Sweer Theu- 
nissen, on the ISth of June, 1669, received an- 
other portion from Madame Johanna Ebbink, 
the heiress of John De Laet, one of the four co- 
partners of Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, which land 
is designated as the granter's certain lot, to the 
west the river, lying between Hendrick Reurand 
and said Sweer Theunissen at Lubbede land in 
the colony Rensselaerswyck, according to the 
description thereof made in the contract with 
his predecessor Jan BarentseWemp, deceased." 

A certain Dirk Hesseling makes an acknowl- 
edgment that he has transferred to Jacob Heven 
" two certain lots of land lying in the colony of 
Rensselaerswyck, the one before this belonging 
to Dirk Van Schelluyne, which devolved upon 
him by commission of the honorable court, by 
virtue of an execution of date the 17th of June, 
1670, and the other before this belonging to 
Hendrick Reur, deceased, and by the late 
director Mons. Jeremias Van Rensselaer, sold at 
public sale, of which the granter remained the 
highest bidder and buyer, according to the 
vendue book in the custody of the vendue mas- 
ter, Mons. Provoost, of date the 9th of July, 


Another conveyance shows that the creek 
south of the Poesten kill received its name from 
the purchaser of a saw mill erected on its banks. 
This paper bears date of October 18, 1674, and 

recites that " Geertruyt Pieterse, late widow of 
Abraham Pieterse Vosburgh, deceased," grants 
to " W^ynant Gerritse Van der Poel, her half of 
the saw mill, lying in the colony Bensslers- 
wyck, on the east bank, opposite the bouwery 
of Mr. Philip Schuyler, standing on the kill, 
which lies on the south side of the bouwery of 
Mr. Jeronimus Elbingh, with all the tools thereto 
belonging " 

A record of a later date establishes the fact 
that on the Poesten kiU, Sweer Theunissen had 
built a saw mill, which he on the 25th of June, 
1675, sells to Jan Comelise Vyselaer, and Lucas 
Pieterse. In addition to the " saw mill, to- 
gether with the kill whereon " it stood, he fur- 
ther conveys to the same persons " two mor- 
gens of arable land lying In the colony Rense- 
laerwyck, up the river, on the east bank over 
against Stoney point [steene hoeck, now the 
site of the "Rock house" in West Troy], before 
this called Poesten mill, together with free 
egress and a road along the hill, by Pieter Pie- 
terse Van Woggelum's, to the shore, as has 
been used before this ; which land is a part of 
the patent granted to him the grantor, by Qov- 
enor Richard Nicols, of date the 13th of April, 
A. D., 1667." 

On the 7th of July, 1676, " Jeronimus Ebbink, 
husband and guardian of Madam Johanna de 
Laet," conveys to Jurian Teunisse Tappen "a 
certain bouwery, lying in the colony Rensselaers- 
wyck, where Jurian aforesaid at present dwells, 
with dwelling house, bam and two ricks," * * 
" moreover all the land, as well arable as pas- 
ture land, as the same lies in fence between two 
kills, aU by virtue of the contract and convey- 
ance thereof, passed between Mr. Jeremias Von 
Renselaer, deceased, late director of the colony 
before named, and Madam Johanna De Laet for 
her tenth part, being the just tenth part of the 
colony, the same being of date of the Slst of 
June, 1674." The aforesaid bowery, " together 
with horses, cattle, house and bam, grain 
sowed, and all that is thereon fast by earth and 
nailed" Capt. Philip Pieterse Schuyler pur- 
chased of Jurian Teunisse Tappen on the 6th of 
November, 1677, for " six hundred merchantable 
beaver skins." 

A piece of woodland, called Paasquasslck, 
which lay south of the Piscawen kill, Peter Van 
Woggelum, on the 19th of September, 1681, pur- 
chased of Robert Saunders, who held the patent 
of Stone Arabia, the site of Lansingburgh. Pre- 
vious to this last acquisition of land Peter Van 
Woggelum, on the 6th of May, 1679, had become 
the sole owner of all the original Wemp property. 
It may be here remarked that Sweer Theunissen 
is frequently called Sweer Theunissen Van Vel- 
sen In some of the old documents. 



When Sieiir Le Moyne de Sainte Helene with 
a i>arty of French and Indians surprised the lit- 
tle community of Schenectady in February, 1690, 
and massacred the inhabitants, Sweer Theu- 
nissen, who had removed thither about the year 
1669, was shot and burnt, as also was his wife. 
Among the names of those killed is that of 
Myndert Wemp, and of those taken prisoners, 
that of John Wemp, children likely of Jan Bar- 
entsen Wemp. This barbarous and unexpected 
attack upon a village so distant from Canada, 
in midwinter, created the greatest consterna- 
tion among the settlers living along the upper 


By virtue of a transport from Peter Van Wog- 
gelnm bearing date the 2d day of June, 1707, 
which was confirmed by a release of Madam 
Maria Van Rensselaer and Hendrick Van Rens- 
selaer, two of the executors of the last will and 
testament of Eiliaen Van Rensselaer, lord oi 
the manor of Rensselaerwyck, bearidg date of 
the 15th of December, 1720, Dirck Van der 
Heyden became possessed of " all that certain 
tract of land" * * » " in the county of Al- 
bany on the east side of Hudson's river, about 
five miles above the city of Albany, beginning 
on the north side of a certain creek called 
Poesten creek, where there formerly wa« a saw- 
mill (which said mill stood on a straight line 58 
chains from the said river)" thence along the 
creek to the river, thence along the river " to a 
small creek called the Meadow creek," thence 
eastwardly into the woods, thence southwardly 
"along the west side of the land of Albert 
Bratt to the place of beginning, " containing 497 
acres and one rood." Dirck Van der Heyden 
at the same time also purchased of Peter Van 
Woggelum " another parcel of land and meadow 
thereunto adjoining, bounded on the north side 
by a certain kill or creek known and called by 
the name of Piskawen kill, and on the north by 
the aforesaid parcel of land, on the west the 
river and on the east the hill. 

The lease from Maria Van Rensselaer and 
Hendrick Van Rensselaer was subject to an an- 
nual ground rent, in lieu of all other dues, of 
three and three-fourth bushels of wheat, and 
two fat hens or capons. 

In November, 1731, Dirck Van der Heyden 
conveyed the above land to his three sons, 
Jacob, David and Mattys. 


In the month of August, 1777, the people of 
the manor of Rensselaerwyck became greatly 
excited in consequence of the news that Gen. 
John Bnrgoyne was rapidly advancing by the 
way of Fort Edward with a large body of British 

soldiery, Hessian mercenaries and a force of 
hostile Indians. It was Burgoyne's intention to 
form a junction with that part of the Brit- 
ish army commanded by Sir William Howe, 
who was to ascend the Hudson and meet him at 
Albany. Seemingly assured of accomplishing 
this purpose, he wrote to Gen. Howe that he 
was Ukely to be in possession of Albany before 
the 22d or 23d of the month. Not having a 
sufficient force to withstand the advance of the 
British Invader, Gen. Philip Schuyler, in com- 
mand of the northern department of the 
American army, retreated down the river 
road, and on the 14th day of the month 
encamped his small body of continental 
troops upon Haver and Van Schaick islands. 
The apparent inability of the American troops 
to cope with the British force of Burgoyne spread 
a great alarm among the inhabitants of the 
frontier towns and among the farmers residing 
along the line of Burgoyne's march. The ferry 
of the Van der Heyden family became the con- 
verging point of the frightened people, who with 
their families and flocks were hastening south- 
ward to escape massacre and the pillage of their 
movable property. The entire country in and 
around the confluence of the Mohawk and Hud- 
son rivers was filled with stories of burned 
homes, of desolated and destroyed households, 
of inhuman cruelties, of plunder and of brutal 
outrages. Having taken the old Van Schaick 
household for his headquarters. General 
Schuyler ordered the construction of a 
formidable line of earthworks along the 
northeastern and northwestern sides of 
Haver island, in order to defend the 
approaches to the fords at Half Moon 
Point, as the site of Waterford was then called. 
The chief engineer of the army of the north was 
the brave Pole, Thaddeus Kosciusko, and under 
his superintendence and direction these defen- 
sive works were constructed. These remarkably 
well-preserved works attest to this day the care 
and labor bestowed upon them by the soldiers 
of General Schuyler's little army. 


It was at Van Schaick's island that General 
Horatio Gates relieved General Philip Schuyler 
of the command of the army of the northern de- 
partment. The apparent want of success of 
General Schuyler Induced Congress to make 
this change. General Gates two days after as- 
suming the command of the department wrote 
the following letter to General Washington, then 
with the army, in Bucks county, in Pennsylva- 

Head<)Uabtibs, Van Schaick's Island, August 
22, Vm.—Sir: Upon my arrival in this department 



I found the main body of the army encamped npon 
Van Schaick's island, which is made by the eprouts 
of the Mohawk river joining with the Hudson 
river, nine miles north of Albany. A brigade under 
Gon. Poor encamped at Loudon's ferry, on the 
south bank of the Mohawk river, five miles from 
hence ; a brigade under Gen. Lincoln had joined 
Gen. Stark at Bennington, and a brigade under 
Gen. Arnold marched the 15th inst. to join the mili- 
tia of Tryon county, to raise the siege of Fort 
Stanwix. Upon leaving Philadelphia the prospect 
this way appeared very gloomy; but the severe 
clieoks the enemy have met with at Bennington 
and in Tryon county have given a more pleasing 
view to public affairs. Particular accounts of the 
signal victory gained by Gen. Stark, and the severe 
blow Gen. Herkimer gave Sir John Johnson and 
the scalpers under his command, have been trans- 
mitted to your excellency by Gen. Schuyler. I 
anxiously expect the arrival of an express from 
Gen. Arnold with an account of the total defeat of 
the enemy in that quarter. By my calculation he 
reached Fort Stanwix the day before yesterday. 
Cols. Livingston's and Courtland's regiments ar- 
rived yesterday and immediately joined Qeu. 
Poor's division. I shall also order Gen. Arnold, 
upon his return, to march to that post. I cannot 
suflciently thank your excellency for sending Col. 
Morgan's corps to this army. They will be of the 
greatest service to it, for until the late successes 
this way I am told the army were quite panic- 
struck by the Indians and their tory and Canadian 
assassins in Indian dresses. Horrible, indeed, have 
been the cruelties they have wantonly committed 
upon many of the miserable inhabitants, insomuch 
that it is not fair for Gen. Burgoyne, even if the 
bloody hatchet he has so barbarously used should 
find its way into his own head. Gov. Clinton wlU 
be here to-day. Upon his arrival I shall consult 
with him and Gen. Lincoln upon the best plan to 
distress, and I hope finally defeat the enemy. I 
am sorry to be necessitated to acquaint your ez- 
ceUenoy how neglectfully your orders have been 
executed at Springfield— few of the militia demand- 
ed are yet arrived, but I hear of great numbers 
upon the march. Your excellency's advice in re- 
gard to Morgan's corps, etc., etc., shall be careful- 
ly observed. My scouts and spies inform me that 
the enemy's headquarters and main body are at 
Saratoga, and that they have lately been repairing 
the bridges between that place and StiUwater. As 
soon as time and circumstances will admit I shall 
send your excellency a general return of this army. 
I am, sir, your excellency's most obedient humble 
servant, Hobatio Gates. 

His Excellency, Gen. Washinqton. 


In these dark and perilous days the men in 
the Tillages and upon the farms along the up- 
per Hudson took up arms in defense of their 
homes, and were found doing duty in the differ- 
ent militia regiments of the county. The fol- 
lowing return of a brigade of militia of the 
county o£ Albany, of which Abraham Ten Bro- 

eck was brigadier general, dated Fort ESdward, 
July 18, 1777, designates the different com- 
manders and the number of men belonging; to 
their regiments, at the time Oen. Schuyler had 
command of the department of the north : 

Bantc ana jilt. 

Col. Jacob Lansing's regiment 6S 

Col. Abraham Wimple's regiment ISS 

Col. FiancisNlcoirs regiment., 00 

Col. ElUlan Van Rensselaer's regiment M 

Col, Gerric Vandenberg's regiment 48 

Col. Stephen J. Schuyler's regiment 191 

Col. Robert Van Rensselaer's regiment 109 

Col. Abraham Van Alstyne'B re^ment 36 

Col. Peter Van Ness's regiment 238 

Col. Feter R. Livingstones regiment 100 

Col. Anthony Van Borgeu's regiment 6S 

Col. Jacobus Van Scboonboren'B regiment., 118 

Col. John McCrea'B regiment ISO 

Col. Johannes Knickerbocker's regiment 97 

Col. Peter Vrooman's regiment S7 

Col. William B. Whiting's regiment 207 

Total .1,7H 

The Lansingborgh company, of which C!ome- 

lius Noble was captain, belonged to Stephen J. 

Schuyler's regiment. 

The army of the North, commanded by Oen. 

Horatio Gates, having secured the necessary 

munitions, broke camp on September 8 and 

marched toward Stillwater, where It arrived the 

next day. The force under Oen. Oates at this 

time numbered about 6,000 men. 


The Dutch language, Nederduitack, was at the 
time of the war of the revolution Vbs common 
vernacular of the people residing along the up- 
per Hudson, or the North river, de Noord rivier. 
Opposite Oats island, Haver EylatU, was in 1778 
de nieuw Stadt, the new city of Lanaingburgh, 
which name was used to distinguish it from de 
oude Stadt, the old city of Albany, incorporated 
In 1686. Opposite the ferry farm, pon^>aeia, of 
the Van der Heyden family was Stony Point, 
Steene Hoeck, a conspicuous ridge of shale rock 
projecting into the river, where now is the ter- 
minus of Buffalo street, West Troy, a part of 
which forms the foundation of the house stand- 
ing on the southeast comer of Buffalo street 
and Broadway. The Mohawk river, de Maewae* 
rivier, then emptied its water by four branches, 
vier spruyteti, into the Hudson. On the island, 
between the first and second yn-uyten, was a 
green wood of pines, een groen botch, from wliich 
Green island took its name. On the site of Troy 
were the farm houses, pag/U-hiii2en, of Jacob 
Van der Heyden, Dirck Van der Heyden, Hattys 
Van der Heyden, and below the Foesten-kill 
that of Jan Van Beuren. Still southward, in 
the river, were three islands, respectively called 
Sucker's, YlacMe and Schuyler's eylants. Here 
and there along the river, within inclosed spaces 
of land of one or two margens in extent (a mor- 
gen being equal to two English acres) was a 
farm house built of brick, gebaklcen Oem, baked 
stone. From their doors, deurm, one could view 



the arable land, bouw landt, or the pasture- 
gronnd, iiiei4andt, and the adjacent creek, kUl, 
that belonged to these farms. 

After the surrender of Burgoyne, a sense of 
secnrlty came npon these scattered homes. No 
longer did the frightfal deeds of Indian massa- 
cre disturb their peace, nor a threatened deso- 
lation add a burden of fear to their quietude. 
The goeden morgen, or goeden avoird or hoe vaart 
gij? good morning, or good evening, or bow 
d' ye do T of the farmers were now more hearty 
and cordial. No longer did they with eager 
questioning ask each other, is 'er eening nieuws? 
is there any news ? 

Although in their bams, schuuren, there was 
not as much hay, Aoot, nor as much wheat, 
tarxK, nor as much barley, garst, nor in their 
corn-lofts as much com, koom, as had been in 
them in the winter before the invasion of Bur- 
goyne, they were none the less thankful that 
there still remained shelter and food sufficient 
for their horses, paerden, and cattle, ree, which 
they in the summer had driven to hiding places 
at the approach of the English invader. Many 
of these thrifty farmers with their sons, had 
joined the army as Krijgs^oolk, war people, or 
militia men, and had there ennobled their hum- 
ble service with such conspicuous displays of 
unconscious heroism and bravery as to call 
forth the personal praise of their commanders 
and. comrades. Some less martial had by sub- 
stitution sent de negers, the negroes, their 
damien, slaves, who were to be seen in battle 
fighting as bravely as their white coiapanions 
in arms. 


In 1786 the present site of Troy, known by 
the name of Ferry Hook, was occupied by the 
tliree farms of Jacob I., Jacob D. and Matthias 
Ver der Heyden. The first and eldest, whose 
farm extended from where is now Grand Divi- 
sion street northward to the Piscawen kill, re- 
sided in a small, one-story brick dwelling, a 
short remove from the junction of the Hoosick 
and Biver roads, where now is the building 
known as No. 548 River street, between Hoosick 
and Vanderheyden streets. 

Jacob D. Van der Heyden, known to the 
early inhabitants of the village of Troy as the 
"Fatroon," lived in a frame building on the 
east side of the River road, now the southeast 
comer of Ferry and River streets. 

Matthias, the youngest of the three farmers, 
dwelt in the old brick building still standing on 
the southeast comer of Division and River 
streets, whose farm extended southward of the 
line of Division street to the Poesten kill. At 
this time Lansingburgh, known as New City, 
had already grown into a village of some im- 

portance. The Van der Heydens, observing the 
growing wealth of Abraham J. Lansing, who 
had in 1771 divided a part of his farm into 
building lots, streets and alleys, and had at- 
tracted tliither a number of New England emi- 
grants, at length consented to part with por- 
tions of their farms to a few of the more per- 
sistent and far-seeing Rhode Island and Con- 
necticut men who persuaded them to lease, 
here and there, along the river bank, a lot suf- 
ficient for the erection and accommodation of a 
dwelling and a store. 

Among the first to secure such a place was 
Benjamin Thurber from Providence, Rhode 
Island. The following advertisement which 
appeared in the Northern Gentind and Lansitiq- 
burgh Advertiser, June 4, 1787, manifests the 
business which engaged his attention at this 
early period in the history of Troy : 

Benjamin Thurber Hereby acquaints the Public 
tliat he continues to sort his New Cash Store, at the 
sign of the Bunch of Grapes at the Fork of 
Hoosack Head, near Mr. Jacob Vanderheyden's 
with East, West-Indian and European goods of all 
kinds. For which he will receive, in lieu of Cash, 
black Salts, Shipping Furs, Wheat, Com, Eye, But- 
ter, Cheese, Flax and Flax Seed, Tallow, Hogs' 
lard, Gammons, Pork, Bees-Wax and old Pewter. 
He also continues to receive ashes, as usual, to 
supply his new erected Pot and Pearl Ash factory, 
and will pearl black Salts in the best manner on 
Equitable Terms ; and also will give the highest 
Price for black salts. 

N. B. — A number of New French Muskets for 
sale at the above store. 

Following him, came Benjamin Covell from 
Providence and secured a lot on the west side 
of River street, between Ferry and Division 
streets. On his arrival he wrote as follows to 
his brother Silas : 

Pbrkt Hooe, Nov. 16, 1786.— I arrived here the 2d. 
This country is the best for business I ever saw. I 
will go into my store the 18th of November ; hired 
it for six months for £13 lawful money. Done more 
business in one day than in one week in Provi- 
dence. The night of the 15th, after sundown, took 
in twenty dollars. Got my goods first from Al- 
bany, but in the spring will go to New York. I am 
one mile from Benjamin Thurber's down the river. 
They are all well. I board to Stephen Ashley's, 
the same man that I hire of. He appears to be a 
clever man, and keeps a large tavern, which is a 
great advantage to me. Benj. Coveix. 

Capt. Stephen Ashley, to whom Benjamin 
Covell refers in his letter, was keeping a tavern 
in the old brick building of Matthias Van der 
Heyden, standing on the southeast comer of 
Division and River streets, at that time t>eing 
the east side of the river road. 

Dr. Samuel Gale of Killingworth, Conn., was 
the next person to come to Ferry Hook, who 



bmilt a residence on the second lot sonth of 
the southwest comer of Ferry and River streets. 
These early settlers in time attracted other New 
Englanders to Ferry Hook, or Aahley's ferry, 
as it was sometimes called, in consequence of 
Capt. Stephen Ashley having leased the fenry 
from Matthias Van der Heyden, and which he 
held until the summer of 1788. 

Elkanah Watson, returning from a journey 
in the West in the fall of 1788, thus wrote in his 
journal concerning the little hamlet : 

From Schenectady, I passed the road to Ashley's 
Ferry, six miles above Albany. On the east side 
of the river, at this point, a new town has been 
recently laid out, named Vanderheyden. This 
place is situated precisely at the head of naviga- 
tion on the Hudson. Several bold and enterpris- 
ing adventurers have already settled here ; a num- 
ber of capacious warehouses and several dwell- 
ings are already erected. It is favorably situated 
in reference to the important and growing trade 
of Vermont and Massachusetts ; and I believe it 
not only bids fair to be a serious thorn In the side 
of New caty, but in the issue a fatal rival. I 
think Vanderheyden must, from its more eligible 
■ position, attain ultimate ascendancy. 

In consequence of the unanticipated rapid 
growth of the little hamlet which had for sev- 
eral years been known under different names, 
the enterprising settlers assembled together on 
Monday evening, January 5, 1789, and resolved 
that the place should thereafter be known as 
Troy. They published this notice in the papers 
of Albany and Lansingburgh : 

To (he PuNlc : This evening the freekolders of the 
place lately known by the name of Vanderheyden's 
or Ashley's Ferry, situated on the east bank of the 
Hudson river, about seven miles above Albany, 
met for the purpose of establishing a name for said 
place, when by a majority of voices it was con- 
firmed that in the future it should be known by the 
name of Troy. From its present improved state, 
and the yet more pleasing prospect of its popular- 
ity arising from the natural advantages in the mer- 
cantile line, it may not be too sanguine to expect, 
at no very distant period, to see Troy as famous 
for her trade and navigation, as many of our first 

Trot, January 5, 1789. 

To this new center of trade and commerce 
the tide of emigration from the older Atlantic 
coast states turned, contributing men whose 
active minds and industrious hands soon gave 
to Troy a prestige for the rapid development of 
its advantages of situation at the height of nav- 
igation, and for the indomitable zeal constantly 
manifested to enhance their interests among the 
farmers from whom they obtained grain and 
produce which formed the chief staples of traffic. 
In 1788 Ephraim Morgan, Jonathan Hunt and 
' John Boardman were numbered among its mer- 

chants. In 1780 Ebenezer and Samuel WlUson 
from Mason, N. H. ; Mahlon Taylor, Albert 
Pawling, Abraham Ten Eyck, Richard Grinnell, 
James Caldwell, Josiah Kellogg, Israel Knapp, 
Robert McClellan, Isaac Rogers and Henry Oud- 
thont are found among those engaged in busi- 
ness in the growing villa^. 


The early merchants of Troy were not slow In 
competing with Lansingburgh and Albany for 
the trade of the surrounding country. As soon 
as the Dutch fanners began bringing their 
wheat and other productions to Troy, means 
were at once adopted to establish the necessary 
transportation of them to New York. This is 
quite evident from the following advertisement 
in the Northern CeiUind: 

The subscribers respectfully inform the public 
that the schooner Flora of 60 tons burthen, Oate 
from New London) will in future ply between New 
York and Mr. Vanderheyden's ferry, two miles be- 
low Lansingburgh, from which place she will 
freight for New York, or elsewhere, on the same 
terms they freight from Albany. The vessel has 
good accommodations for passengers. Those gen- 
tlemen who have any commands must apply to 
Abraham Van Amam, near Benjamin Thurber's 
store, who makes it his business to wait on such as 
I may please to favor him. Casfbb Frats, 

Seftbiibeb 10, 1787. Yailes Masdevilije. 

Anyone taking passage in a sloop or schooner 
sailing to New York, or from that city to Troy, 
at this early day, generally expected, if the 
wind was favorable, to make the voyage in two 
days at the furthest, but should the wind be 
variable and continue to blow in the opposite 
direction to that in which he was going, the 
journey was often lengthened to several weeks. 
When there was a head-wind and the tide 
against the vessel, the sloop would be compelled 
to lay to. If there was a period of calm weath- 
er, she went with the tide six hours and then 
anchored six hours. Sailing with "a white-ash 
breeze" was a burlesque phrase to express that 
the men employed on the vessel were row- 
ing with long white-ash oars, or " sweeps," as 
they were called. These sweeps were about 20 
feet in length, and when used in connection 
with the drift of the tide, about 14 miles a day 
could be made by a sloop in calm weather. 
Oftentimes the large anchor of the sloop was 
let go, and a boat sent ahead to a bar, with a 
line and a small anchor called a kedge. The 
kedge being dropped on the bar, the large an- 
chor was taken up and the sloop by means of 
the line attached was towed forward. The 
operation of moving a vessel in this way was 
called kedging. It was a very tiresome and 
slow process, slower, in fact, than the move- 



ment of a canal boat. A sloop generally bad 
accommodatlona for conTeying from 10 to 15 
passengers, having as high as 14 or 10 berths In 


In winter persons going to New York either 
went on horseback or took passage In the 
stages that at this time tan between Albany 
and New York once a week. In 1789 the state 
legislatore granted Ananias Flatt, an Innkeeper 
In Lanslngburgh, a right to mn a dally stage 
between that place and Albany, which going 
and retnmlng passed through Troy, stopping 
for flTe minutes at Capt. Ashley's tavern. Pas- 
sengers were charged four shillings for a round 
trip, ao pounds of baggage being allowed to 
each person paying full fare. The exclnslTe 
right of running a line of stages, on the east 
side of the Hudson rlyer, between the cities of 
New York and Albany, for a term of 10 years, 
was granted by the legislature, April 4, 1786, to 
Isaac Van Wyck, Talmage Hall and John Kin- 
ney. They ware to furnish at least two good 
and sufficient covered stages, such to be drawn 
by four able horses, the price per passenger 
not to exceed four pence per mile, with liberty 
of carrying 14 pounds of baggage. The stages 
were to proceed at least once each week on the 
journey from the respective cities unless they 
were prevented by the badness of the roads or 
some uncommon accident. In the summer of 
1794 the fare by stage from Albany to New York 
was t7.25 ; in the following winter t8. In the 
winter of 1796 the fare was tlO, but In the 
spring .of tl797 It was reduced to (6. 


On the 7th of February, 1791, Rensselaer 
county was erected by an act of the legislature. 
On the 18th of March following the town of 
Troy was formed by a legislative enactment. 
The act relating to It reads : 

That from and after the first Monday in April 
next, all that part of the town of Sensselaerwyck 
in the county of Bensselaer which lies north of a 
line to be drawn from a point on the east bank of 
the Hudson river sixteen miles distant from the 
southwest comer of the town of Bensselaerwyck, 
and running from thence east to the west bounds of 
the town of Fetersburgh, shall be, and Is hereby 
created, into a distinct and separate town by the 
name of Troy, and that the first town meeting of 
tiie said town of Troy shall be held at the dwelling 
house now occupied by Stephen Ashley, In the 
said town. 

On Monday the 4th of April a town meeting 
was held at Ashley's tavern, and the first town 
officers elected. They were : 

5uperci<or— Cornelius Lansing. 

Aueuon—DerlBk Lane, Ephralm Morgan, David 


DeFreest, Henry H. Gardlnlerand Nicholas Wager. 

CbfMtaMw— David Henry, William Hiokok, I«w- 
renoe Dorset and Samuel Colamore. 

Collector (ff TVtXM— David Henry. 

Ovtrieen tf the i^»r— David Henry and Henry H. 
Gardinler. <■ 

Oommittionert of Blghwayt Cornelius Lansing, 

Mahlon Taylor and Jacob Wager. i 

Town Clerj;— Cornelius Lanslns. 

From the territory first embraced in the town 
of Troy the section known as the town of Bruns- 
wick, and parts of Grafton and Lanslngburgh, 
were taken off March 20, 1807, and a portion 6f 
Oreenbush in 1836. In 1814 a part of Bruns- 
wick was annexed, 

TBOT IN 1791. 

The farm of Jacob D. Van der Heyden, ex- 
tending from the present centre line of Grand 
Division street on the north to the middle of 
Division street on the south, was surveyed and 
laid out Into lots, streets and alleys In 1787 by 
Flores Bancker. 

We are told that " it was, with a foresight not 
always observed, laid out with a view of its ul- 
timately being a place of considerable magni- 
tude ; and Philadelphia, with its regular squares 
and rectangular streets, was selected as Ite 
model, by the advice of a gentleman who had 
made a then rare visit to that celebrated city." 

The farm of Matthias Van der Heyden, 
bounded north by Division street and south by 
the Poesten kill, was laid out into building lots 
by John E. Van Alen in 1793. 

The property of Jacob I. Van der Heyden, ex- 
tending from Grand Division street to the Fls- 
cawen kill, was surveyed and divided Into lots 
and streets by John E. Van Alen, also In 1793. 

An inquisitive slgbt-eeer could only have 
counted about 65 buildings along the newly laid 
out streets of the village of Troy in 1791. These 
had been erected principally on River street, 
between Division and Albany (now Broadway) 
streets. The brick building still standing on 
the southeast comer of Division and River 
streete, stood the farthest south. From that 
point northward on the east side of the street 
to the comer of First and River streete there 
were 16 houses and stores. On the west side of 
River street, from the site of the Fulton market 
to Division street, were distributed 17 build- 
ings. On both sides of First street from Divis- 
ion to River streets there were only 12 houses. 
On Second street there were two ; one on Third 
and one on Fourth. On both sides of River 
street from Federal street to the Piscawen kill 
only 10 buildings could be counted. 

The following persons embraced the heads of 
families, the merchants and manufacturers 
of the place in 1791 : 



BUjab Adams, 
Asa Anthony, 
Zephaniah Anthony, 
Capt. Stephen Ashley, 
Jesse Benham, 
James Betts, 
Jacob Bishop, 
Daniel Carpenter, 
Benjamin Covell, 
Jonathan Davis, 
John Dickens, 
Lawrence Dorset, 
Capt. Fellows, 
Casper Frats, 
Abraham Frear, 
Dr. Samnel Qale, 
Benjamin Qorton, 
Philip Heartt, 
Capt. John Hudson, 
Christopher Button, 
Timothy Button, 
Adam Eeeline, 
Robert Elncaide, 
Israel Knapp, 

Bobert HcClellan, 

Daniel Ilerritt, 

Bphriam Morgan, 

Henry Ondthout, 

Col. Albert Pawling, 

John Pease, 

Wait Bathbun, 

William Sheldon, 

Capt. Squires, 

Abraham Ten Eyck, 

Jacob D. Van der Hey- 

Jacob I. Van der Heyden, 

Matthias Van der Hey- 

Nanning Van der Hey- 

James Wardwell, 

Capt. John Warren, 

Solomon Wilbur, 

Capt. Joseph WUson, 

Samuel Wilson, 

George Young, 

Henry Yonng. 


The local advantages that would accrue to 
the village in which the county court-house and 
jail should be built, were plainly apparent to 
the people of Troy and Lanslngbuigh. The 
Trojans were too zealous and enterprising to 
permit the county seat being placed at Lansing- 
burgh without a struggle on their part to secure 
its location at Troy. They had carefully con- 
sidered their means to obtain the county build- 
ings and at once began to demand the privilege 
of competing for their erection in Troy. Lan- 
singburgh as the older village set forth its claims 
of age and growth, and Troy argued that its 
position was central and convenient of ap- 
proach. As the decision in regard to the selec- 
tion of the site for the court-house and jail lay 
with the legislature, the people of the village 
with practical shrewdness nominated as candi- 
dates for senator and assemblymen individuals 
of unquestioned ability and unequaled popu- 
larity. These were Bobert Woodworth for sen- 
ator; CSuistopher Hutton, Josiah Masters, 
Nicholas Staats, Jonathan Niles and Benjamin 
Hicks for assemblymen. This ticket was elected, 
although a mixed one, partly Federalist and 

To avoid any appearance of partiality, these 
members of the legislature announced that the 
yillage which would subscribe the more liber- 
ally for the erection of county buildings would 
have the preference in the decision. " Let no 
man despise thy youth," St. Paul enjoined upon 
Timothy. The advice of the apostle to the 
Gentiles was the quickening thought of the 
early Trojans. Lansingburgh was satisfied 
that the people of the little village of Troy 
were too few in number, young adventurers, 
with no capital, and were already burdened 
with personal debts. But time provided 
another factor of success which the people of 
Lansingburgh had overlooked in their estimate 

of the ability of the people of Troy to dare and 
to do. Quietly and persistently a subscription 
paper was circulated and signed, some men 
writing their names for more than they were 
actually worth, while others gave generously of 
their more abundant means. 


The "act for building a court-house and 
gaol in the county of Rensselaer" was passed 
January 11, 1793. 

The first section reads : " The supervisors of 
the several towns in the county of Rensselaer, 
for the time being or the major part of them, 
shall be and they are hereby authorized and re- 
quired to direct to be raised and levied on the 
freeholders and inhabitants of the said county 
the sum of six hundred pounds, for the purpose 
of building a court-house and gaol in said county, 
with the additional sum of one shilling in the 
pound for collecting the same, which sums 
shall be raised, levied and collected in the same 
manner as the other necessary and contingent 
charges of the said county are levied and col- 

Section three provides " that the said sum of 
six hundred pounds shall be paid into the treas- 
ury of the said county on or before the first of 
October next." 

Section four provides " that Cornelius Lan- 
sing, Jacob C. Schermerhom, Abraham Ten 
Eyck, Mahlon Taylor and Jacob D. Van der 
Heyden shall be the commissioners to superin- 
tend the building of said court house and gaol ; 
and that the said commissioners, or thie major 
part of them, shall and maycontract with work- 
men and purchase materials for the erecting the 
same, and shall from time to time draw upon 
the treasurer of the said county for the money 
for the aforesaid purpose." 

Section five of the act provides "that it shall 
and may be lawful for the treasurer to retain in 
his hands the sum of three pence in the pound 
for his trouble in receiving and paying out the 
money to be raised." 

Section six. " That the court house and coal 
to be built, shall be erected and built within 
sixty rods of the dwelling house of Stephen Ash- 
ley in the village of Troy, in the town of Troy." 

Section seven. " That the aforesaid commis- 
sioners or the major part of them are hereby au- 
thorized and required to determine and fix upon 
some suitable place for erecting and building 
the aforesaid court house and goal, within sixty 
rods of the dwelling bouse of Stephen Ashley 
aforesaid. And whereas it appears to the legis- 
lature thatjacob D. Van der Heyden and others, 
inhabitants of the village of Troy, in the town 
aforesaid, have promised and agreed to pay the 



sum of one thousand pounds for erectlBg and 
building a court house and goal, in the said 
county of Rensselaer to such commissioners as 
should be by law appointed to build and erect 
the same ; therefore it was provided in section 
eight that the said sum of one thousand pounds 
should be paid to the treasurer of the county 
for the aforesaid purposes. 


Three days after the passage of the above act, 
the following subscription paper was circulated 
among the inhabitants of Troy and its neigh- 

To all to whom theaepreaenU shaU come or may eon- 
cem—Wlureas, By an act of the legislature of the 
state of New York at their present session, It was 
enacted that a Court House and Gaol should be 
erected and built In the county of Ilensselaer with- 
in ststy rods of the dwelling house of Stephen 
Ashley, In the village of Troy, In the town of Troy, 
and that the sum of one thousand pounds should 
be made payable to the treasurer of said county 
for the time being, for the purpose aforesaid, by 
the inhabitants of the said village in the town of 
Troy. Now therefore know ye that we whose 
names are hereunto subscribed do resiwctively 
promise to pay unto Albert Pawling and Christo- 
pher Button, or to one of them, to tfaetr or one of 
their executors, administrators or assigns, the sum 
of money, annexed to our respective names on de- 
mand, which money is to be appropriated to the 
buildlnc of a Court House and Gaol as aforesaid- 
dated this fourteenth day of January, in the year 
of our Lord, one thousand and seven hundred and 
ninety-three : 
JmcobD.Vanderheyden.twohundrcd pounds. £900 

Abraliam Ten Ejck & Co., fifty pounds SO 

Cbrlst' A Tlm'7 Button, tblr^-flve pounds.... 36 

BenJ'n Gorton, twenty pounds 20 

Jons' * Alaop Hunt, tmrty-flve pounds 85 6 

Benjamin Covell, fifty pounds ISO 

John D. Vanderlieyden, thirty pounds SO 

IlatblBeVanderbeyden, one hundred dollars.. 40 

Hugh 8. McClellan 13 

Adam Keeling, elgbt pounds 8 

Epta'm Morgan, tblrty-five pounds 35 

James Betts IS 

Jonathan Piatt 10 

CalebRussell : 2 

Asa Antbony, five pounds 5 

Joalab Sheldon, tbree pounds 8 

Bobert Power, five pounds 5 

Jotm ft Peter Frear, five ponnds 5 

Daniel Harris, two pounds, 40s £2 

Jeremlab Felrce, five pounds 5 

Lather Walker, lour pounds 4 

Humpbrey Clark, sixty sbllUngs 3 

JOD'hn Warren, eight pounds £8 

John WlUson, four pounds 4 

James Wardwell, four pounds In plank 4 

Stephen Andres, two pounds 2 

Samuel Wilson, four pounds 4 

Lawrence Dorset 4 

Jobn Fowler, eight pounds 8 

Solomon Wllbore, forty shillings 8 

Oeoige Greenwood, fifteen shillings OlS 


Hendrick Coonndt, M twenty dollars 8 


Jobn Anthony, thirty shillings 1 10 

Samuel Johnson, aOs 10 

Tennis Skabt, forty sblUlngs 2 

Bobert McClellan, ten pounds 10 

William Sheldon, ten pounds 10 

Flact WIckes, five pounds 6 

Hedges, WIckes ft Co., fifteen pounds 16 

Caaper Frata, ten pounds 10 

AbelHonse, four pounds 4 

Jobn Warren, eight pounds 8 

Jobn De Camp, six pounds BOO 

Henry De Camp 

Jobn Woodworth, twenty pounds 20 

Jacob D. Vanderheyden, one hundred pounds 

more 100 6 

Jamea Spencer, ten pounds 10 

MalilOD Taylor. 100 

JohnElncald 10 

Joshua Owen, eight pounds 8 

Jonathan Larrabee, eight pounds 8 

Samuel Miner, five pounds 6 

Walt Rathbun, ten pounds 10 

Joslah Kellogg, four pounds 4 

Philip Hesrtt, four pounds 4 

WUllam Wlllard, four pounds 4 

Eben'r Wlllson, three pounds 3 

Bennljah Wright, twelve pounds 12 

Benl.ftB.Gale 15 

Anthony Goodspeed, ten pounds 10 

GeorgeDlckens, ten pounds 10 

Daniel ft M. Merrltt, thirty pounds SO 

James Van Blarum, three pounds £3 

Moses Bears, eight pounds 8 

As a gift, Jacob D. Van der Heyden conveyed 
to the supervisors of the county lots 145, 146 and 
147, on the southeast corner of Congress and 
Second streets, on March 32, 1793, whereon the 
building of the court house began that year. 


The legislature on March 25, 1794, passed a 
second act to raise a further sum of eight hun- 
dred pounds for completing the courthouse and 
goal, under which act Cornelius Lansing, Jacob 
E. Schermerhom, Abram Ten Eyok, Mahlon 
Taylor and Jacob D. Van der Heyden, together 
with John Van Rensselaer, James Dole, Eph- 
raim Morgan and Benjamin Gorton were ap- 
pointed to act as commissioners to superintend 
the erection of the county buildings. 

By a third act passed April 3, 1797, the super- 
visors of the county were authorized to raise a 
further sum of $3,500, together with an addi- 
tion of five cents on the dollar for collecting 
the same, and one cent on each dollar for treas- 
urer's fees. 

By a further act, passed April 4, 1798, a sum 
of $500 was authorized to be raised for making 
certain necessary accommodations for the goal 
and certain repairs for the court house. 

On November 11, 1794, Benjamin Gorton, 
clerk of the supervisors, advertised for propo- 
sals for the building of the county jail. The 
new court house, in which the court of com- 
mon pleas was the first to convene on the second 
Tuesday in June, 1794, was a two-story brick 
building, with a cupola for a bell, occupying 
the site of the present court house. In 1795 
the gaol was completed, being built of brick, 
two stories high, with iron barred windows. It 
was erected on the southwest comer of the 
alley, at the rear of the court house. 

In the court house yard were erected a whip- 
ping post and stocks. Here, at intervals, a 
class of criminals were publicly whipped, re- 
ceiving from the sherifi or his deputy so many 
lashes, less than 40, as a punishment for their 
misdeeds. The unfortunates who were placed 
in the stocks were made the objects of the ridi- 
cule of passers-by, and were often pelted by 
the village children with the most disagreeable 
missiles that tbey could find for the purpose. 





The first Meeting - House Erected in it — Secrets Concerning the 
Location of the Farmers' Bank — The Early Physicians of the 
County — Inaugural Procession of the Agricultural Society 7— 
New County Buildings Erected — The Competitive Spirit of the 
Troy People — Their Manufacturing Enterprises — The Calami- 
tous Fires of 1820, 1854 and 1862 — An Honorable War Record 
— Statistical Summary. 

One is no little soiprised to find such a qnick- 
eninj; spirit of enterprise in so small a Tillage 
as Troy was in 1794. Eight years before this 
date on its site were only three houses— the 
homes of three Dutch farmers ; one built in 
1752, now standing on the southeast comer of 
Division and River streets ; one erected in 1756, 
now forming a part of the brick building known 
as No. 548 River street, between Hoosick and 
Vanderheyden streets ; the third, a two-story 
frame house, built, perhaps, about the middle of 
the eighteenth century, opposite the ferry, be- 
longing to the old homestead. In 1830, this last 
house, formerly occupied by Jacob D. Van der 
Heyden, on the southeast comer of Ferry and 
River streets, was rented by John Barney and 
kept as a boarding-house. South of Division 
street was the farm of Matthias Van der Hey- 
den, which was still under cultivation, while 
northward the farm of Jacob D. Van der Hey- 
den, extending to Grand Divlaon street, ad- 
joining the river, was a barren plain covered 
with small pines and scrub oaks. Where is now 
Sixth street or the railroad track, there was a 
small stream that ran southwardly to the Poes- 


While the active-minded, diligent and sanguine 
men of this small community were doing with 
their might the things they deemed the most im- 
portant for the development of the local advan- 
tages of the place, they were also respecters of 


" DiTinity that shapes onr ends, 
BouKh-hew them how we will." 

Without any clergyman to direct or to lead 
them, they with common accord met together 
on Sundays at the sound of the conch shell 
used at the ferry, in the ball-chamber of Capt. 
Stephen Ashley's tavem, near the northwest 
comer of Ferry and River streets, where Dr. 
Samuel Qale or CoL Albert Pawling would read 
to them selected sermons. When the number 
of the inhabitants had increased, desiring a 
more united organization, the citizens assem- 
bled at Ashley's tavem on the Slst of Decem- 
ber, 1791, and organized the Presbyterian con- 
gregation of the town of Troy, and selected for 
its irst trustees Jacob D. Van der Heyden, Dr. 
Samuel Qale, Ephraim Morgan, John McChes- 
ney, sr., Benjamin Covell and Benjamin Ctorton. 
A frame bnilding for a meeting house having 
been erected a short distance south of the 
southeast comer of Congress and First streets, 
and the trustees desiring to complete it, the 
following memorial was drawn up on the 20th 
of November, 1792, and presented to the peo- 
ple of Troy : 

Whereat, The inhabitants of the town have began 
and partly completed a church bnilding, but by 
reason of the almost Infant settlement, and a vari- 
ety of other public expenses, which mnst neoes- 
sarily attend a newly settled town, they And it 
burdensome for them to carry their wishes into 
effect without calling in the aid of their friends 
and fellow-ChristiaDs ; we therefore, the tmstess 
of said eongregation, have and do hereby appoint 
Jacob D. Van derBeyden to present this onr me- 
morial to all whom he shall think proper, request- 
ing their aid and asslstanoe in the completion of 
the above undertaking. 



Safflcient money having been subscribed, a 
contract for doing the wood-work was let to 
Abel House, Robert Powers, Henry and John 
DeCamp and Benjamin Smith for "forty-six 
pounds, thirteen shillings, York money, in 
cash ; and ninety-three pounds, seven shillings, 
in European and West Indian goods at the re- 
tail prices in Troy." When the Rev. Jonas Coe 
was ordained in the new meeting-house on the 
25th of June, 1793, blocks of wood were brought 
into the unfurnished building, and boards were 
placed on them for the seating of the people in 
attendance. The installation services, a news- 
paper of that time, says, were "conducted 
with propriety and dignity becoming the 
solemnity of the occasion." ' 


The first village oflScers were created by an 
act of the legislature, entitled " An act to ap- 
point trustees to take and hold certain lands 
therein mentioned, and for other purposes," 
passed March 25, 1794. The first part of the 
act relates to the village of Lansingburgh. Sec- 
tion six relates to Troy : 

Arid be it further enacted, by the auUiority aforeiaid. 
That Jacob D. Van der Heyden, Benjamin Covell, 
Anthony Goodspeed, John Pease, Ephraim Hor- . 
gao, Christopher Button and Samuel Gale, shall 
be, and they are hereby declared to be the first 
tmstees for the freeholders and inhabitants of 
tbatpartof the town of Troy, in the county of 
Bensselaer, residing within the limits following, 
viz : Beginning on the north side of a certain 
creek called Poesten creek, where there was for- 
meriy a saw-mill fifty-eight chains from Hudson's 
river, and runs from thence down along the said 
eroek to the said river, thence up along the said 
river to a small creek called the Meadow creek, [a 
little north of Hoosick street,] thence along the 
aald creek into the woods, south seventy degrees 
easterly, forty chains, thence south twenty-three 
degrees and thirty minutes westerly, along the 
west side of the land of the late Albert Bratt, one 
hundred and six chains to the place of beginning. 
The above courses to be run as the magnetic nee- 
dle pointed In the year one thousand seven hun- 
dred and twenty. And shall continue to be 
trustees as aforesaid until the first Tuesday in 
May next, and until others shall be chosen In their 
place ; and It shall and may he lawful to and for 
the freeholders and inhabitants for the time 
being, residing within the village of Troy, within 
the boundaries aforesaid, and qualified by law to 
vote at town meetings, to assemble on the second 
Tuesday of May next, and annually on the second 
Tuesday of May thereafter, at such place, and at 
such time of the day as the tmstees for the tbne 
being, or the major part of them, shall by public 
advertisement appoint, and under the direction of 
the said tmstees, or snch of them as shall be pres- 
ent, who are hereby made inspectors of such eleo- 
tion, then and there, by a majority of voices, to 

elect seven Inhabitants, being freeholders, to be 
trustees as aforesaid, who shall continue in office 
until the second Tuesday of Hay in the next ensu- 
ing year, and until others shall be chosen in their 

The same act empowered the freeholders and 
inhabitants of the village to ordain and estab- 
lish prudential rules and orders relative to the 
cleansing and keeping in order and repair the 
oommon streets and highways of Troy; also, 
"to compel the housekeepers in Troy" to fur- 
nish themselves with a sufficient number of fire 
buckets, and with necessary tools and imple- 
ments for extingoishing of fires, and to impose 
such penalties on offenders as the majority of 
the freeholders and inhabitants should from 
time to time deem proper, not exceeding forty 
shillings for any one offense. 

The trustees also, "with all convenient 
speed," were to elect a sufficient number of 
men willing to accept, not exceeding 15 in num- 
ber, to have the caie, management, working 
and use of the fire engine belonging to the vil- 


Before Troy became a post-village letters to 
its inhabitants were directed to " Albany " and 
were brought to the village by a postman. After 
Lansingburgh, in 1792, obtained a postofflce 
letters for the people of Troy were directed 
thither. Early in 1796 Nathan Williams, at 
that time a law student In the office of John 
Woodworth, was appointed postmaster of the 
village of Troy. 

In the following year, Troy's first newspaper, 
the Farmers^ Orade, was published by Luther 
Pratt & Co. The first issue of the paper was 
announced in the Americari Spy, of Lansing- 

Luther Pratt & Co. inform their old customers 
that they have removed their printing material 
from Lansingburgh to Troy, and commenced pub- 
lishing a newspaper at their printing office in Water 
street, opposite the ferry, entitled Farmert^ Oracle, 
printed every Tuesday, at 12 shilllngB per annum. 

Tbot, January 31, 1797. 


Among the early inhabitants of the growing 
village were a number of families which had 
previoualy been connected with Baptist socle- 
ties in the places where they formerly resided. 
Of these persons were Silas Covell and wife, of 
Providence, R. I., Adam Keeling, Ebenezer 
Wilson and John Howard. Social worship was 
held at first at the dwellings of the Baptist 
people. At length a room was rented in a 
building near the comer of Albany and River 
streets, which was used as a place of assem- 
blage. On the 15th of October, 1795, a church 



oiganizatlon was effected under the name of 
" The First Particular Baptist church In the vil- 
lage of Troy." Through theliberality of Jacob 
D. Van der Heyden, the society became pos- 
sessed of lot number 331, south of the old Third 
street burying ground. On January 4, 1804, 
Adam Keeling, Edward Tylee, Silas Corell, 
Ebenezer Wilson, Kbenezer Jones and Noble S. 
Johnson w«e elected trustees, who with other 
members of the congregation made contribu- 
tions for the erection in 1805 of a small meeting 
house. The society in a few years had so in- 
creased in numbers that a large room for con- 
ference meetings was needed and built. In 
1846 the old church edifice was removed and the 
present building erected. 

Referring to the taking of the census in 1800, 
the editor of the Troy weekly paper says of the 
village : 

To exhibit, however, some idea of the rapidity 
of onr growth, it will he suffiolent for as to ob- 
serve that 15 years ago there were in this village 
(now compriBing somewhat more than u mile 
square) but two dwelling houses, and probably 
not more than 15 inhabitants : and that, at the 
present time it contains about SOO dwelling-honses 
(independent of stores, etc.,) and 1,803 Inhabitants. 
A population so rapid has, we believe, but seldom 
been witnessed in the United States. Situated as 
we are at the head of the sloop navigation of an 
extensive river, and surrounded on every side by 
a fertile country, whose population has also ex- 
perienced a rapid Increase, our commerce has In- 
creased in at least an equal ratio with our Inhab- 

At this time the land, from the month of the 
Poesten kill southward to within 20 rods of the 
Van Buren house, belonged to the farm of Ste- 
phen I. Schuyler. From the latter point to 
the Mathiss kill Mrs. Van Buren's farm extended. 
From the last named kill, southward about 70 
rods, was the mill-property of Thomas L. Wit- 
beck, leased from David DeFriest. The mills of 
Thomas L. Witbeck occupied the present site of 
the Bessemer steel works. 


When the state legislature, on the 31st of 
March, 1801, passed the act to Incorporate the 
Farmers' bank, with a capital stock of {300,000, 
it provided that the bank should be located 'at 
such place In the town of Troy as Hosea Mofflt, 
Jonathan Brown, John E. Van Alen and James 
McKown, or any three of them, should desig- 
nate and point out, which location, when so 
made, should be unalterable, and the said 
place should be near the road leading from Troy 
to Lansingburgh, and not further north than 
the Mill creek, nor further south than the house 
of Joshua Raymond ; and that the bank should 
be erected and so far completed as to admit the 

transaction of the business of the bank by the 
first day of December, 1801. 

The first directors of the Farmers' bank 

?Voy— John Woodworth, Daniel Herritt, Benja- 
min Tibbits, Christopher Button, Townsend If o- 
Coun and Ephralm Morgan. 

XaMini^&ur^A— Elijah Janes, Charles Selden, John 
D. Dickinson, James Hickok and WUUam Bradley. 

IFa/t^ord— QnertVanSchoonhoven and Samuel 

When the time came to determine upon the 
location of the bank building it seems that the 
majority of the directors favored the selection 
of a site convenient to the village of Troy. To 
accomplish this wish tactics of a most unbnsl- 
ness like character were adopted. As a full 
but brief record of the proceedings of the direc- 
tors respecting the selection of a site has never 
been heretofore published, it may be interest- 
ing to the readers of the Troy SaOy Timet to 
know what was the course pursued to obtain 
the location of the bank as near to the village 
as the law allowed. At a meeting of the direc- 
tors, held at Jacob's hotel in Lansingburgh, 
June 29, 1801, the following action was taken : 

On motion of Mr. Woodworth— 

Setolved, Unanimously, that in case the lot for 
the temporary place of establishment of the bank . 
shall fall to the village of Troy, that we will point 
ont to the commissioners the bouse of Joshua 
Raymond, In the village of Troy, as the house con- 
templated in the act, and that In case It should 
fall to the village of Lansingburgh, we will Imme- 
diately cause a temporary building to be erected 
on the middle ground at or near the place contem- 
plated by the commissioners for transacting the 
business until the legislature shall have decided on 
the petition of the directors. 

Setolved, unmtimouely. That we will unite in a pe- 
tition to the legislature at the next session for ob- 
taining the alterations In the act of Incorporation 
to enable the directors to carry Into efFect the mat- 
ters contemplated in the resolutions of the board 
respecting the permanent and temporary place for 
the buildings, and that we will, unitedly and sev- 
erally, use our best exertions In the premises. 

On motion of Mr. Selden : 

Beeolved, That we will teverally keep tecret the rent 
of the lot for the temporary place of establishing 
the bank, and our resolutions this day passed re- 
specting the same, until the farther order of the 
board on the same. 

On motion of Mr. Woodward, seconded by Mr. 

Setolved, That this board do pledge themselves 
individually that they will adhere to and perform 
the several matters contained In the preceding 
resolutions, and that the president put the same to 
the several members of the board. 

This was done by the president, John D. 



On motion of Mr. Woodward, seconded by Mr. 
Button : 

Setolved, vnanimouily. That this board will im- 
mediately proceed to determine by lot agreeable 
to the resolutions of the 6th day of June as amend- 
ed, the temporary place for the establishment of 
the bank, and that Mr. Bradley do prepare and 
roll np for the purpose five ballots with the word 
" Lanslngbnrgh" written thereon, and five ballots 
with the word " Troy" written thereon ; that the 
same be placed and shook together in a hat by Mr. 
Button and drawn by Mr. Herritt blindfold In the 
presence of the board, and that the said tempor- 
ary place shall be at the village, the name of which 
shall be written on two of the three first ballots so 
to be drawn. 

The ballots having been prepared by Mr. Button 
and Mr. Bradley, Mr. Merritt drew one after an- 
other three ballots out of the hat so prepared, on 
opening which it appeared that the word " Lan- 
slngbnrgb" was written on the two first and the 
word "Troy" on the third. Mr. Merritt then pro- 
ceeded to draw the residue of the ballots which, 
having been all opened, were found to be prepared 
agreeable to the preceding resolution. 

At a subsequent meeting it was determined 
that a banking house should be buUt 30 by 40 
feet and a kitchen 18 by 21 feet, and that 
Hessrs. Hntton, Hlckok and Merritt should be 
the bnllding committee. Jacob D. Van der 
Heyden having presented the bank with two 
lots on the northwest comer of Middleborgh 
and River streets, two other adjoining lots were 
purchased from him, and the foundations of 
the banking house built directly over the 
boundary line of Troy and Lanslngbuigh. 

On the 1st of December, 1801, the Tanners' 
bank, Hugh Peebles cashier, commenced busi- 
ness in its newly-erected building. The bank- 
vault, built of brick, is still to be seen in the 
cellar, as it was left November 15, 1808, when 
the bank was removed to a new building 
erected on the second lot south of the south- 
west comer of First and State streets. 


Aware that much of the trade of the country 
west of the Hudson was drawn to Albany, the 
enterprising merchants of Troy determined to 
attract by means of a good and direct road the 
Dutch fanners living toward Schenectady to 
bring their grain and produce to Troy. For 
this purpose they petitioned the legislature to 
grant them the right of making a turnpike to 
Schenectady. "An act for establishing a turn- 
pike road from opposite the village of Troy to 
the city of Schenectady " was passed April 2, 
1808. By it Ephraim Morgan, Oeorge Tibbits, 
Abraham Oothoudt and their associates were 
constituted a body corporate and politic by the 
name of " the president, directors and compa- 
ny of the Troy and Schenectady turnpike." 

The capital stock consisted of 350 shares of 150 
each. The first officers of the company were : 
President, Ephraim Morgan ; directors, Qeorge 
Tibbits, Abraham Oothoudt (of Schenectady), 
Derick Lane, Abraham Ten Eyck, Albert Pawling, 
John Bird, Silas CoveU and Daniel Merritt. 

Alluding to the enterprise of the people of 
Troy in constructing this road, a writer says : 

The expense of first opening the road west was 
then quite an onerous one, and drew heavily upon 
their spare resources. The whole expenditure for 
the first three miles out was raised and paid for by 
the subscriptions of those interested in trade at 
the village, but this improvement amply repaid 
them for the outlay and returned its cost in a few 
years, while great subsequent remuneration came 
with the Increased trade directed from Albany to 
this point. 


The first Protestant Episcopal church in Troy 
was organized at the court house, January 16, 
1804, at which Eliakim Warren and Jeremiah 
Pierce were elected church wardens, and Nich- 
olas Schuyler, David Buel, Lemuel Hawley, 
Thomas Davis, Thomas HiUhonse, John Bird, 
William S. Parker and Hugh Peebles vestry- 
men. Two lots on the northwest comer of 
Congress and Third streets — the site of Sand's 
hall— were purchased, on which the bnllding 
committee was instructed "to contract with 
proper workmen to put np the building of the 
church, the frame to be well put up and filled in 
with brick, one thick." 

On the 2d of July, 1804, the comer stone of 
the building was laid, the Rev. Jonas Coe, 
pastor of the Presbyterian church, assisting the 
Rev. David Butler. Early in the summer of 
1805 the church was completed. On the 17th of 
July, the Rev. David Butler was granted his let- 
ter of institution as rector of St. Paul's parish 
by the Right Rev. Bishop Benjamin Moore. 

The present church building on the northeast 
comer of State and Third streets was erected in 
1827, and consecrated August 16, 1828. 


For the purpose of protecting the people of 
the state against impostors and quacks in the 
medical profession, the legislature, April 4, 
1806, passed a law by which candidates desiring 
to enter upon the practice of physic and surgery 
were to be examined by censors of the medical 
societies throughout the state, and licensed by 
the judges of the county courts. 

It was in accordance with the provisions of this 
law that the physicians and surgeons of the vil- 
lage of Troy and the towns of the county assem- 
bled in the court house, at Troy, on Tuesday, 
July 1, 1806, and there organized the Rensselaer 
medical society. 



The minntea of this first meeting are aa fol- 

In oonf ormtty to an act of the legislatare of the 
state of New York, entitled an act to incorporate 
medical societies for the purpose of regulating the 
practice of physio and snrgery in this state, passed 
April 4, 1806, the physicians and surgeons of the 
county of Rensselaer to the number of twenty, 
viz : Benjamin Woodward, Aaron T). Patchin, Ben- 
jamin Bowe, Abner Thnrber, Moses Willard, Asher 
Armstrong, Ely Burrltt, I. ffi. Wells, Hezekiah Eld- 
ridge, Samuel Qale, David Oleason, Edward Davis, 
Alexander Bonsseau, U. M. Gregory, John Loudon, 
Sanford Smith, Edward Ostrander, David Doo- 
llttle. Hoses Hale, James H. Ball, convened in the 
court bouse in Troy and proceeded by ballot to 
elect their olBcers, when the following gentlemen 
were declared duly elected : 

President, Dr. Benjamin Woodward ; vice presi- 
dent. Dr. John Loudon ; treasurer. Dr. Samuel 
Gale ; secretary, Dr. I. H. Wells ; censors. Dr. Ely 
Burritt, Dr. Hoses Willard, Dr. Hezekiah Eldridge, 
Dr. David Doollttle, Dr. Benjamin Rowe ; delegate 
to the medical society of the state of New York, 
Dr. Hoses Willard. Benjamin Woodwabd, 

Tbot, July 1, 1806. Secretary, pro. tern. 

Semlved, That a committee of five be appointed 
to draft a code of by-laws for the use of the Rens- 
selaer medical society, and that Dr. Ely Burrltt, 
Dr. Hezekiah Eldridge, Dr. Moses Willard, Dr. 
Hoses Hale and Dr. Aaron D. Patchin to be the 

Setolved, That the annual meeting of the Rens- 
selaer medical society be the first Tuesday of July, 
and that it bs held at the court house in Troy. 

Betolvtd, That a tax of twenty-five cents be lev- 
ied upon every member for the use of the society, 
Ac, &c. 

The licenses of the early physicians, accord- 
ing to the law of the state.were in the following 
form : 

Stati of Nbw Yohk, Rensselaer County— 
Whenat, Samuel Gale of Troy, in the said county, 
physioian and surgeon, hath made application to 
me, Thos. Sickles, one of the judges of the 
court of common pleas for the said county, to ob- 
tain B certificate in conformity to a law of this 
state, entitled " An act to regulate the practice of 
physick and surgery, passed the twenty-third of 
March, one thousand seven hundred and ninety- 
seven, and having produced to me satisfactory 
evidence, that he, the said Samuel Gale, hath been 
regularly in the practice of physick and snrgery 
for more than two years last past, I do in conform- 
ity to the said act, certify the same. In testimony 
whereof I have hereunto set my band and alBzed 
my seal this thirteenth day of October, 1797. 

Thos. Sickles. 

The licenses of some of the other early physi- 
cians of Troy and in the towns of the county, 
bear the following dates : 

Dr. Barnabas Scott, September 0, 1T97. 
Dr. Thomas Hartwell, September 21, 1797. 
Dr. Felix Greene, September 23, 1797. 

Dr. David Hillen, September 27, 1797. 

Dr. Lewis Beebe, October 1, 1797. 

Dr. Benjamin Lyon, October 1, 1797. 

Dr. James H. Ball, October 2, 1797. 

Dr. Francis Smith, October 8, 1797. 

Dr. Ezekiel Baker, October 12, 1797. 

Dr. David DooUttle, October 13, 1797. 

Dr. Nicholas Schuyler, October IS, 1797. 

Dr. John Loudon, October 14) 1797. 

Dr. Alexander Rousseau, October 14, 1797. 

Dr. Jacob Campbell, October 16, 1797. 

Dr. Jason Bannister, October, 17, 1797. 

Dr. Jonathan P. Sill, October 20, 1797. 

Dr. Jacob Holt, October 21, 1797. 

Dr. Christopher Dillen, November 9, 1797. 

Dr. Elisha Baker, November 20, 1797. 

Dr. James HcClung, November 23, 1797. 

Dr. William Brown, November 29, 1797. 

Dr. Nehemiah King, December 4, 1797. 

Dr. Nicholas Harris, January 4, 1798. 

Dr. Edward Ostrander, January 13, 1798. 

Dr. William Baker, February 23, 1798. 

Dr. Job Tripp, February 23, 1798. 

Dr. Charles Beckwith, March 15, 1798. 

Dr. Samuel Gale, jr., December 11, 1796. 

Dr. Jedediah Pendergast, Hay 6, 1800. 

Dr. Hulbert Smith, May 16, 1800. 

Dr. Abner Armstrong, May 27, 1800. 

Dr. David Gleason, July 15, 1800. 

Dr. John Robinson, August 4, 1800. 

Dr. William C. Froutt, August 14, 1800. 

Dr. Samuel Porter, March 26, 1801. 

Dr. SUas Goodrich, Hay 2, 1601. 

Dr. Martin Smith, July 15, 1801. 

Dr. Ely Burritt, March 29, 1802. 

Dr. George W. Paige, April 22, 1802. 

Dr. Uriah M. Gregory, September 15, 1802. 

Dr. Benjamin Woodward, December 11, 1802. 

Dr. Nicholas B. Harris, February 20, 1803. 

Dr. Thaddeus Sweet, March 15, 1803. 

Dr. Simon Newcomb, jr.. Hay 30, 1803. 

Dr. Ira Gregory, June 8, 1803. 

Dr. Thaddeus Waugh, June 8, 1803. 

Dr. David Bliss, July S3, 1803. 

Dr. Paul Maxson, November 23, 1808. 

Dr. Abner Thnrber, December 17, 1803. 

Dr. Jared Hitcock, February 18, 1804. 

Dr. John Ward, Hay 29, 1804. 

Dr. Abel Hovey, June 21, 1804. 

Dr. Hoses Hale, July 12, 1804. 

Dr. Hezekiah Eldridge, February 8, 1805. 

Dr. JetFrey W. Thomas, Harch 21, 1805. 

Dr. Joshua Griggs, April 4, 1806. 

Dr. Aaron J. Mfler, April 4, 1805. 

Dr. John Hilton Stewart, April 15, 1805. 

Dr. Augustus Burgoyne, April 25, 1805. 

Dr. Daniel Bemus, June 5, 1805. 

Dr. Ebenezer Stratton, November 2, 1805. 

Dr. Rufus A. Burritt, April 21, 1806. 

Dr. Jacob Eingsley, April 21, 1806. 

Dr. Israel P. Baldwin, April 25, 1806. 

Dr. Theodore Hay, July 24, 1806. 

Dr. Jacob Burgess, Ang. 15, 1806. 

Dr. Stephen Ingham, August 29, 1806. 


Followers of Wesley were at a very early date 
nmnbered among the inhabitants of the Tillage 
of Troy. Stephen Andres, Caleb Curtis, Samuel 
Goodrich, Benjamin Betts, Archibald Gray and 
a number of other New England people were 
among the first congregations that gathered to 
hear thediSerent itinerant preachers who visited 
Troy. About the year 1803, by removal, death 
and other causes, the first Methodist society 
was broken up. In 1805 the Rev. Elijah Chi- 
chester revived the society, and enrolled seven 
persons in a class. At a meeting at the house 
of Samuel Scoby in November, 1808, David 
Canfield and Morris De Camp were chosen to 



preside over a meeting held on the Ist of De- 
cember. At this meeting David Canfield, Eli- 
phalet King and Samuel Scoby were elected 
" trustees of the Methodist Episcopal church of 
the village M Troy." On the 25th of December 
two lots on State street, Nos. 743 and 744, were 
rented of Jacob D. Van der Heyden, on which 
in 1809 a frame building two stories in height 
was erected as a place of worship. This church 
had a few years thereafter a large membership. 


Pursuant to a notice given throughout the 
county, persons from the different towns as- 
sembled in the court house on the 11th day of 
July, 1815, for the purpose of organizing a 
county Bible society. After the meeting was 
organized an election was held for the first 
ofBcers of the Rensselaer county Bible society, 
which resulted in the selection of the following 
persons : 

Fresident, the Key. Jonas Coe ; first vice presi- 
dent, the Key. Balph Westervelt; second vice 
president, the Key. Samuel Blatchtord ; corre- 
sponding secretary, David Buel, jr.; recording sec- 
retary, the Rev. Francis Wayland ; treasurer, Der- 
ick Lane ; board of managers, the Bev. Parker 
Adams, the Kev. Tobias Spicer, the Rev. John 
Yonnglove, jr., the Rev. Justus Hull, Dr. Ely Bnr- 
rltt, the Hon. Josiah Hasteis, Jabob A. Fort, the 
Hon. Hosea Hofflt and James L. Hodgeboom. 

By an act of the legislature, passed February 
16, 1798, the freeholders and inhabitants were 
incorporated under the name of " the trustees 
of the village of Troy." 

On the 2d of April, 1801, the provisions of the 
former act were somewhat altered. Another 
act of March S, 1803, particularly described the 
west bounds of the village, carrying the south- 
em limits " due west to the east bounds of Al- 
bany county, thence northwardly along the 
boundary line between the county of Albany 
and the county of Rensselaer to the southern 
bounds of the village of Lansingburgh." 

By an act of the legislature passed April 4, 
1806, the village was divided into four wards 
and four trustees were authorized to be elected 
to represent each of these wards. Under this 
act a president of the board was annually ap- 
pointed by the governor of the state and the 
council of appointment. This act authorized 
the trustees to annually raise by tax the sum 
of $1,500 to defray the expenses of the city, and 
also to support a night watch and to light the 
streets at night. Among the acts of the trus- 
tees of the village in 1806 was the making of 
appropriation of (25 to have the names of the 
streets painted on small boards and placed on 
buildings, at the intersection of the streets. 


The population of Troy in 1805 had increased 
to 2,255 ; in 1810 to 3,395, and in 1815 to 4,254. 

On the 12th of April, 1816, a city charter was 
granted by the legislature incorporating " the 
mayor, recorder, aldermen and commonalty of 
the city of Troy." An election for charter offi- 
cers of the city was held on Tuesday, May 14. 
At this election the following persons were elect- 
ed aldermen : 

Wards. Aldermen. AaaUtants. 

First George Allen. AmoB SsllBbury. 

Second Hugh Peebles. John Loudon. 

Third Townsend McCoun. Gurdon Corning. 

Fourth Stephen Ross. Henry Mallory. 

Fifth Samuel Hawley. 

Sixth PhUlp Hart, Jr. 

The 'governor and council of appointment 
designated Albert Pawling mayor and William 
L. Marcy recorder. 


As early as the year 1818 the subject of organ- 
izing a county agricultural society engaged the 
attention of the farmers and other persons in- 
terested in the products of the soil. Early in 
the summer of 1819 a notice was inserted in the 
village newspapers that a meeting would be 
held on June 3, in the court house, to take 
into consideration the organization of such a 
society. On the day fixed, a respectable num- 
ber of the leading men of the county interested 
in farming assembled and adopted a constitu- 
tion and elected officers of the Rensselaer coun- 
ty agricultural society. The following persons 
were elected: 

President, George Tlbbita ; first vice president, 
H. Knickerbacker ; second vice president, Simon 
Newoomb, jr. ; third vice president, Edmund C. 
Genet; treasurer, Philip Heartt; corresponding 
secretary, George K. Davis ; recording secretary, 
Henry Hogle. 

At a second meeting, July 14, 1819, the follow- 
ing board of managers were elected : 

Troy— John P. Cushman, Hugh Peebles, Thomas 
aowes, Thomas Turner, Stephen V. K. Schuyler, 
Stephen Boss. 

ianiinftarffft— Jacob C. Lansing, Wooster Brook- 
ins. Smith German. 

Sruntwiek^kaa. Gardner, Samuel I. McChesney, 
Martin Springer. 

SchagMicoke— Bethel Mather. 

fi^totoWTj— Michael S. Van der Cook. 

Soosick—Tioaes Warren, John Carpenter, jr. 

Fetemburgh— 3 oaeph Case. 

rffrfj/toTC— Ziba Hewitt. 

Berlin— Barton Hammond. 

5<^Aentoi«»— Henry Piatt. 

SoTMHafe— WUUam Carmichael. 
6i Mnbueh— John Breese. 

SWiodact— Cornelius I. Schennerhom. 

Naesau— Vernier Palmer. 



The first fair was held on the common south 
of Hoosick street and east of River street, on 
Tuesday and Wednesday, October 12th and 
13th, 1819. Each day was ushered in by the 
tinging of bells and the discharge of cannon. 
A procession was formed at the court house on 
the first day of the fair, at 9 o'clock, which 
marched to the gronnds. As described by a 
Troy newspaper the fair was a great success. 
It says : 

In the interior a very large oolleotion of rival 
fanners had arrived on the ground and bro't with 
them the best cattle of the oonnty— exhibiting the 
interesting spectacle of the finest oxen, cows, 
bulls, calves, sheep, swine, horses, colts with their 
dams, &c., engaging the curiosity and employing 
the observation of both practical men and ama- 
teurs. » • * At 4 o'clock p. M. the ploughing 
match took place, and for novelty and effect 
proved itself most interesting. The crowd, large 
as it was In the morning, had now increased to 3 
or 4,000, occupying the adjacent eminences, and 
pressing in upon the ground designated for the in- 
teresting strife. * * * In 80 minutes the quick 
moving team of Mr. Filldn completed its quarter 
acre of unusually tough sward, amid the shouts of 
the spectators. A minute more brought in the 
cattle of Mr. Harrington, who received the pre- 
mium, having turned up the sward either deeper 
and better than his swifter competitor. * * * 

On the second day the society again formed at 
the flag-staff, accompanied by the clergy of the 
city and neighboring towns, under the direction 
of the Marshal Col. Enickerbacker, Assistant Mar- 
shal Gen. Carr, and escorted by the line company 
from the United States arsenal, commanded by 
Lients. Morton and Walker, preceded by the ex- 
cellent band. The procession moved down River 
and First streets to the Presbyterian meeting 
house, where had assembled a large audience of 
females from the city and country. The services 
at the church were commenced by an appropriate 
ode sung by the large choir under the direction of 
Mr. Hastings, in a style of unrivalled excellence. 
* * * The throne of grace was then addressed 
by the Rev. Dr. Coe in his peculiarly impressive 
and appropriate manner. A second ode was fol- 
lowed by a very able, instructive and interesting 
address from the president. * * » 

The premiums which had been awarded by the 
committee were then announced, after some per- 
tinent prefatory remarks by Elkanah Watson, 

After the distribution of premiums an appro- 
priate prayer by the Rev. Mr. Sommers concluded 
the services at the church. 

The society then again formed and proceeded to 
Barney's hotel— where they partook of an excel- 
lent farmers' dinner. 

The Rensselaer county agricultural society, 
after many years of usefulness, holding its an- 
nual fairs at different places in the immediate 
vicinity of Troy, at length became embarrassed, 

which culminated in the sale of its grounds and 
buildings under foreclosure of mortgage, in 
October, 1874. 


The most calamitous event that befell the 
small city of Troy was a devastating fire, which 
occurred June 20, 1820. It originated in a bam 
in the rear of Col. Thomas Davis's house, No. 
35, west side of First street. The wind was 
blowing from the south, and the fire jspread 
rapidly northward. Fire engines from Lansing- 
burgh, Waterford, the United States arsenal 
and from Albany came to aid in the suppres- 
sion of the devouring flames. All the build- 
ings on the west side of Biver street, north of 
Dr. Samuel Gale's store, in which was the x>08t- 
offlce, now the site of the drug and medical 
warehouse of J. L. Thompson, Sons & Co., were 
burned down as far north as the store of 
Coming & Co., now Fisk, Cowee & Co.'s, on 
the east side of Biver street ; all the buildings 
from H. & G. Vail's store, opposite the post- 
offlce, northward as far as the comer of River 
and First streets, where now is the Hall build- 
ing, then southward along the west side of 
First street to the middle of the block between 
State and Congress streets. The total number 
of buildings burned was 69 stores and houses, 
atiout 12 stables, and outhouses, in all 93. The 
loss was estimated to be from $700,000 to tl,- 

From all parts of the state and neighboring 
states money and other contributions were 
with immediate liberality forwarded to the dis- 
tressed people. 

The 12th of July was observed in Troy by all 
the churches as a day of humiliation and 


In 1821 action was taken by the common 
council of the city of Troy towards raising by 
tax money to pay the city's proportion of the 
expense of purchasing the necessary land and 
of erecting thereon buildings for the accommo- 
dation of the indigent, infirm and insane of the 
county. The board of supervisors January 10, 
1822, made a report to the common conncil that 
the entire cost of the property purchased and 
the new biiildings erected was S9,064.84^Troy's 
proportion being $4,647.94. The land purchased 
for this purpose embraced about 146 acres. The 
several buildings on it are known as the house 
of industry. 

At a meeting of the common council, held 
May 17, 1825, a committee consisting of Ephraim 
Morgan, Thomas Clowes and Jeremiah Danchy, 
was appointed to confer with the board of su- 
pervisors in regard to the erection and selec- 



tlon of a site for a new jail. By agreement it 
was decided to erect the needed building on lot 
No. 435, on the northeast corner of Ferry and 
Fifth streets. When the building was com- 
pleted, the old jaU in the alley back of the 
court house was torn down and the prisoners 
lemoyed to the new structure. By a resolution 
passed by the common council August 2, 1832, 
the old bell on the court house was ordered to 
be transferred to the cupola of the jail, to be 
used as a fire-alarm bell. 

The old court house building not being suffi- 
ciently commodious for the purposes of the 
people of the county the board of supervisors, 
at a meeting held at William Pierce's inn, No- 
vember 15, 1826, resolved to petition the state 
legislature for an- act empowering it to raise 
sufficient moneys by tax for the erection and 
furnishing of a new building. The board also 
made an agreement with the common council 
of the city of Troy to provide certain rooms in 
the new court house for the use of the city of 
Troy. The new building was first occupied in 
1831, the entire cost of the structure being 
about tlO,000. The city of Troy had what was 
designated as " the mayor's court room " and 
the "common council room" on the second 
floor of the building, and three rooms in the 
basement, assigned it by the board of super- 
visors. The style of the architecture of the 
court house building, it is said, is that of the 
temple of Theseus. 


The project of connecting the waters of the 
western lakes with the Hudson by a canal was 
at a very early date looked upon with much 
favor by the enterprising people of Troy. Early 
in 1816 this card appeared in one of the weekly 
papers of the village : 

Cakai.— The inhabitants of the village of Troy 
are requested to meet at the Court House on Sat- 
urday evening [February 24], at 6 o'clock, to take 
Into consideration the propriety of memorializing 
the Legislature on the subject of the contemplated 
Western Canal. 

At this meeting, which was largely attended 
by the enthusiastic citizens and which was pre- 
sided over by the Hon. Qeorge Tibbits, a com- 
mittee of four i>ersons was appointed from each 
of the four wards to obtain signatures to a pe- 
tition to the legislature setting forth the im- 
portance of the canal : 

First ward— Mheit Pawling, J. Sampson, I. M. 
Wells and ^hraim Morgan. 

Second ward— Samnel Gale, J. Hallory, John P. 
Coshman and Hugh Peebles. 

TMrd ward— Stephen Warren, Townsend Hc- 
Conn, Francis Adancourt and Gurdon Coming. 

Fourth ward— v.. Arnold, 3. Hammil, Stepbeu 
Boss and J. Beed. 

When the " Great Canal Bill " was passed, 
George Tibbits, John D. Dickinson and Albert 
Pawling were appointed agents of the commis- 
sioners to secure donations, land and moneys 
to aid in the construction of the two public 
works — the Erie and the Champlain canals. 

The steamboat Fire-fly, one of Robert Ful- 
ton's, commenced plying twice a day between 
Troy and Albany, in the fall of 1812. Immedi- 
ately the steamboat monopoly on the Hudson 
was broken down by a decision of the supreme 
court in 1824:, a number of the citizens applied 
to the legislature for an act incorpor- 
ating "the Troy steamboat company." This 
company was chartered March 81, 1825. 
The persons first interested in its organization 
were John D. Dickinson, George Yail, Nathan 
Warren, Alsop Weed, Samuel Gale, Nathan 
Dauchy, Philip Hart, jr., Gurdon Grant, George 
Tibbits, John Faine,- Townsend McCoun, James 
Van Brokle and Richard P. Hart. 

On Saturday, March 12, 1825, Troy's first 
steamboat, the Chief Justice Marshall, made 
her first appearance at the steamboat landing. 

The Citizens' steamboat company was organ- 
ized in January, 1872. The articles of associa- 
tion were signed February 19, 1873. The City 
of Troy was built in 1876 and the Saratoga in 

Previous to the construction of a railroad to 
Troy, stages were the means of public convey- 
ance. In 1829 the Troy and Schenectady line 
of stages left Troy twice a day at 8 o'clock a. 
M. and 2 o'clock p. m., and at the same hours 
Schenectady. The Troy and Boston stages 
every morning at 3 o'clock, Sundays excepted. 
The Troy and Albany line twice a day, 8 o'clock 
A. M. and 2 o'clock p. m. The Phoenix line, 
Troy and Boston, via WiUiamstown and Green- 
field, at 2 o'clock A. H. on Mondays, Wednes- 
days and Fridays. 

The first railroad project which interested the 
people of Troy was the building of a road from 
Troy to Ballston. The act to incorporate the 
Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad company was 
passed April 14, 1832. The capital stock was 
fixed at 300,000 shares of $100 each. The first 
officers were : 

President, Richard P. Bart ; directors, Eltaha 
'nbblts, George Griswold, John Cramer, John 
Enickerbacker, Richard P. Hart, Townsend Mc- 
Conn, Nathan Warren, Stephen Warren, George 
Vail, LeGrand Cannon, Moses Williams, John P. 
Cusbman and John Paine. 

The railroad was completed October 6, 1835, 
and trains crossed the new bridge from Green 
Island to Troy for the first time that day. On 
the arrival of the cars at the west side of the 
river, horses were substituted for the engine. 



and the cars were drawn over by them and 
down River street to the Troy house, the ter- 
minus of the road. 

tbot'b spirit op competition. 
A correspondent of a leading New York 
paper wrote as follows in 183.5 regarding the 
competitive spirit of the Troy people : 

There is something remarkable in the character 
of the people. No matter where they come from, 
or what have been their previous habits, the mo- 
ment they become residents of this place, they are 
Trojans. They not only look well to iiheir own in" 
dividual interests, but imbibe the same spirit of 
enterprise which they find prevailing, and nnite as 
one man in sustaining the interests and advanc- 
ing the prosperity of Troy. * * * No sooner, 
for instance, had the steamboat monopoly been 
broken up by the supreme com-t, and Albany placed 
a line of steamboats on the river of her own, than 
Troy did the same. When a railroad brought the 
valley of the Mohawk within an hour's distance 
from Albany, Troy united herself with Vermont by 
the process of macadam. * * * At last, though 
not least, a railroad having in effect brought 
Ballston and Saratoga health springs within two 
hours of Albany, another railroad brings the same 
fountains within an hour and a half of Troy. * * 
* It was originally intended that the Troy road 
should run along the eastern margin of the Hud- 
son, through Lansingburgh, crossing the river 
upon the old bridge at Waterf ord. Obstructions, 
however, of various kinds were thrown in the way 
of the company, and prices demanded for the use 
of the bridge— under the impression that the rail- 
road must be carried across it and nowhere else, 
which induced the directors to change the route. 

