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The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924065775144 



o JOHNSON'S 

(REVISED) 

UNIVERSAL CYCLOPEDIA: 

A SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR 

TEEASUET 



USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH ^APS, PLANS, AND ENGRAVINGS. 

EDITORS-IN-CHIEF. 

FREDEEICK A. P. BARNARD, S.T.D., LL.D., L.H.D., M.N.A.S., 

PKESIDENT OP COLUMBIA COLLEGE, NEW YORK ; 

ARNOLD GUYOT, Ph.D., LL.D., M.N.A.S., 

PEOFESSOR OF GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY. 



ASSOCIATE 

Maetin B. Andbr.son, A.M., LL.D., 

Presideut of the University of Rochester, N. Y. 

John G. Baenakd, A.M., LL.D., M.N.A.S., 

Col. tJ. S. Bngineera, Bvt. Major-Gen. U. S. A. 

C. F. Chandlek, Ph. D., M.D., LL.D., M. N. A. S., 

Prof. Aual. Chem., School of Mines, Columbia College 

Aaron L. Chapin, A. M., S. T. D., 

President of Beloit College, "WisconBin 

Henry DRisiiER, A. M., LL.D., 

Jay Profeaaor of Greek, Columbia College 

Theodore W. Dwight, A. M., LL.D., 

Professor of Municipal Law, Columbia College 

OcTAvius B. Frothingham, a. M., 

Late Paator Third Unitarian Society, N. Y. City 

Theodore Gill, A.M., M.D., Ph.D., M.N. A.S., 

Prof, of Zoology, Columbian University, Washington, D. C. 

Asa Gray, M.D., LL.D., M.N.A.S., 

Fisher Professor of Natural History, Harvard University 

Horace Greeley, LL.D., 

Founder of the New York Tribune 

Samuel S. Haideman, A. M., LL.D., M. N. A. S., 

Prof, of Comparative Philology in the Univ. of Peun. 

"William T, Haeeis, A. M., LL.D., 

Ed, of The Journal of Speculative Phil., St. Louis, Mo. 

Joseph Henby, LL.D., M. N. A. S., 

Late Secretary of Smithsonian Institution 

EoswELL D. Hitchcock, A. M., S. T. D., LL.D., 

President of the Union Theol. Sera., New York 

Chaeles p. Keauth, a.m., 8.T.D., LL.D., 

Vice-Provost of the University of Penn. 



EDITORS. 

John Le Conte, A. M., M. D., LL.D., 

Prof, of Physics, Uuiv. of California 

S. B. Luce, 

Ecar-Admiral, U. S. N. 

Geokge p. Maesh, LL.D., M.N. A.S., 

Late Minis. Plenipo. of U. S. at E^me, Italy 

John S. Newbeeey, M. D., LL.D., M. N. A. S., 

Prof, of Geology and Palaeontology, Columbia College 

WiLLAED Parkee, A. M., M. D., LL.D., 

Professor of Surgery, Columbia College, Med. Dept. 

William G. Peck, A. M., LL.D., 

Professor of Astronomy and Mathematics, Columbia College 

John D. Philbkick, LL.D., D. C. L., 

Late Supt. of Public Schools of Boston 

Philip Schapp, Ph. D., S. T. D., LL.D., 

Baldwin Prof, of Sacred Lit., Union Theol. Sem., N. Y. 

Julius H. Seelye, A.M., S.T.D., LL.D., 

President of Amherst College, Mass. 

Ainswoeth R. Spoppoed, LL.D., 

Librarian of Congress 

William Staunton, S. T. D., 

Founder and First Rect. of St, Peter's Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Alexander H. Stephens, A. M., LL.D., 

Of Georgia, Member 43d Congress, U. S. A. 

Abel Stevens, A. M., LL.D., 

Formerly Editor of the Methodist, New York 

Thomas O. Summers, S.T. D., LL.D., 

Late Professor of Syst. Theol., Vanderbilt Univ., Tenn. 

Wm. p. Teowbeidge, A.m., Ph.D., LL.D., M.N.A.S. 

Prof, of Engineei-ing, Columbia College 



Theodoee D. Woolsey, S.T.D., LL.D., 

Ex-President of Yale College, Conn. 
ASSISTANT EDITORS. 

PoETEB C. Bliss, A. M., L. P. Brockett, A. M., M. D., Geoege Chase, LL.B., Claeence Cook, 
Peof. E. D. Hudson, Jr., M. D., Clemens Petersen, A. M., John N. Pomeeoy, LL.D. 

WITH NDMEROUa CONTRIBCTTIONS FEOM WRITERS OF DISTINGUISHED EMINENCE IN EVERY DEPARTMENT 
OF LETTERS AND SCIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE. 



^ifWSiUk m ^ijjljt "^(tgal ^dmsf ^iflmm, mMm ^ltF«tlix, 



VOL. V. 



ZilGHTINa — Onimus. 



A.. 



(TESTIMONIALS AT THE END OF LAST VOLUME.) 

NEW YORK: 
J. JOHN^SON^ & CO, 

11 GREAT JONES STREET, NEAR BROADWAY. 

M. T. BROWN, DAVENPOET, lA. 

MDCCCLXXXVI. 



%(\^^3 6". 



COPPER-PLATE MAPS ESPECIALLY EN&RAVED FOR JOHNSON'S CYCLOPEDIA. 



Name. 
Africa. 
Alabama. 
Alaska Territory. 
Arizona Territory. 
Arkansas. 
Asia. 
Australia. 
California. 
Canada. 

Centre of U. S. Pop. 
Colorado. 
Connecticut. 
Dakota Territory. 
Delaware. 

District of Columbia. 
Europe. 

Europe under the Romans. 
Europe under Carlovingians. 
Europe under Napoleon I. 
Europe, Languages of. 
Florida. 
France. 
Georgia. 
German Empire. 



Name. 
Great Britain and Ireland. 
Greece. 

Idaho Territory. 
Illinois. 
Indiana. 

Indian Territory. 
Iowa. 
Kansas. 
Kentucky. 
Louisiana. 
Maine. 
Maryland. 
Massachusetts. 
Michigan. 
Minnesota. 
Mississippi. 
Missouri. 

Montana Territory. 
Mts. and Kivers of the World. 
National Emblems. 
Nebraska. 
Nevada. 

New Hampshire. 
New Jersey. 
New Mexico Territory. 

PHYSICAL MAPS OP THE WORLD. 



Name. 
New York. 
North America. 
North Carolina. 
Ohio. 
Oregon. 
Pennsylvania. 
Rhode Island. 
Russia. 

South America. 
South Carolina. 
Stellar Type Spectra. 
Switzerland. 
Tennessee. 
Texas. 
Turkey. 
United States. 
Utah Territory. 
Vermont. 
Virginia. 

Washington Territory. 
West Virginia. 
Wisconsin. 
World. 
Wyoming Territory. 



Principal Mountains, Plateaus, and Plains. 
Distribution of Temperature of the Air. 
Lines of Equal Magnetic Declination. 
Ocean Currents and Great River Basins. 



Tidal Wave and Distribution of Volcanoes. 
Circulation of Winds and Course of Storms. 
Distribution of Rain over the Globe. 
Distribution of Forest Trees, Plants, and Minerals. 



->-^5«»^K^5«e-<- 



Enteeed according to Act op Congkess, in the year One Thousand Eight Hdndeed and Eighty-six, 

BY A. J. JOHNSON & CO., IN THE Office of the Libkarian of Congress, at Washington. 

ALL EIGHTS EESERVED. 



electbotyped et 

■\Vestcott & Thomson, 

PhiladelpliifL 



/CORNELL^, 



v\ 



LIBRARY 



/J 



0D[ 

5V 



printed bt 

Burr Printing House, 18 Jacob St., 

New York. 



ENGBAVING8 PniNCIPALLY BY 

Redman & Kenny, 
New York. 



paper manttfactttred by 

Seymour Paper Co. 

New York. 



BOUND BY 

John Somerville, 
New York. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE EDITORIAL STAFF. 



^'ij^'-i' The following statement shows the suhjects to which the different' members of the Editorial Staff have severally 
given their more particular attention, not only in themselves preparing articles relating to those subjects, but also in 
securing contributions from others, and in carefully scrutinizing all such contributions with a view both to ensure accu- 
racy and to exclude anything which might seem objectionable. 



DIRECTING EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: 

FREDEEICK A. P. BAENARD. 

ADVISORY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: 

AENOLD GUYOT. 

DEPARTMENTS 
(see Title-Page for honorary degrees and positions) : 

Public Law, Intercourse of Natiom, etc THEODOEE D. WOOLSEY. 

Municipal, Civil, and Constitutional Law, etc THEODORE W. DWIGHT. 

Grecian and Roman Literature, etc HENRY DRISLER. 

Presbyterian Church— History, Doctrine, Biographies, etc. . . ROSWELL D. HITCHCOCK. 

Meteorology, Electricity, and Magnetism ... . . . JOSEPH HENRY.* 

Philosophy, Psychology, He WILLIAM T. HARRIS. 

Social Science, Political Economy, etc. . . . . AARON L. CHAPIN. 

American History, Southern Geography, Statistics, etc. . . ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS.* 
The Fine Arts, Liberal Christianity, Biographies, etc. . . OCTAVIUS B. FROTHINGHAM. 

Ecclesiastiad History and Biblical Literature PHILIP SCHAFF. 

English and Foreign Literature, etc GEORGE P. MARSH.* 

Astronomy and Higher Mathematics WILLIAM G. PECK. 

General Physics, Statistics of the Pacific Coast, etc. JOHN LE CONTE. 

Comparative Philology and Linguistics SAMUEL S. HALDEMAN.* 

Mathematics, Applied Science, Protestant Episcopal Church, Education, etc. FRED. A. P. BARNARD. 
Physical Geography, Foreign Geography, Climatology, etc. . . . ARNOLD GUYOT.* 

Zoology, Comparative Anatomy, and Animal Physiology ... . THEODORE GILL. 

Mechanics, Meclwmical Engineering, etc WILLIAM P. TROWBRIDGE. 

Education, Schools, etc JOHN D. PHILBRICK. 

Methodist Church, South — History, Doctrine, Biographies, etc. . . THOMAS 0. SUMMERS.* 

Chemistry, its Applications, etc. "■ CHARLES F. CHANDLER. 

Military Engineering, Science and Material of War, Biographies, etc. . JOHN G. BARNARD.* 

Botany and Vegetable Physiology ASA GRAY. 

American History, Statistics, Agriculture, etc HORACE GREELEY.* 

Geology and Paleontology JOHN S. NEWBERRY. 

Naval Affairs, Naval Construction, Navigation, Biographies, etc S. B. LUCE. 

Medicine, Surgery, the Collateral Sciences, etc. - . WILLAED PARKER.* 

Baptist Church — History, Doctrine, Biographies, etc MARTIN B. ANDERSON. 

Congregational Church — Ethical Science, Biographies, etc JULIUS H. SEELYE. 

Philosophical and Church Dogmatics; Lutheran Church — Biographies, etc. CHARLES P. KRAUTH.* 

American History, Statistics, etc AINSWORTH R. SPOFFORD. 

Methodist Church, North — History, Doctrine, Biographies, etc. . ABEL STEVENS. 

Music, Theory of Harmony, Composition, Musical Terms, etc. . . WILLIAM STAUNTON. 

ASSISTANTS : 
PORTER C. BLISS, LINUS P. BROCKETT, GEORGE CHASE, 

CLARENCE COOK, E. D. HUDSON, Jb., CLEMENS PETERSEN, 

JOHN NORTON POMEROY. 

*The namea of the following gentlemen — J. G. Barnard, Horace (rreeley, Arnold Guyot, S. S. Haldeman, Joseph 
Henry, C. P. Krauth, George P. Marsh, Willard Parker, Alexander H. Stephens, Thomas 0. Summers — have been, 
with justice, retained upon the Editorial Staff, as their latest labors were given to this work. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FIFTH VOLUME 



OF 



JOHNSON'S UmVERSAL CYCLOPEDIA. 

(REVISED.) 



Abbe, Prof. Cleveland, M. A., Washington, D. C, 

Director of Government Weather Bureau. 

Alexander, Prof. Stephen, LL.D., Princeton, N. J., 

Late Professor of Astronomy in College of N. J. 

Allen, Franklin, Brooklyn, N. Y., 

Secretary of ex-Mayor Low. 

Anderson, Martin B., A. M., LL.D., 

President of the University of Rochester, N. Y. 

Anderson, Key. Rufus, S. T. D., LL.D., Boston, Mass., 
Formerly Secretary of the A. B. C. F. M. 
Andrews, George L., West Point, N. Y., 

Prof, of Modern. Languages in the U. S. Military Academy. 

Andrews, Israel W., D. D., LL.D., Marietta, O., 

Former Pres. Marietta College. 
Angell, James B., LL.D., Ann Arbor, Mich., 

President of Michigan University. 

Anthony, Miss Susan Brownell, New York. 

Arnold, John W. S., M. D., New York, 

Prof, of Physiology in the N. Y. University Medical College. 

Atwbod, David, Madison, Wis., Editor of State Journal 
Aucaigne, Prof. Felix, A. M., LL.B., New York, 

Foreign Editor of New York Commercial Advertiser. 
Austin, Coe F., Esq., Closter, N. J. 
Axon, William E. A., Esq., Manchester, England. 
Bailey, William W., A. M., Providence, E. I. 
Baird, Henry M., Esq., New York, 

New York, University of the City of 
Barker, George F., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa., 

Professor of Physics, University of Pennsylvania. 

Barnard, Frederick A. P., S. T. D., LL.D., L. H. D., 
M. N. A. S., 

President of Columbia College, N. Y. 

Barnard, John G., A. M., LL.D., M. N. A. S.. 

Late Col. U. S. Engineers, Bvt. Major-Gen. U. S. Army. 
Barnes, P., Esq., New York. 
Bermingham, Edward J., M. D., New York. 

Belts, Eev. Beverley R., A. M., New York, 

Former Librarian of Columbia College. 
Birch, Samuel, LL.D., London, England, 

Of the British Museum. 
Bishop, J. B., Esq., New York, New York Tribune. 

Blackburn, W. Jasper, Esq., Little Rock, Ark., 

Editor of Free South. 

Blake, William P., A. M., Ph. B., New Haven, Conn., 
Former Prof of Mineralogy and Geology, Coll. of California. 

Bliss, Porter C, A. M., New York. 

Brace, Rev. Charles L., New York, 

Secretary of Children's Aid Society. 
Brand, Rev. William F., A. M., Emmerton, Md., 

Rector of St. Mary's Church. 
Brewer, Thomas M., M. D., 

Late Editor of The History of North American Birds. 



Briggs, Rev. Charles A., D. D., New York, 
Professor of Hebrew and the Cognate Languages, Union The- 
ological Seminary. 

Brockett, Linus P., A. M., M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y., 

Editor of Descriptive America. 
Buck, Gurdon, M. D., New York. 

Burgess, John W., LL.D., 
Professor of Political History and Public Law, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York. 

Burwell, Lieut. W. T., U. S. N., Annapolis, Md. 

Caldwell, R. C, Esq., London, England. 

Calhoun, J. D., Lincoln, Neb., 

Managing Editor of Daily State Journal. 
Cameron, Henry C, Ph. D., D. D., Princeton, N. J., 

Professor of Greek in College of New Jersey. 

Chadbourne, Rev. P. A., LL.D., Williamstown, Mass., 

Late President of Williams College. 

Chandler, Charles F., Ph. D., M. D., LL.D., M. N. A. S., 

Prof. Anal. Chem., School of Mines, Columbia College, N. Y. 

Chapin, Aaron L., A. M., S.'T. D., 

President of Beloit College, Wis. 
Chase, George, LL.B., New York, 

Professor of Criminal Law, Columbia College Law School. 

Church, Prof. John A., E. M., New York, 

Associate Editor Army and Navy Journal. 
Comstock, Gen. Cyrus B., TJ. S. Engineers, 

President of the Mississippi River Commission. 
Cook, Clarence, Esq., New York, Editor of The Studio. 

Cornwall, Henry B., E. M., Princeton, N. J., 
Professor of Analytical Chemistry, Mineralogy, etc.. College 

of New Jersey. 

Craighead, Erwin, Esq., Mobile, Ala., Mobile Register. 
Croes, J. James B., C. E., New York, 
Member of American Society of Civil Engineers and of the 
Institute of Civil Engineers. 

Curtis, Edward, M. D., New York, 
Prof, of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Medical Depart- 
ment, Columbia College. 

Curtis, John G., M. D., Columbia College, N. Y., 
Professor of Physiology and Hygiene and Secretary of the 

Faculty of Medicine. 

Daly, Judge Charles P., LL.D., New York, 

Pres. of the American Geographical and Statistical Society. 
Davidson, Thomas, A. M., Cambridge, Mass. 
Davis, L. D., Esq., Newport, R. I., Editor of the News. 
Day, E. C. H., Esq., New York, 

Prof, of Geology and Physiology in New York Normal College. 
Dixon, W. J., Esq., London, England. 
Doak, H. M., Memphis, Tenn., Editor of Avalanche. 

Dodge, Rev. Ebenezer, D. D,, LL.D., 

President of Madison University, Hamilton, N. Y. 
Drisler, Henry, A. M., LL.D., 

Jay Professor of Greek, Columbia College. 



IV 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTOES. 



Dwight, Theodore W., A. M., LL.D., 

Professor of Municipal Law, Columbia College, N. Y. 

Eads, James B., LL.D., C. E., 

Chief Engineer of Mississippi River .Tetties and of the Ship- 
Eailway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 

Egle, William H., M. D., Harrisburg, Pa., 

Author of History of Pennsylvania. 

Emerson, George B., LL.D., Boston, Mass., 

Late President Boston Society of Natural History. 

Ernst, Major Oswald H., U. S. Engineers, West Point, 
Instructor in Practical Military Engineering, etc. in the U. S. 

Military Academy. 

Erslew, Prof. Edward, Copenhagen, Denmark, 

President of Royal Geographical Society. 

Eve, Paul F., M. D., Nashville, Tenn., 
Late Prof, of Operative and Clinical Surg., Univ. of Nashville. 

Farlow, William G., M. D., Cambridge, Mass., 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany in Harvard University. 

Farnliam, Charles H., Esq., New York. 

Fiske, John, LL.B., Cambridge, Maas., 

Assistant Librarian Harvard University. 

Folwell, William W., A. M., Minneapolis, Minn., 

University of Minnesota. 

Forshey, Caleb G., A. M., C. E., 

Late Prof, of Math, and Civ. Eng. in Jefferson College, Miss. 

Fox, Hon. Gustavus V., Lowell, Mass., 

Late Assistant Secretary of the Navy. 

Frothingham, O. B., A. M., 

Late Pastor Third Unitarian Society, New York City. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, Esq., Boston, Mass. 

Gill, Theodore, A. M., M. D., Ph. D., M. N. A. S., 

Prof, of Zoology, Columbian University, Washington, D. C. 

Gillmore, Quincy A., New York, 

Col. U. S. Engineers, Bvt. Maj.-Gen. U. S. A. 

Gilman, Rev. Edward W., S. T. D., New York. 

Godet, Rev. Frederic, S. T. D., NeufchS,tel, Switzerland, 

Professor of Theology. 

Gray, Asa, M. D., LL.D., M. N. A. S., 

• Fisher Professor of Natural History, Harvard University. 

Greene, Charles W., A. M., M. D., Merchantville, N.J. 

Griffin, George Butler, Esq., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Gubernatis, Prof. Angelo de, Florence, Italy. 

Guyot, Arnold, Ph. D., LL.D., M. N. A. S., 
Late Prof, of Geology and Phys. Geog., College of New Jersey. 

Hagner, Gen. Peter V., U. S. Ordnance, Watervliet, 
West Troy, N. Y. 

Haldeman, Samuel S., A. M., LL.D., M. N. A.S., 
Late Prof, of Comparative Philology in Univ. of Pennsylvania. 
Hamilton, Allan McLane, M. D., New York. 
Harger, A. D., Oconomowoc, Wis., Editor of the Times. 

Harris, William T., A. M., LL.D., 

Ed. of the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, St. Louis, Mo. 

Harvey, Rev. M., S. T. D., Newfoundland. 
Hathaway, John R., Norfolk, Va., Editor of Day Book. 

Henry, Joseph, LL.D., M. N. A. S., 

Late Secretary of Smithsonian Institution. 
Herrick, Rev. J. R., S. T. D., South Hadley, Mass. 

Herrick, Mrs. S. B., Baltimore, Md., 

Associate Editor of the Southern Review. 

Hitchcock, Roswell D., A. M., S. T. D., LL.D., 

President of the Union Theological Seminary, N. Y. 

Hobbs, B. C, Esq. 

Hogg, John W., Esq., Washington, D. C, 

Chief Clerk of Navy Department. 
Holder, J. B., M. D., New York, 

Curator of the Museum of Natural History. 



Holley, George W., Esq., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Hough, Prof. George W., LL.D., Albany, N. Y., 

Directory of the Dudley Observatory. 

Hudson, E. Darwin, Jr., A. M., M. D., 
Prof of General Medicine and Diseases of the Chest in the 
New York Polyclinic, Visiting Physician to Bellevue Hos- 
pital, and Physician in St. Elizabeths Hospital. 

Jacobi, Abraham, M. D., New York, 
Clinical Prof, of the Diseases of Children, School of Medicine, 

Columbia College. 

Janes, M. P., New York. 

Johnston, Keith, Esq., London, England, 

Late Librarian to the Royal Geographical Society. 

Jordan, Gen. Thomas, New York. 

Krauth, Charles P., A. M., S. T. D., LL.D., 

Late Yioe-Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Krober, Rev. Philip, D. D., Atchison, Kan. 

Kroeger, A. E., Esq., St. Louis, Mo., 

Author of The Minnesingers of Germany. 

Lanman, Charles, Esq., Georgetown, D. C, 

Former American Secretary Japanese Legation. 

Leland, Charles G., A. M., London, England, 

Author of 'Hans Breitmann's Ballads. 

Linderman, H. B., Esq., Philadelphia, Pa., 

Late Director of U. S. Mint. 

Luce, Stephen B., U. S. N., 

Rear-Admiral, Pres. of Naval AVar College, Newport, R. I. 

Lusher, Robert M., Esq., New Orleans, La., 

Ex -Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Lynde, Hon. William P., Milwaukee, Wis., 

Late Member of Congress. 

McCormick, Lieut.-Com. Alex. H., U. S. N., An- 
napolis, Md. 

Marsh, Mrs. Caroline C, Rome, Italy, 

Widow of late Hon. George P. Marsh, LL.D. 

Marsh, George P., LL.D., M. N. A. S., 
Late Envoy Extr. and Minis. Plenipo. of U. S. at Rome, Italy. 

Marsh, J. B. T., Esq., Oberlin College, O. 

Marsh, Othniel C, A. M., New Haven, Conn., 
Professor of Palaeontology in Yale College and President of 
the National Academy of Sciences. 

Mayer, Alfred M., Ph.D.,M. N. A. S., Hoboken, N. J., 
Professor of Physics, Stevens Technological Institute. 
Merrick, Prof. J. M., Boston, Mass. 
Merrill, Col. William E., u. S. Engineers. 

Morgan, Hon. Lewis H., LL.D., Rochester, N. Y. 
Mund^, Paul F., M. D., New York. 

Newberry, John S., M. D., LL.D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, Columbia College. 

Newcomb, Simon, LL.D., F. R. A. S., Baltimore, Md., 

Professor of Mathematics in Johns Hopkins University. 

Newhall, George T., Esq., Lynn, Mass., Ed. of Transcript. 
Newton, Hubert A., LL.D., M. N. A. S., New Haven, 
Conn., Professor of Mathematics, Yale College. 

Newton, Robert S., M. D., New York, 

Late Editor of the American Eclectic Medical Review. 
Niemann, Capt. August, Gotha, Saxony, 
Ed. for Genealogy and Diplomatics of the Almanach de Gotha. 

Packard, A. S., Jr., M. D., M. N. A. S., Salem, Mass., 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Sciences. 
Palmer, C. M., Minneapolis, Minn., 

Publisher of North-western Miller. 
Park, James D., Esq. 

Parker, Foxhall A., U. S. N., 

Late Supt. of U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 
Parrott, R. D. A., Esq., New York. 



LIST OF CONTEIBUTOES. 



Paraons, Theophilus, LL.D., 

Late Dane Professor of Law in Harvard University. 

Payne, Rev. Charles H., D. D., LL,D., Delaware, O., 

President of Wesleyan University. 
Peabody, Miss Elizabeth P., Cambridge, Mass., 

Author of Spiritual Culture, etc. 
Peck, William G., Ph. D., LL.D., 

Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, Colum. Coll., N. Y. 
Petersen, Clemens, A. M., New York. 

Phelps, Wm. F., M. A., Winona, Minn., 

President of the National Educational Society. 
Philbrick, John D., LL.D., D. C. L., 

Late Supt, of Boston Public Schools. 
Pomeroy, Prof. John Norton, LL.D., San Francisco, 
Cal., Late Dean of Hastings School of Law. 

Porter, Noah, S. T. D., LL.D., New Haven, Conn., 

President of Yale College. 
Post, Truman M., S. T. D., St. Louis, Mo. 
Prescott, W. W., Montpelier, Vt., 

Editor of Vermont Watchman and State Journal. 
Proctor, Richard A., B. A., F. R. A. S., London, Eng., 
Secretary of the Royal Astronomical Society. 
Rendall, L N., Esq., Chester, Pa., 

Lincoln University, Chester, Pa. 
Ridgely, James L., Esq., Baltimore, Md., 

Late Grand Cor. and Rec. Sec. R. W. G. L. I. 0. O. F. U. S. 

Roberts, Rev. W. H., D. D., Princeton, N. J., 
Stated Clerk and Treasurer of General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church in U. S. 

Ross, Theodore A., Esq., Baltimore, Md. 

Rowell, E. T., Lowell, Mass., Editor of Courier. 

Schaff, Philip, Ph. D., S. T. D., LL.D., 

Baldwin Prof, of Sacred Lit,, Union Theol. Sem., New York. 
Schweinitz, Edmund Alexander, Esq., Bethlehem, Pa. 
Schweinitz, Edmund de, Esq., Bethlehem, Pa., 

President of Moravian Theological Seminary. 
Scott, Major Robert N., Oswego, N. Y., u. S. Artillery. 
Screws, W. W., Montgomery, Ala., 
Editor and Proprietor of Daily and Weekly Advertiser and Mail. 

Seelye, Julius H., A. M., S. T. D., LL.D., 

President of Amherst College, Mass. 

Seguin, E. C, Jr., M. D., 

Clinical Prof, of Diseases of the Mind and Nervous System, 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, N. Y. 

Shaler, Prof. N. S., S. B., Cambridge, Mass., 
Professor of Palseotitology in Harvard University and Director 
of the Museum of Comparative Anatomy. 

Shields, Charles W., S. T. D., Princeton, N. J., 

Professor of History in the College of New Jersey. 

Silliman, Benjamin, M. D., LL.D., 

Late State Chemist of Connecticut. 
Simmons, George C, Esq., New York, 

Clerk U. S. Board of Engineers. 
Sims, J. Marion, M. D., New York. 
Smith, E. Munroe, Esq., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Smith, George, Esq., London, England. 

Smith, J. Lawrence, M. D., LL.D., M. N. A. S., Louis- 
ville, Ky., Late Prof, of Chemistry, Medical School, 
University of Louisville. 
Smith, Richard S., 

Formerly Professor of Drawing in the U. S. Naval Academy. 

Snowden, A. Loudon, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa., 

Late Superintendent U. S. Mint. 



Spofford, Ainsworth R., LL.D., Washington, D. C, 

Librarian of Congress. 
Spooner, Alden J., Esq., Brooklyn, N. Y., 

Late Editor of Long Island Star. 
Staunton, William, S. T. D., 

Founder and first Rector of St. Peter's Ch., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Stearns, Eben S., D. D., LL.D., 

Chancellor of University of Nashville, Tenn. 

Stephens, Alexander H., A. M., LL.D., 

Late Governor of Georgia. 
Stevens, Abel, A. M., LL.D., 

Formerly Editor of the Methodist, New York. 

Stiles, Henry R., M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y., 

Author of History of County of Kings and City of Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 

Stockbridge, Hon. Henry, Baltimore, Md. 

Strickland, William P., Esq. 

Stuart, H. L., Esq., New York. 

Sumraei-s, Thomas O., S. T. D., LL.D., 

Late Prof of Systematic Theology, Vanderbilt Univ., Tenn. 

Tarr, Ralph S., Esq., Cambridge, Mass. 

Thurston, Robert H., C. E., Hobokcn, N. J., 

Prof of Mechanical Engineering in the Stevens Tech. Inst. 

Tillett, Rev. Wilbur F., Nashville, Tenn., 

Prof, of Systematic Theology in Vanderbilt University. 

Trowbridge, Wm. P., A. M., Ph. D., LL.D., M .N. A. S., 

Professor of Engineering, Columbia College, New York. 

Tuckey, Miss Janet, London, England, 

Pupil of Dr. Birch, British Museum. 
Tyler, William S., S. T. D., LL.D., Amherst, Mass., 

Williston Prof of the Greek Lan. and Lit., Amherst College. 
Tylor, Edward Burnett, LL.D., F. R. S., Wellington, 
Somerset, England, Author of Primitive Culture, etc. 
Vaux, W. S. W., A. M., F. R. S., London, England, 

President of the London Numismatic Society. 
Vinton, Francis L., E. M., New York, 
Prof of Civil and Mining Engineering, School of Mines, Co- 
lumbia College. 
Waldo, Leonard, Esq., Cambridge, Mass., 
Assistant in the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard Uni- 
versity. 
Walker, Judge Alexander, New Orleans, La. 
Waller, Elwyn, Ph. D., A. M., E. M., 

Instructor in Analytical Chemistry, School of Mines, N. Y. 
Washburn, Hon. Charles A., A. M„ Oakland, Cal., 

Late U. S. Minister Resident in Paraguay. 
Wheeler, Francis B., D. D., Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Whitford, Rev. W. C, D.D., 

President of Milton College, Wis. 
Whitney, Prof. James A., LL.D., New York, 

President of Society of Practical Engineering. 
Williams, Leighton, Esq., New York, 
Secretary and Treasurer of Commissioners of State Reserva- 
tion at Niagara. 

Wilson, Theodore D., Esq., Washington, D. C, 
Chief Constructor of U. S. Navy and Chief of the Bureau of 
Construction and Repair. 

Wilson, Wm. D., LL.D., LJI.D., Ithaca, N. Y., 

Prof of Moral Philosophy in Cornell University. 
Woodruff; O., Newark, N. J., 

Associate Editor of Daily Advertiser. 
Woolsey, Theodore D., S. T. D., LL.D., 

Ex-President of Yale College, Conn. 
Wright, Albert A., Esq., Oberlin College, O. 
Wurtz, Prof. Henry, A. M., Ph. D., Hoboken, N. J. 



Lighting of Streets— Lightning. 



liighting of Streets. Though both the Greeks and 
the Romans used to illuminate their cities at the occasion 
of public festivals, it is doubted whether any system of 
lighting the streets for simple, every-day convenience ever 
developed among them. It seems probable that Antioch 
was lighted by artificial means in the third century, and 
an order is still extant issued by the governor of Edessa, 
dating from 505, and demanding that lamps shall be kept 
burning during the night. However this may be, it is 
certain that any system of lighting the thoroughfares in 
use in the large metropolitan cities in antiquity was com- 
pletely lost during the Middle Ages. In the mediseval 
town it was not only difficult, but dangerous, to venture 
out into the streets in a dark night; a man of standing 
never did so without being accompanied by a guard of 
friends or servants carrying lanterns and torches. Paris 
is said to have been the first modern city in which the 
streets were lighted. Order-s to the inhabitants to keep 
lights burning after nine in the evening were issued in 
1524, 1526, and 1543: Maitland contends, however, that 
similar orders were issued in London as early as 1414. In 
1662, Abb6 Laudati secured a privilege (for twenty, years) 
of letting out torches and lanterns for hire in Paris; by 
9 George II. c. 2 (1736) authority was granted for lighting 
the streets of London by contract. Lighting of the streets 
was introduced at The Hague in 1553, at Amsterdam in 
1669, at Hamburg in 1672, at Berlin in 1679, at Copen- 
hagen in 1681, at Vienna in 1687, at Hanover in 1696, 
at Leipsic in 1702, at Dresden in 1705, at Brunswick in 
1765, and at Zurich in 1778. A new chapter of the history 
of street- lighting begins by the introduction of gas. The 
first gasworks were erected in London, at Boulton and 
Watt's Soho foundry, in 1798, and at the peace-rejoicings 
in 1802 the light was publicly exhibited with great suc- 
cess ; the first employment of gas in Paris also occurred in 
1802. Gas was first used to light Pall Mall Jan. 28, 1807. 
The Westminster Bridge was lighted by gas Dec. 31, 1813, 
and use of gas for street-lighting purposes became general 
in London in 1816. The objection to the lighting of 
streets by oil — or, rather, to any street-lighting at all — 
was the unnaturalness of the affair : how could people 
sleep in the houses when the streets were lighted? The 
objection to gas was its danger. Both objections, how- 
ever, passed out of hearing. Another new chapter was 
opened by the introduction of the electric light. 

Xiightning'. Lightning consists in an electrical dis- 
charge between cloud and cloud, or between a cloud and 
the earth, and sometimes between the upper and lower 
parts of the same cloud. To explain the phenomena of 
lightning on the established principles of electrical action, 
it is necessary to first treat of atmospheric electricity, and 
we shall under the present head give a brief exposition of 
the facts which have been established, and the hypotheses 
which have been advanced, in regard to this branch of 
electricity. 

It is well established that the air is almost continuously 
in a state of electrical excitement difTering from that of the 
earth. To account for this fact various hypotheses have 
been advanced ; among them that which considers the 
electricity of the atmosphere as due to the friction of the 
winds on each other and on the surface of the earth ; but 
it has been shown by decisive experiments that the friction 
of air on itself, or on solids or liquids, does not develop 
electricity. Another hypothesis refers the electricity of the 
air to the evaporation of water, but electricity is only 
evolved in the evaporation of water under a clear sky ; and 
this result is best explained by the inductive action of the 
electricity of the atmosphere itself; and hence we should 
consider the electricity produced by the evaporation of 
water as a consequence, and not a cause, of the electricity 
of the air. The accidental discovery of a great amount of 
electricity evolved in blowing off" steam from the boiler of 
an engine appeared at first to afford a ready explanation 
of the electrical condition of the atmosphere, which was 
then attributed to the condensation of invisible vapor. 
Faraday, however, conclusively proved that the electricity 
developed in the above-mentioned case was due entirely 
to the friction of the water which escapes with the steam, 
and that in the act of condensation of invisible vapor 
no electricity is developed. If the lower end of a bar 
of iron be plunged into a source of heat while the upper 
end remains cool,, the positive electricity of the conductor 
Vol. v.— 1 



will be repelled, as it were, from the heated to the cojd end, 
the former becoming minus electrified, and the latter plus. 
A column of air resting on the surface of the earth and 
extending to the height of the atmosphere is in a similar 
condition as to heat, and is similarly electrified. It is, 
however, difficult to see how this explanation can apply to 
the air, which is a non-conductor of electricity. 

After an attentive study of these hypotheses we have 
been obliged to reject them all as insufficient, and are com- 
pelled in the present state of science to adopt the theory 
of Peltier, which D.ppears to offer a logical explanation of 
all the phenomena in question. This theory refers them 
not to an original excitement of the air, but to the irtdite- 
tion of the earth primarili/ electrifed. That the earth, as 
a whole, is a great insulated conductor charged with free 
negative electricity, is a fact in accordance with analogy. 
Since the earth is known to be a great magnet having at- 
tracting and repelling poles, and as magnetism and elec- 
tricity are co-ordinate powers, we might almost infer a pri- 
ori that it would also bo charged with 'free electricity. The 
existence of this condition of the earth, however, does not 
rest on mere analogy, but is established by direct experi- 
ments made at points on the surface of the globe widely 
separated from each other. Since electricity repels similar 
electricity, the free charge of a body electrified must exist 
at the surface, and in a greater degree at salient points on 
that surface. Now, when the spray which is blown from 
the top of a high fountain is caught on the plate of an 
electrometer, it is always found, in clear weather, to be neg- 
atively electrified; and also when an insulated globe is 
touched to the top of any high projecting body, and then 
brought down to the level of the earth, it is found to be 
electrified negatively. Hence we infer that the earth itself 
is negatively charged with electricity,, and, moreover, that 
this charge is of great intensity, since the manifestations 
of electricity in the cases above mentioned are merely the 
difference in intensity of the electricity of the globe and 
that of a salient point on its surface. Again : if during 
clear weather we elevate a kite in the string of which a 
fine wire is entwined, and from the upper side of which 
metallic points project, powerful sparks of electricity may 
be obtained, even when not the slightest cloud can be seen. 
This result, which flows directly from the inductive action 
of the electricity of the earth, would be produced were the 
air in a neutral condition, since the electricity of the earth 
would tend to render the upper part of the wire highly neg- 
ative, and consequently it would attract to itself the pos- 
itive electricity of the particles of the atmosphere previously 
in a neutral condition. The electricity of the earth may be 
considered as acting on each particle of the wire throughout 
its whole length, and hence the greater the perpendicular 
height of the kite the greater will be the action. A similar 
result may be shown by means of a balloon by letting down 
a long wire, having a metallic ball at the end, from an in- 
sulated reel. The upper end of this wire will indicate neg- 
ative electricity, while the 



Fig. 1. 



ball 



b 



itself, could it be in- 
would show posi- 
tive electricity. In this 
experiment the natural 
positive electricity of the 
wire is drawn down by the 
attraction of the earth, leav- 
ing the upper end minus 
while the lower end is plus. 
This condition is exhibited 
in Fig. 1, in which C D rep- 
resents a portion of the sur- 
face of the earth negatively 
charged, and a t c a per- 
pendicular conductor ter- 
minated above and below 
by a bulb. In this condi- 
tion the negative electricity 
of C D, or, rather, of the 
whole globe, will act upon 
each atom of the fluid in the 
conductor, and tend to draw 
it down to the lower bulb; 
the atom c will not only be attracted downward by the action 
of the earth on itself, but also pressed downward by the 
attraction of the earth on all the atoms above it; and hence 



2 



LIGHTNING. 



the intensity of the lower part of the conductor will be in- 
creased by an increase in the perpendicular length of the 
rod. Now, if we connect the lower bulb of the rod with 
the earth by means of a good conductor, the redundant 
electricity of the lower end will be drawn off into the earth, 
and will no longer react by its repulsion on the electricity of 
the rod to drive it back into the upper bulb, but the whole 
will become negative. If, while the conductor is in this 
condition, we should touch the upper ball with an electrom- 
eter, and then bring the latter down to the general level 
of the earth, it would exhibit a negative charge. If we 
remove the upper ball, leaving a point in its place, and the 
positive electricity be drawn off from the lower ball in the 
form of a spark, the whole will become negative for a mo- 
ment, and the point, strongly attracting the positive elec- 
tricity of the air, will receive a new charge and be ready to 
give off another spark, and so on continuously. Such is 
the explanation of the result of the experiment with the kite. 

For studying the electricity of the atmosphere we may 
use along wire galvanometer, but to render this instrument 
effective the number of turns around the needle must be 
very great, at least 50 to 100, and the wire well insulated 
with waxed silk to prevent the passage of electricity from 
spire to spire, instead of passing continuously through the 
wire. To ensure connection with the earth, one end of this 
galvanometer should be placed in connection with the gas 
or water pipes of the city, and the other attached to an 
insulated wire supported on a tall mast, a tower, or church- 
steeple, and terminating above in a tuft of fine wire. The 
difficulty in using this apparatus, however, consists in 
keeping the insulation perfect, especially during rain ; the 
brackets by which it is attached to supports should be of 
glass enclosed in hollow tubes, slanting downward to shed 
the water. But the apparatus may be used with effect in 
studying the electrical condition of the atmosphere in clear 
and dry weather. 

The instrument employed by Saussure consisted of an 
electrometer formed of two wheat straws, at the upper end 
of each of which was a loop of fine wire attached to a me- 
tallic stem passing through the neck of a bell-glass, as 
shown in Fig. 2. On the top of this was screwed a pointed 
rod, to the lower end of which was attached a convex plate 
of metal to shed the rain. A scale was attached to the in- 
strument to indicate the degrees of divergency of the two 
straws, and in order to determine the quantity of electricity 
indicated by the degrees of this divergency a series of pre- 
liminary experiments were made. The rod and rain-screen 
being removed, the knob of the electrometer was touched 
by a ball suspended from a silk thread and previously elec- 
trified, and the degree of divergence was noted. This ball 
was then touched with another ball, of an equal size and 
similarly insulated, in its neutral condition, which reduced 
the quantity of electricity one-half. The electrometer hav- 
ing been previously discharged, its knob was again touched 
by the ball thus reduced in intensity, and the divergency 
in this case again noted j a charge of only one-half that of 
the previous trial was indicated. If 
the second ball were reduced to neu- 
trality and again touched the first ball, 
the quantity of electricity of the lat- 
ter would be reduced to one-fourth, 
and the degree of divergency in this 
case, whatever it might be, would in- 
dicate one-fourth the original charge. 
From these experiments a table could 
be formed by interpolation which would 
give approximately the value of the 
several degrees of divergency in rela- 
tive measures. To use this instru- 
ment in measuring the quantity of 
electricity from day to day, Saussure 
attached a small leaden ball to the end 
of a fine wire, the lower end of which 
rested upon the knob. He threw this 
perpendicularly upward, carrying the 
fine wire with it, and finally detaching 
it from the electrometer. As the lead 
bulb rose in the atmosphere by the in- 
duction of the earth, it became nega- 
tively electrified, or, in other words, 
the positive electricity of the leaden 
bulb was drawn down into the elec- 
trometer, the leaves of which diverged 
with positive electricity. But the 
method most generally employed by 
Saussure was that of affixing to the top 
of the electrometer a pointed rod, as 
shown in Fig. 2, and to the top of, 
this again a burning match. When 
this instrument was held above the head, it scarcely ever 
failed in clear and dry weather to indicate an electrical 



Fig. 2. 




excitement. The rationale of the burning match is not 
difficult to understand on the theory of induction. Let 
us suppose a series of hollow pointed cones placed on the 
top of the rod and thrown off upward one by one through 
some explosive agency; each cone as it left the rod would 
leave its positive electricity behind it, on account of the 
attraction of the earth below, and each would therefore im- 
part an additional quantity of electricity to the rod, which 
would be indicated by the divergency of the electrometer. 
The heated air and smoke which continue to arise from the 
match, since they are partial conductors, would perform 
the same office as the cones. Another way of using (ho 
same instrument consists in placing a polished ball, say six 
inches in diameter, on the end of a glass rod which is held 
in the hand. If this be elevated by ascending a slep- 
ladder, say eight or ten feet, but generally less, andtouchtd 
by the hand or a metallic conductor in its position of 
greatest elevation, then brought down to near the level of 
the earth in an insulated condition, and applied to the knob 
of the electrometer, the pointed wire being removed, the 
stems will diverge with negative electricity. The attrac- 
tion of the negative electricity of the earth will draw the 
positive electricity of the ball to its lower surface, and when 
this is touched will pass through the body of the observer 
to the earth. The greater the divergence of the stems of 
the electrometer, the greater will be considered the positive 
electricity of the atmosphere, although a similar effect 
might be produced by a change in the electrical condition 
of the earth. 

But a more convenient form of arrangement for studying 
the electrical condition of the atmosphere is that invented 
by M. Dellman, and shown in Fig. 3. A is a brass ball 
Yjq q supported on a glass tube and 

^^g^s^L passing through corks of gum- 

'^^^^%k shellac. The apparatus is fast- 

I ^ encd to the upper end of a pole 

I WA which is elevated by a windlass 

. or the hand above the top of a 

house. When at the height in- 
tended the wire k, connected 
with the earth below, is pulled j 
the end of the bent metallic 
lever g h, pivoted at I, is de- 
pressed, and the fork i brought 
into contact with Ihe stem of the 
globe, and thus a metallic con- 
nection is formed between the 
ball and the ground. The wire 
k is then released, the lever 
falls back, and the ball, the con- 
nection of which with the earth 
is severed, is brought down and 
applied to an electrometer. An- 
other insti'ument, perhaps still 
more simple, was introduced by 
Sir William Thompson. It con- 
sists in allowing a fine stream 
of water to flow from an insulated 
metallic vessel through a pipe 
which projects below, but with- 
out touching, the sash of a window, which is raised a few 
inches for the purpose, or through some other aperture in 
the wall of the house. This apparatus, which is called " the 
water-dropping collector," is represented in Fig. 4. A is 
Fig. 4. 





the metallic can containing water, which can be discharged 
through the pipe cd by turning a tap. It is supported on 
a glass stem at b, which is surrounded without contact by 
a cylinder of pumice-stone moistened with sulphuric acid. 
The pumice-stone is separated from the metal by a coating 
of gutta-percha. The acid needs renewal only once in about 
two months, and by absorbing the moisture produces an 
excellent insulation ; e is a shelf on which the apparatus is 
supported,/ the window-sash. As this instrument is in- 
sulated, any increase or diminution in the inductive action 
of the earth or in the electricity of the air will be mani- 
fested by a change in its electrical state, since as the drops' 



LIGHTNING. 



flow off they carry with them the electricity of that point. 
The operation of this instrument may be understood by 
considering that the stream of water which flows from the 
nozzle is the upper end of an insulated conductor, which, 
breaking off, carries away with it the negative electricity, 
leaving the upper part of the stream, as well as the insu- 
lated reservoir connected with it, positive. An electrometer 
in the same room with the reservoir will be in a neutral 
condition, since it is, as it were, below the surface of the 
earth, the exterior of which is the roof of the house. The 
reservoir being touched with a carrier ball — that is, a globe 
of metal an inch or two in diameter suspended by a silk 
thread — and this again brought in contact with the knob 
of the electrometer, the divergency of the stems gives the 
quantity of electricity. During cold weather, when the 
water would be frozen, a burning match may be attached 
to the end of the spout with the same results as the drip- 
ping of the water. This match or fuse is made by rolling 
up into a cylindrical form a slip of blotting-paper pre- 
viously saturated with a solution of nitrate of lead, and 
afterward dried. 

The electrometer generally used with the instrument of 
Dellman is that of Peltier, and that used with the dripping 
collector is the electrometer of Thompson (both of which 
are described in the first volume, under the head of 
Electricity), but either, or the electrometer of Saussurc, 
may be employed. When observations are carefully made 
with these instruments, a change is observed in the clec- 
tricalindioations from day to day, from hour to hour, and in 
some cases even at shorter intervals in clear weather, while 
by a series of observations continued through the year, 
monthly and daily maxima and minima are established. 
In cloudy weather, and especially during thunderstorms, 
the excitement will sometimes entirely cease, and then 
again reverse its sign. These variations are intimately 
connected with the quantity of moisture in the atmosphere. 
This is seen from observations made at Brussels by M. 
Quetellct, and also at the Kew Observatory by Prof. Stew- 
art, from which it appears that the minimum quantity of 
electrical excitement above the earth in clear weather oc- 
curs in the hottest part of the year, and the maximum in 
the coldest. We can explain this phenomenon on the sup- 
position that the air when charged with a great amount of 
vapor becomes a partial conductor, and permits the nega- 
tive electricity of the earth to extend higher up into the 
atmosphere, and thus, as it were, partially neutralizes the 
positive tendency of the air. The diurnal changes may 
also be influenced by the greater or less quantity of mois- 
ture in the atmosphere, but it is not impossible that they 
may be the result of changes in the electrical condition of 
the earth itself; for since the sun and moon are known to 
influence the magnetism of the earth, it is not improbable 
that they also affect inductively the distribution Of its 
electricity. We think if the air were entirely devoid of 
moisture, its normal condition would be that of neutrality, 
but through the partial conducting property of the mois- 
ture by the induction of the earth the atmosphere as a 
whole becomes electrified. 

The Electrical Phenomena of Thunderclouds. — "What 
we have thus far stated relates to the electrical phe- 
nomena above the earth during clear weather. From tlie 
effect produced by elevating above the surface of the earth 
a comparatively small metallic conductor, we may readily 
conclude that the suspension in the atmosphere of even 
a partial conductor, such as a cloud of comparatively 
great magnitude, would exhibit electrical excitement of 
commensurate intensity^ and quantity. Let us suppose 
a warm, dry day in midsummer, with a high dew-point, 
and consequently the lower stratum of the atmosphere 
in an unstable condition, too light for its present position, 
and ready to rush up into a higher and colder station; 
and let us further suppose that the equilibrium is dis- 
turbed in a given spot by greater heat or by the config- 
uration of the ground, and that a column actually begins 
to ascend. As soon a; its top reaches the elevation at 
which the temperature is below the dew-point, condensa- 
tion of a part of the invisible vapor will begin, and a cloud 
will be formed which will continue to elongate upward 
until the latent heat is all evolved and the vapor condensed. 
Let us suppose for a moment that the rushing up of moist 
air ceases, and consider the electrical condition of the cloud 
which has been formed. It is evident from what has been 
said that the upper part will tend to become negative and 
the lower part positive by the attraction of the negative 
electricity of the earth on the natural electricity of the 
vapor. This distribution of electricity will not take place 
instantaneously or gradually, but by a series of discharges 
between the upper and lower part of the cloud. On one 
occasion the writer of this article watched at a distance the 
flashes which took place between the upper and lower por- 
tions of a high cumulus cloud, and observed that after five 



or six flashes between the top and bottom had taken place, 
a single intense discharge passed between the base of the 
cloud and the earth. 

We have supposed in this case that the ascent of moist 
air ceased after the first formation of the column, but this 
is not the case. A new cloud is constantly being formed, 
from which rain continues to fall. The inductive effects 
we have described are constantly repeated, and hence a 
thundercloud, the base of which is enclosed in a space of 
perhaps two or three miles in diameter, will pass several 
hundred miles over the surface of the country, continually 
pouring down rain and giving out discharges of lightning. 
It is in this way that the cloud does not exhaust itself, the 
rain which falls from it being due to the condensation of 
vapor which a few minutes before existed at or near the 
surface of the earth in an invisible state, and the lightning 
which it continues to discharge being produced by the nat- 
ural electricity of the condensed vapor developed by the 
induction of the negative electricity of the earth. We need 
not be surprised at the quantity and intensity of the elec- 
trical discharge when we consider the effect produced by 
the elevation of so small a conductor as the metallic string 
of a kite during perfectly clear weather. 

We have given ' in Fig. 5 an ideal representation of a 
typical electrical cloud in a stationary condition, in which 
Fig. 5. 










we have endeavored to exhibit tho remarkable currents of 
air which are observed during a thunder-storm below the 
cloud. The particles of the upper and lower cloud, being 
charged with free electricity, tend to repel each other, and 
hence the cloud will spread out horizontally above and 
below. The greatest amount of condensation will be pro- 
duced in the centre of the uprising column, and hence the 
rain will pour down through the axis of the cloud. As it 
begins to descend it will be negatively electrified, but pass- 
ing through the lower portion of the cloud its electricity 
will be diminished, become neutral, and finally positive. 
As it falls it tends to bring down the air with it, thus pro- 
ducing a wind at the surface of the earth outward in every 
direction from the axis of the storm, less perhaps on the 
western side on .iceount of the eastern movement of tho 
cloud and the exhaustion of the aqueous vapor on that 
side. The intensity of this wind will depend not upon the 
depth of rain at any one point, but upon the quantity 
which falls on the whole area covered by the rain. This 
wind is met by a current in the opposite direction rising 
up under the base of the cloud, and hence a conflict is pro- 
duced having an upward resultant, which is represented 
by the arrows in the sketch. This motion of the wind is 
not a mere deduction from a hypothesis, but an actual 
representation of facts. During thunder-storms, as the 
writer has frequently observed them at Washington, the 
first appearance is that of a dark cloud in the W., with 
perha.ps a gentle wind blowing from the opposite quarter. 
As the cloud approaches a curtain of dust will be seen to 
arise almost to the base of the cloud. At this time at the 
position of the observer there is an entire stillness of the 
air. A few minutes afterwards this stillness is broken by 
a violent wind from the W., provided the axis of the 
storm is approaching the point of observation. This wind, 
though moving perhaps at the rate of 50 miles an hour, is 
not felt a few hundred rods to the B. ; in fact, the small 
portion of it which passes over the observer may be con- 
sidered as revolving through the arc of a cylinder the axis 
of which is horizontal. After this the rain continues for a 



LIGHTNING. 



while, and gradually ceases, with a mistiness on the west- 
ern portion of the storm. These phenomena are definitely 
represented in the figure. The violent wind rushing out 
at the base of the falling current of rain is checked and 
turned upward by the wind drawn in under the base of the 
oloud. While the storm is passing from D to F there will 
be a calm J the wind at the surface blowing outward catches 
the dust, which is carried upward in the resultant direction 
of the two opposing currents, as at E. The cloud is fed 
with vapor principally on its eastern side, since in its 
passage eastward it exhausts, as it were, the moist air on 
its western border. The cloud therefore not only moves 
eastward — -probably on account of the prevailing current 
from the W. in the higher regions — but it also grows in 
that direction, if we may use the expression, by the ascent 
of fresh vapor, while it diminishes on the opposite side. 
After the upward rush of vapor has ceased, and the cloud 
is left insulated in the atmosphere, its upper part will in 
some cases dissolve away, on account of the greater dry- 
ness of the air above, and a partial conductor will remain 
charged with positive electricity, which by induction will 
materially affect the electricity of the earth as indicated by 
the electrometers previously described. 

If the compound cloud of which we have given a descrip- 
tion in its course passes over a mountain-peak or gives a 
discharge to the earth without receiving a new access of 
vapor, it may then as a whole become negatively electrified, 
and in this condition would exert an opposite influence 
upon the instruments. An electrified cloud will also pro- 
duce an effect upon the air immediately around, especially 
if it contains a certain degree of moisture, not enough to 
render it a perfect conductor. In this case a stratum of 
negative electricity will exist around the cloud, and around 
this an outer oloud of positive electricity. This condition 
of the atmosphere is often exhibited by the indications of 
the electrometers, which as the cloud approaches the zenith 
of the observer shows first positive, then negative, and 
again positive electricity, the same phenomena in a reversed 
order appearing as the cloud passes away. 

Effects of Lightning. — Since a lightning discharge is, in 
reality, an immense electrical spark, the effects which it pro- 
duces differ only in degree from those which are manifested 
by the electrical machine. In a discbarge from the cloud 
the electricity traverses the line of least resistance, and 
therefore frequently deviates much from a straight line, 
its course being marked out by the induction of an oppo- 
site condition in the material through which it is to pass. 
If on the lower side of a thin board B (Fig. 6), a foot or 
Fig. 6. 




more in extent, a plate of metal C, an inch or two in diam- 
eter, is fastened, and to the lower surface of this again is 
soldered a wire D, leading down to the earth, and sparks 
from the knob of the prime conductor of an electrical machine 
be thrown upon the upper surface of this board, they will 
always strike it in a point immediately above the plate of 
metal. In like manner, if a good conducting material exist 
beneath the surface of the ground at any place, such as 
metal, water, or damp earth, the induction of the cloud will 
render it negative, and a strong attraction will arise between 
the two, and a discharge will sometimes take place, when 
if such a conductor did not exist the air would not be rup- 
tured. If a thundercloud highly charged with positive elec- 
tricity project over a given place, the earth underneath will 
become abnormally negative, and the body of any animal 
standing under the cloud will partake of this influence. Ifin 
this condition a discharge takes place from a distant edge of 
the cloud, the restoration of the equilibrium will be so sud- 
den and violent — or, to use the language of hypothesis, the 
fluid will rush up into the body with such force — as to pro- 
duce death. Accidents of this kind are referred to what is 
called the principle of the return stroke, of which many 
examples are given in the books. Dynamical efi'ects are 
also produced in the vicinity of th« path of the discharge ; 
instantaneous currents are excited in all conductors ; sparks 



are frequently seen in various parts of o house between iso- 
lated pieces of metal or other conductors in the vicinity of 
a powerful discharge; and persons are shocked, although 
the discharge has traversed an adjacent tree or passed in- 
noxiously down a lightning-rod. The dynamic effect of a 
lightning discharge at a distance is perhaps best shown by 
soldering one end of a copper wire to the tin roof of a 
house, and the other end to the water or gas pipe in a 
lower story. A break in this wire, the two ends of which 
terminate in small balls brought within a short distance of 
each other, will exhibit a spark at the instant of a discharge, 
although it may be at a considerable distance. If the 
break in the conductor be closed by a spiral consisting of 
many turns of insulated fine wire, and a sewing needle be 
placed in its axis, it will become magnetic by the discharge, 
and the polarity of it may be determined by a toy compass, 
such as is used on a watch-chain, consisting of a needle of 
half an inch in length. To render the sewing needle more 
manageable, the sharp end is stuck into a small cork, which 
scn"cs as a handle. With on arrangement of this kind the 
writer of this article has obtained inductive efiTects from a 
discharge of lightning at a distance of eight or ten miles. 
A similar effect has been produced by the writer from ma- 
chine electricity. For this purpose a wire several hundred 
yards in length was stretched horizontally between the 
upper stories of two buildings, across a campus, the two 
ends terminating in plates of metal which dipped into a 
well at each extremity. A second wire was stretched be- 
tween two poles parallel to the first, its ends terminating in 
metallic plates buried in the earth. Inductive efi'ects were 
obtained by this arrangement from the discharge of a bat- 
tery of nine Leyden jars, each of the capacity of a gallon, 
when the two wires were separated from each other at least 
160 yards, along building intervening. Effects might prob- 
ably have been obtained at a greater distance had the par- 
allel portions of the wires been of greater length. This 
dynamic induction frequently produces accidents in the 
telegraph-ofiice, and a peculiar arrangement is necessary 
to transmit the induced current to the earth. 

When the electrical discharge from a Leyden battery is 
transmitted through a small brass wire, the atoms of the 
component metals are separated, in a metallic state, into an 
impalpable powder, and may be made to impress a nictallio 
stain on glass. This effect, therefore, is not due primarily 
to heat, but to the repulsive energy communicated to the 
atoms. Similar effects produced by lightning are recorded 
by the older electricians under the name of cold fusion. 
In like manner, when a discharge of lightning takes place 
in the atmosphere a tremendous repulsive energy is excited 
in the particles of air in the line of its path, and to this 
action we attributemany of the mechanical effects exhibited 
by atmospheric electricity. In one instance which fell 
under our observation a powerful discharge of lightning 
took place between two chimneys of a house, traversing the 
space under the rafters called the cockloft; such was the 
repulsive energy given to the air that the whole roof was 
lifted off. We attribute to the same action the throwing 
off of the clapboards of a house when the discharge takes 
place between them and the interior plastering. A similar 
effect takes place when a discharge from a Leyden jar is 
passed between two bulbs in a tube filled with water : the 
glass is broken into pieces. An analogous effect has been 
observed when a discharge of lightning has passed through 
a conduit-pipe of stoneware transmitting a current of 
water. The intensity of the repulsive energy appears to be 
greatest in the line of the axis of the discharge, and at the 
place of rupture of a conductor, or, in other words, at its 
two onds, the most energetic effects are manifested. This 
is illustrated by the old experiment of passing the discharge 
of a Leyden jar through a card, a burr being raised on both 
sides. A tree is sometimes found broken transversely about 
the middle of the trunk, as if pulled asunder or the parts 
separated by a violent repulsion in the direction of the 
axis. Trees are, however, generally splintered longitudi- 
nally, and the parts thrown off to a considerable distance 
laterally. This effect is generally attributed to the sudden 
evaporation of the sap, but it may also be a direct result 
of the repulsive action of the particles of wood. In the 
case of a discharge of lightning between a oloud and the 
surlace of the earth covered with a pavement, the stones 
are frequently found thrown out so as to form a hole like 
an inverted cone. When the discharge passes through a 
wall a conical hole is produced on both sides. Cases are 
on record of a row of boys on a bench in school, in which 
only the two extreme ones were killed by a discharge which 
passed through the row. This is an illustration of the fact 
previously mentioned, that the effect is greatest at the 
points where the electricity enters and leaves a conductor. 
It is probable that the noise of thunder is due to the re- 
pulsive energy with which the air is thrown apart along 
the path of the discharge of lightning. Were the discharge 



LIGHTNING-RODS. 



to take place in a perfect circle, the ear being in the centre, 
a single explosion would alone be heard. But inasmuch 
as the discharge is approximately in a right line, if the ear 
be placed near one end of this a series of sound-waves will 
reach it in succession from points at different distances, 
and hence a prolonged sound will be the result. The in- 
crease in the loudness of the report which is sometimes ob- 
served towards the end of the sound is probably due to the 
greater consolidation of the discharge as it leaves the cloud, 
which frecLuently afterward branches out into various 
streams. Joseph Henry. 

Lightning-Rods. The utility of the invention of 
our illustrious countryman, Dr. Franklin, for the protection 
of buildings from lightning has sometimes been called in 
question, but no one who has studied the subject, and is 
capable of a proper appreciation of scientific principles, 
can doubt its importance. An edifice supplied with light- 
ning-rods of a proper character — that is, embracing all the 
requisites indicated by a scientific knowledge of the laws 
of electrical action — may be considered as entirely pro- 
tected from the disastrous effects of discharges of lightning; 
but in order to this the conductor must be constructed 
on definite scientific principles, and not on loose analogies 
or untenable hypotbeses, as is too frequently the case with 
the products of the vendors of improved lightning-con- 
ductors. 

The perfect lightning-rod is one which attracts the de- 
scending bolt to itself, and transmits the discharge harm- 
lessly to the earth. (1) To ensure this quality the rod 
should terminate above in a single point, and to preserve 
this from the weather, as well as to prevent its being melted 
by a slight discbarge, it should be encased in a hollow cone 
of platinum. One point is found by experiment to attract 
electricity from a charged conductor at a greater distance 
than a number, for several points projecting from the same 
stem near each other approximate in action a spherical 
surface, and by interference each lessens the effect of the 
other. (2) The rod should consist of round iron not less 
than three-fourths of an inch in diameter j a larger size is 
preferable to a smaller one. Iron is preferred, because it 
can be readily procured, is cheap, a sufficiently good con- 
ductor, and, when of the size mentioned, cannot be melted 
by a discharge from a cloud. The conductor sliould be 
round — or, in other words, cylindrical — because electrleify 
repels itself, and tends to escape into neighboring bodies 
from points or sharp edges ; and, as we shall see, the rod 
at the moment that the discharge is passing through it is 
in the condition of a charged conductor; hence flat or 
twisted rods are imperfect conductors, as they tend to give 
off lateral sparks from the sharp edges during the pas- 
sage of the discharge, which might, in some cases, set 
fire to very combustible materials. A rod may be form- 
ed of ordinary gas-pipe, since it is a well-established 
fact that electricity passes at the surface, unless the 
charge be exceedingly large in reference to the capacity 
of the rod. If a discharge of electricity be sent through 
a wide ribbon of copper or iron placed in a horizontal 
position, and over the surface of which at intervals pieces 
of sewing needles of a quarter of an inch in length are 
placed at right angles to its length, it will be found 
that only those pieces of needle which are near the edge 
are magnetized, while those near the middle remain un- 
affected. This experiment conclusively proves that elec- 
tricity repels itself while in transmission, aa well as in 
a statical condition, and shows the absurdity of substi- 
tuting for a cylindrical form of rod that of a twisted rib- 
bon. (3) The rod throughout its whole length should be 
in perfect continuity ; for this purpose it should, if possible, 
be made of one piece of iron ; and when joinings are un- 
avoidable the parts should be firmly screwed together by a 
coupling ferule. (4) To secure it from rust the rod should 
be covered with a coating of black paint, which will not 
sensibly interfere with its power of conduction. (5) The 
shorter and more direct the rod is in its course to the earth the 
better ; acute angles made by bending the rod at any point 
' along Its course should be avoided. (6) In case of powder- 
houses, where extreme precaution is required against sparks 
of induction within the edifice, several rods should be used, 
and these supported on masts at some distance from the 
four sides of the building. But in case of a dwelling- 
house, where inductive action of this kind could scarcely 
ever produce serious consequencep, the rod may be fastened 
to the side of the house by iron eyes, driven or screwed 
into the wall ; the extreme point of these eyes, beipg buried 
in non-conducting masonry or wood, will not tend to give 
off elecl;rieity at the time of a discharge. The rod may be 
insulated by glasscylinders intervening between It and the 
eyes, but we do not attribute much Importance to this in- 
sulation, since it is immediately destroyed by the rain. (7) 
The lower end of the rod should be connected with the 
earth in the most perfect manner possible; and in cities 



nothing is better for this purpose than to unite it in good 
metallic connection with the gas-mains or water-pipes in the 
street ; and, indeed, such a connection is absolutely neces- 
sary if the house is furnished with gas and water. If a 
cloud highly charged with positive electricity be floating 
over a city, the gas and water pipes will become highly 
negative, and therefore strongly attract the electricity of 
the cloud, and may thus Induce a discharge which would 
not otherwise take place. If In such a case a proper con- 
ductor is not provided on the outside of the building to 
transmit the discharge to the earth, a serious accident 
might ensue. In the country, where gas and water pipes 
are not accessible, the rod should terminate below the sur- 
face of the water in a well, or, if this is impossible, it should 
be extended out from the house under ground for fifty to 
sixty feet, and then sunk perpendicularly till it reaches, If 
possible, moist earth. The perpendicular as well as hori- 
zontal part of the excavation may be filled advantageously 
with scraps of metal from the shop of the tinman or with 
powdered charcoal, to render the connection with the earth 
more perfect. To afford a still better connection with the 
earth, in some cases the rod is made to terminate in a num- 
ber of branches, each buried as above described ; but the 
necessity of branches will depend upon the degree of dry- 
ness of the earth. The mistake should not be made, as 
has frequently been done, of terminating the end of the rod 
in aclstern, the water of which may be considered as in- 
sulated from the earth by the lining of cement. (8) If 
within the house there are masses of metal, such as iron 
girders, water-tanks, or bathing-tubs, they should be placed 
in metallic connection with each other and with the rod by 
slips of iron or copper, otherwise they are liable to emit 
sparks by induction during the instant of a discharge, and, 
though serious effects are not often produced by this action, 
it serves at least to alarm the inmates of the house. As an 
example of this, if in any case a water-pipe approaches 
within an inch or two of a gas-pipe, a spark will usually 
be seen to traverse the space, accompanied by a loud re- 
port, when an electric discharge passes down the- rod. (9) 
The rod should be placed in preference on the W. side of 
the house, since the thundercloud usually comes from a 
western direction ; but for a stronger reason It should be 
placed on the side of a chimney from which a current of 
heated air ascends during the summer season ; the ascent 
of warm and rarefied air tends, as we have seen, to Inten- 
sify the action of the conducting soot of the chimney. (10) 
In case of a small house a single rod may sufBce for pro- 
tection, provided its point be sufficiently high above the 
roof; the rule being observed that the elevation of the 
point should at least be half of the distance to which its 
protection is intended to extend. Thus, the point of a rod 
on a house the ridge of the roof of which is fifty feet in 
length, should have an elevation of twelve and a half feet, 
which is half the radius of the circle of protection. This 
rule is derived from experiment; but it is safer, where sev- 
eral points aro erected on the same house, that they should 
be nearer than this rule would Indicate; and indeed there 
is no objection to an indefinite number of rods, provided 
they are placed in good metallic connection with each 
other on the sides of the building or at the surface of the 
earth. A building entirely enclosed, as it were, in a cage 
of rods intimately connected with the earth and each other 
would bo safe from discharges of electricity, whatever 
might bo its energy. (11) When the house is covered with 
a metallic roof, it should be connected with the lightning- 
rod, or the perpendicular pipes conveying the water down 
from the gutter at the eaves may be made to act the part 
of a rod. In this case the roof must be connected with the 
gutter by strips of copper or iron, and the lower end of the 
spout with the gas or water pipes, if In the city, by the 
sVme means ; or in the country with the earth, after the 
manner we have mentioned. In addition to this, a pointed 
rod should be elevated above the roof, especially at the 
chimneys; but in arranging this care must be taken to 
join the rod in good metallic connection with the roof, the 
foot of the former being soldered to the surface of the latter. 

The foregoing rules may serve as a general guide in 
erecting lightning-rods on ordinary buildings, but in large, 
complex structures a survey should be made, and the best 
form of protection in accordance with scientific principles 
adopted. 

One effect of the lightning-rod deserves especial notice — 
namely, the effect it has upon the air in the vicinity of the 
point; during the passage of a thundercloud the point is 
frequently seen illuminated by a glow of light. During a 
violent thunderstorm at night, while flashes of lightning 
were passing from cloud to cloud near the zenith, the 
author of this article stood in the trapdoor on the top of 
the high tower of the Smithsonian Institution, within 
about ten feet of the top of the lightning-rod. At every 
flash of lightning a jet of light at least five or six feet 



LIGNE-LIGNITE. 



in length issued from the point of the rod with a hissing 
noise. The top of this rod is about 155 feet above the 
earth. The electricity thus passing from the rod was of an 
opposite character from that of the cloud, and would tend 
to electrify a glob^ of air surrounding the point of which 
it was the centre. If the cloud was positive, this globe 
would be negative, and in case of a discharge from the 
cloud to the rod, the electricity of this globe would be neu- 
tralized ; and in the act of this neutralization the intensity 
of the discharge would be considerably modified. This re- 
sult was probably connected with the peculiarity of the 
sound of the discharge heard in several cases in which 
lightning was transmitted through a rod of the institution. 
The sound in these cases consisted in at first a hiss, fol- 
lowed in a moment after by a loud explosion. The Smith- 
sonian building being situated on a plain in an isolated 
position, and furnished with a number of high towers and 
pinnacles, is evidently, from theoretical considerations, in 
a condition especially liable to be struck by lightning. And 
as an evidence of the truth of this inference, as well as of 
the utility of lightning-rods, we may mention that it is 
certain that within the last twenty-five years at least as 
many as four discharges have been harmlessly conveyed to 
the earth through the conductors with which the building 
is provided. In two of these cases the evidence of the oc- 
currence of the discharge rests upon the melting of the 
platinum points, and the others on the nearness of the ox- 
plosion and the peculiar sound previously mentioned. In 
one of the first cases the author himself was within six feet 
of the rod, with a wall of masonry of about two feet inter- 
vening. Ho felt no shock, but a person in the same room, 
either from fright or a nervous affection, fell upon his 
knees, devoutly making the sign of the cross on the in- 
stant. 

The mode of protecting ships from lightning generally 
consists in suspending a light chain from the lower end of 
a pointed rod attached to the upper yard-arms, the lower 
extremity of the chain being immersed below the surface 
of the ocean. These chains are not unfreq-uently destroyed 
by heavy discharges, though in the act of being broken 
they serve, in most cases, to protect the vessel from injury. 
Sir Snow Harris of England has introduced another plan 
into the British navy, which consists in letting into a groove 
down the mast a ribbon of thick copper, so as not to inter- 
fere with the hoisting of the sails. The upper end of this 
rod terminates above the mast in a platinum point, and the 
lower part, continued down along the mast through the 
decks to the bottom of the vessel, terminates in the copper 
sheathing. We do not consider this plan as safe, especially 
in ships loaded with cotton, as that in which the copper 
ribbon is continued across the deck in a groove, and over 
the side of the vessel until it reaches the copper sheathing. 
It has been shown by the author of this article, from 
conclusive experiments, that in the transmission of a posi- 
tive charge, for example, the different points of the rod are 
excited in succession along its length by two adjacent 
waves, as it were, of electricity — a positive one, preceded 
by a negative wave. To illustrate this point, the following 
experiment may be mentioned. Sparks from the prime 
conductor of an ordinary electrical machine were thrown 
on the upper part of a lightning-rod as it projected above 
a tower, and although the lower end of the' rod was inti- 
mately connected with the earth by the most approved 
method, yet at each discharge of the prime conductor a 
spark could be drawn from every point of the rod through- 
out its whole length, down to within a foot of the ground. 
With these sparks a gas-pistol was exploded and the fibres 
of combustible substances ignited. These sparks, though 
in some cases half an inch long and apparently very in- 
tense, failed to affect in the slightest degree a delicate gold- 
leaf electrometer — an evidence that they consisted of two 
sparks in momentary succession, the one plus and the other 
minus. 

-In regard to the safest position during a thunderstorm, 
especially in a house not well protected by a lightning-rod, 
we would advise a position in the middle of the room, and 
a horizontal one rather than a vertical. Windows, either 
open or shut, and chimneys should be avoided, but in a 
house not protected by rods no place can be considered as 
entirely safe. When in the open air trees should be avoided, 
since the trunk being a bad conductor of electricity, the 
discharge will leave it and pass through the body of a man 
or animal which may be near it, this being the path of least 
resistance previously marked out by the inductive action 
of the descending bolt. 

We have thought it necessary to dwell upon this subject 
of lightning-rods because innumerable patents have been 
granted in this country for improved rods, most of which 
are completely valueless because they have been devised 
by persons ignorant of the principles of electricity. 

Joseph Henby. 



liigne (Charles Joseph), Prince of, b. May 12, 17.^5, 
at Brussels, descended from one of the wealthiest and most 
powerful Belgian families ; entered the Austrian army in 
1752, distinguished himself in the Seven Years' war, and 
commanded the vanguard in the Bavarian war of succes- 
sion. Under the reign of Joseph II. he held the highest 
military and diplomatic positions, and the elegance of his 
manners and the brilliancy of his conversation made him 
a favorite with all European courts. But under Leopold 
he fell into disgrace, partly on account of his son s partici- 
pation in the Belgian insurrection (1790), and he was never 
again employed in active service. He lived in retirement 
at Vienna, engaged in literary pursuits, and d. there Deo. 
13 1814 Of his MHangea militairea, liUirmres et sentt- 
mentaireB (U vols., 1795-1811), Malte-Brun has given a 
selection, (Eitvrea cfioisiee, in 2 vols. His letters and me- 
moirs have considerable historical interest. 

I.ig'lline [J^ai. lignum, "wood"], a synonym of Cel- 
IHLOSE. (See article under this head, by Prof. C. F. 
Chasdlee, Ph. D., M. D., LL.D.) 

liig'nite [Lat. lignum, "wood"], the name originally 
given to bitumenized wood, but now applied to most coals 
which occur in the more recent geological formations ; the 
term is therefore synonymous with brown coal. As stated 
in the article on Coal, lignite has no definite formula^ of 
composition, but different specimens vary much in physical 
and chemical character, shading into unchanged vegetable 
fibre above and true coal below. The chemical composi- 
tion. of wood-fibre, according to Bischoff, Is carbon 49.1, 
hydrogen 6.3, oxygen 44.6. When this is buried in water 
or earth, it immediately commences to decompose by the 
combination of its constituents, and the absorption of ex- 
ternal oxygen, forming carburetted hydrogen, carbonic 
acid, carbonic oxide, water, petroleum, etc., which escnpe, 
and leave a solid diminished in volume, increased in den- 
sity, and darkened in color. Ultimately it becomes black, 
though having a brown streak, with a glistening, pitchy 
fracture. In this stage it is called lignite, and when chem- 
ically examined is found to have lost perhaps one-third of 
its carbon, one-half of its oxygen, and more or less of its 
hydrogen, the relative percentage of carbon being there- 
fore greater in lignite than in wood. Lignites or brown 
coals are found chiefly in the Cretaceous and Tertiary for- 
mations. Here they occur in deposits which rival in area 
and thickness the coal-beds of the Carboniferous system. 
In general terms, it may be said that the lignites occupy 
an intermediate position, both in date and composition, 
between the peat which is now forming and true coals of 
Palseozoic age, and represent a stage in the progressive 
distillation vegetable tissue passes through when buried, 
and which results in the formation as residual products of 
— 1st, peats; 2d, lignite; 3d, bituminous coal; 4th, anthra- 
cite ; 5th, graphite. No sharp lines of demarcation sepa- 
rate these groups, however, as we find them shading into 
each other by all possible intermediate phases. Since they 
are successively derivatives one from the other, the series 
is necessarily continuous. It should also be said that the 
name lignite is applied to woody tissue in which the pro- 
cess of bitumenization has begun, however modern it may 
be ; and among the forms of recent and superficial bitumen- 
ized vegetation that which has been derived from the de- 
composition of mosses, grasses, etc. — generally a porous, 
spongy substance — is called peat, while changed wood is 
called lignite. 

The mode of formation of the great beds of so-called lig- 
nite of the Cretaceous and Tertiary systems seems to have 
been similar to that in which peat is now accumulating, and 
in which coal was formed in the marshes of the Carbonifer- 
ous age. In some instances they are underlain by strata of 
fireclay, and are overlain by shales, sandstones, and lime- 
stones, precisely as the coal-strata are ; and it is evident 
that they have a common origin and history, except that 
in the lignites that history has not reached as far as in the 
coals. It not unfrequently happens, however, that beds of 
lignite have by local causes been changed to the condition * 
corresponding to bituminous eoal, or even anthracite. Such 
instances are furnished by some of the best lignites of Col- 
orado, Utah, and Alaska, which have reached the condition 
of bituminous coal, and by the anthracites of Crested 
Buttes, Colorado, and that of Queen Charlotte's Island. 
In the last two cases beds of Cretaceous lignite have been, 
by local volcanic action, converted into anthracite as bright, 
hard, and useful as that of Pennsylvania. As the deposits 
of carbonized vegetation formed in the Tertiary and Creta- 
ceous systems are classed as lignites, all the so-called ooala 
of the great areas underlain by these formations come into 
this category, and it will probably be found that these mod- 
ern coals exceed in the extent of their development, and 
rival in their value to man, the true coal-strata which are 
recognized as constituting the basis of all the great Indus- 



LIGNITE. 



tries of civUization and the richest source of tho wealth of 
nations. . 

It happens that the most important deposits of mineral 
fuel in Europe and Eastern America are found in the Car- 
boniferous systems, but it is not kuown that any important 
deposits of true coal exist in other parts of the world. So 
far as we know, all the great coal-fields of China, India, 
Borneo, and Western America are of Mesozoic or Tertiary 
age. Deposits of lignite are also known to exist in Green- 
land, Arctic America, and in Central and South America. 
The economic ralue of lignites is, as a general rule, con- 
siderably less than that of true coals. This is due both to 
their chemical composition and physical characters. They 
usually contain from 12 to 20 per cent, of oxygen and 10 
to 16 per cent, of water. Their heating power is therefore 
usually from one-half to two-thirds that of bituminous coal. 
The different ingredients mentioned sometimes constitute 
as much as one-third of the mass — a third which probably 
contributes nothing to the heating po^er, the water even 
absorbing some portion of tho energy of the combustible 
material in its vaporization. , Tho calorific ppwer of pure 
carbon being estimated at 8000 units, and that of our best 
coals, in whjch the hydrogen is mainly neutralized by the 
oxygen, at from 7000 to 7500, the calorific power of ligni^ 
may be said to vary from 4000 to 5000. It should be said, 
however, that this is only a general rule. Tho calorific 
power of some of our Carboniferous coals hardly exceeds 
6000 units,iand some of the best lignites reach and even 
pass this point. The physical character of lignites also 
frequently impairs their economic value. They are usually 
somewhat tender, and the waste in mining and transport- 
ing them is greater than in tho bituminous coals. They 
are apt, also, to crack badly, and frequently on exposure 
fall into a multitude of angular fragments. It rarely hap- 
pens that they are capable of producing good coke. They 
are usually open-burning — ?. c. do not adhere in the fire — 
and the proportion of volatile matter to fixed carbon is 
large. When this is driven off the residual coke is spongy 
and pulverulent. To this rulo there are, however, excep- 
tions which will be mentioned farther on. 

In Europe the lignites or brown coals have been mined 
and used for many years, and the practical tests to which 
they have been subjected have accurately determined their 
value. The Bovey Traoey brown coal of England and 
most of the modern coals of France, Switzerland, Spain, 
Germany, Greece, India, etc. exhibit the characters hero 
recorded. In some localities, however, especially in Aus- 
tria and Italy, lignites are not only employed for household 
fuels and the generation of steam, but for locomotives and 
in furnaces. The following table shows the composition of 
a series of foreign lignites : 



Tasmania 


Carbon. 


Hydrogen. 


Oxygen. 


Nitrogen. 


Waste. 


Aihes. 


70.49 
63.88 
70.02 
61.20 
73.79 
70.12 
00.8:i 
63.55 
47.46 


4.66 
5.59 
4.i58 
5.20 
6.00 
7.46 
3.19 
4.36 
6.68 
4.50 


15.99 
18.00 
17.10 
20.50 
23.50 
12.79 
7.59 
2.S.60 
26.00 
32.00 


1.08 
.93 
1.00 
1.27 
1.28 
1.00 
1.00 
1.14 
1.93 
1.03 


13.43 
9.07 


4.64 
4.99 




13.43 


Switzerland.... 

Greece 

Biiliemia 


3.01 
9.02 
4.96 


Germany 


15.47 
2.43 
3.05 


Siberia 


14.95 



All the coals found in the western half of the U. S. are 
of modern age, and are classed as lignites. These occur 
in both the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations, but chiefly 
in the former; and although their extent and value have 
been but imperfectly determined, it is known that very 
extensive deposits of this kind occur in New Mexico, Colo- 
rado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, California, Oregon, and 
Alaska. The lignites of New Mexico all belong to the 
Cretaceous formation, and are chiefly found in the lower 
portion of this series. They underlie a large area, includ- 



ing the northern portion of this Territory and Arizona, 
and on the San Juan Kiver form strata altogether similar 
in appearance to our coal-beds, showing many miles of 
outcrop, and sometimes attaining a thickness of over thirty 
feet. These great beds, however, are not homogeneous, but 
consist of layers of a better quality interstratified with 
those that are shaly and impure. The lignite beds of 
Colorado and Wyoming occupy a broad belt along the 
flanks of the Rocky Mountains, extending N. across tho 
Missouri and reaching far into Canadia.n territory. It is 
not known how large an area in this belt is underlain by 
workable beds of lignite, but it would probably not be ex- 
travagant to estimate that at least 50,000 square miles will 
prove to be productive coal area. Tho strata here vary in 
thickness from a few inches to twenty and even thirty feet. 
In Colorado and along the line of the Union Pacific R. R. 
these beds have been opened in many places, and are now 
extensively mined. The most important mines now worked 
are located at Trinidad, Canon City,Golden, Carbon Station, 
Evanston, etc., and the coal is not only generally used by 
the resident population, but is largely consumed for loco- 
motives on the railroad, and is exported in considerable 
quantities to San Erancisco. The lignites of Colorado have 
much tho character of the best-known varieties used in the 
Old World, and hold about the same rank in comparison 
with tlie Carboniferous coals. Here, however, as in other 
countries, some localities furnish fuels of superior charac- 
ter; for example, the coal of Trinidad and Crested Buttes, 
Col., can be coked, and is capable of being successfully 
used in forging and smelting. The same may be said of 
the San Pete coal, which is found in Utah, S. from Salt 
Lake City. The geological age of the lignites of Colorado 
has been much discussed, but there is little doubt that 
they are for the most part Cretaceous. There are, how- 
ever, Tertiary lignites in this region, and a part of those 
so extensively exposed along the Missouri River are of 
Tertiary age. Nevada and California are not so well 
supplied with mineral fuel as Colorado, Wyoming, and 
Utah, but beds of lignite have been found in both. In 
California they have been quite largely mined on the 
flanks of Mount Diablo, and the market of San Francisco 
is partially supplied from this source. The coal of this 
locality is Cretaceous. On the coast of Oregon the Coose 
Bay coal has been mined for many years. This is of Ter- 
tiary ago, and may be taken as a typical example of Ter- 
tiary lignite. Its composition will be seen from the table 
given below. In physical character it is, when first mined, 
hard, bright, and pitchy, but on desiccation is prone to 
break up into small fragments. Vancouver's Island is well 
supplied with coal, and has been a source from which a 
large part of tho coal used on the Pacific coast has been 
derived. This is of Cretaceous age; it has precisely the 
appearance of some varieties of bituminous coal, and has 
a higher heating power and bears exposure and transpor- 
tation better than most of tho western coals. From Alaska 
two varieties of lignite have been brought, both of which. 
are reported to exist in large quantities. Of these, one 
(No. 7 of table) resembles closely the Coose Bay coal, and 
may be suspected, both from its composition and associated 
fossils, to be of Tertiary age. The other has been sub- 
jected to local metamorphism, and is much harder and 
more valuable. 

The localities which have been mentioned are by no 
means all in which lignite is known to exist in the far 
West, and there is every reason to believe, so far as quantity 
is concerned, that the deposits in this region are capable 
of fully supplying all the wants of its future population. 
In quality, however, these coals are not fully equal to the 
Carboniferous coals of the Eastern States. For the most 
part, they have decidedly less calorific power, are unfit for 
the manufacture of gas, and are not adapted for smelting 
purposes by any system of treatment yet adopted. There 
is little doubt, however, that they are capable of much more 



Analyses op 


American Lignites 


, BY H. S. 


MCNKOE, 


N. Y. School of Mines. 




1. Mount Diablo, California 

2. Weber River, Utah 


Cret... 


Carbon. 

59.724 
64.842 
69.840 
64.992 
69.144 
60.244 
6.5.789 
67.674 

74.372 
84.103 


Hydrogen. 

5.078 
4.336 
3.897 
3.762 
4.362 
3.379 
3.264 
4.658 

2.583 
.852 ' 


Oxygen. 

15.697 
16.518 
10.990 
15.199 
9.539 
21.815 
19.004 
12.804 

8.712 
2.137 


Nitrogen. 

1.008 
1.288 
1.932 
1.736 
1.246 
.420 
.608 
1.582 

1.764 
.280 


Sulphur. 


Water. 

8.940 
9.415 
9.170 

11.566 
8.065 
8.286 

16.620 
3.076 

3.190 
6.191 


Aeh. 


3.918 
1.602 
.768 
1.066 
1.026 
.810 
.682 
.920 

.727 
.229 


5.637 
2.999 
3.403 
1.680 
6.619 
4.047 
4.183 
9.287 

6.052 
7.204 


3. Echo Ga&on, " " — 


4. Carbon Station, Wyoming 

5. " " " 

6. Coose Bav. Oreffon 


? .. 

? ... 

Tert... 


7. Alaska...?.. .":.... . ...... 




8. " 


1 ... 


lAqnitic Anthraeites. 

9. Santa F6, New Mexico 

10. Los Bronees, Sonora 


Cret... 

Trias. 



extensive and successful application than has yet been 
reached in their use. As their heating power is consider- 
ably greater than that of wood, they constitute a store of 



fuel of greater intrinsic value, and far exceeding in amount 
that which would be supplied by the densest forest-growth 
covering the entire area where they are found. They can- 



8 



LIGNUM RHODIUM— LILLE. 



not fail, therefore, to play an important part in the future 
history of the West. Whether they can ever be made fully 
to talie the place of our Carboniferous coal is doubtful, but 
the results attained in Austria and in the Val d'Arno, 
Italy, in the use of similar fuels afford good ground for 
the hope that they will be made to accomplish much 
more than has been done with them. By the introduc- 
tion of the stair grate, and especially through the use of 
the Siemens regenerator, they may be made to produce a 
degree of heat sufficient for all metallurgio processes : and 
it may be confidently expected that by coking those which 
are capable of being coked, and by some method of com- 
bustion similar to those now suggested, they may be made 
to accomplish all the purposes served by other varieties of 
mineral fuel. 

The foregoing table of analyses will show the compo- 
sition of typical examples of the lignites of Western 
America. 

The material called Jet, so largely used for ornaments, 
is a variety of lignite which is chiefly obtained from the 
Lias at Whitby, England. Lignite of similar character 
occurs in Texas, Utah, and Colorado, and some of it is 
quite equal in quality to the English jet. 

J. S. NnivBEnET. 

liig'num Rho'dium [Lat., "rosewood"], a commer- 
cial name for Canary Island rosewood (see Roskwood), 
which yields the so-called oil of rhodium ; also for the 
wood of Amyria balaamifera, a tree of the West Indies, 
which yields an oil used as a substitute for that just men- 
tioned. The name is also given to other fragrant woods. 

liignum Vitae. See Guaiaohm. 

liigonier'. Noble co., Ind. (see map of Indiana, ref. 
2-F, for location of county), on the Elkhart River and the 
Air-line division of the Lake Shore and Michigan South- 
ern R. R., midway between Toledo and Chicago, has wagon 
and carriage factories, foundry, flour-mill, planing- and 
saw-mills, furniture-factory, a steam-elevator, and is situ- 
ated in a fine grain-raising section. Principal occupation, 
farming. Pop. in 1870, 1514; in 1880, 2010. 

liign'y, a v. of Belgium, in the province of Namur, noted 
for the great battle of Juno 16, 1815, two days before that 
of Waterloo, in which Napoleon attacked and defeated the 
Prussians under Bliichcr. 

Ligno'ri, de' (Alfonso Maria), Saint, a doctor of the 
Church of Rome, b. at Naples, Italy, Sept. 27, 1C9G, of a 
noble family; became a lawyer when sixteen years old; en- 
tered a monastery in 1722, and was ordained priest in 1726; 
devoted himself to the religious instruction of the poor; 
founded in 1702, at Villa Scala, the order of Redemptor- 
ISTS (which see), which received papal approbation in 1749, 
when Liguori was confirmed as its superior-general; de- 
clined the archbishopric of Palermo; was bishop of Sant' 
Agatha 1762-75, when he resigned and devoted himself to 
theological studies and writing, giving up even his general- 
ship of the Redemptorists. D. at Nooera del Pagani Aug. 
1,1787; was declared venerable 1700; beatified in 1816; 
canonized in 1839, and declared a doctor of the Church in 
1871. Among his many works are Theologia Moralis (llbb), 
Homo Apostolima (1782), Institutio Catec'hetica (17(38), high- 
ly esteemed by Roman Catholics, though not accepted al- 
together unchallenged. As a moral philosopher he is equi- 
probabilist, teaching that in a balance of opinions that which 
is the less safe may be followed provided it be as probable, 
or nearly as probable, as its opposite. Always leaning to- 
ward the laser side of the question, his doctrine has been 
attacked by the rigorista and designated Liyuorianiam. 

liiguorians* See Redemptorists. 

Ligu'ria, in ancient geography, a district of Northern 
Italy, the land of the Ligures, the boundaries of which were 
not accurately defined until the time of Augustus. Accord- 
ing to his division of Italy, it comprised the territory from 
the Ligurian Sea across the Maritime Alps to the Padus 
(Po) in the N. and from the Varus in the W. to the Maora 
in the E. When first mentioned in history, the Ligures 
(or, as the Greeks called them, Ligyes or Ligystini) ooou- 
^ pied a much larger territory, extending far into Gaul, on 
the western side of the Rhone. They were a warlike, quick- 
witted, and enterprising people, whoso true descent was and 
is entirely unknown ; they were neither Celts nor Sioulians, 
but may have been related to the Iberians. In the period 
between the first and second Punic wars the first encounter 
took place between them and the Romans, and about 126 
B. c. they were wholly subjugated. Large numbers of them 
were brought to Samnium and settled there, while Roman 
colonists took their place. Liguria formed the first nucleus 
of the Roman province of Gaul. The name was renewed 
by Napoleon, June 6, 1797, when the republic of Genoa was 
transformed into the Ligurian republic. (See Genoa.) 

lii'lac [Turk. leiWc], the popular name of shrubs of 



the genus Syringa, order Oleaoein. The best known is tho 
common lilac, S. vulgaris, a native of Central Asia, half 
naturalized in Europe and America. Its early-blooming 
flowers are commonly of the tint called lilac, but often 
are white or dark purple. iS'. Peraica, S. Chineiiaie, with 
other species and their hybrids, are common in culti- 
vation. Their bark has decided febrifugal powers. The 
"wild lilacs" of the Pacific coast are beautiful shrubs of 
the genus Ceanothue (order Rhamnaoese). 

tirburne (John), b. at Thickney Punoharden, Durham, 
in 1618; imbibed in youth opinions extremely hostile to 
the Church of England, and having circulated pamphlets 
against the bishops, was condemned in 1637 to pay £500, 
to receive 500 lashes, to stand in the pillory, and be re- 
manded to prison. In 1641 he received a handsome com- 
pensation (£3000) for his sufi'erings from the Long Parlia- 
ment. He fought in the Parliamentary army at Edgehill, 
Brentford, and Marston Moor, and was thrown into New- 
gate for libelling the Presbyterians. Ho afterwards aided 
in organizing the "Levellers;" accused Cromwell and Ire- 
ton of designs upon the sovereignty; was in 1649 tried for 
sedition and acquitted ; took refuge in Holland ; returned 
in 1663 ; joined the Quakers, and d. in 1 657. ' 

liilia'cesB [Lat. lilium, " lily "], a large order of peta.1- 
oideous endogenous plants, characterized by a regular 
complete perianth, free from the three-celled ovary, and six 
stamens. They are mainly herbaceous, and with the six 
divisions of the pcri.anth colored alike and the leaves par- 
allel-veined ; but to all these characters there are exceptions. 
Many have bulbs, others tubers or root-stocks. A few are 
arborescent, such as the larger yuccas, and especially dra- 
gon trees (Draaena). The famous dragon tree of Orotava, 
ToneriflFe, described and figured by Humboldt, and which 
succumbed only a few years ago, was regarded as one of 
the oldest trees in existence. As now received, the order 
comprises not only the Asphodelese and the Asparagine^e, 
but also the Molanthacese, which were generally regarded 
as distinct orders. To the lily family proper belong the 
tulips, lilies, crown-imperial, ealochortus, and most of the 
well-known and highly-prized ornamental plants of the 
order, as also the hyacinth and the onion tribe. To the 
AsparagincEe, represented in cultivation by asparagus and 
by a popular conservatory climber, Myraiphyllttm (falsely 
called Smilax), are also referred Oonvallarin (thelily-of-the- 
valley), Polygonatum (Solomon's seal), and its allies, and 
even the dragon trees. To the colchicum family belongs 
not only the medicinal and ornamental Colchicum (meadow 
saffron, so-called from a resemblance to Crocua), but also 
Veratrum, the white hellebore and its allies, whicli furnish 
mratrine, all having very active acrid-poisonous roots 
or oorms. Such properties are not wholly absent from the 
proper lily family, as, for instance, in the bulbs of Glarioaa 
and of orown-imperiaL Those of squills are likewise very 
active, while those of garlics and leeks are well-known 
condiments, and those of onions and the young shoots of 
asparagus are staples of food. The bitter juice of one or 
two species of j4/oc furnishes aloes, a common purgative. 
One of the strongest of fibres is New Zealand flax, from the 
leaves of Phormium tenax. The order is widely distributed 
over the world, but is most abundant in warm-temperate 
climates. As A Gray. 

Lille, or Lisle [Flem. Ryaael], town of France, the 
capital of the department of Le Nord, is situated in a fer- 
tile and well-cultivated plain on the Deule, and communi- 
cates by canals and railways with the sea and all the large 
commercial places of Northern France and Belgium. It 
is the head-quarters of the third military division, and is 
one of the strongest fortresses of Europe. Its forlifioations 
were erected in the eleventh century ; by Vauban they were 
thoroughly reconstructed, and they have received great im- 
provements again in this century. The city is well built, 
with broad and regular streets and numerous squares, but 
of its public buildings none are very remarkable. It has 
a lyceum, an academy of design with a celebrated collec- 
tion of drawings— among which are 86 by Raphael and 
about 200 by Michael Angelo— a botanical garden, several 
liljerary societies, and many scientific and educational in- 
stitutions. Its principal importance, however, it derives 
from its manufactures. Much flax is grown in the vicinity, 
and the linen manufactures of Lille, especially those of 
table-cloths, are very extensive ; the whole neighborhood is 
covered with bleaehing-grounds. No less important is its 
cotton-spinning industry ; about 36 largo establishments are 
in operation. The tobacco manufactory of the government 
produces annually about 1 1,000,000 pounds. Beetroot sugar, 
rapeseed oil, gloves, and gunpowder are also manufactured 
in large quantities, and a very extensive trade is oarried on. 
Lille was founded in the ninth century, belonged alter- 
nately to France or to the oounts of Flanders, oame into 
the possession of the bouse of Burgundy at the end of the 



LILLO— LTMACID^. 



fourteenth century, passed from Burgundy to Austria and 
Spain, but was conquered in 1667 by Louis XIV., since 
which time it has been a French city. In 171)2 the Aus- 
trians bombarded the city for nine days and nights, but 
had finally to raise the siege. Pop. in 1881, 178,144. 

liil'lo (George), b. at London, England, in 1693 j was 
a jeweller who produced several dramas, two of which were 
successful and celebrated — Oeorge Barnwell {1731) and Fatal 
Carionity (1737). B. in London in 1739. His Dramatic 
Works were published in 1756, with a memoir. 

liillebonne' [Lat. Juliohona'\, town of France, in the 
department of Seine- In feri cure, noted for the vast quan- 
tities of Homan remains recently found, including marble 
and bronze statuary and a magnificent theatre in good 
preservation. In its vicinity stands the palace of Harcourt, 
built by William the Conqueror, one of the most remarkable 
edifices of Normandy. Pop. 6108. 

Lillers'y town of France, in the Pas-de-Calaia, on the 
Nave, noted as the place where the first artesian well was 
dug in the twelfth, century. It has some manufactures. 
Pop. 7353. 

Lilly (John). See Lyly. 

liil'ly (William), b, at Diseworth, Leicestershire, Eng- 
land, May 1,1602; commenced the study of astrology in 1632, 
and in 1644 began the publication of an annual almanac, 
Merlinus Anglicua Junior, which contained some wonderful 
predictions, and was eagerly read by all parties. He in- 
structed many pupils in his art, and practised medicine in 
combination therewith. In his Monarchy or No Monarchy 
(1651) appeared two hieroglyphical figures which were subse- 
quently claimed to refer to the plague and the great fire in 
London in 1666. He wrote an Introduction to Aetrology, a 
Grammar of Astrology, and Tables of Nativities, and d. at 
Walton-upon-Thames June 9, 1681, leaving an Autobiog- 
raphy, which was first published in 1715, 

Ijil'y [Lat. Ulinm'], the popular name of the leading 
genus of the order Liltace^ (which see), comprising some 
of the commonest and most valued of hardy ornamental 
bulbiferous plants, natives of the northern temperate zone. 
Several are indigenous to the U. S., the more showy and 
common ones being Lilium Philadeljyhicum, with an up- 
right flower, and L. Canctdense and L. superbiim, with 
nodding ones; these orange and orange-red. Related spe- 
cies of California are now coming into cultivation, as well 
as one or two with white or rose-colored blossoms. L. can- 
didum, the common white lily of the gardens, came from 
the Levant and Caucasus. The large and choice Japanese 
lilies, white or partly so, came from Z. longiflorum, with long 
and narrow flowers, and L. Japonicum, L. speciosum, and L. 
auratiim, with very broad and open ones. In the scarlet- 
flowered L. Ghalcedonicwn, abounding in Palestine, we 
" behold the lilies of the field " of Scripture. The Martagon 
lily, L. Martagon of the Old World, answers nearest to our 
L. siiperbum. The tiger and bulblet-bearing lilies of culti- 
vation, all natives of the Old World, and producing bulblets 
in the axils of the leaves, belong to L. tigrluum, L. croceimiy 
and L. bulbiferum, the last two known by their erect 
flowers. Finally, the name of lily is extended in popular 
use to various other lily-like flowers of this and related 
orders, and even to gome of the exogenous class, as, for ex- 
ample, the water-lily, Nymphaea. Asa G-ray. 

liilybae'um, the modern Marsala, was built by the Car- 
thaginians in 397 B. c, on the westernmost promontory of 
Sicily, and was their last possession on the island. After a 
siege of ten years it was abandoned to the Romans in 241 
B. c, after which it became the basis for their attacks on 
Africa. At the fall of the Roman empire it was still a flour- 
ishing place, and the Saracens valuted its port so highly that 
they called it Marsa Allah, ''the port of God," whence its 
present name. 

liilye, or liilly (William), b. at Odiham, Hampshire, 
England, about 1466 ; was educated at Oxford ; visited Jeru- 
salem : studied Greek five years at Rhodes and in Italy, and 
in 1509 opened a classical school in London, in which Greek 
was first taught by an Englishman in his own country. The 
following year he was appointed master of St. Paul's School, 
just founded by Colet, and in 1513 he brought out his cele- 
brated Latin Grammar, which was the standard textbook in 
England for two centuries, and of which the l^-st edition was 
published in 1817. Colet, Erasmus, and Wolseley bore a 
part in this production, which bears the title Brevissima 
InHtitntio, acu Ratio Grammaiicea Cognoacendse. D. of the 
plague in London Feb., 1523. 

liily-of-the-Valley^ the Convallaria majalia, a plant 
of Europe and Asia, also sparingly indigenous in the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, prized in garden and green-house culti- 
vation for its beauty and fragrance. It is used by perfu- 
mers as the basis of eau d'or. 



Lima. See Limid^. 

lii'ma^ the capital of the republic of Peru, is situated at 
the foot of the Cordillera, in a fertile plain on the Rimae, 
6 miles from Callao,-it8 port on the Pacific. It is regularly 
built, the streets crossing each other at right angles, and 
has many churches with double towers. The streets are 
long and narrow, and the houses mostly of one story and 
built of sun-dried brick, which material suffices, as heavy 
showers never occur; the rains which fall frequently be- 
tween May and November, called garuae, are little more 
than heavy dews. Among the thirty-three public squares, 
the Plaza Mayor or Principal is the most important, em- 
bracing nine acres in the centre of the city, and being sur- 
rounded on three sides by a covered colonnade. On the 
fourth side stands the cathedral, one of the most beau- 
tiful churches in South America, founded by Pizarro, the 
conqueror of Peru, destroyed in 1746 by an earthquake, 
but rebuilt by the viceroy. Count Superunda. It has two 
towers, a large, beautiful portal, reminding of the Moorish 
style, and in the interior rich altars, good pictures, and a 
splendid organ. In the centre of the richly ornamented 
plaza is a circular garden, surrounded by an iron fence and 
provided with a fountain and statues. Facing the entrance 
from the principal square to the Callejon de Petateros 
("Mat-maker's Alley") is the front gate of Pizarro's pal- 
ace, now used for government offices, and containing offi- 
cial apartments for the president. In the centre of the 
Plaza de la Independencia stands an equestrian statue of 
Bolivar, modelled by Tadolini and cast in bronze at Mu- 
nich. Here also is the royal and pontifical university of 
San Marcos, founded by royal decree m. 1551, the walls of 
which constitute a mass of the most elaborately carved 
woodwork. The place contains furthermore the senate- 
house, formerly the palace of the inquisition, from whick 
the square was called Plaza de la Inquisiciou. One of the 
finest buildings of the city is the exhibition palace, com- 
menced Jan. 1, 1870, opened July 1, 1872 — founded by 
Don Manuel Fuentes, built by the Italian Leonardo, and 
situated on the south-western side of the city, on a square 
225 metres long and 172^ metres broad. In the vicinity 
of this building most of the old, now useless, city walls 
were pulled down in 1873, and an elegant boulevard laid 
out, called, after its designer, Meiggs's boulevard. The 
marble statue of Columbus, which formerly stood on the 
Alameda, on the other side of the Rimac, has been trans- 
ferred to the open space between the boulevard and the ex- 
hibition palace. Among the sixty or seventy churches only 
that of San Pedro is noteworthy, as containing the national 
library of Peru. Remarkable among the other public build- 
ings are the penitentiary, very commodious and safe in its 
construction, eight national colleges, an ecclesiastical semi- 
nary, a college for the study of medicine and the accessory 
sciences, another for secondary instruction, a normal school, 
a naval and military institute, an industrial municipal 
school, two theatres, and a circus for bull-fights, the larg- 
est in the world. The population of Lima numbers, ac- 
cording to a recent estimate, about 200,000 : it is very va- 
ried — whites, blacks, Indians, and Chinese of all shades. 
In consideration, however, of recent events — the war with 
Chili, the riots, etc. — the estimate is probably too high. The 
sanitary state of the city is not good, on account of the poor 
drinking-water and the bad system of sewage ; the gallina- 
zaa (carrion-vultures), which here swarm by the hundred, 
are of great benefit as scavengers. The city is connected 
by railways with Callao and the bathing-place Chorillos, 
and carries on a considerable foreign commerce, exporting 
guano, cinchona, Indian wool, raw cotton, hides, sugar, 
saltpetre, gold, silver, and other minerals. Its imports 
and exports together average more than $25,000,000 a 
year. Lima, generally styled Cindad de los Reyes ("the 
City of the Kings"), was founded by Pizarro in 1535. 
Most extravagant records exist of its former wealth ; thus, 
in 1683 the merchants are said to have paved the streets 
with silver bars on occasion of the arrival of a new vice- 
roy. The greatest danger to Lima is that from earth- 
quakes. The severest occurred in 1630, 1687, 1746, 1806, 
and 1828, of which that of Oct. 28, 1746, was the most de- 
structive. August Niemann. 

Lima, Livingston co., N. Y. (see map of New York, 
ref. 5-D, for location of county), 4 miles S. from Honeoye 
Falls, on the N. Y. Central R. R., is the seat of Genesee 
Wesleyan Seminary, the oldest institution of the kind in 
this part of the State. Pop. in 1870, 1257; in 1880, 1878. 

Lima, city and R. R. centre, cap. of Allen co., 0. (see 
map of Ohio, ref. 3-D, for location of county). Pop. in 
1870,4500; in 1880, 7567. 

Limac'idsp [from Limax, the typical genus], a family 
6f the class Gasteropoda and order Pulmonata, distin- 
guished by the elongated semi-cylindrical body, which is 
not distinguishable from the foot, the absence of any 



10 



LIMATULA— LIME. 



visceral sac, and the consequently rudimentary or shield- 
like character of the shell, which is concealed by the man- 
tle ; the mantle is anterior, moderate, and ova] ; the re- 
spiratory orifice near the right posterior margin of the 
mantle ; the anus close in front of the respiratory orifice ; 
the head has ocullgerous as well as inferior tentacles ; the 
jaws are ribless ; the teeth of the radula in numerous rows, 
the central and inner " lateral " tricuspid, the " uncini " 
or outer lateral aculeate. ' The family thus defined em- 
braces the well-known slugs of the gardens, and includes 
a number of species which have been differentiated by some 
authors into about half a dozen genera ; the best known, 
however, is Limax, and the most conspicuous species, in at 
least the sea-coast towns of the U. S., are two species in- 
troduced from Europe — viz. Limax agrestic and L. fiavus. 
These are found in moist places under boards, stones, etc. 
They are herbivorous, and are frequently quite injurious 
to succulent young plants. They emit, when handled, a 
milky secretion, and are even capable of secreting a mucus 
which, like a thread, suspends them from the point to which 
it has been attached. Besides the introduced species, there 
is an Indigenous form which is quite widely distributed in 
the U. S. — Limax campestris, Binney. Theodobe GtILL. 

liimatula. See LiMiD.e. 

Ijima-wood. See Brazil-wood. 

Limb. In angular instruments, the plate that bears 
the principal graduated arc is called the Umh of the instru- 
ment ; the secondary arc concentric with the first, and used 
for subdividing the divisions on the limb, is called the ver- 
nier. In the theodolite there are two limbs — one for mea- 
suring horizontal angles, called the horizontal limb, and one 
for measuring vertical angles, called the vertical Umh. The 
term limb is often applied to a straight rod which is gradu- 
ated ; thus, in the levelling-rod the staff on which the prin- 
cipal graduation is placed is called the limb, the graduated 
line on the vane being called the vernier. W. Q-. Peck. 

Ijirabo, or JLimbus [Lat. limhue, "margin" or "bor- 
der" — /. e. of hell]. The former word, now a^ nominative, 
as in the Italian, was originally the ablative of limbnsy 
which latter word was first used in its present theological 
sense by Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274). The doctrine per- 
taining to it was first authoritatively formulated at the 
Second Council of Lyons (fourteenth oecumenical) in 1274. 
The teaching of the Uoman Catholic Church is that hell is 
at the centre of the earth ; next to hell is purgatory ; next 
to purgatory is the limbua infantum, for unbaptized chil- 
dren, idiots, and the like; and next to that the limhua pa- 
trum, where were the Old Testament saints whom Christ de- 
livered and took with him to heaven, so that the limbua 
ptitnun is now empty. R. D. Hitchcock. 

liiinborch, van (Philippus), b. June 19, 1633, at 
Amsterdam ; studied theology under his uncle. Episcopius, 
and was appointed in 1657 minister of the Remonstrant 
congregation at Gonda, and in 1667 professor of theology 
at the Remonstrant college of Amsterdam, where he d. 
Apr. 30, 1712. His Theolugia Christiana (1686) gives a 
comprehensive and systematic exposition of the doctrines 
of Arminius. It was translated into English by Jones 
(London, 1702). His Hintoria Liquinitiouin was translated 
by Chandler (London, 1731). 

Limbs, Artificial, formerly of crude structure, ohiefiy 
the "peg-leg," merely enabled the patient to walk and to 
work. By successive steps of improvement they have come 
to simulate the natural limb so fully that the form and gait 
may baffle detection or observation. Lightness is secured 
without loss of strength by use of wooden cylinders proper- 
ly shaped, artificial joints correspond to the natural ones, 
and the functions of many muscles are imitated by tendi- 
nous cords and springs. It is a fallacy to suppose that arti- 
ficial limbs are made of cork. 

Lim'burg, or Limbourg, a territory extending along 
both sides of the river Meuse, which alternately belonged 
to the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and Austria, until it 
was finally divided between Belgium and the Netherlands 
in 1839. Along the Meuse the region is very fertile, afford- 
ing excellent pasturage for large herds of cattle, but the 
rest of the country is sterile, the soil being either marshy 
or sandy. Brewing and distilling are the principal branches 
of industry pursued here. Dutch Limburg comprises an 
area of Sol square miles, with 235,135 inhabitants, of whom 
nine-tenths are Roman Catholics ; the principal towns are 
Maestricht and Roermond. Belgium Limburg, which con- 
tains some iron and coal mines, comprises an area of 932 
square miles, with 211,694 inhabitants. Principal towns, 
Hasselt, St. Trond, and Tongres. 

Lime [Fr. ; from Ind. leemoo], the fruit of Oitrue acida 
and 0. Limetta (the last called sweet lime), both probably 
mere varieties of Citrus m,edioa, the citron tree. The lime 
grows upon a dwarfish tree or shrub, and is a native of 



Asia, but cultivated in nearly all warm regions. LimeB 
are in no wise inferior to lemons, for which they are used 
as a substitute. Pickled limes are prized as a condiment. 
Lime-juice is extensively employed in ships' stores as an 
antiscorbutic. Citric acid is largely manufactured from it. 
Lime is the usual English name of Tilia, the linden tree. 

liime, one of the alkaline earths, chemically the pro- 
toxide of calcium, symbol CaO. It forms the base of lime- 
stones, marbles, corals, and the shells of moUusks, where it 
is in combination with carbonic acid, forming the carbon- 
ate of lime. By the application of heat the carbonic acid 
is driven off, and the lime is left in the condition of "caus- 
tic" or "quick" lime. Lime is usually white, light-gray, 
or oream-oolored, porous and soft. It rapidly absorbs 
water, uniting with it chemically, with the evolution of 
much heat. This process is called slaking or slacking. 
Pure or "fat" limes when slaked swell very much, and 
ultimately fall into a snow-white powder. If more water 
is added, what is called the "milk of lime" is formed. The 
lime is now in the condition of a hydrate, and if exposed 
to the action of the air it absorbs carbonic acid, and is 
again converted into the carbonate of lime. In the prep- 
aration of mortar, sand is added according to the richness 
or " fatness " of the lime — ^that is, according to the fineness 
and uniformity of the powder into which it falls when 
slaked. Where the powder is very fine, it makes with 
water a fluid paste which will penetrate the interstices be- 
tween the grains of sand, however closely they may be 
crowded. The thinner the film of paste between the grains 
of sand the stronger their adhesion will be. Hence, the 
value of a lime is roughly measured by the quantity of sand 
it will serve to unite. Lime is largely used in agriculture 
as a dressing on soils which require calcareous matter, in 
the manufacture of bleaching-powder (chloride of lime), 
in tanning, as a flux in smelting iron, etc. etc. Lime is 
extremely infusible, and cylinders of this substance are 
commonly used in the oxyhydrogen or calcium light, a jet 
of the ignited gases being thrown upon a piece of lime, 
which when intensely heated emits a light so bright as to 
be almost unbeara.ble to the eye. 

The great consumption of lime, however, is in the pro- 
duction of mortar, and for this purpose it has been used in 
construction by all modem and most ancient civilized na- 
tions. In the earliest masonry of which any remains have 
been found, as the Etruscan, that of the island of Cyprus, 
and ancient Troy, walls were laid up with large stones 
without mortar (" Cyclopean " masonry), or with smaller 
ones packed in clay, but by the Egyptians, Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Romans the use of lime for mortar was uni- 
versal. In the manufacture of mortar from lime, as has 
been stated, the hydrate of lime is formed by the addition 
of water to quicklime. This is, in part, chemically com- 
bined with the lime, and produces the first "setting" of 
mortar. Subsequently, by the absorption of carbonic acid, 
it is converted into the hydrated carbonate. In process 
of time a combination is also formed between the lime and 
some of the silica of the sand with which it is associated, 
and silicate of lime is produced. By this the strength of 
the mortar is still further increased. This progressive 
change has been ascertained by careful analysis of many 
samples of older and newer mortars. These have shown 
that in the older mortars — which in some instances are as 
hard as the stones they join — the percentage of silicate of 
lim^ is much greater than in those more recently made. 

The notion is commonly entertained by architects and 
masons that the best lime is produced from the purest car- 
bonate of lime, and statements to that effect will be found 
in many books which treat of this subject. This theory, 
however, has been abundantly proved to be a fallacy, for 
it has been shown that nearly all the most extensively used 
and highly esteemed limes contain a large percentage of 
magnesia. Magnesian limes are preferred by masons, be- 
cause, as they say, they are "cooler" and set more slowly. 
The pure lime is, in their language, too " hot " and " quick." 
This is illustrated by the high reputation in New York of 
the lime from Smithfleld, R. I., and that made from tho 
white marble along the Hudson River, both of which are 
highly magnesian. The following analyses show tho com- 
position of the Westchester marble, so much used for lime : 

1. 2. 

Carbonate of lime 55.40 54.20 

" " magnesia 43.28 44.80 

Silica 0.20 0.10 

Alumina and iron 0.60 0.80 

It will be seen from these analyses that this rock is a typical 
dolomite, and yet the lime made from it is as highly esteemed 
and takes as much sand as any other used in the Atlantic 
States. In Ohio, where this subject has attracted special 
attention in connection with the geological survey, it has 
been found that all the most esteemed limes are highly 
magnesian. At Cincinnati, which is surrounded by hills 



LIME, MEDICINAL USES OF— LIMESTONE. 



11 



composed of limestones which are nearly pure carbonate 
of lime, all the quicklime used is brought from distant 
localities, where it is manufactured from the Niagara lime- 
stone, there a dolomite, containing nearly as much magnesia 
as lime. The cities of Northern Ohio and Michigan are 
supplied with lime from the Niagara and Water-lime groups, 
both of which are dolomites, and from the Comiferous lime- 
stone, which contains from 15 to 21 per cent, of magnesia. 
A considerable portion of magnesia in quicklime causes it 
to slake and set more slowly, but the mortar is quite as 
white as that made from pure lime, and becomes much 
harder by age. 

A similar fallacy prevails in regard to the use of mag- 
nesian limestones for fluxes in metallurgy. It is generally 
believed that pure limestones make much the best fluxes, 
but this is a mistake, as abundant experience has shown 
that magnesian limestones are quite as well adapted to 
this use as those which contain the carbonate of lime only. 
Lime is manufactured from limestone, marbles, or shells 
by calcination, which expels the carbonic acid. This is 
effected in kilns of various kinds. Formerly, lime-burning 
was done in kilns having the form of an inverted beehive, 
withasingle opening at the bottom. In these the fuel and 
stone were mixed, the fire being lighted below. At the 
end of three or four days, the fuel having been consumed 
and the limestone calcined, the charge was allowed to cool 
partially, and was then drawn out at the bottom. Now, 
lime-burning is nearly all done in what are c&Wed perpetual 
kilns. These are square or round towers 25 to 30 feet in 
height, having a cylindrical cavity within, 5 or 6 feet in 
diameter. These kilns have usually two furnaces, one on 
either side, situated at about one-third of the height from 
the bottom. In these the fires are kept perpetually burn- 
ing, and are fed with wood or soft coal, the fiame and 
heat from which, passing up through the limestone, calcine 
it so that when it has descended to the level of the furnaces 
it ia deprived of all its carbonic acid. From time to time 
the limestone is charged at the top and the calcined lime 
drawn out below. As limestones vary much in the facility 
with which they are burned, the time required for calci- 
nation and the amount of fuel consumed will depend much 
on the kind of stone used. Something will also depend 
upon the exceHence of the fuel and the pattern of kiln em- 
ployed. The best results attained are the production of 
300 bushels of lime every twenty-four hours with the con- 
sumption of four cords of wood. "Where coal is used, as is 
the case in most foreign localities and many in the U. S., 
a considerable economy of fuel is obtained ; but in somo 
places where our bituminous coals have been tried the 
quality of the lime is said to have been impaired. This, if 
true, was possibly the effect of an unusual amount of sul- 
phur in the coal, or it may have been the result of a want 
of adaptation of the furnaces to mineral fuel. The experi- 
ence of the lime-burners abroad and in certain localities on 
the Atlantic coast of our own country has conclusively 
proved that lime can be burned more rapidly and cheaply 
with a fair quality of coal than with wood, and this with- 
out any Impairment of quality. 

When mortar freshly made from quicklime is placed in 
water, it softens and loses its form; but the lime made from 
certain limestones which contain a largo percentage of sil- 
ica and alumina, on the contrary, hardens under water and 
forms what is known as hydraulic cement. When calcined, 
these .hydraulic limestones yield a yellow or .brown lime 
which does not slake or heat much on tho application of 
water. From its hardness it must be ground in a mill be- 
fore it can be used for mortar, (Further particulars in 
regard to this class of lime will be found in tho articles 
Cement, Hydraui.ic Limes, etc. See also Vicat On Mor- 
tars and Vicat's Treatise on Mortara and Cements; Paslcy's 
Limes, Mortars, and Cements; Burnell's Mortars, Limes, 
Cements, and Concretes; and Gillmore's Limes, Mortars, 
and Cements, 2d ed.) J. S. Newberry. 

Lime, Medicinal Uses of. QmelcUme is a powerful 
caustic, but is little used for this purpose except in tho form 
of the officinal potassa cum calce or "Vicuna caustic," 
which consists of equal parts of tho two alkalies, mixed to 
form a powder. For application this powder is made into 
a paste with a little alcohol. Chlorinated lime is a valuable 
desicoant and disinfectant. Lime-water (a saturated solu- 
tion of lime in water) and calcium carbonate (in the form 
of prepared chalk and prepared oyster-shell) are used in 
medicine for a variety of purposes. They are valuable 
antidotes in sulphuric and oxalic acid poisoning, as they 
form insoluble precipitates with those acids, and have no 
poisonous properties of their own. They are among the 
best of alkalies for neutralizing the undue acidity generated 
in the alimentary canal in certain forms of dyspepsia, es- 
pecially when, as is often the case, there is also diarrhoea; 
for, being somewhat astringent, they tend to check the dis- 
charge. Being of low diffusion power, they are but little 



absorbed, and hence cannot he used for alkalizing the blood 
like the alkaline compoalads of sodium and potassium. 
Lime-water is also used as an alkaline wash in many skin 
diseases, and mixed with equal parts of linseed oil forms 
the so-called " Carron oil," a favorite application to burns. 
Lime-water rapidly dissolves the false membranes of croup 
and diphtheria, and is accordingly sometimes applied lo- 
cally to the throat in those diseases by means of the spray- 
apparatus. But in this dilute form it is doubtful if it exer- 
cises much useful solvent power. Mixed with ice-cold milk, 
in the proportion of 1 to 1 or 2, lime-water has a remarkable 
effect iu allaying nausea and vomiting; and the same mix- 
ture thus furnishes an invaluable means of conveying 
nourishment in cases of obstinate vomiting when all tho 
usual forms of food are rejected. Edward Curtis. 

liime. Chloride of, or Bleaching-Salt. See 
Hypochlorous Anhydride and Hypochlorites, by Prof. 
Henry Wijrtz. 

Lim'erick« county of Ireland, in the province of Mun- 
ster, is bounded on the N. by the estuary of the Shannon 
and the counties of Clare and Tipperary, on the E, by Tip- 
perary, on the S. by Cork, and on the W. by Kerry. Area, 
1036 square miles. The surface is mostly an undulating 
plain on a subsoil of limestone, trap, and sandstone, com- 
prising thb larger portion of the so-called Golden Vale, and 
watered by the Shannon, which is navigable up to Limer- 
ick, the Maig, which rises in the Galtees, flows into the 
Shannon, and is navigable up to the town of Adare, the 
Beel, and the Mulcair. Toward the S., however, the ground 
rises into the picturesque Galtee Mountains, which extend 
into the county of Tipperary and have in Galtymore on 
elevation of 3015 feet. In the mountainous districts the 
soil is poor and incapable of improvement, but the Goldm 
Vale comprises the most fertile districts in Ireland. In 
18S0 there were 176,774 acres under tillage — namely, 7257 
wheat, 21,440 oats, 3003 other cereals, 23,035 potatoes, 5520 
turnips, 3994 other green crops, and 112,578 meadows and 
clover — 415,107 in pasture, 8407 plantations, and 62,465 
waste. The total number of holdings was 16,236, but all 
the land, exclusive of the city of Limerick, was divided 
between 1676 proprietors, of whom nearly forty per cent, 
had less than one acre. The county possessed in that year 
201,456 cattle, 15,389 horses, 50,599 sheep, 48,801 pigs, 
10,012 goats, and 428,398 poultry. Besides agriculture, 
some manufactures of coarse woollens and paper are car- 
ried on, and there is a considerable number of flour-mills; 
but the old flax-spinning and weaving industry has be- 
come almost wholly extinct. The population, which in 
1841 amounted to 331,003, had in 1881 decreased to 
177,203. During the period between 1851 and 1881 there 
emigrated 130,333 persons. The county belonged origi- 
nally to the kingdom of Thomond, and was inhabited by 
the Coriandi ; afterward it became an independent state, 
under the name of Aine-Cliach, and from the eighth to 
the eleventh century it was partially occupied by the 
Danes. The county is, however, not particularly rich in 
interesting antiquities. 

liimerick, city of Ireland, capital of the county of 
Limerick, province of Munster, on both sides of the Shan- 
non, which is crossed by five bridges and lined with docks. 
On the western bank of the river stands Irish Town, on 
the eastern Newtown Pery, and on an island in the river 
English Town ; but the first and the last parts of the«ity 
are occupied by the poorer classes, and consist mostly of 
mean houses. All the principal buildings, streets, and 
squares are in Newtown Pery, The city has distilleries, 
tanneries, flour-mills, flax-spinning and weaving facto- 
ries, and lace manufactures, and its port is the fourth in 
importance in Ireland. It admits vessels of 1000 tons, 
and in 1880 the value of imports amounted to £837,269. 
The exportation is of much less magnitude. It was taken 
in 1651 by Gen. Ireton, and was the last place in Ireland 
which surrendered to William III., on which occasion a 
treaty was signed (1691) granting certain rights to Roman 
Catholics. Its prosperity, dates mainly from the found- 
ing of Newtown Pery, in* 769, by Sexton Pery. Pop. in 
1881, 48,246. 

I^ime'stone, a sedimentary rock composed chiefly of 
the carbonate of lime, the calcareous deposit of the sea 
wherever the mechanical sediments — sand and clay, the 
wash of the land — do not reach. The lime of limestones 
is for the most part derived from the hard parts of marine 
organisms, the shells of Foraminifera and mollusks, the 
skeletons of polyps (corals), etc. By the formation of 
limestone carbonio acid is drawn from the atmosphere, and 
fixed beyond the reach of all natural agents except heat 
sufficient to calcine the limestone. As the causes which 
produce tho ordinary metamorphism of rocks, converting 
limestones into marbles, though rendering them more crys- 
talline and often discharging all organic colors and leav- 



12 



LIME TREE— LIMITATION, STATUTES OF. 



ing them pure white, docs not drive off the carbonic 
acid, it may be supposed that the carbonic acid which 
is absorbed in the formation of limestone is, for the most 
part, permanently withdrawn from the atmosphere. As 
Prof. Henry Wurtz has suggested, this process has probably 
caused a great diminution of the carbonic acid contained 
in the primeval atmosphere, and should it continue 
with no other compensating action than such as we now 
know, it must result in the extinction of all life on the 
globe. J. S- Newberry. 

Lime Tree, See Linben. 

Lim'idse [from Lima, the principal genus], a family 
of monomyarian conchiferous moUusks, resembling, in 
some, the scallops (Pectinidaa), but with the mouth bor- 
dered by tentacular filaments ; the mantle destitute of 
ocelli ; an oval tube developed and cylindrical in form ; 
.and the foot compressed. The family has numerous re- 
cent as well as fossil (Secondary and Tertiary) species, 
which have been grouped by Adams into two genera — viz. 
Lima (with the sub-genera Radula restricted, Ctenoides, 
Mantellum, Acesta, and Limatula) and Limsea. Of fche 
latter, only one species was known from Norway and the 
Mediterranean. Theodore Gill. 

Lim'it [Lat. limeB]. The limit of a varying quantity 
is that value towards which the first may be made under 
the law by which it varies to approach, from which it may 
be made to differ by less than any assignable quantity of 
the same kind, and with which it may be made to. coincide 
by a particular supposition. Thus, the quantity 2ax -j- h^ 
varies with h; if we suppose h to diminish numerically, the 
value of the expression will approach towards that of 2ax; 
by making h sufficiently small the value of the expression 
is made to differ from 2ax by less than any assignable 
quantity; and finally, by supposing A equal to 0, the value 
of the expression becomes 2ax; hence, 2ax is the limit of 
2ax -\- h^ with respect to h. 

The method of limits has been made the basis of a sys- 
tem of differential calculus. To explain this system let us 
assume the general equation — 

y=/w (1) 

if we increase a; by a positive but variable increment, h, and 
denote the corresponding value of t/ by y', it may be shown 
(Courtenay's Calculus, art. 4) that the new state of the func- 
tion can always be expressed by the formula, 
y'=/(x + h)^f{x)+Ah + Bh^ + at^-\-etG.; .... (2) 
in which A, B, Cj etc. depend on a;, but are independent 
of h. Subtracting (1) from (2), and dividing through by 
A, we have 

^^~^ = ^-(-5A + (etc.)A2 .... (3) 

The first member of (3) is a symbol to express the ratio 
of the increment of the variable to the corresponding incre- 
ment of the function, and t\iQ second member is the value 
of that ratio. If, now, we suppose h to approach 0, tho 
value of the ratio will approach A, and when li becomes 
equal to the value of the ratio becomes equal to A ; hence, 
A is the limit of the ratio in question. This limiting value 
is called the differential coefficient of the function, and is 

dy 
denoted by the symbol -7-; if this result is multiplied by 

the differential of the variable, dx, the product, denoted by 
the symbol dy^ is called the differential of the function, and 

'"''"^^« dy^Adx. 

If we suppose A to be a constant infinitesimal, denoted by 
dxf the difference between y' and y will be the difference 
between two consecutive values of the function,* this dif- 
ference is the differential of the function, and It may be de- 
noted by the symbol dy. Subtracting (1) from (2), and in 
the result making y' —y equal to dy, and h equal to dx, we 
have 

dy = Adx + Bdx^ -\- Cdx^ -f- etc. ; 
rejecting from the second member all terms involving dx 
to a higher power than the fir^t, as infinitesimal in com- 
parison with the first, we have, as before, 

dy = Adx. 
This result shows that the expression for the differential 
of the function is always the same, whether it is found by 
the method 0/ limits or by the method 0/ infinitesimals, in- 
asmuch as the function that we have used is perfectly gen- 
eral. The latter method is far simpler than the former, and 
is therefore better adapted to practical investigations. 

The method of limits is immediately applicable to the 
theory of tangents. We may define a tangent to a plane 
curve at a given point to be the limit of the secant through 
that point. If a secant is drawn through the given point 
and any other point of the curve, we may conceive the sec- 
ond point to approach the first, and finally to coincide with 
it; at this instant the secant becomes a tangent. If, now, 



we suppose the second point to pass the first, continuing to 
move in the same direction, we shall have a secant cutting 
the curve on the other side. There is but one position in 
which a secant becomes a tangent, and that is its limiting 
position. At this point the slope of the tangent is equal 
to the limit of the ratio of the increment 0/ the abscissa to 
the corresponding increment 0/ the ordinate; that is, to the 
differential coefficient of the ordinate taken at the point of 
contact. A tangent plane to a surface at any point is tho 
limit of all the secant planes that can be passed through 
the point. 

The method of limits is used in deducing properties of 
geometrical magnitudes of one and two dimensions. Let 
a regular polygon be inscribed in a circle, and suppose the 
number of sides to be indefinite. As the number of sides 
increases, the area of the polygon approaches that of the 
circle, and finally, when the number of sides becomes in- 
finite, the two areas coincide ; hence, we say that the circle 
is the limit of a regular inscribed polygon. It is also the 
limit of a regular circumscribed polygon. The circum- 
ference of a circle is, in like manner, the limit of the perim- 
eters of the inscribed and circumscribed polygons. The 
surface and volume of the cone and the cylinder are limits 
of the surface and volume of regular inscribed pyramids 
and prisms. In all such cases it is assumed that whatever 
is true for all states of a varying magnitude is true for its 
limit. 

A limit of the roots of a numerical equation is a number 
greater or less than any of the real roots of the equation. 
In this sense there must be an infinite number of limits, but 
it is understood that the superior limit is the smallest and 
that the inferior limit is the largest whole number that will 
satisfy the conditions of a limit. W. G'. Peck. 

Limita'tion^ Statutes of, are statutes limiting or 
prescribing particular periods of time within which civil 
actions or suits or criminal prosecutions must be instituted 
or certain legal rights enforced. Various statutes of this 
kind have been enacted in England at different periods of 
English history, but those which were first adopted were 
narrow in scope, applying only to actions relating to real 
property. The first statute to be enacted of a comprehen- 
sive character, applying to civil actions in contract and in 
tort, as well as to actions concerning real estate, was passed 
in the reign of James I. (21 James I. ch. 16). This has 
been superseded, so far as it relates to real property, by the 
statute 3 and 4 Will. IV. ch. 27, but its remaining provisions 
are still substantially in force, though they have been to 
some extent modified by subsequent enactments. Upon 
this statute, so far as it relates to actions upon contract, the 
various^ statutes of limitation enacted by the different 
States of this country have been chiefly based, its principal 
provisions having been frequently adopted with but slight 
if any modification; and a consideration of its terms, of 
the inteq^retation which it has received, and of its effect 
upon legal procedure will exhibit the principles of law upon 
this subject as established in England and generally in the 
U. S. The rules relating to actions of tort and to actions 
concerning real property, as well as the statutes of limita- 
tion which have been enacted with reference to suits in 
courts of equity and to criminal prosecutions, may with 
most convenience and advantage be considered separately. 

I. Actions upon Contract. — It is provided by the statute 
of James that "all actions of account and upon the case, 
other than such accounts as concern the trade of merchan- 
dise between merchant and merchant, their factors, or ser- 
vants, all actions of debt grounded upon any lending or 
contract without specialty, all actions of debt for arrearages 
of rent, shall be brought within six years next after the 
cause of such actions, and not after." Before the enact- 
ment of this statute there was no limit to the period within 
which an action upon contract might be instituted. It was 
a maxim of the common law that a " right never dies," and 
it could therefore not be barred or extinguished by any 
lapse of time, unless it were a right of action in tort, in 
which case the action was then required (though there are 
now important exceptions to this rule) to be brought within 
the lifetime of the parties. The object sought to be attained 
by the enactment of these provisions limiting the right of 
action to a specific and comparatively brief period was to 
relieve debtors from the undue embarrassment and hard- 
ship naturally attendant upon harassing litigation at re- 
mote periods of time, when vouchers and other instruments 
of evidence are likely to be lost or destroyed, or it has be- 
come unreasonably difficult or impossible to procure the 
necessary testimony. The statute is in furtherance of the 
principle that " the law favors those who are vigilant, not 
those who sleep upon their rights," and aims to promote 
the diligence of creditors in enforcing their claims while 
an adequate defence, if any can be made, is reasonably 
practicable. The limit of time assigned is necessarily 
arbitrary, though it was undoubtedly fixed upon with ref- 



LIMITATION, STATUTES OF. 



13 



ereDce to two important considerations : first, that the 
creditor should not be forced to undue haste in bringing 
action before time was given to collect all necessary testi- 
mony, to employ other means of effecting a settlement, or 
to wait until an impoverished debtor might become capable 
of satisfying the claim; and, secondly, that the debtor 
should not be unwarrantably prejudiced in his intei'ests 
by the creditor's excessive delay. For these reasons the 
statute is oomihonly termed in law a statute of repose, be- 
cause its purpose and effect are to quiet old and stale 
claims, to extinguish causes of litigation, and to relieve 
debtors from oppressive suits. There has been, however, 
no little conflicting adjudication in the courts as to whether 
it should be deemed a statute of repose or one of presump- 
tion. The decisions sustaining the latter doctrine proceed 
upon the ground that a creditor's claim is not to be enforced 
at the expiratitm of the prescribed period, because it is 
then presumed in law that it has been satisfied. This con- 
trariety of opinion led to important consequences in regard 
to the necessity of a new promise by the debtor to revive a 
liability affected by the statute, which will be again referred 
to. It is now to be considered as the generally established 
rule that the statute is one of repose, founded upon prin- 
ciples of expediency and public policy, and not of legal 
presumption. The phraseology of the statute has reference 
to the technical forms of action upon contract employed in 
common-law procedure, instead of to various kinds of con- 
tracts. The nature and objects of these various actions are 
explained under the topics Account, Case, and Debt 
(which see). The " action upon the case," as the phrase is 
used in this connection, includes the action of assumpsit, 
(See Assumpsit.) It may be briefly stated as the substance 
of the statute that it requires actions upon simple contracts 
(/. c. contracts not under seal) to be brought within six 
years after the cause of action accrues, with the single ex- 
ception of merchants' accounts, which concern the trade of 
merchandise. The time when the cause of action accrues, 
and from which the six years are to be reckoned, is the 
time when the creditor could have commenced his action. 
Thus, if credit be given, the statute begins to run when the 
term of credit expires. If a bill of exchange be payable 
at sight, the six years are computed from the date of pre- 
sentment. But a note payable on demand is due at nay 
time, and the statute runs from the making of the note. 
If, however, the note be drawn payable a certain time after 
demand, a demand must be made to fix the commencement 
of the period of limitation. If a bill or note have days of 
grace, the statute runs from the time of their expiration. 
If a debt be payable by instalments, the statute begins as 
to each instalment from the time when it becomes due; 
there may, however, be an agreement that upon default in 
paying any instalment the whole debt shall become pay- 
able, and in that case the six years are reckoned as to the 
entire debt from the time of default. The statute begins 
to run when the plaintiff could bring his action, and not 
when he knew he could, if these two periods of time do not 
coincide. If the claim be for breach of contract, the statute 
runs from the time of breach, and not from the time when 
loss or injury was sustained by the plaintiff in consequence. 
If money be payable upon the happening of a contingent 
event, the period of limitation will be reckoned from the 
time of its occurrence. The statute provides that the suit 
"shall be brought within six years." It therefore becomes 
important to determine what steps will be sufficient to con- 
stitute the bringing or commencing of an action, for if suit 
be brought even upon the last day of the six years the 
terms of the statute will be satisfied, even though the action 
may be prolonged beyond that limit. It was the rule at 
common law that the suit was commenced by the first act 
performed in the institution of legal proceedings, such as 
filling out and completing the original writ or the sum- 
mons, which were the initiatory steps requisite. At the 
present day "the same general rule remains true, though 
different forms of process have been established in England 
and the States of this country as the prescribed mode of 
beginning legal proceedings. It is provided in some States 
that the action shall be deemed begun as to any defendant 
when the first process, as a summons, is served on him or 
on a co-defendant, but that an attempt to commence it by 
delivering the summons to the sheriff to be served shall be 
equivalent to an actual service. This is the case in New 
York and in other States which have adopted its code of 
civil procedure. 

It is a general principle applicable to statutes of limita- 
tion that they do not apply to actions brought by the 
Crown or State, unless there be an express provision in the 
statute to that effect. It was a maxim of common law 
that " time does not run against the king." Special pro- 
visions are generally adopted at the present day barring the 
right of the State to recover real property after a certain 
specified interval; but the rule as applicable to actions 



upon contract is not so frequently changed. The statute 
also provides that actions upon contracts under seal or spe- 
cialties shall not be included within the prescribed period 
of limitation. But in analogy with the provisions of the 
statute an artificial presumption was established at an early 
period that payment of a debt upon specialty had been 
made when it had been unclaimed and without recognition 
for the period of twenty years. This, however, did not 
operate as an absolute bar, but was merely a disputable 
presumption, which might be rebutted by any evidence suf- 
ficient to satisfy the jury that the debt still remained due. 
The same presumption was also made in reference to 
claims upon simple contract when the statute was not 
pleaded by the defendant, since it was a rule that a defend- 
ant could not take advantage of the statute of limitations, 
though he might be able to do so, unless he made it the 
basis of a special plea. But it is now provided in England, 
by statute 3 and 4 Will. IV. ch. 42, that actions upon spe- 
cialties shall be commenced within twenty years after the 
accruing of the cause of action. Similar statutes have been 
enacted in a number of the U. S. 

No special provision is made in the statute of James 
with reference to mutual, open, and current accounts be- 
tween the parties to an action ; but the rule was established 
at an early date in England by the adjudications of the 
courts, and has been generally sustained in the American 
States, that such accounts, if they contain items on both 
sides within the period of limitation, are not barred by the 
statute. The last item is said to draw to itself the other 
items, and its date is deemed the date of the entire account. 
These accounts are to be distinguished from " merchants' ac- 
counts," which are provided for by the statute. These may 
exist between parties who are not merchants. The reason 
generally given for this rule is that the items within six 
years are clearly an admission of an unsettled account, and 
equivalent to evidence of a new promise which operates to 
remove the bar of the statute. It is indispensable that the 
accounts be mutual in order that the rule may apply. If 
the items be entirely upon one side, only those which are 
within six years will be valid claims. It has been held in 
some States that an item upon either side will be sufiicient 
to take the whole account out of the statute. Mere state- 
ments of successive credits on one side of an account and 
of debits on the other do not make an account mutual. 
There must be reciprocal demands, mutual rights of action. 
The account must also be " open and current" in order to 
be referred to the time-of each successive item. If a bal- 
ance be struck, and acquiesced in by the debtor, thus mak- 
ing the account what is technically termed an ''account 
stated," the balance constitutes a definite and specific debt, 
against which the statute begins to run from the time it ia 
ascertained and settled. A balance thus found may, how- 
ever, be embodied in a new account current as its first item, 
and thus be drawn out of the operation of the statute. But 
the rule in regard to mutual accounts has been changed in 
England by statute 9 Geo. IV. ch. 14, commonly termed 
Lord Tenterden's act. This provides that the existence of 
items within six years shall not operate to prevent the pre- 
vious items of the account from being barred. This pro- 
vision has been declared anew by statute 19 and 20 Vict, 
ch. 97. In this country, however, the previously existing 
common-law rule has been established by statute in a num- 
ber of the States. The exception as to "merchants' ac- 
counts" in the statute applies only to such "accounts as 
concern the trade of merchandise ;" i. e. to those which arise 
from the buying and selling of goods. The existence of mu- 
tual debits and credits merely is not sufficient. A "merchant," 
within the meaning of this provision, is one who is engaged 
in traffic in merchandise as a regular business. It was final- 
ly decided in England before this exception was there abol- 
ished that it applied only to actions of account, techni- 
cally so called, and perhaps to actions on the case for not 
accounting. (See Account,) In those States of this coun- 
try, however, where this provision of the statute has been 
adopted, other forms of action based upon matter of account 
have been held to be included within its terms. In some 
of the States the phraseology was changed, so as to read, 
"other than such actions as concern the trade of merchan- 
dise," etc. The adjudications of the courts as to the mean- 
ing and effect of this exception have been conflicting. On 
the one hand, it has been maintained that such accounts 
cannot be barred by the statute, although all the items 
which they contain are beyond the limit of six years; while, 
on the other hand, it has been contended that they will be 
barred unless they contain items within six years, which 
may serve to draw after them the antecedent items in the 
same way as in "mutual accounts." The former doctrine 
became settled in England, and is sustained by the weight 
of authority in the TJ. S. But, though such accounts are 
held not to be within the statutory bar, the presumption 
of payment after twenty years would apply to them in the 



14 



LIMITATION, STATUTES OF. 



same way as to specialties. In a number of tiie U. S. this 
exception aa to "merchants' accounts" has not been re- 
tained, and the statutes as to "mutual accounts" which 
have been adopted are applicable to these accounts also. In 
England the exceptioij has been done away with by the act 
19 and 20 Vict. ch. 97, and such claims are to be sued with- 
in six years. 

The bar of the statute may be removed in any case by a 
new promise to pay the debt or by a part payment of its 
amount made within six years before action is brought for 
its recovery. The statute begins to run anew from the time 
of the promise or payment. This is true whether the six 
years have wholly or partially expired. The new promise 
may be either express or implied. It will generally be im- 
plied from an unconditional and unqualified acknowledg- 
ment of the existence of the debt, if unaccompanied by 
any refusal to pay or by any declarations showing an inten- 
tion to rely upon the statute as a defence. In former times, 
when the statute was generally held to be a statute of pre- 
sumption, very slight and trivial admissions of the debtor 
from which the exfstence of a debt could be inferred were 
fastened upon by the courts as sufficient evidence of a new 
promise, because they served to repel the presumption of 
payment. It was even generally held that the debtor would 
be liable though his admission were accompanied by a refu- 
sal to pay. But when the statute came to be regarded as a 
statute of repose the natural deduction was that the debtor 
might take advantage of the statute, unless he voluntarily 
waived it by an express promise or by an acknowledgment 
so full and unequivocal as to be equivalent to a new promise : 
and this is now the established rule. If, notwithstanding 
the admission, an intention be expressed to take advantage 
of the statute, no inference of a new promise will be made. 
The acknowledgment must in every case refer definitely 
to the debt which is the cause of action, though it need not 
state the amount payable thereon. This may be pi'oved by 
extrinsic evidence. But an acknowledgment of a more 
general indebtedness will not be sufiicient. If the admission 
be accompanied by terms or conditions of any kind, a re- 
covery cannot be had unless they are fulfilled. The prom- 
ise or acknowledgment must be voluntary, and not extorted 
by duress. Part payment is held to take a debt out of the 
statute, on the ground that it amounts to an acknowledg- 
ment of a present subsisting debt which the debtor is liable 
and willing to pay. But this may also be accompanied by 
a refusal to pay the residue, and the statutory bar will not 
then be removed. A payment of interest upon any debt 
is suflSoient to render payable the principal and the residue 
of the interest. If a debtor owes several debts to the same 
creditor, some of which are barred and some are not, and 
makes a general payment without appropriating It to any 
specific claim, it has been held that the creditor may ap- 
propriate it to any claim that is barred, but cannot thereby 
take the residue of such claim out of the statute. It is not 
yet definitively settled whether the same rule prevails if all 
the debts are barred, though the tendency of judicial opin- 
ion is in this direction. (See Appropriation op Payments.) 
It is now provided in England by Lord Tenterden's act 
that no promise or acknowledgment shall be sufficient to 
take a debt out of the operation of the statute unless it be 
contained in some writing to be signed by the party charge- 
able thereby. This act, however, it is declared, shall not 
alter, the effect of any payment of principal or interest. 
Similar statutes have been adopted in a number of the U. S. 
It was the rule in England until the passage of Lord Ten- 
terden's act that a new promise or part payment by one of 
several joint debtors would revive the obligation as to all, 
and take the debt out of the statute. But this act provides 
in substance that the promise or admission of a single co- 
debtor shall be binding upon himself only. In some of the 
U. S. the course of adjudication at common law has estab- 
lished the former doctrine, while in others, as in New York, 
it has established the same rule as is declared by this statute- 
Some of the States have also enacted statutes similar to the 
English act. A new promise or acknowledgment, it is gen- 
erally held, must be made to the creditor or his authorized 
agent, and not to some third person. 

The statute of James provides that if the plaintiff be 
under certain disabilities at the time when the cause of ac- 
tion accrues, he may bring his action within six years after 
the disability ceases or is removed. The disabilities enume- 
rated are minority, coverture ormarriage, imprisonment, un- 
soundness of mind, or absence beyond the seas. It has been 
held under this provision that if any of these causes of dis- 
ability does not exist when the statute begins to run, but 
arises subsequently, the operation of the statute will not be 
arrested. If the disability exists when the cause of action 
accrues, but is afterwards removed, though only temporarily, 
the statute will begin to run from the time of removal, and 
will not be discontinued because the disability returns. If 
several disabilities coexist when the right of action accrues, 



they must all be removed before the statute will commence 
to run. The expression ■* beyond seas" means beyond the 
four seas surrounding tJ-reat Britain, and therefore is equiv- 
alent to " out of the realm or country." The same phrase, 
as contained in statutes of limitation in this country, has 
been usually interpreted to mean " out of the State," 
though in some States it has been held to mean ** out of the 
U. S." In some of the State statutes this phraseology has 
been changed, and the words " out of the State " substituted. 
This disability applies not only to citizens who are tempo- 
rarily absent from a State or country, but also to foreigners 
who do not reside within its limits j and they have six 
years within which to commence action after coming into 
the State. It was also provided by the statute 4 Anne, ch. 
16, that if the defendant in any action shall at the time 
when the cause of action accrues be " beyond seas," the 
action may be brought against him within six years after 
his return. It has been generally held under this statute 
that the return must not be clandestine, and with an intent 
to set the statute in motion, and then depart without giving 
the creditor an opportunity to enforce his claim. It must 
be so public and made under such circumstances of noto- 
riety as to render it presumable that the creditor might by 
ordinary diligence have acquired information of the return 
and placed the debtor under arrest. This exception is also 
usually held to apply to foreigners as well as non-resident 
citizens, and they may be sued within six years after com- 
ing within a State, even though the debt may be barred by 
the statute of their own State. For it is a general principle 
in reference to statutes of limitation that they are controlled 
in their operation and effect by the lex fori, or the law of 
the place where a suit is brought to enforce a legal demand. 
(See Lex Forij International Law (Private).) Similar 
exceptions and disabilities are usually included in the stat- 
utes of limitation in force in the TJ. S. There is very great 
weight of authority in this country that when fraud has 
been committed by the defendant under such circumstances 
as to conceal from the plaintiff all knowledge of the fraud, 
and prevent him from asserting his right, the bar of the 
statute may be avoided in courts of law, and the six years 
computed from the discovery of the fraud. It is undoubt- 
edly the rule that a court of equity would interfere in such 
apaso and prevent the statute from operating to the plain- 
tiff's detriment. It is provided by statute in some States 
that the cause of action shall not be deemed to accrue in 
such a case until the discovery of the facts constituting the 
fraud. The statutes of some of the States — c. g. New York 
— confine this rule to actions solely cognizable in courts of 
equity. 

The statute of limitations is held to affect the plaintiff's 
remedy, but not his right. Hence, though the remedy be 
lost by the expiration of the prescribed time, any Hen 
which the creditor may have will not be extinguished. So 
a promissory note may be barred, while a mortgage given 
as security for its payment may be enforced by foreclosure 
after the six years have terminated. Moreover, it is held 
that the enactment by a State of a statute of limitations 
barring a right of action after the lapse of a certain inter- 
val, and operating prospectively, is not in violation of that 
clause of the U. S. Constitution which provides that " no 
State shall pass any law impairing the obligation of con- 
tracts," since the *' obligation" of the contract still subsists, 
though the creditor is deprived of the regular legal means 
of enforcing it. But a reasonable time must be given after 
the enactment of the law for the enforcement of claims in- 
cluded within its terms, for it is equally, well settled that the 
act by a State of depriving a creditor substantially of his 
remedy amounts practically to an impairment of the "ob- 
ligation of the contract." 

II. Actione of Tor*.— The periods of limitation prescribed 
by the statute of James with reference to actions of tort 
are as follows : in actions of trespass for injuries to real or 
personal property, in actions of trover, of detinue, of re- 
plevin, and of case (except for slander), six years after the 
cause of action accrues ; in actions of trespass for assault, 
battery, or false imprisonment, four years | and in actions 
for slander, two years. (See Trespass, Trover, Conver- 
sion, Detinue, Replevin, Case.) These are the periods 
still established in England. In the States of this country 
similar statutes generally exist, applying to the same forms 
of action or the same classes of tortious injuries, though 
there is no such general agreement among the various 
States in regard to the periods of limitation prescribed in 
these actions as in relation to actions upon contract. In 
determining the time from which the statute begins to run, 
it is important to distinguish between tortious acts which are 
wrongful in themselves, and for which an action may be 
maintained without proof that actual damage has been sus- 
tained, and those cases where the injury is consequential, 
and the right of action is founded on the special damages 
suffered by the plaintiff. In the former class of cases the 



LIMITATION, STATUTES OF. 



15 



period of limitation runs from the time when the act was 
committed, without regard to any loss or damage resulting 
from it ; while in the latter it is reckoned from the time 
when the special damage was sustained. Thus, in an 
action for slander on account of defamatory statements 
charging the commission of a felonious offence, the statute 
runs from the time when the words were spoken ; but 
when slander is actionable only by reason of the pecuniary 
damage resulting, as in slander of title, it runs from 
the time the damage occurs. The reason of the rule in 
the last two cases is, that there is no cause of action at all 
until the special damage has accrued. (See Slander,) In 
trover the period is reckoned from the time of conversion 
of the goods. In actions for of&eial or professional negli- 
gence the cause of action is deemed to be founded upon the 
breach of duty, and not upon the resulting damage, and 
the former determines the period from which the statutory 
period is computed. Thus, if an attorney were sued for 
neglect of professional duty, the time when the neglect oc- 
curred would mark the commencement of the period of 
limitation. 

III. Actions relating to Real Property. — By the statute 
of James it was further provided that no person should 
make entry into lands, tenements, or hereditaments but 
within twenty years after his right should first accrue. 
This provision controlled the right to bring an action of 
ejectment, since this is founded upon a right of entry, and 
operated to make an uninterrupted adverse possession for 
twenty years a complete bar to such an action. (See Eject- 
ment.) And now, under 3 and 4 Will. IV. ch. 27, it is 
declared that no person shall make an entry or distress, or 
bring an action to recover any land or rent, but within 
twenty years next after the time at which the right to make 
such entry or distress or to bring such action shall have 
first accrued to some person through whom he claims or to 
himself. Persons under the disabilities of infancy, lunacy, 
coverture, or beyond seas, and their representatives, are to 
be allowed ten years from the termination of the disability 
or death to enforce their rights, but no action can be brought 
by such parties after forty years. Statutes of a similar 
character exist in the various States of this country, and 
though they differ much in details and comprehensiveness 
of scope, the period of twenty years is almost invariably 
fixed upon as the time of limitation. A person, therefore, who 
is deprived of the possession of his land by an adverse oc- 
cupant for the space of twenty years is prevented from re- 
covering it, and is in fact divested of his ownership. It is 
important in this connection to distinguish between pre- 
scription and limitation as relating to interests in real prop- 
erty. Prescription applies properly only to incorporeal 
hereditaments, such as a way or watercourse, a right of com- 
mon, etc., and does not relate to land or corporeal property. 
( See Incorporeal Heredttawents. ) It depends upon a legal 
presumption that a grant of the property has been made 
after an enjoyment continued for a sufficient period of time, 
and was not a doctrine originally established by^statute. 
But the theory of limitation was wholly created by positive 
statute, and applies only to corporeal property, such as land, 
houses, etc. ^he subject of proscription is now, however, in 
England, governed by statute (3 and 4 Will. IV. ch. 71). 
The adverse possession of land which under the statute of 
limitations is sufficient to constitute a bar to the assertion of 
a legal title by the owner of it, or by one against whom the 
adverse occupant brings an action of ejectment, must be an 
actual, continued, visible, notorious, distinct, exclusive, and 
hostile possession. It must be with an intention to claim 
title to the land occupied in opposition to any other claim- 
ant. In order that the possession may be actual, the ad- 
verse occupant must make an entry upon the land, so that 
an ouster may be effected. By this means the owner is 
disseized if possession be taken under claim of right. (See 
Disseizin.) Taking a deed is not sufficient to constitute 
adverse possession. The possession must be continued dur- 
ing the entire period of limitation, either by actual resi- 
dence or cultivation, or by such use and occupation of the 
premises as they are capable of, with claim of ownership. 
But successive periods of adverse possession by different 
occupants cannot be united so as to make up the full 
statutory period, unless there is a privity of estate be- 
tween the successive occupants by purchase or descent. 
Such a privity exists between ancestor and heir, grantor 
and grantee, devisor and devisee, etc. But in some States 
the right to unite successive possessions is denied. The 
possession must, moreover, be viaihle, notorious, and dis- 
tinct. It must be continued under such circumstances of 
notoriety that the owner may be presumed to have notice 
of it and of its extent. There are two modes of possession 
which the law deems sufficiently notorious and distinct to 
constitute adverse possession under the statute. The first 
mo le is where one enters, not asserting a right of owner- 
ship derived from a deed or written instrument of title, but 



merely taking possession with claim of right. In this case 
the disseizin extends only to the premises actually enclosed, 
cultivated, improved, or otherwise occupied. The other 
mode of possession is where one enters under color of title 
derived from a deed or other instrument, and occupies, cpl- 
tivates, or improves the land, either in whole or in part. 
In this case his legal possession will be deemed generally 
to extend to the boundaries or limits of the property pre- 
scribed in the instrument of title, even though this be of no 
legal validity in conveying a title. These principles may 
be considered as generally established by the adjudications 
of the different States, though with various degrees of mod- 
ification and a somewhat different extent of application. In 
some of the States rules embodying this distinction are 
declared by statute ; this is the case in New York. The 
possession must aleo be exclusive during the entire period, 
and hostile or adverse. If the occupancy be begun and 
continued under the owner's permission, it is not hostile, 
but in recognition of his title. So when the parties were 
in privity with each other, and the possession was origin- 
ally taken in recognition of and acquiescence in the right 
of the real owner, a positive disclaimer of holding in sub- 
serviency to such title must be made before the possession 
can become adverse. The question whether the possession 
is adverse or in recognition of the owner's title is to be de- 
termined by the jury, but what is sufficient to constitute 
adverse possession is a question of law for the court. One 
tenant in common may occupy the common premises in 
adverse possession against his cotenant if there be sufficient 
evidence of an exclusive claim. This would be the case if 
he should exclude the other from occupying the premises, 
and should appropriate the profits to himself under a claim 
of exclusive right. But mere occupancy of the premises by 
one tenant alone would not be sufficient. The statute of 
limitations as applying to land does not run against the State 
unless there be an express provision to that effect. The 
same general principles prevail in regard to the disabilities 
enumerated in the statute as have been already stated in 
reference to actions upon contract. 

IV. Suits in Courts of Equity. — The statutes of limitations 
which have been thus far considered were not enacted with 
reference to proceedings in equity, but only applied to ac- 
tions in courts of law. In equitable procedure there was 
therefore no binding obligation to enforce their provisions. 
It became, however, the practice in equity to act in obe- 
dience to these statutes in all causes of action which came 
specifically within their provisions, and also to extend their 
application to other analogous cases. This was done in 
furtherance of the equitable principle that laches and re- 
missness are to be discountenanced and disfavored. But 
courts of equity refuse to apply the statute of limitations 
when this would enable fraud to be committed or would re- 
sult in manifest injustice. Other rules and principles in 
relation to the subject of the limitation of suits in equity 
are stated in the article upon Laches (which see). In a 
number of the U. S. positive statutes have been enacted 
prescribing a fixed period of limitation for equitable suits. 

V. Criminal Prosecutions. — There have been several 
statutes of limitation enacted in England at different 
periods applying to prosecutions for certain crimes. Thus, 
by statute 7 Will, III. ch. 3, it was provided that no prosecu- 
tion shall be had in cases of high treason whereby cor- 
ruption of blood may ensue, except for an attempt to as- 
sassinate the king, unless the bill of indictment be found 
within three years after the offence was committed. So by 
the statute 31 Eliz. ch. 5, prosecution by information upon 
a penal statute was limited to a prescribed period. In 
New York it is provided that indictments for murder may 
be found at any time after the death of the person killed; 
in all other cases indictments are to be found within five 
years after the commission of the offence, but the time 
during which the defendant shall not have been an inhabit- 
ant 'of the State, or usually resident therein, shall not con- 
stitute any part of this period. Statutes of an analogous 
character exist in other States. 

VI. Statutes of limitations have also been enacted in 
many of the States applying to parties occupying particu- 
lar official positions, as sheriffs or other officers, or to actions 
of a peculiar character, as for the recovery of penalties or 
forfeitures under a statute, etc. These need only be referred 
to for the sake of completeness. The statutes of the various 
States must be specially consulted. It will have been seen 
from this discussion that the legislation upon the subject 
of limitations depends largely upon a principle of public 
policy. Its aim is to quicken the diligence of creditors and 
prevent delay in the enforcement of even righteous claims. 
It seeks to shield one charged with crime from the conse- 
quences of a long postponement of a prosecution, as he may 
then lose the means of making a. just defence. The justice 
and expediency of these rules is well illustrated by a prac- 
tice now becoming common with persons liable to encoun- 



16 



LIMOGES— LINCOLN. 



ter much litigatios, at the time they enter into a contract 
to stipulate that an action for ita breach must be brought 
within a brief period, say sixty or ninety days, or perhaps 
a year. Although this agreement is not a limitation in the 
sense of being imposed by law, yet it is valid, and if reason- 
able becomes a part of the contract, and will be enforced 
by the courts. Such stipulations are almost regularly found 
in insurance policies and in the receipts of express and tele- 
graph companies. (Consult on this general subject the 
works of Parsons and Chitty On Contracts / Angell On Lim- 
itations ; Wilkinson On Limitations; Washburn On Real 
Property ; Craise' a Digest; Greenleaf On Evidence, vol. ii. ; 
Smith's Leading Cases, index.) 

QEonaE Chase. Revised by T. W. Dwight. 

Limoges' [ano. Lemovices], city of France, capital 
of the department of Haute- Vienne, on the Vienne Kiver, 
250 miles S. of Paris. It is one of the seven places in 
which Christianity was planted about the middle of the 
third century, and it became an important ecslesiastical 
centre. It was here, in 994, that the first attempt was 
made to establish the Truce of God. Limoges has a fa- 
mous breed of horses and is noted for its porcelain, a very 
fine white porcelain earth having been discovered in the 
neighborhood in 1768. It has also some cotton- and wool- 
len-mills. Pop. in 1881, 63,760. R. D. Hitchcock. 

Lim'onite [Qr. \eLiuiv, "meadow"], the hydrated ses- 
quioxide of iron, often called brown haematite, one of the 
commonest and most important ores of iron. The deposits 
of limonite are peculiarly local and irregular in character. 
They are never found forming continuous strata, but are 
(1) either the superficial deposits of chalybeate waters, 
filling fissures or cavities or encrusting slopes or accumula- 
ting in concretionary or botryoidal masses in sand, clay, 
or gravel; or (2) they are produced by the oxidation, at 
and near the surface, of beds of the carbonate of iron or 
iron pyrites. From their mode of formation the deposits 
of limonite are less extensive and reliable than those of 
other ores of iron, and their irregularities have often been 
a cause of disappointment and loss ; but some of them are 
of great extent, and they are so numerous in many countries 
that they have always constituted one of the great sources 
from which the supply of iron has been derived. In the U. S. 
valuable deposits of limonite are found in a great number 
of localities. They occur perhaps in the greatest abun- 
dance in a belt which extends along the eastern flank of the 
Alleghanies from New England to Georgia. Hero they rest 
on rocks of various kinds, such as gneiss, serpentine, crys- 
talline limestone, slate, etc. Prom Pennsylvania southward 
their association with the lower Silurian limestones and 
slates is such that they have by some writers been repre- 
sented as holding a definite geological position in that series 
of rocks. It is quite certain, however, that they are 
altogether superficial in position, and form no part of the 
stratification of this or any other formation. It is prob- 
able, as suggested by Prof. Frederick Prime, that some of the 
brown haematites of Pennsylvania are formed from the de- 
composition of pyrites along the outcrops of pyritous 
slates ; but some of the most important deposits of this 
belt are so far removed from the metamorphosed PalsBozoic 
rocks of the Alleghanies that they can nave had no con- 
nection with them — such as the limonites of Roxbury, 
Amenia, and Staten Island. In the latter locality the iron 
ore occurs at the N. end of the island in superficial cavities 
in serpentine ; at the southern end, in concretionary masses 
scattered through Cretaceous clays, with which they are 
evidently contemporaneous. The truth seems to be that 
these deposits of limonite have been forming from the 
drainage of all the ferruginous rocks of the E. flank of the 
Alleghanies since the beginning of the Cretaceous age. In 
Alabama and Tennessee deposits of limonite of great ex- 
tent and purity are found along the outcrops of the Lower 
Carboniferous limestone. In Missouri a belt of superficial 
limonite encircles the district which contains the great de- 
posits of specular iron in the central part of the State, and 
may be supposed to have been formed from the ferruginous 
drainage of this district. The limonites which are formed 
by the oxidation of the stratified carbonates are best seen 
in Southern Ohio and Eastern Kentucky, where some of 
the calcareous ore-beds of the coal-measures are oxidized 
along their outcrops, and are more or less deeply converted 
into the hydrated sesquioxide. A similar change is ob- 
servable in some of the limonite beds of Eastern New York 
and Connecticut, which pass into siderite in depth. 

Bog-iron ore is a spongy and usually impure limonite 
which accumulates in marshes from the leaching of sur- 
rounding beds of sand, gravel, etc. containing iron. Lake 
ore is the name given to limonite which gathers at the bot- 
tom of lakes and ponds that receive the drainage of ferru- 
ginous strata or soils. In some of the Swedish lakes this 
ore is dredged up periodically, the deposit being repro- 
duced at intervals of one year or of several years. 



The modus operandi of the deposition of limonite is as 
follows: The sesquioxide of iron is insoluble, but the pro- 
toxide IS soluble. When organic matter is buried with per- 
oxide of iron, the carbon of the deoomposing organic mat- 
ter takes from the iron ore one equivalent of oxygen. It 
is now dissolved by atmospheric water, which contains car- 
bonic, and often urenic and apocrenic, acids, and is carried 
into any reservoir that receives the drainage. Here the 
iron is oxidized by contact with the air, and falls to the 
bottom as the hydrated sesquioxide. If it there finds deoom- 
posing organic matter, it imparts to it a portion of its oxygen 
to form carbonic acid, and floats off to gather more oxygen. 
As long as any organic matter remains the iron oscillates 
between the surface and bottom of the water; when it has 
all been oxidized, it accumulates as bog or lake ore. Thus, 
iron becomes a carrier of oxygen in the aqueous circulation 
of the globe, as it does in the hsemal circulation of animals. 
The iridescent film so frequently seen on pools of water is 
limonite formed in the manner described above. 

Chalybeate springs throw down a yellow or brownish 
precipitate in the channels or reservoirs through which 
their waters flow when they come in contact with the air, 
and the iron they contain is oxidized. This precipitate is 
limonite. If it remains as a powder, it is called yellow 
ochre ; if it is brown it contains manganese, and is known 
as " umber " or " Spanish brown." It may, however, form 
concretionary masses with a radiated structure or successive 
layer of solid limonite many feet in thickness. It is sup- 
posed that most of the great limonite beds found along the 
flanks of the Alleghanies and elsewhere have accumulated 
in this way. 

Pure limonite contains 60 per cent, of metallic iron, but 
it often contains 10 to 20 per cent, of foreign matter, so 
that its average yield of iron does not reach 50 per cent. 
The quality of the iron made from it is sometimes excellent, 
as is attested by the good repute of the Roxbury and other 
limonite irons. It generally contains too much phosphorus, 
however, to be successfully used for the manufacture of 
steel. From their fusibility the brown heematites are very 
useful adjuncts in the smelting of the more refractory 
magnetites and specular ores, and their employment in this 
connection has caused them to be largely mined and highly 
valued. J. S. Newberry. 

Limousin') a former province of Central France, com- 
prised the present departments of CorrSze, Creuse, Dor- 
dogne, and Vienne. Its capital was Limoges. It gave 
name to a mediaeval dialect which prevailed through much 
of Southern France, and had a considerable poetic and 
romantic literature. 

Limonx', town of France, in the department of Aude, 
stands on both sides of the Aude in a fertile valley which 
produces much grain and the famous wine of Blanquette de 
Limoux, and has extensive manufactures of woollen cloth, 
yarn, and articles of iron and brass. Pop. 6283. 

Lim'pet [Gr. Aeiras], a name applied loosely to many 
gasteropod mollusks, but appropriately belonging to the 
Patellidge, of which Patella is the typical genus. The 
species are very numerous, but are less frequent on our 
Atlantic coast than in most others. Patella vulgaris, the 
common European limpet, is extensively used for fish-bait 
and for human food. Many species are fossil. The living 
shells adhere to rooks by atmospheric pressure. They 
slowly bore into wood or chalk to which they are attached. 
The CalyptrseidsB are called bonnet or cup limpets. The 
keyhole limpets are Fissnrellse. The Parmophori are called 
duck's-bill limpets. The genus Ancylus ineludes the river 
limpets. The limpets of tropical shores have in many spe- 
cies extremely beautiful shells. Many of them are edible. 

liin'acre, orLynacer (Thomas), M. D., b. at Canter- 
bury, England, about U60 ; studied at Oxford and on the 
Continent; became fellow of All Souls', Oxford, in 1484, 
nnd afterwards professor of physio ; was an associate of 
Colet, Erasmus, and Lily in introducing into England a 
knowledge of Greek, from which language he made elegant 
translations of Galen into Latin ; studied theology, and in 
1518 became a prebendary of York; founded the College 
of Physicians at London (1518), was its president for life, 
and was physician to Henry VIII. and his family. D. in 
London Oct. 20, 1524. His translation of Galen's De 
Sanitate Tuendn appeared in 1517, the Methodus Medendi 
in 1519, and'the De Temperamentism 1521. He published 
in 1624 a treatise on the rules of Latin prose composition, 
De Emeiidata Structura Latini Sermonia, lib. vi. 

Lina'res, town of Spain, province of Jaen, is well built 
and flourishing. It owes its prosperity chiefly to the rich 
copper and lead mines in the vicinity. Pop. 36,630. 

lilncoln, or Lincolnshire, county of England, ex- 
tending along the North Sea from the Wash to the Hum- 
ber. Area, 2762 square miles. Pop. 469,996. The ground 



LINCOLN. 



17: 



is very low along the coasi ; in some places it must be pro- 
tected by dikes against inundations of the tea. But from 
the coast it gradually rises until it swells into high chalk 
hills in the north-western part of the county, the so-called 
Wolds. The soil is generally very fertile and cultivated 
with great care. Large crops of wheat and oats are raised, 
and fine breeds of horses, short-horned cattle, and long- 
woolled sheep are reared. Immense flocks of geese are fed 
on the fens along the shore. 

liincoln, city of England, the capital of the county of 
Lincoln, on the Witham. It is an old city, with a fine 
cathedral, built in the thirteenth century, 524 feet long, 
250 feet wide, and one of the finest church-buildings in 
England; large foundries and manufactures of hardware, 
and an extensive trade in corn and wool. Pop. 37,312, 

Lincoln, city and R. R. centre, cap, of Logan co., 111. 
(?ce map of Illinois, ref. 0-E, for location of county), 28 
miles N. E. of Springfield, contains a college, a library, a 
coal-shaft, flouring-mills, a manufactory of smut-mills, a 
foundry, etc. Pop. in ISSO, 50;J9. 

Lincoln, cap. of Lincoln co,, Kan. (see map of Kan- 
sas, ref. 5~F, for location of county), on Saline River. 
Pop. in 1S80, 422. 

Lincoln, city and K. R. centre, cap. of Nebraska and 
county-seat of Lancaster co. {sec map of Nebraska, ref. 
10-G, for location of county), has new and handsome state- 
house, penitentiary, insane hospital, university, home for 




State Capitol (Lincoln, Neb.). 
the friendless, 26 churches, a high-school building costing 
$65,000, 8 other school buildings, new opera-house cost- 
ing $100,000, new stockyards, capital $1,000,000, Grand 
Union dep6t. 6 railroads, general railroad offices, street 
railroad, 4 national and several private banks, large gov- 
ernment court-house and post-oifice, 3 daily and 6 weekly 
newspapers, several large flouring-mills and grain-elevators, 
packing-house, canning-factory, gas- and waterworks, elec- 
tric light, largest tannery in the West, 4 foundries, 6 ma- 
chine-shops, 21 lodges and societies, 35 hotels, a large num- 
ber of manufactories, artesian salt-well, 3 parks, exposition 
grounds and buildings, telephone exchange, and all the ac- 
cessories of cities of its size and character. It does an 
immense wholesale and distributing business in all lines of 
merchandise, lumber, coal, grain, and live-stock. Pop. in 
1S70, 2241 J in 1880, 13,003; in 1885, 20,004. 
J. D. Calhoux, 
Managing Ed. "Daily State Journal." 

Lincoln (Abraham), the sixteenth President of the 
U. S., b. Feb. 12, 1S09, being a grand-nephew of Daniel 
Boone, in Larue (then Hardin) co., Ky., in acabin on Nolin 
Creek, 3 miles AV. of Hodgensville, His parents were 
Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. Of his ancestry and 
early years the little that is known may best be given in 
his own language: " My parents were both born in Vir- 
ginia, of undistinguished families — second families, per- 
haps I should say. My mother, who died in my tenth 
year, was of a family of the name of Hanks, some of whom 
now remain in Adams, and others in Macon co., 111. My 
paternal grandfather, Abraham Lincoln, emigrated from 
llockbridgeco., Va., to Kentucky about 1781 or 1782, where 
a year or two later he was killed by Indians — not in battle, 
but by stealth, when he was laboring to open a farm in the 
forest. His ancestors, who were Quakers, went to Virginia 
from Berks co., Pa. An effort to identify them with the 
New England family of the same name ended in nothing 
Vol. v.— 2 



more definite than a similarity of Christian names in both 
families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mordecai, Solomon, Abra- 
ham, and the like. My fathei', at the death of his father, 
was but six years of age, and he grew up literally without 
education. He removed from Kentucky to what is now 
Spencer co., Ind., in my eighth year. We reached our new 
home about the time the State came into the Union. Jt 
was a wild region, with many bears and other wild ani- 
mals still in the woods. There I grew up." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indiana was 16 miles 
N. of the Ohio River, on Little Pigeon Creek, I4 miles B. 
of Gcntryville, within the present township of Carter. Here 
his mother died Oct. 5, 1818, and next year his father mar- 
ried Mrs. Sally (Bush) Johnston of Elizabethtown, Ky. 
She was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom Abraham 
was indebted for his first encouragement to study. He be- 
came an eager reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He worked frequently 
for the neighbors as a farm-laborer, was for some time clerk 
in a store at Gentryville, and became famous throughout ■ 
that region for his athletic powers, his fondness for argu- 
ment, his inexhaustible fund of humorous anecdote, as well 
as for mock oratory and the composition of rude satirical 
verses. In 1828 he made a trading voyage to New Orleans 
as "bow-hand" on a flatboat ; removed to Illinois in 1830; 
helped his father build a log house and clear a farm on 
the N. fork of Sangamon River, 10 miles W. of Decatur, 
and was for some time employed in splitting rails for the 
fences — a fact which was prominently brought forward for 
a political purpose thirty years later. In the spring of 
1831 he, with two of his relatives, was hired to build a flat- 
boat on the Sangamon River and navigate it to New Or- 
leans; the boat "stuck" on a mill-dam, and was got off 
with great labor through an ingenious mechanical device 
which led some years later to Lincoln's taking out a patent 
for "an improved method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another reason — the sight 
of slaves chained, maltreated, and flogged at New Orleans 
was the origin of his deep convictions upon the slavery 
question. Returning from this voyage, he became a resi- 
dent for several years at New Salem, a recently settled vil- 
lage on the Sangamon, where he was successively a clerk, 
grocer, surveyor, and postmaster, and acted as pilot to the 
first steamboat that ascended the Sangamon. Here he 
studied law, interested himself in local politics after hio 
return from the Black Hawk war, and became known as an 
effective "stump-speaker." The subject of his fii-st politi- 
cal speech was the improvement of the channel of the San- 
gamon, and the chief ground on which he announced him- 
sslf (1832) a candidate for the legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on which subject his practical 
experience made him the highest authority. Elected to 
the legislature in 1 834 as a " Henry Clay Whig," he rapidly 
acquired that command of language and that homely but 
forcible rhetoric which, added to his intimate knowledge 
of the people from which he sprang, made him more than 
a match in debate for his few well-educated opponents. 
Admitted to the bar in 1837, he soon established himself 
at Springfield, where the State capital was located in 1839, 
largely through his infliienee: became a successful pleader 
in the State, circuit, and district courts: married (1842) a 
lady belonging to a prominent family in Lexington, Ky. ;■ 
took an active part in the Presidential campaigns of 1840 
and 1844 as candidate for elector on the Harrison and Clay 
tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the U. S. House of Rep- 
resentatives over the celebrated Peter Cartwright, During 
his single term in Congress Lincoln did not attain any 
prominence. He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions, for the abolition of the slave-trade in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and for the Wilmot proviso, but was 
chiefly remembered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. Eor several years thereafter he took com- 
paratively little interest in politics, but gained a leading 
position at the Springfield bar. Two or three non-politi- 
cal lectures and a eulogy upon Henry Clay (1852) added 
nothing to his reputation. In 1854 the repeal of the Mis- 
souri Compromise by the Kansas -Nebraska act aroused 
Lincoln from his indifi"ercnce, "like a fire-bell in the 
night," and in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well the motives 
and the record of its author, Stephen A. Douglas of Illi- 
nois, then popularly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in Oct., 1854, on the occasion of 
the State Fair, to vindicate his policy in the Senate, and 
the " Anti-Nebraska " Whigs, remembering that Lincoln had 
often measured his strength with Douglas in the Illinois 
legislature and before the Springfield courts, engaged him 
tn improvise a reply. This speech, in the opinion of those 
who heard it, was one of the great eflTorts of Lincoln's life, 
certainly the most cITectivo in his whole career. It took the 
audience by storm, and from that moment it was felt that 



18 



LINCOLN. 



Douglas had methig match. LincolD was accordingly selected 
as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for the U. S. Senate in place 
of Gen. Shields, whose term expired Mar. 4, 1855, and led 
in several ballots, but Trumbull was ultimately chosen. The 
armed conflict on the soil of Kansas, which Lincoln had pre- 
dicted, soon began ; the result was the disruption of theWhigs 
and the formation of the Republican party. At the Bloom- 
ington State convention in 1856, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an impressive ad- 
dress, in which for the first time he took distinctive ground 
against slavery in itself. At the national Republican con- 
vention at Philadelphia (June 17), after the nomination of 
Fremont, Lincoln was put forward by the Illinois delega- 
tion for the Vice-Presidency, and received on the first bal- 
lot 110 votes against 259 for William L. Dayton. He took 
a prominent part in the canvass, being on the electoral 
ticket. 'In 1858, Lincoln was unanimously nominated by 
the Republican State convention as its candidate for the 
U. S. Senate in place of Douglas, and in his speech of ac- 
ceptance used the celebrated illustration of a " house di- 
vided against itself" on the slavery question, which was 
perhaps the cause of his defeat. The great debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois between Lin- 
coln and Douglas as rival Senatorial candidates resulted 
at the time in the election of the latter, but being widely 
circulated as a campaign document, it fixed the attention 
of the country upon the former as the clearest and most con- 
vincing exponent of Republican doctrine. Early in 1859 
he began to be named in Illinois as a suitable Republican 
candidate for the Presidential campaign of the ensuing 
year; and a political address delivered at the Cooper In- 
stitute, N. Y., Feb. 27, 1860, followed by similar speeches 
at New Haven, Hartford, and elsewhere in New England, 
first made him known to the Eastern States in the lii^ht by 
which he had long been regarded at home. By the Repub- 
lican State convention which met at Decatur, 111., May 9 
and 10, Lincoln was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion that two rails, said to have 
been split by his hands thirty years before, were brought 
into the convention, and the incident contributed much to 
his popularity. The National Republican convention at 
Chicago, after spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase, and Bates, nominated Lincoln for the Presidency, 
with Hannibal Hamlin for Vice-President (May 18), at the 
same time adopting a vigorous anti-slavery platform. The 
Democratic party having been disorganized and presenting 
two candidates, Douglas and Breckenridge, and the remnant 
of the " American " party having put forward John Bell of 
Tennessee, the Republiean victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected Nov. 6 by a large plurality, comprehending 
nearly all the Northern States, but none of the Southern. 
The secession of South Carolina and the Gulf States was 
the immediate result, followed a few months later by that 
of the border slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. The life of Abraham Lincoln became thence- 
forth merged in the history of his country. None of the 
details of the vast conflict which filled the remainder 
of Lincoln's life can here be given; they will be found 
under more appropriate headings. Narrowly escaping 
projected assassination by avoiding Baltimore on his 
journey to the capital, he reached Washington Feb. 23, 
and was inaugurated President of the U. S. Mar. 4, 
1861. Lincoln called to his cabinet his principal ri- 
vals for the Presidential nomination, Seward, Chase, 
Cameron, and Bates ; secured the co-operation of the 
Union Democrats, headed by Douglas; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the first tidings of the 
bombardment of Fort Sumter , (Apr. 15); proclaimed a 
blockade of the Southern ports (Apr. 19) ; called an extra 
session of Congress for July 4, from which he asked and 
obtained 400,000 men and .S100,000,000 for the war; placed 
McClellan at the head of the Federal army on Gen. Scott's 
resignation (Oct. 31): appointed Edwin M. Stanton secre- 
tary of war (Jan. 14, 1862), and on Sept. 22, 1862, issued a 
proclamation declaring the freedom of all slaves in the 
States and parts of States then in rebellion from and after 
Jan. 1, J863. This was the crowning act of Lincoln's career 
— the act by which he will be chiefly known through all 
future time — and it decided the war. On Oct. 16, 1863 
President Lincoln called for 300,000 volunteers to replace 
those whose term of enlistment had expired ; made a cele- 
brated and touching, though brief, address at the dedication 
of the Gettysburg military cemetery, Nov. 19, 1863 ; commis- 
sioned Ulysses S. Grant lieutenant-general and commander- 
in-chief of the armies of their. S. Mar. 9, 1864; was re-elected 
President in November of the same year by a large major- 
ity over Gen. McClellan, with Andrew .Tohnson of Tennes- 
see as Vice-President; delivered a very remarkable address 
at his second inauguration, Mar. 4, 1865; visited the army 
before Richmond the same month, entered the capital of 
the Confederacy the day after its fall, and upon th<i sur- 



render of Gen. Robert B. Lee's army (Apr. 9) was actively 
engaged in devising generous plans for the reconstruction 
of the Union, when on the evening of Good Friday, Apr. 
14, he was shot in his box at Ford's theatre, Washington, 
by John Wilkes Booth, a fanatical actor, and expired early 
on the following morning, Apr. 15, 1865. Almost simul- 
taneously a murderous attack was made upon William H. 
Seward, the secretary of state. At noon on the 15th, An- 
drew Johnson assumed the Presidency, and active measures 
were taken which resulted in the death of Booth and the 
execution of his principal accomplices. The funeral of 
President Lincoln was conducted with unexampled solem- 
nity and magnificence. He was buried at Oak Ridge Ceme- 
tery, near Springfield, 111., on May 4, and his remains were 
placed in an appropriate tomb, surmounted by a statue, 
Oct. 15, 1874. The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation at the murder 
of a generous political adversary ; foreign nations took 
part in mourning the death of a statesman who had ap- 
proved himself a true representative of American nation- 
ality; the freedraen of the South almost worshipped the 
memory of their deliverer; and the general sentiment of 
the great nation he had saved awarded him a place in its 
alfections second only to that held by M^ashington. The 
characteristics of Abraham Lincoln have become familiarly 
known throughout the civilized world. His tall, gaunt, un- 
gainly figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd mother- 
wit, shown in his celebrated conversations overflowing in 
humorous and ]ffiinted anecdote, combined with an accurate 
intuitive appreciation of the questions of the time, are rec- 
ognized as forming the best type of a period of American 
history now rapidly passing away. (See biographies by Dr. 
J. G. Holland (1865), I. N. Arnold (1868), and Ward H. 
Lamon (1872).) Porter C. Bliss. 

Lincoln (Gen. Benjamin), b. at Hingham, Mass., Feb. 
3, 1733; was a farmer in his native town at the outbreak 
of the Revolution ; had been a local magistrate, a colonel 
of militia, and several times a representative in the colonial 
legislature and the provincial congress, and was secretary 
of the latter bodj' and member of its committee of corre- 
spondence in 1774, when, having taken an active part in 
organizing and training the Continental soldiery, he was 
appointed major-general of the State troops. He obtained 
the favor of Washington during the siege of Boston ; com- 
manded an expedition which in June, 1776, cleared Boston 
harbor of British vessels ; led a body of Massachusetts 
militia at the battle of White Plains and in the ensuing en- 
gagements (1776); brought a new levy of militia to the aid 
of Washington at Morristown, N. J., in Feb., 1777; was 
appointed by Congress, at Washington's request, a major- 
general in the Continental service Feb. 19 ; was surprised 
and nearly captured at Bound Brook Apr. 13 : co-operated 
with Schuyler in the summer campaign against Burgoyne, 
for which he raised a fresh body of New England militia ; 
joined Gates as second in command Sept. 29 ; was severely 
wounded at the battle of Bemus Heights, near Saratoga, 
Oct. 8, and disabled from active service until Aug., 1778, 
when he joined, and was in September appointed to the 
chief command of the Southern army. Arriving at Charles- 
ton Dec. 4, he was chiefly occupied for several months in 
warding off the several demonstrations made by the British 
general Prevost against that city after the fall of Savannah ; 
lost one-fourth of his forces by the defeat of Gen. Ashe at 
Brier Creek Mar. 2, 1779; unsuccessfully attacked the 
enemy's works at Stone Ferry June 20 ; joined D'Estaing 
in September in his fruitless siege of Savannah, and after 
the bloody repulse of Oct. 9 returned to Charleston, which 
in the spring of 1780 was besieged by Sir Henry Clinton 
and Gen. Arbuthnot with greatly superior forces. The de- 
fence was skilfully and strenuously conducted, but Lincoln 
was obliged to capitulate May 12, and was allowed to go to 
his home at Hingham on parole. Exchanged in the spring 
of 1781, ho joined Washington on the Hudson, took part 
in the siege of Yorktown, and was deputed to receive the 
sword of Cornwallis on his surrender. Elected by Congress 
secretary of war in Oct., 1781, he held that office three 
years, after which he retired to his farm at Hingham. In 
1786-87 he commanded the Massachusetts militia in the 
suppression of Shays's rebellion ; was elected lieutenant- 
governor of Massachusetts in 1787 ; was appointed collector 
of the port of Boston in 1789, and held that oflice for twenty 
years. He was one of the commissioners who in 1789 made 
a treaty with the Creek Indians, and in 1793 was employed 
in an unsuccessful negotiation with the Ohio Indians. In 
his habits he was a model of temperance and morality, was 
deeply religious, and for manv years a deacon in the church 
of his native town. D. at Hingham May 9, 1810. (See 
his Life, by Francis Bcwen, in Sparks's American Sioq. 
rapjn/. 2d series, vol. xiii.) 

Lincoln (Enoch), b. at Worcester, Mass., Deo. 28, 1788 
a sou of Levi Lincoln (1749-1820); studied at Harvard 



LINCOLN— LINDLEY. 



19 



College; became a lawyer in 1811 j settled at Fryeburg, 
Me., the scenery of which, beautiful forest-town he de- 
scribed in a poem entitled The Village, and in 1819 re- 
moved to Paris, Me. j was a member of Congress 1818-26, 
and governor of Maine 1827-29. He delivered ft poem at 
the centennial celebration of the Lovewell's Pond fight, 
was a warm friend of the Indians, and left valuable his- 
torical manuscripts, some of which were published in the 
first volume of the Maine ffiatorical Collections, D. at 
Augusta, Me., Oct. 8, 1829. 

Lincoln (John Lakkin), b. at Boston, Mass., Feb. 23, 
1817; graduated at Brown University in 1836; studied 
theology at Newton Seminary; was tutor at Brown Uni- 
versity 1838-40; and after passing some years in Europe 
was elected professor of Latin in the same institution 1844. 
He has edited Selections from Livy (1847), the Works of 
Horade (1851), and Cicero's De Senectnte (1872). 

Lincoln (Levi), b. at Hingham, Mass., May 15, 1749; 
graduated at Harvard in 1772 ; became a lawyer of Wor- 
cester, Mass., in 1775, a judge of probate in 1776; was in 
the constitutional convention of 1780; aud after holding 
many important offices was a Jcffersonian member of Con- 
gress 1799-1801; attorney-general of the V. S. 1801-05; 
lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts 1807-08, acting gov- 
ernor 1809. D. at Worcester, Mass., Apr. 14, 1820. 

Lincoln (Levi), LL.D., b. at Worcester, Mass., Oct. 25, 
1782, son of Levi Lincoln (1749-1820); graduated at Har- 
vard in 1802; became in 1805 a lawyer; member of the 
constitutional convention of 1820 ; was often in the State 
legislature, of which he was Speaker in 1 822, and president 
of the senate 1845; lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts 
1823, governor 1825-34 ; was in Congress 1835-41 ; a judge 
of the State supreme court 1824; collector of the port of 
Boston 1841-43 ; first mayor of Worcester in 1848. D. at 
Worcester, Mass., May 29, 1868. 

Lincoln (Robert Todd), eldest son of Abraham Lin- 
coln, b. at Springfield, 111., 1844; graduated at Harvard, 
and became a lawyer of Chicago, IIJ. ; appointed Sec. of 
War Mar. 5, 1881, by Pres. Garfield. 

Linc'olnton, cap. of Lincoln co,, Ga. (see map of 
Georgia, ref. 3-J, for location of county), 20 miles N. B. 
of Washington. Pop. in 1870, 92; in 1880, 70. 

Lincolnton^ R. R. junction, cap. of Lincoln co^ N. C. 
(see map of North Carolina, ref. 3-D, for location of 
county), on the Carolina Central R. R. and the South Fork 
and Catawba rivers, has paper-mills, cane-seat chair-fac- 
tory, cotton and tobacco factory, steam saw-mill, tanneries, 
sash, door, and blind factory. Pop. in 1880, 708. 

Lincoln University, Chester co.. Pa., originated from 
the Ashman Institute, whose first president was Rev. J. P. 
Carter, and whose name was changed in 1866 to that of 
Lincoln University. It has preparatory, collegiate, theo- 
logical, law, and medical departments, and seven profes- 
sors. It owns real estate worth $125,000 and an endow- 
ment fund of $100,000, and has three large halls for dor- 
mitories, and a university hall, in which are recitation- 
rooms and chapel. I. N. Kendall. 

Lind (Jenny), " The Swedish Nightingale," b. in Stock- 
holm Oct. 6, 1821, of humble parentage; her father was a 
teacher, and poor. Her precocious talent attracted the 
notice of Mme. Lundberg. a retired actress, who introduced 
her to Craelius and Berg, famous teachers in music, and to 
Lindblad, the composer. The manager of the court theatre 
procured for her admission to the musical academy, where 
her progress was rapid. She acted and sang in children's 
parts till she was twelve years of age, when her voice failed 
her. Four years later it returned on occasion of a public 
concert, and she sang the part of Alice in Meyerbeer's 
Jiobert le Diable with a brilliancy that ensured her success. 
She soon became the operatic star of Stockholm, and sang 
with applause in the chief cities of Sweden and Norway. 
In 1841, ambitious of perfecting herself in her art, she 
went to Paris and took lessons of Garcia. There she was 
introduced to Meverheer, who took a deep interest in her, 
and obtained from M. Pillet an opportunity to sing in 
opera. But she caused no enthusiasm, and in her chagrin 
turned her back on Paris. Her next opportunity, also 
due to Meyerbeer, was in Berlin in 1845. There her success 
was distinguished. Previous to this she had tasted once 
more the friendliness of Stockholm, and had sang in Dres- 
den. At Vienna she repeated her triumphs in Norma, the 
Gamp of Silesia, and the Daughter of the Regiment, Her 
first appearance in London was in May, 1847. In Robert 
le Diable, Pnritani, Sonnambula, she more than justified 
her claims as an artist, and covei'cd herself with honors. 
In 1848 she sang for the first time in oratorio, Elijah, at 
Exeter Hall, to found musical scholarships in memory of 
Mendelssohn. Henceforth this was to be her chosen field. 
In 1850 she came to tho U. S., under contract with Mr. 



P. T. Barnum to give 150 concerts. The enthusiasm was 
unbounded, the profits were enormous, but the toil and irk- 
someness were excessive, and in June, 1851, after singing 
95 times, the contract was terminated by Jenny Lind. In 
1852 she married Otto Goldsohmidt, soon after returned to 
Europe, and passed several years in Dresden, appearing 
only occasionally in public, and then for charitable pur- 
poses only. In 1858 she took up her residence in England, 
where she still lives. Jenny Lind's voice was a light 
soprano of remarkable sweetness, flexibility, and charm of 
expression, and she threw into it the feeling of a passion- 
ate soul. She sang out of a heart full of goodness. In the 
U. S. she was as well known for her charities as for her 
genius; they amounted to many tens of thousands of dol- 
lars ; in England, Sweden, and Germany they have been 
equally munificent. Her private life and character are 
blameless. She is no less honored and beloved as a woman 
than admired as an artist. 0. B. Erothingham. 

Lin'dau, town of Bavaria, situated on an island in the 
Lake of Constance, manufactures musical and chirurgical 
instruments, and trades in wine, corn, cheese, and fish. 
It was a free city till 1803. Pop. 5337. 

Lindaii (Paul), b. at Magdeburg June 3, 1839, studied 
philosophy and literature at Halle, Leipsic, Berlin, and 
Paris ; visited Italy, the Netherlands, etc. : founded Die 
Gei/emoart, a weekly journal of politics and literature, in 

1872, and contributed a great number of articles to various 
papers, besides publishing several critical essays — Mafih-e 
(1872), Beanviarchais (1875), Alfred de Munset (1877), 
Drain at nrgitiche Rlatter (1875, 2 vols.), NiicJiterue Briefe 
ans Baireuth (1876), Ueherfluitsege Briefe au etiie Frewidin 
(1877), etc. ; several dramas — Marie aud Magdalene, 
Marion, Diana, etc.; and travelling sketches of Venice, 
Paris, etc. 

Lin'den [Ang.-Sax. liiid']^ the lime tree, Tilia Euro- 
psea (order Tiliacece), a large European forest tree, closely 
related to the Basswood (which see) of the U. S. Its 
wood is soft, but valued by carvers and turners and used 
in making charcoal. Its bark makes the bass matting so 
extensively exported from Russia. Its flowers afford val- 
u^jle bee-pasture. It has many varieties, some of which 
are well known in cultivatiori in tne U. S. 

Linden, ca.p. of Marengo co., Ala. (see map of Ala- 
bama, ref. 5-B, for location of county), 95 miles W. of 
Montgomery. Pop. of v. in 1870, 300; of tp., 1927; in 
1880, 1975. 

Linden, cap. of Perry co., Tenn. (see map of Tennes- 
see, ref. 7-1), for. location of county), 12 miles N. E. of 
Decaturville. Pop. in 1870, 149; in 1880, 189. 

Linden, cap. of Cass co., Tex. (see map of Texas, ref. 
2-K, for location of county), 35 miles N. of Marshall. Pop. 
not in census. 

Lin'derman (Henry), M. D., b. in Pike co., Pa., Dec. 

26, 1825; studied medicine under his father, and graduated 
at the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons : prac- 
tised his profession in Pike co., Nesquehoning, and Mauch 
Chunk, Pa. ; took an active interest in politics as a Demo- 
crat; chief clerk of U. S. Mint at Philadelphia 1855-64: 
in 1864 he resigned and went into business in a firm of 
stockbrokers in Philadelphia; director of U. S. Mint at 
Philadelphia 1866-69 ; member of the Presidential conven- 
tion which nominated Seymour and Blair; sent to investi- 
gate the San Francisco mint; in 1871 he was sent to Lon- 
don, Paris, and Berlin to collect information concerning 
their mints ; in 1872 made an elaborate report on the con- 
dition of the market for silver; projected the trade dollar 
to make a market for the great amount of silver produced 
in the U. S. ; author of the coinage act of 1873; Dec. 7, 

1873, appointed director of all the U. S. mints for five years, 
having entire charge of them; published Money and Legal 
Tender in the U. S. in 1877. His annual report for 1377 
was an exhaustive review of the metallic standard and of 
the capacity of the mines of the U. S. to supply the world 
with the precious metals. D. at Washington, D. C, J.nn. 

27, 1879. 

Lindley ( John ), Ph. D., M. D., F. R. S., F. L. S., b. at Cat- 
ton, Norfolk, Feb. 5, 1799,was the son of anurseryman; began 
early to write upon botany, assisting in preparing Loudon's 
Eneyclopsedia; became in 1829 professor of botany in Uni- 
versity College, London; was appointed in 1860 examiner 
in botany in the London University; edited the Gardener's 
Chronicle 1841-65. D. near London Nov. 1, 1865. His 
botanical writings are of the first importance. Among 
them are Introduction to the Natural System (1830), Struc- 
ture and Physiology of Plants (1832), Vegetable Kingdom 
(1846), Flora Medica (1838), Fossil Flora (with Hutton, 
1831-37), Pomologia Britannica (1841), Orchidaceoua 
Plants {IS:^7~ZS), Folia Or chidacea {1852), Theory of Mor- 
tiaulture (1840), etc. 



20 



LINDSAY— LINE. 



Lind'say, capital of Victoria co., Ont., Canada, is on 
the Canada Midland Railway and on the navigable Seugog 
River. It has an extensive trade in lumber, grain, and 
flour. It has manufactures of castings, lumber, beer, sash, 
blinds, hemlock extract, etc. The town contains the county 
buildings, several churches and schools, and other fine edi- 
fices. It is mostly built of brick. It has 2 weekly news- 
papers. Pop. of sub-district, in 1881, 5080. 

Lindsay, Barons and Earls, a distinguished family 
in the Scottish peerage, descended from Sir "Walter de 
Lindsay, an Englishman of Norman descent, who in the 
reign of David I. acquired Brcildoun and Luffness in East 
Lothian. In the twelfth century the lands of Crawford in 
Clydesdale came into possession of the family by an inter- 
marriage with the royal line of Scotland. Sir James Lind- 
say of Crawford was distinguished at the battle of Otter- 
burn. His nephew and heir. Sir David, married a sister 
of King Robert III., and was made by that monarch earl 
of Crawford, while Sir William, younger brother of the earl, 
became ancestor of the Lords Lindsay of the Byres, Had- 
dington, and, through a natural son, was also ancestor of 
the celebrated poet, Sir David Lindsay of the Mount. In 
the fifteenth century the earls of Crawford were among the 
wealthiest, proudest, and most influential. of the Scottish 
nobility, and took a large part in the civil warfare of that 
agitated period. David, the fifth earl, a trusted minister 
of James III. was made duke of Montrose in 1488 — a title 
never before bestowed in Scotland except upon princes. In 
16i4 the tenth Lord Lindsay of the Byres was created earl 
of Lindsay, and soon afterward obtained also, by a new 
creation, the earldom of Crawford, extinct in the elder line. 
John, fourth earl of Lindsay and Crawford, b. in Oct., 1702, 
was a distinguished general in the Russian service, in the 
O-erman campaign 1743-45, and the suppression of the 
movement of the Pretender in Scotland in 1746. D. in 
London Dec. 25, 1759. A. W. Crawford Lindsay, earl of 
Crawford and Lindsay, wrote The Lives of the Liudsaya. 
D. Dec. 13, 1880. 

liindsay (Sir Datid), op the Mount, b. about 1490, 
either at Garmylton, East Lothian, or at the Mount, Fife- 
shire, Scotland, on the estate from which his title was c^- 
rived; is believed to hafe studied at the University of Sx. 
Andrew's (1505-09), and to have travelled in Italy in 1510. 
In the following year he is mentioned as an amateur actor 
in a play performed at the court of James IV. of Scotland, 
and in 1512 was appointed "keeper " or tutor to the infant 
prince, who succeeded to the throne as James V. a few 
months later (Sept., 1513). His important duties were dis- 
charged with an affectionate care, which the young king 
rewarded in 1528 with an appointment as king's herald, 
and in 1530 with knighthood and the office of "Lord Lyon 
king-at-arms," in which capacity he accompanied embas- 
sies to the courts of England, France, Spain, and Denmark, 
and is introduced into Scott's poem of Marmion. He rep- 
resented Cupar in Parliament (1542-43), contributed to the 
success of the Reformation, and d. at an unknown place 
and date before May, 1555. As a poet Lindsay takes high 
rank, and his satires against the clergy are credited with 
having been the most efficient preparation for the labors of 
John Knox. His principal works were The i>renie (1528) j 
Saf.yre of the Thrie Estaitis, played at court in 1539 ; H'ls- 
torie of Squyer Meldrum (1548) ; and The Monarehie (1553). 
The first collective edition of his works was printed at Co- 
penhagen in 1553, and nearly twenty have since appeared 
in Scotland. The best edition is that of the Early Eng- 
lish Text Society (1865-71), in 5 parts. 

Lindsay (John Wesley), D. D., b. Aug. 20, 1820, at 
Barre, Vt.; graduated at Wesleyan University 1840; stud- 
ied theology in Union Seminary, New York Cityj entered 
the Methodist ministry; was tutor 1847, and professor of 
Latin and Hebrew in his nlma mater 1848-60; president 
of Genesee College 1864-68; became in 1868 professor of 
exegetical theology in what is now Boston University. 

Lindsay (William Schaw), b. in Ayrshire, Scotland, 
in 1816; went to sea a.t the age of fifteen years as cabin- 
boy in a West India ship ; became second mate 1834, chief 
mate 1835, took command of a merchantman 1836, became 
agent for the Castle-Eden Coal Company 1841 ; was influ- 
ential in opening the port of Hartlepool and providing it 
with docks and wharfs; went to London 1845: became in 
a few years one of the "merchant princes" of that city ; 
was twice defeated in his candidacy for Parliament 1852; 
elected for Tynemouth and North Shields Mar., 1S54, and 
again without opposition Mar., 1857; elected for Sunder- 
land Apr., 1859 : distinguished himself in Parliament by 
zealous attention to commercial, and especially shipping, 
interests ; took an active part in the formation of the 
Administrative Reform Association, lie publit<heil many 
pamphlets on mercantile and political topics, a volume 
entitled Our NainyutioHj Mercantile and Marine Laws 



considered (1853), Onr Merchant Shipping (1860), and in 
1874, 2 vols, of an elaborate work. The History of Merchant 
Shipping. D. Aug. 28, 1877. 

liindsborg, Kan. See Appendix, 

Lindsey (Charles), b. in 1320 in Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land; came in 1842 to Canada West and became an editor; 
was 1846-52 connected with the Toronto Examiner, and, 
in 1852 became editor of the Toronto Leader ; has since 
been city registrar; has published Clergy Reserves, The 
Maine Law, and Prairies of the Western States. 

Lindsey (Theophilus), b. at Middlewick, Cheshire, 
England, June 20, 1723, studied at Cambridge, travelled 
on the Continent 1754-56 as tutor to the duke of North- 
umberland, held various positions in the Church of Eng- 
land, but gradually adopted Unitarian views, resigned his 
position in 1772 and began in 1774 to conduct Unitarian 
service in Essex street, London, and published Unitarian 
Doctrine and. Worship from the Befornitition to our own 
Times (1783). D. in London Nov. 3, 1808. 

Lind'sley (John- Berrien), M. D., D. D., b. at Prince- 
ton, N. J., Oct. 24, 1822 ; educated in Nashville, Louisville, 
Philadelphia, and Paris; was elected in 1856 professor of 
chemistry and dean of faculty of the medical department 
of the University of Nashville; in 1855 was made cba.n- 
cellor of that university, which for several years before the 
war had classes of 600 students. After the death of hia 
preceptor, the celebrated Dr. Troost, from whom he im- 
bibed the love of the sciences, he became the curator of 
his splendid cabinet, which in 1874 was purchased by the 
Kentucky Library Association and thrown open to the pub- 
lic; has contributed papers on education to the press, also 
to the Theological Medium, the quarterly of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, and wrote the medical annals 
of Tennessee. Paul F. Eve. 

liindsley (Nathan Lawrence), LL.D., son of Philip, 
b. at Princeton, N. J., about 1816; received a careful edu- 
cation at Nashville University, of which his father was 
president; was distinguished as a philologist and as an 
educator. He rendered valuable assistance to Dr. J. E. 
Worcester in the preparation of his Dictionary, and had 
himself projected a great work to be entitled An Encyclo- 
Lexicon of the English Language. D. Oct. 9, 1868. 

liindsley (Philip), D. D., b, at Morristown, N. J., Dec. 
21, 1786 ; graduated at Princeton in 1804 ; tutor there 1807- 
09 and 1812; professor of languages 1813; vice-president 
1817, at which time he was ordained in the Presbyterian 
Church ; between 1820 and 1839 was offered the presi- 
dency of ten different colleges: in 1824 accepted that of 
the University of Nashville, which he resigned in 1850, 
after a most successful career as an instructor. He was 
afterwards professor of archaeology and church polity in 
the Presbyterian Theological Seminary at New Albany, 
Ind. D. at Nashville, Tenn., May 25, 1855. His complete 
works, consisting of sermons, educational, miscellaneous, 
and religious discourses and essays, were published in 3 vols., 
with a memoir by Leroy J. Halsey (Philadelphia, 1865). 

Line [Lat. linea'\. In music, lines are used not only in 
the formation of the stave and its extension by ledger- 
lines, but also for several other purposes. In a figured 
bass a long unbroken line after a figure signifies the con- 
tinuation or holding of the note indicated by the figure, 
while broken or short lines imply repeated strokes of a 
note, or sometimes the repetition of the same figure over 
the several notes of a moving bass. Sec Ex. 1 : 



f 



^r-rr^^^^n^rr^ 




Ex. 1. 



A line drawn across a figure thug, f or 4, ^ or ^, ff or "fr, 
etc., is equivalent to a J, and such figures stand for a sharp 
fourth, a sharp fifth, etc. When, in a condensed score, one 
part crosses another, its course is frequently marked by a 
slanting line, to avoid confusion or to explain an apparent 
false progression. See Ex. 2, where the crossing of tho 
tenor and alto is pointed out by lines connecting tho notes 
of the tenor. 



Ex. 2. 




LINE— LINEN. 



21 



In modern music for the organ, curved or straight perpen- 
dicular lines, with arrow-heads, are often uged to mark the 
exact place where a change is to be made from loud to soft, 
or the reverse, or from one stop or set of keys to another. 
Instances of this are given in Ex. 3 : 



Ex. I 



^-^i M-^ 



ri^Ktr 



Great Org. 



\ Choir Org. \ 



a; 



'^. 



Swell. 



^ 



I 1 

Two diverging or converging lines placed over a serieB of 
notes imply an increase or decrease of loudness, as other- 
"wise expressed by the words crescendo or diminuevdo, or 
their abbreviations, cres. and dim. William Staunton. 

Line [Lat. Ii7iea]f a geometrical magnitude which has 
lengtb, but neither bteadth nor thickness. We may regard 
a line as the path of a moving point, in which case the na- 
ture of the line will depend upon the law of motion of the 
point. Two positions of the generating point are said to 
be consecutive when the distance between them is infinites- 
imal, and the corresponding portion of the line is called an 
element. We may suppose the point to move so that the 
elements shall be equal, or so that the projections of these 
elements on a given straight line shall .be equal : the for- 
mer is the method of plane geometry, and the latter is the 
method of analytical geometry and of the calculus. Lines 
may be either straight or curved, A straight line is a line 
whose elements all lie in the same direction ; that is, it is a 
line whose direction is the same at every point; a curved 
line is one in which no two consecutive elements lie in the 
same direction, A plane curve is a curve all of whose ele- 
ments lie in tho same plane; a curve of double curvature is 
a curve in which no three consecutive elements lie in the 
same plane. In all cases the prolongation of any element 
in the direction of the motion of the generating point is a 
tangent to the curve; hence, we say that a tangent to a curve 
is a straight line drawn through two consecutive points of 
the curve. Of these points the first in order of generation 
is the point of contact or the point of tangency. 

In analysis, lines are classed as algebraic and transcen- 
dental. An algebraic line is one whose rectilineal equation 
may be expressed by the ordinary operations of algebra ; 
that is, by addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, 
formation of powers denoted by constant -exponents, and 
extraction of roots indicated by constant indices ; a tran- 
scendental line is one whose equation cannot be expressed 
by the ordinary operations of algebra. Algebraic lines are 
divided into orders according to the degrees of their equa- 
tions. Lines of the first order are those whose equations 
are of the first degree, lines of the second order are those 
whose equations are those of the second degree, and so on. 
Algebraic lines of the first order are straight lines, and 
those of the second order are conic sections. Transcen- 
dental lines are sometimes classed, according to the relation 
between their co-ordinates, as, logarithmic curves, curve of 
sines, etc., but as yet no systematic classification of this 
class of lines has been made. W. Q-. Peck. 

JLiue [Lat. linea], the twelfth part of an inch in Eng- 
lish measurement. 

liin'en [Ang.-Sax. Un, "flax "] is one of the earliest of 
textile manufaotures. Its origin is lost in the cloudland of 
history. Pieces are still in existence which were woven 
4000 years ago. In the days of Herodotus it was an article 
of Egyptian export. The mummies are wrapped in cere- 
cloths of this material. Sir Gardner Wilkinson has fully 
described the linen manufacture of Egypt. The term linen 
is a generic name for cloths woven from the fibi'es of the 
flax-plant and hemp. The raw material of linen proper is 
the flax-plant {Linum ueiCatissimum), which tbrives in lat- 
itudes ranging from Egypt to Eussia. From tho seed is 
expressed the linseed oil so much used in commerce. Cloth 
made from the hemp-plant was worn by the Thraoians. 
This plant is extensively grown in various parts of Europe, 
and has been cultivated in Bengal from remote ages. It is 
esteemed there both for its fibre and for the narcotic bhang 
secreted by its leaves. The use of hemp in the linen manu- 
facture is smaller now than formerly. Jute (which see) 
may also be eommercially considered as a sort of linen, as it 
affords a cheap substitute for flax, the cultivation of which 
has not kept pace with the requirements of the makers. 
Of other substitutes which have been employed with vary- 
ing degrees of success, we may name the nettle, china-grass, 
rheea, New Zealand flax, and Manila hemp (Musa textilis). 
Tho garments of the Hebrew priests were chiefly of linen, 
and in the Bible we have many allusions which show the 
esteem in which this fabric was held. In Proverbs there 



is an oft-quoted passage which vividly portrays ancient 
methods of manufacture. "She seeketh wool and flax," 
says the wise king in his description of the virtuous 
woman, "and worketh willingly with her hands. She 
layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the 
distaff". All her household are clothed with scarlet. She 
maketh herself coverings of tapestry, her clothing is silk 
and purple. She maketh fine linen and eelleth it, and de- 
livereth girdles unto the merchants." In Homer we read 
of ladies working in this manner. The mother of Nausicaa 
in the early dawn spun by the hearth soft fleeces dyed with 
red purple. In many parts of the ancient world the manu- 
facture of linen — chiefly, it may be presumed, carried on by 
the women as a household occupation — was common. Some 
parts of Spain and Italy were celebrated for the culture of 
flax and its subsequent conversion into textile fabrics. 
Linen has been made in England from an early date. The 
garments of the Anglo-Saxons were linen and woollen. 
The daughters of Edward the Elder were famous for their 
skill in spinning, weaving, and embroidering. The Baycux 
tapestry is a linen cloth, with designs worked in wool. 
Although the flax-plant had been cultivated by the Saxons, 
it is not found in a list of tithable produce drawn up in 
1070. Fine linen is said to have been first made in Wilts 
and Sussex in 1253. In 1272, Irish linen was used at Win- 
chester. Flemish weavers were introduced into England 
in 1331, and in 1386 a guild of linen-weavers was estab- 
lished in London, but does not seem to have been very 
prosperous. Indeed, the manufacture was still in its in- 
fancy in the reign of Charles II, Yarranton, writing in 
1677, proposed the establishment of spinning-schools, such 
as were then common in Germany. In these places per- 
haps 200 girls from six years old upwards were assembled 
under the supervision of a woman who sat in a pulpit, and 
with a long white wand "tapped" any of the little workers 
who flaigged in their attention. If this were not sufBcient, 
she rang a bell and the offender was taken away and chas- 
tised. This was done in silence, and Yarranton thought it 
would be good discipline for the maids of England, who 
were much given to chatting. From the introduction of 
the cotton manufacture until about 1773, whilst the weft 
was of cotton the warp was of linen yarn. Arkwright's 
invention changed this. In Ireland its history is mixed up 
with that of sectarian feeling, for the woollen manufacture 
of the popish S. and W. was ruined by heavy export duties, 
whilst the Protestant interest of Ulster was protected in 
1699 by the act for the encouragement of the linen trade. 
A board was constituted which held sovereign sway over 
the trade until 1828, when its obsolete regulations and pro- 
cedure led to its extinction. As early as the eleventh cen- 
tury linen was woven in Ireland, but it was Louis Crom- 
melin, a refugee driven from France by the Revocation pf 
the Edict of Nantes, who set it on a firm footing. The duke 
of Ormonde in 1711 ordered linen hatbands and scarfs to 
be used for funeral purposes ; fourteen years later machi- 
nery began to be used. Improvements in bleaching were in- 
troduced by Br. Ferguson in the middle of the century. It 
was not until 1828 that flax-spinning machinery was started 
at Belfast. The pioneers were Messrs. Mulholland. For 
eighteen years there was a society for the promotion of the 
growth of flax in Ireland, but it came to an end in 1859. 
Linen was made in Scotland, but on a very small scale and 
in a rude style, in the reign of Charles I. In 1688, Morcr 
styles it the most noted and beneficial manufacture of the 
kingdom. As showing the unfriendly feeling between North 
and South, it may be mentioned that the Scotch packmen 
who travelled into England to sell linen were, about 1684, 
sometimes whipped as malefactors and obliged to give 
bonds that they would discontinue their traffic. 

On the Continent traces of the use and manufacture of 
linen are found at early dates. Charlemagne, who dressed 
after the manner of the Franks, had linen under-clothes. 
In mediaeval Italy it was an important article of commerce. 
In Spain the Moors paid great attention to textile manu- 
factures, and linen was exported to India and Constanti- 
nople. In the fifteenth century Seville had 16,000 looms ; 
a century later they had diminished to 300. Flanders, 
Brabant, and some of the German towns were notable for 
their linen manufactures in the eleventh century. Louvain 
had 150,000 linen and woollen weavers in the fourteenth 
century. In Flanders by the middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tury the manufacture was very floairishing, and its prod- 
ucts were largely exported to England and other countries. 
Ypres, which dates from 960, has left its impress in the 
word diaper (i. e. d'Tpres, cloth of Tpres), still used for 
table-linen. The soil of France is suitable for flax-grow- 
ing, and since the time of the Roman rule linen has been 
made in that country. In l;i94 it is said the king sent fine 
linen of Rheiras to the sultan in ransom of some noble 
prisoners who had fallen into the hands of the paynims. 
The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes was disastrous in 



22 



LING— LINGA. 



its effects on French industry, and the linen trade suffered 
in common with all others from the loss of the Huguenots, 
driven by religious persecution to take their peaceful arts 
to countries where they might worship God without fear 
of "conversion" by dragonnades. Russia has long been 
the greatest flax and hemp growing country of the world. 
There are more linens used in the U. S. in proportion to 
the population than in almost any other country. 

We turn now to the history of the processes of the linen 
manufacture. The flax-fibre is made up of a number of 
smaller filaments bound together. The primary operation in 
their separation was termed heckling. The heckle is a many- 
toothed steel comb which removes the coarser fibres of the 
tow and partially divides the filaments of the flax. The 
fineness of the flax depends upon the number of hecklings 
it receives by instruments of increasing delicacy. Ma- 
chine heckling is now most commonly used, and there are 
various patented inventions for this purpose. The fibres 
require to be united into a continuous thread before they 
are capable of being woven. The earliest method of doing 
this was by the spindle. One was found at Thebes by Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson which hod still some linen thread upon 
it. They were about fifteen inches in length, usually of 
wood, with a circular head of gypsum or composition. 
They were bulbous near one end, tapering to a point, whilst 
the other end lengthened into a handle. The thread was 
attached to the handle; and the spindle resting upon the 
right thigh, the right hand was drawn quickly over it, 
causing it to revolve or spin like a top. To this was after- 
wards added the distaff, a piece of wood round which the 
flax to be spun was wrapped. The spinning-wheel was the 
next step forward. One was invented at Brunswick in 
1553. That called Saxon had on the spindle a bobbin 
round which the thread was wound, a flier going round 
faster than it, giving the requisite twist to the thread. The 
flax was loosely wrapped round a distaff or rock ab&ve the 
spindle. A treadle moved by the foot gave a rotatory mo- 
tion to the wheel. It was only by slow degrees that this 
supplanted the older instrument, and a two-spindled wheel 
had not been very long in use when Arkwright's cotton- 
spinning machinery must have turned attention to the pos- 
sibility of a similar revolution in other branches of human i 
labor. In 1787, John Kendrew and Thomas Porthouse, 
both of Darlington (Durham), took out a patent for this 
purpose. Various mills in Scotland were worked under 
licenses from the patentees. It was long before the hand- 
made yarn was superseded by the machine-made article. 
In 1788, Alexander Robb invented a loom to be driven by 
water, and in 1810, Joseph Crompton of Dundee one to go 
by water or steam, but it is doubtful if they were brought 
into use. The first manufactory for weaving flax by power 
was set up in London about 1812 by Charles Turner & Co. 

According to the modern method of treatment, the fibres 
are first scutched or combed j broken into three pieces, the 
inner section being the best; heckled, now usually done by 
a rotatory machine, the flax placed on the periphery being 
drawn through or against a series of teeth ; the short fibres 
drawn into one continuous thread'; after having been roved 
it is span. The flax, however, has to be kept wet during 
this process, for which purpose warm water is now used. 
The spun yarn is used either for thread or for weaving. 
The quantity of leas (300 yards) contained in a pound is 
the method of indicating the quality of the yarns. (For in- 
formation as to the processes of Spinning, Weaving, and 
Bleaching lineni those articles should be consulted.) 

The principal varieties of linen are: Lawn{Yr.linon),VQvy 
fine qualities of which are now made in Ireland, although 
it was once an exclusively French manufacture. Common 
sheetings and towellings are made in Scotland, and also 
ducks, huckabacks, osnaburgs, crash, and tick. Some sorts 
of velvet and velveteen are made from flax at Manchester. 
Diapers (the origin of the name has been incidentally men- 
tioned) are fabrics with patterns of geometrical regularity, 
such as are produced by the kaleidoscope. Dowlas is a 
strong but coarse linen, formerly much used by workpeople 
for shirts. A good deal is now exported from Britain to 
Spain and Spanish America. Damasks are fabrics Avith 
figures of fruit and flowers, and free-hand ornament as 
opposed to the geometrical severity of diaper. The name 
is supposed to be taken from Damascus, an ancient seat of 
the art, which until the introduction of the Jacquard ma- 
chine (see Loom) was a mystery confined to a few localities. 
Damasking has been applied to silks, etc., but table-linens 
are fabrics in which it is chiefly used. The town of Dun- 
fermline produces as much of this article as all Europe 
besides. It is used on the Continent for upholstery pur- 
poses. It is said that America uses as much British dam- 
ask as all other parts of the world together. Courtrai and 
Liege in Belgium are famed for this kind of work. Cam- 
bric, which takes its name from Canibrai, once famous for 
its production, is the finest and thinnest of linen fabrics. 



The handkerchiefs vary in price from 4«. to 70«. per dozen. 
The so-called Scotch cambric is a cotton fabric with the 
fibre twisted very hard. Linen is used for shoe-lining, and 
coarse linens have been brought largely into consumption 
as hessians (bale-cloth) and beetlers; the last being con- 
verted into tarpauling and used for packing and other pur- 
poses. " French canvas " is a coarse variety much used by 
tailors for stiffening, etc. The evil of over-bleaching has 
lessened the durability of linen, but the price is 50 per cent. 
less also. For a time the rapid increase of the cotton 
manufacture endangered the prosperity of the linen-trade, 
and to some extent they are antagonistic. Although it has 
not had the same rapid increase as its cheaper rival, it has 
exceeded its former proportions as one of the great staple 
industries of the world. 

The exports from Great Britain in 1881 were 18,285,500 
pounds of linen yarn, 173,853,300 yards of linen manufac- 
ture, and £680,260 worth of thread for sewing. The home 
consumption would represent a similar quantity. The value 
of linen yarn was £1,057,172, and of manufactured linen 
was £5,163,669, in each case a decrease on the preceding 
year. The fullest history of the trade is Warden's Linen 
Tradff Ancient and Modern (1S64). W. E. A. Axon. 

liing. See Heath. 

Ling [Ang.-Sax. lang, "long*'], the Lota Molva, a sea- 
fish of the cod family extensively caught in Europe. It is 
eaten fresh or salted and dried. The estimation in which 
this fish is held depends to a great extent upon the perfect 
manner in which it takes salt and the length of time dur- 
ing which it can be preserved in an eatable state. Split 
and salted on the spot, it is packed in flats at once and 
consumed in immense quantities during Lent. Its flesh is 
also preserved in air-tight cans; its sounds are used for 
isinglass and for food; its roe is a good fish-bait; its liver 
yields a valuable oil. The ordinary ling of the American 
coast is Lota laciistris, a smaller fish. Th-ousands of barrels 
are taken annually in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. There 
are several other fishes called ling, both in the U. S. and 
in Great Britain. 

liing (Peter Henrik), b. Nov. 15, 1776, at Ljunga, in 
the province of Sm&land, Sweden ; led as a young man a 
rather adventurous life, travelling through Germany and 
France; became in 1805 fencing-master at the University 
of Lund, in 1813 teacher in fencing at the military school 
of Carlsberg, and in 1816 director of the gymnastic insti- 
tute of Stockholm, where he d. May 3, 1839. Ling repre- 
sents the same movement in Sweden as Turnvater Jahn in 
Germany. His poetical productions, Gi/l/e (1812) and 
Acame (1816-26), were intended to awaken among the 
Swedes that heroism of feeling and thinking which charac- 
terized the ancient pagan Scandinavians ; and his gymnas- 
tic exercises were at first simply a means of developing 
and strengthening the body. But by the thought and 
study which Ling bestowed on his profession he developed 
the simple gymnastic practices into a medical cure, the 
so-called movement cure, whicH has proved very effective 
in many chronic diseases, and has been introduced into 
many countries. 

Xiin'gaf the emblem of divine creative power amongst 
Hindus. It may be termed the phallic emblem of India. 
The linga holds a very high place amongst objects of adora- 
tion in India, and is especially an object of S'aiva worship. 
In Sanskrit linga means, primarily, a sign or emblem, but 
it is only used to signify the emblem of male creative 
power, the yovi being the representative of the female. The 
most common form in which the linga is worshipped is that 
of a round, perpendicular stone, rising out of an oval stone 
representation of the yom. But pistils of flowers, etc. etc. 
are held to be likenesses of the mystic symbol. The S'aiva 
sect (see S'aiva) is extremely numerous in India, and Un- 
gas are conspicuous in all their temples, from the Hima- 
layas to Cape Comorin. Regarding the linga, Balfour 
says : " There is not apparent to any eye the faintest re- 
semblance to the organs of which they are deemed the 
symbols or types." This view has also been held by a 
large number of scholars, but it is founded on very limited 
personal experience of Indian shrines. The writer has 
with his own eyes seen lingaa in the great temples of South- 
ern India, elaborately carved and painted, which are a pub- 
lic insult to common decency. It is true that thousands 
and thousands of lingaa are to be met with which are sim- 
ply upright pieces of stone, of great age, and often wind 
or wave worn, the peculiar emblematical significance of 
which, as objects of worship, is only known to the pundit 
or priest. But there are otner lingas before which multi- 
tudes of men and women worship, at which the first glance 
of the eye is sufficient to show the worshipper exactly what 
it is he is worshipping. Lf„gns are frequently— perhaps 
most frequently — constructed of marble or granite. They 
are treated by their votaries just as idols are: offerings 



LINGAN— LINN. 



23 



are placed before them, flowers are strewn, and they are 
anointed with oil and smeared with ashes. According to 
Balfour (who has an interesting article on the linga in the 
Cyclopiedia of Indiaj vol. iii.), " Sonnerat says the lingam 
may be looked upon as the phallus or the figure represent- 
ing the virile member of Atys, the well-beloved of Cybele, 
and the Bacchus whom they worshipped at Hieropolis. The 
Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans had temples dedicated to 
Priapus, under the same form as that of the iingam. The 
Holy Scriptures inform us that Asa, son of B-oboam, pre- 
vented his mother Maacha from sacrificing to Priapus, 
whose image he broke. The Jews caused themselves to be 
initiated in the mysteries of Belphegor, a divinity like the 
lingam, whom the Moabites and Midianites worshipped on 
Mount Phegor, and which worship, in all appearance, they 
received from the Egyptians. When'Judah did evil in 
the sight of the Lord, and built them high places, and 
images, and groves, on every high hill and under every 
green tree,' the object was Baal, and the pillar, the Hngam, 
was his symbol. According to Col. Tod, the lingam is 
identical with the Arabic idol Lat or Albat. The worship 
reached France, doubtless with the Romans, and the figure 
of the lingam is still to be seen on the lintel which sur- 
rounds the circus at Ntme's, as well as on the front of some 
of their ancient churches, particularly on that of the ca- 
thedral of Toulouse and on some churches at Bordeaux. 
Plutarch says that the Egyptian god Osiris was found 
everywhere with the priapus exposed." With our latter- 
day notions of religion and morality, it comes to be a ques- 
tion whether the British government should allow the more 
indecent of these phallic emblems to stand in public places 
in India. Great Britain has resolved on being perfectly 
neutral in all matters of religion amongst Hindus, but still 
public breaches Qi morality hyq punishable in India by law, 
and are thus constantly punished. For instance, the sale 
of photographs of an indecent charastorv has been rigor- 
ously put a stop to, but Sakti-worship is still allowed to be 
practised; temple- harlots exist, not as of personal choice 
on the part of the poor dancing-girls, but as a caste, of 
necessity; and these grossly indecent /iniyas are there al- 
lowed to stand "on every high hill and under every green 
tree." Of old, pious Hindus who spiritualised tbeir re- 
ligion, even the grossest forms of it, ^iHja-worahip included, 
were nof. lacking. For instance, the great Tamilian poet, 
Sivavclkkiar, writes as follows (see the Indian Antiquari/, 
Bombay, Apr., 1872, first paper on "Tamil Popular Poetry," 
by the writer) : 

" My thoughts are flowers and ashes, 
In my breast's fane enshrined ; 
My spirit, tou, therein is 
A linga unconflned." 

Here the sage speaks of his body as a metaphorical temple 
(using language similar to that employed in the New Tes- 
tament, "Ye are temples of the Holy Ghost"); then he 
likens his thoughts to flowers and ashes, which are used in 
the services of temples; lastly, he declares that his breath 
or spirit — which as a part of universal life has no bound or 
limit — is the true linga, creative, and a part of the creation, 
of his own being. But, even though many may think in 
the present day like Sivav3.kkiar, yet the majority of 
Hindas have no such spiritual notions. Their religion is 
materialistic, and in parts of it is yearly becoming grosser. 
Linga-worship is, in the case of the majority of Hindus, 
merely sensual idolatry. R. C, Caldwell, 

liingan (Gen. James MAcctrBiN), b. in Maryland about 
1752; took part in the Revolutionary war, rising to the 
rank of brigadier-general ; was one of the prisoners at Fort 
Washington ; kept for a long time in the prison-ship ; was 
after the war collector of the port of Georgetown, Md. 
(now B. C); resided in Baltimore in 1812, and was killed 
by a mob while gallantly defending the printing-office of 
the Federal BepubUcan, July 28, 1812. 

Lin'gard (John), D. D., LL.D., b. at Winchester, Eng- 
land, Feb. 5, 1771 ; studied at Douai, and was ordained a 
Roman Catholic priest in 1795 ; was afterwards connected 
with the seminary at Ushaw, near Durham; was (1811-51) 
parish priest of Hornby, Lancashire; declined a cardinal's 
hat soon after the publication of his great work, thQHiBtory 
of England (1819-30, S vols.; 6th ed. 1854-56, 10 vols.). 
This work is one of great ability and excellence, though 
colored by the religious views of the writer, and recent 
Ultramontanists find it tainted with Gallicanism. It has 
been translated into German, French, and Italian, and 
should always be consulted for the Roman Catholic view 
of its period, though it cannot be implicitly relied upon, as 
the author sometimes withholds part of the truth when it 
goes too strongly against his argument. Author of a Hia- 
tonj and AntiqnitieH of the Anglo-Saxon Church (1800) and 
an' English verson of the New Testament (1836). D. at 
Eornby July 13, 1851. 



Lingayen', town of Luzon, Philippines, situated on 
the northern coast of that island. Pop, 18,000. 

Linguaglos'sa, town of Sicily, in the province of 
Catania, beautifully situated on a very fertile slope of 
Mount Etna, about 30 miles N. of the city of Catania, has 
good churches and conventual buildings, and better popu- 
lar instruction than is usual in Sicily. Pop. in 1874, 8822. 