Trains on the Schenectady and Troy railroad 
began running between the two places In No- 
vember, 1842. 

The first through train from New York 
reached Troy December 19, 1851. 

The formal opening of the Rutland and Wash- 
ington railroad, and the Troy and Boston rail- 
road from its junction at Eagle Bridge, was 
celebrated June 28, 1852. 



The immense manufacturing establishments 
of H. Burden & Sons, in which more than 1,400 
men are employed, and who receive over 1500,- 
000 annually in wages, had their beginning in 
1809, at which time John Converse and several 
associates erected a rolling and slitting mill at 
the upper fall of the Wynant's kill. The mile of 
mills, which now annually send out $2,000,000 
of horseshoes, is a notable triumph to *he en- 
terprise and inventive genius of Henry Burden, 
whose fame as an inventor and machinist is 

The extensive works of the Albany and 

Rensselaer iron and steel company, where steel 
rails of the finest quality, merchant steel, horse 
shoes, etc., are manufactured in such large 
quantities as to astonish those who first hear 
of the thousands of tons produced annually, 
and at which over 2,000 men obtained work and 
are annually paid wages amounting to $1,000,- 
000, had their origin in a rolling mill erected in 
1807 by John Brinokerhoof , on the north bank 
of the Wynant's kill, at its second fall. 

The manufacture of collars, cuffs and shirts, 
which affords employment to more than 12,000 
persons, who receive annually almost $2,000,- 
000 in wages, began in a very humble way in 
1829. The sales of the productions of this one 
branch of manufacture exceed $5,000,000 an- 

Stoves were first made in Troy about the year 
1831 by the firm of Starbucks & Gurley. The 
fame which Troy stoves have secnred through- 
out the United States is well known, and which 
has made the value of their annual production 
reach nearly to $3,000,000. Besides these lead- 
ing branches of manufacture the casting of 
church bells, car wheels, the making of fire- 
brick, paper, valves, car coaches, hosiery, ma- 
chinery, surveying instruments, flour and other 
mentionable and useful articles, add to the wel- 
fare and wealth of the industrious people of 


After several preliminary meetings which 
were largely attended by the people of Troy, the 
young men's association was organized Decem- 
ber 19, 1834, by the election of John T. McCoun 
president. The first rooms occupied by the 
association, February, 1835, were on the second 
fioor of the building No. 197 Kiver street. On 
the completion of the Athentenm building, on 
First street, the library was transferred to it. 
By an act of legislature, passed May 8, 1880, 
amending the act incorporating the association 
April 20, 1835, the control and management of 
the property of the association were placed in 
the hands of 23 trustees. The number of vol- 
umes in the library is about 23,325. Since De- 
cember, 1870, De Witt Clinton has been the 
efficient librarian of the young men's associa- 


The second large fiie, which rendered three 
hundred families houseless, occurred on the 
afternoon of August 26, 1854. About 1 o'clock 
that day a brick planing mill on the southwest 
comer of Front and Division streets was dis- 
covered on fire, and although the fire compa- 
nies of the city arrived early, the flames spread 
rapidly southward among the lumber piles in 
the adjoining yards. A strong northwest wind 



was blowing, and the conflagration in a short 
time assume such alarming proportions that 
fire engines from the neighboring places were 
solicited to aid in its suppression. Fire com- 
panies Nos. 1, 8 and 11 of Albany, with 
their apparatus, promptly responded, as 
did companies from West Troy, Co- 
hoes, Waterford and Lansingburgh. The 
area of the fire included the blocks south 
of DiviBion street and west of River street, as 
far as Liberty street. The fire then extended 
on the south side of Liberty street to First 
street, where it crossed to the east side about 
the middle of the block between Liberty and 
Washington streets, and thence southward, 
having its eastern margin along the east side 
of the alley, between First and Second streets, 
to Jefferson street. All the buildings westward 
to the river were consumed by the fire, which 
was not under control of the firemen until 6 
o'clock in the evening. The day was extreme- 
ly warm and the firemen labored under many 
disadvantages. About 80 acres of ground were 
burned over by this fire. The total loss was 
estimated at $1,000,000. 

The frame work of the steeple of St. John's 
Episcopal church, on the southeast comer of 
First and Liberty streets, during the progress 
of the conflagration was set on fire by a flying 
brand, but James Stantial, seeing the great dan- 
ger the newly erected church was m, daringly 
climbed to the dizzy height, and with uncovered 
hands seized the flaming brand and threw it to 
the ground and then extinguished the fire 
spreading along the frame work. The sufferers 
by this fire were generously aided by the people 
of this and neighboring places in the time of 
their need and distress. 


A third fiery scourge visited the city on Satur- 
day, May 10, 1862. The fearful and rapid 
ravages of this devastating conflagration ap- 
palled the stoutest hearts, desolatingin the short 
space of six hours seventy-five acres of prop- 
erty and reducing to ashes five hundred 
and seven buildings. To aid in extin- 
goishing this conflagration the firemen 
of Albany, West Troy, Cohoes, Waterford 
and Lansingburgh came with their engines 
and toiled with great efBclency in saving prop- 
erty exposed to the spreading flames and flying 

The fire had its beginning in the Rensselaer 
and Saratoga railroad bridge. This structnre, 
it was supposed, was set on fire by a locomo- 
tive. The wind was from the northwest, and 
blowing a stiff gale, which carried burning cin- 
ders southeastwardly to the buildings adjacent 

to the bridge. The irresistible fury of the 
fiames and the dense smoke made it a most dif- 
ficult task to suppress this extensive confiagra- 
tiou. During the progress of the fire several 
persons lost their lives in the flames. Thomas 
O'Donnell, an aged blind man, living on Green 
street, above Grand Division, was burned to 
death. Ransom S. Haight, while trying to es- 
cape from the path of the fire along Seventh 
street, was suffocated by the smoke and per- 
ished in the flames issuing from the neighbor- 
ing dwellings. Mary Dunlop and child also lost 
their lives in a burning building. Dr. Zenas 
Gary died the following day from bums 
received while endeavoring to escape 
from the fiames enveloping his residence. 

Among the principal buildings consumed 
were the Second Presbyterian church, on the 
southeast comer of Sixth and Grand Division 
streets ; the Scotch Presbyterian church, on the 
east side of Seventh street, between Broadway 
and State street ; the North Baptist church, on 
the southeast comer of Fulton and Fifth streets ; 
the Rensselaer polytechnic institute, on the 
north side of State street, between Sixth and 
Seventh streets ; the Troy City bank, on the 
southeast comer of Grand Division and Fourth 
streets ; the orphan asylum, on the south side 
of Federal street, opposite Harrison place ; the 
church asylum, west of the orphan asylum, and 
the Union railroad depot,. The total loss by 
this fire was estimated at {3,000,000, with an in- 
surance of $1,000,000. 

In a very short time the undaunted spirit of 
enterprise of the Troy people asserted its former 
power, and new buildings rapidly rose up over 
the desolated space of the great conflagnttion. 
In the month of July following the fire, 181 
buildings were in course of erection. From all 
parts of the country came kind benefactions of 
sympathizing people, which were gratefully re- 
ceived by those suffering in basket and store 
from the impoverishing effects of this calam- 
itous fire. 
tbot'b fatbiotish in the war of sbcb^on. 

In 1861 Troy reared its altars of loyalty on 
which brightly burned the fires of its patriot- 
ism until the surrender of Lee at Appomattox 
in 1865. On the evening of April 16, 1861, the 
first great war meeting was held in Harmony 
hall. The Hon. John A. Griswold was chosen 
chairman of the meeting. A committee was 
appointed, consisting of William E. Eissel- 
burgh, Isaac McConihe, jr., and Robert A. Lot- 
tridge, which reported a series of patriotic res- 
olutions, in which it was declared that Troy 
was ready to contribute a part of the means 
necessary to defend the government and to 
maintain the permanency of its institutions ; 



that a regiment of volunteers would at once be 
formed whose serrices would be offered to 
the executive of the state, to be transferred to 
the support of the federal government. 

In consequence of the immense concourse of 
people assembled in and outside of the build- 
ing, the meeting was adjourned to the Union 
depot, where addresses were made by Isaac Mc- 
Conlhe, jr., Martin I. Townsend, George W. 
Demers, Clarence Buel, Gen. John E. Wool and 

A second large meeting was held on April 
18th, at Harmony hall, at which a committee of 
five was appointed to wait upon the common 
conncil and solicit the subscription of $10,000 
for the support of the families of volunteers. 
The common council at once complied with this 
request. The spirit of loyalty to the country's 
flag was everywhere apparent among the peo- 
ple. Union cockades and diminutive banners 
were buttoned and pinned to the hats and 
clothing of men, women and children ; and in 
the churches, on Sundays, the services of the 
day were appropriately patriotic and filled with 
loyal aspirations for the preservation of liberty 
and law. 

The first corps of volunteers which left Troy 
for the seat of war in 1861 was the second New 
York regiment, which departed from the city 
on the 18th of May. This fine body of soldiers 
was under the command of Col. Joseph B. 

The need of more men to suppress the rebel- 
lion called into the field from Troy, on the 30th 
of August, 1868, the one hundred and twenty- 
fifth regiment. George L. Willard was the 
colonel of this noted regiment. 

The one hundred and sixty-ninth regiment, 
the third contribution of Troy's patriotism, re- 
ceived its marching orders September 28, 1862. 
The command of this regiment was first held by 
Clarence Buel. It won a splendid record daring 
the war. 

trot's chcbchbs. 

The date of the organization of the different 
religious societies of Troy and of the erection 
of the houses of worship is shown in the fol- 
lowing table : 

First ct. Present 

Name ani Oate of oraaniiatton. built, ck. built. 

Flret Pres., Dec. 31, ini 1792-3 1S3S-6 

Second Pres., Sept. 2S. IS27 18«7 -1884-5 

Tblrd Frea., Jan. le, 1831 18S1 ISill 

Second itreet Fres., Sept. 23, 1S34 IXU ISM 

United Free., Feb. 6, 1^ 1836 187!J 

Libeny street Frea., Jan. 17, 1810 1834 1834 

Fark Frea., Aug. 24, 1854 1854 1854 

Woodalde Free., June 19, 1887 1868 1869 

Oakvood avenue Free., July 1, 1S6S.. 1868 1868 

Ninth Frea., Sept. SO. 1869 

Westmlnater Frea.. Nov. S, 1871* 

Memorial Frea., Oct. 18, 1878 

Flrat Baptlat, Oct. 15,17% 

Second Baptlat, Feb. 4, 1SS4 

North Baptist, June 6, 1S4S 

South Troy Baptist, March, 1868 

Vail avenue Baptlat, April, 1871 

St.FauraP. E., Jan. 16,1804 

St. John's P. E., 1830 

Chrlat Church, P. E., Dec. 3, 1898 

Church of Holy Croaa, F. E., 1844 

St. Luke's P. E., 1866. 










Free ch. of Aacen., P. E., Feb. 14. 1888. 
St.Faul'a Free Chapel.P. E., Nov. 1869 

SUte street M.E.,Dec. 8,1803 

North Second atreet M. E., May, 1835. 

Levlng'B Chapel, M. E., 1883 

ZIonM. E., 1841 

Third atreet M. E., 1843 1848 

Congreas atreet M. E., 1847 1848 

Yall avenue M.E., April. 1854 1858 

Pawling avenue M. £., 1827 1827 

German M, E., July 25, 1857 1856 

St. Feter'a Roman Catholic, 1824 1829 

St. Mary'a Soman Catholic, 1844 1844 

St. Joseph'a Roman Catholic, 1847. . . . 1852 

St. Jean Baptiste Roman Catholic. 1850 1880 

St. Fisncla, Roman Catholic, 1862 1863 

St. Lawrence, Roman Catholic, 1880 

St. Michael Roman Catholic, 1872 .... 1873 

St. Fatrlck'a R. Catholic, Jan. 1, 187S. 1872 

Quaker society, Nov., 1803 1804 

tinlveraallat church 

Bethel church, 1821 

Flrat Congregational church 

First Unitarian church, 184S 

Church or Chrlat, 1865 1868 

Trinity. Lutheran, 1870 18TO 

Berlth Sholom, Jewlah, 1866 1870 


The following table shows the date of the in- 
corporation of the different banking institutions 
of Troy : 









1823 1875 




Names. Actofincorp. 

Farmers' bank March 31, 1801. 

Began business. 

Dec. 1, 1801. 


Aug. SO, 1823. 

Bank of Troy March 22, 1811. 

Troy Savlnga bank. April 23, 1823. 
Merchants* and Me* 

chanlca' April 20, 1829. 1820. 

•Troy City bank. . . . April 19, 1SS3. July 11, 1888. 
Troy Exchange 

bank Dec. 7, 1838. 

Commercial bank of 

Troy Aug.,1839. 1839. 

Howard Trust and 

Banking Co Feb 1,1839. 1839. 

*Unlon bank of 

Troy Jan., 1851. April, 1851. 

•State bank of Troy 1852. Sept. 2, 1852. 

•Mutual bank of 

Troy N0T.24,1S52. Jan. ' IS, ISSS. 

•Central Bank of 

Troy Dec, 1852. Dec. 29, 1862. 


bank 1852. May, 1852. 

Market bank Jan., 1S53. Sept. 18BS. 

Troy Savings Co.... June 29, 1854. 1854. 
First National bank. Oct. 24, 1863. Jan. 1,1864. 
tUnlted National 

bank ...^,.... March, 1885. April IS, 1866. 

National Exchange 

bank 1865. From Market bank. 

•Changed to national banks In 1885, except the Manu- 
faeturera' which became a national bank In 1864. 
tFormed from Farmera' bank and Bank of Troy. 


1795 460 

1800 1,802 

1805 2,251 

1810 3,805 

1815 4,2« 

ISaO 6.284 

1825 7,869 

1830 11,551 

1836 18,959 

1840 10,884 

1846 21,700 

1850 28,786 

1855 33.280 

1860 30,235 

1865 Se,2«8 

1870 44,633 

1876 40,631 

1880 66,731 





The Original Patent of Stone Arabia — The Old Indian Designa- 
tions — A Big Fish in the River — De Nieuw Stadt on the Upper 
Hudson — The First Settlers of Lansingburgh — No Slavish 
Submission to Great Britain — Commodore Macdonough Present- 
ed with Plate — Lansingburgh in 1824 and 1836 — Summary of 
the History of its Churches — Manufacturing Interests — Cen- 
sus OF the Town from 1770. 

Theold, original, parchment patents relating to 
the possession of landed estate by the first settlers 
of the province of New York are quite impres- 
sive in the manner in vrhich they are worded. 
These documents translate us to a period when 
the people living in this part of the continent 
of America were loyal subjects of English 
kiogg, whose favor was sought through depu- 
ties to give the necessary legal confirmation to 
the patents by which they acquired ownership 
of tracts of land once possessed by the Indians. 
The patent of Steene Arabia, — the first name 
given by the Dutch to a part of the territory 
now mcluded in the present bounds of the 
town of Lansingburgh, — ^is a large parchment 
manuscript, to which, by a red and blue cord, 
a large disk of figured wax, the royal seal, pre- 
served in a silver box, is attached. 


The grand, monarchical phraseology with 
which the instrument is worded is rather pecul- 
iar to our democratic ears : 

Thomas Dongan, lientena>t-govenior and vice- 
admiral of New York and its dependencies under 
his majesty, James the Second, by the grace of 
Ood, of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, 
king, defender of the faith, &e., supreme lord and 
proprietor of the colony and province of New 
York and its dependencies in America, &c., to all 
whom these presents shall come, sendeth greeting : 
• * * Whereas, Francis Lovelace, Esq,, one of 
the gentlemen of his majesty's honorable privy 
chamber and late governor of the province as 
aforesaid, did by patent nnder his hand and sealed 
with the seal of the province, bearing date the 

first day of September, 1670, did give, grant, ratify 
and confirm onto Robert Saunders of Albany a 
certain tract or parcel of land called by the Indi- 
ans Tascamcatick, lying on the east side of the 
North river, and stretching alongst the said river 
from the second to the third spring which mnnc 
over to the west side of the river, striking into the 
woods np to the high hills and including within it 
a piece of the * • • ground or hoog valley ; * * 
the said Robert Saunders, his heirs and assigns, 
* * paying as a quit rent for the same, yearly and 
every year, two bushels of winter wheat, if de- 
manded unto his royal highness. 


And whereas Sir Edmund Andross, late governor 
of this province, as aforesaid, did likewise by pat- 
ent nnder his hand and sealed with the seal of the 
the province, bearing date, 22d March, 1679 and 80, 
did give, grant unto the said Robert Saunders of 
Albany, a certain parcel or piece of woodland ly- 
ing on the east side of the North river, above Al- 
bany, to the sonth of the said land above recited, 
called by the Indians Passqnassick, as also a small 
Island; near thereunto, commonly known by the 
name of the whale fishing island, containing in 
breadth to the north, one hundred, seventy rod, 
and to the sonth one hundred rod, in length four 
himdred and ninety rod, amounting in all to one 
hundred and one quarter pf a morgan or abont 
two hundred twenty acres and a half, * * the 
said Robert Saunders, * * » paying therefor 
yearly and every year unto his majesty's highness 
as a quit rent, one bushel of good winter wheat, 

From the above tract there was excepted " a 
certain piece of woodland, which he, the said 
Robert Saunders, did sell and alienate to Peter 
Van Woggelnm, lying to the southward of 



Fiskawen kill, which creek or kill separates and 
makes the bounds between the above recited 
land, and what was sold unto the said Peter 
Van Woggelum as by Kobert Saunder's deed 
under hand bearing date the 19th September, 


The patent which also transfers this property 
of Robert Saunders to Johannes Wendell, a 
farmer, of Albany county, further recites that 
the said Johannes Wendell did by Governor 
Dongan's license "purchase of the native In- 
dians another piece of woodland adjoining to 
the northermost part of the several tracts of 
land above recited and stretches along the river 
side, northward to a certain kill or creek called 
by the Indians Faensick, over against Jan Van 
Wessel's land, that lies in the Half-moon, and 
from the said creek unto the woods as far as 
the high hills, and from thence southward to 
the bounds of the lands above said." 

The above patent, which conveyed the 
property of Robert Saunders to Johannes Wen- 
dell, was signed by Gov. Thomas Dongan, July 
32, 1686, and afterwards confirmed May 28, 
WSS, by Gov. James De Lancey. 


Whale island, or as the Dutch called It, 
WalviKh eylard, purchased by Robert Saun- 
ders, has, by the building of the state dam, 
been submerged by the higher waters of the 
Hudson. The story as related by Van der 
Donck, in his description of New Netherland, 
runs as follows : The winter of 1646-7 was ex- 
tremely cold, and the river closed November 
the 35th and remained so for four months 
thereafter. In the month of March a great 
freshet occurred, "by which the water of the 
river became nearly fresh to the bay, when at 
ordinary seasons the salt flows up from 20 to 24 
miles [a Dutch mile is about three English 
miles] from the sea. At this season two 
whales of conmion size swam up the river 
40 miles, from which place one of them 
returned and stranded about 12 miles 
from the sea, near which four others 
stranded the same year. The other ran fiuther 
up the river and grounded near the great Cha- 
hoos falls, about 43 miles from the sea. This 
fish was tolerably fat, for, although the citizens 
of Rensselaer wyck broiled out a great quantity of 
train oil, still the whole river, (the current being 
still rapid) was oily for three weeks, and cov- 
ered with grease. As the fish lay rotting, the 
air was infected with its stench to such a degree 
that the smell was offensive and perceptible for 
two miles leeward. For what pui-poso those 
whales ascended the river so far, it being at the 

time about 40 miles from all salt or brackish 
water, it is difBcult to say, unless their great 
desire for fish, which were plenty at this season, 
led them onward." 

The citizens of Rensselaerwyck, of whom 
Van der Donk speaks, did not live in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Whale island, for at the early 
date mentioned, the land at the confluence of 
the Mohawk and Hudson rivers was still unoc- 
cupied by settlers. 


The conveyance of the territory embraced in 
the Stone Arabia patent, by Robert Wendell, 
jr., heir of Johannes Wendell, to Abraham 
Jacob Lansing, begins with these words : " This 
indenture made and concluded the 31 day of 
June in the 3 year of the reign of King George 
the third & of our Lord 1763, between Robert 
Wendell of Steene Arabia, in the county of 
Albany, in the province of New York, 
yeoman of the one part, and Abraham 
Jacob Lansingh of the same place, gentleman, 
of the other part." The price paid for the 
land was " the sum of three hundred pounds 
currency money." From the above tract was 
excepted a part which had been sold prerionsly 
to Simon Van Antwerpe, but which was then 
owned by William Rogers. 

The name Steene Arabia, or Stone Arabia, 
given to this land was bestowed most likely on 
account of the great quantity of coarse gravel 
and water-worn stones which were thickly em- 
bedded by deposition in its surface soil. It was 
perhaps, this peculiar condition of the land that 
induced Abraham Jacob Lansing to have a 
part of it surveyed and laid out into building 
lots in 1771. 


The map of this survey is to be seen in the 
Albany county clerk's ofBce. A description of 
thie city of Lansingburgh is engrossed upon it, 
as follows : 

This map describetb a tract of land lying on the 
east side of Hudson's river, about eight miles 
above the city of Albany, and is layed out in a 
regular square for the erecting of a city by the 
name of Lansingburgh ; the lots are one hundred 
and twenty feet long and fifty wide. The streets are 
seventy feet wide, and the alleys 20 feet wide ; the 
oblong square (the Green or Park) in the center Is 
reserved for publick uses. Laid down by a scale 
of ninety feet to an inch. June 7, 1771. Joseph 
Blanchard, surveyor. May 11, 1771. A. Jacob Lan- 

Undoubtedly the purpose of Abraham Jacob 
Lansing in thus dividing up his estate, eight 
years after purchasing it, was of a speculative 
character. His shrewd discernment was well 
rewarded when the tide of emigration from the 



New England provinces set towards it, and 
made the newly laid out city a notable place of 
trade and commerce at the head of navigation. 
The Dutch name, de Nieuw Stadt, the New City, 
in contradistinction to de Oude Stadt, the Old 
City, as Albany was called, was, either in its 
Dutch or English form, the most common term 
by which Lansingburgh was at first known. 


The growth of Lansingburgh is in part 
marked by the sale of the lots exhibited on the 
old map. The limits of the new city were 
North, East and South streets, and on the west, 
the river. The names of the first settlers, and 
the time of their purchase of lots, are given in 
the following list : 

JTome and time qf purchase. No. qf lot or lota. 

Bobert TiiteB, Marcb 7, 1770 fl 

JobnDonbar.Marcb 0,1770 81,83,152 

BenJ. Frencb, March 80, 1770 17,18 

Elinor Taylor, Hay 25,1770 1,2 

Jacob A. Lansing, Oct. 7, 1770 13,216 

Ab'm Blaau, Oct. 25, 1770 5,211 

Isaac Lansing, Oct. 26, 1770 65 

Jonatban WicKwlre, Dec. 9, 1770 31 

Bamnel Halstead, Dec. 10,1770 102 

Jobn Barber. Jan. 26,1771 240 

Anne Hamersley, Marcb 30, 1771 225,288 

(189 to 183, 185, 186, 187. 
Flores Bancker, June 8, 1771. . \ to 192. and water lot 

I 25. 

CbarlesMeal, Jnne 8, 1771 11 

Antbony Bntgers, Jnne 8, 1771 105.129 

Evert Bancker, June 11, 1771 118 

Feter Cnrtlnus, .Tune 11,1771 8 

Alex. HcClean, June 18, 1771 7,257 

Waldron Blaau, June IS, 1771 5,184 

Jonathan Brewer, Aug. 24, 1771 66,212 

Eldart Fnnda, Dec.3,1771 50 

John D.Funda, Dec. 27, 1771 97 to 99 

HayeUe McCoy, Dec. 27, 1771 213 

Isaac H. Lansing, Dec. 30,1771 27. 51 

Ab'm K. Van Vleek, Jan. 31, 1772.. | ^^atl'r totsfi toi 

Jonathan Severs, Feb. 22,1772 200,210 

Charles Reed,Fel). 28,1772 288 

Francis Lansing, April 24. 1772 14, M of 15, 261 

Hendrlck Lansing, April 24, 1772 16 

James Abeel, June 20, 1772 3,153,154 

Ab'm Brlnkerboot, June 22, 1772 159, 160 

Ab'm NUson, July 21, 1772 263.264 

Thomas Hlatt, July 22, 1772 60 

Comellns S. Bebrlng, July 22, 1772 96 

James Van Varlck, July 22, 1772 89 

Joba D. Witt, Jnly 22, 1772 237 

BametDeClyn, July 28, 1772 12 

James Moran, MOT. 13, 1772 59 

Volkort Dawson, Feb. 3. 1772 206 

tenia Elpp, July 19, I'm 206 

Cftrrlt and Catherine Van WIe, Aug. 27, 1772.... 180, 181 

Ralph vratson, Sept. 14, 1772 68 

Joseph NorrlB, Oct. 22, 1772 68 

.TohnSkUBngton. April 7. 1774 127 

Patrick Smjlh, June 3,1774 10 

.John TllmBn,Ang.8, 1774 56 

MaigRt Tllman, Aug. 8,1774 55 

Amos Graves, Nov. 25.1774 38, 3!) 

Peter Weaver, Dec. 9, 1774 70, 80 

Peter Qoewy, Feb. 21, 1775 lOO 

Ab'm J. Onderklrk, March 6,1775 121 

Joseph Tonng, April 6, 1775 128,124 

Franclscns Lansing. April 27, 1775 25, 26, 44, 45 

Wynkoop and Ten Eyck, May 3, 1775 285 

Moses Holt. Sept. 20, 1776 24 

WUUam Nichols. Feb. 5. 1777 SS 

Patrick McNlff, Feb. 8, 1777 35 

WUUam McGUI. April 9,1777 32 

Wmiam Conkltai, June 28, 1777 9, 10 

James Tbompson, April 15. 1778 68 

Lyman Hitchcock, May 3, 17S0 84 

John Tlbblt, Oct. 27, 1780 41, 42 

Cornelius Cooper, Oct. 30, 1780 71, TC 

Ezra Httchcodc, Jnne 16,1783 40 

Joy Chambers, March 9, 1784 4S 

Hoogland and Seymour, March 7, 1785 47, 48 

Thomas Knight, ADril28,1785 48 

John Van Cortland, Nov. 1, 1785 , 85,88 


Piatt and Williams, April 24, 1788 Water lot 17 

Maria Rosa, March 7, 1786 20 

John Von Rensselaer, June 1, 1786 Water lot 16 

Caleb Carr, June 10, 1786 37 

Aaron Ward, July 17, 1786. 67 

Benjamin Snyder. July 28, 1786 275 

Cornelius Vandebureh, Sept. 10, 1788 193,11)4 

Agnus Murry, Sept. 23, 1786 69 

Nathaniel JacobB, Nov. 16, 1787 Water lot IS 

Ebenezer Cooley, March 11. 1788 19 

James Boggs, Jr., Nov. IS, 1788 231,232 

Levlnns Lansing, J»n. 14,1790 115 

wmiam Adams, no date 101 

.Toshua Bumham, no date 91 

James Caldwell, no date 29, 30 

Jeremiah Comstock, no date 81 

Peter Hpgle, no date 188 

Hugh Mccarty, no date 116 

•Tames McMurray, no date 70 

Aaron Noble, no date 92 

School lots, no date 108,109,132,183 

Wllltom Scott, no date 184,185,136 

Smith and Whitney, no date 90 

Bamt Ten Eyck, no date 140 

Hendrlck Van Amam, no date 76 

Frederick Weaver, no date S3, 54 

Jonathan Wood, no date 114 

Peter W. Yates, no date 34,62,104 


The local government of the town and bor- 
ough of Stone Arabia was in 1771 vested in a 
committee of five persons, chosen by the inhab- 
itants and freeholders yearly. The other of- 
ficers elected annually were a moderator, a 
town clerk, a pathmaster and three fence- 

The first officers of the town and borough in 
1771 were : 

Moderator, Ebenezer Marvin ; clerk, Tbomas S. 
Diamond; committee. Abraham Jacob Lansing, 
Isaac Bogart, John Barber, Ebenezer Marvin and 
Benjamin French ; pathmaster, Abraham Wen- 
dell; fence viewers, Kobert Wendell, Levinus 
Lansing and Isaac Van Amum. 

The records of these town meetings con- 
tribute the following names to the list of the 
inhabitants of Stone Arabia at this early 

1772— William Spotten, William Pemberton, 
Ralph Watson, Joshua Austin, Josiah Hose, Abra- 
ham Stephens, Nathaniel Oaks, John Walker, 
Archibald Campbell, Aklah Fonda, Anthony Van 

1778— Roger Noble, John Breezing, Stephen Mar- 
vin, William Carr, James Wilson, Beniamin Evans, 
Joseph Joy, Obediah Benthouse. 

1774— David Callinder, Christopher Tillman, John 
D. Wynkoop, Cornelius Lansing, Michael House- 
wirt, John Follett, Daniel Toneray, John Clark, 
Adonijah Stambonrgh, Cornelius Noble, Frederick 

1777— James Williams. 

1784— Albert Pawling, Jeremiah Hoogland. 

1785-John Van Rensselaer, Horace Seymour, 
Sidney Berry, Samuel Cogswell. 


The news of the battle of Lexington, fought 
on the 19th of April, 1775, when heard by tlic 
people, of Lansingburgh, awakened all their 
pride i md love of country. They felt the neces- 
sity 01' defending themselves against the ag- 




greasions of the British soldiery. They held 
meetings and discussed the questions affecting 
the interests of the people. They pledged one 
another in an agreement which is remarkable 
for its patriotic fervor and loyal sentiments. It 
was as follows : 

LAHsiHeBUBGH, Hay 22, 1775.— A general assoota- 
tion airreed to and sabscribed by the freemen, 
freeholders and Inhabitants of the town of Lan- 
slngburgh and patent of Stone Arabia : 
Persuaded that the Bolvation of the rights and 
liberties of America depends, mider Qod, on the 
firm onion of its Inhabitants in a Tlgorons prose 
cation of the measores necessary for Its safety,— 
convinced of the necessity of preventing the an- 
archy and conf asion which attend a dissolntion of 
the power of government, we, the freemen, free- 
holders and inhabitants of the town of Lansing- 
bugh and patent of Stone Arabia, being greatly 
alarmed at the avowed design of the British min- 
istry to raise a revenue In America, and shocked 
by the bloody scenes now enacting In Hassaohn- 
setts bay government, in the most solemn manner. 
Resolved, Never to become slaves, and do associ- 
ate onrselves under all the ties of religion, honor 
and love to our country, to adopt and to endeavor 
to carry into execution whatever measures may be 
recommended by the continental congress, or re- 
solved by our provincial convention, for the pur- 
pose of preserving our constitution, and opposing 
the execntion of the several arbitrary and oppres- 
sive acts of the British parliament, until a reconcil- 
iation between Great Britain and America, on con- 
stitutional principles can be obtained, than which 
we wish for nothing more ardently, and we do 
hereby covenant, promise and agree that we will 
in all things follow the advice of our general com- 
mittee respecting the purpose aforesaid, the pres- 
ervation of peace, good order and safety of the in- 
dividuals and private property. 

Abraham Jacob Lansingh, Christopher Tillman, 
John D. Wynkoop, Daniel Toneray, Jonathan Se- 
vers, Henry Pollock, Hichael Housewirt, John 
Fine, Stephen Marvin, James Boggs, Abraham 
Ouderkirk, Ephralm Griswould, Samnel Ulggins, 
James Willson, Justus Brown, John Clark, David 
Layton, Francis Hogle, John Sloan, Gerry Lane, 
Samuel Bums, Isaac Van Amum, Robert Wendell, 
Pennell Brown, Frederick Weaver, Levinus Lan- 
singh, William Thompkins, Joseph Bacon, John 
Dunbar, Peletlah WInchell, John Young, Levinus 
Leverse, Gershom French, Joseph Jones, John 
Skiffington, Thomas Cook, William Nichoils, Alex- 
ander Boyd, John Winn, Josiah Bose, Daniel 
Shaw, Aaron Ward, William Conkling, Edward 
Bmster, Samuel Bmster, Jacob A. Lansingh. 

A line copy of the original association paper, 
drawed this 16th day of June, 1775. 

Chb. TiixaAK, Town Clerk. 

LansingbuTgh, in the dark hours of the revo- 
lutionary war, sent forth, from their new homes, 
bands of patriotic men, who with willing hearts 

defended, while connected with the army of 
the North, the frontier towns on the upper 
Hudson, from the invading army under Bor- 
goyne. Under Gens. Schuyler and Gates they 
won honorable mention. The following muster 
and pay-rolls exhibit the names of the officers 
and privates of two Lansingburgb companies 
doing service as militia men of Albany county 
in 1777: 

A roll of the Lansingburgb company of Col. 
Stephen L Schuyler's militia, Feb. 17, 1777 : 

Christopher Tillman, captain. 

Abraham Ten Eyck, Jonathan Severs, Uenten- 

John Clark, ensign. 

Daniel Toneray, Aaron Ward, William Conklln, 
Jonathan Douglas, sergeants. 

William Willoughby, James Barber, James Sloan, 
Stephen Harvin, Jr., corporals. 

George liSne, Abraham J. Ouderkirk, Henry Van 
Amum, Bobert Thompson, Samuel Bums, Levlnns 
Lansingh, William Thomkins, Samuel Bennett, V 
Iflchael Housewirt, Comfort Shaw, George Hastln, 
Bobert Armstrong, Conrad Hentlebeeker, John 
Dunbar, Bobert Dunbar, John Hogg, Peletlah 
Winchell, Henry Campbell, Benjamin Bmster, 
Samuel Bruster, John Young, Levlnns Leverse, 
Solomon Goewy, Francis Hogel, Isaac Van Aranm, 
Thomas Blartin, Ephraim Gnswould, Jebez Gris- 
would, William Carr, John Wool, Christopher 
Pasiser, John Barber, Job Paddock, William Spot- 
ton, Nicholas Fisher, Justus Brown, James Per- 
kins, Joseph Perkins, John Walker, George Van 
Vleck, George Boyd, Leonard HUler, William 
Boyd, John Follet, Phhieas Bacon, William Dong- 
las, privates. 
Pay-roll of Capt. Cornelius Noble's company in 

Stephen I. Schuyler's regiment of Albany mlUtla, 

to August 11th, 1777 : 

Cornelius Noble, captain. 

Samnel Shaw, John Clarke, lieutenants. 

John Byly, ensign. 

Hugh HoHanus, William Greenfield, Samuel 
Lape, Hezeklah Hull, William Norton, sergeants. 

James Barber, Stephen Harvin, Samuel Frazer, 
John S. Fine, corporals. 

Emanuel Hennloke, drummer. 

Hercules Kronckhyte, Abraham Kronckhyte, 
William Crannell, Uendrlck Strunok, Jacob Fel- 
low, William Cooper, John Van Ostrander, Hen- 
driok PlosB, Jr., Jacob Smith, William Horris, 
John Hannah, Isaac Crannel, Samuel Evans, Job 
Paddock, William WUloughby, John Paget, Matthew 
Marvin, Andrew Colehammer, Daniel Qroyberger, 
John Van der Warken, Ephralm Griswould, David 
Randel, Joseph Doay, Bethnel Greenfield. Solomon 
Griffiths, Stephen Millard, Joshua Bandal, Stephen 
liandal, Benben Bompis, Ephralm Jackson, Israel 
Brooks, Jacob Van Every, Philip Haner, Joseph 
Benson, Sleazer Hill, Andreas Barott, Ebenezer 
Baker, Francis Hogel, John Frazer, John Camer, 
Folket Miller, Peter Minigh, Andreas Parker, Cas- 
paris, Valentine, Jost Harwlck, John Walter, 
Frederick Conrad, John Craver, Garrit Peck, 



BneU OstnuD, John Lansing, Thomas Martin, John 
Kelly, Solomon Battler, Hendrick Floss, Peter 
Coons, Isaiah Dorham, privates. 


The sites of several of the homesteads of the 
earlier settlers of Stone Arabia are marked on 
the map of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, made 
by Jno. B. Bleeker in 1767. The north line of 
the manor, north 88° east, is placed north of the 
fourth branch of the Mohawk river, about where 
is now the Union bridge between Waterford 
and Lansingburgh. On Santhier's map of the 
proyince of New York, 1779, the inclosing 
boundary lines of the patent of Stone Arabia 
are soath of this line. A map of Rensselaer- 
wyck, drawn by Robert Yates, alderman of the 
city of Albany, who made a survey of the manor 
lines in 1773, assisted by Gterardns Lansing, a 
baker of Albany, and Nicholas Marselius, a 
silversmith of the same city, as chainman, 
the north line of the manor is located sonth 
of the second branch of the Mohawk river. 
This liin, instead of being the north line of the 
manor, was most likely the south line of the 
patent of Stone Arabia. This Inference is well 
supported by the lines given by Sauthier. 
Bleeker and Yates agree in the location of the 
points. On the latter's map appears a small 
stream north of Lansingburgh, named Koele 
Killitie, south of this creek Iser Berg creek, 
south of it Iser Berg, then the fourth 
spruyt of the Mohawk, then the third 
spruyt, then Stone Arabia, or Lansing- 
burgh, opposite of which is an island, 
on which is the name of Anthony 
Van Schaick, then Whale Fish island, then the 
middle or second spruyt, on the south line of 
which, extended to the east side of the river, 
is the house of William Rogers, then a long 
line, erroneously drawn as the north boundary 
of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, which is de- 
scribed as " a line north 70° west as the needle 
pointed, 1737, from the present northwest 
comer of Massachusetts bay to Hud- 
son's river, 21 miles, 21 chains, 75 links." 
This line appears to be about 1,500 feet north 
of the Piscawken kill. The residence of Abra- 
ham Jacob Lansing is still to be seen on the 
east aide of State street, No. 405, north of the 
oil doth manufactory of Deborah Powers & 
Sons. The three sons of Jacob A. Lansing 
were Jacob A. Lansing, who died February 25, 
1801 ; Comeltus Lansing, who died April 23, 
1812, and Levinus Lansing, who died In 1837. 
Comellns Lansing's residence was what is now 
known as the Abbey property ; and that of 
Levinus Lansing, where now is the home of 
David Judson, No. 3 Grove street. Jacob C. 

Lansing, the son of Cornelius Lansing, and 
father of Charlea J. Lansing, Esq., died July 
10, 1852. 


In 1788 Elkanah Watson, while making a tour 
through New York, visited New City and wrote 
as follows concerning it : "I spent a day in ex- 
amining this locality, [Vanderheyden, the site 
of Troy,] and then walked on the banks of the 
Hudson, a distance of three miles to New City, 
where I continued several days. This place is 
thronged by mercantile emigrants, principally 
from New England, who have enjoyed a very 
extensive and lucrative trade, supplying Ver- 
mont and the region of both banks of the Hud- 
son, as far as Lake George, with merchandise ; 
and receiving in payment wheat, pot and pearl 
ashes and lumber." 

Elkanah Watson was at this early date in- 
specting the country and examining the river 
for the purpose of ascertaining the cost of a 
canal to the west. Alluding to this project, he 
further writes : 

In the view of ascending by locks from the Hud- 
son Into the Mohawk river, it appears to me that 
the obstacles at this place [Cohoes falls] will be 
much greater than to cut a canal across the pine 
plains, Into a grand basin, back of Albany. I took 
passage In a batteau at New City to Albany, 
for the purpose of sounding the river. The result 
of my examination satisfied me that in ordinary 
tides five or six feet may be carried to within a 
mile of New City, and from thence to that town 
15 or 18 inches. 

Respecting the navigableness of the river to 
New City, the following paragraphs from the 
American S/^, March 8, 1793, published in Lan- 
singbugh, show the size of the vessels which 
ascended the river to that height : 

The sloop Arabia, of 90 tons burden, arrived at 
this place yesterday and !« now loading for New 

It Is of great importance to the bnsiness of the 
place that vessels of 80 or 90 tons can generally 
load at onr docks through the spring season, at 
which time the most of the produce of the country 
is shipped off ; and it is contemplated that the 
same advantage will continue through the whole 
season after the present year, as dams are to be 
erected next summer to give a sufttcient depth of 
water up to this town to navigate vessels of 40 and 
60 tons burthen. 

Previous to the establishment of a postofflce 
at Lansingburgh letters were transmitted to the 
postofflce at Albany by post-riders or stage- 
drivers. Ananias Piatt, to whom had been 
granted in 1789 by the state legislature the ex- 
clusive right to run a line of stages between 
Lansingburgh and Albany, advertised in the 
Feder<a Herald that " the public will please take 



notice that f ovirpence will be required, as post- 
age, for each letter which may be conveyed 
by the stage from Lansingborgh to Albany, or 
from Albany to Lansingburgh. Those who 
wish to have their letters conveyed by the year, 
will make their arrangements with A. Piatt." 

In April, 1791, Stephen Gorham was ap- 
pointed deputy postmaster for Lansingburgh, 
but a po8to£9ce was not established in the place 
until June, 1792. 

The increase of travel between Lansingburgh 
and the neighboring places was thus spoken of 
in 1796 : 

A few years ago there was but one stage between 
this town and Albany. It was established and 
maintained at great expense by A. Flatt, and for a 
considerable time had little encouragement. He, 
however, persevered, and at this day, this mode 
of traveling has so increased, that 30 stages pass 
and repass daily between the neighboring towns 
of Lansingburgh, Troy, Waterford and Albany, 
averaging more than 190 passengers per day, a 
proof of our growth and prosperity. 


The preamble to the act under which the first 
trustees of Lansingburgh were appointed 
passed April .5, 1790, begins with a historical 
statement that "whereas, in that part of the 
town of Rensselaerwyck, in the county of Al- 
bany, hereinafter descrilied, a considerable 
number of houses are already erected and oc- 
cupied by merchants, mechanics and others, to 
the advancement of commerce and manufactures 
in the state ; and in order to enable them to 
regulate their internal police and secure the 
benefits of certain commonable lands lying 
within the same, have prayed that they might 
be enabled to appoint trustees." 

It was then enacted that John Van Kens- 
selaer, Christopher Tilliman, Elijah Janes, 
Aaron Ward, Stephen Gorham, Ezra Hickok 
and Levinus Lansing should "be the first 
trustees for the freeholders and inhabitants of 
that part of the town of Rensselaerwyck com- 
monly called Lansingburgh." 

The powers conferred upon the freeholders 
and inhabitants at their annual town meetings, 
made it their duty to direct the use and man- 
agement of their common lands, and respecting 
the cutting of the wood on the same ; to estab- 
lish prudential rules relative to the cleaning 
and keeping in order and repair the common 
streets and highways of Lansingburgh; to 
compel the housekeepers of Lansingburgh to 
furnish themselves with a sufficient number of 
proper fire-buckets, and with necessary tools 
and implements for extinguishing fires. 

The trustees appointed by the act were to act 
as inspectors of election ; the first one to be 

held on the third Tuesday of May, 1790, at 
which time " seven discreet inhabitants, being 
freeholders," were to be elected " by a majority 
of voices," to hold office for one year ; and an- 
nually thereafter, the same number was to be 

Since that time the following persons have 
filled the offices of president, clerk and 
treasurer : 

1790, President, Abraham J. Lansing; clerk, 
John b. Dickinson ; treasurer, Aaron Lane. 

1791, President, Abraham J. Lansing; clerk, 
John D. Dickinson ; treasnrer, Aaron Lane. 

1792, President, Levinus Lansing ; clerk, John D. 
Dickinson, treasurer, Aaron Lane. 

1798, President, Aaron Lane; clerk, John D. 
Dickhison ; treasurer, William Bell. 

179i, President, John Van Bensselaer; clerk, 
John D. Dickinson ; treasurer, William Bell. 

1795, President, James Hickok; clerk, Joseph 
Alexander ; treasnrer, Joseph Alexander. 

179(S, I>resident, James Hickok; clerk, Joseph 
Alexander ; treasurer, William Bell. 

1797, President, James Hickok; clerk, Joseph 
Alexander; treasurer, William Bell. 

1798, President, James Hickok. 

1799, President, Elijah Janes; clerk, Joseph 
Alexander ; treasurer, Charles Selden. 

1800, President, Elijah Janes; clerk,. 'Joseph 
Alexander; treasurer, Charles Selden. 

1801-5, President, John D. Dickinson: clerk, 
Joseph Alexander ; treasurer, Charles Selden. 

1806-8, President, David Allen ; clerk, Charles 
Selden ; treasurer, B. W. Walbrldge. 

1809, President, E. W. Walbrid^ ; clerk, James 
Dougrey ; treasurer, E. W. Walbrldge. 

1811-31.— Records lost. 

1832-S. President, John U. Caswell ; clerk, Mar- 
cus L. ,Filley ; treasurer, Horace Janes. 

1834, President, John H. Caswell ; clerk, Harons 
L. Filley ; treasurer, Jabez F. Parmelee. 

1835, President. Wm. HcHurray ; clerk, Marcus 
L. iiilley ; treasurer, Jabez F. Parmelee. 

1836, President, John M. Caswell ; clerk, Bichard 
McDonald ; treasurer, Jabez F. Parmelee. 

1837, President, John M. Caswell; clerk, M. L. 
Filley ; treasurer, Jabez F. Parmelee. 

1838, President, B. W. Walbrldge ; clerk, B. Mc- 
Donald ; treasurer, Jabez F. Parmelee. 

1839, President, Nicholas Weaver; clerk, Corne- 
lius L. Tracy ; treasurer. Gerrit Fort. 

1840, President, John B. Chipman ; clerk, Bich- 
ard McDonald ; treasurer, Gerrit Fort. 

1841, President, Nicholas Weaver ; clerk, Bichard 
McDonald ; treasurer, Gerrit Fort. 

1842, President, JohnB. Chipman ; clerk, Stephen 
S. Hunt ; treasurer, Gerrit Port. 

1848, President, John 8. Fake; clerk, Walter 
Chipman ; treasurer, Gerrit Port. 

1844, President, John 8. Fake ; clerk, Stephen S. 
Hunt ; treasurer, Gerrit Fort. 

1845-6, President, John S. Bake ; clerk, Charles 
C. Parmelee : treasurer, Gerrit Fort. 

1847, President, John C. Fllkin ; clerk, Charles C. 
Parmelee ; treasurer, B. G. Hathaway. 

1848, President, John B. Chipman; clerk, Isaac 
Bansom ; treasurer, B. G. Hathaway. 

18^, President, John G. MoMurray ; clerk, J. F. 
Knickerbocker ; treasurer Charles Hitohoook. 

1850, President, John E. Whipple : clerk, J. F. 
Knickerbocker ; treasurer, Charles Hltokoook. 

1851, President, Bailey G. Hathaway ; clerk, Isaac 
Bansom ; treasurer, John Mains. 

1852, President, John G. MoMurray ; clerk, Hiram 
Bleekman ; treasurer, Ed. P. Pickett. 

1858, President, Henry A. Mercer ; clerk, B. Q. 
Hathaway ; treasurer, Stephen Heimstreet. 

1864. President, Joseph Fox ; clerk, B. G. Hatha- 

1855, President, F. B. Leonard ; clerk, B. G. Hath- 



1866, PreBident, John G. McMurray ; clerk, WU- 
liam J. Lamb ; treasurer, Ed. P. Pickett. 

1857, President, Thomas Curran ; clerk, James D. 
Comsiook ; treasurer, Ed. P. Pickett. 

1858, President, Henry A. Mercer ; clerk, Daniel 
Kins ; treasurer, Ed. P. Pickett. 

1850, President, B. G. Hathaway ; clerk, Daniel 
King ; treasurer, Ed. P. Pickett. 

1860, President, Charles Clark; clerk, Daniel 
King ; treasurer, Ed. P. Pickett. 

1861, President, J. E. Whipple; clerk, Daniel 
Ktne ; treasurer, Ed. P. Pickett. 

IMS, President, Bobert Dickson ; clerk, Daniel 
Kine ; treasurer, Patrick Fltzeerald. 

1868, President, Bobert Dlokson ; clerk, Daniel 
King ; treasurer, Ed. P. Pickett. 

1864, President, Edward P. Pickett ; clerk, Daniel 
King ; treasurer, Edwin Adams. 

1865-6, President, Bobert Dickson ; clerk, Louis 
Bansom ; treasurer, H. L. Fancher. 

1867, President, William Alien ; clerk, John W. 
Gaston ; treasurer, B. G. Hathaway. 

1868, President, William Allen ; clerk, John Hig- 
gins ; treasurer, Bd. P. Pickett. • 

1869, President, Seth P. Welch ; clerk, S. B. Kirk- 
patrlok ; treasurer, Edwin Adams. 

1870-71, President, Seth P. Welch ; clerk, John 
M. Chambers ; treasurer, Edwin Adams. 

1872, President, Seth P. Welch ; clerk, John B. 
Burke ; treasurer, Edwin Adams. 

1873, President, Bobert Dickson; clerk, Milo 
Thompson ; treasurer, Edwin Adams. 

1874-S, President, Bobert Dickson ; clerk, C. W. 
Witbeok ; treasurer, Thos. Bourk. 

1876, President, James McQulde; clerk, C. W. 
Witbeck ; treasurer, Thos. Bourk. 

1877, President, Chas. H. Dauchy ; clerk, John 
Quinn : treasurer, Thos. Bourk. 

1878, President, Chas. H. Dauchy ; clerk, C. W. 
Witbeok ; treasurer, Thos. Bourk. 

1879, President, Frederick E. Draper ; clerk, C. 
W. Witbeck; treasurer, J. E. West. 

1880, President, Frederick E. Draper ; clerk, C. 
W. Witbeck; treasurer, J. E. West. 


Under the act providing for the yalnation of 
lands and dwelling houses, and the enumera- 
tion of slaves, within the United States, 
Ephraim Morgan was appointed in October, 
1798, principal assessor, andEliphalet W. Close, 
Joseph Alexander, Jacob A. Fort, John Knick- 
erbacker, Jonathan Brown and John Carpenter 
were appointed assistant assessors for the sev- 
enth district of the fifth division, comprehend- 
ing the towns of Troy, Hoosick, Schaghticoke 
and Pittstown. The assessors gave notice of 
their beginning the assessment in this viclmty 
and of the peculiar requirements of the law gev- 
eming their duties. It ran thus : 

The inhabitants of the villages of Troy and Lan- 
singburgh are earnestly requested immediately to 
prepare their lists, — desoribing the size and num- 
ber of their lot or lots, as they are known on the 
charts of said villages ; also, the size and height of 
their dwelling houses, with the particular dimen- 
sions of all the windows therein contained— and 
also, the number, age and sex of aU their slaves, 
If between the ages of 12 and 50 years. 

The assessors think it their duty to mention, that 
in case any fraudnlency or omissions are discov- 
ered In the aforesaid lists, the offender will be sub- 
ject to a fine of not more than $500, nor less than 
•100, to be recovered with costs of prosecution. 

The prosperity of Lansingburgh at the close 
of the year 1799 was quite notable and attracted 
considerable comment both from travelers visit- 
ing the place and from newspapers reviewing 
Its rapid growth and local interests. Lansing- 
burgh had now a population of 1,200 inhabi- 
tants ; there were two churches ; from 1787 five 
newspapers had successively been printed and 
issued weekly to the citizens of the thriving 
village ; a postofflce had been established ; and 
a very remunerative traffic in grain and other 
agricultural products was compensating the ac- 
tive and indefatigable efforts of the New Eng- 
land men who had become its leading mer- 

THE WAS OP 1812. 

During the war of 1812 the people of Lansing- 
burgh, besides contributing men to the defense of 
the northern border often hospitably entertained 
United States soldiers, who, while on the march 
to the scene of hostilities, bivouacked over night 
in the village. Several British officers having 
been taken prisoners and being paroled, were 
for a time, quartered in Lansingburgh. At the 
termination of the war the inhabitants cele- 
brated the ratification of peace with a proces- 
sion and an illumination. A great bonfire 
blazed upon Diamond rock ; a decorated bal- 
loon fioated away from the village, and apnbUc 
supper at the hotel, were special features of the 

The presentation of an elegant service of silver 
plate to Commodore T. Macdonongh, the hero 
of Lake Champlain, by the citizens of the pat- 
riotic village, was an event of no little 
interest to the inhabitants of Lansing- 
burgh. Commodore Macdonongh, having ar- 
rived in the village on Saturday, April 8, 1815, 
on his way to Washington, a committee met him 
at the hotel, and in the presence of a large 
number of the principal citizens of the place 
presented him with two large silver pitchers 
and twelve goblets. The Inscriptions on the 
pitchers were : "Commodore T. Macdonongh, 
with an inferior force, captured the British 
squadron on Lake Champlain, Sep. 11, 1814 ;" 
and, ''Presented by the aitizens of Lansing- 
burgh to the Hero of Lake Champlain." On 
the silver goblets : " The citizens of Lansing- 
burgh to Commodore Macdonongh." 

To the presentation committee, consisting of 
James Hlckok, Daniel Smith, Ellas Parmelee, 
John Topping, Elijah Janes, Gardiner Tracy, 
James Adams and James Reid, the commodore 
returned the following reply : 

Oaitlemen : It is with much pleasure and satis- 
faction I receive the several pieces of plate which 
you, on behalf of the citizens of Lansingburgh, 
have been pleased to present me. This handsome 



testimonial of your approbation of my eeirioes on 
Lake Cbamplain is liiglily valued, and shall be care- 
fully preserved among other precious and flatter- 
ing presents with which my countrymen have 
honored me. Permit me to reciprocate your con- 
gratulations on the return of peace to our country. 
With sentiments of the highest respect and esteem, 
I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

T. Macdonough. 


The village of Lansingburgh, after the erec- 
tion of the town of Troy, In 1791, was within 
the bounds of the latter, until March 20, 1807, 
when the town of Lansingburgh was formed 
from parts of the towns of Troy and Peters- 
burgh. A part of the town of Schaghticoke 
was annexed in 1819; in 183C a part of the 
town was added to the town of Troy, and a part 
to the town of Brunswick in 1839. The min- 
utes of the town meeting in 1807 are in part as 
follows : 

At an annual town meeting of the freeholders 
and iuhabltants of the town of Lansingburgh, be- 
gan and held at the house of Robert Wand on the 
7th day of April, A. D., 1807, the following persons 
were elected to office for the ensuing year, viz. -. 

Town clerk, Bbenezer W. Walbridge ; super- 
visor, Cornelius Lansing ; assessors, Ellas Farme- 
lee, Aaron B. Hinman, David Henry ; collector, 
John Williams ; overseers of the poor, James 
Adams, David Henry ; commissioners of highways, 
John Gaston, Shubael Gorham, Allen McLean ; 
commissioners of schools, Charles Selden, Thomas 
Wallace ; constables, John Williams, John Wol- 
cott, William Bancker ; fence viewers, Aaron B. 
Hinman, John Wolcoft ; poundmaster, Asa Burt ; 
overseers of the highways, David Thomas, district 
No. 1, James Hickok, district No. 2, Aaron B. Hin- 
man, district No. 3. 


To what importance I^ansingburgh had grown 
in 1824 is briefly disclosed by Horatio Gates 
Spofford, LL. D., in his gazetteer of the State 
of New York of that date. He says : 

It is regularly laid out in blocks or oblong 
squares, 400 by 260 feet, bounded by capacious 
streets in right lines, and it is two miles long and 
a half-mile wide. There is a bank with a capital 
of t2S0,000, and a handsome banking house ; five 
churches ; a flourishing academy, occupying two 
academical buildings with about 200 students. 
The whole number of houses and stores, including 
public buildings, 830 ; population of the village, 
1,650. Upwards of 8,000 beeves were slaughtered 
and packed here during last year, and it is ac- 
knowledged that as a pork market this town does 
more business than any other on the Hudson 
north of the city of New York. There are two ex- 
tensive breweries, which sold 6,000 barrels of ale 
last year. There are large tanneries also, and nail 
works, and a brush factory, that produces about 
t8,000 to $12,000 worth a year. It has a very re- 

spectable printing establishment, a weekly naws- 
paper, and some book stores. 

I snpimse I must also mention Batestown, half- 
way between Troy and Lansingbor^ for it bas a 
tavern, and, if I mistake not, a few shops. 

In 1836 the village contained i Fiesbyterian, 
1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, 1 Episcopal and 1 Dni- 
versalist churches; an excellent academy, 7 
schools, a printing office, where was published 
the Lansingburgh Gazette, i hotels, 6 wholesale 
and 40 retail stores. Of manof aotories there 
were 2 oil cloth, 1 brush and bellows, 1 tin, 1 
gun, 2 breweries, 3 maltsteries and 2 grist 
mills. Also a bank and several slaughtering 
and i>acking houses. The number of buildings 
in the place was estimated at 500. 

On Sunday •afternoon, July 9, 1813, a Are, 
which originated in the stables of the Rens- 
selaer house, destroyed between SO and 40 
buildings on State, Congress, Bichaid and 
Elizabeth streets. 

On Sunday night, July 23, the same year, 
another flre consumed 12 buildings on State 
street, between Richard and Elizabeth streets. 


When the dark clouds of war again lowered 
over the land in 1861, many of the citizens of 
Lansingburgh left their peaceful occupations to 
stand in their loyalty before the enemy for the 
defense of the union of the states. The first 
full company formed was organized for the 
thirtieth regiment, New York state volunteers, 
Col. Frisby commanding. It was mustered In 
as company A, Samuel King captain ; John H, 
Campbell lieutenant, and Francis Itergen en- 
sign. Capt. King and Ensign Dargen were both 
killed at the first battle of Bull Run, as were 
also five privates of the same company. Capt. 
King is buried in Qreenwood cemetery, and 
Lieut. Dargen in St. John's cemetery. 
A number of Lansingburgh's brave sons also 
joined company A of the twenty-second regi- 
ment. New York volunteers. Chauncey F. 
Vandeusen, of this company, lost his left arm 
at the second battle of Bull Run. Company K, 
one hundred and sixty-ninth regiment was 
raised by Captain Daniel Ferguson, who was 
killed at the explosion of the mine at Fort 
Fisher. There were also many who were con- 
nected with the one hundred and twenty-fifth, 
one hundred and ninety-second regiments, the 
Griswold cavalry, and other military organiza- 

The first war committee in 1862, consisted of 
A. E. Powers, J. E. Whipple and E. P. Pickett. 
On the 23d of August, the town resolved to levy 
a tax of 16,000 for bounty moneys, |50 being 
paid for an enlistment. In September follow- 
ing an additional bounty of fSO was voted. 



Tbis was followed, during the progress of the 
war, by other public contributions. 


The territory which now forms the north part 
of the town of Lanslngburgh previous to the 
year 1819 belonged to the town of SchaKbticoke. 
The site of the hamlet of Spiegletown, which'is 
about two miles north of Lanslngburgh, was in 
1796 called the village of Dort. The village 
plat, as it was "laid out and constructed by a 
scale of 100 feet to an inch by F. Bancker, May, 
1796," on a piece of parchment, is stiU pre- 
served. On It are marked three roads, which 
diverge from a common point, a little south of 
which was a building, the site of which is now 
occupied by the residence of James H. Rice. 
The road to the north is designated " St. Coick 
road;" the one leading eastwardly "Cooks- 
buigh road," and the one to the south 
"Lansigbnrgh road." On the northeast 
part of the plat appears the name 
of John FoUet; on the southeast that 
of WllUam Douglas ; on the south that of 
Rattoon & Von der Spiegel ; on the southwest 
that of William Douglas, and on the northwest 
that of Charles Follet. 

On another map appears the names of John 
Ciab, Crab & Boos, Leonard Wager and Abra- 
ham Francisco, who were residents of the im- 
mediate vicinity at that time. 

The name of Spiegletown no doubt derived 
its name from the Van der Spiegel who was a 
partner of Rattoon in 1796. Of the score of 
buildings which form the hamlet of Spiegel- 
town, there is a hotel, the Union church, school 
house No. 2, a blacksmith and wagon-making 
shop. The Germondville Union church of 
North Lanslngburgh was incorporated July 23, 
1841. The first trustees were John Storm, Aaron 
Perry, Nicholas Lape, Charles T. Overocker 
and William Mills. The church is now con- 
nected with the Cooksburgh charge of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. , 


The first religious society organized in Lan- 
slngburgh was "The Protestant Reformed 
Dutch church," on the asth of September, 1784. 
Its first officers were Zachariah Garnrych and 
Flores Bancker, elders, and Albert Pawling and 
Christopher Tillman, deacons. The Rev. 
Brandt Schuyler Lupton was ordained pastor of 
this church on the third Sunday of November, 
1788. Traditionally it is said that a building 
once standing on the west side of State street, 
between Lansing and South streets, was first 
used as a meeting house by the membership of 
this church. After the organization of the first 

Presbyterian church the Dutch church rapidly 
lost its members, and about the close of the 
century its pulpit was no longer filled by minis- 
ters of the latter denomination. 

The record of the incorporation of the First 
Presbyterian church of Lanslngburgh affords 
us the principal facts concerning the early his- 
tory of this society : " Be it remembered, that 
on the 9th day of August, A. D. 1792, the in- 
habitants of Lanslngburgh, in consequence of 
due notice, convened in general meeting for 
the purpose of organizing themselves in a re- 
ligious society, agreeably to the direction of an 
act of the legislature of the state of New York, 
etc., and in pursuance of the directions of said 
act, did, on this day, elect Levinus Lansing, 
John Lovett, John D. Dicldnson, James 
Dole, Jonas Morgan and Shubacl Gorham 
trustees for said congregation ; and 
the said inhabitants did vote and agree that the 
said corporation should be known by law by 
the name of the trustees of the First Presbyte- 
rian church and congregation of Lanslng- 
burgh." It was determined that a house for 
worship should t>e built of brick, 50x64 feet, at 
the north end of "The Green," the rear of the 
building toward Hoosick street. The corner- 
stone of the edifice was laid on Thursday after- 
noon, July 5, 1793, by the Rev. Jonas Coc, 
pastor of the United Presbyterian congrega- 
tions of Lanslngburgh and Troy. On the 2'2d 
of June, 1794, the church was dedicated. 

In 1844-45 the present Presbyterian church 
was erected on the east side of Congress street, 
between Elizabeth and Market streets. The 
Rev. Jonas Coe, D. D., was pastor of this 
church from June 35, 1793, to 1804. His 
successor was the Rev. Samuel Blatchford, 
D. D., who began his pastorate July 19, 1804, 
which he held to March 18, 1828. The Rev. 
A. M. Beveridge, the present pastor, entered 
upon his ministry in this church on the third 
Sunday of July, 1858. 

The first Protestant Episcopal church In Lan- 
slngburgh was duly organized on the fifth of 
January, 1804, by the election of the following 
persons as officers ; John Young and 
David Smith, wardens ; John Rutherford, 
William Bradley, Stephen Ross, John 
Walsh, Joseph S. Mabbett, Jonathan Burr, 
John Stewart and Henry Davis, vestrymen. 
The organization took the name of Trinity 
church of Lansingbnrgh. A frame building, 45 
by 50 feet, it is said, was built the same year, on 
the northwest corner of John and Market 
streets. The Rev. David Butler, D. D., was 
rector of this church, and also of St. Paul's, 
Troy, from January 9, 1806, to 1814. As rector 
of Trinity church, in 1814, he was succeeded by 



the Rev. Parker Adams. A new church edifice 
was built in 1869-70 on the northwest corner of 
John and Market streets. The Rev. Byron J. 
Hall has been the rector of Trinity church 
since December 16, 1867. 

The first Baptist society of Lansingburgh 
was formed on the 11th day of June, 1803. The 
first tmstees were Daniel Seymour, Aaron B. 
Hinman, Francis Choate, Nathaniel Jacobs and 
William Spafford. The meeting house was erect- 
ed on the comer of North and John streets. A 
reorganization of this society was effected July 
28, 1858. The present church building, on the 
east side of John street, between Kichard and 
Elizabeth streets, formerly belonged to the Sec- 
ond Presbyterian chu^h. The present pastor, 
the Rev. A. C. Ferguson, entered upon his min- 
istrations over this society October 1, 1878. 

In 1810 the members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church in Lansingburgh erected their 
first house of worship on the river bank, at the 
foot of Elizabeth street. In 1827 the following 
persons were the trustees of the church : Eph- 
raim Goss, Jacob Heimstreet, Edwin Filley, 
Alexander Van Pelt, jr., Thomas Ward, Benja- 
min Case and Alexander Van Felt, sr. The 
present house of worship, on the northeast cor- 
ner of Congress and Elizabeth streets, was 
erected in 1818. The Rev. Joel W. Eaton is the 
present pastor of the church. 

The first Universalist society of Lansingburgh 
was formed December 15, 1832. A small church 
was erected in 18S4 on the comer of John and 
North streets. The property subsequently was 
purchased by the tmstees of St. John's Roman 
Catholic church. 

The Second Presbyterian church was organ- 
ized June 2i, 1835. A bouse of worship was 
erected on the east side of John street, between 
Elizabeth and Richard streets, which is now oc- 
cupied by the Baptist society. The first tms- 
tees of the Second Presbyterian church were : 
William Van Vleck, Jonathan Wickware, 
Nathan Stmtton, Lemuel Kennedy, William 
McMurray and Chauncey Ives. The Rev. 
Samuel P. Spear was the first pastor of the 
church. This congregation since the resigna- 
tion of the Rev. Q«orge P. Tyler, D. D., in June, 
1874, has not continued its organization. Some 
of the members of this body, however, erected 
amission chai>el on the northwest comer of 
Congress and Clinton streets, which was dedi- 
cated September 1, 1877. 

St. John's Roman Catholic church was or- 
ganized about the year 1841. On June 
5, 1842, James B. Smith, James Halligan, 
Keating Rawson, John Higgins, George T. 
Gillespie, Barnet Evers, John Dooley, John 
Driscoll and Daniel Murray were chosen trust- 

ees. The church was dedicated in 1844, by the 
Right Rev. John MisCloskey, D. D. The present 
edifice used now by the old congregation 
of St. John's church, known as St. Augustine's 
church, is on the east side of John street, be- 
tween Market and Elizabeth streets, and was 
erected in 1864-65 at an expense of $40,000. 

The Free Methodist church was organized at 
Whipple hall, October 15, 1867. That year a 
house of worship was erected on Ann street, 
south of Elizabeth street. The Rev. George E. 
Ferrin was the first pastor of this church. 

Among the early religious societies organized 
in the village, one knovm as the Scotch Seced- 
ers is said to have occupied about the year 
1790, as a place of worship, a building on the 
northwest comer of John and Richard streets. 

The African Methodist Episcopal church of 
Lansingburgh was incorporated May 18, 1841. 
Twenty-five years after its organization the so- 
ciety dissolved. 


The most prominent manufacturing business 
of the place is the making of oil cloths. Early 
in the year 1817 William Powers advertised that 
he had engaged in the business of manufactur- 
ing oil cloths. The extensive establishment of 
Deborah Powers & Sons and that of R. C. Haa^ 
kell, in the southern part of the village, indi- 
cate the local importance of the business. 

WilUam McMurray, in 1818, began the manu- 
facture of brushes in the village. His business, 
since that date, has grown into one of the lead- 
ing industries of Lansingburgh. The wide 
reputation which the various factories of the 
village enjoys throughout the United States for 
the excellent quality of the various kinds and 
styles of brushes made by them is quite nota- 
ble. The principal brush manufacturers are J. 
G. McMurray <fc Co. ; George Scott, Peter B. 
King, E. & C. Wood, J. C. Pushee & Co., James 
McQuide, FUnn Brothers, Comeskey Brothers, 
F/Hoytand Thomas Curran. 

The manufacture of crackers in the village 
dates back to 1806, when the father of Joseph 
Fox was engaged in the business. The large 
steam cracker establishment of Joseph Fox and 
the weU-known cracker bakery of R. M. DeFreest 
enhance the value of Lansingburgh's manu- 
facturing interests. The firm of Edward Tracy 
& Co. has long been established in the manu- 
facture of malt. The Ludlow valve manufac- 
turing company, which since 1872 has been 
extensively engaged in making the celebrated 
" Ludlow sUding stop valves," for the safe and 
economical distribution of water, steam and 
gas, and also the " Ludlow patent friction hy- 
drants," at the extreme south part of the vil- 



lage, gives employment to a large number of 
workmen. The carriage factory of Edwin 
Chamberlain, the knit goods mlU of Harder & 
Co., the scale works and foundry of Arnold 
& Bowe, and the brewing establishment of 
Samuel Bolton & Sons add industry and pros- 
perity to the place. 

LAssniaBnitOH newsfafebs. 

The Northern Centind and Lansingburgh Adver- 
iiter, issued on Monday, May 21, 1787, as a 
weekly, by Claxton & Babcock, King street, be- 
tween Hoosick and South streets, Lansing- 
burgh, was the first newspaper published within 
the territory now embraced in the county of 

The Federal Herald, weekly, by Babcock & 
Hickok, succeeded the Nmihem Ceniind May 

The American Spy was the name of the news. 
paper which followed the former, April 8, 1791, 
published by Silvester Tiffany. 

The NorOiem Budget, by Robert MofStt & Co., 
became the successor of the Spy, Jime 30, 1797. 

The liansingburgh Gazette, after the removal 
of the Budget to Troy, May 15, 1798, had its 
first issue on September 12, 1798, and was first 
edited and printed by Gardiner Tracy. A. B. 
• Elliott is the present editor and proprietor of 
this well known jonmal. 

The ParmerU Begister was Issued for the first 
time January 25, 1803, by Francis Adanconrt. 

The Democratic Press and LanHnglmrgh Adoer- 
tiaer had its first publication January 13, 1838, 
by William J. Lamb 

The Literary Cabinet was the nex' paper, 
November, 1841. 

The Oddem Rule, January 1, 1844, monthly, 
by the Bev. Bolla J. Smith. 

The Antiguarianand Oenerai Semew, a month- 
ly, by the Bev. Wm. Arthur, March, 1847. 

The Lansingburgh DaUy Gazette, by Mitchell 
& Eirkpatrick, January 3, 1860. 

The Semir-WeeUy Chronicec, April 6, 1864, by J. 
D. Comstock. 

Our LitOe Ptper, September 13, 1872, by E. D. 

The Enlerpriae, November 29, 1873, by J. D. 

The lAnsingbnrgh Courier, December 84, 
1875, by Isaac L. VanVoast and William H. 


The first banking institution of the village 
was the bank of Lansingburgh, incorporated 
March 19, 1818. The building in which the 
bonk began business was the one now known as 
No. 531 State street. The first board of directors 
was : Elijah Janes, ShubaelOorham, Abraham C. 
Lansing, James Dennison, Gardiner Tracy, 


James Hickok, James Adams, Jonathan 
Burr, Thnothy Leonard, Silvanus J. Penni- 
man, Ellas Farmelee, John Stewart, Calvin 
Barker, James Dougrey and Asa Burt. Elijah 
Janes was chosen president and James Beid 
cashier. The amount of capital authorized was 
t200,000. This institution, by the depreciation 
of the value of its assets, disconttiued business 
March 19, 1877. 

The Bensselaer county bank was established 
in Lansingburgh January 1, 1853. John 8. 
Fake was the first president of the institution. 
On the 13th of July, 1872, the bank disco - 
tinned business. 

Bank of D. Powers & Sons was establijihed 
March 20, 1877. Deborah Powers, Albert E. 
Powers and Nathaniel Powers being sole part- 
ners in the institution. 


The first masonic organization that was 
formed in Lansingburgh was Hiram lodge, No. 
35, the warrant granteo it by the grand lodge, 
bearing date of August 16, 1787. The lodge 
room in the year 1795 was on the second fioor 
of Hanmer's tavern, which stood where now is 
the Phoenix hotel. Early in this century Hiram 
lodge ended its work. 

Phoenix lodge No. 861 has its warrant dated 
Jnne 23, 1823. Under a dispensation of the 

gBnd lodge in September, 1^, Benjamin W. 
orr, Chauncey Ives, Nathan Morey, Alvan 
Hawley, Samuel H. Mnlford, Samuel S. Bing- 
ham, David Beading, Ephraim Goss, B. B. 
Stearns and JonathanChoate met together for the 
first time on September 26. The poUtlcal crusade 
against masonic bodies about the year 1884 led 
the few remaining members of Phcenix lodge 
to surrender its charter on January 6, 1886. In 
1838 the grand lodge was petitioned for a new 
charter, which was granted, and on June 7, 
1839, Phoenix lodge No. 58 assumed its second 
existence. The lodge room Is in the Masonic 
hall, No. 685 State street. 

In 1854 Jerusalem lodge No. 355 was or- 

Phoenix chapter No. 183 received its dispensa- 
tion Nov. 22, 1849. 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows is 
represented by Bethl^em Bebecca degree lodge 
No. 49. 

The temperance cause is advocated by Dia- 
mond Bock Temple of Honor No. 85 and by the 
Christian Temperance Union of Lansingburgh. 

The Lansingburgh academy was incorporated 
February 20, 1796. 


18S5 8,388 

1840 8,880 

184S 8,982 

18S0 5,762 

18S6 5,700 

1800 5,577 

1865 6,072 

1870 6,804 

1875 6,984 

1880 7,774 

17T0 60 

1780 400 

1790 609 

17B5 900 

1800 1,200 

1805 1,400 

1810 1,800 

1816 1,800 

1820 2,035 

1826 2,428 

1830 ......2,868 

From 1771 to 1815 the population of the vil- 
lage is estimated. From 1820 it is the census of 
the town of Ltuisingburgh. 





The Ground of the Indian Nawanemitt— The Arable Land of De 
Laet's Burg— The Flight of the Settlers to Fort Cralo— The 
Division of Rensselaerwyck— The Sale of the Lots of the Akin 
Mile Square — The Burial of Thirty-three Persons in One Day — 
The Incorporation of the Village — The History of its Churches 
— Historical Memoranda. 

In the month of May, 1633, while the Indians 
inhabiting the east and west banks of the Hud- 
son Were busily engaged with their spring fish- 
ing, they beheld a Dutch ship, with all its sails 
spread, moving slowly past them, going north- 
ward. It was the New Netherland, which 
had left Holland, in March, for the fertile coun- 
try bordering the beautiful river recently ex- 
plored by the English navigator, Henry Hud- 
son. There were 18 families on board that in- 
tended settling about the rudely built outpost, 
named Fort Orange, which had just been 
" thrown up and completed" near the river, on 
a part of the ground that is now occupied by 
the city of Albany. 

It is said that shortly after these emigrants 
had built themselves " some huts of bark," the 
Mohegans, the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the On- 
ondagas, the Cayugas and the Senecas, with the 
Ottawawa Indians, " came and made covenants 
of friendship" with the Dutch commander, 
Adriaen Joris, " bringing him great presents of 
beaver or other peltry, and desired that they 
might come and have a constant free trade 
with them, which was concluded upon." It is 
further related that for years thereafter the In- 
dians "were all as quiet as lambs, and came 
and traded with all the freedom imaginable." 


This early settlement at Fort Orange, it 
should be remembered, was previous to the year 
1629. Afterward, in 1629, the Dutch West In- 
dia company permitted persons of wealth to 
become permanent possessors of large tracts of 

land, who, within four years, should settle on 
them colonies of 50 adult persons. Among the 
several purchases of tracts of lands from the 
Indians made by the agents of Eiliaen Van. 
Rensselaer, under this charter of exemptions 
and privileges, was one which embraced the 
ground on which Greenbush is now built. This 
part of the manor of Rensselaerwyck along the 
Hudson belonged to an Indian sachem named 
Nawanemitt, and was " called Semesseeck, ly- 
ing on the east side of the aforesaid 
river, opposite the Fort Orange, as well above 
as below, and from Foetanock, the mill creek, 
northwards to Negagonce, being about 12 miles 
large measure." Among the shareholders of 
the West India company considerable dissatis- 
faction was caused by these large acquirements 
of landed estate by Eillaen Van Rensselaer. 
This wealthy patroon in order to have his pa- 
tents confirmed by the legislative chambers of 
Holland, was obliged to divide the territory ob- 
tained from the Indians with three other di- 
rectors of the Amsterdam chamber : the Dutch 
historian, John de Laet, Samuel Godyn and 
Samuel Blommaert. The latter had associated 
with him Adam Bissels and Toussaint Mous- 

The several divisions of the manor of Rens- 
selaerwyck are in a general way designated on 
the old map of the manor made by Gillis van 
Schcndel in 1630. That portion of land occu- 
pied by the raUroad companies' freight houses 
and car shops is named on this old chart De 
LacCs Hylandt—Tie Laet's island ; the stream 
south of it is called De LaeVs mueUn kiS, ende 



vxUerval — De Laet's mill creek and waterfall. 
On the south side of the creek, and on the hank 
of the river, there are several houses delineated 
which no doubt were intended to mark the 
probable site of a future village, and which is 
denominated De Laet's Burg. This was the 
local name given 230 years ago to the land on 
which the village of Oreenbush is situated. 


The bouw landt, arable land, opposite Fort 
Orange, on the east bank of the river, soon at- 
tracted the attention of the Dutch fanners im- 
migrating from Holland. The several streams 
of water emptying contiguously into the river 
very likely reminded them of the fatherland, 
where numerous canals diversified the dyke- 
protected country. Gerrit Teunissen de Reus, 
acliepen, sheriS, as early as 1631, had built him- 
self a home and had a well stocked farm, in the 
vicinity of the Oroenen boaeh, the green or pine 
woods, which formed a part of the landscape 
in the vicinity of De Laet's mill creek. At 
the south end of this wood, Tennis 
Comelissen van Yechten was living in 
1648. North of him. Tennis Dircksen van 
Yechten had a farm. He had emigrated from 
Holland in 1638, having taken passage in the 
Arms of Norway with his wife, child and two 
servants. In 1643 Evert Pels van Steltyn, a 
brewer, was living near the river, on the bank 
of Mill creek. For the purpose of facilitating 
communication between the people living on 
the west and east banks of the river, as early 
as 1643 a ferry was established between Fort 
Orange, or Beaverwyck, as the village around 
the fort was early called, and Groenen bosch, 
nowGreenbusb. HendrickAlbertsen had charge 
of it. 


As a means of protection against any sudden 
attack of the Indians the patroon of Rensse- 
laerwyck had a small fort constructed on his 
farm at Greenbush. This newly built fort, in 
June, 1663, when the news of the massacre of 
the people living at Esopus reached the ears of 
farmers dwelling in the vicinity of it, be- 
came a very important place of safety to them. 
The alarm at the time was widespread, and the 
entire neighborhood was deserted by those who 
for weeks found a home within its walls. The 
following extract from the " Resolutie boek der 
Colonie Rensselaerwyck," refers to what took 
place among the early settlers who had fled to 
Fort Cralo : 

12th Juki, 1663,— Information rec'd of murders 
and bnniing which occnred at Esopus, last Thurs- 
day, 7th inst, the Conrt of RensBelaerwyck re- 
newed the resolution of the Ist of April, 1660, for 

the establishment of a night watch. Ciomelis van 
Neswas appointed captain, and Willem Freder- 
icks Bout, corporal. List of colonists in Oreen- 
bush ; Under the chief ofacer Cornells van Nes : 
Comelis Stevensen Hullen, Adam Dingermans, 
Gerrit van Nes, Jan Juriaensen, Jan van Nes, Ja- 
cobus Jansen, Tymon Hendrickseu. Under Cor- 
poral WiUem Bout : Jan Ootbout, Hendrlck van 
Nes ; Hendiick Maessen [van Buren} Gerrit Teu- 
nissen, Frans Jacobsen, Hendriok Willemsen, Claes 
Claessen. The ofScers shall take good care that 
' none of the watch shall fire unless when necessary, 
under the penalty of six guilders for the first, 
twelve for the second, and an arbitrary correction 
for the third offence. Actum in Greene Bos in the 
Colonie Bensselaerswyck, this 12th June 1663. 

In July, 1664, war broke out among the In- 
dians, and the Mohawks inhabiting the west 
side of the river drew the hatchet against the 
Mohegans, or Mahicans as the Dutch called 
the Indians living on the east side. Jeremias 
Yan Rensselaer, writing to Director Stuyvesant 
from Fort Orange, July 14, says that the latter 
"are fled from the Mohawks, and the next con- 
sequence was that the Indians of the colonic 
have, on last Monday, the 7th instant, at one 
onslaught, killed nine head " of cattle "in Di- 
rector Rensselaer's bouwerie in Greenbush." 
Subsequently the Indians became quite friendly, 
and for a long time gave no occasion to the set- 
tlers to fear any secret attack from them. 