Lingu'lidse [from lingula, diminutive of lingua, 
"tongue"], a family of the class Brachiopoda and order 
Lyopomata (which see), distinguished by the more or less 
linguiform shape of the shells, the slightly unequal valves, 
the want of articulating apophyses, and the development 
of a long vermiform peduncle which passes between the 
apices of the valves; the shell is composed for the most 
part of phosphate of lime and horny laminae, and has 
rather the appearance of horn than of true shelly matter ; 
there are perforations; the braehia or "arms" are sub- 
spiral and destitute of any calcareous apophyses. By 
Ball the family is divided into two sub-families: (1) Lin- 
gulinas, in which the posterior adductor scar is median and 
single, and the shell more or less elongate ; and (2) Obolinsc, 
in which there are two posterior adductor scars, more or 
less separated from the median line, and the shell is inclined 
to an orbicular form. The family is very interesting, being 
one of the very few which have survived in comparatively 
unaltered forms from the Lower Silurian epoch, some of the 
types of the earliest period being scarcely generically dis- 
tinct from the living Lingulte, although the apparent slight 
differences may be the result of the simplicity of the shell. 
The living species have been differentiated by Ball into 
two genera: (1) Lingula , conttimmg ten nominal species, 
the type of which is i. aratiua, the species confined to the 
Moluccan, Australian, and Polynesian seas; .nnd (2) Glot- 
tidia, with five doubtful species, the chief of which are G. 
pyramidata of the southern coast of the U. S. and G. albidn 
of California, all of whose representatives are American. In 
Lingula the neural valve is smooth within ; in Glottidia the 
neural valve has two internal ridges or lamellse diverging 
forward from the beak, and apparently serving as fulcra 
for the post-parietal muscles. The embryology of G. pyra- 
midata has recently been studied by Prof. E. S. Morse. 

Theodore Gill, 

Tjin'iment [Lat. linimentnni], in pharmacy, an oily 
preparation for external application, but thinner in con- 
sistence than the ointments. Some are stimulant oily 
compounds (ammonia-soaps), while others are medicated 
with powerful drugs, designed to act after absorption. 

liink [S w. liinJc, " ring "], a unit of measure used in land 
surveying. The length of a link is 7.92 inches; a square 
link is equal to .0001 of an acre. 

liin'kdping, or Linl^oping, old but well-built town 
of Sweden, 100 miles S. W. of Stockholm, is the see of a 
bishop and has a beautiful cathedral from the twelfth cen- 
tury. Pop. 8752. 

Linkville, on Klamath Lake, cap. of Klamath co., Or. 
(see map of Oregon, ref. 8-C, for location of county). Pop. 
of precinct in 1870, 737. 

Linlith'gow, or West Lothian, county of Scotland, 
bordering N. on the Frith of Forth, E. and S. on the county 
of Edinburgh. Area, 127 sq. m. Pop. 43,198. In the 
southern part the soil is swampy ; elsewhere it is generally 
fertile, producing wheat, barley, and oats. Very little of 
the arable land has remained unreclaimed. According to 
the agricultural returns of 1831,. the corn crops occupied 
17,347 acres, of which oats were the most important 
(10,348 acres), and barley came next (4874 acres) ; 7264 
acres were under green crops ; 12,980 were under clover 
and grass, and 21,289 were permanent pastures. Horses, 
cattle, sheep, and swine are reared. Great numbers of 
cattle are annually bought and fattened, and dairy-farm- 
ing is briskly prosecuted, the fresh butter and buttermilk 
being sent partly to Edinburgh and partly to Newcastle. 
Very little cheese is made. Linlithgow, the principal 
town, has interesting monuments, among which is the 
castle in which Mary Queen of Scots was born. Though 
now in ruins, it is one of the most imposing memorials of 
its kind in Scotland. It forms a square, enclosing a court 
91 by 88 feet, in which stood the fountain which was used 
as a model for that erected in front of Holyrood palace. 
It was built at various times; the W. side is probably the 
oldest portion of the structure, and is believed to date from 
the time of James III. In the history of Scotland the 
palace has been quite conspicuous. It was burned down 
in 1746 by Hawley's dragoons. Pop. of town, 3689. 

liinii, cap. of Osage co., Mo. (see map of Missouri, ref. 
4-II, for location of county). Pop. of tp. in 1870, 1757; 
in 1880, 1804. 

Linn (John Blair), D. D., son of William, b. at Ship- 
pensburg, Pa., Mar. 14, 1777; removed in childhood to 



24 



LINN— LINSLEY. 



New York ; entered Columbia Collego at the age of thir- 
teen; graduated in 1796; entered thelaw-ofEoe of Alexander 
Hamilton, and published anonymously two small volumes 
of miscellanies in prose and verse. In Jan., 1797, he brought 
out at the John Street Theatre a "serious drama, inter- 
spersed with songs," entitled BourvUle Castle, or the Gallic 
Orphan, which was represented three nights, but did not 
succeed in winninj public favor. Shortly afterwards he 
abandoned the law, studied theology under Rev. Dr. Ro- 
meyn at Schenectady, was ordained in 1798, and in June, 
1799, became assistant pastor of Rev. Dr. Swing's Pres- 
byterian church at Philadelphia. In 1800 he wrote an 
Ossianic poem on the Death of Washington, and in 1802 
published his principal production. The Powers of Genius, 
a poem of some 600 lines, smoothly written and scholarly, 
but destitute of the "powers" it commemorated. It was, 
however, well received, soon reached a second edition, and 
was reprinted in England. In 1803 he engaged in a theo- 
logical polemic with Dr. Priestley, occasioned by the latter's 
comparison of Socrates with Christ, publishing two able 
pamphlets which elicited replies from Priestley, and pro- 
cured for the young divine the degree of D. I), from the 
University of Pennsylvania. D, of consumption at Phila- 
delphia Aug. 1.3, 1804. In the following year his brother- 
in-law, the novelist, Charles Brockdeu Brown, gave to the 
world, with a brief memoir, Valerian, a narrative poem, in- 
complete, but extending to 1500 lines of blank verse, treat- 
ing of the early struggles of Christianity against paganism. 
liinn (Lewis Fields), M. D., b. near Louisville, Ky., 
Nov. 6, 1795; successfully engaged in medical practice at 
St. Genevieve, Mo., in 1815, and was a U. S. Senator 1833- 
43. He labored zealously for the interests of Oregon and 
the West generally. D. at St. Genevieve, Mo., Oct. 3, 1843. 
(See his Life, by E. A. Linn and N. Sargent, 1857.) 

Linn (William), D. D., b. near Shippensburg, Pa., 
Fob. 27, 1752; graduated at Princeton 1772; studied di- 
vinity with Rev. Dr. Cooper of Middle Spring, Pa., and in 
1775 was licensed to preach by the Donegal presbytery. 
He served as a chaplain in Gen. Thompson's regiment 
early in the war of the Revolution, taught in an academy 
in Somerset oo., Md., became pastor of a church at Eliza-- 
bethtown, N. J., 1786, and a few months later became one 
of the pastors of the Collegiate Dutch Reformed church in 
New York, where he remained until 1805, when he retired 
on account of his health, and d. at Albany Jan. 8, 1808. 
He published Discourses on Scripture History (1791), The 
Signs of the Times (1794), a series of essays in favor of the 
French Revolution, and (1800) a. Funeral Eulogy of Gen. 
Washington, delivered before the Society of Cincinnati, 
besides many sermons separately printed. Dr. Linn was 
celebrated for his eloquence. He had a vivid imagination, 
.a fine command of language, and a picturesque style — qual- 
ities which made him very successful as a revivalist, but 
sometimes betrayed him into exaggerations for which he 
was severely criticised. 

liinnse'a, a genus of plants containing but a single 
species, L. bnrealis, the twin-flower, of the honeysuckle 
family, found by Linnaeus in Lapland in 1732, and named 
by Gronovius. It is a small ti-ailing evergreen herb, with 
round leaves occurring in pairs, as do also the flowers, 
which are bell-shaped, of a pinkish color, and very fra- 
grant. It abounds in the more northern regions of Eu- 
rope, Asia, and North America, where it occurs as far S. as 
Maryland. 

Ijinnse'us^ the Latinized name of Carl von Linnk, 
the father of modern botany, b. May 12, 1707, at EAshult, 
in SmAland, Sweden, the son of a Lutheran vicar, who, we 
are told, on account of poverty, apprenticed his son to a 
shoemaker, but at ten years old sent him to Wexio to school, 
where his fondness for natural science made him so careless 
of his other studies that his teachers advised the father to 
put him to some trade; but Rothman, the good doctor of 
the place, took the boy into his house and gave him books 
upon botany and medical science to read ; sent him in 1 727 
to Lund, where he road books of botany under Prof. Sto- 
bseus, and whence in 1728 he went to Upsala, attracted by 
the fame of Rudbeck, professor of botany. But the young 
Linn6 suffered much from hunger and cold, and being with- 
out money or friends began to despair, when Olaf Celsius, 
professor of divinity, met him by accident, gave him con- 
genial employment upon his Hierobotanicon,ioo)L him into 
his own hyuse, and introduced him to Rudbeck, whoso as- 
sistant he became. In 1732 he explored Lapland underthe 
patronage of the Academy of Sciences, and gathered mate- 
rial for his Flora Lnpponica (1737). In 1735 he took the 
degree of M. D. at Harderwyk, in the Low Countries; re- 
sided at Harteoamp 1735-38, under the patronage of George 
Cliffort, a banker of Amsterdam; published his Si/stema 
Natnrm (1735), Fmidamenta Botanica (1736), Bibliotheca 
Botanica (1736), Critica Botanica (1737), Hortus Olifforti- 



anus (1737), Genera Plantarnm (1737), Classes Plantarum 
(1738) ; returned in 1738 to Sweden; was appointed in 1739 
physician to the king and professor of botany at Stock- 
holm; became in 1740 professor of medicine at Upsala, 
and was professor of botany there 1741-78, giving the uni- 
versity a worldwide fame and attracting thither large num- 
bers of students from foreign lands ; was ennobled in 1757, 
and d. at Upsala Jan. 10, 1778, after some months in which 
his mental powers were lost or in abeyance, the result of 
apoplectic strokes. Besides the works above mentioned, 
his principal writings are Philosophia Botanica (1751), 
Fauna Suecica (1746), and Flora Suecica (1746); works 
on materia medica (1*747-50) ; and above all the Species 
Plantarum, It would be hard to over-estimate the im- 
portance of the work of Linnseus in the establishment of 
natural science upon its modern basis. Not only in botany, 
his specialty, but in all departments of zoology, he was the 
foremost man of his time. He introduced the binomial 
nomenclature of species, an apparently obvious, but a most 
important step. His artificial system of plant-classification, 
though now discarded, was simple and easily followed, and 
greatly promoted the study of botany in its day. It is too 
often forgotten that Linnaeus only designed this arrange- 
ment as a key to the diagnosis of species, and that he at 
the same time foresaw the importance and final prevalence 
of the natural system, and labored on the foundations of it. 
His library and collections were bought, after the death of 
his son, in 1783, by J. E. Smith, the first president of the 
Linnaean Society in London, who also translated his Lq,ehesia 
Lapponica into English (1811). 

Ijinn Creek, cap. of Camden co., Mo. (see map of 
Missouri, ref. 5-G, for location of county). Pop. in 1870, 
132 ; in 1880, not in census. 

Ijin'net [Fr. linot, from Lat. linnm, " flax," its general 
food], a name given to various birds of the family Fringil- 
lidae (finches), but proper to those of the genus Linota, of 
which L. cannahina, the common European linnet, is the 
typical species. These birds are remarkable for the changes 
which take place in their plumage during the breeding 
season. North America has several birds generally referred 
to this genus, though some class them in other genera. 

liinnenSj on R. R., cap. of Linn co.. Mo. (see map of 
Missouri, ref. 2-F, for location of county), has flouring and 
planing mill. Principal occupation, farming. Pop. in 
1880, 860. 

liino'leum [Lat. linum, "cloth," and oleum, "oil"] is 
simply a manufacturer's name for oil-cloth, applied to 
heavy floor-cloths, made of canvas and painted with lin- 
seed oil. (See Floor-cloth.) 

liin'seed OH [Ang.-Sax. ?in««rf], the oil of flaxseed, 
is extensively used for all kinds of painting, for making oil- 
cloths, oil-silks, printer's ink, etc., its manufacture being 
among our most important industries, and the parent of 
many others. The oil-mills not only consume the greater 
part of the seed raised in this country, but large quantities 
are imported, especially from the Bast Indies. The seed is 
crushed and submitted to very great pressure in hydraulic 
presses, by which means the oil is for the most part re- 
moved. When the seed is not heated the oil is light col- 
ored, and is called cold-pressed oil. When, however, the 
seed-paste is heated after grinding, and pressed while still 
hot, the oil is of a little darker color, but it is much more 
rapidly and thoroughly removed. The paste in this opera- 
tion is heated by steam, and brought to a temperature nut 
much higher than that of boiling water. It is placed in 
strong cloths or bags of equal size and holding equal quan- 
tities, which are placed in iron cases and laid up under the 
presses, where they are subjected to a gradually increasing 
pressure, equivalent at length to a weight of 300 to 800 
tons. The cakes from cold-pressed oil are reground and 
heated with the rest. (See Oil-cake and Oil or Linseed.) 

Lins'ley (James Harvey), b. at Northford, Conn., May 
6, 1787; graduated at Yale College 1817, and became a 
Baptist clergyman, but on account of ill-health left the pul- 

?it and devoted his leisure to the study of natural history, 
n vols, xliii. and xlv. of Silliman's American Journal of 
Science may be found catalogues of Mammalia and birds 
from his pen. D. at Stratford, Conn., Dec. 26, 1843. (See 
Memoir, by his daughter, Hartford, 1846.) 

Linsley (Joel Harvey), D. D., b. at Cornwall, Vt., 
July 15, 1790; graduated at Middlebury College 1811 ; was 
tutor there three years ; studied law, and practised at Mid- 
dlebury until 1822, when ho was licensed as a Congrega- 
tional preacher; went to South Carolina as a missionary 
was pastor of the South Congregational church at Hartford, 
Conn., 1824-32, and of Park street church, Boston, 1832- 
35, when he was elected president of Marietta College, 0., 
which post he hold ten years, raising a considerable fund 
for that institution ; became pastor of the Second Congre- 



LINTON— LIPPINCOTT. 



25 



gatioaal church at Greenwich, Conn., 1847, and remained 
there until his death, Mar. 22, 1868. Dr. Linsley was a 
man of genial disposition and of great mental activity and 
industry, of which his few published sermons and addresses 
afford a very inadequate specimen. 

Linton (Eliza Lynn), wife of W. J. Linton, b. at Kes- 
wiclt, Cumberland, England, in 1822; published a novel, 
Azetk, the Egyptian (1846), Amymone, a Roviance of the 
Days of Per'iclee (1848), and liealitiesy a romance of mod- 
ern life (1851). She has since been connected with the 
press, especially the Saturday Review, in'which her papers 
on The Girl, of the Period attracted great attention. Among 
her later novels are Lizzie Lorton of Greyrigg (1866), Sow- 
ing the Wind (1866), The Tnte History of Joshua Davidson, 
Christian and Comnumist (1872), and Patricia Kemhall 
(1874). The two latter works have been the most popular 
of her writings. 

Linton (William James), b. in London, England, in 
1812 ; was apprenticed to G. W. Bonner, and in 1842 became 
partner with Orrin Smith ; was first engaged on the Illns- 
trated London News, and did the work of illustrating Jack- 
son's History of Wood Engraving^ published by the proprie- 
tors of 'that journal. His hand is seen in The Lalce Country 
and in the book of Deceased British Artists, issued in 1860 
by the London Art Union. Mr. Linton, though eminent 
as an engraver, is still better known as the author of a 
Life of Paine, Clarihel and Other Poems, The English Re- 
public, and papers in the Westminster Review, Examiner, 
Spectator, mainly on social topics. In youth a zealous 
Chartist, he was interested in the revolutionary plans of 
his time, was a friend of Mazzini, entered heartily into 
the cause of the English and European workingmen, and 
defended the French Commune against the accusations of 
its enemies. Since 1867, Mr. Linton has resided in the 
U. S. Author of Wood Engraving ; A Manual of List ruc- 
tion (1884). ' 0. B. Frothingham. 

LintZy city of Austria., the capital of the province of 
Upper Austria, on the Danube. It is fortified by thirty- 
two bombproof towers, connected with each other by sub- 
terranean alleys, a method of fortification invented by 
Archduke Maximilian of Este, but superseded by recent 
improvements in artillery. It is the seat of the provincial 
government and of a bishop, has a theological seminary 
and two cathedrals, one dating from 1670, and one com- 
menced in 1862 and dedicated to the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, but not yet finished. It has some manufactures of 
cloth, carpets, silk, leather, gold-lace, paper, and tobacco 
(the factories employing, in 1881, 787 hands and producing 
25,286,050 cigars and 1850 tons of smoking tobacco), and a 
considerable trade on the Danube. By the treaty con- 
cluded here Dec. 13, 1045, religious liberty was granted by 
the emperor Ferdinand to Hungary. Pop. 41,687. 

Iji''num [Lat., "flax"], a genus of plants of which the 
common Flax (which see) is the most impprtant. It in- 
cludes several flax-plants not cultivated for fibre, but some- 
times grown in gardens for ornamental purposes. Among 
these are> L. perenne, or perennial flax, found in the Western 
U. S. and growing 18 inches high, which forms tufts of 
slender stems with delicate blue flowers; L. grandifiorum, 
a beautiful annual found in Algiers, with abundant scarlet 
flowers; L.flavum, a greenhouse species, and L. Berlan- 
rf/cri', growing in Texas, both of which have yellow flowers. 

Li'nus (2 Tim. iv. 21), tradition says, was the first bishop 
of Borae after St. Peter, but it is doubtful whether he suc- 
ceeded the apostle, or whether St. Peter consecrated him 
bishop, perhaps long before his own martyrdom. The dates 
of his life are uncertain, some giving the year of his death 
as 80 J others, as 78 or 67. 

LinuSj in Greek mythology, celebrated as a minstrel, 
a reputed son of Apollo and one of the Muses; said to have 
taught Orpheus and Hercules. 

Li'odon [Gr. Aelos, "smooth," and oSov's, a "tooth], a 
genus of extinct marine reptiles from the Cretaceous forma- 
tion. (See MosASAURUs, by Prop. 0. C. Marsh.) 

Li'on [Gr. Aewr], (Felis leo), next to the tiger the largest 
and most powerful of the Felidac or cat family. Two very 
marked varieties are known — one, tawny and fuU-maned, 
the Barbary lion, inhabiting the wilds of Africa; and a near- 
ly maneless, yellow variety, found in Asia. Other varieties 
are seen in both countries, having less distinctive marks. 
The lioness is smaller than the male, and has no mane. 
She is said to go with young about five months, and to pro- 
duce but one brood in the year. The young are from two 
to four in number. They are spotted at birth, and remain 
so until more than half grown. The mane and tuft of a 
lion are not fully developed till the animal is six or seven 
years old. The natural period of its life is considered to 
be a little over twenty years, though authors have recorded 
its age as in "some instances that of man." A lion of the 



largest size was found to measure eight feet from nose to 
tail, the tail being four feet more. The carnivorous pro- 
pensities of this beast are' well known, the general prey 
being the larger herbivorous quadrupeds. Some ancient 
authors, including Didymus of Alexandria, have laid great 
stress upon the uses of a certain "prickle" which is found 
at the end of the tail of the lion. For a time this was con- 
sidered as unimportant, and its existence was even denied. 
Investigation has shown, however, that there is a corneous 
claw-like appendage about a third of an inch in length, 
sharp at the apex, and hollowed at the base. Its function 
has been thought to be connected with lashing the tail for 
the purpose of stimulating anger, but it is now more prop- 
erly regarded as a means for dressing the hair or matted 
portions of the mane. Except when pressed for food, the 
lion is rather a lazy and indolent beast. He remains at rest 
during the day, and preys during the night. The testimony 
of the famous hunters who have written of the lion is that 
he is rather timid than courageous, and that he entertains 
great fear of man. Dr. Livingstone gives a singular ac- 
count of the roar of the lion. He says, comparing it with 
the voice of the ostrich, "In general, the lion's voice seems 
to come deeper from the chest than that of the ostrich, but^ 
to this day I can distinguish between them with certainty 
only by knowing that the ostrich roars by day, and the 
lion by night." Gordon Cumming gives a graphic descrip- 
tion of the imposing character of the nightly concerts which 
the lions perform when, they meet one another, often in 
considerable numbers, at some spring where they all come 
in order to drink, and then stop and — so to speak — chal- 
lenge one another with mighty roars of defiance, 

J. B. Holder. 

Lipan' Indians, a warlike tribe of aborigines of 
Mexico, Texas, etc., and are quite uncivilized. Upon the 
reservation of the Mescaloro Apaches in New Mexico 350 
Lipans were reported in 1872. 

Lip'ari [anciently Meligunis], one of the ^olian Isl- 
ands, situated near the N. coast of Sicily. It was a vol- 
cano, as appears from Aristotle, but the period of its ex- 
tinction is unknown. With the exception of certain very 
precipitous and rocky portions, this island 'fs most fertile, 
and its fruits and wines are excellent. — II. A town on the 
above island, situated on a rocky eminence protected by a 
fort. It is an old town, and many interesting antiquities 
exist in the neighborhood. Not long since some ancient 
baths, mentioned by Polybius, and containing fine mosaics, 
were excavated, but they have been-reburied by the present 
proprietor to escape the annoyance of visitors. The modern 
town, which has suffered severely from earthquakes, is not 
well built, but it has a handsome cathedral and some re- 
spectable public buildings. The inhabitants arc skilful 
sailors, and carry on an active commerce with Sicily, etc. 
The port affords good anchorage, though a mole is required 
to make it secure. Pop. 12,020. 

Lipetsk'', town of European Russia, in the government 
of Tambov, on the Voronezh. It was founded in 1700 by 
Peter the Great, but it derives its chief importance from the 
mineral springs in its vicinity, which were discovered in the 
present century, and now attract a large number of visitors 
during the summer. The bathing establishment, with its 
park and promenades, is very beautiful. The manufactures 
of woollens and cloths are not unimportant, and the trade 
in horses, cattle, tallow, skins, honey, and timber is very 
considerable. Pop. 14,213. 

Lip'pa, town of Hungary, on the Maros. Pop. 6809. 

liip'pard (George), b. near Yellow Springs, Chester co.. 
Pa., Apr. 10, 1822; author of several romances once quite 
popular. D. at Philadelphia in 1854. 

Lip'pC; or Lip'pe Det'mold, a small principality 
of Germany, between Hanover, Brunswick, and Westphalia, 
and comprising an area of 438 square miles. It is hilly, 
but very fertile, well wooded, and watered by the river 
Werre, an affluent of the Weser. The southern part is 
covered by the Teutoburger Wald, famous as the place 
where Arminius destroyed the Roman legions under Varus. 
The inhabitants, numbering 111,135, belong to the Reformed 
Church, and enjoy a high reputation for their good education 
and intelligent industry. The principal town is Detmold. 

Lip'pi (Fra FiLiPPO), an Italian artist who flourished 
between 1412 and T469. Of his personal history little is 
known. In 1452 he was chaplain to the nuns of S. Gio 
vannino in Florence, and in 1457 rector of S. Quirico at 
Legnaja, The best of his pictures are in Florence, though 
all the large European galleries contain works from his 
hand. They are remarkable for richness of color, vitality 
of feeling, and excellence of drawing. D. at Spoleto, and 
was buried in the cathedral. 0. B. Frothingham. 

Lip'pincott (Sara Janb Clarke), b. at Pompey, N. Y., 
Sept. 28, 1823; educated at Rochester, N. Y., and removed 



26 



LIPPSTADT— LIQUIDS, CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL NATURE, ETC. 



in 1843 to New Brighton, Pa. She wrote verses at an early 
a.ge, and in 1844 began to opntribute to the New York 
Mirror under the nom de plume of " Grace Greenwood," by 
which she has been long favorably known to American 
readers. In 1853 she was married to Leander K. Lippin- 
cott of Philadelphia, and made an extended tour in England 
and on the Continent. Among her works are Greenwood 
Leaves (2d series, 1850), History of my Pets (1850), Poems, 
(1851), Haps and Mishaps of a Tour in England (1854), 
Merrie England{l85i), Stories from Famous Ballads (I860), 
Records of Five Years (1867), and New Life in New Lands 
(1873). She has taken a considerable part in the anti- 
slavery and other reform movements by means of lectures, 
and has been frequently engaged as correspondent of lead- 
' ing New York papers, in which capacity she has several 
times visited the Pacific States, and resided for a time in 
Colorado. In 1875 she undertook a second European tour 
as correspondent of the New York Times, 

Lipp'stadt, town of Prussia, in the province of West- 
phalia., on the Lippe. Pop. 9349. 

liips'comb (Andrew A.), D. D., LL.D., b. in George- 
/town, D. C, Sept. 6, 181 6 j his father's family went to Vir- 
ginia, and in 1842 he moved to Montgomery, Ala., and at- 
tained great distinction as a minister of the Methodist 
Protestant Church ; in 1860 was elected chancellor of 
the State University of Georgia, which position he held 
until 1874, when he resigned, to prepare for the press 
a more extended work, then in hand, than any of his pre- 
vious publications. He has recently (Aug., 1875) accept- 
ed a professorship in the Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 
Tenn. A. H. Stephens. 

liip'sius (Richard Adelbert), b. at Gera (Reuss), 
Germany, Feb. 14, 1830 ; studied at Leipsic, where in 1859 
he became professor of theology,* in 1861 at Vienna, and 
in 1865 at Kiel. He has published The Pauline Doctrine 
of Justification (1853), The First Epistle of Clement of Rome 
(in Latin, 1865), On Gnosticism (1860), On the Sources of 
the Writings of Epiphanius (1865), The Catalogue of Popes 
in Eusebins (1868), Chronology of the Bishops of Rome to 
the Middle of the Fourth Century (1869), Die Apohryphen 
Apostelyeschichfen und Aposiellegenden (1883), and numer- 
ous minor articles. — His father, Karl Heineich Adelbert 
(1805-61), was a professor at Leipsic, author of Grammat- 
ical Studies on Biblical Greek. — His brother, Justus Her- 
mann, b. at Leipsic May 9, 1834, became in 1866 rector of 
a gymnasium in that city, and has published critical re- 
marks on Sophocles (1860 and 1867) and Lysias (1864). 

liiqueur' [Pr., "liquor"], a name given to various 
highly-flavored alcoholic or strong vinous liquids. There 
are many kinds, most of which are drunk in small quanti- 
ties after dinner. The best known kinds arc curai;oa, 
strongly flavored with orange-peel and various spices; ab- 
sinthe, from wormwood and anise ; anisette, from aromatic 
seeds; kirschioaHser&n^ maraschino, frora cherriGS] cassis, 
from black currants ; hummel, from caraway, etc. ; noyau, 
etc., from bitter almonds. 

liiq'uid [Lat. liquere, to "melt"], a consonant formed 
by a closure of the vocal organs greater than the closer 
vowels require, but less than that of the remaining (mute) 
consonants. The liquids are w, I, r, y. They are subject 
to whispered aspiration, as to in when or tiih-w-en, y in hew 
or yh-y-oo, and II, rh in Welsh. The consonants m, n, ng 
are not liquids, but nasal mutes. S. S. Haldeman. 

Iiiquidamber. See Gum Tree. 

Liq'nids, Chemical and Physical Nature and 
Properties of [" liquids," from Lat. liquere, to " melt "]. 

1. Change from, the Liquid to the Solid State, and the Con- 
verse. — The liquid state is one of the three states in which it 
is generally believed that all matter is capable of existing, 
and is intermediate between the solid and the gaseous 
states. Considered as that state of matter which forms a 
large part of living animals, as well as the bulk of mobile 
and changing nature, the importance to man of its study 
needs no explanation. In solids the molecules are main- 
tained in certain relative positions with reference to one 
another, and generally in reference to certain lines called 
axes, which stand, in the same substance, in certain fixed 
angular positions and bear certain fixed relations of length 
to one another. Hence crystalline constitution. Liquids 
are formed from these solids by exposure to a higher tem- 
perature, by melting or fusion by heat, also by solution in 
some existing liquid; sometimes, also, by contact with some 
other solid, with which a new liquid chemical compound 
ensues. In all cases of change from the solid to the liquid 
or from the liquid to the solid condition,"change of tem- 
perature occurs, sometimes to lower and sometimes to higher 
temperatures; but so far no case is known with certainty 
in which simple heating has changed a liquid into a solid, 
or simple cooling a solid into a liquid. It is often, indeed, 
generally held that, as the general effect of heat on all 



bodies is expansion, so expansion should generally follow 
the efl"eot of heat in converting a solid to a liquid, and, vice 
versd, that contraction should accompany the solidification 
of a liquid by cold. This principle holds probably for 
most, though not for all, of the metals when undergoing 
fusion, but its adoption as a universal principle would un- 
questionably mislead, and the student desirous of acquiring 
insight into the real system of nature should carefully 
avoid adopting it as such. That substance which performs 
the most important functions in nature of all, certainly of 
all in animated nature, water, departs so widely from the 
principle of continuous expansion by heat that when solid 
water, or ice, melts into liquid, 1000 volumes or measures 
contract or condense into 918, or about 8 per cent, less in 
bulk. This is the more remarkable when we consider that 
in the melting an amount of heat-force becomes "latent," 
or inactive upon the thermometer, whicli would raise the 
temperature of the water, after melting, through 44° F., 
and would expand the 918 volumes to 945. This heat-force 
continues acting to keep up the liquidity of the water — to 
keep it condensed, in fact; and when we deprive the water 
of just this amount of heat again, it expands back again 
into ice, through the action, as we may admit, of the crys- 
tallizing forces, whatever these may be. Among other 
cases in which liquefaction takes place with contraction 
of volume are many cases of solutions of solid bodies. In 
liquids the forces still exist that produce crystallization in 
solids, but they are modified in their mode of action into 
radial forces, acting equally in all directions from the 
centre of the mass of the liquid; so that a small body or 
rfrop of a liquid assumes a spherical form when free to do so ; 
as in a drop of rain, fov example. When resting on a sur- 
face or contained in a vessel, the weight of the liquid 
presses it out of the spherical form, but a curvature of the 
surface always shows that they still act, their resultant 
being what is known as the ** contractile force" of liquids. 
The perfect spherical form of a bubble is due to this radial 
or contractile force. (See further under head of Solution.) 
2. Change from the Liquid to the Gascons State. — Every 
liquid body is believed to be capable, at a suflSciently high 
temperature, of passing into the third state of matter, the 
gaseous or vaporous condition. The difference between 
substances, however, in this respect is so great that while 
we have bodies whose boiling-points are so low that no 
degree of cold ever produced could condense them into 
liquids, like the gases that chiefly make up the atmosphere, 
there are other bodies, lilte some of the metals, which, 
while convertible into liquids readily by heat, boil, or become 
vapors only with difficulty at the most violent heats that 
arc producible in the laboratory. In all operations of 
ebullition or vaporization, as in those of fusion, certain 
amounts of heat-energy or motion, variable with the sub- 
stance, become "latent," or are needed to keep the body in 
the vapor form, thus expending their force in this way, so 
that the change of state is itself the only, though sufficient, 
evidence of the existence of the force or motion thus en- 
gaged. This is called "latent" heat of gasifaction or va- 
porization, the word "latent" being an objectionable one. 
because such heat-energy is sufficiently manifested by the 
work it does in keeping the liquid in a gaseous form. Heni of 
flrasi/acft'onsimply is a sufficiently comprehensive term. Thus, 
water, the typical liquid, kept at 180° P. — that is, so dis- 
posed as to prevent all loss through radiation, or enveloped 
in a medium also at 212° P.— is in a condition of energy, as 
compared with ice, represented by the sum of the 212° and 
the 144° of heat of fusion indicated above ; that is, of 324°. 
If it be now exposed to a still higher temperature, gaseous 
water or steam will be evolved, and this steam will require, 
as heat of gasification (though its own temperature will bo 
not one degree higher than 212°, that of the water from 
which it is formed), enough heat to raise its own weight 
of cooler water through 998° P. (or so nearly 1000 that it 
IS usually so stated in round numbers). This same amount 
of heat-energy, thus required to do the work of making the 
steam and keeping it in the form of steam, would even heat 
this same steam, if already previously formed, through 
2010.5° by reason of the far lower specific heat of steam. 

The heats of gasification of other liquids, so far as yet 
known, are never so high as in the case of water. The 
figures for a few of the commoner liquids, taken at random 
as examples, are here given, water being, as above, 966° P.: 
Latent Heats of raporization of Liquids at their Boiling- 
Fahr. Degrees, 



Points : 



Alcohol 3760 

Ether .164° 

Oil of turpentine 124° 

Acetic acid 1^40 

Bisulphide of carbon i5fio 

Bromine i82° 



Tetrachloride of tin .5.6° 

Terohloride of phosphorus.92 5° 

Wood spirit 470O 

Fusel 01] 218.5° 

Acetic ether .".".!. 190° 

Butyric acid .!!!206 5'' 

(See further on vaporization and ebullition under the head 

01 oteam.j 



LIQUORICE— LISAINE. 



27 



3. Change from the Qaseoua to the Liquid State. — This 
kind of change plays very important parts in the opera- 
tions of both nature and art. In nature all the liquid cir- 
culation of the earth, without which no life ouuld be main- 
tained, i» l^ept up by the continual condensation to the 
liquid form of gaseous water from the atmosphere that has 
been previously vaporized by the solar heat. (See articles 
Climate and Wi\ds, by Prof. Arnold Guyot.) In art the 
operations of distillation and condensation furnish import- 
ant illustrations, among which the recent stupendous ex- 
pansion of the refining of mineral oils constitutes the most 
remarkable example. (See Petroleum, by Prop. Chand- 
LB't.) The distillation of alcohol and of apirita generally, 
of quicksilver, of coal-tar products, of acetic and nitric 
acida, ether, chloroform, hiatilphide of carbon, and many 
other chemical arts, may be cited as further examples of 

_ recovery of liquids from vaporous forms. (See article Dis- 
tillation.) Of the greatest interest to science is the ob- 
taining of liquids from gaseous substances which are not 
condensable by refrigeration alone, a result which is accom- 
plished by the application of enormous pressures. Some- 
times this pressure is applied to the gas directly by means 
of powerful pumps, but in more frequent cases in the labor- 
atory such liquid-condensed gases are procured by causing 
them to be evolved from solid compounds in one part of a 
closed apparatus of great strength, in another part of which 
they are condensed by their own force of elastic compres- 
sion into liquid forms. Among the gases which have been 
thus condensed are chlorine, cyanogen, ammonia, carbonic 
and muriatic acida, laughing gaa, and olefiant gaa. Some 
gases, such as air, carbonic oxide, marah-gas, nitric oxide, 

•and hydrogen, refuse to liquefy at any pressure yet ob- 
tained. Some of these may nevertheless exist in liquid 
form at the enormous pressures that must prevail natur- 
ally in the interior parts of some rocks — marak-gaa, for ex- 
ample — possibly between the laminsQ of some coal-beds, 
which evolve enormous volumes of it in the form of the 
terrible "fire-damp." 

Another important mode of producing liquids from gases 
is by causing water or other liquids to take them up into so- 
lution. Water dissolves nearly if not quite all gaseous bod- 
ies, even those not Hquofiable by cold and pressure, though 
these latter in very small proportion at ordinary pressures. 
The oxygen of the atmosphere, for example, is taken up by 
water in what appears but a small quantity, according to 
BuDseu but 3 per cent, of its volume at the normal temper- 
ature of 60° F. ; yet this small proportion is of immense 
importance in nature. It is through this oxygen that the 
respiratory organs of fishes are supported. Without this oxy- 
gen also from the atmosphere, all standing fresh waters, and 
even many moving rivers, would quickly putrefy and poison 
the earth and air. This 3 per cent, of oxygen is the universal 
scavenger, by virtue of which alone the otherwise death-dif- 
fusing process of putrefaction is converted into one of ere- 
macauaia, and water thus enabled to bepome a purifyin^g 
and life-sustaining agent. Icy water absorbs 4 per cent. 
of oxygen from the air. The manufacture of artificial min- 
eral and aerated waters, so extensively practised at this 
day, is an instance of a practical application of the con- 
version of gases into liquid forms by combined solution 
and pressure. 

4. Relationa of Liquida to Gravitation. — Under this head 
comes the consideration of denaitiea of liquids. These 
vary greatly, the heaviest known liquid — at normal tem- 
perature — being quickailverf 13.5 times as heavy as water; 
and probably the lightest, the hydruret of butyl, C4H10, of 
Pelouze and Cahours, obtained from petroleum, which is 
only just six-tenths as heavy as water at the freezing-point 
of the latter. All the figures ever determined for the den- 
sities or specific gravities of all chemical compounds wUl 
be found in the invaluable publication of the Smithsonian 
Institution, called the Gonetanta of Nature, compiled by Prof. 
F. W. Clarke of Cincinnati, who in this work has rendered 
a supreme service to science. The densities of liquids, 
which are inversely as their volumes, vary of course with 
their temperatures, and the amount of this variation of 
volume for each thermometric degree is called the coejfficient 
of dilatation. This varies usually somewhat with the 
temperature, and must therefore, when required accurately, 
be computed from an algebraic expression, or formula of 
interpolation, as it is called. These formulae are all calcu- 
lated for the centigrade scale. As an example may be 
given the formula for the calculation of the density of 
water between the freezing-point and 25° C. Calling the 
temperature (°, the volume is equal to 

1- .000061045(° -H .000007n83(°2- .00000003734<°s. 
Between 4.08° C. and the freezing-point this formula will 
give, instead of a continuous contraction by cooling, as 
above 4.08°, a negative contraction, or poaitive expansion, 
a peculiarity of water among liquids. On reaching 0° this 
expansion by cold may undergo, if the water freezes, a 



sudden and immense increase, as has been already ex- 
plained. It is through this property of water, of expand- 
ing just before freezing, and thus Jloating to the top as a 
surface layer, that only the surface of water solidifies, and 
not its whole mass. Were it not for this, but a narrow 
tropical zone of the earth would be habitable, and indeed 
it is probable that almost all the water of the globe would 
in that case have accumulated at the poles as two enormons 
ice-caps. The temperature 4.08° C. = 39.33° F., at which 
the eoefl&cient of dilatation of water by heat changes its 
sign from negative to positive, and which is the tempera- 
ture of- shallow waters under ice in winter, is generally 
deemed the most important fixed or atandard point of 
temperature in nature, from which everything should be 
calculated. Denaitiea are therefore referred to the density 
of water at this point of maximum denaity. The writer 
believes this an error, and that conclusive reasons exist 
why zero Centigrade, or 32° F-, the melting-point of ice, 
is the real standard and initial temperature of chemical 
action and change in nature. 

5. Relationa to Heat. — (For specific heata of liquids see 
article upon Heat.) Expansion of Liquida. — In addition 
to what has already been said under densities bearing upon 
this, it should also be remarked that thermometera are based 
upon the expansion of liquids by heat. (See articles Ther- 
mometry and Pyrombtry.) 

6. Diffuaion and Transpiration of Liqitide. — (For diffu- 
sion, see articles Dialysis and Endosmose, by Prof. Chand- 
ler.) Tranapiration. — This term refers to the rates at 
which liquids pass through minute orifices or capillary 
tubes under pressure. The following principles were ar- 
rived at by Poiseuille with the same liquid : 1. The flow is 
directly proportional to the pressure; 2. In equal times, 
with tubes of equal diameters, it is inversely as the length; 
3. With equal lengths it is as the fourth powers of the 
diameters. Heat increases the flow greatly. At 113° F. 
the flow of water is 2.5 times as rapid as at 41°. Alkalies 
all retard the flow. Other chemical subtances dissolved 
have important influences. The application of these in- 
vestigations in physiology and to the flow of the blood 
through the veins is very important. It is believed also 
to have an important bearing in the study of molecular 
structure. Henry Wurtz. 

Liq'uorice, or liicorice [a corruption of the G-r. 
yXvKvppt^a, "sweet root"], the dried extract of the roots of 
Glycyrrhiza glabra and echinata, leguminous herbs of 
Southern Europe, Africa, and Asia, largely cultivated in 
Central Europe. The extract is a hard, black mass, con- 
taining a large percentage of an uncrystalHzable sugar 
called glycyrrhizine. It is prepared very extensively in 
Spain, Italy, and Russia, and to some extent in France, 
England, Germany, and the U. S. It is a valuable demul- 
cent and expectorant medicine, and is extensively employed 
in flavoring chewing tobacco, as well as in pharmacy as an 
excipient in pill-masses. The hard, woody root is also 
used in medicine and in porter and stout breweries. 
Glycyrrhiza lepidota of the Western States has the flavor 
of true liquorice, as have Galium, circsezans, G. tanceolatum, 
etc., rubiaceous herbs of the U. S., which are used in do- 
mestic medicine and called " wild liquorice." 

Jji'ria^ town of Spain, in the province of Valencia, in 
a rich and beautiful plain, which produces large quantities 
of wine, fruit, grain, and vegetables. Pop. 9443. 

Ijisaiiie'9 a small river of France, rises at the southern 
termination of the Vosges, flows W. of the fortress of 
Belfort, and enters the Savoureuse, an affluent of the Doubs, 
at Montbeliard. It became famous by the battle which in 
1871 raged here for three days, between the Germans and 
the French. The German general Von Werder retreated 
before the French army under Bourbaki (which pushed on 
towards Belfort), and occupied a position to the W. of this 
fortress, along the Lisaine, in order to prevent the French 
from attacking the German troops besieging Belfort or 
from making an invasion into Southern Germany. Von 
Werder had with him about 43,000 men, 48 battalions, 30 
squadrons, and 126 pieces, besides 37 heavy guns which he 
had taken from the siege artillery before Belfort; and with 
this force he held a distance of about ten miles along the 
left bank of the Lisaine, which commands the right bank. 
The villages of Hgricourt, Bussurel, Montb61iard, Frahier. 
and others were barricaded. On Jan. 15, 1871, Bourbaki 
attacked the German position with 120,000 men, endeavor- 
ing to break through its centre at Bussurel. He succeeded 
in taking this place, and penetrated to Montbeliard, but 
further the French did not come, and the German line re- 
mained unbroken. A furious artillery contest took place 
at H^ricourt and Luze. . On Jan. 16, Bourbaki tried to 
surround the right German wing, which was rather weak, 
and he actually threw it back, taking the villages of Fra- 
hier and Chenebier. But the Germans took positions 



28 



LISBON— L'ISLET. 



farther back, and could not be surrounded. It grow dark, 
and Bourbaki had not reached his aim. He then attempted 
a night attack on the centre, but without success. On 
the morning of Jan. 17 the Germans attacked at Prahier 
and Chenebier, and the fight lasted the whole day without 
decision. On a,ll the other points the French renewed the 
fight, but with no better result than on the previous days. 
Thus, Bourbaki began to retreat on the 18th, and Von 
Aferder undertook to pursue him. The Germans had 81 
officers and 1847 men wounded and dead; the French 
about 6000. August Niemann. 

liis'bon [Port. Liahoa; anc. Olisipo], capital of Portu- 
gal and residence of its king, one of the most important 
commercial centres and one of the most beautiful harbors 
on earth, with a population of 246,343 (according to the 
census of 1881, and including the suburbs of Belem and 
Olivaes), lies amphitbeatrically on the northern shore of a 
bay, Kada de Lisboa, 4 miles broad, formed by the Tagus 
at its influx into the Atlantic Ocean. Built on the decliv- 
ities of seven hills, with numerous white cupolas and mag- 
nificent monumental buildings towering above the mass of 
43,000 houses, interspersed with lovely terraces, Lisbon 
offers, when approached from the sea, an aspect at once 
charming and imposing. The bay forms a harbor large 
enough to accommodate at the same time all the fleets of 
Europe, and so deep that the largest ships can anchor up 
immediately at its docks. The entrance to this harbor is 
defended by several forts, of which one, consisting of an 
interesting old Moorish tower called Torre de Belem, is situ- 
ated on a sandbank in the bay. The city is 10 miles in circuit, 
and is divided into four quarters — Alhama, Rocio, Bairro 
Alto, and Alcantara — besides several extensive suburbs. 
The old city, especially the quarter of Alhama, has irregu- 
lar, narrow, and dark streets. The newer parts, built since 
the great earthquake (Nov. 1, 1755). which did not reach 
Alhama, are more regular and beautiful, and contain many 
palace-like buildings. The finest part is the quarter of 
Rocio, extending along the river and containing many 
splendid buildings and open places. Among the squares, 
Prapa do Commercio is the most remarkable, situated on 
the Tagus, containing in the centre the equestrian statue 
of Joseph I., and surrounded with magnificent buildings, 
the exchange, the royal library, the custom-house ; also the 
market-place is noteworthy, and the immense place of Dom 
Pedro in the northern part of the quarter of Rocio, bor- 
dered on one side by the monastery of S. Domenico and 
the buildings formerly belonging to the Inquisition. Still 
farther to the N. stretches the public promenade. The 
most beautiful streets arc Rua Augusta, which is the busi- 
ness-centre and contains many fine jewelry shops, Rua do 
Dura, and Rua da Prata. The city has 64 churches and 
about 200 chapels; the former monasteries, mostly mag- 
nificent buildings, situated at the most elevated points, are 
now used for public purposes. The monastery of Belem is 
perhaps the most remarkable building of the city. It was 
founded in 1499 by King Emanuel the Great, on the spot 
where Vasoo da Gama had embarked two years before, and 
its style is a mixture of Moorish, Byzantine, Norman, and 
Gothic elements. The material is white limestone, which 
has now become yellowish like old ivory. Its decoration 
is exceedingly rich in sculpture; especially splendid are the 
carvings in Pallisander-wood, a kind of ornamentation 
which is of frequent occurrence in Portugal. The least 
beautiful part of the building is the church, whose nave is 
in the Italian style. The whole building is now used as a 
hospital for foundlings and orphans. The monastery of 
the Heart of Jesus is also an interesting structure, founded 
in 1770 and provided with a splendid cupola of white mar- 
ble, an imitation of the church of St. Peter in Rome ■ fur- 
thermore, the church of the Patriarchs, with its gigantic 
cupola, situated to the N. E. of Monte do Castello ; the 
marble church of S. Roque ; the basilica of S. Maria; the 
church of Carmo, in Gothic style ; and the church of S. 
Vincent de Flora, the largest of the city, and the burial- 
place of the dynasty of Braganza. The most remarkable 
palaces are the royal palace of Ajuda, the palace of Nossa 
Senhora das Necessidades, and the palace of Bemposta. 
Other noteworthy buildings are the theatre of S. Carlos ; the 
national theatre, which was formerly the palace of the In- 
quisition; the arsenal, the custom-house, the corn-market, 
and the polytechnic school. The scientific institutions are 
very numerous ; there are schools of every kind, an acad- 
emy of science, a geographical academy, a museum of natu- 
ral history, etc. The city receives its water through the 
Alcantara aqueduct, a truly magnificent work, constructed 
by Emanuel do Maya. The main stream comes from the 
village of Canassas, 2i miles from Lisbon, and traverses 
the valley of Alcantara on thirty-five arches, of which the 
largest has a height of 230 feet and a diameter of 107 feet. 
The promenade on the top of the aqueduct offers a most 
beautiful view. The Gallcgos (Spaniards from Galicia), 



who carry the water from the various fountains throughout 
the city, form a corporation of their own and number about 
30,000. A great nuisance are the unowned dogs, which 
swarm through the streets to the number, it is said, of 
20,000. The hilly surroundings and the mountain-region 
of Cintra are full of charming valleys, interesting peaks, 
and beautiful locations for churches, monasteries, and man- 
sions. The industry of the city is not considerable. Gold 
and silver ware is manufactured; spinning and weaving 
establishments, iron-foundries, and manufactures of chem- 
icals, paper, soap, and steel are in operation. But the com- 
merce is very considerable. To all sides — E. through the 
Straits of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean ; N. along the 
whole 6oast of Europe; S. along the western coast of Africa; 
and W. to the countries of America — the sea opens up to Lis- 
bon its splendid roads of commerce. Lisbon is the largest 
port in the kingdom, and its custom-house is a substantial 
and very spacious building, in which merchants are allowed ' 
to deposit their goods free of duty for one year, or for two 
years in the case of Brazilian produce. The duties annually 
collected at the port exceed £1,150,030, tobacco alone yield- 
ing £400,000. About 1400 foreign and 1100 Portuguese 
vessels (including coasters) annually visit the port. The 
average value of the annual imports amounts to about 
£5,600,000, and that of the exports to £4,500,000. The 
most active commerce is carried on with Brazil and Great 
Britain, tropical products being imported from the former 
and manufactured goods from the latter, while wine and 
oil are exported to both. Lisbon had existed as a Roman 
mmiicipinm under the name of Felicltaa Julia : later on it 
was taken by the Alanes and by the Moors. When Al- 
fonso, at the head of the crusaders, conquered and Chris- • 
tianized the city, it was called Lisboa. In 1580 the duke 
of Alva occupied it for Philip II. of Spain, and the In- 
vincible Armada sailed from its port in 1588, but in 1640 
the Spaniards were expelled and the dynasty of Braganza 
ascended the throne of Portugal. Nov. 1, 1755, an earth- 
quake destroyed the greater part of the city and killed 
30,000 persons almost in an instant. To complete the 
misery, a fire broke out among the ruins, and gangs of 
robbers infested the place like so many swarms of vultures. 
Bnt, while all Europe was stupefied with terror and lost 
itself in characteristic speculations of what such a calamity 
could mean, the government and the inhabitants soon re- 
covered,' and in an incredibly short time the place rose from 
its ashes. In 1807, during the wars of Napoleon, the 
French held the city for a short time, but since those days 
a long period of peace has greatly promoted its prosperity. 

August Niemann. 
Lisbon, on R. R. and Sheyenne River, cap. of Ran- 
som CO., Dak. (see map of Dakota, ref. 4-F, for location of 
county). Pop. in 1885, 1231. 

Iiis'burn, town of Ireland, in the county of Antrim, 
on the Lagan, is celebrated for its manufactures of damasks 
and fine linen stuffs, which branch of industry was estab- 
lisbed by a settlement of French Huguenots after the Re- 
vocation of the Edict of Nantes. The parish church, which 
has a beautiful octagonal tower, was by Charles II. con- 
stituted the cathedral church of the united dioceses of 
Down, Conor, and Dromore, and contains a monument to 
Jeremy Taylor, who was bishop of the see. Pop. in 1881. 
10,384. ^ 

Lisieux' [anc. Noviomagna or Lexovium'], town of 
France, in the department of Calvados, on the Touques at 
the very point where it is joined by the Orbiquet, with 
large linen and woollen manufactures and a brisk trade in 
corn, hemp, and cider. Though its position at the junc- 
tion of two rivers makes it subject to disastrous inunda- 
tions, it is one of the most prosperous cities of Normandy, 
forming the centre of a very considerable industrial activity, 
the arrondissement having nearly 300 factories, employin"' 
about 10,000 hands in the manufacture of cloth and ore" 
tonnes, besides woollen-mills, spinning-mills, bleaching- 
fields, dye-works, etc. Pop. 1 6',039. The cathedral of 
Lisieux is one of the most interesting specimens of the 
transition from the Roman to the Ogival style. It was 
founded in 1045, finished in 1233, and recently restored 
It is 360 feet long, 90 feet broad, 65 feet high, and its 
southern tower rises 230 feet. It is dedicated to St. Peter. 
The church of St. Jacques, dating from the fifteenth century, 
is also an interesting building. 

liisle, on R. R., Broome co., N. Y. (see map of New 
York, ref 6-G, for location of county), 23 miles N. of Bin"- 
hampton, has a foundry and a gun-factory. Pop. in 1880, 

L'Islet, post-v. of L'Islet co., Quebec, Canada, on the 
S. shore of the St. Lawrence, and on the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way, 62 miles below Quebec, has an academy, a large 
lumber trade, and an extensive shipyard. Pop. in 1881 



LIS PENDENS-LISZT. 



29 



liis pen'dens* By this expression is meant in genei'al 
a rule prevailing in courts of eq^uity that all persons are 
supposed to be acquainted with the fact that an action is 
pending, and to hold any rights acquired during its pend- 
ency in the subject which the action affects in subordina- 
tion to its results. The legal maxim in its Latin form 
is thus more fully stated : Pendente lite, nihil innovetur 
{•'While an action is pending there must be no change in 
the existing state of things"). By a legal fiction every 
one who acquires the property affected by the suit while it 
is pending is supposed to have a "constructive" or the- 
oretical notice of the litigation, which he cannot gainsay 
or deny. 

The true scope of this rule has been frequently misunder- 
stood. It has been supposed by some that it was based 
mainly on the idea just referred to, that every one must be 
understood to have knowledge of all that is transpiring in 
a court of justice, and accordingly to be affected by the re- 
fined ideas prevailing in courts of equity concerning con- 
structive notice. (See Notice.) This, however, is not the 
real ground of the rule. The true view of it is not merely 
that it is notice, but that it is necessary to the correct ad- 
ministration of justice that a decision of the cause should 
be binding not only on the litigating parties, but also on 
those who derive title from them during the course of the 
action, whether with notice of the suit or not. The object 
of such a rule is to bring litigation to an end, to prevent 
new suits, and to lead the existing controversy to a close. 
It will be thus seen that a principle of public policy enters 
largely into the case. The theory of the rule is well ex- 
pounded in the case of Bellamy v. Sabine, 1 De Gex and 
Jones's Reports (English), 566. 

As would be expected from the form of the maxim, it 
only has application while the action is pending. After 
the decree has been obtained, the ends of public policy 
have been subserved. As long ago as the time of Lord 
Chancellor Hardwicke it was said, "There is no such rule 
in this court [equity] that a [final] decree made here shall 
be an implied notice to a purchaser after a cause is ended; 
but it is the pendency of the suit that creates the notice, 
for as it is a transaction in a sovereign court of justice, it 
is supposed all people are attentive to what passes there, 
and it is to prevent a greater mischief that would arise by 
people's purchasing a right under litigation and then in 
contest." 

This doctrine is peculiarly applicable to litigations con- 
cerning real estate. It does not appear to have been re- 
sorted to in England to affect the title to personal {)roperty. 
There are some cases in the courts of this country which 
have extended it to that class of interests: if it is to be 
applied to these, it would seem clear that commercial paper 
and corporate stocks should be exempted from its opera- 
tion. Such appears to have been the view of Chancellor 
Kent, for while in his judicial character he applied the 
rules of Us pendens to a contested title to a mortgage, which 
is not the subject of ordinary commerce, he remarked that 
he was not prepared to extend it to commercial paper not 
due. It is plain that there could be no safety in commercial 
dealings if it were necessary, in the rapidity with which 
such transactions are ordinarily and almost necessarily con- 
ducted, to inquire whether an action concerning title to the 
property dealt in were pending in some court of equity. 
The rale is a hard and harsh one in some of its aspects. 
It is undoubtedly beneficial in its relation to real estate, but 
no element of public policy can be found as a reason for 
extending it to commercial transactions. On these general 
grounds it has, in reference to stocks and notes, been re- 
jected in the appellate courts of New York and of some 
other States. It should be added that a purchaser is not 
bound by the rule to take notice of an equitable action or 
suit pending in the courts of another State or country. 

To alleviate the harshness of the "constructive notice" 
fastened upon a purchaser by force of this rule, it is com- 
mon to regulate it by statute as far as real estate is con- 
cerned. The substance of the legislation is, that written 
notice of the pendency of the action is to be filed in a 
designated office, giving sufficient information of the 
names of the litigants, the property affected, and the 
object of the litigation. Constructive notice is given 
from the time of the filing. (Consult for further informa- 
tion the statutes of the respective States, and the treatises 
of Story, Adams, and Willard on Equity Jurisprudence.) 

' T. W. DWIGHT. 

liis'sa, an island in the Adriatic, in lat. 43° 10' 11" 
N., Ion, 33° 51' E., between Italy and Dalmatia, and be- 
longing to the latter. The fortifications of its two harbors 
— especially of tho.t upon the E. side, near the small town 
of Lisga — are so strong that they almost rival those of 
Malta. This island was an important naval station under 
the Romans, a stronghold of corsairs during the Middle 
Ages, an emporium of contraband English merchandise 



during the wars of Napoleon, and has recently attracted 
attention from the defeat sustained here by the Italian 
squadron in the war of 1866. Pop. about 4000, 

liissa^ town of Prussia, in the province of Posen, has 
large liqueur, wax, and tobacco factories, a celebrated bell- 
foundry, and extensive manufactures of woollen and linen 
stuffs. In the sixteenth century it was the chief seat of the 
Bohemian Brethren. Pop. 11,758. 

List (Friedrich), b. Aug. 6, 1789, at Reutlingen, in 
Wiirtemberg ; was appointed professor in political econo- 
my at the University of Tiibingen in 1817, but gave up 
this position in 1819, in order to work in a more direct 
and practical way for the development of German industry 
and commerce. Having been elected a member of the diet 
of Wiirtemberg, he exposed in a petition to the govern- 
ment the vices of the administration, and was condemned 
in 1822 to ten months' imprisonment. He fled, and lived 
for some time in Switzerland and Alsace, but returned 
home in 1824, and was put in Asperg. As he declared that 
he wished to emigrate to America, he was pardoned after 
a short time, and he now settled in Pennsylvania, where 
he soon attracted the attention of the most prominent men 
by his work. Outlines of a New System of Political Econo- 
my (1827), in which he attacked the ideas of Adam Smith, 
and advocated an economical development on an exclu- 
sively national basis. Having discovered a rich deposit of 
anthracite on his grounds, he founded the two towns of 
Tamaqua and Port Clinton, and returned in 1833 to Eu- 
rope in possession of an independent fortune; settled first 
in Hamburg, then in Leipsic, and at last in Augsburg, and 
began to agitate for the formation of a system of railway 
lines as the only suitable means of transportation. His 
writings, XJeher das sdchsische Eisenbahnsystem (1833), Ueber 
ein deutschea national Transportsystem (1838), besides a 
large number of minor articles in the papers, were by no 
means without influence, but his ideas were too new and 
too far advanced to be fully appreciated; and as his nego- 
tiations in England for the establishment of a comprehen- 
sive commercial alliance between that country and Ger- 
many failed, he was seized with melancholy, and shot him- 
self at Kupstein, in Tyrol, Nov. 30, 1846, {Gesammelten 
Scriften, 3 vols., 1850-51.) 

Ijis'ton (John), b. in London, England, 1776 ; was edu- 
cated in Dr. Barrow's school, and became second master 
of St. Martin's school, whence he was expelled for taking 
part in stage-plays with the pupils. He then went upon 
the stage, and became one of the best comic actors in Eng- 
land during the first third of the present century. His 
fame is celebrated by Lamb, Hood, and all the wits of the 
period. His reign at the Haymarket began in 1805, at 
Drury Lane in 1823, and at the Olympic in 1831. Ho left 
the stage in 1837, and d. Mar. 22, 1846.— His wife (Miss 
Tyrer), though of almost dwarfish stature, was a favorite 
actress as well as singer. 

liiston (Robert), P. R. S., b. at Ecclesmachan, Scot- 
land, 1794; studied medicine in Edinburgh and London; 
practised at Edinburgh 1818-35 ; was lecturer on anatomy 
and surgery and surgeon to the infirmary : became profes- 
sor of clinical surgery at University College, London. 1 835 ; 
surgeon to the North London Hospital in 1843; examiner 
to the College of Surgeons 1846. D. Dec. 7, 1 847. Dr. Lis- 
ten was one of the ablest and most successful of operative 
and clinical surgeons, and wrote several able professional 
treatises. 

Listow'elS, a V. of Perth co.. Out., Canada, on the 
Maitland River, is a very important trading centre, and 
ships large quantities of grain. It has 1 weekly and 1 
monthly publication. Pop. of sub-district, in 1881, 2688. 

Liszt (Franz), b. at Raiding, in Hungary, Oct. 22, 
181], His father, an accountant or steward of Prince 
Esterhazy, but of musical taste sufficient to appreciate the 
astonishing talent of his son, put him to the piano at six 
years of age. At nine he gave a concert, and so much in- 
terested certain noblemen that he was sent for instruction 
to Vienna. There he studied for eighteen months with 
Czemy and Salieri, making such progress that he gave a 
public concert in Vienna; emboldened by brilliant success, 
his father in 1823 took him to Paris ; refused admission to 
the Conservatoire as a foreigner, he gave concerts and 
played before the duke of Orleans till the musical world 
was wild with enthusiasm. Flattery might have spoiled 
him had not his father held him severely to his work, com- 
pelling him, it is said, to execute daily twelve fugues of 
Bach, transposing them in different keys. In 1824-25 the 
boy achieved triumphs in the provinces and in England. 
At this time (1825) he composed an opera, Le Chateau de.s 
Amours, which has disappeared. Again in Paris, he took 
lessons in composition of Reicha. In 1827 his father died, 
and Franz fell into a morbid state, gave himself up to ro- 



30 



LITANY— LITERAEY PROPERTY. 



mautic fancies and religious enthusiasms, became a St. 
Simonian, and in 1830 composed a Symphonie revolution- 
naire, which was never published. This condition lasted 
two or three years. The playing of Paganini revived hie 
passion for art, and made him resolve to be the Paganini 
of the pianoforte. His labors were renewed, and his 
triumphs also. He astonished Europe with his mastery of 
the instrument and the ease with which he executed the 
most difficult works of Bach, Handel, Beethoven, and 
Weber. His gift at improvisation was as wonderful as his 
power of execution. As a pianist he is reputed the greatest. 
In 1848 he was made Kapellmeister at Weimar. Honors 
came thick upon him. The cities of Odenburg and Pesth 
presented him with the rights of citizenship; the Hun- 
garian nobles gave him a sword of honor; the king of 
Prussia made him a member of the order of Merit; the 
faculty at Konigsberg created him doctor, of music; the 
grand duke of Saxe-Weimar appointed him chamberlain; 
in 1S45 he was decorated with the Legion of Honor, and 
in 1861 was raised to the rank of commander. On Apr. 
25, 1865, Liszt received the clerical tonsure in the chapel 
of the Vatican, and is now an abb4. His devotion to the 
Church is entire; in 1869 it was reported that he had pre- 
sented to the pope 20,000 francs, the proceeds of a concert 
at Ratisbon. His art is now consecrated to religion. 
Grand masses of his composition, of the modern rather 
than of the ancient style, have been performed in the 
churches of France, Germany, and Hungary. Liszt was 
an admirer, patron, and friend of Ricbard Wagner, to 
whom he gave one of his two daughters in marriage; the 
other, wife of Emile Ollivier, is dead. The works of the 
artist consist of Fantasias, Poemea Symphoniquea (12 in 
number), Faust, and the Divina Commedia, grand sj'mpho- 
nies, two oratorios, Die Heilige Elizabeth and Ckriatus, and 
variations innumerable. He is a writer as well as a musi- 
cian, and in the department of literature as well as of art. 
In the Gazette Mnslcale he carried on a controversy with 
Thalberg; in 1852~5-t published a life of Chopin (trans- 
lated into English by Walter Cook, 1877), and essays on 
the Taiinhauser and Lohengrin of Wagner; in 1859 a dis- 
sertation on Bohemians and their Music in Hungary. 
Though a facile composer, Lizst has preferred playing 
other music than his own at concerts. He is a man of 
ardent impulses and lavish generosity. His instrumental 
music has more tumult than grace, more force and noise 
than delicacy, and often only the mastery of instrumenta- 
tion saves it from the reproach of being grotesque and 
fantastical. ■ His vocal compositions have little reputation. 
Eor several years Liszt resided in Rome, but since 1S71 his 
home has been at Pesth, in his native land, where ho en- 
joys a pension of £600 a year and a noble position. 

0. B. Frothingram. 
tit'any [Gr. Airaveta, "supplication"] was originally 
used in a general sense denoting any sort of prayer, whether 
public or private, whether penitential, intercessory, sup- 
plicatory, or deprecatory. It thus occurs in the writings 
of Eusebius and Chrysostom and in the laws of Arcadius. 
Some trace, however, of a more technical meaning is found 
in the epistle of Basil to the church of Neo-Caesarea, where 
it seems to denote a religious proceeding somewhat similar 
to the so-called rogatiunes, which, according to Sidonius 
Apollinaris, came into use in Gaul in the beginning of the 
fifth century, and consisted in processions of the com- 
munity, fasting and in sackcloth, for the purpose of pro- 
curing fine weather or rain, etc. Gradually both the form 
and the purpose of those rogationes, or litanies, were regu- 
lated by law. One of the novels of Justinian forbids lit- 
anies to be celebrated without the presence of the bishop 
and the clergy, and orders that the crosses which were 
carried about in procession should be borne only by priests 
and deposited nowhere but in the church. The synod of 
Orleans (511) prescribes for all Gaul that the litanies be- 
fore Ascension shall be celebrated for three days, and that 
during those days all menials shall be exempt from work, 
so as to be able to attend divine service. A synod of Paris 
{ol'S} ordered litanies to be held for three 'days atthe be- 
ginning of Lent, and, in 590. Gregory I., on account of the 
pestilence which had followed a great inundation, ordered 
that a litanid septifortnis, or sevenfold procession, should 
be performed by clergy, laity, monks, virgins, matrons, 
widows, poor, and children. In 747 the synod of Clovestoe 
prescribed that litanies or rogations should be celebrated 
by all the clergy and people on April 25 and on the three 
days before Ascension, whence those days are still known 
in the English Church as "rogation days.'* Thus in course 
of time "litany"' became, in the liturgical services of the 
Christian churches, a name applied to various supplicatory 
acts addressed to God or to the saints, or both, but applied 
especially to solemn prayers in which the* people take 
responsive parts. The principal litany of the Roman 
Catholic Church is the Litany of the Saints; the Anglican 



churches have a service called the Litany and Suffrages; 
the Lutherans and some other Protestants have litanies. 
On some occasions the Greek and Roman Catholics and 
some Anglican parishes intone the Litany during a pro- 
cession of the people. 

Litchfield, on R. R., cap. of Litchfield co.. Conn, (see 
map of Connecticut, ref. 4-0, for location of county), on 
the Naugatuck R. R., 30 miles W. of Hartford, between the 
Naugatuck and Shepaug rivers, is situated on high ground 
near°a beautiful lake, the outlet of which affords excellent 
water-power. The town contains five post-villages — Ban- 
tam Falls, East Litchfield, Litchfield, Milton, and North- 
field. The central village is the northern terminus of the 
Shepaug R. R., has several schools, a pri vkte lunatic asylum, 
paper-mill, oil-mill, satinet- factory, and furnaces for smelt- 
ing and refining nickel ores, which are found in the vicin- 
ity. The surrounding scenery is eminently picturesque, 
and the village is shaded with ancient elms. It was from 
1784 to 18-38 the seat of the most celebrated law-school in 
America, founded by Judge Tapping Reeve, and conducted 
after his death (1823) by his associate. Judge James Gould, 
by whose name it was generally known during its later 
existence. It was also the seat of the first ladies' semi- 
nary in America, Litchfield has two parks, one of which 
contains a fine soldiers' monument. Pop. of tp. in 1870, 
3113; in 1880, 3410, including 452 in borough. 

Litchfield, city and R. R. centre, Montgomery co., III. 
(see map of Illinois, ref. 8-D, for location of county), 47 
miles N. E. of St. Louis, Mo., and 42 miles due S. of 
Springfield, on the western edge of the Shoal Creek basin, 
has flouring-mills, grain-elevators, a foundry and a ma- 
chine-shop, extensive car manufactory and repair-shop, a 
coal-mine, an Ursuline convent, flourishing public schools, 
and a Holly system of waterworks. It derives its pros- 
perity from its manufactures, its production of coal, and its 
large grain-trade. Founded 1854, incorporated 1859. Pop. 
of city in 1870, '3852; in ISSO, 4326. ' " 

liitckfield, Ky. See Leitchfield, Ky. 

Litchfieldj on R. R., cap. of Meeker co., Minn, (see 
map of Minnesota, ref. 9-D, for location of county), 78 
miles W. of St. Paul, has a steam flouring-mill, a furniture- 
factory, good schools, &,nd a U. S. land-office. The village 
is rapidly growing, has fine water-power, and is the centre 
of a rich, well-watered, and wooded agricultural district, 
noted for fine stock. Pop. of v. in 1870, 353; in 1880, 
1250: in 1885, 1000. 

lii'tchi, or Li'chi {Nepheli%im litchi), a fruit of the 
family Sapindace^ (which see), found only in China and 
Cochin China. It grows in clusters upon a small tree re- 
sembling a horse-chestnut, is globular, about an inch and 
a half in diameter, and contains a sweet edible pulp with 
the arillus enclosing the solitary seed. This fruit is highly 
valued by the Chinese, who dry it for preservation, in 
which form it is often found in the stores in small quan- 
tities. The longan and rambntan, fruits much prized in 
China, but not exported or found elsewhere, are of the 
same family. 

Lit'erary Prop'erty. This is a general expression 
used to set forth the ownership which an author has in his 
works, without reference to the point whether he claims it 
under a copyright or not. It accordingly includes the 
ownership of unpublished or manuscript works, letters, 
and, by analogy, pictures and statues. Inventions adapted 
to some practical use are not embraced in this article under 
this head. (See Patents. For the invention of a designa- 
tion of property which may itself become the subject of 
ownership, see Trade-marks.) A convenient arrangement 
is to treat the subject of "literary property" under two 
principal divisions: I. Rules of the common law as to 
ownership in unpublished manuscripts and subjects of a 
kindred nature ; II. Statutory rights (or copyright). 

I. It cannot be successfully disputed that if a person 
composes a literary work, and does not choose to publish it, 
he has as complete an ownership in it as if he had produced 
a watch or other chattel. Conceding that he has no vested 
right simply in his ideas, he does have a title to them con- 
sidered in reference to the outward form in which they are 
clothed. Accordingly, the regular legal remedies for the 
violation of rights of property would be applicable, and 
the usual incidents of property would attach. Still, for 
special reasons, unpublished writings cannot be taken by 
creditors in payment of debts. {Unrtfett v. Crittenden,'^ 
McLean, 32.) A. decree of Louis XV. of France of May 
21, 1749, in favor of the French tragic poet, Crebillon (the 
produce of whose play while acting at the theatre was taken 
for his debts), declaring that the productions of the mind 
are not among effects seizable by creditors, is noticed by 
the elder Disraeli as a high honor to literature. {Curi- 
osities of Literature, \\. 192.) An owner of this kind of 
property can sell it or dispose of it by will, or it may pass 



LITEEAEY PROPERTY. 



31 



to his representatives at his death in the ordinary course 
of succession. The effect of the act of addressing a letter 
by an author to a correspondent has been frequently con- 
sidered by courts of justice. The result of the diBcuasions 
is, that while the author parts with the paper on which the 
letter is written, he still retains an ownership in the senti- 
ments and expi'essions. By this divided ownership the 
receiver is entitled to the letter considered as an autograph, 
while if he publishes the contents he may be pursued by 
an action in court. The ownership of the receiver is cor- 
poreal, that of the author is incorporeal. The same result 
would happen if one should address in writing a poem or 
other literary work to a friend. A distinction between the 
ownership of the paper and of the poem would immediately 
spring up. Some jurists have confined the applicability 
of this rule to letters having a literary character. It is, 
however, believed that this distinction is not maintainable, 
and that in general a letter cannot be published by its re- 
ceiver or any other person without the consent of the 
author, unless it may be to vindicate the receiver's charac- 
ter or to subserve the ends of public justice. 

One of the most important instances, in the practical 
administration of justice, of this form of literary property 
is an unpublished play. A composer of such a work may 
keep it absolutely to himself, and make it as completely 
his own as any other species of property. So he may by 
appropriate acta cause it to become common property and 
wholly abandon ownership. In such a case he is said to 
"dedicate" it to the public. The act of dedication must 
be distinct and unequivocal, and cannot be presumed from 
the fact that he permits it to be exhibited on the stage in 
the ordinary manner. The most that can be claimed from 
such an exhibition is, that any person having the right to 
attend upon it may carry away with him as much as he is 
able from his unassisted memory, and may thus by means 
of his memory reproduce the play upon the stage. As to 
the lasb branch of this proposition, even, there would seem 
to be some doubt, since it may be plausibly maintained 
that all that the author intends to concede to the hearer is 
the right to the personal enjoyment or instruction of the 
occasion. However this may be, it is clear that there is no 
implied license to the audience to take notes, and by this 
means obtain sufficient knowledge of the play to represent 
it. If an actor becomes himself the author of a play, his per- 
formance of it in public, or that of a theatrical company, 
with his consent, for a compensation, cannot be regarded 
as any evidence of his abandonment of the manuscript to 
the public or to the profession of actors. Such a special use 
of an unpublished work for the author's benefit is perfectly 
consistent with the continuance of an ownership in it. 

Rights of this kind appertain to aliens as well as citizens, 
having nothing to do with the statutes of copyright, and 
are accordingly of great consequence to foreign and non- 
resident authors, who, being unable by our laws to acquire 
a statutory copyright in their works, may still, by virtue 
of their ownership of an unpublished play, maintain an 
exclusive right to represent it upon the stage. Similar 
suggestions may be made as to lectures, whether written or 
oral. The act of delivering them before an audience con- 
fers no right upon the hearers to put copies of them on sale 
without the author's consent. Property in lectures is pro- 
tected in England by a special statute (5 and 6 Will. IV. 
c. 65). The author in this country must rely upon general 
principles of law, and may resort to an injunction or action 
for damages. So the exhibition of a statue or a picture 
gives no license to a spectator to multiply copies and. place 
them upon sale. These rules do not admit of evasion by 
the unauthorized production of abridgments of manu- 
scripts or copies of works of art reduced in size. 

Notwithstanding what has been said, it is clear that an 
author of a manuscript, etc. may absolutely lose all pro- 
prietary right in it by unequivocal acts of dedication to the 
public; as, c. ^., by placing printed copies of it on sale 
without obtaining copyright, or by obtaining a copyright 
in a foreign country and selling the work there. 

Literary property may, in the stage of ownership now 
under consideration, be assigned, so that a distinction will 
spring up between an author and a mere proprietor. The 
sale of a manuscript will in general give the purchaser all 
the rights which the author of it, considered as an owner 
of an unpublished work, would possess. Whether he could 
take out a copyright or not could not be determined as a 
mere matter of reasoning, but would depend on the special 
provisions of the copyright statutes. 

A question of some difficulty has arisen as to the point 
whether any legal protection can be given to a literary 
unpublished work which ia unsound on the score of moral- 
ity or contains doctrines subversive of public policy. This 
question must not be confounded with one which may 
arise under copyright statutes, as. the considerations in 
the two cases are quite different. In the latter case there 



is sometimes a distinct provision that the copyright shall 
not protect an immoral or libellous publication. As to 
the case of a manuscript, it would appear that the fol- 
lowing distinction should be made: no protection should 
be given to the author by the courts which would enable 
him to make his immoral work the source of gain orprofit. 
On the other hand, if he simply desires to retain his right 
of property — e. g, to prevent others from publishing it 
altogether, as well as to refrain himself — every consider- 
ation of justice and expediency requires that he should be 
permitted to do so. Suppose that a person while in the 
immaturity of his powers composes a work extravagant or 
immoral in its views of the rights of society or of individ- 
uals, but that in later life his opinions are changed, and he 
comes to view with abhorrence doctrines that he once 
warmly approved, and he finds that some person against 
his consent has obtained possession of his manuscript and 
is about to publish itj shall he be prevented by law from 
suppressing such a publication ? Great jurists have an- 
swered this question in the affirmative, on the theory that 
there can he no property whatever in such a manuscript. 
Their reasoning is unsatisfactory and inconclusive, and the 
true view would seem to be that the author is still the 
owner of the work, considered merely as an item of prop- 
erty, but cannot invoke the aid of the courts to enable him 
to make profit from that which is inherently vile and base. 

The remedies for the violation of the proprietary rights 
of an author being given by the common law, may be 
sought in the State courts, notwithstanding a U. S. statute 
allows an action against a person who publishes a man- 
uscript ^without the consent of the author or proprietor, 
such author, etc. being a citizen of the U. S. or a resident 
therein. It will be observed that the terms of this statute 
are not so comprehensive as the rule of the common law, 
as it confines the remedy to a " citizen or resident," and it 
appears to have been enacted for the benefit of those per- 
sons only who are entitled to the statutory copyright. 
Remedies, so far as this act extends, are cumulative, and 
may be sought either in the U. S. or State courts. 

II. Statutory Copyright. — By this term is meant an exclu- 
sive right given by statutory law to an author or proprietor 
to multiply copies of his work and place them on sale, and 
in the case of a play the additional exclusive right of rep- 
resentation on the stage. Without this statutory protection 
the act of publication would be regarded by the courts as a 
dedication of the work to the public, and accordingly de- 
structive of the author's right of property. The policy of 
the copyright law is to give the author, etc. protection in 
the sale of his work for a specified period, and then to throw 
its publication open to all. This theory is marked out 
in the U. S. Constitution, which gives power to Congress 
to secure to authors the exclusive right to their works for 
"limited times." The whole subject is under the control 
of Congress, and any legislation of a State affecting copy- 
right would be inoperative and void. The result is, that 
if an author does not choose to publish his right to his 
manuscript is perpetual, and may be vindicated in courts 
of law on general principles of justice; if he prefers to 
publish, he brings himself within the purview of the law 
of Congress, must have his right only for such time as the 
statute prescribes, and must seek his remedies exclusively 
in the U. S. courts. 

In general, any thing may be copyrighted which is the 
subject of literary ownership. More specifically, the term 
"copyright," as used in the existing enactments of Con- 
gress, applies to books, maps, charts, dramatic or musical 
compositions, engravings, cuts, prints, photographs and their 
negatives, paintings, drawings, chromes, statues, statuary, 
and models or designs intended to be perfected as works 
of the fine arts. The words " engraving," " cut," or " print," 
as here used, are to be applied only to works connected 
with the fine arts or to pictorial illustrations, and are not 
to be extended to prints or labels designed to be used for 
other articles of manufacture. These last may be registered 
in the patent ofiice. In determining whether one of the 
above-named subjects can in a particular case be copy- 
righted, it ia necessary to consider how far it must be orig- 
inal with the professed author. There are some composi- 
tions of such a high and elevated character that the ques- 
tion of originality cannot be successfully raised. It is con- 
ceded by all mankind. On the other hand, that there are other 
works of a much humbler sort, but still of a highly merito- 
rious and useful nature, in which all the materials are ex- 
isting in literature, and are well known to intelligent men, 
and open for resort to any one, and the only original fea- 
ture is found in the selection, arrangement, or combination 
of materials. Instances of this kind are works on gram- 
mar, arithmetic, or geography, ma,p8, charts, etc. etc. These, 
so far as they are the result of the work of the compiler or 
" author," are the subjects of copyright. He has no claim, 
however, to the materials which he did not originate. Any 



32 



LITERARY PROPERTY. 



other person may resort to them acd prepare a work from 
them, but he must not make use of the copyrighted book 
as a mode of collecting his materials. His correct course 
is to resort to the original sources of information. An illus- 
tration of these principles may be found in the case of a 
law reporter. He can have no copyright in the opinions 
of the judges, as of these he is not the author, while he 
might lay claim to a statement of the facts of the case, as 
well as to an abstract of the decision prepared by himself. 
A translator of a foreign work not the subject of a copy- 
right here may have a copyright, as he is for practical pur- 
poses an " author." Any other person may translate the 
same work, and have himself a copyright. It was even 
held under the former law that a person might have a copy- 
right in the translation of a work copyrighted here, though 
such translation were made without the author's consent. 
This rule was applied to an unauthorized translation into 
German of Mrs. Beecher Stowe's well-known work, Uncle 
Tom's Cabin. This anomaly has been corrected by a recent 
change in the law which permits an author in taking out a 
copyright to reserve the right of translation as well as of 
dramatization of his own works. So in the case of music, 
the composition of a new air or melody is sufficiently orig- 
inal, but it must be substantially a new work, and not a 
copy of a piece already in existence, with only such varia- 
tions as any skilful composer can make. Under these 
rules there can be no copyright in a subject, but only in a 
particular mode of treating it. For example, one cannot 
obtain in this way an exclusive right to make maps of the 
city of New York, though he might acquire one in the re- 
sults of his own labors and surveys. Any other person 
may make a like map from his own independent labors and 
surveys. 

The word "book," as used in this class of laws, has a 
wide meaning. It is not restricted to volumes, but may 
include a single sheet. It has even been decided that for 
this purpose a sheet of paper containing diagrams repre- 
senting a system of taking measures for and cutting ladies' 
dresses, with instructions for practical use, is a "book." 
There can be no copyright in a mere title as unconnected 
with a book. Where, however, a title is used to designate 
a work, particularly a periodical, it may become of great 
value, which will be administered by the courts under the 
law applicable to the " good-will " of trade in analogy to the 
rules appertaining to " trade-marks." (See Trade-marks.) 

There is a peculiarity to be noticed in the case of a copy- 
right of a dramatic composition. In this case it is not 
merely an exclusive right to multiply copies for sale, but 
also to publicly perform or represent the play upon the 
stage. The term "dramatic composition," as thus used, 
includes all the parts which go to make up a scene in a 
theatrical representation ; e. g. gestures, spoken words, etc. 
A character in a play who, according to the part assigned 
to him, goes through with a series of events without speak- 
ing, making use of motions and gestures, is as much an 
actor as one who uses his voice, and the one part must be 
regarded as embraced within the expression " dramatic 
composition " as well as the other. The only difference in 
the two parts is, that the one addresses the eye, and the 
other the ear of the spectator. 

Under the existing law of the U. S. an author is not en- 
titled to a copyright here unless he is a citizen of the U. S. 
or a resident. The same rule is extended to a proprietor, 
though a citizen, etc., who acquires the title of a foreign 
and "non-resident" author. In order to be a resident 
within the meaning of the statute, the foreign author must 
have formed an intention, at the time of recording in the 
proper office the title of his work, to make this country his 
permanent home. If an author entitled to a copyright 
dies before taking the benefit of the statute, his represen- 
tatives are placed in his position. So an assignee of a manu- 
script has a right equivalent to that of the author. 

The property in a copyright is of an incorporeal nature. 
It cannot, for example, be seized by a sheriff in the exer- 
cise of his common-law powers and sold on an execution. 
(See Execution.) Should the sheriff, for instance, sell in 
this way a copperplate on which a copyrighted map was 
engraved, the purchaser would only acquire a title to the 
copperplate considered as a corporeal thing, with no right 
to print maps from it. The incorporeal right to publish 
maps could only be obtained in such a case through the ac- 
tion of a court of equity. It should, however, be remarked 
that under the existing bankrupt law a copyright passes to 
the assignee in bankruptcy as part of the debtor's assets. 

An applicant for a copyright in this country must before 
publication deposit in the mail a printed copy of the title 
of the book, etc., or a description of the painting, drawing, 
etc., addressed to the librarian of Congress at Washington, 
and within ten days from thcpublicationmust also deposit 
two copies of the book itself, or in case of a paintinr;, draw- 
ing, etc., a photograph of the same. Without these deposits 



the author or proprietor is not entitled to the copyright. A 
subsequent section of the law provides under a penalty that 
two copies of the beat edition must be supplied, and that 
when any substantial change is made in a subsequent 
edition a copy of that must also be deposited. It is made 
by law the duty of the librarian of Congress, on payment 
of a fee, to make up and register as prescribed by law a 
formal statement (termed a "record") of the name of the 
book and the fact of the required deposit. No action can 
be maintained by a proprietor against an infringer unless 
the former has caused to be printed on the title-page or 
succeeding page of each copy of a book, or on the face of 
a map or photograph, a statement in a form prescribed by 
law of the fact of the entry in the librarian's office. The 
following brief statement may be used as an equivalent : 
"Copyrighted 18 — by A. B." The regulations on this 
subject were much simplified by an act of Congress in 1870, 
the former law having required the record to be made in 
the district court of the U. S. of the district of the author's or 
proprietor's residence. A single office under the present law 
takes the place of a large number under the former system. 

The term for which the copyright is granted in the first 
instance is twenty-eight years. If th/3 author be then living, 
or be dead leaving a widow or children then living, there 
may be a renewal on complying with certain prescribed 
rules, for fourteen additional years. A copyright may be 
assigned by an instrument in writing. The assignment 
should be recorded within sixty days after its execution, 
or it will be void as against a subsequent assignee or mort- 
gagee for a valuable consideration without notice. A sim- 
ple assignment of an existing copyright does not carry 
with it the right of renewal. 

The leading questions in the law of copyright concern 
infringement. The fact that a copyright is of an exclusive 
nature necessarily gives the proprietor a cause of action 
against one who infringes his right by placing copies on 
sale or reproducing on the stage his "dramatic compo- 
sition." Infringement is a very plain matter when the 
copyrighted work is simply reproduced. It becomes a 
complicated and difficult question when only extracts or 
quotations are made, or when resort is had to the book to 
make the public acquainted with its contents or to criticise 
its style or the substance of its thought. It has long been 
established that the identity of a literary work consists in 
its ideas and its language. The thought is so associated 
with the form in which it is expressed that a copyright does 
not protect an author against the use of his thoughts in a 
substantially different form. It is for this reason that by 
general rules of law the unauthorized translation into an- 
other language or the dramatization of a copyrighted work 
is no infringement. Though the sentiment remains, the 
form is changed. On similar grounds a true abridgment, 
though made against the author's consent, is no infringe- 
ment. This consists in a condensation of the author's lan- 
guage, and is substantially a different work. Where there 
is no such change it is an abuseof language to call the new 
work an " abridgment." The law as above stated has re- 
cently been modified by the express statutory provision, 
before referred to, allowing an author, if he see fit, to re- 
serve the right of translation or dramatization. Dismissin<^ 
these special eases of change of form from further consider- 
ation, it remains to inquire how far extracts or quotations 
may be made. When, for example, such quotations are 
made for the purpose of a review, the main inquiry is 
whether the act is a reasonable one as calculated to show 
the character of the original work. The critic must not 
go so far as to substantially publish the copyrighted work. 
The question thus becomes one of the value of the extracts 
made. This must be determined by the facts of each case. 
It has sometimes been thought that the true inquiry was 
whether there was an intent to infringe or steal. This is not 
satisfactory. The real point is, Has the author sustained 
substantial injury ? The same general rule must be applied 
to other cases where extracts are made. There is a marked 
distinction in this branch of the law between a true abridg- 
ment and a compilation. In the former, as has been seen, 
there is a real and substantial condensation of the materials 
and this has been made with intellectual labor and judg- 
ment. In a compilation there is the act of taking the very 
words of the author, or with such slight changes as to show 
servile imitation. The law at most tolerates the conden- 
sation, and does not permit the copying of the author's 
words to such an extent as to do him substantial injury. 
Compilation is to some extent permitted in dictionaries, 
gazetteers, cyclopaedias, guidebooks, etc., where the main 
design and execution of the work are novel. In works of 
this class the materials must to a considerable extent be the 
same. Novelty and improvement in them in general con- 
sists in abridgment, changes in arrangement, more modern 
information, the correction of errors, etc. etc. It is scarcely 
necessary to add that an infringement may take place by 



LITHARGE— LITHIUM AND LITHIA. 



33 



publishing but a small portion of a work, if that be a vital 
part and cause a substantial injury to the proprietor. 

The remedies for the violation of a copyright are, as has 
been shown, to be sought in the Federal courts, the circuit 
court under the acts of Congress having original jurisdic- 
tion. An appeal may be taken to the Supreme Court with- 
out reference to the amount in controversy. The regular 
remedies are an action for damages or an injunction from 
a court of equity preventing the continuance of the acts of 
infringement. As incidental to this relief, the court may 
direct an account to be taken of the profits realized by the 
infringer. The courts will not grant relief for an infringe- 
ment in case the work copyrighted is immoral or libellous. 
This is expressly provided by the act of Congress, and the 
same doctrine without such a provision would be adminis- 
tered as a regular branch of equity jurisprudence. Where 
an infringement consists in making use of part of a copy- 
righted work in connection with other matter, the injunc- 
tion will be so granted as to prevent the publication of that 
portion of the infringer's book which is open to objection, 
without reference to the fact that the order of the court 
may make the book, thus shorn of a portion of its contents, 
valueless. Severe penalties and forfeitures are also im- 
posed by statute law upon persons who knowingly violate 
the provisions of the copyright acts. (For details the stat- 
utes should be consulted.) 

Legislation upon the subject of copyright is found, in 
general, in European countries. It would swell this ar- 
ticle beyond reasonable limits to state the rules prevailing 
there. As to England, reference may be made to the stat- 
utes of 8 Anne, c. 19, to 54 Geo. HI. c. 36, and to 5 and 6 
Vict. c. 45. In France this branch of the law ia founded 
on the republican decree of July 19, 1703, and on the im- 
perial decree of Feb. 5, ISIO. The G-erman confederation, 
by a decree of Juno 19, 1845, gave protection to literary 
property in general, and by a still earlier regulation (Aug. 
22, 1841) prevented for a limited time the performance of 
musical compositions and the representation of dramatic 
pieces against the authors' consent. 

It will have been observed that under our laws no copy- 
right Is granted to an author unless he be a citizen of the 
U.S. or a resident therein. Much complaint has been made of 
the injustice and inexpediency of this rule. As early as in 
the year 1838 an offer was made by the English Parliament 
to give the benefit of international copyright to authors in 
foreign countries whose governments would accord a simi- 
lar right to English authors. Conventions have, under the 
terms of this statute, been made by England with a num- 
ber of nations. The liberal disposition shown by England 
has not been reciprocated in this country. As the law now 
stands, an American author is mOre favored by English 
legislation than an English author by ours. Under the 
construction given by the English courts to their copy- 
right acts, an American author who at the time of first 
publication of his work is within the British dominions, 
and publishes there, is entitled to their protection. No 
residence of an American author is necessary. Hia simple 
presence at some point within the British dominions is 
enough to give him protection throughout their entire 
range. While this rule requires that there must be no prior 
publication of the work beyond English limits, it will not be 
infringed if the publication at home and abroad takes place 
on one and the same day, nor will a fraction of a day be re- 
garded. Some leading English jurists have gone still fur- 
ther, holding that protection is awarded by the law to a 
foreign author who makes his publication first in England, 
even though he does not go through the form of being ac- 
tually present there, or in some part of the British domin- 
ions, at the time of publication. Such a narrow distinction 
seejns useless and inconvenient, and the high example set 
by England would be still more beneficial if the broad doc- 
trine could be enunciated that every author, no matter 
where he might reside or might happen to be, who pub- 
lished his woi-k in England, either at or before the time of 
publication elsewhere, should be entitled to a copyright. 
(The leading decisions bearing upon this point arc Jeffreys 
V. Booaey, 4 House of Lords' Cases, 815, a. d. 1854j Rout- 
ledrje v. Loio, Law Reports, 3 House of Lords' Cases (Eng- 
lish and Irish Appeals), 100, A. D. 1868; and Low v. Ward, 
Law Reports, 6 Equity, 415.) It is much to'be desired that 
mutual arrangements may soon be made between the va- 
rious nations whereby the subject of international copy- 
right may be placed on a substantial foundation. The in- 
herent justice of an author's claim should have universal 
acknowledgment, while at the same time due safeguards 
should be provided for the protection of society. No wiser 
scheme can be adopted than that which has met with gene- 
ral acceptance in the local law of the respective civilized 
nations. This is, to give an author an exclusive right for 
a limited time, and then make the work public. The next 
step forward is to have this local rulo become one of gen- 
Vol. v.— 3 



eral recognition, and have it take its place among settled 
and approved doctrines of private international law. The 
class interests of a portion of the community should not be 
allowed to stand in the way of this great act of justice, as 
well as of the highest and most far-sighted expediency. 

Reference for further information may be made to Mau- 
gham On Literary Property; Shortt's Laio of WorJcs relat- 
ing to Literature and Art; Curtis On Copyright; Law's 
Digests of the Law of Patents and Copyrights ; Morgan's 
Lnw of Literature (1875) ; to the decisions of the Federal 
courts, and to Abbott's Nat. Digest and Brightly's do. 
(For the statutes of copyright see the Revised Statutes of 
the U. S., I 4948-71, both inclusive.) T. W. Dwight. 

Litharge. See Lead, by Prop. Henry Wurtz. 

liith'gow (William), b. in Lanark, Scotland, in 1583 j 
traversed on foot Central Europe, Italy, Greece, and the 
Turkish empire, including Egypt and Palestine, whence he 
brought a collection of relies for James I. and his queen; 
visited in a second tour the northern states of Africa, re- 
turning through Hungary and Poland ; and set out in 161 9 
upon a third journey, bearing royal letters addressed to all 
kings, princes, and potentates he might encounter. Ar- 
rested at Malaga on suspicion of being a spy, he was sub- 
jected to frightful torture; obtained his liberty with great 
difiiculty through the British consul, and returning to Eng- 
land, was presented at court reclining on a feather bed. 
He published a volume of Adverttitres (1614) and a History 
of the Siege of Breda (1637). D. at Lanark in 1640. 

liith'ic Ac'id Diath'esis^ a name given to that con- 
dition of the general system which favors the production 
of Uthic acid or its salts in the urine. It has been, and 
still is by many, regarded as a peculiar diseased state in 
which the acid or its salts are produced in the blood, and 
separated therefrom by the kidneys; but those taking an 
opposite view — and we think this class embraces by far the 
majority of intelligent physicians — hold that the salts are 
formed in the urine, either in the pelvis of the kidney or 
the bladder, but always after it has been excreted ; also, 
that the peculiar condition of the system favoring it is one 
of mal-assimilotion. Lithic or uric acid occurs in the urino 
as small crystals of an amber color, varying in diameter 
from ^^^th to xiff*'^ ^^ '^^ inch; they are usually either 
lozenge or drum shaped. It may also exist in combination, 
with ammonia, soda, or lime, forming the urates of those 
bases. The urates, form the sedimept generally found in 
the urine in nearly all acute inflammations, fevers, gout, 
rheumatism, diseases of the liver, etc., andthey indicate a 
highly acid condition of the fluid, by which they are pre- 
cipitated from those substances which should hold' them in 
solution. When deposited in any part of the urinary tract 
they may form into gravel or stone, and thus give rise to 
serious trouble. The treatment of the lithic acid' diathesis 
should be directed to a correction of that condition of the 
general economy which has given rise to it. It is not a 
disease, but merely a symptom, showing that the aliment 
has not. been properly distributed,' and in four cases out of 
five we must look to abuses at the table for the source of 
the trouble. The practice of treating this condition by 
the administration of alkalies is now altogether out of 
vogue. Edward J. Bermingham. 

Lith'ium and Lith'ia [Gr. XtOos, " stone "]. The al- 
kali lithia, which is the oxide of the metal lithium, was dis- 
covered by Arfvedson in the laboratory of Berzelius in the 
year 1817, and in the mineral called petalite. It is now 
known to occur in lepidolite, spodnmene, amhlygoniie, tri- 
phylite, some tourmalines, and other mineral species, and to 
be a frequent constituent, in small proportions, of mineral 
waters. The mineral arablygonite, which occurs at Hebron 
and Paris in Maine, contains more lithia than any other 
mineral — over 9 per cent. Spodumene, however, which 
contains some 5 per cent, of lithia, is a much more plenti- 
ful mineral, and has a number of American localities. Nor- 
wich, Mass., is one place among several where this is abun- 
dant; and this mineral might be made a considerable source 
of lithia in this country for medicinal and other uses. The 
elemental metal lithium was first obtained by electrolysis 
of the fused chloride by Bunsen. It is a silvei-- white metal, 
somewhat softer than lead, and lighter than any other 
known solid body, having a density of only .5835 ; so that 
it floats even on petroleum and naphtha. It has also the 
smallest equivalent weight of any element except hydrogen, 
this weight being only 7. Hydrate of lithia^ corresponding 
to the hydrates of potash and soda, is a strongly caustic 
alkaline body like these, but is not deliquescent in the air, 
nor is it volatile at intense heats. It is obtained by ignit- 
ing spodumene or other lithia-silieate in admixture with 
twice its weight of quicklime, dissolving in muriatic acid, 
adding sulphuric acid to precipitate most of the lime, then 
ammonia and oxalate of ammonia to throw down the rest, 
evaporating, igniting, rcdissolviug out the sulphate of 



34 



LITHIUM, MEDICINAL USES OF— LITHOTOMY. 



lithia, and decomposing this witli a solution of baryta, 
whioli tlirows down the sulphuric acid and leaves in solu- 
tion liydrate of lithia. The smallest traces of lithia are 
detectable by means of the spectroscope, which gives with 
pure lithia a spectrum consisting entirely of two lines — one 
a, brilliant intense crimson, and the other a faint yellow, 
liithia imparts to flame this beautiful crimson tint, and, 
were it cheap enough, would be a valuable agent in fire- 
works. An interesting practical application of the cha- 
racteristic flame-color of lithia has been made of late years. 
In cases of suspicion that a well or cistern is being poisoned 
by percolation from a privy or drain, as happens often, a 
little lithia may be put into the supposed source of con- 
tamination. In case of percolation it will soon be easily 
detectable with the spectroscope, with chemical certainty, 
in the water of the well. Chloride of lithium, correspond- 
ing to common salt, the chloride of sodium, is easily pre- 
pared. It crystallizes in regular octahedra, which taste 
like common salt. It is, however, deliquescent, unlike the 
chlorides of sodium and potassium, and is more soluble 
than these. Carbonate of lithia ia peculiar, as compared 
with the corresponding sodic and potassic carbonates, in 
being sparingly soluble in water, requiring a thousand 
times its weight of the latter. Phosphate of lithia likewise 
is but little soluble in water. 

Ctx3ium and Jiubidium. — When the spectroscope had been 
perfected by the illustrious Bunsen, one of its first achieve- 
ments was the immediate discovery of two new alkali- 
metals, which occur in nature in minute quantities, gener- 
ally associated with lithium. These a^vQCfssium and rubidium. 
(See Cteshtm, by Prof. Chandler.) The best source yet 
discovered of these two very rare and curious metals is the 
American lithium-locality, Hebron in Maine, where a va- 
riety of lepidolite or lithia-mica occurs which contains con- 
siderable caesium and rubidium. Profs. Allen and Johnson 
of Yale College have made some admirable investigations 
of these metals from this source. Henry Wurtz. 

liith'ium, Medicinal Uses of. Lithium carbonate 
and citrate are sometimes used in medicine as alkalies, and 
have been specially recommended in gout, because of their 
forming an easily soluble salt with uric acid. But their 
advantage over the alkaline potassium preparations for 
this purpose is perhaps not fully assured. The citrate is 
preferable to the carbonate, medicinally, from being more 
soluble and less disagreeable to the taste. Edward Curtts. 

Lithod'omus [Gr. KiOaSojio^, " building with stone "], a 
genus of stone-boring mollusks belonging to the family My- 
tilidse or mussels. The type of the genus is the Mytilua litho- 
parina of Linnaeus. 

Iiithofracteur. See Explosives. 

Ijithog''raphy [G-r. At'i^oy, " a stone,'' and ypa^eii/, to 
** write"] is, as the name implies, the art of writing or 
drawing upon stone for the purpose of reproduction 
through the press. When stone is employed simply as a 
substitute for metallic plates, upon which to produce etch- 
ings, the process does not essentially diflfer from Engrav- 
ing (which see), of which it is a branch, and does not pre- 
sent any considerable advantage. Another process, more 
analogous to modern lithography, was invented as early as 
1728 by Dufay, a member of the French Academy. As de- 
scribed by him, it consisted in executing a drawing with 
varnish upon stone, and employing an acid to eat down 
the unprotected parts, thus leaving the lines in relief. A 
process identical in principle was accidentally rediscovered 
at Munich in 1796 by Alois Senefelder, and by the appli- 
cation of a chemical principle became the germ of the mod- 
ern art. Senefelder was a young dramatic author, who, be- 
ing too poor to print his plays, conceived the idea of en- 
graving them himself on the calcareous limestone which 
abounds in Bavaria. Not knowing the composition of the 
ordinary covering-varnish used by engravers, he devised 
as a rude substitute a compound of 3 parts of wax with 1 
of soap, adding a small quantity of lampblack as coloring- 
matter. In a work published many years later (Course 
of Lithography, London, 1S19) Senefelder thus related the 
curious incident which at this stage of his preparations 
supplied him with the key to a useful discovery: "I had 
just succeeded in my little laboratory in polishing a 
stone plate which I intended to cover with etching-ground 
to continue my exercise in writing backward, when my 
mother entered the room and desired me to write her a bill 
for the washerwoman, who was waiting for the linen. I 
happened not to have even the smallest slip of paper at 
hand, as my little stock of paper had been entirely ex- 
hausted by taking proof impressions from the stone's, nor 
was there even a drop of ink in the inkstand. As the 
matter would not admit of delay, and we had nobody in 
the house to send for a supply of the deficient materials, I 
resolved to write the list with my ink prepared with wax, 
soap, and lampblack on the stone, which I had just pol- 



ished, and from which I could copy it at leisure. Some 
time after this I was just going to wipe this writing from 
the stone when the idea all at once struck me to try what 
would be the effect of such a writing with my prepared ink 
if I were to bite in the stone with aquafortis. I at once 
hastened to put this idea in execution, and mixing 1 part of 
aquafortis and 10 parts of water, which I left standing five 
minutes on it, I found the work elevated the one-twentieth 
part of an inch. I now found that I could charge the lines 
with printing ink and take a number of impressions." 
Thus far, Senefelder had but repeated the experiment de- 
scribed by Dufay seventy years before, and employed upon 
copper plate by William Blake, the English painter and 
poet, in 1788. It was not until two years later that his in- 
creased knowledge enabled him to utilize in behalf of his 
process the ancient feud subsisting between oil and water. 
Thus perfected, the art of litiiography depends upon three 
principles' — the absorbent affinity of calcareous stone to 
water, its adhesive affinity to resinous and oily substances, 
and the chemical affinity of those substances to each other, 
combined with their repulsion of water. Hence, a drawing 
made upon a polished stone surface with a resinous or oily 
crayon or ink adheres so firmly thereto as to be irremov- 
able except by mecha.nical means, and while water poured 
thereon is absorbed by the remaining parts of the stone, it 
is repelled by the crayon. When upon a surface thus pre- 
pared a colored oily or resinous substance is applied, it 
adheres by chemical affinity to the drawing, and not to the 
moist stone. In practice, a solution of vitriolic, nitric, or 
muriatic acid is first poured upon the stone, to neutralize 
the alkali of the crayon (technically called "chalk "), hard- 
en it, and also to slightly eat away the unprotected sur- 
face, preparing it to absorb more freely a weak gum-water 
in which it is next submerged to close its pores and keep 
it moist. The lithographic ink is then applied with balls 
or rollers, as in ordinary printing. After becoming thor- 
oughly dry the stone is ready for the press, and must bo 
wetted and inked for each impression. From 600 to 1500 
perfect copies of crayon drawings may he obtained from 
the same block, 5000 or 6000 copies of fine ink drawings, 
and as many as 70,000 from those in coarser lines, the last 
print being nearly as sood as the first. The economy of 
time as compared with copperplate printing is consider- 
able, and the expense is much less than in any other meth- 
od of artistic reproduction. 

Chromo-Lithography is simply a combination of a num- 
ber of stones prepared in the manner above described, each 
being employed for a separate color, and representing a 
portion of the drawing or painting which it is intended to 
reproduce in fac-simile. The process is nearly the same aa 
that described in Calico-Printing (which see). As many 
as thirty stones are frequently requisite to copy a singla 
painting, the utmost exactness being necessary in the ad- 
justment of each in its proper place, as a variation of a 
fiftieth of an inch would mar the effect. 

Zincography (which see) is in its methods entirely anal- 
ogous to lithography, of which it would be a branch were 
it not that the difference of the essential material would 
render such classification a misnomer. The latest and most 
interesting application of Senefelder's discovery is Photo- 
Lithography, which will be described under that head. 

Porter C. Bliss. 

Lithol'ogy [Sr. Weo?, "a stone," and Xovos, "science"], 
the science which treats of the characteristics and classifi- 
cation of rooks. (See Geology and Mineralogy.) 

liith'omarge [Gr. AWos, "stone," and Lat. marga, 
"marl"], a hydrated silicate of alumina, constituting a 
fine clay allied to kaolin. 

Ijith'ophane [Gr. WSos, " stone," and ^av6^, " clear "], 
a sort of ornamental porcelain transparency, to be used as 
a window-piece or for lamp-shades and fireside screens. 
The porcelain when soft is pressed with a raised stamp, 
which impresses figures upon the clay. Transmitted light 
brings out a variety of groups and figures, often nicely 
shaded and very pleasing. The lithophane is a French 
invention, but it has found its best market in Germany 
and Austria. 

Lithot'omy and Hthot'rity. Urinary calculi are 
composed most frequently of substances existing in a 
state of solution in healthy human urine, such as uric acid, 
urate of ammonia, and the phosphates of lime and mag- 
nesia. Sometimes, however, they are composed of sub- 
stances met with only in morbid urine, such as oxalate of 
lime, cystine, etc. Besides these ingredients, of which they 
mainly consist, calculi always contain more or less animal 
matter, such as dried blood, vesical mucus, etc. Occasion- 
ally, they are found to consist almost entirely of a single 
ingredient, but more frequently of two or more different 
constituents arranged in irregular concentric layers. In 
certain conditions these ingredients solidify and form' con- 



LITHOTOMY. 



35 



oretioDs. The initial process in their formation commonly 
takes place in the kidneys j the product then descends along 
the ureter (a fleshy tube for conveying the urine) into the 
bladder, from which it is often expelled in urinating, and 
thus got rid of. If, however, it remains in the bladder, it 
becomes a nucleus upon the surface of which successive 
deposits of solid matter take place, until a calculus is 
formed, which in process of time may attain a formidable 
size — too great, in fact, to admit of its safe removal by any 
surgical operation. Any foreign substance introduced ac- 
cidentally or intentionally into the cavity of the bladder 
will also become a nucleus upon which incrustations of solid 
matter will take place. Instances have occurred where 
bullets, fragments of surgical instruments, and other foreign 
bodies have formed the nuclei of stone in the bladder. Cal- 
culi may exist single or multiple in the bladder; where 
multiple, there may be two or more of nearly equal size, or 
there may be a large number of every variety of size from 
a pin's head to a horse-chestnut. When there is but a 
single calculus, it is more generally of a flattened, ovoid 
shape, or globular, though sometimes it may resemble an 
hour-glass in shape, or have any irregular form. Its sur- 
face is sometimes smooth, sometimes rough, uneven, and 
studded with pointed eminences. When two or more are 
found in the same bladder, their surfaces are marked by 
smooth facets, produced by their contact with each other. 
If a concretion remains permanently in the cavity of the 
kidney, it may in the process of its growth become moulded 
into the shape of the cavity. Calculi are met with in both 
sexes, though more frequently in males than females, owing 
in part to the greater facility with which the nucleus con- 
cretion can be expelled from the female than from the male 
bladder. No age is exempt from this malady; it has been 
met with in the infant at birth, and at ail subsequent 
periods of life up to the most advanced age. Certain locali- 
ties have been regarded as favoring the production of this 
malady by the properties of the drinking-water in use 
among the population. ' 

The question of vital interest in connection with this 
subject is, By what means sufferers from this distressing 
malady can obtain relief? At all times there have been 
remedies advocated as possessing the property of dissolv- 
ing the stone in the bladder, and patients afflicted with the 
disease, naturally shrinking as they do from the alternative 
of a surgical operation, have been too ready to give credence 
to the vaunted efi&oacy of such remedies, and by long per- 
severance in their use have lost precious time. The stone 
has thus been allowed to increase in size, and the danger 
from a surgical operation has thereby been enhanced^ while 
the chances of recovery have been diminished. The re- 
moval of a stone by a surgical operation is the only reliable 
means of cure, and the earlier it is resorted to the better 
the chance of recovery. 

Lithotomy and lithotrity are the terms which define the 
two surgical operations by means of which the extraction 
of a stone from the bladder is effected. Lithotomy (Aiflos, 
"stone," and Tefi-veiv, to "cut") is a cutting operation by 
which an opening is made from the surface of the body in- 



to the cavity of the bladder at certain points where this 
organ lies nearest to the surface. Through the opening thus 
made an instrument (forceps) is introduced into the blad- 
der, the stone seized and brought away. This operation has 
been in use since the earliest period in the history of surgi- 
cal art. The operation is performed according to two prin- 
cipal methods: 1st. The hypogastric or supra-pubic meth- 
od, by means of which the cavity of the bladder is reached 
through an opening made at the lowest point of the abdo- 
men, exactly in the median line of the body. 2d. The per- 
ineal or sub-pubic method, by which the bladder is reached 
through an incision made in front of the anus, between it 
and the scrotum, in the space known as the perineum. This 
method is most frequently employed, as the safest and the 
one of widest application. It admits of three varieties in 
its mode of execution, distinguished from each other by • 
the difi'erent directions in which the incisions required for 
its performance are made. First variety, known as the 
median operation, in which the incision is made exactly 
in the median line of the perineal space between the anus 
and scrotum. Second variety, termed the lateral operation, 
in which the incision, commencing at a point in the median 
line in front of the anus, is carried obliquely outward and 
backward to the left side of the anus. Third variety, known 
as the bilateral operation, in which the incision extends in 
a curved line across the perineal space in front of the anus, 
and to an equal distance on either side of the median line. 
Bach of these varieties has had able and zealous advocates, 
who claim for them special advantages j the choice of oper- 
ative methods must, however, be determined by a judicious 
discrimination of the conditions of each case that comes 
under consideration. 

Lithotrify (At^osj "stone," and reipetv, to "break down ") 
or lithotripsy (Atflo?, "stone," and rpi^eiv, to "grind") is a 
bloodless operation by which a stone in the bladder is re- 
duced to fragments small enough to be expelled through 
the natural canal in urinating. Though some traces of a 
conception of this method are found at an earlier period in 
the history of surgery, it was not till the second decade of 
the present century that Civiale of Paris undertook his ex- 
periments which resulted in the development of the method 
now in use, and which is ranked among the acknowledged 
resources of surgical art. On Mar. 22, 1824:, a commission 
of the Academy of Medicine of Paris reported upon it as 
follows: "Desirous of avoiding, on the one hand, the en- 
thusiasm which exaggerates everything, and on the other 
that prejudice which seeks to depreciate everything, we 
consider the new method proposed by Dr. Civiale for de- 
stroying stone in the bladder without the use of lithotomy 
as alike creditable to French surgery, honorable to the au- 
thor, and consolatory to humanity j that, notwithstanding 
its insufficiency in some particular cases, and the difficulty 
of its application in others, it cannot fail to establish an 
epoch in the healing art, and to be regarded as one of the 
most ingenious and salutary resources." After a test of fifty 
years the expectations expressed in this report have been 
fulfilled, and litbotrity now holds an honorable rank among 
the resources of surgical art. The operation consists essen- 




The lithotrite: a, 6, jaws; c, stone; d, screw; e, spring catch. 



tiallyin the introduction of an instrument known as a litho- 
trite, of adapted shape and size, through the natural canal 
into the bladder. With it the stone is seized and crushed 
by pressure exerted with the band alone, or with a screw- 
power that may be applied at pleasure at the handle of the 
instrument. Another mode of crushing the stone is by per- 
cussion applied at the handle of the instrument by means 
of a hammer. A portion of the finer debris resulting from 
the crushing may be brought away in the jaws of the 
instrument. Unless the stone is quite small, the opera- 
tion requires to be repeated at regulated intervals till 
the whole calculus is reduced to fragments small enough 
to be expelled with the uriue. In his early experiments 
Civiale directed his efforts, after the seizure of the stone, 
to perforating its substance in different directions with 
drills, and thereby diminishing its resistance and facil- 
itating its being crushed by pressure. Straight instru- 
ments alone could be employed for this purpose, and 
hence greater difficulty was encountered in their introduc- 
tion into the bladder. These instruments, moreover, were 
complicated in their construction, and required a varied 
manipulation in their use, and were therefore more liable 
to injure the bladder and occasion serious accidents. These 



objections led to the early abandonment of the perforating 
process, and the substitution of the crushing process alone. 
This latter process is effected by means of curved instru- 
ments, which in their form more nearly resemble the cath- 
eters and sounds in common use among surgeons. Tho 
operation of lithotrity is particularly adapted to patients 
of adult age, in whom the expulsion of fragments is facil- 
itated by the greater calibre of the urinary canal. In early 
life, under the age of fifteen years, and especially under 
ten years, the operation of perineal or sub-pubic lithotomy 
is successful in so large a proportion of the cases operated 
on that we scarcely need a better resource, especially as 
we now have the aid of anaesthetics by which patients are 
spared the pain of the operation. The descent of a con- 
cretion from the kidney into the bladder is accompanied 
by an attack, usually violent, of kidney colic. Its presence 
in the bladder itself is characterized by disturbance of its 
functions, such as frequent calls to urinate, sudden arrest 
of the outflowing stream, pain felt on the close of the act, 
and referred to the neck of the bladder and end of the pe- 
nis, pain also from the jolting of a vehicle, and the appear- 
ance of blood in the'urine. A practical injunction should 
be borne in mind by patients suffering from symptoms of 



36 



LITHUANIA— LITTLE GLACE BAY. 



stone in the bladder: to wit, that in the early stage of the 
disease, while the stone is of small size, its removal by the 
operation of lithotrity may be regarded as almost entirely 
without danger, and sometimes can be accomplished by a 
single operation. Hence the importance of having its pres- 
ence ascertained by a skilful exploration of the interior of 
the bladder at the earliest period of its existence. If pa- 
tients suffering from this malady would early avail them- 
selves of lithotrity, which has none of the terrors of a bloody 
operation, much suffering might be averted and many lives 
gayeij_ GuEDON Buck. 