In 1689 the people were once more alarmed 
by fears of incursions from the French and 
Indians, who, by rapid marches, made sudden 
descents from Canada upon the New England 
colonies and the farmers of northern New 
York. The following minutes of a convention 
assembled at Albany, August 21, 1689, exhibit 
the apprehensions of the people residing along 
the upper Hudson : 

Resolved to acquaint ye Inhabitants of ye County 
ye news yt we received of Col. Pynchen, 

That Pemmaqnid was taken by ye Indians and 
french 45 People Eild & Taken— also that there 
shonld be a ship be come to Quebek of ye french 
with news of wars Between Engld & france & 
therefore nothing can be Expected but yt ye 
french will doe all ye miechietTe they can to this 
govemmt & therefore every one to be npon 
there guarde & take care that they be not sur- 
prized. Mr. [D.] Wessels and Eeynier Barentse 
were Desynedto Commmiicate this to the farmers 
of kinderhook & daverack. Capt. [J.] Wendel A 
John Lansing the People above. Richd Pretty & 
Evert Banker at Skeneehtady & Canasta^ome. 

Two days afterward the people of Greenbush 
it seems were thrown into great alarm by a sup- 
posed attack upon them by the Indians. This 
is apparent from the records of the convention 
held at Albany : 



The 24th day of Augast, 1889. BetUted, That ye 
Inhabitants of ye County be Informed of ye alarm 
which was last night at ye green Bnsh oooasioned 
by some Halitlons Persones fyreing of Severall 
ganns with Baale throw ye Door and honse of 
John Witment wUoh was done by letters accord- 

The 28th of August, 1689. Setolved, yt Barent 
Gerritse of Bethlehem who is suspected to have 
had a hand in ye late distnrbance yt was at Qreen 
Bush, or least Privy to It yt he give 80 £ security to 
answer when he shall be called for to be Kzamlned ' 
about yt Bnsslnesse. 

In time the disturbing elements of hostility 
were repressed by the strong arm of the Eng- 
lish government and peace and prosperity 
blessed the province. 


On the lOtb day of April, 1792, the state leg- 
islature passed " An act for dlvldlngthe several 
towns therein mentioned," by which the town 
of Greenbush was formed. The territory em- 
braced was the following : 

All that part of the town of RensseUderwyok, 
which Ilea north of aline to be drawn from a point 
on the east bank of the river Hudson, eight miles 
distant from the southwest comer of the town of 
Bensselaerwyck, and running from thenee east to 
the west bounds of Stephentown, shall be and is 
hareby erected into a separate town, by the name 
of Greenbush ; and that the first town meeting in 
Greenbush shall be held at the dwelling house of 
Abraham M. de Forest, In the said town. And 
that all the remaining part of the town of Bens- 
selaerwyck shall be and remain a separate town 
by the name of Rensselaerwyok ; and that the 
first town meeting in Bensselaerwyck shall be held 
at the dwelling house of John J. Miller In said 

A second act relatint; to the town was passed 
March 17, 1795. A portion of the town was 
taken off June 19, 1812, to form the town of 
Sandlake. To make the towns of Clinton (now 
East Greenbush) and North Greenbush, an- 
other part was subtracted February 23, 1855. 


The ground on which the vUlage of 
Greenbnsh is situate was on the S9th 
day of March, 1810, conveyed by Stephen 
Van Rensselaer and Stephen N. Bayard, 
the surviving trustees of John J. Van 
Rensselaer, to William Akin of Pawlings- 
town, Dutchess county, Titus Goodman and 
John Dickinson of Pittsfleld, Mass., for 
the sum of $60,000. It was purchased 
for speculative purposes, and was laid 
out Into building lots and streets. Em- 
bracing an area of ground a mile square, it 
was thereafter designated "the Akin mile 
square." The lots near the river were 100 feet 

wide in front and in the rear 66 feet. The 
greater part of the blocks contained three and 
two-third acres of land. In the smaller blocks 
the lots were generally 200 feet long by 60 feet 
wide. In 1773, this portion of the manor of 
Rensselaerwyck appears on a map made by 
Robert Yates. The residence of John Van 
Rensselaer, esq., widow Ten Broeck, widow 
Lumbus, John Yates, John McLallan, Henry 
Cuyler and Jacob Van Schaick seem to form the 
embryo hamlet which grew into the village of 
Greenbnsh. The first sale of lots was quite re- 
munerative, but the second attracted only a few 
buyers, and the project of the purchasers 
ended in a long litigation. In 1813, it la said that 
50 buildings had been erected on this plot. 


Among the events connected with the growth 
of Greenbush was one which was long remem- 
bered by its inhabitants. In the spring of 1807 
the ferry-boat plying between the little hamlet 
and Albany was swamped by a south wind and 
3S persons on it were drowned. Among the 
lost were a large number of leading persons liv- 
ing In the vicinity and in Albany, and their 
funerals made one of the most melancholy days 
known in the history of the two places. 


The act incorporating the village of Green- 
bnsh was passed April 14, 1815. Subsequent 
acts were passed April 5, 1828 ; March 22, 1851, 
and April 26, 1863. The present bounds of the 
village are found in the act passed April 25, 1871 : 

Beginning at a point in the Hudson river, op- 
posite the city of Albany, on the division line be- 
tween the counties of Albany and Bensselaer, on 
a line running ISO feet north of the northerly Une 
of Catharine street, thenoe running easterly, and 
parallel to, and 150 north of the northerly line of 
said Catharine street, to its terminus; thenoe 
easterly on the same parallel, across the lands now 
owned by Dr. James HoNanghton, to a point 160 
feet east of the westerly line of the lands known as 
the Mason farm ; thence southerly, IGO feet east of 
the westerly hue of the said Mason farm, to a point 
IGO feet south of the southerly Itaie of Partition 
street; thence westerly, parallel to and 150 feet south 
of the southerly line of Partition street, to a point 
150 feet east of the easterly line of Cottage Hill 
street ; thence southerly, parallel to and 150 feet 
east of the easterly line of Cottage Hill street, to a 
point 160 feet south of the southerly line of Hill 
street ; thenoe west, parallel to and 150 feet south 
of the southerly line of said Mill street, to a point 
Where the said Une will intersect the west bounds 
of the county of Bensselaer ; thenoe north along 
the said west bounds to the place of beginning, 
shall be known and distinguisbed as the village of 
Greenbush. • * • « The officers shall be a 
president, eight trustees, clerk, street commls- 



Bioner and treasurer, and three Inspectors of elec 
Hon in each ward. 


As eturly as the year 18i30 the people of Green, 
bosh were accnstomed to meet together In the 
Tillage school honse to hear on Sundays various 
preachers discourse upon selected Bible texts. 
The certificate of incorporation of the First 
Presbyterian church of Greenbush declares 
that "a meeting of the male inhabitants of 
full age who haye been statedly in the habit of 
attending public religious worship at the upper 
room In the school house in the village of 
Qreenbnsh ♦ • « was held at said room on 
the 27th day of April, 1835, pursuant to a no- 
tice read at said room for two Sabbaths 
preceding said 27th day of April, imme- 
diately after divine service ended and 
the first notice given more than 15 days previ- 
ous to said 27th day of April, 1825, for the pur- 
pose of choosing a board of trustees with a 
view to the incorporation of a religions society 
in said village according to the statute." The 
trustees chosen were Samuel Cheever, Hugh 
Gordon, Jacob S. Miller, Samuel Tibbals, jr., 
John Alden, Solomon Cone and Merrick Ross. 
The organization took the name of " The First 
Presbyterian church in Greenbush." 

In 1827 a house of worship was erected on 
land donated by William Akin. The Rev. Ed- 
ward Stratton, the present pastor, was installed 
June 25, 1874. 

The organization of the First Methodist 
Episcopal church of Greenbush took place in 
the village school-house, February 22, 1833. At 
this meeting the following persons were elected 
trustees : James Walker, Enos Northnp, Ben- 
jamin Bradbury, Robert D. Kemp and James 
Hallenbeck. In 1833 the congregation began 
the erection of a frame building for a place of 
worship on Washington street, which was first 
used for worship May 11, 1834, the Rev. Joshua 
Poor being the first pastor. In 1853 the old 
building was torn down, and a handsome struc- 
ture of brick, 65x42 feet, erected near its site, at 
a cost of about $8,000. It was dedicated in Janu- 
ary, 1854. Inl862thebuilding was enlarged by 
the addition of a transept 24x62 feet, at a cost 
of $7,000. The Rev. R H. Robinson became 
pastor of this congregation in 1879. 

The first Protestant Episcopal church organ- 
iced in Greenbush was that of the " Church of 
the Meesiah." The congregation, which had 
been meeting since 1851 in the village school 
house, assembled on the evening of the 19th 
of July, 1853, Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, 
chairman. A vote being taken, Jeremiah Van 
Rensselaer and Henry Finch were elected church 
wardens, and George S. Weaver, Alexander H. 

Henry, Thomas R. Mather, Frederick G. Lane, 
Francis Van Rensselaer, Benjamin B. Eirtland, 
John M. Boudy and Squire Oreenhogh vestry- 
men. The present church edifice, on the comer 
of Third avenue and Washington street, was 
erected in 1853-4. The Rev. Edgar T. Chapman 
is the present rector of this church. 

St. John's Roman Catholic church was organ- 
ized about the year 1850 by the Rev. John 
Cory, who became the first resident priest. A 
small church was erected shortly afterward, 
which in 1857 gave place to a new building, 
built at an expense of $12,000. The Rev. James 
E. DufEy is the present pastor and the Rev. M. 
Scanlon assistant. The church has about 2,000 

The Greenbush Baptist church sprang from 
a mission established by the Albany Baptist 
missionary union. A congregation was organ- 
ized in 1870. The society was formally incor- 
porated May 27, 1874. The following trustees 
were then elected: Merritt H. Waterbury, 
Thomas Garrison, D. 0. Denison, William 
Brooks, Sylvester Waterbury, James E. Aiken 
and James A. Campbell. The present pastor, 
the Rev. Adoniram Waterbury, was installed 
February 1, 1874. 

The second Protestant Episcopal church or- 
ganized in Greenbush was the body known as 
the "Church of the Epiphany," in 1873. Sev- 
eral years after a church building was erected 
on the comer of Catharine and Third streets. 
The Rev. Richard Temple is the rector. 

The Greenbush Congregational church was 
organized in 1879 by the Rev. 6. Stanton, the 
present pastor, and 16 other persons from 
various sister churches. The church building, 
on the comer of Partition and Third streets, 
was erected in 1879-W. 


The Greenbush Guardian was first published 
in August, 1856, by A. J. Goodrich and after- 
wards by J. D. Comstock. 

The Betisielaer County Oazette had its first iS' 
sue September 8, 1870, Thomas McKee and Dun- 
can MacFarlane, publishers and proprietors. 
Early in the summer of 1871 Thomas McKee be- 
came the editor and owner of the paper. 

The Greenbush Democrat began its publica- 
tion December 2, 1876, by Philip F. Bray, the 
present editor and proprietor. 


The village of Greenbush is known locally by 
two names. The lower or southern part is 
called by the former name, while the northern 
part is generally designated as East Albany. 
The Albany and Boston railroad freight houses 



and workshops are on the island opposite, as is 
also the Greenbnsh depot. 

In 1836 Greenbnsh contained two grist mills, 
on Mill creek, a distillery, two churches, a 
flonrishing academy, four hotels, eight stores 
and from 80 to 100 dwellings. 

At present the steam saw mill of T. Miles & 
Co., that of C. Warren & Son, the grist mill 
and malt house of William M. Irwin & Co., the 
grist mill of Charles C. Lodewick, the steam 
cracker bakery of Jonas Whiting & Co., the 
tannery of J. Ruyter & Son, the shoe- factory of 
Walden & France, and the Albany stamping 
works, Hoy & Co., are the important manufac- 
turing interests of the village. 

The population of the town of Groenbush 
since 1800 is as follows : 

ISOO S,472 

1810 4,458 

1815 2.396 

1820 2,764 

1825 2,914 

1830 3,216 

1835 3,345 

1840 3,70. 

1845 4,182 

1850 3,945 

1855 3,303 

1860 3,992 

1865 4,779 

1370 6,202 

1875 7,066 

1880 6,742 


The masonic societies of Greenbnsh embrace 
the Greenbush lodge of F. and A. M., No. 387, 
chartered July 1, 18.54. The Greenbush Chap- 
ter, E. A. M., No. 274, organized February 2, 

The Independent order of Odd Fellows have 
one lodge, the Farmers' and Mechanics', No. 

Of temperance societies there are Irving lodge 
I. O. of G. T., No. 26, and St. Patrick's Father 
Matthew society. 




The Great Forest Extended to Canada — The Building of a Fort at 
Paepsknee— An Old Dutch Kirken Boek— The Famous Springs of 
Harrowgate — The Home of Minister Genet — The Military Can- 
tonment AT Greenbush — The Punishment of Riding in a Whirli- 
gig — The Erection of the Town of Clinton — Present Statistics 
— Population. 

It was Oowper who longingly sighed : 
" O for a lodge in some vast wildemess, 
Some boundless contiguity of shade, 
Where rumor of oppression and deceit, 
Of nnsuccessful or successful war. 
Might reach me no more." 

The peace-loving poet no doubt believed that 
the somber suiroundings of a great, continuous 
forest were protective against the evil machina- 
tions of men. Had he lived in America, about 
the year 1689, on the east side of the Hudson river, 
where then, as it is said, was a vast and closely 
grown wood that extended from Kinderhookto 
Canada, perhaps, he would not have thought it 
a proper place for the realization of his fanci- 
ful conceptions of a contented retirement from 
the disturbing enmities of mankind. Through 
the sunless depths of this immense forest bands 
of horribly painted Indians and companies of 
hostile French soldiers sometimes secretly 
moved on murderous missions. 


The first Dutch settlers who, with cleaving 
axes, had felled, here and there, near the river, 
.green trees of this old forest of pines, de 
groenen touch, and had upon these clearings 
built themselves log farm-houses, were often 
alarmed by the sudden incursions from Canada 
of massacring bodies of savages and revenge- 
ful French soldiery. 

Opposite the mainland now known as 
East Greenbush, at a close remove from 
the shore, is a long island which at a 
quite early date had received the name 

of Paepsknee. This isolated piece of 
land, sometimes called Poepskenekoes and 
Papakenenea, it would seem, was selected by 
the Dutch people living in the vicinity as a place 
of refuge from the bloody tomahawks of the 
Indians and the capturing hands of the Cana- 
dian invaders. For at a convention held in Al- 
bany on the 4th of September " in ye First year 
of ye Reign of our Souveraign Lord and Lady, 
King William and Queen Mary of Eng'l, France 
& Ireland &c Defenders of ye Faith, Ao 1689," 
the following action was taken for the defense 
and security of the farmers living in the vicinity 
of Paepsknee island : 

Besolved, Since there is such Eminent Danger 
Threatened by ye French of Canida and there 
Praying Indians to come into this Country to kill 
and Destroy there Hajes Subjects that there be 
Immediately An Express sent doune to Capt. Leys- 
ler and ye Eest of ye Militia offtcers of ye City and 
County of New Torke for assistance of one hun- 
dred men or more for ye secureing of there Majes 
Fort and ye out Plantations of this County as also 
a Recraite of six hundred weight of Ponder and 
fonre hundred Bale viz to 200 Two Pounders and 
200 four Pounders with some match & one hun- 
dred hand granadoes out of there Majes Stores 
and Two hundred Pounds out of there Majes Reve- 
nue which we understand is dayly collected by 
them for to employ ye Maquase andoyr Indians in 
there Majes Service for ye Securing ye frontier 
Parts of this County from any Inourslons of sd In- 
dians or French. 

Resolved, That there be a fort made at Paepsknee 
in ye moat Convenient Place & yt Melgert 
abrah Claes van Petten marte Cornells gerrit 



gyebertBen & ye Inhabitants of Paepaknee make 
ye same for there security to retreat Into upon oc- 
casion & that albt Ryckman & John Beekman see 
it effected. 


For a long time after the settlement of the 
territory now included within the town of East 
Greenbnsh the farmers and their families were 
in the habit of attending religions worship at 
the Dutch church, in Albany. AVhen, however, 
the community of farmers was large enough for 
the organization of a congregation, the settlers 
were gathered together and a society formed, 
which took the name of the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch church of Greenbush. This was done 
in the year 1787. The first pastor of this rural 
church was the Bev. Jacobus Van Campen 
Romeyn, who, being licensed by the synod of 
the Dutch Reformed church of New York, 
October 5, 1787, began his pastorate in Febru- 
ary, 1788. Shortly after the passage of the 
state law in regard to the incorporation of 
churches, this congregation took the nec- 
essary steps to comply with the legal 
enactment. As stated in the preamble of 
the legal certificate of the meeting held 
for this purpose the proceedings of the 
members of the church were according to 
"an act making snch alterations in the 
act for incorporating religions societies as 
to render the same more convenient to the Re- 
formed Protestant Dutch congregations, passed 
the 7th day of March, 1788. The meeting was 
held in the church at Greenbush, in the county 
of Albany, on the 12th of Angost, 1788. The 
Rev. Jacobus Van Campen Romeyn, minister ; 
Christopher Yates, Abraham Ostrander and 
Peter H. Van Bnren, elders; and Abraham 
Cooi>er, Kaspams Witbeck and John E. Lans- 
ing, deacons, were then and there, by virtne of 
the said act, organized as " The minister, elders 
and deacons of the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
church of Greenbush." 


The records of the congregation of this date 
are still preserved in the church book, which Is 
written in " black Dutch." On the title-page 
is the following : 


Greene Bos 
Be/ulzende een register van gedoopte, huwelljk, tcer- 
kemienst, handelingen, etc., begonnen door. 
Jacobus Van Campen Romeyn, 
Predikant van de nederige Gfermenteen van het 
Oreene Bos en Schodack. Anno 1788. 

[The church book of Greenbush, containing a 
register of baptisms, marriages, services, pro- 
ceedings, etc., begun by Jacobus Van Campen 

Romeyn, preacher of low German at Greenbush 
and Schodack. Year 1788.] 

Among the fljwt members of the church were 
Anthony Abrams, Nancy Abrams, Andrles 
Bartel, Hendriok Brezee, William BnsweU, 
Peter Dingman, Peter Fonda, Abraham Lan- 
sing, Dirck Hansen, Samuel Hitchcock, Hen- 
drick Hollenbeck, John Holliday, Matthew Hol- 
liday, Thomas Mesick, Stephen Mnller, Francis 
Ott, James Patten, Jacobus Salsbury, Jonathan 
Salsbuiy, Joseph Salsbury, John Schermerhom, 
Robert Scharp, Jeremiah Shane, Johannes 
Spoor, Christian Spring, Adam Tod, Benjamin 
Van den Bergh, Cornelius Van Buren, Isaac 
Van der Poel, Jonathan T. Witbeck, Peter W. 
Witbeck and Tobias Witbeck. 

The various pastors of this church since its 
organization have been the following : 1788-99, 
the Rev. J. V. C. Romeyn ; 1801-11, the Rev. J. 
L. Zabriskie; 1811-13, the Rev. I. Labagh; 
1814r-a8, the Rev. N. J. Marselus ; 1828-25, the 
Rev. B. C. Taylor ; 1826-29, the Rev. A. H. Du- 
mont ; 1830-34, the Rev. J. A. LiddeU ; 1831-52, 
the Rev. E. P. Stimpson ; 1853-60, the Rev. J. 
R. Talmage ; 1861-66, the Rev. P. Q. Wilson ; 
1866-77, the Rev. W. Anderson ; 1877 to date, 
the Rev. John Steely, D. D. 

The site of the old church edifice was near 
that of the present one. Although services 
were held in the old one as early as 1788, it was 
not completed for a number of years afterward. 
On February 10, 1794, the committee of the 
house of assembly to whom was referred the 
petition of a number of the members of the 
church for an act permitting them to create a 
lottery to raise money to complete the church, 
reported against granting the petition. Tlie 
second church edifice was bnilt in 1860 and 
dedicated in 1861. The church has a large and 
active membership, and an excellent Sunday 


The territory which is now known as East 
Greenbush, on April 10, 1792, was designated 
by the legislature as part of the town of Green- 
bush, having been subtracted from the town of 
Rensselaerwyck at that time. The Tierken 
kill, or Mill creek, rises in the town of East 
Greenbush and flows into the Hudson, opposite 
Albany, by a meandering course of sevev 
miles. Moordener's creek, having its source in 
the town of Sandlake, flows through the south- 
east part of the town and empties into the 
Hudson, at Castleton. Along the Hudson, op- 
posite Albany, the land belonging to East 
Greenbush rises to elevations varying from 100 
to 800 feet. A high hill, conspicuous to an ob- 
server looking eastwardly from the new capitol 
building in Albany, is known by the name of 



Fonokose, a name said to have been given it 
by an old Stockbridge Indian. Eastwardly 
from the blufis along the river the surface 
dlspreads into a rolling upland, rising gradual- 
ly toward the eastern boundaries of the town. 
The soil is composed of gravel, sand and clay, 
and is quite fertile. 


In 1792, about half a mile from the Green- 
bush ferry, a spring of water was found, which 
was deemed a discovery of no little importance 
at the time. Having mineral properties simi- 
lar to the famous Harrowgate springs, 20 miles 
west of York city, England, and valuable to 
persons having diseases of the skin, scrofula 
and gout, this spring was designated by the 
same name, which it retains to the present day. 
A suitable building was erected for visitors 
seeking the use of the water. Until the war of 
1812 this spring attracted considerable atten- 
tion, but when in 1812 a military encampment 
was formed near it, the frequenters gradually 
decreased, and the establishment lost favor 
with the public. In 1822 a second effort was 
made to popularize the spring by the erection 
of bathing houses and other accommodations, 
but the project was a failure. 


The name of Edmund Charles Genet at the 
close of the eighteenth century was a very 
familiar one to the people of the United States. 
He had been sent from France in December, 
1792, as minister plenipotentary and consul- 
general to this country. The aversion of the 
people of the United States, engendered by the 
war of the revolution, toward Great Britain, had 
not been much abated, and th^ sympathy of the 
people toward France was still generous and 
affectionate. When the French republic de- 
clared war against England, Washington, as 
president, was obliged to issue in 1793 a procla- 
mation enjoining strict neutrality on the part 
of the United States. Genet, misled by 
the enthusiastic reception given him on 
his arrival in this country, immediately 
began to use his influence to excite the people 
into a state of opposition to this proclamation. 
He went so far as to flt out vessels and to com- 
mission officers in America to sail the high seas 
in quest of British shipping. In these measures, 
it is said, he was supported by an opposition 
party, or as it began to be called, the Democratic 
party, which now undertook, under the direct 
management of Genet and in imitation of the 
associated parties in France, to form demo- 
cratic societies throughout the United States. 
At the desire of President Washington the 


French minister was superseded. In 1794 
Genet married Cornelia Tappan, daughter of 
Gfov. George Clinton, and settled on a farm, at 
Jamaica, L. I. In March, 1810, his wife died, 
after which, he took up his residence 
in the town of Greenbush, now East Green- 
bush, where he purchased a farm and lived for 
the most part of his life until the day of his 
death. His residence was known as Prospect 
hill, and was south of a small stream called 
Mill brook, in district No. 1, and west of the 
Boston and Albany railroad. The Genet home- 
stead is now owned and occupied as a summer 
residence by Nelson Davenport of Troy. In 181 4 
Genet married his second wife, Martha Bran- 
don Osgood. In 1816 he removed to New York, 
but returned to his farm in Greenbush in 1818. 
Ex-Miuister Genet was taken sick on July 3, 
1834, in consequence of getting wet in a rain 
while going to attend a meeting of an agricul- 
tural society of which he was president, and 
before which he was to deliver an address. His 
illness continued until the 14th of the month, 
when, at 10 o'clock in the evening, he died. 


In the burial ground in the rear of the Dutch 
church in East Greenbush is the grave of ex- 
Mlnister Genet. The slab which marks his 
grave bears the following inscription : 

Under this Humble Stone are interred the re- 
mains of Edmund Charles Genet, Late Adjutant- 
General, Minister Plenipotentiary And Consul- 
General from the French Bepublic to the United 
States of America. He was bom at Versailles, 
Parish of St. Louis, in France, Jan. 8, 1763, and died 
at Prospect Hill, Town of Greenbush, July 14, 1884. 
Driven by the storms of the revolution to the 
shades of retirement, he devoted bis talents to his 
adopted country, where he cherished the love of 
liberty and virtue. The pursuits of literature and 
science enlivened his peaceful solitude, and he de- 
voted his life to usefulness and benevolence. His 
last moments were, like his life, an example of for- 
titude and true Christian philosophy. His heart 
was love and friendship's sun, which has set on 
this transitory world to rise vrith radiant splendor 
beyond the grave. 

By the side of his grave are the tombs of his 
two wives. 


In the month of May, 1812, the United States 
government purchased about 300 acres of land, 
one mile and a half east of the village of 
Greenbush, for the purpose of using it as a 
military post, for the organization of 
recruited men into regiments, for service in 
the war against Great Britain then existing. 
The persons conveying the tract of land to the 
government were Henry Ward, Thomas Leg- 



gett, James Thompson, Samuel Danton and 
James Head. After the purchase had been 
made it was discovered that an exclusive title 
had not been obtained to the property. A deed, 
however, was some time afterward given by 
Stephen Van Rensselaer, which secured the full 
right of the land to the United States. 
Mai.-Oen. Dearborn, the commandant of the 
post, began at once the erection of the neces- 
sary buildings. Eight frame buildings, known 
as the barracks, each 252x22 feet, two stories 
high, with basements, were erected, four on 
each side of the parade ground, which occupied 
a space of half a mile in width. Four 
buildings, 90 feet in length, two stories 
high, for officers' quarters, were also built, 
on opposite sides of the parade ground. Two 
large buildings for the use of the commissary 
department, a fire proof arsenal, built of brick, 
three large structures, two stories high and 90 
feet long, for the general's headquarters, hos- 
pital and medical departments were erected on 
an eminence commanding a view of the sur- 
rounding country. Other buildings for shelter 
for men, horses and cattle were constructed 
upon the ample grounds of this large farm. 


It is said that the commanding general was 
a man of many eccentricities. To him is at- 
tributed, perhaps, without any authoritative 
proof, the construction of an instrument of 
punishment called a whirligig. It was a rudely- 
made box or cage, faced with slats, that could 
be revolved with rapidity around an upright 
post that passed through it. The person to be 
punished for the commission of an offense was 
put in it, his hands being first secured to the 
upper part of the box, which was whirled around 
the post. The exposed position of the of- 
fender thus being punished, it is said, never 
failed to attract the idle crowd of hangers-on 
about the cantonment. The rapid revolutions 
of the box soon, it is said, caused extreme gid- 
diness, and prevented the person subjected to 
this punishment from retaining an upright po- 
sition, but who was kept from falling by the 
firm fastening which retained his hands. 

The Greenbush cantonment, had accommo- 
dations for over 4,000 troops. The elevated po- 
sition of the camp, sometimes called " Mount 
Madison," was thought at first to be a very 
healthy one ; but during the first year much 
sickness occurred. After the treaty of peace 
of 1815, very few soldiers were stationed at the 
post, and finally, on May 2, 1831, the property 
was sold by the government to Hathorn McCul- 
loch of Albany, who made the place his resi- 
dence until his death. The property in 1848 was 

divided, one part of which is the now the prop- 
ety of William A. McCuUoch, son of Hathorn 
McCulloch, and the remainder is retained by 
the latter's grandchildren, William H. Kirt- 
land, Albert B. Eirtland and Mrs. A. 6. Oenet. 


The town of East Greenbush was first known 
by the name of Clinton. The board of super- 
visors of Rensselaer county, in answer to a pe- 
tition of more than 12 freeholders of the town 
of Greenbush, granted the erection of the town 
of Clinton, on the 23d of February, 1855. Fol- 
lowing the description of the boundaries of the 
town of North Greenbush, which was erected at 
the same time, are the following words describ- 
ing the limits of the town of Clinton : 

All the remaining part of the town of Greenbush, 
excepting that part thereof embraced within the 
present limits of the village of Greenbush, and 
bounded northerly by the southern boundary line 
of said village and the southern boimdary line of 
the above-named town of North Greenbush, here- 
by erected ; easterly and southerly by the present 
easterly and southerly boundary lines, respective- 
ly, of the town of Greenbush ; and westerly by the 
present westerly boundary line of the town of 
Greenbush, and the easterly boundary line of said 
village, is hereby erected and constituted a new 
and separate town by the name of Clinton. 

The first annual meeting in the said town of 
Clinton hereby erected shall be held at the house 
of William R. Befreest, in East Greenbush, in said 
town of Clinton hereby erected. Said [meeting] 
shall be held on the first Tuesday of April, 1856, 
and annually thereafter, at such places as a ma- 
jority of the electors of said [town] * • • 
shall determine. • * * Frederick K. Rockefel- 
ler, John J. Sliter and Philip L. Rysedorph, three 
electors of said town of Clinton hereby erected, 
are hereby designated, whose duty it shall be to 
preside at the first annual meeting in the respective 
town as aforesaid, appoint a clerk, open and keep 
the polls, and exercise the same powers as jus- 
tices of the peace when presiding at town meet- 


The first annual town meeting, as ordered, 
was held at the place appointed, on April 3, 
1855. The following persons were selected offi- 
cers of the town of Clinton : 

Supervisor, Frederick R. Rockefeller; town 
clerk, William R. De Freest; assessors, Barney 
Hoes, David De Freest, Jr., Martin D. De Freest ; 
commissioner of highways, David Phillips ; over- 
seers of the poor, Adam Dings, John W. Graver ; 
justices of the peace, Andrew L. Wetherwax, 
Frederick Rockefeller, Thomas B. Simmons, Wil- 
liam Holsapple; superintendent of common 
schools, Henry J. Qenet ; collector, Harris N. 
Elliot ; constables, Henry Ostrander, Frederick B. 
Conkey, Jacob Earing, Harris N. Elliot ; inspectors 



of eleotlon,A. B. Eirtland, Leonard L. Rysedorph ; 
poundinaaters, John W. Craver, W. 11. De Freest, 
Peter G. Clark. 

The act to change the name of the town of 
Clinton, in the county of Rensselaer, to that of 
East Qreenbush, was passed April 14, 1858. 


For some time previous to the organization of 
the Methodist Episcopal church of the village 
of East Qreenbush in 1875, the people of this 
denomination had been in the habit of assem- 
bling together in private houses for religious 
worship. The first regular pastor of this church 
was the Rev. Joseph Zweifel, who served from 
1875-77 ; the Rev. J. S. Bridgeford, 1877-1878 ; 
1878 to date the Rev. Charles W. Rowley. The 

society possesses a very commodious church in 
the village of East Qreenbush. 


The only village in the town is that of East 
Qreenbush, which is situate very near the 
middle of the southern boundary line of the 
town. The present population of the village 
is 101 persons. Twenty-flve houses comprise 
the number of buildings in the village. There 
are two churches, one hotel, one store, one 
blacksmith shop and one paint shop in the 
place. A postofflce was established here, Febru- 
ary 23, 1855. 


18SB 1,80611870 1.845 

1860 1,607 1875 8,063 

1865 1.863 1880 a.liff 





A Part of Pafraets Dael — Dickop's House on the Hudson— The 
First Settlers of the Territory — Bath to Rival Ballston — 
Erection of the Town of North Greenbush — The Villages of 
THE Town — Sketches of the Churches and Newspapers — The 

Rural life, pictured in the thonghful, melan- 
choly utterances of Gray, in his "Elegy Written 
in a Country Churchyard," has filled many a 
heart with the quiet beauty and unassumed at- 
tractions of its sober surroundings. The hum- 
ble, laborious men who have tilled, sown seed, 
and harvested during the long centuries since 
Adam left Eden need no grander tribute than 
the immortal verse of the poet to enhance the 
part they took in the world's work : 

" Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield, 
Their furrow oft the Btubbom glebe has broke ; 

How Jocund did they drive their teams afield I 
How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy 
stroke I 

Let not Ambition mock their useful toll, 
Their homely Joys, and destiny obscure." 


That part of the manor of Rensselaerwyck 
now embraced in the territory of the town of 
North Greenbush was, in 1630, according to the 
designations on the map of Gillis Van Schen- 
del, known as the southern portion of Fafraets 
dael. A little south of the kill which is im- 
mediately north of Defreestville, running west- 
ward to the river, was the marked position of 
a rudely built hut, known as Dickop's huit, — 
the loggerhead's house. In the river, opposite 
it, were three islands, called "Bloemaert's 
Eylanden." These islands, which still remain, 
extending southward from the mouth of the 
Wynant's kill, were in 1773 known by the 
names of Bricker's, Flatt's and Schuyler 
islands, as shown on a map made that year by 
Robert Tates. 

Being so near the river and situated at the 
foot of the steep bills, it may be conjectured 

that Dicker's huts wa^he hut of some Indian 
who, in 1630, was friendly to the Dutch settlers, 
and who on account of his obtnseness had re- 
ceived the name of thick-skull, or logger- 


The territory of North Greenbush being up- 
land, or elevated above the river, along the 
shores of which it juts out in bold declivitous 
ridges, is dissociated from all the uses made of 
such a navigable stream, except at Bath-on-the- 
Hudson, where the hill is more distant eastward- 
ly, and a wider tract ot lowland extends for 
some distance, southwardly and northwardly. 
The soil is somewhat sandy, mixed with clay, 
and is well adapted for agricultural uses. The 
greater number of its first settlers occupied 
farms in this section of the manor of Rensse- 
laerwyck as early as the year 1670. 
A century afterwards about a score of 
homesteads diversified the landscape, and 
nearly the entire portion of the land was under 
cultivation. Opposite the patroon's house, 
which was on the western side of the river, a 
road ran from the river eastwardly toward Sand- 
lake. Where it terminated at the river was a 
ferry, which transported the wagons and sleighs 
bearing the annual ground rents of grain, wood 
and fowls of the farmers to the west side, 
where were the patroon's great storehouses. 

On the map of the manor of Rensselaerwyck 
made by John R. Bleeker, in 1767, appear the 
designated sites of the early farm-houses within 
this territory. South of the road running from 
the river eastwardly toward Sandlake, and 
west of the one running northwardly toward 
the site of Troy, was the home of Widow Hin- 



dert Van Elveren. On the other side of the 
road and north of this farm-house was that of 
Jnria Sharp. West of the north road and 
northward of Joria Sharp's house was the 
home of Reinier Van Alstyne. More to the 
north of it, and near the river, was the farm- 
house of John Grannel. Eastward of it, and on 
the west side of the north road were 
the homes of Marte and Philip Deforest. 
On the opposite side of the road was the house 
of DaTid Deforest. Beyond it to the north was 
the house of Rutger Van Den Bergh, and north 
of it that of Cornelia M. Van Buren. West of 
the north road and south of the Wynants-kill 
was the farm-house of Philip Wendell. South 
of the Sandlake road was the house of Law- 
rence Kysdorp, and north of it those of Edward 
Hogg, Wilhelmus Van Deusen and John Fonda. 
These early settlers are still represented by the 
families of the DeFreests, Van Denbergha, Van 
Alstynes, Fondas, Wendells and others, 
which in most instances dwell in the old 
homesteads of their ancestors. In the 
history of the town the male members 
of nearly all of them have, from time 
to time, been conspicuous, representing 
with fidelity and honor offices in the 
churches, town and districts. Among the pe- 
culiarities of family names, perhaps, there is 
no other national characteristic so apparent as 
that manifested by the Dutch in the change- 
fulness of the orthography of surnames. It is 
often difficult, during a long period of years, 
to put together the connecting links of a family's 
history on this account, and no little trouble is 
giren, when a writer finds so many variations 
existing in the modes of spelling individual 

BATH IN 1800. 

Before the close of the last century the won- 
derful efficacy of the waters of several mineral 
springs at Bath iiad made the little hamlet 
somewhat conspicuous as a place of cure. 
John Maude, an English traveler, visiting places 
of note in the United States, in 1800, thus 
speaks of its notoriety, in his journal, dated 
Monday, June 30, of that year : 

CroBsed the river to Bath, a town lately laid out 
by the patroon ; it at present consists of about 
thirty houses, but it is very doubtful if Its further 
proeress will be so rapid. The medicinal springs 
and the baths, at one time so much vaunted, are 
now shut up and neglected ; yet, as u watering 
plaoe. It was to have rivaled Ballstown, and as a 
trading place, Lanslngburgh and Troy. 

A country girl returoing from market, (who 
crossed the ferry at the same time,) spoke Dutch 
and English with equal fluency, and I may add 
with equal pertness. Climbed the heights east of 
Bath ; fine view of the river and of Troy. Ke- 

turned by the lower or Greenbnsh ferry. Never 
saw the wild grape and wild strawberry vines In 
greater profusion ; in the coppice near the river 
scarcely a tree that did not support one of the 
former ; or a field that was not overrun by the 
latter. This ramble was a very wild and a very 
pleasant one ; the air bracing and refreshing, and 
highly perfumed with the fragrance of wild roses 
and red clover. White clover is a native of this 
country ; the red is, I believe, an exotic, though it 
is now to be found in a wild state aU over this part 
of the country, even in the woods. The birds, I 
noticed, were boblincolns, brown thrashers and 


The erection of the town of North Greenbush 
from a portion of the town of Greenbush was 
due to ''an application having been made to 
the board of supervisors of the county of Rens- 
selaer by 12 freeholders and upwards of the 
town of Greenbush, in said county, praying for 
a division of said town and the erection of two 
towns therefrom." This petition was granted 
by the board of supervisors on the 23d of 
February, 1855. The boundaries of the town 
as fixed upon were as follows : 

By a line beginning at a point in the western 
boundary line of the nresent town of Greenbush, 
and at the northwest comer of the chartered lim- 
its of the village of Qreenbusb. and running along 
the northern line of said chartered limits to the 
northeast comer of said limits ; then on a straight 
line eastwardly to the south side of the dwelling 
house of J. Pruyn Van Allen ; thence eastwardly 
on a straight line to the south side of the dwelling 
house of John P. DeFreest ; thence on a straight 
line eastwardly to the south aide of the present 
dwelling house of George J. Sharpe : thence on a 
straight line eastwardly to a point in the eastern 
boundary line of the tovm of Greenbush and the 
western boundary of the town of Sandlake, which 
said point is distant about eight chains and eighty 
links southerly from the centre of a road or 
public highway leading to the Albany and 
Sandlake plankroad, past the late dwelling house 
of Peleg Thomas, and where hia widow now resides 
—which said line shall be the southern boundary 
of a new town hereby erected ; and the eastern 
and western boundary hnea of said town shall be 
and remain such parts of the present eastern and 
western boundary hues respectively of the present 
town of Greenbush as lie northwardly of the pointa 
in said eastern and weatem boundary linea reapec- 
tively, where the aame are reapectively intersected 
by said aouthem boundary line of the aforesaid 
new town. And the northern boundary line of the 
town of Greenbush shall be and remain the north- 
em boundary hue of said new town, and all the 
territory lying within the boundaries above named 
is hereby erected and constituted a new and sepa- 
rate town by the name of North Greenbush. * • * 

The first annual meeting in the said town of 
North Greenbush hereby erected shall be held in 



the boose of John Mason, in Blooming Orore, in 
said town of North Qreenbush. * • • Said 
[meeting] shall be held on the first Tuesday of 
April, 1855, and annually thereafter, at such places 
as a majority of the electors of said [town] » * * 
shall determine according to law. And Henry 
Frazee, William Witbeck and James Dearstyne, 
three electors of said town of Xorth Greenbush 
hereby erected, * * * are hereby designated 
whose duty it shall be to preside at the first an- 
nual meeting In their * * * town as aforesaid, 
appoint a clerk, open and keep the polls and exer- 
cise the same powers as justices of the peace when 
presiding at town meetings. 


In accordance with the action of the board 
of superrisors, the first town meeting was held 
on Tuesday, April 3, 1855. The foUowiDg per- 
sons were elected officers of the town of North 
Greenbush : 

Supervisor, Abram Witbeck ; town clerk, Qarret 
Vanderburgh ; assessor, Philip L. De Freest ; 
commissioners of highways, Rinier H. De Freest, 
Matthew V. A. Fonda, Francis B. Bitchie ; jus- 
tices of the peace, Barney Wendell, Abram Wit- 
beck; overseers of the poor, Cornelius Dubois, 
John G. Sharp ; collector, David D. De Freest ; 
superintendent of common schools, Sandford A. 
Tracy ; inspectors of election, first district, John 
Fonda, John W. Yandenburgh, George W. Green ; 
(appointed), second district, Andrew V. Barrenger, 
Alonzo N. Kinney, James Henderson, (appointed) ; 
constables, David H. Wyland, Channcey I. Wen- 
dell, David S. Wendell, Harmon Snyder, Barney 
Cole ; sealer of weights and measures, John B. 
Marble ; poundmasters, John Mason and H. Fer- 


The village of Bath-on-the-Hudson received 
its name from several mineral springs discov- 
ered in its immediate vicinity during the latter 
part of the last century. So great was consid- 
ered their importance that wide publicity was 
given to the remarkable properties of the water 
flowing from them, and bath houses for invalids 
were erected in close proximity to them. In 
SpotCord's gazetteer of the state of New York, 
1824, the village is described as being one mile 
from Orecnbush. " It stands on the declivity 
of the dry, gravelly river hill, has some docks, 
stores, about 40 houses and an extensive tan- 
nery and some small business in trade. The 
eastern turnpike extends from Bath through 
Sandlake and Berlin to Williamstown, in the 
state of Massachusetts." 

The tannery ref ered to was that of James and 
John Woods, on the northwest corner of Broad- 
way and Tracy street. 

The present population of the village is about 
2,150 inhabitants. The ferry which connects 

the village with the north part of Albany is 
operated by Fitchet & Smith. 

The fire department is represented by two 
companies, one, the W. 8. Hevenor protectives, 
organized in 1876, and the other, the A. L. 
Hotchkin hook and ladder company, formed in 


Bath-on-the-Hudson was incorporated by an 
act of the legislature, passed May 5, 1874 ; 
bounded as follows : 

Beginning at a point on the east shore of the 
Hudson river (at low watermark), where the north 
line of the town of Greenbush intersects the said 
river ; and running thence from said point along 
the said north line of said town of Greenbush 
south, SB degrees 40 minutes east, about 2,080 feet 
to the centre of Quackendary kill (in this line there 
are two stone monuments set in the ground, one 
on the west side of Broadway, and one on the 
brow of the hill west of the said Quackendary kill, 
to Indicate the direction of the line) ; thence up and 
along the centre of said Quackendary kill, and the 
most westerly branch thereof, to a stone monument 
set in the ground, and which said stone monument 
bears south, 18 degrees 45 minutes west, 140 feet 
from a stone monument set in the ground on the 
north side of the Albany and Sandlake plank- 
road : thence north, 16 degrees 45 minutes east, 
145 feet to said stone monument on the north side 
of said Albany and Sandlake plank-road; and 
thence south 86 degrees 30 minutes west, about 
1,194 feet to a stone monument in the centre of the 
gateway at the entrance to the grounds of P. 8. 
Forbes; thence north, 21 degrees 25 min- 
utes east, about 406 feet to a stone mon- 
ument; thence north, 40 degrees 30 min- 
utes west, about 1,700 feet to the Hudson river ; 
tbenoe westerly, and at right angles to the shore 
of said Hudson river, until such line meets the 
channel of said river ; thence down and along the 
said channel (and which line is the westerly bound- 
ary of the county of Bensselaer) until a line drawn 
westerly and at right angles to the shore of said 
river from the place of beginning shall intersect 
said channel ; and thence from said point easterly 
to the place of beginning ; and containing, exclu- 
sive of said river, about 250 acres, as surveyed by 
L. D. Eddy and others, and the courses taken as 
the magnetic needle now points, comprising a part 
of the town of North Greenbush, in the county of 
Rensselaer and state of New York, to be known 
and distinguished as the village of Bath-on-tbe- 


The hamlet of Wynantskill is in the north- 
east part of the town, on a small stream of 
water from which it derives it name. In 1824 
it is spoken of as having about 85 buildings and 
a church in it. It became a post village 
about the year 1830 ; Dr. Aseph Clark being 
the first postmaster. Wynantskill has now a 



population of about 300 inhabitants, 50 houses, 
two churches, two hotels, one store, three 
blacksmith shops, three carriage shops, one 
harness and one shoemaker shop. 


Defreestville, named in honor of the De Freest 
or DeForest family, is in the southern part of 
the town. It is also known by the name of 
BloomiugGrove. The present population num- 
bers about 115 persons. There are 26 houses, 
1 church, two hotels, 1 blacksmith shop, 1 shoe- 
maker shop and 1 wagonmaker shop in the 
place. A postofflce was established here about 
a half century ago. 


This reli(;ious society was organized about 
the year 1793. On May 17, 1824, at a meeting 
of the consistory of the church, Andrew Finch, 
John Coonradt, John P. Clapper and Frederick 
G. Barrenger, elders, and Henry Frazee, Fred- 
erick Barrenger, Francis Bradt and James 
Westfall, assumed the name of the " Mini ter, 
elders and deacons of the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch church of WynantsklU." The church 
has about 100 members. 

A second Dutch Reformed church, an out- 
growth of the former society, was organized 
about 15 years ago, and has a neat house of 


On the aeth day of December, 1814, the 
Dutch church of Blooming Grove was formed. 
In the certificate of incorporation Matthew 
Van Alstyne, Guysbert Van Denbergh, Leonard 
Rysdorp and Samuel Earing, elders, and Mar- 
tin DeFreest, William Crannel, William W. Van 
Denbergh and John P. Witbeck, deacons, cer- 
tify that they took the name of "the Dutch 
church of Blooming Grove, in the town of 
Greenbush." The house of worship of this 
congregation, in Defreestville, is a very neat 
and commodious building. 


This society was established by the Albany 
Baptist missionary union, which erected the 
first building used by it as a place of worship. 
The First Baptist church of North Greenbush 
was organized January 6, 1866, in the mission 
building on the comer of Ferry and First 
streets, in Bath. The Rev. William F. Benedict 
became the first pastor of the congregation in 
January, 1866. In ~ 871 the first frame building 
was torn down, and a second frame 
structure erected on its site, which 

was destroyed by fire, January 21. 1874. 
A third frame building was erected in 1875, on 
the comer of First and Church streets, which 
was dedicated February 18, 1875, the services 
being conducted by the Rev. A. Waterbury, 
the Rev. John Love, the Rev. Frank Rodgers 
Morse, the Rev. D. M. Reeves, D. D., the Rev. 
C. W. Bridgeman, D. D., and the Rev. J. L. 
Ray, pastor. The building cost $10,000, and 
has a seating capacity for 400 persons. The 
present membership numbers about 175 per- 
sons. The following are the terms of the dif- 
ferent pastors of the congregation : The Rev. 
Wm. F. Benedict, January, 1866, to January, 
1869; the Rev. J. W. Hammond, November, 
1869 to September, 1870; the Rev. Wm. H. 
Donward, September, 1871 to August, 1872 ; the 
Rev. J. L. Ray, September, 1873, to September, 
1877 ; the Rev. R. N. Van Doren, the present 
pastor, from April 1, 1878. 


The organizatian of the Methodist Episcopal 
church of Bath was due to the active and suc- 
cessful efEorts of the Albany Methodist Sunday 
school union about the year 1867. The Rev. A. 
A. Farr in 1868, and the Rev. Louis A. Beaudry 
in 1869, were the first missionary pastors of 
this congregation. The present membership of 
the church is about 150 persons. 


This society was organized in Bath about the 
year 1872 by the Rev. A. Burdick. A neat 
frame church edifice was erected in 1874 on 
Second avenue, at a cost of {300, which has 
about 150 seats. The Rev. Aaron Burdick is 
the present pastor of the church. 


The Bath Hun was first published May 1, 
1874, by William H. Westfall. John D. 
Houghtaling succeeded him in the owner- 
ship of the paper, April 1, 1876. The publica- 
tion of the paper was discontinued August 1, 

The East Albany News, which was first is- 
sued October 16, 1875, and changed in October, 
1876, to the Oreentnush Democrat, was established 
by John D. Houghtaling, the publisher of the 
Bath Sun. 

The Evining Star, still published at Bath, was 
first issued in March, 1873, by C. F. R. Coe & 
Co. publishers. The paper is now known as 
the Euening Star and Sckodack Sentind, and is 
edited and owned by C. F. R. Coe. 


The manor house, north of Bath, was built 
about the year 1839 by William P. Van Rensse- 



laer, the son of the patroon of the east part of 
the manor of Rensselaerwyck. In August, 1850, 
Paul S. Forbes of New York city purchased the 
property for $62,500. 



.1,812 11870 S,0B8 

.8,110 1875 sese 

.2,57511880 4,238 





The Retreat of the New England Indians — Planting of the Tree 
OF Peace — A Puzzling Orthography — The Patent obtained by 
Albany — The Settlers of the Eight Schaghticoke Plantations 
— People of the Valley of Peace Massacred — Interesting Inci- 
dents of the Revolution — Homestead of the Knickerbackers — 
Its Curious Collection of Heirlooms — The Story about Old 
Tom — The Churches of Schaghticoke Point — Manufactories at 
Hart's Falls — Population. 

The pioneer life of the settlers of the territory 
of the upper Hudson has been nowhere more 
attractively surrounded with so many peculiar 
circumstances than on that portion of the 
province of New York now known as the town 
of Schaghticoke, in the county of Rensselaer. 
The great wilderness north of Albany with its 
darkly-foliaged woods, sequestered lakes and 
serpentine water-courses, was looked upon as 
a land of fatness by the acquisitive Hollanders 
who had emigrated to America in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. Fearlessly 
they ventured with their households into the 
Isolating depths of this vast forest-covered 
country and with industrious hands built them- 
selves homes, where for a long time came only 
hunting bands of game-seeking Indians. To 
these they gave shelter and hospitable welcome, 
which friendly kindnesses were amicably hon- 
ored for many years by the wild men, as the 
aborigines were called by th»Dutch people. 


The small band of Indians found occupying 
this part of the country was a remnant of that 
body of red men which Philip, the son of Mas- 
sasoit, had conunanded during the bloody and 
brief struggle known as King Philip's war, 
waged against the New England settlers, during 
the years 1675 and 1676. Being driven from 
place to place by the enraged settlers, the 
Peqaods sought safety by removing westward 
to the east bank of the Hudson. 


Speaking of these Indians, Cadwallader Col- 
den, in his history of the five Indian nations, 
1747, says that after the English got possession 
of the country of New Netherland, "the great- 
est number of the inhabitants of the province of 
New York being Dutch, still retained an affec- 
tion for their mother country, and by their 
aversion to the English weakened the adminis- 
tration. The common people of Albany, who 
are all Dutch, could not not forbear giving the 
Indians some ill impressions of the English ; for 
the Mohawks, in one of their publick speeches, 
.expressed themselves thus : 

" We hear a Dutch prince reigns now in Eng- 
land, why do you suffer the English soldiers to re- 
main in the fort ? Put all the English out of the 
town. When the Dutch held this country long 
ago we lay in their houses ; but the English have 
always made us lie without doors." 

" The people of New England were engaged 
in a bloody war at this time with the Owena- 
gungas, Ouragies and Ponacoks, the Indians 
that lie between them and the French settle- 
ments. The Scahkooks were originally part of 
these Indians. They left their country about 
the year 1672, and settled above Albany, on 
the branch of Hudson's river that runs 
toward Canada. The people of New 
England were jealous of the Scahkook 
Indians, that they remembering the old 
difference they had with the people of New Eng- 
land, and the relations they bore to the eastern 
Indians, did countenance and assist these 



Indians in tiie war against New England. They 
had reason for these jealousies, for the Scah-, 
kooli Indians received privately some Owena- 
gonga messengers, and kept their coming 
among them secret from the people of Albany ; 
and some Scahkooks had gone privately to the 
Owenagangas. They were afried, likewise, that 
the Mohawks might have some inclination to 
favor those Indians because some of the eastern 
Indians had fled to the Mohawks, and were 
kindly received by them and lived among them. " 


The most conspicnous object which still 
marks the old Indian council ground at Schagh- 
ticoke, is the famous tree of peace planted more 
than two centuries ago. Its wide spreading 
branches covering an acre of ground and its 
immense trunk, 22 feet in diameter, place it 
among the few old landmarks that remain to 
indicate the places of interesting occurrences 
in the early days of the settlement of this coun- 
try. When Richard, the earl of Bellmont, was 
governor of the province of New York, in 1700, 
the Indians living on the east banks of the Hud- 
son in their address to him, thus spoke of the 
event which the tree of peace commemorates : 

It Is DOW six and twenty years since wee were 
allmost dead when wee left New England and 
were first received into this government ; then it 
was that a tree was planted at Schakkook whose 
branches is spread that there Is a comfortable 
shade under the leaves of it : we are nnanlmously 
resolved to live and dye under the shadow of that 
Tree, and pray our Father to nourish and have a 
favorable aspect towards that Tree, for yon need 
not apprehend that tho' any of our people goe ont 
a hunting they will look out for another Country, 
since they like that place call'd Schakkook so 

In another address to Lieut. Gov. John Nan- 
fan in 1701, they said : 

We are now two hundred fighting men belonging 
to this county of Albany, from Eatsklll to Skach- 
kook, and hope to increase in a year's time to three 

July 20, 1702, the following is given as their 
number: "110 Indians at Skachcock; 87 be- 
low ye towne ; in all, 197 fighting men." 

In an answer made by the River Indians to 
his excellency, Edward Lord Cembury, governor 
of New York, July 20, 1702, they further related 
the particulars of the planting of the tree : 

About twenty-six years agoe sUr Edmund An- 
dros, then Qovernor of this Province, planted a 
Tree of welfare at Shachkook and Invited us to 
come and Itve there, which we very luckily com- 
plyed witbaU, and we have had the good fortune 
ever since that we have increased that Tree and 
ye very leaves thereof are grown hard and strong, 
the Tree is grown so thick of leaves and bows that 

ye sun can scarcely shine throw It, yea the fire it- 
self cannot consume it, (meaning that they are 
now so strong that they do not much fear ye 
enemy), and we now desire that our Father Cor- 
laer may strengthen that Tree and canse ye leaves 
to grow so thick that no sunn at all may shine 
throw it. 


In the early days of our country's history 
there was no apparent uniform way of spelling 
proper names, and every writer, it seems, 
adopted a mode of phonetic orthography best 
suited to his individual purpose. The following 
are some of the early forms in which the 
name of Schaghticoke, as now written, was 

Scatfcoke, Scaacticook, Scaclikook, Scaghti- 
oook, Scatikook, Schacbtacook, Schaokhook, 
Scdiackoooke, Schacthook, Sohaggkooke, Schagh- 
ticoke, Schakhook, Schaticoke, Schantecoqne, 
Shaakkooke, Skaahkook, Schaahtecogue, Skach- 
cook, Skachkook, Skachhook, Skackhook, Skack- 
kook, Shackkooke and Schaaghticoke. 

There have been a number of fanciful inter- 
pretations given to the word, but as the true 
orthography of it has never been determined It 
would be more pertinent to the subject first to 
establish its derivation. 


Besides granting unto individuals the right to 
acquire land by purchase from the Indians, per- 
mission was also given, as will be seen, to 
corporations, such as those of cities, to obtain 
the same. What is known as the patent of 
Albany, dated July 22, 1686, obtained from Gov. 
Thomas Dongan, allowed that city to secure 
from the Indian o?mers a tract of land at 
Schaghticoke, containing 500 acres. It reads as 
follows : 

And I do by these presents give and grant unto 
the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the 
city of Albany and their successors, full liberty 
and hcense at their pleasure, to purchase from the 
Indians the quantity of 600 acres of low or 
meadow land, lying at a certain place called or 
known by the name of Schaahtecogne, which 
quantity of BOO acres shall, and may be, in what 
part of Schaahtecogue, or land adjacent, as they, 
the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the 
city of Albany shall think most convenient. 

Gk)v. Fletcher, March 29, 1698, granted a 
patent to Hendrick Van Rensselaer, which per- 
mitted him to purchase from the Indians a tract 
of land " by Skachkook's creek," and extend- 
ing easterly from Hudson's river, six English 
miles. As the latter grant embraced a i>ortion 
of the land desired by the city of Albany, the 
two parties entered into an agreement Augnst S, 
1698, whereby Hendrick Van Rensselaer con- 



reyed hla patent for a consideration to the city 
of Albany, August 8, 1699. 


The Indians at Schaghticoke being per- 
suaded by the authorized parties representing 
the city of Albany to convey to the corporation 
a tract of land, did so, as is shown by the min- 
utes of the proceedings of the mayor, aldermen 
and commonalty of Albany, February 28, 
1706-7: Commonalty have Lately Besolved 
to send to Hasbahaes and other Indian owners of 
ye land & woodland Caled Shaaktelcook to ye 
End that ye Comonality might agree & purchase 
the same for ye Behoofe of ye Citty in order there- 
to ye sd Indians doe here appear, yizt Uashabaes 
& Haohatawe who after some time Spent in mak- 
ing an agreemnt the said Uashahaes & Mach- 
atawe for themselyes & on ye behalfe of 
Caemskaek aesiah qnanoh Jan Coneel Schacha- 
empe Taasawampe and Ahantowanit Indian 
owners and native proprietors of ye Sd lands 
& woodlands hare sold & transported ye 
sd land Scltuate on ye East side of hudson's River 
tbove ye half-moon Commonly Caled Scbaabkook 
is bounded on ye west side by ye sd river on ye 
south side of ye bounds Eghbt Tonise & Barent al- 
bertse bratt & Runns northwarde along the said 
River side to ye End of two mUes from Schaah- 
kooks (%«eke and Striks from thence into ye 
woods by an East line twelve miles and on the 
South Side by a South east line 14 miles or so much 
further that ye line on ye East side doth Compre- 
hend and take in ye third Carryeing place on ye 
said Schaahkooks Creek which Carryeing place is 
the outmost bounds of sd Scbaahkook lands East- 
ward as by Conveyance bearing Even date here- 
with may more fully appear, whereof is yt to be 
paid in June next unto ye sd Mashahaes, etc 2 
blankets, 13 duffel coats, 30 shirts 2 guns, twelve 
pounds ponder, 86 pounds of Lead, 8 gallons of 
Rom, 2 Casks Beer, 2 Rolls Tobacco, 10 gallons 
Medera wine & some pypes, and moreover yearly 
to l>e paid and delivered unto ye sd Indian Maslia- 
haes or his heirs in ye month off Octobr during 
the Space of tenn years commencing from ye day, 
1 blanket 1 shirt 1 pair stockings 1 Lapp, 1 Eegg 
Rom 3 pounds ponder 6 pounds Lead 12 pounds To- 
bacco and that a writtering sliall be given to ye sd 
Masabaes for about 12 acres of Low Land on 
Shaahkook at such place as ye Commonalty shall 
lay it out ft that ye same must be Laid & Kept In 
fence at ye Charge of ys Citty on occasion so that 
ye sd Mashahaes & his heirs may Cultivate & 
make use thereof for ever Sc none other by his or 
there meanes unleesehe or they shall first have de- 
posed of this priviledge unto ye Mayr Recorder, 
Aldermen and Conmionalty for ye behooffe of ye 
sd Citty which writterings is as followith : etc. 


In order to secure the settlement of the land 
thus pnrcha sed from the Indians the tract was 

to be divided into eight parts, "containing 
each five and twenty morgen or fifty acres of 
low land under the hill by the said Sachtekook 
creek, and five morgen or ten acres of upland 
towards the said hill, all adjoining together." 

It was provided that " if any person or per- 
sons who shall farm any of the said plantations 
containing altogether two hundred morgens or 
four hundred acres of low land towards the 
said hill and forty morgens or eighty acres of 
upland as aforesaid shall together divide the 
said eight plantations as equal as they shall or 
may agree among themselves." 

Each plantation which was conveyed by in- 
denture given September 1, 1708, was leased 
for £15 current money, and after the expiration 
of six years " two schepel of good winter wheat 
off of each morgen or two acres " was also to 
be paid yearly forever. Buildings were to be 
erected and improvements made three years 
after the date of the conveyances. 

These plantations were disposed of on July 
10, 1708, as shown by the minutes of the com- 
mon council of Albany : 

The Commonalty Seeing yt here are twenty per- 
sons willing Each to have a Plantation of Sachte- 
kook on ye aforesd Conditions, ordered ye Clerk 
to write Eight Billets for ye Eight Plantations and 
twelf Billets Blank and to Let them all draw, wh 
they accordingly did out of Hr. Mayor hatt and 
they tbat gett ye Billett to have a Plantation were 
these vizt. Danibl Eitilhutk, 

Jobs Cutlib, 
Jobs habkersx [Vischib], 
Joes D. WAnni^AiB, Juhb., 
Babxnt euBBrrsz, 
CoBNius van Bkcbin, 
EoBSST vmnzB, 
DmE VAN DIB Himiii. 

On the 31st of August, 1708, it was resolved 
by the commonalty that a general indenture 
should be written and given unto the aforesaid 
eight persons. 


Besides the disposal of the eight plantations 
to the persons already named, several others, it 
appears, were desirous of obtaining landed 
property at Schaghticoke. The following entry 
is in the proceedings of the common council, at 
Albany, dated January 8, 1708-9 : 

Petitions of Jobs. Knickerbacker and dirk Van 
Vechten whereby they desire ye water Run on the 
hemacks kill at Schactekook ware a convenenoy 
may be found fit to erect a sawmill on together 
with a privilege to cut saw logs within ye Citty 
bound there for ye use of Such mill and also 
Ground needful were such mill shall be erected. 

The conveyance by which the firstr-named 
petitioner became entitled to the possession of 
land at S chaghticoke is an indenture made the 



thirteenth day of October, 1709, in the eighth 
year of the reign of Queen Anne, between 
Evert Bancker, mayor, and the commonalty of 
the city of Albany, of the first part, and 
Johannes Enickerbacker of the manor of Rens- 
selaerwyck, miller, of the other part ; the latter, 
for the sum of £16 10s., current money of New 
Tork, secured 80 morgens of land belonging to 
the city of Albany, being in two parcels, " at 
Schaahtikook." This instnunent is signed by 
the party of the second part in this manner : 
"J. K. Backer." 


The following persons are named as free- 
holders in "Schaatkooke" in 1720: Samuel 
Doxie, Cnrset Fether [Eorset Vedder ?] Johan- 
nis Enickerbacker, Derrick Van Vechten, Jo- 
faannis De Wandelaer, Simon Danielse [Eetel- 
huyn?], Martin Delamon [de La Mont?], Lewis 
Fele [Viele?], Daniel Eetlyne [Ketelhuyn?], 
Peter Winne, Adrian Quacumbus and Abram 

Subsequently the following names of persons 
appear in conveyances and other papers as liv- 
ing at Schaghticoke : Sybrandt Van Schaick, 
Harme Enickerbacker, Johannis Groesbeeck, 
Daniel Fort, Isaac Fort, Gerrit Van Bommel, 
Dr. Nicholas Young, Abraham Beecker, Peter 
Viele, Peter Benoway, Simon De Freest, Lewis 
Van Antwerp, James Burris, Jacob Fort, Henry 
Van Beuren, Peter Tates, John Hansen, Caroll 
Toll, Cornelius W. Van Denbergh, Wynant 
Van Denbergh, Marte Winnie and Lewis Mago. 


The peaceful valley of Schaghticoke, with its 
numerous farm-houses and cultivated fields, 
was, in the year 1746, invaded by French 
soldiery and bands of Indian allies. Many of 
the settlers, at the first intimation of the dan- 
gerous proximity of the approaching enemy, 
hastily forsook their homes and removed south 
to Albany and its neighborhood. A few of the 
more intrepid remained to see the ruthless foe 
devastate with fire and slaughter the once happy 
valley of peace. One of the darkest records 
of this hostile invasion of the French and In- 
dians is that of the massacre and captivity of the 
members of the Eittle family. The narrative of 
the barbarous attack upon these settlers at 
Schaghticoke is briefly as follows : When the 
first intelligence of the bloody acts of the in- 
vaders in the more northern part of the province 
was received by Mr. Eittle, he persuaded his 
brothers then living near Fort Edwaid to make 
their homes with his family, which consisted of 
his wife, a young daughter about 14 years of 
age, and a young son. On the closer approach 
of tha hostile French and terrifying savages, it 

was thought best by Mr. Eittle and his brothers, 
who had removed to Schaghticoke, to leave this 
threatened point and retire with the family to 
the city of Albany, as the neighbors had pre- 
viously done. A number of Indians that 
was on apparently friendly terms with 
the Eittles seeing the preparations for 
departure going on, came to the 
house and endeavored to dissuade the inmates 
that they had no cause for fear, and should 
there be any danger they would apprise them 
in time to make their escape. In order to allay 
their apprehensions the Indians presented Mrs. 
Eettle with a belt of wampum in token of their 
friendship. It is said that notwithstanding this 
amicable show of good feeling on the part of 
the Indians, Mr. Eettle was still fearful of im- 
pending evil. On the day following the visit of 
the supposed friendly Indians, Mr. Eettle and 
his brother Peter left the house for a brief hunt 
in the neighboring woods. On their return, 
and when very near home, Peter shot a deer. 
Immediately upon the discharge of his gun 
they were confronted by two Indians, who 
fired at them their pieces, killing Mr. Eittle's 
brother. Mr. Eittle, aware of his dangerous 
surroundings, at once brought down one of the 
savages with a well-aimed shot, and with the 
butt of his gun struck the other senseless to 
the earth. Taking his brother's corpse upon 
his horse, he hurried home with the news of the 
menacing danger. He then hastened on horse- 
back to the hamlet at Schaghticoke to procure 
the necessary conveyance for his family and 
household goods to Albany. Shortly after hid 
departure, his house was surrounded by 
a party of Indians, who with fearful 
war-whoops, demanded an entrance at the 
closed door. They, however, soon with hellish 
fury entered the house, and with their bloody 
instruments of death murdered a second 
brother of Mr. Eittle and that brother's wife, 
in a most shocking maimer. Mrs. Eittle and 
her brother-in-law Henry were permitted an 
escape from their bloody tomahawks, but the 
Eittle children were burned in the flames which 
consumed the house. On Mr. Eittle's return 
he found only the mangled and charred remains 
of the persons that lay in the smoking embers 
of his burned house. Uninformed of his wife's 
and brother's captivity, he mourned them 
as dead. Having endured all the hor- 
rors consequent upon the terrible ordeal 
through which they had passed, the 
captives at length arrived in Montreal. 
Here Mrs. Eittle found another married 
woman, Mrs. Bratt, who also had been taken 
prisoner by the Indians and French. For two 
years Mrs. Eittle was kindly cared for by sym- 



pathizing women in Montreal, but all her en- 
dearors to commnnicate with her mourning 
hnsband seemed fruitless. By good fortune, 
however, Mr. Kittle ftnally found his supposed 
murdered wife and brother, and heard the story 
of the massacre with all its distressing details. 

During this calamitous time Herman Van 
Vechten, the son of Dirck Van Vechten, one of 
the first settlers of Schaghticoke, was also shot 
by the Indians, on the 23th of April, 1746. 

For the purpose of protecting the farmers, 
who again returned to their despoiled farms. 
Gov. CUnton posted, in March, i©, two com- 
panies of soldiers at Schaghticoke. > 

THE WAR OF 1755. 

In 1755, a second war brought terror to the 
peace-loving settlers at Schaghticoke. Again 
the French and Indians invaded the country 
from Canada and drove the farmers along the 
upper Hudson to places of security in the 
vicinity of Albany. The heavy boards of a 
farm-hoi^se, some distance east of the Knicker- 
backer homestead, pierced with shots from the 
fort occupied by the French, are still preserved 
to show the marks of actual hostilities, in 1755, 
in that vicinity. 

It was in consequence of these invasions 
that the common council of the city of Albany 
informed the general assembly, June 10, 1755, 
that the "corporation has no income from 
their tenants at Schagtekook, who are all 
obliged to leave their farms, and are in a man- 
ner ruined, and this corporation is at least a 
thousand pounds indebted, occasioned by the 
last French war." 


The cause of education, however, seems not to 
have been forgotten after the war's rude alarms. 
A school had been organized and a teacher em- 
ployed to teach the children of the people gath- 
ered about the hamlet of Schaghticoke. His 
acquisitiveness is exhibited in his application 
to the city of Albany for a portion of land 
which was granted him during the time of his 
good behavior. This grant is entered in the 
proceedings of the common council : 

JtTLT 8, 1762.— The schoolmaster at Schaagkook 
made application to this corporation for a piece of 
wood land, which they grant him so long a time as 
he remains sohoolmaster for that place and be- 
haves himself well, and no longer. 


As early as the year 1770 it had become a cus- 
tom for the mayor and members of the com- 
mon council of the city of Albany, to make 
annual visits to Schaghticoke for the purpose of 
attending to such matters as were connected 
with the occupancy of the lands belonging to 

the corporation. These occasions at the time 
of their occurrence were no doubt attended with 
some inconvenience "and expense, and the pe- 
culiar provision made to meet them, was cer- 
tainly a most generous one. 

This indenture made and concluded this 28th 
day of February, In the eleventh year of the reign 
of our sovereign lord George the third, etc., and in 
the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred 
and seventy-one between the mayor, aldermen 
and commonality of the city of Albany of the one 
part and John Enlckerbacker, jr., of Schatacoock 
in the county of Albany of the other part wit- 
nesseth, that the said mayor, aldermen and com- 
monality of the city of Albany for and in consider- 
ation of the sum of five shillings current money of 
the province of New York. * « • convey all 
that certain piece or parcel of land lying and being 
at Schatacoock and begins at the month of Schata- 
coock creek, containing three hundred and fifty- 
nine acres. 

This grant was to continue to the said John 
Knickerbocker, so long as he would supply and 
provide at his house the said authorities or any 
commmittee of the city of Albany, whenever 
they visited Schaghticoke, and during their stay 
there, with sufficient meat, drink and lodging, 
and their horses with good grain, hay or good 

Among the duties imposed upon committees 
of the common council of Albany was the fol- 

Febbuakt 11, 1776.— Three members are author- 
ized and empowered to collect from their tenants 
at Schactekook the Fowles which are dne and in 
arrear to the corporation. 


The general assembly of New York, March 
24, 1772, passed "An act to divide the counties 
of Albany and Tryon into districts." The pro- 
visions of the act respecting that division of 
Albany county known by the name of Schacte- 
koke district reads as follows : 

All that part of the said county of Albany which 
is bounded as follows, to wit : On the south by 
Bensselaerwyck district ; on the north by a line 
south 84° east, drawn from the mouth of Lewis's 
creek or kill, and on the east by a straight line 
drawn from a point in the north bounds of Bens- 
selaerwyck district, 13 miles distant from Hud- 
son's river, to a point in said line from the mouth 
of Lewis's creek or kiU, at 10 miles distant from 
Hudson's river, and on the west by Hudson's river, 
shall be one separate and distinct district, and be 
henceforth called and known by the name of 
Schactekoke district. 


When the clouds of war lowered in 1775 over 
the American colonies there was found in the 
hearts of the people of Schaghtlcolce a spirit of 



independence and a firm determination not to 
submit as slaves to BritiBh oppression. CoLJohn 
Enickerbacker, having been commissioned col- 
onel October 20, 1775, was placed in command 
of the fourteenth regiment of state militia, 
composed of cempanies organized in the dis- 
tricts of Hoosick and Schaghticoke. 

The following is the roster of the regiment, 
October 20, 1775: 

Colonel, Jobn Knlckerbacker ; lieutenant colonel, 
David Bratt ; Srst major. Derrick Van Yechten ; 
second major, John Tan Rensselaer ; adjutant, 
Charles H. Toll ; quartermaster, Ignas Kip. 

Mrtt Cbmpony— Captain, HenderiokVanderhoof; 
first lieutenant, Samuel Eetchum ; second lieuten- 
ant, Nathaniel Ford ; ensign, Jacob Hallenbeck. 

Second Company— Captain, Walter N. Qroves- 
beck ; first lieutenant, Wynant Yandenbergh ; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Peter Davenport; ensign, Jacob 

Third Company— Captahi, John J. Bleecker ; first 
lieutenant, John Snyder ; second lieutenant, Mat- 
thew D. Oamo ; ensign, Stephen Thorn. 

I^rth Company— Captain, Lewis Van Woerdt ; 
first lieutenant, John Schouten ; second lieutenant, 
Joseph Boyce ; ensign, John Horrel. 

Mjfth Oom^xiny— Captain, Fenner Palmer; first 
lieutenant, John Johnson ; second lieutenant, 
James Williamson ; ensign, Jonathan Davis. 

Bixth Company— Captain, Daniel B. Bratt ; first 
lieutenant, Michael Campman ; second lieutenant, 
Isaac Lansing; ensign, Francis Hogle. 

Seventh Company— C&ptain, Van Bensselaer ; 

first lieutenant, Michael Byan ; ensign, Peter Hart- 

JfifiufeJfcn— Captain, John J. Bleecker ; first lieu- 
tenant, William Thorn ; second lieutenant, Thomas 
Hicks ; ensign, Jonathan Bowland. 

These and other officers, with the men in the 
ranks, in doing the duties assigned them in the 
army of the North nnder Gens, Schnyler and 
Ghttes achieved a prond record which is still re- 
called in the traditions of the people of Schagh- 

Previous to the introdnction of the militia of 
Schaghticoke into the stem realities of the war 
similar notices to the following were sent to 
the company commanders in the districts : 

Scai.cTiKooK, May 80, 1776.— Captain John 
Sthdib, or the next Conmiandlng OtScer at Tom- 
haniok. Sear Mr : By order of Qen. TenBroeok, 
it is now become my duty, as we do not know 
how soon the country may call upon us for mili- 
tary service, to earnestly recommend it unto you 
to use your utmost endeavor with 'the company 
under your command, as well as officers as pri- 
vates, that they shall pay due obedience and strict- 
ly observe the rules and orders for regulating the 
militia of the colony of New Tork, recommended 
by the Provincial Congress, the2Sd day of August, 
and the aoth day of December last ; and, in pai^ 
tlcular, the 6tb, 7tb and 8th sections of said rules 

and orders, and the fifth section of the appendix 
to the said rules and orders. If you or any of yonr 
officers have not the printed rules, they may be 
furnished them by applying nnto Matthew VIsher, 
esq., secretary of the committee for the city and 
county of Albany. And, also, I desire that yon 
furnish me with a list of the company under yonr 
command by the 5th day of June next, and inform 
me In what manner the men are equipped as to 
arms, ammunition and accoutrements, I am yonr 
most truly humble servant, 

John Knickikbackkb, 


When, in 1777, Bnrgoyne had reached the 
waters of the upper Hudson, the call for men 
to resist the advance of the British Invader was 
immediately answered by the militia force of 
the district of Schaghticoke, As jnstly said by 
a patriotic member of the Enickerbacker 
family, in his centennial oration, July 4, 1876 : 

At the time of the engagement at Stillwater 
(more generally known as the battle of Saratoga), 
the hillsides surrounding the present qnlet valley 
of old Schaghticoke were often the rendezvous, or 
resting-place, for the forces on their way to and 
from the scene of action, while the ancient fort 
or block-house, erected during the Indian incur- 
sions, was taken possession of by a troop of 
Hessian soldiery, in the service of the British, and 
who were not especially scrupulous in their 
maraudings upon the domains of the neighboring 

While Bnrgoyne was tarrying on the banks 
of the Hudson previous to the battle of Bemis 
Heights, scouting parties ventured in search of 
information and secreted stores into the neigh- 
boring country. As the fanners had mostly 
deserted their homes, now and then, dnilng 
this time, one or more men ventured back 
to them for the purpose of observation and 
Intelligence. With this object in view it was 
that Major Derick Van Yechten with Solomon 
Acker crossed the Hndson. While they were 
guardedly gathering information they were 
fired upon by the enemy, when crossing the 
country in the fields now belonging to the farm 
of Jacob Yates, Shots were exchanged on 
both sides. Having several times been slightly 
wounded by the flying bullets, Major Yan 
Yechten was at length mortally wonnded by a 
ball passing through his tobacco box into bis 
body. Confident of the danger of his com- 
panion, he persuaded Solomon Acker to flee 
and save his own life. Acker succeeded in 
escaping, and returned with a detachment 
of soldiers for the body of his dead neighbor. 
The perforated tobacco box Is still preserved as 
a relic of the dark days of the revolution by the 
Yan Yechten family. 




On the approach of the invading army of 
Burgoyne, Capt. John J. Bleecker, for the pur- 
pose of securing a temporary home for bis 
alarmed family, harried to Albany with that 
object in view. The day after his departun 
the news reached the ears of Mrs. Bleecker that 
massacring bands of Indians and plundering sol- 
diers were within two miles of the hamlet of 
Schaghticoke. Wildly alarmed by this sudden 
intelligence, the frightened woman hastened, 
with her yonngest child in her arms and 
another about four years old caught by 
the hand, in company with a young negro 
girl, down the road toward Albany, filled 
with the conveyances of other fleeing peo- 
ple. She walked in this way for about five 
miles, when her children were taken 
into one of the wagons passing southward. 
Having made the journey on foot, she at length 
arrived at Lansingburgh, " where she expected 
to find many friends, but she was deceived ; no 
door was open to her whose house by many of 
them had ' been made use of as a home. She 
wandered from house to house, and at length 
obtained a place in the garret of a rich old ac- 
quaintance, where a couple of blankets 
stretched upon some bare boards were offered 
as a bed. She, however, sat up all night and 
wept, and the next morning Mr. Bleecker, 
coming from Albany, met them and returned to 
that city, from whence they set off with several 
other families by water." 

Mrs. Bleecker, in 1781, was subjected a sec- 
ond time to a terrifying beUef that her husband 
had been murdered by a party of hostile In- 
dians. While taking in his harvest, he with 
two other men were captured and hurried off in 
the direction of Canada. Her husband not re- 
turning at the accustomed time to the house, 
she, fearing some evil, sent a servant to the 
field to bring her information, who came back 
telling her that the men were not to be fonnd, 
but that the horses and wagons which they had 
been nsing were in the road, the horses being 
tied to a tree. The neighbors carefully searched 
the adjacent fields and woods, but the men 
could not be found. In her distressed condition 
Mis. Bleecker, thinking her husband forever lost 
to her, that same night, started for Albany. But 
her mourning was turned into joy, for a few 
days afterward her husband was recovered from 
his captors by a party from Bennington. 


The general assembly, March 7, 1788, passed 
" An act for dividing the counties of this state 
into towns." It was by this act that the town 

of Schaghticoke was erected. The bounds of 
the town were the following : 

All that part of said oonnty of Albany bounded 
southerly by the said town of Bensselaerwyck, 
westerly by Hudson's river, northerly by a line be- 
ginning at the mouth of Lewis's creek or kill, and 
running from thence south 84° east to Hudson's 
river, and easterly and southerly by a line running 
from thence down along Hoslck river as it runs to 
the place where Toll's bridge formerly stood, and 
then due south to the road leading from St. Hoick 
to Albany, and then along the same road to the 
north bounds of Rensaelaerwyck, shall be and 
hereby is erected into a town by the name of 

The first town officers elected under this act, 
as entered in the rucords of the town, were the 
following : 

Record of town officers chosen on the seventh 
and eighth of April, one thousand seven hundred 
and eighty-nine, at the house of John Carpenter : 

Town clerk, Silas Wlckes ; supervisor, Jacob A. 
Lansing; assessors, Nicholas Groesbeck, Zepha- 
nlah Russell, Abraham Yiele, Jacob Tates, Martin 
Weatherwax ; overseers of the poor, Walter N. 
Oroesbeck, James Masters, Fennel Bacon ; com- 
missioners for roads, James S. Masters, John W. 
Groesbeck, William Kittle ; constables, John Story, 
Sybrandt Viele, Jacob Groesbeck ; collector, 
William Oroesbeck; pathmasters, Jared Esbell, 
Ashley Goodrich, Richard Bennett, John Einnion, 
Walter N. Groesbeck, Athniel Sambums, Harrison 
Qnackenbusb, John W. Oroesbeck, Abraham 
Vlele, Garret Waldion, Peter Yates ; fence viewers, 
Walter N. Groesbeck, Asa Havens, Nathaniel 
Rnsco ; poundmaster, Walter N. Oroesbeck. 


The return of the anniversary day of our 
national independence was yearly honored after 
the revolution by the people of Schaghticoke. 
The following are parts of the recorded pro- 
ceedings of the citizens of the town July 4, 

A respectable number of the inhabitants of the 
town of Schaghticoke convened at the house of 
Jesse Jadwin on the 4th of July, 1798, to celebrate 
the anniversary of American independence, where 
they partook of an elegant dinner and spent the 
day in conviviality and merriment, and received a 
federal salute from a number of militia, who at- 
tended on the occasion. 

Among the toasts of the day were : 
May we never pay tribute to any nation except 
in powder and ball. May the tree of liberty, which 
blossoms with the American cockade, flourish 
trimflphantly in the soil of America and root out 
all foreign obnoxious weeds. 

Another company assembled at Mr. Yiele's 
for the celebration of the birth of our national 
existence. "The ceremonies were introduced 
by a song, wherein was developed the progress 



of the Revolution," etc. " Mr. Howell Gardner 
then delivered an oration pertinent to the occa- 
sion ; after which a song, composed for the day 
was sung. The company then partook of a 
repast of the delicious bounties of nature, the 
rich reward of independence." 


The old homestead of the Knickerbacker fam- 
ily is one of the Interesting monuments which 
remain at Schaghticoke to invest the pictur- 
esque valley of peace with many quaint and 
historical associations. A pleasant ride of five 
miles westward from Hart's Falls, early known 
as Schaghticoke Point, brings the visitor be- 
fore the venerable mansion, which is charming- 
ly embowered by a number of stately trees, 
whose great leafy branches spread their grate- 
ful shade over its vine^Jlad walls. Seated with- 
in tne welcoming arms of the comfort- 
able chairs on the front porch, a 
most delightful landscape attracts and 
charms the eye with its varied scenery. 
The old front door, with its upper and lower 
sections swinging separately upon heavy iron 
hinges, forcibly recalls the days of a past cen- 
tury and the people living within its portals. 
The big brass knocker, or as the Dutch people 
would say, de groot koper kUrpper, is still at- 
tached to the upper half of the door. Entering 
into the ball the visitor is surrounded with nu- 
merous mementoes of lang syne. Besides the 
quaint Dutch furniture which attracts one's 
examination, upon the wall are suspended some 
of the prized heir-looms of the ECnickerbacker 
family. Over the parlor door is hung the mem- 
orial platter to Hermanns Knickerbacker, 1768. 
It is a thick, heavy silver dish, about 15 inches 
in diameter, and has on its rim this inscrip- 

Sne GedastenlE van Herman Knickerbacker die 
is overleeden op den 18 de September A. D. 1768 
Oud STude 8 en 50 jaeren 8 maanden ende 18 

Above the back hall door hangs the sword of 
Col. John Knickerbacker, worn by him at the 
battle of Stillwater, 1777. With it are suspended 
an old powder horn, a sickle and a military 
sash. Among the other curiosities of the hall 
way are an old fashioned brass warming pan, 
and a foot stove which, filled with' live coals, 
was borne to the old Dutch church, In winter, to 
warm the feet of the Knickerbacker dames.. 

In the parlor is the Dutch family clock more 
than two centuries old, made by Day. Moras 
Mnchty. Here one sees the tiles of the fire- 
place ornamented with scriptural scenes, and a 
large collection of relics consisting of silver 
shoe-buckles, watch-fobs, cloak-fastenings, 

Indian arrow-heads, stone hatchets, snuff- 
boxes, etc. 


The old Dutch Bible used by the ministers of 
the first Beformed Protestant Dutch church of 
Schaghticoke, is here also preserved in its origi- 
nal heavy board binding and brass clasps. The 
title i>age of the old testament is torn out, but 
the other leaves and the engraving are retained. 
The new testament title page reads : 

Het Nieuwe Testament ofte alle Boecken des 
Nlenwen Verbonts onses Heeren Jesn Chrlsti Door 
Last van de Hoog : Mog : Heeren Staaten Qenerael 
Der Veereenighde Nederlanden, ende volgens 't 
Besluyt vaude Synode Nationael, gehonden tot' 
Dordrecht, in de Jaren 1618 ende 1619, etc. • * • 
Te Dordrecht by Hendriok-en-Jacob-Keur en t' 
Amsterdam by Marcos Doomeck, incompagnie 
Ao. 1682. 

The arms of the Knickerbacker family are 
seen in a painting hanging on the parlor wall. 
Below the figure of a helmet is a lion rampant 
and three Maltese crosses. The Dutch motto 
reads : " Die Stryd met Fortuyn wint," " Who 
strives with fortune wins." 

Every room in the house Is full of novel sur- 
prises. The spacious cellar, the great bam, the 
old well with its weighted sweep-pole and the 
venerable tree of peace, at a close remove from 
the house, attract the attention of the visitor. 


At a short distance northwest of the house is 
the burying ground of the Knickerbacker 
family. In this Grod's acre stand the stone 
monuments which mark the last resting place 
of many of the Knickerbackers. 

Here is found a rude gray stone slab on which 
Is inscribed : " In memory of Johannes Knick- 
erbacker, died 1749, aged 70 years. His wife 
Anna, died 1732, aged 57." 

Near by is a white marble tablet marking the 
grave of their son : " In memory of Col. John 
Knickerbacker, who departed this life, 16th 
August, 1802, in the 79th year of his age." 

The grave of the colonel's son is designated 
by an Inscribed stone : "In memory of John 
Knickerbacker, Esq., who was born January 29, 
1751, old style, and departed this life November 
10, 1827, new style." 

The tombstone of the eldest son of Johannes 
Knickerbacker, the first of the family settling 
at Schaghticoke, is thus Inscribed : " Sacred to 
the memory of Herman Knickerbacker, who 
died September 6, 1769, in the fifty-ninth year 
of his age." 

Here is to be seen the grave of that worthy 
and genial gentleman who was so widely known 
as Prince Knickerbacker, son of John Knlcker- 



backer, the third. " Herman Kniokerbacker, a 
representative in the eleventh congress of the 
United States, and for many years judge of the 
covmty of Rensselaer. Born July 27, 1779 ; 
died June 30, 1855." 

The father of Joseph Foster Knickerbacker, 
the present occupant of the homestead, is also 
buried here. His tomb is marked by a large 
stone monument, on which is inscribed: 
"Abraham Knickerbacker, born April 7th, 
1796 ; died March 11, 1869. Mary Ann Hale, 
his wife, bom April 39, 1806 ; died March 18th, 

The grave stone of the brother of Joseph 
Foster Knickerbocker is inscribed : "In mem- 
ory of John Hale, son of Abraham and Mary 
Ann Knickerbacker, bom March 16, 1829 : died 
June 17, 1858." 

John Hale Knickerbacker was a graduate of 
Union college and also of the Rensselaer Poly- 
technic institute, and was for a time a member 
of the firm of Wallace & Knickerbacker, drug- 
gists, on River street, Troy. He had a cultured 
taste for Dutch literature, and wrote the gene- 
alogy of the family in the Dutch language, and 
at the time of his death had in preparation for 
the press a Dutch grammar. 

By the side of his grave is that of his sister, 
Mary E. Knickerbacker, who died on the eve of 
her graduation from the Troy female seminary, 
July 30, 1846, aged 16 years and 5 months. 

The durability of wood is practically exhib- 
ited by the excellent preservation of a pitch- 
pine head-board, standing in this graveyard, 
which bears date of 1773. 

The marble monument " erected by the con- 
sistory of the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
church of the city of New York in commemo- 
ration of the services of the Rev. Lambertns 
De Ronde " is a conspicuous object in this 
burial ground. On it, besides the above para- 
graph, Is the following inscription : 

Bev. Lambertns De Sonde, minister of the Ke- 
formed Protestant Dutch church in the city of New 
York, bom in Holland, 1719, settled in the ministry 
at New York, 1751, died at Schagticoke, 1795, aged 
76 years. 


In that part of the burial ground where the 
slaves and servants of the Knickerbacker fam- 
ily are buried is a rude stone on which are the 
memorial words " Old Tom," who had been a 
most devoted servant for almost 90 years. 
Among the stories handed down of Tom's 
many peculiarities is this one : Old Tom's 
arithmetic was limited, and he could not enu- 
merate higher than three. On one occasion, it 
is said, It became necessary for him to count 
the sheep of a flock. Being placed at the en- 

trance of a field, he was told to count them 
out in a loud voice as they passed him. As the 
sheep ran through the gate Tom called out : 
"One! two! tree! Dar goes anudderl dar 
goes anudder ! dar goes anudder 1" " Stop 1" 
cried his master, " what do you mean by that ?" 
" Why, massa," said Tom, " I done count no 
more than tree; I tought I could, but I 


Herman Jansen Knickerbacker, son of 
Johannes Von Bergen Knickerbacker, it is said, 
was the first person of the Knickerbacker name 
that emigrated to America. Shortly after his 
arrival in New Netherland he married the 
daughter of Myndert Hermance Von de Bogert, 
commissary at Fort Orange. Of his seven 
children his eldest was Johannes Knickerback- 
er, the first settler of that name that obtained a 
tract of land from the authorities of the city of 
Albany at Schaghticoke. 


Tradition asserts that there was a church or- 
ganization effected at a very early date in 
Schaghticoke, and that the first house of wor- 
ship was burned at the time of the French and 
Indian war. A new meeting house was erected, 
it is said, in 1760, opposite the red school house, 
about a mile east of the Knickerbacker home- 
stead. This building was a frame one, 60 by 40 
feet, with low walls and a light pitched roof. 
At the east end of the edifice was a bulbous 
turret, surmounted by a weather cock. The 
octagonal pulpit, cramped and elevated, had 
its accompanying canopy and sounding board. 
The desk of the " voorlezer," or reading clerk, 
was immediately in front of the pulpit. 

Among the petitions in 1780 presented to the 
common council of Albany was one " signed by 
Johannes Knickerbacker, jr., in behalf of the 
elders and deacons of the Reformed Dutch 
church at Schaghtekoke * • * praying a 
grant of one acre of land adjoining the lands 
of Walter N. Groesbeck." 

The following is a part of the certificate of the 
incorporation of the church, found among the 
church patents in the office of the clerk of Al- 
bany county : 

We, the subscribers, elders and deacons of the 
Reformed Protestant Dutch church or congrega- 
tion, lately formed and established at Schagticook, 
in the county of Albany, having assembled to- 
gether at the said church on this fourth day of 
November, in the year 1788, « • * certify that 
the trustees of the said church or congregation, 
and their successors forever shall as a body cor- 
porate be called * • * the ministers, elders and 
deacons of the Reformed Protestant Dutch church 
of Sohagtlkook. -Signed by Peter Benewy, John 



Enlckerbacker, jr., Hannan Qnaokenboss and 
Peter P. Wlnne. 

In 1833 the old building was torn down and a 
more modem structure erected on its site. A 
number of years ago this building was burned. 
The site of the next church building was selec- 
ted in another locality, which is a short dis- 
tance from the railroad station known as 
Keynolds, on the Boston, Hoosac tunnel and 
Western railroad. The Rev. Theodore Freling- 
huysen was the first pastor of this church. He 
was succeeded by the Eev. E. Westerloo. The 
pastors of the church successively have been 
the following, from the time of the last-named 
one's ministrations: 

From 1773 to 1784, the Rev. Elias Van Bunsoho- 
ten; 1784-1796, the Rev. Lambertus De Ronde; 
1796-1807, the Rev. Winslow Page ; 1810-1821, the 
Rev. Stephen Ostrander ; 1828-1829, the Rev. Abra- 
ham D. Switz ; 1881-1834, the Rev. Aaron A. Mar- 
oelus ; 1886-1841, the Rev. Hugh Boyd ; 1842-1844, the 
Rev. M. Aokerman ; 1845-1847, the Eev. A. H. My- 
ers ; 1848-1856, the Rev. Jacob D. Fonda ; 1857-1S61, 
the Kev. Rutgers Van Brunt ; 1864-1869, the Rev. 
George White ; 1870-1872, the Rev. J. D. Viele ; 
1872-1879, the Rev. Solomon T. Cole ; 1879 to date, 
the Rev. Aokerman. 


The first Presbyterian church in the town of 
Schaghticoke was organized May 24, 1803. At 
the meeting held at that time at the house of 
Bethuel Masters, which was attended by 44 per- 
sons, the following men were elected trustees : 
Ezekiel Baker, Lewis Bryant, Edward Ostrander, 
Jacob WlUiams and Nathaniel Rnsco. About 
the year 1805 a frame house of worship was 
built. About the year 1820 the building was 
removed from the hill on the Baucus farm to 
Schaghticoke point or Hart's Falls, as the vil- 
lage is now called. The present brick church 
near the American house was erected in 1848 at 
a cost of $18,000. It has seats for about 400 
people. The edifice was enlarged in 1865 and 
further improved in 1875. The first pastor of 
the church was the Rev. Thomas Fletcher, who 
began his ministry here August 11, 1824. He 
was succeeded by the following ministers : 1837- 
1868, the Rev. J. H. Noble ; 186»-1871, the Rev. 
G. W. Martin; 1872-1879, the Rev. Henry 
Noill, jr. ; 1880 to date, the Rev. William Bel- 
den, D. D. The membership of the church 
numbers about 150 communicants. 


The first Protestant Episcopal church at 
Hart's Falls, known as Trinity church, was or- 
ganized September 21, 1846. At the meeting 
held at this date at the school-house, district No. 
3, the following persons were elected officers 
of the church : Roswell J. Brown and James 

Ackhurst, wardens ; and Zechariah Lyon, Tib- 
bits Briggs, Benjamin Rogers, William Searles, 
Joseph Brown, John Quintin, Charles Bay- 
ward and Edwin Smith. The Rev. Oeorge 
H. Eastman, immediately after the organization 
of the church, became rector. For about 20 
years the church was in a disorganized condi- 
tion. However, in 1871, July 16, the Rev. WU- 
liam Bogart Walker of St. Luke's parish, Me- 
chanicville, entered upon bis rectorship of this 
church, and soon had it in a more prosperous 
condition. In 1875 a commodious church edi- 
fice was erected at a cost of $5,000, with a seat- 
ing capacity for 200 people. The Rev. William 
B. Walker resigned his rectorship July 26, 1865, 
and was succeeded by the Rev. R. G. Hamilton, 
October 14, 1875, who recently, in 1880, also ten- 
dered his resignation to the congregation. A 
parsonage has recently been built near the 
church. The church register has the names of 
about 50 communicants upon its pages. 


The First Methodist society at Schaghticoke 
point was organized about the year 1825. A 
small building was shortly after refitted for a 
meeting house. The church was incorporated 
January 15, 1831. The first structure not being 
sufficiently commodious for the increased mem- 
bership, another building about the year 1835 
was erected on the north side of Fifth street. 
The church now numbers about 100 members. 
The trustees of the church at the time of its In- 
corporation were: Franklin Miller, Daniel 
Chase and Samuel D. Welch. The Rev. B. T. 
Wade is its present pastor. 


The missionary labors of different priests be- 
longing to the Roman Catholic church were 
successful, about the year 1840, in gathering 
together a large congregation at Schaghticoke 
point. Among the chief promoters of this new 
church enterprise were Patrick Butler, John 
Breslin, William Graham and Patrick Mc- 
Gowan. George Tibbits of Troy gave to the 
congregation the site of the church, which was 
erected in 1842 on it at a cost of $5,000. The 
building was enlarged in 1863. The Rev. 
Father Riley is the present pastor of the church. 


Previous to the year 1850 the congregation of 
this church was united with the Gilead Evan- 
gelical Lutheran church at Centre Brunswick. 
The certificate of the church's incorporation 
bears date of May 13, 1850, in which the follow- 
ing persons are named as trustees : Thomas 



Esmond, Jacob Stover, Jacob Dater, Leonard 
Oreen, John J. Sipperly, Allen Way, Mather 
Webster, Seneca Dennis, Solomon V. R. MUler. 
The pastors of the church have been since the 
year of American independence the following : 

The Rev. Q. J. Wlchteman, 1776-1793 ; the Rev. 
Anthon T. Braun, 1794-1812 ; the Rev. John Bach- 
man, 181S-1813 ; the Rev. John Molther, 1814-1817 ; 
the Rev. William McArthy, 1817-1821 ; the Rev. J. 
R. Goodman, 1821-1828 ; the Rev. J. Z. Senderling, 
1828-1849 ; the Rev. S. Curtis, 185(W852 ; the Rev. 
John Selmser, 1852-1857 ; the Rev. V. F. Bolton, 
1858-1872 ; the Rev. J. R. Sikes, 1873-1877 ; the Rev. 
N. Wirt, from Octol>eT 11, 1877, to present time. 

The present church building, situated on the 
hill at Melrose, was erected at the time the Rev. 
John Selmser was pastor. The church is in a 
very prosperous condition. 


This church was organized at Bryans' Cor- 
ners, on the east bank of the Hudson river, on 
the 6th of March, 1853. At this meeting the 
Rev. Rnfus Smith was chosen pastor and 
Matthias Snyder, 2d, Silas Miller and William 
T. Blewer elected deacons. The church was in- 
corporated April 6, 1852, Hiram C. Bryan, 
Matthias Snyder and George W. Blewer being 

A frame church building was erected that 
same year, at a cost of $1,200, with a seating 
cajMicity for 100 persons. The successors of 
thr first pastor have been the following : 

The Rev. Qeorge W. Hemperly, 1860-62 ; the Rev. 
Valentine F. Bolton, 1866-1867 ; the Rev. J. E. Sikes, 
1876 ; the Rev. M. W. Empric, 1877 ; the Rev. Mr. 
Sanks, 1878 ; the Rev. N. Wirt, 1879— to date. 

There is also Methodist Episcopal church 
at Scbaghticoke Hill, and another at Grant's 
Hollow, both of which are in a very flourishing 
condition and are in charge of the same pastor. 

habt's falls. 

The Tillage of Hart's Falls, early known as 
Scbaghticoke point, was incorporated March 
20, 1867. About the first manufacturing busi- 
ness carried on at this place was a fulling mill 
which September 1, 1798, was operated by Ed- 
ward Hart. The postofSce established here 
early in the present century was designated as 
being at Scbaghticoke. The village has 1,525 
inhabitants, and is about 13 miles north- 
east of Troy, at the "Great Falls" of the 
Hoosick river. The Boston, Hoosac tunnel and 
Western railway passes through the village, and 
the Troy and Boston railroad has a station 
known as the Scbaghticoke depot, a short dis- 
tance east of the place. 

Among the societies of the place was Homer 

lodge No. 76, F. and A. Masons, which had its 
first charter given it January 3, 1799, signed by 
John Adams, secretary. In 1847 it ceased 

Victor lodge No. 680 was organized November 
13, 1867. The lodge meets as did the Homer 
lodge, in rooms in the Scbaghticoke house. 
The first officers of Victor lodge were : 

Worshipful master, W. H. Steele ; senior warden, 
George W, Finch ; junior warden, Charles A, 
Pickett ; treasurer, John A. Baucus ; correspond- 
ing secretary, Chauncey B. SlocunL 

The excellent water power, at this point, 
makes Hart's Falls quite an important place 
of manufactories. Here are the paper mills of 
James Baucus & Co., built about the year 
1850 ; the Cable flax mills, which give employ- 
ment to more than 200 persons. This success- 
ful manufacturing company was organized in 
1871. The officers of the company are : 
President, Thomas Lape; secretary, E. A. 
Hartshorn ; treasurer, R. E. Starks. The office 
and salesrooms of the company are at No. 179 
River street, Troy. 

The mills of the Scbaghticoke powder com- 
pany are about a half mile southeast of the 
village. The officers of the company are : Wm. 
P. Bliss, president ; Thomas L. Doremus, sec- 
retary ; and C. J. Olds, superintendent. 

The Scbaghticoke woolen mills were built in 
1864. In March, 1879, J. J. Joslin became the 
owner of the mills. About 200 persons find 
employment in these factories. The grist mill 
of George Ewart & Son also adds importance 
to the place. 


This hamlet is situated on the Tomhannock 
creek, abont one mile from the Troy and Boston 
railroad. Here is a Methodist church and the 
school house of district No. 11. It has also one 
hotel, a blacksmith shop, and shoemaker shop, 
a store, G. B. Burton's twine mill and saw mill. 

At Scbaghticoke Hill was the residence of 
Hon. Herman Knickerbacker, who once at 
Washington facetiously called himself "the 
prince of the tribe of Schaghticokes." 

It is said that the humorous history of New 
York, written by Washington Irving under the 
nom de plume of Diedrich Knickerboker, was 
suggested to the author by his long and pleasant 
acquaintance with Herman Knickerbacker. 

It was at the prince's house at Scbaghticoke 
hill that the mayor and common council of Troy 
were handsomely entertained a nomber of 
years ago, as had been the custom at the old 
Knickerbacker homestead, for a long time, to 
extend such hospitalities to the mayor and mem- 
bers of the common council of the city of Al- 
bany. It is related that when the Troy guests 



arrived with appetites sharpened by a long 
drive, the prince pretended to have forgotten 
the day appointed for their reception. He, 
however, told his hungry visitors that he would 
do the best the short time then allowed him for 
preparation permitted. He was shortly after- 
ward heard earnestly discussing with his cook 
how to make one pair of chickens suffice for so 
many guests. The mayor and members of the 
common council of Troy were greatly disturbed 
by the perplexing position in which their un- 
anticipated visit had placed their unprovided 
host. But a pleasant surprise and a hearty 
enjoyment of the practical joke followed, when 
inmiediately after the occurrence of the con- 
versation between the prince and the cook, the 
dining room doors were thrown open, exhibit- 
ing to the astonished guests a most bountifiil 
and appetizing repast already prepared and 
waiting their eating. 


This is a station on the Troy and Boston rail- 
road in the south part of the town of Schaghti- 

coke. It has a postoffice, hotel, a store and a 
blacksmith shop. South of it is Grant's Hollow, 
where there is a store, a Methodist church and 
the school house of district No. 10. The manu- 
factory of the Grant fan mill and cradle com- 
pany is one of the chief enterprises of 
the place and is managed by the firm 
of D. H. Viall, J. F. Leavens and Ezra Banker. 
At Bryant's Comers, on the east bank of the 
Hudson, is the school house of district Ko. 9 
and a manufactory of agricultural implements 
carried on by W. W. Bryan. Reynolds is a 
newly established postofBce and a station on 
the Boston, Hoosac tunnel and Western rail- 
road, east of Mechanicville. 


1790 1,8SS 

1800 2.355 

1810 2,492 

1815 2,847 

1820 8,582 

1825 2,924 

1830 3,002 

1835 3,243 

1840 S,SS9 

187S. . 






A Great Corn Country — The Opdracht Brief of 1637 — Rensselaer's 
Stein at Beeren Island — The Island called Schotack by the 
Indians — Jacob Janse Plodder on the Gojer's Kill — Schodack 
Invaded by the French in 1696 — Erection of the Town of 
Schodack — Organization of Dutch Churches — The Villages 
and Hamlets — Population of the Town. 

The tmthfnlness of any statement seems 
generally more patent when the particnlars of 
such a declaration are derived from an original 
and well-aathenticated document than when 
the same are transmitted orally or by tradition. 
The first as a source of information is not 
easily corrupted by subsequent changes of its 
text without such Interpolations and cancella- 
tions being detected, but when the narration of 
the circumstances of the occurrence is ob- 
tained through the channels of tradition, the 
reliability of such information is often ques- 
tionable as regards veracity. 


In 1625 John de Laet published a work under 
the name of the "New World, or a Description 
of the West Indies." In his description of the 
New Netherlands, — the territory now mostly em- 
braced by the state of New York, then pos- 
sessed by the Dutch, — this historian alludes to 
some of the incidents connected with Henry 
Hudson's exploration of the river which now 
bears his name. The Dutch writer says that 
when the English navigator had sailed up the 
river as far as latitude 42° 18', he was invited 
ashore by the friendly aborigines. Then quot- 
ing Hudson's journal, he furnishes the follow- 
ing details of the visit made to the home of a 
hospitable Indian chief by the commander of 
the Half Moon : 

I sailed to the shore in one of their canoes with 
an old man, who was the clilef of a tribe consist- 
ing of 40 men and 17 women ; these I saw there in 
a house well conatrnoted of oak-bark, and circnlar 
in shape, so that it had the appearance of being 
built with an arched roof. It contained a great 

qnantitv of maize or Indian com and beans of the 
last year's growth, and there lay near the honae 
for the purpose of drying enough to load three 
ships, besides what was growing In the fields. On 
our coming into the house, two mats were spread 
out to sit upon, and immediately some food was 
served in well made red wooden bowls ; two men 
were dispatched at once with bows and arrows in 
qnest of game, who soon after brought in a pair of 
pigeons which they had shot. They likewise killed 
a fat dog, and skinned it in haste with shells which 
they had got out of the water. They sopposed 
that I would remain with them for the night, hat 
I returned after a short time on board the ship. 
The land is the finest for cultivation that I ever in 
my life set foot upon, and it also abounds In trees 
of every description, The natives are a very good 
people, for when they saw that I would not re- 
main, they supposed that I was afraid of their 
bows, and, taking the arrows, they broke them in 
pieces and threw them into the fire. 

Tradition adds to this historic record that 
the place where Hudson was thus entertained 
was on Castle hill, an eminence east of the 
village of Castleton, whereon was the house of 
the Indian chief referred to in De Laet's his- 
tory. But as the southern boundary line of 
Rensselaer county is given in the state gazet- 
teers as 42° 27' north latitude, the location of 
the place if it was on the east side of the river, 
42° 18', would rather indicate that it was nearer 
the city of Hudson, in Columbia county, which 
is in latitude 42° 14'. 


For the purpose of complying with the re- 
quirements of the Dutch West India company 
in becoming the patroon of a large body of 



land, Eiliaen Van Rensselaer, throngh bis 
agent, Jacob Albertzsen Flank, became the 
owner by purchase from the Indians, April 13, 
1637, o{ a tract called Fapsickenekas lying on 
the east bank of the Hudson river, and extend- 
ing from a point opposite Castle island south- 
wardly as far as a point opposite Smackz 
island, and including the adjacent islands and 
all the land back into the interior. The remun- 
eration which the Indian owners received for 
this grant was " certain quantities of duffels, 
axes, knives and wampum." The deed of the 
land purchased is endorsed " Opdrouiht britf 
van'( lartdt aende Oo^imil en de eylanden van 
Papiickaen, 1637" — the transfer paper of the 
land on the east shore and the islands of 
Papsickaen, 1637. Castle island is a short 
distance south of the city of Albany, and 
Smackx island is south of the long island, on 
the east side of the river, partly included in the 
territory belonging to the town of East Green- 
bush and Schodack. Below Smackx island is 
Beeren island. On the map of Rensselaerwyck, 
made by QillisVan Schendel in 1630, appear 
both Smackx eyland and Beeren eyland nu Sen- 
tela.rt eyland. North of Smackx island are 
Oodyn* eylanden, Oodyn's islands, and east of 
them Paepgykenekaes KUl, Faepsykenekaes creek. 


At a certain marked tree on the southern 
point of Beeren island are the southwest, south- 
east, northwest and northeast comers of Rens- 
selaer, Albany, Columbia and Greene counties, 
respectively. It is said that about the year 
1643 a number of unlicensed traders visited the 
manor of Rensselaer??yck and enticed the In- 
dians into " secret trading places," where they 
persuaded them to part with the valuable furs 
which they had obtained by trapping, "not 
caring whether or not the trade was injured as 
to render the patroon unable to meet the ex- 
penses of this colonic." The next reprehensi- 
ble thing which these interlopers, as they were 
called, did, was to debauch the Indians with 
" wine and strong drink which they sold at an 
nsnrlons rate," and to induce the colonists not 
only to sell them the peltries which they had 
secured, but also to dispose of large quantities 
of grain, disregarding the patroon's preemption 
right, thereby not paying the tenths, or ac- 
counting for the halves or thirds which they 
had agreed to do in leasing the land Which 
they were cultivating. Two measures were 
adopted by the patroon to prevent this 
high-handed boldness. First, he erected 
on Beeren island, or Bear's island, the southern 
boundary of his manorial estate, a fortification, 
the guns of which, commanding the river 

could prevent all other vessels but his own and 
those of the West India company from ascend- 
ing the upper Hudson. He also established at 
this point a trading post. In the next place he 
exported from Holland a sufficient stock of 
goods to supply through his agents at Bever- 
wyck and Beeren island the Indians of this part 
of the country and the neighboring set- 
tlers, taking in exchange furs and agricni- 
tural produce. Nicholas Coorn was made 
waclUmeester, or quartermaster, of the post at 
Beeren island. A claim of " staple right," a 
toll of five guilders, or two dollars, was then de- 
manded of every trading vessel passing the 
fort and the lowering of their colors in honor of 
Rensselaer's stein. This feudal claim was 
maintained, it is said, until the death of the 
patroon, in 1646. 


In the Albany county records the following 
conveyance of land from the Indians at Scho- 
dack is preserved : 

"An Indian, Wattawit, with his mother named 
Pepewlts, sold to Volokert Janssen [Donw] and 
Jan Tomassen, 3d, their certain land lying on the 
Gtoojers kill on Apjen's island, or by the Indians 
called Schotack, their portion of Apjen's Island, is 
the north end, extending from the north end until 
right over against the south end of the green flat 
(groene plaei) cutting obliquely over Apjen's island 
to the kill which makes the island ; together with 
a piece of land on the east shore of the kill, being 
the fast bank where the house of Hachacknotas 
stood, and extending Into the woods ; for the sum 
of 443 guilders In beavers, payable in merchan- 
dise." This was done In the village of Beverwyck 
In presence of Thomas Chambers and Johannes 
Provost, October 14, 1663. 

At the same time, on the same day there ap- 
peared before Johannes La Montague, "an In- 
dian with a squaw, the Indian named Naspa- 
han or Fofponick, and the squaw named Pasies, 
owners of the south end of Apjen's island, 
named Schotack" who sold to the parties 
named in the previous conveyance the "sonth 
end of the aforesaid island, being the greatest 
half, beginning from the point over against the 
Green Flat (groene plaet) and nmning to the 
south end of said Apjen's island * * * for 
the sum of'500 guilders in beavers in merchan- 


By another conveyance it appears that Jacob 
Janse Flodder had as early as the year 1646 
purchased a small creek and had hired a little 
piece of ground adjoining the kill from the In- 
dians living in that vicinity. The paper is dated 
May 14, 1664, and names the following Indians 
as api>earing before Johannes La Montagne, at 



Albany, and making the declaration hereafter 
quoted: "Queskinuet, son of Facies, Aepie, 
Wickepe and Kleyne Davidtie." These testi- 
fied that 18 years before Jacob Janse Rodder 
bought the Oojer's kill, but no land with it, only 
a little piece north of said kill, which was grant- 
ed him to make a garden, for the hire of which 
these deponents, owners of the same, bad re- 
ceived only a piece of cloth. " The deponents 
being asked if Jacob Janse Flodder had bought 
some land at Schotack, thereupon unanimously 
answered, 'no,' but that he only had a small 
piece of land that they had rented to him to sow 
oats upon ; furthermore that he had a rick there 
to house his grain in for the winter, but 
that he never had any ownership therein. 
Again the deponents being asked who are the 
lawful owners of Schotack and the fast bank 
extending the whole length of the island, de- 
clared that Jan Tomasse and Volckert Janse 
[Douw] are the lawful owners, who bought and 
paid for the same and nobody else." 

The last named parties, on the 29th of De- 
cember, 1670, conveyed to "Jan Laurense [Van 
Alen] a certain parcel of land or plantation, as 
the same lies in fence and formerly occupied by 
Adrien Dirruxse de Vries, lying on the fast 
bank, at Schotack, with a little piece outside 
the fence formerly planted by the Indians." 


The territory now embraced within the town 
of Schodack was before the close of the seven- 
teenth century to some extent under tillage 
and the land lying along the river occupied by 
an industrious class of Dutch emigrants. Now 
and then, during the disturbances occasioned 
by the hostilities of the French directed against 
the English,the people at Schodack were alarmed 
by the close proximity of bodies of invading 
French soldiers. The most daring venture in 
this vicinity made by the hostile French was in 
the fall of 1696, the particulars of which are set 
forth in the following testimony : 

The Biaminacons of Joseph De Boake, Philip 
Andrie la qpndre and Isaag Giggon laPomere, 
taken by Captain James Weems and Captain Wil- 
liam Hyde in Fort Orange, at Albany, separately 
exAied, the 16th of Ootolwr, 1696. 

Joseph de Boake being called saith that on the 
24th of September last, by an order in writelng 
from Mons'r Govem'r of the Isle of Montreall, he 
marched from the said place having under his 
command one and twenty French and one Indian, 
with fourty-flve dayes provisions, that they were 
twelve days upon the river and landed upon the 
shoare of Lake Shamfahlre above the point 
of La Sheblare; there left their three 
Cannoes with aU their provisions but 
tenn dayes, which they took with them 
and designed to make an eager attack upon 

some part of the Five Nations or the English their 
enemys. After eight dayes travell they arrived at 
some uninhabited houses over against the Flatts 
where he advanced himself e with two more to dis- 
cover what he could ; leaving the rest of his party 
behlnde him about a league and half e : bnt dis- 
cerning three Indians bnmiog of a ring, fearing 
lest he should be discovered retreated to his party, 
and betook themselves to a thtckett that night, 
and next morning marched towards Klnderhook, 
and nest day about two hours before snnsett they 
were attacked, being only at that time together 
of them, thirteen, the rest being dispersed or lost. 
After some shott being discharged on both sides 
his party and he retreated, the ezaminant 
being grievously wounded in the arm was 
not able to proceed ; therefore advised his 
party to surrender to some of the Snglish in 
the next villages, for he was not able to head them 
any longer, by reason of lieing very faint with the 
loss of much blood, and earnestly importuned 
them to submitt according to his council, least 
they should fall Into the hands of the Indians, who 
would have no mercy of them; all refused but 
two who joyned with him, and in three dayes after 
surrendered to the inhabitants of Scotack who 
brought them to Albany this day. 


From a map of the manor of Rensselaer- 
wyck made by Jno. B. Sleeker, in 1767, and 
from one made by Robert Tates, li 1773, the 
names of the following persons are taken whose 
houses were designated as being in the south- 
ern part of the manor : 

Opposite Mosieman's or Musmus island, now 
Imown as Schermerhom's island, near the 
southern boundary line of the manor, dwelt 
Hendrick Van Beuren and Jacobus Van der 
Foel, and eastwardly Nicolaes Eetel. East of 
the Murtius or Muitzes kill and west of the Vly 
kill Hansie Van Valkenbergh, and east- 
wardly beyond the old road running 
northward, Anthony Van der Poel. North 
ward along the river road were the 
houses of Wouter Barhuyt, Jeronimus 
Van Valkenbergh, Casper Sprinsteen and Jacob 
Comelise Schermerhom. Opposite Schotack 
island, north of a small stream, were the 
houses of Reyer Schermerhom, Jacob Scher- 
merhom, Engelie Schermerhom, Jacob Van 
Valkenbergh, Bolof Janze and John H. Beek- 
man. North of Reyer Schermerhom's house 
was the Dutch church. Eastwardly along the 
branches of the Muitzes kill were the farms of 

Andries Huyck, Springsteen, Isaac Muller 

and Schevers. On the north side of the 

mouth of the Muitzes kill were the Schotack 
mills. North of the stream known as 
Vlockie kill was the house of Hans 
Van Beuren, and eastward, beyond the 
north road, that of Peter Lodwiok. 



Eastwardly from the river, and on the sonth 
side of Moordeners kill, were the homes of a 
Van Beuren family and of Cornelius Sprong. 
North and along the north bank of the kill 
going eastwardly dwelt Jonathan Witbeck, 

Hans Salsberg, Fetch, Henry Shans and 

Caper Ham. Northwardly of these farmers 
lived Marte Van Beuren, Benjamin Van Den 
Bergh, Benjamin Van Beuren, Hans Witbeck 
and Henry Peter Van Beuren. North of the 
Vlerda kill were the residences of Cornelius 
Van Beuren, Hansie Van Hegan, Jacobns Van 
Hegan, Abraham Van Hegan, Jacob Jacobse 
Schermerhom and Evert Lansing. On the 
sonth part of Staats's island were the homes of 
Joachim and Gerrit Statts. Erom these desig- 
nations it may be inferred that about the year 
1770 there were about 40 families of farmers re- 
siding within the limits of the territory now em- 
braced in the present town of Schodack. 


Between Staats's island and Douw's point, 
formerly the channel of the Hudson river was 
often made shallow by accumulations of dilu- 
vial detritus. The shoals and bars thus created 
often rendered the navigation of this part of 
the river extremely difficult. This hinderance 
to the easy passage of river craft gave to the 
place the designation of the overdavgh. Early 
in the present century the state expended con- 
siderable money here in building dykes and in 
dredging the river bed. When steamboats be- 
gan to ply between New York and Albany and 
Troy, it often happened that the shallowness of 
the water at this point permitted them to ascend 
no farther northward. At such times passen- 
gers were carried to and from the boats in 
stage coaches, and the cargoes taken away and 
brought to them in lighters. Van Wie's point 
on the west side of the river and Staats's dock 
on the east side were generally the places to 
which the stages ran to connect with the steam- 


On the 17th of March, 1795, the state legisla- 
ture passed "An act to divide the town of 
Bensselaerwyck, in the county of Rensselaer." 
By this enactment the town of Schodack was 
erected. It provided : 

That all that part of the town of Bensselaer- 
wyck, bounded as follows : Beginning at the south- 
west comer of the town of Troy, and running 
thence easterly along the southern boundary line 
of said town, to the western bounds of the town 
of Petersburgh, thence southerly along the west- 
ern bounds of the towns of Petersburgh and 
Stephentown, 632 chains, thence south 86 degrees 
and 48 minutes west, as the needle now points unto 
Hudson's river, thence northerly along the said 

river, to the place of beginning, and including such 
of the islands in the said river as are nearest the 
east side thereof, and are adjacent to the 
said last mentioned line, shall, from and after 
the first Monday in April next, be erected into a 
separate town, by the name of Greenbush ; and 
that the first town meeting in Oreenbush shall be 
held at the dwelling honse of David H. De Forest 
in the said town ; and that all the remaining part 
of the town of Bensselaerwyck shall be and re- 
main a separate town by the name of Schodack ; 
and that the first town meeting in the town of 
Schodack shall be held at the dwelling house of 
John I. Miller in the said town. 

The provisions of this act, it will be seen, 
extinguished the designation "Bensselaer- 
wyck," which had, since 1630, been applied to 
the whole and subsequently to portions of the 
territory now embraced in the limits of Rens- 
selaer county. 

In 1806 portions of the territory of the town 
were subtracted to form the towns of Berlin 
and Nassau. The town is bounded on the west 
by the Hudson river and is in the southwest- 
ern comer of the connty. The soil in the east- 
em part is clayey, and in the .western a fertile 
loam of sand and gravel. The land is mostly 
very productive, and is devoted generally to 
agricultural uses. 


The first officers of the town were elected on 
April 7, 1795. They were the following : 

Supervisor, Aaron Ostrander ; assessors, Corne- 
lius Schermerhom, Nicholas Staats, Thomas Frost, 
Jonathan Hoag, Nathaniel Brockway; overseers 
of the poor, James McKown, Isaac Phillips; col- 
lector, Henry Sheffer; commissioners of high- 
ways, Slijah Eelsey, Hosea Hamilton, Walter Car- 
penter ; constables, Henry Sheffer, Charles Mason, 
Benben Barton, Joseph Burch, Thomas Bruma- 
gem ; ponndmasters, John Van Ness, Jonathan 
Hoag ; fence viewers, Jacobns Van der Poel, Jacob 
Barhuyt, Barent Van der Bergh, David Arnold, 
Jesse De Freest, Peter Aulthuyser, George Milleas, 
Nathaniel Brockway, Samuel Brown, Gtermond 
Filkln, Bichard Yates ; pathmasters, John E. Lan- 
sing, St. Ledger Cowles, Darius Sherman, Jacobus 
Van Ness, Jacob Van Valkenburgh, "David Bell, 
Joseph Bell, Joseph Vichory, Comelius Schermer- 
hom, Jacobns Volmsbee, John Van Ness, jr., and 
Harmon Conn. 


It is believed that this church was organized 
about the year 1756, when the Rev. Johannes 
Caspams Fryenmoet became pastor of the 
Dutch churches at Einderhook, Claverack and 
Livingston manor. In the call to this minister 
it was stipulated that he was to serve the peo- 
ple of Einderhook two-thirds of his time and 
the remainder those living at Schodack. In 



1778 the site of the church is designated on a 
map made by Robert Yates, which was between 
the residences of Ryer Schennei'hom and Jacob 
Scheimerhom, a short distance north of Scho- 
dack landing. 

In the certiflcate of incorporation it is stated 
that Jacobus V. C. Romeyn, minister, Andries 
Ten Eyck, John H. Beckman, Jacob C. 
Schermerhom and Jacobiis Van der Foel, 
elders, and Daniel Schermerhorn, Johannis J. 
Van Valkenburgh, Mans Van Bnren and Boelef 
Johnson, deacons, had assembled together at 
the church on the 18th day of August, 1788, 
and had taken the title of "the minister, 
elders and deacons of the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch church of Schotack." 

In ISIO the church building was removed to 
its present site at Muitzeskill, two and a quar- 
ter miles east of Schodack landing. In 1825 it 
was enlarged, and further remoddled in 1866. 
On the 27th of February, 1876, the building was 
destroyed by fire. The present commodious 
edifice was erected in 1876 at a cost of about 
£6,000, and was dedicated the same year on the 
6th of December. The Rev. R. W. Clark, D. 
D., of Albany, preached the sermon on this oc- 
casion, and the Rev. William Veenschoten offi- 
ciating. This church has a seating capacity for 
about 300 persons. The roll of membership in- 
cludes 126 persons, and the Sabbath school 150. 
The following persons have been successively 
the pastors of this flourishing church : 

The Ilev. J. C. Fryenmoet, 1756-1778 ; the Rev. 
Jacobus Van Campen Romeyn, 1788-1794 ; the Kev. 
Christian Berk, 1798-1808 ; the Sev. Jesse Fonda, 
1809-1613 ; the Kev. Peter Van Buren, 1814-1820 ; 
the Rev. Isaiah Y. Johnson, 1821-1823, died in his 
pastorate ; the Rev. Asa Bennett, 1824-1828 ; the 
Rev. Staats Van Santvoord, 1829-1834; the Rev. 
John, Gray, 1835-1846; the Rev. William Bailey, 
1847-1856 ; the Rev. Benjamin P. Snyder, 1856-1869 ; 
the Rev. A. B. PefEers, 1869-1873, and the Rev. Wil- 
liam Veenschoten, 1874 to date. 


The reformed Dutch church of Schodack land- 
ing was organized Nov. 2, 1858. The officers of 
the church, Egbert Seed and Peter G. Ten Eyck, 
elders, and Joel Reed and Israel Matson, dea- 
cons, were installed at that time by the Rev. L. 
H. Van Dyck and the Rev. J. R. Talmage, the 
committee appointed by the classis of Rens- 
selaer, which had met at Ghent, on the third 
Tuesday of September that same year. The 
object of this organization was for the purpose 
of enabling the society to legally possess the pre- 
sent church building which had been erected In 
18S5 upon land given by John Schemerhorn. 
This body held connection with the charch at 


Muitzeskill until 1866, at which time It became 
a separate society belonging to the classis of 
Rensselaer. The first pastor of this flourishing 
church was the Rev. Isaac L. Kip, who served 
the congregation from 1867 to 1875. The Rev. 
William J. Leggett succeeded the former pastor 
in 1875, and has served the congregation 
to the present time. The present membership 
of the church is 172 persons, and that of the 
Sunday school 160. 


This Baptist society dates Its organization 
back as early as the year 1780. The Rev. 
Stephen Olmstead was elected In 1797 pastor of 
this society, which then had 51 members. The 
society was first known as the Baptist church of 
New Bethlehem, and erected its first log house 
of worship in the north east comer of the town 
of Schodack. The old structure was removed 
about the year 1800, and the present church 
building erected on its site. Stephen Van 
Rensselaer gave the society a deed of 21 acres 
of ground for the site of a meeting house and a 

The following persona were elected March 
29, 1802, "to take charge of the estate and 
property belonging to the Baptist church," as 
there were "no church wardens or elders of 
said church," at the time : William Lewis, 
James Gillyers, Timothy Phillips, Thomas 
Frost, jr., David Calkins and David Tremer. 
The early records of the church were consumed 
at the time the Rev. Stephen Olmstead's house 
was burned, early in the present century. The 
names of the following ministers are given as 
those of the different pastors of this church : 

The Rev. Stephen Olmstead, 1797-1832 ; the Rev. 
C. C. Williams, 1832-1834 ; the Rev. D. Ford, 1831- 
1885 ; the Rev. J. D. Rogers, four years ; the Rev. 
W. Harris, six years ; the Rev. A. Hilne, 1816-1^4 ; 
the Rev. P. P. Sanderson, two years ; the Rev. W. 
W. Allen, two years ; the Rev. D. Robinson, 1858- 
1860 ; the Rev. H. M. Jones, two years ; the Rev. Q. 
W. Demers ; the Rev. Lewis Selleclt, 1866-1870 ; the 
Rev. T. H. Greene, 1870 to present time. 
The number of the present membership is 83. 


This society was organized in 1836 through 
the missionary labors of the Rev. Joshua Poor. 
In 1838 the first church edifice was erected on 
lot No. 81 Main street, at a cost of 13,000, hav- 
ing a seating capacity for about 300 persons. 
It was remodeled in 1858 and enlarged in 1879. 
The present membership of the church em- 
braces 160 persons, and the Sunday school 
about 200. In the order of time the following 
ministers have served this congregation : 



The Revs. Joshua Poor, Philetus Green, Dillon 
Stevens, C. E. Morris. C. Barber, W, W. Pierce, A. 
A. Farr, H. B. Knight, A. A. Farr; in 1844 the charge 
having become a separate station, the Kevs. E. 
Wescott, J. W. Belknap, E. H. Foster. S. H. Han- 
cook, D. W. Dayton, J. L. Cook, A. Heath, H. War- 
ner, B. Isbell, Homer Eaton, E. Wescott, Truman 
Seymour, E. Qoss, J. Pegg, Selah W. Brown, An- 
drew McGilton, B. P. Livingston, Edward E. Tay- 
lor, J. G. Gooding, and the present pastor, the 
Eev. E. A. Blanchard. 


This church was organized in 1853. The 
bouse of worship was erected in 1852. The fol- 
lowing pastors have been connected with the 
ministrations of this church. The Kev. E. P. 
Stimpson was called the year of the organiza- 
tion of the body ; the Rev. Edgar L. Hermance 
from 1861-869, and the Rev. George A. MUU, 
the present pastor, began his labors in 1870. 


The congregation of the Evangelical Lutheran 
church of East Schodack was organized May 
15, 1843. A house of worship was erected in 
1844. A new edifice was built in 1872. The 
pastors of this church have been the following : 

The Eev. H. L. Dox, 184»-1850 ; the Rev. N. Van 
Alstyne, 1850-1880 ; the Eev. M. W. Empie, 1861 ; 
the Eev. J. Kling, and the present pastor, the Bev. 
C. L. Barringer. 


The Castleton and West Stockbridge railroad 
company was incorporated May 5, 1834. The 
act provided for the construction of " single or 
double railroad from any part of the village of 
Castleton to the state line near the village of 
West Stockbridge, In the state of Massachn- 
aetts." The following persons were named as 
incorporators : 

Jeremiah Gage, James L. Hogeboom, Abiel 
Buckman, John E. Stearns, John I. Schermerhom, 
Jacob A. Ten Eyok, Sylvester Van Valkenburgh, 
Edward Door, .1r., Joseph Colman, Ebenezer 
Crocker, Peter Grote, William Cevill, James Hoge- 
boom, and their associates. 

This company was changed May 5, 1836, to 
that of the Albany and West Stockbridge rail- 
road company. The road being constructed, it 
was opened from Greenbush to Chatham, De- 
cember 21, 1841, and as far as to the state line 
on the 12th of September, 1842. It was leased 
to the Western (Mass.) railroad company No- 
vember 18, 1841, for the period of years stated 
in its charter. This road was consolidated with 
the Hudson and Boston railroad, extending 
from Hudson to Chatham Four Corners, and 

with the road to Boston, known as the Boston 
and Albany raibroad. The articles were agreed 
to, November 2, 1870, and filed January, 1871. 

The Hudson river railroad which runs 
through the western part of the town of Scho- 
dack was organized May 13, 1846, and was 
opened from Albany to Hudson June 16, 1851, 
and to New York, October 1, 1851. This road 
was consolidated with the New York Central 
railroad, forming the New York Central and 
Hudson river railroad, by articles filed Novem- 
ber 1, 1869. 


The village of Castleton, situated on the east 
bank of the Hudson river. Is eight miles south 
of Greenbush, and is a station of the Hudson 
river railroad. It was incorporated in the year 
1827. There are at present about 300 buildings 
in the village, among which are the Reformed 
Protestant Dutch church, the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, a school-house and two hotels. 
The Castleton cemetery association was incor- 
porated October 5, 1855, and owns a plot of 
ground east of the village of 6 acres, which are 
attractively laid out into drives, walks and 
burial lots. 

The national bank of Castleton was organ- 
ized with a capital of $100,000, January 25, 
1865. Its first officers were : President, Joel D. 
Smith ; directors, Joel D. Smith, J. V. D. Wit- 
beck, Andrew Harder, Castle W. Herrick, Ed- 
win H. Griffith, Frederick H. Hastings and 
Russell Dovmer. The present officers of this 
banking institution are : President, Joel Smith ; 
directors, Andrew Harder, Joel Smith, Abel 
Merchant, T. B. Simmons, G. Van Voorhis, 8. 
D. Campbell, P. P. Harder and J. R. Downer. 

The Frank P. Harder engine company was or- 
ganized in 1871, and possesses an excellent 
steam fire engine. 

The order of F. and A. Masons is represented 
In the village by Sunnyslde lodge. No. 731, 
which was organized in 1872. The village has a 
population of about 900. 


This village is opposite Schodack island, and 
is 83^ miles south of Castleton. It is a station 
of the Hudson River railroad and contains about 
70 buildings, among which ore the Reformed 
church, an academy built in 1844, a school bouse 
and two hotels. The population is about 350. 


The hamlet, which has assumed this name, is 
situated about the centre of the town and is a 
station of the Boston and Albany railroad. It 
contains about 30 buildings and a population 
of 100. 




Sonth Schodack is south of Schodack depot, 
on the Boston and Albany railroad. There are 
about 15 buildings in the immediate vicinity of 
the station. As the places already mentioned, 
it has also a postoffice. 


East Schodack, frequently called Scott's Cor- 
ners, is in the northeastern part of the town, 
and contains about SO houses, among which is 
the Evangelical Lutheran church. The place 
took the designation of Scott's Comers from a 
hotel which was kept here quite early by a man 
named Scott. It has also a postoffice. Scho- 
dack lodge No. 87, F. and A. Masons, holds its 
meetings here. 


Schodack Center is in the northern part of 
the town, and embraces about a half dozen 
buildings. A postoffice was established here 
about 1840. It has also a hotel. 


This hamlet is in the southern part of the 
town, on a small creek known as Muitzes kill. 
It contains about 30 buildings, among which 
are the Reformed Protestant Dutch church, a 
woolen mill, a store, a hotel, and a school 
house. A number of years ago a postoffice was 
established here. 

Masten's Corners is two miles south of Cas- 
tleton, and Clark's Comers and the Baptist 
Neighborhood are In the northeastern part of 
the town, where is the site of the old Baptist 


1800 3,688 

ISIO 3,180 

1815 3,123 

1830 3,4»3 

1825 .<!.506 

1830 8,794 

1835 .S,793 

1840 4.125 

1845 3,746 

1850 s,5oa 

1855 3.837 

1300 3,993 

1865 4,015 

1870 4,442 

1875 4,454 

1880 4,308 





The Land Extending to Nachawickquaak — The Tract called Wal- 


The Burning of Houses and Barns at Hoseck — The Old Set- 
tlement OF Sancoik — Defeat of the British at Walloomsac — 
Numerous Churches erected in the Town — A World Renowned 
Manufactory — The Unexcelled Record of a Great Invention — ■ 
Nearly Twenty-eight Thousand Reaping Machines Made in 1880 
— The Wilder Collection — Villages of the Town — Population. 

The unoccupied condition o( the vast terri- 
tory north of Albany, within the province of 
New York, no donbt induced the English gov- 
ernment to convey by letters patent in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries large 
tracts of this land for small considerations to 
different individuals and associated persons. 
To have this wooded wilderness occupied by 
a class of frugal, industrious people would 
not only give greater prosperity to the 
new country, but such frontier farms would 
also of themselves be a protective girdle of 
safety to the growing settlements southward 
along the Hudson. There may have been some 
personal favoritism in this method of convey- 
ance, but as there was such an immense tract 
of unsettled land to be disposed of, the question 
of partiality did not likely form the subject of 
any special comment or criticism at the time 
the letters patent were obtained, as had been the 
case when Kiliaen Van Rensselaer acquired his 
patroonship of the manor of Rensselaerwyck. 


This grant of an extensive tract of land 
was recorded for Maria Van Rensselaer and her 
associates, July 28, 1688. It reads : 

Thomas Dongan Capt. Qeall & Governor in 
Cheife in and over the Province of New Yorke 
and Terrltoryes Dependine thereon in America 
under his most Sacred Majesty James the second 
by the Grace of God King of England Scotland 
ffrance & Ireland Defender of the faith &c : To 
all whom these Presents Shall Come Sendeth 

Greeting Whereas Maria Van Banslear of 
Renslerswyck in the County of Albany 
wlddow, Hendrick Van Nesse of the same 
place Yeoman, Gerritt Tunissen of Katts- 
kill in the same county Yeoman, and Jacobus 
Van Cortland of the Citty of New Yorke Marohant 
by Virtue of my Lycenoe Consent and approbacon 
have Purchased of and from the Indyans Naturall 
owners and Possessors of the same all that Tract 
of Land with itts appurtennces Scitnate Lyeing & 
being above Albany on both sides of a Certalne 
Creek Called Hosslck begining att the Bounds of 
Schackoock and from thence extending to the 
said Creeke to a Certaine ffall Called Qnequick 
and from the said ffall upwards along the Creek 
to a Certaine Place Called Nachawickquaak being 
in Breadth on each side of the said Creek two 
English Miles that is to say two English Miles on 
the one side of the said Creek and two English 
Miles on the other side of the said Creek the whole 
breadth being f ouer English MUes, and is in length 
from the bounds off Schackoock aforesaid to the 
said place called Nachawickquaak ; • * • * 
paying therefore unto his said Matie, his Heirs and 
Successors yearly, and every yeare, the quantity 
of ten bushells of good sweett marohantable Win- 
ter Wheat, to be Delivered att the Citty of Albany 
unto such ofScer or officers as shall from time to 
time be Empowred to Receive the same as a Quitt 

The patent is dated the "Second Day of 
June in the fourth Yeare of his Matis Relgne 
and in the Yeare our Lord, 1688." 

This territory extended along both sides of 
the Hoosick river, being the middle portion of 
the present towB of Hoosick, stretching from 



the north bounds to the southern limits of the 


This conveyance of 12,000 acres of land be- 
gins as follows : 

George the Second, by the Grace of God of 
Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender 
of the Faith, &c. To all to whom these presents 
shall come Greeting Whereas our loving subjects, 
Cornelius Van Ness, John Liudesay, Gen-ardus 
Stuyvesant, Stephen Bensselaer, Charles Williams 
and firederick Morris by their humble [petitions] 
presented on the twenty-fifth day of August in the 
Year Seventeen hundred and thirty-two To 
William Cosby, Esq'r, our Late Governor and 
Commander in Chief of our Province of 
New York, &c.. In Council Have Set forth 
that the Native Indians and Proprietors 
of Certain Lands in the County of Albany 
had by their Deed under their Hands and 
Seals bearing Date the twenty-eight day of Jan- 
uary, in the Year Seventeen hundred and thirty- 
one Granted and Released unto us all that Certain 
Tract or Parcel of Land Containing twelve thou- 
sond acres of land, etc. • • » Whereas James 
De Lancey, Esqr., our Chief Justice of our said 
Provlnoe and Edward Collins Gent by their Bum- 
ble Petn, presented to our trusty and welbeloved 
George Clarke, Esqr., now our Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor and Commander in Chief of our said Prov- 
ince, &c. In Council on the Seventeenth day of 
May Inst, have set forth that in the said Petition 
which was presented as aforesaid to our said late 
Governor the Name of John Lindesay was made 
use of therein in Trust for the said James De 
Lancey and the Name of Cornelius Van Ness in 
Trust for the said Edward Collins. 

In accordance with this petition the grant was 
made to "Edward Collins, James De Lancey, 
Gerardus Stuyvesant, Stephen Bensselaer, 
Charles Williams and Frederick Morris," con- 
veying to them 

All that Certain Tract or Parcel of Land Called 
Wallnmschack scitnate lying and being in the 
county of Albany to the Eastward of a Place 
Called Hoseck, beginning at a Certain marked 
Tree which is 14T chains distant from the late 
DwelUn: House of Garret Comeilus Van Ness, 
measured on a Line Bnnntng South 75° east from 
the Southeast Corner of the said House to the 
said Tree and running from the said marked Tree 
North 80° my West 90 Chains and 40 links then 
North 40° IS* East 230 chains then North 77° East 
90 chains then South 31° 4^ East 604 chains then 
South 65 °We8t 9-2 chains then North 44° 30' West 150 
Chains then North 75° west 129 Chains then North 
20* West 146 Chains then South 60° West 173 C%alns 
and then North 4° West 76 Chains to the place 
where this Tract of Land first began Containing 
twelve thousand acres of Land and the usual al- 
lowance for Highways. * • • 

In this patent, "all Trees of the Diameter of 
tw«nt7«foiir Inches and upwards at twelve 

Inches from the Ground " were excepted "for 
Masts for our Royal Navy, and also all such 
other Trees as may be fit to make planks. 
Knees and other things Necessary for the use 
ot our Said Navy only, which now are Standing 
Growing and being or at any time hereafter 
shall be Standing Growing, or being in or upon 
the above Granted Lands or any part thereof." 
* » "The Yearly Rent of two shillings and 
six pence for each hundred acres of the above 
Granted Lands " was to be paid at the custom 
house in the city of New York, on Lady Day, 
the annunciation of the blessed virgin Mary. 

The patent is dated the 15th of June, in the 
thirteenth year of George II. 's reign, and in the 
year 1739. The tract of land given by this 
patent lies in the northeastern part of the town 
of Hoosick. 


The patent granted to Hendrick Schneyder, 
John Wettek, Hendrick Lake, John Johnson, 
Garret Williamson, Nathaniel Archerly, Benja- 
min Abbot, William Taylor and Martinus Voor- 
heis, all of the province of New Jersey, and 
Daniel Hallenbeck of the city of Albany, em- 
braced : 

All that certain Tract or parcell of land situate 
lying and being iu the county of Albany on the 
East side ot Hudson's river. Beginning at the 
Southwest comer of a Tract of land granted to 
Cornelius Van Ness and others, known by the name 
of Wallnmschack and runs thence South 73° 
east 218 chains to another comer nf the 
aforesaid tract called Wallumschack, then 
along the South bounds of the last mentioned 
Tract, south 75° east 129 chains, and South 44° 80' 
east ISO chains, then south 241 chains to the north 
bounds of the Manor of Ilensselaerwyck, then 
along the said North Bounds of the said Manor 
west 42 chains, then north 85° west 126 chains, 
then west to the east bounds of a tract of Land 
granted to Maria Van Renselaer, Hendrick Van 
Ness and others commonly called and known by 
the name of Hoseck, and then along the said east 
bounds of the said tract called Hoseck to the place 
where this tract first began containing 10,000 acres 
of land and the usual allowance for highways. 

Two shillings and six pence sterling were to 
be paid yearly at the custom house in the city 
of New York, on Lady day, for each and every 
hundred acres of the above granted land. The 
patent is dated March 2i, 1762. 


Among the early settlers of the territory now 
embraced in the town of Hoosick were Hendrick 
Van Ness, Abraham Fort, Lewis and Peter 
Viele, Adam Vrooman, John Van Bnskirk, 
Walter Van Vechten, Jacob Oudekirk, Daniel 
Bradt, Beykert Bovie, Jan Outhont. 



The farms of these intrepid pioneers of the 
Hoosick valley were mostly adjacent the 
Hoosick river. As was common to frontier life 
in North America at this early period of its his- 
tory, the constantly occiurring sanguinary 
stmggles between the English and French gov- 
ernments brought very frequent distresses to 
these forest homes in the great wilderness 
north of Albany. When the English ministry in 
the spring of 1745 ordered Gov. Clinton of the 
province of New Tork to make immediate pre- 
parations for carrying on an offensive war 
against the French and their Indian allies, great 
alarm at once began to prevail among the fron- 
tier settlers of the province. The wary and 
sudden attacks from the hostile Indians asso- 
ciated with the French, made life in these ex- 
posed positions almost a burden to the Dutch 
farmers, whose minds were more intent on the 
cultivation of the land on which they had re- 
cently built log houses for their families than 
on the bloody strife which brought so much dis- 
tress and loss to them. Col. Schuyler and 
Major Collins, who commanded a body of sol- 
diers at Saratoga, now Schuylerville, were com- 
pelled to abandon the construction of six block 
houses which they were building as places 
of protection for the settlers against the 
sudden attacks of the Indians. When the 
calamitous visitation came upon the peaceful 
settlers those who escaped massacre fled south- 
ward to the older settlements. It is said that 
even Kinderhook, Claverack and Foughkeepsie, 
although on the east side of the Hudson were 
not exempt from danger. A vast forest ex- 
tended from Kinderhook to Canada, and the 
settlement of Hoosick was made in a part of it. 

In 1747 four companies of soldiers were post- 
ed at Half moon, two at Schaghticoke and three 
at old Saratoga, now Schuylerville. The main 
force was stationed at Albany. In October, 
1747, peace was concluded between Great 
Britain and France, and the dispersed farmers 
shortly afterwards returned to their abandoned 


As will appear from the following cone- 
si>ondence the early settlers were again mo- 
lested, and were a second time compelled to 
flee from their farms on account of the inva- 
sions of the province by the French and their 
hired savages. 

In a letter to the English lords of trade, Lieut. - 
Gov. De Lancey writes as follows on October 8, 

Od the 28th August a Party of French Indians 
said to be of Bekancourt, a place between Quebec 
and Hontreal, made an Incursion into this Prov'oe 

and burnt the houses and Bams full of grain at 
Hoseck, a place lying about 10 or iiO miles East from 
that part of Hudson's River, which is 10 Miles 
above Albany ; they carried off with them the 
few remaining Indians of Scachtacook, being be- 
tween fifty and sixty in Number, Men, Women and 
Children ; these had a little before, when I was 
at Albany, assured me of their fidelity. The 
Indians who did this mischief live among the 
French, and are entirely under the direction of the 
General of Canada, so that there is no room to 
doubt of their being encouraged to this barbarity 
by him, esiwcially as the French ofBcer at Crown 
Point furnished them and the Scachtacook In- 
dians, whom they had drawn from this province, 
with a vessel to carry them back to Canada across 
the Lake Champlain. 

In another letter addressed to the same per- 
sons, dated New York, October 21, 1754, he 
remarks he had omitted to say in his letter of 
the 8th what steps he had taken since the in- 
cursions of the French Indians into the prov- 
ince : " I Immediately ordered the city of Al- 
bany to be inclosed with Stockadoes in the 
places where wanting, the Blockhouses to be 
repaired, two hundred Men of each Regiment 
of MUitia of the adjoining counties to be held 
in readiness to march, and the whole Regiment 
in case of need, to the assistance of Albany. 
I sent the independent Company posted in Fort 
George in this City to Albany, detaining a Ser- 
jeant and the Invalids to do the Fort duty ; 
and had also directed a fort to be built at a 
Pass on the Hudson River about forty miles 
above Albany, but no workmen wonid under- 
take it on the credit of the Govemt." 


The reprehensible conduct of the French in 
instigating the Indians to invade the peaceful 
Hoosick valley, and there murder and lead into 
captivity so many innocent people, was thus 
censnred by Lieut. Gov. De Lancey, in a letter 
to the governor of Canada, dated New York, 
October 16, 1754: 

I have received accounts from Albany that sev- 
eral of the Indians of the Orondacks and other 
Tribes domiciled within you govemt, and as I 
have been well informed entirely in your direction, 
have lately made incursions into this and the 
Neighboring provinces and have burnt and de- 
stroyed the Houses and Bams of the Poor Farmers 
Uving at and near Hoseck within my govemt : 
this, in a time of profound peace between His 
Britanlck and Most Christian Majesty, is a prac- 
tice so Barbarous as I think is not war- 
ranted by any orders, and I persuade myself 
will not be approved of by the Most Christian 
King ; and I would willingly flatter myself, could 
not have been done by the encouragement of a 
person of your Sxcell's Sank and Character, and 
yet you will permitt me to say, it is with dUBonlty 



I oan oonoeiye, that those Indians would have at- 
tempted this piece of cruelty without your priyity 
and connivance since those Indians live among the 
French and are under your direction, what adds 
to the difficulty is, that I am told the commanding 
officer at Fort St. Fredcricli furnished these Indi- 
ana and those of Scachtacoolc whom they had taken 
with them with a vessel to carry them back to 
Canada. I am in duty bound to lay these things 
before the King my Master. 

Speaking of the def enselessness of the north- 
em part of the province, the lieutenant governor 
thus writes to Sir Thomas Robinson, dated 
New York, December 15, 1754 : 

I think it mv duty to lay before you the defense- 
less state of the northern frontiers of this province, 
and to point out some measures which seem to me 
of general utility. From Albany northwards to- 
wards Canada there is no fort ; we had one before 
andin the late war at a place on Hudson's river 
called Saraghtogo (Schuylerville), about 36 miles 
above Albany, which was abandoned and de- 
stroyed, so that the country lies entirely open. 

He then proposes that forts should be built : 
"one at Wood creek and one on the south end 
of Lake St. Sacrament ; the waters of this creek 
and lake pass Crown Point and fall into the Lake 
Champlain, and so into the river St. Lawrence, 
and make the common passage between this 
country and Montreal, and from this creek and 
lake the French and their Indians can and do 
enter this province, Massachusetts bay and New 

For a number of years the successive terrors 
of Indian and French animosities deterred new 
settlers from making any further eSorts to oc- 
cupy the territory of the Hoosick valley. But 
in time treaties of peace were made and emi- 
grants began to seek homes along the Hoosick 
and its tributary streams. 


It is believed that the French in their various 
incursions into the Hoosick vaUey had given to 
the small settlement in the vicinity of the con- 
fluence of the Walloomjac with the Hoasick 
river the name of St. Croix. The former stream 
is often designated as the St. Coic or Walloom- 
scoic river. There seems to have been a very 
careless way of writing the name of the place, 
for often it appears as Sancoik, St. Coych, San- 
coick, St. Hoick, Sancolx and Saintcoix. The 
hamlet before the dark days of the revolu- 
tionary war is said to have contained a grist 
mill, saw miU, a pot ashery, a tavern, a meet- 
ing house and a number of farm houses. 


By "an act to divide the counties of Albany 
and Tryon into districts," passed March 24, 

1773, the Hoosick district was erected. Its 
boundaries were the following : 

That all that part of the said county of Albany 
which lays to the northward of Rensselaerwyck 
district to the southward of the said line from the 
month of Lewis's creek or kill, continued to the 
west bounds of the county of Cnmberland to the 
eastward of Schactekoke district and to the 
westward of the county of Cumberland, shall be 
one separate and distinct district, and be hence- 
forth called and known by the name of Hoosick 


When in the summer of 1777 Gen. Burgoyne 
was making almost an unopposed invasion of 
the northern part of New Tork from Canada, 
the people of the Hoosick valley were greatly 
alarmed by the reports of the barbarous cruel- 
ties of the Indians which the British com- 
mander had sent forward as a band of terror to 
the rebellions people. In the vicinity of Fort 
Edward he dispatched Col. Frederick Baum on 
a " secret expedition to the Connecticut river," 
having been informed that the Americans had 
gathered together there "a considerable depot 
of cattle, cows, horses and wheel carriages, 
most of which were driven across the Connecti- 
cut river from the provinces of New England ; 
and, as it was understood to be guarded by a 
party of militia only, an attempt to surprise 
it seemed by no means unjustifiable." He re- 
ceived of Burgoyne instructions on August 9th, 
that he was "to try the affections of the 
country; to disconcert the councils of the 
enemy ; to mount the Riedesel's dragoons ; to 
complete Peters's corps ; and to obtain large 
supplies of cattle, horses and carriages." Hav- 
ing performed these and other things men- 
tioned in the Instructions he was then, in order 
to form a junction with the main army of Bur- 
goyne, to proceed expeditiously with his force 
"by the great road to Albany." Col. Baum de- 
parted on this mission with about 900 Hessian 
mercenaries, Canadians, tories and Indians and 
two cannon. Col. Philip Skene accompanied 
Col. Baum for the purpose of advising him 
"upon all matters of intelligence." On the 
14th of August, Baum reached the little settle- 
ment at Sancoik. Here, in a grist mill, on 
Little White creek, a small stream emptying 
into the Walldomsac, he wrote a letter to Bur- 
goyne regarding his progress : 

Sahcoik, 14th August, 1777, 9 o'clock— ^tr ; I 
have the honor to inform your excellency that I 
arrived here at eight in the morning, having had in- 
telligence of a party of the enemy being in posses- 
sion of a mill, which they abandoned at our ap- 
proach, but, in their usual way, fted from the 
bushes and took their road to Bennington. A sav- 
age was sUghtly wounded ; they broke down the 



bridge, which has retarded our inarch over an 
hour ; they left In the mill about 78 barrels of very 
fine flour, 1,0(X) bushels of wheat, 80 barrels of salt, 
aud about £1,000 worth of pearlash and potash. I 
have ordered 30 provincials and an officer to guard 
the provisions and the pass of the bridge. By five 
prisoners taken here, thoy agree that from 1,500 to 
1,800 are at Bennington, but are supposed to leave 
it on our approach. I will proceed so far to-day as 
to fall on the enemy early to-morrow, and make 
such dispositions as I may think necessary from 
the intelligence I my receive. People are flocking 
in hourly, but want to be armed. The savages 
cannot be controlled, they ruin and take every- 
thing they please. I am your excellency's most 
humble servant, F. Baum. 

P. S.— Beg your excellency to pardon the hurry 
of this letter, as it is written upon the head of a 

The mill in which this letter was written is 
still standing, it is said, and that on one of the 
timbers of the structure there is to be seen the 
inscription "A. D. 1776," the supposed date of 
the erection of the building. 


On the night of the 14th of August, Baum 
"bivouacked at the farm of Walmscott, abont 
four miles from Sancoick, and three from Ben- 
nington." On the 15th there was "a perfect 
hurricane of wind," and a great fall of rain. 
During the day the skirmishers of the provin- 
cial militia under Gen. John Stark several times 
drew the fire of the British pickets. Mean- 
while Col. Baum took a position on an 
eminence near the " farm of Walmscott." "He 
posted here the dragoons, with a portion of the 
marksmen on their right, in rear of a little zig- 
zag breastwork, composed of logs and loose 
earth. Such of the detached (houses of which 
there were about half a dozen log ones) as came 
within the compass of his position he filled 
with Canadians, supporting them with detach- 
ments of chasseurs and grenadiers, likewise in- 
trenched behind breastworks ; aud he k^t the 
whole, with the exception of about 100 men, on 
the north side of the stream, holding the woods 
upon his flanks, in his front and rear by the 

Gen. Stark with his brigade of Mew Hamp- 
sliire militia and a number of companies 
of Vermont and Massachusetts militia, on 
the morning of the 16tb, moved against 
Baum in the position taken by the latter on the 
luth. Gen. Stark, in his report of the bngage- 
ment, says : 

X divided my army into three divisions, and sent 
Col. Nichols with 260 men on the rear of their left 
wing. Col. Iftrriok in the rear of their right with 
300 men. • • • In the meantime I sent 800 men 
to oppose the enemy's front to draw their atten- 

tion that way. Soon after I detached the Cols. 
Hulbert and Stlckney on their right wing, with 
200 men. to attack that part, all of which plans had 
their desired effect. Col. Nichols sent me word 
that he stood in need of a reenforcement, which I 
readily granted, consisting of 100 men, at which 
time he commenced the attack, precisely at 3 
o'clock in the afternoon, which was followed by 
all the rest. I pushed forward the remainder with 
all speed. Our people behaved with the 
greatest spirit and bravery imaginable. Had 
they been Alexanders or Charles of 
Sweden they could not have behaved better. 
The actiou lasted two hours, at the expiration of 
which time we forced their breastworks at the 
muzzle of their guns, took two pieces of brasscan- 
non, with a number of prisoners, but before I 
could get them into proper form again I received 
intelligence that there was a large reenforcement 
within two miles of us, on their march, which oc- 
casioned us to renew our attack. But lucky for 
us. Col. Warner's regiment came up, which put a 
stop to their career. We soon ralUed, and in a 
few minutes the action began very warm and des- 
perate, which lasted till night. We used their own 
cannon against them, which proved of great serv- 
ice to us. At sunset we obliged them to retreat a 
second time. We pursued them till dark, when I 
was obliged to halt for fear of killing my own 
men. We recovered two pieces more of their can- 
non, together with all their baggage, a number of 
horses, carriages, etc., killed upwards of 200 of the 
enemy in the field of battle. The num- 
ber of wounded is not yet known, 
as they are scattered about in many 
places. I have one lieutenant-colonel, since dead, 
one major, seven captains, fourteen lieutenants, 
four ensigns, two comets, one judge-advocate, 
one baron, two Canadian officers, six sergeants, 
one aid-de-camp and seven hundred prisoners. I 
almost forgot one Hessian chaplain. • • « Our 
wounded are forty-two. Ten privates and four 
officers belonging to my brigade are dead. The 
dead and wounded in the other corps I do not 
know, as tliey have not brought in their returns 

In the engagement Col. Baum was shot 
through the body and mortally wounded. 


Col. Breyman, who had been sent by Bnr- 
goyne to reenforce Col. Baum, reached the 
"mill at St. Coyk" at half-past 4 o'clock on 
the afternoon of the 16th, being then only two 
miles distant from the main body of the British 
forces then engaged by the force under Gen. 
Stark. He had not marched but a little ways 
beyond "the bridge of Sancoick" when he 
saw through the woods "a considerable num- 
ber of armed men, some of whom wore blouses 
and some jackets " moving toward a hill on his 
left. In a very short time he came upon a por- 
tion of Baum's force in retreat, but he having 



reformed the men was about to push on toward 
the place where Baum had been engaged. At 
this juncture he was attacked by Stark 
and shortly after by a reinforcement under Col. 
Warren, by which he was soon forced to retreat 
toward. Cambridge. To obstruct the advance 
of the Americans, Breyman set fire to the bridge 
at " St. Coyk." It was in this last engagement 
that for the second time that day the Americans 
took two cannon from the routed British. 
Among the difierent i>oint8 of interest shown 
visitors viewing the battle ground are the old 
grist mill of David Van Rensselaer, who fled to 
Albany on the approach of the English, and 
where Baum wrote his letter. The mill, at 
North Hoosick, is now owned by John G. Burk ; 
" Hessian hlU" is now a part of the farm of 
Seymour C. Gooding, the place of Baum's se- 
lection on the 15th ; the ridge beyond the vil- 
lage of WaUoomsac where Breyman was 
routed ; and the spot where the body of Baum's 
men was captured being in the vicinity of the 
residence of William P. Cbace, not far from 
North Hoosick. 


By " an act for dividing the counties of this 
state into towns," passed by the legislature, 
March 7, 1788, the town of Hoosick was erected. 
Its limits were the following : 

All that part of said county of Albany bounded 
easterly by the east bounds of this state, sontheriy 
by Stephentown, westerly by Plttstown, and 
northerly by the north line of Schactckoke and 
PittBtown continned, to the east bounds of this 
state, shall be andhereby is erected Into a to wn by 
the name of Hoosick. 


The record of the town oflBcers of, 1789 is the 
oldest preserved paper of the proceedings of 
the town meetings. It furnishes the following 
names of the officers selected that year : 

Supervisor, Thomas Sickles ; town clerk, Zacha- 
riah W. Siokles ; assessors, Jacob Van Ness, Henry 
Breese, Nichoias Snyder, Reuben Thayer, Isaac 
Bull, John Johnson, Zachariah W. Sickles ; col- 
lector, Henry Brown ; commissioners of highways, 
Thomas Sickles, William Kerr, Nicholas Snyder ; 
overseers of the poor, Ebenezer Arnold, William 
Kerr ; constables, Henry Brown, Squire Read, 
Henry Walker, Samuel Latham ; fence-viewers, 
James Williamson, Henry Snyder, John Van Bnren, 
Henry Breese, Jotm Van Ness, Zachariah 
W. Sickles, Godfrey Stark, Asel Oray; pound- 
keepers. Squire Bead, Harper Rogers, Timothy 
Graves, Benjamin Waite ; pathmasters, John Mil- 
liman, Samuel Latham, John Ryan, Anthony V. 
Surdam, George Nichols, Samuel Snrdam, Garrett 
Van Horn, Isaac H. Lansing, Daniel Rogers, John 
Bovle, Godfrey Stark, Jonathan Case, Ezekiel 
Hodges, Jonathan Mosely, William Briggs, William 


Mellen, jr., David Brown, John Johnson, Luke 

THE WAR OF 1812. 

The loyalty of the people of the town of 
Hoosick was conspicuously exhibited during 
the existence of the hostilities between Great 
Britain and the United States in 18l»-15. Vol- 
unteers patriotically sought positions in the 
ranks of the various military organizations 
which bore honorable record during the war. 
Among these were Benjamin Baker, Clark 
Baker, Ebenezer Cross, Jacob Case, Job Cass, 
Stephen Chapman, Talman Chace, William 
Coon, Garret Hallenbeck, John Hallenbeck, 
John H. Hayes, Jacob Haight, William Palmer, 
Lemuel Sherwood, Benjamin G. Sweet, Isaac 
Webb, Edward Webb, John Walworth, Reuben 
H. Walworth and Solomon Wilson. The 
memorable expedition in September, 1777, for 
the defense of Plattsburgh, under command of 
Brig. Gen. Gilbert Eddy, formed for yeara an 
interesting subject of conversation tothemem- 
l>ers of the militia organizations who took part 
in it. The militia of the town were represented 
by Capt. Thomas Osborne's artillery company, 
Capt. Abram Keach's company of infantry, 
that of Capt. Nathaniel Bosworth, and one 
company of volunteers under Capt. George R. 


It would seem that at a very early date there 
was a Reformed Protestant Dutch church in 
the town of Hoosick. In the Albany county 
clerk's ofBce a certificate of incorporation is 
filed which recites that the elders and deacons 
of the Reformed Protestant Dutch congrega- 
tion established at Schaghticoke became on the 
25th day of February, 1789, the officers of an- 
other church which was then organized in the 
town of Hoosick, the corporate title of which 
was " The minister, elders and deacons of the 
Reformed Protestant Church of Sanckoyck." 
The certificate is signed by Cornelius Van 
Ness, Philip Van Ness, David Becker and 
Lewis van Woert. It is said that Cornelius 
Van Ness gave the piece of land on which the 
church was built. The building, it is said, was 
'erected on the south side of the Cambridge 
'road, near where is now the residence of Mrs. 
David Gooding. The old building remained in 
a dilapidated condition until about the year 
1825, when it was torn down. There are no 
records apparently preserved of this old church. 


Some time previous to the month of August, 
1791, there was a small religious society wor- 
shipping at" Teasoak " in the town of Hoosick. 



This fact is shown from an old and well-pre- 
Kerved document which reads : 

Where as the Kevd Mr. Samuel Smith of Saratoga 
hast in time Past showed his Willingness to serre 
us In the Gosple one Fourth part of aTeare for the 
Neighberhood of Teasoak on Bouth sids of the 
Biver Bach an Eqnel Chance to Preach one half of 
the Time on the One Side of the River and the Best 
part of the time on the other Side of the River. 

We to show our Readiness to have and our Will- 
ingness to Communicate to him such Sum as Teach- 
eth in Such Things as are Necessary for his Support 
having aflBxed our Names such Sums as God has 
Qiven us Ability and hearts to l>estow on him who 
may he sent to labour Among us. 

TsAsoAK August 10th 1791. 

Then follow the names of the subscribers 
and the sums which they contribute : Philip 
van Ness, £2 ; Lewis Vleley, £1.108 ; Martin 
van Bnsldrk, £1.16a ; Peter Vieley,£l ; Francis 
S. Pruyn, £1 ; Walter van Vechten, £1 ; Rich- 
ard V. Bnskirk, 8s ; John van Bnskirk, ISs ; 
Joseph V. Bnskirk, 4s ; Samuel Brown, 93 ; John 
Bratt, £1 ; Abraham I. Fort, 8s ; Timothy 
Tomes, 4s ; Peter D. Goes, 128 ; Cor's. Sebrlng, 
48 ; Nicholas W. Groesbeck, 10s ; "Winant C. 
Van Denbergh, IGs. 

In January, 1793, a further sum of £30.88 is 
subscribed by 58 persons as the salary of the 
itev. Samuel Smith for serving them " in the 
gospel one-fourth part of the year." 

On May 2, 1792, it was determined by the 
congregation that the church should be "in 
communion with the reverend elassis of Albany 
and the reverend Keformed Protestant Dutch 
synod of New York and New Jersey." At this 
meeting Philip Van Ness and Levrls Viele were 
elected elders and John S. Quackenboss and 
Peter Viele deacons. 