Lithua'nia [Lith. Letura; Pol. Litwa ; Ger. Zitcmen] 
formed in the Middle Ages an independent and powerful 
state, comprising those large tracts of mostly low and level 
land which extend from t.ho Baltic to the Black Sea, be- 
"tween the Niemen and the DUna in the N. and the Don 
and the Bug in the S. In the eleventh century the Lithu- 
anians were tributary to the Eussians. but in the twelfth 
they threw off the yoke. In 1235, Ringold formed the 
country into a grand duchy. In 1320, Gedemin conquered 
Volhynia, Kiev, and Tchernigov from Kussia. In 1386, 
Jagellon united Lithuania with Poland, having married 
Hedwig, a daughter of King Lewis of Poland and Hungary. 
By the division of the Polish kingdom one small part of 
Lithuania came to Prussia, forming the present government 
of Gumbinnen, while the rest was incorporated with the 
Russian crown, forming the present governments of Vilna, 
Grodno, Moheelev, Vitebsk, and Minsk. The Lithuanians 
in race and language belong to the Lettio group (see Let- 
tic Race), and for a full comparison of their interesting 
language with the cognate branches of the Indo-European 
stock see Bopp's great Comparative Grammar (3d ed., 1857). 

liit'itz, Lancaster co.. Pa. (see map of Pennsylvania, 
ref. 6-H, for location of county), on the Reading and Co- 
lumbia R. E., 8 miles N. of Lancaster, has a celebrated 
Moravian school, Lititz Academy, for boys, and another, 
Linden Hall, for young women, and is the seat of Sunny- 
side College for ladies, and of another school for boys. 
Lititz was founded in 175B by the Moravians. The town 
was named in honor of the barony of Lititz in Bohemia, 
an ancient refuge of the Bohemian Brethren. It is a place 
of summer resort, and has a large and very fine spring. 
Pop. in 1880, 1113. 

Ijit'mns,orIjacmus, a coloring-matter obtained from 
Lecanora tartarea and other lichens, which are powdered, 
mixed, and decomposed with ammoniaeal urine. Alum, 
lime, and potash are mingled with the mass,-and the whole 
is dried with powdered chalk. It is used for coloring lit- 
mus-paper, an invaluable test in the chemical laboratory, 
becoming blue when wet with a liquid containing free alka- 
lies, or red if acids be present. 

Tjitre^ the French standard measure of capacity in the 
decimal system. The litre is a cubic decimetre — that is, a 
cube each of the sides of which is 3.937 English inches; 
it contains 61.027 English cubic inches. Eour and a half 
litres are very nearly equivalent to the English imperial 
gallon. 

Iiit'ta (PoMPEo), Count, b. Sept. 27, 1781, at Milan ; 
entered the military service in 1804 ; fought with distinction 
at Ulm, Austerlitz, and Wagram, and became chief of a 
battalion, but retired after 1814 into private life, devoting 
himself exclusively to the study of history. In 1848 he 
took charge of the ministry of war in the provisional gov- 
ernment for a short time. D. at Milan Aug. 17, 1852. In 
1819 appeared the first number of his splendid work, 
Famiglie celehri d'ltalia, opening with the history of the 
Sforzas. At his death the work comprised the history of 
fifty-three families, and several more have been added since 
by Odoriei and Passerini. The work, which was published 
by subscription only, and never brought into the general 
market, is magnificently printed, and enjoys a great repu- 
tation, both on account of the richness and accurateness 
of its information and its elegant style. 

!Lit'tell (Ei,iakim)i b- at Burlington, N. J., Jan. 2, 
1797; in 1810 began to publish and edit at Philadelphia 
the National Recorder, afterwards the Saturday Magazine; 
in 1822 established the Museum of Foreign Literature, and 
in 1844 founded LitielVa Living Age at Boston, Mass. He 
drew up the Clay compromise tariff of 1833. D. at Brook- 
line, Mass., May 17, 1870. — His brothers, John Stockton 
and Squier, were writers of some note, the former having 
edited Alexander Graydon's Memoirs of his Own Times 
(1816) and Garden's Anecdotes of the American Revolution; 
and the latter having published a learned work on Diseases 
of the Eye (1837), and edited Dr. H. Walton's Treatise on 
Operatic Ophthalmic Surgery (1853). 

I<it'tle ( Capt. George), b. at Marshfield, Mass., in 1754; 
commanded the armed vessel The Boston, belonging to the 
State of Massachusetts, at the beginning of the Revolu- 



tion; was first lieutenant on The Protector in 1779, when 
he was captured by a British frigate ; escaped from prison 
at Portsmouth, England ; took command of the sloop-of- 
war Winthrop, and cruised successfully during the remain- 
ing years of the war; commanded the national frigate Bos- 
ton in 1798; was made captain in U. S. navy Mar. 4, 1799; 
captured several French ships, one of them, Le Beroeau, 
after a severe conflict; retired in Oct., 1801, to his farm at 
Weymouth, Mass., where he d. July 22, 1809. He wrote 
The A merican Cruiser and Life on the Ocean. 

liittle (James Lawrence), M. D., b. at Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Feb. 19, 1836, graduated in medicine at College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons in New York 1860; was house surgeon 
to the New York Hospital 1861-62; in 1862 appointed 
surgeon-in-charge to the Park Barracks; in 1863 clinical 
assistant to Prof. Willard Parker in College of Physicians 
and Surgeons: in 1864 delivered his first course of lectures 
on fractures and their treatment (in that college), which 
were given annually until 1868, when he was appointed 
lecturer on operative surgery and surgical dressings ; in 
1880 resigned this position; in 1865 consulting surgeon to 
the North-western Dispensary; in 1868- surgeon to St. 
Luke's Hospital — a position which he held till his death ; 
professor of surgery in the University of Vermont (retain- 
ing his residence in New York) 1875-85; in 1876 he was 
appointed surgeon to St. Vincent's Hospital; in 1879 con- 
sulting surgeon to Mary Fletcher Hospital, Burlington, 
Vt. ; in 1880 appointed professor of clinical surgery in the 
medical department of the University of the City of New 
York; resigned in 1882: in the same year appointed pro- 
fessor of surgery in the New York Post-Graduate Medical 
School — ^a position which he held till his death. He was a 
permanent member of the American Medical Association 
and of the New York State Medical Society, fellow of the 
New York Academy of Medicine, and a member of the 
Pathological, County Medical, N. Y. Surgical, and North- 
western Medical and Surgical Societies. Dr. Little intro- 
duced into this country the treatment of fractures by the 
plaster-of-Paris splint. He had a large experience in the 
treatment of stone in the bladder, and was the first to punc- 
ture the bladder by aspirator (in 1872). He was the author 
of numerous professional papers of importance to medical 
literature. D. Apr. 4, 1885. M. P. Janes. 

liittle (Gen. Lewis Henky), b. at Baltimore, Md., in 
1818; graduated at West Point in 1839; entered the 5th 
Infantry ; was distinguished in the Mexican war at the 
battles of Monterey and Cerro Gordo ; became captain 
Aug., 1847 ; resigned from the army May 7, 1861, to enter 
the Confederate service; became adjutant-general of Mis- 
souri forces on the staff of Gen. Price ; was made brigadier- 
general for gallantry at the battle of Elk Horn ; became 
commander of a division, and was killed at the battle of 
luka. Miss., Sept. 19, 1862. 

Little Christians, a sect in Russia which in 1868 
seceded from the national Church. They originated in the 
bishopric of Tsaritsin. - Originally few in numbers, they 
have rapidly increased. They practise immersion, after 
which they assume a new name; they have no priests, no 
worship of saints, no holy oil, no images, no altar-pieces, 
no bread and wine in the Eucharist, but worship the sacred 
bread, and profess to have received a divine revelation. 

Littledale (RiCHAnn Frederick), b. in Dublin Sept. 
14, 1833, studied at Trinity College in his native city ; was 
ordained in 1856, and held various curacies in the Church 
of England, but retired in 1862 on account of ill-health 
and devoted himself exclusively to literature. He pub- 
lished a new edition of Anselm's Cur dens homo (1863) and 
Primitive Liturgies in Greek and English (1868-69), besides 
a great number of minor essays, polemical, historical, ex- 
egetic, etc. : Catholic Ritual in the Church of England 
(1865), Church Reform (1870), etc. 

liittle Falls, R. R. junction, cap. of Morrison co., 
Minn, (see map of Minnesota, ref. 7-D, for location of 
county), on the E. bank of the Mississippi River. Pop. 
in 1870, 457; in 1880, 508: in 1885, 1224. 

Little Falls, Herkimer co., N. Y. (see map of New 
York, ref. 4-H, for location of county), on the New York 
Central R. R., midway between Albany and Syracuse, and 
22 miles B. of Utica, built against the sides of an abrupt 
declivity which rises some 500 feet and overlooks the Mo- 
hawk River, which falls at this point 45 feet within half a 
mile, forming a series of picturesque cascades and rapids, 
from which the name is derived. It has woollen, cotton, 
paper, and knitting mills, a foundry and machine-shop, a 
carriage-factory, the " Warrior" mower-factory, an excel- 
lent fire department, and 2 public parks. It is one of the 
largest cheese markets in the U. S. Pop. of v. in 1870, 
5.387: in 1880, 6910. 

Little Glace Bay, coal-mining settlement of Capo 



LITTLE HUMBOLDT EIVER— LITTOEALE. 



37 



Breton Island and oo. (N. S.), 15 miles E. of Sydney. 
Pop. about 400. 

liittle Hum'boldt River, the most important tribu- 
tary of the Humboldt River, Nev., flows W. and then B. 
through Paradise Valley in Humboldt co. It has some 
35,000 acres of excellent bottom-land, and 90,000 of bench- 
lands of the best character. The small brooks abound in 
trout. The elevation is some 4500 feet. There are abun- 
dant means for easy irrigation. 

Lit'tlejohn (Abram Newkirk), D. D., b. in Mont- 
gomery CO., N. Y., Dec. 13, 1824 ; graduated at Union Col- 
lege in 1845 J received deacon's orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in 1848; officiated at Amsterdam, N. Y., 
Meriden, Conn., and Springfield, Mass. ; took priest's orders 
in 1850 ; rector of St. Paul's, New Haven, 1851-60, and since 
then of Holy Trinity church, Brooklyn, N. Y. He was for 
ten years lecturer on pastoral theology in the Divinity 
School at Middletown, Conn. In 1868 he was consecrated 
bishop of Long Island, and in 1874 undertook the charge 
of the American Episcopal churches on the continent of 
Europe. He is author of The Philosophy of Beh'gioUf a 
series of lectures, and has written largely for the Church 
lievieio, and published many sermons and addresses. 

liit'tle Kanaw'ha River rises in Upshur co., W. 
Va., and flows in a generally N. W. course, joining the 
Ohio at Parkersburg. It flows through the oil-region, and 
has wide and fertile bottom-lands. The Little Kanawha 
Navigation Co., by building three dams, have made it 
navigable 38 miles to Burning Springs. Great numbers 
of logs are floated to market upon its waters. 

Iiittle Rocli, city and R. B. centre, cap. of Arkansas 
and of Pulaski co. (see map of Arkansas, ref. 3-C, for loca- 
tion of county), situated near the centre of the State, on 
the S. bank of the Arkansas River, 260 miles above its 
mouth, and on the Little Rock and Fort Smith, the Mem- 
phis and Little Rock, the St. Louis Iron Mountain and 
Southern, and the Mississippi Valley R. Rs., 125 miles 
S. W. of Memphis, built upon the first highland reached 
by ascending the river, which is here 400 yards wide, and 
navigable eight months of the year for large steamboats, 
smaller ones plying to Fort Smith, on the border of Indian 
Territory, 300 miles above. The rocky cliff on which the 
city stands, and from which it takes its name, is not more 
than 60 feet above the river, while the Big Rock, com- 
mencing 2 miles above, is a precipitous range rising ab- 
ruptly some 500 feet. Littte'Rock is a commercial city, 







R.'ia-i"^ "^ '. 



State Capiiol, Little Rock, Ark. 

has several manufactories and possesses every facility 
for their establishment, its business eonnections being 
largely with Texas and the S. W. generally ; has 20 churches, 
4 banks, 2 daily, 7 weekly, and 2 monthly newspapers, I 
public library, 2 female colleges, one of which is under con- 
trol of the M. E. Church, South, and the other under that 
of the M. E. Church, North; a convent and academy of 
Sisters of Charity, numerous public and private schools, 
U. S. arsenal, land-office, and courts. State Capitol build- 
ing, prison, and asylums for deaf-mutes and blind, insane 
asylum, and a State library with 12,500 volumes. Street- 
cars provide means of communication within the city. The 
situation is dry and healthy, and the place has never been 
visited by an epidemic. Pop. in 1870,12,380; in 1880, 
13,138; in 1885, about 25,000. 

W. Jasper Blackburn, Ed. "Free South." 

Little Sisters of the Poor, a Roman Catholic sister- 
hood devoted to works of charity, and especially to the care 
of those who are old and poor; first established at St. 
Servan, France, in 1840, by M. Le Pailleur. They have a 
number of houses in the U. S. 

Lit'tlestown, on R. R-, Adams co., Pa. (see map of 
Pennsylvania, ref. 6-F, for location of county), 3 miles N. 
of the Maryland line and 10 miles S. E. of Gettysburg. 
Principal business, farming. Pop. in 1870, 847; in 1880, 
913. 



Littleton, post-v. and tp. of Grafton co., N. H. (see 
map of New Hampshire, ref. fi-E, for location of county), 
on the Ammonoosuc River and the Boston Concord and 
Montreal R. R., 114 miles N. of Concord and 28 miles from 
the base of Mount Washington, White Mountains, in which 
it is the most important town, and a usual point of depart- 
ure for tourists. It is a farming town, largely engaged, 
however, in manufacturing, lumbering, and providing ac- 
commodations for summer boarders ; has a good high 
school, a woollen mill, a scythe and axe factory, and man- 
ufactories of stereoscopic views, doing a large business. 
Pop. of tp. in 1870, 2446; in 1880, 2936. 

Littleton (Adam), D. D., b. at Hales-Owen, Shrop- 
shire, England, Nov. 8, 1627; was educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, taking high rank in the classics; became 
rector of Chelsea, chaplain to King Charles II., and pre- 
bendary of Westminster 1674. D. at Chelsea June 30, 1694. 
Dr. Littleton was a fine Oriental scholar, and formed a li- 
brary of rare books and manuscripts, so extensive that it 
brought him to bankruptcy. He wrote much on mystic 
numbers and other recondite subjects, and published many 
sermons; but his great work wae the Dictionary of the 
Latin, Greek, Hehreio, and English Languages (1678 ; fre- 
quently reprinted). He was a descendant of Sir Thomas 
Littleton. (See AVood's Athenm OxonienaeSj vol. ii., and the 
preface to Ains worth's Latin Dictionary.) 

Littleton, or Lyttleton (Sir Thomas), b. in Devon- 
shire, England, early in the fifteenth century : studied at 
Cambridge and at the Inner Temple, where he became a 
lecturer on law. Under Henry VI. he was steward of the 
king's household and king's sergeant (1455), performing 
the duties of judge of assize in the northern circuit. On the 
accession of the house of York to the throne of England, 
Edward IV. confirmed Littleton in his offices, appointed 
him one of the judges of the court of common pleas (1466), 
and a knight of the Bath (1475). D. at Frankley, Worces- 
tershire, Aug. 23, 1481. He was buried in Worcester cathe- 
dral, where a marble tomb and statue were placed over his 
remains. Littleton's great work on tenures {Lee Temirea) 
was written in Norman French, the first edition being 
without date, but supposed to be of 1481, translated 
into English in 1539, and given to the world with the 
authoritative commentary of Coke In, 1628, since which 
time the editions have been innumerable, and the treatise 
has become the "Bible of the law" of England. It has 
often been printed with the French and English texts in 
parallel columns. The original name of Littleton was 
Westcote, which he exchanged for that of his maternal 
grandfather. 

Littleton (Edward), Lord. See Lyttelton. 

Lit'tle Tur'tle (Me-che-cun-na-qua), a Miami chief of 
great reputation for intelligence, shrewdness, and valor in 
warfare; is supposed to have received some education in 
Canada. He commanded in the battles which resulted in 
the defeat of Gen. Harmar on the Miami (Oct. 22, 1790) 
and of Gen. St. Clair at St. Mary's, Nov. 4, 1791 ; was 
present, though not in command, at the battle of Fallen 
Timbers or Maumee Rapids, Aug. 20, 1794, in which the 
Indians vrere defeated by Gen. Wayne; was one of the 
signers of the treaty of Greenville, Aug., 1795, which end- 
ed the war and conveyed to the whites an extensive region 
in Ohio, and visited Pros. Washington at Philadelphia in 
1797, on which occasion he had an interview with Count 
Volney, the French philosopher, and received a pair of 
elegantly mounted pistols from Kosciuszko. D. at Fort 
Wayne., Ind., July 14, 1812. 

Lif^tle Val'ley, cap. of Cattaraugus co., N. Y. (see 
map of New York, ref. 6-C, for location of county), on 
Little Valley Creek near the Alleghany River, on the New 
York Lake Erie and Western (formerly called the Erie) 
R. R., B miles N. of Salamanca and 38 miles E. of Dun- 
kirk, has several steam-mills. Principal business, farm- 
ing and dairying, the latter interest having been stimu- 
lated by the introduction of cheese-factories. Rock City, 
a singular geological configuration of conglomerate rocks, 
arranged in regular blocks, with sharp angles and perpen- 
dicular sides, presenting the appearance of squares, court- 
yards, and streets, stands on a hill within the township, 
2000 feet abov^ tide-water, 400 feet above the valley, and 
covers 100 acres. (For a scientific description of this in- 
teresting phenomenon seeProf.Hall's Geology of New Yoi-k.) 
First settlement made here in 1807; township erected in 
1818. Pop. of tp. in 1870, 1108; in 1880, 1196, including 
566 in v. 

Littora'^le [Ger. Kuatenland], province of the Austro- 
Hungarian monarchy, extends along the northern shore of 
the Adriatic from Venetia to Croatia, bounded N. and E. by 
Carinthia and Carniola. It consists of the counties of 
Gorz and Gradisca, the margraviate of Istria, and the dis- 



38 



LITTEE— LIVER. 



trict of Trieste, and comprises an area of 30S5 square miles, 
with 600,525 inhabitants, mostly of Slavic descent. 

Littrg (Maximilien Paul Emile), b. at Paris Feb. 1, 
3801 ; studied medicine and the Semitic languages; from 
1830 to 1851 was one of the editors of the liberal journal the 
National, and in 1854 the principal contributor to the 
Journal des Savaiits. He translated from the German the 
ti/e of Jeaua by Strauss, wrote some works on medicine 
and on positive philosophy, being a prominent disciple of 
Auguste Comte, Hia principal work is the Dictionary of the 
French Language (4 vols., 1863-73), which is a kind of con- 
densed encyclopsedia. In 1871 he was elected to the National 
Assembly, and chosen a member of the Academy in the 
place of Villemain. D. June 2, 1881. Felix Aucaigne. 

liit'trow, von (Joseph Johann), b. Mar. 13, 1781, at 
Bischof-Teinitz, in Bohemia; studied at the University of 
Prague ; became professor of astronomy at Cracow in 1807 ; 
removed in 1810 to Kazan, in 1816 to Buda, and in 1819 
to Vienna, where he d. Nov. 30, 1840. Under his direc- 
tion the observatory of Vienna was much improved, and 
his lectures drew great audiences. His most prominent writ- 
ings are Die Wtinder dm Himmela (1834), often repub- 
lished; Theoretiache und praktiache Aatronomie (3 vols., 
1822-26), and Atlaa dea geslirnten Himmela. — His son, 
Karl Ludwig, b. at Kazan, Russia, July 18, 1811, was 
his assistant in the Vienna Observatory from 1831 ; made 
important discoveries on the revolution of Venus and on 
eclipses ; became director in 1842 ; published valuable as- 
tronomical registers, and was employed in 1847 in connect- 
ing Austria and Russia by triangulation. D. Nov. 16, 1877. 

Ijit'urgy [AetToupYta, " a public service;" in the LXX., 
what belongs to the office of priest or of Levite ; in the New 
Testament, ministry of any kind, and also priestly service, 
equivalent to iepareta], in a general sense a prescribed form 
of public worship ; in a stricter ecclesiastical sense is con- 
fined to that service which was probably the only stated 
service peculiar to the first Christians in Jerusalem — viz. 
*' the breaking of bread," that highest act of Christian wor- 
ship, which the Lord Jesus instituted as a perpetual me- 
morial of the one^ropitiatory sacrifice of himself by himself, 
and as a means of bestowing himself to the faithful in holy 
communion. In a short time this service must have be- 
come, in some respects, fixed. In the breaking of the bread 
and in the blessing of the cup they who had witnessed the 
first consecration could not but have repeated the words 
and acts which they had heard and seen — words and acts 
deemed so important that they were by revelation imparted 
to the apostle "born out of due time." And soon around 
this nucleus were clustered common prayers and praises and 
ritual observances ; not always the same in every country to 
which the apostles bore the blessings of Christ*s body and 
blood, but naturally becoming fixed as the repetition of 
wants and feelings which do not often vary. Did the apostles 
commit to writing one or more forms of the eucharistic ser- 
vice? Aprecomposed service is not perforce written. The 
teachings and rites of other religions have been communi- 
cated orally ; and it has long been asserted that the early 
Church had not any written service of the altar. The 
chief reason for this opinion is the historic fact that when 
the sacred books were demanded in times of persecution no 
liturgy was ever delivered up, although portions of the 
Scriptures were often seized. But, on the other hand, Ter- 
tullian seems to assert plainly the existence of such books, 
" which many accidents put into the hands of those who 
are not of us." And so soon as the Church became dom- 
inant memory was not trusted, but written forms used, and 
this without mention of change of custom. That written 
liturgies were used by the apostles, and that vestments ap- 
propriate to the service were worn by them, some writers 
think to be made more than probable by scriptural inti- 
mations of ordinances delivered to the churches, and espe- 
cially by St. Paul's care to have brought to him " the cloak 
left at Troas, and the books, especially the parchments." 
Such confirmation of previous conviction may provoke a 
smile on the part of one who doubts. But not so with the crit- 
icisms of late liturgiologists. Besides recognized quotations 
from heathen authors, there are found in the Epistles pas- 
sages introduced with the words, "And so it is written," and 
the like. Where are they written ? Certainly not all in 
the older Scriptures. Some may have been parts of hymns 
and spiritual songs, for they have a rhythmical measure ; 
others are found in the primitive liturgies — the very words. 
Can it be that the scriptural writer quoted from these ? 
If so, more is suggested than on answer to our present 
question. It is possible that these passages in the liturgies 
may be taken from the Scriptures, as very many texts are ; 
and so it has been often asserted. But when we come to 
examine the collocation, the contrary becomes probable ; 
the conviction seems forced on us that the apostles, writino- 
to the churches, find their thoughts naturally clothed in 



language with which all are familiar from their constant 
use in the divine service. (The reader is referred to Neale s 
Eaaaya on Liturgiology and Church Hiatory.) 

Although in the many liturgies which have como down 
to us from former ages there are many differences, yet there 
is a similarity, if not identity, in parts which enable the 
critic to trace them all back to few sources. There are five 
principal families: (1) That of St. James, or Jerusalem; 
(2) of St. Mark, or Alexandria ; (3) of St. Thaddeus, or the 
East; (4) of St. Peter, or Rome; (5) of St. John (with 
whose name that of St. Paul is associated), or of Ephesus. 
And these primitive liturgies, by their common structure, 
apart from all else, suggest a common origin. At various 
times the tendency to divergence has been checked, but in 
earlier ages no attempt was made to produce uniformity. 
At the time of the Reformation each bishopric seems to 
have been entitled to its own use, all being variations of 
that formed by Augustine, probably from those of the 
ancient British and French churches, which were of Ephe- 
sian origin. A common "order" was afterwards imposed 
throughout England, and it was even made penal to have 
in one's possession a copy of one of the old servioe-books. 
We have no MS. of a primitive liturgy of a date earlier 
than the tenth or ninth century, but in substance more 
than one can be traced to about the date of the oldest of 
MSS. of the Bible. W. F. Brand. 

Liudprand, or Liutprand, one of the principal 
chroniclers o-f the tenth century, b. about 922, belonged 
to a noble and distinguished Lombard family, and was 
educated at the court of Pavia as page to King Hugo of 
Italy. Under Hugo's successor, Berengarius, he was made 
chancellor and sent on a diplomatic mission to the court 
of Byzauz 949. Afterward, however, he fell into disgrace, 
entered the service of the emperor Otho I., and was by him 
made bishop of Cremona in 962 and employed in many 
important negotiations with the pope and the Byzantine 
court. D. 972. Three works by him have come down to 
us, and have great value as historical sources : AiUapodoaeoe 
Libri VI., a narrative of the events from 887 to 949, evi- 
dently written in order to avenge himself upon Beren- 
garius and his queen, Willa, Histnria Ottonia (960-964), 
and Helatio de Legatioue Conatantinopolitnna (968). They 
are all found in Pertz, Monum. Hist. Germ. 

liivadi'^ay town of G-reece, in the district of Attica and 
Bceotia, on the Horcyna. In its vicinity is the cave of 
Trophonius, so celebrated in ancient times for its oracle. 
Pop. 5000. 

liive'ly (Edward), D.D., professor of Hebrew and di- 
vinity in the University of Cambridge, England, was a 
learned Orientalist and one of the translators of King 
James's version of the Bible. He published Annotationa 
on several of the minor prophets (1587), and Gkronologia 
of the Persian Monarchie (1597). B. 1605. (See Rev. A. 
W. McClure's Tranalatora Revived.) 

liive Oak, R. R. junction, cap. of Suwannee co., FJa. 
(see map of Florida, ref. 1-E, for location of county), 83 
miles E. of Tallahassee, has a fine court-house, several 
cotton-gins and presses, a furniture- factory, and a turpen- 
tine distillery. It is connected with Jcssup by a branch 
railroad, has considerable trade in cotton and sugar, and 
is the seat of Brown University and of Bethlehem CoUeo-e. 
Pop. in 1880, 458. 

liiv'er [Gr. ^n-ap; Lat. /ecttr; Ger. Leber; Fr./oie]. The 
liver is the largest gland in the body ; it is appended to 
the alimentary canal, and is now known to have several 
distinct functions. The weight is about five pounds, and 
the specific gravity one and a half greater than water. 
This organ is situated in the abdomen in the right hypo- 
chondriac region, extending across the epigastrium to the 
loft hypochondrium. It reaches, superiorly, the sixth rib, 
while its anterior border inferiorly approaches the lower 
margin of the thorax. The form is flattened, broad and 
thick towards the right extremity, and thinner and nar- 
rower towards the left. The superior surface is convex, 
while the inferior surface is irregularly concave. Upon the 
posterior bor(ier the liver is thick and rounded, with a thin 
and sharp anterior border. In the abdomen the position 
is oblique; in the erect posture the convex surface is di- 
rected upward and forward, with the concave downward 
and backward. The diaphragm, covering the superior con- 
vex surface, separates the liver from the under surface of 
the right lung and from the heart. Anteriorly, it is in re- 
lation with the diaphragm and transversalis muscle, and 
at the epigastrium with the sheath of the rectus muscle 
and linea alba. The inferior concave surface is in relation 
with the stomach anteriorly, a portion of the duodenum^ 
transverse colon, and right kidney, and by its left extix-mity 
with the upper end of the spleen. The diaphragm inter- 
venes between the vertebral column and posterior border 
of the liver, while the anterior border is free, and in rela- 



LIVEE. 



39 



tion with the transversalis muscle and round ligament at the 
notch. The liver possesses five ligaments, by means of 
which it is retained in place, called the broad, the coronary, 
the two lateral, and the round ligament. By five fissures, 
named longitudinal, fissure for the ductus venosus, trans- 
verse fissure, fissure for gall-bladder, and fissure for vena 
cava, the liver is divided into five lobes; these lobes are 
designated right and left lobe, lobus quadratus, lobus Spi- 
gelii, and lobus caudatus. The liver is covered by the 
peritoneum externally ; the folds of this membrane as it 
passes from the surface of the organ form four of the liga- 
ments above enumerated. The round ligament is the result 
of the obliteration of the umbilical vein of the foetus. The 
proper coat of the liver is a dense and thin fibrous mem- 
brane, very adherent to the substance of the organ, and in 
intimate relation with the peritoneum. Attached to the 
liver, in the shallow fossa upon the under surface of the 
right !obe, lying parallel with the longitudinal fissure, is a 
membranous sac, the gall-bladder. The gall-bladder is 
divided into a body, fundus, and neck. The body is the 
middle portion ; the fundus the expanded extremity which 
approaches the notch in the free border; the neck, the por- 
tion which, narrowing, enters the right extremity of the 
transverse fissure and forms the cyntio duct. The cystic 
duct is about one and a half inches in length, and has the 
diameter of a crow's quill. At the transverse fissure the 
duct unites with the excretory duct of the liver, the hepatic 
duct, forming by this junction the ductus communis chole- 
docus. The ductus communis choledocus, with a length of 
three inches, passes through the right border of the lesser 
omentum, and opens into the duodenum, passing obliquely 
between its coats. (For the minute anatomy of the liver 
and gall-bladder see Histology.) 

The Physiology of the Liver. — The liver as a gland stands 
alone in the economy, on account of the complexity of 
function which it possesses. The physiology of glands in 
general points to but one function for each ; in the case of 
the liver, however, may be enumerated (1) the secretion of 
bile (which is both a secretion and an excretion), and (2) 
the glycogenic or sugar-producing property. Under the 
head of bile is included both a secretion of importance to 
digestion — in fact, necessary for life — as well as an im- 
portant excretion. 

How is the Bile secreted? — 'According to the views of 
some physiologists, there are two distinct systems in tho 
liver — one for the secretion of bile, accomplished by the 
little racemose glands"^- attached to the gall-duct as it rami- 
fies in the substance of the gland, and one for the produc- 
tion of sugar, the hepatic or liver cells. This theory, how- 
ever, does not seem to be correct, as there are animals, as 
the rabbit, in which the small glands above referred to do 
not exist, at the same time that both bile and sugar are pro- 
duced by its liver. We are therefore obliged to consider 
that there is no anatomical or physiological evidence that 
the bile is secreted anywhere but in the lobules or acini by 
means of the hepatic cells. At this point the small bile- 
capillaries take up the material and carry it to the gall- 
bladder, where it Is stored up for future use. A question 
of interest arises as to whether the bile be formed from 
venous or arterial blood. The hepatic artery has been tied, 
and bile was secreted still. From the experiments of Or6 
it is shown that when the portal vein is obliterated bile con- 
tinues to be formed from the blood of the hepatic artery. 
Hence we conclude that bile may be formed from either 
venous or arterial blood. 

Quautity of Bile. — From experiments on animals, with a 
fistula in the gall-bladder and the ductus communis cho- 
ledocus tied, it has been estimated that the quantity of bile 
secreted in- twenty-four hours in a healthy man weighing 
140 pounds is 2^ pounds. 

Flow of the Bile. — During the period in which the diges- 
tive functions are inactive the gall-bladder is constantly 
receiving bile from the liver. As soon, however, as stomach 
digestion is completed, and the food passes into the duo- 
denum by means of the distended condition of the sur- 
rounding organs, a sufficient amount of pressure is exerted 
upon the walls of the gall-bladder to force out the bile, 
through the ductus communis choledocus, into the small 
intestine. The flow of bile continues during the period of 
intestinal digestion, after which no more passes into the 
duodenum; the gall-bladder still receives this fluid from the 
liver, and in this manner it is stored up for future use. 
The bile, then, is constantly formed by and discharged 
from the liver. This peculiarity belongs to the liver, for it 
is a well-established fact that secreting glands are only ac- 
tive at certain times, their functions not being constantly 
required. 



*Thfi function of these glands is undoubtedly to form mucus, 
which is always found in the bile as it comes from the hepatic 
duct. 



Properties of the Bile. — As the bile flows from the he- 
patic duct directly, it Is a somewhat viscid fluid, whichj 
after remaining in the gall-bladder, has its viscidity in- 
creased by the further admixture with mucus. The color 
of the bile varies greatly with the animal from which it is 
obtained, being in the human subject, when procured im- 
mediately after death, of a dark golden brown. "Pig's bile 
is clear yellow; dog's, dark brown; ox bile has a green 
color. The specific gravity of human bile varies from 1018 
to 1026. The reaction of fresh healthy bile is alkaline. 
There is no characteristic odor, but it readily undergoes 
putrefaction, giving forth a most off'ensive stench. The 
taste is extremely bitter. "When shaken the bile becomes 
frothy, owing to its mucous and saponaceous constituents. 
The composition of human bile may be seen from the fol- 
lowing table : 

Composition of Human Bile. 

Water 915.00 to 819.00 

Taurocholate or cholate of soda 56.50 " 106.00 

Glycocholate or cholate of soda(?) traces. 

Cholesterine .». 1.60 to 2.66 

Coloring-matter, bilirubin 14.00 " 30.00 

Lecithine,margarineC?), oleine, and traces 

of soaps i| 3.20 " 31.00 

Choline traces. 

Chloride of sodium 2.77 to 3.50 

Phosphate of soda 1.60 " 2.50 

" " potassa 0.75 " 1.50 

" " lime 0.50 " 1.35 

" " magnesia 0.45 " 0.80 

Salts of iron.* 0.15 " 0.30 

Salts of manganese traces. 

Silicic acid 0.03 to 0.06 

Mucosine traces. 

Leucine, tyrosine, xanthine 3.45 to 1.21 

1000.00 1000.00 
The ingredients of the bile which possess the greatest 
amount of interest are what are termed biliary salts, first 
known under the name biliary matter (Berzeliu^) and pi- 
cromel or biliary resin (Th^nard), to whose original papers, 
mentioned below, the reader is referred. Most of our pres- 
ent knowledge has been obtained from the investigations 
of Strecker, Lehmann, and Dalton. 

Coloring-matter of the Bile. — Chemistry, so far, has shown 
us that there are two principal biliary coloring-matters — ■ 
viz. bilirubine and biliverdine. Both substances are nitrog- 
enous: the first of a reddish-yellow color and crystal- 
lizable ; the second imperfectly cry st alii z able, and of a 
green hue. Besides these two coloring-matters, we may 
mention biliphgeine, bilifuscine, and biliphrasine, which, 
however, are simply modifications or derivatives of biliru- 
bine and biliverdine. 

The Physiology of the Liver.— Wg have already referred 
to the functions of this organ, and have seen that it se- 
cretes bile and forms sugar. Let us first consider tho 
functions of the bile. There are two distinct functions of 
the biliary fluid. In the first place, it is a secretion formed 
from the blood by the liver, and discharged into the ali- 
mentary canal for purposes of digestion.' Here, after mod- 
ifying the digestive process, a part is absorbed into the 
system, and a part (cholesterine) passes out of the econ- 
omy. That the bile is necessary to life we have seen, for 
when this fluid is allowed to escape through a fistula an 
animal will die of inanition in from twenty-seven to thirty- 
eight days. Physiologists aro not yet acquainted with the 
exact action of the bile as a digestive fluid : some consider- 
ing that it is for the purpose of causing the movements of 
the intestine (peristaltic action), others that it supplies al- 
kalinity to the absorbing vessels of the villi, which hastens 
the introduction of fat into the blood; while, on the other 
hand, it has been claimed that the bile forms an emulsion 
with fats to a great extent, and in this manner aids the se- 
cretion from the pancreas, so as to completely digest fatty 
materials. We can only state that the bile performs some 
part in the digestive process ; what it may be is at present 
unknown. The biliary salts, with certain other constitu- 
ents of the bile, are absorbed in the intestine, as they can- 
not be found in the faeces, and are not seen to accumulate 
in the blood when the liver is diseased or extirpated. 

The Bile as an Excretion. — Although it is well known 
that cholesterine is found in small quantity in the crystal- 
line lens and spleen, by far the larger amount is met with 
in the brain and nervous system. A series of experiments 
have shown that the blood acquires cholesterine in passing 
through the brain and nerves of the extremities, and there- 
fore there can be no doubt but that the blood takes up this 
substance from the nervous system generally; the choles- 
terine representing the wornout nerve-tissue, as urea does 
that of muscle. By a further series of observations by 
Prof. Flint, Jr., the fact is established that in cases where 
there is paralysis, or any form of disease which interferes 
with nerve-function, the blood coming from the part or 
parto affected contains little or no cholesterine. Further- 



40 



LT VEKMORE -LIVERPOOL. 



more, when tho liver becomes affected (which would prevent 
its separating the cholesterino from the blood) the choles- 
terine collects or accumulates in the blood to such an extent 
as to produce a poisoning called cholestersemia. We have 
already alluded to the fact that although cholesterine is 
discharged into the intestines in order to be thi'own out of the 
system, before it reaches the external world it becomes 
changed into atercorine in the alimentary canal, and is found 
as such in the fsaeces. In cases where the function of the 
liver is interfered with by disease the faeces contain no 
stercorine. As yet no exact chemical relations have been 
established between cholesterine and stercorine. 

?7te Glycogenic or Sugar-forming Function of the Liver. 
— In 1848, Bernard, the illustrious French physiologist, 
showed that the blood coming from the liver contained 
sugar of the variety found in the urine of persons suffering 
from diabetes mellitua. When an animal is fed exclusively 
upon animal food, which contains no sugar, and the blood 
going to the liver is examined carefully, no sugar is to be 
found in it: but when the blood coming from the liver is 
analyzed, sugar is always present, even though the time 
were chosen when the digestive function was quiescent j in 
fact, in starving animals the blood of the hepatic veins 
always contains sugar. These experiments point to the fact 
that the blood acquires sugar in its passage through the 
liver. Bernard further examined the blood from various 
parts of the body, made extracts of all the tissues, and 
found sugar only in the tissue and blood of the liver. As 
the blood passes from the hepatic veins it becomes mingled 
with that of the vente cavae, and in its passage through the 
lungs the sugar either entirely or in great part disappears. 
We can then conclude that the liver, unlike any other gland 
in the body, is a secreting as well as an excreting organ, 
and, like the ductless glands, it forms a substance (sugar) 
which is delivered directly into the blood. 

Literature. — Or6, Inference de V Oblitiration de la Veine 
parte sur la Sicrition de la Bile, Comptea Rendua (Paris, 
1856)' Longet, TraitS de Phyaiologie (Paris, 1869); Robin, 
Lego)i8 stir lea Humeura (Paris, 1867) j Bidder und Schmidt, 
Die Verdauungss'dfte (Leipsic) ; Dalton, Treatise on Human 
Phyaiology (Philadelphia, 1871); Bernard, Liquidea de 
V Organisms (Paris, 1859); Robin et Verdiel, TraitS de 
Chimie anafomique (Paris, 1853) ; Lehmann, Physiological 
Chemistry (Philadelphia, 1855); B6rard, Coura de Phyai- 
ologie (Paris, 1851) | Milne Edwards, Lemons sur la Phyai- 
ologie (torn. 7, Paris, 1862); Flint, Jr., The Physiology of 
Man (New York, 1867-70); Pettenkofer, Notiz uber eine 
neue Reaction (auf.) ; Galle und Zucker, Annalen der Chemie 
und Pharmacie (Heidelberg, 1844) ; Bernard, Legona de 
Physiologie ca-T^^rmenia^e (Paris, 1865) ; lb., De I' Origine du 
aucre dans l'£Jconomie animale, Archives gSnSral de Mideciiie 
(Paris, 1848); lb., Sur lea Effeta des Substances toxiques et 
mSdicamenfeusea (Paris, 1857) ; lb., Recherehes sur ime 
nouvelle FonctAon du Foie (Paris, 1853); Freriehs, Ver- 
dauung, Wagner's Handworterbuch der Physiologie (Braun- 
schweig, 1846) ; Strecker, Unterauchnng der Ochagalle, 
Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie (Heidelberg, 1848); 
Todd, Cyclopiedia of Anatomy and Phyaiology (London, 
1839-47, vol. iii.) ; Sanderson, Handbook for the Physi- 
ological Laboratory (Philadelphia, 1873) ; Bennett, Text- 
hook of Physiology (Philadelphia, 1873); l)alton. Spectrum 
of Bile, N. Y. Medical Journal (1874). J. W. S. ARNOLD. 

Livermore (Abiel Abbot), b. in Wilton, N. H., Oct. 
30, 1811; educated at Exeter; graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege 1833, and at the Divinity School 1836 ; settled in Keene, 
N. H., 1836, in Cincinnati 1850; in 1857 removed to Yonk- 
ers and became editor of the Christian Inquirer, a Unitarian 
paper inNew York; since 1863 has been president of the 
Theological School at Meadville, Pa. Mr. Livermore has 
been a contributor to magazines, and is the author of sev- 
eral works : A Commentary on the Four Gospels (2 vols., 
1841-4-2), A Commentary on the Acts of the Apostlea (1844), 
Lectures to Young Men (1846), The Marriage Offering, a 
prize essay on the Mexican war (1850), Discourses (1854), 
A GoTnmentary on Romans (1854), He was also one of the 
compilers of the book of hymns known as the Cheahire Col- 
lection (1845). 0. B. Frothingham. 

Livermore ((Jeorge), b. at Cambridge, Mass., July 
10, 1809: educated at the public schools; was carefully 
trained for a mercantile life, and after some experiences 
at different places entered into business at Boston as a 
wool commission-merchant, in which he became, and re- 
mained through life, one of the prominent business-men 
of that city, taking pride in being known in that capacity. 
Early in life he began to devote his leisure to historical 
and antiquarian researches, in which he became a reeog- 
T3ized authority, and in the specialty of editions of the 
Bible in diiferent languages his collection was probably the 
finest in America. He was fond of large-paper copies and 
illustrated editions, in which his library was very rich. 



He was in 1849 honored with an election to the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, of which he was an active and 
influential member, as also of the American Antiquarian 
Society, the American Academy of Arts, and the Boston 
Athenaeum, of all which he was often an officer. He fre- 
quently wrote for the newspapers and reviews upon sub- 
jects of a bibliographical or historical character, all his 
contributions being marked by a pure and vigorous style 
and displaying extensive res<?areh. Among these papers 
may be mentioned those in the Cambridge Chronicle on the 
JVewj England Primer (1849), in the North^ American Ra- 
vieic on Public Libraries (1850), and his important essay. 
An Hiatorical Reaearch respecting the Opinions of the 
Founders of the Republic on Negroes as Slaves, aa Citizens, 
and as Soldiers, read before the Massachusetts Historical 
Society Aug. 14, 1862, printed in the Proceedings of that 
society, and separately in four other editions on superior 
paper, making a volumoof 215 pages. Mr. Livermore was 
a liberal contributor of his time, strength, and money to 
tho Union cause during the civil war, was instrumental in 
securing for the Historical Society the invaluable library 
of Mr. Dowse, and was beloved by all his acquaintances as 
a high-minded Christian gentleman and scholar. D. at 
Cambridge Aug. 30, 1865. Beautiful tributes to his mem- 
ory were paid — ^by Rev. E. E. Hale in his sermon entitled 
The PuMic Service of a Private Man, and by Hons. R. C. 
Winthrop and Charles Deane in addresses before the so- 
ciety which he had adorned. 

Ijivermore (Mary Ashton), b. at Boston, Mass., Bee. 
19, 1821, daughter of Timothy Rice and wife of D. P. 
Livermore, a Universalist minister; has written largely for 
periodicals, labored with much ability in behalf of the 
Sanitary Commission during the civil war, and has taken a 
prominent position as a writer and public speaker upon 
woman suffrage and various socirJ and religious questions. 
In 1870 she was editor of The Woman's Journal at Boston, 
Mass. 

liiv'erpoolj next to London the largest city, and with- 
out any exception the largest seaport, of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, is situated in lat. 53° 
24' 6" K, Ion. 2° 59' 5" W., on the estuary of the Mersey, 4 
miles from the Irish Sea, one hour's distance by railway 
from Manchester, six hours' from London and Edinburgh, 
and eight hours' by steam from Dublin. In 1647 it was 
mada a free port, and in 1697 it was declared an individual 
parish, but it had at that time only about 5000 inhabitants, 
and its shipping numibered only about 80 vessels. Its 
growth began in the eighteenth century, and became very 
rapid in the latter part of it. In 1760 its population had 
increased to 25,700 souls, and its shipping to 1245 vessels, 
and in 1800 to 77,700 and 5000 respectively, and it has since 
gone on increasing. Its population in 1851 was 375,955; 
in 1861, 443,938; in 1871, 493,346; in 1881, 552,425, of 
whom 271,640 were males and 280,786 females. In 1866 
there cleared from its port 12,685 vessels, of 4,404,445 tons 
burden, of which 3267 wore British vessels, of 2,345,658 
tons, 1301 foreign, of 620,810 tons, and 8157 belonging to 
the coast-trade — namely, 4418 sailing vessels and 3039 
steamers ; to the port itself belonged 2998 shins — namely, 
2569 sailing vessels, of 1,326,317 tons, and 429 steamers, 
of 205,664 tons. In 1873, 15,104 vessels, of 0,339,376 tons, 
entered tho harbor, and 15,000 cleared it; of the entering 
vessels, 7923 were sailing vessels and 7083 steamers: 4042 
were foreign and 9408 employed in the coast-trade. To 
theport itself belonged 1860 sailing vessels, of 990,867 tons 
and 563 steamers, of 412,464 tons. In 1880, 20,249 vessels, 
of 7,933,620 tons burden, entered the port, and the tonnage 
belonging to the city (1,554,871) was greater than that of 
any other city in the world. The development of this 
gigantic traffic, which is surpassed only by that of the port 
of New York, is partly due to the growth of the manufa.ctur- 
ing industry of the neighboring inland towns and the es- 
tablishment of perfect means of communication between 
these places and Liverpool. The Bridgewater Canal, con- 
necting the Trent and the Mersey, was opened in 1773; 
tho railway to Manchester in 1830, to Birmingham in 1837, 
to London and Preston in 1838. Thus Liverpool became 
the chief port of exportation from Great Britain ; nearly 
one-half of all British exports arc shipped from its docks. 
The value of British produce and manufactures exported 
in 1880 from Liverpool amounted to £84,029,051. But an- 
other and perhaps still greater influence on the develop- 
ment of the commerce of Liverpool was derived from the 
rise of the U. S. About four-fifths of all the traffic which 
takes place between North America and Great Britain is 
carried on through the port of Liverpool, there beintr five 
lines of steamers to New York alone, besides others to 
Philadelphia, Boston, Halifax, New Orleans, etc. Tho abo- 
lition in 1833 of the monopoly of the East India Company, 
which gave Liverpool a chance of participating in the trade 



LIVERPOOL— LIVINGSTON. 



41 



with the East, and the rise of the Australian colonies, have 
also contributed to make it the most impoi'tant place of im- 
portation in the United Kingdom. Half of all the grain, 
bacon, hams, lard, madder, palm oil, etc. which is Imported 
to England is received here, and here is held the largest cot- 
ton-market in the world, and soon probably it will have the 
largest wool-market. In 1880 the total value of imports, 
consisting mostly of grain and food, raw produce, and ma- 
terials for manufacture, amounted to £107,460,187. In 
addition to this tremendous importation and exportation, 
an important manufacturing industry is carried on in the 
city. Its sugar-refineries and soap-factories are very ex- 
tensive. Its shipbuilding establishments are also in very 
active operation. It was one of the first branches of in- 
dustry started here, and it was largely developed in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century; from 1777 to 1782, 
15 vessels of war were launched here, ranging from 16 to 
50 guns. In, the years 1880-81 there were launched from 
its yards 33 iron ships, of 53,971 tons burden. Attempts, 
however, at establishing eotion-mills in or near the city 
have uniformly failed, while engineering works of various 
kinds have gradually grown up and are carried on on a 
large scale. The pottery manufacture, which a century ago 
was very tiourishing, is now nearly extinct, while excellent 
watches and chronometers are still made. 

Liverpool is the most densely peopled city in England. 
In 1868 it contained U6 persons to an acre, while Man- 
chester contained only 81, Birmingham 44, and London 40, 
A generation ago it was also one of the filthiest and un- 
healthiest cities in Europe, and in the beginning of this 
century certain of its quarters were world-famous as the 
most frightful haunts of vice, crime, and misery. But in 
these respects great improvements have been made and are 
still making, and Liverpool is now fairly on the way to be- 
come a magnificent city. Its accommodations for traffic 
are most splendid. The docks, stretching along the Mer- 
sey 5 miles on the Liverpool side and 2 miles on the Birken- 
head side, are unsurpassed by any in the world. They cost 
£10,000,000 to construct, and are masterpieces of engineer- 
ing art. A full description of them will be found in the 
article on Doctcs. Three railway lines cross the city from 
the docks in huge tunnels under the houses, while the Lan- 
caster and Yorkshire Railway is carried above the houses 
on a splendid viaduct to Tithebarn street, where stands one 
of the largest d6p&ts in the world, its glass roof covering 
an area of 84,000 square feet. The public buildings more 
recently erected are on a gi-and and magnificent scale, such 
as St. George's Hall, with Corinthian columns 40 feet high, 
and a hall for public meetings, concerts, etc. 161 feet long 
and 75 feet wide; the exchange, forming the three sides 
of a square, with the town-hall on the fourth, and the Nel- 
son monument in the centre ; the Free Library and Museum, 
etc. Broad and handsome streets have been run through 
several of the most crowded parts of the city: it has been 
amply provided with good water and gas ; numerous hos- 
pitals, asylums, and other institutions for the relief of the 
siek, poor, and destitute have been founded ; good educa- 
tional institutions, from the elementary school to the scien- 
tific association with its library, observatory, botanical gar- 
den, etc., have been established : dignified and beautiful 
places of worship and decent and elegant places of amuse- 
ment have been built, and an effective police has been pro- 
cured. Clemens Petersen. 

liiverpool, seaport of Nova Scotia, .cap. of Queen's 
CO., has considerable trade in fish and lumber. The town 
is well built and attractive. It has a good harbor, into 
which flows the river Mersey. It has 1 weekly newspaper, 
a hank, and a lighthouse on Coffin's Island ; lat.44° 3' N., 
Ion. 64° 36' W. Pop. of sub-district, 3104. 

Liverpool, Onondagaco., N. Y. (see map of New York, 
ref. 4-F, for location of county), on the E. shore of Onon- 
daga Lake, 4 miles N. of Syracuse, on R. R. and the Oswego 
Canal, has an academy, cigar-factories, several large mills, 
and an extensive manufacture of willow baskets. The 
leading industry, however, is the manufacture of salt in a 
large number of works. Pop. in 1870, 1555,- in 1880,1350, 

liiverpool (Charles Jenkinson), first earl of, b. in 
Oxfordshire, England, May 10, 1727 ,- educated at Oxford; 
entered Parliament, and became under-secretary of state in 
1761; was joint secretary of the treasury in 1763; lord of 
the admiralty in 1766; lord of the treasury in 1767; vice- 
treasurer of Ireland and privy councillor in 1772; master 
of the mint in 1776 ; and secretary of state for the war de- 
partment in Lord North's administration from 1778 to 
1782, in which capacity he had much to do with determin- 
ing the course of military operations in the U. S. during 
the closing years of the American war of independence. On 
retiring from the latter office he enlisted in the political 
circle which was grouping itself around the younger Pitt, 
by whom he was appointed in 1784 president of the board 



of trade, and held that post during the whole seventeen 
years of Pitt's first administration. He was created Baron 
Hawkesbury in 1786, and earl of Liverpool June 1, 1796, 
and d. in London Dec. 17, 1808. He published a Collection 
of all the Treaties of Peace between Great Britain and Other 
Powerafrom I648 to 178S (3 vols., 1785). 

Liverpool (Robert Bankes Jenkinson), second eahl 
OF, b. in London June 7, 1770; educated at Oxford; en- 
tered Parliament in 1790, before attaining his majority; 
took rank as a ready debater; went on a special mission 
to Coblentz in 1791; succeeded (by courtesy) to the title 
of Lord Hawkesbury in 1796; was appointed secretary of 
state for foreign afi"airs in the Addington cabinet, and 
negotiated the Treaty of Amiens in 1801; became home 
secretary under Pitt in 1805, and again in 1807 ; and suc- 
ceeded to the earldom of Liverpool in Dec, 1808. On the 
death of Pitt (1806), and again on the fall of the Fox and 
Grenville administration (1807), he had refused the pre- 
miership, but accepted it on the assassination of Mr. Perceval 
(May 11, 1812), with the title of first lord of the treasury, 
and remained at the head of the administration fifteen 
years, until an attack of paralysis (Feb. 17) occasioned his 
resignation in Apr., 1827. B. Dec. 4, 1828. 

Livery of Seizin. ■' See Feoffment. 

Liverworts. See Hepatic^. 

Liv'ia Drusil'la, a daughter of L. Livius Drusus 
Claudianus, b. in 56 B.C. and married early to Tiberius 
Claudius Nero, to whom she bore two sons, Tiberius and 
Drusus. While pregnant with the latter she made the 
acquaintance of Augustus, and fascinated him so much 
that he compelled her husband to cede her to him, while 
at the same time he divorced his own wife, Scribonia. 
Their marriage was very happy. But behind the bland 
reserve of her appearance she concealed a plan of enormous 
ambition and cruelty, and she pursued it without scruple. 
As the years passed away all the members of the family of 
Augustus were ruined one after the other, and the old 
emperor at last found himself alone in the palace with 
Livia and her son Tiberius, whom he adopted and made 
his heir. All Rome execrated the empress. She survived 
Augustus fifteen years, but she soon lost her influence 
under the reign of Tiberius. She d. at Rome in 21) a. d. 

Livingston, on R. R., cap. of Sumter co., Ala. (see 
map of Alabama, ref. 5-B, for location of county). Pop. 
of V. in 1870, 500; in 1880, 738. 

Livingston, Gallatin co., Mon. (see map of Montana, 
ref. 4-D, for location of county), on Northern Pacific R. R. 
at junction of branch R. R, to National Park. Pop. not 
in census. 

Livingston, cap. of Overton co., Tenn. (see map of 
Tennessee, ref. 5-H, for location of county), 100 miles E. 
of Nashville and 18 miles E. of the Cumberland River, 
has an academy. Principal business, farming and stock- 
raising. Pop. "in 1870, 240; in 1880, 312. 

Livingston, cap. of Polk co., Tex. (see map of Texas, 
ref. 4-J, for location of county), 100 miles N, N. E. of Gal- 
veston. Pop. in 1880, 135. 

Livingston ( Brockholst), LL.D., b. in New York Nov. 
25, 1757, son of William Livingston ; left Princeton College 
to join Gen. Schuyler's staff in 1776; served on Arnold's 
staflT, and attained the rank of colonel; was private secre- 
tary to John Jay in Spain in 1779 ; was admitted to the 
bar in 1783; became a judge of the New York supreme 
court in 1802, and was from 1806 to 1823 an able, up- 
right, and accomplished judge of the U. S. Supreme Court. 
D. at Washington, D. C, Mar. 19, 1823. 

Livingston (Edward), h. at Clermont, Columbia co., 
N. Y., May 20, 1764, a son of Judge Robert R. Livingston 
(1719-75); graduated at Princeton in 1781, and began the 
practice of law in New York; was a^ Jeffersonian member 
of Congress 1795-1801; in 1802 was U. S. district attorney ; 
was twice chosen mayor of New York (1801 and 1802), and 
at the same time was a judge of a municipal court; in 1803 
became involved in pecuniary difficulties, and in 1804 re- 
moved to New Orleans, and attained a most brilliant repu- 
tation as a lawyer; in 1808 became involved in a lawsuit 
with regard to lands in New Orleans claimed by the general 
government, but ultimately won the case. At the battle of 
New Orleans he acted as aide to Gen. Jackson. Mr, Living- 
ston spentmany years in preparing civil and criminal codes 
for Louisiana — labors which won for him a wide fame in Eu- 
rope and in Spanish America. He was amember of Congress 
1823-29; U. S. Senator 1829-31; secretary of state 1831- 
^^3; minister to France 1833-35. He was made a member 
of the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. 
He afterwards fixed his residence at Rhinebeck, N. Y., 
where he d. May 26, 1836. His chief works are Judicial 
Opinions (1802), Report of the Plan of the Penal Code 
(1822), Penal Law for Louisiana (1826), and Penal Law for 



42 



LIVINGSTON— LIVORNO. 



the U. S. (1828). His Complete Works on Jurisprudence 
were published in New York in 1873. Tlie revision of the 
civil code of Louisiana (1824) was the joint work of Liv- 
ingston and M. Moreau-Lislet, though chiefly from the pen 
of" the former. (See his Life, by C. H. Hunt, 18C4; Recol- 
lections of Livingston, by M. Davezao.) 

tivingston (Sen. Henry Beekman), son of Judge R. 
R. Livingston (1719-75), b. at Livingston Manor, N. Y., 
in 1750 ; raised a military company in Aug., 1775, with 
which he accompanied OJen. Montgomery's expedition to 
Canada, and for distinguished gallantry at the capture of 
Chambly was voted a sword of honor by Congress. He 
became aide-de-camp to Gen. Schuyler Feb., 1776, and 
colonel of the 4th battalion New York Vols. Nov., 1776, 
but resigned in 1779. Bred to the law, he attained suc- 
cessively the posts of attorney-general, judge, and chief- 
justice of the supreme court of his native State, wns pres- 
ident of the New York Society of the Cincinnati, and 
appointed a brigadier-general in the war of 1812. D. at 
Ehinebeck, N. Y., Nov. 7, 18.31. 

Livingston (John Henry), D. D., b. at Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., May 30, 174B ; graduated at Yale College in 1762 ; 
bega.n the study of law, but afterwards studied theology 
at Utrecht, Holland ; was ordained" at Amsterdam 1770 ; 
became pastor of the Dutch church in New Yorkj preached 
at Albany, Kingston, and Poughkeepsie during the war ; 
was appointed professor of divinity 1784; opened a sem- 
inary at Bedford, L. I., in 1795, which was discontinued 
two years later, and became in 1807 president and pro- 
fessor of theology at Queen's (now Rutgers) College, New 
Brunswick, N. J., where he d. Jan. 20, 1826. He published 
Psalms and Hymns and some religious writings, and was 
considered the father of the Reformed Dutch Church in 
America. 

Ijivingston (Philip), a signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, b. at Albany, N. Y., Jan. 15, 1716; graduated 
at Yale in 1737; became a prosperous merchant and oflicial 
of New York City ; wa.s Speaker of the house of the co- 
lonial legislature in 1768, a member of the Contineotal 
Congress 1774^78, and president of the provincial Congress 
1775. He was one of the foundersof the New York Cham- 
ber of Commerce and of the Society Library, and materi- 
ally aided Yale and Columbia colleges. D. at York, Pa., 
June 12, 1778. 

tivingston (Rcbeut R.), b. in New York State in 
1719; became a distinguished lawyer; was judge of the 
admiralty court 1760 ; justice of the New York supreme 
court 1763 ; representative in the assembly 1759-68, and 
commissioner in 1767 and 1773 to locate the boundary-line 
between New York and Massachusetts. D. at Philadel- 
phia Dec. 9, 1775. 

I/ivingston (Robert R.), LL.D., known as "Chancel- 
lor" Livingston, b. at NewYork Nov. 27, 1747, a son of Judge 
R. R. Livingston and a brother of Edward Livingston ; 
graduated at King's (now Columbia) College in 1765; be- 
came a successful lawyer ; was recorder of New York 1773- 
75 ; a member of the Continental Congress 1775-77 and 
1779-81; was on the committee which reported the Decla- 
ration of Independence, but was prevented by circumstances 
from signing it; was secretary of foreign affairs 1781-83; 
chancellor of New York 1777-1801 ; was instrumental, 
while U. S. minister to France (1801-04), in effecting the 
purchase of Louisiana ; was the assistant of Fulton in 
perfecting steam-navigation; was one of the introducers of 
merino sheep into the U. S., and held with great eflficiency 
various public positions. D. Feb. 26, 1813. 

liivingston (William), LL.D., a brother of Philip, b. at 
Albany, N. Y., in 1723; gra.dua,ted at Yale in 1741; be- 
came a prominent lawyer and journalist ; removed in 1773 
to Elizabethtown, N. J.; was elected in 1774 and 1775 to 
the Continental Congress; became in 1775 brigadier-gen- 
eral of militia ; was governor of New Jersey 1776-90 ; was 
a member of the convention which in 1787 drew up the 
Federal Constitution. He was a writer of considerable 
ability, though he published nothing but occasional pam- 
phlets. D. at Elizabethtown, N. J., July 25, 1790. 

Liv'ingstone (David), M. D., LL.D., b. at Blantyro, 
near Gla.'^gow, Scotland, Mar. 19, 1813. His parents were 
very poor, and could give him no aid to acquire a scholarly 
education. His religious enthusiasm, however, in connection 
with a passion for travelling in foreign countries, created 
early the idea of a missionary life in his mind ; and first by 
attending an evening school while employed during the day 
in the cotton-mills, and later on by working hard during 
the summer and studying during the winter, he contrived 
to prepare himself thoroughly for his task. In 1840 he 
offered his services as a missionary to Africa to the London 
Missionary Society, and shortly after was ordained and 
proceeded to Port Natal in South Africa. Here and on 



several other mission -stations he worked for nine years, 
together with Robert Moffat, whose daughter ho married, 
but, although at that time preaching and not exploration 
was his chief aim, yet he sent much valuable information 
to the Geographical Society of London and to Petermann's 
(reogmpkiache Mittheilungen, in Gotlia. In 1849 he made 
his first journey of exploration in search of Lake Ngami, 
which he discovered Aug. 1 same year, and whose borders 
and outlet he explored. In 1853 he crossed the continent 
from the Zambesi to the Congo, whence he proceeded to 
Loando, the capital of Angola, where he arrived in J-une, 
1854, after eighteen months' travelling. In September he 
returned, crossing the continent once more, this time from 
Loando to Quilimane, on the Indian Ocean, where he ar- 
rived May 20, 1856. He then made a visit to England, 
where in 1857 he published his Missionary Travels and Re- 
searches in South Africa, which made his name popular not 
only in England, but in all Europe. In 1858 he returned 
to Africa, and, supported by the government and accom- 
panied by several scientific associates, he started from 
Quilimane on an exploring journey up the Zambesi, which 
lasted five years, and during which his wife, who accom- 
panied him, died at Shupanga, Apr. 27, 1862. In 1864 he 
returned to England, and in 1865 published A Narrative of 
an Expedition to the Zambesi. Shortly after he again left 
England, starting on his third great journey, but more 
than one year elapsed before any communications were re- 
ceived from him. It was then rumored that he had been 
killed by the natives near Lake Nyassa, and an expedition 
under the command of Mr. Young went out in search of 
him. Mr. Young did not find him, but later on letters from 
him arrived dated July, 1868, an^ May, 1869. Again 
more than one year elapsed without any communications, 
until the New York Herald scut out Mr. Henry M. Stan- 
ley in search of him, who found him in XJjiji in the 
autumn of 1871. As it was Livingstone's idea to remain 
in Africa and continue bis explorations one more year, the 
Royal Geographical Society of London sent out early in 
1873 a relief expedition under the command of Lieut. Cam- 
eron. When this expediiion reached Unyanyembe (Aug. 
4), one of Livingstone's a,ssociates met it with the report 
that he had died at Chitambo's village, Ulala, on May 1, 

1873. On Oct. 16 his corpse reached Unj'anyembo, whence 
it was brought to England and buried in Westminster 
Abbey, where a memorial tablet marks his resting-place. 
His Last Journals were published in 2 vols, in London in 

1874, edited by Rev. Horace Waller. (See Stanley's How I 
Found Livingstone, 1873.) Clemens Petersen. 

Liv'ins Androni'cus lived in the third century be- 
fore our era, and was b. at Tarentum, a slave of Greek 
descent. He received his liberty from M. Livius Salinator, 
and began to represent tragedies and comedies (which he 
composed after Greek models) in Rome in the middle of 
the century. He also translated the Odyssey into Latin, 
and contributed much to make the Romans acquainted with 
Greek literature. In the time of Horace his compositions 
were still used in the schools, and his works were extant in 
the fourth century of our era, but only a few insignificant 
remnants have come down to our time, edited by Duntzer 
(Cologne, 1835) and by Ribbook, Trag. Lat. EM. 

Liv'nee, or liivny, town of Russia, in the government 
of Orel, on the Sosna. The district of Livny is one of the 
most fertile and populous of Central Russia, thickly stud- 
ded with large and thriving villages, which bring their 
grain, hemp, cattle, tallow, and skins to the town of Liv- 
ny, whence they are sent to Moscow, St. Petersburg, and 
the Baltic ports. Pop. 12,970. 

liivo'nia [Ger. Licfland], government of Russia, bor- 
dering on the Gulf of Livonia, and comprising, together 
with the island of Oesel, an area of 17,801 square miles, 
with 1,126,000 inhabitants. The surface is low, flat, and 
often marshy, dotted with numerous lakes, and covered 
with forests. Toward the S. E., however, it rises and 
forms a plateau about 500 feet high and intersected with 
numerous valleys. The soil is not very productive. 
Swamps and peat-bogs occupy a large portion of the 
ground, and vast sand-wastes stretch along , the Baltic 
coast. Rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, fiax, and hemp are 
raised, and many cattle reared. In the towns the inhab- 
itants are mostly of German descent, mixed with Russians, 
Poles, and Jews; in the country they are of Finnish ori- 
gin. Cap. Riga. The country was a Swedish possession 
from the Peace of Oliva (1660), when it was conquered 
from Poland, to the Peace of Nystadt (1721), when it was 
ceded to Russia. 

Livonia Station, N. Y. See Appendix. 

Livor'no, town of Italy, in the province of Novara, 
about 8 miles S. W. of Vercelli. It is mentioned in eccle- 
siastical history under the name of Liherone as early as 
the fifth century. Pop. 5797. 



LIVEE— LLEWELYN AP GEIFFITH. 



43 



J^ivre [Fr. for "pound;" Lat. ^t&ra], the former French 
standard unit of weight, was to the pound avoirdupois as 
17.267 to 16. Also, a former French coin, superseded in 
1795 by the franc, which is to the livre I'ournoia (the old 
standard) as 81 to 80, the Parisian livre being to these 
figures nearly as 100. Still other livres were in use. 

liiv'y (Titus Livius), b. at Patavium in Northern Italy 
in 59 B. c, lived chiefly in Rome, where he enjoyed the 
favor of Augustus and maintained intimate intercourse with 
the young Claudius, but returned in his old age to his 
native city, and d. therein 17 a. d. He was married, had 
at leatst one son and one daughter, and enjoyed great celeb- 
rity among his contemporaries, but nothing further is 
known of his personal life. According to Seneca, he wrote 
several dialogues and essays on philosophy, which have 
been lost, but the work by which he won a lasting fame 
was his Annalea, containing the history of Rome from the 
foundation of the city to the death of Drusus, 9 b. c. It 
consisted originally of 142 books, and the short introduc- 
tions with which the first, twenty-first, and thirty-first open 
seem to indicate that it was divided into gi'oups of ten 
books or decades, each decade comprising an independent 
epoch. But of these 142 books only 35 have come down to 
us — namely, the entire first decade, i.-x., embracing the 
period from the foundation of Rome to the year 294 B. c. ; 
the entire third decade, xxi.-xxx., embracing the period 
from 219 b. c. to 201 b. c. ; the entire fourth decade, and 
one half of the fifth, xxxi.-xlv., embracing the period from 
201 b. c. to 167 B. c. Of the rest only a few and inconsider- 
able fragments are still extant ; all the so-called epitomes, 
however, short extracts of or indexes to each book, have 
been preserved. The first printed edition (Rome, 1469) 
contained only 29 books, namely — i.— x., xxi.-xxxii., xxxiv.- 
xl. The remaining six books were discovered in frag- 
ments in 1518, 1531, and 1616, and for more than two cen- 
turies the whole learned world was put into gancral com- 
motion every now and then by a rumor that the entire work 
had been discovered, until in the seventeenth century all 
libraries had been ransacked in vain, and all hope of the 
recovery of the lost treasure was given up. The best mod- 
ern editions are by Drakenborch (Leyden, 1738-46, and 
Stuttgart, 1820-28), Twiss (Oxford, 1840-41), Madvig (Co- 
penhagen. 1861 seg'.)> *i''id ^"^issenborn (Berlin, 1861 eeq.). 
There are English translations by Philemon Holland (1600), 
Baker (1797), John Hayes (1744), and in Bohn'a Classical 
Library (1850). Considered as a work of science, modern 
scholars have not given the highest praise to the Annates ; 
the studies on which the representation rests are generally 
not exhaustive, and often not accurate. Nor can great 
praise be given to the book considered as a work of art. Its 
general character is that of a fluent narrative, which in- 
terests on account of the great importance of its contents, 
and pleases because it has no very striking peculiarities. 
Its most prominent feature is a strong feeling of thegrefat- 
ness of the Roman people; but with the author this feeling 
is a vanity rather than an inspiration, and in his work it 
is a means of flattery rather than a means of moral eleva- 
tion. Thus, while the historical value of the Annales can- 
not be over-estimated on account of the scarcity and in many 
cases the absolute lack of other historical documents, the 
educational and Eesthetic worth of the book is somewhat 
limited. Clemens Petersen. 

liixivia'tion and Lixivium [Lat. ^/x, "ley"; liquid 
and liquor are affiliated words]. Lixiviation is the method 
of extracting ingredients soluble in water from porous sub- 
stances, like ashea or earth, by placing the latter in some 
receptacle, through which the water may be made to per- 
colate. It is distinguished from another chemical method 
of accomplishing this called Dbcantation. (See this word.) 
The vessel fqr lixiviation usually has a perforated bottom, 
upon which straw or coarse gravel is first spread, and then 
the material to be lixiviated is filled in. AH. our American 
potash is thus obtained from wood-ashes, and much of the 
saltpetre of commerco thus from nitrous earth. Much econ- 
omy is often arrived at by a construction which enables the 
first water poured on the mass to remain in it for some time 
until it has finished its solvent action, and then drawing 
oiF at the bottom. Sometimes then, on pouring through 
fresh water, it will be found soon to run through nearly 
pure. Concentrated leys are thus obtained without boil- 
ing down. The second water is not allowed to mix with 
the first, but kept to pour through a fresh mass of mate- 
rial. H. WURTZ. 

liixn'riy town of Cephalonia, one of the Ionian Islands, 
is well built, manufactures coarco carpets and cotton fabrics, 
and carries on a considerable trade and shipping business. 
Pop. 6000. 

liiz^'ard [Lat. Z«ccr^«],anamecommonly used by authors 
as synonymous with saurian reptile (the order Saura), a 
term exclusive of the loricate reptiles, the amphisbsena 



tribe, and the serpents. Popularly, it is often made to em- 
brace some other true reptiles, and a large number of tailed 
batrachians. The order embraced many immense animals 
now extinct, whose remains are found by the geologist 
The living species are all scaly ; generally have four visibl* 
legs (a few are serpentine in shape), all are produced from 
eggs (some few species are hatched before birth), and none, 
it is believed, are truly poisonous. They are far more 
common in hot than in cool regions, and (in species) in 
the Old than in the New World. The typical genus, Zaceria, 
is of the family Lacertidse. These families, as now esti- 
mated, are very numerous ; that of the Ameividce may per- 
haps be assumed as a typical one for America. This family 
includes the variegated lizard {Teius Tegnexin), six feet 
long. It is a bold^ active, carnivorous creature, fierce in 
self-defence, inhabiting South America. Its flesh is oaten, 
(See also, for further information, Monitor, Gecko, Cha- 
meleon, Iguana, and the names of the more important 
genera.) 

Xilama. See Laaia. 

lilandudno, a much-frequented watering-place in Car- 
narvonshire, North Wales, picturesquely situated on a shel- 
tered bay of the Irish Sea, at the mouth of the Conway. Two 
lofty promontories. Great Orme's Head and Little Orme's 
Head, protect the bay against the sea. 

Llaneriy, town of South Wales, 16 miles S. E. of Caer- 
marthen, stands on a creek of the Caermarthen Bay, at the 
mouth of the river Lougher, and has manufactures of cop- 
per, tin, and iron wares, which are sent to Liverpool, and 
a considerable trade in coal. The average annual value 
of its exports amounts to over £150,000. Pop. in 1881, 
19,655. 

lilanOy cap. of Llano co., Tex, (see map of Texas, ref. 
4-G, for location of county), 75 miles N. W. of Austin. 
Pop. in 1870, 188; in 1880, 213. 

Iila'no Estaca'do [Sp., " staked plain," so called from 
the stake-like boles of a yucca-plant which grows there], 
an elevated plateau of N. W. Texas and S. E. New Mexico, 
having an area of 44,000 square miles and an elevation of 
from 3200 to 4700 feet, the general slope being northward. 
It has very few streams and water-holes, and a sparse coat- 
ing of grass in the wet season. Its scanty shrubs have 
enormous roots, which afford the best attainable supply of 
fuel. In 1852, Lieut, (since Brig.-Gen.) Pope, U. S. A., 
sunk artesian wells at various points upon the Llano, 
with a view to developing a water-supply for a railroad to 
the Pacific, but without very encouraging results. 

Iila''nos [Sp., from Lat. planus, "level"], the name of 
those vast plains or steppes in the northern part of South 
America which surround the lower and middle course of 
the Orinoco. In the dry season they are scorched by the 
sun and nearly transformed ' into a desert, and the largo 
herds of wild horses and cattle which inhabit these plains 
become almost crazy from thirst, and run furiously along, 
tortured by poisonous insects and raising immense clouds 
of dust. In the wet season the plains are mostly inundated, 
and become an immense sea where the herds swim from 
hill to hill carrying their young ones on their backs to pio- 
tect them against the alligators. In spring and fall, or 
rather during the period which separates the dry and the 
wet season, the llanos present the most luxuriant pas- 
turages, and are a true paradise for cattle. 

Ijlan'quihue, a southern province of Chili, lying be- 
tween Valdivia, the Andes, the Gulf of Ancud, and the 
Pacific Ocean. Area, 8350 square miles. Pop. 43,342. It 
is a plain slightly elevated above the pea, covered with for- 
ests, diversified by several beautiful lakes, and watered by 
the river Maullin. The soil is extremely fertile, the climate 
healthy. Coal is abundant. A large part of the popula- 
tion consists of Germans, who are prosperous agriculturists, 
fruit-growers, and cattle- farmers. The roads are good, and 
there are 50 public schools. Cap. Puerto Montt. 

lilere'na, a walled town of Spain, in the province of 
Badajos. Pop. 6196. 

LleweH'yn ap Griffith, prince of Wales, succeeded 
David in 1246; revolted from his allegiance to the English 
crown 1256; ravaged the frontier 1262; was joined by Do 
Montfort 1263; defeated Mortimer 1264; made peace with 
Henry III. 1268; was summoned to attend Parliament at 
Westminster by Edward I., but refused to appear, 1274 and 
1276; unsuccessfully offered a ransom for his bride, El- 
eanor de Montfort, who had been captured by English ves- 
sels in the Channel, 1275; resisted a formidable invasion 
of the English, but finally submitted ; was taken to West- 
minster and surrendered his territories 1277; returned 
to Wales and married Eleanor 1278; was reconciled to 
his brother David, and renewed the war with the English 
1282, but was surprised and killed by Mortimer Deo. 11, 
1282. 



44 



LLOKENTE— LOAN. 



Lloren'te (Juaw Antonio), b. at Rincon del Soto, near 
Calaborra, Spain, Mar. 30, 1756 ; studied theology at Tar- 
ragona and Madridj was ordained priest (1779) ; became 
doctor in canon law, advocate in the royal councils, vicar- 
gcncral of the bishopric of Calaborra (1782), chancellor of 
the University of Toledo, member of the principal academies, 
commissary (1785), and secretary-general of the Inquisi- 
tion (1789). His intentions in accepting that post were of 
a reformatory character, and two unsuccessful attempts 
wore made by him to correct the inveterate abuses of the 
Inquisition, the latter of which occasioned his imprison- 
raent for a short time, and the exile of bis friend and pro- 
tector, the minister of justice, Jovellanos. In 1806 he was 
employed by the favorite Godoy to write a work in oppo- 
sition to the traditional privileges claimed by the Basque 
provinces — Notieias hintorieaa aohre laa trea provinciaa 
Baacongndas (.3 vols., 1806-08). Llorente adhered to the 
French intervention ; was made a councillor of state by 
King Joseph, and director-general of national estates (1808), 
in which capacity he was charged with the suppression of 
the convents. On the extinction of the Inquisition its 
papers were placed in his hands, with a commission to 
prepare its history. Charged with embezzlement of im- 
mense sums, he was removed from his offices, but rein- 
stated; was exiled on the return of Ferdinand VII. in 
1814; resided for a time in England, and afterwards in 
Paris, where in 1817-18 bo published both in Spanish and 
French his celebrated Critical Hiatory of the Inquisition in 
Spain (4 vols.). Historical Memoirs on the Spanish Revolu- 
tion (3 vols., 1815-19), a brief autobiography (1818), Crit- 
ical Obaervationa on the novel Gil Bias (1822), Complete 
Worksof Laa Gasas (2 vols., 1822), and Political Portraits 
of the Popes (1822) ; the latter work obliged him to leave 
Paris and return to Madrid, whore he was well received, 
and d. Feb. 3, 1823. Llorente was a writer of considerable 
talent, and his works were once very popular with the anti- 
Catholio element in Europe; but they cannot be trusted 
for the accurate statement of facts, and have consequently 
fallen into comparative discredit. His sentiments and con- 
duct were time-serving, and by no means patriotic, nor can 
he be considered a conscientious advocate of liberal prin- 
ciples. Of his History of the Inquisition an abridged Eng- 
lish translation was published in 1823. 

Porter C. Bliss. 
liloyd (Thomas), b. at Dolobran, North Wales, in 1649 ; 
educated at Oxford, but became a Quaker, and sufiFered much 
persecution as a preacher ; accompanied Wm. Penn to Amer- 
ica in 1684, and became acting governor, with the title of 
president of the council, of Pennsylvania 1684-86, and 
1690-91, and deputy-governor 1691-93. D. July 10, 1694. 
I.Ioyd (William), D. D., b. at Tileburst, Berkshire, 
England, Aug. IS, 1627; was educated at Oriel and Jesus 
colleges, Oxford; became a fellow 1646; took holy orders 
1656; was prebendary of Ripon, Salisbury, and St. Paul's; 
chaplain to Charles II. ; vicar of St. Mary's, Reading) and 
archdeacon of Merioneth ; became bishop of Exeter 1676, 
of St. Asaph 1680, of Lichfield 1692, and of Worcester 1699, 
and d. at Hartlebury Castle Aug. 30, 1717. Bishop Lloyd 
took an active part in the troubles occasioned by the so- 
called " Popish plot " of 1 678, and was one of the celebrated 
seven bishops who protested against the Declaration of In- 
dulgence to Romanists and dissenters by James II., for re- 
fusing to publish which they were committed to the Tower, 
tried, and acquitted. Ho was almoner to William III. and 
to Queen Anne; wrote Considerations tnnohinrj the True Way 
to Suppress Papery (1684), a History of the Governmetit of the 
Church of Great Britain (1684), a Dissertation on DanieVa 
Seventy Weeka, a System of Chronology (1712), a Harmony 
of the Goapela, and other theological works, and furnished 
valuable materials to Bishop Burnet for that prelate's Hia- 
tory of his own times. 

Lloyd's, the name by which the first floor of the Lon- 
don Exchange is known, being the centre where the busi- 
ness of maritime insurance is transacted, and where the 
earliest shipping intelligence from all parts of the world is 
posted for the information of subscribers, whether mer- 
chants, shippers, or underwriters. The board of under- 
writers have rooms here, and receive reports from their 
agents in every port throughout the world visited by the 
ships they insure. The system is so arranged that the in- 
dividual underwriters risk no more than £100 to £160 on 
any single vessel. Their concerns are administered by a 
committee of twelve members. There is a vast " merchants' 
room," provided with newspapers from all parts of the 
world, and a "captains' room," where ship-auctions are 
held and convivial gatherings fi-equently meet. The e|tab- 
Ushment derives its name from Lloyd's coflfec-house, which 
was originally the head-quarters of the board of under- 
writers; the name is now applied generically to similar 
institutions elsewhere, the most celebrated of which are the 



Austrian Lloyd at Trieste (established 1823 by Baron 
Bruck) and the North-G-erman Lloyd at Bremen. Lloyd's 
List was printed as a weekly from 1716 to 1800, since which 
time it appears daily, with the fullest shipping intelligence. 
The Austrian Lloyd has a giornale, established in 1834. 

Llumayor, or Lluchmayor, an inland town of the 
island of Majorca. Pop. 8526. 

Loach [Fr. loche], a name given to fishes of the family 
Cobitidse, which is related to the carp family (Cyprinidaa). 
There are no representatives of the group in America. In 
England there are two species — Cobitia taenia &ud Nemachi- 
lu8 barbatuluB. The Nem.achilus barbatultia or common 
loach, a European fish of the family Cobitidse, is sometimes 
used as food. It lives at the bottom of clear streams. The 
lake loach {Misgurnus foasilis) of Central Europe buries 
itself in mud, and has a bad flavor. The name "four-eyed 
loach " has been very improperly attached by some popular 
writers to the Anableps tetrophthalmus of British Guiana. 

Load'stone [Ang.-Sax. ^a?(/a7i, to " lead "], the natural 
magnet, a mineral consisting essentially of magnetic iron 
ore, which is a compound of the peroxide and protoxide of 
iron. It strongly attracts the magnetic needle, but does 
not itself always possess polarity. 

Loam [Ang.-Sax. lam, "clay"], a mixture of sand and 
clay, with an addition of about five per cent, lime and some 
animal and vegetable matter. A loamy soil is intermediate 
in character between sandy and clayey soils, and is that 
best adapted to general agriculture. It is lighter and 
warmer than a clay soil, stronger and more retentive than 
a sandy one. 

Loan [Ang.-Sax. hen, from iihan, " to lend "]. This term 
has in law two diverse though closely analogous significa- 
tions. In one sense it denotes a delivery of money or of a 
chattel by one person to another for the use of the latter, 
for which an equivalent is to be returned at a future day ; 
as if, for example, railroad stock is lent to be replaced by 
other stock of the same kind of an equivalent value, or if 
money be loaned, for which the same sum is to be repaid, 
either with or without interest. The equivalent need not, 
however, be of the same kind as the article lent, for stock 
or money or other article loaned may be repaid by money 
or by any article of the same value, if the parties so agree. 
In the other sense, loan denotes a delivery of an article to 
another for his temporary use, on condition that this 
identical article, and not merely its equivalent in value, 
shall subsequently be returned to the lender. In this lat- 
ter sense, though not in the former, a loan is a species of 
bailment. The popular use of the word is quite similar 
to its legal use. Thus, it is common to speak of lending 
money or of lending a book or other article, though in the 
one case it is understood that an equivalent sum of money, 
and not the identical fund lent, is to be repaid, and in the 
other that the book itself or other article is to be returned. 
The rules of law relating to these two different classes of 
loans are so dissimilar that it will be necessary to consider 
each class by itself. 

I. If the loan beef the first kind, making the borrower 
responsible for the return of an equivalent in value, and the 
thing loaned be not money, but some article of personal 
property, the lender may bring an action in a court of law 
for the recovery of damages equal to its value, or of the 
sum agreed to be given in return, if default be made in 
rendering the equivalent at the time appointed, according 
to the terms of the agreement. But the thing itself to be 
given in return cannot be obtained by action in such a 
court, unless it be a sum of money. Interest will usually 
be recoverable upon the value of the article from the time 
of default. In courts of equity, however, a suit may some- 
times be maintained for the specific performance of such a 
contract, and a decree obtained requiring the delivery of 
the article to be given as an equivalent. Thus, a contract 
to replace stock which has been loaned by other stock of 
the same kind may be speoifleally enforced in equity when 
such stock is of uncertain value and not always readily 
obtainable in the market. But the general rule is that 
contracts for the delivery of personal property will not be 
specifically enforced, since the recovery of damages usually 
affords a complete and satisfactory remedy. Even a con- 
tract for the delivery of stock will not be enforced in equity 
when the shares are at any time procurable, so that the re- 
covery of damages would enable the plaintiff to purchase 
them. Whenever an award of damages will enable the 
plaintiff to supply himself with the article to be delivered 
an action at law will be alone maintainable. (See Specific 
Performance.) Loans of this kind are sometimes made 
with intent to evade the laws against usury. The Enffli>ih 
statute of usury, from which those in this country have 
been usually copied in their general outlines, applies to 
loans "of any moneys, wares, merchandise, or other com- 
modities whatsoever." If, therefore, the intent of the 



LOAN AND BUILDING ASSOCIATIONS. 



45 



parties to a loan of a chattel and the effect of the transac- 
tion are to violate the usury laws, the same penalties will 
be incurred as in the case of a loan of money. Thus, in a 
loan of stock the agreement of the parties may require the 
return of an amount of stock whose value shall not only 
be equal to that of the stock loaned, but include also a 
higher rate of interest than the law allows. But it has 
been held that a loan of stock to be replaced by the same 
number of shares will not be usurious, though the value 
of the stock may be subject to great fluctuations. (See 
Usury.) But the most common loans of the class under 
consideration are loans of money to be repaid in money. 
The contract for repayment may be either express or im- 
plied. It is commonly the practice in making an express 
contract to evidence it by a promissory note, bill of ex- 
change, bond, duebill, or other written obligation, though 
this is not to be deemed necessary. The time of repayment 
and the rate of interest may be determined at the pleasure 
of the parties, provided the usury laws be not infringed. 
The statute of limitations will begin to run in favor of the 
defendant, and interest will be computable as damages in 
favor of the plaintiff, from the expiration of the term of 
credit agreed upon, if default be then made in repayment. 
If it be agreed that the debt shall bear interest, but no 
rate is fixed upon, the legal rate will be computed from the 
date of the loan. (See Limitations, Statute op; Interest.) 
The loan establishes the relation of debtor and creditor be- 
tween the parties, and not that of bailor and bailee.. The 
same is true of loans with implied contract for repay- 
ment. The law presumes that when money is loaned to 
and received by another without any express agreement 
for its repayment, a lawful debt is created which may be 
recovered by action. Interest is computable from the time 
of the loan at the legal rate. The statute of limitations 
also begins to run from the same period. The action for 
"money lent" is one of the so-called actions upon the 
"common counts." It will not be sufficient to sustain this 
action merely to prove that the plaintiff delivered money 
to the defendant, for this prima facie is only evidence of 
payment by the plaintiff of his own debt. It must be 
shown that the transaction was in reality a loan of money. 
It is not necessary to prove that the defendant requested 
the loan to bo made, for the receipt by him of the money 
is sufficient to establish his obligation to make repayment. 
II. The second variety of loans constitutes that class of 
bailments technically termed in law commodatum (Lat., 
"thing lent"). (See Bailment.) The article lent is deliv- 
ered to the borrower or bailee exclusively for his own use 
and benefit, no reward or compensation being payable to 
the lender for such use, and is itself to be returned to the 
lender. The bailor, as in other cases of bailment, remains 
the general owner of the property, while the bailee acquires 
a special or qualified right of ownership while it remains 
in his possession, and is thus enabled to maintain an action 
against any person other than the lender who does injury 
to the property or converts it to his own use. The bailor 
may also maintain an action in such cases, but a recov- 
ery by either bailor or bailee will bar the other's right of 
action. As the bailment is entirely for the advantage of the 
bailee, he is bound to use great diligence in caring for the 
article loaned, and will be responsible even for the slightest 
negligence if it be thereby lost or injured or impaired in value. 
But if the injury or loss be occasioned by inevitable accident, 
sudden disaster, theft, burglary or other cause which could 
not be anticipated'nor provided against, the bailee will incur 
no liability, but the bailor must bear the loss. The article 
may be used by the borrower for the purpose for which it 
was loaned, but he must not exceed the privilege given 
him. For any loss or deterioration resulting from its ordi- 
nary and reasonable use he will not be responsible, but if the 
injury be occasioned by his recklessness or remissness he 
must make good the loss. The property is to be returned 
in the same condition in which it was delivered, subject to 
ordinary wear and tear. A gratuitous loan creates a trust 
that is strictly personal, and the thing loaned can be used 
only by the bailee, in the absence of any special agreement 
to the contrary, or of a license by the owner that some 
other person may use it. Thus, it has been held that the 
loan of a horse to a person for him to ride did not justify 
hira in allowing his servants to ride. The degree of care 
which the bailee is to exercise will vary with the nature of 
the property loaned and the circumstances under which the 
loan is made. Greater diligence and precaution are requi- 
site in keeping secure and protecting from injury articles 
of great value than in caring for those of comparatively 
little worth. In like manner, greater care would be neces- 
sary in times of special danger or in lawless districts, 
where property ia particularly exposed to injury, than in 
times when little or no danger is to be apprehended or 
in orderly and law-abiding communities. What shall be 
considered " slight negligence" in any particular instance 



must depend upon the special facts of the case. The prop- 
erty loaned is to be returned to the owner at the expiration 
of the time agreed upon for the continuance of the bail- 
ment, or, if no such stipulation be made, at the expiration 
of a reasonable time. If after the termination of the bail- 
ment the borrower refuses to deliver up the property after 
proper demand has been made, although it sti!] remains in 
his possession, he is guilty of conversion, and may be sued 
in an action of trover for the value of the goods or in an 
action of replevin for the recovery of the goods themselves. 
(See Conversion, Trover, Keplevin.) He cannot detain 
the property as a pledge for any demand he may otherwise 
have against the bailor. (See the works of Story and 
Edwards on Bailments ; also treatises on Contracts.) 

George Chase. Revised by T. W. Dwigiit. 

liOan and Building Associations, incorporated 
companies which during the last twenty years have assumed 
considerable importance in the cities and large towns of 
the U. S., especially in Philadelphia. The following ac- 
count of their mode of organization and operation is de- 
rived from an article in the Philadelphia Public Ledger of 
Mar. 5, 1874: "They are ordinarily organized by a few 
friends, who subscribe for shares, and then induce others to 
join them, all agreeing to pay the sum of one dollar per 
month until the value of each share shall be $200, when a 
division of the funds will bo made, and the society dis-. 
solved. Not more than 2500 shares can be subscribed for, 
and ordinarily there are from 1500 to 2000 shares. The 
directors, who are elected annually by the stockholders, 
conduct the business of the association. At each monthly 
meeting the money on hand after the collection of the dues 
is loaned to the stocliholder who offers to give the highest 
premium, which sometimes amounts to 35 or 40 per cent, 
where the amount of the premium is deducted from the 
amount of the loan. The stockholder who borrows the 
money is required to give security, generally real estate, 
for the payment of his monthly dues and the interest on 
the whole amount of the loan, including the money actually 
received and the premium. The interest on the money 
loaned, with' the double interest on premiums (which are 
really twice loaned), and the fines for non-payment of dues, 
are the sources of profit. Thus, all the money which a 
society divides at the end of its term is paid in by the 
stockholders. There are no sources of revenue oiitnide 
of the society itself. If a society with 2000 shares runs 
out in ten years, there has been paid on each share $120, 
taking no account of fines. If 1500 shares have been bor- 
rowed on, their owners have paid not only $80 more on 
each of these shares than the non-borrowers who hold 500 
shares, but have also paid an amount of interest sufficient 
to give $80 on each share to the non-borrowers. Appar- 
ently, the non-borrowers receive all the profits, but it must 
be remembered that the borrower has paid no more 'dues' 
on his stock than the non-borrower, but has had the use 
of his money for from one to ten years, and then the only 
question as to his profits is, whether he has paid an ex- 
cessive rate for the use of that money. If without capital 
he has been enabled to buy a home for himself and pay for 
it in monthly instalments, the chances are that the borrower 
has obtained a fair return for his investment. If he bought 
wisely, and his property, during the time he was paying 
for it, largely increased in value, his profits may be larger 
than those of the non-borrower, for the latter has not these, 
incidental sources of profit. Finally, however high a pre- 
mium he may have paid, if he did not exceed the average 
of premiums, he did not pay a high rate of interest, because 
when the average premium is high the society runs out 
sooner and less money is paid on each share for ' dues.' 

'' There are many different systettis under which building 
societies are worked. In some, the premium is deducted 
from the loan ; in others, the premium is not deducted, but 
is paid with interest in monthly instalments j in some, only 
one series of stock is issued, all the members going out at 
the same time; in others, new series are issued at regular 
intervals, bringing in new borrowers and thus keeping np 
the demand for money. In a 'series society,' which is one 
of the latter kind, the premiums are usually high, and each 
series winds up its affairs in a correspondingly shorter time, 
sometimes within seven years and six months. In the 
latter event the non-borrower only pays $90 and receives 
$200, while the borrower makes heavier monthly payments 
for a smaller number of months than he would in the single 
series society. But whatever the system may be, the car- 
dinal principle underlying all is the same. In all building 
societies there is the incidental advantage that a member 
having once commenced to save a few dollars a month ia 
compelled to keep up the good habit or else relinquish a 
part of the profits which he would otherwise obtain. But 
if through misfortune or carelessness he is obliged to with- 
draw, he still gets reasonably good interest on his money, 
and sometimes a share (but not a full share) of the profits. 



46 



LOANGO— LOBSTER. 



Still greater advantages are, that there are comparatively 
few members in each society, so that the management in 
case of necessity can be more readily changed than in most 
mutual corporations, and that the ofBcers never have enough 
money on hand at any one time to tempt them to dis- 
honesty, nor to cause serious loss in the event of a*defalca- 
tion." 

Loan'go, kingdom of Western Africa, extending along 
the shore of the Atlantic from the equator to the river 
Congo. The coast is flat, but fertile, the interior unknown. 
The inhabitants arc a rude and barbarous race. Their re- 
ligion is idolatry and superstition ; their morals allow the 
slave-trade and polygamy, a man's wives being transfer- 
able with his other property; their political institutions 
consist in an absolute despotism. But they have some 
skill in the manufacture of baskets, colored mats, and 
grass-cloth ; and some trade in palm oil, wax, and ivory is 
carried on in their two principal towns — Loango, situated 
In lat. 4° .39' S., and Kabinda, on tho N. bank of the river 
Congo. The former of these towns is said to have 20,000 
inhabitants. 

liO'bau, town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 
noted for rock-crystals called *' Lobau diamonds," and for 
the mineral springs in its vicinity. Pop. 7372. 

LobaU) an island in the river Danube, 6 miles below 
Vienna, taken by Napoleon I. May 19, 1S09, occupied by 
the French army after the battle of Aspern, May 22, was 
the place whence the invading forces were concentrated in 
June, and where the celebrated passage of the Danube was 
made July 4 and following days, 1809. This island gave 
the title of count to (ien. Mouton, one of the French heroes 
of the campaign. 

Iiobaa', de (Georges Moutos), Count, b. Feb. 21, 1770, 
at Phalsbourg, France ; enlisted as a volunteer in the army 
in 1792; became aide-de-camp to Meusnier in 1793, to 
Joubert in 1798, to Napoleon in 1805; and was made a 
general of division in 1807, after the battle of Friedland. 
His title of count of Lobau he received after the battle of 
Aspern. He was rough and blunt, but courageous and firm. 
After the Russian campaign he was at the head of the organ- 
ization of a new French army, and in the battle of Waterloo 
he commanded the sixth army corps on the right wing. After 
the Restoration he was banished from France, and not 
allowed to return until 1318. In 1828 he was elected a 
member of the Chamber of Deputies, and he took a promi- 
nent part in the revolution of 1830, assumed the command 
of the national guard instead of La Fayette, was made a 
peer and marshal in 1831, and put down with, great suc- 
cess the insurrections of 1832 and 1834. D. at Paris Nov. 
21,1838. 

Lobe'ira, de (Vasoo), b. in Portugal about 1360; was 
distinguished in the military service of Ferdinand IV., 
king of Castile, and wrote the celebrated romance ot Ama- 
die de Gaul. He was knighted by John I. of Portugal 
after the battle of Aljubarrota, 1386, and d. at Elvas, Por- 
tugal, in 1403. 

liObel' (Matthew), best known under the Latinized 
form LoBELius, b. at Lille, Flanders, in 1538 ; studied medi- 
cine at Montpellier; practised his profession at Antwerp 
and Delft after travelling through. Switzerland, Germany, 
and Northern Italy; became physician to the prince of 
Orange, and was employed by the States General ; settled 
in England before 1570; made extensive botanical collec- 
tions in England; devoted himself especially to vegetable 
physiology and the correction of errors made by Dioscori- 
des; published Stirpinm Adoersaria Nova (London, 1570), 
containing nearly 1300 species, with 272 small figures; 
Phxntarutn aeu Sti'rpiiim HistoHa (Antwerp, 1576), Icnnefi 
Sliiphtm (Antwerp, 1581 ), and a treatise on Balaams (Lon- 
don, 1698). Lobel accompanied an English embassy to 
Denmark in I.7O2, returned to England, became botanist 
to James I., and d. at I-Iighgate Mar. 2, 1616. A fragment 
of a vast botanical cyclopaadia projected by Lobel was ed- 
ited by J. Parkinson in 1655. The idea of natural families 
may be found in Lobel's works, and an important botanical 
genus was called Lobelia in his honor. 

IiObe'lia [named by Plumier in honor of Matthew ioie?, 
botanist to King James I.], a genus of plants of the natural 
order Lobeliaeeaj, of which the most important species is 
the Lobelia influta, or " Indian tobacco," as it is commonly 
called. This is a very common indigenous annual or bien- 
nial herb, growing wild in waste spots throughout Canada 
and the TJ. S. It has a fibrous root, and a solitary straight 
hairy stem rising about a foot high. The flowers arc small 
and of a light blue color; tho leaves oval, serrated, and 
hairy. The entire herb, dried, is used in medicine under 
the name lobelia. Its properties depend on an alkaloid, 
lobeiina, which is a thick, oily, transparent, volatile fluid, 
with a pungent taste resembling tobacco. Lobelia is a 



powerful nauseating emetic, producing in full dose an efiect 
like that of tobacco — namely, long-continued, distressing 
nausea and vomiting, with purging, copious sweating, and 
great muscular relaxation. In overdose it is a potent acro- 
narcotic poison. Lobelia is too severe an emetic to be 
used to produce vomiting, and its medicinal employment is 
in non-emetic doses as a relaxing agent in asthma and 
allied spasmodic diseases. Edward Cuktis. 

Lobelia Cardinalis, the cardinal flower, so named 
from the intense red color of the blossoms, ia the most 
showy of our indigenous species, and is prized in culti- 
vation. The low and bright-blue-flowered lobelia, largely 
used as a bedding-plant, is L. Enmue, from the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Lobeiina. See Lobelia. 

LobloHy Bay. See Goedonia. 

liO'bo ( Jeronimo), b. at Lisbon about 1695 ; entered the 
order of the Jesuits in 1609, and wentjn 1622 as a mis- 
sionary to Goa, whence he proceeded to Ab3'ssinia in 1624. 
Here he worked with great success, but was at last ex- 
pelled in 1 634, and returned to Portugal to persuade the 
Christian powers to make a crusade against Abyssinia. 
Having failed in this, he went once more to Goa in 1640, 
whence he returned in 1656, and d. at Lisbon Jan. 29, 1678. 
His Historia de JEthiopia (Coimbra, 1659) made a great 
sensation and was translated into many foreign tongues — 
into French in 1674, into English by Dr. Johnson (1735). 

Lo'bos Islands [Sp.Zoio, "seal"], or Seal Islands, 
three small islands in the Pacific Ocean, 12 miles oft' the 
coast of Peru, to which country they belong, in lat. 6° 29' 
S., Ion. 80° 53' W., form the gathering-place for innumer- 
able seals, and contain large deposits of guano. 

IjOb'ster [supposed to be cognate with the Latin lan- 
guBtaj the name of a distantly related form {Palinitrus) of 
the Mediterranea,n and European seas generally], a name 
especially applied to crustaceans of the species of the ge- 
nus Hoviania, but also extended to several other kinds of 
very different groups. The typical lobsters, or Jloniari, 
are closely related to the fresh-water crawfishes (Aetacue 
and Camharue) of the northern hemisphere, and with them 
and some other genera {Aetacoideef Paranephrope, Chsej'aps, 
Engscus, Nephro2)8f and Nephropsie) constitute the family 
of Astacidso. They difier especially from the crayfishes in 
the rostrum, which is straigbter and denticulated, or armed 
with many teeth on each side; the union by soldering of 
the last ring of the thorax with the penultimate ; the trans- 
formations which it undergoes in its progress from the egg 
to maturity; the marine habitat; and the larger size of 
the species; and these characters are associated wilh a 
number of anatomical peculiarities. The eyes are orbicu- 
lar; there are nineteen pairs of gills. They become red 
when subjected to the action of boiling water or acids, this 
being due to a change in the pigmentary matter. In the 
stomach at the pyloric position are three movable chitinous 
pieces, iustrumental in digestion, which, from a supposed 
resemblance to a seated female, is known :t.s "lady;" it is 
shed with the shell. In connection with the outer wall of 
the intestine, the liver is developed as a greenish organ 
with a mixture of fat-cells, and this is called by the lobster- 
men "tow alley." The female chiefly spawns in spring 
or early summer, and carries her eggs (which number from 
about 2000 to 12,000, according to the size of the mother) 
under the abdomen or tail, conglomerated by a viscid se- 
cretion ; they are globular, and when unimpregnated red, 
but when impregnated and maturing almost blackish. The 
young emerge from the egg as small and actively-swim- 
ming "schizopods," or animals very difi'crent in appear- 
ance from the adults. After several months they assume 
the form as well as habits of the adult. 

Three well-determined species represent the genus in 
different seas — viz. (1) Homarua gammarua or vulgaris, the 
common European lobster, abundant in Northern Europe, 
and especially Norway; (2) Homarua Ajiiericainis, the 
common American lobster, very nearly related to the pre- 
ceding, abundant from New jersey northward, and par- 
ticularly, in the U. S., on the coast of Maine; and (3) Ho- 
marua Cnpensis, a small lobster found at the Cape of Good 
Hope. The northern species are much larger, the Ameri- 
can, when adult, varying between one and two feet, and 
weighing two to flfteen pounds, and tho European gen- 
erally from eight to ten inches, although occasionally 
rivalling the American in size, and exceptionally, it is 
supposed, exceeding three feet in length. They live, in 
warm weather, near the coast, by preference on rocky bot- 
toms and where algae thrive, but the American species, S. 
of Cape Cod, is also to be found on sandy and gravelly 
bottoms. In the winter they retire into deeper water, de- 
scending as low as sixteen to twenty fathoms on steep 
ooast-Blopea. They swim freely, but not strongly. They 



LOBWOEM—LOCHES. 



47 



feed on t\^e roe of fish, dead fish, and such other animals 
as they are able to catch. The food is caught by them 
when on the ground, and is eaten at leisure and in a state 
of rest. Although voracious, they are able to live for some 
time without food. They shed their shells periodically in 
the warm months, like the crabs. 

Lobsters are very generally esteemed as an article of 
food, and their capture employs a large amount of capital 
and many men in this country as well as Europe. In this 
country they are almost exclusively caught in "lobster- 
pots," or baskets constructed on the plan of some rat-traps, 
having funnel-shaped ends, with a hole in the middle 
through which the animal may enter, but from which he is 
precluded from departing by the extension of his claws. 
These are baited generally with fish of little or no value, 
and sunk by means of stone to the bottom, their locations 
being indicated by floats. Similar traps are used in Eu- 
rope, but formerly, on the coast of Norway, they were 
caught entirely with wooden tongs of about twelve feet in 
length. In other places (e. j/. Heligoland) a bag-net with 
an iron hoop, called "plumpers," is used, a long line being 
attached to it and moved at the top by a piece of wood. 
No precise statistics have been collected respecting the 
number of lobsters caught and consumed in the U. S., but 
it is very large, and has been vaguely estimated at "sev- 
eral millions" annually. "In Boston the number of lob- 
sters sold annually cannot be much short of 1,000,000," 
according to Capt. Atwood, an experienced fisherman. In 
Boston the male lobster is preferred, and the supply is 
chiefly furnished from the northern shore of Massachusetts 
and the Maine coast, while in New York the females are 
the most salable, and the stock is chiefly derived from the 
contiguous coasts up to Cape Cod, that place being the 
chief market of export for New York after June. The size 
being the same, the females furnish the most meat. The 
sexes are nearly equal in number, according to Mr. S. I. 
Smith, although the males are supposed to greatly pre- 
ponderate by the fishermen. In Long Island Sound and 
Southern New England the fishery season commences 
towards the end of March or early in April, and about the 
middle of the latter month they are sent to the markets in 
large numbers, while towards the North the season is later. 
In %vinter the supply is principally derived from Maine, 
and they are found at that season in the comparatively deep 
water. The proper breeding-season varies with circum- 
stances, as well as with the latitude and temperature of the 
water, but it commences in the southern waters in April 
or May. It, however, extends through several months, 
and in Vineyard Sound, it seems, about "one in twenty" 
has eggs even as early as December. Complaints have 
lately been loud that the fisheries are being impover- 
ished, and demand a close season and other regulations. 
In Massachusetts the minimum salable limit is 10^ 
inches'. 

Norway is the great source of supply in Europe of the 
lobster, and from it are exported large numbers to England 
and Holland. Originally, it seems to have been despised 
by the natives, and the fisheries were first developed in the 
Norse waters by the Dutch. Their vessels commenced to 
visit Norway for lobsters in the seventeenth century, chiefly, 
and at first exclusively, sailing from Zierikzee. From 
Flsekkefiord lobsters were exported as early as 1660, and 
in 1674 ten lobster-vessels filled from it; from 1690 the 
Dutch regularly visited Karmo, and the following places 
gradually became lobster-ports: viz., " Mandal, Flsekkc- 
fiord, Egersund, Tananger or perhaps Stavanger, Akre in 
the island of Karmo, and Leervig in the island of Stordo." 
The Dutch also introduced the lobster-baskets, and at the 
commencement of their operations, by donations to the 
clergy, interested them in their behalf. At first the price 
was one skllling (about a cent) each, but afterwards it was 
raised to two and more. Originally, the export trade was 
carried on entirely in Dutch bottoms, but gradually the 
English took a share, and after the war which broke out 
between Holland and England in 1776 the trade was en- 
tirely wrested from the Dutch and taken by the English, 
who still hold it almost exclusively. 

The number of lobsters exported from Norway has fluc- 
tuated according to circumstances. Between 1815 and 
1818, the annual export ranged between 512,780 and 
680,300. "The number of lobsters exported in 1821 and 
1822," says Boeck, "amounted to over 1,000,000 a year, 
and increased still more during the following years, al- 
though it was not so l»rge in 1823 and 1824, on account of 
the unfavorable weather. From 1825 to 1830 the average 
number of lobsters exported annually was 1,268,000, and 
in 1827 and 1828 the highest number was reached — viz. 
1,500,000. These large numbers, however, were caused 
not by the fisheries being just as productive, or more so, 
in the old lobster-stations, but by the circumstance that 
new English companies) seeing the great profit to be de- 



rived from this trade, commenced to export lobsters from 
places from which they had never been exported before." 
" The exports from Staranger and Egersund meanwhile 
decreased very much, having been reduced to 67,000 per 
annum in the latter place in 1827, when the exports from 
the whole of Norway amounted to 1,429,703. After 1830 
the exports began to decrease even in the new districts, so 
that the annual average quantity of lobsters exported dur- 
ing the five years 1831-35 was only 640,000. The only 
places that kept the lobster-trade alive were the new dis- 
tricts, while all the old ones decreased rapidly, some of 
them to such a degree that, according to the governors' re- 
ports, the lobster-trade must be considered almost extinct 
in 1835." 

Farseeing men had feared the results of the excessive 
and unregulated fisheries, and the fishermen and all others 
interested became at length alarmed. Laws were from 
time to time (e.gAS'60, 1838, 1845) proposed and discussed 
in the "Storthing" or Norwegian parliament, parliament- 
ary inquests were also held, and the aid of experienced 
naturalists was invoked; but for along time a close season 
was opposed by the fishermen and traders, who hoped for 
a revival of the trade, and contended that the depression 
was only temporary. Gradually, however, almost all be- 
came convinced that legal restrictions of the fisheries as to 
time and size of lobsters taken were necessary ; and finally, 
in 1848, laws were passed regulating the fishery. It was 
provided (1) that lobsters should not be caught or sold from 
the fifteenth of July till the end of September; (2) that 
the king, however, at the request of local authorities, might 
remit time before or after August, which must always re- 
main a close month; (3) a penalty of twenty-four skillings 
for every infraction of the law was provided for; (4) it was 
provided that the police courts should have jurisdiction of 
the cases; and (5) a period of eight days after the periods 
designated was added for the exportation of lobsters. The 
result of this law was that much fewer were exported in 
1849 and 1850 than in previous years, but afterwards the 
number increased, and, although fluctuating, the gain con- 
tinued, till in' 1865 nearly 2,000,000 (1,956,276) were ex- 
ported. The law also became so popular with the dealers 
that they were even inclined to go to the other extreme, 
and desire a still longer close season. Now that alarm is 
being felt respecting the lobster fisheries of this country, 
the experience thus referred to may be of use. Several 
documents respecting the subject may be found in the 
U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries Hepoj-te, to be soon 
published. 

The name, in combination with a qualifying prefix, is 
also popularly applied, in addition to other marine species 
of Astacidse, to species of the families Palinuridae and 
Scyllaridae. Theo. Gill. 

liObworm. See Anneljdes. 

Local Preachers, an order of lay preachers in Meth- 
odism, much more numerous than its regular or "itiner- 
ant" ministry throughout the denomination. In the U. S. 
they number about 22,000. The order was established by 
Wesley early in the history of the Methodistic movement, 
and its members have become historically important as the 
founders of the denomination in the U. S., Canada, Nova 
Scotia, Australia, and Africa. They ai-e laymen, engaged 
in secular life, but having natural or acquired gifts for 
public discourse, and devoting their Sundays to preaching, 
mostly in poor or incipient churches. In large cities, es- 
pecially in England, their weekly appointments are sys- 
tematically arranged and published quarterly on a printed 
plan. They are formally "licensed," and many of them 
are ordained, in order that they may assist the regular 
clergy in the administration of the sacraments, and they 
are all amenable to the quarterly and district conferences 
of the Church. They have, in most countries, "local 
preachers* associations." In England they publish The 
Local Preachers' Magazine. In the U. S. many local 
preachers have been eminent for talent and usefulness. 
The regular or travelling ministry has always been re- 
cruited from their ranks ; in fact, no candidate can be ad- 
mitted to the annual conference on the regular pastorate 
unless first licensed as a local preacher. Abel Stevens. 

!Loca'na, town of Italy, in the province of Turin, sit- 
uated in a strikingly wild valley of the same name, 25 
miles W. of Ivrea, has some trade in the agricultural, and 
more especially in the dairy, produce of the surrounding 
district. Pop. 5784. 

Iioches, town of France, in the department of, Indre- 
et-Loire, on the Indre. Its castle was the royal residence 
of several kings of France, and was used by Louis XL as 
a state prison, and witnessed as such the most horrible 
atrocities. It is now a departmental prison. Near it, in 
1409, Agnes Sorel was born, and her tomb is in the chapel 
of the sub-prefecture. Pop. 5096. 



48 



LOCHLEVEN— LOCK. 



Lochlev'eUy a castle on an island in Lake Leven, Fife- 
shire, Scotland, noted as the place where Mary queen of 
Scots was imprisoned from July, 1567, until her escape, 
May 2, 156S. The place is now of no military or strategi- 
cal importance, but was in the sixteenth century a strong- 
hold of first rank. 

liOch'rane (Osborne A.), b. at Middletown, Armagh, 
Ireland, Aug. 22. 1829. While pursuing his academic 
course in 1S46 he indulged in a popular assembly in such 
violent denunciations against the English authorities that 
his father thought it advisable to place him beyond the 
reach of prosecution, and accordingly sent him to New 
York, where he arrived Dec. 21, 1846. Not tarrying there 
long, he made his way to Athens, Q-a. The elegance and elo- 
quence of a temperance address delivered by him won the 
admiration of the late Joseph Henry Lumpkin, chief-justice 
of the State, who urged the boy-orator, then a clerk in a 
drug store, to study law, promising him assistance. By 
dint of labor at night he soon mastered his task, and was 
admitted to the bar at the fall term of 1849. With a few 
books and scanty means he opened an office at Savannah 
Mar., 1850, and in October of the same year he moved to 
Macon, where he formed a professional connection with 
Henry Gr. Lamar, an able and prominent lawyer, whose 
daughter he had ma-rried. His rise at the bar was rapid 
and brilliant. In Sept., 1861, he was promoted to the 
bench of the Macon circuit, to which position he was twice 
afterwards elected by the legislature, but resigned in 1865. 
He then removed to Atlanta, and in Aug., 1870, upon the 
request of the bar, was appointed judge of that circuit j 
in Jan., 1871, was appointed chief-justice of the supreme 
court of the State, but resigned in December of the same 
year, and resumed practice at the bar. Many of his 
speeches, addresses, and orations have been published in 
pamphlet form, generally circulated, and greatly admired 
for their classic taste and beautiful imagery in illustra- 
tion. A. H. Stephens. 