The congregation having given the Bev. 
Samuel Smith of Saratoga a call to become 
pastor of the church on July 2, 1792, the same 
was accepted by letter, July 13, 1792. The letter 
is addressed to " The Reverend Consistory of 

In the fall of 1793 the house in which the 
society met being too small and inconvenient 
it was determined that the congregation in the 
ensuing season would build a church " ou the 
south side of the river, on Mr. Peter Viele's 

On the 15th of February, 1794, the consistory 
contracted with Tenis Van Der Werken and 
Abram Clute " to frame and inclose a church 
35x40 feet, and lay the upper floor," etc. 
Twelve windows and a gallery were several of 
the appointments of the building. Forty-flve 
pounds was the sum paid for this part of the 
work. On the 1st of September, 1794, Daniel 
Bratt contracted to finish the inside work for 

I £47. " The pulpit and the seats of the clerk 
I and consystory were to be made like the chuich 
in Seeticoak." 

In 1823 a new church was erected at Bus- 
kirk's Bridge, which was dedicated on the 2d of 
May of that year. This edifice was enlarged 
in 1872. 

The following pastors have served this con- 
gregation : The Revs. Samuel Smith, Peter D. 
Froleigh, Stephen Ostrander, Abram J. Switz, 
J. H. Pitcher, H. Hermance, A. T. Searles, J. B. 
Shaw, F. A. Gardner, P. Furbeck, and from 
December 1875, the Rev. J. G. Ogden. The 
number of the present membership Of this old 
church is 64. 


This church, which was first known as the 
Mapleton Baptist church, was otganifeed March 
16, 1785. In 1810 its name was changed to that . 
of the Hoosick church. Abonttlie year 1835 the 
congregation became disorganized and ceased 
to have any regular pastor. The pastors con- 
nected with this congregation were the Rev. Sam- 
uel Rogers, the Rev. David Ratbbnn, the Bev. 
James Glass, the Rev. Thomas Puringto i, the 
Rev. I. Keach, the Rev. Obed Warren, the Bev. 
Isaac Webb, the Rev. George Wltherell and the 
Bev. I. Keach. 


Many of the Baptist families residing near 
Hoosick village, finding it inconvenient for 
them to attend the services at the Baptist 
church in the Mapleton neighborhood, erected 
a church about the year 18S1 on the hill north 
of the hamlet. The Bev. Isaac Keach was the 
first pastor of this church. The subsequent 
pastors were: The Bev. Archibald Kenyon, 
1840-41 ; the Rev. J. B. Wilkins, 1842-43 ; the 
Rev. J. Mitchell, 1844 ; the Rev. C. O. Gnrr, 
1846-48 ; the Rev. Wm. Arthur, 1849-^2 ; the 
Rev. H. D. Doolittle, 1853. Between the years 
1854 and 1864 a number of pastors filled the 
pulpit. The Rev. Thomas Rogers was pastor 
from 1864 to 1870, who was succeeded by the 
Revs. Conover, Raymond and HilL In Sep- 
tember, 1878, the Rev. Thomas Rogers again 
was called to the pastorate. About the year 
1840 a new building was erected in the vlUage 
at a cost of $13,000. 


The First Baptist church of Hoosick Falls was 
organized October 30, 1847. On the 8th of Hay, 
1851, at a meeting held at the place of worship, 
John Lyon, Jonathan Case, Allen Spencer, Hosea 
Daniels and Edmund Leonard were elected 
trustees of the Hoosick Falls Baptist church. 
The certificate of incorporation is dated Hay 
16, 1851. 



The following have been the pastors of the 
church : The Rev. John M. Gregory, 1847-50 ; 
supplies for several years, the Bevs. Grant and 
Thos. Rogers from Hoosick Corners ; the Rev. 
O. C. Eirkham, 1860-63 ; the Rev. Thos. Rogers, 
the Rev. WUllam A. Doolittle, the Kev. William 
Wilcox, the Rev. William Garnet, 1867-69 ; the 
Rev. E. T. Hunt, 1869-13 ; the Rev. A. B. Whip- 
ple, 1872-74 ; the Rev. H. W. Webber, 1874 ; 
the Rev. H. A. Morgan, 1875-76 ; 1876 to present 
time, the Rev. George R. Robbina. 

This congregation has occupied since its or- 
ganization " the meeting-house" of the Wai-ren 
society, erected in 1800. The roll of the pres- 
ent membership shows the names of about 200 


In 1800 the first meeting-house for religious 
worship was erected at Hoosick Falls. The 
ground on which the wooden edifice was built 
was the profwrty of Sylvester Noble. The lat- 
ter conveyed it, April 6, 1804, to John Ryan, 
Braijamin Walworth, Samuel Burrell and Joseph 
Dorr, for SO cents consideration money. The 
Indenture recites that "the said John, Benja- 
min, Samuel and Joseph • * * with the 
said Sylvester Noble « * » were on the 
17th of February, in the year A. D. 1800, ap- 
pointed a committee for the purpose of build- 
ing a meeting-house near the Falls Quick 
Quack, » * • with express directions to se- 
cure a good and sufficient title to the land on 
which the said house was to stand, for and on 
behalf of the proprietors to the said house, 
being now members of a society denominated 
Warren society." The lot purchased was " on 
the south line of a lot called the parade lot. 
The lot was 74 by 114 feet. The Warren 
society, it is believed, took its name from the 
Rev. Obed Warren, a noted Baptist missionary 
of the town of Warren, R. I., where, about the 
year 1767, the first New England Baptist society 
was organized. The first holders of pews 
in the meeting-house were Sylvester Noble, 
John Ryan, Benjamin Walworth, Samuel Bur- 
lell, Joseph Dorr, Daniel Noble, Thomas Os- 
borne, John Comstock, Elam Buel, Reuben Fax- 
on, Daniel Ciomstock, Joseph Coon, Abram 
Keach, Benjamin Lewis, John Mattison, Ed- 
ward Richmond, James Brown, David Wing, 
Jacob Martin, Richard Covell, Moses Arm- 
strong, John Palmer, John Baker, A. D. Patch- 
in, Nathaniel Bishop, Theophilos Comstock, 
Jacob A. Faxon, Josiah Buel, A. Cronkhite, 
Alex. WUson, Edward Haynes, Jonathan Case, 
Timothy Graves, Samuel CottcrcU, Thomas 
Eldridge, Rnf us Johnson, Elijah Wallis, John 
Haviland, Ebenezer Cross, John ^aker, Israel 
Storks and Henry Johnson. 

Among the Baptist ministers serving the so- 
ciety successively were the Rev. Samuel 
Rogers, the Rev. David Rathbun, the Rev. 
James Glass, the Rev. Thomas Purrington, the 
Rev. Israel Keach, the Rev. Obed Warren, the 
Rev. Isaac Webb, the Rev. George Wltherell, 
and the Rev. Israel Keach. About the year 
1840 the society lost its organization. 


The Baptist church of West Hoosick was 
legally constituted April 16, 1861. The first 
trustees were: Phillip Herrington, Stephen 
Paddock and Israel Shedd. The house of wor- 
ship is known as the Union church, having 
been built by the general contribution of the 
people in that vicinity. 


On the 5th oE January, 1825, a number of the 
inhabitants of Hoosick Falls assembled at the 
Warren meeting house, on Main street, and 
there organized a religious society by the name 
of the " Presbyterian society of Hoosiek," and 
elec ed the following persons trustees : Tim- 
othy Graves, Garret T. Brcese, John March, 
Harry Patterson, Samuel Burrell and Robert 
Haswell. In 1829 the congregation erected on 
Church street a frame meeting house, which, 
when finished, was dedicated by the Rev. N. S. 
S. Beman, D. D., of Troy, the Rev. A. Peters of 
Bennington, Vt., and other Presbyterian min- 
isters. This building cost about fl,800 and 
had seats for about 800 persons. In 
18.54 the old building was removed, and the 
present church edifice was erected at a cost of 
about $7,000 and having a seating capacity for 
about 500 persons. It was dedicated in the 
spring of 1854, the Rev. N. S. 8. Beman, D. D. 
LL. D., of Troy, the Rev. J. H. Noble, D. D., of 
Schaghticoke and the Rev. A. M. Beveridge 
officiating. The membership of the church is 
about 1.50 and the Sunday school 140. The 
first Sunday school of Hoosick Falls was organ- 
ized in 1825 by persons belongiag to this con- 
gregation and those connected with the Warren 
society. Seth Parsons was the first superin- 

The different pastors of this church have been 
the Rev. C. Cheever, 1825-26 ; the Rev. Samuel 
W. May, 1826-29 ; the Rev. Robert Shaw, 1830- 
31 ; the Rev. Luther P. Blodgett, 1831-36 ; the 
Rev. Leonard Johnson, 1837-39; the Rev. 
Thomas Gordon, 1841-50 ; the Rev. A. M. Bev- 
eridge, 1851-58 ; the Rev. A. De Witt, 1859-65 ; 
the Rev. A. B. Lambert, D. D., 1865-68, and the 
Rev. John Tatlock, 1868 to the present time. 


This religious society was organized in 1883 



under the ministrations of the Rev. Nathaniel. 
O. Preston. The first services were held in the 
village schoolhouse. On the first of Novem- 
ber, 1834, the members of the church met at 
the place of worship for the purpose of incor- 
porating themselves according to an act of 
the legislature. The Rev. N. 0. Preston was 
made moderator of the meeting. George M. 
Tibbits and Salmon Moses were chosen church 
wardens, and L. Chandler Ball, Jonathan Eddy, 
jr., George M. Tibbits, Salmon Moses, Harry 
Patterson, Seth Parsons, Samuel Shaw Crocker, 
and Hezekiah Munsell, jr., elected vestrymen. 
These were incorporated as the rector, church 
wardens and vestrymen of St. Mark's Protestant 
Episcopal church in the village of Hoosick 
Falls. For a number of years thereafter the 
church continued to exist in a very weak way. 
In the year 1858 the society was reorganized, and 
shortly thereafter the erection of the present 
church was begun, the comer stone being laid 
in the summer of 1858 by the Right Rev. Bishop 
Horatio Potter. The first services were held in the 
church on Sunday, August 26, 1860. On the 5th 
of May, 1863, the building was consecrated. In 
1871 an addition of a chapel arcade and a cam- 
panile was made to the building, which, the 
present year, has been farther enlarged and re- 
moddled. The bell, clock and chimes of the 
church were purchased at an expense of $6,000. 
The rectors of the church have been the Rev. 
Nathaniel O. Preston, the Rev. Ebenezer 
Williams, the Rev. James Henry Morgan, 1861- 
63 ; the Rev. George A. Weeks, 186S-65 ; the 
Rev. George Huntington NichoUs, from 1865 to 
the present lime. There are about 175 names 
of communicants on the parish register. 


The Protestant Episcopal church at Hoosick 
Comers was organized and a handsome church 
edifice costing about $30,000 erected by the lib- 
erality of the late George M. Tibbits. The 
church is popularly designated as " the Tibbits 
church." The rector of the church is the Rev. 
John B. Tibbits. The church is not connected 
with any diocese. 


The members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church who early in the century had formed a 
society at Walloomsac, met on the 18th of 
April, 1811, at the house of Thomas Milliman, 
where they had been assembling for divine 
worship, and elected the following persons : 
John Matthews, Benjamin Barnett, Isaac 
Mosher, Thomas Milliman, Simeon Sweet and 
John Comstock as trustees of the Walloomsac 

Methodist Episcopal church. On June 2, 1868, 
the church was reincorporated as "the Meth- 
odist Episcopal society of Hoosick circuit." 
Shortly after this time services were no longer 
continued at this point by the Methodists. It 
was known as the "up-river church." 


This society was legally incorporated April 
12, 1858. On that day the members of the con- 
gregation assembled at the place of worship, 
the meeting house of the Warren society, and 
elected Stephen Williams, William A. Stoney, 
John V. Carney, Jesse F. Dnnham and Asa 
Colgrove "trustees of the Methodist Episcopal 
society at the village of Hoosick Falls." In 
1860 a frame church edifice was erected on 
Main street, in which services were first held on 
Christmas day of that year, at which time It 
was dedicated, the Rev. J. E. King, D. D., 
preaching the sermon on the occasion. The 
building cost about $3,300 and had a siting 
capacity for 300 persons. It was further en- 
larged in 1877. The present membership em- 
braces 270 persons. The pastors of the chuich 
have been the following : The Kev. Reuben 
Washburn, 1858 ; the Rev. Joseph Fames, 
1859 ; the Rev. Jesse Brown, 1860 ; the Rev. A. 
Viele, 1861-62 ; the Rev. B. B. Loomis, 1888-66; 
the Rev. William H. Washburn, 1866-«9 ; the 
Rev. George C. Morehouse, 1869-72 ; the Rev. 
J. K. Wager, 1872-74 ; the Rev. M. A. Senter, 
1874-76 ; the Rev. George Skene, 1876-79 ; the 
Rev. William H. Meeker, 1879 to present time: 


The society known as the North Hoosick 
Methodist Episcopal church was organized, 
January 5, 1865, in the district school house, 
where religious services had been held by the 
Methodists for 30 years. The first trustees were 
William P. Chace, Warren Cox and Edward 
Spalding. In the summer of 1866 a frame 
church building was erected on the main street 
of the village of North Hoosick, which was on 
October 18 of that year used for worship and 
dedicated. The dedication services were per- 
formed in part by the Rev. Wm. Griffin, pre- 
siding elder, the Rev. Wm. H. Washburn, pastor 
in charge, the Rev. S. M. Merrill of North 
Adams, Mass., the Rev. John W. Carhart of 
Troy, and the Rev. Joel Eaton of Cambridge. 
The building cost about $4,000, and had a seat- 
ing capacity tor 300 persons. In 1875 it was en- 
larged. The church has a membership of 50 
persons. The following persons have been 
pastors of the church : The Rev. W. H. Wash- 
bum, 1866-69 ; the Rev. George C. Morehouse, 
1869-72 ; the «ev. Joel K. Wager, 1872-75 ; the 
Rev. John W. Belknap, 1875-76; the Bev;. 



Thomas Munroe, 1876 ; the Rev. Geo. A. Korr, 
1877 ; the Rev. M. F. Lee, 1878 ; the Rev. A. S. 
Clark, April, 1879, to the present time. 


This 'society was organlEed near Buskirk's 
Bridge, March 8, 1843. Nicholas Eyclishymer 
was the first and prominent person to take part 
in its organization. A frame bnilding 'for wor- 
ship was erected in 1843 which was dedicated in 
June of that year. The present brick bniidlng 
was erected in 1869 on the gronnd where the 
first building stood; The new church was dedi- 
cated January 11, 1860. The following minis- 
ten participated in the dedicatory services : 
The Rer.. Jacob Leonard, pastor in charge, the 
Revs. Lewis Potter, John B. Shaw, John P. 
Newman and lYuman Seymour. The cost of 
the structore was $4,191.73, the whole amoont 
having been ptid. It has a seating capaclty-for 
4,000 persons. The following have been pastors 
of, the chnroh : The Itev. Jacob Leonard, one 
year ; the Sev. Hiram Blanchard, two years ; the 
Rev. S. G. Ford, two years ; the Rev. F. A. 
Sonle, two years ; the Rev. John M. Webster, 
two years ; Wm. Clark, three years ; the Rev. 
J. B. Sylvester, one year ; the Rev. R. 6. 
Adams, one year ; Wm. W. Foster, three years ; 
the Rev.-'Wm. Earl, three years, and the Rev. 
D. M. Sohell, 1880 to present time. 


As early as the year 1838, through the mis- 
sionary efforts of various Roman Catholic 
priests there hod been gathered quite a re- 
spectable Congregation at Hoosick Falls of be- 
lievers In the teachings of the Roman Catholic 
church. In 1849 the erection of a chiirch on 
South ChurCh street was begnn by the Rev. 
Father Qnigleyj which was finished in 1831. In 
1870-71 a larger edifice vras bmlt on Main 
street, the comer-stone having been laid on 
August 12, 1869. The chturch was dedicated 
December 10, 1871, by the Rev. T. Galberry. 
The present pastor of the church is the Rev. 
Father Waldron, assisted by the Rev. Father 


At Buskirk's Bridge a Roman Catholic con- 
gregation was organized a number of years ago, 
and built a very neat and commodious house 
of worship. The Rev. Father Waldron has it 
included in his pastorate. 


A number of the inhabitants of the south- 
eastern part of the town of Hoosick, commonly 
called Mapleton, convened at the school house 
in school district No. 4 on Saturday, January 

2, 1836, for the purpose of organizing a, religious 
society to rebuild and rebccupy the site and 
premises where the old Mapleton meeting house 
was standing at that time. The persons assem- 
bled organized themselves under the name of 
the "Mapleton Liberal Religious Society." 
On the 28d of January, the foUowing persons 
were elected trustees : Moses Armstrong, Joseph 
Percey, Daniel Rogers, David Wallace, James 
Percey, Lyman Andrews, Jonathan Hayner, 
Randall James and Garret Van Hoosen. It Is 
often known by the name of the Union church. 
Various denominations hold meetings in the 


The first known lease of land of the Hoosick 
patent, at Hoosick Falls, was made of 2Q0 
acres by Jonathan Fuller from Augustus Van 
Home of New York. The survey of this tract 
began at a marked brich tree standing below 
the falls of Quequick. This farm was next 
conveyed to Henry Northup of North Kingston, 
R. I., who shortly after removed to It, where ho 
lived until his death in 1797. The other part of 
the village west of Main street and east of the 
Hoosick river was a part of the farm of 230 
acres belonging to Henry Barahart. The first 
store in Hoosick Falls, it is said, was one opened 
in 1785 by Isaac Turner. In 1784 Joseph Dorr 
came to Hoosick Falls and leasing of Bamardus 
Bratt 280 acres of land together with all the 
water power on the north side of the river, 
began tha erection of a carding and 
fulling mill. Subsequently a flax mill, a dis- 
tillery and a saw mill were also erected there. 
Benjamin Colvin, about the year 1786, built a 
grist mill on the south side of the river. His 
successors were John Chase and Theopbilus 
Comstock. In 1791 the first bridge was con- 
structed over the river at Hoosick Falls. In 
1822 the first postofflce was established in the 
place, Seth Parsons being made postmaster. 

In 1823 Joseph Gordon, a Scotchman, built 
what was known as the Caledonian cotton fac- 
tory on the south bank of the Hoosick river be- 
tween the bridge and the grist mill. About 150 
persons were employed in the factory. In 1827 
the factory was purchased by Samuel S. Crocker, 
John Knickerbacker, John House of Waterford 
and Jacob Merritt of Troy. In 1868 this prop- 
erty was sold to the Walter A. Wood reaping 
and mowing machine company. 

On April 14, 1827, the village of Hoosick Falls 
was incorporated, Seth Parsons being elected 
president of the board of trustees. It is said 
that at the time of its incorporation the popula- 
tion of the village was 200, the number of build- 
ings 86,. the electors 50, and the valuation of 
the property $96,370. 



In 1831 George W. and Lyman Benedict 
erected the Tremont cotton factory on the 
north side of the river. About 25,000 yards of 
cloth were manufactured weekly, the number 
of employ^ being; about TO. In 1835 the 
property was sold to Walter A. Wood. The 
first stockholders of the Tremont cotton fac- 
tory were Seth Parsons, H. Parsons, Lyman 
Wilder, Hairy Patterson, Norman and Hiram 
Herrington of Hoosick Falls, Joseph Case of 
Petersburgh, Daniel Wight of Troy, and 
Erastus Ball of New Orleans. 

In 1838 the following description was given 
of the place in "Gordon's Gazetteer" of the 

Hoosick Falls, 24 miles from Troy, on the right 
bank of the river, which has a fall here of 40 feet 
within 12 rods, affording fine water power, nearly 
all of whloh la unemployed, contains 1 Baptist and 
1 Presbyterian churches, grist, saw, oil, carding 
and cloth dressing mills. 2 large cotton factories, 
a manufactory of shearing machines [of Lyman 
Wilder], which supplies with that article almost 
the whole of the United States ; 1 tavern, four 
stores, and about 60 dwellings. 

The Ball seminary, named in honor of L. 
Chandler Ball, was erected in 1842, at a coat of 
about $4,500. It was incorporated April U, 
1843 ; the first tmstees being L. Chandler Ball, 
Seth Parsons, Lyman Wilder, Harry Patterson, 
Adin Thayer, Hial Parsons, Thomas Gordon, 
Andrew Russell, John White, William Palmer, 
WUliard Herrington and John Benwick. In 18S3 
the property was given to school district No. 1 
of the totni of Hooeick. 

The First National bank of Hoosick Falls, 
which began business Hay 3, 1880, has the 
following officers: President, T. J. Wallace; 
vice president, C. A. Cheney ; cashier, Addison 
Getty. The capital of the bank is $60,000. 


The most celebrated manufactory of harvest- 
ing machines in the world is at Hoosick Falls. 
The immense establishment is the property of 
the Walter A. Wood mowing and reaping ma- 
chine company, the officers of which are the 
Hon. Walter A. Wood, president ; J. Russell 
Parsons, vice president ; A. C. Geer, secretary ; 
Willaid Gay, treasurer; J. M. RosebrooKs, 

The history of these extensive works at which, 
during the months of June and July of the pres- 
ent year, were daily made and completed 114 per- 
fect machines, and manufactured during this 
season 37,908 of the world-renowned harvest- 
ers, begins in the year when Walter A. Wood, a 
young man of vigorous mind and active body, 
come to Hoosick Falls and engaged himself as 
a journeyman machinist to work for Seth Par- 

sons, being at the time 90 years of age. 
Subsequently he became interested in the man- 
ufacture of plows and other agricultural im- 
plements. In 1863, having carefully infepected 
the working of the combined mowing and har- 
vesting machine patented by John H. Manny of 
Illinois, Walter A. Wood was Induced to purchase 
a territorial right, and to begin the manofao- 
ture of the machines at Hoosick Falls. Besides 
occupying the old-foundry building, he in 1856 
purehased the old Tremont cotton factory. In 
1868 Ball & Parsons, who had also been engaged 
since 1862 in manufacturing the same machines, 
quitted the business, leaving Walter A. Wood 
the only one to carry on this branch of 
manufacturing in Hoosick Falls. In ISoA 
flnding that he needed more conveniences for 
bis increasing business, Mr. Wood rented the 
mill formerly occupied by Ball and Parsons. In 
November, 1860, a disastrous flra swept away In 
flame all of the buildings. The same year the 
work of rebuilding began, and the new 
buildings erected on the site of the old ones 
were the next year noisy with the horn of 
machinery, and another period of manufactnie 
began. " The Wood Mower," constructed by 
the mechanical ingenuity of Mr. Wood in 1889, 
was sent oTit among the farmers and achieved a 
notable success. In 1861 "the seUnnking 
reaper," patented by Mr. Wood, which was 
farther perfected in 1863, added to his greater 
celebrity as a maker of excellent harvesters. 

In 1870 a second fire swept away all the 
buildings. The Caledonia mill having been 
bought in 1869, became the workshop where 
most all the machines were constructed during 
the year 1870. From the date of this calamity 
new buildings have, from year to year, been 
erected, which now form this extensive manu- 
facturing establishment. 

The present stock company, known as the 
Walter A. Wood mowing and reaping machine 
company, was formed in 1865. From this time 
until 1879 various useful attachments and ad- 
ditions were made to the machines invented by 
Mr. Wood. In 1874 the wire seU-binding hai^ 
vester was brought out and aciiieved the dgnal 
success which has made the machines of this 
character known in all the grain-prodttcing 
countries of the earth. OHver Daltymple, the 
great grain grower, employed in 18T9, in harvest- 
ing his immense fields of grain, 106 of these ma- 
chines, each of which reaped on an average 15 
acres of grain a day, 


Writing of the first trial of the Wood auto- 
matic twine binder in England, in October, 
1879, on the farm of Simeon Leather, Dela- 
mere lodge, near Northwich, Cheshire, an 



obserrant witness says : " I saw it make 500 
staeaves without one stoppage, in tlie most 
perfect manner possible, at the rate of 37 
sheaves per minute." The rightly merited 
praises bestowed npon these wonderful and 
naefnl machines have not only placed thousands 
and tens of thonsands of them upon the great 
grain plains of the United States, but have car- 
ried them to those of Europe, Asia, Africa, 
South America, Australia and New Zealand. 
As the visitor inspects the 200 and more gold, 
sliver and bronze medals handsomely displayed 
In the vice president's room, at the works at 
Hoosick Falls, awarded to Walter A. Wood as 
testimonials of the unexcelled merits of his 
harvesting machines, he cannot but think that 
" worth makes the man." In field competi- 
tions between American and European reaping 
machines In Europe, the Wood harvesters took 
207 first prizes. The brilliancy of this honor- 
able mention is further increased by the Wood 
machines dnring the same time taking 
109 first prizes on other fields of com- 
petition against all the leading machines. 
In 1876 at the centennial exhibition he obtained 
the highest awards for his harvesters. Austria 
conferred upon him the knight's cross of the 
imperial order of Francis Joseph, and France, 
in 1869, decorated him with the cross of the 
chevalier of thq legion of honor, and in 1878 
added two gold medals and the cross of officer 
of the legion of honor — ^the highest award of 
honor. The amazing record of the machines 
manufactured since 1853 at the Hoosick Falls 
establishment is the following : 

185S fioo 

1864 600 

18H i.aoo 

1858 2,600 

18« 3,800 

1868 4.500 

1860 6,600 

1880 8,000 

1861 ajBOO 

1882 6,600 

1S68 6,800 

18M 7,600 

1886 8,500 

1888 10,600 

1867 11,500 

1868 17.600 

1880 23,000 

1870 16,000 

1871 16,771 

1872 17,0e7 

1878 20.715 

1874 20,430 

1875 23,607 

1876 28,336 

1877 19,071 

1878 26,085 

1879 24,920 

1S80 27,903 

Total 354,015 

The monthly pay roll is $45,000, the number 
of regular employes being about 1,000. 


The masonic association was first represented 
at Hoosick Falls by Federal lodge No. 33 F. and 
A. M., which was organized September 8, 1792, 
and which erected and dedicated a masonic hall 
in .the place October 6, 1824. It forfeited its 
warrant during the anti-masonic excitement in 
18S2. Among the founders of the lodge were 
Thomas SicUes, William Castle, Robert Sim, 
Henry Ten Brook, Samuel Crary, Stephen Read, 
Barney Read, Solomon King, William Roberts, 
Abraham Van Tnyl, Enoch Stall, Andrew 

White, Benjamin Hawks, George Eager, James 
Fairbaim, Henry Brown, William Brae, Thomas 
Hartwell and Jonathan Chase. 

Van Rensselaer lodge No. 400 F. and A. M. 
received its dispensation in 1856 and held its 
first meeting February 26 of that year. 

The warrant to open and hold a mark lodge by 
the name of Hoosick mark lodge was granted on 
February 3, 1807. In 1825 and 1826 dispensa- 
tions were granted ; and on February 12 1869, 
one was issued to open and hold Raymond 
chapter, U. D., at Hoosick Falls. The first 
convocation was held February 18, 1869. The 
dispensation was renewed June 18, 1870, and a 
charter granted February 8, 1871, to Raymond 
chapter 248. 

The independent order of Odd Fellows is 
represented by Hoosick Falls lodge No. 430. 
The Knights of Pythias have also a lodge. 

The temperance cause is represented by the 
Continental Temple of Honor, No. 21, and a 
Father Matthew T. A. B. society. No. 1. There 
is also the ancient order of Hibernians, No. 1, 
and the Robert Emmett association, No. 1. 

The Mower and Reaper band, vrganized in 
1857, has earned an excellent musical reputa- 

The Hoosick Falls veteran association was 
organized about the year 1873. On the 30th of 
Hay, 1878, the town having voted (800 and the 
village tSOO, a beautiful soldiers' marble monu- 
ment was erected at the intersection of Classic 
and High streets. The inscription on the mon- 
ument reads : " The Citizens of the town of 
Hoosick hold in grateful remembrance the men 
who fought to save the Union. 1861—1865." 
The total cost of the monument was $1,500. 


The first newspaper Issued at Hoosick Falls 
was the Hoosick Falls Gazette, published by A. 
C. Eddy about the year 1863. This paper had 
been known previously as the Cambridge Valley 
NoM. It was published about one year. Sub- 
sequently, about the year 1869 the Hoosick 
Falls Independent was published for a year by 

The Benmelaer County Standard was first is- 
sued, at Hoosick Falls, Nov. 15, 1878, by James 
H. Livingston, editor and proprietor. 

On the 6th of March, 1880, the paper became 
the property of Benjamin Horsley, who ably 
continues its publication. 


For many years the large and splendid collec- 
tion of minerals made by Lyman Wilder was 
one of the chief attractions of Hoosick Falls 
for visitors. They were tastefully displayed in 
an octagonal shaped building south of the min- 



eralogist's residence. Being the finest and largest 
collection In the United States, Williams col- 
lege through the liberality of Dr Edward Clark 
of Cooperstown, who purchased It for the nom- 
inal sum of $8,000 in 1879, became possessed of 
this grand cabinet of nature's handiwork. Mr. 
Wilder is now in his eighty-third year, and is 
still all aglow with the early enthusiasm which 
for years impelled him to give many of his 
hours of rest after the labors of the day to per- 
fecting this unequalled collection of beautiful 
crystals, fossils, etc. 


These works were originated by a stock com- 
pany with a capital of $10,000, in 1871 ; Isaac 6. 
Johnson of' New York, president, and William 
Nicbolls of Hoosick Falls, secretary and treas- 
urer. The establishment is situated about a mile 
from the village ou the Troy and Boston railroad. 
About 70 employ^ are regularly engaged in the 
production of agricultural implements, carriage 
fixtures, carpenters' tools, etc. 

The lawn mower manufactory of Lyman 
Wilder, near the Walter A. Wood works, also 
adds to the manufacturing interests of Hoosick 

The fire department is represented by the 8eth 
Parsons steamer company. 

The present population of the village is 4,610. 


This place is situate on the Hoosick river 
and on the line of the Troy and Boston rail- 
road and the Boston, Hoosac tunnel and West- 
em railway, and was the first postoflSce, about 
1785, in the town of Huosick, when stages ran 
between Troy and Bennington, on the turnpike 
that lay through it. Asher Armstrong was post- 
master here from 1800 to 1832. In 1836 the 
place had 1 Baptist church, 2 taverns, 3 stores 
and about 30 dwellings. The village at present 
contains 2 churches, 1 Baptist and 1 Protestant 
Episcopal, 2 hotels, 3 stores, 1 button factory, 
2 grist mills, 3 saw mills, 1 flax mill, 2 black- 
smtth shops and 1 wagon-maker shop. There 
are about 110 buildings in the village, which has 
about 1,000 inhabitants within the radius of 
the postoffice delivery. 


North Hoosick is on the Troy and Bennington 
railroad, in the northern part of the town. The 
Walloomsac creek flows through it. It is a 
short distance east of the site of the old settle- 
ment of Sancoik. In 1836 North Hoosick is 
spoken of as having a large flannel factory, 
scythe factory, a store, a tavern and some 20 
dwellings. At present there are about 75 build- 

ings in the place. Stevens & Thompson's wall 
paper manufactory is the chief industry of the 
place. The Methodists have a flourishing 
church in the village. 


Eagle Bridge is at the junction of the Troy 
and Boston railroad with the Rutland and 
Washington branch of the Delaware and Hud- 
son canal company's road. It is also, a station 
of the Boston, Hoosac tunnel and Weston rail~ 
way. There are here 2 hotels, 4 stores, 1. com- 
mission house, 2 wagon maker shops, 2 black- 
smith shops, 1 rope mill, 1 coid and thread mill, 
2 grist mills and 1 saw mill ; also a Methodist 
church. The buildings number 67, and the 
population is S15. 


This hamlet is on the Walloomsac creek, and 
is east of North Hoosick, on the Troy aod Ben- 
nington branch railroad. It contains about 17 
buildings. Here are also the Walloomsac pa- 
per company's mills, owned by Stevens & 


The hamlet of Bnskirk's Bridge is in the 
northwestern part of the town on the Troy and 
Boston and the Boston, Hoosac tunnel and 
Western railways. There are three churches 
here, a Reformed Dutch chnich; a Methodist 
and a Roman Catholic church. About 40 build- 
ings comprise the place. 


This place is near the western boundary line 
of the town. It is in what is known as the 
Nepimore valley, and has a school-house, a 
grist mill, a store, a blacksmith shop and about 
15 buildings. 


This place is at the junction of the Troy and 
Boston and the Harlem Extension railroads. It 
is also a station on the Boston, Hoosac 
tunnel and Western railway. It is near 
the southern boundary of the town. In 
the vicinity are several flax and grist mills. On 
the Bratt farm are several excellent mineral 


Potter Hill, which has a poatofBce, is in the 
southwestern part of the town. 


IWO S.085 

1800 8,1« 

1810 8117 

1816 ; a,907 

IgO 8.373 

}M8 :.... 8,481 

IgO 8*84 

}»5 8,1886 

1840 8,689 

18«. 8.678 

IfSg ■ 8,W« 

ii§::- •:;;;■;;;:-;;;: iag 

1886 4W 

18TO 5SW 

1*76 OAK 

1880 tSB 




The Letters Patent of George III. — The Township Named in Honor 
OF William Pitt, Earl of Chatham — Grant of Two Thousand 
Acres along the Tomlenack — Provision Made for Ministers of 
THE Gospel — Singular Dispensations of Justice — The Great 
Northern Turnpike — A Score of Churches — James A. Garfield 
Preaches at Pittstown — The Villages of the Town — Table 
OF Population. 

The first settlers of the tenitory lying north 
of Albany, on the east side of the Hndson, it 
would seem, were generally a very religions 
class of people. Whenever their nnmber be- 
came sofBciently large to form a respectable 
sized congregation, steps were at once taken to 
secure a minister who should statedly preach in 
one of the school-houses erected here and there 
along the roads through the newly occupied 
country. It sometimes occurred that in the 
petitions for land patents the parties desiring 
to obtain such proprietary rights would set 
forth such an intention specifically as regarded 
the proTisions necessary to be made for reli- 
gious teachers and schoolmasters. A purpose 
of this kind is made a special feature of what is 
known as the Pittstown patent, whereby an 
association of 62 persons obtained from the 
English crown about 60,000 acres of land, a 
part of which included the greater portion of 
the territory now embraced ?rithln the boundary 
lines of Pittstown. 


Following the customary preamble of the 
sovereignty of his majesty, the king of Great 
Britain, etc., the instrument recites that 
"our loving subjects Isaac Sawyer, 
John B. Bleecker, Abraham Jacob Lan- 
sing" and their named associates had presented 
a i>etition on the 10th of June, 1761, in which 
they declared that they had purchased of the 
Indian proprietor four tracts of land, on the 
east side of Hudson's river, containing in the 
whole about 60,000 acres exclusive of the allow- 


ance for highways, and humbly prayed 
his majesty that the same might be 
confirmed to their use by letters patent. 
In this petition the petitioners proposed making 
an immediate settlement on part of the two 
largest tracts, and to settle to the number of 
62 families on the whole of the land purchased 
within the term of three years, the time to be com- 
puted from the termination of the existing war 
with France, and to seat and establish a township 
on each of the said two large tracts, "reserving 
and setting apart for the support of a minister 
of the gospel and the maintenance of a school- 
master in each township forever the quantity of 
five hundred acres of each of the said two 
large tracts." In answer to this petition, his 
majesty, George IH., granted respectively to 
each of the petitioners 1,000 acres of the land 
described in the royal patent. 


The first tract mentioned lay near the Hudson 
river. The second began " in the north bounds 
of the manor of Bensselaerwyck, six chains 
west from a brook or creek called Tomlenack." 
This point was "the beginning of a certain tract 
of 2,000 acres of land granted to John Schuyler 
and Neiltje Bradt. ' ' The line of the second tract 
ran along the bounds of the last mentioned 
tract to a tract of 600 acres of land formerly 
granted to John DePeyster, and then along this 
tract to the land granted to David Abrahamson 
Schuyler and others, and along it, an* thence 
back to the place of beginning. This tract 
contained " 3,700 acres of land and the usual 



allowance for highways." It chiefly lies in the 
southwestern part of the to?yn of Pittstown. 


The third tract began "in the north bounds of 
the manor of Rensselaerwyck at the southeast 
comer of the aforesaid tract of 2,000 acres of 
land granted to John Schuyler and Neiltje 
Bradt," which southeast corner is 170 chains 
east from the point, " six chains west from the 
aforesaid brook called Tomlenack." It ran 
thence along the bounds of the land conveyed 
to John Schuyler and Neiltje Bradt to the 
aforesaid tract of land granted John DePeyster, 
then along it to another tract granted to David 
Abrahamson Schuyler, Frederick Morris, 
Charles Williams, Thomas Clarke, Edward Col- 
lins and Sarah Williams, then along it and 
crossing one other tract granted to the 
latter persons and then by several courses 
to the north bounds of the manor 
of Rensselaerwyck and along this line 
to the place of beginning, " surrounding the 
greatest part of the last mentioned tract of 
land granted to the said David Abrahamson 
Schuyler and others." The third tract con- 
tained 24,650 acres of land and the usual al- 
lowance for highways. This tract is the south- 
eastern part of the town of Pittstown. 


The name of Pittstown, given, it would 
seem, by George HI. to the third tract, was in 
honor of William Pitt, earl of Chatham, who 
was at this time the leading statesman of Eng- 
land. The king says : 

We do by our own special grace, certain knowl- 
edge and meer motion create, erect and constitute 
the tract or parcel of land herein granted and dis- 
tinguished as aforesaid by the name and distinc- 
tion of the third tract and every part and parcel 
thereof a township forever hereafter to be, con- 
tinue and remain : and by the name of Pittstown, 
forever hereafter to be called and Icnown. • • * 
And we also ordain and establish that there shall 
be forever hereafter In each of the said townships 
[the fourth tract being called Cambridge] respect- 
ively, one supervisor, one treasurer, two over- 
seers of the highways, two overseers of the poor, 
one collector and four constables elected and 
chosen out of the inhabitants of the said town- 
ships respectively yearly and every year, on the 
first Tuesday in May, at the most public place in 
the said townships. 


The patentees were to pay yearly and every 
year at the king's custom house in the city of 
New York unto his receiver general, on the feast 
of the annunciation of the blessed virgin Mary, 
commonly called Lady day, the yearly rent of 

two shillings and six pence sterling for each and 
every hundred acres of these granted lands. 
The patent is dated July 23, 1761, the first year 
of the reign of George the third. Previous to 
this grant there was another recorded known 
as the Tomhannock patent. 


For the purpose of obtaining a royal patent to 
a certain tract of land north of Albany on the 
east side of the Hudson river, John Schuyler 
and Joakim Bradt petitioned John Mont- 
gomery, the governor of the province of New 
York, July 23, 1730, for a grant of over 2,000 
acres. Joakim Bradt died a short time after 
making this request, and the patent was then 
granted to John Schuyler and Neiltje Bradt, be- 
ing dated July 29, 1737. The line of survey be- 
gan " at a certain white oak tree standing in 
the line of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, six 
chains west from the said brook called Tom- 
lenack and running thence from the said white 
oak tree, " by several courses to the "west comer 
of the land granted to Myndert Schuyler and 
company, thence east along the line of their 
lands," by several courses, " to the patroon's 
line of his land there, thence along the same 
line west 179 chains to the place from whence 
the said tract or parcel of land first began, con- 
taining near 2,000 acres of land besides the 
usual allowance for highways." 


In the tenth year of the reign of George H., 
May 19, 1737, a patent of 11,250 acres of land 
was granted David Abrahamson Schuyler, Fred- 
erick Morris, Charles Williams, Thomas Clarke, 
Edward Collins and Sarah Williams. The line 
of survey began at the northeast comer of a 
tract of land previously In possession of 
Johnnes Becker, and ran " to a certain brook 
called Tomhenack, then up the stream of the 
said brook to the said tract of land now in pos- 
session of the said Johnnes Becker," etc. This 
the third tract was designated as being on the 
east side of the Tomhenack. 


Another tract of land lying within the county 
of Albany, on the west side of the Hudson 
river " nigh to Schachtekok," beginning at a 
certain marked tree standing near to the dwell- 
ing house of one Johannes Becker, and running 
from the said marked tree along the lines of 
the tract formerly granted to John De Peyster, 
was conveyed by patent, dated November 10, 
1743, to John De Peyster, containing 1,275 acres. 


The several patents previously referred to 
embraced the greater part of the present terri- 



tbry of the town of Pittstown. The northern 
portion of the town, along the Hoosiok river, 
was part of the tract included in the Hoosick 
patent, dated June 2, 1688. Subsequently 
small tracts adjoining the former tracts were 
granted to a number of individuals. 


Among the first settlers that are said to have 
made their homes within the territory of the 
different tracts were William Pendergrast, 
Stephen Hunt and Edmund Aiken in the vicinity 
of Johnsonville ; Ludovicus Viele near Valley 
Falls, in 1772 ; Christian Fisher and Michael 
Vandercook in the Cooksborough neighborhood 
about the year 1772. A few years earlier Wil- 
liam Shepard began farming on 500 acres of 
land lying in the township. In 1774 Moses Van 
Namee occupied a farm a short distance north 
of Pittstown Comers. Benjamin Aiken took a 
farm of 950 acres about 1779 ; Isaac Carpenter 
came to the town about 1784, Joseph Abbott 
about 1788, and Gilbert Eddy a year or two be- 
fore the latter date. 


By "an act for dividing the counties of this 
state into towns," passed by the legislature 
March 7, 1788, the town of Pittstown was 
erected. Its boundary lines were: "All that 
part of the said county of Albany bounded 
southerly by Rensselaerwyck and Stephen- 
town, westerly by Schactekoke, northerly by 
Schactekoke and Cambridge, and easterly by a 
line beginning at the distance of ten miles east 
from Hudson's river, on the north line of 
Schactekoke continued east and running from 
thence to a place in the north bounds of 
Stephentown, at the distance of 13 miles from 
Hudson's river, shall be and hereby is erected 
into a town by the name of Pittstown." These 
lines bounding it were altered February 14, 
1798. The town lies along the northern 
boundary line of Rensselaer county, between 
the tovms of Schaghticoke on the west and 
Hoosick on the east. 


The first town officers were elected at the 
town meeting held on the first Tuesday in April, 
1789. They were : Supervisor, Israel Thomj)- 
son ; town clerk, Evans Humphrey ; assessors, 
John Francisco, Harmon Vanvarter, HazacU 
Shepard, Benjamin Milks, John Rowan ; col- 
lectors, Gilbert Eddy, Hazael Shepard; poor- 
masters, Simon Vandercook, George Gage, Ste- 
phen Hunt ; constables, Gilbert Eddy, Hazael 
Shepard, Aaron Van Namee, John Rowan, jr., 
and Stephen Hunt. 


It is said that at the July term of the supreme 
court, held in Albany in 1789, Elihu Smeeds of 
Pittstown, indicted for the murder of Ezekiel 
Mitchell, and convicted of manslaughter, was 
to receive 39 lashes at the public whipping-post 
and be imprisoned three calendar months. Six 
others, convicted of stealing, were condemned 
to receive 39 lashes each, while about the same 
time Francis Uss, convicted of breaking open 
and robbing a store in Foughkeepsie, was pub- 
licly hanged. 


In 1790, when the New York mail arrived at 
Albany twice a week, one of the routes taken 
by a post-rider distributing letters and news- 
papers through the country north of Albany, 
was the following : Leaving Albany on Monday 
evening for Vermont, he arrived at Pittstown 
on Tuesday, at Bennington on Wednesday, at 
Little White Creek and Cambridge on Thurs- 
day, at Tomhannock and Schaghticoke on Fri- 
day, and at Hoosick on Saturday. 


Previous to the building of the northern turn- 
pike from Troy to Vermont the following notice 
was given to those interested in the construc- 
tion of this important thoroughfare : 

Notice is hereby given that the books of the first 
company of the Korthem turnpike road are 
opened, agreeably to the direction of the statute 
incorporating said company, and are lodged with 
the commissioners, at the following places, viz. : 
At LanstDgburgh, with John Lovett ; at Pittstown, 
with John Carpenter ; at Buskirk's Bridge, with 
Martin Van Buskirk ; at Cambridge, with Edmund 
Wells, jr.; at Salem, with John Williams ; at 
Hebron, with David Long ; at Granville, with Tim- 
othy Leonard. All persons desiring to subscribe 
for shares in said company may apply to either of 
said commissioners, at either of the aforesaid 
places. June 11, 1799. 


A document which preserves in part the his- 
tory of this church is the certificate of incorpo- 
ration dated November 25, 1800. At that time 
the officers named as " the elders and deacons 
of the Reformed Dutch church at Pittstown," 
were John Van Woert, Jonathan Yates, Simon 
Vandercook, Stephen Jackson, Israel Shepard 
■ and Enoch Raskins. On the organization of the 
Presbyterian society in the south part of Pitts- 
town, it would seem, this congregation became 
connected with the latter body. 


For some time previous to the year 1817 a 
congregation of Presbyterians had been holding 



religious services in the south part of the town. 
On the 20th of December, 1817, a meeting was 
held " at the usual place of divine worship" and 
the following persons were elected trustees : 
Simon Vandercook, Enoch Haskins, jr., Joseph 
Brown, Reuben Halstead, Tisdale Eddy and 
James Stitt. The nams adopted for this legally 
organized body was " the Presbyterian society 
in the south part of the town of Kttstown." 
This church after many years of embarrassment 
and unsuccessful grovrth, ceased to exist, and 
in 1868 the property passed to the Evangelical 
Lutheran church. 


The members of the Pittstown Union society 
on Monday, February 15, 1819, met at the 
school house near Maham Taft's house, where 
they had usually met for divine worship, to 
elect " trustees for the building a church for 
said congregation." The following pei^ons 
were then chosen as trustees of the "Pittstown 
Union society " : Abraham Van Woert, Royal 
Abbott, Reuben Williams, Otis Taft, Walter 
W. Groesbeck, Jeduthan Hall and Naham 

This organization, it appears, changed its 
legal name in 1819. A meeting of the male 
members of the society was held at the house 
of Elbert I. Willett, on the 22d of March, that 
year, at which John Yan Woert, Robert S. Bost- 
wick, Jacob P. Tates, Thomas Henderson, 
Jonathan Rouse and Jesse Smith were elected 
trustees of " the Dutch and Presbyterian society 
in Pittstown." 


This congregation being the after growth of 
the former society about the year 18^ held a 
joint session meeting with the Presbyterian 
society in the south part of the town. The two 
churches united in calling a pastor, the Rev. 
Solomon Lyman, who was Installed January, 
1826. He was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph 
P. Tyler in 1829. The Rev. Phineas Smith 
served the Tomhannock church from 1830 to 
1833 ; The Rev. Oren Brown 1833-34 ; the Rev. 
J. J. Dana 1834-36 ; then successively the Rev. 
Mr. Hayden, the Revs. B. Brown, J. B. Hub- 
bard, P. Barber, Toombs, F. Harman, P. 

Gordon, Viele, Hall, A. Ostrom, J. H. 

Noble and the Rev. R. J. Jones, who served 
both the Tomhannock and Johnsonville con- 


The legal organization of this church is dated 
the nth day of February, 1856, when there was 
a meeting held " at the place of worship in the 
Tillage of Johnsonville," and the following 

persons were elected trustees of "the Presby- 
terian congregation of Johnsonville:" J. H. 
Akin, jr., C. Jenkins, G. MacRae, Alexander 
Ross, E. F. Hurd and J. Westinghouse. This 
society has a very neat and commodious 


This religious society was organized the 24th 
of August, 1840, and held religions services in 
the Presbyterian church, known as being in 
" the south part of the town of Pittstown." In 
1868 the Lutheran congregation became the 
owner of the old Presbyterian church. On the 
first day of January, 1870, the members of the 
"Frankean Lutheran church and society of 
Raymertown" assembled at their stated place 
of worship to further perfect an organization 
made by the said church in the year 1853 under 
the name of " the Evangelical Lutheran church 
and society of Raymertown in South Pitts- 
town." The following persons as trustees ap- 
pear in the certificate of incorporation : Coon- 
rad Clum, Charles U. Barry, John E. Twogood, 
Martin 8ipi)erly, Jacob L. Snyder and William 
Stanton. A new church edifice was erected in 
1871, at a cost of $8,500. The membership now 
embraces about 135 persons. The Rev. N. Van 
Alstyne is the present pastor of the congrega- 


Some years before the opening of the present 
century a society of Friends was organized in 
the town of Pittstown. For the purpose of a 
site for a meeting house and for a burying 
ground, Claudius Lamb sold to ther society two 
pieces of land belonging to his farm along " the 
middle road," between the two turnpikes, one 
of which ran to Buskirk's bridge and the other 
to Hoosick and Bennington. The meeting 
house place was on the north side of " the mid- 
dle road," about two miles north of Pittstown 
Corners. The burying ground was on the 
south side of the road. About the year 1824 a 
new meeting house was erected, the old build- 
ing being used afterward as a horse shed. 
Among the early Friends living in the 
neighborhood of the meeting house were 
David Norton, Micajah Hunt, Asa Hoag, John 
Osborne, Simeon Brownell and Nathan Peck- 
ham. The present leader of the society is Caleb 
Norton. Meetings are still held in the forenoon 
of First day, in the meeting house, by the 
present small congregation of Friends. 


The first Baptist church at Pittstown Corners 
was organized about the year 1784 under the 
name of the Pittstown Baptist church. In 



1793 the Rev. Isaac Webb accepted the pastor- 
ship of this church. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. Lemuel Covell in 1799. The Revs. Charles 
Lahatt, Charles Somers, Stephen Olmstead, 
Richmond Taggart, Wllber Sherman, H. Slade, 
Solomon Gale, jr., and Harvey Slade, subsequent- 
ly served as pastors of the church. The first 
meeting house was erected about the year 1789. 
About the year 1847 a new house of worship 
was erected. On the 13th of September, 1847, 
a meeting was held at the church for the purpose 
of electing trustees and to organize a Baptist 
church and society, the Rev. D. S. Dean being 
chosen moderator and Benjamin Boswortb and 
Norman Baker clerks. It was resolved that 
the new society should be known by the name 
of " the Baptist church and society of Pitts- 
town." The following persons were elected 
trustees of the new organization: Henry 
Warren, Benjamin Bosworth, George Gibbs, 
Anthony Hydom, Hugh Reid, Jonas Halstead, 
Timothy Allen, James L. Halstead and 
Joseph L. Patterson. The pastors of this 
church have been the Revs. D. S. Dean, 
Foster Hartwell, William Hart, William Lucas, 
0. C. Kirkham, William Bowen and L. Sellick. 
For a number of years no services of this de- 
nomination have been held in the church. It is 
now occupied by the Disciples. 


This society was legally organized on the 3d 
of September, 1847, when the following per- 
sons were elected trustees: Joseph Haskins, 
Samuel S. Hyde, Benjamin Chapman, Solomon 
W. Thompson. The name adopted by the so- 
ciety was " the Baptist Church in the town of 
Pittstown." The Rev. Porter Thomas was the 
first pastor to serve this congregation. His 
successors were the Rev. Warren L. Hayden, 
1860-64 ; the Rev. A. B. Chamberlain, 1864r69 ; 
the Rev. George Lobingier, 1869-72 ; the Rev. 
W. H. Rogers, 1872-73 ; the Rev. J. G. Ensel, 
1873-77 ; the Rev. Edgar Pardee, from October 
38, 1877, to the present time. The names on 
the roll of membership number about 100. 
This society now occupies the old Baptist 
church, which in 1860 was enlarged and re- 
modeled. It was in the church of this society 
that Gen. James A. Garfield, when a student at 
Williams college, preached. 


In 1838 a Christian church was organized in 
the southeastern part of the town now Imown 
as Boyntonville. In 1840 a house of worship 
was erected on Main street, which was dedi- 
cated in the month of February, 1841. In the 
certificate of incorporation, dated July 25, 1855, 
the congregation is denominated a religions so- 

ciety, "called Christian and nothing but 
Christian to the exclusion of all the 
names of factions and party, or of any 
addition thereto, in Pittstown and Graf- 
ton in the county of Rensselaer." On 
the day mentioned, according to a notice given 
by Elder Aaron Eldred, the following persons 
were elected trustees : Aaron Eldred, Titus B. 
Todd, Eraatus Geer, William Rowland, Whiting 
B. Slason and Richard Vandenberg. About five 
years ago the church was remodeled. The 
present membership of the church is 64. The fol- 
lowing ministers have served the congregation : 
Elder Wilson Mosher, Elder S. F. Dexter, Elder 
Joel Gallup, Elder Aaron Eldred, Elder Ancel 
Bourne, Elder Thomas Taylor, Elder J. W. 
Steams, Elder Stephen Mosher, Elder J. 6. 
Encel, Elder James Wright, Elder A. H. Hans- 
com, Elder J. W. Steams and Elder Joel Gal- 


Some time previous to the year 1815 a Meth- 
odist society had been organized in the south- 
western part of the town of Pittstown. For a 
meeting was held in the church of this congre- 
gation in Cooksborough, on Friday, the 
twentieth day of January, 1815, at which 
Comelius Filkins, Andrew Follett, William 
Haner, John Friot, Anthony Lockrow and 
Joseph Friot were elected as the trustees of 
the society, which was to be known by the 
name of the " Cooksborough Methodist Epis- 
copal church." 


The work of itinerant Methodist preachers in 
the vicinity of the present village of Tomhan- 
nock was successful in the early part of the 
century, in collecting, from time to time, con- 
gregations to hear the gospel preached in the 
school-house, near the house of Solomon Tins- 
ler. For the purpose of better accommodating 
the number of people attending these services 
a subscription paper was circulated in 1811 to 
secure money sufficient to build a house of wor- 
ship. In order to organize this congregation 
legally a meeting was held on Tuesday, Jklv^h 
9, 1811, at the school-house where the peo- 
ple had been assembling for divine worship. 
In accordance with the notice previously given 
an election was then held for trustees, result- 
ing in the choice of Christopher Snyder, James 
Deyoe, Simon Newcomb, jr., Anthony Miller, 
Daniel Carpenter and Amaziah Herrick. As a 
corporate body they were to be Icnown as the 
trustees of the Tomhannock Methodist Episco- 
pal church. At a cost of about $1,000 a frame 
building for a house of worship was shortly 
afterwards erected, on the west side of the 



northern turnpike. In 1845 a commodious 
brick building was erected on the Bite of the 
old church, at an expense of ?3,300, having a 
seating capacity for 630 persons. One hundred 
and twelve names are on the present roll of 
membership. The Rev. Edward N. Howe is the 
present pastor of this church. 


A congregation of Methodists had for some 
time previous to the year 1835 been worshiping 
in the schoolhouse in the neighborhood of 
Baymertown, in the south part of the town of 
Fittstown. For the purpose of incorporating 
themselves legally as a religious organization, 
at a meeting held on the 11th of May, 1835, the 
following persons were elected trustees of this 
Methodist Episcopal society in the south part 
of the town of Fittstown : Gilbert Alexander, 
Devotion E. Williams, James Mosher, Samuel 
Davis and David Snyder. 


This church grew from the small beginnings 
of missionary work of various itinerant preach- 
ers of the Methodist church. From private 
houses where little gatherings of people had 
assembled to hear the gospel preached by the 
zealous followers of Wesley to the large assem- 
blages in school houses, in which revival meet- 
ings were held, was the first step of the ad- 
vancement toward an organized body possess- 
ing church property. The building of 
a house of worship by the Meth- 
odists began in 1839, at which time a 
a frame edifice was erected on State street. 
Valley Falls, at a cost of about $1,300, having 
about SCO seats. In 1854 this church was en- 
larged and remodeled. In 1870 the congrega- 
tion became a separate charge. The following 
pastors have served this church since its dis- 
sociation from the Fittstown circuit : The Bev. 
E. Goss, 1866 ; the Rev. R. Cook, 1867 ; the Rev. 
J. K. Cheeseman, 1807-68; the Rev. Wm. J. 
Heath, the Rev. Isaac McCann, 1869-70 ; the 
Rev. H. Blanchard, 1872 ; the Rev. Andrew Mc- 
Gilton, 187a-75; the Rev. H. Dunn, 1875-76; 
the Rev. B. M. Hall, 1875-76; the Rev. D. 
Brough, 1876; the Rev. G. C. Morehouse, 
1877-80 ; the Rev. H. W. Slocum, 1880 to date. 
The number of persons connected at present 
^vith the church is 159. 


The Methodist Episcopal church at Fittstown 
Comers was legally constituted September 5, 
1843. At the meeting held on that day John M. 

Abbott, Leonard Reed and James G. Jeffers 
were elected trustees. Shortly afterwards a 
small house of worship was erected, and a par- 
sonage in 1878. This and the Methodist Episco- 
pal churches at Boyntonville, and at Potter Hill, 
in the town of Hoosick, are served by the same 


The meeting house in which the Methodists 
of Millertown, now North Fittstown, were ac- 
customed to bold divine services, was built 
about the year 1843. In this house of worship 
a meeting was held on Tuesday, April 8, 1850, 
for the purpose of legally incorporating the 
church, which was thereafter to be known by 
the name of the North Fittstown Methodist 
Episcopal church, previously called the Miller- 
town Methodist Episcopal church. At this 
meeting Francis Ingraham, John Comstock, 
John G. Davenport, William I. Baucus and 
Simeon Lamb were elected trustees. There are 
about 160 names on the roll of membership of 
this church. 


The incorporation of the " Methodist Episco- 
pal society at Boynton," which was included in 
the circuit with the Methodist church at Ray- 
mertown was effected on the 16th of November, 
1859. The Rev. Reuben Washburn was then 
pastor of the two charges. The following per- 
sons were elected trustees of the society: 
Erastus Geer, William Boynton, Benjamin 
Brock, Wm. H. Rowland and Kingsley Slade. 


This Methodist society was incorporated 
February 18, 1860. The congregation which 
had been sometime previously organized, 
assembled on that day in the Union church in 
which it had been worshiping, at East Fitts- 
town and elected William P. Abbott, John Rus- 
sell, Hiram Benson, Flatt Sherman, Farker H. 
Bosworth, Benjamin Street and Fletcher Ward 
as trustees of the church. This society pur- 
chased the meeting house formerly belonging 
to the Fittstown Union society, built about the 
year 1820. 


The Protestant Episcopal church at Johnson- 
ville was erected about the year 1871. A meet- 
ing for the purpose of having the officers of the 
church a corporate body was held on Novem- 
ber 4, 1872, in the chapel, over which the Rev. 
W. Bogert Walker, rector, presided. Georg^ 



O. Catlinand Charles J. Joslin, church wardens, 
and William A. Osbom, Charles W. Arrand, 
JohnT. Peel, A. H. Johnson, C. A. Banker, 
Thomas Thomas and Orlando 6. Johnson, 
yestrymen, were named together with the rector 
to be incorporated as "the rector, church war- 
dens and yestrymen of St. Paul's Protestant 
Episcopal church," at Johnsonyille. 


The zealous missionary work of a 
few Roman Catholic priests was successful 
about the year 1874, at Johnsonville, in gather- 
ing together a number of believers in the faith 
of the Roman Catholic church. After the dis- 
organization of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal 
church this congregation purchased the Epis- 
copal chapel and since then have held regular 
services in it. 

There is a Roman Catholic church a short dis- 
tance north of Pittstown Corners. 


This Tillage contains about 35 buildings, 
among which are the Disciples', the Baptist 
and the Methodist Episcopal churches. The 
school house of district No. 2 is in the place. 
The business of Pittstown Corners is represent- 
ed by three stores, a saw-mill and a blacksmith 
shop. In 1836 it is described as being 13 miles 
from Troy, containing one Baptist church, two 
stores, one tavern and about 20 dwellings. A 
postofBce was established here at a very early 


Johnsonville is situated on the south side of 
the Hoosick river, on the lines of the Troy and 
Boston and the Boston, Hoosac tunnel and 
Western railroads, which here connect with the 
Johnsonville and Greenwich railroad. The 
place has about 600 inhabitants. In 1836 it is 
described as being 19 miles from Troy, a mile 
northwest from the northern turnpike, having 
one tavern, three stores, one grist mill, one 
saw mill, a woolen factory and about 20 dwel- 
lings. The number of buildings at pres- 
ent is about 100, of which three are 
churches, the Presbyterian, Methodijt 
Episcopal and the Roman Catholic. There 
are two hotels and six stores in the place. 
The manufacturing places and shops are the 
Johnsonville axe manufacturing company's 
works, owned by Lane & Gale of Troy, at 
which 75 men are employed ; 2 grist mills, 1 
flax mill, a cabinet maker's shop, a blacksmith 
shop, a tin shop and a harness shop. The post- 
offlce was established in 1850. 

The place was early known as " the Lick." 
It is said to have derived its present name from 
William Johnson, who having built a grist mill 

at " the Lick," one day surprised his neighbors 
by displaying the name "Johnsonville" in 
large letters on the front wall of his mill. 

Isaac M. Singer, the famous sewing machine 
inventor, was born in the village of Johnson- 

Lodge No. 411, Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows has a neatly fitted up hall in the place 


The village of Valley Falls is built on both 
sides of the Hoosick river, the northern part 
being in the town of Schaghticoke. It has 
about 800 inhabitants and about 100 dwellings. 
The one house of worship is the Methodist 
Episcopal church. There are three hotels and 
five stores in the place. Among its manu- 
factories is a mosquito-net factory, a paper 
mill, a mowing machine shop, a linen twine 
mill and a flour mill. There is also an iron fur- 
nace and three blacksmith shops. It is a sta- 
tion on the lines of the Troy and Boston and the 
Boston, Hoosac tunnel and Western railroads. 


The village of Tomhannook is built on Otter 
creek, a tributary of the Tomhannock. Early 
in the present century it was known as Reed's 
Hollow. When the postoflice was established 
the place took its present name. In 1836 it is 
spoken of as Tomhenick on the northern turn- 
pike, 13 miles northeast of Troy, having a grist 
mUl, a Presbyterian and a Methodist Episcopal 
church, two taverns, three stores and about 20 
dwellings. At present there are about .50 build- 
ings in it and two churches, the Methodist 
Episcopal and the Presbyterian. A school 
house of district No. 10 is in the village. One 
hotel, three stores, two grist mills, a machine 
shop, two blacksmith shops, a harness shop, a 
cooper shop and a wagonmaker's shop em- 
brace the business interests of the village. 


The village of Raymertown is on the old 
turnpike road leading from Troy to Benning- 
ton and is about 10 miles from Troy. It con- 
tains about 50 dwellint;s, among which is the 
Evangelical Lutheran church, and a school 
house of district No. 3. There are in the vil- 
lage limits one hotel, two grist mills, two flax 
mills, a saw mill, three stores and three black- 
smith shops. 


The Tillage of Boyntonville is in the south- 
eastern part of the town, and has about 35 
buildings in it, two of which are the Methodist 
Episcopal and Christian churches. A school- 
house of district No. 1 is in the place. The 
business interests of the place embrace two 
hotels, three stores, a harness shop, a tin shop 



and two blacksmitb shops. The number of in- 
habitants is about 200. A postofflce was estab- 
lished here June 21, 1875. 


This place was early known as Millertown. 
There are about 20 houses in the place, one of 
which is the Methodist church. All of these 
villages have postofflces. 


This name is given to the eastern part of the 
town, district No. 15, where is a Methodist 
Episcopal church. 


This name applies to a neighborhood in the 
southwestern part of the town, where is a 
school house and a Methodist Episcopal 


1845 8,828 

1850 S,73>! 

1855 3,60? 

1860 3,826 

1865 S,831 

1S70 4,00S 

1876 B,9S6 

ISaO 4,138 

1790 2,447 

1800 3,483 

1810 8,602 

1815 3,708 

1820 3,772 

1825 3.748 

1830 3,702 

1835 3,919 

1840 8,784 





Indian Attacks upon the Settlers — Farmers Killed and Carried 
INTO Captivity — Proceedings of the First Town Meeting — 
Notes of a Traveling Missionary — Erection of Churches in 
the Town — The Villages Described — Population of the Town. 

The early settlers who dared to enter the 
great forestoountry north of Albany, in the 
middle of the eighteenth century, for the pur- 
pose of clearing the tree-covered land in arder 
to cultivate it, were persons of no common 
courage and physical ability. When plough- 
ing, sowing or reaping in the stumpy spaces of 
ground from which their axes had removed the 
closely growing trees, these intrepid pioneers, 
as a means of self-protection, always carried 
their guns afield to meet any sudden attack of 
Indians. Protected from observation as they 
were by the surrounding woods, hostile bands 
of savages often surprised and massacred these 
industrious farmers while at work tilling the 
virgin soil of the newly occupied territory. 


In the summer of 1754 the few settlers of the 
boosick valley were repeatedly the victims of 
many barbarous outrages, perpetrated by In- 
dians from Canada. Among the bloody deeds 
committed by these ruthless savages was an at- 
tack by day made by a party of Indians upon 
John G. Brimmer and his three sons, — John, 
George and Godfrey, — ^while at work in a field 
of their farm along the Hoosick river, near the 
site of the village of North Petersburgh. The 
first intimation they had of the close proximity 
of their unobserved foes was the discovery of 
a number of Indian blankets. The father at 
once hastened to his house to defend its in- 
mates, having previously instructed bis sons to 
unharness the horses and follow him. While 
carrying out their father's commands four Ini 
dians made their appearance on the borders of 
the field. The young men immediately grasped 
their guns and prepared to defend themselves. 
In the first exchange of shots, George 
was killed. Godfrey, seeing his brother 


fall, ran and hid behind a brush fence. 
While thus concealed the Indians approached 
his hiding place. Just as he was about to fire 
at thea he was discovered in the act, and one 
of the Indians exchanged shots with Mm. Both 
balls missed their marks. Godfrey, seeing 
another one of the Indians about to fire at him, 
dropped the butt of his gun upon the ground, 
placed one hand over the muzzle and extended 
the other towards the Indian in token of sur- 
render. One of the Indians then seized him by 
the collar, passed one of his fingers three times 
around Godfrey's neck, after which he laid his 
hand upon his head signifying that Godfrey was 
his prisoner. John fled to an island in the 
river, but the Indians threw stones at him until 
he was compelled to surrender himself. John 
was 16 years old, being five years younger than 
his brother Godfrey. 

The Indians at once started off with their 
captives toward Canada, going by the way of 
Lake Champlain, where they had left their 
boats. When they reached St. Johns they 
were met by about 300 other Indians, who 
formed a circle around the white men, and or- 
dered them to sing. This, it is said, they re- 
fused to do, although ordered a second and a 
third time. This so angered the Indians that 
they were about to brain them with their war- 
clubs, but at this juncture Godfey discovered 
in the crowd of Indians one who had once par- 
taken of the hospitalities of his father's house. 
He immediately sxjoke to the Indian, who, 
recognizing him, interfered and saved the 
prisoners from the dreadful tortures which 
the Indians would have inflicted upon 
them. They remained at St. Johns for six 
weeks, and were then sold as slaves 
to the French. After a hard term of five years' 



servitude, they obtained their freedom on the 
surrender of Quebec to the English in 1759. 
They immediately started for Albany, but be- 
fore reaching the city they were detained as 
prisoners by the British at Lake George. How- 
ever, in a short time they were released, and 
joined the other members of the family at 
Khinebeck, who had not heard anything con- 
cerning them since the day of their capture. 

It is further related that a body of soldiers 
that had been sent from Albany up into the 
Hoosick valley, 10 days after this attack upon 
the settlers found the dead body of George 
Brimmer, which they buried by the side of a 

After the treaty between France and Eng- 
land, John G. Brimmer, with his family, re- 
occupied his deserted farm, which is still in the 
possession of his descendants. 


On the map of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, 
made by Jno. R. Bleecker in 1707, the following 
names of the settlers of that part of the county 
of Rensselaer now known by the name of the 
town of Petersburgh, appear : 

West of the little Hoosick river were the 
houses of Peter Bachus, Jobs Huyter and Henry 
Litcher. On the east side that of Hans Bachus. 

Along the west side of the Hoosick river, near 
the north manor line, were the farms of Barcnt 
Hogg and Jacob Best ; and near the eastern 
boundary, the house of Schoolmaster Watson. 

On the east side of the Hoosick river lived 
the following persons, taking them in their 
order, beginning near the north line of the 
manor and going southwardly : Hans Lant- 

man, Primmer, Jacob Best, Petrus Vos- 

burgh, Bastian Deel, Frans Burn, Juria 
Kreiger, Henry Young, Devoet and hereto- 
fore Long Andries. 

Other settlers followed the above and took 
tracts of land for cultivation. William M. Rey- 
nolds, in 1780, came from Rhode Island ; Icha- 
bod Prosser, from Vermont ; in 1794, Asa and 
David Maxon from Rhode Island ; Sterry Hewitt 
from Connecticut, Stanton Bailey from the 
same state, Joseph Allen from Rhode Island, 
about 1790 ; WUliam Hiscok, from Rhode Island, 
several years earlier ; James Weaver and 
Thomas Phillips from the same state, Joshua, 
Thomas and Benjamin Randall, Abraham 
Lewis, Augustus Lewis, Oliver Spencer, Stephen 
Card and Sylvanus Stephens settled at an early 
date at Lewis's Hollow. John and Nathaniel 
Church came into the valley in 1780. Simon 
Odell occupied a farm at East Hollow shortly 
after the close of the revolutionary war. John 
Green, Hezekiah Coon, Aaron Cole, John 

Nichols, Abel Russell, George Gardner, Jchabod 
Irish, William Clark, Laban Jones, David Hus- 
tis, John G. Croy, Stephen Potter and Lyman 
Maine were also early settlers. 

This part of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, 
in the county of Albany, was made a part of 
the district of Stephentown by the general 
assembly March 29, 1784. 


On the 18th of March, 1791, the state legis- 
lature passed " an act for dividing the towns 
therein mentioned." Among its provisions is 
the paragraph respecting the boundary lines of 
the town of Petersburgh, erected by the act. 
It reads : 

That from and after the first Monday in April 
next, all that part of the town of Stephentown, in 
the county of Kensselaer, which lies north of aline 
to be drawn east and west from the south bounds 
of Peter Seaman's farm, until it intersects the 
aast and west hounds of the said town of Stephen- 
town, shall be and is hereby erected into a dis- 
tinct and separate town oy the name of Peters- 
burgh, and that the first town meeting of the in- 
habitants of Petersburgh shaU be held at the house 
of Hezekiah Coon, in the said town. 

The tovm boundary line was changed on 
January 4, 1793 ; parts of the towns of Berlin 
and Lansingburgh were subtracted March 21, 
1806 ; and parts of Grafton and Nassau, March 
20, 1807. 


The proceedings of the first town meeting, 
held according to the act of the state legisla- 
ture, are thus recorded in the town book : 

At a town meeting holding at the dwelling house 
of Hezekiah Coon, in Petersburgh, April 5, 1791, 
this day voted Hezekiah Coon, moderator ; Jonas 
Odell, supervisor ; John Greene, town clerk ; Ben-' 
jamin Hanks, llandall Spencer, John Nichols, 
assessors; Abel Russell, Luke Greene, Matthew 
Randall, commissioners ; David Randall, Hezekiah 
Coon, poormasters. 

Voted, That the constables and collector shall 
procure sufficient hail. 

Voted, That there shall be but two constables 
for the town of Petersburgh in the year 1791. 

Stephen Maxon, Phineas Lewis, constables and 
collectors; Charles Greene, Abel Russell, Heze- 
kiah Good, fence viewers. 

Voted, That sheep rams from the 15th of Sep- 
tember untU the 15th of November be kept in ; If 
the rams is ketched out the ram shall be forfeited 
to the poor of said town. 

Voted, Benjamin Hanks and Hezekiah Coon, 

Voted, That wolves catched and killed in Peters- 
burgh shall receive a bounty of ten pounds, to be 
paid in produce. 

Voted, That the next annual town meeting be 
at Hezekiah Coon's. John Gbeene, T, Clerk. 



This town has only a small number of 
churches. It is said that the first church 
erected in this part of the county was by a 
number of Lutherans about the year 1798, at 
North Fetersburgh. There are no records of 
this religious society preserved. 


Some years before 1822 there was a small so- 
ciety of Baptists existing in South Fetersburgh. 
For the purpose of complying with the statute 
in regard to the incorporation of religious so- 
cieties, the male members of this congregation 
assembled " at the Baptist meeting-house, near 
Aaron Worthington's," on Monday, July 8, 
1822, and elected Aaron Worthington, James 
Allen, Asa Stillman, Asa Maxon, jr., Gardner 
Hiscox, Walter F. Burlingame, Zebulon Scriven, 
Sanford Hewitt and Ebenezer Robinson trus- 
tees of the Fetersburgh Baptist church. 

In 1828 the congregation built a house of 
worship, which has since been remodeled. 
The names of most of the pastors that have 
served this congregation are the following : 
The Kev. Nathan Lewis and the Rev. J. D. 
Rogers, 1832 ; the Rev. Asa H. Palmer, 1833 ; 
the Rev. Gardner C. Tripp, 1836-37 ; the Rev. 
Nathan Lewis, 1838 ; the Rev. Edwin Wescott, 
1841-42 : the Rev. E. B. Crandall, 1843-51 ; the 
Rev. A. Waterbury, 1850 ; the Rev. D. Eldrldge, 
1852 ; the Rev. A. Waterbury, 1856-70 ; the 
Rev. J. G. PhUlips, 1871-72 ; the Rev. N. B. H. 
Gardner, 1873 ; the Rev. G. H. Day, 1873 ; the 
Rev. N. C. Hill, 1875-76 ; the Rev. J. G. Fhillips. 
1877 ; the Rev. L. Benedict, 1878, and the Rev. 
G. W. Adams to the present time. 


The success of the itinerancy of Lorenzo 
Dow among the people settled along the eastern 
limits of Rensselaer county was marked by 
the organization of a number of Methodist 
Episcopal congregations. This remarkable 
evangelist was induced in 1798 to visit North 
Fetersburgh by the invitation of Daniel Moon, 
who had heard Lorenzo Dow preach at Wil- 
liamstown, Mass. .The request made by Dan- 
iel Moon was complied with, and Lorenzo 
Dow, in company with James Millard of Strat- 
ford, Vt., preached to a goodly number of per- 
sons assembled at Moon's house. 

By Dow's appointment the Rev. Joseph Saw- 
yer, then on the Pittsfield circuit, preached at 
Fetersburgh. On one of his visits to this place 
he discoursed on the barren fig tree, which was 
the means of the conversion of Ebenezer 
Washburn. The latter was then appointed the 

leader of a class of which his wife, John Pros" 
ser and wife and John G. Croy and wife were 
members. From this time for a number of 
years dlvineservices were held at John G. Croy's 

In 1799 Daniel Brumley of the Fittsfleld cir- 
cuit had this society under his charge. In 1821 
the name of Fetersburgh was given to the cir- 

This society of Methodists had so greatly 
increased the muuber of its members that, in 
1831, it built a commodious house of worship 
at North Fetersburgh at a cost of $1,000. The 
Rev. C. B. Lewis is the present pastor of this 
church and of the one in Fetersburgh. 


The work of organizing a Methodist society 
in the south part of the town of Fetersburgh 
was begun by the Rev. Joseph Mitchell in 1800. 
He formed a class of the small number of new 
converts to Methodism and preached to them 
at the house of George Springer. This congre- 
gation grew rapidly and in 1820 was able to 
build a house of worship at South Fetersburgh, 
which is still used by the society. 

For the purpose of making it an incorporated 
body, on Monday, March 4, 1822, a meeting of 
the male members of the church was held at 
the meeting house and the following persons 
were elected " trustees of the Fetersburgh first 
Methodist church " : Joshua Randall, Joshua 
Lamb and Job W. Matteson. 


The certificate of the incorporation of this 
society recites that the members of it assembled 
at the place wherein they had statedly met 
upon Sundays for divine worship, on the 10th 
of September, 1855, at 9 o'clock in the forenoon 
and had there elected, according to the notice 
previously given, the following trustees of " a 
religious society denominationally called Chris- 
tians and nothing but Christians to the exclu- 
sion of all names of faction and party or of any 
addition thereto in Fetersburgh and Grafton" : 
Elijah Reynolds, Ebenezer Stephens, Aaron 
Worthington, Martin T. Brown, Orlando D. 
Thurber and Elijah S. Randall. In 1843 
the erection of a house of worship was 
begun, but the building was not finished until 
1856. The pastors of the church have success- 
ively been the following: The Revs. Samuel 
F. Dreter, R. D. Hawes, Thomas Taylor, H. B. 
Haight, James Summerville, James Hayes, 
John M. Woodward and Joseph W. Steams. 

The names on the roll of the membership of 
this society number 105. 



THE TOWN IS 1802. 

When in 1799 the building of the public road 
from the village of Bath-on-tbe-Uudson to Wil- 
liamstown was in contemplation, the commis- 
Bioners, David Fonda, James Maine, John £. 
Van Alen and David Gray, gave notice that a 
book for recording subscriptions to the capital 
stock of the Eastern turnpike company was 
opened at the house of James Maine, in Peters- 

The Rev. John Taylor, a traveling missionary, 
thus wrote in his diary of his observations in 
the town of Petersburgh in 1802 : 

Jnly 22. Left WlUiamstown about 8 o'clock, 
took the road to Albany across the mountains, on 
the ground of the proposed turnpike. After pass- 
ing a high mountain, came into a valley and into 
the town of Petersburgh, in ye state of New York. 
This town contains about 2,900 Inhabitants. There 
are two churches of pedo-Baptists and one of 
Saturday Baptists. After passing in this valley 
about 3 miles, I rose another mountain and for 10 
miles found a most intolerable road. 


This village was the earliest settlement in this 
part of the county of Rensselaer. In 1836 it 
was known by the name of Petersburgh Cor- 
ners, at the junction of the Little Hoosick 
creek with the Hoosick river. It then contained 
a tavern, two stores, one Methodist church and 
16 dwellings. It is 33 miles northeast of 
Albany and 27 miles from Troy. The village at 
present has about 300 inhabitants. About 25 
buildings make up the place. There is one 
church, two hotels, one store, a blacksmith 
shop and a wagonmaker's shop in the village. 
It Is a station on the Harlem Extension railroad. 
A postofflce was established at this point about 
50 years ago. 


This place was early known as Rensselaer's 
mills. It is situated on the Little Hoosick river 
on the Harlem extension railroad. In 1836 it is 
referred to as being 20 miles east from Troy, 
having "a grist, saw, oil, carding and cloth 
dressing mills, three stores, one tavern, one 
Methodist and one Baptist church, and 20 
dwellings." As a post village it bears the 
same name as the town in which it is situated. 
There are at present 80 dwellings in South 
Petersburgh, which has a population of about 
800 persons. There are three churches, four 
hotels and six stores in the place. Its manu- 
facturing interests embrace three shirt manu- 
factories, a shoe factory, a machine shop, three 
blacksmith shops, a wagon maker's shop and a 
cabinet making shop. About the year 1825 a 
postofflce was established at this point. Star 
lodge No. 670, F. and A. M., was established 
about 1861. The lodge has a neatly fitted-up 
hall in the village and numbers over 50 mem- 


This name is applied to a neighborhood some 
distance west of South Petersburgh. The 
milling interests at this point are of some im- 

Several other neighborhoods in the town are 
distinguished by the names of " East Hollow," 
" Hell Hollow " and " The Kitchen." 


ISIO 2,039 

1815 1,781 

1S20 2,248 

1826 8,088 

1880 2,011 

1335 1,950 

1840 1,901 

1846 1,S78 

1850 1,903 

1855 1,063 

18«0 1,898 

1865 1,670 

1870 1,732 

1875 1,715 

ISM 1,781 





The First Farms Along the Poesten and Quacken Kills — Beaver 
Dams Built in these Streams — Manufacture of Black Salts — 
The Outrages of the Royalists — The First Town Officers — 
An Old Kerkenording — The Erection of Churches— The Vil- 
lages OF the Town — Population. 

That portion of the manor of Rensselaerwyck 
lying immediately east of the territory now the 
site of the city of Troy was occupied by a num- 
ber of settlers as early as the year 1720. The 
farm of Derick Van der Heyden at that time 
extended from the Hudson river eastwardly to 
the west side of the land of Albert Bratt. The 
latter's property embraced the extensive plateau 
of ground on the eastern range of high lands, 
beginning at the old mill on the Foesten kill 
southwest of Ida falls and continuing to the 
woods east of Meadow creek, a stream which 
emptied into the Hudson a little north of the 
old Hoosick road. The farm house of Albert 
Bratt was on the north side of the road running 
eastwardly over the hill from Van der Heyden's 
ferry, afterwards the home of Barent Bratt. 