Lock [from the Ang.-Sax. toe], a, piece of machinery 
provided with a spring and bolt for receiving and corre- 
sponding to a key, the two together serving to fasten doors, 
chests, drawers, and the like. That locks and keys were 
used by the ancients is attested by many writers. The 
Egyptians, according to Sir Gardner Wilkinson, used 
wooden locks and iron keysj a specimen of the latter he 
picked up among the tombs at Thebes. It is described as 
a straight shank five inches long, with a bar at right angles 
with it, on which were three or more projecting teeth. At 
the upper extremity was a ring which served as a handle. 
So far back as the commencement of Jewish history keys 
are mentioned, and in Judges iii. 23-25, where the residence 
of Eglon, king of Moab, is described, we find that the doors 
of the summer parlor were locked by Ehud, and that sub- 
sequently the servant took a key and opened them. The 
most remarkable lock of ancient times was the Egyptian 
pin-lock, which consisted of a wooden case fastened to a 
door, having a bolt passing horizontally through a cavity 
within it. In that part of the case immediately above the 
bolt were several small cells, each containing a pin, and in 
the top of the holt under these pins was an 'equal number 
of holes. The effect of the construction was that when 
properly arranged the pins fell into the holes in the bolt 
and fastened it in the lock-case. In the exposed end of 
the bolt was a cavity, extending slightly beyond the holes 
occupied by the pins, into which the key was thrust. The 
latter was a piece of wood with pins arranged so as to cor- 
respond with those in the lock, and projecting upward as 
far as the upper surface of the bolt. So, when the key was 
put into the cavity and pressed upward, its pins filled the 
holes in the bolt, and by so doing pushed up those which 
had fallen from the upper part of the lock-case. Thus, the 
bolt could be withdrawn, as the pins were raised into their 
cells and all obstruction was removed. Locks of the same 
kind have been in use in the Faroe Islands for centuries. 
The Romans not only had locks and keys, but it is evident, 
from specimens in the British Museum and elsewhere, that 
warded locks were known to them; many keys whose con- 
struction points to this conclusion have been discovered 
both at Herculaneum and Pompeii. The Chinese have 
shown considerable aptitude for lockmaking, and some of 
their wooden constructions embody the principle on which 
the celebrated Bramah lock was made about 100 years ago. 

A modern lock to be of practical service needs to be a 
masterpiece of mechanical art. As inventions of new com- 
plication of tumblers or wards or springs have appeared. 
so has the ingenuity of man discovered the means of tri- 
umphing over the obstacles, or, in other words, of picking 
almost every lock that has been invented. The qualifica- 
tions of a perfect lock are numerous and not easy to define. 
An authority on the subject, Mr. Nicholson, has, however, 
summed them up succinctly in the following order: (I) 



th.it certain parts of the lock should be variable in position 
through a great number of combinations, one only of which 
should allow the lock to be opened or shutj (2) that this 
last-mentioned combination should bo variable at the plea- 
sure of the possessor; (3) that it should not be possible, 
after the lock is closed and the combination disturbed, for 
any one, not even the maker of the lock, to discover by 
any examination what may be the proper situation of the 
parts required to open the lock; (4) that trials of this kind 
should not be capable of injuring the lock; (5) that it 
should absolutely require no key, and be as easily opened 
in the dark as in the light; (6) that the opening and shut- 
ting be done easily, and by a process as simple as a com- 
mon lock, either with or without a key, as may be desired; 

(7) that the keyhole be defended, concealed, or inaccessible ; 

(8) that the key may be used by a stranger without his 
knowing, or being able to discover, the adopted combina- 
tion ; (9) that the key be capable of adjustment to all the 
variations of the* lock, and yet be simple; (10) that the 
lock should not be liable to be taken ofi" and examined, 
whether the receptacle be opened or shut, except by one 
who knows the adopted combination. 

Into an explanation of all the terms applied by lock- 
smiths to their wares it is unnecessary to enter. The chief 
distinctions between the best-known locks, however, are 
not out of place. Locks for drawers, chests, and the like 
are constructed to open on one side only, and are fitted with 
keys made with a pipe to slip on and turn on a pin called 
the drill-pin. But what are called inside and outside locks, 
fixed to doors which have to be locked sometimes on one 
side and sometimes on the other, have solid keys with stems 
thicker than the flat pai't, so as to form an axis fitting into 
the upper part of the keyhole. Keys for this kind of lock 
must be symmetrical, or alike on each side of a line through 
their middle, in order to fit the lock either way. Locks placed 
on outer doors are generally known as ntoek locks; those 
on chamber doors are called spring locks, and when a lock 
is hidden in the thickness of the wood to which it is fast- 
ened it is called a mortice lock. Locks on the outside of 
doors are known as iron-rim locJce and brass-case locks. The 
locks that are most used nowadays are variations on the 
old warded and tumbler locks, the puzzle or letter locks 
being almost entirely out of date. The latter attracted 
much attention before the invention by Mr. Bramah was 
effected, and as early as the days in which Beaumont and 
Fletcher flourished mention is made of letter locks in the 
play of the Noble Gentleman, These locks could only be 
opened by setting a number of rings to a certain combina- 
tion of letters, so that no one who was not in possession of 
the secret was able to open the lock; hence the term puzzle- 
lock. This combination was at first fixed and could not be 
changed. Subsequently, the rings were made double, the 
inner one having the notch in it which the bolt had to pass, 
and the outer one capable of being fitted on to the inner in 
any position, by unscrewing some part of the lock, so that 
the rings might be set to any combination at pleasure. 
Locks of this kind are insecure, because the pressure of the 
bolt can be felt on ■some of the rings more than on the 
others, and our own countryman, Mr. Hobbs, has declared 
that wherever that is the case the lock can be picked. The 
same gentleman opened a dial lock at Liverpool in a few 
minutes, and at the Great Exhibition in London in 1851, 
he opened a French lock and set it to a new combination, 
so that the exhibitor himself was unable to open it. The 
reasons for the unpopularity of the puzzle, letter, or dial 
locks, which are all three akin, are obvious : they are difficult 
to handle, and the danger of forgetting the word which sets 
the combination is always imminent. The unfortunate 
Louis XVI. of France took great delight in experimenting- 
on locks of thi-s kind and others, whence the saying, *' He 
is a capital locksmith, but a very bad king." 

In ordinary locks the bolt shoots out to catch in some 
kind of staple or box, or a staple enters a hole in the edge 
of the lock, and is then acted upon by the bolt. The key 
enters its receptacle, and the shaft acts as a pivot around 
which the web or flat part of the key may move. Thus, 
the web acts upon the bolt; the key impels it one way, 
certain springs act upon it in another, and the balance be- 
tween the two forces determines the locking or unlocking 
of the bolt. In order to render the opening of the lock 
difficult without the right key, pieces of metal are secured 
to the inner surface of the lock to obstruct the progress of 
the key unless the latter be provided with open spaces 
which will cause the key to clear the obstruction. These 
pieces of metal are called wards. The shape of these wards 
is not, however, difficult to discover. The insertion into 
the hole of a blank key— that is, a key without wards- 
covered with wax, and the subsequent filing of the key 
where the obstructions in the lock have made marks in the 
wax, are sufficient for the provision of a key capable of 
opening the securest of warded locks. Moreover, what are 



LOCK. 



49 



known as skeleton kei/Sj used by burglars with considerable 
proflt, are sufficient for the opening of locks of this kind. 
Tiiose skeletons are not cut into the form of the wards, but 
have simply a blank space through which the wards may 
pass, the only part of the key that does any work being the 
edge farthest from the pipe. This is the theory of the 
master key, by which one key may be made to open any 
number of locks variously warded, such as is used by the 
superintendent in large manufactories, asylums, and hos- 
pitals. 

The most conspicuous feature in the formation of our 
best modern locks is the tumbler or levevj which falls into 
the bolt and prevents it from being shot until it has been 
raised or released by the action of the key. The single- 
tumbler lock has a tumbler turning on a pivot with a square 
pin, which drops into a notch in the bolt when it is either 
open or shut, so that before the bolt can move the tumbler 
must be lifted by the key. The origin of the tumbler has 
never accurately been traced, but more than a century ago 
it is clear that the system was known in France; however, 
in the year 1778 was patented Barron's lock, which may be 
justly described as the foundation of all the modern im- 
provements in loekmaking. In the ordinary tumbler locks 
the lock could be opened if the tumbler were raised suffi- 
ciently high to allow the bolt to work, but Barron's lock 
rendered the bolt immovable if the tumbler were raised 
either not sufficiently high or too high. Moreover, the lock 
possessed two tumblers, instead of one, which added greatly 
to the security of the structure. The bolt has in its middle 
a " gating," or open slit, notched on both edges, the notches 
being fitted for the reception of studs fixed to the tumblers. 
If the studs of the tumblers rest in the lower notches, they 
require to be elevated to the general level of the gating be- 
fore the bolt can be moved; whilst if the tumblers are 
raised too high, the studs will enter the upper notches and 
prevent the shooting of the bolt. The lower edge of each 
tumbler is acted on by the steps of the key during its cir- 
cular movement, the leverage of the key being so adjusted 
as to raise the tumbler to the desired height. Ten years 
after the patenting of Barron's lock, Mr. Joseph Bramah, 
the inventor of the hydraulic press, brought out a lock 
which differed very considerably from those which had 
gone before it. Its chief peculiarities arc a barrel or cylin- 
der, the absence of fixed wards and of tumblers working 
on a pivot at one end, and the introduction of a system of 
gliders. The body of a Bramah, according to Mr. Hobbs, 
may be considered as consisting of two barrels, the outside 
one fixed, and the inner rotating within it. The inner bar- 
rel has a projecting stud, which, while the barrel is rotating, 
comes in contact with the bolt in such a way as to shoot or 
lock it. Thus, the stud serves the same purpose us the bit 
of an ordinary key, rendering the construction of a bit to 
the bramah unnecessary. When the barrel is made to 
rotate to the right or left the bolt can be locked or un- 
locked, and the rotation is effected by means of sliders 
which correspond to the tumblers of Barron's invention. 
Mr. Bramah published a treatise in which he modestly de- 
clared that his lock entailed such security that it was not 
within the range of art to produce a key or other instru- 
ment by which a lock on his principle could be opened. 
However, in 1851, Mr. Hobbs of Boston proved the fallacy 
of this declaration by picking a Bramah by, means of the 
tentative process, which will be described immediately. 
The Bramah lock, in its improved form, however, is one 
of the safest locks that can be used, though it must be re- 
membered that as the patent has expired years ago, many 
imitations are in the market which may be picked as easily 
as the old warded lock. The principles of the invention 
may be briefly worded : Mr, Bramah rejected the use of 
fixed wards, using instead movable guards or sliders. The 
number of these sliders varied from four to six and eight. 
As no wards were used, the key was smaller and easier to 
be carried, and moreover the smallness of the kej'hole con- 
tributed in no small degree to the safety of the lock. In 
1818, Mr. Chubb of London patented his celebrated lock, 
which ever since that date has enjoyed great popularity. 
It consists of Barron's tumblers more or less numerous, 
with few or no fixed wards, and without false notches. It 
contains at least six double-acting tumblers, all of which 
must be raised to a certain height before the bolt can pass. 
The most captivating point about Chubb's locks was, how- 
ever, the detector, consisting of a lever which, if any undue 
elevation was given to the tumblers in an attempt to pick 
the lock by means of a false key, caught in and detained 
the bolt until with a twist of the proper key it could be re- 
leased. This detector as at first constituted, however, was 
utilized by Mr. Hobbs of Boston as a means of picking the 
lock by the "tentative" process described in the Encyelo- 
psedia Britannica many years ago, but entirely forgotten 
until revived by American locksmiths. The process con- 
sists of moving one tumbler at a time by means of some 
Vol. v.— 4 



instrument, and ascertaining by touch when the stump is 
opposite the "gating." As Mr. Hobbs proved, the fact is 
easily made known, and as each tumbler is held in its place 
until the whole number are free, the bolt is at last easily 
moved. At the date of the invention Chubb's locks enjoyed 
considerable notoriety, especially after the attempt made by 
a convict at Portsmouth dockyard to pick a look made by 
the firm. The convict had been a lockmaker, and he was of- 
fered a free pardon from the government and £100 from Mr. 
Chubb if he succeeded in opening the lock. The necessary 
tools were supplied him, but after three months' trial, dur- 
ing which the detector wa.s constantly overlifted, he gave 
up the attempt, stating that Chubb's were the securest 
locks he had seen, and it was impossible for any man to 
pick them with false instruments. The convict, however, 
was beaten in his own work by Mr. Hobbs, who used the 
detector to indicate just the necessary height to which each 
tumbler must be raised. 

In the year 1831 a system of clockwork was introduced 
as a feature in loekmaking by a Mr. Rutherford, a bank 
agent of Jedburgh, Scotland. The clockwork regulated 
the interval which must elapse before the lock could be 
opened by its key. The object was to ensure the safety of 
the lock during a journey or until the bag or box was con- 
veyed to a certain locality. When the lock is used for boxes 
or anything portable, the clockwork must be regulated by 
a spring; when it is fixed to safes and the like, a descend- 
ing weight and pendulum can be used. The bolt is pre- 
vented from moving by a cii-cular stop-plate fi.xed with a 
notch in its rim. The stop-plate works round by clock- 
work, and until the notch is opposite to the bolt the latter 
cannot be shot backward or forward. The plate may be 
made to rotate either slowly or quickly, so that a lock may 
be regulated so as to open so many hours or minutes after 
it has been locked. In 1836, Mr. Meighan invented an 
alarum lock, in which the bell was placed inside the lock 
itself, but the invention does not appear to have attained 
any great degree of popularity. It was not until the year 
1841 that an invention in this country created a stir in the 
art of loekmaking. In that yea.r Dr. Andrews of Perth 
Amboy, N. J., brought out an instrument afterwards known 
as the "permutation" lock. The principle of this inven- 
tion consists in the use of rings attached to the key, which 
may cause an almost endless variety of changes. When 
the bolt is turned the lock may not be moved except by 
the same combination of rings upon the key. The advan- 
tages of the system are obvious; the internal mechanism 
of the look is changeable at pleasure, so that even if the 
key be obtained possession of for a few minutes, and an 
impression taken, the owner subsequently may be able by 
a fresh adjustment of the rings to change the whole con- 
struction of the key. Tbe lock is furnished with tumblers 
and a detector. On the same principle Mr. Newall of New 
York invented a "permutation" lock of a rather more 
complicated nature, with, two sets of tumblers, instead of a 
twofold movement to each tumbler. These tumblers were 
called primary and secondary, and effectually doubled the 
capacities of the keys. Dr. Andrews's lock succumbed to 
Mr. Newall's picking, and the last-mentioned look was 
picked by Mr. Pettit, who accepted Mr. Newall's offer of 
$500 to any one who could pick his lock. By no means 
discouraged, the inventor went to work to find out how to 
keep the interior of the lock from view and the inser- 
tion of delicate instruments, and the result, not without 
many suggestions and additions, however, was the patent- 
ing of the famous lock concealed from view called the 
" Parautoptic." This famous and complicated piece of 
mechanism went through various stages, in one of which it 
was picked by the "smoke" process. A smoky flame in- 
troduced into the lock will leave a smutty deposit on the 
outer edges of the tumblers, which will be removed by the 
bits of a key if inserted immediately afterwards. A light 
is then thrown into the lock by means of a mirror, the key- 
marks become visible, and a false key may easily be made. 
In 1847 the Parautoptic in its completed form was exhib- 
ited in Vienna, where it gained for its owners the honor 
of a gold medal, and in 1851 the lock was patented in Eng- 
land, and was introduced' to the commercial world by Mr. 
Hobbs. That year was famous in the history of loekmak- 
ing, and Mr. Hobbs was undoubtedly the hero of the hour. 
At the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park he declared to sev- 
eral scientific men that all locks manufactured up to that 
date in England were easy to pick, and to prove his words 
he opened one of Chubb's detector locks in a few minutes. 
As the fairness of the experiment was called into question, 
Mr. Hobbs made another trial on a Chubb lock in a private 
house before a number of gentlemen, and picked the lock 
in the space of twenty-five minutes. Having vanquished 
Chubb, Mr. Hobba now turned his attention to Bramah, 
which firm had exhibited for many years in their estab- 
lishment a patent padlock with the offer of 200 guineas to 



50 



LOCKE— LOCKE, AND HIS PHILOSOPHY. 



the artist who could make an instrument which would open 
it. Arbitrators were appointed, and Mr. Hobbs commenced 
operations on July 24, and on Aug. 23 exhibited the lock 
open to tho arbitrators. Having accomplished this feat, 
Mr. Hobbs offered the same reward to any one who would 
pick Newall's Parautoptic, and the challenge was accepted 
by Mr. Garbutt of London, who, however, failed to accom- 
plish his purpose within the period prescribed, thirty days. 
Thus the supremacy of American locks was fully established 
at that date, although in 1855 Mr. Linus Yale, Jr., of Phila- 
delphia, succeeded in picking the Parautoptic, by means 
of the impression process. That gentleman declared that 
as long as the key is of "winged" form, and in its use rubs 
an impression on the tumblers, all the parautoptic locks 
can be picked. Previous to this date Mr. Yale had in- 
vented an instrument called the *' magic" lock. In this 
extraordinary invention the bits of the key are attached to 
the shaft, and seem to be part of the same piece ; when, 
however, the key is thrust into the lock, thoy are picked 
up by a pin which enters the centre of the shaft through 
them. When the shaft is turned, a number of wheels are 
set in motion which separate the bits from the shaft, and 
carry them into the interior of the lock, at the same time 
the wheels close up the keyhole with a solid block whilst 
the bits are arranging the tumblers for the drawing of the 
bolt. Neither the "tentative" nor the "smoking" nor the 
"impression" process has succeeded in picking the "mag- 
ic " lock, which has received well-merited praise from Eng- 
lish locksmiths. 

Perhaps the best English lock is that invented by Mr. 
E. B. Denison, Q. C, which Mr. Hobbs declared to be the 
only lock of English invention secure against any known 
method of picking. This lock appeared in 18.02, but was 
not patented, as tlie" inventor held that patents are an ob- 
struction to the progress of science, and waste on the whole 
more than they gain for real inventors. The advantages 
of the Denison lock are obvious. It has largo and strong 
■works, with a keyhole so narrow that no instrument strong 
enough to injure the lock can be introduced, nor a reflector 
to observe the bellies of the tumblers. The bolt is not only 
shot by turning a handle, bat also locked lyithout using a 
key. It cannot, however, be opened without a key. Not- 
withstanding its many virtues, however, the Denison lock 
has never found great favor in England, as the improved 
Chubb locks atill hold their popularity. Since Mr. Hobbs 
proved that the detector in a Chubb look afforded guidance 
to a person attempting to pick it, the English firm has ob- 
viated the difficulty by giving the tumblers an unequal 
bearing, so that if a lock-picker feels the obstruction of the 
detector he cannot tell whether the tumbler which he is 
lifting be raised too high or too low. Since the year of the 
lock-controversy (1851) American locksmiths have sustain- 
ed the reputation gained at that era so memorable in the 
history of lockmaking; but, although the number of pat- 
ents taken out since that date is great, the inventions are 
not of sufficient novelty to need detailed description. Since 
the year 1851 no less than 270 locks have been patented in 
London alone. 'W. J. Dixon. 

Locke (David Ros.s), better known under his nom-de- 
plume of " Petroleum V. Nasby," b. at Vestal, Broome co., 
N. Y., Sept. 20, 1833; learned printing in the oflice of the 
Cortland Democrat; was successively editor and publisher 
of the Plymouth (0.) Advertiser, the Mansfield (0.) Her- 
ald, the Buoyrus Journal, and the Findlay (0.) Jefferaonian, 
and editor of the Toledo Blade. In 1860 he began to pub- 
lish his "Nasby" letters, several series of which have ap- 
peared in book-form. He is the author of many political 
pamphlets. His latest production is The Morale of Ahou 
ben Adhem flS75). 

Locke (Jane Ermina), b. at Worthington, Mass., Apr. 
25, 1805; d. at Ashburnham, Mass., Mar. S, 1859. Her 
maiden-name was Starkweather, but in 1829 she married 
John (x. Locke of Boston. They resided in Lowell from 
1833 to 1849, and afterward in Boston. She published a 
volume of poems at Boston in 1842, Rachel; or. The Little 
Mourner in 1844, Boston, a poem, in 1840, The Recalled; 
or, Yoieen of the Past in 1855, and in the same year a eu- 
logy in verso on Daniel Webster. Her poems were much 
appreciated in their time. Her husband published a gene- 
alogy of the Locke family. 

liocke, and his Philosophy. I. The distinguished 
English philosopher, John Locke, was b. at Wrington 
Somersetshire, Aug. 29, 1632. His first studies were pursued 
at Westminster College, London. In 1651 he became a 
member of Christ's College, Oxford, where he resided till 
1664. Here his mind received that bent which gave him 
his subsequent renown as a philosopher. It was partly 
from the reading of Descartes, whose clearness of exposi- 
tion Locke, without accepting his views, greatly admired, 
SO in contrast with the crude instructions of the university^ 



and who must thus receive the merit of preparing against 
himself his most noted adversary. But it was in part, and 
directly, the influence of a discussion with five or six stu- 
dents in his rooms at Oxford, when, as he says, the thought 
came to his mind that the only sure ground of harmony in 
judgment must be found in a preliminary determination 
of the possibilities of the human mind. This " thought," 
which became the Eaaay, was taken up and laid aside, and 
written upon at intervals through a period of more than 
twenty years, and only finished in 1687. In 1664, Locke 
was secretary of legation at Berlin; in 1667 he became ac- 
quainted with Lord Ashley, afterwards earl of Shaftesbury, 
who, in gratitude for medical advice thought to have saved 
his lordship's life, received the young philosopher as a 
member for a number of years of his family. During this 
time he directed the education of Shaftesbury's son, and 
that of his grandson, who became the elegant philosophical 
writer in Queen Anne's reign. Locke was brought, through 
his friend and patron, into the society of Buckingham, 
Halifax, and other distinguished men. When Shaftesbury 
became lord chancellor he gave to him the office of the 
presentation of benefices. But both soon fell into dis- 
favor, and from 1675 to 1679, Locke was in France, mainly 
at Montpellier with Herbert, later earl of Pembroke, and 
to whom he dedicated his Eaaay, having also free inter- 
course with men of eminence at Paris. From 1683 to 
1688, on account of the state of his own country, he deemed 
it wise again to reside abroad. The revolution of 1688 
enabled him to return from Holland to England, where he 
filled several civil offices, and had others proffered, Vfhich 
on account of age and ill health he declined. His last 
years were spent in the study of the Scriptures, and minis- 
tered to by Lady Masham, a daughter of Ralph Cudworth. 
D. at Gates, a firm believer in the Christian r«ligion, Oct. 
28, 1704. 

II. The Philosophy of Locke. — 1. Seaaona for itt 
Great Popularity and Influence. — ^The Eaaay on the Human 
Underatanding, which contains Locke's system, did not 
appear in London until 1690. But four editions, revised 
by the author, were issued before his death, and a fifth, 
with his last emendations, the year after, a tenth in 1731, 
and the thirteenth in 1748. Meantime it was translated 
into French, then becoming the universal language of Eu- 
rope; and this translation, made in 1700, passed through 
five editions in fifty years. It was also translated into 
Latin — into Dutch and German several times, and since 
into modern Greek. These various editions and transla- 
tions indicate the popularity and extensive influence of the 
Eaaay. As reasons for this may be mentioned — first, the 
author's public and social position, coupled with tho clear- 
ness and assurance, if not always the self-consistency, of 
his utterances. Although wanting the condensation' and 
philosophic exactness of such writers as Kant, his English 
would rank among the best prose of his time; and his 
familiar style, derived from tho refined society in which bo 
moved, was a help to his popularity, as his public life was 
already an introduction to his authorship. Secondly, his 
adherence to the cause of civil and religious liberty. In his 
work on Civil Government he advocated the rights of the 
people against the arbitrary rule to which they were being 
subjected. In 1684, and by order of His Majesty, he was 
expelled from his benefice at Oxford, and was an exile on 
account of his too free opinions. He might have met with 
Sir Phihp Sidney's fate if, instead of being secreted in Hol- 
land, he had fallen into the power of the king. On the 
accession of James II., William Penn proposed to procure 
for him a pardon, but the philosopher's noble reply was, 
There is no need of pardon where there is no crime or 
fault. ' But the above reasons, however powerful as aux- 
iliaries, would not suffice but for the third— that the times 
favored such a work. The psychological field was not 
much explored, and in attempting it Locke showed an in- 
dependence which drew attention to him. At the same 
time, good men, especially in England, were disposed to 
accept of what was regarded as authority, and to assume 
that religion could find its support in faith, without any 
help from philosophy, or even against it. And unchristian 
thinkers found a support for their favorite theories in the 
current and accepted philosophy of Locke. Hence, "to- 
wards 17dO, says Cousin, "the principles of Locke were 
spread through Europe; they were developed everywhere 
else as well as in England." This would seem to declare 
the time of its appearance favorable to mch a. system as 
that enounced by Locke. " Placed between the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, he forms the transition from one 
to the other. In fact, run over all the sensualistio philoso- 
phers of the eighteenth century, there is not one wL docs 
not invoke the authority of Locke; and I do not speak 
fX,tj o^^^^t^Phyt'o-ans, butof moralists, publicists, and 
cnt cs Locke is the chief, the avowed master of the sen- 
suahstio school of the last century." (Coi«,-n.) 



LOCKESBUEG— LOCKYEE. 



51 



2. What the Lockian Philosophy is. — Its aim is " to in- 
quire into the original certainty and extent of human 
knowledge." With this in view, the author strives to show 
(bk. i.) that there are no " innate ideas " — ideas being used 
for whatever is in the mind. If any of these are innate, 
then the expression of them — for example, " whatever is, 
is," or "it is impossible the same thing should be and not 
bo"— must be accepted by all human beings, not a child 
or savage excepted. But, it is said, idiots, children, and 
savages do not accept them, therefore they cannot be innate. 
Such is the reasoning. The obstacles thus removed, 
the origin of knowledge is discussed (bk. ii.). Fortu- 
nately for us, the author's positions can be given concisely 
almost in his own words : " Let us suppose the mind to be, 
as wo say, white paper, void of all characters, without any 
ideas; how comes it to bo furnished? Whence has it all 
the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, 
in one word, from experience; in that all knowledge is 
founded, and from that it ultimately derives itself." 
Again he says — and the passage is a fundamental postu- 
late of this philosophy—" Our observation, employed either 
about external, sensible objects, or about the internal ope- 
rations of oar own minds, perceived and reflected on by 
ourselves, is that which supplies our understandings with 
all the materials of thinking. These two are the fountains 
of knowledge from whence all the ideas we have, or can 
naturally have, do spring." These are called "sensation" 
and " reflection." And it is important to observe that the 
latter must wait on the former. " I see no reason to believe 
that the soul thinks before the senses have furnished it with 
ideas to think on." That is, the mind can only act upon 
what is given to it from without, furnishing nothing original 
from itself. In the last analysis the materials of knowledge 
are " ideas" of sensation due to perception. 

3. Griticimn of this Philoanphy. — The first valid objection 
to it is its faulty method. The primary and essential work 
of the psychologist is to examine all the facts of conscious- 
ness, and to present no theory not sustained by these. In- 
stead of this true method, Locke lays down a hypothesis 
of the origin of knowledge which the facts of conscious- 
ness do not sustain. Then in his treatment of innate ideas 
he virtually assumes rational intuitions -as elements of 
knowledge to be the same as a conscious recognition of 
propositional truth; e. g. if one has an idea of existence, 
he must know the import of " whaltever is, is." Arid there 
is a constant want of distinguishing between the condition 
and the cause — between the chronological condition for the 
development of rational truth, and the real cause of its ex- 
istence at all in the mind; the former being our sensible 
connection with the external world ; the latter, the original 
constitution of the soul — i, e. the reason itself. So in the 
matter of it this philosophy has no support for substance 
and real being. Locke's ontology needs what his system, 
carefully guarded in its leading postulates, will not allow. 
Certain of his statements, indeed, taken by themselves, 
must involve intuitive truth. Some of the consequences 
deduced from his hypothesis Locke would deplore as much 
as any one. But his immediate followers, instead of ex- 
posing and correcting his radical defect, proceeded to make 
a rigorous application of his theory of the origin of ideas, 
and what he calls sensation and reflection becomes, con- 
sistently with his own position, sensation only. And so, 
after it has helped Berkeley to eliminate the external world 
from the sphere of reality, it enables Hume to say that it 
is vain to look for reality either within or without ; accord- 
ing to the accepted philosophy, all is phantasm, and we 
cannot reach substance by any possibility of thought. The 
legitimate tendency of the system must be, and has been 
to a greater or less extent, skepticism in religion, utilita- 
rianism in morals, and materialism in philosophy. 

J. R. Herrick. 

fiOckesburg, cap. of Sevier co., Ark. (see map of Ar- 
kansas, ref. 5-A, for location of county), 81 miles S. W. of 
Little Rock. Pop. in 1880, 256. 

liOcke's Island, or IjOckport, seaport of Shelburne 
CO., Nova Scotia, on Ragged Island Bay, has considerable 
West India trade and fisheries. Pop. in 1881, 1918. 

JLockhart, on R. R., cap. of Caldwell co., Tex. (see map 
of Texas, ref. 5-H, for location of county). .SO miles from 
Austin. The celebrated Lockhart Springs are located here. 
Principal business, farming and stock-raising. Pop. in 
1870, 560; in 1880, 718. 

Lockhart (John Gibson), D. C. L., b. at Cambusnethan, 
Lanarkshire, Scotland, in 1797; studied at Glasgow Uni^ 
versity 1807-10; graduated from Baliol College, Oxford, 
in 1817 as bachelor of law ; passed advocate at Edinburgh 
1816 ; became in 1817 a contributor to Blackwood; in which 
hie articles were remarkable for vigor and scholarship; 
married in 1820 the daughter of Sir Walter Scott; *as 
editor of the Quarterly Review, London, 1826-53; received 



in 1843 the sinecure auditorship of the duchy of Cornwall ; 
was one of the writers of the Noetea Ambroaianse. J), at 
Abbotsford, then the seat of his daughter. Lady Hope 
Scott, Nov. 25, 1854. His principal works are Valerius 
{1S21), Adam Blair [1^22), Reginald Dalton (1823), and 
Matthew Wold (1824), novels; Don Quixote, with notes 
(1822), Spanish Ballads (1824), Life of Burns (1825), of 
Bonaparte (1829), and of Scott (18.37-39). 

liOck Ila'ven, city and R. R. centre, cap. of Clinton 
CO., Pa. (see map of Pennsylvania, ref. 3-E, for location 
of county), on the Philadelphia and Erie R. R., and on 
the right bank of the West Branch of the Susquehanna 
River, equidistant between Philadelphia and Erie, has a 
State normal school, good waterworks, several extensive 
machine-shops and iron-foundries, and is lighted by gas. 
The principal industry is the manufacture of lumber, there 
being in the city limits 9 saw-mills and 4 large planing- 
mills. An excellent boom for the staying of logs floating 
in the river is here located. About 35,000,000 feet of lum- 
ber are annually shipped from this point. Pop. in 1870, 
6986; in 1880, 5845. 

JLockjaAV. See Tetanus. 

liOck^porty Will co.. 111. (see map of Illinois, ref. 3-G, 
for location of county), on the Chicago Alton and St. Louis 
R. R. and the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 33 miles from 
Chicago. The principal business is farming. Pop. in 1870, 
1772; in 1880, 1679. 

liOCkport, city and R. R. centre, cap. of Niagara co., 
N. Y. (see map of New York, ref. 4-C, for location of coun- 
ty), on the New York Central R. R. and on the Erie Canal, 
65 miles W. of Rochester,. 18 miles from Niagara Falls, 25 
miles from Buffalo, and 8 miles, air-line, from Lake Ontario. 
It derives its name from a double tier of five locks, of 12 
feet lift each, by which boats are passed up and down the 
"mountain-ridge," a height of 60 feet. Some 35,000 cubic 
feet of water pass this point every minute during the season 
of navigation, only one-fifth of which on account of lock- 
ages, the four-fifths in some part turning machinery before 
reaching the canal-level below. Lockport is located near 
the geographical centre of one of the most profitable grain 
and fruit growing counties in the State. There is received 
for apples alone from $1,000,000 to $1,750,000 annually. 
It has important manufacturing interests, including the 
Holly' Company, which employs, 300 skilled mechanics in 
constructing tfae Holly waterworks, now in use in more 
than 60 cities and villages in the Union; also manufac- 
tures of engines and steam-dredges, self-oentring turning- 
lathes, tackle-blocks, bran-duster and smut-machines, 
window-sash, doors, cornices, etc., patent medicines, shirt 
bosoms, etc., and large quarries of blue limestone. It con- 
tains a union school system, embracing the entire corpora- 
tion, with an imposing central structure wherein are taught 
collegiate branches, and all free to actual residents of the 
city; 2 homes for the friendless, and several other benevo- 
lent organizations, and a fine opera-house. Pop. of city in 
1870, 12,426: in 1880, 13,522. 

Lockwood (Belva Ann Bennett). See Appendix. 

liOckwood (Henry Hall), b. in Kent co., Del., Aug. 
17, 1814, was educated at West Point and graduated in 
1836; entered the 2d artillery regiment and served against 
the Seminoles in Florida, but resigned his position in the 
army in 1837, and was in 1841 appointed professor of mathe- 
matics in the U. S. Naval Academy. In 1861 he was made 
colonel of the 1st regiment of Delaware volunteers, and 
shortly after brigadier-general. He led an expedition to 
the Eastern Shore of Virginia in Nov,, 1861 ; commanded 
the defences of the Lower Potomac from January to June, 
1863; was engaged at Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863, and in 
the Richmond campaign, May and June, 1864, partici- 
pating in the actions near Hanover, May 30-June 1 ; and 
commanded the troops which were sent to defend Baltimore 
against the raid of Early in July, 1864. After the close 
of the war he was appointed professor of natural and ex- 
perimental philosophy in the U. S. Naval Academy; he 
has published a number of military treatises. 

liOckwood (Samuel), b. in Connecticut in the begin- 
ning of the present century, entered the U. S. navy, and 
became a midshipman in 1820, lieutenant in 182S, and 
commodore in 1867. He served in 1820 in the sloop War- 
ren, which was engaged in suppressing piracy in the 
Greek waters. In 1847-48 he commanded the steamers 
Petrel and Scourge, and assisted at the capture of Vera 
Cruz, Tuxpan, and Tabasco. In 1861-62 he commanded 
the blockade of Wilmington and Beaufort, and of York 
River and Newport News. In 1864 he retired. 

liOCk'yer (Joseph Norman), F. R. S., b. at Rugby, 
England, May 17, 1836; educated chiefly on the Continent; 
was clerk in the war-ofBce in 1857 ; became skilled in, 
mathematics and astronomy by private study ; edited the 



52 



LOCLE— LOCOMOTIVE. 



Army Regnlations (lS6o); was for a time connected with 
the royal commission on instruction ; became a fellow of 
the Royal Astronomical Society 1866 ; F. R. S. 1869 ; editor 
of Nature, etc. ; was Rede lecturer at Cambridge 1871-73, 
and chief of the eclipse expedition to Sicily in 1870 ; has 
written valuable papers on the sun and the planet Mars, 
Lessons in Astronomy, The Spectroscope, etc., and various 
reports and memoirs, chiefly upon astronomy and physics. 

liO'cle, town of Switzerland, in the canton of Neufohatel, 
ou the Died. Its manufactures of clocks and watches are 
very celebrated, and the most extensive in the world. Its 
manufactures of lace are also important. The surplus 
water of the Bied is discharged into the Doubs through 
an artificial tunnel constructed to prevent inundation of 
the Valley of the Bied. Pop. 10,464. 

liO'cock (Sir Charles), Bart., M. D., F. R. S., b. at 
Northampton, England, Apr. 21, 1799 ; studied at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where he graduated in medicine 1821 ; 
established himself in his profession in London, and in 
1840 was appointed, on the recommendation of Sir .Tames 
' Clarke, physician accoucheur to the queen, by whom, in 
recognition of his services, he was created a baronet Apr. 

Fig, 



14, 1857, at which time he retired from the active practioo 
of his professibn. In the same year he was chosen presi- 
dent of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, and 
became in 1803 honorary president of the Obstetrical So- 
ciety. He was a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for 
Kent, and in 1865 was an unsuccessful candidate for Par- 
liament in the Conservative interest. D. at Binstead Lodge, 
Ryde, July 25, 1875. 

liOcomotion of Animals. See Mechanics, Animal, 
by Prof. W. P. Trowbridge, Ph.D., LL.D. 

IjOCOmo'tive [Lat. locns, "place," and movere, mo- 
tum, "to move"]. The form of engine shown in Ihe en- 
graving represents quite accurately a very large proportion 
of the locomotives found upon American railroads. Other 
varieties, some diflFering widely from this, are used both 
upon our own roads and in other parts of the world, but in 
all their essential elements they may be compared with it. 
The principal parts are the boiler, containing within itself 
the firebox or furnace j the frame, the steam-cylinders, the 
valve-gear, the driving-wheels, and the truck-frame with 
its wheels. 

The body of the boiler is cylindrical, and to it, at the 




back end, between the driving-wheels, the rectangular outer 
firebox is riveted. The fire-grate is placed at the bottom 
of the inner firebox, and the heated gases pass from the 
burning fuel through the tubes, which extend forward 
through the body of the boiler to the front end. The water 
is contained in the spaces around the outside of the tubes, 
and also in the water-leg or space between the inner and 
outer fireboxes. A dome is placed upon the top of the 
boiler to give a larger internal steam-space, and also in 
order that the mouth of the pipe" through which the steam 
is led to the cylinders may be raised up within it as high 
as. possible above the surface of the water. The parallel 
sides of the outer and inner fireboxes are held to each other 
by stay-bolts, which are screwed in through both plates. 
The top or crown-sheet of the inner firebox is nearly flat, 
and it is stayed by deep bars which reach across it from 
side to side. To these bars the sheet is held up by nu- 
merous bolts or rivets, and the bars themselves are sup- 
ported partly by resting at their ends upon the side-sheets 
or plates of the inner firebox, but chiefly by sling-stays, 
which hang down from the shell of the boiler above the 
crown-sheet. The shell of the boiler is extended forward 
about three feet beyond the front end of the tubes, forming 
the smoke-box, within which the waste gases collect after 
passing through the tubes, and upon which is placed the 
chimney through which they escape into the air. Near the 
top of the chimney a deflector is placed to break up the 
coarser cinders that may be projected against it by the 
force of the draft, and a wire netting fine enough to pre- 
vent their escape into the air. On wood-burning locomo- 
tives this netting is so fine that a medium-sized pin cannot 
be thrust through the mesh. Directly under the chimney 
is placed the draft-pipe, by which uniformity in the flow 
of gases is secured from the lower as well as the upper 
tubes into the chimney. Beneath the draft-pipe a nozzle 
is placed upon the end of the exhaust-pipes, and through 
it the waste steam of the cylinders is discharged. By this 
means a draft is induced through the tubes and through 
the fire, and by this intermittent discharge into the chimney 
of the steam from the cylinders the well-known puff of the 
locomotive is produced. 

■ The throttle-valve, by which the admission of the steam 
to the cylinders, and thus the starting of the engine, is 
controlled, is placed at the entrance to the steam-pipe, close 
beneath tlie cover of the dome, which can be readily re- 



moved to give access to the interior of the boiler. The 
steam-pipe extends down and forward through the front 
end of the boiler into the smoke-box. Two separate pipes 
then lead to the steam-nozzles on the cylinder, through 
which the steam passes into the steam-chest. The cylinders 
are placed outside of and clo«e against the frames, being 
bolted directly to them, and also by the flanges of an in- 
termediate saddle-piece to the smoke-box, or front end of 
the boiler. The steam-chest, containing the slide-valve, is 
placed on the upper side of the cylinder, in which the porta 
are so cast that the steam may pass into the chest, from the 
steam-pipe, out of it to either end of the cylinder, and also 
out to the exhaust-pipe in its final escape, the distributing 
passages being alternately covered by the slide-valve. The 
motion of the piston in the cylinder is transmitted through 
the piston-rod to the cross-head, and then by the connect- 
ing-rod to the crank-pin, which is fitted into the driving- 
wheel. The piston is made of east-iron, and runs steam- 
tight in the cylinder by means of iron packing-rings and 
a set of steel springs, which press the rings radially out- 
ward against the walls of the cylinder. Rings made of 
square steel wire are often used, the rings being bent to a 
circle a little larger than the diameter of the cylinder, and 
then sprung into grooves which are turned in a solid piston 
to receive them. By their own elasticity the wires are kept 
close against the cylinder. The cross-head is held by a' 
key to the outer end of the piston-rod, and it is guided in 
its reciprocating motion by four steel slide-bars which are 
set parallel w)'.,n the centre line of the cylinder. The con- 
necting-rod is attached at one end to a wrist in the cross- 
head, and at the other end to the crank-pin in the driving- 
wheel ; and it thus transmits the pressure upon the piston 
to the wheel, and to the point of contact or of resistance 
upon the rail. This rod, and the parallel rod which con- 
nects the two driving-wheels, are fitted at both ends with 
brass boxes and tapered keys, by which they are held close 
upon the crank-pins in the wheels. The roeker is placed 
close behind the slides, and through it is transmitted tho 
reciprocating motion of the eccentrics upon the driving- 
axle to the slide-valve, by means of the eccentric rods, the 
reversing link, and the valve-stem. 

The iron frame-bars are placed one on each side of the 
boiler, and they are attached to it rigidly near the forward 
end. A cross-beam of oak holds them to each other at the 
extreme front, and to this beam is attached the pilot or 



LOCOMOTIVE. 



53 



cow-catcher, which aids in clearing the track of obstruc- 
tions. The saddle to which the cylinders are attached 
serves as the means of fastening the frames to the boiler, 
as it rests upon them, and is held to them and to the smoke- 
box by bolts which are driven solid into accurately drilled 
holes. The jaws of the frame which hold the driving axle- 
boxes are forged solid with the long side-bars, which lie 
close on each side of the outer firebox. The frames are 
held rigidly to the firebox laterally, but clasps are put 
round them, so that the whole body of the boiler may ex- 
pand backward from the front end as it becomes Seated. 
At the back end of the frames a cast-iron plate is put in 
between them, which serves both in holding them to each 
other and also in coupling on the tender. The axleboxes 
of the driving-wheels are free to slide vertically in the jaws 
of the frame, so that the wheels may yield more perfectly 
to the inequalities of the road. The weight of the engine 
over the driving-wheels rests upon the spring- hangers, 
which draw directly upon the ends of the springs. These 
bear, in the centre of their length, upon the top of the 
axlebox, so that the jar due to the striking of the wheel 
upon any inequality in the rail-surface is lessened in vio- 
lence by passing thus through the spring. An equalizing 
lever is placed oh each side, between the driving-wheel 
springs, and to this lever one end of each spring is hung, 
so that the jar brought against one wheel is in part trans- 
mitted to the spring of the other wheel, and thus the elas- 
ticity of both springs is utilized for the relief of each wheel. 
On each side of the axleboxes are placed vertical wedges 
which bear against the jaws of the frame, and by tighten- 
ing them any looseness due to the wearing of the moving 
faces may be compensated for. The axlebox has a brass 
or white-metal lining, which bears upon the axle, and on 
the top of it is formed an oil-cup for the lubrication of the 
rubbing surfaces. Underneath the axle is an oil-box filled 
with a compressed sponge, which retains the oil and presses 
it constantly against the bearing surface of the axle* 

The driving-wheels are bored to a close fit upon the axles, 
and are forced on by a powerful hydraulic press. They are 
held from turning on the axle by a square key, which is 
driven into a recess or key-way cut half in the axle and 
half in the wheel. The steel crank-pin is forced in the 
same way into a hole bored in the crank-boss, which is an 
enlargement of two of the spokes of the wheel. The driv- 
ing-wheels of American locomotives are invariably made 
of oast iron, and are encircled with a steel band or tire, 



which bears upon the rail and has a flange or lip at its 
inner edge by which it is kept laterally upon the rail. 
Many methods of holding the tires in place upon the wheel 
have been employed. In one of these oak blocks are driven 
with great force into recesses which are left under the tire 
in the rim of the wheel. In another the tire is turned out 
true on its inner circumference, and the wheel is turned 
slightly larger than this inner diameter of the tire. The 
latter is heated until by its expansion it will slip on to the 
wheel, and by the tension due to its cooling it is held in 
place. The forward or truck-wheels are made of cast iron, 
with a hard tread or bearing surface. They are pressed on 
to the axles without keys, and are placed under the engine 
in the truck-frame. Upon this frame is placed a centre- 
bearing, upon which the weight of the forward part of the 
engine rests, and ai'ound which the frame can rotate slightly 
in following the curvature of the track over which the en- 
gine may be passing, and thus the resistance due to the 
side-pressure of the flanges against the rails in passing 
curves is greatly lessened. The direction of the motion of 
the engine may be changed by the action of the reverse 
lever, in bringing into gear with the slide-valve, by means 
of the reversing link, one or the other of the eccentrics 
upon the driving-axle. 

The feed-pump by which the supply of water is forced 
into the boiler is driven by one of the cross-heads, the pump- 
plunger being attached directly to it. The pump-valves 
are made of the hardest brass, and so that they may be 
easily examined or repaired. An injector is usually fitted 
for the supply of the boiler when the engine is standing. 
The water is led to the pump and to the injector by pipes 
which are connected to the tender by a flexible hose. It is 
delivered to the boiler through pipes which enter near the 
front end, and a check-valve is fitted close to the side of 
the boiler to prevent the return of the heated water to the 
pump. The tender, which accompanies nearly all American 
locomotives, is provided with a water-tank enclosing a space 
for fuel, and the whole, resting upon a timber platform, is 
placed upon two truck-frames which are fitted with the 
requisite wheels and axles. 

The weight of an engine of this class, without the ten- 
der, may be taken at thirty-two tons when filled with water 
and ready for work. Of this weight, twenty-one tons rest 
upon the driving-wheels. The cost of opecation and main- 
tenance per mile run is about 19 cents, the proportion due 
to repairs being S^J^^ cents, to fuel 6^ cents, to stores ^ 



Fig. 2. 




Boad Locomotive. 



cent, to miscellaneous 2^ cents, and to attendance of all 
kinds 6-^ cents. It is certain that the secret of the most 
successful practice in the designing and construction of 
locomotives has lain in the observance of the most rigid 
simplicity of detail in every part, and also that the im- 
provements of the future will lie chiefly in the adaptation 
of new materials, rather than new methods of construction. 
Road Locomotive. — The engraving shows a well-approved 
form of engine by Aveling & Porter of Rochester, England. 
Very little has been done in this country in bringing such 
engines into actual use, though several excellent designs for 
them have been put forward. In this engine the boiler is 
of the common locomotive form. On the top of it, near the 
front end, the steam-cylinder is placed, and the crank-shaft, 
fly-wheel, and driving-gear are directly behind it. The driv- 
ing pinion upon the crank-shaftis connected, with one inter- 
mediate shaft, to a heavy gear upon the driving-axle, and 
thus a high speed of the fly-wheel may be maintained at an 
ordinary speed of the locomotive, and an ample power devel- 



oped even with a small steam-cylinder. The driving-wheels, 
upon which about eight-tenths of the whole weight of the 
engine rests, have very broad rims, with thin oblique strips 
riveted upon them, and they thus Tiave a slightly greater 
hold upon the ground than would be afforded by an en- 
tirely smooth surface. The front wheels are pivoted, by a 
centre-pin in their axle, so as to allow the engine to move 
in a curved path. This turning of the engine is controlled 
by side-chains, which are drawn up by a hand-wheel placed 
near the driver. The wheels are made with an internal 
wrought-iron rim and arms, A cast-iron external rim or 
tire is used, and between these two rims, in a closed recess, 
are placed blocks of rubber, which by their elasticity afford 
sufiicient relief to the machinery from the jarring of rough 
roads, and which are at the same time protected from in- 
jury. The weight of a medium-sized engine of this kind 
may be taken at about eight tons, and the cost of operation 
and maintenance at from four to six cents per mile run. 

P. Barnes. 



54 



LOCOROTONDO— LOCUST TREE. 



liOCoroton'do, town in Southern Italy, in the prov- 
ince of Bari, about 26 miles N. of Taranto. Pop. in 1874, 
7189. 

Lo'cri, or Locri Epizephy'rii, an ancient city of 
Magna Urascia or Southern Italy, in the subsequent Ko- 
man province of Bruttium or Calabria Ultra, now Reggio. 
It was founded probably as early as 710 B.C. (according to 
Strabo) as a colony from the G-recian Locris, but whether 
from the eastern or western country of that name is uncer- 
tain. The original settlement was on Cape Zephyrium 
(Capo di Bruzzano), near the S. B. point of the Calabrian 
peninsula, whence the name given to distinguish the colony 
from the mother-country. Ultimately, the settlement was 
removed 15 miles farther N. Locri was celebrated as the 
first Greek state to adopt a written code of laws, the au- 
thorship of which was ascribed to a half-mythical legisla- 
tor, Zaleucus. The people were said to be skilful and 
courageous in war, and addicted to poetry, philosophy, 
and music. The Locrians were long in hostility with Rhe- 
gium and Crotona, and in alliance with Syracuse. The 
younger Dionysius seized upon the citadel at Locri on his 
expulsion from Syracuse (356 b. c), and carried on a des- 
potic government until expelled six years later. During 
the wars of the Romans with Pyrrhus and with the Car- 
thaginians, Locri alternately favored all the contending 
parties, and consequently suffered by turns from all, es- 
pecially from the Romans, who were finally victorious, and 
followed the example of Pyrrhus in plundering the famous 
temple of Proserpine. From this time Locri sunk into in- 
significance ; its very existence for many centuries is known 
only by passages in geographical treatises. Destroyed 
probably by the Saracens, its site had become unknown 
until the present century, when the remains of the walls 
of the two famous citadels and the foundations of the tem- 
ple of Proserpine have been discovered 5 miles from the 
modern town of Gerace. (See description by the duke de 
Luynes in Ann. d. Inst, Arch., vol. ii.) 

liOc'rians [AoKpot], a people of ancient Greece, reputed 
to be descendants of the Leleges, divided into eastern and 
western tribes. Those on the E. coast, and N. of the 
Phocian city Daphnus, were called Epicnemidil (named 
from Mount Cnemis), while those farther S. were Opun- 
tii, so called from Opus, their chief town. On the N. 
of the Corinthian Gulf dwelt the OzoIeb, a semi-barbarous 
tribe. The distinction between Epicnemidil and Opuntii 
is not found, however, in the writings of Homer, Herodo- 
tus, Thucydides, and Polybius, and during the flourishing 
period of Grecian history Opus was regarded as the chief 
town of the Epicnemidil. Even Strabo, from whom the 
distinction is principally derived, in one place describes 
Opus as the metropolis of the Epicnemidii. The origin of 
the name Ozolic is uncertain. It is generally derived from 
a Greek verb which signifies "to smell," but various opin- 
ions prevail concerning the object to which the smell has 
reference — the undressed skins worn by the ancient inhab- 
itants, or the stench arising from a spring at the foot of 
Mount Tophiassus, or the abundance of asphodel with 
which the air was scented. The Locri Ozolse are said to 
have been a colony from the Opuntian Locrians. 

IjO'cus fLat.]. The locus of a point is the line gen- 
eratod by that point when moving according to a fixed 
Jaw. Thus, if a point moves in a plane in such manner 
that the sum of its distances from two fixed points is al- 
ways equal to a given distance, its locus is an ellipse. The 
locus of a line is the surface generated by that line when 
moving according to a fixed law. Thus, if a straight line 
moves in such a manner as to touch three other straight 
lines, no two of which are parallel, its locus is a hyper- 
boloid of one nappe. To find the equation of a locus we 
have only to express the law of motion by one or more in- 
determinate equations. 

The following example illustrates the method of solving 
geometrical problems by the principles of loci : Let it be 
required to construct a triangle whose base is equal to a 
given line, whose area is equal to a 
given area, and whose vertical angle 
is equal to a given angle. Draw a 
line AB equal to the given base; on 
it, as a chord, construct an arc of a 
circle capable of containing the given 
angle; draw a line DC parallel to AB, 
and at a distance from it equal to the 
quotient of the given area by half 
the line AB; and from either point in which this line in- 
tersects the arc, as C, draw CA and CB ; then will ACB be 
the required triangle. For, DC is the locus of the vertices 
of all the triangles whose common base is AB and whose 
areas are equal to the given area, and the arc ACB is the 
locus of the vertices of all the angles whose sides pass 
through A and B, and which are equal to the given angle; 




Fig. 1. 



hence, the points of intersection are the vertices required. 
If DC cuts the arc in two points, there are two solutions ; 
if it is tangent to the arc, there is but one solution; if it 
does not intersect the arc, and is not tangent to it, the so- 
lution is impossible. W. G. Peck. 

liO^Cllst [Lat. loeuBta], By this name may be denoted 
the migratory locust of the Old World {CEdipoda migrato- 
rium) and the locust of Western North America {Caloptetni8 
spretus). The term "locust" is often wrongly applied to 
the cicada or seventeen -year locust. The transformations 
of the locust, as in all the grasshoppers, are very slight, 
the larva diifering from the adult chiefly in wanting wings; 
but in this state even they are said by African travellers to 
travel great distances. The eggs are large, long, cylindri- 
cal, and laid late in the summer in packets of about sev. 
enty-five, resembling cocoons, in holes bored in the ground 
by means of their stout horny ovipositors. The voracity 
of the locust, and of grasshoppers generally, may be ex- 
plained by the anatomy of the alimentary canal, which is 
highly developed, the gizzard being provided with from 
six to eight rows of horny denticulated plates situated on 
ridges, the whole number of teeth in some species amount- 
ing to 270. The stomach and salivary glands are highly 
developed, the large jaws further adapting it for its vege- 
table diet. The air-tubes (tracheae) dilate into numerous 
large air-reservoirs, which assist it in taking its long-sus- 
tained flights. The ears of the locust are two vesicles sit- 
uated at the base of the hind-body or abdomen, each sup- 
plied by an auditory nerve sent from the third thoracic 
ganglion. The stridulating noise this and many other 
grasshoppers make is produced by rubbing the thighs 
against the wings. The migratory locust of the Old World 
is widely distributed, being found all over Africa, in West- 
ern Asia, and Southern Europe, sometimes occurring in 
Belgium and England. It is said to travel about sixteen 
miles a day. It moults five times, at intervals of about six 
weeks. The locust is eaten and relished by the natives of 
the country in which it is found as nutritious food. 

The locust of North America is the widely distributed red- 
legged "grasshopper" {Caloptenue femitr-ruhrum, 'Riirfi^^ 

Fig. 1, h) with its allied 
species ( Caloptenua apre* 
tuB, Uhler, Fig. 1, a), 
which inhabits the U. S, 
west of the Mississippi 
River, though occasion- 
ally found in New Eng- 
land. The eastern species 
does the most damage in 
Northern New England 
and Canada. The west- 
ern species {spretvs) 
breeds most abundantly 
Red-legged Grasshopper, and its in the elevated portions 
long-winged Western variety. of Colorado and north- 
ward, and migrates to the plains below ; it also breeds abun- 
dantly in Iowa and Minnesota, and is so voracious as to 
drive farmers from their lands. The young of the spretvs 
are hatched in March and April and early in May in Texas, 
Colorado, and Kansas, and at once begin their ravages. 
Late in the season, by the last of June, they acquire wings, 
becoming fearfully destructive, though most destructive 
before acquiring their wings. They are more active by 
night than by day. Late in summer so abundant do 
they become that an observer in Texas has seen " the 
whole surface of the earth so broken up by their borings 
that every inch of ground contained several patches of 
eggs." A. S. Packard, Jr. 

Locust Tree [Lat. locusta]. The locust tree is named 
Robinia, in honor of John Robin, herbalist to Henry IV. 
of France, and of his tion Vespasian, who first cultivated 
the tree in Europe. The beautiful genus received its name 
from Linn93us, and belongs to the sub-order Papilionaceae 
of the order Leguminosae. The five-toothed calyx is short 
and slightly two-lipped. The standara is large and round- 
ed, turned back, and scarcely longer than the wings and 
keel. The stamens are in two bundles— V. c. diadelphous. 
The style is bearded next the free stamen ; the pod linear, 
flat, several-seeded, margined on the seed-bearing edge, 
and with thin flat valves. Leaves odd-pinnate, with sti- 
pels at the base of the leaflets. The flowers are very 
showy, in pendulous racemes, and in the common locust 
are exceedingly fragrant. Rohinia Pseud-acacia, the com- 
mon locust, is called false acacia from the resemblance 
it bears to the true acacia. It has prickles at the base of 
the leaves, which are smooth and rarely retain dust. The 
roots do not bury themselves deep in the soil, but spread 
out just beneath the surface, and cause the young tree to 
grow with extreme rapidity during the first years of its 
life. When more mature, and the roots have exhausted the 




LODEVE— LOESS. 



55 



nourishment about them, the growth is slower. It has been 
recommended to be planted on the borders of pastures, as 
it^ droppings enrich the soil. Cattle are fond of the sweet 
leaves. The tree never attains great size in the Eastern 
States, but reaches its perfection in Kentucky and Tennes- 
see, where it sometimes exceeds four feet in diameter, and 
grows to a height of eighty feet. When the land where 
it grows is cleared it produces abundant crops of Indian 
corn for several years in succession without manuring. It 
has been suggested that exhausted soil may be restored to 
fertility by a growth of the locust, its leaves soon becoming 
converted into mould. 

The wood of the locust is close-grained and compact. 
Its medullary rays are closer and more numerous than in 
any other tree. The color varies, but the reddish-tinted is 
the most valued for timber. According to Emerson, there 
is a black variety in the Western States. The wood is re- 
markable for its strength and durability, and for its stiff- 
ness, hardness, elasticity, and weight. Fence-posts, railway 
sleepers, and trenails in naval architecture are made of it. 
It is considered as durable as the live-oak. It is used to 
some extent in cabinetmaking, but only slightly in house- 
building. For mill-cogs it is very valuable. The celebrated 
Cobbett in 1823, after a residence of some time in America, 
returned to England, and by his writings, in which he 
claimed superlative virtues for this tree, produced a remark- 
able interest in it. It was soon found that he had much 
exaggerated the useful properties of the tree. Valuable as 
the wood is for many economic purposes, graceful as is the 
aspect and foliage of the tree, and beautiful as are the 
flowers, the locust is yet so infested by many varieties of 
insects as to make it objectionable. Where it is grown for 
timber it is advised to plant it in groves, as then the trees 
on the margin only seem to be affected. All parts of the 
tree — leaves, bark, wood, and seeds — are subject to insect 
ravages, almost threatening its extermination. The 
branches are easily broken, moreover, by winds. It is 
easily propagated by the suckers which spring up from the 
roots, and still more readily by the seed, which is best pre- 
served in the pod. It prefers a rich, loamy soil, and the 
young plants will often grow from two to three feet in the 
first season. There are two species of Rnhivia found in 
cultivation besides the paend-acncin — viz. the Robinia vie- 
coea and the Rohinia hhpida. The latter — a mere shrub — 
is known as the rose acacia, and is distinguished by its 
rose-colored, inodorous blossoms and hairy stems. It is 
apt to spread and become troublesome. AV. W. Bailky. 

liOd^ve^ town of France, department of H6rault, at 
the confluence of the Ergue and Soulandres, at the foot of 
the Cevennes. Pop. in 1881, 10,185. 

Lodge (Edmund), F. S. A., b. in London, England, 
June 1.3, 1756; served in the army in his youth, and after- 
wards devoted himself to antiquarian pursuits, especially 
genealogy. He became a member of the Heralds' College; 
was promoted. to the office of Lancaster Herald 1793, Nor- 
roy King-of-Arms 1822, and Clarencieux King-of-Arms 
1838. D. at London Jan! 16, 1839. He published liluBfra- 
tions of British History, Biography, and Maniiera in the 
Reigns of Henry VIII, y Edward VT,, Mary, Elizaheth, and 
James I. (3 vols., 1791), Peerage and Baronetage of Eng- 
land, an annual publication, etc. 

Lodge {Henry Cabot), b. in Boston May 12, 1850, edu- 
cated in Boston at private school; graduated at Harvard 
1871 ; at Harvard Law School 1875, LL.B.j assistant edi- 
tor ^or(A ^«ten'ca» 1874; resigned 1876; 1876 admitted 
to bar; elected member of Massachusetts Historical Soci- 
ety ; took degree of Ph.D. for essay on Land Law of Anglo- 
Saxons, published by Little & Brown in 1877; published 
Life and Letters of Great- Grandfather George Cabot ; 
was university lecturer on American history 1876-79; 
resigned 1879; 1878 elected member American Academy 
Arts and Sciences; 1879 editor /n(er/ia(/ona^; resigned 1881; 
1879 delivered Fourth of July oration before city govern- 
ment of Boston; wrote article "Albert Gallatin" for Ency- 
clopiedia Rritaninca ; elected member of House from 10th 
Esse.v district 1880 ; re-elected to House ; district dele- 
gate to Chicago June, 1880; 1881 published Short History 
of English Cfilonies / edited two aeries of Popular Tales 
and a volume of Ballads and Lyrics j elected member of 
American Antiquarian Society 1882 ; published Life of 
Alexander Hamilton 1883, and Life of Daniel WeJaster; 
elected chairman of Republican State committee, and con- 
ducted campaign which resulted in defeat of Gen. Butler; 
1884 published Studies in History; sent as deleg;tte-at- 
large to Republican convention at Chicago : ran as Repub- 
lican candidate for Congress in 6th Dist., and was defeated 
by some 255 votes in a total of 30,000; edited Putnam's 
edition of Works of Alexander Hamilton. 

Lodge (Thomas), b. in Lincolnshire, Eng,, about 1555: 
entered Oxford University in 1573; was a law-student at 



Lincoln's Inn in 1584; was for some time an actor; was a 
soldier in the expeditions of Clarke and Cavendish; stud- 
ied medicine at Avignon, and practised at London, where 
he d. of the plague in Sept., 1625. He was the author of 
Rosalynde; Euphue*s Golden Legacie (1590), a novel which 
was the basis of Shakspeare's As You Like It; True Trag- 
edies of Marius and Sylla (1594), a drama; A Margarite 
of America (1596), a tale; a T'reatise of the Plague (1603). 
In connection with Greene he wrote A Looking-Glass for 
London and England (1594). 

LCdi, town of N. Italv^ in the province of Milan, in 
lat. 45° 18' 35" N., Ion. 27° 09' 67" E. It lies 20 miles S. 
of Milan, on the right bank of the Adda, which is here 
crossed' by a bridge, the river being navigable for large 
boats until it reaches the Po. Lodi was the theatre of one 
of the most daring and brilliant exploits of the French 
under Bonaparte. On May 3 0, 1790, Napoleon, after the 
terrible passage of the long and narrow bridge under the 
full fire of the Austrian batteries, won the memorable vic- 
tory which secured him the possession of Lombardy. The 
streets and piazzas of Lodi are, for an old town, broad, 
spacious, well paved, and clean, and many of the public 
buildings are worthy of notice. The cathedral dates from 
the twelfth century, and other churches contain fine mar- 
bles, bronzes, frescoes, and especially wood-carvings of 
much merit. The educational and charitable institutions 
of Lodi are numerous, and recent co-operative associations 
have proved very successful. The trade and industry of 
the plaoe are remarkable. Its majolica has a high reputa- 
tion ; also its silk and linen, but the chief article of the 
Lodi market is the famous Parmesan cheese, which is made 
in immense quantities in the neighborhood. Pop. in 1881, 
25,804. 

Lo'di Vec'chio [anc. Laua Pompeia'], an old town 
about 5 miles from Lodi, founded, Pliny says, by the Boii 
and colonized by the father of Pompey. Its mediseval 
vicissitudes, together with those of the more modern town, 
are of much interest. Pop. 3500. 

Lodome'ria was the Latin name for a part of Galicia. 
Lodz, city of Russian Poland, in the government of 
Piotrokow, is well built, and has very extensive manufac- 
tures of cotton, woollens, and linens. In 1821 it had only 
800 inhabitants, but the establishment of cotton manufac- 
tures has made it the second town in Poland. Pop. 57,000. 
Loess [Ger. Xosz, from Losen, to "loosen "], arenaceous 
calcareous clay, yellowish brown in color, found chiefly in 
the valleys of certain rivers, such as the Rhine, the Danube, 
and the Missouri. The loess belongs to the category of super- 
ficial deposits, being covered only by alluvium, and where 
in contact with the till or boulder clay, the ground moraine 
formed by glaciers, it is found to rest upon that, and is 
thus proved to be of more recent date. Usually the loess 
shows little signs of stratification; sometimes it is ob- 
scurely bedded, but often forms cliffs or walls 30 to 50 feet 
in height where the material is very nearly homogeneous 
throughout. Unlike clay, loam, or sand, the loess is re- 
markably resistant to weathering ; exposed cliffs of it seem 
to be as little affected by rain or frost as many varieties 
of solid rock ; and where faces of loess have been marked 
with inscriptions, these remain legible for a surprisingly 
long time when the softness of the material is considered. 
Another peculiarity of the loess is that it contains many 
calcareous concretions, usually round, ovoid, or cylindrical, 
though irregular in diameter and surface. It also con- 
tains traces of what seem to be the roots of plants deep- 
ly penetrating the mass, apparently from the present 
surface, and the concretions referred to above have been 
often formed around such roots. The loess of the Mis- 
souri Valley is sometimes called the fi^t/^-./oj-Hia^/oji, because, 
from its power of resisting erosion, it forms vertical faces 
or " bluffs." These are, however, often only the facings 
of the rocky cliffs which constitute the walls of the valley 
formed long ago and filled, in comparatively modern times, 
with the loess, now but partially removed. The fossils of 
the loess are usually few in number, and are chiefly land- 
shells and the bones of land-animals, but occasionally 
fresh-water mollusks are found in considerable abundance. 
The origin of the loess has recently become a subject of 
earnest discussion among geologists. It was formerly sup- 
posed by all to be a river silt, and that is the view advo- 
cated by Lyell in his description of the loess of the Rhine, 
but Baron Richthofen, in the study of the great area oc- 
cupied by the loess in China, was led to consider the whole 
formation as an accumulation of wind-borne dust. This 
view is accepted by many geologists, but there are serious 
difliculties in its application to the loess deposits of Europe 
and America. These are : 

1st. The limiHition of the loess of Europe to the valleys 
of the Rhine and Danube. It is difficult to understand 
how an seolian deposit should be so restricted, while a 



56 



LOFODEN— LOGAN. 



fluviatile or lacustrine sediment would necessarily be so. 
The loess of the Mississippi Valley is not restricted to so 
narrow limits, and yet it is mostly confined to the Valley 
of the Missouri and the adjacent country, which would be 
flooded by its waters if their flow was impeded. 

2d. No such deponit aa the loeae is noic known to he ac- 
cuimdativg through the agency of wind. Nothing of the 
kind has been observed by the writer in repeated journeys 
through the arid and windy regions of the interior of our 
continent, where the conditions would seem to be espe- 
cially favorable and where dust-storms are common, the 
material transported by the wind being all washed away 
by the rain and snow. The absence of stratification in the 
loess is a feature diflicult to reconcile with aqueous deposi- 
tion, as it would be evidence of a constancy in conditions 
of sedimentation certainly unusual, though not impossible; 
Lyell shows, however, that the silt of the Nile is nearly 
unstratified. The writer adheres to the theory of aqueous 
deposition for the origin of the European and American 
loess, because it is mooe like an accumulation of river silt 
tha.n any other deposit now forming. The yellow waters 
of the Missouri are now always loaded with a sediment 
which in chemical and physical characters is scarcely dif- 
ferent from the loess ; and if the outlet of the Missouri 
were obstructed by a dam or by the influx of the waters 
of the Gulf, it would precipitate a sediment undistinguish- 
able from it unless laminated by variations in the volume 
of the river. If the sediment carried by the Missouri were 
distributed through a considerable body of still water into 
which it flowed, the sediment would be distributed and 
deposited with a good degree of constancy. We can 
imagine circumstances in which the amount of sediment 
transported would be subject to very little variation, and 
hence the deposit formed at the bottom of the receiving 
basin would be nearly homogeneous. The rivers which 
are fed only by rain vary greatly in their volume and the 
amount of sediment they transport, but the streams which 
drain glaciers are much less variable in their flow, and the 
silt they carry is always abundant and almost invariable 
in character and quantity. The region drained by the 
Upper Missouri was once occupied by glaciers more ex- 
tensive than those of Switzerland, and it is certain that 
its current once carried a larger and more constant burden 
of silt than now. We have also evidence that a water- 
basin at one time occupied the country about the mouth 
of the Missouri and received its flow. Putting these facts 
together, we have the basis of a theory for the formation 
of the loess which is not difficult to understand or believe. 
Similar causes would produce like results in the valleys of 
the Rhine and the Danube, and we have only to imagine 
what we know to have been at one time true — that these 
streams drained a great glaciated area in Central Europe, 
and their ice-cold and lifeless waters transported a large 
and constant quantity of sediment, precipitated this near 
their obstructed mouths — and we have supplied an expla- 
nation of the phenomena which is not only possible and 
probable, but almost inevitable. (See Lyell, Elements of 
Geology, 1838, and Principles of Geology, 10th ed., vol. i., 
1867; R. Pumpelly, Geol. Researches, Smithsonian Com., 
1S66 ; J. S. Newberry, Annals N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., 1871, 
and Geology of Ohio, vol. ii., 1874; J. E. Tod, Proc. Amer. 
Assoc, 1878; E. W. Hilgard, Amer. Jour. Sci., 1879: W. J. 
McGee, Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1878, and Geol. Mag., 1879 ; R. 
Ellsworth Call, Am. Naturalist, 1882.) J. S. Newberry. 
Lofo'den, or Lofo'ten, a group of islands situated 
between lat. 67° .SO' and B9° 30' N., and stretching along 
the north-western coast of Norway. The largest are An- 
doen, Langoen, Hindoen, East Vaagen, West Vaagen, and 
Flagstadoe. They are high and rocky, presenting wild, 
rugged, and deeply-indented coasts, and rising in some 
places of the interior to the height of 4000 feet, at which 
elevation the snow does not melt during summer. The in- 
habitants number about 4000, partly of Norwegian, partly 
of Finnish descent. Along the coasts of the fiords a little 
barley, oats, and potatoes can be cultivated, but the islands 
derive their importance from the immensely rich fisheries, 
which each summer employ nearly 30,000 men, and form 
a source of national wealth to Norway. Early in spring 
cod is caught to the number of nearly 20,000,000, a large 
portion of which is sold fresh, the rest producing about 
9000 tons of dried fish, 22,000 barrels of oil, and 6000 bar- 
rels of roe. When the cod-fishing is over, at the end of 
April, the herring-fishing begins and continues the whole 
summer ; also great numbers of lobsters are caught. But 
this fishing is not without its dangers. The currents 
around and between the islands are so rapid and tortuous, 
and subject to such violent changes from ebb and flood, 
that during spring and fall, when hard weather sets in, 
these waters often become perfectly unnavigable. Even 
whales are sometimes dashed to pieces against the rocks 
of the coasts. (See Maelstkom.) 



tortus (William Kennett), b. at Rye, Sussex, Eng- 
land, about 1820; was educated at Cambridge, where ho 
distinguished himself in geology under Prof. Sedgwick; 
was from 1849 to 1852 a member of a commission for de- 
termining the boundary between Turkey and Persia, becom- 
ing familiar with the regions on the Tigris and Euphrates, 
which he explored in 1853-54 under the auspices of the 
Assyrian Society, making numerous important excavations 
and discoveries, especially upon the site of Warka, the 
biblical Brech. He published in 1857 a valuable work. 
Travels and Researches in Chaldea and Susiana, was ap- 
pointed a member of the geological survey of India, and d. 
Nov., 1858. 

liOgan, cap. of Harrison co., la. (see map of Iowa, 
ref. 5-D, for location of count3'), on Bayes River and the 
Chicago and North-western R. R., 30 miles from Council 
Bluff's, has excellent water-power, and limestone and hard- 
wood timber in abundance. Pop. in 1880, 644. 

Logan, R. R. centre, cap. of Hocking oo., 0. (see map 
of Ohio, ref. 7-F, for location of county), on the Hocking 
Canal and the Columbus and Hocking Valley R. R., 51 
miles from Columbus, has a furnace, .flouring-mills, foun- 
dry, woollen-factory, furniture manufactory, and a largo' 
trade. Pop. in 1870, 1827; in 1880, 2666. 

liOg^an, on R. R., cap. of Cache co., Ut. (see map of 
Utah, ref. 2-G, for location of county), is a Mormon town. 
Pop. in 1870, 2757 ; in 1880, 3396. 

liOgan, b. about 1720, the son of a Cayuga chief who 
lived at Shamokin, in Pennsylvania. He bore the name 
of Tah-gah-jute, but took also the name of James Logan^ 
acting governor of Pennsylvania, his friend. He was a 
man of fine physical and mental powers, and was always 
friendly to the whites until 1774, when a party of ruffians 
murdered his wife and all his children. He then lived near 
the Ohio River, having removed in 1767. After this for 
six years Logan and his followers kept the whole West 
from Detroit to the Holston in terror, and slaughtered great 
numbers of settlers. A well-known and eloquent speech 
which Logan sent to the whites by an interpreter a few 
months after the murder of bis family is preserved in Jef- 
ferson*s Notes; but its authenticity, and still more the ac- 
curacy of its statements, are open to serious question.' 
Logan attacked a party of friendly Indians at Detroit in 
1780 while intoxicated, and was killed in the affray by one 
of his own relatives. A granite monument was erected to 
his memory at Fair Hill cemetery, near Auburn, Cayuga 
CO., N. Y. 

Logan (Cornelius A.), b. at Baltimore, Md., in 1800, 
of Irish stock; educated at St. Mary's College, and went 
several times as supercargo to Europe ; was afterwards a 
journalist in Baltimore and New York ; became an actor, 
and produced several successful plays. His poem. The 
Mississippi, is one of his best-known productions. In 
1840 he removed to Cincinnati, 0. His daughters, Oliye, 
Eliza (Mrs. Geo. Wood, 1830-72), and Cecilia, were known 
as actresses. 

Logan (George), M. D., grandson of James Logan, b. 
at Stenton, near Philadelphia, Sept. 9, 1753 : studied med- 
icine in Edinburgh; returning to the U. S. in 1779, served 
in the Pennsylvania legislature for several terms, and was 
a warm partisan of Jefferson and the Republican party 
under the administration of John Adams. In 1798, dur- 
ing the imminent peril of war between the U. S. and 
France, he went to Paris as a volunteer peacemaker, and 
was denounced for so doing by the Federalists, who pro- 
cured the passage by Congress of the so-called " Logan 
act," making it a high misdemeanor for a private eitiz6n 
to take part in a controversy between the U. S. and a for- 
eign power. Dr. Logan was a member of the U. S. Senate 
1801-07 ; went to England in 1810 in the hope of contrib- 
uting to preserve peace with that country ; was a member 
of the Philosophical Society and of the board of agricul- 
ture, and author of valuable experiments in scientific farm- 
ing. D. at Stenton Apr. 9, 1821. 

Logan (George), M. D., b. at Charleston, S. C, Jan. 4, 
1778; studied medicine in Philadelphia under Profs. Cald- 
well and Hartshorn ; for half a century practised his pro- 
fession in Charleston, where he was hospital surgeon to the 
navy-yard, and was one of the oldest surgeons on the naval 
list; was author of a popular work on diseases of children. 
D. at New Orleans Feb. 13, 1861. Paul F. Evk, 

Logan (James), b. at Lurgan, Ireland, Oct. 20, 1674, 
of Scotch Quaker stock ; was well educated, and became a 
merchant; went in 1699 with Penn to Philadelphia; was 
long in public life as provincial secretary, ehief-justioe, etc. 
of Pennsylvania; was president of the oounoil and acting 
governor 1736-38 ; author of Experimenta de Plantanim 
Generatione (Leydcn, 1739), a translation of Cicero's Dt 
Senectute (1744, printed by Franklin), and other works in 



LOGAN— LOGARITHMIC CURVE. 



57 



Latin and in English prose and verse; was the founder of 
the Luganian Library. D. at Stenton^ near Germautown, 
Pa., Oct. 31, 1751. 

liOgan (John), b. near Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1748 ; 
studied at the University of Edinburgh; took orders, and 
became a minister at Leith in 1773. He had formed at the 
university a friendship with Michael Bruce, a young poet 
who d. in 1 767, and whose poems he edited in 1770, adding 
some of his own. The Ode to the Cuckoo and several 
hymns contained in this volume having become very pop- 
ular, Logan claimed them as his own composition, and 
thus gave rise to a literary controversy which has been 
warmly maintained ever since, though the balanec of evi- 
dence seems to support the claims of Bruce. Logan wrote 
for the stage, delivered lectures on the philosophy of his- 
tory, and was in 1780 an unsuccessful candidate for the 
professorship of history at Edinburgh. He lost his eccle- 
siastical position through alleged intemperance, and de- 
voted himself in London to literature, publishing a volume 
of poems in 1781, Runnamede, a tragedy, in 1783, and 
several historical treatises. D. at London Dee. 28, 1788. 
Two posthumous volumes of Sr.rmona (1790-91) were so 
popular as to reach an 8th ed. in 1822. 

Logan (John A.), b. in Jackson co., 111., Feb. 9, 1824; 
received a limited common-school education, and on the 
outbreak of the war with Mexico enlisted as a private in 
the 1st Illinois Vols., of which regiment he became quar- 
termaster with the rank of first lieutenant. Returning at 
the close of the war, he was elected clerk of the court of 
his native county in 1849 ; in 1852 graduated at the Louis- 
ville University, and was admitted to the bar, attaining 
popularity and success in hia profession; was elected to the 
State legislature in 1852, 1853, 1856, and 1857, and was pros- 
ecuting attorney 1853-57; was elected to the U.S. Con- 
gress in 1858, and again in 1860, resigning his seat to enter 
the army ; in Sept., 1861, was appointed colonel of the 31st 
Illinois Vols., which he led at the battle of Belmont in 
November; at Fort Donelson in Feb., 1862, was wounded, 
and the following month appointed a brigadier-general of 
volunteers; engaged at Pittsburg Landing in April, and in 
the West until Nov., 1862, when he was promoted to be 
major-general; throughout the Vicksburg campaign was 
in command of a division of the 17th corps, and was dis- 
tinguished at Port Gibson, Champion Hills, and in the 
siege and surrender of Vicksburg; in Oct., 1863, was placed 
in command of the 15th corps, which he led with great 
credit until the death of McPherson, when he succeeded to 
the command of the Army of the Tennessee, where, in the 
language of Gen. Sherman, he *' nobly sustained his repu- 
tation ;" he was, however, shortly after relieved by Gea. 
0. 0. Howard, and returned to the command of his corps, 
which he led until the fall of Atlanta, when .the eventful 
political crisis, involving the choice of a President, de- 
manded his voice and influence at home, and consequently 
he did not rejoin his corps until the arrival of Sherman's 
army at Savannah, after its famous "march to the sea;" 
when, resuming his command, he retained it through the 
subsequent march through the Carolinas, and in May, 1865, 
succeeded Gen. Howard in command of the Army of the 
Tennessee. Resigned from the army Aug., 1865, and in 
November following was appointed minister to Mexico, 
but declined ; was subsequently elected to the 40th and 
41st Congresses, and in 1870, 1878, and 1885 to the U. S. 
Senate from his native State. He was nominated for Vice- 
President of the U. S. by the Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicago, 111., June 6, 1884 ; wrote The Great 
Conspiracy; Its Origin and HiBtory (1885). 

G. C. Simmons. 
liOgan (Olive). See Sykes (Ouve Logan). 
Logan (TnosrAS Muldrup), M. D., b. in Charleston, 
S. C, Jan. 31, 1808; graduated M.D. in Charleston Medical 
College, S. C, 1828; was co-editor of a surgical compen- 
dium, has contributed largely to medical science, and is 
a member of several foreign and domestic societies : is 
the author of Topoijraphy nf California^ and contributed 
largely to the Transactiona of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, of which he became president. 

liOgan (Sir William Edmont>), LL.D., F. R. S., F. G. S., 
b. at Montreal, Canada, Apr. 23, 1798; graduated at the 
University of Edinburgh in 1817, and in 1818 became 
partner in a mercantile house in London ; was 1829-38 
manager of a coal-mining and copper-smelting enterprise 
at Swansea, Wales, and prepared geological maps and sec- 
tions of that region for the ordnance survey; in 1841 be- 
came the head of the geological survey of Canada, from 
which time ho published valuable annual reports and many 
important scientific papers; represented Canada in the 
Expositions of 1851 and 1862 at London, and in 1855 at 
Paris ; was made a knight of the Legion of Honor in 1855, a 
knight bachelor by Queen Victoria 1856, and received sev- 



eral valuable medals and other distinctions. D. in Wales 
June — , 1875. He was the first to demonstrate that the 
stratum of under-clay which underlies the coal-beds was 
the soil inwhich the coal-vegetation grew. He published 
many valuable treatises in various scientific periodicals. 

Logan Court-House (or Arrocoma), cap. of Logan 
CO., West Va. (see map of AVest Virginia, ref. 6-B, for loca- 
tion of county), 50 miles S. W. of Charleston. Pop. of 
dist. in 1870, 1220; in 1880, 1769. 

Log and Line, a contrivance for measuring the vcIot 
city of a ship at sea. It consists of a wooden float, weighted 
on one side so that it will float upright, and having a line 
attached to it in such manner as to bring the flat side of the 
float so as to offer the greatest resistance to a force tending 
to drag it through the water. The attached line is about 
150 fathoms in length, and when not in use is wound on a 
light running reel. The line is divided into equal parts, 
each of which is equal to ^-^^ of a nautical mile, the points 
of division being marked, by knots, formed by passing 
pieces of twine between the strands of the line, and leav- 
ing the free ends to project on each side of the line. The 
first knot is placed at a considerable distance from \.h^ float 
or log, and is very prominently marked. The part of the 
line between the log and the first knot is called the stray 
line ; its use is to allow the log to become settled before the 
count is commenced. To use the log and line, the log is 
thrown over from the lee quarter of the vessel, and the line 
is then unwound from the reel as fast as the vessel sails. 
At the instant the first point of division passes from the 
reel a half-minute sand-glass is inverted, and when the last 
sand falls the reel is stopped. The number of equal spaces 
that have been unwound indicates the number of nautical 
miles the ship is sailing per hour, inasmuch as a half min- 
ute bears the same relation to an hour that one of the 
divisions of the line does to a nautical mile. The log is 
thrown from time to time, and the results are recorded in 
a book called the logbook. To secure accurate results, the 
line should be so prepared as to prevent stretching. To 
guard against variations of length due to hygrometrie 
changes, the line is usually saturated with oil. If it is 
found that the line has changed in length, a correction 
must be applied to the measured rate of the vessel, and the 
line must be graduated anew. W. G. Peck. 

Logania'cese [from Logania, one of the genera], a 
natural order of exogenous trees, shrubs, and herbs, mostly 
tropical, but having a few representatives in the U. S. It 
is remarkably allied to the RubiaceD?, Scrophulariaceaa, 
the Gentianiaeese, and the Apoeynaceae, and is briefly cha- 
racterized by its regular gamopetalous flowers, along with 
opposite leaves and interposed stipules, which adhere to 
the footstalks or form sheaths. The calyx is 4- or 5-partite, 
the corolla hypogynous, regular or irregular, 4- or 5- or 10- 
cleft. The stamens arise from the corolla. The ovary is 
generally 2-celled; there is one style. The fruit is a cap- 
sule, a drupe, or a berry. It contains a large number of 
poisonous plants. Strychnine, curare, etc. are among its 
deadly principles. Spigelia and gelsemium, both active 
poisons and valuable medicines, are our most important 
native Loganiads. 

Logansport, city and R. R. centre, cap. of Cass co., 
Ind. (see map of Indiana, ref. 4-D, for location of county), 
at the junction of the Wabash and Eel rivers, is surroundei 
by a fine agricultural country, with splendid timber and 
excellent building-stone. The aggregate of its water-power 
from the rivers above named and the Wabash and Erie 
Canal, improved and unimproved, is estimated at 500 horse- 
power, and the manufacturing establishments give employ- 
ment to over 1000 operatives, and their products amount to 
above $5,000,000 per annum. It has well-paved streets, 
fine residences and business houses, an extensive trade in 
grain, pork, and lumber, is very healthful, and has fino 
schools and a Universalist college. Pop. in 1B70, 8950; 
in 1880, 11,198. 

Logarith'mic Curve, a curve that may be referred to 
a pair of rectangular axes such that the ordinate of any 

point shall be equal to 
the logaritlim of its ab- 
scissa. When so referred, 
its equation may bo 
written 

y = log x, or o^ = -r ; 
in which the symbol log 
denotes alogarithm tak- 
en in any system ; that 
is, in a system whoso 
base is a. Thup, in the 
figure we have C/? = log 
OfJ. The axis of x is 
called .the axis of numbers, and the axis of ?/ the axis of 
logarithms. There are as many logarithmic curves as 





,K' C^ 





\/^ 


B X 


^ 


^ /\ 






Ik 


.c' 



58 



LOGARITHMIC SPIRAL— LOGARITHMS. 




there are systems of logarithms, but they have certain gen- 
eral properties in common, some of which we subjoin. 

1st. The curve always cuts the axis of x at a point D, 
whose distance from the origin is equal to 1. 

2d. If the base of the system, a, is greater than 1, the 
curve takes the position KDG, having the axis of y for an 
asymptote at the point {0, — co ) ; the curve is everywhere 
concave downward, and as x increases it continually ap- 
proaches parallelism with the axis of x. 

3d. If the base of the system, a, is less than 1, the curve 
takes the position K' DC' , having the axis of y for an 
asymptote at the point (0, + oa ) ; the curve is everywhere 
concave upward, and as x increases it continually ap- 
proaches parallelism with the axis of ar, 

4th. If a tangent is drawn to the curve at any point of 
either class of logarithmic curves, as at G, the subtangent 
TT' J taken on the axis of logarithms, is constant and 
equal to the modulus of the corresponding system of log- 
arithms. 

5th. If a= 1, the curve reduces to a straight line through 
D parallel to the axis of y. This line limits and separates 
the two classes of curves referred to in suppositions 1st 
and 2d. 

6th. If .4B = 2, the area ODOT' is equal to the entire 
area between the part DK of the curve, the axis of x, and 
the axis of y; and furthermore, each is equal to the modulus 
of the corresponding system of logarithms. W. G. Peck. 

liOgarith'mic Spiral^ a spiral whose equation may 
be reduced to the form, 

log r = V, or r = log - ^y ; 
in which the pole is at the eye of the spiral. It is very 
closely related to the logarithmic curve, from which it may 
he constructed as follows : Let be the eye or pole, OS 
the initial line, and let 
a circle be described 
about as a centre with 
a radius OA = 1, which 
call the directing circle. 
From A lay off on the 
circumference of the di- 
recting circle a distance 
equal to any ordinate of 
the logarithmic curve; 
then from draw a ra- 
dius vector through the 
extremity of this dis- 
tance, making it equal to the corresponding abscissa; the 
extremity of the line thus constructed is a point of the 
curve. If the ordinate is positive, it i^ to be laid off in the 
direction from A towards c; if negative, it is to be laid 
off in the opposite direction. The curve proceeding out- 
ward from A has an infinite number of continually diverg- 
ing spires; proceeding inward from A, it has an infinite 
number of converging spires. If any number of radii vec- 
tores are drawn making equal angles with each other, they 
will form a continued proportion; thus, if Aa = ab = bc, 
etc., we have 

OA : Oa' :: Oa' : Ob' :: Ob' :0c'... etc. 
This principle enables ns to construct the curve when wo 
know its pole and two points on the same spire. The curve 
everywhere makes a constant angle with the radius vector, 
and is therefore closely analogous to the LoxoDROjnc Curve 
(which see). The involute of the curve is an equal loga- 
rithmic spiral. Newton showed {Principia, b. i., prop. 9) 
that if the force of gravity had varied inversely as the 
cubes of the distances, the planets would have receded 
from the sun, and that their paths would have been loga- 
rithmic spirals. The modulus of the spiral in each case 
would have depended upon the initial velocity of projec- 
tion. This curve is sometimes called the logistic ipiral. 

W. G. Peck. 
liOg'arithms [Sr. Adyos and apiS^iSs]. The logarithm of 
a number is the exponent of the power to which it is neces- 
sary to raise a fixed number to produce the given number. 
The fixed number is called the base. Thus, in the equa- 
tion 108 = 1000, 3 is the logarithm of 1000, the base being 
10. Any positive number except 1 may be taken as a base, 
and for each base there is a corresponding system of loga- 
rithvis ; there is therefore an infinite number of systems of 
logarithms, but only two of them are in general use — the 
Napierian and the common system. The Napierian system, 
named after its inventor. Baron Napier, is the system'whose 
base is 2.7182S1828 . . . ; the common system is the system 
whose base is 10. In what follows we shall designate Na- 
pierian logarithms by the symbol I, and common loga- 
rithms by the symbol log. 

Uses. — Napierian logarithms are mostly employed in the 
higher branches of analysis and in scientific investigations. 
Common logarithms are used in practical computations, 
where they serve to convert the operations of multiplica- 



tion and division into the simpler ones of addition and 
subtraction. In trigonometric computations their use is 
almost indispensable. Computations by means of loga- 
rithms are made in accordance with the following principles: 
1st, the logarithm of the product of any number of factors 
is equal to the sum of the logarithms of the factors ; 2d, 
the logarithm of a quotient is equal to the logarithm of the 
dividend diminished by that of the divisor; 3d, the loga- 
rithm of any power of a quantity is equal to the logarithm 
of the quantity multiplied by the exponent of the power; 
and 4th, the logarithm of any rootof a quantity is equal to 
the logarithm of the quantity divided by the index of tho 
root. In applying these principles the logarithms needed 
are taken from tables called tables of logarithms. The 
method of forming these tables will be explained hereafter. 
General Properties of Logarithms. — In the exponential 
equation a^ = n we may regard a as the base of any system 
of logarithms, in which case x will be the logarithm of n 
taken in that system. The discussion of this equation in- 
dicates the following general properties : 1st, the logarithm 
of 1 in any system is equal to ; 2d, the logarithm of the 
base of any system, taken in that system, is 1 ; 3d, in any 
system whose base is greater than 1 the logarithms of all 
numbers greater than 1 are positive, the logarithms of all 
numbers less than 1 are negative, the logarithm of is — oa, 
and the logarithm of oo is -|- co ; 4th, in any system whose 
base is less than 1 the logarithms of all numbers greater 
than 1 are negative, the logarithms of all numbers less than 
1 are positive, the logarithm of is -t- c», and the logarithm 
of CO is — c» ; 5th, there are no real logarithms of negative 
numbers in any system. These general properties are used 
in analytical investigations. 

lielations between Different Systems. — Every logarithm is 
composed of two factors. The first factor is constant for 
the same system, and depends for its value on the base of 
that system; the second factor is independent of the base 
of the system, but is dependent on the particular number 
in question, and changes with it. The constant factor cor- 
responding to any system is called the modulus of that sys- 
tem. The modulus of the Napierian system is 1, that of 
the common system is .4342945, and that of any system is 
equal to the reciprocal of the Napierian logarithm of the 
base of that system. Since the Napierian logarithms of all 
numbers less than 1 are negative, and of all numbers 
greater than 1 are positive, it follows that the modulus of 
a system whose base is less than 1 is negative, and that the 
modulus of a system whose base is greater than 1 is posi- 
tive. A modulus may have any value from — o» to -)- oo ; 
it is to be observed that the modulus decreases algebraically 
as the base increases. If we multiply the Napierian loga- 
rithm of any number by the modulus of any system, the 
product is the logarithm of the same number in that sys- 
tem. This principle enables us to find the logarithm of any 
number in any system when we have a table of Napierian 
logarithms. 

Geometrical Relations. — Napierian logarithms are some- 
times called hyperbolic logarithms, on account of their re- 
lation to the equilateral hyperbola ; there is, however, no 
good reason for this distinction, inasmuch as the same re- 
lation that exists between the logarithms of this system 
and a particular equilateral hyperbola exists also between 
those of any system whatever and some other equilateral 
hyperbola. To explain the nature of this relation, let LAK 
be one branch of an equilateral 
hyperbola, whose equation, 
when referred to its asymp- 
totes, CiVand CM, is xy = m; 
let A be the vertex and let 
J' be any point on the curve; 
and let Cfiand OE bo the ab- 
scissas of A and F, the latter 
being called the terminal ab- 
scissa. The square described 
on the oo-ordmates of A is equal to m, as may be shown 
from the equation of the curve. Now, it may be proved by 
means of the calculus that the area CDAB is to the area 
BAFE as 1 is to the Napierian logarithm of GE. Denot- 
ing the area BAFE by A, and CE by x, we have 

m: A::l:lx, . . . .• . A= mix ; ... (1). 
Hence the area between an equilateral hyperbola and one 
of its asymptotes, estimated from the ordinate of the vertex 
up to any other ordinate, is equal to the logarithm of tho 
terminal abscissa taken in a system whose modulus is the 
square described on the co-ordinates of its vertex. If we 
take the conjugate of the hyperbola LAK, whose equation 
IS a-y = — m, equation (1) will become 

A = — mlx . . . (2). 
The numerical value of m in equations (I) and (2) de- 
pends upon the value of OB; by giving suitable values to 
OB, m may be made to have any value from to + oo ; that 



M 


\' 






D 


4. 




K 


C 


B 


E 


N 



LOGARITHMS, LOGISTIC— LOGIC. 



59 



is, ± mix may be made to represent the logarithm of x in 
any system whatever. If we make CB= 1, we have m = 1, 
and equation (1) becomes A = lx, b. result that conforms to 
the Napierian system. The value of the area A may be 
expressed by an infinite series in terms of x, and this series 
may be used as a means of computing a table of logarithms. 
Such a series was originally employed for this purpose, 
but its use has been superseded by other and more con- 
venient ones. 

Tahlea of Logarithms. — Tables of logarithms are tables 
from which we may find the logarithm corresponding to 
any number, or the number corresponding to any logarithm, 
within certain limits. Every logarithm consists of two 
parts — an entire part, called the characterietic, and a deci- 
mal part, called the mantissa. Either of these parts may 
be 0, and the characteristic may be either positive or 
negative, but the mantissa is always positive. The cha- 
racteristic may be found by a very simple i^le, and for this 
reason it is not given in the ordinary tables j the decimal 
point is also omitted in writing the mantissa. The manner 
of arranging the tables, as also the manner of using them, 
will be best learned from the explanations which precede 
each collection of tables ; and to these the reader is referred 
for all information of that nature. In addition to the log- 
arithms of natural numbers, the tables usually contain the 
logarithms of the principal circular functions, such as the 
sine and cosine, the tangent and cotangent, from 0°to 90°. 
In these tables the inconvenience of negative characteristics 
is avoided by adding 10 to each logarithm; an allowance 
is made in the final result for each 10 thus added. The 
same device is employed in using the logarithms of ordinary 
decimals. 

Logarithms were invented by Baron Napier, who pub- 
lished an account of the same in 1614 in a work bearing 
the title De mirijici Logaritkmorum Canonis Construetione. 
The first table of common logarithms was published by 
Briggs in 1624 under the tit\e of Arithmetica Logarttkmica. 
He calculated the logarithms of all numbers from 1 to 
20,000, and also from 90,000 to 100,000, carrying out his 
figures to 14 decimal places. In 1628, Adrian Vlack sup- 
plemented the work of Briggs by publishing a book bear- 
ing the same title, Arithmetica Logarithmica, in which he 
supplied the logarithms of the numbers from 20,000 to 
90,000, but at the same time he reduced the number of 
decimal places to 10. Vlack included in his work the log- 
arithms of the sines, tangents, and secants for each minute 
of arc from 0° to 90°. Five years later the same author 
published a table of the logarithms of sines and tangents, 
for every hundredth of a degree from 0° to 90°, which had 
been computed by Briggs. In 1797, Vega published an 
edition of Vlack's tables, but the work is out of print and 
the copies are difficult to be found. Probably the best ac- 
cessible tables are those of Oallet. These are carried to 7 
places of decimals, and include logarithmic sines, cosines, 
ta.ngents, and cotangents for every second of arc from 0° 
to 90°. An American edition of these tables was published 
in 1830 by Hassler, who was at that time chief of the 
U.S. Coast Survey. These are probably the best American 
tables, but unfortunately they are very scarce and difficult 
to obtain. In addition to these, several collections of tables 
have been published in Germany, of which the most noted 
is Hulsse's Sdmmelung Mathematiachen Tafeln, published in 
Leipsic in 1840. Besides those above mentioned, several 
six-place tables have been published, which for most pur- 
poses of computation are sufficiently accurate. Five-place 
tables have also been published, which for auxiliary com- 
putations are of great utility. To this class we may refer 
Lalande's five-figure table, which was republished in 1839 
by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

The computation of logarithmic tables is effected by 
means of rapidly converging series, of which a great 
number have been deduced. Ifc is to be observed that it 
is only necessary to compute the logarithms of prime num- 
bers, inasmuch as the logarithms of composite numbers 
may be found by taking the sum of the logarithms of their 
prime factors. The following series and its applications 
are taken from Hackley's Treatise on Algebra, p. 274, to 
which the reader is referted for greater detail. The series 
referred to is as follows: 

«(^+l)='/'+2{ 2-^+3(^+^7^,),+ - • - } (1). 

in which P stands for any whole number, and P + 1 for the 
next higher whole number. Making P equal to 1, 2, etc., 
we have, sinoe II = 0, 



?3 = ?2 + 2 



w 



5 3.5» 5.65 



7.5' 



..}=. 



0986123 



^4=^2 -I- 22 = 2X^2, 
etc. etc. etc. 



= 1.3862944, 

etc. 



In the same way we may compute the Napierian logarithms 
of the natural numbers from 1 to any number whatever. 
Then, to find the common logarithms of the same numbers, 
we have simply to multiply each logarithm thus found by 
the modulus of the common system, .4342945. 

General Logarithms. — If we denote the base of the Na- 
pierian system by e, we may write the equation 

ey = x....{\); 
in which y is the Napierian logarithm of x. Heretofore 
we have only considered the real values of y, which corre- 
spond to arithmetical logarithms. There is, besides these 
values, an infinite number of imaginary values of y which 
satisfy equation (1), and which may be called algebraic 
logarithms. The arithmetical and the algebraic logarithms, 
taken together, constitute what may be termed general 
logarithms. {See De Morgan's Calculus, p. 126.) 

Antilogarithms. — An antilogarithm is the number corre- 
sponding to a given logarithm. Thus, 100 is the antilog- 
arithm of 2 in the common system. Antilogarithms, in 
the common system, are denoted by the symbol log-^. 
Thus, log -^2 = 100 is equivalent to the expression, the 
numberwhoselogarithmis2isequaltol00. W. Gr. Peck. 

Log^arithms, Logis'tic [Xovio-tik^]. The -logisiic 
logarithm of a number less than 3600 is equal to the com- 
mon logarithmof 3600 diminished by the common logarithm 
of that number. Thus, the logistic logarithm of 16ni. 24e., 
or 9848., is equal to log 3600 — log 984, or to 0.5633. A 
table formed in this way for all numbers from 1 to 3600 is 
called a table of logistic logarithms, and is used in solving 
proportions in which the terms are hours and minutes, de- 
grees and minutes, or minutes and seconds, the first terra 
being 1 hour, 1 degree, or 1 minute. The method of using 
the table may be illustrated by the following example: 
When the moon's hourly motion is 30' 12", what is her 
motion in 16m, 24s. ? We have the following proportion : 
U : 16m. 248. : : 30' 12" : x/ or, 3600 : 16m. 24s. : : 30' 12" : x; 
from which we readily deduce the equation 
3600 3fi00 3600 

X ~ 30' 12" 16m. 248. . 
Denoting logistic logarithms by the symbol L, we may 
write the above equation as follows : 

La: = L 30' 12" -I- L 16m. 248. 
Prom the logistic tables we have 
L 30' 12" = 0.2981 
L 167H. 24s . =0.5633 

Lx =0.8614j .•.* = 8' 15". Ana. 

A table of logistic logarithms will be found in Norton's 
Astronomy, p. Ill of tables, with a full explanation of its 
use on p. 320 of the main work. Logarithms of this kind 
are sometimes called proportional logarithms. Tables of 
this kind are often extended to 3A., or to 10,800, to corre- 
spond with the moon's tabulated changes given in the 
American Nautical Almanac, pp. xiii.— xviii. (See Am. 
Naut. Al. for 1875, pp. 256, 257.) W. G. Peck. 

Log'ic [Gr. Xoyo's, "speech," "reason"] is the science 
of reasoning. By reasoning in this connection we under- 
stand all those mental acts and processes that occur be- 
tween the observation of facts and the most remote de- 
ductions and the broadest generalizations. Among the 
acts indirectly implied there may be insight, conscious- 
ness, imagination, and memory. But the mental acts 
that are directly in the line of reasoning are analysis, 
abstraction, synthesis or judgment, generalization, and in- 
ference. Hence, all knowledge rests on either (1) observa- 
tion or (2) reasoning. Belief is a different affair, and may 
rest on testimony, or ev.en on a voluntary acceptance of 
dogmas for convenience' or policy's sake, with little or no 
regard to their truthfulness. At the time 6f the observa- 
tion of an object there is doubtless some insight into its 
nature; there is an analysis (logical analysis) of its prop- 
erties, an abstraction and an objectification of its prop- 
erties, so that we give them and call them by names, as 
whiteness, solidity, etc. etc. After this affirmation or judg- 
ment follows, by which we say, " This paper is white," etc. 
etc. There is also a grouping of similar objects into 
classes, genera, and species ; hence, general terms or com- 
mon nouns. There is also inference, so that from two 
propositions, as A is B and B is C, we infer that A is C. 
In the first instance we have propositions of four kinds: 
( 1 ) identical propositions, in which the subject and the predi- 
cate denote the same thing, as " Common salt is chloride of 
sodium;" (2) the subject is an individual tefm, and the 
predicate is an adjective, as ** This paper is white;" (3) the 
subject is an individual term, and the predicate a common 
noun, as ""This horse is a quadruped ;" and (4) the subject 
is a common noun, and the (predicate is an adjective, as 
" Horses are fourfooted," the predicate denoting some ob- 
vious property of the subject. 



60 



LOGIC. 



For anything beyond this there must be a process of 
reasoning which may be either (1) demonstration, (2) in- 
duction, or (3) deduction. The word demonstration is used 
somewhat vaguely, but for our purposes it denotes that 
process in which, by analysis of any subject, displaying, 
as of course the analysis will, its nature, we make manifest 
properties which were not so before. Mathematical reason- 
ing is of this kind. We reason from the nature of a tri- 
angle — expressed by its definition — and prove all the prop- 
erties of a triangle that we know in either our geometry or 
in our trigonometry. And in all reasoning something of 
demonstration from the very nature of the thing we are 
talking about, forms an indispensable element. This rea- 
soning is, however, to a large extent, instinctive, a matter 
of insight and tact, subject to no special forms, though of 
course it may be reduced to recognized formulas, and is, or 
should be, self-evident alike in the axioms it assumes, in 
the steps it takes, and the results at which it arrives. 

The word induction is also used vaguely and variously, 
but in this connection it must be understood to indicate 
that process in which, by the bringing in and examination 
of facts or individual instances, we generalize a proposition 
up to the point of its greatest comprehension, when it be- 
cAnes the statement of a universal act, or, as it is more 
commonly called, a universal law. For successful induc- 
tion the first step is the collection of facts, either such as 
occur of themselves or by experimentation producing them 
at will. Then follow an analysis and a classification of 
these facts on the basis of some common but important 
property ; the property on which we base our classification 
may be regarded as formal, or as being a cause. Thus, 
vertebrates are classified in reference to the important fact 
of a spinal column, the ruminants by reference to the pe- 
culiar construction of their stoma:Ch, the cat family with 
reference to their claws, the dog family with reference to 
the structure of their teeth, etc. etc. All these formal prop- 
erties are found to be connected with some modal prop- 
erty ; that is, with something in the history, mode of life, 
etc. of each of the animals in the class. Thus, all cats are 
predacious or leap on their prey ; all dogs chase theirs 
down ; all ruminants chew the cud, etc. 

When objects are thus properly classified, we know that 
there is a relation — constant and implied in the laws of 
nature — between the formal property on which as a differ- 
entia the classification is based, and the modal property 
which we affirm as a predicate of all the objects in the 
class. Thus, when we say that "All Canida are carniv- 
orous" and "All ruminants chew the cud," we do but give 
expression to a law of nature, the knowledge of which has 
been obtained by induction. The certainty of the law thus 
obtained depends upon this connection of properties. With- 
out it we may indeed often obtain a wide generalization of 
facts, as in the case of the electric properties of all the 
resins. And when a fact is thus obtained, it creates a 
strong presumption in favor of its universality, and leads 
to the very confident expectation of some connection as of 
cause and effect not yet discovered. And when the con- 
nection has been discovered, the law is considered as es- 
tablished, and is reckoned as one of the triumphs of sci- 
ence. But until this connection has been discovered, any 
announcement of the general fact as a universal law of 
nature would be regarded as premature and liable to mod- 
ification. 

In these ways we demonstrate from a few definitions, and 
by the aid of a few self-evident axioms, the whole of ab- 
stract science, including mathematics, logic, etc., and from 
the observed facts in nature wo establish by induction all 
the general laws and principles of concrete and practical 
science. And having established in these ways the general 
laws or truths, we proceed by deduction to establish by 
moans of them many particular facts and subordinate 
truths, which are, for the most part, as a matter of fact, 
though by no means necessarily so, such as are not or can- 
not be readily subjected to the test of observation and ex- 
periment. In some cases they can never bo so tested, and 
in others the inference must be made before the test can be 
applied. Thus, the statesman and the physician are often 
obliged to reason from general principles and obvious facts 
to the results of the measures they would adopt before the 
trial of them, although, of course, in these cases the testing 
of them by experience is but a result of their reasoning. 
And it is in this way that, by reasoning from general prin- 
ciples obtained by induction from existing plants and ani- 
mals to objects and facts discovered in the strata of tho 
earth's crust, wo have obtained much the largest part of 
the science of geology and palaeontology. These facta and 
phenomena are such as cannot now bo subjected to obser- 
vation. 

The first proposition enunciating the general principle 
or most comprehensive truth is called, technically, the 
major premise; the other, "this measure," etc., is called 



the minor premise; and the two, together with the infer- 
ence or conclusion drawn from them, constitute what is 
called a syllogism. And of these three parts all syllogisms 
consist. But for the most part we have in practice either 
(I) an omission of one of the premises, as A is B, there- 
fore A is C, in which case we call the abridged form an 
enthymeme, or (2) several premises following each other in 
some regular order, and only one conclusion drawn from 
them, as A is B, B is C, C is D, therefore A is D ; this is 
called a sorites. In such cases we have, in fact, two or 
more syllogisms condensed into one formula by the omis- 
sion of some of the propositions that would have appeared 
if each of the syllogisms had been stated in full, each with 
its own premises, and the conclusion to each pair distinctly 
stated as such in due order. Thus, in the example just 
given, we have,'in fact, (1) B is C, A is B, therefore A is 
C ; (2) C is D, A is C, therefore A is D ; that is, the second 
premise of the sorites becomes the major premise of the first 
syllogism; tlie first is the minor premise, and the conclu- 
sion is a proposition that did not appear in, the sorites at 
all. Then for the second syllogism the third premise of 
the sorites is used for major premise, and the conclusion of 
the first syllogism is used for minor premise, and so on un- 
til we come to a syllogism that has for its conclusion the 
same proposition as the sorites itself. In the case of the 
enthymeme one premise is omitted for 1;he most part, be- 
cause it is a part of the common sense or the acknowledged 
science of mankind, and therefore needs no repetition or 
explicit statement. It is, however, a part of the syllogism 
or argument as truly and as really as though it were ex- 
pressed, since without it no conclusion can be drawn from 
any proposition which would contain any term that was 
not contained in the proposition used as a premise itself. 
Hence, the means by which we can find the suppressed or 
omitted premise is one of the most important parts of logic 
in a practical point of view. 

Syllogisms are of four different kinds, as they arise from 
one or another of the four relations which the objects in 
nature sustain to each other. (1) Individuals in a class, 
and classes considered as species included in a higher and 
more comprehending class, considered as a genus. Thus, 
John, Henry, Thomas, etc. are Englishmen (a species), and 
Englishmen, Frenchmen, etc. are Indo-Europeans (the ge- 
nus). Or, again, Indo-Europeans, Shemites, etc. are men, 
and constitute the genus Homo, or man. On this relation 
is based what are called categorical propositions. They 
simply assert that an object is or is not in a class, or that 
a class is or is not in a higher class, as S is P, or S is not 
P ; P are Q, or are not Q, etc. With two categorical prop- 
ositions for premises we have a categorical syllogism. (2) 
Every object sustains some relation of quality to others. 
It is above or below, longer or shorter, harder or softer, 
whiter or blacker, etc. than some other. Or it may be 
simply equal to another. Prom these relations there arise 
comparative propositions, and with one or more compara- 
tive propositions in a syllogism it is called a comparative 
syllogism, as A is greater than B, B is equal to C, therefore 
A is greater than C. (3) Most if not all objects in nature 
are related to some others as cause and to others as effect. 
An effect is always proof of the existence of a cause, and 
is some indication of its character and attributes. So, too, 
every cause is a means of judging of the nature of tho 
effect it will produce. A good work of any kind is proof 
of a good workman, and the goodness of the workman is 
to some extent a guaranty for the goodness of his work. 
But in logic we call every argument a cause also. It is a log- 
ical cause, or cause of belief, and conviction. Hence, when 
one premise is so connected with a eonelrsion that if that 
premise is assented to the conclusion will be accepted as 
true or proven, we often state the two, the premise and 
the conclusion, as what is called a conditional or hypothet- 
ical proposition, as, " If A is B, C is D ;" " If the workman 
is skilful, his work will be good." This mode of stating 
the major premise constitutes what wo call a conditional 
syllogism. (4) In the fourth place, every object in nature 
is a part of some collective or physical whole.. An atom of 
hydrogen is a part of a molecule -or particle of water; a 
leaf is part of a book; a paragraph is part of a chapter; 
a word is part of a sentence ; a letter is part of a word ; 
the nose is part of tho face; the hand is a part of tho 
body ; each citizen is part of the state ; the earth is part 
of the solar system, and each star is part of "the heavens." 
Hence, wo can and do reason to some extent both from the 
nature of the parts to that of the whole, and conversely 
from the nature of the whole to that of tho parts. For ex- 
ample, we reason from the letters in a word to the sound 
and moaning of the word itself, and likewise from the na- 
ture of a word to the letters, and we are thus able to detect 
false spelling if a word should happen to he spelled wrong. 
Now, it so happens that what is included in any whole 
must bo in some one of the parts into which it is divisible, 



LOGIC. 



61 



and also that whatever ia in one part cannot be in another 
■when the division is what is called a complete division. 
But in what is called a "cross" division we sometimes 
have one individual in move than one part. Suppose we 
divide literary men into poets, philosophers, historians, and 
one man, as Southey, be both a poet and a philosopher or 
historian. From this relation of objects there arises what 
are called disjunctive propositions, as, "Either A is B or 
C is D ;" which implies that if the first (A is B) is not true, 
the second (C is D) is. When one premise, which is always 
the major premise, is disjunctive, the syllogism itself is 
called disjunctive. 

Of comparative syllogisms we need say no more in this 
place, because most of them are so simple in their construc- 
tion that their validity or their fallacy is obvious at sight, 
and the others are so complicated that we could not discuss 
them intelligibly in this place. Most treatises on logic do 
not even so much as mention them. The fullest discussion 
that is known to us is to be-fpund in Dr. Wilson's Text of 
Logic, published at Ithaca, N. Y., 1872, In the case of con- 
ditional syllogisms it is to be noted, in the first place, that 
they imply another premise, and are therefore virtually 
euthymemes stated hypothetically. Thus, " If A is B, A is 
C," implies a proposition called the sequence— namely, " B 
is C." But in the second place it should be noted that if 
we affirm the antecedent we prove the consequent, and vice 
verad if we deny the consequent we disprove the antece- 
dent. Thus, 

If A is B, C is D. 



A is B, C is not D, 

Therefore C is D. Therefore A is not B. 

Any other mode of completing the syllogism would be fal- 
lacious. This will be obvious from a simple example: "If 
John has a fever he is sick. John has a fever, therefore 
he is sick;" "John is not sick, therefore he has not a 
fever." This is right. But if we say, "John has not a 
fever, therefore he is not sick," or if we say, "He is sick, 
therefore he has a fever," it would be manifestly wrong. 

In a disjunctive syllogism it is always, safe to deny one 
of the parts or propositions as a means of proving the 
other, as "A is either B or C; A is not B, therefore A is 
C ; or A is not C, therefore A is B." Polypes are either 
plants or animals: they are not plants, therefore they are 
animals. But the other method of completion, oflfering 
one proposition to disprove the other, is not always valid. 
Thus, " Coleridge ia either a poet or a philosopher; he ia a 
philosopher, therefore he is not a poet." In this case 
poets and philosophers are not what are called co-ordinate 
parts or species, for a man may be both a poet and a phi- 
losopher at the same time. 

But both conditional and disjunctive syllogisms may be 
regarded for logical purposes as categorical syllogisms 
stated as enthymemes (though comparative syllogisms can- 
not be so stated). In the case of the conditional syllogisms 
the enthymeme has one alKrmative premise, as "A is B," 
and an affirmative conclusion, " A is C ;" that is, " If A is 
B, A is C." But the disjunctive syllogism has (apparently) 
a negative premise, A is not B, with an affirmative conclu- 
sion, therefore A is C; tha,t is, "Either A is B or A is Cj" 
or again, "If A is not B, A is C." Here the premise is 
apparently negative, while the conclusion is affirmative. 
But we shall have to consider this again in order to ex- 
plain the apparent violation of a fundamental law in rela- 
tion to the formulge of inference. 

It is manifest, therefore, that the utmost importance at- 
taches to the nature and construction of categorical syllo- 
gisms, to the consideration of which we shall now proceed. 
Categorical propositions may differ in qnaiiti/, and be either 
affirmative or negative, as A is B or A is not B. Again, they 
may differ in quantity, and be either general or partial, or 
particular as they are sometimes called, as "All A are B" 
or "Some A are B." Combining the two, we have four 
varieties of propositions, called universal affirmative, " All 
S are P;" universal negative, "No S are Pj" partial af- 
firmative, "Some S are P;" and partial negative, "Some 
S are not P." These four kinds of propositions have been 
called, for the sake of convenience, by the' four vowels A, 
E, I, and 0. Now, it is manifest that with A for major 
premise we may have either A, E, I, or for minor, and 
thus four pairs of premises, A A, A E, A I, and A 0, and 
with each pair we can have either A, E, I, or for a con- 
clusion ; and thus sixteen syllogisms differing from each 
other in what is called the mood of the syllogism. And in 
like manner we may have sixteen with either E, I, or for 
major premise, making in all sixty-four moods. Thus, for 
an example of A A A, we have, "All S" are M, all M are 
P; therefore all S are P;" of E E E, "No S are M, no M 
are P; therefore no S are P." The former is at once seen 
to be valid, and the latter is about as obviously invalid or 
fallacious, actually proving nothing. 



In the above example I have used S to denote the sub- 
ject of the conclusion, which is therefore called the minor 
term, and is found only in the minor premise. I have used 
P for the predicate of the conclusion. It is therefore called 
the major term, and is found only in the major premise. 
M stands for what is called the middle term. It is found 
in both premises, but not in the conclusion. It may, how- 
ever, occupy either of four positions in the premises, as (1) 
subject of the major premise and predicate of the minor; 

(2) predicate in both; (3) subject in both; or (4) the in- 
verse of the first, predicate of the major premise, and sub- 
ject of the minor. These varieties of position constitute 
what is called the figure of the syllogism. And as each of 
these positions of the middle term may be found in either 
of the sixty-four moods, we may have 256 different cate- 
gorical syllogisms. 

But most of these 256 syllogisms are invalid — not only 
worthless, but actually delusive. Hence, the discovery of 
some rules and practical tests of validity is of the utmost 
importance. Fallacies may be of two kinds — either (I) in 
form or (2) in diction. A fallacy is said to be in form 
when it is obvious on the mere inspection of the form of 
the syllogism, without considering or knowing the meaning 
of the propositions, or of its terms even ; as, " M are not P, 
S are M ; therefore S are P." But when there is no fallacy 
in form, there may be one in diction, which renders the 
reasoning worthless. This can be discovered and exposed 
only by a consideration of the meaning of the several 
propositions considered separately. Thus, " Light comes 
from the sun, feathers arc light; therefore feathers come 
from the sun." In this case the form is faultless, but the 
diction is fallacious. The word "light "is ambiguous, and 
means one thing in one premise and something else in the 
other. 

Besides these two classes of what are called logical falla- 
cies there are one or two others, called extra-logical falla- 
cies, of which we shall say a word in conclusion. Consid- 
ering the limits to which we are confined in this article, it 
will be better to suggest the tests of fallacy, leaving the 
reader to take all syllogisms to be valid that do not offend 
against one or another of the rules that are given. And 
first we shall speak of fallacies in form: 

(1) There may be no more than three real terms. There 
may be any number of words, for nouns will often have 
several adjectives and modifying clauses. But for the pur- 
poses of logic a noun with all its adjectives may be con- 
sidered as one word. As an example of the "fallacy of 
many terms," as it is called, we have the following: "My 
hand touches the pen, the pen touches the paper; therefoi-e 
my hand touches the paper." Here, as we see on a careful 
analysis, we have four terras, four different things really 
spoken of: (1) my hand, (2) that which " touches the pen," 

(3) "the pen," and (4) that which "touches the paper;" 
and the syllogism implies, though it does not state, that 
whatever touches the pen is the pen, which is of course 
absurd. It will sometimes happen^ however, that what is 
thus implied is not only not absurd, but is in fact quite 
true. In that case the apparent fallacy is only an abridged 
form of the sorites, of which wo shall say more below. 

(2) If both premises are negative, there can be no con- 
clusion. Thus, "S are not M, M are not P." After these 
premises we can have no conclusion. "Horses are not 
men, men are not birds." It is true that horses are not 
birds, but if we say " Horses are not men, and men are not 
quadrupeds," we can have no conclusion, although we 
know otherwise that horses are quadrupeds. It will some- 
times happen, however, that there is an appearance of two 
negative premises when one or both of them is really 
affirmative. Thus, "No one who has not enough can be 
called rich, but no miser has enough ; therefore no miser 
can be called rich." Here two of the negatives virtually 
correct each other, making for the middle term ''person 
not having enough," and the inference is as valid as though 
the middle term were positive, "persons having enough," 
or " No S is M " (which is equivalent to " S is not M "). 
"Whatever is not M is P" (equivalent to "All not M is 
P")," therefore Sis P." 

(3) It is found to be necessary that the middle term 
should be used once at least, as either the subject of a uni- 
versal proposition or the predicate of a negative one. The 
failure to fulfil this condition constitutes what is called an 
undistributed middle. It would be impossible within the 
limits to which I am here restricted either to demonstrate 
this law a priori or to prove it by an examination in detail 
of all the cases in which an undistributed middle may oc- 
cur. One or two illustrations, therefore, must suffice. Thus, 
"Horses are animals, foxes are nnimals; therefore horses 
are foxes." But horses and foxes are co-ordinate species of 
animals, and therefore cannot be predicated of each other. 
Even this fact, however, is not proved by the premises, for 
we may have " Dogs are animalS; spaniels are animals," 



G2 



LOGIC. 



Spaoiels are a species or variety of dogs, so that in this 
case the major and the minor terms are subordinate rather 
than co-ordinate, and may be predicated of each other 
affirmatively. 

(4) Neither the minor nor the major term may be used 
in the conclusion as subject of a universal proposition, or 
as predicate of a negative one, unless it had been used in 
one or the other of these ways in the premises. The vio- 
lation of this condition constitutes what is called "illicit 
process," and the fallacy is called illicit of the minor when 
the minor term is used in violation of this law. But when 
the major term is so used, the fallacy is called illicit of the 
major. Here, again, the demonstration of the law would 
require more space than can be spared to it. As an exam- 
ple of illicit process of the minor term we may have the 
following: "Horses are quadrupeds, and horses are useful 
animals; therefore a^^ quadrupeds are useful animals." It 
would be legitimate to say either " Some quadrupeds are 
useful animals," or " Some useful animals are quadrupeds." 
Then, for an example of illicit of the major, we have, "Ne- 
groes have black skins, the Arabs are not negroes; there- 
fore the Arabs have not black skins," Here th'* negative 
term "black skins" is predicate of a negative conclusion, 
, whereas it was not used as cither subject of a universal or 
as predicate of a negative premise. It was predicate of an 
affirmative proposition in the major premise. 

There are several other convenient rules known to the 
expert logician, but they are too abstruse and technical to 
admit of being given here. Besides this, they accomplish 
nothing that is not equally well accomplished by the appli- 
cation of one or another of these four. There are, how- 
ever, two that may be given that are of great practical 
value, though resulting from the application of the pre- 
ceding four: (I) After two partial premises there can be 
no conclusion, for it is found that in all such cases a con- 
clusion would involve either an undistributed middle or an 
illicit process. (2) After one partial premise there can be 
no universal conclusion, for the same reason as that just 
given in regard to any conclusion after two partial propo- 
sitions. (3) It is also found that after one negative prem- 
ise there can be no affirmative conclusion. We have seen 
that after two negative premises there can be no conclusion 
whatever. But if one of the premises be negative, any af- 
firmative conclusion involves a violation of the fundamental 
conditions of validity. 

It is seldom the case, however, that both of the premises 
of any syllogism are expressly stated. In some cases one 
of them is so well known, and so universally assented to, 
that it would appear like a piece of mere pedantic formal- 
ity to repeat it. At other times the real major premise, 
though really assumed, has not been so distinctly thought 
out and considered as to admit of express statement. For 
this and for other reasons it becomes very important to know 
how to find and put into explicit statement the assumed 
premise. This can always be done by means of the prin- 
ciples and rules already laid down. But for the purpose 
now before us another set of rules is more immediately 
applicable. Of course we have in the enthymeme the con- 
clusion and one premise. We have therefore all the terms 
that can be used, and the problem is to find the other and 
assumed premise, such in character as that it will complete 
the syllogism without violating any of the rules above laid 
down. The four rules are as follows : (1) If the conclusion 
be universal affirmative, both premises must be affirmative, 
and the minor and the middle term must be distributed. 
(2) If the conclusion be partial affirmative, both premises 
must be affirmative, and only the middle term need be dis- 
tributed. (.3) If the conclusion be partial negative, one 
premise must be negative, and the middle and the major 
term must be distributed. (4) If the conclusion be uni- 
versal negative, one premise must be negative, and all three 
of the terms must be distributed. 

But it is necessary to pass to the consideration of falla- 
cies in diction. Logic assumes that the words in any ar- 
gument, ,like the letters in an algebraic equation, shall 
denote each one and the same thing throughout the argu- 
ment or solution, and that language for the most part shall 
be used literally, each word describing its object or event 
as it is, and that no proposition shall have, either expressly 
stated or necessarily implied, two propositions in one, one 
of which may be true, while the other is false. Thus, if I 
say, " A man has ceased to be a liar," I imph/ that he has 
been a liar, and I amert that he is not one now. But of 
course cither of these assertions may be true, while the 
other is false, and they may therefore be both true at the 
same time. Subject to these conditions, all the fallacies in 
diction may be referred to four classes. (1) Amhiguouf 
Middle. — In this one term (usually the middle term) is used 
to denote one thing in one proposition and something else 
in another. Thus, in the example already cited. " Light 
comes from the sun, feathers arc light" here both premises 



may be true separately if we shall take the word light to 
mean different things in each of them, but not otherwise. 
(2) Varintion, — This may be in quantity, condition, etc. 
Thus, "Money will buy whatever is for sale; a ten-cent 
piece is money," etc. Here the word " money " is not used 
ambiguously ; it means the same thing in each premise, 
but it is used with reference to different quantities in each 
premise, and the premises will be assented to only as we 
so understand the words. (3) Division and Composition. — 
This fallacy consists in using a word (usually the middle 
term) as a collective term in one place and as a general in 
the other. Some words are always collective when used in 
the singular form, as family, army, church, state, congress, 
etc. etc. But many words may be either general or col- 
lective, according to the nature of the proposition in which 
they are used. Thus, " The Romans conquered Carthage." 
The word "Romans" is used as general, but here it must 
be collective, as no ojie Roman performed the act here as- 
cribed to them. But in the proposition, "The Romans 
spoke Latin," "Romans" must be general, because the act 
is one which each Roman did individually and for himself. 
If, now, we should say after the first, " Cicero was a Ro- 
man, therefore he conquered Carthage," our fallacy would 
be one of division. But if the word is first used as gen- 
eral, and then as collective, the fallacy takes the form 
which is called composition. (4) Substance and Accidejits. 
— A property may be accidental in ono premise, and yet 
used so as to make it essential in the other or in the conr 
elusion. Or it may be affirmed with regard to some prop- 
erty, mode, or accident in a premise, and then affirmed in 
reference to its substance in the conclusion, and vice vei'sd. 
This constitutes what is called the fallacy of substance and 
accidents. Thus, the example usually given is, ""We eat 
what we buy in the market,* wo buy raw meat in the mar- 
ket; therefore we eat raw meat," or eat our meat raw. 
We buy our meat not because it is raw, but rather because 
it is meat; the "rawness" is merely accidental to the act 
of purchasing and to the premise, but in the conclusion it 
is 50 placed as to make it untrue, and is thus essential to 
its meaning- This is called the fallacy of accidents. But 
if we should say of a certain man, in reference to his pe- 
cuniary responsibility, " He is good," and should thus infer 
by means of a major premise that he is a good "man," wc 
should have the fallacy in the other form, applying what is 
said in reference to some accidental mode, property, or at- 
tribute to the substance itself. This is called the fallacy 
a dicto necundum quid ad dictum simpHciter. Of all the 
fallacies in diction, those belonging to this class are the 
most subtle and difficult of detection and exposure. 

It will often happen, indeed, that an argument may con- 
tain fallacies both in form and in diction. And it will often 
happen in practice, also, that one is in doubt to which of 
the classes or kinds of fallacies he should refer a formula. 
It is, however, of but very little consequence, so far as refu- 
tation is concerned, to which class he refers it, since they arc 
all alike, and equally fatal to any validity in the conclusion. 

But it is time to say a few words of the extra-logical fal- 
lacies in conclusion. These are rather faults in rhetoric 
than fallacies in logi^. Extra-logical fallacies are of two 
kinds — fallacies in matter and fallacies in^ method. Who- 
ever undertakes to prove any proposition that is not assented 
to by those to whom he addresses his argument, necessa- 
rily assumes what is called the onus prohandi, or the bur- 
den of proof. He has to consider the state of mind and of 
heart or will — that is, the intelligence, the knowledge, the 
prejudices, and feelings— of those whom he would address. 
And while arguments may be considered as conclusive in 
themselves — that is,that they will satisfy any one who under- 
stands and appreciates them — yet it is often found thatlho 
arguments that are really the best for those who can under- 
stand them fail entirely of effect on those to whom they are 
addressed. But in order to success anywhere considera- 
tion must be taken with regard to both tho matter of the 
argument and the method of presenting it, 

in regard to the matter, there are several forms of fallacy 
that are to be noted. The first is what is called non vera 
pro vera — the using a premise that is untrue as though it 
were true. And this applies as well to those propositions 
that are implied, and can be formed only in the ways of 
completing imperfect formula already spoken of, as to 
those that are expressly stated as premises. Of course 
when a premise that is false is used as a real premise tho 
argument fails to prove anything, and will be so regarded 
by all persons that know its falsity. Then, again, we have 
what is called non causa pro causa, which consists in using 
as a premise a proposition which, though true enough, is 
not a premise to the conclusion. For example, it is true 
enough that it is raining at the present moment, but that 
fact could not be used as proof of a proposition in Euclid 
or of the guilt of Mary queen of Scots. A proposition occur- 
ring in the course of an argument is always irrelevant, or 



LOGROSO— LOGWOOD. 



63 



non causa, when it cannot be connected with the rest as 
one in a series that make a sorites by having one of its 
terms in common with the preceding proposition and the 
other common to it and the succeeding proposition. Thus, 
if we have "A is B, B is C, C is D, ,*. A is D," the propo- 
sitions follow in logical order, and are logically connected. 
But if amongst them there should occur "C is H or M is 
P," we could not connect such a proposition with the other 
premises, and although true it would be no premise to A 
is D. 

The fallacies in method may also be of several kinds. 
First, we have what is called a begging of the question, or 
petifio principiu As a general rule^ one of the premises 
is so evidently true that it may be assumed without proof 
and without remark, while all effort at proof should be di- 
rected to the other. But if an orator assumes as true or as 
conceded that which his auditors expect or desire to have 
proved, they accuse him of begging the question; that is, 
of assuming the very thing they want to have proved be- 
fore they will assent to his proposition. Logically, both 
premises should be proved, but rhetoric requires that we 
should spare ourselves the labor and the audience the an- 
noyance of listening to proof of what nobody doubts. In 
some cases this begging of the question takes the form of 
reasoning in a circle — curriculum ve/aa. Suppose we have 
three propositions, 1, 2, and 3, and we use 1 and 2 as pre- 
mises to prove 3, and then use 1 and 3 to prove 2, or 2 and 3 to 
prove 1, we are in such a case reasoning in a circle; that is, 
we first deduce a conclusion from premises, and then use that 
conclusion as a premise to prove one or the other of its 
premises — that is, its own premises. 

The other recognized form of fallacy in method is called 
mistaking the issue, or ignoratio elenchi. One first mistakes 
the real proposition that is to be proved, and then, seeking 
proof for his supposed conclusion, does not find the proof 
that is required for the real conclusion which should be 
established; and he is said to be ignorant of the proof or 
to have mistaken the proof, because he had first mistaken 
the proposition to be proved. A ease is cited from Greek 
history: The Athenians were deliberating whether to put 
Mitylenians to death. One orator had tried to show that 
it was justice to do so. Another replied that that was not 
the proposition to be proved; it did not answer the ques- 
tion, for the question really was whether It was expedient 
to do so : nobody doubted the justice of the measure. 

The textbooks on logic are so numerous that it would 
be impossible to enumerate thom. The most popular 
and the best known of all is that of Whately. I should 
also mention that of Prof. Bowen of Harvard University 
as deserving of special consideration, from the fact that it 
presents Sir William Hamilton's theory of syllogisms, to- 
gether with the Aristotelian. Thompson's Outlines of the 
Laios of Thought is a book in extensive use and has many 
admirable qualities. Prof. Wilson's book, already referred 
to, professes to give a more ample view of both the valid 
syllogisms and the fallacies than has hitherto been given, 
and in the third part, or " Practical Application," he has 
attempted a classification of the methods of argumentation 
with reference to the kinds of propositions one may have 
occasion to prove. W. D. Wilson. 

liOg'os [Gr. Ao-yo9, which means "reason '* and " word," 
ratio and oratio, both being intimately connected] has a 
peculiar significance in Philo, St. John, and the early 
Greek Fathers, and is an important term in the doctrine 
of Christ. 

(1) Philo, a Jewish philosopher of Alexandria, who en- 
deavored to harmonize the Mosaic religion with Platonism 
( d. about 40), derived his Logos view from the Solomonic and 
later Jewish doctrine of the personified Wisdom and Word 
of God, and combined it with the Platonic idea of Nous. 
The Logos is to him the embodiment of all divine powers 
and ideas (the ayyeXoi of the Old Testament, the &vvap.€i.^ 
and tSe'at of Plato). He distinguished between the Logos 
inherent in God (Adyo? evSiaiJeToy}, corresponding to reason 
in man, and the Logos emanating from God (Adybs irpo0o- 
ptKos), corresponding to the spoken word which reveals the 
thought. The former contains the ideal world (the k6(7/ios 
coijTos); the latter is the first-begotten Son of God, the 
image of God, the Creator and Preserver, the Giver of life 
and light, the Mediator between God and the world, also 
the Messiah (though only in an ideal sense — as a theoph- 
any, not as a concrete historical person). Philo wavers 
between a personal and impersonal conception of the Logos, 
but leans more to the impersonal conception. He has no 
room for an incarnation of th^ Logos and his real union 
with humanity. Nevertheless, his view has a striking re- 
semblance to the Logos-doctrine of John, and preceded it as 
a shadow precedes the substance. It was a prophetic dream 
of the coming reality. It prepared the minds of many for 
the reception of the truth, but misled others into Gnostic 
errors. Literature, — Gfrorer, Philo uud die Alexandrinische 



Theosophie (1831) ; Dahne, Judiach- Alexandrinische Re~ 
ligionsphilosophie (1834) ; Grossmann, Quxstionea PhUon, 
(1841); Keferstein, Philo'a Lehre von dem Gottlichen Mit- 
telweseti (1846); Jj^in gen. Das Judenthum zur Zeit Christi 
(1867); and especially Emil Schiirer, Lehrhuch der Neu- 
Testament lichen Zeitgeschichte (1874, pp. 648 aeg.). 

(2) St. John uses Logos (translated Word) four times as a 
designation of the divine, pre-existent person of Christ, 
through whom the world was made, and who became incar- 
nate for our salvation (Johni. 1, 14; 1 John i.l ; v. 7 (spuri- 
ous) ; Rev. xix. 13). Philo may possibly have suggested the 
use of the term (although there is no evidence that John read 
a single line of Philo), but the idea was derived from the 
teaching of Christ, and from the Old Testament, which 
makes a distinction between the hidden and the revealed 
being of God, which personifies the Wisdom of God and 
the Word of God, and ascribes the creation of the world to 
the Logos (Ps. xxxii. 6, Sept.). There is an inherent pro- 
priety in this usage in the Greek language, where Logos is 
masculine and has the double meaning of thought and 
speech. Christ as to his divine nature bears the same re- 
lation to God as the word bears to the idea. The word 
gives shape and form to the idea, and it reveals the word 
to others. The word is thought expressed (Ad-yos Trpof^opwcdj), 
thought is the inward word {k6yo<; ev^ia^erw). We cannot 
speak without the faculty of reason, nor think without 
words, whether uttered or not. The Christ-Logos is the 
Bevealer and Interpreter of the hidden being of God, the 
utterance, the reflection, the visible image of God, and the 
organ of all his manifestations to the world (John i. 18; 
eorap. Matt, xi, 27). The Logos was one in essence or 
nature with God (^ebs r^v, John i. 1), yet personally distinct 
from him, and in closest communion with him (irpbs tov^cw, 
John i, 1, 18). In the fulness of time he assumed human 
nature, and wrought out in it the salvation of the race 
which was created through him (i. 14). Literature. — See 
the commentaries of Llicke, De Wette, Olshausen, Heng- 
stenberg, Meyer, Godet, Lange (Schaff"'? ed.), and Alford 
on the Prologue of John's Gospel ; also M, Stuart, Ex- 
amination of John i. 1-18, in Bibliotheca Sacra for 1850 
(pp. 281-327); Kohricht, Zur Johanneiachen Logoalehre, 
in the Theol. Studien und' Kritihen for 1868 (pp. 299-315) j 
and H. P. Liddon, Bampton Lectures on the Divinity of 
Chriai (London, 1867, lect. v., pp. 310-411). On the ec- 
clesiastical development of the Johannean Logos-doctrine 
by Justin Martyr, Origen, etc., sec especially Dorner, Hi9- 
tory of Chriatology. Philip Schapf. 

Logrofi^o, province of Spain, situated between Alava, 
Navarre, Aragon, and Soria, belongs to the basin of the 
Ebro, and produces an abundance of corn, wine, fruits, and 
vegetables ; it is also very rich in ores and mineral springs. 
That part of the province which stretches along the south- 
ern bank of the Ebro is an undulating plain, very fertile, 
especially in its western parts — the so-called La Rioja— ^ 
which produce excellent wine and oil. The southern parts 
of the province, however, are very much broken up by ofiT- 
shoots of the sierras which separate the basin of the Ebro 
from that of the Ducre, and which in Pico Santa Iv6s rises 
7380 feet. The mineral wealth of the province is com- 
pletely undeveloped, and the manufacturing industry is 
inconsiderable. Area, 1945 square miles. Pop. 174,425. 

Logrofio, a town of Spain, cap. of the province of the 
same name, on the Ebro, is a well-built town, with several 
good educational and literary institutions, and a brisk 
trade in wine, olive oil, and fruits. The surrounding plain 
produces the celebrated Rioja wine. Pop. 13,393. 

IjOg'^wood [named from being imported in loga"], the 
Htematoxylon Campechianiim, a middle-sized leguminous 
tree of Mexico and Central America, naturalized to some 
extent in the West Indies. It prefers wet land. It is the 
most important dyewood known. Its yellow sap-wood is 
hewn away, and the red heart-wood is exported in great 
quantities. It makes many shades from black to red and 
Ulac, according to the mordant employed. The "extract" 
or inspissated juice is largely prepared in its native coun- 
tries, and is exported. In medicine, logwood is a mild 
astringent, from the presence of tannic acid. For use in 
the arts logwood is usually supplied in the form of chips, 
powder, or solid extract. Occasionally a fluid extract is 
prepared, and recently a preparation called hiemafin has 
appeared in Lyons, which is probably an impure hicma- 
toxylin extracted from the wood by ether. 

Compoaition. — Logwood contains a peculiar principle, 
hsematoxylin, a volatile oil, fatty bodies, resinous bodies, tan- 
nin or a body nearly allied to it, acetates, oxalates, chlorides, 
sulphates, and phosphates ofpotassium, sodium, magnesium, 
calcium, aluminum, iron, and manganese, with some silica, 
Hxmafoxylin, CieHuOe, discovered by Chcvreul in 1811, 
is the characteristic principle of logwood; though it is not 
itself a dye, it readily yields by oxidation (loss of hydro- 



G4 



LOHARDAGrA— LOIRE. 



-gen) the real logwood dye, which is hsematein. Haema- 
.toxylin is obtained either in white needles containing 3H2O, 
or in pale-yellow crystals containing but one molecule of 
water of crystallization. It is slightly soluble in cold, very 
soluble in hot, water, soluble in alcohol and ether. Acids 
have little effect upon itj alkalies, especially ammonia, in 
the presence of oxygen, produce a purplish-red color, ow- 
ing to the formation of haematein, the real logwood dye. 
Chromic and vanadic acids produce a deep bluish-black 
ink with it. Nitric acid converts it into oxalic acid; fus- 
ing with caustic potash' changes it to pyrogallol, CeHeOs. 
Stannous chloride produces a rose-red precipitate, copper 
sulphate a greenish-gray precipitate, the latter changing 
rapidly to dark blue. Alum changes the color to bright 
red without making a precipitate. Haematoxylin is a 
delicate reagent for alkalies, especially ammonia; it is 
used as an indicator in volumetric analysis, and for pre- 
paring test-paper. Htematehi, C16H12O6, is the result of the 
action of the air on hEematoxylin in the presence of bases, 
and exists, in combination with metallic oxides, in all 
fabrics dyed with logwood or its preparations. It is easily 
prepared by exposing to the air an ammoniacal solution 
of hsBmatoxylin and drying the resulting precipitate at 
130° C. It forms colored lakes with metallic bases; blue 
or violet with alumina, copper, and tin; black with iron 
and chromium. 

Dyeiuff with logwood is accomplished with the decoction 
of the wood or with the extract. It was introduced into 
England in the time of Elizabeth, but, as the colors then 
obtained were very fugitive, its use was prohibited under 
severe penalties. The use of indigo was forbidden at the 
same time, as it interfered with the use of the native woad. 
A century later the restrictions on these most useful dyes 
were removed. It is used for reddish, violet, blue, and 
black shades, but chiefly for black. 

Logwood Bluen and Violets. — Cotton is dyed blue by 
mordanting first in chloride of tin, then in sulphate of 
copper, and finally dyeing in decoction of logwood. Wool 
is dyed blue by first mordanting in a boiling solution of 
aliitn, chloride of tin, and cream of tartar, then dyeing in 
decoction of logwood. Silk to be dyed violet is first scoured, 
alumed, and washed, then turned in the cold decoction of 
logwood, to which Brazil-wood is often added to modify the 
shade. 

Logwood blacks are the most important shades produced 
by this dye-wood. Cotton is dyed black by boiling in a 
decoction of logwood, to which a little quercitron is added 
to give a brownish shade to the black; it is then immersed 
in milk of lime, then in a cold solution, of ferrous sulphate 
(oopperas). tt is then returned to the original logwood 
decoction, to which some soda-ash has been added in the 
mean time. It is taken out, some copperas is added to the 
decoction, and it is again submitted to the bath. Wool is 
dyed black by first boiling it in a solution of copperas, 
blue vitriol, and argol, then immersing in the logwood 
decoction. Silk, after being freed from gum by boiling with 
Marseilles soap, is mordanted with acetate of iron, washed, 
placed in a solution of quercitron and alum, and finished ' 
in a decoction of logwood, to which a little soap is added. 

The iron blacks do not resist the action of acids, which 
withdraw the iron, leaving the hgematein as a red spot; to 
obviate this defect, potassic bichromate, in combination 
with eupric sulphate (blue vitriol), is substituted. The 
resulting black, which is a compound of haematein with 
the oxides of chromium and copper, withstands both acids 
and alkalies better than the iron compound. Cotton is 
first boiled in the logwood decoction, with or without 
quercitron, then placed in the solution of bichromate nnd 
blue vitriol. After adding some soda-ash to the original 
logwood decoction, the cotton is again placed in it ; finally, 
copperas is added to this bath, and the cotton is once more 
submitted to its action. Wool is first boiled in a solution 
of bichromate, blue vitriol, argol, and sulphuric acid, and 
then submitted to the action of the logwood. 

Printing logwood hlncks is based on the same principles 
as the dyeing. For cotton a mixture is prepared of log- 
wood extract with acetate and nitrate of iron and acetate 
of alumina, properly thickened with gum tragacanth. This 
is printed on the cotton, and by exposure to damp, warm 
air the alumina and oxide of iron are fixed in combination 
with the hasmatein. For wool a mixture is made of log- 
wood extract, indigo carmine, sal-ammoniac, and starch; 
these are boiled together. When the mixture has cooled 
to about 122° F., nitrate and chloride of iron are added. 
When cold, oxalic acid nnd bichromate of potassa are 
added. This mixture is printed on the wool and fixed by 
drying and steaming. 

Logwood Inkn. Seo article Ink. 

Literature. See article Calioo-Printing and articles in 
the Jonru, London Chem. Sac, 1881, ii. 611 ; 1882. i. 368; 
1883, ii. 349. C. F. Chandler. 



IiOhardaga,'or Ijoharduggay a district of the lieu- 
tenant-governorship of Bengal, India, extends between lat. 
22° 20' and 24° 39' N., and comprises an area of 32,044 
square miles, with 1,237,123 inhabitants. The central and 
southern portion of the district is an elevated table-land 
with undulating surface, and the slopes between the ridges 
are cut into terraces covered with rice. The northern and 
western portion is a tangled mass of insulated peaks, pre- 
senting nowhere a level area of any extent. The principal 
rivers are the North and South Koel. Though only 91 
persons of the whole population were returned as Eu- 
ropeans, the Christians are more numerous in Lohardaga 
than in any other Bengalese district. At the last census 
there were 741,952 Hindus, 58,211 Mohammedans, and 
12,781 Christians. The two missions are the German 
Lutheran and the Church of England, which harmonious- 
ly and successfully work side by side. The principal town 
is Kanchi, on the Koel, with 12,500 inhabitants. 

Ltt'her, von (Franz), b. Oct. 15, 1818, at Paderborn, 
Westphalia; studied law, history, natural science, and art 
at Halle, Munich, Freiburg, and Berlin ; made extensive 
travels in Europe, Canada, and the U. S. (1846-47); took 
an active part in the political movements in Germany in 
1848; founded the Weatjikaliecke Zeitmig ; was imprisoned 
by the Prussian government for political agitation, but 
shortly after acquitted by the court ; became assessor at 
the court of appeal in Paderborn in 1849, professor at the 
University of Gottingen in 1853, and was called to Munich 
in 1855 ns secretary of the academy and professor at the 
university. His writings are partly juridical — Das System 
des Preaaaischen Landrechts (1852); partly historical — 
Furaten nnd St'ddte zur zeit der ffohenatau/en (1-846), Ge- 
achichte der Dentacken in America {184S), smdJakohma von 
Baiern (1861J ; partly sketches of travel — Land %md Letite 
in der Alten und Neuen Welt (3 vols., 1857-58) and Neapel 
und Sicilien (2 vols., 1864). 

liOigny', Battle of, Dec. 2, 1870. The grand duke of 
Mecklenburg, commander of the right wing of the array of 
Prince Frederick Charles, stood opposed to Gen. Cha.nzy, 
who commanded the left wing of the French army of the 
Loire. Between these two parties a contest took place at 
Loigny. On the morning of Dec. 2 the grand duke concen- 
trated his troops on the line of Tanon-Baigneaux, and was 
about attacking the French when the latter, consisting of 
the 16th corps in the first line, the 17th in the second, and 
parts of the 15th as reserve, assumed the offensive at 9.30 
A. M. The Germans had the Ist Bavarian corps and the 4th 
cavalry division on their right wing, the 17th infantry di- 
vision in the centre, and the 22d infantry division with the 
2d and 6th cavalry divisions on their left wing. The vil- 
lage of Loigny stood midway between the two lines of 
battle. The French attacked first the Bavarians, defeated 
them, and occupied Loigny. The grand duke then sent 
the 4th cavalry division to aid them, and ordered the 17th 
infantry division under Gen. von Trcskow to wheel inward. 
The 17th infantry division threw itself with such force on 
the flank of the French that they had to abandon Loigny, 
which they were not able to retake, in spite of repeated at- 
tacks. The 17th infantry division occupied Loigny, and, 
pushing forward in connection with the 4th cavalry di- 
vision, forced the French back to Terminicrs and Gom- 
mters. At noon two French divisions of the 15th corps, 
stationed at Artenay, moved northward through Poupry 
against the left wing of the grand duke, but they were mot 
by the 22d infantry division and driven back through 
Poupry to Artenay. The Germans lost in this battle 3000 
men killed and wounded ; the French nearly twice as many, 
besides 3000 prisoners and 7 guns. August Niemann. 

Loir [anc. iirfer/cKs], a river of Prance, rises in the 
hills of Orleannais and joins the Sarche, an affluent of the 
Loire, 5 miles N. of Angers, after a course of about 150 
miles, of which the lower half is navigable. 

liOire, a department of France, comprising the old prov- 
ince of Forez and portions of Beaujolais and Lyonuais, in- 
cluding part of the basin of the upper Loire and spurs of 
the Cevennes and Forez mountains. Area, 1805 square 
miles. Pop. 599,836. Iron is mined, marble, granite, 
porphyry, and flint are quarried, and there are extensive 
manufactures of silk, iron, steel, and flint glass, and rich 
coal-beds in the vicinity of St. Etienne, where, in 1881, 
3,454,612 tons of coal were raised. Cap. Montbrison. 

Loire [anc. Liger^ the largest river of France, rises in 
the Cevennes and flows in a north-western and western di- 
rection through the centre of France to the Bay of Biscay, 
receiving from the right the Loir, and from the left the 
Allicr, Cher, Indrc, and Vienne rivers. It is navigable 450 
miles from its mouth, and is lined with high embankments, 
and a lateral canal completed in 1838 along its lower course, 
as it is liable to rise considerably, occasioning destructive 
inundations. In the volume of its water there is almost 



LOIEE-INFfiEIEUEE— LOMBARD AECHITECTUEE. 



65 



the irreguladty of a mouqtain-torrent. During the 
droughts of summer it shrinks into thin iind feeble threads 
winding their way between the sandbanks of the channel, 
and for about six months of the >'ear navigation is prac- 
tically impossible. At other times, and often very suddenly, 
tremendous floods pour down and submerge large tracts of 
land. A rainfall of from 3 to 4 inches over the whole river- 
basin is sufficient to put 35,320,000,000 cubic feet of water 
into the channel. When, however, the rain is general over 
the whole basin, the floods of the different tributaries reach 
the main stream at difierent times, and no barm is done; 
but when, from some reason or other, two or more of them 
arrive at the same time, inundations of the most serious 
character result. Attempts at controlling the river were 
made at a very early date. At the close of the Middle 
Ages the bed was enclosed by dykes, from 10 to 13 feet 
high, between Origans and Angers, and in 17S3 a double 
line of dykes, 23 feet high, was completed from Bee d'AUier 
downward. Of late various experiments have bepin made 
in order to improve the navigation of the lower part of 
the river, though not with the results anticipated. Its 
fertile basin is called " the gatden of France/' of which 
it comprises one-fourth the area. In several wars car- 
ried on within the boundaries of France it formed an im- 
portant strategical element; e, g. in the wars against the 
English invasion in the fifteenth century, in the wars of 
1814, and in the war of 1870-71 against the Germans. 
In the latter instance the Loire formed the boundary be- 
tween the territory occupied by the Germans and those 
parts of France which remained unharmed by the in- 
vaders. It put a check to the German operations, though 
a few minor expeditions penetrated farther S., and it formed 
the basis for the French operations during the closing period 
of the war. It obtains this importance partly from the sur 
face-formation of Central France, partly from' the road and 
railway systems which divide France into two different 
fields of operation, a northern and a southern. The river 
itself is so broad that its passages become very important 
military positions. August Niemann. 

JjOire-Inf^rieuTefy department of France, situated on 
both sides of the mouth of the Loire. Area, 2595 square 
miles. Pop. 625,^25. The aurface is low, containing .ex- 
tensive lagoons, but the soil is generally fertile. Wine and 
wheat are produced; Fine horses, good sheep, and many 
bees are reared. Salt, preserved meats, pickles, and sugar 
are exported. Cap. Nantes. 

]jOiret% department of France, situated between the 
Seine and the Loire, and consisting of a low, sandy, and 
unproductive tract on both sides of the Loire, and a more 
elevated and fertile plain called th^ plateau of Orleans. 
Area, 2551 square miles. Pop. 368,526. The principal 
products are grain, wine, hemp, safiron, timber, and apples. 
Much more wheat and oats are raised than necessary for 
home consumption. Sheep and cattle, both of good breeds, 
poultry and bees, are reared. Cap. Orleans. 

Ijoirxet-Cher, department of France, situated on 
both sides of the Loire, and traversed by several of its af- 
fluents, which form extensive lagoons. Area, 2389 square 
miles. Pop. 275,713. The surface is low and level, but 
the soil is generally fertile. Wheat, hemp, and vines are 
extensively cultivated; sheep, horses (the Perche breed is 
celebrated both for strength and for lightness), poultry, and 
bees are reared, and some woollens, cottons, leather, ani 
glass are manufactured. Cap. Blois. 

IjO'ja» an inland city of Ecuador, cap. of a province of 
the same name, 250 miles S. of Quito, near the Peruvian 
frontier, is situated in a fertile valley 7000 feet above the 
sea, regularly and neatly built, with several public build- 
ings, churches, and high schools. In the immediate vicin- 
ity are mines of gold, quicksilver, and coal and quarries of 
beautifully-veined marble. The chief article of commerce 
is the cinchona or quinine bark, which was first found in 
this district. Pop. about 10,000. 

Loja^ or liOxa^ town of Spain, province of Granada, 
on the Genii River, situated on the slope of a hill crowned 
by a magnificent Moorish castle, and in the Moorish wars 
considered the key to Granada. There are considerable 
Roman remains and manufactures of woollens, silks, paper, 
and leather. Pop. 18,249. 

liO'keren, town of Belgium, province of East Flan- 
ders, on the Darme, is a handsome and well-built town, 
with numerous schools and many benevolent institutions, 
and has important manufactures of linen goods, damasks, 
and laces. Pop. 17,400. 

liOkman', an Arabian fabulist of very early times, con- 
cerning whose real epoch and life the traditions are con- 
flicting and untrustworthy. His fables were published at 
Leydon by Erpenius in 1615, with a Latin translation, and 
they have since been one of the commonest textbooks for 
A''0L. v.— 5 



learning the Arabic language — a distinction they by no 
means merit either on the score of elegance or of original- 
ity, as most of them may be traced through the Syriac to 
a Greek original. Among modern editions those of Caus- 
sin dc Perceval (Paris, 1818), Helot {Paris, 1847),' and 
Dernburg (Berlin, 1850) may be mentioned. 

Loligin'idEe [from Loligo, the chief genus], a family 
of dibranchiate cephalopoda of the sub-order Sepiophora, 
with the eyes covered by skin ; the internal shell horny and 
lanceolate; thebody oblong, and with a more or less pointed 
latero-terminal fin; the mantle with three internal carti- 
lages, one dorsal and two ventral ; the siphuncle attached 
to the head by a double superior medial band; the head 
free from the front of the mantle; and the teeth of Ihe 
radula are in seven regular longitudinal rows, the median 
and inner lateral teeth being broad and fringed, and the 
outer long and fang-like. To it belong the most common 
"squids" of the eastern American coast. Three species 
have been recognized as inhabitants of the New England 
and New York seas — viz. Loligo Pealii, L. punctatOj and 
L. pallida. Among other genera are Gonatua, an Arctic or 
Greenland type, and Teutkie, a European and East Indian 
genus. The gigantic cuttle-fishes of the North Atlantic 
{Architeuthia) are nearly allied, but difi'er greatly in the 
teeth of the radula. Theodore Gill. 

Loriards [probably from Ger. lallen, "to sing in a 
murmuring strain," and hard, an affix signifying "to sing 
the praises of God or funeral dirges and the like," and 
probably connected with our "lullaby"], a term of re- 
proach applied at first to a half-monastic sect which orig- 
ignated in 1300 at Antwerp. The sect was designed to 
furnish ministrants for the care of the sick. In 1374 and 
1377 its members were placed under the protection of 
Gregory XI. In 1472, Pope Sixtus IV. recognized thera 
as a religious order. Their proper designation was CeUitea 
or A lexi an f. A few Alexian houses still exist in Europe. 
But the name was afterward especially applied to the Eng- 
lish and Scottish followers of Wycliffe, who were sorely 
persecuted during the reigns of Henry IV. and Henry V, 
in England, and in the same and somewhat later times in 
Scotland, where they were called " Lollards of Kyle." 
The chief centre of WyclifTe's teaching was the University 
of Oxford, and after the condemnation. of his doctrine of 
the sacraments, in 1382, Archbishop Courtenay proceeded 
to silence the Wycliffite teachers in the university. There 
was a strong party in the university which tried to resist 
the archbishop's interference, but he was supported by the 
crown, and in the space of five months he succeeded in re- 
ducing to silence, the Lollard party in Oxford, and in secur- 
ing the orthodoxy of the university. But during his life- 
time Wycliffe used to send out itinerant preachers, who met 
with considerable acceptance among the people: and in 
that field the contest threatened to become both more vio- 
lent and more protracted. Nevertheless, in the course of 
time the most famous of those itinerant preachers were 
compelled to recant or were driven into exile — a result 
which was largely due to a reaction against novelties 
which was produced by the peasants' rising under Wat 
Tyler, in 1381. From its very beginning the Lollard 
movement wore, indeed, a political aspect which it never 
lost, and which weakened its religious significance in no 
small degree. It was an opposition not only to the doc- 
trinal system of the Church of Robie, but also to her 
organization, such as was that planned and partially car- 
ried through by Hildebrand and his successors. (See 
Stubba, OonetitiUioual History of England^ Oxford, 1875- 
80, vols. ii. and iii.) 

liOmbard' (Peter), \_Petrun Lnmhardua], b. of humble 
parentage near Navara in Lombardy early in the twelfth 
century; studied theology at Bologna and Rheims, and in 
Paris under Abelard, and was appointed in 1159 bishop of 
Paris, where he d. July 20, 1160. He was one of the found- 
ers of the scholastic theology of the Middle Ages. His 
principal work, Senteniiamm Libri IV., from which he re- 
ceived the title of Magister Senteutiarum, is a collection of 
passages from the Fathers, with accompanying commen- 
taries, bearing on the various doctrines of Christianity. 
It was first printed in Venice (1477) ; an edition was pub- 
lished in Paris (1841). Until the Reformation it was the 
most common handbook used in all theological schools. 

Lombard Architecture. When Christianity became 
the religion of the Roman empire, Roman architecture came 
to an end. It had excelled in the construction of tem- 
ples, theatres, circuses, baths, palaces, basilicas, triumphal 
arches, etc., but for buildings of these descriptions there 
was no further use, for it was not only the Roman empire 
which broke into pieces; it was the Roman civilization 
which crumbled into dust, and the new life which Chris- 
tianity came to plant among the ruins of ancient paganism 
had other needs, which it now became the task of architec- 



66 



LOMBAEDINI— LOMBARDS. 



ture to supply. Tho character of this earliest Christian 
architecture is singularly mixed. There are new wants to 
satisfy, but there is as yet no new model to follow. There 
is a new spirit in demand, but there is as yet no new prin- 
ciple in construction. The first Christian architects took 
the old Roman buildings, blotted out such features as re- 
minded too plainly of paganism, and changed or modified 
the architectural arrangement only so much as was neces- 
sary in order to make the building answer the new purposes. 
Even when they had to erect entirely new buildings they 
borrowed the fundamental plan and the constructive prin- 
ciple from the old ones, and thus the Roman basilica be- 
came the model of the Christian church. Soon, however, 
the new spirit began to remodel all the details of the old 
construction and shape them after its own image, and by 
degrees it turned from the details to the fundamental forms, 
which at last it succeeded in rebuilding on an entirely new 
principle of construction and with an entirely new aesthetic 
character; thus producing an entirely new style of archi- 
tecture. But it took several centuries to transform the 
Roman basilica into the (Jothio cathedral. The transform- 
ation began in the fifth century, and was not accomplished 
until the twelfth; and this period of the history of archi- 
tecture is generally called the Romanesque, to indicate 
the peculiarly mixed ohar.icter of Roman forms and Chris- 
tian spirit which it exhibits throughout. 

As the Christian religion was truly universal in its spirit, 
it was capable of becoming truly national in its life ; and 
thus we see the Romanesque architecture, though it every- 
where arose from the same type and strove after the same 
ideal, develop differently in Italy, Spain, France, England, 
Germany, and Scandinavia under the influence of a vari- 
ously developed national spirit. Nowhere, however, is this 
phenomenon more interesting to observe than in Italy. 
Here, when Rome had perished, there was no more nation- 
ality ; all the nations came and sat down around the corpse 
of the one great nation. Italy, which had once been the 
centre whence all influences radiated over the world, had 
now become a focus into which all the influences of the 
world were gathered back. It exhibits four distinct groups 
of Romanesque architecture. In Central Italy the classic 
type was kept purest. In Rome, the churches of S. Mar- 
tinoin Monti, S, Giovanni in Laterano, and S.Maria in Ara- 
cceli, all from the ninth century, and those of S. Crisogono 
and S. Maria in Trastevere, from the twelfth century ; in 
Pisa, the cathedral (1063), tho baptisterium (1153), and the 
belfry (1174); in Lucca, the churches of S. Michele and 
S. Frediano; in Florence, the baptisterium and the church 
of S. Miniato, both from the twelfth century, — show a de- 
cided adherence to the classical taste, both in their plans, 
which are simple and clear, and in their ornaments, which 
are elaborate, delicate, of the finest materials, and of an- 
tique design. In Venice, which maintained extensive and 
brisk commercial relations not only with the Byzantine em- 
pire, hut with the whole Levant, a strong Oriental influence 
is visible in the church of S. Marco as it rises like a wonder 
from the sea, with its mighty arches resting on long rows 
of columns, and lifting an immense profusion of cupolas 
and spires, the whole covered with a most gorgeous orna- 
mentation. In Sicily and Lower Italy, which alternately 
belonged to the Byzantine empire, the Moors, and the 
Norsemen, the cathedrals of Palermo, Salerno, Amalfi, 
Monreale, Ravello, e|e. show a combination of the old ba- 
silica plan with the Byzantine dome and ornamentation, 
the Arabic horseshoe arch, and the belfry or front tower, 
which was a feature of Northern taste. 

The most interesting group of Romanesque architecture 
in Italy is the Lombard, not so much on account of the 
grandeur and magnificence of its monuments, as on ac- 
count of the superiority of their construction ; they come 
nearest to the Gothic style. To this group belong the 
cathedral of Modena, commenced in 1099, but not finished 
until 1184 ; the churches of S. Zeno in Verona, S. Michele 
in Pavia, and S. Ambrogio in Milan, all from the eleventh 
century; the cathedral of Novara from the eleventh, and 
the cathedral of Parma from the twelfth century. Earlier 
examples of this style of architecture are found in Switzer- 
land, but there they are generally on a small scale. The 
most prominent feature of the Lombard style is the general 
introduction and artistic development of the vault. The 
old basilica was generally open. On its transformation 
into a Christian church it had generally been covered with 
a flat wooden roof. As this roof was liable to catch fire, 
and many buildings had been destroyed or injured in this 
way, it had in some cases been replaced by a tunnel vault 
of masonry. But the tunnel vault never became generally 
used, and it exercised no influence either on the aesthetic 
character or on the technical construction of the building. 
As it pressed with equal weight on every point of the side- 
wall, which it touched, it simply demanded that the whole 
wall should be built stronger. Not so with the cross-vault- 



ing employed by the Lombards. It pressed only on those 
four points of the wall on which the ends of the cross- 
arches rested, and it demanded only that these four paints 
should be supported. This occasioned the application of 
buttresses, which later on in the Gothic style became so 
conspicuous a part of the construction and of the compound 
pier. The side-walls which enclosed the nave rested on 
columns, which separated the nave from the aisles. AVhen 
now the cross-vaulting was suspended over the nave, those 
points of the side-walls on which the ends of the cross- 
arches rested had to be strengthened, and thus the column 
which stood immediately under such a point was replaced 
by a whole bundle of columns, of which each had its own 
capital and its own pedestal — a compound pier which was 
carried up through the wall till it reached the point which 
ought to be supported, and showed on the wall as wall- 
shafts and wall-arches. The spaces of the wall between 
these piers needed no particular strength; on the contrary, 
they could conveniently be broken through by triforiums 
between the vaultings and the roof of the aisles, and by 
windows ; an,d thus the dead, bare walls of the~basilica type 
became vividly diversified, and began to show signs of that 
living organization which is the charm of the Gothic 
cathedral. A beautiful example of the manner in which 
the Lombards attempted to diversify the wall-masses give 
the arcades or arched string-courses, which generally are 
carried along the upper part of the apse, and sometimes 
along the whole side elevation of the building. 

Another characteristic feature of the Lombard architec- 
ture is the tower. In the Gothic architecture the towers 
became the most prominent part of the front facade. In 
the Lombard architecture they are still insulated pieces of 
decoration, sometimes placed before the main entrance of 
the nave, sometimes only loosely and inorganically con- 
nected with the building. But their mere presence an- 
nounces a Northern influence. The tower was a Gotho- 
Germanic invention. Still more striking is the manifesta- 
tion of this spirit in the ornamentation of the details. The 
classical designs are almost wholly given up and replaced 
by either fantastic or realistic devices, such as please 
the Gotho-Germanio taste. The materials employed by 
the Lombards are generally brick, sometimes coated with 
marble, but whether they used this material from economy 
or because it is more pliable and allows of a richer and 
more complicated construction than marble, cannot be de- 
cided. Clemens Petersen. 

ljombardi'ni(ELiA),b. Oct. 11. 1794; graduated at the 
University of Pavia, and devoted himself to the study of 
fluviatile hydrology ; in 1847 was appointed director-gen- 
eral of the public works in Lombardy, and held that posi- 
tion for nine years ; in 1860 was nominated senator of the 
kingdom, and is still living. Among his numerous and 
highly important professional writings, most of which have 
appeared in scientific journals, we may mention — Cenni 
Idrograjici ; Memoria suW Importanza degli Bhtdii imlla 
Statiatica del Fiumi ; Memoria aui cangiameiiti iielV idran- 
lica Condizione del Po ; Suite Inondazioni awemtte Jieltn 
Franeia ; BeW origine e del progreaso della Scieiiza Idraii- 
lica in Italia ; Saggio Idrologico sul Niln ; Shidii attl 
gratide eetuario Adriatico; several essays on the hydrology 
of the Po and the Tiber, and the very valuable Guida alio 
Studio delV Tdrologia fluviale e delV Idraulica praticttj 
published separately in 1870. 

Lom'bardS) a family of the Suevic or Suabian branch 
of the great Teutonic race. The word Lombard, though 
derived by Vassius from laiigepart, or barte.a long halchtt 
(e. ;/. halbert), probably comes, as Paulus Diaconus, him- 
self a Lombard, asserts, from nearly the same words, sig- 
nifying a " long beard." They are first mentioned 6 A. D. 
In 17, led by Marbodius, they joined the Cherusci, and 
established Italicus as king. In 548 they appear as Arian 
Christians led by Andouin. Under his son Alboin the 
Lombards became a wealthy and powerful race, ruling 
Pannonia. Having conquered the Gepidse and killed 
their king with his own hands, Alboin married his 
daughter Rosamond. At a great feast the Lombard king 
gave to his chiefs Italian fruits and wines, and so inflamed 
their imaginations with an account of the southern country 
that ere long his entire nation, with their women and chil- 
dren, appeared in Northern Italy. They were accom- 
panied by 20,000 Saxons, a race as fierce as themselves. 
Their appearance caused a general panic, and it was by 
the immense number of fugitives who took refuge in tho 
swamps and on the islands of Venice that this city was 
chiefly founded. The principal cities of Northern Italy 
were soon conquered by the energetic Lombards, who to 
great skill in war added administrative capacity and adap- 
tability to law and culture. Pavia was taken by them after 
three years' siege (a. d. 568), Alboin was proclaimed king 
of Italy in Milan, and the Lombard kingdom was founded. 



LOMBAEDY— LOMZA. 



67 



Their great victories were due to the numbers of other 
Northern tribes who joined them during their struggles, 
for, like the Normansi they were, though a ruling race, 
never a large one. Ravenna under its exarch remained 
Greek, but the remainder of the country was divided into 
duchies. Alboin at the height of his power, while intoxi- 
cated at a grand orgy, compelled his wife to drink wine 
from her father's skull. She revenged herself by inducing 
two soldiers to murder him during his sleep. He was suc- 
ceeded by Cleph (573), who during his short reign of 
eighteen months greatly extended his dominion. For ten 
years the Lombards under thirty dukes ravaged the greater 
part of Italy, when they chose Antheric for king. Under 
this truly great leader the Lombard empire was greatly 
extended, though during his rei^n Chilperic, king of the 
Franks, seized Milan. Freed from these invaders, An- 
theric (584) organized a powerful federal kingdom. After 
big death (591) his widow, Theodelinda, married Agilulf. 
Under his rule the Lombards became orthodox Catholics. 
Adaloald, who succeeded him (615), was deposed by the 
dukes, or peers, who elected Ariovald of Turin, his brother- 
in-law. Rotharis (636) crushed the turbulent aristocracy, 
which threatened the^tability of the empire, extended his 
dominions, and became famous by the compilation of the 
great code of Lombard laws, nearly 400 in number. " Aug- 
mented and continued by different kings until Didier or 
Desiderius (756-774), these laws not only survived the ruin 
of the Lombard kingdom, but became the basis of the re- 
vival of the study of jurisprudence in the Middle Ages, 
especially in Germany." Prom the reign of Rotharis the 
royal succession presents the usual scenes of murder, de- 
bauchery, intrigue, and dethronements common to all gov- 
ernments of the time under weak monarchs, until the 
accession of the great Luitpraud (712), He united the 
kingdom by subduing the refractory aristocracy, and 
would have united Italy but for the intrigues of the Church 
of Rome, which then, as at all subsequent periods, opposed 
the union of Italy. Aided by Popes Gregory II. and III., 
the Lombards were successively attacked by Pepin and 
Charlemagne. Ratchis, who succeeded Luitpraud (744), 
was BO fiur influenced by the pope as to become a monk. 
Astolofo, his brother, who became king in 749, endeavored 
to carry out the old Lombard ideas, but was checked by 
Pepin, Desiderius or Didier, his successor, had for co- 
rcgcnt Ratchis, who was taken from the cloister. Getting 
rid of Ratchis, Desiderius ruled alone. His daughter, 
Hermengilda, married Charlemagne, but as soon as the 
latter was on the throne he divorced his wife and sent her 
back to her father. For revenge, Desiderius supported the 
claims of the children of Carloman, Charlemagne's brother, 
and marched upon Rome, which had supported the out- 
rage committed by Charlemagne, leaving his throne in 
charge of his son, Adeichis. Charlemagne invaded Italy 
(773) and conquered Adelchia, who fled to Constantinople. 
Desiderius, who was made prisoner, ended his days as a 
monk in the monastery of Corbia. In 776 the Lombard 
government of dukes was replaced by that of the Pranks, 
and in 80:!, by treaty between Nicephorua, the emperor of the 
Bast, and Charlemagne, all of Lombardy, with the greater 
part of Italy, was transferred to the former. Thus per- 
ished the Lombard rule after a duration of 206 years. 
The Lombard laws and architecture, art and culture, were 
of a high order, and no race of the Transition or Roman- 
esque period developed greater energy or originality, or 
exercised a greater influence upon the Teutonic races of 
Europe, 

The name Lombards also was given during the Middle 
Ages to a vast number of shrewd and intelligent Italians, 
principally from Lombardy, who abounded in London and 
Paris during the twelfth century. They were principally 
brokers, bankers, and usurers, who advanced money on all 
kinds of securities. Lombard street in London derived its 
name from them, and there is in Paris another, once entirely 
occupied by Lombards, which bears the same designation. 
That of London still is, what the Lombard street of Paris 
was, the great financial centre of the Qountry. Both in 
France and England the Lombards were regarded, though 
in less degree, like the Jews, as a despised race, and were 
accordingly oppressed by the sovereigns of those coun- 
tries. Charles G. Leland. 

liOm'bardy, a territory of Northern Italy, extending 
from the Alps to the Po, and from Lago Maggiore and the 
Ticino, which separate it from Piedmont, to Lago di Garda 
and the Mincio, which separate it from Venetia. It con- 
sists of an alpine region to the N. covered with picturesque 
mountain-ranges and containing beautiful valleys, and a 
large and exceedingly fertile plain to the S., extending 
along the Po, and watered by the Ticino, Lambro, Adda, 
Oglio, and Mincio. This plain, with its rich soil and mild 
climate, is not only one of the most fertile, but also one of 
the best cultivated and most prosperous parts of the king- 



dom of Italy. Large crops of wheat, maize, rice, and mil- 
let are raised. Melons, oranges, figs, citrons, peaches, 
olives, and mulberry trees are extensively cultivated ; also 
vines, though the wine produced is of inferior quality. The 
principal industry is dairy -farming, which annually pro- 
duces about 50,000j000 pounds of excellent cheese. The 
principal manufacture is silk, which is produced in large 
quantities and of excellent quality ; the annual value of 
this single product is estimated at $15,000,000. The hilly 
region is rich in beautiful marbles. The territory, com- 
prising an area of 9085 square miles, with a population of 
3,460,824, does not form a political unit at present, but is 
divided into the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia, Como, 
Cremona, Milan, Pavia, and Sondrio. It received its name 
from the Lombards (which see), who in 569 conquered 
Northern and Central Italy and established an independent 
kingdom, which flourished till 774, at which time it was in- 
corporated with the Carlovingian empire. By the treaty 
of Verdun in 843, Lombardy, together with a long but 
narrow strip of country situated between France and Ger- 
many, and inhabited by Prankish tribes, was formed into 
a kingdom under a ruler of the Carlovingian house, and it 
remained a Prankish possession till the death of Charles 
the Pat, in 888. After this time several independent 
duchies arose in the eastern portion of the old Lombardian 
dominions, and in 961 the western and central parts, Lom- 
bardy proper, fell under the feudal authority of the German 
empire. In the beginning of the eleventh century it suc- 
ceeded in separating itself from Germany, and a number 
of small republics, generally consisting of one city only, 
with a dependent territory, were formed. This period of 
its history, which lasted to the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, is perhaps the most interesting and prosperous. Twice 
united into powerful leagues, the Lombard cities defeated 
Frederic Barbarossa in 1176 and Frederic II. in 1225; 
and after the dissolution of the league Milan still remained 
a power which commanded some respect under the sway of 
the ViscoNTis and Sforzas (which see). In 1540, Spain 
subdued the North Italian republics, and held the country 
to 1706, when it fell to Austria. During the wars between 
France and Austria at the end of the eighteenth and the 
beginning of the nineteenth centuries, Lombardy succes- 
sively belonged to the Cisalpine republic, the Italian re- 
public, and the kingdom of Italy, but in 1815 it was restored 
to Austria, which ceded it to the king of Sardinia in 3859 
by the treaty of Villafranca. 

Loinbok% one of the group of the Sunda Islands, in 
the Malay Archipelago, situated between Bali and Sum- 
bawa, and belonging to the Netherlands. Its area is esti- 
mated at 1850 square miles'; its population at 250,000, all 
Mohammedans. Its coasts are mountainous, containing 
several active volcanoes j the interior is a low and fertile 
plain, in which rice and cotton are extensively cultivated, 
as cotton on the hillsides. The capital is Mataram ; 
the seaport Ampanam, much frequented to obtain pro- 
visions. 

liOm'ttriz [Sp., " intestinal worm "], an epizootic disease 
destroying multitudes of young sheep in Texas and Mexico. 
The sheep has in its stomach and flesh multitudes of long, 
reddish, hair-like worms. It is best prevented by liberal 
feeding and good care for the breeding ewes and the young 
lambs, since well-fed sheep throw off the parasites early. 
The administration of salt water, or of salt, sulphur, and 
copperas in equal parts, in a few small doses, will, it is as- 
serted, destroy the worms without harming the sheep. 

Lom^nie, de (Louis Leonard), b. in 1818 at St. 
Yrieix, department of Haute-Vienne, France; studied at 
Avignon ; began in 1840 in Paris the publication of the 
Galerie den Confemporaina illuetree, par un Homme du Mien 
(10 vols., finished in 1847), which attracted much attention ; 
was appointed professor in French literature at the College 
de France in 1845, and at the ;^cole Polytechnique in 1864. 
Another series of biographies, Hommee de '89, has not been 
finished. In 1855 he published Beaumarckais et aon Temps 
(2 vols.), rich in original researches, and republished in 
the U. S. D. Apr. 2, 1878. 

liO'mondj liOchy the largest lake of Scotland, 21 miles 
long, comprising an area of 40 square miles, and situated 
between the counties of Stirling, Perth, and Dumbarton. 
It receives the Endrick, Luss, and Fruin, and sends its 
waters through the Leven to the Frith of Clyde. It is 
studded with islands and surrounded by grand and beau- 
tiful scenery. 

liOm^za, town of Russia, in the government of the same 
name, on the Narev, a tributary of the Vistula, is 80 miles 
N. E. of Warsaw. It has a college, a gymnasium, and 
was formerly one of the most important towns of Poland, 
but was destroyed by the Swedes, and never recovered. 
In 1795 it became subject to Prussia; in 1807, to Russia. 
Pop. 16,000, 



LONATO— LONDON. 



IiOna'to, town of Northern Italy, in the province of 
Brescia. This town, of Roman origin, after being again 
and again desolated by war and pestilence during the Mid- 
dle Ages, has been in modern times the scene of two great 
battles between the French and Austrians — one in 170fi, and 
the other in 1 796 — in both of which the French were victo- 
rious. Pop. within the municipal limits, 6462. 

London, the metropolis of Great Britain, is situated 
on both sides of the Thames, 60 miles from its mouth, in 
lat. 61° 30' 48" N., Ion. 0° 5' 48" W. (the dome of St. Paul's 
cathedral). Its size is somewhat indefinite. The postal 
district covers an area of 250 square miles. The police 
district extends still farther, covering an area of 687 square 
miles, and including (in 1881) a population of 4,764,312. 
On the other band, the parliamentary London is much 
narrower. It consists of ten boroughs, of which the city 
of London, although the smallest (having 50,526 inhabit- 
ants in 1881), is represented by four members, on account 
of its commercial and financial importance, while each of 
the other nine, although larger, is represented only by 
two: Chelsea, 366,506; Finsburv, 524,480; Greenwich, 
200,651; Hackney, 417,191; Lambeth, 498,967; Maryle- 
bone, 498,311; Southwnrk, 221,866; Tower Hamlets, 
438,910; Westminster, 228,932. But together these ten 
boroughs represent a population of only about 3,452,350, 
and the remainder of the inhabitants of the city belong 
to non-metropolitan electoral districts. Generally, how- 
ever, the size of the city is determined by the area 
under the operation of the Metropolis Local Government 
act, which is also adopted by the registrar-general for the 
census. According to this definition, London covers an 
area of 122 square miles, forming parts of the counties of 
Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent, with 3,832,441 inhabitants 
in 1881. Of this population, about one-third was born 
outside of the limits of the city. There were about double 
as many natives of Ireland (250.000) as of Scotland 
(120,000), and about five times as mf^ny natives of the 
counties of England and Wales (1,000,000) as foreigners 
(200,000). The foreigners consisted of 156,000 Europeans 
(60,000 Germans, 30,000 Frenchmen, 15,000 Dutchmen, 
12,000 Poles, 7500 Italians, 5000 Swiss) and 45,000 Asiatics. 
Africans, and Americans. The number of Jews amounts 
to about 40,000. The special foreign district of London is 
that of Soho, but many foreigners also live in the neigh- 
borhood of Ratclitf Highway, the present St. George street. 
The lower class of the Jews inhabit the neighborhood of 
Houndsditch and Aldgate; the Italian street-musicians 
and vendors of ices, the neighborhood of Hatton Garden. 

In its course through the city the width of the Thames 
varies from 700 to 1200 feel*. It is spanned by a great 
number of magnificent bridges, of which the most re- 
markable are London Bridge, 900 feet long, of stone, daily 
orosssd by 25,000 vehicles; Waterloo Bridge, 1240 feet long, 
consisting of nine elliptical arches ; Westminster Bridge, 
1200 feet long, consisting of seven iron arches resting on 
8tone piers, etc. Several tunnels under the river connect 
*he two banks. The Thames Tunnel, two miles below Lon- 
don Bridge, was opened Mar. 25, 1843, and consists of two 
arched passages, 1200 feet long, 14 feet wide, and 16^ feet 
high, separated by a brick wall 4 feet thick. In 1865 the 
tunnel was bought by the East London Railway Company 
to connect the railways N. of the Thames with those on 
the southern side, and July 19, 1869, it was closed as a 
public footway. The Thames Subway, carried 25 feet be- 
low the bed of the river, was opened in the beginning of 
1870, and two others have since been constructed. At Lon- 
don Bridge the Thames has sufiicient water to admit vessels 
of 800 tons, and between this point and Bigsby's Hole, 6i 
miles farther down, opposite Blackwall, extends the port 
of London, with its twenty-eight magnificent wet docks. 
The most remarkable of these are the East India, West In- 
dia, St. Katharine's, and London docks, with the famous 
wine-vaults ; and on the other side the Surrey and Com- 
mercial docks, mostly for the timber and corn trades. In 
1881 the port was entered by 10,765 vessels, of 5,810,043 
tons, and cleared by 8081 vessels, of 4.478,960 tons, all en- 
gaged in the foreign and colonial trade ; while of vessels 
engaged in the coasting trade, 36,112, of 4,239,663 tons, 
entered, and 10,470, of 1,463,715 tons, cleared the port; 
2709 vessels, of 1,118,579 tons, were registered as belong- 
ing to the port — namely, 1637 sailing vessels, of 506,865 
tons, and 1072 steam vessels, of 611,714 tons. London 
has, so to speak, monopolized the trade with the East 
Indies and China, and is the emporium for tea, coffee, 
sugar, spices. Indigo, and, indeed, for all kinds of Eastern 
produce and manufacture. The trade with France is also 
chiefly concentrated in London, which receives from that 
country, besides the special French manufactures, large 
quantities of butter, eggs, vegetables, fruit, poultry, and 
grain. The greater part of the Baltic trade, furthermore, 
is carried on by way of London, which imports corn, cat-. 



tie, and provisions of various kinds from Denmark, timber 
and fish from Norway, tallow, hemp, linseed, and wool 
from Russia, etc. In the Mediterranean trade, however, 
London has found a great rival in Liverpool, though it 
still imports large quantities of olive oil, wine, fruit, mad- 
der, etc. from Turkey, Greece, Italy, and Spain ; while the 
circumstance that the staple manufacture of Lancashire is 
cotton has directed most of the trade with the U. S. through 
Liverpool. The total value of the trade of London amounted 
in 1880 to £194,043,836— namely, exports, £52,600,929; im- 
ports, £141,442,907. The principal items of importation 
were tea, 206,816,609 pounds; coffee, 1,357,397 pounds; 
cocoa, 20,750,014 pounds ; wool, 358,776,758 pounds ; wheat, 
12,808,355 quarters; wine, 10,682,179 gallons; live ani- 
mals : oxen, 122,992 ; sheep and lambs, 679,522 ; tobacco, 
26,645,681 pounds; eggs, 909,406 gt. bund. 

The manufacturing industry of London is of less im- 
portance than its commerce. The principal branch is 
brewing. In 1880 there were 110 common brewers, who 
used 9,955,177 bushels of malt and exported 236,206 bar- 
rels of beer. The breweries are now supplied, with water 
by wells sunk below the chalk to the greensand. Silk- 
weaving, which was introduced by French refugees after 
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes and flourished for a 
long time at Spitalsfield, has during the last fifty years 
gradually succumbed under the rivalry of Lancashire- 
The shipbuilding yards are located at the Isle of Dogs, but 
it is principally yachts which are built. In 1881 their 
number amounted to 64, but the tonnage to only 2723. 
Of more importance are the engineering works at Lam- 
beth and Millwall, the potteries and glass-works at Lam- 
beth, Whitefriars, and Southwark, and the chemical works 
on the Lea. The manufacturing activity of the city is 
chiefly carried on in the districts S. of the river; that of 
carriages, however, is concentrated at Long Acre. The 
cabinetmakers have th^ir shops principally in the neigh- 
borhood of Shoreditch, Tottenham Court road, and Hamp- 
stead road. The wholesale book-trade is to a large extent 
concentrated in Paternoster Row. The Jews carry on their 
trade in second-hand clothing at Houndsditch, especially 
on Sunday mornings, at which time also birds and fancy- 
animal fairs are held in Church street, Bethnel Green, and 
St. Andrews street. The newspaper ofiices are principally 
gathered in Fleet street. The commerce and regular busi- 
ness are carried on in that part of the city which is dis- 
tinctively called the Citi/ of London, situated on the north- 
ern bank of the river, and forming the centre of the whole 
hive ; it has its own police, and is said to be entered every 
morning by 700,000 persons who leave it again in the 
evening. 

The principal thoroughfares run from B. to W., parallel 
with the river. The westein part is the seat of most of the 
public institutions and the residence of the wealthy and 
aristocratic classes. A prominent feature in the prospect 
of the city are the Thames embankments or river-quays. 
The Victoria embankment, on the northern aide, runs from 
Westminster Bridge to Blackfriara' Bridge, and forms a 
magnificent public way, 100 feet broad, from the houses of 
Parliament to St. Paul's cathedral; it was opened in 1870. 
The Albert embankment, on the southern side, runs from 
Westminster Bridge to Lambeth Palace, the town-residence 
of the archbishop of Canterbury. The Chelsea embankment 
begins at Chelsea Hospital, and presents an excellent road- 
way 70 feet wide, and lined on the land-side with numer- 
ous pleasure-grounds. Of the squares, of which a great 
number is scattered all over the city, and of which many 
arc planted with beautiful trees and are well cultivated, 
the largest are Eaton, 1637 by 371 feet; Cadogan, 1450 by 
370 ; Bryanston, 814 by 198 ; and Montagu Square, 820 by 
156; the most fashionable are Belgrave, Grosvenor, St. 
James's, Hanover, Cavendish, and Trafalgar Squares, with 
the Nelson Column, the statues of Havelock and Napier, 
and fine fountains; the most crowded, because situated in 
the eastern quarters and mostly surrounded by lodging- 
houses, are Great Ormond, Queen, Brunswick, and Meck- 
lenburg Squares. Soho Square, near Oxford street, one of 
the gayest points' of the city in the days of the prince re- 
gent, but afterwards somewhat deserted, has of late been 
embellished by a beautiful garden. Of the public parks, 
the most prominent is Hyde Park, comprising an area of 
about 400 acres between Green Park and Kensington Gar- 
dens, and containing a fine sheet of water, the Serpentine, 
an excellent drive. Rotten Row (route dti rot), from Apsley 
House to Kensington Gardens, and the splendid Albert 
monument, erected on the site of the Crystal Palace of 
1851. Remarkable among the other parks are the Regent's 
Park, comprising 450 acres, and containing a zoological 
and botanical garden ; St. James's (69 acres), extending 
between St. James's Palace, Buckingham Palace, and the 
Wellington Barracks; Green Park (60 acres), between 
Hyde Park and Piccadilly, from which it is entered through 



LONDON. 



69 



a triumphal arch surmounted by an equestrian statue of 
Wellington,* Victoria Park (300 acres), in the north-east- 
ern part of the city ; KeuRington Gardens, a beautiful piece 
of ground separated from Hyde Park by the Serpentine ; the 
Kew Botanical Gardens, situated 5 miles from Hyde Park, 
on the road to Richmond, and comprising 170 acre?, etc. 

The citadel of London, the Tower, is perhaps the most 
interesting and most widely known of its public buildings. 
It is situated at the eastern extremity of the city, and con- 
sists of a bewildering mass of towers, forts, batteries, ram- 
parts, barracks, and storehouses, covering an area of 900 
feet by 800. The oldest part of the building is the White 
Tower, constructed by William the Conqueror, and almost 
unchanged in the interior, though externally remodelled by 
Wren. Other remarkable points of the construction are 
the Bloody Tower, in which the sons of Sdward IV. were 
murdered; Beauchamp Tower, in which Anne Boleyn and 
Jane Grey were detained ; the Bell Tower, in which the 
constable resides ; the galleries of the Horse Armory and 
Queen Elizabeth Armory, containing fine collections of 
arms; the Jewel Boom, in which the regalia of the Eng- 
lish crown is kept, etc. As a fortress the Tower is not 
of great consequence, but it contains vast stores of war- 
materials. Of the royal palaces, none is very remarkable; 
they are more distinguished for vastness of dimensions 
than for elegance of architecture. Buckingham Palace 
was begun by George IV. and finished by William IV. 
It forms an immense quadrangle, contains a fine collec- 
tion of pictures, a magnificent ball-room, capable of re- 
ceiving 2000 persons, a splendid staircase of white marble, 
etc. ; but it is only used on great occasions. The queen re- 
sides, when in town, in Kensington Palace, and holds her 
drawing-rooms in St. James's. Marlborough House, in 
Pall Mall, was built by Wren for the duke of Marlborough, 
and bought in 1817 by the Crown ; it is now the residence 
of the prince of Wales. The new Westminster Palace, or 
the houses of Parliament, stands on the left bank of the 
Thames, between the river and Westminster Abbey, on the 
site of the old palace, which was destroyed by fire in 1834. 
It is a vast construction, covering an area of 8 acres, con- 
taining 2 miles of corridors, 100 staircases, and 1100 apart- 
ments, among which are the House of Lords, 100 feet by 
45, the House of Commons, 60 feet by 46, and the famous 
Westminster Hall, 290 feet long, 110 high, and 68 wide, in 
which the highest law courts of England are held. It is 
built in Gothic style, very elaborate in Its details, and i-ich, 
even gorgeous, in its interior decoration. 

Next to the Tower in historical interest, and far superior 
to it in architectural respects, is Westminster Abbey. The 
oldest parts of the present building, the choir and the 
transepts, were erected in the thirteenth century by Henry 
IIL, the nave and the aisles in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries by the abbots, the western front and the great win- 
dow by Richard III., the famous chapel at the eastern ex- 
tremity by Henry VII., who also completed the interior, 
and the upper part of the western towers by Wren. The 
present structure is 511 feet long, 208 across the transepts, 
79 across the nave and aisles; the height of the nave is 
102 feet; of the towers, 225. From the time of Edward 
the Confessor the kings of England have been crowned 
here, and most of them, after Henry VII., lie buried or 
have their monuments here. An interesting spot of the 
building is called ** Poets' Corner," in the eastern aisle of 
the southern transept, in which the most illustrious men 
of English science, literature, and art are buried or have 
their monuments. The cathedral of the see of London is 
the church of St. Paul, built by Wren between 1075 and 
1710. It is 600 feet long, 180 wide, 222 high; the height 
of the dome is 365 feet, the diameter 145. It is the fifth 
largest church in Europe. The oldest church of London is 
St. Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield. built in 1102 
and rest-ored 1865-67- In all, the city contains about 1600 
places of worship — 600 belonging to the Established Church, 
400 to the Wesleyan and other Methodists, 300 to the Bap- 
tists, 150 to the Congregationalists, 100 to the Roman 
Catholics, about 26 to the English and other Presbyterians, 
20 synagogues, etc. The British and Foreign Bible Society 
of London distributes annually 4,000,000 Bibles in 200 
languages. London has a large number of hospitals and 
over 1000 charitable institutions, with an annual income 
of about £5,000,000, half of which is disbursed for food 
and clothiitg alone. By the Elementary Education act of 
1870 the fity was divided into ten school districts, repre- 
sented in (he central school board by 49 members. This 
board is authorized to provide new schools and compel the 
attendance of children between five and twelve years of 
age. The school funds are raised from parents, public 
taxes, and local funds. Before the enactment of this law, 
in the year 1869-70 there were within the space of a square 
mile in the eastern part of the city 40,000 children, of 
whom 30,000 received no instruction. The schools for the 



middle class have been sufiicient in number and good for a 
long period back, and those for higher or special educa- 
tions, commercial, industrial, artistic, military, etc., are 
excellent. First among all educational institutions of Lon- 
don stands the British Mitseum (which see), but the city 
has besides about 60 large libraries accessible to the public, 
excellent collections illustrative of industry and art in the 
Kensington Museum, the National Gallery of Paintings of 
all schools in Trafalgar Square, and a great number of 
private collections. The number of theatres amounts to 
about 40, but since the age of Shakspeare the English 
stage has never occupied a prominent position. With re- 
spect to music, although England has produced no great 
composer, nowhere can better music be heard than in Lon- 
don, and musical institutions and associations are very 
numerous. 

The municipal government of London presents a very 
striking example of decentralization. Fifty years ago the 
metropolis was governed partly by the City of London and 
partly by the vestries of the outlying parishes, to which 
two elements of government had to be added the justices 
of peace, the various local commissioners for paving, light- 
ing, and cleaning the streets, the burial boards, the com- 
missioners'for public baths, for libraries, for public schools, 
for the police, for the poor, etc. It was vividly felt, how- 
ever, that twenty or thirty independent governments do 
not govern a city so very well, and fifteen years ago the 
Metropolitan Board of Works was created to take charge 
of such improvements as plainly could not be done on the 
parochial plan. The board did not work well, and in 1884 
a plan was laid before Parliament erecting London into a 
county by itself. 

London {Londininm, Augusta Trinobantum) first appears 
in history as a Roman station in the reign of Claudius: 
under Constantine the Great it was fortified. After the de- 
parture of the Roman troops it became the capital of the 
East Saxon kingdom, and in the ninth century, under Eg- 
bert, the capital of the united Saxon kingdoms. William 
the Conqueror granted it a charter, which was renewed and 
enlarged by Henry I. in 1100. From this time, and up to 
our days, the city has always been most intimately con- 
nected with the history of the country. There is hardly 
any great event or any great character in the English his- 
tory and literature of which some trace cannot be found in 
London. The kings were often very jealous of its privileges 
and power, and favored Westminster, where they resided, 
and which at that time was a separate city. Even Eliza- 
beth, although she contributed much to the prosperity of 
London by suppressing the privileges of the Hanseatie 
League, feared that it would grow too big. In the latter 
part of the seventeenth century it suffered severely— first, 
by the plague in 1665, which cost the lives of 65,000, while 
the total population was only about 200,000 ; and the follow- 
ing year by a great conflagration, which destroyed about 
five-sixths of the whole city. It soon recovered, however, 
and made immense progress, especially in this century ; be- 
tween 1801 and 1881 its population increased from 958,863 
to 3,832,431. It is now one of the great centres of modern 
civilization, and more especially the centre of the com- 
merce of the world; every enterprise of any great magni- 
tude looks to it for capital. And as a place of elegance, 
comfort, and safety it stands in the foremost rank among 
cities, its police, fire departments, means of conveyance and 
communication, relief and sanitary institutions, etc., being 
models in their respective lines. Clemens Petersen. 

London, eity and port of entry, capital of Middlesex 
co.^ Ont., Canada, on the river Thames, and on the Great 
Western Railway, 61 miles E. of Sarnia, is the N. terminus 
of the London and Port Stanley Railway and the S. termi- 
nus of a branch of the Grand Trunk. It is surrounded by 
a very fertile and well-timbered district, has 5 banks, a 
board of trade, and 17 churches, is the seat of a Roman 
Catholic bishop and of the Anglican bishop of Huron, has 
numerous benevolent societies, a convent, a well-regulated 
school, fire and police departments, and is the seat of Hell- 
muth College, Hellmuth Ladies' College, and of Huron Col- 
lege, all flourishing institutions. There are 2 literary and 
several religious societies, 3 monthly, 5 weekly, 1 tri-weekly, 
and 2 daily newspapers, an orphan asylum, a hospital, and 
an insane hospital. London is well laid out, and is lighted 
by gas; has a large number of machine-shops, breweries, 
oil-refineries, foundries, and other manufacturing establish- 
ments. The public buildings, bridges, streets, squares, mar- 
kets, etc. are for the most part named after those of London 
in the mother-country. Miuiy of the public buildings are 
architecturally very fine. Pop. of the city in 1871,16,826: 
in 1881, 19,763. 

London, on R. R., cap. of Laurel co., Ky. (see map 
of Kentucky, ref. 4-1, for location of county). Pop. in 
1870, 166; in 1880,216. 



Loudon, R. R. junction, cap. of Madison co., 0. (see 
map of Ohio, ref. 5-E, for location of county), 25 mile? W. 
of Columbus. Stock sales have been held here monthly 
for many years. Pop. in 1870, 2066; in 1880, 3067. 

liOndon Clay, a series of argillaceous strata, in places 
from 500 to 600 feet in thickness, forming the most import- 
ant member of the Lower Eocene of England amd the north- 
ern extremity of France, and underlying the city of Lon- 
don. The remains of mammals {Hyracotherium , Lophiodou, 
Goryphodon), of birds {Halcyornis, Lithornia, and some 
others), of a sea-snake (Palseophis), and of marine turtles 
and at least eighty species of fish, have been found in 
these beds, which also abound in shells (upwards of 250 
species have been recorded), and have also yielded a great 
variety of plant remains (palm fruits, etc.) of tropical or 
sub-tropical aspect. The fauna and flora thus indicate to 
us that these strata were deposits in a delta or in a limited 
sea receiving waters flowing from a torrid region of the 
earth. 

Lon'donderry, county of Irela,nd, in the province of 
Ulster, bordering on the Atlantic. Area, 810 square miles. 
The surface is mostly hilly and rugged, with fertile tracts 
along the rivers Bann, Foyle, Faughan, Roe, and Mayola, 
with their numerous affluents. Oats, barley, potatoes, and 
flax are the common crops ; linen is the principal manufac- 
ture. Pop. 164,991. From 1857 to 1881 the number of 
emigrants amounted to 7:^,725. A great part of the ground 
is held by the inhabitants by lease under the Irish Society 
and the twelve London companies. 

liOndonderry, city of Ireland, capital of the county 
of Londonderry, on the Foyle, which is crossed by an iron 
bridge 1200 feet long, is built on a hill, on whoso top stands 
the cathedral of Derry, and was formerly fortified, has 
many breweries and distilleries, and considerable manufac- 
tures of linen and ropes. The salmon fisheries of Lough 
Foyle are very productive. Pop. 28,947. 

Londonderry (Charles William Stewart Vane), 

THIRD MARQUIS OP, b. at Bublin, Ireland, May 18, 1778 ; 
served on the Continent both as a soldier and a diplomatist 
during the wars of the French Revolution ; aided in sup- 
pressing the Irish rebellion of 1798; accompanied Aber- 
crombie to Egypt in 1801, in. which year he entered Par- 
liament; became colonel, aide-de-camp to the king, and 
under-secretary for the war department in 1803; distin- 
guished himself at the head of a brigade of hussars under 
Sir John Moore in Spain (1808-09); was adjutant-general 
to Sir Arthur Wellesley (1809-13), distinguishing himself 
at Talavera and other battles, for which he received the 
thanks of Parliament and the order of the Bathj went as 
ambassador to Berlin in 1813, to Austria in 1814, and was 
a member of the Congress of Vienna in 1816 ; was made privy 
councillor, lieutenant-general, and Baron Stewart in 1814; 
assumed the surname of Vane in 1819 on his marriage with 
the heiress of that title; succeeded his half-brother Robert 
as marquis of Londonderry in 1822; was made Earl Vane 
and Viscount Seaham in 182.3, general in 1837, colonel of 
lifeguards in 1843, knight of the Garter in 1852. D. in 
London Mar. 6, 1854. Under his original name of Stewart 
he was author of a History of the Peninsular War fl808- 
13), and as marquis of Londonderry he edited the Corre- 
spondence of \i\& brother. Lord Castlereagh(1850). In devel- 
oping the vast estates of his wife in Durham he constructed 
at his own expense the harbor of Seaham. 

Londonderry, secomd marquis of. See Castlb- 
REAGH, Earl op. 

liOndon Pride {Saxifmga umhrosa), a perennial 
evergreen plant, a native of Southern Europe, frequently 
-found in England and in Ireland, where it is called St. 
Patrick's cabbage, from its thick cluster of leaves. The 
stem grows a foot high, and bears small pink flowers with 
darker spots. Being unaffected by smoke, it grows well in 
the English cities, especially in London, whence its name. 

London, University of, originally incorporated in 
1825, was reorganized in 1836, the former university tak- 
ing the name of University College, and a new university 
then received a charter, which has been amended in 1837, 
1850, and 1858. The university proper consists of a sen- 
ate and a board of examiners. It does not instruct, but 
examines, confers degrees, certificates, and prizes, and 
sends one member to Parliament. There are several col- 
leges and schools in various parts of the kingdom affiliated 
with the university. Those at London are University Col- 
lege, King's College, and New College. If the London Uni- 
versity is less distinguished for the eminence of its gradu- 
ates in classical learning and pure mathematics than the 
old English universities, it is certain that in the natural 
and physical sciences and the professions of law and med- 
icine its diplomas are not less valued than those of eilbcr 
Oxford or Cambridge. 



Long, in music. See Large. 

Long (Gen. Armistead L.), b. in Virginia in 1826; grad- 
uated at West Point in 1850 ; entered the artillery as brevet 
second lieutenant; in .June, 1861, after serving four months 
on the staff of Gen. Sumner, he resigned to follow the for- 
tunes of his native State; became brig.-gen., and was killed 
at the battle of Peach Tree Creek, July 20, 1864. 

Long (Crawford W.), M. D. See Appendix. 

Long(Gen. Eli), b. in Woodford co., Ky., June 16, 1837; 
graduated at Erankfort (Ky.) Military School in 1855, and 
ill 1856 was appointed a second lieutenant of cavalry in 
the U. S. army ; prior to 1861 he sensed with his regiment, 
mainly against hostile Indians ; on May 24, 1861, ho at- 
tained the rank of captain. Throughout the civil war he 
was actively engaged in the West, at Perryville, Murfrees- 
boro', Chickamauga. and in the Atlanta campaign, as colonel 
of the 4th Ohio cavalry since Feb., 1863, but in command 
of a brigade most of the time prior to his appointment as 
brigadier- general in Aug., 1864. In Apr., 1865, he led his 
division of cavalry in the charge upoa the intrenchments 
which resulted in the capture of Selma, Ala., being himself 
severely wounded in the head; for these services he was 
brevetted brigadier- and major-general. Retired as major- 
general in 1867; brigadier- general 1875. 

Long (George), b. at Poalton, Lancashire, England, 
in 1800; educated at Macclesfield School and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he was elected to the Craven 
scholarship at the same time with Macaulay; graduated in 
1822 as first chancellor's medallist, and obtained a fellow- 
ship. Two years later (1824) he was appointed professor 
of ancient languages in the University of Virginia, then 
being organized by the care of Thoma.a Jefferson, and, 
along with Prof. T. H. Key and other English scholars, 
spent two years at Charlottesville, Va. Returning to Eng- 
land in 1826, he was professor of Greek in London Univer- 
sity until 1831, when he devoted himself to the literary 
enterprises of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge, editing for that association the Quarterly Journal 
of Education (1831-35), the Biographical Dictionary (1842 
—44), and the Penny Cyclopsedia (1833—46). He was called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1837, became professor 
of Latin at University College, London (1842-46), lecturer 
on jurisprudence and civil law at the Middle Temple (1846 
-49), and professor of classical literature in the Proprietary 
College at Brighton from 1849 to 1871, receiving in 1873 a 
royal pension of £100. He was general editor of a Bibli- 
otheca Classica ; published an analysis of Herodotus and a 
Classical Atlas, and a valuable edition of Caasar's Gallic 
War and of Snllust. He translated Select Lives from 
Plutarch, The Thoughts of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, 
contributed largely to Dr. Smith's Classical Dictionariea, 
wrote geographical treatises on England and Wales and on 
America, History of France , and The Decline of the Human 
Republic ; translator of Epictetve (1S77). D. Aug. 10, 1879. 

Long (John D.), LL.D., b. in Buckfield, Me., Oct., 1838 ; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1857: principal of Westford 
Academy, Mass., for 2 years ; studied law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1861 ; practised law in Buckfield and in Boston ; 
was elected to Mass. House of Representatives in 1875, and 
was its Speaker for 3 years : lieut.-gov. of Mass. in 1879, and 
gov. of Mass. 1880-83. Elected M. C. 1SS2 ; re-elected 
1884. Author of a poetical translation of Virgil's JEneid. 

Long (Stephen Harriman), b. in Hopkinton, K. H., 
Dec. 30, 1784; graduated .at Dartmouth College 1809; was 
teaching school at Germantown, Pa., in 1814, where he 
met Gen. Swift, then chief of engineers, who procured his 
appointment in the army as second lieut-enant of engineers 
Dec, 1814:, and in the spring of 1815 Long was placed on 
duty at the Military Academy as assistant professor of 
mathematics. InApr., 1816, he was appointed topographical 
engineer, with the brevet rank of major, and was brevetted 
lieutenant-colonel in 1826; on the organization of the topo- 
graphical engineers as a separate corps in 1838 he became 
major of that body, and in 1861 chief of topographioal en- 
gineers, with the rank of colonel. For nearly half a cen- 
tury Col. Long was actively engaged in the service of his 
country, and with the early engineering works of his time 
his name is known in connection. His exploration of the 
Illinois and Arkansas rivers in a flatboat or canoe as early 
as 1816 was considered quite a feat in its day, and led to 
his subsequent expedition to the Rooky Mountains, which 
extended over a period of nearly five years, and embraced 
the country between the Mississippi River and the Rocky 
Mountains, one of the loftiest peaks of which great chain 
received and still bears his name. An account of this ex- 
pediUon was published in 1823 by E. James, and in 1824 
W. H. Keating published in two volumes the history of 
Long's exploration of the sources of the Mississippi, both 
works being largely from notes of Col. Long, When the 



LONGACKE— LONGEVITY. 



71 



great undertaking of the Baltimore and Ohio R. K. was 
commenced^ Col. Long was placed at the head of the board 
of engineers having in charge th'C surveys and construction 
of this road; he was one of the earliest and most efficient 
in introducing in a practical manner great improvements 
in the construction of timber bridges for railroad purposes j 
and it was while acting in his capacity of chief engineer 
that he devised and patented the bridge now known by 
his name. (See Bridgb.) Besides these important works, 
he was engaged in the survey and construction of numerous 
railroads in different sections of the country and in a great 
variety of professional duty. In the improvement of 
Western rivers and harbors he had a long experience, and 
devised valuable plans for the removal of obstructions. 
After serving on a board for the improvement of the lower 
Mississippi^ he was in 1866 placed in charge of that work, 
and under his supervision the contracts for deepening the 
mouths of this river were conducted prior to the civil war. 
Shortly after the merging of his corps into the U. S. corps 
of engineers Col. Long was retired ( June, 186H) from active 
service, but continued charged with important duties until 
his death, which occurred at Alton, 111., Sept. 4, 1864. 

G. C. Simmons. 

liOnga'cre (James Barton), b. in Delaware co., Pa., 
Aug. 11, 1794; served an apprenticeship with the eminent 
engraver Murray at Philadelphia, and from 1819 was en- 
gaged for many years in illustrating American works. 
With James Herring he prepared the National Portrait 
Gallery of Diatingmehed Americana (4 vols., 1834-39), a 
valuable work, in which many portraits are from drawings 
by Longacre. In 1844 he became engraver to the TJ. S. 
mint, and retained that position until his death at Phila- 
delphia Jan. 1, 1S69. He designed the modern gold coinage 
of the U. S., and superintended for the government of Chili 
the remodelling of the entire coinage of that country. 

Long Branch, R. R. centre, Monmouth co., N. J. 
(see map of New Jersey, ref. 4-E, for location of county), 
11 miles S. of Sandy Hook and 30 miles S. of New York, 
one of the principal watering-places of the U. S., is sit- 
uated on the Atlantic coast, and takes Its name from a 
brook which forms a branch of South Shrewsbury River, 
and was formerly a fishery of the Indians, who held the 
lands until about the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Long Branch proper is the "village," 1 mile from the sea, 
but the corporate limits embrace also the suburban villages 
of Branchport, Branchburg, Atlanticville, and the "Shore," 
all lying within a radius of two miles. Communication 
with New York both by steamer and by rail is easy, a 
direct railroad having been opened to the public in July, 
1875. The Shore, where are situated the hotels, boarding- 
houses, and cottages, has a beach which may vie with the 
most celebrated in the world, having an open sea-front of 
more than 5 miles of high commanding bluflF, without the 
intervention of inner bays, Branchport is the nearest 
landing-place for schooners upon the South Shrewsbury 
River. Atlanticville on the Shore turnpike is the princi- 
pal head-quarters of fishermen, and Bast Long Branch is 
on the street which connects the Shore with the village. 
There are post-offices both at East Long Branch and at the 
village. There are several manufactories. The drives are 
very fine. The summer population sometimes exceeds 
30,000. Pop. of Long Branch in 1SS5, 5140; of Long 
Branch v. in 1880, 3833. 

Longet' (FRAN901S Achtlle), b. in 1811 at St. Q-ermain- 
en-Laye, department of Seine-et-Oise, France; studied 
medicine, and especially physiology; gained twice the 
Montyon prize of physiology at the Academy of Sciences ; 
was professor of physrology in the faculty of medicine at 
Paris; member of the Academy of Medicine, and consult- 
ing physician to Napoleon III., and d. at Bourdeaux in 
1871. His principal works are Traiti d'Anatomie et de 
Phyeiologie du Syatime 7iervei(x {1842) and Traiti complet de 
Phyaiologie (1850-59), besides a great number of original 
researches concerning the eflFects on the nervous system of 
electricity, of the inhalation of ether, etc., and concerning 
the general excitability of the nerves and irritability of 
the muscles. 

Longev'ity [Lat. long^vitaa'], a subject which has raised 
a number of curious questions, to which, however, science 
has not yet been able to give more than preliminary or ap- 
proximative answers. Most people have a vague impression 
that plants live longer than animals, and animals longer 
than men; and although this notion breaks down even on 
the most cursory survey of the actual state of affairs, it is, 
nevertheless, not altogether a delusion, as there certainly 
are plants which are still young and vigorous at an age at 
which even the most longevous animals must die; and the 
same relation reappears when men and animals are com- 
pared. Although the life of many species of plants lasts 
only one or two years, the age which certain species of 



trees attain, such as the baobab, the chestnut, the cypress, 
the y&yf, the oak, the palm, etc., is almost fabulous. With 
many species of trees it is easy to compute the age of an 
individual with tolerable certainty. Thus, the spruce sets 
& new system of branyhes every year, and even when all 
the lower branches wither away from want of air and light, 
strongly-marked scars remain on the bark ; but the lon- 
gevity of the spruce is not very great. The age of several 
kinds of palm trees is indicated by rings visible externally 
on the rind, each ring denoting the growth of one year; 
and by counting these rings from the base to the top of the 
stem the age of certain Brazilian cucoanut-palms has been 
computed to between 600 and 700 years. The Arabs gen- 
erally ascribe a longevity of 200 or 300 years to the date- 
palm, but on what they base this supposition is not known. 
A horizontal cut of an oak trunk shows a series of often 
very strongly-marked concentric circles, each of which, 
lite the rings on the rind of the palm tree, denotes one 
year's growth ;' by counting these circles the age of an in- 
dividual oak is found. In England many oaks have been 
felled whose trunks showed between 300 and 400 such 
circles, and by comparing the diameters of these trunks 
with that of a living oak, an estimate is obtained of the 
age of the latter. Thus, Wallace's oak at Ellersley, near 
Paisley, Scotland, is believed to be more than 700 years 
old. The celebrated eight olive trees on the Mount of 
Olives at Jerusalem are known from authentic documents 
to have existed when the Seljook Turks conquered the city 
in 1099; and similar historical testimonies can be produced 
concerning the age of many other trees. At Ankerwyke 
House, near Staines, Middlesex, England, stands a yew 
which dates from before the meeting of the barons at 
Runnymede in 1215, and the yews at Fountain Abbey, 
Yorkshire, England, were old trees when the abbey was 
built in 1132. But the age of the Sequoia gigantea in the 
Mariposa grove of California, 90 feet in circumference and 
more than 300 feet high, ranges certainly farther back ; 
and farther still ranges that of the sweet chestnut trees on 
Mount Etna, Sicily, of which one measures 160 feet in cir- 
cumference; of the Oriental plane near Constantinople, 
150 feet in circumference, etc. Adanson computed the age 
of certain baobab trees in Africa at more than 5000 years ; 
De CandoUe, that of the deciduous cypress at Chapultepec, 
Mexico, ■ still higher; and Humboldt calls the Draaena 
draco at Orotava in Teneriffe one of the oldest inhabitants 
of the earth. 

In the animal kingdom we know that the longevity of 
insects is very small, ranging from a few hours to a few 
weeks, but that of reptiles is considerable. The toad lives 
about fifteen years, and a tortoise which was placed in the 
garden uf the palace of Lambeth, London, in 1633, perished 
by accident in 1753. Several species of fishes may attain 
a high age. Buffon says of the carps in the pond of the 
count de Maurepas at Pontchartrain that they are proved 
to be more than 150 years old, and Gesner tells of a pike 
which was caught in a lake near Heilbronn, Suabia, in 
1497, and which, according to a brass ring attached to it, 
had been placed in the lake in 1230. Common river-trout 
have lived confined in wells between 30 and 50 years. Of 
birds, the gallinaceous families live only between 12 and 15 
years; the goose is more longevous, and the swan is known 
to have lived more than a century. Fontenelle tells us 
that the grand duchess de la Rovfire d'TJrbino, when she 
came to Florence in 1633 to marry the grand duke Fer- 
dinand, brought with her a paroquet which she called the 
oldest member of her family, and which consequently must 
have been over twenty years old; it afterward lived in 
Florence for nearly a century. In Northern Germany and 
Denmark the peasants mark on the gable, below the year 
in which the house was erected, the year in which the 
stork built its nest on the ridge, and a record is kept of 
the annual arrivals of the bird. In many cases these 
records exceed one century ; and as a nest is never taken 
possession of by a foreign stork unless it has been vacant 
for two or three years, and after the performance of certain 
very curious ceremonies by the new occupants, it may be 
considered as well proved that it is the same couple of 
storks which hag lived in the nest during this period. 
Birds of prey are believed to be still older, though there 
are no proofs of their longevity. The experiment of the 
old woman who bought a raven to see whether it was true 
that it could live 1000 years led to no result. Of mammals, 
the age of the domesticated animals Is well known; the 
camel lives 40 years, the horse 30, the ox 20, the dog 12, 
the cat 10, the sheep 9, the rabbit 8, the guinea-pig 7, etc. 
The age of a horse can at any time be determined with 
tolerable certainty from the appearance of its teeth; that 
of the ox from the rings on its horns, counting the smooth 
part for three years and each of the rings around the base 
for one. The horse gets its foal or milk teeth about 15 
days after birth, and at the age of 2^ years the middle 



72 



LONGFELLOW. 



pair of these milk-teeth drops, and is replaced by a pair 
of permanent nippers; at 3^ years the next pair, one of 
each side, changes ; and at ii years the last pair. After 
this time the age can still be determined for several years 
by the degree in which the circular hollow pit in the centre 
of each tooth has become effaced by the wearing down of 
the tooth. Later on, the age is determined by the shape 
of the tushes or canine teeth. But of non -domesticated 
animals our knowledge is small and vague, with the ex- 
ception of a very few oases. In the deer kind the age may 
be computed from the horns, the number of the antlers, 
the size of the palms, and the thickness of the burrs. The 
common stag gets its pricket in its second year ; its fork, 
a pricket with one antler, in its third year, etc. Generally, 
it seems to be a rule among mammals that their longevity 
increases with their size. But the age of the elephant, 
rhinoceros, hippopotamus, etc. is not known. Aristotle 
says that the elephant lives 200 years, the East Indians 
say 300 ; one elephant, whose age was not known when it 
was captured, lived 130 years in captivity. The age of the 
whale is computed by the laminae of whalebone in its jaws j 
if this computation is correct, it attains at least 400 years. 
It seems, however, as if among mammals the relation be- 
tween their longevity and their time of gestation is more 
constant than that between their longevity and their 
size. 

With respect to the longevity of man, this term must not 
be confounded with that of the average duration of life. 
The former refers to the question, How long can the human 
organism last when, undisturbed by any merely temporary, 
local, or individual infiuences, it is allowed to run through 
its natural course and exhaust its inherent vitality without 
any merely incidental break or jar ? The latter, on the 
contrary, refers to the question. How long does the human 
organism actually last under certain given influences of 
profession, climate, diet, etc. ? or, Why do people live 
longer as agriculturists than as dry-polishers, longer in the 
valleys of Norway than in the plains of the Wolga, longer 
in France than in the U. S., etc. ? The Bible puts down as 
the natural terra for human life " threescore and ten," and 
history seems during its whole course to have confirmed this 
term. When a man dies at 50, he is and always was said to 
have died early, a.nd when a man lives to 90, he is and al- 
ways was said to have lived long. The Bible tells us that the 
patriarchs before the Deluge all lived from six to eight cen- 
turies, but the expressions are open to some doubt with re- 
spect to their true meaning. But when the Bible tells us that 
Abraham was 175 years old when he died, Isaac 180, Jacob 
147, and Joseph 110, such exceptional prolongations of hu- 
man life still occur. Cases of longevity exceeding one cen- 
tury are frequently recorded. Two of the highest are Peter 
Czartan, a Hungarian peasant, 185 years old — b. in 1539, 
d. in 1724; and Thomas Parr, a native of Shropshire, Eng- 
land, who died of an accident when 352 years old. Charles 
I. wished to see him ; he went to the court, was feasted, ate 
too much, took a fit of indigestion, -and died ; but Harvey, 
who dissected him, declared that but for this accident he 
could have lived on for many years. These instances of 
exceptional longevity are not so rare as commonly believed. 
Thus, from the census taken during the reign of the em- 
peror Vespasian, Pliny enumerates no less than 54 persons 
who had reached the age of 100 years; 14, 110; 20, 125; 
40, 130 ; 40, 135 ; and 30, 140 ; and all these instances are 
taken exclusively from the region between the Apennines 
and the Po. They have given rise to some very curious 
speculations. While the average duration of life every- 
where has sunk far below the natural term, and philan- 
thropists, educational and hygienic boards, and govern- 
ments in general are active to repress the most obvious 
causes of this alarming state, certain philosophers have 
directed their attention to the question whether it is pos- 
sible to prolong the natural term itself, and move the 
barrier from seventy to one hundred. Haller and Buffon 
declared that they saw in the nature of the human or- 
ganism no reason why it should be thorule for man to 
die at seventy, and not at one hundred. As yet, how- 
ever, these speculations have not extended beyond good 
intentions. {See Art of Prolonging Life, hy Swfelaad ; The 
Human Species, by De Quatrefages; An Account of Persons 
remarkable for their Health and Longevity, by a Physician, 
London, 1829; and Human Lonyemiy ; its Facts and its 
Fictions, by William J. Thoms, 1873.) 

The following table, constructed by Dr. Parr, P. R. S., 
from the census enumerations and the registered deaths in 
England and Wales, shows the number out of every mil- 
lion persons born who remain alive at the end of every 
year ; also the number of deaths. If the returns made to 
the registrar-general respecting the real ages of persons 
deceased may be depended upon, it shows that a much 
largec. number than is generally supposed reach the age 
of one hundred years and upward: 





Number 






Number 






Number 




< 


aJive 
at com- 
mence- 


Deaths 
each 


& 


alive 
at com- 
mence' 


Deaths 

each 


to 


alive 
at com- 


Deaths 
each 




ment of 






mcnt or 


year. 




ment of 


year. 




jear. 






year. 






year. 







1,000,000 


149,493 


37 


638,859 


6,678 


73 


191,966 


16,469 


1 


850,507 


53,680 


38 


552,181 


6,756 


74 


176,487 


15,363 


i 


796,827 


28,238 


39 


546,425 


6,841 


75 


161,124 


15,136 


■6 


768,589 


18,466 


40 


638,684 


6,931 


V6 


146,988 


14,789 


4 


750,133 


13,315 


41 


531,653 


7,027 


V7 


131,199 


14,319 


6 


736,818 


9,899 


42 


524,626 


7,127 


V8 


116,880 


13,726 


6 


726.919 


7,768 


43 


617,499 


7,236 


79 


103,164 


13,021 


7 


719,151 


6,,'>59 


44 


610,263 


7,348 


80 


90,133 


12,214 


ii 


712,592 


5,458 


45 


602,915 


7,467 


81 


77,919 


11,320 


9 


707,134 


4,625 


46 


495,448 


7,592 


82 


66,599 


10,358 


10 


702,509 


4,028 


47 


487,856 


7,722 


83 


66,241 


9,352 


11 


698,481 


3,637 


48 


480,134 


7,857 


84 


46,889 


8,324 


12 


694,844 


3,431 


49 


472,277 


7,997 


86 


38,566 


7,300 


13 


691,413 


3,382 


50 


464,280 


8,141 


86 


31,266 


6,298 


14 


688,031 


3,468 


61 


456,139 


8,414 


87 


24,967 


5,346 


1.5 


684,563 


3,669 


52 


447,725 


8,590 


88 


19,621 


4,469 


IB 


680,894 


3,957 


53 


439,135 


8,761 


89 


15,162 


3,653 


17 


676,937 


4,317 


54 


430,374 


9,259 


90 


11,509 


2,933 


18 


672,620 


4,720 


5b 


421,115 


9,583 


91 


8,576 


2,310 


19 


667,900 


6,160 


56 


411,632 


9,909 


92 


6,266 


1,781 


20 


662,750 


6,583 


57 


401,623 


10,246 


93 


4,485 


1,343 


21 


657,167 


5,668 


58 


391,378 


10,593 


94 


3,142 


989 


22 


651,499 


.5,748 


69 


380,785 


10,958 


96 


2,163 


713 


23 


645,751 


6,820 


60 


369,827 


11,338 


96 


1,440 


500 


24 


639,931 


5,886 


61 


358,489 


11,737 


97 


940 


842 


25 


634,045 


5,950 


62 


346,752 


12,149 


98 


698 


228 


26 


628,095 


6,009 


63 


334,603 


12,572 


99 


370 


147 


2V 


622,086 


6,066 


K4 


322,031 


13,002 


1110 


Vi 


92 


28 


616,021 


6,121 


65 


309,029 


13,430 


101 


131 


67 


29 


609,900 


6,176 


66 


295,599 


13,846 


102 


74 


33 


30 


603,724 


6,231 


67 


281,763 


14,244 


103 


41 


19 


31 


697,493 


6,287 


68 


267,609 


14,607 


104 


22 


10 


32 


691,208 


6,343 


69 


262,902 


14,925 


105 


12 


6 


33 


584,863 


6,404 


70 


237,977 


1,5,184 


106 


6 


3 


34 


578,459 


6,466 


71 


222,793 


16,369 


107 


3 


2 


3b 


671,993 


6,633 


72 


207,424 


15,468 


108 


1 


1 


36 


565,460 


6,601 















Long'fellow (Henry Wadsworth), LL.D., D.C.L., son 
of Stephen, b. at Portland, Me., Feb. 27, 1807; entered Bow- 
doin College at fourteen, and graduated in 1825 in a class 
which included Nathaniel Hawthorne, George B. Cheever, 
John S. C. Abbott, and several other persons afterwards 
known in literature. During his college days he distinguish- 
ed himself in modern languages, and wrote several short 
poems, published chiefly in theUnited States Literary Gazette 
at Boston ; one of these was the well-known Hymn of the 
Moravian Nuns. After graduation he entered the law- 
ofBce of his father, but in the following year acQepted the 
professorship of modern languages at Bowdoin, with the 
privilege of spending three years in Europe in preparation 
for that post. After studying in Fr.nnce, Spain, Italy, and 
Germany, he entered upon his professorship in 1829, and 
began to publish the results of his careful researches into 
European languages and literature, both mediaeval and 
modern. His fii-st volume was a small Essay on the Moral 
and Devotional Poetry of Spain (1833), which included 
translations of the Coplas de Manrique and of several son- 
nets of Lope de Vega. A volume of prose sketches of 
travel appeared in 1835 under the title Outre Mer, a Pil- 
grimage beyond the Sea, and numerous essays and critiques 
on literary topics were contributed to the North American 
Review. In 1835 he was elected to the chair of modern 
languages and literature at Harvard University, as suc- 
cessor to George Ticknor, and spent a year in European 
travel and study, especially in Denmark, Sweden, and 
Switzerland, cultivating a knowledge of early Scandinavian 
literature. Entering upon his professorship in 1836, he 
soon became a resident in the historic Cragie House (Wash- 
ington's head-quarters), which he afterward purchased and 
made his home. In 1839 he published Hyperion, a Ro- 
mance, and Voices of the Night, his first volume of original 
verse, comprising the selected productions of nearly twenty 
years; it procured him immediate recognition as a poet, 
and the Psalm of Life took rank as a popular favorite. 
Ballads, and Other Poems and a small volume of Poems on 
Slavery appeared in 1842 ; The Spanish Student, a drama in 
three acts, in 1843 ; ITie Belfry of Bruges in 184(5 ; Evan- 
geline, a Tale of Acadie, in 1847, the latter being a" spirited 
introduction of hexameter verse, and generally considered 
as Longfellow's masterpiece. In 1846 he published a large 
volume of The Poets and Poetry of Europe; in 1849 Knva- 
nagh, a Tnle (in idyllic prose) ; in 1850 The Seaside and the 
Fireside; in 1851 The Golden Legend; in 1855 The Song 
of Hiawatha; in 1858 The Courtship of Miles Standish; in 
1863 Tales of a Wayside Inn; in 1866 Flower de Luce; in 
1867-70 a masterly poetical translation of Dante; in 1869 
New England Tragedies; in 1871 The Divine Tragedy; in 
1872 Three Books of Song; in 1874 The Hanging of the 
Crane; and in 1875 Moritnri Snluiamns, a poem read at 
the fiftieth anniversary of his class at Bowdoin College. 
Prof. Longfellow resigned his chair at Harvard in 1884, 



LONGFELLOW— LONG ISLAND. 



73 



but continued to reside at Cambridge; he travelled in 
Europe in 1841-42 and 1868-69, on which latter occasion 
he received the degree of D. C. L. from the University of 
Oxford, and in 1874 received a large complimentary vote 
for the lord rectorship of the University of Edinburgh. 
Some of his poetical works have been translated into many 
languages; complete editions have enjoyed wide circula- 
tion, not only in the U. S., but in an equal degree in Eng- 
land, where their popularity rivals that of the best modern 
English poetry. D. Mar. 24, 1882. The earliest Ameri- 
can ancestor of the family was William Longfellow, who 
was b. in Hants, England, in 1651, and who in early 
youth settled in Newbury, Mass. (See the biographical 
sketch of the poet by Francis H. Underwood, 1882.) 

Porter C. Bliss. 
liongfellow (Samuel), b. at Portland, Me., June 18, 
1819, brother of H. W. Longfellow; graduated at Harvard 
College 1839, and Divinity School 1846; was first settled in 
Fall River in 184S; in 1853 became pastor of the Second 
Unitarian church in Brooklyn, N. Y. ; resigned his pulpit 
in 1860, and went abroad. For years past his residence 
has been in Cambridge, Mass. Mr. Lbngfellow still preaches, 
though he has no parish, and writes, but his publications 
are not numerous, his health not permitting severe profes- 
sional labor. In 1846, in association with Rev. Samuel 
Johnson, he compiled A Book of JSynins, which was after- 
wards revised and called Hymns of the Spirit; and in 1859 
he published a book of Hymns and Tunes for Congrega- 
tional Use, and a small volume for the vesper service which 
he instituted. Mr. Longfellow is a poet, and has written 
many hymns which have a place in other collections than 
his own. His best essays were printed in the Radical, 
1866-71. 0. B. Frothingham. 