The names given on the map of the manor of 
Rensselaerwyck, made by Jon R. Bleeker in 
1767, designate other early settlers who had 
secured land from the patroon by lease. On 
the south side of the road leading to Van der 
Heyden's ferry, not far south of the farm of 
Barent Bratt, lived Wilhelmus Smith, and south- 
ward of his farm, on the south side of the Foes- 
tenkill, Peter Fonda. Very near the site of 
Winne's hotel, on Oakwood avenue, was the 
homestead of Lavinus Winne. A short dis- 
tance to the northeast of the latter was the 
dwelling of Henry Van Amem. Northward 
were the farms of Peter Hoewey and Robert 
Wendell. Adam Beem and. Frans Hogg had 
farms northwest of the beaver dam. David 
Benn and Melgert Fret northeast of it, along 
the west side of the ferry road. West of the 
drowned land, Verdrtmken lant, were the farms 

of Hans MuUer and Jacob Quaekenboss. North 
of the drowned land lived Hans Heyner. 


Among the places frequented by the beaver 
when the Dutch first established a trading post 
at Fort Orange were the Poesten kill and its 
tributary streams. A number of well-preserved 
dams thrown up by these furred animals were 
still visible in the town of Brunswick at the be- 
ginning of the present century. It was along 
these water courses that the Mohegau Indians 
had trapped the beavers, the skins of which 
they exchanged for small trifles with Henry 
Hudson,when in 1609, this famous English navi- 
gator explored the river which now bears his 
name, as far as its confluence with the Mohawk. 


Besides the products of their farms the early, 
settlers of the upper Hudson sold to manufac- 
turers of pot and pearl ash in Troy and Albany 
the ashes of the green wood, especially that of 
oak, which they obtained by burning the non- 
resinous trees o£ the great forests which sur- 
rounded their cultivated land. The farmers of 
the town of Brunswick were first induced to 
bring their ashes to Van der Heyden's ferry in 
1787, when Benjamin Thurber built his potash- 
ery near the forks of the Hoosick and River 
roads, and advertised that he " continues to 
receive ashes, as usual, to supply his new 
erected pot and pearl ash factory, and will 
pearl black salts in the best manner on equita- 
ble terms ; and will give the highest price for 
black salts." 

When Duke de la Rochefoucault-Lianconrt 
Tisited Troy, in 1795, and mentioned in his de- 



scription of the new settlement Us potash 
works, then belonging to Ten Eyok and Pawling, 
he further wrote : 

I shall here insert such information as I have 
collected pn the manner of preparing this salt 
which is generally observed in the United States. 
This alkaline salt is extracted from common ashes 
after they have been previously purified from all 
heterogenous matter. It is obtained by solution 
and evaporation. Large tubs with double bot- 
toms are filled with ashes ; the uppermost bottom, 
which contains several holes, is covered with 
ashes, about 10 or 11 inches deep, while the under 
part of the tub is filled with straw or hay. 
Water being ponred over the ashes extracts 
the particles of salt and discharges all 
the heterogenous matter, which it may yet 
contain on the layer of hay or straw. The lye is 
drawn off by means of a cock, and if it should not 
yet have attained a sufftcient degree of strength, 
it is poured again over the ashes. The lye is 
deemed sufficiently strong when an egg swims on 
it. This lye is afterwards boiled in large cauldrons, 
which are constantly filled out of other cauldrons 
in which lye is likewise boiling. Then the lye begins 
to thicken in the cauldron until all the aqueous 
particles are separated and the whole is com- 
pletely inspissated and endurated. This salt is of 
a black color and called black potash. * * * 
The process of preparing the potash requires more 
or less time, according to the quaUty of the ashes 
and the lye, and to the degree of strength of the 
latter; the medium time is 24 hours. » * * 
By a general estimate, from 500 to 600 
bushels of ashes yield a ton of potash. 

* * * Pearl ash is potash purified by calcination. 
To this end the potash is put into a kiln con- 
structed in an oval form of plaster of Paris ; the 
inside of which being made otherwise perfectly 
close, is horizontally intersected by an iron grate, 
on which the potash is placed. Under this erate a 
fire is made, and the heat reverberated by the 
arched upper part of the kiln completes the cal- 
cination, and converts the potash into pearlash. 

* • • The process of calcination lasts about an 
hour. • » • Although pearlash is less liable to 
deliquate by the air than potash, yet the barrels in 
which it is packed are of the same sort and 
structure as those in which the latter salt is bar- 
reled. They contain from 200 to 300 lbs. Both are 
sold by tons. They must be duly inspected by the 
public searchers. 


Peculiar to this portion of the manor of Rens- 
selaerwyck a great number of the earlier settlers 
were Germans. When Burgoyne invaded the 
province of New York, in the summer of 1777, 
many of them, on account of their national re- 
lationship to the Hessians, hired by British 
money to take an armed and offensive part 
against the Americans, manifested extreme 
partisanship toward the royal cause, which 
soon stirred up among the patriotic supporters 

of the continental rebellion considerable ill-will. 
On the closer approach of the English forces 
many of the loyal farmers fled to Albany, 
and the royalists, believing that the English 
crown was about to conquer the rebellious 
Americans, committed many transgressions, 
both in the way of personal insults, appropri- 
ation and despoliation of property. It is re- 
lated that Abner Roberts, who belonged to the 
army of the North, was waylaid, murdered and 
scalped on the old Hoosick road, a short dis- 
tance from Troy, by the Tories as they were 
called. When, however, Burgoyne was forced 
to surrender to Gates at old Saratoga, (Schuy- 
lerville), these royalists were forced to flee to 
Canada, from which they never dared to return 
to enter again into the possession of their de- 
serted farms. 


By " an act to divide the towns of Troy and 
Petersburgh, in the county of Rensselaer," 
passed by the state legislature March 20, 1807, 
the town of Brunswick was erected. The 
boundary lines of the town are thus given : 

All that part of the present town of Troy, 
bounded on the west by the towns of Lansing- 
burgh and Troy aforesaid, and on the east by aline 
to commence on the north line of said [town of] 
Troy, seven miles and one-third of a mile east of 
the southeast comer of the town of Lansing- 
burgh ; thence southerly in a straight direction to 
intersect the north line of the town of Greenbush, 
seven miles and one-third of a mile east of the 
southeast comer of the town of Troy, shall be a 
separate town by the name of Brunswick ; and the 
first town meeting shall be held at the dwelling 
house of Nathan Betts. 

A portion of the town was added to the town 
of Troy April 15, 1814. 


In accordance with the act of the legislature 
the first town meeting was held on the first 
Tuesday in April, 1807, at the house of Nathan 
Betts, inn holder, Robert Mf^hesney, Daniel 
Wagar and John McManus, presiding justices. 
The following persons were elected town 
officers : 

Supervisor, Flores Bancker ; town clerk, Daniel 
Wagar; assessors, south-east district, Daniel 
Simmons, north-east district, Gilbert Alex- 
ander, western district, Levinus Leversee ; 
collector, Barnard J. Wagar ; /overseers of the 
poor, Daniel Simmons, AuguKus Burdick ; com- 
missioners of highways, Augustus Burdick, John 
Filkins. Isaac Bucklin ; constables, Thomas Betts, 
6. Y. Goewey, John Filkins, John Wilson, Andrew 
Myers, Daniel Kiser, Barnard J. Wagar, Abner 
Roberts ; fence viewers, John Wheeler, Frederick 
Ifyers, John Wagar, John P. Goewey, John H. 



Shaver ; pound masters, Gilbert J. Travers, Hiram 
Clowes ; commissioners of schools, EobAt 
McChesney, Mores Bancker, Lemuel Hawley ; 
overseers of highways, Abraham Roberts, N»than 
Betts, George Brnst, Isaac Fllkins, George Clpper- 
ly, Daniel Van Pelt, Benjamin Brewster, John 
Dick, Jacob J. Wagar, William Smith, Walter 
McChesney, Michael Philips, Philip H. Coonradt, 
Henry Coonradt, Cornelius Dubois, Lemuel Haw- 
ley and Mosea Dusenbury. 


The first religious society organized in this 
part of the manor of Rensselaerwyck was one 
known as the congregation of the Gilead Lu- 
theran church. In the " kerkenording" or con- 
stitution of this congregation, 1777, it is stated 
that a log church had been built about the 
year 1757, where now is the village of Hayner- 
ville. The erection of a second church was be- 
gun in 1777, because the members were fearful 
that the old edifice " might fall down and kill" 
them. It is said that the first pastor of the 
church on account of his changed views of 
church polity joined the church of Eng- 
land. The Kev. Samuel Schwerdfeger, in 
1768, was called from Frederick, Md., 
to the pastorate of the Gilead Lutheran 
church, in which office he remained for 24 
years. While he served this congregation the 
members were divided into two parties, one 
favoring the revolutionary acts of the people 
of America and the other espousing the royal 
cause. No little anarchy existed at this time in 
this society, and the denomination suffered 
very much from local disturbances. The frame 
church building, the erection of which began 
in 1777, was not finished until 1788. This sec- 
ond house of worship was built between the 
old log church and the burial ground. Samuel 
Collamer is said to have done some of the car- 
penter work of the new church. John Bamett, 
Jacob Wager, jr., Casper Frats and Sebastian 
Lolinis were then the church council. The 
patroon, it is said, presented to the congrega- 
tion as a free gift 114 acres of land, a part of 
which was occupied by the two church sites 
and the burial ground. The first church and 
parsonage grounds are now the property of 
Charles Mickel. The present church is situated 
about a mile west of Cropseyville and east of 
Brunswick Centre. 

The certificate of incorporation, filed in the 
Rensselaer county clerk's oflice, states that at 
a meeting of the members of the congregation, 
held on the 15th of June, 1790, at their meeting 
house called Gilead in Rensselaerwyck, Bastian 
Lohnis, John Hanor and John Godfrey Knauft 
were elected trustees of the church. To this 

document Nicholas Bonesteel and Albertua 
Seymour, as elders and church wardens, set 
their hands and seals on the 21st of July, 1790. 
Among the early members of the church were : 
John Barnett, Johannes Bergman, Christopher 
Beokman, Albert Bratt, Jacob Bratt, James, 
John and Thomas Burnside, Jacob Cipperly, 
Heinrich Conrad, Henry and Johannes Dader' 
Philip and Andori Derk, John Fergison, John 
Gerhard, Heinrich Gross, John Gunther, Con- 
rad and Johannes Hainer, Abraham Kuntz, 
George Klockner, Petrus Loose, John McChes- 
ney, Duncan McMuUen, Adam Ostrander, 
Bemhard Polak, Abner and Abraham Roberts, 
Laurentius Schneider, Jacob Schmidt, Johannes 
Sti-aub, Wilhelm Van Alstyne, Hermauus Van 
Buehren, Jacob Waeger, Petrus and Laurentius 

In 1817 a third church edifice was erected, 
and on its site a new church was built at a cost 
of 513,000 in 1865. 

The pastors who have successively served 
this congregation are the following : The Rev. 
Samue! Schwerdfeger, 1768-92 ; the Rev. Fred- 
erick Meier, 1791-94; the Rev. George Seig- 
mund Liebich, 1794-95 ; the Rev. George Jo- 
seph Wichterman, 1795-1801 ; the Rev. Anthou 
Theodore Braun, 1802-12 ; the Rev. John Bach- 
man, D. D., LL.D., 1814-15 ; the Rev. John 
Molther, 1815-16 ; the Rev. William McCarthy, 
1816-21 ; the Rev. John R. Goodman, 1821-28 ; 
the Rev. Jacob L. Senderling, D. D., 1828-53 ; 
the Rev. David Kline, 1853-64 ; the Rev. Philip 
A. Stroebel, 1864-68 ; the Rev. P. M. Rightmyer, 
1868-71 ; the Rev. Alonzo P. Ludden, 1871-75 ; 
the Rev. J. Nelson Bamett, 1875-80. 

The present roll of the membership of this 
flourishing church contains about 300 names. 


Through the zealous interest of the Rev. 
Jonas Coe of the First Presbyterian church of 
Troy the first Presbyterian society of Brunswick 
was organized. At a meeting held on the Uth 
of June, 1809, over which he presided, the fol- 
lowing resolutions were passed : 

Mrst, That all proper measures be adopted as 
speedily as possible to obtain the preaching of the 
gospel in this town in the English language, in a 
regular and stated manner, as we have already 
lived too lone without it. 

Second— ResUved, That Francis ColUson, Keuben 
Merriman, Hiram Clowes, William Bidwell, Samuel 
De La Mater and John Filkins be appointed a com- 
mittee for raising funds and procuring a preacher 
as soon as convenient, and they are authorized to 
treat with the Rev. John Keys of Sand Lake and 
with the trustees of that congregation for one- 
fourth of his time to be appropriated here should 
he be settled there. 



A subscription paper was then circulated 
which read as follows : 

We, the subscribers in the town of Brunswick, 
in the county of Kensselaer, being desirous of 
having the Gospel of Christ preached among us, 
do hereby promise to pay to Francis Collison, 
Reuben Merriman, Hiram iClowes, William Bid- 
well, Samuel De La Mater and John Fill-ins the 
several sums annexed to our respective names 
yearly, for the term of five years, in quarterly pay- 
ments for the Key. John Keys, to preach one- 
fourth part of the time for the said term of five 
years in the town of Brunswick, at such place or 
places as a majority of the subscribers shall deem 
proper in said town, or on the borders of adjoin- 
ing towns. 

This paper, it is said, bears the signatures of 
63 persons, the total amount subscribed being 
S115.37, the largest subscription written was 
$8 and the smallest 37 cents, made " by the 

At a meeting held September 25, 1809, it was 
determined that meetings should be held on 
Sundays, in the school house near the residence 
of Matthias Abbott. It was in this building 
that the Rev. John Keys began his ministry, in 
this pastorate in the fall of 1809. 

In the following year on the 23d of July, 1810, 
a meeting was held " at the usual place of pulo- 
lic worship in the vicinity of Matthias Ab- 
bott's " house, for the purpose of electing trus- 
tees for incorporating the congregation, which 
was to be distinguished by the name of the 
"First Presbyterian society of Brunswick." 
The trustees elected were William Bidwell, 
Matthias Abbott, Walter McChesney, James 
Cox, jr., and Francis Collison. 

About the beginning of the year 1812 the 
erection of a frame house of worship was be- 
gun upon ground offered to the congregation 
by Matthias Abbott, at the meeting held in 
July, 1810. William Bidwell having taken the 
contract of building the church, so far com- 
pleted it that on Sunday, June 21, 1812, the 
Rev. John Keys preached for the first time in 
the pulpitless building to a large congregation. 
The edifice was finished early in the year 1813, 
at a cost of about $1,500. Shortly after the Rev. 
John Keys ended his connection with the so- 
ciety, May 1, 1813, the church became disorgan- 
ized. A reorganization, however, was effected on 
Thursday, July 11, 1816, when 17 persons hav- 
ing certificates of dismissal from the First 
Presbyterian church of Troy, elected John Hut- 
ton, J. B. Goodrich and John Abbott, ruling 
elders. The Rev. John Younglove, who had 
for several months previously been filling the 
vacant pulpit of the church, was called to the 
pastorship. In this office he continued until De- 

cember 29, 1827, when he died suddenly of heart 

The second certificate of incorporation of this 
church is dated April 9, 1825, at which time 
the following persons were elected trustees of 
"the First Presbyterian congregation of the 
town of Brunswick :" Philip M. Coons, Philip 
P. Dater, George Derrick, Valen^ne Cropsey, 
John H. Lansing and Walter JJ<JChesney. 

This congregation, through the generosity of 
the patroon, Stephen Van Rensselaer, came 
into possession of 25 acres of land, together 
with a suitable building for a parsonage, June 
28, 1833, the date of the deed. 

In 1861 the work of remodeling the old honse 
of worship was begun. When it was com- 
pleted in 1863, the expense incurred was report- 
ed to be $2,583.88. The church is about one 
mile south of Cropseyville. The pastors who 
served the congregation after the death of the 
Rev. John Younglove were the Rev. John Clay- 
ton, 1829-1830 ; the Rev. Leonard Johnson, 
1830-32 ; the Rev. Gardner Hayden, 1834r-49 ; 
the Rev. Joseph E. Lamb, 1852-58 ; the Rev. 
Samuel M. Wood, 1860-76 ; the Rev. J. V. Gris- 
wold, 1876 to date. 

The present membership of this church em- 
braces about 110 persons. 



The first Methodist society organized in the 
town of Brunswick was formed about the year 
1834. This body for the purpose of incorpora- 
tion, held a meeting on February 2, 1835, at the 
dwelling house of David Files, where they had 
been in the habit of assembling for divine 
worship, and elected David Files, Martin M. 
Hayner, Joseph Cleaveland, Jacob E. Adams 
and Hiram Van Pelt trustees of " the Methodist 
Episcopal society in the town of Brunswick." 
The first house of worship was erected during 
the summer of 1835, on the Stone road, four and 
one-half miles from Troy. This frame building 
was dedicated in December 1835, the Rev. Buel 
Goodsell, presiding elder of the Troy district, 
preaching the first sermon and the Rev. Noah 
Levings the second on that day. The bnilding 
was erected at an expense of $1,898.50. In 1866 
it was remodeled. 

The following ministers have been pastors of 
this church : The Rev. Charles Pomeroy, 
1836-37 ; the Rev. P. M. Hitchcock, 1838 ; the 
Rev. D. Starks, 1839-40 ; the Rev. D. Stevens, 
1841 ; the Rev. Asa C. Hand, 1842 ; the Rev. J. 
F. Craig, 1843^4 ; the Rev. Wm. M. Frazer, 
1845-46 ; the Rev. John Graves, 1847-48 ; the 
Rev. Charles Devol, 1849 ; the Rev. M. Wither- 
ill, 1850; the Rev. S. Tubbs, 1851-52 ; the Rev. 



John Chase, 1853-54 ; the Rev. Wm. Smith, 
1855-56 ; the Rev. Joseph Eames, 1857-58 ; the 
Rev. H. Chase, 1859-60 ; the Rev. David Os- 
good, 1861-62 ; the Rev. C. Meeker, 1863-65 ; 
the Rev. Louis N. Beaudry, 1866-68 ; the Rev. 
H. W. Slocum, 1869-72 ; the Rev. D. T. EUiott, 
1872-74; the Rev. Wm. Clark, 1874-76; the 
Rev. E. A. Bramar, 1877-79 ; the Rev. W. L. 
Smith, 1880 to date. 


The second society of Methodists in the 
tovra of Brunswick was organized in 1849. The 
members of the congregation on the 2d of April 
of that year held a meeting to incorporate 
themselves as the society of the Methodist 
Episcopal church at Millville, now known as 
Eagle mills, by electing the following persons 
trustees : Adam Conrad, Lodowick Myers, Am- 
brose Eddy, Joseph McChesney and Edward 
L. Roberts. 

The congregation that year began the erec- 
tion of a frame house of worship at Millville, at 
a cost of $1,275, which was dedicated January 
17, 1850. There are about 60 names on the roll 
of membership of this church. From the year 
1849 until the spring of 1880 the same pastors ; 
officiated in this church as are mentioned as ' 
filling the pulpit of the Brunswick Methodist 
Episcopal church, beginning with the Rev. 
John Graves. Since its disconnection from the 
Brunswick church it has been connected with ', 
the Pawling avenue Methodist Episcopal church 1 
of Troy. The present pastor of the church is ! 
the Rev. W. H. Groat. 


This society was organized in that part of 
the town known as Rock Hollow, in 1874. The 
certificate of incorporation is dated Marcn 28, 
1874, at which time a meeting was held in the 
school house of district No. 14, it being the 
place where the members of the society had 
steadily attended divine worship. At this 
meeting the following persons were elected 
trustees of the East Brunswick Methodist 
Episcopal church : Levi Hqyner, Jacob Housin- 
ger, Willard D. Green, Orrin Mcjilhesney and 
William Wager. 

During the summer of 1874 a frame church 
building was erected which was dedicated on 
the ISth of November of that year, the Rev. 
J. E. Bowen, presiding elder of the district, 

the Rev. Whitson and the Rev. D. T. 

Elliott officiating. The pastors of the church 
have been the Rev. D. T. Elliott, one year ; the 
Rev. W. Clark, two years ; the Rev. A. E. Bra- 
man, three years, and the Rev. W. L. Smith, 
the present pastor. 



This religious society was formed December 
14, 1853. For the purpose of incorporating it, 
a meeting was held in Millville on the 12th day 
of March, 1853, at which J. H. Allen presided. 
The trustees elected were William Einlock, 
John Welch and Henry Myers. The name 
adopted by the body was "the Church of the 
Disciples of Christ at the village of Millville." 
A frame church building was erected during 
the summer of 18.53, at a cost of about $1,200. 
At its dedication on the 5th of February of the 
following year Elder Silas E. Shepherd of New 
York city preached the dedicatory sermon. 
The pastorate of this church has been filled by 
the following elders since the organization of 
the society : Elder H. C. Parsons, Elder Bart- 
let, Z. P. Birdsall, Dexter Moody, Edwin Wake- 
field, James A. Garfield, J. H. Gardner, J. C. 
Stark, J. 0. Cutts and J. G. Ensel. 


The village of Eagle Mills was first known as 
Milltown, and subsequently as MillvDle. It is 
situated on the Poesten kill, and is about four 
miles distant eastwardly from Troy. In 1836 it 
was spoken of as having a grist mill, a saw 
mill, a tavern, a store and 10 or 12 dwellings. 
Eagle Mills now embraces about 60 buildings, 
two of which are churches, the Methodist Epis- 
copal and the Disciples' church, and one dis- 
trict school house. The valuable water power 
of the Poesten kill at this point makes the place 
important as a manufacturing centre. In 1851 
Joseph H. Allen purchased the old flour 
mill of Sheldon, DeFreest and Van Al- 
styne, built in 1831, and converted the 
building into a bit and auger factory. 
In 1854 the Millville manufacturing company 
was organized, which erected new buildings 
near the factory of J. H. Allen, for the purpose 
of making cable chains. Subsequently this 
property came into the possession of J. H. 
Allen, who began the manufacture of fanning 
hoes in these buildings. The Planters' hoe 
company, represented by J. H. Allen and George 
T. Lane, after the close of the late civil war, 
was formed, which entered very largely into 
the manufacture of hoes in the buildings pre- 
viously mentioned. Besides this manufacturing 
interest there are a foundry, a saw mill, three 
blacksmith shops and a wagonmaker's shop in 
the village. There are also two stores and a 
hotel in Eagle Mills. The population is about 
500. A postofflce was established here a num- 
ber of years ago. 


This village, which is near the eastern bounds 
of the town, contains about 25 buildings and 



bas a population of 115 persons. In tbe sum- 
mer of 1854 a postoffice was established at this 
point. The business interests of the place com- 
prise a store, a grist mill (built by Henry Clum 
in the latter part of the last century), a saw mill, 
a harness shop and two shoemaker shops. 
About one mile south of Cropseyville is the 
First Presbyterian church of Brunswick, and 
also tbe parsonage. 


This hamlet is situated about the centre of 
the town of Brunswick, on the old Stone road. 
Sweet Milk creek runs through the place. 
Brunswick Center comprises a, schoolhouse, a 
store and a small number of dwellings. The 
Oilead Evangelical Lutheran church is a short 
distance east of the place. A postofSce was 
established here a number of years ago. 


HaynerviUe is in the northern part of the 
town. It has a postoffice. The school-house of 
district No. 8 is in HaynerviUe. A store and a 
wagon maker's shop comprise the business in- 
terests of the place. 


Clum's Corners are about half of a mile west 
of Cropseyville. The number of people living 
in the immediate vicinity is about 40. At the 
comers are 10 dwellings, a hotel, a blacksmith 
shop and two wagon maker shops. 


This hamlet is about one and a half miles 
northeast of Clum's Corners. District school 
No. 12 is situated at this point. The place is 
also known by the name of Tamarac. 


This place is about a mile northeast of 
Cropseyville, and on the Quaken kill. The ham- 
let embraces about 25 buildings, a Methodist 
Episcopal church, a school house, a hotel, a 
brush block factory, a paper mill and a black- 
smith shop. 


1810 2,302 

1815 2,233 

1820 2.31S 

1825 2.47S 

1830 2,575 

1835 2,679 

1840 3,051 

1845 2,855 

1850 3,146 

1855 3,101 

1860 3,110 

1865 3,175 

1870 3,1''8 

1875 3,286 

1S80 3,404 





Domestic Features of Slavery — Remarkable Fidelity of Family 
Servants — The Emancipation Acts — First Settlers of the 
Town — The Election of Town Officers — The Organization of 
Religious Societies — Population Statistics. 

Ilie elements of a, quiet, unpretentious exist- 
ence are peculiarly associated with country 
life. The isolation which the occupancy of a 
broad acreage of land establishes naturally 
affects the disposition and character of those 
who live surrounded by the continuous quie- 
tude of the fields in which they plough, sow and 
reap. The rural tranquility of their homes is 
seldom disturbed by the excitements of sudden 
and novel occurrences which so frequently 
quicken the pulse of the inhabitants of cities. 
The seU-same, commonplace round of daily 
toil, changing only its phases with the re- 
curring seasons, engages the thought of 
him who drives his team afield at the first rosy 
blush of the eastern sky and weary returns to 
the sheltering roof of his home when night be- 
gins to robe the earth with its dusky garments. 
The incidents of country life glow with no great 
effulgence upon the page of history. It is <mly 
now and then that the beauty and simplicity of 
humble farm-life attract ns when they are 
charmingly portrayed in the gentle songs of 
Bums, in the melancholy meditations of Gray, 
or in the tender thoughts of Wordsworth. 

The ownership of slaves by the early settlers 
of the manor of Rensselaerwyck was in its 
domestic relationship, about the close of the 
last century, a peculiar feature of the house- 
holds of many farmers living along the Poesten- 
kill at that time. 


The emancipation of negro and mulatto 
slaves, in the state of New York, was due to 
the enactment of a law passed by the legisla- 
ture March 17, 1817, by which every negro, mu- 
latto or mustee within the state, bom before the 
4th of July, 1799, should be free from and after 
the 4th of July, 1827. By a former law it was 

provided that all persons born of slave parents 
after July 4, 1799, were bom free, the males 
being required to do service until they were 27 
years of age, and the females until they wsre 
25 years of age. 

In the entertaining book entitled the '• Mem- 
oirs of an American Lady," by Mrs. Grant, an 
allusion is made to the possession of slaves in 
the manor of Rensselaerwyck, and the care and 
affection that were bestowed upon those who by 
dutiful service had endeared themselves to the 
members of the family in which they had been 
reared. The writer remarks : 

When a negro woHiaa's child attained the age of 
three years it was solemnly presented the first 
New Tear's day following to a son or daughter, or 
other young relative of the family who was of the 
same sex with the child so presented. The child 
to whom the young negro was given immediately 
presented it with some piece of money and a pair 
of shoes ; and from that day the strongest attach- 
ment grew between the domestic and the destined 


I have nowhere met with instances of friend- 
ship more tender and generous than that which 
here subsisted between the slaves and their mas- 
ters and mistresses. Extraordinary proofs of 
them have been when a young man and his slave 
have gone to the trackless woods together, In the 
case of fics of ague, loss of a canoe, and other 
casualties happening near hostile Indians. The 
slave has been known, at the imminent risk of his 
life, to carry his disabled master throngh nnfre- 
quented wilds, with labor and fidelity scarce credi- 
ble ; and the master has been equally tender on 
similar occasions of the humble friend who stuck 
closer than a brother ; who was baptised at the 
same baptism, nurtured under the same roof, and 
often rocked in the same cradle with himself. 

These gifts of domestics to the younger mem- 
bers of the family were not irrevocable ; yet they 



were very rarely withdrawn. If the kitchen fam- 
ily did not increase In proportion to that of the 
master, young children were purchased from some 
family where they abounded to furnish those at- 
tached to the rising progeny. They were never 
sold without consulting their mother, who, if ex- 
pert and sagacious, had a gi-eat deal to say in the 
family, and would not allow her children to go into 
any family with whose domestics she was not ac- 
quainted. These negro women piqued themselves 
on teaching their children to be excellent servants, 
weU lino wing servitude to be their lot for life, and 
that it could only be sweetened by making them- 
selves particularly useful and excelling in their 
department. If they did their work well it 
is astonishing, when I recollect it, what 
liberty of speech was allowed to those active and 
prudent mothers. They would chide, reprove and 
expostulate in amanner that we would not endure 
from our hired servants; and sometimes exert 
fully as much authority over the children of the 
family as the parents, conscious that they were 
entirely in their power. They did not crush free- 
dom of speech and opinion in those by whom they 
knew they were beloved, and who watched with 
incessant care over their interest and comfort. 
Affectionate and faithful as these home-bred ser- 
vants were In general, there were some instances 
(but very few) of those who, through levity of 
mind, or a love of liquor or finery, betrayed their 
trust or habitually neglected their duty. In these 
cases, after every means had been used to reform 
them, no severe punishments were inflicted at 
home. But the terrible sentence, which they 
dreaded worse than death, was passed— they were 
sold to Jamaica. The necessity of seUing them 
was bewailed by the whole family as a most dread- 
ful calamity, and the culprits were carefully 
watched on their way to New York lest they 
should evade the sentence by self-destruction. 


Some time previous to the revolutionary war 
a number of farms of the territory, now be- 
longing to the town of PoestenklU but then to 
the manor of Rensselaerwyck, was obtained 
by settlers by lease from the patroon of the 
manor. The names of these early farmers and 
of a few who followed them at later dates, be- 
fore the close of the century, were : J. Berringer, 
T. Berringer, Johannes Burger, Peter Clapper, 
Graver Coons, J. Coons, C. Cooper, P. Cooper, 
W. Cooper, David J. De Freest, N. Fulman, P. 
Heyner, A. Homocker, B. Ives, Lazarus Ives, 
W. Kilmer, J. Leibblte, Archelaus Lynd, P. 
Link, 8. MuUer, E. Nightart, Grant Peck, Wm. 
Peck, Barent Polock, W. Seamon, C. Sluyter, 
H. Stronk and J. Sater, jr. 


By " an act for the division of the town of 
Sand Lake, and to erect the town of Poesten- 
kill," passed by the legislature March 2, 184S, 

the town of Poestenkill was created. Its 
bounds were : 

Beginning at the northeast corner of the town of 
Oreenbush, running thence east along the south 
line of the towns of Brunswick and Grafton, to the 
northwest corner of the town of Berlin ; thence 
southerly along the west line of the town of Berlin, 
four miles to the south line of the eighth range of 
lots in the Middletown survey, in the line of lots 
known as numbers 12.3 and 134 ; thence west along 
the line of said range of lots to the 
north side of the dwelling house of John Peck ; 
thence west to the intersection of the roads, about 
four rods easterly from the Troy and Sand Lake 
turnpike toll gate ; thence westerly to the north 
side of the dwelling house of Coonrad Reicbard 
and Andrew Link and to the Greenbush line ; 
thence northerly along tlie east line of the town of 
Greenbush, to the place of beginning, shall be and 
Is hereby erected into a separate town by the 
name of Poestenkill, and the first town meeting 
shall be held on the first Tuesday in April next, at 
the inn of Jeremiah Becker, in the said town of 


At the first town meeting, held at the house 
of J. L. Becker, on the 4th of April, 1848, the 
following persons were elected the first town 
officers : 

Supervisor, James Henderson, jr.; town clerk, 
David Luce ; superintendent of common schools, 
Eleazer Flint ; assessors, John I. Vosburgh, Ben- 
jamin B. Randall, Harmon Vanderzee ; commis- 
sioners of highwars, Barney Wetherwax, Stephen 
Austin ; justices of the peace, George Cottrell, 
George Barker, Benjamin Wilkerson ; overseers of 
the poor. Christian C. Cooper, Samuel Comick ; 
constables, John Barker, Alonzo Whyland, William 
Cooper, JohnF. Whyland ; collector, JohnBark«T ; 
sealer of weights and measures, James D. Sim- 


The first society of Baptists in the town was 
organized in 1814. The meetings of the so- 
ciety were first held in a building formerly a 
wagon-maker's shop, standing on the highway 
about a mile west of East Poestenkill. The 
present house of worship was erected about 
the year 1860, in East Poestenkill. Among the 
names of the pastors who have ministered to 
this society are those of Elders Alderman 
Baker, Joseph Rogers, Peter Ambler and Edvrin 
Westcott. The present pastor is the Bev. 
Charles S. Catlin. 

The First Baptist church has about 75 mem- 


The congregation which assumed the name 
of the Frankean Evangelical Lutheran church 



of PoestenkiU dates its organization from the 
nth day of August, 1833. The formation of 
this religious society was due to the active 
ministrations of the Rev. J. D. Lawyer. At 
the time of its organization the society had 73 
members. Three stations— Poestcnicill, West 
Sand Lake and Raymertowu, formed one 
charge. The first church, erected south of the 
village of PoestenkiU, on the road leading 
thence to West Sand Lake, iu 1832, was dedi- 
cated on the 13th of November of that year, 
the Rev. George Lintner, D. D., and the Rev. 
J. D. Lawyer ofiBciating. 

The pastorate of this church has been suc- 
cessively filled by the following ministers : The 
Rev. J. D. Lawyer, August 11, 1833-38; the 
Rev. J. S. Robinson, April 1, 1838-39 ; the Rev. 
Isaac Kimball, July 1, 1839-40 ; the Rev. G. W. 
Porter, 1848-49 ; the Rev. R. Smith, jr., 1850- 
57 ; the Rev. J. A. Rosenberg, 1857-67 ; the Rev. 
John Kling, August 1, 1867-74 ; the Rev. H. A. 
Strait, 1874-77 ; the Rev. Silas W. Young, 
March 14, 1877, to date. 

The present house of worship was erected in 
1865, on the site of the first church, at a cost of 
$8,000. It was dedicated December 24, 1865, 
the Revs. N. Van Alstvne, H. L. Dox, J. A. 
Rosenberg and M. W. Empie taking part in the 

The present roll of membership of the church 
has the signatures of 120 persons. The Sunday 
school embraces five officers, seven teachers 
and 102 scholars. 


The First Free Baptist society was organized 
about the year 1836, at which time its meetings 
were held at different places in the vicinity of 
Oak Hill. Shortly afterward the congregation 
erected a meeting house on Oak Hill. A sec- 
ond edifice was subsequently built a short dis- 
tance from East FoestenJcill. 

Of the number of pastors of this church, the 
following ones may be mentioned : Elders 
Miller, I. B. Coleman, J. D. Howe, Isaac 
Hoag, Hyde, Ketoham, Van Erden and Smith, 
the present elder in charge. The present meet- 
ing house, erected about the year 1872, is situ- 
ated a mile west of East PoestenkiU. 


The religious society known as the Disciples 
of Christ was organized at the house of Miles 
Clark on April 2, 1850. Among the founders of 
the body were Elder Dexter Moody, Francis 
Parsons, Durfee Read, Matthew Moody, Mar- 
vin Moody, Miles Clark, Eliza Read, Sally A. 
Clark, Martha Read and Diana Wooster. In 
1850 a frame house of worship was erected in 
the village of PoestenkiU, which was dedicated 

September 20, 1850. The building cost about 
$800 and had a seating capacity for nearly 200 per- 
sons. The present frame building was erected 
in the village of PoestenkiU, in 1864, at a cost 
of $4,000. At its dedication August 18, 1864, 
Elders A. N. Gilbert, L. R. Gault, D. Moody 
and Chamberlain took part in the services. 
The present membership of the church is 100. 
The following elders have served the congre- 
gation at different periods: Elders Dexter 
Moody, one year ; M. J. Streator, two years ; I. 
J. LoweU, two years; Elder Parsons, two 
years ; Elder Wakefield, one year ; J. C. Starks, 
one year ; J. H. Gordinier, three years ; L. R. 
Gault, one year ; Elder Olin, three years ; Elder 
Reynolds, one year ; J. S. Bell, three years ; J. 
Callylean, two years ; Elder Ensel, two years ; 
J. Benenstukl, one year, and Elder Theodore 


Through the missionary efforts of the Rev. 
George Hudson, a small congregation of Meth- 
odists was gathered near Dyking pond, on 
Berlin mountain, where he preached. Subse- 
quently divine worship was held in Lewis 
Horton's haU, in PoestenkiU. In 1872, the 
Rev. E. A. Blanchard was appointed to take 
charge of the Dyking pond congregation and 
the one at PoestenkiU village. That year the 
present meeting-honse at PoestenkiU village 
was erected at a cost of $6,500. 

The following pastors have officiated in this 
church: The Rev. E. A. Blanchard, 1872-74; 
the Rev. Thomas Monroe, April 18, 1874-76 ; 
the Rev. John Sumner, 1876-78 ; the Rev. John 
W. Coons, April, 1878-80. The membership of 
the PoestenkiU church embraces about 110 


The village of PoestenkiU is on the Pocsten- 
kill, a stream from which it derived its name. 
It is somewhat west of the center of the town, 
and contains about 50 buildings, among which 
are two churches, three hotels, a grist and a 
saw mill and three stores. The village has 
about 350 inhabitants. At a quite early date in 
the present century the medical spring at a 
close remove from the village attracted the at- 
tention of invalids for its curative properties in 
cutaneous diseases. A number of bathing 
houses were erected to accommodate the people 
resorting to the spring. These buildings, to- 
gether with a number of other structures, were 
subsequently swept away by a remarkable 
freshet in the PoestenkiU, caused by a heavy 
fall of rain for two days. Dr. Luther H. Barber 
was made the first postmaster of the postoffice 
established at this point about the year 1836. 




The hamlet of East Poestenkill is situated in 
the eastern part of the town. The place has about 
100 inhabitants and contains two churches, two 
stores, a hotel and several shops. East Poes- 
tenkill was known at one time by the name of 
Columbia. Cyrus Amidon was the first post- 
master of the postofSce established at this 


Some distance east of the village of Poesten- 

kill is BarberviUe, which contains about a half 
score of houses, a hotel, a store and one or two 


Ives's Corners is the name given to a small 
collection of houses near the centre of the 


1850 2,092 

1855 1,878 

1860 1,833 

1885 1,952 

3870 1,769 

1875 1,727 

1880 1,765 





The Latest Settled Town in the County — Emigration from New 
England — The Erection of the Town — The Beginning of the 
Anti-Rent War — Lighting the Candles of Industry and Econ- 
omy — Troy Troops Sent to the Helderberg Region — A Mur- 
derous Affray in the Town of Grafton — Anti-Rentism a Polit- 
ical Question — The Erection of Churches — Population. 

It seems that the teiritory embraced within 
the present bounds of the town of Grafton was 
not as early occupied b.v settlers as were the 
other contiguous portions of the manor of 
Bensselaerwyck. The rocky roughness and 
mountainous character of this part of the 
manor were no doubt not as inviting to emigrants 
as were the more arable tracts of the other sec- 
tions of Rensselaerwyck, and on this account it 
was later settled. 


Immediately after the revolutionary struggle 
a tide of emigration set in toward the upper 
Hudson from the older New England settle- 
ments. The patroon, in order to place under 
cultivation the immense tracts of untilled land 
lying within the manor, made such liberal over- 
tures at this time to emigrants that not a few 
vigorous and industrious New Englanders were 
found willing to accept his offers and to lease 
of him certain farm lands now forming part of 
the town of Grafton. Dr. Amos Hall, a resi- 
dent of the town, speaking of the settlement 
of this part of the manor in an unpublished 
sketch of its history, says : 

There were few (if any) inhabitants within the 
present limits of Grafton down to the time of the 
commencement of the revolutionary war in 1775. 
Soon after peace was restored, in 1783, many per- 
sons whose families had been reduced to poverty 
and to great extremities during the struggle for 
liberty, found it necessary to emiBrate in order, 
if possible, to improve their circumstances, and 
to regain the lost means of supplying the increas- 
ing wants of their families. 

In the midst of these circumstanceB, from 1786 
to 1788, very many industrious, hardy yeo- 

manry came with their families and settled here. 
It was a complete wilderness at the time, all the 
country being covered with heavy timber, and, as 
a matter of course, they suffered the usual wants 
and privations of the first settlers of most new 

Among the first failles that settled here were 
the Owen, the q^n and the Semmons families, 
Abel Owen, a revolutionary soldier, soon after the 
close of the war emigrated from Connecticut or 
Bhode Island, and settled on the farm where Stew- 
ard Allen now lives. Gen. Van Rensselaer, as an 
inducement to settle on the manor, gave him a 
deed-title to 300 acres of land. He lived in a log 
house on the old road, some 50 rods south of said 
Allen's house, and the well from which his family 
drew water is still in use. As early as 1787 he had 
many acres cleared, kept some stock, and raised 
his own grain and provisions. Being a somewhat 
prominent resident, the old road which runs 
through the town from Petersburgh to Troy was 
called in all the old leases " Owen's road." 


Francis West and family from Rhode Island 
took a farm in this part of the manor some time 
about the revolutionary period. John Bab- 
cock from the same state, and Elkanah Smith 
from New Jersey, also became farmers of land 
leased from the patroon at this early date. 
About the year 1779 William Scriven and wife, 
with two daughters and seven sons, from 
Rhode Island, made his home in this new sec- 
tion. Joshua Banker, John and Thomas Phil- 
lips, Ael Ford, Francis Brock, John and David 
Mills, John Monroe, Solomon Smith, Rufus 
Rix and Capt. Charles Ferry are also 
named as early settlers of the town 
of Grafton. John P, Hayner, Solomon Root, 



Nathaniel Dumbleton, Daniel Littlefield, Wil- 
liam Snyder, James Keid, Henry Coonrad, God- 
frey Howard, Andrus Miller, Lodowlck Bone- 
steel, Marcus Simmons, John Hydom, Henry 
Hydom and B. Hayner are mentioned as being 
farmers in this part of the manor of Rensse- 
laerwyck. The annual rent of the farms was 
based upon their fertility and acreage. From 
five to twenty-five bushels of wheat were paid 
for the use of land. In the town there are 
about 25 lakes or large ponds. 


By " an act to divide the towns of Troy and 
Petersburgh, in the county of Rensselaer," 
passed March 20, 1807, the town of Grafton 
was erected. The boundaries of the new town 
were : 

All the remaining part of the town of Troy, and 
so much of the west side of Petersburgh, as shall 
malie seven miles in width from the east line of 
the town of Brunswick, cut off by a line to com- 
mence on the north line of Petersburgh, seven 
miles east of the northeast comer of Brunswick ; 
thence southerly parallel to the east line of said 
Brunswick to the south line of Petersburgh, shall 
be a separate town by the name of Grafton ; and 
the first town meeting shall be held at the dwelling 
house of Nathan Hakes. 

The name Grafton, it is supposed, was given 
to the town at the suggestion of Nathaniel 
Dumbleton, the first supervisor, who had re- 
moved to this part of Rensselaerwyck from 
Grafton, Vt. 


At the first town meeting held at the house of 
Nathaniel Hakes on the first Tuesday of April, 
lfi07, the following persons were elected town 
officers : 

Supervisor, Nathaniel Dumbleton ; town clerk, 
David S. Crandall ; assessors, Patrick Agan, Ziba 
Hewett and John Babcock ; overseers of the poor, 
Joseph Burdick and Benjamin West; commis- 
sioners of highways, Samuel PundaU, James West, 
2d, and Jedadiah Wellman ; collector, Joseph Bur- 
dick, jr.; constables, Ethan d6azou, Simeon Smith 
and Joseph Btfrdick, jr. ; overseers of highways 
and fence viewers, Thomas West, Jonathan Brook, 
James West, 1st, John Worthington, Nathan West, 
Joseph Burdick, John Phillips, Marcus Simmons, 
William Snyder, Henry Coonradt, John Eeld, Syl- 
vester Chase, Peter Wager, Stephen Chandler, 
Walter Durkee, William Soriven, Francis Brook, 
Zebulon Scriven, 2d, Jonathan M. Scriven, Michael 
Brenanstufal, Charles Ball and John Babcock; 
poundkeepers, Thomas Smith, Joseph Scriven and 
John Babcock. 


Upon the death of Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
which occurred on tlip 26th of January, 1839, 
the manor property of Rensselaerwyck, or 

rather the leased farms which were formerly 
within its boundaries, were by the will of the 
deceased patroon divided between his two sons, 
Stephen and William P., the former obtaining 
the ownership of the farms lying on the west 
side of the Hudson, and the latter those east of 
the river. When the will of the patroon was 
proved, notices were published requesting per- 
sons indebted to him to settle their ac- 
counts. A few of the tenants occupying the 
land of which be was the patroon paid their ar- 
rears, while the larger number delayed their 

On the 22d of May, 1839, a committee con- 
sisting of Egbert Schoonmaker, Hugh Scott, 
Lawrence Van Deusen, Joseph Conner and 
John F. Shaffer, representing tenants in the 
towns of Rensselaerville, Westerlo, Bern, Enox 
and New Scotland, visited Stephen Van Rens- 
selaer at &.Ibany, and left with him a communi- 
cation in which they .set forth their complaint 
regarding their grievances. The statements 
made in this paper were mainly the following : 
" The enormous price put upon wheat above 
what it formerly was when leases were origin- 
ally given, it being then $0.75 per bushel at the 
extreme, one day's services with carriage and 
team, at $1 per day, and four fowls at 50 cents, 
making in all, for one year's rent, on a lot of 
100 acres (at 22J^ bushels per lot) at $18.37 per 
lot, at which time wheat rating at from $1.50 to 
$2.25 per bushel— day's services at $2 per day, 
and four foirts at $0.75, making our rents rate at 
from $35 to $50 a year, making it now extremely 
difficult for many of the tenants to support 
their families and pay their rents, without in- 
volving themselves and posterity in extreme 
peril and hardship." 

To remedy the evils complained of the fol- 
lowing changes were suggested : "To have the 
old leases abolished and new leases given, in 
which rents to be stipulated shall be in money ; 
the same number of bushels allowed as in the 
old leases, and retail in the following order, to 
wit : $1 per bushel for the first quality ot land, 
$0.87Ji per bushel for the second quality of 
land, $0,621^ per bushel for the ihird quality of 
land : $1 per day for the day's services, and 
$0.50 for the four fowls, excluding the reservation 
of greater sales, water privilege, the soil under 
water, the privilege of buying the soil, to those 
who wish to purchase the same at any future 
time, for such sum as the interest thereof will 
amount to, the amount of rent on each lot now 

In regard to the payment of arrearages they 
gave this opinion: "Those tenants whose 
property ia incumbered to the amount of their 
personal effects, over and above their arrear- 



ages of rents due said proprietor, should be re- 
mitted in whole, or at aU events in equal pro- 
portion to the stipulations to be entered into for 
future rents." 


In answer to this complaint Stephen Van 
Rensselaer, patroon of the western manor, 
wrote : 

Your ancestors or youraelTes who are tenants, 
accepted leases with a full knowledge of the kind 
and amount of rent to be paid, and of the reser- 
vations and conditions to which the land was sub- 
ject ; and It was matter of agreement, the nature of 
which was fully understood at the time the same 
was made. Such as now hold as purchasers, knew 
full well the rents and covenants subject to which 
they purchased ; and I am at a loss to conceive 
how the conditions and covenants upon which the 
lands are held can now be deemec^ grievous unless 
something is now claimed by the landlord entirely 
new, and which operates oppressively upon the 
tenant ; and as nothing more is claimed than has 
been acquiesced in and acknowledged by your an- 
cestors and yourselves, or those from whom you 
have purchased, for more than half a century, I 
can not admit that you have now any grievances 
to be redressed ; and especially so, as no rent was 
charged for the first seven years after the tenant 
went into possession. * « * 

Your last suggestion in behalf of tenants as have 
been delinquent in the payment of their rents as 
that arrears now amount to abnost the value of 
the lands, it seems to me is a matter with which 
you have nothing to do. * * * 

You seem to be under a mistaken impression as 
to the price of wheat, which I will endeavor to 
correct. Wheat as you have been charged for the 
last 10 years has averaged $1.38 per bushel; for 
the last ao years has averaged $1.35 per bushel ; 
for the last 30 years has averaged $1.45 per bushel ; 
for the last 40 years has averaged $1.44 per bushel ; 
for the last 47 years has averaged $1.40^ per 
bushel. » * * 

I am, however, willing to charge the wheat to 
money rent, and to take the average price of 
wheat for the last 47 years as the price at which a 
bushel of wheat shall be estimated hereafter ; the 
days' service and team to be $2 ; and the four 
fowls 75-100. 

And I am also willing to sell and give a release 
of the rents and reservations in the leases, so that 
the land shall and may be held hereafter in fee for 
the said $5 per acre of all lands in the four west 
towns, but not to include any of the towns below 
the hill. 
This answer is dated May 29, 1830. 


On the 4th of July, 1839, a meeting of the 
west manor tenants was held at Bern, who re- 
solved not to conform to the requirements set 
forth in their leases nor to the demands of the 
patroon, saying : 


We do sincerely and solemnly believe that the 
proposals of the standing committee to Stephen 
Van Rensselaer (in strict justice) is all that any 
man of honor or patriotism, having at heart the 
welfare and prosperity of his fellow creatures, 
could reasouably ask or expect to receive ; and 
that we consider the proposals of said Van Heus- 
selaer to be an outrage on the laws of humani cy, 
and therefore utterly reject and contemn the 
same. And the said committee in behalf of us, 
said tenants, are requested to inform said Van 
Kensselaer that we consider his proposals in the 
same light that Dr. Franklin considered the act In 
the British parliament imposing stamp duties on 
certain papers and documents used in the colonies. 
Franklin said, in addressing Charles Thompson 
relative to said act, that '• the sun of liberty is set ; 
you must light up the candles of industry and 
economy." And that we also reply in the lan- 
guage of the patriot Thompson, that we shall 
light up torches of quite another sort if we arc 
thus driven to the alternative of choosing an un- 
conditional submission to the will of one man, 
elevated by an aristocratic law, emanating from 
a foreign monarchy, or the resistance thereof. 
The latter Is our choice ; we have counted the cost 
of such a contest, and find nothing so dreadful as 
volantary slavery. 

The committee was also " instructed to in- 
form the pretended proprietor of our soil that 
if he will establish or present a good, suflBcient 
and valid proper title to or for the soil of the 
land we occupy, and then give new leases, cast- 
ing aside the day's services, fowls, quarter 
sales, all reservations and restrictions con- 
tained in the old leases, excepting the wheat, 
and change that from wheat to money rent, 
computing the same at $1 per bushel for each 
and every bushel on each and any lot as re- 
served in the old leases, give the tenants or any 
of them the privilege at any future time here- 
after of buying the soil for a sum of money that 
the interest thereof at seven per cent, will 
amount to a sum equal to the value of the 
wheat on each and every lot at said $1 per 
bushel, and reduce all arrears of rent to said $1 
per bushel, relinquishing the day's services and 
fowls on each and any lot against which arrears 
are claimed." 

The patroon made no reply to this deSant 


The sheriff of Albany county, Michael 
Artcher, having been resisted in serving cer- 
tain legal process on the defiant tenants of the 
patroon of the west manor, in the vicinity of 
the Helderberg mountains, on the 30th of 
November, 1839, callled out a po>»e comitatui to 
assist him in the discharge of his duty. About 
1,000 persons answered this call, who in a long 
procession of stages, barouches, wagons and 



horses, on the 2d of December, proceeded 
toward Reedsville. About four miles beyond 
Clark's tavern tliey were met by several hun- 
dred armed men on horseback, who opposed 
their further progress and compelled them to 
return to Albany. 


For the purpose of sustaining the laws of the 
state, his excellency, William H. Seward, gov- 
ernor of the state, issued a proclamation on 
the 10th of December, 1839, warning all per- 
sons from hindering or obstructing the ofScers 
of justice in the execution of their duties. The 
governor tells the people that he has taken 
measures to call forth a sufficient military force 
to enable the sheriff of the county of Albany 
to execute effectually the legal process com- 
mitted to him, and to maintain the supremacy 
of the laws. 


On Monday, December 9, 1839, an order was 
received from the adjutant general of the state 
calling out the three uniformed mUitary compan- 
ies of the city of Troy to proceed to Albany to 
aid the sheriff of Albany county in executing 
process upon the rebellious tenants of the west 
manor. On Tuesday morning, the Troy Citi- 
zens' corps, Capt. Pierce, the Troy City guard, 
Capt. Wickes, and the Troy independent artil- 
lery, Capt. Howe, proceeded to Albany in 
obedience to this order. These companies, in 
connection with the Albany Burgesses corps, 
Capt. Bayeux, the Albany Union guards, Capt. 
Brown, the Albany Republican artillery, Capt. 
Strain, the first company Van Rensselaer 
guards, Capt. Kearney, the second company 
Van Rensselaer guards, Capt. Berry, all being 
under the command of Major William Blood- 
good, marched 12 miles to the scene of disturb- 
ance, where they remained until the following 
Tuesday, when they returned to Albany, over a 
very bad road, covered with snow to the depth 
of 15 inches. Speaking of the deportment of 
the citizen soldiers, an Albany pai)er remarked : 

Everything we hear of their bearing and deport- 
ment excites admiration and gratitude. They 
submitted strictly and cheerfully to a discipline as 
rigid as that observed in any service. Their inter- 
course with the inhabitants of the resisting towns 
was in the highest degree conciliatory. Their for- 
bearance amid the taunts and insults of an excited 
populace awaiting their lirst approach is worthy 
of all praise. They discharged their duty faith- 
fully and fearlessly, but with a due and careful re- 
gard to the rights of others, the peace of society, 
and the honor of the service. 

The formidable appearance of this large body 
of military in the midst of the disaffected peo- 

ple had the desired effect, and the sheriff of 
Albany county served the processes without 
any opposition. 


In the east manor, of which William P. Van- 
Rensselaer was patroon, the troubles among 
the tenants of the leased farms were often very 
alarming in their character. In the excitement 
of a gathering of ;■, party of disguised anti- 
renters, on the 19th of December, 1845, In the 
town of Grafton, near the house of Oliver 
West, a short distance west of Grafton Centre, 
Elijah Smith was killed. The latter, it seems, 
while defensively or aggressively, had an up- 
lifted axe in his hand, was shot. Several in- 
vestigations were held to discover the person 
committing the murder, and although more 
than 200 persons were examined, the perpe- 
trator of the deed was not identified. 


Gov. Seward in several of his annual messages 
called the attention of the legislature to the 
matters complained of by the manor tenants. 
A commission was appointed but nothing of a 
definite or a pacific character resulted from its 
investigations. The anti-rent feeling affected 
not only the local but the state politics for a 
number of years, particularly from 1842 to 
1^7. In time the vexing questions connected 
with the collection of rents by the agents of the 
patroons ceased to trouble the public mind. In 
1854 the patroons conveyed their interests in the 
rents due them to Walter S. Church of Albany, 
who for a time brought suits against the six 
non-paying tenants and made collections of 


The first Baptist chiu-ch and society of the 
town of Grafton, as named in the certificate of 
incorporation, in 1841, had its origin early in 
the century, when at several places in the town 
small congregations of Baptists were accus- 
tomed to assemble to hear certain elders of the 
church preach. What is known as the Cobb 
schoolhouse, in the Lortheastern part of the 
town, was one of the places where divine wor- 
ship was held. A second place of assemblage 
was the schoolhouse, at East Grafton, formerly 
designated as the Scriven neighborhood. 
Often when the congregations were too large 
to be accommodated with seats in the school- 
house, it is said, the people repaired to Col. 
Scriven's barn, where they held some very in- 
teresting meetings. Elder Hull at this time 
ofSciated, and once ministered when the ele- 
ments of the Lord's supper were partaken of 
by the members of the congregation in the 



bam. Elder Joseph Wilcox was early known 
as having charge of the congregation worship- 
ing in the Cobb school house. During the 
summer of 1815 a meeting was held in the 
maple grove on the farm of the late Peter S. 
Hjdom. It was here that the Rev. Nathan 
Lewis, son of Elder John Lewis, was ordained. 
From these several organizations the Grafton 
Baptist church was formed in 1827. The first 
church edifice, erected by the liberality of 
Stephen Van Rensselaer, was built near the 
present residence of Dr. Amos Allen. Among 
the first members of the society were Benajah 
Allen, Daniel Brimmer, John Crandall, Roswell 
Crandall, Cyrus Davenport, Daniel P. M. 
Davison, Ezra Davison, John Eldred, George 
5akes, Jabez Hakes, John Howard, Ira Lam- 
phire, John L. Lamphire, Nathan Lewis, Oliver 
Main, Joseph D. Rogers, Ira Stone, David 
West and Elisha Wells. For a number of 
years the Rev. N. Lewis and the Rev. J. D. 
Rogers jointly had charge of the spiritual con- 
cerns of this congregation. 

On the 14th of August, 1841, a meeting of the 
members of the society was held at the house 
of Benajah Allen for the purpose of complying 
with the statute respecting the incorporation of 
religious bodies. At this meeting Benajah 
Allen, Potter Maxon, Caleb W. Scriven, Joseph 
D. Wells, Zebulon P. Burdick and Rufus S. 
Waite were elected " trustees of the First Bap- 
tist church and society of the town of 

About the year 1851 the work of erecting a 
new church edifice was beeun, the site selected 
being a short distance east of the old building 
at Grafton Centre. During the pastorate of the 
Rev. J. D. Rogers, about the year 18.53, the new 
house of worship was finished and dedicated. 

The followingpastors have served this church 
since the year 1827 : The Revs. Nathan Lewis, 
Joseph D. Rogers, H. J. S. Lewis, P. T. Shirley, 
Timberman, E. D. Wilcox, Roswell Col- 
lins, Catlin. The Rev. H. J. S. Lewis is 

the present pastor. 


The earnest labors of Lorenzo Dow about the 
beginning of the present century were fruitful in 
the formation of a large number of Methodist 
congregations along the eastern border of the 
state. In 1828, on the seventh day of April, the 
members of the Methodist Episcopal society in 
the town of Grafton assembled at the usual 
place of worship and elected David Hayner, 
John P. I. Hayner and Timothy B. Wilds trus- 
tees, by which the body became incorporated. 
A church was erected on the road leading to 
Grafton Center, about a mile east of Qnacken- 
ail, which was known as the " Hemlocks 

church." This old building was sold, and the 
money used in building a parsonage at Grafton 
Center in 1877. For a time the old church 
building at Grafton Center, erected by the 
patroon, was used by the society for divine 
worship. In 1877 the new church building at 
Grafton Center was finished, having cost about 
$3,500. The Rev. G. W. Douglass was pastor 
of the church at this time. The present roll of 
membership registers the names of about fiO 


The organization of the Free Methodist 

I church of Grafton was effected on the 5th day 

j of January, 186-S. The Rev. A. B. Burdick was 

I the first pastor of the church. In 1873 the so- 

I ciety erected a house of worship about a mile 

j east of Quackenkill at a cost of about $1,200. 

For the purpose of incorporation the following 

trustees were elected on the 18th day of June, 

1872 : Edward Birdsall, Jonas Snyder, George 

Graver and Aaron B. Burdick. 


This Baptist society was incorporated, accord- 
ing to the statute, May 28, 1873. The trustees 
then elected were the Rev. Choate Pratt, Ariel 
C. Durkee and Warren Stewart. 


Grafton Center, which is situated about 13 
miles east of the city of Troy, is in the center 
of the town. In 1836 the place was known as 
the Patroon's Mills, where at an early date the 
patroon of the manor of Rensslaerwyck had 
erected for the use of his tenants a grist mill, a 
saw mill, a church and a tavern. In 1836 there 
was a grist mill, a tavern, a store and about a 
half score of buildings here. In the village at 
present there are two churches, two hotels, 
three stores, two blacksmith shops, a wagon- 
maker's shop, a chair shop, and several shirt 


East Grafton is a hamlet containing a small 
number of houses. The business interests of 
the place include a hotel, a store, a blacksmith 
shop and a wagonmaker's shop. 


Tliis place derives its name from the stream 
on which it is situated. The paint mill of E. H. 
G. Clark, where is manufactured " Grafton 
mineral paint," is the most important business 
interest in the hamlet. From 600 to 700 tons 
of paint are made annually. There are a hotel 
and a blacksmith shop in the place. 


ISIO 1.410 

1S15 1,378 

1S20 1,611 

1S25 1,5».S 

1830 1.681 

1835 1,682 

1840 2.019 

1845 1,905 

1330 2,033 

1855 1,888 

1880 1,837 

1865 1,6W 

1870 1,599 

1875 l.fflM 

1880 1,676 





The Common Hardships of the Settlers — A Scarcity of Food — 
The Clothing of the Pioneers — The Reception of the Declar- 
ation OF Independence — The Epidemic of 1813 — Erection of the 
Town — An Awful Case of Poisoning — Churches of the Town 
— Table of Population. 

The lives of the men and women who about 
the close of the seventeenth and the beginning 
of the eighteenth centuries were the first pi- 
oneers to enter and settle within the depths of 
the great northern wilderness lying on both 
sides of the upper Hudson were marked with 
many hardships and self-denials. The barest 
necessities of furniture were found inside their 
log-built, buk-covered cabins. Oiled linen or 
greased paper were the common substitutes for 
window glass, and dried stalks formed the cov- 
ering of the unfloored building. 


The description given of the common experi- 
ences of the early settlers show a variety of dis- 
comforts which people of more modern times 
seldom endnre. Among the first to penetrate 
the great woodland in the vicinity of the Little 
Hoosick river, near its source, in the present 
town of Berlin, was Daniel Hull. In the sum- 
mer of 1769 he, on foot, left Connecticut in 
search of a suitable spot where he might build 
himself a home, and by tillage obtain a living 
for his family. Having found such a locality in 
the southern part of Hoosick valley, he re- 
turned home. His two sons began in the 
winter of that year to clear away the 
trees, and shortly he with them erected a log 
house near the site of the present residence of 
DanielJ. Hull. It is said that in 1770 he brought 
his family and the few household goods which 
he possessed as far as the Douglas farm, where 
now is East Stephentown. He had with him a 
yoke of oxen, a farm cart and a horse. Beyond 
this stopping point there was no open road, and 
he was comi>elled to leave the cart and pursue 
the remainder of his journey along an old In- 
dian trail. Nelson Hull, in his reminiscences. 

thus speaks of the pioneer life of his grand- 
father's family in the great woods : 

When they arrived at their new home their pro- 
visions were nearly consumed. Means must be 
taken to replenish their store. This howl- 
ing wilderness was a poor market to look for 
stores for subsistence. Bears and deer and other 
game roamed in the forest. The brooks were 
alive with trout, but they had no time to take 
them. Every moment must be employed in clear- 
ing up the land to raise grain for bread and 
increase their store of the necessaries of life. 
Corn they bought of the Dutch in the Brimmer 
neighborhood. To get it ground they were neces- 
sitated to carry it on horseback to a mill near the 
federal stores, now West Nassau. Nearly the whole 
of this way was a dense forest : the roads con- 
sisted of nothing but paths most of the way. The 
distance was full 30 miles, and it usually required 
about three days to make one of those mill Jour- 
neys. In the course of three years a highway was 
opened to Williamstown, Mass., the distance was 
shortened, but it often took three days to get a, 
grist ground there and return home. There was no 
mill in the valley of the Hoosick till the year 1779 
or 1780. This was erected by a Mr. Trial, and after- 
wards called the Bates mill. 


They had no milk, butter or meat, except occa- 
sionally some wild game. They got buttermilk of 
the Dutch. On ibis and com bread they mostly 
lived. The second year they had a small crop of 
wheat and purchased a cow. Fare was a little 
better. The cow had to be turned into the woods 
to get her living ; if she roamed so far away that 
they could not find her, the family went to bed 
without their supper, or supped upon dry bread, 
which was often the case. * • * The second 
year they also raised some pork. The means 
for raising or fattening pork was al- 
most wholly on wild nuts for several yean. 



The little store of pork laid in was generally con- 
sumed at an early day in the spring, if not long 
before. When spring opened they commenced 
making sugar from the maple. To make up for 
milk, which they seldom had at this season, they 
substituted sap-porridge. Several dishes were 
seasoned with this beverage [maple sugar] ; it also 
took the place of butter. The facilities for mak- 
ing It were such they could obtain but little. The 
sugar seldom lasted longer than the spring 
months ; for the remainder of the year milk and 
bread served them for food. 

They suffered much from the cold ; it was not 
uncommon to rise in the morning with their beds 
covered with snow to the depth of several inches. 
Their houses were open and their furniture con- 
sisted of a few articles of the simplest kind. Their 
outside clothing consisted of flannel or linsey- 
wool, in fashion not dissimilar from a hunting 
coat ; a jacket of the same, if they could get one : 
short breeches almost invariably of leather, either 
buckskin or sheep, shoes and stockings. 


There were no factories or mills to card wool or 
dress cloth. Fulling mills were in use, but none 
existed in these parts for some years. The first 
fulling mill in this place was on the Swamp creek, 
west of Cherry Plain hill, near the Bailey orchard, 
built by Mr. Ludington. The wool taken from the 
sheep was carded, spun and woven, also fulled ; 
this was done by pounding in a trough -or barrel, 
in the usual way of pounding clothes at the pres- 
ent day ; lastly cut and made by their wives and 
daughters. • • • 

Their market was Schodack landing or Castle- 
ton. In consequence of the poor roads the market 
could be reached only in winter, with a sleigh. 
The inhabitants, for several years, seldom made 
the journey, except when compelled to for want 
of salt {this article was very dear) and a few other 
indispensables. The little trade carried on or cur- 
rency in use among the inhabitants of the valley 
was 'n wheat. ♦ • • There was no store in the 
country till 1778. This was opened by Joseph 
Westooat, North Stephentown now. and where 
the house of Mrs. B. Dennison Jones afterwards 
stood. The next by James Jones, 1783, at Sweet's 
Comers, now South Berlin. 


When the declaration of independence was re- 
ceived the inhabitants through the country 
assembled at the house of Daniel Bull to hear it 
read and counsel for future action. The military 
formed in line on the ground, now the door-yard 
in front of Benjamin L. Hull's house. Here 
Daniel Hull read the declaration for the first time 
publicly in the valley of the Hoosick. After the 
reading, he said : " I am one to sustain this declara- 
tion." Requesting the commanding ofiicer (I think 
Capt. Samuel Shaw) to order his ranks to open to 
the right and left, which was accordingly done, he, 
(Daniel Hull), stepping forth between the two lines 
requested all that would sustain the declaration to 
foUow him. Seeing an exciting stir and smile 

from the soldiers, looking behind himself, 
he saw his vrife. who had joined in the line 
of march, acknowledging her services should not 
be withheld in sustaining that declaration of inde- 
pendence. Every man joined in this line of march 
as volunteers in the cause of liberty and inde- 
pendence. It is said the reading of the declara- 
tion and the exercises were affecting, and a deep 
sense of the importance of the cause and the 
trust pervaded the heart of every individual 

Much deprivation and suffering were in every 
part of the country. Bvery able-bodied man was 
serving his country, either at home or abroad. 
The lands were neglected, families left in want, 
but all was with a .willing heart for independence. 
The women did not withhold ; they applied their 
hands to the tilling of the lands, etc., to keep a 
starving family alive, and a famishing soldier. 


Godfrey Brimmer is accorded the honor of 
being the first settler located on the territory 
now embraced within the boundaries of the 
town of Berlin. He is said to hare made his 
home in the noi'them part of this portion of the 
manor of Rensselaerwyck as early as the year 
1765. Reuben Bonesteel came shortly after- 
wards. In 1769 Peter Simmons, Jacob O. Crop- 
sey and Joseph Green were numbered among 
the persons occupying farms in this part of the 
couuty. Col. Caleb Bentley took to farming in 
the northern and Thomas Sweet in the south- 
em part about this time. Paul Braman, James 
and Daniel Dennison, Nathaniel NUes, Feleg 
Thomas and Joshua Whitford were also early 

Nelson Hull in his reminiscences thus refers 
to the tide of emigration in this vicinity : 

After the revolution new settlers began to come 
in and enlarge the boundaries of cultivation. 
Mechanical arts began to increase. A saw mill 
was built near the year 1780 by Amos Sweet, in the 
hollow east of the Christian chapel. A black- 
smith shop was opened by Thomas Sweet, on the 
east side of the road, a short distance north of 
Sweet's Comers. This was much earlier than the 
above date. 

The early inhabitants of the country were gen- 
erally quite healthy and athletic, but a doctor saw 
fit to settle here, whether for weal or woe, near 
the year 1775— Dr. John Forbes— at Sweet's Cor- 

The first frame house in the present limits of 
the town of Berlin was built by Daniel Hull, near 
the close of the revolution, on the same ground 
where now resides Daniel J. Hull. 

In 1813 an epidemic made its appearance in the 
valley of the Hoosick and swept through the 
country like a tomado. * * * There was little 
or no exception as to age ; the young and the ath- 
letic fell before the destroyer. Mourning was in 
almost every house ; but few families escaped- 



Few cases were cured. It made its appearance 
near midwinter, and continued till warm weather. 


By "an act to divide the towns of Peters- 
burg, Stephentown and Schodack, in the county 
of Rensselaer, into five towns," passed by the 
legislature March 21, 1806, the town of Berlin 
was erected. The boundary lines of the town 

All that part of the town of Petersburg lying 
south of a line drawn from the south-east comer 
of the town of Troy, in a direct course with the 
south line of Troy, east to the line of the state of 
Massachusetts ; and all that part of the town of 
Stephentown lying north of a line drawn from the 
north-east comer of the town of Shodack, running 
east to the aforesaid line of Massachusetts, shall 
be a separate town by the name of Berlin, and the 
first town meeting shall be held at the house of 
Charles Denison. 

In 1812, June 19, a part of the territory of 
the town was taken to form the town of Sand- 

The town lies near the centre of the eastern 
boundary of the county. The Kinderhook 
creek flowing southwardly and the Little 
Hoosick northwardly are the two principal 
streams watering the town. Several lakes 
beautify the western part of the town. 


In the year 1845 the people of the town of 
Berlin were horrified by the details of a crime 
which for its cold-blooded character is without 
a parallel. The facts connected with its per- 
petration, as related in the newspapers, were 
the following : It appears that Henry G. Green, 
a resident of the town, became enamored of 
a young woman named Mary Ann Wyatt of 
Lowell, Mass. Green made her acquaintance 
while she was a member of a theatrical troupe 
with which her brother was associated. 
After a short engagement they were mar- 
ried. Soon after their marriage they 
in company with a number of other friends 
made a visit to Hoosick. In a merr.v way one 
of the ladies had told Green that she had once 
entertained hopes that she would have been his 
wife. By some strong fatality he at once began 
in a secret way to plan the death of his wife by 
the administration of poison. Opium was first 
used by him, but this only sickened his wife for 
a time. He then purchased a quantity of 
arsenic, which he put in the coffee and soup 
partaken of by his unsuspecting and loving 
wife. In his confession he admitted that his 
victim was all that he could have desired her to 
be, but that his mind was bent upon her re- 
moval so that he might many the woman who 
had playfully told him that she had thought she 

would have been his bride. He declared that 
he had no fears of detection, and that the first 
feeling of sympathy he had for his wife was 
when he witnessed her sufferings from the ef- 
fect of the poison. It is said that he had 
evinced his affection for his wife after their 
marriage, on the 9th day of February, by pre- 
senting her with a cloak, a dress and other ar- 
ticles. His wife never became aware of any 
want of affection on his part until she became 
suspicious that he was the cause of her sick- 
ness. Five days after their marriage his wife 
died, on the 14th of February, from the effects 
of the poison she had taken in her food, placed 
there by her husband. 

The judge, in pronouncing sentence against 
Green, said: 

An intelligent jury have found yon guilty, and 
there is no person who has heard the trial who 
does not concur in the justice of the verdict. You 
stand condemned as guilty of having murdered 
your wife. Your case in all respects exceeds in 
enormity any of which I have ever heard. It will, 
no doubt, stand out on the page of history as the 
most criminally awful case of murder that ever 
came before court or jury. You murdered her 
deliberatelv ; you murdered the woman you had 
sworn but one short week, I may say four days be- 
fore, to cherish through Ufe ; the woman whose 
destiny had been placed in your keeping, in less 
than one week after marriage you deUberately 
poisoned. You pursued your design day and night, 
repeating the deadly potation from time to time 
until she expired, and then added to the crime of 
murder the black crime of perjury, for you viola- 
ted the most solemn vow you made at the altar. 

For this crime Green was hung, on Wednes- 
day, Sept. 10, 1845. 

In the burying ground near the village of Ber- 
lin two marble tablets were placed, at the heads 
of the two graves ; one bearing the following 
inscription : 

Henry G. Green, bom Dec. 30, 1822, died Sept. 10, 

" Prepare to meet thy God." 

Another marking the tomb of his wife : 

Mary A. W. Green, died Feb. 14, 1845, in the 23d 
year of her age. 

This monument is erected by the citizens of Ber- 
lin in memory of Mary Ann Wyatt, wife of Henry 
G. Green, who was married Feb. 9, 1845, and on the 
14tb day of the same month was poisoned by her 
husband with arsenic without any real or pre- 
tended cause. 

Beautiful, intelligent and virtuous, she was 
wept over by the community, and the violated law 
justly exacted the life of her murderer as a penalty 
for his crime. 


This religious society dates its organization 
CD the 24th of September, 1780. It was first 



known as the Sabbatarian church of Christ in 
Little Hoosick. The first meeting for the pur- 
pose of organization was held at the house of 
Joshua Whitford, on the South Hollow road. 
Elder John Bnrdick of Hopkinton, R. I., and 
Elder John Darts of Farmington, Conn., were 
the chief organizers of this society. At the 
first meeting William Coon was selected as 
elder of the congregation and AV'illiam Green- 
man deacon. In 1800 the first house cf wor- 
ship was erected, which was first used for 
divine service on the 31st of October of that 
year. It had a seating capacity for about 
300 persons and cost about $2,000. 
In the month of August, 1821. the building was 
blown down during a tornado. In 1823 the 
erection of a new structure on the old church 
site was begun, which was completed in 1835. 
In 1848 it was enlarged by the addition of a ves- 
tibule and a bell tower, and in 1876 it was fur- 
ther remodeled. The present building was ded- 
idated in the winter of 1825-:36, elder William 
Satterlee officiating. During the erection of 
the church the society was incorporated. For 
this purpose a meeting was held at the school- 
house in the village of Berlin on the 8th of Feb- 
ruary, 1824. The following persons were elect- 
ed trustees of the "Seventh Day Baptist socie- 
ty in Berlin": Edward Whitford, Lodowick 
Saunders, Asa Coon, W. Green and Benjamin 

The following elders have had charge of the 
spiritual affairs of the society since its organ- 
ization : Elders William Coon, 1780-1821 ; Asa 
Coon, 1821 ; WilUam Satterlee, 1822-40 ; J. L. 
Scott, 1847-49 : J. H. Cochran, 1849-53 ; L. C. 
Rogers, 1853-57 ; A. W. Coon, 1857-63 ; Varnum 
HuU, 1863-65 ; Solomon Carpenter, 1865-6'3 ; 
J. Summerbell, 1867-75 ; and Elder B. F. Rog- 
ers to the present time. 

The present roll of membership of the so- 
ciety bears the names of 141 persons. This 
church is in the village of Berlin. 


This society was organized about the close of 
the revolutionary war. A house of worship 
built ot logs was erected near the present 
boundary lines of the towns of Berlin and Ste- 
phentown. The first settled minister over this 
society was Elder Justus Hull, who was or- 
dained about the year 1784. He continued his 
pastoral relations with the society until his 
death. May 29, 1833. The first meeting held 
for the purpose of incorporating the society 
was on the a4th of January, 1834, at the meet- 
ing house at Berlin. Daniel Hull, Daniel Gray, 
Albin Matison, Joseph Crandall and Clark Bly 
were then elected trustees of the first day Bap- 

tist society in the town of Berlin. A second 
meeting for the same purpose appears to have 
been held on the 13th of January, 1834, when 
John Reeve, Joseph Crandall, Ebenezer Robin- 
son, Samuel Green, Jonathan H. Rhodes, Wil- 
liam J. Sheldon, Jonathan Nichols, Clark B. 
Lamphire and Henry Brown were elected 

The following elders have served the congre- 
gation : Elders Justus Hull, 1784-1833 ; Joseph 
D. Rogers, 18-34-1838 ; Isaac S. Clifford, 1839- 
1850 ; William Bowen, 1850-1851 ; William 
Smith, 1852-1855; Solomon Gale, 1855-1880; 
H. A. Gould, 1861-1865; William Gamett, 
1866-1867 ; J. C. Butler, 1867-1868 ; and Elder 
N. Mulford, 1869 to present time. The church 
has at present about 200 members. 


This society dates its organization from Jan- 
uary 37, 1830, when it was an auxiliary to the 
Petersburgh church. In 1832 the first house of 
worship, at South Berlin, was dedicated in 
September by the Rev. Joseph Rogers. Among 
the persons named as the organizers of the 
society are the Revs. John Spoor, Joseph 
Rogers, David Ford and Abner Jones. In 1865 
the church building was repaired and dedicated 
a second time. It is a frame structure, having 
about 400 seats. It has on its roll of member- 
ship the names of about 45 persons. 

The following persons have ministered to this 
congregation : The Revs. John Spoor, 1831-32 ; 

David Ford, Martin, Currier, J. Hoag, 

Conklin, Benjamin F. Summerbell, W. O. 

Cushen; Cox, George Strevell, William 

Olin, Hicks, J. R. Taylor and the Rev. 

George Strevell to present time. 

For the purpose of incorporating the society 
a meeting was held on the 6th of January, 1853, 
at which the following persons were elected 
trustees of the Christian chapel of Berlin : 
Egbert B. Hull, Lorenzo B. Dennison, Harry 
Hull, Jonathan Dennison, William Jones and 
Andrew Hcwett. 


The first class of this society was organized 
in November, 1877, in the good templars' hall 
in the village of Berlin. In 1778 the erection of 
a frame house of worship was begun on the 
road a short distance south of the village. 
It was dedicated January 19, 1879; the 
Revs. L. Marshall presiding elder, H. L. Starks 
and J. W. Coons officiating. The edifice has a 
seating capacity for about 200 persons, and cost 
about $1,200. The church has about 85 mem- 
bers. The pastors of the church have been the 
Revs. J. M. Appleman, J. W. Coons and the 
Rev. Charles B. Lewis to date. 




The congregation of this church was organ- 
ized on the first Sunday in Hay, 1863, in South 
Berlin. In 1863 a frame building for a house 
of worship was erected, which was dedicated 
October 83, 1863, the Rev. F. A. Classen of- 
ficiating. The cost of the building was placed 
at 18.50, and it has a seating capacity for about 
250 persons. The number of its present mem- 
bership is 58. The pastors of this church have 
been the Revs. John Bochert, F. A. Classen, F. 
Heinle, Die*erich Bruno, and the Rev. George 


This village on account of its situation in the 
northern part of the town is frequently called 
North Berlin. The eastern turnpike from Al- 
bany to Williamstown, Mass., projected in the 
early part of this century, passed through this 
place. In 1836 it is mentioned as having " a 
small public library, one Seventh day Baptist 
church, two grist mills, two saw mills, a tavern, 
three stores, and about 50 dwellings." In the 
village at present there are three churches, two 
hotels, a number of stores and shops and about 
150 dwellings. The oldest house in Berlin is 

said to be the one occupied by James Irwin, 
which was built about the close of the last cen- 
tury by John Reeve. 


This place is situated very near the centre of 
the town on the Little Hoosick creek. As early 
as the year 1790, the hamlet was an important 
point in the town, there being here a tavern, a 
store, a tannery and a potashery. In 1836 the 
place comprised a church, a store, a tavern and 
about 16 dwellings. At present the place in- 
cludes a store and postoffice, a tavern, a car- 
penter shop, and about a score of buildings. 


This hamlet is in the south part 'of the town, 
and is situated on the Little Hoosick creek. 
The Christian church, a cheese factory, two 
blacksmith shops, a. steam saw mill and about 
35 buildings compose the place. 


1810 3,012 

1816 1,955 

1820 1,986 

1825 1,989 

1830 2,019 

1835 1.757 

1840 1,794 

184S 134S 

1850 2,005 

1855 2,167 

1860 2,S2S 

1865 2,140 

1870 2,088 

1875 2,260 

1880 2,203 





The Home Life of the Early Settlers — The Productions of the 
Gardens — The Summer Habits of the Indians — The Labors of 
AN Early Missionary — Erection of Philipstown — The Indian 
Titles of the Anti-Renters — The Birthplace of John A. Gris- 
woLD — The Churches of the Town — Its Villages and Hamlets 
— Population. 

The domestic life of the early settlers of the 
county of Bensselaer was, no doubt, dull and 
monotonous. Recreation in its more modern 
acceptation seldom lightened the constant and 
increasing cares of the busy households shel- 
tered beneath the rooms of the widely scattered 
log houses in the manor of Rensselaerwyck. 
Labor, from early morning until darkening 
night, permitted little rest and relaxation. 
While the cultivation of the fields demanded the 
attention of men the women, besides bear- 
ing uncomplainingly a multitude of burdens, 
industriously toiled in the little sjoaces of 
ground attached to every dwelling, known as 
their gardens. 

women's wokk. 