I^ongfellow (Stephen), LL.D., b. at Gorham, Me., 
June 23, 1775; graduated at Harvard College 1798 ; studied 
law ; was admitted to the bar 1801 ; practised successfully 
at Portland, Me. ; was a delegate to the Hartford conven- 
tion 1814, a member of Congress 1823-25, and became 
president of the Maine Historical Society 1834. D. at 
Portland Aug. 2, 1849. 

liOng^ford, county of Ireland, in the province of 
Leinster, bounded by the counties of Leitrim, Westmeath, 
and Roscommon. Area, 420 square miles, with a level or 
slightly hilJy surface, and a fertile soil suited both for 
tillage and grazing. Some linens and coarse woollens are 
manufactured. The inhabitants numbered 61,009 in 1881. 

liOn'ghi (G-iuseppb), b. at Monza. Lombardy, Oct. 1.1, 
1766; studied the art of engraving, partly in Milan and 
partly in Home; was appointed professor of the school of 
engraving in Milan in 1797, and d. there Jan. 2, 1831, cele- 
brated as one of the greatest engravers who ever lived. 
His most famous works are the Vision of Ezekiel and 
Sposalizioj after Raphael; Magdaleua, after Correggio; 
Galatea, after Albano ; and the portraits of Napoleon, 
Washington, and Dandolo of Venice. 
, XiOngi'nus (Dionysius Cassius), b. about 213 a. »., 
probably at Athens ; made extensive travels ; studied at 
Alexandria under Plotinus and Ammonius Saccas, and 
taught philosophy, rhetoric, and grammar in Athens, ac- 
quiring great celebrity. The last part of his life he spent 
at Palmyra, at the court of Zenobia, whose political ad- 
viser he was, as well as her teacher in G-reek literature. It 
was partly on his instigation that the queen undertook the 
famous war against the Romans, and after her defeat 
Longinus was put to death, in 273 A. n., by the command 
of Aurelian. Of his numerous writings only fragments are 
extant, with the exception of his treatise On the Snbliine, 
of which the larger part has come down to us, though in a, 
somewhat mutilated condition. The first printed edition 
was given by Robortello (BS,le, 1554), and it has been often 
republished ; the latest editions are those by Egger (Paris, 
1837), Bake (Oxford, 1849), Spengel (Leipsic (1853), and 
Otto Jahn (1867). It was translated into French by 
Boileau in 1694, into German by Schlosser in 1781, and 
into English by William Smith in 1739. It is remarkable, 
both on account of the subtlety and acuteness of its single 
remarks and its noble and elevated taste; it has also ex- 
ercised considerable influence on modern criticism and 
aesthetics in France, England, and Germany. 

liOngipea'nes [Lat. longa, '* long/' audpenna, wing "], 
a group (sometimes called an order) of Natatores or swim- 
ming-birds, including the gullsy terns, albatrosses, and pet- 
rels. They are remarkable for their long and often very 
narrow wings and their great powers of flight. They are 
also good swimmers, are usually pelagic, but as a rule do 
not dive under water, 

liOng Island, the extreme south-eastern portion of 
the territory of the State of New York, is bounded on the 
N. by Long Island Sound, E. and S. by the Atlantic Ocean, 
W. and N. W. by the Narrows, Now York Bay, and the 



estuary called the Bast River, which connects that bay, 
through the strait called Hell Gate, with Long Island 
Sound. The U. S. Coast Survey maps define its situation 
^as between the parallels of 40° 34' and 41° 10' N. lat., and 
*its longitude as from 71° 51' to 74° 02' W. from Greenwich. 
The distance from the Narrows (lat. 40° 37' N., Ion. 74° 
02' W.) to Montauk (lat. 41° 04' N., Ion. 71° 51' W.), which 
forms its greatest length, is 118^ statute miles. The general 
distance of this line is N. 74f ° E., or S. 74|° W., true on the 
middle meridian.^^ In shape it strikingly resembles a iish, 
with its head immediately opposite New York City. In 
breadth it gradually increases from the Narrows for about 
40 miles, reaching its greatest width of 23 statute miles. 
It then decreases, its least width of 12 statute miles being 
near the head of Peconic Bay. ItS eastern part has a deep 
indentation, formed by this bay, of about 22 miles in 
length. Gardiner's, Fisher's, and Plumb islands belong 
to its political divisions. 

Geology, Soil, Olimate.f — The geological structure of 
Long Island is simple, it being composed chiefly of glacial 
drift. Underneath the drift there probably exists a deep 
deposit of clay of Tertiary or Cretaceous age, or perhaps 
of both. The outcrop of the clay occurs at many points 
along the N. side of the island through upwards of 50 miles, 
and in many sections is worked with profit. These beds 
must be distinguished from others of value which occur in 
depressions upon the surface, but are of recent formation. 
The bed-rock of the island is probably the same as is visi- 
ble along the Connecticut shore, but is seen on the Long 
Island side only at and near Hell Gate. There it is a dark 
micaceous gneiss. The drift is composed of pebbles and 
boulders in a matrix of fine material. The boulders are 
of the same rock found on the mainland northward from 
where they lie, and the matrix is the same, only finely 
broken. The boulders are all more or less worn on their 
surfaces; none have sharp angles or edges; many are cov- 
ered with glacial scratches; some of them are of immense 
size, one near Manhasset being 54 feet long, 40 feet wide, 
and 16 feet high above the surface of the ground. On the 
S. side of Long Island the drift deposit has been exposed 
to the action of the ocean, consequently it has been ground 
to sand, and the fine portions, as of clay, washed out. The 
sands and gravels thus formed occur in layers, and extend 
from the foot of the hills in a gentle uniform slope to the 
present sea-margin, which slope continues from 60 to 75 
miles seaward. The process of disintegration is now going 
on along the shore of Montauk. The central ridge of hills, 
which extends nearly the length of the island, is of un- 
modified drift, and the beautiful undulating country north- 
ward to the Sound is of the same material, with local de- 
posits of sand and gravel. A peculiarity of the drift is the 
many bowl-shaped depressions which occur upon the sur- 
face. On Montauk and elsewhere many are filled to their 
brim with clear water; Ronkonkoma and Success ponds 
are of this kind. 

The soil of much of the S, side of the island is sandy, 
but is easily cultivated; portions, like that of the great 
Hempstead Plains, are covered with a thick accumulation 
of organic matter, and are very fertile. The soil of the 
unmodified drift is loam, rich, productive, retentive of 
moisture, and of vegetable nutrition. 

The climate of Long Island will appear from the follow- 
ing table, covering a period of twenty-four years : 

East Fiatbuah. Jamaica. 
Hampton. 

Mean annual temperature 48.74° 5J.62° 49.87° 

Highest " 95° 96° 100° 

Lowest " —8° —4° —7° 

Rainfall, mean 38.60 in. 42.74 in. 39.07 in. 

Average date of earliest frost, Oct. 23. 

Mean of clear days each year 246 

" cloudy '^ " " 119 

The Great South Bay and other bays extend along its 
southern border within the outer beach, being about 90 
miles long by from 2 to 5 wide, supplied by inlets from 
the sea, and navigable by small craft. These bays are of 
vast service to the island in their large supplies of scale 
and shell fish and seaweed for manures. An act exists to 
connect and improve these bays by a canal. The N. side 
of the island is penetrated by a series of fiord valleys, eight 
in number, and having their source at the central hills. 
These fiord valleys afi"ord excellent harborage for coasting 
vessels, in some instances being 40 feet deep. Fine sport- 
ing is to be had at the proper seasons, as numerous vari- 
eties of wildfowl and some deer yet inhabit the forests and 
thickets of Suffolk county. The Sound is a superb ex- 
panse of water, affording fine prospects from the cliffs of 
the N. side, and bearing upon its bosom at all times an 
immense fleet of shipping. Its channel is suited to vessels 

* Memoranda of C. A. Schott, Esq., of the Coast Survey, 
f From data furnished by Elias Lewis, Jr. 



74 



LONG ISLAND. 



of the largest draught, and when cleared of the rooky ob- 
structions at Hell Gate by the operations so far successfully 
e.teouted by Gen. Newton (see Hell Gate, Excavations 
at) will afford the safest entrance and widest harborage 
for the commerce of New York. Fifteen lighthouses and 
thirty lifeboat-stations guard property and life on the sea 
and Sound. 

The island is as well timbered as at the time of its dis- 
covery, notwithstanding the large clearings of settlers and 
the ravages of desolating fires from the sparks of the loco- 
motives. The unmodified drift has forests of oak, hickory, 
and chestnut, and the sand}' tracts bear pines of several 
species. 

When first settled by the whites, the island had a great 
variety of wild animals now extinct, such as the black 
bear, wolf, wildcat, beaver, opossum, gray fox, and prob- 
ably the moose and elk. Deer are even now not uncom- 
mon in Suffolk county. Of birds. Long Island is the hab- 
itat or resting-place of about 320 species j the fishes com- 
mon to its coast number about 190 species. A range of 
hills runs through the island. Of these, Hempstead Har- 
bor Hill, at Roslyn, is the highest, being 384 feet above 
the sea; West Hills in Suffolk, 384 feet; elevation at 
Wheatley, 335 feet; at Reuland's, near Coram, 340 feet; 
Fort Pond at Montauk is 194 feet. On the S. side. Coney 
Island, Kockaway, Quogue, Southampton, and Easthamp- 
ton are popular watering-places, much frequented in the 
heats of summer. Steamboats ply to all navigable points. 

Large tracts of land, held for two centuries past in their 
wild state, have recently been thrown open to improve- 
ment. A portion of the Hempstead Plains, comprising 
about 12,000 acres, was sold in 1869 to the late Alex- 
ander T. Stewart, who founded thereon a city called Gar- 
den City, with a fine hotel and a large number of resi- 
dences. There also since 1877 have been erected a splen- 
did cathedral, an episcopal residence, a school for boys 
and another for girls — the gift of Mrs. Stewart as me- 
morials of her deceased husband^which, together with 
the other institutions to be established on the cathedra] 
foundation, form the official estate of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Diocese of Long Island, created in 1869, with the 
Rt. Rev. Dr. Abram N. Littlejohn as its first bishop. 
These plains, described (1670) by Denton as having 
" neither slick nor stone, and which groweth very fine 
grass that makes exceeding good hay, and is very good 
pasture for sheep and other cattle," form an elevated table- 
land about 16 miles long and 4 miles broad, embracing 



some 60,000 acres, bounded N. by the range of hills which 
traverse the island from W. to E. and extending, with a 
descent of about 20 feet to the mile, to the southern shore 
of the island. From W. to B. the surface is gently undu- 
lating, in long swells looking S., and each presenting 
three drainage surfaces — viz. toward the W., S., and E. 
The surface soil is a dark loam from 15 inches to 2 feet 
deep, growing a grass which is identical with the Ken- 
tucky "blue-grass," and which "never runs out." The 
turf upon the plains is so thick and strong as to require a 
team of three horses and a strong plough to turn a furrow 
through it. Under this layer of dark loam is a layer of 
yellow loam of about equal thickness, in many places a 
clay loam or clay, and under these, generally at a depth 
of 2i or 3 feet, is the firm, compact gravel and sand 
that everywhere forms the main body of the island, and 
which perfectly filters the inexhaustible flow of the pure, 
sweet water which is everywhere found at a depth of 20 
to 30 feet under its surface. Yet, through some strange 
misapprehension, Hempstead Plain (as well as another 
and still more extensive tract eastward of the plains, and 
reaching to the head of Peconic Bay) was until forty 
years ago considered as. perfectly. unsusceptible of remu- 
nerative cultivation. Within that time, however, largely 
owing to the persistent efforts of Dr. Edgar F. Peck, and, 
more recently, to the extensive and systematic experimen- 
tation upon the Stewart estate at Garden City, the unjust 
odium of sterility has been lifted from these so-called 
"barrens" of Long Island. Through this the Central 
R. R. passes to Hempstead and Babylon. The common 
lands of Huntington and others embraced in the NicoUs 
patent in Suffolk county have been opened. Upon these 
are founded the villages of Brentwood, Lakeland, Hol- 
brook, and Breslau. 

Comities, Towns, and Population. — Long Island is divided 
into three counties — Kings, Queens, and Suffolk. Its entire 
area is 927,900 acres — viz. Kings, 48,800 acres ; Queens, 
253,100 ; Suffolk, 626,000. Its growth of population for 
the past century, including its present population, is shown 
in the following tables : 





1790. 


1810. 


18,30. 


1850. 


1870. 

419,921 
73,803 
46,924 


1880. 


Kings CO... 
Queens co.. 
Suffolk CO.. 


4,495 
16,014 
16,440 


8,303 
19,336 
21,113 


20,535 
22,460 
26,780 


138,882 
36,833 
30,922 


599,495 
90,574 
53,888 

743,957 


Total 


36,949 


48,752 


69,775 


212,837 


540,648 



County. 


Population 
in 1880. 


County. 


Population 
in 1880. 


County. 


Population 
in 1S80. 




599,495 

566,663* 
7,034 
3,127 
3,074 
13,6.55 
4,742 

188,312 

90,574 

15,906 
18,164 
10,088 


Lontj island City 


17,129 
9,804 
7,560 
11,923 
22,001 

53,888 

4,739 
11,544 

2,515 

532 

8,098 

6,463 


Islip 


3,939 

732 

2,249 

6,352 
1,464 

7,267 
. 2,370 

1,996 
6,601 


CUies and Towns : 
Brooklyn 


Riverhead 


North Hempstead 

Oyster Bay 


Shelter Island 


Smith Town 


Flatlaiids 

Gravesend 


Foreign pop. of the co. 


Southampton, incl. pr. 

of Sag Harbor v.g 

Sag Harbor v. (pt. of).. 
Southold, incl. Green- 




l\yiims: 

Babylont 

Brookhaven 

East Hampton, incl. 

pt. of Sag Harbor v. 

.Sag Harbor v, (pt. of) 

Huntington:!: 




Foreign pop. of the CO. 


Greenport village 

sag Harbor village (in 
East Hampton and 
Southampton) tl 

Foreign pop of the co. 


CUie.v and Tovms : 
Flushing 







Principal Cities and Villages. — Aside from Brooklyn, the 
capital of Kings co., the only other considerable villages in 
Kings CO. are East New York in the town of New Lots, 
and Flatbush in the town of Flatbush. In Queens co.. 
Long Island City, Flushing, College Point, Jamaica, 
Hempstead, Garden City, Woodside, and Whitestone are 
the principal cities and villa.ges. In Suffolk co. there are 
no cities; the principal villages are Huntington, Green- 
port, Sag Harbor, Bridghampton, Riverhead, Babylon, 
Bay Shore, Sayville, and Northport. 

Railroads. — There have been on Long Island within the 
past fifty years 212 railroads chartered and organized, of 
which, including reorganizations and consolidations, there 
are now running but 25, doing business on fifty routes. 
These, all having one or both termini in Kings co., but 
some extending into Queens and Suffolk, transported, in 
1881, 92,826,786 passengers, over an aggregate of 673.68 
miles. The principal of these roads is the Long Island 
R. R., opened in 1834, which, with its 324 miles (includ- 
ing branches and leased lines), is a central artery through 

* Ace. toU. S. census. A careful computation made in Lain's 
Brooklyn Directory (June, 1884) gave the pop. of Brooklyn as 
704,610. 

t In 1872, from part of Huntington. 

i In 1872, part to Babylon. 

I In 1870, incliiding all Sag Harbor. 

I In 1870 reported as entirely in Southampton. 



the island from Brooklyn at the W. to Montauk Point at 
the E., and supplying by its branches the towns of the N. 
and S. shores. The railroads of Long Island in 1881 repre- 
sented a capital stock, taken up and paid for, of $20,576,250 
and a funded debt of $12,224,985.25. The wonderful recent 
development of Coney Island as a summer pleasure resort 
has led to the establishment of six roads having their ter- 
mini at that beach, together with a marine, an elevated, 
and a short local road on the island itself, all of which are 
taxed to their fullest capacity during the summer season. 
There are in Brooklyn thirty or more horse railroads, and 
others projected for rapid transit, and in several of the 
towns of Kings and Queens cos. there are also street rail- 
ways. 

Agriculture. — The county towns of Kings and nearly the 
whole of Queens co. are virtually market-gardens to the cit- 
ies of New York and Brooklyn. Kings, with a total of 
10,287 acres, has 406 farms, valued at $4,872,855, yielding 
annual products of the value of $1,211,000, and with but 
320 acres unimproved. Queens' total acreage is 166,211 : 
farms, 2966; value, $22,064,532; farm products, $3,999,402, 
and 35,969 unimproved acres. Suffolk has 308,897 acres, 
of which 162,674 are unimproved, and 3.S79 farms, valued 
at $17,079,652, and products $2,198,079. In respect to 
market produce sold. Queens sales amount to $1,315,934; 
Kings, $842,617; Suffolk, $11«,293. Suffolk leads in all 
crops, except rye, buckwheat, ]jotatoes, and milk, in all 



LONG ISLAND. 



75 



of which Queens eo. exceeds her; Queens, with 15,000 
acres of pasture, has nearly double the milk furnished by 
Suffolk, although the latter has 50,000 acres of pasture 
land. Potatoes form the staple crop of the island : Kings, 
772,246 bushels; Queens, 1,013,345 bushels; Suffolk, 
493,078. Queens co. is also intimately connected, from 
very early times, with the history of the American turf. 
A race-course was established on Salisbury Plains (near 
present Hyde Park station) in 1665 by Gov. Nichols. 
This oourse, named the " Newmarket," was carefully fos- 
tered by the British colonial governors and gentry, and 
was maintained until 1821, when horse-racing was trans- 
ferred to the " Union course," on the western borders of 
the town of Jamaica. In 1825 a trotting-course was 
formed at Centreville, a mile S. E. of the Union course. 
There was another famous mile race-course around Beaver 
Pond, in Jamaica, established 1757, besides others, of in- 
ferior note, but well patronized. The celebrated " Fashion 
course," at Newtown, opened 1854, was broken up by a 
railway in 1S61, and the racing interests of New York and 
Queens and Kings cos. have since then been mostly trans- 
ferred to the present courses, near Coney Island. 

This county is also remarkable for the number of its 
fruit-, flower-, and tree- nurseries, and few can compare 
with it in the universal use of fine shade-trees, evergreens, 
flowering shrubs, beautiful parks, and gardens. Especial- 
ly is this the case at Flushing, where the peculiar adapta- 
tion of its soil and climate to the propagation of trees and 
plants attracted the attention of Mr. William Prince as 
early as 1737. His gardens had, at the time of the begin- 
ning of the Revolutionary war, so increased in value and 
importance that in 1777 they were placed under military 
protection by Gen. Howe during the Britii^h occupation of 
the town. Scarcely less important or less widely known 
are the nurseries established by Samuel Parsons in J 833 
(now Parsons <& Sons), those of John Henderson, opened 
in 1867, and others. The agricultural society of this 
county, established in 1S19, has had a most active and 
successful career of usefulness up to the present time. 

Suffolk is the principal and most profitable hay-grow- 
ing district, while Brooklyn uses nearly the entire crop. 
Queens and Suffolk raise a large amount of poultry and 
eggs, apples, grapes, etc., and furnish a goodly quantity 
of dressed meat (lamb and swine] to the cities. In fact, 
the agricultural interests of Long Island are now upon the 
threshold of an immense and rapid development. 

Manufacturea. — Kings co. has a larger annual manufac- 
ture-product than any State in the Union except New York, 
Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Illinois, and Ohio. Brook- 
lyn alone ranks (from best attainable data, 1883) as the 
third manufacturing city in the Union. The latest revis- 
ion of the U. S. census of 1880 gives Kings co. 6281 man- 
ufacturing establishments, with capital of $62,719,399 ; 
48,898 employes; $32,867,176 wages paid; $130,108,417 
value of material used; annual product, $179,188,685. A 
recent careful revision of the omissions, inaccuracies, and 
inconsistencies of the census, however, gives the following 
— probably much more reliable — data : 5404 establishments ; 
$79,721,149 capital; 53,226 employes; $23,407,366 wages; 
material, $147,287,654; amount produced, $203,553,781. 
The principal manufactures are sugar-reflnlng, petroleum 
and illuminating oils, breweries and distilleries, foundry 
and machine products, steel works, saws and flies, tin, 
sheet iron and galvanized iron wares, builders', mechan- 
ics', agricultural, and otlier hardware and implements, sil- 
ver-plating, paints and varnishes, ropes, cordage, and 
twine, paper-hangings, furniture, upholstery, hats, drugs 
and chemicals, fertilizers, porcelain and pottery, watches 
and clocks, clothing, lumber, carriages, marble and stone 
work, etc. Queens co. has 168 establishments, employing 
$7,189,275 capital; value of products, $8,511,028. These 
products are starch, varnish and paints, tin, copper, and 
sheet iron, rubber and elastic goods, drugs, chemiciils, 
marble and stone work, pianos, liquors, ink, etc. Suf- 
folk CO. has 203 establishments, with capital of $1,449,437 ; 
value of products, $1,760,710, mostly in brick and tile, fer- 
tilizers, shipbuilding, flour and feed, etc. Shipbuilding, 
foreign and coastwise commerce, and whale-fishery from 
a very early period engaged a large part of the inhabit- 
ants of this county as seamen, captains, etc., and occupied 
a large share of their surplus capital. Whale-fishery was 
a favorite pursuit of Suffolk's hardy sons, but it reached 
its height some forty years ago, since which it has rapidly 
declined, as, also, has shipbuilding, though in a lesser de- 
gree. The fertilizers manufactured in this county are from 
the "menhaden," a fish which largely abounds on this 
coast, and which was formerly used directly on the soil. 
These fish are now taken for the oil, which is expressed 
from them in factories established aTt)ng the coast, the 
residue being then made into fertilizing agents. The 
oyster-fisheries are perhaps the most important of Suffolk 



industries. In addition to the natural beds which abound 
in many of the bays, the producing area has been largely 
increased by cultivation. Within a few years the demand 
for exportation to Europe has enhanced the price and 
given an impetus to the trade, and the home demand for 
clams, scallops, etc. gives further scope to enterprise and 
thrift. 

History. — It has an Indian, Dutch, and English history. 
Its Dutch name was " Lange Eylandt," converted into 
Long Island by the English, who in 1693 by law changed 
it to the "island of Nassau," which latter name never 
came into popular use. Its Indian names were Pauma- 
nacke, Sewanhacky, Wamponoraon,, and Matouwacks, the 
last term applied to the region of Montauk. After the 
Dutch discovery in 1609, James I. in 1620 granted to the 
Plymouth Company all the land between 40° and 48° N. 
lat., extending through from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
This includes Long Island and the adjacent islands. By 
request of Charles I., the Plymouth Company granted a 
patent to Alexander, Earl Stirling, of the island and the 
adjacent islands, and appointed James Farret his attorney 
to sell, mortgage, or lease the lands. The earl died in 
1640. His son and heir in 1640 surrendered the patent to 
the duke of York. Actual settlements hegan at the E. and 
W. nearly at the same time — at Gowanus (Brooklyn), 
Kings CO., in 1636 ; Gardiner's Island, Southhold, and 
Southampton in 1640; Hempstead in Queens in 1643. 
The island was occupied by about fifteen tribes or settle- 
ments of Indians, and was a great manufactory of wam- 
pum from the abundance of the quahog or hard-shell 
clam. AUof these have passed away, except some 200 Shin- 
necocks, a mixed breed of blacks and Indians in South- 
ampton, and a few families of Montauks (who yet claim 
to elect a king) on the Indian reservation at Montauk. 
While there is proof that the island was coasted and the 
bay of New York visited iby the Florentine navigator Ver- 
rezzano in 1524, and that some of his sailors penetrated to 
its interior (sec J. C. Brevoort's Verrezzano, p. 41), Coney 
Island, part of its shore and sandy beach, is more clearly 
indicated as the first point at which a boat's crew from 
Hendrick Hudson's yacht, Half-Moon, went ashore on his 
memorable voyage in 1609, which opened the region to 
settlements. These began in 1611, when New Amsterdam 
was made a trading-post by the Dutch. They extended 
over upon the opposite shore of Long Island as soon as 
the settlers felt justified in quitting the fort at the Battery, 
which protected them from Indian forays. The first land- 
grant on Long Island was by purchase from the Indians 
by Jaques Bentyn and Adrianse Bennet in 1636 of a tract 
of 930 acres in the S. part of the present city of Brooklyn, 
along Gowanus Cove to the New Utrecht line. The first 
house known to have been erected on Long Island was that 
of Adrianse Bennet upon this tract, probably just after its 
purchase^ as in 1643 it was burnt by the Indians in the war 
of that time. In 1637, George Jansen de Rapalje made a 
purchase also from the Indians, at the Wallabout, of a tract 
of 325 acres, which he did not, however, occupy till 1654. 
The statements of his earlier residence, and that his 
daughter Sarah was the first female child born upon Long 
Island, have been proven incorrect by modern research, as 
she was born at New Orange (Albany) prior to her re- 
moval to New Amsterdam, and thence to Brooklyn. The 
first male child horn in the New Netherlands was Jean 
Vigne, born at New Amsterdam 1614. The first female 
child born in Suffolk co. was Elizabeth, daughter of Lyon 
Gardiner, on Gardiner's Island, Sept. 14, 1641. 

This island, being the natural outwork and gateway 
against invasion, bore the brunt of the first strategic or pitch- 
ed battle of the Bevolution, the battle of Brooklyn or Long 
Island. (See Stiles's Brooklyn.) This battle was fought 
on the 26th, 27th, and 28th Aug., 1776, with 17,000 Brit- 
ish and Hessians against 6000 Americans, and resulted in 
the defeat of the Americans. Washington, however, saved 
the army by his masterly retreat in boats to New York, in 
the face of the enemy, screened by a thick fog. The island 
suffered greatly by incursions from the main land, by Brit- 
ish vessels, and the occupation by troops till the peace. In 
the war of 1812 a series of defences, substantially on the 
same lines of those of the Revolutionary period, was erect- 
ed in Kings co., and manned by volunteers, in anticipation 
of another British attack upon New York City. In the re- 
cent civil war the three counties sent their full quotas and 
took an active and patriotic part. A. J. Spoonbr. 

Revised by Henry R. Stiles. 

Long: Island, or Outer Hebrides, a name given to 
a group of the Hebrides, Scotland, embracing Lewis, Har- 
ris, North and South Uist, Benbecula, Barra, and a num- 
ber of small islands, all of which are supposed to have 
been formerly united. Length, about 130 miles. 

Long Island, an island of Suffolk co., Mass., in the 
harbor of Boston. Pop. not in census of 1880. 



76 



LONG ISLAND CITY— LONGITUDE, TERRESTRIAL. 



Long Island City, city and R. R. centre, cap. of 
Queens co., N. Y. (see map of New York, ref. 8-C, for loca- 
tion of county), on the East River, opposite the central 
part of New York City, Blackwell's Island lying between, 
has numerous manufactures, was formerly a part of New- 
town, but was incorporated in 1870, and now comprises 
Hunter's Point, Ravenswood, Astoria., Blissville, and Dutch 
Kills. The city is separated from Brooklyn by Newtown 
Creek, is about 5 miles long from N. to S. and 3 miles 
wide from E.to W., has waterworks, a county court-house, 
and a river-frontage of about 10 miles. Hunter's Point, 
in the S. W. part, has extensive petroleum warehouses and 
refineries, also chemical works, etc. Pianos, carriages, car- 
pets, etc. are made in the Astoria district. Pop. in 1870, 
3867 J in 1880, 17,129. 

Long^ Island Sonnd, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean 
between Long Island and the State of Connecticut, 115 
miles long and generally 20 or 25 miles wide. A chain 
of small islands extends N. E. from Long Island across 
the Sound to the S. W. of Rhode Island. The Sound is 
an important thoroughfare for steamers and coasting ves- 
sels, and when the channel of the East River at Hell Gate 
shall have been sufficiently improved, the largest ships 
will be able to reach New York harbor with ease and safety 
through the Sound. It has important fisheries. 

liOn'gitude, Terrestrial [Lat. longitudo, "length"]. 
The longitude of a point on the earth is the angle between 
the meridian plane through that point and the meridian 
plane through some other point, taken for the origin of 
longitudes. This angle is measured by the part of the 
equator intercepted by the meridians, and may be ex- 
pressed in angular measure or in time, as we siippose the 
equator divided into 360° or into 24 hours. The origin 
oftenest used by English-speaking peoples is the G-reen- 
wich Observatory. Any plane through the earth's polar 
axis cuts out of the celestial vault (supposed spherical and 
very distant) an hour-circle. If it passes through a point 
on the earth's surface, it is the meridian plane of that 
point, and cuts the earth's surface and the celestial vault 
in the terrestrial and celestial meridians. The latter, 
moving with the earth's rotation, sweeps from W. to E. 
over the heavens every twenty-four hours. The angle in- 
cluded at any instant between the plane of the meridian at 
a place and the plane of an hour-circle through any point 
of the heavens is the hour-angle of that point. If the 
point be the vernal equinox, its hour-angle expressed in 
time at any place at a given instant is the local sidereal 
time; while if the point were one called the mean sun 
(which starts from the vernal equinox with the true sun, 
and moves in the equator with his mean motion), its hour- 
angle is the local mean solar time. 

From these definitions it follows that at any instant the 
difference of local times at two places is their difference of 
longitudes, since each difference is the angle between the 
meridian planes of the two places. The problem of ter- 
restrial longitudes is then to find at any instant of absolute 
time the difference of the local times of two places. It re- 
quires, first, the determination of the local time at each place : 
second, the comparison of those local times at some instant. 

There are many methods of determining local time, but 
as they will be considered elsewhere, only the one which 
is theoretically simplest will be given here. As already 
indicated, it is Oh. Om. Os. sidereal time when the vernal 
equinox crosses the meridian, and a clock so adjusted as 
to work Oh. Om. 0«. at that instant, and to count twenty- 
four hours between two such crossings, is a sidereal clock. 
Such a clock will at any instant give the hour-angle of the 
vernal equinox. Now, the angle between an hour-circle 
through any point in the heavens, and the hour-circle 
through the vernal equinox counted eastward from the 
equinox, is called the right ascension of the point. Hence, 
if the sidereal clock is perfectly correct, when a star 
crosses the meridian the clock-time will be its right ascen- 
sion, since the latter is then equal to the hour-angle of the 
vernal equinox. The Nautical Almanac gives for every 
tenth day in the year the right ascensions of a number of 
stars. If the instant by the sidereal clock at which one 
of these stars crosses the meridian be noted, the difference 
between that time and the star's tabular right ascension 
is the error of the clock. 

The ordinary method of determining the time a star 
crosses the meridian is by a transit instrument. This is a 
telescope so mounted that its line of sight is perpendicular 
to an axis about which it turns. That axis has supports 
which can be bo adjusted that it is perpendicular to the 
plane of the meridian : then the line of sight, marked in 
the telescope by spider lines, will move very nearly in the 
plane of the meridian. Its small deviations from that 
plane can be measured and allowed for. Hence, an observer 
looking through the transit instrument can determine the 



precise oloek-time a star crosses his meridian, and the error 
of his clock ; and by adding the clock-error to the clock-time 
he has the local sidereal time. The precision of these time 
determinations is astonishing; the probable error in a time 
determination from one star with a good instrument should 
be but about a tenth of a second, and when several stars are 
observed it should be but a few hundredths of a second. 

One of the many methods of determining local time hav- 
ing been briefly sketched, the problem proper of terrestrial 
longitudes may be next considered. As already stated, it 
is to determine at the same instant of absolute time the 
difference of local times at two places. 

A. If observers at different places note by theirclocksthe 
occurrence of some instantaneous phenomenon visible at the 
same instant to both, the difference of the clock-times cor- 
rected for clock-errors is the difference of longitude, (a) 
Thus, two observers many miles apart may determine with 
precision by star transits the errors of their timepieces, 
and then observe repeatedly at night the instant some pow- 
der is flashed on a hill visible to both. From many flashes 
the difference of longitude can be obtained with great ac- 
curacy. In the work of the U. S. Lake Survey flashes 
made with a pound of powder have been observed for lon- 
gitude at a distance of 100 miles. (&) When in a lunar 
eclipse the moon passes into the earth's conical shadow, 
and again emerges, the phenomena are seen at the same 
time by all persons to whom they are visible. Unfortu- 
nately, it is difficult to fix the instant when the moon enters 
or leaves the shadow, as the earth's shadow is not sharply 
defined on the moon, and the errors in estimating the time 
may amount to a minute. The eclipses of Jupiter's satel- 
lites are seen by all observers at the same instant, and that 
of the first, which has a rapid motion, is best fitted for 
precise observation. But, as in the case of the moon, 
though to a less degree, the gradual disappearance of the 
satellite makes it difficult to observe the time of disappear- 
ance with precision. That time varies with the power of 
the telescope used. The Washington times of immersion 
and emersion are given in the American Nautical Almanac. 
Shooting stars have also been proposed as signals to be ob- 
served for difference of longitude. 

B. There are several methods of determining differences 
of longitude, depending on the fact that the moon has a 
relatively rapid motion among the stars. If observers at 
two points determine some co-ordinate of the moon's posi- 
tion as seen from the centre of the earth, and also their loeal 
times, the change in this co-ordinate in passing from one 
meridian to the other is determined; and from this change 
and the known rate of change the time required for so 
much change can be computed. This time is the difference 
of longitude. It may be said here that while two observ- 
ers are constantly spoken of, in practice one observer, sup- 
posed to be stationed at a fixed observatory, is replaced by 
a nautical almanac, giving the results he should obtain in 
all cases save those in which the highest accuracy is re- 
quired, (a) If at two places observers note the sidereal 
time of the moon's transit, thus determining the moon's 
right ascension at those transit?, then from the difference 
of the right ascensions and the moon's known rate of change 
in right ascension the time required for so much change, 
which is the difference of longitude, can at once be found. 
To avoid trusting the clock for several hours, it is usual to 
observe the transits also of several well-determined stars 
near the moon, deducing the moon's right ascension from 
theirs by applying the differences of times of transit to the 
right ascensions of the stars. This is the method of lunar 
culminations. The moon's average change of right ascen- 
sion is about one second of time in twenty-seven seconds, 
so that an error of 0.1s. in its observed right ascension 
would give 2.79. error in the resulting longitude. Prof. 
Peirce estimates the limit of accuracy of this method, no 
matter how great the number of observations, at (Is.) one 
second of time. Instead of determining the moon's right 
ascension by meridian transits, it may be obtained from 
transits across a near vertical circle, or by observing its 
altitude or azimuth. (6) Another method depends on the 
moon's whole motion, instead of on that in right ascension 
alone. The Nautical Almanac gives for every three hours 
Greenwich time the distance of the moon from several fixed 
stars, some of the planets, or the sun as seen from the 
earth's centre. If an observer at any point measures one 
of these angular distances with a sextant, and also the alti- 
tudes of the two bodies, he can compute their distance at 
the moment of observation as seen from the centre of the 
earth. Should this corrected distance agree with one in 
the Nautical Almanac^ the corresponding time in the AU 
mnnac is the Greenwich time of his observation, and the 
difference of that time from his local time is the longitude. 
Should his observed distance fall between two tabular dis- 
tances, he can find the corresponding Greenwich time by 
interpolation. This is the method of lunar distances. 



LONGMONT— LONGOMONTANUS. 



77 



C. If at any place un the earth whose positibn is ap- 
proximately kuuwQ the phases of a solar eclipse be ob- 
served, the correspondiag time at a known meridian can be 
computed, thus giving the difference of longitude. The 
same Is true of occultations of stars by the moon. The 
data for both are given in the Nautical Almanac. Occulta- 
tions of Jupiter's satellites by the planet, their transits 
across his disk, and the transits of their shadows are simi- 
lar phenomena, and may be used in determining longitudes. 

D. Another method of determinins; differences of longi- 
tude is that by transportation of chronometers. The error 
of a chronometer is the amount by which it is fast or slow 
of true time, and its rate is the amount it gains or loses in 
twenty-four hours. A perfect timekeeper is one whose rate 
is constant. If a perfect timekeeper were compared with 
the true time at Greenwich, and then taken to any other 
part of the world, from its error and rate at Greenwich 
before starting the true Greenwich time at any instant 
could be computed, and its difference from the local time 
of the traveller's position would be the difference of longi- 
tude. So important is this method to sailors that the Eng- 
lish Parliament gave $100,000 to Han'laon, who first made 
chronometers with a tolerably steady rate. But as no rate 
is perfectly constant, and as a travelling rate usually differs 
from the rate when at rest, when the greatest accuracy is 
required the chronomoter is carried back to the starting- 
point, so that its travelling rate becomes known. By using 
many chronometers and making many trips accuracy can 
be obtained if the distance is not too great. Struve found 
the difference of longitude of Pulkova and Altona to be 
\h. 21m. 32.528., with a probable error of only 0.04«. by 
seventeen trips of 81 chronometers. Bond determined 
(1849) the difference of longitude of Liverpool and Cam- 
bridge, Mass., from 175 chronometers, and again (1S55) 
from 52. The results differed by 1.2ys. An idea of the 
accuracy of timepieces may be obtained from the following : 
Of 42 chronometers submitted to the six months' trial before 
purchase at Greenwich in 1871, on taking the average of 
the daily rates for each week it was found that for the best 
5 chronometers out of the 42, the greatest difference of the 
average rates was for any consecutive weeks 0.7a., and for 
any weeks whatever in the six months, 1.7«. In 1870 for 
the best 6 out of 35 these quantities were 0.9s. and 1.9b. 
The rate of the Kessel's clock of the Washington Observa- 
tory from Aug. 24, 1871, to Dec. 27, 1871, varied between 
0.228. losing and 0.398. gaining. 

E. Of all methods of determining differences of longi- 
tude, that by telegraphic signals, especially over long lines, 
is the most precise. The following is the simplest form 
of the method. Every one understands that a telegraph 
operator by pressing on a key can make a click on an in- 
strument at a distant station. If the local time of pressing 
on the key at the first station and of the click at the second 
station (supposed to be produced instantly) be observed, 
the difference of those local times is the difference of longi- 
tude. It takes a few thousandths of a se<»nd for the sig- 
nal to travel to a distant station, and a few thousandths of 
a second to make the click, so that if the second station is 
W. of the first the resulting difference of longitude is too 
small by these small quantities. But if, retaining the same 
adjustments and equal battery strength, signals be sent 
from W. to E., the resulting longitude will be as much too 
large, and the mean of the two values will be correct. This 
simple method, requiring, first, the precise determination 
of local times, second, their comparison (which should be 
repeated several times) by the telegraph line, gives a higher 
precision over long lines than any of the preceding. It in- 
volves, however, the estimation of fractions 'of a second by 
the ear in receiving signals which may be sent in coinci- 
dence with the beats of the timepiece. The difiiculty may 
be avoided by using a mean solar timepiece at one station 
and a sidereal at the other. The sidereal gains on the 
mean solar a second in about six minutes, and so often the 
beats will coincide. As the time of perfect coincidence can 
be determined within ten or fifteen seconds, the error in 
comparing the timepieces is only 1 5 seconds divided by 360, 
or x^*^^3 of a second. Still higher precision is reached by 
causing the timepiece to make or break the circuit at each 
beat, instead of requiring the observer's finger to do it. It 
is effected by causing the pendulum in a clock or a wheel 
in a chronometer to lift a small piece of metal through 
which the circuit passes, thus breaking it once a second. 
The method becomes perfect when in addition each time- 
piece is made to write its own record of time, thus avoid- 
ing the necessity of noting signals received by the ear. 
Recording is accomplished in the simplest' way by the 
Morse register. Every one has seen the long strips of 
paper on which by dots and dashes telegraphic messages 
wore formerly written. These strips of paper were made 
to more by clockwork uniformly, under a point that could 
from time to time be dropped upon them (by the operator 



at a distant station), making a mal-k. Replacing the 
operator by a clock which sends signals once a second, 
there can be made a series of points on the paper one sec- 
ond apart in time. If the observer at either station wishes 
to record any intermediate event, such as a stj*r transit, ho 
taps his key, and a dot intermediate to the seconds dots is 
made; the corresponding time can be read with a scale 
from the paper strip to 0.028. Such an instrument for re- 
cording a time-scale is called a chronograph. If while the 
timepiece at the first station is writing its beats on the 
chronograph at the second the observer at the second 
makes his clock write its record on that chronograph, the 
difference of times of the two clocks can at once be read 
from the paper. Reading off these differences in many 
places, correcting them for clock-errors, and using signals 
sent from both stations, the mean result will be the differ- 
ence of longitude. The form of chronograph which has 
been most used in this country is that of Bond. A sheet 
of paper is wrapped around a horizontal cylinder turned 
on its axis by clockwork once in a minute. A pen on a 
carriage moves slowly along this cylinder, tracing thus a 
spiral on it. Clock or other signals demagnetize a magnet 
connected with the pen, so that a spring can move the pen 
for an instant at right angles to the spiral when the signal 
is sent, thus writing it on the chronograph sheet. Steadi- 
ness of movement is obtained by an ingenious device called 
the spring governor. 

By the telegraphic method differences of longitude can 
be determined so precisely that their probable errors do 
not exceed a few hundredths of a second of time. When 
two stations are not too far apart, so as to require long use 
of the telegraph line and steady clock-rate for hours, each 
observer may register on the chronograph all his star tran- 
sits, the same stars being used at both stations. After 
correction the interval between such transits of the same 
star on the chronograph sheet is the difference of longitude, 
free from any error in the right ascensions of the stars used. 

Different observers differ in their estimate of the time a 
star crosses a spider-line, whether the observation is chro- 
nographic or by eye and ear, the difference sometimes 
amounting to a second for the latter method. Hence, be- 
fore comparing clocks whose errors have been found by 
different observers, this difference, called personal equationf 
must be taken into account. It appears to arise from dif- 
ferent habits of observing, physiological conditions, cha- 
racter of telescope, rate of star's motion, etc., and is not 
entirely constant for the same two observers. 

To show the errors which may still remain in longitudes 
determined from many observations and with great care 
by other methods than the telegraphic one, the following 
values of the longitude of the Naval Observatory, Wash- 
ington, are given. The telegraphic value is undoubtedly 
very nearly correct, having been obtained by the Coast 
Survey by three routes, whose results agree closely : 
Longitude of Washington. 

Telegraphic 5A. 08m. 12.39s. 

Moon culminations 184^6-60, bh, 08m. 11.6s. 

" " 1362-63, 5A. 08m. 9.8*. 

Bond, 175 chronometers. 1849, 6/t. 08ni. 12.268. 

" 52 " 1855, 5A. 08m. 13.498. 

Occultations of Pleiades. 1856-6^ 5A. 08m. 13.138. 

References. — Loomis's Practical Astronomy ^ Chauvenet's 
Astronomy i Coast Survey Reports, 1 856-67 j Bruhns, Lan- 
gen-Differenz (Bonn-Leiden) ; Plantamour, Diffirenee de 
Longitude entre Righi-Kulm et Netiehatel, C. B. Comstock. 

liong'monty R. R. junction, Boulder co., Col. (see map 
of Colorado, ref. 2~E, for location of county), on the St. 
Vrain River, 40 miles N. of Denver and 17 miles N. E. of 
Boulder City, was laid out in 1871, since which time it has 
rapidly increased in population, being in the midst of a 
fine agricultural regiun. It is well built, having broad 
streets, good buildings, and a public library. Pop. in 
1880, 773. 

liOngobards. See Lombards. 

liOngomontanus (Christian), b. Oct. 4, 1562, at 
Longberg, a village of Jutland, Denmark, of poor peasant 
parents. His name is simply a Latinized form of that of 
his native town. Nevertheless, he contrived to be educated 
in the Latin school of Viborg, and in 1588 he entered the 
University of Copenhagen, where his thorough knowledge, 
especially of mathematics, and great general ability soon 
attracted the attention of the professors. He was intro- 
duced to Tycho Brahe, became his assistant, spent eight 
years with him in the island of Hveen, and accompanied 
him into exile. He did not desire to stay in Prague, how- 
ever, but returned home, and was appointed rector of the 
Latin school in 1603, and in 1605 professor of mathematics 
and astronomy in the University of Copenhagen, at which 
place he d. Oct. 8, 1647. He was one of the best astrono- 
mers of his time. 



78 



LONG PRAIRIE— LONGVIEW. 



liOng Prairie, on R. R., cap. of Todd co., Minn, (see 
map of Minnesota, ref. 7-C, for location of county), 25 
miles W. of Little Falls. Pop. in 1880,220; in 1885, 586. 

Longshore (Hannah Myers). See Appendix. 

Long'street (Augustus Baldwin), LL.D., b. in Au- 
gusta, Ua., Sept. 22, 1790, son of William; prepared for 
college under Rev. Moses Waddell, D. D., at his school at 
Willington, S. C. ; graduated at Yale College in 1813; 
studied law under Judges Reeve and Gould at their law- 
school at Litchfield, Conn., and was admitted to the bar in 
Richmond CO., Ga., in 1815, but established himself in Greens- 
boro', Ga., where he soon rose to eminence in hig profession ; 
was in 1821 elected to the general assembly of the State, and 
promoted to the bench in the Oomulgee judicial circuit in 
1822, which he soon resigned, removing to Augusta; con- 
tinued the practice of the law and established the Augusta 
Sentinel, consolidated in 1838 with the Augusta Chronicle, 
taking the title of the Chronicle and Sentinel, which is 
still (1875) a leading political journal. Entering the min- 
istry, he joined the Methodist Episcopal conference in 
1838, and was assigned to the church at Augusta for the 
next year. During this period of his ministerial duties 
Augusta was severely afflicted wi^.h yellow fever, but he, 
with his associates, Rev. Caleb W. Key and Rev. Father 
Barr€ of the Catholic church, remained at his post, faith- 
fully ministering to the spiritual and the physical wants of 
the sick and the dying; in 1839 was elected to the presi- 
dency of Emory College at Oxford, Ga., which position he 
filled with great ability until 184S, when he accepted a 
similar post in Centenary College, La., and shortly after- 
wards in Mississippi University at Oxford, Miss. He be- 
came president of the South Carolina College in 1857, and 
just before the war returned to the presidency of the Uni- 
versity of Mississippi. He attended the General Confer- 
ence of the Methodist Church of the U. S. in New York in 
1844, and acted a conspicuous part in that body in the dis- 
cussions of the case of Bishop Andrew, which ended in the 
rupture of the Church. With his most devout piety, Judge 
Longstreet was always a decided politician. Reared in 
the Jeffersonian school of strict construction and S^ate 
Rights, he adhered inflexibly to those principles in all that 
he wrote or spoke until the time of his death. He also 
possessed a wonderful taste for humor, of which the marked 
exhibitions that contributed to his fame were so delicately 
done, and with such a moral tone, as not to detract in the 
least from his clerical office. This was one of the most 
striking features in his varied and extraordinary character. 
His Georffia Scenes (1840) and Master William Mitten, or the 
Youth of Brilliant Talents who was Ruined by Bad Luck 
(1858), stand among the first works of American wit and hu- 
mor. Among his graver writings may be mentioned hia ser- 
mon on/n/irfe^iVy before the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, Letters from Georgia to Massachusetts, Letters to Clergy- 
men of the Northern Methodist Church, and A Review of the 
Decision of the Supreme Court of the U. S. in the case of 
McOtdloch r. The State of Maryland. His pen was never 
idle. Up to the time of his death he was a regular con- 
tributor to a number of periodicals. Many of his valu- 
able unpublished manuscripts were destroyed with his 
library during the war. D. Sept. 9, 1870. 

A. H. Stephens. 

liOngstreet (Gen. James), b. in South Carolina in 
1820 ; removed at an early age with his parents to Alabama, 
from which State he was appointed to the U. S. Military 
Academy in 1838; graduated in 1842, entering the army as 
lieutenant of infantry, and after a few years of routine life 
in garrison and on the frontier in the South-west, the 
threatened troubles with Mexico called him into more 
active service. From the occupation of Texas he was en- 
gaged in all the principal battles of the war up to the 
storming of Chapultepec, where, in the assault upon the 
castle, he received severe wounds. For Contreras and 
Churubusco he was brevetted captain, and major for Mo- 
lino del Rey. As adjutant of his regiment he served mostly 
on duty at frontier posts in Texas (1847-52), when he was 
appointed captain, but remaining in Texas until transferred 
to the staff in 1858 as paymaster, with the rank of major. 
In June, 1801, Longstreet resigned to join the Confederacy, 
and commanded a brigade at Bull Run the following month. 
Promoted to be major-general in 1862, he thereafter bore a 
conspicuous part and rendered valuable service to the Con- 
federate cause. In command of the rear-guard of the 
army falling back from Yorktown, he had passed through 
Williamsburg May 5, 1862, when he was called back to op- 
pose the hastily advancing Union forces, a battle lasting 
nearly nine hours resulting, thus allowing the escape of the 
main army to Richmond, himself following rapidly under 
cover of night. At Seven Pines he directed the main at- 
tack, and in the subsequent fighting at Gaines's Mill, Fra- 
aier's Farm, Malvern Hill, etc. his division fought bravely, 



losing nearly one-half its numbers in killed and wounded. 
At the second battle of Bull Run he skilfully made the pas- 
sage of the Thoroughfare Gap, and on the second day held 
the right of the line and contributed largely to the suc- 
cess of the day. At Antietam he commanded the right 
wing; the left at Fredericksburg, where the assault was so 
fatal to the Federal army. After the latter battle he was 
temporarily detached with three divisions of his corps to 
operate below the James, and in April attacked Gen. Peck 
at SuflFolk, Va., which place he invested until recalled by 
Gen. Lee after the battle of Chancellorsville. In the or- 
ganization of the army with which it was designed to in- 
vade the North, Longstreet was assigned to the command of 
one of its three corps, with the rank of lieutenant-general, 
and in the ensuing battle of Gettysburg commanded the right 
of the line daring the second and third days of the fight. The 
importance of impending operations in the West caused 
Lee, who felt secure against attack, to again detach Long- 
street, and on this occasion the change was timely and 
precious, for he arrived with his corps in time to decide the 
fortunes of the day at Chickamauga. The following month 
Bragg assigned Longstreet to lead a movement against 
Burnside in East Tennessee, and in November he compelled 
that officer to seek the intrenohments of Knoxville with his 
army, which place Longstreet beleaguered, but was com- 
pelled to abandon the siege upon Grant's victory at Chat- 
tanooga, and hastily moved eastward to Virginia, where he 
rejoined the army of Gen. Lee; in the ensuing campaign he 
was severely wounded by his own troops in the Wildernesa 
battle (May 6), and disabled for months. Returning to duty 
in October, he commanded the defences of Richmond N. 
of the James, and was partially engaged in the action 
around Petersburg the day of evacuation. The war ended. 
Gen. Longstreet accepted the result, and having renewed 
his allegiance to the general government, has labored 
earnestly to obliterate all traces of war, and promote an era 
of good feeling between all sections of the country. Taking 
up his residence in New Orleans, he was appointed (in 1869) 
surveyor of the port, resigned in 1871 ; was appointed 
cdmmissioner of engineers for Louisiana, served four 
years, and, has been a school commissioner. In 1875 he 
settled in Georgia, where he became supervisor of internal 
revenue, was U. S. minister to Turkey 1880-81, and U. S. 
marshal of Georgia 1881-84. G. C. Simmons. 

^Longstreet (William), b. in New Jersey in 1760, but 
in early life moved to Augusta, Ga. He was by nature a 
genius, and but for the want of means might have won the 
laurels which the more fortunate Fulton secured in the ap- 
plication of ateam to the propulsion of boats on navigable 
waters. As early as Sept. 26, 1790, he addressed a letter 
to Thomas Telfair, governor of Georgia, stating that his 
plan was completed, and expressing his "thorough con- 
fidence in its success " if he had means to perfect it. Tliese 
he asked of the governor or the legislature, to which (he 
matter was submitted. No action, however, was taken. 
This was three fears before Fulton's letter to the earl of 
Stanhope announcing his ideas "respecting the moving of 
ships by the means of steam." Longstreet's plan was very 
diflferent from FuIton*s. Failing in obtaining public aid at 
the time, several years afterwards he procured funds from 
private sources, which enabled him to put his boat in ope- 
ration on the Savannah River, and it moved against the 
current of the stream at the rate of five miles an hour a 
few days after Fulton's like success on the Hudson in 1807. 
He also invented and patented the "breast roller" of cot- 
ton-gins, which was of incalculable value to the growers of 
the long staple or sea-island cotton. D. in Georgia in 
1814. A. H. Stephens. 

liong'ton, town of England, county of Stafford, on an 
affluent of the Trent, has 19,748 inhabitants, mostly en- 
gaged in the manufacture of china and earthenware. 

liOn'gus, a Greek Sophist of the fourth or fifth century 
of our era, but of whose personal life nothing is known, 
was the author of a small erotic novel, Daphm's and Chloe, 
which has come down to us. It was first printed at Flor- 
ence (1598) by Columbianus, One of the latest and best 
editions is that by Hercher (Leipsic, 1835). It was trans- 
lated into English by G. Thornley (London, 1657). 

Ijongview, railroad junction, Gregg co., Tex. (see 
map of Texas, ref. 2--J, for location of county), situated 
at the junction of the Texas and Pacific with the Interna- 
tional and Great Northern Railroad, on the Sabine River, 
66 miles W. of Shreveport, in one of the richest, best- 
timbered, and most healthful regions of the State, has 
about 40 saw-mills in the vicinity, from which, with the 
cotton crop, it derives its prosperity. It is a shipping- 
point of recent growth, and was incoi-porated in 1871. 
The Galveston Sabine and St. Louis R. R. has been com- 
pleted for a distance of about 20 miles S. from Longview. 
Pop. in 1880, 1525. 



LONGWORTH— LOOM. 



79 



Long'worth (Nicholas), b. at Newark, N. J., Jan. 16, 
1782; settled in 1803 in Cincinnati, and studied law with 
Jacob Burnet; after twenty-five yearsMegal practice left 
the bar, having become wealthy, chiefly by the rise in value 
of his lands; devoted himself with great ultimate success 
to the wine-manufacture. His still and sparkling oatawba 
wines acquired much reputation. He was widely known 
as an observer and writer upon the growth of the straw- 
berry, was somewhat eccentric in his habits, and took es- 
pecial pleasure in bestowing charities upon vagabonds, 
whom he called " the deviVs poor." His estate at his death 
was valued at $15,000,000. D. at Cincinnati Feb. 10,1863. 

liOng'year (John W.), b. in Shandaken, Ulster co., 
N. Y., Oct. 22, 1820 ; was educated at Lima, N. Y. _: re- 
moved in 1844 to Mason, Ingham co., Mich., where he was 
admitted to Xhe bar 1846; settled at Lansing 1847, and 
gradually acquired an extensive practice; was a member 
of Congress 1861-65, a delegate to the Loyalist convention 
at Philadelphia 1866, a member of the State constitutional 
convention of Michigan 1867, and was appointed judge of 
the district court of Michigan May, 1870. His decisions in 
that capacity, especially those in admiralty and bankruptsy 
cases, were extensively quoted, and regarded as very able 
and judicious. D. at Detroit Mar. 10, 1875. 

liOni'g'Oj a considerable town in Northern Italy, in the 
province of Vieenza. Its trade is chiefly in wheat and 
horses. At the annual fair in March 2000 horses arc 
sometimes brought to market. Pop. in 1881, 9880: 

Ldnn'rot (Elias), M. D., b. Apr. 9, 1802, at Sammatti, 
Finland ; apprenticed first to a tailor, then to a druggist ; 
commenced in 1822 the study of philology and natural 
science at the University of Abo, then that of medicine at 
the University of Helsingfors in 1827 ; took his degree in 
1832; began practice as a physician at Kajuna in 1833, 
and was appointed professor of the Finnish language and 
literature at the University of Helsingfors in 1853. By 
his rare talents and still rarer energy he not only rendered 
great service to linguistic science in general, but made 
the Finnish, which had been relegated to the lower classes 
of the people, a literary language, displaying an individual 
civilization. Travelling on foot from the Oulf of Finland 
to the White Sea, he gathered the songs and tales which 
lived among the Finns without ever having been written 
down, and the results were the Kalevala, the Kanteletar, 
and two large collections of proverbs and enigmas, (See 
Finnish Language and Literature.) He also gave a 
Swedish-German-Fiunish dictionary (1847), founded Fin- 
nish monthly and weekly periodicals, and wrote a number 
of valuable essays on subjects relating to the Finnish, 
Lappish, and kindred languages. 

liOnoke^ cap. of Lonoke co.. Ark. (see map of Arkan- 
sas, ref. 3-I>, for location of county), on the Memphis and 
Little Rock R. R., 23 miles E. of Little Rock, in a beauti- 
ful plain, was first settled in 1869 ; has a collegiate insti- 
tute. Masonic hall, steam flouring-mill, a cotton-gin, and 
ships over 5000 bales of dotton annually. Pop. in 1870, 
371; in 1880, 659. 

Lons'dale, a flourishing manufacturing and post-v. 
of Lincoln tp.. Providence co., R. I. (see map of Rhode 
Island, ref. 4-6, for location of county), on the Providence 
and Worcester R. R., 7 miles N. of Providence. Pop. in 
1880, 847. 

liOnsdale (Henry), M. D., b. at Carlisle, England, in 
1816; studied at Edinburgh and Paris; became lecturer on 
anatomy at Edinburgh; made important discoveries in the 
histology of nerve-tissues ; became in 1845 physician to 
the Cumberland Infirmary, Carlisle; has written much and 
ably upon sanitary questions ; and published several vol- 
umes of biographical and other literature, notably the 
Worthies of Cumberland (6 vols.), containing Lives of the 
Howards, Sir James Graham, M. P., the Loshes, Addison, ' 
and other celebrities. D. Aug., 1876. 

Lons-le-Saalnier'q town of France, department of 
Jura, beautifully situated among vine-clad hills at the con- 
fluence of the Seille, ValliSre, and Solman, has a celebrated 
salt-well, discovered in the fourth century, from which 
9500 tons of pure salt are annually drawn, besides 885 tons 
of sulphate of soda and 300 tons of chloride of potassium. 
Another important iodustry is the manufacture of spark- 
ling wines. It was the birthplace of Rouget de Lisle, the 
composer of the "Marseillaise." Pop, in 1881, 12,873. 

Lonyay, Count, a Hungarian statesman, b. Jan. 6. 
1822, descended from an old Magyar family ; was elected 
a member of the diet in 1843, and afterward appointed a 
secretary in the ministry of finance; fled in 1849 when the 
Hungarian rebellion was put down, and lived in London 
and Paris; returned in 1850 in consequence of a general 
amnesty, and devoted himself to questions of political 
economy and the relations of the Church to the schools in 



Hungary. He was one of the most prominent members of 
the diet of 1865 ; was very active in 1866 and 1867 for the 
settlement between Hungary and Austria accomplished by | 

Beust, and accepted the ministry of finance in the Hun- | 

garian cabinet which AndrSssy formed in 1867. He was 
very successful in his financial policy, but fell out with 
AndrAssy, retired in May, 1870, and entered then the im- 
perial cabinet as minister of finance. When Andr&ssy be- 
came president of the imperial cabinet instead of Beust 
(Nov. 16, 1871), Lonyay was appointed president of the 
Hungarian cabinet, but (Nov. 18, 1872) he was accused by 
his adversaries in the lower house, especially by Deputy 
Csernatony, of having misused his official position for per; 
sonal purposes, in consequence of which he gave in his 
resignation Dec, 2, 1872. He has published Recent Works 
on Political Economy (1863), Survey over the Finances of 
Hungary (1873), The Banking Question (1875), a collection 
of his speeches, etc. August Niemann. 

Loo-Choo', or Lew-Chew, a chain of thirty-five 
small islands stretching from Japan to Formosa, 400 miles 
off" the coast of China. They are very imperfectly known, 
as foreigners are not allowed to visit them, but they seem 
to be very fertile, well cultivated, and densely peopled. 
The climate is mild and humid. Snow never falls, but 
much rain. Excessive heat never occurs. The two largest 
islands are Okinawa, or Great Loo-Choo, and Oshima. The 
former is the political centre of the whole chain of isl- 
ands, and contains over thirty towns besides Napa, 
the capital. The population of the former is estimated 
at 200,000: that of the latter, at 30,000. The inhab- 
itants are a mixture of Japanese and Chinese, the for- 
mer element being the predominant one. The Japanese 
are the only foreigners who are allowed to live on the 
islands; and although a number of young natives are 
annually sent to China to be educated, yet the Chinese are 
treated with the same suspicion and inhospitality as the 
Europeans. The religion is Booddhism blended with the 
doctrines of Confucius. 

Loodia'nah; district of British India, on the eastern 
bank of the Sutlej, and comprising an area of 750 square 
miles, with 527,722 inhabitants. Its capital, of the same 
name, lies in lat. 30° 55' N. and Ion. 75° 54' E., has large 
manufactures of shawls of an inferior quality, and carries 
on a considerable banking business and transit trade. 
Pop. 47,900. 

Loom [Ang.-Sax. Wwa], the machine by which weav- 
ing is effected. In its simpler forms it is probably one of 
the earliest of human inventions. The Indian native fab- 
rics, notwithstanding their extreme delicacy, are wrought 
upon looms of the rudest description, sometimes two trees 
serving for the frame, and bamboo sticks and string com- 
pleting the mechanism by which silks unequalled for splen- 
dor are perfected. The object of Weaving (which see) is 
the making of cloth by the intersection of materials. The 
portions running lengthwise are called the warp, or chain, 
and those across, the woof or weft. There is no variation in 
principle between the looms for silk and woollen, though 




Loom, 



their relative strength is of course widely difl^erent. In 
describing the hand-loom we shall be able to indicate the 
principles upon which every loom, even the most compli- 
cated, is constructed. The framework consists of four up- 
rights, with three horizontal beams at the top, centre, and 
base. The only object of these is to keep the more import- 
ant working parts in position. At one end is the beam or 
yard-roll (a) on which the threads of the warp are wound, 
passing through the heald, a sort of comb (l), and extend- 
ing to the cloth-beam or breast-roll (m) at the other ex- 
tremity of the loom. " Round the latter the fabric is rolled 
as it is woven. It is kept tight by weights suspended from 
the yard-roll (&). The treadles (d) are pressed by the feet ; 
one is connected with the harness or heddle (e) and the 
other with h, g,f. The alternate depression and elevation 
of the treadle causes a corresponding mo\'ement in the 
harness to which it is attached. The harnesses are each 
formed of two horizontal bars, connected by many small 



80 



LOOMIS. 



cords of varying lengths, and united by a rope and pulley, 
so that the depression of the one necessitates the elevation 
of the other. Where the harnesses are intersected by the 
warp (o) there are loops or metallic eyes. Each separate 
thread is passed through the cords of one or other of the 
harnesses ip regular order, so that the alternate warp- 
threads go through the loops of one heddle, whilst the in- 
termediate threads arc passed through the cords of the one 
and the loops of the other harness. When the treadle- 
action lowers one harness, all the warp-threads passing 
through its loops will be depressed, whilst the other har- 
ness, with all the intermediate threads, will by the same 
motion be raised, thus leaving between the two divisions 
a space for the passage of the shuttle, which carries the 
thread of the weft. As soon as it passes the action is re- 
versed. The reed (i), sometimes made of small portions 
of split reed, but usually of flattened wires, drives the 
threads tightly after each intersection. The wires are fixed 
like comb-teeth in a frame which rests upon the shuttle- 
race, the warp-thread passing through the interstices. At 
the top is a cover with a groove along its lower side, known 
as the lay-cap. The weaver's seat (c), being hung by rounded 
ends, accommodates itself to the various movements of the 
body required by the various operations described. The 
movement of the batten is produced by the hand of the 
weaver. 

Such is a description of the simplest form of loom, and 
the highly complex machines now employed arc identical 
in principle, although their action is now automatic in place 
of depending upon human motive-power. The first sugges- 
tion of a power-loom appears to be one contained in a pa- 
per by M. de Gennes, an oflRcer of the French navy, which 
was printed in the Journal dee Savanta in 1678 (No. xxvii.). 
It was quite impracticable. In the summer of 1784, Dr. 
Edward Cartwright happened to meet some Manchester 
gentlemen, who remarked that when Arkwright's patent 
ran out there would not be sufficient hands to weave all 
the cotton that would be spun. Cartwright replied to Ark- 
wright, "We must then invent a weaving-mill." This the 
" practical" men declared impossible. The subject recurred 
to Cartwright's mind. He had never seen any weaving done, 
but considering that " there could onl}-^ be three movements, 
which were to follow each other in succession," there would 
be little difficulty in producing and repeating them. He 
constructed a lonnr. which did produce cloth : although " the 
warp was placec perpendicularly, the reed fell with the 
weight of at least half a hundredweight, and the springs 
which threw the shuttle were strong enough to have thrown 
a Congreve rocket." When he had obtained a patent and 
seen weaving he was astonished at the greater ease of the 
usual operations. The details of the power-loom were mod- 
ified in his successive patents, but the principle has re- 
mained unchanged until now. Ninety years of mechanical 
ingenuity have been expended upon the perfection of this 
machine, and the number of patents for its improvement 
is truly marvellous. One great difference between the hand- 
loom and the power-loom is the mechanical arrangement 
by which the shuttle is thrown in the latter. At each side 
of the loom, and in a line with the ahed, is a groove. Along 
these shuttle-races the shuttle flashes, impelled by a leather 
and strap arrangement acting on the principle of a sling. 
The warp unwinding from a beam passes round a roller 
above it, passes through the two leaves of the heddles, thus 
forming the eked through which the shuttle flies, the weft 
is then pressed up by the batten, and the finished cloth 
results. 

In weaving figured fabrics two persons were formerly 
necessary. In 1779, William Cheape patented a mechanical 
*' draw-hoy," as the assistant was called. This, with sun- 
dry improvements, continued in use until it was superseded 
by the famous Jacquard machine. Joseph Marie Jacquard 
was a native of Lyons, the son of a weaver, but following 
the trade of a straw-hat maker. Having heard of the pre- 
mium offered by the Society of Arts for a machine to weave 
nets, he conceived the possibility of earning it. He pro- 
duced a machine-made net, but not meeting with any en- 
couragement from his fellow-citizens, he threw the project 
aside and gave the net to a friend. By some means it got 
to the hands of the authorities in Paris, and when Jacquard 
himself had forgotten the matter he was required by the 
prefect of the department to make a net-weaving machine. 
When it reached Paris the emperor ordered the inventor's 
arrest, which was done so suddenly that he was not allowed 
to go home to prepare for the journey. He was placed in 
the Conservatoire des Arts, and reconstructed the machine 
in the presence of inspectors. He was presented to Napo- 
leon, who put the characteristic question: "Are you the 
man who pretends to do what God Almighty cannot do — 
to tie a knot in a stretched string?" He was then shown 
Vaucanson's loom, on which from 20,000 to 30,000 francs 
had been expended for making fabrics for Bonaparte's use. 



He determined to achieve the object of this complicated 
machine by a simpler process, and the result was the Jac- 
quard frame. The silk-weavers of Lyons were indignant 
with him for contriving a labor-saving apparatus; he was 
thrice exposed to the danger of assassination ; the Conseil 
des Prudhommes broke up his loom in the public square, 
in the same place where his statue now stands. His patent- 
rights were purchased by a municipal pension authorized 
by the emperor, who also decorated him with the cross of 
the Legion of Honor. There are varying versions of the 
earlier part of his career as an inventor, some attributing 
to Carnot the phrase about tying a knot in a stretched 
string. 

The Jacquard frame can be adapted to nearly all looms, 
its object being to direct the movements of the warp-threads 
which produce the pattern. Although the principle is 
beautifully simple, the arrangements for carrying it into 
practice depend on delicate mechanical adjustments which 
bewilder the eye of the uninitiated. The warp-threads nrc 
passed through loops in the lifting-threads, so as to bo 
raised by the action of the treadles upon the lifting-bars. 
This is precisely the same as in common weaving, but in the 
Jacquard apparatus the lifting-threads hang on wires ter- 
minating in a hook. In the ordinary course this hook 
catches upon a projection on the lifting-bar, but fails to do 
so if thrown out of the perpendicular. Each wire passrs 
through a horizontal needle at right angles; the needle is 
furnished with a loop for this purpose. It moves freely 
through at one side, and at the other extremity is looped 
on to another rod ending in a spring-box. When pushed 
back into this box, it presses upon a spiral spring, which 
restores it to its former position immediately the pressure 
ceases. When pressure is exerted upon any wire it is thrown 
out of the perpendicular, and so fails to catch upon the pro- 
jection in the lifting-bar; the wires not so acted upon reach 
the bar, drawing the threads of the warp attached to them. 
It will be evident from this that by regulating the pressure 
upon the horizontal needles any variation of thread can be 
effected. Por this purpose a square roller is used, with its 
four sides pierced with holes corresponding to the number 
of threads in the warp, in the same way as the wires and 
needles. A row of needles fit into a row of perforations, 
and each row of the latter is brought in succession against 
the needles by a motion received from the machinery. In 
the ordinary course the simple effect would be that all the 
wires would act, and all the warp-threads be hooked upon the 
projections in the bar. In order to produce the variations 
in the arrangement of threads required for the production 
of the pattern, this roller is masked with what are known 
as pattern-cards. These are perforated in accordance with 
the desired pattern, the holes, where there are any, cor- 
responding with those of the rollers they cover. Where 
not perforated the card resists the action of the needle, 
pressing it back upon the spring, and so throwing the lift- 
ing-bar out of the perpendicular, and preventing the lifting 
of the warp-thread to which It is attached. The cards are 
looped together at the corners, and act as an endless chain, 
their perforations indicating the pattern. 

The simplicity of the Jacquard has been improved by 
Vincenzi of Modena, who, in addition to a great saving of 
bulk, has rendered the needle-action so delicate that in 
place of thick cardboard for the pattern-card, paper can be 
used, and thus a pattern can be reproduced without extra 
trouble. It was thought Signer Bonelli's electric loom 
would displace the Jacquard, but that beautiful piece of 
mechanism has not yet come into much practical use. The 
pneumatic loom (Harrison) is intended to lessen the waste 
of power caused by the shock of throwing tjie shuttle. In 
place of the picker a jet of compressed air is discharged 
from the shuttle-box on to the end of the shuttle at each 
stroke. There are many minor annoyances which the ap- 
plication of graduated air-pressure is expected to obviate. 
(See Abridgment of Spedjlcaiiona of Patents (English) re- 
lating in Weaving.) W. B. A. Axon. 

liOomis (A. L.), M. D. See Appendix. 

liOo'mis (Eltas), LL.D.. b. in Tolland co., Conn., in 
Aug., 1811; graduated at Yale College in 1830; was for 
several years tutor in that institution (1833-36) ; made im- 
portant researches in astronomy, magnfetism, and meteor- 
ology, both in the U. S. and at Paris, where he resided in 
1836-37, attending lectures; became professor of natural 
philosophy in Western Reserve College 1837, called to 
the University of the City of New York 1844, and to 
Yale College 1860. He has made many contributions to 
the exact sciences, most of which were communioated to the 
American Philosophical Society and to the Am.erican Jour- 
nal of Science, and published a series of textbooks In the 
higher mathematics, comprising Plane and Spherical Trigo- 
nometry (1848), Recent Progress of Astronomy (1850 and 
\^b^). Analytical Geometry and Calculus {IS51), Elements 
of Algebra (1851), Elements of Geometry and Conic Sec- 



LOOMIS— LOPEZ. 



81 



tiona (1851), Tables of Logarithms (1855), Natural Philos- 
ophy (1858), Practical Ast'vonomy (1855), Elements of Arith- 
metic (1863), Treatise oh Meteorology (1868), Elements of 
Astronomy (1869), and a genealogical work. The Descend- 
ants of Joseph Loomis (1S70). 

liOomis (Gen. GusTAvas), b. at Thetforcl,Vt., Sept. 23, 
1781) ; graduated from the U. S. Military Academy in 1811 ; 
entered the army as second lieutenant of artillerists, and 
after a service of two years in garrison in New York harbor 
was ordered to the Niagara frontier, and was engaged in 
the capture of Fort George, U. C, May 27, 1813, and made 

?visoner at the surprise of Fort Niagara, N. Y., Dec. 19, 
813. Subsequently to the close of the war he served on the 
varied duty of an artillery, infantry, and staff ofiBcer, and 
in all sections of the country — in Texas and Florida against 
hostile Indians; on similar duty on the Western frontier; 
in command of department and on quartermaster, ordnance, 
and coast survey duty ; transferred to the infantry as cap- 
tain 1st Regiment in 1821, he was successively promoted 
to be colonel 5th Infantry in 1851. During the civil war 
he served on court-martial and recruiting duty, and as 
mustering oflicer ; retired from active service June 1, 1863 j 
brevet brigadier-general Mar. 13, 1865. D. Mar. 5, 1872. 
Loomis (Justin Rolph), LL.D., b. Aug. 10, 1810, at 
Bennington, Wyoming co., N. Y".,* graduated at Brown 
University 1835 ; professor of natural sciences in Colby 
University (Waterville, Me.) 1836-52, and held the same 
position in the university at Lewisburg, Pa., 1853-58, since 
which time he has been president. Author of Elements of 
Geology and Elements of Physiology. 
liOomis (L. C). See Appendix. 

liOon, or Great Northern Diver, the Colymhus 
or Endytes torquatns, a swimming bird of the family Colym- 
bidse, found in both hemispheres. It is a large solitary 
bird, 32 inches long, very difficult to shoot. It is a fine 
diver, perfectly at home in air or water, but by no means 
so on the land, its feet being set so far back that it cannot 
walk at all, but scrambles along scraping its breast on the 
ground. Its loud startling cry is a very familiar sound in 
the woods of North America. 

liO'pes, or liOpez (Fernao), b. about 1380, in Por- 
tugal, was made chief archivist of the kingdom by King 
Dom Joao I,, and devoted his life to the collection and 
study of materials for the history of his country and the 
composition of chronicles of several of her kings. Like 
Froissart, he also personally visited the scenes of battles 
and of other important events, and conferred much with 
eminent soldiers and statesmen who had participated 
in the wars and other public affairs of Portugal. The 
chronicles of Lopes possess great literary and critical value, 
and are probably surpassed in merit by no historical works 
of the century in which they were written. The field of 
action and the period of time embraced by the narratives 
of Lopes are narrower than those covered by the immortal 
work of Froissart; and doubtless this is one of the reasons 
for the much greater accuracy of Lopes in point of date, 
detail, and attending circumstances. The style of Lopes 
is generally less picturesque than that of Froissart, but in 
some cases — as, for instance, in the description of the bat- 
tle of Aljubarota, known in Portuguese history as " ^Ae 
battle," fought in the year 1386 on ground which is now 
the site of the renowned monastery and church of Batalha 
— the Portuguese writer has a decided superiority over the 
French chronicler. Lopes is always animated with a pa- 
triotism which much enlivens his annals, but is altogether 
wanting in the borderer Froissart, who is never quite 
French or quite English. The works of Lopes are — 
Chronica do Senhor Rei Dom Pedro I.; Chronica do Scnhor 
liei Dom Fernando,hot)\ printed in vol. iv. of the Collec^ao 
de Livroe Ineditos de Hiatoria Portagueza (Lisbon, 1816), 
and the very rare and important Chronica del Rey Dom 
Joao I. (Lisbon, 16i4, 2 parts, folio), with a third part or 
continuation by Gomes Eannes d'Azurara. 

George P. Marsh. 

Lo'pez (Carlos Antonio), b. at Asuncion, Paraguay, 
Nov. 4, 1790: was educated at the ecclesiastical seminary 
of that city, and became better versed in civil and canon 
law than any of his contemporaries. To escape persecution 
by the dictator, Dr. Francia, he resided many years in an 
obscure village; returned to Asuncion on the death of 
Francia in Sept., 1840; was appointed secretary of the 
military junta then in power; was elected one of the two 
consuls in 1841 ; president for ten years in 1844; re-elected 
for three years in 1854, and again for ten years in 1857, 
with power to appoint a successor by will. He governed 
despotically, convoking a congress only at intervals of 
many years, and allowing it liberty only to sanction his 
edicts. He opened the country to foreign commerce, con- 
structed a railway, sent a considerable number of Para- 
VoL. v.— 6 



guayan youth to Europe for education, especially in me- 
chanics, provided abundant war-material, bought several 
steamers iis the foundation of a navy, levied and maintained 
under strict discipline a considerable army, built an arsenal, 
foundries, and fortifications, asserted a government monop- 
oly for tobacco and^/eria 7natej the most important products 
of the country, made an unsuccessful attempt to establish 
a French colony in the Grand Chaco, made treaties with 
foreign powers, engaged in desultory warfare with the dic- 
tator Rosas of Buenos Ayres, was involved in diplomatic 
controversies with France, England, Brazil, and the U. S., 
narrowly escaping hostilities with the three latter powers, 
and successfully labored for the material prosperity of Par- 
aguay, bequeathing his power to his sou, Francisco Solano, 
on his death; which occurred at Asuncion Sept. 10, 1862. 

Lopez (Francisco Solano), b. near Asuncion, Para- 
guay, July 24, 1826 or 1827, was the eldest son of Carlo"] 
Antonio Lopez, president of Paraguay from 1844 to 1862. 
Though his early education during the dictatorship of 
Francia had been almost entirely neglected, Francisco was 
at the age of nineteen years made general and commander- 
in-chief of the Paraguayan army, then engaged in hos- 
tilities with the dictator Rosas of Buenos Ayres, who re- 
fused to recognize the independence of Paraguay or to con- 
cede the right of navigation on the Parana. Young Lopez 
spent some months in the Argentine province of Corrientes, 
then in rebellion against Rosas, and probably derived some 
rudimentary ideas about war from his Mentor, the Argen- 
tine general Paz, though he saw no actual engagements. 
Returning to Asuncion in the following year, he was suc- 
cessively entrusted by his father with all the more import- 
ant offices of the state, with a view to prepare the way for 
his succession to the presidency. In 1853 he was sent to 
Europe, accredited as minister to the courts of London, 
Paris, and Turin for the ratification of treaties concluded 
the previous year, and spent eighteen months in European 
capitals, attended by a suite of forty persons. He engaged 
the services of numerous engineers, bought steamers, con- 
tralcted for the building of a railroad and the establishment 
of a French colony, and purchased large quantities of arms 
and materials of war. He also acquired some knowledge 
of French and of the condition of European affairs, and 
made the acquaintance of the celebrated Madame Lynch, 
who followed him to Paraguay, became his mistress, and 
had an important influence upon his later career. In 1855, 
Lopez became minister of war under his father, and the 
successive difficulties with the TJ. S., England, France, and 
Brazil (see Paraguay) stimulated his already formed reso- 
lution to make Paraguay a military power which at a 
future time should humble the surrounding countries, wrest 
from them their frontier provinces, and perhaps lay the 
foundations of a vast inland empire. In 1862, on the death 
of his father (Sept. 10), Lopez assumed the executive power 
by virtue of a ncwnihation as vice-president made in the 
will of the former, according to a singular power previously 
conferred upon him, and convoked a congress by which he 
was elected (Oct. 16) president for ten years. He now 
hastened his preparations for war, secretly procuring from 
Europe immense stores of arms and ammunition ; and in 
Sept., 1864, believing himself ready for the struggle, availed 
himself of the fact of Brazilian intervention in a civil war 
then existing in Uruguay to declare himself the protector 
of the "equilibrium" of the La Plata regions. He sum- 
moned Brazil to abstain from the hostilities already com- 
menced in Uruguay, and as that empire paid no atten- 
tion to his challenge, he inaugurated hostilities in Nov., 
1864, by seizing treacherously and without warning in the 
port of Asuncion a Brazilian merchant-steamer, which in 
conformity with treaty-right was on its way to Matto 
Grosso, conveying the president of that province, who wi(h 
his suite was thrown into a prison from which none of them 
ever emerged. In the following month, before news of this 
proceeding could reach Brazil, Lopez sent a force to occupy 
the vast province of Matto Grosso, situated to the N. of 
Paraguay, and early in the following year despatched an- 
other largo force across the Argentine territory into the 
southern Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul. The 
refusal of the Argentine government to consent to this pas- 
sage of troops afforded Lopez a pretext for Jiostilitics 
against that country. Hastily summoning a "congress" 
composed of his own nominees, in Mar., 1865, Lopez pro- 
cured therefrom the ratification of his previous acts, a 
formal declaration of war against Brazil and the Argentine 
Republic, and the military grade of marshal for himself, 
with extraordinary war-powers. The Argentine merchant- 
steamers in port were detained and subsequently confis- 
cated, and an expedition was sent to the Argentine prov- 
ince of Corrientes which seized the capital and two men-of- 
war (Apr. 14) before the declaration could be known in 
Buenos Ayres. On May 1 a triple alliance against Para- 
guay, offensive and defensive, between Brazil, the Argen- 



82 



LOPEZ— LORELEI, THE. 



tine Republic, and Uruguay was signed at Buenos Ayrea, 
and a war of gigantic proportions for South America was 
thenceforward carried on for five years. (For the outline 
of the military operations reference must- be made to the 
article Paraguav.) Early in 1866 the allies had recovered 
their own provinces and invaded Paraguay, where they 
were kept at bay for years before the fortifications of 
Ilumait^, Tebicuarf, and Angostura, until nearly the whole 
male population of Paraguay had been impressed into 
military service and had perished in the trenches or by 
famine and pestilence. Lopez possessed no knowledge of 
military science ; he was even deficient in personal courage, 
and never participated in a battle but from a safe distance ; 
through the employment of a vast system of terrorism and 
espionage he coerced a reluctant people to sacrifice itself 
for his ambition. Always cruel, unscrupulous, passionate, 
and morbidly suspicious, his evil qualities were stimulated 
by a long succession of military failures, by the ruin of his 
ambitious hopes, the certainty of impending downfall, and 
by increasing habits of intemperance, until in 1868 they 
culminated in the arrest, torture, and execution of several 
hundreds of Paraguayans and foreigners on an absurd 
charge of conspiracy against his government and life. 
From July to Dec, 1808, scarcely a day passed without the 
execution of new batches of prisoners in his camp, among 
whom were included all his brothers, brothers-in-law, cabi- 
net ministers, judges and prefects, and nine-tenths of the 
civil employes of every grade. The bishops and priesthood 
shared a similar fate, as did most of the higher military 
officers, and more than 200 foreigners, embracing all except 
about a score, whose services in various capacities were in- 
dispensable. Several members of the scanty diplomatic 
and consular corps were among these victims; the minis- 
ter-resident of the U. S., Hon. Charles A. Washburn, was 
charged with complicity with the alleged treasonable plot, 
and only escaped with his life by the opportune arrival of 
the U. S. gunboat Wasp, which came to take him awny, he 
having'resigned his office some months before.' Two mem- 
bers of the American legation wore seized in the streets of 
Asuncion, Sept. 10, 1868, while on their way with the min- 
ister to embark for the U. S., and subjected for three months 
to the same system of starvation and torture as their more 
hapless companions, until in December of the same year 
they were surrendered to the squadron commanded by 
Admiral Charles H. Davis. Driven by successive defeats 
to the northern extremity of Paraguay, his forces being re- 
duced to a few squadrons, Lopez was surprised and killed 
by a Brazilian force on the banks of the river Aquidaban, 
Apr. 1, 1870, along with his eldest son, a boy of sixteen 
years, who ranked as a colonel. He was buried near the 
spot, and Mrs. Lynch was allowed to go to Europe with her 
children. Porter C. Bliss. 

Lopez (Gen. N'ARCiso),b. in Venezuela inl799 ; entered 
the military service of Spain at an early ^ge; was engaged 
in the war against the independence of his native country, 
attaining the rank of colonel in 1822 ; settled in Cuba after 
the withdrawal of the Spanish army from Venezuela; en- 
gaged in military operations against the Cai-Usts in North- 
ern Spain, and became governor of Madrid and senator 
for Seville, but resigned those posts in consequence of the 
illiberal policy of the court towards Cuba. Ketui'ning to 
Cuba, he became an exile, and led three filibustering ex- 
peditions to Cuba from American ports in 1849, ISoO, and 
1851, all of which were unsuccessful, the last resulting in 
his capture and execution by the garrote in Havana Sept. 
1, 1851. 

Lophi'odon [Gr. Aot^o?, "crest," and oSous, "tooth"], 
an extinct genus of Tertiary mammals, first described by 
Cuvier from remains occurring in the Eocene of France. 
Those animals were allied to the tapir. They derive their 
name from the structure of the true molars or grinding 
teeth, which have, their crowns crossed transversely by two 
crests or ridges of dentine covered with a layer of enamel. 
The last lower molar has also a small posterior lobe. The 
premolars are more simple in structure, and compressed, 
resembling the first premolar of the tapir. The upper 
molars also resemble those of the tapir, but approach in 
souie respects those of the rhinoceros. The diastema or 
toothless interval between the canine and molar teeth 
was much shorter than in the tapir. Several species of 
LopModon are described from the Eocene of France and 
England, but little is really known of the skull or skel- 
eton. The species of tapiroid mammals formerly referred 
to this genus from the early Tertiary deposits of America 
are now regarded as belonging to other genera, and no 
true Lophiodon is yet certainly known from this country. 

0. C. Marsh. 
liOphobranchii. See Appendix. 
Lo'quat) the Eriohotrya Japojiiea, a handsome fruit- 
bearing shrub of the order Kosaceus, a native of Japap, 



cultivated in parts of the U. S. Its fruit is very early, 
has a yellow color, and is as large as a gooseberry. 

Lorain, 0. See Appendix. 

liOraine (Sir Lametox), Bart., b. in England Nov. 17, 
1838: succeeded to the baronetcy (which dates from lORl) 
July 11,1852. In 1868 he attained the rank of commander 
in the British navy, and in 187.'J, while in command of the 
Niobe steam-sloop, gallantly rescued the survivors of the 
Virginius affair, while stationed off the coast of Cuba. 

IjOr'ca [anc. Eliocvnca or Ilorcnm'], city of Spain, prov- 
ince of Murcia, on the Sangonero — which is here called the 
Guadalentin — is an old but well-built and prospering place. 
In the vicinity are important lead-mines, and large manu- 
factures of soap, dycstuffs, leather, and paper are carried 
on. It suffered very severely in 1802 by the bursting of 
the reservoir in which the waters of the Guadalentin are 
stored up for purposes of irrigation; 600 persons were 
drowned. Pop. 52,934. 

Lord (Eleazaii), LL.D., b. at Franklin, Conn., Sept. 
9, 1788; studied at Andover, Mass.; removed in 1809 to 
New York; entered the Presbyterian ministry in 1812; 
was one of the founders of the American Education So- 
ciety and the New York Sunday-school Union (of which he 
was corresponding secretary 1818-26 and president 1826- 
36); engaged in 1818 in banking; founded the Manhattan 
Insurance Co., and was its president 1821-34; was also 
the first president of the Brie R. R. ; in 1836 removed to 
Piermont, N. Y. ; aided in founding the theological sem- 
inaries at East Windsor (now at Hartford), Conn., and at 
Auburn, N. Y. D. at Piermont, N. Y., June 3, 1871. 
Among his works are Principles of Currency (1829), Geol- 
ogy and Scriptural Cosmogony (1843). 

Lord (John), LL.D., b. at Portsmouth, N. H., Dec. 27, 
1810; graduated at Dartmouth College in 1833, and at 
Andover Theological Seminary in 1837 ; was agent of the 
American Peace Society from 1837 to 1839: preached for 
a time in New Marlborough, and in Stockbridge, Mass., 
but was never ordained; and in 1840 gave himself up to 
historical study and lecturing. In 1843 he visited and 
lectured in Europe, as also more than once afterwards. In 
1855 he settled down in Stamford, Conn., which was his 
home for iliany years. His lectures, which embrace the 
great names of ancient, mediceval, and modern history, are 
marked by vividness of description and loftiness of moral 
tone. They were published in five volumes, beginning in 
1884. Their title is Beacon- Lights of History. He has 
also published school histories and other works. His career 
as a lecturer has been unique. R. D. Hitchcock. 

Lord (Nathan), D. D., LL.D., b. at South Berwick. Me., 
Nov. 28, 1793 ; graduated at Bowdoin College in 1809, and 
at Andover Seminary in 1815 ; was two years instructor at 
Phillips Academy. Exeter, N. H. ; was pastor of a Congre- 
gational church at Amherst, N. H.. 1816-28, and president 
of Dartmouth College 1828-63. He was a man of marked 
ability, but in his later years became conspicuously con- 
servative. He published several pamphlets, addresses, re- 
views, and sermons, two of which, the Letters on Slavery 
(1854, 1855), excited much comment in the North, for Dr. 
Lord maintained the lawfulness of that institution. D. at 
Hanover, N. H., Sept. 9, 1870. 

Lord (Scott), b. Dec. 11, 1820, in Nelson, Madison co.', 
N. Y. J studied law in Buffalo ; began practising in Liv- 
ingston CO., N. Y., and was elected judge in 1846, serving 
on the bench eight years. In 1872 he moved to Utica, 
N. Y., and in 1874 was elected to Congress from the Oneida 
district. After the close of his Congressional term he re- 
sumed his profession in the city of New York. D. Sept. 
1*>, 1SS5. H, L. Stuart. 

Lord's Day, a name for the first day of the week, de- 
rived from Rev. i. 10. The rendering "Lord's Day" is 
Wycliffe's (1380). In all of the editions of Luther's New 
Testament previous to his revision of 1541 he renders Am. 
Sontaye, and Tyndale (1526-34), Coverdale (1534), Cran- 
mer (1539), follow him, and translate '* on a Sondaye." 
The ^thiopic renders it "the first day." The word KuptaKoy 
is found also in 1 Cor. xi. 20 : " the Lord's supper.'* The 
day of our Lord's resurrection was observed in the apostolic 
times, and the title " Lord's Day " is applied to that day in 
Ignatius, Irenseus, the Clementine Constitutions, and Tcr- 
tullian, and at a later period universally. (Suicer, Thesau- 
rus EcelesiasU Ed. Sec, 1728, ii. 184. " See Sabbath and 
Sunday.) c. P. Krauth. 

Lords, House of. See Parliament. 

Lord's Supper. See Eucharist. 

Lore'lei, The, an imposing cliff on the right bank of 
the Rhine, half a mile above St. Goar. It is 447 feet high, 
and is now penetrated by a railway tunnel. At its foot is 
a whirlpool and a famous salmon-basin. The tradition is 



LORENCEZ, DE— LORING. 



83 



that aoave in the rook is the nbode of the Lorelei, a wicked 
siren, whose beauty and sweet Rong attracted hither the 
boatmen, whom she wrecked in the whirlpool. Here is a 
famous echo, sometimes repeated fifteen times, but not au- 
dible from the steamer. 

ljoreiicez,de (Charles FERHiNANDLatrille), Count, 
b. in France May 23, 1814, grandson of Marshal Oudinot; 
received a military education at St. Cyr; entered the array 
in lS32j rose to a colonelcy in Algeria; was made brig- 
adier-general for gallantry at the first assault upon the 
Malakoff ( June 11, 1855} in the Crimean war, and in Jan., 
18fi2, was sent to Mexico in command of the French army 
of invasion ; was made general of division Mar. 20 ; com- 
menced hostilities in April on the rupture of the treaty of 
Solcdad ; occupied Orizaba Apr. 20 ; forced the pass of 
Aculcingo Apr. 28, and marched upon Puebla, where he 
was repulsed with great loss in an attempt to carry Forts 
Guadalupe and Loreto ; retreated to Orizaba; at his own 
request was recalled to France in Nov.. 1862, aince which 
time he has not figured prominently m military affairs. 

liO'renz (Ottokar), b. at Iglau, Moravia, in 1832 ; stud- 
ied at Vienna in 1851, and was appointed professor of his- 
tory at the university in 1860 ; in 1857 had received an 
appointment in the office of the secret archives, but this 
position he had to give up in 1865, on account of some in- 
discreet publications against the cabinet of Schmerling. 
The most prominent of his writings are Deutsche Geachit-kte 
in 13 und 1^ Jahrhundert (2 vols., 1863-67) and Geachichte 
dee Elsnus (1871, together with Sherer), 

Lorenzo Marqnes, the chief plnce of a district of the 
same name, which forms part of the Portuguese province 
of Mozambique, in South-eastern Africa. The town stands 
on the Delagoa Bay, at the mouth of the river Lorenzo 
Marques, in lat. 25° 58' S. It has the best harbor on the 
eastern coast of Africa from the Cape to Zanzibar, and is 
a regular port of call for steamers going to the Indies. A 
railway has been projected from Transvaat to Lorenzo 
Marques, which, when completed, will make the settle- 
ment a place of importance. The whole district contains 
only 458 white persons. 

IjOre'tOy city of Italy, in the province of Ancona, about 
20 miles S. W. of the city of Ancona. The chief interest 
of this place is the magnificent sanctuary of Our Lady of 
Loreto, which draws-hither thousands of pilgrims yearly. 
This vast building, designed by Braraante, is said to con- 
tain the house in which the Holy Family dwelt at Naza- 
reth. According to the legend, this humble dwelling was 
borne through the air by angels, who would not leave it to 
be desecrated by the infidels, and deposited first near Fiume 
on the Croatian coast; then, after several other translations, 
it was finally set down at Loreto. This last removal, it is 
asserted, took place on May 29, 1299, during the pontificate 
of Boniface VIII. The Santa Casa, or Holy House, stands 
in the centre of the Latin cross which forms the interior of 
the church, and over it rises an octagonal cupola decorated 
with exquisite freseoes. The original building, of reddish 
stone and consisting of a single square room, is entirely 
encased in sculptured marbles, the bas-reliefs being the 
work of some of Italy's best artists. Rich lamps of silver 
are suspended all around the interior, the most costly hang- 
ing before an image of the Virgin said to be carved by St. 
Luke out of the eedar-wood of Lebanon. The treasury of 
this sanctuary is — yr at least was — one of the richest in 
the world, but it was heavily drawn upon by some of the 
popes, especially by Pius VI. ; then it suffered severely 
from the cupidity of the French during the Bonaparte oc- 
cupation ; and more recently, if common report is to be be- 
lieved, those who should be the most faithful sons of the 
Church have not scrupled to lay sacrilegious hands on the 
priceless gems which were once its pride. Pop. 8083. 

liOre'to Apruti'no, town of Southern Italy, in the 
province of Teramo. This town has but one pchool for 
boj'S and one for girls, though its population is about 5500. 

liOreto, Sisters of,* or " Friends of Mary at the Foot 
of the Cross." a Catholic religious order for females, founded 
in 1812 in Kentucky by Charles Nerinckx (1761-1824), a 
priest, have many establishments in the Western States, 
and devote themselves to the cause of education and the 
care of destitute orphans. 

liOrette', post-v. of Quebec co., Canada, 9 miles from 
Quebec, is a beautiful place, resorted to for the view of its 
waterfall, and has some manufactures of paper and flour. 
The inhabitants are partly Huron Indians. At this place 
are waterworks for the supply of Quebec. Pop. of sub- 
district Ancienne Lorette in 1881, 2488. 

liOrica'ta [Lat. lorjca, "cuirass"}, a term applied to 
those reptiles which are "loricated," or furnished with a 
coat of mail formed by nn epidermal exoskeleton of bony 
ecaleSj as in the crocodiles, or of bony plates^ as in the Che- 



lonians. The term is, however, generally used in reference 
to the Crocodilians. 

XiOrient', or Ij'Orient, town of France, department 
of Morbihan, at the mouth of the Scorf, in the Bay of Bis- 
cay, was founded in the middle of the seventeenth century 
by the French East India Company, whence its name, Port 
de I'Orient, and had an immense trade, which, however, has 
declined. In 1770 it was made one of the four stations of 
the French navy, and has a capacious and safe harbor lined 
with handsome quays, and protected with strong fortifica- 
tions at its entrance. Its dockyards and arsenals are ex- 
tensive, and its manufactures of all kinds of naval equip- 
ments are very important. Pop. in 1881, 37,812. 

L'Orignal', cap. of Presoott co., Ont., Canada, on the 
Ontario River, 59 miles E. of Ottawa, has 1 weekly paper. 
Pop. in 1881, 853. 

Lor'iUeetf a name applied to the very numerous spe- 
cies of parrots of Australia and the Eastern Arohipelago, be- 
longing to the genus THehofflosanSf and having the tongue 
covered with bristly hairs, with which the birds collect 
honey from flowers. They are showy birds and fly in 
great flocks, sometimes containing more than a thousand 
birds. 

liO'ring (Charles Greeley), LL.D., b. at Boston, 
Mass., May 2, 1794'; graduated at Harvard in 1812; was 
for many years an eminent lawyer of Boston; was 1857- 
67 actuary of the Hospital Life and Trust Co. ; author of 
Neutral Relations of the U. S. and England (1863) and a 
Life of William Sturgis (1864), besides published addresses, 
etc. D. at BeverIy,'Mass., Oct. 8, 1867. 

liOring (Frederick W.), b. at Newtonville, Mass., in 
1846; studied at Phillips Academy, Andover; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1870, and made a brilliant dibut as 
an author in the pages of the Atlantic^ Old and New, Every 
Saturday, the Independent, and Appletons* Journal. His 
verses and serial stories were of unusual promise, and a 
novel, 7^wo College Friends, displayed high powers. Join- 
ing the party of Lieut. Wheeler for the exploration of Ari- 
zona in the capacity of literary correspondent, he was mur- 
dered by the Indians near Wickenburg, Arizona, Nov. 5, 
1871. 

liOring (George Bailey), M. D., b. at North Andover, 
Mass., Nov. 8, 1817; graduated at Harvard College 1838, 
and at the Harvard Medical School 1842; was physician to 
the Chelsea Marine Hospital for some years; has devoted 
himself since 1850 entirely to scientific agriculture and the 
pursuits of public life, being almost constantly occupied in 
the preparation and delivery of speeches, lectures, and occa- 
sional addresses upon political, historical, scientific, educa- 
tional, and agricultural topics, and the writing of reports 
and essays on similar subjects. He took up his residence 
at Salem; represented that city for several terms in the 
Massachusetts house of representatives and senate; was 
for three years president of the latter body, and for many 
years president of the State Agricultural Society, and was 
a member of the Republican national conventions of 1868 
and 1872. Dr. Loring enjoys a wide reputation as an 
orator, and has been frequently invited to deliver addresses 
upon memorial occasions, as at the dedication of memorial 
tablets at Bolton, Mass. (1866), at the bi-centennial anni- 
versaries of the settlement of Dunstable (1873),''and of 
Sherborn (1874), of the massacre at Swanzey by King 
Philip (1875), and the centennial of the resistance to the 
British at the North Bridge, Salem (1875). Among his 
speeches in the Massachusetts senate, that on scientific 
education in behalf of Prof. Agassiz (1873), that in defence 
of Senator Sumner's position on the "regimental colors 
question" (1874), and that on the railway policy of Massa- 
cnusetts (1874), were published in pamphlet form. An 
address at the opening of the scientific course of the Amer- 
ican Institute, New York, 1870, was widely copied. He 
has contributed largely to Flint's Agricvltuml Jicporta, to 
Murray's work On the Horse, and wrote a serial for the 
Boston Globe, called 7'Ae Farmyard Club of Gotham, deal- 
ing with New England life and modes of thought. Became 
U. S. com. of agriculture 1881. Porter C. Bliss. 

Loring (Gen. William W.), b. in North Carolina about 
1815 ; entered the U. S. army as second lieutenant in com- 
mand of a detachment of mounted volunteers, and served 
in the Florida war 1835-42 ; became captain of mounted 
rifles 1846, major in Feb., 1847 ; commanded a regiment in 
the battles in the Valley of Mexico; was brevetted lieu- 
tenant-colonel for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, 
and colonel for gallantry at Chapultepec ; lost an arm at 
the Belen gate of Mexico ; commanded an expedition on 
tho Gila River, New Mexico, 1857. where he fought the 
MogoUan Indians; resigned his colonelcy May 13, 18G1 ; 
became a brigadier-general, and subsequently a major- 
general; in the Confederate army, serving in West Virginia 



84 



LOEINSER— LOT. 



1862, at Vicksburg 1863, and with Gen. Bragg at Chatta- 
nooga and in the ensuing campaign. Afterward went to 
Egypt, and became pasha and chief of staff of the khcdive 
in the army. Returned to U. S. in 1879, and published A 
Cojifederate Soldier in Egypt (1883). 

liOr'inser (Karl Ignaz), b. July 24, 1796, at Nimes, 
in the Bohemian Mountains ; studied medicine at Prague 
and Berlin, where he took his degree in 1817 ; held several 
medical offices in Prussia, from which he retired to private 
life in 1850, and d. Oct. 2, 1853, at Patsohkau in Silesia. 
His Untersuehuiir/en Uher den Rinderpest (1831) proved on 
several occasions of great benefit to the farmers ; and his 
Zum Schutze der Oesmidlieit awf Schulen (1836), which 
caused a long and vehement controversy, occasioned the 
rc-establishment of iurn-placea at the Prussian schools. — 
His son, Franz Lorinser, b. at Berlin Mar. 12, 1S21, has 
acquired a name as a Roman Catholic theologian, and as 
well versed in Spanish literature, from which he has made 
several successful translations. 

Lo'ris (the indigenous name), a genus of,prosimian 
mammals of the lemur family (sub-family Nycticebinse). 
There are two species — the slender loris (L. f/rncilis) of 
Ceylon and the Indian Peninsula, and the lazy loris, or 
slow lemur {L. tardigradus), of the Eastern Archipelago. 
They are slow-moving, nocturnal, arboreal, mostly carniv- 
orous, with a rich fur, and are not much larger than rats. 
Ijorne (Marquis or). See Argyle. 
liOrraine' [G-cr. Lothrjngen'\, a territory between the 
rivers Rhine, SaOne, Mouse, and Scheldt, and forming a 
plateau from 500 to 800 feet high, which leans against the 
Vosges with a northern and north-western inclination. 
(See Elsass-Lothringen.) It derived its name from Lo- 
thaire II., son of the emperor Lothaire I., who received 
this territory at the division of his father's dominions, and 
called it Lotharii Regnmn (Lotharingia). Under the Car- 
lovingian dynasty the country was an object of perpetual 
strife between France and Germany. After the extinction 
of the Carlovingian house the emperor Otho I. gave it to 
his brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, who divided it 
into two parts — Upper Lorraine, between the Rhine, Sa&ne, 
and Meuse, and Lower Lorraine, between the Rhine, Mouse, 
and Scheldt. The latter received the name of the duchy 
of Brabant, became a part of Burgundy, fell to the house 
of Austria, and is now incorporated with Belgium. Upper 
Lorraine was ruled for centuries by a dynasty of its own, 
subject, however, either to French or to German authority. 
But in 1733, in the Polish war of succession, it was con- 
quered by the French, and in 1737 the legal heir, Frantz 
Stephan IV"., the husband of Maria Theresa, exchanged it 
for the grand duchy of Tuscany, and it was given to Stan- 
islaus, the ex-king of Poland and father-in-law to Louis 
XV., at whose death in 1766 it fell to France. The inhab- 
itants, however, although they becatnc very much attached 
to France, remained German in language and customs in 
the eastern and northern districts, and this part of the 
country, with the fortress of Metz, was ceded to Germany 
May 10, 1871. It is now goverrfed, in connection with 
Alsace, as a province of the new German empire. 
Iiorraine (Claude). See Gelee (Claude). 
Iiort'zing (Gustav Albert), b. ai, Berlin Oct. 2.3, 
1803; educated for the stage; led an errant life as actor, 
singer, composer, and orchestra-leader in different theatres 
of second rank in Germany, and d. at Berlin .Ian. 21, 1851. 
Of his many operas, the Zar und Zimmermann (1837) and 
Der Wildachiltz (1812) were received with much applause, 
and are still successfully performed. 

Lo'ry [Hind. l&ri],a. name given to various birds of the 
parrot family, but especially to those of the genus Lnriiis 
or Domieella, whose head-quarters are the islands of the 
Sunda-Moluccan Archipelago and Polynesia. (See Tricho- 

GL0SS1N.E.) 

IjOS Angeles, city and R. R. centre, cap. of Los Angeles 
CO., Cal. (see map of California, ref. 6-C, for location of 
county), on both banks of the Porcitincula (now the Los 
Angeles) River, 30 miles from its mouth, occupies an area 
of 6 miles square. The most important place on the line 
of the Southern Pacific R. R., it is distant 482 miles from 
San Francisco and 249 miles from Fort Yumii. Branch 
lines of the S. P. R. R. extend 22 miles S. to Wilmington 
(which see), its port; 33 miles S. E. to Santa Ana; 10 miles 
W. to Santa Mfiniea, a seaside resort. There is communi- 
cation by rail vid Colton, 58 miles E., on the S. P. R. R. 
and the California Southern R. R., 127 miles long, with 
San Diego, and, vid Mojave, 100 miles N. on the S. P.°R. R., 
and a branch line, 240 miles to the Needles, with the w' 
terminus of the Atlantic and Pacific R. R. The steamers 
of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company on their frequent 
voyages between San Francisco and San Diego touch at 
Wilmington, and the port is visited by vessels from all 



maritime countries. Los Angeles was founded Sept. 4, 
1781, under the patronage of Nuestra Senora la Reina de 
los Angeles ("Our Lady the Queen of the Angels"), by 
twelve families of Indian, negro, and mixed blood, with 
whom a contract for that purpose had been made by the 
viceroy of Mexico. This clement of the population is now 
greatly in the minority. Los Angeles is the centre of a 
region characterized by a delightful climate and a soil 
which produces in profusion almost all the fruits of semi- 
tropical as well as temperate climes. It is also rich In 
silver and other minerals. The city is lighted by the 
Brush electric light and has a gaslight company. It has 
4 lines of street railway, abundance of water, a board of 
trade, a produce exchange, and an efiieient fire department. 
It has 16 churches and is the seat of the Roman Catholic 
bishop of Monterey and Los Angeles, 4 banks and 1 for 
savings. 1 theatre, several hotels, 4 daily, 7 weekly (1 Span- 
ish, 1 French, 1 German), and 1 monthly public prints, 2 
flouring-mills, 1 woollen-mill, and many wineries, canneries, 
foundries, and other manufacturing establishments. Two 
terms of the supremo court of the State are held here each 
year, as well as the annual fair of the sixth district of Cali- 
fornia. The University of Southern California, the Rom.Tn 
Catholic college of St. A^'incent, and a branch State normal 
school are located here; there are also 17 pu-blic schools, 
a flourishing seminary directed by the sisters of charity, 
many other private schools, and a public library. Los 
Angeles is an important station of the U. S. Signal Ser- 
vice, and the only magnetic observatory in the country W. 
of the Mississippi River is located here. There are 3 hos- 
pitals, 7 cemeteries, 3 benevolent associations, 2 orphan 
asylums, 26 organizations of secret Societies and others: 
The assessed value of real estate — about one-third of its 
actual value — is $30,000,000. Highly favored by nature, 
situated near to a port on the Pacific Ocean, as well as to 
others on the Gulf of Mexico, and having connection with 
the railway systems of the U. S. and Mexico, Los Angeles 
is destined to become the metropolis of a region excelled 
in prosperity by no other in the U. S. Pop. of city in 
1870, 5728; in 1880, 11,183; in 1885, about 36,000— aii in- 
crease relatively greater than that of any other city in tlie 
U. S. Geo. Butler GnrFFiN. 

Loskiel (George Henry), b. in Courland, Russia, Nov. 
7, 1740 ; entered the Moravian ministry ; wrote a Hiatonj 
of the Mission of the United Brethren to the Indians of 
North America, from the accounts of the missionaries 
Gottlieb Spangenburg and David Zeisburger (Bng. trans, 
by C. J. Latrobe, London, 1794); became bishop at Hern- 
hutt Mar. 14, 1802, and came to the U. S. in the same year 
as superintendent of the Moravian churches and pastor at 
Bethlehem, Pa. D. Feb. 23, 1814. 

Los Lnnas, N. M. See Appendix. 

Los'sing (Benson John), LL.D., b. at Beekman, Duch- 
ess CO., N. Y., Feb. 12, 1813 ; was employed as a watch- 
maker in Poughkeepsie from 1826 to 1835; was next a 
journalist at that place for several years, and in 1838 be- 
came a wood-engraver in New York, where he edited the 
Family Magazine, an illustrated periodical. He conducted 
The Young People's Mirror (1848-49), and in 1872 estab- 
lished tho American Historical Record. His principal 
works are an Outline History of the Fine Arts (1841), Lives 
of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence (1848), 
Pictorial Field- Book of the Revolution (1850-52), History 
of the U. S. (1854-56), Our Countrymen (1855-57), Mount 
Vernon and its Associations (1859), Life of Philip Schuyler 
(1860-62), Life of Washington, Lives of the Presidents, 
Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812 (1868), The Civil 
War in America (3 vols., 1866-68), the American Cen- 
tenary, 2 vols., a work illustrating American progress 
from 1776 to 1876 (1876), Cyclopsedia of U. S. History 
(1881), History of the City of New York (2 vols., 1884;. 
Most of his works are adorned with numerous illustra- 
tions by himself. 

liOSSi'ni [Ger. Lusain], an island in the Gulf of Quar- 
nero, .an inlet of the Adriatic Sea, belonging to tho govern- 
ment of Triest, Austria, 19 miles long and Smiles broad, 
with 10,600 inhabitants, mostlv engaged in agriculture, 
fishing, and commerce. The principal town is Lossini 
Piccolo, a thriving place, with 5200 inhabitants, an excel- 
lent harbor capable of receiving the largest men-of-war, 
and an active trade in wheat, wine, olive oil, fruits, and 
fish. 

tot, a river of France, rises in Mont LozSre, in the 
tevennes, becomes navigable at Entraigues, and joins the 
Garonne at Aiguillon after a course of 270 miles. 

liOt, department of France, on both sides of the river 
Lot. Area, 2004 square miles. The surface is elevated and 
mountainous, traversed by a range of hills, the sides of 
which are covered with vines, while the valleys abound in 
wheat, hemp, tobacco, and fruits. Some iron is mined. 



LOT-ET-GARONNE— LOTTERY. 



S5 



Pop. 280,268. Of the entire area of the department, 691,920 
acres are arable and 222,402 acres are forest-land; 168,038 
acres are occupied by vineyards ; 64,250 acres are heath 
and 61,778 meadow. Wine is the principal product of the 
department, that of Cahors being the most valued. Sheep 
are the most abundant kind of livestock; poultry and bees 
are reared in great quantities. Cap. Cahors. 

liOt-et-Garonne', department of France, extending 
along the Lot and the Garonne, and comprising an area of 
2027 square miles. The soil is exceedingly fertile in the 
river-basins; hemp here reaches an extraordinary height; 
the wine is strong and rich, and capable of being trans- 
ported across the sea without losing its iine qualities ; more 
wheat is raised than used. But outside of the river-basins 
the soil consists of a ferruginous clay or of sandy tracts 
which are entirely unpi-oductive. Much iron is tnanufac- 
tured in this department. The forges, high furnaces, and 
foundries are important. Brazier's ware is manufactured; 
also agricultural implements and other machines. Plaster, 
lime, cement, bricks, tiles, etc. are made. Pop. in 1881, 
312,081. Cap. Agen. 

Lothaire' I., Roman emperor from 840 to 856, b. 
about 796, a son of Louis le D§bonnaire; shared, to- 
gether with his two younger brethren, Pepin and Louis, 
in the government of the empire during the latter part 
of the reign of his father, whom he succeeded in 840. 
On the death of Louis war immediately broke out be- 
tween the three brothers, and Lothaire was defeated in 
the battle of Fontenay June 25, 841. But in 843 the 
famous treaty of Verdun was concluded between them, ac- 
cording to which Lothaire retained the imperial title and 
dignity, Italy, and a strip of land between Germany and 
France, stretching from the Mediterranean to the North 
Sea, and extending between the Rhine on the one side and 
the Rhone, Sa&ne, Meuae, and the Scheldt on the other. 
Lothaire was a weak, -violent, and treacherous character, 
and utterly unable to defend and govern his land. The 
Saracens attacked him in Italy, the Norsemen in the Nether- 
lands, while the clergy, the dukes, and his own sons filled 
the interior with violence and bloodshed. After dividing 
the country between his sons he retired to the monastery 
of Priim in the Ardennes, where he d. a few weeks after- 
ward, Sept. 29, 855. 

Lothaire II., the Saxon, king of Germany and Ro- 
man emperor from 1125 to 1137, b. in 1075 of a family not 
very conspicuous ; married in 1100 Richenza, the heiress 
of the wealthy house of .Brunswick, and received in 1106 
Saxony as a fief of Henry V. At the death of this prince 
in 1125, Lothaire was elected king of Germany, chiefly 
through the intrigues of Bishop Adalbert of Mentz, who 
hated and feared the Hohenstaufen house. His reign was 
vigorous and fortunate. Bohemia was again brought under 
German authority ; the refractory dukes, especially Duko 
Frederick of Suabia, were compelled to submit; the two 
Italian campaigns undertaken in defence of Innocent II. 
against the antipope Anicletas were successful. Never- 
theless, be bought his crown and the assistance of the 
Church by surrendering tho right of investiture almost 
wholly to the pope, and in order to retain Henry the Proud 
of Bavaria and other dukes in his party, he allowed the 
principle of heredity to establish itself with respect to tho 
fiefs of the Crown. But thus he weakened the royal power, 
and made it incapable of consolidating and governing Ger- 
many. D. near Trent on his return from his second Italian 
campaign, Dec. 3, 1137. 

liO'throp (Samuei, Kirkland), D. D., b. at Utica, 
N. Y., Oct. 13, 1804; graduated at Harvard in 1825; or- 
dained at Dover, N. H., in 1829, and in 1834 became pastor 
of the Brattle street church, Boston, Mass. ; wrote the Life 
of Samuel Kirkland, his grandfather, for Sparks's collec- 
tion of biographies, a History of the Brattle Street Church 
(1851), and occasional addresses and other papers ; received 
the degree of D. D. from Harvard University in 1852. 

liOthrop (Capt. Thomas), b. probably in England; was 
a freeman of Salem, Mass., in 1634, where he resided many 
years, and was representative in "general court" 1647, 
1653, and 1664. He afterwards settled at Beverly, founded 
a church there, represented that town four years, and on 
the breaking out of King Philip's war was chosen captain 
of a fine company of militia, celebrated in New England 
as the "flower of Essex," nearly all of whom were sur- 
prised and killed by the Indians, with Captain Lothrop, 
at Bloody Brook, Deerfleld tp.. Sept. 29 (new style), 1675. 
A marble monument was placed over the remains of Cap- 
tain Lothrop and his companions in 1838. 