Referring to the various household duties 
which engaged the thought and labor of the 
females, a lady writing of life in the country 
during the last century, says : 

Every one in town or country bad a garden ; but 
all the more hardy plants grew in the fields, in 
rows, amidst the bills, as they were called, of 
Indian com. These lofty plauts sheltered them 
from the sun, while the same hoeing served for 
both; there cabbages, potatoes and other esculent 
roots, with a variety of gourds, grew to a great 
size and were of an excellent quality. Eidney- 
beans, asparagus, celery, cucumbers, etc., were 
only admitted iLto the garden, into which no foot 
of man intruded, after it was dug in spring. Here 
were no trees ; those grew in the orchard in high 
perfection. Strawberries and many high-flavored 
wild fruits of the shrub kind abounded so much in 
the woods that they did not think of cultivating 
them in their gardens, which were extremely neat 
but small, not by any means calculated for walk- 
ing in. I think I yet see what I have often beheld 


both in town and country, a respectable mistresi 
of a family going out to her garden, in an April 
morning, with her great calasb, her little pointed 
basket of seeds, and her rake over her shoulder, to 
her labors. These were by no means figurative. 
" From mom till noon, from noon till dewy eve," 
a woman, in very easy circumstances and abund- 
antly gentle in form and manners, would sow, and 
plant, and rake, incessantly. These fair gardeners 
were also great florists ; their emulation and solici- 
tude in this pleashig employment did produce 
''flowers worthy of paradise." Though not set in 
" carious knots," they were arranged in beds, the 
varieties ot each Kind by themselves ; this, if not 
varied and elegant, was at least rich and gay. 


The Indians from whom the various tracts of 
land had been purchased, from time to time, 
returned to the places where they had roamed 
in quest of game before the white men had put 
the ground under tillage. They manifested in 
the days of peace strong friendly feelings to- 
ward the families of the settlers. The visita- 
tion of these "wild men," as the Dutch at first 
called the aboriginal inhabitants of the upper 
Hudson, were generally made in summer. The 
writer already quoted gives a very interesting 
description of the habits of the red men on 
these occasions, when they made their home 
for a season in the vicinity of the residences of 
the more wealthy and benevolent inhabitants of 
Rensselaerwyck. She remarks : 

They generally built a slight wigwam under shel- 
ter of the orchard fence on the shadiest side, and 
never were neighbors more harmless and peace- 
able and obliging— I might truly add, industrious, 
for in one way or other they were constantly oc- 
cupied. The women and their children employed 



themselves in many ingenious handicrafts, which, 
since the introduction of European arts and manu- 
factures, have greatly declined. 


Baking trays, wooden dishes, ladles and 
spoons, shovels and rakes, brooms of a peculiar 
manufacture, made by splitting a birch block into 
slender but tough filaments, enriched with the 
most beautiful colors, which they alone knew 
how to extract from vegetable substances and in- 
corporate with the wood. They made also of 
the birch-bark (which is here so strong and tena 
cious that cradles and canoes are made of it,) 
many receptacles for holding fruit and othei; 
things, curiously adorned with embroidery not 
inelegant, done with the sinews of deer; and 
leggins and moccasins, a very comfortable and 
highly ornamented substitute for shoes and stock- 
ings, then universally used in winter among the 
men of our own people. 

They bad also a beautiful manufacture of deer 
skin, softened to the consistence of the finest 
chamois leather, and embroidered with beads and 
wampum formed like bugles ; these with great art 
and industry they formed out of shells, which had 
the appearance of flne white porcelain, veined 
with purple. This embroidery showed both skill 
and taste, and was among themselves highly 
valued. They had belts, large embroidered gar- 
ters and many other ornaments, formed, first of 
deer sinews, divided to the size of coarse thread, 
and afterwards, when they obtained worsted 
thread from us, of that material, formed in a man- 
ner which I could never comprehend. It was 
neither knitted nor wrought in the manner of a 
net, nor yet woven ; but the texture was more 
like that of an ofBoer'e sash than anything I can 
compare it to. 

While the women and children were thus em- 
ployed the men sometimes assisted them in the 
more laborious part of their business, but oftener 
occupied themselves in fishing on the rivers, and 
drying or preserving, by means of smoke, in sheds 
erected for the purpose, sturgeon and large eels, 
which they caught in great quantities and of an 
extraordinary size, for winter provision. 

Boys on the verge of manhood and ambitious to 
be admitted into the hunting parties of the ensu- 
ing winter, exercised themselves in trying to im- 
prove their sitill in archery, by shooting birds, 
squirrels and raccoons. » • * The summer 
residence of these ingenious artisans promoted a 
great intimacy between the females of the vicinity 
and the Indian women, whose sagacity and com- 
prehension of mind were beyond belief. 


It is a singular circumstance that though they 
saw the negroes in every respectable family not 
only treated with humanity but cherished with pa- 
rental kindness, they always regarded them vrith 
contempt and dislike as an inferior race, and 
would have no communication with them. It was 
necessary, then, that all conversations should be 

held and all business transacted with these females 
by the mistress of the family. In the infancy of 
the settlement the Indian language was familiar to 
the more intelligent inhabitants, who found It very 
useful, and were no doubt pleased with its nervous 
and emphatic idiom, and its lofty and sonorous ca- 
dence. It was, indeed, a noble and copious lan- 
guage, when one considers that it served as the 
vehicle of thought to a people whose ideas and 
sphere of action we should consider as so very 


The Christian zeal of the Kev. David Brain- 
ard for the conversion of the Indians inhabiting 
that part of the manor of Kensselaerwyck, 
then designated as Eamamuck, now included 
within the boundaries of the town of Nassau, 
drew this devoted and self-denjing missionary 
to this field of gospel work. It is said that this 
evangelist entered upon his brief residence in 
this section on the 1st of April, 1743. The 
rude, one-roomed, unfloored log cabin of an in- 
dustrious pioneer, a Scotchman, became his 
home. Here, in the southeastern part of the 
territory embraced within the present limits of 
the town of Nassau, the Kev. David Brainard 
disseminated the truths of the Christian re 
ligion to the friendly Indians. The short visit 
of the pious man was concluded by his re- 
moval, by reason of ill health, on May 1, 1744. 
The present hamlet of Brainard was named 
in honor of this zealous missionary's work in 
this section among the Indians. 

About the year 1760 Hugh Wilson and Joseph 
Primmer became settlers of two tracts of land 
lying near the present body of water on the 
western bounds of the town, known as Hoag's 
pond. At a close remove from it a number of 
Stockbridge Indians had a village, which they 
called Ontikehomuck. Their chief's name was 
Kashekekomuck. On the 16th of May, 1760, 
these Indians sold two pieces of land to Hugh 
Wilson and Joseph Primmer, one being north 
and the other south of the pond. 

As designated on the map of the manor of 
Kensselaerwyck made by Jno. R. Bleeker, in 
1767, the following persons were at that time 
residing mthin the territory of the present 
town of Nassau : Hugh Wilson, Henry Post, 
John W. Schermerhom and John McCagg. 
Subsequently other settlers were added to this 
small number of pioneers. Thomas Hicks, 
Daniel Litz, Titus Huested, Major Abijah Bush, 
Abraham Holmes, James Marks, John B. Adsit, 
William Root, Jonathan Williams, Amaziab 
Bailey, Reuben Bateman, David Waterbury, 
Patrick McGee and James H. Ball took up 
leases of land from the patroon during the 
latter part of the century. 



Hoag's pond took Us name from an early set- 
tler named Jonathan Hoag, who on May 16, 
1793, purchased a tract of land from Stephen 
Van Rensselaer, which included the pond, 
which was then known as the "Vly," or 
"Beaver dam." This enterprising pioneer 
erected, a, short distance north of the site of 
the Nassau mills, a grist mill, which was des- 
troyed by fire in 1818. Jonathan Hoag repre- 
sented his district in the state legislature dur- 
ing the years 1798 and 1799. 


By "An act to divide the towns of Peters- 
borgh, Stephentown and Schodack, m the 
county of Rensselaer, into five towns," passed 
by the state legislature March 21, 1806, the 
town of Philipstown was erected. The bound- 
aries of the town are given as follows : 

AU the remaioine part of the town of Stephen- 
town lying west of a line running parallel with the 
east line of the said town of Stephentown, at a 
distance of eight miles from the said east line, and 
all that part of the town of Schodack lying east of 
the eight mile stake, standine a little east of the 
house of Timothy Philips, and extending southerly 
to Jonathan Hoag's erist-mill pond, and thence 
southerly as the creek runs to the north bounds 
of the county of Columbia, shall be a separate town 
by the name of Philipstown ; and that the first town 
meeting shiill be held at the house of Pliny Miller. 

The name of the town was changed by "An 
act to change the names of towns therein men- 
tioned," passed April 6, 1808. The clause in 
the act referring to it reads: "The town of 
Philipstown, in the county of Rensselaer, shall 
be named Nassau." 


The first town meeting for the election of 
town officers was held on the 1st of April, 
1806, at the house of Pliny Miller, inn-holder. 
The following persons were elected : Super- 
visor, Jonathan Hoag; town clerk, William 
C. Elmore; assessors, Fenuer Palmer, Joseph 
Finch, Elijah Adams, Joseph S. Gale and Titus 
Huested ; collector, Charles Mason ; overseers 
of the poor, Samuel Gale and David Water- 
bnry ; commissioners of highways, Fenner | 
Palmer, Enoch Benedict and James H. Bail; 
constables, Charles Mason, William King and | 
Ebenezer Martin ; fence viewers, Enoch Bene- j 
diet, Fenner Palmer, Benjamin Mason, Titus ; 
Huested, Timothy Sibley, Gershorn Tabor, ' 
Samuel Enapp, John Turner and Jeremiah j 
Macks ; poundmasters, Jonathan Hoag, Abijah 
Bush and Isaac Dunham. At this meeting 39 | 
overseers of highways were elected. 


During the anti-rent troubles of 1839-47, a 

large number of the tenants of the patroon of 
Rensselaerwyck who at the time occupied 
leased farms in the town of Nassau became dis- 
affected. An anti-rent organization was formed 
at the " old Martin tavern," at Hoag's Comers. 
It was determined by its members that they 
would resist the collection of ground rents and 
by various ways resist the officers of the law in 
the entorcement of the demands of the patroon. 
The different officers of the organization were 
designated by high-sounding titles, derived 
from the Indians. Among the names bestowed 
were "Big Thunder" to Dr. Smith A.Boughton 
of Alps, " Little Thunder" to Franklin Abbott, 
a resident of Hoag's Comers, and "Tusca- 
rora" to Thomas Thompson of Hoag's Comers. 
On one occasion the sheriff of Rensselaer 
county, Gideon Reynolds, with & posse eonuUatus 
of 25 men, was captured by this organization, 
the members of which were accustomed to array 
themselves in outlandish Indian costume, and, 
with painted faces, ride with alarming yells on 
horseback though the country about the time 
a collection of rents was demanded. The cap- 
ture was made near Alps. The horses of the 
sheriff and his company of law-sustainers were 
turned loose, and the sheriff and his posse were 
compelled to return a part of the way to their 
homes on foot. A deputy, on whom the civil 
process were found, was tarred and feathered. 
Deputy Sheriff Lewis of Nassau village was on 
another occasion similarly treated by the antl- 


The village of Nassau on the 11th of Novem- 
ber, 1818, became the birthplace of John Augus- 
tus Griswold. The latter in 1823, 1831 and 1835 
was a member of the assembly from Rensselaer 

Major Gen. John E. Wool for a number of 
years made the village of Nassau his residence. 

It is said that at the Van Valkenburgh inn at 
Nassau Joseph Bonaparte, the Marquis de 
Lafayette, Major Gen. Lewis Cass, Martin Van 
Buren, Gov. Clinton, and other distinguished 
persons have partaken of its cheer and com- 


The erection of the first church in the vicin- 
ity of Hoag's pond, on the western boundaries 
of the town, in 1787, by a number of persons 
belonging to the Dutch Reformed, Lutheran 
and Presbyterian churches, was prior to the 
preaching of the Rev. Jacobus V. C. Romeyn 
in a barn which once stood opposite the site of 
the dwelling of Dr. Samuel McClellan, in Nas- 
sau village. 

In 1795 a house of worship of an undenomi- 
national character was erected in the village of 



Xassan. The boilding stood near the site of 
the present Reformed church parsonage, on 
Chatham street. 


The society of the first Baptist church, it is 
said, was organized about the year 1790, and a 
house of worship erected a short distance east 
of Nassau Tillage. On the 7th of December, 
1850, the following persons were elected trus- 
tees of " the First Baptist church and society 
in Nassau :" David Shaver, Ezra Hemingway 
and Bernard E. Lord. 


The certificate of the incorporation of this 
church recites that the members of the society 
assembled at their meeting house on Saturday, 
January 18, 1845, and elected the following 
persons trustees of the " Second Baptist church 
and society in Nassau" : Stephen Phillips, 
Alexander H. Tucker and Caleb S. Vickery. 
This congregation was gathered together about 
the year 1820. 


At quite an early date in the present century 
a Baptist society was organized at East Nassau. 
The present house of worship was erected in 
1879, the former church building having been 
destroyed by fire. The new house was dedica- 
ted October 15, 1879, the Rev. W. W. Everts of- 
ficiating. It has a seating capacity for about 
200 persons. The roll of membership of the 
church bears 53 signatures. 


This society was formed in 1876. The erec- 
tion of a church was commenced the same year 
and was first used for worship on the day of 
dedication, January 18, 1877. The dedicatory 
services were performed by the Revs. J. M. 
Langworthy, J. B. Coleman, William Fuller and 
W. H. Fonderden. The building cost about 
$1,700, and has a seating capacity for about 250 
persons. The number of members is 3S. The 
church was incorporated July 29, 1878. The 
pastors of the church have been the Revs. W. 
H. Fonderden and William H. Fuller. The 
church is without a pastor at this time. 


The house of worship of the society of Bap- 
tists at Hoag's Comers was erected in 1861-62. 
The congregation is a part of the Baptist 
society of North Nassau. 


On November 11, 1802, the people who had 
been statedly worshiping in the Union church 
erected In 1795, in Union village, now called 
Nassau, held a meeting and elected Andrew 

Griffin and Joseph Boughton elders, and William 
Southworth and John Strong deacons. For the 
use of the new body a house of worship was 
erected, and the building was dedicated Janu- 
ary 13, 1828. This edifice stood northwest of 
the Nassau ac demy building. In 1848 it was 
moved to its present site. 

The society was incorporated in 1822, Chaun- 
cey Porter, Samuel GriflSth and Samuel B. Lud- 
low being elected trustees of the "Presbyterian 
church of Nassau" on the 8th of May of that 

The pastors of this church have been the 

Revs. Jonas Coe, John Tounglove, Tonng 

and Joel T. Benedict. The Rev. Ezra D. Kin- 
ney, 1828-29 ; the Rev. Solomon I. Tracy, 1830- 
33; the Rev. Washington Rosevelt, 1834-36; 
the Rev. Ezra D. Kinney, 1837-38 ; the Rev. S. 
Bryant, 1840^2 ; the Rev. John Batey, 1842-43 ; 
the Rev. Jostph Hurlburt, 1844r-48 : the Rev. 
Fayette Shepherd, 1850-52; the Rev. Robert 
Day, 1856-58 ; the Rev. Charles Doolittle, 1859- 
67; the Rev. G. R. Alden, 1869-70; the Rev. 
C. S. Sherman, 871-75 ; and the Rev. G. R. 
Knowles, 1876-78. 


A Presbyterian society was organized about 
the latter part of the last century, in the 
northern part of the town. A house of wor- 
ship was erected, which about 35 years after- 
wards was destroyed by fire. 


This society was organized in 1807 at East 
Nassau by the Rev. John Tounglove. The 
Union church was used for divine worship un- 
til it was burned in 1853. In the following year 
a Presbyterian meeting house was erected, 
which in January, 1855, was dedicated. 

The society was incorporated July 8, 1853, 
when the following persons were elected trus- 
tees : John H. Haynes, Joseph Phillips, John 
Bush and William H. Sherman. 

The pastors of this church have been the 
Revs. Barker, Laidlow, Henderson, Henry 
Neill, Acker and Knowles. The Rev. W. E. 
Faulkner is the present pastor. 



In the autumn of 1803 this society was organ- 
ized by the order of the classis of the Re- 
formed Protestant Dutch church of Rensselaer. 
The Rev. Jacob Sickels, D. D., ordained the 
first consistory of the church, which included 
the following persons : Dennis Harder, Heniy 
Goes, Nicholas Smith and Abraham Welch 
elders, and George Melius, Michael T. Smith, 
William Jacoby and Nicholas T. Smith. Until 
the year 1821 this charge was in connection 



with the church at Schodack. The Union 
church was first used by this congregation for 
public worship. In 1820 a lot was purchased of 
Chauncey Porter, on which a house of worship 
was erected, which was finished December 1, 
1820. The congregation purchased the old 
Union church or Free church building. On its 
site, in 1839, the present parsonage of this 
church was erected. The roll of membership 
of this church bears the signatures of about 
360 persons. 

The following persons have served the con- 
gregation as pastors : The Bev. Christian Bork, 
1804-6 ; the Rev. Jesse Fonda, 1809-13 ; the Rev. 
Peter Van Buren, 1814-20 ; from the time of the 
separation of the church from the charge of 
Schodack, the Rev. James Romeyn, 1821-27 ; 
the Rev. J. F. Morris, 1829-32 ; the Rev. Chris- 
topher Hunt, 1832-S7 ; the Rev. John Knox, 
1838-41 ; the P.ev. Edwin Holmes, 1841-52 ; the 
Rev. Richard H. Steele, 1852-03 ; the r.ev. Isaac 
Collier, 1864-66, and the Rev. Alfred H. Brush, 
1867 to the present time. 


About a half a century ago a class of Method- 
ists was organized in Nassau village. The 
meeting house of this society was a building 
situated a short distance west of the place. 
This was sold and the present house of worship 
erected opposite the Dutch Reformed 
church. The edifice was dedicated in 1833, the 

Rev. Carpenter preaching the dedicatory 


The pastors of this church have been the 

Revs. William Anson, Aaron Schofield, 

Amidon, Samuel Howe, Samuel Eighmy, Daniel 
Brayton, Elias Vandiirlip, Seymour Coleman, 

Coles Carpenter, Osbom, John Clark, John 

Pegg, Pelton, Abiatban Osbom, D. D., 

John Alley, C. R. Morris, Sprague, Oliver 

Emerson, Edward Asa, Samuel Stover, William 
A. Miller, Lewis Potter, J. W. Belknap, Rufus 

Pratt, William N. Frazer, Hiram Chase, 

Dwight, H. C. Sexton, F. Soule, P. M. Hitch- 
cock, A. Heath, W. H. Washburn, H. W. Slo- 
cum, A. D. Heath and C. M. Clark. 


This society was incorporated in 1854. On 
the 18th Of April of that year a election was 
held for trustees in the Union Methodist meet- 
ing house at East Nassau, and the following 
persons were elected trustees of the Union 
Methodist church at East Nassau : Pliny Gould, 
Horace Clark, David Phillips, C. Raodes and 
Erastus Hemmingway. The society dates its 
organization in 1830. The house of worship 
used by the society was built in 1834. 


A society of Methodists was organized in the 
southern part of the town about the year 1840. 
A house of worship was erected that year at 
Brainard, on land presented by Seth Hastings. 
A larger and more commodious structure was 
built in 1875, west of the old building. This 
charge is connected with the church at Nassau. 


A house of worship erected east of Dunham 
Hollow belongs to the society of Methodists. It 
is known as the Free Union Methodist church. 


At Nassau village there is a small congrega- 
tion of Roman Catholics. A neat chapel has 
been built by the congregation. 


This place was early known as Union village. 
It is situated in the southwestern part of the 
town, near the west boundary line. A post- 
ofBce was established at this point in 1811. The 
village was incorporated March 12, 1819. The 
first village offices under the act were : Wm. 
B. Hermance, Chaunoey Porter, Samuel B. 
Ludlow, Chester Griswold and Ebenezer Bas- 
sett, trustees ; Henry Goodrich, collector, and 
Calvin Pardee, treasurer. The present charter 
was passed April 17, 1866. 

The village is spoken of in 1836 as being in " a 
pleasant vale on the turnpike road from Albany 
to New Lebanon, lli4 miles southeast of the 
former, 18 miles from Troy, and on the Valatie 
creek ; has one Baptist, one Methodist and one 
Presbyterian churcfti ; an academy incorporated 
in 1835, a grist mill and a saw mill, one tavern, 
two stores and about 40 dwellings." 

Nassau at present is a very attractive village, 
and has about 450 inhabitants and about 90 
dwelling houses, four churches, two hotels, four 
stores and about 30 shops and manufacturing 
places. Among the latter are a grist mUl, a saw 
mill and a foundry. 

About the year 1835 a fire company was or- 
ganized in the village and was known as old No. 
1 Washington engine company. No. 1 was or- 
ganized July 18, 1872. 

The Nassau Gazette was issued in December, 
1830, by J. M. Geer. It was shortly after dis- 

The Nassau, Schodack and Chatham mutual 
insurance company was organized in 1855. 

Gratitude lodge of F. and A. Masons, No. 
674, sprang from Nassau lodge, the first meet- 
ing under the dispensation to the latter being 
held September 26, 1867. The charter to Grati- 
tude lodge is dated June 19, 1868. The first 
officers under this charter were George L. 



Eighmy, worshipful master ; James Van Allen, 
senior warden, and George B. Mitchell, junior 


The village of East Nassau, in the south- 
eastern part of the town, is situated on Kinder- 
hook creek. It was early known as Scherraer- 
hom's— John W. Schermerhom keeping the 
tlrst tavern at this point. A postoflSce was es- 
tablished here in 1830. 

In 1836 it was described as being at the con- 
fluence of the Einderhook and Tackawasiok 
(xeeks, 16 miles southeast of Albany, 19 miles 
from Troy, containing one Methodist and one 
Baptist churches, one cotton, one woolen and 
one stoneware factories ; a tannery, two 
taverns, two stores and from 50 to 60 dwellings. 

The present population of the village is about 
200. There are now in the village 60 houses, 
three churches — a Presbsrterian, a Baptist and 
a Methodist — two taverns, two stores, two 
blacksmith shops, two wagon-makers' shops 
and two saw mills. 


This hamlet is situated in the northern part 
of the town. A postofBce was established at 
this point about 1845, of which James H. Ball 
was first postmaster. North Nassau contains 
a Baptist church, a store and a small number 
of dwellings. 


This hamlet is situated on the Tackawasick 
creek. About the year 1832 the site of this 
place was covered with heavy timber, and it is 
said that 10 saw mills were erected in the 
vicinity. The place derives its name from Wil- 
liam Hoag, who here kept a hotel as early as 
the year 1825. About 1832 a postoffice was es- 
tablished at this point. The present popula- 
tion of the Corners is 235. There are 56 dwel- 
lings, a Baptist church, a hotel and four stores 
and four blacksmith shops in the place. 


This hamlet was early known as Brainard's 
Bridge, in honor of Joseph Brainard, who built 
the bridge over Kinderhook creek. It was af- 
terwards changed to Brainard, in honor of the 
Bev. David Brainard. the Indian missionary. 
In 1836 it is spoken of as being upon the Kin- 
derhook creek, 24 miles from Troy, having a 
cotton and woolen factory, 1 tavern, 2 stores 
and 40 dwellings. The Harlem extension rail- 
road has a station near the place. The plac« 
now comprises a Methodist church, a store, a 
hotel and a number of dwellings. 


In 1836 this hamlet in the northern part of 
the town is spoken of as having two taverns, a 
store and about 20 dwellings, and being 16 
miles from Troy. At this point at present there 
are a church, a store and about 80 buildings. 
Jonathan G. Taft had a store at Alps about a 
half century ago. 


This hamlet derives its name from Isaac Dun- 
ham, who settled here about the beginning of 
the century. It is in the northeastern part of 
the town, and contains a small foundry, a grist 
mill, a saw mUl, a hoop factory, a blacksmith 
shop and a small number of dwellings. 

miller's cornebs. 
This is a hamlet composed of a small collec- 
tion of houses in the northwestern part of the 
About 40 years ago George Miller kept a store 
at this point. 


1810 8.60111850 8,a«l 

1815 2.747 1 1855 3,000 

ISSiO 2.»7SI1860 8,089 

1885 2.935 1 1S65 2,894 

18S0 3,t!5i|1870 9,705 

1835 S.2«|l875 2,657 

1840 3,2361 ISSO 2,829 

1845 3.1041 





Boundary Line Troubles — New York Extending to the Connecti- 
cut River — The Sheriff of Albany County Resisted — One 
Hundred Pounds Reward for the Arrest of Ethan Allen =— 
The First Settler of Jericho Hollow — Stephen A. Douglas's 
Ancestors — Houses of Entertainment in 1788 — Old Military 
Officers — A Census of Slaves in the Town — Historic Review 
of Churches — Villages and HaiVlets — Census Statistics. 

The newly discovered country of America, 
which attracted In the seventeenth century a 
large number of emigrants from Europe to its 
shores, was of such vast an extent that very 
little of its true geography and topography was 
sufficiently known to furnish what might be 
thought correct and explicit information by 
which important boundary lines might be desig- 
nated, as circumscribina; the various land grants 
that had been conveyed by the kings of those 
countries that claimed portions of the continent 
by right of discovery. For more than a century 
after the occupancy of the different portions of 
the territory of the new country by various 
companies and individual proprietors questions 
arose regarding the boundary lines of the greater 
and lesser divisions of land. 


The indefinite wording of the patent of New 
England granted by King James I. in 1620, was 
for a long time the cause ot much controversy 
and belligerence respecting the position of the 
boundary line which should legally separate 
the province of New York from the territories 
of the adjacent New England provinces. In 
1763, December 28, for the purpose of settling 
the questions at issue, Lieut. Gov. Cadwallader 
Golden of the provisce of New York issued a 
proclamation declaring the Connecticut river 
to be the east bounds of the province of New 
York. In this paper the lieutenant governor, 
in addressing the people of the province, says : 

To prevent therefore the Incautious from be- 
coming Purchasers of the Lands so granted ; to 
msertthe Sights, and fully to maintain the juris- 

diction 01 the Government of this His majesty's 
Pi'ovince of New York ; I have thought fit, with 
the advice of His majesty's Council, to issue this 
Proclamation, hereby commanding and requiring 
all Judges, Justices and other Civil Officers within 
the same to continue to exercise Jurisdiction in 
their Respective I^incti<yis, as far as to the Banks 
of Connecticut river, the undoubted Eastern Lim- 
its of that Part of the Province of New York, not- 
withstanding any contrariety of Jurisdiction 
claimed by the Government of New Hampshire, or 
any Grants of land Westward of that Itlver, made 
by the said Government, and I do hereby enjoin 
the High Sheriff of the County of Albany, to re- 
turn to me or the Commander in chief, the Names 
of all and every Person and Persons, who under 
grants of the Government of New Hampshire, do 
or shall hold the Possession of any Lands West- 
ward of Connecticut River, that they may be pro- 
ceeded against according to Law. 

Benning Wentworth who was at this time 
governor of the province of New Hampshire is- 
sued a counter proclamation, March 13, 1764, 
commanding all the civil officers of that prov- 
ince "to deal with any person, or persons, that 
may presume to intermiit the inhabitants or 
settlers on said lands as to law and justice doth 
appertain, the pretended right of jurisdiction 
mentioned in the aforesaid proclamation not- 

The ejection of the settlers from the lands 
west of the Connecticut river as ordered by the 
proclamation of the lieutenant governor of 
New York, which tracts they had purchased of 
Governor Wentworth, as soon as the sheriff of 
Albany county attempted it, was vigorously re- 
sisted. It is said that the governor of New 



Hampshire from the year 1763 to 1768 had 
granted to a large number of persons no less 
than 138 townships, and that many settlers, 
generally from Connecticut, had taken up the 
lands 60 granted. 


As connected with the history of Rensselaer 
county, it may be related that the sheriff of 
Albany county, on the 17th of August, 1764, 
received intelligence from "Hoseck," that the 
"New Hampshire people had turned Hans 
Jerry Creiger, an inhabitant under the proprie- 
tors of Hoseck patent, out of possession of his 
lands and tenements, drove off his cattle and 
took with them a parcel of Indian com, and 
for the redemption of the cattle compelled him 
to pay 545 ; and the said express further in- 
formed him that the said New Hampshire peo- 
ple were the next day to be at the houses of 
Peter Voss and Bastiane Deale in order in like 
manner to dispossess them of their possessions, 
which they had peaceably enjoyed under the 
proprietors of said Hoseck patent for upwards 
of three years, except when driven ofiE by the 
enemy (Indians) during the two last wars." 

The sheriff of Albany county. In company 
with " two justices and a few other good peo- 
ple of this province," proceeded to Hoosick, 
where, on his arrival, he was told that the New 
Hampshire people would not come until the 
following Monday. Having heard that the 
New Hampshire people were at the bouses of 
Voss and Deale, he went thither immediately, but 
on his arrival he found that they bad departed. 
He followed the party, and, overtaking them, 
arrested four of the number and carried them to 
Albany, where they were confined in the county 


What was known as " the Bennington mob " 
at this period of local disturbance, became a 
great terror to the people living within the 
county of Albany, adjoining the province of 
New Hampshire. Of this lawless body of men 
it was said that they had seized, insulted and 
terrified magistrates and other civil officers so 
that they dare not execute the.r respective 
functions ; rescued prisoners for debt, assumed 
to themselves military commands and judicial 
powers ; burned and demolished the houses 
and property and beat and abused the persons 
of many of his majesty's subjects, expelled 
them from their possessions, and put a period 
to the administrations of justice, and spread 
terror and destruction throughout that part of 
the country which was exposed to their oppres- 
For the purpose of suppressing these dis- 

turbances the governor, by the recommendation 
of the assembly of the province of New York, 
issued a proclamation, March 9, 1774, "enjoin- 
ing and commanding all magistrates, justices 
of the peace, sheriffs and other civil officers of 
the counties of Albany and Charlotte to appre- 
hend and take" the ringleaders of the Benning- 
ton mob and "to commit them to safe and 
secure custody in the gaol of the city and 
county of Albany to answer for the several 
offenses and to be dealt with according to law." 
A reward of £100 was offered for the appre- 
hension of Ethan Allen of Bennington, yeo- 
man, also for the apprehension of Remember 
Baker, and £50 for the arrest of Seth Warner, 
Robert Cochran, Peleg Sunderland. Sylvanns 
Brown, James Breckenridge and John Smith. 


Between the years 1765 and 1769 efforts were 
unsuccessfully made to settle the boundary line 
between the provinces of New York and Massa- 
chusetts. While New York claimed a right to 
the territory to the Connecticut river, Massa- 
chusetts insisted on her ownership of the 
oountry as far as the Pacific ocean. Emigrants 
from the latter province took up land in the 
manor of Rensselaerwyck without any permis- 
sion being granted by the patroon. Force be- 
ing often employed to eject them, blood was 
frequently shed in doing it. Commissioners 
were appointed by the two provinces to de- 
termine the position of the boundary line, who 
met at New Haven, October 1,1767. It was 
agreed by them that the western line of Masssr 
cbusctts should be fixed at 30 miles east of the 
Hudson river, but the commissioners could not 
agree as to the way in which the line should be 
determined. However, by an agreement, dated 
May 18, 1773, the boundary line on the eastern 
part of the province was settled to begin at the 
northwest angle of the oblong and to run 
tAence north 21° 10' 30" to the north Une of 

In December, 1781 Vermont took measures to 
resist the territorial claims of New York re- 
specting the position of the disputed boundary 
line. To enforce obedience to the laws of New 
York Gen. Gansevoort bad marched with a 
body of soldiery into the districts of Schaghti- 
ooke and Hoosick, where he was confronted by 
Col. Walbridge. The influence of Gen. Wash- 
ington led to lees bloody means for the adjudi- 
cation of these conflicting claims. A proposi- 
tion was made on the part of New York that if 
the legislature of Vermont, before the first of 
January, 1792, should agree that on or before 
the first of June, 1794, that state should pay to 



New York the sum of $30,000, that all right to 
lands under grants from the government of the 
colony of New York, or from the state of New 
York should cease, those excepted which had 
been made in confirmation of the grants of New 
Hampshire. The border troubles which had 
continued for 26 years, during which only one 
life had been lost, were terminated on the 28th 
of October, 1790, by Vermont consenting to the 
terms proposed by New York. On the 18th of 
February, 1791, Vermont became a state of the 


The largest number of the early settlers of 
the town of Stephentown were from the New 
England colonies. Many came from Rhode 
Island, settling upon the land of the manor of 
Bensselaerwj'Ck, adjoining the Massachusetts 
line. Among the first of the New England 
emigrants to make their homes on this part of 
the great manor were Joshua, Caleb and 
Benjamin Gardner, three brothers ; Asa 
Douglas, Elnathan Sweet, Nathaniel Rose, 
Joseph Carpenter, Alexander Brown and 
Joseph Rogers. Most of these settled here 
about the year 1766. William Douglas, a grand- 
son of Asa Douglas, is said to have been the 
first child bom in this part of the manor. The 
Hon. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois was a de- 
scendant of this Douglas family. 

In the year 1766, it is said that Asa Douglas 
came from Plainfield, Conn., into this wilder- 
ness portion of the manor in search of suitable 
land for farming purposes. Having met an 
ludian chief he made known his object. The 
Indian told him that there was fertile land in 
what was shortly afterwards designated as 
"Jericho hollow." He, on a survey of the 
ground described by the Indian, was satisfied 
of its suitableness for farming purposes, and at 
once took up about one thousand acres for cul- 
tivation. One half of this land now lies in the 
state of Massachusetts. Of the three Gardner 
brothers, Caleb's house was immediately on the 
boundary line of Massachusetts and New York. 
Joshua Gardner, in 1774, is said to have cut a 
private road through the thick woods from the 
•' old east road," over the mountain to the place 
where he had erected his log house. Job 
Gardner sometime after the year 1777 moved 
from Providence, R. I., to the vicinity of his 
three brothers' farms. 

Among the names of settlers which appear 
upon the district records in 1784, are the fol- 
lowing: Stephen Arnold, Samuel Bailey, 
Gideon Brayton, Aaron Budlong, Alexander 
Case, Hezekiaj/ Coon, John Forbs, Benjamin 
Green, Jacob Green, Edward Hoard, Jonathan 


Howard, Ezekiel Huntington, William Kittel, 
2d., Abel Lewis, Augustus Lewis, Obadiah 
Matthews, Timothy Mattison, Jonathan NUes, 
Nathaniel Niles, William Reynolds, William 
Rose, Benjamin Sackett, WUliam Sanford, John 
W. Schermerhorn, Randal Shiner, Samuel 
Sweet, Nathan Tanner, Elijah West, Joshua 
Whltford, Abraham Winston and Walter Wor- 


The following extract frem the proceedings 
of the common council of Albany, of May 6, 
1770, shows what measures were taken to open 
a road through Stephentown at that early day : 

Levy Peas applyed to this board for assistance 
to make a road from his house through Stephen- 
town to the house of Andries Michal. 

Besolved, That this board will sive 20 £ to the in- 
habitants of Stephentown, or such of them as will 
undertake to make a good and sufficient waggon 
road and Bridges from the house of Levy Peas 
thro' Stephen Town to the House of Andries 
Mtohal, along the Markt Trees shewn to Mr. Mar- 
selis and Alderman Ten Brook, in behalf of the 
widow Van Renselaer, undertake to pay 20 £ 


By "an act to divide the east district of the 
manor of Rensselaerwyck, in the county of Al- 
bany," passed March 29, 1784, that part of the 
manor known as the Stephentown district was 
formed. The act designated its boundaries as 
follows : 

That the said east district of the manor of Rens- 
selaerwyck, in the county of Albany, shaU be and 
is hereby declared to be divided into two districts 
by the following line ; Beginning at a point in the 
division line between the said east district of the 
manor of Rensselaer and the district of Kinder- 
hook, 10 miles distant from Hudson's river, and 
thence running northerly to a point in the division 
line of the said east district of the manor of Rens- 
selaerwyck and the district of Sohactikoke, nine 
miles distant from the said Hudson river. 

That all the lands immediately before the pas- 
sage of this act, comprehended within the said east 
district of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, lying 
westward of the aforesaid division line, shall be 
one separate and distinct district and be called by 
the name of the Rensselaerwyck district ; and that 
all the lands immediately before the passing of this 
act comprehended within the said east district of 
the manor of Rensselaerwyck, and lying eastward 
of the aforesaid line, shall be one separate and dis- 
tinct district, and be called by the name of Stephen- 
town district. » • * 

The inhabitants of the district of Stephentown 
to hold their first annual meeting at the dwelling 
house of Daniel Hull, esq., to elect a supervisor, 
town clerk and all the other town officers. 

The designation of the name Stephentown 



was given in honor of Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
the patroon of the manor. 

Under the proTisions of the act Caleb Bent- 
ley was elected, in 1784, supervisor of the dis- 
trict, and Jonathan Niles, clerk. 


67 " an act for dividing the counties of this 
state into towns," passed March 7, 1788, the 
town of Stephentown was erected. The town 
was bounded as follows : 

All that part of the said county of Albany bonnd- 
ed easterly by the east bonnds of this state, south- 
erly by the county of Columbia, westerly by the 
said town of Uensselaerwyck, and northerly by 
the north bounds of the said manor of Uensselaer- 
wyck. shall be and hereby is erected into a town 
by the name of Stephentown. 

A portion of the territory of the town was 
subtracted, March 18, 1791, to form the town of 
Petersburgh, and parts, in 1806, to make the 
towns of Berlin andPhilipstown, (Nassau). 


The Inns and taverns scattered along the 
public roads of the newly-settled territory of 
northern New York, besides being places of en- 
tertainment, were generally points at which the 
people gathered at certain times for the trans- 
action of business connected with the towns 
and districts of the counties. At the time the 
town of Stephentown was erected each inn and 
tavern keeper was required to enter iato 
recognizance to the people of the state 
of New Tork in the sum of £50 
not to keep a disorderly house or 
suffer any cock fighting, gaming or 
playing with cards or dice, or keep any billard 
table or other gaming table or shuflBie board 
within it. In regard to the selling of strong 
liquors, exceptions were made for the sale of 
metheglin, currant wine, cherry wine and cider 
made by the inn-keepers. At each tavern at 
leatt two spare beds for guests with good and 
sufficient sheeting and covering were to be 
kept in accordance with the demands of the 
law. It was also required that each tavern 
keeper should provide good and sufficient 
stabling and provender for four horses or cat- 
tle, and hay and pasturage in summer. No 
liquors were allowed to be sold to apprentices, 
servants and slaves. No inn-keeper could col- 
lect a debt higher than 10 shillings for liquors 
sold to travelers. Each keeper of an inn or 
tavern was required 30 days after receiving 
license to put up and Sx a proper sign on or 
adjacent to the front of his house, with his 
name thereon. Every month's neglect in 
(lomplylng with this provision of the law sub- 

jected the inn-keeper to the payment of 10 
shillings to the state. 


In 1788 the following persons were recom- 
mended as officers to form a new regiment 
within the district of Hoosick and Stephen- 

Thomas Sickels, lieutenant-colonel command- 
ing ; Pet«r Van l^ensselaer, first major ; Samuel 
Shaw, second major. 


Zacbarias W. Sickles, captain ; Henry Brown, 
lieutenant ; Samuel Latham, ensign. 

Thomas Palmer, captain ; Luke Green, lieuten- 
ant ; Joshua Whiteford, ensi^, 


Jacob Van Valltenburgh, captain ; Isaac Turner, 
lieutenant ; Henry Lansing, ensign. 

David Brown, captain ; John Van Wormer, lieu- 
tenant : Thomas Powell, ensign. 

Jacob Van Ness, captain ; Zach. G. Sickels, lieu- 
tenant ; Juhn Waldo, jr., ensign. 

Eldred Fonda, captain ; -Toseph Brown, lieuten- 
ant ; Gideon Olmstead. ensign. 

Charles Green, captain ; Eandall Spencer, lieu- 
tenant; John Green, ensign. 

HezeWah Hull, captain ; Clark Bly, lieutenant ; 
Jonathan Green, ensign. 

Matthew I?andall, captain: Jacob Lampman, 
lieutenant ; Abel Lewis, ensign. 

Isaac Gates, captain ; John Wilkinson, lieuten- 
ant ; WilUam Jones, ensign. 


James Sickels, adjutant ; Oliver Hull, quarter- 
master ; David Van Bensselaer, paymaster ; Jo- 
seph Spencer, surgeon ; Job Tripp, surgeon's 

Another paper bearing date of 1788 contains 
the names of the following officers, and the sub- 
joined general order : 

Peter Van Rensselaer, lieutenant colonel com- 

Jonathan Niles, major in General Henry K. Van 
Kensselaer's brigade, to rank from the 22d of 
Karch 17ES inclusive. 

James Jones and Hosea Moffit, captains. 


IchaWd Cone, captain ; KeubenDelanse, lieuten- 
ant ; Henry Piatt, ensign. 

John Whjlie. captain ; Benjamin Saokett, lieu- 
tenant ; Nathaniel Spring, ensign. 

Daniel Brown, captain ; Joseph Sogers, jr., lieu- 
tenant ; Libbeus Biockway, ensign. 

Moses Wordin, captain ; Elemander Cone, lieu- 
tenant ; Elisha hteward, ensign. 

Daniel Gray, captain ; Jeremiah Griffith, lieuten- 
ant; Stephen Maxson, jr., ensign. 

Bennoni Moon, captam ; Wyat Rose, lieutenant : 
Roger Jones, ensign. 

Oeneral orders JTeto Tork: His excellency, the 
commander in chief, is pleased to direct that the 
companies heretofore commanded by Lieut.-CoL 
Peter Van Rensselaer while a major be now con- 
sidered as a regiment and formed accordingly. 

Those commanded by Major Samuel Shaw and 
those oqjnmanded by Major Jonathan Niles, while 
captains, be considered as separate battalions and 
for their accommodation, until further orders, 
parade on their respective battalion parades. 

The election returns of that part of Albany 
county now embraced in the county of Rensse- 



laer, when opened on the 28th of April, 1789, 

for governor, showed the following vote : 

Tomru. CUnton. Kjle*. 

Hooslck 34 S3 

StephentowQ 21 its 

ReDBBelaerwfCk 23 ISS 

Schagbtlcoke 7 54 

Plttstown 58 31 

At this period an election in the manor of 
Rensselaerwyck frequently occupied an entire 
week, Sunday being excepted. Gov. CUnton 
received at this election a majority in Ulster 
county, which gave him 1039 out of 1145 votes 

When the legislature assembled at Albany 
Gov. Clinton opened the session with a message 
which made only 33 lines in a newspaper. 

CENSUS OF 1790. 

The population of that part of the manor of 

Rensselaerwyck, which now forms Rensselaer 

county, was in 1790 the following : 

Males. Fefmales. Staves. Total. 

Kensselaerwyck 3,972 3.504 572 8,048 

Stephentown 3,652 3,362 28 7,042 

Hooslck 1,542 1,455 36 3,033 

Schagbtlcoke 786 694 137 1,617 

Plttstown..., 1,260 1,134 31 2,425 


Peculiar to people living away from the more 
animated centres of busy life, such as large 
cities and manufacturing towns, the scattered 
inhabitants of the manor of Rensselaerwyck 
early associated themselves together in relig- 
ious societies, and built themselves convenient 
and commodious meeting-houses at accessible 
points along the public roads or thickly settled 
ueghborhoods. It is the history of these differ- 
ent organizations which has preserved the 
names of the more prominent and active men 
of the localities where churches were erected 
and divine worship statedly held. 


For the purpose of organizing a society of 
Baptists a deputation of members of certain 
Baptist churches of Rhode Island and Con- 
necticut met at Little Hoosick, now Stephen- 
town Center, on the 13th of September, 1783. 
Among the persons forming the first member- 
ship of the society were Hezekiah Hull, Dorcas 
Hull, Benajah Corpe, Margaret Corpe, John 
Pool, Zerviah Pool, Wait Crum, Patience Crum 
and William Fanning. 

The Black river school house was for a great 
number of years the place where the members 
of the society statedly assembled for divine 
worship. In 1828 the building which was 
known as the " old Black river meeting house " 
was erected at a cost of about $1,000. This 
stmcture was afterward removed from its first 
site to the present one, when the old building 

was in 1858 enlarged and remodeled at a cost of 
about fl,500. 

On the 4th of September, 1858, the society 
became incorporated by the election of Joel 
Latham, George W. Weatherly and Thomas G. 
Carpenter as trustees of "the First Free-will 
Baptist Society of Stephentown." 

The following elders have served the church 
as pastors : Elders Benajah Corpe, 1785-97 ; 
John Allen, 1834-28 ; Samuel Dean, 183841 ; 
Isaiah B. Coleman, 1844-50; J. D. Waldron, 
1851-53; A. H. Miller, 1854-56; David Hyde, 
1859-63; J. Parkin, 1863-64; J. B. Randall, 
1866-73 ; E. B. Collins, 1875-76 ; and W. FnUer, 
1876-80. The church has about 45 members. 


This society was organized at Little Hoosick 
hollow, in the eastern part of Stephentown, 
March 20, 1793. Elder Nicholas Northrup was 
ordained its first pastor. He had the pastoral 
care of the society for about 35 years. Shortly 
after his removal to the West the congregation 
was broken up. In 1819 its membership was 



Early in the summer of 1795 steps were taken 
to organize this society. On the 19th of No- 
vember of that year Robert Niles was made the 
first elder of this church. The first meetings 
of the society were held at the house of Asa 
Burtch. A church building was erected about 
the year 1796. The society for the purpose of 
being incorporated held a meeting on the 4th 
of November, 1825, at v,hich Abel Tanner, 
Ephriam Pierce, John Russell, Rufus Sweet, 
Simeon G. Goodrich, Henry Stanton, William 
Kittel, jr., Erastus Brown and David Sweet 
were elected trustees of the " First Baptist 
church and society of Stephentown." 

The following pastors have been associated 
with the society since its organization : Elders 

Robert Niles, Harris, Matthew Jones, 

Daniel H. Grant, Elnathan Sweet, M. P. Favor 
and George H. Day. 


A Baptist society at the beginning of the 
present century, it appears, existed in the 
southwestern part of the town, having the 
designation, "The Union Baptist society." In 
the certificate of its incorporation, March 1, 
1804, it is declared that a meeting was held in 
the meeting-house of the society, and that 
Samuel Gale, James Harris and Joseph S. Gale 
were elected trustees. 


This religious society was organized on the 



14th day of November, 1829, in West Stephen- 
town, by the Rev. Andrew H. Miller. Josiah C. 
Humphrey, Calvin Coleman, Samuel Coleman, 
Isaiah B. Coleman, Clark Vary and Daniel 
Beers. The organization adopted the name of 
the Stephentown and Nassau Free Communion 
Baptist church. A commodious frame meeting 
house, seating about 500 persons, was erected 
at a cost of $2,500, on the town line of Stephen- 
town and Nassau, in 1829. The church was 
dedicated In November, 1829, the Revs. P. W. 
Lake, A. H. Miller and John Allen officiating. 
In 1877 the building was remodeled and a bell 
purchased at a cost of $1,400. This house of 
worship, which has a seating capacity for 
about 400 persons, was dedicated November 3, 
1877, the Revs. J. M. Langworthy. J. J. Hoag, j 
W. Fuller and I. B. Coleman taking part in the | 
dedicatory services. 

In accordance with the laws of the state, the 
society to be incorporated elected on the 19th 
day of November, 1831, the following persons 
as trustees : Jonathan DaboU, Isaiah B. Cole- 
man, Ephraim B. Kendall, Samuel Coleman, 
3d, and Benjamin Chase. The society adopted 
the name of "The First Free Communion Bap- 
tist Church." On the 6th of October, 1841, the 
name was changed to "Free Baptist Church." 
Subsequently it has been known as the " Free 
Will Baptist Church." The roll of the present 
membership of this church bears the names of 
192 persens. 

The following pastors have served this con- 
gregation : The Rev. A. H. Miller, 1829-1842 ; 
the Rev. J. D. Howe, 1842-'44 and the Rev. I. 
B. Coleman 1844 to date. 


Another organization of Baptists was formed 
in the southeastern part of the town in the 
early part of this century. On the 15th of Oc- 
tober a meeting was held at the usual place for 
divine worship, at which Philander Carpenter, 
Calvin P. Carpenter and Joshua B. Maxon were 
elected trustees of the Seventh Day Baptist 
society of Stephentown. The church of this 
society was erected in the extremf) southeast- 
em part of the town, a short distance west of 
the Massachusetts line. 


The first record preserved of this society's 
organization is found in the old church book : 

SEPTEMBBRTHE20, 1793.— Then the Presbyterian 
society of Stepnentown met agreeable to a law- 
ful puDlic notice given by William Boardmau and 
Jacob Wylie, elders. Tlie meeting then balloted 
for trustees, when the following gentlemen were 
chosen : William Boardman, John Wylie. Hosea 

In 1794 the session of the church, 
desiring an enrollment of the names 
of the persons belonging to the "two 
churches" that had united to form this one, 
the following names were furnished : James 
WJyiie, Joseph Huntington and William Board- 
man, elders: Hosea Meffitt, Widow Sarah 
Wylie, Mrs. Holmes, Mr. Brainard, William 
Dfclty, Andrew Hunter, Esther Graves, Ruth 
Doty, Mary Howard and Mrs. Mofatt.— 13. 

The first meeting house of this society was 
erected in 1794 on what was known as Presby- 
terian hill, at Stephentown Flats. In 18-36 the 
old building was torn down and a new one 
erected. On December 25, 1868, this building 
was destroyed by lire, on the site of which the 
present house of worship was erected. 

The church has at present about 75 members. 

The pulpit of this church was at first filled by 
stated supplies. These were : The Rev. John 
Warford, July, 1794. and the Rev. Samuel 
Sturges, June, 1799. 

The pastors of the church have been the 
Revs. Aaron Jordon Boage, November, 1800- 
January, 1809: John Younglove, July, 1806- 
June, 1816; Noah M. Wells, March, 1817; 
Jonas Coe, February, 181S-1821, (supply); 
Moses Hunter, February. 1821-1825 : Charles G. 
Finney, October, 1827-November, 1827, sup- 
ply) ; Edwards A. Beach, June, 1828-May 16, 
1834; Bowman Brown, March, 1835-April, 
1839, (supply): J. G. Hall, January, 1840; 
Hugh Carlile, 18*1-1842: Joshua B. Graves; 

Almon Underwood ; Gould : John Davis 

(two years) ; J. Northrup (one and a half 
years) ; John Hendricks ; Fayette Shepherd, 
March 1, 1850, (supply) ; M. C. Bronson, June 
23, 1850-February 10. 1858 (supply); Robert 
Day, June 1, 1838-May, 1860, (supply) ; John B. 
Shaw, July 12, lS60-April, 1865 ; Eber M. Rollo, 
April, 1865-September, 1874, (supply); A. G. 


This society was organized in the southwest^ 
em part of the town. On the Ist of March, 
1804, the members assembled at "the meet- 
ing house in the southwest part of Stephen- 
town," and for the purpose of incorpoiation, 
elected as trustees John W. Schermerhorn, 
Ebenezer Smith and Winthrop Root. 

The Baptist society formed a part of this 


A rehgious body known as the Congrega- 
tional church existed in the beginning of the 
century in the western part of Stephentown. 
For the purpose of being incorporated a meet- 
ing was held by the members and the following 



persons elected trustees : Jonathan Emmons, 
jr., Abijah WiUmot and Amaziah Bailey. 


This society was organized in 1868 in the 
Ciuistian chapel, near the Stephentown depot. 
In 1870-71, a frame house of worship was 
erected at Stephentown Flats, which was ded- 
icated on the 4th of April, 1871, the Rev. C. F. 
Bvirdick, presiding elder of the Troy district, 
officiating. The church, which has a seating 
capacity for about 300 persons, cost 83,243.41. 
The church has a membership of 78 persons. 

The following persons have been pastors of 
the church : The Rev. George Hudson, 1868-70; 
the Rev. E. A. Braman, 1871 ; the Revs. E. A. 
Braman and Francis Booth, 1872: the Rev. 
Nathan C. Hill, 1873 ; the Rev. W. F. Sanford, 
1874-75; the Rev. George \V. Hughes, 1876; 
the Rev. George Hudson, 1877-79 ; and the Rev. 
W. A. Phelps, to date. 

The society was incorporated June 4, 1873, at 
which time a meeting was held and the follow- 
ing persons elected trustees : John F. Blinn, 
James H. Taylor, William D. Wally, Alvah 
Hunt and William Kittel. 


About five years ago, through the active zeal 
of several Roman Catholic priests, a small Bo- 
man Catholic congregation was organized in 
Stephentown. Shortly afterwards a church 
was erected. On the 14th of October, 1875, 
Hugh Lindsey and Cornelius McFeeley were 
appointed trustees of St. Joseph's Roman 
Catholic church. 


The Harlem extension railroad, which ex- 
tends through the towns of Stephentown, Ber- 
lin, Petersburgh and Hoosick, originated from 
the consolidation of the Lebanon Springs rail- 
road and the Bennington and Rutland railroad, 
April 23, 1870, when the articles of agreement 
were filed. The Lebanon Springs railroad filed 
its articles March 25, 1865. The New York and 
Harlem railroad company was formed April 2. 
1881. The Harlem extension railroad forms a 
very important line from New York city to 
Vermont and Canada. The length of the road 
is 114 miles. 


The village of Stephentown, near the centre 
of the town, is situated ou the Einderhook 
creek, and is a station of the Harlem Extension 
railroad. In 1804 a postofiice was established 
at this place, of which Nathan Howard was the 
first postmaster. In the " State Gazetteer" of 
1836, Stephentown, Stephentown Centre and 

Stephentown Flats are apparently described as 
one place, as follows : 

Stephentown Hollow or Centre, 21 miles from 
Troy and Albany, contains four woolen factories, 
ODe grist and three saw mills, one cotton factory, 
three wool carding machines, one tanneiy, three 
stores, one tavern, one Presbyterian and two Bap- 
tist churches, and from 50 to 60 dwellings. 

Stephentown at present has a population of 
about 100, contains about 45 buildings, among 
which are the Baptist church, the Roman 
Catholic church, the Christian chapel, and the 
school house of district No. 4. The business 
interests of the place comprise two taverns, 
four stores, one tinshop, two wagon maker 
shops, a blacksmith shop and a saw mill. 


Stephentown Flats is a hamlet on the Kinder- 
hook creek about a mile southwest of the 
village of Stephentown. The place embraces 
about 35 buildings, among which is the Presby- 
terian and the Methodist Episcopal churches. 
It has a hotel, a saw mill, a grist mill and sev- 
eral vacant mill buildings. 


This hamlet, formerly known as Mechanio- 
ville, is situated in the center of the town, on 
the Black river. A postofflce was established 
here in December, 1878, of which Ezra Chase 
since then has been postmaster. The place 
comprises about 43 buildings, which include the 
Free Will Baptist church and the schoolhouse 
of district No. 10. It has a saw mill, a grist 
mill, a store andseveral shops. The population 
of the place is 185. 


This hamlet is situated in the northeastern 
part of the town. About the year 1824 a post- 
offlce was established here, of which Lawrence 
Van Valkenburgh was first postmaster. In 
1836 the place is spoken of as being 20 miles 
from Troy, having a woolen factory, a store, a 
tavern and about 20 dwellings, near Black 
Brook, which drives several saw mills and two 
extensive turning establishments. At present 
there is a store at this point and about 25 


This hamlet is in the southern part of the 
town. In 1836 it is mentioned as being 24 miles 
from Troy, on the Kinderhook creek, having a 
cotton tactory, a grist mill, two saw mills, a 
tannery, a store, a tavern and 30 dwellings. 
There is a postofflce at this point, of which 
William Hand is postmaster. 


This hamlet is in the northwestern part of 
the town, a short distance east of the boundary 



line of the town of Nassau. West Stephen- 
town, including Dunham's Hollow In the town 
of Nassau, contains within a radius of about 
a mile 65 buildings, among which is the Free- 
Will Baptist church. The business interests of 
the place comprise four stores, a postoffice, 
agricultural works, a furnace, a grist mill, two 
saw mills and four blacksmith shops. 


1790 6,795 11845 !i,548 

1800 4,988 1850 2.622 

ISIO 4,567 I 1855 2,397 

1S15 2.H40I1360 2,311 

1S80 2,592 1865 2,0a« 

1825 2,70.S|1870 2,133 

1830 2,716 I 1375 2,047 

1835 2,528 1 1880 1,986 

1840 2.753) 




Prominent Pioneer People — The Law Erecting the Town in 1812 — 
The Vicissitudes of a Man of Fortune — The Early Manufac- 
ture OF Glass in the Town — Establishment of the Rensselaer 
Glass Factory — The First Library Association in the Town — 
The Building of the Plank Road — Organization of Churches 
— Manufacturing Interests — Village History — Census. 

That portion of the manor of Rensselaerwyck 
which in the early part of the present century 
took by legislative enactment the name of 
Sandlake was shortly before the revolutionary 
war inhabited by a few Dutch and English 
speaking settlers. The date of each one's set- 
tlement is not easily determined, for the names 
of these pioneer people are mostly preserved 
by tradition, and only a small number of re- 
corded papers indicate when they first leased 
their farms from the patroon. 


Among the names remembered the following 
may be said to comprise those of the more 
prominent of the first settlers of Sandlake : 
Wynanf Van Alstyne, John Bowman, Abram 
Bristol, William Butts, John Carmichael, Philip 
Feller, Nicholas Fellows, Abram Frear, Philip 
Gardner, Job Gilbert, William Goslin, Elias 
Gregory, Stephen Gregory, Andreas Miller, 
Henry Miller, Henry Moul. Eleazer Peck, 
Ephraim Quimby, Michael Eykert, Frederick 
Shaver, Joseph H. Sipperly, Solomon Taylor, 
Andreas Weatherwax and Hendrick Young- 

It is said that Joshua Lockwood and William 
Carpenter built the first grist mill at Sand- 
lake in 176S. 

Most of these early farmers took up land in 
the vicinity of the several beautiful lakes or 
along the devious course of the Wynantskill. 
A great portion of the territory of the town 
formerly belonged to the town of Greenbush, 
and a part to the town of Berlin. 


By " an act to divide the towns of Greenbush 

and Berlin, in the county of Rensselaer, into 
three towns," passed by the legislature, June 
19, 1812, the town of Sandlake was created. In 
regard to the boundaries of the town the act 
reads : 

That from and after the first day of March next, 
all that part of the town of Greenbush, within the 
following homids to wit : Beginning at the north- 
west corner of the said town of Greenbush, and 
running; eastwardly, on the line between the towns 
of Troy and Greenbush, five miles; thence south 
17° 57' west, until it intersects the northerly hue 
of the town of Schodack ; thence westerly, on the 
hue between the towns of Schodack and Green- 
bush, until it intersects the line of the county of 
Albany, in the Hudson river, and thence up the 
river, on a line of the county of Albany, to the 
place of beginning, including all the islands in the 
said river lying nearest the east side thereof 
shall he considered as the town of Greenbush. * 
* * And that all the residue of the town of 
Greenbush, together with the three miles set off 
from the west end of Berlin, parallel to the present 
west line of said tovni, shall be erected into a new 
town, by the name of Sandlake, and that the first 
town meeting in said town shall be held at the 
dweUing house of Thomas Thompson in said town. 

In 1843 a part of the town of Greenbush was 
taken off, and on March 2, 1848, a portion sub- 
tracted to form the town of Poestenkill. The 
landscape of the town is picturesquely diversi- 
fied with several large lakes : Crooked, Martin's 
or Burden's, Glass and Sand lakes. The big 
Bowman, little Bowman and Eeichard's ponds 
are attractive bodies of water. The principal 
streams irrigating the town are the Wynants- 
kill and Tsatsawassa creek. The former is 
highly valued for its water power. The eastern 



part of the town is mountainous and thickly 


The first oflScers of the town elected in ac- 
accordance with the statute were : 

Supervisor, CalTin Thompson ; town clerk, David 
E. Gregory; assessors, Lawrence Van Alstyne, 
John Clint, Ezra Newton ; commissioners of high- 
ways, John Stevens, John North, Jacob Boyce ; 
overseers of the poor, Stephen Gregory, Lewis 
Bullock ; collector, Jonathan Ford ; constables, 
John Simebark, Jonathan Ford, Henry Lord ; 
school commissioners, Aretus Lyman, Joel Bnstol, 
Ellis Foster. 


Eady in the present century the establish- 
ment of glass works on the banks of Glass lake 
gave the town of Sandlake an important local 
industry. The small collection of houses that 
grew up about these works assumed the name 
of Rensselaer village, which is now designated 
Gla£s house. 

The history of these works properly begins 
about the year 1788, when Leonard de Neuf- 
ville, Jan Heefke and Ferdinand Waif ahert, the 
proprietors of the Dowesbourgh glass works, 
10 miles west of Albany, appealed to the people 
of the state of New York to sustain their man- 
ufacture of glass. They set forth that the state 
was annually drained of £30,000 for this neces- 
sary article which they could manufacture and 
which excelled in quality English glass. These 
works were visited in 1788 by Elkauah Wat- 
son. His acquaintance with the founder of 
this enterprise gave him the following informa- 
tion, which his son published in the memoirs 
of his father. 

life's vicissitudes. 

Elkanah Watson proceeded eight miles from 
Albany to the new glass house erected by John 
de NeufvUle, a former correspondent of his, 
and once a citizen of Amsterdam. John de 
Neuf ville had been the negotiator of the treaty 
made by Holland with the American congress, 
which primarily produced the war between the 
former and England, in 1751. He commenced 
business with a hereditary capital of half a 
miUion sterling, and lived in Amsterdam at his 
country seat in the highest affluence and splen- 
dor. He sacrificed his fortune by his attach- 
ment to the cause of American independence. 
The fragments of his estate be invested in the 
enterprise of establishing this glass factory. 
Elkanah Watson found this gentleman, born to 
affluence, living in a solitary place, occupying 
a miserable log cabin, furnished with a single 
deal table and two common chairs, destitute of 
the ordinary comforts of life. 


In 1795 it appears that the works erected by 
De Neufville had become the property of Jere- 
miah Van Rensselaer, Elkanah Watson, Robert 
MacGregor and Thomas and Samuel Mather, 
andbadbeen carried on for some time under the 
firm name of MacGregor & Co. On the 7th of 
April of that year the partnership was dissolved 
and a new company formed under the name of 
Thomas Mather & Co. 

In February, 1796, the state legislature passed 
an act for the encouragement of the Albany 
glass factory. The proprietors of the glass 
works at this time were .Jeremiah Van Rens- 
selaer, John Saunders, Abraham Ten Eyck, 
Elkanah Watson, Frederick A. de Zeng, K. K. 
Van Rensselaer, Douw Fonda, Walter Cochran 
and Samuel Mather. 


On the 28th of February, 18D6, the legislature 
passed "An act to incorporate the stockholders 
of the Rensselaer glass factory." The pream- 
ble of the act recites that " whereas Jeremiah 
Van Bensselaer, Elisha Jenkins, Elkanah 
Watson, George Pearson, James Kane, 
Thomas Frothingham, Frederick Jenkins, 
Rensselaer Havens and Francis Bloodgood have 
associated for the purpose of establishing a 
glass factory in the county of Rensseiaer, in 
this state," that the request of the petitioners 
be granted. The capital stock, it was provided, 
of the company should not exceed 100 shares 
and each share $1,U00. From the patroon of 
the manor of Rensselaerwyck the company ob- 
tained a lare;e tract of land lying about the 
shares of Glass lake and upon a portion of it, 
adjacent to the lake, erected a number of build- 
ings necessary for the manufacture of glass. 
It is related that the company in order to secure 
experienced workmen sent William Richmond, 
a Scotchman, to England, where dressed as a 
beggar, he traveled as a bag-pipe player and 
visited the principal glass manufacturing dis- 
tricts and engaged the number of employes de- 
sired. Major Thomas Frothingham, who bad 
served as an olficer during the revolutionary 
war, was made general superintendent of the 
works. Under his efficient management the 
establishment obtained considerable popularity 
for the superior quality of its glass. The gen- 
eral appreciation in which Major Frothingham's 
personal abilities were held by the public led to 
his election as a member of the state legisla- 
ture in 1820-22, at which time he very ably repre- 
sented the district as a senator. The Rensselaer 
glass factory gave employment to a large num- 
ber of workmen, for whom comfortable dwell- 
ings were erected in the immediate vicinity of 



the works. The company coutinued to manu- 
factm'e a fine quality of window glass until 
1816, when the cylinder works were destroyed 
by fire, which was so gi'eat a loss to the pro- 
prietors that they became pecuniarily embar- 
rassed. " An act for the relief of the president 
and directors of the Rensselaer glass factory," 
was passed by the legislature, April 13, 1819. 
The bill states that " it was discovered that the 
business could not be prosecuted any further 
with a prospect of profit ; that heavy losses 
had already been incurred in the persevering 
efforts of the directors to render the business 
productive of seme benefit to the stockholders, 
and had therefore been abandoned." As the 
further prosecution of it would inevitably pro- 
duce still heavier losses the petitioners prayed 
that an act of the legislature might be passed 
authorizing them to dissolve the corporation, 
to sell the estate, pay their debts and make a 
distribution of their effects among the several 


Shortly after the passage of the act referred 
to, Nathan B. Crandall and Isaac B. Fox pur- 
chased the works and erected new buildings. 
This firm began the manufacture of cylinder 
glass, the former company having made crown 
and cylinder window glass. On the death of 
Nathan R. Crandall the manufacture of glass 
at this establishment was for a time discon- 
tinued. On March 11, 1825. the property was 
sold by Moses Warren, sheriff of Rensselaer 
county, to Richard J. Knowlson. 

On the 16th of April, 1830, the legislature 
passed " an act to incorporate the Rensselaer 
glass manufacturing company," by which 
Richard J. Knowlson, Isaac B. Fox, Daniel M. 
Gregory and such persons as thereafter might 
become stockholders of the said company were to 
be known by the name of ' ' The Rensselaer Glass 
manufacturing company. " For the purpose of 
making cylinder, window, crown and other 
glass ware, the capital stock was to be $50,000, 
shares $100 each. The subscription books were 
to be opened under the direction of Richard J. 
Knowlson, Daniel M. Gregory and Richard 
Spencer, jr. The affairs of the company were 
to be managed by five directors. About the 
year 1831 the firm of Knowlson & Schmeuiss 
began the manufacture of glass at this place, 
which it continued for more than a year. 

On the 1st of July, 1835, Richard J. Knowl- 
son sold the land and buildings formerly owned 
by the Rensselaer glass factory company to 
Francis Stadler, Joseph Stadler, Anthony Rush 
and Joseph Wetser, who took the name of 
Stadlers, Rush & Co., in the manufacture of 


glass at Rensselaer village. This firm becoming 
involved conveyed the property to Richard J. 
Knowlson and Isaac B. Fox, as trustees, May 7, 
1838, for the settlement of their liabilities. Sub- 
sequently, about the year 1839, A. R. & 8. H. 
Fox bewail again the manufacture of glass at 
this place, and continued the business until the 
year 1853, when the works were destroyed by 
fire and were not again rebuilt. The sand which 
first led the early manufacturers of glass to 
establish works at this place was found in time 
to be unsuited for the purposes desired, and for 
a number of years sand was obtained from 
Berkshire county, Mass. 


It appears that steps were early taken to pro- 
vide the people of a part of the town with a 
circulating library. On the second Tuesday in 
April, 1808, $100 having been subscribed for the 
establishment of a library, the members of the 
Sandlake library society assembled at the house 
of Thomas Thompson, and after making 
William Van Tress chairman of the meeting, 
elected Uriah M. Gregory, Joel Bristol, Stephen 
Gregory, Aretus LjTnau and Nathan R. Cran- 
dall trustees of the association. 


When a number of years ago the construc- 
tion of plank-roads attracted the atteniion of the 
pubhc, it was deemed judicious by those inter- 
ested in maintaining a good road between the 
city of Albany and village of Sandlake 
to obtain from the legislature the priv- 
ilege of building such a road. On the 
10th of April, 1S49, was passed "an act 
to allow the ijresident and directors of the east- 
ern turnpike to sell a part or all of their road, 
and to form a i>lank-road from Albany to Sand- 
lake." By this act, Erastus Corning, David V. 
N. Radcliffe, Samuel S. Fowler, Richard J. 
Knowlson, Gideon Butts, Evert van Alden, John 
DeFreest, James Dearstyne, DeWitt DeForest, 
George Cipperly, Wynant Younghans and their 
associates were constituted a company to con- 
struct and maintain a plank-road from the east 
side of the Hudson river opposite the city of 
Albany, through the town of Greenbush on the 
most eligible route to the Glass Factory village 
in the town of Sandlake. Although the planks 
of this road have almost all disappeared from 
the road-bed which were used in its construc- 
tion, the highway is still designated as the plank- 


The Sandlake union cemetery association 
was organized on the 7th of June, 1847, at the 
house of Calvin Sliter, and incorporated by the 
election of the following trustees : Calvin Sli- 



ter, Nathan Uphara, Solomon Gregory, Corne- 
lius Sohemerhorn, Richard J. Knowlson and 
Albert K. Fox. In 1840 WiUiam P. Van Rensse- 
laer conveyed to the Rensselaer burial-ground 
association three acres of land in the vicinity of 
Sliter's Corners. Another acre was in 1874 ob- 
tained from Eben W. Carmichael, which, with 
the former ground, was neatly laid out into a 
rural cemetery. 

The old burial ground about a mile south of 
the viUa!?e of West Sandlake, and the grave- 
yard in the rear of Zion's Lutheran church, in 
the village, contain the tombs of many of the 
first settlers of the western part of the town of 


The eariiest religious society formed in that 
part of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, now the 
town of Sandlake, was an organization of 
Lutherans known as the congregation of the 
church ^called Zion at Rensselaerwyck. This 
society was incorporated on the 25th day of 
■January, 1790. On that day Andreas "Weafher- 
wax and Andreas Miller were elected trustees of 
Zion church. The .ludges of election were Henry 
Moeller, Henry Miller and Philip Feller. The 
meeting house was built of logs, on a piece of 
land given to the congregation by Stephen Van 
Rensselaer. The site of this old building, 
which was removed about the year 1815, is still 
pointed out, it being a part of the present farm 
of Henry S. Traver. The membership of Zion 
church became the basis of the organization of 
the First Lutheran church of West Sandlake. 


This society was organized in 1837. For the 
purpose of being incorporated the male mem- 
bers of the congregation on the 8th of May, 
1839, assembled at the house of John Cipperly 
and there elected Wynant Younghans, Ber- 
nard Uline, Bernard U. Sharp, John Cipperly 
and John P. Shaver, trustees of " The Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church of Sandlake." For a 
time after the organization of this society di- 
vine worship was held by it at the house of 
Bernard Uline. On the 16th of the same 
month of that year the trustees made pur- 
chase of a piece of ground whereon to erect a 
church edifice, which was subsequently built 
and dedicated October 5. 1839. In 1864 the 
building was remodeled at a cost of about 
$2,500, and was rededicated January 19, 1865. 
The present roll of the membership of this 
church embraces the names of 190 persons. 

The pastors who have served this congrega- 
tion since its organization have been the Rev. 
John D. Lawyer, 1837 ; the Rev. Jesse 8. Robin- 

son, 1838-39; the Rev. Isaac Kimball, 1839- 
40; the Rev. H. L. Dox, 1841-50; the Rev. 
Nicholas Van Alstyne, 1850-61 ; and the Rev. 
M. W. Empie, July 1, 1861, to date. 


A society of German Lutherans was organ- 
ized in East Sandlake, in school district No. 
11, in 1865, by the Rev. F.Heinle. The old 
wooden Baptist church, north of the school 
house, near big Bowman pond, was first used 
by this congregation for divine worship, in July 
1865. which, on the first Sunday in August, was 
dedicated with appropriate services. The 
building cost about $500, and has a seating ca- 
pacity for about 300 persons. The church has 
80 members. The following have been the 
pastors of this church : The Revs. F. Heinle, 
D. Bruno, F. A. Sydaw, and the present pas- 
tor, the Rev. George Vetter. 


This religious association was organized in 
1845 at the present parsonage, at that time the 
old Lutheran church, by the Rev. J. G. Marg- 
quart, Philip Young, Andrew Schafer, Philip 
Schwartz, John Scheer and John Schuster. In 
1849 the old wooden schoolhouse, erected in 
1840, was dedicated as a house of worship, the 
Rev. R. J. Derrick officiating. In 1866 the 
present frame church edifice was erected at a 
cost of about S;7,000, which has a seating 
capacity for about 800 persons. In October of 
the same year it was dedicated by Bishop J. J. 

On the 27th of February, 1867, the society 
became incorporated by the election of John 
Wagner, Andrew Schafer and John Scheer as 
trustees of " The Salem church of the village 
of West Sandlake." The church has 
at present 160 members. The following 
pastors have had charge of this church : 
The Revs. J. G. Margquart, 1845-46 ; M. Laner, 
1847-48; J. Wagner, 1849-.50 ; R. J. Derrick, 
1851-52 ; D. Fisher, 1853-54 : L. Jacobi, 1854- 
53 ; George Eckhard, 1856-5T ; G. J. Grenze- 
bach, 18o8-.'59; F. Lohmeyer, 1860-61; C. F. 
Boiler, 1863-63 ; H. Fisher, 1864 ; W. Mentz, 
186.5-66 ; C. F. Scheopflins, 1867-68 ; M. Yanch, 
1869-70 ; J. G. Seigrist, 1871-73 ; A. Luescher, 
1873-75 ; C. F. Stube, 1876-78 ; and A. Schlenk, 


Among the early religious societies of which 
the inhabitants of the town of Sandlake were 
members, was the congregation known as 
" The Wynants and Foestenkill True Dutch Re- 



formed Protestant church in the towBS of 
Greenbush and Sandlake." On the 17th of May, 
1824, the members of this church assembled at 
the usual place of divine worship, in the town 
Sandlake, and elected as trustees William W. 
Cooper, Moses P. B. Bloomendale and Coonrad 
Cooper for the purpose of being incorporated. 
On the 28th of June, 1825, the name of the 
church was changed to " The True Reformed 
Dutch church of Wynants and Poestenkill in 
the county of Rensselaer." 


A religious organization known as the Pro- 
testant society was formed at the house of 
Stephen Gregory on the 7th of January, 1805. 
For the purpose of incorporation the associa- 
tion elected Henry Withy, Stephen Gregory, 
John Stephens, Daniel Bristol, Wm. Van Trass 
and Samuel Hammond trustees. A seal was 
adopted, having a representation of an altar, 
two doves and the motto •' Unite" engraved 
upon it. 


The First Presbyterian society in Sandlake 
was organized on the 21st of December, 1808. 
The Presbyterian people of Sandlake uniting 
with the members of the Congregational church 
of Nassau formed a congregation of 35 mem- 
bers, which took the name of the First Presby- 
terian church of Greenbush, before a portion of 
the town of Greenbush, in 1812, became a part 
of the town of Sandlake. When the town of 
Sandlake was erected the society was called the 
First Presbyterian church of Sandlake. The 
present frame house of worship was erected 
near Sliter's Corners in 1835. The church now 
belonging to the Baptist congregation at Sand- 
lake was previous to this year, 1835, wor- 
shiped in by this society, the building 
then being known as the Union church. 
The society was incorporated on the 28th of 
February, 1826, by the election of Scott Vlning, 
Calvin Thompson, Stephen Gregory, Silas 
Willmot, Gilbert Bailey and Uriah Gregory as 
trustees of the " First Presbyterian society of 
the town of Sandlake." The church has at 
present 62 members. The church has had the 
following pastors : The Revs. John Keyes, 

1808-12 ; Brown ; Perry ; John Knill ; 

William Glynn ; Lummis ; Metcalf ; 

Woodbury ; John Younglove, 1818-24 ; 

Ezra D. Kinney, 1835-30; Thomas Wickes, 
1831-32 ; Gardner Hayden, 1832-34 ; Isaac Fos- 
ter, 1835-36, supply ; McDowell, 1836-37 ; 

Thomas J. Haswell, 1838-39; John Davis, 
1840-43 ; John Sessions, 1843-47 ; Chauncey H. 
Hubbard, 1847-50; Eber M. RoUo, 1851-54; 
Charles Doolittle, 1855-59 ; John P. Cushmac, 

! 1859-62 ; Andrew MoMuUeu, 1863-64 ; Eber M. 
Rollo, 1865; Albert C. Bishop, 1865-75; and 
James P. Viele, May, 1876, to date. 


The first Baptist society of Sandlake secured 
its incorporation by electing on the 18th of 
March, 1826, Lockwood Butts, William King 
and Nathan Barber trustees. The society as- 
sumed the name nf the First Baptist church in 
the town of Sandlake. This congregation 
worshiped in the Union meeting house, at 
Sandlake, now known as Averill. 


The society which is now known as the Bap- 
tist church of Sandlake was organized in 1831 
by Isaac B. Fox, Joseph Gregory, A. V. P. 
Gregory, R. P. Whipple, Albert K. Fox, and 13 
other persons. This congregation, in connec- 
tion with the Presbyterians, held divine services 
in the Union meeting house, which was erected 
and dedicated in 1805, the Rev. Mr. Woodbridge 
performing the dedicatory services. This build- 
ing has a seating capacity for about 500 persons, 
and cost about $3,000. It became the sole 
property of the Baptist society some years sub- 
sequent to the organization of this congrega- 
tion. It was remodeled in 1843 at an expense 
of about $2,000, and in 1862, at about the same 

On the 13th of July, 1835, the members of the 
Second Baptist society met at their meeting 
house, and for the purpose of being incorpo- 
rated elected Stephen Gregory, Joseph Gregorj', 
Abraham V. P. Gregory, Isaac B. Fox, Charles 
H. Gregory and Henry L. Wynants trustees. 
The church has at present 120 members. 

The pastors and supplies of the church have 
been the Revs. Calvin C. Williams, 1833-33 ; 

Orrin Dodge, 1834-37 ; Barker, 1837 ; E. D. 

Turner, 1837-39 ; Merritt House, 1840-41 ; Abel 
Brown, 1841-42; William I. Loomls, 1843-46 ; 
E. G. Perry, 1846-1850 ; J. B. Pixley, 1850-51 ; 
Alexander Milne. 1851; WUliam W. AUen, 
1855-58 ; Daniel Robinson, 1858-62 ; George W. 
Demers, 1863-65 ; Ezra D. Simmons, 1865-68 ; 
Reuben H. Weeks, 1869-80. 


A society of Methodists was early formed in 
the vicinity of West Sandlake. About the 
year 1825 a small house of worship was erected 
by the followers of Wesley which took the 
name of Hedding chapel. The Rev. Samuel 
Howat was among the first ministers who 
watched over the spiritual interests of this so- 
ciety. A meeting was held on the 4th of De- 
cember, 1826, in the chapel, for the purpose of 
incorporating the congregation, at which 



William Mott, ■William M. Martin, Benjamin 
Sibley, jr., and Henry Moul were elected trus- 
tees of the Methodist Episcopal Hedding chapel 
society. About the year 1845 a larger and more 
convenient meeting house was erected in the 
Tillage of West Sandlake, which is still used 
by the society as a house of worship. 

A second certificate of incorporation was 
secured in 1850 by this society, which on the 
13th of May of that year elected William R. 
Mott, Solomon Coon, Samuel Weatherwax, 
Henry Moul, Henry Weatherwax, Jacob 
Ostranderand George Uline "trustees of the 
Methodist Episcopal church of West Sand- 

The following ministers have had this con- 
gregation under their charge since 1836 : The 
Revs. Asa Hand, 1836 ; D. Stevens, 1838 ; D. 

Starks, 1840; Hancock, 1842; J. Earns. 

1847 ; Jonn Grove, 1850 ; John Chase, 1853 ; 
P. P. narrower, 1855 ; William Smith, ia5S ; 
W. F. Hend, 1861 ; Merrick Bates, 1863 ; J. D. 
Bennham, 1865 ; J. W. Quinland, 1868 ; S. D. 
Elliott, 1871 ; R. Patterson, 1872 ; B. O Meeker, 
1875 ; J. B. Sylvester, 1876 ; C. M. Clark, 1877 ; E. 
Marsh, 1878. 

The church has on its roll of membership 
the names of 100 persons. 


A society of Methodists was organized 
about the year 1830, at Oak hill, near the centre 
of the town. A meeting of the members of 
the congregation was held at the house of Cy- 
renius Finch, on the 30th of April, 1831, at 
which the Rev. John North was present. The 
following persons were elected trustees : The 
Rev. John North, Andrew A. Smith, Lewis 
Finch, Adam Feathers and John W. Belknap. 


Another society of the followers of John 
Wesley was organized in the town, which body 
held divine worship in the school house of dis- 
trict No. 14. To be incorporated the members 
of this congregation, which was served by min- 
isters of the Chatham circuit, assembled at the 
school house, and there elected the Rev. John 
North, Sylvanus Baboock, Charles Dngar, 
Samuel H. Arnold and John McCann trustees 
of the Wesleyan chapel. 


The three congregations of Methodists, one 
at Sandlake village, (Averill,) one at Glass 
House, and one known as Clark's chapel in the 
town of Sohodack, have been consolidated into 
a charge and the resident pastor at Sandlake 
has them under his care. The congregation at 
Glass House embraces about 50 members. This 

society had a church at this point about the year 
1830. Clark's chapel was erected shortly after 
this date. The congregation was connected for 
a time with the charge at Nassau village, sub- 
sequently with the Glass House church, and 
latterly with the Sandlake charge. There are 
about l.TO persons connected with this church. 
Olive chapel was erected at Sandlake village 
about the year 1874, at an expense of about 
$2,500. It was first associated as a charge with 
the church at West Sandlake, but In 1878 it was 
connected with the Sandlake charge. The Rev. 
Wm. W. Witney was the first pastor of this 
church. The roll of membership of the con- 
gregation bears S4 names. 


This church originated about the year 1868 
when religious services were first held at the 
house of M. Cusack, by the Rev. H. Hopkins of 
St. Francis Roman Catholic church of Troy. 
In June. 1869 it was decided that a small church 
should be erected, and the work of building was 
shortly afterwards commenced on a lot pre- 
sented by J. Aken. On the 4th of January, 1870, 
the church was incorporated under the name of 
"St. Henry's church." The first services were 
held in the new^ building on Sunday, April 17, 
1870. On the 16th of October, 1870, the church 
was dedicated by the Very Rev. V. G. Wadhams. 
The following priests have had charge of this 
church : The Revs. Father Gabriels, Father 
Wiebbe, Father Schoppe, and the Rev. Father 
Trieb, from May 31, 1879, to date. 


The village of Averill, which is situated on 
the Wynantskill, is a little north of the center 
of the town of Sandlake. The valuable water 
power of the Wynantskill at this point early at- 
tracted the attention of manufacturers. About 
the beginning of the century Thomas ThMup- 
son erected a saw mill and a forge on the stream 
running southward from the present village of 
Averill. A woolen mill was built about the 
year 1825 on the site of the former buildings, 
which was first operated by Coleman & Hem- 
ingway as a satinet factory. Subsequently the 
mill was purchased by John Kerr of Troy. It 
was afterward changed into a hosiery mill by 
Hezekiah C. and George C. Arnold, who were 
associated with Daniel Wight in this branch 
of manufacture. This firm was succeeded by 
James Aken, and he in turn by the firm of 
Kidder & Aken. In 1871 the building was 
destroyed by fire. 

Where now is the hosiery mill operated by 
Nicholas T. Eane was, about the year 1823, a 
tannery belonging to Ephraim Whittaker. 



Subsequently it was successively owned by 
Caleb Finch, John Ladue, and Qershom Tabor. 
The tannery buildings were several times de- 
stroyed by fire. James Aken having purchased 
the property erected thereon a hosiery mill in 
1862. In 1873 James F. Aken and Jeptha P. 
Eidder leased it, and were succeeded a year 
afterward by Kidder & McCready, and they by 
Kidder & North. Subsequently Nicholas T. 
Eane purchased it of James Aken. It is known 
as the Aken hosiery mill, has five setts of 
machinery and giving employment to about 75 

About the year 1820 Aretus Lyman was run- 
ning a saw-mill where now is the Sandlake 
warp and yarn factory, owned and operated by 
I. McConihe & Co. A short distance south of 
the saw-mill was a grist-mill, which a number 
of years afterwards was changed to a plaster- 
mill. A second grist-mill was erected below 
this mill. Aretus Lyman and Stephen Gregory 
were for a number of years the owners of these 
mills. Coonradt Albridge erected at this point 
a cotton mill, where was manufactured cotton 
batting and yarn. On August 27, 1836, Daniel 
Wight, Hezekiah C. Arnold and Alfred Robin- 
son purchased from Aretus Lyman a grist- 
mill, in which they began the manufacture of 
satinet warps. In 1870 1. McConihe & Co. suc- 
ceeded to the ownership of the property. This 
firm employs about thirty-five persons in the 
manufacture of cotton warp. 

An old mill known as the cloth dressing fac- 
tory of John P. Albertson was in operation on 
this part of the Wynantskill as early as the 
year 1820. Where now is the Eagle hosiery 
mill was once the mill of Cornelius Schemer- 
horn, destroyed by fire in 1870. 

The site of the Beaverwyck hosiery mill, the 
property of Thomas Knowlson, was about the 
year 1835 occupied by the satinet mill of John 
Van Husen. For a time it was run as a grist 
mill by Arnold, Hunt & Wight. Subse- 
quently Andrew B. Knowlson purchased the 
property and fitted up the building as a hosiery 
mill, which in 1874 was destroyed by fire. The 
mill was rebuilt, and is now called the Beaver- 
wyck hosiery mill, and is in operation at 
present under the management of Andrew B. 

About the year 1860 a paper mill was erected 
on the Wynantskill, south of the former mills, 
by Staats D. Tompkins. In 1865 the property 
passed into the hands of Eugene and John W. 
Merwin. In March, 1875, Andrew J. Smart of 
Troy became the owner of the mill, who at 
present manufactures annually about 700 tons 
of straw paper. About the year 1836 the fur- 
nace of William Carmichael was built at this 

point. Here, also, at an early day was a cloth 
dressing factory. 

In 1836 the village of Sandlake is spoken of 
as being 10 miles from Troy, containing a Bap- 
tist and a Presbyterian church, a postoflice, 
two satinet factories, two cotton factories, a 
grist and a saw-mill, a furnace, a large tannery, 
a tavern, two stores and about 40 dwellings. 
The place now comprises about 100 houses, 
among which are the Baptist church, the Meth- 
odist Episcopal chapel and St. Henry's Roman 
Catholic church and the school house of dis- 
trict No. 7. The Sandlake collegiate institute 
was established here in 1852 by Wm. H. Scram. 
The school obtained an excellent reputation 
under the management of this well known 
educator of boys. The building is now re- 
modeled and is owned by Horatio F. Averill, 
being known as the Averill house. The busi- 
ness interests of the place besides the manu- 
factures already mentioned, include at present 
two hotels and several stores. 

The place which was until 1880 the western 
part of the village of Sandlake being given a 
postofflce by the government, received the 
designation of Averill. The pretty sheet of 
water known as Sand lake is at a short remove 
from the Averill house. 


The place known as Sliter's Corners, in the 
town of Sandlake, is now the village of Sand- 
lake, for here about the year 181.5 was estab- 
lished a postofflce by the name of Sandlake. 
The place contains about 40 buildings, among 
which is the Presbyterian church. The grounds 
of the Union cemetery are in the immediate 
vicinity. At this point is a hotel, two stores, 
an undertaker's shop, a carriage and a black- 
smith shop. The ofBce of the Mutual insur- 
ance association of Sandlake, PoestenkUl, 
Berlin and Stephentown is at this village. The 
association was organized March 21, 1878. The 
first directors were Joel B. Peck, Dr. E. W. 
Carmichael, Lewis W. AUendorph, John Vos- 
burgh, John M. Miller, John Miller, William 
Upham and Arthur M. Peck. The interests of 
the company are mutual. About 230 persons 
are members of the association. 


This place was early known as Rensselaer 
village when the Rensselaer glass factory was 
in operation on the banks of Glass lake. It is 
a short distance south of Sliter's Comers. 
There are about 30 buildings at this point, 
among which is a Methodist Episcopal church, 
the school house of district No. 8, and a hotel. 
It is mentioned in 1836 as being 12 mUes from 
Troy, having a Methodist church, a select 



school, a postoSBce, a glass manufactory 
making cylinder glass, a saw-mill, a tavern, 
two stores and 50 dwellings. 


This village, in the western part of the town, 
was early known by the name of Ullnes, in 
honor of Bernardt Ulino, who built the first 
house at this point. In 1S36 Ulines is 
referred to in the "State Gazetteer" as 
being seven miles from Troy, upon the 
Wynantskill, having a Lutheran and a 
Methodist Episcopal church, a grist and 
a saw mill, two stores, two taverns and about 
50 dwellings. A postofflee was established here 
about the year 1S:35. of which Frost 
Myers was the tirst postmaster. Suc- 
cessively the following persons have been 
his successors in office : Burton A. Thomas, 
Jacob Taylor, Samuel D. Seymour, Dr. Wm. H. 
Snyder, Jacob Wheeler and Elbert W. Moul. 
The village contains about 90 houses and a 
population of 40S. There are four churches 
in the place, two Lutheran, a Methodist Epis- 
copal and a German Evangelical. It has one 
hotel, four stores, a hosiery mill, a yarn fac- 

tory, two grist mills and a plow manufactory. 
The school house of district No. 4 is in the 
village. The hosiery mill of John H. Akin and 
John McLaren affords employment to about 40 
persons. The stocking yam factory of Albert 
Donaldson and William Uline is also an im- 
portant industry. 

The Lmllmaii Herald was issued in 1844, at 
West Sandlake, by the Rev. Henry L. Dox, pas- 
tor of the Second Lutheran church of the vil- 
lage. It was published for several years. 


This hamlet is situated in the southwestern 
part of the town. It comprises about a half- 
score of houses, a store, a blacksmith shop and 
a wagonmaker's shop. The postoffice was es- 
tablished here about the year 1852. William 
Stevens has been the postmaster for many 



.3,29311850 2,5Sfl 

.S,30a|lS55 2,588 

..3.4261 1860 2,S02 

.3,6561 1S65 2,606 

1S3S 3,840 1 1870.. 

1840 4.303 18T5 2,S72 

1845 4.291 llSSO 2,570 


On page h%, line It*, in first column, instead of "diameter," read circumference. 




Ministers' Names are not Indexed. 

See Churches. 

Abbott, Benjamin. . 



John M. . . . 


Matthias . . 


William P. 

Abecl, James 

Abrams, Anthony 

Acker, Solomon 

Ackhurst, James 

Adams, Edwin 


Jacob E 



R. G 


Adancourt, Francis 

Adriaen, Peter 

Adsit, John B 

Agan, Patrick 

Aiken, Benjamin 


James E 

Aken, James 

James F 

Akin, John H 


Albertsen, Hendrick 

Albertson, J. P 

Alden, John 

Allen, Amos 







Joseph H 




Alexander. Gilbert 


AUendorph, Lewis W 


Ambler, Peter 

Amidon, Cyrus 

Andrews, Lyman 

Anti-rent troubles 112, 113, 

Appel, Johannis 

Armstrong, Abner 



Robert 34, 

Archerly, Nathaniel 

Arnold, David 


George C 

Hezekiah C 27, 

Samuel H 


Arrand, Charles W 

Artcher, Michael 

Ash, pot and pearl 





18, 133 


37, 38, 41 











140, 141 


















94, 102 







, 114, 123 





, 140, 141 




140. 141 

, 140. 141 





101. 102 


Aulthuyser. Peler 72 

Austin, Joshua ,33 

Stephen 1O8 

.\verill 140 

Ayres, E. D 41 

Babcock & Hickok 41 

Babcock. John 111. 112 

Sylvanus 140 

Bachus. Hans 98 

Peter 98 

Backer, Jno 6 

J- K 60 

Storm 6 

Bacon, Penuel 63 

Bailey, Amaziah 122, 133 

Gilbert 139 

Samuel 129 

Stanton 98 

Baker, Alderman lOH 

Benjamin 81 

Clark 81 

Elisha 24 

Ezekiel 24, 66 

John 83 

Norman 93 

Remember 108 

William 24 

Baldwin, Israel P 24 

Ball, Erastus 86 

James H 24,122.123.126 

L. Chandler 84. 86 

Ballston .5:1 

Bancker, Flores 17,33,39,102,103 

Joshua Ill 38 

Banker, C. A 95 

Evert 6, .3:3. -13, 60 



Banks, Trov — 

Bank of Troy 

Central National 



First National 

Howard Trust 



Merchants and Mechanics . 


National Exchange 


Troy City 

Troy Exchange 

Troy Savings 

Troy Savings Company 


United National 

Bank of Lansingburgh 

D. Powers & Co 

First National, Hoosick Falls 

National Bank of Casileton 

Rensselaer County Bank 

Bannister, Jason 

Barber, John 








Bareatse, Regnier 43 

Barheyt, Jacobus 72, 103 

Jno 5 

Wouter 5, 71 

Barkar, Calvin 41 

George 108 

Harnett, Benjamin 84 

John 103 

Barney, John 20 

Barnhart, Henry 85 

Barrenger, Andre iv V 54 

Fred 55 

Fred. P 55 

Barry, Charles W 93 

Bartel, Andries 43 

Barton, Reuben 72 

Bassett, Ebenezar 125 

Bateman, Reuben 122 

Batestown 38 

Bath-on-the-Hudion 33, 54, 100 

Baucus, John A 67 

William 1 94 

Baucus & Co., Jamss 67 

Baum, Col. Frederick 79, 80, 81 

Bayard, Stephen N 44 

Becker, David 81 

Jeremiah L lOS 

Johannis 90 

Beckwith, Charles 24 

Lewis 24 

Beecker, Abraham 60 

Beckman, Christopher 103 

John 48 

JohnH 71,73 

Beem, Adam 101 

Beers, Daniel 132 

Bell, David 72 

J. D 109 

Joseph 72 

William 36 

Bemus, Daniel 24 

Benedict, Enoch 123 

George W 86 

Lyman 86 

Benenstukl, J 109 

Benn, David 101 

Bennett, Richard 63 

Benoway, Peter 60. 65 

Benson, H 94 

Benthouse, Obadiah 33 

Bentley, Caleb 117, 130 

Bergman, Johannes 103 

BerRn 120 

Berlin Center 120 

Berringer, J 108 

S 108 

Berry, Sidney 33 

Best, Jacob 98 

Betts, Benjamin 24 

James 18, 19 

Nathan 102, 103 

Thomas 102 

Bidwell, William 103, 104 

Bird, John 23 

Birdsall, Edward 115 

Birdsell, Z. P 103 

Bishop, Nathaniel 83 

Bissels, Adam 42 

Blaau, Abm 33 

Waldron 33 

Blanchard, Joseph 32 

Bleccker, John J 62,63 

Bleeker, Jno. R 35, 89 

Bleckman, H 36 

Blewer, George W 67 

William T 67 

Blinn, John F 133 

Bliss, David 24 

William P 67 

Bloodgood, Francis 136 

Bloomendale, Moses P. B 139 

Blooming Grove 54, 55 

Bly, Clark 119, 130 

Boardman, John 16 

Bogart, Isaac 33 

Boggs, J 33, 34 


Bonesteel, Lodowick }% 

Nicholas Igg 

Bostwick, Robert S ^ 

Bosworth, Benjamin 9j 

Nathaniel 81 

ParkerH 94 

Bondy, John M ^45 

Boundary line troubles 127, 128, 129 

Bourne, Ancel 93 

Bout, William F 43 

Bovie, Claes 6 

John 81 

Reykert 77 

Boyce, Joseph 62 

Boynton, William 94 

Boyntonville 95 

Brae, William 87 

Bradbury. Benjamin 45 

Bradley, William 22,39 

Bradt, Bernardus 85 

Daniel 77 

Francis 55 

Joakim 90 

Neiltje 69, 90 

Brainard 126 

Joseph 126 

Braman, Paul 117 

Brat, Storm 6 

Bratt, Albert 6, 13, 21, 101, 103 

Andres 6 

Barent Albertse 59, 101 

Daniel B 7, 62, 82 

David 62 

John 82 

Bray, Philip F 45 

Brayton, Gideon 129 

Brimmer, Daniel 115 

Godfrey 97, 117 

George 97 

John 97 

John G 97, 98 

Briggs, Tibbits 66 

William 81 

Brinkerhoff, Abm 33 

John 33 

Bristol, Abm 135 

Daniel 139 

Joel 137 

Breckenridge, James 128 

Breese, Garret S 83 

Henry 81 

John 25 

Breezing, John 33 

Brenanstuhl, Michael 112 

Breslin, John 66 

Brewer, Jonathan 33 

Brezee, Hendrick 43 

Brock, Benjamin 94 

Francis m 

Brockway, Libbeus 130 

Nathaniel 72 

Brook, Francis 112 

Jonathan 112 

Brooks, William ' 45 

Brookins, Wooster 25 

Brown, Daniel , \ 130 

David 7, 81, 130 

Erastus 131 

Henry M, 87, 119 130 

Jam" 83 

Jonathan 7, 8, 22, 37 

Joseph 66, 92, 130 

Martin S gg 

Penuel 34 

Roswell J gg 

sam"<;i :.::: 72,82 

Sy.lvanus 123 

William 34 

Brownell, Simeon 92 

Bnimagem, Thomas 73 

Brunswick Center ,,[ igg 

Brunswick, Town of . . . .9, 17, 25, 37, 101, 102. 108, 112 

Brust, George 103 

Bruster, Benjamin .'.'.'.".".'.'.'.' 34 102 

Bryan's Comers ' gg 

Bryan, Hiram C !!!!!!! 67 




Bum, Frans 98 

Bumham, Joshua 33 

Burnside, James 103 

John 103 

Thomas 1C3 

Burr, Jonathan 39, 41 

Burrell, Samuel 83 

Burrett, Ely 34,25 

Rufus A 24 

Burris, James 60 

Burt, Asa 38, 41 

Burtch, Asa 131 

Burton, G. W 67 

Bush, Abijah 120, 123 

John 121 

Buskirk's Bridge 88 

Buswell, William 48 

W. W 138 

Bryant, Lewis 66 

Budlong, Aaron 129 

Bucklin, Isaac 102 

Buckman, Abiel 74 

Buel, Clarence 30 

David 23 

Jr., David 25 

Elam 83 

Josiah 83 

Bull, Isaac 81 

Bullock, Lewis 138 

Burdeck, John 119 

Zebulon P 115 

Burdick, Aaron B 115 

Augustus 102 

Joseph 112 

Jr., Joseph 113 

Burch, Joseph 72 

Burger, Johannes 108 

Burgess, Jacob 24 

Burgoyne, Augustus 24 

Burk, John G 81 

Burke, John R 37 

Burlingame, Walter P 99 

Butler, Fred 8 

Patrick 66 

Butts, Gideon 137 

Lockwood 139 

William 135 

Caldwell, James 16,33 

Calkins, David 73 

Callender, David 33 

Callylean,J 109 

Campbell, Archibald 33 

Jacob 24 

James A 45 

John H 38 

S.D 74 

Campman, Michael 62 

Canfield, David 34,25 

Cannon, Le Grand 27 

Card, Stephen 98 

Carmichael, Eben W 138, 141 

John 135 

William 25,141 

Carney, John V 84 

Carpenter, Calvin P 132 

Daniel 18,93 

Isaac. 91 

Jr., John 25,37 

Joseph 129 

Philander 132 

Solomon 119 

Thomas G 131 

Walter 72 

William 135 

Carr, Caleb 33 

Joseph B 30 

William 33,34 

Cary, Zenas 29 

Case, Alexander 129 

Benjamin 40 

Daniel 66 

Jacob 81 

Jonathan 81, 83,83,87 

Joseph 25,86 

Cassj Job 81 

Castle, William 87 

Castleton 69, 74 

Caswell, John M 86 

Catlin, George 95 

Cevill, William 74 

Chace, Talman 81 

WilliamP 81,84 

Chambers, lohn M 37 

Joy 33 

Thomas 70 

Chamberlin, Edwin 41 

Chandler, Stephen 112 

Chapman, Benjamin 93 

Stephen 93 

Chase, Benjamin 132 

Ezra 138 

John 85 

Sylvester 112 

Cheever, Samuel e 45 

Cheney, C. A 86 

Chipman, John B 36 

Walter 38 

Choate, Francis 40 

Church, John 98 

Nathaniel 98 

Churches, Baptist — 

Freewill, Alps 124 

First, Bath 55 

First Day, Berlin 119 

Seventh Day, Berlin 118, 119 

First, East Nassau 124 

First, East Poestenkill 108 

First Freewill, East Poestenkill 109 

First, Greenbush 45 

First, Grafton 114 

First Freewill, Grafton 115 

First, Hoag's Corners 124 

First, Hoosick 82 

First , Hoosick Comers 82 

First, Hoosick Falls 82 

First, Hoosick Hollow 131 

First, Lansingburgh 40 

First, Nassau 124 

Second , Nassau 124 

First, Petersburgh 99 

First, Pittstown Corners 92 

First, Sandlake 139 

Second, Sandlake 139 

St. Peter's, Schodack 73 

First, Stephentown 131 

Seventh Day, Stephentown 132 

Union, Stephentown 131 

First Freewill, Stephent'n C'n'r 131 

First, Troy 21, 22 

Second, Troy 301 

North, Troy 29 

South, Troy 30 

Freewill, West Stephentown. . . 131 

First, West Hoosick 83 

Christian — 

Berlin 119 

Boyntonville 93 

Petersburgh 99 

Church of Christ, Poestenkill 109 

Troy 30 

Congregational — 

Greenbush 45 

Stephentown 132 

Troy 30 

Disciples — 

Eagle Mills 106 

Pittstown Comers 93 

Friends' Society — 

Pittstown 92 

Troy 30 

Evangelical Association— 

Safem, West Sandlake 138 

Lutheran — 

Evangelical, Bryan's Comers.. 67 

Gilead Ev'g'l, Cent. Bnmswick 66, 103 

Zion's, East Sandlake 138 

Evangelical, East Schodack ... 74 

St. John's, Melrose 66 

Evangelical, Poestenkill 108, 109 

Raymertown 92 

Zion, South Berlin 120 

Trinity, Troy «> 




C burches — continued. 

Lutheran — page 

First, West Sandlake 138 

Second, West Sandlake 138 

Zion, West Sandlake 138 

Liberal Religious— 

Mapleton 85 

Methodist Episcopal — 

Olive Chapel, Averill 140 

Bath 55 

Free, Bath 55 

Berlin 119 

Boyntonville fti 

Brainard . 125 

Buskirk's Bridge 85 

Castleton 73 

Cooksborough 93 

Center Brunswick 104 

Dunham Hollow 125 

Eagle Mills 105 

East Brunswick 105 

East Greenbush 51 

East Nassau 125 

East Pittstown 94 

Glass House 140 

Grant's Hollow 67 

Grafton Center 115 

First, Greenbush 45 

Hart's Falls 66 

Lansingrburgh 19 

Free, Lansinj^burgh 20 

African, Lansingburgh 21 

Nassau 125 

North Hoosick 84 

North Petersburgh 99 

Wesley Chapel, Oak Hill 140 

Pittstown 94 

Pittstown Corners 94 

Poestenkill 109 

Free, Quackenkill 115 

Schaghticoke Hill ti" 

Schodack . 140 

South Petersburgh 99 

Tomhannock 93 

State Street, Troy 24, 25 

North Second Street. Troy .... 30 

Levings Chapel, " 30 

Zion, " ... 30 

Third Street, "... 30 

Congress Street, '" 30 

Vail Avenue, " 30 

Pawling Avenue. " ... 30 

German " 30 

Valley Falls 94 

Walloomsac 84 

West Sandlake 139, 140 

Alps 124 

Brunswick 103 

EasuNassau 124 

Greenbush 45 

Hoosick Falls ^3 

Johnsonville 92 

First, LansinjGfburgh 39 

Second, L;insmgburgh 40 

Nassau 124 

Pittstown 91.92 

Sandlake 139 

Schaghticoke 66 

Union, Stephentown 132 

Stephentown Flats 132 

Tomhannock 92 

First, Troy 20,26,30 

Second, '' 29,30 

Third, *' .^ 30 

Second St., ■■' 30 

United, " 30 

Liberty, " 30 

Park, '* 30 

Woodside, " 30 

Oakwood, ' 30 

Ninth, " 30 

Westminster," 30 

Memorial, " 30 

Protestant Episcopal — 

Church of Messiah, Greenbush, 45 

Epiphany, *■' 45 

Trinity, Hart's Falis 66 

Tibbits, Hoosick Corners 84 

St. Marks, Hoosick Falls 83 

S. Paul's, Johnsonville 94 

Trinity. Lansingburgh 39 

St. Paul's, Troy 23, 30 

St. John's, '' 29,30 

Christ Church, " 30 

Church of Holy Cross, Troy. . . 30 

St. Luke's, "... 30 

Church of Ascension, "... 30 

St. Paul's Free Chapel, "... 30 

Protestant Society, Sandlake 139 

Protestant Reformed Dutch — 

Blooming Grove 55 

Castleton 74 

Greenbush 48 

Lansingburgh 39 

Nassau 124 

Pittstown 91 

Sanckovck 81 

Sandlake 138, 139 

Schaghticoke 64, 65 

Schodack 72 

Schodack Landing 73 

Tiossiook 81 

Wynantskill 55 

Roman Catholic— 

St. Henry's, Averill 140 

Buskirk's Bridge 85 

St. John's, Greenbush 45 

Hart's Falls 66 

Immaculate Conception, Hoos- 
ick Falls ... 85 

St. Augustine, Lansingburgh.. 40 

St. John's, Lansingburgh 40 

Nassau 125 

Pittstown Corners 95 

St. Joseph's, Stephentown 133 

St. Peter's, Troy.... 30 

St. Mary's, " .... 30 

St. Joseph's, " 30 

St. Jean Baptiste. " 30 

St. Francis, " 30 

St. Lav/rence's, "... 30 

St. Michael's, " 30 

St. Patrick's. " .... 30 

Scoich. Lansingburgh 40 

Union — 

Germondvilie, No. Lansingb'gh 39 

Pittstown 92 

Unitarian — 

First, Troy .30 


First, Lansingburgh 40 

First, Troy 30 

Bethel, Troy 30 

Jewish — 

Beth Israel Bikur Cholim, Troy 30 

Berith Sholum .30 

Warren Society — 

Hoosick Falls 83 

Cipperly, George 103,137 

Jacob 103 

John 138 

Claes, Melgert A 47 

Claessen, Claes .... 43 

Clapper, John P 55 

Peter ... 108 

Clark, Aseph 54 

Charles ' ' 37 

Horace ... 135 

John ; 33 3.1 

Peter G 51 

Thomas 99 

William gg 104 

Clark's Corners ' 75 

Claxton & Babcock 41 

Cleaveland, Joseph 104 

Clint, John 135 

Clinton, Town of ... ...44,50 51 

Clowes, Hiram .", i03, 104 

Thomas ... 25 2fi 

Close, Eliphalet W '37 

Clum, Conrad 92 




Clum, Henry 105 

Clum's Corners 106 

Clute, Abm 82 

Cochran, J. H 119 

Robert 128 

Walter 128 

Coe, C. F. R... 55 

Cogswell, Samuel 33 

Colamore, Samuel 17, 103 

Cole, Aaron 98 

Barney 54 

Coleman, Calvin 132 

Samuel 132 

Coleman & Hemingway 140 

Colgrove, Asa 84 

ColUns, Edward 77, 90 

Collison, Francis 103, 104 

Colman, Joseph 74 

Calvin, Benjamin 85 

Comesky Brothers 40 

Comick, Samuel 108 

Comstock, Daniel ... 83 

James D 37,41 

Jeremiah 33 

John 83,&1,94 

Theophilus 83, 85 

Cone, Elemander 130 

Ichabod 130 

Solomon 45 

Conkey, Fred. B 50 

Conner, Joseph 112 

Conrad, Adam 105 

Hendrick 19, 103, 112 

John 55 

Philip H 103 

Converse, John 28 

Cook, Thomas 34 

Cooksborough 39,91.93 

Cooley, Ebenezer 33 

Coon, Asa 119 

A. W 119 

Hezekiah 98, 129 

Joseph 83 

Solomon 140 

William 81, 119 

Coons, Craver 108 

J 108 

Philip M 104 

Cooper, Abm 48 

C 108 

Christian C 108 

Conrad 139 

Cornelius 33 

p 106 

W 34, 108 

W.W 139 

Corpe, Benijah 131 

Cotterell, Samuel 83 

Coun, Harmon 72 

Covell, Benjamin 15,18,19,20,21 

Richard 83 

Samuel 93 

Silas 15,21.22,23 

Cowles, St. Leger 72 

Cox, Jr., James 104 

Warren 84 

Coyeman, Andries 6 

Peter 6 

Samuel 6 

Crabb,John 39 

Crabb & Boos 39 

Cramer, John ^?7 

Crandall, David S 112 

John llo 

Joseph 119 

Nathan R 137 

Roswell 115 

Crannell, John „, 53 

William 34, o5 

Crary , Samuel 87 


Craver, George „ 'ip 

JohnTV 50,51 

Crawlier 6 

Creiger, Hans Jerry 128 

Crocker, Ebenezer 74 

SamuelShaw 84,85 


Cronkhite, A 83 

Crook, Theo 109 

Cropsey, Jacob D 117 

Valentine 104 

Cropseyville 105, 106 

Cross, Ebenezer 81,83 

Croy, John G 98,99 

Crum, Wait 131 

Curran, Thomas 37,40 

Curtinus, Peter 33 

Curtis, Caleb 2i 

Cushman, John P 25,27 

Cusack,M 140 

Cutts, J. 105 

Cuyler, Henry 44 

John 59 

DaboU, Jonathan 132 

Daniels, Hosea 82 

Danielse, Simon 60 

Danton, Samuel 50 

Darling, Ebenezer 7 

Dargon , Francis 38 

Dater, Jacob 67 

Philip P 104 

Dauchy. Charles 37 

Jeremiah 26 

Nathan S7 

Davenport. Cyru* 115 

John G 94 

Nelson 49 

Peter 62 

Davis, Edward 24 

George R 25, 81 

Henry 39 

Jonathan 18,62 

John 119,132 

Samuel 94 

Thomas 23,26 

Davison, Ezra 115 

Daniel P. M 115 

Dawson ,Volcart 33 

Draper, Fred E '^-7 

Dearstyne, James 54, 137 

DeCamp, Morris ^ 

DeClyn, Bamet 33 

Deel, Bastian 98,128 

DeForest, Abraham M 44 

David 53 

DavidD 54 

DavidJ 108 

, DavidM 72 

DeWitt 137 

/ John 137 

/ Marte 53 

/ , Philip. i. 58,54 

/ /.RtnierM 54 

/ / Simon oO 

DeFfetst, David 17, 88, 50 -i y 

J "* I Jesse 72 

^ I JohnP 68 

NiMartin D 50 

^R.M ^ « 

William R oO, 51 

Defreestville 55 

De la Mater, Samuel Iw 

De Lancey, James 32, 77, 78 

Delause, Reuben • ■ 130 

Demers, George W 80,73,189 

Dennis, Seneca W 

Dennison, Daniel 117 

D. 46 

Charles 118 

James 41,117 

Jonathan Jl» 

Lorenzo B 11» 

De Peyster Patent 90 

De Reus, Gerrit S « 

Derk, Andori JJ» 

Philip }^ 

Derrick, George '^ 

De Vries, Adriaen D "i 

Dexter, S.F ^ 

Deyoe, James ™ 

Diamond, Thomas S » 

Dick, John 1^ 

Dickinson, John ** 




Dickinson, John D 8,23,27,36,30 

Dicljson, Robert 37 

Dillon, Christopher 24 

Dimebarck, John 136 

Dingermans, Adam 43 

Dingman, Peter 48 

Dings, Adam 50 

Dole, James 13, 39 

Donalson, Albert 143 

Dooley, John 40 

Doolittle, Daniel 24 

W. A 83 

Door, Edward 74 

Joseph 83,85 

Doremus, Thomas L 67 

Don, Village of 39 

Doty, William 132 

Douglas, Asa 129 

Stephen A 129 

Wifliam 7, 34, 39, 129 

Dougrey, James 36, 41 

Dow, Folcort 5 

Hendrick 6 

Jonas 5 

Volckert Jansen 70, 71 

Downer, J. R 74 

Russell T4 

Doxie, Samuel 60 

Driscoll, John 40 

Dubois, Cornelius 54, 103 

Dugar, Charles 140 

Dumbleton, Nathaniel 112 

Dunlop, Mary 29 

Durham, Isaac 126 

Isaiah 35, 123 

Jesse F 84 

Dunham Hollow 126, 134 

Durkee, Ariel C 115 

Walter 112 

Dusenbury, Moses 103 

Eager, George 87 

Eagle Bridge 88 

Mills 105 

Earing, Jacob 50 

Samuel 55 

East Albany 45 

Grafton 113 

Greenbush, Town of 44, 47, 48, 50, 61 

Village of 51 

Nassau 126 

Pittsiown 96 

Poestenkill 7 

Schodack 75 

Stephentown 116 

Eddy, Ambrose 105 

A.C 87 

Gilbert 81, 91 

Jonathan 84 

Tisdale 92 

Eldred, Aaron 93 

John 115 

Eldridge, Hezekiah 24 

Thomas 83 

Elliott, A. B 41 

Hams N 50 

Elmendorf, Peter E 8 

Elmore, William C 123 

Emmons, Jonathan 133 

Engel,W. H 41 

Esbell, Jared 63 

Esher, hi 138 

Esmon, Thomas 67 

Evers, Bamet 40 

Eyclishymer, Nicholas 85 

Fairs 6 

Fairbaim, James 87 

Fake, John S 36, 41 

F'aalkenburgh, Jaac 6 

Fancher, M. L 37 

Fanning, M. P 131 

Faxon, Jacob A 83 

Reuben 83 

Feathers, Adam 140 

Feller, Philip 135, 138 

Fellows, Capt 18 

Nicholas 185 


Fanshaw, William 8, 9 

Ferguson, John 103 

rj 54 

Ferry, Charles. .' .' Ill 

Files, David 104 

Filkin, Cornelius 93 

Isaac 103 

John 102,103,104 

JohnC 36 

Filley, Edward 40 

Marcus L 86 

Finch, Caleb 141 

Cyreneus 140 

Henry 45 

Lewis 140 

Joseph 123 

Fisher, Christian 91 

Flint, Eleazer 108 

Fodder,J.J 70,71 

Follett, Andrew 93 

Charles 39 

John 33, 34, 39 

Fonda, David 100 

Dow 136 

Eldred 130 

Jacob D 66 

Matthew V. A 54 

Peter 101 

Forbes, John 117, 129 

Pauls S6 

Ford, G.G 85 

Jonathan 136 

Nathaniel 62 

Foreest, Philip 5 

Fort, Cralo 43 

Orange 42, 43, 65, 71 

Abel Ill 

Abm 60, 77 

Abm. 1 82 

Daniel 60 

Gerrit 86 

Isaac 60 

Jacob 60 

Jacob A 25, 37 

Foster, Ellis 136 

Fowler, Samuel S 137 

Fox, Albert R 137, 138, 139 

Isaac B 137, 1S9 


S.H. 137 

Francisco, Abner 39 

John 91 

Frats, Casper 16, 18, 19, 103 

Frazee, Henry 54, 55 

Frear, Abm 18, 135 

John 19 

Peter 19 

French, Andrew 55 

Benjamin S3 

George W 67 

Gershom 34 

French and Indian W^ars 

43, 47, 60, 61, 71, 77, 78, 97, 98 

Fret, Melgert 101 

Frink, Luke 81 

Freiot, John 93 

Joseph 93 

Frisby, Col 38 

Frost, Thomas 72 

Theodore J 73 

Frothingham, Thomas isg 

Fuller, Jonathan 85 

Fulmar., N log 

Funda, Aldah 33 

Eldart ' 33 

lohn • • 53, 54 

John D 33 

Jonathan g 

Nicholas [[" g 

Furbeck, P " " ' gg 

Gage, George ][[[ gj 

Jeremiah '.'/.'.'.'. 74 

Gale, Benjamin jg 

Joseph S .'.".'.'.'...■.'.".■." 123, 131 

^amuel 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 123, 131 

Jr., Samuel 24,36,27 



Gallup, Joel 

Galpin, Jehiel 

Gardineer, Andries . 


Henry H 
Gardner, Asa 





J. H 


Joshua . . . 


105, 109 

Garfield, James A, 93, 105 

Garno, Matthew U 62 

Garnryck, Zachariah 39 

Garrison, Thomas 45 

Gaston, John 88 

Gates, Isaac 130 

Gault. L. R 109 

Gay, Willard 86 

Geer, A. C 86 

Erastus 93. 94 

J. M 125 

Genet, Edmund C 25, 49 

Henry J CO 

Gerhard, John 103 

Geritse, Barent 5, 44, 59 

German, Smith 25 

Gettv, Addison 86 

Gibbs, George 93 

Gilbert, A.N 109 

Job 135 

Gillespie, George S 40 

Gillgers, James 73 

Glass House 141 

Gleason, David 24 

Goes, Henry 124 

Peter D 82 

Goewy, G. Y 102 

JohnP 102 

Peter 33 

Gooding, David, Mrs 81 

Seymour C 81 

Goodman, Titus 44 

Goodrich, Ashley 63 

A. J 46 

Henr>- 125 

J. B. 104 

Samuel 24 

Silas 24 

Simeon G 131 

Goodspeed. Anthony 19, 21 

Goslin, William 135 

Goss, Ephraim 40 

Gordon, Joseph 85 

Thomas t6 

Gorham, Shubael ^' 39, 41 

Stephen 7,36 

Gould,H.A 119 

Pliny 125 

Grafton Center • - • ■ ■ ,^, Jlj 

Grafton, Town of 9, 17, 25, 98, 108, 111, 112 

Graham, W 66 

Grant, Daniel H lol 

Gurdon j7 

Grant's Hollow 68 

Gray, Asel gl 

Archibald 24 

olniel ''•"9-}^ 

, D^vid 100 

Graves,Amos « 

Timothy 'iSs 

Green, Benjamin 1*2 

George W 54 

Jonathan 1|0 

Leonard ,°J 

Samuel Jl? 

WillardD , ,10= 

Greenbush 11,42,43,44,45,46 

Greenbush, Town of li-;^,- ,™ <nt 

8, 9, 17, 25, 42, 44, 50, 63, 54, 72, 102, 1C8, 135 

Greene, Charles ^^' ^S? 

Felix ,24 

HenryG "8 

Greene, John 99 jgo 

Joseph 117 

_ HH?„-- 98.130 

Greeman, William ii9 

Gregory, A. V, P '.. 139 

Charles H x.39 

Daniel M ' 137 

David E 136 

Elias 135 

{■■^ -v 24 

Joseph 139 

Solomon 138 

Stephen 135, 136, 137, 139, 141 

r- u t'-^^C-, 24,137,139 

Grewsbeck, Nicholas 6 

Griffin, Andrew 124 

Griffith, Edwin H 74 

Samuel 124 

Griggs, Joshua 04 

Grinneil, Richard 16 

Griswold, Chester 125 

George 27 

John A 29,123 

Groesbeck, Jacob 63 

Johannis 60 

John W 63 

Nicholas 63, 82 

Walter N 62, 63, 65 

Walter W 92 

William 63 

Gross, Heinrich 103 

Grole, Peter 74 

Gunther, John 103 

Gysbertsen, C. G 48 

Hagadorn, Derrick 6 

Haight, Jacob 81 

H. B 99 

R. S 29 

Hakes, George 115 

Jabez 115 

Nathaniel 112 

Hale, Amos Ul 

Moses 24 

Hall, Jeduthan 92 

Rowland 7 

Talmage 17 

Hallenbeck, Daniel 77 

Garrett 81 

Henry 48 

Jacob 62 

James 45 

John 81 

Halligan, 1 40 

Halstead, James L 93 

Jonas 93 

Reuben 92 

Samuel 33 

Ham, Caper 72 

Hamilton, Ilosea 72 

Hammil, J 27 

Hammond, Barton 25 

Samuel 139 

Hand, William 133 

Hanks, Benjamin 7, 98 

Hansen, Dirck 48 

John 60 

Hanscom, A.H 93 

Harbeck, John 8 

Harder, Andrew 74 

Dennis 124 

F.P 74 

Harris, Daniel 19 

James 131 

Nicholas 24 

Nicholas B 24 

Harrowgate Spring 49 

Hart, Edward 67 

Jr., Philip 25, 27 

Richard P 27 

Hart's Falls 64.66,67 

Hanshom, E. A 67 

Hartwell, Peter ^ 

Thomas 24, 87 

Haskell, R.C.... « 

Haskins, Enoch 88, ^ 

Joseph *• 



Hastings, Frederick H 7 

Seth 125 

Haswell, Robert 83 

Hathaway, Bailey G 36 

Havens, Asa 63 

Rensselaer Ia6 

Haviland, John 83 

Hawks, Benjamin 87 

Hawley, Lemuel 23, 103 

Samuel 25 

Hayes, James 99 

J. H 81 

Hayner, Conrad 103 

David 115 

Jonathan 85 

John 10,31,108 

JohnP Ill 

John P. 1 115 

Levi 105 

Martin M 104 

William 93 

Haynerville 106 

Haynes, Edward &3 

JohnH 124 

Hayward, Charles 66 

Head, James 50 

Heimstreet, Jacob 40 

Steohen 36 

Hemmingway, Erastus 125 

Ezra 124 

Henderson, James 54, 108 

Thomas 92 

Hendricksen, Tyraon 43 

Henry, Alexander 45 

David 17, 38 

John V 8 

William B 125 

Herrington, Hiram 86 

Norman 86 

Philip 83 

Willard 86 

Hesseling, Dirk 12 

Hewitt, Andrew 119 

Sanford 90 

Sterry 98 

Zeba 25, 112 

Hiat, Thomas 33 

Hicks, Benjamin 7, 8, 18 

Thomas 62, 122 

Hickok, Ezra 36 

James 3n. 37, 41 

William 17,22 

Higgins, John 37,40 

Samuel 34 

Hillhouse, Thomas 23 

Hinman, Aaron B 8, 38, 40 

Hiscock, Gardner 99 

William 98 

Hitchcock. Charles 36 

Ezra 33 

Jared 24 

Lyman 33 

Samuel 48 

Hoag, Asa 92 

Jonathan 72,123 

William las 

Hoag's Corners 126 

Hodges, Ezekiel 81 

Hoes, Barney 50 

Hoewey, Peter 101 

Hogeboom, James 74 

James 1 24,74 

Hogg, Barent 98 

Edward 53 

Frans 101 

Hogle, Francis 34, 62 

Hoyle, Henry 25 

Peter 33 

HoUiday, John 48 

Matthew 48 

Holmes, Abraham 122 

Holsapple, William 50 

Holt, Moses 33 

Homocker,''A 108 

Hooghtelinpr, Conrad 6 

Hoogland, Jeremiah 33 


Hoosick 77,78,88,128 

District 7,62,79 

Falls 85,86 

Patent 76,80,91 

Town 8,8,23,37,76,81 

Horsely, Benjamin 87 

Houghtaling. John D 55 

House, John 85 

Honsinger, Jacob 105 

Hovey, Abel 24 

Howard. Edward 129 

Godfrey 112 

John 81, 115 

Jonathan 129 

Nathan 133 

Hoyt,F 40 

Jacob 24 

Huested, Titus 122,123 

Hull, Benjamin L 117 

Daniel 116,117,119,129 

Daniel J 117 

Egbert B 119 

Harry 119 

Hezekiah 7, 34, 130, 131 

Nelson 117 

Oliver 130 

Vamum 119 

Humphrey, Evans 91 

Josiah C 132 

Hun, Abraham 8 

Hunt, Alsop 19 

Hunt,Alvah 130 

Jonathan 16, 19 

Micajah 92 

Stephen 91 

Stephen S 36 

Hunter, Andrew 132 

Huntingdon, Ezekiel 129 

Joseph 132 

Hurd.E.F 92 

Hustis, David 98 

Husyele, Peter 6 

Hutton. Christopher 18, 19, 21, 22 

John 18,119 

Timothy 18, 119 

Huyck, Andries 5, 71 

Hyde, David 131 

Samuel S, 93 

William 71 

Hydorn, Anthony 93 

Henry 112 

John 112 

Peter S 115 

Ingham, Stephen 24 

Ingraham, Francis 94 

Irish, Ichabod 98 

Irwin, James 120 

Ives.B 108 

Chauncey 40 

Lazarus 108 

Ives' Corners HO 

Jackson, Stephen 91 

Jacobs, Nathaniel 7, 8, 22, 33, 40 

Jacobsen, Frans 43 

Jacoby , William 124 

Jadwin. Jesse 68 

James, Randall 85 

Jansen, Jacobus 43 

Volckert 70 71 

Janes, Elijah 22, 36, 37, 41 

Jeffers, James G 94 

Jenkins, C 92 

Elisha 136 

Frederick isg 

Johnson, A. H 95 

Hen'T- 83 

Isaac G 88 

Josiah V ' 73 

John . 62.77, 81 

Noble S 22 

Orlando G 95 

Roelef 73 

William '. 95 

Johnsonville 95 

Jones, Ebenezer '.,' 22 

James 117,189 



Jones, Joseph 
Li ' 

,aban . . . 
Matthew . 
Roffer — 







William 119, 130 

Joris, Adriaen 42 

Joslin, C. J 95 

J.J 6T 

Judson, David 35 

Juriaensen, Jan 43 

Kane, James 13ti 

Nicholas T 140,141 

Keach, Abraham 81,83 

Keeling, Adam 18. 19. 21, 3-2 

Kelsey, Elijah 72 

Kemp, Robert D 45 

Kendall, Ephraim B 132 

Kennedy, Lemuel 40 

Kerr,John 140 

William 81 

Ketchum, Samuel 62 

Ketel, Nicholas 71 

Ketelhuyn, Daniel .')9, CO 

Simun Danielse 60 

Ketlyne, William 6 

Kidder & Aken 140 

Kidder, Jeptha P 141 

Kidder & McCready 141 i 

Kidder & North 141 I 

Kilmer, William 108 

King, Daniel 37 

Eliphalet 3.5 

Nehemiah 24 

Peter 123 

Peter B 40 

Samuel 38 

William 139 

Kingsley, Jacob 24 

Kincade, Robert 18 

Kinlock, William 105 

Kinney, Alonzo N 45 

John 16 1 

Kinnion, John 63 I 

Kipp,Ignis 33,02 ' 

Kirtland, Albert B 50, 51 | 

Benjamin B 45 ; 

WilliamH SO i 

Kisselburgh, William E 29 

Kittle, Peter 60 

William 63, 129, 131. 133 

Kline, Joseph 8 

Klockner, George 103 

Knapp, Samuel 123 

Knauff, JohnG 103 

Knickerbacker, Abraham 65 

H 35,26,67 

Harme 6? 

Hermanus 64, 6o 

Johannes 14, 59, CO, 61, 64, 65, 66 

Johannes, Von B 65 

John 27,37,62,04.85 

Jr., John t 

JohnH 65 

J.F 36 

Joseph Foster 65 

Knight, Thomas 33 

Knowlson, Andrew B 141 

RichardJ 157,138 

Thomas Ml 

Kreiger, Juria 98 

Kronckhyte, Abraham 'iS 

Kuntz, Abraham 1^ 

Ladue, John 'IJ 

Lake, Hendrick 77 

LaJnb, Claudius „*; 

JosephE IM 

J9shua «« 

Simeon .,_ »? 

William J 3< , 41 

Lamphire, Clark B }19 

JohnL 115 

Lampman, Jacob '*; 

Lane, Aaron „ oi ok 

Derick 17, 23, 25 






Lane, Frederick G 

George T 


Lansing, Abraham 

Abraham C 

Abraham Jacob 15. 3:3, :j3, 34, 35, ; 

Charles J 

Cornelius .17,18,19,33,35,! 






Hendrick 33, 130 

Isaac 33, 62 

Isaac H 33, 81 

Jacob 6, 14 

Jacob A 7. 33, 34, 63 

Jacob C 25,35 

John 35,43 

John E 48, 72 

John H 104 

Levinus 7, 8, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39 

Sanders 8 

Lansingbureh 7, 8, 12, 14, 15. IB, 17, 18, 21, 22, 25, 

Town of . .9. 17. 25, 31. 34, 37, 30, 98, 103 

Lantman, Hans 98 

Lape, Nicholas 39 

Thomas 67 

Latham, Joel 131 

Samuel 81. 130 

Laurense, Jan 71 

Laytoun, David 34 

Leavens, J. P 68 

Leibhite, J 108 

Leggitt, Thomas 50 

Legrange, Johns 6 

Ome 6 

Leonard. Edmund 82 

F. B 36 

Timothy 41.91 

Leverse, Levinus 34, 102 

Lewis.Abel 129,130 

Abraham 98 

Augustus 98, 129 

Benjamin 83 

John 115 

Nathan 115 

Phineas 9S 

William 73 

Lindsey, Hugh 133 

John 77 

Link, Andrew 108 

P 108 

Litcher, Henry 98 

Littlefield. Daniel Ill 

Livingston, JamesH 87 

Lockrow, Anthony 93 

Lockwood, Joshua 135 

Lcdwick, Peter 71 

Lohnis, Sebastian — 103 

Long, David 91 

Loose, Petrus 103 

Lord, Bernard H 123 

Henry 136 

Lotteridge, Robert A 29 

Loudon, John o ?^' n^ 

Lovett, John "'39.91 

Lowell,I.J 109 

Lyon, Benjamin •4 

Luce, David 108 

Ludlow, Samuel B _ 1:^., 12o 

Lyman,Eretus 136, 13(, 141 

Lynd, Archilaus 1^ 

Lyon, John °- 

Mabbitt, Joseph S ^ ^o 

Macdonough, Com. T ai,* 

MacGregor, Robert i^ 

Macks, Jeremiah '■f' 

Maessen, Hendrick ■« 

Mago, Lewis "" 

Main, Oliver 

Maine, James 


Mains, John 






OyVcv-yJuL^^^-^ , 'Z^<»ii.i 




27 i 




Mallory, Henry 

Mallory, J 

Mann, Nathaniel . 


Marble, John B. . , 

March, John 

Marks, James 

Martin, Ebcnezer . . 


Jonah .... 
William M 

Marvin, Ebenezer 33 

Stephen 33,34 

Masten's Corners ... 75 

Mason, Benjamin 123 

Charles 72, 123 

John 54 i 

Masters, Bethuel 66 

James 63 

James S 63 

josiah 7,18,25 

Thomas 45 

Mather, Bethel 25 

Samuel 136 

Thomas 136 

Matison, A 119 

John 83 

Timothy 129 

Matson, Israel 73 

Matteson, Job W 99 

Maxon, Asa 98, 99 

David 18 

Ethan 112 

Joshua B 132 

Paul 24 

Potter 115 

Stephen 98, 130 

May, Theodore 24 

McCasg, John 122 

McCann. John 140 

McCarthy, HuRh 33 

McChesney, John 20, 103 

Joseph 105 

Orrin 105 

Samuel 1 25 

Walter 103, 104 

McClellan. Hugh 19 

John 44 

Robert 10, 18,19 

Samuel 123 

McClung, James 24 

McConihe, Jr., Isaac 29,30 

McConihe & Co^ 1 141 

McCoun, John T 28 

Tovpnsend 22, 2.^, 27 

McCoy, Mayekie .33, 92 

McCullough, Hathom .",0 

William A 50 

McDonald, R 36 

McFeelev, Cornelius 133 

McGee, Patrick 133 

McGill, William 33 

McGowan, Patrick 66 

McKee, Thomas 45 

McKown, James *', 22, 72 

McLaren, John ' 142 

McLean, Alexander 33 

Allen '. 38 

McM anus, John 102 

McMullen, Duncan ... .". )03 

McMurray, James 33 

John G 36,40 

William 36, 37, 40 

McNaughton, James 44 

McQuide, James ... 37, 40 

Meal, Charles 3,3 

Melius, George 124 

Melrose ]'.'.'. gg 

Mercer, Henry A 36 37 

Merchant, Abel 74 

Merriman, Reuben 103, 104 

Merritt, Daniel 18, 19 22 

Jacob 85 

M 19 

Merwin, Eugene 141 

John W 141 

Mesick, Thomas 

Mickel, Charles 

Michael, Andries . . . 

Mitchell, Ezekiel . . . 

George B. 

Miles & Co., T. 








Milks, Banjamin 7, 91 

Milleas, George 72 

Millen, David 24 

Jr., William 81 

Miller, Aaron J 24 

Andres 112, 135, 138 

.A.nthony 93 

Franklin 66 

George 126 

Henry 125, 138 

Jacob 1 45 

John 141 

John J 44 

John M 141 

Leonard 34 

Pliny 123 

Silas 67 

Solomon V. R 67 

Miller's Corners 126 

Milliman, John 81 

Thomas 84 

Mills, David Ill 

John Ill 

William 39 

Millville 105 

Ministers. Sec Churches. 

Moeller, Henry 138 

Moffitt. Hosea 7, 22, 25, 130, 132 

Mohawrks 11,42,43,58 

Mohegans 11,42,43,69,101 

Moody. Dexter 105, 109 

Marvin 109 

Matthew 109 

Moon, Bennoni 130 

Daniel 99 

Monroe, John Ill 

Montgomery, Robert 7, 8 

Morgan, Ephraim ... 7, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 

23. 26, 27, 37 

Morrell, John 62 

Morris, Frederick 77. 90 

Mosely, Jonathan 81 

Moses, Salmon 84 

Mosher, Isaac 84 

Tames 94 

Steohen 93 

Wilson 98 

Mott, R 140 

William 140 

Moul, Elbert W 142 

Henry 135, 140 

Muitzeskill 73, 75 

Mullen, Cornelius S 43 

Isaac 71 

MuUer, Hans lOl 

S 108 

Stephen 48 

Munsell Jr., Hezekiah §4 

Murry, Daniel 40 

Myers, Andrevir 102 

Frederick 103 

Henry 105 

Lodowick 105 

Nassau 125 

Nassau, Tovirn of 9, 25, 72, 98, 121, 122, 123 

Nassau Gazette 135 

New Bethlehem 73 

New City. 14, 16, 32, 83, 35 

Newcomb, Simon 24 25 93 

Newton, Abner ' ' 7 

Ezra 136 

Nichols, George gl 

John 98 

Jonathan 119 

William 33, 34 

Nicholls, Francis 14 

William gg 

Nightart, E log 

Niles, Jonathan 7, 18, 129, ISO 

Nathaniel 117, 139 



»T ^ PAGE 

Norton, D 92 

Oak Hill 109 140 

Oaks, Nathaniel ' 33 

Odell, James 7 

Jonas 98 

Simon 9q 

O'Donnell, Thomas 29 

Olds, C.J 67 

Olmstead, Gideon 130 

Oothout, Abraham 23 

Adson 6 

Jan 43, 77 

Jno 6 

Osborne, John 90 

Thomas 81.83 

William A 95 

Ostrander, Aaron 8.7'^ 

Abrm 4g 

Adam 103 

Edward ai, (56 

Jacob 140 

Ott, Francis 48 

Ouderkirk, Abm 0, .34 

Abm. J 33. 34 

Johns 5 

Overrocker, Charles T S9 

Owen, Abel Ill 

Paddock, Stephen 83 

Paige, George W 34 

Paine, John 27 

Palmer, Fenner 25. 63, 123 

lohn 83 

Thomas 130 

William 81,86 

Pardee, Calvin 126 

Parker, William S 23 

Parmelee, Charles C 36 

Elias 37, 38,41 

Jabez F 30 

Parsons, Francis 109 

H 86 

H.C 103 

J. R 8B 

Seth 83. 84, 83, 86 

Patchen, Aaron D 24, 83 

Patten, James ^ 48 

Patterson, Henry 83, 84. 86 

Joseph L 93 

Pawling, Albert 7, 16, 18, 19, 20, 23, 25, 27, 33, 39 

Pease. John 18,21 

Levi 129 

Pearson, George 136 

Peck, Arthur M 141 

Eleazer 133 

Grant lOS 

Joel B 141 

John 108 

William 108 

Peckham, Nathan 92 

Peebles, Hugh 2:3, 25, 27 

Peel, John T 95 

Pendergast, Jedediah 24 

William 91 

Penniman, Sylvanus J 41 

Percy, James '■ 85 

Joseph 85 

Perry, Aaron ,„ _, 39 

Petersburgh, Town of 8, 9. 17, 25, 38, 72, 

97, 98, 100, 102, 112, 118, 123, 1.30 

Petersburgh Junction 88 

Philips, David ^' '™ 

Isaac "* 

John iii.n? 

Joseph 124 

Michael „„ JOj 

Thomas 98,111 

Timothy 73,133 

Stephen 1*4 

Philipstown, Town of „„■ •.;A-;,y ,«„ ,«„ 


Pickett. Charles A ■ 67 

Ed. P 36, 37, 38 

Pierce, Ephraim lo^oi 

Jeremiah "' ™ 

William g 

Pittstown Comers " 

Pittstown Patent 89 

Town of 8, 9, 25, 37. 81, 89, 90, 91 

Plank, Jacob A 70 

Plattstown 106 

Piatt, Ananias 7. 8, 17, ,35, 36 

Henry '. . . . 25, 130 

Jonathan 19 

Poestenkill j09 

Poestenkill, Town of 107 108 






Polak, Bernhard 
Pollock, Barent . . 
Henry . 

Pool, John 


Population — 

Berlin 120 

Brunswick 106 

East Greenbush 51 

Grafton 115 

Greenbush 46 

Hoosick 88 

Lansingburgh 41 

Nassau 126 

North Greenbush 56 

Petersburgh 100 

Pittstown 96 

Poestenkill 110 

Sandlake 142 

Schaghticoke 68 

Schodack 75 

Stenhentown 134 

Troy 30 

Porter. Chauncey 134 

Post, Samuel 34 

Henry 122 

Potter Hill 88 

Potter, Stephen 98 

Powell, Thomas 130 

Powers, Robert 19, 20 

A. E 38,41 

Nathaniel 41 

William 40 

Pratt, Rufus 125 

W. C 24 

Primmer. Joseph 122 

Prosser, Ichabod 98, 99 

Provoost, Johannes 70 

Pryn, Francs 6 

Pruyn, Francis S 82 

Pundall, Samuel 112 

Qiiackenbush. Harman 6fi 

Harrison 63 

JohnS 82 

Quackenboss. Jacob 101 

i^uacumbus, Adrian 60 

yuackenkill 115 

Quimbj', Ephraim 1-35 

Duinn, John -37 

Quintin , John 66 

Radcliff, David V. R 137 

Albany & West Stockbridge 74 

Bennington & Rutland 133 

Boston & Albany. 74 

Boston, Hoosac Tun'l & Western 

Castleton & West Stockbridge ... 74 

Harlem E.ttension 133 

Hudson River 28, 74 

Hudson & Boston 74 

Lebanon Springs 133 

New York Central 

New York & Harlem . . . 
Rensselaer & Saratoga. . 
Rutland & Washington. 

Schenectady & Troy 

Troy & Boston 

Randall, Benjamin 

Beniamin B 

David 34,98 

Elijahs 99 

J. B 108 

Joshua 34, 98, 99 

Matthew 98,130 

Thomas 98 

Ransom, Isaac 36 

Lewis -ii 






23 ! 
87 I 



Rawson, Keating 


Raymond, Joshua 

Read, Barney 



Reed, Charles 33 

Egbert 73 

Joel 73 

Leonard M 

Reeve, John 119, 120 

Reichard, Coonrad 108 

Reid, Hugh 93 

J. 27 

James 37,-41, 112 

John 112 

Rensselaer 136, 137, 141 

Rensselaer Medical Society 23, 34 

Rensselaer County — 

Agricultural Society 25, 26 

Bible Society 25 

Bounds of 7, 17, 44, 69, 70 

Buildings 18, 19, 26, 27 

Courts 7,8 

Rensselaerwyck, District of 7, 61 

Manor of ... .3, 4, 5, 10, 13, 13, 35, 
42, 43, 44, 70, 77, 89, 107, 117, 122, 129 

Town of 36, 63, 122, 130 

Renwick, John 86 

Reur, Hendrick 12 

Reynolds 66, 68 

Ehjah 99 

Gideon 123 

William 129 

WilliamM 98 

Rhodes, C 125 

Jonathan H 119 

Rice, James H 39 

Richmond, Edward 83 

William 136 

Ritche, Francis E 54 

Rix, Rufus Ill 

Roberts, Abner 102, 103 

Abraham 103 

Edward L 105 

William 87 

Robinson, Ebenezer 99, 119 

John 21 

Rockefeller, Fred. R 50 

Rock Hollow 106 

Rogers, Benjamin 66 

B.F 119 

Daniel 81,85 

Harper 81 

Isaac 16 

Joseph 108, 119, 129, 130 

Joseph D 115 

L. C 119 

William 32,35 

Roolifse, Albert 6 

Root, Solomon Ill 

William 122 

Winthrop 132 

Rose, Josiah 33, 34 

Nathaniel 129 

William 129 

Wyat 130 

Rosebrooks, J. M 86 

Ross, Alexander 92 

Merick 45 

Stephen 25, 27, 39 

Rourk, Thomas 37 

Rouse, Jonathan 92 

Rousseau, Alexander 24 

Rowan, John 91 

Jr., John 91 

Rowe, Benjamin 24 

Rowland, Jonathan 62 

William 93 

William H 94 

Rusca, Nathaniel 63, 66 

Rush, Anthony 137 

Russell, Abel 98 

Andrew 86 

John 94,181 

Zachariah 63 


Rutherford, John 


Ryan, John "^'22 

Michael of 

Rykert, Michael 135 

Ryckman, Albert 48 

Rysdorp, Leonard gS 

Lawrence ^ 

Rysedorph, Leonard L 51 

Philip 50 

Sackett, Benjamin 129, 130 

Sandlake !« 

Town of 9, 25, 44, 53, 118 

Salsberg, Hans 72 

Salisbury, Amos »5 

Jacobus *8 

Jonathan 48 

Samburns, Athniel 63 

Sampson, J 27 

Sanford, William 129 

Safer, Jr., J 108 

Satterlee, William 119 

Saunders, John 136 

Lodowick 119 

Robert 12, 31, 32 

Sawyer, Isaac 89 

Schaghticoke 7, 57, 58, 59, 62, 67, 78, 90 

District 61,62,79,129 

Hill 67 

Point 64,66,67 

Town of 

8, 9, 25, 37, 38, 39, 57, 63, 66, 81, 91 

Scharp, Robert 48 

Schaue, Jeremiali 48 

Scharpe, Bernard U 138 

George J 53 

John G 54 

Schermerhorn, Cornelius 72, 138, 141 

Cornelius 1 25 

Daniel 73 

Engelie 71 

Jacob 5, 71, 73 

Jr., Jacob 5 

Jacob C 18,71,73 

Jacob E 19 

Jacob J 72 

John 48, 73 

JohnC 7 

John 1 74 

John W 7,112,126,129,132 

Reyer 71,73 

Schmidt, Jacob 103 

Schneyder, Hendrick 77 

Scheyder Patent 77 

Schodack 70, 71 

Center 75 

Depot 74 

Landing 73, 74, 117 

Town of 8, 9, 2S, 69, 72, 118, 123, 115 

Schoonmaker, Edwin 112 

Schouten, John 62 

Schuyler, David Abm 89, 90 

John 89, 90 

Myndert 90 

Nicholas 7, 23, 24 

Patent 90 

Peter 6 

Philip 12, 13,14 

Philip Pieterse 12 

Stephen 1 14, 22, 34 

Stephen V. R 25 

Schuylcrville 78, 79 

Scoby, Samuel 24, 25 

Scott, Barnabas 34 

George 40 

Hugh 112 

J. L 119 

Lewis 11 

William 33 

Scott's Comers 74 

Scram, William H 141 

Scriven, Caleb 115 

Jonathan M 112 

Joseph 112 

William Ill, 112 

Zebulon 99, 112 



Searles, William 66 

Seaman, Peter gg 

William 108 

Sebring, Cornelius ..', 33, 82 

Selden, Charles 22, 3(il 38 

Seymour, Albertus IO3 

Daniel 40 

Horace 33 

Samuel D 143 

Shaus, Henry 72 

Shaw, Samuel 34, 117, 130 

Sheldon, William J ng 

Shepard, Hazael 91 

Israel gi 

William 91 

Sibley, Benjamin 140 

Timothy I33 

Sickels, James 130 

Thomas 24, 81, 87, 130 

Zachariah W 81, 130 

Sill, Jonathan P 24 

Silvester, Krancis 8 

Sim, Robert 87 

Simmons, Daniel 102 

Tames D 108 

Marcus 118 

Peter 117 

Thomas B 50, 74 

Simonse, Johannis 6 

Singer, Isaac M 95 

Sipperly, John J 67 

Joshua H 135 

Martin 92 

Shaffer, John F 112 

Shaver, David 124 

Frederick 135 

John H 103 

John P 138 

Shedd, Israel 83 

Sheffer, Henry 78 

Sherman, Darius 78 

Piatt 94 

William H 124 

Sherwood, Lemuel 81 

Shiner, Randal 129 

Skiffington, John 83, 34 

Slason, Whiting B. . . . 93 

Slaves 5,6,9,107,108 

SUter, Calvin 108,137 

JohnJ 50 

Sliter*s Corners 141 

Slingerlant, Albert 6 

Slocum, Chauncey B 67 

Smart, A. J 141 

Smeeds, Elihu 91 

Smith, Andrew A 140 

Benjamin 20 

David 39 

Daniel 37 

Ebenezer 138 

Edwin 66 

Elijah 114 

Francis 24 

Hulbert 24 

James 8 

James B 40 

Jesse 98 

Joel D 74 

John 128 

Martin 24 

Michael T 124 

Nicholas 124 

Nicholas T 124 

Patrick 33 

Samuel 82 

Simeon 112 

Solomon Ill 

Thomas 112 

Wilhelmus 101 

William 103,119 

Snyder, Benjamin 33 

Christopher 93 

David 94 

Harmon 5^ 

Henry 81 

Jacob N 92 



Snyder, John 






William H 

Societies — 

Odd Fellows' Lodges 41, 46, 87, 95 

Masonic Lodges. .41, 46, 67. 74, 75, 87, 100, 125 

Temperance Lodges 41, 46, 87 

South Berlin .' 117. 120 

South Pctersburgh 100 

South Sandlake 142 

South Schodack 75 

South Stephentown 133 

Southworth, William 124 

Spofford, William 40 

Spalding, Edward 84 

Speigletown 3i) 

Spencer, Allen 88 

Joseph 7. 130 

Oliver 98 

Randall 98.130 

Jr., Richard 137 

Spoor, Johannes 48 

Spring, Christian 48 

Nathaniel 130 

Springer, George 99 

Martin 85 

Springsteen, Casper 71 

Sprong, Cornelius 78 

Staats, Abraham 4 

Barent 6 

Gerrit 78 

Joachim 72 

Nicholas i'. 18. 78 

Stadler, Francis 137 

Joseph 137 

Stages 17, 27. 35. 36 

Stall, Enoch 87 

Stanton, Henry 1-31 

William 92 

Stack, Godfrey 81 

Starks, Israel Sfi 

J. C 105, 109 

R. E 67 

Stearns, John 1-36 

John E 74 

J. W 93. 99 

Steele, William H 67 

Stephens, Abm 33 

Ebenezer 99 

John 139 

Sylvanus 98 

William 142 

Stephentown 133 

Center 133 

District 189 

Flats 133 

Town of 8. 9, 85, 44, 

78, 81, 91, 98, 118, 123, 187, 129, 130 

Steward. Elislia 1.30 

Stewart, John 39, 41 

JohnM 24 

Samuel 23 

Warren 115 

Stillman, Asa 99 

Stillman Village 100 

Stitt, James 92 

Stone, Ira 115 

Stone Arabia 12, 31, 32, 33, 34. .35 

Stoney, William A 84 

Storm, John 39 

Story, John 63 

Stover, Jacob 67 

Stratton, Ebenezer 84 

Straub, Johannis 103 

Streator, M.J 109 

Street, Benjamin 94 

Strevell, George 119 

Strong, John 124 

Stronck, H 108 

Strutton, Nathan 40 

Stuyvesant, Gerardus 77 

Summerhill, J 119 



Surdara. Anthony N. 


Sunderland, Peleff . . . 
Sweet. Amos 

Benjamin G. . 








Sweet's Corners . 
riwitz, Abm. J. 
















Tabc.r, Gershbm .'.!'.'.'..'..'.'..!'.... 123, 124 

Tafts, Jonar.han G 126 

N'athan 92 

Otis 92 

Tanner, Abel 131 

Nathan 129 

Taylor, Edward E 74 

Jacob 142 

James H 133 

J"ohn lOO 

Mahlon 16,17,18.19 

Solomon 135 

Thomas 93,99 

William 77 

Ten Brock, Henry 87 

Ten Broeck, Abm 14 

Ten Brook, Dirck 8 

Ten Ej'ck, Abm 8, 16, 18, 19, 23, 34, 136 

Andries 78 

Anthony 7.8 

Barnt 33 

Jacob A 74 

Peter G 73 

Thayer, Adin 86 

Reuben 81 

Theunessen, Sweer 11, 12, 13 

Thomas, Burton 142 

David 38 

Jeffrey W 24 

Peleg 53, 117 

Thompson, Calvin 136, 139 

Israel 7, 8, 91 

James 33, 30 

Milo 37 

Solomon \\" 93 

Thomas 123,133.137,140 

Thorn, Stephen 62 

Thurber. Abner 24 

Benjamin 13, 10, 101 

Orlando D 99 

Tibbals, Jr., Samuel 45 

Tibbit, John 33 

Tibbits, Benjamin 32 

Elisha 27 

George 23,23,27,66 

George M 84 

Tiffany, Silvester 41 

Tillman, Christopher 33, 34, 30, 39 

John 33 

Tinsler, Solomon 93 

Todd, Adam 48 

Titus 93 

Toll, Carroll 60 

Charles H 62 

Tomassen, Jan 70,71 

Tomes, Timothy 82 

Tomhannock 95 

Tomhannock Patent 90 

Tompkins, Staats D 141 

Toneray, Daniel 33, 34 

Topping, John 37 

Townsend, Martin 1 30 

Tracy, Cornelius L 36 

Edward & Co 40 

Gardiner 37, 41 

Sanford A .34 

Traver, Henry S 138 

Travers, Gilbert J 103 

Tremer, David 73 

Tripp, Job 180 

John 24 

Troy...l],]0, 17. 18,19,20,21,22,23,20,27.28,36,29,37 

Troy, Town of 8. 9, 10, 17, 21 , 25, 37, 38, 72, 102, 113 

Troy & Schenectady Turnpike Company 23 

Troy Young Men's Association 28 

Tucker, Alexander H 124 

Tunise, Eghbt 59 

Turner, Isaac 85, 130 

John 123 

Thomas 25 

Twogood, John E 92 

Uline, Bemhard 138, 142 

George 140 

William 142 

Upham, Nathan 138 

William 141 

Vail, G 26, 27 

H 26 

Moses 7 

Valkenburgh, Hendrick 5 

Jacob 5 

Johannis 5 

Valley Falls 95 

Van Alen, Evert 137 

James 126 

Jan L 71 

John E 7, 17, 22, 100 

J. Pruyn 53 

William 6 

Van Alstyne, Abraham 14 

Cornelius 6 

Isaac 5 

Jan 6 

Jacob 7 

Laurence 136 

Martin 6 

Jr., Marte 6 

Matthew 55 

Remier 53 

Wilhelm 103 

Wynant 135 

Van Antwerp. Lewis 60 

Simon 32 

Van Arnum, Abner 16 

Hendrick ..33, 34, 101 

Isaac 33, 34 

Van Buren, Benjamin 72 

Cornelius 48, 53. 59, 72 

Hendrick M 43 

Henry 60, 71 

Henry P 72 

Hermanus 103 

Jan 14,60,71 

John 81 

Martin 5,73 

Mans 73 

Peter M 48 

Van Buskirk, John 77, 82 

Joseph 82 

Martin 82, 91 

Richard ^ 

Van Cortland, Jacobus 76 

Vandenberg, Benjamin 48 72 

Barent '72 

Cornelius 8, 33 

Cornelius W 60 

Gerrit 6, 14, 54 

Richard 93 

Wynant '. 60, 63 

Wynant C 82 

Van der Cook. Michael 91 

Michaels 35 

Simon 91, 93 

Van der Heyden. David 13 

Derrick 6 

Pi'-'-'k 13,14,59 

Jacob 7, 13, 14 

Jacob D 

IS, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,' 32, 33, 25 

Jacob 1 5, 17, 18 

John D 19 

Matthias 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 

Mattys IS 

Nanning 18 

Van der Heyden's Ferry 13, 16, 35, 101 

Vanderhoff, Hendrick 62 

Van der Poel, Anthony 71 

Isaac 48 




Van der Poel, Jacobus 71,72,73 

Wynant G 12 

Vanderse, Killian 6 

Wouter 6 

Van der Werken, Tenis 83 

Vanderzee, Harmon 108 

Vandeuse, Melgert 5 

Rut 5 

Van Deusen, Lawrence, .*. 112 

Wilhelm 53 

Van Dyck, Peter D 8 

Van Hagen, Abner 72 

Hansel .' 72 

Jacobus 72 

Van Hoosen, Ganet 85 

Van Horn, Garrett 81 

Van Home, Augustus 85 

Van Hasen, John 141 

Van Namee, Aaron 91 

Moses 91 

Van Ness, Cornelius 43, 77, 81 

Gerrit 43 

Hendrick 43, 76, 77 

Jacobus 72, 81, 130 

Jan 43 

John 72, 81 

Jr., John 72 

Peter 14 

Van Pelt, Sr., Alexander 40 

Jr., Alexander 40 

Daniel 103 

Hiram 104 

Van Rennselaer, David 81, 130 

Francis 45 

Hendrick 5,13,58 

Henry K 130 

Jan Baptist 11 

Jeremias 12. 43. 45. 136 

John 7, 8, 19, 33, 36, 44, 62 

John J 44 

Kiliaen. . . .4, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 42, 70 

K. K 136 

Maria 13,76,77 

Peter 30 

Robert 14 


44. 50, 73, 77, 104, 112, 113, 130 

William P 55, 112, 138 

Van Schelluyne, Dirk 12 

Van Schaick, Anthony 33, 35 

Gerrit 5 

Jacob 44 

Sylvandt 60 

Van Schoonhoven, Guert 8, 22 

Jacobus 14 

Van Tress, William 137, 139 

VanTuyl, Abm 87 

Van Valkenburgh, Hansie 71 

Jacob 71,72,130 

Jerominus 71 

Johannis J 73 

Lawrence 133 

Sylvester 74 

Van Varick, James 33 

Vanvarter, Harmon 91 

Van Vechten, Cornelius 5,43 

Dirk 59,60,61,62 

Harmon 7, 61 

Jno 5 

Solomon 5 

TeunisD 43 

Volcort 5 

Walter 77, 82 

Van Velsen, Sweer T 12 

Van Vleck, Abner K 33 

William 40 

Van Voast. Isaac L 41 

Van Voorhis, G 74 

Van Wessels, Jan 32 

Van Wie, Gerrit 5,33 

Jan 5 

Van Woert, Abm 92 

John 91,92 

Lewis 62,81 

Van Woggelum, Peter 11,12,13,31,32 

Van Wonner, John 130 


Van Wyck, Isaac 17 

Van Wyen, Hendrick 6 

Vars, Benjamin 119 

Vary, Ciark 182 

Vedder, Korset 59, 60 

Viall, D. H 68 

rVickery, Caleb S 124 

Vickory, "Joseph 72 

Viele, Abraham 63 

Lewis 60,77,82 

Ludovicus 91 

Peter 60,77,82 

Sybrandt 63 

Vining, Scott 139 

Vischer, Johs. H 59 

Voorheis, Martin 77 

Vosburgh, Abm. P 12 

John 141 

John I 108 

Petrus 98 

Voss, Peter 128 

Vrooman, Adam 77 

Wager, Barnard J 102 

Daniel 102 

Jacob 17, 103 

Jacob J 103 

John 102,138 

Leonard 39 

Nicholas 17 

Peter 112 

William 105 

Waite, Beniamin 81 

RufusS 115 

Wakefield, Edwin 105 

Walbridge, E. W 36, 38 

Waldo, John ISO 

Waldron, Gerrit 63 

Walfahert, Fred 136 

Walker, Henry 81 

James 45 

John 33, 34 

Luther 19 

Wallace, David 85 

Thomas 38 

T. J 86 

Wallis, Elijah 83 

Wally,W. D 133 

Walsh, John 39 

Walloomsac 79, 80, 81, 88 

Patent 77 

Walworth, Benjamin 83 

John 81 

Reuben H 81 

Wand, Robert 38 

Wandelaer, John D 8,60 

War, Revolutionary 13, 14, 34, 62, 79, 102 

Secession 29, 30, 38 

1812 37,49,50,81 

Ward, Aaron 33, 34, 36 

Fletcher 94 

Henry 49 

John 24 

Thomas 40 

Warner, Seth 128 

Warren, Eliakim 33 

Henry 93 

Moses 25 

Nathan 87 

Stephen 37 

Washburn, Ebenezer 99 

Waterbury, David 122, 123 

M.H 45 

Sylvester 45 

Watson, Elkanah 26, 35, 136 

Ralph 33 

Waugh, Thaddeus 24 

Way, Allen 67 

Weatherwax, Andres 135. 138 

Andrew L 50 

Barney 108 

Henry 140 

Laurentius 103 

Martin 63 

Peter 10s 

Samuel 140 

Weaver, Frederick 33. 34 



Weaver, George S. 
James . . . , 
Nicholas. . 


Webb, Isaac 

Webster, Mather . . . 

Weed, Alsop 

Weeks, Silas 

Weem, James 

Welch, Abm 


Samuel D . . . 

Seth P 

Wellman, Jedediah . 

Wells, Jr., Edward . 

Elisha . 















I. M 24,27 

J. D 115 

Wemp, Jan B 11, 12, 13 

John 13 

Myndert 13 

Wendell, Abm 6,33 

Barney 54 

Chauncey I 54 

David S 54 

Guert 8 

J 43 

Johs 6 

Johannis 31 

Philip 6,53 

Robert 32,a3, 34, 101 

Wescott, Joseph 117 

West, Benjamin 112 

David 115 

Elijah 139 

Francis Ill 

James 112 

J. E 37 

Nathan 112 

Oliver 114 

Thomas 112 

Westfall, James 55 

W. H 55 

WestHoosick 88 

Westinghouse, J 92 

West Nassau 116 

West Sandlake 142 

West Stephentown 133 

Wetser, Joseph 137 

Wettek, John 77 

Wheeler, Jacob 142 

Whipple, John 102 

John 36.37,38 

R. P 13!) 

White, Andrew 87 

John 86 

Whitford, Edv/ard 119 

Joshua 117, 119, 129, 130 

Whittaker, Ephraim 140 

Whyland, Alonzo 108 

John F 108 

Whylie, Jacob 132 

James 132 

John 130 

Weatherly, George W 131 

Wickes, Silas 63 

Wickwire, Jonathan 33, 40 

Wight, Daniel 86,140 

Wilcox, Joseph ^-n4r... r..iy^..-. : ^ 115 

Wilder, Lyman 86,87,88 

Wilds, Timothy B 115 

Wilkeson, Benjamin 108 

Wilkinson, J ohn 130 

Willard, George L 30 

Moses 24, 27 

Williams. Charles 77,90 

D. E 93 


Williams, Jacob 66 

James 33 

John 38.91 

Jon athan 122 

Nathan 21 

Reuben 92 

Stephen 84 

Williamson, Gerrit 77 

Hendrick 43 

James 62,81 

Willett, Elbert J 92 

Willmet, John 44 

Wilmot, Abijah r 133 

Silas 139 

Wilson, Alexander 83 

Hugh . . 122 

James 33, 34 

John 19, 102 

Solomon 81 

Wing, David 83 

Winne, Daniel ... 5 

Serinus 101 

Marte 60 

Peter 60 

Peter P 66 

Winston, Abm 129 

Witbeck, Casparus 48 

C. W 37 

Hans 72 

Jan 5 

Jouat 5, 72 

Jonathan T 48 

Jno 6 

Luykas ... 5 

Peter W 48 

Tho 5 

Thomas L 22 

Tobias 48 

William 54 

Withy, Henry 139 

Witt, John D 33 

Wolcott, John 38 

Wood, Jonathan 33 

Walter A 86, 87 

Wood, Walter A., M. & R. Machine Co 86, 87 

Woods, James 54 

John 54 

Woodward. Benjamin 24 

John M 99 

Woodworth, John 19,21,22 

Robert 7, 8, 18 

Worden, Moses 130 

Walter 129 

Worthington, Aaron 99 

John 112 

Wright, James 93 

Wyland, David H 54 

Wynants, Henry L 139 

Wynkoop, John D 33, 34 

Yates, Christopher 48 

Jacob 62, 63 

Jacob P 92 

John 44 

John Waters 8 

Jonathan 91 

Peter go, 63 

PeterW '33 

Richard 72 

Robert '.;".: .33, 35, 44 

Young, George ig 

Henry ; ig gg 

John 34,sj 

Joseph 33 

Nicholas 60 

Vounghans, Hendrick 185 

Wynant 137, 138 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1880, by J. M. Francis & Tucker, in the Office of the 
Librarian of Congress, at Washington.