IiOtoph'agi, or Lotus-eaters [Gr. A«>To((>ayot], are 
first mentioned by Homer as a people who fed upon the , 
sweet fruit of the lotus, of which the quality was such that , 
all who ate of it immediately forgot their native land and ; 



all desire of return, and chose rather to dwell there and eat 
of the lotus still. The ancient geographers placed the 
lotus-eaters on what is now the coast of Eastern Tripoli, 
near the Great Syrtis. At the present day the cave-dwell- 
ers on that coast subsist upon jujubes, and drink a syrup 
made of that fruit, perhaps tho lotus wine of the ancients. 
(See Lotus.) 

liOt'tery, a game of chance in which prizes are drawn 
by lots. The word is directly derived from the Italian 
lotte.ria. The root, however, is Germanic: Gothic, hlaitts ; 
Icelandic, hlutr; Anglo-Saxon, hlot. As an institution in 
modern society the lottery is an Italian invention, but the 
decision by lot, although by no means entirely unknown 
to the Romans and Greeks, was a specific feature in the 
life of the ancient Germanic tribes, and formed a prominent 
element in the working of all their social, political, and 
religious institutions; gambling with dice was also one of 
the most conspicuous vices of many Germanic tribes. "Two 
kinds of lottery are generally distinguished — the class or 
Dutch lottery, and the numerical or Genoese — but both 
originated in Italy. In the early Middle Ages it was quite 
common among the Italian merchants to dispose of their 
goods by lot — a custom which is generally put in connec- 
tion with the so-called sortes conviviale» invented by Au- 
gustus. When he made a popular feast, each guest re- 
ceived a sealed packet, and each packet contained a pres- 
ent. The packets were all alike, but the value of the pres- 
ents diflered immensely, some packages containing only a 
pea-bean, which had no other value than that which the 
superstition of the receiver might ascribe to it, others con- 
taining a diamond of immense value; some only an order 
for a measure of wine, others a deed of a whole vineyard, 
etc. : chance decided. Earlier, the magistrates who pre- 
sided over the distribution of the congiaria in Rome nad 
found out liow to' relieve the monotony of this institution 
and revive the interest of the people by introducing chance 
in the distribution. Some of the tickets contained orders 
for larger quantities of corn, wine, and oil, and chance de- 
cided into whose hands these tickets should fall. The in- 
vention of Augustus was afterward much improved by his 
successors, and the taste of the Italian people for all kinds 
of chance-decisions, and for the excitement which they 
occasioned, was soon so far developed that merchants were 
able to utilize it in selling their goods. From Italy tho 
custom spread to other countries, showing itself remunera- 
tive everywhere; and in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries governments generally adopted it with some 
modifications as a method of procuring money. The sim- 
plest and most common organization of these state enter- 
prises was as follows: A certain value was divided into a 
certain number of unequal prizes ; and then a certain num- 
ber of lots, each lot giving a chance of winning one of the 
prizes, was sold for a certain price. If all the lots were 
sold, the profits of the lottery were generally enormous ; 
if not, the lottery diminished its risks by playing the un- 
sold numbers itself and retaining the prizes which might 
fall on them. From a machine called the "wheel of for- 
tune" as many numbers were drawn as there were prizes, 
a.nd the prizes were drawn from another similar machine, 
the order in which they came out determining to what lot 
they should belong. This is the origin and fundamental 
organization of the so-called class or Dutch lottery ; the nu- 
merical or Genoese lottery has more the character of a wager, 
and originated also as a wager. At Genoa the five members 
of the great council were elected by throwing the names 
of ninety candidates into a wheel of fortune, from which 
then the names of the five elected were drawn. Bets were 
made both on the names which would come out and on the 
order in which they would appear. Afterward, numbers 
were substituted for names, prizes were calculated accord- 
ing to the doctrine of probabilities, and a regular lottery 
was thus established under the supervision of the govern- 
ment. When five numbers out of ninety are drawn, there 
is a ch'ance of 1 to 18 that a certain number will come out, 
and the managers of the lottery generally agree to pay the 
stake placed on the number sixteen times ; the chance of 
two numbers, an am6e, is only 1 to 400, and that of four 
numbers, a qnarterne, is 1 to 511,038; but as the chance 
of winning decreases the rate of the prize increases ; in the 
Austrian lottery a quarterne is paid 60,000 times, and in 
the Bavarian 64,500 times, 'the stake placed on it. The in- 
terest which this kind of lottery excited was enormous. 
It was introduced into nearly all European countries, and 
was generally drawn two or three times a week. But 
thereby the evil consequences connected with all kinds of 
lotteries became more apparent, and led finally to their 
abolition in most countries. In the large cities in which 
the lotteries were drawn a great portion of the population 
lived in a perpetual excitement, which made men unfit for 
serious business, and generally ended hy thoroughly de- 
moralizing them. The poorer classes left their regular 



LOTT— LOUDON. 



habits of working and saving, and gave themselves up to 
idleness and misery, deceived by these prospects of win- 
ning a fortune in the next hour which were held out to them 
by the government. 

In England the first lottery was instituted in ] 5B9. The 
prizes were plate, and the profits were devoted to the re- 
pair of the harbors of the kingdom and to other public 
works : 400,000 tickets were sold at ten shillings each, and 
the drawing took place at the W. door of the old cathedral 
of St. Paul in London. In 1612 a lottery was instituted 
for the benefit of the English colonies, by which the Vir- 
ginia Company especially profited. During the seven- 
teenth century, however, lotteries, especially private, mul- 
tiplied in such a degree, and were often organized on 
such fraudulent principles, that Parliament felt compelled 
to look into the matter, and by an act in 1709 all private 
undertakings of this kind wore prohibited. From this pe- 
riod' and up to 1 823 a state or Parliamentary lottery, was 
annually licensed by act of Parliament under various reg- 
ulations. The prizes were often paid in terminable or per- 
petual annuities. Thus, in 1746 a loan of £3,000,000 was 
raised on 4 per cent, annuities, and a lottery of 60,000 
tickets at £10 each ; and in the following year £1,000,000 
was raised by the sale of 100,000 tickets at £10 each, the 
prizes in which were founded on perpetual annuities at the 
rate of 4 per cent, per annum. The British Museum was 
founded, the Westminster bridge was built, from the pro- 
ceeds of such lotteries. But although in this way the profits 
of the lotteries were generally employed for some internal 
improvementof national interest, the abuses practised under 
cover of the law by the contractors, and the general demorali- 
zation whi(ih accompanied this kind of gambling, caused 
Parliamentin 1778 to demand an annual license of £60 from 
every one who kept a lottery-ofiice, whereby the number of 
such offices was reduced from 400 to 4], and finally in 1826 
entirely abolished the whole institution. In France, the 
lottery was introduced in 1539, and it sooii became a pop- 
ular passion. It was generally some modification of the 
Genoese form, and private,* a tax was paid to the govern- 
ment on every lot. But in 1798 the government forbade 
all private and foreign lotteries, and took the whole insti- 
tution into its own hands. The so-called loteriee nationales 
were established in all the large cities, and drawn two or 
three times a week ; between 1816 and 1828 they yielded 
an annual revenue to the state of 14,000,000 francs. Never- 
theless, here as everywhere their demoralizing influence on 
the population, especially on the lower and poorer classes, 
which a.re most strongly attracted by them, soon became 
very apparent, and in 1836 all kinds of lotteries were pro- 
hibited ; in the next year the deposits in the savings banks 
of Paris alone increased by 425,000 francs. In Germany, 
the first lotterywas established in 1699 in Nuremberg. It 
was a class lottery, and various forms of this kind of lot- 
tery soon became very popular, and are still in existence 
in Prussia, Saxony, ]3run8wick, Hamburg, and Mecklen- 
burg. Lotteries, especially with prizes consisting of goods, 
not of money, are very common in Germany. Every day 
in every city some kind of lottery is drawn by which an 
estate, a set of diamonds, a piece of art, a coach, a piano- 
forte, or perhaps only a Christmas cake, is sold. In 1870, 
Prussia derived an income of 1,339,500 thalers from its 
lotteries; Saxony, 800,000 thalers. AbuUt 10,000 persons 
are engaged in the business throughout the country. There 
is, nevertheless, very little real gambling passion in Ger- 
many proper, while in the German division of Austria, 
where the Genoese lottery flourishes as a government in- 
stitution, the influence on the population is very apparent. 
In 1868, Austria derived a revenue of 5,777,958 florins from 
the lotteries in its German territories alone, and whenever 
the question has been raised by the Diet of abolishing the 
institution', the answer of the government has always been 
that it cannot aff'ord to lose the revenue. Some very in- 
genious arguments have been heard there in defence of the 
institution. 

In the TJ. S. lotteries were formerly very commonly resort- 
ed to as a means of raising money for some public improve- 
ment — the foundation of colleges and hospitals, the build- 
ing of roads, bridges, ferries, etc. — though they wore de- 
nounced as early as 1699 by an assembly of ministers at 
Boston as "cheats," and their agents as "pillagers of the 
people." In 1833 appeared at Philadelphia Job R. Tyson's 
A Brief Sttrveij of the Great Extent mid Evil Tendencies of 
the Lottery Si/atem of the United Stnlen, and a society was 
formed in Pennsylvania with the purpose of working for 
the abolition of the institution. It was indeed abolished 
in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts in the very same year, 
in Connecticut in 1834, in Maryland in 1836, ete. At pres- 
ent it exists only in Kentucky and Louisiana as a State 
institution, and in most of the other States, though not in 
them all, the sa^e of tickets for foreign lotteries is prohib- 
ited by law, and to advertise them has been made a penal 



off'ence. In the U. S., as well as in England and France, 
a lottery is often instituted by the so-called art-unions, 
under the authorization of the government, for the pur- 
pose of disposing of pictures or statuary. But it may be 
doubted whether this method affords any real encourage- 
ment to art — indeed, whether it is not a degradation. 

Clemens Pktersen. 

liOtt (JoHS A.), b. at Flatbush, Kings oo., N. Y., in 
1805; studied law; commenced practice in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
in 1835, and was for many years a prominent lawyer there; 
belonged to the Democratic party, and was county judge 
1838-42 ; in the mean time was elected to the assembly in 
1841, holding both ofiices: Ne'wTdrk State senator 1842- 
46; justice of supreme court lS6"-0o ; in 1869 elected to 
court of appeals, which was abolished in 1870, and he was 
chief of the commission appointed to finish up its work ; 
member of commission appoin'ted by Gov.'Tilden in 1875 
to draft a uniform law for the government of cities in the 
State; was president of Brooklyn Flatbush and Coney 
Island R. R., but resigned a shoi-t time before his death; 
was president of the Flatbush board of improvement. D. 
at Flatbush, N. Y., July 20, 1878. 

lio'tus, or Lotos [Gr. Aiotos], a name applied in litera- 
ture to many widely different plants: (1) To the Ziayphus 
Lotus, a kind of jujube tree of Barbary (order Rham- 
naceas), whose fruit is extensively gathered as food. It is 
the subject of much Arsibio poetry. (See Jujube.) It is 
probably the tree whose fruit beguiled the Lotophagi 
(which see). (2) The Melilotus Meesinensis, a valuable 
fora.ge-plant of the Levant (see Melilot), and of the order 
Leguminosee. (3) The ebenaceous date-plum or pishamin 
{Diospyros Lotun) of Europe and Asia, much resembling 
our persimmon, and producing a valuable fruit. (4, 6) The 
fragrant blue and white Nilotic water-lilies [Nymplma coerit- 
lea .and N. Lotus), which were greatly honored' by the 
Egyptians, and were everywhere worshipped. They were 
mystically connected with their mythology. The stalks 
and roots furnished food. (6) The Nelunjbium speeiosmn, 
or sacred Egyptian bean, another bea.utiful pink water- 
lily, mystically honored in China_and India, as well as 
in ancient Egypt. Its large seeds and roots were, and 
are still, eaten. This is the lotus-flower (padme, "lily- 
pad") of India. (7) A North African and European 
haokberry tree, Celtis mistralis, whose wood is prized by 
carvers and whose fruit is edible. Most of the above, with 
other trees, have been claimed as the source of the food of 
the fabled lotus-eaters. (8) There is a large genus of 
clover-like leguminous plants called Lotus by Linnaaus, 
and still bearing that name. It includes the bird's-foot 
trefoils and other Old- World plants, which are in Europe 
cultivated as forage-herbs. The pods of some kinds are 
used as food; others are well known as garden flowers. (9) 
Recent American writers speak of the Nelnmbiunt littenm 
as the lotus. It is one of our finest native water-plants 
(closely resembling No. 6 of this article). It is known as 
the water-chinquapin, and its seeds and roots, if cultivated, 
would yield a valuable supply of food. Many writers 
believe that the Homeric lotus was Nitrarin tridentata, a 
thorny shrub of doubtful affinity. 

Lotze (Hermann Rudolf), b. at Bautzen, Saxony, 
May 2], 1817, studied medical science, natural philosophy, 
and metaphysics at Leipzig, and was appointed professor 
of mental philosophy there in 1843. In the following year 
he accepted a call to Gdttingen, a,nd in 1881 to Berlin, 
where he d. July 1 bf the same year. He was one of the 
most prominent representatives in Germany of the theistic 
view of the universe, and his mastery t>f natural science 
made him a formidable adversary of the prevailing ma- 
terialism. He very early pronounced against the Hegelian 
pantheism on the one side and the atheistic materialism on 
the other, and, joining the small circle of theistic phil- 
osophers — Charles Philip Fischer, I. H. Fichte, Jr., II. 
Weisse, Illrioi, etc. — he gradually developed his own con- 
ception of theism. Unable to answer any questions about 
the relation between the two forms of existence, the 
material and the psychical, about their procession from 
one common source, about their diverging into violent 
differences, etc., he starts from a purely ethical basis, the 
relation between individual man and his Maker, and ends 
in the very centre of the doctrinal system of Christianity, 
His principal works are Mikrokosmns (1866-(i4, 3 vols.), 
System of Philosophy (1874-79, 2 vols.). History of Eslhclicn 
in Germany (1868), etc. His GrundeUge der llcliyime 
philosophic was published posthumously by his son. 

liOudou, cap. of Loudon oo., Tenn. (see map of Ten- 
nessee, ref 6-1, for location of county), 30 miles S. of 
Knoxville, on the Little Tennessee River and East Ten- 
nessee Virginia and Georgia R. R., has a flourishing col- 
lege. Pop. in 1880, 832. 

Lou<lon (John Claudius), b. at Cambuslang, Lanark- 



LOUDONVILLE— LOUIS. 



87 



shire, Apr. 8, 1783; was educated at Edinburgh Univer- 
sity; became a landscape gardener near London 1803; 
travelled extensively as an observer and student of horti- 
culture, and became a practical instructor in the art. The 
best of his numerous works are the Encyclopsediaa — of 
Gardening (1822.), of Agriculture (1825), of Plants (1829), 
of Architecture (1832) — and the ArhoretHtn et Fruticetum 
(1838); was editor of the Gardemr'a Magnzive (1826-43), 
of the Magazine of Natural Hintory (1828-36). D. Deo. 
14, 1843. — His wife, Jane Webb Loudon, b. near Birming- 
ham in 1808, was married in 1831, and d. July 13, 1858. 
She was an able and pleasing writer, chiefly upon botanical 
and horticultural subjects. 

Jjou'douville, on R. R., Ashland co., 0. (see map of 
Ohio, rof. 8-(x, for location of county). Pop. in 1870,811 ; 
in 18S0, 1497. 

Lough'borough, town of England, county of Leices- 
ter, on the Soar. Its manufactures of cotton and woollens, 
especially of the so-called patent Angola hosiery, are im- 
portant. Pop. in 1881, I4,fi81. 

liOuis le DebonnairCy or the Pious, Roman em- 
peror from 814 to 840, b. at Casseneuil in 778, a son 
of Charlemagne by his third wife, Hildegard. His elder 
brothers having died, he succeeded his father Jan. 28, 
814, and the first years of his government were quite 
successful. But in 817 he yielded to the wishes of his 
sous, and gave each of them a share in his dominions, 
and hence arose complications which he was utterly in- 
capable of managing, and from which resulted the dis- 
solution of the etnpire. Lothaire received Austrasia 
and the title of emperor; Pepin, Aquitania; and Louis, 
Bavaria, Bohemia, and the Avarian districts on the east- 
ern' frontier. Bernard, a nephew of Louis, who had in- 
herited Italy after his father, received nothing, and re- 
volted, but the emperor allured him to Chalons, took him 
prisoner, put out his eyes, and gave Italy to Lothaire. As 
soon as done the abominable atrocity of the deed struck 
the mind of the emperor with horror ; he went to the 
Church to be comforted,- and from this period he was 
merely a tool in the hands of the clergy. In 819 he mar- 
ried a second wife, Judith of Bavaria. In 823 she bore 
him a son, Charles, who later received the surname of the 
Bald, and in 829 he proposed to undertake a new division 
of the empire in favor of his youngest son. The three 
elder brothers were unwilling to lose anything, and a war 
broke out which, often stilled, always reopened, and lasted 
to the death of the emperor. Twice the father was de- 
feated, taken prisoner, deposed, and subjected to various 
indignities by his three sons, but both times the avarice 
and ambition of Lothaire, who wished to reign alone, dis- 
united the brothers, and Louis and Pepin again raised the 
father to the throne. Pepin d. in 838, and the emperor 
now proposed to give his dominions to Charles the Bald, 
thus excluding his sons from their inheritance; but when 
he at the same moment gave Italy and Austrasia to Lo- 
thaire and nothing to Louis, the latter revolted imme- 
diately, together with the sons of Pepin. During this war 
the unhappy emperor d. at Ingelheim, near Mentz, June 
20, 840, and was buried at Metz, 

liOUis II., Roman emperor from 855 to 875, b. in 
822, the eldest son of Lothaire I. After the death of 
Louis le Debonnaire, the empire was divided between 
his three sons, Lothaire I., Louis the German, and Charles 
the Bald, by the treaty of Verdun. This division of 
the empire of Charlemagne was carried still further on 
the death of Lothaire I., bis part being subdivided be- 
tween his three sons, Louis, Lothaire, and Charles. Louis 
II. received Italy and the title of emperor; Charles, 
Provence and Lyons; and Lothaire II., the territory be- 
tween the Rhine, SaQne, Meuse, and Scheldt, called Lotha- 
ringia (Lorraine). Louis 11. foaght successfully against 
the Saracens in Italy, defeated them at Benevento in 848, 
and expelled them from Bari. He also understood how 
to vindicate his authority over the great Italian families, 
of which many steadily conspired with the Byzantine em- 
pire. Charles d. without children in 863, and Louis II. 
and Lothaire II. divided his dominions; but when in 869 
Lothaire II. also d. childless, Charles the Bald and Louis 
the German took advantage of the emperor's being impli- 
cated in a new and less successful war with the Saracens 
in Italy, and divided Lothaire's dominions between them- 
selves. Louis II. d. at Brescia Aug. 13, 875, and as he 
left no male issue his two uncles seized his possessions, of 
which Lorraine fell to Germany. 

liOuis III., THE Child, Roman emperor from 908 
to 911, b. in 893, a son of Arnulf, and raised to the 
throne of Germany on his father's death in 899 by 
Duke Otto of Saxc, Margrave Luitpold of Austria, and 
Archbishop Hatto of Mentz. who wished to govern the 
country during his minority. But the state of Ger- 



many while under their rule was miserable; the Hunga- 
rians invaded the country, and devastated it as far as Thu- 
ringia. In 908, Louis assumed the' titlo of Roman em- 
peror, but he d. in 911, and with him the Carlovingian 
dynasty became extinct in Germany. 

Louis IV., THE Bavarian, emperor of Germany 
from 1'314 to 1347, b. in 1280, a son of Duke Louis 
the Severe of Bavaria and Matilda of Hapsburg. On 
the death of Henry VII. of Luxemburg in 1313 he was 
chosen emperor by a majority of the electors, while a 
minority chose his cousin, Frederick III. of Austria, A 
long and devastating war commenced between the two em- 
perors, but Frederick was at last defeated in the battle 
of MUhldorf, Sept. 28, 1323, taken prisoner, and com- 
pelled to renounce his claims. Having supported the Vis- 
contis in Milan against Pope John XXII., a quarrel arose 
between the pope and the emperor. Louis IV. was excom- 
municated, but wont in 1327 with an army to Italy, was 
crowned in Milan and Rome, deposed John XXII., and 
established Nicholas V. as antipope. In spite of his suc- 
cess, he was soon compelled to leave Italy, and John XXII. 
and his successors, supported by French intrigues, con- 
tinued to oppose and harass him; Germany was placed 
under interdict. A diet at Reuse on the Rhine (July 15, 
1338) declared that an emperor legally chosen by a majority 
of the electors needed no confirmation from the pope, nor 
was he in any way subject to his authority. Thus sup- 
ported by the German princes, and having strengthened 
his position by large acquisitions of personal property, 
the emperor prepared for a new campaign against the 
pope, when he suddenly d. at Fiirstenfeld, near Munich, 
Oct. 11, 1347. 

liOuis, the name of eighteen kings of France: (1^ 
Louis L, le Debonnaiue, Roman emperor, 814-840 (which 
see).— (2) Louis II., le Begue (877-879), b. in 846, a son 
of Charles the Bald.— (3) Louis III. (879-882), b. in 864, 
a son of Louis II., divided the country with his brother 
Carloman, who inherited the whole after -his -death. — (4) 
Louis IV., d'Outremer (936-954), b. in 921, a son of 
Charles the Simple, was educated at the court of King 
Athelstano of England, a brother 1o his mother, Ogive. 
In 936, on the death of Raoul of Burgundy, he was called 
to the French throne by Hugh of Paris and William of 
Normandy, but his reign was only a series of contests with 
these two vassals, who in the war with Otho I. of Germany 
even allied themselves with the enemy. — (5) Louis V., lis 
Faineant (986-987), b. in 966, a son of Lothaire and Emma, 
was the last king of the Carlovingian dynasty. — (6) Louis 
VI., LE Gros (1108-37), was b. in 1078, a son of Philip I. 
The possessions of the French king were at that time the 
cities of Paris, Orleans, Etampes, Melun, and Compi&gne, 
with their territories, and the kingship itself was a rank 
rather than a power, but Louis VI. declared that his royal 
precedence among the princes of France involved a public 
charge, and he began to act according to this idea. Under 
him the orijiamme was first used as a national banner, and 
a feeling of national unity became prevalent in the popu- 
lation.— (7) Louis VII., le Jeune (1138-80), b. in 1119, a 
son of Louis VI., married Eleanor of Aquitaine, thereby 
uniting this large territory to the possessions of the Crown, 
but after the unfortunate crusade (1147-49) Eleanor de- 
manded and obtained a divorce, because her " husband was a 
monk and not a man," and she then married Henry Plan- 
tagenet, who already possessed Anjou, Maine, and Touraine, 
and soon also Normandy and England. — (8) Louis VIII., 
CfEUB LE Lion (1223-26), b. in 1187, a son of Philip Augus- 
tus, was stopped by the pope in his progress against the 
English, who at this time were nearly driven out of France. 
He made a crusade against the Albigenses, which contributed 
much to the development of the royal power by assembling 
the vassals under the royal banner. — (9) Louis IX., Saint 
(1226-70), b. in 1215, a son of Louis VIII., was only eleven 
years old when his father died; during his minority the 
country was governed by his mother, Blanche of Castile, a 
lady of great energy, sagacity, and virtue. In 1236, Louis 
assumed the throne himself, and shortly after the count of 
Marche rose in insurrection, supported by Henry III. of 
England. But Louis defeated them at Taillebourg and 
Saintes in 1242, and after the victnry he treated the re- 
bellious count with so much magnanimity that he won not 
only the respect, but the good-will, of all his vassals. The 
most prominent trait in the character of St. Louis was his 
piety. His conscience, and not his ambition, governed his 
will. Religious enthusiasm was the motive-power iu most 
of his actions. When the massacre of the Christian in- 
habitants of Jerusalem in 1244 became known in Europe, 
St. Louis took the cross in spite of all the remonstrances 
of his mother and councillors, and in August, 1248, he de- 
parted with an army of 80,000 men from Aigues-Mortea 
on the Mediterranean for the island of Cyprus. In June, 



88 



LOUIS (OF FRANCE). 



]24fl, he landed in Egypt and took Damietta, but when, 
after five months' postponement, he began to push forward 
to Cairo, he was stopped by the Egyptians in the battle of 
Mansoorah, and on Apr. 5, 1250, was compelled to surrender 
himself and his whole army, whose number meanwhile had 
been reduced to about 30,000. After paying a large ransom 
he was liberated and sailed for Syria, where he remained 
several years laboring to do something for the cause of 
Christianity in these regions. In 1254 he returned to 
Prance with about 500 followers. The following fifteen 
years of his reign were marked with many wise and vig- 
orous reforms, such as " La Quarantaine de Roi," by which 
a truce of forty days was established from the committal 
of an offencD, during which term the case was tried by the 
royal courts, and any attempt at private revenge was pro- 
hibited ; *' La Pragmatique Sanction," by which it was 
forbidden to levy money in France for the pope without the 
consent of the king, and those cases were defined in which 
ecclesiastics were to be tried by the secular courts ; the 
foundation of the Sorbonne, of the library of Pari;?, etc. 
In June, 127U, the king embarked with an army of 60,000 
men for a new crusade. He landed in Tunis, and formed 
a camp near the ruins of Carthage^ but the plague broke 
out in the army, and he d. Aug. 25. His son Philip led the 
army home. — (10) Louis X., le Hutin (1314-16), b. in 
1289, a son of Philip IV.— (11) Louis XI. (1461-83), b. in 
1423, a son of Charles VII., was personally one of the 
most hideous characters to be met with in history — sus- 
picious, faithless, cruel, and superstitious — but a man of 
great talent as a ruler. He consolidated the territory of 
France and the authority of the French crown in this ter- 
ritory, and he founded numerous institutions which were 
of great benefit to the public in general. But the means 
by which he curbed the feudal houses of France and brought 
them into absolute dependency on the Crown were detest- 
able. The count of Armagnac was murdered in 1473 ; the 
duke of Alen^on died in prison in 1474; the count of 
Luxembourg wa^ beheaded iu 1475 ; (the duke of Nemours 
was kept for years in an iron cage, and beheaded in 1477 ; 
in all, he is said to have put about 4000 persons to death, 
most of them secretly. By intrigues of the vilest kind he 
came into possession of Provence, Maine, Anjou, Perpignan, 
etc., but his principal acquisition was the inheritance of 
Charles the Bold. Charles was a member of the league 
which was formed against Louis in the beginning of his 
reign by all the principal vassals of the French crown, 
among whom was the king's own brother, the duke of 
Berry. After the battle of Mont I'Hgry in 1465, Louis 
made great concessions to all the members of the league, 
but having succeeded in disuniting some of the asso- 
ciates, he had the whole treaty annulled in 1466 by the 
States G-eneral of Tours, and recommenced the quarrel. 
He now invited Charies to an interview at Peronne, and 
while this took place he incited the citizens of Liege to 
revolt against him. As soon as Charles heard of this 
treachery he seized the king, and liberated him only on 
very hard conditions. Louis now allied himself with the 
duke of Lorraine and the Swiss, and when Charles fell in 
the battle of Nancy (in 1477) he at once incorporated 
Champagne, Artois, Pioardy, and parts of Flanders with 
France, and managed to keep them in spite of the protest 
of Charles's heirs. In his internal policy he favored the 
lower and middle classes, especially the cities, encouraged 
learning, art, manufactures, and trade, improved public 
roads and canals, established the first post-system, made 
the administration of justice regular and cheap, etc. ; never- 
theless, he was feared and hated, not only by the feudal 
lords, but by all, and he spent the last years of his life in 
the fortress of Plessis-les-Tours, surrounded by soldiers and 
half crazy for fear that somebody should murder him. — (12) 
Louis XIL (1498-1515), b. in 1462, a sou of Duke Charles 
of Orleans, succeeded Charles VIII. As a descendant of 
Valentina Visoonti he laid claim to Milan, and in 1500 
conquered the city and took Ludovico Sfoi-za prisoner. In 
connection with Ferdinand of Aragon he soon after con- 
quered Naples too, but disagreeing about the partition of 
their conquest, war broke out between the two allies, and 
in 1503, Gonsalvo de Cfirdova expelled the French from 
Southern Italy. In 1508, Pope Julius II. formed the League 
of Cambray between Ferdinand of Aragon, Louis XIL, and 
the emperor of Germany against the republic of Venice ,• but 
Venice having satisfied the pope by ceding several towns 
to him, and the pope having become much alarmed at the 
progress of the French in Italy, the league was suddenly 
dissolved, and a new one, the so-called "Holy League," was 
formed between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Ferdinand 
of Aragon, and Henry VIII. of England against France. 
Defeated at Novara, the French were driven out of Italy 
in 1513. At the s.ame time Henry VIII. landed in Franco 
with an army of 45,000 men, and having joined the im- 
perial army pushing forward from the Netherlands, he de- 



feated the French at Guinegate. Thus hard pressed on all 
sides, Louis began to negotiate, and succeeded in escaping 
from the difficult situation without any great loss.— (13) 
Louis XIII. (1610-43), b. in 1601, a son of Henry IV. and 
Marie de Medieis. His education was much neglected. Dur- 
■ ing his minority the country was governed by his mother 
and her favorite, Concini, who was made a marshal and 
marquis of Ancre, but the government was only a mixture 
of weakness, violence, and intrigue. After the murder of 
Concini in 1617, Albert de Luynes, a favorite of the king, 
who was made a duke and peer of France, grasped the 
reins, but his government was in nowise better. After his 
death in 1624, Cardinal Richelieu (which see) entered the 
council, and from this moment it was he who ruled Franco 
with almost absolute power. The king lived mostly in se- 
-clusion, occupied in hunting, drawing, and quiet social en- 
joyments. He stood in awe of bis minister; he had a 
dread of business: he hated his own family; and Richelieu 
always understood how to calm down his jealousy when 
now and then it awakened. — (14) Louis XIV. (1643-1715), 
b. at St. Germain-en-Laye Sept. 5, 1638, a son of Louis 
XIII. and Anne of Austria. During his minority his 
mother and Cardinal Mazarin (which see) governed the 
country, and brought to a final close the content between 
the royal power and the wealthy and ambitious aristocracy, 
represented at this period by the league of the Fronde. 
Mazarin d. Mar. 9, 1661, and the next day, when the chiefs 
of the different departments of the administration asked 
the king to whom they had to address themselves in the 
future on questions of business, he answered, " To me." He 
was from this moment his own prime minister, and in the 
despatch of business he developed, besides an almost Asiatic 
despotism, great energy and much sound judgment. He 
believed that a king was something divine, and he acted 
on this belief. He surrounded his person with a most mag- 
nificent splendor, and guarded his dignity with the most 
minute forms of etiquette. But his haughtiness did not 
offend people; it dazzled them. And while his brilliant 
personal gifts fascinated all who came in contact with him, 
and attracted to his court all that was eminent in France, 
the extraordinary prosperity of his government during the 
first half of his reign made him the idol of the nation. 
Colbert brought order not only in the finances, but in the 
whole internal administration, and under his leadership 
great enterprises were undertaken with signal success. The 
harbors and shipyards of Brest, Rochefort, Lorient, Havre, 
Dunkirk, Cette, and Toulon were constructed and fortified; 
the canal of Languedoc, uniting the Atlantic with the 
Mediterranean, was built, and other canals and public roads 
were improved ; commercial treaties were concluded with 
Holland and Italy ; manufactures of different kinds were 
established ; and while the people arose from poverty to 
affluence, the revenues increased immensely and the king 
grew rich. No less successful was Louis XIV. in the or- 
ganization and development of the intellectual life of the 
French people. The Academy of Inscriptions and Belles- 
Lettres was founded in 1063, the Academy of Sciences in 
1666, the Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1667; 
nineteen new professorships were founded at the Royal 
College; the Royal Library was greatly increased; an ob- 
servatory was built at Paris; and all these institutions 
were not only amply supported with means of subsistence, 
but the interest the king showed for them gave their social 
position dignity and influence, A new taste was created — 
not in the sense of a new fashion, but of a new ideal of 
beauty — and this taste was actually imposed on the whole 
civilized world by Racine, Moliere, Boileau, Fgnelon, 
Bossuet; by Lebrun, Poussin, Claude Lorraine: by Per- 
rault. Mansard, Blondel; by Le Notre and others. To 
these successes it must be added that Louvois, Vauban, 
and the duke of Beaufort created a powerful army and 
navy, which under the leadership of Turenne, Cond«, 
Luxembourg, VendSme, Duquesne, Tourville, and others 
made any movements of the king with respect to his 
foreign policy most effective. It has been said of Louis 
XIV, that he aspired at a universal kingdom, and dreamt 
the same dream as Charles V, and Napoleon. But for 
such an idea his mind was too small. His ambition was 
fired by his imagination, not by any passion. The theat- 
rical effect satisfied him; he was vain only. His first wars 
were sensible, however. They seem to have had for their 
principal purpose the establishment of a safe frontier to 
the N. and N. E., and Prance certainly needed a recon- 
struction of her boundaries on these sides. They are 
blamable, nevertheless, on account of the arrogance and 
entire disregard of all international rights with which they 
were commenced, and the almost unexampled barbarity 
with which they were conducted. In 1665, Philip IV. of 
Spain died, and ■ Louis, who in 1660 had married his 
daughter, Maria Theresa, now claimed the Spanish posses- 
sions in the Netherlands, and overran the country with a 



LOUIS THE GERMAN— LOUIS THE GEEAT. 



89 



large army. A triple alliance was formed between Eng- 
land, Holland, and Sweden for the purpose of establishing 
peace between France and Spain, but by the treaty of Aix- 
la-Chapelle (May 2, 1668) Louis obtained the so-called 
Frencb Flanders, besides a number of places along the 
frontier. His first object after the peace was to separate 
England from Holland, and, a master in intrigue, he com- 
pletely succeeded in seducing the weak Charles II., and 
when in 1670 he began the war against Holland, England 
was his ally. In Holland, William of Orange was ap- 
pointed stadtholder and commander-in-chief, and by his 
diplomatic skill a new league was formed against France 
between Holland, Brandenburg, the emperor of Germany, 
and Spain. By the Peace of Nymwegen (in 1678) Louis 
nevertheless obtained the whole Franche Comt6 and Alsace. 
Not content, however, with that which be gained by actual 
wars, he now began to seize cities and territories during 
time of peace and under the most futile pretexts. Thus, 
in 1681 he took Strasbourg, in 1684 Luxemburg, and so on. 
In order to put an end to such proceedings, a league was 
formed at Augsburg in 1686 between Holland, Austria, 
Spain, Bavaria, and Savoy, but although the king opened 
the war with his usual energy, overrunning the Palatinate 
and transforming this beautiful country into a desert, and 
although bis armies gained one brilliant victory after the 
other, yet tbe victories proved sterile, and by the Peace of 
Ryswick (Sept. 20, 1697) he had to give up all the con- 
quests he had made during the war, make considerable 
commercial concessions to Holland, and, what was most 
humiliating to bis pride, recognize William III. as king 
of England, A great change had taken place during this 
period in Europe, in France, and in Louis himself. The 
accession of William III. to the throne of England indi- 
cates the turning-point of the fortune of Louis XIV. 
William was his equal in diplomatic craftiness, and far his 
superior in statesmanship. In France, Colbert d. Sept. 6, 
1683, Louvois July, 1691, and the government passed into 
the hands of Madame Maintenon, whom the king married 
secretly in 1685. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
(Oct. 22, 1685) threw the whole internal development of 
the country into a most disastrous confusion. The build- 
ing of Versailles and the expensive armaments for the 
re-establishment of James II. in England completely ex- 
hausted the finances ; and while the means of realization 
became more and more limited, the plans of the king be- 
came more and more arrogant. His pride and egotism 
assumed the most odious forms. He maintained a bloody 
war along the whole frontier merely for the whims of his 
vanity. He banished, persecuted, and ruined his own 
subjects merely because they did not hold the same creed. 
He sanctioned by his example crimes utterly destructive 
of the very foundation of civilized society, merely because 
they suited his passions. And at last he dragged the ex- 
hausted and already suffering people into misery for a mere 
dynastic purpose. At the end of the war of the Spanish 
Succession (which see) the state of France was nearly des-, 
perate. The public debt amounted to over 3,000,000,000 f., 
and seven-eighths of the whole population were utterly im- 
poverished. All business and all industry were in many 
places entirely destroyed, and famine began to show itself. 
No actual insurrection took place, though confusion and dis- 
order reigned everywhere, but when the old king d. (Sept. 
1, 1715) the whole nation felt it as a liberation. — (15) 
Louis XV. (1715-74), a great-grandson of Louis XIV., b. 
at Versailles Feb. 15, 1710. During his minority the 
country was governed by the duke of Orleans (which 
see). After the death of the duke in 1723, Cardinal 
Fleury, who had been the teacher of the young king, be- 
came prime minister, and his parsimony restored some 
order to the finances, which had been brought to the very 
verge of bankruptcy by the prodigality of Louis XIV. and 
the wild schemes of the regent. The young king, who had 
married in 1725 Maria Leszczynski, a daughter of Stanis- 
laus, ex-king of Poland, seemed to be a noble and honest 
man, and the war with Sakony, Russia, and Austria, which 
France commenced in 1733 for the purpose of reinstating 
Stanislaus on the Polish throne, was conducted with suc- 
cess, and brought the country the beautiful province of 
Lorraine by the Peace of Vienna (1738). But these en- 
couraging prospects were soon changed in the saddest 
manner. Buring the Austrian war of succession Cardinal 
Fleury d. in 1743, and in the mean time the frivolous and 
corrupted court had succeeded in seducing the young king, 
whose profligacy and dissipation soon assumed an extent 
and openness hitherto unheard of. Cha,teauroux was suc- 
ceeded by Pompadour, Pompadour by Du Barry, and besides 
the official mistresses the king maintained a harem, the so- 
called Parc-aux-Cerfs, whose story belongs to the most re- 
volting pages of history. The finances ran rapidly into ruin ; 
Dubarry was allowed to squander 180,000,000 f. in five years. 
On Pompadour's instigation, France took part in the Seven 



Years' War (which see), but she lost her colonies, her fleet 
was destroyed, her armies were beaten one after the other, 
and to the immense material losses and sufferings was added 
national disgrace. The king was conscious of the perilous 
state of aff'airs, but he thought, " Apres nous le deluge," and 
went on. The popular opposition to the horrible abuses of 
the royal authprity began to show itself through the Parlia- 
ment of Paris, whose privilege it was to countersign the royal 
tax-edicts, but which refused to do so. The resistance, 
however, was curbed with violence. The Parliament was 
broken up, its members punished and replaced by more 
willing tools, and the king was allowed to rot in peace. 
When he died at Versailles on the afternoon of May 1, his 
corpse, a heap of "confluent smallpox" and other still more 
loathsome diseases, was carried away to St. DSnis in the 
evening in a hurry, without ceremonies, unaccompanied by 
any even of his nearest kinsmen or servants, but reviled with 
the execrations of all passers-by. — (16) Louis XVI, (1774r- 
-93), a grandson of Louis XV., b. Aug. 23, 1754, was a 
good-natured, well-meaning, honest man, of pure morals, 
and capable of making a sacrifice for the public weal, but 
his will was weak and his intellect narrow. He was unable 
to comprehend the situation, and he was entirely destitute 
of political instincts. Thus he hastened the approach of 
the Revolution. The finances, burdened by a new debt of 
1,500,000,000 f., contracted by the participation of France 
in the American war of independence, formed the point of 
issue. The annual budget showed a deficit of 140,000,000 f. 
There were two remedies — restriction of the expenses, which 
the queen and the court opposed, and taxing the privileged 
classes, which the Parliament opposed. The king, a good 
printer and an ingenious loc^mith, but incapable of de- 
ciding in such a dilemma, hoped to find a third expedient 
by appealing to the people; and thus it came to pass that 
he himself appealed to the Revolution. (See France — Hia- 
tory.) — (17) Louis XVII., a son of Louis XVI. and Marie 
Antoinette, b. at Versailles Mar. 27, 1785; shared at first 
the imprisonment of his parents in the tower of the Temple, 
but was after the decapitation of his father separated from 
his mother, and died of ill-treatment and neglect in his 
cell (June 8, 1795). A number of impostors pretended to 
be Louis XVIL, and excited some attention, but their 
claims were easily disproved. — (18) Louis XVIII. (1814- 
24), b. at Versailles Nov. 17, 1755, a brother of Louis 
XVI., received at his birth the title of count of Provence. 
Iq 1791 he fled, and lived in Coblentz, Verona, Mitau, and 
England. After the death of Louis XVII. he assumed tbe 
title of king of France, but his pretensions elicited gene- 
rally only a smile, and the court of emigrants he assembled 
around him often excited disgust. Nevertheless, after the 
fall of Napoleon he was called to the French throne. Both 
the French people and the foreign powers wished peace, 
and the re-establishment of the Bourbons was considered 
its only safe guaranty. There was, however, only one 
fraction of the French people with which the king was 
in full harmony — namely, the old emigrants, who hoped 
through him to get not only restitution, but also vengeance ; 
and even these partisans he was compelled to disappoint 
in order to preserve his throne. His reign was a time of 
confusion and dulness, and in the actual process of resto- 
ration and reorganization, which went on silently and in- 
stinctively, he took no part. Personally, he was indolent, 
apathetic, good-humored, and shrewd in a small way. 

Clemens Petersen. 
liOUis the German [Ger. Lud-wig der Deuteche], b. 
about 805, a son of the emperor Louis le Dgbonnaire, re- 
ceived by the first division of the empire of Charlemagne 
(in 817) Bavaria and the Slavic countries on the eastern 
frontier, but by the treaty of Verdun in 843, which ended 
the war between the heirs of Louis le D6bonnaire, he ob- 
tained the whole territory W. of the Rhine, and became 
the founder of the German empire. Invited by the discon- 
tented vassals of Charles the Bald, he broke into France 
in 858, and conquered the country, but the difierence be- 
tween the Eastern and Western Franks — that is, between 
the Germans and the French — were at this period so great 
that a union of the two tribes proved impossible, and Louis 
was compelled to give up his conquests. Against the Bul- 
garians in the S. E. and the Normans in the N. W. ho 
fought with valor, though not always with success; the 
bishopric founded at Hamburg in 834 he was compelled to 
remove to Bremen in 858, as the pagans burnt down the 
former city. After his death in 876 his sons divided the 
empire between them, 

liOuisthe Great, king of Hungary from 1342 to 1382, 
a son of Charles Robert of Anjou, was one of the most suc- 
cessful of the elective monarchs of that country. Although 
he failed in his expeditions to Naples for the purpose of 
avenging his brother Andrew, who had been murdered by 
his wife Joanna, queen of Naples, he extended the bound- 
aries of Hungary to the S. E., and united Poland to it on 



90 



LOUIS NAPOLEON— LOUISIANA. 



the death of Casimir the Great in 1370. He expelled the 
Jews, but by decreasing the duty on merchandise he greatly 
encouraged the commerce of the country. On the general 
development of civilization in his realm he exercised great 
influence. He founded a rich college in Fiinfkirchcn, and 
Buda became one of the most splendid capitals of Europe. 

Louis Napoleon* See Napoleon III. 

Louis Philippe, king of the French from the revo- 
lution of July, 1S3U, to that of Feb., 1848, b. at Paris Oct. 
6, 1773, the eldest son of Duke Louis Philippe Joseph of 
Orleans. From his father and governess (Madame de tien- 
lis) he imbibed the revolutionary ideas of the period, en- 
tering the National Guard and the Jacobin Club, and re- 
nouncing hia titles for the name of Citizen !^galit6. He 
greatly distinguished himself as General de Chartres in the 
battle of Jemappes, and, what is not so well known, made 
the jyurney to Paris to dissuade his father from voting for 
the death of Louis XVI. Though the edict which banish- 
ed the Bourbon family exempted him and his father, his 
position became difficult, especially as bis commander, 
Dumouriez, was suspected by the Convention of intriguing 
to place him on the throne. Orders of arrest were issued 
both against him and Dumouriez, and on Apr. 4, 1793, 
they fled across the Austrian frontier. For more than 
twenty years he was an exile, often contending with very 
hard circumstances, as shortly after his flight his father 
was executed, his mother banished from France, and all 
the property of the family confiscated. He lived for some 
time in Switzerland, teaching mathematics in a school; 
for some time in Scandinavia, where he travelled as far 
as the North Cape ; from 1796 to 1800 in the U. S, ; from 
1800 to 1807 at Twickenham near London; and after 
1809 at the court of Ferdinand I. of Sicily, whose daugh- 
ter, the princess Marie Amclic, he married. He twice at- 
tempted to join the adherents of the Bourbon family 
in Spain, but was both times foiled by the English diplo- 
macy. After the fall of Napoleon he returned to Paris, 
was reinstated in the possession of the immense property^ 
of the Orleans family, taking up his residence in the 
Palais Royal; but although a reconciliation had taken 
place between him and the elder line of the Bourbon fam- 
ily, the king, Louis XVIII., disliked, suspected, and 
feared him. The duke of Orleans, as was now the title 
of Louis Philippe, was a man pf great gifts and of great 
attainments, eloquent, accomplished, fascinating, with 
vivid instincts and large views, shrewd and sound in his 
judgment of persons and things. Alexander of Russia 
marked him out as the most prominent member of 
the Bourbon family, and although he lived in a rather 
retired manner in Paris and took very little part in 
politics, he soon became very popular. On the out- 
break of the revolution of July, 1830, the Chamber of 
Deputies, after deposing the king, chose him lieutenant- 
general of the realm, Charles X. recognizing him as such, 
and hoping through him to preserve the throne for the 
count of Bordeaux. Whether this could have been done is 
doubtful; the crown was offered by the Chamber of Dep- 
uties to Louis Philippe, who accepted it, though hencefortli 
he was considered by the pure Legitimists disloyal to the 
cause of legitimacy. His reign of eighteen years does not 
show a series of extraordinary events, welcome themes to 
the historian, but filling the people with sadness and misery 
— a fact honorable to him rather than a subject of reproach 
— one which is to this day vividly felt by the French lower 
classes smarting under the burden of war and other taxes, 
legacies of the last Napoleon. Nevertheless, France was 
not left without substantial benefits from his reign. The 
foundation of the kingdom of Belgium, which protected 
the northern frontier, and the conquest of the large and 
beautiful colony of Algeria, are among the most notable, 
and may well be set off against what have been considered 
the reproaches of his reign. Louis Philippe was both a 
statespian and a shrewd administrator, but his government 
was too little en rapport with the feelings of the French 
people; many causes of discontent arose (sec Nkmours, 
Due de), accompanied with charges of Gorru])tion in the 
ministry. An extension of the elective franchise was de- 
manded. Resisted by the king, the revolution broke out 
which deprived him of his throne and banished him from 
the country. D. at Clermont, near London, Aug. 26, 1850. 
Those who would a.ppreciate Louis Philippe in his domes- 
tic relations should read Prof. Schubert's charming Life 
of Helen of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, duchess of Orleans. 

J. G. Barnard. 

Louis (PiEURE Charles Alexandre), M. D., b. at A'i, 
Marne, France, in 1787 ; graduated in medicine at Paris in 
1813, and became connected with the Charity Hospital, and 
afterwards with the Piti^ and the HQtel Dicu; he acquired 
a worldwide fame as a diagnostician, pathologist, and clin- 
ical observer. He was the first to distinguish properly the 



difference between typhus and the so-called typhoid or en- 
teric fever; became in 1820 a member of th6 Academy of 
Medicine. His Rechercliee but la Phthinie (1825), Re- 
cherches aur la Fi^vrt typho'ide {\%2^)f and other works had 
an extensive and valuable influence. Louis was one of the 
fathers of the modern methods of clinical observation. D. 
at Paris Sept., 1872. 

Louisay cap. of Lawrence co., Ky. (see map of Ken- 
tucky, ref. 3~K. for location of county), on R. R. and Big 
Sandy River. Pop. in 1870, 425; in 1880, 49G. 

Louisa Court-house, cap. of Louisa co,, Va. (see 
map of Virginia, ref. 5-G, for location of county), on the 
Chesapeake and Ohio R. K. Pop. in 1880, 315. 

Lou^isburgy a famous fortress built by the French soon 
after the Peace of Utrecht (1713) upon the eastern coast of 
Cape Breton Island, in lat. 45° 53' 30'' N., Ion. 60° W., 
receiving its name in honor of Louis XIV. The works 
constructed here were of the heaviest and most com- 
plete description, and were built of stone. A large and 
well-built town of some 3000 inhabitants sprang up, fa- 
vored by the spacious and excellent harbor. Since the 
existence of so strong a place threatened the colonial and 
English fisheries, it was determined in 1745 by the legis- 
lature of Massachusetts Bay (France and Great Britain be- 
ing then at war) to strike a blow at the town. Accordingly, 
a force of colonists consisting of 3250 Massachusetts mili- 
tia, aided by 516 men from Connecticut and 304 from New 
Hampshire, set sail in 100 vessels, and landed near the 
town Apr. 30, 1745. An active but irregular siege (though 
the men were without tents and the proper means of con- 
ducting such operations) was terminated June 17, 1745, 
by the capitulation of the French under Duchambon — an 
event that caused the greatest joy throughout the British 
empire. But the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) gave 
back all Cape Breton to France. The town was invested 
in 1758 by G-en. Amherst with 14,000 British troops, 20 
line ships, 18 frigates and other vessels. After a tremen- 
dous bombardment, which quite destroyed the town and 
breached the walls badly, the garrison and French fleet 
surrendered, July 26, 1758. The defence was very spirited. 
The number of prisoners was 5637. The English overthrew 
the fortifications at an expense of $50,000. The first cost 
was one hundred times that sum. The ruins still remain. 
There is a lighthouse. The village is in Cape Breton co., 
N. S., and is 24 miles S. E. of Sidney. Pop. of census sub- 
district in 1881, 999. 

Louisburg, cap. of Franklin co., N. C. (see map of 
North Carolina, ref. 2-H, for location of county), on Tar 
River, 10 miles E. of Franklinton and 31 miles N. E. of 
Raleigh, has fiouring-mills, steam saw-mills, steam cotton- 
gins, a female seminary, and a considerable trade in cot- 
ton. Pop. of V. in 1870, 750 j in 1880, 730. 

Louis d'Or ("Louis of gold"), a French gold coin, 
first struck in 1641 under Louis XIII., not coined since 
1795, but the name is often given to the twenty -franc piece 
or gold Napoleon, and to certain German five-thaler pieces. 
The value of the louis fluctuated considerably, but may be 
roughly stated to be about five dollars in Federal money. 

Louisiana, loo-e-ze-ah'na, a Gulf State of the U. S. (seo 
map of Ark., La., and Miss., in article Arkansas), wholly 




Seal of Louisiana, 
within the Mississippi Valley, and the greater part of it 
in delta of Mississippi River, is between 89° and 94° W. 
Ion., and 28° 56' and 33° N. lat. ; extreme length from E*. 
to W., 298 miles; extreme breadth from N. to S. about 280 
miles; area, 48,720 square miles, or 31,180,800 acres; 
bounded N. and E. by Arkansas and Mississippi, S. and 
S. E. by the Gulf of Mexico and several sounds and estu- 
aries from the Gulf, and AV. by Texas. 



LOUISIANA. 



91 



Louisiana, by census of ISSO, ranked 22 among the States 
in population, 22 in value of agricultural products, and 25 
in value of manufactures. 

Face of the Coiintnj.~'\^hQ N. and N. W. portions of the 
State rise into low hills not exceeding 240 feet in height, 
and from these the land, slopes gradually toward both the 
Mississippi and the Gulf. A large portion of the delta of 
the Mississippi is marshy and actually below the river at 
high water. In all, about 8450 square miles is subject to 
inundations, though not all of it annually. Along the 
Mississippi River much of the land is below the surface of 
the river at the spring freshets, and is protected from over- 
flow by levees or artificial embankments. These levees 
extend over 750 miles within the limits of the State. 
They are sometimes worn and broken througl;i by the 
floods, and the "crevasses" thus produced cause the 
submergence of hundreds of thousands of acres. Local 
topographers classify the lands of the State as "good up- 
lands;" "pine hill lands," usually not very fertile; "allu- 
vial tracts;" " bluflE" or loess regions;" "marsh-lands;" 
"the prairie regions," and "the pine flats." The whole 
alluvial region of the delta is very fertile, and its deep 
black loam will yield enormous crops; the hilly country, 
on the contrary, is not very productive, and some portions 
of it are sandy barrens. 

Rioers, Lakes, Soimds, and Bays, — Tbe Mississippi River 
ha? a course of about 590 miles in the State, and is navi- 
gable for the largest steamers throughout its whole extent. 
The Red River, the second in size of the. great tributaries 
of the Mississippi, enters the State in the N. W. and crosses 
it diagonally. Its principal affluents in the State are the 
Washita, with its two large branches, the Tensas and the 
Boeuf, the Dugdemona, the Sabine Bayou, and the Bisti- 
neau River and Lake. The Sabine River forms a part of 
the W. boundary of the State, and the Calcasieu and Mer- 
menteau are considerable streams, ihe latter, having several 
tributary bayous or sluggish streauis. The Pearl River, 
having Bogue Chitto for a tributary, the Tangipahoa, 
Tickfaw, and Amite are the principal streams E. of the 
Mississippi. There are, besides these, several large bayous 
or estuaries which are really outlets or secondary mouths 
of the Mississippi. The principal of these are Atchafalaya 
Bayou, with its series of lakes, Vermilion Bayou, Bayou 
Teche, which connects with it, Bayou de Large, Bayou la 
Fourche, and the estuaries, lakes, and bayous which de- 
bouch into Barataria Bay. The distinction between lakes, 
sounds, and estuaries in this State is not very marked. 
Lake Pontchartrain is perhaps a lake, but its waters are 
salt and rise and fall with the tide ; Lake Borgne is only a 
sound or bay; Lake Maurepas is closely connected with 
Pontchartrain; Sabine Lake, Calcasieu Lake, Lake Mer- 
menteau, etc., are all estuaries connected with rivers or 
bayous. In Northern Louisiana there are ten or twelve 
lakes which are expansions either of the Red River or its 
tributaries. Some of these are of considerable extent. 
Along the coast there are Chandeleur and Isle au Breton 
sounds, Bay Ronde, Garden Island Bay, East and West 
bays, Timbalier, Tcrro Bonne, Caillou, Atchafalaya, Cote 
Blanche, and Vermilion bays. 

Minerals, etc. — In the N. W. part of Louisiana brown 
coal of fair quality is found in considerable quantity ; iron 
is somewhat abundant in this region, and salt^springs and 
salt deposits; that on Petit Anse Island has been mined 
to a depth of 6D feet below the level of the Gulf, 5S feet 
through solid rock-salt of the purest quality. Ochre, marl, 
gypsum, lead, sulphate of soda, sulphate of iron, and a 
very pure carbonate of lime occur in considerable quanti- 
ties. In the S. part of the State there are deposits of sul- 
phur, and at one point between the Calcasieu and Sabine 
rivers artesian wells have been bored and shafts sunk, 
which demonstrate that, beginning at a point about 428 
feet below the surface, there is a deposit of sulphur 112 
feet in thickness, and which yields from 60 to 96 per cent, 
of pure sulphur. The more superficial strata at this point 
contain petroleum, but not in sufficient quantity to be 
worked with profit. Copper has also been found in several 
parishes. Among the minerals not of economic value are 
quartz-crystals, jasper, agates, carnelians, sardonyx, onyx, 
feldspar of fine quality, and meteoric stones. Fossils of 
various kinds have also been discovered at different points. 
Most of these minerals have been found in the Tertiary, 

Soil and Fe^/efrt/i'o?!.— The entire alluvial deposits furnish 
a soil of extraordinary permanence and fertility. The 
delta lands are unsurpassed for the culture of sugar-cane, 
cotton, rice, wheat, barley, buckwheat, sweet potatoes, and 
figs. The islands produce sea-island cotton equal to the 
best. The orange flourishes well. The Tertiary region 
has not so rich a soil, but Indian corn does better there 
than in the alluvium. Cotton grows everywhere. A por- 
tion of the Tertiary region is covered with heavy though 
not dense pine forests. About one-fifth of the area of the 



State ia too swampy and marshy for cultivation, and much 
of it is covered with lofty cypress trees, from which the 
Spanish moss hangs in graceful festoons. The other forest- 
trees of the alluvial portion of the State are ash, sweet gum, 
hickory, black walnut, magnolia, live-oak, Spanish, water, 
black, chestnut, white, and post oaks, tulip tree, Florida 
anise, linden, lance-leaved buckthorn, four or five species 
of acacia, wild cherry, pomegranate, holly, avbor vitse, 
tillandsia, lime, pecan, sycamore, white and red cedar, and 
yellow pine, and in the Tertiary sassafras, mulberry, poplar, 
hackberry, red elm, maple, honey locust, dogwood, tupelo, 
box elder, black locu&t, prickly ash, persimmon, etc. Along 
the rivers the cottonwood, willow, basket elm, palmetto, 
wild cane, papaw, and wild orange are found. Of fruit 
trees, the peach, quince, plum, fig, orange, papaw, and 
olive do well ; the apple and pear are not so thriving. The 
grazing in the uplands generally is excellent; in the At- 
takapas country, along the Atchafalaya and Bayou Teche, 
the pasturage is unsurpassed in quality. Louisiana, like 
Florida, is a land of flowers. 

Zoology. — In the forests black bears and wolves, and in 
the cypress swamps panthers of large size and great fero- 
city, are occasionally met with, while the wild-cat, raccoon, 
polecat, opossum, otter, squirrel, two or three species of 
rat, mouse, dormouse, and mole are abundant. The alli- 
gator inhabits all the bayous; there are several species of 
turtle; lizards, horned frogs, many species of toad, the 
gecko, and chameleon, while rattlesnakes, vipers, moccasin, 
horned, and other snakes are very common. The birds of 
most note are the bald and the gray eagle, the king vulture, 
the turkey-buzzard, and other vultures, kites, hawks, owls, 
gulls, the pelican, cranes, herons, wild-turkeys, pigeons, 
partridges, wild-geese, brant, and wild-ducks generally 
abundant, and a great variety of smaller birds, many of 
them of brilliant plumage. The fish are generally those 
common to the Gulf. 

Climate. — The climate of New Orleans and the lower 
portion of the delta is to some extent malarious. Bilious 
and congestive fevers are vei-y prevalent, and the worst 
forms of intermittent not uncommon. The yellow fever 
may be considered endemic in New Orleans, though it is 
not epidemic oftener than once in seven or eight years. 
Western and North-western Louisiana is perhaps as healthy 
a region as any part of the U. S. The average tempera- 
ture of the year is not so high as in other States and 
countries in the same latitude. 

Agricultural Products. — The most valuabl« crop in Lou- 
isiana is cotton, valued at over $20,000,000. Next to this 
is the sugar-cane, producing more sugar and molasses by 
nine-tenths than all the other States. The crop of 1879 
(census of 1880) was 171,706 hogsheads of sugar and 
11,696,248 gallons of molasses; rice, 23,188,311 pounds; 
Indian corn, 9,889,689 bushels; cotton, 508,569 bales. 
'■^'Farm Animaln. — By the census of 1880, Louisiana had, 
of horses, 104,428; cattle, 470,601 ; sheep, 135,631; swine, 
633,489. 

Levees. — The people of Louisiana have built and now 
maintain in repair more than 1500 miles or 51,000,000 
cubic feet of levees within the State limits. But for these 
the greater part of the delta would be a slimy swamp. 

Railroads. — In 1880, Louisiana had 1231 miles of rail- 
way, costing S44,S69,349, with gross earnings, $3,288,318; 
net earnings, $984,497. The most important lines were the 
Louisiana and Texas (166 miles), the Louisiana Western, 
and the New Orleans and Mobile. 

Commerce. ~,r-Th.e foreign commerce of Louisiana is large ; 
total exports in 1881, $103,743,986, principally breadstuffs 
and cotton; total imports in 1881, $12,213,920. The in- 
terior commerce is also heavy, by both river and railway. 

Manufacturing and Mining Industry. — Louisiana is not 
largely engaged in manufactures. In ISSO it had 1553 
manufacturing establishments (value of cotton-seed oil and 
cake, $3,739,466). Sugar-refining has increased since 1870, 
but other manufactures have languished. The mining in- 
dustry of the State consists of some coal-mines, rather in- 
efficiently worked, a little iron mined, the salt-mine of Petit 
Anse island, and the sulphur-miue at Calcasieu Springs. 
In 1880 there were engaged in cotton manufactures 108 
persons, running 120 looms, with 6096 spindles, and using 
1354 bales of cotton. New Orleans had, in 1880,915 man- 
ufacturing establishments, with capital of $8,565,303 ; 
hands employed, 9504; wages paid, $3,717,557; and total 
products, $18,808,096. 

Finances of the State. — The valuation of taxable property, 
by census of 1880, was $160,162,439 ; State tax, $1,771,084 ; 
total taxation, local and State, $4,395,876 ; State debt, 1881, 
$12,171,940, having been "scaled" by liquidation at 60 
cents on the dollar. 

Hanks. — In Oct., 1881, Louisiana had 7 national banks, 

* On farms only. 



92 



LOUISIANA. 



all at New Orleans, with capital, $2,875,000 ; circulation, 
$2,167,100 ; bonds to secure circulation, $2,476,000; and 
deposits, $8,478,487. There were 7 State banks and trust 
companies, with $5,147,188 deposits; 1 savings bank, with 
$2397 deposits; and 5 private banks, deposits not given. 

Education. — Number of children of school-age, six to 
eighteen years, in 1880, 273,845, of whom only 68,440 were 
enrolled in public schools, about half white; number of 
schools, 1669 ; whole amount expended, $465,758. There 
are over 300 private schools, and 8 colleges, with 68 in- 
structors and 677 students, paying in tuition, in 1880, 
$15,327. There are (1882) 102 newspapers and periodicals, 
of which 9 are daily. 

Okufchea, — Louisiana has about 1300 churches, of which 
the Baptists claim the largest number, having 752 churches 
and 66,593 members; Methodists, 217 churches and 31,210 
members; Roman Catholics, 107 churches; Presbyterians, 
50 churches and 3218 members; Protestant Episcopal, 44 
churches and 29S3 members; and 12 other denominations, 
varying from 3000 members down to 20. 

Population.— In 1860, 708,002; 1870, 726,916; 1880, 
939,946 (white 454,954, colored 484,992, including 848 
Indians and 489 Chinese). 

Principal Cities and Townn. — New Orleans, the com- 
mercial metropolis, and since the war, until 1881, the po- 
litical cap. of the State, in ISSU had 216,090 inhabitants ; 
Shreveport, 8009; Baton Rouge, the cap., 7197; Natchito- 
ches, 2785 ; New Iberia, 2709 ; Donaldsonville, 2600 ; Gretna, 
2396; Monroe, 2070 ; Plaquemines, 2U61 ; Alexandria, 1800 ; 
Franklin, 1702 ; Opelousas, 1676 ; St. Martinsville, 1606 ; 
Thibodeaux, 1515; Minden, 1113. 



Ascension 

Assumption 

Avoyelles 

Bienville 

Bossier 

Caddo 

Calcasieu 

Caldwell 

Cameron 

Catahoula 

Claiborne 

Concordia 

De Soto 

E. Baton Rouge. 

East Carroll 

East Feliciana... 

Franklin 

Grant 

Iberia 

Iberville 

Jackson 

Jett'erson 

Lafayette 

Lafourche 

Lincoln 

Livingston 

Madison 

Morehouse 

Natchitoches 

Orleans 

Ouachita 

Plaquemines 

Point CoupCe 

Rapides 

Red River , 

Richland 

Sabine 

8t. Bernard 

St. Charles 

St. Helena , 

St. James 

St. John Baptist. 

St. Landry 

St. Martin 

St. Mary's 

St. Tammany.... 

Tangipahoa 

Tensas 

Terrebonne 

Union 

Vermilion 

Vernon 

Washington 

Webster 

W. Baton Rouge. 

West Carroll 

West Feliciana.. 
Winn 



Total.. 



»Ref. 



lO-E 

11-E 

9-D 

7-B 

6-B 

6-B 

10-B 

7-D 

10-B 

8-D 

6-C 

8-E 

7-B 

10-E 

6-E 

9-E 

7-D 

8-C 

10-D 

10-D 

7-C 

11-F 

10-D 

11-F 

7-C 

10-F 

7-E 

6-D 

8-B 

lO-O 

7-D 

ll-(i 

9-D 

9-C 

7-B 

7-D 

8-B 

ll-G 

11-F 

9-E 

10-E 

lU-F 

10-D 

10-D 

11-D 

10-F 

9-F 

8-E 

11-E 

C-C 

10-D 

9-B 

9-F 

6-B 

10-E 

C-E 

9-E 

8-C 



Parish Towns. 



ll,o7Jj 

I3,2:w 

12,920 

10,036 

12,675 

1 21,714 

6,733 

4,820 

j 1,591 

i 8,475 

I 20,240 

'• 9,977 

I 14,902 

! 17,810 



13,499 
5,078 
4,517 
9,012 
12,347 
7,640 
17,767 
10,388 
14,719 



4,026 

8,000 

9,387 

18,205 

191,418 

11,582 

10,552 

12,981 

18,015 



5,110 
0,456 
3,.553 
4,867 
5,42.') 
10,152 
0,702 
25,553 
9,370 
13,860 
5,586 
7,928 
12,419 
12,451 
11,685 
4,528 



3,330 



I 10,499 
! 4,954 



1726 ,915 930,946 



16,895 Donaldsonville. 
17,010|Napoleonville .. 

16,747iMarksville 

10,J42 Sparta 

16,042lBellevue. 

26,296'Shreveport 

12,484;Lake Charles 

5,767|Columbia 

2,416 Cameron. 
10,277|Harrisonburg .. 

18,837iHomer 

14,914|Vidalia 

15,603 Mansfield 

19,960|Baton Rouge 

12,134|Lake Providence 
15,132 Clinton 

6,495 Winnsborough. 

6,188'Colfax. 

16,676jNew Iberia 

17,544 Plaquemine 

5,328jVernon 

12,166 Gretna 

13,235 La Fayette. 

19,113 ■ 

11,075 

5,258 
13,906 
14,206 
19,707 
210,090 
14,685 
11,575 
17,785 
23,503 



Thibodeaux.. 

Vienna 

Port Vincent 

Delta 

Bastrop 

Natchitoches, 
New Orleans 

Monroe 

PointealaHache 
Point Coupee. 
Alexandria.... 

8,573 ^Coushatta 

8,440, Ray ville 

7,344JMany 

4,405 St. Bernard. 

7,161 Hahnville 

7,504|Greensburg.... 
14,714;convent. 

9,686iEdgard, 



40,004 
12,663 
19,891 
6,887 
9,638 
17,815 
17,957 
13,526 
8,728 
5,100 
5,190 
10,005 
7,667 
2,776 
12,809 
5,840 



Opelousas 

St. Martinville.. 

Franklin 

Covington 

Amite City 

St. Joseph 

Houma 

Farmersville.... 

Abbeville 

Leesville. 
Franklinton. 

Minden 

Port Allen. 
Floyd. 

Bayou Sara 

Winnfield 



Pop. 
18S0. 



2,600 
497 
553 

■ 100 

8,009 
838 
219 

243 
718 
449 
770 
7,197 

1,129 



2,709 

2,001 

83 

2,396 

815 
1,515 

308 

399 
822 

2,785 
210,U90 

2,070 



1,800 
488 
210 
143 

414 
297 



1,676 
1,600 
1,702 

507 
1,120 

480 
1,084 

712 

255 



1,113 



710 
133 



History. — Louisiana was first visited by Europeans in 
1541, when De Soto with his followers came to the Mis- 
sissippi River. In 1673, Father Marquette and his Cana- 
dians descended the Mississippi to its mouth, but estab- 

* Reference for location of parishes. See map of Arkansas, 
Louisiana, and Mississippi in article Akkaxsas. 



lished no colony. In 1682, La Salle again descended the 
Mississippi, and took possession of the country in the name 
of Louis XIV., giving it the name " Louisiana." In 1699, 
Iberville withacousiderablenumber of colonists attempted 
a settlement at Biloxi. He d. soon after, and his successor 
in command, Bienville, led his fellow-colonists to a some- 
what sunken spot on the river-banlt, and there made his 
last stand. This was about 1706, and the new location was 
on the present site of New Orleans. In Hl7 the province 
of Louisiana fell into the hands of John Law, and the 
Mississippi bubble expanded to vast dimensions — and 
burst. In 1718, Bienville was appointed governor, and 
built up the town whose site he had selected twelve years 
before. In 1723 the capital of the colony was removed 
from New Biloxi to New Orleans. The "Western Com- 
pany " — or '• The Company of the Indies," as Law's or- 
ganization was known — remained in existence for ten 
years or more after the failure and escape of Law, but in 
1730 it surrendered its grant to the Crown, by whom the 
colony was managed until 1762, when the whole province 
was secretly ceded by France to Spain, and for thirty- 
eight years w^s under the control of that power. In 1800 
it was restored by the treaty of Ildefonso to France, and 
in 1803 it was sold to the U. S. for the sum of $11,250,000 
and the assumption of the claims of citizens of the U. S. 
against France, known a.s the " French spoliation claims." 
These were assumed to amount to $3,760,000 ; so that the 
price of this vast territory, comprising nea,rly all of the 
present States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Min- 
nesota, Dakota Territory, Nebraska, most of Kansas and 
the Indian Territory, part of Colorado, most of Wyoming, 
and the whole of Montana, Indiana, Oregon, and Wash- 
ington Territory, was purchased for $15,000,000, but one- 
quarter of the purchase-money has never been paid by the 
national government. In 1804 the soufbern portion of this 
vast tract was erected. into a separate Territory as the Ter- 
ritory of Orleans. In 1810 that portion of the State lying 
between the Mississippi and the Amite and the Pearl River 
was annexed to the Territory, and in April, 1812, the Ter- 
ritory of Orleans was admitted into the Union as the State 
of Louisiana. On Jan. 8, 1816, was fought the great bat- 
tle of New Orleans, between the British forces under Paken- 
ham and the Americans under Jackson, for the possession 
of New Orleans. In this battle the British were signally 
defeated and with heavy loss. The subsequent progress 
of the State up to 1860-61 was very rapid. The ordinance 
of secession was passed in convention Dec. 23, 1860 : Mar. 
21, 1861, the same convention adopted the "Confederate" 
constitution. In Apr., 1862, Farragut ascended the Mis- 
sissippi, passed and silenced Forts St. Philip and Jackson, 
and appeared before New Orleans on the 26th of April, 
demanding and receiving its surrender. It was controlled 
by Gens. Butler and Banks, and after numerous conflicts, 
in July, 1863, the navigation of the Mississippi from St. 
Paul to the Gulf was secured to the national government. 
In Apr., 1864, a convention formed a new constitution for 
the State preparatory to its readmission to the Union. 
This constitution was not recognized by Congress, and a 
second convention was called, in Dec, 1867, and its con- 
stitution was adopted Mar. 7, 1868. Under it Louisiana 
was again admitted into the Union on condition of her 
ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitu- 
tion of the U. S. On July 9, 1868, this. ratification was 
accomplished, and on the 13th the government was trans- 
ferred by the military to the civil authorities. The adop- 
tion of the first constitution in 1864 by a comparatively few 
individuals, representing only a small portion of the State, 
gave rise to serious disturbances, and during the four years 
of military occupation which followed there were discord 
and turmoil. After the adoption of the second constitu- 
tion, in 1868, the government was still in confusion for 
some time. Order was finally re-established. 
Governors. 

TEEEITOKY OP ORLEANS. IThomas 0. Moore 1800-62 

W. C. C. Claiborne ISOl-ia'-eorge I'"- Shepley 1802-64 

™,,,,,, jMichael Hahn 1804-65 

^^''^'^- James M. Wells 186.5-07 

W. C. C. Claiborne 1812-16|Benjamin F. Flanders. ..1867-68 

Jaquez Villere 1810-20 Joshua Baker isos 

Thomas B. Robertson 1820-22 Henry C. Wanuoth 1868-72 

H. S. Thibodeaux (act.)..1822-24ij. F. McEnery (claim- 
Henry Johnson 1824-281 ant) 1872 

Peter Derhigny..... 1828-29 Wm. Pitt Kellogg (de 

facto) 

Wm. Pitt ] 



A. Bauvais (acting) 1829- 

Jacques Dupre (acting).. 1830 

Andre B. Roman 18.30-34 

Edward D. White 1834-38 

Andre B. Roman 1838-41 



1872 

Kellogg 1872-77 

Stephen B. Packard 1877-78 

Francis T. Nieholls 1878-SO 

Louis A. Wiltz 1880-81 



Alexander Mouton 1841-45:S. D. JlcEnery............. .1881-88 

Isaac Johnson 184.5-50j 

Joseph Walker 18.50-54 

Paul O. llebert 18.54-501 

E. C. Wicklittfe 1850-6o| 

Revised bt A. R. SporroRD. 



LOUISIANA— LOUISVILLE. 



93 



Louisiana^ city and R. R. centre, Pike co., Mo. (see 
map of Missouri, ref. :^-I, for location nf county), on the 
Mississippi River, 115 miles above St. Louis, on the Chi- 
cago Burlington and Quincy, the St. Louis Keokuk and 
North-western, and the Chicago and Alton R. R., which 
here crosses the river, has a college, a public library, 
foundries, a fine public school, paid fire depiirtment, pub- 
lie gasworks, noted tobacco manufactories, and is the dis- 
tributing-point of a fruit-growing region and an extensive 
lumber business. Pop. in 1870, 3639; in ISSO, 4325. 

Louis'ville, cap. of Jefferson co., Ga. (see map of 
Georgia, ref, 4-J, for location of county), UO miles N. W. 
of Savannah, on the Georgia Central R. R., in the centre 
of a fine cotton and grain producing section, has a female 
seminary and an academy. Pop. of city in 1870, 356; in 
1880, 575. 

Louisville, on R. R., cap. of Clay co., III. (see map 
of Illinois, ref. y-F, for location of county), on the Little 
AV abash River. Pop. of v. in ]870, 529; in 1880, 514. 

Louisville, city, Pottawattamie co., Kan. (see map of 
Kansas, ref. 4-H, for location of county), situated 3 miles 
N. of Wamego, which is on the Kansas division of the 
Union Pacific R. R., has fine water-power supplied by Roek 
Creek, a flouring-mill, and carries on farming and stock- 
raising principally. Pop. of v. in 1870, 344; in 1880, 432. 

Louisville, an important R. 11. centre, the commer- 
cial capital and largest city of Kentucky, and seat of jus- 
tice of Jefferson co. (see map of Kentucky, ref. 3-G, for 
location of county), is situated at the falls of the Ohio 
River, from which it obtains its name of "The Falls 
City." It is in 38° 3' N. lat., 85° 30' W. Ion., and re- 
markable for the salubrity of its climate, the ratio of 
deaths to the population being less, perhaps, than any 
city on the continent. The city is situated on an elevated 
plateau 70 feet above low water, and with but little variety 
of surface for miles, and occupies an area of 12^ square 
miles. The streets are laid out at right angles, varying 
in width from 60 to 120 feet, clean and well paved. The 
business parts of the city are on the streets nearest the 
river, the southern portion being occupied by privatc.resi- 
dences, which are notable for beauty and elegance. These 
are almost without exception surrounded by large gardens, 
while all the residence avenues are bordered by long lines 
of trees, which give to the city its distinguishing appear- 
ance. Until the last few years but little attention had been 
paid to the appearance of the business streets; since 1870, 
however, a number of the handsomest business-blocks in 
the country have been erected on Main, Market, Fourth, 
Fifth, and adjoining streets. 

Louisville was settled in 1775, and has since steadily 
increased in prosperity and commercial importance. Its 
business is of the most stable character; there have been 
remarkably few failures in its history, and its business 
operations have been largely conducted on home capital. 
Wealth is quite equally divided among the richer classes, 
while the poorer and laboring classes are, in the largest 
measure, thrifty and in comfortable circumstances. The 
outlying level country, and the facility with which the 
city may be extended in any direction, have made property 
in the suburbs very cheap, and the working people have 
built thousands of little homes in all of these localities. 
The assessment of the city as a basis of taxation is, in 
round numbers, $66,000,000. The Board of Trade is a 
flourishing organization of about 800 members, with a 
handsome building in the centre of the city. The com- 
mercial statistics of the organization are very valuable. 
The bank system of Louisville is made up of 9 national 
banks, 14 State banks, and 1 trust company. The aggre- 
gate capital and surplus amount to about $11,500,000, and 
at the last general statement there were §15,000,000 in 
outstanding discounts. The bank clearings in 1882 were 
$392,189,932, tbe clearings in only ten cities in the U. S. 
exceeding these figures. The internal revenue collection 
was $5,588,389.95. The most important staples of com- 
merce are leaf and manufactured tobacco, provisions and 
breadstuffs, Kentucky whiskies, leather, and various prod- 
ucts of local manufacture. As the centre of trade in a 
State ( Kentucky) which produces about 40 per cent, of the 
total tobacco product of the U. S., LouisviHe controls a 
larger tobacco trade than any other three forwarding mar- 
kets. Here the agents of foreign govei*nments and large 
houses are located for the purchase of tobacco. In 1882, 
61,440 hogsheads of leaf tobacco were sold, and the sales 
steadily increase year by year. The city is also the centre 
of the Kentucky whisky trade: value of distilled liquors 
manufactured was reported in census of 1880 to be 
$1,382,500. Louisville is one of the largest pork-packing 
cities in the U. S. ; value of slaughtering and meat-pack- 
in"- products, not including retail butchering, from the 
same authority, was $4,287,158. 



The U. S. census of 1880 shows 1108 manufactories; 
capital, $21,767,013; average number of hands employed, 
17,448 ; wages paid during the year, $5,835,545 ; value of 
products, $35,423,203. The specialties in manufacturing 
industry are various: iron manufactures ($2,391,532), oak 
sole leather ($2,130,990), tobacco ($2,997,644), agricultural 
implements ($1,220,700), cement, gas and water pipes, malt 
liquors, bagging, woollen goods, etc. 

Edncatiou. — Louisville is noted for the excellence of its 
public schools, the system having been pronounced, for 
thoroughness and efficiency, second only to that of Bos- 
ton. The school buildings proper number 30. constructed 
in the most substantial and even elegant style. The fe- 
male high school was built at a cost of $120,000. Three 
handsome colored-school buildings are among the number 
named, one of which cost $28,000. Louisville is one of the 
great centres for medical education in the U. S, The med- 
ical department of the University of Louisville, founded 
forty years ago, has embraced among its professors some 
of the most distinguished physicians and surgeons in the 
country, and its alumni are scattered over every State in 
the Union. Three other medical colleges have full corps 
of instructors. The Southern Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary, with a strong faculty, is also located here. The pri- 
vate schools and seminaries of the city number 55, making 
a total of 85 public and private schools. The University 
of the Public Schools of Louisville embraces three depart- 
ments — the academic, medical, and law. The total number 
of scholars enrolled in the public schools is nearly 16,000; 
cost of conducting the schools in 1882 amounted to $30 0,000; 
the total value of the public-school property was nearly 
$1,000,000, 

The 23iihlic bmlditiga of Louisville are costly and of un- 
usual architectural beauty. Among the most prominent 
are the city hall, almshouse, female high school, Kentucky 
school for the blind, public library of Kentucky, the court- 
house, city hospital, U. S. marine hospital, eruption hos- 
pital, and the male and female houses of refuge. The Gait 
House is also a very notable building architecturally, and 
the Conrier-Journnl occupies one of the largest and finest 
printing-houses in the world. The U. S, government is 
now building here one of the handsomest custom-houses 
and post-offices in the South. There are 120 churches of all 
denominiUions, the most noteworthy of which are the ca- 
thedral, the Dominican, the Second Presbyterian, the 
Warren Memorial, the Jewish synagogue, and the church 
of the Messiah. 

The list of charities attached to the various churches and 
orders is large. Prominent among these are the new Ma- 
sonic Widows' and Orphans' Home, the largest in the coun- 
try; St. Mary's and St. Elizabeth's Hospital, St. Joseph's 
Industrial School, St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum, all Cath- 
olic; the Baptist Orphans' Home, and the German Bap- 
tist Orphan Asylum. The Public Library of Kentucky is 
a free institution, with some 70,000 books, an extensive 
museum, and a fine collection of pictures and statuary. 
Louisville has 28 lodges of Freemasons; 24 lodges of Odd 
Fellows; 10 lodges of Knights of Pythias; 11 Temperance 
lodges and societies; 10 lodges of the Harugari ; 6 of the 
order of Red Men: 5 of the U. A. 0. D. ; 7 Hebrew soci- 
eties, and a large number of other social and benevolent 
societies. 

Of the cemeteries. Cave Hill, situated on a hill back of 
the city, is said to be tbe most beautiful and best arranged 
in the West. There are 31 newspapers published in the 
city — 5 daily (4 in English and 1 in German). There are 
3 theatres and 1 opera-house. 

The future of Louisville seems assured. Her R. R. sys- 
tem is one of the most comprehensive in the country. It 
has recently been extended in all directions, and the Louis- 
ville and Nashville Company operates over 2000 miles of 
road. The other lines are the Chesapeake and Ohio, to 
Richmond ; the Chesapeake Ohio and South-western, to 
Memphis; the Ohio and Mississippi, to Cincinnati and 
St. Louis; the Jeffersonville Madison and Indianapolis, 
to Indianapolis and the East; the Louisville New Albany 
and Chicago, to Chicago ; the St. Louis Air Line to Evans- 
ville and St. Louis; the"* Cincinnati Southern to Chatta- 
nooga. The Louisville and Nashville controls the lines to 
Cincinnati and Lexington, and has through lines to Knox- 
ville and Memphis. Located on the great highway between 
the North .and the South, Louisville's position will always 
make her the great distributing-point between the two sec- 
tions. With an admirable climate, the outlying country 
favoring almost any expanse, the centre of two large in- 
dustries, the metropolis of a State constantly increasing in 
wealth, with thousands of acres teeming with undeveloped 
minerals, now first beginning to be worked, her railroad 
system being enlarged every year, her business energies 
based on a substantial and enduring basis, the elements 
that unite in making her prosperity arc many, varied in 



94 



LOUISVILLE— LOUVOIS, DE. 



their character, and certain in their results. The third ex- 
hibition of the Southern Exposition closed here Oct. 24, 
1885. It lasted ten weeks, and wos a great success. Pop. 
in 1880, 123,758 J in 1885, about 150,000. 

Ed. " Courier-Journal." 
liOuisville, cap. of Winston co., Miss, (see map of 
Mississippi, ref. fi-H, for location of county), is 30 miles 
W. of Macon. Pop. in 1870, 385 : in 1880, 418. 

XtO\i\e% town of Portugal, in the province of Algarve, 
beautifully situated about 5 miles N. W. of the port of 
Faro, and surrounded with walls of the times of the Moors. 
The church of Neustra Senhora da Pietade. in the vicinity, 
is much frequented by pilgrims. Pop. 8245. 

Loup City, cap. of Sherman co., Neb. (see map of 
Nebraska, ref. 10-E, for location of county), founded in 
1873 as the last trading-point on the N. line of the State, 
is the trading-point for settlers and trappers N. and W. 
The settlers are energetically developing the resources of 
the region. Pop. in 1885, 378. 

Lourdes^ a town of the department of Hautes-Pyr€- 
n6es, France, is the capital of a canton, the seat of the civil 
courtof thearrondissementof Argeles, and is 12 miles S.W. 
of Tarbes, on the Gave de Pau. Marble and slate quarries 
are extensively worked in the vicinity. The town is chiefly 
noted for the grotto of Massavielle, in which Catholics be- 
lieve the Virgin Mary revealed herself frequently in 1S5S 
to a peasant-girl. A large church has been built above the 
grotto, and the place is visited by pilgrims from all parts 
of the world. The town has considerable trade in rosaries 
and in the water of its so-called miraculous fountain. 
Pop. in 1881, 5S64. 

Louse [Ang.-Sax. Me; Goth, liusan, to "devour"]. 
With the same mode of development as the Hemiptera — 
i. e. the bed-bug, chinch-bug, etc. — the louse differs chiefly 
in being wingless, with a small, indistinctly jointed thorax, 
while the abdomen is large, oval, and made up of nine seg- 
ments. The minute antennas are filiform, five-jointed. The 
eyes are minute and nearly simple. The eggs are cylin- 
drical and attached to the hairs of its host. Schiodte has 
best observed the structure of the beak or proboscis of the 
louse. It is formed of the elongated mouth-parts, on the 
same plan as the beak of the bed-bug, except that the parts 
are softer and the labium is capable of being retracted into 
the upper part of the head, which therefore presents a little 
fold, which is extended when the labium is protruded. At the 
base of the soft tube, which is strengthened by the long ohit- 
inous ribbon-like mandibles, is a series of hooks by which the 
louse is anchored to the skin of its host. In order to see how 
the louse obtains its food, Schiodte placed one of these in- 
sects on his hand and observed its move- 
ments through a microscope. After the 
creature had fixed its beak in his hand, 
he noticed that "at the top of the head, 
under the transparent skin, between and 
a little in advance of the eyes, a triangu- 
lar blood-red point appears, which is in 
continual movement, expansion and con- 
traction alternating with Increased ra- 
pidity. Soon this pulsation becomes so 
rapid that several contractions may be 
counted in a second. Meanwhile, the 
whole digestive tube is now in the most 
lively peristaltic movement, filling itself 
rapidly with blood, as is easily observed; 
the long oesophagus is particularly agi- 
tated, throwing itself from one side to another inside the 
neck, bending itself so violently as to remind one of the 
coiling of a rope when being 
shippcdondeck." Thelouso 
of the head is Pedicnlus ku~ 
manu9 capitla De Gecr, while 
the body louse is Pedicnlus 
corporis De Geer (Fig. 1). 
In dealing with the louse we 
should remember that the 
creature breathes by means 
of a series of holes in the 
side of the body, in connec- 
tion with the air-tubes with- 
in. By the use of soap, oil, 
or any other fatty substance 
the breathing-holes (stig- 
mata) may be closed and the 
creature smothered to death. 
The species of true sucking 
lice are few, but the Mallo- 
phaga or bird lice, in which 
the mandibles are well dc- ^^"^^ ^f domestic fowl, 
veloped and of use in breathing, are very numerous, 
each species of bird having one, and sometimes two or 



Fig. 1. 




Body Louse. 



Fig. 2. 




even more, speoies parasitic upon it. The hen (Fig. 2, 
Goniocotes Bnrnettii Pack., louse of domestic fowl), cat, 
dog, and sheep are sorely afflicted by these pests. 

A. S. Packard, Jr. 

Louth^ town of England, in the county of Lincoln, on 
the Ludd, has large oil-mills, tanneries, and iron-foundries, 
and carries on a considerable trade in corn and coal. Pop, 
10,690. 

Louth, county of Ireland, in the province of Leinstcr, 
bounded E. by the Irish Sea and S. by the Boyne. Area, 
315 square miles. The surface is mostly level or slightly 
undulating, except in the northern part, where it is trav- 
ersed by a mountain-range ending in Mount Carlingford, 
1935 feet high. Wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes are 
raised, and cattle of a good breed are reared. Fop. 128,180 
in 1841, 107,657 in 1851,90,713 in 1861,84,021 in 1S71, 
and 78,228 in 1 881. The sea-coast is mostly low and sandy. 
The most important rivers are the Fane, Lagan, Glyde, 
and Dee, all of which flow eastward. The principal towns 
are Drogheda and Dundalk. 

Louvain' [anc. ioi'anmy Flem. Zeuyeny Ger. i&'jce;i], 
city of Belgium, in the province of Brabant, on the Dyle. 
In the fourteenth century it had 200,000 inhabitants, and 
was one of the largest manufacturing cities in the world, 
employing 15,000 workmen in cloth manufacturing alone. 
But its attempt to vindicate its independence with the 
other towns of Flanders was defeated, and it lost most of 
its wealth and importance. In the sixteenth century its 
university, attended by 6000 students, was one of the first 
scientific institutions in Europe, celebrated especially for 
its department of Koman Catholic theology. But during 
the French Revolution the university was suppressed for a 
long time, and although it has since been restored, it haS' 
not regained its past glory. Many buildings attest the 
former splendor of the city; as, for instance, the h&tel de 
ville, one of the richest existing structures of Gothic archi- 
tecture, the cathedral, etc. But, generally speaking, Lou- 
vain has now become a quiet place, chiefly noted for its 
immense breweries and distilleries. Pop. 34,700. 

fOuverture, See Toussaint (Francois Dominique). 

Ijouvet' de Couvray' (Jean Baptiste), b, at Paris 
June 11, 1760; received a very insuflScient education, and 
was clerk in a boolcseller's store when his romance, Lea 
Aventurea du Chevalier Fa ablaa (13 vols., 1787— 89), sud- 
denly made him famous. In 1790 followed another ro- 
]nance, Emilie de Varlmont, less frivolous than Fauhlns, 
though more radical. Under the ministry of Roland ho 
began the publication of a periodical, La Sentinelle, noted 
for its violent attacks on royalty. Having been elected a 
member of the Convention, he proved one of the greatest 
orators of that assembly. He attacked Robespierre with 
eminent courage as the originator of the September mas- 
sacre, but after the defeat of the Girondists, his allies, he 
was compelled to flee and to hide himself till the fall of his 
great antagonist. He then returned to the Convention, and 
was member of the Council of Five Hundred, but the de- 
fects of his education, which he did not know how to con- 
ceal, and his marriage with the beautiful Lodoiska, caused 
him many troubles and vexations, and ended by making 
him the laughing-stock of Paris. D. Aug. 25, 1797. His 
wife, who was much devoted to him, attempted to poison 
herself, but was saved. 

Louviers', town of France, department of Eure, on 
the river of the same name, was formerly fortified, but is 
now most noted as the centre of a cloth-manufacturing in- 
dustry which employs about 9000 operatives. Pop. 10,753. 

LouvoisS cle (Fran90is Michel lb Tellier), Mar- 
quis, b. in Paris, France, Jan. 18, 1641; bought in 1654 
the right of succeeding his father in the office of secretary 
of war; applied himself with great energy and assiduity 
to the study of all the details of the business, and took 
charge of the whole department in 1666; in a few years 
created the largest, most effective, and most brilliant army 
modern Europe had seen, introduced perfect discipline, es- 
tablished regular grades of rank iu the command, and gave 
each of the different arms its perfect development by found- 
ing separate schools of engineering, artillery, and cavalry. 
His genius showed itself still more brilliantly when this 
army came to he used in war. All its movements were ac- 
complished with an order, rapidity, and precision which 
doubled its eff'ect and led to astonishing successes. But ho 
was extremely ambitious; to keep himself in office, and to 
make his office the most important in the kingdom, was his 
sole aim, and the advice, political and military, which ho 
offered in the king's council was exclusively governed bv 
this aim, often to the great detriment of the country. 
Still more detestable were the means he applied. The de- 
vastation of the Palatinate, one of the greatest barbarities 
of modern times, was his plan, as also the idea of using 



LOUVRE, PALACE OF THE. 



95 



the dragoons for converting the Huguenots, with all the 
horrors resulting from it. After the death of Colbert in 
16S3.he aiao assumed the administration of the finances, 
but knowing no other expedients than extortions and loans, 
he soon ruined the finances and exhausted the country. 
The last years of his life were spent in great anxiety. He 
had become very exacting an^ overbearing, and the king, 
who was easily irritated by any want of submission, treated 
him coldly and oven slightingly ; and had just made up his 
mind to throw him into the Bastile when he d. suddenly, 
July 16, 1691. 

liOUvre, Palace of the [Fr. Palais du Louvre], a 
famous building in Paris, on the right bank of the Seine, 
between the river and the Rue de Rivoli. It faces the 
church of St. Germain les Auxerrois on the B. and the 
site of the now destroyed palace of the Tuileries on the W. 
The origin of the name is not known, nor has any prob- 
able explanation of its meaning been given. King Dago- 
bert is said to have built a castle on a portion of the site 
of the present building for a hunting-seat. About the year 
1200, Philip Augustus converted this castle into a fortress, 
but it was not until the end of the fourteenth century that 
it was included within the walls of the city. In 1866 the 
foundations of this feudal structure were uncovered by the 



Plan I. Louvre — Ground Floor, 

EAST. 



^ c 


1 


^r 


-Ti 


C 




C 

77" 








c 1 


noT 



OF 
FKANCIS I, 








VIEUX LOUVRE.- 

permission of the municipality, 
and it was found that the two 
towers flanking the principal 
gateway stood near the middle 
of the present court. The ma- 
sonry of the foundations was 
of excellent execution and well 
preserved, though only covered 
with about a foot of soil. These 
foundations extended to the 
Seine in the direction of the 
Pont des Arts and parallel to 
the river, passing under the 
Tour de I'Horloge (Pavilion 
Sully). The principal lines of 
the old plan may now be seen 
marked out on the pavement. 
Charles V. made many addi- 
tions to the castle to fit it for 
a royal residence. Francis I. 
pulled down the old fortress- 
palace, and began the present 
building in 1528. The old- 
eat portion is the southern half of the western side of 
the court. It was built after the designs of Pierre Les- 
cot. The successors of Francis in turn added to it. His 
son, Henry IL, carried the western front to completion 
(now called the Vieux Louvre) and built the wingcontain- 
■ ing the Gal^vie d'Apollon. The sculptures of this portion 
of the building were the work of Jean Goujon and other 
distinguished artists of the day. In this part of the build- 
ing the marriage of Margaret of Valois with Henry of 
Navarre (afterward Henry IV.) was celebrated in 1572. 
Five days later came the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
when Charles IX. fired from the window of the same palace 
upon the Huguenots, most of whose chiefs had been pres- 
ent at the wedding. The window from which the king 
fired was in a part of the building afterward pulled down 
by Louis XIII. The one sometimes pointed out is in a 
part of the building not constructed till long after the year 
1572. Henry IV. began the Long Gallery to connect the 
Louvre with the Tuileries. and completed it so far as to be 
able to walk through it before his death. Under Louis 
XIII. the central portion of the western front and the 
lower story of the northern side were built, both after the 
designs of Lemorcier. Louis XIV., by the advice of Col- 



bert, determined to complete the palace, and a public com- 
petition of architects was opened in order to procure de- 
signs. Those of a physician, Claude Perrault, were chosen, 
but jealousies and rivalries interfered with their execution, 
and Bernini, then greatly in favor in Rome, was sent for 
and the work put into his hands. Louis XIV. laid the 
first stone of the eastern front, but Bernini made so many 
enemies by his insolence and conceit that he returned to 
Italy, and in 1666, Perrault was allowed to carry out his 
original design. He built the eastern front, with its 
famous colonnade of twenty-eight twin Corinthian columns 
flanking the grand gateway toward the church of St. Ger- 
main les Auxerrois. He also built the southern or river 
front, and he left at his death designs for three sides' of 
the great court (Cour Francois pr,). Each side of this 
court is 408 feet in length. Want of money, however, and 
the determination of the king to erect a palace at Versailles, 
put a stop to further work upon the Louvre. The palace 
was neglected, almost abandoned, until the end of the last 
century, and indeed until so late as 1802 the greater part 
of the building was without a roof. Up to this time the 
Louvre and the Tuileries were separate buildings, the 
space between them being occupied by a mass of houses 
threaded by narrow, irregular streets. In one of the streets 



Plan II. Louvre.—Oolkciion^ of First Floor. 

COLONNADE. 

TO 



J. i«4n4 J 



mL. 



FIRST FLOOR : PICTURES, 

DRAWINGS, GREKK, 

ROMAN, EGYPTIAN 

ANTIQUITIES. 

GREAT COURT OP 
THE LOUVRE. 

MEDIEVAL COURT. 
SECOND FLOOR : ETH- 
NOLOGY, CHINESE 
MUSEUM, ETC. 

— —I r — r 



9 r.. 



^ S 




WEST. 

that ran through this quarter, the 
Rue Ste. Nicaise, Cadoudal's " in- 
fernal machine," intended to de- 
stroy Napoleon I. on his way to 
the opera, exploded Dec. 24, 1800. 
It is possible that the attempt 
upon his life may have deter- 
mined Napoleon to clear the re- 
gion about the palaces, but, from 
whatever motive, he went vigor- 
ously to work, and made a solid 
beginning of those improvements 
which, carried still fa.rther by 
Louis Philippe, were brought to 
completion by Napoleon III. 
Napoleon I. finished the Louvre 
and cleared the surrounding 
streets and a large portion of 
the Place du Carrousel. He be- 
gan the Rue de Rivoli, and car- 
ried it from the Place de la Con- 
corde to a little beyond the Tuile- 
ries. Napoleon III. continued the street by cutting 
through the thickest masses of houses from the Place du 
Palais Royal to the Hote\ de Ville, thus setting the whole vast 
palace clear in light and air. The internal arrangemcj?ts 
and decorations of the Louvre were principally effected by 
Charles X. and Louis Philippe. Napoleon III. repaired 
and restored the fronts toward the place named after 
himself, and he completed the edifice by raising the vast 
pile of building connecting the Louvre with the Tuileries. 
Thus, before the destruction of the Tuileries by the Com- 
mune in 1871 the Louvre and the Tuileries made one 
edifice, of which the complete circuit could be made on the 
second floor. The continuity of the ground floor was of 
course broken by the archways which permitted ingress 
and egress to the interior courts and to the building itself. 
Although the additions to each building, which were 
finally to unite and make them virtually one, were begun, 
as has been shown, at a very early period, it was thus not 
until our own immediate time that they were completed. 
Nor had the finishing touches, internal and external, been 
put to it when the war between France and Germany broke 
out, which not only prevented further work upon the build- 
ing, but had for one of its sequences the complete destruc- 
tion of the greater part of the Tuileries and of the most 



96 



LOUVEE, PALACE OF THE. 



splendid of the pavilions (Pavilion de Richelieu) of the 
Louvre. This pavilion contained the very valuable Bib- 
liothdque du Louvre, the private library of the emperor 
Napoleon III., which library was utterly destroyed ; and 
indeed the Commune would have destroyed the whole 
Louvre if the Versailles troops had not prevented it. The 
most valuable of the pictures and other art-treasures of 
the museum had^ been carefully packed and removed to 
Brest at an early period in the war, when the advance of 
the Prussians upon the city was feared. It was never 
looked for that one of the chief possessions of France would 
be in danger at the hands of Frenchmen. 

The greater part of the Louvre is occupied with the col- 
lections of pictures, statues, and antiquities that consti- 
tute the MusSe du Louvre. It would be impossible within 
the limits of an article like this to give anything more than 
the briefest summary of its contents. The works in sculp- 
ture — statues, busts, vases, and inscriptions — are distrib- 
uted in five collections. 

(1) Ancient Greek and Soman Marbles, — This collection 
occupies the lower part of the S. W. wing of the Louvre 
palace, a part of the ground floor of the Louvre gallery, 
and two large halls. Entering the building by the Pavil- 
ion Denon, the visitor finds himself in a vestibule (A) be- 
tween these two halls (B and C), which extend to the right 
and left. The marbles they contain are of little import- 
ance, being chiefly antique, but of not the highest quality, 
placed on pedestals to relieve the otherwise barren look of 
these long apartments. Turning to the left on entering, 
the visitor finds at the end of the long hall C a room called 
the Rotondo (D). The five rooms of this suite (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) 
are devoted to works of Greek and Roman sculpture, but 
none of these are very remarkable. A new room (6) has 
been added ; it is at a right angle with the rest, and con- 
tains, among other marbles, a respectable statue of Augus- 
tus in a niche at the western end. Returning to the Ro- 
tondo and turning to the right, the visitor enters a suite 
of rooms forming a part of the old Louvre. First in order 
comes the Salle de Diane (E), and on leaving this we see 
before us a long hall lined with statues on cither hand, and 
at the end the celebrated Venva of Milo. Before entering 
this gallery, however, it is well to turn to the left and visit 
the Hall of the Caryatides (F), so called from four colossal 
caryatides by Jean Goujon, a sculptor of whom the French 
are justly proud, and to whom this noble apartment may 
be considered a funeral monument, since he was shot here 
while at work during the infamous massacre of the Hugue- 
nots. These caryatides support a gallery on which is a 
bas-relief of Diana lieposiiiy, a copy of the original by 
Cellini, designed for a fountain at Fontainebleau. Most 
of the decorations of this room are by Jean Goujon or his 
scholars. Leaving this room, the visitor returns to the 
Long Hall, one of a suite of apartments decorated nearly 
as we see them for Catharine de* Medici. The Long Gal- 
lery contains few remarkable works, and indeed every- 
thing in it yields perforce to the' Venue of Milo, which fills 
the visitor's eye, standing by itself, admirably lighted, and 
seen from the moment of entering. A door covered by a 
curtain leads from the hall of the Venue of Milo to another 
long hall (H) parallel with the first, by which the visitor 
returns on his steps and comes again to the Salle de Diane. 
The principal statue in this second long hall is the colos- 
sal Melpomene. Other statues here worthy of notice are the 
Bovfjheee Gladiator, the Ventia of Aries, the Jfuntreaa Diana. 

(2) Tfie Myyptian Museum. — That portion of the rich 
Egyptian collections of the Louvre which consists of stat- 
ues, sphynxes, sarcophagi, and in general of the larger 
and more cumbrous specimens of Egyptian arJ:, is contained 
in two halls (a, b), on the ground floor, occupying nearly 
the whole of the southern end of the eastern side of the 
quadrangle. The Collection of Smaller Egyptian An- 
tiquities (Mus6e ChampoUion) is on the floor above. The 
Egyptian rooms on the ground floor are entered from the 
gateway opposite the church of St. Germain les Auxerrois. 
This is a very rich collection, and contains, besides fine 
specimens of the ordinary class of Egyptian sculpture, such 
as are met with in other European museums, many the 
like of which are not to be found out of Bgjtpt and the 
new museum founded by Mariette Bey at Boulilq. 

(3) The Assyrian and Phtr.niciau Museum fills six rooms 
in the northern half of tho eastern side of the quadrangle 
and a vestibule on the northern side (c). This museum 
contains valuable specimens of Assyrian sculpture discov- 
ered at Nineveh by M. Botta. Other rooms of this suite 
contain Phoenician sarcophagi, and in others there are cu- 
rious sculptures, inscriptions, urns, etc., chiefly from Asia 
Minor. One of the rooms is called Salle du Vase de Per- 
game, from the fine vase with sculptured bas-reliefs dis- 
covered at Pergamus. 

(4) The Algerian Museum. — In a narrow gallery {d) par- 
allel to the Egyptian Hall, and looking out upon the Place 



du Louvre, is a collection of inscriptions, sculptures, and 
mosaics of the Roman period, discovered principally in 
Algeria and on the northern coast of Africa, including 
Egypt. 

(5) The Museum of Sculpture of the Middle Ages and of 
the Renaissance is arranged in five halls (e) in the eastern 
half of the southern side of the quadrangle, facing the river. 
The collection consists of several monuments, chiefly se- 
pulchral, which were rescued from churches destroyed in tho 
Revolution, and of works by Goujon, Michel Angelo, Cel- 
lini, Mino da Fiesole, Jean Cousin, Pilon, Michel Colomb, 
and others. The chief treasure is the two statues called 
The Prisoners, executed by Michel Angelo for the tomb of 
Julius II. 

(6) Museum of Modern Sculpture. —'i\i\n collection is ar- 
ranged in five halls (/), filling the northern half of the 
western side of the quadrangle. It consists chiefly of the 
works of artists of the French school, though there are a 
few by foreign artists. Here are Puget's Milo of Crulon 
devoured by the Lion, Psyche by Pajou, and statues by Clo- 
dion, Houdon, Pradier, and others. Here also is Canova's 
well-known Oupid and Psycha. 

All these collections are on the ground floor. The old- 
est of them is the one first described — " Ancient Greek and 
Roman Marbles" — (Mus^e des Marbres Antiques). It 
dates from 1797, and in 1803 was opened to the public as 
the MusSe Napol6on. Napoleon I. first conceived the idea 
of converting tho palace into a national museum, and 
caused to be collected here not only all the art-treasures of 
France, but added to these the spoils of all the principal 
galleries of Europe, especially of Italy, the trophies of his 
victorious campaigns. The transporting the cases in 
which these famous statues and paintings were packed 
across the Alps, through France, and finally through the 
streets of Paris, was managed in the theatrical way in 
which Napoleon delighted. As the procession passed 
through Paris, the immense oases inscribed in large letters 
with the names of their contents. La Yf,nus de Mf.dicis, 
La Transfiguration, etc., and drawn by gayly-caparisoned 
horses, it resembled a Roman triumph, and was hailed with 
exultation by the whole city that poured forth in holiday 
attire to meet it. The opening of the gallery to the public 
attracted swarms of visitors from England and Germany, 
and indeed from all parts of Europe. But in 1815 the pic- 
tures and statues were restored by the allies to their orig- 
inal owners. In 1869 the Mus^e des Marbres Antiques 
contained 240 statues, 230 busts, 215 bas-reliefs, and 235 
vases, altars, etc. — in all, 920 objects. 

The collections on the first floor are reached by a spa- 
cious double staircase at the end of the long gallery en- 
tered from the Pavilion Denon (Plan II. A). At the head 
of the stairs we enter the Rotonde, a spacious vestibule 
handsomely paved with mosaic which gives access to two 
different series of museums: the one makes the complete 
circle of the old Louvre palace: the other fills the whole 
first floor of that wing of the new Louvre which extends 
along the river and makes the southern side of the Place 
Napoleon III. Turning to the right on entering the Ro- 
tonde, we pass, by two gates of wrought steel of the time 
of Henry II., into the Gal«rie d'Apollon (Plan II. B). This 
was an addition to the Louvre originally begun by Charles 
IX. and completed by Henry IV. Destroyed by fire in the 
time of Louis XIV. (1661), it was rebuilt in the same year, 
but shared in tho neglect that the whole palace suff'ered 
during the building of Versailles. It was afterward di- 
vided up into apartments where the royal academies, es- 
pecially those of painting and sculpture, had their sittings. 
Finally, it was restored by Louis Philippe, and opened to 
the public in 1851 by Louis Napoleon, then president of the 
republic. The room is 184 feet long by 28 broad. It has 
twelve windows looking out upon the Garden of the Infanta. 
This fine room contains a rich collection of Palissy ware, 
vases of agate, jasper, and other precious materials, Japa- 
nese objects, jewelry, etc. A door at the southern end of 
the western side opens into the Salon Carr^ (Plan II. C), 
in which are the choicest specimens the Louvre contains 
of pictures by artists of the Italian, Flemish, Spanish, and 
French schools. Ilere-aro Veronese's magnificent Marriaq 




Michael subduing Satan ; Titian's Entombment, Titian and 
his Mistress ; Leonardo da Vinci's Portrait of Mona Lisa 
(La Joconde), La Vicrge aux liochera ; Giorgione's Con- 
cert. These are perhaps the chief glories of the collection. 
Leaving the Salon Carrg, we enter the famous Groat 
Gallery (Plan II. D), Must-e des Tableaux des Eeoles 
Italiennes et Flamandos. This gallery was formerly 1322 
feet in length and 42 in width, but owing to the improve- 
ments going on it has provisionally lost two-thirds of its 
length. It formerly contained the pictures of the French 



LOUVRE, PALACE OF THE. 



97 



school, but these have been removed to other rooms. Im- 
nrediately on entering the-Gteat Oallery a door to the right 
opens into a room (Plan II. B) containing important pic- 
tures by Italian masters. Here are Mantegna, the celebrated 
Miidonna delta Vittoria ; Palma Vecchio, a Holy Familji ; 
Sandro Botticelli, a Holy Familij ; Kaphael, Portrait 'of 
Joixnna of Aragon, Portrait of a Young Man, the so-called 
Bnphael and fits Fenciitg-niaater, Portrait of Balthazar Cas- 
tii/llane ; Leonardo da Vinci, La Belle Ferroniire and St. 
Jriliu Baptist; with others by Titian, Ferugino, Cima da 
Conegliano, Bonifazio, and Carpaccio. 

In the Great Gallery, to which the visitor returns from 
this room, the Italian and Spanish pictures will be found 
on the walls at the eastern end. The most notable of 
these are Cimabae's Virgin and Child; Giotto's St. Francit 
receiving the Stigmata ; Fra Angelioo da Fiesole's Gflrona- 
tion of the Virgin ; with others by Perugino, Veronese, 
Ghirlandajo, Murillo, etc. In the centre of the northern 
wall of the Great Gallery a door opens into the noble 
Salle des £tats (Plan II. F), once filled with paintings, but 
in the later days of the Second Empire devoted to state 
ceremonials. It is over 137 feet long, about 69 wide, and 
53 in height. It is lighted by three rows of windows, the 
upper one being circular in shape. A gallery supported 
on gilded columns runs round the greater part of it. The 
western half of the Great Gallery is devoted to the Flemish, 
Dateh, and German schools. Here are some very fine 
Van Dycks, The Children of Charles I. ; Holbein, Portraits 
of Nicholas Kratzer and William Wareham ; Kubens, The 
Kurmesse ; with others' by Denner, Bol, Quentin Matsys, 
Paul Potter, Metzu, Teniers, Philippe de Champagne. The 
most striking contents of the Flemish collection are the 
twenty-one largo paintings by Rubens and his pupils rep- 
resenting events in the life of Maria de' Medici from her 
birth, and of her husband, Henry IV., from their marriage. 
They were painted to decorate the gallery of the Luxem- 
bourg. 

At the western end of the Great Gallery a door to the 
right opens into a suite of rooms (G) overlooking the Plaoo 
du Carrousel and the Place Napfflfion III., in which have 
been hung the paintings of the French school. In the 
first of these rooms are some interesting works of the six- 
teenth eentury ; then follow two rooms devoted to the pic- 
tures of Lesueur. In the next two rooms are Joseph Ver- 
net's Views of the Ports of France and other works by the 
same artist, with battle-pieces by Vandermeulen. All 
these rooms face the Place du Carrousel, but the visitor 
now enters a large hall, the first of a suite facing the Place 
Napol6on III., parallel to the Great Gallery, and contain- 
ing pictures by French artists of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. Here are pictures by Poussin, Claude, 
Watteau, Joseph Vemet, Vanloo, Greuze, Gfirard, bringing 
the history of French painting down to the early part of 
the present century. 'These pictures are arranged in two 
large galleries separated by the Salon Denon, sometimes 
called the Salle le Brun, from the paintings it contains rep- 
resenting the battles of Alexander the Great and his tri- 
umphal entry into Babylon, by Le Brun. 

At the end of the second gallery of French paintings is 
a door opening upon the landing-place of the great stair- 
case. The visitor now returns to the Botoude, by which 
he entered the Salle d'ApoIlon, and, leaving it by a door 
on the E. side, begins his survey of the second series of 
museums on tliis floor. The room first entered is the Salle 
des Bijoux (Plan II. a), containing a portion of the Ca)u- 
pana collection, consisting of Etruscan, Greek, and Roman 
jewelry. The next room is the Salle des Sept Chemin^es 
(Plan II. 6). This room has been constructed by throwing 
into one the several rooms into which it was once divided. 
The chimney-pieces of the original rooms remain, and give 
the room its name. It was beautifully fitted up by Louis 
Philippe to receive the paintings of the great artists of the 
revolutionary and imperial periods. Here are some of the 
best works of David, Ggrard, Prudhon, Gros, Girodet, 
GuSrin, Gfirieault — David, Portrait of Pius VII., The liape 
of the Sahines ; Gerard, Belisarins, Cupid and Psyehe ; 
Girodet, The Burial of Atala, Endymion, The Deluge; 
Prudhon, Crime pursued by Vengeance ; Gfiricault, The 
Wreck of the Medusa. 

From the Salle des Sept Cheminges three suites of rooms 
are entered. A door in the S. E. corner gives access to the 
Musge Napoleon III. (Plan II. <■), containing a portion of 
the Campana collection, with antiquities from Syria, Ma- 
cedonia, Thessaly, and the N. of Asia Minor. They are 
arrani^ed in nine rooms, subdivisions of one long gallery 
overlooking the Seine. (N. B. In the Plan all these are 
thrown into one.) A door from the last of these rooms 
leads to a suite parallel to the Musfie Napolgon III., and 
looking upon the court of the Louvre — Cour Franjois 1<". 
This suite consists of eight rooms, four on each side of a 
larger central hall called the Salle du Tr&ne (Plan II. d). 
Vol. v.— 7 



or the Salle des Colonnes, from the fine Corinthian marble 
columns that support its ceiling. This suite of rooms has 
been called, from the reign in which it was erected, the 
Musee du Charles X. (N. B. In the Plan all these have 
been thrown into one.) The eastern half of the suite con- 
tains the Museum of Smaller Egyptian Antiquities (Plan 

II. e), and the four rooms entered on crossing the Salle du 
Tr6ne, and forming the other half of the suite (Plan 11./), 
constitute the Museum of Smaller Greek, Roman, and 
Etruscan Antiquities. The last room of this museum opens 
into the Salle des Sept Chemin^es. A door in the northern 
side of the room (Salle des Sept Oheminees) admits to the 
Salle Henri II, (Plan II. 3), in which the MusSe NapoI6on 

III. is continued, and which serves as a vestibule to the 
Salle des Stances, a vast saloon of Corinthian architecture 
roofed with dulled glass, and with a gallery on all four 
sides. It is richly gilded, and contains another portion of 
the Mus6e Napoleon III. The same valuable collection is 
continued in the Salle des Bronzes (Plan II. h), which is 
entered from the landing of the grand staircase in the 
Pavilion Sully. The Campana collection, purchased from 
the papal government, and now arranged in various rooms 
Of the Louvre under the name of Mus^e Napoleon III., 
comprises 11,836 articles, of which the metal portion only 
is exhibited in this room, together with various Gallo- 
Boman antiquities. 

On the other side of the grand staircase a door, answer- 
ing to the one that leads to the Salle des Seivnces, admits 
to the Musfie des Dessins (Plan 11../), a collection of draw- 
ings and designs by the old masters. It consists of four- 
teen rooms (N. B. In the Plan these aie reduced to three), 
and comprises 36,000 specimens of the great masters of 
nearly all the schools. The first four halls on the western 
side of the palace contain (1) drawings by masters of the 
Roman and